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Full text of "Lydgate's minor poems : the two nightingale poems"

This book belongs to 

THE LIBRARY 



VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 5, Canada 



I , &-II 



Original and Extra Series Books, 1901-1904. 3 

llaT The Society intends to complete forthwith the Reprints of its out-of-print Texts of 
the year 1866. Prof. Skeat has finisht Partenay ; Dr. M c Enight of Ohio King Horn and 
Floris and Blancheflour ; and Dr. Furnivall Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest. Dr. Otto 
Claiming has undertaken Seinte Marherete ; and Dr. Furnivall has Hali Meidenhad and his 
Political, Religious and Love Poems in type, so that the Society may have all its Texts 
in print by 1904. As the cost of these Reprints, if they were not needed, would have been 
devoted to fresh Texts, the Reprints will be sent to all Members in lieu of such Texts. 
Though called ' Reprints,' these books are new editions, generally with valuable additions, a 
fact not noticed by a few careless receivers of them, who have complained that they already 
had the volumes. 

i^ The friends of the Society's Founder and Director, Dr. F. J. Furnivall, to com- 
memorate his 75th Birthday on Feb. 4, 1900, raised a Fund to present him with his 
Portrait, and a big three-sculling Boat for his Sunday outings, and to benefit his Early 
English Text Society. Out of this Fund, its Committee decided to devote 200 towards a 
new edition of Dr. F.'s Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, A.D. 1303, and its French 
original, William of Waddington's Manuel des Pechiez, ab. 1260 (Roxburghe Club, 1861), for 
the Original Series of the E. E. T. Soc. in 1901-2, -3 ; and another 200 to lessen the 
Society's debts to its printers, Clay and Sons, and the Clarendon Press. These sums have 
now been paid, and will set free the like part of the Society's money for its Reprints, 
which are necessary to enable it to supply complete sets of its Texts. The thanks of the 
Society are hereby given to the Subscribers to the Furnivall Birthday Fund. 

December 1902. The Original-Series Texts for 1901 were, No. 117, Part II of the 
Minor Poems of the Vernon MS. edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall ; The Lay Folks Catechism by 
Archbp. Thoresby, edited by the late Canon Simmons and the Rev. H. E. Nolloth, M.A. ; 
and Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, A.D. 1303, and the French poem on which it 
was founded, Wm. of Waddington's Manuel des Pechiez, ab. 1260 A.D., Part I. 

The Extra-Series Texts for 1901 were, No. LXXXIJ, Gower's Confessio Amantis, vol. 2, 
edited by G. C. Macaulay, M.A., No. LXXXIII, Lydgate's DeGuilleville's Pilgrimage of the 
Life of Man, Part II, edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall, and No. LXXXIV, Lydgate's Reason 
and Sensuality, edited by Dr. Ernst Sieper, Part I. 

The Original-Series Texts for 1902 are : No. 120, The Rule of St. Benet in unique 
Northern prose and Northern verse texts, with Caxton's Summary of the Rule, edited by 
Dr. E A. Kock of Lund, and No. 121, The Laud MS. Troy-Book, edited from the unique 
Laud MS. 595 by Dr. J. Ernst Wiilfing of Bonn, Part I. 

The Extra-Series Texts for 1902 are to be, No. LXXXV, Alexander Scott's Poems, 1568, 
re-edited from the unique Edinburgh MS. by A. K. Donald, B.A. ; No. LXXXVI, William 
ofSnoreham's Poems, re-edited from the unique MS. by Dr. M. Konrath, Part I. 

The Extra-Series Texts for 1903 ought to be the Second Part of the prose Romance of 
Melusine Introduction, with ten facsimiles of the best woodblocks of the old foreign black- 
letter editions, Glossary, &c., by A. K. Donald, B.A. (now in India) ; and a new edition of 
the famous Early-English Dictionary (English and Latin), Promptorium Parvulorum, from 
the Winchester MS., ab. 1440 A.D. : in this, the Editor, the Rev. A. L. May hew, M. A., will 
follow and print his MS. not only in its arrangement of nouns first, and verbs second, under 
every letter of the Alphabet, but also in its giving of the flexions of the words. The Society's 
edition will thus be the first modern one that really represents its original, a point on which 
Mr. Mayhew's insistence will meet with the sympathy of all our Members. But if these 
Texts are not ready, as they probably will not be, substitutes will be taken from the others 
next mentioned. 

The Extra-Series Texts for 1903 will be chosen from Lydgate's DeGuillemlle' s Pilgrimage 
of the Life of Man, Part III, edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall ; Dr. M. Konrath's re-edition 
of William of Shoreham's Poems, Part II. ; Lydgate's Reason and Sensuality, edited by Dr. 
Ernst Sieper, Part II ; Prof. Erdmann's re-edition of Lydgate's Siege of Thebes (issued also 
by the Chaucer Society) ; Miss Rickert's re-edition of the Romance of Emare ; Mr. I. 
Gollancz's re-edition of two Alliterative Poems, Winner and Waster, &c., ab. 1360, lately 
issued for the Roxburghe Club ; Dr. Norman Moore's re-edition of The Book of the Foundation 
of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, from the unique MS. ab. 1425, which gives an account 
of the Founder, Rahere, and the miraculous cures wrought at the Hospital ; The Craft of 
Nombrynge, with other of the earliest englisht Treatises on Arithmetic, edited by R. 
Steele, B.A. 

The Original-Series Texts for 1903 and 1904 will probably be chosen from Part II of 
Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, ed. by Dr. F. J. Furnivall; Part II of the Exeter Book 
Anglo-Saxon Poems from the unique MS. in Exeter Cathedral re-edited by Israel Gollancz, 
M.A. ; Part II of Prof. Dr. Holthausen's Vices and Virtues; Part II of Jacob's Well, edited 
by Dr. Brandeis ; the Alliterative Siege of Jerusalem, edited by the late Prof. Dr. E. Kblbing 
and Prof. Dr. Kaluza ; an Introduction and Glossary to the Minor Poems of the Vernon 
MS. by Mr. H. Hartley; a Northern Verse Chronicle of England to 1327 A.D., in 42,000 
lines, about 1420 A.D., edited by M. L. Perrin, B.A. ; Prof. Bruce's Introduction to The 



4 Texts preparing : The Texts for 1904, 1905, $c. Deguilleville. 

English Conquest of Ireland, Part II. Dr. Furnivall's edition of the Lichfield Gilds, which 
is all printed, and waits only for the Introduction, that Prof. E. C. K. Gonner has kindly 
undertaken to write for the book. 

The Texts for the Extra Series in 1904 and 1905 will be chosen from The Three Kings' 
Sons, Part II, the Introduction &c. by Prof, Dr. Leon Kellner ; Part II of The Chester Plays, 
re-edited from the MSS., with a full collation of the formerly missing Devonshire MS., by 
Mr." G. England and Dr. Matthews ; the Parallel-Text of the only two MSS. of the Owl and 
Nightingale, edited by Mr. G. F. H. Sykes (at press) ; Prof. Jespersen's editions of John 
Hart's Orthographic (MS. 1551 A.D. ; blackletter 1569), and Method to teach Reading, 1570 ; 
Deguilleville's Pilgrimage of the Sowle, in English prose, edited by Prof. Dr. L. Kellner. 
(For the three prose versions of The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man two English, one 
French an Editor is wanted. ) Members are askt to realise the fact that the Society has 
now 50 years' work on its Lists, at its present rate of production, and that there is from 
100 to 200 more years' work to come after that. The year 2000 will not see finisht all the 
Texts that the Society ought to print. The need of more Members and money is pressing. 
Offers of help from willing Editors have continually to be declined because the Society has 
no funds to print their Texts. 

An urgent appeal is hereby made to Members to increase the list of Subscribers to the 
E. E. Text Society. It is nothing less than a scandal that the Hellenic Society should have 
nearly 1000 members, while the Early English Text Society has not 300 ! 

Before his death in 1895, Mr. G. N. Currie was preparing an edition of the 15th and 16th 
century Prose Versions of Guillaume de Deguilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, with 
the French prose version by Jean Gallopes, from Lord Aldenham's MS., he having generously 
promist to pay the extra cost of printing the French text, and engraving one or two of the 
illuminations in his MS. But Mr. Currie, when on his deathbed, charged a friend to burn 
all his MSS. which lay in a corner of his room, and unluckily all the E. E. T. S.'s copies of 
the Deguilleville prose versions were with them, and were burnt with them, so that the 
Society will be put to the cost of fresh copies, Mr. Currie having died in debt. 

Guillaume de Deguilleville, monk of the Cistercian abbey of Chaalis, in the diocese of 
Senlis, wrote his first verse Pelerinaige de I'Homme in 1330-1 when he was 36. : Twenty-five 
(or six) years after, in 1355, he revised his poem, and issued a second version of it, 2 a revision 
of which was printed ab. 1500. Of the prose representative of the first version, 1330-1, 
a prose Englishing, about 1430 A.D., was edited by Mr, Aldis Wright for the Roxburghe Club 
in 1869, from MS. Ff. 5. 30 in the Cambridge University Library. Other copies of this prose 
English are in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Q. 2. 25 ; Sion College, London ; and the 
Laud Collection in the Bodleian, no. 740. 3 A copy in the Northern dialect is MS. G. 21, in 
St. John's Coll., Cambridge, and this is the MS. which will be edited for the E. E. Text 
Society. The Laud MS. 740 was somewhat coudenst and modernised, in the 17th century, 
into MS. Ff. 6. 30, in the Cambridge University Library: 4 "The Pilgrime or the Pil- 
grimage of Man in this World," copied by Will, Baspoole, whose copy "was verbatim 
written by Walter Parker, 1645, and from thence transcribed by G. G. 1649 ; and from thence 
by W. A. 1655." This last copy may have been read by, or its story reported to, Bunyan, 
and may have been the groundwork of his Pilgrim's Progress. It will be edited for the E. 
E. T. Soc., its text running under the earlier English, as in Mr. Herrtage's edition of the 
Gesta Romanorum for the Society. In February 1464, 5 Jean Gallopes a clerk of Angers, 
afterwards chaplain to John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France turned Deguilleville's' first 
verse Pelerinaige into a prose Pelerinage de la vie humaine. By the kindness of Lord Alden- 
ham, as above mentiond, Gallopes's French text will be printed opposite the early prose 
northern Englishing in the Society's edition. 

The Second Version of Deguilleville's Pelerinaige de I'Homme, A.D. 1355 or -6, was englisht 
in verse by Lydgate in 1426. Of Lydgate's poem, the larger part is in the Cotton MS. 
Vitellius C. xiii (leaves 2-308). This MS. leaves out Chaucer's englishing of Deguilleville's 
A B or Prayer to the Virgin, of which the successive stanzas start with A, B, C, and run all 
thro' the alphabet ; and it has 2 main gaps, besides many small ones from the tops of leaves 
being burnt in the Cotton fire. All these gaps (save the ABC) have been fild up from the 
Stowe MS. 952 (which old John Stowe completed) and from the end of the other imperfect 
MS. Cotton, Tiberius A vii. Thanks to the diligence of the old Elizabethan tailor and 
manuscript-lover, a complete text of Lydgate's poem can be, given, though that of an inserted 

1 He was born about 1295. See Abbe GOUJET'S Bibliotheque francaise, Vol IX p 73-4 P M The 
Roxburghe Club printed the 1st version in 1893. 

2 The Roxburghe Club's copy of this 2nd version was lent to Mr. Currie, and unluckily burnt too with 
his other MSS. 

3 These 3 MSS. have not yet been collated, but are believed to be all of the same version 

4 Another MS. is in the Pepys Library. 

5 According to Lord Aldenham's MS. 

6 These were printed in Prance, late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. 



Anglo-Saxon Psalters. More Money wanted. Saints' Lives. 5 

theological prose treatise is incomplete. The British Museum French MSS. (Harleian 4399, 1 
and Additional 22, 937 2 and 25, 594 3 ) are all of the First Version. 

Besides his first Pelerinaige de I'homme in its two versions, Deguilleville wrote a second, 
" de Tame separee du corps," and a third, " de nostre seigneur lesus." Of the second, a prose 
Englishing of 1413, The Pilgrimage of the Soivle (with poems by Hoccleve, already printed 
for the Society with that author's Regement of Princes}, exists in the Egertou MS. 615, 4 at 
Hatfield, Cambridge (Ihriv. Kk. 1. 7, and Caius), Oxford (Univ. Coll. and Corpus), and in Cax- 
ton's edition of 1483. This version has 'somewhat of addicions' as Caxton says, and some 
shortenings too, as the maker of both, the first translater, tells us in the MSS. Caxton leaves 
out the earlier englisher's interesting Epilog in the Egerton MS. This prose englishing of 
the Sowle will be edited for the Society by Prof. Dr. Leon Kellner after that of the Man is 
finisht, and will have Gallopes's French opposite it, from Lord Aldenham's MS. , as his gift 
to the Society. Of the Pilgrimage of Jesus, no englishing is known. 

As to the MS. Anglo-Saxon Psalters, Dr. Hy. Sweet has edited the oldest MS., the 
Vespasian, in his Oldest English Texts for the Society, and Mr. Harsley has edited the 
latest, c. 1150, Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter. The other MSS., except the Paris one, being 
interlinear versions, some of the Roman-Latin redaction, and some of the Gallican, Prof. 
Logeman has prepared for press, a Parallel-Text edition of the first twelve Psalms, to start the 
complete work. He will do his best to get the Paris Psalter tho' it is not an interlinear 
one into this collective edition ; but the additional matter, especially in the Verse-Psalms, 
is very difficult to manage. If the Paris text cannot be parallelised, it will form a separate 
volume. The Early English Psalters are all independent versions, and will follow separately 
in due course. 

Through the good offices of the Examiners, some of the books for the Early-English Ex- 
aminations of the University of London will be chosen from the Society's publications, the 
Committee having undertaken to supply such books to students at a large reduction in price. 
The net profits from these sales will be applied to the Society's Reprints. 

Members are reminded that fresh Subscribers are always wanted, and that the Committee 
can at any time, on short notice, send to press an additional Thousand Pounds' worth of work. 

The Subscribers to the Original Series must be prepared for the issue of the whole of the 
Early English Lives of Saints, sooner or later. The Society cannot leave out any of them, 
even though some are dull. The Sinners would doubtless be much more interesting. But in 
many Saints' Lives will be found valuable incidental details of our forefathers' social state, 
and all are worthful for the history of our language. The Lives may be lookt on as the 
religious romances or story-books of their period. 

The Standard Collection of Saints' Lives in the Corpus and Ashmole MSS., the Harleian 
MS. 2277, &c. will repeat the Laud set, our No. 87, with additions, and in right order. (The 
foundation MS. (Laud 108) had to be printed first, to prevent quite unwieldy collations.) The 
Supplementary Lives from the Vernon and other MSS. will form one or two separate volumes. 

Besides the Saints' Lives, Trevisa's englishing of Bartholomceus de Proprietatibus Rerum, 
the mediaeval Cyclopaedia of Science, &c. , will be the Society's next big undertaking. Dr. 
R. von Fleischhacker will edit it. Prof. Napier of Oxford, wishing to have the whole of 
our MS. Anglo-Saxon in type, and accessible to students, will edit for the Society all the 
unprinted and other Anglo-Saxon Homilies which are not included in Thorpe's edition of 
jElfric's prose, 5 Dr. Morris's of the Blickling Homilies, and Prof. Skeat's of ^Elfric's Metrical 
Homilies. The late Prof. Kolbing left complete his text, for the Society, of the Ancren 
Riwle, from the best MS. , with collations of the other four, and this will 'be edited for the 
Society by Dr. Thiimmler. Mr. Harvey means to prepare an edition of the three MSS. of 
the Earliest English Metrical Psalter, one of which was edited by the late Mr. Stevenson 
for the Surtees Society. 

Members of the Society will learn with pleasure that its example has been followed, not 
only by the Old French Text Society which has done such admirable work under its founders 
Profs. Paul Meyer and Gaston Paris, but also by the Early Russian Text Society, which was 
set on foot in 1877, and has since issued many excellent editions of old MS. Chronicles &c. 

Members will also note with pleasure the annexation of large tracts of our Early English 
territory by the important German contingent, the late Professors Zupitza and Kolbing, the 
living Hausknecht, Einenkel, Haenisch, Kaluza, Hupe, Adam, Holthausen, Schick, Herzfeld, 
Brandeis, Sieper, Konrath, Wiilfing, &c. Scandinavia has also sent us Prof. Erdmann and 
Dr. E. A. Kock ; Holland, Prof. H. Logeman, who is now working in Belgium ; France, Prof. 

1 15th cent., containing only the Vie humaine. 

2 15th cent., containing all the 3 Pilgrimages, the 3rd being Jesus Christ's. 

3 14th cent., containing the Vie humaine and the 2nd Pilgrimage, de I'Ame : both incomplete. 

4 Ab. 1430, 106 leaves (leaf 1 of text wanting), with illuminations of nice little devils red, green, tawny, 
&c. and damnd souls, fires, angels <fec. 

5 Of these, Mr. Harsley is preparing a new edition, with collations of all the MSS. Many copies of 
Thorpe's book, not issued by the JSlfric Society, are still in stock. 

Of the Vercelli Homilies, the Society has bought the copy made by Prof. G. Lattanzi. 



The Original Series of the " Early English Text Society." 



von 



Paul Meyer with Gaston Paris as adviser ; Italy, Prof. Lattanzi ; Austria, Dr. 
Fleischhacker ; while America is represented by the late Prof. Child, by Dr. Mary Noyes 
Colvin, Miss Rickert, Profs. Mead, McKuight, Triggs, Perrin, &c. The sympathy, the ready 
help, which the Society's work has cald forth from the Continent and the United States, 
have been among the pleasantest experiences of the Society's life, a real aid and cheer amid 
all troubles and discouragements. All our Members are grateful for it, and recognise that 
the bond their work has woven between them and the lovers 'of language and antiquity 
across the seas is one of the most welcome results of the Society's efforts. 



ORIGINAL SERIES. 

1. Early English Alliterative Poems, ab. 1360 A.D., ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 16s. 1864 

2. Arthur, ab. 1440, ed. P. J. Furnivall, M.A. 4s. 

3. Lauder on the Dewtie of Kyngis, &c., 1556, ed. F. Hall, D.C.L. 4s. 

4. Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight, ab. 1360, eel. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. 

5. Hume's Orthographic and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue, ab 1617, ed. H. B. Wheatley. 4s. 

6. Lancelot of the Laik, ab. 1500, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 8s 

7. Genesis & Exodus, ab. 1250, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 8s. 

8. Morte Arthure, ab. 1440, ed. E. Brock. 7s. 

9. Thynne on Speght's ed. of Chaucer, A.D. 1599, ed. Dr. G. Kingsley and Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 10s. 

10. Merlin, ab. 1440, Part I., ed. H. B. Wheatley. 2s. 6d. 

11. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c., 1552, Part I., ed. J. Small, M.A. 3s. 

12. Wright's Chaste Wife, ab. 1462, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. Is. 

13. Seinte Marherete, 1200-1330, ed. Rev. O. Cockayne : re-edited by Dr. Otto Glauniug. [Out of print. 1866 

14. Kyng Horn, Floris and Blancheflour, &c., ed. Rev. J. R. Lumby, B.D., re-ed. Dr. G. H. McKnight. 5s. .. 

15. Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. F. J. Furnivall. [At Press. 

16. The Book of Quinte Essence, ab. 1460-70, ed. F. J. Furnivall. Is. 

17. Parallel Extracts from 45 MSS. of Piers the Plowman, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. Is. 

18. Hali Meidenhad, ab. 1200, ed. Rev. O. Cockayne, re-edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. [At Press. 

19. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c., Part II., ed. J. Small, M.A. 3s. 6d. 

20. Hampole's English Prose Treatises, ed. Rev. G. G. Perry. Is. [Out of print 

21. Merlin, Part II., ed. H. 3. Wheatley. 4s. 

22. Partenay or Lusignen, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 

23. Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, 1340, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. 6d. 

24. Hymns to the Virgin and Christ ; the Parliament of Devils, &c. , ab. 1430, ed. F. J. Furnival]. 1 867 

25. The Stacions of Rome, the Pilgrims' Sea-voyage, with Clene Maydenhod, ed. F. J. Furnival]. Is. 

26. Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse, from R. Thornton's MS., ed. Rev. G. G. Perry. 2s. [Out of print. ,, 

27. Levins' s Manipulus Vocabulorum, a ryming Dictionary, 1570, ed. H. B. Wheatley. 12s. ,, 

28. William's Vision of Piers the Plowman, 1362 A.D. ; Text A, Part I., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 6s. 

29. Old English Homilies (ab. 1220-30 A.D. ). Parti. Edited by Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 7s. 

30. Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 2s. 

31. Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest, in Verse, ab. 1420 A.D., ed. E. Peacock. 4s. 1868 

32. Early English Meals and Manners : the Boke of Norture of John Russell, the Bokes of Keruynge. 

Curtasye, and Demeanor, the Babees Book, TJrbanitatis, &c. , ed. F. J. Furnivall. 12s. 

33. The Knight de la Tour Landry, ab. 1440 A.D. A Book for Daughters, ed. T. Wright, M. A. 8s. , , 

34. Old English Homilies (before 1300 A.D.). Part II., ed. R. Morris, LL.D. 8s. 

35. Lyndesay's Works, Part III. : The Historic and Testament of Squyer Meldrum, ed. F. Hall. 2s. 

36. Merlin, Part III. Ed. H. B. Wheatley. On Arthurian Localities, by J. S. Stuart Glennie. 12s. 1^69 

37. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, Part IV., Ane Satyre of the Three Estaits. Ed. F. Hall, D.C.L. 4s. 

38. William's Vision of Piers the Plowman, Part II. Text B. Ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 10s. 6d. 

39. Alliterative Romance of the Destruction of Troy. Ed. D. Donaldson <fo G. A. Panton. Pt. I. 10s. 6d. ,, 

40. English Gilds, their Statutes and Customs, 1389 A.D. Edit. Toulmin Smith and Lucy T. Smith, 

with an Essay on Gilds and Trades-Unions, by Dr. L. Brentano. 21s. 1870 

41. William Lauder' s Minor Poems. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. 3s. ,, 

42. Bernardus De Cura Rei Famuliaris, Early Scottish Prophecies, <fec. Ed. J. R. Lumby, M.A. 2s. 

43. Ratis Raving, and other Moral and Religious Pieces. Ed. J. R Lumby, M.A. ,, 

44. The Alliterative Romance of Joseph of Arimathie, or The Holy Grail : from the Vernon MS. ; 

with W. de Worde's and Pynson's Lives of Joseph : ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 5s. 1871 

45. King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, edited from 2 MSS., with an 

English translation, by Henry Sweet, Esq., B. A., Balliol College, Oxford. Parti. 10s. ,, 

46. Legends of the Holy Rood, Symbols of the Passion and Cross Poems, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. ,, 

47. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, Part V.,ed. Dr. J. A. H. Murray. 3s. ,, 

48. The Times' Whistle, and other Poems, by R. C., 1616'; ed. by J. M. Cowper, Esq. 6s. 

49. An Old English Miscellany, containing a Bestiary, Kentish Sermons, Proverbs of Alfred, and 

Religious Poems of the 13th cent, ed. from the MSS. by the Rev. R. Morris, LL.D. 10s. 1S72 

50. King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed. H. Sweet, M.A. Part II. 10s. ,, 

51. The Life of St Juliana, 2 versions, A.D. 1230, with translations ; ed. T. O. Cockayne & E. Brock. 2s. ,, 



The Original Series of the " Early English Text Society" 1 

1872 
1873 



3 The Extra Series of the " Early English Text Society." 

113. Queen Elizabeth's Englishings of Boethius, Plutarch &c. &c., ed. Miss C. Pemberton. 15s. 1899 

114. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, Part IV and last, ed. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 10s. 1900 

115. Jacob's Well, edited from the unique Salisbury Cathedral MS. by Dr. A. Brandeis. Part I. 10s. ,, 

116. An Old-English Martyrology, re-edited by Dr. G. Herzfeld. 10s. ,, 

117. Minor Poems of the Vernon MS., edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. Part II. 15s. 1901 

118. The Lay Folks' Catechism, ed. by Canon Simmons and Rev. H. E. Nollotli, M.A. 5<. 

119. Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne (1303), and its French original, re-ed. by Dr. Furnivall. Pt. I. 10s. ,, 

120. The Rule of St. Benet, in Northern Prose and Verse, & Caxton's Summary,'ed. Dr. B. A. Kock. 15s. 1902 

121. The Laud MS. Troy-Book, ed. from the unique Laud MS. 595, by Dr. J. E. Wulfing. Part I. 15s. ,, 

122. The Laud MS. Troy-Book, ed. from the unique Laud MS. 595, by Dr. J. E. Wulfing. Part II. 1903 

123. Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, 1130-37, and its French original, re-ed. by Dr. Furnivall. Pt. II. ,, 



EXTRA SEHIES. 

The Publications for 1867-1901 (one guinea each year) are: 

I. William of Palerne ; or, William and the Werwolf. Re-edited by Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 13s. 1867 

II. Early English Pronunciation with especial Reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, by A. J. Ellis, 
F.R.S. Part I. 10s. 

III. Caxton's Book of Curtesye, in Three Versions. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. 5s. 1868 

IV. Havelokthe Dane. Re-edited by the Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 10s. 

V. Chaucer's Boethius. Edited from the two best MSS. by Rev. Dr. R. Morris 12s. ,, 

VI. Chevelere Assigne. Re-edited from the unique MS. by Lord Aid enham, M.A. 3s. ,, 

VII. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, F.R.S. Part II. 10s. 1869 

VIII. Queene Elizabethes Achademy, &c. Ed. F. J. Furnivall. Essays on early Italian and German 
Books of Courtesy, by W. M. Rossetti and Dr. E. Oswald. 13s. ,, 

IX. A wdeley's Fraternity e of Vacabondes, Harman's Caveat, &c. Ed. E. Viles & F. J. Furnivall. 7s. 6d. ,, 

X. Andrew Boorde's Introduction of Knowledge, 1547, Dyetary of Helth, 1542, Barnes in Defence of the 
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XI. Barbour's Bruce, Part I. Ed. from MSS. and editions, by Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 12s. 

XII. England in Henry VLTI.'s Time : a Dialogue between Cardinal Pole & Lupset, by Thorn. Starkey, 
Chaplain to Henry VIII. Ed. J. M. Cowper. Part II. 12s. (Part I. is No. XXXII, 1878, 8s.) 1871 

XIII. A Supplicacyon of the Beggers, by Simon Fish, 1528-9 A.D., ed. F. J. Furnivall ; with A Suppli- 
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XIV. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. Part III. 10s. 

XV. Robert Crowley's Thirty-One Epigrams, Voyce of the Last Trumpet, Way to Wealth, &c., A. P. 
1550-1, edited by J. M. Cowper, Esq. 12s. 1872 

XVI. Chaucer's Treatise on the Astrolabe. Ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 6s. ,, 

XVII. The Complaynt of Scotlande, 1549 A.D., with 4 Tracts (1542-48), ed. Dr. Murray. Part I. 10s. 

XVIII. The Complaynt of Scotlande, 1549 A.D., ed. Dr. Murray. Part II. 8s. 1873 

XIX. Oure Ladyes Myroure, A.D. 1530, ed. Rev. J. H. Blunt, M.A. 24s. ,, 

XX. Lovelich's History of the Holy Grail (ab. 1450 A.D.), ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part I. 8s. 1874 

XXI. Barbour's Bruce, Part II., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 4s. 

XXII. Henry Brinklow's Complaynt of Eoderyck Mors (ab. 1542) : and The Lamentacion of a Christian 
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XXIII. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, F.R.S. Part IV. 10s. 

XXIV. Lovelich's History of the Holy Grail, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. , Ph.D. Partll. 10s. 1875 

XXV. Guy of Warwick, 15th-century Version, ed. Prof. Zupitza. Parti. 20s. 

XXVI. Guy of Warwick, 15th-century Version, ed. Prof. Zupitza. Part II. 14s. 1876 

XXVII. Bp. Fisher's English Works (died 1535). ed. by Prof. J. E. B. Mayor. Part I, the Text. 16s. 

XXVIII. Lovelich's Holy Grail, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part III. 10s. 1877 

XXIX. Barbour's Bruce. Part III., ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. 21s. 

XXX. Lovelich's Holy Grail, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part IV. 15s. 1878 

XXXI. The Alliterative Romance of Alexander and Dindimus. ed. Rev. W. W. Skeat. 6s. 

XXXII. Starkey' s "England in Henry VLTTs time." Pt. I. Starkey'sLife and Letters, ed. S. J. Herrtage. 8s. ,, 

XXXIII. Gesta Romanorum (englisht ab. 1440), ed. S. J. Herrtage, B.A. 15 1879 

XXXIV. The Charlemagne Romances : 1. Sir Ferumbras, from Ashm. MS. 33, ed. S. J. Herrtage. 15s. 

XXXV. Charlemagne Romances : 2. The Sege off Melayne, SirOtuell, <fec., ed. S. J. Herrtage. 12s. 1880 

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XXXVII. Charlemagne Romances : 4. Lyf of Charles the Grete, Pt. II., ed. S. J. Herrtage. 15s. 188] 

XXXVIII. Charlemagne Romances : 5. The Sowdone of Babylone, ed. Dr. Hausknecht. 15s. 

XXXIX. Charlemagne Romances : 6. RaufColyear, Roland, Otuel, Ac., ed. S.J. Herrtage, B.A. 15s. 1882 
XL. Charlemagne Romances : 7. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S. L. Lee, B.A. Part I. 15s. ,, 
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XLIII. Charlemagne Romances : 9. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S. L. Lee, B.A. Pt. III. 15s. 1884 



Works preparing for the " Early English Text Society." 9 

XLIV. Charlemagne Romances : 10. The Four Sons of Aymon, ed. Miss Octavia Richardson. Pt. I. 15s. 1884 
XLV. Charlemagne Romances : 11. The Four Sons of Aymon, ed. Miss 0. Richardson. Pt. II. 20s. 1885 
XLVI. SirBevis of Hamton, from the Auchinleck and other MSS., ed. Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph.D. Part I. 10s. ,, 
XLVII. The Wars of Alexander, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 20s. 1S86 

XLVIII. SirBevis of Hamton, ed. Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph.D. Part II. 10s. 

XLIX. Guy of Warwick, 2 texts (Auchinleck and Caius MSS.), Pt. II., ed. Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 15s. 1887 
L. Charlemagne Romances : 12. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S. L. Lee, B.A. Part IV. 5s. ,, 
LI. Torrent of Portyngale, from the unique MS. in the Chetham Library, ed. E. Adam, Ph.D. 10s. ,, 

LIL Bullein's Dialogue againstthe Feuer Pestilence, 1578 (ed. 1, 1564). Ed. M. & A. H. Bullen. 10s. 1888 
LIII. Vicary's Anatomie of the Body of Man, 1548, ed. 1577, ed. F. J. & Percy Furnivall. Part I. 15s. ,, 
LIV. Caxton's Englishing of Alain Chartier's Curial, ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall & Prof. P. Meyer. 5s. ,, 

LV. Barbour's Bruce, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. Part IV. 5s. 1889 

LVI. Early English Pronunciation, by A. J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. Pt. V., the present English Dialects. 25s. ,, 
LVII. Caxton's Eneydos, A.D. 1490, coll. with its French, ed. M. T. Culley, M.A. & Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 13s. 1890 
LVIII. Caxton's Blanchardyn & Eglantine, c. 1489, extracts from ed. 1595, & French, ed. Dr. L. Kellner. 1 7s. ,, 
LIX. Guy of Warwick, 2 texts (Auchinleck and Caius MSS.), Part III., ed. Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 15s. 1891 
LX. Lydgate's Temple of Glass, re-edited from the MSS. by Dr. J. Schick. 15s. ,, 

LXI. Hoccleve's Minor Poems, I., from the Phillipps and Durham MSS., ed. F. J. Furnivall, Ph.D. 15s. 1892 
LXII. The Chester Plays, re-edited from the MSS. by the late Dr. Hermann Deiniling. Part I. 15s. ,, 

LXIII. Thomas a Kempis's De Imitatione Christi, englisht ab. 1440, & 1502, ed. Prof. J. K. Ingram. 15s. 1893 
LXIV. Caxton's Godfrey of Boloyne, or Last Siege of Jerusalem, 1481, ed. Dr. Mary N. Colvin. 15s. ,, 

LXV. Sir Bevis of Hamton, ed. Prof. E. Kolbing, Ph.D. Part III. 15s. 1894 

LXVI. Lydgate's and Burgh's Secrees of Philisoffres. ab. 144550, ed. R. Steele, B.A. 15s. 
LXVII. The Three Kings' Sons, a Romance, ab. 1500, Part I., the Text, ed. Dr. Furnivall. 10s. 1895 

LXVIII. Melusine, the prose Romance, ab. 1500, Part I, the Text, ed. A. K. Donald. 20s. 
LXIX. Lydgate's Assembly of the Gods, ed. Prof. Oscar L. Triggs, M.A., Ph.D. 15s. 1896 

LXX. The Digby Plays, edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 15s. ,, 

LXXI. The Towneley Plays, ed.Geo. England and A. W. Pollard, M.A. 15s. 1897 

LXXII. Hoccleve's Regement of Princes, 1411-12, and 14 Poems, edited by Dr. F. J. Furnivall. 15s. 
LXXIII. Hoccleve's Minor Poems, II., from the Ashburnhnm MS., ed. I. Gollancz, M.A. [At Press. 
LXXIV. Secreta Secretorum, 3 prose Englishings, by Jas. Yonge, 1428, ed. R. Steele, B.A. Part I. 20s. 1898 
LXXV. Speculum Guidonis de Warwyk, edited by Miss G. L. Morrill, M.A., Ph.D. 10s. 

LXXVI. George Ashby's Poems, &c , ed. Miss Mary Bateson. 15s. 1899 

LXXVII. Lydgate's DeGuilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, 1426, ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall. Part I. 10s. ,, 
LXXVIII. The Life and Death of Mary Magdalene, by T. Robinson, c. 1620, ed. Dr. H. O. Sommer. 5s. 
LXXIX. Caxton's Dialogues, English and French, c. 1483, ed. Henry Bradley, M.A. 10s. 1900 

LXXX. Lydgate's Two Nightingale Poems, ed. Dr. Otto Glauning. 5s. 
LXXXI. Gower's Confessio Amantis, edited by G. C. Macaulay, M.A. Vol. I. 15s. 

LXXXII. Gower'a Confessio Amantis, edited by G. C. Macaulay, M.A. Vol.11. 15s. 1901 

LXXXIII. Lydgate's DeGuilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, 1426, ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall. Pt. II. 10s. ,, 
LXXXIV. Lydgate's Reason and Sensuality, ed. Dr. E. Sieper. Part I. 5s. 

LXXXV. Alexander Scott's Poems, 1568, from the unique Edinburgh MS., ed. A. K. Donald, B.A. 10s. 1902 
LXXXVI. William of Shoreham's Poems, re-ed. from the unique MS. by Dr. M. Konrath. Part I. 10s. ,, 
LXXXVII. Two Coventry Corpus- Christi Plays, re-edited by Hardin Craig, M.A. [At Press. 
LXXXVIII. William of Shoreham's Poems, re-ed. from the unique MS. by Dr. M. Konrath. Part II. 1903 



EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY TEXTS PREPARING. 

Besides the Texts named as at press on p. 12 of the Cover of the Early English Text 
Society's last Books, the following Texts are also slowly preparing for the Society: 

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Anglo-Saxon Poems, from the Vercelli MS., re-edited by I. Gollancz, M.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Glosses to Latin Prayers and Hymns, edited by Dr. F. Holthausen. 

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Byrhtferth's Handboc, edited by Prof. G. Hempl. 

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Early English Verse Lives of Saints, Standard Collection, from the Harl. MS. (Editor wanted.) 



10 Works preparing for the "Early English Text Society.' 1 ' 

Early English Confessionals, edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. 

A Lapidary, from Lord Tollemache's MS., &c., edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. 

Early English Deeds and Documents, from unique MSS., ed. Dr. Lorenz Morsbach. 

Gilbert Banastre's Poems, and other Boccaccio englishings, ed. by Prof. Dr. Max Forster. 

Lanfranc's Cirurgie, ab. 1400 A.D., ed. Dr. R. von Fleischhacker, Part II. 

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The Macro Moralities, edited from Mr. Gurney's unique MS., by Alfred W. Pollard. M.A. 

Early Lyrical Poems from the Harl. MS. 2253. re-edited by Prof. Hall Griffin, M.A. 

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Bird and Beast Poems, a collection from MSS., edited by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Scire Mori, &c., from the Lichfield MS. 16, ed. Mrs. L. Grindon, LL.A., and Miss Florence Gilbert. 

Nicholas Trivet's French Chronicle, from Sir A. Acland-Hood's unique MS., ed. by Miss Mary Bateson. 

Stories for Sermons, edited from the Addit. MS. 25,719 by Mrs. M. M. Banks. 

Early English Homilies in Harl. 2276 &e., c. 1400, ed. J. Friedlander. 

Extracts from the Registers of Boughton, ed. Hy. Littlehales, Esq. 

The Diary of Prior Moore of Worcester, A.D. 1518-35, from the unique MS., ed. Henry Littlehales, Esq. 

The Pore Caitif, edited from its MSS., by Mr. Peake. 

EXTRA SERIES. 

Bp. Fisher's English Works, Pt. II., with his Life and Letters, ed. Rev. Ronald Bayne, B.A. [At Press. 

John of Arderne's Surgery, c. 1425, ed. J. F. Payne, M.D., and W. Anderson, F.R.C.S. 

De Guilleville's Pilgrimage of the Sowle, edited by Prof. Dr. Leon Kellner. 

Vicary's Anatomic, 1548, from the unique MS. copy by George Jeans, edited by F. J. & Percy Furnivall. 

Vicary's Anatomic, 1548, ed. 1577, edited by F. J. & Percy Furnivall. Part II. [At Press. 

A Compilacion of Surgerye, from H. de Mandeville and Lanfrank, A.D. 1392, ed. Dr. J. F. Payne. 

William Staunton's St. Patrick's Purgatory, &c., ed. Mr. G, P. Krapp, U.S.A. 

Trevisa'sBartholomseus de Proprietatibus Rerum, re-edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. 

Bullein's Dialogue against the Feuer Pestilence, 1564, 1573, 1578. Ed. A. H. and M. Bullen. Pt. II. 

The Romance of Boctus and Sidrac, edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

The Romance of Clariodus, re-edited by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Sir Amadas, re-edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Sir Degrevant, edited from the MSS. by Dr. K. Luick. 

Robert of Brunne's Chronicle of England, from the Inner Temple MS., ed. by Prof. W. E. Mead, Ph.D. 

Maundeville's Voiage and Travaile, re-edited from the Cotton MS. Titus C. 16, &c., by Miss M. Bateson. 

Avowynge of Arthur, re-edited from the unique Ireland MS. by Dr. K. D. Buelbring. 

Guy of Warwick, Copland's version, edited by a pupil of the late Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D. 

Awdelay's Poems, re-edited from the unique MS. Douce 302, by Prof. Dr. E. Wiilfing. 

The Wyse Chylde and other early Treatises on Education, Northwich School, Harl. 2099 .fee., ed. G. Collar, B.A. 

Caxton's Dictes and Sayengis of Philosophirs, 1477, with Lord Tollemache's MS. version, ed. S. I. Butler, Esq. 

Caxton's Book of the Ordre of Chyualry, collated with Loutfut's Scotch copy. (Editor wanted.) 

Lydgate's Court of Sapience, edited by Dr. Borsdorf. 

Lydgate's Lyfe of oure Lady, ed. by Prof. Georg Fiedler, Ph.D. 

Lydgate's Dance of Death, edited by Miss Florence Warren. 

Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund, edited from the MSS. by Dr. Axel Erdinaun. 

Lydgate's Triumph Poems, edited by Dr. E. Sieper. 

Lydgate's Minor Poems, edited by Dr. Otto Glauning. 

Richard Goer de Lion, re-edited from Harl. MS. 4690, by Prof. Hausknecht, Ph.D. 

The Romance of Athelstan, re-edited by a pupil of the late Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 

The Romance of Sir Degare, re-edited by Dr. Breul. 

Mulcaster's Positions 1581. and Elementarie 1582, ed. Dr. Th. Klaehr, Dresden. 

Walton's verse Boethius de Consolatione, edited by Mark H. Liddell, U.S.A. 

The Gospel of Nichodemus, edited by Ernest Riedel. 

Sir Landeval and Sir Launfal, edited by Dr. Zimmermann. 



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BERLIN : ASHEB & CO., 13, UNTER DEN LINDEN. 
NEW YORK: C. SCRIBNER & CO.; LEYPOLDT & HOLT. 
PHILADELPHIA : J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 



(A.D. 1446.) 



EDITED FROM THE MSS. 
WITH INTEODUCTION, NOTES, AND GLOSSARY 

BY 

OTTO GLAUNING, PH.D. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED FOE THE EAKLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY 

BY KEGAN PAUL, TEENCH, TRUBNEE & CO., LIMITED, 

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING-CROSS ROAD. 

1900 



PR 

1113 

E5 
to- 80 



a 



<*tra m, LXXX. 
RICHARD CLAY & SONS, LIMITED, LONDON & BUNOAY. 




CONTENTS. 

;... PAGE 

PREFACE vii 

INTRODUCTION : 

1. THE TITLE xi 

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE MSS xi 

3. GENEALOGY AND CRITICISM OF THE TEXTS ... xvii 

4. THE METRE ... ... ... ... ... xx 

5. THE LANGUAGE ... ., xxvi 

6. THE AUTHORSHIP xxxiv 

7. THE DATE xxxvi 

8. THE SOURCES ... ... ... ... ... xxxviii 

9. CONCLUDING EEMARKS xlvi 

THE FIRST POEM: THE NIGHTINGALE 1 

THE SECOND POEM: A SAYENGE OF THE NYGHTYNGALE 16 

NOTES 29 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 77 

GLOSSARY.. 79 



TO MY PARENTS. 



Vll 



PREFACE. 



ABOUT two generations ago the works of Lydgate were very little 
known even among scholars in Middle-English literature, and the 
monk of Bury had little credit as a poet. 1 To the late Professor 
Zupitza it is due that, in the second half of the nineteenth century, 
more attention has been paid to the study of Lydgate's life and 
works. About this first real period of Lydgate study, inaugurated 
by the editor of Guy of Warwick, Professor Schick gives us a concise 
account on pp. xii and xiii of the Introduction to his excellent edition 
of the Temple of Glas. This fundamental work itself stands at the 
end of this period ; and in it, for the first time, nothing has been 
neglected which could give a vivid picture of Lydgate's life and 
works as a whole ; and his qualities as a poet have found a more 
favourable judgment than before. 

The edition of the Temple of Glas has therefore served, in a way, 
as a basis for all the following publications of works of Lydgate. 

To give a brief account of the further progress made in the study 
of Lydgate, I include in the following list all the editions of works 
of the monk, published in this second period, as far as they have 
come to my knowledge : 2 

STEELE, Eobert, Lydgate and Burgh's Secrees of old Philisoffres. A 
version of the ' Secreta Secretorum.' Edited from the Sloane 
MS. 2464, with Introduction, Notes, and Glossary. (Publica- 
tions of the Early English Text Society, Extra Series, LXVI.) 
London, 1894. 

1 See Ritson's "this voluminous, prosaick, and driveling monk," and "in 
truth, and fact, these stupid and fatigueing productions, which by no means 
deserve the name of poetry, and their stil more stupid and disgusting author, 
who disgraces the name and patronage of his master Chaucer, are neither worth 
collecting (unless it be as typographical curiositys, or on account of the beauty- 
ful illuminations in some of his presentation-copys), nor even worthy of pre- 
servation: being only suitablely adapted 'adficum & piper em,' and other more 
base and servile uses." Bibl. Poet. (1802), p. 87, 88. 

2 Th. Arnold's publication of Lydgate's verses on Bury St. Edmunds was 
not accessible to me. 



viii Preface. 

TRIGGS, Oscar Lovell, The Assembly of Gods : or The Accord of 
Reason and Sensuality in the Fear of Death by John Lydgate. 
Edited from the MSS. with Introduction, Notes, Index of 
Persons and Places, and Glossary. (Publications of the Early 
English Text Society, Extra Series, LXIX.) London, 1896. 

KRAUSSER, Emil, Lydgate's Complaint of the Black Knight. Text 
mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen. Inaugural-Dissertation zur 
Erlangung der philosophischen Doctorwiirde der philosophi- 
schen Fakultat der Universitat Heidelberg. [Sonderabdruck 
aus Anglia, Bd. xix.] Halle a. S., 1896. 

ROBINSON, Ered N., On two Manuscripts of Lydgate's Guy of 
Warwick. Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, 
Vol. v. (Child Memorial Volume.) [Harvard University.] 
Boston, 1896, pp. 177-220. 

SCHLEICH, Gustav, Lydgate's Fabula duorum mercatorum. Aus dem 
Nachlasse des Herrn Prof. Dr. I. Zupitza, Litt.D., nach samt- 
lichen Handschriften herausgegeben. (Quellen und Forschungen 
zur Sprach- und Culturgeschichte der germanischen Volker. 
LXXXIII.) Strassburg, 1897. 

SKEAT, Walter W., Chaucerian and other pieces. Edited, from 
numerous manuscripts. Being a supplement to the Complete 
Works of Geoffrey Chaucer (Oxford, in six volumes, 1894). 
Oxford, 1897. [No. 8 : The Complaint of the Black Knight. 
No. 9 : The Flour of Curtesye. No. 10 : A Balade; in Com- 
mendation of Our Lady. No. 11 : To my Soverain Lady. 
No. 12 : Ballad of Good Counsel. No. 13 : Beware of Double- 
ness. No. 14 : A Balade : Warning Men to beware of deceitful 
Women. No. 15 : Three Sayings. No. 22 : A Goodly Balade. 
No. 23 : Go forth, King.] 

HAMMOND, Eleanor P., London Lickpenny in Anglia, xx (1898), p. 
404 ff. Halle, 1898. 

HAMMOND, Eleanor P., Lydgate's Mumming at Hertford in Anglia, 
xxii (1899), p. 364 ff. Halle, 1899. 

