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The Lutheran Church
and the Civil War
The Lutheran Church
and the Civil War
CHARLES WILLIAM ^EATHCOTE,
A.M. (Univ. of Pcnn'a), Ph.D. (George
Instructor of Religious Education and Church History^
fhe Temple Uni'uersity
New York Chicago
Fleming H. Revell Company
London and Edinburgh
Copyright, igig, by
FLEMING H. REVEU, COUPANY
TO MY MOTHER,
My First Teacher in Church History,
This Volume is Affectionately Dedicated.
NO study of history can approach complete-
ness and no explanation of its course
approximate the truth that excludes
from its view all but those outstanding and pic-
turesque events of political struggle, diplomatic
contention and armed warfare which, in the
popular mind, are the most important happen-
ings in the life of a people. Particularly is this
true of the history of a democracy where, oft-
times, the great forces are the most unobserved
and the strongest influences are the product of
the quiet leaven of individual or local opinion
gradually determining the mass action of the
great majority of the "common people" whose
individual acts are little heralded and individual
lives all but unrecorded. If from the thoughts
and actions of men it would teach us to under-
stand the needs and aspirations of other men, if
from the past it would teach us lessons for the
present and the future, history, in its investiga-
tions, must pass beyond the sphere of mere gov-
ernmental action and study people, people in all
that concerns their daily lives, the ordinary
people who make up most of the world and live
and die by the millions each passing decade,
leaving the world, because of their lives even as
well as because of the lives of the great, better
or worse for those who follow after them.
The religious life of peoples and the interplay
between religious forces and political and eco-
nomic forces has too little concerned students of
modern history. When church and state were
one, when religious differences fostered wars,
both national and civil, when the state was free-
ing itself from the church and the church from
the state, religion was politics and the two were
often inseparable. But here, in America, where
every man may worship God as he wills and the
church flourishes independently of the state, we
are too apt to overlook the fact that the church
exercises an influence on the people, even in
matters seemingly political or economic only,
more potent by far than is generally appreciate
or, ofttimes, even known to any but the most
conscious observers. It is with the relation to
each other of the Lutheran church and slavery
that our author here deals and his study, it is
hoped, is the forerunner of many other like con-
tributions to our national history.
The Lutheran church in America, conceiving
the true mission of the church to be the spread
of the Gh>spel and the saving of men's souls and
believing that political and social issues are the
province of citizens in their civil capacities and
not in their ecclesiastical organizations, has per-
sistently refused to permit itself to be drawn,
either as a 'champion or an opponent, into the
arena of affairs of state, whether they be politi-
cal or of so-called '^social reform," just as, with
equal steadfastness, it has resisted any at-
tempted exercise of state domination or control
in purely religious matters. As long as the in-
stitution of slavery remained a political, an eco-
nomic or even a social problem, the Lutheran
church, as such, took sides neither for nor
against it, but, when the progress of ideas forced
slavery to the front as a great moral issue on
which the church could not remain silent, the
Lutheran church, like others of the great Ameri-
can denominations, found its district synods and
individual churches declaring themselves and as-
suming positive positions. The conflicting views
of its members, reflecting the influences of their
respective geographic environments, split the
Methodist church into a northern and southern
branch in 1844-1845, the Baptist church into a
northern and southern branch in the same years
and practically split the Presbyterian church
into a northern and southern branch in 1850,
although that denomination retained its unity
of organization until the Civil War. So con-
servative was the Lutheran church that it was
not until after the Civil War had well begun, in
1862, that its southern churches severed their
connection with the old General Synod and or-
ganized a separate general body on Confederate
territory. It is highly indicative of the essential
unity of American Lutheranism, in its devotion
to its historical doctrinal position and its concep-
tion of its mission to mankind, that this con-
servative denomination, which was the last to
divide of the great denominations which split
over the Civil War issne^ was the first to con-
summate a reunion of its thus divided parts in
the organization, in November 1918, of the
United Lutheran Church in America by the con-
stituent synods of the old General Synod, Gen-
eral Council and United Synod in the South.
Geographic unity, ethnic unity and religious
unity were controlling factors in determining the
degree of stability attained by the monarchical
states of old. It is instructive to learn, from
studies such as this prefaces, that still, in the
modem democratic states, where church and
state are separated, the sectional division of those
of the same faith in separate ecclesiastical or-
ganizations is one step in the direction of politi-
cal separation, while ecclesiastical unity of
peoples from widely separated sections of a na-
tion constitutes one of the most powerful bonds
L. BUSSBLL Aldbn.
Wdshmgtan, D. C.
/" I AHIS historical study, "The Lutheran
Church and The Civil War," was begun
in the spring of 1908. The writer's pur-
pose in developing this historical monograph has
been to develop a portion of American Church
history which has received little or no attention
from historians. The historical studies of the
Civil War vary, and writers have presented its
phases from different angles, but to make an ex-
tended study of the Church in its relation to that
war, very little has been done.
In the history of Church and State the Civil
War period was an important one. During this
time the church did an important work and aided
the Federal government not a little in the pres-
ervation of the Union. This .monograph is an
effort to portray the story of the Lutheran
church, as one of the important denominations,
in its part, during that crucial period of the his-
tory of the United States.
One of the obstacles which the writer met with
at the incipiency of the work and which ham-
pered throughout the preparation of it was the
^ dearth of material. We have drawn our re-
searches primarily from synodical minutes and
records, church almanacs, papers and periodi-
cals, private letters and the public press.
Author's Foreword. 12
The writer has aimed to present the material
from an impartial viewpoint. The aim of the
historian must be an unbiased one. The re-
searches reveal their own results. The narra-
tive may not be free from errors^ but if there are
anjy the discovery of sources not available to the
writer will correct them.
The writer desires to express his appreciation
for the kindly help given to him by Professor L.
Bussell Alden of George Washington IJniversityy
and to his wife for her sympathetic interest.
0. W. H.
Chapter I. The Lutheran Church in
America Up To 1820, 15
" II. Slavery in America Up To
" III. Slavery And The Lutheran
Church Prior to the Civil
" IV. The Lutheran Church-
" V. The Lutheran Church-
** VI. Lutheran Institutions And
The War, 110
" VII. Lutheran Church Since The
Civil War, 127
THE LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMERICA
UP TO 1820.
THE trade routes to Asia have always been
an important factor in European history.
Trade with the East enriched and en-
larged the Roman Empire. Mediaeval Europe
grew and prospered from Oriental trade. This
was true, particularly when Venice and Genoa
Causes for controlled the Levantine commerce.
European In the fourteenth century Venice
Emigration wrested commercial supremacy from
me ca (jenoa; and from that time on, her
monopoly was supreme in the importation of
myrrh, sandalwood, camphor, indigo and spices.^
She supplied all the markets of Europe and ex-
acted high prices for her commodities. Naturally
her commercial power was resented.
In order to wrest this trade from Venice, ex-
plorers of that period sought to discover a new
and shorter ocean route to India. The real pur-
pose of Columbus' expedition, made possible by
Spanish royal patronage, was not to discover a
new country, but to procure the "spices of the
Indies." It remained, however, for Vasco de
Oama, in 1498, under Portugese patronage, to
chart a new trade route by rounding the Cape of
iVenice by Wiel, pp. 311 seq.
16 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
Good Hope and sailing into Calicut. He re-
turned to Lisbon with his vessels laden with
spices. From that time on, Venetian commer-
cial monopoly was doomed.
Later discoveries, however, showed that the
westward route was not the shorter one to the
Indies, but that a new world had been discovered
which abounded in untold wealth. Large num-
bers of adventurers came to America with the
hope of easily attaining gold. Eventually later
immigrants lost the gold fever and established
Coincident with the search for gold which
brought a large number of immigrants to Amer-
ica, was the missionary objective. Vasco de
Gama well summed up the thought of the age
when he said, "We come in search of Christians
and spices." But this missionary zeal animated
not only the Catholic countries. One of the
causes which inspired the English colonial spirit
during the closing part of the sixteenth century
was the desire to spread the Protestant religion.*
Thus missionary zeal, and closely related
thereto, the religious persecutions of Europe
caused many immigrants to come to America.
They were not attracted by the lure of gold or the
hope of finding a shorter passage to the Spice
Islands, but they realized that America gave
^Growth of English Industry and Commerce^ Cunningham,
Vol. II, p. 337 seq.; Beginnings of American People, Becker,
The Churcli in America Up to 1820 17
them an opportunity to worship God according
to their conscience. The most important of
these immigrations were those of the Pilgrims
and the Puritans of England to New England
from 1620 on; the Huguenots from France to
North and South Carolina because of the revoca-
tion of the Edict of Nantes, 1685; the German
Palatines to New York and Pennsylvania, 1701
on, and the Salzburgers, from upper Austria, to
Georgia, 1734. North America offered an asy-
lum and refuge for those who held to the ideals
of religious liberty, which was denied to those
oppressed and suffering people in their native
The first Lutherans who came to North Amer-
ica were Dutch. In 1623 a Dutch settlement was
founded near Albany and in 1625 New Amster-
dam was settled. It was during the governor-
ship of Stuyvesant (1644-1664) that the history
of the Lutheran Church figures largely in New
Stuyvesant, a Calvinist, was strongly opposed
to any other form of worship than the Reformed.
The Lutherans appealed to the authorities at
^ j^ ^ Amsterdam against this poUcy, but
lutticnuis apparently with little or no success.'
When New Amsterdam was captured
by the British in 1664 the old policy of Stuyves-
ant was repealed and religious toleration on a
broad basis was introduced. The Dutch Luther-
sNarratives of New Netherlands, JamesoBy p. 393 seq.
18 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
ans were never numerically strong^ and after
1702 their history merges into the history of the
German Lutheran Church.*
In 1627, the Estates of Sweden^ realizing the
tremendous opportunities presented by America
for commercial and religious propaganda^ sanc-
tioned plans to begin work along these lines at
once. The purpose originated with
intherang' *^^* great king^ leader and states-
man^ Gustavus Adolphus. He waB
moved, in part, by the commercial possibilities,
but his real purpose was to institute missionary
work among the Indians and to promote Chris-
tian liberty. When the plans were about to bear
fruition, Gustavus Adolphus became involved in
the Thirty Years War in order to save Prot-
estantism from destruction ; and he gave his life
for the cause on the battlefield of Liitzen in
After the death of the King, the colonial proj-
ect was held in abeyance for a few years; but
Oxenstiern, the f arsighted chancellor of Gustavus
Adolphus, appreciated the wisdom of the King
in the project and proceeded to carry out his
plans. A decade after the estates had approved of
the colonial project, namely in August, 1639, two
Swedish vessels set sail and, after a voyage of
about six months, landed at Lewes, Delaware.
They purchased immediately from the Indians,
land which was west of the river and extended
«I>utch and CJuaker Colonies in America, Fiske, p. 232,
The Church in America Up to 1820 19
from the mouth of the Delaware Bay to the Falls
of Trenton, which was "ceded to the Swedish
crown forever." Their fort and settlement were
called Christina in honor of the virgin Queen of
Sweden. Here the first Lutheran Church was
erected in America. A second and third expedi-
tion arrived in 1639 and 1643. The Swedes were
an industrious and i)eace-loving people ; and be-
cause of their thrift and earnestness their colo-
nies prospered and developed very rapidly.
The Dutch colonists bitterly opposed the Swed-
ish settlements, because they said they infringed
upon their territory, and because the honest deal-
ings of the Swedes with the Indians were injuring
Dutch trade relations. The result was that war
ensued between the Dutch and Swedish colonists ;
the Dutch were successful; and 1655 marks the
end of Swedish rule in America.*
In the meantime Swedish, immigration to
America had ceased, and until 1696 the Swedish
colonists were left without spiritual leadership.
Their condition was deplorable and distressing.
After many vain appeals. King Charles XI, in
1696, equipped a vessel with supplies. Three pas-
tors accompanied the expedition. After this for
many years, pastors sent over by the Swedish gov-
ernment rendered much help in the Swedish lan-
guage, but a large number of the i)eople desired
services in the English tongue. Finally, the
^Swedish Annals by Clay, p. 30; Original Settlements in Del-
aware, by Ferris, p. 184 seq.; Swedish Settlements on the
Delaware, by Johnson, VoL II, p. 581ff.
20 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
American Lutherans demanded English-speaking
pastors^ but the Swedish government refused the
request, and ceased sending over any more min-
isters of any kind. At last the Swedish Lutherans
severed their connection with the great mother
Church of Protestantism and became affiliated
with the Episcopal Church, an outcome, largely
due to the fact that the Episcopal organization
cared for them during the American Revolution.
The German people were late arrivals among
the immigrants from Europe. The princes of
Germany were involved in wars and were unable
to turn their attention to colonial
S^tr" enterprises in America. A smaU
number of Germans came to America
in 1683, and settled at Germantown, near Phila-
delphia, Pennsylvania.* The first part of the
eighteenth century, however, marks the beginning
of a large influx of German immigrants, many of
them fugitives from the Palatinate. Louis XIV
of Prance invaded their fair province in 1673,
and, from that time to 1697, he carried on a series
of invasions which brought ruin and desolation
to the country. In the end he realized he could
not secure permanent control of the province, and
he ordered the half -million inhabitants to leave
within three days under penalty of death. This
was in mid-winter. As the exiles left their homes
they beheld their houses, bams, and orchards be-
«Historical Biographical Sketches, by Pennypacker, p. 14
seq.; Schmauk History Lutheraik Church in PennBylvania, p.
The Church in America Up to 1820 21
ing destroyed. Large numbers perished from ex-
posure and hunger. They scattered throughout
the cities of Germany and in vast numbers made
their way to England. Queen Anne became inter-
ested in their condition and helped them to emi-
grate to America. In 1701 the first group reached
New York and by the Queen's command were
given 2,000 acres of land near Newburgh. An-
other group of about 3,000 arrived in New York
on July 10, 1710, and were given land in the Cats-
kills along the Hudson. They were required to
pay for these benefits by hard and toilsome labor.
Many of the English governors took advantage of
their condition, treated them harshly, and caused
them to suffer in many ways. Large numbers left
and travelled westward into the Schoharie Valley,
where they purchased land from the Indians. In
1717, while troubles in the Schoharie were at their
height, three shiploads of Palatines were landed
at Philadelphia. There can be little doubt that
the change of direction on the part of this com-
pany of 1717 from New York to Philadelphia was
due to the report of the tribulations sent home by
the Palatines from New York.^ The immense tide
of German immigration which came into Pennsyl-
vania after 1720 was dominantly Palatine. Dur-
ing the summer and autumn of 1749 more than
19,000 came. About 1750 the population of Penn-
sylvania was estimated to be between 175,000 and
220,000. One-half of this population was esti-
TTlie Story of the Palatines, by Cobb, p. 269 seq.
22 The Lutheran Cliurch and Civil War
mated to be German^ and of these more than 60,-
000 were Lutherans.'
Another important group of German immi-
grants, who came to America as the result of re-
ligious i)ersecution, were the Salzburgers, who
settled in Georgia. Archbishop Leopold Anton
of Salzburg claimed to be tolerant in his religious
views, and asked each one in his diocese to write
down his religious preference. By this means he
found that there were twenty thousand "Evan-
gelicals" in his diocese. He based his actions
upon the result of this clever ruse. The Salz-
burgers found they were deceived, and that it was
the archbishop's plan to exterminate them. Beal-
izing the dangerous position in which they were
placed, 300 of them organized a league, "The Salz-
bund," pledging that they would not give up their
religious connections, though they were forced to
live on salt and bread. Their heroic resolve in-
censed the archbishop and he used this action as a
charge that they wished to overthrow the Catholic
Church. By a decree of O ctober 31, 1731, it w as
ordered that all th€s5" wno refused to become
Catholics should leave the country but that their
children under age must remain^ The Salzburjgers
appealed to Protestant Europe, but only two
rulers heard their cry. Frederick William of
Prussia made provision for 20,000 of them to set-
tle in Lithuania, and the King of England sent
?200,000 which was collected for them. Thou-
sWolf, Latherans in America, p. 202ff.
The Cliiirch in America Up to 1820 23
sands of these x>ersecuted people became exiles
throughout Europe, separated from their chil-
dren, homes, and native land.^ln 1734 large
numbers came to America and established a col-
ony at Ebenezer, Georgia. In a short time the
population of the colony numbered about 12,000.
They established four churches, Jerusalem, Zion,
Bethany, and Goshen.®
Other important Lutheran colonies were es-
tablished in the South; in South Carolina on
James Island, 1674, (Dutch) ; Newbeme, North
Carolina, 1710, (Palatines) ; Charleston, South
Carolina, (Germany) before 1734; Orangeburg,
South Carolina, 1735, (German) ; Saxe Gotha,
South Carolina, 1737, (German) ; in North Caro-
lina in Cabarrus and Bowan Counties, 1750,
(Germans from Pennsylvania) ; Hard Labor
Creek, South Carolina, 1763 and 1764, (Ger-
man ) ;^® on Bappahannock Biver, near Germanna,
Virginia, 1715, (German) ; on the Bobinson
Biver and White Oak Biver in Madison (then
Spottsylvania County, Virginia) 1725-1733,
(German) ;^^ and near the present site of Win-
chester, Virginia, 1738, (German).
The large majority of the Lutheran people
throughout the colonies at this time were un-
©History of Salzburgers, hy Strobel, p. 59.
loGermazi Settlements and the Lutheran Church, in the Garo-
linas, by Bemheim, pp. 56-161.
iiHistory of Hebron liutheran Church, Madison County, Va.,
1717-1907, by Huddle, pp. 2-13; Genealogy Fishback Family in
America, by Kemper, p. 53 eeq. ; Story of Our Fathers, by Gil-
bert, p. 8.
24 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
churched and without pastoral leadership. The
work of organization became the task of the great
pioneer missionary Heinrich Melchior Muhlen-
berg, who came to America in 1742 in response to
what he considered to be a divine call for service.
He began his work at Philadelphia, but during
his ministry he carried on his activities through-
out all parts of the country. He was gladly re-
ceived wherever he went. People
Mnwenberg'8 ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ j^j^^ preach, and not
infrequently it was necessary for him
to gather them in the open fields.
Although such unbounded enthusiasm was no
doubt pleasing, yet he realized the need of thor-
ough organization, if effective work was to be ac-
complished. With this end in view, he was in-
strumental in the organization of the Pennsyl-
vania Synod, August 26, 1748, which consisted of
six clergymen and twenty-four laymen." This soon
became the means whereby effective and progres-
sive work could be carried on. But the great lead-
er did not stop here. Muhlenberg continued to
advance the prestige of the Lutheran Church in
America as long as he lived. He died at the
Trappe, Penn'a, October 7, 1787. His death was
a great loss to the Church. He came to America
at an opportune time, and without a doubt he
saved the Lutheran Church from disintegration.
i2Documentary History Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsyl-
vania, pp. 3-23; Life and Times of Muhlenberg, by Mann, pp.
The Cliurch in America Up to 1820 25
But diflSculties were still to be met. The long
struggle in the war for independence wrought
havoc among the Lutherans as well as the other
Churches. Of the two Lutheran congregations in
New York City one was entirely dispersed. In
Pennsylvania, where the Lutherans were very
ardent in the support of the cause for freedom,
the congregations suffered severely." The Lu-
therans of Ebenezer, Georgia, suffered intense
The Eevoiu- hardships. They were positive in
tionary their convictions in the struggle for
Period. liberty. They took an active part in
the struggle and, because of this, they were driven
from their homes by the English troops. Their
church edifice was turned into a stable.^* The Lu-
therans in the Carolinas were impoverished by the
war." This was the story wherever the Church
was found. At the close of the Revolutionary
I)eriod the Church was in a disorganized and
chaotic condition. Yet there was life. The
Churches were rebuilt. Wherever it was x>ossible,
the remnants of the scattered congregations were
gathered together and new congregations organ-
ized. The work of rehabilitation went on slowly
and, at least, successfully in a small measure.
The disorganization of the Lutheran Church
continued, however, until 1800. Leaders in the
Church realized that if effective work was to be
isLife and Times of Muhlenberg, Mann, pp. 484-485.
i*History of Salzburgers, hj Strobel, pp. 202-214.
loQennan Settlements and the Lutheran Church in the Caro-
linas, by Bemheim, pp. 269-273.
26 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
accomplishedy there must be organization. An
attempt at this was accordingly made. During
the next twenty years the following Synods were
organized. North Carolina, May 2,
SSn^^^ 1803; The Joint Synod of Ohio, Sep-
tember 14, 1818 ; Maryland and Vir-
ginia, October 11, 1820; and Tennessee, July
The want of a closer bond of union, however,
was still manifested, and the best men in the
Church thought that the time was ripe to secure
this object. The desire seemed general that there
should be some central connection in order that
unnecessary and injudicious divisions might not
arise ; that more general uniformity in the usages
and devotional work of the Church might prevail ;
and that strength and increased efficiency might
be imparted to those enterprises, in which con-
centration is so essential to success.^* In order to
strengthen the influence and increase the use-
fulness of the Lutheran Church, therefor, the Gen-
eral Synod was organized at Hagerstown, Mary-
land, October 22, 1820 ; Pennsylvania, New York
( organized 1786 ) , North Carolina, Maryland and
Virginia were the Synods represented in its or-
At this time in America the Lutheran Church
had nine hundred churches and one hundred and
seventy-one ministers, divided as follows :
i«Evangelical Eeview, Vol. V (October, 1853), p. 240.
