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This book is purchased from 
The Schofield Fund 
given in memory of 
William Henry Schofield 
Victoria College, B.A. 1889 
Harvard University, Ph. D. 1895 
Professor of Comparative Literature 
Harvard University, 1906-20. 
Harvard Exchange Professor at 

University of Berlin, 1907 

Lecturer at the Sorbonne and 

University of Copenhagen, 1910. 

Harvard Exchange Professor at 

Western Colleges, 1918. 

gdpt^'s 4[<rj| 

(Barlg iuglisb 

<*tra Series, xcvu. 




A.D. 1412-20. 












ES ' 

no. 37, 


xtra Scries, xcvu. 






THE PROLOGUE ......... - 

BOOK I. 12 


Page 16, ,, 149, insert comma before and after platly 

,, 16, ,, 160, insert comma before God and after wot 

,, 21, ,, 328, insert comma after fate 

., 25, ; , 452, surqued[r]ye should be surquedye 

,, 25, ,, 467, insert comma before and after pleynly 

30, ,, 630, for halowed read halved*. (Add note: 630. halved] 

halowed C.) 

,, 41, ,, 1012, insert comma after hede 

51, note 1, for leaf 13 d read leaf 1 4 d 

,, 53, note 1, for leaf 14 a read leaf 15 a 

78, ,, 2247, for in read in 

,, 185, ,, 1422 (side-note), for paiently read patiently 



THE Troy Book was begun in the late autumn of 1412, 1 and 
finished in the summer, or early fall, of 1420. 2 It is a very much 
amplified version in decasyllabic couplets of the prose Latin Historia 
Destt-uctionis Troiae of Guido delle Colonne 3 (about 1287), and was 
undertaken, the author tells us, at the desire of Prince Henry, after- 
wards Henry V. 4 The work consists of a Prologue of 384 lines, of 
five Boolcs, containing respectively 4436, 8706, 5764, 7108, and 3612 
lines, an Envoy of 91 lines, addressed to Henry V., and the Verba 
translatoris ad librum suum of 16 lines, a total of 30,117 lines. 
The last 307 lines of Book V., although an integral part of the text, 
may be said roughly to form an Epilogue, also addressed to Henry V. 
The Prologue and five Books are written in Chaucer's heroic verse ; 
the Envoy is of thirteen stanzas of seven five-beat lines, rhyming 
ababbcc (Chaucer's rhyme royal), and the Verba translatoris of two 
stanzas of eight lines, rhyming ababcdcd. 

The text of this edition is based on the Brit. Mus. MS. Cotton t 
Augustus A. iv. (C), collated with the Brit. Mus. MS. Arundel 99 
(A) and the Bodleian MSS. Digby 232 (D 2) and Digby 230 (D 1). 
The two British Museum MSS. and Digby 232 are the oldest and 
best that have been preserved to us, and date approximately from the 
end of the first quarter of the fifteenth century. Digby 230 is some- 
what inferior to the others, and considerably later (about 1470). 

1 As Professor Skeat has pointed out in a letter to The Academy of May 7, 
1892, Lydgate tells us that it was "about 4 o'clock in the afternoon of Monday, 
October 31, 1412." See Prologue, 121-148. 

a Comp. the above letter to The Academy and the foot-note on the second 
page of my Description and Genealogy of the Manuscripts and Prints of Lydgate 's 
Troy Book (dissertation), Bungay, 1906. A revised edition of the latter will 
appear in Part III. of the present work. 

3 Guido's book was in turn a condensed version of the Roman de Troie of 
Benoit de Sainte More (about 1160), ed. Joly, Paris, 1870. Comp. H. Dunger, 
Die Sage vom trojani^chen Kriege in den Bearbcitungen des Mittelalters und ihrcn 
antiken Quellen, Leipzig, 1869 ; Gtistav Koerting, Dictys und Dares, Halle, 
1874 ; Wilhelm Greif, Die mittelalterlichen Bearbeitungen der Trojanersage, 
Marburg, 1886 ; also Dr. Sommer's introduction to his edition of Caxton's 
Lefevre. A detailed study of the sources of Lydgate's Troy Book by Herr Ernst 
Gaerth is in preparation. It will probably be printed in Part III. of this 
edition. * Comp. Prologue, 69-118. 

x The Editor's treatment of the Text. 

All deviations from the text of the Cotton MS. are either marked 
with asterisks and noted at the bottom of the page, or enclosed in 
brackets. In each case, whatever coincidences C may share with 
other MSS. (excepting of course the added silent e's and a few 
graphical variations, whose presence or absence in any particular MS. 
signifies nothing) are also given. Thus, if the reading of no other 
MS. than C occurs in a foot-note explanatory of an asterisk, and if a 
word enclosed in brackets is accompanied by no foot-note at all, it is 
to be understood that the variant or omission in question occurs in C 
alone. I have silently omitted the dots which are sometimes written 
over the ?/'s, all ornamental hooks and nourishes, and all marks of 
punctuation. Although proper names and words beginning sentences 
are uniformly 1 printed with capital letters, such capital letters as 
occur in the MS. have been allowed to stand. The punctuation has 
been a matter of considerable difficulty. Sudden changes of con- 
struction or lapses of grammatical sequence are generally indicated by 
dashes. As my chief endeavour has been to bring out the author's 
meaning, the stopping has been done according to expediency rather 
than to rule. 

In collating the text with the other MSS., I have noted all 
variations except those of a purely graphical nature and a few 
others, such as gentillesse : yentilnesse, euery : euerich, her : their, 
a : o, an : on (one), seyen : sawe, sythe : sythes : sythens, a$en : a$ens, 
which, although constantly occurring, are of small importance to the 
student of Lydgate's language, and involve no doubtful questions of 
metre. Of the orthographical variants I have preserved all that are 
of exceptional interest or explanatory use. 

The chapter-headings have been transcribed from the British 
Museum MS. Royal 18. D. ii. (about 1460) by Dr. Furnivall, to 
whom I am also greatly indebted for the side-notes and head-lines. 
The text is being collated in type with the Cotton MS. with most 
painstaking care by Miss Violet Furnivall ; and to the invaluable 
and unremitting assistance which Professor Schick has given me in 
reading the proofs is due the elimination of more than one editorial 
faux pas and the clearing up of many an ambiguous or otherwise 
difficult passage. 

Although this is not the place for a discussion, philological or 

* For certain inconsistencies in the matter of capital letters and hyphens 
in J3ook L, and for the retention in the side-notes of various unnecessary 
apostrophes (Dr. Furnivall's em's and tho's are quite able to take care of them- 
selves without apostrophizing), I must beg the reader's indulgence. 

The Varieties of Structure in Lydgate's lines. Types A and B. xi 

otherwise, of the Troy Book, I shall, nevertheless, take advantage of 
the present opportunity to insert a few words of explanation in regard 
to the structure of the verse: for unless forewarned of Lydgate's 
peculiar methods of treating the decasyllabic rhymed couplet, it is 
possible that the reader may meet with some difficulty in scanning 
the lines (ahem) correctly. 

Starting out from Professor Schick's examination of the metre of 
the Temple of Glas as a basis, we find the following distinct varieties 
of line in the Troy Book : 

1. The regular decasyllabic line, with or without an extra 
syllable at the end (Schick's type A) : 

Pro. 1. 6 inyghty Mars | that wyth thy sterng lyght 
18. Of werre and stryf | in many sondry rewmys 
23. Wyth whom whylom | )>ou wer at meschef take 

Further examples are Prologue 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, etc. The 
great majority of lines in the Troy Book are of this type. 

That Lydgate (like Chaucer) did not take his caesuras very 
seriously is evident ; for there are many regular lines in which there 
is no distinct pause after the fourth syllable. Thus : 

Prologue 11. 5f colour schewyng 1/che thg fyry gledS 

20. But in the Bole is thy power lorn 

22. Now for the loue of Wlcanus wyf 

25. And for the loue of thy Bellona 

,, 26. That wyth the dwellyth by-^ownd Cirrea 

33. For to conveye it wyth thyn influence 

37. And hast of manhod the magnificence 

40. But maketh Clyo for to ben my muse 

47. That were moder vn-to Orpheus 

Also Pro. 53, 55, 64, 66, 69, 74, 75, 76, 78, 89, 93, 94, 95, 97, etc. 

2. Like the above, but with an extra syllable before the caesura 
(Schick's type B) : 

Prologue 98. Thg rotys vertfi | J>us can the frute rene*we 

35. Whyche me comaunded | the drery pitus fate 
133. Hlr cold Srysyng | In OctSbre gan t6 dftt 
140. Our emysperle | to put out of affraye 
149. Wher was remembrid | of auctours vs be-forn 
,, 31. For vertu only | eschewe to don amys 

236. And how Edippiis | with teris ful pytous 
Book I. 568. MethamSrphoseos | his famus dedis twelue 1 

1 See also I. 3701. 

xii The Varieties of Structure in Lydgates lines. Types B and C. 

Other examples are, Prologue 198, 241, 272, 276, 294; Book I. 
8, 47, 70, 80, 104, 243, 275, 298, etc. Inasmuch as type B may 
often be made regular according to our notions of Middle English 
prosody by slurring over the syllable before the caesura (especially 
the es and is of the plural of nouns and the ed's, eth's, etc. of verbs) 
its identification is not always certain. Thus : 

Prologue 84. SS he e'nioye'th | in vertuSus besynessS 

85. In al that longeth | to manhood dare I seyn 
,, 141. Wyth bri$t kalendis | of Phebus vpryst schene 
142. Out of the boundis | PrSserpIna the quene 
209. By lenthe of ^eris | ]>e noble worthi fame 

218. And enlumyngd 
230. On Stace loketh 

with many corious flour 
and per 30 may it rede 

264. They han contreved | by false transumpcioun 
Book I. 87. But in this mater | I holde no sermoun 

To my mind, the extra syllable ought to be sounded in all the 
above lines with the possible exception of Pro. 209, 264, and I. 87. 
The identity of others and the same difficulty is to be encountered 
in reading any type of line is dependent upon the sounding of final 
e's and the like elsewhere than directly before the caesura ; and in 
order to classify these with any degree of certainty, one must be on 
very familiar terms indeed with Lydgate's language and methods of 
versification. The following are a few simple examples : 

Prologue 156. The whiche serpent | 5f agg by prScessg 
116. That of the story | )>e trouth[e] we nat mys 
143. Wher Pluto dwelleth | J>e dirkje] regioun 
,, 186. Nor of a tyraunt | the trouthe to expresse 

263. Throu} veyn[e] fables | whiche of entencioun 

j > 

3. Lines in which a syllable is missing directly after the caesura 
(Schick's type C) : 

Prologue 9. Irows and wood | and malencolyk 

16. To loke vp-on | inly furious 
17. And causer art | wyth thy fery bemys 

24. So helpe me now | only for hyr sake 

,, 58. And maistresse art | to musicyens 

,, 81. To fyn only | vertu for to swe 

,, 123. It was the $ere | sothly for to seyne (also 125) 

130. Tressed lyche gold | as men my3t[e] se 

139. Is callyd than | messanger of day 

Thus Prologue 151, 157, 184, 192, 214, 220, 233, 242, 250, 251, 
255, 270, 285, etc. 

Varieties of Structure in Lydgate's lines. Types C, D,&BD. xiii 

As type C may sometimes be altered into type A by the insertion 
of a syllable at the caesura, there is also a possibility that such 
syllables, originally written by Lydgate, have occasionally disap- 
peared in the process of transcription. Thus, in Pro. 233 : Til 
Thebes was | brou^t vn-to ruyne, Lydgate may have written y-brou^t 
instead of broiqt, and Pro. 16 : To loke vp-on inly furious, may 
have had so before inly. Unfortunately neither the y- nor the so 
occurs in the best MSS., and I have made it a rule not to meddle 
with the caesura : for one thing, we are never certain whether or not 
the interference is justified, and if once begun and systematically 
carried out there would be no end to it; and for another, some of 
the most effective and powerful lines in the Troy Book are of 
this type. 

4. Lines in which the first syllable is omitted (Schick's type D) : 

Prologue 150. Of thg dede | the verrle tre"wg c<5rn 
158. Of the trouth | to make vs for to faille 
,, 221. Besied hem | and feythfully travaylled 
229. Crop and rote | ri3t as it was in dede 
239. At the fest | of fires funeral 

Additional examples are, Pro. 266, 279, 335, 345; Book I. 1, 7, 
20, 30, 66, 86, 94, 147, 180, 181, 196, 206. Here too it often 
happens that there is no distinct pause where we generally look for 
the caesura : 

Prologue 5. That wyth schynyng <5f thy stremes rede" 
13. As the levene that aly^teth lowe 

,, 135. In the myddes of the Scorpion 
,, 144. And the furies haue her mansioun 
,, 173. And y-dymmed with his sodeyn schoures 
,, 179. In her daies whan thei wer alyue 

Thus, Prologue 197, 201, 223, 284, 295, 311, Book I. 6, 12, 16, 33, 
49, 58, 73, 77, 86, 97, 106, 127, 132, 136, 141, 150, 210, 211, etc. 

5. A combination of B and D the first syllable omitted and an 
extra beat added before the caesura : 

Prologue 41. Wyth hir sustren | that on Pernas5 dwelle 

,, 65. That in makyng | more sky lie can than I 

326. Of the story | as men in bokys fynde 

Book I. 21. For thispeple | distroied were serteyn 

23. Eul unwarly | as Guydo list discryve 

70. Where the apostel I so mochel hadde a-doo 

xiv The Varieties of Structure in Lydgates lines. Types B D,C D. 

Book I. 89. Nor in fables | no more as now soiourne 
118. Crovne and septre | with all the regalye 
,, 176. To his vncle | ne was he nat grucchyng 

Other examples are, Book I. 300, 404, 499, 559, 620, 672, 854, 
1202, 1328, 1679, 1700, 1946, 2607, 2619, 2905, 2916, 3298, 3326, 
3352, 3368, 3449, 3710, 4323, 4329; Book II. 9, 292, etc. Just 
as B may sometimes be transformed into A by slurring, syncope, 
elision, and the like, so may the above type of line apparently be 
transformed into D : 

Prologue 57. Sugrest tongis of rethoricyens 

100. Lyche his fader of maneris and of name 

,, 212. And diffaced the palme laureat 

,, 326. Of the story as men in bokys fynde 

Book I. 42. To the goddes with humble sacrifyse 

75. That this fable of amptis was contreved 

610. And fe boundes fei named ben of alle 

612. As for markys alle other for to lette 

785. And of sparky s fat ben of sy3t[e] smale 

6. A combination of C and D the first syllable missing together 
with the one directly following the caesura : 

Book I. 31. Wher this kyng | rooming to and fro 

308. And his breth | wers than pestilence 

,, 314. Was the fyn | of this hi^e emprise 

833. After whom | $if I schal nat feyne 

1358. Chargyng hem | in al maner way 

1468. fat saue dethe | fer is no passage 

1546. Of fe king | and his renoun reysed 

Further examples are Book I. 1828, 2026, 2499, 2937, 2965, 
3250, 3832, 3872, 4347, Book II. 1140, 1535, 1587, 1710, 1711, 
1845, 2011, 2127, 2358, 2518, 2519, 2610, 2725, 2904, 2966, 3950, 
5686, 6229, 6261, 6297, 6428, 6445, 6543, 6759, 6993, 7026, 7109, 
7226, 7526, 7864, etc. 

Lines with a trisyllabic first measure (Schick's type E), or with 
a double thesis after the caesura, are very rarely to be met with in the 
Troy Book l ; in fact, I have only come across one example of each, 
although it is quite possible that one or two more may be revealed 
by a more thorough examination of the text. They are as follows : 

1 The fact that such lines are so rare in the earlier works there are no 
certain examples in the Temple of Glassmd. that they are comparatively 
frequent in the late Falls of Princes, ought to be of some value in establishing 
the chronology of Lydgate's writings. 

The Varieties of Structure in Lydgate's lines. Weak lines, xv 

Book II. 8156. With an hundrld fousand Troyens & jit mo 

I. 3437. Of his forts | t5 J)S presence 6f the kyng (D 1 
omits J>e) 

Instances of weak words and unaccented syllables having to 
support the arsis are on the whole not very frequent, certainly less 
so than would appear at first sight. Among others we have : 

Book I. 848. Gan enhablte J>e I5nd of Cecyle 

4323. TS ]?e cite J?Si take her weyS dftSr (: rafter) 

I should prefer, however, to read : 

T6 J?S citS | J)Si take her weyg af tSr 
Book II. 2732. 5f iust report | a manlfgr man 
It is also possible to read : 

6f iust[e] report | a manlier man 
But the line is not a good one, twist and turn it as we will. 

Book II. 4431. And of his talg j?e kyng made an ende 
5645. A largg tombe and a statue a-16fte 

6547. With a prSwde man t6 be cSnfedgrat 

(Comp. also 7009 and 7018.) 

Book II. 6648. Of hlr hdd | maked dSlyuSrdunce 
7030. F5r oftS it fSlleth a wrong Is wroi^t 

7925. T5r most Sxpleit | be nl^t priuSly 
IV. 4750. feat be" si arte | >e kyng to gxcite 

Lines are also occasionally to be found which may apparently be 
read either as C or D merely by shifting the accent from the first to 
the second syllable and vice versa. Examples are : 

Prologue 19. Who's lordschype is | most In Caprycorn (C) 
Whos I5rdschype Is most In Caprycorn (D) 

281. Ther-f5r he was to hem fauSurable (D) 
Th6r-for hg was | to hgm fauSurdble (D) 

Book I. 165. But fSr pat hS was but 3onge Snd sklender (D) 
But for J)S,t he | wds but ^onge and sklenclSr (C) 

193. That no mSn my^t | as by sygne gspie (C) 
That n5 man my3t as by sygne gspie (D) 

By adding a silent e to my$t we have type A : 

Th&t no man my3tg as by sygne gspie 

Book I. 1501. Of hir ]jat is | to me most Sntere (C) 
Of hlr fat Is to me most gntere (D) 

2353. First h5w j)at 1 schal ]?Is purpSs fyn (D) 
First how f,t 1 | schal J?Is purp5s fyn (C) 

xvi The Varieties of Structure in Lydgate's lines in late MSS. 

Although in each instance I prefer the form first given, the question 
is not an easy one for us to decide, obvious as it may have been to 
the early fifteenth century reader. 

Hopelessly bad lines, by which I mean such as have more than 
twelve syllables, do not occur in the Troy Book. On the other hand, 

Prologue 101 : 

In sothfastnesse this no tale is 

would appear to have but four beats ; for tale is is dissyllabic and 
rhymes with Walys. In I. 719 : 

For-weried after [her] trauaille, 

the omission of her may safely be put down to the carelessness of 
the scribes ; for a little farther on (727) the identical line is repeated 
with her. Other four-beat lines there are none, so far as I have been 
able to discover. 

That thirteen, or, for that matter, sixteen syllable lines are to be 
found in greater or lesser profusion in late manuscripts, 1 is no more 
than is to be expected ; and had we no other evidence than texts that 
fairly bristle with corruptions, there would indeed be some reason for 
our doubting in spite of the unanimous testimony of Lydgate's 
contemporaries, who were far better judges of Middle English verse 
than we are the ability of the author of the Troy Book to handle 
his five-beat couplets with the skill of a Lancastrian schoolboy. 
Fortunately, in the case of the Troy Book we are not thrown back 
upon the ignorance and bumptiousness of late fifteenth, or early 
sixteenth, century copyists and editors. The violent prejudice which 
has occasionally been exhibited against Lydgate's metre seems to 
have had its origin in poor texts or editions printed from only one 
text, 2 which, even when good, is no more than human every copyist 
like every editor has his personal equation and Lydgate's own 
words to the effect that he " took no heed neither of short nor long." 3 
On editions printed from only one text, when other texts are to be 
had, no words need be wasted ; and as for Lydgate's heedlessness of 
quantity and unaccented syllables, considering that he was neither a 
Latin nor a French poet, but an Englishman, writing in his own 
tongue, it matters little, so long as he paid due regard to the swing 

1 For further details, see the account of MS. Digby 230 and of the 1555 
print in my Description, etc. of the Manuscripts and Prints. 

2 The 
MSS. of 

whatever omissions, gratuitous emendations, carelessnesses and other" unedifying 
performances it suited the scribes' fancy to indulge in. 3 Book II. 181 If. 

Brief Sketch of the Contents of this Troy Book. Bks. /, II. xvii 

of his dominant five beats. Indeed, his somewhat arbitrary inclu- 
sion or omission of unaccented syllables shows plainly enough that 
the tendency he followed (quite aside from his merits or demerits as a 
metrist) was to return from Chaucer's and Gower's syllabic purism 
to the rougher and readier traditional usage of his countrymen. 

Although an elaborate analysis of the poem is given in the side- 
notes to this and the succeeding volume, the following general survey 
of the contents of the Troy Book may nevertheless prove of some use 
as an aid to the reader in getting his bearings. Practically the whole 
of Book I. is taken up with the expedition of the Argonauts, begin- 
ning with Jason's parentage and ending with the destruction of Old 
Troy, the death of King Laomedon, and the carrying off of his 
daughter Hesione to Greece by Telamon Ajax. Worthy of note are 
the entertaining and original account of the Labours of Hercules 
(573 ff.), the love-story of Jason and Medea, which begins about 
line 1564, Guide's animadversions on women, apropos of Medea, 
Lydgate's amusing reproof of Guido (2072 if.), the description of the 
magic charms given to Jason by Medea as a means of avoiding the 
dangers of the conquest of the Golden Fleece (2988 ff.), of Jason's 
battle with the Brazen Bulls (3260 ff.), and of the virtues of the 
stone " Achates " (3320 ff.). 

After some introductory remarks on the vicissitudes of the 
goddess Fortuna, Book II. begins with a description of Priam and 
his family, and a highly interesting account of the rebuilding of 
Troy (479 ff.). Antenor is sent on a peaceful but unsuccessful mission 
to Greece for the recovery of Hesione (1295ff.), and on his return 
Priam decides (1745 ff.) against the better judgment of Hector, 
Helenas, and Pentheus, who tells of his father's having prophesied 
the fall of Troy (3161 ff.), and to the horror of Cassandra, who 
foretells disaster to send Paris to make reprisals. After burning 
a castle and sacking the Temple of Venus, Paris returns with 
Helen and marries her (3755 ff.), at which Cassandra makes such 
a violent uproar that she has to be bound fast and locked up 
in prison (4190 ff.). The sorrow of the forsaken Menelaus 
(4255 ff.) is somewhat relieved by the decision of the Greeks to 
assist him to take vengeance and recover his wife. A detailed 
description of the personal appearance and manners of the Greek and 
Trojan leaders follows (4509). It is here that the famous eulogy cf 
Chaucer occurs (4677-4735). The Greek ships and forces are 

xviii Brief Sketch of the Contents of this Troy Book. Bks. II, III. 

conscientiously enumerated (5067 ff.), and Achilles is dispatched to 
Delos to consult the oracle, where he is joined by the Trojan priest 
Calchas (5391 ff. 5936). A long and entertaining digression on 
idolatry is inserted here. Finally the Greeks set out for Troy; 
Achilles defeats and mortally wounds Teuthras, king of Mysia, 
whither he has been sent by Agamemnon for provisions, and the 
book ends with the Greek army encamped on the Plain of Troy. 
Passages of special interest (in addition to the elaborate description 
of the rebuilding of Troy) are the amusing account of Antenor's 
reception by the princes of Greece (1295-1700), the Vision of Paris 
(2369-2809), a fresh outburst on Guide's part against women, apropos 
of Helen (3536 f.), and Lydgate's unfailing reply, Paris's wedding 
feast (4179 ff.), and Cassandra's didoes when she heard of it (4190- 
4252). The fine lines spoken by Agamemnon to comfort Menelaus 
(4337-4427) are among the best in the Troy Book, especially 4379 ff. 
The digression on false gods (5404-5940) is also of unusual interest, 
in particular the account of Bacchus and of Lucifer. 

Book III. has mainly to do with the battles fought by the two 
armies before the walls of Troy, and is consequently rather less 
varied in contents than either Book I. or II. The Trojan and Greek 
commanders and the force assigned to each are first enumerated and 
described (119-715), and Chaucer is praised (550 ff.). Patroclus is 
slain by Hector (781), and the first battle ends (1950). Cassandra 
is again heard from (2238), and shut up in gaol for the second time 
because of her disagreeable noise. The wondrous archer, half horse, 
half man, whose eyes blazed like a furnace-mouth, is described 
(3433 ff.), and slain by Diomedes (3506), and Cressida is to be 
restored to her father (3672). Hector visits Achilles (3755), and it 
is agreed to by them to pay off all scores in single combat the 
Greeks to break the siege and depart to their homes if Hector wins. 
Although Priam is willing, neither army will hear of it. The story 
of Troilus and Cressida is carried on intermittently for several 
hundred lines (4077 ff.). Chaucer and his book of Troilus and 
Cressida are mentioned at 4197 ff., and Petrarch at 4251. A fresh 
outburst of Guide's against women (4270) causes Lydgate's heart 
to bleed for ire (4350). At 4770 Ilion is described. Andromache's 
dream (4889) and the death of Hector (5335 ff.) are followed by an 
interesting lament (5423 ff.). The book ends with the embalming 
of Hector's body and his peculiar burial (5579 ff.). 

Book IV. is also largely made up of more or less monotonous 

Brief Sketch of the Contents of this Troy Book. Book IV. xix 

descriptions of battles, and by reason of its in part extreme prolixity 
is perhaps the least interesting of all. It begins with a congratulatory 
address by Agamemnon on the death of Hector. Palamedes objects 
to Agamemnon's leadership, and is elected " emperor" of the Greek 
forces in his stead (312). Achilles disapproves because his advice 
was not consulted. The Trojans arm themselves, and Priam excels 
all in valour. Achilles visits Troy (546) and falls in love at first 
sight with Polyxena. Priam is willing to agree to the marriage on 
condition that it lead to a permanent peace (869), but the Greeks 
won't consent (1135 ff.), and Achilles sulks. Palamedes mortally 
wounds Deiphobus with a spear, and Paris pierces Palamedes's 
throat with an arrow (1286ff.). Agamemnon is re-elected general 
(1616). Troilus unhorses Diomedes (2060) and upbraids him for his 
love of Cressida. Achilles lends the Greeks his Myrmidons (2198), 
but refuses to accompany them to battle. Troilus twice puts the 
Greeks to flight, and cuts up the Myrmidons so badly that Achilles 
in wrath throws over Polyxena and sallies forth against the Trojans 
(2539 if.). He treacherously puts Troilus to death (2760) and ties 
him to the tail of his horse. Lydgate remonstrates with Homer for 
having praised Achilles (2784 if.), and the death of Troilus is 
lamented. Achilles is assassinated in the Temple of Apollo at Troy 
by Paris (3168 ff.), and Paris and Ajax Telamoii slay one another in 
battle (3520 ff.). The Queen of the Amazons, who loved Hector, 
comes to help the Trojans (3759 ff.) with 1000 maidens armed in 
bright steel, and performs marvels of strength. Achilles' son Pyrrus 
joins the Greeks (3974), is knighted by Agamemnon, and fights with 
Penthesilea (4133). Ajax Telamon, 1 already slain by Paris (3520), 
turns up again, apparently none the worse for it (4248) ; Pyrrus 
gives Penthesilea her death wound (4336), and the author scolds the 
god Mars for his delight in murder and death (4440). Anchyses, 
Eneas, Antenor, and Polydamas plot to betray Troy to the Greeks 
that their own lives and possessions may be saved (4538 ff.). In 
spite of Priam's suspicions and attempt to have them assassinated by 
Amphimacus, they carry through their scheme. Thonante is bribed 
to hand the Palladium over to the Greeks (5735 ff.), which gives 
Lydgate a welcome opportunity for a digression on the avariciousness 
of priests (5867 ff.). Calchas suggests the expedient of the Horse 
of Brass (6023 ff.), the Greeks enter Troy (6296 ff.), and general 

1 It may have been Young Ajax Telainon, son of Old Ajax and Hesione 
(see Book III. 2038 ff.), whom Paris slew. But Lydgate is not very explicit. 

xx Brief Sketch of the Contents of this Troy Boole. Book V. 

destruction follows. The book closes with a fresh lament and an 
interesting digression on idolatry (6931 ff.). 

In Book V. is told the fate of the surviving Greeks and Trojans. 
Ajax Telamon and Ulysses quarrel over the Palladium, and Ajax is 
found murdered in his tent (276). Pyrrus vows to avenge his death 
on Ulysses, who takes to his ships, after handing over the Palladium 
to Diomedes. The Greeks are reconciled to Antenor (340), but 
threaten Eneas for having concealed Polyxena (359 ff.). Eneas 
returns to Troy, falls out with Antenor, and both are exiled (508). 
The Greeks are shipwrecked (618 ff.). King ISTaulus is made to 
believe that his son Palamedes was murdered by Ulysses and 
Diomedes with the knowledge and approval of Agamemnon and 
Menelaus (697 ff.), and in his desire for vengeance sets up false 
lights on the hills to lure the homeward-bound Greek ships to 
his rocky coasts ; 200 of them are destroyed. Agamemnon is 
murdered (1011 ff.), the adventures of Diomedes and of Eneas are 
described (1434 ff.), and the vengeance of Orestes (1467 ff.). Ulysses 
relates the story of his wanderings to king Idomeneus (1781 ff.), 
and the history of his life is continued (2110, 2314). The story of 
Pyrrus, son of Achilles, is next told, and his vengeance on Adrastus. 
Pyrrus is slain by Orestes (2795). The book closes with the final 
adventures and death of Ulysses, the statistics of the Trojan war, and 
an informal epilogue. 

's Croj 

. Augustus A. iv.] 

OMYGHTY Mars, that wyth thy sterne lyght 
In armys hast the power & fie my^t, 
And named art fro??i est til Occident 
The myglity lorde, the god armypotent, 4 

That, wyth schynyng of thy stremes rede, 
By influence dost the brydel lede 
Of cheualry, as souereyn and patrown, 
Ful hoot and drye of complexions, 8 

Irows and wood and malencolyk, 
And of nature brent and coleryk, 
Of colour schewyng lyche the fyry* glede, 
Whos feerce lokes ben as ful of drede 12 

As the levene that aly3teth lowe 
Down by the skye from lubiteris bowe ! 
Thy stremes ben so passyng despitous, 
To loke vp-on, inly furious, 16 

And causer art wyth thy fery bemys 
Of werre and stryf in many sondry rewmys ; 
Whos lordschype is most in Caprycorn, 
But in the bole is thy power lorn ; 20 

And causer art of contek and of strif, 
Now, for the loue of Wlcanus wyf, 
Wyth whom whylom j>ou wer at meschef take, 
So helpe me now, only for hyr sake, 24 

And for the loue of thy Bellona, 
That wyth the dwellyth by^ownd Cirrea 
In Lebye-londe vp-on the sondes rede ; 
So be niyn helpe in this grete nede 28 

1-163 are missing in D 1. 11. fyry] fyre C. 

28. So be myn helpe] So helpe A. 



appeals to 


to help him 

in his work,- 

Mars, who is 
patron of 

the causer of 

and strife. 

He is to help 
for Venus' 

and Bellona'a 

appeals for 
help, to Mars, 

lord of 

to Othea, 
goddess of 

to Calliope, 
the Mother of 


[leaf 1 6] 

and mistress 
of musicians 

Lydgates Appeal to the Muses for help. [PROLOG. 

To do socour my stile to directe, 

And of my penne the tracys to correcte, 

Whyche bareyn is of aureat lycour, 

But in thi grace I fynde som fauour 

For to conveye it \vyth thyn influence, 

That stumbleth ay for faute of eloquence 

For to reherse or writen any word ; 

Now help, o Mars, ))at art of kny^thod lord, 

And hast of manhod the magnificence ! 

And Othea, goddesse of prudence, 

This wirke texsplyte that 36 nat refuse, 

But maketh Clyo for to ben my muse, 

Wyth hir sustren that 011 Pernaso* dwelle 

In Cirrea by Elicon the welle, 

Kennyng ful clere wyth st[r]emys cristallyn, 

And callyd is the welle Caballyn 

That sprang by touche of the Pegasee. 

And helpe also, thou Calliope, 

That were moder vn-to Orpheus, 

Whos dites wern so mellodyus, 

That the werbles of his resownyng harpe 

Appese dyde the bitter wyrdys scharpe, 

Bothe of parchas and furies infernal, 

And Cerberus so cruel fouwde at al ; 

He coyede also best[e], foule, and tree. 

Now of thy grace be helpyng vn-to me, 

And of thy golde dewe lat the lycour wete 

My dulled brest, that wyth thyn hony swete 

Sugrest tongis of rethoricyens, 

And maistresse art to Musicyens : 

Now be myn help tenlumyne with )>is wirk, 

Whyche am beset with cloudis dym and dirk 

Of ygnoraiwce, in makyng to procede, 

To be lusty to hem that schal it rede. 

Also in hert I am so ful of drede, 

Whan prudent lysters her-to schal take hede, 

That in makyng more skylle can than I, 

To whom I preie, ful benignely 









41. Pernaso] Pernasa C. 
53. coyede] cowde A. 

50. wyrdys] \vyndes A. 
58. to] of D 2. 

PROLOG.] This Englishing is done to please Prince Henry. 3 

Of her goodnesse to haue compassioim 
Wlier as I erre in my translations 
For God I take hy^ly to wyttenesse 
That I this wirk of hertly lowe huwblesse 
Toke vp-on me of entenciou?*, 
Devoyde of pride and presumption?*, 
For to obeie with-oute variaunce 
My ]ordes byddyng fully and plesaunce, 
Whiche hath desire, sothly for to seyn, 
Of verray kny^thod to remembre ageyn 
The worthynes, jif I schal nat lye, 
And the prowesse of olde chiualrie, 
By-cause he hath loye and gret deynte 
To rede in bokys of antiquite, 
To fyn* only, vertu for to s\ve 
Be example of hem, and also for to eschewe 
The cursyd vice of sl-uthe and ydelnesse. 
So he enioyeth in vertuous besynesse, 
In al that longeth to manhood, dar I seyn, 
He besyeth euere, and ther-to is so fayn 
To hawnte his body in pleies marcyal, 
Thorny excersice texclude slouthe at al, 
After the doctrine of Vygecius. 
Tims is he bothe manful and vertuous, 
More passyngly jran I can of hym write : 
I wante connyng his hi^e renou?^ tendite, 
So moche of manhood men may in hym sen. 
And for to witen whom I wolde mene, 
The eldest sone of the noble kvn^ 

/ O* 

Henri the firj>e, of kuy^thood welle & spryng, 
In whom is schewed of what stok he grewe ; 

The rotys vertu Jnis can the frute renewe 

In euery part the tarage is the same, 
Lyche his fader of maueris and of name, 
In sothefastnesse, this no tale is, 
Callid Henry ek, the worthy prynce of Walys, 

81. fyn] fynde C. 93. men] mon D 2. 

97. stok] >at D 2. 

98 frute] sent A, fent D 2 -renewe] reme\v D 2. 
101. sothefastnesse] sothnesse A. 


liis work 

7 2 only to obey 


[leaf 1 c] 



who is fond 
of old books, 

and desires 
to imitate 
valiant men. 

This Prince 
is manly and 

the eldest 
A _ son of King 
96 Henry IV, 


whom he is 

Lydgate began this Englishing, A.D. 1412. [PROLOG. 

Prince Henry To whom schal longe by successions 

For to gouerne Brutys Albyowi 
bade me Whyche me comaunded the drery pitus fate 
the siege and Of hem of Trove in englysche to translate, 

of Troy, 

as told by 

and I under- 
took to do it 
in his honour, 

in 14 Henry 


A.D. 1412, 

when the 
moon rose ii 

The sege also and the destrucciouw, 
Lyche as the latyn maketh menciouw, 
For to compyle, and after Guydo make, 
So as I coude, and write it for his sake, 
By-cause he wolde that to hy^e and lowe 
The noble story openly \ver knowe 
In oure tonge, aboute in euery age, 
And y-writen as wel in oure langage 
As in latyn and in frensche it is ; 
That of the story e trouthfe] we nat mys 
No more than doth eche other naeiouw : 
This was the fyn of his entencioura. 
The whyche emprise anoon I gynne schal 
In his worschip for a memorial. 
And of the tyme to make menciouw, 
Whan I be-gan of this translaciouw, 
It was the ^ere, sothely for to seyne, 
Fourtene complete of his fadris regne, 
The tyrne of 3ere, schortly to conclude, 
Whan twenty grees was Phebws altitude, 
The hour whan he made his stedis drawe 
His rosen chariet lowe vnder the wawe 
To bathe his bemys in the wawy see, 
Tressed lyche gold, as men my^tfe] see, 
Passyng the bordure of oure occian ; 
And Lucyna, of colour pale and wan, 
Hir cold* arysyng in Octobre gan to dy^t, 
Tenchace the dirknesse of the frosty ny^t, 
In the myddes of the scorpion ; 
And Esperus gan to wester dovn, 
To haste hir cours ageyn fe morwe graye ; 
And Lucifer, the ny^t to voyde a-waye, 
Is callyd than, messanger of day, 
Our emysperye to put out of affraye 








[leaf Id] 132 



107. 2nd the] om. A, D 2, 133. cold] coldyug C, D 2. 

PROLOG.] The Troy Book. The Worth of Writer 

Wyth bri^t kalendis of Pliebus vpryst* schene 

Out of the bouttdis Proserpina the quene, 

Wher Pluto dwelleth, the dirk[e] regioun, 

And the furies haue her mansions ; 

Til after sone Appollo lyst nat tarie 

To take soiour in the Sagittarie. 

Whyche tyme I gan the prolog to beholde 

Of Troye Boke, I-made be dayes olde, 

Wher was remeinbrid, of auctours* vs be-forn, 

Of the dede the* verreie trewe corn, 

So as it fil seuerid from the chaf ; 

For in her honde they hilde for a staf 

The trouthe only, whyche thei han compyled 

Vn-to this fyn, that we wer nat begyled 

Of necligence thoru^ for^etilnesse. 

The which e serpent of age by processe 

Engendered is fersly vs tassaille, 

Of the trouth to make vs for to faille ; 

For ner[e] writers, al wer out of mynde, 

Nat story only, but of nature and kynde 

The trewe knowyng schulde haue gon to wrak, 

And from science oure wittes put a-bak, 

Ne hadde oure elderis cerched out and sou3t 

The sothefast pyth, to ympe it in oure thou^t, 

Of thinges passed, for-dirked of her hewe, 

But thoru^ writyng j?ei be refresched newe, 

Of oure auncetrys left to vs by-hynde ; 

To make a merour only to oure mynde, 

To seen eche thing trewly as it was, 

More bry3t and clere fan in any glas. 

For ner her writyng nowe memorial, 

Dethe \\ith his swerde schulde haue slay[e]n al, 

And y-dymmed wat/i his sodeyn schoures 

The gret[e] prowes of thise conquerouris, 

And dirk[ed] eke the bn^tnesse of her fame, 

That schyneth ^et by report of her name ; 


Then, in 1412, 
, . _ I lookt at the 
148 Prolog of the 

Troy Book, 

152 written by 

truthful men. 








would have 

they enable 

to see things 
as they really 

and stop 
Death dim- 
ming the 
brightness of 
heroes' fame. 

141. vpryst] vprijt C. 144. furies] fuyres D 2. 
149. auctours] auntowrs C. 150. 2nd the] of the C. 
152. hilde] holde A. 157. fersly] fresshly A. 
169. trewly] nowe trewly D 1. 

How Writers were clurisht cf old, & sang of nolle deeds. [PROLOG. 

Books tell 
the truth 
about men 

after their 

So every one 
should live 
for Virtue. 

Of old, 

writers were 
They told the 
truth about 
lords' noble 

But for them, 

Time would 

have dimd 
the golden 

For vn-to vs her bokes represent 

With-out[e] feynynge J>e weie pat bei went 

In her dales, whan thei wer alyue. 

Ageyn the trouthe who so euere stryue, 180 

Or coiwterplete or make any debate, [ieaf-2 a] 

The sothe is rad of hi^e or lowe estate, 

With-oute fauour, who so list take hede ; 

For after deth clerkis lityl drede 184 

After desert for to bere witnesse, 

Nor of a tyrauwt the trouthe to expresse, 

As men disserue, with-oute excepciotw ; 

With lak or prys J?ei grauwt hem her guerdons. 188 

Wherfore me semeth eue?y maner man 

Schulde be his live in al that euer he can 

For vertu only eschewe to don amys ; 

For after dethe, pleynly as it is, 192 

Clerkis wil write, and excepte noon, 

The pleynfe] trouthe whan a man is goon. 

And by olde tyme for her writing trewe 

Thei cherisched werne of lordes pat hem knewe, 196 

And honoured gretly in tho dawes ; 

For they enacted and gilte with her sawes 

Her hy^e renoun, her manhood and prowes, 

Her kny^thood eke and her worthynes, 200 

Her tryvmphes also and victories, 

Her famous conquest and her songe glories, 

From poynt to poynt rehersyng al fe trouthe, 

With-out[e] fraude, necligence, or slowthe 204 

Thei dide her labour and her besynesse. 

For elles certeyn the grete worthynesse 

Of her dedis hadde ben in veyn ; 

For-dirked age elles wolde haue slayn 208 

By lenthe of ^eris J>e noble worthi fame 

Of conquerours, and pleynly of her name 

For-dymmed eke the lettris aureat, 

And diffaced the palme laureat, 212 

182. hi^e or lowe] lowe or hi$e D 1. 190. be] in A. 
196. Thei] The D 1. 199. 2nd her] om. D 1. 
201. victories] victorious D 1. 202. glories] glorius D 1. 
208. For-dirked] For derke D 1. 

PROLOG.] Statins tells the Siege of Thebes, & Guido that of Troy. 7 

Whiche fat f ei wan by kny^thod in her dayes, 
Whos fretyng rust newe and nevve assay es 
For to eclipse the honour and the glorie 
Of In3e prowes, whiche clerkis in memorie 

Han trewly set thoruj diligent labour, 

And enlumyned with many corious flour 

Of rethorik, to make vs comprehende 

The trouthe of al, as it was in kende ; 

Besied hem and feythfully travaylled 

Agayn al that fat age wolde assay lied, 

In her bokes euery thyng I-set, 

And vrith the keye of remembrauwce it schet, 

Whiche lasteth ^et, and duretli euer in oon. 

Eecorde of Thebes, fat was so long a-goon, 

Of whiche the rueyne and* distruccioura 

^e may beholde by gode inspeccioiw, 

Crop and rote, ri$t as it was in dede, 

On Stace loketh, and fer $e may it rede : 

How Polynece and Ethiocles, 

The brether two, ne kowde nat lyue in pees 

Til Thebes was brou^t vn-to ruyne, 

And al the maner how thei dide fyne ; 

The deth also of worth! Tydeus, 

And how Edippus, with teris ful pytous, 

Wepte oute his eyne, and al his drery peyen, 

And how the smokys departid wer in tweyen, 

At the fest of fires funeral 

In gret[e] Stace 36 may reden al 

The fyre engendered by brotherly hatrede, 

Wher-thoru} fat deth was f e cruel mede, 

In verray sothe, of many worth! man, 

Lyche as myn auctor wel reherse can. 

Of Troye also, fat was of latter $eres, 

By dillygence of cronyc[u]leris 

3e may beholde in her wrytyng wel 

The stryfe, the werre, fe sege and euerydel, 




of their 
knightly acts, 

which now 

[leaf 2 6] 





have pre- 

The ruin of 

228 you may read 

in stall us, 
who tells 
the deaths of 
the brothers 
and Eteocles, 

and Tideus. 

So also old 
authors tell 
the story of 

248 and its siege. 

218. many] many a D 1. 220. in] om. D 1. 

222. assaylled] have failed D 1. 227. and] of C, & >e D 1. 

233. vn-to] in to A. 238. in] oon A, on D 2. 

215. dillygence of] dilligence grete of wyse D 1. 

8 The Tale of Troy shall never die. Homer lied about it. [PROLOG 

This Troy 
story is still 

fresh and 

Death nor 
Age can kill 

And tho' 
Homer lied 
about it, 

Guido has 
set it right. 

For Homer 
that the Gods 
helpt the 
Greeks ; 

whose ally 
he was. 

This was 
wrong of 

Love blinded 

as it was, so many ^eres passyd. 
Whos story $it age hath nou$t dift'aced, 
]S T or cruel deth, with his mortal strokys; 
For maugre deth, 36 may beholde in bokys 
The story fully rehersed new and newe, 
And freschely floure of colour and of hewe 
From day to day, quyk & no thyng feynt. 
For clerkys han this story so depeynt, 
That deth nor age, by no maner weye, 
The trouthe may not maken for to deye ; 
Al-be that so???me han the trouth[e] spared 
In her writyng, and pleynly not declared 
So as it was, nor tolde out feithfully, 
But it transformed in her poysy 
Thoru} veyn[e] fables, whiche of entenciouw 
They han contreved by false transumpciou?! 
To hyde trouthe falsely vnder cloude, 
And the sothe of malys for to schroude, 
As Omer dide, the whiche in his writyng 
I-feyned hathe ful many diuers thyng 
That neuer was, as Guydo lyst deuise, 
And thingys done in a-nother wyse 
He hathe transformed than pe troupe was, 
And feyned falsly that goddis in pis caas 
The worthi Grekis holpen to werreye 
Ageyn Troyens, and howe pat pei wer seye 
Lyche lyfly men arnonge hem day by day. 
And in his dites, pat wer so fresche & gay 
With sugred wordes vnder hony soote, 
His galle is hidde lowe by the rote, 
That it may nou^t outewarde ben espied. 
And al for he with Grekis was allied, 
Ther-for he was to hem fauourable 
In rnyche thing, whiche is nou}t co??imendable 
Of hem pat lyst to demen after ry$t ; 
For in makyng, loue hath lost his sy$t, 
To 3eue a pris wher noon is disserued, 
Cupide [is] blynde, whos domys ben obseruyd 








[leaf 2 c] 



254. And] Of D.'l. 
267. the] om. B 1. 

256. this] >e D 1. 

268. ful many] many a D l, 

PROLOG.] Ovid and Vergil are not to be trusted. 

More after lust than after equite, 

Or after resoim how the trouthfe] be. 288 

For singulerte and false affeeefOUM Many a man 

Reyseth * ful ofte by veyn[e] lausiouw 512 prai8e * 

A man to worschip pat disserueth noon, Mm, 

By false reporte, and jws ful many oon 292 

With-oute merit hath his fame blowe 

Wher of another j>e renoiw is vnknowe, while better 

That in armys hath meruelles wrou^t, neglected. 

Of whom par-aunter speketh no man nou3t 296 

For fauour only is fostered more than ry^t, 

That hyndered hath many [a] worjn kny^t. 

Ovide also poetycally hath closyd Ovid has 

Falshede with trouthe, fat make]? men ennosed 300 S with" 

To whiche parte j?at j?ei schal hem holde 

His my sty speche so hard is to vnfolde, 

That it* entriketh rederis that it se. 

Virgile also, for loue of Enee, 304 and Vergil 

In Eneydos rehersyth moche thyng, pmofThe 

And was in party trewe of his writyng, 

Exsepte only that hym lyst som whyle because he 

The tracys folwe of Omeris stile ; 308 HO?. 

And of pis sege wrot eke Lollius, 

But to-forn alle, Dares Frigius But Dares 

Wrot rnoste trewly after fat he f onde, Suf."" and 

And Dytes eke of the Grekys lond. 312 

They were p?-esent and seyen euerydel, who were 

And as it fel they write trewe and wel, KT at the 

Eche in his tonge, by swyche consonaunce, troth. 

That in her bokys was no variaunce, 316 

Whiche after wern vn-to Athenes brou$t, 

And by processe serched oute and sou^t 

By dillygence of oon Cornelius, Cornelius 

Whyche was nevewe vn-to Salustius, 320 

Of Rome y-born, whiche dide his dever dewe 

288. how] how bat D 1. 290. Reyseth] Rysed C. 
293. blowe] y-blowe D 1. 295. hath] ha> many D 1. 
296. speketh] wirkeb D 1. 298. hyndered] hindrib D 1. 
299. poetycally] Poete ytally A. 301. schal] shulde D 1. 
303. it] he C. 306. of] in D 1. 309. bis] the D 1. 
313. They] For they A. 

10 Cornelius gave no proper Details of the Siege of Troy. [PROLOG. 

translated Hem to translate, and the tracys sewe 

Of thise auctours by good avisement. 

But by-cause he sette [al] his entent 324 

but was too For to be brefe, he lefte moche be-hynde 

brief, and . J 

doesn't tell Of the story, as men in bokys f ynde, 

the origin of J ' . i 

the strife, The nrste mevyng and cause original, 

What was the gynnyng and rote in special, [leaf 2 d.] 328 

Ne how thei come by lond or by navie, 

How firste the sparke was kyndeled of^envie 

A-twyxe Grekis and hern of Troye town, 

Of whiche Cornelye maketh no mentions, 332 

Of her schippes nor of her vitaille, 

Nor how fat Grece is called Gret Ytaille, 

And the lasse, as bokys verrefye, 

Is named now the londe of Romany e, 336 

or how many What noumbre of kynges and of dukes went 

kings and 

rulers saw lowarde the sege. al of oon assent, 

the overthrow 

of Troy, To wynne worschip & for excersise 

Of armys only, in ful kny^tly wyse, 340 

Abydyng there to sen the versiou?i 

Of the cite and noble Yllyourc, 

Nor what the maner was of her armure, 

Nor at the sege who lengest dide * endure, 344 

In what wyse eche other dide assaile, 

Nor how often thei metten in bataille, 
or died there. How mony worthi loste ther his lyf 

Thorou^ olde hatrede wrou^t vp with newe st[r]if, 348 

Nor of her dethe he dateth nat the ^ere, 

For his writyng was particuler ; 

With-oute frute he was compendious, 

This forseyde Romeyne, this Cornelius. 352 

Wherfore but late in comparisons, 
So another Ther was an auctour of ful hi^e renouft 

author of ' 

high renown, That besied hym the tracys for to swe 

Of Dite and Dares, & cast hym nat transmwe 356 

328. What was the gynnyng] That was bigynnynge D 1. 

329. 2nd by] om. D 2. 341. versioim] euersioiw D 1. 
344. lengest dide] dide lengest C. 

347. loste ther his] there loste here D 1. 

348. Thorouj] pogh D 2. with] om. A strif] om. D 2. 
353. in] as in D 1. 

PROLOG.] Guidoisthe real Authority on Troy, and I follow him. 11 

In al the story a worcle as in sentence, 

But folweth hem by swyche convenience, 

That in effecte the substaiwce is the same ; 

And of Columpna Guydo was his name, 360 Guide of 

Whiche had in writyng passyng excellence. 

For lie enlvmyneth by crafte & cadence niumind the 

This noble story with many fresche colour by MB* ' 

Of rethorik, and many riche flour 364 

Of eloquence to make it sownde bet 

He in the story hath ymped in and set, 

That in good feythe I trowe he hath no pere, and i>as no 

To rekne alle pat write of this matere, 368 

As in his boke }e may beholde and se. 

To whom I seie, knelyng on my knee : 

Laude and honour & excellence of fame, AH honour to 

Guydo maister, be vn-to thi name, 372 

That excellest * by souereinte of stile 

Alle that writen this mater to compile. 

Whom I schal folwe as ny^e as euer I may, Him, i shall 

That God me grau?it it be vn-to the pay 376 

Of hym for whom I haue vndertake [leaf 2* a.] 

So as I can this story for to make, 

Preynge to alle j?at schal it rede or se, begging my 

Wher as I erre for to amendera me, 380 correct me 

Of humble herte and lowe entenciou?i is. 

Commyttyng al to her correcciouw, 

And ther-of thanke ; my wille is J?at fei wyraie, 

For thorny her support jms I wil begynne. 384 

[IF Explicit prologus] 1 

365. bet] >e bette D 1. 367. hath] had D 1. 

368. of] in A, on D 2. 369-162 of Book I. are missing in A. 

371. &] with D 1. 373. excellest] excellent C. 

375. ny3e] moche D 1. 378. this] be D 1. 

380. for] om. D 2, D 1. 

1 The above rubric occurs in both D 2 and D 1. 

12 Of Peleus, King of Thessaly, and his Myrmidons. [BK. I 

In Thessaly, 

Peleus was 

and his folk 
were Myrmi- 

as Ovid tells. 

They were all 
destroyd by 

sword and 

except the 
who went 


Here bigynneth J>e first boke of Troy: howe Esone 
resygned ]?e Crowne of Thesaly to Pellee. 1 

IN J?e regne & lond of Thesalye, 
The whiche is now y-named Salonye, 
Ther was a kyng callyd Pelleus, 
Wys & discrete & also vertuous. 4 

The whiche, as Gnydo lyst to specefie, 
Helde the lordschipe and the regallye 
Of this yle, as gouernour and kyng, 

Of whiche [}>e] pepil, by record of writyng, 8 

Myrundones were called in tho dawes, 
Of whom Ovyde feyneth in his sawes, 
Methamorphoseos, where as 36 may rede 
How jns peple sothfastly in dede, 12 

So as myn auctor maketh menciovw, 
Were brou^t echon to destructions 
With sodeyn tempest and vrith fery levene 
By the goddys sent down from J?e heuene ; 16 

For they of Ire, wtt/i-oute more offence, 
With the swerde & stroke of pestilence 
On this yle whylom toke vengaunce, 

Lyche as it is putfce in remembraunce. 20 

For this peple distroied were serteyn 
With thonder dent and wit/j haiel and reyn, 
Ful imwarly, as Guydo list discryve ; 
For ther was noon of hem lefte a-lyue 24 

In al the lond, that the violence 
Escape my^te of this pestilence 
Excepte the kyng, J>e whiche went allone 

I. &] of the D 1. 2. y-named] named D 2, enamed D 1. 

II. where] here D 1. 16. >e] om. D 2, D 1. 

19. whylom toke] toke somme tyme D 1. 21. this] J>e D 1. 
27. ]>e] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 8 a. 

BK. i] For King Peleus, Jupiter turns Ants into Men. 


[leaf 2* 6] 28 into a wood, 

In-to a wode for to make his mone, 

Sool by hym silfe, al disconsolate, 

In a place that stood al discolat, 

Wher this kyng, rooming to and fro, 

Compleynynge ay of his fatal woo 32 

And the harmys J)at he dide endure 

Til at the laste, of caas or aventure, 

Besyde an holt he sawe wher stode a tre 

Of ful gret he$t and large of quantite, 36 

Holwe by the rote, as he kowde knowe, 

Wher as he sawe, by the erthe lowe, 

Of amptis crepe passyng gret plente, 

With whiche sy$te he felle dovn on his kne 

And made his preyer in his paynym wyse 

To the goddes with humble sacrifyse, 

Vp-on his wo and gret aduersite 

Only of mercy for to haue pyte, 

To turne thise amptis in-to forme of man. 

Thus gan he praye, wit/i colour pale and wan, 

His lond tenhabite whiche stondeth disolat, 

And he alone, awaped and amaat, 

Comfortles of any creature, 

Hym to releue of that he dide endure. 

And, as Ovide maketh menciouw, 

That lubiter herde his orisouw, 

And hath swiche rowth on hym at J?e laste, 

That he anoon fulfilled his requeste, 

And of his my3te, whiche )>at is devine, 

His grace he made from heuene for * to schyne 

Benyngnely vn-to the erthe dovn, 

That a sodeyn transmutaciouw 

Was made of amptis to forme of men anon, 

Whiche on her feet gorane street to goon 

To Thesalye and salue ther the kyng, 

And lyche his liges token her dwellynge 

With-Inne a cite called tho Egee, 

As in Ovide 30 may beholde and see. 64 

The whiche people for her worthines, 

31. this] >e D 1. 55. is] om. D 2. 

56. for] so for C, so D 1. 57. dovn] a doun D 1. 

wliere he saw 
a tree 

with an ants' 
. _ nest in its 
40 root. 

He prayd 
his Gods to 

turn these 
into men. 



5 2 Jupiter heard 
his prayer, 


changed the 
ants into 

60 who went 
to Tliessaly, 

and dwelt in 

14 Of the Myrmidons and K. Peleus, ancestor of Achilles. [BK. 

and were 
cald Myrmi- 

as St. 
life says. 

On account 
of their work 
and foresight, 

this fable of 
the ants was 

They were 
like the ants. 

King Peleus 
had a wife 

and from 

Achilles was 

the best of 
the Greeks, 

For her strenthe and gret[e] hardynes 

Myrundones so longe haue boor the name 

As in the lyfe ^e reden may the same 68 

Of seynt Ma the we, how thei be called soo, 

Where the apostel so mochel hadde a-doo 

Whiche for wisdam & prudent adue?'tence, 

Besy labour and wilful dilligence, 72 

By for-seynge and discreciouw, 

As I suppose* in myn opiniouw, 

That this fable of amptis was contreved, 

Whiche by her wysdani han so myche achevid 76 

Thoru^ her kny^thod, who so list to loke [leaf 2* <] 

Her manly dedis thoru^-out Troie boke. 

In al meschef so wel thei hau hem born 

That j?ei ful wysly ppouided wern to-forn 80 

Or that it fil, bothe in werre and pees ; 

For of no slouthe J>ei wer nat rek[e]les, 

But as the arnpte teschewen ydelnesse 

In somer is so ful of besynesse 84 

Or wynter com, to sauen hir fro colde 

Sche to-forne astored hath hir holde. 

But in this mater I holde no sermouw, 

I wil no longer make digression?^ 88 

Nor in fables no more as now soiourne, 

But there I lefte I wyl agayn retourne, 

Of Pelleus ferther to precede : 

Wiche kyng, forsothe, in story as I rede, 92 

And as myn auctor lysteth to endyte, 

Had a wyf that called was Tedite ; 

Of which e two, platly this no les, 

The manly man, the hardy Achilles,* 96 

So as Guydo lesteth to termyne, 

Descended was, sothly as by lyne, 

Most renomed of manhood and of my^t 

Amonges Grekis, and the beste kny^t 100 

70. a-doo] to do D 1. 72. Besy] By besy D 1. 

74. suppose] schal suppose C. 80. to-forn] beforn D 1. 

88. wil] iiyl D 2, uel D 1. 92. I] we D 1. 

94. called] clepid D 1 Tedite] Thedite D 1. 

95. this] >is is D 1. 

96. misplaced in C at top of column and 'marked b ; 95 is 
7narked a. 

BK. l] Of King Peieus s mad brother Eson. 15 

I-holde in sothe, thoru3-oute al her lond, 

In worthines preued of his hond. 

Whos cruelte Troiens sore abou^t, 

So passynge Merueilles in armys ber he wrou[$]t 104 who wrought 

Duryng the sege, as $e schal after lere,* anus. 

Paciently $if 36 liste to here.* 

But Pelleus, that I spak of a-forne, King Peieus 

A brother hadde of o moder born, 108 

That hy3te Eson, so fer y-ronne in $eris, Eson, 

That he of luste hath lost al his desyris, 

So fer he was y-cropen in-to age, 

]3at al his witte was turned to dotage ; 112 who lost his 

For bothe mynde and memorial 

For-dulled wern and dirked so at al, 

That verrailly his discrecioiw 

Was hym birafte, in conclusions. 116 

Wherfor the regne and lond of Thesalye, and therefore 

Crovne and septre with al the regalye, crown of ' e 

He hath resygned his brother for to queme, Peieus, 

Estate royal and also diademe : 120 

By-cause he was croked, lame, & blynde, 
And to gouerne loste bobe wit & nrymle, 
So febled was his celle retentif 

And fordirked his ymaginatif, 124 

That lost were bothe memorie and resouw ; 
For whiche he made a resygnac^'on 
To his brother, next heyr by degre, [leaf 2* <q 

And next allye of his affinite. 1 28 

But as so??zme auctours in her bokys seyn, But some say 

. . that Eson 

lo aoutne he was restored new aseyn was cured 

bv Medea's 

By crafte of Medee, the gret sorceresse, potions, 

And renewed to his lusty nesse ; 132 

For with hyr herbes and hir pocioiws,* 
Sotyl wyrchyng[es] of confecc^ouws, 
By que[i]ntyse eke of hir instrumentys, 

101. I-holde] Holden D 1. 105. lere] here 0. 

106. here] lere C. 

107. spak of] of spak D 2, of speke D 1 a-forne] by-forne D 2, 
beforn D 1. Ill y-cropen] cropen D 2, D 1. 

122. bo>e] hath D 1. 123. febled] feble D 1. 
133. pocioiws] porciouws C. 135. of] and D 2. 

16 Of Eson s son Jason, and the Love all folk bore him. [BK. I 

as she made 
a drink which 

caused a dry 
rod at once to 

and restored 
Eson's body 
and wits. 

Eson's son 
was Jason, 

the goodliest 
man living, 

and belovd 
of all. 

He servd his 
uncle Peleus 

With hir charmys and enchauntementys,* 136 

Sche made a drynke, in bokys as is * tolde, 

In whiche a ^erde that was drye and olde 

"Withoute abod anoon as she it * caste 

To blosme and budde it be-gan as faste, 140 

Turne grene and f resell e for to beholde. 

And pom} bis drinke sche hath fro ^eris olde 

Eson restored vn-to lusty age, 

And was of witte & resoiw eke as sage 144 

As euer he had his lyve ben a-forn. 

The whiche Eson, of his wyfe y-born, 

Hadde a son, and lason was his name, 

In wirk of whom Nature nas to blame; 148 

For sche hir crafte platly and konnyng 

Spent vp-on hyin hooly in wirkyng, 

Whan sche hym made, with hert[e], wil, & pou^t, 

That of hir crafte behynde was ry^t nou^t. 152 

To rekne his schap and also his fayrnes, 

His strenthe, his bewte, and his lyflynes, 

His gentilles and wyse gou^rnaimce, 

How large he was, and of dalliaunce 156 

The mostfe] goodly J)at men koude knowe, 

In al his port bothe to hy^e and lowe ; 

And with al pis avise and tret able 

That of konnyng God wot I am nat able 160 

For to discry ve * his vertues by and by. 

For as myn auctor telleth feithefully, 

He was beloued so of old and ^onge, 

That thoru^ fe londe is his * honour spronge ; 164 

But for pat he was but 3onge and sklender, 

Of age also inly grene and tender, 

He was committed to the gouernaille 

Of Pelleus, to whom with-oute faille 168 

In euery thyng he was as servisable, 

As diligent in chambre and at table, 

136. enchauntementys] hir enchauntementys C, D 1. 

137. is] it is C, D 1. 139. she it] it is 0. 
141. for] on D 1. 149. and] & here D 1. 
150. hooly] only D 1. 153. also] om. I > 1. 

161. discry ve] discreye C. 164. >e] >is D 1 his] >e C. 
170. and] as D 1. 

BK. l] How King Peleus was a Hypocrite, and hated Jason. 17 

As euere was any childe or man 

Vn-to his lorde, in al J>at euer he can 172 

Devise in herte of feithf ul obeyschaunce ; 

So Jjat in chere nor in cowntenaunce, 

Inwarde in herte nor outwarde in schewyng, 

To his vncle ne was he nat grucchyng ; [leafs a] 176 

Al-be he had holly in his hande tho' Peieus 

The worthi kyngdam and J?e riche lande land. 

Of this lason, and the eritage, 

Only for he was to 3oiige of age. 180 

Vn-to whom Pelleus dide his peyne But Peleus 

Ageyn[es] herte falsely for to feyne, "ite, 

To schewen other J?an he mente in herte, 

And kepte hym cloos, ]?at no fing hyra asterte, 184 

Lyche an addre vnder flouris fayre, 

For to his herte his tonge was contrarie : 

Benyngne of speche, of menyng a serpente, 

For vnder colour was the tresoiw blente, 188 

To schewe hym goodly vn-to his allye ; 

But inwarde brent of hate and of envie and tho' civil 

The hoote fyre, & }it ther was no smeke, hate* him 

So couertly the malys was y-reke, 192 

That no man my^t as by sygne espie 

Toward lason in herte he bare envie. 

And merveil noon, for hit was canseles, 

Saue he dradde J?at he for his encres 196 fearing that 

And for * his manhood likly was tateyne realm. 

For to succede in his faders reigne, 

Whiche Pelleus uniustly ocupieth ; 

And day be day cast and fantasieth 200 

How his venym may be som pursute 

Vppon lason be fully execute. 

Her-on he museth euery hour and tyme, 

As he fat dradde to sen an hasty pryme 204 

Folowen a chaurcge, as it is wont to done, 

173. Devise] Demvre A. 

176. To] om. A, Toward D 2. 177. holly] oonly D 1. 

182. falsely] fully D 1. 184. asterte] of sterte A. 

190. 2nd of] om. D 1. 191-194 are omitted in D 1. 

195. hit] >i D 2. 196. 2nd he] om. D 1. 

197. for] for for C. 200. cast] castith D 1. 



How King Peleus pland Jason's destruction. [BK. I 

So Peleus 

with gall in 
his heart, 
and sugar in 
his face, 

Jason had no 
idea of this. 

The cause 
was covetous- 

Sodeynly after a newe moone ; 
He caste weyes and compasseth sore, 
And vnder colour alwey more and more 
His felle malys lie gan to close and hide, 
Lyche a snake that is wont to glyde 
With his venym vnder f resche floures ; 
And as the sonne is hoot a-fore {)ise schoures, 
So of envie hattere bran the glede. 
Vp-on a tyme he Jjoi^te * to precede 
To execute his menynge euery del, 
In porte a lambe, in herte a lyoun fel, 
Dowble as a tygre sli^ly to compasse, 
Galle in his breste and sugre in his face, 
That no man hath to hym suspecioutt, 
Howe he purveieth the destrucciourc 
Of his nevewe, and fat wtt/i-Inne a whyle, 
Pretendyng loue, al-be the fyn was gyle. 
His malys was I-schette so vnder keye, 
ftat his entent [ther] can no man be-vvreye ; 
It was conceled & closed in secre,* 
Ynder the lok of pryve Enmyte, 
And that in soth greued hym J?e more : 
Vp-on hym silf f>e anger frat so sore, 
Abydyng ay til [vn-to] his entent 
He fynde may leyser conuenient 
Vp-on his purpos platly to precede 
For to parforme it fully vp in dede. 
Wher-of lason hath ful lytel rou^t 
His vncle and he [ne] wer not in o thou^t 
Of whos menyng was no conuenience, 
For malys was coupled with Innocence ; 
And grownde of al, [so] as I can diuise, 
Was the Ethik of false couetise, 

[leaf 3 6] 









207. caste] castith D 1, caste J> D 2. 

212. a-fore] aftir A a-fore >ise] a^ena his D 1. 

213. bran] brermyth D 1. 214. a] om. A Jxmjte] soujt C. 
219. to hym] om. D 1. 

222. al-be] al Jxm? D 1 was] were D 1. 

223. I-schette] shitte D 1. 225. secre] secrete C. 
231. platly] pleinly D 1. 

234. ne wer not] were not bo)>e D 1. 
236. coupled] encoupled D 1. 

BK. l] Of the Earn with the Fleece of Gold in Colchos. 19 

Whiche fret so sore, falsly for to wynne, 

As crop and rote of euery sorowe and synne, . 240 

And cause hath ben, syth[en] goo ful ^ore, 

That many a rewme hath a-bou^t ful sore 

The dredful venym of couetyse, alias ! 

Lat hem be war, fat stonden in this caas, 244 

To thinke a-forne & for to haue in mynde 

That al falshed draweth to an ende : 

For thou3e it bide and last a $er or two, 

The ende in soth schal be sorwe and wo 248 

Of alle fat ben false and envious. 

Here-of no more, but forthe of Pelleus 

I wil }ow telle, J?at hath so longfe] sou^t 

Vp-on Jus thing, til j>er wer to hym brou^t 252 

Tidynges newe, & fat so merveillous, 

That he astonyed was and alle his hous, 

Of a mervaille that new[e]ly was fal 

Besyde Troye, the plage oriental : 256 

How in Colchos, as the tydyng cam, 

With-Inne an He enclosed was a Earn 

Whiche bare his flees ful richely of golde ; 

And for the richesse, it was kepte in holde 260 

With gret avis and gretfe] diligence, 

That no man my^t ther-to doon offence. 

And in this He ther was a gouernour, 

A noble kynge, a worthi weriour, 264 

That Cethes hi^t : wis, discret, and sage, 

Whiche was also [y-]ronne fer in age, 

That in his* tyme, as bokys can deuise, 

Had vnder-fonged many gret emprise 268 

In pes and werre, & moche worschip wonne ; 

And he was sone also to the sonne, 

That $af hym eure to honowr to atteyne, 

So as poetis lusteth for to feyne. 272 

Touching his line, I leue as now j>e grete ; 

And of this Ram my purpos is tentrete, [leafs e] 

242. a-boujt] boujt D 1. 252. J>er] it D 1. 256. the] in >e D 1. 
257. tydyng] tidinges D 1. 258. enclosed] closed D 1. 
262. doon] doon noon A. 266. y-ronne fer] ferre I-ronne D 1. 
267. That] And A his] this C. 269. inoche] moste D 1. 
274. tentrete] to trete D 1. 

which is the 
worst of all 

and has 
ruind many 


To Peleus 
was brought 
tidings of a 

Bam in 

which had a 
fleece of gold. 

The king of 
Colchos was 

son of the 

This gold- 
tteeced Ram 

20 Mars guarded the Fleece ~by Bulls and a Serpent. [BK. r 

was under 
the charge 
of Mars, 

who set as 
guards to it. 
wild Bulls 
with brass 

and fiery 
breaths to 
burn all who 
heard them. 

So whoever 
would get 
the Ram 

must first 
conquer the 

and then a 

like a fiend 
of Hell, 

with poison- 
ous breath, 

That was ccwimytted, I dar $ow wel assure, 

To the kepyng and the besy cure 276- 

Of cruel Mars, the my^ty god of werre, 

Whiche with f e stremes of his rede sterre 

And influence of his deite, 

Ordeyned hath, by ful gret cruelte, 280' 

This Ram to kepe, bolys ful vnmylde, 

With brasen feet, ramegous and wylde, 

And ther-w^t/i-al ful fel and dispitous, 

And of nature wood and furious, 284 

To hurte and sleen euere of o desyre. 

Out of whos mouthe leuene & wylde fire, 

Lyche a flawme euere blasid oute 

To brenne al hem fat stode* ny$ aboute; 288' 

Eke of her eyen f e lokys moste orible 

To [a] furneis the stremys wer visible. 

And who that* wolde, [to] encrese his glorie, 

This Earn of golde wynnen by victorie, 292. 

Firste he moste of verray force and my^t 

Vn-to outraunce with thise bolys fi~3t, 

And hem venquysche, aldirfirst of alle, 

And make hem humble as any oxe in stalle 29ft 

Yn-to the ^oke, and do hem ere f e londe ; 

Of verray manhood, fis most he take on ho?*d. 

And after fat he moste also endure 

With a serpent of huge and gret stature, 300- 

With-out[e] fauour, pleynly haue a-do, 

To outraunce eke, witft-oute wordis mo. 

)3e wiche serpent, schortly for to telle, 

Was lyche a fende comen out of helle, 304 

Ful of venym and of cruel hate ; 

And wiih skalys hard as any plate 

He armyd was, to sto[n]den at drffence ; 

And his breth wers than pestilence 308 

Infecten wolde environ al J>e eyre 

In iche place wher was his repeire. 

275. assure] ensure D 1. 

278. his] >e D 1. 280. ful] am. D 1. 

288. stode] stonde C, stondew D 1. 289. be] om. D 1. 

291. that] so C. 294. Vn-to] Vn to be D 1. 

306. skalys] his scales D 1. 

BK. i] The Serpent's Teeth had to be sown, & turn to Knights. 21 

He was so ful of corrupcioiw, 

And so dredful of infecciouw, 312 

That deth in sothe, schortly to deuise, sothataii 

. trier will 

Was the fyn of this hi^e emprise meet their 

To swyche as wolde fis querel take on hond, 

I-lyche in oon, bothe to fre and bonde, 316 

But if he koude fe bet hym silf diffende. 

And of his conquest Jns was eke the ende : 

]3at whan he had J>e my^ty serpent slawe, Then, when 

He most anoon, by custom and by lawe, 320 was sSff" 
Out of his hed his tethe echon arace, 

And thane sowe hem in the silf[e] place u teeth 

Where the oxes herid hadde aforn ; [leaf 3 d] B own, 

Of whiche sede ther sprang a wonder corn : 324 
Kny^tes armyd, passyng of gret my3te, and armed 

Eueryche with other redy for to fyjte woSd sprin<? 

up and fight 

Til eche his brother hadde brou^t to grouwde one another. 

By mortail fate & 30110 his dejns wounde. 328 

This was the ende of hem euerychon ; 

For in sothnesse of al j>er was noon 

That lyue my^t by that fatal lawe 

Any lenger in soth than his felawe. 332 

And by Jris weye, dredful and perillous, 

Who desyreth to be victorious, 

He moste passe and manly it endure, 

And how so falle take his auenture. 336 

Of noon estat was noon excepciouw, 

Chese who so wele ; for this conclusions 

He may not skape for fauour ne for mede, 

Who euer gynne, avise hym wel I rede : 340 AH triers 

For by the statute of the kyng he may, S^SS? 

Who so that wele, entren and assay ; J" on tm 

But after fat he onys hath by-gonne won. * 

He may nat chese til he haue lost or wonne. 344 

3et, as somme of j>is Earn expresse, 

312. infeccioim] foule inspeccioim D 1. 318. of] om. D 1. 

320. 2nd by] the A. 321. tethe] teche D 1. 

323. oxes] oxen D 1 aforn] to forn D 1. 

330. was] nas D 1. 

334. Who] Who >at D 1. 339. ne] or D 1. 

342. so] om. D 1. 345. somme] somme clerkis D 1. 

22 The Golden Fleece was Sorcerer's work. Peleus's plot. [BK. I 

This Golden 
Fleece was 
made by 

and many 

riskt and 
lost their 
lives to win 

Peleus knew 
all this, 

and schemed 
how he might 
make Jason 
undertake the 

And of J>is flees also here witnesse, 

It was no thyng but golde & gret tresour, 

That Cethes kyng, with ful hyje labour, 348 

Made kepe it by incantacioiws, 

By sorserye and false illucions, 

))at was spoke of in rewmys fer aboute ; 

For whyche many put her lyf * in doute, 352 

Of hy^e desyr thei hadde for to wynne 

\)Q gret[e] tresour fat was shette we't/i-Inne 

Colchos lond, as $e haue herde deuise ; 

"Whos pursute roos oute of couetise, 356 

Grouwde & rote of wo and al meschauwce, 

By veyn reporte hem silf [e] to avaunce ; 

For whiche bei put hem silf * in lupartye, 

With-out[e] reskuse likly for to dye. 360 

)5er was noon helpe, ne noon sley^t of armys 

Jpat vaille my^t ageyn be cursed charmys ; 

)3ei wer so strong and supersticious, 

|3at many worthi, in kny^thood ful famous, 364 

Enhasted werne vn-to her dethe, alias, 

feat list euparten her lyues in bis cas. 

And bis lasteth til afterwarde be-fel 

J)at Pelleus platly herde tel 368 

}2e gret[e] meschefes and destrucciouws 

In Colchos wroujt on sondry naciouws, 

J)at pursued* be au[n]tres to conquere 

Til Pelleus so ferforthe gan enquere, [iaf*a| 372 

J^at he knewe holly how be treuthe was ; 

And in his herte anoon he gan compas, 

How he my^t by any sley^tfe] make 

His nevewe lason for to vndirtake 376 

Jjis hi^e emprise in Colchos for to wende, 

By whiche weye best he my^t hym schende ; 

And [gan] pretend a colour fresche of hewe, 

346. J>is] his A. 348. kyng] >e kyng D 1 hy^e] greet D 1. 

352. lyf] lyues C her lyf] hem self D 1. 

359. silf] siluen C in] in gret D 1. 362. vaille] auaille D 1. 

366. euparten] to iuparte D 1 lyues] lif D 1. 

367. lasteth] lasted D 1. 369. meschefes] mescheef D 1. 
371. pursued] pursute C. 

374. And] As D 1 anoon he gan] he gan anoon D 1. 
379. gan] bigan D 1. 

He first 
cald his 

to a council ; 

BK. i] King Peleuss plot to tempt Jason into Danger. 23 

I-gilt outward so lusty and so newe, 380 

As f er wer no tresourc hydde with-Inne ; 

And sawe it was tyme to begynne 

On his purpos, f ei first he made it queynte, 

And gan with asour & with golde to peynte 384 

His gay wordys in sownynge glorious, 

Knowyng lason was 3onge and desyrous 

Vn-to swyche thing, and ly^tly wolde enclyne. 

Therfor he thou^t fat he nolde fyne 388 

Pleynly to wirke to his confusioun, 

And made anoon a conuocacioura 

Of his lordys and his baronye, 

Aboute envirouw the londe of Thesalye, 392 

For tassemble estates of degre 

Of al his rewme wit/i-In f e chefe cite. 

For to holde a counseil outterly he caste, 

J)er-by tacheve his desire as faste ; 396 

And so his court contwneth daies thre ; 

Til at f e laste his hidde iniquyte 

He gan out rake, f t hath ben hid so longe, 

For he ne my3te no lenger forthe prolonge 400 

))& venym hid, fat frat so at his herte, 

In so sly^e wyse fat no man my^t aduerte 

Vp-on no syde but fat he mente wel. 

For f e tresowi was cured eue?ydel 404 

And curteyned vnder trecherye ; 

For he this thing so sly^ly gan to guye 

At pr[i]me face fat no man my^tfe] deme 

By any worde, as it wolde seme, 408 

Tn cher, in port, by signe or* daliaunce, 

But fat he cast kny^tly for tavaunce 

His $onge nevewe, as by lyklynesse, 

To hi^e honour of manhood and prowesse. 412 

For of f e entent, of whiche he gan pwrpose, 

383. >ei] >ou$ D 1. 384. to] it A. 

392. londe] londes D 1. 394. his] >ia D 2 Jw] om. D 1. 

395. he] am. A. 397. contwneth] contuned A. 

399. hath ben] he haj> D 1. 

403. }>at] al D 1 mente] myght D 2. 

405. curteyned] contrened D 1. 406. slyjly] hi^ly D 1 

409. 2nd in] or D 1 or] of C. 410. for] om. D 1. 

412. and] & of D 1. 

and then he 
]y hid 

slyly hid 
his trea ' 

by pretending 
to further 
Jason in 

24 King Peleus praises and flatters Jason. [BK. I 

)?e tixte was hyd, but no thing j>e glose, 
Whiche was ccwueied so with flaterye, 
Jpat the peple cowde not espye 416 

Lytel or nou^t of his entent with-Inne. 
Peieus starts For whiche anoon to preyse hvm bei be-gynne. 

by praising 

Jason, Jjat he suche honour to his nevewe wolde ; 

For vrith swyche cher he be-gan vnfolde 420 

To-forn hem al his entencioun, [leaf 46] 

Jpat he hath voided al suspecioiw 

From al fat wern assemblid in fe place ; 

And toward lason he torne gan his face 424 

Ful lovyngly in countenance and chere, 

And to hym seide, J?at alle rny^ten here 

Thoru^-out fe courte, wharc maked was silence, 

Jpus word by worde platly in sentence : 428 

syn lason, take hed what I schal seyn, 
For J?e I am so inly glad and feyn 

And supprised with myrthfe] foru} myn herte, 

That it enchaseth & voideth al my smerte, 432 

For to considere in myn inspecciou?z 

Of pi ^owthe J?e disposiciourc, 

J)e whiche, schortly for to comprehende, 
flatters him Saue to* vertu to no thyng doth entende, 436 

for his virtue -, . . . .. 

andmanii- vn-to worschip and to gentilnesse, 

To manly fredam and to hy^e largesse, 

J?at verraily, wher I wake or wynke, 

My loye is only ther-on for to thinke. 440 

My silf I holde so passynge fortunat, 

And al my londe, of hi^e and lowe estat, 

J5at lykly arn in honour for to flete, 

and keeping And to lyuen in reste and in quiete 444 

in peace. Thoru$ thi support and )>i sowpoaille, 

Whos manhod may so mochel vs availle, 

By lyklyhed, and so moche amende, 

In verray sothe to saue vs and diffende 448 

Agayn al tho, as I can descry ue, 

421. his] this A. 425. lovyngly] benignely D 1. 

431. J>oru3] |>oru3 out D 1. 

432. smerte] hert D 2. 436. to] vn to C. 

445. sowpoaille] supposaylle A. 

446. may so mochel vs] vs may so moche D 1. 

BK. i] Peleus suggests to Jason the Quest of the Golden Fleece. 25 

Jpat of malys wolde ageyn vs stryue 

Or rebelle in any maner weye, 

Of surqued[r]ye or pride to werreye 452 

Our worthines, assured in tranquille, 

From al assaut of hem pat wolde vs ille, 

For to perturbe oure noble estat rial, 

Ageynfels whom, whan pou art oure wal, 456 Peieussays 

Jason is their 

Our myjty schelde, and protecciourc : Bhwid against 

)3us deme I fully in myii oppiniouw, 

For of fin age, pi witte, pi prouidence, 

])\ kny^tly hert, pi manly excellence, 460 

Reported ben, and pin hy^e renou?z, 

In many londe and many regiouw 

J2is rouTzde worlde aboute in circuyt ; 

How my^t I [panne] stonde in better ply^t, 464 

For pin honowr, lyche as it is fourcde, 

To my worschip so hi^ly doth rebouwde, 

)5at I wolde plcynly and uat cesse, 

3iffe I koude, helpe to encresse 468 and he wants 

' . . . to heighten 

pm hi^e renoutt y-wis in euery hour, 

And ther-vppon spendyn my tresour. [leaf 4 c] 

J?is hi^e desyre, with-outen any faille, 

Of enteer lone me doth so sore assaille, 472 

Jpat ny^t nor day I may haue no reste ; 

And al schal turne I hope for the beste, 

For to enhaunce pin honour to pe heuene, 

Aboue pe pole and pe sterres seuene. 476 

To whiche ping I haue a weye espied, 

As I my witte per-to haue applied, 

})is is to mene, what schulde I lenge? 1 dwelle, 

My dere cosyn, as I schal the telle : 480 

3if it so wer by manhood souereyne, 

Of pi kny^thood pat [pou] durst atteyne 

]5e flees of gold to conquere be pi strenthe, 

Whiche is spoke of so fer in brede and lenthe, 484 

456. whan] om. D 2. 459. prouidence] evydence D 2. 

462. and] in D 1. 466. my] myche D 2 hijly] hi$e D 1. 

467. wolde] wolde fayne D 1. 468. to] for to soone D 1. 

471. faille] fable D 2. 472. enteer] hertly D 2. 

473. I] om. A. 479. dwelle] seyn D 1. 

480. the telle] be ful feyn D 1. 484. of] om. D 2. 

26 Jason undertakes the Quest of the Golden Fleece. [BK. I 

Peleus will 

and all folk 
will dread 

Peleus will 
give Jason 
his outfit, 

and Thessaly 
after his 

He begs 
Jason to 
undertake the 

Jason gladly 
does so, 

not suspect* 
ing his uncle's 

And retourne hom in body safe and sounde ; 

3if pis conquest my^t in the* be founde, 

)3at pou durstest acheuen pis emprise, 

More hertes loye koude I nat deuise 488 

In al pis worlde ; for sothly at the best, 

My rewme and I set wer pan in rest : 

For, For pi manhod alle wolde vs drede. 

Wherfore, cosyn, of kny^thood and manhed 492 

Take vp-on pe my prayer and requeste, 

And here my trouthe, & take it for beheste. 

What euer nedeth in meyne or costage, 

I wil my silf toward pis viage 496 

Ordeyne I-now^ in harneys and array, 

}5at nou^t schal faylen pat is to pi pay ; 

And, more-ouer, I pleynly the ensure, 

Jjat jif I se pou do pi besy cure, 500 

J)is hi^e emprise for to bringe aboute, 

j)ou schalt nat fere nor [I-]be in doute, 

After my day, by succession?*, 

For to be kyng of this regiourc, 504 

And holy han septre and regalie. 

Wherfor, lason, lyfte vp pin hertis eye, 

Thenke pi name schal longe be recorded 

Thoru^-oute pe worlde ; wherfor be accorfded] 508 

With-in pi silf, and pleynly nat ne spare 

Of pin entent pe somme to declare." 

Whan lason had his vncle vndirstonde, 

He reioyseth for to take on honde 512 

J)is dredf ul labour, wit/i-out avisement ; 

He nou^t aduerteth pe menyng fraudelent, 

\)Q prevy poysourc vnder sugre cured, 

Nor how to galle with hony he was lured, 516 

J)e dirke deceyt, pe cloudy fals engyn, 

485. in] om. D 1. 486. my^t in the] in the may C. 
490. set] om. A in] at D 1. 491. 2nd For] om. D 1. 
494. beheste] the best A, be beste D 1. 

496. >is] J>at D 1. 

497. I-now$] yow A harneys] armes A. 

498. is] shal D 1. 502. nor I-be] nouber be D 1. 

507. longe be] be longe D 1 be] be of D 2. 

508. Thoru3-oute] Thorn? D 1. 510. to] for to D 1. 
511. new IF A, D 1. 512. for] him for D 1. 

BK. i] King Peleus has the ship Argon fitted out for Jason. 27 

I-gilt -mt/t-oute, but vnder was venym, 

Wher-to lason hath noon aduertence ; [leaf 4 d] Jaton thinks 

Peleus true, 

])e kyng, he wende, of clene conscience, 520 

With-out[e] fraude, had al pis ping I-ment ; 

Wher-for anoon he ^eveth f ul assent 

At wordis fewe, and pleynly gan to seie nd sayg he'll 

His vncles wyl pat he wolde obeye ; 524 

He was accorded, in conclusions, 

With humble herte and hool intenciou?*. 

Wher-of pe kyng resseyueth swyche gladnesse, Peleus is 

ftat he vnnethe my^t it out expresse ; 528 

But ryat as fast dide his besy peyne and prepare* 

for Jason's 

For pis lorney in hast for to ordeyne. voyage. 

And for as moche as Colchos, pe cuntre, 

Enclosed was aboute with a see, 532 

And pat no man, how longe pat he striue, 

With-out[e] schip theder may ariue, 

To his presence anoon he dide calle He gets 

Argus, the 

Famous Argus, pat koude most of alle 536 

To make a schip, & first pat art y-foiwde 

To seille with by see* fro lond to londe, 

fee whiche hath wroi^t a schip by sotil craft, 

Which was pe first pat eue?' wawe raujt, 540 

To haue entre ; and Argon bar pe name. to build the 

Gramariens recorde }it the same, and fit it out. 

])at eche gret schip, firste for pat mervail, 

Is called so, whiche proudly bare hir seil, 544 

As pis boke doth vs specifye, 

How it be-fel forth of pis navie. 

Whan al was redi, meyne and vitaille, 

))ei bide nou^t but wynde for to saille ; 548 

And many worthi was in pat companye, Many 

Of noble byrth, and of gret allye, join Jaaon, 

In pat viage redy for to goon, 

Bothe for loue and worschip of lason. 552 

518. I-gilt] Engilte D 1. 521. I-ment] mente D 1. 
524. vncles] vncle D 1. 527. Wher-of] Wherfore D 1. 
530. 2nd for] om. D 1. 537. y-fowide] fonde D 1. 
538. see] \>e see C. 539. wroujt] made D 1. 
543. firste] t D 1. 545. vs] vs here D 1. 
545-548 are repeated after 548 in D 1 ; the word vacat is written 
in the margin. 



the most 

who per- 
formed his 
Labours : 

1. he slew 

2. and the 

3. bound 

4. drove 
away the 

5. kild the 

6. and the 

7. got the 

Hercules joins Jason : his first six Labours. [BK. I 

Amonges whiche fe grete Hercules, 

Of force, of my^t, of strenthe pereles ; 

And he begete was vppon Almene, 

So inly fayr and wommanly to sene, 556 

Of lubiter, and J>at fill long a-gon, 

Takyng lyknesse of Amphytrion ; 

Down fro heuene, for al his deyete, 

He was ravisched Jjoru^ lust of hir bewte ; 560 

For he hir loued with hert and hool entent. 

And of hem two, sothly by discent, 

Cam Hercules, fe worthi famus kny^te, 

Most renomed of manhood and of my3te, 564 

"Whiche in his tyme was so merveillous, 

So excellent, and so victoryous, 

)3at Ouyde lyst recorde hym silue, 

Methamorphoseos, his famws dedis twelue, [leaf 5 a] 568 

Whiche ben remembrid ther in special, 

In his honour for a memorial. 

And to reherse hem in order by and by, 

3if 36 list here, I purpose outterly : 572 

He slou^e Antheon in )>e eyr on hey^t, 

And many geant, what with my$t & slei^te, 

He outraide, for al her lymes rude ; 

)3e serpent Ydre he slou$ eke in Palude, 576 

And Cerberus J>e hownde he bond so sore, 

At helle ^atis fat he barke no more, 

And made hym voide his venym in fat strif , 

And vpwarde $af hym suche a laxatyf, 580 

ftat al fe worlde his brethe contagyous 

Infected hath ; it was so venymous. 

And with o wynde he wolde rewne a stadye ; 

He fledde arpies, briddes of Archadye, 584 

And slou$ centauris, j>e bestis monstruous ; 

)3e feerse lyon he byrafte his hous ; 

#is [is] to seyen, whan pat he was slawe, 

Out of his skyn he hath hym stripte & flawe, 588 

With cruel herte, foru3 his hi^e renoura ; 

558. of] of the D 1. 567. recorde] recorde it D 1. 

572. here] to here D 1. 578. barke] brak A. 

584. fledde] kacchyd A, chasid D 1 arpies] Aripes D 1. 

BK. i] The other Labours of Hercules. Jason proposes to sail. 29 

\)Q goldene apply s he bare fro J>e dragouw ; 

J9e fyry cat he slou^ with-out[e] more ; 

And of Archadye, fe cruel tuschy boor ; 

And at the last, on his schulders square, 

Of verray niy^t pe firmament he bare. 

But for J?at I may not rekne[n] al 

His passyng dedis, whiche ben historial, 

Redeth Ovide, and J>er ^e schal hem fynde ; 

Of his trivmphes how he maketh mynde, 

J5oru^-out j>e worlde how he hyra honour fette, 

And of \>Q pelers at Gades* bat he sette, 

Whiche Alysaundre of Macedonye kyng, 

]3at was so worthi her in his lyvyng, 

Rood in his conqueste, as Guydo lyst to write, 

With al his hooste proudly to visite ; 

Ee-^ownde whiche no land is* habitable, 

Nor see to saille sothly couenable : 

So fer it is by-^onde be occian, 

Jpat schipman noon ferber [no] sky][le] can; 

Sibellys streytes Maryners it calle, 

And be bourcdes, })ei named ben of alle, 

Of Hercules, for he hym silf hem sette, 

As for markys alle other for to lette 

Ferther to passe, as Guydo maketh mynde ; 

And be place is callyd, as I fynde, 

Syracenyca, as fyn of his labour, 

Or Longa Saphi, recorde of myn auctour. 

Of bis mater more what schulde I seyn; [leafs*] 

For vnto lason I wil retourne a-geyn, 

J3at in al haste dothe hym redy make, 

Of his vncle whan he hath leue take, 

Toward be see, and Hercules y-fere, 

With alle his men, anoon as 36 schal here. 

The tyme of 3er, whan b e schene sowne 
In his spere was so fer vp ronne, 

591. cat] Chat D 2, D 1. 

599. f>oru3-out] Thoru} D I hym honour] >e honour hym 

600. Gades] Gates C. 605. no land is] is no land C. 
608. no] am. D 1. 609. it] hem D 1. 

610. ]>ei named ben] be they namyd ek A. 

614. callyd] clepid D 1. 620. take] I-take D 1. 

621. y-fere] in fere D I. 



Apples of the 
8. slew the 
fierv Cat, 
and 9. the 
10. carried 
the Firma- 
ment on his 

600 He set up the 
Pillars at 





in the Sibyls' 

But I'll 
return to 


624 When the 


Jason and Hercules set sail for Colchos. [BK. I 

sun has past 

and grass is 
wont to be 
in June, 


Hercules, and 
their friends 

set sail for 

being captain. 

pat he was passid pe sygne of Gemeny, 

And had his chare whirled vp so hy$, 

Thoru$ pe drai^t of Pirous so rede, 

pat he had made in pe crabbis hede 

His mansioiw, and his see ryal, 

Wher halowed is pe standyng estyval 

Of f resche Appollo with his golden wayn ; 

Whan heerdemen in hert[e] ben so fayn 

For [pe] hete to shroude hem in pe schade, 

Vnder pis braunchis and pise bowis glade ; 

Whan Phebus bemys, pat so bry$t[e] schyne, 

Descended ben ry$t as any lyne, 

And cause pe eyre be refleccioiw 

To ben ful hoot, pat lusty fresche sesouw, 

Whan cornys gynne in pe felde to sede ; 

And pe grasys in the grene niede 

From $er to $er ben of custom mowe, 

And on pe pleyn cast and leide ful lowe, 

Til pe moystour consumed be a-way, 

On holt and heth pe mery somerys day 

At whiche tyme pis ^ong[e] kny^t lason 

With Hercules is to schip[pe] goon ; 

And with hem eke, as I reherse can, 

Of Grekys eke [ful] many a lusty man, 

Schiped echon with ryal apparaille. 

And whan pei wer crossed vnder saille, 

With-Inne pe schip, whiche pat Argus made, 

Whiche was so stawnche it my$t no water lade, 

pei gan to seille and had[de] wynd at wille ; 

pe schip gan breke pe sturdy wawys ille 

Vppon pe see, and so bothe day and ny3te 

To Colchos-ward pei helde pe weye ry^t, 

Guying her cours by the lode sterre, 

Wher pei seille by costys ne$e or ferre. 

For Philotetes was her alder guyde, 

pat koude a-forn so prudently prouide, 









625. sygne of] om. A. 628. had] hath A. 

632. herte] her to A. 637. be] by hir D 1. 

640. grasys] graces D 1. 641. ben] by D 1. 645. )>is] the A. 

646. goon] so goon D 1. 647. hem] hym D 1. 

648. a] om. A, D 2. 657. Guying] Begynnyng D 1. 

BK. i.] How Philoctetes pilots Jason's ship to Colchos. 31 

Of verray insist to cast a-forn and se 

Tempest or wynd, bothe on lond and* see, 

Or whan ther schulde trouble of stormys fal ; 

For he was mayster pleynly of hem alle 

In schipman crafte, and chose her gouernour, 

And koude hem warne aforn of euery shour [leaf 5 c] 

That schulde falle, whan sterrys dide apere. 

And specialy, as Guy do doth vs lere, 

JMs Philotetes, whiche was no fool, 

Hadde moste his sy$t erect vn-to fe pool, 

His aduertence and clere inspections, 

To j>e sterrys and constellaciourc, 

Which fe axtre rounde aboute goon, 

Jpat clerkis calle fe Septemtryon. 

For as fe pool y-called Arthicus 

Euere in on appereth vn-to vs, 

Jvy^t so in sothe, who can loke ary^t, 

Antharticus is schrouded from our sy^t. 

But to schipmen fat ben discrete and wyse, 

Jpat list her cours prudently deuise 

Vp-on fe see, haue suffisaunce y-nowe 

To guye her passage by Arthouris Plowe ; 

For it to hem is direcciouw 

Vn-to fe costis of euery regiouw, 

With help only of nedle and of stoon, 

J)ei may nat erre what costys fat fei gon. 

For maryners fat ben discrete and sage, 

And expert ben of her lood manage 

By straunge costys for to seille ferre, 

Guyen her cours only by f e sterre 

Whiche fat Arthour compasseth environs ; 

jpe whiche cercle and constellaciouw 

I-called is the cercle Artofilax : 

662. or] & D 1 and] or C. This line is misplaced at bottom of 
column in D 2, and marked b ; 661 is marked a. 

663. of stormys] or tempest D 1. 

673. Which] With A, D 2 axtre] axil tree D 1. 
675. y-called] called D 1. 677. can] >at can D 1. 
683. is] is trewe D 1. 685. 2nd of] om. A. 

686. >at] om. D 2. 

692. misplaced at bottom of column in D 2. 

693. I-called is] The whiche D 2. 








attended to 
the North 

and piloted 
the ship by 

32 Of Ursa Major and Minor. Jason lands near Troy. [BK. I 

Poets say of 
the poles that 

Calixtone and 
her son 
were turned 
to stars : 

she was cald 
Ursa Major, 
and her son 
Ursa Minor. 

They reach 
the coast of 

Who knoweth it nedeth no more to axe. 
For it to schipmen on ]?e sterry nyjt 
lis suffisaimt, whan J?ei sen his lyjt. 
And as poetis of Jns poolis tweyne 
In her bokys lyketh for to feyne, 
And in her dytees declaren vn-to vs : 
Calixtone and Archadius, 
Hir oune sone, wern y-stellefied 
In J>e heuene and y-deified ; 
For that luno to hir hadde envie, 
With lubiter whan sche dide hir espie. 
For whiche sche was in-to a here turned, 
And for hir gilt sche hath in erthe morned, 
Til in-to heuene, Naso can jow telle, 
Sche was translated, etmially to dwelle 
Amongis sterrys, wher as sche is stallyd, 
And Vrsa Maior is of clerkys callyd ; 
So as hir sone, for his* worthi fame, 
Of Vrsa Mynor bereth jet be name. 
Of whiche be course myjtfe] nat asterte 
Philotetes, bat was be niooste experte 
Of alle schipmen bat euer I herde telle ; 
For of konyng he myjt bere be belle. 
And whan be Grekys had[de] long[e] be 
Fordryue and cast, seilyng in be se, 
For-weried after [her] trauaille, 
J)ei cast [tjarive, 3 if it wolde availle, 
Hem to refresche and disporte in loye, 
Vp-on be bouwdys of be lond of Troye. 

[leaf 5 d] 








Howe lason arryved bysyde Troy withe Hercules for 
to refresshe him and his menye. 1 

"\~WThan Hercules and lasoura on his hond, 

Out of her schip taken han be lond, 

701, 702. D 1 omits the y in the participle. 

703. luno to hir hadde] love had to hir D 1. 

704. With] Whiche D 1. 

709. as] J>at D 1 stallyd] estalled D 1. 711. his] hir C. 
714. mooste] more D 1. 717. be] y be D 1. 

719. after] moche after here D 1 her] om. A, D 2. 

720. tarive] arive D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 11 c. 


BK. i] The Greeks land near Troy. The Trojans suspect them. 33 

And with hem eke her kny^tes euerychon, 

]5at fro f e see ben to lond[e] goon, 

For-weried after her trauaille ; 

And f ei in sothe come to arivaille 

At Symeonte, an hauene of gret renoim, 

ftat was a lyte* by-syde Troye town 

And f ei wer glad to ben in sikirnesse 

From storm and tempest after werynesse ; 

For f ei ne ment tresouw, harm, nor gyle, 

But on f e stronde to resten hem a while ; 

To hynder no wy$t, of no maner age, 

Nor in fat He for to do damage 

To man [n]or beste, wher-euere fat j)ei goo, 

But for to abyde f er a day or two 

Hem to refresche, and repeire a-noon 

Whan fat f e rage of f e see wer goon. 

And whiles fei [vp-]on fe stronde leye, 

)}ei no thyng dide but disporte and playe, 

And bathe & wasche hem in f e fresche ryuer, 

And drank watrys fat were swote & clere, 

)3at sprange lyche cristal in f e colde welle, 

And toke ri^t nou^t, but it were to selle. 

It was no f ing in her entenciourc 

Vn-to no wy}te to done offencioura, 

For to moleste or greuen ony wj^t ; 

But fe ordre of Fortunys my3t 

Hath eue?*e envy fat men lyue in ese, 

Whos cours enhasteth vnwarly to dissese. 

For sche was cause, God wotte, causeles, 

))is gery Fortune, f is lady reccheles, 

)3e blynde goddesse of transmutaciou?*, 

To turne her whele by reuoluciou?i 

To make Troyens vniustly for to wene 

J3at Grekys werne arived hem to tene. 

So fat f e cause of f is suspeciourc 

Hath many brou^t vn-to destrucciou;?. 

727. her] here grete D 1. 

728. in] for D 2 to arivaille] to J> ryuaille D 1. 
730. a lyte] alyte C. 

736. damage] outrage D 1. 741. vp-on] on D 1. 

743. bathe & wasche] ba>ed he?n & freisshid D 1. 757. 

728 TheGreekg 
land at Syme- 
onte, a port 
near Troy. 




They bathe, 
and drink 
744 freshwater, 

748 and do 

offence to no 

tho' Fortune 




makes the 
Trojans think 
they mean 

for] dm. D 1. 


34 Why Troy was destroyd ly Fortune : for Revenge. [BK. I 

Unjust sus- 

was the 
cause of the 
of Troy, 

merely that 
should take 
on it. 


quarrels grow 
into war. 

Ful many worth! of kynges and of princes 

J3oru$-oute pe worlde, rekned in provinces, 

Werne by pis sclawnder vn-to myschief * brou^t, 

For thing, alias, fat was neuer thou^t. [leaf 6aj 764 

For it was cause and occasions 

J?at ))is cite and pis royal town 

Distroied was, as it is pleynly fownde, 

Whos walles hi^e were bete down to groumle. 768 

And many [a] man and many [a] worpi kny^te 

Were slawe per, and many lady bry^te 

Was wydowe made by duresse of pis werre, 

As it is kouthe and reported ferre ; 772 

And many mayde in grene & tender age 

Be-lefte wer sool, in pat grete rage, 

Behynd her fadris, alias, it falle sclmlde ! 

And for no ping but pat Fortune wolde 776 

Schewen her my^t and her cruelte, 

In vengauwce takyng vp-on pis cite. 

Alias, pat euere so worpi of estate 

Schulde for lytel fallen at debate ! 780 

Whan it is gonwe it is not ly^t to staunche : 

For of griffyng of a lytel braunche, 

Ful sturdy trees growe[n] vp ful of te ; 

Who clymbeth hy^e may not falle softe ; 784 

And of sparky s pat ben of sy$t[e] smale, 

Is fire engendered pat devoureth al ; 

And a quarel, first of lytel hate, 

Encauseth flawme of contek and debate, 788 

And of envie to sprede a-brod ful ferre. 

And pus, alias, in rewmys mortal werre 

[Is] First be-gonne, as men may rede and see, 

Of a sparke of lytel enmyte, 792 

)3at was not staurcchid first whan it was* gorane. 

For whan pe fyre is so fer y-ronne, 

761. 2nd of] om. D 1. 763. myschief] deth C. 

765. and] of D 1. 770, 773. many] many a D 1. 

772. As] And D 1. 776. >at] for"D 1. ' 

778. >is] bat D 1. 735. sparkys] sparkles D 1. 

787. And a quarel] Also of wrath D 1 quarel] gnast A, D 2. 

790. alias in rewmys] in rewmes alias D 1. 

792. sparke] sparkle D 1. 793. first] om. D 12 

794. y-ronne] ronne D 1. 

-2nd was] is C. 

BK. l] The rise of Rome was due to the destruction of Troy. 35 

J)at it enbraseth hertis by hatrede 

To make hem brenne, hoot as any glede, 

On ouper party foru} his cruel tene, 

})er is no stauwche but scharpfe] swerdys kene, 

e whiche, alias, consumeth al and sleth ; 

And pus pe fyne of enmyte is deth. 

J3ou} J>e gynnyng be but casuel, 

#e fret abydyng is passyngfly] cruel 

To voide rewmys of reste, pees, and loye, 

As it fil whilom of pis worthi Troye. 

It doth me wepe of pis case sodeyne ; 

For euery wy3t ou3te to compleyne, 

J)at lytel gylte schulde haue swyche vercgauwce, 

Except parcas poru3 goddys puruyaunce, 

J)at pis mescheffe schulde after be 

Folwyng per-chaunse of gret felicite. 

For Troyfe] brou^t vn-to destrucciouw. 

Was pe gynnyng and occasions 

In myn auctor as it is specified [leaf 66] 

|?at worthi Rome was after edefied 

By pe of-spryng of worpi Eneas, 

Whilom fro Troye whan he exiled was. 

Jpe whiche Rome, rede and 36 may se, 

Of al pe worlde was hed and chef cite, 

For pe passyng famous worthinesse. 

And eke whan Troye was brou^t in distresse, 

And pe wallis cast and broke down, 

It was in cause pat many regioun 

Be-gonne was, and many gret cite : 

For pis Troyan, pis manly man Enee, 

By sondri sees gan so longe saille, 

Til of fortune he com in-to Ytaille, 

And wan pat lond, as bookes tellen vs. 

With whom was eke his sone Askanius, 

The end of 
dispute is 
the sword 
and death, 


804 aa in the (;asc 

of Troy. . 


But happi- 
ness followd, 
for Troy's 
ruin was 
2 Rome's start, 





and the rise 
of many 

For Eneas 
saild to 
Italy, and 
won it, 
conquer d it. 

801. gynnyng] begynnywg D 1. 

802. fret abydyng] abidinge hete D 1. 

804. whilom] so/ratine D 1. 811. vn-to] to D 1. 

812. gynnyng and] begynnynge & J>e D 1. 

814. after] aftwarde D 1. 816. Whilom] Somroe tyme D 1. 

819. passyng famous] famous passnge A, farmw? passinge D 1. 

820. was brou3t] brought was A. 822 many] many a D 1. 
827. wan] whan D 2, D 1. 

36 How 

His succes- 
sors were 
Silvius, and 
Brute, who 
won Britain 
from the 

His mate 
Francus built 
the town of 

France, while 




and Sycanus 




France, Venice, Sicily & Naples were founded. [BK. i 

pat after Enee next be-gan succede 

The lond of Ytaille iustly to possede ; 

And after hym his sone Silvius, 

Of whom cam Brute, so passyngly famws. 

After whom, $if I schal nat feyne, 

Whilom pis lond called was Breteyne ; 

For he of geauwtys poru3 his manhood wan 

pis noble yle, and it first be-gan. 

From Troye also, with pis ilke Enee, 

Cam worthi Francus, a lord of hi3e degre, 

Whiche vp-on Kone, tencressen his renouw, 

Bilt in his tyme a ful royal tovn, 

pe whiche sothly, his honour to avaunce, 

After his name he made calle Fraunce ; 

And pus be-gan, as I vnderstond, 

pe name first of pat worthi lond. 

And Anthenor, departyng from Troyens, 

Gan first pe cite of Yenycyens ; 

And Sycanus, witMnne a lytel while, 

Gan enhabite pe lond of Cecyle. 

And after partyng of ]?is Sycanus, 

His worthi brother, called Syculus, 

So as I fynde, regned in pat yle ; 

And after hym it called was Cecille. 

But Eneas is to Tuscy goon, 

It tenhabite with peple ri$t anoon ; 

And in Cecille he Naplis first be-gan, 

To whiche ful many Neopolitan 

Longeth pis day, ful riche & of gret my3t. 

And Diomedes, pe noble worpi kny3t, 

Whan Troye was falle with his toures faire, 

As to his regne he cast[e] to repaire, 

His leges gan to feynen a querele 

A-geyn[e]s hym, and schop hem to rebelle ; [leaf 6 c] 

And of malys and conspiraciou?z, 

829. next be-gan] dooth by lyne A, doth the lyne D 1. 

834. Whilom] Sommetyme D 1. 

839. Rone] Rome A, Seyne D 1. 842. calle] calle it D 1. 

846. Gan] Bigan D 1. 848. Gan] Bygan D 1. 

849. partyng] >e departinge D 1. 853. to] vn to D 1. 

857. of gret] moche of D 1. 861. to feynen] for to feyne A. 









BK. i] How some Greeks were changed into Birds by Circe. 37 

)3ei hym with-hilde bothe septer & crovn, 864 

Her duete and her olde lygaiwce, 

And hym denye troupe and obeissance. 

Wher-for a-noon, so as bokes telle, 

With al his folke he went[e] for to dwelle 868 

Yn-to Callabre, and gan it to possede. 

And [per] pe kny^tes of pis Dyomede, 

#at fro Troye han him* pider swed, 

To forme of briddes wern anon transmwed 872 

By Cyrces crafte, doubter of pe sonne, 

And in pe eyr to fleen anoon pei go?me, 

And called ben, in Ysidre as I rede, 

Amonges Grekys briddes of Dyomede. 876 

But as som bokys of hem her witnesse, 

J)is chaurcge was made be Venus pe goddesse, 

Of wrath sche had to pis worthi kny^te ; 

Only for sche sawe hym onys fy^te 880 

With Eneas, hir owne sone dere. 

At whiche tyme, as pei fau^t I-fere, 

And Diomede with a darte I-grouwde 

Gan hame at hyrn a dedly mortal wouwde, 884 

His moder Venws gan anoon hym schroude 

Vnder a skye and a mysty cloude, 

To sauen hym fat tyme fro meschaurcce. 

And for pis skyl Venws took vengauwce : 888 

In-to briddes to turne his meyne. 

And in pat forme fro 3er to 3er pei fle 

Vn-to his towmbe, wher as* he is graue. 

"So vp-on hym a mynde* $it pei haue, 892 

ftat of custom for a remembrauwce, 

A rite pei holde and an observauttce 

At his exequies, pise briddes euerychon, 

A dayes space, and pe?mys nou3t ne gon. 896 

And ouer-more, as it to hem is dwe, 

]5ei loue Grekis, and platly pei eschewe 

Latyns alle, for ou3t pat may be-tyde : 

871. him] hem C. 880. Only] Sothly D 1. 

882. I-fere] in fere D 1, D 2. 889. his] al his D 1. 

890. >at] the A. 891. as] pot C. 892. a mynde] amynde C. 

897. ouer-more] over that D 1 it to hem is] it is to hem D 1. 

S98. 1st >ei] To A. 

refused by his 
own subjects, 

There, his 
were changed 
into birds by 

But some 
books say 
this change 
was made by 
aimd a 
mortal dart 
at her son 

And yearly 
these birds 
fly to Diome- 
dea's tomb, 
and stay 
there for a 

These Greek- 

birds avoid 

(This was 
due to 
sorcery and 
false enchant- 

When Troy 



many cities 
were built. 

38 The Greek-changed Birds. Lamedon hears of the Greeks. [BK.I 

For pei present, a-noon pei flen aside ; 900 

And eche from other, as bokys vs assure, 

Jjis briddes knowe, only of nature, 

Grekys and Latyns kyndely assonder, 

Whan pei hem seen : pe whiche is swiche a worader* 904 

Yn-to my witte, pat I can nou^t espie 

Jje causys hid of swiche sorcerye 

But wel I wot, pou$ my wit be blent, 

}pat rote of al was fals enchauTitement. 908 

But of our feithe we ou^te to defye 

Swiche apparencis schewed to pe eye, 

Whiche of pe fende is but illusiouw [leafed] 

Her-of no more. & pus whan Troie tovn 912 

Euersed was, and I-brou^t to nou^t, 

Ful many cite was I-bilt and wrou^t, 

And many lond and many riche tovn 

Was edified by thocasiourc 916 

Of pis werre, as $e han herde me telle. 

Whiche to declare now I may not dwelle 

From point to point, lyche as bokis seyn, 

For to lason I wil resorte ageyn, 920 

feat londed is with worthi Hercules 

At Symeonte, pe hauene pat he* ches, 

As I haue tolde, to reste hem & couwforte, 

And for not elles but only to disporte. 924 

But to pe kyng, regnyng in Troye town, 

J)at was pat tyrne called Lamedown, 
was toid that Of fals envy reported was and tolde, 
had landed in How certeyn Grekis wern of herte bolde 928 

his territory, 

To entre his lond, pe whiche pei nat knewe, 

Wel arrayed in a vessel newe. 

Whiche to arryve had[de] no lycence, 

And hem purpose [for] to doon offence, 932 

Be liklyhed, and his lond to greue : 

For pei of pryde, with-outerc any leue 

904. a wonder] awowder C. 906. causys] cause is D 1. 
909. But] And D 1. 913. I-broujt] brou^te D 1. 
915. many] many a (twice) D 1. 

919. bokis] my bookes D 1. 920. resorte] retorne D 1. 
922. he] bei C. 925. regnyng in] bat tyme of D 1. 
931. arryve] arrive tyre D 1. 

I now go 
back to Jason, 
who landed 
at Symeonte 
(p. 38). 

Its king, 

BK. l] King Lamedon sends an Ambassador to Jason, 

Or safcondyte, ban J?e stronde y-take ; 

And swiche maistries on j?e lond fei make, 

As in her power wer alle mane?' thyng, 

Havyng no rewarde pleynly to }>e kyng ; 

Of his estat take J?ei noon hede. 

Of swyche straungeris gretly is to drede, 

3iffe men be laches outlier necligent 

Fully to wit what is her entent, 

But furthe prolong, & no pereil caste : 

Swiche sodeyn J>mg wolde be wist as faste, 

And nat differrid til fe harme be do ; 

It wer wisdam fat it were seie to : 

Men may to long suffryn and abyde 

Of necligence for to lete slyde 

For to enqueren of her gouernaunce. 

J)is was ]>e speche and J?e dalyaunce, 

Eueryche to other by relacioiw, 

In euery strete thoru^-oute Troye tovn. 

Sowme rovnyng & so??zme spak a-brood ; 

And J?is speche so longe fer a-bood 

From on to a-nother, sothly, J>at j?e sovn 

Reported was to kyng Lamed ovn, 

As 36 ban herde, J?e whiche of wilfulnesse, 

With-out[e] couMsail or avisenesse, 

To hast[i]ly maked hath his sonde, 

To wit how pei wern hardy for to londe 

Be-syde his leue, of presumpciourc. 

Wher-fore he bad, in conclusions, 

With-oute abood sone to remwe, 

Or finally J>ei schulde nat eschewe 

To be compellid, mavgre who seith nay. 