FURNIVALL, F. J., The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, Englisht by 
John Lydgate, A.D. 1426, from the French of Guillaume de 
Deguileville, A.D. 1335. Edited . . . Parts I and II (Publica- 
tions of the Early English Text Society, Extra Series, LXXVII. 
LXXXIII). London, 1899, 1900. 1 

DEGENHART, Max, Lydgate's Horse, Goose, and Sheep. Mit Einleit- 
1 Part II was not accessible to me. 



Preface. ix 

ung und Anmerkungen herausgegeben. (Miinchener Beitrage zur 
Eomanischen und Englischen Philologie. Heft xix.) Erlangen 
und Leipzig,' 1900. 

BROTANEK, Rudolf, Die Englischen Maskenspiele. (Wiener Beitrage 
zur Englischen Philologie xv.) Wien, 1902. 

With the exception of the Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, for the 
edition of which the students of Middle-English language and litera- 
ture are infinitely obliged to the labour of Dr. Furnivall, the larger 
works of the monk still 1 have to wait for critical or even handy 
editions. Of some of the so-called Minor Poems some accurate 
editions have been published, as we have mentioned ; for the rest 
the student has still to recur to the edition by Halliwell, which has 
now turned out to be insufficient for modern researches. Therefore 
I have not looked upon it as a superfluous task to undertake, with 
Dr. Furnivall's approbation, a new edition of Lydgate's Minor Poems 
in critical texts for the Early English Text Society, of which the 
present two poems are to be the first part. 

The pleasant, if somewhat difficult task now remains to me to 
discharge, in this short space, a heavy weight of indebtedness for 
much kind help received in the course of my work, an agreeable 
duty, recalling, as it does, much pleasant intercourse not only with 
books, but with men. 

I wish to express my gratitude to the authorities and attendants 
of the British Museum, the Bodleian, and the University Libraries 
in Cambridge and Leiden, and to the librarians of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford, and Corpus Christi and Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, for having kindly given me access to their treasures. I also 
wish to thank very cordially Dr. Furnivall and Mr. Jenkinson for 
much help in my work, and especially for great personal kindness. 

Dr. Furnivall, and Miss Annie F. Parker of Oxford, have been 
kind enough to oblige me very much by reading the proofs of the 
texts with the manuscripts. 

In more than one respect I have to acknowledge my deep 
indebtedness to Professor S chick : not only do I thank him for his 
continued personal interest in this work, but also for his suggestive 
teaching; the influence of both will be noticed everywhere throughout 
the following pages. 

1 November 1901. 

Munich, February 1902. 



1. The Title. 2. Description of the MSS. xi 



INTRODUCTION. 

1. THE TITLE. 

THERE is but little to be said about the titles of our poems, as 
there are but slight differences to be stated. MS. c has the title : 
The nightyngale, supplied by a later hand ; its running title is also : 
The nyghtynghale. As this running title is in the same handwriting 
as the poem itself, we may conclude that it is the original title. 
MS. C shows the title in a modern hand : The Nightingale by lohn 
Lidgate. MS. H got its title from Stowe : it runs : A sayenge of 
the nyghtyngale ; and in MS. A we find, again in the old chronicler's 
hand : Here folowinge begynneth a sayenge of \e nightingalle Imagened 
and cumpyled by daune lohn Lidgate, munke of Berye. 1 Therefore 
the first poem may be christened : The Nightingale, the second : 
A Sayenge of the Nyghtyngale. 

2. DESCRIPTION OF THE MSS. 

A. FIRST POEM. 
1. MS. Cotton Caligula A. II = c. 

London, British Museum ; see Catal. Cotton MSS., p. 42. 2 
Compare also Furnivall, Percy's Fol. MS., II, p. 411; Sarazin, 
Octavian (Altenglische Bibliothek, III), p. ix ff. ; Kaluza, Libeaus 
Desconnus (Altenglische Bibliothek, V), p. ix ; Gough, On the Middle 
English Metrical Romance of Emare, Kiel, 1900, p. 1 ff. Paper 
book in 4 ; date : second half of the xvth cent. Kaluza, p. ix, 
says : " C. Cott. Calig. A. II, eine Papierhandschrift aus der Eegie- 
rungszeit Heinrich's VI. Furnivall (Percy's Fol. MS., II, p. 411) 
setzt sie in das lahr 1460; sie gehort aber wohl noch in das 2. 
Viertel des 15. lahrhunderts." I do not think that this state- 
ment quite hits the mark, and should prefer Dr. FurmvaH's opinion. 
Our poem extends from fol. 59a-64a (formerly fol. 57a-62a); 

This reads like a copy of one of John Shirley's titles. 

2 There is a mistake in this catalogue : the Christian name of Hoveden is 
"lohn," not "Sam." (D. N. B. xxvii, 427 a, ff.). 



xii 2. Description of the MSS. 

fol. 1-139 of the MS. are in one handwriting. The title, supplied 
by a later hand, is : The nightyngale ; the running title on fol. 59 b, 
605, 61 b, 62 b, 63 & the same, with slight variations in spelling; 
fol. 60 a, 62 a, 63 a, 64 a are without running title. On fol. 61 a 
the first line of that page (1. 155), with exception of the last word, is 
found once more on the top of the page in a very bad handwriting. 
The colophon runs : Amen . ; . Explicit. With few exceptions, we 
find capitals at the beginnings of the lines, and they are illuminated 
in red. The stanzas are marked by a certain sign on the margin. 
In the index of the MS. we read : Another poeme intitled the 
nigJitingall. 

The abbreviations are quite clear and in conformity with the 
common usage ; the scribe only shows some inconsistency in using n 
with a curl. In Romance words 1 ending in -on, this curl is generally 
meant for -oun; as in derisioiin 309, confusioiin 311, consecracioiin 
405, sauacioiin 406, that is to say, when the stress is laid on the 
ending. Then, the vowel is the same as in : doun 64, 80, 126, 276, 
279, 290, 339, 395, soun 66, croun 312, where n with curl is always 
shown. If, however, the ending is unaccented, and the vowel 
therefore shortened, the scribe expresses the difference by writing : 
seson 22, 28, 35, 58, re"son 24, 60, 117, 317, encheson 61, pardon 
228. This system is often violated ; not only do we find lesofi 39, 
lamentacion 163, passion 328, compassion 372 with curled rc, but the 
scribe also applies the overline in words where he is not authorized 
in the least to do it, as in don (p.p.) 148, 382, born 156, 313, thorn 
312, mon 350. I have therefore expanded this abbreviation only 
in the first class of cases ; in the rest I have marked it by a stroke 
above the n = n. 

The scribe has very few peculiarities in his spelling, and the 
poem in general shows an orthography not very much differing from 
the standard of Chaucer's spelling. We find a predilection for II? 
not only in the Latin ending -al: mortall 77, morall 109, originall 
142, celestyall 145, speciall 176, 327, etc., eternall 413; but in 
other words too: sotell 136, appell 151, pepyll 152, purpull 310, 
Eysell 368. Other consonants are not generally found in doubled 
form, though we have always : myddes 99, 339, 340, etc. Instead 
of the original spirant we find the media in : Wheder 38, 127, oder 
124, 291 ; de 19 may be due to the assimilating power of the 

1 Compare Schick, T. G., p. Ixi. 

2 See Morsbach, Mittelenglische Grammatik, p. 40, Anm. 2. 



2. Description of the MSS. xiii 

preceding d, or it is a mere carelessness of the scribe. y occurs as a 
consonant, representing O.E. palatal 3, in: yaf 61, 389, Ayen 130, 
226, 402, Yevyng 194, yate 325; prosthetic in "yerth" 123, 384, 
395. There are only a few cases where we find i (y) for e in 
endings: 1 hertis 21, 62, bemys 391; banyshid 383; wyntyr 27, 
aftir 92, 265, etc. ; pepyll 152. The scribe always writes : be 
(= by) 22, 23, 35, 39, etc.; whech 46, 88, 91, etc.; Thenk (60), 
139, 153, etc. ; besy 353. n and I are not unfrequently omitted: con- 
ny[n]ge 112, begynny[n]g 121, wor[l]dly 132, 153, wor[l]de 162, etc. 

2. MS. Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 203 = C. 

Oxford, Library of Corpus Christi College ; see Coxe, Cat. Cod. 
MSS. in Coll. Aul. Oxon. II. On vellum, small 8 ; date : second 
half of the xvth century. Our poem begins on p. 1, ends on p. 21, 
and is written throughout by the same scribe, though it is not 
likely that the whole was finished at once. There is no title by the 
hand of the scribe, nor any running title. At the end stands : 
Amen. Explicit. The index at the beginning, in recent handwriting, 
has : The Nightingale. By lohn Lydgate. Ded. to the Duchesse of 
Buckingham i. e. Anne, daughter of Ralph Nevill first Earle of 
Westmerland, wife of Humfrey Stafford, created Duke, of Buck, 
1444. (See 7.) Below : ProverUum Scogan, 2 p. 22. Pro- 
verbium R. Stockys? p. 23. Ext. under Chaucers Name among 
his Workes, f. 335. b. b. Middle of the page : Henry Duke of 
Warwick, p. 17. dyed 1446. At the bottom of the page : Liber 
Collegii Corporis Christi Oxon Ex dono Gulielmi Fulman* A. M. 
hujus Collegii quondam Socii. These last lines are of still later date. 

There are no initials in the MS., and at the beginning of the 
lines capitals are generally used. On p. 1, which is badly injured 
by dirt, we find a Latin invocation of the Virgin Mary : Assit 
principio sancta Maria meo. Amen. Then follows a short prose 
treatise, in which the contents of the poem are given by the scribe, 
as I think, not by Lydgate himself, judging from its incorrectness 
(compare 8). At the beginning an initial was to be inserted, 
probably by the hand of the illuminator, but was forgotten after- 
wards. The introduction and the first two stanzas are, in our 

1 See Schick, T. O., p. Ixv, note 3. 

a See Ritson, B. P., p. 97-98 ; D. N. B. li, p. 1 ; Kittredge in Notes and 
Studies in Philology and Literature 1. (Harvard University) Boston, 1892, p. 
109 ff. 

3 See Ritson, B. P., p. 106. 4 See D. N. B. xx, p. 326 ff. 



xiv 2. Description of the MSS. 

edition, taken from this MS., as they are not found in MS. c. But 
from st. 3 onwards, the Caligula MS. has been preferred as basis 
(see 3). 11. 299 and 300 are transposed in this MS. In 1. 335 
" hen(ne)," 1. 336 the e of " whenn(e) " is cut down in binding, and 
1. 399 " shede " is illegible. 

Some of the most conspicuous orthographic and phonetic peculi- 
arities of the scribe are the following. The voiceless s is given as 
88: Assendyth iv, gesse 86, blessyd 259, or sc : sentensce 12, sensce 
16, Ascendyng 26, or c : secyth 37, or s : persed 52, perse 138, con- 
seyte 60 (Schleich, Fabula, p. liii). About ' noresynge ' 30, compare 
ten Brink, 112; about ' sclepe ' 29, 35, 44, etc. (but < slepe ' 
118), 'sclowth' 57, 'scle' 161, etc., compare Yarnhagen in Anglia, 
Anzeiger, vii (1884), p. 86-91. w often occurs as a second consti- 
tuent in diphthongs (?), representing O.E. d or O.Fr. u : trowblos 48, 
owre (= hour) 78, 86, (= our) 264, Abowte 105, fownde 108, 
nowmbere 125, downe 126, etc. Compare: sclowth 57, trowth 
374 ; revth 344 ; ruthe 372. Twice, w is put instead of v : Awayll 
76, concewe 134. c occurs for g in: can 25, 136, 308, canne 54, 
neclygence 65. J> occurs in: J>u 156, fat 394. y as a consonant, 
representing O.E. palatal 3, in: yaf 61, 389, yeuynge 194, Ayene 
226, 402 ; prosthetic in : yerth 348, 384, 395, yeke 402. 

The scribe shows a great predilection for putting i or y for e 
in endings: myddys viii, ourys xi; declaryd 17, secyth 37, boryn 
156, etc. ; lityll 1, wyntyre 27, Whedyre 38, opyn 100, etc. Besides 
we find: this (= thus) 28, 178, thys 169, ych (= each) 143 (vche 
236), fynde (= fiend) 353, thyn (== then) 388. Less frequently 
than i or y we find u in endings instead of e : murthus 74, clowdus 
94, bemus 391; owuthe 116; vndurstondefi xii, ffadure xiii, remem- 
bure 119, Appull 151, pepull 152. In some cases a special flourish 
is used for abbreviating the ending -us, as in galantus 11, hertus 
21, 62, kalendus 45, boffettus 255. hure i, ii, iv, 5, 6, 39, hur 4, 
etc., but hyre 7, 10, hyr 8, 9, etc. e for i: a., in unaccented syllables : 
mescheue 137, orygenall 142, rightwesnesse 204, consydrenge 234; 
yef 177, yeff 196, hes (= his) 410 ; &., in accentuated syllables : leue 
168, 384, leueste 172. ' perseue ' 67, conceuede ' 68, ' concewe ' 134 
on one side, and 'deceyve' 136 on the other are no peculiarities 
of the scribe, but the representatives of the O.Fr. double forms : 
' concevons ' : stress on the ending, and ' conce"if ' : stress on the stem. 

As in MS. c, the scribe fairly often has a flourish above n. A 
glance at the following examples will justify my reproducing it as in 



2. Description of the MSS. xv 

MS. c : swan iii, doura viii, crystyn x, passyorw xi, vndurstonden 
xii, man xiv, Ascencyone xviii, etc. 

Moreover, we find that the scribe sometimes omits single letters : 
lame[n]table v, An[d] x, 155, 349, rygh[t] 59, Eygh[t] 63, etc., 
ffe[r]thyre 85, wor[l]de 121, etc. 

B. SECOND POEM. 
1. MS. Harleian 2251 = H. 

London, British Museum ; see Catal. MSS. Harl., II, p. 578, 
581, and 582. A paper book in small fol. ; Foerster, Herrig's Archiv, 
ciii, p. 149 ff., dates it 1459, from internal evidence. This MS. 
was always 1 considered to be written by Shirley's hand, till Foerster 
in the article mentioned above proved that this opinion was erroneous. 
Our poem, in one handwriting, is found on fol. 229 a-234 b (formerly 
fol. 255 a-260 b). The title, in the hand of Stowe, the historian, 
runs: A sayenge of the nyghtyngale. No running title. At the 
end we read : Of this Balade Dan lohn Lydgate made nomore. 
At the beginning, there is an initial in red and blue ; the headings 
of the lines generally begin with capitals, which are illuminated 
with red. There is no index in the MS. 1. 236 is omitted. 

There are dots marking the csesural pause. I think they teach 
us nothing, as they are put in very arbitrarily by the scribe e. g. 
1. 8 after: forsoth, 1. 9 : song, 1. 31 : hem, 1. 36 : herde, 1. 87 : doo, 
1. 97 : dide, 1. 218 : me, so I do not reproduce them or take them 
into consideration when dealing with the metre. 

Of the peculiarities of Shirley (see above and 3), mentioned 
by Furnivall, Odd Texts, p. 78, and Schick, T. G., p. xxiii, we 
find here but: uw for ew : -huwed 2, nuwe 15, suwen 163. Other 
peculiarities of the scribe are : * (y) for e in endings : fowlis 4, 
stems 38, grassis 39, briddis 55, 59, 64, handis 114; meanyth 56, 
82, takith 65, 83, Betokenyth 66, Shakith 74, qwakyth 74 ; callid 
25, 333, blessyd 127, 143, 249, 364, pressid 154, offendid 213; 
gardyn 53, 340, etc.; also: hym (= hem) 117, 282, etc. ie for e 
(Schleich, Fabula, p. xxxv) occurs in: bien 17, 29, 106, 362, 
cliere 36, 252, 284, 362, chiere 46, fieble 186; triewe 69 (17, 56, 
80). w as a vowel (Schleich, Fabula, p. xlv) : twnes 36, 58, etc. ; 
as the second element of a diphthong in : Emerawdes 34. Very 

1 e. g. Cat. ffarl. MSS. II, p. 578 ; Morley, English Writers, v, p. 148 note ; 
Skeat, Chaucer, I, p. 57; D. N. B. Iii, p. 134 a; Steele, Sccrecs, p. xi; Schleich, 
Fabula, p. I. 

NIGHTINGALE. b 



xvi 2. Description of the MSS. 

often consonants appear in doubled form: bridde 20, 51, 71, 
langwisshyng 29, 1 Cherissh 30, 1 Castell 32, allone 48, 160, etc. 

2. Additioiml MS. 29729 = A. 

London, British Museum; see Gatal. Addit. MSS. On paper, 
small fol., in the handwriting of Stowe; date 1558 (see Catal. 
Index). Our poem extends from fol. 161 a-166a. The title runs : 
Here folowinge begyjineth a sayenge of j?e nightingalle Imagened and 
cumpyled by daune lolm Lidgate, munke of Berye. There are no 
running title, no colophon, no initials; capitals are also rare and 
without system. On the title-page of the MS. we read : Daune 
Lidigate morike of Burye, Ms Woorkes, supplied below, by a later 
hand: written by Stowe. 

According to fol. 179 a of the MS. (compare also Schick, T. G., 
p. xix), the MS. is a copy by Stowe from Shirley, therefore we are 
not surprised to find some cases where the peculiarities of the 
original spelling are preserved (see Schick, T. G., p. xxiii) : uw for 
ew: -huwed 2, truwe 30, 69, huwe 121. e- for y- in the p.p. in: 
eblent 130, emeynt 137, elefft 220. There are many examples 
which still show Shirley's predilection for ff (see p. xii 2 ), though 
it is possible that these may be due to the same predilection of 
Stowe's, as we find an exceedingly large number of cases where other 
consonants too (see below) are doubled without any apparent reason : 
/in: sauffe 10, yff 50, 77, 207, theffe 102, lifft 103, cheffe 246, 
251, etc., off 252, 312, soffte 264, lyffe 342, contemplative 343. 

Other peculiarities are : i or y in endings for e : grasys 39, 
thevys 174; pressin 152, pressyd 154, forsakyne 170, spokyn 202, 
bonchyd 206, -percyd 210, blessyd 249, clepyd 257, makid 298; 
gardin (gardyn) 53, 340, etc. Notice : pardy 24, maundy 248. 
a for e before r: evar 159, 178, nevar 172, 179. w as a vowel, 
occurs in: nwe 123, (but newe 15), endwre 181, wnkynd 182; 
emerawdes 34. Not without interest for the date of the MS. is the 
changing of d and th in the words : moder 162, mother 257, fader 
259, fathers 274, and also the forms of the pronouns (see 5). 
Of the doubled consonants, II occurs in the largest number of 
examples : dalle 9, nightingalle 11, allone 48, -sellfe 72, etc., chaun- 
dellabre 320, mortall 352, crystall 362, etc. tt in: grett 67, 88, 
etc., fett 114, 283, Pylatt 138, -outten 179, etc. The pron. possess, 
fern, occurs as : her 13, 36, hur 15, 16, 23, hir 37, 62, 73, hyr 83, 
1 See Schleich, Fdbula, p. li; ten Brink, 112 a. 



3. Genealogy and Criticism of the Texts. xvii 

etc. Compare: eghen 108, egghen 130, eghe 177, eyen 194. 
Obvious mistakes are seen in : dedemcyon (for : redemcyon) 284, 
assay[l]e 308; about 'chayne' (?) 318, compare the note to that 
line. 

3. GENEALOGY AND CRITICISM OF THE TEXTS. 
I. The MSS. c and C. 

The text of the first poem is handed down to us in fairly good 
condition, as the two MSS. do not generally differ much from each 
other, so that we may say with certainty that both go back to a 
common original. But notwithstanding the general coincidence, 
they cannot either of them have been derived directly from the 
other : 

1. c cannot be derived from C, because, though there is no very 
remarkable difference in the date, c is certainly the elder of the two, 
and, moreover, C has a very long list of its own individual faults, 
where c has the better reading : 

40. mervell c] merevell hit C. 42. mery] om. 71. is] om. 
81. endure shall] enduryth. 90. song] schange. 95. enlumyned] 
enlewmyde. 106. of] to. 115. cristen-man] kyrsten manes. 128. 
fall] schall. 129. the] the rygh. 139. thi-self] they-selfe. 165. 

With] With the. 166. byddeth the] by the. 173. these] this. 

202. age] cm. 212. Noght] How. 236. vn-to] in-to. 277. syng- 
yng] syngnified. 280. in] om. 299, 300] transposed in C. 302. 
youre] cure. 314. Vnto] Vpon. 323. Ye] The. 331. peple] pepull 
that. 333. hym to] to hym. 369. crym] tyme. 385. all] Allso. 

2. C is independent of c, because the first two stanzas are missing 
in c. The prose treatise at the beginning in C, being not by the 
poet, but probably by the scribe (see 8), may be a special foreword 
to C, and independent of the form in which the poem may have 
circulated. Farther, though the scribe of C is not a very careful 
man, C offers in some cases the preferable reading, where c is wrong, 
though it is not at all likely that the careless scribe of C corrected 
these errors : 

130. quert C] quarte c. 150. Anone] or none. 222. Ley] Ley 
that. 233. aswaged was] was aswaged. 243. redy is] ys redy the. 
257. of] of pite &. 270,-Restreyne] Restreyned. 283. To] The. 
314. peynes] peynes, calde. 339. avale] a-vaile. 348. in] in a. 
374. all] om. 



xviii 3. Genealogy and Criticism of the Texts. 

We hence conclude that c and C go back, to a common original 
MS. X, which is lost, but probably through the medium of a MS. 
Z. As arguments, we can bring forward that, roughly speaking, 
both versions exhibit the same wording, and that some peculiarities 
in spelling e. g. i (y) for e in endings are found in both MSS. in 
the same places. Considering that c has mostly the better reading, 
we may even be allowed to suppose that C is not a direct copy from 
MS. Z, but from an intermediate MS. Y which has also been lost. 

X 



II. The MSS. H and A. 

The case here is very much the same as in the foregoing 
paragraph. The nearly complete parallelism of the text, which on 
the whole is well preserved, forces us to assume a common original ; 
the more, when we consider that certain more or less delicate traces 
of the peculiarities in the original spelling are preserved in both 
MSS. But here also the two MSS. are independent of each other. 

1. H cannot be derived from A, because it is just a hundred 
years older than the other. Besides, A shows a certain number of 
individual readings, which are not found in H. 

2. westward H] estwarde A. 6. taughtfe]] taught tho. 20. sle] 
sleth. 23. theyr] hur. 30. affectiouii] affectyons. 43. that] om. 
58. herdest] haddest. 63. to encres] tencresse them. 65. the] om. 
115. in] of. 118. an] om. 131. and] and to. 155. is] is I. 165. 
diden flee] dyd wend. 230. grete] om. 273. rayle] ryall. 281. 
kyndenesses] kyndnes. 282. the[e]] om. 284. a] om. 295. palme] 
pallis. 299. key] kepe. 318. Tau] chayne. 329. thurgh] ouer. 
354. Callyng] called. 362. thaleys] paleys. 

3. Nor can A come from H : the peculiarities of Shirley's spelling 
are better preserved in A than in H ; 1. 236 is omitted in H ; further 
A sometimes has the better reading than H. 

4. in A] om. H. 62. fyry] fayre. 103. and] at. 144. can] 
om. 153. and] and the. 202. heringe of tales] tales heryng. 
224. them] om. 232. heued] om. 236. om. H. 302. ascencyon] 



3. Genealogy and Criticism of the Texts. xix 

Kedempcioun. 313. whoo] om. 344. For] ffrom. 346. Is] It is. 
351. fat] om. 

It is impossible to believe that A in these cases should have, of 
itself, found the true reading, considering the long list of inferiorities 
above, where A always ranks secondarily to H. At last, two in 
themselves insignificant faults of A seem to me very interesting. 
1. 334 A writes: palegorye, whereas H has: the Allegorye ; again, 
in 1. 362 A : paleys, H thaleys. I think it is evident that Stowe 
would not have misread H, but he must have had a MS. before him, 
where the old J> was used : now ]? is one of Shirley's predilections. 

III. The MSS. taken as bases. 

The foregoing discussion of the genealogy of the MSS. has 
proved that, 1. in both cases we have not the original; 2. in each 
case which of the MSS. is preferable : In c and H the number of 
better readings outweighs the faults ; moreover, both are older than 
C and A, so I took them as the bases of my texts. 

The introduction and the first two stanzas of the c-version are 
taken from C, not being found in c. I need not say that I profited 
by C and A to correct the errors of c and H. 

Every deviation from the MSS. taken as bases is indicated. 
Square brackets are used to supply omissions of words, syllables, and 
letters. Where it was not possible to use brackets, I marked the 
altered word, or the first of a group of words, by an asterisk. In all 
cases the reading of c or H is each time noted at the bottom of the 
page. Abbreviations are expanded in the usual way (italics) ; about 
n compare 2 ; underlined proper names in H are printed in 
heavy type. Various readings of C and A, so far as they represent 
variations of meaning, are given at the bottom of the page. Mere 
orthographical or phonetic variations of no interest are neglected, the 
peculiarities of the scribes being discussed at large in 2. About 
the caesural pause, compare Description of MS. H, p. xv above. 
The tags to d, f, g, r are not printed. 

The entire punctuation is mine./ 1 , at the beginning of the 
lines, is replaced by F. As it is often very difficult to say whether 
the letter standing in the MS. is a capital or not, I have introduced 
capitals regularly at the beginning of a line, and in proper names. 
The indefinite article, certain adverbs, or other short words are often 
joined to the word following them ; these I have separated. On 
the contrary, words separated by the scribe are joined by hyphens. 



xx 4. The Metre. 

4. THE METRE. , 

"In many cases it is, hoivever, impossible to classify a line ..." 

Schick, T. G., p. lix. 

1. Structure of the Verse. 

The metrical form of the poems is the Rhyme Royal (Schipper, 
Englische Metrik, I, 196; Schick, T. G., p. liv), seven-line 
stanzas of five-beat lines, with the sequence of rhymes a b a b b c c. 
In the first poem we find st. 34 with the sequence ababbac', in 
the second one st. 18 and st. 54 are six-line stanzas with the rhymes 
a b a b c c; st. 20 is an eight-line stanza with a b a b b b c c. 

Following Prof. Schick's system in his T. G., p. Ivii ff., we have 
five varieties of verse. 

Type A. " The regular type, presenting five iambics, to which, 
as to the other types, at the end an extra syllable may be added. 
There is usually a well-defined caesura after the second foot, but not 
always" 

I. Poem. 

15. Commandyng the/m // to here wyth tenderne"sse 

17. Whos songe and deth // declared is expresse 

19. But notheles // considred the sentence 

21. And fleschly lust // out of theyre hertis chace 

23. In prime-tens // renoueled yere be yere 

40. Gret mervell is // the enduryng of hir throte. 

Of such entirely regular lines we have 133. Besides, I read as 
of type A 98 lines where the -e in the caesura was surely dropped 
in Lydgate's time, especially before vowels ; compare Krausser, 
Complaint, p. 14, and 0. Bischoff, Englische Studien, xxv, p. 339 : 

8. Vn-t6 the tyme // hyr ladyly goodnesse 

9. Luste for to call // vn-to hyr high presence 
41. That her to here // it is a second heuen 
49. But, as god wold, // in hast y was Releued 

56. Me calde ande sayde : // " A-wake & Ryse, for shame 
67. For to perceyue // with all my diligence. 

In the following examples the caesura presents a particular 

interest : 

Usual caesura after the arsis of the 1. measure : 11. 73, 297. 1 
Lyric caesura after the thesis of the 3. measure : 11. 45, 46, 74, 

108, 121, 129, etc. = 37 lines. 

3 For the usual caesura after the arsis of the 2. measure : see the two classes 
of regular lines above. 



4. The Metre. xxi 

Usual caesura after the arsis of the 3. measure: 11. 12, 16-, 32, 
60, 84, 86, etc. = 20 lines. 

Lyric caesura after the thesis of the 4. measure : 11. 53, 314, 341. 

Without apparent caesura : 11. 3, 47, 48, 52, 54, 57, etc. = 20 
lines. 

To sum up, we have in the first Poem 133 + 98 + 82 = 313 
lines of type A, or 7 6 '5 per cent, of all the lines. 

II. Poem. 

Entirely regular lines : 85 examples. 

Regular lines with mute -e in the caesura : 79 examples. 

Usual caesura after the 1. measure : 1. 72. 

Lyric caesura after the thesis of the 2. measure : 11. 66, 106. 

[Usual caesura after the arsis of the 2. measure : all the regular 
lines.] 

Lyric caesura after the thesis of the 3. measure: 11. 1, 4, 6, 13, 
17, etc. = 81 lines. 

Usual caesura after the arsis of the 3. measure : 11. 221, 286, 
317, 351. 

Without cassura: 11. 68, 115, 177, 180. 

Together 85 + 79 + 92 = 256 lines of the type A or 68 
per cent. 

Type B. "Lines with the trochaic caesura, built like the pre- 
ceding, but ivith an extra-syllable before the caesura" 

I. Poem. 

26. Phebiis ascendyng, // clere schynyng in hys spere 
28. And lusty seson // thus newly reconciled 
35. Whych in her seson // be slepfe] set no tale 
39. Redly rehersyng // her leson ay be rote 
65. Expelling clerly // all wilfle negligence 
71. Ande in Aurora, // that is the morowe gray. 
65 lines = 15 -5 per cent. 

The following 3 lines present special difficulties, wherefore I give 
them scanned: 

[4. The Duches of Bdkyngham, 1 // and 6f hur excellence] 
30. Vnt6 the nourishing // of euer^ creature 2 
251. Remembryng specially // vp6n this 6ure of prime. 

1 Compare Shakspere's Buckingham = Bucknam. 

2 Schleich, Fabula, 1. 27 ; Krausser, Complaint, 1. 59. 



xxii 4. The Metre. 

II. Poem: 39 lines = 10 per cent. 

Type C. " The peculiarly Lydgatian type, in ichich the thesis is 
wanting in the ccesura, so that two accented syllables clash together." 

I. Poem. 

31. With-oute whech // braynes must be mad 
34. Meueth to wach, // as the nyghtingale 
85. Till that hyt drogh // forther of the day 

122. Ande how grete g6d, // of his endles myght 

123. Hath heven ande yerth // f6rmed with a th6ght 
127. Hygh or loVe, // wheder-so-euer thow be. 

21 lines = 5 per cent. 
II. Poem. 44 lines = 12 per cent. 

Compare the amount of this type in The Complaint of the Black 
Knight, 1402-3 = 10 per cent. 

Temple of Glas, 1403 = 3-5 per cent. 

Hors, Goose, and Sheep, 1436-40 = 6'2 per cent. 

Nightingale, I. Poem, 1446 = 5 per cent. 

Nightingale, II. Poem, ? = 12 per cent. 

Type D. " The acephalous or headless line, in which the first 
syllable has been cut off, thus leaving a monosyllabic first measure" 

I. Poem. 

22. Meued of C6rage // be vertu of the seson 

24. Gladyng euery hert // of veray reson 

33. Excepte tho6 // that kyndely nature 
131. Saue thy soule, // or elles shalt thou smerte 
146. Crist, consyderyng // the gret captyuyte 
254. Pounce Pylat^ // that luge was of the lawe. 

11 lines = 2*5 per cent. 
With epic caesura (as in type B) : 4 examples. 
With usual caesura after the arsis of the 2. measure : 6 examples. 
With usual caesura after the arsis of the 3. measure : 1. 24. 

II. Poem. 38 lines = 10 per cent. 
With epic caesura (as in type B) : 4 examples. 
With usual caesura after the arsis of the 2. measure : 16 examples. 
With lyric caesura after the thesis of the 3. measure : 18 examples. 
Type E. " Lines with a trisyllabic first measure" 
Lines of this type occur but in the I. Poem 3 = 0'5 per cent. 
4. See type B. 
13. Of the nyghtyngale, // and in there mynde enbrace 



4. The Metre. xxiii 

113. Be this nyghtingale, // that thus freshly can. 

The following list will show the proportion of the types in both 

poems : 

I. Poem. II. Poem. 

Type A 76*5 per cent. 68 per cent. 

B 15-5 10 

j, C 5 ,, 12 ,, 

D 2-5 10 

,, E 0-5 

The proportion of the different kinds of caesuras is as follows : 

I. Poem. II. Poem. 

Usual caesura 68 per cent. 60 per cent. 

Epic 17 12 

Lyric 10 27 

Caesura wanting 5 1 ,. 

Compare Krausser, Complaint, p. 16, 17, and Degenhart, HOTS, 
p. 35. Some lines exhibit the peculiarities of two types at the same 
time, as in the first poem 1. 4 of B and E, 1. 113 of C and E and 1. 
127 of C and D ; in the second 1. 83 also of C and D. 

Inverted accent is found in the first poem in 29 lines (7 per cent.) 
and in the second in 37 lines (10 per cent.); again 24 (= 83 per 
cent.) of those 29 lines have it in their first measure, of the 37 lines 
of the second poem 25 or 70 per cent, have it at their very beginning. 
Double thesis may nearly always be read by slurring over without 
injuring the flow. The one line 251 of the first poem makes an 
exception, and perhaps 11. 195, 197 : Fro morow to nyght . . . 

The absence of thesis I observed in 11. 38, 397 of the first poem. 

Hiatus is very often found. In the c-version in 81 lines, in the 
H-version in 65 lines. 

Synizesis, elision, syncope, etc. also occur very often in both 
poems. I only mention, as being of particular interest, 11. 137, 138 
of the second poem: This is he . . . = This' he; comp. Schick, 
T. G., p. lix; Krausser, Complaint, p. 15, 1. 241. 

Slight traces of alliterative traditions also occur in our poems 
(compare ten Brink, 334 ff.; McClumpha, The Alliteration of 
Chaucer. Diss. Leipzig. 1888; Triggs, Assembly, p. xx ; Krausser, 
Complaint, pp. 17, 18; Morrill, Speculum Gy de Warewyke, p. 
cxlvii). However, I rather doubt that any system is to be observed ; 
only poetical formulas like the following ones may have been used 
by Lydgate more or less intentionally : 

c : Eedly rehersyng 39, melodiouse and mery 42, slombre-bed of 



xxiv 4. The Metre. 

slouth & sleep 57, my myrthes ande my melodye 74 (104), to hyrt 
then hele 154, vice ande vertu 214, bareyne . . . and bare 245, salf 
thy sore 319, woo or wele 320, soth to say 341, bemys bright 
391, etc. 

H : Rowes Rede 3, downe nor daale 9, notes mi we 15, ful fay re 
and fressh 46, Bathed in bloode 136, rekeii or remembre 189, shoone 
so sheene 194, poynaunt as poysouii 201, Beten and bonched 206, 
sores for to sounde 268, trouble and tribulaciouii 347, calle and crye 
356, etc. 

2. The Rhyme, 
a. Quality of the Rhymes. 

Most of the rhymes we find are pure, so that they would agree 
with Chaucer's system. Therefore I have taken this as the standard, 
and confine myself to pointing out only the differences. In both 
poems we find some peculiarities such as occur in Lydgate's works 
(Schick, T. G., p. Ix). 

p- and o-rhymes (ten Brink, 31 ; Bowen in Englische Studien, 
xx, p. 341) : 

Inc: don 148 (p.p. O.E. $ed6n), Anqne 150 (O.E. onan). 

In H: also, 366 (O.E. ealswa), herto 368 (O.E. her-to). 

Doubtful is the rhyme : stoole 141 (KE. stole), stoole 143 (KE. 
stool). The first stoole is Lat. stola (OTO\T)); O.E. stole is, I sup- 
pose, not absolutely impossible (compare coc : coquum, scol : scola, 
etc.), but modern English stole = sto u l. Kluge in Paul's Grundriss, 
i. 931, has stole, Sweet, Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, stole. 
The second stoole is surely O.E. stol. 

- and e-rhymes : 

In c: natiuite 160, sl 161 (inf., O.E. slean); Trinite 289, thre 
291 (O.E. ]>reb), Se? 292 (O.E. s&). 

In H: free 328 (O.E. freo), See 329 (O.E. sie). 

In c, the rhyme here 111, 344 (inf., O.E. heran) were 112 (opt. 
pt., O.E. wsere) and were 346 (pt. pi., O.E. w&ron) is probably 
pure, as the Anglian form of were is were, weron. In Chaucer it 
rhymes but in a few cases with e, generally with $ (ten Brink, 25). 

A good many clieap rhymes are found. Suffixes rhyming with 
each other, e. g. in c : -ence 2-4-5, 65-67-68, -ure 30-32-33 ; in 
H: -aunce 16-18-19, -acioun, -oun 198-200-201, -acle 317-319- 
320. Further e. g. in c: conceyue 134, deceyue 136; precede 155, 
succede 157 ; born 156, for-born 159 ; displese 230, plese 231 ; in H: 



4. The Metre. xxv 

dismembre 72, membre 74, Remembre 75 ; observe 107, conserve 
109; heede 83, flesshlyhede 84. About the rhymes, in c hele 317 
(subst.), hele 319 (verb), and in H stoole 141, stoole 143 compare 
ten Brink, 330. Once, in c, we have the same word rhyming with 
itself : age 11. 298 and 299. Double forms occur of the verb to die : l 
The infinitive deye rhymes H 178 with w&y 176 (dat. sg.) as well 
as c 107 the preterit singular deyede with signifiede 109 and notified 
110. The same verb occurs in the rhyme e. g. c. 11. 75, 91, 166. eye 
(pi.) c. 1. 100 rhymes with melodie 102 and sodenlye 103. 

b. Number of rhyming syllables. 

There can be no doubt that we have monosyllabic or strong 
rhymes in c: 29-31, 36-38, 43-45, etc.; in H: 20-21, 30-32-33, 
55-56, etc., and dissyllabic or weak rhymes in c: 2-4-5, 6-7, 8-10, 
etc.; in H : 15-17, 16-18-19, 22-24, etc. Note the weak rhymes 
in c: seson 22, reson 24, and seson 58, reson 60, encheson 61. 2 To 
the far greater number of lines we can rigorously apply Chaucer's 
standard for preserving the final -e, representing the different vowels 
of the old full endings. We shall find but a comparatively limited 
number of cases which will not agree with it. 

There is first a very considerable number of -i, -ze-rhymes (ten 
Brink, 327; Gattinger, p/74 ff.). In the Temple of Glas about 
1403 no example of that kind of rhyme is found; in the Black 
Knight (1402-3) there are 3, in Horse, Goose, and Sheep (1436-40) 
none. (Compare Deutsche Litter atur-Zeitung, 1901, 33, p. 2074 ff.). 
Inc.- ocy 90, dye 91 (inf.). 

eye 100 (pi.), melodie 102, sodenlye 103. 
crye 163 (O.Fr. cri), richly 165, dye 166 (inf.). 
perfytly 282, multiplie 284 (inf.), viciously 285. 
In H : sky 2 (O.K sky), melodyfe] 4, Armonye 5. 

melody [e] 13, occy 14. 
Other examples are as follows : 
In c: presence 9, -tens 11 (O.Fr. temps), sentensce 12. 
sense 16 (O.Fr. sens), eloquence 18, sentence 19. 
a-yeyn 226, payne 228, restreyne 229 (inf.). 
lawe 254 (dat. sg.), to-drawe 256 (p.p.), sawe 257 (3. sg. pt;). 
a-wayte 302 (O.Fr. await), bayte 304 (O.K beita). 
ys 331, mysse 333 (inf.), blisse 334 (dat. sg.). 

1 Schick, T. G., p. Ixi. 

a Compare Skeat, Chaucer, vii. xiv. : geson 9, seson 11, treson 12. Ibid. 
vii. vii. : reson 142, seson 144. 



xxvi 5. The Language. 

delite 352 (O.Fr. delit), quite 354 (inf.), appetite 355 (O.Fr. 

appetit). 
Doubtful: tendernesse 15, expresse 17. 

diuine 184 (O.Fr. divin), declyne 186 (inf.), matutyne 187. 

none 380 (dat. sg.), don 382 (p.p.), sone 383 (O.E. sona). 
In H : messangier 44 (O.Fr. messager), chiere 46 (O.Fr. chiere), 
here 47. 

apparaile 272 (O.Fr. appareil), rayle 273 (inf.). 

telle 295 (inf.), Danyell 297. 

nature 373 (O.Fr. nature), pure 375 (O.Fr. pur). 
Doubtful: forsoke 160 (pi.), tooke 161 (sg.). 

5. THE LANGUAGE. 1 

A. DECLENSION. 

1. Substantives. Strong Masculines and Neuters. 

Nom. and A cc. without ending, but in H wey[e] 350 (inorganic, 
see Schick, T. G. t p. Ixv ; Krausser, Complaint, p. 21 ; Speculum 
Gy de Warewyke, ed. by G. Morrill, p. clxix ; Pilgr., 11. 74. 4606). 
it-stem : sone 277. 

Genitives in es : in c : lordes 328, lyues 408. Dissyllable in es : 
someres 36. 

In H: sones 24, briddes 51, 76, briddis 55, 59, 64. 

Datives in e: in c: slepfe] 35. 2nd yere (?) 23. 

In H : the following doubtful examples : daale 9, wey 176, 
morwe 344 (or morow). ja-stem : hewe 121. 

In all other examples without ending. 
Plural in es : 

In c: 1. masc.: bemes 93, bemys 391, othes 171, lordes 323; 
theves 0) 366, 375. But angels 125. 

2. neutr.: braynes 31, cloudes 94, thinges 124, 173, folkes 356; 
yeres (?) 247. Besides we find : childre 311 (elision) and two 
examples of the old plural without ending : thing 260 and folk 279. 

In H: 1. masc.: fowlis 4, theves 174, thornes 191, stones 330. 
i-stem : witte's 184. Dissyllables in es : loVers 17, 63 ; besides : 
showres 338 (rh. paramours 340). 

2. neutr.: grassis 39, folkes 266, sores 268. in es : folkes 204. 
in en : children 328. 

1 On the principles followed in this paragraph, compare Schick, T. G. t 
p. Ixiv and Ixv, note 2. 



5. The Language. xxvii 

One example of the old plural : folk 89. 
Strong Feminities. 

Nom. Neither of the poems has any example with sounded e, 
there are but disputable cases : 

In c : goodnesse 8 (ten Brink, 207, 2), queene 62. 

In H: qwene 35, synne 70, sorwe 181 (or s6row). 

Genitives: loue's c. 14 and mankynde H. 323. 

Dat. and Ace. The ending is preserved : 

In c : worlde 48. In some cases it is doubtful whether the e was 
pronounced or not : lustynesse 10, tale 35, shame 56, swetnesse 89, 
ryght-wisnesse 204, wrechednesse 206, synne 212, snare 244, sake 
266, youth 272, reuth 372, trewth 374, 1 mynde 378, tyde 389. 
But there are many examples where the e was evidently mute : loue 
20, tyde 102, synne 118, helle 126, 144, byrth 169, sothfastnes 184, 
world 210, 278, soule 244, 315, 334, wonde 319, rode 364. 

In H: love 29, 68, sake 110, blisse 243, synne 279 ; but downe 
9, myght 31, love 35, 96, 109, hede 98, 368, worlde 349. Doubtful 
cases are love 43, honde 64, synne 70, reklesnes 90, kyndenesse 91, 
sake 97, mone 157, mekenesse 225, clennesse 227, wounde 270, 
boote 323, sorwe 346 (or sorow). 

Plural in es. 

In c: handes 255, soules 303, 396, tydes 341 ; myrthes (?) 74. 

In H: Eowes 3, woundis 113, 287, synnes 183, 223, tales 202, 
handis 240, gyftes 245, kyndenesses 281; handis 114, 208. The 
old form of the Dat. PI. is preserved in H 310 Whilom. 

Weak Nouns. 
1. Masculines. 

Nom. wele c. 153 and bowe H 24 are doubtful; the e was 
certainly mute in : nek c. 255. 

Genit. in es: Crabbes H 1. 

Dat. and Ace. No conclusive example of sounded e, all the 
examples being dubious : in c: tyme 80, 197, 242, smert 223, wele 
320 ; but tyme 382. 

In H: mone (?) 48, tene (?) 193. 

Plural. In c occurs but sterres 283 and feres (?) 249 ; in H : 
stems 38, dropes 150; but dropes 121. 

1 Compare Skeat, Chaucer: V. Tr. 1385-6, and I. Book of the Duchesse, 97-8. 



xxviii 5. The Language. 

2. Feminities. 

Nom. Again no conclusive example of sounded e. In c nyghtyn- 
gale 337, 393 are doubtful ; but herte 47 and sunne 390. 

In H : iiyghtyngale (1) 355. lady as vocative occurs 20, 24, 30. 

Gen. in es : hertis c. 62. 

Dat. and Ace. In c: in e: the single herte 138; the others 
disputable : nyghtingale 34, throte 40, hert 128, 397 (enumeration), 
smert 223, hele 317, side 387. Certainly e have hert 52, 270, 295, 
syde 236. 

In H: nyghtyngale 11, side 26, 114, 164, hert 95, smert 96, 
pride 233, almesse 241, all dubious ; in e, with certainty, erth 215. 

Plural in es : hertis c. 21 and sides H 273, 305. 

3. Neuters. 
Plural: eye (?) c. 100. len H 194. 

Root-stems. 

In Hvre find the two old plural forms : feete 114, 210, 283 and 
men 209, 299. Besides there occur : 

Gen. : in c: fad res 183, but mannes 261. 

In H: mannes 97, 110, 169, 193, 197, 230, 357, 365; faders 274. 

Plural: in H: bookes 331 ; fiendes 317. 

Gen. : in H: feendis 286, 294. 

!N"ote: crysten-man / Soule c. 115/0. 

Romance Nouns}- 

Singular : We have the French -e preserved : in c : peple 285, 
tierce 342 ; in H : spouse 360. Only in c occur (10) cases where 
the -e was certainly mute : grace 154, voice 178, vice 215, luge 254, 
prime 268, croun 312, peyne 315, tierce 337, syxte 365, 378. 

Polysyllables, with the accent thrown back, have -e : in c : 
pr^nses 1, C6rage 22, nature 46, 75, richesse 164, etc. (11. 180, 182, 
213, 219, 257, 263, 265, 329, 354); also: melodye 104. in H: 
nature 6, sentence 56, foly 60, maner 70, custom 107, siifrraimce 
144, f/naunce 147, malice 288 ; also : melody 13. 