The Church in America up to 1820 27
Synod Ministers Churches Com'u'cants
Pennsylvania, 74 278 24,794
New York, 20 ... 3,114
Maryland & Virginia, 22 ... 4,935
North Carolina, ... 19 ... 1,358
Total, 135 278 34,201
The Ohio Synod had twenty-six ministers and
the Tennessee Synod six pastors and four dea-
cons. These two Synods were not a part, how-
ever of the General Synod. Further statistics
are consequently not easily available."
i^The above statistics were submitted at the second meeting
of the General Synod at Frederick, Maryland, October, 1823;
Evangelical Review, October, 1853 — ^Vol. V, p. 245.
SLAVERY IN AMERICA TO 1820.
SLAVERY existed in the world previous to
the advent of Christianity. It was not for-
bidden by the early Church. Even Paul
counselled servants to be obedient to their masters
and masters to be just to their servants.^ True^
according to the fundamental truth of Christi-
anity, there is neither bond nor free, in the first
instance, for all are one in Christ Jesus.* But the
Church objective of the Church has always
and been the saving of men's souls, not
Slavery. ^j^^ altering of their social institu-
tions. These last have been subject to its r^en-
erating forces only indirectly as the rising tide
of Christian life and thought has comi>elled their
adjustment to its increasing appreciation of these
fundamentals. The attitude of the mediaeval
Church towards slavery was similar to that of
primitive Christianity. The institution was not
condemned per se, but only when particular and
unique circumstances contributed to bring into
prominence particular cases. The buying and
selling or holding of slaves was a practice, un-
doubtedly well known to the Church.
iCol. 3: 20; 4: 1.
sQalatians 3: 28.
Slavery in America Up to 1820 29
Prior to the discovery of America, Spain and
Portugal had carried on slave trade on^ the coast
of Africa. After the discovery of America, the
Spaniards brought slaves into the West Indies.
Slavery was introduced into Continental America
Slavery i^^ 1620, by the Dutch, who brought
in twenty slaves into the James River
America. district of Virginia. They were pur-
chased immediately by the colonists. In the sev-
enteenth century, however, slavery did not grow
very rapidly in the colonies, but during the eJight-
eenth century larger numbers of slaves were im-
ported. South Carolina, particularly, became the
center of extensive slave traffic, since climate and
agricultural conditions were favorable to its de-
The early attitude of the public to slavery in
America varied. For example, when Georgia was
settled in 1733, the introduction of slavery was
prohibited. However, it was not long before the
planters were hiring negro slaves from South
Carolina. The law was evaded wherever possible,
and eventually slaves were brought from Africa
and sold in Savannah.^ Whitefield, the great
Early atti- Methodist evangelist, urged that
tnde Towards slavery be introduced into Gteorgia,
Slavery. ^^ j^^ believed it would be the means
of evangelizing and Christianizing the negro. He
believed that slavery was an ordinance of God,
and "though they are brought in a wrong way
^History of Georgia^ by Jones, Vol. 1, pp. 423-426.
30 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
from their own country, and it was a trade not to
be approved of, yet, as it will be carried on wheth-
er we will or not, I should think myself highly
favored, if I could purchase a good number of
them in order to make their lives comfortable, and
lay a foundation for breeding up their posterity
in the nurture and admonition of the Lord."^
In the colonies farther north the slaves were
used mostly as house servants. In Pennsylvania,
they were also employed in the iron furnaces.'*
From the earliest days, slavery was never popular
in New England, except in Rhode Island, where
Newport was a thriving center for the Slave
The attitude of the English during the earlier
colonial i)eriod was favorable toward slavery.
During the reign of William and Mary an act of
Parliament stated that *'the trade is highly bene-
ficial and advantageous to the Kingdom and Col-
onies."* The English Government did all in its
power to encourage slave traffic. By the treaty of
Utrecht ( 1713 ) England secured the monopoly of
supplying slaves to the Spanish-American prov-
inces. The English company formed for this pur-
pose, did an extensive business and made large
profits from it. In the early days, mother country
and colonists felt alike for the most part on this
*Life and Times of John Wesley, by Tyerman, Vol. 2, p. 132.
Blron in All Ages, Swank, p. 143 — ^Negro in Pennsylvania —
Turner, p. 41.
•Bancroft's ffistory of United States, Vol. 2, pp. 77-279.
Slavery in America Up to 1820 31
By 1770, however, the Virginia assembly fav-
ored prohibiting the slave trade. For some time
this attitude had been growing, but King George
III opposed this i)oliey and in 1770 wrote to the
Governor of Virginia, "upon the pain of the high-
coioniai Anti- ^®* displeasure, to assent to no law
Slavery Scnti- by which the imx>ortation of slaves
ments. should be in any resi)ect prohibited or
obstructed."^ Maryland and many other of the
Northern States on the other hand, shared the
views of Virginia.®
During the War for Independence, the question
of slavery frequently came up for discussion in
Congress. On April 6, 1776, Congress resolved
without opposition, "that no slave be imported
into any of the thirteen united colonies."* How-
ever, later discussions brought a change in the
status of slavery. In several of the states the
The Beroiu- slave interests added very materially
tionary to the wealth and property of the
Period. state. The question of wealth and
also of representation with quotas of revenue,
complicated the issue.
The conditions of the times demanded large
revenues and to raise the much needed funds, each
state was expected to raise its share in proportion
to the number of population. In the discussions
in Congress on the subject of taxation, the ques-
TBancroft's History of the United States, Vol. 3, p. 410, 1895
sBaneroft's Histoiy of the United States, Vol. 3, p. 411.
oJoumals of Congress, Vol. 4, p. 258.
32 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
tion aroBe as to the status of the slave. Some
thought that the slaves should be included in the
"number of the Population" and others claimed
that the "negroes were property, and no more
members of the state than cattle/' and others that
slaves should be exempt from taxation. Finally
in October, 1777, Congress passed the resolution
that slaves should be exempt from taxation alto-
gether, either as inhabitants or property.
During the War for Independence many of the
negroes took part in the struggle on the side of the
colonists. Several fought in the Battle of Bunker
Hill; Rhode Island emancipated the slaves on
condition that they serve in the army during the
In 1777, Vermont framed a State Constitution
which prohibited slavery forever." Pennsylva-
nia, by Act of Assembly, 1780, instituted a plan
of gradual emancipation," Massachusetts in the
same year adopted a state constitution, which
abolished slavery and conferred citizenship on the
negro, including for those who had the necessary
qualifications of age, property, and residence, the
right to vote."
Further complications arose when the land
claims in the Northwest Territory demanded set-
tlement. During the greater part of the Revolu-
tionary period, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New
York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
loHistory of Vermont, by Robinson, p. 147.
"Laws of Pennsylvania, Vol. V, p. 492.
i^History of Massachusetts, by Austin, p. 350.
Slavery in America Up to 1820 33
and Georgia claimed the territory west of them to
the Mississippi River. Eventually, during the
years 1780-1786, New York, Virginia, Massachu-
setts, and Connecticut which claimed lands north-
west of the Ohio River to the Mississippi, agreed
to give it to the United States. It was during this
time that Jefferson, who realized a new opportu-
nity had presented itself to prevent the extension
of slavery, introduced ( 1784 ) an ordinance which
prohibited slavery, after 1800, in the western terri-
tory above the parallel of 31 degrees north lati-
tude. Much to his disappointment, however, the
anti-slavery clause was defeated by only one vote.
Finally, in 1787, after considerable debate. Con-
gress passed a series of laws for the government
of this vast territory. The ordinance granted en-
tire religious liberty and forbade slavery, al-
though provision was made for the return of fugi-
tive slaves who should escape to this territory.^*
The courts held, however, that the ordinance did
not free pre-existing slaves.
During the same year, the Constitutional Con-
vention convened in Philadelphia to make a new
Constitution in order "to form a more perfect
union." The slavery question cropped up here
and resulted in stormy debates. The question
arose as to whether or not slaves should be count-
ed in computing the numbers of the
and'siaVcry^ population with respect to represen-
tation in Congress. The northern
delegates opposed it and the southerners favored
isConstitutional History TJ. S., Curtis, Vol. 1, pp. 203-208;
Fugitive Slaves, by MacDougal, p. 14.
34 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
it. Eventually, the compromise was made that
three-fifths of the slaves should be counted in the
settlement of questions of representation and tax-
Washington, at this time, stated very clearly
his views on slavery. He favored the gradual
extinction of slavery in his own state," and during
his presidential term in a letter he expressed the
view that before long it must be abolished in both
Virginia and Maryland." At his death his own
slaves were freed. In the Constitutional Conven-
tion debates, Madison urged the immediate pro-
hibition of the slave trade instead of waiting until
1808 when the law should be effective. He said,
"Twenty years will produce all the mischief that
can be apprehended from the liberty to import
slaves. So long a term will be more dishonorable
than to say nothing about it in the Constitution.''^*
John Adams, likewise, opposed slavery and never
owned a slave.
The attitude of the southern states toward slav-
ery was changed however, by Whitney's invention
of the cotton gin in 1793. It made possible the
development of the great cotton industry of the
South." The cotton plant was pecul-
Cotton o^n! i^rily adapted to southern soU and
climate. Previous to Whitney's in-
vention it took one man a day to separate a
i^Bancrof t 's History of U. S., Vol. 6, p. 179.
isSpark's Life of Washington, Vol. 12, p. 326.
i«Life and Times of Madison, Rives, Vol. 2, p. 449.
iTRhodes' History of the U. S., Vol. 1, p. 25; American
Conflict, by Greeley, Vol, 1, pp. 58-66.
Slavery in America Up to 1820 35
pound of cotton fiber from the seed ; but by the
new process one man was able to separate 50
I)ounds of fiber. The chief agricultural products
of the South were rice, sugar, cotton, and tobacco.
In raising these products slave labor was exten-
sively used ; and the invention of the cotton gin
made cotton king, and according to the southern
conception, made slave labor indispensable. New
economic conditions arose, more land was culti-
vated, and hence more slaves were required to do
the work. Slavery became a profitable business.
Consequently Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky
became strong pro-slavery centers. The question
grew more and more complicated by other issues,
upon a brief consideration of which it mighf be
profitable to enter.
The invention of the cotton gin, as has been
seen, gave slavery a more permanent foothold in
the United States, and the acquisition of the vast
Louisiana territory made possible the later ex-
tension of slavery. President Jefferson's wisdom
and foresight were shown by taking advantage of
Purchase of ^^^ opportunity presented for the
Louisiana, purchase of the Louisiana Territory.
1803. i^ enlarged and made more secure the
borders of the United States and opened up mar-
velous commercial possibilities. At the time the
slavery question was not interjected into the dis-
cussion as to the advisability of the purchase. At
this time all of the southern states except South
Carolina had passed laws prohibiting the slave
traffic. The opinion of the day was that slavery
36 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
would gradually die out. Perhaiws it would even
have been x>06sible at the time to have passed legis-
lative acts to have prevented the extension of
slavery in that territory, but the opportunity was
not taken. Of course, it would not have been
possible to have kept it out of the part which later
became the State of Louisiana, as slavery already
existed there, and was protected by the treaty
making possible the purchase.^*
Even as early as Washington's first adminis-
tration ( 1790 ) a group of anti-slavery i)eople in
the North had sent a petition to Congress, urging
the abolition of slavery in the United States. Con-
gress returned the petition with the
Compromise, answer that slavery was a "domestic
institution,'^ and therefore subject to
state law and not national laws.^® This was the
attitude Congress assumed to all later i)etitions,
as well. During these years new territory was
opened up to the slave interests and several slave
states were admitted to the union.
In the autumn of 1818, however, when Mis-
souri, a slave territory, applied for statehood, a
discussion of the slavery question arose which re-
sulted in a bitter debate. The pro-slavery men
were surprised at the opposition engendered by
their application. The bill for admission to state-
hood was laid before the House of Representatives
for debate on February 13, 1819. James Tall-
madge of New York moved an amendment to the
isConstitutional History U. S., Curtis, Vol. 2, p. 199.
i^Select Documents, MacDonald, Vol. 2, p. 59.
Slavery in America Up to 1820 37
bill on the same date, "that the further introduc-
tion of slavery or involuntary servitude be pro-
hibited, and that all children born within the said
state after admission thereof into the union shall
be free at the age of 25 years."^^ The House passed
the amendment by a narrow margin but the Sen-
ate rejected it by a vote of 31 to 7. Congress ad-
journed without admitting Missouri to statehood.
The whole country was inflamed by the debates
which engendered bitterness and sectionalism.
Meetings were held by anti- and pro-slavery advo-
cates, the one demanding that slavery should not
be further extended and the other that the rights
of slave owners under the Constitution should be
maintained. The state l^slatures of Pennsyl-
vania, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, and Dela-
ware passed resolutions opposing the admission of
Missouri to statehood with slavery. Thus a seri-
ous task confronted Congress when it convened in
When Congress met the great question seemed
to be "Does Congress have the right to impose
conditions on new states for entrance into the
union ?'' The supporters of the Tallmadge amend-
ment claimed that Congress had the right to ad-
mit, or refuse to admit new states into the union,
and consequently it had the power to make con-
ditions whereby new states could be admitted.
For example, they argued that Ohio, Indiana, and
Illinois were admitted when they drew up anti-
20Middle Period Burgees^ p. 67; Schurz-Henry Clay, p. 188.
38 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
slavery constitutions. On the other hand, the
pro-slavery men stated that these states would
have been within their legal rights, if they had in-
sisted when they became states on determining for
themselves the nature of their "domestic institu-
tions." They also contended that the states that
Congress should admit to the union must be ac-
corded the same privileges as those claimed by
the states which originally united in forming the
The debates in Congress and throughout the
United States renewed the bitter sectional feel-
ing. The anti-slavery party claimed slavery was
a moral evil and as such it should be eliminated as
a so-called "domestic institution." On the other
hand, the pro-slavery adherents replied, that if it
was a moral evil it would be much better to dif-
fuse the evil by extending it, for example into the
new West.^^ Furthermore, by diffusion the evil
would be diminished. The evil would be consider-
ably lessened, particularly since negro slaves
could no longer be imi)orted into the United
While these debates were going on, Maine, with
an anti-slavery Constitution, petitioned Congress
in December, 1819, for admission into the union.
The application of Maiiie aroused the pro-slavery
party to greater activity, for they knew that if
Maine were admitted into the union, the anti-
slavery party would control the Senate, with
2iSchurz-Henry Clay, p. 188.
22Turner, The New West, p. 163.
Slavery in America up to 1820 39
twelve states. At present each section had eleven.
To increase this representation, the anti-slavery
party also put forth every effort. In order to end
further agitation on the subject, the Senate com-
bined the Maine and Missouri bills and substituted
for the Tallmadge amendment the Thomas amend-
ment which prohibited slavery in the Louisiana
Territory north of 36 degrees 30 minutes except
in Missouri. In this form the bill passed the
Senate. The House dropped the Tallmadge
amendment and passed the Senate compromise
measure by a vote of 90 to 87.^^ Upon the en-
trance of Maine and Missouri into the union, the
balance between the slave and free states, as each
section had twelve, was preserved.
Many people believed that the question of the
extension of slavery was now settled forever, but
in less than a quarter of a century, the question
was to come up again in an even more serious
28Constitutional History of the United States, by Curtis, Vol.
11, pp. 200-220.
SLAVEKY AND THE LUTHERAN CHURCH
PRIOR TO CIVIL WAR.
THE permanent foundations of the Luther-
an Church in the United States were laid
by the Germanic peoples. It was during
the years from 1800 to 1860 that results in growth
and organization larger than those previous were
accomplished. However, the Lutheran Church,
in comparison, for example, with the Episco-
palians, Presbyterians, and Methodists, was late
in developing its i)Ossibilities in growth.
About the time the Church was put on an organ-
ized basis for effective work, violent contentions
arose in its midst over the language question.
Large numbers of its members, especially the
young people, requested services in the English
language, as they did not understand or care for
the German services. However, the adherents to
Grerman were in the majority, and the requests
were invariably overruled. Many of the Gterman
congregations took such x>ositive action as to
have their charters amended to require the ex-
clusive and permanent use of the German tongue.
This hostile and unwarranted attitude drove
thousands of young i)eople away from the Church,
and large numbers affiliated with the Episcopal,
Methodist, and Presbyterian denominations. The
Slavery and Churcli Prior to Civil War 41
heaviest losses occurred in New York and Phila-
delphia. Many English Lutheran Churches were
founded, but the majority of the English language
adherents united with other denominations.^
This insane policy, which was so tenaciously fol-
lowed for many years, hampered the Church in
establishing educational institutions and develop-
ing missionary activities.
However, by 1825 the English party had become
stronger, and consequently many of the congrega-
tions held services in English and German. Nev-
ertheless the language question remained unset-
Prom the beginning of immigration to America,
Germans had always manifested a love for free-
dom. It was for this blessing they came. Tfiey
found here an opportunity to earn an independent
livelihood from their farms and plantations and
to enjoy civil and religious liberty. A German
brought to America the habits of labor which he
learned in the Fatherland. It was his custom
to have his wife and each one of his children cap-
able of helping in the labor required, for example,
on the farm. In the settlement of the farm lands
in Pennsylvania, consequently, there is a striking
contrast between the choices of the Scotch-Irish
and German settlers (1736-1770). In the Cum-
berland Valley, for example, the Scotch-Irish set-
tlers invariably chose the slate-lands on account
iMuhlenberg and His Times, Stoever, p. 80; Early Hist.
Luth. Ch., by Schaeflfer, p. 142; Lutherans in Ameriea, Wolf,
42 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
of their natural attractiveness and their freedom
from surface rock. The German settlers bought
the limestone land, which the Scotch-Irish refused
to consider. It was unattractive and disfigured
by gullies, protruding and surface rock, and in
many places bereft of good soil.^ The industrious
and persevering German bought it for a trifle as
it was considered of no value, but it was not long
before he had it in a fine state of cultivation. In
Lancaster and York Counties, Pennsylvania, also,
the German settlers again purchased the lime-
stone land, but in these counties the land was
heavily timbered and required patient and toil-
some labor to clear it.* These habits of industry
and thrift which might be classed under the social
life of the i)eople, together with the industrial,
I)olitical, and religious life led the majority of
these earlier German Lutheran people to oppose
slavery or to have nothing to do with it.
Perhaps this may best be seen by some statistics
and the distribution in 1790 of the population of
states according to nationality shows the follow-
ing results. The percentages are based on the
distribution of the white population of each state
according to nationality as indicated by names of
heads of families :
2The Seventy-fifth Year of Lutheranism in Cumberland Val-
ley, p. 7.
^Lutheran Ch. and Limestone Districts, Art., Lutheran Quar-
terly, Vol. 13, p. 509.
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 43
State English — per cent German — per cent
Maine, 93.1 0.5
New Hampshire, 94.1 0.
Vermont, 95 . 4 Less than 1/10 of 1%
Massachusetts, . 95. Less than 1/10 of 1%
Rhode Island, . . 96. 0.1
Connecticut, ... 96.2 Less than 1/10 of 1 %
New York, 78.2 0.4
Pennsylvania, .59.0 26.1
Maryland, 84.0 5.9
Virginia, 85.0 4.9
North Carolina, 83.1 2.8
South Carolina, 82.4 1.7*
The number of white families, slaveholding and
non-slaveholding, classified according to nation-
ality in the above mentioned states show the fol-
lowing results :
& Welsh. Scotch, Dutch. German.
Total number families . . . 336,651 27,250 9,399 23,300
Slave holding 38,146 4,362 2,625 871
Non-slave holding 298,505 22,888 6,774 22,429
Per cent, slave holding
famines 11.3 16.0 27.9 3.7
The smallest proportion of slaveholders is
shown among the Germans, who even at this early
period were obviously opposed to slave ownership,
although this small x>ercentage among them is due
*For New Jersey, Delaware, Georgia and Kentucky schedules
of population are lacking for the census of 1790.
44 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
in part to their poverty and geographical loca-
tion. Had the proportion of slaves for the entire
white population of the United Stat^ in 1790
been the same as for the German element, the
aggregate number of slaves at the first census
would have been but 52,520 instead of approxi-
mately 700,000.'^ However, from 1790 to 1838
there are no records to show that the Lutheran
Church in its district Synodical or General
Synodical conventions took any action pro or con
on the slavery question.
The attitude of the Lutheran Church in its
official life at this time was not to interfere or
legislate on questions which concerned the state
or national government, but to take action pri-
marily, on questions concerning chul*ch polity and
doctrinal matters. Though slave owners were
members of the Church no action was taken con-
cerning the slavery question. Lutherans might
quarrel bitterly in their Church councils and
Synodical bodies over the language and doctrinal
questions as applicable to their own church polity,
but their councils of this period are peculiarly
free from discussions of the slavery question as
it existed either outside of the Lutheran body or
When the abolitionist movement, however,
spread over the country and when its propaganda
became nation-wide particularly during the years
between 1830 and 1838, the movement made itself
eA Century of Population and Growth, 1790-1900, pp. 116-
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 45
felt in the Lutheran Church. Sentiment on the
anti-slavery side was crystallized in 1838 under
the leadership of the Franckean Synod of New
York, and gradually spread over the Lutheran
Church throughout the United States. Eventual-
ly, as among the Methodists, Presbyterians, and
Baptists, there were pro-slavery and anti-slavery
The leader of the abolitionist movement at this
time was William Lloyd Garrison of Boston, who
became actively identified with the cause in 1828
and at once engaged in a radical propaganda
against slavery. On New Year's Day, 1831, he
published the issue of a paper called the "Liber-
ator," in which he demanded "the immediate and
unconditional emancipation of every slave held in
the United States." He went so far
tionists.*^ " ^^ statements as to say that the union
should be destroyed, if necessary, he
believed, in order to liberate the slave. Large
numbers of anti-slavery people opposed his radi-
cal views. Not infrequently meetings he ad-
dressed in the cause of emancipation were broken
up. So bitter were many people toward Garri-
son's views, that on one occasion a mob dragged
him through the streets of Boston. The police
rescued him with great difficulty. The opposition
was directed primarily, not against the condition
of the negro, but against the radical views of Gar-
rison, as it was thought he would destroy the
^Garrison's Life, by his children, 1, p. 224ff,
46 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
In 1835 the abolition agitation was carried into
Congress ; a large number of i)etitions, presented
in both houses, asked for the abolition of slavery.