And so J>e kyng, vp-on a certeyn day, 

In haste hath sent his embassatour 

Vn-to lason, of Grekys gouernour, 

Jjat novther thou^t harme nor vylonye, 




regard to 

So folk in 
Troy said 
this must be 
seen to. 



956 Accordingly 

[leaf 7 a] 960 


sent his 
968 to Jason, 

940. gretly] greet A. 941. outher] or be D 1. 

943. furthe] for to D 1. 944. wolde] shulde D 1 

945. be] were D 1. 950. and] of A. 

952. thoru^-oute] thorugh A. 953. rovnyng] rowned D 1 

955. a-nother] othir D 1. 957. J>e] om. D 1. 

960. for] om. D 1. 962. in] as in D 1. 

40 K. Lamedon lids Jason and his men learn Troy -land. [BK. I 

and told him 

he was Bur- 
prised at bis 

and bade him 
leave the 
land at once 

or the lives of 
him and his 
folk would be 
in danger. 

But Innocent, with his companye, 

Disported hym endelong f e stronde, 

And euer hath do sethen he cam to londe. 972 

And of fe charge fat he on hym leyde, 

And word by word to lason how he seide, 

As in effecte with euery circumstaurcce, 

j)is was fe somme pleiiily in substauwce : 976 

Howe Kenge Lamedon, by vndiscret cou?zcele, sent 
his messenger to lason to go owt of his lande. 1 

" rflhe wise, worthi, moste fanms of renourc, 

JL fte my3ty kyng, f e noble Lamedourc, 
Hath vn-to 3ow his message sent, 

Of whiche theffect, as in sentement, 980 

Is f is in sothe : fat he hath mervaille 
In-to his* londe of 3 our ariuaille, 
Bryngyng ^iih 3ow Grekys nat a fewe, 
And haue no condyte with* 3ow [for] to schewe, 984 
Protecciouw, pleynly, nor lycence, 
In preiudise of his magnificence. 
Wherfore he hath on me f e charge leyde, 
And wil to 3ow fat it be platly seyde, 988 

))at 36 anoon, with-oute more delay, 
With-out[e] noyse, or any more affray, 
Of Troye lond f e bowndis fat 36 leve ; 
Or 30 w and 3oures he casteth for to greve. 992 

And bet it is with ese to departe, 
}3an of foly 3our lyues to luparte, 
In any wyse, for lak of prouidence, 

Ageyns his wille to make resistence, 996 

Outher of pride or of wilfulnesse, 
For to be bolde wM-oute avisenesse 
To interrupte his felicite ; 

For he desyreth in tranquillite 1000 

To holde his regne, w't/*-oute parturbauwce. 

972. sethen] sith D 2, D 1. 

974. to lason how he] howe he to lason D 1. 

975. in effecte] infecte D 1. 981. hath] hab moche D 1. 
982. his] bis C. 984. with] for C. 

985. nor] or D 2, ne no D 1. 

986. his] his hi^e D 1. 997. or] oubir D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 12 d. 

BK. i] Jason consults his Folk as to obeying King Lamedon. 41 

In whos persone is made swyche aliaunce 

Atwen his manhood & royal mageste, 

ftat Jjei nyl suffre noon of no degre 1004 

Tenpugne his quiete in any maner wyse, 

Wherfore I consaille, ag 36 seme wyse, 

To taken hede vn-to )>at I seye, fon? Lame " 

And his byddyng no3t to disobeie, 1008 fJJjJJJjJJJn 

Liste 36 offende his kyngly excellence. [leaf 7 6] to go at once. 

For 36 schal fynde in experience, 

With-oute feynyng, sothe al j>at I telle ; 

Take hede perfor, I may no lenger dwelle 1012 

From poynt to poynt, syth 30 be wis and sage, 

For ])is is hool jjeffecte of my massage." 

Whan lason herd of )>e massanger Jason 

J)ise wordes alle, he gan chaunge cher, 1016 

And kepte hym cloos, we't/i sobre contenauwce, 

And was nat hasty for Ire nor greuauwce ; 

For no rancour he cai^te of his tale, 

Saue in his face he gan to wexe pale, 1020 

Long abydyng or ou3t he wolde seyn. 

And or he spak any worde ageyn 

Vn-to hym J?at from J)e kyng was sent, 

He gan disclose be sorame of his entent 1024 consults his 

folk, telling 

Vn-to his foolke stondyng ronde aboute ; 

For vn-to hem he discurede oute 

Jpe message hool, firste whan he abreide, 

And worde by worde jms to hem he seyde : 1028 them how 

Off the Answer of lason to the messenger of 
Lamedown. 1 

" Sirs," he seyth, " to 3ow be it knowe 

Taketh hede, I praye, both hy3 and lowe 

How Lamedoiw, fat is kyng of Troye, King 

Hath sent to vs a wonderful envoye, 1032 

Chargynge in haste to hy^e oute of his lond : has bidden 

them quit his 

1003. Atwen] Bitwene D 1. 1004. nyl] wil D 1. land> 

1012. berfor] her of D 1. 1015. new 1F A, D 1. 
1020. pale] al pale D 1. 1026. oute] it oute D 1. 
1028. hem he] him D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 13 b (misplaced after line 1084). 

42 Jason comments on Lamedons want of Hospitality. [BK. I 

tho they 
came only to 
refresh them- 

Surely a king 
of honour 

should have 
told his 
people to 

Had Lame- 
don come to 

And axeth how we vp-on f e stronde 

For to arive hadden hardinesse, 

With-oute leue : seth here * his gentillesse, 

And his fredam, f e whiche is nat a lite ! 

How lyche a kyng fat he can hym, quite 

Vn-to strauwgerys fat entren in his He 

For nou$t, God wot, but for a litel while 

Hem to refresche, and departe anoon, 

Lyche as $e can recorder euerychon, 

And here witnes, bothe alle and sorame. 

Alias, fredam, wher is it now be-com 1 

Where is manhood, and gentilnesse also, 

Whiche in a kyng to-gidre bothe two 

Schulde of custom han her restyng place ? 

And wher is honour, fat schulde also enbrace 

A lordis hert, whiche of kny^tly ry$t, 

Of manly fredam, with alle his fulle my$t, 

Schulde straurageris refresche and reconforte, 

})at aftir-ward f ei my^t of hym reporte 

Largesse expert, manhood, and gentillesse, 

J)at f ei han fourcden in his worthinesse. 

For ^iffe noblesse wer of his allye, 

And fredam eke knyt with his regalye, 

So as longeth to honour of a kyng, 

He schulde haue chargid, first of al[le] thing, [leaf 7 <o 

His worthi liges, with al fat my^tfe] plese, 

To haue schewed f e comfort and f e ese, 

With al hir my$t and her besy cure, 

Vn-to strauwgeris fat of aventure 

Wern in fe see dryuen and dismaied, 

And of our comfort nat ben euel [a] payed. 

For 3if fat he in any cas semblable, 

Outher. by fortune fat is variable, 

By sort or happe, fat may not be wif-stonde, 

Arived had in-to Grekys londe, 

1036. here] hir C. 1037. J?e] om. D 1. 

1038. can] gan D 1. 1041. and] and to A. 

1043. here] om. A bothe] om. A. 

1047. of custom han] haue of custome D 1. 

1053. manhood] fredom D 1. 1058. alle] any D 1. 

1060. 2nd be] om.. A. 










BK. i] Jason will pay Lamedon out for his Discourtesy. 43 

More honestly,* lyche to his degre, 

He schulde of vs haue resseived be, he'd have 

been well 

Lyche as it longeth vn-to gentene. receivd. 

But syth fat he, for ou^t I can espie, 1072 

Hath fredam, honour, and humanite 
Atonys made oute of his courte to fle, 

Chose dishonour and late worschip goon But as Lame- 

don has 

ber is no more, but we schal euerychon, 1076 chosen dis- 


ftat he hath chosen help[e] to fulfille, 

Whan power schal nat be lyke his wille ; 

jjis [is] to seyne, and sothe it schal be founde, 

jpat his dede schal on hym silfe* rebounde 1080 "shall 


Sith of malys he hath f is werke be-gonrce on him 

Para venture or f e somer sonne 

))e sodiak hath thnes gon aboute. 

For late hym trust, & no fing bera in doute, 1084 

We schal hym serue with swyche as he hath sou^t ; 

For $if I lyue it schal be dere abou^t, 

Al-be f er-of I sette as now no tyde. 

And in his* lond I nyl no lenger byde 1088 

Til I haue leiser better to soiorne." andhe'iiget 

. .. , , punishment. 

And with fat worde he gan anoon to turne 

With manly face and a sterne chere 

Sodeynly vn-to fe massangere, 1092 

J)at fro f e kyng was vn-to hym * sent ; 

And in bis wyse he scheweth his entent : so Jason 

tells Lame- 
HoW lason and Hercules toke displeasure with Kyng Ambassador 
Lamedowne of Troye, gyuyng his messanger know- 
lege of their next cowmynge to gyue hym batayle 
For his vndiscreet co?maundeme?it. 1 

" My frende," qwod he, " I haue wel vnderstande 

)3e massage hool, fat fou toke on honde, 1096 

Of f i kyng to bryng[en] vn-to vs 

1069. honestly] honestlyche C. 

1076. per] That D 1. 1078. Whan] Tharaie D 1. 

1080. schal on hym silfe] on hym silfe schal C. 

1085. he] om. D 2. 1088. his] Jns C, D 2 byde] abide D 2. 

1092. Sodeynly] Al sodeinly D 1. 

1093. was vn-to hym] vn-to hym was C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 13 c. 


that he 

Jason's ironical answer to Zing Lamedon. [BK. I 

and goodness, 

and his 

Jason never 
meant him 
any harm, 

but was 
driven by 
storm to 

and meant 
soon to leave. 

now vnwarly ; & syth it standeth f us, 
I haue his menyng euerydel 
From point to point, & vnderstonde it wel 
For word by worde I haue it plein cowseived, 
And f e siftes fat we han resseived 
On his by-halue in our gret[e] nede, 
I wil remembre, and take ri$t gode hede 
To euery f ing fat f ou hast vs bro^t. 
For trust[e] wel fat I for^ete it nou^t, 
But enprente it surly in my mynde ; [leaf 7 d] 

And with al f is, how goodly fat we fynde 
fee gret[e] bourcte in al maner thing, 
With-in fis lond of Lamedourc fi* kyng : 
His wolcomyng and his gret[e] cher, 
And goodly* sond fat j>ou bryngist her, 
Nat accordyng [vn-]to oure entent ; 
For God wel wot, fat we neuer ment 
Harine vn-to hym, nor pleinly no damage 
To noon of his of no maner age. 
And her-vppon f e goddis inmortal, 
ftat of kynde ben celestial, 
Vn-to recorde vfith al myn hert I take ; 
And touchyng pis my borwys I hem make, 
In witnessyng we ment[e] noon offence, 
Ne toke nat ? as by violence, 
With-in his rewme of wommarc, child, nor man ; 
And so f ou maist reporte $if f ou can 
But for fat we, fordriuen in f e se, 
Compellid wern of necessite 
For to ariue, as f ou haste herd me seyn, 
Only to reste vs her vp-on f e pleyn, 
With-oute more, vn-to a certeyn day, 
And after-ward to holde furf e our way 
Vp-on our lorneye, & make no tariyng, 









1100. it] om. D 2. 1101. plein] ora. D 2, plemly D 1. 

1106. truste] truste me D 2 truste wel >at] truste> D 1. 

1107. surly] sothly D 1. 1110. >i] >e C, D 1. 
1112. And] om. D 1 goodly] >e goodly C. 

1118. ben] bene ay D 1. 1122. nat] no >ing D 1. 

1123. his] J>is D 1. 1125. fordriuen] dryven A in] were in D 1. 

1131. make] to make D 2. 

BK. i] Hercules threatens a Greek Invasion of Troy. 45 

Liche as fou maist recorde to \>\ kyng 1132 

And seye hym eke he schal fe tyme se 

}3at he par-avnter schal mow Ranked be, 

Whan tyme corny th, by vs or by som other : 

Go furthe J>i waye, & seie hym \us, my brother." 1136 

And J?an anoon, as lason was in pes, 

J3e manly kny^t, fe worfi Hercules, Hercules 

Whan he had herd Jris ]?ing fro poynt to point, Lamedon's 

TT T- L i T ^ jr. Ambassador. 

He was anoon brou^t in swyche disiomt 1140 

Of hasty rancour and of sodeyn Ire, 

Jpe whiche his hert almost set afire, 

J3at sodeynly, as he abreyde abak, 

Of hi} disdeyn euen jms he spak, 1144 

With cher askoyn vn-to fe messanger, 

And seide, " felaw, be no fing in wer 

Of our abidyng, but be ri^t wel certeyn, 

)}at or Tytan his bemys reise ageyn, 1148 

We schal depart and to schipfpel goon ; The Greeks 

will set sail 

pat of oure men fer schal nat leuen oon next day, 

WitA-Inne f>is lond, &, God to-forn, to-morwe. 

And her-vp-on haue her my feith to borwe ; 1 152 

For we no lenger schal holden her soiour, 

For elles-wher we schal make our retour 

To-morwe erly in fe daw[e]nyng, 

Yp peyne of repref ; and so go seie J>i* kyng. [leaf s a] 1156 

And or thre ^ere, }if God vs graunt[e] lyf, but before s 

Maugre who grucche]) or make)) any strif, return, 

Vn-to Jns lond we schal a-geyn retourne, 

And caste anker a while to soiourne : 1160 

Take hede, ]>erfore, and note wel pe tyme ; 

A newe chaimge schal folwen of j>is pryme 

And fawne his power schal not so large strecche ; 

Of his saufconduit lytel schal we recche. 1164 

I seie be platly, as is oure entent, and not ask 

J ' leave to land. 

We wil not haue [vn-]to his maundement 

1132. recorde] reporte D 1. 1134. mow] om. V 1. 

1144. euen] anoon D 1. 1153. soiour] soiowrne D 1. 

1154. retour] retourne D 1. 1156. >i] be C, D 1. 

1159. retourne] tetowrne D 1. 

1161. >erfore] therof A. 

1166. haue vn-to] haste fyanne for D 1. 

46 King Lamedon's Ambassador answers Hercules. 

threats to 
King Lame- 



and says he 
doesn't want 
the Greeks 

[BK. i 

But lytel reward, and we fat day abide ; 

For takyng leue schal be set a-syde, 1168 

Be-cause he hath now be-gowne a play 

Which we schal quite be God, }if [fat] I may ! 

J?at torne schal in-to his owne schame ; 

And spare nou3t to seie J>i * kyng J>e same." 1172 

]9is massanger fan gan ageyn reply e, 

And seide, * ' syr, 36 may me not denye 

Of honeste my massage to declare ; 

A- vise 50 w, for I wil not spare 1176 

Jpe kynges sonde pleynly for to telle. 

And wher-so be 36* lyst to goon or dwelle, 

3e may ^it chese, who so be lefe or lothe ; 

$e haue no cause with me to be wroth; 1180 

For it sit not vn-to 3 our worthines, 

Y,ffe 36 take hede be weye of gentilnes, 

Of manassyng swiche arwes for to schete ; 

For more honest it were ^oure fretyng lete, 1184 

And kepe secrete til 36 ben at ^our large. 

For certeinly no parcel of my charge 

Is to * striue with $ow or debate. 

But bet it is by-tymes fan to late, 1188 

ftat 36 be war for harme fat my^tfe] fale. 

And for my parte, I saie vn-to 3ow alle, 

It were pite fat 36 distroied were, 

Or any man hyndre schulde or dere 1192 

So worf i persones, in any maner wise, 

Whiche ben so likly to be discret & wise ; 

And list with wordis as now I do 3ou greue, 

I saye no more, I take of 30 w my leue." 1196 

1167. reward] rewarde $eve ]>er of D 1. 

1169. Be-cause] For cause D 1 now] om. D 1 play] newe 
play D 1. 

1171. in-to] vnto D 2, to D 1. 

1172. >i] >e C, D 1. 1173. pis] The D 1. 

1178. be 3e] }e be C wher-so be }e lyst to goon] webir it so be 3e 
liste goo D 1. 

1179. 3it]itD 1. 

1184. For] om. D 1 lete] for to lete D 1. 

1185. secrete] secre D 2, D 1. 1187. to] for to C, D 1. 
1189. fale] befalle D 1. 

1192. hyndre schulde] shulde hyndir A. 

BK. i] Jason and his Greeks make ready to leave Troy-land. 47 

Howe lason arcd Hercules departede from the 
bowndes of Troy towarde Calcos londe. 1 

The ny$t ypassed, at springyng of fe day, Atdayupring, 

Whan frtt fe larke with a blissed* lay 
Oan to salue the lusty rowes rede 

Of Phebus char, fat so freschely sprede 1200 

Vp-on fe bordure of fe orient ; 
And Aurora, of hert and hool entent, 
With fe swetnes of hir siluer schoures 
Bedewed had fe fresche somer floures, 1204 

And made fe rose with new[e] bawme flete, [leaf 86] 
))e sote lillye and f e margarete 
For to vnclose her tender leuys white, wh " the niy 

and daisy 

Oppressed hertes vrith gladnes to delyte 1208 P en 

J?at drery wern aforn of ny^tes tene ; 

And hony-souklis amonge fe buschis grene 

Enbamed hadde envirouw al f e Eyr ; 

Longe or Titan gan maken his repeire, 1212 

With f e bri3tnes of his bemys merye 

For to reioische al oure Emysperye : 

For longe a-forn, or he dide arise, 

J)is worthi lason in ful hasty wyse, 1216 

And his felawe Hercules also, Jason and 


I-charged nan hir scnipmen naue a-do wd their 

To hale vp anker and hem redy make ; 

And bad in haste euery man to take 1220 

))e ri^t[e] weye vn-to schippe a-iioon. 

For in sothnes, j?is manly man lason go aboard, 

Jpou^t he was not stuffid of meyne 

To gynne a werre on Troye J>e cite ; 1224 

For he was not, schortly to conclude, as they've 

not men 

Esral in nouwbre nor in multitude, enough to 

make war on 

As for fat tyme, a werre to be-gynne. Tr y' 

It was not likly fat he schulde wynne 1228 

1197. ypassed] passid D 1. 1198. a blissed] a blisful D 1, 

ablissed C. 

1205. newe] )>e newe D 1. -1207. to vnclose] vnto cloose A. 

1218. I-charged] Charged D 1 hir] for D 2. 

1224. gynne] begynne D 1 on Troye )>e cite] vn to Troye cite 

1 Royal MS. 18 D. ii. leaf 14 a. 

The Greeks 
set sail, 

and reach 

48 Jason sails to Colchos, where King Cethes reigns. [BK. 

Victorie as tho, for f ei wer but a fewe ; 

And it is not holsom a man to hewe 

Abouen his bed, whan it is ouere hije, 

List f e chippis wil fallen in his eye. 

Wherfore of Frygye fei leue fe costis blyue; 

fei lifte vp sail ; f e schip be-gan to driue ; 

J)e wynde was good ; f e goddys f auowable ; 

Fortune her frende, f ouj sche be variable. 

And J)us to Colchos safe J>ei ben y-come, 

And vn-to londe, bof en al and some, 

jjei ben arived in a lytel space; 

For in f e see fei haue fou?iden grace 

Of Neptunws, fat caused hem as blive, 

As I seide her, at Colchos for tarive. 

Now in f is He, and f is * litel londe, 

}3at Colchos hi^t, $e schal vnderstonde, 

How fat f er was a rial * chef cite, 

In al fat reigne moste of dignyte, 

Of worthines, of ryches, and of fame, 

And lachonytos fat tyme bar f e name 

Chevest of alle, to spekyn of bildyng, 

And stretes large and corious howsyng, 

And f er-wzt/i-al dyched wel with-oute, 

Strongfe] wallid & toured rourade aboute, 

Of huge hei3te and aboue * batailled, 

Maskued also, lyst j>ei wer assailed, [leaf 8 c] 

With many palys, staatly and royal, 

For [per] ]>e sete was most principal, 

fte kyng to abide bet fan elles-wher ; 

And fat tyme it happed hym be fere. 

And he was callyd Cethes, as I rede, 

Ful renomed of kny^thood and manhede, 

And had aboute hym a wel beseyn meyne, 

Lyche as was sytting vn-to his degre ; 

On this isle 
the chief 
city is 


and in it 










1234. lifte vp] make good D 1. 

1243. new H D 2, D 1 bis] in >is C. 1245. a rial] arial C. 

1246. >at] be A moste] chefe D 1. 

1249. 2nd of] of in D 1. 1250. 2nd and] wij? D 1. 

1253. aboue] aboute C batailled] enbatailled D 1. 

1254. Maskued] Magecold A, Maskewed D 2, D 1. 
1261. aboute hym] om. D 2. 

BK. i] Description of the glorious City Jachonitos in Colchos. 49 



are rivers, 




and flowers. 


And euery-wher, londys eiiviroim, 

jpe fame spradde of his hi^e renou?*. 1264 

And al aboute J?is my^ti chefe cite, 

Wher as Cethes helde his royal se, 

Wer fresche ryuers, of whiche fe water clene 

Liche cristal schon ageyn j>e sonne schene, 1268 

Fair[e] playnes, as Guydo bereth witnes, 

And holsom hylles ful of lustines, 

And many laye and many lusty welle. 

And j>er wer eke, my awctor can 3011 telle, 1272 

Ful many a parke, ful feir and fresche to sene, 

And many wode & many medowe grene, 

With sondri floures amonge j?e herbes meynt, 

Whiche on her stalke nature hath depeynt 1276 

With sondri hewes, wz't/i-Innen and w^t/i-oute, 

After J>e sesowa of * somer cam aboute. 

For fyschyng, foulyng, & haukyng eke also, 

For venerie and huntyng bothe two, 1280 

))e place was inly delittable ; 

Of corn and greyne passyngly greable, 

And plenteuous in al maner thing. 

For ]?er men herde fe briddes freschely syng 

In tyme of ^ere in her armonye, 

))at J?e noyse and soote melodye 

On fresche braunches, ful delicious, 

Eeioische wolde J>ise folkis amerous, 1288 

Whom louys brond hath fired to fe hert, 

And adawen of her peynes smert, 

)5at certeinly whan fat * grene ver 

I-passed were, ay fro $er to ^er, 1292 

And May was com, J>e monyth of gladnes, * May, 

And fresche Flora, of flouris emperes, 

Hadde clad J?e soile new at her devise, 

1263. londys] in londes D 1. 

1267. Wer] Where D 1. 1271. many] many a (twice) D 1. 

1272. wer] wher D 2. 1273. a] om. A. 

1274. many] many a (twice) D 1. 

1275. amonge )>e] & wi]> D 1. 1278. of] as C. 

1280. two] &m. D 2. 1282. passyngly] so passi?igly D 1. 
1283. in] of D 1. 1286. noyse] voyse D 1. 
1287. On] Of D 1. 1291. f>at] ]>e D 1, J>at pei C. 
1292. I-passed] Epassid D 1. 



1284 and birds- 

50 Jason and Us men march to King Cethes's Palace. [BK. I 
jacbonitosis Jjis noble place was like a paradyse. 



To it come 
Jason and 
Hercules ; 

like Paradise. ^ d ^^ goddegse of i ar gesse and foysoiw, 
Swyche plente ^ vn-to fat regioun, 
Of flesche, fische, vyn, vitaille, and come, 
at J?e licour of her ful[le] home 
Vp-on fat lond so gan reine and snowe, 

AII folk have jpat alle estatis, bothe hi^e and lowe, 

Ladden her lyf in souereyn suffisaunce,* [leaf 8 d] 

With al bat Nature coude or my3t avaunce 

Jpis litel He with her giftes grete, 

Lyche as to-forn 36 haue herde me trete. 

For ber was plente, & ber was aburcdaunce, 

And ber was al fat my3t[e] do plesaunce 

To any herte, and al cowmodite. 

And so bifel, that to bis cite 

lason is come, and with hym Hercules, 

And after hem * foloweth al be pres, 

Ful wel arraied and rially beseyn, 

and their fine Armys enclosed to-gydre tweyn & tweyn 

men march * - 

two and two A peple chose as it wer ior be nonys ; 

And ber-with-al of brawnys & of bonys, 

Eueryche of hem of makyng and fasiouw 

Ful wel complete by proporciourt, 

3ong of age and of good stature, 

Of couwtenaurcce sad and ful demwre, 

j)at euery wy3t had[de] gret plesaunce 

To sen )>e maner of her gouernaunce : 

So 3ong, so fresche, hardy [and] meke also. 

And al attonys Jjei to J>e paleys goo 

With swiche a cher, Ipai eue?*yche hath disport 

To sen ]>e maner of her noble port. 

So gentilmanly J?ei demened were, 

J)at f>e peple gan presen euery-vvhere 

To sen pis * strauwgeris, lyche Ipe Grekis gyse, 

Demene hem silfe in so thrifty wyse ; 

to King 

gazed at by 
his folk. 









1299. fische] of fisshe D 2, & fisshe D 1. 

1301. gan] coude D 1. 1303. suffisaunce] sufficiauuce C. 

1310. cite] faire citee D 1. 

1312. hem] him C, hem two D 1. 1319. age] her age D 1. 

1320. Of] And of D 2. 1321. gret] ful gret D 1. 

1329. >is] >e C. 

BK. i] Jason and Hercules are well receivd ly K. Cethes. 51 

And of desyre pe peple nolde cesse 

Abouten hem to gadren and empresse, 1332 

And to enquere what pei nmtfe] be, The coichi- 

ans ask who 

toat of newe with swiche nalte the strange 

Greeks are, 

Ben sodeynly entred in-to towne. 

J3us eueryche wolde vfith his felawe* rowne; 1336 

bei wern so rude to staren and to ease, and stare at 

them, as 

To gape & loke,* as it wer on a mase ; townish folk 

}}is townysche folk do so comownly 

On euery ping pat falleth sodeinly. 1 340 

But how fat Cethes, liche a worthi kyng, 

Whawne fat he herde first of her comyng, 

Keceyveth hem and hooly fie maner, 

3iffe pat 36 liste, anoon $e schal [it] here. 1344 

Howe Kenge Cethes of Calcos wirshipffully ressavith 
lason and Hercules into his Cytee Called lacony- 
thes, wher pe Flees of golde was. 1 

Wharc pat pe kyng hath sothly vnderstonde King Cethes 

How pe Grekis comen wer to* londe, 
And how lason was also per-with-al, 
Borne by discent of pe blood roial 1348 

Of Thessalye, and likly to ben eyr, 
If he by grace haue ageyn repeyr, 
fee aventures acheved of Colchos, 

J)e kyng anoon out of his se a-roos [leaf 9 c] 1352 rises and goes 

Of gentilnes, in al pe haste he may, 

In godely wyse to mete hem on pe way, to meet them. 

And hem receyveth with chere ful benyngne ; 
And vn-to hem anoon he doth assigne 1356 

His offyceris tawayte hem ny$t and day, 
Chargyng hem in al maner way, 

1331. nolde] nolde not D 1. 

1335. towne] the tourc D 1. 1336. felawe] felawes C. 

1338. loke] to loke C a] he D 1. 

1345. kyng hath sothly] kiwg Cethes ha> D 1. 

1346. to] on C. 1347. also] eke D 1. 

1351. aventures] auenture D 1. 1354. hem] hym D 1. 

1357. tawayte] to wayte D 2, to waite D 1. 

1358. maner way] >t euere he may D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 13 d. 

52 King Cethes hospitably entertains Jason in Jachonitos. [BK. 

K. Cethes 
orders that 
Jason and his 
men are to 
have all they 

He receives 
them in his 


gives them 

takes his 
royal seat, 

and bids 

J)at what-so-euer may to hem don ese, 

Or any fircg fat may hem queme or plese, 1360 

]5at f ei it haue in foysoiw and plente, 

Eueryche of hem, lyche to his degre. 

))us he comaiwdeth in al maner f ing. 

And fan anoon fis noble worthi kyng, 1364 

As he fat was of fredam a * merour, 

Thoru} many halle and many riche tour, 

By many tourn and many diuerse way, 

By many gre made of marbil grey, 1368. 

Hath hem conveied a ful esy pas, 

Til he hem brou^t f er his chambre was, 

Wher he vriih hem helde his daliauwce. 

And fer anoon wzt/i Query circumstaunce 1372. 

Of manly fredam, he made to hem chere ; 

And in his chambre, englasid bri3t and clere, 

))at schon ful schene w*t7i golde & with asure 

Of many ymage fat was fer in picture, 137S 

He hath commauraled to his officeris, 

Only in honour of hem fat were * strauwgeris, 

Spicys and wyn, and after fat anoon, 

]3e ^onge fresche, )?e lusty man lason, 1380 

As faste gan be lycens of J>e kyng 

For to declare J>e cause of his comyng. 

But first \>e kyng, with gret rialte, 

Ascendid is in-to his royal se, 1384 

Cloth is of gold hanged environs 

After J?e custom of fat regiouw, 

J)at to be-holde it was a noble sy^te, 

Stondyng aboute many [a] worthi kny^te 1388 

And many squier and many gentil man 

Ful wel be-seyn ; and j> e kyng ri$t than, 

Yn-to lason, stondyng in presence, 

ComauTzded hath of his magnificence, 1392 

1359. may to hem] to hem may D 1. 1365. a] and C. 

1366. 1st many] many an D 1. 

1367. many] many a (twice) D 1. 1368. many] many a D 1 
1372. ber] Jwrone D 1. 1375. schene] clene A. 

1376. many] many an D 1. 1378. were] ben C. 

1385. Clothisj Wi> clo>es D 1. 

1389. many] many a (twice) D 1. 1391. in] in his D 1. 

BK. l] Jason begins his speech to King Cethes of Colchos. 53 
'"With Hercules to sitte dovn by-syde, and Hercules 

j - . sit beside 

And lason pan no lenger liste abyde h!S'ih d teU 

Of his comyn be cause for to scbewe, they've 

J o i come to 

)3effecte of whiche was pis in wordis fewe 1396 hisland - 

Saue lason, or he his tale gan, 

Ful wel avised, and cherid lyche a man, 

Conceyved hath and noted wonder wel 

From point to point his mater euerydel, 1400 

And nat for-gat a word in al his speche ; [leaf 9 &] 

But evene lik as rethorik doth teche, 

He gan his tale so by crafte conveie 

To make pe kyng, to pat he wolde seie, 1404 

Condescende, and rather to encline 

For tassent fat he my^tfe] fyne 

Of his comyng pe kny^tly hi$e emprise, 

jjus worde by worde as I schal her deuise : 1408 

Howe lason purposede his instance in pe presence of 
Kenge Cethes of Colcos to gra?zte him licence to 
darreyn batel for pe flees of golde. 1 

y^t worthi prince, present in pis place, So Jason 

Only with support of ^our hi^e grace, 
And $our goodnes, most excellent and digne, 
With pacience of $our fauour benigne, 1412 

Disple[se] it not pat I may seyn and schewe, 
And declare with wordys but a fewe 
jpe fynal grouwde and cause of my comyng ; 
So pat $e list, whiche ben so noble* a kyng, 1416 win 

T . . , tt, but listen to 

In goodly wyse, with-oute more onence, 

Benygnely to ^even audience 

To my request, and [pat] 36 nat disdeyne his request, 

1393. dovn] dou?i there D 1. 

1397. gan] bigan D 1. 1399. wonder wel] eucry dele D 1. 

1400. euerydel] wonder wele D 1. 

After 1402, D 1 inserts two lines : 

fful benignely & in humble wise 

As men may leren writen of the wise. 
1403. He gan] Bigan D 1. 

1405. Condescende] To coudessende D 1. 1408. her] am. D 1. 
1409. Ry^t worthi] Myjty D 1. 1416. noble] wor}>i C. 
1418. $even] ^eue me D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 14 . 

54 Jason asks K. Cethes leave to try for the Fleece of Gold. [BK. I 

he wants 
leave to get 

the Fleece 
of Gold. 

Win or lose, 

he'll try for 

if Cethes '11 
fix a day for 

his start. 

Goodly to grauwte pat I may atteyne 1420 

In pis He, }if it may availe, 

|)e flees of gold frely for tassaile, 

As )>e goddys in pis auenture 

List to ordeyne for my fatal ewere. 

In whom lyth al, pleynly, and fortune, 

For to gouerne thinges in comowne, 

In werre and pees, conquest and victorie, 

And of armys pe renoura and pe glorie, 

Discomfeture & bringyng to outrauwce 

Al lyth in hem to hyndren or avaunce 

Ageynes whos my^t no mortal man may chese. 

But for al pis, wheper I wynne or lese, 

Or life or dethe be fyn * of my labour, 

3iffe pat $e list to done me pis fauour, 

To geve me leue and no more delaie, 

I am acorded fully for to assaye, 

Liche as pe statut maketh menciouw. 

Me liste to make noon excepciourc, 

Vp-on no syde fauour for to fynde ; 

But as pe Eytys pleynly make mynde, 

What euer falle, I schal hem vnderfonge, 

Lawly besechyng pat $e nat prolonge 

My purpos now, and maketh no delay, 

But of 3our grace setteth me a day 

Myn emprise pat I may acheve ; 

For myn abood stant vp-on $our leue 

Seith but a worde of grauwtyng at pe leste, 

And pan I haue pe fyn of my requeste." 

And whan pe kyng had herd * ceryously 

Jjentent of lason, seide* so manfully, [leaf 9 c] 

He atynt a litel, and kepte hym clos a while ; 

1420. bat] & bat D 1. 1421. jif ] #f >at D 1. 
1422. for] ora. D 1. 1423. in] leste in D 1. 

1424. List] For me D 1 for] and for D 1. 

1425, 26 are omitted in D 2. 

1430. Al] As D 1 avaunce] tavaunce A. 

1431. Ageynes] Ageyn D 2. 

1432. wheber] where A, wher D 2. 1433. fyn] myn C. 
1434. 3e] 3ou D 1. 1436. for] om. D 1. 

1441. vnderfonge] vnderstoimde D 2. 

1447. Seith] Set A of ] or A of grauwtyng] and graimteb D 1. 

1449. herd] hcrkned C. 1450. seide] >at seide C. 








BK. i] King Cethes warns Jason of the danger of his Quest. 55 
Til at be laste he goodly gan to smyle 1452 

tells Jason 

Toward lason, and seydf e 1 to hym bus : of the danger 

of hia quest. 

"lason," quod he, "pou$ pou be desyrous 

To vnderfonge pis passyng hi3e emprise, 

Mi counsail is, liche as I schal deuise, 1456 

Ful pruden[t]ly for to caste a-forne 

J3e mortal pereyl, or pat pou be lorne ; 

For in pis ping per is a lawe set 

Be enchauwtement, pat may nat be let 1 460 

Nor remedied, for fauour nor for mede. 

For deth in soth. who so taketh hede, His death 

will be 

Is J>e guerdouw platly or pei twynne, 

Of all pat caste hem pe flees of gold to wyrme. 1464 

For help is noon in manhod nor fortune ; 

)5e streyte weye is so importune, 

So dredful eke, and so ful of rage, 

j)at saue dethe, per is no passage, 1468 the end of it. 

Of victorie j>e palme to conquere. 

For sothly, lason, as I schal pe lere, 

FouTided of old by merueillous wyrkyng 

Ben pe statutes of pis mortal ping ; 1472 

So sore bouwde vnder my regalye 

ftat pe rigour I may nat modefye. 

Wherfore, lason, or pou * pis ping attame, TO prevent 

Liste afterward on me wer laide pe blame 1476 blaming him, 

Of pi lesyng or destructions, 

Of feythful hert and trewe entenciouw 

I warne pe, my siluen for to quite ; 

So pat no man iustly schal me wyte, 1480 

J^ou^e pou of $oupe & of wilfulnes 

)3i silfe distroye, with-out avisenes, 

Syth I aforne, of pis perillous cas, of his perilou 

J adventure. 

From point to point haue tolde pe al pe cas. 1484 

Be now a vised, and put no faute in me, 
For pe surplus frely lyth * in pe, 
Of al pis ping, sipen pou maist cliese ; 

1453. Toward] Towardes D 2, D 1 to] vn to D 2. 
1460. >at] wiche D 1. 1461. nor] or D 1. 
1464. hem] om. A. 1475. J>ou] h a t >ou C. 
1483. I aforne] lason A. 1485. in] on D 2. 
1486. frely lyth] lyth frely C. 

56 Cethes leaves Jason to choose if hell try for the Fleece. [BK. I 

No man can 
do more than 
the Gods 

Jason has 
been warnd. 

He must 
beware of 

but he may 
do as he likes. 

And wher-so [be], pat pou wymie or lese, 
No man to me it iustly * may arrette : 
For pe lawe pt Mars liym silfe sette, 
No mortal man of due ri$t may passe ; 
For hi^e nor lowe get noon other grace, 
}?an * pe goddys list for hym ordeyne, 
What euere he be fat cast hym to darreyne 
j)is diuerse ping, moste furious of drede. 
Wherfore, lason, how-euer pat pou spede, 
I haue to pe openly declared 
Holly pe pereil, and for no fauour spared, 
As fer in sothe as resou?, wil, and ri^t ; 
For pou wost wel, it lyth nat in my my$t 
For to debarre, or any man to lette, 
J)at of manhood kny^tly cast to sette 
Vp-on pis ping, as pou hast herde me telle. 
What schulde I lenger in pis mater dwelle, 
lit wer but vayn, for now pou knowest al. 
Be war of hir pat turneth as a bal ; 
For at pis tyme pou gest no more of me 
Do as pou list, I putte pe choyse in the." 
And \\ith pat word the kyng ros vp anoon, 
Vp-on pe tyme whan he schulde goon 
Vn-to his mete, and lason by his syde, 
As $e schal here, ^if ^e liste abide.* 

[leaf 9 d] 








K. Cethes's 

prepare a 

Howe Kenge Cethes sent for his doughtire Medea to 
chere his strawngers, to his owne damage, 1 

The tyme aprochep, & gan to nei^erc faste, 
))at officeris ful besely hem caste 
To make redy, with al her fulle cure, 
And in pe halle pe bordis for to cure ; 1516 

1488. wher-so] whe>er D 1. 1489. it iustly] iustly it C, D 1. 
1493. pan] f>at C. 1500. nat] om. D 1. 
1501. 2nd to] om. D 1. 1502. of] om. D 2. 

1512. 2nd $e] 3011 D 1 abide] to abide C, D 1. 
After 1512, D 1 inserts two lines: 

I shal reherse >ori\3 my sirnplenesse 
Howe lason dide his knyjtly besinesse. 

1513. No neio H in D 2 aproche>] aproched D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 15 c. 

BK. i] King Cethes feasts Jason and Hercules in his Palace. 57 

K. Cethes, 

1524 with Her- 
cules and 
sit at meat. 



Music is 
playd on a 

For by fe clyal fe hour f ei gan to marke, 

])nt Phebwa southward was reised in his arke 

So hii,e alofte fat it drowe to noon, 

)3at it was tyme for fe kyng to goon 1520 

Yn-to his mete and entren in-to halle. 

And Cethes fanne, \viih his lordis alle, 

And wit/i his kny^tes aboute hym eue?'ecchon, 

With Hercules, and also with lason, 

Is set to mete in his roial se, 

And euerych lord, lyche to his degre. 

But firste of alle, f is worf i man lason 

Assigned was, by f e kynge anoon, 

For to sitten at his owne borde ; 

And Hercules, fat was so gret a lorde, 

Was set also faste by his syde. 

And f e marchal no lenger list abide 

Tassigne estatis wher f ei schulde be, 

Liche as f ei wern of hi 30 or * low degre ; 

And after bat, on scafold hiae a-lofte, 

playd or 

Jpe noyse gan, lowde & no (ring soi'te, 1536 scaffold. 

Both of trompetis and of clariotmeris. 

And f er-wit/i-alle f e noble officeris 

Ful friftely serued han fe halle, 

Liche as fe sesouw fat tyme dide falle, 1540 

With alle deintes fat may rekned be ; 

Jjat sothfastly f e foysouw and plente 

Of knyjtly fredam vn-to hi3e and lowe, 

So fulsomly gan to reyne and snowe, 1544 

Jjjit f oru^ f e halle was fe manhod preised 

Of fe k[i]ng, and his renouw reysed, 

at can his gestis, sothly for to seye, 

Whan fat hym liste, cheren and festeye [leaf 10 a] 1548 

So liche a kyng, and in so frifty wyse, 

1517. gan] bigan A.. 1518. southward] out ward D 2. 
1524. also with] worthi D 1. 1 528 follows 1526 MI D 1. 
1527] tfor to wasshen & si]>en for to #0011 D 1. 
1528. was] eke weren D 1. 1529. For to sitteu] To sitte D 1. 

1532. no lenger list abide] list no lenger bide D 1. 

1533. Tassigne] To signe D 1. 

1534. hije or low] lowe or hill A or] and C, D 1. 

1535. a-lofte] on lofte D 1. 1536. gan] be ga>i D 1. 
1544. fulsomly] foisounly D 1. 

Dainties are 

The King 'i 

58 K. Cethes s Feast. He sends fw his daughter Medea. [BK. I 

The feast is 
so fine that 

I can't de- 
scribe all its 

King Cethes 

sends for his 



rosy Medea, 
in whom 

white and red 

With al deinte )>at man can deuise. 

For at ]?is feste and solempnite, 

fee Grekis my^t J>e grete nobley se 

Of kyng Cethes, and j>e worthines, 

And by reporte fer-of here witnes 

Wher-so j>ei com, after al her lyue. 

I \vant[e] cownynge, by ordre to discrive 

Of euery cours J?e diue?-sytes, 

fee straunge sewes and fe sotiltes 

feat wer fat day seruid in fat place. 

Hath me excused, pou^ I li^tly passe, 

feou$ I can not al in ordre seyn ; 

Myn englische is to rude and eke to pleyn 

For to enditen of so hi^e a ping. 

But forthe I wil reherse how Jje kyng 

To schewe his gestis his nobley oue?* al, 

Hath for his dorter sent in special, 

And bad sche schulde forth anon be brou^t. 

fee whiche in soth, pou} men had[de] sou^t 

feis world foru^-out, I do $ou plein assure,* 

Men my^t haue fouwde no fairer creature, 

More wowmanly of port nor of mane re, 

NOT more demwr, nor sadder of hir chere, 

Whos bewte was not likly for to fade. 

And whan sche cam j?e Grekis for to glade, 

fee halle in soth sche walkyth vp and down, 

Of wommanhed and pure affecciourc 

To make chere vn-to J)e[se] gestis newe. 

And Jras Medea wit/t hir rosene he we, 

And vrith freschenes of pe lyle white, 

So entermedled of kynde be delite, 

feat Nature made in hir face sprede 

So egally pe whyte with J?e rede, 









1550. deinte] deintees D 1 man] men D 1. 
1562. 1st to] so D 1 eke] al D 1. 

1565. nobley] nobles D 2, nobilte D 1. 

1566. secial Especial A. 


1569. plein] pleynly A, om. D 1 assure] ensure C, D 1. 
liche D 1. 

1573. likly] 
1578. hir] om. A. 
1580. be] with D 1. 

1577. }>ese] his A. 
1579. with] with >e D 1. 
1581. sprede] spede D 2. 

BK. l] Of the, Beauty and Learning of Medea. 

)3at f e medelyng, in conclusions, 

So was ennewed by proporciou?*, 

feat finally excesse was f er noon, 

Of neuer * nouf er ; for bothe two in oon 

So loyned wer, longe to endure, 

By thempres fat callyd is Nature. 

For sche hir made lyke to hir deuise, 

]5at to biholde it was a paradys, 

In verray soth, bothe to oon and alle,* 

Of olde and $ong syttyng in the halle. 

J)er-to sche was, as by successions, 

Born to be eyr of fat regions, 

After hir fader, by discent of lyne, 

3if sche abide and dure after his fyne ; 

Syth he ne hadde by ri$t[e] to succede 

Non eyr male fat I can of rede. 

Sche was also, f e bok maketh menciou??, 

"Wexe vn-to ^eris of discrecious, 

Able for age inaried for to be ; 

And not-wM-standyng also ek fat sche 

Was of bewte and of wo??imanhede, 

On f e faireste fat I can of rede, 

3it [n]oon of bothe han * hir ^outhe let, 

Jjat to clergye hir desire was set 

So passyngly, fat in special, 

In alle f e artis called liberal 

Sche was expert & knowyng at f e beste ; 

It was hir ewre to konse what hir liste. 

Of swyche a woraman herde I neuer telle. 

At Elicon sche drank so of fe welle, 

feat in hir tyme was f er noon semblable 

I-fousde in soth, ne noon fat was so able 

To conceyve by studie and doctrine. 

And of naturis disputen and temiyne 

Sche koude also, and fe causis fynde 

Of alle f inges formed as by kynde ; 

Sche hadde in lernyng so hir tyme spent, 

1583. in] as in D 1. 1586. neuer] nor C, A. 
1591. alle] to alle C. 1605. han] han not C. 
1614. I-founde] Founden D 1. 


1588 by Nature. 


Medea is 
Cethes's heir. 


[leaf 10 6] 



She is fit 
for marriage, 


1608 learned in 
liberal arts, 



and can 
find the 
cause of 
all created 


Medea's wondrous powers over Nature. [BK. 

Medea is 

expert in 




and Heavenly 

She can make 
thunder and 

rain and 
and can 

turn day into 

})at sche knewe of J?e firmament 

])Q trewe cours, and of j>e stems alle, 

And by her mevyng what fat schulde fa lie, 

So expert sche was in astrouomye. 

But most sche wroi^t by nygromauwcye, 

With exorjismes and comurisons ; 

And vsed also to make illusions' 

With hir charmys seide in sondri wyse ; 

And with rytis of diuerse sacrifice, 

Encens and rikelis cast in-to J>e fire, 

To schewe Binges liche to hir desyre 

Wtt/i gotis hornys and wit/i mylke and blod, 

Whan J>e mone was equat and stood 

In J>e fifjje or pe * seuenfe hous, 

And was fortuned with lokyng gracious, 

To chese an hour )>at were comienient 

And fortunat, by enchauntement, 

To make and werke sondry apparences : 

So wel sche knewe )>e heuenly influences 

And aspectis, bothe wroj>e and glade ; 

For sche by hem alle her Jringis made 

Jjat appartene to swyche experiments. 

For whan hir list, by hir enchauntementis, 

Sche koude make ]>e wyndes for to blowe, 

To thondre and lijte & to hayle and snowe, 

And f rese also, to greue men with peyne ; 

And sodeinly sche coude make it reyne, peaf 10 <?] 

Schewe what wedir pat hir liste to haue, 

And gasten men wM sodein erthe-quave,* 

And turne pe day vnwarly vn-to ny^t ; 

And fanne anoon make J?e sonue bri^t 

Schewe his bemys, ful persyng and ful schene, 









1620. of] eke of D 1. 1628. diuerse] sundry D 1. 

1633. 2nd J>e] in )>e C seuenj>e] sixthe A, D 1. 

1634. lokyng] lookes D 1. 

1637. and werke] a werke of D 1 apparences] apparens A. 

1638. influences] influens A. 
1645. frese] to frese D 1. 

1647. Schewe] And shewe D 1. 

1648. gasten] castyn A erthe-quave] erthe quake C. 

1649. vn-to] to be D 1 nyrt] the nyght A. 
1651. Schewe] To shewe D 1. 

BK. l] 

Medea s wondrous powers over Nature. 


With goldene hornys, to voyde ny^tes tene ; 1652 

And reyse floodis, with many dredf ul wowe ; 

And whan hir list sche koude hem eft wit/i-drawe. 

Eke 3onge trees to sere, rote and rinde, 

And afterward make hem, agein[es] kynde, 1656 

With lusty brauwchis blosnie and budde newe ; 

Also in wynte?' with flouris fresche of hewe 

Araye be erbe and tapite hym * in grene, 

)5at to beholde a loye it was to sene ; 1660 

With many colour schewyng ful diuerse, 

Of white and rede, grene, ynde, and pers, 

)?e day[e]s[y]e with hir riche croune, 

And ober floures, bat wynter made froune, 1664 

Vp-on her stalke freschely for tapere. 

And sodeinly, with a dedly chere, 

Sche koude sorner in-to wynte?' torne, 

Causyng be day with mystes [for] to morne * ; 

And olde men sche koude make ^ong, 

And eft ageyn, or any her * was sprong, 

Sche koude hem schew bobe in hed & herd 

Ful hor and grey, in craft sche was so lered. 1672 

And trees with frute sche koude make bare 

Of rynde and lef, to do men on hem stare ; 

Clipse be mone and be bri$t[e] sonne, 

Or naturally bei hadde her cours y-roraie 

To hem approprid, whiche bei may not passe ; 

For }if bat Titan his cours by kynde trace, 

Whan he meveth vnder be cliptik lyne, 

fee clips mote folowe, as auctours list diffyne : 1680 

So bat ber be, by hir discripciourc, 

Of bothe tweyne ful ccmiunccioun, 

And bat be sonne with his bemys rede 

1652. to] and D 1. 1659. hym] hem C, D 1. 

1660. a loye it was] it was a loie D 1. 1665. for] om. D 1. 

1668. morne] morme C. 

1670. her] hor C was] wer A, were D 1. 

1671. hed] here D 1. 1673. koude] koude eke D 1, D 2. 
1674. Of] On D 1 to do men] for men shulde D 1. 
1676. y-rowne] romie D 1. 

1678. his] by D 1 by] his D 1. 

1679. cliptik] ecliptik D 1. 1680. clips] eclips D 1. 
1681. be] om, D 1. 1682. tweyne] twoo D 1. 

Medea can 
raise and sink 

make plants 
bear flowers 
in winter. 

and turn 

1668 wiuter - 

She can 
eclipse the- 

1676 moou an< * 



Ood forbid that we lelieve Ovid's fables about Medea. 

and alter 
their sites in 
the sky. 


are causd 

[BK. i 

by forces 
above that we 
can't see.) 

But tho Ovid 
tells all these 
tables about 

God forbid 
that we 
should believe 

Haue his dwellyng in pe dragoim hede, 
And pe mone be * set eke in pe tail, 
As by nature, fan it may nat feil 
J)at per mote falle Eclips of verray nede, 
In sondri bokys liche as 36 may rede, 
Be-cause of certein intersecaciourcs 
Of diuerse cercles, and reuolucioims,* 
Jjat maked ben in pe heuene alofte, 
Which e causen vs for to faylen ofte 
Of pe fresche comfortable stremys 
Jjat ben to vs yschad fro Phebus bemys. 
For ]?e mone hath made deuisioiw 
By hir sodeyn interposiciowi, 
))at of oure si3t pe stremys visual 
May nat be-holde, nor I-sen at al, 
Nor to oure lust fully comp?*ehende, 
How Appollo is in his chare schynende, 
As we wer wont a-fornhand for to se. 

But of al J>is pe grete Tholome, 

Kyng of Egypte, telleth pe cause why, 

With-Inne his boke ful compendyously, 

Bothe of Eclips and coiiiuraccioura, 

And whi pei falle by natural mocioim. 

But of Medee, pou$ pis clerke Ouide, 

Tencrese hir name vp-on euery syde, 

List in his fables swyche pinges telle, 

0113 he of poetis was pe spring & welle : 

Yit God forbede we schulde }if credence 

To swyche feynyng, or do so hi^e offence j 

Syth of nature muste be denyed 

Al swyche affermyng, and also loen diffied 

Of euery cristen * stedefast in bileue. 

For certeinly it wolde hi^ly greue 

1685. be] by C. 

1690. reuolucioiws] reuelaciouws D 1 This line is misplaced in 
C after 1692 ; 1689 is marked a and 1690 b in the margin. 
1696. hir] his A. 1702. grete] wise grete D 1. 
1703 is omitted in D 2 cause] causes D 1. 
1705. and] and of >e D 1. 1709. >inges] ping to D 1. 
1710. be] bo>e D 1 &] om. D 2. 1712. do] to do D 2. 
1713. muste] it moste D 1 denyed] devided A. 
1715. cristen] cristen maw C. 1716. wolde] wele D 1. 









BK. i] Only one Eclipse of Sun and Moon at Christ's Death. 63 

Our conscience, in any wise wene, 

Ageyn[e]s kynd, whiche is so hi$e a quene, 

Jjat any wy$t or lyvyng creature 

Scholde haue power, I do $ow pleyn assure, 

So cursede finges supersticious 

To do or worche, to kynde contrarious. 

For God almy^ti, luge of luges alle, 

Hath sette a lawe, [|>e] whiche may nat falle, 

Amonge planetis perpetuelly tendure, 

A-forn ordeyned in his eternal cure, 

e whiche may nat, as clerkys list termyne, 

Yp-on no syde bowe nor decline ; 

But as J>ei wern from discord or debat 

Eternally yformed and creat, 

Thoru^ J?e fynger of his sapience, 

Alwey to meve in her intelligence 

Lyche as J>ei ben to his lordschip bovnde. 

For neuer $it ne was eclips y-fovnde, 

|5e mone not beynge in coniuTicciourc, 

As I haue tolde, saue in J?e passiouw ; 

J)e whiche eclips was ageyn[e]s kynde; 

Nature her knot bat tyme dide vnbynde, 

"VVhan Goddis sone starfe vp-on }>e rode. 

fte sowne of life was dirked for oure goode, 

Whan heuene and erfe wit/i hi^e compiwcciourc 

Han signes schewed of lamentaciou?z, 

By erjjequaves li$t turned to * dyrknes, 

And dede bodies vpward gan hem dresse [leafiic] 1744 

From her tombis ageyn fro deth to lyue ; 

Stoon and roche a-sonder gonne * riue ; 

In j>e temple )?e veil was kut oa two ; 

And signes many wern I-schewed tho 

Jpat for wonder and tokenes merveilous, 

No creature 
can control 
1720 Nature. 

God has set 
a Law which 
planets must 



Sun and 
Moon were 

io/ darkend, 
1736 save at 


when He died 
on the Cross, 

and the dead 
rose from 
their graves. 


1717. wene] to wene D 1. 1720. pleyn] pleywly D 1. 

1722. To do] That done D 1. 1724. whiche] whiche hat D 1. 

1728. nor] nouther (one stroke of the u missing) D 1. 

1729. debat] bate D 1. 1730. yformed and] formed or D 1. 

1733. to] vn to D 1. 

1734. ne] om. D 1 y-fovnde] founde D 1. 

1738. knot] kinde D 1. 1743. to] in to C, D 1. 

1746. gonne] gan C, D 1 riue] to rive D 1. 

1747. on] a D 1. 

64 Dionisius on Christ's Death. G-od' s power over Elements. [BK. 

When Dioni- 
sius the 

saw the day 

lie said, 
Either the 
God of 
Nature dies, 
or this round 
world shall 
be dissolvd.' 

God can 
restrain the 
as when He 
made the Sun 
stand still 
for Joshua 
at Gibeon. 

])e grete worf i Dionisius, 

Whiche at Athens, as clerkis of hym wryte, 

Was called in scolis Arfyjopagite, 1752 

j?at whan he sawe f is noble famws clerke 

J)e bri^tfe] day sodeynly so derke 

Al-f ei he were a paynym in f o dawes, 

And was infecte wilh rytys of her lawes, 1756 

As * he fat was most chef and principal 

Of philisophres, for to rekne al 

Yet * fat tyme, astonyed in his mynde, 

Seide platly : " oufer [fe] god of kynde 1760 

Suffreth f e dethe, ou]?er out of doute 

jjis rouwde worlde whiche is so large aboute 

Schal be dissoluid and y-brou^t to nou^t 

By sodeyn chawnge, hasty as a thoujt." 1764 

By his clergie he knewe no better skylle. 

For God fat may al chauragen at his wille, 

And hath power of swiche coacciou^,* 

Ynder whos my$t and disposiciouw * 1768 

Is lawe of kynde corcstreyned, soth to seie, 

From point to point lowly to obeye 

In euery fing fat hym list ordeyne 

Of elementis he may fe cours restreyne, 1772 

As holy writ witnessef : ^e may se 

How at f e requests of worf i losue, 

])Q bri^t[e] sorane stood at Gabaon 

A dayes space in degre, and schoon, 1776 

Schewyng fis tokne to his trewe kny^t, 

Fynally for to ^eue hym ly^t, 

]5at he my$t by his hi$e prowes 

His cruel foon manfully oppresse, 1780 

1750. Dionisius] daun Dionisius D 1. 
1752. Aryopagite] the Ariapogite D 1. 
1755. Al-J>ei] Al be D 1 were] om. D 2. 
1757. As] And C. 1759. Yet] pet C. 

1760. ou>er] J>at ouj>er D 1. 

1761. ou>er out of] with oute any D 1. 

1762. ]3is] Or ellis bis D 1 rounde] om. D 1. 

1763. and] ou>er D 1 y-brou^t] broujt D 1. 

1766. may al] al may D 1. 1767. coacciowi] coacciouns 
1768. disposicioun] disposicioims C. 
1772. restreyne] co?isti-eine D 1. 1774. >e] om. A. 
1777. Hf] his A. 1779. myjt] may D 1 hi^e] om. D 1. 

BK. i] Ovid tells lies about Medea. She comes to K. Cethes's Feast. 65 

Whan fat he fau^t, f is kny$t, fis losue, 

With kingges fyve, reignyng in Amorre : 

So longe laste f e pursute and f e chas, 

Til fei were take, and for her trespas 

Dempft] to be ded, f e bible can 3011 telle. 

Now syth fat God fus hi^ly list fulfille 

Of his kny^t requeste and orisoim, 

What wonder wast f OU3 in f e * passion?; 

Of Criste lesu, incarnat for onre sake, 

}5e sowne bemys f ou3 fei wexe blake ; 

Sith he hath lordscliipe of planetis alle, 

And as hym list nedis it mote falle. 

For of Medea tho^e Ovidius [leaf 116] 

In his fables rehersyth and writ fus, 

As he fat liste hir name to exalte, 

3et from f e trouf e somwhile he doth halte, 

Al-be sche were a passyng sorceresse, 

And ferf est named of any chanteresse 

I wil passe ouer ageyn to my matere, 

And how sche cam to mete 30 schal here. 

Whan hir fader hadde * for hir sent, 

Sche cam anoon at his comaundement ; 

But or sche cam, I fynde fat to-fore, 

For to make hir bewte semyn more, 

In hir closet sche toke hir beste array, 

For to encrese al fat [euer] sche may 

Natures wirke with royal apparaille. 

For f is wommen gladly wil nat fey lie, 

Whan f ei of bewte haue plewtevous largesse, 

To make it more f ei don her besynesse, 

With richB attire vppon eue?y syde ; 


As God 
wrought thus 
for Joshua, 

1788 what wonder 
was it tluit 
He did more 
for Christ ? 





Ovid, in hia 
fables of 
Medea, lies, 

tho' she was. 
a noted 

She came to. 
K. Cethes's 

drest in her 
best, in 

1808 woman's 

1781. 2nd >is] om. D 1. 

1786. syth] sithen D 1 bus hi3ly] om. D 1 fulfille] to fulfelle 
D 1. 1788. wast] was A, D 1, was it D 2 be] his C. 

1789. oure] his D 1. 

1796. somwhile] somtyme D 2, som tynie D 1. 
After 1800, D 1 inserts: 

If bat 3011 liste a while $eue aduertence 
Haue me excused I can noon elloquewce. 

1801. hir fader] be kyng D 1 hadde] hath C 2nd hir] Medea 
D 1. 1804. semyn] seme be D 1. 

1810. To make it more] It to embelisshe A. 


66 Cethes imprudently lids Medea sit next to Jason, [BK. I 

Medea is so 
tine that her 
gladdens the 

Cethes seats 
her next to 
Jason, to 
cheer him. 

3 if oii3t be mysse, fei can it close and hide, 1812 

For al J>e foule schal couertly be wried, 

ftat no defaute outward be espied. 

But sche was bothe fayre & wel beseyn, 

And in hir port [so] wommanly certeyn, 1816 

}pat hir comynge gladeth al be halle ; 

For it was loye vn-to oon and alle 

To sen be maner tho of hir entre. 

To whom hir fader bad to take hir see 1820 

Be-syde lason, hym for to disporte 

Of wommanhede, and to recomforte. 

Alas for his 

It results in 
his dishon- 

Why didn't 
.he take heed 

Howe Medea first lovede lason, and of be insaciate 
change and mutabilite of women. 1 

But o, alias, ber lakked hi^ prudence, 

Discret avis of inward prouidence, 1824 

Wisdam also, wz't/i pereil caste a-fore, 

To trust a maide of tendre 3eris bore, 

Of vnhappy fonned wilfulnes ! 

For bis kyng, of his gentelnes, 1828 

Comaunded hath to his confusiouw, 

To his dishonour and destruccioiw, 

His owne dorter, born to be his eyr, 

J?at was also so wommanly and fair, 1832 

So sodeynly doune to descende 

Considered nat be meschef of be ende. 

Alias, why durst he in hir ^outhe affie, 

To make hir sytten of his cortesie, 1836 

Wher sche my3t by casuel mociou?^ 

Ful 113% cacche or han occasiouw 

To don amys ; alias, whi dide he so ! 

Why list hym nat taken hede ber-to, 1840 

Nor to aduerte in his discresiouw, 

1816. port] part D 1. 1818. loye] om. D 2. 

1819. To] Tharcne to D 1-tho] om. D 1. 

1820. take] om. D 2. 1821. for] om. D 1. 

1825. with pereil caste a-fore] >at he shulde haue cast a forn D 1. 

1826. bore] born D 1. 1828. his] his hi3e D 1. 

1832. and] & so D 2, D 1. 1833. to] for to A, D 2, D 1. 
1840. taken] to take D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 17 b. 

BK. i] Women are unstable, ever changing \ never constant. 67 

Wysly to caste a-forn in his resoim [leafiic] 

)?e viiwar chaunge fat is in wcwimonhed, of woman's 

"VVhiche euery [wise] man 0113 t[e] for to drede ! 1844 ness; 

For who was euer * }it so mad or wood, 

Jpat ou$t of resoura co?me ari^t his good, 

To }eue* feith or hastily credence 

To any womman, wit/t-oute experience, 1848 NO woman is 

J to be trusted : 

In whom is nouther trust ne sikernesse. 

Jpei ben so double & fill * of brotilnesse, 

ftat it is harde in hem to assure ; 

For vn-to hem it longeth of nature, 1852 

From her birth to hauen alliaunce 

With doubilnes and with variaunce. 

Her hertes ben so freel and vnstable, they are so 

unstable : 

Nanily in ^outhe, so mevynge and mutable, 1856 

J)at so as clerkis of hem liste endite 

{Al-be fat I am sori it to write) 

J)ei seyn bat chawng and mutabilite mutability 

J * belongs to 

Appropred ben to femyn[yn]yte 1860 them ; 

ftis is affermed of hem J?at were ful sage. 

And speciali while f ei be tender of age, 

In her wexyng, and whan fat f ei be ^onge ; 

Whos herte acordeth ful selde vrith her tonge. 1864 

For if J?e trouthe inwardly be sou3te, 

With J>e surpluse and remau?ite of her fou^te, 

Men may J?er fe trewe patron fynde 

Of Inconstauwce, whos naskisable kynde 1868 inconstancy 

Is to and fro mevyng as a wynde, 

j?at Hercules wer nat strong to bynde, 

Nouther Sampson, so as I bileue, 

Wowmannes herte to make it nat remeve. 1872 They are like 

For as J?e blase whirleth of a fire, abouTby 01 

So to and fro J?ei fleen in her desire, 

Til j?ei acomplische fulli her delite. 

1845. euer] euery C or] or so D 1. 1846. conne] to kunne D 1. 
1847. 3eue] ^if C, A hastily] hasty D 1. 
1850. double] dulle D 1 ful] so ful C. 
1857. of hem liste] list of hem D 1. 

1860. ben] is D 1 femynynite] femynite D 1. 

1861. ful] om D 1. 1864. her] )>e D 1. 
1869. a] >e D 1. 1871. so as 1] as I on D 1. 
1872. nat] to D 1. 1873. of] as D 2. 

68 Women can't be content with one Man. Their Hypocrisy. [BK. I 

follow their 
lust, from 
man to man. 

They won't 
be content, 
with one 

For as matere by naturel appetit, 1876- 

Kynd[e]ly desyreth after forme, 

Til he his course by p?'0cesse may parforme, 

So Jns wommen restreyn[en] hem ne can 

To sue her lust ay fro man to man. 1 880 

Howe women be nevere content in lustes Abitite til 
j>ai han assaiede J?e abitite of fere Eye. And 
J?at is, fro man to man. 1 

ftei wil not cesse til al be assaied ; 

But wolde God, as mater is apaied 

With o forme, and holdeth him * content, 

Whan of his bouwdys he hath J?e tenne went, 1884 

And not desyreth ferther to precede, 

But stille abitte and wil it nat excede, 

j?at by ensa[m]ple alle wowme[n] wolde 

Resten in on, as duelly thei schulde, 1888 

And holde hem peyde and stille ber abide. 

But vnsure fotyng doth hem ofte slide ; 

For bei be nat content with vnite : [leaf 11 a] 

])ei pursue ay for pluralite, 1892 1 

So of nature to mevyng fei be thewed ; 

Al-bou^ amonge, by signes outward schewed, 
xiiey pretend J)ei pretende a maner stabilnes ; 

But vnder bat is hid be dowbilnes 1896> 

So secretly, fat outward at be eye 

Ful harde it is be tresoim to espie. 

Vnder curteyn and veil of honeste, 

Is closed chauwge and mutabilite ; 1900 

For her desyr is kepte ful cloos in mewe ; 

And bing bei hadde leuest for to so we, 

Only outward for to haue a laude, 

))ei can decline with feynyng and -with fraude. 1904 

1876. matere] nature D 1. 1877. forme] his fowrme D 1. 
1882. mater] nature D 1. 1883. him] hem C. 
1884. bowidys] bonde D 1 }>e] his D 1. 1886. it] om D 1 
18*7. pat by] By >at D 1 ensample] example D 2. 
1888. on] o place D 1 duelly thei] thei dwely D 1 
1893. to] of Dl. 

1897. secretly] secrely D 1. 1902. >ing] thynk A. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 17 c. 

but want 

but always 

BK. i] The folly of Cethes in malting Medea known to Jason. 69 
Wherfore, Cethes, bi wit was to bareyne, why was 

Kins Cethes 

Jjat pou aforne by prudence naddist seyne so foolish 

What schulde folwe of )>is vnhappy caas. 

Whi wer J>ou bolde for to suffre, alias, 1908 

Jpin owne doubter, so fair and fresche of he we, 

With straiwge gestis entred but of newe, as to let 

So folily for to lete hir dele ! with Ja80n > 

Wher-poru} )>in honour, J>i worschip, & pin hele 1912 

Was lost in haste, and sche to meschef brouat, disgrace, 

and her own 

In strauttge londe, wttfc sorwe and myche pou^t. ruin? 

Wher as sche to grete sclaunder of p^ 

In gret miserie and aduersite 1916 

An ende made ; and j>ou wer lefte al sool. 

J9ou my^test wel compleyne and make dool. 

Alias J?e while, 31!' in pi prudent sy^t 

J?ou haddest grace to remembre ari^t, 1920 

And to haue cast by discret p?*rvyaunce, 

And weied wysely by mesour in balaunce 

])Q fraude of wommon, and pe fre[e]lte ; 

In whom ful selde is any sikerte, 1924 

As in [his] latyn Guydo dothe expresse. 

Wherfor, pou Cethes, of verray reklesnesse He lost \\\% 

J5ou hast attonys, in augment of )>i woo, 

With-out recure bothe two for-goo : 1928 

Firste bi tresour, and bi douater dere, treasure, his 

daughter and 

#at was to J>e so passyngly entere, )s heir. 

And eke j)in ayre ; for whan pat sche was goon, 

As seithe myn auctor, other was J?er noon, 1932 

After J)i day for to occupie 

])\ royal septre, nor J>i lond to guye. 

But what was worj> * )>e gret[e] prouidence, 

J?e wakir kepyng, or besy diligence 1936 

Of myjti Mars, bat sod is of bataile Even Mars 

was no use 

What my^t it help, diffende, or availe against a 

Ageyn J>e wit of wo?man, or pe slei^te ; woman's 

Whos fraudes arn of so huge a wei^te, [leaf 12 a] 1940 

1916. and] and grete D 1. 1918. wel] wepe D 1. 
1919. while] whiche D 2. 1921. discret] prudent D 1. 
1925. his] myn A. 1935. \vor>] worbi C. 
1940. avn] ben D 1. 

For Medea 
stole her 

As she sat 
by Jason, 
her colour 
went and 

she changed 
from pale 
to red ; 

70 HMD Medea, sitting next Jason, fell in Lorn with him. [BK. I 

fcat as hem list ay }>e game gotlie, 

Her purpos halt, who so be lefe or lothe 

Jpei ben so sli$e, so prudent, and so wyse ! 

For as pis story plainly doth devise, 

J)is Medea by hir engyne and crafte, 

From hir fader his tresour hath berafte 

)3oru3 Jje werchyng of hir sleety gyle, 

As 36 schal her with-Inne a lityl while. 

For as sche sat at mete in fat tyde, 

Next hir fader, and lason by hir syde, 

Al sodeinly hir fresche rosen hewe 

Ful ofte tyme gan chaurcge and renewe, 

An hondrid sythe in a litel space. 

For now pe blood from hir goodly face 

Vn-to hir hert vnwaiiy gan avale, 

And pere-with-al sche wexe ded and pale ; 

And efte anoon, who pat can take lied, 

Hir hewe chaungeth in-to a goodly red. 

But euere amonge tennwen hir colour, 

J)e rose was meynt with the lillie flour ; 

And pou3 pe rose stouwdemele gan pase, 

3 it pe lillie abideth in his place 

Til nature made hem efte to mete. 

And pus with colde and with sodein hete 

"Was Medea in hir silfe assailled, 

And passyngly vexed and trauailed. 

For now sche brent, and now sche gan to colde, 

And ay pe more pat sche gan * beholde 

ftis 3ong lason, pe more sche gan desyre 

To loke on hym, so was sche sette a-fire 

With his bewte and his semlynesse ; 

And euery ping sche inly gan enpresse, 

What pat sche sawe, bothe in mynde & pou3t, 

Sche al enp?*ente[t]h, and for-gat ri3t nou3t ; 

For sche considereth eue?y circu??zstaunce 

Bothe of his port, and his gouernaunce : 

she grew cold 
and hot ; 

and the more 
she lookt at 
Jason, the 
more taken 

she was with 










1942. halt] holde> D 1. 
1956. wexe] wexeb D 2. 
1963. efte] efte sone D 1. 
1968. gan] be gan C. 

1944. >is] he D 1. 
1957. can] gan D 1. 

BK. i] Medea is Jason's, body and soul, but daren't show it. 71 

His sonnysshe * here, crisped liche gold wyre, 

His kny^tly loke and his manly chere, 

His contenaunce vritli many noble signe, 

His face also, most gracious and benigne, 

Most acceptable vn-to hir plesaunce ; 

For, as sche pou^t, it was suffisaunce,* 

With-outew more, vn-to hir allone, 

To considre and loke on his persone. 

For in pat tyme, w^-outen any drede, 

Of mete or drink e sche toke but litel hede ; 

For sche of food hath loste hir appetit, 

To loke on hym sche hath -so gret delite, 

He was so prented in hir remembraunce. [leaf 12 &] 

Loue hath hir cau$t so newli in a traunce, 

And y-marked vrilli his firy brond, 

feat sche may nou^t eskapen fro his hond, 

Nor eschewe his strok in special ; 

For sche was ^olde body, herte, and al, 

Vn-to lason, platly for to seye, 

And euere among on hym sche cast hir eye, 

Whan pat sche fonde a leyser oportune. 

But of wisdam sche wolde nat contvne 

Hir loke to longe, list men dempte amys ; 

But as pe maner of pis wommen is, 

Sche kepte hir cloos and wonderly secree, 

feat by hir chere no man my^t[e] see 

What pat sche ment, by noon occasiouw. 

Sche put hem out of al suspecciou/i ; 

For openly per was no tokne sene. 

Sche cast[e] rather fat men schulde wene 

feat penchesourc of hir abstinence, 

And why pat sche satte so in silence 

How pat it was only of wo?mnanhede, 

Of honest schame, and of chaste drede, 

feat to-gidre in hir hert[e] mette ; 

fee whiche tweyn so pis maide lette 

Jason had 
sunny curly 


1980 l.isfacewa 


couldn't eat 
or drink for 
looking at 

1988 him - 


She was his, 
body and 

But she kept 
this secret, 




wanting men 
to think her 
silence was 
due to 
2008 Modesty. 


1977. sonnysshe] sonnelyche C wyre] wher D 2, where D 1. 
1982. suffisaimce] sufficiaunce C. 

1986. or] and D 1 but] om. D 1. 1992. hond] bond D 2. 
2009. ]>at] o?n. D 1 of] for D 2, of pure D 1. 

coutrold her 

And as girls 
c'an hide 
their feelings, 

72 How Medea longs for the fair well-limbd Jason. [BK. I 

Fro mete and drink, as it wolde seme. 

)3us of wisdam sclie made hem for to deme, 

And so to cast in hir opinioiw ; 

And pus sche blent hem by discreciouw ; 2016 

For hir chere koude Query ping excuse. 

Sche $af no * mater folis for to muse, 

No * cher vnbridled fat tyme hir asterte ; 

For per was oon enclosed in hir herte, 2020 

And another in her chere declared. 

For maidenes hau ofte sythes spared 

To schewen* oute pat pei desyre in dede, 

As it falleth, who so can take hede ; 2024 

J)at whil pei flouren in virginite, 

And for ^outhe haue no liberte 

To specific pat her hert[e] wolde, 

))ei kepe hem cloos, for pei be nat bolde 2028 

To schewen* out pe so??? me of her sentence. 

And pus Medea, kepyng ay silence, 

Ne lete no worde by hir lippis passe, 

But couertly with sobre chere and face, 2032 

What sche ment schewep with hir Eye 

So secretly pat no man koude espie 

])Q hoote fire in hir breste y-reke ; 

And in hir self ri^t pus sche gan to speke, 2036 

As sche in sothe pat so moche can : 

* So wolde God, pis ^onge lusty man, [leaf 12 c] 

Which e is so faire and semly in my 513 te, 

Assured were to be myri owne kny^te. 2040 

Whiche is to me most plesaunt and entere, 

With berd y-sprong, schy[n]ing liche gold were, 

So wel I-lemed, and compact by mesure, 

Wei growe on hei^te, and of gode stature ; 2044 

And lyketh me in euery part so wel, 

))at by assent of Fortune and hir whele, 

I ewred were to stonden in his grace. 

2014. f>us] And )ms D 1. 2015. so to] bus eke D 1. 

2016. And >us sche blent] For to blende D 1 by] by hir D 1. 

2018. no] to C folis] fooly D 1. 2019. No] Nor C. 

2026. haue] hath D 1. "2029. schewen] schewem C. 

2033. What] What bat D 1. 

2044. on] of D 2, D 1. 2047. in] at. D 1. 

so MeJe;i, 



didn't show 
the hot fire 
of love within 
her, but still 

longd for the 



BK. i] Medea wants to wed Jason. Men mustn't trust Women. 73 

For as me semeth, on his kny^tly face 2048 

It is to me an heuene to by-holde, : y ;} thinks 

it Heaven to 

Al-be j)er-\vith myn hert I fele colde ; ^ n at 

And $it in soth it may noon other be. 

Alias ! whi nadde he vp-on my wo pite, 2052 

Or, at f e leste, he knewe in his entente, 

How moche trowth to hym fat I mente ! 

Of whiche, alias, he taketh no nianer hede, 

Al-be for hym I brewne as doth be glede, 2056 she bums 

for him, and 

And to be ded I dar me not * discure. 

Alas ! my pitous and woful aventure 

Is to rewful, and my mortal pcyne, 

So to be mordred, and dar me not cowpleyne 2060 yet dare not 


To frende nor foo of my chaurace, alias ! 

To finden help or socour in )>i.s caas. 

And trew[e]ly, 3it as I schal denise, 

1 no f ing merie but in honest wise, 2064 

Liche as it schal openly be fownde ; 

For I desire to be knet and bounde 

hym in wedlok, & neue>- fro hym twy?me ; she wants to 

For my menyng is with-owten synne, 2068 Heriove'for 

, , j him is pure. 

Grounded and set vp-on al clennes, 

With-oute fraude or any doubilnes 

So clene and pure is myn entenciouw ! " 

Loo, ay fe maner and condiciourc 2072 

Of fis wowimen, fat so wel can feyne, But women 

And schewen on, fou$ fe[i] finkfe] tweyne ; 

And couertly, fat no f ing be seyn, 

With humble chere and Avith face pleyn, 2076 They look 

Enclose her lustis by swyche sotilte, crafty. 

Vnder [f e] bowndis of al honeste 

Of hir entent, f ou$ * f e trecherie 

With al f e surplus vnder be y-wrye. 2080 

And f 0113 fat f ei feith a-forn p?*etende,* 

2048. on] vpon A, D 2. 

2050. I fele] om. D 2. 

2051. 3it] om. D 2. 2052. vp-on] on D 1. 
2057. me not] not me C. 

2061. nor] or D 2 chaiwce] chaunge A. 

2067. fro hym] for to D 1. 

2079. Jwraj] bony C. 2081. pretende] p?'<?tente C. 

74 Guide's blame of Women, and Lydgate's Praise of 'em. [BK. I 

women And can her fraude with florissyng wel diffewde, 
en r And flaterie, only pe worlde to blende, 
With dowbilnes * enclosed in the ende, 
3 it ay deceyt is * benethe ment, 
Vndre pe sugre of feyned clene entent, 
As it were soth, in verray existence ; [leaf 12 

But, trust me wel, al is but apparence. 
})&( can schewe on, and another mene, 
Whos blewe is ^tly died in-to grene ; 
For vnder floures depeint of st-abilnes, 
)3e serpent dareth of newfongilnes. 
So pleyne pei seme with wordis fair[e] glosed, 
But vnder-nethe her couert wil is closed ; 
For what ping be most vn-to per pay, 
j)ei wil denye and rathest per swere nay. 
ftus liketh Guydo of wommen for tendite. 
Alias, whi wolde he so cursedly write 
Ageyn[e]s hem, or with hem debate ! 
I am ri^t sory in englische to translate 
Eeprefe of hem, or any euel to seye ; 
Leuer me wer for her loue deye. 
Where-fore I preye hem to take in pacience ; 
My purpos is nat hem to done offence ; 
)3ei ben so gode and parfyte * euerechon, 
To rekne alle, I trowe per be nat on, 
But pat pei ben in wille and hertfe] trewe. 
For pou^ amonge pei chese hem lovis newe, 
Who considreth, pei be no ping to blame ; 
For ofte tyrne pei se men do pe same, 
jpei most hem purveie wha?z men hem refuse ; 
And }if I koude I wolde hem * excuse. 
It sitteth nat a wo??iman lyue alone ; 

They show 
one thin?, 
but menu 


So says 

But I, John 
Lydgate, say 

women are 

If they take 
new lovers, 

it's because 
men teach 
'em to. 









2082. wel] om. D 1. 2084. dowbilnes] dowmbilnes C. 
2085. is] it C ment] y ment D 1. 2093. seme] seyn D 1. 
2094. wil] wel D 2, D 1. 2095. >er] Mr D 2, D 1. 

2096. rathest her] ]>ere ra>est D 1 >er] they A. 

2097. liketh] lusteth D 1 for] om. D 1. 

2098. write] I wryte A. 2100. to] om. D 2. 
2102. deye] to deie D 1. 2103. to] om. D 1. 

2104. hem to done] to do hem D 1. 

2105. parfyte] so parfyte C. 2108. hem] om. D 2. 
2112. hem] heie C. 2113. lyue] to lyve D 1. 

BK. i] Lydgate denounces Guido. Medea goes to her chamber. 75 

It is no stor but fei haue more J?an oon. 

Preying to hem for to do me grace, 

For as I hope, to hem is no trespas 2116 

Jpou} my * makyng be fe same in al, 

As Guydo wryt in his original 

Where he mysseyth, late hym bere fe wyte ; 

For it sit wel, fat fe vengaunce byte 2120 

On hym fat so f is wo??mien haf offendid ; 

And 3if I my^t it schul[de] ben amendid. 

He schulde reseyue duely his penaunce ; 

For }if he died with-oute repentaimce, 2124 

I am dispeired of his sauacioun, 

Howe he schulde euer haue remissions, 

But he were contrite his synne to redresse ; 

It may not ben, as clerkys bere wytnesse. 2128 

And be my trouthe, and he were alyue 

I mene Guydo and I schulde hym shryue, 

So bitter penauwce pleynly he schulde haue, 

at to fe tyme fat he were I-graue, 2132 

He schulde reme??ibre, and platly not asterte 

For to repente hym with al his hol[e] herte, 

]5at he so spake to his confusiouw. 

I wil no lenger make cligressiou?^ [leaf is a] 2136 

Fro my matere, but let Guydo be, 

And telle forfe fe worching of Medee, 

J3at hath licence of hir fader nome, 

And to hir chaumbre is allone y-come, 2140 

Whan oute of halle * wat7i-drawen was J?e pres, 

And whan lason, and also Hercules, 

Liche as fe kyng after mete bad, 

To her chaurabres conveied wern and lad, 2144 

Fill rially arrayed and beseyn ; 

For eue?y wal was cured in certeyn 

With clothe of golde, in ful statly wyse. 

And in fis while, as 30 han herde deuise, 2148 

Was Medea to hir chaumbre goon, 

So let Guido 
be blamed, 

and not me, 

If he were 
alive, and I 
shrove him, 
I'd give him 

But to return 
to Medea. 

She goes to 
her chamber. 

2117. my] >e C. 2126. he] om. D 2. 

2132. I-graue] in his graue D 1. 

2141. halle] >e halle C, D 1. 2144. chaimbres] chaumbre D 1. 

2147. clothe! clothis A. 

76 How lurningly Medea is in love with Jason. [BK. i 

Love has 

and 1t in died 
such a fire in 
her as '11 not 
be quench t. 

Love and 
Shame strive 
in her. 

But Love is 
as fierce as a 
lion, while 

Shame is a 

Wher by hir silf, cowpleynyng euer in oon, 

Sche $af issu to hir peynis smerte, 

})at hir so sore ban wounded to Jje herte : 

For Loue hap brou^t hir in a sodeyn rage, 

J)at was not likly sone for taswage ; 

For in sothenes, pe furious god Cupide 

Hath swiche a fir kyndeled in her side, 

Jjat it was neuer likly hir to lete, 

So violent and fervent was pe hete, 

Jjat mor an[d] mor encresen gan hir peyne. 

For in hir breste per was atwixe tweyne 

A gret debate, and a stronge bataille, 

So feruently eche other dide assaile ; 

And pis contek, in ernes and no game, 

luparted was betwixe Loue and Schame, 

Metyng to-gidre per at vn-set stevene, 

Al-be pe felde was nat parted evene. 

For Loue in* soth, ful of hi^e renouw, 

Was bolde and hardy, liche a fers lyoiw, 

And was nat ferful of spere, swerde, nor knyf, 

But hoot and hasty for to awnter his lif, 

Eke surquedous, stout, and ful of pride, 

Chefe champiourc of pe god Cupide, 

)pat causeth ofte, bothe fre and bonde, 

Ful many pereil for to take on honde. 

And caused hath ful many maranes dethe, 

And many on to ^elden vp pe brethe, 

And made her wouwdes largely to blede ; 

For of pereil Loue taketh noon hede, 

To gete hym honour by excellence of fame. 

But in contraire * his enmy called * Schame, 

Liche a coward, feynt and hert[e]les, 

As he pat neuer dar put hym self in pres, 

For lak of manhod drawip hym euer a-bak ; 









2150. euer] ay D 1. 2151. liir] his D 1. 2152. >e] om. D 2. 
2154. not] om. A for] om. D 1. 
2157. neuer likly] likly iieuere D 1. 

2163. misplaced at, bottom of column and marked a in C ; 2164 1's 
marked b. 2163. ernes] eriiest A, D 2, D 1 no] not in D 1. 

2164. luparted] In partyd A. 2167. in] for C. 
2180. in contraire] >e contrarie C called] is called C. 

BK. i] Sow Shame checks the Ardour of Lovers. 


lovers from 

He is so dredful and ferful of ]?e wrak, 2184 shame stops 

Lyche a childe, ^ong and tender of age ; 

For he hath nouthur herte nor corage [leaf la &] 

For to assaille, he is so feble of my^te ; 

And $it ful ofte he hath stonde in j?e si^te 2188 

Of many louer, to let hym for to specie, 

Jjoru^ fals conspiring of his broker Drede. 

For Drede and Schame, whaw j>ei ben allied, 

Of on assent haue pitously denyed 2192 

Vn-to Loue, herte and hardines, 

)3at he ne durst out a worde expres ; 

For whan J?at Loue of manhod wolde speke, 

)5e wode fire out of his brest to vnreke, 2196 

Vp-on j>e point whan he schulde assey, 

Cometh Schame anoon, & outterly seith nay, 

And causeth Loue hornys for to schrynke, 

To [a]baische his chere & pitously to * wynke, 2200 

Cowardly his cause to appeire. 

And ]ms is Schame froward and contrayre, 

)5oru3 help of Drede, Lovis folk to fere. 

For dowt[e]les 3if * Schame nou^t ne were 2204 

As it is kouj>e, bofe ni3 and ferre 

Love in his lawes often schulde erre, 

And wynden out of honeste[e]s cheyne, 

Of his bou?zdis bridel breke a reyne, 2208 

Ry^t as an hors out of J>e traise at large ; 

For lite or nou}t louers wolde charge 

To folwe her wille, and her lust to sewe ; 

But al J>e while [fat] Schame is kept in me we, 2212 

Outward in porte Loue bereth hym lowe : 

Recorde of wo?miien, for ]?ei )?e sothe knowe. 

For ne were Schame, as clerkys han compiled, 

Out of her hertis dauuger were exiled, 2216 

Al straungenes and feyned fals disdeyne. 

For ne were Schame pleinly j?e wardeyne 

Of )>is women, by writyng of fis olde, 

speaking out.. 

When they 




checks Love's 
outburst, and 

makes them 

If Shame 
didn't guard 

2199. Loue] louis A. 2200. to] for to C. 

2204. 3if ] ne C. 2207. wynden] wenden A, wende D 1. 
2208. Of] And of D 1 a] & D 2, A. 2212. >at] om. D 1. 
2214. of] on D 2. 

78 HMO Medea hesitates between Love and Shame. [BK. 

they'd yield 
at once. 

AVith-out assaut pe castel were y-jolde ; 
It were no nede a sege for to leyn : 
For in swyche case longe trete were in veyne ; 
Tor of nature pei lone no processe.* 
But now, alias, Drede & Schamefastnesse 
Han daunted Lone, in ful lowe manere, 
And maked hym ful humble of port & chere ; 
And pei han eke by her violence, 
Tor al his nianhod, put hym in silence, 
And ben gret cause of moring of his peyne. 
And amyddes of pis ilke tweyne, 
so between Of Loue and Schame even vp-on pe point, 
simme"? ai ,ds Stood Medea in ful gret disioynt, 

Jjat sche ne may pe peyne nat endure, 

So hoot sche brent, pis woful creature, 

By-twyxe bothe I rnene Loue and Schame. [leaf is c] 

For whan pat Loue wolde eny ping attarne 

Of his desires to declare hem oute, 

Cam Schame anoon, and put him * in [a] doute ; 

And Drede was redy his lust for to denye. 

And pus sche stood in a lupardye 

Of Loue and Schame, in maner of a traunce, 

Vn-euenly hanged * in balaunce ; 

For Schame was gret, & Loue $it was more, 

As sche wel knewe, by hir si^es sore, 

And by hir stormy cruel aventure. 

For Drede and Schame durstfe] not discure 

j)e fire pat Loue had in hir brest enclosed, 

Whiche was ful harde for to be deposed. 

And pus sche henge euen atwixe two, 

))at sche ne wist what was best to do ; 

Til pat Fortune with hir double face 

Vnhappily hath wrou$t to gete hir grace, 

With pe whirlyng of hir whele aboute, 

2223. J>ei] J>e D 2 processe] longe processe C. 

2227. han] kan A. 

2229. gret] om. D 1 moring] mornyng A, morning D 1. 

2235. By-twyxe] Betwene D 1. 2236. }>at] om. D 1. 

2238. him] hem C in a] om. D 1. 

2242. hanged] hanget C in] in flesshly D 1. 

2243. 3it was] was yit A, was }it D 1. 
2245. by] for D 1. 2252. to] for to D 1. 


in a trance. 

She knows 
not what to 
do, till 
Fortune tells 









BK. i] Fortune tricks mortals. Medea is bidden to amuse Jason. 79 

Fortune is 
the Lady of 

She leads 

J?at causeth * wrecches ful lowe dou?i to loute, 

"NY han fei best wene to sitter hi^e alofte 

Be experience, as men may sen ful ofte, 2256 

By hir gery reuolucioun. 

For f is lady of transmvtacioun, 

Ful ofte tyme fals and ful vnstable, 

Enhasteth f inges to foolis ful greable, 2260 

Whiche in f e ende, to her confusioun, 

Can vnder sugre schrowden her poysou?*. 

For ay Fortune, as hir maner is, 

To wrechis scheweth* ofir fan it is; 2264 

For with fayr chere and face of flaterie 

As sche fat can with a benigne eye 

Fully of folis par-forme the entent, 

Wher-foru^ fei be in gret meschef schent 2268 into mischief. 

At f e ende, and can no * crafte [tjeschewe 

jje vnwar harme fat at hir * tail dof sewe 

Ryjt as it fel, whilom of Medee, 

Gynnyng and grounde of hir aduersite 2272 

For Jns lady, fat called is Fortune, 

I-graunted hath a leiser opportune 

To schewe lason hooly al hir herte, 

Whiche made hir after ful sore wepe and smerte. 2276 

For on a day, after meridien, 

Whan Appollo with his bemys schene 

Frow f e southe plage gan to wester faste, 

Cethes, hir fader, hath y-sent in haste 2280 

To Medea to com to hym anoon, 

And bad to hir fat sche schulde goon 

Vn-to lason and [to] Hercules, 

To make hem chere amongis al fe pres. [leaf is <q 2284 

And whan sche cau^te opportune space 

To hir desire, and sawe eke in f e place, 

J?at hir fader was most occupied, 

She gave 
Jason oppor- 
tunity to 
Medea's love 
tor him. 

King Cetbes 

bids Medea 
go and amuse 
Jason and 

2254. causeth] caused C. 2261. to] of A. 
2264. scheweth] schewen C. 

2269. no] by no C. 

2270. at hir tail doj>] do>e at hir tail D 1 hir] )>e C. 

2271. whilom] somtyrae D 1. 

2272. Gynnyng] Begynimige D 1. 2280. y-sent] sent D 1. 
2284. amongis] aniOHge D 1. 


Medea visits Jason, and warns him. 

[BK. I 

As sche fat f oi^te * not to ben espied, 
Apparseyuynge his grete besynesse, 

Medea goes Toward lason anoori sche gan hir dresse ; 

.Kn, Lid he And he in haste with a ful kiiylYltly chere, 

to her. , 

In curteys wyse gan to drawe nere 
Towardis hir, & sawe f er was no lette. 
And whan fat f ei were to-gidre sette, 
J5is Medea with sy^ing first abreyde, 
And to lason even f us sche seide : 



Howe Medea exorted lason not to take vpon him f is 
iopardy to preve his marchode. And howe she 
delyverde him thre f enges for to distroy Martis 
ordynaunce. 1 

she begs him " lason," qttod. sche, " of fin hi^e noblesse, 

Of f i manhood and f i * gentillesse, 

Bothe assembled in f i persone y-fere, 

And of kny^thod, first I the requere 2300 

In f i conceyte and oppiniouwe 

Nat to arette to presumpcioiw, 

To doubilnesse nor to inconstauwce 

Of wo??^manhed, nor to variaimce, 2304 

)3at I am bold & can for no fing spare 

My menyng clerly to ^ow to declare, 

With-oute feynyng, in wordis plat & pleyn, 

Beseching firste, to fat fat I schal seyn, 2308 

With-out[e] more, of 3oure goodlyhede 
to take heed Benyng[e]ly for to taken hede, 

And paciently to my wordes leste, 
to hw advice. And what I seye, to take it for fe beste 2312 

In ^our entent, and no fing 3011 to greue. 

For finges two myn hert[e] sore meve, 

2288. >ou3te] ^ou^t C. 

2289. Apparseyuynge] And parceyuynge D 1. 
2292. drawe] drawe him D 1. 

2294. And] But D 1 sette] met A. 
2298. 2nd >i] of ]>i C. 2299. y-fere] in fere D 1. 
2305. no] om. D 2. 2307. in] with D 1. 
2308. 1st ]>at] it D 1. 

2311. paciently to my wordes leste] to my wordes paciently 
liste D 1. 2313. to] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 19 c. 

BK. i] Medea warns Jason of danger in his Gold-Fleece Quest. 81 

jjis to seyne, loue and gentillesse, Medea teiis 

What pat I mene clerly to expresse 2316 

To 3our persone, and no ping to concele 

Or we parte, liche as 30 schal fele. 

For me serneth, first of curtesye, 

In sothefastnes, and of gent[e]rye, 2320 

bat to straungeris euery maner wyat she is bound 

" . to a id 

Is bou?ide and holde of verray due ri3t strangers; 

To make chere, and trewly as for me, 

Be-cause, lason, pat I in 3ow se 2324 andasheisso 

So moche manhod, & so gret worpinesse, 

I wil not feyne \\iih al my besynesse 

To helpe and forther in al pat may 3ou like." win help 


And \\ith pat word of herte sche gan to sykc, 2328 

For his sake, and seide hym ouermore : 

" For aou I fele ful gret anoy and sore, But he is m 

advisd to try 

frat meved am with-oute avisenesse, tor the 

Only of 3outhe and wilful hardinesse 2332 

J}e flees of gold to geten 3if 36 may ; [leafuo] Fleece of 

}3e whiche emprise, who-so-euer assay, 

More perillous is pleynly to acheue, 

In verray soth, pan 30 koude leue : 2336 

For dout[e]les, I do 3ow wel assure, 

be final mede of bis auenture The end oi 

r his Quest is 

Is nat but deth, saue report of schame ; but Death. 

For per 36 wene to gete 3ow a name, 2340 

fte ende pleinly schal turnen in contrarie, 

Fro pe gynnyng so pe fyn schal varie. 

For wit of man, nouper engyn nor myat, NO wit of 


J3ou3 he be neuer so wel expert in fy3t, 2344 

Or haue in armys passynge excercise, 

With alle pe sle3tes of olde or newe emprise, 

Or pou3 he be best breped * to endure, 

Or what deuis per be of his armvre, 2348 

Or what wepne also pat he brynge, or \\eapo.i 

Harded vtith stele, trenchaunde or persynge, 

2315. J>is] This is D 2, That is D 1. 2316. to] I wele D 1. 
2323. as] om. D 1. 2325. gret] moche D 1. 
2330. ful] om. D 1. 2342. so] of D 2. 
2346. or] & D 1. 2347. bre>ed] brevet C. 
2350. trenchauude] trenchauiit A, D 2, D 1. 


82 Medea promises to help Jason ; and he wws to oley her. [BK. I 

can save him, $it at J?e last, whan he hath al * soi^t, 

WM-out[e] me it vaille may ri3t nou^t. 2352 

Wherefore, lason, I haue compassioiw 
On* 3our southe, of* pure affecciouw: 
Of wilfulnes 30 schuld[e] pus be lorn, 
j)at ben of blood and * lyne so hi3e born ; 2356 

For certeynly it may noon other be, 
she alone can Eut sif bat 20 sour conseil take of me, 

help him. , , 

For noon but I may do 3ow help or ese. 
Alias, lason, whi wil 30 not appese 2360 

^our manly corage, in pis caas I-blent, 
if he'ii obey And to my (^mseil ben obedient ! 

her, lie'll win , , T . - , , . , . 

pan durst 1 swerne 36 scnulde naue victone, 
Ben remembred and put in memorie 2364 

Perpetuelly, and pouru3 3oz^r kny3thod wy?me 
the Fleece. J5e flees of gold, pe whiche is 3ond wtt/i-Inne, 
In fe He fat stant here be-syde, 

Of whiche pat Mars is gouernour & guyde. 2368 

Wherfore attonis in 3 our silfe assent, 
To my conseil fully to consent, 
At fewe wordis, 3if 36 list to spede, 
And leue $our lust and wirke after my rede." 2372 

Jason thanks To whom lason vfitfi [full humble chere, 

Medea, and 

Answered and seide, "myn owne lady dere, 
I thanke 3ow in al my best[e] wise, 

Ri3t as ferforth as I may suffise, 2376 

And as my power platly may atteyne, 
Myn hertis quene and lady soue?*eyne ; 
Whom pat 36 may hooly, I ensure, 
declares he'ii Al be while bat my life may dure, 2380 

obey her all T 

his life. Trustej) n'3t wel, me list not for to feyne, 

To Hue or dye, at 3our lust restreyne, [leaf u &] 

As hym fat is 3our owne trewe man, 

for tobeye in al pat euer I can, 2384 

2351. hath al] al hath C. 

2352. vaille may] may a vaille D 1. 

2354. On] Of C, In D 1 of] and C. 2355. Of] That of A. 

2356. and] of C born] I born D 2, y born A. 

2364. Ben] And be D 1. 2373. new IT D 1. 

2377. my] om. A. 2379. I] I 3ow D 1. 

2382. restreyne] to restreyne A. 2384. for] om. D 1 


BK. i] Jason pledges his word to be true to Medea till Death. 83 

With-oute change or any doubilnes, 

While fat I lyve, in verray sothfastnes. 

J9at 30 w list of trewe affecciou/i, 

Vp-on my life to haue compassiouw, 

Of gentilnes, and [ft] 36 list to haue 

Swiche cherte my body for to saue, 

ftat in good feith, of verray due 113 1, 

I am y-bou7*de to be $our owne kny^t* 

Vn-to myn ende ; and fat more specially 

Jpat of $our grace so benygnely 

3e liste $our silfe of my conseil be, 

Jjat neuer aforn to ^ow in no degre 

N"e dide seruise to ^oure wowmanhed ; 

And -with 3oure wordis ful of goodlyhed, 

lour owne man listeth recomforte. 

J2e whiche in soth, so as I can reporte, 

A f ousand folde be f e more plesaurit, 

ftat neuer a-forn no merit gat him * graunt, 

Ne no decert, requeste, nor prayere ; 

But more frely, with hert[e] ful entere, 

Liste vnrequered on my wo to rewe, 

And vndeserued ben to me so trewe, 

)5at I ensure vp-on my feith as faste, 

In 3our seruise I schal vn-to my laste 

Perseuere, sothly, fat }>er schal be no slouthe, 

Nor variaunce, and pe[r]-to here my troufe : 

For finally with-outen [any] wene, 

At fewe-wordes, I seie ri3t as I mene, 

Me list not feyne, flatre, nor delude, 

For my behest with deth I schal conclude, 

Whan fat parchas my lyves thred to-rende ; 

)}is al and som, and jms I make an ende." 

"jfcmne," quod sche, {< ful wysly in 3our herte 

3e moste a-forn consideren and aduerte 


If Medea will 
save Jason, 
he will he her 
Knight till 
2392 death, 



2404 and, with 

whole heart, 

2408 serve 

her to the 

2412 He says what 
lie means, 


2392. Y-bounde] bounde D 1 kny^t] trew kny}t C. 

2397. Ne dide seruise] No seruice dide D 1. 

2399. recomforte] to recomforte D 1. 2401. >e] tho D 2. 

2402. no] of D 1 him] hem C, D 2, A. 

2403. no] of no D 1. 

2411. any] om. A, D 2, more to D 1. 

2412. seie] seye as A. 2414. with deth] which A. 
2417. newH D 1. 

84 Medea dissuades Jason from his Quest. [BK. i 

Your Quest ])& * auenture, fat 36 take on honde, 

And prudently f e pereil vnderstonde, 2420 

And ful warly caste and haue in mynde 

Jje mortal harme at f e taiel be-hynde, 

J)at is wel more fan it is credible ; 
is impossible, For leue me wel, it is an impossible 2424 

To gynne [iu] honour, & also for to fyne. 
for the Fleece For f ilke flees be hi^e power devyne 
D ow"r e b Preseruyd is, and eke with Martis myjt, 

bSi7'breath y ^ vv ^' so entre ]> J> ere ^ or to n 3 te > 2428 

ing flame. ft wer f u i } iar( j e [to] hym to eskape 

]5e firy flame, whan f e bolis gape, 
ftat ben of bras, trapped al in leuene, [leaf uc] 

More for to drede fan li^tnyng of fe heuene 2432 

To-fore f e dent of f e grete thonder, 
#at seuered hath many tour assondre ; 
For to assches fei moste * a man consume. 
DO not* Wherfor I rede bat 2e nat presume 2436 

attempt it. 

\)Q Earn tassaile, lest 36 3our labour lese ; 
"WVtA-drawe * 3our foot 3it sithe?i 36 * may chese, 
By good avise and discrecciouw, 

3our honour saue, and 3our hi3e renou?z. 2440 

Wher-so 30 list of 3our wilfullnes, 
Only of foly and of hastines 
To fis emprise of heed to precede, 

Or wher 30 list, liche as I 3ow rede, 2444 

save yourself Sauen lour silfe from wo & al meschaunce, 

from woe. T i_ 

Licne as 36 schal, 3 if te myn ordynaunce 

3e 3ow co??imitte, and lowly list obeye 

With-oute fraude fer is no more to seie." 2448 

And lason fan, sittyng at f e borde, 

2419. J)e] t>is C. 2420. vnderstonde] to vnderstonde A. 
2425. gynne] begynne D 1. 2430. flame] flawraes D 1. 
2431. of] in D 1. 2432. >an] >anne >e D 1 of ]>e] in D 1. 

2434. many] many a D 2, D 1. 

2435. moste] al moste C. 

2438. WitA-drawe] WitA drawi> C 30] >at 3e C #t sitheu 
may chese] for the more ese D 1. 

2441. Wher-so 30] Or whej>r 3ou D 1. 
2444. wher] whe>er D 1. 

2448. With together with the initial A of 2449 cut out in D 1. 

2449. ne 

BK. i] Jason declares he'd sooner die than give up his Quest. 85 

Of Medea enprentyng euery worde, 
Wexe for Ire almost inpacient, 
And seide, "alias, [and] is pis $our entent, 
Me to cownseile to leue pis emprise ? 
Certis it were to fowle a cowardyse, 
To gynne a thing I my^tfe] nou^t acheue ; 
For euery man wolde me repreue, 
And report to my confusioiw, 
})at I of pride and presumpcioim 
Toke on me, whan I was at my large, 
So hi^e a ping, and so gret a charge, 
)3at I ne durst for drede of meschef 
Acomplisch it, whan it cam to [j>e] pref. 
Leuere me were, myn owne lady dere, 
For to luparte and to putte in were 
My life attonys, and, at wordes few, 
On smale peces to ben al to-hewe, 
ftan I schulde cowardely for-sake 
jjilke emprise pat I haue vnder-take, 
As 36 wel knowe, and leue it pus, alias ! 
Let be $oure couwseile pleynly in pis cas ; 
For what-so-euer happe or falle of me, 
Trustep ri^t wel, it schal noon other be. 
For }if pat I, of my covvarde herte, 
Fro my purpos schulde nowe diuerte, 
With-oute laude my life I schulde lede, 
And schame eternal schulde be my mede 
ftoru^-oute pe worlde noted oueral, 
In euery lond spoke of in special, 
ftat lason hath so In^ly vndirtake, 
ftat he for fere dar noon ende make. 
Jjinketh ri^t wel, it schal not betide, 
For life nor dethe what meschef I abide ; 
And per-vpon my trouthe : I $ow ensure, 
J)at as ferforthe as my life may dure, 

2452. >is] >is nowe D 1. 2453. leue] om. D 1. 
2455. gynne] begynne D 1 a] om. A, D 2, D 1. 
2458. of] haue D 2. 2461. drede] doute D 2, D 1. 
2462. }>e] om. D 1. 2463. Leuere] Nowe leuere D 1. 
2480. he] om. D 2. 2481. it] >at D 1, }>at it D 2. 
2484. dure] Endure A. 

This angers 
Jaaon, who 
says it would 

be cowardice 
and shame 

to give up 
what he'd 

He'd rather 
be cut to bits 
than forsake 
his enter- 







2476 Eternal 

shame would 
be on him 

2480 ifhe 

abandond it 
for fear. 


86 Medea again warns Jason of his need of Advice. [BK. I 

Jason would 
rather die 
than live 

Medea says 
that if be will 

attack such 


he must be 

I schal parforme fat I haue begcwne ; 

And f ou} so be, it may not be woraie, 

But fat I moste v?ith my clethe it bye, 

I wil not leue, for leuer I haue to dye 2488 

fran lyue aschamed of cowardyse & slouthe. 

For me semeth, it is to lii^e a routhe 

A man to apere or dore schewe his hede 

After tyme whan his worschip is ded, 2492 

Or to lyue whan his name is slayn ; 

For eue?*y man schulde be rather * fayn 

To dye in honowr, fan lyuen as a wreche ; 

And fou} fis fing to my deth now streche, 2496 

It is welcom, I schal it wel abide : 

J^is al and som, what so of me betide." 

" J}an," quod sche, " sythen it is so, 

))at 30 algatis desyre to haue a-do, 2500 

]5er is no more by ou$t I can espie, 

But 36 haue leuer schortly for to dye, 

Rather fan lyue and to haue a schame ; 

And 3it it is an ernes and no game, 2504 

With suche monstres vnwarly for to dele, 

Lyche as in dede her-after 36 schal fele. 

Wherfor I am meved of pite, 

And gretly stered, fat 36 of volunte, 2508 

With-out avis or discreciourc, 

Counseil or good deliberations, 

List take on 3ow f is merveillous viage ; 

For $our 3outhe and also 3our corage 2512 

Gouerned ben, as in fis matere, 

Al after luste ; for bothe two I-fere 

luparted ben, $if 30 3our purpos swe ; 

For impossible is * to 3ow teschewe 2516 

A sodeyn deth, for nouf er fre nor bonde 

2486. it] >at it D 1. 

2488. leuer I haue to] I hadde leuere D 1. 

2490. hi^e] greet D 1. 2492. tyme] om. D 1. 

2494. be rather] rather be 0. 2495. lyuen] lyue D 1. 

2499. new IF D 1 sythen] se]>e that D 1. 

2500. algatis desyre] desire algates D 1. 
2504. an] om. A ernes] ernest A, D 2, D 1. 

2506. Lyche] Rijt D 1. 2510. Counseil] Or counceil D 1. 
2514. Al] om. D 1. 2516. is] it is C to] for D 1. 

BK. i] Medea at last promises to help Jason in his Quest. 87 

By craft of man hath power to wz't/i-stonde. 

Wherfor I f inke of herte and good entent 

To cast a weye, }it or 30 be schent, 

And to $our lorney schape a remedie, 

Swiche rauthe I haue fat 30 shulde * dye ; 

For my fader, whom I loue moste, 

Rather fan 36 schulde f us be loste, 

I schal ofFende, and outerly displese 

My frendes alle, so it may do 30 w * ese. 

For I schal fynde svvyche a mene weye, 

At f e leste fat 30 schal nat deye ; 

For in fis cas, I thinke be 30111' giiyde, [leaf is 

So fat for 3ow I schal sette a-syde 

My birthfe] first, of f e stoke royal, 

And ouermore myn heritage with-al, 

And myn honour schal be putte a-bak 

3ow for to helpe, fat f er schal be no lak 

Fourcden in me, so * 30 wil be kynde, 

And fat 30 liste for to haue in mynde 

As I disserue goodly me to quite, 

Consyderyng firste fat it is not a lite 

To saue 3our life, fat stant in iupartye 

More perlously fan 36 can espie. 

But for al f is, I schal it so ordeyne, 

)3oru3 my crafte, only atwixe vs tweyn, 

j)at or we parte I hope al schal be wel : 

Yp-on f is point so fat I may fele, 

Feithfully for loye, wo, or snierte, 

With ful acorde of body, wille, and herte, 

To my desire fat 30 condiscende, 

I vndirtake to maken a good ende." 

" 3is, sothly, lady," seide lason tho, 

" I am assented, with-oute wordes moo, 

For to fulfille vfiih euery circumstaunce 

What fat euer may be to 30 w plesaunce." 2552 

" ftaraie," quod sche, " f er is no more to seyn 

But first of al, with feith & herte pleyn, 

Medea will 
help him, tho' 

she'll offend 
her lathc-i- 

and her 

She will put 
aside her 
royal birth 
and honour 







. 2544 

But he must 
do what she 
2548 wishes. 

Jason agrees. 

to save his 

2522. shulde] schal C. 
2529. be] to be D 1. 
2549. new IT D 1. 

2526. do $ow] }ow do C. 
2535. so] so >at C. 

88 Medea asks Jason to pledge his faith to her. [BK. I 

Medea says 
Jason must 
promise to 
wed her, 

and take her 
home with 

and cherish 
her all his 

For no one 
can attack 
the Dragon 
and Bull, 

save by her 

Jason pledges 
his faith to 

With al 3our myjt, and 30111- besy cure, 

And menynge hool, fat 30 me assure 

Jjat 30 her-after schal take me to wyve, 

To holde and kepen after al 3our lyve, 

So fat 3our dede acorde with 3our heste ; 

Jtis is f e fyn and sorame of my requeste : 

Excepte only fat 36 shal * ordeyne, 

In 3our repeire to 3our fadres reigne, 

feat feithfully 36 schal me with ^ow lede ; 

And after fat, whan fat 36 succede 

After his day in-to 3our heretage, 

With herte ay oon, and with o corage, 

3e schal to me ben y-lyche trewe, 

And cherische me for chau??ge of any newe, 

Liche myn estate, wit/i-oute variaunce, 

And while 30 liue han in remembraunce 

My kyndenes in 3our grete nede. 

For f er is noon alyue fat may spede, 

Creature fat is here mortal, 

For to assaille f e forcys marcial 

Of f e dragoune and bolis, bothe I-fere ; 

But it so be of me fat he lere 

Hooly f e maner how he schal hym guye, 

Liche as to 3ow I thenke specific,* 

"Whan it happeth fat we mete ageyn ; 

For noon but I may helpen, in certeyn, 

In fis cas, as platly 30 schal fynde, 

And I not aske but fat 30 be kynde." 

" Sothly," quod lason, " al fis schal be do 

As 30 deuise, I wil fat it be so ; 

And here my faith, fer-on I 3ow assure, 

goodlieste of any creature 

J)at euere 3et I saie vn-to my paye, 

And fairest eke, in soth it is no nay 

And of bou?ite 30 ben incomperable ; 

For of my deth 30 ben so merciable, 

2560. fyn and s<mme] sowme & fyn D 1. 
2561 shal] schulde C. 2570. 33] I D 1. 

2576. he] 3e D 1. 2578. specifie] to specific 0. 
2589. boimte] beaute D 1. 

[leaf 15 6] 










BK. i] Jason will be true to Medea, the Fairest of the Fair. 89 
bat while I live, I seie :ow be my feith, Jason de- 

clares he'll be 

Myn hert[e] menyth as my tong[e] seitn, 2592 true to Medea 

I wil be founde 3 our owne tre\v[e] man 

For life or deth, in al pat cue?- I can ; death. and 

So fat of grace it be $ow plesaunt 

For to parforme $our hestis and jour graunt, 2596 

And werche fully to my sauaciourc, 

As ^e han seide, in ful concluciouw. 

For trewly 30, of alle fat bere life, mo^beaJe- 6 

In bewte han a prerogatyfe, 2600 OU8 woman 

Passyng echon, me liste not for to glose, 

Amongis flouris as doth f e rede rose, aboveai 86 

Which in somer amyd fe herbes swote, other flowers, 

After fat ver hath made oute of f e rote 2604 

Jje humydyte kyndely tascende, 

)3e bareyn soyl to clothen and amende, 

And f e braunchis, fat wynter made bare, 

With soote blosmys freschly to repare, 2608 

And f e medwes, of many sondri he we, meads* are 

Tapited * ben with diuerse flouris newe, SJSmf wlth 

Of sondry motles, most lusti for to sene, 

And holsonm bawme is schad among fe grene 2612 

as f e rose is fairest of echon, 

so Nature sette 3ow allon, lether flSt 

Whan sche 3ow made, first at hir deuys, 
Above alle other for to haue a pris, 2616 

As 36 fat be of bewte spring and welle. 
]3er-to in bownte sothly 36 excelle 
Alle bat lyven, for no comparysown none other 

i > K j ma com 

N"e may be made ; and of discrecioun 2620 

3e passen alle, as euery man may se. 

And vfith al fis I fynde 3ow [vn-]to me 

jpe most goodly fat euer 3'it was born, 

With-out whom I were as now but lorn, 2624 

Of helpe and socour fully destitut, 

2595. it be $ow plesaunt] wi> al )>e remenawnt D 1 be] be not 
to D 2, be to A. 

2610. Tapited] Tappid C, Depeinted D 1 diuerse] many D 1. 
2615. first at hir] at hir owne D 1. 
2618. bownte] bewtee A. 
2624. but lorn] forlorn D 1. 

may compare 



withher - 

90 Jason again pledges his Troth to Medea. She rejoices. [BK. I 

Jason says 
lie is bound 
to Medea for 

He puts his 
heart, his life 
and death 

in her hands, 
and will be 
true to her 
till liia end- 
ing day. 

Medea is 
with joy, 

and says 
she'll soon 
meet him 

]N"e were fat I fou/zde in 30 w refute. 

Fro whom al fredam to-me-ward do]? abounde, [leaf 15 c] 

In so moche fat I am euer bounde 2628 

As ferforthe as my lyfe jnay streche, 

)3at for 3our sake of deth I ne reeche, 

3if fer-with-al I my3t[e] ^ow agreen, 

J}at to my helpe so goodly list to seen. 2632 

For 3if fat I of necligence schulde 

Any f ing refusen fat 36 wolde, 

I rny^t of rescue ful wel marked be, 

And noted eke, of wilful nycete 2636 

So folily to voyde away my grace. 