Plural: in es : in c: notes 66, 69, 83, 87, 338, peynes 314, 373, 
prynces 323, ages 351, scornes 368. in H : notes 15, 354, twncs 
36, floures 40, 118, peynes 210, clerkis 295. 

Polysyllables have -es, when the accent is thrown back : in c : 

1 In order to avoid a rather too big number of doubtful examples, I enumer- 
ate here only the unquestionable cases. 



5. The Language. xxix 

galantus 11, 267, boffettes 255, cites 291, tormented 367, but: dis- 
ciples 189. in H: a.cciisours 139, vertues 142, but: Emerawdes 34. 

II. Adjectives. 

ja- (and i-} stems: in c: grene (?) 63 (obi.) in H: 1. sg.: 
triewe 69 (obi.); newe (1) 123 (ace.), swoote (?) 325 (ace.); deere (?) 
360 (voc.); grene 359 (obi.) rhyming with: clene 361 (voc.). 
2. pi.: grene (?) 34, kene (?) 191; nuwe 15 rhyming with: 
vntriewe 17. 

The other adjectives have lost their inflexion in the singular. 
There are but two examples to be mentioned : in c : bare (?) 245 
(ace. ; see ten Brink, 231 ; rhyming with : snare (?) 244 (obi.) ; 
comp. Skeat, Chaucer, II, Tr. I. 662). in H: grete(?) 242 (ace.). 

Plural: Inc: derk[e] 95; glade (?) 69, kynde (?) 377. 

In H: white (?) 40, vnkynde (?) 106, 218, smale(?) 354. 

In all the other cases e. 

The iveakform of the adjective occurs : 

1. After the definite article. 

In c: Ded[e] 292 ; but : myghty 3, gostly 16, lusty 58, gret 146, 
234, holy 403. 

In H: same 11, sharp[e] 61, grete 67, 91(2), high[e] 309, Kede 
329, Right[e] 350; white (?) 153 (pi.); but: bawmy 39, grete 67, 
renomed 148, holy 221, clowdy 322. 

2. After a demonstrative pronoun. 

In c: this same 73; but : this same 223, This (That) hygh 148, 
383, that (This) gret 208, 298. 
No examples in H. 

3. After a possessive pronoun. 

In c: hyr ladyly 8, hyr high 9, his endles 122, thy (your) 
wor[l]dly 132, 153, Their filthi 288, theire besy 353. 

In H : oure grete 99, his faire 114, myn owne 206, My fayre 
360; but: his holy 124, His blessyd 127, 249, 256, His hevenly 
130, his holy 240, thyn old 342. 

4. Before proper names. 

In c: fresh[e] May 25; but: All-myghty Ihesu 334, synfle 
Dathan 348. 

In H: seynt lohn 124, 164, 258, worthy Moyses 327, worthy 
David 331. 



xxx 5. The Language. 

5. Before a vocative. 

In c: welthy 152, synfull 190, 316, lusty 267, wrecched 316, 
myghty 323. 

In H: vnkynde creature 182, but: vnkynd 103, synful 337. 

Romance Adjectives. 

These generally keep their forms. 

In c: strong: humble 2, 181; stable 281 rhyming with: in- 
nvmerable 283 ; veray 24, curious 76, etc. weak : noble 6, propre 
55, tendre 247 ; amerouse 12, troblus 48, etc. 

In H : strong : noble 318; purpure 121, perfite 238, etc. weak: 
humble 145 ; purpure 253, mortal 352, etc. The only exception is : 
his cliere H. 321 (ten Brink, 242). 

Plural : In c : fals[e] 375 ; clere (?) 53 ; in all other cases we 
have the unchanged French forms : Desyrous 12, sure 326, etc. 

In H: false 17 ; cliere (?) 36, 362, serpentyne (?) 315 ; the other 
forms are unchanged : fieble 186 ; vicious 266, etc. Weak forms in 
the plural do not occur. 

III. Numerals. Cardinals. 

Inc.- one (follows: of) 167 (obi.); to 375, Bothe 114, 335, 349 ; 
thre 291 ; six 124 ; seuen 205 ; viii 209. 

In H: oone 19 (obi. sg.), none 71, 125, etc. (ace. sg) ; two 81, 
tweyne(?) 174, 240 (comp. Schleich, Fabula, p. xlviii), bothfe] 81, 1 
both 153, 344; fyve 334 (before a noun), fyve (?) 184, 287, 330 
(after a n.), fyve 118 (after a n.), 335 (before a n.), fyve 113, 115 
(in the caesura) ; seven 223 ; Fourty 231. 

Ordinals: In c: first 121, 199 (follows: oure); 161 (adv.; 
in the cassura); third 278, 299 (both followed by: age). />*#": 
first 120, 367 (adv.). 

IV. Pronouns. 

The same as in Chaucer. Therefore we mention only the following 
forms : 

In c: hem 354 (C. theym), theym 15, 263, 305; theyr : in all 
cases ; al : invariable in all cases ; vch 143, 236. 

In H: theym 20, them 26 (224 and 236 are taken from A), hym 
(= hem) 117, 282, hem : in all other cases (A has "them" through- 
out but 1. 7 after : drought) ; theyr : in all cases ; all : invariable, but 
alle(?) 183 (pi.; rhyming with: apalle 185); eche 187; thilk[e] 97; 
g. pi.: alre(??) 92. 

1 See also note to this line. 



5. The Language. xxxi 

V. Adverbs. 

In e : in c : With-oute 31, 361 ; hye (?) 72, 307, 324 ; expresse (?) 
17; more(?) 209, a-twynne (?) 214. Surely: longe 81, sore 331, 
333; when 92, 144, sone 148, 189, more 238, a-fore 242, 253. 
In H: Withouten 21, 27, 179, allone 160, betwene 174; blyve (?) 
186, behynde(?) 220 ; surely : wrong 57. 

In es: in c: nedes 29, 157, (in, to) myddes 97, 99, 339, 340, 
359, elles 131, 322 ; but : nedes 181, elles 206. in H : Towardes 2, 
oones 213. 

Besides numerous adverbs on -ly. 

VI. Composition. 

In c : prime-tens 23, day[e]-rowes 54, slombre-bed 57 ; kyndely 
33. In H: hert[e]-bloode 112; kyndenesse 91, inekenesse 232; 
triew[e]ly 56. 

In the other examples we have : in c: prime-tens 11 ; godely 51, 
swetnesse 89, endles 122, 133, etc.; in H : sperhed 158 ; gretely 3 ; 
falsehede 28, mekenesse 225, etc. 

B. CONJUGATION. 

Infinitives. In both poems the number of examples with un- 
doubtedly sounded e is very small. We find in c: endure 81, hele 
223, thenke 232, suffre 261, 264, 266 (but : suffre 399), perceyve 
271 ; in H: wexen 120, 136, susteyne 131, suwen 163, make 279, 
save 306, reherse 335, taken 337, Eeleve 378. 

Much larger is the number of forms with mute e, e. g. : in c : 
tabide 84, deseuer 167, dye 168, remord 190, thenke 192, folow 195, 
lye 222, etc. (26 examples); in H : herken 13, take 16, marke 26, 
wounde 26, se 49, pay 99, seen 127, etc. (29 examples). The drop- 
ping of n is proved by the rhyme in : dye c. 91 (rhyming with : ocy 
c. 90), sle c. 161 (rhyming with : natiuite c. 160), mysse c. 333 
(rhyming with: ys c. 331); flee H 165 and tee H 166 (rhyming 
with: me H 163), se H 207, 237, 311, 367 (rhyming with French 
words ending in -ite and tre H. 208, 309). 

We find, 15 times in c, 14 times in H, infinitives rhyming with 
each other ; these, as well as about 35 doubtful cases in c, 31 in H, 
may still have been pronounced in Lydgate's time with e, e. g. : in c : 
dresse 1, enbrace 13, apere 25, dye 75, expresse 88, here 111, etc. ; in H: 
knowe 22, abyde 23, espye 28, avaunce 63, crye 105, vnclose 113, etc. 

Indicative Present, l.sg.: inc: gesse(?) 86. In H: Eeherse(?) 
281; trowe(?) 15, calle(?) 363 (indecisive); certainly: cast 52. 

NIGHTINGALE. G 



XXX11 



5. The Language. 



2. sg. : in c: vsest 171, entrest 240 ; but : lyuest 172, standest (I) 
191. In H: Takestow(?) 71. 

3. sg.: in c: Meueth 34, seseth 37, telleth 114, oweth 116, 
endyth 199, hateth 217, be-tokeneth 278, knokketh 325; desireth 
225 rhyming with : expyreth 227 ; but : loueth 46, cometh 159, per- 
seuereth 275; contracted forms (ten Brink, 186) in : set 35, a-byt 
275 (rhyming with : yit 277 and hyt 278), probably in : biddeth = 
bit 166, perhaps also in: rewardeth 357, 361. In H : Betokenyth 
66, Syngeth 72, Streyneth 73, peyneth 73, meanyth 82, takith 83, 
cryeth 106 ; doubtful : meanyth 56, takith 65, Resownyth 84 ; but : 
Shakith 74, qwakyth 74, Callith 365, 366 ; contracted forms occur 
in : list 345, 348. 

Plural: in c: be-seche 411. In H: passen 176, dare 292; 
take(?) 98,pressen(?) 152, trespas (?) 204, specific (?) 331; seen 292. 

Subjunctive: in c: 2. sg.: lust 174, dye (?) 198 ; 3. sg.: Luste 9. 
In H: 2. sg.: list 50, advert 77, ride (?) 117 ; 3. sg.: list 207, 237, 
367, beholde 311, see 311. 

Imperative: in c: couceyue (?) 134, wep (?) 175; but certainly: 
Ryse 56, Enprinte 128, arme 129, Saue 131, let 138, 222, etc. (13 
examples); plural: Entendeth 363; Beth 325; but: Let 268, Re- 
streyne 270, Call 327, tlienk 335. In H: considre 85, remembre 
225, gadre 341 ; but in all other cases e : sle 20, bryng 21, Let 26, 
Cherissh 30, herkne 35, Rise 49, etc. (22 examples). Of the plural 
occurs but the indecisive form : Lift 177. 

Participle, Present. With the exception of : langwisshyng (?) H 
29 (pi.; rhyming with: bryng 31 (inf.)), we have but invariable 
forms in both poems. 

Verbal noun, in -ing : in c : the norishing 30, the enduryng 40, 
my conny[n]ge 112, the begynny[n]g 121 ; mornyng 70, wepyng 163, 
connyng 177, etc. In H : the mean vug 13, Thyn vndrestondyng 
81, hir synggyng 83, myn heryng 185, The kepyng 258; meanyng 
69, Smellyng 186, lokyng 197, heringe 202, towchyng 207, mys- 
fotyng 209. 

Strong Preterit. "Ablaut" as in Chaucer; so we mention but 
the following forms: in c: sg.: can = gan 136, 339, 395; leep 59, 
Fell 126 ; pi.: can = gan 54, ran 236, came 279, sank 290. In H: 
sg.: can = gan 144 ; lille 42; pi.: drough 7, can = gan 19, saugh 
125, d[r]ewe 171, Sawe 178, shoone 194; forsoke 160 rhyming 
with : tooke 161 (sg.). 

Weak Preterit. In ed, ed : in c: sg.: walked 61, rome'd 64, 



5. The Language. xxxiii 

cesed 88, expired 107, caused 137, entered 161, suffred 257, 321, 
Opened 349, Thirled 387, Ascended 402; but: conceyued 68, 
manaced 161, swolowed 349. Doubtful are the following forms : 
rehersed 50, deyede 107, signified?. 109, suffred 193, 315, 371, 
resemed 205, cesed 233, ailed 367, died 371, expired 388. pi. : 
offre'd 369 ; enchesoned 84, perysched 209, passed 300 ; presed (?) 
236, desyred (?) 386. 

In H: sg.: thrilled 128, suffred 188, 199, 205, 242, trespassed 
211, offendid 213, shewed 260, hasted 261, venqwisshed 336 ; but : 
priked 62, lyved 231. Doubtful is: suffred 270. There occurs 
one single example of the 2. person: herdest 58. pi.: Keceyved 
314. 

In de, te, de, te.: in c: seide 60, sayd 73; made (?) 70, 179; 
thoght91,lust!86, sent 403 ; a-lyght(?) 96; pi. indecisive : set 312. 
In H: taught[e] 6; herde 36, sayde 203, Spradde 235, made 
325, 328 ; list 110, past 248, sty nt 324; pi. left 171, 173. 

Participle Past. Strong: in c: vnderstonden 120, eten 151, 
Taken 253, 298; but: ouerflow 212, slayn 400. Doubtful are: 
born 156, 313, for-born 159 rhyming with: be-forn 158, taken 
188 rhyming with: for-saken 189, to-drawe 256; yeuen 397. The 
sole plural form : bounde 255 is indecisive. 

In H : stongen 95, founde 141, Bete'n 206 ; doubtful are : 
borne 8, lorne 60, founde 271 ; Forsaken 170 and spoken 202 (pi.); 
plural besides in : founde 218, but undecisive. 

Weak: in ed : in c: declared 17, considred 19, renoueled 23, 
entred 45, blessed 50, formed 123, etc. (27 cases). In H: -huwed 2, 
sugred 5, callid 25, gouerned 57, Booted 69, Steyned 135, Blessyd 
143, made = maked 298, etc. (17 cases). 

In ed (t): in c: Meued 22, herd 101, brent 133, past 239, 247, 
keept 248, etc. (10). Doubtful are the participles rhyming with each 
other as : exiled 27, reconciled 28, etc., or with preterits as : notified 
110, etc. In H: Spreynt 121, I-left 220 (compare: I-blent 130, 
Imeynt 137), Meynt 347. Ehyming are: to-Rent 127, spent 129, 
I-blent 130; depeynt 134, Imeynt 137, atteynt 138. 

Polysyllables and contracted forms : in c : raueshed 52, enlu- 
myned 95, pvniched 237, fynysched 274, banyshid 383 ; sprad 93, 
bent 255, put 263, hurt 318, fed 409. In H: fulfilled 197; Fret 
34, sent 224, sprad 298. 

About: infecte c. 1. 143 see note to this line. 



xxxiv 6. The Authorship. 

6. THE AUTHOESHIP. 

The first of our poems is cited by Tanner as 'Philomela' among 
Lydgate's works. In his Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (1749), 
p. 491, 1. 11 f. a., we read : 

A saying of the nightingale signifying Christ : Ad Annam duciss. 
Buckingh. Pr. pr. prosa. "It is seyd that the nightingale" Pr. I. 
" Go lityll . . . prynces dresse." MS. Cotton. Caligula A II. MS. 
C. C. C. Oxon. 203. 

Besides him, only Eitson mentions the title of our poems in his 
Bibliographia Poetica (1802), but, unfortunately, he has rather lost 
ground since the publication of Dr. Schick's T. G. (see p. cxlviii ff.). 1 
In his long list of Lydgate's writings Eitson quotes as No. 213 : 

A saying of the nightingale touching Christ: "In lune whan 
Titan was in Crabbes hede " (Caligula A. II. $ the Harley MS. 2251}. 

And indeed, we immediately meet with his incorrectness ; for the 
title and the first line of the poem he cites agree only with H (or A ; 
but this he apparently was not aware of). As to c, he seems to have 
known the MS. and the poem as one of Lydgate's works, but after- 
wards, when compiling his Bibliographia, the similar subject led him 
astray, and he forgot that neither the title nor the beginning of the 
poem was the same as in H (and A). 

If we had no other argument than this statement of Eitson's to 
bring forward in favour of Lydgate's authorship, we could hardly 
venture to support our opinion. But Tanner's judgment is much 
more reliable, and, besides his authority, the internal evidence is, as 
we shall see, so striking, that we cannot but attribute this first poem 
to Lydgate. As the poem has not yet been printed, we need not 
wonder that the common sources like Bale and Pits do not mention it. 

The second poem is acknowledged as one of the monk's works by 
Stowe : both MSS. got their titles from the hand of this chronicler, 
and at the end of A we find : Of this Balade Dan lohn Lydgate 
made nomore. This testimony of Stowe is the more valuable, as it 
goes back, according to his own words (see 2), to Shirley. Then 
[1802] again we may refer to Eitson, and, at last, to Warton-Hazlitt, 
iii, 53, note 1 : 

"Lydgate in his Philomela, mentions the death of Henry Lord 
Warwick, who died in 1446. MS. Harl. ibid. (2251). 120. fol. 255." 

Though this statement about Lord Warwick is disputed, as we 

1 But compare also : Brotanek, Die Englischen Maskenspiele. [ Wiener Bei- 
irage zur Englischen Philologie xv.] Wien, 1902, p. 9. 



6. The Authorship. xxxv 

shall see (compare 7), the notice nevertheless gives evidence that 
Warton and Hazlitt considered the H-version to be one of Lydgate's 
works. 

Examining and comparing the style of the poems, which offers 
the strongest support in favour of Lydgate's supposed authorship, I 
venture to remark that it is superfluous to cite examples from H, as 
all said about c may also, mutatis mutandis, be applied to H. 

Firstly, as we have seen, the metre in c is the same as in H. We 
have o- and o-rhymes, e- and ^-rhymes (not, however, -ere and -ire- 
rhymes, as in the T. G., p. Ixi) ; the disregard of the final e in the 
rhymes has made progress ; we find, e. g., a considerable number of i- 
and ie- rhymes. Other licences of Lydgate as to the structure of the 
verse exhibit themselves throughout the poem (see 4 ; especially 
type C.), so that we are fully authorized in claiming the evidence of 
the metre in support of Lydgate's authorship. The language, in the 
main, shows the same character as, for instance, the language of the 
Temple of Glas, Complaint of the Black Knight, and Horse, Goose 
and Sheep ; compare the outlines of grammar in the editions of Dr. 
Schick, Dr. Krausser, and Dr. Degenhart. 

Again, the style is entirely Lydgatian. As we have no convinc- 
ing external evidence, we may be allowed to draw the special attention 
of the reader to the peculiarities of Lydgate, found in the first poem. 
When we compare Dr. Schick's remarks about the monk's style 
(T. G. y p. Ixxxiv and cxxxiv ff. ; see also Gattinger, p. 70 ff.), we 
must say, that so far as the different subject does not exclude com- 
parison all these characteristics are to be observed in our poem. 
The very beginning of the poem gives us an argument : 

" Go, lityll quay ere, . . . ." these introductory lines are entirely 
in accordance with his usage. Not only are the ideas, the expres- 
sions used in that stanza nearly all found in his envoys, so e. g. : 
M. P. 45, 48, 149 ; Kk. L, f. 196 a; T. G., 11. 1393 1 -1403, but even 
the characteristic " lityll " is not wanting, which he never forgets, be 
it a poem of 35 or 35,000 lines (Falls, 219 b 1). Though his 
favourite request "to correct" his poem 2 has not found a place in 
this very first stanza, he afterwards cannot conceal his self-depreciatory 
manner; compare 11. 18, 88/9, 112, 177, 181, 182. 

Further, the astronomical allusions, 11. 25, 26, 45, 92, the frame- 
work of a vision, st. 7-15, the sleepy poet, 1. 44, the season-motive, 
st. 4, the reference to his real or supposed source, 11. 108, 114, 238, 

1 See note to this line. 2 See note to 1. 1400 of the Temple of Glas. 



xxxvi 7. The Date. 

344, the use of Latin and foreign words, 11. 308, 388 (see Koppel, 
Laurent's de Premier/ait und lolin Lydgate's Bearbeitungen von 
Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium. Miinchen, 1885, p. 40), 
all these points are quite as common in Lydgate's works as are the 
numerous anacolutha which occur in this short poem ; compare st. 4, 
8, 9, 10, 13, 16, 20, 27, 34, and 11. 412, 413. 

A pretty large number of Lydgatian stock phrases could be 
gathered from our poem ; but on this point I had better refer the 
reader to Gattinger, pp. 72, 73 and Schleich, Fabula, p. 64 ff. 

In respect to the theological matters, for instance, Pride the chief 
sin, etc., see Triggs, Assembly, Literary Studies, 10, 11, and the notes 
to our two poems. 

All these points, I think, give evidence that the style of our poem 
is entirely in accordance with the common features of Lydgate's 
works. Besides, I shall give in the notes quotations from other 
poems of our poet, which will show that the whole atmosphere of the 
poem, the whole range of ideas, the vocabulary, 1 the motives and 
allegories are essentially the same as in the other works of the monk. 

7. THE DATE. 

The first stanza of the c-version contains the dedication to a 
Duchess of Buckingham, which allows us to fix the date of the first 
poem pretty exactly. 

Go, lityll quayere, And swyft thy prynses dresse, 
Offringe thyselfe wyth humble reuerence 
Yn-to the ryght hyghe and myghty pryncesse, 
The Duches of Bokyngham, and of hur excellence 
Besechinge hyre, that, of hure pacyence, 
Sche wold the take, of hure noble grace, 
Amonge hyre bokys for the Asygne A place. 

As the compiler of the index of MS. C rightly points out, this 
Duchess is Anne, daughter of Kalph Nevill, first Earl of Westmor- 
land. Her mother was the Earl's second wife, 2 loan Beaufort, 
daughter of lohn of Gaunt and his second wife, Katherine Eoet, 
sister-in-law (?) to Chaucer. 3 She married Humphrey Stafford, who 
was created Duke of Buckingham 14 September, 1444 (D. N. B. 

1 e. g. adolescens c 1. 267. 

2 He m. secondly, before 3 Feb. 1397, Joan (formerly Joan Beaufort, spinster), 
widow of Sir Robert Ferrers, the legitimated dau. of John (Plantagenet, called 
"of Gaunt"), Duke of Lancaster, by Catharine, da. of Sir Payne Roet. Gr. E. C. 
Complete Peerage, viii. 111. 

3 See Skeat, CJiaucer II, p. Ixix, and I, p. li, 43. 



7. The Date. xxxvii 

liii, p. 45 1). 1 This date fixes the terminus a quo to the last months 
of the year 1444. 

We are fortunate enough to find another allusion in our poem 
which allows us to determine the date more closely : st. 48, 11. 330- 
333 we find : 

A myghty prince, lusty, yonge, & fiers, 
Amonge the peple sore lamented ys : 
The due of Warwyk ; entryng the oure of tierce 
Deth toke hym to whom mony sore shall mysse. 
The Duke of Warwick who is mentioned in these lines, is Henry 
Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick (from April 5, 1444), and is said 
(without evidence) to have been King of Wight, Jersey and Guern- 
sey 2 from 1445. The date of his death is disputed. It is given 
as June 11, 1445, by D. N. B., iv, p. 28 b and the Nouvelle 
Biographic Generate, p. 556 ; but neither of these, nor both com- 
bined, can stand against the best authority, Mr. G. E. Cokayne, 
who in his Complete Peerage, viii. 59 (1898), adopts the date 
given by Baker in his Northamptonshire ii. 219, 11 June (1446), 
24 Hen. VI. This is confirmed by the grant of Letters of Adminis- 
tration to him on 17 June 1447 at Lambeth. He was the son of 
Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, d. at Rouen, 4 Oct. 1439, 
regent of France during the absence of the Duke of Bedford (D. N. 
B. iv, p. 29 a-31 a), 3 and brother-in-law to Eichard Nevill, who 
married Anne, Henry's sister and heiress, 4 in whose right he was 
created afterwards Earl of Warwick, and who is well-known as the 

1 In the Nouvelle Biographic Gtnerale, vii, p. 707, however, we find the 
notice : En 1445, ce comte [Buckingham] passa a Ja maison de Stafford, dans la 
personne d'Edmond, comte de Stafford, qui fut fait Due de Buckingham 1'annee 
suivante. 

2 "He is asserted (Mon. Aug. ii. 63 ; Leland's Itinerary] to have been, also, 
crowned King of the Isle of Wight, by Henry [VI], but for this (Coke, kth 
Inst., p. 287 ; Stubbs's Const. Hist. iii. 433) there is no evidence " (Nat. Biogr., 
in an article written by J. H. Round) .... He died without male issue at his 
birthplace, Hanley Castle, 11 June, 1446. G. E. C. viii. 59. 

3 See also Schick, T. G. , 'p. xciii. 

4 One of the sisters. Earl Richard left 4 daughters, coheirs on the death of 
Duke Henry's girl Anne, b. at Cardiff in Wales, Feb. 1442-3, d. an infant, at 
Ewelme, Oxon. 8 Jan. 1448-9, and was bur. at Reading Abbey. " Those four 
coheirs, all of whom left issue, were (1) Margaret, m. John (Talbot), Earl of 
Shrewsbury, which Lady was mentioned in the entail of the Earldom of 
Warwick, cr. in 1450 ; (2) Eleanor, m. firstly Thomas (de Ros), Lord Ros, who 
d. 18 Aug. 1431, secondly Edmund (Beaufort), Duke of Somerset, slain 22 May 
1455, and thirdly, Walter Rodesley ; (3) Elizabeth, in. George (Nevill), Lord 
Latimer, who d. 30 Dec. 1469 ; (4) Anne, only da. by the second wife [Isabel, 
Baroness Burghersh, a grand-daughter of Edw. III.], who m. Richard (Nevill), 
Earl of Warwick, so cr. in 1449." G. E. C. viii. 60. Duke Henry was 'scarce 
ten years of age ' when he married in 1434. His father's first wife was seven 
years old when he wedded her. 



xxxviii 8. The Sources. 

"King -maker." This Richard was the 'nephew of the above- 
mentioned Anne, Duchess of Buckingham, to whom Lydgate 
dedicated the poem. 

These facts confirm to a certain extent the authorship of Lydgate. 
As we find in Schick, T. Gf., p. xciii, the poet was, during his so- 
journ in France, in the service of Lord Richard of Warwick, the 
father of Henry, mentioned in st. 48. Therefore we are not astonished 
to find this allusion in a poem of Lydgate's, the more so as the 
Duchess of Buckingham herself, to whom the poem is dedicated, was, 
as we have seen, the aunt of Henry's brother-in-law. 

We must therefore fix the date of the c-version in the second half 
of the year 1446, considering that the poet says, "lamented ys," and 
that it is most probable that Lydgate's dedication to the Duchess 
Anne, she being related to the deceased Duke of Warwick, was in 
some way connected with this sad event. 

As to the date of the other version it is no easy matter when we 
attempt to fix it. There are no allusions to historical events to be 
found in the poem. Only, the note by Stowe, at the end of H : Of 
this Balade Dan lohn Lydgate made nomore, 1 might possibly induce 
us to date it before c, but a glance at the metre makes us immediately 
withdraw this conjecture, as the numerous examples of type D, for 
instance, would rather prove a later date. The language cannot help 
us, nor any other internal evidence, so that the best we can do, is to 
omit the fixing of any date at present ; perhaps, later on, we may be 
more fortunate, and light upon some clue. 

8. THE SOURCES. 

As we have already stated in a preceding paragraph, both poems 
have a common source, which is also referred to by the poet himself 
in MS. c, 1. 108 : 

106. This brid, of whom y haue to you rehersed, 

Whych in her song expired thus ande deyede, 
108. In latyn fonde y in a boke well versed, 

There are two " Latin Books " known under the title " Philo- 
mela." The one, of a fairly large size, is a work of John of 

1 As this statement was no doubt copied by Stow from his Shirley original, 
we may fairly compare it with the like entry in the Lydgate and Burgh's 
decree of Secrees (?1446, Schick), after the poet's decease, and conclude that 
the cause of the break-off in the Nightingale poem was Lydgate's death. This 
is borne out by the character of the metre, as the many examples of type D tend 
to prove a late date. F. 



8. The Sources. xxxix 

Hoveden (Howden, Yorkshire), but has nothing in common with our 
poems here but the title (compare D. N. B. xxvii, 427 a if. and 
Hahn, Arnold, Quellenuntersuchungen zu Richard Rollers Englischen 
Schriften. Halle, 1900, p. 3 and note). The other, the source of 
Lydgate's poems, is a shorter Latin poem, also called " Philomela," 
printed among Bonaventura's works, e. g. in the edition of Ad Claras 
Aquas (Quaracchi) 1882-1898, torn, viii, p. 669-674. This poem, 
the authorship of which is uncertain, was of great popularity during 
the Middle- Ages. At that time it was generally ascribed to Bona- 
ventura, 1 but the editors of the edition above-mentioned reject his 
authorship, 2 whereas the probability of John Peckham 3 being the 
author is more likely. There are more than thirty Latin MSS. 4 
extant, and many imitations and translations. 5 The poems here 
printed represent the English imitations; compare Warton-Hazlitt, 
i, p. 172 note; D. N. B. xxvii, p. 427; Schick, T. G., p. xcvi and 
Addenda. 

The two poems do not bear a like amount of resemblance to 
their model. MS. c follows much more closely than H (see later) 
the Latin poem, as a short analysis of the two will show. 

Before we sketch the contents of the poems, we have a few 
remarks to make on the opening words in MS. C. In most of the 
MSS. of the Latin version we find prefixed to the poem a short 
admonitory treatise in prose, the genuineness of which is rejected by 
the editors of Bonaventura's works. Similarly, there is, in MS. C 

1 Lydgate, of course, was acquainted, at least in his way, with the works of 
Bonaventura ; he cites him, e. g. Court of Sapience, e 6 a (? englisht his Life 
of our Lady}. 

2 See S. Bonaventura opera omnia. Ad Claras Aquas (Quaracchi) 1898. 2. 
torn, viii, p. 669, note 3, and Prolegomena c. Ill, a. 1, 7. 

3 See D. N. B. xliv, p. 190 ff. (Philomela, p. 196 a} and Hook, W. F., 
Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury. London, 1865. 4. See also the article 
"Hoveden" in D. N. B. xxvii, p. 427, and Horstmann, Yorkshire Writers, ii, 
p. xxxix. 

4 Most of the MSS. are enumerated in the Prolegomena of the Quaracchi- 
edition, torn. viii. I only add the following : Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
B. 3. 19, Harl. 3766, Cotton Cleopatra A XII, Laud 402, Rawlinson C. 397 
(Rawlinson C. 348 is but one leaf, missing in Rawlinson C. 397), Digby 28, 
University Library, Cambridge, Ee VI, 6. 

5 Philomena S. Bon. castellane traducta et dilatata carmine et prosa per 
cantus ipsius Philomense. by Mathaeus a Nativitate. Salmanticae, 1471. 
Filomena de S. Bonaventura, sive tractatulus hoc titulo, Hispanice versus, by 
Ludovicus Granatensis. Adiciones al Memorial de la vida Christiana. Salman- 
ticae, 1577. S. Bonaventurae Philomena, editio carmine Italico, by Jacobus de 
Porta. Venetiis, 1586. Die Nachtigall des hi. Bonaventura, by E. Votter. 
Miinchen, 1612. Melch. v. Diepenbrock, Geistlicher Blumenstrauss. Sulzbach, 
1862 (pp. 302-333, with the Latin text). The anonymous translation : Des 
hi. Bonaventura Philomele oder Nachtigallenlied. Lingen, 1883 and that by 
Leberecht Drewes were not accessible to me. 



xl 8. The Sources. 

only, a kind of prose introduction, not intended to suggest to the 
reader the necessary elevation of mind, but simply to give a concise 
epitome of the principal contents. These lines in C, however, 
reproduce the ideas of the poem so incorrectly that we cannot 
consider them as originally written by the poet, but must presume 
them to be the work of a scribe : 

Matutina Beginning of the World, Fall of Adam, Nativity of 
Man, "patris sapiencia." 

Hora I. Noah. 

[Hora III. =] " crucifige " Abraham. 

Hora VI. \ Eesurrection, Ascension, Pentecost, Corpus-Christi- 

Hora IX. ) Day. 

Compared with the real structure of the c- version below, this 
short analysis exhibits too serious discrepancies to allow us to 
attribute this introduction to Lydgate. 

We now return to the comparison of the two poems : 

Structure of the Latin Poem. 
St. 1-4 : Introduction, 

5-10 : The story of the nightingale, 

11-13 : General interpretation of the story and 

1416 : of the single hours. 
Then follow the special meditations of the different hours : 

17-24 : Matutina, 

25-34: Prima, 

35-47 : Tertia, 

48-77 : Sexta, 

78-90 : Nona. 

Structure of the c-version. 
St. 1-6 : Dedication and introduction, 
7-15 : The story of the nightingale, 

16 : The source, 

1 7 : General interpretation. 

Then the meditations of the single hours follow : 
18-28: Aurora, 
29-39 : Prime, 
40-48 : Tierce, 
49-54 : Sexte, 
55-59 : Nones. 



8. The Sources. xli 

This shows clearly that the structure of the c-version is wholly 
borrowed from the Latin source. Lydgate only omitted the short 
interpretation of the hours, st. 14-16 of the Latin poem, to which 
we do not find corresponding lines in the c-version. But we must 
state that, though the story of the nightingale and the general 
interpretation are the same in both, the English poet treats different 
subjects in the meditations for the single hours. In the Latin 
source we have the following themes : 

14. Mane vel diluculum hominis est status, 
In quo mirabiliter Adam est creatus. 

Hora prima, quando est Christus incarnatus, 
Tertiam die spatium sui incolatus. 

15. Sextain, cum a perfidis voluit ligari, 
Trahi, caedi, conspui, dire crucian, 
Crucifigi denique, clavis terebrari 
Caputque sanctissimum spinis coronari. 

16. Nonam die, cum moritur, quando consummatus 
Cursus est certamims, quando superatus 

Est omnino zabulus et hinc conturbatus. 
Vespera, cum Christus est sepulturae datus. 

In the c-version we always find two subjects for each hour, one 
from the Old and the other from the New Testament, i. e. from the 
passion of our Lord : 

Aurora : Creation of the world, fall of Lucifer, fall of Adam 

Jesus taken Prisoner, 
Prime : Noe Christ before Pilate, 
Tierce : Abraham, Sodom Christ led to Calvary, 
Sexte : Dathan and Abiron Christ on the cross, 
Nones : Adam banished Christ dies. 

This comparison proves that, though Lydgate adopted the general 
idea and the structure of the poem from Peckham, he was by no 
means a slavish imitator, but on the contrary followed his own bent. 

Again we find another trace of Lydgate's originality. To the 
parallelism of the quotations from the Old and New Testament, he 
adds the comparison of the ages of man with the different hours of 
the daily divine service. At each hour he subsequently addresses 
people of another, higher age ; compare 

st. 23: "Aurora" 1. 156: 

Be-thenke thy-self, hough porely j?u was born 



xlii 8. The Sources. 

st. 35/6: "Prime"!. 239: 

thow, that hast thus past the oure of morow 
1. 247 : Ande of thy tendre age art past the yeres, 

st. 43/6 : " Tierce" 11. 299, 300 : 

And namely ye that are in the third age 
Of your lyfe ande passed morow & prime, 
11. 316, 317 : Thenk on this oure, thou wrecched synfull man, 
That in this age hast reson, strenght, and hele, 

st. 52: "Sexto" 1L 358, 359: 

And, in speciall, ye of perfyt age, 

This oure of sixt, in myddes of your lyfe, 

st. 59: "Nones"!. 412: 

That, fro this worlde when so we shall deseuer. 

I think we cannot carry the comparison further, as most of the 
ideas found in c are commonplaces, which do not rise above the 
average education of a priest in those times. Therefore, even when 
we find the same ideas in both poems, it is no proof that Lydgate 
borrowed them from Peckham. 

The " Monk of Bury " had, of course, an extensive knowledge of 
Holy Scripture. 1 We give here a list of all lines to which parallel 
passages are to be found in the Bible, which I consider as Lydgate's 
second principal source. The references are from the Vulgate. 

[114 : see note to this line]. 

11. 121-124: Gen. i. 

11. 125-126: Is. xiv. 12-16. 

[129, 130 : see note to these lines]. 

1. 133 : Mat. xxv. 41. 

I. 136 : Gen. iii. 1-6. 

II. 139, 143 : Eom. v. 12. 

11. 150, 383 : Gen. iii. 23, 24. 

[11. 164-168 : see note to these lines]. 

1. 185 : Jo. i. 29. 

1. 188 : Mat. xxvi. 48-50 = Mar. xiv. 44-46 = Lu. xxii. 47, 

48, 54 = Jo. xviii. 5, 12. 
1. 189 : Mat. xxvi. 56 = Mar. xiv. 50-52. 
1. 203 : Gen. vii. 10. 

I. 205 : Gen. vii. 13. 

II. 206-208 : Gen. vii. 21. 

1 See Koppel, 1. c., p. 48 f., Gattinger, p. 37/8, and again Koeppel in Englische 
Studien 24 (1898), p. 281 f. 



8. The Sources. xliii 

1. 220 : 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. 

I. 224 : Lu. xv. 7, 10. 

II. 225-226 : Ezecli. xxxiii. 11; (Sap. i. 13) ; 2 Pet. iii. 9. 
11. 235, 279-280 : Gen. x. 

11. 236 : Gen. xi. 1-9, xiii. 13, xviii. 20, 21. 
1. 244 : 2 Tim. ii. 26. 

I. 252 : Mat. xxvi. 59-60 = Mar. xiv. 55-59. 

II. 253-254: Mat. xxvii. 2, 11 = Mar. xv. 1 = Lu. xxiii. 1 = 

Jo. xviii. 12, 28, 29. 
11. 257-259 : Mat. xxvi. 67 (xxvii. 30) = Mar. xiv. 65 (xv. 19). 

I. 260 : 2 Mace. vii. 28 = Hebr. xi. 3. 

II. 262-263 : Mat. xxvi. 53. 
11. 271-272 : Prov. v. 6. 

11. 281-282 : Gen. xv. 6. 
11. 283-284 : Geii. xv. 5. 
11. 291 : Gen. xix. 24, 25. 

I. 296 : Gen. i. 27. 

II. 302-303 : 1 Pet. v. 8. 

11. 307-308 : Mat. xxvii. 23 = Mar. xv. 13, 14 = Lu. xxiii. 

21 = Jo. xix. 6, 15. 

. 310 : Mat. xxvii. 28 == Mar. xv. 17 = Jo. xix. 2, 5. 
. 311 : Jo. xix. 4, 5. 

. 312 : Mat. xxvii. 29 = Mar. xv. 17 = Jo. xix. 2, 5. 
. 313 : Jo. xix. 17. 
. 314 : Mat. xxvii. 33 = Mar. xv. 22 = Lu. xxiii. 33 = Jo. 

xix. 17. 
11. 348-350 : Num. xvi. (1, 2) 31-33. 

I. 365 : Mat. xxvii. 31 (45) == Lu. xxiii. 33 (44) = Jo. xix. 18, 

but Mar. xv. 24, 25 (see 11. 379, 380). 

II. 366, 375 : Mat. xxvii. 38 == Mar. xv. 27 = Lu. xxiii. 33 = 

Jo. xix. 18. 

11. 367-368 : Mat. xxvii. 48 (34) = Mar. xv. 36 (23) = Lu. 
xxiii. 36 == Jo. xix. 29, 30. 

I. 384: Gen. iii. 17-19. 

II. 385, 387 : Jo. xix. 34. 

I. 386 : Jo. xix. 31. 

II. 388-389 : Mat. xxvii. 46, 50 = Jo. xix. 30 (Mar. xv. 34, 37, 

Lu. xxiii. 46). 

11. 390-392 : Mat. xxvii. 45 = Mar. xv. 33 = Lu. xxiii. 44, 45. 
1. 399 : Mat. xxvi. 28 = Mar. xiv. 24 = Lu. xxii. 20. 



xliv | 8. The Sources. 

11. 401-402 : Mat. xxviii. 1-10 = Mar. xvi. 1-8, 19 = Lu. xxiv. 
1-12, 51 = Jo. xx. 1-10 = Act. i. 9, 10. 

I. 403 : Act. ii. 1-4. 

II. 404-406 : Mat. xxvi. 26 = Mar. xiv. 22 = Lu. xxii. 19. 

This detailed list of references will, I hope, justify my opinion 
as to Lydgate's being influenced by the Bible. 

The two sources which I have just investigated with regard to 
the first poem, have also exercised their influence on the H-version, 
though here the imitation of Peckham's work is by no means a close 
one. We may sketch the structure of the second poem as follows : 

st. 1-5 : Introduction : Secular interpretation of the song of the 

nightingale, 
st. 6-7 : The vision, in which the poet is addressed by an angel 

from heaven, 

st. 8-15 : Beginning of the heavenly messenger's tale, he intro- 
ducing the nightingale meditating on Christ's passion, 
st. 16-22 : Her song, in which are contained : 
st. 23-33 : The words which Christ speaks, 
st. 34-54 : The nightingale's song goes on, but is not finished. 

Were the poem complete, we should expect to find the end of 
the nightingale's song, the end of the angel's speech, and the 
conclusion of the vision. It seems that the poet found the task too 
tiresome, or he had some other reasons ; at all events, he did not 
finish his work no doubt he died. We see, however, that here the 
structure of the Latin original is totally abandoned, the different 
hours are not even mentioned ; only the general idea of a religious 
interpretation of the nightingale's song is retained. 

As to the other principal source, the Bible, the following list 
will show to what extent the poet has put his theological knowledge 
into this poem : 

11. 95, 158, 212 : Jo. xix. 34. 

I. 101 : see c, 1. 365. 

II. 111-112: see c, 1. 399. 

11. 122-123 : Mat. xxvii. 59 = Mar. xv. 46. 

11. 124, 162, 164, 257, 258 : Jo. xix. 25-27. 

11. 128, 191 : see c, 1. 312. 

11. 134, 135, 141, 142 : Is. Ixiii. 1. 

11. 137, 196, 201, 265 : see c, 1. 368. 

1. 138: see c, 1. 254. 



8. The Sources. xiv 

I. 139: see c, 1. 252. 

II. 148-156, 167-168, 304 : Is. Ixiii. 2-3. 

I. 157 : Mat. xxvii. 50 = Mar. xv. 37 = Lu. xxiii. 46. 

II. 160, 165, 170, 173: see c, 1. 189. 

I. 174 : see c, 1. 366. 

II. 179, 211, 213 : 2 Cor. v. 21 = 1 Pet. ii. 22. 

1. 206 : Mat. xxvi. 67, xxvii. 30 = Mar. xiv. 65, xv. 19 = Lu. 

xxii. 63, 64 = Jo. xviii. 22, xix. 3. 
1. 226 : Lu. ix. 58 (ii. 7). 
1. 231 : Mat. iv. 2 = Mar. i. 13 == Lu. iv. 1, 2. 

I. 232 : Jo. xix. 30. 

II. 246-248 : see c, 1. 404. 

1. 249 : Mat. xxvi. 27, 28 = Mar. xiv. 23, 24 = Lu. xxii. 20. 

I. 252 : Jo. xix. 34. 

II. 253-254 : Jo. xix. 23, 24 (Mat. xxvii. 35, Mar. xv. 24, Lu. 

xxiii. 34). 
11. 255-256 : Mat. xxvii. 57-61 = Mar. xv. 42-47 = Lu. xxiii. 

50-56 = Jo. xix. 38-42. 
1. 259 : Lu. xxiii. 46. 

I. 264: Jo. xviii. 19, 22, 23. 

II. 276-280: Jo. iii. 16, 17. 

11. 289-290: see c, 11. 313, 314. 
11. 297-298: Dan. iv. 7-9, 17-19. 
11. 300-301 : Gen. xxxii. 10. 
1. 302 : Gen. xxviii. 12. 

I. 303 : Job xl. 20. 

II. 307-308 : 1 Eeg. xvi. 23. 
st. 45 : Num. xxi. 8-9. 

11. 318-319 : Ezech. ix. 4-6. 
1. 320: Ex. xxxvii. 17. 

I. 325 : Ex. xv. 23-25. 

II. 327-329 : Ex. xiv. 16, 21, 22. 
11. 330-333 : 1 Reg. xvii. 40, 49, 4. 
11. 353-354 : Cant. iv. 8, etc. 

1. 358 : Cant. v. 1. 
1. 374 : Jo. i. 14. 
1. 375 : Lu. i. 28. 
1. 377 : Is. xi. 1, 10. 

This list, even somewhat longer than the first, likewise shows 
Lydgate's knowledge of the Scriptures. 



xlvi 9. Concluding Remarks. 

I first intended to collect all the lines which show the influence 
of other works, and give them here, but I preferred putting this 
material into the notes, in order to avoid repetition, as many of 
these quotations at the same time serve to illustrate Lydgate's 
language and style. I draw the attention of the reader to the notes 
to c, 1. 90 and H, 1. 5. 

9. CO^ T CLUDI]N"G REMARKS. 

I insert this last paragraph for the sole reason of giving a short 
summary of the researches. 1 

Lydgate's Nightingale exists in two versions : one dates from the 
second half of the year 1446, the other is of uncertain date 2 and 
unfinished. Two MSS. of each version are preserved, and the texts 
are, on the whole, carefully handed down. Metre, language, and 
style are in accordance with Lydgate's general usage. As principal 
sources of the two poems, we find John Peckham's Latin poem 
" Philomela " and the Bible. 

1 Compare Schick, T. G., p. xcv and xcvi. 2 See p. xxxviii, note 1. 



I. 



[PROSE. INTRODUCTION. Not by Lydgate : 
see p. xl.] 

[MS. C.C.C.O. 203, p. 1] Assit principio sancta Maria 
meo. Amen. 

1 it is seyd that the nyghtyngale of hure nature Thenight- 

hathe A knowleche of hure deth. And, lyke as 

the swan syngeth Afore his deth, so sche, in the day before her 

of hure deth, Assendyth in-to the top of the tre and flies to a 

r tree-top, 

v syrcgeth In hora matutina A lame[n]table note ; and 
so aftyre, by mene degrees Aualynge lowere, hora 
pnma, hora tercia, hora sexta, et hora nona, tyll sche 
com dourc in-to the myddys of the tre. And there, in 
hora nona, sche dyeth. This ys moralysyd vn-to 

x Cryste An[d] in-to euery crystyn sowle, that schuld 
remembre the ourys of Cristys passyouw. And allso These songs 

are meant to 

by ' hora matutina ys vndurstonden the begyimynge be * com- 

J J meraoration 

of the world, and the gret fall of owre ffadure Adam, of Christ's 

' passion. 

and the natyuite of euery man, And ' patris sapiencia ' 

declared ; and in like wyse ' hora pnma, Crucifige, 

x hora sexto, And hora nona' declared wyth the Ages 

of the worlde in tyme of Noe and of Abraham, And 

so forthe brefly touched the Kesurecfo'ouw, the Ascen- 

cyone, pentecost, And Corpus Cristi day et cetera. 