The southern members of Congress opposed these
petitions and sought to prevent them from being
presented. Mr. Wise of Virginia (Feb., 1835)
stated in the House, "Sir, slavery is interwoven
with our very political existence and guaranteed
by our constitution. You cannot attack the insti-
tution of slavery without attacking the institu-
tions of our country."^ In the meantime, Mr.
Garrison and others had succeeded in forming a
large number of abolition societies ; and after this
first opposition i)etitions in even larger numbers
were sent to Congress.
In May, 1836, the pro-slavery and anti-aboli-
tionist members of the House presented the fol-
lowing resolution : "That all petitions relating in
any way to the subject of slavery or the abolition
of slavery shall, without being either printed or
referred, be laid upon the table, and that nc
further action shall be held thereon." John
Quincy Adams opposed the resolution as a "gag-
rule" and contrary to the constitution. The "gag-
rule" passed the House by a vote of 117 to 68.
Nevertheless, this did not prevent Mr. Adams
from presenting every petition that was sent to
him, not infrequently he presented more than two
hundred a day, and invariably he was interrupt-
^Garrison's Life, by his children, 1, p. 271.
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 47
ed by derisive shouts of "Treason" or "Put him
The result was that during the two years a
marked change took place in the North and South
with respect to the attitude toward slavery. The
debates which took place in Congress awakened
the i)eople throughout the whole of the United
States to the seriousness of the problem. In the
North, the anti-slavery men co-operated more
closely with the elimination of slavery; but the
southern legislatures passed harsher measures
governing slavery and the humane interests suc-
cumbed to the domination by the slave-holding
Prom 1836 on the Church in general throughout
the United States began active anti-slavery propa-
ganda. As we have already noted this opposition
to slavery existed in several denominations during
the Revolutionary Period. But the
Church. debates incidental to the Missouri
Compromise, the passage of the
"Gag-resolution," and the refusal of the slave
owners to co-operate in a friendly way to
emancipate the slave, led the churches of the
North to carry on an active and i)ositive cam-
paign to abolish slavery and to detach the Church
from slavery. A writer of the period observes,
"The Church will be free. The time will come
when in all this land every church shall be wholly
and forever detached from all connection with
sGarrison, by his children, Vol. 2, p. 68fP; Wilson's Slave
Power in America, Vol. 1, p. 307 seq.
48 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
Blavery. Nothing can be more certain than this.
The very spirit of the age demands it ; the religion
which is professed in the lands will ultimately se-
cure it; the spirit of our civil institutions will
make this certain in the Church; the onward
progress of liberty among the nations will compel
the churches, if they will save the world from in-
fidelity, to detach themselves altogether from
slavery."** From this time on, the discussion of
slavery never ceased unUl the question was set-
tled on the battlefields of the Civil War.
At this i)oint, it is necessary to pause in the nar-
rative to follow the anti-slavery contest as it took
place in several church denominations other than
the Lutheran. The slavery question came up
very early for serious consideration in the Meth-
odist Church. In 1784 the Baltimore Conference
set forth several stringent rules, one of which
stated that "Any member who bought, sold, or
gave slaves away except on purpose to free them,
were immediately to be expelled," Later these
rules were modified. In 1800 it was stated that
Church officials and ministers were not allowed
to be slave owners. The members were permitted
to hold slaves but they could not buy or sell them.
When Garrison began his anti-slavery agita-
tion, he was given considerable encouragement,
Mcthoditt particularly by the New England
Episcopal Methodists. However, the Church as
Ghuroh. ^ whole was gradually receding from
the positive position which it had taken in the lat-
•Church and Slavery, by Barnes, p. 168.
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 49
ter part of the eighteenth and the beginning of the
nineteenth century. At the general conference
held at Cincinnati, 1836, the anti-slavery senti-
ment as well as opposition to abolition tendencies
was at low ebb as the following resolution shows,
"Modern abolitionism, and wholly disclaiming
any right, wish, or intention to interfere in the
civil and political relation between master and
slave as it exists in the slaveholding states of the
union.'^^^ This resolution was carried by 120 yeas
and 14 nays.
The Southern Conferences went on record de-
claring the Church had no right to interfere with
the slave question as it was a domestic and civil
institution. By 1840, however, the anti-slavery
sentiment was rapidly increasing in the Church.
But the General Conference which met during
the same year refused to adopt stringent anti-
slavery resolutions. This action created con-
siderable dissatisfaction among a large number
of the members and many withdrew from the
Church. This procedure added to the anti-slavery
sentiment throughout the Church which rapidly
increased during the next four years.
At the General Conference which met in New
York on May 1, 1844, the slavery discussion came
up for serious consideration. From the time the
conference began its session, the anti-slavery sen-
timent was exceptionally strong. The first dis-
;cussion arose because the Baltimore Conference
lOAnti-Slavery Struggle and Triumph in the Methodist Epis-
copal Church, Matlack, pp. 93-102.
50 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
had suspended one ministerial member from his
office because he had refused to free a slave which
had come into his i)ossession by marriage. He ap-
X)ealed his case to the General Conference; and
after a five days' debate the conference supported
the Baltimore Conference by a vote of 117 to 56.
On May 21st a report was submitted by the Com-
mittee on Episcopacy stating that Bishop James
O. Andrews, of Georgia, was a slaveholder and he
had not complied with the rules of the Church.
After the submission of this report a resolution
was offered stating : "That it is the sense of this
General Conference that he desist from the exer-
cise of this office so long as his impediment re-
mains." After a discussion of ten days it was
passed by a vote of 110 yeas to 68 nays.^^ This
decision led to the introduction of a resolution
which provided for a separation of the Church,
North and South. Finally after much bitter de-
bating and agitation, a series of resolutions was
adopted providing for the separation of the
Church in the slave-holding states, from the
Church, North, "Should the Annual Conference
in the slave-holding states find it necessary to
unite in a distinct ecclesiastical connection."
This action took place on June 8th, and confer-
ence adjourned June 10th.
The following May, 1845, a general conference
composed of delegates from the Southern District
Conferences convened at Louisville to consider
iiSlavery and The Episcopacy, by Peck, p. 10 seq.
Slavery and Cliurch Prior to Civil War 51
the action of the General Conference. The re-
sult was that by vote of 94 to 3 they decided to
separate from the Northern body and to organize
then and there the Methodist Episcopal Church,
South. This plan was carried out with consider-
The Methodist Church, North, became almost
solidly anti-slavery from the break and it main-
tained this attitude until the Civil War deter-
mined the status of the slave. On the other hand,
the Methodist Church, South, strongly upheld the
As in the Methodist Church, the slavery issue
came up for discussion in the Presbyterian
Church at an early period. For example, as early
The Preaby- ^ 1787, the Synod of New York and
terian Philadelphia passed resolutions op-
Churoh. posing it and seeking its abolition,
recommending, "To all the people under their care
to use the most prudent measures, consistent with
the interest and the state of civil society in the
parts where they live, to procure, eventually, the
final abolition of slavery in America.""
From that time until 1818 the Presbyterian
Church was active in the interests of the slave.
In that year the General Assembly passed a mem-
orable and epoch-making resolution calling for a
"total abolition of slavery." They stated, "it is
manifestly the duty of all Christians who enjoy
the light of the present day when the inconsist-
isChurch and Slavery, Barnes, p. 54.
52 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
ency of slavery both with the dictates of human-
ity and religion, has been demonstrated, and is
generally seen and acknowledged, to use their
honest, earnest, and unwearied endeavors to cor-
rect the errors of former times, and as speedily as
possible to efface this blot on our holy religion,
and to obtain the complete abolition of slavery
throughout Christendom, and, if possible,
throughout the world.""
In 1838 a division took place in the Church
upon doctrinal questions which resulted in the
formation of the Old and New School. The insti-
tution of slavery was bitterly assailed by the New
School Assembly repeatedly ; and in 1850 more de-
cided resolutions were adopted. They stated in
part, "We exceedingly deplore the working of the
whole system of slavery as it exists in our country
and is interwoven with the jyolitical institutions
of the slave-holding states, as fraught with many
and great evils to the civil, political, and moral
interests of those regions where it exists."^* The
Presbytery of Lexington, South, was reported to
the General Assembly in 1857 in that many of
their members "hold slaves from principle and
choice, believing it to be, according to the Bible,
right." The Assembly strongly condemned this
position and stated "such doctrines and practices
cannot be permanently tolerated in the Presby-
i^Church and Slavery, Barnes, p. 56.
i*Church and Slavery, Barnes, p. 65.
Slavery and Churcli Prior to Civil War 53
The Old School Assembly frequently went on
record as opposing slavery, particularly in 1849
and 1850. However, after 1850 until the outbreak
of the Civil War, the subject received less consid-
eration. It was not so pronounced in its opposi-
tion as was the New School.
The slavery struggle assumed a different phase
in the Baptist Church. It was not a denomina-
tional struggle like that carried on in the Meth-
odist, Presbyterian, or Lutheran
cluwh.^**"* Churches. Among the Baptists the
attitude toward slavery depended
upon the individual Church. In some of the
churches there was a strong pro-slavery and in
others a strong anti-slavery attitude. However,
the Free- Will Baptists were more strongly united,
and as early as 1839 refused Church fellowship to
During the years preceding the outbreak of the
Civil War discussion was kept out of the General
Assemblies of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
However, the break came in 1861 ; at a convention
held at Montgomery, Alabama, composed of dele-
gates from the Protestant Episcopal Church in
the Confederate States, action was taken separat-
ing those in the South from the Protestant Epis-
copal Church in the United States."
It has already been mentioned that the Church
in general throughout the United States in 1836
ISA. B. Hart, Slavery and Abolition, p. 160.
i«Hi8t. P. E. Church by Tiffany, p. 496 seq.
54 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
began to take an active part in the slavery de-
siavcry and bates.. The Church, North, began an
Lntheranism, anti-slavery propaganda; and the
1838. Church, South, supported slavery .^^
It was but the natural outcome of the events of the
day, that the Lutheran Church with sister denomi-
nations should be drawn into the struggle. Conse-
quently, under the leadership of the Franckean
Synod of New York State, 1838, the anti-slavery
discussion was begun in the Lutheran Church.
The Franckean Synod was organized in 1837 at
Fordsbush, New York. At this time it comprised
21 congregations, 10 ministers, and 1,650 com-
municant members. The bounds of the Synod
included Schoharie, Rensselaer, Onondaga, Her-
kimer, Oswego, and Monroe counties of New
York." It was an aggressive missionary synod
and for a time sustained mission stations in Wis-
consin. The Franckean Synod at this time was an
independent Lutheran Synod, and it was not re-
ceived into the General Synod until 1864, at York,
It was the first synod to go on record with anti
slavery resolutions ; these were adopted at a con-
vention which met at Clay, Onondaga County,
New York, June 7, 1838. The president of the
Synod in his report sounded the keynote against
slavery when he stated : "Slavery in the Christian
nation and practiced by ministers and members
of Christian Churches. Slavery in the Lutheran
i^A. B. Hart, Slavery and Abolition, p. 167 seq.
isMinutes, !EVanckean Synod, 1837, p. 14 seq.
Slavery and Churcli Prior to Civil War 55
Church ! We dare not be silent on this subject!
The corrupting influence of slavery is
plainly discovered when we consider the apathy
of Christians and the silence of ministers of the
gospel, as individuals or in their ecclesiastical
capacity, to rebuke the sin of slavery. We are
alone as yet of all the Synods in the Lutheran
Church who have considered the subject except
those Synods which have either defended, advo-
cated, or ax>ologized for the system of American
slavery."^' The president's report was sustained
and resolutions were unanimously adopted from
which the following is quoted : "That we conceive
it to be our imperative duty to speak boldly and
plainly against this great national and heinous
"That we calmly, importunately, and faithfully
beseech the Church of God no more to be a par-
taker in the guilt of slavery, and from henceforth
with clean hands, consistently labor for the evan-
gelization of the world."^^ The feeling expressed
by the Pranckean Synod was but an expression of
a feeling which was gradually spreading over the
New England and Middle States.
By 1833 the abolition sentiment was so strong
in the New England and certain parts of the Mid-
i»N"ote — ^Por the last part of this statement, the writer has
been unable to find any records extant to verify it to give any
additional information in the history of the Lutheran ChurclL
20Minutes Franckean Synod, 1838, p. 30.
ziMinute Franekean Synod, 1838, pp. 15-16.
56 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
die States, that many of the leading abolitionists
American and thought the time was at hand to call
Foreign Anti- a national convention for the organi-
siavery zation of a national society in order
Society. ^^ advance their principles with a
larger degree of unanimity and prestige. They
finally decided to call such a convention, which
met in Philadelphia, December 4, 1833. They
continued in session for several days and organ-
ized the American Anti-slavery Society. The
object of this society was clearly set forth. It
aimed to bring about the "entire abolition of slav-
ery in the United States.'' "While admitting that
each state had exclusive right to legislate in re-
gard to its abolition, it avowed as its aim to con-
vince the people of the slave states, by arguments
addressed to their understandings and con-
sciences, that slave-holding was a heinous crime
against God, and that duty and safety required
its immediate abandonment, but without expatri-
ation."" The society soon grew in numbers, in-
fluence, and prestige. A large number of publica-
tions were put out under its direction and auxil-
iary societies were also organized.
However, by 1838 dissension had broken out
among the abolitionists ; various causes brought
this about, but the chief reason was the question
of exercising the right of suffrage. Large num-
bers of the society declared that it was the duty
of every abolitionist "to inquire into the senti-
22Siave Power in America, Wilson, Vol. 1, p. 253; Old South
Leaflets No. 8, Vol. 4, Pa. Hist. See. Lib. Phila.
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 57
ments of candidates for ofl&ce, and that he was un-
worthy the name of an abolitionist who did not
put the aliti-slavery qualification above all others,
in selecting candidates to receive his vote." Many
also objected to allowing women to take part in
the business affairs of the society. The dissen-
sions continued ; and as time drew near for the
annual convention of the organization in 1840, it
seemed more than likely that a division would
take place in the society.
The convention met in New York City on May
12, ] 840. A large number of state delegates were
in attendance. One of the first questions brought
before the society was the right of women to take
part in the proceedings of the convention. After
a sharp debate the majority decided to permit
women to vote. That evening a special meeting
was held by those opposing woman suffrage, when
it was unanimously agreed that a division should
take place, and that a new society should be or-
ganized at once. The following day they proceed-
ed to organize a convention of their own. During
the next two days they organized an American
and Foreign Anti-slavery with a membership of
about three hundred and adopted a new constitu-
tion. The principles of the organization were as
follows: "Not to enforce uniformity of action,
subject the wide spread anti-slavery hosts to the
decrees of one central power, follow the footsteps
of any earthly leader, or glorify any man of like
passions with themselves, but to labor for the
58 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
speedy and x>eacef ul triumph of liberty and to
give God all the glory."**
The principles of the new society received
favorable support in many parts of the North.
Many church bodies pledged active support and
co-operation. For example the Franckean Synod,
which met in annual convention at Stone Mills,
New York, shortly after the organization of the
new society, passed the following resolution of
June 4, 1840, "That we approve of the Constitu-
tion and organization of the society called and
known as the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery
Society."** This Synod co-oi)erated with the so-
ciety which rendered efficient service to the anti-
slavery cause for several years.
The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery So-
ciety, however, met serious opposition and criti-
cism also. This came particularly from the Col-
onization Society, which as early as
« * B^ ?"fc *" 1828 went on record to the effect that,
tlon Society. . . „. , , v tx-
^ut IS no wise allied to any abolition
society in America or elsewhere; and is ready,
when there is need, to pass a censure upon such
societies in America.^"
As the slavery discussion became more bitter,
the Colonization Society utilized every opportuni-
ty to censure the abolition movement. At the
time of organization of the American Anti-Slav-
28Slave Power in America, Wilson, VoL 1, p. 421 seq.
24Minute8 Pranckean Synod, p. 19.
s^Wilson's Slave Power in America, Vol. 1, pp. 249 and 253.
Slavery and Cliurcli Prior to Civil War 59
ery Society, Elizur Wright, Jr., stated: "I
wish that the difference between our purpose and
that of the Colonization Society should be ex-
plicitly stated. We mean to exterminate slavery
from our country, with its accursed influences.
The Colonizationists only wish to get rid of the
slaves as soon as they become free. Their plan is
unrighteous, cruel and impracticable withal. Our
plan means but a good will and a right spirit
among the white people to accomplish it."*"
The Colonization Society, which we have men-
tioned above, had been organized in 1816 for the
purpose of colonizing the free negroes.** Later the
society secured Liberia, Africa, where settlements
were made. The society was primarily a southern
organization and large numbers of its members
were influential slave-owners. Although its pur-
poses were laudable, its colonial schemes were
failures. "In 1853 it had spent ?1,500,000 and
sent only 9,000 negro colonists to Africa," as a
Because of the continued intolerant and cen-
sorious attitude of the society, the Franckean
Synod in annual convention at West Sand Lake,
New York, June 1, 1843, passed the following
resolution, "That we view the Colonization So-
ciety as originating in sheer selfishness and the
opponent of universal and impartial emancipa-
2«Fir8t Annual Baport, 1818, p. 3.
27 Am. Colonization Soc, Stebbins, p. 180.
60 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
tion ; therefore, we cannot exercise any sympathy
for its measures."^*
The jKMsitive position of the Franckean Synod
against slavery intensified the anti-slavery senti-
ment throughout the Lutheran Church. Efforts
Growth of were made to inject the discussions
Anti-Slavery into the General Synod conventions,
Sentiment. i^^^ without success. Considerable
discussion and debate took place at the General
Synodical Convention in Chambersburg, Pa., in
June, 1839,^" but the convention did not go on
record defining its attitude to the slavery ques-
tion. At this time slavery was seriously debated
in the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Baptist Gen-
eral Conventions, and it was clearly evident that
divisions would take place in those denomina-
tions, which divisions occurred as we have shown.
The General Synod, however, during these trying
years confined itself to general Church legisla-
tion. However, every year a larger anti-slavery
sentiment was growing in the Lutheran Church in
the North and the time was coming when the
General Synod could no longer evade the slavery
question and it would be necessary to legislate
concerning it. It did eventually take such action
at the meeting at Lancaster in 1862.
As the slavery agitation became more acute
throughout the country the Franckean Synod
took a more positive stand in its anti-slavery atti-
tude. Thus at the annual convention held at
28Minute8 Franckean Synod, 1843, p. 20.
2»Franklin Repository, 1839, Chambersbnrg, Pa.
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 61
Argusville, New York, June 5, 1845, after careful
and deliberate consideration, the following reso-
lution was passed : "That this Synod, from a con-
scientious sense of duty cannot hold fellowship
with any Synod, Presbytery, Conference, Classis
or other ecclesiastical body, while under its juris-
diction, or in its connection it tolerates, apolo-
gizes for, or isjsilent on the sin of ATi?firic^^ «l«^-
QKy^jgfipedallyJf Mid .ecclesiastical bodies Justi^^
and defend the above specified sin by an-appeal to
the Holy Scriptures which in the judgment of this
Synodjs blasphepay against Almighty God and a
shocking prostitution of the Word*"*®
This action of the Franckean Synod without
doubt led the Pifj^bni^g^i SyTiAfi tJipffYilo^ncyear
at their annual convention to legislate against
slavery. The Pittsburgh Synod of Pennsylvania
in 1846 embraced the following counties : West-
moreland, Butler, Washington, Armstrong, Clar-
ion and AUeghwiy. It was composed of 64 con-
gregations and 4,162 communicant members. The
convention which met at Greensburg, May 28th,
resolved : "That the practice of buying and selling
men, women, and children, with the intention of
enslaving them or holding them in involuntary
servitude or bondage, is, in the opinion of this
Synod, a moral and national evil, and an offense,
condemned by the principles of humanity and the
Word of God."*^ The influence of the Franckean
Synod continued, from this time on until the out-
soMinutes Franckean Synod, 1845, p. 18.
aiMinutea— Pittsburgh Synod, 1846, p. 36.
62 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
break of the Civil War, to lead the Lutheran
Church in its struggle against slavery.
The passage in 1850, after a stormy and bitter
debate, of the Fugitive Slave bill brought forth
a tremendous protest from the x>eople in the
North. The bill provided for the arrest of all
fugitive slaves found in the North and for their
return to their masters without trial by jury.
The law was condemned by the secu-
sivc^uh ""^ lar and religious press of the North
as well as by various Church bodies.
The Franckean Synod, at their convention held
at West Sand Lake, New York, June 25, 1851,
passed the following resolution against it : "That
the late Fugitive Slave Bill, passed in Congress,
is the ill-shapen and hydra-headed oflPspring of
bold usurpation and unmitigated cruelty ; that it
has no safeguard in the natural and social rights
of man, nor can it find any sanctions in the clear
pealing thunders of Sinai, its blazing fires and
the voice of God or in the teachings of Calvary,
sending its mellowing notes of love and pity upon
a despairing world ; therefore, the Church of God,
its altars, its worship, and its solemn notes of
praise should afford no retreat of protection;
nay, not even the smile which the harlot of slavery
might give as a cordial approval or willing acqui-
escence to its foul conspiracy against justice and
the inherent rights of coequal man.''*^
The passage of the law was unsatisfactory to
the North and South and brought only a tempo-
82Min. Franckean Synod, 1851, p. 16.