It were a rage a man from hym to chase 

Welful Fortune, whan sche is benigne ; 

Wherfor as now hooly I * resigne 2640 

Herte, body, my life, and eke my deth 

In-to 3our hond, while me lasteth brethe, 

With alle f e othes fat I afferme may, 

For to perseuere to myn endyng day 2644 

3our trewfe] spouse, as I haue said and sworne, 

And 3ou behested pleynly her-to-forne ; 

And her-vppon, euery f ing obeie 

J?at may 3ou plese, til tyme fat I deye. 2648 

is al and som ; what schulde I lenger tarie 1 

From f is byheste I schal neuer varie." 

And whan sche sawe his grete stedfastnes, 

Sche was supprised with so hi3e gladnes, 2652 

With so gret loye, pleynly in hir herte, 

]5at sche was voide of euery wo and snierte ; 

For he so lowly to hir luste obeyde. 

And or sche went fus to hym sche seyde : 2656 

" lason," quod sche, "fan I schal ordeyne 

A mene weye fat we bothe tweyne 

May efte ageyn at leyser mete sone, 

2631. >er-with-al I] I ther with al D 1. 

2634. wolde] haue done wolde D 1. 2635. full right A 

2639. Welful] Wylful A-is] om. D 2. 

2640. hooly I] I hooly C. 2644. For] om. D 1. 
2651. new f D 1. 2655. luste obeyde] list obeye D 1. 

2656. jms to hym sche seyde] to hym Jras gan. she seye D 1. 

2657. I schal] shal I D 1. 

BK. i] Medea arranges for Jason to visit her at Night. 91 

For to parforme al fat is to done 2660 

In pis mater, liche to oure entent, Jason and 

Wher schal be made a f ynal sacrament to make ,! 

binding vow. 

Of oure desire, pat no man schal vnbynde, 

ftou$ now per-to we may * no leyser fynde. 2664 

Toward euen, It schal me not eskape, 

Trust me ry$t wel, a tyme for to schape, 

Secrely pat we [may] mete y-fere ; 

For I schal sende a privy chaumberere 2668 she'll send -A 

, . . , servant to 

To aou of myn, whyche schal sou conveye bring him to 

__ , , , , . her room at 

Vn-to my chambre by a privy weye, night ; 

A certeyn hour, with-outen any fable, 

To oure entent pat be moste greable : 2672 

Vp-on pe point whan Phebws with his li^t 

I-westrid is, and pe dirke ny$t 

Hath with pe dy??mes of his schadowes blake 

Our Emysperie fully ouertake, [leaf 15 d] 2676 

]5at ofte ^eueth by fauow of fortune 

Vn-to louers a leyser oportune 

For to parforme her lustis * and acheve. 

And ri^t anoon, as it draweth to eve, 2680 

I schal for sow to my closet sende, and in her 

, , closet 

Ut euery ping ior to make an ende ; they'll open 

Wher as we schal at good leyser speke 

Eueryche with oper, and our hertis breke, 2684 

And declare pe sownie of al oure wille. 

And whan we han spoken al our fille, 

By good leyser, I fully $ou behete, 

We schal ordeyn whan so vs list to mete, 2688 and settle 

, other nightly 

To sette a tyme, who-euer pat seye nay, meetings. 

Alweye be ni^t, whan passed is pe day. 

For my^ti love as wysly me socoure, 

As hens-forthe I wil ben hoolly 2oure, 2692 she is Jason's 

-ITTT -T i T T -i 11 while she 

While pat I live, wakyng and a-slepe, lives. 

3if it so be pat 36 }our hestis kepe." 
To whom lason lowly gan tencline, 

2664.' may] schal C. 2665. me not] not me D 1. 
2667. y-fere] in fere D 1. 2679. lustis] lustus C. 
2688. so] hat D 2. 2689. >at] am. A, D 1. 
2692. hoolly] hole D 1. 2694. hestis] heste D 1. 
2695. new II D 1 tencline] encline D 1. 

92 Medea considers the Difficulties of her purpose. [BK. I 

Jason de- 
clares he'll be 

to Medea till 
he dies. 

They part. 
Medea goes 

to her 

and thinks 
may thwart 

Midday is 

And seide, " as fer as man may ymagyne, 2696 

Or any wit may clerly comprehende, 

I wil to ^ou, to my lyves ende, 

As a seruaurct feithfully me quyte ; 

And pou$ pat I can nat seyn but lite, 2700 

My trew[e] herte wilnep neuer-pe-lesse ; 

And pou^ I can not paynt[e] nor compasse 

No gay prosses, my souereyn hertis quene, 

Til I be ded, trewly I schal mene ; 2704 

Hath her my troupe whil I haue life & mywde, 

As in pe ende trewly 36 schal fynde." 

And of her speche an ende pus pei make. 

And Medea schope hir for to take 2708 

Hir leue anoon amonges al pe pres, 

First of hir fader and pan of Hercules, 

And bod no lenger, but furpe-wM anoon 

Vn-to hir chambre in hast[e] sche is goon, 2712 

Where vp and down sche made many went, 

Noon of hir meyne wetyng what sche ment, 

Castynge weyes hir purpos to acheve, 

And in hir wittes gan besely to meve, 2716 

As sche rometh in hir habitacle, 

On any syde $if per were obstacle 

Or any lettyng, whiche wolde hir sore greue. 

J)is was hir studie til it drowe to cue, 2720 

Where I hir leue compleynyng in her wo, 

With many a thou^t, walkynge to and fro. 

Jpe mydday hour is goon and ouerslide, 

Titan so fast hath * in his chare I-ride, 2724 

\)e dayes arke from est to west compassid, [leaf 16 a] 

His fery stedis han almost I-passed 

Our ori^onte, and drawe dou?^ ful lowe 

His golden wayn, pat no man my^tfe] knowe 2728 

Where as he hidde his fyry * bemys bri^t, 

In his discence ful fer out of oure * si^t ; 

2697. wit] wyght A, wi$t D 1. 2704. I schal] shal I D 1. 

2713. many] many a D 1. 2718. any] many A. 

2i( 2io, yt&iu il D 1. 

2724. so fast hath] hath so fast C in] om. D 2 I-ride] rede D 1. 

2729. fyry] fyre C. 

2730. discence] diffence D 1 oure] her C, om. A. 

BK. i] Of Medea s feelings vihile waiting for Jason. 93 

And Herynes, with hir copis inyrke, 

jpe heueuyng be-gonne for to dirke, 2732 

In f e twyli$t whan j?e day gan fade j in the twi. 

And Esperus, with hir stremes glade, 

)?at bene so fresch^ so lusty, and so mery, 

Gan recou?rforte al our emesperie : 2736 

Whan Medea by hir silf allone, Medea is 

Of hi3e der.e gan to make hir mone, 

Jjat sche so longe abood after hir kny$t, 

Alweye acourctyng fe houres of j>e nyjt, 2740 

So ful of trouble and so ful of Jjou^t, ISS?.? and 

Which hath ful streytly cerched out & sou^t 

A redy weye vn-to hir purpos, 

Al-be pat sche kept it in ful cloos 2744 

Amyd hir herte, quappyng as a wawe now 8ad > 

For drede and fere, til hope gan a-dawe, 

And bad sche schulde be ri$t mery and glad, '- ow R laa 

Til drede a-geyn-warde made hir sober & sad 2748 

Liste hir desire troubled were or let. 

And Jms sche was at a-bay I-set 

Amyd of hope and of drede also, Jffif ? nd 

J5at sche ne wyste what was best to do : 2752 

For hi^e desire and affeccioiw 

So sore brent in hir oppiniouw, 

Of lust sche hadde to meten vritft lason, Seet d jSoi, to 

And per ageyn[e]s drede cam in anoon, 2756 

And made hir ferful list sche were espied. 

But al hir sorowe was holp and remedyed 

Only by Fortune and pe dirke ny3t, comforter 

By whiche sche was made ful glad & lijt. 2760 with hope. 

For recou/zforted only with pise two, 

And with good hope fat made hir glad also, 

Sche gan anoon to casten and deuise, 

Whawne pat j>e mone on heuen wolde aryse, 2764 

2731. Herynes] lieryvs A. 

2732. be-gonne] ha}> bigwine D 1. 2737. Whan] And D 1. 
2738. hije] Mr D 1 to] Jms D 1. 2746. a-dawe] dawe A. 
2749. or] and D 1. 2753. and] and hih A. 

2754. So sore] Of sorwe D 1. 

2756. fer ageynes] ther with al D 1. 2760. was] om. D 2. 

2764. on] of D 1. 

94 Medea watches & waits, & at Midnight sends for Jason. [BK. I 

Medea sees 

the 7-day old 
moon shine, 

and peers 

to see if any 
one is 

At midnight 

she calls an 
old dame, 

And wha?me fat sche, with hir hornys pale, 

Wolde schede hir li^t vp-on hil and vale, 

Sche gan acounte and castfe] wel f e tyme, 

And fonde a quarter was passid after pryme, 2768 

As sche fat was wel knowyng in fat arte, 

And sawe in soth fat f e ferf e parte 

Of f e mone was schad with new[e] li^t, 

And passed was in hir cours ful ri^t, 2772 

After f e tyme of conkmcciouw, 

Thre signes ful by computaciouw, [leaf 16 &] 

And complete was seuen daies of hir age. 

At whiche tyme sche, bryrcnyng in hir rage, 2776 

And f oru^-darted with Cupides arowe, 

Gan to loke and beholde narwe 

At eue?*y dore, and listen besily 

3if any wy3t fat sche myjt espie 2780 

Of al f e courte ouf er walke or goo, 

Or any man romyng to and froo, 

So sore sche dradde, goyng vp and dovn, 

Whan sche herde oufer noyse or sown, 2784 

Or whan sche heryth wispring eny-where ; 

It was venym sothly in hir ere : 

Sche wisched al hadde ben a-bedde. 

j?is pitous life fe longe ny3t sche ledde, 2788 

With-out respit, f ou$ no wy$t koude it knowe, 

Til hi3e mydny3t fat f e cokkes crowe ; 

At whiche tyme, w[h]an al was hust and stille, 

For to [ajcomplische fe remnau?*t of hir wille, 2792 

And euery-where maked was silence, 

Sche cleped anoon vn-to hir presence 

An aged vekke, fer in 3eris ronne, 

2767. tyme] mone D 1. 2768. pryme] soone D 1. 
2767 and 2768 are repeated after 2768, as follows, in D 1 : 

And fonde a quarter was passed after prime, 

She gan rekene & knewe wel J?e tyme. 
2772. hir] his D 1. 2774. ful] fully D 1. 
2775. complete] countyd D 1. 2776. hir] a D 2. 
2778. narwe] ful narwe D 1. 2779. listen] listneth D 1. 
2781. Of] Or D 1. 2782. romyng] to romen D 1. 
2784. herde ou>er noyse] eny noise herde D 1 ou>er] ony A. 
2787. al] J>at alle D 1 a-bedde] in bed D 1. 
2789. koude] om. D 1 . 

BK. i] Jason is brought to Medea's room ~by her Messenger. 95 

)5at in swyche crafte mochel help[e] kowne, 2796 

Thriftely to bring a ping a-boute. 

For pei a-forne can casten euery doute ; 

Of 3eris passed olde experience 

Hath 30110 to hem so passyng hi^e prudence, 2800 

bat pei in loue alle be sleiates knowe ; who knows 

all Love's 

And sche was made as dogge for pe bowe. tricks, 

To whom Medea discureth al hir poi^t 

From point to point, & for-gat ri^t nou^t, 2804 

And charged hir, in reles of hir smert, "<* bids her 

And recomfort of hir troubled hert, 

To hasten hir anoon vp-on hir weye 

Vn-to hir chambre lason to conveye. 2808 brin * Jason 

to Medea's 

And sche anon, not rekles in pis cas, chamber. 

Is goon for hym a ful softe pas, 

As sche pat was of nesve nat to lere, 

And brou3t hym forth anoo?a as 36 schal here. 2812 

Howe Medea sent for lason to com to Here in pe night, 
And howe he was sworn to wed here, aftire pe 
la we of his panym rite. 1 

Whan pat pe cok, comoiw astrologer, 
])Q mydny^t hour with his vois ful clere 

Be-gan to sowne, and dide his besy peyne At mldni g bt 

To bete his brest with his wyngys tweyne, 2816 

And of pe tyme a mynute wil not passe 
To warnen hem pat weren * in pe place 
Of pe tydes and sesou?* of pe ny3t, 

Medea to awayte * vp-on hir kny3t 2820 

Ful redy was pe entre for to kepe, 

As sche pat list ful litel for to slepe, jason u 

For pat ne was no parcel of hir pou^t. [leaf 10 c] Medea's 

And whan lason was to hir cha??zbre bro^t, 2824 

2796. crafte] helpe D 1 helpe] crafte D 1. 

2797. Thriftely] Trustely D 1 a] al A. 

2806. troubled] trouble D 2. 2813. comourc] comen D 1. 

2818. weren] ben C >e] that A. 

2820. Medea] And Medea D 1 awayte] wayten C. 

2822. ful] om. A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 22 b. 

96 Medea makes Jason sivear to take her to Wife. [BK. I 

Medea takes 
Jason to her 
closet, and 

seats him 
beside her. 

The leash 
turns to a 
brace, as the 
old dame 


Me.lea lights 
up her room, 

takes Jason 
to a go'den 

to Jupiter, 

and makes 
him swear on 
it that he'll 
wed and 

cherish her. 

With-out espying of eny maner 

)?an sche anoon conveyeth hym ful ri^t 

In-to hir closet, in al pe hast sche may, 

Ful wel beseyn with gret and riche araye, 2828 

Where by hir side sche made hym take his se. 

And first of alle, pis ilke lees of thre, 

By hir pat was moste expert in pis cas, 

Was sodeynly turned to a bras ; 2832 

For pe vekke to stare vp-on pe mone 

Is walked out, and [hap] hem lefte allone. 

And whan Medea pe dores hadde schet, 

Down by lason anoon sche hath hir set. 2836 

But first I fynde, with al hir besy my^t, 

Aboute pe chamber pat sche sette vp li^t 

Of grete torches and cyrges ful royal, 

Aboute on pilers and on euery wal, 2840 

Whiche }af a li^t, liche pe soime schene. 

And to a cheste, wrou^t of cristal clene, 

First of al, sche taketh hir passage, 

Out of pe wiche sche toke a rich * ymage 2844 

Of pured gold, ful lusty to beholde, 

Jpat by custom of pis rytes olde 

To my3ti love, eterne and increat, 

I-halwed was, and also consecrat. 2848 

)5e whiche ymage, deuoutly as sche ou^te, 

With humble herte to lason first sche brou^te, 

And made hym lowly per-on take * his othe 

Vn-to his laste, ouper for lefe or lothe,* 2852 

ftat he hir schulde take vn-to his wife 

Fro pat day forth duryng al his life, 

With hert vnfeyned and feith inviolat, 

And cherischen hir liche to hir estat. 2856 

For to pat tyme, I fynde how pat sche 

Hadde euer floured in virginite ; 

And as myn auctor wel reherse can, 

2830. ilke] firste D 1. 2832. to] in to D 2, D 1. 

2844. rich] rial C. 2845. pured] pure A. 

2851. take] to take C. 2852. lothe] for lothe C. 

2854. >at day] day to day D 1. 2855. inviolat] vnviolat D 2 

2857. to] om. A. 

BK. i] Alas! how Jason deceivd Medea, ivho gave up all for him. 97 

Ay kepte hir clene from touche of any man, 2860 

In poi^te and dede, and neuer dide amys : 

For sche of herte so hoolfy] ^ouen is 

Vn-to lason, and pat for euer-mo. 

And he anoon hath put his honde per-to, 2864 Jason swears 

i ITT to >narry 

And sworne fully, as 36 han herde me say, Medea. 

Al hir requestes, wit/i-oute more delay, 

To kepen hem whil his life may laste. 

But, o alias ! how sone he ouer-caste 2868 But aiasi 

His heste, his feith, wtt/i whiche he was assured, ttnwkM ' e 


And hadde his frauds wit/i flaterie y-cured 

So couertly pat hir Innocence, 

Hir trewe menyng and hir diligence, [leaned] 2872 

And al pat euer sche deuise can, 

Desey ved was by falshed of pis man ! His faise- 

. , , , . hood deceives 

And pou} pat trouthe was apparent above, her. 

Doubilnes so slijly was in schoue, 2876 

As pou} he hadde sothly ben allied 

With trewe menyng, & so no ping espied 

Vnder faire chore was feynyng & fallas. 

For what my3t sche ha wrou^t more in pis cas, 2880 what more 

u. /? , i i -I could she do 

pan for pi sake, septre and regalye, for him ? 

And alle pe lordis eke of hir allye 

For-soke attonys, and toke of hem noon hede ; 

And of pite and verray goodlyhede 2884 

Loste hir f rondos and hir good[e] fame, she gave up 

Only, lason, to sane pe fro schame ! Scu'and 

And $it, more-ouere, forsoke hir heritage 

Sche pat was born of so hi^e parage, 2888 she, so high- 

. , , , , , . , horn, and the 

And schiilue haue ben by successiou?a heir of the 

Eyre by dissent of pat regipun. 

But wommanly for sche wolde hir quite, 

Of al y-fere sche sette nou^t a myte, 2892 

But at oon hour al sche hath forsake, 

And vn-to pe sche hath hir hooly take ; 

Only for truste pou schuldefst] haue be kynde, 

2864. per- to] vn to A, D 2, to D 1. 

2870. y-cured] cured D 1. 2871. >at] with D 1. 

2875. was apparent] apparent was D 1. 

2876. Doubilnes] }it doubilnes D 1. 2880. more] om. D 1. 
2892. sche sette] I sette D 1. 


98 How Medea gave up all for Jason, and lie letrayd her. [BK. I 

For Jason, 
Meclea left 
riches and 
chose exile, 

kept him 
from death, 

and won him 
the Fleece. 

She was his 
refuge ; 

she sold her 
father for 

Alas! why 
didn't she, 
by the stars, 
foreknow her 

Kiclies and honour sche hath y-left by-hynde, 2896 

And ches in exil with pe for to goon, 

From al hir kyn, pis cely maide allone. 

Alias, I wepe for fin vnkyndenes ! 

What, hath sche nat fro deth and fro distresse 2900 

Preserued pe, and jit pou takest noon hede, 

jjat schust a deyed, nadde sche ben pin rede ! 

Of pi conqueste sche was pe verray cause ! 

Jpat I may nat, schortly in a clause, 2904 

Writen hir boiwte nor brefly comprehend*, 

Effectuelly parformed to the ende, 

At wordes fewe it may nat be tolde. 

}?oruj whom pou hast pe riche flees of golde 2908 

Manly conquered, whiche wtt^-oute doute 

Vnlikly was the to haue broujt aboute ; 

For whan pou were of helpe destitut, 

Sche was pi couwfort and singuler refut. 2912 

And wit/i al pis, pou maist it nat deneye, 

Al erthly honour how sche gan defye 

])& to conserue out of heuenes ; 

And hir fader sche hath of his riches 2916 

So emporisched, pat pite is to here : 

Be exavmple of whiche, wommen myjt[e] lere 

How pei schulde truste on any man. 

Alias ! Medea, pat so moche can 2920 

Bothe of sterris and of astronomy e ! [leaf 17 a] 

3et sawe sche nat aforn hir destenye : 

Loue hadde hir put out of gouernaille, 

J5at al hir crafte ne mijt her not availle. 2924 

Sche was to slowe by calculaciou'M 

To cast a-forn the constellaciouw 

Of hir birthe, and hir woful fate ; 

For rekleshed sche sawe it al to late. 2928 

But I suppose hir konraynge was fallible : 

For dout[e]les, me semeth nat credible, 

J)at jif sche hadde wist of it to-fore, 

2896. hath] ora. D 2 y-left] left D 1. 2901. jit] om. I) 1. 
2884-2901 are repeated after 2901 in D 1. 
2905. brefly] shortly D 1. 2910. the] that A. 
2931. to-fore] a forn A. 

BK. i] Jason robs Medea of her Maidenhood, alas ! 


So pitously sche hadde nat be lore 

As 30 schal seen here-after hastely, 

So as f e story reherseth by and by, 

Howe it be-fel of lason and Medee. 

But first $e schul f e ordre & mane?- * se 

How sche wrou^t after he was swore : 

Jpe same ny^t, alias, sche hathe forbore 

Hir maidenhed, and fat was grete pite. 

And }et sche ment nat but honeste ; 

As I suppose, sche wende haue be?a his wyfe ; 

But touching frtt, I holde as now no strife. 

And }it o f ing I dar afferme and seyne, 

J2at f e menyng of f is ilke tweyne 

Ne was nat on, but wonder fer atwene ; 

For ,il fat sche trew[e]ly gan mene, 

Of honeste f inkyng noon outerage, 

Liche a maide Innocent of age, 

He to a-complische his fleschely fals delite 

And to parforme .his foule appetite, 

Wrou^t every f ing to hir entent contra?*ie. 

Alias, fat sche was so debonaire 

For to trust vppon his curtesye, 

Or to quite hir of hir genterie, 

So hastely to rewe vp-on his smerte : 

But woHimen ben of so tender hert, 

Jjat f ei wil gladly of routhe * and pite, 

Whan fat a man is in aduersite, 

Sauen his life, rather fan he deye. 

And so Medea, schortly for to seye, 

Castyng no pereil after fat schal falle, 

His desyris and his lustis alle 

Hooly obeyeth, with al hir f ul[le] niy^t ; 

And fat so longe almost fat f e ny^t 

Hath his cours rourcde aboute goon. 

At which e tyme to hir spake lason, 

2932. lore] lorn A. 2936. maner] J>e maner C. 

2938. forbore] forlore D 1. 2940. $et] if D 1. 

2941. haue] to have D 1. 2946. j>at] om. D 1. 

2947. Of] On D 1. 2951. to] so to D 1. 

2952. was] euere was D 1. 
2957. wil] wolde D 1 routhe] rou^te C. 





After Jason 
had sworn to 
Medea, he 
took her 

she being 
innocent of 

Alas, that she 
trusted him ! 



2960 But, foresee- 
ing no 
danger, she 
yielded to his 


100 Jason asks Medea s help. She gives him a Silver Image. [BK. I 

Jason asks 
Medea to 
rise and 

tell him how 
to work 

so as to get 
the Golden 

He promises 
to take him 
with her to 

And lowly seide, " my lady, it is tyme 

)5at we arise, for sone it wil be pryme : 2968 

3e may se wel }>e day begyraieth springe, 

For we may here how fe briddes singe. [leaf 17 6] 

Preying to $ow in al my bestfe] wyse, 

How I schal wirke fat 36 list deuise, 2972 

And ceryously euery fing dispose, 

I 30 w beseche, goodly fresche rose, 

Myu emprise to bringen to an ende ; 

And farcne at erst, hen[ne]s wil I wende 2976 

Sane fat I f hike first vrith 3011 to trete 

In what wyse f is contre 36 schal lete, 

And in-to Grece repeire ageyn vrith me, 

Whiche is a londe of gret felicite. 2980 

For trusteth wel, & beth no fing in drede, 

In-to fat regne \\ith me I schal 3 on lede, 

After my conquest, 3if so be fat I wyraie. 

Wherfore, I praye 3011 goodly to begywne, 2984 

How I schal werke, in al f e hast 30 may, 

For in good feith anoon it wil be day." 

To whom sche spake, seying as 36 schal here : 

Medea gets 

goes to her 
coffer, and 
hands Jason 
a Silver 

Howe Medea declarede to lason the vertue of here 
relikis, and deliuerde fern to lasone. 1 

" Myn owne lason, vn-to me more dere 2988 

}5an is my silfe, as in conclusion, 

I am assented, with ful affeccwmn 

Of my wittes, and [al] myn hool[e] herte, 

3ou to enforme how 36 schal asterte 2992 

Euery dauwger of f e litel He, 

3if it so be 30 list abide a while." * 

And vp sche ros, in al f e hast sche may, 

And to a cofre where hir tresour ley 2996 

Sche went anoon, & bro^t him in her honde 

A riche ymage of siluer fat sche fonde, 

2970. here] see D 1. 2975. 2nd to] at D 1. 

2987. schal] om. D 1. 2989. as] om. A, D 1. 

2993. >e] this D 1. 2994. while] litel while C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 23 a. 

BK. i] Medea also gives Jason an Ointment, & an Agate Ring. 101 

Whiche sothly was of merueillous entaille, 

Whos power was and vertu to availle, 3000 

Effectually to her bothe entent, which is good 

Ageyn magyk and al enchaiwt[e]ment, magic and 

And to with-sitte f e force of sorcerye. 

For it was made be astronomye, 3004 

In houre chose * & equat for f e nonys, 

By clerkis olde ; for ful longe a-goon is, 

Whilom whan f ei were flouryng in her ages, 

feat f ei vsede to make suche ymages, 3008 

As dide f e kyng called Tholome. 

And so to lason cowmauwded hath Medee she bids him 

carry this on 

To here fis ymage on hym pryuely, MS body. 

As $e han herd, to werche effectuelly 3012 

In euery f ing, as sche dide assygne. 

And ban sche toke to hym * a medecyne she also 

. . . gives him a 

Made in maner of an oyntement, fireproof 

To enoynte hym vriilt, fat he be nat brent, 3016 

feat was more riche & p?-ecious fan bame 

Ageyn fe malis of euery fire and flame. 

And after fat sche toke to hym anoon [leaf n<?] 

A riche ring, where-in was sette a stoon 3020 and an Agate 

feat vertu hadde al venym to distroye, 

feat on no syde it my$t hym nat anoye. 

fee whiche stoon hadde also fis my^t, 

feat 3 if a man coude it bere a-ri^t, 3024 

WftA-Inne his honde next J?e skyn enclosed, 

fee strengfe of si^t schulde be deposed 

Of hem fat wolde gasen or biholde ; 

For who-so-eue?- in his hond hit holde, 3028 whose stone 

By fe vertu fat was infallible, wearer in- 

fee story seith, he schulde be invisible. 

fee whiche stoon wyse clerkis calle 

Achates, moost vertuous of alle ; 3032 

And it is fouwde sothly in Cecile. 

3001. to] in D 1. 3005. chose] chose outo C, A. 

3006. for] om. D 1 is] it is D 1. 

3007. Whilom] Somme tyme D 1. 3012. lian] om. D 1. 
3014. toke to hym] to hym toke C. 

3024. it here] bere it D 1. 3026. deposed] disposyd A. 

102 Medea gives Jason a Glue to stick the Bulls' jaws. [BK. I 

Medea also 
gives Jason 
1. written 

to pray the 

to grant his 
request and 
protect him ; 

2. a Final of 

which he is 
to throw 
down the 

and it will 
glue their 
jaws together 

and make 
them obey 

Of whiche stoon whilom wrot Virgile, 

How pat Venus to Eneas it sent 

First whan [pat] he in-to Cartage went. 3036 

And after pis, sche to lason toke 

A certeyn bille, writen liche a boke, 

J^at to his lornay my$t[e] moche availle ; 

And bad hym wisly pat he nat ne faille, 3040 

3if he cast hym graciously to spede, 

Firste of alle, pe scripture pat he rede, 

Or he pe Earn touche in any wyse ; 

Hym chargyng eke, a-fore pis hi3e emprise, 3044 

With humble herte and deuociou?2, 

)?at he knelyng seye pat orisouw, 

ftat vp and dowi was writen on f>e bille, 

Preying pe goddys lowly to fulfille 3048 

His request, and mercy for to haue, 

Of verray pite from meschef hym to sane. 

And after pat, for his chefe socour, 

Sche toke to hym a viol with licour, 3052 

And bad hym manly w/t/i-oute fere or drede, 

Whan he come vn-to pe boles rede, 

3if he hym schape kny3tely to eskape, 

)?at as faste as he seth hem gape, 3056 

In-to her goles }>at he pe licour caste. 

))an dar hym not but litel of hem gaste ; 

For her lowes to-gidre it schal glewe, 

)?at on no syde pei schal not eschewe 3060 

Tobeye his luste in what hym list constreyne. 

For, dout[e]les, maugre al her peyne, 

He schal hem so dauwte & make * tame, 

ftat wher hym liste, in ernest or in game, 3064 

He my^t hem make tauten and encline, 

And don hem bowe hope bak and chyne : 

)3e licour schal her chawlys so coharte, 

3034. whilom wrot] wrote som tyme D 1. 

3035] To Eneas howe >at Verms it sente D 1. 

3036. >at] om. D 1. 3039. my^te moche] moche myjte D 1. 

3044. a-fore ]>is] of his D 2. 3046. >at] this D 1. 

3047. on] in A. 3054. vn-to] to D 2, D 1. 

3055. to] for to D 1. 3057. caste] gaste D 1. 

3063. make] make hem C. 3064. wher] whe>er D 1- 

BK. i] Jason takes leave of 'Medea , & prepares for his Quest. 103 

]?at asonder J?ei schal nat departe, rieafmi] 3068 

For to offende or noyen any wy^t. 

And whan sche hadde bus vn-to hir knyat when Medea 

. ; had Riven 

In euery Jnng 30110 instruccioim, Jason full 

Pleyn doctrine, and inforrnacioiw 3072 

How he schal skape ])& daiwgeris by & by, 

3 if he tak hede and werke avisely, 

And panne acorded, J?ei ]?ou^t[e] for j?e beste 

For to parte, or men out of hir reste 3076 

A-waked werne, for it drow to day, 

As Jiei wel seie by ]?e morwe graye. 

Arid list men hadde to hem suspeciourc, 

Of hyje prudence and discrecioiw, 3080 

Atwen j>e tvveyli^t and \ e rody morwe 

Jpe[i] toke her leue, with seynt[e] lohfi to borwe, "ittcd 1 " and 

With ofte kyssyng, as louers whan fei twywne ; 

And so he went, and sche [is] lefte with-Inne, 3084 

Beyng in hope to mete ageyn som day. 

And lason bamie, as faste as euer he may, and Jason 

' ' _ began to 

Gan ordeyn hym his lorney to acheue, 

And fou3t he wolde anon go take his leue. 3088 

And in what wyse, wit/A-in a litel while, 

After fe maner of my rude stile, 

Mi purpos is, sothly, and nat spare, 

With ^our support pleinly to declare. 3092 

Howe lason requirede Jje Kenge Cethes withoute delay 
to g/-aunt hym to do his Armes in vinqwesshinge, 
if he myght, ]?e Flees of golde wrought by Martis 
ordynaunce. 1 

Whan fat J>e rowes and J>e raies rede 
Estward to vs ful erly go?zne sprede, 
Evene at J?e tweyli^t in J?e daw[e]nyng, 

Whan fe larke of custom gynneth syng, 3096 sang 

For to salue in hir heuenly lay 
Jpe lusty goddesse of J>e morwe gray : 

3070. >us vn-to hir kny^t] vrith al hir my3t D 1. 
3073. skape] escape D 1. 3075. for] it for A, D 1. 
3091. nat] not to D 1. 3094. gomie] gan D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 23 c. 

] 04 Jason legs King Cethes to let him start on his Quest. [BK. i 

I mene Aurora, pe whiche a-for pe sonne 

Is wont tenchase pe blake skies donne, 3100 

And pe dirknes of pe dymme ny^t ; 
and the sun And fresche Phebz^s, with comfort of his lijt, 

And the bri^tnes of his bemys schene, 
gut the hills, Hadde ouer-gilt pe hi^e hilles grene ; 3104 

And floures eke ageyn pe morwe-tyde 

Vp-on her stalke gaw splaie her levis wyde, 
Jason went to Whan pat lason with al his companye 

Toward pe kyng ful fast[e] gan hym hy^e. 3108 

Whom fat he fonde, liche to his estate, 

With septer in hond, ful pompus and elate, 

Hi^e in [pe] se of his regallie, 

Sittyng ful kyngly amyd his chiualrie, 3112 

And his lordys abouten environ??. 

At whiche tyme pis ^ong[e] champiouw, 

Vnder a vowe stondyng of pe Earn, 

With sterne face to-fore pe kyng in cam, 3116 

BeS6Cnin o n y m of LlS magnificence [leaflSa] 

Jpe same day to graunten hym licence 

To don his armys, and make no delaies, 

Concludyng playnly, pat at al assaies 3120 

He wil pat day in pe felde be fouwde 

- ^ OT to acneue > ^J G ^ Q as ne was bouwde 
Of olde beheste, and nat a poynt declyne, 
For lif nor deth, til he parforme and fyne 3124 

Hooly pe auwtres, vn-to pe fles pat longe, 
j)e kyng requeryng no lenger hym prolonge, 
But goodly grauwt pe fyn of his emprise. 

cethes, And pawne pe kyng, in ful sobre wyse, 3128 

Consideryng pe somwe of his demauwde, 
To lason spak and seide * he schal commauwde 
^ at nis re( l ll este parformed be in haste 
" Al-be,' v quod he, " I am ful sore a-gaste, 3132 

Of wilfulnes pou schust distroied be, 
List men pi deth arretten vn-to me, 

3112 ' nyy . 

3122. acheue] ache D 2. 3123. poynt] foot D 1. 
130. spak and seide] seide and telleth C 
3134. arretten] arrettyd A. 

BK. i] K. Cethes dissuades Jason, but he resolves to persevere. 105 

And per-vppon wolde a blame sette, 

Of royal power pat I nat no lette 3136 

])\ manly ^outhe from swiche iupartie ; 

Whiche were in soth a gret vilonye 

And preiudise to myn estat and name, 

JOat afterwarde men putte me in blame 3140 

JX>ru} false reporte & wrong oppinioim, 

)3at I withstod not pi destrnccioiw. 

Wherefore, I rede }it pou be avised, 

And my coimseil lat nat be dispised; 3144 

For bet it is, with honour in certeyn 

In-to pi centre to repeire ageyn, 

fean wilfully for to take on honde 

A mortal ping pat no man may wM-stonde. 3148 

\)is is my rede, and fully myn avis, 

Take hede per- to, sith [pat] pou art wys, 

List pou repente whan it is to late ; 

And $if so be pat pou wilt algate 3152 

Jpi purpos holde, and nat don as I rede, 

Almy3ti Mars I prayfe] pe to spede, 

fie for to guye, what-so-eue?-e falle ; 

And eke I pray to pe goddis alle, 3156 

Saffe and soiwde pi body to restore 

)3is al and som, of me pou gest no more." 

And whan lason had[de] herde pe kyng, 

Nat dismaied nor stonyed in no ping, 3160 

In kny^tly wise dide hym reuerence, 

Jjankyng hy^ly his royal excellence, 

J?at of his grace and benignite 

Vp-on his deth hym list to haue pite; 3164 

Fully co?cludyng, touching his bataille, 

})at nouper red nor couwseil may auayle, [leaf is 6] 

In no wyse his purpos to withdraw ; 

But liche pe statute, pleynly, & pe lawe, 3168 

Ri^t as ferforth as Fortune wil hyra Ewre, 

What so be-tide of his a venture, 

Settyng a-side euery fere and drede, 

Seide platly pat he wil procede 3172 

3144. lat] let it D 1. 3150. sith >at] si>en D 1. 
3158. new 11 D 1. 3160. no >ing] om. A. 

and that folk 
would blame 
him for it, 

first advised 
Jason to go 
back home ; 

but if he 

Cethes prayd 
the Gods to 
keep him 
safe and 

Jason thank t 
the King, 

but said he'd 
go on with 

106 Jason is alone responsible, & will go on with his Quest. [BK. i 

the task he'd 

Jason also 

that if lie's 
kild, Cethes 
'11 not be to 

his fate to 
the Gads, 

and takes 
eave of 
Cethes and 
his court. 

For to parforme pat lie hath vndertake 

It wer in ydel mo skeles for to make, 

Or to allege more per ageyn. 

And lason fan, ful opunly and pleyn, 3176 

Touching pe surplus of pis dredful ping, 

At his departyng seid[e] to pe kyng, 

In audience of his lordis alle : 

" What-so-euer of me now be-falle, 3180 

Or who-so-euer of malis per-on mvse, 

To alle pe worlde, first, I $ow excuse, 

And to pe goddis platly }ow to quite, 

Thou^ I deye, 36 be no ping to wyte, 3184 

Ne no man schal [ajrette it ^ow of skele ; 

For pat I wirke is frely at my wille, 

Ageyn pe avise of jour hy^e prudence, 

And lif and deth, here in ^our presence, 3188 

Holy of herte, and neuer for to flitte, 

To pe goddys and Fortune I committe, 

So as hem list for me to ordeyne, 

Ageyns whos wille I schal neuer pleyne, 3192 

Noi hem nor 3ou putten in no blame 

What so betide, honour, loy, or schame, 

And of pis ping pus an ende I make, 

And for pis tyme of 3011 my leue I take, 3196 

And of all tho pat aboute ^ou stonde." 

And on by on he toke hem by pe honde. 

And [in] what wise forthe he gan hym dresse, 

To ^ou anoon I pinke to expresse. 3200 

Howe lason, aftire his leve take of pe Kenge, enterde 
pe Ille of pe golden Flees. 1 


han Titaw had, vfith his feruent hete, 
Draw up pe dewe from pe levis wete, 

3174. for] om. D 2. 

3178. to] vn to D 1. 3180. of me now] nowe of me D 1. 

3181. who-so-euer] who ever A. 3185. it] om. D 1. 

3196. of 3011 my leue] my leue of $ow D 2. 

3197. aboute }ou] yow a bowte A. 3ow a boute D 2. 

3201. Whan] Whan that A. 

3202. levis wete] om. excepting two letters, " ve" A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 24 6. 

BK. l] Jason approaches the Brazen Bulls. Medea sols. 107 

Toward mydmorwe, as I can ditfyne, 

Vpon pe hour whau pe cloke is nyne, 3204 

lason fnl manly and fill lyke a kny^t, 

Armed in steel, of chere ful glad & lyjt, 

Gan dresse him forth, what hap pat euer falle, 

And seide adieu vn-to his feris alle, 3208 

He in pe bot and pei vp-on pe stronde. 

And al allone, whan he cam to londe, 

And in pe water had his vessel lafte, 

He first of al remembring on j)e crafte 3212 

Of Medea, \n't/t al pe circumstaunces, 

And how he schulde kepe his ohseruauracos 

In euery ping, and had it wel in mynde [leaf is c] 

And pa?me anoon ful manly, as I fynde, 3216 

He schope him forpe & wente a knyjtly pas 

Toward pe bolis, pat forged * wer of bras. 

But at pe point wha he his lorne gan, 

For hym Medea wexe ful pale & wan, 3220 

So sore agast pat no ping my^t hir glade 

A routh it was to se wat wo sche made : 

For pe teris on hir chekis tweyne, 

Ful pitously douw distille and reyne, 3224 

Jjat al for-dewed wern hir wedis blake. 

And ay pis sorwe sche made for his sake, 

Liche a womman ferful and in doute, 

While he his armys ful manly brou^t aboute. 3228 

To sobbe & sy^e * sche can not ben in pees, 

List he for hast were ou$t rek[e]les, 

From point to point to don liche as sche bad.-* 

ftis was pe life pat sche for hym hath lad. 3232 

And for to seen how he schulde hym defende, 

Sche gan anoon by greces to ascende, 

Of a tour in-to a hi3e pynacle, 

3203. can] om. A difFyne] devyne D 1. 

3209. vp-on] on D 1. 3211. his] om. A. 

3217. kny^tly] lusty D 1. 3218. forged] forget C. 

3219] But wbanne >at he his lorne first bi gan D 1. 

3224. distille] gan stille D 1. 

3225. pat] For D 1 for-dewed] be dewed D 1. 

3229. sy$e] to sy$e 0, 3231. liche] om. D 1 bad] liim bad C. 
3232. hath] om. D 1. 3233. he] he she D 2. 

3235. Of] On D 1. 

Next day, 

at ( J'., 

Jason, uniul 
in steel, 

takes boat, 

and goes 
towards the 
Brazen Bulls. 

But Medea 
weeps pite- 

and sighs, 

and goes up 
to a pinnacle, 

108 Medea prays for Jason. The Ointment saves him. [BK. I 

where she 
can see 

She prays 
God to keep 
him safe and 

If he mis- 
haps, her 
bliss will 

The Brazen 
Bulls belch 
fire and 

but Medea's 

Wher * as sche my^t haue noon obstacle, 3236 

Nor lettyng nouther, for to ban a sijte 

Of bym fat was hir owne cbose kny3te. 

And euer among with wordis out sche brak, 

And stouttdemel fus to hir silf sche spake : 3240 

" fou lason, my souereyn hertis hele, 

3if f ou knewe what wo for f e I fele, 

Sothly, I trowe, it schulfd] ])e nat asterte 

For to be trewe with al fin hoolfe] herte, 3244 

And God, I praye, fis lourne at f e leste 

May fis tyme tornen for f e * beste, 

And kepe f e sauf & soimde in euery membre, 

And 3if f e my3t ffulli to remembre, 3248 

As I f e tau^t, and in f e same forme, 

Euery fing fully to parforme, 

Only fis day fin honour to avauwce, 

Whiche for to sen wer al myn hool plesance : 3252 

For certis,* lason, }if fe fil ou^t amys, 

Fare-wel myn helf e & al my worldly blis, 

And fare-wel f awne my myrthe & my solace,* 

And my welfare, my fortune, and my grace,* 3256 

And al attonys, myn hertly sufficiance ! " 

Lo, fis for him was hir gouernaunce, 

From f e tyme fat he f e lond hath nome. 

And first of al, whan fat he was come 3260 

Where as f e bolis, fel and dispitous, 

Out caste her fire & flawme furious 

At her mowf es, wonder large and huge, 

Ageyn [fe] whiche, for his chefe refuge, [leaf is dj 3264 

Hym to saue fat he wer nat brent, 

He was enoynt with an oignement 

On his body, fat kepte hym fro damage 

Of filke fire, fat was so fill of rage, 3268 

3236. Wher] f>er C. 

3240. bus to hir silf] to hir silf bus D 1. 

3242. for be I] I for be D 1. 

3243. be nat asterte] not fro >e sterte D 1. 
3246. be] bi C. 3253. certis] certeyn C. 
3255, 56 are transposed in C. 

3255. lare-wel] fare D 2 2nd my] al D 1. 

3258. for him was] was for hym A. 3264. his] be D 1. 

3268. Of] And D 1. 

BK. i] Medea's Image, & Liquor protect Jason from the Bulls. 109 

And fe smokys, dirke and ful horrible, 

Whiche to eskape was almost impossible 

For any man, of what estat he be, 

With-oute comfort and conseil of Medco 

By whos doctrine lason can so wirke, 

|3at he is skapid horn f e mystis dirke 

Of fe fire with his biases blake, 

J2at al f e eyre so cloudy dide make. 

Sche had hym made so discrete & sage, 

Only by vertu of filke ymage, 

Which }>at he aboute his nek[ke] bare, 

Wher-by he was so prudent & so war, 

)}at whan fe bolis han most fersly gaped, 

He hath her malis avisely eskapid. 

For thenfecciouw of hir troubled eyr 

He hath venquesched & was in no dispeire ; 

For in effecte, ageyn fe foule fvme, 

j}at wolde a man vn-to f>e deth co?zsvme, 

\)Q ymage was a preseruatif, 

Hym to defende and to saue his life. 

And more surly to kepe hym oute of drede, 

Ful ofte sythe j?e writ he dide rede ; 

For fe vertu of fat orisons 

Was vn-to hym ful protecciourc, 

J)at he nat fil in-to no distresse. 

And after fat, for more sikernesse, 

Hym to preserue in f is mortal caas, 

He toke f e licour fat in fe viol was, 

And f er-wit^-al, ful like a manly man, 

Al attonis, he to f e bolys ran, 

And for-gat nat so warly it to caste ; 

And f er-wit/i-al her chaules wer made faste, 

And by fe vertu so my3tely englewed, 

)5at lie fer-foru^ hath outte?-ly eschewed 

Jpenfecciou?^ of fe smoky leuene. 

3273. can] ga?i D 1. 

3274. skapid] escaped D 1 >e] his D 2. 

3278. Jjilke] ]>at riche D 1. 3281. most] so D 1. 

3287. ymage] faire Image D 1. 

3288. and] and so A to saue his life] om. A. 

3299. so] ful D 1. 3301. englewed] glewed D 1. 

from the 
Bulls' smoke 








and fire. 

Also her 

him from the 
infection of 
the Bulls' 

He then cast 
Phial of 
Liquor at the 
Bulls, so that 

3300 their jaws 
were glued 

Jason then 
took the 
Hulls by the 

yokt 'em to a 
plough, and 
ploughd the 
land in 

110 Jason ploughs land with the Bulls, & goes to the Dragon. [BK. I 

And whan fe eyr gan cleryn, fe heuene, 3304 

And f e mystis wern waftid hym to-forn, 

With manly hert he rau^tfe] by f e horn 

J3e sterne bolis, and by violence 

He drowe hew forfe, in whom was no diffence, 3308 

And joketh hem, so as f e maner was, 

And with fe plowe he made hem gon a pas, 

No we vp, now doiua, and to ere f e lond. 

And at his lust so buxvm he hem fonde, 3312 

}3at f e soil, smof e, bare, and pleyn, [leaf 19 a] 

ftei maked han redy to here greyn, 

And on rengis it torned vp-so-dovn : 

For fo in hem was no rebellioim, 3316 

But humble and meke & redy at his wille, 

Alle his desires pleynly to fulfille. 

And lason f aime, liche a champiouw, 

Gan hym enhaste* towarde fe dragouw, 3320 

Jjat was a beste gret and monstruous, 

Foule and horrible & ri^t venymous, 

And was enarmed in skalis large and f ikke, 

Of whom fe brethe more perillous and wikke 3324 

"Was fan f e eyr of any pestelence ; 

For his venym was of swiche violence, 

J5at it was ful dedly and mortal. 

And at his frote fer issed o-ute wft/z-al 3328 

A flawme of fire, as of a fournes mouthe, 

Or liche fe leuene fat dovn by j>e southe 

Out of fe est is wont in tempest smyte : 

Ei^t so fe dragouw, sothly for to write, 3332 

Out of his mouthe had a flawme blasid. 

Wher-of lason first a litel masid * 

Was in his hert of fat dredful fing, 

But whan fat he rernembrid on his ring, 3336 

Al fer and drede was leide a-syde & goon ; 

For in fat ring fe[r] was sette a stoon, 

He then 
went to the 

whose breath 
was deadly. 

It spit flame, 

but Jason 

3307. bolis] loue D 2. 3312. at] to D 1. 

314. maked han redy to bere] haue made redy for to her D 1. 
3315. on] on the A. . 3318. Alle] And A pleynly] redy D 1. 
3320. enhaste] in hast C. 3331, 32 are omitted in A. 

332. P e] f is D 2, this D 1. 3333. of] at D 2. 
3334. masid] amasid C. 3336. on] of D 1 his] this A. 

BK. i] The wonderful working of Medea s Agate Ring. Ill 

Ful riche and noble and ri$t vertuous, The Agate 

J?e whiche, as techith* gret Ysydorus, , 33-10 

And * myn auctor also, as I fynde, 

Most comovnly cometh out of Ynde, 

And mot be kepte chast & wonder clene, 

And of colour surmou?*teth euery grene. 3344 

Whos vertu is al venyin to distroye, destroys the 

J ' poison of 

And to \w't/?stonde fat it may nat [a]noye, 

Of dragons, serpent, adder & of snake. 

And specialy, $if fat it be take 3348 

And yholdeu in be opposyt if held 

opposite to 

Of any werm, even ageyn pe syjt, them; 

With-oute abood, in sothe, he may not chese, 

Of his venym pe force he mostfe] lese, 3352 

How strong it be or violent of rage. 

But to be stoon it doth ful gret damage : but the stone 

itself is 

For whan he hath his vertu don, as blyue damaged, 

and at once 

On pecis smale it gynnyth al to rive, 3356 emm 

And in it silf hool a-bit no while. 

For in pe londe pat called is Cecyle, 

Jjer is a worme pat Bufo bereth pe name ; J^Jj worm 

And whan men wil of mails make him tame, 3360 

And his venym outerly represse, 

})ei take a squille, myn auctor bereth witnes, [leaf 19 6] 

Whan pel wil wirke, or a large canne, 

And in pe ende pis * ston pei sette panne, 3364 

And lyne rht a-geyn be wormes hod and km it if 

J o J r held against 

bei holden it, til pat he be ded. its head. 

bursting it 

For pat is sothly his vertu of nature, 

Jjat no venym may lasten nor endure 3368 

In pe presence of pis rich[e] stoon. 

And as I fynde, pis Bufo ri^t a-noon, 

3340. f>e] Of A techith] teched C gret] the gret D 2, he 
gret D 1. 

3341. And] And in C, A also] om. A, seith also D 1. 
3347. adder] of adder A, D 2, D 1. 

3349. opposyt] opene sijt D 1. 3352. force] fore D 1. 

3355. his vertu don] done his vertue D 1. 

3357. it] hym D 2 hool] hool it A a-bit] it bit D 1. 

3358. >e] this D 1. 3360. tame] take D 2. 
3364. >is] he C, D 1. 3365. a-geyn] a^ens D 1. 
3366. he] it D 1. 3367. of] and D 1. 

112 Jason cuts off the Dragon's head, and sows his Teeth. [BK. I 

The Goddess 
Nature has 
given this 
power to the 

And by it, 
Jason con- 
quers the 

cuts off its 

plucks out its 
teeth, sows 


and up 

who fight, 
and all slay 
one another. 

j^oru} my^t f er-of bresteth even on tweyne, 

Only by kynde, whiche 110 maw may restreyne. 3372 

For f e goddesse fat called is Nature, 

Whiche nexte Mr lord hath al f ing in cure, 

Hath vertu $oue to herbe, gras, and stoon, 

Whiche no man knoweth but hir silf allon ; 3376 

\)Q causis hid ben closed in hir honde, 

J?at wit of man can not vnderstonde 

Openly f e my3t of hir wirkynge. 

And so lason, by vertu of f is ring, 3380 

And f oru} his ston, fat my3t him most avaunce, 

Hath fe dragouw brou^t vn-to vttraunce. 

In whom he fonde no maner insistence * 

Hym to wit[h]stonde, force nor diffence, 3384 

Nouther be venym nor noon of er strif ; 

Wherfor he hath berefte hym of hys life 

In manly wise, & in fe felde outraied. 

And lason fan, ful glad & wel apaied, 3388 

Hath with his swerd spent on him many [a] stroke, 

And leied on him as men hewe on an oke 

His bri^tfe] squamys wern so harde & dure, 

J3at wel onethe he ne my^t endure 3392 

Hym to dismembre & smyten of his bed. 

And fan anoon, in f e stede of sed, 

He gan his teth out of his hed arrace, 

And ri3t forfe-wM, in fe silfe place, 3396 

He gan hem sowe, liche as men do corn, 

Vp-on f e lond fat ered was a^forn. 

Of whiche sede f er sprang a wonder greyn, 

Bri^t armed kny^tes stondyng on f e pleyn, 3400 

Jpe whiche anon, wtt/i scharp[e] swerdis grou?ide, 

Eueryche gan of er for to hurte and wouwde, 

Til eche his felawe hath cruelly y-slawe : 

ftis of hir fate was fe fynal lawe, 3404 

3371. on tweyne] a tweyne A, atweyne D 2, atweiwe D 1. 

3375. herbe gras] gras herbe D 1. ' 3379. hir] his A. 

3383. resistence] ot resistence C, D 1. 

3389. swerd] stroke D 1 on hiw] om. D 1. 

3395. arrace] race D 1. 3398. ered was] was ered D 1. 

3402. for] o?. D 1 woimde] to wowide D 1. 

3403. y-slawe] slawe D 1, 

BK. i] Jason slays the Earn, and shears its Golden Fleece. 113 

}3at noon of hem schulde be victorie 

fie deth reioische of other by memorie ; 

For alle y-fere f us f ei made an ende. 

And after fis, lason gan to wende 3408 jasontheu 

Vn-to f e Earn viith al his dilligence, Ram, 

In whiche he fonde no power nor diffence, 

No maner strife nor rebellioun, [leaf 19 c] 

And my^tely fe Ram he dra \veth dovn, 3412 

And sette on hond [vp-]on euery horn, 

And slowe it first, and fan he hath it scliorn kills it, 

Out of his flees of gold so passyng riche, Fleece of 


)}at in fis world fer was no tresour liche. 3416 

And after fat he made no delay 

To take his bote in al fe hast* he may, 

And r owe th forthe in-to be tother vie, rows to 

J where 

Wher Hercules, al fe mene while, 3420 " i f^ n 8 d * nd 

Vp-on f e brinke, wiih many another mo, await him * 

Abod lason til he hadde do. 

And euerychon I fynde fat as blive, 

Only for loye whan he dide aryve, 3424 

)2ei gan to fanke to her goddes alle, and then they 

So graciously fat it hath y-falle, their Gods. 

And fat f e flees he hath so kny^tly wo?ine, 

feat schon as clere as fe somer sonne, 3428 

Whiche fat he brou^t with hym vn-to londe, 

His feris alle abyding on f e stronde. 

Howe, aftire his conqueste, lason was ressauide of 
Kenge Cethes with feynide chere into his Cyte. 1 

And whan Appollo of his daies arke Near sunset 

Had in the west almost ronwe his marke, 3432 
And fast[e] gan downward to declyne, 
And on f e wawes ful watery gan to schyne ; 
3et or he was passed the Occian, 

3411. nor] ne no D 1. 3418. in al >e hast] as faste as C. 
3422. Abod] Boode D 1 til] til >at D 2, D 1. 
3429. vn-to] in to A. 3433. faste gan] g&n faste D 1. 
3435. he] she D 2 was] om. D 1 the] >e grete D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 25 &. 

114 King Cethes, tho' sorry for Jason's success, pretends joy. [BK. I 

Jason comes 
to King 

rho is sorry 

that Jason 
has won the 

but out- 

and joy, 

and feasts 
Jason at his 

tho' he 
doesn't really 
mean it. 

lason is cowine with many a manly man 3436 

Of his feris to f e presence of f e kyng, 

As he fat had acheved euery f ing 

Whiche fat longeth to conquest of f e Ram. 

And Cethes fan, as sone as euer he cam, 3440 

To make hym chere outward haf him payned, 

Al-be in herte fat it was but feyned ; 

For he was sori, wat/t-outen any drede, 

Of fe expleyt and fe goodfe] spede 3444 

Of f is lason, J?at he fe flees hath wowne. 

But liche in soth as fees feyners conne, 

Whan fat hem list craftely compace 

To schewe outward a feithful trewe face, 3448 

And f e venym enclosen * hool wtt/i-Inne, 

As in menyng fere wer no maner synne, 

Ri$t so f e kyng with looke & forhed clere 

Made vn-to lason outward ri^t good chere, 3452 

And gan to hym speke in wordis fewe, 

Of frendlyhed many signefs] schewe, 

As f ei he had his conqueste euerydel 

From point to point liked wonder wel, 3456 

And ben ful glad fat he was so fortuned, 

Vn-to f e ende fat he hath contuned, 

And reioiseth in speche and countenauwce, 

J)at Fortune list hym so avaunce, [leaf 19 d] 3460 

And to his paleis gan goodly hym cowveye, 

And day be day ful richely f esteye 

Al-be fat it was no fing do of* herte. 

For f is no lees, he felt[e] ful gret smerte, 3464 

ftat of his tresour he was dispoiled so, 

And fat he hath f e riche flees for-go 

To his damage and confusions. 

And fus fer was a gret diuisiouw 3468 

A-twexe his chere and menyng of his f ou^t, 

As it fareth ofte }if it be wel soi^t, 

))at many man, in menyng fals and double, 

3437. 1st KI om. D 1. 3440. cam] can A. 

3447. hem] hym A. 3449. enclosen] enclosed C. 

3460. so] so to D 1. 3461. goodly hym] him goodly to D 1. 

3463. of] in C. 3464. ]>is] >is is D 1. 

3469. A-twexe] Betwene D 1. 3471. many] many a D 1. 

BK. i] Jason is well treated by Cethes. Folk gaze at the Earn. 115 

Can wit/i fe calme curen so fe trouble 3472 

Of hi3e malis hid in his desire, 

And rake falsly f e wikked couert fire, 

Ful hoot[e] brennyng inward of envye. 

So wel wer him fat coude hem oute espie, 3476 

And knewe her menyng false & fraudelent, 

Wher-foru}, alias, ful many an Innocent 

Deseyved is, fat wote not what f ei mene ; 

And namly swiche fat nat but trouf e wene ; 3480 

And euery chere fat men to hem make, 

Of Innocence for f e beste take, 

And in no wise f enke nou3t but wel : 

Ri3t so certeyn f is lason euerydel 

Hath take in gre what f e kyng hath wroi^t, 

Not aduertyng f e grucching of his f ou3t ; 

For dout[e]les it sat f e kyng ful sore, 

ftat he f e Ram hath lost for euere-more. 

But whan fat he hath outterly yseyn, 

))ou3 he gruche, fat f er was no geyn, 

But finally, of necessite, 

At fat tyme it my3t noon other be, 3492 

And pleynly sawe fat he may* not chese, 

But fat algate f e flees he mot[e] lese, 

Whef er it were fat he were lefe or lothe, 

He feyneth chere, as he wer not wrothe ; 3496 

For only he, of his gentilnes, 

No signe outward of gruchiwg dide expresse, 

But day be day of verray curtesye 

He cherith lason and his companye. 3500 

At whiche tyme, abouten environ 

From euery party of his regioun, 

])Q peple cam to staren and to gase 

Vp-on f e Ram, as it were a mase ; 3504 

|)ei loke & wondre & deme what hem liste, 

Many folk 
cover their 
malice with 

and deceive 
the innocent. 

3484 But Jason 
as genuine ; 


and since 
Cethes can't 
help the loss 
of the Fleece, 

he treats 
and his 

People come 
to look at the 

3474. couert] couered D 1. 3475. hoote] ofte D 1. 

3476. him] hem D 1. 3477. knewe] knowh A. 

3480. nat] om. D 1 wene] mene D 1. 3481. to] do D 1. 

3482. take] it take D 1. 3485. in] at D 1 wroujt] do D 1. 

3486. )>ou3t] woo D 1. 3487. ful] ri?t D 1. 

3489. hath outterly yseyn] outterly haj> seyn D 1. 

3493. may] my^t C, D 1. 

116 Folk's unstableness. Medea tells Jason to come to her. [BK. I 

people change 
like a 
vane, and are 


how Jason 
could over- 
come the 
Bulls and 
the Dragon. 

Others said it 
was by 

Medea left 
her room, 

and came 
secretly to 
Jason, and 

told him to 
come to her 
at night. 

On whos domys is but litel triste : 

Jpey ofte varie and torne to and fro, 

feat, who fat wisly taketh hede f er-to, 3508 

fee comouw peple chauwgeth as a phane, [leaf 20 a] 

To-day f ei wexe and to-morwe wane, 

As doth f e mone, f ei be so flaskysable, 

Who trusteth hem schal fynd he??i ful vnstable. 3512 

For sorame wer glad fat lason hath sped wel, 

And some sory, and like it neuer a del, 

And sowrne seide f ei wonder how he my3t 

Ageyn fe dragouw or fe bolis fi^t, 3516 

Or how fat he ageyn f e force of Marte 

Out of f e yle alyue my3t[e] parte. 

A-nother seide fat parauenture 

By crafte was wrou^t fis discoinfeture, 3520 

Outher by charme or som sorserye : 

feus eche of hem after her fantasie 

Gran deme of hym al f e longe day. 

But at fe last, makyng no delay, 3524 

Ful glad and li^t Medea dou?* descendeth 

From hir chambre, & outwarde pretendeth 

Sadnes of chere, as sche no f ing ne knewe. 

Men koude nat conseyve* by hir hewe 3528 

Hir secre menyng, for sche so wo??imanly 

Demened hir, and so prudently, 

feat sche avoyded by discrecioun 

Al fantasye and suspecioun, 3532 

feat no man koude of hir wirkyng deme 

No f ing but wel ; for as it dide seme, 

By port & chere f er was no cause why. 

And so by processe sche drowe hir priuely 3536 

Toward lason, for sche was not to lere, 

And secrely bad hym in hys ere, 

In al wyse fat he not ne leue 

To hir chambre for to come at cue ; 3540 

For maters f ei hadde for to trete, 

3508. fat] so D 2. 

3510. wane] >ei wane D 1. 3512. ful] &m. A. 

3521. or] or by D 1. 3522. her] his D 1. 

3528. conseyve] perseyne C. 3532. and] and al D 1. 

BK. i] Jason and Medea spend the night together. 117 

Whiche he schal know at leiser wharc pei mete. 

And so anoon, whan entred was pe ni^t, 

Sool by hym silfe, wit/i-oute torche or li^t, 

To Medea he hath pe weye take, 

And sche abood sleples for his sake, 

Wonder deuoutly desyryng, as I gesse, 

With hym to trete of som holynes, 

Touching maters of contemplacioura ; 

For sche was smete with a deuociouw 

Of fresche Venus to holden a memorie 

With hym allone in hir oratorie 

Not openly as ypocrites preye 

In diuers angles loynyng on pe weye, 

Of pe peple [for] to be comendid ; 

But pei not so han pe ny^t dispendid . 

For veynglorie nor noon ydel laude, 

But by hem silfe, pinkyng on no f raude, [leaf 20 &] 

Secrely pis ilke tweyne allone, 

Wit/i-oute li$t ouper of sonne or mone, 

])Q long[e] ny3t han lad w^t/j-oute reste : 

For as hem pou3t it was not for pe beste 

To speke of slepe til pat it was prime, 

For pei hem cast to lose as po* no tyme. 

And pus pe ny^t to-gidre pei dispende, 

]3at I am dul for to comprehende 

J)Q obseruauwce of swiche religious, 

Prolix in werkyng & not compendious 

Demeth }our silfe, 30 gete no more of me, 

For wel 36 wote, in euery faculte 

Who hath knowyng and experience, 

Men wil to hym rapest }if credence. 

Wherfore I seie, 39 pat be wyse and can, 

Axeth not me, whiche am so rude a man, 

To deme a ping, & namly whan pat it 

At night 
Jason goes 
3544 to Medea, 





who wisht to 
Venus with 

They didn't 
lie still, but 

3564 spent their 
time in 
Love's rites, 



about which 
I know 

3544. or] am. D 1. 3545. take] y take D 2, D 1. 

3546. abood] aloone D 1. 3554. loynyng] goyng A. 

3557. nor] or D 2, ne for D 1 ydel] othir A. 

3563. was] were D 1. 3564. to lose as bo] as bo to lose C. 

3567. obseruan?ice] obseruaunces D 2, observaunces A. 

3570. wote] wite D 2, wete D 1. 3571. knowyng] knowlache A 

3572. rabest] rather A, ful rathe D 2. 

118 Jason is to carry off Medea, the Golden Fleece, etc. [BK. I 

Passyth my knowyng also and my witte ; 
For-dullid is myn ymagynatif, 
To deme in practik or in speculatif, 
Where-fore I passe and late it ouer slyde, 
And forf e I fink, 3if 36 list abide, 
Pleynly tellen of lason and Medee. 
Jje whiche acorded and assented be, 
Medea agrees pat sche with hyni schal in-to Grece wende 
Whan fat he goth, schortly f is f e ende, 
Vnwist hir fader & euery other wy3t 
Sane he allone, fat hath his trouf e plijt 
For to be trewe, bof e in wele and wo, 
Yn-to his laste, to hir and to no mo. 

to go to 
Greece with 





After a 
pleasure in 

Jason re- 
solves to steal 
away with 
Medea and 
her father's 

But, Medea, 
why didn't 
you foresee 

Jason's false- 
ness to you r 

Howe lason stalle away by nyght withe Medea and 
here Faderes tresure & Richees. 1 

And whan lason after his lourne, 
Ful richely, liche to his degre, 
Kefresched was in Colchos of f e kyng 
With al fat my$t[e] ben to his likyng,* 
And a moneth passed was and goon, 
He with his Grekys assented in-to oon, 
Purposed hath, schortly $if he my^t, 
With Medea to stele a-weye be ny3t, 
With moche tresour and f e riche flees, 
And ful acorde also of Hercules. 
But o Medea ! f ou hastest al to faste, 
ftou wer to slowe wysly for to caste 
What schulde falle, whan f ou f i lowme toke ! 
For how fat he in meschefe f e forsoke, 
And how fat he was false and eke vnkynde, 
For alle his othes to f e, as I fynde, 





3577. For-dullid] For dulle it D 1. 

3581. tellen] to telle D 1. 

3590. liche to] aftir D 1. 8592. likyng] plesyng C. 

3598. acorde] accorded D 1. 

3603. was false and eke vnkynde] in meschef >e forsoke D 1 (the 
correct reading apparently erased). 

3604. marked b D 1 his] >e D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 26 a. 

BK. i] Medea 's misery came from Tier making a false start. 119 

And how fat f ou, bothe at eve and morwe, 

)3i fatal chaunce * and f i pitous sorowe 

By-weptisfc after, & gan f i silf to rende, 

Til deth of al made a woful ende 

It wer but veyn to makyn rehersaille ; 

I wote no }>ing fat it my^t availle, 

NOT how lason vnkynde for f e nonys, 

Eesseived hath penam tallionis 

Of f e goddis for his disnaturesse ; 

For he in meschef and in wrechednesse 

Made eke an ende f oru} f e cruel hate 

Of fel[le] Mars : lo here f e mortal fate 

Of f is tweyn fat made her ende so ! 

But as I trowe, liche as write Guydo, 

For her gynnyng was nat vertuous, 

An ende folweth ful contagious. 

Alias ! f ei hadde take hedde a-forne, 

ftan had f ei nat in meschef ben so lorne. 

But who wil not a-forn his meschef se, 

May not eschewe to haue aduersite 

In f e ende, platly to devyne ; 

For euene liche as a medicine 

Availeth nat, whan f e seke is ded : 

For what may helpen J>e stomak or f e hed 

Letuarie, emplastre, or pociouw, 

Or any receyt or confecciouw, 

Herbe or stoon, or al fat leches knowe, 

Whan fat f e * cors is leied in erf e lowe, 

Or whan a beest is torned to carein ! * 

Myn auctor seif, fat it is but veyn, 

For his recure, vp-on any halve, 

To his ere for to leyn a salve : 

For verraily, after his fantasye, 

It helpeth nat, nor doth no remedie ; 

[leaf 20 c] 


Why didn't 
her death, 

3612 and the Gods' 

revenge on 
Jason ? 







It was, as 
Guido says, 
because she 
began badly. 

What's the 
good of medi- 
cine to a 

It's no use 
putting a 
salve on 

3606. chaunce] chaunge C. 3608. marked a D 1. 

3613. disnaturesse] disanentcresse D 1. 3615. eke] om. D 1. 

3622. ben so] so be D 1. 3625. he] eche D 1. 

3626. as] right as A, ri$t as D 2. 3628. or] & D 1. 

3632. be] a C. 

3633. is torned] tourned is D 1 carein] carien C, bareyn D 2. 

3634. it] om. D 1. 3635. any] euery D 1. 

120 Medea sails from Colchos with Jason and his men. [BK. i 

Those who 
won't look 
out for 

and disregard 
the future, 

like Medea 
and Jason, 

tho' she was 
most harmd. 

She acted 

and chose a 
luckless time. 

She takes ship 
with Jason. 

For ping parformed in his due date 

More vertu ha]) pan wharc it commep late. 

Ki$t so in cas, verraily semblable, 

Of worldly trust, fals & ful mutable, 

Who cast no pereil til pat it be-falle, 

In-stede of sugre ofte * tasteth galle : 

Blendid with lust, whiche pat is present, 

Of pe future slouth and necligent 

J)at hem ne liste a-forn no * meschef caste, 

Til in pe snare pei ben englued faste ; 

For to provide pei ben graceles, 

Ful vnprudent and wilful rek[e]les, 

To caste pereil or pat it be-tyde : 

J?ei swe her luste, her reson goth a-syde, 

As it be-fil whilom of pis two, 

Of Medea and [of] lason also. 

But how-so-euere of lason pat it be, 

I fynde pleynly pe * harme allone had sche, Deaf 20 d] 

$Q grete damage and pe final smerte, 

For lak of wisdam pat sche nolde aduerte 

What schul[de] falle, wharc sche her lowne toke, 

And hir f adir folily forsoke ; 

But sith sche wrou^t only of wilfulnes, 

With-outQ conseil or avysenes, 

Me list no more hir harmes to be-wayle, 

For lite or nou$t it my^tfe] now avayle. 

Late hir allone complayne hir damage : 

For wel I wote touching hir passage, 

It was not take in good plite of pe mone, 

Of hastines sche began to sone, 

Chesyng an hour pat was nat fortunat ; 

For sche allone of frendys desolat 

Colchos forsoke, and is to schypfpe] goon ; 

And in al haste be byddyng of lason, 

Hercules and al his companye, 

3644. ofte] he C. 3647. no] ]>e C. 

3653. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 

3655. how-so-euere] how sorn euer D 1. 

3656. pleynly] oonly D Ibe] bat C, that the A. 
3660. And] And eke D 1. 

3665. complayne] compleinynge D 1. 










BK. l] Jason soon forsakes Medea. She slays her Sons, & dies. 121 

ftat with him com oute of Thesalye, 

Wit/i-oute tariynge, at onys at a worde, 

I-entred ben wz'tA-Inne [f e] schippes borde, 

Only for cause fat f e wynd was good 

And euery f ing at her lust tho stood. 

And so be assent, f ei stele a-wey be ny^t 

WM al f e tresour fat f ei cache my^t, 

And with hem had plente of vitaille ; 

And forthe anoon f ei be-go?me to seile 

By many coste & many sondry He, 

To ward [es] Grece; and al fis mene while 

Was Medea glad and of good chere, 

Sche and lason sittyng bothe I-fere. 

And Hercules, of verray gentilnes, 

Hir to comfort dide his besynes, 

Al feyni[n]gly, for fe maner sake, 

As fis louerys ful queynt can it make, 

Til f ei han had hooly her plesauwce ; 

Her lust fulfilled, fan entref variaurace, 

As it was preved by lason outerly, 

)3at hathe for-sake ful vnkyndely 

)3is Medea, in peyne, sorwe, and wo. 

Of hir Guydo writ no wordis mo, 

N"e maketh of hir now other menciouw, 

By-cause, I trow in myn opiniouw, 

J)at hir sorwes, ende and euerydel, 

Rehersed ben ful openly and wel 

Methamorphoseos, & wryte f er ful pleyn : 

Wher as Naso recordeth in certeyn 

Hir deth nat only, nor hir heuynes, 

But parcel eke of f e vnkyndenes 

Of f is lason, and telleth pleynli how 

Medea hir bothe sonys slowe, 

For fei wer like her fader of visage ; 

And telleth eke, fat put hir moste in rage, 

With a fair 
wind Medea 
and Jason 
sail off 



3684 towards 



comforts her. 

But when 
Jason has 
had his mi 
of her, 

he forsakes 

3696 andGuido 



says no more 
of her. 

But Ovid, 
in his 
tells her 

[leaf 2 la] 

and her 
killing of her 
3708 2 sons by 

3676. I-entred] Entred D 1. 3678. tho] so D 2. 

3681. had] ladde A, D 2. 3684. al] in D 2. 

3686. I-fere] in fere D 1. 3691. her] al hir D 1. 

3692. >an] >at D 2. 3696. writ] ne writ A, D 2, D 1. 

3701. Methamorphoseos] In Methamorphoseos D 1. 


How King Peleus receivd Jason deceitfully. [BK. I 

Jason, forsak- How falsely he, I can hym not excuse, 

ing Medea, 

loves creusa. Loued another pat called was Ceruse ; 
Eke in his pistles, who so taketh hede, 
Hir dedly sorwe he may beholde & rede, 
And how fat sche hir troup abou^tfe] sore. 
Of Medea $e gete of me no more 
In al pis boke, nor of hir auenture. 
But I wil now do my besy cure 
Hooly to turne my stile to lason, 
And of pe werre he made on Lamedouw, 
Liche as in Guydo is openly discrived, 
After pat he in Grece was arived. 

So no more 
of Medea. 

I'll go on 
with Jason. 




Jason and 
land in 

and are met 
with outward 

but inward 

Howe Kenge Pellee ressavide lason 'with faire visage, 
bot inwardly he was full woo of his gode spede 
in Calchos, And howe lason requires his vnkele 
for a navye to destroy pe Cyte of Troy. 1 

First whan lason & Hercules also 
I-londed werne, with many anoper mo, 
In pe regne and lond of Thesalye, 

Kyng Pelleus, with al his cheualr[i]e, 3724 

Caste hym pleynly pat he wil nat faille 
To mete his nevew at his arivaille. 
And whan pei mette, in corctenauwce & chere, 
Made it outward as hool & as entere 3728 

As he had hadde souereynpy] gladnes 
Of his kny^thood & his hy^e prowes, 
Of his renouw and his manlyhede, 

Of his exspleyt and his good[e] spede, 3732 

And pat Fortune to encrese his name 
Hap causid hym, with so noble a fame, 
Out of Colchos with honour to repaire 
Al-be his chere was outerly contrary e 3736 

To his entent, pat euer he cam ageyn. 

3709. hym not] nat hym A. 

3722. I-londed] Londed D 1. 

3723. regne and lond] londe and regne D 1. 

3719. is openly] openly is D 1, 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 26 d. 

King Peleus, 
to hide his 

gives up his 
kingdom to 

as he was 
bound to do. 

BK. I] Jason is made King of Thessaly. His Grievance. 123 

But for al pat, with face hool and pleyn, 

He welcomed hym, al ageynes herte, 

Ful sore astonyed pat he euer a-sterte 

])Q auentures of Colchos perillous, 

And is retourned so victorious. 

But couertly his tresowi for to hyde, 

Al delay he gan to sette a-syde, 

And to lason with chere ful benigne, 

His heritage first he gan resigne, 

Septre & crovne & kengdam at pe leste, 

For to parforme pe sorwme of his beheste, ' 

Liche as he was assured by his bonde. 

And lason toke al in-to his honde, 

And gan his vncle in ful lowe maner 

First to panke, with al his herte entere, 

And after pat ful kny^tly gan hym preye 

Goodly to here what pat he wil seie [leaf 215] 

Of a mater pat fret his herte sore, 

From day to day encresyng euer more 

Besechyng hym to grauwte hym audience 

Touching a wrong and a violence 

Don vn-to hym, whan he now harm [ne] mercte, 

In Troy[e] lond to Colchos as he went : 

" ftis [is] to seyn, pe kyng of Troy[e] tovn, 

With-in pe bourcdis of his regiouw, 

Whan I and myne in gret aduersite, 

With wynd and wedir fordrivew in pe see, 

Vs to refresche to londe dide arive, 

STot in purpos with hym for to strive, 

But for to reste vs after al oure wo 

A litel while, and forthe anoon to go ; 

For we in sope no maner harm ne pou$t : 

But he vnkyngly of verray malys sou^t 

Ageyn[e]s vs firste occasioun, 

Byddyng in haste to voyde his regioutt, 

Kot-withstondynge pat we com in pes, 







Then Jason 
that, when he 
landed at 
the Trojan 

3764 kin * 

3768 wouldn't let 
them stay 

3772 but bade 
them sail 

3754. wil] wolde A. 

3759. vn-to] to D 1. 

3760. to] In to A. 3770. vnkyngly] vnkindly D 1. 
3771. firste] first greet D 1. 

124 Jason, Hercules, & Thessalian lords are to invade Troy. [BK. I 

Jason and 

want to ruin 
the King of 
Troy, and 

ask Peleus 

for money 

and men. 

King Peleus 
is willing, 

and all his 
lords agree to 
go with 
Hercules and 

first goes for 
help to 

Sparthos, an 
isle ruled by 

Castor and 

the brothers 
of Helen. 

Liche as my broper knoweth, Hercules, 

Vn-to no wy^t doyng no distresse. 

Wherfore, we praye to $oure hy^e noblesse, 3776 

To oure purpos for to condescende, 

Of whiche platly pis pe fynal ende : 

J)at we be sette, in ful conclusioun, 

Holy to werke to his distruccioiw, 3780 

Liche owre avov, whan we pen[ne]s went 

3if so be ^e goodly list assent 

And al attonys, strongly and not spare, 

Maugrey his * rny^t to Troye for to fare, 3784 

So pat we may fynde in $ow fauour 

Ys to refresche with golde and with tresour, 

And only eke, of ^our curtesye, 

Ys strenthe also with $our cheualrie." 3788 

And Pelleus, with-oute more abode, 

Anoon as he pis mater vnderstode, 

Assented is of herte and wil al-so, 

In pis viage with hem for to goo. 3792 

And alle pe worpi of pat regioun, 

Kynges, dukes, and lordes of renoun, 

Ben acorded, per is not on seyth nay, 

To gon with hem and helpen what pei may. 3796 

And of pis lourne chefe solicytour 

Was Hercules, pe worthi conquerour, 

And he in haste, his retenu to make, 

Toward Sparthos hath pe weye take, 3800 

Whiche is an He to Grekys pertinent, 

Fully obeying to her coramaundement. 

In which Pollux and Castor eke also, [leaf 21 c] 

)3e worpi kynges, pe my3ti breper two, 3804 

Wern, as I fynde, pat tyme gouernours, 

And bare her crowne liche noble werryours ; 

And brepern wern also to El[e]yne, 

3778. >is] >is is D 1. 

3782. assent] to assent D 1. 3784. his] her C 

3789. new IT D 1. 3793. alle] also D 1. 

3797. chefe solicytour] >e cheef solitour D 1. 
3800. >e] his D 1. 

3803. Pollux and Castor eke] Castor and Pollux D 1. 

3804. 2nd ]>e] & D 1. 3806. her] the A noble] open D 2. 

BK. i] Castor, Pollux, and Telamon will help to invade Troy. 125 

Castor and 
Pollux on 

Hercules gets 
Castor and 
Pollux to 

agree to help 
in the 
of Troy. 

And as poetis liketh for to feyne, 3808 Jupiter begat 

Helen and 

at lubiter, for al his deite, 

Vp-on Dane bygat hem alle thre, 

]5at in bewte alle other dide excelle. 

And for Eleyne, liche as bokys telle, 3812 

Conseyved was in Tyndaris f e yle, 

Vn-to f e lond loinyng of Cecyle, 

J^erfor of somme I fynde * fat sche is 

After fe yle callid Tyndarys. 3816 

Of hir birth me list no more endite, 

But furthe I f hike of Hercules to write, 

)pat haf besou^t f is worfi kynges tveyne, 

Wit/i my^ty hond to don her besy peyne, 3820 

Only to graunte wz't/i him * for to wende 

To-Troye-ward, schortly Jris f e ende. 

And to assenten f>ei sei not onys nay, 

With al f e power fat f ei cache may, 3824 

Ageyn what tyme fat hym list assigne. 

And Hercules, with chere ful benygne, 

Ranked he?7i of fat f ei hym behy^t ; 

And forthe he went in al f e hast he niy^t 3828 

To- ward Messene, fe strong [e] my^ti londe, 

Wzt/i-Inne whiche f e noble kyng he fonde, 

)3e kny}tly man, f e worf i Thelamouw, 

Lorde and prince of fat regioun, 3832 

J?at in armys was on f e * manlyest 

J)at was alive, and egal with f e best. 

And whaw he knewe fat Hercules was come, 

For loie he hath hym in his armys nome, 3836 

An[d] reseived in alle maner f ing, 

Liche as it sat to a worfi kyng. 

And whan he wist sothly what he ment, 

With-oute more anoon he dide assent 3840 

With hym to goon, Troyans for to greue ; 

And Hercules goodly toke his leue, 

3808. liketh] liken D 1. 3810. Dane] Diane A, D 2. 

3815. of somme I fynde] I fynde of somme C. 

3817. endite] to endite D 1. 3821. him] hem C, D 1. 

3822. >is] >is is D 1. 3823. sei] seide D 1. 

3833. >e] of >e C. 3836. his] om. D 2. 

3837. in] hii in D 1. 3842. his] om. A. 

He then goes 
to Messene, 

and gets King 
Telamon also 

to join in in- 
vading Troy. 

126 Hercules asks Peleus to assemble his knights & advisers. [BK. i 

Hercules And hym enhasteth to Thesalye ageyn, 

King'peieus To Pelleus, and telleth hym certeyn, 3844 

and asks him How he hath sped, besechyng hym also, 

In al f e haste fat it may be do, 

To send[e] lettris and hys lordes calle, 
to assemble And tassemble his worbi knystes alle, 3848 

his knights, , . 

Thoni3-oute his londe, bofe ne$e and ferre, 

Suche as he knewe fat wer experte in werre, 
and his wise And hem also fat werne of courcseyl sage 

" For wit of hem fat be ronwe in age, [leaf aid] 3852 

Is more fan force witft-oute experience, 

But whan monhod is meynt with sapience, 

Who considereth, it may double avayle ; 

And fay fat longe han vsed [to] trauayle, 3856 

Lyche as it is pleynly to suppose, 

May help[e] moste oure lowrne to dispose ; 
for age and For vn-to age experience and witte, 

To southe force and hardinesfsel sitte. 3860 

and strength, 

And whan fat bothe ben of on entent,* 

Fully acorded to werke by assent,* 
and a good With [a] quarel grounded vppon ry^te, 
threefold au> Thoru^ help of grace fat hath treble my^te, 3864 

Hem dare nat drede, with spere nor with schelde 

In kny^tly wyse for to holde a felde ; 

For of knysthood fe fame nor* fe glorie, 

Nor in armys conquest nor victorie, 3868 

Ben not assured vp-on multitude, 

But on manhod, so grace list conclude. 

fter-fore lat vs, for tavenge oure wrong, 

First with ri^t make oure self[e] strong ; 3872 

And oure force manly for to schewe, 
A few pickt Of knystis chose piken out a fewe, 

knights are to , -, 

be chosen. And devoide encombrauwce of nombre ; 

3844. hym] him in D 1. 3846. ]>e] om. D 1. 

3850. >at] om. D 1 in] to D 1. 

3855. Who] Who so D 1. 

3856. vsed] vsed in werre D 1 to] om. D 1. 

3860. To] And vn to D 1. 3861. entent] assent C. 
3862. by assent] to oon entent C. 

3864. Thorn?] With D 1. 

3865. Hem] Hym D 1 dare] J>ar D 2, thar A. 
3867. nor] and C. 3875. devoide] to voide A. 

BK. l] Peleus, Hercules, and Jason start on their Expedition. 127 

And so we schal oure foos best encombre." 
And of al bat, bat Hercules hath seide, 
Kyng Pelleus was ri$t wel apaide, 
For hym bou^t his conseil was ri^t good. 
And Hercules, with-oute more abode, 
Is in gret haste with his meyne goon 
To a province bat callid is Pinion, 
In whiche ber was a duke of noble fame, 
And as I fynde, Nestor was his name, 
Ful renomed and strong of chiualrie ; 
And he was eke ful ny^e of allye 
To Hercules, and of be same blood. 
And whan fat he pleynly vnderstood 
The purpos hool & cause of his commyng, 
He grawitid hym, wit/i-oute more tariyng, 
To goon hym silfe wit/* him in this* viage, 
With alle be worbi of his baronage, 
And to be redy a-^eyn a certen day. 
And Hercules, as fast as [euere] he may, 
Repay red [is] home to Thesalye, 
Wher gadred was holy be nauye 
Of be lordis, ful redy appara[i]led, 
Wel enarmed and richelly vitailled. 
And Pelleus hath takyn fyrste be see, 
And euery lorde, liche to his degree, 
I-schiped is and redi for to goon 
With Hercules and also with lason, 
Her behestes manly to f ulfille, 
Towardis Troye, be cite for to spille. 
And after pat,* sothly as I fynde, 
J?ei nat abyde but vp-on be wynde. 


3880 Hercules and 
bis men go 
to Philon, 

which is ruled 
by Duke 
3884 Nestor, 


who agrees 
to join in in- 
vading Troy. 


[leaf 22 u] 

Hercules goes 
, back to 
3896 Thessaly. 

K. Peleus is 
orv^/\ the first to 
3900 take ship. 


3876. oure foos best] best oure foos D 1. 

3879. rijt] om. D 1. 

3886. eke] also D 1 ny^e] strorcge D 1. 

3880-86 are repeated after 3885 in D 1. 

3891. hym silfe vrith him] with hym hym silf D 1 this] his C. 

3893. a-3eyn] ajeyns D 1. 

3895. to] vn to D 1. 

3896. was] is A. 3901. I-schiped] Shiped D 1 and] om. D 1. 

3905. after J?at] afterwarde C. 

3906. abyde] aboode D 1. 

128 Description of later April and the Kalends of May. [BK. I 

The Greeks 
start for 
Troy in 

when every 



and silver 
springs gush 
to rivers, 

and the sea is 
calm from 
wavy boiling. 

Howe Kynge Pelleus with f e myghtti puyssaimce of 
Grece landyde at Byrne onte afor fe Cite of Troye. 1 

Whan fat f e soote stormis of Aprille, 
Vn-to fe rote ful lawe gan distille 
His lusty licowr, with many holsom schour, 
To reise f e vertu vp in-to f e flour ; 
And Phebus was ascendyng in his spere, 
And on f e brest smote his bemys clere 
Of f e Earn, ful colerik at al, 
Halvynge in ver f e equinnoccial ; 
Whan May kalendis entre in for-sothe, 
And Zephirus, ful agreable and smof e, 
))Q tendre brauwchis enspiref & dof e springe, 
And euery busche is lusty blossumynge, 
And from f e hil f e water is revolvid 
Of snowys white, fat Phebws hath dissoluyd, 
And f e bawme vapoureth vp a-lofte 
In-to f e eyre of f e erbes softe, 
Jpe Eotis vertu, with colde of wynter hid, 
Hath hool his my^t and his force kyd, 
Oute of f e erf e in erbe and euery tree 
Schad in f e brauwchis his humydite, 
Areised only with j? e sonnys hete, 
And with J>e moysture of fe reynes swete ; 
Whan siluer welles schederc oute her stremys 
In fe ryuers, gilt with fe sonne bcmys, 
And Flora had with newe grene ageyne 
Hir lyuere schad vp-on euery playn, 
And ny3tyngales, fat al f e wode rong, 
Ful amorously welcomed in hir song 
)3e lusty sesouw, fresche and desyrous, 
Namly to hertis fat ben amerous, 
And fe* see is calme and blauwdisching 
From trouble of wynde or wawy boilyng, 









3910. vp] om. A in-to] on to A, in D 1. 

3911. ascendyng] ascendid A. 

3912. his] the A bemys clere] om. A. 
3922. In-to] In A 1st >e] om. D 2. 

3937. >e] in >e C. 3938. or] & from D 1 wawy] wawyng A 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 27 d. 

BK. i] The invaders land on Trojan soil, & pitch their Tents. 12U 

And from tempest is smofe to eskape 

The same sesoiw Grekys furth hem schape 3940 in April the 

17 . Greeks set 

Towardis Troye : erlys, dukys, kyngis, sail, 

Her schippis stoffid with al maner fingis, 

)3at to werre my^t hem* moste avayle. 

And ri3t anoon ])ei be-gan to saile, 3944 

Whan al was redy, wit/t-oute more abode, 

Eche schip by ofer on j?e water rood ; 

And whan j>e wynde at her lust gaw blowe, 

A loie it was to sen hem go by rowe, 3948 

Whiche made hem faste to hastew in her woye, 

j)at in schorte tyme J?ei com[e] be to Troye, [leaf 226] 

And in )>e hauene callid Symeonte. ana soon 

Whan Phebws fer vnder her orizonte 3952 theT.aven of 


I-westrid was, j>at men ne my^t hym see, 

Grekys, eschapid alle pereils of be see, 

Caste her ankres and J>ou$t[e] for be beste, and cast 

In her schippes be same ny^te to reste. 3956 

The noble kynge Pelle in his Tente declarede j>e fyne 
of his landynge, for be sege to be layde. 1 

And in be morwe, whan be larke song, Next mom- 

J3e worbi Grekys, so manly & so strong, 
Be-gan to lond, in al J)e haste bei my;te, 
On Troye groiiTzde, and her tentis py3te ' 3960 

A-fore J?e toune, with gret diligence ; 

For fei ne fouwde no maner resistence.* nt8 ' 

And al J>is while fei sette good awaite 
On euery syde, list fer wer disceite, 3964 

Til on j>e hour fat j>e sonne bri^te 
Had in j)e morwe schad his rody li^te 

3939. And] Lynge D 2 tempest] tempestys A is smo>e] smo>e 
is D 1 to] and A. 

3941. Towardis] Toward D 1 kyngis] and kywges D 2. 

3943. to werre myjt hem] to hem my^t C my^t hem moste] 
moste myjt hem D 1. 

3948. go] seille D 1. 

3953. I-westrid] Westred D 1 hym] hem D 1. 

3954. Grekys eschapid] And grekes passed D 1 pereils] perill D 2. 
3957. iw] on D 1. 3962. resistence] of resistence C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 28 a. 

130 King Peleus's Address to his Grecian army. [BK. I 

The Greeks 
gather at 

Peleus's tent. 

He reminds 
them that 
their folk 
never began 
winning it. 

Now they've 
come to 
destroy King 

and they are 
1. so to put 

that no Greek 
shall be 


Amyd be felde, vppoii euery tent, 

At whiche tyme, alle of oon assent, 

fte Grekis wern assemblid euerychon, 

And by be byddyng of be kyng anon, 

Tason firste, and with hym Hercules, 

With many worjn being in bat pres, 

Ben to ]>e tent of Pelleus come. 

And whan be lordis, bobe alle & some, 

Wern to-gedre in bat place mette, 

And eche of hem in his degre was sette, 

))an Pelleus, whan al [was] huscht & stille, 

Be-gan ri$t bus to declare his wille : 

" noble & worbi, of hi$e estate & lowe, 

Whos kny^tly fame boru^ be worlde Is knowe, 

Reported is as fer as schineth sonne, 

]?at Grekis $it neuer* bing be-gonne 

jpat bei ne had victori at f e ende : 

For with fe laurer, as fer as man may wende, 

J)ei haue be crowned of what * bei toke on honde 

Suche is her hap, bofe on se and londe 

Wherfore, ^e lordis, moste worbi of renouw, 

3e can remembre of kyng Latnedoun, 

And of be wrong fat he vp-on $ow wrou^te, 

Whan harme to hym noon of 30 w ne thou^te, 

Whiche mot be quytte, schortly bis be ende, 

For we be come to stroye hym * and to schende ; 

Wherfor anon, in al J?e haste we may, 

Late vs sette on w^t/i-oute more delay. 

But firste I rede bat we taken hede, 

To binges bre, most helping in bis nede : 

First, be avis and gode discrescioura, 

For oure diifence and sauacioun, 

So prudently oure wardis for to make, [leaf 22 c 

Jjat non of ours be at meschefe take, 

jjis ilke day, for lak of prouidence ; 










3973. come] y come D 1. 3979. new IT D 1. 

3980. boruj >e worlde Is] wich is not D 1. 
3982. 3it neuer] neuer 3it C. 3984. laurer] laures D 2. 

3985. what] bat C, D 1. 3987. $e] }>e D 2. 

3992. be] om. A stroye] distroie D 1 hym] hem C2nd to] 
om. D 1. 

BK. i] King Peleus & Hercules plan their Fight against Troy. 131 

\)e seciwde is, to do oure diligence 2. to work 

With al oure my$t and hool entenciouw, of their foes; 

For to labour to ful distruccioun 4004 

Of oure foon, for oure owne glorie ; 

And be bridde, f t we may victorie 3. to win the 


Reioische of hem, platly at f e laste. 

And after fis, 30 may afore wel caste, 4008 

3iffe we of kny^thood, foru$ our hardines, 

May venquische he??i, we schal so hi^e riches and get 

Conquere of hem to oure pocessioun 

For it is knovve how bat Trove town, 4012 for Troy hat 

much gold 

Of al plente, as it schal be founde, and treasurer 

Of gold and tresowr is passyngly habourcde 

J2at oure schippis, sothly as I wene, 

For to reseiue schal nat mow sustene 4016 

\)Q habundaurcce fat is $onde wzt/z-Inne, 

3if it so be fat we f e cite wynne, 

As * God vs graurcte, }if it be his wille." 

And also faste as fe kyng was stille, 4020 

Jje noble kny^te, fe strongfe] Hercules, Then 


In f e presence of fat worfi pres, advises tin 

Seide his couwseil was he^ly to commende, 

For wis becjywiyng is preysed be fe ende 4024 

"But to effecte our pwpos for to bryng, 

My coimseil is, in fe morwenyng, 

To-forne or we discured ben be day, 

)3at we vs arme in al haste we may, 4028 

And on fis felde fat we do oure peyne 

For to deuyde oure meyne in-to tweyne ; division of 

And of f e ton, schal kyng Thelamouw Into twof 

Be goue?'nowr, for his hi^e renoun, 4032 Teiamon and 

And of f e tof er, kyng Pelleus schal haue 2. under K. 

|)e gouernau/zce, wysly hem to * saue ; 

4006. may] may ha A. 4008. afore] om. D 1. 

4014. tresowr] siluer D 2, D 1. 

4016. schal] ne shal A, D 2. 

4018. it] >at D 2. 4019. As] And C. 

4020. also] as D 1. 4021. kny3te] kyng D 2. 

4023. his] pis D 2. 

4026. in >e] in this A, in J>is D 2, Jns mery D 1. 

4028. arme] enarme D 1. 4030. deuyde] deuoicle D 1. 

4034. to] for to C. 

132 Hercules 's plan for lying in Ambush & seizing Troy. [BK. I 

With the rest 
Hercules and 
Jason will 

lie in 


and will, 
when the 
Trojans are 
fighting with 
the Greeks, 

rush to Troy 
and seize it. 

All arm in 
the morning. 




And I my silfe, & lason here my brother, 

Schal secrely go vfith alle J?e to]>er 

Vnder ]?e cite, or J)e sonne schynes, 

And in )>e bruschail and J?e pikke vynes 

We schal vs hyde, & kepe vs }>er ful koye ; 

For Lamedouw, fat is kyng of Troye, 

Anon as he may heren and espie 

Of J?e Grekis, with his cheualrye 

Out of J?e cite wele issen oute anoon 

With 3ow to fi^te, & venge him on * his foon ; 

But whan he cometh to-our-schippis-ward, 

Nestor j>e duke schal in J?e firste ward 

Metyn with hym, and Castor schal also, 

Whan he seth tyme, kny3tly haue ado [leaf 22 a] 4048 

To help[e] Nestor, ^if ]>at it be nede. 

J5e fridde warde Pelleus schal lede ; 

And whiles 36 Jms hym occupie, 

lason and I schal vs faste hye 

To J>e cite, vnwiste of hem echon, 

I dout[e] nat we schal it wy/me anoon. 

Doth be couwseil, and it wil ^ow availe ; 

And her my troufe, 30 ne may not fayle 

For to conquere J?e cite $onde a-f ore ; 

))is al and some 30 gete of me no more." 

And Jjei acorde wit/i al her strenthe & 

And armen hem in stele J?at schon ful bri3te 

Ageyn fe son?ie amorwe whan he riseth,"^ 

And wrou3t fully as Hercules deuiseth. 




Howe Lamedon }>e kenge of Troye, sodeynly wernede, 
with his Chivalry gave the Grekys batayle, & 
]>ere was sclayn. 1 

And Lamedouw, whan he herd[e] telle 

Of her comyng, hym lyst no lenger dwelle, 4064 

4042. his] >is D 1. 4043. oute] sone D 1. 
4044. on] of A, C. 4049. ?if ] whan D 1. 
4051. And] om. D 1 je] >at }e D 1. 

4053. vnwiste] vnwetiwg D 1. 4059. acorde] acordid A. 
4060. armen] enarmen D 1. 4061. lie riseth] it ariseth C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 28 c. 

BK. i] The Trojans attack the Greek Invaders. 


K. Lamedon 
and liis forces 
inarch out of 

to fight 

ht the 

not knowing 
of their am- 
bush behind 

But out he went with many a [noble] kny^te, 

Fkmrryng in ^outhe & desirous to fy$te, 

And alle j>o j?at my}t armes bere, 

Or koude schete or durste handle a spere. 4068 

And whan J?ei were assemblid in J>e felde, 

Eueryche his armes depeynt vppon his scheld, 

Brouded or bete vpon his cote armvre, 

)3an Lamedoura with al his besy cure 4072 

Set hem in ordre, & his wardes maketh, 

And in j?e felde furthe his weye he taketh 

Towardis j?e Grekis, as eny lyue ri^te, 

Fully pwrposyng to abide and fi^te. 4076 

He was nat war of hem fat were behynde, 

He nat adue?*teth nor caste]) in his mynde 

)5e grete slei^te nor J>e trechery, 

]5at hym was schape, he koude it nat espie ; 4080 

But fur]?e he went with his wardis set. 

And f>e Grekis anoon with hym han met, 

With herte bolde, astonyed nat at al 

Duke Nestor firste, sturdy as a wal, 4084 

In whos manhod was neuer founde lake, 

Ful kny3% fan vppon hors[e] bake, 

To hert his men & his kny^tes eke, 

Gaw presen in with many worjri Greke, 4088 

With Lamedouw sturdely to mete. 

At whiche tyme ]?ei felt[e] ful vnswete, 

And in Jje frouwtel, ful many manly man 

"With scharpe speris first to-gidre ran ; 4092 They charge 

And with swerdis, scharpe & kene grounde, 

Was filke day }ouen many [a] wounde, 

Wher * as J?ei mette, vp-on euery syde, 

)3oru^ plate & mayle her wouwdis bledde wyde. 4096 

And basenettis )>ei riuen to J?e crowne ; [leaf 23 a] 

])e noise of strokis in fe eyr gan sowne ; 

And of j>e blood ]>at was schad of newe, 

4069. new IF D 1. 4073. his] here D 1. 

4075. Towardis] Toward A, D 2. 

4086. vppon] vppon his A. 4087. hert] hurte D 1. 

4088. many] many a D 1. 4091. frountel] firste front D 1. 

4094. bilke] >at D 1. 4095. Wher] f>er C. 

4097. to] on D 1. 

Nestor meets 
the first 

many men 
aru wounded. 

134 Castor slays many Trojans: Lamedon kills more Greeks. [BK. I 

The Greeks 
are helpt by 

who drives 
back the 
Trojans, till 
King Lame- 
don enters 
the field 

and slays 
many Greeks. 

fte grene soile chaunged hath his he we : 4100 

For it was died playnly in-to red, 

Vp-on J?e whiche ful many man lay ded, 

And many worjn loste f er his lif. 

And certeynly, in fis mortal strif, 4104 

J?e Grekis had discomfeted ben echon, 

Nadfde] Castor socored hem anoon ; 

J?ei of Troye so manly han hem bore, 

)}at many kny$t of Grekis were I-lore : 4108 

But whan Castor entrej? in batail 

With his kny^tes, so sore he dide assayl 

jje worfi Troyans, fat with spere and scheld 

Grekis ageyn recured han fe felde, 4112 

ftat many oon lyf slay[e]n on f e grene, 

Girt f oru^ f e body with scharp speris kene, 

)5at * f ai of Troye, in f is mortal stour, 

Were driue a-bak, til fer cam socour 4116 

To hem in hast of worfi Lamedoura, 

Whiche entred [in] liche a wood ]you?^, 

And made weye vp-on euery syde. 

And where as he made his swerde to glide, 4120 

J)er was but deth, so manly * he hym bare, 

J)at wel vnnef e was fer [n]on fat dar 

Abide his stroke ; for, ridyng vp and dov?z, 

He made weye aboute hym envirouw. 4124 

In f e rengis he hath his foon oute sou^t ; 

j?at day in armys merveiles he haf wrou^t, 

J)at by his manhod and his worfmes 

He Grekis hath brou^t in swiche distres, 4128 

ftat fei his swerde fledden as fe deth, 

Merciles so many of hem he sleth. 

Of whiche slau^ter fe Grekis wer confus, 

4102. ful many] many a D 1. 

4103. many] many a D 1 loste] lefte D 1. 

D 1 

. f>e] These D 1 discomfeted ben] be discomfited D 1. 
. hem] hym D 1. 


4107. so manly han hem] han hem so mawly D 1. 

4108. many] many a A, D 1 were] was A, D 2 I-lore] lore D 1. 

4109. in] on D 1. 4110. he] mn. D 2. 
4115. f>at] f>an C. 4119. weye] a weye A. 
4121. manly] manfully C. 4122. non] any D 1. 

4128. Grekis] >e grekes D 1 in] in to D 1. 

4129. f>at] om. D 1 

BK. i] Nestor wounds and unhorses King Lamedon. 135 
Til Pelleus cam to her rescue, 4132 

T . P 11 succours the 

Iros and wood, as he wer talle in rage, Greeks, 

He thou^t he wolde pe grete pompe aswage 

Of hem of Troye, and so he dide anoon ; 

For he vnhorseth of hem many oon, 4136 

And felly slowe al J)at stood hym aforne, and kills 

And many harnes he hath J)at day to-torne, Trojans. 

And made scheldes for to rive a-souwdre, 

)?at to be-holde it was a verray wonder, 4140 

Til Lamedou??, his peple sawe goo bake, Lamedon 

17 -n n i. A * rallies them. 

For Pelleus brou^t hem so to wrake. 

Wher-of in hert he felte * ful gret peyne, 

Besechyng hem to repeyre ageyne, 4144 

And kybe her my^t & lyche as men endure ; 

And so J>e felde he made hem to recure, [leaf 23 6] 

Til duke Nestor knewe j>at Lamedourc, Nestor 

Amyd J>e felde, was kyng of Troye town. 4148 

And ri$t anoon, wat/i-oute more abood, 

A-geyn[e]s hym a ful gret pas he rood ; rides at him, 

And whan j>e kyng dide hym first espie, 

Of hi^e dispit, of ranco?^r and envie, 4152 

In kny^tly wyse gan to tome ageyn, 

No J)ing agast, but of hi^e disdeyn, 

With Irons hert embollid al with pride, 

His hors fersly gan takyn in ]>e syde, 4156 

Til J?er ran out be verray redfe] blood ; 

And to Nestor, liche as he were wood, 

He rood anoon, and his spere brake ; 

But he ful kny^tly kepte his hors[e] bak, 4160 

And ful delhwly, hym ageyn to quyte, 

With a spere, ful scharp[e] [whet] to byte, 

J?oru^ schelde & breste $af hy??i swiche a wouwde, woun<i 

bat from his hors he felde him dovn to grovnde 4164 and fells him 

. , to the 

Of which e fal, J>e kyng no Jnng a-ferde, ground. 

But ros hym vp & pulled out a swerde, 

4134. aswage] swage D 1. 4137. stood hym] hyw stood D 2. 

4139, 40 are transposed in D 2. 

4143. in hert he felte] he felt in hert C ful] om. D 1. 

4148. Amyd] pat amid D 1. 

4163. schelde & breste] brest and shelde D 1. 

4166. a] his D 1. 

Cedar conies 
to help 

136 Cedar wounds, and unhorses Nestor, who is in danger. [BK. I 

So anger fret hym at his bert[e] rote, 

)5at he vnhorsed fe^te muste ou fote ; 4168 

Wher-of he was in parti ful confus, 

Til oon Cedar cam to his reskus, 

)3at was made kny^te )>e silfe same $ere, 

$ong, fresche, and lusty, and of noble chere, 4172 

Sitting J?at tyme on a noble stede. 

And whan fat he gan to taken hede, 

And sawe J>e kyng on fote at meschef fi^te, 

Gan to prike, in al J>e hast he my3te, 4176 

Toward Nestor, & with a spere hym hitte. 

From his sadel )>at he made hym flitte 

Down to J3e grovnde a-fore kyng Lamedourc. 

But he anon, liche a champioun, 41 80 

Secured vp, and hym silfe diffendeth ; 

And many strok eche on other spendeth, 

With scharp[e] swerdis, kene for to bite, 

Eueryche at other gan to foyne & smyte,* 4184 

Til Lamedoura, with a despitous chere, 

From his face raced his visere, 

And by force, al at onys smet 

A riche cercle from his basenet, 4188 

Of large perle goyng enviroun 

With creste and al, he fersly bette adovn : 

j)at whiles Nestor ]>us aforn him stood, 

His face was al depeynt with blood, 4192 

J5at certeynly, pe sothe to conclude, 

Had nat Grekis with gret multitude 

Eeskewed hym, he hadde of Lamedouw [leaf 23 cj 

Be slaye as faste ; for he was bore dowi 4196 

Vn-to ]?e erpe a-mong J?e hors[e] feet. 

But Castor Jjo^te ]?at he nolde leet 

To be his helpe, as he behelde a-feer ; 

And Irously he toke a my^ty speer, 4200 

And to Cedar, J>at I spak of late, 

He gan to ride and priken in gret hate : 

4170. to] at D 2. 4182. many] many a A, D 1. 

4184. smyte] to smyte C. 4187. by force] bifore D 1. 

4190. creste] breste D 2 bette] fel D 2. 

4194. Had] Ne had D 1. 

4202. ride and priken] prike & ride D 1. 

and unhorses 

and Nestor 
fight together 
on foot. 

pulls Nestor's 
vizor off 
his face, 

and would 
have slain 
him if the 
Greeks hadn't 
come to his 

BK. i] Castw* kills Segnerides, and is rescued by Pulhwc. 137 

But or he cam to hym, dout[e]les, 
A Troyan kny^t, callid Segnerides, 
Cosyn to Cedar, whan he ha)) fis seen, 
On a courser rood anoon be-tvveen ; 
And with a spere he smete Castor so, 
}?at with fe stroke he brake evene at wo. 
To whom Castor, w?t/*-oute more areste, 
Hath with a spere, amyddes of J>e breste, 
Segnerides $oue a mortal wounde, 
)pat likly was neuer for to sounde. 
Wher-of Cedar cau^te swiche envie, 
Jpat he anoon, of malencolye 
And of dispit boilyng in his herte, 
Segnerides whan he sawe so smerte, 
Maugre who grucchef, amyddes of J>e feld, 
Of verray my^t from Castor toke his scheld, 
And foru} viser, of rancour & of rage, 
He wounded hym amyddes the* visage, 
And his hors from hym also he cau^te, 
And to his squier manfully it rau^te : 
)3at certeynly he stood in swiche disioynt, 
jjis worfi Castor, fat he was in poynt 
To haue ben take of hem of Troye tho ; 
For he on fote with hem moste [haue] go, 
Nadde Pollux, with many manly kny^t, 
Mo fan seuene huwdrid in stele armyd bri^t, 
])Q raf er com Castor to reskewe ; 
Whiche after hem so sore gan to sewe, 
j?at maugre hem, Castor whan he fond, 
Of force he toke hym fre out of her bond, 
And to his hors restorid hym ageyn. 
And after [fat], fis Pollux in certeyn, 
Of verray angre and of fervent Ire, 
Agein Troyens with rancour set a-fire, 
feat al attonis he vppon hem set ; 

4204 The Trojan 



who wounds 
him mortally, 

4216 but Cedar 

4220 wounda 

Castor too ; 





and he would 
have been 
taken, had 

not Pollux 
rescued him. 

4205. J>is] om. A. 4206. rood anoon] anoon rode hem D 1. 

4207-12 are omitted in D 2. 4208. he] he it A. 

4213. Wher-of] Wherfore A. 4220. the] of his C, his D 2. 

4221. from hywi also] also fro hym D 1. 

4226. haue go] agoo A. 4227. many] many a D 1. 

4228. armyd] armes D 2. 

138 The Trojans win, but Troy is taken by the Greeks. [BK. 

The Trojan 
Eliatiis, K. 
nephew, is 

slain by 

blows liis 
born, and 

7000 knights 

and drive 
back the 

The Trojans 

but are told 
that the 
Greeks have 
taken Troy. 


And in his mood, by fortune as he met 

A Troyan kny}t, called Eliatus, 

In armys ^ong, fresche, and desirous, 

Wonder sernly and but tender of age, 

jpe kynges sone, also, of Cartage, 

And neve we eke vn-to Lamedoim, 

Whom Pollux hath, lyche a ferse lyoura, [leaf 23d] 4244 

WM-oute routhe, pite, or mercy, 

In J>e rengis slawen cruelly 

feat Lamedou^, whan he gan take hede, 

Of inward dool felte his herte blede, 

Whan he hyrn sawe, euene vppon J?e deth, 

Ful pitously $elden vp be brethe, 

Vp-on be playn, as he lay hym be-forn. 

For whiche anoon he made sowne an horn, 

At whiche ber cam, in* ful riche array, 

Seuene thowsand kny^tes, in al [be] hast bei may, 

Vp-on his deth avenged* for to be. 

Whiche mercyles, of gret[e] cruelte, 

fee Grekis han here & J>er I-grouwded : 

Here litb on ded, ber a-nober wouwded, 

So fat fei nry^t vtiih hem haue * no tak. 

So mortally bei made hem gon abak, 

feat al gan turne to her confusiou?^ ; 

And finaly bat day* with Lamedoura 

fee tryvmphe had & be felde y-goon, 

Saue )>at, alias, oute of be touw anoon 

Vn-to be kyng ber cam a messager, 

feat hath hym tolde with a ful pitous chere, 

How J)e Grekis han be cite take. 

fean for to se J?e wo he* dide make, 

It wolde haue made a pitws hert as blyue 

Of verray dool asondre for to rive, 







4239. Eliatus] Eliacus D 1. 

4243. vn-to] to D 1. 4245. routhe pite] pite routhe D 1. 
4247. pat] Than D 1. 4253. whiche] which tyme A in] a C. 
4255. his] the A avenged] avenget C. 4256. of] & of D 1. 

4258. >er] & >ere D 1. 

4259. with hem haue] haue with hem C. 

4262. finaly ]>at day] )>at day finaly C. 4263. y-goon] goon D 1. 

4266. hath] had D 1 ful pitous] dispitw* D 1. 

4267. 2nd >e] his A, D 2. 4268. he] >ei C, >at he D 1. 

BK. i] The Trojans are beaten in front and rear. 139 

So sore he gan with-in. hym silfe to morne. 

He wiste nat what party he my^t turne ; 4272 

But in a were* he abydynge longe, JL^omT 10 " 

Aforn hym- sawe j>e my$ty Grekis stronge, h,'frout r of y 

And in J?e cyte anoj>er host behynde : hlm 

Almost for wo he went out of his mynde ; 4276 

And sodenly, bacward as he behilde SinS 

Toward J>e cite, he sawe com in jje felde 

First Hercules and with hym lason, 

])'dt by her sley^t wonen ban )>e tourc. 4280 

And in al hast, J>is cruel Hercules, 

\)e niy^ty geau?jt of force per[e]les, 

Liche a lyouw, wood and dispitous, 

Or a tigre in rage furious, 4284 

Gan of newe hem of Troye assaile, Trojans) 1 * 

And with [his] swerde perce plate and mail, 

Whiche of labour wer ful mate and feynt, 

And of long fi^te with werynes atteynt. 4288 

And he cam in,* lusty, fresche, and grene, 

ftat fei his force my^t[e] nat sustene ; 

For as he rod among hew here & Bonder, 

In cruel wyse he s[e]uered hem asonder, 4292 

And put he/71 holy in J?is hi^e meschaunce, [leaf 24 a] 

Oute of rewle and of gouernauwce ; 

So fat ]?e kyng, oppressed al with dool, 

Of his wardis destitute and sool, 4296 

At meschef lefte, and al infortunat, 

And of comfort fully disconsolat 

))is Hercules, with a dispitous look, 

With scharp[e] spors his stede felly toke, 4300 

And cruelly rod to* Lamedouw, 

And to fe erthe fersly bare hym douw, 

And vp-on hym, in al fe haste he my^te, 

Downe of his hors sodeinly alyjte,* 4304 

And my^tely rent of his basenet, 

4272. He wiste] panne wist he D 1 my$t] may A, D 2. 

4273. a were] awere C longe] allone D 1. 4281. new IT D 1. 
4284. in] in his A. 4289. cam in] in cam C. 

4294. 2nd of] al goode D 1. 

4300. spors] speris D 2 felly] fully A, D 2. 4301. to] til C. 

4304. aly^te] he Iy3te C. 


Hercules kills 
K. Lamedon, 

and many 

The Greeks 
slay nearly 
all the rest, 

take all the 
treasure in 

and kill the 
old folk and 
the babies. 

King Lamedon is slain. Troy is plunderd. [BK. I 

And with a swerde, scharp[e] groiwde & whet, 

Smot of his hede, per was noon oper g?*ace, 

And caste it furthe in pe silue place 4308 

Among pe hors, by cruel violence, 

With-oute pite or any reuerence. 

And in a rage ra^te his hors a^eyn, 

And lyche a lyowi rengyng on pe playn 4312 

Bar downe & slowe what cam in his weye ; 

And many Troyan pat day made he deye, 

)3at liche to schepe wer* forskatered wyde, 

Al destitute of gouernour or guyde, 4316 

Ne can no* rede, schortly to conclude; 

For pe Grekis \vidh double multitude 

Gan hem enchace to pe deth ful blyve, 

j?at wel vnnepe per left noon alyue. 4320 

Jpe feld pei han, and ben pat day victours ; 

And with tryvmphe, liche as conquerours, 

To pe cite pei take her weye after, 

And rende dovn hope sparre & rafter ; 4324 

And al pe tresour & riches of pe tovn, 

j)ei toke anoon to* her pocessiou?z, 

Who euer gmcche or be lef or lothe, 

What pei fouwde, pleynly with hem gothe. 4328 

In pe temples pei dide gret offence, 

To pe goddis doyng no reuerence ; 

For al pei spoyle, with-oute drede or fere, 

And vn-to schip euery ping pei here ; 4332 

And merciles on croked, olde, and lame, 

Her swerde pei made cruelly atame ; 

And children soukyng at her* moder brest, 

))ei mordre & sle wM-oute more arest ; 4336 

4311. a] om. D 1. 4312. rengyng] rennyng A. 