1 For the wanting capital, see description of 0. vii. pn'ma] 
a above the line, tercia] see note to this line. viii. of] follows o. 
ix. moralysyd] ysy illegible. xiii. Adam] a above the line. 
xiv. patris] the first half illegible. xvii. Abraham] a above the 
line. 

NIGHTINGALE. B 






I. The Proem and Dedication. 



Go, little 
poem, 

present thy- 
self to the 



Duchess of 
Buckingham, 
and ask her 
for a place 
[P- 2] 

among her 
books, 



till she reads 
thee to her 
courtiers, 



[PEOEM. THE DEDICATION.] 

[59 stanzas of sevens, ababbcc.] 

(i) 

Go, lityll quayere, And swyft thy prynses dresse, 1 

Offringe thy s elf e wyth humble reuerence 
Vn-to the ryght hyghe and myghty pryncesse, 

The Duches of Bokyngham, and of hur excellence 
Besechinge hyre, that, of hure pacyence 5 

Sche wold the take, of hure nohle grace 
Amonge hyre bokys for the Asygne A place, 7 



to show them 
how to in- 
terpret the 
nightingale's 
song 

truly, i. e. in 
a spiritual 
sense. 



(2) 



8 



Vn-to the tyme hyr ladyly goodnesse 

Luste for to call vn-to hyr high presence 
Suche of hyre peple, that are in lustynesse 

Fresschly encoragyt, as galantws in pn'me-tens, 
Desyrous for to here the amerouse sentensce 12 

Of the nyghtyngale, and in there myiide enbrace, 
Who fauoure moste schall fynd in loues g?*ace, 14 



[MS. Cott. Calig. A ii, leaf 59.] 

(3) 

Commandyng theym to here wyth tendernesse 

Of this your nightyngale the gostly sense, 
Whos songe and deth declared is expresse 
In englysh here, right bare of eloquence, 
But notheles considred * the sentence : 
All loue vnlawfle, y hope, hit will deface 
And fleschly lust out of theyre hertis chace, 



15 



1 9 



21 



The fresh 
season of 
May banishes 
the cold of 
winter. 



Meued of Corage be vertu of the seson, 22 

In prz'me-tens renoueled yere be yere, 
Gladyng euery hert of veray reson, 

When fresh[e] May in kalendes gan apere, 
Phebus ascendyng, clere schynyng in hys spere, 26 
By whom the colde of wyntyr is exiled 
And lusty seson thus newly reconciled. 28 

1 lityll And] illegible by dirt. 2 Offringe tliyselfe] illegible 
by dirt. 4 Bokyngham] a above the line. 19 the] de c. 21 
out] above the line c. 24 veray] a preceding verray blotted out c. 



I. In May the Nightingale lids me rise. 



(5) 
To speke of sleep, hit nedes most be had 

Vnto the norishing of euery creature, 
With-oute whech braynes must be mad, 
Outragesly wakyng oute of mesure, 
Excepte thoo that kyndely nature 
Meueth to wach, as the nyghtingale, 
"VVhych in her seson be slep[e] set no tale. 

(6) 

For sche, of kynde, all the someres nyght 
!N"e seseth not with mony a lusty note, 
Wheder hit be dry or wete, derk or lyght, 
Eedly rehersyng her leson ay be rote 
Gret mervell is the enduryng of hir throte 
That her to here it is a second heuen, 
So melodiouse ande rnery is her steuen. 



29 All creatures 
want sleep 
during the 
night : 



33 the night- 
ingale alone 
can spend 
this time 

35 watching. 



36 She sings all 
night. 



40 
42 



Near the end 
of April, 1 
was lying 
sleepless, 



troubled 
with heavy 
thoughts. 



[THE POEM.] 

(7) 
And, on a nyght in Aprile, as y lay 43 

Wery of sleep & of my bed ail-so, 
Whene that the kalendes entred were of May 
(Whech of hir nature neither loueth of thoo), 
My herte with mony a thoght was ouer-go 47 

Ande with this troblus worlde sore agreued, 
But, as god wold, in hast y was Releued. 49 

(8) 
Thys blessed brid, of whom y you rehersed, 50 [ieaf59,bk.j 

As fer as that y godely myght hir here, 
So thorghly my hert raueshed had and persed 
Ryght with hir longyng notes, hye and clere, 
Longe or the day[e]-rowes can a-pere, 54 

Ymagynywg that sche be my propre name 
Me calde ande sayde : " A-wake & Ryse, for shame, 

(9) 

Oute of thy slombre-bed of slouth & sleep, 57 

Eemembring the vpon this lusty seson " 

36 For] ffo. 40 mervell] merevell hit. 42 mery] om. 



Long before 
day-break, 
I fancied 
that the 
nightingale 
by her 
ravishing 
song sum- 
moned me 
to follow her.. 



4 I. The Nightingales Song in Aurora, Prime, Tierce. 



I rose 



and went on 
till I found 
her singing 
and sitting 



Putting all 
worldly 
thoughts out 
of my heart, 



I understood 
at last that 
she was 
singing of 
her coming 
death. 



Ande right with that oute of my bed y leep, 
Thenking in my conceyt, she seide me reson, 
Ande walked forth she yaf me gret encheson 
Til that y come ther as my hertis queene 
Eyght freshly sang vpon a laurer grene. 

(10) 
Entendyng, as y romed vp and dowi, 

Expelling clerly all wilfle negligence, 
Hir clere entoned notes and hir soim 
For to perceyue with all my diligence, 
And sodenly cowceyued y this sentence, 

Hough that this brid, a-mong hir notes glade, 
Eight of hir deth a note of mornyng made. 



and con- 
tinued doing 
so in ' Prime,' 



So she sang Ande in Aurora, that is the morowe gray, 

in 'Aurora,' ' 

Ascending vp into this tre full hye, 
Me thoght she syngyng sayd this same day : 
"For all my myrthes ande my melodye, 
As nature will, about none shall y dye. 

My curiows note ne shall noght me a-vayle, 
But mortail deth me sharply will a-saile." 

(12) 
Contynving so vnto the oure of prime, 

Vpon the *bogh she euer sat and songe, 
But, dowi descendyng, she sayde in hasti tyme : 
" My lyfe be kynde endure shall not longe." 
But notheles thorgh-oute the wode yt ronge 
Hir notes clere so merily ande so shryll, 
The wych enchesoned me tabide there styll, 

(13) 
Till that hyt drogh forther of the day, 

Aboute the oure of tierce, right as y gesse, 
That euer y-lyke with notes fresh ande gay 
She cesed not, whech y can not expresse 
So delitable, replet with all swetnesse, 



[leaf 60] 
in 'Tierce,' 



61 



63 



64 



68 



70 



71 



75 



78 



82 



84 



85 



89 



59. 63 right] rygh. 63 laurer] laureall. 65 clerly] clerkely. 
71 is] om. 75 will] woll. 76 noght me] me noght. 79 bogh] 
boght c. 81 endure shall] enduryth. 82 thorgh-oute] thorght- 
oute. 83 merily] mery. 84 there] om. 85 that] om. forther] 
ffethyre. 



I. The Nightingale dies. Her story is in a Latin look. 5 

But euer among she song : " Ocy, ocy," 
Whech signified, me thoght, that she shuld dye. 

(14) 

Ande aftir this, when Phebus in his spere 92 

Ouer all the world had sprad his bemes bright, 

Cavsynge the cloudes dym for to be clere, 

Ande derk[e] mystes enlumyned with his lyght, 

Aboute the oure of sixt then she a-lyght 96 and in 

' Sexte.' 

Ande singynge seet in myddes of the tre : 

" Ocy, Ocy, o deth, well-come to me ! " 98 

(15) 
Thus, fro the morowe *to myddes of the day 99 

Ande all the nyght a-fore, with open eye, 
This bryd hath songen, as ye haue herd me say, 
Eehersyng euery tyde with melodie, 

But at the last, she shright and sodenlye, 103 At last, in 

Hir songe, hir myrth, & melodye was done at 'Nones/ 

Ande she expyred aboute the oure of none. 105 

(16) 
This brid, of whom y haue to you rehersed, 106 

Whych in her song expired thus ande deyede, 
In latyn fonde y in a boke well versed, This story i 

J found in a 

Ande what in morall sense it signinede, Latin book, 

' and under- 

The whech in englysh y wold were notified 110 jj k .* tran8 ' 
To all that lusty are it for to here, 
Yf that my conny[n]ge suffycyent ther-to were. 

(17) 

Be this nyghtingale, that thus freshly can 113 Jt j 8 * n f^' 

Bothe wake and singe, as telleth vs scripture, Sui i8tian 

Is Crist hym-self ande euery cristen-man 

Soule vnderstande, whech oweth of nature which ou s ht 

always to 

Ande verray reson do diligence ande cure, 117 JjJJ* j[J jy j} f 

Oute of the sleep of synne to a-wake, & ryse, Tremedy for 

Ande to remenbre, ande fully aduertise, 119 aman>8sin - 

90 song] schange. 95 enlumyned] enlewmyde. 96 sixt] vj. 
97 seet] sate. 99 to] to the c.C. 106 of] to. Ill To all] 
Toull ull. lusty] a preceding are blotted out c. 112 conny[n]ge] 
conynge. 115 cristen-man] kyrsten manes. 118 a-wake] 
wake. 



6 I. By Aurora, understand the, Creation and Adams fall. 



(18) 



[leaf 6o, bk.] That be Aurora is vnclerstonden right 

By 'Aurora,' 
understand 
the creation 
of the world, 



120 



and how, 
for pride, 
Lucifer was 
cast down 
into Hell. 



Therefore 
man ought 
to be humble. 



In this hour, 
Adam and 
Eve sinned 
by envy : 



we are still 
under the 
curse of their 
misdoing, 



and, without 
Christ's 
mercy, 
should be 
separated 
from God, 



The first begynny[n]g of this world of noght, 
Ande how grete god, of his endles myght, 

Hath heveii ande yerth formed with a thoght, 
And in six dayes all oder thynges wroght, 124 

Ande hogh gret noumbre of angels bright & clere 
Fell dowi for pride to helle with Lucifere. 126 

(19) 
*Hygh or lowe, wheder-so-euer thow be, 127 

Enprinte that fall right mywdely in thy hert 
Ande arme the surely with humylite 

Ayen all pn'de, yf thou wylt lyue in * quert ! 
Saue thy soule, or elles shalt thou smerte 131 

For all thy wor[l]dly pride ande veyne desyre, 
Ande euer in hell be brent with endles fyre ! 133 

(20) 
Muse on this morow further, and conceyue 134 

How that oure fader Adam ande also Eue, 
Whom that the sotell serpent can deceyue 
Of pure envye and caused to mischeue, 
Ande let theyr smert thi herte perse & cleue : 138 
Thenk well that fall is to thi-self extended 
Ande, nade Crist died, it had not yit be amended ! 

(21) 
Before whos deth the gret Infyrmyte 141 

Of that ofrens, cleped originall, 
Thorogh-oute the world infecte had vch de-gre, 
That, when they deyed, streyght to hell went all, 

145 



*Tyll fro the trone a-bofe celestyall 
Crist, consyderyng the gret captyuyte 
Of all man-kynde, cam *doune of pure pite. 

(22) 
as Adam was This hygh forf et whych Adam sone had don 

driven from _ , .., 

Paradise. W as grounde & cause of oure mortalite 



147 



148 



121 begynny[n]g] begynnynge. world] worde. 124 six] vj. 
127 Hygh] Hyght c. 128 fall] schall. 129 the] the rygh. 
130 quert] quarte c. 131 Saue] Safe so. smerte] semrt. 132 
wor[l]dly] worldely. 139 thi-self] they-selfe. 140 amended] 
mewdyt. 143 Thorogh-oute] Throgh-oute. 145 Tyll] Thyll 
c. a-bofe] Aboue (blotted out) abofe. 147 doune] dom c. 



I. Think on thy poor birth and thy vicious life. 



And paradise made hym for to voide *Anone : 
Oo sely appell, so eten of a tre ! 
welthy pepyll, in jour prosperite 152 

Thenk euery morowe how ])at jour wor[l]dly wele 
More lykly ys, safe grace, to hyrt then hele ! 154 

(23) 
Ande in Aurora further to precede, 

Be-thenke thy-self, hough porely \u was born 
Ande, as kynde will, * \u nedes mvst succede 
In pyne ande wo, lyke other the be-forn : 
Deth cometh in hast, he will not be for-born, 
For in the oure of thy natiuite 
He entered first & manaced the to sle. 



(24) 



155 [leaf 61] 

Do not forget 
thy birth in 
poor estate. 



159 



161 



In-to the wor[l]de what hast thou broght with the 162 

But lamentacion, wepyng, woo, & crye ? 
Non other richesse, safe only lyberte, 

With which god hath endowed the richly, 
Ande byddeth the frely chese to lyue or dye : 166 
Fro one of tho ne shall thou not deseuer, 
In loie or wo to liue or dye for euer. 168 

(25) 
Be nothyng prowde thy byrth thus to remenbre, 169 

Thou hast thy youth dispended folilye, 
Ande vsest with othes gret thy lord dismenbre, 
Ande other- wyse yit lyuest thou viciously. 
Call to thy mynde these thinges by & by, 173 

And euery morowe, thogh thou lust to sleep 
Ande softly lye, a-wake, a-ryse, and wep ! 175 

(26) 

But, forther to declare in speciall 176 

This oure of morowe, yf fat y conwyng hade, 

Ande hogh this brid thus song with voice mortall 
Ande in hire song a note of mornyng made, 

150 Anone] or none c. 153 wor[l]dly] worldly. 154 More] 
e above the line c. 155 Ande] An. 156/7 ]>u] u above the line c. 
156 bu] follows erasure c. 157 Jm nedes mvst] ]>u nedest mvst 
c ; thou moste nede C. 159 will] woll. 162 wor[l]de] world. 
165 With] a preceding Wh blotted out c ; With the C. 166 byd- 
deth the] by the. 167 shall] schalt. 171 lord] lorld. 172 thou] 
ora. 173 these] this. 177 yf] ycf. 



Death may 
suddenly slay 
thee. 



By thy own 
free will thou 
mayst live or 
die for ever. 



Every mor- 
row remem- 
ber the sins 
of thy youtli 



and pray to 
God for re- 
mission. 



In this very 
same hour 



8 I. Bemeiriber Christ's death, and at Prime, Noah's Flood. 



Konnywg and lawgage in me are so fade, 180 

That nedes y mvst in hvmble wyse exhort 
You that are konnmg, with pacience me supporte. 

(27) 
Oure lorde Ihesus, the fadres sapiens, 183 

The well of trewth & sothfastnes diuine, 
The lombe vnspotted, the grounde of Innocence, 
That gyltles for cure gylt lust to declyne, 
This oure of morow, cleped matutyne, 187 

Falsly be-trayed, and with J?e lewes taken, 
And of hys o[w]ne disciples sone for-saken : 189 

(28) 
synfull man, this oure the aght remord, 190 

That standest exiled oute fro charite, 
To thenke howe that thy maker & thy lord 
So lowly suffred this reprefe for the, 
Yevyng the ensample, that with humilite 194 

Fro morow to nyght thou folow shuld his trace, 
Yf thou in heuen with hym wilt cleyme a place. 

(29) 
Fro morow to nyght be-tokenes All the tyme, 197 

Syth thou wast born streyght tyll J>at thou dye. 
Thus endyth the first oure and now to pn'me. 
in 'Prime* / Ande be this oure, what we may sygnifie, 

In whych this brid thus songe with melodie, 201 
The seconde age ys clerly notyfied 
When all the world with water was destryed, 203 



Christ was 
betrayed, 
and taken 
prisoner by 
the Jews. 



[leaf 61, bk.] 
Never forget 
His humble 
suffering ; 



and do thy 
best to follow 
His example. 



the Flood 
broke in, 



' 



and only 
Noah, with : 
seven fellows, 
was saved, 
whereas all I 
other people ' 
perished. 



(30) 
In tyme of Noe whom for hys ryghtwisnesse, 204 

And with hym seuen, all-myghty god reserued ; 
And elles all oder for synne ande wrechednesse, 
Of verey rygowr, ryght as thay had deserued, 
In that gret flood were dreynt and ouer-terved. 208 
Except viij soules, all perysched, lesse and more, 
And they preserued, this world for to restore. 210 

188 lewes] ywes. 189 o[w]ne] oune. 195 nyght] nygh. 
196 Yf] Yeff. 198 wast] were. 201 thus] om. 202 age] om. 
210 for] om. 



I. Think how Christ, bought thee with His Uood. 9 



Therefore 
eschew sin, 
and live 
virtuously. 



God is not 
hasty to take 
vengeance ; 



% 
This oure, to thenke that with the water wan 211 

Noght all the world was ouerflow for synne, 
Aught for to exite euery maner man, 

That vice ande vertu can discerne a-twynne, 
All vice to eschew and vertuosly be-gynne 215 

Oure lord to plese, thenkyng furthermore, 
He *hateth synne now as he dud be-fore, 217 

(32) 
Thagh that hym lust of mercy and pite, 

As for a tyme, his vengance to differre, 
Sith with hys precious blod vpon a tre 

Hath boght oure soules was neue?' thyng bogh 

derre : 

*Ley to thy sore, & let no-thyng lye nerre ; 222 
Then this same salfe, to hele with thy smert : 
Full glad ys he, when so thou wilt cowuert. J 224 

(33) 
For of the synner the deth he not desire th, 225 [leaf 62] 

But that he wold retorne to lyfe a-yeyn. 
For, whosoeuer in dedly synne expyreth, 

Ther is no pardon that may abregge his payne. 
This to remcmbre aught cause the to restreyne 229 
Fro euery synne fat wyll this lord displese 
And for to vse that hym may queme & plese. 231 

(34) 
Ande on this oure to thenke furthermore, 232 

When all the flood * aswaged was and cesed, 
They, not considryng the gret vengaunce afore, 
The seed of Noe, whych gretly was encresed, 
But vn-to vice on vch syde ran and presed, 236 

For which they pvniched were with plages sore, 
As in the byble more pleynly may ye here. 238 

(35) 

thow, that hast thus past the oure of morow 239 
Ande newly entrest in *the oure of prime, 

212 Noght] How. 214 a-twynne] Atwen. 217 hateth] 
hatheth c; hatetht C. be-fore] Aforne. 220 vpon] Appon. 
222 Ley] Ley that c. 223 with] with All. 233 aswaged was] 
was aswaged c. 236 vn-to] in- to. 240 newly] follows erasure c. 
in] in-to. the oure] thoure c. 



He rather 
likes a peni- 
tent sinner. 



If thou die in 
deadly sin, 
thou forfeit- 
est pardon. 



Noah's pos- 
terity soon 
forgot God's 
judgment, 
and turned 
to evil ; 



but thou, ad- 
vanced in life, 



10 1. Think, young Gallants, of Christ's tortures for you. 



beware of the 
sins of thy 
forefathers 
and the at- 
tacks of the 
Fiend. 



God has pro- 
tected thee, 
as a youth, 
against evil; 



now do it 
thyself with 
the help of 
Christ, 



who, in this 
hour, was led 
before Pilate, 



and there 
suffered 
much from 
the Jews. 



Aught to be war to here of woo and sorow 

Which in this worlde hath be a-fore thy tyme, 
And of the fend, that *redy is to lyme 243 

Thy soule wyth synne & each the in his snare, 
Yif he in vertu the bareyne fynde and bare. 245 

(36) 
Ande namely now, sith thou of Innocence 246 

Ande of thy tendre age art past the yeres, 
In which god the hath keept fro violence, 
In all thy youth fro Sathan and his feres, 
Dispose the nowe to sadnes and prayeres, 250 

Eeme??^bryng specially vpon this oure of pn'me, 
Hogh Crist acused falsly was of Cryme, 252 



(37) 



253 



Taken ande lad afore the presydent, 

Pounce Pylat, that luge was of the lawe, 
His handes bourcde, his nek with boffettes bent, 
On euery syde to-togged and to-drawe. 
He, ffull *of pacience, suffred all & sawe 

Hogh that the lewes, fals and voide of grace, 
There all defouled with spet his blessed face. 259 



257 



(38) 



[leaf 62, bk.] 
All these 
pains He 
endured 



260 



to give us an 
example of 
patience. 



Se, hogh this lord that all thing made of noght, 
To saue mannes soule, wold suffre this repref, 
That myght haue stauwched & cesede with a thoght 
The lewes malice & put theym to myscheef, 
To oure ensample, pat we shuld suffre grefe 264 
Aftir oure desert and paciently hit take 
For hym that all wolde suffre for oure sake. 266 

(39) 

lusty gaylauntes in youre adolescens, 267 

member tins Let not this oure of p?'mie fro you deseuer ! 

hour against * 

wantonnes 8 s 0f When ye be sterede to wanton in-solence, 

*Restreyne your-self & in jour herte thenk euer 
Solomon How Salomon sayde ; he cowde perceyve neuer 271 



243 redy is] ys redy the c. 247 the] thi. 248 the hath] 
hathe the. 253 afore] before. 257 of] of pite & c. 263 
theym] them. 266 all wolde] wolde all. 269 be] ben. 270 
Eestreyne] Restreyned c. 271 Salomon] Saloman. 



I. At Tierce, dread God's judgment on Sodom's crime. 11 



The watwton weyes & dyuers of jour youth, 
For all the prudelit wisdom that he *kowthe ! 273 



(40) 



274 



Thoure of pryme fynysched thus & ended, 
This brid all-wey perseuereth ande a-byt, 
Doun on the tre a-valed and descended, 
Thoure of tierce clerely syngyng yit. 
The third age of the world be-tokeneth hyt, 
In whech thoo folk that doura fro Noe came 
Gretly encresed in tyme of Abraham, 280 



278 



(41) 



281 



Which in his daies pernt was ande stable, 
Dredyng oure lord and lyuyng perfytly ; 
* To whom god swore, lik sterres in-nvmerable 
His seed he wolde encrese and multiplie. 
But, notheles, moch peple viciously 
Were in this age dampnably demeyned 
Ande thorgh theire vice destreied sore & steyned. 



285 



(42) 
Their filthi synne abhominable stank 

Ande so displesed the blessed Trinite, 
That douft to hell sodenly ther sank 

Sodom, ande Gomor, and oder cites thre, 
Ande now is there but the Ded[e] See. 

Alas the while that euer they wolde do so ! 
Vnkyndly synne was cause of all their woo. 

(43) 
This for to here aght cause jour herte to colde, 

That are enp?-znted aftyr the ymage 
Of god, and to cowsidere and be-holde 
This gret vengaunce, taken in pat age. 
And namely ye that are in the third age 
Of jour lyfe ande passed morow & prime, 
Aght euer be war to vse vnkyndly crime. 



273 kowthe] kowde c ; koude C. 
279 \K~\f allows erasures 280 in] om. 
destreied] desteied. 292 is there] ther is. 
' in C. 301 eiier] follows erasure c. 



277 syngyng] syngnified. 
283 To] The c. 287 
299 and 300 trans - 



In c Tierce ' 
the nightin- 
gale sang of 
Abraham, 



who led a 
goodly life, 
and received 
God's pro- 
mise; 



but, also in 
his time, 
many people 
did not mend 
their bad 
behaviour : 



288 God could not 
let them be 
unpunished ; 

so Sodom and 
Gomorrah 
were de- 
stroyed. 

292 



294 



295 People, in 
their later 
years, ought 
to be warned 
by this ter- 
rible end, 



299 



301 ad leave off 
sin. 



121. The Fiend lies in wait for you. Death knocks at your Gate. 



[leaf 68] 
The Fiend 
always tries 
to catch 
souls ; 



but Christ's 
sufferings 
make us able 
to avoid the 
Devil's 
snares. 



For our sake 
the Jews 
forced Him 



to bear the 
cross to 
Calvary. 



Christ suf- 
fered all this 
to give thee 
defences 
against the 
attacks of 
Satan. 



Lords, be 
watchful, 



Death may 
come on a 
sudden. 



(44) 
The fende, youre enmye, lying in a-wayte, 302 

Goth fast a-boute, jour soules to deceyue, 
Leying hys lynes and with mony a bayte 
Wsynge his hokes, on theym you to receyue, 
The which thus lygh[t]ly ye may eschewe & weyfe, 
This oure to thenk hogh lewes lowde and hye 
Gan : " Crucifige, crucifige ! " Crye, 308 



(45) 



309 



313 



Takyng oure lord and, of derisiou??, 

In cloth of purpull clothing hyw in scorne, 
Ledynge hym forth, as childre of cowfusiouw, 
And on his heed a sharpe crow? set of thorn ; 
Vpon his blessed shulder the crosse was born 
Vnto the place of * peynes, Caluarie : 
Lo, what he suft'red, thi soule fro peyne to bye ! 

(46) 
Thenk on this oure, thou wrecched synfull man, 316 

That in this age hast reson, strenght, and hele, 
(Yf thou asayled or hurt be with Sathan), 
To salf thy sore and thi wonde to hele : 
Mark in thi mynde this oure for woo or wele, 320 
Hogh that thy lord suffred for thy gylt, 
To sane thy soule, whech elles had be spilt. 322 

(47) 
Ye myghty prynces and lordes of a-state, 323 

In honoure here that are exalted hye, 
Beth ware & wake, deth knokketh at jour yate 
And woll come in ; be sure that ye shall dye ! 
Call to jour mynde for speciall remedie 327 

Oure lordes passion, his peyne, & pacience 
As medycyne chefe & shelde of all defence. 329 

(48) 

A myghty prince, lusty, yonge, & fiers, 330 

Amonge the peple sore lamented ys : 

302 youre] oure. 305 Wsynge] the first letter not clear 
neither in c nor in C. 306 lygh[t]ly] lyghtly. 314 Vnto] 
Vpon. peynes] peynes, calde c. 323 Ye] The. 325 Beth] 
Byth. 328 peyne] pyme. 331 peple] pepull that. 



I. The Duke of Warwick is dead. Why please the Devil ? 13 



The due of Warwyk entryng the oure of tierce 
Deth toke hyra to whom mony sore shall mysse. 
All-myghty Ihesu, receyue his soule to blisse ! 334 
Both hye & lowe, thenk well that ye shall henne, 
Deth wyll you trise, ye wot not how ne whenne. 



(49) 



Aftir the oure of tierce this nyghtyngale, 
Synging euer with notes fresh and gay, 
To myddes of this tre can dourc *avale, 

When that yt drogh to myddes of the day : 
Sygnyfinge all the tydes, soth to say, 

Whech that haue be fro tierce vnto syxt. 
In which dayes, whoso woll rede the tyxt 

(50) 
Of the byble, he may haue revth to here 

Hogh dampnably in mony a sondry place 
Of the world that folk demeyned were, 
Destryed for synne and destitute of grace. 
synfle Dathan, the yerth *in lytyll space 
Opened & swolowed bothe the and Abyron, 
And sodenly with yow sank mony a synfle mon. 



337 



In the 
' Tierce ' of 
his life, the 
Duke of War- 
wick was 
taken away. 



From 

'Tierce 'till 
' Sexte,' Hie 
nightingale 
continued 
singing. 



341 



343 



344 [leaf 63, bk.] 



348 



(51) 



351 



Lo, in all ages, be freelte of nature, 

Thorgh all the world peple hath had delite 
The fend to serue with all theire besy cure, 

Which for theire seruyce no-thyng wil hew quite 
But endles deth. Alias, what appetite 355 

Haue folkes blynde, such a lord to plese, 
That noght rewardeth but myscheef & desese. 357 

(52) 

And in speciall, ye of perfyt age, 358 

This oure of sixt, in myddes of your lyfe, 

Aught to be war and wayte aftir ]>e wage 

That Crist rewardeth wzt^-oute werre or stryfe, 
Wher endles loye and blysse are euer ryfe. 362 

332 Warwyk] Wane. 333 hym to] to hym. 336 wyll] woll. 
339 avale] a-vaile c. 343 woll] wyll. 345 dampnably] damp- 
nable. 348 in] in a c. 349 &] an. 354 for] ofor, or partly 
erased, hew] theym. 



In this hour 
Dathan and 
Abiram were 
swallowed by 
the earth : 



for people 
always liked 
to be bonds- 
men to the 
Devil though 
he is out an 
ungracious 
master. 



In the middle 
of their lives 
people ought 

to look for 
the mercy of 
Christ, 



who was 
crucified, 
innocent as 
a lamb. 



14 I. At Sexte and Nones, think of Christ's Cross and Death. 

Entendeth duly this blessed lord to seme, 

That, you to saue, vpon the rode wolde sterve. 364 

(53) 
Vnto the crosse, thoure of syxte, was nayled 365 

Oure lord Ihesws, hangyng ther with theves, 
And for the thrist of tormewtes, that hym ailed, 

Eysell and gall in scornes and repreues 368 

They offred hym oure crym & olde mescheues, 
Doyng a-way this lambe thus crucified : 
The manhed suffred, the godhed neuer died. 37 1 

(54) 
We aght *ryght well compassion haue & reuth, 372 

For to remenbre his peynes and repreues, 
To thenk, hogh he whych grounde is of [all] trewth 
Was denied to hange amyd to fals[e] theues. 
blessed lord and leche to all oure greues, 376 

So of thy grace graunt vs to be so kynde, 
To haue this oure of sixt well in oure mywde. 378 

(55) 
Thus heng oure lord nayled to the tre, 379 

Fro the oure of sixt vnto *the oure of none, 
Ande also longe was in prosperite 

Oure fader Adam, tyll tyme that he had don 
That high forfet for which he banyshid sone 383 
Was *in-to yerth, to lyue in langour there 
Ande all his o[f]spryng, till Longens with a spere, 

(56) 
The oure of none, as lewes hym desyred, 386 

Thirled and persed thorgh his hert & side. 
He, seyng then : " Consunmatum est," expired 
And heed enclyned, the gost yaf vp J>at tyde 
Vnto the fader. The suraie, co??ipelled to hyde 390 
His bemys bright, no lenger *myght endure 
To see the deth of the auctor of nature. 392 



We must 
never forget 
the pains He 
suffered, 



hanging be- 
tween two 
thieves. 



[leaf 64] 
From the 6th 
to the 9th 
hour Christ 
was hanging 
on the cross. 

Adam was in 
prosperity, 
till, by his 
fall, he was 
banished into 
the earth; 



Christ died, 

His soul went 
to His Father. 



365 crosse] +. 367 the] follows erasure c. thrist] stryfe. 
ailed] inled. 369 crym] tyme. 372 ryght] ryth c. &] follows 
erasure c. 374 lie] follows erasure c. all] om. c. 375 to] ij. 
378 sixt] vj te . 380 vnto] in-to. the oure] thoure c. 383 ban- 
yshid] banehed. 384 in-to] in-te c. 385 all] Allso. 386 
lewes] ywes. 387 thorgh] thorghoute. 391 myght] myth c. 



I. He has bought us,& slain Death. May He grant us Heaven 715 



(57) 
Thus hath this brid, thus hath this nyghtyngale, 393 

Thus hath this blessed lord fat all hath wroght, 
That douft to yerth fro heuen can a-vale, 
Vpon a crosse oure soules dere y-bought 
Ande yeueii vs cause in hert, wyll, & thought, 397 
Hym for to serue & euer loue and drede 
That, vs to saue, wold suffre his blod to shede. 






(58) 
Hell despoiled, & slayn oure mortall foo, 

Oure lord vpryse with palme of hye victorie, 
Ascended eke ayen there he come fro, 
The holy gost sent from the see of glory 
His precious body to vs in memory, 

With holy wordes of dewe cowsecracioura 
To be receyued to oure hele & sauaciouw. 

(59) 



400 



404 



406 



407 



Who may be glad but all thoo, at lest, 

That worthy are, in this lyues space, 

For to be fed here, at this glorious fest, 

Ande after, in heuen, wiih bryghtnes of his face, 
Whom of his godhed be-seche we ande his grace, 411 
That, fro this worlde when so we shall deseuer, 
In loye eternall with hym ther to perseuer. 
Amen. . ;. 413 

Explicit. 

394 this] oure. 399 to shede] illegible. 402 come] came. 
406 sauacioiw] saluacyouw. 407 at] at the. 409 glorious] a 
following ste blotted out c. 



Let us thank 
Him, that He 
shed His 
blood for our 
sake. 



After our 
Lord's resur- 
rection and 
ascension, 



the Holy 
Ghost sent 
us the Sacra- 
ment of the 
Altar. 



All those may 
be glad who 
are worthy 
to appear be- 
fore Christ's 
face, both 
here and in 
heaven. 
Let us pray 
that we may 
have part in 
eternal life. 



16 II. The Nightingale asks Venus to punish false Lovers. 



On a lovely 
day in June, 



when the 
birds had just 
finished their 
even-song, 



and gone to 
rest, 



I was lying 
in a valley 
and listening 
to the tunes 
of a nightin- 
gale. 



I understood 
that she was 
asking Venus 
for vengeance 
on false 
lovers : 



II. 

flf % 

[BY DAN JOHN LYGDATE: see p. 28.] 

[54 stanzas of sevens, ababbcc.] 

[MS. Harl. 2251, Zea/229 a.} 

(1) 

TN June, whan Titan was in Crabbes hede, 1 

Towardes Even the Saphyre-huwed sky 
Was westward meynt with many Eowes Eede, 

And fowlis syngen [in] theyr melody 
An hevenly complyne with sugred Armonye, 5 

As *that hem nature taughtfe] for the best : 
They gan hem proygne and drough hem to theyr 



That sith the tyme, f orsoth, that j was borne, 8 

Hadde j nat herd suche song in downe nor daale 
And alle were gone, sauf vpon a thorne 
The same tyme j herd a nyghtyngale, 
So as j lay pensyf in a vale 1 2 

To herken the meanyng of hir melody, 
Whos hertly refreyd was euer : " Occy, occy." 14 

(3) 
She ment, I trowe, with hir notes nuwe 15 

And in hir * ledne, Venus to take vengeaunce 
On false lovers whiche that bien vntriewe, 
Ay ful of chaunge and of variaunce, 
And can in oone to have no plesaunce. 1 9 

This bridde ay song : " sle theym, lady myn, 
Withouten mercy and bryng hem to theyr fyn, 21 

1 In John Stowe's hand. 1 2nd in] in y e . 3 westward] est- 
warde. 4 in] om. H. 5 complyne] cemplygne. 6 that hem] 
hem that H ; >at them A. taught[e]] taught tho. 7 hem] 

them, drough] drought. 9 nor] ne. 14 refreyd] refrayde. 
Occy, occy] ocylocy. 16 ledne] ledne on H A. Venus] venis ; 
proper names in heavy type are underlined in H. 20 sle] sleth. 
21 hem] them. 






II. / dream that an Angel from God comes to me. 17 

(4) 
To shewe ensample, that other may wele knowe 22 

How that they shal in theyr trowth abyde ! 
Eor parde, lady, yit thy sones bowe 

Nys nat broke, whiclie callid is Cupide. 

Let hym niarke them and wounde hem in the side Cupid should 

wound them 

Withouten mercye or any remedye, with his 

* * arrows; 

Where-so that he suche falsehede can espye. 28 

(5) 
And suche as bien for love langwisshyng, 29 but true 

.-,.,, IIP > lovers should 

Unerissh hem, lady, lor trewe anectioun, be helped. 

Support and help hem with thy myght to bryng 
In-to thi Castell, sette in Citheron : 
On dyamaundes sette is the Dungeoun, 33 

Fret with Rubyes and Emerawdes grene. 

Now herkne my song, that art of love the qwene ! " [leaf 229, bk.] 

(6) 
And as I lay, and herde hir twnes cliere, 36 Taking great 

. . ,; ' delight in the 

And on hir notes me gretely gan delite, bird's song, 

Vpon the Eve the sterris dide appere, 

The bawmy vapour of grass is gan vp-smyte 

In-to myn hede of floures Rede and white, 40 

That with the odour, or that I toke kepe, 

I fille anon in-to a dedly sleepe. 42 ifeii asleep. 

(7) 
And than me sempte that from the god of love 43 i dreamed 

that an angel 

lo me was sent an vnkouth messangier from Heaven 

Nought from Cupide, but fro the lord above 
And, as me thought, ful fayre and fressh of chiere, 
Whiehe to me sayde : ' Foole, what dostow here 47 summoned 

Slepyng allone, gapyng vpon the mone ? 

Rise, folowe me, [and] thow shalt se right sone 49 

23 theyr] hur. 24 parde] pardy. 25 Nys nat] Is not. 

26 hem] them. 27 Withouten] witA-out. 28 falsehede] fallsed. 
29 Men] be. 30 hem] them, affectioun] affectyons. 31 hem] 
them. 40 hede] heued. 41 or] er. 42 fille] fell. 43 that] om. 
of love] corrected out of: above, but by the same scribe H; of 
loue A. 45 Nought] not. fro] from. 47 dostow] dost thou. 
49 and] om. H. 

NIGHTINGALE. C 



to teach me 
the true 
meaning of 
the nightin- 
gale's sing- 
ing. 



18 II. The Angel is to teach me the Nightingales meaning. 

(8) 
An vnkowth sight, If thow list to speede. 50 

The briddes song I shal to the vnclose, 
For trust me wele, I cast the nat to leede 
Nothyng towardes the gardyn of the Rose, 
And I thi spirit shal otherwise dispose, 54 

For to declare the briddis song : " Occy," 
And what she meanyth in sentence triew[e]ly. 56 

(9) 
Thyn aduertence is gouerned wrong 57 

Towchyng the twnes thow herdest here to-fome : 
" Occy, occy," this was the briddis song, 

Whiche many a lover hath thurgh foly lorne. 
But thynk among vpon the sharpfe] thorne 61 

Whiche priked hir brest with *fyry remembraunce, 
Lovers in vertu to encres and avaunce. 63 

(10) 
This briddis song, whiche we have on honde 64 

Who that takith the moralite 
Betokenyth, playnly for to vndrestonde, 
The grete fraunchise, the grete liberte, 
Whiche shuld in love be so pure and fre, 68 

Of triewe meanyng Rooted so withynne, 
Fer from the conceyte of any maner synne. 70- 



because i had 

not interpret- 
ed it in the 
right way : 



' She praises 
pure love, 
[leaf 230] 



free from 
any sinful 
thought. 



'She nearly 
kills herself 
with sing- 
ing. 



' This inter- 
pretation of 
thine 



*Takestow none heede, how this bridde so smal 71 

Syngeth as that she wold hir-self dismembre, 
Streyneth hir throte, peyneth hir brest at al, 

Shakith and qwakyth in euery loynt and membre ? 
man vnkynde, why dostow nat Remembre 75 
Among in hert vnto this briddes song 1 
If thow advert, thow dost to god grete wrong. 

(12) 

Thow art desseued in thyn oppynioun 78 

And al awrong also thow dost goo, 

50 to] y e . 58 twnes] toynes. herdest] haddest. 60 thurgh] 
thorugh. 62 priked] pricketh. fyry] fayre H. 63 to encres] 
tencresse them. 64 whiche] winch y*. 65 the] om. 66 Be- 
tokenyth] n corrected out of 1 H. 71 Takestow] Take thow H ;. 
take thou A. 75 dostow] dost y u . 



II. The bird shows folk Christ's sufferings for them.. 19 



she does not 
sing of fleshly 
84 love, 



85 but bewails 
the pains of 
our Lord, 



89 suffering for 
men's sins, 



91 



92 who do not 
even care for 
His death on 
the cross. 



Feynt and vntriew thyne exposicioun, is totally 

Thyn vndrestondyng, thy conceyt bothfe] two. 
This bridde, in soth, ne meanyth nothyng so : 82 
For hir synggyng who-so takith heede 
JSTothyng Resownyth vnto flesshlyhede. 

(13) 
Towchyng : " Occy " considre wele the woord ! 

This brid it song of Impacience, 
Of Iniuries doo vnto the lord 

And wrong grete to his magnificence 
Of worldly folk thurgh theyr grete offence, 
Which e can-nat knowe for theyr reklesnes 
The grete love, the grete kyndenesse 

(14) 

Whiche he shewed for theyr *alre goode, 
Whan that he, yif they kowde adverte, 
For theyr sake starf vpon the Eoode 

And with a spere was stongen thurgh the hert: 
Who felt euer for love so grete a smert 96 

As thilk[e] lord dide for mannes sake 1 
And yit, alias, non hede therof they take. 98 

(15) 
To pay the Raunsoun of oure grete losse, 99 

He was in love so gentil and so fre, 

That hym deyned be nay led vpon the crosse [leaf 230, bk. 

And liche a thief hang vpon a tre. 
Lift vp thyn hert, vnkynd man, *and see ! 103 

The nyghtyngale in hir armonye 
Thus day and nyght doth vpon the crye. 105 

(16) 
She cryeth : " Sle al tho that bien vnkynde 106 

And can of love the custom nat observe, 
Nor in theyr len no drope of pite fynde, 

Nor in theyr brest, for love, no sigh conserve ! 
Why list the lord for mannes sake sterve 110 

84 vnto] in-to. 87 Iniuries] iniures. doo] done. 89 folk] 
folkes. thurgh] thorugh. 90 reklesnes] rechellnesse. 92 alre] 
old H ; ould A. 95 thurgh] thorugh. 96 smert] smarte. 
98 take] toke. 99 Raunsoun] raunsome. 101 vpon] on. 103 
and] at H. 106 tho] om. bien] be. 108 len] eghen. 



' Day and 
night, the 
nightingale 
strives to 
make thee 
value Christ's 
kindness: 



"Slay all the 
ungrateful 
people who 
do not feel 
indebted 
to Christ, 



20 II. Christ's wounds and death were foreseen ~by Isaiah. 



though He 
shed His 
blood for 
their salva- 
tion. 



' Never for- 
get His five 
wounds, 

which are 
like a rose, 



red witli His 
blood. 



" Like Mary, 
and Saint 
John, 



every man 
ought to be 
touched to 
the utmost, 
to see Him 
endure such 
torments. 



Isaiah, 
when speak- 
ing of the 
' man who 
[leaf 231] 

comes from 
Edom,' 
meant the 
same who 
was accused 
before Pilate. 



But for to pay of fredam the Raunsoun, 

His hert[e]-bloode, for theyr redempcioun 1 112 

(17) 
His woundis fyve for man he did vnclose : 113 

Of handis, of feete, and of his faire side. 
Make of thess fyve in thyn hert a Rose 
And lete it there contynuauly abyde ; 
Forgete hym nought, where thow go or ride, 117 
Gadre on an hepe these rosen-floures fyve, 
In thy memorye prynt hem al thy ly ve : 119 

(18) 
This is the Rose whiche first gan wexen rede, 120 

Spreynt oue?-al with dropes of p?/rpure hewe, 
Whan Crist Ihesu was for mankynd dede 

And had vpon a gam erne nt ful newe : 123 

His holy moder, his Cousyn eke, seynt lohn, 
Suche array to-fore saugh they neuer none, 125 

(19) 
Whiche to behold, god wote, they were nat fayne : 126 

His blessyd body to seen so al to-Rent ; 
A Crowne of thorn, that thrilled thurgh his brayne : 
And al the bloode of his body spent ; 
His hevenly len, Alias, deth hath I-blent ; 



Who myght, for Rowth, susteyne and behold 
But that his hert of pite shuld cold ! 

(20) 
This was the same whiche that *Isaye 

Saugh fro Edom come, with his cloth depeynt, 
Steyned in Bosra ; eke dide hym aspye, 
Bathed in bloode, til he gan woxen feynt ; 
This is he that drank galle and eysel Imeynt ; 
This is he that was afore Pilate atteynt 
With false accusours in the consistorye, 
Only to bryng mankynde to his glorye. 



130 



132 



133 



138 



HO 



Ill Raunsoun] raunsome. 115 in] of. Rose] voose. 

117 hym] them, nought] not. 118 an] om. these] thos. 
119 prynt] emprynt. hem] them. 123 garnement] garment. 
125 neuer] nere. 128 thurgh] thorough. 130 len] egghen. 131 
and] and to. 133 Isaye] I yow say H ; I you saye A. 134 fro] 
frome. come] cane. 136 gan] can. 137 galle and eysel] eysel! 
and gall. 138 afore] to-fore. 139 accusours] accusers. 



II. Hew Christ's disciples forsook Him, & the Jews tore Him. 21 



(21) 



141 



He was most fayre founde in his stoole, 

Walkyng of vertues with most multitude, 
Blessyd, benyngne, and hevenly of his stoole, 

Whiche with his suffraunce Sathan [can] conclude. 
His humble deth dide the devil delude, 145 

Whan he mankynd brought out of prisoun, 
Makyng his fynaunce with his passioun. 147 

(22) 
Isaye, the most renomed prophete, 148 

Axed of hym, why his garnement 
Was rede and blody, ful of dropes wete 
So disguysed was his vestyment ! 
Like hem that pressen quayers of entent 152 

In the pressour, both the Rede *and white 
So was he pressid thy Eaunsoun for to qwyte ! 



(23) 



155 



1 It is, quod he, that trade it al alone. 

Withouten felawe I gan the wyne out-presse, 
Whan on the crosse I made a doleful mone 

And thurgh myn hert the sperhed gan it dresse 
Who felt euer so passyng grete duresse ! 159 

Whan al my frienclis allone me forsoke 
And I my-self this lourney on me tooke. 161 



(24) 
Except my moder there durst none abide 

Of my disciples, for to suwen me. 
Seynt lohn, for love, stode on myn other side, 
Alle the Eernenawnt from me diden flee. 
The lewes my flessh asonder dide *tee : 
Who was it but I that bode in the vyne 



" Through 
His humble 
death, the 
Lord van- 
quished 
Satan, and 
saved man- 
kind. 



"Asked, why 
Christ's 
garment was 
so red, Isaiah 
answers 
with the 
Saviour's 
own words : 



Alone I 
pressed the 
wine in the 
press when I 
was suffering 
on the cross, 



forsaken by 
every man 



162 except Mary 
and Saint 
John. 



166 'Through 

the cruelty or 
the Jews 



To presse the wyne, thy Eaunsoun for to fyne? 