Slavery and Cliurcli Prior to Civil War 63
rary i)eace. In the North the Fugitive Law was
evaded and even disobeyed. Fugitive negroes
were not infrequently taken away from officers.
Many of the northern states passed laws protect-
ing the runaway slaves and thus prevented their
return to the South. On the other hand the slave-
owners protested against the action of the North.
Consequently the slavery discussion broke out
again with renewed forces.**
The various religious denominations of the
North became very much aroused when Senator
Douglas of Illinois in 1854 introduced the "Kan-
sas-Nebraska Bill" which proposed to repeal the
Missouri Compromise measure of 1820. More
than three thousand New England clergymen
signed a memorial protesting against the measure
and on their behalf it was presented to Congress,
by Mr. Everett. Senator Douglas was very much
The Kansas- provoked by this action and he stated
Kcbraska in a si)eech in Congress, "I doubt
Bin. whether there is a body of men in
America who combine so much profound igno-
rance on the question upon which they attempt to
enlighten the Senate, as this same body of preach-
ers.** The Franckean Synod in session at Black
Lake, New York, June 11, 1854, went on record
as follows : "That while we cherish feelings and
sentiments of respect for the many thousand
«8Fugitive Slave Acts, 1850; Fugitive Slaves, McDougall, p.
»*Wil8on'B Slavery in America, Vol. 11, p. 393; Kansas
Confliet, Bobinson, p. 160ff.
64 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
clergymen who charged the moral batteries of
righteousness and earnestly protested in the name
of humanity and of God against the infamous bill
of abominations called the Kansas-Nebraska Bill,
we regret with feelings of contempt and indig-
nation the course pursued by Douglas and his
compeers to prostrate the ramparts of freedom
and to browbeat, vilify, and disfranchise Ameri-
can citizens because of their official relations as
ministers of the gospel, thereby proving them-
selves traitors to liberty and unworthy of the con-
fidence of free men.'''**
However, the bill passed Congress, President
Pierce signed it, and it became a law. From that
time, 1854 to 1859, Kansas became the scene of
Civil War as the anti-slavery and pro-slavery set-
tlers endeavored to gain control of it. In the end
the "Free-staters" won the victory, and Kansas
was admitted to the union in 1861 without slav-
The trend of i)olitieal conditions in the latter
part of 1860 made a marked impression on the
Lutheran Church. The spirit of sectionalism so
rife at the time was interjected into the Church
as never before, and the prospect for continued
unity of the Church was not very bright. Up
to this time the unity of the Church had been pre-
served in spite of the slavery agitation that took
8»Minute9 Franckean Synod, p. 13.
8«The Kansas Conflict, by Robinson, p. 427 seq.; Kansas
by Spring, p. 37 seq. . '
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 65
place within its councils. The Meth-
in^i8«K^* odists, Presbyterians, and Baptist
denominations had divided. Of the
larger bodies, the Lutheran Church alone re-
mained intact. The editor of the Luthercm Ob-
server commented upon the state of affairs as fol-
lows : "What the effect of this agitation will be
upon the Lutheran Church, South, we cannot yet
positively know. The state of South Carolina has
seceded from the union, and we fear that, if not
immediately, it will before long produce a di-
vision in our church.""
The fall of Port Sumter, April 14, 1861, and
the call of seventy-five thousand volunteers by
President Lincoln, April 15, made it more prob-
able that the Church would be divided. How-
ever, many Lutherans as well as a large number
of other x)eople in the North thought that the dif-
ferences between the two sections would be ad-
justed without a terrible war.
In view of this opinion the officers of the Gen-
eral Synod posti)oned for one year the meeting
which was to have been held on the third Thurs-
day of May, 1861, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
Foitponemeat ^^^ comment upon the action of the
of Oenerai officers varied. The majority of Lu-
Synod. therans approved of the plan, as they
thought a possible break of the Church might be
thus avoided. An editorial in the Lutheran Ob-
server, published in Baltimore, Md., stated:
"This act on the part of the officers will meet with
s^Lutheran Observer, De^t 28, 1860.
66 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
cordial approbation of the Church generally. But
few of the delegates could have attended : and in
the present, condition of affairs the various inter-
ests of the Church could not have received that
calm consideration which ought always to char-
acterize the deliberations of ecclesiastical bod-
ies."" In another issue of the same paper a west-
em delegate wrote that he disapproved of this
action. "The Synod should have met and prayed
to God to roll back the tide of anarchy, and pre-
vent civil war and bloodshed in our beloved
It soon became evident that the ])ostponement
of the general synodical convention would not
avert the division in the Church. Then the effort
was put forth to hold the Church together on the
doctrinal basis. Concerning this move the editor
of the Lutheran^ Observer stated, "The deplorable
conflict which disturbs our nation cannot alter
or modify the doctrines or usages of the Church.
And our hopes of the Church demand a continued
and vital union of all her parts and sections."***
However, the slavery agitation transcended all
doctrinal considerations, and every day it be-
came more evident that a division would soon
take place in the Church.
In the meantime, the editor of the Luthercm
Observer, together with a number of pastors,
North and South, exerted their influence to pre-
ssLutheran Observer, May 10, 1861.
89Lutheran Observer, May 24, 1861.
*oLutheran Observer, May 17, 1861,
Slavery and Churcli Prior to Civil War 67
vent the disruption of the Church. To further
the plans of holding the Church together, the ed-
itor took a flying trip to the South. There he
found the sentiment strongly expressed in favor
of secession although there were many conserva-
tive citizens who were opposed to secession and
division. Concerning his trip he wrote, ^'AU
through Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia,
the people were in a state of feverish excitement,
some appeared to be frantic and to desire nothing
on earth so much as a fight with the ^Black Re-
publicans.' Yet we also met in every state with
sober, thoughtful, conservative citizens, who
mourned with us over the maddened passions of
men, and the recklessness of mendacious poli-
ticians, denied that there was any real necessity
for such theatrical devastation and wholesale
slaughter, that the evils complained of would not
be cured by an expensive and bloody war and
might all have been remedied in the union much
more surely and eflfectually than out of it."*^ |
However, every effort to prevent the division of |
the Lutheran Church was unavailing.
At the outbreak of the Civil War the General
Synod numbered two-thirds of the Lutheran
Church in the United States, having j864 .out of
1,313 ministers and ([g4,226 dut of 245,726 com-
municant members. The Synods composing the
General Synod were located in the following
states and had the following number of ministers,
churches, and communicant members as follows :
AiLutheran Observer, May 10, 1861.
68 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
Mlnisterium Jk Hartwiek . .
Pennsylyania. Bast Pa., West
Pa.. Alleshany ft Pitta-
Maryland ft Melanehthon . . .
English, East Wittenberg ft
Northern ft OlWe Branch ....
Illinois — ^Northern ft South-
Iowa Iowa .
Maryland . . .
West Va. . . .
N. Carolina .
S. Carolina .
Kentucky . . .
Slavery and Church Prior to Civil War 69
The following Synods not connected with the
General Synod show the following statistics as
to location in states, number of ministers,
churches, and communicant members :
Buffalo Synod (at this time
part of membership In New
York and Wisconsin) ....
(membership found In
Minnesota. Wisconsin and
The grand total of ministers was 1,313 ; of con-
gregations 2,219 ; and of communicants,** 245,726.
42Lut]ieran Almanac, 1861.
THE LUTHERAN CHURCH— NORTH.
THE fall of Fort Sumter, April 14, and the
call next day by President Lincoln, for
seventy-five thousand volunteers, were the
immediate causes of the crystallization of politi-
cal and religious feelings both in the North and
in the South.
In the North, men forgot their quarrels and all
united to defend the flag and to save the union.
In the South, amidst general rejoic-
1861*^*^^^'' ing and festivities, efforts were made
at once, in defiance of the call of the
President, to raise an opposing army of 100,000
men and to secure a loan of ^50,000,000. The di-
vision in political and religious matters was ac-
companied by a widening of the gap between the
Lutheran Church in the North and that in the
South. By the middle of June, 1861, the division
in the Church was complete. Every effort on the
part of conservative leaders. North and South, to
hold the Church together on doctrinal questions
failed. The political differences of the time tran-
scended doctrinal union. The men of the Luther-
an Church in the North, responded to Lincoln's
call in large numbers. A news letter from Wash-
ington, published in the Lutheran Observer,
June 28, 1861, stated: "Swne of the Pennsyl-
The Lutheran Church — ^North 71
vania regiments indeed are ahnost exclusively
composed of Lutherans and hence the denomina-
tional element is largely represented in the war
...... a most gratifying testimonial to our loyal
and patriotic character."^ The men of the Lu-
theran Church in the South, and on the other
hand, called xxpon to decide between loyalty to
state or nation, cast in their lot with their fellow
citizens, and joined the movement for secession.
The Lutherans in Virginia and Georgia were
particularly active in the supi)ort of the secession
movement and advocated the separation from the
Lutheran Church in the North. Virginia Luther-
ans, afterwards took the leadership in the forma-
tion of the Oeneral Organization in the South.
Of course the Church in the North, in the pulpit
and in the periodicals, was strongly outspoken
against the attitude of its southern brethren.
The Missiona/ry of Pittsburgh stated editorial-
ly : ^^The idea of some persons, that the Christian
ought to keep silence at a time like this, when the
very existence of government is threatened and
every interest of humanity and religion is at
stake, is simply an absurdi^. Government is an
ordinance of God, as much so as the most positive
institutions of religion, and both Christ and the
apostles have illustrated and enforced our duty
in relation to it."* In reply to the pro-union and
anti-secession attitude of the press in the North,
southern Lutheran leaders made spirited re-
ilrutheran Obeierver, June 28, 1861.
2Tlie Missionary, May 16, 1861.
72 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
sponse. A leading minister in Georgia wrote, ^^1
look upon the secession of the southern states as
the grandest, most noble, chivalrous, patriotic
and Ood-Iike achievement ever effected by any
oppressed people in the world."* Another promi-
nent Lutheran wrote, "All my influence hence-
forth will be in favor of a southern Church and a
southern Church paper. We will have no further
connection with abolition in either Church or
Thus the division in the Lutheran Church oc-
curred before any of the synodical bodies took
legislative action on the question. When the
synods convened in the Northern branch of the
Church, the division was so firmly established, as
the result of the sectional strife, that continued
union was no longer possible. Consequently, the
synods went on record as pledging their allegiance
and support to the preservation of the union and
the constitution. The following resolutions show
their attitude. The first extract is taken from the
proceedings of the Pranckean Synod which met
at Argusville, New York, June 6, 1861, and "Re-
solved, ...... It is the duty of every Christian
patriot to supi)ort and co-operate with the gen-
eral government to defend and maintain both
(viz: freedom and the constitution).*^ The East
Ohio Synod meeting at New Philadelphia, Ohio,
August 15-21, stated, "That we, in imitation of
8The Observer, June 7, 1861.
^Lutheran Observer, July 1^, 1861.
BMinutes, Franckean Synod, June, 1861, p. 20.
The Lutheran Church— North 73
their (our Lutheran forefathers) patriotic ex-
ample, and in admiration of their valor, declare
it to be a Christian as well as a civil duty to sui>-
port the government in its constitutional efforts
to punish treason, and put down rebellion by all
the means within our power/'* The New York
Ministerium at Rochester, August 30-September
4, went on record as "deeming it to be in strict
harmony with sound Christianity as well as with
true partiotism, to stand by the government and
to exert all the influence which God has given us,
to aid it in its arduous and praiseworthy efforts
to indicate its power, and maintain its authori-
ty."^ The East Pennsylvania Synod meeting,
October 9-15, at Germantown, Philadelphia, re-
solved, "That our brethren in the faith who have
gone forth to fight the battles of their country,
may have the consciousness that they are acting
in the defence of the i)Ower that God has ordained
and signally blessed : that they have our sympa-
thy in their cause as just and righteous, and that
our prayers will be offered at the throne of grace
unceasingly to crown their arms with suc-
cess, etc."' These are a few of the many resolu-
tions passed in the early days of the war. The
quotations could be multiplied to show the pro-
union attitude of the Lutheran Church in the
North, as expressed by various district synods.
«MinuteSy Bast Ohio Synod, August, 1861, p. 20.
^Minues, New York Ministerium, August, 1861, pp. 42-43.
sMinuteSy East Pa. Synod, October, 1861, pp. 21-22.
74 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
After all the district synodical conventions had
been held in 1861, definite arrangements were be-
gun for the convening of the General Synodical
Convention Convention at Lancaster, Pennsyl-
of the Gen- vania, May 1-8, 1862. Unusual inter-
crai Synod, ^g^ prevailed throughout the Church
as to the action the Oeneral Synod might take
concerning the division of the Church and the
questions of slavery and secession.
When the General Synod convened, 110 dele-
gates were present from the district synods of the
northern states as follows: Maryland, West
Pennsylvania, Miami, East Ohio, Hartwick, New
York Ministerium, Allegheny, East Pennsylvania,
Wittenberg, Illinois, Olive Branch, Pennsylvania
Synod, Northern Illinois, Pittsburgh, English
Ohio, Kentucky, Central Pennsylvania, North
Indiana, Southern Illinois, Iowa, Melanchthon,
New Jersey. There were no delegates from the
southern states, except from Tennessee from
which came one delegate. Very early in the ses-
sion a committee was apointed to consider the
crisis in the Church and State and to rei)ort the
results of its investigations at its earliest con-
venience. After mature and careful deliberation
the committee presented its report on May 6.
Because of the importance of this document the
following rather lengthy quotation has been in-
serted : "Whereas, our beloved country, after hav-
ing long been formed with a degree of political
and religious freedom, security and prosperity,
unexampled in the history of the world, now finds
The Lutheran Church — ^North 75
itself involved in a bloody war to suppress an
armed rebellion against its lawfully constituted
government ; and Whereas, We, the repre-
sentatives of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod in
the United States connected with the General
Synod recognize it as our duty to give pub-
lic expression to our fellow citizens in sustaining
the great interests of law and authority, of liberty
and righteousness, be it therefore
"Resolved : That it is the deliberate judgment
of this Synod, that the rebellion against the con-
stitutional government of this land is most wicked
in its cause, unnatural in its character, inhuman
in its prosecution, oppressive in its results to the
highest interests of morality and religion.
Resolved: (2) That, in the suppression of this
rebellion and in the maintenance of the constitu-
tion and the union by the sword, we recognize an
unavoidable necessity and sacred duty which the
government owes to the nation and to the world :
and that, therefore, we call ujyon all our people
to lift up holy hands in prayer to the God of
Battles, without personal wrath against the evil-
doers, and without doubting the righteousness of
our cause on the other hand, that He should give
wisdom to the President and his counsellors and
success to the army and navy. That our beloved
land may speedily be delivered from treason and
Resolved : That while we regard this unhappy
war as a righteous judgment of God visited upon
us because of the individual and national sins, of
76 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
which we have been guilty, we, nevertheless re-
gard this rebellion as more immediately the nat-
ural result of the continuance and spread of do-
mestic slavery in our land, and therefore, hail
with unmingled joy the proposition of our Chief
Magistrate, which has received the sanction of
Congress to extend aid from Gfeneral Government
to any state in which slavery exists, which shall
deem fit to initiate a system of constitutional
emancii)ation/'* So much for the attitude of the
General Synod toward the questions of the war
and slavery. Concerning the division of the
Church, the Synod went on record as follows:
"That this Synod cannot but express its most de-
cided disapprobation of the course of those Syn-
ods and ministers heretofore connected with this
body, in the open sympathy and active co-oper-
ation which they have given to the cause of trea-
son and insurrection."^®
Upon the submission of the report from which
extracts have been given above, an animated de-
bate took place. The Lancaster Dailp Express,
Debate on which reported the debates at some
the Besoiu- length, recorded that the first and
*^**^'- second resolutions were unanimously
adopted with the most hearty endorsement, but
that the third resolution brought forth heated dis-
cussion. Dr. T. Stork, of Pennsylvania, stated,
"his objection was not because he was no friend
to the slave, or would not do all in his i>ower for
^Minutes, General Sjnod, 1862, p. 30 seq.
loMinutes, General Synod, 1862, pp. 30-32.
The Lutheran Church— North 77
him, but because the resolution was a virtual en-
dorsement of slavery. It recognized that he is a
chattel, by saying that the owner be compensated,
in that the negro might go free. He opposed it on
that ground. The President and Congress, he
knew could view the matter in no other light in
their action, as the Constitution had marked out
their limits, but he would never give his vote to
say that the black man is property as the nesolu-
tion does." Dr. W. A. Passavant, of Pennsyl-
vania, said, "The President and Congress of the
United States, and its citizens must recognize the
legality of the legal relation. The ground taken
by the resolution is the middle ground, between
abolition and slavery: it is the true ground on
which a Church and a Synod should stand. We,
as part of the i)eople will be called on to pay for
slavery in the border states and it becomes our
duty to lead the way and prepare our people for
this great movement. When we assist an un-
fortunate brother with the means to buy back
his wife and children, we do not by any means
recognize the right of property in man." Dr. S.
Sprecher, of Ohio, contended, "It would be better
if, instead of this latter part of the resolution we
should express the hoi>es that God, through the
war, would bring the nation to see what is the
right way to remedy this evil." Honorable H. H.
Vandyke, of New York, said, "He did not recog-
nize the right of proi)erty in the South any more
than in the North and of course the slaveholder
can thus have no claim for pTopevtj which he has
78 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
not the right to hold. But he was willing to con-
sent to the governmental plan of emancipation
and compensation. On this ground he consented
to the resolution."" When the vote was called
for, the amendments and substitutes for the
emancipation resolution were offered, but were
voted down, and the entire report as it came from
the committee was adopted.
So much for the action taken by the General
Synod. It is interesting to note what was the at-
titude of the papers toward this action. In an
editorial which appeared in the Lutherun (md
Missionary^ the resolutions were strongly en-
dorsed. The opinion expressed was as follows:
"They put our General Synod, and through it our
Church in the true attitude to the great question
Editorial ^' *^® hour Our Stars and
Comment on Stripes are very glorious, — ^that is
the RcBoiu- taken for granted now — and the prac-
®^*' tical question is : Shall this glorious
standard be the unsi>otted symbol of freedom or
be converted into a rag to hide and bandage the
running ulcer of slavery? On this i)oint our Gen-
eral Synod has spoken firmly and moderately, and
has demonstrated that its long silence gave no
consent to the system of slavery ; that if it gave
proof that it loved erring brethren too well to love
altogether wisely it nevertheless did not love the
wrong itself. The resolutions say enough : they
do not say too much.^* On the other hand an
iiLancaster Daily Express, May 7, 1862.
isLutheran aiid Missionary, May 15, 1862.
The Lutheran Church— North 79
editorial in the Observer deemed the passage of
the slavery resolution as "unnecessary and inex-
pedient." The writer states, "Not that we disap-
prove in the abstract of that portion, — ^by no
means. ^ We presume that no man in the Synod
more cordially concurred with it, but we deemed
the Synod's action in regard to it unnecessary,
inexpedient and calculated to effect little or no
good, while, on the other hand it might do harm.
That portion of the resolution will, so far as it
exerts any influence, undoubtedly, weaken the
hands of sound anti-slavery union men in the
border states while they ought to be strengthened
and render more plausible, the opposition of the
disloyal everywhere; in its practical operation
it will not, in our judgment expedite the work of
emancipation a single day, and may render it
more difficult, if it does not seriously retard it."'^^
The foregoing are a few examples of the inter-
est which the action of the General Synod
aroused. But that body was not content merely
with the passage of resolutions, however well they
expressed its attitude. It felt that something
more effective should be attempted.
By action of the General Synod a committee
composed of the following brethren, Professor L.
Sternberg, New York; T. Stork, D.D., Penna.;
G. A. Lintner, D.D., New York ; H. N. Pohlman^
D.D., New York; and Honorable H. H. Van
Dyke, New York, was therefore apjminted to car
ry these resolutions to Washington and present
isLutheran Obaerver, May 23, 1862.
80 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
them to the President. The Syftod adjourned on
Saturday and the following Monday the commit-
tee went to Washington. Upon arrival they went
to Secretary Seward's oflBice where arrangements
were made to meet the President at eleven
o'clock. After the committee was introduced to
President Lincoln, the chairman, Professor Stem-
berg, addressed him : "Mr. President, we have the
honor as a committee of the General Synod of the
Lutheran Church in the United States, to pre-
sent to your excellency a copy of the preamble
and resolutions, in reference to the state of the
country, adopted by that body at its late session
in the city of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. We are
further charged to assure you that our fervent
prayers shall ascend to the God of Nations, that
Divine guidance and support may be vouchsafed
to you in the trying and responsible position to
which a benignant Providence has called you.
With your permission the Rev. Dr. Pohlman, of
Albany, New York, will briefly express to you
the sentiments which animated the committee
and the Church they represent in. view of the pres-
ent crises in our national affairs. '^
Dr. Pohlman then si>oke, saying in the course
of his remarks that the late session of the Gen-
eral Synod was the first that had been held since
the strife had broken out in our country, that the
General Synod represents twenty-six district syn-
ods, scattered over the Middle, Western and South-
ern states, — ^f rom twenty-one of which delegates
were present except one from Tennessee who
The Lutheran Church— North 81
stated at the conveBtion, "I am the only minister
who dares to pray for President Lincohi and the
reason I am allowed to do it is because I pray in
German and the rebels don^t understand German,
but the Lord does." Furthermore, that the Lu-
therans represented the German element in our
country; and that the Germans had saved Mis-
souri to the union. He said also that it was his
deep conviction that we were greatly indebted
for the degree of success that had crowned the
efforts of the government to quell the rebellion,
to the prayers of Christians. He concluded, in-
voking the Divine benediction upon the President
and on their beloved country.