4314. many] many a D 1. 

4315. wer] }>at wer C. 4316. or] and D 1. 
4317. no] nat C. 4318. with'] om. D 1. 

4320. >er left] left >ere D 1. 

4321. }>at day] om. D 1 victours] victorious A, D 1. 

4324. rende] rente D 1 sparre] spere D 1. 4326. to] in to C. 

4327. grucche or] grucched who D 2. 

4328. >ei] the A pleynly] platly D 1 gothe] it gothe A. 

4334. swerde] swerdes D 1 atame] to atame A, to tame D 2. 

4335. her] be C. 

BK. I] 

The sad Fate of the Trojan Maidens. 


And ^ongfe] maydenes, wepyng in distresse, 

Ful gentil born, and of gret fayrnesse, 

With hem pel ladde, & may hem nat excuse, 

Hir fresche bewte falsly to mysvse. 

)3ei waste & brercne and consumen al ; 

And wz't/i-oute j>ei brake a-dovn fe wal. [leaf 21 6] 

And Exione, )?e kynges doubter dere, 

Jpat was to hym passyngly entere 

By his lyve I mene Lamedourc 

Meke and benyng of condicioim, 

Hercules hath anoon hir take, 

Jpat for drede pitously gan quake, 

And hir deliuered vn-to Thelamou?*, 

For he entrede first in-to J?e touw. 

And he his }ifte reseyued hath at gre, 

Be-cause sche was surmoimtyng of bewte, 

And tretid hir after as he wolde, 

Nat lyche as he a kynges doubter schulde. 

For syth he gat hir J>at day be victorie, 

For his worschip and his owne glorie, 

Havyng rewarde to hir hi3e degre, 

He schulde rather of kyngly honeste, 

And of kny^thood, haue weddid hir Jjerfore, 

Syth pat sche was of blood so gentil bore, 

)5an of fals lust, ageyn al godlyhede, 

Vsed hir bewte and hir womanhede 

Dishonestly, and in synful wyse 

Of royal blood nat liche fe hi$e emprise, 

Nor J?e doctrine of naturis ri$t, 

Nor liche J>e norture of [a] gentil kny^t : 

Considered first hir [bir)?e] and hir kynrede, 

Hir grene ^oujje, and hir maydenhed, 

So gode, so fayre, so womanly J>er-to. 

A kynges dou}ter of birth sche was also ; 

To haue wedded hir, it had[de] be no schame. 

Now, Thelamoura, in soth ]?ou wer to blame ; 

4342. a-dovn] doun D 1. 4351. hath] first D 1. 

4367. Considered] Considrynge D 2 hir birj>e and] om. 
2nd hir] om. A, D 1. 

4370. of birth sche was] she was of birjre D 1. 

4371. To haue] That A. 

The Trojan 
girls are 
carried off by 
the Greeks. 


K. Lame- 
don's daugh- 
4344 ter, Esione, 

is handed by 
Hercules to 
4348 Telaraon, 






who treats 
her as a 

and doesn't 
wed her, 

as a. gentle 
knight should 
have done. 

4372 He was to 


142 Troy is leveld with the ground, and the Greeks return. [BK. I 

Thru Tela- 
mon'a mis- 
the fire of war 
spread later. 

When Troy 
was leveld 
with the 

the Greeks 
fild their 
ships with 

set sail, 

and reacht 
land joy- 

For Jjoru^ J)e errour of Jn gouernaunce, 

}per kyndled was, of ful hy$e vengaunce, 

So hoot a sparke after of envye, 

)5at J>om3 J>e worlde fe fyr gan multiplie, 4376 

Whiche was nat li$t * to quenchyra of his hete. 

For hatred olde to brenwe can nat lete 

With newfe] flawme, who so taketh hede ; 

3if it nat smeke, it is J>e more [to] drede, 4380 

As in J>is * story her after schal be knowe. 

And whan J>is tonn was brent & brou^t[e] lowe, 

BoJ>e tour & wal with J?e soil made pleyn, 

And no Jring stood, alias, J>at may be seyn, 4384 

So outterly J?e Grekis hem oppresse, 

Makyng al waste liche a wyldernesse 

For good & tresour & riches infinyt, 

With many lowel, ful pleysyng of delyt, 4388 

To her schippis out of j?e toun fei lede, 

And in schort tyme homward fei hem spede, 

With tresour stuffid, & habou?idance of good. [leaf 2*0] 

And whan }>ei seye fat j)e wedir stood, 4392 

])Q wynde also, at her lust fei hadde, 

]3ei gan to saille, & with hem horn J>ei ladde 

Exyona and many a mayde mo, 

]3at out of Troye in-to Grece goo. 4396 

And seyling forj>e, with-in a lytel space, 

ftei ben eskapid [fro] ]?e se by grace, 

And vn-to lond aryued merily. 

At whos co?ttrnyng J>e Grekis outerly 4400 

So loyful ben of her good[e] spede ; 

And specialy, in Guydo as I rede, 

Her schippes wern with golde & tresour lade ; 

Wher-of in herte Jiei wexe wonder glade. 4404 

And for fei hadde out so wel hem born, 

To conquere Troye, and so fewe lorne 

4374. vengaunce] meschaunce D 2. 4377. li^t] liche C. 

4380. nat] may A J>e] om. D 1. 4381. >is] >e C. 

4382. lowe] so lowe A, D 2. 4383. wit*] to D 2. 

4387. & tresour] om. D 2 & riches] om. D 1. 

4392. j>ei seye )>at] Jxxt >ei sye D 1. 

4395. a mayde] maiden D 1. 4401. loyful] loy fully D 2. 

4404. wexe] were A. 

4405. out] hem oute D 1 hem born] I born D 1. 

BK. i] Prosperity and Fame of the Greeks. End of Book I. 143 

Of her meine, J>ei jjanke her goddes alle, 

And of J>e grace j)at to hem is falle. 4408 

For vfilh J>e tresour bat bei ban horn brou^t, 

Ful many pore was made vp of nou^t ; 

Jjoru^-out be loud J>ere was swiche aboiwdawce, Greece 

So moche good and so gret sufficauwce, 4412 the plunder 

J?at no wi$t had amo?zg[es] hem no nede. 

And many day bis blisful lyfe bei lede, 

From $er to }er by reuoluciouw ; 

And for her manhood & her Ime renoiw, 4416 and the 

fighters win 

Her honour ran roiwde be worlde aboute, high renown. 

)3at hem toffende euery londe hath doute, 

For her kny^thod, & for bei wer so wyse. 

And til be story liste ageyn deuyse, 4420 

In bis mater ferjjer to precede, 

With be fauour of 2oure ^oodlvhed, i'U now, by 

your favour, 

I wil me reste for a litel space ; takeareat 

And J>an vp-born with support of $our grace, 4424 

Forfe a-complische, as I vndertook. 

And here an ende of ]>e first[e] book 

I make now, with quakyng hond * for drede, 

Only for fer of $ow ]>at schal it rede, 4428 

Liste ^e, alias, of hasty mocyoiw, 

Ne wil not haue no compassioim, 

Pyte nor roufe vp-on my rud[e]nesse ; 

Lowly beseching to ^our gentilnes, 4432 

Of mercy only, boj>e ne^e and ferre, P r Ver8e 

Where ^e fynde fat I fayle or erre, 

For to correcte, or 30 fer)>er flitte, 

For to }our grace I holy al commytte. 4436 

[Explicit liber Primus 
INcipit liber Secundus. 1 ] 

4409. horn] hem D 2. 4414. many] many a D 1. 

4418. euery] om. D 2, eche D 1 hath] had D 1. 

4424. 3ow] his D 2. 4426. )>e] )>is D 2. 

4427. now with quakyng hond] witA quakyng hond now C. 


were apparently included by the scribe in Book I. , for, beyond an 
illuminated initial, there is no break between the last line of 
Book I. and the first line of Book II. 

144 How fickle Fortune deals with Men, and mocks them. [BK. II 



won't let us 
live in peace. 

She casts 
down the 

She blears 
men's eyes, 

and mocks 

Ihe envious ordre of Fortunas* meving, 
In worldly f iwg, fals and flekeryng, 
Ne will not suffre vs in fis present lyf 
To lyue in reste wft/i-oute werre or striffe; [leaf 24 d] 


For sche is blinde, fikel, and vnstable, 
And of her cours, fals & ful mutable. 

Who sit hi3est, sche can douw hyra enclyne 

Whan he leest wenef bring hym to ruyne, 

With awaites fat gladly ben sodeyne, 

And w*U hir face fat partid is on tweyne 

Schewen most hool, whan sche is leste to triste ; 

feat wel wer hym fat hir deceytes wiste, 

And hir engynes & hir trappis knewe, 

feat euery day in liir courte be newe. 

Of whiche, in soth, I wel afferme dar, 

No mortal man may in f is lyf be war : 

For sche vn-evene peisyng in balaimce, 

With conterfet and feyned contenauwce, 

With lokyng pleyn & chere of flaterye, 

Vnwarly can blere a xnawnys eye, 

And hym be-gyle f is f e verray soth 

With a face blaiwdissching and smof e, 

Whan sche hath hym fro??i hije degre brou^t lowe, 

Ful falsly smyle & make hym f e mowe. 

And 3it som while, most varriant of hewe,' 

Sche vn-to somme pretendeth to be trewe ; 

For sche whilom to somme is fauourable, 

And to somme fals and deceyvable. 

Sche can reise * on, & bryng another doura, 

L Fortunas] fortunat C, A. 6. fals & ful] ful fals & D 1. 
7. doutt hym] hym douw A. 10. with] whiche D 2. 
21. J>is] this is D 1. 24 Ful] And D 1 >e] to A. 
25. most] om. D 1. 27. to sowme] om. D 1. 
29. reise] reisen C. 






gives some 
men renown. 

BK. n] Caprices of Fortune: favouring some, degrading others. 145 

J?is fals[e] lady of transmutacioim ; 

To somme sche ^eueth renouw and victorie, 

And doth hem floure in honour & glorie ; 32 

And so?wne sche can apeiren with fals fame, 

And gilt[e]les put a man in blame. 

To somme sche is goodly and benyngne ; 

And of disdeyn sche can also maligne 

Ageyn anojjer, & make hyw loute lowe ; 

And from her sees sche can kynges J>rowe, 

And hem avale, for al her 11130 toures. 

And sclie can plonge worjn emperoures 

From J>e hille of hi^e prospmte 

In-to J>e vale of aduersite ; 

])& riche emporische, of rancour & disdeyn, 

And J>e pore sche can enhau?*ce ageyn, 

]3is fals[e] goddes * vrith hir eyen blynde, 

Set on aforn, a-noper goth be-hynde ; 

And doth on re?me, and another halte ; 

And on sche can in rychesse * hi3e exalte, 

And anoj?er plonge in pouerte, 

In whom no man may haue no sikerte. 

To somme sugre and hony sche distilleth ; 

And of so?rcme sche J>e botel filleth 

With bitter galle, myrre, and aloes. [leaf 25 ] 

And Jms J>is lady, wilful recheles, 

As sche fat is froward and peruers, 

Hath in hir* celer drinkes ful diuers ; 

For sche to so?rcme, of f raude and of fallas, 

Mynystreth pyment, bawme, & ypocras : 

And sodeynly, whan )>e sote is past, 

Sche of custom can ^euen hem a tast, 60 

For to conclude falsely in )>e fyn, 

Of bitter eysel and of egre wyn, 

And corosyues fat fret and perce depe, 

32. &] and in A, D 2. 33. fals] her fals D 2 
37. &] to D 2-hym] hem D 2 41. of] of the A. 
4d. emporische] Emperesse D 2, enpresse D 1 
45. goddes] goodes C. 48. in rychesse] richely C. 
52. of] to D 1. 54. recheles] & recheles D 1. 
56. hir] his 0. 57. 2nd of] om. D 1. 
62. eysel] eyser D 1. 

36 Others she 

40 She plunges 



She gives 
honey to 
52 some; 

gall to others j 


balm to some ; 

vinegar to 

146 K. Lamedon ruind by Fortune. The Moral of his Fall. [BK. n 

throws over 
all who trust 

as she did 
K. Lamedon, 
for little 

Let kings 
and lords 
take warning 
by him, 

and not let 
strangers be 

or they'll 
be paid out. 

And narkotykes pat cause men to slepe. 
))us sche to hem, pat hir tonne aproche, 
After soote,* pe bitter can * abroche 
In her regne, pis quene of variaurcce, 
Whos loye fyneth alwey with meschauwce. 
Who trustep hir, sche wil hym ouercaste, 
And hym deseyue pleynly at pe laste, 
Of what estat euer pat he be, 
))is double lady of mutabilite. 
Sethe here example of kyng Lamedourc, 
Whom sche hap brou^t to confusioura 
For litel cause, and for a ping of noi^t ; 
Hir cruel te he hape to dere a-bou^t. 
Wherfore, I rede, eue?'y man take hede 
To gynne a quarel where as is no nede : 
For litel fire vnder asches reke 
So may be kyndled pat it wil oute breke 
Iri-to swyche flawme, mew may it nat apese ; 
Who best can suffre most schal haue his ese. 
j)erfor, 36 kynges and lordis euerychon, 
Make $ow a merour of pis Lamedoun, 
And bep wel war to do no violence 
Yn-to strawngers, whaw pei do noon offence, 
Whan pei com fer in-to 3oure regions : 
Ne suffre hem nat, by noon oppressions, 
In ^oure bouwdis for to haue no wrong ; 
For in $oure owne, pou^e pat 30 be strong, 
And my$ty eke among ^oure legys alle, 
A-noper day paniunter may be-falle, 
)3at whan pat 30 ful litel penke on hit, 
Of sodeyn cas pat 36 * may be quyte 
And I-thanked in a-noper place, 
Of auenture 3if 30 happe passe, 
feerfore, whan 36 may eny swyche espie, 

65. pat] can D 1 aproche] abroche D 1. 

66. soote] soter C can] gan C abroche] approche D 1. 

75. and] or D 1 a] om. D 1. 

76. a-bou*t] bought A, bou^t D 1. 
78. gynne] begynne D 1. 

81. apese] aceese D 1. 83. 3e] >e D 1, D 2. 
94. 30] it C, D 1. T6. happe] hap there D 1. 










BK. n] The Duty of Kindness to Strangers. 

Doth hem good chere of ^our curtesye, 

And prudently cowsydereth in 30111- wit, 

)3at to a lorde of gentilnes hit sit, 100 

To euery strauwger goodly hym to haue : 

frer is no Jnng may more his honour saue, [leaf 25 6] 

Jjjin to refresche hem frely & disport. 

an may pei after good of hym reporte ; 104 

Be whos contrarie haj> moche wo be wroti^t 

A-fore )>is tyme, ^if it be wel sou^t : 

})G first[e] Troye vtterly distroyed, 

And J>e peple in sorwe & wo acloied, 108 

Lad in-to exil, fer from her cite, 

Ly vyng in J>raldom and captiuite ; 

And Exyone, as 36 haue herde me telle, 

Lad in-to Grece with Thelamoiw to dwelle. 112 

For whom []?er was], as Guydo can $ow teche, 

After take * so gret vengauwce & wreche 

On ou]?er parte, J?at in verray trouthe 

For to here it is to moche routhe, 116 

As in J>is boke 36 may after rede, 

Ceryously ^if 36 liste take hede. 

For gladly ay J>e reuolucioim 

Of fatal ping, by disposiciou?^, 1 20 

Is so envious, and alwey meynt with wo, 

Jpat in }>is world, wher-so fat we go, 

We trewly may aduerten in oure ]?ou3t, 

))at for ]>e valu of a J>ing of nou^t, 124 

Mortal causes and werris first by-gonne ; 

Strif and debate, here vnder )?e sonne, 

Wer meved first of smal occasions, 

\)a,t caused after gret confusioim ; 128 

J3at no man can )>e harmys half endite. 

For, for a cause dere y-now3e a myte, 

Eche is redy to distroien other ; 

A man for litel wil strive with his brofer ; 132 

Blood is vnkynde, whiche gretly is to drede. 

98. Doth] Do 36 D 1 of] for D 1. 103. &] and to D 1 
108. peple] temple D 1. 111. haue herde] hard D 2. 
114. take] was take C. 116. moche] my D 2. 
130] one For A, D 1. 


Always be 
kind to 

to them 
exiled its 

and sent 
Hesiono to 

for whom 
was taken. 

Deadly wars 
spring from 
slight causes. 

148 Troy, new and old, was ruind. I'll tell how. [BK. II 

Old Troy 
and new were 
both ruind, 

and many 



To tell these 
woes, I lack 

and I fear 
criticism ; 

but he is 

and I'll relate 
the story of 
New Troy, 

after Guide's 

Alias ! win nyl J>ei * taken better hede 1 

For olde Troye & afterward pe newe, 

)3oru3e smal enchesourc, who pe troupe knewe, 

Wer finally broi^t to distruccioim, 

As olde bokes maken mencioiw ; 

And many worpi and many noble kny^t 

Slayn in pe feld by dures of }>at fi^t 

Kynges, pn'nces at pe * sege ded, 

Whan Antropos to-brak hir lyves thred, 

at for to telle }>e meschef and J>e wo, 

I want[e] cownynge, and I fele also 

My penne quake & tremble in my bond, 

List pat my lord, dredde on see and lond, 

Whos worpines poru3 pe world dop sprede, 

My makyng rude schal beholde & rede, 

Whiche of colour f ul nakyd is and bare : 

Jpat but 3if he of his grace spare 

For to disdeyne, and list to haue pite, [leaf 25 c] 

For fere I tremble fat he schuld it se. 

But only mercy, fat dope his hert embrace, 

Byt me pi-eswrne fully in his grace ; 

Seynge in hym, most vertuous and good, 

Mercy anexid vn-to royal blood, 

As to a prince longep ny$e and ferre, 

Ay to-fore ry3t, pite to preferre. 

For pon^e pe support of his 11136 noblesse 

Sowpowailled, I wil my stile dresse 

To write forj>e pe story by and by 

Of newe Troye in ordre Ceriously, 

As myn auctor in latyn, Guydo, writ. 

Preying pe reder, wher any word myssit, 

Causyng )>e metre to be halte or lame, 

For to correcte, to saue me fro blame : 

Late hym nat wayte after coryouste, 

Syth pat in ryme ynglysch hath skarsete. 

134. nyl] nyllen D 1 >ei] 30 C. 141. >e] >at C. 
142. to-brak] brak D 1. 146. lond] solid A. 

150. but 3if] yif but A. 

151. to haue] to "him take D 1. 

155. in] om. D 2. 156. royal] his Roial A. 
157. longe>] bilongith D 1. 165. or] & D 1. 










BK. n] I'm so sorry I cant englisli Guide's Latin rightly in ry me. 149 

I am so dulle, certeyn, J>at I ne can 

Folwen Guydo, pat clerke, pat coryous man, 

Whiche in latyn hath be rethorik 

Set so his wordis, pat I can nat be lyke. 172 

To sewe* his stile in my translacioun,* 

Word by word, lyche pe construcciouw, 

After pe maner of gramariens, 

Nor lyke )>e stile of rethoricyens, 176 

I toke nat on me pis story to translate ; 

For me to forther Clyo com to late, 

)}at in swyche craft hath gret experience ; 

I leue pe wordis and folwe pe sentence. 

And troup of metre I sette also a-syde, 

For of fat arte I hadde as po no guyde 

Me to reducyn, whan I went a-wrong ; 

I toke non hede nouper of schort nor long, 

But to ]>e troupe, and lefte coryouste 

Bope of makyng and of metre be, 

Nat purposyng to moche for to varie, 

Nor for to be dyuerse nor contrarie 

Vn-to Guydo, as by discordauwce ; 

But me conforme fully in substauwce, 

Only in menyng, to conclude al on ; 

Al-bepat I ne can j>e wey[e] goon 192 

To swe pe floures of his eloquence ; 

Nor of peyntyng I haue noon excellence 

Wi'tft sondry hewes noble, iresche, and gay ; 

So riche colours biggen I ne may ; 196 

I mote procede with sable and with blake. 

And [in] enewyng wher 30 fynde a lak, 

I axe mercy or I fro $ow twynne ; 

And with ^our fauowr I wil a-non* begyraie, [leaf 25 d] 200 

And in al haste my style furthe directe ; 

And where I erre, I praye $ow to correcte. 


But I'm so 
dull that I 
can't write in 
Guide's style. 

I began 
ryming too 

and I had 
no guide, 

184 and dis- 
shorts and 

But I'll give 
the substance 
of Guido, 

and ask 
mercy for 
my short- 

169. >at] om. D 2. 

173. sewe] schewe C translacioun] transmutaciouTi C. 

174. lyche] aftir D 1. 
180. 1st >e] >ese D 1. 
183. a- wrong] wrcwge D 1. 

192. Al-be] Al be it D 1 ne can] can not D 1. 
198. a] om. D 1. 200. I wil a-non] a non I wil C. 

150 Of Lamedoris son Priam, and his Siege of a Castle. [BK. n 

When Lame- 
don was slain 
by Hercules, 

his son 
Priam was, 
with Hecuba 
and his sons, 
a castle, 

in attacking 
which he 
daily riskt 
his life. 

Of Priamus, j?e sonne of Lamedozm which, at j>e 
destruceyown of Troye, was at the obsydey of A 
Castel. And howe mony sonnes and doughters 
that Priamus had. 1 

The same tyme whan fat Troye touw 
Destroyed was, and kyiig Lamedoiw 
Was also slayn, foru} fe cruelte 
Of Hercules, vnder his * cyte, 
He hadde a sone, fe story tellef vs, 
Whiche was his eyr, I-called Priamus, 
Wonder manly, discret, and ful prudent, 
Whiche fat tyme from Troye was absent, * 
Whan his fader loste f us his lyf ; 
For he fat tyme with Eccuba his wyfe, 
And with his sonys, aboute a .castel lay, 
And alle his kny^tes, to gete it ^if he may, 
Jpat hath on hem my^tely werreyed : 
For fei his fader han* falsely disobeyed, 
And vn-to hym be rebel wonder long ; 
Al-be Priam, with savvtis huge and strong, 
Hem hadde assay led ofte & many sythe ; 
His strengfe on hem liche a kny^t to kythe, 
To gete in arrays worschip and honowr, 
And hem to dauwte liche a conquerour, 
He caste hym fully or fat he departe. 
For day by* day his lyf he gan iuparte, 
At her wallis for to preve his my^t, 
With many barouw and many worf i kny$t ; 
For he $it had his $ong[e] lusty blood, 
And was of age flouryng in kny3thod, 
And at assautis & swiche maner strife, 








203. The miniature to Book II. is inserted above this line in C 
and D 2 >at] om. D 2. 

205. also slayn] slayn also D 1. 206. his] the C. 

208. I-called] called D 1. 209. ful] om. A, D 1. 

209. 10 are transposed in D 2. 

210. absent] went C, sent D 1. 
214. 3ifj & D 1 he] they A. 

216. his fader han] ban his fader C. 217. be] bene D 1. 
223. hym] hem D 2. 224. by] to C. 
227. 3onge lusty] lusty }ong D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 31 c. 

BK. ii] Of Priam s sons, the hero Hector, & the handsome Paris. 151 

On with be first [for] to auntre his lyf. 

To hert Ms men, hym list nat be behynde 

For drede of deth, sothly as I fynde, 

A-fore be castel hi^e and )>ikke wallyd. [leaf 26 a] 

And be his wyfe bat Eccuba was callyd, 

)5is Priam had, ful worj>i of degre, 

Fyve sonys and $ong[e] doi^tres thre, 

Of whiche be eldest Hector callid was. 

Whiche also fer as Phebz<& in corapas 

A natural day goth his cercle aboute, 

So fer of hym, with-outen any doute, 

Reported was be renourc and be name, 

)pe worbines, and be noble fame. 

For liche as bokis of hym specefye, 

He was be Rote and stok of cheualrie, 

And of kny^thod verray souereyn flour, 

]3e sowrs and welle of worschip & honour ; 

And of manhod, I dar it wel expresse, 

Example and merour ; & of hi^e prowesse, 

Gynyng & ground e ; & with al bis * I-fere, 

Wonder benigne & lavvly of his chere, 

Discret also, prudent and vertuous. 

Of whom be dedis & actis merveillous 

Remembrid ben of so long a-goon ; 

For he allone excelled euerychon, 

In olde auctours rede & 30 may fynde, 

Of his kny^thood how }it bei make mynde. 

l)e> nexte brober callid was Paris, 

To whom Nature $af at hir deuyse 

Of schap & forme, bewte, and semlynes, 

J)at to remembre his excellent fairnes, 

In his tyme, wit/i-outen any drede, 

He passed alle }>at I can of rede ; 

And he was eke a ful manly kny^te ; 

But most he vsed, whan he schulde fi^t, 

In his bond for to bere * a bo we : 

230. for to auntre] to auenture D 1. 231. To] Tho D 2. 

233. A-fore] After D 2. 234. wyfe] om. D 2. 

239. cercle] cercles D 1. 242. wor>ines] worthieste D 2. 

248. &] om. A. 249. al >is] Jns al C. 

256. J>ei] >e D 1. 265. bere] beren C. 


eldest son 
was Hector, 




244 the root of 
and flower of 



who excel d 
every one. 


His next 
brother was 

the hand- 
somest man 
260 then living. 


152 Of Priam s sons, Deiphobus, Helenus, Troilus. [BK. n 

Paris was a 
fine archer. 

was Priam's 
3rd son, 

and Helenus, 
his 4th, 

was renownd 
in liberal 

Troilus was 
the 5th son, 

a manly man, 

cald Hector 
the Second. 

was Priam's 
6th son. 

For swiche an archer no man koude knowe, 

For to seken* bothe fer and nere, 

ftat of schetyng my^tfe] ben his pere, 268 

As it was foiwde, whan he had ado ; 

And Alisauwdre he callyd was also. 

)De pridde sone hi$t[e] Dephebus, 

A worj>i kny^t and a chiualrous, 272 

And had in armys a ful gret renoun, 

And was a man of hi^e discreciouw, 

And wyse of cowiseil, myw auctow tellej? Jms. 

])Q firthe brother, called Elenus, 276 

Sadde and discret, and of hi^e prudence, 

And was also a man of greet science, 

And renomed, Jjer-wet/i in special, 

In alle J?e artis called liberal, 280 

For he in hem was expert ari^t. [leaf 26 ft] 

J)e fyfte sone was a worjji kny^te, 

Fresche and lusty, and Congest of hem alle, 

And, as seith Guy do, Troylus men hym calle : 284 

A manly man fouwden in bataille, 

And desyrous his fomen for tassaille ; 

Oon }>e best in his tyme founde ; 

And called was Hector J>e secourcde 288 

For his manhood, poru^-oute Troye bok ; 

Whiche in be werre ful ofte vp-on hy??i tok 

Of his kny^thod many hi^e emprise, 

As J?e story here after schal deuyse. 292 

And in his bok liche as writ Virgile, 

]5e poete olde, by ful souereyn stile, 

How J>at )>e kyng Priam had also 

By Eccuba other sonys two ; 296 

And by record of jns Virgilius, 

\)e ton was called Pollyodorus, 

Whom Priamws, in his grene* ^outhe, 

Whan ])e comynge was of Grekis kouthe 300 

267. seken] scheten C, sheten D 1. 

276. Elenus] heleus D 2, helenus D 1. 

278. also a man] a man also A. 290. Whiche] With Inne A. 

291. his] om. D 1. 291, 92 are transposed in D 1. 

292. be] this A. 293. his] this A. 295. be] om. D 1. 
299. grene] tender C. 

BK.II] Of Priam's sons, Polidomis&Ganymede,& his Daughter. 153 

To-Troye-ward, in alle haste anoon, 

With gold, tresour, and many riche stoon, 

Sent hym forth besyde vn-to a kyng, 

Of ful gret trust, to haue hy?ft in kepyng 304 

Til tyme he seye what conclusion?? 

]?er schulde falle, after of j>e toun, 

And eke what fyn J>e werre wolde take, 

jpat vp-on hem )>e Grekis dide make. 308 

But j>ilke kyng for fals[e] couetyse 

Of f>is tresour, J>at $e ban herde deuyse, 

Whan J>at he sawe Fortunys variawjce 

Toward Priam, & his vnhappy clmwce, 312 

Like a tirauwt and murderere* also, 

\)& childes throte made kutte a-two. 

And after ]?at, he ful cruelly 

Made his men to hurye hym priuely, 316 

)2at no man my^t his tresoun vnderstonde, 

Be-syde a see depe vnder }>e* stronde. 

]?e tober sone, also as I rede 

In Virgile, was callyd Ganymede, 

Whom lubiter in a forest hent 

Vp-on a day as he on huntyng went, 

And bare hym vp aboue }>e sterres clere, 

And maked hym in heuene his botelere, 

Eternaly with luno for to wone, 

In stede of Hebes, hir owne dere sone. 

Jje first[e] doubter of kyng Priamus 

Hi^te Creusa, as seith Virgilius 

In his Eneydos, sothly as it was ; 

And sche was weddid vn-to Eneas, [leaf 26 c] 

As seith )>is story ; and eke fis ilke Enee 

Was wonderful in his natiuite : 332 

Of whom J>e fader, I fynde dout[e]les, 

Was in his tyme callid Anchyses, 

)3at hym begat on Yenus J?e goddes ; 

309. >ilke] fat D 1. 310. >at] as D 1. 312. &] as D 1. 
313. murderere] a murderere C. 318. ]>e] a C. 

324. maked] made A, D 1. 

325. luno] Inne A, hym D 2, hym D 1. 

327. of] )>at, with of urritten above it, neither crossed out. 

328. as] &D 2. 331. pis] >e D 2. 335. hym] he D 1. 

was sent a way 
from Troy 
by Priam 

to a false 

who cut the 
boy's throat. 

7th son was 
320 Ganymede, 

whom Jupiter 

324 made his 

. eldest 
328 daughter 

was Creusa, 

who wedded 

the son of 
and Venus. 

154 Of Eneas, & Virgil's Eneid. Of Cassandra & Polyxena. [BK. n 

Eneas was 
the most 
of men. 

Virgil told 
his story in 
the Eneid. 

Priam's 2nd 
daughter was 

who foresaw 
things to 

His 3rd 
daughter was 

For after hir he hadde such fairnes, 336 

)3at neuere wyht* ne kowde $et yse 

A man }>at was more passyng of* bewte, 

Of whom fis story, touchyng his werchiwg, 

Schal $ow declare many wonder J)ing. 340 

For it is he to whom so greet a loos 

Virgil e $af in his Eneydos ; 

For he fat boke in worschip of Enee 

Compiled hath, liche as $e may se, 344 

Of his kny^thod & many strong batail 

Be hym achevid or he wan Ytaille, 

After ful long fat f e royal touro 

Of Troye was bro^t to confusioim. 348 

And his conquest, $if $e list take hede, 

In fis poete $e may be ordre rede, 

And f e armys wrou^t in al his age, 

And his commyng also to Cartage 352 

Fro Troye-ward, in a litel while 

Al fis 36 may beholde[n] in Virgile. 

A-nother doubter also, it is fouwde, 

Kyng Priam had, of birthe fe secunde, 356 

Callid Cassandra, of ful gret sadnes, 

And was in maner a diuyneresse, 

And in eche art had experience, 

Of fingis future fully prescience 360 

To telle a-forn what [fat] schal betyde ; 

Of whom f e fame sprang in costys wyde ; 

Whiche kepte hir chaste in virginite, 

And ay in prayer* and in honeste 364 

Sche ladde hir lyf, and in deuociowz, 

After f e ritys and religious * 

Of paganysme vsed in f o dawes, 

)3e obseruauwcys kepyng of her lawes. 368 

e fridde doubter hy^t[e] Polycene, 

Congest of al ; and euer a maide clene 

337. wyht] whyt C yse] see D 1. 338. of] in C. 

339. >is] he D 1. 340. many] many a D 1. 

348. confusioiw] conclusyoun A. 

355. it] as it A, D 1. 

363. kepte] kepeth D 1. 364. prayer] prayers C, A. 

365. and] ay D 1, 366. religioim] >e religioim C. 

BK. n] Priam's bastard Sons. He hears Troy is taken. ]55 

Sche kepte hir silf, and honest in hir lawe, 

In-to be hour fat Pirrus ha]> hir slawe : 372 

Of schap, of forme was neuer be Nature 

Wroujt nor schape a fairer creature. 

Eke as I fynde, bis noble kyng also Priam had 

. , also 510 other 

Haclde britty sonys, be boke seith, & no moo, 3/6 sons, 
Hardy in armys and noble fourade at al, 

Jjat caliyd wern his sonys natural. CasuwS r 

And bei wern alle, I excepte noon, [ieaf26</] ail worthy 


Worjji kny^tes and manly men echon; 380 

And her names who so list to knowe, 

He sclial fynde hem * write vp-on a rowe 

After bis story, eueryche after other, 

Begymiygne first at the eldest brother. 384 

Howe tydengys kame to kynge Priamws howe his Cite 
was distroyede, and his Fadire sclayn. 1 

And whiles Priam at be sege laye while be- 

sieging the 

To-fore be castel, to gete it ^if he may, castle, 

And ber aboute hab many way[e] sou^t, 

J3e woful tydyngys ben vn-to hyin brou^t, 388 

How be Grekis han take Troye toun. Priam i8 told 

J of the taking 

And slawe his fader, worbi Lamedou?z : ofTroyana 

Ins fatlier's 

And how be cite, of olde f undaciou?*, death - 

Ful pitously was turned vp so douw ; 392 

)3e worbi lordys and gentil-men echon 

Take and slawe, and I-left nat on 

Of hem alyve, borage Grekis cruelte, 

After be ruyne, alias, of her cyte ; 396 

And Exyouw, his owne suster dere, 

Lad in-to exile with hir eyne clere. 

Wher-of be kyng in hert is stonyed so, 

For verray sorwe he nyste what to do, 400 He knows not 

r. ' " what to do. 

His sodeyn wo gan hym so constreyne. 

371. and] om. D 1. 372. hour] tyme A. 

373. 2?id of] and A. 379. )>ei] om. D 1. 

382. fynde hem] hem fynde C. 383. >is] in this D 1 . 

384. Begy?mygne] Begynne D 1, Be gynne A. 

387. many] many a D 1. 398. in-to] to A. 

399. Wher-of] Wherfore A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 32 c. 

156 Priam laments the Fall of Troy, & goes lack to its site. [BK. II 

Priam weeps, 


puts off his 
rich gar- 

dresses in 
raises the 
siege of the 
castle he is 

and goes back 
to Troy, 
which is 
leveld with 
the ground. 

He sobbeth, wepeth,* fat of mortal peyne 
He f ou}t his hert wolde a-sondre breste, 
Of hi3e distres, for he my$t haue no reste. 
And in[-to] tens he gaii hym silf distille, 
)}at for to dye was fynally his wille ; 
And Fortune, fat can so falsly varie, 
With dreri hert he be-gan to warie, 
Jpat sche to hym was so deseyuable, 
So inly cruel and * vnmerciable, 
So dispitous, and so sterne of face, 
So vengable and deuoyde of grace : 
For of envye, with a rage thou^t, 
Sche haf Mr werst of malis on hym wroujt, 
And felly schewed what sche my^tfe] do ; 
)3at in fis world was neuer wi$t so wo, 
As I suppose, of no maner age, 
To rekne al his harmes and damage. 
For whiche anon, in al fat euer he may, 
First he chau??gef all his riche array, 
Trist and hevy, with dedly face pale,* 
So astoned with fis mortal tale, 
Jpat his desyre was to haue ben ded ; 
With countenance enclyned and his hed, 
J)is lyf he ladde, & clad hym al in blak. 
And sodeynly he f e sege brak, 
And wolde as f o no lenger f er abyde ; 
But with his folke anon he gan to ride, 
ftat pytously gan with hym* to morne, 
And toward Troye attonys ]> ei returne. 
And whan fat he haf f e cite fouwde, 
Pleyn with f e soil & evene with f e grouwde, 
}3e hi^e wallys, whilom fik and longe, 
I-bete douw, fat wer made so strong, 
And his towres and paleys principal, 
J?at was in byldyng * so excellent royal, 

[leaf 27 a] 










402. wepeth] and wepeth C, D 1, slepeth D 2. 

403. a-sondre] in suwdre D 1. 410. and] and so C. 
412. and] and so D 1. 418. harmes] arnies D 2. 

421. pale] & pale C. 428. anon he gan] he gan anoon D 1. 
429. gan with hym] with hym gan C. 432. 2nd >e] om. A. 
436. byldyng] biggyng C. 

BK. li] Priam laments the Fall of Troy. He'll rebuild it. 157 

So famows riche, and of gret noblesse, 

He fynt al turned in-to wildernesse : Priam finds 

TT- i i i 11 Troy a 

His peple slayn, his suster lad a-way wilderness. 

For verray wo he nyst[e] what to say, 440 

For pe constreynt of his aduersite, 

And for his harmys pat nyl recured be. 

For in fat tyme he was fully sure, 

Vp-on no syde per was no recure; 444 

Wherf ore he can not but sobbe & wepe, He weep 

And from his brest, with si^es sou^t ful depe, 

Breken oute, with a ded visage. 

And pus, alias, in pis furious rage, 448 

Ful pitously al his hoste and he 

We't/i-oute respite contwne dayes thre. for s days. 

Til at pe last pe myrke skyes blake 

Gan of her wo in party for to slake, 452 

And pe tempest somdel gan with-drawe, 

And of her wepyng blaimdische gaw pe waw ; 

As whan pe flood of wo is ouerpassed, 

\)Q ebbe of loye folwen most in haste. 456 

To sorwen euer, it wolde her hertis schewde : But folk 

can't sorrow 

And at a terme Query wo mote ende : forever. 

For pou$ for f rend is men ay wepe & weyle, 

After her deth per may no recure vaile. 460 

Wherfore }>e kyng, after al [t]his care, Priam plan* 

Hath sou^t a weye pe cite to repare ; Troy, 

And cast hym fully, $if it wolde be, 

To make vertu of necessite; 464 and make a 

i p 11 i> 11- Virtue of 

And manfully, alter al his tene, Necessity. 

Whan pat f>e eyr gan to wexe clene 

Of j?e mystis of his cloudy sorwe, 

And ]>at somdel adawe gan pe morwe, 468 

Of heuynes after J)e dirke ny$t, 

Chased aweye vfith a sonne bry^t 

Of new[e] loye : for ay )>e fyn of wo 

Mote be * gladnes whan pat sorwe is go 472 

437. of] ora. A, of so D 1. 449. pitously] drerily D 2. 
454. ]>e waw] to wawe A. 459. >ou3] >ou^t D 1 ay] may D 1. 
460. After] But aftir D 1. 462. to] to to D 2. 
463. cast] Jxm^te D 1. 472. be] by C. 

158 Priam sends for Workmen to build a new Troy. [BK. II 


plucks up 
his lieart, 

and sets to 

He means to 
build a new 

He sends 
for skild 

and carvers. 

And so Priam after a certeyn space, 
Whan his sorwe gan lite & lite pace, 
And of wysdam in al his pitous smerte 
Gan prudently to plukkyn vp his herte, 
And of his eyne J?e wawes gon[ne] clere, 
A-noon he wro^t, ri^t * as 36 schal here. 

[leaf 27 6] 476 

Howe Kynge Priamus, aftire his sorowe was asswagede, 
Edefyede nowe Troye, and it set in J>e same place 
where J?e olde stode, so large & so wyde that 
tofore ne siche was nevere none it lyke. 1 

The sorwe aswaged, & ]>e sy^es olde, 
By longe processe/liche as I $ow tolde, 480 

ftis \vor)>i kyng, callyd Priaravs, 
Is in his herte nowe so desyrous, 
Vp-on ]>e pleyn, ]>ai was so waste & wylde, 
So strong a toim of newe for to bilde, 484 

At his devyse a cite edefye, 
at schal thassautys outterly defye 
Of alle enmyes, and his mortal foon, 

With riche tourys & wallys of hard stoon. 488 

And al aboute fe centres envirouw, 
He made seke in euery regioiw 
For swiche werkemen as were corious, 
Of wyt inventyf, of castyng merveilous ; 492 

Or * swyche as coude crafte of gemetrye, 
Or wer sotyle in her fantasye ; 
And for eueryche fat was good devysour, 
Mason, hewer, or crafty quareour; 496 

For euery wri^t and passyng carpenter, 
ftat may be fourade, ow)>er f er or nere ; 
For swyche as koude graue, grope, or kerue, 
Or swiche as werne able for to serue 500 

With lym or stoon, for to reise a wal, 

475. his] this A, om. D 1. 478. rijt] lyche C. 

481. callyd] I called D 2, y called D 1. 

486. misplaced at bottom of column A. 489. al] om. D 1. 

493. Or] Of C. 494. her] his D 1. 

501. reise] areise D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 33 a. 

BK.II] Priam's preparations for building the City of New Troy. 159 

With bataillyng and crestis marcial ; 

Or swiche as had konyng in her lied, 

Alabastre, owf er white or reddc, 

Or marbil graye for to pulsche it pleyn, 

To make it smofe of veynes & of greyn. 

He sent also for euery ymagour, 

Bofe in entaille, & euery purtreyour 

}3at coude drawe, or with colour peynt 

With hewes f resche, fat fe werke nat feynt ; 

And swiche as coude with couwlenauttces glade 

Make an ymage fat wil neuere fade : 

To couttterfet in metal, tre, or stoon 

j)e sotil werke of Pigmaleoura, 

Or of Appollo, fe whiche as bokis telle, 

In ymagerye alle of er dide excelle ; 

For by his crafty werkyng corious, 

}?e townibe he made of kyng Daryus, 

Whiche Alysaumlre dide on hey^tfe] reise, 

Only for men schuld his fame preise, 

In his conquest by Perce wha?^ he went. 

And f us Priam for euery maister sent, 

For eche keruer & passynge loignour, 

To make knottis with many corious flour, 

To sette on crestis with-Inne and with-ovte [leaf 27 c] 

Vp-on f e wal f e cite roivrade aboute ; 

Or who fat wer excellyng in practik 

Of* any art callyd mekanyk, 

Or hadde a name flouryng or famws, 

Was after sent to come to Prianms. 

For he pwrposeth, f is noble worf i kyng, 

To make a cite most royal in byldyng, 532 city. 

Brod, large, & wyde, & lest it were assailled, 

For werre proudly about[en] enbatailled. 

And first f e grouwde he made to be sou^t, 

Ful depe and lowe, fat it faille nou^t 536 

To make sure f e f undaciou/j ; 

508. purtreyour] portratoure D 1. 

511. eomttenaun-ces] couw-tenamice D 1. 518. of] for D 1. 

519. heyjte] hye D 1. 523. eche] euery D 1. 

525. crestis with-Inne] brestes wib many D 2. 

528. Of] Or 0. 530. new IF D 1. 

Priam sends 
for marble- 

i imgers, 

imitators of 
and Apollo, 






524 etc., 

all men skild 
in mechanic 
528 art, 

to build a 

160 The plotting out of Priam's City of New Troy. [BK. n 

New Troy is 
to be on the 
site of Old 

When the 
soil is leveld, 

building is 

with non- 
pareil stones. 
I can't go 
into details 

for I never 
read Euclid, 

and I don't 
know the 
trade terms. 

The new 
City's length 
and breadth 
are each 
8 days' 

In J>e place where fe olde tow* 

Was first ybilt, he J>e vvallis sette ; 

And he of lond many myle out mette, 540 

Aboute in compas, for to make it large, 

As J>e maysters [j?at] toke on hem J?e charge 

Devysed han J>e settyng and )>e syyt, 

for holsom eyr to be more of delyt. 544 

And whan J>e soille, def ouled * with ruyne 

Of walles old, was made pleyn as lyne, 

)?e werkmen gan J>is cite for to founde, 

Ful my^tely with stonys square & rouwde, 548 

)3at in J)is world was to it noon lyche 

Of werkmanschip, nor of bildyng riche, 

Nor of crafte of coryous masoimry. 

I can no termys to speke of gemetrye, 552 

Wherfore as now I muste hem sette a-syde ; 

For dout[e]les I radde neuer Euclide, 

)5at fe maister and J?e fourcdour was 

Of alle ]>at werkyn by squyre or compas, 556 

Or kepe her mesour by leuel or by lyne ; 

I am to rude clerly to difiyne 

Or to discrive J)is werk in* euery parte, 

For lak of termys longyng to ]>at arte. 560 

But* I dar wel of troufe affermyn here, 

In al Jjis world ne was fer neuer pere 

Vn-to jris cite, and write it for a sofe, 

As in his* boke my mayster Guydo doth. 564 

And fat it my3t in prosperite, 

In hy^e honour and felicite, 

From al assaut perpetuelly contune, 

It reysed was in worschip of Neptune, 568 

And namyd Troye, as it was to-forn,* 

Lyche j>e firste fat was foru} Grekis lorn. 

)3e lenthe was, schortly to conclude, 

Thre day[es] lourne, lyche fe latitude, 572 

)?at neuer I herd make menciou?^ 

539. he] & D 1. 545. defouled] defoulit C. 

546. walles] wal D 2, ]>e walles D 1. 555. 2nd >e] om. A. 

559. in] on C. 561. But] For C. 

562. pere] his pere A. 564. his] >is C. 

568. reysed was] was Reysed A. 569. to-forn] a forn C. 

BK. ii] The Walls and Gates of New Troy described. 161 

Of swiche another of fundacioura, [leaf 27 <i] 

So huge in compas nor of swiche larges, 

Nor to courate so passyng of fayrnes, 576 

So edyfied or lusty to pe sy$t. 

And, as I rede, pe walles wern on hi3te 

Two huwdrid cubites, al of marbil gray, 

Maskowed w*t/j-oute for sautis and assay ; 580 

And it to make more plesau^t of delyt, 

A-mong pe marbil was alabaster white 

Meynt in pe walles, roimde pe tou?i aboute, 

To make it schewe wM-Iniie and with-outo 584 

So fresche, so riche, and so delitable, 

}?at it alone was incomperable 

Of alle cites pat any mortal man 

Sawe euer $it, sithe pe world began. 588 

And at the corner of euery wal was set 

A crowne of golde with riche stonys fret, 

jpat schone f ul b^t ageyn pe son^e schene ; 

And euery tour bretexed was so clene 592 

Of chose stoon, pat wer nat fer a-sondre, 

]5at to beholde it was a verray wonder. 

frer-to pis cite compassed enviroiui, 

Hadde sexe gatis to entre in-to pe touw : 

l)& first of al & strongest eke with al, 

Largest also and most principal, 

Of my3ty bildynge allone peer[e]les, 

Was by pe kyng callyd Dardanydes ; 

And in story, lyche as it is fownde, 

Tymbria was named pe secounde ; 

And pe pridde callyd Helyas ; 

)3e fourte gate hi3t also Cethas ; 

J?e fyfte Troiana ; pe syxte Anthonydes, 

Strong and my3ty bope in werre & pes, 

With square toures set on euery syde. 

At whos corners, of verray pompe & pride, 608 

)}e workmen han, with sterne & fel visages, 

Of riche entaille, set vp gi-et yniages, 

580. MaskowedJ Magecollede A. 583. walles] wal D 2. 
595. >is] his A. 596. J>e] om, A, D 1. 
604. gate hi3t] om. D 1. 609. &] om. D 2. 


The walls are 
200 cubits 

At every 
corner is a 
jewehi crown 
of gold. 

596 There are six 
gates (the 
largest cald 

600 Dardanides^ 


with square 
towers on 

Great guns 
are set in 
every tower. 


and port- 
cullises are 

162 The Guns ) Bulwarks f Loc7es t JBars > & Houses of New Troy. [BK.II 

Wrou^t out of ston, j?at neuer ar like to fayle, 
Ful coriously enarmed for batayle. 612 

And foru} J?e wal, her fomen for to lette, 
At euery tour* wer grete gu?mys sette, 
For assaut and sodeyn aventurys ; 

And on* tourettis wer reysed vp figurys 616 

Of wylde bestis, as beris and lyou??s, 
Of tigers, bores, of serpentis and dragoufts 
And hertis eke, with her brode homes, 
Olyfautttes and large vnicornes, 620 

Buglis, bolys, and many grete grifouw, 
Forged of brasse, of copur and latouw, 
J)at cruelly by sygnes of her facys [leaf 28 a] 

Vp-on her foon made fel manacys. 624 

Barbykans and bolewerkys huge, 
A-fore J>e tou7^ made for hi 36 refuge, 
^iffe nede were, erly and eke late ; 

A[nd] portecolys stronge at euery gate, 628 

])at liem par nat noon assailyng charge ; 
And J?e lowkis fikke, brode, and large, 
Of fe gatys al of $oten bras. 

And with-Inne f e my^ty schittywg was 632 

Of strong yrne barres square and rourade, 
And gret barre[r]ys picched in }>e grou^de, 
With huge cheynes forged for diffence, 
Whiche nolde breke for no violence, 636 

))at hard it was forii} hem for to wy?ine. 
And euery hous, fat was bilt w^t/i-Inne, 
'Euery paleys* & euery manciou^, 

Of marbil werne jjoru^f-out] al fe touri, 640 

Of crafty bildyng & werkyng most roial. 
And ]?e he$t was of euery wal 
Sixty cubites from fe grou?fcde acou?ztid ; 
And }>er was non fat ofer haj? surmou?2tid 644 

In J>e cite, but of on he3t alyche, 

611. to] om. D 2. 613. her] >e D 1. 

614. tour] tourn C, D 2. 616. on] vp on C. 

617. as] of D 1. 621. grete] om. D 1. 

628, And] And a A. 629. >ar] >at D 2, dar D 1. 

639. paleys] hous C. 644. lia>] om. D 1. 

645. on] om. D 1. 

All the houses 
are of marble. 

BK. ll] New Troy's Sculptured Ornaments, and ivide Streets. 163 

In verray sofe, hope of pore and riche, 

J3at it was harde of hi$e estat or lowe 

Hous or palys asoiwder for to knowe, 648 

So egaly of tymbre and of stoon 

Her housis wern reysed euerychon. 

And if I sclmlde reherseu by and by 

e korvo knottes by crafte of masou^ry, 652 

)5e frescUe enbowyng, \ri\Ji vergis ri^t as linys, 

And J>e vowsyng ful of babewynes,* 

]5e riche koynyng,* J>e lusty tablemewtis, 

Yynnettis rewnywge in j>e caseraentis 656 

#0113 J>e termys in englisch wolde ryme, 

To rekne hem alle I haue as now no tyme, 

Ne no langage pyked for |>e nonys, 

J5e sotil loynyng to teller of J>e stonys, 660 

Nor how fei putten in stede of morter, 

In J)e loynturys copur gilt ful clere, 

To make hem loyne by leuel & by lyne, 

Among )>e marbil freschely for to schyne 664 

Agein J?e sowne, whan his schene ly$t 

Smote in ])e gold, ]>at was bornyd bri^t, 

To make J>e werke gletere on euery syde. 

And of J>is* toim )?e stretis large & wyde 668 

Wer by crafte so prudently prouided, 

And by werkemen sette so and deuided, 

}3at holsom eyr amyddis my^t enspire 

Erly on* morwe to hem fat it desyre; [leaf 286] 672 

And ^ephirus, )?at is so comfortable 

For to norysche Jnnges vegetable, 

In tyme of ^ere, foru^-oute euery slrete, 

With sugred flavour, so lusty & so swete, 676 

Most plesantly in J?e eyr gan smyte, 

))e Cyte^eyns only to delyte ; 

And \vith his brethe hem to recomfort, 

Whan J?ei list walke he?/i siluew to disport. 680 

And Jx>ru$ )>e touw, by crafty purviau/zce, 

654. vowsyng] liousyng A babewynes] bakewynes C, A, bake 
vynys D 1. 

655. koynyng] kaxenyng C, kopwrnynge D 2, cop?tniynges D 1. 
657. ^0113] Thoruj D 1. 660. loyuyng] loynyn^es D 1. 

668. >is] >e C. 672. on] on >e C. 

All the houses 
are adornd 
with sculp- 

Instead of 
copper gilt is 
used to join 
the stones. 

The streets 
are broad, 

so that every 
one can 
fresh air. 

164 New Troy's coverd Side-walks, and lead-tiled Houses. [BK. 11 

ways are in 
every street, 

against rain. 

All houses 
are coverd 
with lead, 

and spouted. 

By gret avys and discret ordynauwce, 
By compas cast, & squared out by squires, 
Of pulsched marbil vp-on strong pilleris, 684 

Deuised wern, longfe], large, and wyde, 
Coverd path- In J>e f rowjtel of eue?y stretis syde, 

Fresche alures \vitJi lusty hi^e pynacles, 

And moustryng outward riche tabernacles, 688 

Yowted a-boue like reclinatories, 

J)at called werne deambulatories, 

Men to walke to-gydre tweine & tweyne, 

To kepe hem drie whan it dide reyne, 692 

Or hem to sane horn tempest, wynde, or fonder, 

3if \at hem list schrowde hem silue ]?e?'-vnder. 

And euery hous cured was with led ; 

And many gargoyl & many hidous hed 696 

With spoutis foru}, & pipes as pei ou^t, 

From }>e ston-werke to }>e canel rau^t, 

Voyding filjjes low in-to J>e grouraie, 

jjoru^ gratis percid of yre?i percid rou?*de ; 700 

]5e stretis paued bo)?e in lengjje & brede, 

In cheker wyse with stonys white & rede. 

And euery craft, J>at any maner man 

In any lond deuise or rekene can, 704 

Kyng Priamus, of hi3e discreciouw, 

Ordeyned hath to dwellyn in Jje tou7^, 

And in stretis, seueryd her and Bonder, 

Eueryche from ofer to be sette a-sonder, 708 

)3at ))ei my^t, for more comodite, 

Eche be hym* silfe werke at liberte : 

Howe the goldesmythes, and aftire, every crafft ware 
disposyde in strete by strete by hem selff. 1 

goldsmiths, Gold-smythes first, & riche lowellers, 

embroider- And by hem silf crafty browdereris, 712 

and weavers. Wevers also of wolne & of lyne, 

Of cloth of gold, damaske, and satyn, 

683. by] with D 1. 688. riche] lich D 1. 
693. or] & D 1. 700. 1st percid] perchid D 1. 
709. for] for the A. 710. hym] hem C. 

1 Koyal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 34 a. 

Each trade 

dwells in a 

street : 

BK. II] The separate-dwelling Trades, and river Xanthns. 165 

Of welwet, cendel, & double samyt eke, 

And euery clothe pat men list to seke ; 716 

Smypes also, fat koude forge wele smiths, 

Swerdis, pollex, and speris scharp of stele, 

Dartis, daggeris, for to mayme & wowide, 

And quarel hedis scharp and square [y-]grou?ide. 720 

Jper \ver also crafty armoureris, [leaf 28 c] 

Bow[y]ers, and fast[e] by fleccheris, ISefs' 

And swyche as koude make schaftes pleyn, 

And other eke pat dide her besy peyn 724 

For pe werre to make [also] trappuris, 

Bete baners and royal cote armvris, 

And by devise, stondardis & penowns, pennon- 

makers, etc., 

And for pe felde fresche & gay gytowzs. 728 

And euery crafte pat may rekiied be, separate 

To telle schortly, was in pis cite. New Troy. 

Howe by grete crafft ther was a E-yvere called Zanctus 
convey ede thorough pe Cyte. 1 

And poru^ pis tonn, so riche & excellent, 

In pe myddes a large riuer went, 732 The fine river 

Causyng to hem ful gret co?nmodite ; 

])Q whiche on tweyne hap partid pe cite, 

Of cours ful swyft, wit/i fresche stremys clere, 

And hi^t[e] Xanctus, as Guydo dop vs lere. 736 

And as I rede, pat vp-on pis* flood, 

On eche-asyde many mylle stood, 

Whan nede was her grayn & corn to grinde, to grind com 

Hem to sustene, in story as I fynde. 740 

ftis riuer eke, of fysche ful plenteuous, 

Devided was by werkmen corious 

So craftely, poru$ castyng souereyne, 

716. euery] euerich A. 

718. Swerdis pollex] Pollexes swerdis A pollex] pollaxes D 1. 
720. y-grou?ide] growide D 1. 724. her] mil. D 2. 
725. to make also] also to make D 1. 
727. devise] diucrse D ]. 735. cours] stremes D 1. 
736. Xanctus] Xanitus A. 737. >is] J>at C. 
738. many] many a D 2, D 1. 

742. Devided] Diuysed D 1 werkmen corious] om. A, except the 
first four letters. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 34 b. 

166 The Supply of Water to New Troy. Its Citizens. [BK. n 

The water 
from the river 
is taken by 

Slpes thru 
ew Troy, 

to wash the 

and carry off 
all filth, 

so that no 
may breed 

(The Tiber 
was treated 
like this in 

Jjat in his course pe stremys my3t atteyn 
For to areche, as Guydo doth comecte, 
By archis strong his cours for to reflecte 
)5oru3 condut pipis, large & wyde wzt/i-al, 
By certeyn meatis artificial, 
Jpat it made a f ul purgaciouw 
Of al ordure & fylpes in pe tourc, 
Waschyng pe stretys as pei stod a rowe, 
And pe goteris in pe erpe lowe, 
Jpat in pe cite was no filpe sene ; 
For the can el skoured was so clene, 
And deuoyded in so secre wyse, 
ftat no man my^t espien nor deuyse 
By what engyn pe filpes, fer nor ner, 
Wern born a-wey by cours of pe ryuer 
So couertly euery ping was cured. 
Wher-by pe toun was outterly assured 
From engenderyng of al corrupciouw, 
From wikked eyr & from infecciourc, 
)5at causyn ofte by her violence 
Mortalite and gret pestilence. 
And by example of Jris node ]?er was 
Made Tibre at Eome, and wrou^t by Eneas, 
)3e which also departeth Eome on two, 
Myn auctor seith, I not wher it be so. 

For inhabit- 
ants K. Priam 
gets lolks 

from all 
districts near. 








Howe kynge Pryam made Cite3ens of foreyns, And 
[gaf] everich of hem certeyne grounde to belde 
vpone. 1 

And to enhabite pis royal chef cite, 

Kyng Priam hap aboute in pe centre [leaf 28 a] 

Made for to serche, vritJi al his hool entent, 

And in provinces pat werne adiacent, 772 

In borwys, townys, and in smale villages, 

I-gadred out of al maner ages, 

And of thropis folkys ful diuers, 

And swiche as wern vacaimt & dispers, 776 

746. D 1 om. r in for. 758. >e] >at D 2. 
759. cured] keveryd A. 767. on two] atwo D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 34 c. 

BK. n] The Inhalitants,& manly Sports & Games in New Tray. 167 

Aboute Troye in any * region??, 

He maked hath to entre iw-to f e tou 

Gret multitude, what of 3<>ng & olde, 

It to enhabite, as $e han herde me tolde. 

And hem fat wern afore to hym foreyns, 

He hath in Troye maked citfej^eyns, 

Ful discretly, liche as it is fou^de. 

And whan f ei gan wit/i peple [to] abouftde, 

Kyng PriamMS, of hi^e affecciou??, 

After fe bildyng of f is myjty toiw, 

Haf in his hert cau^t a fantasye 

His newe cite for to magnyfye. 

And it to put fe more in remembrau??ce, 

He cast fully to do some obseruau/zce* 

To my3ty Mars, sterne & ferse of he we ; 

And specialy wit/i certeyn plei[e]s newe, 

On horse and fote, in many sondry wyse, 

To ^eiie his men in kny^thod excersyse, 

Eueryche to putten ofer at assaye 

In iustis, bordis, and also in tornay, 

To p?'eve her force whan fei happe mete. 

})e whiche pleies wer fondid first in Crete ; 

And in fat lond, of hi^e & lowe estat, 

In Marty s honour fei wer dedicate. 

And in palestre, at wakys on f e ny^t, 

Wern [o]j?er pleies men tassay her my^t, 

Only on fote wit/i many sotil poynt ; 

And some of hem wer nakyd & anoynt ; 

To wywne a prys* fei dide her ful entent. 

And fer was fou?zde, by clerkys ful prudent, 

Of fe dies fe pleye most glorious, 

Whiche is so sotil and so meruelous, 

}5at it wer harde f e mater to discryue ; 

For fou^e a man stodied al his lyve, 

He schal ay fynde dyvers fantasyes 

Of wardys makyng, & newe iuparties,* 










He maile 

citizens of 
New Troy. 

And in 
honour of 

he instituted 
jousts and 


games at 

and other 

777. any] many C. 778. J>e] om. D 2. 781. hyw] hem D 1. 
785. new IT D 1. 790. obseruauwce] obseruau?<ces C. 
798. J>e] om. D 1. 801. palestre] paleste A. 
805. a prys] aprys C. 808. 1st so] om. A. 
812. iuparties] imparties C. 

But Guido 

and Jacques 

differ about 

the origin of 


De vitry 

says it came 

from chaidea 

to Greece. 

168 Of Dice and other play in New Troy. Of Comedies. [BK. n 

))er is ber-in so gret diuersite. 

And it was first fouwde in bis cite, 

Duryng be sege, liche as seyth Guydo \ 

But lacobus de Vitnaco ol 6 

Jg contrarie of oppvniowi : 

For, like as he makyth mencioufj, 

And affermeth fully in his avys, [leaf 29 a] 

How Philometer, a philysofre wys, 820 

Vn-to a kyng, to stynte his cruel te, 

Fond first bis pleie & made it in Calde ; 

And in_to Grece frow& bense it was sent. 

Also in Troye, by gret avysement, 824 

j?e pleye was first fou?ide of dees & tables, 

And of castyng be chauraces deceyvables, 

)5at han be cause ofte of gret debat : 

For }if bat on be no we fortunat 828 

To wy?zne a while be favour of his chance, 

Or he be war, with* sodeyn variaimce, 

Vnhappely he is putte abak, 

And anober, bat stood vp-on be wrak, 832 

And of losse was ploimged* in distresse, 

}5ei reysed han vn-to hy^e ryches ; 

Gladnes of on is to another rage 

Adevauwte, hasard, and passage ; 836 

3if on haue loye, anober suffereb wo, 

Liche as be bonys rewne to and fro ; 

An hu?zdrid sythe in a day }>ei varie, 

Now blauwdisschyng, & now fei be contrarie ; 840 

No man with hem assured is in loye. 

And first also, I rede, "bat in Troye 


Wer song & rad lusty fresche comedies, 


^ n( ^ f er ^^ tes 5 ]^ at called be tragedies. 844 

And to declare, schortly in sentence, 
Of bofe two J>e final difference : 
A cornedie hath in his srvnnvn" 1 

. OJ J GJ 

At prime face, a maner compleynyng, 848 


in Troy, 


were first 

real and 

A Comedy 

begins in 


825. first founde] founde first A. 830. with] be C. 

833. ploiwged] plaunged C. 

834. han] hem D 1 

-hy3e] >e hihe D 2, om. D 1. 
836. Adevaimte] Ademau?it A. 

BK. n] Of Tragedy. How Tragedies were said or sung of old. 169 
And afterward endeth in gladnes ; ami ends in 


And it pe dedis only doth expres 

Of swiche as ben in pouert ploiwged lowe ; 

But trasndie. who so list to knowe. 852 Tragedy 

begins in 

It begynneth in prosperite, prosperity, 

And endeth euer in aduersite ; and ends in 


And it also doth pe conquest trete 

Of riche kynges and of lordys grete, 856 

Of my^ty men and olde conquerou[ri]s, 

Whiche by fraude of Fortunys schowris 

Ben ouercast & whelmed from her glorie. 

Of a Theatyre stondynge in pe p?-incypale paleys of 
Troye, declarenge the falle of Pryncys & othere. 1 

And whilom pus was halwed pe memorie 860 

Of tragedies, as bokis make mynde, i Tragedies 

which usd to 

Whan fei wer rad or songyn, as I fynde, 

In pe theatre per was a smal auter Theatre 

Amyddes set, pat was half circuler, 864 

Whiche in-to pe Est of custom was directe ; 

Vp-on pe whiche a pulpet was erecte, 

And per-in stod an aw[n]cien poete, wastoid 

For to reherse by rethorikes swete [leaf 29 6] 868 roe" 1 the 

)5e noble dedis, pat wer historial, noble deeds of 

Of kynges, princes for a memorial, 

And of pes olde, worpi Emperours, 

])Q grete emprises eke of conquerours, 872 conquerors, 

And how pei gat in Martis hi^e honour 

])Q laurer greue for fyn of her labour, 

fie palme of kny^thod disservid by [old] date, 

Or Parchas made hem passyn in-to fate. 876 

And after pat, irith chere and face pale, 

With stile enclyned gan to twne his tale, 

And for to synge, after al her loos, 

Ful mortally pe stroke of Antropos, 880 and then 

And telle also, for al her worpihede, 

850. dedis] wordes D 2. 857. and] of D 2. 
863. >e] om. D 2. 865. >e] om. D 2. 
870. kynges] kynges & D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 35 a (misplaced after line 868). 

170 How Plays ivere sung and acted in Troy of old. [BK. n 

and how 
thru false 
Fortune they 

ended their 
lives in 

and their 



While the old 
Poet sang 
his ditties, 

men with 
vizards acted 
what he sang, 

always, like 
his words, 


from joy to 

})e sodeyn brekyng of her lives threde : 

How pitously fei made her mortal ende 

Jjoruj fals Fortune, J>at al ]>e world wil schende, 884 

And howe }>e fyn of al her worjrines 

En did in sorwe and [in] l^e tristesse,* 

By compassyng of fraude or* fals tresouw, 

By sodeyn mordre or vengaimce of poysou??, 

Or cowspiringe of fretyng fals envye, 

How vnwarly [jjat] fei dide dye ; 

And how her renouw and her 11136 fame 

Was of hatrede sodeynly made lame ; 892 

And how her honour duo we vn-to decline ; 

And fe meschef of her vn happy fyne ; 

And how Fortune was to hem vnswete 

Al fis was tolde and rad of J>e poete. 896 

And whil fat he in fe pulpit stood, 

With dedly face al devoide of blood, 

Singinge his dites, with muses al to-rent, 

Amydde ]>e theatre schrowdid in a tent, 900 

J)er cam out men gastful of her cheris, 

Disfigurid her facis with viseris, 

Pleying by signes in f>e peples si^t, 

jpat fe poete songon hath on hi^t ; 904 

So fat f er was no maner discordauwce 

Atwen his dites and her contenau?ice : 

For lik as he aloft[e] dide expresse 

Wordes of loye or* of heuynes, 908 

Meving & cher, bynef e of hem pleying, 

Fro??z point to point was alwey answering 

Now trist, now glad, now hevy, & [now] li^t, 

And face chauwged with a sodeyn si^t, 9 1 2 

So craftily fei koude hem t?*ansfigure, 

Conformyng hem to fe chau7^t[e]plure, 

Now to synge & sodeinly to wepe, 

So wel fei koude her observances kepe ; 016 

And fis was doon in April & in May, [leaf 29 c] 

886. in] cm. vD 1 tristesse] distresse C, D 2. 

887. or] & C.\ 888. of] or D 1. 889. Or] Of D 2. 
894. of] & D 2\ 908. or] and C. 911. &] om. D 1. 
917. was] om. 

BK. n] King Priam plans his Palace of Ilion in New Troy. 171 
Whan blosmys new, bobe on busche & hay.* These plays 

. , . r ' . were acted 

And nouns fresche gy^ne ior to springe ; in spring 

And pe briddis in pe wode synge 920 

With lust supprised of pe somer sonne, 

Whan pe[se] pleies in Troye wer begonne, in u* theatre 

And in theatre halowed and y-holde. 

And pus pe ryyt [of] tragedies olde, 924 

Prianms pe worpi kyng began. 

Of pis mater no more telle I can. 

Howe kenge Priam, aftire his Cite was parformede, 
ordeynede his paleys princypal, callyd Yllyown. 1 

But I wil furthe of ))is story wryte, 

And on my maner boistusly endyte, 928 

How Prianitttf was passyng dilligent, King Priam 

Ri^t desyrous, and inwardly fervent, 

3if he my^t, among his werkes* alle, to build a 

To bilde a paleys and a riche halle, 932 

Whiche schuldfe] ben his chose chef dongon, 

His royal se and souereyn mansiou?i. 

Aad whan he gan to pis werke aproche, 

He made it bilde hi^e vp-on a roche, 936 on a rock, 

It for tassure in his fundacioim, 

And callyd it ]?e noble Ylyovn. ai ]d call it 

})e si^t of whiche, iustly circuler, 

By compas cast, rou?zde as any spere 940 it i to be 

And who )>#t wold J?e cowtent of pe groude 

Trewly acouTiten of pis place rouwde, 

In pe theatre first he moste* entre, 

Takyng pe lyne pat keruep poru^ pe centre, 944 

By gemetrie, as longeth to pat art, 

And treblid it, with pe sevenpe part, 

He fynde niy^t, by experience, 

]?e mesour hool of pe circu??iference, 948 

918. blosmys] blomys D 2 hay] bay C. 922. wer] was D 2. 
923. in] in the A. 927. new IF A. 931. werkes] werkmcn C. 
935. to] om. A >is] his D 1. 939. si3t] Citee D 1. 
942. >is] his D 1. 943. first he moste] he most first C. 
945. as] ]>at D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 35 b. 

Palace is to 
be of marble, 

with high 

and walls 
carvd and 

172 King Priam's Palace and Hall in New Troy. [BK. II 

What lond also, pleynly eke with al,* 

Contened was wft/i-Inne fe strong[e] wal* 

])Q creste of whiche, wher it lowest was, 

Hadde in hi3t ful sixe hundred pas, 952 

Bilt of marbil, ful royal & ful strong, 

And many other riche stoon a-mong ; 

Whos touris wern reysed* vp so hi^e, 

Jpat f ei ra^t almost to * f e skye ; 956 

])Q werk of whiche no man rny^t ame?zde. 

And who fat list by grecis vp ascende, 

He my^tfe] seen in his inspecciouw 

To fe bou?idis of many regions 960 

And provincys fat stoode rouwde* aboute. 

And f e wallys, with-Inne and \vith-oute, 

Endelong with knottis graue clene, 

Depeynt with a^our, gold, ^inopre, & grene, 964 

])at verraily, whan f e son?ze schon, 

Vp-on fe gold meynt among fe stoon, [leaf 29 d] 

jpei ^af a li^t, with-outen any were, 

As Phebws dof in his mydday spere 968 

J?e werke of wyndowe, and [eche] fenestral, 

Wrou3t of berel and of clere cristal. 

And amyddys of f is Ylyouw, 

So fresche, so riche of fundaciourc, 972 

Whiche clerkys jit in her bokis preyse, 

Kyng Pryam made an halle for to reyse, 

Excellyng alle in bewte & in strenthe 

)?e latitude acordyng with fe lengthe. 976 

And of marbil outeward was f e wal ; 

And f e tymbre, most nobil in special, 

Was halfe of cedre, as I reherse can, 

And fe remenant of fe riche eban, 980 

Whiche most is able, as I dar specefye, 

With stoon to loyne by craft of carpentrie ; 

For f ei of tymbre haue f e souereynte. 

949, 950. pleynly eke with al transposed with witft-Inne >e stronge 

954. many other] many a nojnr D 1. 955. reysed] reysen C. 
956. rajt] arau^te D 1 to] vn to C. 959. in his] by cler D 2. 

961. stoode rouwle] stond roiwde roimde C. 962. And] At D 1. 
969. eche] of iche A, eke D 1. 972. 2nd so] and A. 

and windows 
of beryl and 

He was to 
have a grand 

timberd with 
cedar and 

BK. li] Of the Paving, Seating and Altar of Priam's Hall. 173 

And for to telle of j>is Eban tre, 

Liche in bokys sothly as I fynde, 

It cometh out of Ethiope and Ynde, 

Blak as is get ; and it \vil wexe anoon, 

Whan it is korve, harde as any stoon, 

And euermore last[en] and endure, 

And nat corrupte wz't/i water nor moysture. 

And of [t]his halle_fer]>er to difFyne, 

Wiih stonys square by leuel and by lyne 

It pavid was, with gret diligence 

Of masownry and passyng excellence. 

And al aboue, reysed was a se, 

Eul coriously of stonys and perre, 

)3at callid was, as chefe and principal, 

Of ]?e regne }>e sete moste royal. 

To fore whiche was set by gret delyt 

A borde of Eban and of yvor whyt, 

So egaly loyned and so clene, 

)3at in Jje werk per was no rifte sene ; 

And sessions wer made on euery syde, 

Only ]?e statis by ordre to deuyde. 

Eke in e halle, as it was couenable, 

On eche party was a dormant * table 

Of evor eke, and J)is eban tre ; 

And euen ageyn ]?e kynges royal see, 

In j>e party J>t was J)er-to contrarie, 

I-reised was by many crafty stayre, 

in j>e halle, in )>e tother syyt, 

as* lyne in )>e opposyt,* 
Of pured metal and of stonys clere 
In brede & lengthe, a fill rich auter. 
On whiche J?er stood, of figure & visage [leaf so a] 
Of masse gold, a wonderful ymage, 
To ben honoured in j>at hi^e sete, 

984 Ebony comes 

Ktlii(>i)i;i and 

988 When it's 
carvd it 
turns as 
hard as stone. 



Priam's Hall 
is pavd with 

and lias a 

raisd seat ; 

before it a 
table of ebony 
1000 and ivory, 


with side- 
seats for 

according to 
their rank. 

100S Opposite the 
King's seat 


is a metal 


with a golden 
image of 
1016 Jupiter on it. 

987. wil wexe] wexeth D 1. 995. al] om. D 1. 

996. and] and of A. 997. as] om. D 1. 

1001. loyned] I ioyned D 2. 1002. rifte] clifte D 1. 

1006. was a dormant] was set a dormont C. 

1007. bis] of >is A. 1008. >e] this A, D 2. 

1009. j>er-to] ]>ere D 2. 1012. as] as any C opposyt] apposyt C. 
1015. On] Of D 1. 1016. masse] massyf A, massif D 1. 

174 The Golden Statue of Jupiter in King Priam's Hall. [BK. n 

This statue of 
Jupiter had 
a golden 
crown on its 

set with 
pearls and a 
carbuncle of 


King Priam 


whom he 
trusted to 
keep him 
from all 

Only in honour of lubiter J>e grete. 

And Jje statue, for al his huge wejgte, 

Fiftene cubites complet was of hei^gte, 1020 

A crowne of gold hi$e vp-on his hed, 

With* heuenly saphirs & many rube red 

Fret enviroim, with other stonys of Ynde ; 

And among wer medled, as I fynde, 1024 

Whyte perils massyf, large, & rounde ; 

And for most chefe al dirkenes to cowfoimde, 

Was a charbocle, kyng of stonys alle, 

To recoimfort & gladyn al f>e halle, 1028 

And it tenlumyn in fe blake ny$t 

With J>e freschenes of his rody lijt. 

J?e valu was fer-of in-estimable, 

And J>e riches pleynly incomparable ; 1032 

For jris ymage, by diuisiouw, 

Was of schap and* proporciouw 

From hed to foot so maisterly entayled, 

))at, in a point, pe werkemarc ha]? nat failed 1036 

It to parforme by crafty excellence.* 

Whom Priamws, wzt7i drede and reuerence, 

Honoured hath aboue )>e goddys alle, 

In al meschef to hym to clepe & calle ; 1040 

For in hym was his hool affecciouw, 

His souereyn trust and deuocioim, 

His hope also, and his affyaimce, 

His heile, his loye, and his assurau?ice; 1044 

And his welfare and prosperite 

He hath commytted to his deite, 

Wenyng in hert wonder sekerly, 

To ben assured from al meschef Jjer-by, 1048 

And diffended in eche adue? f site, 

And hold his regne in hi^e Felicite, 

And in honowr continuelly to schyne, 

Whil lubiter, poru^ his power diuyne, 1052 

Hym and his hath in proteccioiw 

1022. With] With oute C. 1023. of] om A, D 2. 

1026. for] om. D 1. 1034. and] and of C. 

1037. excellence] excellence C. 

1044. heile] helthe A, hel>e D 2, D 1. 1052. his] the A.] Priam lives quietly in New Troy till Malice infects him. 175 

])is was his trust and ful oppinioim. 

And pus pis werke finally acbeved, 

Wher-of Priam, vrith loye ful releued, 1056 ThenPriam, 

J3at he his cite and noble Ylyoiw 

Hath fully brou:t vn-to nerfecciotm. having 

. * perfected 

Liche his entent, whan pat he began. New Troy, 

And pus Priam, pis kyng, pis worjri man, 1060 

Fnl many day in [t]his newe Troye, reigned ti>pre 

With his liges lad his lyf in loye, a tiine - 

Wher I hym leue in his royal sete 

Souereynly regnynge in quiete, [leaf so &j 1064 

Procedyng forpe, }if ^e liste to here, 

Vn-to pe effect anoon of my matere. 

Howe kynge Priamus, aftire that he had parfytlye 
parformede and ymade his Cyte, by pe serpente Of 
Envye was stirede and Inwardly mevede to by- 
gyne A newe werre vpone the Grekes. 1 

O hatful harm, whiche most is for to drede ! 
Kyrcdled so long, o spark of old hatred, 1068 

Rote of debate, grouwde of envie and Ire, 
With* new[e] flawme hertis for to fyre ! But Malice 

PI p , , and Rancour, 

grayn of malys, causer of al offence ! 

rancour rustid of inpacience, 1072 

Whiche hast of new made festrid soris smerte ! 

Whan pou art onys rakid in a herte, 

Whiche for disdeyn of mercy maist nat lete which won't 

A man no while to lyuen in quiete, 1076 Set,' 

But delvist vp by malis many-fold 

Debatis new, pat biried wern of olde, 

And falsely quikest strives to restore 

Jpenvious serpent pat was slaw of 30^, 1080 

Whiche felly hath, pis addre envyous, 

Out of his rest awakyd Priam us, broke 

. -, ., 7 i . Priam's rest. 

And w^t7i his venym, so persyng & so ille, 

1054. his] the A. 1055. >us] om. A. 
1061. many] many a A. 
1067. most is] is most D 2 for] om. D 1. 
1070. With] Wiht C. 1074. rakid] ranclid D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 36 a. 


Priam summons his Men to fight the Greeks. [BK. II 

Malice stirs ! 
Priam to 
take venge- 
ance on the 

He thinks he 
is strong, 

and has 
plenty of 

So he sends 
for his lords 
and knights. 

Made him* wery to lyuen in tranquille, 1084 

And mevid hym, of his iniquite, 

Vp-on Grekis avenged for to be. 

For wher-as he in pes held his reigne, 

With his legis in loye souereigne, 1088 

Wit/i-oute* anoy or any perturbauwce, 

)}is serpent hath with ne\v[e] remembraurace, 

With-out avis, or discret arest, 

So hoot a flawme kyndeled in his brest 1092 

Of old envie with fresche rancowr nieynt, 

]?at likly is netie?- to be queynte. 

For Priam now in his entencioim 

Cast & compaseth, revolvyng vp & dovw, 1096- 

How strong he was of riches & meyne, 

How noble & myjty was also his cite, 

And abundaumte, schortly to conclude, 

Bo])e of plente and of multitude, 1100 

Of men of arrays and of chevalrye. 

Whiche sterid hym to han a fantasye, 

Alias f e while, to his vnhappy chaimce, 

Jpat to be ded he take wil vengaunce 1104 

Vp-on his foon ; ]>e fire of hot envie 

So brent hym inward by mallencolye, 

Stondyrcg in purpos, Ipat no man chaurcge may, 

Of his damages avenged be som day,* 1108 

And of Iniuries Ipat )>ei on hym han wrou^t. 

And whan J?t he had a tyme sou^t 

To his pwrpos moste conuenient, 

A-noon he hath for alle his lordis sent, 1112. 

And his kny^tes callyd euerychon [leaf so c] 

To com in hast, excused was nat on, 

Namly, of hem bat wern of hi^e degre. 

And Jjei obeying, with alle humilite, 1116- 

His biddyng holly, & made no delay e, 

To com echon ageyn a certeyn day ; 

1084. him] hem C. 1089. Wit/i-oute] With outen C. 

1096. Cast] Casteth D 2. 

1099. abundaunte] habondance D 1. 

1108. day] weye C. 

1114. in hast is repeated and underscored in C. 

1117. holly] hoole D 1. 1118. ageyn] a^ens D 1. 

BK. li] Of Hector and his Gentleness. Priam's Council in Troy. 177 

And his sones wern also* present, 
Ector except, fat was fat tyrae absent 
In J)e strong and my^ty regions 
Of Panonye,* whiche in subieccioiw 
Kyng Priam holde, f oru^ his worf ines ; 
And to amende f inges and redres, 
Ector was goon in-to f is Panonye, 
Certeyn causys for to iustefye, 
As in his resoim he f ou$t[e] for fe best, 
To setten hem in quiete and in rest. 
For he was ay so iust and so prudent, 
So wel avised and so pacient, 
And so demenyd in his gouernauwce, 
}5at hym was loth for to do vengance, 
Wher-as he my^t in esy wyse trete 
For to reforme f inges smale & grete ; 
For lothe he was, f is noble worfi kny^t,* 
For any haste to execute ry^t,* 
Or causeles by rigour to condempne. 
And in f is while, ful worfi and solempne, 
Kyng Priamws, of lordis grete and smale, 
"With-Inne Troye helde a courte royal, 
As* he fat list for no cost to spare ; 
And ceryously his menyng to declare, 
He in his see, his lordis envirourc, 
Gan f us to schewe his hertis mociouw : 

1120 Hector is 
away in 






Priam holds- 
i -, t n & Council in 
1140 Troy. 


He wouldn't 
punish folk 

when he 
could re*foriu 

Howe kynge Priam?/s in opyne declarethe fe harmes 
done to his progenye & hym by the Grekes. 1 

" worfi lordis, fat ben [now] here present, 
Feithful and trew of hert & of entent, 
Is nat vnknowe to ^our discreciouw 
])Q grete damagis and oppressions 
Whiche fat Grekis han vp-on vs wrou^t, 
Wtt/i-oute cause, for a f ing of nou^t, 

1119. also] }>er also C. 1122. Panonye] Pananye C. 
1132. for] om. A, D 1 do] om. D 2. 1135. kny3t] kyn<r C. 
1136. ry3t] any >ing C. 1141. As] And as C. 
1144. to] om. D 1. 1145. now here] here no we D 1. 
1147. Is] It is D 1. 1149. >at] ]>e D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 36 b 

He says his 
lords know 

1 1 48 the damage 
the Greeks 
have done 

178 Priam recites the Wrongs done ly Greeks to Troy. [BK. II 

Priam says 
they must 

the injuries 
the Greeks 
did them : 

slew their 

burnt their 

carried off 



and, against 

used his 
sister He- 

as a con- 

J?is other day, as who seith but late, 

]2at, as I trowe, so new is $it J?e date, 1152 

)3at it is fresche remembrid in 30111* mynde, 

Vn-to ^our blood $if fat $e be kynde. 

For I suppose, no for^etilnes 

May put a-way fe mortal he vines 1156 

Of harmys olde, whiche ay renew e ageyn 

In my memorie, I seie $ow in certeyn ; 

And as I trow, pleynly in $oure ])ou^t, 

)3at euer is grene, and ne dieth noi^t, 1160 

How pei haue slayn oure progenytours 

)?at whilom wern so noble werreours, [leaf so d] 

Oure cite brent and brou^t vn-to ruyne, 

And robbid it, falsely by ravyne, 1164 

And turned al in-to wyldernes, 

And in-to Grece caried oure riches, 

My fader slayn, J?at hi$t[e] Lamedoiw, 

With-out[e] cause or occasions, 1168 

And rau^t from hym his gold & his tresour, 

Whiche me semeth is a foul* errour. 

We my3t of ri^t amendis wel chalenge,* 

And desyren vs iustly to revenge 1172 

A-fors pe goddis of so hi^e offence, 

Only of resou?i and of conscience. 

And passyng alle her mortal cruelte, 

fter is o fing most inly greveth me, 1176 

feat pei vngodly, ageyn [e]s gentilnes, 

No rewarde havyng to ])e worfines, 

To ]?e birth, nor J>e royal blood 

Of hir pat is so fayr and eke so gode 1180 

I mene my suster, callyd Exyoura 

Whom jjei, alias, to her confusiourc, 

Disuse and kepe nat lik hir degre, 

From day to day in dishoneste; 1184 

Wher-Jjoru} hir honowr & hir name is lorn, 

Considryng nat of what stook sche was born. 

1158. in] om. A. 1159. as] om. A. 

1160. grene] newe D 1 ne dieth] nedith A. 1164. it] is D 1. 

1170. foul] ful gret C. 1171. chalenge] chalange C. 

1177. pat] And D 1. 1179. nor] nor to D 1. 

BK. li] The duty of Trojans to avenge the Wrongs done them. 179 

For fei ar blynde for to taken hede, 

Or to aduerte fe rote of hir kynred, 1188 

Of surquidye fei be so indurat. 

And sith fat sche, of* so hi^e estat, she, so noble, 

I-tretid is, liche as 30 may se, 

I suppose other, fat ben of low degre, 1192 

Gouerned ben ful dishonestly ; 

For ^e may f inke and deme trew[e]ly 

How wyvis, maidenes, in fat companye, and other 

With ofer eke fat ben of 30111- alye, 1196 gj^y 8 

I-haunted ben and vsed at her lust ; shamefully. 

On be Grekis I haue no better trust, T e Gl ' ee . k ? 

spare neither 

For fei ne spare nouther blood nor age. blood nor 

And fus fei lyue in torment & seruage, 1200 

With-out routhe, mercy, or pite, 

])e whiche touchef ^ou as wel as me ; 

And as me semeth, of equite and ri^t, 

3e ou3t echon with al $our ful[le] my^t, 1204 AH Trojans 

Of f e wronges with whiche 30 ben offendid, redress. 

To seke a weye it my^tfe] ben amendid : 

And fat we werke, alle be on assent, 

And procede, liche to oure entent, 1208 

On her malis and cursed cruelte, 

Alle attonys avengid for to be ; 

And fat we be in hert[e], wille, and foi^t [leaf si a] 

Of on acorde, and ne varie nou^t, 1212 

For fan our force is doublid & pouste. 

For ri^t and resou?* & good equite Reason and 

Require vengauwce on hym fat dof f e wro?ig, require 

it so be* fat it abyde longe. 1216 

I trust also on goddis ri^twisnes, and the Gods 

)5at fei schal help oure harmes to redres, 
And fauour us in oure Innocence, 

To chastyse hem fat wrou3t[e] fis offence. 1220 win chastise 

Also 30 knowe howe fat oure cite 
Is strong and my3ty,* & of gret surte, 

1190. of] is of C. 1195. wyvis] wifes & D 1. 
1205. with] }>e D 1. 1211. in] of D 1. 

1215. hym] hem D 1. 

1216. 1st it] oui. A so be] be so C liwl it] he D 1. 
1221. Also] As D 1. 1222. myjty] ray3te C. 

180 Priam advises asking the Greeks for Redress. [BK. n 

No city is so 
strong as 

have brave 

much store, 

and many 

Now is the 

for venge- 
Delay is 

But they 
must not be 
too hasty. 

They'd better 
ask the 
Greeks to 
give em 

before resort- 
ing to force. 

With touris hi$e and walles for f e werre, 

])at also fer as schynep soime or sterre, 1224 

])er is noon lyk, for to rekne al, 

Jpat may in force ben per-to perigal. 

$e knowe also, as it schal be fouwde, 

With cheualrie how fat we abowzde, 1228 

Expert in armys and of olde assaied, 

)3at for drede neuer wer dismayed ; 

And we haue plente also of vitaille, 

Of frendschip eke, pat ne wol not faile 1232 

With al her my^t to don to vs socour. 

Wherfore I rede, vrith-out& more soiour, 

To sette vp-on, sithen we be able, 

And tyme is now, me semeth, couenable ; 1236 

For manhod bit make no delaye 

To venge a wrong, hap what hapfpe] may. 

For in differryng is ofte gret damage, 

To werke in tyme is double avauwtage; 1240 

For to oure purpos lakketh neuer adel, 

And poru^ oure manhod we ben assured wel. 

But list we ben [not] h olden to hasty, 

Or to rakil to werke wilfully 1244 

And werre also stant in aventure, 

For ay of Marte dotous is pe Ewre 

I rede, first to Grekis pat we sende 

To wit }if pei our harmys wil* amende, 124& 

With-out[e] strif, werre, or more debat : 

))an may we sayn pat we ben f ortunat ; 

And $if pei be contrarie to resourc, 

To condiscende to pis conclusions, 1252 

To graunte oure askyng of equite & ri$t, 

]pan haue we cause for to preve our my^t. 

But or pat we procede by rigour, 

We schal to hem offeren al mesour, 1256- 

As fer as ri^t and rescue eke require ; 

And of disdeyn ^if hem list nat here, 

1237. bit] ne D 1. 1243. not] om. D 1. 

1246. Marte] Mars D 1. 

1248. our harmys wil] wil our harmys C. 

1251. contrarie] contrarious D 2. 1255. ]>at] om. D 1. 

1257. eke] wele D 1. 1258. nat] to D 1. 

BK. n] Priam suggests sending Antenor to demand Hesione. 181 

)pan oure qwarel, devoide of wilfullenes, 

I-roted is vp-on sik ernes. [leaf 31 6] 1260 

And }if pat we of her gret offence 

Axe amendis first in pacience, 

God and Fortune, I hope, wilne assent, 

In pe ende we schal vs nat repente ; 1264 

And it is bet by pes to han redresse, 

J)an gyraie a werre w^t/i-out avisenesse. 

fter-fore, lat vs our woful aventure 

Paciently suffren and endure, 1268 

And in our port be but humble & pleyn, 

Vp-on answer what pat pei wil seyn. 

For pou} so be, in myn entenciou?&, 

I meved am by iust occasions 1272 

To precede of ire to vengance, 

I wil al put out of remembrance, 

And lete slyde be for^etilnes 

Jpe wrongis don, & voide al hevines 1276 

To- ward Grekis, and of hem axe no more, 

But pat pei wil Exyona restore 

To vs ageyn, whiche is to me most derre, 

Only to stint al debat and werre. 1280 

For pe surpluse of our mortal Ewre 

We schal dissymvle, & prudently endure 

Our harmys olde forpe in pacience, 

3if ^e acorde [vn-]to my sentence : 1284 

Seythe her- vp-on, as $e ben avised ; 

For $if pis sond be of hem despised,* 

And pat hem list to resourc nat obeye, 

)3an we may iustly seke anoper weye 1288 

To han redres, for now per is no more, 

Sane I purpose to sendyn Anthenor, 

Whiche is a man* discrete and avisee, 

And specialy in mater of trete, 1292 

For he is bothe wyse and eloquent, 

As $e wel knowe, & passyngly prudent." 

1265. bet] better D 1. 1270. answer] an answer D 1. 

1276. voide] a voide A. 

1277. of hem axe] aske of he??i D 2, axe of hem D 1. 
1286. despised] refused C. 1291. a man] aman C. 

Priam says 
it's better to 
get redress 

than rush 
into war. 

He will 
forget the 
wrongs done 
by the 

and ask only 
for the resti- 
tution of his 

He advises 
them to send 
Antenor on 
embassy to 

the task, 

182 Antenor sails to Thessaly, and is receivd ly Peleus. [BK. II 

Howe kynge P?iam, by the advyce of his lordes, sente 
Anthenore into Grece for restitucyown of Exiown. 1 

And whan pe kyng had told his tale anon 

To his couwseyl pei consent euerychon, 1296 

#at* Anthenor pis lourne vndirtake. 

And he in hast gan hym redy make, 

WM-oute abode, and nolde nat denye 

To take on hym pis embassetrye, 1300 

Wei avysed in his discresiouw, 

Toke or he went informacioim 

From poynt to poynt of pis gret[e] charge ; 

For he hym cast to stondyn at his large, 1304 

Wit/i-oute emwr, as he pat koude his gode ; 

For he pe effect ful pleynly vndirstode ; 

For euery ping he prented in his pou$t 

Or pat he went, and forgat ri^t nou^t; 1308 

For of a word he cast hyra nat to faile. [leaf sic] 

To schip he goth and began to sayle, 

And in schort tyme, he & his companye, 

Arived ben vp in Thesalye, 1312 

At a cite callyd Mynusyus, 

Wher by fortune was kyng Pelleus 

)5e same tyme ; & Anthenor anoon 

Vn-to pe kyng pe ri^tfe] weye is goon. 1316 

Of whom he was, as Guydo hap cowseived, 

At prime face benignely recey ved ; 

But whaw he knew pe cause of his * commyng, 

He bad in hast, wit/i-oute mor tariyng, 1320 

To Anthenor, with a fel visage, 

Schortly to seyn pe effecte of his message. 

This Troy an kny^t, astonyed neuer-adel, 
But ful demvr and avised wel, 1324 

Nat to hasty nor rakel for to seyn, 
But abidynge with loke and face pleyn, 
To Pelleus, with a manly chere, 

it fully, 



where K. 
Peleus is, 

goes to him, 

and is kindly 
receivd by 

Antenor is 


1297. f>at] And C. 1299. and nolde] nyl A. 
1312. ben] ben in A. 
1319. his] her C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 37 b (misplaced after line 1322). 

BK. li] Antenor demands the restitution of Hesione. 183 

Seide in effect ri^t pus as 30 schal here : 
1 ' )2e worpi kyng, callid Priamws, 
So wyse, so noble, so manly, and fanms,* 
And of kny3thod passyng excellent, 
Hath first to 3011 in goodly wyse sent, 
Out of Troye, his royal chefe cite, 
His f ul entent & message her by me, 
As I schal seyn to $ou in wordis pleyn, 
3if it so be pat 36 nat disdeyne 
Paciently to ^even audience. 
Remeinbryng first in ^our aduertence 
Of pe harmys nat ful longe a-go, 
And pe wrongis pat 36 wrou^t also, 
Ful cruelly, w^tft oper eke of ^ours, 
In Troye lond on his progenitours, 
What Iniuries and distrucciouw, 
Causeles, with-oute occasyouw, 
3e schewed haue of verray cruelte, 
And merciles distroyed his cite, 
Slayn his fader, named Lamedoura, 
And his cite brent and bete doim, 
And nouper left paleis, hous, nor tour, 
And lad a-wey his riches and tresour, 
And nouper spared, as I reherse can, 
In 30 w slau^ter wo?mnan, child, nor man, 
))er my^tfe] non from 3our swerd astert. 
And 3it o ping pat most he hap* at hert, 
}3at his suster, called Exyoura, 
Is hold and kepte of kyng Thelamoura, 
Dishonestly, ageyn al genterye, 
To gret dishonour & gret velenye 
Of her kynred, liche as 36 may se, 
Tretid nor cheresschid lyk to hir degre ! 
Wherfor, sith* 30 be so wyse a kny3t, 
3e ou3t adue?-te and to haue a sy3t 
To swyche pinges, of iust afFecciou?z, 

1328 Antenor 
says King 





lias sent him 
from Troy. 

He asks the 
Greeks to 
the wrongs 

they've done 
the Trojans ; 
how tlioy 

slew K. 
1348 burnt Troy, 

1352 kild women 
and children, 

[leaf 3 Id] 



and let K. 


keep Priam's 



as his 


1330. manly and] worj)i D 1 famws] so fanms C. 

1347. Slayn] Slaye D 2. 

1354. most he haj>] he ha]> most C. 

1361. sith] sy3th C. 1362. 01131] ou3te to D 1. 

184- Antenor demands Hesione. K. Peleus orders him off. [BK. II 

So K. Priam, 

who deserves 

asks only this 
little matter, 

that you 
restore him 
his sister 

K. Peleus 

and despises 

and orders 


to go at once. 

And considre in 30111' discrecciouw, 

Of geiitilnes and of equite, 

How swiche wrongis my^t* amendid be. 

Wherfor Priam, of gret avisenes, 

As he pat fully wet/i al his besynes 

Of hert and wille desire)? pes & rest, 

Sendeth to 3011, besechyng for pe best, 

J)at 36 wil don jour besy diligence, 

To make to hym pis litel recompense, 

jpat he may haue restituciou?*, 

Jjoruj jour knyj[t]ly medyaciouw, 

Of his s uster, with-oute lenger space ; 

And pe remenau?zt he wil lete pace, 

Strif and werre only to eschewe. 

For he desyreth fully for to sewe 

Pees and quiete, of hool affeccioim, 

And to pursew mesour and resouw, 

And finally, liche as 36 may se, 

Al occasions of* werre for to fle; 

Consydereth pis, pat hold[e] ben so sage, 

For pis pe fyn fully of my massage." 

Whan Pelleus hym pleynly * vnderstod, 

Of sodeyn Ire he wexe in hert[e] wood, 

Of cher and loke fel and furious, 

And of rancour ri3t melencolyous, 

J)at he ne my3t [a]tempre nor apese 

J)e hasty fir pat gan his hert[e] sese ; 

For he anoon, in fill dispitous wyse, 

Gan Priamws threten and dispise, 

And of malis sette* his sond at nou3t, 

With all pe menys pat Anthenor hap sou3t, 

And gan also pis Troyan kny3t manace, 

And bad in hast he schuld[e] voide his place, 

Yp-on peril pat after falle 










1366. my$t] may C. 1367. Wherfor] Wher of D 1. 

1372. 2nd to] om. A hym] hem D 2. 

1374. kny^tly] kyngly D 1. 1382. of] and C. 

1383. so] of D 2. 1384. >is] J>is is D 1. 

1385. new IT D 1 hym pleynly] pleynly hym C. 

1393. sette] setten C sond] hond A. 1394. ha]>] om. D 1. 

1396. schulde voide] voide shulde D 1. 

BK. n] Antenor leaves Thessaly and addresses K. Tclamon. 185 

And he anoon went out of his sy^t ; 

And in al hast, he and his meyne, Antenor and 

Wz't/i-oute abood, taken han |>e se, 1400 from 

' Thessaly 

And gan to sailen oute of Thesalye, 

And in her weye so fast[e] f ei hem hy^e, 

J)at in schort* tyme fei arived be 

Vp at Salempne, a my^ty strong cite, 1404 

Wher be fortune in pis royal tourc, 

))is Anthenor fond kyng Thelamoiro, to K. Teia- 

And to his palys he hap pe wey[e] nome. [leaf 32 a] 

And first, I fynde, whan pat* he was come, 1408 

He was accepte[d] vn-to liis presence, 

Benyng[e]ly with-oute[n] al offence ; 

For Exion was present in bat tvde, by whose side 

, Hesione 

Of auenture stondyng by his syde. 1412 stands. 

And at reuerence of hir womanhede, 

Of Antenor he toke pe better hede, 

Al-be of custom pat kyng Thelamoura Teiamon 

Had hi^e dispit and indignacioim 1416 Trojans, 

Of euery Troyan fat he coude espie ; 

For specialy to hem he had en vie, 

Of* rancour only, foru$ fe bitter rage, 

Whiche in his hert my3t[e] neuer ass wage. 1420 

But for al pat, he in pacience but hears 

<n Antenor 

lo Anthenor nap ^even audience; paientiy. 

j?e whiche anoon, in ful sobre wyse 

His tale gan, as I schal deuyse : 1424 

* l Sir," quod, he, " with support of ^our grace, Antenor 

So 30 me graunt opportune space, 

For to declare pe cause of my co?7imyng, 

I wil reherse with-out more tarying 1428 

My mater hool, brefly in sentence, 

To make it kouf e to $our magnificence, 

Signefying, with-out[e] displesauwce, 

J)at Priamws, whiche* hap [fe] gouemau^ce 1432 

Of * Troye tou, hath vn-to 30 w sent Tr y 

1403. schort] schrot C. 

1408. whan j>at] bat whan C bat] om. A. 1413. at] at be D 1. 

1419. Of] And C. 1425. Sir] My lord D 2. 

1431, 32 are transposed in A. 1432. whiche] whiche >at C. 

1433. Of] To C. 

186 Antenor begs King Telamon to restore Hesione. [BK. n 

Of feipful menyng and of clene entent, 
beseeches Besechyng first to 30111- goodlyhed, 

Alle other wronges for^etyn & eke ded, 1436 

Jpat 36 only, of 3our hi3e nobles, 

Of equite, and of gentilnes, 
to restore his }e \vil restore Exyona ageyn, 
SlSone, Whiche pat 36 hold, to speke in wordis pleyn, 1440 

In verray soth, noi^t like to hir estat. 

Wherfore, he preyeth to stynten al debat, 

And euery harme to put out of memorie, 

Of kyngly honour for $our owne glorie, 1444 

and send her To send hir horn and make deliuerauwce 


Goodly of hir with-outen variauwce, 
Whom 30 han holde * so many long[e] daies. 
Ne tarieth nat, ne setteth no delayes, 1448 

Ne lete in 3ow be fouwde now no slowpe ; 
it is pitiful For sothfastly it is to gret a routhe * 

that Telamon 

hs uedher To recorde how 36 haue hir vsed, 

It may of trouth nat goodly be?* excused. 1452 

But we schal lete Ii3tly ouerslyde, 

So J>at 36 beniwg[e]ly prouide 

To sende hir horn, lik as I haue seyd. 

Loo, her pe charge pat was on me leide, [leaf 32 6] 1456 

With-oute more abydyng in certeyn, 

What godly answer 30 wil send ageyn." 

Whan Thelamoun herkned had his tale, 
Telamon gets Of hasty Ire he gan to wexe pale 1460 

pale with J 

\vrath, jj e fy r y colre hath hym made so wode, 

J?at from his face a valid was pe blood, 
Whiche in his hert gan to frete & bite 
With lok askoyn, & tornyd vp pe white, 1464 

Of hi3e disdeyn, with face dispitous, 
With pale smylyng & lau^tre furious, 
Gan rakyn oute pe felle mortal fire 

Of fretyng hate, pat brent in his desire, 1468 

And schortly made, in conclusions, 

1444. kyngly] knyghtly A. 

1447. holde] holden C. 1450. a routhe] arouthe C. 

1456. was on me] on me was D 1. 

1462. face] om. D 1 was] is D 2, D 1. 

1463. Whiche in] With Inne A, Wi> in D 2. 

BK. n] King Telamon refuses to restore Hesione. 187 

To Anthenor pis obiecciou?^, 

And seide, " frend, what-euer pat pou be, 

I wondre gretly, & mervail is to me, 1472 

What auenture or sodeyn newe ping 

Vnprudently meveth now pi kyng lent to win. 

Vn-to me to make swiche a sonde ; 

fcou wer a fole, whan pou toke on honde, 1476 A J^2 wa8 

Outher vnhappy or infortunat, 

To me to bryng pis embassiat ; 

For I \viih hym haue no ping a-do, 

Nor he wit[h] me, and loke pou seye hy?n so ; 1480 

For we ne ben aqueynted but a lyte, 

Nor* I no ping platly me delite, 

At schorte wordis, $if pou list to here, 

To don for hym, [n]or at his prayere ; 1484 

For I ne haue loye nouper feste 

To do ri}t nou3t, sothly, at his request. 

))is wote I wel, pat but a while ago 

I was at Troye, my silfe and other mo, 1488 were at Troy. 

For to reforme [a] ping pat was amys, 

jporuj jour offence, schortly, pus it is ; 

For certeyn ping wrou^t by Lamedouw. 

And by our manhood we wan per pe tou, 1492 JJjjy,JJ n *' 

And slow pe kyng & alle pat vrith hym hilde, 

In kny^tly wyse hym metyng in pe felde ; 

And for pat I, as eueryche myjtfe] se, 

Dide entre first in-to )?at cite, 1496 

It was to me grau?ited for memorie, 

In signe only of myw hi^e victorie, 

With-outew any contradiccioun, 

By alle pe Grekis to haue pocessioura 1500 jjgfjgjj^ 

Of hir pat is to me most entere, 

Exiona, whom pou cleymest here. 

But be wel siker, pin askyng is in veyn ; 

For trust[e] wel, & be rijt wel certeyn, 1504 

)5ou gest hir nat, at o word, jif I may ; [leaf 2 c] 

1473. or] or so A. 1478. 1st To] om. A. 
1482. Nor] For C. 1486. at] in D 2. 
1496. Dide entre first] First dide entren D 1. 
1503. be] om. A. 1504. wel] wel syker A 

188 King Telamon will yield Hesione only if conquer d. [BK. n 

Telamon won 
Hesione with 
his blood, 

and will keep 

She is 


the prize of 
the world, 

and nought 
but sharp 
swords '11 

rescue her. 

Antenor is a 
great fool to 
ask for her. 

For f er schal first be made ful gret affray 

Or I hir leue duryng al my lyve,- 

Who euer grucche or fer ageynfes] striue 1508 

It wer nat sittyng me to leue hir so, 

For whom I had whilom so* gret ado 

Or I hir gat with spendyng of my blood ; 

And who fat be wrof fer-wzt/i or wood, 1512 

I wil hir kepe, as it schal be foimde ; 

For whom I had so many mortal woimde 

At Troye touw, or fat I hir wan. 

And in good feith, as ferforfe as I can, 1516 

Sche schal nat lijtly from myn hondis passe ; 

For sche allone stant so in my grace 

For hir bewte and hir semylyhed, 

For hir boiwte and hir goodly hed, 1520 

Jjat $if I schal my resou?^ schortly fyne, 

Sche is in sothe f e moste femy[ny]ne 

)5at euer I sawe, and with-outen drede, 

Of port, of konwyng, & of womanhede, 1524 

Sche haf alone, in verray existence, 

])Q souereynte and f e excellence ; 

J)at Priamws, for ou^t fat f ou canst seyn, 

Whil fat I lyue get her not ageyn, 1528 

But he hir bye with many dedly wouwde, 

With scharp[e] swerdis and square speris grounde. 

For fer schal first be reysed soche a strif, 

)?at it schal cost many a man his* lif, 1532 

Or [fat] sche ageyn restored be ; 

Take Jris for sof, fou gest no more of me. 

Whan hym list lie may wel be-gynne ; 

But I suppose he schal but litel vvynne, 1536 

Noon ofer wyse but as I fe tolde. 

And wost [f ou] what a gret fool I f e holde, 

The to putte so* fer in iupartye, 

To execute fis* embassatrye, 1540 

)3e manly Grekis so boldly to offende ; 

1510. so] ful C. 1524. 2nd of] and A, D 2. 
1532. a] om. A man his] niawnys C, man is A. 
1534. gest] getist D 1. 1538. JMJU] om. A, D 2. 
1539. so] to C. 1540. bis] >is in C. 

BK. li] Antenor leaves King Telamon-, and legs help. 189 

Be war fer-for, fat he no more f e sende, 

Yp-on f i lyf , for rancour nor for pride. 

Now go fi weye ; for yi fat foil abyde 

Any lenger, sothly, in my si^t, 

ftou wost f e pris of fat I haue f e hi$t ; 

}5oii skapest nat, who fat be lef or lothe." 

fitinnQ Anthenor anoon to schip[pe] goth, 

And to saille hym list nat to delaye, 

Toward an yle fat callyd is Achaye ; 

And whan fat he taken hath fe lond, 

At his ryuail* of auenture he fonde 

fte worf i kynges, Pollux and Castor ; 

And ri^t anoon fis Troyan Anthenor [leaf 32 

Wit/i-oute abood to f e court is fare, 

Vnto* hem his message to declare ; 

And to-gydre whan fei were present, 

Ry^t f us he seide, as in sentament : 

" fre nobil kyng of Troye f e cite 

Hath vn-to $ou sent his wille by me, 

Besechyng ^ou in ful lowe maner 

])at 30 list vn-to his prayer 

Of equite for to condescende, 

And goodly helpyw a certeyn wrong to amende, 

Touchyng his suster, callid Exyon, 

J}at he may haue restituciouw 

Of hir ageyn, by $our discrete avyse. 

For sith 30 ben so manly and so wyse, 

It likly is, in his oppinioura, 

)jat by 3our good[e] mediaciourz, 

Sche Ii3tly may ageyn restored be, 

For to cherische pes and vnite. 

Wherfor he prayef with al his hert enter, 

In goodly wyse to doon 3our deuer, 

Jpat hold[e] ben so kny3tly and so sage, 

And lie wil pleynly al fe surplusage 1570 

Of wrongis olde puttyn in suspence ; 

1542. no more >e] the no more A. 

1548. goth] he goth A, D 2. 

1552. ryuail] aryuail C. 1556. Vnto] To C 

1558. he] >ey D 2. 1559. new 1 D 1. 

1544 Telamonbids 
Antenor go, 

under pain 
of death. 

So Antenor 
sails to 

finds Castor 
and Pollux, 




and tells em 
that Priam 
1560 prays them 

1564 to help him 
in rescuing 



with all their 

190 Anterior s appeal for Redress is rejected by Castor. [BK. n 

Priam desires 

and knows 
the peril 
of war. 


flays the 

only took 
for the wrong 
did them, 

and it's now 
too late to 
ask amends 
for this. 

For he desyreth, of kyngly hije prudence, 

To stint[e] werre & to norische pes ; 

For he is nouther rakle nor rekles, 

But avisee*, in his werkis alle, 

To cast aforn what [fat] schal [be-]falle, 

And finges future aduertyng from a-ferre, 

And seth what perel fat f er is in werre, 

Wil hym conforme* vn-to pes & rest ; 

For he conseyueth fat it is f e best, 

Euery man vnite to* sewe, 

And prudently also to eschewe 

Of debatis ecche occasiouw. 

Lo, here f e fyn of his entenciouw, 

Whiche I coramytte to $our lugement." 

And Castor fan, of ire impacient, 

For hastynes ne my3t[e] nat abide, 

His cruel hert so swolle was with pride, 

Brak out anon with a dispitous face, 

And seide : " frende, I knowe of no trespas 

ftat Grekis dide euer vn-to f i kyng ; 

To axe amendis, it is a wonder f ing, 

Of vs fat neuer dide hym noon offence, 

Saue fat we made a maner * recompense 

Of a wrong wrou^t by Larnedou?&, 

J?e whiche first sou^t occasioun 

Ageyn[es] Grekis, in vngoodly wyse ; [leaf 33 a] 

)3at caused vs vp-on hym to ryse, 

Al attonys, and manly on hym sette, 

Of due ri^t for to quite oure dette. 

Liche his decert we han hym [pleinly] serued, 

And no f ing wrou^t, but as he haf disseruyd. 

To axe amendis he gyranef now to late, 

For we couet more his mortal hate, 

His outter malis, and his enmyte, 

J)an ouf er pes, acord, or vnite ; 

1578. kyngly] knyghtly A. 1579. 2nd to] do D 1. 
1581. avisee] avised C. 1585. conforme] comforme C. 
1586. is] is for D 1. 1587. to] for to C. 
1593. ne] he D 1. 1599. noon] om. D 1. 
1600. maner] maner of C. 1608. as] fat D 2. 
1609. he gyraie>] begynneth D 1. 










EK. n] Castor orders Antenor to go. He sails to Pylos. 191 

As in effect her-after he schal fele, 
3if it hap[pe] fat he with vs dele ; 
])Q bargan schal ful dere ben abou^t ; 
And we his frenschip, soj)ly, set at nou^t. 
And ouer-more, I speke now to J?e, 
It likly is, as semeth vn-to me, 
jpat Priamws j>e louyd but a lite, 
Nat fe valu, I suppose, of a myte, 
Whan he fe sent vp-on J>is message ; 
And Jjou of foly dedist gret outrage, 
To take on fe so hi3e a perlous J>ing, 
Yn-to Grekis to bryng[e] swiche tydyng, 
Wher-Jjoru^ j?i lif is putte in iupartie. 
But I counsel fast[e] )>at pou hi^e 
Out of my si3t, list J>at fou repente." 
And Anthenor furthe to schippe went, 
And vfith J>e wynde gan to seyle anoon 
Toward an yle callid Pillyon ; 
And in al hast, whan he dide ariue, 
He schope hym forfe to fe court as blyue, 
Wher duk Nestor, in al maner J)ing, 
His housholde held, royal as a kyng. 
And Anthenor, ful sadde and avisee, 
To-for Nestor sittyng in his see, 
Whan J>at he was amytted* for to seyn, 
His tale he tolde ful opinly and pleyn, 
From point to point, as 30 herd a-fore ; 
It wer but weyn to reherse it more, 
For he alwey concluded hath in oon, 
Liche as 30 herde, touching Exyon. 
But duk Nestor, with face no Jnng red, 
But of he we as any asche deed, 
Fret with col[e]re so inwardly was he, 
)3at his blood from eche extremyte 
Withdrawen is, douw vn-to his hert, 
Whiche for Ire so sore made hym smert, 
ftat he gan quake in eue?-y loint & veyne, 

Castor cares 
nothing for 






1636 where he 

tells Nestor 
his message. 


tells Antenor 
he was a fool 
to come on 

and then 
bids him 
be off. 

So Antenor 
sails to 

Nestor gets 



very angry. 

1615. ben abou^t] be bou}t D 1. 1635. 2nd and] and ful A. 
1636. in] on A, D 2. 1637. was amytted] amytted was C. 
1639. ?e] 30 haue D 1. 1642. je] I D 1. 

192 Nestor is full of Wrath against Antenor and Priam. [BK. II 

Nestor is 

furious with 

wonders at 
his insolence 
in repeating 

blame of the 

and demand- 
ing redress 
for the 
injuries they 
did Lamedon. 

But for his 



he'd have 
chopt into 
little bits. 

|5at he his hond vnnejje may refreyne, 

For malenkolye avenged for to be ; 

Lik a lyon, so wood & wrojje was he, [leaf 336] 1652 

Fer from hym silf he was so alienat, 

And inwardly of rancour passionat, 

With loke reuersed, furious of sijt, 

jpat tempre hym 'silf onnejns he ne my3t; 1656 

He felt of anger so greet aduersite. 