144 can] om. H. 148 renomed] renoumed. 150 dropes] a 
following wem blotted out H. 152 hem] them, quayers] quay- 
ers. 153 and] and the H. 154 Raunsoun] raunsome. 155 is] 
is I. 156 Withouten] WttA-out. 163 suwen] followe. 164 on] 
by. 165 from] fro. diden flee] dyd wend. 166 tee] rend 
H A. 167 bode] abode. 168 presse the] presse out. Eaunsoun] 
raunsome. 



22 II. How Christ suffered in His five wits for man's sake. 



[leaf 231, bk.] 



I lost all My 
blood : 



but nobody 
showed 
mercy on 
My pains. 



Never did 
any man 
endure such 
torments 
as I. 



'In all My 
five senses I 
suffered for 
man's mis- 
doings -. 



In sight, 



in taste, 



(25) 
For marines sake with me fill hard it stoode : 169 

Forsaken of alle and eke disconsolate ; 
They left no drope, but d[r]ewe out al my bloode. 
Was neue?* none so poore in none estate ! 
Al my disciples left me desolate 173 

Vpon the crosse betwene theves tweyne 
And none abode to Kewe vpoii my peyne. 175 

(26) 
ye al that passen bi the wey, 176 

Lift vp the le of yowre aduertence ! 
Sawe ye euer any man so deye 

Withouten gilt, that neuer dide offence 1 
Or is there any sorwe in existence 180 

Liche the sorwe that I dide endure, 
To bye mankynde, vnkynde creature? 182 

(27) 
For the surfete of thy syimes alle, 183 

And for the offence of thy wittes fyve 
My towche, my tast, myn heryng dide apalle, 
Smellyng and sight ful fieble were als blyve. 
Thus, in eche part that man can contryve, 187 

I suffred peyne and in euery inembre 
That any man can reken or remembre. 189 

_ (28) 
Ageyne the synnes plainly of-thyn heede 190 

I had vpon a crowne of thornes kene, 
Bitter teres were medled with my brede 
For mannes trespas I felt al the tene 
My len blynde, that whylom shoone so sheene, 194 
But for man, in my thurst most felle, 
I drank galle tempred with eyselle. 196 

(29) 
For mannes lokyng fulfilled with outrage, 197 

And for his tunge ful of detractiouii 
I alone souffred the damage, 

171 d[r]ewe] drewe. 176 ye al] all ye. wey] wye. 177 le] 
eghe. 178 deye] dye. 183 surfete] forfeyte. 187 part] port, 
can] maye. 193 tene] teme. 194 My] myn. 195 But] and. 



II. Christ is the remedy against man's Seven Sins. 23 

And ageyne falsehed of adulacioun 

I drank galle poynaunt as poysoun. ; 201 

Ageyn *heringe of tales spoken in vayne in hearing, 

I had rebuke and sayde no word ageyne. 203 [leaf 232] 

(30) 
Gey n pride of beawte, where-as folkes tres-pds, 204 

I suffred my-self grete aduersite : 
Beten and bonched in myn owne face ; 

Ageyns towchyng, if man list to se, in touch. 

Myn handes were nay led fast vn-to the tre, 208 

And for mysfotyng, where men went[e] wrong, 
My feete thurgh-perced : Were nat my peynes 
strong] 210 

(31) 
Was it nat I that trespassed nought. 211 'Though 

without any 

That had myn hert perced even atweyne, in, ipuftred 

And neuer offendid oones in a thought, 
Yit was it korve thurgh in euery veyne 1 
Who felt euer in erth so grete a peyne, 215 

To Eeken al, giltles as dide I ? 
Wherfor this brid sang ay : " Occy, occy."- - 217 

(32) 
Suche as ben to me founde vnkynde 218 'Those who 

f haveforgot- 

And have no mynd kyndly of resoun, ten that My 

But of slowth have I-left behynde remedy 

The holy remembraunce of my passioun, 

By meane of whiche and mediacioun 222 against tiie 

seven sins, 

Ageyne al poysoun of the synnes seven 

Triacle I brought, sent [them] downe from heven 

.(33) 
Ageyns pride, remembre my mekenesse ; 225 ought to 

remember 

Geyne covetise, thynk on my pouerte : My meekness 

J , . /. against pride, 

Ageynst lechery e, thynk on my clennesse ; My poverty 

J ' J J against covet- 

Agenst envye, thynk on my charite ; S?* ne iJSt 

Agenst glotonye, aduerte in hert and se 229 {*?, 

My charity 

202 Ageyn] Agaynst. heringe of tales] tales heryng H. 
207 Ageyns] Agaynst. man] men. 208 handes] hande. 

210 thnrgh-] thorugh-. 213 oones] once. 214 korve] kevne. 
thurgh] thorughe. 215 a] om. 221 holy] hole. 224 them] 
am. H. 227 Ageynst] ageyne. 228. 229 Agenst] ageyns. 



24 II. Christ gave His body and Mood for man's food. 



How that I for marines grete offence 
Fourty dayes lyved in abstynence.' 

(34) 



"Against 
pride He 
humbly 
inclined His 
head; 

against envy 
[leaf 232, bk.] 
He spread 
abroad His 
arms as a 
token of 
friendship; 



against 
covetousness 
the nails 
pierced His 
hands. 



" From His 
largess He 
gave 



to man His 
bj'ly in the 
form of bread, 



His blood in 
the form of 
wine, 

and water out 
of His side to 
wash away 
his sins. 



" To the 
Jews He gave 
His garment; 

to the 

apostles His 
dead body ; 

to Saint 
John His 
mother, and 
to His father 
His soul. 



231 



232 



" Of mekenesse he dide his [heued] enclyne 
Agenst the synne and the vice of pride ; 
Agenst envy, streyght out as a lyne, 
Spradde his armes out on euery side, 
[To enbrace his frendes and with them abyde,] 236 
Shewyng hem signes, who so list to se : 
Grounde of his peynes was perfite charite. 238 

(35) 
Agenst covetise mankynde to redresse 

Thurgh-nayled weren his holy handis tweyne, 
Shewyng of fredam his bountevous almesse, 
Whan he for love suffred so grete peyne 
To make mankynde his blisse to atteyne ; 
And his largesse to Rekene by and by, 
I shal reherse his gyftes ceriously. 

(36) 



239 



243 



245 



He gaf his body to man for chief repast, 246 

Restoratif best in the forme of brede, 
At his maunde, or he hennys past ; 

His blessid bloode, in forme of wyne so Rede ; 
His soule in price, whan that he was dede ; 250 

And of oure synne as chief lauendere, 
Out of his side he gaf vs water cliere. 252 

(37) 
He gaf also his purpure vestement 253 

To the lewis, that dide hym crucifie ; 
To his apostels he gaf also of entent 

His blissed body, ded whan he dide lye ; 
And his moder, that clepid was Marie, 257 

The kepyng of hir he gaf to seynt lohn : 
And to his fader his gost, whan he was gon. 259 



230 grete] om. 232 heued] om. H. 236 om. H. 237 hem] 
them. 240 Thurgh-] thorugh-. 241 his] a. 248 maunde] 
maundy, hennys] hence. 249 so] full. 251 synne] synnes. 
253 purpure] 1st r above the line H. 254 dide hym] him did. 
255 also] eke. 259 he] hit. 



II. Christ died to make man free. Arm thce with His ivounds ! 25 



(38) 



260 



Agenst slowth he shewed grete doctryne, 

Whan he hym hasted toward his passioun ; 
Agenst wrath this was his disciplyne, 
Whan he was brought to examynacioun : 
A soft Aunswere without rebellioun ; 

Agenst glotenye he drank eysel and galle, 
To oppresse surfayte of vicious folkes alle. 

(39) 
He gaf also a ful grete remedye 

To mankynde, his sores for to sounde, 
For, ageyne the hete of lecherye, 

Mekely he suffred many a grevous wounde, 
For none hole skynne was in his body founde, 
Nor ther was seyn other apparaile, 
But bloode, alias, aboute his sides rayle. 

(40) 
There he was sone and his faders heyre, 

With hym allone by the eternyte : 
It was a thyng incomparable fayre, 

The sone to dye, to make his seruaunt free, 
Hym fraunchisyng with suche liberte, 

To make man, that was tliurgh synne thralle, 
The court to enherite above celestial. 

(41) 

These kyndenesses, whiche I to the Reherse, 
Lete hym devoyde from the[e] oblyvioun 
And lete the nayles, whiche thurgh his feete dide perce, 
Be a cliere myrrour for thy redempcioun ; 
Enarme thy-self for thy proteccioun, 

Whan that the feendis list ageyn the stryve, 
With the Carectes of his wondes fyve. 

(42) 

Agenst theyr malice be strong and wele ware, 
Al of his crosse Eeyse vp the banner 



264 



266 



267 



271 



274 



278 



280 



281 



285 



287 



288 



266 surfayte] sourfetes. 268 his] ther. 272 seyn] sene no. 
273 rayle] ryall. 279 thurgh] thorugh. 281 These] thos. 
kyndenesses] kyndnes. 282 hym] them. the[e]] om. 283 
thurgh] thorugh. 284 a] om. for] of. redempcioun] dedem- 
cyon. 286 ageyn] agaynst. 287 Caractes] correctes. 288 
Agenst] Agayne. 289 Reyse] aryse. 



" Against 
slowness He 
showed readi- 
ness to His 
passion, 
:> gainst 
wrath, meek- 
ness before 
His judges ; 

against 
gluttony He 
drank gall 
and vinegar 



against 
lechery He 
[leaf 233] 
suffered 
many 
wounds. 



"It was a 
most wonder- 
ful thing that 
God slew His 
only Son to 
save man- 
kind. 



" Never for- 
get this ex- 
ceeding 
kindness. 



"Arm thyself 
against the 
atiacks of 
the devils 
with the 
signs of 
Christ's 
wounds. 

"Take His 
cross as 
thy banner; 



26 II. Christ's Cross is typified by Old- Testament symbols. 



it is the best 
weapon : 



It is the 
palm of 
victory ; 

the tree of 
Daniel; 



the key of 
Heaven ; 
the staff of 
James ; 



the ladder of 
our ascen- 
[Ieaf233,bk.] 
sion; the 
hook of 
Leviathan ; 
the press of 
our redemp- 
tion; 



the harp of 
David; 



the pole 
whereon 
Moses ex- 
hibited the 
brazen 
serpent ; 



299 



301 



candelabrum 
of the taber- 
nacle ; 



And thynk how he to Caluarye it bare, 

To make the strong agenst theyr daungier ; 
Whiche whan they seen, they dare com no nere, 292 
For trust wele, his crosse is best defence 
Agenst the power of fiendes violence. 294 

(43) 
It is the palme, as clerkis can wele telle, 

To man in erth to conquest and victorye ; 
It is the tre, whiche that Danyell 

Sawe sprad so broode, as made is memorye ; 
The key of heven, to bryng men to glorye ; 
The staf of lacob, causyng al oure grace, 
With whiche that he lowrdan dide passe ; 

(44) 
Scale and ladder of oure *ascencyon ; 302 

Hooke and snare of the Leviathan ; 
The strong pressour of oure Redempcioun, 

On whiche the bloode downe be his sides Ranne, 
For nothyng ellis, but for to save man ; 306 

The harp of Dauid, whiche most myght availe, 
Whan that the fiend kyng Saul dide assaile. 

(45) 
This was the poole and the hygh[e] tree, 309 

Whilom sette vp by Moyses of entent 
Al Israel beholde nygh and see 

And therevpon of brasse a grete serpent, 
Whiche to behold [whoo] were nat necligent, 313 
Receyved helth, salve, and medicyne 
Of al theyr hurtis, that were serpentyne. 315 

(46) 
This banner is most niyghti of vertu, 316 

Geyns fiendes defence myghti and chief obstacle ; 
Most noble signe and token of Tau 

To Ezechiel shewed by myracle ; 

Chief chaundelabre of the tabernacle, 320 

292 seen] se. 295 palme] pallis. 298 made] makid. 

299 key] kepe. 302 ascencyon] Redempcioun H. 308 assaile] 
assaye. 309 poole] pale. 313 whoo] om. H. 318 Tau] chayne. 



II. Sinful soul, think on Christ'* pains! This world is exile. 27 



Wherthurgh was caused al his cliere light 
Voidyng al derknesse of the clowdy nyght. 

(47) 



322 



This was the tree of mankynde boote, 

Thatt stynt hir wrath and brought in al the pees, 



the staff 
which sweet- 
ened the 
water of 

Whiche made the water of Marath fressh and swoote, Marah ; 



That was to-forne most bitter dout[e]les. 

This was the yerd of worthy Moyses, 327 

Whiche made the children of Israel go free 
And dry-footed thurgh the Eede See. 329 

(48) 
This was the slyng, [with] whiche with stones fyve 

Worthy David, as bookes specific, 
Gan the hede and the helme to-Rive 
Of the Geaunt, that callid was Golye, 
Whiche fyve stones, takyng the Allegorye, 334 

Arn the fyve woundes, as I reherse can, 
With whiche that Crist venqwisshed Sathan. 

(49) 
O synful soule, why nyltow taken kepe 337 

Of his peynes, Remembryng on the showres 1 
Forsake the world, and wake out of thy sleepe, 
And to the gardyn of perfite paramours 
Make thy passage, and gadre there thy flowres 341 
Of verray vertu, and chaunge al thyn old lyf , 
And in that gardyn be contemplatyf ! 343 



(50) 



344 



*For this world here, both at Even and morwe, 

Who list considre aright in his Reasoun, 
~*Is but an exile and a desert of sorwe, 
Meynt ay with trouble and tribulacioun ; 
But who list fynde consolacioun 

Of gostly loye, lete hym the worlde forsake 

And to that gardyn the Rightfe] wey[e] take, 350 



348 



the stick 01 
Moses ; 



the sling of 
David, 



whose five 
stones signify 
Christ's five 
wounds. 



[leaf 284] 
"O sinful 
soul, 

forsake the 
world ! 



" It is but 
an exile. 



" If thou wilt 
find peace, 
come to the 
garden 



321 -thurgh] -thorugh. 323 mankynde] mankyndes. 

324 brought] bought. 329 thurgh] ouer. 330 1st with] 

am. H A. 334 the Allegorye] palegorye. 336 venqwisshed] 
venquysht hath. 344 For] From H. 346 Is] It is H. 



28 II. Christ calls man's Soul as Ms Sister and Spcuse. 



mentioned ii 
the Song of 
Songs. 



" Come 
thither to 
live in purity, 
as Christ's 
sister and 
bride: 



[leaf 234, bk.] 

Bride by 
affinity of 
grace, 



sister by 
nature, be- 
cause Christ 
is the Virgin 
Mary's son, 
and our 
brother." 



(51) 
Where-as [pat] god of love hym-self cloth dwelle 351 

Vpon an hille ferre from the mortal vale 
Canticorum the booke ful wele can telle 
Callyiig his spouse with sugred notes smale, 
Where that ful lowde the Amerous nyghtyngale 355 
Vpon a thorn is wont to calle and crye 
To mannes soule with hevenly Armonye : 357 

(52) 
' Veni in ortum meum : soror mea. 358 

Com to my gardyn and to myn herber grene, 
My fayre suster and my spouse deere, 

From filth of synne by vertu made al clene ; 
With Cristal paved, thaleys bien so cliere. 362 

Com, for I calle, anon and thow shalt heere.' 
How Crist Ihesu, so blessid mote he be, 
Callith mannes soule of perfite charite ! 365 

(53) 
He callith hir ' suster' and his ' spouse ' also : 366 

First his suster, who-so list to se, 
As by nature take goode heede herto ! 
Ful nygh of kynne by consanguinite ; 
And eke his. spouse by afnnyte, 370 

I meane as thus : be affynite of grace, 
With gostly love whan he doth it embrace ; 372 

(54) 
And eke his suster by semblaunce of nature, 373 

Whan that he toke oure humanyte 
Of a mayde most clennest and pure, 

[ no gap in the MSJ\ 

Fresshest of floures that sprang out of lesse, 377 
As flour ordeyned for to Releve man, 
Whiche bare the fruyt that slough oure foo 
Sathan." 379 

Of this Balade Dan lohn 
Lydgate made nomore. 

351 >at] om. H. 353 Canticorum] -urn abbreviated; canticoy 
A. 354 Callyng] called. 358 soror] soiar. 362 thaleys] paleys. 
372 doth it] it doth. 379 bare] bore. 



20 



NOTES. 

POEM I. 

p. 1, line i. About this opening in prose compare Introduction, 8. 

1. iii. swan] See Gattinger, p. 67. 

1. v. With regard to the different ecclesiastical terms compare C. 
Horstmann, Altenglische Legenden, Neue Folge ; Heilbronn, 1881, Intro- 
duction, and Emil Feiler, Das Benediktiner-Offizium, ein altenglisches 
Brevier a 'is dem 11. Jahrhundert. Ein Beitrag zur Wulfstanfrage (Angli- 
stische Forschungen 4), Heidelberg, 1901, p. llff. 

' Horae,' hours, in the sense of the old Christian Church, means not 
only the hours of devotion, but the divine service itself, celebrated in 
these hours. Generally seven are mentioned 1. Nocturn, 2. Matins, 
3. Prime, 4. Tierce, 5. Ssxte, 6. Nones, 7. Vespers. As Prime was not 
observed everywhere, 8. Compline (cornpletorium) was added in the 
6th century, in order to get the full number of seven hours of divine 
service, as this number was considered to be commanded by the psalm 
cxviii, 164 : t Septies in die laudem dixi tibi.' 

1. vii. tercia] In the MS. there is a flourish attached to this word, 
similar to those which in Latin MSS. signify the termination of the gen. 
plur. -mm ; see H. 1. 353 : Canticomm. As this expansion would be 
mere nonsense here, I have omitted this sign altogether. 

1. xv. Crucifige] occurs in the part which is dedicated to Tierce, 1. 308. 

p. 2, st. 1-4. The order of thoughts is as follows : The poet sends the 
little book to the Duchess, to present itself to her and to beseech her that 
she will take and keep it, till she gather her courtiers around her. 
These were always inclined to listen to the song of the "arnerouss" 
nightingale, interpreting her song in a worldly way. Therefore the 
Duchess ought to read them the post's song of the "gostly" nightingale, 
to drive their idle thoughts out of their hearts, which otherwise would be 
conquered again by the charms of the fresh month of May. 

p. 2, 1. 1. About "Go, lityll quayere . . ." see Introduction, 6, and 
Schick, T. G. note to 1. 1393. 

dresse] instead of "adresse"; compare H. 11. 204, 226, 227, 229, 239, 
265, 317, which I also do not consider as type E. This dropping of a 
first unaccented syllable often occurs in Lydgate. M. P. 12 ('rayed), 
174, 175 ('mong) ; Schick, T. G. 875 (longij) ; Steele, decrees, 526 
(cordith) ; Falls^ 143 b 2 (Gynneth) ; Pilgr. 1165 (cordyng). Compare also 
Skeat, Chaucer, iii, L. o. g. W. B. 359 (parteth = departeth) and v, Addenda, 
p. 493, note to 1. A. 3287 (do wey, go wey = away). 

1. 2. wyth humble reuerence] See dEsop (Zupitza) 271 : 
The lambe answerd with humble reuerence. 

1. 4. The Duches of Bokyngham] See 2, A, 2, Description of the MSS.. 
and 7, The Date. 



30 Notes: Poem /. Page 2, lines 4-26. 

p. 2, 1. 4. of hur excellence] and 1. 5 : of hure pacyence, and ]. 6 : of 
luire noble grace " of " denotes here the cause; compare Paul's Grundriss 
der Germanischen Philologie, 2 i (Einenkel), p. 1104, 155 X). 

M. P. 49 : Noble piyricessis of meek benyvolence, 

Be example of hir your homes cast away. 

Eom. of the E. 3655, 3656 : 

This is to sayne, that of his grace 
He wolde me yeve leyser and space. 

Ibid. 4604 : I praye Love, of his goodlihede. 

S. of Thebes (Ske&i) 1291: 

Beseching hire, only of her grace. 
The same 1. 142. 

1. 5. of hure pacyence] See note to I. 4. 
1. 6. of hure noble grace] See note to 1. 4. 
1. 8. Vnto the tyme] See Schick, T. G. note to 1. 1082. 
1. 9. Luste] The construction of this verb is very inconsistent in 
Lydgate ; compare Schleich, Fabula, p. Ixv ; Degenhart, Hors, note to 
1. 127. In our poems compare also, e. g. : c. 11. 174, 175 ; H., 11. 50, 110, 
111, 237, 345, 348 ; both constructions in one sentence we find Falls. 40 
a2: 

But such as list not corrected be, 
by example of other fro vicious gouernaunce 
and fro their vices list not for to flee. 
1. 11. primetens] Compare 1. 23. Pilgr. 3455 : 

At pryme temps, with many a flour. 
-Rom. of the R. 3373 : 

At prime temps, Love to manace. 
Ibid. 4534 : At pryme temps of his foly. 
But ibid. 4747 : 

Pryme temps, ful of frostes whyte. 

1. 16. gostly sense] There are among the M. P. (Minor Poems, Percy 
Soc.) some verses, entitled " Make amend es," where likewise the song of a 
little bird is interpreted "in gostly sense," but the poem is not considered 
to be Lydgatian (compare Gattinger, p. 78). I cite here the first two 
stanzas (p. 228 f. ) : 

By a wylde wodes syde " Make amende trewely ; " 

As I walked myself alone, Than songthatbr} T d with federesgray, 

A blysse of bryddes me bad abyde, In myne hert fulle woo was y, 
For cause there song mo then one ; Whan "make amendes" hegantosay; 
Among thes bryddes everych one, I stode and studyede alle that day, 
Full gret hede y gan take, Theswordmademeallenygthtowake, 

Howhegonsyng withrewfullymone, Than fond I by good schyle, in fay, 
" Mon, y rede the, amendes make." Why he sede " amendes make." 

For a worldly song of a nightingale compare, e. g. Kingis Quair, st. 34. 
1. 19. But] refers to "bare of eloquence." 

1. 20. vnlawfle] Lydgate probably read "vnlawful"; in this way the 
hiatus is also avoided ; see 1. 65. 

1. 22. vertu] See note to H., 1. 316. 
1. 25. freshe May] Schick, T. G. 184 : 

For it ne sit not vnto fressli[e] May. 

1. 26. Phebus and Titan (compare 1. 92 and H., 1. 1) are very common 
for the sun, see Schick, T. G. note to 11. 4-7, and the following quotations : 






Notes: Poem /. Page 3, lines 29-35. 31 

Schick, T. G. 272 ; 

Licli Phebus bemys shynyng in his spere. 
Edmund, i, 314 : 

Shyne in vertu as Phebus in his speer. 
Voss. Gg. 9, f. 76 b : 

Which be nyght as Phebiw in his spire. 
M. P. 182 : Til on a morwe, whan Tytan shone ful clere, 
Ibid. 195 : Titan to erly whan he his cours doth dresse. 
Ibid. 216 : So as Phebus perceth thoruhe the glas 

With brihte beemys, shynyng- in his speere. 
Falls, Sal: highe as Phebus shineth in his sphere. 
Skeat, Chaucer, vii, x, 114 : 

fyry Tytan, persing with thy bemes. 
Schleioh, Fabula, 688 : 

And nyht approchith, whan Titan is gon doim. 
Skeat, Chaucer, vii, ix, 265-266 : 

The foules alle, whan Tytan did springe, 
With devout herte, me thoughte 1 herde singe ! 

p. 3, 1. 29-32. A similar passage occurs in Skeat, Chaucer, i, 3, 16-27 : 
And wel ye wite, agaynes kinde And I ne may, ne night ne morwe, 
Hit were to liven in this wyse ; Slepe ; and thus melancolye, 

For nature wolde nat suffyse And dreed I have for to dye, 

To noon erthely creature Defaute of slepe, and hevinesse 

Not longe tyme to endure Hath sleyn rny spirit of quiknesse, 

Withoute slepe, and been in sorwe ; That I have lost al lustihede. 

1. 29. nedes most] Compare C. Stoffel in Englische Studien 28 (1900), 
p. 303 ff. See also 11. 157, 181. 

I. 33. kyndely] See Degenhart, Hors, note to 1. 512, Matzner, and note 
1. 294 of our poem. 

II. 34, 35. It is a very common idea to represent the nightingale as 
singing all the night. Compare 1. 100 of our poem and the following 
quotations : M. P. 153 : 

Nyhtynggales al nyght syngen and wake, 
For long absence and wantyng of his make. 
Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., A. 98 : 

He sleep namore than dooth a nightingale. 
Ibid, vii, xxiv, 1355-6 : 

He (i. e. the nightingale) might not slepe in all the nightertale, 
But ' Domine labia, 3 gan he crye and gale. 

Percy Society, vii : The Harmony of Birds, ed. by J. Payne Collier, 
p. 6: 

Than sayd the nightyngale, 
To make shorte tale, 

For wordes I do refuse, 
Because my delyght, 
Both day and nyght 

Is synging for to use. 

Ibid, xi : The Owl and the Nightingale, ed. by Thomas Wright, p. 16 : 
Bit me that ich shulle singe 
Vor hire luve one skentinge ; 

And ich [_i. e. the nightingale] so do thurj ni^t and dai. 
Ibid. p. 26 : Ich singe mid horn ni^t and dai. 



32 Notes: Poem I. Page 3,. lines 35-39, 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 378, 11. 2872-2874 : 
I thenke upon the nyhtingale, 
Which slepeth noght be weie of kinde 
For love, in bokes as I finde. 
Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 82), p. 109, 1. 5976 : 

Wher as sche [i. e. Philomene] singeth day and nyht. 
George Gascoigne in Specimens of the Early English Poets, London 
1790, p. 23 : 

And as fair Philomene again 

Can watch and sing when others sleep, 
And taketh pleasure in her pain, 

To wray the woe that makes her weep. 

p. 3, 1. 35. set no tale] Compare G. L. Kittredge, Authorship of the 
Romaunt of the Rose (Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, 
i), Boston, 1892, p. 39. I add the following quotations out of works of 
Lydgate : 

Degenhart, Hors, 440 : 

Sette litil store of swerde or arwis kene. 

Ibid. 479 : Whiche, of madness, bi wolle set no fors. 
Ibid. 237 (and note to this line) : 

And, for he set of me that day no fors. 
Pilgr. 4718, 4719 : 

And I am she that set no cure 

Off grucchyng nor detraccioiw. 

Falls, 199 a 2 : Fortune of me set now but litle prise. 
Ibid. 210 b 2 : Of his manace set but litle tale. 



(Sauerstein), iv. 116 : 

To ouerpresse a pore man the riche set no tale. 

Also, Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 53, 11. 649, 650 : 

...... for of the smale 

As for tacompte he set no tale. 
Ibid. p. 330, 11. 1062, 1063 : 

And of the conseil non accompte 

He sette, ...... 

Ibid. p. 347, 1. 1716 : 

For al ne sette I at a stra. 
Ibid. (E. E. T. S.,E. S. 82), p. 197, 11. 1130, 1131 : 

Withinne his herte he set no pris 

Of al the world, ...... 

Ibid. p. 329, 1. 3342 : 

Which rnannes lif sette of no pris. 

1. 37. The same sequence of rhymes as in 11. 37, 39, and 40 occurs also 
in Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., B. 1735-7-8, and ibid, vii, xviii, 71-2-5 : rote- 
note-throte. 

1. 38. dry or wete, derk or lyght] It is not altogethar unusual with 
Lydgate that the thesis is wanting in enumeration ; compare Degenhart, 
Hors, p. 37. Perhaps we are allowed to assume the same metrical phe- 
nomenon in 1. 397 of our poem, and in Falls, 82 b 2 : 

Breake his coller thicke, double, and longe. 

1. 39. be rote] About the etymology of this word consult Stratmann- 
Bradley, article ' route,' Skeat, Chaucer, vi, p. 218 ; vii, p. 527, and 



Notes: Poem I. P age %, lines 41-57. 33 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 82), p. 515, note to 1. 1312. It 
occurs also in M. P. 152 : 

Suycli labourerys synge may be roote. 
and Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., B. 1735 : 

Fro day to day, til he coude it by rote. 
Ibid, vii, xviii, 71 : 

They coude that servyce al by rote. 

p. 3, 1. 41. Lydgate is very fond of the construction exhibited by this 
line. 

M. P. 4 : That to behold it whas a nob^e sighte. 

Ibid. 181 : That to beholde it was an hevenly sighte. 
G. W. (Robinson), 360 : 

T/iat to be-holde hit was verray wondre. 
Falls, 8 1 b 2 : That to beholde it was an ougly syght. 
. of Thebes, 376 b 1 : 

That to beholde, it was a verie wonder. 
Similarly in Kinyis QuoAr, st. 162, 1. 3 : 

That to behald thereon I quoke for fere. 
Compare also : Court of Sapience, f . 1 b : 

That heuen it was to here her beauperlaunce. 
Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T.,F. 271 : 

That it is lyk an heven for to here. 

11. 43-45. Compare for the ^explanation of these lines, Schick, T. G. 
p. cxiv, and note 1, and also Skeat, Chaucer, ii, p. 468. 

1. 46. ' Whech ' and ' hir '] refer to ' May,' 1. 45. The poet probably 
had in mind the idea of an allegoric personification or a goddess of May. 

1. 46. thoo] refers to 'sleep' and 'bed,' 1.44. The sense is: Overmuch 
sleep is not in harmony with the merry month of May : poets, lovers, 
tc., go forth early at that season 

* To do obeissance to the month of May.' 

1. 47. thoght] means ' heavy thought, trouble.' See Schick, T. G. 1. 1 
and note. Also in Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 10, 11. 239, 240 : 
I haue herd seyn, in kepyng of richesse 
Is thoght and wo, & besy a-wayte al-way. 
Ibid. 1. 245 : pus >ogtit turmenti^ folk in sondry kynde. 
Ibid. p. 11, 1. 267 : 

Be war of J>oght, for it is perillous. 
1. 51. As fer as] see Schick, T. G. note to 1. 1029. 
1. 52. So] without continuation in the following part of the sentence. 
1. 54. daye-rowes] See Introduction, 5, Schick, T. G. p. Ixix, and 
Krausser, Complaint, p. 25. 

1.54. can] =gan = began, without any proper meaning ; compare, e.g. 
11. 136, 339, 395, and H., li. 19, 144, (156, 158, 332) ; also Ellis, E. E. P. i, 
p. 375, and Degenhart, Hors, 1. 137 and note. 

1. 55. Ymagynyng 56. calde] Perhaps it would have been preferable 
to enclose this parenthesis within dashes. 

1. 57. Lydgate likes to join these alliterative words. Falls, 173 a 1 : 

Of superlluitie, of slouth and of slepe. 
Kk. i. f. 194 b : 

That slombre & sleepe // J?e longe wynteres nygt. 
JEsop (Sauerstein), ii, 77 : 

And suche folke to rebuken, that levyn in slombir and slowth. 
M. P. 68 : And slowth at morow, and slomberyng idelnes. 

NIGHTINGALE. D 



34 Notes: Poem I. Page 4, lines 63-74. 

Ibid. 236 : Fro slouthe and slombre mysilf I sbal restreyne. 
Venus-Mass, MS. Fairfax, f. 314 b : 

In slep / slogardye / and slouthe. 
(quoted from E. E. T. S. 71). 

Also Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, 649 : 

Trowbled 1 was with slomber, slepe, and slouth. 
And Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. xxvi, 1. 93 : 

Puttyng awey thi slombre & [thi] slouthe. 

p. 4, 1. 63. laurer grene] The nightingale represented as sitting on a 
laurel occurs also in Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xx, 109 : 

Wher she (i. e. the nightingale) sat in a fresh green laurer-tree. 
Ibid. 435, 436 : 

For then the nightingale, that al the day 

Had in the laurer sete, .... 

The laurel has very often the epitheton ' green ' : Flour of Curtesye, 
f. 248 a 2 : 

I set me downe, vnder a lanrer grene. 
Ibid. f. 249 a 2 : 

Fayrest in our tonge, as the Laurer grene. 

Also Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xx, 268 and 289, and Krausser, Complaint, 65. 
In the Canterbury Tales Chaucer tells us why the laurel got this epithet : 
Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., E. 1465, 1466 : 

Myn herte and alle my limes been as grene 

As laurer thurgh the yeer is for to sene. 
And Lydgate himself states, M. P. 180 : 

And the laurealle of nature is ay grene. 

Compare also the following lines from Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S.,. 
E. S. 81), p. 272, 11. 1716-1720 : 

This Daphne into a lorer tre 

Was torned, which is evere grene, 

In tokne, as yit it mai be sene, 

That sche schal duelle a maiden stille, 

And Phebus failen of his wille. 
1. 65. wilfle] See note to 1. 20. 
1. 70. Compare 1. 179. 

1. 71. morowe gray] This motif reminds us of the beginning of the 
' Flour of Curtesye,' where we hear that the lark sings (Flour of Curtesye, 
248 a 1): 

Ful lustely, againe the morowe gray. 
M. P. 23 : And Aurora, ageyne the morowe gray. 
It occurs also among the poems of Charles d'Orleans, iii (Wiilcker,, 
Altenglisches Lesebuch, ii.), p. 123, 2 : 

Aftir the sterry nyght the morow gray. 
But ibid., Story of Thebes, 9 : 

When Aurora was in the morowe redde. 
Compare also Skeat, Chaucer, i, 4, 1 : 

Gladeth, ye foules, of the morow gray. 
Ibid.iv, C.T.,A. 1491, 1492: 

The bisy larke, messager of day, 

Salueth in hir song the morwe gray. 

1. 74. For] =in spite of; compare Paul's Grundriss, i, 1102 t, and e. g. i 
M. P. 215 : Blenchithe never for al the cliere light. 



Notes: Poem I. Pages 4, 5, lines 78-90. 35 

Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T.,C. 129 : 

This mayde shal be myn, for any man. 

Ibid, i, 3, 534, 535 : 

Right wonder skilful and resonable, 
As me thoglite, for al his bale. 
See also 1. 273. 

p. 4, 1. 78. Contynving] Lydgate uses normally the other form of this 
verb : ' contune ' ; compare Brotanek, Die Englischen Maskenspiele, p. 309, 
11. 3, 4 : ffortune contune rhyming with each other ; Schick, T. G. 
'contuned 5 390 rhyming with 'vnfortuned' 389 ; 'contune' 1333 rhyming 
with 'fortune' 1332. 

I. 82. thorg-oute the wode yt ronge] Compare Krausser, Complaint, 
44,45: 

Which (i. e. the briddes) 011 the braunches, bothe in pleyn [and] vale, 

So loude songe that al the wode ronge. 

To the quotations given in the note to 1. 45 add the following ones 
from Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xx, 99, 100 : 

The nightingale with so mery a note 
Answered him, that al the wode rong. 
Ibid, vii, xviii, 96-100 : 

And as I with the cukkow thus gan chyde, 
I herde, in the nexte bush besyde, 
A Nightingale so lustily singe 
That with her clere vois she made ringe 
Through-out al the grene wode wyde. 

Thomas Wright, Specimens of Lyric Poetry, Percy Society, iv (1841), 
p. 43: 

This foules singeth ferly fele, 
Ant wlyteth. on huere wynter wele n 
that al the wode ryngeth. 

II. 88, 89. These two lines may be a reminiscence from the Latin 
original, ii, 3-4 : 

Tollens eius taedia vice dulcis lyrae, 
Quern, heu ! modo nequeo verbis convenire. 

p. 5, 1. 90. euer among] Compare note to H., 1. 61. 

Qcy] = the call of the nightingale, occurs in our poems here and 
1. 98, in H., 11. 14, 55, 59, 85, 217. Compare Uhlands Schriften zivr 
Geschichte der Dichtung und Sage, iii, Stuttgart, 1866, p. 97 f. ; Reinhold 
Kohler, Kleinere Schriften. Hrsg. von Joh. Bolte, Berlin, 1900, iii, No. 32 T 
pp. 216-218 (also in : Zeitschrift fur romanische Philologie, viii (1884), 
pp. 120-122) Gustav Thurau, Der Refrain in der franzosischen Chanson, 
Berlin, 1901 [Litterarhistorische Forschungen, hrsg. von J. Schick und M. 
v. Waldberg, No. 23], p. 73 if. 

In mediaeval literature we meet not unfrequently with this imitation 
of the nightingale's song. The quotations which have come to my 
knowledge may be divided into two main groups : The poets of the one 
use ' ocy ' as an onomatopoeia for her plaintive song, those of the other 
interpret it as an imperative, addressed by the bird to the hearer. 

To the first group belong the author of Lydgate's Latin original, 
Peckham (?), and the greater number of his imitators (see also Introduc- 
tion, p. xxxix, note 5), as e. g. Jacobus de Portu, Diepenbrock, Anonymus 
S. (Des hi. Bonaventura Philomele oder Nachtigallenlied, Lingen, 1883), 
and C. Fortlage (Gesange christlicher Vorzeit, Berlin, 1844). There are 
with the latter but slight varieties in reproducing ' oci ' : J. de Porta by 



36 Notes: Poem I. Page 5,. line 90. 

'ochij,' Diepenbrock by 'oci,' Anonymus S. and Fortlage by ' ozi.' Only 
Jacobus Balde (Poematum tomus iv, Coloniae Ubiorum, 1660) attempts 
an allegoric interpretation : 

Pars. iv. : ... curn sol medium flagrantior igne scandit axem 
Ilia, nescio quos, crebro vocat impotenter hora. 
Ocyus, exclamaus, hue ocyus, ocyus venite. 
OcyuSj advolita soror ocyus, ocyus, sorori. 
Adriacum rapidis toties mare non tumet procellis 
Nee folia arboribus, simul ingruit Africus, moventur : 
Multa suum quoties canit ocyus, ocyusque plorat. 
Pars. xxi. : Oti blanda quies, dulcedo nobilis oti, 
Recepta Cordis angulo 

Mens Philomela canit. 

The other group is represented chiefly by French poets, many of 
whom understand <oci' as the imperative mood of 'occir' = kill, and use 
it both in epic and lyric poetry, e. g. : 

Histoire litteraire de la France, xxii, p. 345 (also in Martonne, Analyse 
du roman de dame Aye, p. 23) : 

Et chantent li oisel et mainent grant delit, 
Et li roussignolet qui dit : Oci, oci ! 
Pucelle est en effroi qui loing set son ami. 
Gruillaume le Vinier in Histoire litteraire, xxiii, p. 592 f. : 
Trop a mon cuer esjo'i 
Li louseignols qu'ai oi, 
Qui chantant dist : 
Fier fier, oci oci, 
Ceux par cui sont esbai 

Fin amant. 

Wistasse le Moiiie, hrsg. von Wendelin Foerster und Johann Trost, 
Halle, 1891 [Romanische Bibliothek, hrsg. von W. Foerster, 4], 11. 1142 ff. : 
Illuecques se fist loussignol. " Ochi ! ochi I ochi 1 ochi ! " 
Bien tenoit le conte por fol. Et li quens Renaus respondi : 
<Quant voit le conte trespasser, " Je 1'ocirai, par saint Richier ! 
Wistasces commenche a crier : Se je le puis as mains ballier." 
Compare W. W. Comfort in Modern Language Notes, xiii (1898), 
col. 513 ff. 

Charles de Bourdigne, Faitz & Dictz Joyeulx de Pierre Faifeu, Paris, 
1833 [Tresor des vieux poetes francais, 6], pp. 23, 24 : 

Me pourmenant, ung Roussignol s'esveille ; 

De son doulx chant ties fort je me esmerveille, 

Quar il disoit en son chant : " Fy, fy, fy, 

Fy de dormir, fy d'homme qui sommeille, 

Fy de songeard, fy d'homme qui ne veille 

A son honneur." Alors je vous affy 

Que j'heu bien peur & ung tr6s grant deffy 

De perdre honneur par ma grant nonchallance, 

Veu qu'on ne acquiert sans bien grant[s] porchatz lance. 

Je 1'escoutte' ; lors commen9a a dire, 

Tournant son chant mieulx que une harpe ou lire, 

En chant bien doulx & plaisant : " Suy, suy, suy." 

A 1'escouter je ne peuz contredire, 

Mais suis faciie*, quasi rencontre de ire, 

Que ne le voy, & il semble estre icy, 

Car il disoit : " Vien tost, aussy, aussy ; 



Notes: Poem I. Page 5, line 90. 37 

Ne sois lasse ; le gaing est a poursuyvre " : 
Tel va bien tost qu'on aconsuyt pour suyvre. 
Compare Wistasse, ed. Foerster, note to 1. 1146. 

Huon de Me'ry, Li tornoiemenz Antecrit. Hrsg. von Georg Wimmer, 
Marburg, 1888 [Ausgaben und Abhandlungen. Hrsg. von E. Stengel, 76], 
11. 3295-3298 : 

Et li rousignous 9a et ci 
Crie: <Fui! Fui ! Oci I Oci ! ' 
Si que sa menace tormente 
Tout le vergier. 

Raynaud, Eecueil de Motets francais (Bibl. fr. du m.-age), Paris, 
1881, i, p. 49 : 

Et si orrons le roussignol chanter 

En 1'ausnoi, 

Qui dit : Oci ceus qui n'ont le cuer gai, 
Douce Marot, grief sont li man d'amer. 

Skeat, Chaucer, vii : The Cuckoo and the Nightingale, 11. 121-135 : 
And every wight may understande me ; 
But, Nightingale, so may they not do thee ; 
For thou hast many a nyce queinte cry. 
I have herd thee seyn, "ocy! ocy!" 
How mighte I knowe what that sliulde be ? ' 
' A fole ! ' quod she, ' wost thou not what it is ? 
Whan that I say "ocy! ocy /" y-wis, 
Than mene I that I wolde, wonder fayn, 
That alle they were shamfully y-slayn 
That menen auht ayeines love amis. 
And also I wolde alle tho were dede 
That thenke not in love Mr lyf to lede ; 
For who that wol the god of love not serve, 
I dar wel say, is worthy for to sterve ; 
And for that skil "oci// ocy!' 1 I grede.' 

To these we may also reckon the quotations from the poetry of the 
troubadours alluded to by Thurau, p. 75. 

Though ' ocy ' does not verbally occur, we must necessarily suppose 
the same idea in Jourdains de Jtttaivies in Amis et Amiles und 
Jourdains de Blaivies. Hrsg. von C. Hofmann, Erlangen, 1882, 11. 1546- 
1550: 

En un vergier s'en entra maintenant, 
Dou rousseingnol i a oi le chant, 
Gil autre oisel se vont esbanoiant. 
Lors li ramembre de Fromont le tyrant, 
Qu'ocist son pere a 1'espee tranchant . . . 

In some cases I am not able to classify the quotations, e. g. Uhland, 
p. 167, 198, from a manuscript in Strassburg, fol. 37a : 
He tres dous rousignol ioli 
qui dis oci oci oci, etc. 

Or Godefroy, Dictionnaire de Vaiwlenne langue francaise, Paris, 1881- 
95, from R. de Hondenc, Meraugis, MS. VienneJ f. 28 c : 
Quant j'oi chanter a mes oreilles 
Le roussignol oci, oci. 

Later instances prove that this second group has degenerated and 
that the idea of 'ocy' as an imperative has been effaced by degrees, so 



33 Notes: Poem I. Page 5, lines 92-108. 

that the two groups again coincide at last. Compare La Curne de Sainte- 
Palaye, Dictionnaire historique de Vancien langage francois, Niort Paris 
[1880, viii] : 

J'oie oi le roxignol rnener, Oci, oci, vilaine gent : 

Qui me fet plaindre,et dolouser, Jolis cuer doit bien amer, 
For les mans que je sens por li, Par amours joliement. 
Qui sor 1'arbre chante a haut cri, (MS. 7218, f. 271.) 

Pourquoi tient on le chant a gracieus 
D'un ozeillon qu'on claimme rossegnol ? 
Pour ce qu'il est jolis, et amoureus, . . . 
Et dist occi, occi, joieus, joieus. (Froiss. Poe's. p. 336.) 
Le rossignol crie, sur les ramssiaux, 
Vray messaige d'amour entretenir, 

Occy, occi/, eritre votis damoisiaux . . . (Desch. f. 164.) 
See also Thurau, p. 74. 

Finally, how have we to classify the lines in our poems ? 
To the first group we have to reckon H., 11. 55, 59, 85, 217, whereas 
to the second evidently belongs H., 1. 14, as it is proved by 11. 20, 106. 
The two lines from c., however, 11. 90, 98, exhibit another trace of 
Lydgate's originality, in so far as these are the only lines where ' ocy ' 
refers to the death of the nightingale herself. 

Compare also Arnold Pischinger, Der Vogelgesang lei den griechischen 
Dichtern des klassischen Altertums. Ein Beitrag zur Wiirdigung des 
Naturgefuhls der antiken Poesie. Programm des K. humanistischen 
Gymnasiums Eiclistatt fiir das Schuljahr 1900/01, Eichstatt, 1901. 
p. 5, 1. 92. Phebus] See note to 1. 26. 

I. 93. Ouer] to be read as a monosyllable. 

II. 94, 95. M. P. 24: 

The golden chayre of Phebus in the eyre 

Chasith mistis blake, 

1. 98. Ocy] See note 1. 90. 
1. 100. Compare note to 11. 34, 35. 

1. 103. she] <Hir ' 1. 104, and 'she' 1. 105 wrongly refer to 'bryd' 1. 101. 
The poet certainly was thinking of ' nightingale ' instead of ' bird/ 
Compare 11. 106, 107, and H. 11. 56, 72, 73. 

1. 105. I may be allowed to insert here two quotations from Grimm, 
J. und W., Deutsches Worterbuch, vii, Leipzig, 1889 : 
mir geschihet von ir minne sunder wane 
als der nahtegal, diu sitzet tot ob ir vrouden sane. 

minnesinger 1, 28b Hagen. 

Megenberg : diu nahtigal . . . singt gar amsicleich und gar fravenlich 
iiber ir kraft also groezleich, daz si so krank wirt, daz si sterben mnoz. 
221, 4ff. (vergl. Plinius 10, 83: certant inter se, palamque anirnosa 
contentio est. victa morte finit saepe vitam spiritti prius deficiente quarn 
cantu). 

11. 106,107. About ' brid ''her' see note to 1.103. ' brid,' with poetical 
licence, is put instead of ' the story of this bird.' 