The President replied as follows : "Gentlemen,
I welcome here the representatives of the Evan-
gelical Lutherans of the United States. I accept
with gratitude their assurance of the sympathy
and a support of the enlightened, influential and
loyal class of my fellow citizens in an important
crisis which involves in my judgment, not only
the civil and religious liberties of our dear land,
but in a large degree the civil and religious lib-
erties of mankind in many countries and through
many ages. You well know, gentlemen, and the
world knows, how reluctantly I accepted this
issue of battle forced upon me, in my advent to
this place by the internal enemies of our country.
You all know, the world knows : the forces and the
resources, the public agents have brought into
employment to sustain a government against
which there has been brought not one complaint
82 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
of real injury committed against society at home
or abroad. You may all recollect that in taking
up the sword thus forced into my hands, this
government appealed to the prayers of the pious
and the good, and declared that it placed its
whole dependence on the favor of God. I now
humbly and reverently in your presence reiterate
the acknowledgment of that dependence, not
doubting that, if it shall please the Divine Being
who determines the destinies of nations, that this
shall remain a united people. They will humbly,
seeking the Divine guidance, make their pro-
longed national existence a source of new bene-
fits to themselves and their successors and to all
classes and conditions of mankind."" With these
words from the President the formal interview
came to a close.
The action of the General Synod, as expressed
in the resolutions and in the visit of the commit-
tee to the President, was heartily endorsed by the
Lutheran Church, in the North, both unofficially
by the members and officially by the District
Synods. However, considerable opposition was
developed at the meeting of the Wittenberg
Synod, Wepokaneta, Ohio, August 21-26, 1862,
when several delegates were very outspoken
against anti-slavery legislation and voted against
the resolutions endorsing such action. These who
voted against the resolutions recorded their rea-
i*McPherson: History of Bebellion, p. 479 seq.; Hartwick
Seminary Monthly, p. 10; No. 4S, Dr. HiUer's BeminiBceneeB
of Civil War.
The Lutheran Church— North 83
sons. The following extract is typical of them
all : "The undersigned feels an unusual pride in
being permitted to publicly record his vote, for
the scrutiny of the Church and the worid, against
the parts in the resolution referring to the sub-
ject of slavery, as incendiary, fanatical, and un-
wise, and as calculated to stir up strife and di-
vision and so retard the progress of righteousness
and truth, as contemplated in the whole work of
With this brief review of the action of the Wit-
tenberg Synod of 1862, the discussion of the at-
titude of the Lutheran Church in the North,
toward the Civil War, the questions of union and
slavery, draws to a close. A brief survey of the
activity, and sufferings of the Lutherans during
the war will follow.
From the beginning of the war until its close
the Lutheran Church co-operated with the other
denominations in an active support and advance-
ment of the various organizations which sprang
up as the result of the conditions of the time.
The most imjmrtant of these organizations was
the United States Christian Commission, which
was organized at the Young Men's Christian As-
sociation in New York, November 14, 1861.
Previous to the time of its formation various
churches, auxiliaries, relief organizations and the
Y. M. C. A. had been active in furnishing various
supplies to the soldiers in the camp and in the
iBWittenberg Sy. M., 1862', p. 22.
84 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
field. The purpose of this new organization was
to unite all the old agencies under one head and
thus direct the benevolent work under a more
centralized organization. The churches con-
tributed financially very liberally to the support
of the Christian Commission^ and at
interdenom- ^j^^ ^^^^ ^^^ furnished men and
Inational Co- . . . . -i. i_ rm.
operation. women to assist in the work. The
women did the nursing. The men
who were commissioned as delegates were expect-
ed to visit hospitals, camps, and battlefields for
the relief of the soldiers ; to contribute necessary
articles; to circulate good literature among the
soldiers and sailors ; to aid the work of chaplains
wherever possible ; to discourage vice, to aid sur-
geons; in brief, so manifold were their duties
that it is difficult to define them explicitly.^*
The commission sent out appeals at stated and
special times to the churches and through the
Church papers, to the people, asking for benevo-
lent contributions. From 1862 to 1865 the com-
mission received in cash, f2,524,512.26, most of
which came through the Church sources.
Most of the Synods of the Lutheran Church
conventions held during the war commended most
heartily the work of the commission. The fol-
lowing resolutions passed by €teneral Synod, 1864,
at York, Pennsylvania, are similar in tenor to
many others. "The operations of the Christian
Commission have been before the Church during
laAnnals of the United States Christian Commission, by
Moss, p. 540 seq.
The Lutheran Church — ^North 85
the last three years. Their work is most noble
and praiseworthy. Every battlefield and hospital
bears testimony to the timely relief administered
to the bodies and souls of our suffering soldiers.
To continue and carry forward this work this
commission requires funds; especially now dur-
ing the fearful battle in progress^ in this, it is
hoped the last campaign of the rebellion. God
has put it in the power of the churches in this
way to preach the Gospel to hundreds of thou-
sands, under circumstances favorable to success.
Your committee, therefore, present the following
resolutions: ^Resolved, that we recommend the
Christian Commission to our churches as a safe
and successful channel for the preaching of the
gospel to our soldiers.
" ^Resolved : That we recommend the formation
of relief associations in every church for the pur-
pose of procuring clothing, food, beverages, stimu-
lants and other articles useful to the wounded
" 'Resolved : That we recommend that monthly
or quarterly collections be taken in our church
for the support of this truly Christian work.' "^^
These resolutions similar to many others
passed at that time are indicative of the hearty
support and aid given by the Lutheran Church
in the North, to the causes, the principles of
which they had endorsed in the early years of the
iTGeneral Synod Minutes, 1864, p. 37.
86 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
Early in the struggle the ravages of war were
brought to the very doors of the northern x)eople.
The Lutherans did not escape their share of the
This was true particularly in Pennsylvania.
The i)eople of the Cumberland Valley, within
Buffering twenty-flve miles of the Potomac,
of the which was known as the "front,"
luthcrani. were the first to feel the disastrous
and destructive effects of the war. In Septem-
ber, 1862, during the Antietam campaign, the
Confederates made a raid into the valley and cap-
tured Chambersburg. The raiders carried off
much live stock, provisions and other valuable
plunder. Again during the Gettysburg campaign
the Cumberland Valley was again visited by the
southern army. The worst suffering of the entire
war, which the people near the border endured,
was from the invasion of the Confederate cavaliy,
who burned and plundered Chambersburg July
30, 1864. Prom the first of July the people of the
Cumberland Valley were kept in a state of sus-
pense and uneasiness, as the news came that the
enemy were active again along the border and
that there was no military force to oppose their
advances. Finally, on the evening of July 29,
word was brought to Chambersburg that a large
Confederate force of cavalry was rapidly ap-
proaching the town. Immediately merchants
packed up their goods and as they had done on
previous occasions, sent as much away as x>ossible.
Men hid their valuables and rushed their stock
The Lutheran Church— North 87
off to a place of safety. In the meantime a small
force of union soldiers was stationed on the hills
west of the town with two cannons, with which
to delay the enemy's advance during the night.
About two o'clock in the morning the Conf eder-
aties came and were halted temporarily by several
cannon shots. A heavy mist had settled over the
hills and valleys, so the Confederates waited until
break *of day before advancing further. The
union force was too small to cope with the Con-
federates so they withdrew to escape capture.
This left the town entirely at the mercy of the in-
vaders. Finding their advance no longer resisted,
the entire Confederate forces under the command
of General McCausland entered the town and
took possession of it." Concerning the burning
and plundering of the town a Lutheran sufferer
wrote as follows: "As soon as they had their
breakfast. General McCausland demanded f 500,-
000 in currency and was preemptorily refused. On
the instant the town was fired in some fifty places,
without a word of warning to anyone. The very
citizens whom McCausland had arrested, and
from whom he had made the demand found their
homes fired before they reached them. Every
thing was done to add to the terror and confusion
of the panic stricken women and children. Soon
the hunger of the little ones added new horror to
the scene. Families were separated, and distract-
ed fathers and mothers could be seen everywhere,
isThe Burning of Chambersburg, by Schneck, p. 12 seq.;
From Franklin B^ository, July 30, 1913.
88 Tke Lutheran C!hiircli and Civil War
seeking amid the confusion for those that were
missing; and yet no selfishness was apparent.
Everyone was willing to aid and sympathize with
The Confederates took much valuable proi)erty,
provisions and live stock. This loss was aug-
mented through the loss by fire. As a result of
the raid 537 buildings, valued at |713,294.34,
were destroyed and personal property amounting
to f 915,137.24, was lost. The loss to Lutherans
alone amounted to |250,000.**
After the war was over and i)eace restored, the
Church in the North responded liberally to the
demands made for aid in ameliorating the dis-
tressing conditions of their brethren in the South.
Many of the Synods oflScially commended to their
churches the need of co-operating generously to
relieve the want and suflPering in the South.
Although the sympathy for suffering was great,
there was also rejoicing and gratitude expressed
in the North, that the union was preserved and
that slavery was abolished. The Synods ex-
pressed their gratitude to God, by a series of reso-
lutions. The one from which the fol-
1885. ^^'' lowing extract is quoted is typical of
the rest. It was adopted by the West
Pennsylvania Synod at Carlisle, Pennsylvania,
September 14-20, 1865, and read as follows : "Re-
solved : That the results to which this war has,
by the blessing of God, been conducted, securing
i^Lutheran and Missionary, August 11, 1864.
2oLutheran Observer, September 16, 1864.
The Lutheran Church— North 89
to us the unity of the nation, the stability of our
civil institutions, the abolition of slavery, and
the elevation of the colored race to the enjoyment
of those natural and inalienable rights which
God, who made us all of one blood, designed for
all the members of the human family, call for the
most profound and lasting gratitude of the na-
tion, and for the united efforts of all true patriots
throughout our land to restore harmony and
Christian friendship between the lately alienated
portion of our country."^^
In this chapter, the history of the Lutheran
Church, North, has been sketched briefly, during
the Civil War period, when shortly after the fall
of Fort Sumter, the Lutherans in the South sepa-
rated from their northern brethren, until that
time when in 1865, the years of dissension and
suffering over, a lasting concord between Chris-
tian brethren seemed again in accordance with
patriotic and religious duties, a possibility.
2iMiiiutes, West Pennsjlvania Synod, 1866, p. 9.
THE LUTHERAN CHURCH— SOUTH.
IT HAS already been stated that the Civil War
was begun before the break in the Lutheran
Church officially took place. Hostilities ex-
isted only a short time, however, when the Lu-
therans of Georgia, South Carolina and Virginia
began active measures to organize a general body
in the South.
The first official action took place under the
leadership of the Virginia Synod at a convention
held at Mt. Tabor, Virginia, October 18-22, 1861.
It was here that measures were taken
Conduions. ^ separate the southern Lutherans
from the General Synod of the Lu-
theran Church, U. S. A., and to organize a Gen-
eral Synod in the South. At this convention the
following resolutions were adopted : "Whereas it
is manifest to us, in view of the final disruption
of the former United States, the hostile attitude
of those yet adhering to the remaining unscru-
pulous despotism at Washington and the unchari-
table and intolerant spirit and bearing of many
of those whom we once esteemed as brethren in
the same faith, and the interest of our Church,
loyalty to our government, as well as promptings
of selfrespect, imperatively demand that we
The Lutheran Church — South 91
should at once dissolve all ecclesiastical alliance
with them therefore,
"Resolved: That we do hereby withdraw our
connection with the General Synod of the United
States, and earnestly favor the organization of a
General Synod of the Confederate States."^
The Synod of South Carolina followed the ex-
ample of that of Virginia. The annual synodical
convention which was to have been held in 1861,
was postponed, on account of war conditions,
until 1862, when it met January 16-20 in St.
Paul's Church, Newberry Dist., S. C.
It passed resolutions unanimously supporting
the Confederate government, approving the with-
drawal of the southern Lutherans from the Lu-
theran Church in the North, and proposing to co-
operate in the organization of the General Synod
of the Confederate States. An extract from the
resolutions is as follows : "Whereas, the duty of
rendering obedience to rulers and magistrates, as
those ordained by God for the exercise of justice
and the maintenance of order, enjoined in the
word of God, and,
"Whereas, after years of injustice and oppres-
sion in palpable violation of the Constitution of
the United States, these states seceded and
formed a government under the name of The
Confederate States of America; therefore,
"Resolved, that we recognize the right of these
states in having seceded and formed an inde-
iMinutes, Meeting of Synod of Virginia, Mt. Tabor, Va.,
October 18-22, 1861, p. 10.
92 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
pendent government, to which our undivided al-
legiance is due.
"Also, whereas, this Synod was formerly con-
nected with the General Synod of the United
States of America, in which we were represented
by delegates, we have now arrived at the solemn
conviction that it is essential to the good of our
Church and the promotion of the glory of God,
that the Evangelical Lutheran Churches of these
Confederate States withdraw all connection with
the Northern General Synod, and by this solemn
and unanimous act declare this connection as
The North Carolina Synod took similar action
at their fifty-ninth annual meeting held at Or-
gan Church, Bowan County, May 1-5, 1862.
Resolutions were unanimously passed annul-
ling their former connection with the General
Synod in the North and agreeing to send dele-
gates to the informal convention to be held in
Salisbury, N. C, to bring aoout the organization
of a Southern General Synod. The resolutions
passed by the Synod in which its members said,
"That we recognize the right of these states in
having seceded and formed an independent gov-
ernment, to which our undivided allegiance is
due," show that the attitude of North Carolina
Lutherans was much the same as that of their
brethren in Virginia and South Carolina. The
Synod also expressed its attitude toward the pre-
2Minutes, South Carolina Synod, January 16-20^ 1862, p. 20.
The Lutheran Church— South 93
liminary convention to be held in Salisbury. The
delegates to that meeting were not only "em-
powered to vote for such an organization (a
Southern General Synod) but it was accredited
by resolutions, "That in the event of the forma-
tion of a Southern General Synod our delegates
be empowered to represent us in that Synod."*
The action taken by Virginia, South Carolina
and North Carolina, as represented above, i» in-
dicative of the attitude of the state or district
Synods in the South. A more concerted action,
than that expressed thus, was, however, desired
and measures were set on foot, as has been indi-
cated for the organization of a General Synodical
body which should in some measure take the place
in the South of the General Lutheran Synod,
U. S. A.
Under the leadership of the Virginia Synod, a
preliminary convention was held at Salisbury,
General ^- C., May 15, 1862, to consider the
Synod advisability of forming a Southern
c. s. A. General Synod. It was attended by
only a few delegates. All it accomplished was
the api)ointment of a special committee to provide
for a later convention which should draw up a
constitution, a formula of government and disci-
pline, a hymn book, catechism, and a liturgy.
The convention reassembled at Concord, N. C,
May 20, 1863. It was comi>osed of delegates.
Synods of the following states: Virginia, West
sMinntes, North Carolina Synod, May 1-5; 1862, p. 17.
94 I The Lutheran Church and Civil War
'ginia^ North Carolina, South Carolina and
Georgia. The president of the preliminary con-
vention, Rev. N. Aldrich, called the assembly to
order. In his opening address, he sounded the
keynote for the convention when he stated, "Con-
cerning the grounds of separation from the north-
ern section of the Church," as follows : 1 So far as
sympathy and harmony of the section is con-
cerned, the northern and southern i)ortions of our
Church have for years been divided. The prevail-
ing spirit of the northern portion is a spirit of
fanaticism, which has been nurtured and intensi-
fied until like a devouring flame it permeates all
their religious, social and political relations. It
brooks no restraint, and knows no interest beyond
its own. That which it cannot convert to itself it
endeavors to destroy, and glories in every oppor-
tunity to accomplish its wicked purposa^h
"On the other hand the spirit of the southern
portion is that of conservatism. We claim for
ourselves nothing beyond that which reason and
God's Word allow. While we have always cheer-
fully conceded to the northern Church the right
to judge for themselves in matters of conscience,
we at the same time have demanded that this
privilege be extended to us. But how often has it
been denied! And in the General Assemblies,
how frequently of late had Christian courtesy
been violated, and all the generous emotions of
our nature mortified by the intemperate zeal of
those in whom we confided as brethren of the same
household of faith. And now that a cruel and
The Lutheran Church — Soufh 95
sanguinary war is waged against us by the gov-
ernment of the United States with a spirit of
malignity, that disgraces our common humanity,
so far from uttering a word of remonstrance, or
protesting against its continuance, the Northern
Church has actually gloried in these scenes of
blood and carnage and by a formal resolution de-
clared it to be a duty of the government to prose-
cute this war even to our subjugation."* The
president's report, having been read, an official
title for the central organization of the Lutherans
in the South was suggested and adopted. The
body was henceforth to be known as, "General
Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the
Confederate States of America.'^ The Synod now
officially so called, then proceeded to elect officers.
The following gentlemen were elected: John
Bachman, D.D., LL.D., of South Carolina Synod,
president ; D. F. Bittle, D.D., of Virginia Synod,
secretary. A special committee was then ap-
pointed to consider the action of the preliminary
convention held at Salisbury, N. C, May, 1862.
Somewhat later a report was brought in unani-
mously endorsing all that had been done. It
stated in part : "That the action of the delegates
meets with our hearty approbation, and that as a
general synod, we tender to the officers of that con-
vention 6ur sincere thanks for the energy and
discretion which they have exhibited in their
prompt efforts for the promotion of the welfare
of the Church."
^Minutes, General Synod C. S. A., p. 13, May 20-26, 1863.
96 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
After the completion of other less important
business^ the first session of the General Synod
C. 8. A. came to a close.
Two very important documents, the one setting
forth the reasons for organizing the General Synod
of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South,
the other expressing the views of the members of
the convention on slavery were also formulated
by this convention and issued to the public some-
time after the meeting closed. In the first was
set forth very clearly the views of the delegates
to the convention as follows: "Up to the com-
mencement of this unnatural war the Lutheran
Church was not divided. The fanaticism and
abolitionism of the North had not divided her
councils, nor drivai her, as the other denomina-
tions were compelled to seek x>eace in separation.
But it was only a question of time. Attempts
have been made from time to time to introduce
upon the floor of the General Synod, North, the
very question that separates other denominations
into churches North and South. If the previous
history of the Lutheran Church does not prove
the subject-matter under consideration, the last
meeting of the General Synod, held in Lancaster,
Pennsylvania, has assuredly settled the question.
That ecclesiastical body, composed of the most
influential Lutherans of the North, acknowledged
and endorsed the unconstitutional acts of the
Federal government; called and denounced se-
cession as a crime, proclaimed through the
Church that the defenders of liberty were rebels,
The Lutheran Church — South 97
insurgents and solemnly declared and branded
our southern brethren as traitors to man, to
their government and to God. Hence we can never
exi)ect from them mercy or pardon, much less
equal rights and privileges, unless we bow in sub-
mission to their opinions and denounce as wicked
what we conscientiously believe to be just and
right."** Thus it seemed to the Lutherans in the
South, that separation from their brethren was,
under present conditions, not only desirable and
justifiable, but also inevitable. The second docu-
ment issued by the Synod, "Expression on Slav-
ery," was in part as follows : "As a Church judi-
catory we find it (slavery) existing in our midst
and only feel bound to r^ard the moral relations
that exists between the master and the slave. If
slavery be a sin and in this respect only can the
institution be a sin — the Church has the authori-
ty to call her members to account and legislate
upon the subject. Sin is the transgression of the
moral law. What divine law does slavery vio-
late? No express command. No, thus saith the
Lord ; not even the golden rule of our Redeemer.
To do unto others as you would have them do
unto you. Certainly no moral law or precept in
the Mosaic economy, or God would not have given
a command regulating the moral relations of
master and servant in the decalogue, nor i)ermit-
ted slavery to exist among his ancient people,
Israel. Certainly no moral law or precept in the
Christian dispensation; or our Saviour or His
^Appendix, Min. GeQi ^Tnod C. S, A., 1863.
98 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
apoBtles would have denounced slavery, in ex-
press terms and have enumerated the sin in the
catalogue of crimes mentioned ; and the inspired
Paul would never have sent a runaway slave back
to his master with special instructions that they
\ might have no difficulty in the future. Wonder-
I ful, indeed, is that Book, whose object is to en-
' lighten the world in morals, to omit to mention,
in express terms, this crime which is the sum of
all villainies, and a crime too (if it be a crime),
prevalent in the world when Christ instituted Btts
kingdom. The Word of God is the only rule to
guide us in determining this question, and not
the deductions of philosophy falsely so called,
not the sophistical conclusions drawn from the
abstract ideas of human freedom, nor the fanati-
cal notion of those philanthropists who would
be wise above what is written in the unerring
record of truth."* In no uncertain terms, as has
been shown did the Church in the South denounce
the attitude of its Lutheran brethren in the
North, on the question of slavery and no less
forcibly did it set the seal of its own approval
ux>on that institution.
How the Lutheran laity in the South received
the news of the split in the Synod, North and
South, and how it regarded the new organization
will now be seen. According to a Lu-
commeSs. theran writer in Bichmond, Va.,
whose statement was afterwards
copied in Adam^ Sentinel and General Adver-
oMln., Ist Con. Gen. Synod Lutheran Gh. C. S. A., pp. 28-29.