And amyddes al his cruelte, 

Of sodeyn hast attonys he out brak, 

And even Jms to Anthenor he spak : 1660 

" ]?ou," quod, he, " with alle j?i wordis white, 

As I suppose, [fat] J>ou wost ful lyte 

Vn-to fore whom |?ou hast Jn tale tolde ; 

For I merueile how ]?ou art so bolde 1664 

To presume myn eris to offende ; 

And for Priam so proudly to pretende 

A maner title in ]>i kynges name, 

fie worfi Grekis for to putte in blame, 1668- 

And vniustly, of foule hardynes, 

Requere of hem [for] to han redres 

Of Iniuries wrou^t on Lamedoura, 

Boldly affermyng, of fals presu??^pciou7^, 1672 

Vp-on Grekis wrongis outragious, 

Whiche in myn eris ben so odious, 

So fretyng eke, so byting and so kene, 

For to list fat I may nat* sustene, 167fr 

In myn heryng so hateful is J>e aoun 

J)at, nere pe honour of myn hi^e renouw 

Refreyned me, I schulde in cruel wyse 

Execute ful hastely iustyse,* 1680- 

Jjoru^ )?e rigour of my mortal lawe, 

With bestys wilde first to do pe drawe, 

And fer-vp-on, for J>i fayned tale, 

Dismembre J?e al on pecis smale, 1684 

1650. hond] hondes D 2. 

1655. furious] & furyous D 2, and furious D 1. 

1656. ne] om. D 2, D 1. 1658. al] of D 1. 
1661. new IF D 1. 1662. >at] om. D 1. 
1671. on] of A. 1676. nat] it nat C. 

1680. hastely] hastily as D 1 iustyse] iustece C. 

BK.II] Nestor bids Antenor go. He sails. A Tempest comes on. 193 

In dispite of Priamus )>i kyng, 

To techen o]?er to bringe* more tydyng, 

Presumptuously, or any talis newe, 

To any lord, but J?ei j>e bet hym knewe. 1688 

ftis schulde be for J>i presumpcioura Antenor is 

\)\ last[e] mede and final guerdouw, sumptuous 

With-out mercy, lik as I haue behi^t. 

And in al hast, be* go out of my si^t ! 1692 and must be 

For outerly it dojj to gret offence with. r 

Vn-to myn ey to haue J?e in presence, 

For foru disdeyn it causeth myn vnrest." 

)3an Anthenor fou3t[e] for J?e best, 1696 He at once 

It was not holsom lenger to abide, 

But cast wysly, for rancour or for pride, 

j)at it was best for to bern hym feyre, 

And to his schippe he gan anoon repeyre, 1700 goes tout* 

And in al hast by possibilite, peafsse] 

With-oute abood he taken haj) J>e see, 

And gan to seyle & homward fast[e] drawe. and sails 

But sodeynly boilen gan pe wawe, 1704 

j)e see to ryse, and fe clowdes blake A storm 

For tappere, and fie wynde a-wake ; 

Wonder gastful also was fe heuene 

Wii/i dredful fire of* be bmt(~e] leuene : 1708 and lightning 

and thunder 

pe Bonder smot, j?e tempest gan to dryue, come; 

}3at f>e mast gan a-sonder riue. 

Now aloft, nowe in poynt to drowne, 

Jpe fel[le] wedir gan so on hem frowne,* 1712 

Jjat ])ei awaite not but vp-on deth, the crew 

Euene at ]?e point of ^eldyng vp J?e breth, 

For J?ei ne sawe noon ofer remedye. 

And euer-among, bei gan clepe and crye 1716 and pray to 

m , ,, , , the Gods. 

To her goddes, and avowes make, 

And devoutly for to vndertake, 

Eche of hem, liche as he was* of age, 

3if J>ei eskape, to gon on pilgrymage, 1720 

1686. bringe] bringen C, here D 1. 1688. hym] hew D 2. 

1690. final] fynally A, D 2. 1692. be] J>ou C. 

1705. ryse] a ryse A. 1708. of] and C. 

1712. frowne] to frowne C. 1719. he was] J>ei wer C. 


194 Antenor lands in Troy, & reports his remits to Priam. [BK. n 

Lyche J?e ritys of her* paynym wyse, 

To j>e goddis to doon her sacrifise, 

So as pel werne of substaurcce & of my$t. 

And sodeynly ]>e wedir, dirke as ny$t, 1724 

With new[e] ly$t by grace gan adawe ; 

jpe se wexe calme, & smojje gan J>e wawe, 

So J?at of hap, among hem euerychon, 

For al J?e tempest, persschid was not on ; 1728 

But to-fore Troye, with-Inne a litel space, 

J}ei ben aryved euerychon by grace, 

Eskapid safe from euery lupartye, 

Bope Anthenor and al his companye. 1732 

And to fe temple he toke Jje ri^te* waye, 

And in his prayer J>er ful long* he lay, 

"With many another also for his sake, 

fcankyng her goddis, J?at made hew so eskape 1736 

Euery perel and tempest of f e see. 

And aftir Jris, vn-to J>e kyng goth he, 

J?at with his lordis aboute hym ful royal, 

In his palys and dongouw principal 1740 

Sat and abod, ful solempnely, 

Trewe report of jris embas[sa]trye ; 

And Jris kny^t, of al fat hath hym falle,* 

Hath tolde j?e kyng to-forne his lordis alle. 1744 

The storm 
stops ; 

they land 
at Troy, 

go to the 

and thank 
their Gods. 

Then Antenor 

reports the 
result of his 
embassy to 

He tells 

how dis- 
receivd him. 

Howe Kynge Prianms, aftire that Athenore had de- 
clarede to-fore hym and Ms lordes the contraryous 
answere of the Grekes, lete set his parlament, to 
wit what was to be done. 1 

T I Ihis Anthenor hap first made mewcioura, 
JL To-fore f>e kyng by iust relaciou??, 
Of his expleyt, by ordre by and by, 

And in what wyse & how vncurtesly, 1748 

He was receyued of kyng Pelleus, 
Of J?e thretis and wordis dispitous, [leaf 33 cz] 

1721. her] hem C, hir D 1. 1731. Eskapid] And escaped D 1. 

1733. toke >e rijte] take)? ri^t C. 

1734. ]>er ful long] ful long >er C. 1742. >is] >e D 1. 

1743. hath hym falle] has hym befalle C hym falle] befalle D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 39 c. 

BK. u] Antenor reports to Priam, who sees he must fight. 195 

Jpat he suffred of kyng Thelamouw, Antenor also 

Beying as fers as a* wood lyoiw; 1752 Teiamon, 

And afterward, he gan also compleyne 

Of [j>e] dispit of J>e brethre tweyne, castor and 

Of his rebuke and his gret[e] drede, 

And at Nestor howe he dide spede, 1756 and Nestor 

servd him. 

)3at with his lif he my^t vnnefes skape : 

Al Jns he told, & gan an ende make 

Of his lourne and eke of his repaire. 

And ban Priam was fully in despayre, 1760 Priam 

r , , J despairs of 

Outher by sorte or by auenture, recovering 

. Hesione by 

Euere ageyn his suster to recure ; fair means, 

For he conseyueth in his aduertence, 

By clere report of expert evidence, 1764 

))at ay J?e more he was to hem benigne, 

])Q more vngoodly agey^ hym Jjei malygne ; 

And wher he most him schewith debonaire, 

])er he fynt hem ageyn ward most corctraire, 1768 

So frowardly euer pei hem quyte, 

Schewyng by signes J>at fei sette lyte 

By his frendschip, for au^t he coude aduerte. 

Wherof * he was pure sory in his hert, 1772 

bat he constreyned, Frist] of verray nede, and feels 

~ , . ,. compeldto 

Compelled was mstly to procede win W back 

^ i j -i -u b y force - 

lo han redres only by rigour; 

For profre of pes my$t haue no fauour 1776 

To be admytted, be title of ri^twisnes, 

)?orii3 hi^e dispit of hasty wilfulnes ; 

For euery mene of mesour was in veyn, 

Saue only werre engendred by disdeyn, 1780 

Be-gomie & caused al of old hatrede. 

Whiche gan anon swiche a brond to brede 

Of new envie in fe kynges breste, 

Jpat PriamM*, wM-oute more areste, 1784 

1752. a] any C. 1756. dide] doth D 1. 

1757. skape] escape D 1. 1761. or] ouber D 1. 

1765. ay] euere D 1 hem] him D 1. 

1767. him schewith] he shewej) hym D 2, he shewi} hi7;i D 1. 

1768. ageynward] om. D ]. 

1772. Wherof] "Wherefor C his] om. D 1. 1778. of] so D 1. 
1779. of] in D 1. 1784. areste] rest D 1. 

196 Priam makes up his mind to fight the Greeks. [BK. n 


resolves on a 
naval war 
against the 

Priam ! 

what un- 
happy chance 
put this idea 
into you ? 

You are over- 
masterd by 
your i 

and can't see 
the harms 
that '11 fall 
on you. 

Is so inly with Ire and rancour fret, 

And with disdeyn so sore groimde & whet, 

]3at wher so be, fat he lese or wynne, 

Vp-on Grekis he wil a werre* be-gynne, 1788 

And lupart, manly as a kny^t, 

His lyf, his deth, by-cause he had[de] ri^t. 

And cast hym first a naue for to sende 

In-to Grece his fomen for toffende ; 1792 

And liche a kny^t his force for to hante, 

In kny3% wyse he cast hym for to dauwte 

J5e pompe of Grekis and j?e sturdines, 

And finaly her pride to oppres. 1796 

But seye, Priam, what infelicite, 

What new[e] trouble, what hap, what destyne, 

Or from a-boue what hateful influence [leaf 34 o] 

Descendid is, by vnwar violence, 1800 

To nieue the, J?ou canst not lyue in pes ! 

What sodeyn sort, what fortune graceles, 

What chauTZce vnhappy, with-oute avisenes, 

What wilful lust, what fonwyd hardynes, 1804 

Han putte pi soule out of tranquillite, 

To make ]>e wery of Tpi prosperite ! 

Whi hast J>ou sauour* in bitter more fan swete, 

)3at canst nat lyue in pes nor in quyete? 1808 

)3ou art travailed with wilful mocions, 

Ouermaystred with J?i passiouras, 

For lak of resou?i and of l^e prudence, 

Dirked & blind from al prouidence, 1812 

And ful bareyn to cast a-forne and see 

J)e harmys foloyng of J?in aduersite ! 

)5ou wer to slow, wisely to consydre ; 

For want of si$t made )>e [to] slydre, 1816 

)5oru3 myst of errour falsely to forveye 

By pathis wrong from J?e ri^tfe] weye, 

1787. wher] whe>er D 1. 

1788. Grekis] J>e grekes D 1 he wil a werre] a werre he wil C 
be-gynne] gynne A, D 2. 1791. naue] meene A. 

1792. toffende] to defende D 1. 

1794. knyjtly] kyngly C hym] hem D 1. 1797. new IT D 1. 

1798. what hap] or what D 1 3rd what] om. D 1. 

1807. sauour] more sauour C. 1812. blind] blinded D 1. 

1815. to] so A. 

BK. li] Lydgate's Remonstrances with Priam on his rashEesolve. 197 

To voyde resouw of wilful hastynes ! 

Wher was ]>i guyde, wher was jji maistres, 

Discreciourc, so prudent and so sad, 

Avisely fat schulde J)e haue lad 

From f e tracis of sensualite ; 

Jpou3 it ful selde in marcnys power be, 

By suifrauwce hym siluen to restreyne, 

Whan sodeyn Ire doth his hert[e] streyne. 

]?ou schust a-forn bet ha cast fi chaurcce, 

Wrou^t by courcseil & nat put in balau?ice 

])i sikernes alias ! whi distow so ? 

And haue symuled somdel of fi wo, 

And cast J>i chaunce wel a-fore J?e prime, 

To haue forgoten wrongis of old tyme, 

And f ou^t a-forn in fin aduertence, 

ftat ofte falleth in experience, 

)3at whyles men do most besynes 

Vengably her wrongis to redres, 

With double harme, or ]>ai f ei ar ware, 

])oi falle ageyn in a new[e] snare ; 

And damages fat wer fo^ete clene, 

By fals report of rumour fresche & grene 

Renewed ben, f oru$ f e swifte fame, 

J)at fleth so f er to hindre a lordis name ; 

]S"amly, whan Jjei to a pwrpos wende 

Only of hed, and se nat to J>e ende : 

For of pride and of sodeyn hete, 

)?ei voide hem silf out of al quiete, 

Aduerting* nat to wirke avisely, 

Nor )>e prouerbe fat techeth commouwly, [leaf s* 6] 

" He ]?at stant sure, enhast hym not to meve" ; 

For $if he do, it schal hym after greue 

And he fat walkyth surly* on J>e pleyn, 

3if he stumble, his wit is but in veyn ; 

But if* so be, he list of his foly 

Be necligent to putte hym wilfully 

1820 Priam! 

where was 
discretion ? 


Ton should 


1832 have for- 
gotten old 
wrongs, and 

1836 that redress 
often ends 
in double 





You should 
have minded 
the proverb, 
' let him who 
stands, be in 
no haste to 

1824. in] om. D 2. 
1835. pat] The D 1. 
1851. surly] only G 
1853. if] it C. 

1831. chauuce] chaunge D 2, D 1. 
1847. Aduerting] Aduerte C. 
1852. but in veyn] ful bareyn D 2. 

198 Lydgates Remonstrances with Priam. His coming ruin. [BK. ir 

In aventure, and. of hym silf ne reche, 

Teschewen perel, I hold he he a wreche. 1856 

For sothly, Priam, j>ou wer to rek[e]les, 

For to corny tte pi quiete and pi pes, 

So dredfully, duryng hy no date, 

To cruel Fortune or to fikel fate ; , 1860 

Whos maner is, of costom comouraly, 

feat whan a man trusteth most souereynly 

On pis goddesse, hlind & f ul vnstahle, ; 

fean sche to hym is most deceyueahle, 1864 

Hym to ahate from his royal * stalle, 

And sodeynly to make hym doura to falle, 

And -with a trip, pro we hym on pe bake, 

Who pat geynstryueth schal haue litel tak. 1868 

Sche is so sletyy with hir gyrcny snare, 

feat sche can make a man from his welfare, 

With hir panter, fat is with fraude englued, 

Whan he lest weneth for to he remewed. 1872 

feerfor, no man haue noon affyance 

In Fortune, nor in hir variance ; 

N"e late no wi^t his ese more lupart 

List fat pe pleye wil afterward departe 1876 

To turne his chauwce ouper to wel or wo : 

For selde in oon sche doth pe garner go, 

As 36 may se be example of Priamws, 

feat of foly is so desyrous 1880 

To wirke of hede & folwe his oune wille, 

To trouble, alias, pe calm of his tranquille 

As in [t]his boke here-after schal be fouwde 

Hym and his cite platly to confounde, 1884 

And outterly to his confusiouw ; 

feat afterward, by long successions, 

It schal be rad in story and in fable, 

And remembrid, with dites delytable, 1888 

To do plesauwce to hem pat schal it here : 

feat be example pei may be war & lere, 

1855. ne] to A, no D 2. 1859. dredfully] dredly D 2. 

1863. On >is goddesse] Of >ese goddes D 1. 

1865. abate] bate D 1 royal] rayal C. 1866. 2nd to] om. D 1. 

1873. no] a D 1. 1874. hir] Ms D 1. 

1876. >at] though A >at >e] how D 2, howe >e D 1. 

Priam ! you 
were too 

You should 
not have 

who delights 
to trip a 
man up. 

She is full of 

Let no man 
put faith 
in her. 

For Priam 

and his city 
are to be 

as you'll see 
in this Book. 


BK. n] Be warnd ly Priam's fate! His Speech to his Lords. 199 

Of hasty lust or of volunte, 

To gy?me a (ring which in* noun-sur[e]te 1892 

Dependeth ay, as strif, werre, and debate ; when you 

For in swiche pley vnwarly comeb chek-mate : you unexpect- 

edly get 
And harme y-done to late is to amende, check-mate. 

Whos fyn is ofte other fan J?ei wende 1896 

In jris story as $e schal after seen. [leaf sic] 

And late Priam alwey 30?^' merour ben, 

Hasty errour be tymes to correcte. 

For I anoon my poyntel wil directe, 1900 

After J>e maner of his tracis rude, 

Of jris story J?e remnauwte to conclude. 

Howe Kenge Priam, in opyne parlement toforne his 
lordes, schewede the answers that Anthenor 
brought. 1 

Ihis worjri kyng, euer of * o sentence, Priam sum- 

Ay more & more fired wit/i feruence, 1904 

Hath his breues and his letters sent 
For his lordis to holde a parlement, Lords to a 

AIT i- 1 -i r -i i Parliament. 

And hem co??miauwdid, in al [pej hast pel may, 

To com anon at her assigned day 1908 

From euery ward and party of J?e toura, 

For to assemble in noble Ilyouw, 

Chef of his regne ; & whaw J>ei were echon They come; 

With hym present, Jris noble kyng anon, 1912 

To-forn hem alle, as schortly as he can, 

His wille declare)), & )>us he be-gan : and he says 

" Sirs," quod, he, "be-cause $e ben wyse, 

It nedeth not long proces to deuyse, 1916 

For to reherse of $our comyng cause ; 

But for to telle, schortly in a clause 

"What I mene, and make no delay, 

3e wote* how I, now Jris o)>er day, 1920 "You know 

Sent in-to * Grece, by conseil of ^ow alle, 

1892. which in] with C, with in A. 
1894. chek-mate] chef mat D 2, hate D 1. 
1901. his] >ese D 1. 1902. >is] his D 1. 1903. of] in C. 
1905 breues] brevettis A. 1920. wote] wote wel C. 
1921. in-to] vn to C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 40 b (' Anthenor ' corrected from ' he '). 

200 Priam relates his Grievances against the Greeks. [BK. n 

" Antenor to 
Greece to 

The Greeks 
rebuked him. 

We offerd em 


and they 
threaten us, 

and refuse 
to redress 
the harm 
they did us. 

We must 
resist them. 

A kny}t of myn pat Anthenor men calle, 

To haue recured Exyona ageyn. 

Whos message was [nat] but in veyn ; 1924 

For of Grekis ful vncurteisly 

He was resseyued, and dispitously 

}3rat & rebuked, in poynt to haue ben ded : 

Vnnepe he rny^t eskapyn with his hed, 1928 

)}ei put on hym swiche offence & blame, 

J?at rebouwdep to oure alder schame. 

And day be day it mot encresen more, 

But we ordeyn sum remedie per-fore ; 1932 

For per as we al mesour han hem offend, 

j?ei haue to vs werre & strif [I-]proferid, 

Of hey$ dispit, of rancour, & of hete, 

And of malis cruelly vs threte. 1936 

And, wher-as we wold[e] pes purchace, 

For wrongis don, pei felly * vs manace ; 

And for pe harmys pat pei han vs wrou^t, 

)}ei nat pwrpos, pleynly in her pou^t, 1940 

Other redres nor amendis make, 

But outerly with werre vs to awake, 

Whos loye is fully encres of our greuaurace. 

So wold[e] God, pei wer with repentauwce 1944 

Contrit in hert to styntera al meschef , 

feat lykly is to fallyn, & pe* gref [leaf u <q 

On outher part, pat it my3t ouer-slide ; 

But pei, alias, with rancour & with pride 1948 

Ar swolle of newe to preytyn more & more. 

But God diffende, haluendel fe sore 

By infortune euere scholde falle 

As )>ei purpose on eny of vs alle. 1952 

But syth J>ei han schapin pus for vs, 

We mote resisten her wille malicious, 

ftoru} my^t of God, of necessite, 

In oure defence it wil noon oper* be 1956 

And best I holde vn-to oure entent 

1927. prat &] om. D 1 in] and in D 1. 

1928. Vnne>e] pat vnne]>e D 1. 1934. Iproferid] profred D 1. 
1938. felly] felle C. 1946. >e] to C, D 1. 1952. on] by D 1. 
1953. schapin >us] Jms shapes D 1. 

1956. noon oj>er] no better C. 


n] Priam urges his Trojan Lords to invade Greece. 201 

To wirche and don, alle by on assent, 

So we oure pwrpos sonest schal acheue. 

Wher is discorde, per may no querel preue ; 

For on J?at part wher hertis be nat oon, 

Victorie may in no wyse goon ; 

Chef of conquest is pes and vnite, 

Ri$t as discorde is of aduersite ; 

On hed of hertis makef rewmys sure, 

Diuisiouw causeth discourafeture. 

Wherfore, I rede, of o wille and hert 

Lete vs set on to do J> e Grekis smerte ; 

For sothfastly, $if $e list to se, 

I dar afferme pat we stronger be 

)3an j>e Grekis vp-on euery part, 

And han of arrays parfitly pe art, 

And ben acouwted of kny^thod crop & rote, 

And plente han of men on hors & fote, 

Arrayed wel, eueryche in his degre ; 

And per-wM-al, so strong is oure syte, 

For to with-stond our fomen euerychon 

3ow couwseilyng to ordeyn anon, 

First tassemble holy oure navye, 

And stuf hem strongly with oure chevalrie, 

And in-to Grece hastily hem sende, 

J3e proude Grekis manly to offende ; 

And of iust cause & be title of ri^t, 

Hem werreyn with al oure ful[le] my^t, 

Her townes breraie, & her feldes waste 

With herte vnfeyned also vs enhast 

To quiterc hem as pei deserued haue. 

For be my red, we schal noon of hem saue, 

But cruely take on hem vengau/ice. 

Ne hath no fer, ne lat be no grevance, 

frouj fei a-forn by fortune wer victours, 

To sleen our aurccetris and progenitours ; 

For he J?at was of vnhap first put douw, 

" We must all 
act together. 



Let us set to 
work to make 
1968 the Greeks 

1972 We're the 

and we've 
plenty of 


Let us fill our 
navy with 
1980 knights, 

1984 invade 
and burn 
their towns, 


and take 

for their 

1000 8la y in & ou 

1992 ancestors. 

1965. hed] ed A. 

1976. >er-wit#-al] ther with D 1 so] om. D 1. 
1983. be] om. D 1. 1984. Hem] On hem D 1. 
1990. hath] haue D 1. 1993. first put] put first A. 


The chances of War are ever uncertain. [BK. n 

" War is 
always on 
the balance. 

No man can 
make sure 
of winning. 

Ebb always 
follows the 
flowing tide. 

The chances 
of battle are 
now up, 
now down, 
like Fortune's 

Kemoutttef ofte to ful hi^e renoun, 

By fe chauwge and fe variance [leaf 35 ] 

Of werre & strif, fat euer is in balance. 1996 

For he fat is f is day assurid wel, 

To-morwe he is caste dourc of f e whe[l] ; 

]3e victor ofte putte in auenture, 

And venquysched by discomfeture 2000 

Of hym fat he hadde aforne victorie. 

Now vp, now douw, in armys stant f e glorie ; 

In Martys chau?zce no man hym assure, 

But as it cometh lat hym take his vre ; 2004 

For gery Mars, by his influence, 

Can 3eue a man whilom excellence 

To wyraie a pris, liche a conquerour, 

And sodeynly, as a somer flour, 2008 

He can his honour maken for to fade. 

For, whan fat he his * aspectis glade 

Fro a man listeth for to writhe, 

His renouw old goth a-weye as blyve ; 2012 

After a flowe, an ebbe* folweth ay ; 

As men disserue, preise hem for a day. 

For f 0113 Phebus f is day merie schyne, 

To-morwe he may his bemys douw decline 2016 

f e f iknes of f e mystis trouble ; 
so of Mars* arne fe chances double 
Now vp, now douw, now lowe, now olofte 
As Fortune, whiche fat cha^geth ofte, 2020 

List on hir whele make a man ascend e, 
And vnwarly douw ageyn descende, 
Stouwdemel his honour to avawice, 

And with a swy^e f row hym to mesclwmce ; 2024 

Now with favour sette hym vp ful hi^e, 
Efte avale hym, with twynklyng of an eye. 
Hir pley vnstable turnef as a bal, 
While on goth vp, an-other hath a fal ; 2028 

2000. by] is by D 1. 2010. his] with his C, D 1. 

2013. a flowe an ebbe] an ebbe a flowe C flowe] floode D 1. 

2017. mystis] mysty D 1. 

2018. Mars] Maris C eWces] clauses D 1. 

2019. olofte] alofte A, D 2, D 1. 
2024. swy$e] swewge D 2. 

BK. n] The Trojan Lords agree to invade Ghvece. 203 

Sche reiseth on, & doth anober loute, "Fortune 

raises one 

For euerv man, whan it cometh aboute, and abases 

J another. 

Mote take his turne, as hir pleye requeref. 

Who is expert and hir fraudes lereth, 2032 

Schal with hir sugre finde galle meynt, Gail is mixt 

with sugar. 

And hir hony ay with bitter spreynt 

In pes and werre, in honour & in fame, 

In dignetes, in resouw, and in schame, 2036 

At hir likyng, as hir list to graiwte ; 

Jjerfor no man his hap to moche avaunte. 

For 0113 Grekis whilom wern a-lofte, The Greeks 

It may her-afte?* hem hap ful vnsofte. 2040 above us; 

they may 

Wherfore, echon schewe pure worjnnes, get below. 

ftat so ar named of strenfe & hardynes, 

And to Fortune pleinly $ow co?>miitte, S o U 8 r h w^rth! 

And late no fere pure manly hertis flitte, [leaf 35 &] 2044 Fear not!" 

But stondeth hool & beth in menyng pleyn, 

And here-vp-on, lat se what 30 wil seyn." 

And attonys her voys J?ei gowne reise, 

And his sentence hhly for to preyse, 2048 Priam's iord 

A , - , agree to fight. 

And of on hert, manly gon expresse, 

))ei wil dispende goodys & richesse, 

And her bodies put in iupardye 

Jper was nat on J?at wolde it ]>o denye. 2052 

And of ]?is grauwt he J?anketh * hem echon, He thanks 

And $af hem leue wher hem list to gon ; 

For he dissolued hath his parlement. dissolves the 

And eue?y man on his weye is went, 2056 

And repeired to his mansiouw, 

The kyng alloiie lefte in Ylyouw, and stays 

Sool by hym silf inwardly mvsyng, musing'how 

How his pwrpos he my^t aboute bryng ; 2060 oa*th* 

For he in soth on no j)ing ellys pou^t, Greece. 

And fer-vppon euene J?us he wrou^t. 

i. D 2. 2040. ful] falle D 2. 

i rpuf*-* T\ T 

2031. pleye] om. D 2. 2040. ful 
2041. Wherfore] Therfore D 1. 
2049. gon] gan A, D 2, D 1. 
2051. iupardye] iupartye D 2, D 1. 
2053. )>anketh] Ranked C, make> D 


204 Priam calls his Sons to advise about his Greek Attack. [BK. n 

Howe Kynge Prianms callede his sonnes to his pres- 
ence, and in secrete wyse lamentabyly opynyd and 
declarede his intollerabyle sorowes, askenge ]>er 
avyce in avengeinge his cause. 1 

Priam sends 

for his sons 
and bastards 

Kyng Priamwtf, makyng J?us his mone, 
As I 3011 told, in a chambre alone, 2064 

Many weyes castyng vp and doun, 
For to parforme his conclusions, 
And to fulfills f e fyn of his entent ; 

He first of alle prudently hath sent 2068 

For his sonys to com to hym in hast, 
As wel for hem bat wer borne in bast, 
As f e toper, for tassemble y-fere 

For a pwrpos, liche as $e schal here, 2072 

To haue a couwseil for nedful pwruyau?zce, 
Ageyn[e]s Grekis to maken ordynauwce, 
First by hem * silf alloue priuely. 

And whan fei were in ordre by & by, 2076 

Eueryche of hem sette in his due see, 
Liche as j>ei werne of age & of degre, 
And Hector first, flour of cheualrie, 

Repeired horn oute of Panonye, 2080 

Moste acceptable in euery wy^tes grace, 
Nexst his fader taken hath his place ; 
And whan Priam his leiser dide espie, 
With sy^es sore, castyng vp his eye, 2084 

To hem echon sittyng envirourc, 
Gan to declare his hertis mociouw. 
Priam weeps, But first, or he my^t his wil expowne, 

In- to teris he gan hym silf[e] drowne ; 2088 

His hertly wo was so outragous, 

frat for wepyng & sobbyng furious, 

Vnnejje he my^t -with any word out-breke, 

Nor vn-to hem, for distresse, speke, 2092 

Nor openly his inward menyrcg schewe, [leaf 35 c] 

Til at j>e laste he in wordis fewe 

comes from 

and can 
hardly speak. 

2064. a] jour D 2. 2071. y-fere] in fere D 1. 
2075. hem] hym C allone] al alone D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 41 a. 

BK. n] Priam reproaches his Sons for not fighting the Greeks. 205 

2096 Priam says 
to his sons, 

" You re- 

o i A A member how 
2100 the Greeks 

slew our fore- 

burnt Troy, 

and misused 

You ought to 
_ , - rt be aggrievd 
2112 at this, 

Gan to abreyde, in al his pitous fare, 

Euene f us his menyng to declare : 

" My dere sonys, so lovyng & so kynde, 

As I suppose, fat 36 haue in mynde, 

And remembre discretly, and aduerte, 

And enprente ful freschely in 3owr hert, 

How f e Grekis, ageyn al ri3t and lawe, 

With cruel swerde mordrid han & slawe 

Our worf i awzcetris, of ful l^e renou?^, 

And distroyed, brent, & bete doun 2104 

\)Q nrst[e] Troye, with his wallis olde ; 

And how vngodly also fat f ei holde 

Myn oune suster, callid Exyouw, 

To ful gret schame and confusiouw, 2108 

And hi3e repref to 3our worf ines, 

jpat, me semeth, of verray kyndenes, 

And of nature 36 ou3t to ben agreued, 

And inwardly in hert[e] sore ameved, 

To suffren hir, in hyndring of hir name, 

So to be tretid, for $our alder schame. 

Alias ! why nyl 30 do ^our besynes, 

j)is hi3e dispit kny3tly to redresse, 2116 

3ow for to avenge vp-on her cruelte, and avenge it. 

Eecure to fynde of her iniquite, 

Sith fat 30 be so my3ty and so strong ! 

Certis, me semeth, 30 byden al to long, 

Fro daye to day fat 36 so differre, 

In kny3tly wyse to gywne on he??i a werre, 

3our force & my3t manly to assaye. 

I am pure sory fat 30 list delaye 2124 

3ow to conferme vn-to my desyre 

]3at in her hate brernie as hoot as * fyr 

Vp-on hem, lyche as 36 may se, 

Of fretyng Ire avenged for to be, 

Liche her desert to quiten hem her mede.* 

2097. kynde] kynge D 2. 2101. ageyn] a3ens A. 

2104. bete doun] bore a dou??^ D 1. 2109. 3our] oure D 1. 

2111. ou3t to ben] oughte ben A, D 2 to] }e D 1. 

2117. avenge] venge D 1 her] ^oure D 1. 2122. a] om. A. 

2124. pure] ful A. 2125. conferme] confonne A, D 2. 

2126. hoot as] any C. 2129. mede] mete C. 

2120 You put off 
war on them 
too long. 

You should 

206 Priam appeals to Hector and his other Sons for help. [BK. n 

"You don't 
back me, 

tho I brought 
you up 

You should 
remedy my 

" Hector, 
first of iny 


I pray you to 
carry out my 

I put the 
matter in 
your hands. 

And 36, alias, take list non hede, 

Whil $our renozm doth so freschly schyne, 

Vn-to my lust 30 wr hertis to encline ; 2132 

Consyderyng, liche as it is kouthe, 

How I haue fro 30111 grene jouthe 

I-fostred ^ow & bro^t 3011 forth echon, 

Fro filke day fat 36 koude goon, 2136 

As tenderly as I koude or my3te. 

To whiche fing, in 3our inward sijt, 

3e schulde aduerte alweye new & new, 

And of nature on my scores* rewe, 2140 

To remedien myn aduersite, 

Whiche touch ef 3ou al so* wel as me, [leafssdj 

Sith [fat] 36 wot how sore it doth me greue, 

3e schuld[e] schap myn harmys to releue." 2144 

And sodeynly, as he f us gan morne, 

Toward Hector he gan his face torne, 

And seid, " Hector, my trust & al my loye, 

Myn eyr also, likly to regne in Troye 2148 

After my day, and be my successour, 

And named art f e verray souereyn flour 

Of worf ines, and of manhod welle, 

And alle fi brethre in kny^thod dost excelle, 2152 

And in armys, liche a conquerour, 

Callid f e stok of worschip and honour, 

I hertly praye, fou3 fou* sitte stille, 

Be willy now my purpos to fulfille, 2156 

To execute fat I desyre so ; 

For fynally, in f e and in no mo 

Is ful my feith to bryngfe] f is aboute. 

Now take on fe, & be no fing in doute, 2160 

To be chef prince & also gouernour 

Of Jis purpos, and outerly socour ; 

In-to fin hond f is lourne I committe, 

Hooly of hert, so fat fou ne flitte, 2164 

)3e to conferme, by good avisement, 

2136. Fro] ffor D 1. 2137. I] ?e D 1. 

2140. scores] sorwes C. 2142. al so] as C. 

2145. ]>us gan] gan thus A, gan >us D 1. 

2155. Jxra] 3e C. 2159. ful] fully A. 

2162. purpos] vyage D 2. 2165. conferme] conforme A, D 2. 

BK.II] Priam makes his Appeal to Hector, & Hector answers it. 207 



To parforme vp pe fyn of myn entent. 
For of resou?*, best to pe it sitte, 
Whiche art so prudent & so ful of witte, 
Strong & delyuer, flouryng eke in ^outhe, 
Of whom pe fame f 01-113 fie worlde is kouth, 
3ong of ^eris, old of discrecioutt, 
Ewrous to love, passyng of renoura, 
Vn-to whos wille pi brepre schal obeie, 
And stond with pe, bope to lyue & deye ! 
Now condescende tacomplische my request, 
And what pou felist, answere at the best." 
And whan pe kyng hap schewed his sentence, 
Demvre of chere, humble of renerence, 
J)is worpi Hector, example of gent[e]rie, 
With softe speche, as techep curtesye, 
His answere $af, 'with sobre coimtenans, 
Jjeffect of whiche was pis in substauws : 

[T]he answere of Ector [t]o his faders demannde. 1 
" Myn owne lord, and my fader dere, 
Benignely $if $e list [to] here, 2184 

After pe force and pe grete my^t. 
And pe somme of naturis ri3t, 
Whiche eue?-y ping by kynde doth cowstreyne 
In pe bouwdis of hir large cheyne, 2188 

It fittyng is, as sche doth enspire, 
And acordyng pat Query man desyre 
Of wrongis don to han amendement, [leaf se a] 

And to hir law ri}t conuenient ; 2192 

Namly to swiche pat with nobilite 
Kynd hath endewed, & set in hi^e degre ; 
For to swiche, gret repref is and schame, 
Whan any wrong be do vn-to her name ; 2196 

For eche trespas mote consydered be, 
lustly mesurid after pe qualite 

2169. delyuer] om. D 1. 

2176. what] whanne D 1 best] leste D 1. 

2184, 85 arc repeated in D 2. 2185. and] of D 2. 

2186. somme] sonne A. 2189. doth] J?at do>e D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 41 c, in margin (edge pared off by 

2168 "You are so 

famous ; 

your brethren 
will obey 

Do what I 
ask you." 

his father 

" My dear 

it is right for 
every one to 
seek amends 

for wrongs 
done to him. 

208 Tho Hector ivants revenge on the Greeks, how will it end? [BK.II 

"It is grief 
to noble men 
to endure 

And we, 
for Knight- 
hood's sake, 

should seek 

I want 

vengeance on 
the Greeks. 

I thirst for 
their blood. 

But before 
you begin, 
you must 
think of 
the end. 

Of hym pat is offendid, and also, 

After pe persone by whom pe wrong is do ; 2200 

Be it in werre, in contek, or debate : 

For gretter gref is to hi^e estate 

To suffre an harine, of cas or auenture, 

Or any wrong vniustly to endure, 2204 

Or Iniuries compassed of malys, 

Is more offence, by discret avys, 

To hem pat ben famous in manhod, 

Renomed, & born of gentyl blood, 2208 

J3an to swiche on pat holde is but a wreche. 

Wherfore, we most [gretly] charge and reche, 

Only of kny3thod oure worschip for to eke, 

Of wrongis don amendis for to seke, 2212 

Oure staat consydered & oure hi^e noblesse, 

And in what plyte we stonde of worpines, 

Whan pat bestis, of resourc rude and blinde, 

Desire pe same by instynt* of kynde. 2216 

And for my part, trustep in certeyri, 

3e haue no sone pat wolde halfe so feyn 

Vp-on Grekis avenged ben as I : 

For here my trouth, I seye $ow feithfully, 2220 

For Ire of hem I brewne as do]? pe glede ; 

I thurst her blood more pan other mede ; 

For ri^t as I eldest am of age 

Among 3our sonys, so am I most with rage 2224 

I-fret wit/i-Inne, iustly of kny3thood, 

With my ri^t hond to schede pe Grekys blod, 

As pei schal fynd, iparaunter or pei wene, 

Whan tyme cometh, pe sope schal be sene. 2228 

But first I rede, wysely in $our mynde 

To cast aforn and leue nat be-hynde, 

Or ^e be-gynne, discretly to aduerte 

And prudently consyderen in ^our herte 2232 

Al, only nat pe gynnyng but pe ende, 

2201. or] or in D 1. 2205. of] by D 1. 

2214. in] om. A. 

2216. instynt] instymt C, instnyt A, instynat D 2, instaunce D 1. 

2222. thurst] thraste A, thrust D 2, D 1. 

2224. with] in D 2. 2225. I-fret] In effects D 1. 

2229. 3our] oure D 1. 

BK. li] Hector warns Priam that War may end disastrously. 209 

And be myddes, what weie bei wil we?ide, 

And to what fyn Fortune wil hem lede "Where win 

J Fortune 

3if $e bus don, amys $e may nat spede. 2236 lend you? 

For pat couwseil, in myn oppiniouw, 

Is worpi litel, by discreciouw, 

To haue a pris, pat cast nat by and by 

])Q course of ]>inges by ordre ceryously, [leaf 366] 2240 

What weye pei trace to wo or to delite ; 

For pou} a gyiinyng haue his appetite, 

3et in pe ende, pleynly Jris no fable, 

]5er may ping folwe, whiche is nat commendable. 2244 

For what is worpe a gynnyng fortunat, A lucky start 

))at causeth* after strif and gret debaU 

Wherfor, in sope, principles are to drede, 

But men wel knowe what fyn schal succede ; 2248 

For a gynnyng wz't/i grace is wel fortunyd, 

Whan ende and myddes aliche ben coiitunyd. 

But whan bat it in wele ne may contene, may not 


It is wel bet by-tymes to abstene 2252 

J}an put in doute pat stant in surete ; 

For who-so doth hath ofte aduersite. 

But huinblely to $our estat royal, King Pnam, 

Of hert I praye, lat nat offende at al, 2256 

))at I am bolde to seie my mociouw ; 

For in good feith, of noon entenciou?*, 

I no J>ing mene 3ow to don offence ; i mean no 

But only }>is, J>at $our magnificence 2260 

Precede nat of hede wilfully, 

Ne J>at no spirit $ou meue folyly 

To gyrcne J)ing pat af her wil ^ou schende, but don't 

For lak* pat ae se nat to be ende, 2264 

the end of. 

JN or taken hede in 3oure aduertence, 

To consydere by good prouidence, 

How Grekis han in her subiecciouw 

Europ <fe Aufrik, with many* region?*, 2268 

Ful large & wyde, of kny^thod most famws, 

2238. by] by my D 1. 2240. by ordre] bordre D 2. 
2243. ))is] J)is is D 1. 2246. causeth] caused C. 

2252. bet] bettir D 1. 2257. my] in D 1. 
2264. lak] lat C to] om. A. 2268. many] many o}>cr C. 

210 Hector advises that they shall not fight the Greeks. [BK. n 

-'The Greeks 
are valorous: 

it's dangerous 
to disturb em. 

We're not 
equal to em. 

Hesione is 
not worth 
our lives. 

She might 
soon die after 
we'd won her. 

We'd better 
put up with 
our loss, 

and not 
risk war." 

And of riches wonder plentevous, 

Ri$t renomed also of worpines. 

With $our support pat I dar wel expresse, 2272 

Ful perlous is displese hem or disturbe ; 

For $if pat we oure quiete now pertourbe, 

Whiche stant in pes, gretly is to drede ; 

For pou$ al Asye help vs in* our nede, 2276 

3if it be lokid on Query part ari$t, 

ei be nat egal vn-to Grekis my^t ; 

And pou} also myn aunte Exiouri 

Ageyn al ri$t be holde of Thelamourc, 2280 

It is nat good for hir redempeiourc, 

To putte vs alle to destrucciou/i. 

I rede nat to bien hir half so dere ; 

For many of vs, in hap }>at sitten here, 2284 

And oper mo, my^ten for hir sake 

Deth vnderfonge, & an ende make ; 

Whiche were no wisdam, liche as seme]? me. 

And it may happen also how pat sche 2288 

In schort tyme hir fatal cours schal fyne, [leaf 36 a] 

Whan Antropos pe prede a-two schal twyne. 

What had we wornie parme & sche wer go, 

But enmyte, pou^t, sorow,* & wo, 2292 

Sla^ter of oure men, deth & confusions ! 

Wherfore I rede, by dissymulaciouw, 

Witft-oute more pat we oure wo endure 

And nat to putte oure silf in auenture 2296 

jpis hold* I best & wirkyn as J>e wyse. 

But dout[e]les, for no cowardyse 

I seie nat pis in ^oure hi^e presence, 

But for cause I hold it no prudence, 2300 

To Fortune, ful of doubilnes 

Sith we be sure to putte oure sikernes : 

)3is al & som, peffect of al my wille." 

And with pat worde Hector held hym stille. 2304 

2276. in] at C. 2283. bien] bye D 1, beyen A, D 2. 
2287. liche] om. D ]. 

2292. enmyte] Enmy D 2 sorow] & sorow C, D 2. 
2297. hold] held C. 2304. hym] hem D 2. 

BK. n] Paris s Speech favouring a Trojan Attack on Greece. 211 

Aftire that Ector had shewede his entente, Paris 
declaryde his dreme of f e golden Appyle. 1 

And whan Hector, by ful hi^e pmde?ice, 
Concluded haj) f e fyn of his sentence, 
Ful demurly he kepte his lippis cloos. 
And per-w/t/i-al Parys vp a-roos, 
And gan his tale f us a-fore f e kyng : 
" My lord," quod he, " so it be lykyng 
To $onre hisnes for to taken hede, 
As me semeth, we schuld litel drede 
In kny3tly wyse for to vndirtake 
Vp-on Grekis a werre for to make, 
Al attonys her pride to confou?ide ; 
Sith fat we passyngly habou?ide 
Of chiualrie, here with-Inne our tou;*, 
And haue plente and pocessioura 
Of eche f ing fat may to werre a-veile, 
Stuf in our silf and ryal appareile 2320 

Of* al fat longeth to assautis marcial, 
And with al f is, more in special, 
Help & socour of many regiouw, 

With vs to werke to her destrucciouw, 2324 

])e pompe & pride manly to abate, 
And of Grekis f e malis for to mate ; 
For al fat f ei of hert[e] ben so stoute, 
Me semeth schortly fat we dar nat doute, 2328 

Nor on no part for to be dismaied. 
Wherfor I rede, lat nat be delaied 
Our schippes first redy for to make, 
And I my silf wil fully vndirtake, 
So it to 3ou be lykyng arid plesance, 
Of f is emprise hoolly f e gouernawzce, 
And $ow assuren & putte in certeyn 
Exyona to recure ageyn. 
And in what forme fat it schal be wrou^t, 
I haue a weye foiwden in my fou^t, [ieafs6<j] 

2306. hab] om. D 1. 2312. schuld] shal D 1. 
2321. Of] To C to] to be D 1. 2324. werke] helpe D 2. 
2328. dar] that A, >ar D 2. 2331. first] faste D 1. 
2333. be] om. D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 42 5. 

When Hector 


2308 Paris began. 

2312 "We 

hesitate to 
make war on 
the Greeks. 

2316 We've many 

much war 

and outside 

I advise that 
we get our 
ships ready. 

2332 I'll undertake 

to manage 
the whole 
business and 
2336 Hesione. 

212 Paris' s plan to get & exchange a Greek Lady forhis Aunt. [BK. n 

"My plan ia 
to carry off a 
noble Greek 
lady to Troy, 

and exchange 
her for 

The Gods 
have shown 
me how to 

and I'll tell 
you all 
about it. 

)5at likly is here-after to be don, 

Whiche vn-to ^ow I wil declare anoon : 2340 

First, I haue cast, wM strong & my3ty bond 

For to rauysche som lady of fat lond, 

Of hey^e estat, and make no tarying, 

And my^ttyly in-to Troye hir bring, 2344 

Maugre her my3t, for f is conclusions, 

Jjat 30 may haue restitueioim . , 

Be eschange of hir fat 36 desyre so. 

And here-vp-on schal be no long a-do, 2348 

I 3011 behete, for al f e Grekis strong. 

And for pat I schal ow nat prolonge, 

I wil 3ow seyn, excludyiig euery dout, 

How fis avis schal be broi^t aboute : 2352 

First, how fat I schal fis purpos fyn, 

J)e goddis ban f oru3 her power devyne 

Schewed to* me be reuelaciouw ; 

For fer-vppon I had a visiouw 2356 

But late agoon, as I ley and slepe, 

Yn-to whiche* 3if 36 takew kepe, 

3e may not faile nor be in no dispeire 

To ban recur of hir fat is so faire, 2360 

For whom 36 haue now so moche care. 

And f e maner hoi I wil declare 

Of f is drem to 3our magnificence, 

3if it so be 36 3eue* wil credence 2364 

To my tale, for I schal not dwelle 

Ceriously in ordre for to telle 

))e trouf [e] pleyn, & no fable feyn, 

To 3ow fat ben my lord most souereyn. 2368 

Howe the god Marcurye brought with hyw the thre 
ladys, luno, Venus, and Pallas, to-for Paris lyenge 
in the wod aslepe ; and of the thre gyfftis that 
they promysed hym for fe apple. 1 

2347\of]for D 2, D 1. 2348. no] nat A. 
2350.\jow nat] nat yow A. 2352. ]>is] >at >is D 1. 
2355. t] vn to C reuelacioim] relacioun D 1. 
2358. Ttfbiche] >e whiche C 3if] and D 1. 2361. Je] I D 1. 
2362. I \\il] repeated in D 2. 2364. }eue] ^if C, wele ^eue D 1. 
2367. ple\n] pleynly D 1. 2368. my] cm. A. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 42 c. 

BK. ll] Paris' s Speech. In India he prepared to hunt. 213 

First, $if fat 36 remembryn in $our mynde, 

j?is of er day, whan I was last in Ynde, 

By $our avis & co??zmaimdement, 

For a mater whiche in $our entent 

Was specialy had in cher[i]te, 

As it is koufe atwixe $ou and me, 

Of whiche I toke [vp-]on me f e charge 

In f e boundis of fat lond ful large, 

)5e same tyme ^our desyre to spede 

Whan fat Tytan, with his bemys rede, 

From Geramyny drof his chare of gold 

Toward f e Crabbe for to take his holde, 

Whiche named is f e paleys of Dyane, 

Jpe bente mone fat wexe can & wane ; 

Whawne halwed is f e sownys staciouw, 

Ni$e f e myddes of f e monef of Ivn 

At whiche sesouw, erly on a morwe, 

Whan fat Phebws, to voide ny^tes sorwe, 

Doth Pirrous hys wayn ageyn vp drawe, [leaf 37 ] 

And Aurora estward doth a-dawe, 

And with f e water of hir teris rourcde 

fee sillier dewe causeth to abowzde 

Vp-on herbis and on floures soote, 

For kyndely norissyng boj>e of crop & rote, 

Vp * I roos [out] of my bedde anoon, 

Ful desyrous on huntyng for to goon, 

Priked in hert with lusty fresche plesance 

To do to Loue some due observauwce, 

And Lucyna fat day to magnifie, 

Which callid is lady of venarye, 

And duety oure rytis to obserue, 

Cithera and hir[e] for to serue, 

I and my feris, oure hertis to releue, 

Cast vs fully til it drowe to eve, 

In f e forest to pley vs and disport, 

And pleasaurctly vs to recomfort, 

" When I 
was in India 
on your 




2384 near the 
middle of 






I got up one 
morning to 
hunt in 

the forest. 

2370. was last] laste was D 1. 

2373. cherte] cheritee A. 2375. vp-on] on D 1. 

2384. Ivn] Iuyou?t A. 2392. of] om. D 2. 

2393. Vp] Out C. 2400] Bo>e vn to Venus and to Minerve D 1. 

14 It was on 

a Friday. 

We kild 
many deer. 

I got separ- 
ated from 
my folks, 

214 Paris 's Speech. He lost a Hg Stag in the wood Ida. [BK. n 

As it longef to loue of lustines. 

For filke day to Venus fe goddes 

I-sacrid was, by ful gret excellence, 

With gret honour & due reuerence 2408 

Doon vn-to hir, bof e of on and alle ; 

And on a Fryday f is auenture is falle, 

Whan we gan hast vs to f e wodis grene 

In hope fat day som gam[e] for to sene, 2412 

With gret labour rydyng to and fro, 

Til we hadde ful many buk & do 

By strengfe slaw, as we my^t hem fynde, 

])& hert I-chasid wet/i hou?^dis & fe hynde 2416 

J?oru^ f e downys & f e dalys lowe, 

Til bri$t[e] Phebus of his daies bowe 

Amyd fe arke was of meridyen, 

Whan his bemys ful hote wern & schene, 2420 

And we most besy wern vp-on fe chas, 

an me byfil a wonder diuers cas. 

For of fortune it happed sodeynly, 

Whil I was seue7*y[d] fro my company, 2424 

Sool be my silf among f e holtis hore, 

To fynde game desyrous, euermore, 

Or I was war, f oru$ fikke & [f oru^] f inne, 

A ful gret hert I sawe a-fore me rewne, 2428 

Dovn by fe lauwde and fe walys grene, 

Jjat I in soth my3t[e] nat sustene, 

He was so swyft, for to ni^e hym ner, 

Al-be fat I priked my courser 2432 

Ni$e to J?e dej?, ]?oru^ many sondri schaw, 

Out of my si$t so fer he gan w?'t/i-drawe, 

For al J>at euer [pat] I sewen my^t, 

)3at I anoon lost of hym )>e si^te [leaf 37 &] 2436 

In a wode fat Ida bare J>e name. 

And I so feynt gan wexen of fat game, 

And myn hors on whiche I dide ryde, 

Fomyng ful whit [vp-]on euery syde, 2440 

And his flankis al with blood disteyned, 

2407. gret] om. D 1. 2423. it] I D 1. 
2434. wtt/i-drawe] to drawe D 1. 2438. I] om. A. 
. 2439. dide] dode D 1. 

and saw a 
big stag, 

so swift that 
ray horse 
catch him up. 

This was in 
the wood Ida, 

BK. li] Paris' s Speech. Mercury appears to him in a Dream. 215 

In my pursute so sore he was constreyned 

With my spoils, scharp and dyed rede, 

After fe hert so priked I my stede, 

Now vp, now doiw, with a ful besy J>ou$t ; 

But my labour availed me ri3t nou^t, 

Til at J>e last, among J?e bowes glade, 

Of auenture I* cau^t a plesauwt slade, 

Ful smoj>e & pleyn, & lusty for to sene, 

And soft as velwet was J>e $onge* grene 

Wher fro mjn hors I [a]li3t as faste, 

And on a bowe I his reyne cast, 

So feynt & maat of werynes I was, 

J5at I me laide dourc vp-on J>e gras, 

Vp-on a brink, schortly for to telle, 

Be-syde a riuer and a cristal welle. 

And fe water, as I reherse can, 

Like quik-siluer in his stremys ran, 

Of whiche j>e grauel & fe bri^tfe] stoon 

As any gold ageyn pe sonwe schon. 

Wher ri$t anon, for verray werynes, 

A sodeyn slep gan me so oppresse, 

j?at fro tyme ]>at I first was born, 

I neuer was a-slepe[d] so to-forn ; 

And as I ley I hadde a wonder sweuene : 

For me-jjou^t hi^e dourc fro heuene, 

J3e wynged god, wonderful of cher, 

Mercuryus, to me dide appere, 

Of whom I was somdel first* a-ferde ; 

For he was girt with his crokyd swerde, 

And with hym brou^t, also in his honde, 

His slepy ^erde, plyauwt as a wonde, 

With a serpent goyng envirouw. 

And at his fete, also lowe a-dou??, 

Me sempte also J>at fer stood a cok, 


" When I got 
to a pleasant 
2448 dell. 






and lay down 
by a stream, 

went to 

and bad a 

2468 Mercury 
appeard to 


2442. he] I D 1. 2448. I] he C, A slade] shade A, D 2, D 1. 
2450. jonge] soft C. 2455. brink] banke D 1. 
2460. ageyn] a }ens D 1. 2461. Wher] There A. 
2463. fro] from >e D 1. 2466. fro] fro the A. 
2469. somdel first] first somdel C. 

2474. also lowe] lowe also D 1 a-doim] doun A, D 2. 

2475. sempte] semyth A, semed D 1. 

216 Paris s Speech. He describes the God Mercury. [BK. II 

bad hiB 
musical pipes 
in bis mouth, 

and lookt as 

His Rod 

prudent man* 
agement ; 

bis Pipes, 

ditties of 
eloquence 3 

his Cock, 


bis Sword, 

the keeping 
of the right 

Singyng his houris trewe as any clok. 2476 

And to f e mouthe of f is god Mercuric, 

Wer pipes sette, fat songe wonder merye ; 

Of whiche f e soote sugred armonye 

Made in myn eris swiche a melodye, 2480 

ftat me sempte f o in myn avis, 

I was ravisched * in-to paradys. 

And f us f is god, diuers of liknes, 

More wonderful fan I can expresse, 2484 

Schewed hym silf in his apparence, [leaf s? <o 

Liche as he is discriued in Fulgence, 

In f e book of his methologies, 

Wher be rehersed many poysyes 2488 

And many liknes, liche as $e may se. 

And for to take }>e moralite : 

His longe 3erde, ri$t as is a lyne, 

Whiche on no syde wrongly may decline, 2492 

Signefieth f e prudent gouernauwce 

Of discret folke, fat f oru} her purm&unce 

Cast a perel or fat it be-falle ; 

And his pipes, loude as any schalle, 2496 

at f oru} musik ben entvned trewe, 

Betokenef eke, with many lusty hewe, 

)3e sugred dites, by gret excellence, 

Of rethorik and of eloquence, 2500 

Of whiche f is god is souereyn & patrouw ; 

And of f is cok f e soote lusty sovn, 

))at iustly kepef fe houris of f e ni^t, 

Is outerly pavise inward si}t 2504 

Of swiche as voide by waker dilligence 

Oute of her court, sloufe & necligence ; 

And his swerd, whiche crokef so ageyw, 

))at is nat forged* nor [y-]made in weyn, 2508 

Is to reuoke to fe ri$t[e] weye 

Swiche as wrongly fro trouf e do forveye ; 

2477. J>e] >is D 1 >is] >e D 1. 

2481. sempte J>o in] semed to D 1. 

2482. ravisched] ravasched C. 2483. of] in D 1. 
2494. Of] Of ]>ese D 1. 2497. trewe] newe D 2. 
2502. >e] >is D 1. 2504. inward] in worldly D 1. 
2507. so] om. A. 2508. forged] forget C. 

BK. n] Paris s Speech and Dream. The 3 Goddesses. 217 

And pe serpent, whiche pat I of tolde, 
Whiche wrinkled is, as 30 may beholde, 
Vp-on pe 3erde and aboute goth, 
Signefieth bat falshede wood & wroth 

T ... . , , ... 

Lith in a-weyt by many sleety weye, 
With his gynnes troupe to werreye. 
And pis god, of elloquence kyng, 
Brou;t vriih hym, eke in his coramyng, 

nfixt i, r i 

Cithera, whom louer[e]s seme, 

luno, and Pallas, pat callid is Minerue. 

A j t_- j*. TT i i j i TJ 

And pis* Venftt, her legis to delite, 

Aboute hir lied hadde dowes white, 

Wit/z, loke benigne and eyen deboneyre, 

Ay flikeryng wtt/t snowy wyngys fayre, 

For to declare, sothly* in sentence, 

By pe dowes verray Innocence 

Of hem in loue pat but troupe mene, 

And pat her grouwde schulde honest be & clene, 

I-tokenyd is, clerly be witnes, 

Wit/i-out soillyng or any vnclennes ; 

And pe fresshnesse * of pe roses rede, 

Jjat in somer so lustyly do sprede, 

And in wynter of her colour fade, 

Signyfieth pe hertly pou^tis glade [leaf 37 d] 

Of 3onge folkis pat ben amerous, 

Feruent in hope, & inly desyrous, 

Whan loue gynnep in her hertis flour, 

Til longe proces makep hem to lour 

With pe wynter of vnweldy age, 

ftat lust is pallid & dullid vritfi pe rage 

Of febilnes whan somer is a-goon, 

As folkys knowe, I trowe mo pan on ; 

And berf or Venws fleteth in a se, 

To schewe pe trowble and aduersite 

j?at is in Loue, and his stormy lawe, 

"The serpent 
2512 cury* wlmd 

shows that 


tries to 
2516 Truth - 

with Mer- 


2520 Juno, 

Minerva and 


mean that 


Her Roses, 

which fade 

in winter, 




2536 the fervour of 

young lovers, 


which Age 

Her floating 

in the sea 

2544 8 ow ? Lve' 


2517. kyng] a kyng D 1. 

2519. Cithera] I Cithera A, Citherea D 1. 

2521. Jns] Jms C >is Venus her legis] ]>is liegis Venus D 1. 

2525. sothly] schortly C, sootly A. 

2531. fresshnesse] fairnes C. 2537. her] om. D 2, D 1. 

2543. in a] on the D 2. 

218 Paris 's Speech and Dream. He describes Minerva. [BK. n 

had spear and 

with her Owl 
on an olive. 

Her Shield 

against vice. 
Her Spear, 
her strict 

Her Olive, 
her Owl, 


Her Rainbow, 
the changes 
in war. 

Her nymphs 

"Wliiche is beset with many sturdy wawe, 

Now calm, now rowe, who-so take)) hede, 

And hope assailled ay with * sodeyn drede. 2548 

And next Venus, Pallas I be-helde, 

With hir spere and hir cristal schelde, 

And a raynbowe immde aboute hir hed, 

]3at of colour was grene, blew, and red ; 2552 

And a-forn hir, as I can discryue, 

Sche growyng had a grene fresche olyue ; 

And j>er-vppon, with his * browes fowle, 

In fe brawnchis I sawe sitte an owle. 2556 

And first f e scheld of Pallas, f e goddes, 

Signified, as I can expresse, 

In vertu force, by manly hi^e diffence 

Ageyns vices to maken insistence ; 2560 

And hir spere, scharp & kene grouwde, 

By iust rygour was forged to confourade 

Hem fat be false, and to putte a-bake ; 

And for fat mercy schal medle with fe wrak, 2564 

)3e schaft, in soth, schaue was ful pleyn, 

List merciles fat ri$t ne wrou^fc in veyn ; 

And after werre to make a ful reles, 

)per was fe olyve fat betokneth pes 2568 

))e owle also, so odyous at al, 

))at songis singeth at festis funeral, 

Declareth pleynly, f e fyn of euery glorie 

Is only deth, who hath it in memorie ; 2572 

And f e raynbow grene, red, and pers, 

Signifieth f e changis ful diuers 

]3at ofte falle in werre and bataille, 

.Now to wynne and sodeynly to faille, 2576 

Now stable as blew, chauwging * now as grene, 

For Pallas play is alwey meynt with tene. 

And alderlast, as I haue in mynde, 

With hir nymphes, luno cam be-hynde, 2580 

Whiche of custom, as Fulgens[e] tellis, 

2548. ay with] with many C. 2550. 1st hir] a D 1. 
2555. his] hir C. 2561. groimde] y grouwde D 1. 
2566. List] Last D 1 nejora. A. 2571. be] om. A, D 2. 
2577. as] in D 1 chaimging] chaii7rgi> C. 

BK.ll] Paris s Speech and Vision. He describes the Goddess Juno. 219 

"dwell in 
Juno is a 

Her sacred 
bird is the 

Water be- 

After the 
tide must 

Fortune will 
pull out rich 

Abide in flodis and in depe wellis. 

And pis luno, as poetis seyn, [leaf as a] . 

A raayden is, and of friite bareyn ; 2584 

And J>e pecok to pis fresche quene 

I-sacrid is, with his feperis schene, 

Splayed a-hrod as a large sail, 

With Argus eyen enp?-ented in his tail. 2588 

fte water rercnyng in riuer and in flood, 

Is pe labour fat men haue for good, 

fte gret[e] trouble and pe besynes 

feat day & nyjt pei suffre for ryches ; 2592 

)?at who pat euer in pis flodis rowe, 

Lat hym be war, for ay after pe flowe, 

Of nature, ri$t as it is dewe, 

Folwyng pe mone pe[r] mote an ebbe sewe ; 2596 come the ebb. 

)3e most[e] drede is ay vppon pe fulle, 

List Fortune pe fresche feperis pulle 

Of riche folke pat schyne in gold so schene, 

Sith sche of chau?ige lady is and quene. 2600 

And Argus eyen, pat ar sette be-hynde, 

In nygard hertis be oft[e] sythes blynde, 

Whiche nat aduerte of goodis to pe ende, 

)3at liche an ebbe sodeynly wil wende, 2604 

Whyche pei no ping consydren in her si$t ; 

For as pe faire lusty fetheris bi^t 

Of a pecok vnwarly falle a-wey, 

Ri^t so riches, schortly at a day, 2608 

Wiln her maister sodeynly forsake, 

Seyn a-dieu, and her leue take. 

And as luno bareyn is of frute, 

Ri^t so nakid, bare, and destitute 2612 

Ar pes gredy hertis couetous, 

Whiche to gadre ben so desyrous, 

ftat in no ping can haue sufficiauwce, 

fee fret of drede he??i putte in swiche meschawnce, 2616 

Ymagenyng pat pe world wil faille ; 

2584. and of frute] of frutes D 1. 2585. >is] his A, D 1. 
2590. haue] ha)> D 1. 2591. besynes] heuynesse D 1. 
2593. 2nd fat] so D 1. 2600. chauwge] chaungyng A. 
2602. nygard] nygardes A, negardes D 1 sythes] sithe D 2. 
2608. riches] Ryehesses D 2, richesses D 1. 

Their riclies 
will forsake 

AH Juno is 
childless, so 
are greedy 
hearts desti- 

220 Paris's Vision of the 3 Goddesses. Jupiter s Banquet. [BK. II 

wealth ends 
in woe. 

The purpose 
of money is 

to be given 
away freely. 

And in her fere ageyn J?e wynd J>ei saille, 

Til [al] attonys pei mote go fer-fro. 

And fus of good ay fe fyn is wo, 2620 

Namly of hem fat so pynche & spare : 

For fis no drede, as clerkis can declare, 

J3e frute of good is to spende large ; 

And who is manful, set but litel charge 2624 

To parte frely his tresour in comovne, 

Whan he discretly seth tyme oportune. 

He hath no loye to put his good in mwe ; 

For an* hert fat fredam list to sewe, 2628 

Of gentilnes takef noon hed fer-to. 

And in fis wyse, Pallas and luno, 

With fresche Ven?^s, ben a-douw descended, 

Liche as I haue schortly comprehended, [leaf 386] 2632 

Vnder f e guying of Mercurivs, 

Whiche vn-to me gan his tale fus : 

Howe Parys yaf fe golden appele to Venus, and howe 
sche promysed hym to rekyvere Heleyne. 1 

' Parys,' qwod he, ' lifte vp fin eye and se ! 
Loo, fis goddesses here in nouwbre thre, 2636 

Whiche fro heuene with her eyen clere 
So diuersly vn-to the appere, 
were at a feast Wern at a fest, as I foe telly n schal, 

with Jupiter. J 

With alle fe goddis aboue celestial, 2640 

]}at lubiter held at his owne borde. 

Was non absent only saue Discord ; 

And for dispit sche was not f er present, 

To be avenged sche sette al hir entent, 2644 

And in hir wittes many weyes sou^t, 

Til at f e last, euene fus sche wrou^t, 

Of poetis liche as it is tolde : 

To^jt, Discord Sche toke an appil rouwde of purid gold, 2648 

Apple With greke lettris grauen vp & dourc, 

Juno i8> 
Venus and 

2618. >e] om. D 1. 
2628. an] in 

2622. >is] )>is is D 1 as] pat D 2. 
C, A. 2631. a-doim] doim D 1. 
2635. eye] ei$en D 1. 2636. goddesses] goddes D 1. 
2638. the] >e here D 1. 2639. a] >is D 1. 
2649. greke] grete D 2, D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 44 a. 

BK. n] Paris's Vision. The Dispute at Jupiter's Banquet. 221 

Whiche seide pus, in conclusions, 

W^-oute strife bat it were aove auon "'inscribed: 

To the 

To the fairest of hem euerychon. 2652 Fairest, 

And of Discord pis lady & goddes, 

As sche fat is of debat maistres, 

Hath pis appil, passyng of delit, 

Brou^t to pis fest, of malis and despit, 2656 

And cast it dou?a among he?ft at be bord and threw it 

on the table. 

Wiih deynious chere, spekyng not a word ; 

But on hir weye fast[e] gaa hir hi^e. 

And sodeynly so prive gret en vie 2660 

In-to be court bis appil hath in brou^t, Thisstird 

great strife 

So gret a werre & swiche a contek wroust a" 1 ?"* the : * 


In pe hertis of pis ilke tbre, 

frat after long may not staunched be ; 2664 

Among hem silf so J>ei gan disdeyn 

Whiche in bewte was most souereyn, 

And whiche of hem hab best title of riat as to who 

had the best 

For to corcquere pis bornyd appil bri^t. 2668 title to the 

And first pei gan pus for bewte striue, 

jpat of * rancour her hertis almost ryue, 

To wit of rijt who schuld it first possede 

Loo, $it envye regneth in womanhede, 2672 

)3at on is fayrer pan anoper holde ; 

For eche woman of hir kynde wolde 

Haue on som part pris a-boue anoper, 

In eche estat, in soth it is noon other. 2676 

And eche of hem, in her owne avis, Each thought 

Hath loye in bewte for to han a pris ; most beauti- 

For non so foule doth in a myrow prye, 

Jjat sche is feir in hir owne eye. 2680 

But liche a fool he hym silf doth quite, [leafssc] 

jjat awmber ^elwe chesep for pe white. 

A gowndy eye is deceyued sone, 

)3at any colour chesep by pe mone ; 2684 

For som colour is with fir made fyn, 

2660. so] so a A, D 1 prive gret] gret priue D 1. 
2667. 2nd of] and D 2. 2668. bri^t] om. A. 
2670. of] for C. 2675. on] in A, of D 2. 
2676. soth] soche D 1. 2679. a] om. D 1. 
2683. gowndy] gownd A. 

222 Paris s Vision. He is to give an Apple tola/3 Goddesses. [BK. n 

" ' Some wo- 
men, made 
up with con- 
fections, look 
well at night, 

Therefore it 
is best to 
make one's 
choice before 
breakfast, as 
Ovid bids, 
before the 
are opend. 

Paris, be 
well advisd 
in your 

If you grant 
the Apple to 
Juno, you'll 
get wealth, 

and honour. 

If to Minerva, 

And som encresicl with spicis & with wyn, 

With oynementis* and confeccions ; 

And on ny3t, by false illusions, 2 6 88 

Somme appere wonder fresche and faire, 

Jpat loke dirke a day-li^t in ]>e eyre. 

fter is no pref but erly by }>e morwe, 

Of swiche as nede no bewte [for] to borwe, 2692 

But as Nature hath hir silf disposed. 

}3erfore fastyng, or boystis ben vnclosyd, 

Make Ipi choyse, liche as bit Ovide, 

Whan euery drogge & pot is set a-syde, 2696 

List ]>at pou be, after his sentence, 

Deceyvid li^tly by fals apparence, 

For now-a-dayes swiche craft is ful rife. 

And in ]>is wyse Jms be-gan }>e stryf 2700 

Be-twixe luno, Yenus, and Pallas, 

}5at be descendid for J>is sodeyn caas, 

By on assent, towching her bewte, 

Jje dom J>er-of comitted vn-to ]>e. 2704 

I speke to J?e, ]?at callid art Parys, 

And holdyn art ri$t prudent & ri$t wys, 

Be avysed how }>i dom schal fyne ; 

For )>ei ne may to nor fro* declyne, 2708 

But obeie, alle, by oon assent, 

With-oute strif to J?i lugement. 

But herk[e], frist, or fat )>ou procede, 

Of eche of hem what schal be )>i mede, 2712 

Considere ari3t, & take good hede fer-to : 

3if }>ou Ipe appil graunte vn-to luno, 

Sche schal )>e $ef plente of riches, 

Hi3e renou/?,, of fame eke worfines, 2716 

With habundauwce of gold & of tresour, 

And do J>e reise to so hi^e honour, 

})at )?ou allone alle oper schalt excelle, 

For fi guerdourc, liche as I pe telle. 2720 

And 3if to Pallas, goddesse of prudence, 

2586. 2nd with] om. D 1. 

2687. oynementis] onymentis C. 

2694. vnclosyd] enclosed D 1. 2700. be] this A 

2708. fro] ther fro C. 2711. new IF D 1. 

2716. eke] & eke D 1. 2717. 2nd of] eke D 1. 

BK. n] Paris s Vision. The Rewards that he will get. 223 

)9e liste be fyn conclude of bi sentence, 

feat sche may lady of be appil be, 

For bi mede sche schal assure be, 2724 

J)at of witte and of sapience 

feou schalt hooly han be excellence, '"you'iibe 

And of wisdam and discreciouw, BM 

To discerne by clernes of resoiw ; 2728 

Also fer as Phebus cast his li^t, 

)?er schal nat be a more prudent kny^t, [leaf 38 d] 

Nor in bis world, sith bat it be^an, and the 

r\f o^ manliest that 

Ui mst report a manlier man, 27o2 everiivd. 

Nor to bi name noon equipolente. 

And aif to Venw^, of trew & clene entent, if you give 

the Apple to 

pe list to graunt, in conclusions, Venus, 

Of be appil to haue pocessiouw, 2736 

\)& fresche goddes, bat sit so hi^e aboue, 

Schal be ensure to haue [vn-lto bi loue she'll secure 

-..,,, , . . you the love 

be fairest lady bat is or was to-fore, of the most 


Or in bis world euer schal be bore ; 2740 woman in the 

And in Grece bou schalt hir knyjtly wywne. 

Now be avised or bat bou be-gynne, 

Justly to deme, and for no bing spare.' 

And I anoon gan loken vp and stare,* 2744 

Gretly astoned what me was best to do, 

Til at be last I spake Mercurye to, 

And seide, certeyn, bat I ne wolde there i said i 

, wouldn't 

$euen no dom, but bei naked were, 2748 judge the 

So bat I myat haue fuiriy] liberte unless they 


Eueryche of hem avisely to se, 

And consyderen Query circu?rastau?zce 

Who fairest wer vn-to my plesauwce, 2752 

And goodliest, to speke of womonhede, 

And after bat to my doom precede. 

And bei anoon, as 30 haue herde me seie, 

To my desyre mekely gan obeie, 2756 

In al hast to don her besy cure 

2722. 1st e] And D 1. 2725. J>at] What D 1. 

2727. 2nd and] and of A, D 1. 2731. pis] >e D 1. 

2734. 3if] om. A trew] trou>e D 1. 2744. stare] to stare C. 

2755. haue] om. D 2. 

224 Paris s Visionof his Judgment. He givesVenus the Apple. [BK n 

"So they took 
off all their 

When I 
saw the 

I gave Venus 
the Apple, 
for she was 
the loveliest. 

She was de- 

The 3 God. 
desses dis- 

Mercury went 
up to heaven, 
and I woke. 

Hem to dispoille of eloping & vesture, 

Liche as pe statut of my dom hem bonde : 

In a poynt, pei nolde it not withstonde, 2760 

)3at I my^t haue ful inspeccioim 

Of forme & schap & eche proporciourc, 

For to discerne, as I can remembre, 

Avisely by ordre euery membre, 2764 

And paraie at erst to iugen* after ri$t. 

But whawne pat I of eche had a s^t, 

I $af to Venus pe appil ri3t anoon, 

Be-cause sche was fairest of echon, 2768 

And most excellyng, sothly, of* bewte, 

Most womanly & goodly on to se, 

As I dempte pleynly in my si$t. 

For pe stremys of hir eyen brist, 2772 

I-liche glade and egal euene of li$t 

Wern to pat sterre pat schewzt/i toward ny^t, 

Whiche callid is Esperus so schene, 

Venus hir silf, pe fresche lusty quene. 2776 

fee whiche anon, pis heuenly Emperesse, 

After my doom, of hertly hi^e gladnesse, 

J3at of pe appil sche hooly hap pe glorie, [leaf 39 a] 

And wonyn hit iustly by victorie, 2780 

Eeioysched hir more pan I can telle, 

jpat sche hir feris in bewte dide excelle. 

And sche in hast, of trewe affecciouw, 

Concluded hap, fully for my guerdouw, 2784 

Ful demurly, lowe and nat a-lofte, 

To Mercurye wa't/i sobre wordis softe, 

Devoide hope of doubilnes & slouthe, 

Liche hir behest holde wil hir trouth. 2788 

And sodeynly, wt/*-out[e] more Iniurye, 

j)ei disapered, and pe god Mercurie 

Street to heuene pe ri3t[e] weye toke ; 

And I anon out of my slepe awoke. 2792 

2760. nolde] wolde D 1. 

2763. discerne] discrive D 1, descerne D 2. 

2765. iugen] jiuen C. 

2769. excellyng] excellent D 2, D 1 of] in C. 

2770. goodly] good D 1 on to] vnto A. 

2771. dempte] deme A. 2791. pe] and the A. 

BK. n] Paris says he should le sent to Greece. Priam reproacht. 225 

Wher-of, my lord, whom I most lone & drede, 

3if 30 aduerte and wysly taken hede, 

feat pis behest, affermyd in certeyn, 

Was vn-to me assured nat in veyn 2796 

Of goodly Ven?s, liche as I haue tolde. 

Wherfore, I rede :e ben of hertfel bolde, "So you'd 

., better send 

Me for to sende -with strong & my^ty hond, me to Greece; 

With-oute abood,* in-to Grekis lond, 2800 

After pe forme pat I haue 3ow seyde. 

And, I hope, 30 schal be wel apayde, and when 

Whan I haue sped, as Venws hap be-hi3t, 

And hom retourned with my lady b^t : 2804 

So schal 30 best, me list nat speke in veyn, 

Beschauwge of hir 3our suste?* wy/me ageyn, you can 

Whom ThelamouM wat/i-holden haj> so 3ore. for* Hesione. 

Lo, pis is al ; I can seye 3ou no more 2808 

Towching theffect hooly of myn avis." 

And after pat, stille sat Parys, 

As he prtt hap fully hym silf * aquyt. 

But seye, Priam, alias ! where was pi witte, 2812 o Priam, 

_. .. ,11 wlierewere 

Of nechgence for to take kepe, your wits 

]){ trust to sette on dremys or on slepe ! to trust in a 

dream ? 

Ful pinne was pi discreciouw, 

To take a grouwde of fals illusiouw, 2816 

For to precede liche pi fantasye 

Vp-on a sweuene meynt with flaterye ! 

Alias ! resouw was no ping pi guyde ! Reason wa 

For Pallas was wrongly sette a-syde, 2820 g*> 

Nat receyued with dew reuerence \ 

And luno eke, with al hir sapience, Minerva ana 

For al hir good & lokyng debonayre, disregarded, 

With hir* tresour & hir hestis faire, 2824 

Refusid was, alias, of wilfulnes. 

And sche pat is of loue pe* goddes, 

And eke also of Wlcanus pe wyf, 

2800. abood] abote C. 2803. be-hi^t] me higlit A. 

2804. retourned] retourne D 2, returne D 1. 

2807. so] of D 2, A. 2811. fully hym silf] hym silf fully C. 

2812. seye] kyng A. 2818. meyiit] ofte meywt D 1. 

2820. in place, of this line, D 1 repeats 2819, omitting guyde. 

2824. hir] al hir C. 2826. pe] pat C. 


226 Paris the cause of Troy s fall Deiphobus says 'Act at once! [BK. n 

mischief- In whoS SCIulse IS 61167*6 W61T6 and Stiff, [leaf 39 6] 2828 

breeding wife 

foiiowd. Prefernd was pe appil to possede, 

Paris set Ageyn fall rist, for Paris toke noon hede 

Pleasure J L J 7 ' 

before Truth, Saue vn-to lust, & sette a-syde troupe. 

Wher-poru$, alias, & pat was ful gret routhe 2832 
wherby be my^ty, riche, And pe noble toun 

Troy fell. Of Troye was brou^t to confusion : 

Only for he kny3thod hath forsake, 

Prudence and gold, & in his choyse y-take 2836 

Only a womman, and holden hym per-to, 

bat after was rote of al her wo, 

As pis* story ceryously schal telle. 

But I in dremys wil no lenger dwelle, 2840 

Deiphobus, But write furth how pat Dephebus, 

Priam's ., , .^ . 

third son, be bridde so?me 01 kyng Jrriamws, 

then spoke: ' r . 

His tale gan in opyn audience, 

And to pe kyng, schortly in sentence, 2844 

As he pat list a troupe nat to spare, 

Euene pus his conceyt to declare : 
if every one " My lord," quod, he, " }if pat euery wijt 
to the pern of Aduerten schuld & castvn in his siat 2848 

his under- . 

taking, Of future ping pe pereil & pe doute, 

And cerchyn it w&'t/i-Inne?i & with-oute, 

From poynt to poynt, alwey in his rescue 

To cast[e] doutes & turnen vp-so-dou7^, 2852 

he'd never bawne no wy^t schulde to no pwrpos wende 

bring it to an ' > 

end. in any mater tor to make an ende, 

Or dar presvme by manhod in his pou^t. 

Who cast perilles achevep litel or nou^t : 2856 

Eor ^if pe plowman alwey cast a-forne, 

How many graynes in his feld of corne 

Schal be devourid of foulis rauynous, 

bat he doth sowe in feldys plenteuous, 2860 

bawne schulde he neuer, in vale nor in pleyn, 

For cowardyse prowe abrod his greyne. 
set fear aside. Lat al swyche drede now be leyde a-syde ; 

2828. werre] woo D 1. 2829. possede] procede A. 
2832. >at] om. D 1. 2836. y-take] take D 1. 
2839. >is] be C. 2840. in] om. D 2. 2845. a] om. A. 
2856. cast] caste> D 2, casteth D 1. 2861, vale] valey A. 
2862. cowardyse] cowardshippe A. 

BK. n] Deiphobus advises the Trojans to send Paris to Greece. 227 

I holde foly lengere to abyde, 2864 

But fat Parys, my brother, make* hi??i strong, "Let Pans 

With his schippis for to venge our wrong avenge us on 

the Greeks. 

Vp-on Grekis, \\itk al his peyne & my^t, 

To preue schortly fat he is a kny^t. 2868 

For of resouw }e consydere may, 

How fat no man iustly may sey[e] nay, 

But bat Paris hath coimsailled wele : He's given us 

good advice. 

For be my troufe, as fer as I can fele, 2872 

It wer errour his pwrpos to coiitrarie. 'Two ad be 

-iTTi /. 1,1 a mistake to 

Wherfor, lat hym now no lenger tarie, thwart mm 

But holde his wey with a strong navie, 

For to avenge fe grete villenye, 2876 

ftat Grekis han, ^if 30 takera hede, [leaf 39 c] 

Don her-to-forn to vs and oure kynred ; 

And, for fynal execuciourc 

Of f e recure touchyng Exyourc, 2880 in recovering 

Whom f ei trete in dishonest wyse, 

Ageyn al ri$t and title of Justice, 

)3ut to fink, it jQwith myn hert a wouTzde, the shame of 

fee schame of whiche so new[e] doth rebourade 2884 menTwo'unds 

Yp-on alle fat ben of hir allye. 

Wherfor, f e best fat I can espie, 

Is fat Parys take fis viage, 

With swiche as ben of fresche & lusti age, 2888 

Many to wende in-to Grekes * lond ; 

And by force of her my^ti honde, 

Maugre f e Grekis, proude & most ellat, Enabl? Pari8 

Ravische fer som lady of estat ; 2892 sotn^bie 

And f a?me 36 may, be kny^thod of my brofer, 

3if 36 list, chauwge hir for f e tof er. 

jpis most redy & schort conclusiou?i it- 8 the 

))at I can sen for restituciourc 2896 

Of Exyou, jif [fat] Parys wende ; "act" 6 

And of my conseii schortly fis f e ende." 
And farme as fast, ful discrete & sage, 

2865. make] go make C. 2866. venge] avenge D 2. 
2868. a] a worj>i D 1. 2876. avenge] venge D 1. 
2878. oure] to oure A. 2889. Grekes] grece C. 

2894. chaunge hir] to chauuge it D 1. 

2895. f>is] pis is D 1 schort] shortest D 1. 

228 Helenus warns them that Paris' s Expedition means Ruin. [BK.II 


Helen us, 
fourth son, 


" You know 
that whatever 
I've foretold 
has always 
happen d. 

So now I 
warn you 

if P.i ris goes 
to Greece, we 
shall all be 
The Gods 
have reveald 
it to me. 

Elenus, f e ferf e sone of age, 
Eos from his cete with gret reuerence, 
Praying his fader graiwte hym audience, 
}3at he may seyn in presens of hem alle, 
Openly what fat schal be-falle, 
As he fat most of secre f inges can. 
And soburly f us his tale he gan, 
With clene entent and trew 


Howe Elenus, J>e fourte sone of Priame, tolde & seid 
}>at Troye shuld be subuerted, and Parys went into 
Grece. 1 

" My lord," quod, he, " with supportaciou?z 
Of $our grace, wher-in is most my trust, 
Lat non offence ben vn-to 30111* lust, 
Nor $ou displese, f ou$ I sey my conceyt, 
Sith ^e knowe I mene no disceyt ; 
For neuer $et failed no sentence, 
But fat it fil in experience, 
Liche as I tolde, in party and in al, 
In pryue trete & in general, 
With-out menyng of any doubilnes, 
jjat it folwede as I dide expresse ; 
Eemembre ^ou, and $e schal fynd it trewe. 
And ^if God wil, I schal not now of newe 
Spare for to seyn, liche as I conceyue, 
Nor, to be ded, with fraude $ou deceyue,* 
Declaryng first of trewe entenciouw, 
As it schal folwe in conclusio?i, 
)}at ^if Paris in-to Grece wende, 
Trustejj me wel, it wil vs alle schende. 
]5e goddis han, by reuelaciou?*, 
Made vn-to me dernonstraciouw ; 
And eke I knowe it by astronomye ; 
For neuer $et in my prophesye 
Nas I deceyued of fat schuldfe] falle, 
Nor noon fat list me to courzseil calle, 

[leaf 39 d] 








2906. he gan] by gan A. 2915. and] or D 1. 
2916. &] nor D 1. 2922. deceyue] to deceyue C. 
2929-42 are omitted in~D2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 45 c (misplaced after line 2926). 

BK. n] Helenus's Warning of the Ruin Paris s going will work. 229 

So am I tau^t of f ing }>at schal be-tyde. 

Wherfor, I praye, for rancoztr nor for pride, 

Nor for en vie of [noon] old hatered, 

To take vengau^ce fat 36 nat procede 2936 

In jour avis, liche as 30 pwrpose ; 

I seye 3011 pleynly, for me list nat glose, 

3& schal repente 3if 36 Parys sende 

In-to Grece, fe whiche God defende ! 2940 

Wyteth fis wel, for f e conclusion?* 

Schal fully turne to oure destrucciouw, 

And fynally in- to oure ruyne, 

Liche as to 3ow I can a-forn devyne. 2944 

For fis f e fyn fat f er folwe schal : 

Subuersiouw, bothe of tour and wal, 

Of paleys, house, here in oure cite, 

Al goth to nou3t ; 36 gete no more of me ; 2948 

For me semeth, it ou3te I-now suffyse, 

Jpat I haue seid, sith fat 30 be wyse : 

For 3 if fat 36 aduerte to my sawe, 

I doute not, fat 36 wil withdrawe 2952 

}oure hand be-tyme, or f at more damage 

Assaile 3ou by constreynt of fis rage. 

For bet it is be-tymes to abstene 

From fis* pwrpos, whiche is jet but grene, 2956 

Jjan of hede hastily assente 

To f ing for whiche we schal echon repe?ite ; 

For plenerly f er schal no f ing socoure, 

J5at fer schal folwe of jou & alle 3oure 2960 

Despitful deth, wit/i-oute exceptions, 

Of on and alle abydyng in fis tou??. 

First on 3our silf, pleynly to endyte, 

Schal fe vengauwce of fe Grekis byte, 2964 

#01-113 f e furie of her mortal tene ; 

And 3oure wyfe, Eccuba f e quene, 

Schal lede hir lyf, foru3 Grekis cruelte, 

In sorwe & wo and in captiuite ; 2968 

2944. to $ow I can a-forn] to forn I can to $ow D 1 can] gan A. 

2945. )>is] Jris is D 1. 2946. tour] toiw A. 

2947. house] houses D 1. 2950. 1st f>at] What A. 

2956. >is] >e C jet] om. A. 2957. assente] to assente D 1. 

2964. 1st >e] be A 2nd J>e] this A. 2968. 2nd in] om. A. 

"I tell yon 
plainly that 
you'll be 
sorry it you 
send Paris 
to Greece. 

It'll end in 
our ruin. 

Give up the 
at once, 

for Death 
to you all 
will be its 

You, Priam, 
shall die. 

Hecuba, your 
shall be & 
captive ; 

230 Helenus and his Speech against Paris s going. [BK. II 

"your folk 

and their 
young shall 
be slain. 

Death must 
be your end, 
if Paris goes J 
to Greece." 

All sit sad 
and silent till 

speaks : 

"0 noble 
Trojans ! 

What fear 
has crept into 
your breasts ? 

And }oure leges by )>e swerde schal pace 

Of cruel deth, with-oMten any grace ; 

And Innocentis mercy les schal blede, 

In 3our avis $if fat 36 precede 2972 

Of wilfulnes a werre for to make, 

And folily for to vndirtake 

For to perturbe $our quiete and $our reste, [leaf 40 a] 

Whiche schal turne no ping for pe best, 29 7 & 

But to ruyne of 3ow & of vs alle. 

I can no more ; but or pat meschef falle, 

Mi conseil is a-forn for to prouyde, 

And wilfulnes for to sette a-syde ; 2980 

Specialy, whan deth, as I $ow tolde, 

Mote be pe fyn, }if 36 $our pwpos holde. 

Loo, here is al, with-oute wordis ino, 

In-to Grece jif pat Parys goo !" 2984 

And in pis wyse, whan pat Elenus 

Had pleinly seid, as Guydo telleth vs, 

Trist and hevy, with a pale face, 

Ageyn resorteth to his sittyng place, 2988 

Of whos sentence astonyd euerychon 

Sat in silence, stille as any stoon, 

Powerles her hertis to reswme. 

To speke a word no man dar p?*eswme 2992 

Of alle pe pres, but kept her lippes clos, 

Til at pe laste, Troylus up a-ros, 

3oug, fresche, and lusty, & coraious also, 

And ay desyrous for to haue a-do 299(> 

In armys manly, as longeth to a kny3t. 

And when pat he, of chere ful glad & Ii3t, 

Sawe his fader and breperen euerychon 

So inly trowblid, pus he spak anon : 3000 

" noble & worpi, sittyng envirouw, 

Of hi3e prudence & gret discreciouw, 

Manful also, and of hi3e corage, 

What sodeyn fere hap brou3t 3011 in pis rage 1 3004 

"What new[e] trouble is cropen in 3our brest, 

2975. 2?wZ ^owr] om. A. 2977. Vnd of] om. D 1. 
2979. for] om. D 1. 2985. in >is wyse] bus wisely D 1. 
2988. his] her D 2. 2989. Of] om. D 1. 

Troilus ridicules Helenuss Fears about Paris s Expedition. 231 

For be sentence of a cowarde prest 1 


Sith }>ei echon, as 30 schal euer fynde, 

Desyre more, verrayly, of kynde, 3008 

To lyue in lust & voide awey traueyle, workand 

And dedly hate to heren of bataille ; war. 

For )>ei her wit fynally applye 

To swe her lust & lyue in glotonye, 3012 They mi their 

To fille her stomak & restore her ma we, 

To rest & ese eue?- for to drawe, 

And to swe her inward appetite, 

ftis her loye and J>is is her delyte, 3016 

In etyng, drinkyng, and in couetyse StUd care k oni 

Is her studie, and fully to deuyse for pleasure. 

How J)ei may folwe her lust, wzt/i-out[e] more, 

Of ri$t nou^t ellis sette * )>ei no store. 3020 

Alias, for schame ! whi be se so dismaied, why are you 

friffhtend at 

And sitte mwet, astonyed & affrayed So!Si u ? 8 ' 8 

For J?e wordis of pis Elenus, 

Ferful for drede as a litel mows, [leaf *o&] 3024 

ftat he quaketh to here speke of fi^t ; 

And, more-our, ageyn al skil & ri3t, without any 

In p?-eiudise of J>e goddis alle, 

He take]) on hyra to seyn what schal be-falle, 3028 

Of t>ing f Utur for to SpeCVfie, he claims the 

r J spirit of 

As he had a spirit of profecye prophecy, 

Grauwtid to hym allone in special, 

As pau3e he were in konyng perigal 3032 ns if^he 

man can 

To )?e goddis, hauyng prescience uiuch as the 

To schew a-forn, poru^ his sapience, 

What schal be-tide, ou)>er euel or good. 

Lat be, lat be ! for no wi^t is so wood, 3036 

ftat hap his witte, to 3eue ber-to * credence, what sensible 

)3at any man by crafte or by science, 

)3at mortal is, hap konyng to devine 

Fortunys cours, or fatys to termyne. 3040 

Swyche causis hid, conselid in secre, 

Reserued ben to goddis priuete ; 

3011. her wit] herwith A. 

3016. 1st f>is] f>is is D 1 is] om. A. 3020. sette] stet C. 

3037. ber-to] to J>e C. 3042. to] vn to D 1. 

" Don't let 

Helenas has 
s;iid trouble 

232 Troilus urges the Trojans to disregard Helenus. [BK. II 

Men may devine, but al is but folye 

To taken hede ; for pei don but lye. 3044 

"Wherfor, I rede, as in pis mater, 

Bope on and alle, & 3ou my lord so dere, 

Texclude al drede & al pat may disturbe 

Out of ^our hert, and tot no ping perturbe 3048 

^our hi^e corages, pat Eleims hap tolde ; 

And }if pat lie of hert[e] be nat bolde, 

As marihod wold, to lielpfe] venge our wronge, 

Lat hym go hyde hym in pe te??iple strong, 3052 

And kepe hym clos in contemplaeiouft, 

To wake and praye by deuocioim 

"WYt/i-oute socour, a-dayes and a-ny^tes, 

And suffrep swiche as be lusty kny^tes 3056 

To haute her ^oupe & grene lustyues, 

Manly in armys to preue her hardynes, 

)?at pei may haue )>e better acquaintance 

In tyme comyng, for to do vengance 3060 

On her enmyes and her cruel foon. 

And commauftdeth pat Parys may forpe gon 

To execute pe fyn of 3our entent, 

Aforn purposed in jour parlament, 3064 

Vp-on Grekis for her offenciouw, 

To parforme vp pe peyne of talioiift 

For wrongis old, of whiche $it pe fame 

Eehersid is vn-to our alder schame 3068 

ftoru^-oute pe world, $e wot pis is no les." 

And per-wit/i-al Troylus held his pes. 

And sodeynly alle pat were present 

Be-gan attonys, al be on assent, 3072 

Troilus cou?iseil gretly for to preyse, [leaf 40 c] 

And his manhod to pe heuene areyse, 

His fresche corage and his hi^e prowes, 

His feruent }el and his hardines, 3076 

And of on hert gretly hym comende ; 

And ri^t anoon per pei made an ende. 

Let him go 
and hide in 
the temple, 

and let bold 

do vengeance 
on their foes. 

Bid Paris 

exact redress 
for pur 

All present 




and the 



3046. so] most A, D 2. 3050. nat] not so D 1. 
3055. socour] soionr D 2, D 1. 3067. whiche] su'fhe D 1. 
3068. vn-to] to D 1. 3074. areyse] Reyse D 2, reise D 1. 
3067-78 are repeated in D 2. 

BK. 11] Priam tells Paris to get ready ta sail. His Speech. 233 

]?an Priam us, whan fat al was don, 
Vp-on fe tyme of fe hour of noon, 
To mete goth with-Inne Illyou?^, 
Alle his sonys sittyng environs. 
And after mete he called ha)? Parys 
And Dephebws also, pat was ful wyse, 
And seerely bad fei schuld[e] go 
fte same day with ofer lord is mo 
To Panonye, in al f e hast fei may, 
To make hem redy, a3ens a certeyn day, 
With al }e array of worf i chyualry 
}5at fei may gete in her company, 
To ward [es] Grece to seylen hastyly. 
And after fat, fe kyng al sodeynly 
J?e next[e] day made his coiuiseil calle ; 
And euene f us he seyde a-forn hem alle : 
" noble liges, beyng now present, 
My purpos is to sey $ow myn entent, 
With-oute abood, to here it $ef 36 list. 
As I suppose, to ^ow is nat vn-wist 
How fe Grekis, of pride and tyra??nye, 
Of malis old compasid by envie, 
In many wyse han ageyn vs wrou^t, 
Whiche is so grene * fat I for-^ete nou^t. 
For day by day, encresyng euer mo 
By remembrau?ice, renewed is my wo, 
Whan I record & castfe] vp and dourc 
Oure greuys alle, & how fat Exyoiw 
In seruitute among hem doth soiourne. 
Whiche oft a day causeth me to mourne, 
And myn hert almost asondre ryne, 
For to considre & seen it be my lyue ; 
Whos cmelte we han to dere abou^t, 

ft I haue menys sou^t 


Priam dines 
in Troy at 

and bids 
Paris and 
3084 Ueiphobus go 

to Panonia, 
3088 and make 






ready to sail 
to Greece. 

Next day he 
say a to his 
Council : 


you know how 
the Greeks 
have wrongd 

and have 
kept my 
sister Hesione 
in servitude, 

3112 tholsent 

3083. ha>] aftir D 1. 3084. ful] so D 2. 
3088. a^ens] ageyn D 2. 3092. al] om. D 1. 

3094. a-forn] amonge D 1. 

3095. neiv IT D 1 now] here now D 1. 

3102. grene] gret C for-^ete] forgete it D 1. 

3103. by] to D 1. 3109. asondre] in swidre D 1. 
3110. seen] sent A. 

234 Priam tells his Council he will send Paris to Greece. [BK. n 

To ben in rest, w^t/^-outen any more, 
"Anterior to Whan in-to Greco I sent Anthenor, 

Greece to 

bring her Peysibly my suster to recure, 

And )>e surplus paciently tendure. 3116 

But al for non^t ; )>ei toke of it non hede, 

For al pat I offered of goodlyhede ; 

It was nat herd, for lak of gentilnes, 

Eecord of whiche doubleth my distres. 3120 

we must cure Wherfor, we most, as techeth sorgerye, 
iron* 1 With scharp yrens sechyn remedye, [leaf 40 dj 

and cut away To kut awey r by fe rote rourcde, 
proud flesh, jpe prowde flesche pat grow^'t/i in ])e grouwde, 3124 

Whiche wil not voide with oynemeratis softe, 

Al-be pat pei be leid per-to f ul ofte. 

Bi$t so be ensaraple, we most be duresse 

Getyn recur, whan pat with* fairnesse 3128 

We may noon haue : wherfor, be 30^?* avys, 
soi mean to My vurpos is to send[e] forpe Parys 

send Paris to _ . n 

Greece to In-to Grece, som lady per to wynne, 

lady to And bring hir horn; & we schal her w^tA-Inne 3132 

Kepe hir strong, maugre who seyth nay, 

Til we sen som agreable day, 

J?at pei be fayn, liche myn oppiniou/z, 
exchange for To haue exchauTiore for hir of Exyoutt, 3136 


My dere suster, whom I loue so. 
we shan't We may nat faile bat it schal be do, 

fail if the , , 

Gods and you So JJ6 goddis be to vs fauourable, 

plan, And pis couwseil be also acceptable 3140 

To ^ou echon, as it is to me ; 

For whan a J>ing touchej? a co??imvnte 

Of wyse men as it is affermed 
for the com- Of alle ]>e comou?i it ouate be * cowfermed ; 3144 

mons must ' 

ping touchyng al schuld[ej ben ap?*evid 

Of alle echon, or it wer a-cheuyd : 

Wherfor, I cast, be avis of $ou echon, 

Pleinly to werke." & we't/i fat word anoon 3148 

))is noble Priam was sodeynly in pes. 

3122. sechyn] shapen D 1. 3126. >er-to] ]>ere D 2. 
3128. with] be C. 3129. avys] devys D 2 (partly erased}. 
3144. be] to be C. 

BK. n] Pentheus s Speech against Paris s Expedition. 235 

And after pat, amongfes] al pe pres, 
Whan al was hust, in her alder si$t, 
A kimt vp ros, and Pentheus he hiat, 3152 Pentheus 

J * (the son of 

)5at son[e] was of * Euforbius Euphorbma, 

De transformatis, as seith Ovidius 

In-to whom he feyneth ]>at per was Smlt tile 

Whilom be sowle of Pyctagoras 3156 souiof 


Holy t?-ansmewed, so as writ Ovide : 

As touchy ng pat, I wil no lenger byde, 

But telle forpe of Jus Pentheus, 

A-fore pe kyng whiche gan his tale pus : 3160 * l en speaks: 

" My lige lord, vn-to 3our hi^e noblesse 

Displese it nat, nor to jour worpines, 

In presence of ^our maieste 

)3at I schal seyn, for taquite me 3164 

Towardis $ow of my feith & troupe ; 

For sothfastly in me may be no sloupe Jea?Vor ll ou 

Touchyng youre honow?*. pat wi't/i-oute drede, honour; 

With 30! of feith I brewne as doth pe glede, 3168 

Of alle harmys to bidden ^ow be war. 

For dout[e]les afferme wel I dar, 

}if 36 stond in 3our first avis, [leaf a] 

As 36 purpos, to sende forpe Parys, 3172 Jut if you 

I dout[e] nat pat it schal 3ou rewe ; you'll rue it. 

For God wel wot, of old & nat of newe. 

I had a fader callid Euforbius, 

Discret & wis, and rut vertuous, 3176 My Father 

had fore- 

And knowyng had a-forn of euery ping knowledge 

By prescience and by for-wetyng, 

To telle pleinly poru3 his philosophic, 

So clere he saw -with his hertis eye, 3180 

}3at per ne was no ping so secre of secret 

Hid from his knowyng, nor no p?*euite 

J)at he hit knewe ; he was of witte so sage. 

And at pe last, wan he was of age 3184 

An hundrid 3ere, with lokkis grey & hore, 

3150. amonges] amorage D 1. 3153. of] to C. 

3161. new IT D 1. 3172. }e] I D 2. 

3178. by for-wetyng] byfore writyng D 2, bifore writyng D 1. 

3181. ne] om. D 1. 


Pentheus's Speech against Paris's Expedition. [BK. II 

"and he said 
tliat if Paris 
went to 

Troy would 
be burnt, 

and all 

Pray, then, 

give up 

don't tempt 

or you'll 
repent it. 
If you will 
send, don't 
send Paris." 

His hearers 


Alus! what 

is ordaind 
must happen. 

I can remembre how he compleyned sore 

And wepe also of pite tenderly, 

Fully affermyng, jif Paris outterly 3188 

Went in-to Grece to ravische hym a wyf, 

]3er schuldfe] folwe swiche a mortal stryf 

Vp-on vs alle, fat sothly fis cite 

Schuld in-to asches & cyndres turned be ; 3192 

And fat f er schuld no fing vs socour ; 

]2at Grekis swerd schal cruelly deuour 

Bofe luje & lowe, & pleynly spare noon. 

Wherfor, I praye, among 3011 euerychon, 3196 

Of ]>at I telle hauef no dispit ; 

3our wrong to venge putteth in resplt ; 

And rancour old, I rede fat 36 lete ; 

And f e tranquille now of 30111' quiete, 3200 

Of hastynes, fat 36 [nat] submitte 

To Fortune fat can so falsly flitte ; 

Perturheth nat, for now olde enmyte, 

With new[e] steryng $oure felicite : 3204 

For 3if fat 36 to fis iourne assent, 

3e eue?-ychon f ill sore schal repente ; 

And 3if 36 wiln algatis f edir sende, 

In Paris stede lat som o]>er wende, 3208 

List his viage be to 3011 no spede ; 

)pis * my couwceil, & f is is [f ul] my rede, 

Seide vnder support only of 30^7* grace." 

And sodeinly fei gan echon to chace 3212 

At Pentheus, & lowde ageyn hym crie, 

Keprevyng hym and f e prophesye 

Of his fader to her confusiouw. 

But, o alias ! fe reuoluciourc 3216 

Of loye or wo, [or] of felicite ! 

For fing* ordeyned nedes moste* be : 

fee ordre of finges with* fate is so englued, 

For fat schal f alle may nat be eschewed ; [leaf 41 6] 3220 

Whiche caused hem for to assent in on, 

3193. >at] bowne D 1. 3196. among] om. D 1. 
3210. f>is] pis is C, D 1. 3215. her] his D 1. 

3218. >ing] >inges C nedes moste] most nedes C. 

3219. with] by C fate] face D 1. 

BK. n] Cassandra 's Lamentations over the coming Fall of Troy. 237 

Vndiscretly, J?at Parys schulde gon 

Vnhappyly with hap bei were envoluyd ; 

And bus cowcludyng, her coimseil is dissoluyd. 

But casuely, it by-fil ii$t ban, 

feat bis avis vn-to be eris ran 

Of Cassandra, and sche with gret affray 

Of sodeyn wo gan crye " weyllaway : " 

" Alias ! " quod sche, " alias ! what wil 30 don ] 

What ! schal Parys now in-to Grece gon 1 " 

And with bat word, sche barst oute to* wepe 

Ful pitously wit/? inward sy^es depe ; 

Sche gan to waile & swone for be peyne, 

And furiously vrith noyse to compleyne ; 

With woful rage & many pitous sown 

Sche made a mortal lamentaciouw : 

For to be ded, sche my^t hir nat wit/t-holde ; 

With here to-torn, and vrith fistes folde, 

Sche seyde " alias " more fan an huwdrid sythe 

" stormy Fortune, why listow to kythe 

])\ cruel force to cure aduersite, 

Vp-on vs alle & vp-on bis cite, 

Of mortal Ire and gery violence, 

With swerde of vengau?ice wers ban pestilewce ? 

Troye, Troye, what is bi gilt, alias ! 

What hastow don, what is bi trespas, 

To ben euersed & turned in-to nou^t 

With wilde fyre 1 bi synne is dere [ajbou^t ! 

A ! Priam kyng ! vncely is J>i chance ! 

What hastow gilt, oufer do greuau?zce 

To Ipi goddis, or wrafjnd j?oru^ vnry^t 

Hem to prouoke to schewe her cruel my$t 

Yp-on J>i blod ? alias, what hastow do ! 

moder myn ! o Eccuba also ! 

What maner cry me or importable offence 

Hastow wrou^t to han swiche recompense 

])Q day to abyde, o noble, worfi quene, 

Paris is to go 
to Greece. 

hears this. 

She weeps 

and wails, 





and tears her 


She says : 

3240 "Fortune! 

why will you 
wreck our 


Troy! what 
have you 
done that you 

3248 should be 
Priam ! 

what Gods 
have you 
offended that 



Hecuba ! 
what crime 
have you 


3225. by-fil] bibelle D 1 rijt] om. D 1. 

3231. barst] brast A, D 2, D 1 to] & C. 

3242. 2nd vp-on] on D 1. 3248. wilde] filde D 1. 

3249. A] Ha A, D 2 Priam kyng] kyng Priam D 1. 

238 Cassandra in vain legs Priam to give up his Scheme. [BK. n 

"that you 
ate to see 
your sous 
slain ? " 

goes to 

and beseeches 
him to give 
up his plan ; 

but in vain. 

Fortune was 
wroth with 

and turnd her 
wheel, to the 
of the 

Of }>i sonys swiche vengauwce for to sen ! 

woful deth, cruel and horrible ! 

Alias ! whi ar $e now no more credible 3260 

To my conseil swiche harmys to eschewe, 

3our mortal pwrpos fully to remewe, 

at he go nat, as it is ordeyned ; 

For f ou3t of whiche I am so constreyned, 3264 

Jjat vnnef e I may f e wo endure ! " 

And to hir fader f is woful creature 

Halt strey3t hir way, & fallij) plat to grou?zde, 

And of hir wepyng al in water wourade 3268 

By hir chekis so f e teris reyne [leaf 41 c] 

And as sche my^t, for constreint of hir peyne, 

Vp-on hym sche gan to clepe & crye, 

Besechyng hym to schape remedye, 3272 

With pitous vois, as sche fat knew fill wel 

In f is mater pleynly euerydel, 

"What schal [be-]falle, & had it ful in mynde, 

])Q sodeyn harmys fat swe schal be-hynde. 3276 

But al hir clamour was [nat] but in veyn ; 

For fat schal falle, as sorame clerkis seyn, 

Ne may nat wel of men eschewed be ; 

And eke Fortune, by gret aduersite, 3280 

Of hasty Ire furious and wood, 

And vnkynde to fe Troyan blood, 

Causeles ageyn[e]s hem a-grevid, 

And of rancour sodeynly amevid 3284 

With blynde a-waites to cache hem in a traurcce, 

Be violence of hir vnhappy chauwce, 

Hath with a swy^e turned hir whele vnstable, 

As sche fat is envious aud mutable, 3288 

To haste Troyans to her confusions, 

Of wilfulnes and vndiscresiouw 

Ageyns Grekis a quarel for to make. 

And fer-vppon han her conseil take, 3292 

And acheuyd, as 30 han herd deuyse, 

3260. now] om. A, D 1. 3270. as] om. D 1. 
3276. swe] we A, folwe D 1. 3282. to >e] vn to D 1. 
3285. hem] him D 1. 3291. a] om. A. 
3292. >er-vppon] here vppon D 1. 

BK. n] The Trojans Folly in rejecting wise Counsel. 


Wtt/i-oute assent of pe most[e] wyse. 

For 3if }>ei had pe dissuasioura 

Of Hector herde, concluded in resou?z, 

In pis mater, and of Elenus 

The couwseil take, and to Pentheus 

AdueHid wysely, and to his sentence 

Wzt/i-oute feynyng 3oue ful credence, 

And of Cassandra, pat neuer koude lye, 

Prudently herde fie prophesye, 

Fro point to point for to cast a-forn, 

In swiche meschef Jjei had nat be lorn, 

But floured }it in her felicite, 

With-oute damage and aduersite. 

But Fortune wil haue hir cours alwey, 

Whos purpos holt, who sey th 36 or nay ; 

For sche it was pat made pis viage, 

With forhed pleyn and [a] false visage, 

With sugre out-schad, and venym in pe rote, 

Bitter of tast, and in schewyng soote, 

Wrinkled double, like an hornyd snail, 

Feyth in hir face & fraude ay in pe tail, 

To hast Troyans acorden in-to oon, 

)5at Paris schuld in-to Grece goon, 

As 30 han herde : per is no more to seyn ; 

For her-vppon pei cast hem & ordeyn. [l 

If they had 

but listerid 

3296 to Hector, 

Pentheus and 



3304 the Trojans 
would never 
have come to 

But Fortune 
oo AQ will have her 
OOUo way, 


faith in her 
face, and 
fraud in her 


Howe Parys toke pe See with a grete navye towarde 
pe londe of Grece; and howe of chance he met 
with Kenge Menelay, Heleyns husbonde, not 
knowynge what he was. 1 

The tyme aprochep wharc pe somze schene 
His golde?z wayw whirlid vp a-twene 3320 

\)Q clere stems of lades so red, 
Whiche han her si3t in pe Crabbis hed, 
And Pliades, pe seuene stems bri^t, 

Of whiche sixe apperen to oure si3t ; 3324 

For pe seue?ipe draw/t/i hir asyde, 

3295. dissuasiou?i] diffynaciou?i A. 

3303. a-forn] to forn D 2, D 1. 3306. and] or D 1. 

3308. Whos] What D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 47 b. 

When Spring 

240 In May time Paris colkctsmany Ships and 3000 Knights. [BK. ir 

And couertly doth hir bemys hide, 

Whilom for sche dide a gret offence, 

ftat vn-to vs causeth* hir absence. 3328- 

For sche dar nat sche we hir stremys clere, 

No? with hir sustren openly apere, 

Whilom for sche with a god mortal 

Dide a synne J?at was erimynal, 3332 

Whiche noised was & kouj>e poru^ j>e heuene, 

Jjat sche allone among J?e susters seuene 

Schroudeth to vs schamfastly hir chere. 

And whan Tytan in J?e $odyak spere 3336 

Atwen J>is sterns had[de] take his se, 

Of J)e Bole in f e sixtene degre, 
in the sweet Yp-on Jje tyme of loly grene May, 

ime> Whan fat Flora with hir hewes gay 3340 

Hath euery playn, medwe, hil, & vale 
of flowers and With hir flouris, quik and no Jring pale, 

Over-sprad & cladde in lyuere newe, 
blossom, ; And braiwchis blosme with many lusty he we, 3344 

And bit vs* fully to be glad & li^t 

For by assurauwce j?ei haue her frute be-hi^t 

Ageyn autu?npne, who so list hem shake,* 

Whan on vynes ripeth eue?*y grape 3348 

And Jms pis sesouw, most lusty of disport, 

Enbrasip hertis with new recouwfort, 

Only of hope by kynde as it is dew, 

ftat holsom frute schal j>e blosmys swe, 3352 

Whan tyme cometh by reuoluciouw. 

And Jms in May, )>e lusty fresche sesou?i, 
and song of Whan briddes syngen in her armonye, 

The same tyme out of Panonye 3356 

Deiphobus Eepeyred ben Dephebus and Paris, 

and Paris get ,..-, , , , -, . 

together 3000 And with hem brou2t, chosen by devis, 

knights and J 

many ships. J)re |)ousand kny^tes redy for to goon 

With hem to Grece, & schippis many on, 3360' 

Ful vitailled of al pat may hem nede. 

3328. causeth] caused 0. 

3338. sixtene] sixtenthe A, sixtene]) D 1. 

3340. hir] his D 1 gay] gray D 2. 

3344. blosme] blosmed D 1 lusty] om. D 1. 

3345. vs] is C. 3347. shake] schape C. 

BK. li] Paris and Deiphobns set sail for Greece. 






Paris had 
22 ships. 


Antenor and 
go with him. 

They are to 



Paris and 

And of pese schippis pe nou??ibre, as I rede, 

Was two & twenty, liclie as writ Guydo. 

And after pis, with-oute more a-do, 

]3e kyng coramawideth vn-to Eneas, 

To Anthenor and to Polydamas, 

In al hast pat pei hem redy make [leaf 42 a] 

With Parys kny^tly for to vndirtake, 

As 30 han herde, pis lourne for tacheue. 

And on pe tyme whan pei toke her leue, 

Priamus, \vith schort conclusion?*, 

Schewep peffect of his entenciou?*, 

And specialy pat pei her clever don 

For to recure his suster Exioim, 

As 30 han herd her-to-fore me telle : 

What schulde I more in pis mater dvvelle 1 

Whan pei wer redy,* wzt/i-oute more soiour, 

)3is Parys first, as lord and gouernour 

Of pis viage made by Priamus, 

And his broper, callid Dephebus, 

Her leue toke vfith wepyng tenderly ; 

And after pat to schippe manfully, 

With-oute abode pei be-gan hem dresse, 

And in pe name of Venws, pe goddes, 

And my^ty love, pei token her lourne. 

ftei hale vp ankir, and by pe large se 

ftei gan to seile, and haue pe wynde at willc, 

Jpe water calme, blaurcdischyng, and stille, 3388 

With-oute trouble of any boystous wawe. 

And to pe costis pei gan fast[e] draw 

Of Grekis lond, for no ping hem lette ; near Greece. 

And of fortune in her cours pei mette 3392 They meet a 

A Grekysche schip, myn auctor tellep vs, is'Seneiaut' 

In whiche per was pe kyng Menelaus, 

Toward Pyram, a* fanm* strong cite, 

For to visite a duke of hi^e degre 3396 

3380 Deiphobus go 


and sail to 

ing to visit 

going t 

for] om. D 1. 
3375. her-to-fore] her a fore D 1. 
3377. wer redy] redy wer C. 3382. to] om. D 2. 
3387. haue >e] ha> D 1. 
3393. vs] thus D 1. 

3395. Pyram] Pryam A, D 2 a] ^e C. 

wife was 

the sister of 
Castor and 

242 OfMenelaus & Helen. Paris & his Fleet reach Cythera. [BK. n 

Jjat Nestor 1113! ; and pis Menelaus 

Was broker eke vn-to pe kyng farnws, 

}5e wyse, worpi, grete Agamenotm, 

Most of name and reputacioim 3400 

Amongis Grekis for his worpines. 

And Menelay, pis * story berip witnes, 

Husbond was to pe quene Eleyne, 

)2at was suster to fie breper tweyne, 340-1 

Castor & Pollux, whiche, as I $ou tolde, 

Wer of her hond so worpi kny^tes holde. 