1. 108. latyn boke] See Introduction, 8, and G-attinger, p. 73. 
versed] Compare uersie = versify in Skeat, Piers Plowman, C. 18, 
108-10: 

For J>er is nouthe non * who so nyme]? hede, 
That can [versifie] * fayre o]?er formeliche endite, 
Ne ]?at can constrnen kyndeliche pat poetes maden. 

1 uersie, P. 



Notes: Poem I. Pages 5, 6, lines 114-137. 39 

p. 5, 1. 114. I was not able to find out any passage in the Holy 
Scripture to which Lydgate alludes here. 

11. 115, 116. cristen-man Soule] Perhaps we have here an example of a 
genitive case without ending ? Compare Gough, On the Middle English 
Metrical Romance of Emare, p. 7, and also the following quotations: 
Percy Soc. xiv : Poems of John Audelay, ed. by J. 0. Halliwell, 
p. 26 : Fore mon soule thai schuld save, 
p. 27 : To save mon soule spesialy. 
p. 36 : Mon soul with mekenes to have in kepyng. 
p. 46 : Serrs, so is mons soule with the sacrement. 
p. 47 : That han the cure of mons soule in ^otire kepyng. 
p. 48 : And manse soule that was forjuggyd to damnacioun. 
Again, Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 175, 1. 4862 : 

ffor a kyng is but a man soul, parfay ! 

11. 116, (117). oweth] with infinitive without 'to,' see Matzner, Englische 
Grammatik, 3 Berlin, 1885, iii, p. 6. 

p. 6, 1. 120 ff. Compare William of Shoreham, ed. by Wright (Percy 
Society, xxviii), pp. 82-89. 

I. 126. Compare Schick, T. G., note to 1. 761, Triggs, Assembly, Intro- 
duction, p. Ixxii f., and Morrill, Speculum, notes to 11. 109 and 638. 

II. 129, 130. This idea may be suggested from the allegoric struggle 
in the Psychomachia by Prudentius, or by Ephes. vi, 10-17. Compare 
Schleich, Fabida, 595 : 

Than the to arme strongly in pacience. 
M. P. Ill : I fond a lyknesse depict upon a wal, 

Armed in vertues, as I walk up and doun. 
Ayenbite, ed. by R. Morris, p. 203 : 

. . . |?et ofte recorder j?ane dyaj? and J?e pine of lesu cnst. Vor }?et is 
J>e arrnure bet j?e dyeuel dret mest . . . 

Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 194, 1. 5376 : 

With pees and reste, arme yow and clothe 1 
Yorkshire Writers, Eolle of Hampole, ii, p. 112, 1. 5, f. a : 

and arme hym with that holy passyon. 
See also H., 1. 285. 

1. 130. quert] On this word, compare J. 0. Halliwell, Dictionary of 
Archaisms and Provincialisms, London, 1846-7; Herbert Coleridge, A 
Dictionary of the Oldest Words in the English Language, London, 1862 ; 
New English Dictionary; Sir Gowther, ed. Breul, Oppeln, 1886, note to 11. 
223, 224, and Lay Folks Mass-Book (E. E. T. S. 71), p. 341, note to 11. 26, 
27. It is very often found in Rolle de Hampole's writings, especially in 
his translation of the Psalms. Again it occurs in the Catholicon Angli- 
canum (E. E. T. S. 75), pp. 196 and 296, and Political, Religious, and 
Love Poems (E. E. T. S. 15), pp. 166/114, 167/1 11, 174/236, 175/ios. 
Also Hoccleve. knows it as an adjective (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 39, 1. 
1061: 

Nay ! be f-ou riche or poore, or seke or quert. 
Besides, in Lydgate, M. P., where also the adjective occurs : 
p. 32 : But she have al than, thouhe he be nat querte. 
p. 38 : As Sampson did, whil he was hole and quert. 
1. 136. can] See note to 1. 54. 

1. 137. mischeue] The following three quotations are taken from the 
Century Dictionary and Stratmann-Bradley : 
When pryde is moste in prys, 



40 Notes: Poem I. Page 6, lines 141-143. 

Ande couetyse moste wys, . . . 
Tlienne schall Englonde mys-chewe. 

Booke of Precedence (E. E. T. S., E. S), i, 85.. 
Merueile it is J?at y not mysclieeue, 
J?at y neere kild, drowned, or brent. 

E. E.T. S. 15, p. 195, 11. 431, 432. 
.... and up thai wol atte eve 
Into a tree lest thai by nyght myscheve. 

E.E.T.S. 52, i, 613,614. 

In the Manipulus Vocdbulorum (E. E. T. S. 27), I found, col. 53, 1. 14 : 
to Mische"efe, destruere. 

p. 6, 1. 141. Before whos deth] The relative instead of the demonstrative 
pronoun, in order to effect a closer connection with the preceding sentence 
(compare Paul's Grundriss, i, p. 1119, *, and Spies, Studien zur Geschichte 
des Englischen Pronomens im XV. und XVI. Jahrhundert, Halle, 1897,. 
p. 222, 230 ff.). See also 1. 343. 

I. 142. of] See note to 1. 4. 

offens, cleped original!] In Forcellini, Totius Latinitatis Lexicon,. 
Prati, 1858, we find under the heading 'originalis' (2) the following 
remark: 'Speciatim apud Scriptores Ecclesiasticos originate peccatum 
dicitur illud priorum parentum in posteros generatione transfusum. 
Augustin 1. de Anim. 9. n. 10. et alibi.' This quotation from St. Augus- 
tine runs as follows : Sed utcumque sentiens quid mali dixerit, sine ulla 
Christi gratia animas redimi parvulorurn in seternam vitam regnumque 
ccelorum, et in eis posse solvi originale peccatum sine Baptismo Christi, 
in quo fit remissio peccatorurn : videns ergo, in quam se profunditatem 
naufragosi gurgitis jecerit, " Sane," inquit .... 

II. Hoc enim eis etiam haeresis Pelagiana promisit: quia nee 
damnationem metuit parvulis, quos nullum putat habere originale pec- 
catum .... 

Lydgate, being a cleric himself, of course often makes use of this 
theological term. It occurs in the form 'synne orygynal,' Pilgr. 986, 
1139 if., 1158, 1255, 1280, also as 'orygynal trespace,' ibid. 1276. Again 
I noticed it in Skeat, Chaucer, vii, iv, 348, and ibid, iv, C. T. I, 334 and 808. 
Percy Soc. 28 : Poems of William de Shoreham, ed. by T. Wright, p. 105 : 
Oryginale thys senne hys cleped, 
For man of kende hyt taketh syn. 
Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 46, 1. 85 : 

]>at for our gilt original wern slayn. 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81, 82), v, 1767 ; vi, 1. 
1. 143. infecte] = infected, as 'depeint' = depeinted (compare Schick r 
T. G., note to 1. 44; Hoccleve, E.E.T.S., E.S. 72, 1. 5003), or 'depict' = 
depicted (M. P. Ill, 259), and ' detecte ' = detected (Percy Society, xi, ii : 
Thirteen Psalms, p. 10). Matzner, however, in the dictionary to his 
Altenglische Sprachproben, article ' infecten,' doubts whether it is con- 
tracted from ' infected ' or not, but considers it rather a form directly taken 
from the Latin. Quotations of this verb are also given in Schleich> 
Fdbula, p. 104, to which we add the following ones: 
Steele, decrees, 1272: 

Of enfect placys / Causyng the violence. 
Pilgr. 5792 : 

Swych as be nat infect wit/i synne. 
Skeat, CJiaucer, vii, xxiv, 217: 

And punish me, with trespace thus enfect. 



Notes: Poem I. Page 7, lines 150-168. 41 

But ibid, vii, xxiv, 1053: 

Her gentilness may not infected be. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 171, 11. 4742, 4743 : 

And a-inong othir Binge's, J?at your wilne 

Be infecte wij> no wrecched chyncherie. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E.S. 61), p. 117, 1. 194: 

that so myche of this land / shall be infecte 
(rhyming with : correcte (inf.) and secte). 

p. 7,1. 150. paradise] The metre requires if not elision of, then certainly 
slurring over the second syllable : par'dise. 

M. P. 209 : The stoon of paradys was fyn of his labour. 
Ibid. 235 : Man to restoore to paradys, his cite. 
Albon and Amphabel (Horstmann), 1, 261 : 

It was a paradise vpon hem to se. 
Steele, Secrees, 627 : 

It was a paradys / verray incomparable. 
Kk. i, f. 195 b : 

The theeff / of Paradyse / made a sitesiene. 
E. of the Rose, 648: 

Have been in paradys erth[e]ly. 

1. 151. sely] has here rather the meaning of ' unfortunate, fatal' as e. g- 
Schleich, Fabula, 589, 590: 

seely marchaunt, inyn hand I feele quake 

To write thy woo in my translaciomi. 
Skeat, Chaucer, iii, p. 162, 1. 2339: 

sely Philomene ! wo is thyn herte. 
1. 156. Holland's Buke of the Houlate, ed. by A. Diebler, 1. 976: 

Think how bair thow wes borne, and bair ay will be. 

I. 157. nedes mvst] Compare note to 1. 29. 

II. 160, 161. A similar thought is met with in Ayenbite of Inwyt, ed. by 
K. Morris, p. 71 : 

Vor huanne }?ou begonne libbe : anhaste J?ou begonne to sterue. 
Yorkshire Writers, Rolle of Hampole, ii, p. 36, 11. 21-24: 

For fro bigynnyng of oure childehede 

ilk day to dye we are dredande ; 

>en J?is [lif] is faylande at J?o nede, 

for whils we here lyue [we] are dyande. 

Also in Anglia, vii (1884), Anzeiger, p. 85, 11. 17, 18: 
For yn J?e oure of oure natyvyte 
Thy [i. e. death] sotell entre us perschet everychon. 

Nearly the same idea occurs again, Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., A. 3891 ff.: 
For sikerly, whan I was bore, anon 
Deeth drogh the tappe of lyf and leet it gon ; 
And ever sith hath so the tappe y-ronne, 
Til that almost al empty is the tonne. 

I could not find out where this idea is borrowed from. 

11. 164-168. A similar passage occurs in Morrill, Speculum (E. E. T. S., 
E.S. 75), 11.215-222: 

And ^af to man fre power Whetyer he wole chese, he haf? power 

To chese, bo^e fer and ner, Jmrw ^ifte of god, while he is her ; 

Off god and yuel shed to make, J?anne is hit noht on god ilong, 
J?e euel to late and god to take. If man wole chese to don wrong. 



42 Notes: Poem I. Page 7, lines 164-168. 

The note to 1. 215, p. 66, rightly points out the different opinion of 
Chaucer on this subject, referring to Skeat, Chaucer, G. T., B., 1L4424- 
4441 ; especially 11. 4433-4438 : 

Whether that goddes worthy forwiting 
Streyneth me nedely for to doon a thing, 
(Nedely clepe I simple necessitee); 
Or elles, if free choys be graunted me 
To do that same thing, or do it noght, 
Though god forwoot it, er that it was wroght. 

The following quotations, however, will prove, as it seems to me, that 
Lydgate's dogmatic point of view was more generally adopted. I noticed 
similar passages in Yorkshire Writers, Kolle of Hampole, ii, p. 45, 11. 
753, 754 : 

And }?erfore chese )?e, or J^ou wende, 
whej>er }>ou wolt to payne or blis. 

Percy Society, xiv, 1 : Poems of John Audelay, ed. by J. 0. Halliwell, 
p. 8: 

Better mon ys made resnabyl, 

Good and evyl to have in his mynd ; 
And has fre choys, as we fynde, 
Weder he wyl do good or ylle, 
Owther y-savyd or ellys y-schent, 

Ovvther have heven or ellus have hell, 
thou hast fre choys. 
Ibid. p. 52 : 

For thou ast fre choyse to ryse or falle, 
Both thou may. 
Ibid. p. 53: 

Here twey wayes [i. e. to heaven and to hell], my sone ther be, 
Thou hast fre choyse wedur to passe. 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 218, 11. 3260-3262 : 
For every man his oghne wone 
After the lust of his assay 
The vice or vertu chese may. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 112, 11. 73-75 : 

for sythen god to man / gyven hathe libertie, 
which chese may / for to do well or no, 
yf he myse-chese / he is his owne foo. 
Ibid. p. 215, 11. 18-24, f. a. : 

And sikirly, syn god of his hy grace and benigne courtesie hath yeuen 
vs libertee and freedam for to purchace by oure wirkes in this present lyfe 
J?at oon or fyat othir / al standith in our choys and eleccioun '. to grete 
fooles been we / but if we cheese the bettre part / which part, god of his 
infynyt goodnesse graunte vs alle to cheese / Amen ! 
Anglia, vii (1884), Anzeiger, p. 86, 11. 36-38 : 

And of two wayes \>ou most nedys chese oon. 
Thenk, of fre choyes god hath the ^eve alon 
With wyt and reson to rule thy lyberte. 

This opinion is not only in accordance with Sirach, xv, 12-17, but has 
also been supported as doctrine by great fathers of the Church. 
Sirach, xv, 12-17: 

12. Non dicas : Ille me implanavit : non enim necessarii sunt ei homi- 
nes impii. 13. Omne exsecnimentum erroris odit Dominus, et non erit 
amabile timentibus eum. 14. Deus ab initio constituit hominem, et reli- 



Notes: Poem I. Pages 7, 8, lines 171-183. 43 

quit ilium in manu consiliisui. 15. Adjecit mandata et praecepta sua : 
16. Si volueris mandata servare, conservabunt te, et in perpetuum fidem 
placitam facere. 17. Apposuit tibi aquam et ignem : ad quod volueris, 
porrige manum tuam. 18. Ante hominem vita et mors, bonum et malum : 
quod placuerit ei, dabitur illi. 

Clemens Alexandrinus, Stromatum lib. ii. Sylburg, Coloniae, 1688, 
363: 

'Hyuets 5e, o? Se alpeffiv Kal <pvy^v SeSAa-Oai rots avdpwirois avroKparopiK^v irapa 
TOV Kvpiov Sia ruv ypafy&v Trapfi\iri<p6Tes a^rairrtartf TTJ wtffTtt ai>airava>/j.0a. 

Origines de principiis, interprete Rufino, lib. iii, c. i, Redepenning 245- 

"quoniam in ecclesiastica praedicatione inest etiam de futuro Dei 
justo judicio fides quae judicii credulitas provocat homines et suadet ad 
bene praeclareque vivendum et omni genere refugere peccatum . . . per 
hoc sine dubio indicatur quod in nostra sit positurn potestate vel laudabili 
nos vitae vel culpabili dedere." 

Ibid. lib. iii, c. i, 6 (249) : 

" Paulus tamquam in nobis ipsis vel salutis vel perditionis habentibus 
causas, ait: An divitias bonitatis ejus . . . contemnis . . . ? " 

Augustinus, Hypognosticon, lib. iii, c. 3 (Migne, P. lat., 45, 1611 ss. = 
x, 2): 

Igitur liberum arbitrium hominibus esse, certa fide credimus, et prae- 
dicarnus indubitanter. 

Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologica, i, 23, 3 (Romae 1888, iv.): 

"Culpa provenit ex libero arbitrio eius qui reprobatur et a gratia 
deseritur." 

Compare about this difficult matter Schmidt, Wilhelm, Christliche 
Dogmatik, in Sammlung theologischer Handbucher, iv, i, 2, Bonn, 1898, 
1, p. 12 ff., and Harnack, Adolf, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichle, 3. Bd, 
3. A. Freiburg i. B., 1897 (Sammlung theolog. Lehrbiicher), p. 189 ff. 

p. 7, 1. 171. dismenbre] Compare Skeat, Chaucer,vi\, ii,255, and the notes 
by the same (ibid, v) to 0. T., C. 474, 651, 1. 591, where many quotations on 
this subject are found. I may only be allowed to add that the ten com- 
mandments from which Todd cites the second one are printed by Zupitza 
in Herrigs Archiv, Ixxxv (1890), p. 46 ff., from Ashmole MS. 61. Com- 
pare also Percy Society, 23, i, 73 : 

Of newe tourment we do hym rent, 
Whan we hys membres swer. 

Hocdeoe (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 23, 11. 628-630 : 
pere, J?e former of euery creature 

Dismembred y with o>e's grete, & rente 
Lyrne for lyrne, or J?at I >ennes wente. 

1. 179. Compare 1. 70. 

p. 8, 1. 181. nedes most] Compare note to 1. 29. 

st. 27. The anacoluthon in this stanza there is no verb is nearly as 
bad as the well-known one at the beginning of Lvdgate's Guy of Warwick, 
ed. by Zupitza, Sitzungsberichte der (Wiener) Kais. Akademie der Wissen- 
schaften, 74, Wien, 1873, p. 665, note to 1. 1, 8. Compare also Skeat, 
Chaucer, i, xiv, 1. 1 ff. arid note. 

p. 8, 1. 183. the fadres sapiens] Compare Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., B. 
1660-1662: 

Thurgh thyn [i. e. Maria] hurnblesse, the goost that in thalighte, 
Of whos vertu, whan he thyn herte lighte, 
Conceived was the fadres sapience. 



44 Notes: Poem I. Page 8, lines 184-208. 

p. 8, 11. 184, 185. well grounde] See Schick, T. G. 292, 293, and note, 
754, 758, 971. Also in Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. xlix, 1. 34. 

1. 185. lombe] See Merrill, Speculum (E. E. T. S. , E. S. 75), note to 1. 260. 
1. 186. declyne] has here the meaning of 'to die' ; see Matzner and 
New English Dictionary. 

1. 195. folow shuld his trace] Skeat, Chaucer, i, xiv, 1-4: 
The firste stok, fader of geritilesse 
What man that claymeth gentil for to he, 
Must folowe his trace, and alle his wittes dresse 
Vertu to sewe, and vyces for to flee. 
See also the notes to these lines. 

M. P. 93 : Who foloweth his tracys is never liche to thryve. 
Ibid. 248 : To folwe the tracys of spiritual cloctryne. 
Percy Soc., xiv, 1 : Poems of John Audelay, ed. by J.O. Halliwell, p. 80 : 

To heven to folow the trasse. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 146, 1. 4061 : 

If J?ou be god, thow folow most his trace. 
Yorkshire Writers, Rolle of Hampole, ii, p. 42, 1. 535 : 

Synne dos J?e to folow fro fendits trace. 

196. Compare the last lines of a carol in Percy Society, 23, i, 48: 
And cf owre synnys we ask remyssion, 

And grace 

In hevne to have a place. 

1. 208. ouer-terved] Compare about this verb Skeat, Chaucer, v, Addenda 
following p. xxvi, vi, p. 258, and Athenceum, 3465 (24. iii. 1894), p. 379. 
As to its etymology Skeat combines it with the frequentative verb terflen, 
O.E. tearflian (Low G. tarven, urn- tarven, O.H.G. zerben, zirben, zirbel- 
wint) ; Holthausen, Anglia Beiblatt, xii, p. 146, refers to Ettmiiller, Ludo- 
vicus, Vorda Vealhstod Engla and Seaxna. Lexicon Anglosaxonicum. 
[Bibliothek der gesammten deutschen National- Literatur, xxix.] Qued- 
linburg und Leipzig, 1851, p. 523, sub 'teorfan,' and Schade, Oskar, 
Altdeutsches Worterbuch, 2. A. Halle a. S. 1872-1882, p. 1230, sub 'zarbjan.' 
Holthausen also suggests the idea that 'Tyrfingr,' the Icelandic name of 
a famous sword, belongs to the same root. In Athenaeum, 3467 (7. iv. 
1894), p. 445, F. B. (?) draws the attention to the noun and verb * turf,' 
used by labourers in southern and south-western counties for ' piece of 
ground' and 'strip and roll up layers of rooted grass.' 

From the references above mentioned, and the Century Dictionary, 1 
collect the following quotations, to which I add some others. 

The simple verb terven occurs : Skeat, Chaucer, iv. C. T., G. 1171, 1274; 
Legends of the Holy Rood (ed. by Morris, E. E. T. S. 46), p. 207 ; Havelock 
(ed. by Holthausen, Heidelberg, 1900), II. 603, 918 ; Wars of Alexander 
(ed. by Skeat, E. E. T. S., E. S. 47), 1. 4114; Alliterative Poems (ed. by 
Morris, E. E. T. S. 1), B. 630 ; Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight (ed. by 
Morris, E. E. T. S. 4), 1. 1921 ; Prompt. Parv. sub 'tyrf,' sb. ; The Poems 
of William Dunbar (ed. by J. Schipper, Vienna, 1894), 86, 1. 23: 

Off all his claythis thay tirvit him bair. 
Ibid. 11. 33, 34 : 

In tene, thay tirvit him agane, 
And till ane pillar thai him band. 

Ibid. 1. 57 : 

Agane thay tirvit him bak and syd. 

The Poems of Walter Kennedy (ed. by J. Schipper, Vienna, 1901, in 



Notes: Poem I. Pages 8, 9, lines 210-219. 45 

Denkschriften der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Philoso- 
phisch-Historische Classe. Band, xlviii, i), p. 87, st. ccvii : 
Ane to name wes callit Cleophas, 

Said: Merwall is )mt JJOLI misknawis allane 
Thir cruell dedis qtildlum thir dais wes 
To Jhesus done into Jerusalem, 
Be oure princis how he wes tane [and] slane, 
Als tiruit [him] with mony panis fell, 
Quhom we trowit to redeme Israeli. 
onerterven occurs : 

Promptorium Parvulorum (1440), p. 373: 

Ovyr (tyr) vyn (ovyr tyrvyn, K. ouerturnyn, S.H. ouyrturnyn, P.). 
Subverto, everto. 

J. Hardyng, Chron. of England (ed. Ellis, 1812), p. 47 : 

So dred they hym, they durst no thing ouer terue 
Againe his lawe nor peace. 

Ibid. p. 75 : 

The lawe and peace he kepte, and conserued, 
Which him vpheld, that he was neuer ouer teruecl. 
Jamieson, John, An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Langkiage, 
ii, Edinburgh, 1841, p. 173 : 

Keprowyd scho suld noucht be for-thi 
Of falshede, or of trychery, 
For til owrtyrwe that is abowe. 
Bot qwhen thai trayst hyr all thair best, 
All that is gy wyn be that Lady, 

Scho ovvrtyrwys it suddanly. Wyntown, viii, 40, 39, 46. 
Holland's Buke of the Houlate, ed. by Arthur Diebler, Leipzig, 1893, 
11. 836-839 : 

The golk gat vp agane in J?e grit hall, 
Tit j?e tuquheit be }>Q tope and owirtirwit his heid, 
Flang him flat in j>e fyre, fedderis and all. 
Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), 1. 1811 : 

Wolde honest deth come, and me ouerterue. 

I think 'ouerterve' occurs once also in Skeat, P. P. (E.E.T. S. 28), 
A. ix, 11. 30, 31 : 

For 2if he ne rise ^e raj^er and rauhte to {?e steorne, 
\>Q wynt wolde with J?e water J?e Bot ouer-Jjrowe. 1 
p. 8, 1. 210. they] i.e. the eight souls; * world ' = mankind. I think, we 
cannot refrain from supplying "were" to render the construction clear: 
'and they were preserved.' 

p. 9, 1. 213. manor] used without 'of ' ; see Skeat, Chaucer, vi, p. 159, 
and v, p. 176, note to 1. 1689 ; Matzner, Englische Grammatikp Berlin, 
1885, iii, p. 338. 

219. As fora tyme] 'as' is here used pleonastically, without proper 
meaning, as it fairly often occurs before adverbs ; compare Schick, T. G-., 
note to 1. 39, and the note to H., 11. 186, 368, 371 ; also Prof. P. J. Child's 
Observations on the Language of Chaucer and Gower in Ellis, On Early 
English Pronunciation, ch. iv, 5 (E. E. T. S., E. S. 27), p. 374. I noticed 
further: 

M. P. 63 : 

Folowyng these baladis as for your plesaunce. 

1 ouertorne H 2 [= ouertorue 1] 



46 Notes: Poem I. Page 9, lines 221-226. 

Ibid. 196 : Coold and moist, as of his nature. 
Ibid. 257 : Oonly outward as by apparence. 
Schleich, Fabula, 41, 42 : 

Anothir marchaunt, as by relacioun, 

Of hym hadde herd and of his high renoun. 
Ibid. p. 70, where some other quotations are found. 
Steele, Secrees, 1595, 1596 : 

Off which as by Age / Oon is natural, 

The othir by fortune / As be thynges accidental. 
Falls, 91 a 1 : 

And leuer he had his father toffende, 

As in such case than through negligence, 

vnto his goddes for to do offence. 
G. W. (Robinson), 493 : 

As ffor a tyme to holde with hym soionr. 
Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxi, 74 : 

So must me nedes abyde, as for a space. 
Ibid, vii, iv, 120, 121 : 

For-thy, my worthy prince, in Cristes halve, 

As for a part whos fayth thou hast to gyde. 
Ibid.iv, C.T.,E. 122, 123: 

riche marchaunts, ful of wele ben ye, 

noble, o prudent folk, as in this cas ! 
Ibid, iv, C. T.,E. 404-406: 

That to Janicle, of which I spak bifore, 

She doghter nas, for, as by coniecture, 

Hem thoughte she was another creature. 
Percy Society, xi, ii : Thirteen Psalms, p. 24 : 

The heavens also, as with a thought, 

Thou havest set vp with all theire light. 
Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 13, 11. 344, 345 : 

Was it not eek a monstre as in nature 

pat god I-bore was .of a virgine? 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81, 82), i, 1940, 2765 : ii, 76 ; iii, 
1122 ; iv, 1181, 1651 ; v, 750, 6547 ; viii, 1297. 

p. 9, 1. 221. boght derre] See Morrill, Speculum, note to 1. 160. 

I. 223. Then] = than. The structure of this phrase is entirely 
Lydgatian. 1. 222 L. begins : ' Ley to thy sore this same salfe . . . .' 
but his beloved parenthesis : ' & let no-thing lye nerre ' puts him out, and 
he inconsistently goes on : 'Then (= than) this same salfe.' Evidently, 
the scribe of C was not satisfied by this phrase and tried to improve it by 
inserting 'that' after 'Ley,' 1. 222. 

with] postponed preposition. 

II. 225, 226. These two lines recall the beginning of the Parson's 
Tale : Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., I. 1 : ' Our swete lord god of hevene, 
that no man wole perisse, but wole that we comen alle to the knoweleche 
of him, and to the blisful lyf that is perdurable, amonesteth us by the 
prophete leremie.' 

A very similar passage occurs, Pilgr. 8591-94 : 
But, off that lord grettest off myght, 
Whos mercy euer passeth ryht, 
Off synnerys desyreth nat the deth ; 
ffor he doth mercy or that he sleth. 



Notes: Poem I. Pages 9-11, lines 231-285. 47 

p. 9. 1. 231. queme & plese] Compare Schick, T. G. 1312 and note to 
this line, and Schleich, Fabula, 1. 147 and p. 127. 

p. 10, 1. 243. It is preferable to follow C and to omit 'the,' though we 
could take it as 'dativus ethicus' ; compare Spies, Studien, 152. 
1. 244. Ayenbite of Inwit, ed. by R. Morris (E. E. T. S. 23), p. 154 : 
pet habbejj zuo fre herten engrined ine >e dyeueles nette / ase zayj? 
lob. 

1. 250. Dispose] Steele, Secrees, 595 : 

Dispose them sylff / to mornyng or to gladnesse. 
1. 256. to-togged and to-drawe] As to the signification of the prefix 
to- compare Skeat, Chaucer, v, note to B. 1. 3215,' and vii, note to xviii, 
1. 137. In H., 1. 127, occurs ' to-Rent.' 
1. 260. Pilgr. 2899, 2900 : 

Whan God Almyghty (yiff yt be souht,) 
Al thys world hadde maad off nouht. 
Ibid. 6603, 6604 : 

" God the ffader," fful we! ywrouht, 
That heuene and erthe made off nouht. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 13, 11. 341, 342 : 
Schal he rebelle ageyn his lorde's myght, 
Which J?at J?is wyde world haj? made of noght. 

Percy Society, vii, 2 : A Paraphrase on the seven penitential psalms, in 
English verse, ed. by W. H. Black, p. 7 : 

Zyf God, that made all thyng of nou^t. 
Yorkshire Writers, Eolle of Hampole ii, p. 41, 1. 431 : 

pi-selue, mon, he made of noght. 
Ibid. p. 102, 1. 10 f. b. : 

god \>at made the of nought. 

The Poems of William Dunbar, ed. by J. Schipper, Vienna, 1894, 
p. 350, No. 78, 11. 107, 108 : 

. . . ., Man, lufe the Lord most deir, 
That the and all this warld maid of nocht. 
1. 262. cesede] = put an end to. 

1. 267. adolescens] The earliest quotation of this word in the New 
English Dictionary is from Lydgate's Bochas, 1554 (i. e. ca. 1430). Again, 
I found it in Manipulus Vocabulorum, by Peter Levins (1570), ed. by H. 
B. Wheatley [E. E. T. S. 27.], London, 1867, col. 96, 1. 26 : A'dolescencie, 
adolescentia, ce. The Dictionaries by Matzner, Stratmann-Bradley, the 
Century Dictionary, and the Index to Chaucer's works by Skeat, vi and vii, 
do not give any quotation. I noticed it once, but in the Latin form, in 
Anglia, xiv, p. 496 : 

When adolescencia is auncient & cumyth to gravite. 
p. 11, 1. 272. weyes . . . of your youth] Anglia, vii (1884), Anzeiger, 
p. 85, 11. 3, 4 : 

Thow mynly myrroure yn whom all old may se 
The wayes of youth yn whych they have mysgoon. 
1. 273. For] See note to 1. 74. 

kowthe] Though assonance is not unknown in Lydgate (see Schick, 
T. G., p. Ix, and Schleich, Fabula, p. Ixvii), we think it preferable to 
read, against the MSS., ' kowthe.' 
1.281. Falls, 3b. 1: 

For vnto a man that perfit is and stable. 
1. 285. notheles] evidently refers to 11. 281, 282. 



48 Notes: Poem I. Page 11, 12, lines 293-305. 

p. 11, 1. 293. Compare Schick, T. G-., note to 1. 191, and Krausser, Com- 
plaint, note to 1. 484. 

1. 294. Vnkyndly] = unnatural, against nature. Compare Falls, 20 a 1 : 

who search aright was vnkindly mariage, 
speaking about Oedipus. 
Ibid. 20 a 1 : 

also of her (i. e. locaste) sonnes the great vnkyndness, 
because one brother murdered the other. 
Ibid. 23 a 1 : 

Bloud vnto bloud to shew vnkindnes, 
in the story of Atreus and Thyestes. 

Percy Soc. 28 : Poems of William de Shoreham, ed. by T. Wright, 
j>. 115 : 

And sodomyt hys senne 
A^ens kende y-do. 

Ayenbite of Imm/t, ed. by R. Morris (E. E. T. S. 23), p. 9 : 
Ine }?ise heste is uorbode / alle zennen a-ye kende / ine huet manere / 
.liy bye}? y-do / o|?er ine his bodie : o}?er in o)?ren. 

Confessio Amantis (E. K. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 236, 11. 373-375 : 
And for he [?'. e. Tiresias] hath destourbed kinds 
And was so to nature unkinde, 
Unkindeliche he was transformed. 

In this meaning the word occurs still in Shakespeare. Venus and 
Adonis, ed. by Delius, p. 13 : 

! had thy mother borne so hard a mind, 
She had not brought forth thee, but died unkind. 

Delius remarks : unkind = unnatural, contrary to the laws of nature, 
-which bid the wives to bring forth children. 
Compare 1. 301, and also 11. 33 and 36. 
1. 301. vnkyndly] See note to 1. 294. 
p. 12, 1. 302. The fende, youre enmye] M. P. 97 : 

The fiende cure enernye outraye and confounde. 
lying in a-wayte] Pilgr. 64, 65 : 

And deth, ay redy with hys dart to kerue, 
Lyth in a-wayt, dredful off manacys. 
Ibid. 4491 : In a-wayt y (i. e. Penance) lygge alway. 
Ibid. 8130, 8131 : 

Ther lyth A mortal hunteresse, 
In a-wayt to hyndre the. 
S. of Thebes, 359 b 1 : 

That on this hill, like as I conceiue, 
Liest in a waite, folkes to deceiue. 
Ibid. 364 b 1 : By false engine, ligging in a weite. 
Falls, 212 b 2 : The people alway in a wayte lying. 
Bom, of the E. 4497 : 

Which in awayte lyth day and night. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 137, 1. 3806 : 

The fend lyth in a-wayte of oure freelte. 
11. 304, 305. lynes hokes] Schleich, Fabula, 740 : 

He wolde, that deth had leyd hook and lyne. 

There are many quotations to this line found ibid, on p. 102. We add 
Falls, 95 a 1 : 



Notes: Poem I. Pages 12, 13, lines 308-336. 49 

hym to betraishe she cast out hoke and lyne. 
p. 12, 1. 308. Compare Introduction, 6. 

1. 311. confusioun] = ruin, perdition, as in the Bible. Compare Falls, 
140 b 1 : 

And ouercome for his great pride, 
At great mischief to his confusion. 
Ibid. 173 b 2 : For thei not knew to theyr confusion, 

Time of their notable visitacion. 

M. P. 5 : Alltho that bethe enmyes to the Kyng, 

I schalle hem clothe withe confusione. 
Schick, T. G. 228 : 

A man to loue to his confusioun. 
Compare also the note to this line. 
Horn, of the E. 3833, 3834 : 

To truste (to thy confusioun) 
Him thus, . . . 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 145, 1. 154 : 

My deeth wole it been, & confusion. 

1. 317. strenght] instead of ' strength.' Compare Schleich, Fabida, 
p. lii, below. 

1. 318. Yf] temporal. 

]. 324. here] = on earth, in this life. 

p. 13, 1. 335. 

M. P. 239 : S. our Savacioun, whan we shal hens weende. 

Ibid. : Do mercy Ihesu I or that we hens pace. 

Ibid. 240 : Or I passe hens, this hoolly myn entent. 

Ibid. 249 : Or I passe hens, Ihesu, graunt unto me. 

Voss., Gg. 9, fol. 108 b : 

Thynk how that thi-self shall henne. 
1. 336. M. P. 229 : The secounde schyle ys that thou shalle dye, 

Bote ^yt what tyme thou woste never. 
Voss., Gg. 9, f. 35 b : 

For deth cometh ever whan men list (i. e. least) on him thynk. 
Percy Society, vii : A paraphrase on the seven penitential psalms, in 
JSnglish verse, ed. by W. H. Black, p. 32 (and note on p. 64), st. Ixxxiii, 
11. 5, 6 : 

My deth evermore in mynde I kepe ; 
I wote no^t whanne myn ende schal be. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 21, 11. 566, 567 : 
No thyng is more certein J>an de}? is, 
Ne more vncertein J?an J?e tyme I-wis. 
Ibid. p. 105, 11. 2893, 2894 : 

Kemembreth euer a-monge, J>at ye shul dye, 
And wot naght whan ; it comej? in a stelthe. 
Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 67, 11. 7, 8 : 

pat dye I sholde / & hadde no knowynge 
Whanne, ne whidir, I sholde hennes sterte. 
Ibid., p. 117,1.210: 

war that / for deathe comethe, wot ther no wyght whan. 
Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. by F. J. Furnivall (E. E. T. S. 
15), p. 108, 11. 169, 170 : 

pou kepe me, lorde, for I sal dye, 

& wot neuere whore, ne how, ne when. 

NIGHTINGALE. E 



50 Notes: Poem I. Pages 13, 14, lines 339-388. 



Ibid. p. 221, Three Certainties of the Day of Death : 

Hit beoj? J?reo tymes on J?o day 
pat so>e to witen me mai : 
pat on ys, f>at i shal henne ; 
pat o>er, jat y not whenne ; 
pat J?ridde is my moste care, 
pat y not whider i shal fare. 

Yorkshire Writers, Eolle of Hampole, i, p. 367, viii, 17, 18 : 
With I. and E., pe dede to J?e sail come als I \>e kene, 
Bot J?ou ne wate in whate-kyn state, ne how, ne whare, ne whenne. 
Ibid., i, p. 106,11. 12-14 f. a.: 

An other thynge is the vncertaynte of our endynge / for we wote not 
whan we shall dye nor how we shall dye nor whether we shall goo whan 
we be deed. 

p. 13, 1. 339. can] See note to 1. 54. 
1. 343. which] See note to 1. 141. 

whoso] Compare Schick, T. G., note to 1. 1090, and e. g. M. P. 3. 8, 15,. 
69, 97, 137, etc. 

1. 357. Margarete, 540 : 

And be her shelde in myschief and dissese. 

1. 361. werre or stryfe] one of Lydgate's favourite expressions. Com- 
pare Degenhart, Hors, 405 : 

Lat al werre and stryfe be sette aside. 
Ibid. 410 : Of newe stryf and of mortal werre. 
M. P. 85 : Whiche for vertue, without werre and stryff. 
Pilgr. 1968 : W-it/i-oute-n, werre or any stryff. 
8. of Thebes, 359 b 1 : 

Muse herevpon, without warre of [sic ! or ?] strife 
Ibid. 360 a 2 : Edippus aie, deuoide of warre and strife. 
Ibid. 361 a 1 : Finde plentie of conteke, warre and strife. 
Ibid. 372 b 1 : Replenished, with conteke werre and strife. 
It occurs also Skeat, Chaucer, iv, G. T., F. 757 : 

As in my gilt, were outher werre or stryf. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 182, 1. 5041 : 

Euene as a man is euer in werre and strife. 
Ibid. p. 195, 1. 5405 : 

Now, pees ! approche, and dryue out werre & strif I 
Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 34, 1. 302 : 

Malencolie engendrith werre & stryfe. 
Confessio Ama,ntis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 11,1. 248 : 

Hath set to make werre and strif. 
Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 82), p. 122, 1. 6414* : 

Upon knyhthode in werre and strif. 
Ibid. p. 257, 1. 900 : 

And desirous of werre and strif. 

p. 14, 1. 374. We follow here the reading of C and insert ' all ' : 'of all 
trewth,' because it makes the metre so much better. 

1. 384. in-to] e and o are much alike in our manuscript, as is also 
pointed out by Schleich, Fabida, p. xliii. 

1. 385. Longens] Compare Gattinger, p. 39, and Skeat, Chaucer, i, 1, 163- 
note. This proper name occurs also e. g. Kk. i, fol. 195 b. 198 a. 
1. 388. Kk. i, 195 b : 



Notes: Poems I & II. Pages 15, 16, lines 393-413 ; 1, 2. 51 

Consummatum est // seyde whan all was do. 
Compare Introduction, 6. 
p. 15, 1. 393. Compare Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., A. 981 : 

Thus rit this duk, thus rit this conquerour. 
1. 395. can] See note to 1. 54. 

1. 397. hert, wyll, & thought] Another stereotype expression. Corn- 
pare Flour of Curtesye, 248 b 1 : 

Yet or I die, with hert, wil, and thought. 
Degenhart, Hors, 510 : 

Ondevided, with herte, wil, and thouht. 
Margaret, 204 : 

Quod she ageyn : with hert, wille and thoughte. 
Also in Skc^at, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, 205 : 

Caitif and wrecche in hert, in wille, and thought I 

Ibid. 426 : 

Clere of entent, and herte, and thought and wille. 

1. 398. Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xi, 43 : 

Now, lady rnyn ! sith I you love and drede. 
Hoccleve (E. E. T. -S., E. S. 72), p. 105, 1. 2898 : 

Hym [i. e. God], loue & drede ; and his lawe's obeyeth. 
Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. by F. J. Furnivall (E. E. T. S. 
15), p. 108, 1. 156 : 

& fe[r]uently }> G lufe and drede. 
Ibid. p. 251, 11. 6, 7 : 

Good god ! }?ou graunt me Jns, 
That I may lyue in lone & drede. 

I. 400. Kk. i, f. 195 a : 

Helle robbed // thourgh myn jinperial mygt. 

II. 411-413. It is quite common to close a poem, especially a spiritual 
one, with a prayer. We find this custom, e. g. in M. P. 58, 66, 73, 179, 
232 ; Giles, 329-368 ; Edmund, ii, 1457-1520 (again, p. 445, 11. 457-464) ; 
Margarete, 534-540 ; Anglia, vii (1884), Anzeiger, p. 86, 11. 53-58 ; 
Skeat, Chaucer, ii, Troilus,v, 1860-1869; ibid.i, 1, 181-184. 

Also in many poems in Publications of the Percy Society, iv, 1. 
1. 413. M. P. 198 : 

Toward that lyf wher joye is ay lastyng. 
Ibid. 220 : With hym to dwelle above the sterrys cleere. 






POEM II. 

p. 16, 1. 1. Titan] See note to c. 1. 26. Compare also the opening 
line in Triggs, Assembly; Skeat, Chaucer, iii, table I, and Schick, T. G., 
Introduction, p. cxxii f. 

1. 2. Even] Here, and 1. 38, it means 'evening,' and is not an expres- 
sion of space, as 1. 344, but of time. 

Saphyre-huwed sky] Lydgate's predilection for alluding to jewelry 
is well known ; compare Schick, T. <?., p. cxvi, note, and 1. 259, note, 
and in our poem, 11. 33, 34, 362. Compare also Kk. i, fol. 199 a : 
Charboncle of Chastite / & grene Emeroude stoon. 



52 Notes: Poem II. Page 16, Lines 4-5. 

Ibid.: sapher, low>e / all swellyng to represse. 

Ibid. : The Cristal Cloystre / of J>y Virginite. 

M. P. 181, 183, 188, 190, 191, 222. 
JEsop (Sauerstein), i, 23 : 

Riche saphyrs, and rubyes, ful royal. 
p. 16, 1. 4. Compare Skeat, Chaucer, iv, 0. T., A. 9 : 

And smale fowles maken melodye. 
Steele, Secrees, 1308: 

The bryddys syrigen / in their Armonye. 
See in our poem, 1. 357. 

1. 5. sugred] A favourite expression of Lydgate when speaking of music 
or poetry. Compare Koeppel, De casibus virorum illustrium, p. 46, and 
note 3, and in our poem, 1. 354. 
Steele, Secrees, 1309 : 

Salwe that sesomi / with sugryd mellodye. 
Ibid. 220 : 

Thorugh his sugryd / Enspyred Elloquence, 
and note to this line. 

M. P. 11 : For to practyse withe sngrid melody. 

Ibid. 25 : Where is Tullius with his sugrid tonge. 

Ibid. 102 : Ambrosius withe sugred eloquence. 

Ibid. 150 : Speche is but fooly and sugryd elloquence. 

Ibid. 182 : And the soote sugred armonye. 

S. of Thebes (Wiilcker), p. 106, 1. 52 : 

By rehearsaile of his sugred mouthe. 
Falls 32 a 1 : And for his sote sugred armonie. i 
Ibid. 69 a 1 : With many a colour of sugred eloquence. 
Pilgr. 176, 177 : 

Nor I drank no-wer of the sugryd tonne 
Offlubiter, . . . 
as an excuse for his ' rudenesse/ 

1. 5. complyne] See note to c., 1. v. About the idea of ' divine service 
sung by birds,' compare Neilson, William Allan, The Origins and Sources 
of the Court of Love in Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, vi 
[Harvard University], Boston, 1899. Here an entire chapter, vi, p. 216 fF., 
is devoted to the investigation of the ' Birds' Matins,' and especially, p. 
225 ff., sub C., examples of 'Parodies sung by birds' are collected: 
La Messe des Oisiaus of Jean de Conde (Scheler, Dits et Contes, iii, 1 
ff.) ; Devotions of the Fowles of John Lydgate (M. P. 78 ff.) ; A Proper 
New Boke of the Armonye of Byrdes (Percy Society, vii) ; Cuckoo and 
the Nightingale (Skeat, Chaucer, vii, 350); The Golden Targe of Dun- 
bar (Scottish Text Society, ii, 1-10; Schipper, 17, 100-113) ; Testament of 
Squyer Meldrum of Lindesay (E. E. T. S. 35, 1868, p. 371). Compare 
A. Jeauroy in Revue crit. d'hist. et de lit., 1901, 51, pp. 272-3. Some 
other examples are noted in Skeat, Chaucer, vii, p. 552 : Chaucer, Parl. of 
Foules, and Dunbar, Thistle and Rose. 
1 may be allowed to add some others : 
M. P. 182 : Esperus enforced hir corage, 

Toward evyn whan Phebus gan to west, 
And the braunches to hir avauntage, 
To syng hir cornplyn and than go to rest. 
Ibid. 242 : The amerous fowlys with motetys and carollys, 
Salwe that sesoun every morwenyng. 



Notes: Poem II. Page 16, lines 6-8. 53 

Skeat, Chaucer i, iii : The Book of the Duchesse, 11. 294-304 : 
I] loked forth, for I was waked 
r ith smale foules a gret hepe, 



And songen, everich in his wyse, 
The moste solempne servyse 
By note, that ever man, I trowe, 
Had herd ; . . . 
Ibid, vii, p. 374, xx : Flower and Leaf, 11. 435-437 : 

For then the nightingale, that al the day 
Had in the laurer sete, and did her might 
The hool servyse to sing longing to May. 

The Owl and the Nightingale, ed. by Wright (Percy Society, xi), p. 41, 
11. 1177-1180: 

For prestes wike ich wat thu dest, 
Ich not ^ef thu were $avre prest ; 
Ich not ^ef thu canst masse singe, 
I-noh thu canst of mansinge. 

Also in Holland's Buke of the Houlate, ed. by Diebler, Leipzig, 1893, 
p. 44, st. 55 ff., birds are singing a ghostly song in the praise of the 
Virgin Mary. 

p. 16, 1. 6. Compare Skeat, Chaucer, iv., C. T., A. 11 : 

So priketh hem nature in hir corages. 
Ibid, i, v, 324, 325 : 

and than the foules smale, 
That eten as hem nature wolde enclyne. 
dEsop (Sauerstein), ii, 58 : 

As he (i. e. the cock) was taught only by nature. 
M. P. 157 : Alle othir beestys obeye at his biddyng, 

As kynde hath tauhte hem, ther lady and maistresse. 
Ibid. 237 : Foulys, beestys, and fisshes of the se, 

Kynde hath tauhte hem by natural disciplyne, 
Meekly to Ihesu to bowe adoun therkne. 