The Lutheran Church— South 99
tiser, August 18, 1862, Gettysburg, Pa., the south-
em branch of the Lutheran Church was not in a
very prosperous condition. The original article
was evidently written prior to the meeting of the
General Synod at Concord, N. C, May 20, 1863.
The writer believed that little or nothing would
be accomplished by the convention. Further-
more the writer declared that, "With not a single
plan projected for benevolent operations, and not
a line of Church or Sabbath school literature ap-
proved, we are truly as powerless an organization
as we were at the first moment of separation from
the northern section of the Church."^ The criti-
cisms were, however, unjust, for one of the pur-
I)oses of the organization of the Southern General
Synod was to meet these needs of the Church.
Furthermore, action had been taken at this con-
vention to develop a Southern Church and Sab-
bath school literature. Just what was done along
these lines will be seen in the following state-
ments. One of the first things accomplished by
the Southern Church after the break
luthcran!'^"^ with its northern brethren was the
establishment of the weekly paper.
The Southern Luthera/ti. It was first inaugu-
rated by the officers of the South Carolina
Synod, who exi>ected it to be taken charge of by
the General Synod in the South, after the official
organization of that body. The first number is-
sued August 3, 1861, was published in Charleston,
7Adam8 Sentinel and Gen. Advertiser, Aug. 18, 3.8^3, Gettys-
• * «
100 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
S. C. The editors made an appeal in this issue
for the hearty supi)ort of all Lutherans in the
South. The api>eal stated, "It remains for us
now, but to entreat you brethren to sustain us in
this undertaking. Let it be the determination of
all of us to carry it forward with becoming energy
and spirit and we will soon have a paper worthy
of our Southern Church."
In the same issue, several articles appeared, in
which the writers stated, concerning the division
in the Church that the South was fully justified
in withdrawing from the North. One article
read, in part, as follows : "How can we associate
in sweet communion with those (or they with us)
who wish our destruction, whose war cry is booty
and beauty, who are urging on the dogs of war to
kill our sons ...... and utterly exterminate this
I)eople. No, brethren, we can never unite with
them again; we must have a General Synod
South." Another wrote, "These influences show
that no sympathy exists for us in the northern
Church, but all their efforts tend to our destruc-
tion, and the desire of their hearts is our utter-
overthrow." Thus in the first issue of this new
weekly, were expressed the feelings and beliefs
which filled the hearts of the Lutherans in the
The editorial board of the same paper upheld
and advocated slavery. In an article appearing
in an early issue, it stated its position in these
words: "That institution (slavery) has had the
sanctjgta of heaven from early scriptural history
The Lutheran Church— South 101
down to the present day. Those who would de-
prive the slave of the privilege of a master appear
to be utterly unacquainted with the characteris-
tics of his mind and his dependent character."
The work thus begun by the editorial board was
continued in an unofficial capacity until the con-
vention of the South Carolina Synod, Jan. 16,
1862. The Synod, then officially endorsed the
project and promised to support the paper until
the organization of the General Synod when it was
proposed to transfer the paper and leave it in the
hands of that body as the property and organ of
the whole Church.
The suggestion was followed out at the meeting
at Concord, N. C, May 20, 1863. The General
Synod, in its report upon the conception and pur-
pose of this paper said in part : "The Lutheran
Observer^ which we had been accustomed to re-
gard as the organ of our southern Church, though
published in a southern state, had not only aban-
doned our cause, but had actually joined with the
religious and secular press of the North in de-
nouncing us as traitors and rebels, and in calling
upon the Federal Government to send forth its
armies for our subjugation. Under such circum-
stances it was but natural that we should turn
from it with aversion and disgust, and desire the
establishment of a paper that would be introduced
into the family circle, and be read by our people
generally without the fear of having their feel-
102 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
ings outraged by opprobrious epithets and un-
At the General Synodical Convention then the
management of the Southern Lutheran was
transferred to the general body. In making the
transfer, the committee said, "The difficulties we
had to encounter at the beginning of this enter-
prise have been overcome, and to-day we have
2,218 subscribers and up to the first day of May
had $1,336 on hand. In making the transfer of
the pai)er, we state that it is free from all pecuni-
ary embarrassments — ^for it has been the practice
of the committee from the beginning of the work,
to meet all liabilities. We were compelled to re-
duce the size of the paper from a scarcity of ma-
terial, finding it impossible to print a full sheet."*
Although the inception of this weekly journal
was so highly favored during the following year,
due to drastic war conditions the publication of
the paper was beset with trials and difficulties.
It was necessary to raise the subscription price
from $2 to $5 per annum and on account of the
scarcity of paper it was reduced to a half sheet.
The list of subscribers was reduced to 1,482.^®
However an attempt laudable in its conception,
though lamentable in its result (through no fault
of its own ) had been made to meet the demand of
the southern leaders for a paper which should be
8Min., S. C. Synod, Newberry Dist. S. C, Jan. 16, 1862, p. 20.
©Minutes, Gen. Synod, South, May 20, 1863, pp. 18-19.
loMinutes, Gen. Synod, South, Organ Church, Bowan County,
N. C, May 12-17, 1864, pp. 10-11-12.
The Lutheran Church— South 103
a reflection of their needs and desires. But the
Southern Lutherans like their brethren in the
North, were not content with mere
cJSderate ^^^^^' ^^ *^^ South, as in the
Clergy, 1863. North, their action took the form of
cooperation with the other denomi-
nations of Christians. In January, 1863, a con-
ference of ministers of the Gospel from various
parts of the Confederacy met in Richmond, Va.,
in order to consider ways and means to aid the
southern cause. The meeting resulted in the for-
mation of an address directed to the Christians
throughout the world. The names appended rep-
resented more or less fully every accessible sec-
tion of the Confederacy and nearly every denomi-
nation of Christians: Baptists, Disciples, Meth-
odist Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, Protestant
Episcopal, Presbyterian, Associate Reformed,
Cumberland Presbyterian, Lutheran and Grerman
Reformed. The causes for meeting they set forth
as follows: "We feel most deeply impressed by
the conviction, that for our own sake, for the
sake of prosi)erity, for the sake of humanity, for
the sake of the truth and above all, for the sake of
our Redeemer's Kingdom, it behooves us to testi-
fy of certain things in our beloved land, which
seem to be neither understood nor appreciated
by our enemies, nor yet clearly appreciated by
Christians of other nations." The tenor of the
address may be expressed briefly as follows, the
writers represented that the war, the purpose of
which was in part, the restoration of the union
104 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
was forced upon them (the South). Quoting di-
rectly, "After a conflict of opinions between
North and South in Church and state, of more
than thirty years, growing more bitter and pain-
ful daily, we withdraw from them to secure peace
they send troops to compel us into re-
union." Against this action they protested. They
stated that the separation of the southern states
from the United States was universally r^arded
as final and the formation of the Confederate
States Government as a permanent fact which
promised in no resi)ect a restoration of the former
union. The writers also urged "That the war
against the confederate states has achieved no
good result and we find nothing in the present
state of the struggle that gives promise of the
United States accomplishing any good by its con-
tinuance." The writers go on to state that
though hundreds of thousands of lives have been
lost, and many millions of treasure have been
spent and property destroyed, no part of the
country is as yet subdued. Subjugation is there-
fore, in their eyes, clearly imi>06sible. Concern-
ing the question of slavery they continued, that
they rejected abolition and protest against eman-
cipation which cannot help the slave. "The prac-
ticable plan of benefiting the African race must
be the Providential plan, — ^the Scriptural plan.
We adopt that plan in the South ; and while the
state should seek wholesome legislation to re-
gard the interests of the master and the slave, we
as ministers, would preach the word to both as
The Lutheran Church— South 105
we are commanded of God." In conclusion they
wrote, "Christian Brethren, think of these things,
arid let your answer to our address to the voice of
an enlightened Christian sentiment going forth
from you against war, against i)ersecution for
conscience sake, against the ravaging of the
Church of God by fanatical invasion."" This
was the position of southern gentlemen, ministers
of God, of all denominations, who here set forth
their convictions honestly and sincerely, on the
question of secession and slavery, addressing
their plea to Christians everywhere, with the
hope that its effect might be beneficial in some
small degree at least to the cause which they so
The Lutheran congregations throughout the
South, like their brethren in the North, sustained
losses due to the conditions of the war which they
endorsed both with their lips and
Sufferingt their actions. Large numbers of
lutSTran.. the men perished on the battle-
fields, for as has been shown, the
Lutheran congregations supported loyally the
confederate cause. The congregations in the
war zone suffered most severely. Grace Lu-
theran Church, in Winchester, Virginia, was in
the midst of many conflicts. Much of the time
the church was used as a hospital and services
were necessarily irregular. Despite conditions
the congregation remained faithful and after the
iiMcFherBon's History of Bebellion, pp. 517-521.
108 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
tion held at Organ Church, Bowan County, N. C,
May 12-17, 1864, their support and loyalty were
reaffirmed, and at the same time their separation
from the northern Church was reemphasized.
The report read in part as follows : "We seceded
from a union which had become intolerant and
oppressive I regard our separation from
the Northern Synods as final and without the pos-
sibility of a reunion on any future occasion. It
has never been a cordial union. Their most
prominent and influential men during the meet-
ings of the General Synod, were in the habit of
preaching sermons in which they held up their
Lutheran brethren, as oppressors, tyrants, etc."^*
From mid-summer ip 1863 until General Lee sur-
rendered on the ninth of April, 1865, the Con-
federates fought, with indomitable courage and
valor, a losing battle. Their bravery and self-
sacrifice must always arouse our admiration.
Less than a month after General Lee's surrender
the North Carolina Lutheran Synod, in conven-
tion at St. Michael's Church, Iredale County,
May 4, sounded the keynote for the restoration of
law and order, the rehabilitation of the South and
the development of a common country. From the
resolution adopted the following is an excerpt:
"That as a Church we recognize it to be the duty
of all good Christians to accept the changes which
have been occasioned by the late war, as of Divine
appointment, and to submit ourselves to the Con-
isMin., Gen. Synod, South, May 12-17, 1864, pp. 6-7.
The Lutheran Church— South 109
stitutional authorities of the land."" Peace was
again restored and the union between Lutheran
brethren, North and South, once so rudely shat-
tered, bade fair to be again established on prin-
ciples of Christian concord.
The Lutherans in the South, no less than those
in the North, had been called upon to decide at
the fall of Sumter and the call for troops, between
state and country, and having made their choice,
for the right as they saw it, under God, they
fought the good fight bearing with eager and joy-
ful hearts the suffering it entailed, until that time
when in defeat they saw their error and with un-
wonted courage, offered to renew once more their
brotherly relations with those so lately their con-
i^Minutes, N. C. Synod, St. Idlchael's Church, Tredale County,
May 4, 1865, p. 18.
LUTHERAN INSTITUTIONS AND THE
MANY of the LutheraB( colleges in the
North and South, as well as the Church-
es, suffered in various ways during the
war. In common with all the colleges of the coun-
try, the Lutheran institutions contributed a large
number of students to the army. In other ways,
less easy to estimate and to chronicle, the Lu-
theran institutions contributed their share to the
history of the struggle.
Of the Lutheran institutions in the North the
Theological Seminary (founded 1826) and Penn-
sylvania College (founded 1832) lo-
Theoiogicai cated at Gettysburg, sustained a pe-
and^Penns 1- ^^^^^^ relation to the war through
vania CoUcge, t^^ great battle fought there July 1,
Gettyabnrg. 2, and 3, 1863. Perhaps mention
should be first made, however, of the
patriotism of the students of the Seminary and
College when General Lee began his Northern
Campaign. Governor Curtin, of Pennsylvania,
in order to meet General Lee's invasion called for
50,000 men, for the emergency. In response to
this call about sixty, or a majority of the college
students, and four from the Theological Semi-
nary, gave their names, and, together with some
Lutheran Institutions and the War 111
young men from the town, they assembled in the
evening on the college campus and organized the
company and offered their services to the gover-
nor. They were ordered to report at Harrisburg.
Early the next morning, June 17, after a brief
address from Professor Muhlenburg, they took
train for Camp Curtin, at the capital.^ They
were mustered into the United States' service as
"Co. A, 26th Regiment, P. V. M.^' and were sent to
do guard duty near Gettysburg along the Cham-
bersburg Pike, as the Confederate forces were re-
I)orted to be approaching the town. On June 26
they had a skirmish with a body of Confederate
cavalry, and later, they fell back to protect Har-
risburg. They reached Harrisburg on Sunday,
June 28th and remained on duty there until July
30th when their term of service expired. Their
patriotism and prompt response to the call of the
Governor were the cause of a resolution passed
by the Board of Trustees of the College, at a meet-
ing on August 12, 1863, in which it was said,
"That this Board have heard with proud satis-
faction of the heroic conduct of those students of
the College who rushed so promptly to the defence
of their country during the late invasion and that
their course is hereby heartily approved."
But the' College and Seminary were destined to
play a more immediate part in the Battle of Get-
tysburg than at first likely through the enlist-
ment of their students. On the opening day of
ipennsylvania College Book, 1832-82, by Breidenbaugh, p.
112 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
the battle^ Oeneral Reynolds and Buford, of the
Union army used the Seminary cupola for obser-
vation purposes. At 8 : 30 o'clock one of General
Howard's officers was in the cupola, making ob-
servations when Professor M. Jacobs, of the
college faculty, directed his attention to Ceme-
tery Hill, south of the town, "as being of the high-
est strategic importance, and commanding the
whole country around for many miles." General
Howard, upon receipt of this information, at once
sent General Steinwehr, with a division of the
Eleventh Corps to occupy Cemetery Hill. To
this act may be attributed, in large degree, the
favorable results of the next two days.
Later the Seminary came into the possession of
the Confederates and the cupola was used by
them as a signal station. "During the day ( Fri-
day, July 3) General Lee had reconnoitered our
XK)sition from the college cupola , and had
come to the conclusion that our left center was
the weakest part of our lines. Anderson and Mc-
Laws had failed to turn our left flank on the pre-
vious evening : Ewell had most signally failed to
turn our right ; and now some other point must
be assailed, — that point was the position held by
Hancock.* General Pickett's division was or-
dered to capture this point but after courageous,
though desperate attempt the charge failed.
After the first day's fight at Gettysburg, the Con-
federates secured possession of the college build-
2Battle of Gettysburg, by Prof. M. Jacobs, p. 41.
Lutheran Institutions and the War 113
ings, which they used as a hospital. "The college
was filled with wounded and those waiting on
them, — ^probably not less than 500. Many were
placed in the library, and in the halls of the so-
cieties, as well as in the recitation rooms, chapel
and student rooms. Many blood soaked volumes
in the library still remind us of the use to which
it was put. Surgeons were plying their work of
amputation and dressing in the public halls and
the porches. For four weeks after the defeat and
repulse of the enemy, the building was kept thus
by the Government as a hospital. Many of the
wounded died and their bodies were buried on the
college grounds, most, if not all of which were
afterward removed. Of course, though wanton
destruction seems not to have been at all commit-
ted, the building was much defaced, the furniture
destroyed, the fences, etc., swept away. The com-
mencement exercises for the year were omitted.
A regular programme, however, was issued. The
work of thorough cleansing and repair was begun
as soon as possible, and by the time for the open-
ing of fall session, September 24, the college was
ready for the reception of the students.'^*
At a meeting of the board of trustees, after the
battle, the following resolution was adopted:
"That from motive of patriotism and gratitude
to God for the glorious victory vouchsafed to our
arms at Gettysburg, during the first three days
of July, 1863, no compensation should be solicited
sPennsylvania College, 1832-1882, by Breidenbaugh, p. 92.
114 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
from the government for damages sustained to
the building^ but will look to the free-will offer-
ings of the Church for the means necessary to re-
pair the same." Later, Dr. Morris reported,
^^Four thousand two hundred and ten dollars
were raised for this purpose, and yet in the pro-
ceedings of the board, a year later, August, 1864,
I find that six hundred and sixty dollars and fifty
cents were received from the government for the
use of the seminary as an hospital."*
But Gettysburg was to give a more permanent
memorial of her intimate connection with and
service for the union. On November 19, 1863,
four and a half months after the bat-
Smeti?!'''''^ tie, the Soldiers^ National Cemetery
was consecrated. A brief history of
the selection and dedication of this site will not
here be out of place. In view of the significance
and magnitude of the battle fought there, it was
deemed fitting that a site should be selected for
a national cemetery near this place. Governor
Curtin, of Pennsylvania appointed Judge David
Wills (class of ^51, Pennsylvania College) of
Gettysburg, to purchase a site and to co-operate
with the governors of the seventeen other loyal
states which had men who had fought in the bat-
tle in the consummation of the plans for dedica-
tion. The Board of Commissioners, of which
Judge Wills was president, purchased seventeen
acres on Cemetery Hill, "at the apex of the tri-
*Fif tj years in Lutheran Ministry, Morris, p. 632.
Lutheran Institutions and the War 115
angalar lines of battle of the Union Army."
Plans were thus set on foot for fitting ceremonies
of consecration. The following programme was
Music, by Birgfield's Band.
Prayer, by Rev. L. H. Stockton, D.D.
Music, by the Marine Band.
Oration, by Hon. Edward Everett.
Music, Hymn composed by B. B. French, Esq.
Dedicatory Remarks, by the President of the
Dirge, sung by choir selected for the occasion.
Benediction, by Rev. H. L. Baugher, D.D., presi-
dent of Pennsylvania College.
The day selected, November 19, 1863, arrived,
and exercises were carried out as arranged. Mr.
Everett, the orator of the day, spoke for two
hours. In his address he touched upon the vari-
ous aspects of the war, stating that, under the
Constitution, the South had no right to secede.
He said in support of his theory, "Certainly I do
not deny that separate states are clothed with
sovereign powers for the administration of local
affairs. It is one of the most beautiful features
of our mixed system of government; but it is
equally true, that, in adopting the Federal Con-
stitution, the states abdicated by express renunci-
ation, all the most important functions of nation-
al sovereignty and, by one comprehensive, self-
denying clause, gave up all right to contravene
the Constitution of the United States, si>eciflcally,
and by enumeration, they renounced all the most
116 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
lniiK>rtant prerogatives of independent states for
peace and for war, as the right to keep troops or
ships of war in time of peace, or to engage in war,
unless actually invaded; to enter into compact
with another state or a foreign power ; to lay any
duty on tonage, or any import or exports, without
the consent of Congress ; to enter into any treaty,
alliance or confederation; to grant letters of
marque and reprisal, and to emit bills of credit, —
while all those i)owers and many expressly vested
in the general government. To ascribe to iK)liti-
cal communities, thus limited in their jurisdic-
tion, — who cannot even establish a post office on
their own soil, — the character of independent
sovereignty, and to reduce a national organiza-
tion, clothed with all transcendent powers of
government, to the name and condition of an
"agency*^ of the states proves nothing but the
logic of secession is on a par with its loyalty and
patriotism."*^ He spoke also of the heroism and
patriotism shown in the battle of Gettysburg.
Near the close of his address he said, "And now,
friends, fellow-citizens of Gettysburg and Penn-
sylvania, and you from remoter states, let me
again, as we part, invoke your benediction on
these honored graves. You feel, though the oc*
casion is mournful, that it is good to be here —
God bless the Union, it is dearer to us for the
blood of brave men which has been shed in its
^^Consecration of the Cemetery at Gettysburg (Collection of
Doonments), pp. 67-68.
^Consecration of the Cemetery at Gettysburg, p. 81.
Lutheran Institutions and the War 117
After Mr. Everett had finished speaking^ Presi-
dent Lincoln delivered his address of dedication,
which has since become immortal. He said, in
part, "We cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate,
we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men,
living and dead, who struggled here, have con-
secrated it far above onr poor power to add or to
detract." Moreover, he took occasion to call at-
tention anew to the responsibilty resting upon the
citizens of the United States when he said, "It is
rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task
remaining before us, — that from these honored
dead, we take increased devotion, to the cause for
which they here gave the last full measure of de-
votion, — that we here highly resolve, that these
honored dead shall not have died in vain, that this
nation under God shall have a new birth of free-
dom, that the government of the i)eople, by the
people, and for the i)eople, shall not perish from
the earth."^ When Lincoln finished, a hush lay
upon the vast multitude profoundly stirred, not
by the sonorous phrases and swinging cadences of
the orator of the day but by the simple, homely
words of the man on whose heart and face had
fallen the imprint of an everlasting sorrow, an
The dedicatory exercises were brought to a
close by the benediction, pronounced by Dr. H. L.
Baugher, president of Pennsylvania Collie. He
invoked Divine blessings upon the occasion, the
7Consecraion of the CemeteTy at Gtottysburg, p. 84.
118 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
President, all in authority and the people of the
United States, concluding with the prayer that
*^This great nation may be delivered from treason
and rebellion at home, and from the power of
With the dedication of the National Cemetery
at Gettysburg in November, 1863, the most im-
portant connection of that town and its college
with the war, came to an end.
Gettysburg was not the only Lutheran institu-
tion, however, which played an important part in
the story of the Civil War. Many of
SiiS**'^ the students of Wittenburg College
(founded 1845) in Springfield, Ohio,
enlisted in the service of jthe United States, until
by June 30, 1863, fifty-two of her students were
in active service. But her contribution to the
cause did not end there. The Alumni Association
also was active in supporting President Lincoln.
At the thirteenth annual meeting of the associ-
ation, held June 25, 1863, at Springfield, resolu-
tions were adopted from which the following ex-
tracts have been taken : "Resolved, That we have
entire confidence in the integrity and patriotism
of the President of the United States, and that he
merits the unqualified support of the loyal men
of the country.
"That we congratulate our Alma Mater upon
the devotion and loyalty to the government
sConsecration of the Cemetery at Gettysburg, p. 88.