And in pat tyme, liche to her degre, 

In Strynestar, her most chef cite, 3408 

)3ei held an housholde solempne & ryal. 

])e lone of whom was so special,* 

Of wille & hert acordyng -with pe dede, 

Atwixe hem two, of verray breperhede, 3412 

)?at noon from other koude lyue alone. 

With [w]hom was eke pe maiden Hermyone, 

)}e 3ong[e] dou}ter of pe quene Eleyne, 

Of fairnes most inly souereyne, [leaf 42 6] 3416 

Most passyngly excellyng in bewte. 

And pus Troyans, sailyng by pe se 

Toward Grece, among pe wawis wete, 

Of auenture happed[e] to mete 3420 

Kyng Menelay, seilyng by her syde ; 

And non of [hem] list, of verray pride, 

For to enquere what pat oper was, 

But passe furpe a ful huge pas, 3424 

For non of hem oper koude knowe. 

And ey pe wynde pesybly gara blowe, 

])e Troyan flete causyng in a while 

For taproche to the noble He 3428 

)3at callid is Cithera pis day ; 

And in pe hauene, in al hast pei may, 

})ei cast hanker, & bond her schippis strong ; 

3401. Amongis] Amonge D 1. 

3402. >is] >e C. 

3410. special] in special C. 

3417. excellyng] excellent D 2, D 1. 

3425. koude] kouthe A. 

3429. Cithera] Citherea D 1. 

and mother of 

Tho the 

saild past 
neither would 
ask who the 
other was. 

The Trojans 
cast anchor 
in the haven 
of Cythera, 

BK. n] The Temple of Venus in Cythera, & the Festival at it. 243 

And after fat, hem list nat tarye long 
To take fe lond, ful many lusty man, 
Arraying hem as freschely as f ei can. 
Now, in fis He of passyng excellence, 
)2er was a temple of gret reuerence, 
ftat bilded was of olde fundaciouw, 
And most honoured in fat regiourc, 
ftoru^-oute f e lond, bofe fer & ner 
The fest[e] day, ay from ^er to ^er, 
Liche as it fil by reuoluciouw, 
Repeyryng f eder of gret deuociou/z, 
In honour only of Venws, f e goddes, 
Whom f e Grekis with al her besynes 
Honoured most of every maner age, 
"With ^iftes bringyng and with pilgrimage, 
With gret offeryng and with sacrifyse, 
And vsid was in her paynym wyse. 
For in fis phane, as fei knele & wake 
With contrit hert, & her prayer make, 
J?e statue $af of euery questyouw 
Pleyn answer and ful soluciouw, 
With cerymonyes to Yenws as fei loute ; 
Of Query ]>ing fat fei hadde doute, 
])QI hadde ful declaraciou??. 
And fus f e Grekis vp-on Cytherouw 
Halwyn fis fest with riche & gret array, 
With rytis due, as ferforfe as fei may, 
In hope fully fe better for to f rive. 
And of fortune, whan he dide aryue 
Yp-on )>e lond, by auenture or cas, 
J)e sametyme fis fest[e] halwed was 
Of many Greke, commyng to and fro 
From euery cost, fat to f e temple go 
On pilgrimage her vowes to acquyte, 
Of fe place f e reliques to vesyte. 

3432 and go 

In this isle 

[leaf 42 c] 

3441. it fil] I fele D 1. 

3451. statue] statute A eucry] here D 1. 

3454. hadde] had in D 1. 

3462. halwed] holden D 1. 

3463. many] many a A. 

3465. vowes] vowe A to acquyte] for to quite D 1. 

w:is a noble 








of Venus, 

whose statue 
answerd all 
love ques- 

The usual 
Festival was 
being held 

by the 



Paris at the Temple of Venus in Cythera. [BK. n 

when Paris 

Paris and his 
friends went 
to Venus's 

and sacrificed 
and made 

Now Paris 
was the 
of men, 

and the 
askt why 
and whence 
he came. 

Howe Parys enterde pe Ille of Citherea, wher lie met 
with the fayre Quene Heleyne. 1 

And whan Paris dide pis espie, 

He gadred out of his companye 3468 

Jpe worpiest pat he chesen may ; 

And to pe temple he took * ]>Q ii$t[e] waye, 

Ful wel be-seyn, & in kny3tly wyse, 

And dide his honour & his sacrifyse 3472 

Ful humblely to pe Grekis liche, 

With many nowche & many louwel riche, 

With gold & siluer, stonys and perre 

He spendep per, liche to his degre, 3476 

And quit hym manly in his oblaciouw[s] ; 

And deuoutly in his orisouws 

He hym demeuep, fat Ioy[e] was to se. 

Now was Parys of passyng gret bewte 3480 

Among[es] alle pat euer werue alyve : 

For per was now pat my^t with hym striue, 

Troyan nor Greke, to speke of semlyhede, 

Wonder fresche and lusty, as I rede, 3484 

And in his port ful lik a gentil kny^t. 

Of whos persone for to han a sijt, 

ftei gan to prese, bope ny^e and fere, 

So ryally he had hym in his gere, 3488 

And coueyte, of hi^e estat and lowe, 

What he was, gretly for to knowe ; 

And of his men pei aske besely, 

Fro when he cam, & pe cause why, 3492 

Of his corny ng enqueryng on by on. 

But prudently pei kepte hem euerychon, 

feat no ping was openly espyed 

In her answere, so pei han hem guyed, 3496 

J)at euery ping kepid was secre, 

Eueryche of hem was so avisee ; 

Al-be pat sowme oppenly declare 

3470. took] takeh C. 3474. nowche] an owche D 1. 
3476. spende>] spendid A. 
3482. my3t vrith hym] with him myjte D 1. 
3489. coueyte] coueited D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 48 a (misplaced after line 3470). 

BK. n] Helen resolves to yo to the Temple of Venus, to see Paris. 245 
What bat he was, & ne list not spare, 3500 some of 

-r 1111 e i Paris's men 

mt tolde pleynly be cause 01 his commyng, ten the 

J J J J Greeks that 

And how Priam, pe strongfe] my^ty kyng, p e r m e t nt by 

His fader was, most royal of renouw, JfJSone 

And how he cam also for Exyou??. 3504 

ftus eche of hem gan witA other rowne, 

At pryme face, whan he cam to towne, 

And per-vp-on wer ymagynatyf, 

Sore mvsyng and inquisytif, 3508 

Eche with other be suspeciou?i 

Demyng per-of liche her oppinioiw, 

And rapest pei pat no ping ne knewe, 

As folkis don of pinges pat be newe. 3512 

And whiles pei of pis mater trete 

In sondry wyse amonge her wordes grete, [leaf 42 d] 

])Q fame of hem gan anoon atteyne This comes 

rr* , p -rl o r i / to Helen's 

To J?e ens of ]>e quene Eleyne, 3516 ears, 

besyde in J?at regiouw. 
And whan sche herd be relaciouw, 
And by report of hem pat cam by-twene, 
)3is faire Eleyne, )>is fresche, lusty quene, 3520 

Anon as sche J>e sope vndirstood, 
WM-oute tarying or any more abood, 

Sche haste]) hir to pis solempnite, and she 

])Q fresche folke of Frigye for to se 3524 Festival, 

Wei mor, God wot, in hir entencioura really to look 

To se Parys, pan for deuociouTZ. 
Vnder colour of holy pilgrymage, 

To pe temple sche takep hir viage, 3528 

With gret rneyne & ryal apparaille, 
Parys to sen for sche wil nat faille. 

But, o alias \ what lusty new[e] fyre Alas! what 

Hap hir hert enflawmyd be desyre, 3532 

To go to vigiles ouper to spectaclis I 
Noon holynes to heryn of myraclis 
Hath mevid hir, pat per schal be-falle ; 
But as pe maner is of women alle 3536 

3500. not] ne A. 3501. tolde] telde D 1. 

3515. of hem gan anooc] anoon of hem gaw D 1. 

3516. To] Vn to D 1. 3523. >is] J>e D 1, his D 2. 

246 Women s tricks with Men. G-uido abuses Women. [BK. n 

But all 
women will 
go where 
men are, 

to make eyes 
at em, 

touch em, 

and entrap 

What women 
like, they will 
do, tho men 
say No. 

That naughty 
Guido speaks 
ill of women. 

and I'm sorry 
to have to 
repeat it, for 
I love em. 

But I must 
tell you how 
he blames 

Helen for 
going to the 

To drawe }>edir, platly to conclude, 

Where as pei be sure pat multitude 

Gadrid is, at liberte to se, 

Wher pei may finde opportunyte 3540 

To her desyre, ful narwe }>ei awaite, 

Now couertly her eyne for to baite 

In place wher as set is her plesau?ice, 

Now priuely to haue her daliauwce 3544 

Be som sygne or * castyng of an eye, 

Or toknes schewyng in hert[e] what pei drye, 

With touche of hondis [stole] among pe pres, 

With arm or foot to cache vp in her les 3548 

Whom pat hem list, al-be he fre or bonde, 

Of nature pei can hyni holde on honde 

Ageyn whos slei$t availep wit nor my^t : 

For what hem list, be it wrong or ri^t, 3552 

])ei ay acheue, who seyth ^e or nay, 

Ageyn whos lust diffende him no man may. 

J?us Guydo ay, of cursid fals delit, 

To speke hem harme hap kau^t an appetit, 3556 

Jjoru^-oute his boke of vrommen to seyn ilie, 

J)at to translate it is ageyn my wille. 

He hap ay loye her honour to transuerse ; 

I am sory pat I mote reherse 3560 

\)e felle wordis in his boke y-fouwde. 

To alle women I am so moche bourade : 

jpei ben echon so goodly and so kynde, [leaf 43 ] 

I dar of hem nat sey[e]n pat I fynde 3564 

Of Guydo write poru^-out Troye book ; 

For whaw I radde it, for fer myn hert[e] quoke, 

And verrailly my wittis gowne faille, 

Whan I per-of made rehersaille. 3568 

Liche his decert lat Guydo now be quit ; 

For ^e schal here anon how pat he chit 

])Q quene Eleyne, for cause pat sche went 

With deuoute hert hir off ring to p?*esent, 3572 

3538. as] om. D 1. 3545. or] of C. 3550. on] in D 1. 

3554. Ageyn] A^ens D 1, Ageyn s A him] hem A. 

3555. cursid fals] fals cursid D 1. 

3564. |>at] as D 1. 3567. gomie] gan D 2, D 1. 

BK. n] Guide's reproach of Helen for going out to see Strangers. 247 

To pe temple of Venus, pe goddes ; 

ftus, word by word, he seip to hir Expres : 

Howe Quene Heleyne, aftire that she herd of 
hasted here to pe Temple. 1 

mortal harme, pat most is for to drede ! 
A, fraude y-cast be slei^t of wo?mahede, 
Of eue?y wo, gyunyng, crop, and rote ! 
Ageyn[e]s whiche helpe may no bote. 
Whan lust hap dryue in her hert a nail, 
Ay dedly venym sueth at pe tail, 
Whiche no man hap power to restreyue ; 
Recorde I take of pe quene Eleyne, 
Jpat hoot[e] brent, alias ! in hir desires, 
Of newe lust to dele with strauwgeris 
Whom sche knewe nat, ne neuer saw a-forn, 
Wher-poru}, alias, ful many ma?& was lorn, 
Of cruel deth embracid in pe cheyne 
W^t/i-oute pite ! now, sey, pou quene Eleyne, 
What gost or spirit, alias, hap mevid pe, 
Sool fro pi lord in swiche ryalte 
Oute of pin house to gon among pe pres 1 
Whi were pou wery to liue at home in ,pes, 
And wentist out straurcgeris for to se, 
Takyng noon hed [vn-]to pin honeste 1 
J)ou schust a kepte pi closet secrely, 
And not haue passed out so folily 
In pe abscence of pi lorde, alias ! 
J)ou wer to wilful & rakil in pis cas 
To sen aforn what schuld after swe ; 
For al to sone pou wer drawe out of mwe, 
)}at koudist nat kepe at home pi boiuzdis. 
ftou wentist out as hare among [pe] houwdis, 
For to be cau3t, of verray wilfulnes, 
And pi desyre koudist not compesse ; 
For pou pi lust list nat to refreyne. 
many woman hap kaiv^t in a treyne 

3575. new IT D 20] Of D 1. 3582. >e] om. D 1. 
3595. schust a] sholdest haue D 2 secrely] sekerly D 1. 
1 Eoyal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 48 c. 

guile ia the 



Her lust 
3530 poison. 


Helen desird 

3588 Helen, what 
evil spirit 
moved you to 
go from your 


home to see 
strangers ? 

3596 You should 
have stayd 
in your room, 



but you went 
out like a 
hare among 

248 Women should stay at Home. Helen is seen ly Paris. [BK. II 

Her goyng oute swiche halwes for to seke ; 
A woman It sit hem bet hem siluew for to kepe 3608 

should keep 

in her (jlos in her chsiWiibie, and neen occasions : 


NO ship For neuer schip schulde in pereil drown, 
wrecktifit Nor skatre on rok, nor be wiih tempest rent, 

Nor wzth Karibdis deuourid nor y-schent, [leaf 43 &] 3612 

Nor gon to wrak vrilh no wedris ille, 
atayd in its }if it wer kepte in be hauene stille. 


For who wil not occasiou/is eschewe, 
Nor dredijj not pereil for to swe, 3616 

He most among, of necessite, 
Or he be war, endure aduersite ; 
And who can nat hir fot fro trappis spare, 
Lat hir be war or sche falle in J?e snare : 3620 

For harme y-don to late is to compleine. 
if Helen had For sif whilom be worbi quene Eleyne 

keptathome, > . / 

Hir siluen had kepte at home in clos, 
she'd not Of hir ber nadde * ben so wikke * a loos 3624 

have lost her 

good name, Reported }it, grene, fresche, and newe ; 

Whos chauwce vnhappi eche maw ou$t[e] rewe, 
h a t cause was of swiche destrucciouw 

many worthy 

folk. Of many worfi, and confusiou?z 3628 

Of hir husbonde & many other mo 

On Grekis syde, and [on] Troye also, 

In )?is story as 36 schal after rede. 
But she went And so bis quene, as fast as sche may spede, 3632 

to the Temple _ r n 

of Venus, lo fe temple hath ))e wey[ej nome 

Ful rially ; and whan Jwit sche was come 

Ful deuoutly wit/i-Inne Cytherou7^, 
and made her Made vn-to Venus hir oblacioim 3636 


In presence and sijt of many on, 

With many lowel and many riche stoon. 

And whan Parys had[de] J>is espied, 

To J>e temple anon he hap hym hyed, 3640 

Ful priftely in al fe liast he 

At first sight And whan fat he had[de] first a si^t 
ber. Of )?e goodly, faire, fresche quene, 

Cupidis dart, J?at is whet so kene, 3644 

3611. be] om. D 1. 3615. wil] nyl D 1. 

3624. nadde] nat C wikke] wikked C. 3641. al J>e] om. A. 

BK. u] The wondrous Beauty of Helen, heavenly fair. 249 

Or he was war, hajje hym markid so, 

at for a-stonyed he nist[e] what to do, 

So he merveilej) hir gret semlynes, 

Hir womanhed, hir port, & hir fairnes : 3648 

For neuer a-forne [ne] wende he J>at Nature 

Koude haue made so faire a creature ; 

So auwgillyk sche was of hir bewte, 

So ferny nyn, so goodly on to se, 3652 

J5at he deinpte, as by liklynes, 

For hir bewte to be* som goddes. 

For his hert dide hyrn ay assure 

)3at sche was no mortal creature 3656 

So heuenly faire and so celestial 

He Jjou^t sche was in party & in al. 

And considereth ful a-visely 

Hir feturis in ordre by and by 3660 

Ententifly with-Inne in his resou??, [leafwc] 

Euery j>ing by good inspecciouw : 

Hir golden her, lik fe schene stremys 

Of fresche Phebws wttfi his bri3t[e] bemys, 3664 

jje goodlyhed of hir fresche face, 

So replenished of bewte & of grace, 

Euene ennwed w/t/t quiknes of colour 

Of j>e rose and J>e lyllie flour, 3668 

So egaly, fat noujjer was to wyte 

jjom^ noon excesse of moche nor to lite. 

Wttft-Inne pe cerclyng of hir eyen bry$t 

"Was paradys compassid in hir si$t, 3672 

J3at foru} a brest }>e bewte wolde perce. 

And certeynly, 3 if I schal reherse 

Hir schap, hir forme, and feturis by & by, 

As Guydo doth by ordre ceryously, 3676 

From hed to foot, clerly to devise, 

I haw nott englysche pat Jjer-to may suffyse ; 

It wil nat be, oure tonge is not lyke. 

3649. ne] om. D 1. 3651-56 are omitted in D 1. 
3654. be] haue ben C. 

3661. in] om. D 1. 3663. schene] sonne A. 
3665. fresche] fresshly A, D 1, fresshely D 2. 
3668. and] and of A. 3669. wyte] white A. 
3670. nor] nor of A. 


wonders at 


and thinks 
her some 

he is to 
heavenly fair. 

Her hair is 

her hue, row 
and lily, 

her eyes 

I can't de- 
scribe all her 
features like 
GuMo does. 

English it 
not up to it. 

250 Paris and Helen burn with Love for one another. [BK, II 

I've no 

flowers of 

and know 
none of the 
Nine Muses, 

so I refer you 
to Guide's 
description of 

Paris walks 
up and down, 

and gets 
nearer to 

who, full of 
hot love, 

thinks she's 

seen such a 
man as Paris. 

Venus has 
fired them 

I want[e] flouris also of rethorik, 3680 

To sue his florischyng or his gey peyntwre, 

For to discriue so fayre a creature ; 

For my colours ben to feble and feynt, 

ftat nouf er can ennwe wel nor peint ; 3684 

Eke I am nat a-queintid with no mwse 

Of alle nyne : f er-fore I me excuse 

To ^ou echon, nat al of necligence, 

But for defaut only of eloquence, 3688 

And $ou remitte to Guydo for to se 

How he discriveth bi ordre hir bewte ; 

To take on me it were prdsumpcioun. 

But I wil telle how Parys vp & douw 3692 

Goth in f e temple, and his eye cast 

Toward Eleyne, & gan presen fast, 

As he fat brent hote in Louys fyre, 

Jjat was enflawmed gretly be desyre. 3696 

And oft he chaurcgef couwtenau?*ce & chere, 

And euer he neieth to hir ner and nere, 

I-darted f oruj vtiih hir eyen tweyne. 

And ageynward f e fresche quene Eleyne 3700 

As hote brent in herte pryuely, 

Al-be no* man it outward koude espie ; 

For sche fou}t sche had neuer aforn, 

Of alle men fat euer ^et wer born 3704 

Sey non so fair, nor like to hir plesaunce ; 

On hym to loke was hir sufficiauwce. 

For in the temple sche toke hede of ri^t noujt, 

But to compasse & castyn in hir fou^t 3708 

How sche may cachen opportunyte 

With hym to speke at good liberte : [leaf M <z] 

ftis holly was al hir besynes. 

For hym sche felt so iuly gret distres, 3712 

Jpat ofte sche chauftgef coimtenaimce & he we. 

And Venus haf marked hem of newe 

With hir brondes fired by feruence, 

And inflawmed be sodeyn influence, 3716 

3684. nor] or D 1. 3686. alle nyne] noon of alle & D 1. 
3693. eye] eien D 1. 3702. no] >at no C koude] gunne D 1. 
3716. sodeyn] sodeynly D 2. 

BK. Il] 

Paris and Helen disclose their Love. 


Jpat egaly pei wer brou^t in a rage. 

And saue pe eye * atwen was no message : 

Eche on oper so fixe hap cast his si^t, 

ftat pei conseiue & wist[en] a-non ri$t 

"WWi-Inne hem silfe wat her hertfe] ment. 

And nere to hir euer Parys went 

To seke fully and gete occasion?*, 

J)at pei my$t, by ful relaciouw, 

Her hertis conceit declare secrely. 

And so bi-felj pat Paris nei^ep ny3e 

To pe place wher pe quene Eleyne 

Stood in her se ; & per atwen hem tweyne, 

Jpei broken out pe sorame of al her hert. 

And ^af Issu to her inward smerte. 

But pis was don, list pei werne espied, 

Whan pe peple was most occupied 

In pe temple for to stare & gase, 

Now her, now per, as it wer a mase. 

ftei kepte hem clos, pat no worde a-sterte ; 

)3er was no man pe tresou?i rny^t adue?*te 

Of hem tweyn, ne what J?ei wolde mene ; 

But at J?e last, Paris and ]>is quene 

Concluded ban, wz't/i schort avisement, 

Tully }>e fyn of her bo])e entent, 

And sette a pwrpos atwix hem in certeyn, 

Whan )>ei cast for to mete ageyn. 

But list men had to hem suspeciouw, 

)5ei made an ende, wzt/i-oute more sermou?*, 

And depart, al-be pat pei wer lope. 

And sobirly a-noon pis Paris goth 

Out of pe temple, his hert in euery part 

Wounded poru3-out with Louys fyry* dart ; 

To his schippis he halt pe ri^tfe] way. 

And pan anoon, in al pe hast he may, 

Whan assemblid was his chiualrie, 

On and oper of his companye, 

3717. a] o?n. D 1. 3718. eye] eyen C. 
3720. pat] And D 1. 3724. ]>ei] the D 2. 
3727. KI om. D 1. 3734. a] on a A, D 1. 
3744. wi'tA-oute] with A more] om. D 1. 
3748. fyry] fyre C. 

Looks are 
their only 





But they 
kept quiet, 


till Paris 
draws near 
Helen's seat, 

and their 
secret is out. 





tho they 

to meet again. 

Paris leaves 
the Temple, 
and goes to 
his ship. 

Paris says to 
his mates : 
" You know 
that Priam 
sent us here 

to rescue 
Hesione from 

252 Paris tells his Comrades that they can't fight K. Telamon. [BK. II 

In few[e] wordis, as schortly as he can, 
To-forn hem alle his tale jms he gan. 

Howe Parys exortede his pepele for fe spoylynge of )?e 
Tempyle of Venus within f e seid Ille of Citherea, 
fro whenes he karede to Troye al the lewellys 
that he founde perin. 1 

rs," quod he, "schortly to expresse, 
J5e cause is koujje to $our worjnnes, 3756 

Whi my fader in-to Grece vs sent ; 

For, as $e knowe, J?e chef of his entent 

Was to recuren his suster Exyourc [leaf iia] 

Out of J>e hondis of kyng Thelamouw. 3760 

)}e whiche jjing, for ou^t I can espie, 

Is impossible sothly in myn eye, 

Be any weye, as fer as I can se, 

He is so gret & strong in J>is centre 3764 

Of his alyes about on euery syde, 

And in hert so inly fill of pride, 

To $eld hir vp he haj> nat but disdeyn, 

J3er-of to trete it wer [nat] but in veyn. 3768 

Wherfore, J?e best ])at I can devise, 

Sith our power may nat now suffise 

To werreye hym* in fis regiouw 

We be nat egal of my^t nor of renoura, 3772 

For lak of men with hym to holde a felde ; 

We may not semble \fiih spere nor with schelde 

Tencoutttrera hym -with al his multitude 

Wherfor, fe best J?at I can conclude, 3776 

Is, sithe Fortune haj? vs hider brou^t, 

And J?e goddes han eke for vs wroujt 

So graciously to make vs for to londe 

At Venus temple, fast[e] by fe stronde, 3780 

Whiche habourade)) with ful gret riches 

Of Grekis offeryng vnto pe goddes, 

Be lond & se, fro many sondry port, 

3761. >ing] kyng D 2. 3769. Wherfore] Therfore A. 

3771. werreye] werre D 1 hym] on hym C, D 1. 

3772. 2nd of] om. D 1. 

^. 18. D. ii. leaf 49 b. 

who is too 
proud to give 
her up. 

We're too few 
to fight him. 

But as the 

have let us 
land at this 
rich Temple 
of Venus, 

BK. n] By Paris s advice, the arind Trojans get into the Temple. 253 

Of men and women pat ban her resort 
To J?at place in worschip of Venus, 
So bat be wif of kyng Menelaus 
Is ber present, ful riche & wel be-seyn 
And }if pat \ve by manhod my^t atteyn 
To rauisoh hir, and j>e temple spoyle, 
And of her tresour chesen* oute & coyle 
jpe chef lowellis, & chargen our somers 
With gold & siluer, and take prisoneris, 
And maugrey hem to our schippis bring 
\)is same ny^t with-oute tariyng, 
We may nat faille, who-euer fat sey nay, 
3if 30 assent, of a riche pray. 
Wherfore, in hast bat ae sou redy make, 

, , . . , , 

And Query man anon his harnes take, 
And arme hym wel in liis best array." 
And J>ei assent, with-oute more delay, 
And in hir schippis ]?ei bid[e] til at ny^t, 
Whan Phebi^s chare wzt/idrawen had his 
Vnder wawes, & sterris dide appere 
On j?e heuene with her stremys clere, 
Or be mone bat tyme dide rise, 
)?ei schop hew forfe in ful )?rifty wyse, 
The manly Troyans in steel armyd bri^t, 
To pe temple holdyng her wey[e] ri^t. 
For fei cast no longer for to tarie, 
But prowdely entre [in] J?e seintuarie, 
In-to fe chapel callid Cytherouw, 
W^t//-oute reuerence or deuociou?* 
Don to Venus in hir oratorio ; 
For it was clene oute of her memorie, 
Honour and drede & alle obseruau^ce : 
For fynally al her attendaurcce, 
As myn auctor sothly can diffyne, 
Was to ri$t nou^t but only to ravyne. 






queen, Helen, 

is here, I 

tiS Temple's 

so, get ready, 

and arm 


3800 They do so, 


[leaf 41 6] 3808 



and before 


get into the 

not to 


but to rob. 

3790. her] the D 1 chesen] to chesen C, chosent D 2 coyle] 
toylle D 2. 

3791. lowellis] lowell D 2. 3797. make] om. D 2. 
3804. On] Of A. 3805. rise] aryse A, arise D 1. 
3806. J>rifty] trusty D 1. 3809. bei] the D 2. 
3810. prowdely] prudently A in] in to D 1. 


The Trojans 
seize all the 

jewels and 
relics in the 

carry em to 
their ships, 

and kill all 
who oppose 

Paris goes to 

who gives 
herself to 

He takes her 
to his ship, 

and then 
returns to 
finish plun- 
dering the 

But Greek 
soldiers from 
a castle near 

pursue the 

The Trojans plunder the Temple of Venus. [BK. n 

ftei token al fat cam to her honcle, 

Kiches & tresour Ipat was in j>e londe, 3820 

Gold & siluer, stonys and lowellis, 

Beliques sacrid, fe holy eke vessels, 

With-out abood oute of fe sacrarie, 

And al y-fere to her schippis carye 3824 

It is a wonder, to fenkew on ]>e good ! 

Jjei kille & sle al pat hem withstood 

It was a pite for to seen hem blede. 

And many Greke J>ei to schipfpe] lede, 3828 

J}at after liveden in captiuite 

Ful many 3er in Troye J?e cite. 

And }>er-whyles goth Paris to Eleyne, 

And hir enbrasij) in his armys tweyn, 3832 

Fill humblely & with gret reuerence, 

In whom he fonde no maner insistence ; 

It sat hir nat, sche was so womanly, 

For to Paris sche ^alde hir outterly; 3836 

Hir hert in hap was ^olde or sche cam fere, 

Jperfor to $elde hir sche had lasse fere ; 

Sche can nat stryue, nor no womarc scholde. 

And he anon, as gentilnes[se] wolde, 3840 

CouwforteJ) hir as he best can or may, 

And lad hir with hym, witA-oute more delay, 

To his schippes ; and fer fill bysely 

He sette wardis to kepe hir honestly, 3844 

Whil he returnef to J?e temple ageyn 

To spoyle and robbe & to make al pleyn 

)2oru3 ]>B temple with his wallis wyde. 

Now stood a castel faste J?er be-syde, 3848 

I-stuffid wel with Grekysche sowdyours, 

])Q whiche a-woke with noise of fe pilours 

J}e same ny^t, & gan make a schout ; 

And J?er-w*'t#-al anoon fei issen out, 3852 

Armyd in stel, ]?e temple to reskewe, 

And manfully after hem fei sewe. 

3824. y-fere] in fere D 1. 
3830. many] many a D 1. 
3843. schippes] shippe A. 
3850. 1st pe] om. D 1. 

3828. schippe] >e shipe J)ei D 1. 
3838. lasse] >e lasse D 1. 
3849. Grekysche] grekis D 1. 
3852. anoon] om. D 1. 

BK. n] The Trojans leat the Greeks, spoil the Castle, & get home. 255 





And so be-fil whan fei to-gydre mette 

With speris scharp & swerdis kene whet, 

pei ran I-fere as tigres al vnmylde, [leaf c] 

Liche wode liou?zs or Jns boris wylde ; 

per was no feynyng ionnden in her fi^t, 

Al-be j>e felde departed nas a-ri3t, 

For ]?e Troyans doubled hem in nou??ibre, 

pat outterly pe Grekis j>ei encombre, 

And at meschef maden hem to fle, 

Purswe after and cruelly hem sle 

Wet/i-oute mercy to }>e castel gate. 

Ther* was [no] reskvs, for j>ei com[e] late, 

Of Jns skarmysche, for J>e fyn was deth ; 

Now her, now J>er, J?ei 3eldew vp fe breth, 

So my3tely Troyans hem assaille, 

pat to wMstond it wold[e] not availle : 

For of manhod )>ei J>e felde han worme, 

And after fat, cruelly be-gonne 

In al hast to spoillen fe castel ; 

And to schip J>ei brou3ten euery-del, 

Tresour & gold, & what ]>at fei may wy?ine, 

And on fe morwe to seille J?ei be-gymie, 

Stuffid with good, be pe Grekische se, 

Toward )>e costis of Troye fe cite. 

pe se was calm and fully at her wille, 

Bofe of tempest and of stormys ille, 

And clere also was ]>e bri3t[e] heuene, 

pat in space almost of dayes seuene 

At a castel callid Tenedoim 

pei aryve vj myle fro J?e toim ; 3884 

And glad and ^t j)ei to lond[e] went. 

And after J>t, I fynde, Parys sent 

His messanger strei3t vn-to J)e kyng, 

pat hym enformej? of his horn cowtmyng; 3888 

Of her expleit he tokle hym euery-del. 

3857. ran I-fere] goon to gidre A I-fere] in fere D 1 al] om. A. 

3864. Purswe] And purswe A. 

3866. Ther] Wher C late] to late D 1. 

3868. 3elden] yolden A, 3olden D 2, 3ilden D 1. 

3869. Troyans] }>e Troyans D 1. 3874. to] to be D 1. 
3885. 1st And] om. A. 3888. horn] om. D 1. 

There is a 
fierce fight, 

but the 
Trojans win, 
and drive 
the Greeks 
back to their 

slaying many 
of em. 

3872 The Trojans 
spoil the, 

ship their 

3876 and sail a way 
for Troy. 


In a week 
they reach 

land and send 

news of their 

256 The Joy of Priam & the Trojans. The Sorrow of Helen. [BK. u 


The Trojans 
hold a Feast 
to celebrate 
Paris's feat. 

But Helen, 

away from 

weeps and 

that she is 
away from 

She curses 

and laments 
the loss of her 
brothers and 

She loses her 
rosy hue. 

And Prianms like)) wonder wel, 

ftat so manly J>ei han born hem oute, 

And made puplisched* in J>e tovm aboute 3892 

J)is tydynges vrith gret sollempnite, 

To hi^e & lowe, foru^-oute fe cite, 

))at for loye Tpe most[e] and j>e leste 

For remembrauwce halwe [and holde] a* feste, 3896 

And jjanke her goddes in fill hu??ible wyse, 

"With obseruaunces and 'with sacrifyse 

On her auteris, with gret deuocioun. 

And al J?is* while, he at Tenedoum 3900 

Holdeth soiour vfith fe quene Eleyne, 

)2e whiclie gan ful rewfully compleyne 

Hir vnkoujje lyf, to dwelle with straurcgers, 

Al dissolat among[es] prisoners, 3904 

Fer seqnestrid a-weye from hir contre,* 

Solitarie in captiuite. [leaf u <?] 

Sche wepif & criej) with a pitous chere ; 

\)Q burbly wawes of hir eyen clere 3908 

Liche welle stremys by hir chekis reyne ; 

And for constreint of hir inward peyne 

Ful ofte a day hir song was weylaway, 

"With sobbyng vois, ]?at sclie so fer a- way 3912 

Departid is from hir Menelaus. 

For whos absence in rage furious, 

Hir lif sche' hate]? & curse J? eke fortune ; 

And in fis wo sche eue?*e doth centime 3916 

WVt/2-oute soiour, alwey more and more ; 

And for hir brewer Pollux & Castor, 

And for }>e loue of hir doubter dere, 

Now pale and grene sche wexej? of hir cher, 3920 

)3at whilom was frescher for to sene 

ftan jje lillye on his stalke grene. 

Alias ! chauraged is hir rosen hewe ! 

And euere in on hir wo encreseth newe, 3924 

3890. likeb] liked D 1. 3S92. puplisched] puplische it C. 

3895. pat] And that A. 

3896. For] Of D 1 holde] halwe D 2 a] an C. 
3900. Jris] be C. 3905. centre] comtre C. 
3906. in] and in D 1. 3907. &] om. A, D 2. 
3913. hir] om. D 1. 3915. cursej>] causeth D 2. 

Paris comes 
to comfort 

"My Queen, 

wliy do you 
weep so ? 

BK. n] Paris pleads with Helen to stop her Weeping. 257 

feat like no woman sche was to beholde ; 

For ay sche wept as sche to water wolde. 

Til at pe last, in al hir heuynes, 

Paris to hir com of gentilnes, 3928 

Hir to comforte and tapese hir rage 

He besyeth hym hir sorwes to aswage, 

Seiyng to hir : " what may al pis mene, 

feat 30, alias, o goodly fresche queue, 3932 

List ]>iis your silfe in sorvvyng disfigure 1 

I wonder gretly how 30 may endure 

So moche water causeies to schede, 

feat with wepyng han dewed so $our wede ; 3936 

For liche a condut pe stremys renne dourc, 

Lik to a penaurat in contriciouw 

3e 3ou disraye, alias, whi do 30 so 1 

Lat be pis fare and lateth ouer go 3940 Give up your 

Al jour wepyng, pou^t, and heuynes, 

And beth no more, my lady, in distres. 

Make)? an ende nowe of $our greuawnce, 

For al pe ese, comfort, and plesance 3944 

feat men may do, trustep 30 schul haue. 

It is but foly in sorwe pus to raue ! 

Let passe oner alle pis scharp[e] schowres, 

And here my troupe : }e and alle ^oures, 3948 

Of what 3011 list schal haue suffisauwce, 

As ferforpe, and more habundaurcce 

fean 30 had among ]>e Grekis pere, 

I 3011 ensure, and beth no ping in fere, 3952 

feat I schal hold al pat I haue hi3t, 

On my troupe, as I am trewe kny3t, 

In worde and dede with al myn hert entere." [ieaf45a] 

And sche anon, wz'tft a woful chere, 3956 

So as sche my3t for sobbyng po suffice, 

Answerde ageyn in fill lawly wyse : 

" I wot," qiiod sche, " wher me be loth or lef , 

Sith I am kau^t & take at pis meschef, 3960 caught 

grief, for you 
shall have 
every thing 
you wish, 

more than 
you had with 
the Greeks." 

Helen feels 
that she is 

3929. tapese] appese D 1. 3936. dewed so] so dewed D 1. 

3937. stremys] streme D 1 renne] ran A, renyj> D 1. 

3938. to] om. A. 3957. Jx>] to A. 
3959. wot] not A wher] whe)>ir D 1. 


258 Paris pleads with Helen to stop Tier Weeping. [BK. u 

and can't 

Helen says 
that she won't 

but she begs 
Paris to pity 

and God 
will reward 

Paris assures 
her that she 

shall have all 
she wants. 

He leads her 
to a royal 

and says 
that as 

Vn-to 3our wil I may nat now wit/i-seie ; 

I am so bouttde, fat I most obeie, 

Vnder 30111 dauwger, pat I may nat fle, 

In hold distreyned and captiuite. 

$e wote also, be nature, oute of drede, 

ftat it ne longeth vn-to womanhede 

In strauwge soille to stryueii or rebelle ; 

An[d] namly per, wher as hir querelle 

Schal haue no fauour nor sustened be. 

But 3ef 36 list now to lian pite 

On me or myne, of 3our goodlyhede,* 

$e may of God disserue pank & mede, 

j)at wil rewarde iustly alle po 

Jpat comfort hem pat ben in care & wo." 

" Now lady myn," pa?me ipod Parys, 

" What pat may like or ben at* $our clevys, 

Al schal be do, trusteth me ri$t wele ; 

For be my troupe, as fer as I can fele, 

In any ping pat may $ou do * plesaurcce, 

3e schal it haue with al habundauwce : 

ftis I ensure of heste not fallible ; 

Beth nat a-gaste, but fully beth credyble 

To my wordis & hestis euerychon." 

And per-with-al he lad hir ri^t anon 

In-to a place of royal apparaille, 

To comfort her, $if it wolde availle, 

And secrely per atwen hem two, 

))is Paris first, wM-outen more a-do, 

Spake vn-to hir & seyde : "lady dere, 

I feyne nat, but speke of hert entere, 

And pat I hope 36 schal in dede fynde ; 

Wherfor, I pray, enprenteth in 3our mynde 

What I seie, and in 3our remembraurcce 

))is is to seien, sith 36 be puruyauwce 









3966. ne] om. A. 3967. In] I D 1. 

3968. her] om. D 1. 3970. }e] >ou D 1. 

3971. goodlyhede] gentilhede C. 

3975. bawne q*od] quod tho D 1. 3976. at] to C. 

3979. 3011 do] do 3011 C. 

3988. f>is] Thy D 2. 

3989. Spake vn-to hir] Vn to hir spake D 1. 

BK. n] Paris tells Helen to cheer up, & take him as her Hmband. 259 

Ben of pe goddis broi^t as now per- to, 

And Fortune eke wil pat it be so, 3996 

I dar afferme, pleinly for * pe firste, 

)3at pel disposed haue nat for $our wirst, 

But for $Qur good, & so 30 most it take. 

Wherfor, I rede, to letyn oucr-shakc* 4000 

Al heuynes, and loke pat 30 be 

As glad and li$t liere in pis centre, 

As pei 30 werne in 30111- ovvne lond. 

For feytbfully I do $ou to vndirstonde, [leaf 45 &] 4004 

3e schal haue here as moclie liabundance, 

On euery part, with ful sufficiaiiMce 

Of al pat may be to 3011 plesairot : 

For of o ping I dar make avaiwt, 4008 

In pis centre, as it schal be foiwde, 

Of al plente we passyu and habourade 

More richely pan 30111-6 Grekis Bonder ; 

And pei 30 ben from hem now assondre, 4012 

Out of pe lond pat callid is Achaye, 

3e haue no cause 3ow so to dismay, 

Sith at worschip and more reuerence, 

At more honour and gretter excellence 4016 

3e schal be cherisched pan 30 were a-fore. 

And where 30 pleine pat 30 haue forbore 

3our ovvne lord and ben as now left sool, 

For whom 36 makyn al pis wo & dool, 4020 

3e schal in haste be sette better at ese 

For certeynly, so it nat displese 

j^or offende vn-to 3our womanhede, 

In stede of hym, I pt^rpose, out of drede, 4024 

To wedde 3ou and ben your trewfe] man, 

To loue & serue in al pat euer I can, 

"WWi-oute feynyng, to my lyues ende, 

And be to 3ou as lowly & as kynde, 4028 

As diligent and more laborious 

ftan whilom was 3oure Menelaus, 

3995. ]>er-to] her to A, \\er to D 2. 3996. eke wil] wil eke D 1. 

3997. for] as for C. 4000. shake] slake C. 

4002. and] & as D 1. 4003. J>ei] om. D 2, >ou$ D 1. 

4004. to] om. D 2. 4008. of] om. D 1. 4012. J>ei] J>ou3 D 1. 

4014. so] om. D 1. 4030. ^oure] om. D 1. 

"the Gods 
have brought 
you to Troy 
and Fortune 
lias arranged 

for your good, 

be joyful, 

for you shall 
have as many 
things here 

as you had 
in Greece, 

and you shall 
be more 
honourd and 

And as to 
your hus- 

why, I'll wed 
you myself, 

;ii hi be more 
diligent to 
please you 
than Mene- 
laus was. 

260 Paris UdsHelenle of goodclieer. She cantresistthe Gods. [BK.II 

"I'm of 
Royal stock, 

and Ml be 
truer to you 
than Menc- 
laus was. 

So, stop your 

Helen urges 
that she is 
alone in a 
strange land 

she must 

but as the 
Gods have 
ordaind her 

she can't 
resist them. 

In euery ping ^oure lustis to obeie 

Hath here my trouth til tyme fat I deye. 4032 

And pau$ pat I in wordis be but pleyn, 

For loue of God, hauep no disdeyn 

Of my request, nor gruchip nat at al ; 

For, at pe lest, of pe stok royal 4036 

I am discendid & co??^me of as hi^e blood 

As Menelay, and of birpe as good ; 

And can in loue to 3011 be more trewe 

#an he was euer, and chavwge for no iiewe. 4040 

Wherfor, styntep pus to pleyn & wepe, 

And late som comforft] in* ymv bosom crepe, 

3our wo apeseth, whiche is not worpe an hawe, 

And som myrpe late in 30 ur hert adawe : 4044 

J)is I beseche, and of womanhede 

To my wordis for to takyn hede." 

" Alias," qiiod. sche, " how my$t pis be-falle, 

ftat haue left my frendis on & alle 4048 

In strauwge lond, and am here but allone ? 

How schuld I pan but I made mone 1 

I haue no cause, God wot, for to pleye, 

Nor my chekis for to kepe dreye 4052 

From salt[e] teris, alias ! it wil nat be, [leaf 45 c] 

))at can noon end of myn aduersite. 

For in good feyth, it were a^enfejs kynde 

So sodeynly to putten out of mynde 4056 

ftilke piug pat, for loye or smert, 

In al pis world sittep nexte myn hert 

For whom, alias, so sore I am* distreyned. 

But, sith goddis han as now ordeyned 4060* 

No bettre chau?*ce of hope vn-to me, 

I can no more I mote it take at gre 

And huwblely accepte also her sonde ; 

For I am feble her power to withstonde. 4064 

Wherfor, I schal ageyn my wil [now] stryue, 

4031. to] om. D 1. 4032. Hath] Haue> D 1. 

4034. haue>] repeated in D 2, haue D 1. 

4035. at] om. D 1. 4042. in] in to C. 

4059. so sore I am] I am so C. 4060. sith] sith >e A. 
4062. it take at] take it at A. 
4065. my] her D 1 now] not D 1. 

BK.II] Tender women carftahvaysweep. Helen gives up Sorrow. 261 

Al-be for wo myn hert I f ele * ryue, in spite of 

For to concente and lowly to admitte Helen must 

obey the 

Jjilke fing [fro] whiche I may not flitte, 4068 Q <*k 

Maugre my wil, of necessite, 

Fully to obeye what $e list do vritJi me 

It wil nat helpe fau$ I seide nay." 

And Jws sche peyneth al fat [euere] sche may, 4072 

Lite and lite hir sorwe to aswage. 

What schuld sche ay lyue* in wo & rage, \viiy should 

... we live ever 

lo lese nil sine, so tender a creature in woe? 

An hert of stel ne my^t it not endure. 4076 

But ay of women fe maner & f e kynde, 

J?at f ei can nat of sorwe make an ende But women 

Til f ei be leiser han y-wept her fulle ; tiieir mi. 

But at f e last, whan f ei gymae dulle 4080 

To make sorwe, it happef hem as faste 

)3at by grace f ei sone it ouer caste 

And liitly cache counfort of her smerte- Then they 

feel comfort 

J}ei be so tendre fat men may hem cortuerte 4084 if** be 

From wo to loye, & f on^t from hem disseuere. 

fter is no storm e fat may lasten euere, 

As clerkis wyse in bokis liste discerne ; 

)5ing violent may nat be eterne ; 4088 

For after stormys Phehus briber is. The sun is 

And so be comfort & couwseil of Parys, storms. a 

Sche da wed is of hir olde sorwe : 

For euene liche. as be "lade morwe, 4092 oiad morning 

follows dark 

Of kynde swef fe dirke, blake ny^t, >gnt. 

So be processe hir hertfe] wexef li^t, 

And of her wepyng dried is fe welle, so Helen 

Liche as fe story schal anon 3011 telle. 4096 weeping. 

Howe Paris and Heleyne were ressavyde into Troye, 
of Pryamus and his lordys ; and of f e soroweful 
lame?itacyozm that Cassandra made when she 
sawe fe weddynge. 1 

4066. I fele] fele I C. 4071. wil] wolde D 1 seide] seie D 1. 
4074. ay lyue] lyue ay C. 

4079. y-wept] wept D 1 fulle] fille D 1. 

4080. dulle] stille D 1. 4096. Jou] vs A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 50 b. 

262 Paris & Helen are met ly Priam, who leads her into Troy. [BK. n 


Paris sends 
to Priam 

for horses, 

and jeweld 

and brings 
Helen to- 
wards Troy. 

Priam meets 

with his 
ladies and 

Paris riding 
next to Helen. 

Priam takes 
the rein of 
Helen's pal- 

and leads her 
into Troy. 

Whan f e quene fat call id is Eleyne 
A-dawed was of hir drery peyne, 
And f e wawes of hir heuy chere 
On hir chekis gonne for to clere, 
Paris, in herte fresche and amerous, 
In haste haf sent to kyng Priamus 
For hors & men and ofer apparaille, 
Clothes of gold f ill noble of entaille, 
Made for Eleyne & wrou$t[e] for J?e nonys 
With riche perle & many sondri stonys, 
A-geyn hir comyng in-to Troye touw. 
And after fat, Parys fro* Tenedoiw 
Schapef hym to lede hir in-to Troye ; 
And Priamws mette hem on f e weye 
Ful ryally, as faste as he may hye, 
With many a lord in his companye, 
Ful many lady fresche & wel be-seyn, 
And many mayde fat riden hem ageyn 
First estatis and after comwneris. 
Now had Parys alle his prisoneris 
Set be-forn in ordre tweyn & tweyne, 
And he rood next with f e quene Eleyne, 
And Dephebws vp-on fe tofer syde, 
And his kny^tes envirou?i dide ride ; 
But nexte hym rood f e worf i Eneas 
And f e Troyan, callid Pollidamas, 
His meyne swyng eche in his degre 
So gentilmanly, fat loye it was to se 
Eche from of er kepyng a certeyu space. 
And furf e f ei ride but a soft[e] pace, 
Til fat fe kyng hem mette sodeynly, 
And hem receyvef ful solempnely, 
As he best coude, & goodly toke f e reyne 
In-to his hond of f e quene Eleyne, 
And hir cowueyef f urf e to his cite. 
Gret was f e pres fat abood to se, 

[leaf 45 d] 










4102. sent] y sent D 1. 4108. J>at Parys fro] Parys fro J>at C. 
4110. weye] woye D 1. 4113. many] many a A, D 1. 
4118. he] om. A. 4126. ride] rode D 1. 
4128. ful] om. A. 

BK. n] Priam brings Helen, with great Pomp, into Troy. 26:* 

Of soud ri folke, fat schove fast and croude ; 

\)Q schrille trumpettis wern y-reised loude 

Vp to fe skye goth fe blisful sown 

Whan al fis peple entrej) iu fe touw 

And many a-nof er diners instrument, 

)5at al to-forn in at f e gatis went, 

In sondry wyse fat made melodic, 

)pat to heren fe heueuly armonye 

Be musik touchid vp-on string & corde, 

So euen in on & iustly f ei acorde, 

It wold an hert rauische in-to loye. 

And whan f ei wern entred in-to Troye, 

Amyd his paleys kyng Priam us a-li^t ; 

And anoon, as fast as euere he my^t, 

In-to a chambre, riche & wel be-seye, 

)}e quene Eleyne in hast lie doth corcueye, 

Comauwlyng vrith hert[e], wil, and fou^t 

His officers fat hir faile nou^t 

Of any fing fat sche can be-finke. [leaf 4a] 

)3e spicis partid, anoon fe wyn fei drink, 

And fan fe kyng toke leue til* soper, 

And sche fer-whiles chauwgef hir attir. 

But of fe loye fat was in fe touw, 

In eche place wher men went vp & dou?z, 

I am to rude, sothly, al to wryte, 

So moche in hert fe Troyans hem delitc, 

feat sanfe & sou?zde retourned is Parys 

]3ei weude haue be for loye in paradis, 

feat he so wel spedde in his lourne, 

And hath nat on loste of his meyne, 

Wher-of fei ben in hert[e] glad & li$t. 

And in al haste after fe nexte ny^t, 

As writ Guydo, with-oute tariyng long, 

Erly on morwe, a-for f e larke songe, 

In Pallas temple, as myn auctor seife, 

Assured was be ofe & eke be feife 

With trum- 
pets' blast 

they enter 

alight at the 





4152 and Priam 
takes leave 
of them. 





The Trojans 
delight at 


Next morn- 
ing in 

4133. schove] showyd A. 4134. y-reised] areised D 1. 
4136. >is] ]>e D 1, his D 2 entrej>] entren D 1 in] in to D 1. 
4138. to-forn] biforen D 1. 4143. wold] wele D 1. 
4153. til] to C. 4162. on] om. D 1. 4166. on] a D 1. 


Paris weds Helen. The Feasting. 

[BK. ii 

Paris and 
Helen are 

There is 8 
days' feast- 

with jousts, 

and fine 

But Cas- 


foretells woe 
to Troy for 

this adulter- 
ous marriage. 

The city will 
be destroyd. 

]5e bond of wedlok of hym & Eleyne, 

For euer-more to last a-twen hem tweyne, 

])Q knot is knyt of J?is sacrament. 

And J?is was don fully be thassent, 4172 

First of pe kyng, and also be thavis 

Of al J)e cite in fauour of Parys. 

And so j?e feste and gret solempnyte 

Contwnyd was witli moclie ryalte, 4176 

Of ]?is weddyng in myrthe <fe solace, 

Jporou^-oute fe toiw be viii dayes space. 

What sclmld I write J>e reuel or* J?e dawices, 

Jje fresche array or pe countenaiwces, 4180 

])Q stole touchis, ]?e lokis amerous, 

Jpe prevy gruchyng of hem J>at wer lelons, 

e grete iustis, bordis, or tornay, 

Amyd palastre with many sondry play, 4184 

}3e diuers coursis eke at enery feste, 

fee large plente don vn-to fe leste, 

fee straiwge metis, J>e manere of seruyse* 

I haue noon englische al for to deuyse 4188 

I passe ouer, for I was not fere. 

But whan J?is weddyng cam vn-to fe ere 

Of Cassandra, and first it dide espie, 

A fousand sithe "alias ! " sche gan to crye 4192 

Of pitous wo with vntressid heris, 

And seide Jms al be-spreint with teris : 

" wrechid Troye, erryng in J>is cas, 

With-Inne fi silfe to snffre fis trespas, 4196 

For to concent vn-to swyche folye, 

In sustenyng of foule auoutr[y]e, 

}?at Paris schulde takyn vn-to wyve 

]3e quene Eleyne whos husbond is alyve ! [leaf 466] 4200 

woful Troye, to cruel is J>i fate ! 

For to be war it is almost to late ! 

The tyme is come, Jjou schal[t] distroyed be ! 

For many fader schal his sone se 4204 

4176. moche] mychel A, D 2, D 1. 

4179. reuel] rule D 1 or] & C, D 1 daimces] daurcce D 1. 

4180. countenaimces] coutermmce D 1. 

4187. seruyse] ]>e seruyse C. 4190. vn-to] to D 1. 

BK. u] Cassandra s Prophecy of the Slaughter of the Trojans. 265 
Hoi in be morwe, bat schal be slawe or eve 

be slain. 

Amyd ]>e feld, ]>a\, wil him sore greue, 

And many wif sore schal be-wepe wives shall 

lose llUS* 

To se hir husbonde we't/^ large wouwdis depe 4208 bands. 

Girt Jjoru} Ipe body, pale, cold, & grene ! 

Alias, howe schal ^e J?e sorwe mow sustene ! 

A, wrecchid modris ! how schal 2e endure Mothers shall 

see children 

lo se 3oure childre be cruel auenture 4212 8lni ". 

A-fore 3ou slayn with-oute remedie ! 

It wil nat help, {50113 * 36 clepe crie. 

A, moder myn, Eccuba, jje queue, and Hecuba 

How schalt j?ou bide ]>e scharpfe] stouradis kene, 4216 

J)i worfi sones to sen a-for )>e slawe, 

And in J?e feld by cruelte y-drawe* ! 

A, blinde peple, of deth ]>ou taxt no?t hede, The Trojans 

Why nylt j>ou werche* [and] don afte/' my rede, 4220 

And in Jus cas more prudent be & wys, 

To take awey Eleyne from Parys, should take 

Helen from 

As ri3t requireth, wt&-onteft any more, i^ris. 

And to hir lord iustly hir restore ? 4224 

What ! trow[e] 30 his fefte and cruel dede 

Schal passe Jjus? Xay* ! w*tA-Oute drede, 

fee swerd of vengau?ice schal f ul scharp[e] bite The Sword of 

For his offence, & we schal bere be wvte 4228 shall bite 


Paleis & hous to seen, wit/t-Iune a pro we, 

And touris hi^e leide on pe er]?e lowe ! 

Alias, alias ! I seie to }>e, Eleyne, Helen is the 

Vnhappy woman, causere of cure peyue, 4232 tiie Trojan 

Hard & vn^ely, and also graceles, 

Vnwelful woman, disturber of owre pes, 

}5ou haste vs brou^t in meschef & in were, 

Kyndled a brond to sette vs alle a-fere ! 4236 

Alias, ]?oii art [J)e] rote & grou^de of al, 

Of many drery fest[e] funeral 

)3at schal be holde amonge vs in pis toiua ! " 

4211. A] om. D 1, Ha A, D 2. 4213. A-fore] A fora D 1. 

4214. bou}] 30113 C. 4215. A] Ha A, D 2. 

4218. y-drawe] be drawe C. 4219. A] Ha A, D 2. 

4220. nylt] nolt D 1 werche] wreche C. 4225. his] >is D 1. 

4226. Nay] nay nay C. 4233. vilely] vnsely A. 

4237. rote & grounde] ground and Roote A. 

266 Cassandra is put in Prison. Woe for the Trojans. [BK. n 

Thus Cassaii- 
dra cries her 
of Ruin about 

and makes 
such a horrid 
noise that 
Priam puts 
her in prison, 

where I'll 
leave her. 

While For- 
tune smiles 
on the Tro- 

they forget 
that her 
Wheel will 

and bring 
them to con- 

And in Jris wyse Cassandra vp & doiw 4240 

Aboute ran in subbarbe and in strete, 

And crieth Quer, whom J?at euer sche mete, 

Ful ofte sy]?e : "alias and weillawey ! " 

Til Priarrws, be-cause of hir affray, 4244 

And for })e noyse fat sche dide make, 

With-oute more, anon he doth* hir take 

And bynd[e] fast, fetrid in presou^, 

With-oute mercy or remyssiouw. 4248 

ftei take noon hede to hir sadde troupe, [leaf 46 e] 

Nor to hir wordis it was j>e more rouj?e 

But schet hir vp in bondis gret & strong, 

With-oiite pite, where sche abidij) longe. 4252 

And Jms in prisoun a while I leue hir mowme, 

And to [J?e] Grekis I wil ageyn returne. 

Of the sorowe that Kynge Menelay made when he herd 
that Parys had ravisshede his wyff; and of J?e 
manly comforde and couwcele J?at Agamenon gave 
hym for to revenge hym. 1 

The vnhappy tyme & fe same while 
#at Fortune falsly gan to smyle 
Vp-on Troyans & bad hem [to] be nierye, 
For whiche hi^ly )?ei gan her goddis herie, 
Wenyng in loye to haue hew assured wele, 
No f ing aduertircg j>e tz^rnyng of J>e whele 
Of hir pat lastif stable but a thro we 
Whan mew most trust, sche can make a mowe, 
Turne hir forhed, & hir face writhe, 
(Suche loye sche haj?e hir doubilnes to kij?e, 
And to wrappe hir denies vnder cloude), 
Ageyn whos rny^t no man may hy?^ schrowde 
Whan sche most flatmf, f an sche is lest to trist : 
For in her loye |)e Troyans litel wist 4268 

What sche ment to her confusiouw. 




4246. doth] dide C. 4249. take] took A, D 2. 
4255. &] & in D 1. 

4259. haue ben} abyden A haue] om. D 2. 
4261. hir] o]>er D 1. 4266. Ageyn] Ajeus D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 51 a. 

BK. n] Menclaus hears of the Wrongs the Trojans have done him. 267 
For while bat bei aboute in al be toiw 

Wenden of Grekis haue gete?i f ul recur chuckle over 

tlieir success 

Of her damages, & euere to haue be sure 4272 

bilke pray j>t Parys liad[de] worane, 
}3e wykke* fame <fc rumor is y-ro?me 
With swyfte wynges, of al bat bei hara wroust. 
To Menelay be tydyngges wern [y-]brou}t, 4276 Meneiaus 

Whils he abood with Nestor at Pyra, 

First of be te??iple in Cyther[e]a. of their 

How it was spoilled, & be robberye his Temple, 

Of gold & tresour, & be tyranye 4280 

Vp-on his men be Troyans execute, 
Bobe of assaillyng <fc of al be sute 
bat on Grekis bei made cruel ly, their 

. . . Jt slaughter of 

And how pat bei ne spared outterly 4284 hi8 folk 

Man nor woman bat com in her weye, 

ftat bei ne toke, <fe ladden as for praye* 

To her sch[i]ppes, and also of be fy^t 

A-for be castel, bat was on be nyjt. 4288 

And aldirlast he hereth of his wif. and their 

carrying off 

Whom he louede as mykel as his lif ins wife. 

More tendirly, God wot, a bousand folde. 

For whom, astonyed, at hert he wexe as colde 4292 

As any ston, and paleth of his hewe. 

His hertly wo so inly gan renewe, 

|3at first whan he herde hir name sovne, 

Wz't/i-out[e] more anoon he fel a-swovne ; 4296 He swoons. 

For he ne myjt endure for to stoncle, 

Til duke Nestor toke hym by be honde [leaf 46 d] Nestor wakes 

And hym awoke of his dedly swowe. 

" Alias," cmod he, " why haue I lost, & howe, 4300 

71 * laments his 

Mi lives lust, myn hertly suffisaimce ! 

A, com now deth and make of my greua?zce 

Fully an ende vrikh bi cruel dart, 

j)at Wounded am boru^ on euery parte 4304 

Myn hert, also, korve in euery veyne 

4272. enre] om. A haue] om. D 1. 

4274. wykke] whiche C, A, wicker! D 1. 

4276. y-broujt] brou3t D 1. 4286. praye] a praye C. 

4290. mykel] mochel D 1. 4292. as] al D 1. 

4294. renewe] remwe A. 4301. lives] lovis A. 

268 Menelaus's Lament. Agamemnon comforts him. [BK. n 

laments the 
loss of his 
wife Helen. 

Nestor con- 
soles him. 

They send for 

who comforts 

For 3ow, my wif, for }ow, iny owne Eleyne, 

J5at be deuorcid fro me, weillawey ! 

Far-wel my loye, farwel myn olde pley ! 

Now ban strangeris of ^ou pocessiou^, 

Wliiche wil to me be ful confusiouw. 

Alias, I not how pei 3011 cherisclie or trete, 

My faire Eleyne, pat wer to me so mete ! 

Now 36 ar gon, pensifhed me slethe 

I may nat waite now but after dethe." 

And aftir pis, amyd of al his wo, 

}?is Menelay schope hym for to go 

To his regne, but litel per be-syde ; 

He axeth hors & seide he wolde ride 

Sool to compleyne of pat he felt hyw greue. 

But al pis while Nestor wil nat leue 

To go vrik/i hym for consolaciou??, 

Of frendly ri^t hauyng compassiouw, 

Hym to comforte vriHi al his ful[le] my^t, 

Ledyng witfi hym many worpi kny^t 

In-to pe regne of pis Menelaus. 

)3an, first of al, pe story tellep vs, 

How pei sent for Agamenoiw, 

And for Castor to com to hym anoon, 

And for Pollux, $if it my3t[e] be ; 

And whan pei wer coiner alle pre, 

And saie her broper in swiche mesclief brou^t, 

Almost mordred wip* his owne pou^t, 

With-oute abood pe wyse Agamenoim 

To $if hym couwforte & consolaciourc 

Dide his labour & diligence entere, 

Seiyng to hym, ri$t as 30 schal here : 

" broper mjm, what wo, what heuynes, 

What dedly sorwe pus inly may oppres 

3our kny3tly hert or trouble $oure mawhede, 

More furiously y-wis pan it is nede; 










4306. 2nd ^ow] >ou$ D 1. 

4307. deuorcid] devoced D 2, deuoced D 1. 

4311. or] & D 1. 4315. of al] in al A, D 1, al in D 2. 

4324. with] to D 1 many] many a A. 

4326. vs] bus D 2, D 1. 4331. her] his D 1 in] to D 1. 

4332. wih] in C. 4338. may] my^t D 1. 

BK. n] Agamemnon advises Menclaus to feign Cheerfulness. 269 

For foil} fat ri^t requered outeiiy 

3ow for to sorwe and had cause why, 

3et, me semeth, by iuste prouidence, 

3e schuldo slhly dissymble* sowe offence 4344 Agamemnon 

o-ii i . i . i . tells Mene- 

bith echo Wiseman in his aduersite laus to con- 

Sclmlde feyne cher & kepen in secre distress, 

J?e inward wo fat bynt hyra in distresse [leaf 47 a] 

Be manly force rathest fer compesse 4348 

)3e sperit of Ire and malencolie, 

Where fe peple it sonest my^t espic. 

It is a doctrine of hem fat be prudent, 

J}at whan a man \\iili furie is to-rent, 4352 

To feyne chore til tyme he ?e leyser and feign 


J)at [he] of vengaiwce kyndle* may fe fer; take resell e 

For sorwe oute-schewid, ^if I shal nat feine, 

Who-so take hede, it doth f inges tweyne : 4356 

It causeth frendis for to si^e sore, 

And his enymyes to reioische more 

])\ frende in hert is sory of nature, 

ftin enemy glad of f i mysaventure. 4360 

Wherfore, in hert, whan wo doth most aboiwde, 

Feyne gladnes fin enmy to confou?ide, xius'iicon- 

And schewe in cher as f ou rou^tist nou^t 

Of f ing fat is most greuous in f i f ou^t. 4364 

And wher f ou hast most mater to cowpleyne, 

Make ber good* face & glad* in port be* feine ; He must put 

a good face 

For in-to teris f 0113 f ou al distille, 

And rende fi silfe, as fou woldest* }>e spille, 4368 

It helpith nat to aleggen f i greuawce : 

For nouf er honour nor pwrsut of vengau?ice, 

With sorwe niakyng mow ben execut 

J^ou} it last ay, fer cometh fere-of no frut. 4372 

Men seyn how he fat can dissymble a wrong, 

4344. sli3ly dissymble] lijtlydissymvble C dissymble] dissymle A. 
4347- hym] he?;t D 1. 4349. and] & of D 2. 
4354. kyndle] he kyndly C. 
4356. take] toke D 1, takej> A. 

4359. is sory of nature] whan woo doth most habunde A. 

4360, 61 arc omitted in A. 4363. rou3tist] Jx>u}tist D !. 

4365. most] moost is A, most is D 2. 

4366. good] glad C glad] good C J>e] J>ou C. 
4368. rende] rude D 1 woldest] wost C, wolde D 1. 

Tliis '11 show 
be has a 
manly heart. 

They must 
flght with 
not words. 

270 Agamemnon urges Menelaus to Fight, and not Mourn. [BK. n 

How he is sli^e and of herte stronge ; 

And who can ben peisible in his smerte, 

It is a tokene he hath a manly herte, 4376 

Nat to wepen as wowmen in her rage, 

Whiche is contrarie to an hije corage. 

With word & wepyng for to venge oure peyne, 

Be no menys to worschip to attayne ; 4380 

Lat vs with swerde & nat with wordis fi^t, 

Oure tonge apese, he manhod preve OWQ rny^t : 

Word is but wynde, & water pat we wepe, 

And pou$ pe tempest and pe flodis depe 4384 

Of pis two encresen euere-mo, 

J?ei may nat do but augmente oure wo 

And to oure foon, per-of whan pei here, 

Bope of oure dool & oure* heuy chere, 4388 

Al is to hem but encres of loye. 

Wherfore, broj>ir, a while dope a-coye 

])Q cruel torment pat byndep }ow so sore ; 

For in prouerbe it hap ben said ful ^ore, 4392 

]2at pe prowes of a manly knyjt 

Is preued most in mesclief, and his my^t : 

To ben assured in aduersite, 

Strongly sustene what wo pat it be, [leaf 47 &] 4396 

Nat cowardly his corage to submitte 

In euery pereil, nor his honour flitte 

J^oru} no dispeire, but hopera al-wey wel, 

And haue a trust, trewe as any stel, 4400 

Tacheven ay what he take on honde. 

For finally I do ^ou vndirstonde,* 

J)at of hym silfe who hap good fantasie 

To sette vp-on and putte in lupartie, 4404 

What pat be-falle, [or] hap what hap[pe] may, 

Takyng what chauttce wil tumen on his play, 

The fyn of whiche gladly is victorie, 

4374. How] And howe D 1. 

4375. ben peisible] peysible ben A. 
4377. wommen] a woman D 1. 

4386. f>ei] The A oure'] of oure D 1. 4388. oure] of oure C. 

4391. byndep] byden A. 

4402. vndirstonde] to vndirstonde C, D 1. 

4407. whiche] soche D 1 whiche gladly is] suche is gladly D 2. 

must bear 
his woe, 

have a trust, 
true as steel, 

that he'll 
work on 
and win. 

BK. n] The Greek lords assemble, and appoint their Leader. 271 

J3ei feile sclde of fe palmr of glorie. 4408 

And tyme is now, to spckc in wordis fcwe, 

brofir myn, manhod for to sclnw, 
To pluk vp herte & 3011 to make strong ; 

And to venge ^our damages & joure wronge, 4412 

We schal echon help & leye to honde 
Kynges, dukes, and lordis of fis londe 
And attonys done oure besynes, 

1 $ou behete, }our harmys to redresse. 4416 
And in dispit of whom fat euere vs lette, 

We schal vs loge & oure tentis sette 

Euene in fe felde a-fore Troye toim, 

And leyne a sege to her distruccioim, 4420 

Al-be her-of I sette as now no day. 

But, brofir, first, in al j?e haste we may, 

Lete make lettris, wat/i-oute more sermon??, 

To alle f e lordis of jns regioiw, 4424 

Of J?is mater touching yonre villenye, 

To come to-gidre & schape remedie 

J?is is theffect* of al fat I can seyn." 

And fus relessid so??zwhat of his peyne 4428 

Is Menelaus foru^ comfort of his brofer; 

For whan he sawe it my^t[e] be?i noon ofer, 

And of his tale J> e kyng made an ende, 

Jjoru^-oute fe londe he dide his letteris sende, 

First to his kyn and to his allye 

To come to helpe hym of her curtesye. 

And first of alle to Menelaus 

Cam Achilles, and vrith hym Patroclus, 4436 

And alder-nexte stronge* Diomede 

And many an ofer to helperj in fis nede. 

And alle echon, in open parlement, 

Jjei wer acordid ful by on assent 4440 

To be goue?ned as Agamenouw 

List to ordeyne in his discretions 

Of fis viage fei made hym gouernour, 

4408. }>e] om. D 1 2nd of] >e D 1. 

4411. 3011 to make] maTilv make 3011 D 1. 

4417. whom] whoo A, who D 2, D 1. 

4427. theffect] J>e theffect C. 4437. stronge] worbi C. 

4442. in] by D 1. 

must pluck 
up courage, 
says Aga- 

ami they'll 
soon besiege 
Troy and 
destroy it. 

All the Greek 
Lords must 
be summond. 


4432 sends em 

and Achilles, 



and others 

and agree on 
as their 

272 The thwarted Expedition of Castor & Pollux after Paris. [BK. n 

Before this, 
Pollux and 

set sail to 
rescue Helen 
from Paris. 

A storm rises, 

shivers their 

the ship's 
planks part, 

And of her ost chefteyn and emperour. 4444 

Among hem alle fer was ful vnite [leaf 470] 

Yp-on Troy aii s avengid for to be, 

And from fis * purpos neuer to remewe. 

But first, I fynde, Paris for to swe, 4448 

]5e viage toke ]?e worjn brefer tweyne, 

Pollux and Castor, to recure Eleyiie. 

$et neue?'-)>e-les, as somme bokis telle, 

jjat j^ese kynges no lenger wolde dwelle, 4452 

But as fast as Paris was a-goon 

jpei toke a schip and folweden* a-noon, 

With many worjn in her companye ; 

And dout[e]les, but ^if bokis lye, 4456 

jjat or j>ei hadde sailed daies fre 

To-Troye-ward in J>e large se, 

J)e te??zpest roos & wyndes dide awake, 

J3e heuene dirke with ]>e cloudis blake, 4460 

j)at han j>e day turned in-to ny^t, 

And bri3t[e] Phebus was myrked of his li^t 

)3e fery leuene and stroke of J?e bondre 

Smote in f e mast & schiverid it a-sondre. 4464 

It was so dirke no Ii3t my^t adawe ; 

J)e see gan swelle with many sturdy wawe 

Jjat ryse on hi^te, large as any mount, 

And fille douw & swappid in |?e frourct 4468 

Evene of }e schip, & ploimgid it ful lowe 

Now vp, now douw, for-cast & ouer-prowe 

Her schippes werne with tempest to & fro : 

J3e fomy water grene, white, and bio 4472 

Of feruent boilyng, & as piche eke blak 

With storrne & wynde, J?at al goth to wrake ; 

So hidously J>e blastis at hem dryve, 

J?at euery bord gan from o)?er ryve, 4476 

And al is perschid, fer skapef nat a man, 

But al attonys, as I reherse can, 

Be dede & dreynt with tempest sodeynly 

4444. chefteyn] kapteyn A. 4447. >is] >e C. 
4454. folweden] folwyn C. 4455. many] many a A. 
4462. his] om. D 1. 4464. schiverid] seuered D 1. 
4473. eke] om. D 1. 4477. skapeb] scapid D 1. 

BK. ii] Castor & Pollux are Lords in Heaven or Hell, or Stars. 273 
]3er skaped noon, I sey 3011 certeynly, 4480 and all the 

, , . , . men on board 

Excepte be brebre, whiche, as bokis telle, are drownd 

except Castor 

J)e ton in heuene, be tober lowe in helle andPoiiux. 

1 who are made 

Wer lordis made to abide eternaly. lords, one in 


And some feynyn in her poysy, 4484 HSi therin 

How )>e goddis ban hem deified 

Hi^e in heuene and y-stellyfied- 

After her schippes wern y-go to wrake and iul ac ' 

J5ei were made sterris in J>e $odyak, 4488 

And to fe signe transformed outterly, 

Whiche of clerkis is callid Gemyny. 

]3e whiclie signe and constellaciouw 

Is to Mercuric hous and mansiouw, 4492 

And is of kynde mene & masculyn, 

In whiche j>e Egle and also fe Dolphyn [leafed] 

Han her arisyng be reuoluciourc ; 

J?p, tail also aboue of )>e Dragoiua 4496 

Is exaltat in J? e J>ridde gre 

Of Gemyny, whiche signe haj> most pouste a 9 >g n that 

In hond & armys of man out of doute p we g r over 

Liche as Lucyna halt hir course aboute. 4500 

And in J>is wyse wer J?e brejjre tweyne 

To heuene rapt, as poetis feyne, 

After fe tempest $e gete no more of me 

For in }>is wyse pe Grekis in J?e see 4504 

An ende made, and bat f ul rewfully : This was the 

first unhappy 

J3is ernest first cam vnhappily fruit of the 

To* hem echon, as gynnyng of her wo 

And final chauwce to ]?e bre]?er two. 4508 

The descripcion of )>e moste part of princes pat kame 
with ])e Grekis for }>e destruccyown of Troye. 1 

But for-as-moche as Dares Frigius 
Was in his boke whilom corious 
])e forme of Troyens <fe Grekis to discryve, 

4480. skaped] escaped Dl. 4482. lowe] om. A. 
4484. feynyn] seyn D 1. 4487. her] his D 1. 
4494. whiche] >e whiche Egle] Ele D 1. 
4497. gre] degree D 2, degre D 1. 
4502. To] In D 1. 4507. To] Of C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 51 d. 

274 Dares 's Description of Helen, Agamemnon, Menelaus. [BK. n 


both Trojans 
and Greeks 
as he saw 


(who had a 
stripe along 
her face), 


bold and 

and Menelaus 

and wanting 
war more 
than peace). 

Liche as he saw jns auctor by his lyve 4512 

)pe schap, f e forme, and complexions, 

Bojje of ]>e party of hem of Troye toun, 

And of be Grekis, be good avisement, 

In tyme of trewe among hem as he went, 4516 

Seyng be maner of her goue?*nau??ce, 

Her port, her chere, with euery circumstance, 

IS T anily of boo bat wer of hi3e degre 

He nat for-gat color nor qualite, 4520 

Condicioiws, and* also her stature 

Al to discrive Dares dide his cure, 

In Grekysche tong, be-gynnyng at Eleyrie, 

Liche as to-forn $e han herde me seyne, 4524 

Of hi i 1 beute and hir semlynes 

How ceryously Guydo doth expresse 

(Saue he seide, in a litel space, 

A strype ]>er was endelonge hir face, 4528 

Whiche, as he writ, be-cam hir wonder wel, 

Embelyssching hir beute [ejuerydel, 

Like as Dares make]) discripciou?^). 

And first he seib how kyng Agamenouw 4532 

Was of good schap & hi^e of his stature, 

And my^te in labour at be best endure 

Vnpacient to lyuen in quiete, 

He was to armys so egal and so mete 4536 

Of colour white, & good proporciouw, 

And flewmatik of his complexiouw, 

Discret and hardy, & wonder vertuous, 

And of speche ri^t facundious, 4540 

And kowde him wel in euery bing demene. 

But Menelay of stature was but rnene, 

Proporc^oned atwixe schort and longe, [leaf 43 a] 

Worjn in armys, deliuere, & also strong, 4544 

And of corage and hertfe] vigerous, 

Semly also, and ay more desyrous 

To lyue in werre, rather fan in pees. 

4516. trewe] trewes D 1. 4520. nor] no D 1. 

4521. and] nor C. 4523. Grekysche] Grekes D 1. 

4524. herde me] om. D 1. 

4527. he] a D 1. 4533. his] om. A. 

4534. my^te] niyghty A, D 2. 

BK. n] Dares 's Account of Achilles, Tantalus, & the 2 Ajaxes. 275 

Aiid, ferthermore, to speke of Achilles, 

Ho was ri^t fair and of gret semlynes, 

With hawborne her, crispyng for jnkries, 

WitJt eyen glawke, large, stepe, and grete, 

And brod schuldrid, with brest fui square [and] 

Tendure in armys fel and coragous, 

And of his loke wonder amerous, 

Hi$e of stature, and large of ^iftes eke, 

And more of strengjje )?an any oj>er Greke. 

And to spende he sette litel charge, 

He was of herte so plenteuous & large, 

And in the feld passyng chiualrous. 

And for to telle for)?e of Tantalus, 

Of sangwyn hewe, havyng moche of red, 

Diuers eyed, ay mevyng in his hed, 

Of huge makyng & also of gret strengjje, 

Wei answeryng his brede to his lengj?e, 

Hatyng to stryve where he saw no nede, 

Ri^t trewe of worde also, as I rede ; 

And neuere quarel wolde he take on honde 

To fi"3t[e] fore, but he my$t vndirstonde 

Jjat it were fully gronded vp-on ri^t, 

And )>a?ine he wolde quite him lik a knyjt. 

Oyleus Aiax was li^t corpulent ; 

To be wel clad he sette al his entent ; 

In riche array he was ful corious, 

Al-Jrai^e he were of body corsyous, 

Of armys gret, w/t/i schuldris square & brode, 

It was on hym al-most an hors[e] lode, 

Hi$e of stature & boistous in a prees, 

And of his speche rude and rekkeles 

Ful many worde in ydel hym asterte, 

And but a coward was [he] of his herte. 

A-noJ>or Aiax, Thelamonivs, 

})er was also, discret & vertuous, 

Wonder fair and semly to beholde, 

4548 Dares 



(with auburn 





4556 and strong), 

4560 Tantalus 





(big, tall 

and true), 

Ajax, son of 


rude in 

4580 a coward at 
and Ajax. 
son of Tela- 

4550. hawborne] awburne D 2, awborne D 1. 

4551. glawke] glaunc D 1 grete] greke D 2. 
4560. for>e] for A. 4564. to] vn to D 1. 

4565. no] noon A. 4571. Oyleus] Cyleus D 2, Cileus D 1. 
4574. Al->ei3e] Al fan} D 1. 

276 Dares s Description of Ajax, Ulysses, and Diomede. [BK. n 

Ajax the Tela- 

(a fine singer, 

contriver of 



a noble 

hating vain 


and Ulysses 


a prudent 
and most 

and Diomede 




Whos her was blak, & vpvvard ay gaw folde 4584 

In compas wyse, roimde as any spere ; 

And of mvsik was J?er noon his pere, 

Hauyng a vois ful of melodie, 

Ri^t wel entvned as by armonye, 4588 

And was inventif for to coiuiterfete 

Instrumentis, bope smale and grete, 

In sondry wyse longyng to mvsik. 

And for al ]?is, $et had he gret practik [leaf 486] 4592 

In armys eke, & was a noble kny^t 

No man more orpid nor hardier to fi^t* 

Nor desyrous for to han victorie, 

Devoide of pompe, hatyng al veyn glorie, 4596 

Al ydel laude, spent & blow in veyn. 

Of Vlixes what schal I also seyn ? 

))at was so noble & worjji* in his daies, 

Ful of wyles and slei}ty at assayes, 4600 

In menyng double and ri^t deceyueable, 

To forge a lesyng also wonder able ; 

^With face pleyn he coude make it towe, 

Merie wordid, and but selde lowe, 4604 

In conseillynge discret & ful prudent, 

And in his tyme fe moste elloquent, 

And halpe to Grekis often* in her nede. 

And for to spekew of worjn Diomede, 4608 

Ful wel compact & growe wel on lenfe, 

Of sturdy port and fanms eke of strenjje, 

Large brestid, & fers also of fi^t, 

And deseyueable of what fat euer he hi^t 4612 

Hasty, testif, to smyte rek[e]les, 

And medlif ay, and but selde in pes, 

To his seruantis ful impacient, 

And baratous wher ]?at euer he went, 4616 

For litel wrofe of dispocisiourc, 

4594. fi^t] fir^t C. 4599. noble & wor])i] wor>i & noble C. 

4600. at] of D 1. 

4603. face] facece D 1 towe] tough D 2, tou}e D 1. 

4607. to] be D 1 often] ful often C. 

4609. on] a D 1. 

4609, 10. len>e and stren}>e are spelt with a g in A, D 2, D 1. 

4611. fijt] sijt D 2, D 1. 4613. testif] testy D 1. 

BK. n] Dares on Nestor, Protesilaus, Neoptolemus, Palamedes. 277 

And lecherous of complexion, 

And had in loue oft[e] sythes his part, 

Breranynge at hert wi)> Cupides dart, 

And specheles ful oft felt[e] soor. 

What schal I seyn [eke] of duko Nestor 1 

Of longe stature & wel compact wt/i-al, 

With kurbe schuldris & of myddel sinal , 

In hondis strong, with armys large & roimde, 

In couwseillyng prudent & wys y-foiwde ; 

Wlios wordis werne sugrid with plesaimce, 

Yp-on his frende hauyng ay remembraunce : 

For of his troujje he ne koude feyne, 

But in anger he rny^t hym nat refreyne ; 

He was so fret wij? malencolye, 

feat no man my3t his Ire modefie, 

Al-be it laste but a litel space 

Who coude hym suffre, anon it wolde pace, 

Li3tly it cam and li^tly went a-way. 

And Protheselavs was fresche of array, 

Wonder semly & of gret bewte 

I trowe a fairer no man my^t[e] se 

Of good stature and deliuere & li$t, 

No man more swyfte ; & to speke of iny^t, 

Of his makyng he was passyng strong, [leaf 43 

Fers of corage & loth to take a wrong. 

And to telle of Neptolonius, 

He was of makyng wonder corsious, 

Whos her was blak, schynyng as do]? get, 

With eyen rouwde, brood[e], stepe, and gret, 

Large brestid, wij> a risyng bak, 

And in speche stamered whan he spak ; 

But in causes he coude medle wele, 

And in J?e lawe ful depe he dide fele, 

For al his lust was be-set on plees. 

But for to telle of rallamydes, 

Kyng Naulus sone, wit/*-outen any wene, 

and lustful}. 


(toll, round- 
4624- "liouldenl, 






but soon 
4636 Protesilaus 


4640 swift, strong), 





expert in 

4652 and Pala- 

4620. wi>] of A. 4626. wys] wyl A. 

4630. refreyne] restreiue D 1. 

4635. went] it went D 1. 4633. fairer] fairerere D 1. 

4640. man more] more man A. 4650. ]>e] om. D 1. 

278 Dares describes Palamedes, Poly damas, Machaon, Cressid. [BK. n 





and gener- 


and dull), 



and Cressid, 

of whom 
my Master, 
described the 
beauty : 

he was so 
gay in his 
But I can't 
skip her, 

as I must lol 
low Guido. 

Of face faire, of body longe and lene, 

Of manful hert, hardy in bataille, 

And desirous his enmy to assaille 4656 

Famylier, curteis, and tretable 

In alle his dedis, & inli worschipable, 

In $ifyng large, & passyng of gret fame, 

Of whos bougie ful wyde sprange j?e name 4660 

In many londe, pe story tellej? Jms. 

And nexte, I fynde how Polydamvs, 

])Q worjri Greke, was of gret fiknes, 

Of wombe swolle, enbosid with fatnes, 4664 

)}at onnefe he my3t him silfe sustene ; 

And $et of hert he was ful proude & kene, 

Bi^t surquedous & ful of pensifnes, 

And seld[e] glad, so fou^t dide hym oppres. 4668 

But Machaon, lik as writ Guy do, 

Of longe & schort was atwixe two, 

Fel, proude, & fers, deuoyde of pacience, 

And vengable, who hym dide* offeree; 4672 

And $it he was ballid as a cote, 

On whos forhede, euene by ]>& rote, 

J)e here was falle & wasted cleue awey, 

And selde or neuer he wolde slope a-day. 4676 

And ouermore, to telle?a of Cryseyde, 

Mi percne stumble]), for longe or he deyde 

My maister Chaucer dide his dilligence 

To discryve fe gret excellence 4680 

Of hir bewte, and fat so maisterly, 

To take on me it were but hi^e foly, 

In any wyse to adde more fer-to ; 

For wel I wot, anoon as I haue do, 4684 

)3at I in soth no fanke disserue may, 

Be-cause }>at he in writyng was so gay 

And but I write, I mote J?e troupe leue 

Of Troye boke, and my mater breue 4688 

And ouer-passe and nat go by and by 

As Guy do do]) in ordre ceryously. [leaf 48 d] 

4660. Of] In D 1 bouwte] beaute D 1. 

4670. atwixe] be twixe A, D 2, D 1. 

4672. hym dide] dide hym any C. 4687. but] om. A. 

BK. n] Lydgalc s glowing praise of his Master, Geoffrey Chaucer. 279 

And pus I most don offencioiw 

J3oru$e necligence or presumpcioiw : . 4692 

So am I sette euene amyddes tweyne ! 

Gret cause haue I & mater to compleyne I've reason 

to complain 

On Antropos & vp-on hir envie, of Fate, 

Jpat brak pe J>rede & made for to dye 4696 

Noble Galfride, poete of Breteyne, 

Amowge oure englisch pat made first to reyne 

#e gold dewe-dropis of rethorik so fyne, 

Oure rude langage only tenlwmyne. 4700 

To God I pray, pat he his soule haue, ioui d ') havehi * 

After whos help of nede I most[e] crave, 

And seke his boke pat is left be-hynde SareV/his 

Som goodly worde per-iu for to fynde, 4704 JJJ^oSIe apt 

To sette amonge pe crokid lynys rude among^' 

Whiche I do write j as, by similitude, poor ones. 

Jje ruby stant, so royal of renou, 

Wit/i-Inne a ryng of copur or latouw, 4708 

So stant pe makyng of hym, dout[e]les, HW p 

Among oure bokis of englische per[e]les : 

)3ei arn ethe knowe,* pei ben so excellent ; 

Jjer is no makyng to his equipolent ; 4712 

We do but halt, who-so take)) hede, of h 

J3at medle of makyng, wi't/i-oute?i any drede. 

Whan we wolde his stile courcterfet, 

We may al day oure colour grynde & bete, 4716 

Tempre our a^our and vermyloim : 

But al I holde but presumpciouw 

It folwej)* nat, ferfore I lette be. 

And first of al I wil excuse me 4720 SoTn tnm 

And precede as I haue be-gonne, 

And pom} his fauour certeyn, 3if I kowne, 

Of Troye boke for to make an ende ; 

And J>er I lefte ageyn I wil now wende, 4724 

Vn-to Cryseyde, and pou^ to my socour 

Of rethorik pat I haue no flour 

Nor hewes riche, stonys nor perre 

4899. gold dewe-dropis] golden dropes D 1. 

4711. ethe knowe] ethe to knowe C, esy to knowe D 1. 

4719. folwep] forwe> C. 

280 Cressid described ; her sunny Hair and heavenly Eyes. [BK. n 

But I must 
do like blind 

and stumble 

Cressid was 

with sunny 
hair in a tress 
down her 

and heavenly 


She was 
simple and 

but unstable 
in love. 

For I am bare of alle coriouste, 4728 

J^oru} crafty speche to enbrovde with her sieve 

3et for al fat, now I wil not leue, 

But ben as bolde as Baiard is, f e blynde, 

feat cast no peril what wey[e] fat he fynde ; 4732 

Ri^t so wil I stu?ftble forfe of* hede 

For vnkoraiyng, & take no better hede, 

So as I can, hir bewte to discriue. 

feat was in soth of alle f o on-lyue 4736 

On f e fayrest, f is Calchas doubter dere, 

fter-to of schap, of face, and of chere, 

)3er my^tfe] [be] no fairer creature : [leaf 49 a] 

To hise nor lowe,* but mene of stature 4740 

Hir sormysche her, liche Phebns in his spere, 

Bouwde in a tresse, brijter f a?me golde were, 

Douw at hir bak, lowe doura be-hynde, 

Whiche with a f rede of golde sche wolde bynde 4744 

Ful of te syf e of a-custuwmauwce ; 

Jjer-to sche hadde so moche suffisaiwce 

Of kyndes wirke, wat^-outen any were* 

[And] Saue hir browes Ioyn[e]den y-fere, 4748 

No man koude in hir a lake espien. 

And, ferf ermore, to speken of hir eyen, 

))ei wer so persyng, heuenly, & so clere, 

feat an herte [ne] my$t hym silffe] stere 4752 

Ageyn hir schynyng, fat f ei nolde wouwde 

J}oru$-out a brest, God wot, & blonde. 

Also sche was, for al hir semlynes, 

Ful symple & nieke, & ful of sobirnes, 4756 

Jje best norissched eke fat my^t[e] be, 

Goodly of speche, fulfilde of pite, 

Facundious, and f er-to ri^t tretable, 

And, as seif Guydo, in loue variable 4760 

Of tendre herte & vnste[d]fastnes 

4729. enbrovde] enbroyde A. 4733. of] on C. 

4736. on-lyue] a lyve A, D 2, a live D 1. 4739. no] sno A. 

4740. lowe] to lowe C. 

4745. of] for D 1 D 2 omits the prefix a in a-custummaunce. 

4747. were] where C. 4748. y-fere] in feere D 1. 

4749. a] o???. A. 

4752. ne] om. A, D 1 silfe] silven A, D 2. seluen D 1 . 

4758. fulfilde] fulfilled A, D 1. 

BK. n] Dares describes the King of Persia and Kiny Priam. 281 

He hir accuseth, and newfongilnes. 

And aftir bis, Dares dobe reherse Dares teii 

_ how the King 

Amongis ofer, how be kyng of Perce 4764 ^^"hei 

Cam to Grekis vrith many worbi knyjt 

To helpe & furfere vrith al his ful[le] my^t. 

)5e whiche kyng was of stature longe, H * t*u. 

And wonder fat and, as he writ,* ri$t stronge ; 4768 fat, 

Whos herd and her, reed as flawme of fire, red-haird, 

With eyen stepe, and feruent of desyre 

To haue a-do, and sterne of chore & loke, 

And ofte syj>es* of sodeyn Ire he quoke 4772 

And had wertis plente in his face. and had warts 

on his lace. 

And fus Dares, schortly for to pace, 

No more of Grekis write)?, as I fynde, 

But of Troyans for to make mynde, 4776 

Ceriously he dojje his stile dresse 

Hem to discryue, as I schal expresse. 

And first he seith how kyn Priamws D&* 

J describes 

Was of his chere benigne and gracious, 4780 ^ i jj ll priara 

Of hi^e stature, with lymys sklender & longe, 

Delityng moche in musik & in songe ; fondofmusic, 

And specialy he was most desyrous 

To heren songis ]pat wern amerous 4784 

A semly man, and of gret hardynes, bold. 

And spake but lowe, as bokis vs* expresse : low of speed., 

Devoide of drede, hatyng flaterye, 

And alle J>at koude ouper glose or lye, [leaf 6] 4788 bating iia.s, 

Trewe of his worde, & to euery 

He dide pleinly equite and ri$t 

For no mede hym list nat to decline, 

And loued erly on morwe for to dyne. 4792 J n n *J rl y 

In his tyme on fe worfiest 

Of alle kynges, and he fat loued best king rtl!y 

Worjri kny3tes ; <fe alle pt he knewe 

)3at manful were and of hertfe] trewe, 4796 

He koude cherische, no man half so wele, 

4768. as he writ] J>er with C rijt] wonder A. 
4772. sy]>es] syj>er C. 4779. new 1T A, D 1. 
4786. vs] do vs C. 4795. alle] om. D 1. 

4797. koude cherische] cherysshe koude D 2 no man half] & no 
man D 2. 

282 Dares' s description of the worthy, knightly Hector. [BK. n 

eldest son 
Hector was 
the flower of 



famed in 
peace and 

compact of 
brawn and 



lowly te rich 
and poor, 

benign to his 


a lion to his 


With gold & jiftes, fab j>ei my$t[e] fele 

His grete f redam & largesse eke wtt/i al. 

And of his sones, for to rekne hem alle, 

fee first of birfe, so as bokis telle, 

Was worfi Ector, of kuyjthod spring & welle, 

Flour of manhod, of strengf e per[e]les, 

Sadde & discret & prudent neuere-fe-les, 

Crop & rote, groiwde of chiualrie, 

Of cher demvre, and of curtesye 

He was example Jjer-to of sobirnes 

A verray merour, & for his gentilnes 

In his tyme J>e mostfe] renomed, 

To reknen al, and of goodlyhed 

J3e most[e] fanras, [and] in pes &* werre 

Ferfest spoke of, bofe ny$e & ferre. 

On eche part he was so vertuous, 

And to be loued f e most gracious, 

Of brawn & bonys compact be mesure, 

So wel brej>id in arrays to endure, 

So wel parformed be proporciouw, 

So quik, so liny, and of most* renouw, 

So huge made, so wel growe on lengfe, 

So wel complet for to haue gret strengf e, 

J3at in fis worlde, jif I schal nat feyne, 

Was neuer noon fat fully myjt attayne 

To ]?e prowes of ))is worfi kny^t, 

To rekne his hert as wel as his my$t. 

And J>er-wijj-al so wys and avysee, 

fie low[l]iest eke of his degre 

To riche & pore, and of wordis fewe. 

Vn-to alle suche chere he koude schewe,* 

Of his presence fat glad was eue?*y wy$t, 

Whan J>ei at leyser hadde of him a si$t ; 

He was so benygne to hem of )?e toun, 

And to his enm t yes lyk a fers lyouw 

He koude hym schewe, whan it was to do ; 

4800. hem] om. D 2. 4811. and] om. A &] & in 0. 

4818. lifly and of most] lusty and most of C. 

4819. on] o D 2. 

4826. lowliest] lowiest D 1. 

4828. alle] alle peple Dl schewe] hem schewe C. 










BK. n] Dares 's account of Hector, Deiphobus, Helenus & Troilus. 283 

And in J>e felde fcr my3t[e] no man so, 

To rekene al his labour, half endure : 

For )>e story doth vs pleyn assure 

J)at he was neuer wery in bataille, [leaf 49 

Nor feint in hert his fomen to assaille. 

Of alle good I fynde he was j>e heste ; 

Prowes & vertu in hiw wer sette at reste 

So passyngly, fat neuer was no schal 

Noon bore of modir to be perigal 

To hym of manhod nor of chiualrie : 

For alle he passed, but }if bokis lye, 4844 

In whom Nature was no J>ing to wyte, 

Saue in his tonge he was let a lite ; 

And, as som auctours make menciouw, 

He was sangwyn of complexiou?^. 4848 

And, ferfermore, his broker Dephebus, 

Lik as I fynde, and also Eleuus, 

Were liche Priam, ]>at sothly of hew ]>re 

Was hard tespien any diuersyte 4852 

Of schap, of forme, or of coiwtenau^ce, 

Saue of age, ber was no variauwce : 

Her fader olde and bei wer 3ong & 

And Dephebws was a worjn kny^t, 

And had in armys fame & excellence ; 

And Elenus in clergie and science 

Was wel expert, & toke but litel hede 

Of alle be werre, kny^thod, nor manhede. 4860 

But Troylus schortly $if I schal discryve, 

J)er was of hert now manlier on lyue, 

Nor more likly in armys to* endure : 

Wel woxe on* heijte and of good stature, 480 4 

}ong, fresche, & lusty, hardy as a lyoutt, 

Deliuere and strong as any champioim, 

And perigal of manhod and of dede 

He was to any )>at I can of rede 4868 

4836. pleyn] pleynly A. 

4838. to] for to A to assaille] for tasayle D 1. 

4852. any] a A. 4859. but] om. D 1. 

4860. nor] or D 2, D 1. 4861. schortly] sothly A. 

4863. to] for to C. 4864. on] of C. 

4865. a] om. D 2, Dl. 

4836 Hector was 

never tired of 


no one 

equald him 
in manhood. 

and Helenus 
were like 
their father 

4856 Deiphobus 

was fame 1 in 

Helenus in 

Troilus was 

as bold as a 

284 Dares s description of Troilus and of Paris. [BK. n 

Troilus was 
a second 

and true in 


and death to 
the Greeks, 
but a shield 
to the 

Paris was the 
of men. 

Iii doring do, pis noble worpi kny^t, 

For to fulfille pat longep to a kny^t. 

)De secunde Ector for his worpines 

He callid was, and for his l^e prowes 4872 

Duryng pe werre, he bare hym ay so wel ; 

fter-to in loue as trewe as any stele, 

Secre and wys, stedefast of corage, 

)5e most[e] goodly also of visage 4876 

)?at my^tfe] be, and benigne of cher, 

Wit/i-oute chauwge, & of on hert entere. 

He was alwey feithful, iust, & stable, 

Perseuerauwt, and of wil inmvtable 4880 

Vp-on what ping he onys set his herte, 

)3at doubilnes rny^t hym nat pe?*uerte 

In his dedis he was so hool and pieyn ; 

But on his foon, pe sothe for to seyn, 4884 

He was so fers pei my$t him nat wlt/istonde 

Whaw pat he hilde his bloodly swerde on hond : [leaf 49 d] 

Vn-to [pe] Grekis deth and confusioim, 

To hem of Troye shelde * and proteccioim ; 4888 

And his kny^thod schortly to acounte, 

fter my$t in manhod no man him surmouwte, 

Jjoru^ pe worlde pou$ men wolde seke, 

To reknen al, Troyan nouper Greke, 4892 

Noon so namyd of famus hardynes, 

As bolus olde of hym bere witnes, 

Excepte Ector, per was nat swiche anoper. 

And aftir hym, to speken of his broper, 4896 

I mene Paris, most passyng of bewte, 

|3at in pis worlde no man myjtfe] se, 

In verray sope, a more semly kny^t ; 

For as I rede, pat he, be title of ri3t, 4900 

Of fairnes bare awey pe flour 

"With lokkis $elwe lik gold were of colour. 

4869. kny^t] wyght D 2. 

4871. misplaced at bottom of column in D 2. 

4872. He callid was and] f>e secounde Ector D 2 callid was] 
was callid A. 

4874. 1st as] om. D 2, D 1. 4876. f>e] And J>e D 1. 
4878. on] mn. D 1. 4887. >e] wi. D 2. 
4888. shelde] help C. 4900. as] om. D 1. 
4902. were] wire D 1. 

BK. n] Dares s account of Paris, Eneas, and Antenor. 285 

And in schetyng most was his delite, 

Hauyng in hunting a [f ul] gret appetite ; 

And as Dares likith hym discryue, 

]pe best archer on fer-of a-lyve ; 

And of his hond was eke a noble kny^t, 

A manly [man], deliuere and of good 

And in ]>e werre preued wel he was. 

And, as I rede, j>e Troyan Eneas, 

As myn auctor listeth to endite, 

Was wel brested and of body lite, 

And bare in Troye wonder gret estat ; 

In his werkis discret and temperat, 

And hadde a fame of passyng elloquence, 

Wys of counseil and of gret sapience, 

Most renomed also of lettrure, 

Delytyng moche in bokis & scripture, 

And euere glad, boj>e of port & chere,* 

Sterne of his loke, \vith pe/'syng eyen clere. 

And amonge alle dwellyng in ]>e tow*, 

To speke of goodys and pocessiouw, 

Of castels and towres gret plente, 

I fynde, sopely, fat noon in fat cite 

Ne my$t atteyne vn-to his reches ; 

And hadde also, for al his worjnnes, 

Of gold and mebles passing gret tresour. 

And his felawe, he, dawn Anthenor, 

Was sclendre & longe, & of gret dalyati^ce, 

And circumspect in al his goue?-nau?ice, 

Wel be-louyd also of Priamws, 

And of wordis wonder copious, 

Eesownyng ay in-to myrfe and pley. 

And he was lapyng al )>e longe day 

Among his feris and in companye, [leaf 50 a] 

So driely ]>at no man my^t espie, 

So sobir he was in his contenauwce, 

Paris de- 
lighted in 
4904 hunting, 

and was the 
best archer 


Eneas was 
4912 small, 

discreet and 


fond of books, 
4920 stern of look, 

4924 and richer 

than any one 
in Troy. 

4928 Antenor was 
slender and 

4932 and full of 
mirth and 


4913. Troye] storie D 1. 4914. In] And in D 1. 

4915. a] of D 1. 4919. chere] of cbere C. 

4920. persyng] passage D 1. 4924. 2nd >at] tins D 1. 

4926. al] om. D 2. 4927. mebles] iowellis A. 

4931 is omitted in D 1. 

After 4932, D 1 inserts : And in his werkis passmge mcrveillous. 

286 Dares describes Polydamas, Merionas, and Hecuba. [BK. n 




(who was like 
his father, 


King Meri- 


(with yellow 
curly hair), 

and Queen 

(who Guido 
says was like 
a man, 

but she was 
a model of 

J)at euery wy$t hadde gret plesaurcce 

To here hym talke, wha?i fat he was glad ; 

And, al-be-it fat he of port was sad, 4940 

3it al his speche ful of bourdis was. 

And his sone, callid Polly damas, 

Was lik his fader of stature <fe of inak, 

I-thewed wel, fat fer was no lak 4944 

In his persone, gentil and rr$t trewe, 

Wonder strong and pale also of he we, 

And to Ire sterid sodeynly, 

Al-be in wordis he kept hym couertly 4948 

But al his hete passe wolde anoon. 

And to telle of kyng Meryon, 

Large brestid, & of his makyng al 

Jpe best[e] compact and fe most[e] tal 4952 

Of schap and forme fat men* koude fynde, 

And so wel parformed vp by kynde, 

]5at non was lik to hym, ny^e nor fer : 

His lokkis $elwe, & crispy ng was his her 4956 

Stille of his port, and gentil with to play, 

And inly strong maystries for to assay ; 

Wonder curteis, to no wi^t dispitous, 

And wrou^t in armys dedis meruelous, 4960 

As in f is boke her-after schal be sene. 

No we after hym, to Eccuba fe quene, 

Lik f e story, my style y mote encline 

Whos lymys alle dide more decline 4964 

To schap of man fan to womanhede, 

As seith Guy do ; but in werke and dede 

Sche was in soth fe most[e] womanly, 

)3e best avised, and most prudently 4968 

In hir dedis koude hir silfe gouerne, 

feat maraiys wit my^tfe] nat discerne 

To fynde a bet, dout[e]les, fan sche 

So trewe example of ferny nyte 4972 

Sche was in sofe, and to euery 

4941. bourdis was] horde was (partly erased) D 2. 

4953. men] non C. 4955. nor] ne A. 

4967. misplaced at bottom of column D 2. 

4970. myjte] ne my3t D 1. 

4972. femyuyte] femynynyte A, D 2. 

BK. n] Dares 's account of Andromache and Cassandra. 287 

Benigne of port and gracious of si$t : 

To pore also pitous and merciable, 

And vn-to nedy wonder charitable. 

Jpo wif of Ector, hir doubter in lawe, 

After hir lore mochel dide drawe, 

Andronomecha, J>e feijjful trewe wyf, 

So good, so iust, ]?e whiche in al hir lyf 

In honeste dide hir moste delite 

Longe of hir schap, with brestis faire & whyte, 

With rody chekis, eunewed by mesure, 

With persyng eyen, of angelik figure* [leaf so 6] 

Lik gold hir tressts, & rosyn lippis rede 

I-liche fresche, of colour no J)ing dede. 

)5er-to sche was of chere J?e goodlieste 

To riche & pore, and spake alwey J>e beste 

Of euery wi^t, ay helping what sche my^t, 

ftat no man trist went out of hir si^t ; 

And oue?* J>is, euery gentil-man 

Sche forfre wolde in al J>t euer sche can, 

And gladly euer dide* hir dilligence 

To gete grace to hem J?at dide offence : 

jois was hir vsage and condiciourc, 

Sche was so ful of compassiouw 

Jpat women alle my^ten of hir lere. 

And Cassandra, hir ovne doubter dere, 

Was of stature wonder wo?wmanly, 

Of colour white, and fer-wzt/i ri^t semly 

(Saue in her face in soumlri places were 

Many wertys growyng here & j>ere) ; 

And al hir loy and felicite 

Was to kepe hir v'irginite ; 

And freelte J>at wo?ttinen ban of kynde, 

J^oru} vertu moral sche put out of mynde, 

Of alle foly fleyng occasiouw ; 

And ay in studie & contemplaciomi* 

4978. lore] lord A. 4980. >e] om. D 1. 
4981. hir moste] moost hire A. 4983. rody] rede D 1. 
4984. figure] fugure C. 4987. f>er-to] Wher to D 1. 
4988. riche] ripe D 1. 4993. euer dide] dide tner C. 
5005. And] In A. 5007-10 are omitted in D 1. 
5008. contemplaciouft] comtemplacioun C. 









Hector's wife 




helpful to 
every one),. 

;uid Cassiiii- 

(with waits 
on her face, 

5004 a virgin, 

5008 and studi- 

288 Dares' s description of Cassandra &, the lovely Polyxena. [BK. II 

(who has a 
spirit of 

and Polyx- 

the fairest of 
all Nature's 

hued like the 
lily and the 

the choicest 
living beauty, 

and the most 

Of sondry bokis sche wolde [hir] occupie, 

And specially of astronomye ; 

Of prophesye a spirit had[de] sche ; 

And somme men seyn sche was on of pe pre, 5012 

Of pe women pat Cebile bare pe name, 

Of whom pe renouw floureth & pe fame 

Vn-to pis day, and is as $et but grene. 

And for to telle of ^ong[e] Pollicene, 5016 

And discriue hir bewte vp and dourc, 

It were in sope a presumpciou?i 

To take on me now so gret a ping, 

To clymbe so hi^e & passe my koranyng, 5020 

Sipen Nature in forgyng of pis mayde, 

Hir ko/myng al outterly assaied 

To make hir fair aboue eche creature, 

And seide proudly : "se how I, Nature, 5024 

Whan [pat] me list, enbelissche can my wirke : 

Liche as Phebus among pe cloudis dirke 

Is passyng clere, so in comparisons, 

I can my wirke and operaciouw 5028 

Ei^t as me list adourne & make fair, 

So peint & florische, it schal nat apeire ; 

And my colours so craftily dispose, 

Of pe lillie and pe fresche rose, 5032 

And so ennew pat pei schal nat fade, [leaf 50 c] 

But ay ben on ; and in pis wyse I made 

My dere doubter, $e wite whom I mene, 

])Q ^onge, fresche, faire* Policene, 5036 

A-skans pat non can pis craf te but I ! " 

ftus in hir wirke bosted outerly 

Nature hir silf, whaw sche pis maide wrou^t, 

As sche pat fully in hir hert[e] pou^t 5040 

Abouen alle oper to maken hir excelle, 

And of bewte to be pe verray welle. 

And per-wM-al in schap nor [in] stature 

Ne was no lak, I dar $ou wel assure ; 5044 

And God aboue $af hir souereynte 

In alle thewes, and wolde sche scholde be 

5013. 1st >e] om. A. 5035. wite] woote D 2, wete D 1. 
5036. fresche faire] fair fresche C. 5038. wirke] silf D 1. 

BK. n] The lovely Polyxena. Nature in February. 289 

Crop & rote namyd of womanhede, 
With folsomnes of al goodly hede, 
So passyngly, fat it wer ydelnes 
Me to preswme by and by texpresse 
Hir beute al, it wer a vayn travail ; 
For wel I wote myn englische wolde faile, 
In whiche mater to talke felyn[g]ly, 
Who-euere it can, certeyn it am nat I. 
frerfore I passe, & street now wil I go 
To my mater ; for Dares of no mo 
In al his boke maketh mencioim 
Of hem of Grece nor of Troye tourc : 
In special he putte no mo in mynde 
)?an 30 haue herde, saue, as 36 schal fynde 
In f is story, whan it cometh fer-to, 
Of hir kny3thod & who fat best hath do, 
Lastyng fe sege, f e manor euerydel. 
And ri3t anon to scharp[e] my poyntel 
I wil me dresse, f is story to entrete, 
Of al ]>e werre to telle 3011 f e grete. 

5048 Polyxena 

was ao lovely 
that my 

5052 English can't 
describe her. 

5056 So I'll go on 
with my 
story of the 


5064 and sharpen 

Here folowynge is declarede the grete nowmbre of 
shippes that the Grekys assamblede in the havene 
of Athenes, bysidis a grete navye that kame to 
them whene ]>ay wer at Troye. 1 

The tyme nei3ef aftir f is nat 3ore, 
ftat breme wynter with his frostis hore 
Gan taswagen of his bitter colde \ 
Whan Appollo passid was pe holde 
Of f e signe fat we calle Aquarie, 
And in fe Fissche, fer in Februarie 
I-ronne was to-ward J>e Ariete ; 
And fat sesoiw, -with his feynt[e] hete, 
On hillis hi3e gan his bemys smyte, 
Makyng f e snow vrith faire flakis whyte 
In-to water kyndely relente, 
Whiche from aboue to fe valey went, 

5060. haue] om. D 2. 5073. I-ronne] Ronne A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 52 d. 


5072 For in 


5076 when the 
snow had 

290 The Greeks muster at Athens. .The Ships of Agamemnon. [BK.II 

J)at newe flodis of pe sodeyn powe 

J)e grene mede gan to ouernowe, 5080 

And pe yis gan stouwdemele distille 

Douw fro pe Ml pe brokis for to fille [leaf 50 d] 

With fomy stremys of pe wawes smale, 

By broke bankis as pei dide avale 5084 

and the Whan lusty ver, with his 3onge grene, 
of spring had Is recou^forted by pe sonne schene, 

Whiche lite and lite his hewes ay amewdep , 

Vp in his spere as Titan vp ascendeth ; 5088 

Whan Marche aprochep, & branchis oueral 
its buds, Gynne buddyn out, & pe equinoccial 

Of wer is halwed, pe sesoura amerous, 

the Greeks Whan pe Grekis, proude & coraious, 5092 

Sen and With hool pe flour of her chiualrie 

Assemblid werne, & holly her navie 

In pe hauene pat was most of fame,* 
Athens, And of Atthenes pat tyme bare the name, 5096 

Y-gaddred was, by assent echon 
to sail Towardis Troye to seilen & to gon 

r y * So gret [a] noumbre, pat syth pe world began, 

Is nat remembrid of no maner man, 5100 

ftat to-gidre in a companye 

Was met y-fere so passyng a navye 

Of manly men, who so liste take hede, 

In pis story as 36 schal after rede. 5104 

And by and by to make discripciouw, 
Agamemnon Myn auctor telleth howe Agamenouw, 
ship?; 1 \)Q worpi kyng, an huwdrid schippis brou^t 

With worpi kny^tis stuffid as hem ou^t ; 5108 

Meneiaus50 And Menelaus, on whom* lay most [pe] charge, 

Hath with him brou^t sixti schipes large 

Out of his londe pat callid is Sparten ; 

And from Boece, ful of manly men, 5112 

while 50 Cam fifty schipes, pe story tellep pus, 
Prothoenor Wfc'tfr Prothenor and with Archelaus ; 

And from pe lond, callid Sycomenye, 

5084. broke] brode D 2. 5094. her] lie D 1. 

5095. fame] name C. 5101. a] Oo A, D 2, D 1. 

5102. y-fere] in fere D 1. 5109. whom] whon C, which D 1. 

BK. n] The Grecian Navy at Athens for the Expedition. 291 

Cam xxx 1 . 1 schipes in pe companye 5116 

Of pe duke pat hi^te Achalapus, 

With whom was eke, ful fresche & desirous, 

Helymux* pe erle, pe worpi kny^t ; 

And fifty schipes, ena[r]med for to fy^t, 5120 

With him brou^t pe kyng Epistrofus, 

Only with helpe of kyng Cedyus ; 

And Thelamoura, whom Aiax sora men calle, 

Ful renomed, for to reknen alle, 5124 

Hath fifty schipes brou^t to pis lourne 

From Solemyne, his royal chef cyte, 

With erlis, dukis, & many worpi kny^t, 

Eueryche of hem in stele armyd bri3t. 5128 

And duke Teuter, with Amphiacus, 

Erl Darion, and noble Theseus 

)}is ilke foure, ful worpi of renouw, [leaf 51 a] 

In pis viage cam with Thelamouw. 5132 

And olde Nestor, cruel of hert & pou^t, 

Oute of Pilon hap fifty schipes brou^t. 

\)Q kyng of Daymes, pat ful worpi was, 

And eke fe kyng pat hi^t also Thoas 5136 Thoasioo ; 

Broii3ten with hem in her companye 

An C schipes kny^tly for to guye ; 

And Thelamouw, y-callid Cilleus, 

|3at was in armys fel & dispitous, 5140 

With him brou3t from his londe so ferre 

Sixe & pritty schipes for pe werre. 

Amphimacus & kyng Polibete 

j)ritti schipes brou$t[e] to pe flete 5144 

From Calcedoyne ; and Meryouw, pe kyng, 

Wip Ydumeus hadde in her ledyng 

Foure score schipes with hem oute of Crete ; 

And Vlixes wip Grekys dide mete 5148 

With fifti schipes stuffid oute of Trace, 

Towardis Troye proudly for to pace. 

Duke Mellyus, ful of manly men, 

and I aim en ua 
brought .'JO 
ships tVi.1 11 

and Schedius 



50 ships from 

and many 

cus), Teucer, 
Diores, The- 
seus (Thai- 

pills' ail'l 

other heroes. 

brought 50 
ships out of 
Pylos ; 

Oileus 36; 

and Poli- 
betes (?) 
SO from 
Chalcedon ; 
and 1 1 h i- 
meneus 80 
from Crete ; 
Ulysses 50 ; 

5116. xxx] sixty A, thritty D 1. 

5119. Helymux] Elymny 0. 5123. men] om. D 1. 

5136. also] am. A. 5138. 0] hundrid A, D 1. 

5142. Sixe & gritty] xxxvi D 2. 

5145. Calcedoyne] Calcedonye A. 5150. proudly] stilly D 2. 

Eumelus 10 
from Thrace. 

292 The Grecian Navy at Athens for the Expedition. [BK. n 

and Pro 

brought 50 
ships from 
Phylace ; 

and Poll- 
dris (Poda- 

brought 22 
from Tricca j 

Achilles 50 
from Phthia; 

20 from 
Rhodes ; 
and a 3rd 

11 from 
Hesida (?>; 

and Losius 
50 from 

Diomedes 80 
from Calydon 
and Argos, 
with Sthene- 
lus and 
Euryalus ; 


Brou^t eke [wip] hym grete scliipes ten; 5152 

And, ouennore, pe duke Perotacus 

And pe duke namyd Prothisalus, 

To IpQ hauene fat callid was Athene, 

Brou^t fifty schipes, enarmid b^t & schene, 5156 

From Philiarcha, pe strong my^ty He. 