1. 7. hem] = themselves. Here and 11. 158 and 261 (it, hym) the 
personal pronoun is used as reflexive pronoun compare Spies, Studien, 
p. 152 f. and p. 169. 

1. 8. Compare .M. P. 145: 

Yif he hadde sithe tyme that he was born. 
Kk. i, fol. 197 a : 

Fro }sat tyme / )>at y was bore. 
Schick, T. G. 1376,1377: 

Bicause I had neuer in my life aforne 
Sei[n] none so faire, fro time at I was borne. 
Pug. 3259, 3260 : 

Mor merveyllous than euere aforn 
I hadde seyn syth I was born. 
Ibid. 3309, 3310 : 

Mor than euere I was a-fore, 
Syth tyme that I was bore. 

Also Amis and Amiloun, ed. Kolbing, 1955, 1956 : 
pe best bourd, bi mi leute, 
pou herdest, se^en J?ou were born I 



54 Notes: Poem II. Page 16, lines 9-18. 

p. 16, 1. 9. downe nor daale] A very common alliterative expression ; 
compare Matzner. 

1. 10. thorne] The nightingale is very often described as sitting on a 
thorn. I need not deal with this question here, as the reader will find 
in Dr. Schick's note to 1. ii, 2, 50 of his new edition of Kyds Spanish 
Tragedy, how familiar to poets this idea was throughout mediaeval 
literature. Compare 11. 61, 356 of our poem. 
1. 14. refreyd] In Century Dictionary I find : 

refrait: Same as refrain 2 [= The musical phrase or figure to which 
the burden of a song is set.] 

the refraite of his laye salewed the kynge Arthur and the Quene 
Gonnore,and allethe other after. Merlin (E. E. T. S. 36, 11 2), p. 615, 1. 19. 
It occurs again: ibid. p. 310, 1. 11 : 

entende what songe thei seiden, saf that thei seiden in refreite of 
hir songe. 

The word is also mentioned by J. 0. Halliwell in his Dictionary of 
Archaisms and Provincialisms, London, 1846-7: 
refret : The burden of a song. 

This was the refret of that caroull, y wene, 

The wheche Gerlen and this mayden song byfore. 

Chron. Vilodun. p. 115. 

I found it also in Skeat, Chaucer, vii: The Testament of Love, iii, i, 
156 (and note) : 

For ever sobbinges and complayntes be redy refrete in his meditacions, 
as werbles in manifolde stouudes comming about I not than. 
1. 14. Ocey] See c. 1. 90 and note. 

1. 16. ledne] Compare Schick, T. G. 139 and note, and Skeat, Chaucer, v, 
note to F. 435. The Poems of William Dwibar, ed. by J. Schipper, Vienna, 
1894, p. 157, No. 28, 1. 106: 

Bot it sowld be all trew Scottismennis leid. 

Percy Society, 28 : The Poems of William de Shoreham, ed. by T. 
Wright, p. 10 : 

And onderstand hi more bi sed 
In alle manere speche, 

Ine lede. 

Skeat, P. P., C. xiv, 173 ; xv, 179 ; B. xii, 244, 253, 262. 
Drayton, Polyolbion, xii, 503 (from Century Dictionary) : 
The ledden of the birds most perfectly she knew. 
Fragm. in Warton, History of English Poetry (1824), i, p. 24: 
And halp thor he sag mikel ned 
Biddi hie singen non other led. 

Debate of the Body and the Soul (Appendix to Mapes's Poems, ed. by 
Wright, Camden Society, 1841), p. 334, 1. 11: 

jwere is al thi michele pride, and thi lede that was so loud ? 
(The two last quotations are taken from Coleridge's Dictionary.) 
Compare also Reiffenberg, Chronique rimee de Philippe Mo 
Bruxelles, 1838, ii, p. cclix, 1. 99 : 

Chante Ii lossignos qui dist en son latin. 

(on)] must be omitted, though both MSS. read so, because it disturbs 
the clear sense of the phrase. 

11. 17, 18. false lovers] Schick, T. G. 167, 168: 

On double louers, >at loue )?ingis nwe, 
Thurgh whos falsnes hindred be }?e trwe 



Notes: Poem II. Pages 16, 17, lines 19-33. 55 

IWeZ. 215, 216: 

And of>er saugh I ful oft wepe & wring, 
[That they in men found e swych variynge]. 
and the notes to these lines ; Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, 575 ff. : 
With dolefull chere, full fele in their complaint 
Cried ' Lady Venus, rewe upon our sore ! 



And ponish, Lady, grevously, we pray, 

The false untrew with counterfet plesaunce, 

That made their oth, be trew to live or dey, 

With chere assured, and with countenannce ; 

And falsly now thay foten loves daunce, 

Barein of rewth, untrue of that they seid, 

Now that their lust and plesire is alleyd.' 
p. 16, 1. 19. can] See note to c. 1. 54. 
1. 20. sle] See note to c. 1. 90. 

p. 17, 1. 22. Falls, 71 b 1 : To shewe exaumple to folkes in certeine. 
1. 24 ff. Similarly twice in Schick, T. G. 440 ff. : 

For vnto }ow his hert I shal so lowe, 

WiJ>oute spot of eny doubelnes, 
That he ne shal escape fro J?e bowe 

Thou3 \>at him list fmrii} vnstidfastnes 

I mene of Cupide, \>at shal him so distres 

Vnto your hond, wij? }?e arow of gold, 

That he ne shal escapen Jjou} he would. 
Again, ibid. 834 ff. : 

And ^ov I prai of routh and eke pite, 

goodli planet, o ladi Vemts bri^t, 

That }e ^oure sone of his deite 

Cupid I mene, \>ai wi> his dredful my^t 

And wij? his brond, \>ai is so clere of li^te, 

Hir hert[e] so to fire and to mark, 

As ^e me whilom brent[e] with a spark. 

1. 24. parde] A very common, petty oath ; compare Skeat, Chaucer, 
vii, p. 530, note to 1. 47 ; and Lange, Hugo, Die Versicherungen bei 
Chaucer. Diss., 1892, Berlin, p. 11 ff. 

1. 32 ff. Compare another passage describing the Castle of Love which 
occurs Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, 69 ff. : 

' At Citheron, sir,' seid he, ' without dowte, 

The King of Love, and all his noble rowte, 

Dwelling within a castell ryally.' 



No saphir ind, no rube riche of price, 

There lakked than, nor emeraud so grene, 

Baleis Turkeis, ne thing to my devise. 

1. 33. Dungeoun] is not, in this case, identical with ' tower, dungeon,' 
but has here the general meaning * habitation, dwelling-place.' Compare 
M. P. 176 : 

Diogenes lay in a smal dongoun. 
Court of Sapience, e 3 a : 

Than from the dongeon grete within the place 

A solempne towre whiche styed vp to heuen. 
Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 79 b. : 

Whan that he slept in his Roiall dongoun. 



56 Notes: Poem II. Page 17, lines 34-40. 

S. of Thebes, 365 a 1 : 

Till he attained hath / the chief dongeon 
Where as the kyng / helde his mansion. 
Yorkshire Writers, Eolle of Hampole, i, p. 363, 11. 9, 10 : 

Fra a rnyrke downgeone >ou broghte me righte, 
j?at es my modirs wambe, to Jn's lighte. 
Ibid. p. 372,11. 15-17: 

And my modir coiisayued me 
In mekill syne and caytefete. 
Than duelled mane in a dongeowne. 

p. 17, 1. 34. Fret] Compare Kittredge,Authorship of the English Romaunt 
of the Rose in Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature (Harvard 
University), 1. 1892, p. 46, to which we add the following quotations: 
Falls, 127 a 1 (also 128 b 2) : 

Forged of gold, fret full of stones clere. 
Ibid. 169 a 1 : 

Tables of yuor fret with perre ryche. 
8. of Thebes, 363 a 1 : 

Two mantels / vnto hem were brought 
Frette with perle / and riche stones wrought, 
Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 76 b : 

All off goold fret with perlis fiyn. 
1. 38. Eve] See p. 16, 1. 2. 
sterris] 8. of Thebes, 361 b 2 : 

A large space, that the sterres clere 
The cloudes voided, in heuen did appere. 

1. 38. dide appere] 'do' is here, and later on, used not in the causative 
sense of ' make,' but as a simple auxiliary. Compare Lounsbury, Studies 
in Chaucer, ii, 72 ff. and Kaluza, Chaucer u. der Rosenroman, Berlin, 1893,, 
p.40f. 

Steele, Secrees, 1296, 1297: 

What tyme the sescmn / is Comyng of the yeer, 
The hevenly bawme / Ascendyng from the Roote. 
1. 39. Similarly, Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xx, 5, 6 : 
Causing the ground, fele tymes and oft, 
Up for to give many an hoolsom air. 

1. 40. Rede and white] The most common colours of flowers. Compare 
Krausser, Complaint, 1, 2 : 

In May, when Flora, the fressh[e] lusty quene, 
The soyle hath clad in grene, rede, and white. 
M. P. 244 : 

With hire chapirlettys greene, whit, and reede. 
Ibid. 245 : 

Of thes blosmys, sorn blew, rede, and white. 
8. of Thebes (Skeat), 1244: 

Vpon the herbes grene, white, & red. 
Steele, Secrees, 1370: 

Chapelettys be maad / of Roosys whyte and Rede 
Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., A. 90: 

Al ful of fresshe floures, whyte and rede. 
Ibid, vii, xiii, 9, 10 : 



Notes: Poem II. Pages 17, 18, lines 41-61. 57 

Also these fresshe somer-floures 
Whyte and rede, blewe and grene. 
Ibid, xx, 333; xxiv, 1385; etc. 
See also Gattinger, p. 65. 

p. 17, 11. 41, 42. Schick, T. G. 13, 14 (and note) : 
Til at[te] last, er I gan taken kepe, 
Me did opp?-esse a sodein dedeli slepe. 
Court of Sapience, A. 3 b : 

Whyles at the last I fell vpon a slepe. 
1. 49. and] Taking it from A., we get a much better metre, 
p. 18, 1. 50. list] See note to c. 1. 9. 
1. 51. vnclose] Pilgr. 1511, 1512 : 

Wych to tellyn I purpose, 
And a-noon to yow vnclose. 

M. P. 25 : Of morall Senec, the misteries to unclose. 

Schleich, Fabula, 361 : 

To me vncloose the somme of your desyre. 
And ibid, note on p. 147. 

I. 52. cast] =to fix the mind upon, intend, purpose. So in M. P. 182 : 

And in al haste he cast for to make, 
Within his house a pratie litelle cage. 

Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 71 a : 

He cast hym nat to pay no trewage. 

S. of Thebes, 374 a 2 : 

From which appointment we caste vs nat to varie. 

Compare also Degenhart, Hors, note to 1. 504. 

II. 52, 53. nat-Nothyng] Double negation ; very common in Middle- 
English. The sense is nevertheless negative ; see 11. 82, 172. Compare 
Spies, Studien, 240. 

1. 53. gardyn of the Rose] i. e. as it is described in the Romaunt of 
the Rose. The meaning is : Thou shalt not hear of love-poetry, like 
that of the Romaunt of the Rose, but of religious poetry. Compare Schick, 
Kleine Lydgatestudien, i, in Anglia, Beiblatt 8 (1898), p. 134 ff. 

1. 55. occy] See note to c. 1. 90. 

1. 56. she] refers to ' briddis,' 1. 55 ; compare note to c. 1. 103. 

1. 59. Occy] see note to c. 1. 90. 

1. 60. lorne] = missed it. The sense is : Many lovers did not under- 
stand the deeper meaning of the nightingale's song ; they always inter- 
preted her tunes in a secular sense. 

1. 61. among] Here, and 1. 76, it is an adverb, having the meaning 
' sometimes, often.' Compare Ellis, E. E. P. i, p. 374, and Morrill, Speculum. 
(E. E. T. S., E. S. 75), note to 1. 186. I add the following quotations : 

Kk. i, f. 194 b: 

Remembre among // vpon my passion. 

Falls, 3 b 2 : voyde auarice and thinke euer among 
to his neighbour, that he doe no wrong. 

Ibid. 9 b 1 : And Cadmus thus toforne Appollo stoode 
kneling among with ful great reuerence. 

Skeat, Chaucer, vii, x, 85, 86 : 

ruby, rubifyed in the passioun, 

Al of thy sone, among have us in minde. 



58 Notes: Poem II. Pages 18, .19, lines 62-81. 

Ibid, vii, xxi, 300 : 

Here wil I stande, awaytinge ever among. 
Boccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 105, 1. 2893 : 

Remembreth euer a-rnonge, >at ye shul dye. 
Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 99, 1. 2333 : 

And evere among he gan to loute. 
thorne] See note to 1. 10. 

p. 18, ]. 62. fyry] ' fayre,' as we find in H., is too colourless, wherefore I 
adopt the reading of A. 

I. 64. Compare S. of Thebes, 365 a 2 : 

The cause fully, that we haue on honde. 
Pilgr. 1221, 1222 : 

Touchyng that we have on honde, 

Thow must pleynly vnderstonde. 
Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., E. 1686 : 

Of mariage, which we have on honde. 

II. 68-70. Compare for the idea expressed in these lines Schick, T. G., 
note to 1. 450. 

1. 70. maner] See note to c. 1. 213. 

I. 71. Takestow] This emendation surely represents the original read- 
ing ; afterwards it was wrongly separated by the scribes. 

II. 72, 73. she hir-self hir] refer to l bridde, 3 1. 71 ; compare note to 
c. 1. 103. 

11. 72-75. Compare Krausser, Complaint, 47-49 : 

And as me thoght, that the nyghtyngale 
Wyth so grete myght her voys gan out[e] wrest, 
Ryght as her hert for love wolde brest, 
and note to these lines. 

1. 76. Among] See note to 1. 61. 

1. 77. I think we must assume a pause after 'advert,' meaning: 
4 then thou must say/ or ' then thou wilt understand.' 
advert] Kk. i, fol. 196 a : 

Man, call to mynde // & mekely do aduerte. 
M. P. 137 : Lat hym adverte and have inspeccioun, 

What ther befyl in Awstynes tyme. 
Ibid. 139: Awstyn was sent, who that liste adverte. 
Ibid. 250 : blissed Ihesu ! and goodly do advert. 
Lydgate's Vertue of the Masse, MS. Harl. 2254, f. 182 b : 
Interpretacioun who wisely can aduerte 
The offeratory is named of offeryng. 

(Quoted from E.E.T. S. 71, p. 233.) 
Pilgr. 1637, 1638 : 

Which thing, whan thow dost aduerte, 
Yt shaft nesshe ful wel thyn herte. 
Ibid. 3603, 3604 : 

Wher-of, whan I dide aduerte, 
I hadde gret sorwen yn my?i herte. 
Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, 150: 

B[ut] in myn inward thought I gan advert. 
Compare also 1. 93 of our poem. 

p. 19, 1. 81. both[e] two] That we are authorised to supply here a sound- 
ing ' e,' the following quotations will prove, where we find always ' bothe 
two* required by the metre (in the lines marked with an asterisk as an 



Notes: Poem II. Page 19, lines 82-93. 59 

absolute necessity), because these lines would otherwise want a syllable. 
Falls, 10 b 2 : 

He and his wife compelled both[e] two. 
Ibid. 38 b 2 : 

That we algate shall dye both[e] two. 
Ibid. 71 a 2 : 

Which be deceiued (I dare say) both[e] two. 
Ibid. 74 a 2 : 

in my person offending both[e] two. 
Ibid. 76 a 1 : 

and fro the office depriued bothe twayne. 
S. of Thebes, 357 a 1 : 

As write myne aucthor, & Bochas bothe two. 
Ibid. 371 b 1 : 

Through my defence, and slouthe bothe two. 

Degenhart, J3orse,*39, 348 ; P%r.*1114, 1600, 1747, 2126, 4153, 5246, 
*5718, 5936, *7494, *7786, 7958 ; Rom. of the R. 4804. Also in Hoccleve 
(E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 22, 1. 589 : 

Whan Jmt f?ou hast assayde bope two. 
Ibid. p. 37, 1. 1007 : 

But bothe two he nedes moot forbere. 
Ibid. p. 187, 1. 5174 : 

ffor she was bothe two, and syn she had. 

Finally, in Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81, 82) I find some thirty 
examples of ' bothe two,' so Prologus, 11. 606, 1068 ; i, 208, 253 ; ii, 
1157, 2598, 3346, 3463 ; iv, 2285, 2295. . . . Compare also Spies, Studien, 
239. 

p. 19, 1. 82. nen.othyng] See note to 11. 52, 53. 

1. 84. Resownyth] Compare Skeat, Chaucer, v, notes to C. T., A. 275, 
307, B. 3157, C. 54, F. 517, H. 195, etc., and Fliigel in Anglia, 24 (1901), 
p. 483 f. 

M. P. 258 : 

Nor nouht that sownyd toward perfectioun. 
Falls, 52 b 2, 53 a 1 : 

For me thought it was better to abide 
on her goodnes than thyng reherce in dede 
which might resowne again her womahede. 
Triggs, Assembly, 1302 : 

For nothyng may me plese that sowneth to corrupcion. 
Chaucer's Dream, ed. by R. Morris, 1. 2074 : 

And all that sovvnede to gentilnesse. 
Boccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 76, 1. 90 : 

to thyng that sovneth / in-to [hy] falshede ? 
Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), 1. 1947 : 

Write him no thyng ]>at sowneth in-to vice. 
1. 85. Occy] See note to c. 1. 90. 

1. 92. alre] 'old,' as the MSS. read, is quite impossible; it gives no 
sense at all. Surely it is corrupted from ' aldre ' ( = alre), which form 
survives in such expressions as : altherfirst, altherlast, altherfairest, alder- 
best, alderlest, alderlevest, aldermost, aldernext, etc. Compare Skeat, 
Chaucer, iii, p. 300, note to 1. 298 ; also Schick, T. G., note to 1. 70. 
1. 93. adverte] See note to 1. 77. 



60 Notes: Poem II. Pages 19, 20, lines 94-115. 

p. 19, 1. 94. starf] This verb had not at that time the narrow meaning- 
of ' to die by hunger,' but the general sense which the German ' sterben r 
has still. M. P. 32 : 

In hope that he shal sterve withynne a while. 
Compare also Skeat, Chaucer, i, v, 420 : 

Do what hir list, to do me live or sterve. 
See also note to 1. 183. 

1. 97. thilke] occurs Schick, T. G. 81, and st. 25 a? ; G. W. (Zupitza), 
35, 4; compare Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, note to 1. 642, and Spies, 
Studien, 50. 

1. 103. Compare M. P. 122 : 

Lyft up the ieen of your advertence. 
Ibid. 198 : Man I left up thyn eye to the hevene, 
And pray the Lord, which is eternal I 
Ibid. 209: 

For which, ye lordys, lent up yoer eyen blynde ! 

Ibid. 259 : 

Behoold, man, left up thyn eye and see, 
What mortal peyne I suffryd for thy trespace. 
Pilgr. 5317, 5318 : 

Off thys fygure that I ha told ; 
Lefft vp thyn eyen & be-hold. 
Ibid. 6241, 6242 : 

Lefft vp thyn Eye, be-hold & se, 
And tak good heed now vn-to me ! 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 210, 1. 869 : 

Lifte vp thyn yen / looke aboute & see. 
Anglia, vii (1884), Anzeiger, p. 86, 1. 51 : 

Lyfte up jour hertly eye, behold and se. 
Similarly Falls, 124 a 2 : 

See with the yen of your advertence. 
Compare in our poem 1. 177. 

I. 106. Sle] See note to c. 1. 90. 

II. 110, 111. list] See note to c. 1. 9. 

p. 20, 1. 112. theyr] refers to ' mannes,' 1. 110, which must be taken as a 
collective noun. Compare C. Alphonso Smith, A note on the concord of 
collectives and indefinites in English in Anglia xxiii (1901), p. 242 if. 
The reverse case takes place 1. 147 'his' ; see note to this line. 

1. 115. Rose] Here and 11. 118, 120 Lydgate compares the wounds of 
Christ with roses ; this idea may be borrowed from Bernard us Clarae- 
vallensis. In his Liber de Passione Domini we find, chap. 41, the 
following passage : 

Vide totum corp-ws. sicubi rosse sanguineae florem non inuenias. In- 
spice manum unam & alteram, si florem rosse inuenias in utraqite. Inspice 
pedem & unum & alterum. Numqmd non rosei ? Inspice lateris apertu- 
ram : qma nee ilia caret rosa, qitamuis ipsa subrubea sit propter misturam 
aqite, qim sicut narrat euangelista. ... quam multo numero foliorum 
multiplicata & exornata est rosa tua. . . . 
Compare M. P. 26 : 

It was the rose of the blody felde ; 

Rose of Ihericho that grue in Bedleui ; 
The fy ve rosis portraid in the shelde, 
Splaid in the baner at Iherusalem. 



Notes: Poem II. Page 20, lines 117-133. 61 

The sonne was clips and dirke in every reme, 

Whan Crist Ihesu five wellys list unclose, 
Toward Paradise, callid the reede streme, 

Of whos five woundes prynte in your herte a rose, 
p. 20, 1. 117. go or ride] Compare Ellis, E. E. P. i, p. 375, and Kittredge 
in Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature (Harvard University), 1, 
Boston, 1892, p. 17, No. 4. 

M. P. 223 : In londe wheres'ere thow goo or ryde. 
E.E. T.S. 71, p. 392: 

ffor in what place / I go or ryde. 

(Lydgate's Venus- Mass, Fairfax, 16, f. 31 5 a.) 
Add Skeat, Chaucer, i, xxii, 19 : 

Sith I, thunworthiest that may ryde or go. 
Wiilcker, Altenglisches Lesebuch (1874), ii, 6, p. 8, 1. 4 : 

We been assureth, whereso we ride or goon. 
1. 127. to-Rent] See note to c. 1. 256. 
Kk. i, fol. 195 a : 

To ffynde J?y salue // my fflesche was al to-rent. 
M. P. 261 : 

Behold my boody with betyng al to-rent. 
1. 129. al the bloode] Compare M. P. 235 : 

To paye our raunsoum his blood he did sheede ; 
Nat a smal part, but al he did out bleede. 
Kk. i, fol. 194 a : 

Pale & dedely // whan al my [i. e. Christ] bloode was looste. 
Ibid. fol. 195 a : 

Bood in J?e ffylde // tyl al my bloode was spente. 
Ibid. fol. 197 a : 

My bloode al spent / by distyllacyon. 
Yorkshire Writers, Eolle of Hampole, ii, p. 10, 11. 41-44 : 
Swete Ihesu, lorde gode, 
For me J?ou scheddist al \>\ blode, 
Out of f?i hert ran a flode 
pi modir it saw with drery mode. 

Unfortunately, I have not been able to find out the origin of this fancy ; 
the Holy Scripture e. g. nowhere tells us that Christ lost all His blood. 
Compare 1. 171. 

1. 133. Isaye] One of Dr. Schick's splendid conjectures, for which 
I am deeply indebted to him. It makes not only the construction and 
sense entirely clear, but is also justified by the metre, as we get a good 
rhyme by this emendation. That Lydgate pronounced this name I-sa-i-e 
also in other places, is proved by the following quotations. Steele, Secrees. 
370, 371 : 

Plente of language / with hooly Isaye, 
And lamentaciottns / expert in leremye. 
Pilgr. 3853, 3854 : 

Lych as wryteth Ysaye, 
And in hys book doth specefye, 
Ibid. 7005, 7006: 

A scrypture off ysaye 
Remembryd in hys prophesye. 
Compare in our poem 1. 148. 



62 Notes: Poem II. Page 20, lines 135-138. 

Compare also Percy Society, 28 : Poems of William de Shoreham, ed. 
by T. Wright, p. 133: 

Thou ert Emaus, the ryche castel, 
Thar resteth alle werye ; 
Ine the restede Emanuel, 

Of wany speketh Ysaye. 

Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 98, 11. 2708, 2709 : 
As vnto vs wyttenessith ysaye, 
He shal in heuen dwelle, & sitten hye. 

Ibid. p. 162,11.4500,4501: 

To sue, studien men, seith Ysaye, 
And sche J?e thraldom is of Maumetrye. 

It occurs in Skeat, Chaucer, iii, p. 16, 1. 514 : 
That Isaye, ne Scipioun, 

where in some MSS. the reading ' Isaye ' has been corrupted to ' I saye, r 
as in our MSS. 

Compare also M. P. 98 : 

This I saye in token of plente, 

A braunche of vynes most gracious and meete, 
At a grete fest hym thought he dide se. 

The reverse case we find York Plays, ed. by Lucy Toulmin Smith, 
Oxford, 1885, p. 268,1.375: 

Prophete ysaie to be oute of debate. 

This line was emended by Holthausen, Anglia, 21 (1899), p. 448, as 
follows : 

Prophete ! y saie to \>Q oute of debate. 

p. 20, 1. 135. Bosra] Compare Degenhart, Hors, note to 1. 317. Add 
the following quotation, Kk. i, fol. 198 a : 

Royal banerys / vnrollcd of the kyng, 
Towarde his Batayle, in Bosra steyned Reede. 
See also Anglia, 15 (1893), p. 199, note to 11. 443, 448. 
11. 137, 138. This is] = 'This'; compare Schick, T. G., note to 1. 496 ; 
ten Brink, 271 ; Falls, 213 b 1 : 

This is very sooth, where is diuision. 
Pilgr. 2064, 2065 : 

Wit/i-oute me, thys no lesyng, 
Ye shal ha no conclusyon. 

If. P. 240: 

Or I passe hens, this hoolly myn entent, 

To make Ihesu to be cheef surveyour. 
Bom. of the E. 3547, 3548 : 

To stonde forth in such duresse, 

This crueltee and wikkednesse. 
16^.6056,6057: 

With Abstinence, his dere lemman ; 

This our accord and our wil now. 
Chaucer's Dream, ed: R. Morris, 208 : 

' Madame,' (quod I) ' this all and some. 
Morrill, Speculum, 149, 150: 

pis wonder of many sinful men, 

pat >inkej? it were muche for hem. 



Notes: Poem II. Pages 20, 21, lines 139-159. 63 

p. 20. 1. 139. consistorye] = the yvvftpiov of the Jews. Matt, xxvi, 59 : 
Of 8e o tee ' s K< d r ^ ffvvediov '6\ov e^rovv ^/evSo/j-aprvpiav Kara rov 'Irjffov. 



Kk.i, fol. 195 a: 

Stoode a-ffore Beschope / \>&r ffonde I.no respyte 
Srnytten bi for mynystris / in j?e consistorie. 

p. 21, 1. 141. stoole] Compare the following lines from Lyd gate's Fergus 
of the Masse, MS. Harl. 2251, fol. 181 : 

The stole also strecchyng on lengthe 
Is of doctours * saithe the angels doctryne, 
Amonge heretiks to stonde in strengthe 
Fro cristes lawe neuer to declyne. 

(Quoted from E. E. T. S. 71, p. 167.) 
1. 144. can] See note to c. 1. 54. 

1. 145. delude] Schleich, Fabula, 581, and note to this word, p. 83. 
1. 147. Makyng his fynaunce] = recompense, FaUs, 70 b 1 : 
For no power whan al that wer doo 
thou shouldest fayle to make thy finaunce 
Both destitute of good and of substaunce. 

Triggs, Assembly, 1241, 1242: 

.... & then shalt thow know 
What shalbe thy finaunce ; ..... 

See also note to these lines. Similarly, Kk. i, fol. 194 b : 
To make asseth // for thi transgression. 

Compare Matzner and Stratmann. 

first his] refers to ' mankynd,' 1. 146 = ' fynaunce for them.' Compare 
note to 1. 112. 

st. 22. Compare the following short poem from Political, Religious, 
and Love Poems, ed. by F. J. Furnivall (E. E. T. S. 15), p. 231 : 
Wat is he }?is \>at comet so brith 
Wit blodi clones al be-dith ? 
respond entes swperiores dixerunt 
" He is boj?e god and man : 
swilc ne sawe neuere nan. 
for adamis sinne he suffrede ded. 
& Jjerfore is his robe so red." 

1. 148. Tsaye] See note to 1. 133. 

renorned] M. P. 47 : Famous poetis of antyquyte, 

In Grece and Troye renomed of prudence. 

Falls, 20 a 1 : so renowmed in actes marciall. 

Ibid. 32 a 1 : Ful renoumed in armes and science. 

Ibid. 33 b 2 : most renoumed of riches and treasures. 

Ibid. 89 a 2 : So renoumed, so famous in manned. 

Pilgr. 5965 : So renomyd & flourynge in glorye. 

1. 152. quayers] I could not find out anything about this word ; perhaps 
it is corrupted for ' grapes ' ? Compare Yorkshire Writers, Eolle of Ham- 
pole, ii, p. 50, 1. 3, f. b. : 

for as J?o pressure presses \>o grapis . . . 

I. 153. With regard to the metre, we prefer the reading of A., and omit 
the article between ' and ' and ' white.' 

II. 156, 158. gan] See note to c., 1. 54. 
1. 158. it] See note to 1. 7. 

1. 159. passyng grete] Very common in Lydgate's writings : M. P. 7, 



64 Notes: Poem II. Pages 21, 22, Jw* 161-186. 

185, 187, 217, 244, 245, etc. ; S. of Thebes, 359 b 2, 362 a 1, 369 a 2 ; Falls, 
26 b 1, 198 a 2, etc. 

v p. 21, 1.161. lourney] i. e. his death. Compare Hoccleve (E. E.T.S., 
E.S.72),p. 1, 11. 1,2: 

Honured be thu, blisfull lord a-bove, 
That vowchidsaffe this iourny to take. 

11. 162-165. Kh i, fol. 196 a: 

A swerde of sorewe // schoolde perce to >e herte 
Off my Moder // J?at called is marie 
Stoode with Seynt lohn // swouned at Caluarie 
Vnder my Croose // for feblenes fyll downe. 

.M. P. 262 : See my disciplis how they ha me forsake, 

And fro me fled almoost everychon, 
See how thei sleepte and list nat with me wake, 

Of mortal dreed they lefft me al allon, 
Except my moodir and my cosyn Seyn lohn, 

My deth compleynyng in moost doolful wise, 
See fro my cros they wolde nevir gon. 

1. 166. tee] ' rend,' as both the MSS. read here, and ' wend,' the reading 
of A. in 1. 165 instead of ' flee,' are evidently corrections of the scribes, 
whereas the original MS. had, no doubt, pure rhymes. Our alteration into 
*tee,' O.E. 'tebn,' is surely justified. 

p. 22, 1. 170. disconsolate] To the quotations in Stratmann-Bradley, 
Matzner, and Schleich, Fabula (I. 550), add : 

M. P. 205 : Reste and refuge to folk disconsolat. 
Voss %9, fol. 67 a: 

Folk disconsolat to beren vp & conforth. 
Steele, Secrees, 390 : 

Disconsolat / in trybulacyotm. 
.Bom. of the E. 3168, 3169: 

And I al sole, disconsolate, 
Was left aloon in peyne and thought. 
1. 171. al my bloode] See note to 1. 129. 
1. 172. neuer none] See note to 11. 52, 53. 
1. 177. See note to 1. 103. 
1. 179. If. P. 48: 

Modyr of Ihesu, myrour of chastyte, 

In woord nor thouht that nevere dyd offence. 

1. 183. surfete] A similar case to ' starf,' 1. 94, note. This word had, in 
Lydgate's time, not yet the restricted meaning of the modern 'surfeit' = 
' excess in eating or drinking,' but means simply : ' excess,' then ' sin.' 
Compare e.g. M. P. 145, 150, 163, 174, etc. 
1. 185. apalle] M. P. 241 : 

Lust appallyd, th'experience is cowthe. 
Ibid. 244 : Shuld nevir discresen nor appalle. 
Skeat, Chaucer, vii, x, 46 : 

Licour ayein languor, palled that may not be. 
Ibid, vii, xxii, 15 : 

Meulx un : in herte, which never shal apal. 

1. 186. als blyve] See note to c. 1. 219. I cite here some few of the 
hundreds of occurrences of these words. 

M. P. 149 : Moost repentaunt for-sook the world as blyve. 






Notes: Poem II. Page 22, 23, lines 194-224. 65 

Flour of Ourtesye, 248 b 2 : 

Of her, that I shal to you as blyue. 
8. of Thebes (Skeat), 1173: 

Hem euerychoon, Tydeus, as blyve 
Pilgr. 5763 : Par caas thow foimde ther-in as blyue. 
Falls, 63 a 1 : he bad his squier take his svveorde as blyue. 
Skeat, Chaucer, i, iii, 248 : 

And here on warde, right now, as blyve. 

Ibid. 1277 : As helpe me god, I was as blyve. 
R. of the Rose, 706, 707 : 

And of that gardin eek as blyve 

I wol you tellen after this. 
Ibid. 992 : But though I telle not as blyve. 
Ibid. 2799 : Than Swete-Thought shal come, as blyve. 
Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, 161, 404, 1441. 
In our poem compare 11. 368, 371. 

Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. xl, 1. 125 : 

Come of, come [of], and slee me here, as blyff. 
Ibid. p. 2, 1. 36 : 

For right as blyve ran it in my thought. 
Ibid. p. 19,11.503,504: 

But I suppose he schal resorte as blyue, 

ffor verray neede wol vs ther-to dryue. 

Ibid. 11. 608, 1265, 1411, 1710, 1830, 2281, 2681, 2858, 3038, 3106, 
3239, 3260, 3277, 3290, 4412, 4668, 4878. 

Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61 ), p. 4, 1. 125 ; p. 117, 1. 204 ; p. 145, 1. 142 ; 
p. 152, 1. 339 ; p. 153, 1. 385 ; p. 156, 1. 461 ; p. 167, 1. 761 ; p. 202, 
1. 653 ; p. 219, 1. 109 ; p. 221, 1. 162 ; p. 223, 1. 210 ; p. 239, 1. 661. 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81, 82), iv, 1854 ; v, 3318, 3520 ; 
viii, 1140. 

p. 22, 1. 194. Falls, 74 a 2 : 

my spousaile broke & my good[e] name 

for euer disclaundred that whilom shone full shene. 
p. 23, 1. 201. Falls, 91 b 2 : 

Theyr poynant poyson is so penetrable. 
1. 214. Rom. of the R. 4081-4083 : 

Lever I hadde, with swerdis tweyne 

Thurgh-out myn herte, in every veyne 

Perced to be, .... 

1. 224. Triacle] Compare Triggs, Assembly, note to 1. 12. We add the 
following quotations : Schleich, Fabula, 446, 447 (see also p. 146) : 

His freend to hym abrochyd hath the tonne 

Of freendly triacle ; . . . . 

Falls, 87 b 2 : that men with sufferaunce tempre their triacle. 
Pilgr. 67, 68 : A-geyne whas stroke, helpeth no medycyne, 

Salue, tryacle / but grace only dyvyne. 
Ibid. 7719 : No tryacle may the venym saue. 
Kk. i, fol. 196 b : 

My blood / beste triacle / for J?y transegression. 
Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., C. 314 : 

By corpus bones I but I have triacle. 

NIGHTINGALE. F 



66 Notes: Poem II. Page 23, line 225. 

Chaucer s Dream, ed. by R. Morris, 1901, 1902: 

And said, it was some great miracle, 
Or medicine fine more than triacle. 

William Caxton, Dialogues in French and English, ed. by Henry 
Bradley (E. E. T.S., E. S. 79). 

11/3O/2 : Who of thise wormes shall be byten 
He must have triacle ; 
Yf not that, he shall deye. 
31/38 : And a triacle boxe. 

Ayenbite, ed. by R. Morris (E. E. T. S. 23), p. 16, 17 : 
Vor-zojje / he is ine grat peril / to huain / alle triacle / went in to 
iienyrn. 

Ibid. p. 144 : pet is propreliche a dyau / arid a triacle a-ye alle 
kueadnesse. 

Percy Society, iv (1842): Specimens of Lyric Poetry, edited by 
Thomas Wright, p. 9 : 

Tryacle, tresbien trye"e, 
n'est poynt si fyn en sa termyne. 
p. 26 : Muge he is ant mondrake, th[r]ouh miht of the mone, 

Trewe triacle y-told with tonges in trone. 
Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 70, 11. 109, 110 : 

Torne the crois to me, noble Princesse, 
Which vn-to euery soor is the triacle I 
Ibid. p. 113,1.93: 

sythen of myne hele / he gave me triacle. 

The Poems of William Dunbar, ed. by J. Schipper, Vienna, 1894, p. 
118, No. 20, 11. 25,26: 

with furious rage, 

Quhilk may no balme, nor tryacle assuage, 
Ibid. p. 273, No. 55, 11. 87, 88 : 

Gif that the tryackill cum nocht tyt 
To swage the swalme of my dispyt I 

William of Palerne (ed. by Skeat, E. E. T. S., E. S. 1), p. 183, 11. 197, 
19 : 

Ber sprong neuer spicerie so special! in erf?e, 
Ne triacle in his taste * so trie is too knowe. 

Manipulns vocabulorum (E. E. T. S. 27, ed. Wheatley), col. 53, 1. 44, and 
col. 205, 1. 27. 

Skeat, P. P., B. i, 146 ; v. 50 ; R. ii, 151 ; C. ii, 147 (and note to this 
line, p. 37). Compare also the quotations in the Century Dictionary and 
Coleridge's Dictionary. 

About the T in 'triacle' compare La Chanson de Eoland, ed. p. Gautier 
(Tours, 1894), p. 459, note to 'Bascle,' 1. 3474. 

p. 23, 1.225 ff. Compare the following lines from Lydgate's Testament: 
M. P. 263: 

Ageyn thy pryde, behold my gret rneeknesse I 

Geyn thyn envye, behold my charite I 
Geyn thy lecherye, behold my chaast clermesse ! 

Geyn thy covetise, behold my poverte ! 

Raynouard, Choix des poesies originates des troubadours, ii, Paris, 1817, 
p. 35 (= Boece, 11. 216-224) : 

Cals es la schala? de que sun Ii degra? 
Fait sun d'almosna c f e e caritat, 



Notes: Poem II. Page 24, lines 232-241. 67 

Contra felnia sunt fait de gran bontat, 
Contra perjuri de bona feeltat, 
Contr'avaricia sun fait de largetat, 
Contra tristicia sun fait d'alegretat, 
Contra menzonga sun fait de veritat, 
Contra lucxuria sun fait de castitat, 
Contra superbia sun fait d'umilitat. 
And Skeat, Chaucer, iv, Parson's Tale, 23-83. 

p. 24, 1. 232. Here the words of Christ, who speaks always in the first 
person, seem to be finished and the song of the bird goes on. 

1. 234. streyght out as a lyne] Very common expression in Lydgate. 
It occurs M.P.V1: 

From ether parte righte as eny lyne. 
Ibid. 234 : Whos blood doun ran rihte as any lyne. 
Ibid. 248 : Lat thy grace leede me rihte as lyne. 
Pilgr. 1705 : The myddys ryht as any lyne. 
Ibid. 3237 : Shope hym Ryght as any lyne. 
Ibid. 4911 : Hih a-loffte, ryht as lyne. 
Falls, 31 a 1 : to folow his steppes right as any lyne. 
8. of Thebes, 378 a 1 : 

And with the soile, made plain as any line. 
S. of Thebes (Skeat), 1121: 

Mid of his waye, ri^t as eny lyne. 
Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 76 a : 

And off the font riht vp as a lyne. 
Margarete, 228 : 

Whos blode ran doun right as eny lyne. 
Also Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xx, 29 : 

In which were oke's grete, straight as a lyne. 
Ibid, vii, xxiv, 137 : 

Sherp and persing, smale, and streight as lyne. 
Ibid, vii, xxiv, 785 : 

Her nose directed streight, and even as lyne. 
Kingis Quair, st. 151, 1. 4 : 

I tuke my leve : als straught as ony lyne. 
Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. 113, 1. 3134 : 

Thidir wil I goo, streght as any lyne. 
Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 204, 1. 692 : 

To purgatorie y shal as streight as lyne. 

1. 235. Similarly Thomas Wright, Specimens of Lyric Poetry, Percy 
Society, iv (1842), p. 70: 

Jesu, of love soth tocknynge, 
Thin armes spredeth to mankynde. 
1. 237. list] See note to c. 1. 9. 
1. 241. bountevous] Schick, T. G. 1384 : 

Prayeng to hir ]>at is so bounteuo[u]s. 
Schleich, Fabula, 3 (see also p. 75) : 

Nat oonly riche, but bountevous and kynde. 
Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 71 a : 

Pleynly reportyng bontivous lergesse. 
Skeat, Chaucer, vii, xxiv, 4U, 415 : 

But think that she, so bounteous and fair, 
Coud not be fals : . 



68 Notes : Poem II. Page 24, lines 245, 246. 

Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. xlix, 1. 32 : 

Of thi ful bountevous benevolence. 
Herrig's Archivf. d. Studium der neueren Sprachen, 107, p. 51, 1. 8 f. b. : 

o bountevous lady semenygne off face. 

Malory, Morte d' Arthur, ed. by Sommer, London, 1889/91, i, p. 733, 
11.6-8: 

she hath ben . . . the moost bountetious lady of her yeftes . . . 

(Taken from HdUiwett's Dictionary}. 

p. 24, 1. 245. ceriously] Compare Skeat, Chaucer, v, note to C, T., B. 185, 
and vi, p. 42, and the following quotations : M. P. 28 : 

Remembre wele on olde January, 

Whiche maister Chauuceres ful seriously descryvethe. 
Steele, Secrees, 352 : 

And I shulde / Reherse hem Ceryously. 
Degenhart, Hors, 265, 266 : 

.... ye shall it find in dede, 

Ceriously who list the story rede. 

Falls, 73 b 1 : Wryte her compleynt in order ceriously. 
Ibid. 84 a 1 : But seriously this matter to conueye 

how he was made Duke and gouernour. 
Ibid. 201 b 1 : And cereously he telleth here the guyse. 
Ibid, (from Koeppel, De casibus virorum illustrium, p. 37, note 4) : 

But setteth them in order seryously : 

Ginneth at Adam and endeth at king John, 

Their aventures reherseth by and by. 
S. of Thebes, 357 b 2 : 

Not tellyng here, how the line ran 

Fro kyng to kyng, by succession 

Conueying doune, by stocke of Amphion 

Ceriously by line, .... 
Pilgr. 8625, 8626 : 

Now haue I told the, by & by, 

Off thys stonys coryously. 1 
G. W. (Robinson), 281 (Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 23 a) : 

He tolde the kynge in ordre seryously. 
G. W. (Zupitza), 39, 1 : 

They told hym firste in ordre ceryously. 

Also in George, Ashbys Poems, ed. by Mary Bateson (E. E. T. S., E. S. 
76), p. 11, 11. 312, 313: 

To kepe pacience thereyn ioyously, 

Redyng thys tretyse forth ceryously. 

State Papers, i, 299 (taken from Halliwell's Dictionary, also found in 
the Century Dictionary) : 

Thus preceding to the letters, to shewe your Grace summarily, for 
rehersing everything seriously, I shal over long moleste your Grace. 
1. 246. Similarly Pilgr. 4617, 4618 : 

To swych, he gaff hem alderlast 

Hys owne boody for cheff repast. 
Degenhart, Eors, 319 : 

That yaf his body to man in form of brede. 

Compare 11. 246 ff. in our poem to 'The testament off Cryst Ihesu,' 
Pilgr. 4773 ff. 

1 Ceryously St. 



Notes: Poem II. Pages 24, 25, lines 247-273. 69 

p. 24, 1. 247. Restoratif ] Falls, 83 a 1 : 

Restoratiues and eke confeccions. 
Giles, 90 : Lyst ordeyne, for a restoratyff. 
M. P. 146 : Best restoratif next Cristes passioun. 
Ibid. 38 : Telle me alle thre, and a confortatife 

And remedye I shal make, up my life. 

Besides, there occur in the M. P. the following similarly-formed 
words: 49 confortatyf, 50 laxatif, 136 prerogatif, 168 preparatif, 196 
mytigatiff, etc. 

Compare also Skeat, Chaucer, vii, x, 72 : 

Of confessours also richest donatyf. 
Ibid. 74 : Afore al women having prerogatyf. 
Gower likewise uses the word, Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. Sf. 82), vi, 
859. 

1. 248. rnaunde] = the Lord's Snpper ; compare Matzner, Skeat, P. P., 
note to B. xvi, 140, p. 379, and Encyclopaedia Britannica, xv, p. 635 ; 
Pilgr. 4613 : 

The Grete Thursday at hys maunde. 

Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. by F. J. Furnivall (E. E. T. S. 
15), p. 126, 11. 380-383 : 

A tabulle ]>er ys ]>at men mey se 
That cryste made on his monde, 
On sherej?orsday when he breke brede 
By-fore ]Je tyme }>at he was dede. 

I. 251. lauendere] I am not certain about the meaning of this word. 
The New English Dictionary gives the definition : * a man who washes 
clothes, a washerman,' and quotes from Househ. Ord. 1483 (1790), 85, Of 
the whiche soape the seyde clerke spicers shalle take allowaunce in his 
dayly dockette by the recorde 1 of the seide yeoman lavender. In all 
other cases I found cited in dictionaries (also in the interesting paper by 
G. Ph. Krapp in the Modern Language Notes, 1902, vol. xvii, No. 4, col. 
204-206) the word denotes women. Of course we can translate it here 
as ' a man who washes linen, 3 then the meaning would be : Christ, with 
His blood, has cleared us from our sins. The passage, however, would 
also suggest the meaning ' expedient for washing, 3 which would be some- 
what better, but unfortunately is not proved by any quotation. 

Compare Prudentius, Cathemerinon, ix, 85-87 : 

novum caede stupenda vulneris miraculum I 
Hinc cruoris fluxit unda, lympha parte ex altera : 
Lympha nempe dat lavacrum, turn corona ex sanguine est. 

II. 253, 254. This is not in accordance with the narration of the Gospel, 
according to which the soldiers raffled for it. 

11. 257, 258. Anacoluthon. First ' his moder ' is object, then Lydgate 
corrects himself and supplies it by ' the kepyng of hir.' 
p. 25, 1. 261. hym] See note to 1. 7. 
1. 271. Yorkshire Writers, Eolle of Hampole, ii, p. 103, 11. 15, 16 f. a. : 

from the toppe of his heed to the sole of his foot 
hole skynne they lefte none. 