Lutheran Institutions and the War 119
which universally pervades its officers and stu-
Much more might be said of the efforts and suf-
ferings not only of those two colleges in the
North, Gettysburg and Wittenberg, but also
others, whose names are not here even mentioned,
suffice it to say that no sacrifice was too big, no
effort too great, to offer on the altar of the coun-
All the suffering, all the sacrifice, all the toils
were not, however, put forth by the North alone.
Although for a different cause, yet for one, none
the less dear, the institutions of the South, will-
ingly, even gladly and proudly gave of their best.
Roanoke College (founded 1853 ),
couw * Salem, Virginia, by 1861 had a stu-
dent body numbering 118. Towards
the close of the session in that year the tocsin of
war "was sounding its shrill notes through the
land and the gathering of armies was seen on
every land. The martial spirit was aroused in
every breast. The students of military age
caught the contagioji, and laying down their text-
books, entered their names on the matriculation
rolls of a sterner school. The majority connected
themselves with the volunteer companies then
being organized in Salem. A few of these re-
turned in former years, covered with honorable
scars to resume their studies; others alas! are
sleeping "the sleep that knows no waking," in
honored soldiers^ graves.^®
sirutheran Observer, July 17, 1863.
loSemi-Centennial, Roanoke College Publ., by College, p. 97.
120 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
However, fortunately for the continued exist-
ence of the college, in September, 1861, Beveral
members of the faculty who had not entered the
army, determined to reopen the college for stu-
dents who were not old enough for service. This
laudable attempt to persevere in the purpose of
its foundation, in spite of all obstacles, was re-
warded. The college continued its classes
throughout the war and was the only institution
in the State to do so. Its enrollment during this
period numbered more than 100 students for
each academic year. After 1862, until 1866, no
degrees were awarded, however, as the courses
were of a preparatory nature.^^
Shortly after the war started, President Bittle
made arrangements with the Secretary of War of
the Confederate States, whereby any of the stu-
dents, who during the academic year, reached the
age of 18 years (the age prescribed for military
service) might be permitted to remain at college
until the end of the year. The Secretary of War
required, however, that all students sixteen years
of age and upwards should have guns, furnished
by the government, and be organized into a com-
pany and be drilled regularly, once a week. The
company was placed under the command of Pro-
fessor George W. Holland, who had lost an arm
in the service. It was called out on several oc-
casions when United States troops, on raiding
expeditions threatened Roanoke County, but
never participated in an active engagement.
iiCatalog, Boanoke College, 1865-1866.
Lutheran Institutions and the War 121
On December 16, 1863, General Averill, of the
Union Army, made a raid on Salem. He ordered
all the buildings containing Confederate army
supplies to be burned, but all others including the
college buildings were exempt. As he withdrew
to Mason's Grove, he took with him a number of
prisoners, including both citizens and students.
The following morning he released all who were
not connected with the Confederate service. He
paid respects thus to the students calling them
before him, he asked each one where he was from.
All answered with some trepidation. "Now," he
said, "boys, tell me candidly, what do you think
of the Confederacy?" The boys, by this time re-
covering from their fear, and reassured by the
pleasant mood of the general, answered promptly,
"We think it is doing very well." "Oh, now, boys,
you know it is almost played out !" he continued.
"You all go back to your books and study your
best." And then he gave the command to release
them. He was doubtless glad to be free from the
"impedimenta" of student prisoners, for his bold
venture was attended with great difficulties from
beginning to end. He is said to have thus con-
cisely reported his travels. "My command has
marched, climbed, slid and swam 350 miles since
the 8th instant.""
Due to this and other raids, in the early spring
of 1865, provisions were about exhausted in Roa-
noke County. The college community, as well as
the others in the neighborhood suffered greatly
izSemi-Centennial, Boanoke College, pp. 101-102.
122 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
for lack of supplies. But this difficulty was small
in comparison with that which confronted the
college at the close of the war. After General
Lee's surrender, everything was in a chaotic state
in Salem, a condition here, typical of what was
general throughout the South. Confederate
money was useless; the students could not pay
their board, and consequently, for the time being
the colleges suspended their exercises. All stu-
dents who could get home were permitted to go.
Those who remained helped President Bittle to
plant com. Although a number of colored men
were engaged to do this work, before the close
of the war, afterward refused, claiming that they
Yet the exigencies suggested in this brief his-
tory were only temporary. After the distracting
conditions of the Civil War were over, the col-
lege entered upon a new era of growth and pros-
I)erity. The student body numbered 145 for the
academic year 1865-6, a large increase over pre-
vious years. "It indicates the wise purpose of
our people to educate the young men for the use-
ful arts of peace, as one of the best remedial
agents for repairing the desolations wrought by
The history of Boanoke College in Virginia
was multiplied many times, in the case of other
isSemi-Centennial, Boanoke College, p. 105.
Lutheran Institutions and the War 123
institutions in the South. Newberry
Newberry College, Newberry, S. C, chartered
SoitT' ^y *^^ S*at® Legislature in 1856 had
Carolina. an even less fortunate experience-
Founded and opened shortly before
the outbreak of the war between the North and
South, Newberry College began its career with
every prospect of success and usefulness. "It pos-
sessed handsome buildings, a liberal endowment,
a faculty trained in the best institutions of this
and other lands, and a student body drawn from
various portions of the South, numbering nearly
two hundred. Under those circumstances the in-
stitution, which had been established by the Lu-
theran Church of the South, was well fitted to
arouse pride, in its brilliant beginning and ex-
I)ectation and high hope of its future success.
Just why, therefore, a work so well begun, so
vigorously and prayerfully prosecuted of what
appeared to be a long and honorable future
should have been suddenly interrupted and seri-
ously crippled, is a question as far beyond human
solution as are the graves on the battlefield of
Virginia and Tennessee, where sleep some of the
brightest of Newberry's older sons."^*
In 1860 Dr. J. A. Brown, professor of theology
and ancient languages, was elected president of
the college, to succeed Dr. Theophilus Stork who
had tendered his resignation. It was a time when
partisan feeling ran high and Dr. Brown, who
i^Historical Sketch Pablished by College^ pp. 77-78.
124 The Lutheran Church and CivU War
was fearless in his convictions, unequivocally ex-
pressed strong union sentiments. On January
8, 1861, Dr. Brown was informed that a com-
mittee would wait upon him, to ascertain "His
views and feelings on secession," and if his reply
was unfavorable, he would be advised to leave the
state. At five o'clock in the evening of the same
day, when all the professors and students had
assembled in the college chapel for the customary
evening prayers. Dr. Brown, very pale but with
a look of firm determination, arose and told the
audience of the notice he had received and said
that he then and there would anticipate an inter-
view on the part of the committee. He then said
he was born in the union, reared in the union and
hoped to die in the union; that his sympathies
were unequivocally with the Federal Government,
and that he proposed to resign as president of the
college, return to his native state and if necessary,
join the ranks in defense of the union. This soon
spread through the town and the effect on the i)eo-
ple was electric. Mr. Johnston, chancellor of the
State of South Carolina, and a firm friend of Dr.
Brown, fearing violence from the excited popu-
lace, offered to take him quietly to a small station
nine miles from Newberry and to send his family
by the next train. Dr. Brown declined the offer.
He said he had come to South Carolina openly
and without fear and he proposed to leave with
his family in the same manner. Fortunately he
' Lutheran Institutions and the War 125
was able to do this without any hostile demon-
strations from the people.""
The four years of war, so inauspiciously begun,
brought dark days upon the college. During
these trying times, when all financial support
from the Church was cut off, President Smeltzer
untiringly carried on his self-sacrificing labors.
For a time he supported the college by his own
efforts, turning baker and selling bread to the
Federal troops in Newberry. During the period
of the war and the misfortunes of the reconstruc-
tion, the college was naturally very seriously
handicapped. Indeed so serious were its difficul-
ties that it was not until 1877 that it entered upon
a new career of life and usefulness.
The fate of these two colleges in the South was
typical of the experiences of many during the try-
ing period of the war. The teachers, students and
graduates of Lutheran institutions both North
and South, took an active part in the great civil
conflict. They entered into that part of the strug-
gle into which they were led by their ideals and
convictions. The war had settled the great ques-
tion whether this republic may or may not be
divided — ^the question which split the Church
into opposing camps. The cause for division was
past; the wound in the nation remained to be
healed. The history of this nation since the war,
would be incomplete without taking into consid-
eration the large part played since 1865 by Lu-
ifiLutheran Quarterly, Vol. 2111, p. 426.
126 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
theran institutions in moulding the ideals of a
common national life. These institutions in co-
operation with other similar institutions are fur-
nishing leaders who are earnestly laboring in the
Church and State for the '^solution of a successful
national life." As in the i)eriod between 1861-5
the energies of all were bent toward securing
what seemed to each, best, though that best was
in opposition to other ideals, so now the energies
of all are united in a common purpose for the crea-
tion of a common ideal.
LUTHERAN CHURCH SINCE THE
After the close of the Civil War many of the
Lutherans, North and South, felt that the Church
should be reunited. The editor of the Lutheran
Observer gave expression to this idea
Early Efforts in the following words: "Many im-
L ^*^^** portant obligations now rest on good
Church, North citizens and good Christians. One
(General among the first should be an effort
jTth^^ *^* to heal divisions and alienations, in
Church, communities and churches, among
South, 1865. neighbors and friends."^ Reunion
with the southern branch of the
Church was advocated by the Lutherans of the
North for the following reasons: (1) The out-
come of the Civil War had removed all sectional
differences. The outbreak of the war, it is true,
had created a need for a southern Lutheran
Church, for the southern Lutherans were cut off
by the war from all intercourse with the Church
in the loyal states. There had been a time when
the Lutherans had believed in the permanency of
their separate and independent government ; but
the southern Confederacy now no longer existed
iliatheran Obserrer, April 21, 1865.
128 The Lutheran CJhurch and Civil War
and peace had been restored. The necessity for
a southern Church organization had, therefore,
been removed, and there seems to be no justifi-
cation for its continued existence. The Luther-
ans in the South should be one with those in the
North, as they had been before the strife, now
happily over, had begun. (2) The southern Lu-
therans who had been prominent years before in
the organization of the General Synod, must still
feel a deep interest in it and attachment thereto.
It was chiefly south of the Mason and Dixon line
that the idea of a union of all the Lutheran Syn-
ods into one General Synod had originally taken
deep hold of the churches. Southern churches
had been among the most devoted friends of the
General Synod. Because of this deep interest
prior to the war, in the common good of the Lu-
theran Church they should reunite with the Gen-
eral Synod, now that the way is once more open.
In order that the union might be consummated
as soon as possible, the Synods in the South were
urged to elect delegates to represent them at the
General Synodical Convention to be held at Fort
Wayne, Indiana, May 17-24, 1866. In an edi-
torial of the Lutheran Observer, June 30, 1865,
this suggestion was ably seconded as follows:
"Therefore, let the Synods of Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Texas,
elect delegates to the General Synod and send
them to Fort Wayne which will be the most de-
lightful ever held. Our Church has a great work
Lutheran Cliurch Since the CivU War 129
to do in this country. We should unite every sec-
tion of it. We should combine our eflforts."*
The suggestion, however, met with very little
response of any kind and none officially. The
southern churches determined to continue the
Southern General Synod. At the meeting of the
Southern General Synodical Convention held at
Mt. Pleasant, North Carolina, June 14, 1866, a
pastoral letter was officially ordered to be pre-
I>ared which stated that the determination to
continue the existence of the Southern General
Synod, was not caused by a desire to perpetuate
sectional strife or animosity, but by the belief
that "the prosperity of our beloved Zion in the
South can best be subserved in this way." The
reasons why the southern branch refused to re-
unite at this time may be summarized as follows :
(1) They maintained that true progress in the
South demanded independence. The northern
branch of the Church was numerically stronger
than the southern and its influence predominated
in ecclesiastical legislation to the detriment of
Southern prosperity. The war had made possible
a Southern General Synod, and the future growth
and prosperity of the Southern Lutheran Church
demanded the separate and independent existence
of that body. (2) Problems peculiar to the South
demanded southern Lutheran institutions and
literature. These can best be secured by the
separate organization of Lutherans in North and
^Lutheran Observer, June 30, 1865.
130 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
South. Prior to the war, numbers of the young
men of the South had attended northern Luther-
an educational institutions, to the detriment of
the southern institutions which thus failed to de-
velop. At the meeting of the Gteneral Synod,
South, June 14, 1866, this condition of affairs
was deplored and it was decided to foster and
sustain southern Lutheran educational institu-
tions in the future. Prior to the war the southern
Lutherans had also patronized northern litera-
ture. During the war they had established their
own official Church paper. The Southern Lduther-
(m, and published a "Book of Worship." These
publications were adapted to their own peculiar
needs. Henceforth it was resolved to publish
their own literature. (3 ) There were prospective
divisions in the General Synod, North. At the
General Synodical Convention at York, Pennsyl-
vania, 1864, a serious controversy had arisen
over the admission of the Franckean Synod, New
York, to the General Synod. This controversy
had developed into a serious factional strife
which threatened to bring about disintegration
in the general organization. Southern Lutherans
cited this evidence of factional strife already ex-
isting, as an argument against reunion, with a
body which they said already seemed on the eve
of self-annihilation. (4) The strong anti-seces-
sion and anti-slavery resolutions adopted by the
General Synod at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, May,
1862, likewise prevented reunion. A large num-
ber of southern Lutherans believed that these
Lutheran Church Since the Civil War 131
resolutions constituted an impassable barrier in
the way of the return of the southern Synods to
the General Synod, North.® All of these reasons
united to present to the southern mind insur-
mountable barriers in the way of reentrance into
the General Lutheran Synod.
At the meeting of the Southern General Sy-
nodical Convention June 14, 1866, although con-
tinued separate existence was determined upon,
yet it seemed advisable because of the restoration
of the union, that the official title of the body be
changed from the "General Synod of the Evan-
gelical Lutheran Church in the Confederate
States of America," to the "Evangelical Lutheran
General Synod in North America."* Later still
(1878) the official title was changed to "The
General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran
Church of the South.'"^ Because of the union of
the Tennessee and Holston Synods with the
southern general organization at Roanoke, Vir-
ginia, June 23, 1886, the title was again changed
to "The United Synod of the Evangelical Lu-
theran Church in the South."' By 1889 the nu-
merical strength of the Synod was constituted as
follows : eight district Synods, 189 ministers, 386
congregations, and 33,929 communicants,^ a body
which by its numbers at least, gave evidence of
31/utheran Observer, July 7, 1865.
^Minutes, Gen. Synod, C. S. A., 1866, p. 27.
sMinutes, Gen. Synod, South, 1878, p. 18.
«Minutes, United Synod, South, 1886, p. 52.
TMinutes, United Synod, South, 1889, p. 78.
132 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
its prosperous condition. The decision of the
southern Lutherans for the continued existence
of a separate body in the South seemed in view of
circumstances not unwise. The refusal of the
Lutheran Church in the South to reunite with
the General Synod, went far toward
^isii in disrupting the organic union of that
Synod, North. ^^^J- -^.t the General Synodical
Convention at York, Pa., 1864, sec-
tional differences had already arisen which
threatened its very existence. These differences
were occasioned by the petition of the Franckean
Synod, New York, for admission into the Gen-
eral Synod. Now the Franckean Synod which
was organized in 1837 had not adopted the Augs-
burg Confession as its doctrinal basis. This dif-
ference in doctrine from that of the General
Synod was the cause of heated discussion as to
the eligibility of that body, as a member <rf the
General Synod. After a lengthy debate, how-
ever, the Franckean Synod was admitted by a
vote of 97 to 40, on condition that at its next
regular convention it should adopt the Augsburg
Confession as its doctrinal basis.^
Against this action, twenty-eight delegates,
under the leadership of the Pennsylvania Synod,
protested. Beside the Pennsylvania delegates
there were also the following from other Synods :
Pittsburgh, 4 ; New York, 4 ; Illinois, 3 ;, Mary-
land, 2 ; East Pennsylvania, 1 ; Olive Branch, 1 ;
BMinutes, Gen. Synod, York, 1864, pp. 18-19.
Lutheran Church Since the Civil War 133
Northern Illinois, 1, and Iowa, 1. Their protest
was based on the ground that the General Synod,
in admitting the Franckean Synod violated the
constitution which stated that only Lutheran
Synods were to be received into the union ; that
the Franckean Synod was not Lutheran because
it had not adopted the Augsburg Confession as
a doctrinal basis®; and that therefore, it should
not, and could not be admitted. The Pennsyl-
vania delegates, furthermore withdrew from the
convention on the ground that the resolution
adopted at the General Synodical Convention at
Winchester, Virginia, 1853, in order to satisfy
the Pennsylvania Synod, when this body reunited
with the general body, at that time — ^was violated.
The resolution in question reads as follows:
"That we neither intend nor ever expect that the
principles which have hitherto governed our syn-
od, in respect to Church doctrine and Church life
shall suffer any change whatever by our con-
nection with the General Synod, but that should
the General Synod, as a condition of admission or
of continuation of membership, require assent to
anything conflicting with the old and long estab-
lished faith of the Evangelical Lutheran Church,
then our delegates are hereby required to protest
against any such actions, to withdraw from its
session and to rei>ort to this body."^^ The other
•Minutes, Gen. Synod, York, Pennsylvania, 1864, p. 23; Ev.
Review, Vol. 18, p. 122.
loMinutes, General Synod, York, Pennsylvania, p. 23, 1864;
Ev. Eeview, Vol. 18, p. 122.
134 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
delegates who voted in the minority, unlike the
Pennsylvanians abided by the decision of the ma-
jority and remained at the convention.
The final rupture, nevertheless, did not occur
until the twenty-second convention of the General
Synod at Fort Wayne, Indiana, May 17-24, 1866.
The Pennsylvania Synod sent delegates to this
convention. At the calling of the roll for the
presentation of credentials of Synodical dele-
gates, when the Pennsylvania Synod was reached,
the president of the General Synod, Dr. Sprecher,
ruled as follows: "The chair regards the act of
delegates of the Pennsylvania Synod, by which
they severed their practical relations with the
General Synod and withdrew from the partner-
ship of the Synods in the governing functions of
the General Synod, as the act of the Synod of
Pennsylvania, that consequently that Synod was
out of practical union with the General Synod,
up to the adjournment of the last convention, and
as we cannot know officially what the actions of
that Synod has been, since she must be considered
as in that state of practical withdrawal from the
governing functions of the General Synod, until
the General Synod can receive a report of an act
restoring her practical relations to the General
Synod; and as no such report can be received
until said Synod is organized the chair cannot
know any paper offered at this stage of the pro-
ceedings of the Synod, as a certificate of delega-
tion to this body."^^
iiMinutes, General Synod, Fort Wayne, 1866, p. 4.
Lutheran Church Since the Civil War 135
After all credentials of undisputed delegates
were received the decision of the chair was sus-
tained by a vote of 77 to 24 of those duly ac-
credited. Afterwards a special committee was
appointed to consider the case of the Pennsyl-
vania Synod. On report of that committee a reso-
lution was passed by the convention, inviting the
Pennsylvania Synodical delegates to present their
credentials. This they now refused to do. Every
advance of the General Synod was met with per-
sistent silence from the delegates. After debat-
ing the case Friday and Saturday, the following
resolution was unanimously adopted : "Resolved,
That the delegates from the Pennsylvania Synod
be requested to waive what may seem to them
an irregular organization of this body, and to
acquiesce in the present organization."^^ The
delegates of the Pennsylvania Synod were then
asked if this resolution would be satisfactory to
them. The answer was, that it was believed that
it would. On Saturday evening, it seemed there-
fore, that the question was settled satisfactorily
and the unity of the Church would be maintained.
But on Sunday the Pennsylvania delegates re-
fused to commune with their brethren. This
action was followed on the following Tuesday by
a response by the Pennsylvania delegation to the
resolution of the General Synod, "arraigning the
General Synod, denying the constitutionality of
its organization and consequently the validity of
■■ • •
i2Minutes, Fort Wayne, General Synod, 1866, p.Jli;,.
136 The Lutheran Church and CivH War
its action, and closed with the demand of such
acknowledgments from the General Synod, as
were not only derogatory to its character, but in-
consistent with the very continuance of its pres-
ent existence."" To these demands it was utterly
impossible for the General Synod to accede.
After very full discussion the final action of the
General Synod was recorded as follows: "That
after hearing the response of the delegates of the
Pennsylvania Synod, we cannot conscientiously
recede from the action adopted by this body, be-
lieving after full and careful deliberation, said
action to have been regular and constitutional,
but that we reaffirm our readiness to receive the
delegates of said Synod, as soon as they present
their credentials in due form."" The result was
that the delegates of the Pennsylvania Synod
withdrew. When the Pennsylvania Synod met in
Lancaster a few weeks later the action of the dele-
gates was ratified and all unicm with the General
Synod was severed. At this convention it was
decided to organize a new general body upon a
Lutheran basis as advocated primarily by the
Pennsylvania Synod. At this same convention it
was decided to issue an invitation *^ all Evan-*
gelical Lutheran Synods, ministers, and congre-
gations in the United States and Canada, which
confess the unaltered Augsburg Confession," in
order that a General Convention might be held so
isEvangelical Eeview, Vol. 18, page 130, Art. by Dr. Brown.
i*Minute8f General Synod, Port Wayne Convention, 1866, p.