And Methaon, as Guydo doth compile, 

Wip his broper Polidris also, 

From her centre Trycianyco, 5160 

Brou^t xxii 11 schipes, as I fynde ; 

And from Phices, as it is made mynde, 

With Achilles cam fifti ful by noumbre ; 

And from Rodon, Troy ens to encombre, 5164 

Cam xx ti schippis "with kyng Thelap[ol]us ; 

And with pe duke pat hi$t Antipus, 

Oute of pe londe pat Hesida men calle, 

Of whiche pe folke be ny$e cherlis alle, 5168 

With sail crossyd ageyn pe bri3t[e] heuene, 

In noumbre cam schipes eke eleuene ; 

And with hem was, of name ful famws, 

fee worpi duke, callid Amphymacus. 5172 

And Polibethes, pe strong my3ti kyng, 

Fifty schipis brou^t at his comyng, 

Oute of Richa, pe noble regions ; 

And w^t^ pis kyng, ful worpi of renou/i, 5176 

Was Losius pe duke, eke as I rede ; 

And, as I fynde, pe noble Diomede, 

Of schipis grete (I speke of no smal barge) 

Hath vfiih hy?ft brou^t fro??i Calidoyn & Arge [leaf 51 6] 

Foure score in noimbre, sothely pis no tale ; 5181 

And Thelemws and my^ti Euryale, 

Two manly men & in armys sage, 

Wip Diomede cam in pis viage. 5184 

And Polyphebus brou$t[e] schipis seuene, 

5153. Perotacus] Perhotacus A, D2, Prothetacacus D 1. 

5154. Prothisalus] Prothesylaus A, D 2, Protheselaus D 1. 
5158. Methaon] Metham D 1. 

5161. xxiitt] two and twenty A. 5164. Rodon] redoim D 1. 
5165. xx ti ] twenty A. 

5180. Calidoyn] Calydonye A, D 2, D 1. 

5181, >is] bat is D \. 

BK. n] The Greek Navy at Athens. Homer's words on it. 293 
And Phyneus, pe hardy kyng, enleuene ; 

And Prothoylus, as I can specefie, brought n 

Broust fifty schipis vn-to ftlhis navie 5188 Prothoyius 

7 * (Patroclus) 

From Demenesa, pe my^ti regiouw ; 

And Carpenor, as made is menciouw, Agapenor 

Brou^t fifti eke from Capadie his centre, Aiwdtej 

A gret provynce, of whiche kyng was he. 5192 

Trearyus, of Beysa lord and kyng. Treonu of 

n 1 1-1.1 Bey 8 a(?)22; 

Brou^t xxu tl also in his comyng ; 

And finally, $if I schal nat lye, 

Ful many schip was in bis navie 5196 and there 

were many 

Mo fan Guydo maketh rehersaile, more - 

Toward Troye with Grekis for to saile. 

For as Omer in his discripcioiw For Homer 

Of Grekysche schipis make]) mencioiw, 5200 

Schortly affermyng, ]>ai man was neuer borne say* that no 

J}at swych a noumbre of schippis saw to-forne jay 80 man y 

Cou?^ttd fe schipis fat Palamydes 

Brou^t w/t/i hym her noumbre to encrese 5204 

}3at whan bese lordis a-forn-seid euerychon, Wlien ll 'e 

1 muster was 

Kynges, dukes, and erlis alle in on complete, 

Assemblid wern, wif-outen any wene, 

Afore pe hauene pat callid is Athene, 5208 

])e famous kyng, grete Agamenou?z, n mem ' 

So wys, so worpi, & of so hi^e renouw, 

As he pat was prince and goue?*nour tile^Iost f 

Of Grekis hoste, anon dide his labour, 5212 

His besy cure and wakir dilligence, 

By hi^e avis and inward prouidence 

To delibre wysly in pis nede w?> d unl of 

What were to do or pat he precede 5216 action - 

In pis mater, castyng vp and douw 

And reuoluyng of hi$e discreciouw, 

)5at he may so begynnerc pat pe ende 

5189. Demenesa] Demcnsa A. 5191. Brou3t] Brevity D 1. 
5194. xxii"] two and twenty A. 5196. schip] schippes D 1. 
5197. maketh] make)) of D 2, D 1. 
5200. Grekysche] Grekis D 1. 

5205. a-forn-seid] a forseid A, aforseyd D 2. 

5206. alle in] many D 2. 5209. New IT A. 
5214. hi3e] his D 2. 

294 King Agamemnon's Speech to the Greeks in Council. [BK. n 


so as to 
bring their 
purpose to a 
happy end, 

and silence 
being got, 

Conclude wel, pat wilfulnes ne schende 5220 

Holly her purpos poru3 no rakilnes, 

Ne poru^ noon hast, w^t/i-oute avisenes, 

So pat pel may a-forn so wysely se, 

feat finally in felicite 5224 

feei may acomplische her purpos in certeyn. 

And so pis kyng, vp-on a large pleyn, 

Out of pe cite but litel* fro pe stronde, 

With his lordis wil for no ping wonde 5228 

To haue a conseil, pis wyse Agamenouw, [leaf sic] 
caid a Council Makyng a-noon a convocaciouw 

Of swyche as wern most gret in special, 

He sittyng first in his se royal, 5232 

of his Lords; And his lordis eueryche in his se, 

Like as pei wern of hi^e or* low degre; 

And al tumulte stinted, and silence 

Was poru^ pe pres, to ^if hy??i audyence, 5236 

fearcne he anon, in ful sobre wyse, 

Began his tale, as I schal deuyse. 

Howe prudently Agamenon coragyde his lordys 
ageyns the Troyans. 1 

" Sirs," quod he, " I praye $ou takep hede, 

feat be so noble and so renomed 5240 

Bope of wisdam and of worpines, 

Of manhode eke and of hi^e prowes, 

feat of kny^thod pe report & pe fame 

feoru^-oute pe world rebouwdep to $our name : 5244 

For dout[e]les pe flour of chiualrie 

Men may now fynde in pis companye ; 

For who sawe euer of manly men y-fere, 

To-gidre met, as per* ben now here 5248 

So 3onge, so fresche, so coraious also, 

said, " Sirs, 

the world, 

5223. 2nd so] to A. 

5224. felicite] felice D 1. 5226. vp-on] on D 1. 
5227. litel] a litel C. 5228. wonde] fonde D 1. 
5234. hi^e or low] lowe or hi^e D 1 or] and C. 
5237. he] om. A. 5238. sclial] gan D 1. 
5239. new HA, D 1. 5242. eke] om. D 1. 
5244. lour] om. D 1. 5247. y-fere] in fere D 1. 
5248. >er] bei C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 53 c. 

BK. n] King Agamemnon's Speech to the Greeks in Council. 295 

So wel be-seyn for to haue a-do, 

Or so likly, sith pe worlde began, 

Wit/i-oute raskaile so many kny^tly man, 5252 "with no 

Of kynges, dukes, and many anoper lorde, among you, 

As be now here of wil & on accorde, 

And of on hert assemblid in pis place, 

J3at sif Fortune & goddis, of her grace 5256 ifFortune 

favours us, 

.be nat be-hmde oure lourne to apreve, 

We may nat faille oure pwrpos to acheve : we cannot 

For, I deme hym pleynly in a rage, 

Or wers pan wod, pat durste pis viage 5260 

In any wyse perturben, or preswme 

To take ageyn vs, ouper to asswme 

Be my^t on hym of malys to excite 

Our worpines wer it neuer so lyte 5264 

Vs to prouoke to Ire, or doon offence, 

J2at we ne schulde, be mortal recompense, 

Aquyte his mede, as it lipe in oure my3t, 

J?at han among vs so many a worpi kny^t 5268 

Amongis whiche an huwdrid & sit mo Among you 

T 1 J Cftn P' Ck 

1 koude cnese able for to go, 100 who 

Be manly force & kny^tly suffysance, could singly 

J ? J J revenge us 

To take on hym for to do vengaurcce 5272 on Troy. 

Vp-on Troyans be hym silf allone 

For whiche pat we be gadrid now echone 

ftat with his meyne were sufficient 

To execute pe sorame of his entent 5276 

And it acomplische in felicite 

])Q cause, I mene, for whiche pat alle we [leaf 51 <i] 

Assemblid ben, bope hi^e and lowe. 

And -with al pis, to sou is nat vnknowe 5280 YOU know 

TT i /. 11 m how shame- 

Howe schamefully Troyens han vs grevid, fully the 

Trojans have 

Prouokid vs & wilfully y-mevid treated us. 

5251. likly] lifly D 1. 

5253. anofer lorde] partly erased in D 2. 

5257. lourne] purpos D 1 apreve] acheve D 1. 

5258. pwrpos] lourne D 1 acheve] apreve D 1. 
5260. Or] om. D 1. 5262. asswme] presume D 2. 
5274. gadrid now echone] now gadred euerychon D 2. 
5277. it] it to D 1. 5278. for] \>Q D 2. 

5281. Troyens] )?e Troyens D 2. 

5282. Prouokid] And proukid D.I. 

" Let us then, 
with one 

make war on 
the Trojans, 

and teach 
em not to 

land again 
in Greece. 

Their offence 
against us 
sets us on 

296 Agamemnon urges the Greeks to revenge against Troy. [BK. n 

To rise ageyii hem to han recur of ri^t 

Of wrongis don, with al oure force & my^t. 5284 

Wherfore, lete vs be on assent & wille, 

Settyn to han, as it is ri^t and skylle, 

Redres to fynde of fat we now compleyne, 

And of oon herte done oure besy peyne 5288 

Yp-on Troyens a werre for to make. 

And I suppose, we schul hem so a-wake, 

pat fei schal lerne, or we f en[ne]s wende, 

To remembre to fe worldes ende 5292 

How fei her-after schal dur take on honde 

For to p?'eswme in Grece more to londe, 

Or to be bolde while fei haue lif or space 

Ageyn[es] Grekis more for to trespace : 5296 

For whos offence, as -who seyf e do but late, 

W&t7*-Inne oure herte, with so brercnyng hate, 

pe feruent hete and f e gredy Ire 

Fro day to day so settif vs a-fire, 5300 

pat it renewef fe constreynt of owe peyne 

So inwardly, $if I schal nat feyne, 

We mote of rescue of so hi^e greuawzce 

Our silf enforce for to do vengauwce, 5304 

As ri^t require th, and oure iustfe] sorwe 

Cornpelleth vs, bofe eve and morwe, 

On Troyans oure harmes to be-wreke. 

And for to stop tonges fat so speke 5308 

To oure repref and to oure vilenye, 

We most attonys schape remedie, 

pat oure foon hen[ne]s-forf e may drede 

For to do wers to vs, as God forbede,* 5312 

In tyme commyng, $if f oru$ oure pacience 

We Ii3tly suffre her importable offence 

To passe forf e, and take of it noon hede. 

Sith neuer $it of Grekis koude I rede, 5316 

pat any man dide repref to her name, 

pat iustly my^t rebourcde to her schame, 

WM-oute f is, fat fei it quitte ageyn 

5290. we] I D 1. 5293. dur] om. D 1, dor D 2. 
5296. for] om. A. 5311. heimes] Enys A, enys D 2. 
5312. forbede] forbete C. 5314. importable] mortal D 1. 

to avenge it, 

and wreak 
our injuries 
on them, 

and make 
them fear to 
repeat it. 

BK. n] Agamemnon urges the Greeks to revenge against Troy. 297 

her manhod, so openly & pleyn, 
feat no man my$t of hem seyn or pis 
In any wyse or report a-mys. 
NQ wo schal nat dissymulera in |>is cas, 
With cher oppressed,* nor w/t/t dredful face 
To lete slyde or li$tly ouer-go 
)5e grete offencis pat were so late do, 
Whiche wolde twrne vn-to vs and ours [leaf 52 a] 
To gret reprefe, & to oure successoures 
In tyme comyng, & schamefully be spoke, 
How pat Grekis durste nat be wroke 
Vp-on her foon pe whiche may nat be, 
I 3011 ensure, sith pat alle we 
Ben of oon wil to reforme oure wrong, 
And per-wat/i-al so myjty & so strong, 
J)at who is he pat koude in brede & lengpe 
A-ri^t reherse our power & our strengpe, 
Or who durste euer oure worpines assaile 
feat he ne schulde, wz't/i-oute any faile, 
Repente in hert, or at pe ende rewe 
Saue Troyans, pis oper day of newe, 
Of wilfulnes, in a foly rage 
In-to oure londe maden a viage, 
Vnwar of vs, & \viih her praye honi went ; 
fee whiche pei schal ful hastily repent, 
For her trespas and gret offenciouw : 
For al pe worlde knowep vp and douw, 
But late agon how Grekis* but a fewe 
Vp-on Troyens her power dide schewe 
And slowe her kyng, callid Lamedou/^ , 
Fadir to Priam, now kyng of pat torn?, 
And fordide touris and cite, 
And wz't/i hem ladde in captiuite, 
From Grekis swerde swiche as hem list spare, 
feat among vs in seruitude and care 
Compleyne her harme whiche may nat be recurid. 


" We'll not 
diMMBl !, 

or let their 
against us 

5332 We are all 
one to re- 
dress our 


5340 These 

made a sur- 
prise raid 
on us, 
and took off 
5344 their prey. 

Yet a few 

5348 formerly slew 
their king, 

destroyd his 

5352 anJ'carried 
his folk into 

5321. myrtj repeated in D 1. 

5327. wolde] shulde D 1. 

5347. Grekis] |>at Grekis C, l>e Grekes D 1. 

5350. >at] >e D 1. 

5324. oppressed] oppressyng C. 

298 Agamemnon says they must consult the Oracle. [BK. n 

jpan how may pei stonde full assured 5356 

Ageyn vs alle to holden chaumpartye, 

)2at han* so worpi in oure companye ; 

For it is likly a pousand to acheue 

Jpat four or five so li^tly my^tfe] preue. 5360 

And $it o ping aferme wel I dar, 

Of oure coniyng Troyens ar wel war 

And don her labour & her dilligence 

Ageyn[e]s vs to* make resistence 5364 

"With al her my$t I knowe it oute of doute 

And gadre frendis in contres al aboute 

To helpen hem & strengpe hem in her nede, 

Vs to wipstonde, $if pei my^tfe] spede. 5368 

But finally, o* ping I consaille, 

From pis hauene or we ferper saille, 

Jpat we may be pe more fortunat, 

Of oon assent to make ambassiat, 5372 

And prudently, or we ferper wende, 

In-to -Delos in al hast pat we sende 

Whiche is an yle a litel here be-syde 

More discretly our lourne to provide, [leaf 52 6] 5376 

ftat we may han pe better hap & grace 

Of Appollo, patrons of pat place 

To haue of hym, $if pat we may spede, 

Fynal answer in pis grete nede 5380 

Of oure expleyt how pat it schal falle, 

3if it so be $e wil assenten alle 

To pis conseil, pe meste and eke pe leste." 

And pei echon pou^ten for pe beste 5384 

To condiscende to pis conclusion 

With-outen any contradicc^ouw ; 

And alle attonys, wit/i-outen any drede, 

))ei prayse his cou?iseil & his wyse rede ; 5388 

And per-vp-on, discretly, as pei ou^te, 

As seipe pe stori, euene pus pei wrou^t. 

5357] A3ens oure force or oure chiualrie D 1. 

5358. han] ben C, haue D 1. 5362. wel] we A, ful D 1. 

5364. to] for to C. 5366. And] pei D 1. 

5367. 2nd hem] om. A, D 1. 5369. o] of o C 

5384. for] it for D 1. 5385. >is] his D 1. 

5390. >e] this A. 

"The Trojans 
are preparing 
to resist us, 

and to get 
friends to 
help them. 

Lastly, I 
advise that 

we send to 

and obtain 
an answer 
from Apollo, 

how our 
ing shall 

The Greeks 
agree to this. 

BK. n] Achilles and PiritJwus are sent to the Oracle at Delos. 299 

Howe Agamenon, by be avyce of al be princes of Grece, 
sent Achilles and Pirodus into Delphos, to haue 
answer e of Apollo, whidere thay shulde haue J?e 
victory of be Troyens or no. And here-aftire is 
declarid, howe ydolatrye and fals gode* had ther 
bygynnenge ; And h^w Calchas kam to be same 
Ille. 1 

After fe tyme pat Agamenoim 
Concludid haf fully his resourc, 5392 

As 30 han herde, & his sentence fyned, 
foe Grekis ben of herte ful enclined, The Greeks 

resolve to 

And with o vois acordid pleynly Jms, 

ftat Achilles and also Pirrodus, 5396 


For comouw profit, sithfen] ]>ei wer sage, Apollo. 

Schal take on hem fie charge of pis message, 

To Appollo for answere for to goon ; 

And to schip J>ei hem haste anoon 5400 

And seile furbe* be be larsje se They sail, 

and land 

Toward Delphos, and in prosperite 

)3ei ben aryued & I-com to londe. 

\)e whiche lie, as I vndirstonde, 5404 aniieintbe 

And as myn auctor seith, wM-oute les, 

Haueth his syyt amonge[s] Cyclades, 

Wher men with rokkis haue so moche a-do, 

Amyd ]>e see callid Elespontico. 5408 Hellespont, 

Of whiche He to make discripciourc, 

I mote a while make digressions 

Fro my mater, as myn auctor doth ; 

For in bis He, Ysidorus in soth 5412 in which 

Latona bore 

Eeherse}) pleynly how Latona, J?e quene, Apoiio and 

Appollo firste, and Diane fe schene 

I-childid hafe, by lubiter her lord, by Jupiter, 

Whan he and luno wer[e]n at discord 5416 

As writ Ovide for a litel while. as Ovid says. 

And so by-fil, in j?is litel He 

)3er was a temple whilom dedicat 

5392. Concludid] Concludith A. 5400. hem haste] wente A. 
5401. fur>e] burbe C. 5406. Cyclades] Cillades D 1. 
5418. so] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 54 b. 

300 Of Apollo the Sun, & Diana the Moon, & the He Delos. [BK. II 

To Apollo a 
Temple was 

because the 
Sun first 
showd there 
after the 

as did Diana 
the Moon, 

who was a 
Pagan God- 
dess and 


The Greeks 
call Delos 

from its 

Apollo is 
cald Titan 

and Phebus. 

Vn-to Appollo, and also consecrat 5420 

In his worschipe, of olde fundaciouw, 

Jpat was honoured vrith grete deuocioiw, 

Be-cause Appollo with his bemys clere, 

After pe flood, firste fere dide appere 5424 

To schewe his hornys, raper pere & soue, [leaf 52 c] 

And Diane eke, pat callid is pe moue. 

Of whiche schewyng pis He berep pe name 

In-to pis day, pat is of so grete fame 5428 

Only be aperyng of pis ilke tweyne : 

For Delos is in Greke no more to seyne 

J?an a schewyng or an apparence. 

And pus be-gan pe grete reuerence 5432 

To Appollo first, and pe honour eke 

To hym y-do of so many Greke, 

And to his suster fat callid is Dyane, 

Jpe pale mone, pat can so wexe and wane, 5436 

And callid is of paynymys a goddesse, 

Jjat whilom was in wode an hunteresse. 

And pis lady, with pe sonne her broper, 

Of pis He haue lordschip & non oper, 5440 

Only for pei at her natiuite 

Schewid her li^t firste in pat centre. 

])Q whiche He Grekis also calle 

Ortigia, in her language alle, 5444 

Be-cause curlews wer per first I-seyn : 

For Ortigias is no more to seyn 

J?an a curlew, in grew, I vndirstonde ; 

For pei were firste engendrid in pt londe. 5448 

And Appollo is callid eke Tytan, 

jpat in his tyme so moche worschip wan, 

Longe to-forne or he was made a sterre, 

With lubiter whan pat he hilde werre. 5452 

And he also y-callyd is Phebus, 

5426. eke] om. D 1. 
5434. many] many a A. 

5422. with] be A, by D 2. 
5428. In-to] And in to A. 

5442. )>at] the A. 

5443. He] om. D 1 Grekis also] also Grekes D 1. 
5445. I-seyn] seyn D 1. 5446. Ortigias] Ortagios D 1. 
5448. were] cm. A. 

5451. to-forne] a forn D2, Dl made] om. D 1. 

5452. >at]om. Dl. 

BK. n] OfPhaethon &, the Pythonesses. The origin of Idolatry. 301 

And of sowme y-namyd Phicius : 

For of Pheton he hadde f e victorie 

Whaw he him slow}, to his encres of glorie 

fee grete serpent here in erf e lowe 

Wif his arwis and his my^ti bowe. 

Of whiche conquest fe gret[e] god Cupide 

Had envie, and euene f oru} f e syde 

He wouwdid hym, depe to f e herte 

With f e arwe of golde, fat made him sore smerte. 

And of Pheton, fat Phebus made fyne, 

Com Phetonysses, fat korane so devine 

I mene women fat ben devyneresses 

)}oru3 dede men, fis false sorceresses, 

As oon whilom reisede Samuel 

For loue of Saule, f e Byble can }ou telle. 

And in his temple large, louge, and olde, 

Jper was a statue al of purid golde, 

Ful gret and hi^e, & of huge wei3te, 

And f er-in was, foru3 f e deuels slei3te, 

A spirit vnclene, be false illusion??., 

)3at 3af answere* to euery questiouw [leaf 52 a] 

Xat f e ydole, dovmbe as stok or stoon. 

And fus fe peple, deceyued euerychon, 

Were* by fe fend brou3t in gret errour, 

To done worschip & swyche false honour, 

With sacrifise & cursed mawmentrie. 

And in fis wyse began ydolatrie, 

As in fis place to tellen I me caste, 

And how longe it abode and laste, 

Compendiously I pwpose to discryve 

Gynnyng & ende, as 30 schal here blyve, 

Wif-outcn any ambyguite. 

For at f e birf e and natiuite 

Of Crist lesu, at f e incarnacioun, 

Alle f e ydoles brast and fel[le] dou?^, 

And vanisched, & wer brou3t to nou3t, 

5456. his] om. D 1. 5459. grete] om. D 1. 

5469. his] this A. 5471. of] of an D 1. 

5474. ^af answere] answere $af C. 5477. Were] Wher 

5484. here] here as D 2. 5486. at be] in bat D 1. 

5488. doun] a dou?i A, 

The Sun was 
also named 

5456 when he 
slew the 
great serpent, 
Python ; 


and from 
him came the 
5464 Pythonesses, 


of whom one 
_ . . raisd Samuel 
5468 for Saul. 

In a statue 
of gold in 



was an un- 
clean spirit 

and was 

5480 And thus 


At Christ's 

5488 all idols fell 

An Angel 
appeard to 

and bade 
him take the 
Child and 
Mary into 

Then all the 
idols were 
broken to 

302 Joseph's flight into Egypt. Who wasthe first Idol-maker? [BK.II 

Whan Herodes pe blisful* childe hap sou^t 

J^oru^ his malis & cruelte horrible, 

As holy writ recordep & pe Bible. 5492 

For whiche pursut and persecuciou??, 

J)er dide apere, be a visiou?*,* 

An holy angel to Joseph as he slep, 

And bad hym ryse & also taken kep 5496 

Vn-to pe childe, and also to Marie, 

And goon his way, or Herode him espye, 

In-to Egypt, pe grete regiouw, 

Lik as pe gospel makep menciouw. 5500 

And ri^t anoon, as he cam to* londe, 

J}er was non ydole vp-ri^t my^t[e] stonde, 

But to-schiuerede vn-to pecis smale 

J?is holy writ, pleinly, and no tale, 5504 

As was recorded first of Isaie, 

How pat oure lorde on an esy skye 

Ascende schulde & holde furpe his weye 

Toward Egypt, & per-wip schulde deye 5508 

Al mawmetrie, and no lenger duelle. 

But as pe lewes recorde of Ysinael, 

)3at he was first pat mawmetrie fonde, 

And made of clay an ydole vrith his honde, 5512 

And as peynymys write & tellen vs 

J3at aldirfirst was Promotheus 

)?at fond ydolis, schortly to conclude ; 

For simulacru??^ cometh of similitude 5516 

Jpat is no ping pleynly but liknes 

Made afte?* man, his ymage to expresse, 

Vn-to whiche paynymys in her guyse, 

With false honour & cursyd sacrifise, 5520 

Be-goraie first pis ryt for drede of man. 

And somme seyn, how Belus first began 

Swiche fals[e] worschip & suche mawmetrie, [leaf 53 a] 

In her bokis as clerkis specefie, 5524 

Jpat of Assirie was lord & goue?*nour, 

5490. blisful] blissed C. 5494. a visioim] avisioiw C. 
5501. to] in to C, D 1. 5502. ydole] ydol that A. 

5504. pis] This is D 1. 5505. As was] And A. 
5511. was] was be D 1. 5515. fond] om. D 1. 
5518. after] repeated in D 1. 5522. how] >at D 1. 

Ishmael was 
the first idol- 

But some 

pagans say 


Others assert 
that Belus, 

lord of As- 
syria, was. 

BK. ll] The originator of Idolatry. Ninus, Beelzebub, Saturn. 303 

After whos deth his sone in his honour, 
}5at Nynus hi^t, an ymage dide make 
To be worschipte only for his sake 
Al of brent gold, be fals affeccioiuz, 
And sette it vp for consolaciouw, 
And for a mynde and a memorial, 
Vn-to fe whiche, -with hert[e], wil, and al, 
Of ygnorauwce and of fleschly love 
He dido honour, as to God above, 
In his templis, most of excellence, 
And made his peple to do reuerence, 
And seide in heuene he was deified, 
))at of no man durst[e] be denyed. 
Til after sone but a lytel whyle, 
A wickid spirit, folk is to be-gyle, 
In f is ydole entrid to abyde, 
And 3af answer vp-on eue?y side 
To f e peple of what him list demauwde ; 
And f ei ageyn, what he wil cowmaiuzde 
Obeye fully f e folke of al Assirie 
Whiche vn-to God dide gret Iniurie, 
Makyng f e peple in suche errowr falle. 
And sorame Belus & somme Bel hym calle, 
And sowme Balym & sowme Belphegor, 
And fil in errcwr alwey more & more 
And Be^ebub he named was also, 
Whiche name is made of wordis two : 
Of Bel & 3ebub, fat f us signefie 
For Bel is god, and ^ebub is a flye 
J}an Bel^ebub to-gidre specefies, 
loyned in on, fe grete god of flyes. 
And of J)is fcyned fals ydolatrie 
Gan al fe worlde worschip mawmetrie ; 
For somme Satorn " god of goddis alle " 
Gan in her errowr falsly for to calle, 
J?at was whilom fe my^ti kyng of Crete, 

Ninus, the 
son of Belus, 

set up a 
golden image 
of his father, 

and honourd 
it above God. 




But an evil 
spirit soon 
5540 entcrdit, 

and answerd 
folk's ques- 


5548 Soinecald 
him Belus ; 


some Beelze- 

which means 

5556 the God of 


Then some 
, made Saturn 

5560 the chief God. 

5526. in] & D 2. 5533. Of] And of D 1. 
5534. as] ther to as D 1. 
5544. >ei] her D 1. 5550. fil] ]>us filler D 1 
5558. be] bis D 1. 

304 Of Saturn & his Sons ; & of the Gods Mars & Apollo. [BK. n 

Saturn fore- 

that his son 
by Juno 
would banish 

so he told 
his wife to 
bring him 
the baby ; 

but she savd 

Saturn had 
3 sons 

the greatest, 
and Pluto, 
and a girl. 

Mars was 
next him ; 

then Apollo, 

who is 
worshipt in 
Delos ; 
and then 

And ^af hym name after ]?e planete 

])sii in heuene ha)> so large a spere. 

And as poetis in her fablis lere, 5564 

})at he be-forn, foru^ his sapience, 

Sawe in his dyvyne providence 

Howe a sone schulde of hym discende, 

And of luno f e goddesse, as he wende, 5568 

Jjat schulde hym pleinly from his regne expelle 

And suffren hi? no lenger for to duelle 

In his kyngdam, whan he com to age 

Wher-of Satorn fil in swiche a rage, [leaf 5351 5572 

J3at he wil schape remedie fer-fore, 

Byddyng his wyf, fat wha^ J>e childe wer bore 

J5at sche to hym schulde it bring a-noon, 

In stede wher-of to \ijrn sche brou^t a ston 5576 

To saue hir chylde sche dide hir besynes 

And f is Satorn, foru} his gredynes, 

])e ston deuourej) in his malencolye. 

And fus Satorn, but $if bokis lye, 5580 

Hadde sonys f re, a dorter, & no mo : 

lubiter, Neptunws, and Pluto. 

But lubiter grattest was of name, 

Most renomed & worf iest of fame 5584 

Among paynyms, as it is verefied ; 

For f ei so hi^e han hym magnyfied, 

)?at f ei hym calle " god of fire & eyr," 

Nexte to Satorne borne for to be heyr. 5588 

And nexte to hym, in bokis as I rede, 

Is god of bataille, my^ti Mars J?e rede ; 

And nexte Appollo, so cler, so schene & brijt, 

fie daies eye & voider of pe ny^t, 5592 

Cherischer of frut, of herbe, flour, & corne 

fie whiche god, liche as is seid a-forne, 

In Delos is worschipte and honoured. 

And after, 'Venus, fat often hap socoured 5596 

Many louere, pe faire, lusty quene, 

And hem alleggid of hir wouwdis grene, 

5571. kyngdam] kyndham D 2. 5574. Tpaf] om. D 1. 
5594. a-forne] to forn A, D 2, D 1. 

BK. n] Of Venus, Mercury, the Moon or Diana. Idolatry. 305 

}5at first were hurt \vikh hir fyry* brond, 

As sche bat is goddes of many lond, 5600 Venus binds 

. | , , . . , . , all the world 

And al pe worlde hape in hir demeyne in her chain. 

Fast enbracid in hir firy cheyne 

I mene pe lady pat callid is Venus. 

And nexte in ordre is Mercury us, 5604 Nextcnme 

J)at in speche hath most excellence 

Of rethorik and sugrid elloquence ; lord of speech 

r\ -i j and song. 

Oi musik, songe, and 01 armonye 

He hath lordschipe and hool pe regalye. 5608 

Nexte pe mone, pat wexe can & wane, Then the 

Callid Lucyna and also eke Dyane, Ladm or 

)3at in Delos hath hir mansiou?z, 

Lik as to-forn is maked* menciouw 5612 

Now ful of Ii3t, now hornyd pale is sche, 

Lady of chauwge and mutabilite, lady of 

jjat selde in on halt hir any tyme ; 

And so fare pei pat ben born in hir clyme, 5616 AH her folk 

Jjat ay delite in pingis pat ben newe, MW thfaf* 

Whos hert is clad in many sondry hewe, 

So pei be diuers in her affecciouws. 

And in pis wyse, in sondri* regiouras, 5620 idolatry rules 

Of mawnietrie is pe venym ronne, [leaf 53 c] 

Lik as clerkis wel deuyse konne : 

For, as I fynde. be Mawricyens The Maun- 

J J , tians worship 

Worscmp lulam, and Lf?ypciens 5624 Julam 

(Juba?); the 

Honouren Ysis, after her konnyng, Sf 8 yptian8 

Whilom doubter of Ynachus be kynsf, daughter of 

7 . r J 7 Inachusj 

)5at tau^t hem first hir lond to ere & so we, 

And also lettris for to rede and knowe, 5628 

And in lettrure to sette her besynes 

For whiche ping pei calle hir a goddes. 

And lubiter honoured is in Crete, the Cretans, 

Where he whilom hilde his souereyn sete, 5632 

And on hem leyde many diuers charge, 

5599. hir] om. A fyry] fyre C. 5607. 2nd of] om. A. 
5608. He] om. D 1. 5612. maked] made C, D 1. 

5615. )>at] And D 1. 

5616. ben born] to fore D 1 clyme] cheyne D 1. 

5617. newe] ay newe D 1. 5619. diuers] denise D 1. 
5620. sondri] many sondri C. 5624. lulam] Inkam D 1. 


306 Jupiter 's Division of the World. Of Fauns, & Romans. [BK. u 

Jupiter was 
lord of 

He gave the 
sea to 
Neptune ; 
the earth to 

He was most 
honourd in 

The Latins 
did reverence 
to Fauns. 

The Romans' 
God was 

Romulus first 
built Rome. 

His spear, 




and bloomd. 

After him, 
knights were 
cald ' Quiri- 


With egles betyn in his baner large ; 

And he was lord of eyr, of lond, & see, 

His royal kyngdam deuidyng in-to pre : 5636 

In pe hiest hym silfe doth contune, 

And hool pe se he $af vn-to Neptune, 

And laste pe erpe, to holde his se royal, 

He $af to Pluto, fat god is infernal ; 5640 

And alderlast, whan he was stellified, 

])is lubiter was moste magnified 

Of hem of Crete, a-bouten ouer al, 

To whom pei made for a memorial 5644 

A large tombe and a statue a-lofte, 

And hym honoured in her ritis ofte 

With encens and oper sacrifice. 

And of pis mater ferper to deuise, 5648 

\)Q Latynys wip besy dilligence 

In her rytis dide reuerence 

To pe goddis 3if it be credible 

I-callid fawny, pat ben Invisible, 5652 

And han her duellyng in pe wodis grene, 

Al-be pat men her figure may nat sene. 

And of Eomeyns ferper to devine, 

ftei most in honowr han hir god Quyryne, 5656 

J)e whiche whilom, as bokis tellen vs, 

Amongis hem was callid Romulus, 

Jpat biltfe] first pe wallis of pe touw ; 

And from an hirde he cam to swiche renoiw 5660 

)2oru3 his manhod & his worpines. 

J)e spere of whom, as bokis seyn expresse, 

As he pe hed picched in pe grouwde, 

It gan anon, lik as it is fouwde, 5664 

To norische & floure & buddyn by myracle, 

And of nature had[de] noon obstacle 

To wexe grene vrikh fresche blomys newe. 

And for pe manhod pat men in hym knewe, 5668 

Tor his kny^thod and his grete fame, 

J)e worpi kny^tes of Borne bare pe name [leaf 53 d] 

After hym,* & were querytes callid, 

5636. kyngdam] kyndam D 2. 5640. to] om. D 2, D 1. 
5645. a-lofte] of loffite A. 5671. hym] hem C. 

BK. n] Of Minerva and the naming of Athens : and of Venus. 307 

Hije in heuene whan pat he was stallid 

Amonge pe goddis, and y-deifyed. 

And pus liomeyns han hym glorified, 

As for her god, with gold & gret expends. 

And, as I rede, pe Athenyenses 

Of hool[e] herte chosen for to serue 

To pe goddes pat callid is Mynerue, 

And Pallas eke, wip hir cristal schelde, 

)}at vrith Neptuims evene amyd pe felde 

Helde chaurapartye, with wowimen on hir syde ; 

And he with men, ful sirquedous in* pride, 

Defendip hym for ^eving of pe name 

Of Athenes, a cite most of fame 

Jtis to seyn, wheper he or sche 

Schulde of ri^t name pe cite 

Til it be-fil, as pei gonne stryue, 

Sodeynly per sprang a fair olyue 

For Pallas part, grene & fair blosmyng, 

And per ageyn, a welle gan to springe 

For hym Pluto, vrith water, large & depe, 

Of whiche ping Appollo toke good kepe, 

Whiche in his dom was nat rek[e]les; 

And for pe olyve tokeuep loue & pes, 

Wate?* trouble, contek, werre, and strif, 

He ^af sentence anon diffynytif, 

How Pallas schulde, pat callid is Mynerve, 

J3e palme pleynly of pis strif disserue. 

And sche anon $af name to pe toiw, 

And callid it, be hi^e discreciouw, 

Athenes, pe whiche in special 

Is to seyn, a cite in-mortal : 

For wisdam first per be-gan to floure. 

And for pis skille, pis cite dide honour 

Mijty Pallas, goddesse of science, 

And had hir ay moste* in reue? > ence. 

And pei of Pave, in al her regiou?*, 

Worschip moste pe quene of Cytherowi 

5677. herte chosen] hertis chesen D 1. 5682. in] of C. 
5685. pis] This is A. 5694. tokene>] betokne)> D 1. 
5704. ]>is] |>e D 1. 5706. ay moste] moste ay C. 


5676 The Atheni- 
ans worshipt 

or Pallas. 

5680 She disputed 
with Neptune 


whether she 
or he should 
name Athens. 

5688 Up sprang 
an Olive-tree 
in blossom; 
and by it a 

5692 So Apollo 


(as the Olive 
meant peace, 
and water 

decided that 

should name 

5700 and she'cald 
it 'Athens,' 


an immortal 

where she 
waa most 

The Paphians 
-.___ worshipt 
5708 Venus. 

308 The Worship of Venus inPaphos, & of Bacchus inNaxos. [BK. n 

At Paphos 
the statue of 
Venus is 

painted with 
gold and 

She stands 
naked in a 
wavy sea, 
and 3 God- 
desses wait 
on her. 

Round her 
fly doves, 

and her blind 
son Cupid 
is beside her. 

The folk of 

whose liquor 
makes wits 

I mene Venws, ful of doubilnes, 

Of whom aforne somwhat I dicle expresse 

And in hir temple, ful solempnely, 

)3ei sette hir hiest; & moste richely 5712 

With gold and a^ure hir statue J>ei do peint, 

And o]?er colours fat may neuer feynt, 

And set hir vp in fe hi3est se 

Of all* fe temple fat al men may se ;* 5716 

And sche stant nakid in a wawy se,* 

Abouten hir with goddesse f re, 

Jjat be assygned with besy attendauwce [leaf 54 a] 

To a-waite on hir & don hir obseraawace. 5720 

And floures fresche, blewe, rede, and white 

Ben hir aboute, f e more for to delyte ; 

And on hir lied sche ha]> a chap[e]let 

Of rosys rede, ful plesaujitly y-set, 5724 

And from J>e hed douw vn-to hir* foot 

With sondry gommys & oynemewtis soot 

Sche is enoynt, swetter for to smelle ; 

And enviroura, as poetis telle, 5728 

Ben douvys whyte fleyng, & eke sparwis, 

And be-syde Cupide with his arwys 

Hir blinde sone for to hurte and dere, 

And loseth ofte & smyt he wot not where, 5732 

As he mote nede, be-cause he is blynde. 

And f us honouryd & most had in mynde 

Amonge f is peple is Venws pe goddesse. 

And Naxyens don her besynesse 5736 

To serue Bachus, Jje my^ti god of wyn, 

Whos licour is moste precious and fyn 

To recomfort hertis and to glade, 

And to refresche hewes fat ben fade 5740 

In facis pale, and makif wittis scharp, 

Losnyth* tongis, & doth hem loude carp, 

And causeth hem to walke at liberte, 

And to discure ping J?at was secre 5744 

5713. do] om. D 1. 5716. Of all] In C. 

5716, 17 are transposed in C. 5720. a-waite] wayte D 1. 

5724. y-set] set D 1. 5725. vn-to hir] to >e C. 

5735. >is] om. D 1. 

5742. Losnyth] Lothneth 0, Lowseneth A, Louseth D 1. 

BK. n] The evils of Drink. A Drunkard is a Beast. 


Wif-oute avys or discrecioim : 

For w[h]er as wyn hath domynaciou?*, 

No secrenesse may be kepte in mewe. 

And sorame of hem fat Bachus seme & sewe, 5748 

Amonge to hym haue swiche deuociou?a 

Jpat fei som while ar voide of al resou?*, 

Hasty and wood, & wif-oute al drede ; 

And somme also so toty in her hede 5752 

ftat fei are voide of power & of myjt, 

And haue no foot for to stonde vp-ri^t. 

And ^it fei ben as chargauwt as a pye, 

Pale cherid, wif a glasy eye, 5756 

Ful of resoiw til his wynde be spent : 

For man or woman fat is vinolent 

Is verreyly a beste vnresonable, 

And, to my dom, I holde hym eke vnable 5760 

To ben acceptid in any companye, 

Whan fat her tonge wadeth on f e lye, 

feat fei ne may brynge forth* a worde. 

And fus Bachus, fe stronge my^ty lorde, 5764 

Ful ofte causeth folkis for to erre, 

To debate, & to* make werre 

Of hastynes, wher as is no nede. 

Wherfore it is wisdam fat men drede [leaf 545] 5768 

His sli^ty werkyng, or fei falle in f e snare ; 

And feble braynys be mesour for to spare 

Or fei vnwarly arestid ben & take, 

And or Bachus make hem for to schake 5772 

In a fevere wers fan tercyen* 

3iffe it of custom be quotidien, 

Alterat with Bachus my^ty lows 

And afferde of tornyng of fe hous, 5776 

And for-dreynt on f e drye lond, 

Whan he hath lost bofe foot & hond, 

And with a strawe pleyeth like an ape, 

And deuoutly gynneth for to gape, 5780 

5750. som while] somtyme D 2. 5755. chargaimt] largaunt A. 

5763. bryiige forth] bryng oute C. 

5766. to] for to C. 5767. as] om. D 1. 

5769. slijty] slijly D 1. 5771. vnwarly] om. D 1 &] or D 1. 

5773. tercyen] a tercyen C. 5776. 1st of] of the A. 

Where wine 
rules, no 
secrets are 

men get void 
of reason, 

others be- 
come toty, 
and can't 
stand up- 

A winer is 
an unreason- 
able beast. 

breeds strife 
and war. 

His fever is 
worse than 
the tertian. 

He makes 
folk play 
with straws 
like an ape. 

310 Of Bacchus, God of Wine. Of Vulcan, Mars & Venus. [BK. n 

And noddeth ofte with his lowsy lied, 

As he had on an hevy cappe of led. 

And who pat be of pis condiciorw, 

He entre may pe religioim 

Of my^ti Bachus, for abilite. 

J)e which [e] lord hath pe souereynte 

Bope of hony and of niylke per-to, 

And of bawme, pat is so riche also, 

And lordschip hape of hi^e power devyne 

Bope of grapis and of Query vyne,* 

To ^if hem norissching by his influence. 

Of whom pe honour and pe reuerence 

Is reysed most, as I vndirstond, 

Among wynteris in Query mane?* lond, 

Be-cause he is to hem so gracious. 

And pei of Lewne worschip Wlcanws, 

)3e god of fyre, Iubiter[i]s smyth; 

])Q whiche forgip on his blak[e] stith 

J?e gret[e] ponder, hidous & horrible, 

And pe levenys, pat whilom be visible* 

In-to pe west, oute of pe orient, 

And gasteth vs with his dredeful dent 

ftis smotry smyth, pis swart [e] Vlcanws, 

)}at whylom was in herte so lalous 

Toward Venws, pat was his weddid wyf, 

Wher-of per roos a dedly mortal stryfe 

Whan he with Mars gan hir first espie, 

Of hi^e malis & cruel fals envie, 

ftoru3 pe schynyng of Phebws bemys bri^t, 

Liggyng a-bedde with Mars her owne kny3t. 

For whiche in hert he brent as any glede, 

Makyng pe sklaurcdre al abrood to sprede, 

And gan per-on * falsly for to mwse 

As God forbede pat any man accuse 

For so litel any woman euere : 

Where loue is set, hard is to disseuere ; 

For pou3 pei don swyche ping of gewtilles, [leaf 54 

Bacchus wa 
lord of honey, 
and wine. 

He's honord 
most by 

At Lemnos 
the God of 

who forgd 
thunder and 

and was 
jealous of 
his wife 

whom he 
found in bed 
with Mars, 

and made a 
scandal of it. 

God forbid 
that any 
man should 
make a fuss 
about such 
a trifle! 










5782. he] om. D 2. 5790. vyne] wyn C. 

5796. Lewne] lune D 1. 5800. visible] viseble C. 

5804. was in herte] in herte was A. 5813. ber-on J>er of C. 

BK. n] Vulcan s absurdity. How Lucifer was cast into Hell. 311 

Passe ouere lijtly and here uoon heviues Men 

Liste bat pou be to woramen odyous bother about 

their wives' 

And 3it pis smy3t, pis false Wlcanws, 5820 adultery. 

Al-be fat he hadde hem pus espied, 

Among peynyms }it was he deified ; 

And for pat he so falsely hem a-woke, And because 

I haue hym set laste of al* my boke 5824 

Amonge pe goddis of fals mawmetrie. book - 

And in pis wyse gan ydolatrie, 

As 30 han herde, 01113 oppinioims 

Of peple erryng in her aff ecciourcs * 5828 

)3at al is fals, who pe trouthe cerche : Bat ail 

For by techyng of al holy chirche, fafse. ^ 

J3e holy doctryne and tradicioiws, 

We schal dispise swiche oppinioiws, 5832 

Whiche of po fende wer fou?zde nat of late. 

For whan angelis in hevene wer create, when Angels 

were created, 

He pat of alle hadde prelacye 

Of whom pe prophete callid Ysaie 5836 a8 18aiah 

Writep mt pus : how pe cedris grene no trees in 

,-. , P , Paradise 

Of paradys wer nat so fair to sene, 

Planys nor fir in hei^te, sope to seyn, 

To his hi^nesse my^tfe] nat atteyne, 5840 

Nor al* pe tres, so delicious, 

Of paradys were nat so precious, 

Uoul>er in sht nor in semlynes were so fair 

J as the rebel 

To ben egal to hym in fairnes ; 5844 Lucifer, 

But po[r]u^ his pride & his surquedie, 
Whan he seide to God, pat sit so hi3e, 
He wil be like, and also set his se 

in pe northe, passyng his degre, 5848 

He was cast dou/i wit/i alle his legiouws who was cast 

into Hell 

From be faire hevenly mansiouns, 


Al sodeynly in-to pe pitte of helle, 

Perpetuely per for to duelle. 5852 

Of whom was seide, whan he fil so ferre : 

5820. smy}t] smyth A, D 2. 5822. Among] Amonges D 1. 
5824. of al] in C. 5828. affecciouras] afflicciouws C. 
5829. pat] Til D 1. 5839. in] om. A hei^te] herte D 2. 
5841. al] of C. 

312 Of Satan, Behemoth or Leviathan, David ,&, St.Brandan. [BK.II 

Christ says 
he saw Satan 
descend like 

He is cald 

and Levia- 

who lives in 
the sea. 
David speaks 
of him in the 

And St. 
Brandan saw 
in a pit this 


which came 
to Adam in 

" How fil pou so, o fou morwe sterre, 

From pe myddis of pe stonys bri^t, 

ftat ben so percynge & fyry of her li^t, 5856 

Jpat whilom wer for pi gret bri3tnes 

Callid Lucyfer," of whom Crist seip expresse 

In his gospel, how he sawe fro hevene 

Sathan discende, lik pe fyry* leuene 5860 

J?e olde serpent, fat is so lowe falle, 

"Whom Hebrei in her tonge [c]alle 

Be-mowpe, pat doth in latyn plein expresse 

A beste rude, ful of cursednesse 5864 

)3e vile serpent, he, Leuyathan, 

Whom Ysidre wel discriue can, [leaf 54 d] 

Whiche of kynde is euere conuersauwt 

In wellis trouble, & hauep most his hauwt 5868 

Amongis watris in pe large see ; 

Of whom seip Dauid, lik as $e may se, 

In pe sauter makyng menciouw 

Of pe snake, pe monstruous dragoura, 5872 

Ful of venym, and of harde grace, 

Whiche in pe se, large & gret of space, 

'Wiih foule addris hape his mansion, 

Vn-to mankynde to doon illusions 5876 

Whom whilo?^ sawe pe holy monke Bra?idan, 

As he seiled by pe occian, 

ftrowe* & deiect, in a pet horrible, 

More foule and hidous parc it is credible, 5880 

J}er to abide, pis tortuose serpent, 

Vn-to pe day pleinly of lugement, 

ftat of malis envied so mankynde. 

Whiche wM his gynnes* & slei^tes, as I finde, 5884 

Cam to oure fadir first in paradys ; 

And to deceyve pe bet at his devys, 

More couertly, pis werme in his passage 

Toke of a serpent pe liknes & ymage 5888 

5855. stonys] stremes D 1. 5860. fyry] fyre C. 

5863. Be-mow>e] Bemotli A, D 2, D 1. 

5864. rude] |>at is D 1. 5869. Amongis] Amonge D 1. 
5874. Whiche in] With Inne A. 5875. addris] shuldres D 1. 
5879. prowe] poruj C, orgh D 1. 5881. abide] bide D 1. 
5884. gynnes] gywnyng C. 5885. fadir] Fadris A, fadrys D 2. 

BK. n] The Sei-pent tempted Eve in Paradise, & spoke l>y Spirits. 313 

})at is, of chere, of loke, and coimtenaiuice 

Like a mayde, & hath pe resemblauwce 

Of a wowman, as recordeth Bede, 

In his deceytis raber for to spede 5892 

I niene pe hed only, and nat ellis : 

For be-hynde, so as clerkis tellis, 

Like a serpent of wombe, bak, & taile 

He was whan he gan hem to assaile ; 

And towarde Eue wha?* he gan to glide, 

He first enquerip, as he hir toke* a-side, 

Why God for-bad hem etyn of pe tree, 

Whiche $if pei ete, sothly schulde be 

Like to goddis, knowyng good & ille. 

And ri$t furpe-w/t/i, as pei gan fullfille 

)3e fendis heste, her eyen were vnclosid, 

And for her gilt sodeynly deposid 

From paradys in-to wrechidnes, 

To liuen in labour, sorwe??, & distres. 

And pus pe fend, first whaw pat he toke 

Forme of a snake & a woman loke, 5908 

And made pe tonge in hir hed to meve, 

By fals engyn mankynde for to greve, 

So as he doth in hem pat be travailled, 

With wicked spirites vexid & assailled, 5912 

To meve her tongis falsly oute to breke 

In-to blasfemye, what ping pat bei speke 

\)e same serpent, he Levyathan, [leaf 55 a] 

Contynvyng ay falsly as he gan 5916 

In cursid ydoles dovmbe, defe, & blynde, 

Ful ofte spekith* be spirites, as I fynde, 

Whiche ar but fendis, Dauid writ certeyn,* 

)3e goddis alle, whom folkis so in veyn 5920 

Honour with ritis superstycious, 

As whilom was Appollo Delphicus, 

Liche as to-forn $e han herde deuise, 

5890. be] om. A. 5896. hem] hym A. 

5898. hir toke] toke hir C. 5899. hem] om. D 2. 

5900. Whiche] And D 1. 5907. pat] om. A. 

5908. a] om. D 1 woman] wommanis A. 

5914. In-to] And to D 1. 5916. gan] bi gan D 1. 

5918. spekith] spekis C. 5919. certeyn] in certeyn C. 

Satan ill 


had a maid's 


as Uede says, 

but a ser- 
pent's belly 
5896 and tail. 

He askt Eve 
why God 
forbade them 
to eat of the 
5900 Tree of 
' V Knowledge. 

5904 She and 

Adam were 
driven out 
of Paradise. 

Ever since, 
Satan has 
workt by 

to make men 

By these 
Spirits idols 

like Apollo 

314 End of the Idolatry talk. Achilles in Apollo's Temple. [BK. n 

Why Guido 
has said all 
this about 
Idolatry is, 

because it 



Now he re- 
turns to how 
Achilles and 
went to 
temple in 

They pray, 
fast, and 
make offer- 
ings to the 

who answers : 
go home to 
the Greeks, 

and tell em 
to go to Troy. 

Whiche as for now ou^te I-now^ suffise. 
And, as I trowe, pe verray cause why, 
ftat myn auctor rehersith * by and by 
GrouMe & gynnynge of ydolatrie 
jpis pe cause, for ou^t I can espie, 
For pat he sawe pe mater was nat knowe 
I-liche wel, hope to hi^e and lowe ; 
Par aventure ^ou to do plesaurcce, 
He hath pe grourade put in remembrauwce 
Of false goddis & of mawmetrie, 
And nioste for hem pat can no poisye, 
And to pe story resortep sone ageyn, 
How Achilles, as $e han herde me seyn, 
And Pirrodus han pe weye y-nome 
To pe temple, and pider ben I-come 
To han answere of her embassatrie, 
Of gret* Appollo, whiche may nat lye. 






Of the answere that Appollo gave, as welle to fals 
Bisshope Calchas, as to Achylles. 1 

Of pe prestis pei han her couwseil take, 

In pe temple to prey en and to wake 

Til pei may fynde, vn-to pere entent 

To haue answere at hour conuenient 5944 

To her purpos and leiser opportune. 

And of on herte so longe pei contune 

In praying,* fastynge, and oblacions, 

Wip sacrifyse and sondry orisons, 5948 

To-fore pe god awayting alwey faste, 

Til he to hem answerid at pe laste 

Wip softe vois and seide : " Achilles," twye, 

" Home to Grekis fast[e] pat pou hye, 5952 

Fro whom pou were hidir to me sent, 

And seye hem sothly pe somme of her entent 

Schal be fulfilled, m'tft-oute wordis mo, 

And how pat pei schal to Troye go, 5956 

5926. rehersith] rehersicl C. 5935. new IT A. 
5940. gret] >e gret C. 5944. at] & D 1. 
5947. praying] prayer C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 55 a. 

BK. n] Apollo foretells the Greeks' success over Troy. 315 

And per abide many stronge bataille, 

But at pe last, vrith-outeii any faille, 

At ten $ere day, pei wy?me schal pe tou?i 

And bringe it pleynly to distrucciovm 5960 

Wai and touris schal falle to ruyne; 

And -with al pis, her purpos for to fyne, 

Kyng Priamws and Eccuba his wyf 

And her sonys, in pis mortal stryf [leaf 556] 5964 

Schal per be slayn, broper after broper : 

]5is is pe fyn, for it may be now oper ; 

For per schal non eskapeu in pe place, 

But swiche as Grekis likep vn-to grace 

Of verray roupe and of mercy take 

Jpis al and som, & pus an ende I make." 

Of whiche answere Achilles glad & Ii3t 

Was in his herte, & \viih al his niyjt 

ftankip Appollo of pis blisf ul ewer ; 

And soudeynly, of sort or aventure, 

jpe silfe tyme be-fil a wonder ping : 

For out of Troye, fro Prianms pe kyng, 

Was sent a bischop for pe same caas 

To haue answere, whos name was Calchas. 

And he cam in, sool wip-outew prees, 

)3e same hour while pat Achilles 

Was per present, a man of gret science 

I mene Calchas & had experience 

Specyally of calculaciouw, 

Of sort also and divinaciouw, 

And lernyd was in astronomye. 

And whan pat he his tyme dide espie 

To haue answere most conuenyent 

Of Appollo, like to his entent, 

As to-fore makid is memorie, 

He entrid is in pe oratorio, 

Doyng his ritys & his obseruaiwces, 

Like pe custom w/t/i pe circumstauwces, 

And besely gan to knele and praye, 

5957. many] many a D 1. 5970. pis] pis is D 1. 
5971. new H A. 5978. answere] an answere D 1. 
5981. J>er] om. D 1. 5993. gan] bi gan D 1. 

"Thev shall 
have hard 
fights, but 
in 10 years' 
time they 
shall destroy 

and Priam 
and all his 
family shall 
be slam. 




Then at once 
appears a 
Bishop sent 
by Priam 
5976 from Troy, 



5984 a diviner, 

learned in 

to get an 
answer from 
5988 A P 110 - 


316 Calchas, bidden ly Apollo, sails with Achilles to Athens. [BK. u 

The Oracle 
bids Calchas 

not return 
to Troy, 

but go to the 
Greeks with 

This he does. 

They go on 

and sail 

to Athens. 

And his pinges deuoutly for to saye, 

And to pe god crie & calle stronge ; 

And for Appollo wolde hi??^ nat prolongs, 5996 

Sodeynly his answere gan atame, 

And seide : " Calchas," twies be his name, 

" Be ri^t wel war pat pou ne turne ageyn* 

To Troye touw, for pat wer but in veyn ; 6000 

For finally, lerne pis of me, 

In schort tyme it schal distroyed be 

J^is is in soth, whiche may nat be denyed, 

Wherfor I wil pat pou be allyed 6004 

Wip pe Grekis, and with Achilles go 

To hem anon ; my wil is it be so : 

For pei schal han, as I haue disposid, 

Victorie & honour, pat may nat be deposid ; 6008 

For it is fatal and ne may nat varie, 

And pou to hem schalt be necessarie 

In conseillyng and in ^evinge red, 

And be ri^t helpyng to her good[e] sped." 6012 

And with pat worde roos him vp Calchas, [leaf 55 <?] 

And to Achilles he went an esy pace, 

And whan pat he cam to his presence, 

With gret honour & moche reuerence 6016 

He was reseyuyd, like to his estat ; 

And after sone pei [were] confederat, 

Swor to-gidre be bonde & assurauwce 

To ben al on, wip-oute variaurace ; 6020- 

And paraie in hast pei to-gidre goon 

To her schipes, & schope hem furpe anon, 

With Pirrodus goyng by her syde. 

Jpei hale vp anker and 110 leiiger bide, 6024 

But seile furpe, Calchas & pei tweyne, 

Toward Grece hem nedeth nat co??zpleine 

On wynde nor wawe til pei arived be 

At Athenes, pat stood vp-on pe se, 6028 

A large cite of olde fundaciouw ; 

And Achilles to kyng Aganienoiw 

Hath Calchas brou3t and also Pirrodus. 

5999] Be bou ri$t wel war ne twrne nat ageyn C ]>at] om. D 2, D 1. 

BK. n] Achilles reports Apollo's Answer to the Greeks. 317 

And whan pe Grekis, pe story tellip vs, 

Assemblid wern, pei to-gidre wente 

To-fore pe kyng, & Calchas represente 

To alle pe lordis, and no lenger dwelle. 

And ri^t anoon Achilles gan to telle 

WM-oute abood, in Delos how pei mette 

To-fore Appollo, where pei answer fette, 

And how pe god hath pleinly determyned 

})e Grekis pwrpos, how it schal be fyned 

Vp-on Troyens, and bad Calchas also 

In no wyse fat he to Troye go, 

But wip Grekis pat he abide stille, 

Til pei her purpos fynally fulfille. 

Of whiche ping pe Grekis, glad of chere, 

Calchas accepte with herte ful entere 

For on of hem, confederat be bonde, 

To ben al on on water & on londe, 

Wip-outen chaimge or any variance 

])Q ope is made & put in reme?ttbrau?zce ; 

And pei ageyn fully hym* assure 

To cherisschen hym whil her lif may dure, 

For wel or wo, and so pei made an ende, 

And after parte & to her loggyng wende. 

Til on pe morwe, after pe sterry ny3t, 

Whan Aurora was gladid vrith pe li^t 

Of Phebus bemys, pe Grekis vp aryse, 

And to her goddis with many sacrifice 

ftei don honowr in what pei can or may, 

And deuoutly holdyng a feste day, 

After her ritis, meynt vfith love & drede, 

In remembrau?ice of pe good[e] spede, [leaf 55 d] 

And of pe answer pat gooddis haw hew sent, 

So agreable vn-to her entent, 

By Pirrodus and by Achilles. 

And af tir pis, amongis alle pe prees, 

Is Calchas come to-fore Agamenouw, 

6032 To the as- 

6036 Achilles 









of Troy's 

The Greeks 
are glad, 
and accept 
Calchas as 
one of 

Next morn- 

they hold a 

6051. fully hym] hym fully C ; but each word is marked to show 
that the order should be inverted. 

6055. new IF A. 6059. don] elide D 1. 
6065. 2nd by] om. D 1. 

318 Calchas warns them against delaying their Expedition. [BK. n 

Calchas begs Alle his lordis sittyng environs 

the Greek 

lords Lik her estatis, eche in his place dewe, 

And hu??iblely gan hem to salue 
Vp-on his knees with sobre contenaimce, 
And p?*ayde hem, it be no displesance 
To stynt a while and $if hym audience. 
And rijt anoon, as makid was silence 
Amonge hem alle, Calchas* gan abreide, 
And euene pus ful sobirly he seide : 

to give him 
a hearing. 




He warns 

not to delay 
their expedi- 
tion against 

as Priam's 
spies are 
among them, 

and he is 
his defence. 

How fals Calchas of Troy was conveyede to pe 
presences of pe priwses of Grece, and howe he 
innaturelly exortyde them to make mortal were 
vpon his kynge and kynrede, as folowith. 1 

" sirs," quod, he, " and my lordis dere, 

Kynges, princes, & dukis fat ben here, 

So noble echon, worpi, and fanms, 

And eke so manly and so vertuws, 6080 

Which in* pis place be now here* p?*esent, 

Is nat pe fyn & chef of [j]oure entent, 

And cause, also, why pat ^e echon 

Assernblid ben to Troye for to goon 6084 

Wip pis power and pis grete strengpe 

Your pwrpos is to longe drawe a lengpe 

And differrid furthe* fro day to day 

To ^our damage, platly pis no nay ; 6088 

For to longe $e soiowre in pis He. 

And trowe 30 nat pat Priam in pis while 

Hath his espies among $ou preuily 

I wote it wel, I saie $ou feithfully 6092 

To knowe pe fyn of $oure gouernance, 

And he per- whiles may make pwruyauwce 

Hym to diffende, while $e in ydel reste ! 

Me semeth, sothly, ^e do nat for pe beste : 6096 

6075. Calchas] Chalcas C. 6077. new IT A 0] om. A. 
6078. princes & dukis] Dukes and Pri?ices D 1. 

6081, Which in] With Inne C now here] here now C. 

6082. 3oure] our D 1. 6087. furthe] it furthe C. 
6088. pis] >is is D 1. 6091. among] monge D 1. 
6096. nat] nuii^t D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 55 c. 

BK. n] Calchas urges the Greeks to sail for Troy at once. 319 

For in abydyng & in swiche delaies 

Gret harme may falle, certeyn pis no nay is. 

I preue it pus : for pleynly while pat 36 

To 3oure enmyes graimt[e] liberte 

Hem to pwrueye, pei may with niy3ti honde 

Enforcen hem $our power to wip-stonde 

Wip her frendis and her alliance, 

And at leiser make her ordynaimce. 

It is foly pat 36 so differre, 

Sith 30 be redy, for to make a werre 

On 3oure enmyes, with eue?y circimstance ; 

For no ping may a quarel so avaiwce 

As hasty swt, it wil pe scharper bite 

\)e Iren hoot, tyme is for to sniyte ; 

And nat abide til pat it be colde : [leaf 56 a] 

For nouper pawne it plie wil nor folde. 

Goth, set vp-on, alle of oon acorde, 

And to schip anoon w&t/i-Inne horde 

Enhastep 3011, for tyme is to remewe, 

Wip al 3our my3t your quarel to pwsewe 

Ageyn[e]s hem, pat han to 3ow trespassid. 

How many daies ben of somer passid, 

And many moneth ro?me & ouer-slide ! 

And Titan ofte with his chare hath ryde 
From est to west, and in pe wawes depe 
His stremys baped, whil 36 haw leyn a-slepe 
And spent 3our tyme in pis place pus, 
Whil pat pe wynde, callid 3ephirus, 
Benignely enspired hath on* lofte 
Thatempre eyr, pe wedir fair & softe, 
J3e calme see horn wawis stille and pleyn, 
Whil 30 waste 302^-6 daies here in veyn 
J?at whan 3024?* foon her-to* taken hede, 
J2ei wil suppose pat it be for drede, 
And be more bolde to sette of 3ow but lite. 
Trustep for sope, for I wil me quite 

Calchas tells 
the Greeks 
they must 

strike while 

the iron's 


and not stay 

till it's cold. 








,, AJ dawdled 
6124 while the 

Zephyrs blew, 

They must 
embark at 
once for 



and their foea 
'11 think 

6108. so] so moche D 1. 

6119. many] om. D 2 ronne] & ronne D 2. 

6125. on] oon C, a A, D 2, D 1. 

6126. Thatewpre] To atempre D 1. 6129. her-to] J*r to C. 

320 Calchas lids the Greeks sail at once, and they do so. [BK. n 

The Gods 
have been 
kind to the 

and should 
not be pro- 

While the 
weather is 

the Greeks 
must start. 

They agree, 

go on board, 

and sail 

a great navy. 

Trewly to $ow, like as I am bouwde, 

And pinke how 36 ban pe goddis fou^de 

Her-toward benigne and fortunat, 

loure honowr savid in bi^e and lowe estaat, 6136 

And so scbal forpe, $if 3ou[r] ingratitude 

Prouoke bem nat $oure purpos to delude, 

Wilfully to sloupen ^oure fortune : 

No wondir is, pou3 pei nat contune 6140 

Towardis 3ow for to schewe bir grace. 

"VVberfore I rede, hen[ne]s pat 36 passe, 

And schapep ^ou no lenger to lyn bere, 

But whil pe wedir is so fair & clere, 6144 

And lusty somer abidep in bis bete 

Or wynter com with his reynys wete, 

And whil pe sesoura is so fresche & grene 

(I speke of hert, platly as I mene) 6148 

For 3our expleit and $our alder ese 

(Wher it so be, I anger ^ou or plese) 

J}at forpe in haste to schipfpe] pat 36 wende 

I can no more, my tale is at an ende." 6152 

And alle attonys pei ben condescendid 

To bis avis, & ban it wel comrnendid ; 

And in al hast, Agamenou?* pe grete 

}3e lusty tyme and fe sesou?^ swete 6156 

Hastyng J)e Grekis, bojjen hi3e & lowe 

Made a trompet to schipward to bio we ; 

And ]>ei echon his biddyng dide obeie, 

And to her schippes pel goon pe ri3t[e] weye [leaf 566] 6160 

WM-oute abood )>ei wil no lenger dwelle. 

What scbulde I more of J>e noumbre telle 

Of her scbippis, sitb 36 ban berde a-fore 1 

It nedeth nat reherse it any more; 6164 

I can nat se what it my3t availe. 

But furpe pei dresse hem & be-gan to saile ; 

And pis is soth, pleynly & no wene, 

So gret a navie was neuer 3it y-sene 61 6 

6134. han >e goddis] >e goddes haue D 1. 6147. &] om. A. 
6150. be] om. A. 6153. new If A. 6154. his] jns D 1. 
6158. 2nd to] om. D 1. 6161. wil] om. D 1. 
6168. y-sene] sene D 1. 

BK. n] A Storm rises. The Greeks land at an Hand. 321 
In al f is worlde, ne to-gider met. At first the 

. , . j 1 . weather is 

J3e wynde was good, fat fei wer nat let fair; 

On her weye first whan fei be-gowne ; 

But after sone gan fe schene somie 61 7 2 

])Q clerenes chauMge of liis bri$t[e] face ; 

And dymme cloudis gan his li^t embrace ; 

And sodeynly, in ful owgly wyse, 

)pe heuera dirke & fe wynde gan ryse; 6176 then comes 

])Q hidous fonder & f e leuene clere with thunder 

Smet in f e mast, brijt as any fere ; ning. 

And f e blaknes of f e smoky rayn 

Blindeth f e eyr, fat no fing may be seyn ; 6180 

And f e wawes gan to ryse a-lofte, 

And in her schippes falle no fing sof te, The ships are 

But plou?zge a-dou/i and in her toppis smyte, 

feat hem foi^t fei want[e] but a lite 6184 

To haue be ded, in f e silfe stouwde : 

Til Calchas hath by his craf te y-fou?zde tin Caichaa 

, r ,T ..-it- charms the 

fee cause of al, [and] with his onsourcs, tempest to 

Wif his charmys and incantac[i]ouws 6188 

Made sodeynly f e tempest to apese, 

And with his crafte don hew ri^t gret ese. 

For he fonde oute fe cause of euerydel, 

How Diane liked no fing wel 6192 Diana wa 

}jat f e Grekis durst[e] take on honde SiSsVart- 

To be [so] bolde to parte fro f e stronde 

In-to f e se, in any maner wyse, 

And do to hir no maner sacrifise, 6196 ing without 

Confer oifre to-forn or fat fei goth : " 8 

For whiche fing f e goddes is so wroth 

Toward Grekis, seyling in J>e se, 

)}at fei echon wend haue drownyd be. 6200 

Til at fe last, kyng Agamenou?i 

Hath be couwseil and informaciouw 

Of wyse Calchas made sette vp to* londe, They land at 

In-to an He, and fast his* schippes bonde. 6204 

6169. ne] nor D 1. 6175. owgly] ougle D 1. 

6186. y-foimde] foimde D 1. 

6188. his] om. A and] and his A. 

6196. do to hir] to hyre do D 1. 6200. >at] Than D 1. . 

6203. vp to] vp on J>e C. 6204. his] her C. 


322 The Greeks make an Offering of Ipliigenia to Diana. [BK. n 

Iu Aulis is 
a temple of 

To it Aga- 

and, as Ovid 
says, offers up 
his daughter 
Iphigenia ; 

but Diana 

by miracle 
removed her, 

and put a 
stag in her 
place, . 
which was 

and the 

And Aulides pat litel He hi^te, 
In whiche he fonde vnwarly in his si$te 
A litel temple and an oratorie, 
Founded of olde & made in memorie 
Of Diane, to whiche anoon he wente 
Ful deuoutly his offeryng to presente, 
And quernyd hir with his oblaciouws, 
And lay per long in his orisouws, 
After pe rytis vsid in his la we, 
Til pat he sawe pe te??zpest gan a-dawe. 
But some bokis make mencioim 
Touching pis ping, pat Agamenou??, 
As Ovide reherseth in his boke, 
How pis kyng his owne donate?* toke, 
Effigenya, benigne of face and chere, 
And endelong vppon pe autere 
jjis rnaide he laide, dispoiled of her wede, 
To-fore Dyane to make^ hir to blede, 
To fyn only pat he pe heuenly quene 
"With blood pat was Innocent & clene 
Apese my3t, and quemew of hir rage. 
And pe goddes gracius of visage 
Hath mercy meint with hir magnificence, 
To suffre a maide ful of Innocence 
Gilt[e]les in her temple slawe, 
Hath be miracle a-waye hir body drawe, 
And conservid fro??i al anoye & smerte, 
And in hir stede vnwarly cast an herte, 
By deth of whom, as bokys make mynde, 
Agamenouw first gan grace fynde 
In pe goddes for to modyfye 
Hir* cruel Ire : and clere gan pe skye, 
J)e se wexe calme, and pe wedir fair ; 
And Phebws eke, to glade with pe eyr, 
Gan schewe newe, & his bemys cast 
In-to pe se ; and pe kyng as fast 
Yn-to schip repeired is a-geyn, 

[leaf 56 c] 










6223. he] cm. Dl. 
6236. Hir] His 0. 

6231. anoye] noye D 1. 
6237. wedir] water D 1. 

BK. li] The Greeks sail to the Castle Sarolona, near Troy. 323 


tli.- Queen 

6256 The Greek 

boruj help of hir which* is, as clerkis seyn, 


Lady & quene of wayes and passage ; 

And goddes is callid of viage, 6244 

After sentence and oppiuioiiH 

Of hem pat werke be calculaciou?*, 

And $eue her domys by astronomye. 

And most of al pei hir magnifye 6248 

lu pe tenpe and pe twelpe house ; 

For per sche is, pei sei, most gracious, 

Best fortuned, cler or in hir schade, 

3if sche haue cou?*fort of aspectis glade 6252 

Of planetis stondywg in good state 

I mene swiche as be fortunat 

To viage or lourno for to make. 

Howe the Grekis destroyede the Castel callede Sara- 
bona as fey saylede towarde Troye, and it 
dispoylede. 1 

And swiche tyme Agamenou?* hath take 

His happy weye schipped for to be ; 

And in good* hour he take??, hape pe se [leaf 56 d] 

'With pe Grekis, pe wedir agreable ; 

And Eolus hath maked acceptable 6260 

Wynde and eyr, hoolly at her wylle, 

Noufer to loude, pleynly, nor to stille, 

But in a mene so merie made blowe, 

pat fei atteyn, in a litel prowe, 6264 and reach a 

To certeyn bou^dis of Troye J>e cite, 

Vn-to a castel, pat stood vp-on pe se, 

Ki$t wonder strong, pou^ it wer but lite, 

])e name of whiche, pou^ Dares not ne write 6268 

I mene Dares callyd Frigyus 

jet oper auctours rehersen sothly pus, 

Sarobona pat it was y-callid, 

Kourade aboute diched* & wel wallid, 6272 

hi3e touris rou?zde, square, and wyde ; 
Q se went vnder, and faste per be-side on the sea. 

6242. which] J*rt C. 6251. schade] sage D 2. 
6258. good] a good C. 6272. diched] dykyd C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 56 c (misplaced after line 6266). 

have good 

Castle near 

cald Saro- 

324 The Trojans sally out from Sarobona, lut are beaten. [BK. n 

The Trojans 
see the 

and sally out 
to stop them 

them to be 
and done-up. 

But the 

the Trojans 

and slay 

Was an hauene able for ryvaille. 

At whiche, pleinly, pe Grekis wil nat faile 6276 

With her power rny^tely to aryve, 

Maugre alle po pat per ageyn[es] stryue 

)?ei my^t[e] wel, for it was nat denyed, 

Only excepte fat pei wer espied 6280 

Of hem alloiie fat in pe castel dwelle. 

])Q whiche anoon, as pei herde telle 

Of her cowmyng, proudly in pe berde 

"With hem to mete were no ping a-ferde, 6284 

But issen oute, douw vn-to pe stronde, 

In pwrpos only to letten hem for to londe 

With al her my^t, jif it wolde availle. 

But pe Grekis so proudly hem assaille 6288 

Jjat pei ne my^t in her diffence endure : 

For wher-as pei wendyw haue be sure, 

Demyng pe Grekis pleinly of pe se 

Forweried and feynted hadde be, 6292 

Wip longe seilyng parbraked & forbroke 

Wherfor pe[i] cast on hem to haue be wroke 

Al sodeinly, and settyn on of hede, 

And putte hem silf in auenture & drede 6296 

Of rakilnes, vn-avisely. 

Wher-of to hem ful vnhappily 

It be-fil whan fei-pe Grekis mette 

With speris longe & swerdis scharpe whette, 6300 

Eche on oper manhod for to schewe. 

But, for cause Troyans were so fewe, 

To issen oute pei dide folily ; 

])Q felde was nat partid egally : 6304 

For pe Grekis wern Innumerable, 

)3at hem to mete pe Troyans werw nat able 

For pat tyme pei my^tfe] nat suffice : [leaf 57 a] 

)2ei toke on hem so passyng hi^e emprise 6308 

Arid 3it pei nolde for no ping hem witftdrawe 

Til pei were wouwded and y-slawe, 

6286. letten] lette D 2, D 1. 

6290. sure] assure A, D 2. 6292. hadde be] had I be D 1. 

6294. to] om. A, D 2, D 1. 6302. so] to A. 

6310. J>ei] J>at }>ey D 2, >t >ei D 1. 

BK. n] The Greeks slay all the Trojans in Sarobona. 325 

And oue?'leyn of* Grekis outterly 

Now here, now fere, bor doim cruelly, 6312 Jjj^jw 

Merciles, as Guydo doth reporte, 

J*it hem behoveth horn ageyn resorte 

Of verray nede and necessite. 

And alle attonys gonne for to fle 6316 

I mene swiche as were lefte alyve 

To fe castel ]>ei hasten hem ful blive ; 

For J?ei ne my^t no lenger holde felde 

Ageyns Grekis, with spere nor w/t/t schelde : 6320 

)?ei were to feble, schortly to conclude, 

To abide so gret a multitude. 

And as fei fle, j?e Grekis a gret pas 

Xe cesse cat to swen on ]>e chas, 

Ful hastely to fe castel gate, SSSewlth 

And entren in, and by cruel fate 

ftei kille & sle bofen hi^e & lowe ; d kil1 th <> m 

)?ei spare noon, ne list no wi^t to * knowe 6328 

Of non estat, but felly hem oppresse ; 

And what pei fond, gold & eke richesse, the spo?' ff 

Vn-to schip pei cariden * anoon ; 

And of J?e castel pei left nat a stoon 6332 

Aboue a-noper, but turne?i vp so dou?i 

Bofe wal & tour & pe chefe dongoun, 

|3at no ping stood, so pei vnder-myne, 

Howe Agamenon layde his Oste byfore Thenedcmn, a 
stronge Castele yj myle fro Troye, the which he 
wan, and it bet to pe grounde; and aftire pat, 
agally made distribucyoem of the godys. 1 

And whan al was brou^t vn-to ruyne, 6336 ^^J^J* 

Grekis anoon to her schippes haste lhelr 8hip8t 

Of on assent, and pwpos as faste, 

Wt't/i-oute abood, of o wille and herte, 

Fro pat hauene pleynly to diuerte, 6340 

6311. of] vfith C. 6318. ful] om. D 1. 

6320. Ageyns] A geyn D 1. 

6328. no wi^t to] wete ne C no wijt] with D 1. 

6330. what J>ei] whawno D 1. 

6331. cariden] carien C, paryeden D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 57 a (misplaced after line 6340). 

326 The Greeks sail to Castle Tenedos. Trojans attack them. [BK. II 

The Greeks 
sail to 
6 miles from 

and land 

The place is 
full of food, 


and cattle, 
and fish. 

The Trojans 
in the Castle 

against the 

who meet 
them well 

And to saille towarde Tenedoiw, 

A strong castel, whiche fro Troye toiw 

In distauTzce but sixe myle stood, 

Ful of tresour, of riches, and of good, 6344 

Repleuysched of alle habundaiwee. 

And whan fat f ei with her ordinance 

I-seiled han, bof e sauf and sourade, 

And fro fe se taken han fe grouwde, 6348 

To her pleaaunce wonder agreable, 

And of sy$t a* place delitaWe, 

Holsom of eyr, f e soil ri^t fair & grene, 

And lusty playnes goodly on to seue, 6352 

And was also habundauwt of vitaille, 

Repleuesched of al fat may availle 

To hosteiyng and to soudyours 

For firste fe lond, ful of fresche flours, [leaf 576] 6356 

Was plenteuous bof e of corn & greyne, 

Of wyn & frute, fat no f ing ley bareyn, 

Of best and foules passingly plente 

And fast[e] by stood also f e se, 6360 

Ful habundawit of fysches, as I fynde, 

After f e sesouw of euery inaner kynde. 

And whan fat fei which Inne* fe castel were 

])e Grekis seie londen from a-fere, 6364 

WM-oute abood pel arme he?w & wente oute, 

And vppon hem make an hydous schout, 

Stuffyng fe castel vrith meine strong be-hynde, 

And toke her wey, in Guydo as I fynde, 6368 

Toward her foon, & kny^tly set vp-on. 

And ri^t furfe-wit/i Grekis eke anoon 

Mette vrith hem vp-on f e tof er syde, 

Ful surquedous and ri^t ful of pride, 6372 

Clenly armyd in harneis al of stel, 

Fresche arayed and be-seye so* wel 

For fe felde, as fikke as swarme of ben 

On eche syde men may beholde & sen, 6376 

6350. a] and C. 6358. &] of D 1. 6359. and] of D 1. 
6363. >at J>ei which Inne] >ei >at with Inne C. 
6365. arme] armed D 1. 6370. furj>e-witfc] forwith A. 
6374. so] ful C. 

BK. Ii] The Greeks, leiny 40 to 1, drive them lack to Tcnedos. 327 

Sprad al pe pleyn douw vn-to pe stronde, 

Til at pe last pei mette^ bond of honde, 

And assemble vtikli square speris grouftde, 

And hurtle* I-fere, wM many blody wourale. 

)per was 110 " gooday," nor no saluyug, 

But strokis felle, pat men berde rynge 

On basenettis pe strokis rou^de aboute 

So cruelly fat pe fire sprange oute 

Among pe tuftis brode, bri^t, & scliene 

Of foil of gold & fepres wliite & greiie. 

Eke in-to brestes percid many scbelde, 

And besagus flen a-brood pe felde, 

And many a man lyn pat mortal stoiuide 

Ful dedly pale, lowe be pe groude, 

With face gruf & blody stremys wyde. 

And aldermost vp-on pe Grekis syde 

])Q slau^tre was and pe discomfiture, 

So my^tely Troyens dide endure. 

Til at J)e last, for pel were so fewe, 

With multitude pe Grekis on hem hewe : 

For mo pan fourty wer ageyn[e]s on, 

Of verray force abak pei most[e] gon, 

No ping for lak of maiihod, I dar seyn, 

But for so many han hem ouerleyn, 

]3ei may no lenger in pe felde soiourne, 

But to her castel horn ageyn retourne 

In ful gret haste, swiche as my^t eskape 

Away a-live ; and sowime of hem for rape 

And drede of deth taken hem to fli^t [leaf 57 c] 

On horse bak to Troye toun ful ri^t 

No wonder was pou} pei* hast[e] fast ; 

For to pe gatis pe chas of Grekis last, 

So cruelly after pei purswe. 

And sowme of hem pat my^t[e] nat remewe 

On Troye side, for-weried of fi$t, 

6380. hurtle] hurcle C I-fere] in fere D 1. 

6381. 2nd no] om. D 2. 6387. percid] pershed D 1. 
6388. >e] in >e D 1. 6389. a] am. A, D 2 man] men A. 
6391. face gruf] grufe face D 1. 6392. J>e] om. D 1. 
6395. new TT A. 6397. ageynes] a 3enst D 1. 

6399. I dar] dar I D 1. 6407. J>ou$ J>ei] >ei the C. 

Greeks and 
Trojans fight 
hand to 





6396 But as the 
Greeks are 
10 to 1, 

Many are 




they drive 
the Trojans 
back to 

and some flee 
to Troy. 

328 The Greeks besiege and assault Castle Tenedos. [BK. n 

The Greeks 
lay siege to . 

They scale 
the wall. 

The Trojans 

defend them- 

and throw 
the Greeks 

Some Greeks 
mine the 

and set up 



Jpe Grekis slen with al her ful[le] 11173 1 ^412 

Now here, now fere, whom pei my^t atteyne, 

])er may no raimsorw nor no mercy geyne 

Of noon estat, wip-oute excepcioim. 

And after pat, vn-to Tenedouw 6416 

Jje Grekis went, and it be-set aboute, 

)pat Troyan noon my3t* eskapen oute. 

And whan pei had pe bolewerkis wo?ine, 

To skale pe wal after pei be-gonne, 6420 

And made assaut manfully and ofte. 

And Troy ens, as pei stood a-lofte, 

Putte hem of, pat entre pei ne my^t, 

With cast of stoon and quarel[e]s bri^t, 6424 

With bowe turkeys & schot of arblasteris, 

And her gowners* stondynge at corners, 

Wip lym also, and cast of wylde fyre, 

Of Irous hate ful hot in her desire, 6428 

Lik manly men hem silffe] pei diffende. 

And ay pe Grekis, as pei vp ascende, 

Cruelly pei putte to pe groiwde ; 

Til pei with-oute an ordinance han* fourcde, 6432 

What with gywnys deuised for |>e nonys, 

And goTznys grete, for to castfe] stonys, 

Bent to pe touris, ri^t as any lyne, 

And large sowis lowe for to myne 6436 

And somme of hem vp-on pe wallis gon, 

|)at were so pikke made of lyme & ston ; 

And to entre pei many wayes seke, 

Sette her bastiles and her hurdois eke 6440 

Rouwde aboute to pe harde wal, 

And skalyng ladderis for sautis marcial 

ftei gan vp cast, wip hokis for to holde. 

And vp ascende pe sturdy Grekis bolde, 6444 

Til Troyens from pe crestis caste 

fee grete stonys, whil pei wolde laste, 

6414. f>er] They D 1. 6418. noon my^t] my^t noon C. 

6424. quareles] quarel A, D 2, qwarelles D 1. 

8425. turkeys] of turkeis D 1. 6426. goraiers] goftnys C. 

6427. lym] hym A. 6429. diffende] diffence A. 

6430. asceude] aasence A. 6432. han] ha> C. 

6437. wallis] wal A, D 2, D 1. 

BK. n] The Greeks take, plunder and burn Tenedos, and sail off. 329 

And Callyoiw eke Grekis to oppresse, 

And wonder manly dide her besynes 6 448 

In her diffence, and made \\ern plou??ge lowe 

With caste of quarel, & vrit/i sclioot of bowe 

ftoru^ olietis, that of necessite 

}3ei put hem of, it may noon oper be, 

And broke her neckis & he?' schulder bonys, 

As pei falle, vrith pe square stonys, [leaf 5 

And leyen ded, pitous pale of hew. 

But Grekis ay gan her saut renewe, 

Wip multitude Troyens to assaille, 

To Wttftstonde pat pei gan [to] faille 

And wexe feble, for reskus cam per non ; 

And so of force pe Grekis ben y-gon 6460 

ftoru} ]>Q wallys whan pei han hem broke, 

And on Troyens so cruelly be wroke, 

ftat fynally pei lefte noon alyue, 

But sle and kylle ; and after pat as blive, 

On pe wallis her baners pei han set, 

And 3onge & olde it my3t[e] be no bet 

Al goth to wrak vp-on Troye side. 

And after pat, pei nyl* no lenger byde, 6468 

But tresowr, gold, & what pt pei may fynde 

J3ei cast on hepe, & to-gydre bynde, 

And made spoile of al pat was wft/i-Inne ; 

And parcne in haste pe wallis pei be-gywne 6472 

Pynacle & tour, and also pe dongoun 

To bre?zne & hewe, and to bete dou?* ; 

And vfith pe soil pei made al euene & pleyn. 

And with gret pray anoon pei went a-geyn 6476 

To her schippes, glad & ^t of chere, 

Whan pat pe fuyr vrith his iiawmes clere 

)3e castel had conswmyd <fe y-brent. 

And after pat, avise and prudent, 6480 

The Trojans 
shoot thru 

6452 The Greeks 
fall and break 
their necks 
and shoulder* 
bones ; 

6456 but are too 
many for the 

and enter the 

6464 and slay all 
whom they 

They gather 
up the 

set fire to the 

and return to 
their ships. 

6451. that of] >at olyetes Jwrt of D2. 

6456. renewe] rernwe A. 

6460. y-gon] in goon A, in gon D 2, a goon D 1. 

6462. on] ora, A. 6465. her] f>e D 1. 6468. nyl] wil C. 

6469. >t] om. D 1 may] myjt D 1. 6470. on] an D 2. 

6472. wallis] wal D 2, walle D 1. 6474. douw] a doim D 2. 

6478. J>at] om. A. 

330 Agamemnon distributes the spoil of Tenedos. [BK. n 

bids his 
Greeks bring 

their plunder 
of Tenedos, 

and he dis- 
tributes it 
to them 
according to 
their deserts. 

He then calls 
all his lords 

and makes a 
speech to 

])e manly man, worpi Agamenoiw, 

Lete make anon a convocacioim 

Of pe Grekis, & bad pel schuld[e] bringe 

Gold and tresour, wat/i-oute more tariyng, 

With al pe pray pel wan at Tenedoiw, 

To his presence, for pis conclusions : 

J)at he may make destribucioim 

Amongis hem, wzt/i-oute excepciouw, 

Like her deceit vn-to pore & riche 

He departip* to euery man y-liche, 

But moste to swiche as dide best disserue, 

For to hym silf hym list no ping conserue ; 

For he hath leuer hertis pan pe good, 

Of swiche as had spent her owne blood 

So manfully pe castel for to wynne : 

For who pat can with larges first be-gynne, 

Ne faillep nat after wel to spede 

Jporu^ help of men, whan pat he hap nede : 

For loue folwep fiedam comoiwly. 

And after pis, pe kyng lete make a crye, 

J3at alle pe kynges & lordis of his hoste, 

Dukis, erlys com from euery coste, 

The nexte moiwe to-f orn hym to apere. [leaf 58 a] 

})e ny^t y-passed, Phebus gan to clere 

Her emyspyrie, aftir pe larke song, 

Wha?a pat pe kyng, among pe Grekis strong, 

Vp-on pe pleyn, in his se royal, 

And fast[e] by, most chef & principal 

Of his lordis were set in her degie 

And whan pe kyng sawe oportunyte, 

J)at per was made silence euerywhere, 

His liges stondyng envirou% here & pere, 

)3e kyng of chere sadde & eke locouwde, 

As he pat was of speche ful facou?ide,* 

Be-gan his tale with sobre contenauwce, 

^effect of whiche was pis in substaurcce : 










6481. \vor])i] the worthy A Agamenoim] latnecloim D 2. 
6490. departi>] departed C. 
6500. J>is] >at D 1 lete] dide D 1. 
6514. facoimde] locoimde 0. 

BK. n] Agamemnon's Speech to the Greek Lords. 




Howe Agamenon rememberde al his princes of the 
vngodely answeres that Anthenor had of them 
when he desyerd to haue had restitucyown of 
Exiona, wherupon they sent Vlixes and Dyomede 
to Priamws, to haue restituciown of quene Heleyne, 1 

s," quod he, "ful worfi of degre, 

Of verray ri^t and neccssito 
We be compelled, bof e 11130 & lowe, 
Wit/4 al oure my3t, liche as 30 wel knowe, 
To redresse a fing fat is amys : 
For f orii3 f e world, as it reportid is, 
We ben of force, of power, & of iny^t, 
Of worfines in euery wi^ttes sy3t 
Most renomed & most worschipable, 
And I-dempte & luged for most able 
Of alle peples, & likliest to stonde 
For to parforme what we take on honde, 
Who ]?at euere grucche[f] or sey[f] nay. 
Jit, me semeth, 3!! it be to 30111 pay, 
Jjilke power most is acceptable 
Yn-to goddis, & longest stonde)) stable, 
j)at is deuoide of surquidie & pride ; 
For it is kouf e vppon euery syde, 
In eche lond, bo]>e of oon and alle, 
How many harmys & grevis han be-falle 
J?oni3 rancour only, pride, & wilfulnes, 
So importable, as I coude expresse, 
jpat foru3 p?-ide per is^ don offence ; 
j)e hi3e goddis make resistence 
To alle po fat be surquedous, 
Whiche is a vice so contrarius 
)3at it may in no place abide. 
And in good feith, manhood is no p?ide : 
For who fat hath any acqueintaunce, 
Ouf er by frenschip or by alyauwce, 

a prowde man, to be confederat 



" We are 

compeld to 



All the world 
knows how 
strong we 

and likely to 
carry out 

6528 whatever we 


It knows too 
what harm 
has hapt 
thru Pride, 




a vice 

6526. I-dempte] dempte D 1. 6539. }>er is] is >er C. 
6543. no] om, D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 57 d. 

332 Agamemnon's Speech to his Greeks against the Trojans. [BK. II 

injures a man 
like Pride 
We must 
cast it out of 
our hearts, 

and be 
guided by 

We are come 
to take 
vengeance on 

We've leveld 
his Castles 
and slain his 

and so the 
Trojans will, 
if they can, 

wreak their 
ire on us. 

Wip hym in herte, of hi^e or Icwe estat, 6548 

He nedis muste, what-euer pat he be, 

To many oper of necessite 

Be lothsom first, enmy & contraire ; 

For no ping may a man so moche apaire [leaf 5S&] 6552 

As pride, in soth, in 11130 or* lowe degre. 

Wherfore, I rede pleinly how fat we 

jjis foule vice oute of our hert arrace, 

Jpat our quarel may haue pe more grace ; 

And specially pat oure declis alle 

Conveied ben, how-euer pat it falle, 

Be ri^twesnesse more pan volunte : 

For 3if troupe oure sothfast guyde be, 

Vs to directe by his ri^tful lyne, 

))an oure qwarel schal ay in honowr schine 

And contvne in * f ul f elicite. 

And, ferpermore, pis knowen alle 36, 

How we ar come for to do vengauwce, 

'With oure freiidschip and oure alliance, 

Vp-on Priam for wrongis don of olde 

By hym and hyse, as I haue ofte tolde ; 

And here-vp-on we haw his grourale I-take, 

And some of his maked to a- wake 

With manful honde, & his castellis strong 

I-bete dowi, pat stonden haue so longe, 

And take pere pe riches pat we foiwde, 

And slawe his men with many blody wouwde, 

And harmys mo don in his contre, 

J}at I wot wel, 3if her enmyte 

"Was vn-to vs gret & moche a-fore, 

I dar seie now it is in double more ; 

]5at 3if pat pei avenged my3t[e] be 

On vs echon, anon 36 schulde se 6580 

Her gret Ire, so cruel & so huge, 

Ben execute w^t/i-oute more refuge. 

And 3it, in soth, I wote pei han espied 







6553. or] & C. 6559. Be] Of D 1. 

6562. ay] om. D 1. 6563. in] eke in C in ful] ful in D 1. 

6570. to] for to D 1. 6571. castellis] castel D 1, castels D 2. 
6577. vn-to] to D 1. 6578. now it is] it is nowe D 1. 

BK. il] Agamemnon's Speech. The Greeks are sure to win. 333 

Oure beyng here pou$ we be nat askried 

Of hem as $it, I dar seyn outterly, 

J3ei are wel war fat we ar fastfe] by ; 

And ouer-more, pis wote I wel also, 

Of pe harmys pat we lian hem do, 

J3e whiche as $it ben but fresche & grene, 

$if pei wer strong & my^ti to sustene, 

A werre on vs anon pel wolde gy?me. 

And }it pe cite whiche pei ben Inne 

Is wallid strong & tourid rou^de aboute, 

))at pei wene fully, oute of doute, 

We't/i pe meyne pat pei haue gadrid Inne 

Of her alies, pat we schal nat wynne 

Of hem but smal in werre nor in strif : 

For he in sothe hath a prerogatyi 

And a-vau?itage, pat in his centre 

Hyw silfe diffendith ; namly,* 3if pat he 

Be stuffid strong of frendis hym be-side, [leaf 58 

And of allies, where he doth abyde ; 

Like as pe rauen, wzt/i his feperes blake, 

\VWi-Inne his nest wil ofte tyme make 

Ageyn pe faukon gentil of nature 

Ful harde diffence whil[e]s he may dure, 

Or pat he be venquissched & outtraied. 

And }it som while pe faukon is delaied, 

Whils pe raven be-syde his nest dop fle, 

Wt'tA-Inne his couert at his liberte ; 

As eue?y foule is fro ward to arest, 

For to be dauwted in his owne nest. 

And ^it pis wordis to 3011 1 nat sey 

In any wyse to putten in affray 

3oure kny}tly hertis, so manly & so stable, 

Nor pat to 3ou it schulde be doutable, 

But pe Troiens pat we schal confouwde, 

And her cite, in whiche pei habouwde, 

6589. as }it ben] is $it D 1. 

6591. gyrcne] begyrane D 1. 

6592. whiche] in which A, D 2, J>e wiche D 1. 
6600. namly] manly C, D 1. 

6606. dure] endure A. 

6610. at] and D 1. 6613. new IT A. 

6584 "Thothe 

men in Troy 

haven't seen 


they know 

we are close 


G592 Their city's 
walls are 


and defenders 
of their own 
always have 

like the raven 
against the 

6604 falcon - 



6616 But don't 

doubt that we 
shall beat the 

834 Agamemnon s Speech. The Greeks are sure to win. [BK. n 

" We shall 
kill all the 

But don't let 
Pride stop 
your follow- 
ing Reason. 

Recollect how 
we indis- 
creetly re- 
fused to give 
up Hesione. 

If we'd 
handed her 

plunder of 
the Temple 
in Cytherea 
would have 
been saved, 

Pleinly distroie, al-pou^ pat it be strong, 

And pei & alle pat ben hem among 6620 

Schal finally consumpt[e] be with deth, 

)?oru3 Grekis swerde jelden vp pe breth. 

But pe cause, we't/i-outeii any drede, 

Why I seye pus, is pat 36 take hede, 6624 

For any pride or pres'umpcioiw, 

To aduerte in joure discrecioun 

So prudently, pat rescue in pis n'ede 

For any hast may oure bridel lede, 6628 

And so ordeyn, or we heii[ne]s wende, 

)3at laude & pris aftir in pe ende 

May be reported, as I haue deuised : 

For many man pat hath nat ben avised, 6632 

In his pursut, for lak of prouidence 

To sen to-forn in his aduertence 

What schulde falie, to deth it hap him brou^t : 

Swiche wilful hast wer good to be po^t 6636 

Of vs a-forn be examynacioiw, 

And wel deduct* by reuoluciou?^ 

Of pingkyng ofte, pat we nat repente. 

And first remembrip how pat Priam sente 6640 

To vs but late only for Exyou?^, 

Jpat is }it holde of kyng Thelamou?z, 

Whiche was of vs, w^t/i-oute avisement, 

Yndiscretly denyed by assent ; 6644 

Whiche hath to vs be non avauwtage, 

But grouwde & rote of ful gret damage. 

For ^if pat we, poru^ wys purviatmce, 

Of hir had maked delyuerau^ce, 6648 

])Q harmys grete had[de] ben eschewed, 

}3at aftir wern of Parys so p?/rsewed [leaf 58 d] 

In the temple of Cytherea, 

jpat bilded is be-side Cirrea 6652 

)3e tresour gret, also, pat he hadde, 

And lowellis pat he wip hym ladde 

6619. al->ou3] al be A, D 2, D 1 bat] om. A. 
6622. ^elden] golden D 1. 6624. is] om. A. 
6631. I] 30 D 1. 6635. him] hem A, D 2, hew D 1. 
6638. deduct] decut C, decute D 1, deceit D 2. 
6643, 44 are omitted in D 2. 6645. non] vn D 1. 

BK. n] Agamemnon advises that Paris be askt to return Helen. 335 

pene to Troie, and pe gret riches, 
pe slau^tre of men, and pe heuynes 
pat jit is made for pe quene Eleync 
Jjoruj-oute Grece, & pe gretfe] peyne 
Of Menelay al had ben vnwroujt 
3if we had[de] seyn pis in oure Jxnijt 
Wisely aforn, and Exyou??. restored, 
pan had nat pe harmys be so morid 
On vs echon, in verray sothfastnes, 
Nor spent oure labour so in ydelnes, 
Tresour nor good wasted so in veyn, 
Nor come so fer for to fecche ageyn 
pe quene Eleyne, with costis importable, 
Wit/i-oute harmys, now in-eschuable : 
And for al pis, }it ne wite we, 
Wheper to loye or aduersite 
pe ping schal turne pat we be aboute, 
Sith ofte sithe dependent & in doute 
Is fatal ping, vnsiker & viistable, 
And fro pe gywnyng ofte variable 
pe ende is seyn : Fortune can transmewe 
Hir gery cours ; & perfore, to eschewe 
pe harmys likly possible [for] to falle, 
My conseil is, here among ^ow alle, 
Yp-on trauail traueil to eschewe, 
In pis mater or we ferper swe, 
To Priamws, with-outeii any more, 
To sende first ageyw [for] to restore 
pe quene Eleyne, as rijt & resou?z is, 
And oper harmys don eke be Parys, 
Aftir his trespas & offenciourc 
lustly to make restituciouw. 
pan may we alle in worschip & honour 
Retournera ho??i, wip-oute more labour, 
3if pei assent to don as we require ; 
And oure axyng }if hem list nat here, 
But folily, of her wilf nines 

ami the 








ut (Jivek.s 
would not 
have taken 
place ; 

and we 
have wasted 
and goods 
for Helen. 

And as 
Fortune is 

I think we 
should first 
send to 
Priam to 
return us 

6684 and make 
for the 
wrongs done 
us by Paris. 


6655. pene] Thens D 2. 6669. ncio IT A. 
6682. for] om. D 1. 6687. we] om. D 1. 

336 On Agamemnon's advice, Ulysses & Diomede are to go to Troy. 

' If Priam 
refuses us, 

out' right will 
fight for us, 

and we shall 
be held free 
from blame, 

and excused 
if we slay all 

man and 

But first let 
us send our 

This is 
agreed to; 

and Ulysses 
and Diomede 
are chosen to 
go to Troy. 

Refusen it, )>an oure worbines 
Is double assured on a siker grouwde, 
By iust[e] title Troyens to confourcde. 
Wi)> Jmiges two we sclial be^ vnder-pijt : 
First oure power, borne vp with our ri^t, 
Schal for vs fi^t our qwarel to dareyne, 
In balauwce to weye atwixe vs tweyne 
To fyn J>at we schal be more excusid ; 
For }>ei to-forn han wilfully refusid 
Oure iust proferes made to hem a-fore ; 
And we schal be poru} f>e world, ber-fore, 
With-oute spot of trespace or of blame, 
Of mysreport in hyndring of our name, 
Wher bei of foly schal y-noted be, 
Of wilful wodnes, pleinly, wher bat we 
Schal stond[e] f re oure power for to vse ; 
And euery man schal vs wel excuse, 
)?ou3 bat we doon execuciou^ 
Be takyng vengauwce for her offenciou^ 
Of man and childe, of eche sect and age, 
ftat schal of deth holde be passage, 
And be be swerd, 'with-oute?i mercy, pace, 
Oon and ober, per is no better grace. 
But ^it to-forn, I conseil takeb hede 
)?at 36 to hem al[le] mesour bede : 
|?is hold I best and most sikirnes ; 
And werketh now be good avisenes 
Among ^our silf, and no lenger tarie." 
To whiche conseil some wern contrarie 
And variaiwt to Jjis oppiniouw, 
Saue pei pat wer of moste discreciouw 
Assentid ben pleinly to Jris ende, 
And chosen han to Priam for to sende 
Amongis hem thenbassiat to spede, 
Wyse Vlixes & worj)i Dyamede. 
J)e whiche anon gan hem redy make, 

[leaf 59 a] 










6696. ri3t] mi3t D 1. 6698. atwixe] be twixe D 1. 

6704. Of] Or A mysreport] my report D 1. 6715. new IT A. 

6720. To] Of D 1. 6721. his] his A, D 1. 

6723. >is] his A. 6725. Amongis] Amonge-D 1. 

BK. ll] Ulysses and Diomede reach Troy, and admire it. 337 

In bnj?lit 

anil Dionmle 
enter Troy 

And schop hem furfe and her weie take 6728 

Toward Troye, as any lync ri^t, 

Whan J>e sone schon ful schene & bri$t, 

Holdyng j?e cours of his fyry spere 

In mydday arke, wonder bri^t & clere, 6732 

And gilt eche hil, vale, pleyn, & rochc 

With his bemys, whan J>ei did aproclu; 

To Jje wallis & gatis of Jje towi. 

And in J?ei goon wit/t-oute noyse or sown, 6736 

Ful wel be-seyn, & in her port hem had do 

Ri^t manfully; and J>e wey hem laddr 

To J?e paleis, street as any lyne 

Hem nedeth nat a-side to decline, 6740 

But in-to a courte large, wyde, & sqware. 

And J>ei ful knyjtly for no wy$t wolde spare 

Vn-to theffect manly to procede 

To don her charge, with-oute fere or drede ; 6744 

For fe entre was to hem not refusid : unhinderd, 

For J?o dayes parauwter was nat vsid 

To* haue [no] conduit for embassatrie ; 

\)Q custom was to no man to denye, [leaf 59 &] 6748 

As I suppose, entre nor passage, 

3if it so wer he come for massage. 

Howe wyse Vlixes and Dyomede enter de Ryale Ylion, 
of the which they marvelde whe?* the byhelde ]>e 
beldynge. 1 

And in )>is court, bilt so rially, 

Whan fei come, })ei merveil ful 

)5e rial si^t of so huge strengjje, 

So wel co[m]plete hope in brede 

For j?ei nat had in her lif to-fore 

Seyn noon so fayr ; and ^it ]>ei wondre more 6756 

In-to J?e paleis as ]?ei to-gidre goon, The 

Jpat pauyd was al of lasper stoon 

6741. in-to] to A -a] om. D 2, t>e D 1. 

6746. misplaced at bottom of column A payau?iter] om. D 2. 

6747. To] Noon to C. 

6752. ful] om. D 1. 6754. lengpe] in leng)>e C. 
6757. >e] om. A, D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 59 a. 

6752 and wonder 
at its 


338 Ulysses and Diomede see a wondrous Tree in Troy. [BK. n 

and see a 

as to which 
they can't 
whether it 
was made by 
magic or 

for its trunk 
was pure 

12 cubits 

and its leaves 
in pairs, 

one gold, the 
other silver. 

Of a tree pat amyddes stood, 

On whiche to loke he?ft po$t it dide hem good, 6760 

Musing wher it wer artificial, 

Erect or set by magik natural, 

Or by engyne of werkmen corious, 

]?oru3 sotil craftis supersticious, 6764 

Or oper werke of nygromaiwcye, 

Or profond castyng of philosophic 

Be apparence or illusions, 

Ouper by craft of incantacioutt : 6768 

Vp & douw pei casten in her mynde, 

Out by* resouw $if pei koude fynde 

Kote & gronde of pis wondir wirke ; 

But pe troupe was to hem so dirke, 6772 

J)at in her wit, pou$ pei longe trace, 

}3e pryvite pei can nat oute compasse, 

To conseyue how it was possible. 

For to pe eye as it was visible, 6776 

In verray soth, w^t/i-outerc any fable, 

To mawnys hond so it was palpable ; 

Of whiche pe stok, of Guydo as is* tolde, 

In sothfastnes was of purid gold, 6780 

Whiche schon as bri^t as pe sonier sonne 

To enlumyne pinges pat wer donne ; 

And pe body as a mast was ri^t, 

Proporcioned most goodly to pe si}t, 6784 

Substancial, & of huge* strengpe ; 

And xii cubites pe body was of lengpe ; 

And pe crop, imwde & large of brede ; 

And in compas gan so florische & sprede, 6788 

J?at al pe pleyn aboute envirou?*, 

With pe bowis was schadowed vp & dou. 

J3e riche braunchis and pe levis faire, 

Tweyne & tweyne loyned as a payre 6792 

Oon of gold, anoper of siluer schene, 

6768. of] Or A. 6770. by] of C. 

6778. maraiys] man hys D 2. 

6779. is] it is C, A. 

6785. huge] an huge C. 6786. xii] twelve A. 
6788. so] to D 1. 6790. was] were D 1. 
6793. 2nd of] om. A, D 2. 

BK. n] Ulysses and Diomede ruddy go into Priam's presence. 339 

And meynt among w/t7* stonys whit & g?'ene, 

Some rede and some saphirhewed. 

And euery day fe blomys wer renewed ; 6796 

And )>e blosmys, -with many sondri swt; [leaf 59 c] 

For stonys ynde it bare in stede of frut, 

As seith Guydo I can no fer]>er telle. 

Howe Vlixes and Diomede, withoute dewe reverence 
pwposed fere Embassayte in pe presence of 
Priamw*. And here ye shule se J>e birthe of 
Eneas, and howe Agameno?m sent Achyle, and 
Thelefus to the Ille of Messay for an eyede of 
vitaile. 1 

And J?e Grekis \vil no lenger dwelle, 6800 

But hilde her wey be many sondri went 

To parforme J>e fyne of her entent, 

Til )>ei atteyne )>e chambowr principal, 

Wher Priamws in his se royal, 6804 

Like his estat, in ful kny^tly wyse 

Saat, [and] aboute, ful prudent & ful wyse, 

His lordis alle in setis hym be-syde 

Whan pe Grekis, surquedous of pride, 6808 

Wit/i sterne chere & fro ward couwtenauwce, 

As J>ei fat hadde litel remembraunce 

Of gentilles nor of curtesye 

For, as Guydo dotli pleynly specefye, 6812 

Entryng in J?ei taken ban her place 

In thoposyt of J>e kynges face, 

And sette hem doim, wit/j-oute more sermoutt, 

Any obeiyng or salutaciouw, 6816 

Worschip, honour, or any reuerence 

Done to fe kyng, for al his excellence, 

In preiudyce of al gentilles. 

And fan anon Vlixes gan expres 6820 

Cause of her comyng to kyng PrianiMS, 

"W7t//i-oute abood seiyng euene fus, 

Not* forberyng presence of }>e kyng : 

6795. Some] And sowrae D 1. 6801. hilde] holde A. 
6809. chere] om. D 1. 6813. her] the A, 6823. Not] Nor C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 59 c (misplaced after line 6823). 

This tree 
bore precious 
ol fruit. 


find Priam 

and his lords, 
and proudly 

sit down 

without any 
to him. 

They then 
tell him why 
they've come. 

340 Ulysses demands Helen, and compensation for wrongs. [BK. II 

" Don't be 
at our dis- 
courtesy : 

it is due to 
our hate of 

has sent us 
for Helen, 

to be restored 
to Menelaus, 

and for com- 
pensation for 

Paris's pilfer- 
ing and 

" Merueille nat nor haue no wondring, 6824 

J3ou$ we to pe do non honour dew, 

In oure coinyng pe for to salue, 

Sith it ne longeth, in so]), as pinkep me, 

Wher rancour is & hertly enmyte 6828 

Of dedly hate, with* salutaciou??s, 

Or wip feyned fals affecciouws 

For to schewe, wher hertis ben a-fire : 

For naturelly no man schal desyre 6832 

Of his enmye pe helthe nor welfare. 

And platly now me list nat for to spare 

Schortly to schewe pe fyn of our entent, 

Liche as we haue in co?mnau?idement 6836 

III oure message from Agauienourc, 

])Q noble kyng, most worpi of renourc, 

Whiche vs hath sent, per is no more to seyn, 

Now vn-to pe for pe quene Eleyne, 6840 

])at was rauissched oute of Grekis* lond, 

And brout to Troye be force of my^ti hond, 

Ageynes* ri3t, and by violence. 

Wherfore, schortly, w/t/i-out more offence, 6844 

"We iustly axe, wit/i-out mere demau?ide, 

jpat pou anon ri^tfully comaurade peaf59rf] 

To Menelay $ai sche be sent ageyn ; 

And wz't/i al pis, we axe nat in veyn 6848 

]3at pou make restituciou^ 

Of wrongis don in pat regioura, 

Of pilfres grete, slau^tre, & robbery e, 

By Paris don of wilful tyrannye, 6852 

Whiche is pi sone, and by pe sustenyd, 

And in his errour wrongfully mayntenyd. 

Wherfore, come of and fully condescende, 

WM-oute grucching, pese wrongis to amende : 6856 

For so pou maist best pe goddis queine, 

Liche as pou my^t* in pi resouw deme, 

6824. new 11 A. 6825. do] ne do D 2, D 1, doon A. 

6826. comyng] honour D 2. 6829. with] swiche C, wych D 2. 

6839. to] om. D2. 

6841. was rauissched] Rauysshed is A Grekis] Grece C. 

6843. Ageynes] Ageyng C. 6845. witA-out] with D 1. 

6858. myjt] maist C. 

BK. n] Ulysses threatens Priam withruin. He answers angrily. 341 


As ri^t requeref , to werchen as f e wyse. 
For 3if so be, fat foil now dispise 
To execute fat I haue tolde fe here, 
Trust me ri$t wel, a lessouw fou schalt lere, 
Whiche fou and fine schal aftir sore rewo, 
Wzth-outc feynyng fou schalt fynde trewe, 
)3at, "but 3if foil a better ende make, 
Cruel vengauwce schal on f e be take ; 
And finally, what schulde I to fe feyne, 
J3e force of deth f is qwarel schal dareyne 
Vp-on fe and vp-on al f i blod, 
Rauwsomles outlier of gold or good. 
And questionles, reporte f is of me, 
)5at mercyles f is riche strong cite 
Schal doiui be bete and y-layd ful lowe, 
"Wai & toures also ouerthrowe. 
jjis al and som ; be now wel avised 
)?at oure axyng of f e be nat dispised, 
But wisly werke & do as I haue seid." 
And sodeinly kyng Priam^s abreide, 
Of hasty Ire he my$t[e] nat abide, 
Of f e Grekis whan he sawe f e pride, 
Jje grete outrage and p?*esumpciou?i 
Wif-oute abode or deliberacioufi, 
To Ylixes anon he gan out breke, 
And [vn-]to hym euene f us to speke : 
" I wondre gretly in myn aduertence, 
Beyng astonyed how 36 in my presence 
So vngoodly dar make f is demauttde, 
Like as 30 had power to comau??,de 
And me constreyne $our biddyng to obeye, 
And I for fere durste nat wif-seye 
No maner fing fat 33 axe?i here, 
Nor* contrarie what fat 30 requere ; 
Wher-of sothly in hert I am amevid, 
And of 30111' f retis iuwardely a-grevid, 

6860. now] not D 1. 

6865. make] take D 2 (marked with a little cross to indicate the 

6877. I] om. D 2 haue] yow A. 6878. new IT A. 
6892. Nor] Ne C. 

6860 "If you 

you'll be 
taught a 
lesson you 
will rue. 

6868 Death will 

6872 your city will 
be laid low. 

You'd better 
do what I 
6876 bid you." 






that you dare 
make such 

M if I dared 
not refuse 


342 Priam reproaches Ulysses for his demands. [BK. II 

" You pro- 
voke me to 

But I will be 

You can't 
do what you 

You actually 
ask satisfac- 
tion of me 

you who slew 
my Father, 

and carried 
off my Sister 
to disgrace ! 

And when, 
for peace 
sake, I sent 
for Hesione, 

And astonid, surly nat a lite, ['ear GO a] 

)5at 30 ar bold so me to excite, 6896 

And vilenly myn honour to prouoke 

On 3oure wordis for to ben awroke. 

But for al pis, trustep me ri^t wel, 

I wil nat passe my bouwdis neuer-a-del, 6900 

ISTor pe raper, schortly at pe ende, 

To 3our axynge in no ping condescende ; 

For considerid pe fyn of 3our entent, 

It wer nat syttyng nor comienient 6904 

A kyng to granite jour axyng, pou3 pat he 

Stood in meschef and captiuite, 

W^t/i-oute recure to outtraiwce brou^te. 

It were outrage, pleinly, to be poi^te, 6908 

To axe of hym pat 36 axe of me ! 

And sothly, 3it, I suppose nat ]>at 36 

Acornplissching may so moche availle 

As 36 han seid ; for platly 36 schal faille 6912 

Of 3our purpos, I seie, & God to-forne, 

Maugre $oure my3t, pou3 36 had it sworne : 

For $ourQ request, in euery wy3tis si3t, 

Wanteth a grond, bope of troupe & ri3t 6916 

]?at axe of me satisfacciou?z ! 

And were $ourQ silfe first occasiou?^ 

Whan 36 slowe my fader Lamedouw 

And his liges, & brenten eke his tou?z, 6920 

And many harmys, 3if fei wern [out] sou3t, 

On hym and hyse causeles 30 wrou3t, 

)pat it were longe al for to reherse 

Which day be day }?oru3 myn hert[e] pe?*se 6924 

My suster eke, callid Exyouw, 

3e ladde a-weye oute of pis region?*, 

]3e whiche is nat vn-to hir worpines 

I-tretid like, nor aftir gentillesse. 6928 

And for al J>is 36 wolde a-mendis haue 

Wrongly of me, pat whilom for to sane 

Al ping in pees & to stynte werre, 

To 3ou sente in-to Grece ferre 6932 

But] And D 1. 6920. his] >e D 2 brenten] broke D 1. 