1. 273. G. W. (Robinson), 365 : 

Th&t streme of blode gan be his sydes rayle. 

Kk. i, 196 b : 

My blody woundes / downe raylyng be j?e tree. 



70 Notes: Poem II. Page 25, lines 280-289. 

M. P. 262 : See blood and watir, by merciful plente, 

Kayle by my sides which auhte I nouhe suffise. 
Ibid. 263 : Attween too theevys nayled to a tre, 

Railed with reed blood, they list me so disguyse. 
p. 25, 1. 280. Schick, T. G. 1. 466 (and note): 

To al }?e goddesse aboue celestial. 
Krausser, Complaint, 1. 625 : 

That al the court above celestial. 
1. 282. Compare Falls, 63 b i : 

Where that vertue and hygh discrecion, 
auoyded haue from them" al wilfulnes. 
G. W. (Robinson), 1. 241 : 

Ffrome the to avoyde all despeyre & drede. 
Steele, Secrees, 1. 664 : 

Grant first our kyng / tavoyde from hym slouthe. 
1. 284. myrrour] Very common in figurative sense ; see Schick, T. G., 
note to 1. 294, and Schleich, Fabula, 384, 451, 665, and note to these 
lines on p. 114, where many quotations are found. I noticed it also, 
M. P. 93, 122, 126, 236 ; Falls, 2 a 2, 32 b 2 ; 8. of Thebes, 361 a 1, 369 a 1 ; 
Pilgr. 7742 ; Steele, Secrees, 1457. Also Skeat, Chaucer, vii, v, 179, xvii, 
457 ; iv, C. T., B. 166 ; i, in, 974. See also Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), 
11. 3202, 5328 ; ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 13, 1. 160 ; and Morrill, 
Speculum, note to 1. 505; Holland's Buke of the Houlate, ed. by A. 
Diebler, 1. 970. 

1. 285. Enarme] See note to c. 11. 129, 130. 
1. 287. Carectes] Similarly Pilgr. 4844, 4845 : 

My wondys I geue hem alle fyve ; 
The grete karectys, brood & Reede. 
S. of Thebes, 360 bl : 

Ere he was ware, locasta gan beholde 
The carectes of his woundes old. 
1. 289. banner] Similarly Kk. i, fol. 194 b : 

The scaaled ladder // vp to \>e Croosse strecchyng 
With vertuous Baner // putte ffyndes to )>e filyght. 
Ibid. fol. 195 a : 

A standart splayede // by lord slayne in J>at fygt. 
Ibid. fol. 198 a : 

Royal banerys / vnrolled of the kyng 
Towarde his Batayle in Bosra steyned Reede. 
M. P. 61 : Behold the banner, victorious and royal ! 
Gristes crosse, a standard of most peyse. 
Ibid. 143 : The crucifix their baner was in deede. 
Life of our Lady, ix (from Warton-Hazlitt, iii, p. 60) : 
Whan he of purple did his baner sprede 
On Calvarye abroad upon the rode, 
To save mankynde. 
S. Edmund, ii, 726 : 

Of Cristis cros I sette up my baneer. 

In our poem it occurs again 1. 316. This idea may have been sug- 
gested to the poet by Prudentius, Cathemerinon, ix, 82-84 : 

Solve vocem mens sonoram, solve linguam mobilem, 
Die tropaeum passionis, die triumphalem crucem, 
Pange vexillum, notatis quod refulget frontibus. 



Notes: Poem II. Page 26, lines 296-310. 



71 



p. 26, ]. 296. conquest and victorye] M. P. 213, 214, 232. 

1. 297. Here the tree seen by Daniel in his vision is explained to be the 
cross of our Saviour ; there occurs another interpretation in the Parson's 
Tale, Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T. i, 126: 

This tree (i.e. 'Penitence, that may be lykned un-to a tree,' ibid. 112) 
saugh the prophete Daniel in spirit, up-on the avision of the king 
Nabugodonosor, whan he conseiled him to do penitence. 

1. 302. ascencyon] This reading of A. is preferable. 

1. 305. his] i. e. Christ's blood, though there is no regular reference. 

1. 308. Saul] Probably dissyllabic : Sa-iil ; compare 1. 318, <Ta-ii,' and 
1. 327, ' Mo-y-ses.' In the Falls, 61 a 1-63 b 2, where Saul's history is told, 
his name occurs frequently, and among all these quotations I did not 
find any line where it was not possible to read ' Saul ' as a dissyllabic, 
but in the following three it must be read as a dissyllabic word : 

61 a 1 : space of thre dayes Saul had them sought. 

62 a 2 : Thus day by day Saiil wayes sought. 

63 b 2 : Contrariously Saiil was put downe. 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81, 82) always uses this name as 
a dissyllabic, as the following quotations will show : 

iv, 1. 1935 Of king Saiil also I finde. 

iv, 1. 1940 The king Saiil him axeth red. 

vi, 1. 2384 Saiil, which was of Juys king. 

vii, 1. 3821 Be Samuel to Saiil bad. 

vii, 1. 3827 That Saiil hath him desconfit. 

vii, 1. 3830 Bot Saiil let it overgon. 

vii, L 3834 King Saiil soffreth him to live. 

1. 310. Moyses] Here again, as 11. 308, 318, arises the question whether, in 
Lydgate, this name is to be pronounced as two or three syllables. With- 
out doubt poets used their licence of making it three or two as suited their 
convenience. In this very line we have an indisputable example that 
it is to be pronounced ' Moy-ses.' But, let us take the Pilgr., where the 
name of the great prophet occurs very often, and we find that, here 
again, we may always pronounce ' Mo-y-ses,' as in 11. 1394, 1473, 1653, 
1892, 1899, 1972, 2247, 2269, 2283, 2329, 2831, 3014, 3577, 3908, 3979, 
4566, 5056, 5092, 5098, 5193, 5228, 6174, etc., but there are also three 



lines where 

syllables : 

1982 : 

1988 : 

3236 : 



it is absolutely necessary to divide the name into three 



Hoom to Moyses ageyn. 
Kam a-domt to Moyses. 
That the hornyd Moyses. 

M. P. 96 probably Moyses : 

This noble duk, this prudent Moyses. 

Chaucer, in all the lines cited by Skeat in the Glossary to his edition, 
reads * Moy-ses.' But Gower, Skeat, Chaucer, vii, iv, 187 : 
For Crist is more than was Moyses. 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 13, 1. 306 : 
Of Moises upon the See. 

Ibid. p. 447, 1. 1656 : 

Til god let sende Moises. 
Ibid. p. 448, 1. 1682 : 

To Moises, that hem withdrawe. 

Ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 82), p. 138, 1. 6967 : 
Upon the lawe of poises. 



72 Notes: Poem II. Page 26,. lines 315-319. 

Ibid. p. 196, 1. 1092 : 

Of Moises on Erthe hiere. 
Ibid, p. 272. 1. 1475 : 

That finde I noght ; and Moises. 
Ibid. p. 316, 1. 3054 : 

Unto thebreus was Moises. 
A dissyllabic ' Moises' I found only : 

ibid. (E. E. T. S., E. S. 81), p. 319, 1. 648 : 

As Moises thurgh his enchanting. 
In 1. 327 of our poem we have to read Mo-y-ses. 

p. 26, 1. 315. serpentyne] See Degenhart, Hors, 313 (and note to this 
line) : 

Whiche wessh awey al venim serpentine. 
Steele, Secrees, 673 : 

Whysperyng tounges / of taast moost serpentyn. 
Falls, 86 b 1 : Women that age farced were nor horned. 

Nor their tailes were not serpentine. 
Ibid. 91 b 2 : So depe fretteth their serpentine langage. 
Ibid. 95 a 1 : Malice of wemen whan they be serpentine. 
Hocdeve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61), p. 236, 11. 572, 573 : 

In which this serpentyn wornman was / shee 

That had him terned with false deceitis. 
]. 316. banner] See note to 1. 289. 
vertu] has here the same meaning as Skeat, Chaucer, iv, C. T., A. 4 : 

Of which vertu engendred is the flour. 
Similarly Schleich, Fabula, 330, 331 : 

For, whan nature of vertu regitiff 

Thoruh malencolye is pressyd and bor doun. 
M. P. 16 : Wiche have vertu to curen alle langueres. 
Falls, 1 b 2 : Which [i. e. the tree of life] vertue had ageinst al maladie. 
Compare Thomas Wright, Specimens of Lyric Poetry, Percy Society, 
iv (1841), p. 3: 

Dyamaund ne autre piere 

ne sount si fyn en lur vertu. 
Compare c. 1. 22. 
signe and token] M. P. 238 : 

Tokne and signe of eternal brihtenesse. 

1. 318. Tau] Compare notes to 11. 308 and 310, and the following 
quotations : 

Pilgr. 1387 : A sygne of Tav wych ther stood. 
ibid. 1405, 1406 : 

Wych, wit/i the sygne of gret vertu 

Markyde manye with Tav. 

Ibid. 1483 : ffor the tav T, taken bed. 

See also E. E. T. S. 71, p. 206, note 7 ; Gattinger, pp. 42 and 44 ; Pest- 
blatter des xv. Jahrhunderts, herausgegeben von Paul Heitz, mit einlei- 
tendem Text von W. L. Schreiber. Strassburg, 1901 ; and Siblia sacra 
vulgatae editionis. Recognita curd; Augustini Arndt. Ratisbonae, Romae 
et Neo Eboraci, 1901, ii, p. 867, note 6. The reading of A., 'chayue,' is 
unintelligible. 

1. 319. Ezechiel] read E-ze-chi-el, as e. g. M. P. 214 : 
This is the fowle whiche Ezechiel, 



Notes: Poem II. Pages 26, 27, lines 320-344. 73 

In his avisioun, saugh ful yoore agon, 
He saugh foure bestis tornyng on a whele, 
or Pilgr. 1403 : Ezechyel, who lyst to look), 
p. 26, 1. 320. Skeat, Chaucer, vii, x, 140 : 

And of our manhode trewe tabernacle I 
M. P. 10 : A tabernacle surmontyng of beaut4. 
Again : 11, 12. 

p. 27, 1. 324. hir wrath] = the wrath of God against her, i. e. mankind. 
Similarly Skeat, Chaucer, iii. L. o. g. W. 1. 2365 : 

How she was served for her suster love ; 
her suster love = love for her sister. 

I. 325. Compare Prudentius, Cathemerinon, ed. Th. Obbarius (1845), v, 
93-96 : 

Instar fellis aqua tristifico in lacu 
Fit ligni venia mel velut Atticum : 
Lignum est, quo sapiunt aspera dulcius, 
Nam praefixa cruci spes hominum viget. 

II. 327-329. Pilgr. 1653-1658 : 

Thys was that holy Moyses 
That ladde al Israel in pees 
Myddys thorgh the large see ; 
And with hys yerde, thys was he 
That passede the floodys raage, 
And made hem haue good passage. 

1. 327. Moyses] See note to 1. 310. 

1. 330. To insert ' with ' before the relative pronoun seems to be the 
best solution of the difficulties presented by this line. The close repe- 
tition of the preposition ' with ' in the original MS. may very easily have 
induced the scribe to omit one of them. 

For another religious interpretation of the five stones of David, 
compare Pilgr. 8423 if. 

1. 332. gan] See note to c. 1. 54. 

I. 338. showres] applied to the passion of Christ occurs Herrig's Archiv 
fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen, 106, p. 62 : 

but blessed be ]>at oure 

}>at he suffird pat sharpe shoure. 

Ibid. 101, p. 53 (Burgh) : 

... pastor principall, 

Which for my love suffridest dethes showre. 

(Also in T(homas) W(right), Specimens of Old Christmas Carols, Percy 
Society, iv (1841), p. 28.) 

Compare George Ashby's Poems, ed. by Mary Bateson (E. E. T. S., E. S. 
76), p. 8, 11. 241, 242 : 

Of holy vyrgyns, and seynt lohn Baptist? 
That here in thys lyfe suffred many shours. 

Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 72), p. xliii, 11. 207, 208 : 
thei to the dedes schowre 

have put him [i. e. Christ]. 
Ibid. p. 142, 1. 3939 : 

Hym leuere is to suffre dethes schour. 

II. 340-3. See p. 57, 1. 53. 

1. 344. Even and morwe] Such formulas often occur in Lydgate ; 



74 Notes : Poem II. Pages 27, 28, 'lines 345-366, 

compare M. P. 25 : 

The aureat dytees, that he rade and songe,, 

Of Omerus in Grece y both North and South ? 
Ibid. 226 : Noone the lyke by est ny west 
Schick, T. G., 1147, 1148 : 

Hou he shal bene, boj? at eue & morov, 

Ful diligent to don his obseruaimce. 
Falls, 3 a 2 : Ajid in this world both at eue and morovve. 
8. of Thebes, 369 a 1 : 

Fare wel lordship, both morowe and eue. 
Ibid. 377 b 1 : But yet alas, bothe euene and morowe. 
Mumming at Hertford [Anglia, 22 (1899)], p. 368, 1. 27 : 

Leorne )?e traas, booj?e at even and morowe. 
JEsop (Sauerstein), vii, 74 : 

Pursweth the pore y both est and sowth. 
Also Sir Gowther, ed. Breul, 295 (and note) : 

Wher ser J?ou travelli/s be northe or soth. 
and Percy Society, iv, i, pp. 53, 59. 
p. 27, 1. 345. list] See note c. 1. 9. 
1. 346. Similarly 8. of Thebes, 372 a 2 : 

And oure life here, thus taketh heed therto 

Is but an exile, and a pilgrimage. 
Falls, 3 a 2 : That liuen here in this deserte of eorowe 

in this exile of pleasaunce desolate 

And in this world . . . 

Ibid. 18 b 1 : how this worlde here, is but a pilgrimage. 
Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 40 b ; 

That this lyff her is but a pilgrymage. 

M. P. 101, 122, 123, 178, 198, 239, 252, 264, our life is compared to a 
* pilgrim age '; besides ibid. 122 : 

How this world is a thurghefare ftil of woo. 
Ibid. : In this world here is none abidyng place. 

Compare also Flugel in Anglia, 23 (1901), p. 216 f. 
1. 348. list] See note to c. 1. 9. 
1. 350. the Rightje] wey[e] take] 8. of Thebes 363 b 1 : 

And to the Temple, the right [e] weye he toke. 
Ibid. 365 a 1 : Into the hall, the right[e] waie he tooke. 
Pilgr. 74 : And that folk may the Ryhte weye se. 
G. W. (Robinson), 304 : 

With other pome the ryght[e] wey he tokc. 
Compare Introduction, 5 a. 

p. 28, 1. 351. pat] We here follow A., because it betters the metre. 
1. 353. As Lydgute, being a priest, uses the Bible " Vulgatse Kditionis," 
the single books are cited by their Latin names. 

See also Introduction, 6, and Koeppel, De casibus virorum Ulustrium, 
p. 49 and note 1. 

1. 354. sugred notes] See note to 1. 5. 
1. 356. thorn] See note to 1. 10. 
1. 357. Armonye] See note to 1. 4. 

1. 358. This line was once probably added by a scribe in the margin, 
and then by another put into the poem as the first line of st. 52. 

1. 366. Compare with this line Spielmannsbuch, Novellen in Versen 



Notes: Poem II. Page 28, lines 368-378. 75 

aus dem zwolften und dreizehnten Jdhrhundert, ubertragen von Wilhdrn 
Hertz. 2. Aufl. Stuttgart, 1900, p. 440, note 6. 

p. 28, 1. 368. As by nature] See note to c. 1. 219. 

I. 371. I meane as thus] See notes to II. c. 219 and H. 186. This same 
formula occurs : M. P. 149 : 

I meene as thus that noon heresye 

Ryse in thes dayes, . . . 

Pilgr. 4195 : I mene as thus : conceyveth al. 
Falls, 67 b 1 : I meane as thus, I haue no fresh licour. 
Ibid. 70 a 2 : I mene as thus, if there be set a lawe. 
Steele, decrees, -757: 

I mene as thus / by a dyvisioitn. 
Voss. Gg. 9, fol. 99 b : 

I mene as thus for any f reward delyt. 
But also : Krausser, Complaint, 659 : 

I mene thus, that in al honeste. 
Pilgr. 6945 : I mene thus, thy sylff to saue. 

II. 374, 375. Degenhart, Hors, 306-308 : 

Born of a mayde, by grace, agayn nature, 

Whan he bi mene of his humylite 

List take the clothing of oure humanite. 
M. P. 214 : Whan the high lord toke oure humanyte. 
Ibid. 215 : whan Crist Ihesu was born 

Of a mayde most clene and vertuous. 

Ibid. 249 : which [i. e. lesus] of mercy took our humanyte. 
Morrill, Speculum, notes to 11. 365 and 367. 

1. 378. ordeyned] Compare Holland's Buke of the Houlate, ed. by A. 
Diebler, 11. 733-735 : 

Hail], speciouss most specifeit wit/i the spirituals ! 

Haill, ordanit or Adame, and ay to indure, 

Hail), oure hope and our help, quhen pat harme ailis ! 



I I 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



(Sauer stein) = P. Sauerstein, 
Lydgate's ^sopiibersetzung in 
Anglia, ix (1886), pp. 1-24. 

(Zupitza) = Julius Zupitza, 
Zu Lydgate's Isopus in Herrig's 
Archiv fur das Studium der neue- 
ren Sprachen und Litteraturen, 
85 (1890), pp. 1-28. 

Confessio Amantis (E. E. T. S., E. S. 
81, 82) = The English Works of 
John Govver. Edited by G-. C. 
Macaulay [E. E. T. S., E. S. 81, 
82]. London, 1900, 1901. 

Court of Sapience = Wynken de 
Worde's print, 1510. 

Degenhart, Hors = Degenhart, Max, 
Lydgate's Horse, Goose, and 
Sheep [Miinchener Beitrage zur 
Romanischen und Englischen 
Philologie. Heft xix]. Erlangen 
und Leipzig, 1900. 

D. N. B. = Dictionary of National 
Biography, edited by Leslie 
Stephen and Sidney Lee. 
London, 1885-1900. 

Edmund = S. Edmund und Fre- 
mund von Lydgate in C. Horst- 
mann, Altenglische Legenden. 
Neue Folge. Mit Einleitung und 
Anmerkungen herausgegeben. 
Heilbronn, 1881. 

Falls = Tottel's print, 1554. 

Flour of Curtesie = printed in 
Stowe's Chaucer, 1561. 

Gattinger = Gattinger, E., Die 
Lyrik Lydgates [Wiener Bei- 
trage znr Englischen Philologie, 
iv]. Wien und Leipzig, 1896. 

Giles = S. Giles von Lydgate ; see 
Edmund. 

G. W. (Robinson) = F. N. Robin- 
son, On two Manuscripts of 
Lydgate's Guy of Warwick in 



Studies and Notes in Philology 
and Literature, v. Child Memo- 
rial Volume [Harvard University], 
Boston, 1896. 

G. W. (Zupitza) = Julius Zupitza, 
Zur Literaturgeschichte des Guy 
von Warwick in Sitzungsbe- 
richte d. K. Akademie der 
Wissenschaften. Philosophisch- 
historische Classe, 74. Wien, 1873. 

Hoccleve (E. E. T. S., E. S. 61, 72) = 
Hoccleve's Works, i : The Minor 
Poems, edited by F. J. Furnivall 
[E. E. T. S., E. S. 61]. London 
1892. iii: The Regement of 
Princes, edited by F. J. Furnivall 
[E.E.T.S.,E.S. 72]. London, 
1897. 

Kingis Quair = The Kingis Quair, 
edited by W. W. Skeat [Scottish 
Text Society, 1]. London, 1884. 

Kk. i. = Cambridge University 
Library MS. Kk. i. 

Krausser, Complaint = Krausser, 
Emil, Lydgate's Complaint of the 
Black Knight. Halle, 1896. 

Matzner = Matzner, Eduard, Alt- 
englische Sprachproberi nebst 
einem Worterbuche. Berlin, 
1878-(1902). 

Margarete = S. Margarete von 
Lydgate ; see Edmund. 

Morrill, Speculum = Speculum Gy 
de Warewyke, edited by Georgi- 
ana Lea Morrill [E. E. T. S., E. S. 
75]. London, 1898. 

M. P. A Selection from the Minor 
Poems of Dan John Lydgate, 
edited by James Orchard Halli- 
well [Percy Society, ii]. London, 
1840. 

Pilgr. = The Pilgrimage of the 
Life of Man, Englisht by John 



78 



List of Abbreviations. 



Lydgate, edited by F. J. Furni- 
vall. Part i [E. E. T. S., E. S. 77]. 
London, 1899. 
Ritson, B. P. = Ritson, Jos., Biblio- 

fraphia poetica : a catalogue of 
nglish poets of the 12th-16th 
centuries. London, 1802. 

-Rom. of the E. = The Romaunt of 
the Rose in The Complete Works 
of Geoffrey Chaucer, edited by 
W. W. Skeat, i. Oxford, 1894. 

Schick, T. G. = Lydgate's Temple 
of Glas, edited by J. Schick 
[E. E. T. S., E. S. 601. London, 
1891. 

Schleich, Fabula = Schleich, Gustav, 
Lydgate's Fabula duorum merca- 
torum [Quellen und Forsch- 
ungen zur Sprach- und Culturge- 
schichte der germanischen Volker, 
Ixxxiii]. Strassburg, 1897. 

Skeat, Chaucer = The Complete 
Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, 
edited by W. W. Skeat, i-vii. 
Oxford, 1894-1897. 

Skeat, P. P. = The Vision of William 
concerning Piers Plowman, edited 
by W. W. Skeat [E. E. T. S. 28, 
38, 54, 81]. London, 1867-1884. 

S. of Thebes = printed in Stowe's 
Chaucer, 1561. 



S. of Thebes (Skeat) = printed in 
Specimens of English Literature 
by W. W. Skeat. Oxford, 1871. 

S. of Thebes ( Wukker) = printed in 
Altenglisches Lesebuch von P. 
Wiilcker, ii. Halle, 1879. 

Steele, Secrees = Lydgate and 
Burgh's Secrees of old Philisoff res, 
edited by Robert Steele [E.E. 
T.S.,E.S. 66]. London, 1894. 

ten Brink = Chaucers Sprache und 
Verskunst dargestellt von Bern- 
hard ten Brink. Leipzig, 1884. 

Triggs, Assembly = The Assembly 
of Gods : or The Accord of 
Reason and Sensuality in the 
Fear of Death, by John Lydgate. 
Edited by Oscar Lovell Triggs 
[E. E. T. S., E. S. 69]. London, 
1896. 

Voss. Gg. 9. = Manuscript of the 
Leiden University Library : Codex 
Vossius Gg. 9. 

Yorkshire Writers, Rolle of Hampole 
= Library of Early English 
Writers, edited by C. Horst- 
mann. Vol. i, ii : Yorkshire 
Writers. Richard Rolle of Ham- 
pole, an English Father of the 
Church and his Followers, i. ii. 
London, 1895, 1896. 



79 



GLOSSARY. 



[Compare also the Notes. 

C. D. = Century Dictionary; N. E. D. =New English Dictionary; Str. = 
Stratmann- Bradley, A Middle-English Dictionary; M. =Matzner, Sprachpro- 
ben II.] 



abhominable, adv. abominably, ll/ 

288. 

abregge, inf. to abridge, 9/228. 
abyt, 3. sg. prs. abideth, abides, ll/ 

275. 

accusours, sb. accusers, 20/139. 
adolescens, sb. youth, 10/267. 
adverte, inf. to heed, note, 19/93 ; 

advert, 2. sg. subj. prs. 18/77 1 

aduerte, sg. imp. 23/229. 
agreued, pp. aggrieved, 3/48. 
aleys (thaleys), sb. alleys, 28/362. 
alhvey, adv. always, 11/275. 
almesse, sb. alms, 24/241. 
alre, pron. (g. pi.) of all, 19/92. 
als, conj. as, 22/i86. 
alyght, 3. sg. pt. alighted, 6/96. 
among, adv. from time to time, con- 
tinually, 6/90, 18/6 1, 76. 
apalle, inf. to grow feeble, 22/18$. 
arme, sg. imp. take arms, 6/129. 
arn, 3. pi. prs. are, 27/335. 
asonder, adv. asunder, into parts, 

21/166 (seeN. E. D.). 
aspye, inf. to spy, espy, 20/135. 
atteynt, #p. attainted, 20/138. 
atweyne, adv. asunder, 23/212. 
atwynne, adv. between, 9/214 ( see 

N. E. D. sub atwin). 
avale, inf. to descend, 13/339, W 

395 ; aualynge, prt. prs. 1/vi ; 

avaled, pp. 11/276. 
auctor, sb. author, 14/392. 
awayte, sb. ambush, 12/302. 
awrong, adv. wrongly, 18/79. 
axed, j?p. asked, 21/149. 
ayeyn, adv. again, 9/226 ; ayen, 

prp. 6/130, 15/402. 

bare, 3. sg. pt. bore, 26/290, 28/379. 



bareyne, adj. barren, 10/245. 

bawmy, adj. balmy, 17/39. 

be, prp. by, 2/22, 3/55, 5/113. 

beawte, sb. beauty, 28/204. 

bemes, sb. beams, rays, 6/93 ; bemys, 
14/391. 

both, pi. imp. be, 12/325. 

betokenyth, 3. sg. prs. means, signi- 
fies, 18/66. 

blyve, adv. quickly, 22/1 86. 

boffettes, sb. buffets, 10/255. 

boke, sb. book, 5/io8; bokys,_pZ. 2/7. 

bonched, ji>p. beaten, 23/2o6. 

boote, sb. remedy, redress, 27/323. 

brefly, adv. shortly, 1/xviii. 

brid, sb. bird, 3/50, 4/69, 5/io6, 7/ 
178, 8/201, 11/275, 15/393, 19/86, 
23/217; bryd, 5/ioi; bridde, 16/ 
20, 18/71, 19/82; briddes, g. sg. 
18/51, 76; briddis, 18/55, 59, 64. 

byble, sb. bible, 9/238, 13/344. 

bye, inf. to buy, 12/315, 22/182. 

calde, 3. sg. pt. called, 3/56. 

can = (be-)gan, 3. sg.pt. 6/136, 13/ 

339> 15/3 9 5, 21/144; 3. pi. pt. 

3/54, 16/19. 
carectes, sb. characters, scars, 25/ 

287. 

cast, l.sg.prs. intend, purpose, 18/52. 
ceriously, adv. 24/245 ; see note to 

this line, 
chaundelabre, sb. candelabrum, 26/ 

320. 

chese, inf. to choose, 7/i66. 
chiere, sb. countenance, 17/46. 
clennesse, sb. cleanness, 23/227. 
clennest, superl. cleanest, 28/375. 
cleped, pp. called, 6/142, 8/187; 

clepid, 24/257. 



80 



Glossary. 



cleue, inf. to cleave, 6/138. 
cleyme, inf. to claim, 8/196. 
colde, inf. to grow cold, 11/295 ; 

cold, 20/132. 
complyne, sb, last service of the day 

in monastic establishments, 16/5. 
couceyte, sb. notion, conception, 18/ 

70; conceyt, 19/8 1. 
conclude, inf. to confute, convince, 

21/144 (see C. D. and N. E. D.). 
connynge, sb. skill, 5/1 12 ; connyng, 

7/177 ; konnyng, 8/180. 
consistorye, sb. consistory, 20/139. 
contynuauly, adv. continually, 20/ 

116. 
covetise, sb. covetousness, 23/226, 

24/239. 

cowde, 3. sg. pt. could, 10/271. 
crym,s6. wrong-doing, sin (collective 

sing.}, 14/369. 
cure, 80. care, 6/117. 
curious, adj. skilfully done, 4/76. 



dampnably, adv. condemnably, ll/ 

286. 

daungier, sb. danger, 26/291. 
dayerowes, sb. dawn, 8/54. 
declyne, inf. to die, 8/186. 
delitable, adv. delectably, 4/89. 
delite, sb. delight, 18/352; inf. to 

delight, 17/37. 
demed, pp. doomed, 14/375. 
demeyned, pp. behaved, 11/286, 13/ 

346. 
depeynt, pp. depicted, stained, 20/ 

134- 

derre, adv. dearer, 9/221. 
deseuer, inf. to dissever, 7/167, 10/ 

268, 15/412. 

devoyde, inf. to put away, 25/282. 
dewe, adj. due, 15/405. 
deyned, 3. sg. pt. deigned, 19/ioi. 
dismenbre, inf. to dismember, 7/171 ; 

dismernbre, 18/72. 
dostow = doest thou, 2. sg. prs. 17/ 

47, 18/75- 

douteles, adj. doubtless, 27/326. 
dresse, imp. sg. address, 2/i ; inf. to 

direct oneself, pass through, 2 1/ 

158. 

dreynt, pp. drowned, 8/208. 
dungeoun, sb. dungeon, habitation, 

dwelling-place, 17/33. 
dyamaundes, sb. diamonds, 17/33. 



eke, conj. also, 20/124, 1 35> 22/170, 

28/370, 373- 

enarme, sg. imp. arm, 25/285. 
encheson, sb. cause, 4/6 1. 
enchesoned, 3. sg. pt. caused, 4/84 

(not in C. D., M., N. E. D., and 

Str.). 

encoragyt, pp. encouraged, 2/u. 
enprinte, sg. imp. imprint, impress, 

6/128; enprinted, pp. 11/296. 
entendyng, prt. prs. being intent, 

4/64. 
examynacioun, sb. examination, 25/ 

263. 

elite, inf. to excite, 9/213. 
eysell, sb. vinegar, 14/368 ; eysel, 

20/137, 25/265 ; eyselle, 22/196. 

fade, adj. faint, poor, 8/180. 

falsehede, sb. falsehood, 17/28; false- 
bed, 23/200. 

felawe, sb. fellow, 21/156. 

fer, adv. far, 8/51, 18/70; ferre, 28/ 
352- 

feres, sb. companions, 10/249. 

feynt, adj. feigned, false, 19/So ; 20/ 
136, faint. 

flesshlyhede, sb. fleshliness, 19/84 
(see N. E. D.). 

flour, sb. flower, 28/378 ; floures, pi. 
17/40 (20/n8), 28/377; flowres, 
27/341. 

folilye, adv. foolishly, 7/170. 

forsoth, adv. in truth, 16/8. 

forborn, pp. avoided, shunned, 7/ 
1 59 (see N. E. D.). 

fowlis, sb. fouls, 16/4. 

fredam, sb. freedom, 20/1 II, 24/241. 

freelte, sb. frailty, 18/351. 

fret, pp. adorned, 17/34. 

fyn, sb. fine, 16/21. 

fyne, inf. to pay as a fine, 21/i68. 

fynaunce, sb. payment, compensa- 
tion, 21/147 (see N. E. D. and 
Halliwell's Dictionary). 

gadre, sg. imp. gather, 20/1 1 8, 27/ 

341- 

gal antus,s6. lovers, 2/1 1 ; gaylauntes, 

10/267. 
gan, 1. sg.pt. began, 17/37, 21/156; 

3. sg.pt. 2/25, 17/39, 20/I2O, 136, 

21/158,27/332; 3. pl.pt. 121 30*, 

16/ 7 . 
geaunt, sb. giant, 27/333. 



Glossary. 



81 



gesse, 1. sg. prs. guess, 4/86. 
geyn, prp. again, 28/204 j 

23/226; geyns, 26/317. 
gilt, sb. guilt, 22/179 ; gylt, 12/321. 
giltles, adj. guiltless, 23/2i6; gylt- 

les, 8/186. 
glotenye, sb. gluttony, 26/265 5 gl- 

tonye, 28/229. 
grefe, sb. grief, 10/264; greues, pi. 

14/376. 

hede, sb. lieed, 19/g8; heede, 28/ 

368. 
hele, sb. health, 7/154, 12/317, 15/ 

406. 

hele, inf. to heal, 9/223, 12/319- 
helle, sb. hell, 6/126; hell, 6/133, 

144, 11/290, 15/400. 
heng, 3. sg. pt. hung, 14/379. 
henne, adv. hence, 18/335 5 hennys, 

24/248. 

herber, sb. herbary, orchard, 28/359. 
heued, sb. head, 24/232. 
hewe, sb. hue, colour, 20/I2I. 
heyre, sb. heir, 26/274. 
hogh, adv. how, 6/125, 7 /!7 8 > 10 / 

252, 258, 260, 12/307, 321, 13/345, 

14/374; hough, 4/69, 7/156. 
hokes, sb. hooks, 12/305. 
hole, adj. whole, 26/271. 
-huwed, pp. coloured, 16/2. 
hyrt, sb. hurt, 7/154. 

iblent, pp. made blind, 20/130. 
ien, sb. eyes. 19/io8, 20/130, 22/194; 

ie, 22/177. 

ileft, pp. left, 23/220. 
imeynt, pp. mixed, 20/137. 
infecte, pp. fainted, injured, 6/143. 
ioie, sb. joy, 7/i68. 
iuge, sb. judge, 10/254. 

kalendes, sb. first of the month, 2/25, 

8/45. 

kepe, sb. heed, 17/41. 27/337. 
knowleche, sb. knowledge, 1/ii. 
korve, pp. carved, cut, 28/214. 
kowthe, 3. sg. pt. knew, 11/273 > 

kowde, 3. pi. pt. could, 19/93. 
kyndely, adv. according to kind or 

nature, 8/33. 
kynne, sb. kind, 28/369. 

lad, pp. led, 10/253. 
ladyly, adj. ladylike, womanly, 2/8. 
NIGHTINGALE. 



lauendere, sb. 24/251 ; see note to 
this line. 

leche, sb. leech, 14/376. 

ledne, sb. speech, language, song, 
16/16. 

leep, 1. sg.pt. leapt, 4/59. 

lenger, adv. longer, 14/391. 

lest, adv. least, 16/407. 

ley, sg. imp. lay (down), 9/222 ; 1 ey- 
ing, prt.prs. 12/304. 

liche, adv. like, 19/IO2, 22/i8i. 

lorne, pp. lost, 18/6o ; see note to 
this line. 

lowde, adv. loudly, 12/307, 28/355. 

lye, inf. to lie, 7/175, 9 /222 ; lying, 
prt. prs. 12/302. 

lyme, inf. to ensnare, 10/243. 

manor, sb. sort, kind, 9/213, 18/7O. 
matutyne, adj. (sb. ?) matutinal, ma- 

tutine, 8/187. 
rnaunde, sb. 24/248 ; see note to this 

line, 
mene, adj. mean, middle, moderate, 

1/vi. 

rnescheues, sb. injuries, 14/369. 
meueth, 3. sg. prs. rnoveth, moves, 

induces, 8/34; meued, pp. 2/22. 
meynt, pp. mingled, mixed, 16/3, 

.27/347- 
mischeue, inf. to come to harm, 6/ 

137- 

mone, sb. moon, 17/48. 
mone, sb. moan, 21/157. 
moralite, sb. moral of a tale, 18/65. 
mornyng, sb. mourning, 4/70, 7/179. 
mortal!, adj. fatal, violent, 4/77, 

dying away, 7/178. 
most, 3. sg. prs. 'must, 8/29. 
mote, 3. sg. subj. must, 28/364. 
myndely, adv. mindfully, 6/128 (not 

in C. D.,M., or Str.). 
mysfotyng, verb, noun, going astray, 

erring, 28/209. 

nade = had not, 6/140. 

nedes, adv. needs, 8/29, 7/157, 8/181. 

nerre, adv. nearer, 9/222 ; nere, 26/ 

292. 
noglit, conj. not, 9/212 ; nought, 17/ 

45, 20/i'i 7 . 
none, sb. nones, 4/75, 6/105, 1^/380, 

386. 
notheles, adv. nevertheless, 2/19, 

4/82, 11/285. 

G 



82 



G-lossary. 



nu we, adj. new, 16/15. 
nyghtyngale, sb. nightingale, 1/i, 

2/13, 13/337, 15/393. 16 /n> 19 / 
104, 28/355; nightingale, 2/i6; 
nyghtingale, 8/34, 6/113. 
nyltow = wilt thou not, 2. sg. prs. 

27/337- 
nys = is not, 17/25- 

ocy = the call of the nightingale, 

6/90,98; occy, 16/H, 18/55,59, 

19/85, 23/217. 
oones, adv. once, 28/213. 
or, conj. before, 8/54, 17/41, 24/248. 
originall, adj. 6/142 ; see note to 

this line. 

oueral, adv. everywhere, 20/121. 
ouergo, pp. overgone, 8/47. 
ouerterved, pp. rolled over, turned 

down, 8/208 ; see note to this 

line. 

ourys, sb. hours, 1/xi. 
outragesly, adv. outrageously, 8/32. 

paradise, sb. paradise, 7/150. 

parde (= a common oath), 17/24. 

passyng, adv. surpassingly, 21/159. 

past, pp. passed, 9/239, 10/247- 

pees, sb. peace, 27/324. 

pepyll, sb. people, 7/152. 

perse, inf. to pierce, 6/138 ; perce, 

25/283 ; persed, 3. sg. pt. 14/387 ; 

pp. 8/52 ; perced, 23/212. 
peyneth, 3. sg. pi*s. pains, 18/73. 
plesaunce, sb. pleasure, 16/19. 
pouerte, sb. poorness, 23/226. 
poynaunt. adj. poignant, 23/2OI. 
pressour, sb. press, 21/153, 26/304. 
prime, $6. prime, 4/78, 8/199, 8/240, 

10/251. 268, 11/300; pryme, ll/ 

274. 

primetens, sb. spring, 2/n, 23. 
proygne, inf. to preen, 16/7- 
prynses, sb. princess, 2/i ; pryn- 

cesse, 2/3. 
pvniched, pp. punished, 9/237. 

quayere, sb. quire, book, 2/i. 
quayers, 21/152; see note to this 

line. 

querne, inf. to please, 9/231. 
quert, sb. sound health, 6/130; see 

note to this line, 
qwyte, inf. to quit, 21/154. 

rayle, inf. to run, roll, 25/273. 



redly, adv. readily or promptly, 3/ 

39 (see Str., p. 493: raedi, or p. 

496 : hrad ; C. reads : Redyly). 
refreyd, sb. refrain, 16/14. 
remord, inf. to cause remorse, 8/190. 
renoueled, pp. renewed, made new 

again, 2/23. 

replet, adj. quite full, 4/89. 
reprefe, sb. i. proof, 8/193; repref, 

10/26i ; repreues, pi. 14/368, 373. 
resownyth, 3. sg. prs. resounds, ai- 

ludes, 19/84. 
rewe, inf. to rue, 22/175. 
rote (be ~), sb. 8/39; see note to 

this line, 
ryghtwisnesse, sb. righteousness, 8/ 

204. 

safe, prp. save, 7/154; sauf, adv. 
except, 16/IO. 

sauacioun, sb. salvation, 15/406. 

saugh, 3. sg. pt. saw, 20/134 ; 3. pi. 
pt. 20/125. 

scripture, sb. writing, the Holy Scrip- 
ture (?), 5/1 14; see note to this line. 

seet, 3. sg. pt. sat, 6/97. 

sely, adj. unfortunate, fatal (?), 7/ 
151 ; see note to this line. 

sempte, 3. sg. pt. seemed, 17/43- 

serpentyne, adj. caused by a serpent, 

26/315- 

seseth, 3. sg. prs. ceases, 8/37. 
seyn, pp. seen, 20/272. 
seyng, prt. prs. saying, 14/388. 
sheene, adv. beautifully, splendidly, 

22/194. 
showres, sb. conflicts, struggles, 27/ 

3.38. 

shright, 3. sg. pt. screeched, 5/103. 
sixt, sb. sixte, 5/96, 13/359, 14/378, 

380 ; syxt, 13/342 ; syxte, 14/365. 
sle, inf. to slay, kill, 7/i6i ; sg. imp. 

16/20. 

slough, 3. sg. pt. slew, 28/379. 
smerte, inf. to be punished, 6/131. 
sotell, adj. subtle, 6/136. 
soth, sb. truth, 19/82. 
sothfastnes, sb. truthfulness, 8/184. 
soun, sb. sound, 4/66. 
sounde, inf. to heal, 25/268. 
spere, sb. sphere, 2/26, 5/92. 
sperhed, sb. spear-head, 21/158. 
spet, sb. spittle, 10/259. 
spreynt, pp. sprinkled, 20/121. 
sterede, pp. stirred, excited, 10/269. 



Glossary. 



83 



sterres, sb. stars, 11/283 ; stern's, 

17/38. 
sterve, inf. to die, 14/364, 19/iio; 

starf, 8. sg. pt. 19/94. 
steuen, sb. voice, 8/42. 
stoole, sb. stole, 21/141. 
streyght, adv. straightway, directly, 

forthwith, 6/144, 8/iq8, 24/234. 
streyneth, 3. sg. prs. s, ains, 18/73. 
surf ay te, sb. (surfeit), sin, 25/266 ; 

surfete, 22/183. 
suwen, inf. to follow, 21/163. 
syxt(e), see sixt. 
syth, conj. since, 8/198 ; sith, 9/22O, 

10/246. 

tabide = to abide, inf. 4/84. 
takestow = takest thou, 2. sg. prs. 

18/71. 

tale, sb. 3/35 > see n ^ e to this line, 
tee, inf. to draw, 21/i66. 
tene, sb. vexation, injury, 22/193. 
thaleys = the ale}'S ; see aleys. 
then, conj. than, 9/223. 
thilke, pron. this, 19/97- 
tho, pron. those, 7/167, 19/io6; 

thoo, 3/33, 46, 11/279, 15/407. 
thoght, sb. thought, 3/47 ; see note 

to this line. 

thoure, sb. = the hour, 11/274. 
thurghnayled, pp. nailed through, 

24/240. 
thurghperced, pp. pierced through, 

23/210. 
tierce, sb. tierce, 4/86, 11/277, 13 / 

332, 337, 342. 

to, adv. too, likewise, also, 18/333. 
todrawe, JH>. drawn asunder, 10/256. 
toforne, adv. before, 18/58, 27/326 ; 

tofore, 20/125. 

to-Rent, pp. rent to pieces, 20/127. 
to-Rive, inf. break up, rend asunder, 

27/332. 
totogged, pp. pulled to pieces, 10/ 

256. 
towchyng, verb, noun, touch, 23/ 

207. 



trade, 3. sg.pt. trod, 21/155. 

trewe, adj. true, 17/3O ; triewe, 
18/69. 

triacle, sb. antidote to poison, sove- 
reign remedy, 28/224. 

triewely, adv. truly, 18/56. 

trone, sb. throne, 6/145. 

trowe, 1. sg. prs. trust, 16/15. 

tunge, sb. tongue, 22/198. 

tyme, sb. musical measure, the same 
as l tempo,' 4/8o. 

vale, sb. valley, 28/352. 
vch, pron. each, 6/143, 9/236. 
verity, adj. true, 2/24 ; verray, 5/ 

1 17, 27/342 ; verey, 8/207. 
versed, pp. related or expressed in 

verse, turned into verse or rhyme, 

5/108. 
vnclose, inf. to unfold. 20/113 ; 18/ 

51, explain. 

vndrestondyng, verb, noun, under- 
standing, 19/8i. 
vnkyndly, adj. unnatural, 11/294, 

301. 
vntriewe, adj. untrue, false, 16/17; 

vntriew, 19/8o. 
voide, inf. to leave, 7/150; voidyng, 

prt. prs. making void, vacant. 

driving out, 27/322. 
vpsmyte, inf. to raise, 17/39. 
vyne, sb. vineyard, 21/167. 

war, adj. aware, 10/241, 11/3OI, 13 / 

360; ware, 12/325, 25/288. 
werre, sb. war, 18/361. 
weyfe, inf. to waive, 1 2/306. 
wherthiirgh, adv. by which, 27/321. 
wont, pp. accustomed, 28/356. 
wsynge, prt. prs. using, 12/305. 

yaf, 3. sg. pt. gave, 4/6i, 14/389. 
ybought, pp. bought. 15/396. 
yerd, sb. staff, rod, 27/327. 
yerth, sb. earth, 6/123, 13/348, 14/ 

384, 15/395. 
ylyke, adv. alike, 4/87. 



LIST OF PROPER NAMES. 



Abraham, 1/xvii, 1 1/280. 

Abyron, 18/349. 

Adam, i/xiii, 6/135, M^, 14/382. 

Aprile, 8/43. 

Aurora, 4/71, 6/120, 7/155. 

Bokyngham, 2/4 ; compare 4, 

type B. 
Bosra, 20/135. 

Calurie, 12/314; Caluarye, 26/290. 

Citheron, 17/32. 

Crist, 5/115, 6/140, 146, 10/252, 13/ 

361, 20/122, 27/336, 28/364; 

Cryste, 1/x ; Cristys, 1/xi. 
Cupide, 17/25, 45- 

Danyell, 26/297. 

Dathan, 18/348. 

Dauid, 26/307; David, 27/331. 

Dede See, 11/292. 

Edom, 20/134. 
Eue, 6/135. 
Ezechiel, 26/319. 

Golye, 27/333. 
Goinor, 11/291. 

lacob, 26/300. 
lesse, 28/377. 

lewes, 8/188, 10/258, 263, 12/307, 
14/386,21/166; lewis, 24/254. 

Ihesu, 13/334, 20/122, 28/364; 
Ihesus, 8/183, 14/366. 



lohn, 20/124; lolm, 21/164,24/258. 
lowrdan, 26/301. 
Isaye, 20/133, Witf. 
Israel, 26/311,27/328. 
June, 16/i. 

Leviathan, 26/303. 

Longens, 14/385. 

Lucifere, 6/126. 

Lydgate, Dan John, 28/colophon. 

Marath, 27/325. 

Maria, 1 /heading ; Marie, 24/257. 

May, 2/25, 8/45. 

Moyses, 26/310, 27/327. 

Noe, 1/xvii, 8/204, 9/235. 11/279- 
Phebus, 2/26, 6/92. 
Pilate, 20/138; Pounce Pylat, 10/ 
254. 

Rede See, 27/329. 

Salomon, 10/271. 

Sathan, 10/249, ! 2/31 8, 21/144, 27/ 

336, 28/379. 
Saul, 26/308. 
Sodom, 11/291. 

Tau, 26/318. 
Titan, 16/i. 

Venus, 16/i 6. 
Warwyk, 18/332. 



* - ! 

LIBRARY