Lutheran Church Since the Civil War 137
that the proposed general body might be organ-
ized. In response to this invitation a convention
was held at Beading, Pa., December 12-14, 1866,
attended by representatives from the following
Synods: Pennsylvania, New York Ministerlum,
Pittsburgh, Minnesota, English Ohio, Joint
Synod of Ohio, Pittsburgh, English District-
Synod of Ohio, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Can-
ada, Norwegian, and Missouri. At this con-
vention a temporary organization was elBfected
and it was decided that another convention
should be held at Fort Wayne, Ind., the following
year. This convention met, November 20-26,
when the organization of the general body was
completed and an official title was adopted as
follows : "The General Council of the Evangeli-
cal Lutheran Church in North America."
Statistics of the General Council of 1868 show
the following : 575 ministers, 1,101 congregations
and 144,716 communicants.^*
The General Synod in 1860 comprised about
two-thirds of the Lutherans in America, however,
its losses from 1860 to 1868 were enormous, and
at this time (1868) it comprised about one-fourth
of the Lutherans in America, namely : 590 min-
isters, 970 congregations, 86,198 communicant
members/* However, its vitality was not de-
stroyed and the next half century witnessed rapid
growth and development. Statistics of 1918
i<^Minute6, General Council, 1868, p. 38.
i«Minutes, General Synod, 1868, p. 68.
138 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
show it has 1,438 ministers, 1,857 congregations,
and 364,072 confirmed members/^
In order that the history of the Lutheran
Church since the Civil War may be more com-
plete, it is necessary to sketch briefly the history
of the Lutheran Synods other than
other those which have already been men-
Bynods. tioned. At the preliminary conven-
tion held at Beading, Pa., in 1866,
which resulted in the organization of the General
Council, one of the Synods represented was that
of Missouri. The delegates of that body advised
against the formation of a general organization
at that time, saying that they thought it would
be advisable to hold conferences with various
Synods on points of difference and agreement,
before the general organizations were effected.
Their advice was not accepted and at the next con-
vention of the General Council at Fort Wayne in
1867, the Missouri Synod was not represented.
During the next five years negotiations were
carried on by the various Synods with the Mis-
souri Synod, for the purpose of forming a union
of other Synods with that body. Finally at a
convention held at Milwaukee in 1872 the Synodi-
cal Conference was organized, composed of Syn-
ods from the following states : Missouri, Wiscon-
sin, Minnesota, Illinois, and Ohio, and of the Nor-
wegians. However, the union so brought about
was not destined to last long. The Joint Synod
i^Lutheran Year Book, 1918, p. 99.
Lntheran Church Since the Civil War 139
of Ohio withdrew in 1881 and the Norwegians
followed in 1883. At the present time the Synodi-
cal Conference is composed of the following Syn-
ods: Missouri, Wisconsin, Michigan, Nebraska,
and Slovak. Statistics of 1918 show that it has
3,201 ministers, 3,689 congregations, and 807,017
confirmed members,^® a body which in spite of its
loss in the eighties is still of no mean size.
As has been mentioned above, the Joint Synod
of Ohio withdrew from the Synodical Conference
in 1881. This separation was due to doctrinal
and personal controversies and has been main-
tained ever since. The Synod was originally or-
ganized September 14, 1918, at Somerset, Ohio.
Statistics of 1918 show tEat'it has 685 ministers,
916 congregations, and 138,542 confirmed mem-
In 1845 another independent Synod was or-
ganized at Milwaukee, which was known at first
as the "Synod of Lutheran emigrants from Prus-
sia." As the name implied its constituency was
made up mostly of Lutheran emigrants who came
to America from Prussia, from 1839 on. The
name of the Synod was afterward changed to
the Buffalo Synod, because the majority of its
members were located about Buffalo, N. Y. Sta-
tistics of 1918 show it has 36 ministers, 49 congre-
gations and 7,395 confirmed members.^®
isLutheran Year Book, 1918, p. 99.
loLutheran Year Book, 1918, p. 100.
20Lutheran Church Year Book, 1918, p. 100.
140 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
The Iowa Synod was organized at St. Sebald,
Iowa, August 24, 1854. For many years it led
a precarious existence. Through the earnest
missionary zeal of its pastors and leaders, it
eventually had a steady growth. Statistics of
1918 show it has 565 pastors, 1,056 congregations
and 125,458 confirmed members.^^
The Danish Lutherans were brought together
in an organization in 1872 and again in 1896.
They have now ( 1918 ) a total of 217 ministers.
297 congregations and 29,459 confirmed mem-
The Suomi Synod composed largely of Finnish
Lutheran constituents was organized at Calumet,
Michigan, March 25, 1890. Statistics of 1918
show it has 40 ministers, 151 congregations, and
16,511 conftrmed members. ^^
The Lutheran Free Church composed largely of
Norwegians, was organized in 1897. It now has
(1918) 198 pastors, 421 congregations and 20,-
536 confirmed members.^^
The Norwegian Lutheran Church in America
was organized in June 9, 1917, at St. Paul, Min-
nesota, by the merging of the three Norwegian
Synods, the Hauge, the Norwegian and the Unit-
ed Norwegian." The new organization (1918)
numbers 1,247 ministers, 3,378 congregations and
300,000 confirmed members.^^
2iLutheraii Church Year Book, 1918, p. 100.
22Art. Lutheran Quarterly, July, p. 422.
Lutheran Church Since the Civil War 141
Other Lutheran Synods represent a summary
total of 6,314 ministers, 10,294 congregations,
and 1,499,136 confirmed members."
The year 1876 will always stand out promi-
nently in the history of the Lutheran Church
since the Civil War*. That year marked the be-
ginning of a closer union of the Gen-
Period of eral Synod, South, General Council
Reconstnio- ^^ General Synod. The first step
v^olT toward bringing the three Lutheran
1876-1917. bodies into a closer union and coop-
eration was made by the General
Synod, South, when in convention at Staunton,
Virginia (1876), a resolution was passed which
proposed that negotiations be oi)ened with the
General Synod and General Council for the pur-
pose of preparing a common service hymnal for
aU English speaking Lutheran Churches in the
United States.*" Although at that time it was
thought that such an advanced effort would be
futile, nevertheless, cooperation was promised, in
1879 by the General Council," and in 1883 by the
General Synod. The latter body stated "we here-
by declare our readiness to labor to this end."
In the meantime a Joint Committee represent-
ing the three bodies went to work, and so thor-
oughly did they accomplish their purpose that at
Harrisburg, in 1885, the General Synod ratified
the report of the committee.** The General Coun-
28Minute8, Gen. Synod, South, 1876, p. 29.
2«Minutes, Gen. Council, 1879, pp. 34^.35.
28Minute8, Gen. Synod, 1883, p. 17.
2ei£inat6B, Gen. Synod, 1885, p. 15 seq.
142 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
cil and the General Synod, South, did the same.
The first editions of the new hymnal api)eared in
1888, published by the General Synod at Phila-
delphia, Pa., and by the United Synod, South, at
Columbia, S. C. Shortly after the api)earance
of the "Common Service," a storm of criticism
arose against it, in the General Synod from many
quarters. The two most imi)ortant objections
raised against it were (1) that it was an historic
misnomer (2) that it was un-Lutheran. The
storm centered particularly in the Gteneral Syn-
od. The liturgical controversies continued for
several years, occupying a prominent part in the
discussionis in the General Synodical conven-
tions at Allegheny, Pa., in 1889; Lebanon, Pa.,
in 1891, and Canton, Ohio, in 1893. At these
meetings every effort was made to revise or modi-
fy synodical action previously taken in favor of
the "Common Service" but in vain.'^^
The New Common Service Book and Hymnal,
which api)eared in 1917 is the result of the work
begun by the Joint Committee in 1885. The pres-
ent hymnal is likewise the result of Joint Com-
mittee plans and work. Thus the work of the
Joint Committee was the first step in bringing
about closer cooperation and union of the Gen-
eral Synod, General Council and United Synod,
The next step toward closer union with the
General Synod, North, was taken by the General
27Gen. Synod Minutes, 1889, p. 54, 1891, p. 57, 1893, pp.
Lutheran Church Since the Civil War 143
Synod, South, in 1878, when official fraternal re-
lations were resumed, — ^after the Southern body
was assured that the famous war resolutions of
the General Synod adopted at Lancaster in 1862
were not meant to reflect upon the Christian
character of the brethren and members of the
Southern Synod. At the same time a delegate
from the General Council was received.^® By the
renewal of fraternal relations the bitterness of
sectional strife was removed.
A still more advanced step looking toward or-
ganic union of the Lutheran Churches in the
United States was taken by the General Synod,
South, at Charlotte, North Carolina, in 1882,
when the following resolution was passed. "That
this General Synod does honestly and earnestly
desire to promote unity and concord between all
the parts of our Evangelical Lutheran Church
in this land and stand prepared to cooperate in
any concurrent movements of other general
bodies toward an organic union of our entire
Church upon one unequivocal Lutheran basis.*'
In consequence of this spirit manifested by the
Southern Lutheran Church a broader basis was
laid ui)on which future efforts could be made to
bring the Lutheran bodies into closer affiliation
For more than a quarter of a century the Gen-
eral Synod, the General Council, and the United
28Miiiutes, General Synod, South, 1878, p. 24.
2»Minute8, General Synod, South, 1882, p. 33.
144 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
Synod have cooperated in the most fraternal man-
ner. It was not surprising then that at a meeting
of the Joint Committee on the Celebration of the
Quadri-Centennial of the Reformation in Phila-
delphia, April 18, 1917, representing the General
Synod, the General Council and the United Syn-
od, it was resolved to bring about a merger of the
three bodies, as a fitting memorial of the 400th
Anniversary of the Reformation. The Presidents
of the three organizations were requested to form
a Joint Committee which should formulate a con-
stitution for the proposed united Church, and to
present it to the general bodies for their consider-
ation. Accordingly at the General Synod Con-
vention held at Chicago, Illinois, June 20-27,
1917, the proposal of merging the three bodies
and forming the basis for ^^The United Lutheran
Church in America," and constitution drawn up
in pursuance of this plan were presented and
after careful deliberation was unanimously
adopted.*^ The General Council Convention held
in Philadelphia, October 24-29, 1917, endorsed it
vrithout a dissenting vote,** and the United Synod
in convention at Salisbury, North Carolina, No-
vember 6-8, 1917, took similar action.'*
Later it was arranged to hold the great Merger
Convention in New York City November 14, 1918.
In the meantime all of the district Synods of the
three bodies ratified the constitution of the pro-
wMiimtes, Gen. Synod, Chicago, 1917, p. 75 seq.
aiLutheran Church Work and Observer, November 15, 1917.
82Lutheran Church Visitor, November 15, 1917.
Lutheran Churcli Since the Civil War 145
posed merger, with the exception of the Angus-
tana Synod of the General Council which for-
mally withdrew November 12, 1918. On Novem-
ber 15, 1918, the oflficial act of merging was ac-
complished aud the new organization became
known as "The United Lutheran Church in
America." This remarkable accomplishment has
brought into an organic union 2,754 ministers,
3,747 congregations and 757,886 confirmed mem-
bers.** However, the plan is even more far-reach-
ing whereby it is proposed to nnite all other Lu-
theran Congregations and Synods in America
into one general organization. When this is ac-
complished, "The United Lutheran Church in
America" will show the following statistics:
9,788 ministers, 15,266 congregations and 2,448,-
412 confirmed members.**
The history of the Lutheran Church in America
is distinguished primarily by its conservative
spirit. However, this conservatism has never
marred the growth and development of the
Church. If, at times, the Lutheran spirit has
failed to make itself felt as it ought, this failure
has been due to controversies in the body of the
Church and not to the conservatism of the Luther-
an body. The history of the Church reveals that
at times violent controversies prevailed, very
often arising from i>ersonal antipathies rather
than from problems of doctrine and polity; but
after the clouds of battle have rolled away, men
^sLutheran Year Book, 1918, pp. 98-101.
s^Iiutheran Year Book, 1918, pp. 98-101.
146 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
have come to see eye to eye and to understand
each other better ; as a result the Church has ad-
vanced each time with surer progress. Construc-
tive scholarship has neither been destroyed or
checked by the spirit of conservatism. Let it be
said to the everlasting credit of the Lutheran
Church, that it has held true to the fundamentals
of Biblical doctrine and truth which it inherited
four hundred years ago from the Reformation.
In this age, with the growing multiplicity of new
faiths and promulgation of Neo-Bationalism,
Neo-Stoicism and benevolent humanitarianism,
the Lutheran Church still holds to the Bible as
the Word of God and preaches the Gospel of
Christ as the solution of the problems of life and
the way of salvation.
Another distinguishing feature of the Lutheran
Church is its Americanism. It has a distinct mis-
sion in America to-day. The Church has a mani-
fold work to i)erform because of peculiar ability
to minister to so many people of various tongues.
It has the responsibility resting upon it of Ameri-
canizing the vast numbers who have come and
will continue to come from Lutheran countries to
the United States. Ex-President Roosevelt, in an
address at the Memorial Evangelical Lutheran
Church, Washington, D, C, January 20, 1905,
emphasized this responsibility when he said:
"Therefore the Lutheran Church can do most in
helping upward and onward so many of the new-
comers to our shores and it seems to me that it
should be, I am tempted to say, well nigh the duty
Lutheran Church Since the CivU War 147
of this Church to see that the immigrant, especial-
ly the immigant of the Lutheran faith, from the
Old World, who comes from Scaudinavia or Ger-
many, or whether he belonged to one of the Lu-
theran countries of Finland or Hungary of
Austria may not be suffered to drift off, with no
friendly hand extended to him, out of all the
Church communion, away from all the influences
that tend toward safeguarding and uplifting him,
and that he find ready at hand, in this country,
those eager to bring him into fellowship with the
existing bodies. The Lutheran Church of this
country is of very great power numerically and
through the intelligence and thrift of its mem-
bers, but it will grow steadily to even greater
power. It is destined to be one of the two or three
Churches most distinctly American, among the
forces that are to tell for making this great coun-
try even greater in the future. Therefore, a 'pe-
culiar load of responsibility rests upon the mem-
bers of this Church."** Consequently it is a God-
given duty, privilege and responsibility to the Lu-
theran Church in America, to uphold, develop,
and i)erpetuate the ideals of religious and civic
liberty, as promulgated by the Protestant Refor-
mation, upon which the whole national structure
of the United States rests.
86Ex-Ptesident Eoosevelt 's Speech^ p. 4 seq.
I. Primary Sources.
Minutes of General and District Lutheran Synod-
ical Bodies as follows :
(a) Proceedings of Conventions in the United
States of America General Synod, 1862, 1864, 1866,
1868, 1883, 1885, 1889, 1891, 1893, 1917.
2. District Conventions of General Synod held an-
nually. Minutes of District Synods consulted as fol-
Franckean, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1843, 1845, 1851, 1861.
East Ohio, 1861.
New York Ministerium, 1861.
East Pennsylvania, 1861.
West Pennsylvania, 1865.
3. Proceedings of Convention of General and Dis-
trict Lutheran Synodical bodies in the Confederate
States of America as follows :
General Synod, 1863, 1864, 1866.
District Conventions of General Synod held an-
nually. Minutes of District Synods consulted as f ol-
Vii^inia, 1861. 1862.
South Carolina, 1862.
North Carolina, 1862, 1863, 1865.
4. After the Civil War the Southern Lutheran
Church continued its independent existence but
changed its official name and title several times. The
following minutes of conventions relate to the South-
150 The Lutheran Church and Civil War
em Church since the dose of the Civil War. The ref-
erences relate to the conventions of the General Or-
Evangelical Lutheran Church of the South, 1876|
United Synod of Lutheran Church, South, 1886,
5. As result of factional strife in the ^'Oeneral
Synod of the Lutheran Church, U. S. A.," the "Gen-
eral Council of the Lutheran Church of North Ameri-
ca" was organized 1866-1867.
The following references relate to minutes of Gen-
eral Council Conventions :
General Council, 1868-1879.
Copies of the above minutes may be found in the
Historical Library of the Lutheran Theological Semi-
nary, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and also in the
Krauth Memorial Library of the Mount Airy Lu-
theran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pennsyl-
The Lutheran Observer, published at Baltimore,
Maryland, from 1860 to 1865.
The Missionary, published at Pittsburgh, Pennsyl-
vania, 1861, then changed to Lutheran and Missionary
and published at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from
1861 to 1864.
Lutheran Church Work and Observer, (established
1912), official weekly paper of General Synod, pub-
lished at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, November 15, 1917.
Lutheran Church Visitor, official weekly, paper of
United Synod, South, published at Columbia, South
Carolina, for November 18, 1917.
Lutheran Almanac, 1861, and Lutheran Year Book
Hartvnck Seminary Monthly, Volume X, Number
48, published by Hartwiek Seminary, New York.
Copies of the above papers and magazines may be
found in the Historical Library of the Lutheran Theo-
logical Seminary, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and also
at Krauth Memorial Library, Mount Airy Lutheran
Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTION OP SOURCE DOCUMENTS.
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Pennsylvania Historical Society Library, Philadel-
Consecration of Cemetery at Gettysburg, Collection
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Documentary History Lutheran Ministerium of
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Wolf, E. J. Lutherans in America, 544 pages.
Published by Hill & Company, New York, 1890.
The following list of Lutheran Synodical Minutes
was carefully consulted, but no references were found
to give any additional information on the slavery
General Synod, from 1819-1859.
Central Pennsylvania, 1855-1865.
Bast Ohio, 1856-1860.
East Pennsylvania, 1842-1861.
Northern Illinois, 1851-1865.
Olive Branch of Indiana, 1855-1865.
Northern Indiana, 1855-1865.
West Pennsylvania, 1824-1860.
Southern Illinois, 1857-1865.
Pennsylvania Ministerium, 1813-1865.
West Virginia, 1842-1860.
North Carolina, 1803-1860.
South Carolina, 1824, 1860.
Copies of the above minutes may be found in the
Historical Library, Theological Seminary, Gettysburg,
AbolitioniatSy The, 45 seq.
Adams, John Quiney, 46.
AdolphuB, GuBtavus, 18.
Alden, L. Bussell^ Introduc-
tion by, 10.
Ameriean and Foreign Anti-
Slavery Soeiety, 56.
Anti-slavery sentiment, growth,
Augsburg Confession, 131.
Bachman, John, 95.
Baptist Church, 53.
Baptists, Free Will, 53.
Baugher, H. L., 115, 117.
Bibliography, 148 seq.
Bill, The Fugitive Slave, 62;
Bittle, D. F., 95.
Brown, J. A., 123.
Chambersburg, Burning of,
Colonization, Society, 58.
Conditions in 1860, 65'; in
1861, 70; in 1865, 88.
Confederate clergy, address
of, 103 seq.
Constitution and slavery, 33.
Cotton gin, invention of, 34.
Danish Lutherans, 140.
Douglas, Senator, 63.
Dutch Lutherans, 17.
Emigration, causes for Euro-
pean to America, 15.
Everett, Hon. Edward, 115
Garrison, William Lloyd, 45.
General Council, 136, 137, 143-
German services, 39; settlers,
Institutions, Lutheran and the
War, 110 seq.
Introduction, 7 seq.
Jacobs, Professor M., 112.
Jefferson, Thomas, 33.
Lincoln, President, 65, 80,
Lintner, G. A., 79.
Louisiana, Purchase of, 35.
Lutheran, Church in America
to 1820^ 15 seq.; German,
20 seq.; Free Church, 140;
North, 70 seq.; Since Civil
War, 127 seq.; South, 89
seq.; Slavery Prior to Civil
War, 40 seq.; Southern, 99
seq.; Suffering of, 86, 105;
United in America, 144 seq.
Lutheran Observer, 65, 70,
Methodists, 40, 48 seq.; 63.
Missionary, 23; The, 71.
Missouri Compromise, 36 seq.
Muhlenberg, Heinrich Mel-
chior, 24; Professor, 111.
National Cemetery, 114 seq.
Newberry College, 123 seq.
Norwegian Lutheran Church
in America, 14P.
Passavant, W. A., 77.
Pennsylvania College, 110 seq.
Pierce, President, 64.
Pohlman, H. N., 79.
Presbyterians, 40, 61; Old
and New School, 51.
Protestant Episcopal, 20, 40.
Beconstruction, Period of, 141
Besolutions, 74 seq.; Debate
on, 76 seq.
Revolutionary Period, 25^ 31.
Boanoke College, 119 seq.
Boosevelt, President, 146 seq.
Salzburgers, 22 seq.
Slavery in America to 1820,
28 seq.; and Church, 28, 47
seq. ; Colonial sentiments,
29; early attitude, 29; and
Slave-holding, Scotch, 43 ;
Dutch, 43; German, 43;
English and Welsh, 43.
Sprecher, S., 77.
Sternberg, L., 79.
Stork, T., 76, 79.
Stuyvesant, Peter, 17.
Swedish Lutherans, 18 seq.
Synod, Allegheny, 68, 74;
Buffalo, 69, 139; Central
Pa., 74; East Ohio, 74;
East Pa., 68, 73, 74, 131;
East Wittenberg, 68; Eng
lish Ohio, 68, 74; Franck-
ean, 45, 57, 58, 59, 69, 7a,
132; General, 59; Post-
ponement, 65-66; Conven-
tion, 72, 84, 144; C. S. A.,
92 seq.; Crisis in North,
132 seq., 136; South, 140,
141, 142; German, Iowa,
68; HJartwick, 74; Dlinois,
74, 131, 137; Northern, 68,
73, 131; Southern, 68, 74;
Indiana, 68; Iowa, 68, 74,
131, 135; Joint Missouri,
68; Ohio, 68, 138; Ken-
tucky, 68, 74; Maryland,
26, 68, 74, 131; Melanch-
thon, 68, 74; Miami, 74;