BK. n] Priam refuses Ulysses's demands, & bids him be gone. 343 

Only to han had Exyou/i ageyn, 

Of whiche sond 30 had but disdevn, "youscomd 

A -i ii i jii and despised 

And cruelly and in vngoodly wyse ">y mes- 

My massanger 30 gonne to dispise, 6936 

}3at he vnnefe my3t eskape away 

Out of Grece 30 knowe it is no nay 

Of 3ou he had so vngoodly chere. 

And in good feith, me list nat now to here 6940 

3oure request, nor 3even audience 

To 3our axyng, for 3our gret offence ; 

For leuer I hadde, schortly, for to deye, I'd rather die 

. , /.jj than Kraut 

Ban condesceude to oust pat 20 seye : [leafeoft] 0944 your de- 

For I wil fully, for conclusiouw, 

}3at it be knowe to Agamenouw, Ten ARII- 

9 ^ memnon I d 

bat we bane leuer bis is doutfelles r athe ^ ft* 1 ; 1 

' L -I him tliau be 

Fynally his werre fan his pees, 6948 *"**&*> 
Sith 30 to me haw don so gre[t] trespace. 

And, by my troufe, in fis silf[e] place And you, 

Cruelly anon ;e schulde deye, I'dkui.'if 

you weren't 

But for JHJ offis of embassatrie 6952 d A r mbas ' 

Ageyn[e]s deth is fully ysur diffence, 

feat be so bolde, wzt/i-oute reuerence, 

In my presence so to f rete or speke 

Trust me ri3t [wel], it schuld anon be wreke ! 6956 

Wherfore, in hast, wM-out wordis mo, 

My conseil is, fat 30 ben a-go Get oat of 

Out of my si3t, and voidef fis cite ; 

For fus it stant : whiles I 3ou se, 6960 

In myn herte may entre no gladnes, 

)3e fret of Ire put me in swiche distres, 

J?at, in good feith, I may it nat sustene, tohave^ou 

So importune is fe rage and tene 6964 '" 

j?at inwardely bynt me for f e while." 

And Dyamedes f o be-gan to smyle, Diomede 

And seid anon fus vn-to fe kyng : toPriam: 

" 3if it so be bat fou of cure comyug 6968 "if you're so 

angry to see 

In fin hert hast so moche peyne two of us, 

6935. 2nd and] o-m. A in] in ful D 1 vngoodly] goodly D 2. 
6955. Jwete] trete A. 6956. wel] om. D 2-it] I D 1. 
6963. it nat] not it D 1. 6966. new 7 A. 

344 Diomede tells Priam the Greeks will slay him and his. [BK. n 

you'll be 
angry all 
your lite, 

for 100,000 
Greeks are 

whom you 
can't resist. 

You and 
yours '11 all 
die by our 

You'd better 
alter your 

Some Trojans 



but Priam 

forbids them. 

Vs to beholde now pat be but tweyne, 

And art perwitA- so inly set a-fyre, 

J)an schaltow neuere ben wa't/j-oute Ire 6972 

In al pi lif , nor deuoide of wo, 

Sipen pou hast so many cruel fo 

Of Grekis now entrid in pi lond 

An himdrid pousand almost at ]>in bond, 6976 

Ageyn wbos my^t pou maist pe nat assure 

To resiste, pleynly, nor endure, 

Consydred wel how pat pei be strong, 

As pou schalt wit, parauwter, or ou}t longe, 6980 

So manly men & so wel arrayed, 

Expert in armys, and of old assaied, 

at no diffence may ageyn hem vaille.* 

And wite eke wel, pat pou maist nat faille 6984 

Be deth of swerde of her bond to deye, 

And alle pine per is no more to seye 

)3ou3 it so be, proudly pat pou speke, 

And with pi tonge, only to be wreke, 6988 

Affermyst more pan pou maist acheue : 

Bettre it were swiche wordes leue, 

And to wys courcseil take bettre hede." 

But pan in haste age}'n pis Dyamede, 6992 

Surquedous and most ful of pride, [leafeoc] 

fter rose vp some be pe kynges syde 

"With swerdis drawe, & on hym han falle 

And al to-hew, per amonge hem alle, 6996 

Of hasty Ire brercnyng as pe* glede; 

Til Prianms gan to taken hede, 

And roos hym vp, seyng pis dissese, 

And manfully pis rage gan appese, 7000 

Hem diffendyng vp-on deth & life, 

ftat non of hem be hardy in pis strife 

J?enbassatours to harme?i or to greue :- 

" For pou^ a fool his foly wil nat leue 7004 

To presume to speke vnkownyngly, 

6974. many] many a D 1. 6982. of old] outterly D 1. 
6983. vaille] availle C. 6985. deth] cruel debe D 1. 
6992. new 11 A. 6994. vp] om. D 2, 
6995. han] wolde haw D 1. 6996. >er] him fore D 1. 
6997. be] any C. 

BK. li] Priam rebukes his Lords for attacking Diomcde. 345 

A wys man moste suffre paciently ; 
And [^0113] pat he happe doon offence 
J?oru3 foly speche, for lak of sapience, 
To a wysrnan lie longep, soth to seyn, 
To take hede or to speke a-geyn : 
For as to a fole it is* pertynent 
To schewe his foly, ri^t so convenient 
Is to ])e wyse, softly, vritfi suffrau/ice, 
In al his port to haue tolleraufice. 
For to folis longeth kyndely, 
Wit/i-oute a-vis to speke folily, 
Vndiscretly his menyng to fulfille, 
Where a wysman schal heryii & be stylle 
Til he se tyme, and haue pacience, 
And dyssymule in his aduertence 
e rage of folis pat last but a prowe : 
For be his tonge* a fole is ofte knowe ; 
And leuer I hadde, I do $ou wel assure, 
In my persone damage to endure, 
Jeanne to suffre any messanger 
In my court, of 90 w pat ben here, 
To han a wronge, ouper grete or lite 
])Q swerde of rancour may nat alwey bite, 
To do vengaiwce for a ping of nou^t. 
For ofte it falleth a wrong is \vrou3t : 
For litel excesse fohvep gret reprefe ; 
And hast is ay medlid with meschefe. 
"VVherfore, I bidde pat 30 sitte douw, 
And in no wyse, of presumpciou/?, 
Attemptep nat, in no maner wyse, 
Be signe or worde more for to dispise 
Jpembassatours from pe Grekis sent, 
But late hem frely declare?^ her entent, 
And 36 per-whiles kepe 3our lippes clos " 
And sodeinly panne Eneas aros, 
Whiche nexte pe kyng hadde pa?i his se, 
So inwardly \vith rancour fret was he, 

7011. is] was C. 7012. rijt] om. D 1. 
7018. &] or D 2. 7021. rage] large D 2. 
7022. tonge] speche C. 7040. aros] Roos A. 

Priam says 


that a fool 

cr/M rk ITlUSt SllOW 

7012 his folly 

7016 ami speak 
sillily : 


but a wise 
man must 
put up with 

7024 He'd sooner 
be hurt him- 
self than let 
a mesnenfrer 
to him suffer 
wrong ; 




mid Diomede 
must be let 
speak freely. 


[leaf 60 cl] 

346 Eneas thinks Diomede should bepunisht : he miist be off. [BK. II 

Kneas says 

a fool ought 
to be chastise! 
for his folly, 
as a warning 
to others, 

and if it was 
not for Priam 
he'd be 
avengd on 
Ulysses and 

who want a 

Diomede had 
better go 

)?at he ne my^t hym siluen nat restreyn, 

And seid[e] : "sir, so 30 nat disdeyne 7044 

Jpat I schal seyn, me semeth fat it is 

Wei a-cordyng, whan oon haf seid amys 

And reklesly spoken vn-avised, 

Of his foly fat he be chastysed, 7048 

)pat of er may exaimple by hym take, 

To be wel war swiche noise & cry* to make, 

And specially in open audience 

So toffende 30111 royal excellence ! 7052 

And sothly 3 it, I wot wel fat I rny^t 

So me gouerne, pleynly, in 3oure sijt, 

Of hastynes with-oute avisement, 

J)at I schulde by 3our co?7zmau7idement 7056 

\)e deth disserue for my gret offence. 

And trewly 3it, ne wer [for] 3oure presence, 

On f is tweyne fat han so I-spoke, 

W/t/i-oute abood I schuld anoon* be wroke : 7060 

For it wer worf i & ri3t wel sittyng, 

Whan fat a fool in presence of a kyng 

Is bolde or hardy of presumpcioiw 

To take on hym of indiserecioim 7064 

fring to reherse, concludyng in sentence 

Preiudice of 30111-6 magnificence, 

]5at he were taii3t bettre to gouerne 

His large tonge, to konne bet discerne 7068 

Whan he schal speke or whan ben in pes, 

To suffren hym to reraie out of les, 

As doth he f is fat spoken haf so large. 

Wherfor, in hast, I conseil hym & charge, 7072 

With-oute abood, or any wordis mo, 

Out of 3oure si3t anon he* be ago, 

For it is best to don as I hym rede." 

To whom anon ful proudly, Dyomede, 7076 

7043. ne my3t hym siluen nat restreyn] hym silfe ne myjt not 
refrei?ie D 1. 

7050, noise & cry] cry & noise C. 

7052. toffende] to feiide D 1. 

7056. commauftdement] rijtful iugement D 1. 

7060. I schuld anoon] anoon I schuld C. 7064. on] of D 1. 

7072. in] I D 1. 7074. he] >t he C ago] goo D 1. 

7076. new IT A proudly] prudently A. 

BK. n] Diomcde chaffs Eneas. He and Ulysses leave Troy. 347 

Wat astonyd, but wit/i a sterne loke, 

To Eneas, fat for Ire quoke, 

Answerde ageyn vritU wordis but a fewe, 

And seide : "sir, fi speclie dofe \vel schewe, 7080 

What so fou be, fat foil art ri$t wys. 

Wei is fat kyng, fat dof e be fin avys, 

Or hath f e uy$e of conseil for to be ; 

For he ne may erre in no degre 7084 

)5at art so ri^tful in f i lugement, 

Of wilfulnes, wif-oute avisement, 

To cause a lord his bouwdis for to pace. 

So wolde God, in som ofer place 7088 

jpat I my^t, be fauour of Fortune, 

Metyn wi]> f e at leiser oportune, 

Like my desire, fat canst so wel endite [leaf ci ] 

I nolde faile f i labour for to quyte, 

And fe to fanke for f i gentil chere, 

Whiche sokny^tly fou hast vs schewed* here 

Trust wel f er-to : I haue f er-of no drede ! " 

And |>o Vlixes of fis Dyomede 

Gan interrupte his wordis prudently, 

And to hym seide ful avisely 

Jjut it was best to stynten & be stille. 

"And now we know fully al fi* wille," 7100 

Qztod Vlixes ful manly to fe kyng, 

" We wil gon hens, wit/i-oute [more] tariyng, 

Out of fi si3t to Agamenourc, 

And make to hym pleyn relacioura 7104 

Of fin answere, in ordre by and by." 

And to hors f ei went sodeynly, 

And in schort tyme so hast hew on her weye, 

)5at fei be come, fer is no more to seie, 7108 

Wher f e kyng sat in his tentorie ; 

And worde by worde, as* cam to inemorie, 

J3ei reherse ]>e substance eue?y-del, 

Wher-of* fe Grekis like no fing wel, 7112 

7080. speche] woordis A. 7089. of] or D 1. 

7094. vs schewed] schewed vs C, shewed vs A vs] om. D 1. 

7096. new IF A. 7100. J>i] J C, D2, D 1, the A. 

7104. make] made A. 7110. as] as it C. 

7112. Wher-of] per of C, Wherfore D 1. 


and only 
hopes lie may 
meet him 

for hi 

/096 Ulysses bids 
Diomede be 

and tells 
Priam they'll 
report hU 
answer to 

They start 
at once. 

348 The history of Eneas, son of Anchises and Venus. [BK. n 

The (ireeks 

see that they 
must scheme 
how to beat 
the Trojans. 

But I have to 
tell you about 

He was the 
son of 
by the God- 
dess Venus. 

After Troy's 

he went to 

then to Italy 
and Rome; 

and Cesar 
was his 

Conceyving ful per was no remedie, 

As be report of pe embassatrye, 

Saf only pis : outerly precede, 

Howe pei hem schal* goueraen \n pis nede 7116 

Ageyn[es] Troyen[s], of necessite ; 

For pel wel wot it may noon oper be, 

And assentid, bope in wille and dede : 

To purveye hem fast[e] pei hem spede, 7120 

In pis story as $e schal aftir fynde. 

But or pat I make per-of mynde, 

I most a while of Eneas endyte, 

As myn auctor list of hym to write : 7124 

)2e whiche, sopely, as bokis seyn, he was, 

J)is manly Troy an, pis famztg Eneas, 

Anchises sone, of gret worp[i]nes, 

Whilom gete of Venus pe goddes, 7128 

Conquerour of many regiouw. 

Whan Troye was brou}t to destrucciouw, 

He went his weye by pe large se, 

Callid Tirene, & sailyng forpe gope he 7132 

Be many cost & many narow passage, 

Many dauwger, til in-to Cartage 

He rivid is, and pus gan to saille 

To pe conquest of pe gret Ytaille ; 7136 

And so to Rome he hath pe wey[e] take. 

Of whos of-spryng, as auctour[e]s make, 

Cam Augustus Cesar, pe* Emperour, 

]3at was whilom so noble a conquerour, [leaf 6i&] 7140 

}3at his renou??, to pis day doth schyne. 

And of Enee, themperour lustyne, 

In his boke, callid Autentikes, 

Ful pleynly writ per in pe rubrikes : 7144 

J?at aftir Cesar, so as Sesares 

Be named ^it, ri^t so Eneades, 

7114. misplaced at bottom of column and marked b D 2 ; 7113 -is 
marked a. 

711 5. precede] to precede D 1. 

7116. hem schal] schal hem C. 7119. 2nd and] and in D 1. 
7122. new IT A. 7127. sone] om. D 1. 

7129. many] many a A. 7131. large] longe D 1. 
7139. J>e] >e gret C. 7142. of] om. A. 
7144. >er] om. D 1. 

BK. n] The history of Eneas, son of Anchiscs and Venus. 340 

After Enee f e name schulde berc, 

Whiche fro Troye comen was so fere -7148 

Yn-to Ytaille. And of fis Eneas, 

As I haue tolde, Cesar discendid was Cesar wns the 

fint Emperor 

Doim lyne ri^t, iul manly fc royal, of Rome. 

|3at first in Rome be septer impmal, 7152 

Maugre her my^t,* had[de] goueniauwce, 

And of wisdani sette in gouernawjce 

Comouft Binges touch yng f e cite. 

And to procede ferber of Enee, 715G if you want 

mure about 

Holly his lyf & knyjthod by & by 

3if fat 30 list to rede Ceriously, 

}e may se al, ful awtentik of style, 

In Eneydos compiled of Virgile : 7160 

Al-be it so, fat fis noble clerke 

Was g?*aue a-forn or complet was his werk, 

As bokes olde make mencioim. 

But now acjeyn to Agamenom?, 7164 Now again of 


W/t/i-oute more, my stile I wil retourne. 

Howe Achilles enter de the Ille of Messay, where 
Teutram was kynge, whom Achilles gave his 
dethes woimde. And howe Teutram resyngnede 
his kingdam to Thelaphus, for the affeccyon that 
he had to Archules, which was his Fadere, and 
of olde tyme made him kynge of ]wt Ille. 1 

jje whiche kyng wil no more soiourne 

In jns mater delay es for to make, 

But in al hast he hath his coiwseil take 7168 Hecaiu aii 

^ . . . . . . , liis lords to 

Of his lordis, beyng ]>o p?*esent, Council. 

And swyche as wer nat, he haf afte?* sent 

For oon & alle : erlis, dukis, kynges, 

And seid[e], "sirs, amongis ofer finges 7172 

To our lourne fat be necessarie, 

My coimseil is, no longer fat we taiie, 

7149. >is] the A. 7153. my^t] myijt C. 
7154. misplaced at bottom of column A in] >e D 1. 
7169. J>o] ther A, there D 1. 7171. kynges] & kynges D 1. 
7173. our] joure D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 62 a (misplaced after line 7394). 

350 Agamemnon advises the Greeks to send to Messina for provisions. 

says the 
Greeks must 
first get 

from Mysia. 

So they chose 
and Telephus 

to go there. 

Teutliras is 
king of it. 

It's :i pleas- 
ant He, be- 
some say, 
to Sicily, 

and has a big 
ity Messana 


named from 
L. messes, 
lots of fruit, 

which victual 

But first of al to rnaken ordinauwee, 

By oon assent, with prudent purvyaunce,* 

}3at aldirfirste we schape for vitaille, 

Wat/i-oute whiche noon host may availle 

To parforme a lourne priftely. 

Wherfor I rede, here but fast[e] by, 

3if it to jow be likyng and plesaiwce, 

In-to an lie ful of habondaurcce, 

Callid Messa, J>at we sende anoon." 

And, at a worde, assentid euerychon. 

]2ei chosen han worjn Achilles 

And Thelefus, f e sone of Hercules, 

To execute pis purpos fynally, 

Wij> many worjri in her company 

I-chosen oute poru^ ]>Q hoste anoon 

Wij? Achilles to Messa for to gon. 

In whiche loud, riche and plenteuous, 

Regned a kyng, worjri and famous, 

)3at Teutran hi^t ; whiche in tranquillite, 

With-oute werre or aduersite, 

Had holde his septer & his royal sete 

In fis He, so plesaurct and so mete 

Al-be j>at some sein* ]>is litel He 

To J?e kyngdam longeth of Cecile, 

And hath his name ^ouen of plente, 

After Messane, an huge gret cite, 

Ful plenteuous, bofe on se and lond. 

}?e whiche kyngdam, as I vndirstonde, 

Is seide Messana, of Messes in latyn, 

Jjoru^ habondau?^ce of frut, corn, & wyn, 

At tharyuaille on her pleyn[e]s large, 

Wher pei ar wont [for] to stuf and charge 

Marchauwt schippes of strauwge fer centre, 

ftat J)ider saile by pe large se 

To fecche vitaille, ay fro $er to ^er, 

Fro many cost of londis fer and ner, 

[leaf 61 c] 










7176. purvyaunce] goumiamice C. 
7184. a] Oo A, D 2, oo D 1. 
7197. sein] seis C. 7202. as] was A. 
7203. Is seide] I seyd A. 

7178. host] haste D 2. 

BK. li] The Greeks land in Messina, & are fought ly Teuthras. 351 

Only beschauwge of oper marcliamzdyse. 

And eke also, as bokis can deuise, 7212 

And as Guydo [ful] pleinly telleth vs, 

}5at of a kyng, call id Messanus, 

)}is centre first of Messa toke pe name, 

j?at in his tyme was of ful gret fame, 7216 

Passyng riche and wonder plenteuous. 

But of al pis, Dares Frigius 

In his boke makep no menciou??, 

But schortly telleth, in conclusions, 7220 

How Achilles, and Thelefus also, 

To Messana ben to-gidre go 

With pre pousand of Grekis chosen oute, 

Most manly men amongis al her route. 7224 

]5e whiche as fast as pei gan to londe, 

And pe kyng gan to vndirstonde 

Of her comyng, [he] is descendid dou?& 

With alle pe worpi of his region?*, 7228 

On hors and fote, in stel armyd bri}!, 

Ageyn[e]s Grekis manfully to fi^t, 

Hem to deuoide, pleinly, }if he can. 

And sodeinly pus pe skarmus gan 7232 

Atwixe Grekis and her mortal foon, 

On ouper pa?-t pat per was many oon 

Slayn and hurt, & to pe dep y-wourcdid, 

Euere vnlikly per-of to be souwdid ; 7236 

For oper trete was noon hem betwene, 

But swerdis scharp & speris sqzme & kene : [leafoid] 

Now here, now pere, pat pei go to grorade ; 

For euery man his fo for to confounde 7240 

His labour dide & his besynes. 

And pou$ Grekis, poru^ her worpines, 

Had on her foon moche londe I-wowne, 

3it to resort after pei begonne ; 7244 

And merveil noon, be-cause prtt her foon 

7213. And] om. D 1 vs] Jms D 1. 7224. amongis] amonge D 1. 

7227. he is] and is D 1. 7230. Ageynes] A geyn D 2, D 1. 

7235. y--wouwdid] wounded D 1. 

7237. noon hem] hem noon D 1 betwene] atwene A, D 2, D 1. 

7240. his fo for to] is so sore D 1. 

7243. foon moche londe] londe \>at lay D 1. 

Quido tells us 
that Messina 
took its name 
from King 

Dares doesn't 
mention it. 

and 8000 
Greeks go to 

King Teu- 
thras and his 
men come to 
fight them. 

Many are 
slain and 
wounded : 

the struggle 
is severe. 


Achilles comes to the rescue of the Greeks. [BK. II 


Achilles sees 
the Greeks 


he forces the 
Trojans back, 

and kills all 
in his way. 

But for him 
they'd have 

been van- 

He gets up 
to King 

Hadde alwey pre in noimbre ageyn[e]s on 

For pe tyme it may noon oper be 

Til Achilles gan be-holde and se 7248 

j?e mortal sla^ter vp-on Grekis side, 

Turnyng pe bak, \vitfi wou?zdis large & wyde ; 

Of hasty rancour chaimge gan his blood, 

And for Ire furious and wood, 7252 

Whan he be-hilde his men lese her lond, 

He vritfi pe swerde pat he hilde in his hond 

Made \veie, killeth, and bare dourc ; 

And in pe felde like a ferse lyourc 7256 

He ferde* in soth, whan his men wer slaw, 

Makyng his foon bakward to witMraw, 

And his Grekis so manly recouwforte, 

Jpat maugre hern he made hew to resorte. 7260 

And who pat euere in his weye stood, 

Wet/i-oute mercy he kyllep in his mood, 

Jpat geynep nat in his cruelte ; 

For dout[e]les, nadde his manhod be, 7264 

His passyng renouw and his worpines, 

His kny^thod eke, and his hi^e prowes, 

J5e Grekis had pat clay finally 

Venquissched be, wi't/i-oute remedie ; 7268 

But poru^ his helpe pei rccuren al : 

For Achilles, sturdy as a wal, 

Gan cerche scheltrowis & her reragis brake, 

To-fore whos face his fomen go to wrake. 7272 

And aldirlast, whan he gan espie 

Teutran pe kyiig, poru$ his chiualrie 

Diffende hym silf lik a worpi kny^t, 

And as a lioura bern hym in his fi3t, 7276 

Now her, now per, Grekis so oppresse 

ftis Achilles, of cruel hardynesse, 

Nolde cesse in his pursewyng 

J)oru3 pe wardis, til he cam to pe kyng, 7280 

Of manly force, stout, & ful of pride, 

7248. gan be-holde] began to holde D 1. 7250. &] oni. D 1. 
7254. ]>at] which A, whiche D 2, wiche D 1 his] om. t) 1. 
7257. ferde] firde C. 7263. nat] nou3t D 1. 
7271. her] om. D 1. 

BK.II] Achilles is aloiitto slay K.Teuthras. Telephusbcgshislifc. 353 

Makyng a weye rouwde on eue?y syde, 

Ageyn whos my^t no J>ing nry^t availe. Achilles 

And of Teutran first fe aventaile 7284 

He raced haj>e, & rent J>e mail a-sonder, 

And al to-hewe fat it was a wonder 

To considre fat day his cruelte. [leaf 62 o] 

And after ]?at, al to-broke hath he 7288 Teutons'* 

His basenet, with many cruel wounde, 

Of verray my^t smet j>e kyng to groiwde ; 

And in al haste he maked hath no let, 

Of his hed to rende his basenet, 7292 tears it off, 

And merciles for to do vengaunce, 

His arme he gan on heiste* to avaiuzce, and raises his 

, , arm l *> 'ay 

Fully in pwpos pat he schal be ded, Wm, 

And rauwsomles gan amyn at his hed 7296 

With blody swerde, & dispitous herte, 

Castyng pleinly he schal hyra nat asterte 

In his Ire he was so furious. 

But of fortune it be-fil ri$t pus, 7300 

J3at Thelephus, be aongfe], lusty kny^t, 


Casuely per-of had a sy^t, 

And of Achille fe maner ful* behilde : 

Jje stroke anoon he bare vp witfi his schelde, 7304 stroke on his 


And gan Achilles mekely for to preye 

To han pite so to done hym deye, 

Sith he lay wonded almost to pe deth, 

Brou^t to J>e point to ^eldera vp pe breth, 7308 

Beseching hym, for his benignite, and prays 


Of manly roupe & kny^tly eke pite, 

Wtt^-drawe his bond & to don hym grace, 

And graurct hym lyf for a litel space : 7312 to spare Teu- 

" Sith euery kny^t schulde of gentilles 

His enmy spare, whan he is in distres, 

To outtrauTice brou3t, & specialy whan he 

7287. J>at] is that A. 

7294. he gan on hei3te] on heijt he gan C hei^te] high D 1. 

7295. schal] shuld A. 7297. &] & a D 2, D 1. 
7298. schal] sholde D 1. 

7301. >e 3onge lusty kny$t] of hap as he bihelde D 1. 

7302. 3 are omitted in D 1. 

7303. Achille] }>at D 2 ful] fully C. 


354 Achilles at first refuses to spare King Teuthras. [BK. II 

Achilles says 

made need- 
less war on 
the Greeks, 

and is fallen 
into the ditch 
he dug for 

who never 
harmd him. 

A<jain begs 
Achilles to] 

have mercy 
on Teuthras, 

who is at 
the point of 

Mercy requirip of himble volunte." 7316 

To whom Achille, feruent in his Ire, 

As he pat was of rancour set a-fyre, 

Answerde ageyn : "what list pe so to praye 

For hym fat nolde of pride our wyl obeye,* 7320 

But folily, of vngoodlyhede, 

Gan a werre, where as was no nede, 

Of disdeyn and indignaciouw, 

Havynge a trust of presumpcwn 7324 

In his manhod, whiche my^t him nat avaylle 

Ageyn [e]s Grekis to hold en a bataille, 

As it is preuid pleynly in pe ende, 

Al oper-wyse schortly pan he wende. 7328 

For in pe dyche iustly* he is falle, 

Whiche he made of malis for* vs alle, 

Wher we of wil nor entencioura 

}af vn-to hym noon occasions, 7332 

Vp-on no syde, platly, fer nor ner, 

Nor mynystrede to hym no mater, 

Nor to his londe mente no damage 

But hym silfe, ground e of al pis rage [leaf 62 6] 7336 

W^tft-oute offence don to hym of vs." 

And ef te ageyn ^onge Thelephus 

Humblely requerid of Achille, 

Of kny^tly rou^pe his axyng to fulfille, 7340 

And to han mercy on hym in pis caas. 

" For with my fader pis kyng whilom was," 

Quod Thelefus, " be bond confederat, 

Whiche lithe now here al disconsolat, 7344 

Exspectauwt only, vritft a dedly face, 

Vp-on pe hour whan his gost schal pace, 

J5oru$-girt, alias ! vrith many mortal wouwde ; 

And for cause I haue in hym fourade 7348 

A-fore pis tyme ful gret kyndenes - 

For of rnanhod and of gentilles, 

In pe bouwdis of his regiou?& 

7320. of pride our wyl obeye] oure pride to daye C. 

7329. iustly] schortly C. 7330. of mails for] for malis 

7336. >is] his D 2. 

7342. ]>is kyng whilom] whilom )>is kyng D 1. 

7347. alias] oonly D 1. 


BK. II] Achilles gives up the dying K. Teuthras to Telephus. 355 

He vn-to me, poru^ his hi^e renoura, 7352 

Whilom as I casuely gan ride, King Ten- 

thras was o 

Schewed in sope, vp-on eue?y side, kindtoTeie- 

Ful ryal chere aud gret humanyte, 

ftat I am boumle of verray du[e]te 7356 that he was 

To remembre & to han in mynde ; lead for 

And dout[e]les, ellis I were vnkynde, 

Which after wolde my name foule atwite, 

And for fat I parcel wolde hym quyte, 7360 

I 3011 beseche of respit of his lif." 

And Achilles, wit/i-outen any stryf, Aciiiiies 

Delyuered hath, pe story telleth pus, Teuthras to 

Teutran frely vn-to Thelefus, 7364 

Wheper hym list to sauera or to spille. 

And whan fat he hadde hym at his wille, 

He considrede by hys wouwdis grene, 

Jpat were so mortal, sothly, & so kene, 7368 

Of verray nede pat he muste dye 

J)er was no geyn nor no remedye, 

Nor availle may no medycyne. 

})e hour whan Phebws westward garc declyne, 7372 

And pe bataille brou^t was to an ende, 

While pe Grekis to her schippes wende, 

fee mene whyle,* Teutran for pe peyne and Teuthras, 

Of his wouwdis gan more & more compleyne, 7376 wounded, 

Wit/i-oute stau?zche so pitously pei blede : 

His officeris fast[e] gan hem spede, 

In a liter, inaked f ul ryal, is borne in 

a litter to 

Toward his paleis & dongouw principal 7380 

To carien hym sof te and esely ; 

And at his prayer, ful benignely, 

Thelefus and also Achilles 

Conveied hym amongis al pe pres, 7384 

Til he was broujt per as hi??i list to be ; [leaf 62 c] 

And pei reseyuid, like to his degre, 

[Ful] Ryally pe kyng, ay languysschinge, 

7360. I parcel] in parcel I D 1. 

7375. mene] owi. D 1 whyle] tyme C. 7378. gan] han D 1. 

7385. as] om. D 1. 7386. his] her A, D 2, D 1. 

7387. Ryally] pitously D 1 ay] om. A. 

356 The Death-led speech ofK. Teuthras. Hercules helpt him. [BK. n 

The dying 
King Teu- 

sends for 
Achilles and 

and tells 
them he 

must die 

without an 

leaving king- 
less his land 
which he 
won by 

the help of 

As he fat drowe toward his endynge, 7388 

And my3t[e] nat lenger drawe alengfe 

His woful lif, so weyk was [he] of strengpe, 

Jjat his spirit muste algatis wende. 

And he in haste made for to sende 7392 

For Achilles and for Thelefus ; 

And whan J>ei cam, lie seide [vn-]to hem pus : 

"Sirs," quod he, "ful worpi of degre, 

Helpe and honour wit/i longe prospe?*ite 7396 

Be vn-to 3ow, and good auenture 

Al pe while [pat] 3 our lif may dure * ; 

And specially to pe, o Thelephus, 

Whiche hast to me ben so gracious, 7400 

Of gentilles, in my peynes stronge, 

Only of grace my lif for to prolonge 

But deth, alias ! I may nat no we eschewe, 

Nor his swerde on no parte remewe, 7404 

Wzt/i-oute recur knyt in bitter bondis, 

Yp-on pe brinke falle of Fatis hondis, 

Of my lif al fully in dispeir, 

Whiche of my body neuer my3t haue eyr 7408 

After my day, by successions, 

To gouerne pis litel region?^ 

Whiche likepy] is to stonde dissolat 

Of gouernaunce, and disconsolat, 7412 

Whiche pat I wan vriih f ul gret trauaille ; 

And to pis day, Mvikh werre and bataille, 

I haue it kept, as 30 wel knowe echon, 

And defendid from alle maner foon, 7416 

Wt't/i-oute loos, 3eris her-to-forne. 

But recurles of 3ore I hadde it lorne, 

Ne had I had helpe and eke socour 

Of Hercules, Ipe* grete conquerour, 7420 

ftat whilom was fader of Thelephus 

So strong, so my3ti, and so chiualrous 

Be whos manhod & whos hardynes, 

7389. nat] no A, D 1. 7395. ful] om. D 1. 
7398. dure] endure C. 7399. o] mn. D 1. 
7404. on] in D 1. 7406. Fatis] faty A. 
7407. al] and D 1. 7420. >e] hat C. 

BK. II] 

Of the Pillars of Hercules. 


Be his kny^thod and gret worf hies, 

Whiche day be day is newe of memorie, 

Of al my foon I liadde f e victorie : 

He daimted hem and made hem so a-ferde, 

Only by rigour of his scharp[e] swerde, 

J?at finally, f oru^ his manlihede 

He made me f is regne to possede, 

Maugre her my^t, in pes and in quiete, 

With septre and crowne in my royal sete, 

feat noon of hem, til fat he was ded, 

Hardy was to lyften vp f e hed 

Ageyn[e]s me, to speke in wordis fewe." 

Wher-by I may fully declare and schewe 

By euydence, fat f is litel He 

Is pertynent and longeth to Secile, 

"Wher Hercules for a memorial 

Sette pilers in his conquest royal, 

Whan he had ride and go so fere, 

And of Columpna $it f e name bere, 

After hym callid Herculea 

)3ou3 so?ttme seyn f ei hote Herracula, 

Jje name chauwgyng by corrupciouw. 

j?e whiche londe was whilom mansions 

To fe peple of wilde Barbarie ; 

)3e whiche kyngdam for to magnifie, 

Frederik, sothly, f e secimde, 

Of gold and good passyngly habourade, 

Jjat chose was to ben Emperour 

Of Rome ioun, and my3ti gouernour, 

And whilom eke was kyng of Secile 

Whiche made reise in fat large He 

A my^ti tour, hi3e and f ikke of wal, 

As seyth Guydo, for a memorial 

To putte his name longe in remembrauwce ; 

And for f e soil was to his plesau?ice, 

With floures fresche of many sondry hewe, 

In somme bokis fe lond was namyd newe 

7426. >e] om. D 1. 7442. of] om. A. 
7454. large] litel D 1. 7458. for] was D 1. 
7459. of] with D 1. 

7424 Hercules 



to win bis 


[leaf 62 cf) 



belongs to 

where Her- 

^ cules set up 

7440 bis Pillars, 

7444 cald Hereulit 


Sicily was 
once occupied 
by the people 
of Barbary, 

and Frede- 
rick II. 

who became 
-.-o Emperor of 
7452 Rome, 

and was also 
King of this 

once built a 

high tower 

there to be 

7456 rememberd 


King Teu- 
thras, on his 

tells Telephus 

358 King Teuthras, dying, appoints Telephus his Heir. [BK. n 

And I-called, as I vndirstonde, 

For his fairnes, "fe lusty newe lond." 

But Teutran ay lyggyng in his peyne, 

As he fat fast[e] gan f e hour atteyne 

Of cruel deth, a-forn his lordis alle 

He made in haste Thelefus to calle 

To his presence, and wit/4 a mortal chere 

Seide openly, fat alle my3ten here : 

" My sone," quod, he, " now fat I schal passe 

Out of f is worlde for geyn[e] may no g?-ace 

My lif to saue, f oru3 no ma?mys myjt 

But for be-cause of equite and ri3t 

I am compelled, iustly in sentence, 

To declare clerly my conscience 

To-fore my deth, heryng al f is pres 

Jjis to seyn, f i fader Hercules, 

J)e wyse worf i, and fat kny3tly man, 

Whilom f is lond f oru3 his conquest wan ; 

J)e whiche only of his goodlyhede, 

As he fat was fe stok of manly hede, 

Toke vn-to me, by co?7?myssiou?i, 

Jpe gouernauttce of f is regiou?z, 

Of his fre wille, with hool f e regally e, 

And nolde hym silf f e crowne occupie ; 

And sothly, 3it his ri3t was nat f e lasse. 

For loue of whom, now fat I schal passe, 

With al thentent of my laste wil, 

To f e I grauwte, as it is rijt and skil, 

As verray eyer iustly to succede, 

Longe in honour f er f i lif to lede, 

Makynge here a protestaciouw, 

J3at in ful tokene of confirmaciouw 

J3is is f e wil, finally, of myn herte, 

Fro f e whiche no man may diuerte 

Vp-on no side, nor outterly declyne. 

For first my wil and discent of lyne 

that as his 



gave him the 
land he rules. 

[leaf 63 a] 

he, Teuthras, 
his heir, 

to succeed 










7475. his] be D 1. 

7484] To me $af wiche no ma?i may denye D 1. 

7490. >er] ther in A, ber in D 2. 

7493. finally] fynal A, D2. . 

BK. n] King Teuthras dies, and is royally buried. 359 

Ben to-gidro combyned now in oon, 

Fro which e Jung no mortal marc may gon : 

For J>is desire, last of my laugour, 

|3at foil playnly be my successour ; 7500 

And finally, Jms* I conclude and deme, Teuthrw 

)3at vn-to J>e septre and dyademe 

Deliuered be, wij> eue/y circu?rastau?ice." 

But al his wil, for more assurauwce, 7504 

He made write in his testament, makes iiia 

Will con- 

\)Q fyn cottcludyng of his last entent. 

And after ]>at, he ful pitously 

Telephus besoujtfe] hertely, 7508 

Of manly roupe & kny^tly gentilles 

To done his deuer and his besynes, 

After his deth, liche his estat royal, 

To halwe and holde J>e feste funeral 7512 

Solempnely, and J?e exequies do. 

And sodeynly, wit/i-oute wordis mo, 

\)e kyng Teutran ^eldef vp fe gost, and then dies. 

And went his wey, I not* in-to what cost 7516 

I can nat deme of swiche mystyhede. 

And whan Parchas broken han J?e fred 

On pe rokke, and he was forfe his way, 

ban Telefus, out of marbil gray 7520 Telephus ha 

a grey marble 

Coriously a tombe made kerue, tomb made 

for him, 

\)Q dede cors per-in to conserue 

Ful richely ; and a-boue )>e graue 

An Epithaphie anoon he dide graue, 7524 

In his honour pleinly to expresse 

His kny3thod bope, and [his] worfines, 

And how his gost & he wer deuocid 

Wij> lettris riche of gold aboue enbocid 7528 

Rounde aboute wonder corious, 

On his tombe, fat seide pleinly pus : 

7497. last half illegible VI. 

7501. bus] Ms C. 7516. not] nat C in-to] to D 2, D 1. 
7518. han] hath A, ha}> D 2. 7519. On] Of D 1. 
7521. Coriously] Ceriously D 2. 

7524. misplaced at bottom of column and marked b D 2 ; 7523 is. 
marked a. 
7526. his] om. A, D 2. 

360 Telephus is crownd King. Achilles sails with supplies. [BK. II 

Howe Kenge Teutram was buryede in A riche Epetha- 
phye graven with sotele vers. 1 

The Epitaph 
on Teuthras's 

Telephus is 
crownd King. 


stores his 

with pro- 

and leaves 
Telephus as 

a help to the 

" Here lyth Teutran pe kyng, dout[e]les, 

Whilom slawe of cruel Achilles, [leaf 63 6] 7532 

)3at his septre and pe regalie 

Holy $af , whiche no man may denye, 

To Thelefus, sone of Hercules, 

Whiche in his tombe restep now in pes." 7536 

Whan pis parformyd was in euery ping, 

And Thelefus was crowned in-to kyng, 

And hi3e and low, al be on assent, 

Hadde openly in a parlement 7540 

Made feith to hym and y-don homage 

Lik to her degrees, as pei wern of age, 

And with hool hert, in al per best entent, 

Be othe assurid and be sacrament, 7544 

As trew[e] liges reseived hym for kyng, 

Jpan Achilles, wit^-oute more tariyng, 

Whan al was sette in pes & gouernau?ace, 

Wtt/i-oute gruchyng or any variaurcce, 7548 

To her schippes anoon he made carie 

Euery ping pat was necessarie 

To pe Grekis, corn, frute, and vitaille, 

Flesche or fysche, or what pat my$t availle 7552 

To hosteyng, or helpe hem in her nede 

Douw to pe see al he dide lede, 

Fully her vessel for to stuf & lade. 

And Thelefus after pis he made 7556 

Stille in pe bouwdis of his regioura 

For to abide, for pis conclusions : 

feat poruj his helpe & his dilligence, 

Besynes and discret prouidence, 7560 

Ageyn al meschef and al skarscite, 

Whan pei nede, he my^t her socow be 

Al-be pat he, liche as seith Guydo, 

7536. his] bis D 2. 7543. hool] om. D 1. 
7546. wt&-oute] with A. 

7551. and] or A, D 2. 7553. hosteyng] susteynynge D 1. 
7555, 56 are transposed in D 1. 7559. 2nd his] om. A. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 62 c. 

BK. n] Achilles sails to Tenedos, and reports to Agamemnon. 361 

With Achilles f ul fayn wolde haue go ; 
But he ahod, sothly for fe beste, 
Be bond assured fully and beheste 
In euery f iug Grekis to releue. 
And fan in haste Achilles toke his leue 
Of Thelefus, and gan anon to saille, 
Alle his schippes stuffid wif vitaille, 
Toward Grekis, as made is menciouw ; 
And in schort tyme he at Tenedoura 
Aryued is, and taken hath f e grou/zde 
With alle his kny^tis, bofe heil & sowzde. 
And aftir f is, to Agamenouri 
He made first ful relaciou?* 
Of his expleyt, lik as it was falle, 
In f e presence of his lordis alle, 
Sitting envirou?i many worjri kny^t. 
And first, in Messa, he tellej) of f e fi$t, 
Whan f ei entre, & of her wolcowmyng ; 
And ceriously, he tolde eke of f e kyng 
feat Teutran hi^t, & pleinly also how 
Achilles amyd f e fclde hym slowe, 
And or his deth, how he of hool enteut 
Fully ordeyned in his testament 
Thelefus also to ben his heyr. 
Al f is he tolde, & eke of his repeire 
Vn-to f e se, and eke of Jje vitaille, 
And Thelefus, how he wil nat faille 
To senden hem al fat may hem plese 
Of whiche f ing f e Grekis in gret ese 
Were brou^t of hert, & lyke wonder wel, 
Whan Achilles had tolde hem eue?ydel, 
And gretly preise his \ii$Q prouidence, 
His manhod bofe, & his sapience, 
In his oute-beyng fat he bare hym so. 
And aftir f is Achilles is go 
To his loggyng, a litel f er be-syde, 
Where his kny3tes vp-on hym abyde, 

[leaf 63 c] 


7568 Achilles soils 

7572 to Tenedos, 

and tells 

, Agamemnon 

7o76 all he has 


and how lie 
. slew King 
7584 Teuthras, 





who left ' 
his heir, 

and he will 
help the 



7575. new 1T A. 7581. of] om. D 1. 7593. brou^t] wroujt D 2. 
7595. preise] preysed bothe A. 7596. bo]>e] om. A. 
7600] Were a while I leue hym to abide D 1. 

Now we go 
back to the 

the lords who 
came to help 
Troy against 
the Greeks. 

362 The Forces of the Kings who came to help the Trojans. [BK. II 

Myrundones, fill glad of his commyng, 
And hym reseyue as longep to a kyng, 
"Where he a-bood & restid hym a while. 
But for Guydo decline]) here his stile 7604 

From f>e Grekis to hem of Troye tou??, 
I muste also make digressions, 
Of myn anctor pe steppis for to sewe, 
Like as it is conuenient & dewe 7608 

To my mater, sith he is my guyde, 
And for a while Grekis sette a-side, 
And reherse how Dares Frigius 

Dares names In Troye boke declareth vn-to vs, 7612 

And ceriously maketh mensioim 
Of pe lordis fat cam to Troye toim 
To helpe hem manly in her diffence, 
Ageyn Grekis to make resistence 7616 

With ordinaimce of many diuerce pinges 
jper cam to hem erlis, dukis, kynges, 
As in Dares pleinly is made mynde, 
Eedeth his boke & per $e may it fynde. 7620 

Here folowyngly be rehersed the namys of ]>e kyngis 
that kame to help the Cite of Troye. 1 

And aldirfirst, I rede how fat he 

Specially speketh of kynges pre, 

Ful manly men, & also of gret fame 

Al-be pat he reherseth nat f>e name 7624 

Of her kyndawmys ^it he write)? fus : 

])Q first of hem was callid .Pandarus, 

And as I rede, Thabor pe secourade, 

fte pridde Andastrus, liche as it is foiwde ; 7628 

And as Guydo liste to specific, 

Jpre pousand kny^tes in her companye, [leaf 63 a] 

And manly men pei were euerychon.* 

And from an He, callid Coloson, 7632 

Liche as Dares liketh to expresse, 

1. Three 




with 3000 

2. From the 
He of Colo- 

7618. kynges] & kynges D 1. 7620. boke] bokes D 1. 
7628. Andastrus] Adrastus D ] . 
7631. euerychon] echon C, D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 63 a (misplaced after line 7618). 

BK. li] The Forces of the Kings who came to help the Trojans. 363 

jjer cam also, of excellent prowes, 

Kyngesfoure; of whiche pe first[e] was, 

As he writ, I-named Carias, 7636 

And pe secou?zde hi^t Ymasyus, 

Nestor pe pride, pe fourpe Amphimacug ; 

And fine p ousand worpi kny^tes alle 

Jper cam with hem manly for to falle 7640 

Vp-on pe Grekis in helping of pe toun. 

And from an He of ful gret renouw, 

Callid Lycye, cam pe kyng Glaucoura, 

And wip hym broi^t his sone Sparedouw, 7644 

A noble kny^t, in armys ful famous, 

And was allyed to kyng Priamws ; 

And pre pousand, }if I schal nat feyne, 

fter ca??i of kny^tes with pese lordis tweyne. 7648 

And from Larisse, a riche lond also, 

As I fynde, per cam kynges two ; 

And hem to quite manly, as pei ou3te, 

A pousand kny^tes pei to Troye brou3te. 7652 

And from a kyngdam named Lycaouw, 

Caphem?^, a kyng of grete renou?i, 

Brou^t vrith hym, as Dares berep witnes, 

A pousand kny^tes of gret worpines. 

And flue hundrid, Dares tellep vs, 

Cam with Hupon and wip Epedus, 

Manly kny3tes, in platis siluer bri3t. 

And with hym eke a kyng pat Remws 

Brou3t pre pousand to Troye many mile 

From Tabaria his large my3ti He ; 

And dukis foure, with al her chiualry, 

And erlis ey3te cam in his companye, 7664 

Hauyng in armys gret experience ; 

And alle pei bare, with-oute difference, 

Her men & pei, whan pei wer in pe felde, 

])Q chef of gold eueryche in his scheld, 7668 

Wherby pe kyng, & holy his meyne, 

Among hem alle knowe my3t[e] be, 

7641. 1st ]>e] om. A, D 2, D 1. 

7642. of ful gret renoura] a ful gret Regions A. 
7646. kyng] >e kyng D 1. 7651. hem] om. A. 

four kings, 

chus, with 
5000 knights. 

8. King Glau- 
con and his 
son Sarpe- 
don, from 

with 3000 

4. Two kings 
with 1000 
knights from 

5. Euphemus 
of Lyca- 
ouia (?), 

7656 with 1000 

6. Hupon 
thous ?) 
and Epedus 
with 500. 

7660 7. Remus of 
Tabaria (?) 
with 3000, 

by four 
Dukes and 
eight Earls. 

364 The Forces of the Kings who came to help the Trojans. [BK. n 

8. King Pilex 
of Thrace, 

with 1000 

and Duke 
with 100. 

9. Prete- 
missus of 
Panonia (?), 

and Stupex, 
with 1000 

(This ile is 

mostly forest, 

with mon- 
strous beasts, 

cald Satyrs, 

Fauns and 

Al-be fat of er boren eke f e same. 

And from Trace kyng Pilex, by his name 7672 

Fro f ilke Trace fat is most excellent, 

Whiche in f e plage of f e oriente 

Haueth his syyt from whiche pis * my3ti king 

A fousand kny^tes brou^t at his comyng; 7676 

And as myn auctor recordeth eke also, 

An hundrid kny^tes ben to Troye go 

Wif Alcamws, a duke eke ful famus, [leaf eta] 

J?at cam with Pilex, Guydo writeth fus, 7680 

Troyans to helpe in her grete nede. 

And fro Panonye, soth[ly] as I rede, 

Cam Pretemissus, f e noble werriour, 

Lord of fat lond, kyng and gouernour, 7684 

And duke Stupex with "him eke he* hadde, 

And of kny^tes a f ousand fat he ladde 

Toward[es] Troye from his regiouw. 

And as fe stori makef mencioura, 7688 

feat lie stant moste be wyldernes, 

And be wodis of plenteuous fiknes, 

Growyng f er-in ful many diuerse tre, 

And moste is forest fat men fere may se ; 7692 

For f ei f er bilde howses but a fewe ; 

And in fat lond ful diuersly he?tt schewe 

Many liknes, queint and monstruous, 

Bestis vnkoufe, to si3t[e] meruelous, 7696 

Stoundemele, as bi apparence, 

By illusions fals in existence, 

Wonder gastful, pleynly, for to sene : 

For diuerse goddis of fe wodis grene 7700 

Appere fere, called Satiry, 

Bycornys eke, fawny and incuby, 

)3at causen ofte men* to falle in rage ; 

And of fis lond fe peple is ful sauage, 7704 

Hardy kny^tes, furious & wood, 

And desyrous ay to scheden blood, 

7675. syyt] si^t D 1 >is] >e C. 7685. he] bei C. 

7688. be] bis D 2, om. A. 7692. bere may] may ]>erQ D 1. 

7695. liknes] lyknesses D 2. 

7703. ofte] offten A ofte men] men ofte C. 

BK. n] The Forces of the Kings who came to help the Trojaiis. 365 

Gretly expert, specialy to schete 

Wip dart & spere, perellous to mete, 

For pel cast euen as any lyne. 

And from an He fat named* was Botyne, 

In gret array to Troye pe cite, 

Like as I fynde, per cam* dukis pre : 

.,.,, ., ii-ii -I 

pe first of hem callid Anphimvs, 
bamvs pe secoume. be bridde Forcvnus, 


And as seith Dares, whiche list uat lye,* 
Twelue hiwdrid kny^tes in her co?wpanye. 
And fro Bitvnye,* as made is reme??ibrau?zce, 
\)Q riche lond, pat hath swiche habiwdaiwce 
Of spicis, goramys, frutis, corn, & wyn, 
Holsom rotis, ryndis, riche and fyn, 
Wonder vnkoupe and p?*ecious also, 
Out of whiche He per caw kynges two, 
Ful kny$tly men, in armes desyrous 
Kyng Boetes and Episterus,* 
And wit/i hem brou^t to Troye fro??i so ferre 
A pousand kny^tes arrayed for pe werre. 
And fro pe lond callid Pafogonye, 
Whiche seuerid is from al companye, 
As bokis seyn pat ben historial, 
Vnder pe plage pat is oriental 
Set so fer, as made is rehersaille, 
]3at fewe or noon to pat lond trauaille, 
For per to come is almost impossible, 
For whiche bat lond is callid Invisible, 


Be-cause only of* his remocioiw; 
And lit it is a riche regioiw, 
Of gold & siluer also, and of stonys, 
And habondaiwt of plente for pe nonys, 
It is so f ul of tresour and of good, 
And hath his syyt on pe riche flood 
I-namyd Tygre, nat fer horn Eufrates, 

[leaf 646] 7728 



7712 10. Three 

Dukes from 





7716 with 1200 
And from 


7724 n. 
trus (?), 
with 1000 
And from 

the invisible 


7736 rich in 

gold tind 



<> n the Tigris, 

7708. to] for to D 2. 7710. named] callid C. 

7712. cam] cam ]>er C. 7713. Anphimvs] Amphynyus D 2. 

7715. as] om. A lye] to lye C. 

7717. Bitvnye] Litvnye C, Betanye D 1. 

7724. Episterus] Epistrophus C, Epistorus D 2. 

7733. is] it is D 1. 7735. of] bat C. 7736. $it] om. A. 

366 The Forces of the Kings who came to help the Trojans. [BK. II 

12. Phili- 
mene, with 
1000 knights, 

with jeweld 

And from 


the land that 

borders on 


13. King Por- 

ses (Perses ?), 



and Sigamon, 

with 3000 

14. Theseus 
of Teremo 
with his son 
and 1000 

15. Two kings 

from Agresta, 
not named 
by Guido, 
with 1000 

As seith myn auctor, pat callicl is Dares 

Fro whiche lond, in stel armyd clene, 

A pousand knyjtes cam with Philymene, 7744 

fee worpi kyng, whos scheldis, out of drede, 

Wern of querboyl, in Guydo as I rede, 

With gold depeint & fret with stonys riche, 

feat in pis world I trowe wer norc liclie, 7748 

Out of }>e flodis chose be devis, 

Whiche han her cours out of paradys 

fee whiche kyng, a geauwte of stature, 

And of makyng passyng al mesure, 7752 

Strong and deliuere also, as I fynde. 

And fro pe lond pat rnarchip vp-on Ynde, 

Kyng Porses * cam with many kny^tly man ; 

And he also, pat with his hond hym wan 7756 

So moche honour, pe noble Meryon, 

And his brother callid Sygamon, 

Whiche from pe lond of her subiecciouTZ, 

Of dukis, erlis, & kny^tes of renoura, 7760 

fere pousand brou^t, alle in platis schene, 

With speris rouwde, whet ful square & kene 

From Ethiopie cam pis noble route. 

And fro pe kyngdam also, out of doute, 7764 

feat Teremo of Dares callid is, 

Cam pe kyng, ful prudent & ful wis, 

fee manly man namyd Theseus, 

And eke his sone pat hi$t Archilagus, 7768 

A pousand kny^tes in her companye ; 

And Theseus ful ny$e was of alye 

To Priamws, by discent of blood. 

And kynges tweyne, passynge riche of good, 7772 

And renomyd of knyjthod as be fame 

Al-be pat Guydo rehersip nat hir name 

Jet in pis story he makip menciourc, 

feat from Agresta, pe litel Eegiouw, 7776 

A pousand kny3tes pei brou3t vn-to Troye, [leaf 64 c] 

Grekis pride to daurcten and acoye ; 

7748. wer] was A. 7753. also] al D 1. 

7755. Porses] Proses C. 7766. 2nd ful] om. A. 

7772. of] & D 1. 7775. J>is] Ms A. 

BK. u] The Forces of the Kings who came to help the Trojans. 367 

For pei wer chose & piked for )>e nonys. 

And from pe lond be-^onde Ama^onys, 7780 

Lissynya, pe kyng Epistrophus, ie. 

So wys, so worpi, and inly vertuous, 

Passynge of couwseil and discreccioura, 

And with al pis, ful worpi of renou/i 7784 

He preved was also, in special, 

And in pe artis callid liberal 

He lernyd was, and expert a-ri3t, learned and 

Nat-w^t/istondyng he was a worpi kny^t, 7788 

In werre & pes manful & ri^t sage, 

Al-be pat he was romie fer in age 

And as pe stori makep rehersaille, 

A pousand kny^tes clad in plate & mail, 7792 withiooo 

To Troye toim, I f ynde, pat he ladde ; 

And with hym, Guydo seith, he hadde 

A wonder archer, of si3t merueilous, and a Centaur 

Of forme & schap in maner monstruous : 7796 a her * 

For lik myn auctor as I * reherse can, 

Fro pe nauele vpward he was man, man at top> 

And lower doim lik an hors y-schapid ; borse ^\ OWt 

And pilke parte pat after man was makid, 7800 

Of skyn was blak & rowe as eny bere, 

Couerid with here fro??i colde hym for to were, fou i and 

Passynge foul and horrible of si3t, uSTJf * 

Whos eyen were spark[e]ling as bri^t 7804 

As a fourneis vfith his rede leuene, 

Or pe li^tnyng pat comep* clou?^ fro heuene, 

Dredful of loke, and red as fire of chere. 

And, as I rede, he was a good archere; 7808 who shot 

And with his bo we, bope at eue & morwe, 

Vp-on Grekis he wrou^t moche sorvve, 

And gasted hem with many hidous loke, 

So sterne he was pat many of hem quoke 7812 

Whan pei hym saw, so ogly & horrible, 

And more lothsom pan it is credible, 

))at many on hath wonded to pe deth, 

7781. Lissynya] Cam D 1. 7794. hym] hym eke D 1. 
7797. I] he C. 7806. come])] cam C, come D 1. 

368 Priam's 32,000 Helpers. The Flower of Chivalry. [BK. n 

Thus in Troy 

32,000 ' 
and lords, 

beside folk 
from lesser 

Since the 
world was 
were none 
so many 

the flower of 
chivalry was 

And caused hem to ^elden vp pe breth 7816 

On Grekis side, as 30 schal after here. 

And in pis wyse assemblid ben y-fere 

Kynges, dukis, and erlis of renoura, 

From sondri londis w^t/^-Inne Troye touw, 7820 

at be gadred & come fro so ferre, 

As seith Dares, to helpe he??i in pis werre 

)3at wer in noimbre, as he maketh mynde, 

Two and pritty pousand, as I fynde, 7824 

Of worpi kny^tes and lordis of estate, 

)?at sith pe worlde was formyd & creat, [leaf 64 #\ 

Ne was nat seyn, I trowe, in o cite 

To-gidre assemblid of so hi3e degre, 7828 

Nor of kny^tes so gret a multitude. 

And 3it pis Dares, sothly to conclude, 

In his boke maketh of hem no mynde, 

#at cam to Troye out of smaller Ynde, 7832 

Nouper of hem, most fanrns of renoun, 

]3at wer w*t//. Priam born of Troye toura 

)3at finally, 3if it be trewly soi^t, 

Sipen pe hour pat pis world was wrou3t, 7836 

I dar afferme, vndir Phebus spere 

So many worpi wer nat met I-fere 

Of manly men, flouryng in lustines, 

So fresche, so 3onge, and as by liklynes, 7840 

In euery point, of schap and of array 

For to do wel, sothly* pis no nay, 

Who list considere vp-on ouper side. 

For poru3 pe world, wher men go or ride, 7844 

]?e flour of kny3thod & of worpines, 

Of chiualrie, and of hi3e prowes 

Assemblid was wat/i-outen & wit/i-Inne, 

Fully assentid a werre to be-gynne. 7848 

Wherfore, 30 listers, taketh now good hede, 

]5at 3ow delite in pis boke to rede : 

First for how litel [pat] pis werre gan, 

7820. wiU-Inne] in to D 1. 7825. kny^tes] kynges D 1. 

7834. born] y bom A of] in D 1. 

7838. I-fere] in fere D 1. 7841. 2nd of] om. A. 

7842. sothly] for sothly C >is] this is D 1. 

7849. new IT A. 7851. gan] be ga?& D 1. 

BK. n] The cause of all the Deaths to come was but a Woman. 369 
How list be cause, for whiclie so many marc 7852 And the 

cause of the 

Hath lost his lif in meschef pitously : deaths of so 

many men 

And ^it no man can be war ber-by 

Almost for 110113 1 was bis strif be-soiwe : almost 


And who* list loke, bei haw no Jung wontoe 7856 

But only deth, alias, be harde stowide ! 

So many kny3t cau$t his debes* wou?ide 

Wib-oute recure or any remedie. 

And for a woman, sif I schal nat lye, 7860 just a 

woman ! 

Gan al Jus strif, it was be more pite, 

Jpat so gret meschef or aduersite 

Of mortal slau^ter euer schulde tyde ! 

Bet had ben to haue set a-side 7864 They should 

. havedropt 

Swiche quarelhs, dere I-now amyte, their quarrel. 

To haue lete passid or be vengauTZce bite : 

For wisdam wer to cast a-forn and se 

3if swiche sclau?idris my^t eschewed be 7868 

Or J>e venym gonne for to ripe ; 

For bow[}] fat men wit/A hornys blowe & pipe 

Whan an hous is fired in his hete, But when 

Of be sparkle to late is to trete, 7872 catches fire, 

it's no good 

)3at causid al : wherfore, at be gynnyng 

\)Q remedie is put of euery Jring, first spark. 

As euery wi^t may deme in his resoiw. [leaf 65 a] 

Howe the worthy kynge Pallamydes, the secunde 
parsone of )>e Grekes, kame with thirtye shippes 
to Thenedone, in helpynge of the Grekes. And 
ho we J>e famous manful knyght, Dyomede, pro- 
vokede them to departe fro Thenadon, and to 
f Arryve in pe playne afore Troye. 1 

And whil J>e* Grekis lay at Tenedoiui, 7876 

Hem to refresche & to reste in pes, 

7852. whiche so many maw] she D 2 many] many a A. 
7856. who] who so C. 7857. But only] Onely but D 1. 
7858. many] many a A knyjt] knyjtes D 1 his] her D 1 
dejjes] dedis C. 

7865. quarellis] quarell D 2. 

7866. To haue lete passid] To lete passen D 1, Ta letyn passycl 
D2. 7871. an] the A. 

7876. j>e] J> at > e C, om. D 2, D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 64 a (misplaced after line 7848). 

370 Of King Palamedes, who joins the Greeks witli 30 Ships. [BK.II 

At Tenedos 
King Pala- 
medes joins 
the Greeks 
with 30 ships 
well mand 
and vitalld. 

He couldn't 
master with 
them at 

because he 
was ill. 

His reputa- 
tion was high, 
and the 
Greeks askt 
him to be 
on their 

J?e worpi kyng, callid Palamydes, 

Wip pritti schipes out* of Grekis lond, 

Stuffid with kny3tes, ful worpi of her hond, 7880 

J)e beste chose of al his regioim, 

Arived is vp at Tenedourc. 

Wher-of Grekis whan pei hadde a si3t, 

Reioyschyng hem, wer ri3t glad & Ii3t, 7884 

Havyng rewarde [vn-]to his worpines, 

Where pei a-forn hadde had heuynes 

For his ahsence pat he was so longe ; 

And some of hem grucchid at him strong, 7888 

For he nat kepte his moustre at Athene. 

But for to schewe pat he was al clene 

Of any spot in his conscience, 

Ful manfully, in open audience, 7892 

Liche a kny3t he gan hym silf excuse, 

Stoppyng alle po pat per-on list* to muse, 

Of his ahsence schewyng pe cause whi, 

Jjat for siknes and sodeyn maladie 7896 

He was cowstreyned his presence to w^t/idrawe. 

And for pei sawe pat siknes hap no lawe, 

Jpei hilde excused fully his absence ; 

And for he was of most reuerence, 7900 

Among Grekis to no wi3t pe secou?ide, 

And was also ful wys & eke habourcde 

Of gold and good, avise & prudent, 

)}at what-so-euere he set on his entent, 7904 

Kny3tly & wysly he wolde it wel acheue, 

And what he gan he ne wolde leue, 

Maugre his foon, in no maner wyse, 

Til pat he sawe a* fyn of his emprise, 7908 

And for he was most of oppiniou?^ 

Amongis Grekis, and reputaciouw, 

Jjei hym besou3t pat he wold[e] be 

Of her conseil, avisely to se 7912 

What wer to do in euery maner ping. 

7879. out] cam out C. 7886. hadde] om. D 1. 

7890. al] om. D 1. 

7894. >er-on list] list her on C to] om. D 1. 

7908. a] be C. 

7910. Amongis] Among D 2, D 1 and] of D 2. 

BK. n] The Greeks don't move towards Troy. 371 

And he assenteth vn-to her axyng, 

Benygnely of his gentilles. 

And Grekis ban dide her besynes 7916 The Greeks 

want to start 

To precede, wit/t-oute more delay, their siege. 

Hem to enhaste, m al pat euer pei may, 

To gywne a sege and differre it nou^t. 

And sondri weies pei cerched han & soi^t 7920 

In her wittes, how fro Tenedoiw 

})Q\ may remevve towarde Troye toun, 

From pe hauene wher her* schippes be. 

And somme pou^t most comodite, [leaf 65 6] 7924 

For most expleit, be nht priuelv The y P r p 

J to sail to 

Toward Troye, pat stod fast[e] by, Troy by 

Proudly to saille with her schipes alle. 

And somme seide, gret peril my3t[e] falle, 7928 

Toward ni3t for to take pe se, 

List wit/i dirknes pei ennoysed be 

In her passage, knowyng not pe way, 

Wher-of gret harme after falle may 7932 

And pus diuers of oppiniouw, 

Procedyng nat to no conclusions : 

For in effect her pwrpos nat ne held, 

But stille lyn, ay loggid in J?e felde, 7936 butstnutay 

Like as ]>ei had entriked be wet/i drede, 

Til on a day, worj>i * Dyomede, 

Of J?e Grekis seyng }>e cowardyse, 

Euene pus his conseil gan deuyse : 7940 

" Sirs," qwod he, " J>at be now here present, 

3if pat 30 list, alle be oon assent, 

Goodly considre, aduertyng prudently 

What I schal seyn to-fore 3ow openly, 7944 

Whiche of kny3thod han so noble a name, 

Sothly me semeth, we ou3tew ha??- gret schame, reproaches 

Whiche holde oure silfe so my3ti & so strong, 

And in pis lond soiourned han so longe 7948 

Nije al pis 3ere and dursten \n no wyse 

Remewen hens, for verray cowardyse 

7920. weies] wise D 1. 7923. her] >e C. 

7930. ennoysed] envosed D2, Ennosed A, enn'osed Dl. 

7938. wor>i] >is wor>i C. 

372 Diomede reproaches the Greeks for not attacking Troy. [BK. n 

speech : 
" We've 
given the 

time to get 
help and 
their city. 

They see 
we're afraid 
to attack 

If we had but 
gone at once, 

we should 
have had our 
will of them. 

What haue we do 1 nat ellis certeynly, 

But to oure foon gravmted folily, 7952 

Euene at her lust, space & liberte 

To make hem strong, and oportunyte 

Vs to we't//stond, pleinly, at pe hond 

And so pei wiln, 36 may wel vndirstond. 7956 

For day be day, to oure confusiouw, 

)?ay haue sou^t wayes, ful wisly vp & douw, 

To gete hem help in pe mene space, 

And hem enforced aboute in euery place, 7960 

Her roivwd cite with barreis & with palis, 

Her wallis maskued, and agey'n oure skalis 

Trustep per-on made gret ordinauwce. 

And with al pis, of oure gouernau7^ce 7964 

)3ei han espied, seyng fat for drede 

We han noon hert manly to procede 

In oure purpous to hold with hem werre ; 

And ay pe more pei se pt we differre, 7968- 

])Q more pei wiln cacchen hardynes 

Ys to resiste with al her besines. 

Also I se, and trust it verrailly, 

J)at 3if we had afore-hand manfully, 7972 

As we began, kny^tly furpe contunyd, [leaf 65 c] 

Oure lourne hadde better be fortunyd : 

3 if sodeynly with strong & my^ti honde, 

))ei vna vised, we had in-to her londe 7976- 

With-outQ abood afore pis tyme ariued, 

Of whiche [a] while we must be depriued 

And delaied, where first with victorie, 

To oure honour, with pe palme of glorie 7980 

We my^t sothly, nad[de] ben oure sloupe, 

Our wil complisched, pis pe pley?i[e] troupe : 

Wher maugre vs, or we to lond aryue, 

With strong diffence pei wil ageyn vs striue, 7984 

And put vs of or we pe stronde * 

7957. For] Fro D 1 be] to D 1. 

7961. round] large A, D 2 barreis] barrerys D 1. 

7962. wallis] wall D 2, walle D 1. 
7966. hert] hertis D 1. 

7982. >is] >is is D 1. 7984. vs] om. D 1. 
7985. of] om. D 1 stronde] lond C. 

BK. n] Diomede urges the Greeks to attack Troy at once. 373 

For ay fe more we tarie to be-gywne, 

#e more, in soth, for me list nat lye, 

"We put oure silfe echon in iupartye 7988 

What schulde I feyn or fage fro fe troupe 1 

For oure tariyng & oure coward sloufe 

Ar likly after to tourne vs to gret sorwe : 

Wherfor, erly to-morwe* by j>e morwe, 7992 

My conseil is, oure ankres vp to pulle, 

In pis mater no lenger fat we dulle, 

But to enarme oure schipes for J>o werre ; 

And at f e vprist of pe morwe sterre, 

Late vs ordeyn, with kny^tly apparaille 

Out of pis hauene with, pe wynde to saile, 

Of manful hert & lusti f resell e corage, 

Our cours holdyng & our ri^t passage 

Toward Troye, & louden horpidly, 

What-euere falle : for trustep sikerly, 

"With-ovit skarmusche we may nat ariue ; 

For pei fro Troye descende wil as blyue, 

Lik manly men, to mete vs in pe berde. 

But for al J)at, lat vs nat ben a-ferde, 

But voide drede, & manhod set a-fore, 

jjat cowardyse entre at no bore 

For to astone pe manhod of oure herte." 

And with fat word, pe Grekis gan aduerte 

J3e manly conseil of pis Diamede, 

And in effect to precede in dede 8012 

Vn-to pe point, & for no ping spare, 

And in what wyse, anoon I schal declare. 

Howe the Grekes londede in the playne afor [Troye], 
and howe the Troyans gave theme batayle at the 
stronde : in whos meteynge were slayne mony A 
worthy knygh[t] and others. 1 

7989. feyn] seyn D 1 fage] fade D 1 . 
7992. erly to-morwe] to morwe erly C. 
7994. dulle] dwelle D 1. 
8004. descende] descendid A. 

8009. to astone] tasten A oure] your A, ?our D 2. 

8010. >e]om. A, D2, Dl. 

S014. anoon I schal] I shal anon D2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 64 d. 

" The longer 
we delay, 
the more 
danger we're 

So let's weigh 

7996 at the rise of 
tin- morning 

and sail 
to Troy, 

8000 and fight 

the Trojans 
who oppose 
our landing." 



The Greeks 


The Greeks set sail for Troy. 

[BK. ii 

At dawn 
next day 

the Greeks 
go aboard, 
and sail. 

1. 100 tovverd 
ships with 
and banners. 

2. Another 
hundred with 

3. The rest of 
the navy* 

The next[e] morwe, wonderly be-tyme, 
Or Phebws vprist, lorcge or it was prime, 8016 

Whan it be-gan ful merily to dawe, 
))e Grekis host to schipward gonne* drawe 
With manly hert, fully deuoyde of drede, 
Only foru$* comfort of fis Diomede. 8020 

But* aldirfirst, anoon as fei a-wake, 
})e lordis wysely han her courcseil take [leaf 65 a} 
And concludid among hem euerychon, 
Whiche of her schipes schuld[e] formest gon, 8024 

And on f e se howe fei schulde hem guye, 
So to ariue fat no man hem espie : 
J?is was deuised at a certeyn marke. 

Jje ny$t passid, at singyng of f e larke, 8028 

Grekis be schippid wzt/i-out more tariyng, 
Bofe hi3e and low, in [f e] daw[e]nyng ; 
And first a-forne, an huwdrid schipes of tow?-, 
Stuffid wz't/i many worfi werriour, 8032 

Gan proudly saille, as f ei had in charge ; 
And f e baners, brode, bri^t, and large, 
Were splaied out vp-on euery side : 
And fei departe f e fomy wawes wyde, 8036 

J?at to si$t whelmen vp so grene. 
And next [to] hem, for werre enarmyd clene, 
A-nof er hundrid folwe fast[e] by, 

Whiche bare her sailles passiwgly proudly, 8040 

In whiche fer was ful many worfi kny^t, 
Armyd in mail & in platis bri^t. 
And after folwef hoolly her nauye, 

)?at as I trowe, swiche a companye 8044 

Of worfi kny^tes & lordis of degre 
Was neuer a-forne seyn vp-on f e se. 
And Eolus was to hem fortunat ; 
And eke Neptune made no debat 8048 

8016. was] wer D 1. 8018. gonne] gan C, A. 

8020. >oru$] with C. 8021. But] pat C. 

8024. her] om. A. 8031. a-forne] to forn A, D 2, D 1 

8035. splaied] I splayed A. 

8038. enarmyd] armed D 1. 

8040. her] om. D 2 passi?^ly] passing D 2. 

8042. 27id in] om. A. 8043. And] om. D 2. 

BK. n] The Greeks near Troy. The Trojans sally out. 375 

With wynde nor trouble among pe [sterne] wawis ; 

Jjatempre wcdir ful mery to hew dawes, 

)?at in a tyde, as pei seille ri$t, 

Of Troye toiw pei cau^t anoon a si^t, 8052 

Wher-of in hert ful glad & li^t pei ben. 

But whan Troyans first her schippes sen when the 

So proudly saille a litel fro pe stronde, toJSnw? 6 

And sawe how pei cast hem for to lond, 8056 

Jjei bood no more, but arme hem hastily they arm, 

In plate and mail & lakkis richely, 

With Irous hert and pat was don anon 

And toke her hors, & forpe in hast pei goon 8060 take horse, 

Out at pe ^atis & made no tariyng : and ride out, 

For pei nabide p?*ince, duke, nor kyng, but without 

Nor oper lord to guye hem or* gouerne, 

But hast hem forpe, so many and so 3erne, 8064 

Jporu^-oute pe felde so gret a multitude. 

Amongis whom were no folkis rude, 

But manly men, & priftily beseyn, 

So clenly armyd on pe large pleyn, 8068 

jpat whan Grekis gaw he?ra first beholde, J r h e e Oreek 

Of pe noumbre her hert[e] gan to colde : 

For per was noon so manly hem amonge, [leaf 66 a] 

So 3ong, so fresche, so hardy, nor so strong, 8072 

Of hi^e estat nor of lowe degre, 

j)at he ne was astonied for to se , astonisht, 

\)e hardy Troyans so proudly doura descewde 

To lette Grekis pat pei nat ascende, 8076 

ftat pei wist and conceive outterly and feel the y 

Jper was no mene to arive by, 

But only deth, or manly for to f^t, 

Or cowardly take hem to pe fli^t 8080 

For oper conduit pleinly noon per was 

But scharpfe] swerdis & speris in pis cas. 

Til sodeinly pe hardy ferse kyng, 

8049. sterne] om. Dl. 
8051] And hem aparaile redy to fi$te D 1. 
8054. whan] than A. 8056. how] om. Dl. 
8057. hastily] lustily D 1. 8063. or] nor C. 
8070. herte] hertes A, D 1 gan to] gonne D 1. 
8081. conduit] condite D 1. 

376 The Greeks' try at landing is at first disastrous. [BK. n 

laus's 100 
ships are 

driven ashore 

and wreckt. 

Some of his 
men are 

others slain 
by the 

The arrows 
cloud the 

Bat the 
Greeks press 

Protheselaus, whiche in his gouernyng, 8084 

Formest of alle, an huwdrid schipes ladde, 

Gan hasten hym for Ire fat he hadde, 

Talondid first, $if it wold haue be, 

Ta met* with hem so gret desire had he. 8088 

But swyche a wynde ga?^ in pe seil[e] driue 

Of his schipis, whan he schope tariue, 

J}at he vnwarly smet vp-on pe londe, 

On pe gettis and pe drye sonde, 8092 

)5at his schippes schyuered al a-sondre, 

And some dreint, to-broken here & ^ondre, 

And deuourid of pe wawy * se, 

J?at it was roupe and pite for to se 8096 

For but of harde per my^te noon* eskape. 

And whiles some wer besy for to take 

Jje drie lond, with mvd and filpe y-lade, 

Troyens of hem ful cruel slau^ter made ; 8100 

Maugre her rny^t, Grekis so constreyned, 

J?at with her blood pe wawis wer [y-]steyned, 

So mortally, fat sothly to be-holde, 

Amonge pe sonde, pale, ded, and colde 8104 

fee Grekis lyn, with wouradis fresche & grene ; 

And al pe eyr with schot of arowis kene 

I-schadwed was, pat Phebws beniys bri^t 

Vp-on pe soille was dirked of his Ii3t. 8108 

And new alwey Troyens hem assaille, 

pat to Grekis pleinly pis ryvaille 

So mortal was & so infortunat, 

So vnwelful and disconsolat, 8112 

So vndisposid poru$ infelicite, 

)3at, I trowe, neuere out of no se 

Ne cam noon host of mor harde to londe. 

But for al pat, Grekis nolde wonde, 8116 

For lyf nor deth, manly to arive. 

And so befil, of auenture as blyue, 

)5e huwdrid schipes pat next aftir sew,, 

8088. Ta met] To mete C. 8089. in] on D 1. 
8090. tariue] to ryve D 1. 8095. wawy] wawe C. 
8097. >er my^te noon] >ei myjt nat C. 
8100. made] om. D 2. 

BK. li] The Greeks effect a Landing. Prothesilaus fights well. 377 

[leaf 66 6] 

Avisely, and in tyme dew 

Ben entrid in, and hastfe] nat to faste, 

And strike sail and her ankris caste, 

For J>e werre strongly enbatailled, 

In her londyng list J>ei wern assailled. 

And wisly h'rst fei sette her arblasteris 

And her gowners & her best archeris, 

With pauiseris for to goon aforn, 

Kny^tly to londe, pou^ Troyens had sworn 

Jpe contrarie, proudly hem to lette ; 

3et for al pat, fersly vp J>ei sette. 

The Grekysshe* suhot made hem to wit/&-drawe, 

And many of hem on ]?e lond ley slawe, 

J)at maugre hem J>e stronde fei recure ; 

And swiche as myjt most ma/ifully endure 

Wer set aforn, til j?ei J>e lond han take. 

And al attonys swiche assaut J>ei make 

Vp-on Troyens ; and fo be-gan ]?e h'^t, 

Whan Prothesilaus, )>e noble worjn kny^t, 

Wonder lifly & ri^t passyng strong, 

With J?e Grekis entrid in among 

j)e hardy Troyens, & euer[y]-wher hem sou^t ; 

For he of armes merueilles on hem wrou^t 

#ilke day foru^ his worj>ines, 

Jpat many Troyan he brou^t in distresse 

Wlier he went J?ei felt[e] ful vnsofte, 

jjoruj whos manhod Grekis wern a-lofte. 

For J)ilke day, ne hadde* his kny3thood be, 

J3e Grekis hadde in gret aduersite 

Be venquisched by fatal puruyauwce, 

And fynally brou^t vn-to vttrau?zce, 

I-putte a-bak, pleinly )>is no lye. 

But what availle]) al his chiualrie, 

His worjnnes, or his fers corage 

What my^t it helpe or do avauwtage, 

Sith seuene fousand Grekis had a-do 

8120 Tlie Zndl.uu- 
dred ships 




and land 
their gunners 
and archers 

who make 
the Trojans 

8136 The Greeks 



8144 kills many 

8148 and save, 
the Greeks. 


But they ai 
only 7000 

to ioO.IMM). 

8126. gowners] guwnes D 1. 8128. had] had it D 1. 
8131. Grekysshe] Grekis C. 8134. most] &m. Dl. 
8147. ne hadde] nat C, nadde D 2. 
8151. >is] >is is D 1. 8154. do] to do D 1. 

378 The Greeks suffer greatly, but are helpt ly Archelaus t etc. [BK.II 

The few 
Greeks see 
the sea 
behind them, 

so that 
they must 
die or fight. 

They defend 



tho driven 
near the 
brink of the 

and would 
have perisht, 

but that 
and Pro- 
thofinor came 
to their aid. 

an hurcdrid pousand Troyercs & 3it mo ! 8156 

It merueil was how pei my^t endure 
In any wyse pe stronde to recure, 
Or so fewe [for] to holde a felde. 

But in hem silf o ping pei behelde, 8160 

Ful prudently, whiche pat ^aue hem hert ; 
])at pei saw pei my^tfe] nat asterte 
To eskape alyue }if pei wolde fle : 

For at her bak was no ping but pe se, 8164 

And to-forn hem an host so gret & huge 
Jpat opir way was per no refuge, 
But deye attonys or fi^t manfully. 

Wherfor pei caste & schope hem ful kny^tly, 8168 

Lik manly men, her lyues to iuparte [leaf eec] 

j^an cowardly from her foon departe, 
To lese her grou?zde & drenchyn in pe se. 
And pus as long as it wolde be, 8172 

Grekis diffende hem fer aboue her my^t, 
Al-be pat many wer kylled in pis n$t, 
)3at pe stremys of pe rede blood 

Ran on pe sonde, large as any flood, 8176 

So cruelly Troyens on hem sette 

With spere and swerde, [ful] scharpfe] grounds & whet, 
J)at roupe was and pite for to pinke, 

Til pei almost drof hem to* pe brinke, 8180 

Wher pe Grekis, in meschef & distresse, 
In gret anguysch & passyng werines 
Hem silfe diffende, rnaat & ful wery, 
Wher pei schulde haue perschid outerly, 8184 

Recurles, in soth, for euermore, 
Nadde Archelaus and worpi Prothenor 
From her schipes aryued vn-to londe, 
Of sodeyn hap with hem for to stonde. 8188 

And 3it pei had ful gret aduersite 
For to ariue, poru^ pe cruelte 
Of pe Troyens ; but 3it pe lond pei wywne. 

8159. Or] And D 1 fewe] om. D 1. 
8166. pat] And A, D 2, D 1. 8167. fi?t] dye D 1. 
8168. ful] 0m. D 1. 8169. Lik] Lyke rather as A. 
8170. pan] pat D 1. 8180. to] til C. 

BK. u] The Greeks are reinforst by Nestor, Agalus, & Athalus. 379 

And Grekis fan cruelly be-gynne .8192 The Greeks 

Ageyn her foon to stonden at diffence 

With manly force and gret violence ; 

And J>o encreseth f e blody werre newe, 

J3t al fe soil depeynt was vrith ]?e hewe, 8196 

jjat first was grene, turned in- to red, 

On eche side so many on lay ded 

Vp-on ]?e grouttde, of his lif depriued. 

But duke ISTestor is sodeynly aryued 8200 Nestor joins 

With his knyates, felle and ful Irous, with his 

* knights 

And of hert rijt malencolyous, 

With his speris, archeris oute a-syde,* and archers. 

He entrid in, sterne & ful of pride. 8204 

With swerd and axe, groiwde scharpe & kene, 

pei ran y-fere & mette vp-on }>e grene ; 

And hokid arowis alwey flen among, 

And schaf tis schiuere, to-braste, & to?-ne wrong ; 8208 

And with her tolys, stelyd & wel whet, 

\)e long[e] day f ei han to-gidre met. 

And pe sla^ter new alwey* began, Fresh 

On eue?y half, of many worjn man, 8212 follows. 

With wouwdys large, fel, & dispitous : 

For Prothenor and kyng Archelaus 

With swerdis stif among J>e re?zgis kerue, 

Whiche many Troyan made for to stmie 8216 

J)ei were ]?at day so passyngfly] Irous, 

And hem to aueuge inly desyrous, [leafeed] 

Neuer cessyng in her pursewyng. 

And to releue hem, Alagus )>e kyng 8220 ThenAgaius 

and Athalua 

I-londid is, and eke kyug Athalus, reinforce the 

Whiche on Troyens werne ful envious, 

Breraiyng of* Ire as fe fyry* glede, 

And vp-on hem, of verray olde hattrede, 8224 

With her kny3tes sodeinly be falle ; 

And in her Ire, bitterer fan galle, 

8196. hewe] newe A. 

8203. archeris] & archeris D 1 a-syde] o syde C. 

8211. new alwey] alwey new C. 

8214. Archelaus] Archilogus D 1. 

8217. passyngly] passinge D 1. 8223. of] in C fyry] fyre C. 

8226. [on] Jwwme >e D 1. 

380 Fresh Trojans attack the Greeks, whom Ulysses helps. [BK. n 

The Trojans 
are driven 

Then fresh 
knights pour 
out of Troy, 

and attack 
the Greeks, 

who are forst 
to retire. 

Ulysses then 
comes to the 

Cruelly pel her foon oppresse, 

And of assent dide her besines 8228 

Maugre hem bakward to resort 

Amyd ]>e feld, as I can report 

fter was no choys, so J>ei wer constreyned 

Of verray force, & of manhod peyned 8232 

To witMrawe, to her confusiouw. 

Here were faste devyces foimde in Armes. 1 

But fanne in hast, douw fro Trove touw, 

Of worpi kny^tes freschely armyd new, 

Viith diuises of many sondri he we, 8236 

With-out abood, schortly to conclude, 

J)er cam dourc so gret a multitude, 

Eche his armys depeint vp-on his schelde, 

]3at in her coniyng gletereth al J?e felde 8240 

Of her armwre and )>e sonne bri^t; 

And whan J>at J?ei wer entrid in-to fi^t, 

Grekis metyng, felly be envie, 

ftei set vp-on, fret wij? malencolie, 8244 

With swiche a wille, of hert[e] an[d] corage, 

Wij) swiche furie in her mortal rage, 

ftat vntacord was noon ofer mene, 

But slau^tre and deth hem to go betwene, 8248 

J)oru3 strok of axe, of dagger, & of spere, 

jjat of force coact J>e Grekis were 

To retourne bakward to j?e stronde. 

To whos rescus anoon per cam to londe 8252 

J}e kyng Ylixes with his hool navie, 

And ful kny^tly, with his chiualrie, 

Towardis Troyens enhastej? "him anoon ; 

And of on herte ]?e Grekis with him goon, 8256 

And her corage hooly ]?ei reswme, 

And gan her foon felly to conswme 

Vn-to J>e deth, her damage to revenge, 

8239. 2nd his] om. D 1. 

8247. vntacord] vnto a corde A, vnto acord D 2, vn to accorde 
D 1. 8248. and] of D 1. 8249. 2nd of] om. A. 

8250. coact] eout D 2, chek mate D 1. 
8255. him] hem A, hem D 1. 8256. him] hem D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 66 c (misplaced after line 8240). 

BK. u] Ulysses fights, lut is twice unhorst by K. Philomenc. 381 

}3at no wi^t may iustly hem* chalenge 

Of vnmanhod, so wel )>ei ban hem born, 

To quite ageyn her harmys do bc-forn. 

At whiche tyme, lik a ferse lyoura 

Among[es] Troyens renging vp and douw, 

Vlixes went with his swerde in honde : 

He kylleth, sleth, & kny}tly gan to* fonde, 

|)ilk[e] day lyk a man be foiwde ; [leaf 07 ] 

And her & per, with many mortal wouwde, 

Vp-on Troyens he wroujt al pis wrak, 

Hem beryng dowi on fote and hors[e]-bak, 

In his Ire his strokis wer so kene. 

At whiche tyme worpi Philomene, 

Lord & kyng of Pafogonye, 

Whan he behild, wip his companye, 

So many Troyan of Ylixes slawe, 

Towardis hym anon he gan him drawe 

On hors[e]-bak, with a spere roimde, 

Out of his sadil bar hyw to pe grouwde ; 

But Ylixes ros vp anon ri^t, 

Takyng his hors, lik a manly * kny^t ; 

J3e whiche anon as Philomene hap seyn, 

Toke eft a spere and rod to hym ageyn 

So my^tely, and with swiche violence, 

Jpat finally per geyneth no diffence, 

But pat he sinet him evene porii} pe scheld, 

pe whiche fley a-sondre in J>e feld ; 

And jjoru^ his platis, with-onten any fail, 

\)Q sperehed ran, & rested in j>e mail, 

Jjat forged was of steel ful schene & bri^t, 

Whiche to perce J?e sperehed had no my$t, 

So trewly made was }>e haberiouri ; 

But with pat strok Vlixes was bore douw 

Jet eft ageyn ; but he vp ros anon, 

Whiche of his stroke harme ne feltfe] non, 




slays many 

8272 KingPhilo- 
nione of 



8280 who mounts 





8260. iustly hem] hem iustly C. 8261. vnmanhod] manhood A. 

8264. vp and domi] come a douw D 1. 

8266. to] him C. 8267. be] to be C. 

8280. a manly] amanly C. 8283. with] om.. A. 

8290. had] ha]> D 2, hath D 1. 

8291. haberiouTi] habergoiw D 1. 8294. ne] he A. 

382 Philomene is mortally wounded. Ajax^c.Join thefiglit. [BK.II 


and unhorses 

who is borne 
off the field. 

This stops 
the Greek 




and Ajax ride 

to help the 

And rau^t a spere, scharp[e] whet & growzde, 

And Philomene he ^af swiche a wowzde, 8296 

With al pe iny^t of his armys tweyne, 

Of Irous herte, \ritli so gret a peyne, 

Jpat J>oru3 his schelde, bo}>e plate & mail, 

He smet hym vp poru} his aventail, 8300 

In-to pe gorge fat pe strok gan glide, 

J?at from his hors he fil dou?i a-side, 

Ful perlously pi^te vp-on his hed, 

His kny^tes wenyng sothly he were* ded. 8304 

Whiche toke hym vp & leyde him on a scheld, 

And bar him horn in hast out of pe feld, 

With gret dauwger or pei my^t hym wynne, 

ftoru} pe Grekis vrith her lord to twynne. 8308 

And for Troyens supposid sykerly 

J)at Philomene, wM-oute remedye, 

Had be ded, pei wer astonyed alle : 

Jpat $if pis cas pat day nad[de] falle 8312 

Of Philomene, Grekis on pe stronde 

Hadde be outtraied, ariving vp to londe, 

J3oni3 pe kny^thod pis is dout[e]les 

Of Philomene, whom pat Vlixes [leaf 6? 6] 8316 

Vnhorsed hath with a mortal wourade, 

In kny^tly wyse Troyens to confoiwde 

Wher-of pei wer astonyd eue?'ychon. 

But Thoas pawne and Agamenou?^, 8320 

Of Grekis host lord & Emperour, 

Ariued is vn-to her socour 

"Wip al his knyjtes, and Menelaus, 

And eke pe worpi Thelamonyus, 8324 

Callid Aiax, is to lond[e] come ; 

And pei at leyser han her hors [y-]nome, 

While oper Grekis Troyens occupie, 

So[re] fijtyng, and pei gan fastfe] hye 8328 

Towardfes] hem, makyng no delay ; 

Al on a frussche, in al pe hast pei may, 

8301. 1st >e] mn. D 2. 
8307. hym] hem D 1. 
8321. Of] Of the D 1. 
8326. y-nome] nome A. 

8304. were] had be C, wede D 1. 
8312. nadde] had D 2. 
8325. come] y come D 1. 
8328. and] as D 1. 

BK. n] The Battle goes on. Protesilaus resolves to fight again. 383 

)5ei ran y-fere and her speris brak, 

With herte envious, vp-on hors[e]-bak. 8332 

J?er my3t[e] men f e worf i kny3tes se 

On her stedis eche at of er flee The batu 

With stif swerdis, schaftis gret & rouwde, 

With hedis square, f e pointis kene grouwde 8336 

Jjer my3t[e] men, in her furious tene, 

Se many kny3tes ded vp-on f e grene ! 

But most f e slau^ter and confusioura 

Fil ]>ilk[e] tyme of* hem of J>e ioun : 8340 

])Q Grekis wern so my^ti & so strong. 

And in fe feld J)is contvneth* long, 

Til Prothesilaus, f e strowg my^ti kyng, Protesiiaus 

Whiche al fe day in skarmusche & fi^tyng 8344 

Ful lik a kny^t had occupied be 

Ageyn[e]s Troyens, in his cruelte, 

Of manhod only and of wo[r] fines, 

Of auenture, in his werynes 8348 retires to the 

seashore to 

Hym to refresche & to taken eyr, refresh him- 

And to abreth hym, makyd his repeir 

To fe stronde, where he dide ariue : 

Wher as him* fou^t, his hert[e] gan to ryue 8352 

Of cruel Ire and also of pite, 

j)at he kau3t, only for to se 

His men lyn slayn endelong fe stronde, 8lahl 

And some of hem cornywge vp to londe, 8356 

Dreint in fe se among f e flodis depe. 

For whiche f ing he gan anoon to wepe 

Ful pitously, al wer it nat espied, 

Whos woful eyne my3t[e] nat be dreyed 8360 

For fe constreynt which sat so ny3e his hert. 

Til at f e last, among his peynys smert, 

So cruel Ire gan his hert enbrace, 

jjat sodeynly vrith a dispitous face, 8364 

With-out abood. bou^tfe! how bat he [leaf e?c] revives to 

avenge them. 

8331. y-fere] in fere D 1 brak] blak D 1. 

8338. knyjtes] knyght D 2. 8340. of] on C. 

8342. contvneth] contvned C. 

8346. Ageynes] Ageyn D 2, D 1. 8350. abreth] brethe D 1. 

8352. him] he C. 8356. to] the A. 

8362 is omitted in D 1. 

384 ProtesilausslaysTrojans. Perseus & his Blacks kill Grreeks.[KK.u 


rushes into 
the thick of 
the fight. 

He wounds 
and slays, 

and unhorses 
the Trojans, 

till Perseus 

comes to 
their help 

with his 

Vp-on her deth wolde avengid be, 

Or finally attonis with hem deye. 

And on his stede he toke pe ri^tfe] weye 8368- 

Toward his foon, f ul Irous in his rage ; 

And lyne rijt he holdip his passage, 

Swift as grehond pat reraiep oute of lees ; 

And where he saw p#t per was grettest pres, 8372 

He presej) poru^, amiddis of pe f eld 

And wet/A pe swerd whiche in his hond he held, 

ftat grouwd[e] was to keruen and to bite, 

Ful mortally a-boute hym he gan smyte, 837$ 

ftat Troyens my^t hym not asterte. 

Some he riveth evene to pe herte, 

And some he woimdeth, sothly, to pe deth, 

And some he made to 3elden vp pe breth, 8380 

And he vnhorsep so??ime cruelly ; 

And whom he mette pat day, outterly, 

From his hors he made hym to aly^te : 

For where he rood pei fled out of his si^t, 8384 

And his presence as pe deth eschewe * ; 

But euere in on, he gan aftir sewe 

In his chaas, as* a wood lyouw. 

fris pley he pleyeth* with hem of pe tourc, 8388 

Til Perseus, of Ethiope kyng, 

From pe cite com sodeinly ridyng 

Wip many kny^t & many lifly * man ; 

At* whos comyng of new[e] per be-gan 8392 

A fresche skarmusch, furious & wood, 

feat many Greke pat day lost his blood, 

So fel assaut Troyens on hem make. 

And among hem pe Ethiopes blake 8396 

So manly bar hem, fi^tyng here & pere, 

))at wher Troyens wern a-forn in fere, 

Remouwted ben and of new assurid ; 

8367. Or] Of D 1. 8380. to] om. D 2, D 1. 

8385. eschewe] >ei eschewe C. 

8387. as] lik C a] be D 1. 8388. pleyeth] pleyed C. 

8389. new IT A. 8390. sodeinly] ryally D 2. 

8391. 1st many] many a A, D 1 2tid many] many a D 1 lifly] 
likly C. 

8392. At] Of C. 8394. many] many a D 1. 
8396. And] mn. A. 

BK. 11] Palamedes helps the Greeks, and spears Sigamon. 385 

J)at J?oru3 her help )>ei han J?e feld recurid, , 8400 

And made hem lese also moche ageyn 

As )>ei to-forn wonnen on ])e pleyn : 

For Jjei so hool & so myjtily 

Kept hem to-gidre, and so avisely 8404 

Gouemed hem, wit/t pa vis, spere, and schelde, 

}5at Grekis werne compelled in J?e felde, 

Maugre who grucche]?, of necessite, 

To j?e stronde bakward for to flee, 8408 

Almost dispeired, maat and confortles. 

But in fat while, kyng Palamydes 

To her rescus cam to a-ryvaille, 

And lusty fresche entrif in bataille 8412 

Wip his kny3tes & his hool meyne, 

Takyng her hors fast[e] by fe se ; [leuf 67 rfj 

And ful proudly enbusched al attonys, 

With spere & swerd grou?ide for pe nonys, 8416 

By conveying of her worfi kyng,* 

Han so oppressid at her in-comyng 

fee manly Troyens, pat it was a wondre 

To sen hem lyn, slay[e]n here and ^ondre. 8420 

And pis contunep til among j>e pres 

Of auenture pat Pallamydes, 

Brewnyng ay in his furious hete, 

Amid j?e feld happej) for to mete 

A worjri kny^t callyd SygamouTi, 

Whiche brofer was to []>e] kyng Menou?^, 

Nevew also, as Guy do doth reherse, 

Jpis manly man, to J?e kyng of Perse, 8428 

Whiche Grekis had pat day sore oppresed 

By his kny^thod, as it is expresid : 

For he Grekis by his worpines 

Had ofte broi^t in ful gret distres 8432 

)3e same day, to his grete encres. 

lUit of fortune, alias, Pallamydes, 

As I ^ow told, hath in pe feld hym met, 

And with a spere, square & scharp[e] whette, 8436 

8402. on] vpon D 2. 8406. compelled] om. D 1. 

8412. lusty] lusty & D 1. 8416. growide] y grou?ide A. 

8417. kyng] comyng C, A, D 2. 8431. he] )>e D 1. 


The Trojans 

drive the 
Greeks back 
to the sea- 

But Pala- 

medes come* 
to their 

slays many 

8424 meets 


who has kild 
many Greeks, 


and spears 

and drives 
the Trojans 
back to Troy. 

Their cries 
are heard by 


the worthiest 
and boldest 
of men. 

The Trojans are driven lack to Troy. [BK. n 

Whan he of kny^thod was most in his pride, 

He rood at hym & smet him 01113 pe syde. 

And wz't/i pat last dedly fatal wourade, 

From his stede he bare hym to pe groimde ; 8440 

And on pe pleyn, of his blood al red, 

Pallamydes lefte hym pale and ded, 

Amongis hem fat of Troye were ; 

And furpe he rood, & bare doiw here & pere 8444 

Al pat euere in his weye stood 

lie was on hem so furious & wood* 

Maugre Troy ens to-forn him on pe pleyn, 

Made resorte to pe wal ageyn, 8448 

His manly kny^tes, alwey fast[e] by, 

On his awaytyng ful eu[ten]tifly 

Redy to* hond at euery gret emprise. 

But po began pe noise to arise, 8452 

]3e woful clamour and pe pitus crie 

Of hem of Troye, pe whiche outterly 

Ageyn[es] Grekis my^tfe] nat sustene ; 

fee mortal swerd was so scharp & kene 8456 

Of pe noble worpi famous knyjt, 

Pallamydes, pat with his gret myjt 

})Q long[e] day hath y-born hym so 

Ageyn his foon, and so kny3tly do, 8460 

In his persone, poru^ his hie renouw, 

[]?at] Chased hath almost to pe towi 

Troyens echon, manly made to fle. [leaf csa 

))e noise of whom is entrid pe cite, 8464 

jpe hidous crie and pe mortal schout, 

Wher-of amevid, Hector isseth out 

Furiously, in al pe hast he can, 

Jpe sone of Mars, pis kny^t, pis manly man, 8468 

Of alle worpi 3it pe worpiest 

ftat euere was, and pe hardiest. 

For as Phebus with his bemys clere 

8439. fatal] om. D 1. 8446. wood] so wood C. 

8450. his] hym A ententifly] entenfully A, D 2, entifly D 1. 

8451. to] at C. 

8455. my3te jiat sustene] sAverde was so sharpe & kene D 1. 
8456] bat shoon ful bri3t a geyn te sonne shene D 1. 
8464. 2nd pe] in the A. 

BK. u] Hector's worth. He helps the Trojans &kills Protesilaus. 387 

Amonge sterris, so dide he appere, 
Excellyng all in stel armyd bri^t, 
On whom it was a verray heuenly si^t : 
For it was he, pat, bope ny$e & ferre, 
Of worpiries was pe lode-sterre. 
])Q whiche whan he entrid in-to feld, 
Liche as I rede, bare fat day a schelde, 
\)Q feld of whiche was of purid gold 
With pre lyoiws, in story as is told, 
Of \\fhos colour is made no mencioiw ; 
But, as I fynde by discripciouw, 
ftei wer passauwt, $if I report ari$t, 
Born on pe brest* of pis Troyan kni3t, 
J?at was pe ground & rote of hi^e prowes 
And flour acouwted of al worpiues. 
])Q whiche so manly, wzt/t-out more abood, 
Amongis his kny^tes to J>e Grekis rood, 
So like a man, pat pei in his comyng 
Astonyd wern, as he gan in pring 
Amorcges hem, whiche killeth dourc & sleth, 
And whom he mette per was nat but deth. 
A-forn his swerd Grekis go to wrak ; 
And her wardis of kuy^tly force he brak, 
And maugre hem seuered hem assondre, 
And bare al douw, ridyng here and ^ondre. 
And casuelly he meteth* in his way 
Prothesilaus, whiche al pe longe day 
Had sore fou3te ageynes* hem of Troy 
And slaw alle [po] pat come in his woye, 
)?is* hardy kny^t, pis worpi, ferse kyng, 
Whiche on Troyens was eue?' purswyng 
He to hem had so hertly gret envye. 
])Q whiche ping whan Hector gan espie, 
And of his knj^thod gan to taken lied, 
To wardis liym he gan to reyne his stede ; 
And lyne ri3t of hasty Ire he rood, 


Hector is the 
fi .j 7 /. lodestar of 
o 4 1 O valour, 



and flower 
of worth. 

8488 He ride* 

against the 

8492 and bears nil 
down before 


is seen by 



who attacks 

8472. he] om. A. 8477. in-to] in to the A. 

8484. brest] krest C. 8488. Amongis] Among A, D 2. 

8492. nat] om. D 1. 8497. meteth] mette C. 

8499. ageynes] ageyng C, a geyn D 1. 8501. pis] f>at C. 

388 Hector splits Protesilaus and drives the Greeks to the Sea. [BK. ir 

and cuts him 
in half, 

and slays 
many Greeks. 

He drives 
them to the 
wavy sea, 
and then 

And with his swerd, disteyned al with blod, 8508 

He rof his hed, poru3 his bas[e]net, 

With swiche a my3t pat his strok nas* let 

By force of maille nor of fikke plate : 

But finally, by ful mortal fate, [leaf es &] 8512 

]3e swerd of Hector, poru^ nerf , bon, & veyne, 

]?is worpi kyng parted hap on tueyne; 

For outterly, per geyneth noon armvre 

Ageyn pe strok of Hector to endure 85 IS 

But pat f is kyng, so ful of worpines, 

Strong & my^ty, and of gret hardines, 

Eeceyved hath his last[e] fatal wourcde, 

And lith now ded, parted on pe gimwde. 8520 

And Hector furthe among f e Grekis ryt ; 

And who-so-euer pat his strok abit, 

Eef ute was non nor diffence but deth ; 

And many Greke filke day he slethe : 8524 

For whiche of hem in his wey[e] stood, 

His scharp[e] swerd he bapid in his blood, 

)3at also fer as pei my^t hym se, 

As pe deth, from his swerd pei fle 8528 

So mortal vengauwce up-on \\ern he wro3t. 

And many Greke at his felaw soi^t, 

And gan enquere what he my^tfe] be ; 

For al her lyue pei koude neuer se 8532 

Non so kny3% haue hym in bataile, 

And pleynly dempte, as be supposaile, 

It was Hector, pe noble werriour, 

Whiche of kny^thod may bere aweye pe flow?- 8536 

Among alle fat euer $it were born : 

For per nas Greke pat hywi may stond a-forn; 

Of alle pat day he gan he? so enchase 

To pe strond, euene a-forn his face 8540 

For pei ne durst his mortal st[r]ook abide. 

And whan he had vppon euery syde 

J)e Grekis chacid to pe wawy se, 

Wounded & maat, in gret aduersite, 8544 

8510. nas] nat C. 
8515. noon] nor A. 
8531. gan] to D 2. 

8514. pis] pe D 1. 
8526. he] ha D 2. 
8540. a-forn] a fore Dl. 

BK. n] Hector goes lack to Troy. Achilles helps the Greeks. 389 

J2an liym to rest, pis Troy an knyjt anon, 

Lik Mars him silf, horn to Troy is goon. Hector <* 

. , -i x-v , . .. back to Troy. 

At wnos partyng, Urekis elt preswme 

Manly a-geyn her hertis to reswme, 8548 

And of newe her fomen for to assaille, 

And to iupart, $if it wolde availle, 

Lif & deth to setten at outtraurace 

On Fortune, }if sche wolde avaiujce 8552 

Her part ageyn in recure of pe felde, 

And hem enforce, vritii inyat of spere & scheld, The Greeks 

m m < resolve to 

lo wywne ageyn on Iroyens, 311 pel may, renew their 

Anon forpe-wit/i, and make no delay. 8556 Trojans. 

For hei^tfe] tyme sithen pei be-gonne 

J3e feld pei han pat day lost & wonne, 

Lyke as Fortune list to don hir cure, 

Yp or down for to turne hir ewre : 8560 

For as hir whele went aboute rou?le, [leaf es <?] 

Ei^t so pat day pei wan & lost her grou/?de. 

But specialy fei wer most dismaied 

Whan Hector cam, whiche hap hem so outrapjed 8564 

Jjoru^ his kny^thocl, whiche made her hertis riue, 

And to resorte where J>ei dide aryue. 

And pis contuneth, maugre al her my^t, 

While in pe feld was pis Troyan kny^t, 8568 

Til Pheb*/s chare gan to westre dourc, 

]?at he repeyred is in-to ]>e touw, 

Whiche hadde Grekis wroujt aforn ful ille. 

But nowe pe hardy, cruel, ferse Achille 8572 Achiiie* 

comes to 

Ariued is with his kny^tes alle, help the 

Minwdones whom men are wont to calle, f' th *w* 


Whiche from pe se takyn han pe pleyn. 

At whos cowmyng Grekis han a-geyn 8576 

j)e feld recured, & put hem silf in pres, 

Only poru} helpe of hardy Achilles, 

Whiche is so felly Troy ens falle vppon, 

8547. new IF A. 8549. for] om. D 1. 8550. $if] jit D 2. 

8555. ageyn] om. D 1 }if ] if >at D 1. 

8557. hei^te tyme] heyhte tymes I) 1. 

8561. hir] om. D 2. 8565. \\er hertis] om. D 1. 

8566] Here hertes & to resorte blyve D 1. 

8570. in-to] in D 2, vn to D 1. 8577. hem] hym A. 

390 Achilles and Ms Myrmidons drive the Trojans lack. [BK. n 

The Myrmi- 
dons slay 

It does 

Achilles good 
to shed 
Trojan blood. 

The Trojans 
are driven 
back to Troy. 

The whole 
Greek army 

ftat he of hem hath slayn many on : 8580 

For J?re J>owsand in stel armyd bri$t 

With hym he bro^t, redy for to fi^t, 

Kny^tes echon, ful worjn of renouw, 

Whiche vrith Achille, Grekis champions, 8584 

Han merciles in her cruelte 

Slayn many Troyan out of J>e cite. 

J)ei wer so feruent in her mortal Ire, 

So envious of hate to desyre 8588- 

Newe & newe for to schede her blood ; 

For Achilles Jxni^t it dide hym good 

With his swerde Troyan blood to schede, 

And on ]>e soil to sen hem lyn & blede, 8592 

Eouth[e]les in his malencolye. 

For he to hem hath so hoot envie, 

Wit7i-oute her deth j>at it may nat quenche ; 

And he his swerd ful depe made drenche 859 & 

]3e long[e] day in Troyanysche blood, 

And ba])id it as it were in a flood, 

Whiche forgid was & I-whet so * kene, 

feat many ryuer, sothly, on ]>Q grene 8600 

Ran her and ]>er of her hortis sore, 

And -with his kny^tes, alwey more & more 

Pursewed hem, a-forn him * as ]?ei fle 

To J?e wallis of Troye J>e cite, 8604 

Wher J>ei made a ful pitous cry. 

And in pis while, I finde in ]?e story, 

Jje Grekis host holy is arived, 

Like in Guydo as it is descrived, 8608 

Of men of armys swyche a multitude, 

And of kny^tes, schortly to conclude, [leaf es rz] 

)?at from her schipes of newe londed be, 

feat Troyens astonyd wer to se ; 8612 

And abaisched J?ei gan wexen alle. 

For sodeynly pei gan on hem falle, 

On euery halfe, passyngly gret pres ; 

8582. he] mn. A. 8590. hym] hem D 1. 

8597. Troyanysche] Troyans A. 8599. so] ful C. 

8601. hortis] hurtes A, hurtis D 1, hurtys D 2. 

8603. him] hem C 3 D 1. 8615. passyngly] passyng A. 

BK. n] Troilus.Paris^tc., conie to theEescue. The first fight ends. 30 1 

And euer in on pis hardy Achilles 
With his swerd made her sydes rede : 
For her & per lay pe bodyes dede, 
And wouwdid some at entre of pe gate, 
And kny^tly pere with hem [he] gan debate, 
And furiously pis fel cruel kny^t 
\)Q children slowe in her * fadris si$t, 
feat to be-holde it was f ul gret pite. 
And $it pe slau3ter gretter had[de] be, 
With-out nou?ttbre of hem of pe touw, 
Perpetuelly to her conf usiou?z, 
Likly for euer to haue be ouer-come, 
3if Troylus nadde vn-to reskus come, 
3ong, fresche, & lusty, & inly desyrous, 
With whom cam eke Paris & Dephebus 
And many worpi her party to secure ; 
So pat Grekis po ne my}t endure 
Ageynes* hem to stonden at diffence, 
For al her pride, no[r] make resistence, 
Worpi Troylus so wel pat tyme hym quitte. 
For pis * in soth, what Greke pat he hitte, 
Ouper he maymeth or he made deye : 
Wherfor, as deth, pei fledde out of his weye. 
And Achilles with his company 
For it was ny^t homward gan him hi^e 
Toward Grekis, with glorie & gret* honour; 
And pei reseyve hym like a conquerour, 
pat he vfith hem hath so wel I-met ; 
And pei of Troye han her gatis schet, 
And made hem strong poruj-out al pe touw. 


8620 Achilles slays 
youths in 
their fathers* 


8628 Troilus conies 
as the rescuer 
with Paris 
and Deipho- 



Achilles and 
his Myrmi- 

8640 do retire to 
the Greeks. 

8644 The Trojans 
shut their 

Of the pichenge of the Grekes felde ; and howe Aga- 
menon reysid his tentes, pavelons, & mawsyons. 1 

8622. her] pe C. 8624. hadde be] had y be D 1. 

8625. WitA-out] AVith A. 

8627. to] for to D 1 be] been A. 

8633. Ageynes] Ageyng C. 

8636. pis] his is C Greke] Greet D 2. 

8637. OuJ>er] Or D 1. 8641. gret] with C. 

8643. pat he with hem hath] The which he hadde A, pat wych 
he ha> D 2 he with hem] with hem he D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 67 o. 

392 Agamemnon camps his Army. The Siege is to last long. [BK.II 

appoints a 

and every 
Greek tent 
is pitcht. 

They land 
their horses 

and siege- 

and anchor 
their ships. 

They light 
their fires, 

And in ]>is tyme, king Agamenoim 

I-cerched hath a place couenable, 

Whiche hym poi^t was most agreable, 8648 

Be liklihede, and most conuenient 

For euery lord for to sette his tent. 

And in a feld of ful large space, 

Most competent as for* logging place, 8652 

In due siyt sette fro pe cite, 

Eche lord was signed wher he schuld[e] be ; 

And gan anon ordeyne mansioims, 

Pycche her tentis and papilliourcs ; 8656 

And swyche as my^t no tentori[e]s haue 

From storm & reyn hem silf [e] for to saue, 

ftei deuised oj>er habitacles, [leaf 69 a] 

Tugurries & smale receptacles 8660 

To schroude hem in ; & al J?e ny^t also, 

From her schipes )>ei had moche ado, 

Or pei my^t han her hors to londe, 

And to ordeyn wher J>ei schuld[e] stonde. 8664 

And )>ei also besy were to carve 

Other }>inges fat wer necessarie 

And nedef ully vn-to a sege longe \ 

And eke pei made teye her schipes strowg 8668 

Fer in j?e depes, and her ankris caste. 

And of assent, Jjei besied he??z ful fast 

For to conferme of on entenciouw 

To sette a sege vn-to Troye tou?z, 8672 

And per-vppon, by bond assured faste, 

For to abide while her lyf may laste, 

Fynally with-oute repentauwce. 

And prudently j>ei made her ordinaurcce, 8676 

As fiei best coude : al fe longfe] ny$t 

)3ei bet her fyres, which brent wonder li^t ; 

And at a space deuided fro }>e fyres, 

8646. his] >at D 1 king] hath kyng D 1. 

8652. for] for a C. 

8656. Pycche] Picchid A papillioiws] pavillyou?is A, pauiloims 

8667. nedefully] nedefulle D 1. 8669. depes] depenes D 1. 
8676. made] make D 1. 8678. bet] brenne A. 
8679. deuided] devoyded D 2. 

END OF BK. n] Agamemnon's care fvr his Men and Camp. 393 


]5ei setten vp, in maner of barrens, 

And rouwde aboute wher her loggywg was, 

])QI palyd hem al pe feld compas. 

And to acheue pe fyn of her purpos, 

J3ei felly wroujt, & kept he??i silf ay clos. 

And pe kyng, pat no tresoiw falle, 

Lete make wache wit/i-oute his tentis alle, 

Of hem pat had rested hem a-fore ; 

And his mynstrales he made oner-more, 

As seith Guy do, al pe longe ny3t 

To kepe her tides to-fore pe fyres bri^t, 

Myrely to sowne her instrumentis. 

And hem he made restyn in her tentis, 

]3at had a-forn wery ben of fy^t, 

And in pe se wer feinted of her my^t ; 

And oper eke he made in her armvre 

Awaite wisly ageyn al aventure, 

)3at no deceit wer founde on no syde. 

And pus pis kyng knyjtly gan prouide 

In his avis pat no ping hym eskape ; 

And al pe ny$t I finde he dide wake, 

Til on pe morwe, pat pe rowes rede 

Of Phebws chare gonne for to sprede. 

And pus eche ping disposid as it on^t, 

I wil procede to telle how pei wroujt, 

Ceriously m't/i-outyn and with-Inne, 

With $oure support pe pridde [boke] be-gynne. 

[Explicit liber Secundus 
Incipit liber Tercius 1 ] 

8688. ouer-more] euermore D 1. 
8698. )>is kyng] om. D 1 gan] can A, kan D 2. 
1 The above rubric occurs in A. Dl has, "here endith the 
secuwde booke of >e Sege," in red. 

and set pules 
round their 

watches all 

8688 and makes 

his minstrels 

8692 and his tired 
warriors rest. 



and others 
keep guard 

till the dawn 

8704 Now I'll go 
on with my 
Third Book. 




EB 14 



' r\