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This book is purchased from 

The Schofield Fund 

given in memory of 

William Henry Schofield 

Victoria College, B.A. 1889 

Harvard University, Ph. D. 1895 

Professor of Comparative Literature 

Harvard University, 1906-20. 

Harvard Exchange P rofessor at 

University of Berlin, 1907 

Lecturer at the Sorbonne and 

University of Copenhagen, 1910. 

Harvard Exchange Professor at 

Western Colleges, 1918. 


<Sftra Srws, No. cm. 




A.D. 1412-20. 






PART II. L ok W ^ 







Series, cm. 


A.D. 1412-20. 
















, 37 

&tnts, No. cvi. 


BK. Ill] Sunrise in Troy. Hector rules, under Priam. 395 

Here bygynnethe the thirde boke of Troye. 

Howe worthy Ector devyded his batayls vpon A large 
playne within the Cite, and howe he put the 
wardis doscretly to be vnder J?e ledynge of his 
brethere and other worthy kynges. 1 

Whan Aurora, with hir pale 
Vnder J?e mantel of J)e mirke ny^t 
And j>e curtyw of her hewes fade 
I-schroudid was in Jje dirk[e] schade, 
Abasched rody, as I can diffyne, 
Only of fer )>at is femynyne, 
For a-schamyd durstfe] nat be seyn 
Be-cause sche had so longe a-bedde leyn 
With fresche Febus, hir owne chose kny^t, 
For whiche sche hidde hir sothly out 
Til his stede fat callid is Flegonte 
Enhasted hynl aboue oure* ori^onte; 
And Appollo with his bemys clere 
Hath reconverted hir oppressid chere 
)?is to seyne, aftir }>Q dawenyng 
Whan Titan was in )>e est rysyng, 
Of his hete atempre and ri$t softe 
Her emyspery for to glade a-lofte, 
Jje same hour, ]>e Troyan champiouw, 
Gouernour of werris of J>e touw, 
Worjri Ector, whiche in ]>e cite 
Next Priam had of alle souereinte 
\)Q towi to guye be kny^tly excellence, 

6. of] for D 1. 10. hidde] dide D 1. 12. oure] her C. 
15. pis] fis is D 2, D 1. 16. est] om. D 1. 
18 is omitted in D 2. 22. alle] alle the A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 67 c. 

When Aurora 

had lain long 
in bed with 


16 , 

after dawn, 
at sunrise 


the Trojan 



The Arming of the Trojan Lords describd. [BK. ill 

bids all his 
Lords and 

to muster by 


on a plain 
in Troy. 

Some lace 
their linen 

others put on 

breeches of 

For his manhod * and his sapience 

Of Troyan kny^tes lord & eke chefteyn, 

Whiche hath co??imaiwded, in a large pleyn, 

To hi3e and low, he exceptyng noon, 

Kynges, princes, and lordis euerychon, 

Ipe same morwe for to mete I-fere, 

In hir array to moustre and appere, 

Like as J>ei were of name & of estate, 

Besyde a temple whilom consecrate 

To )>e goddes pat callid is Dyane, 

Moste honoured in pat riche fane 

))er to arraye hem, in al pe haste pei can, 

Lik pe devis of pis kny^tly man. 

And pis playn, passyng fair to se, 

Was sette amyd Troye pe cite, 

Smope and ri^t fair, & ful of fresche floures, 

W[h]ere alle pe worpi noble werriours 

Of Troye toun to-gydre assemblid be, 

And many oper to be-holde and se 

})Q famws kny^tes arme hem in pat place. 

And some of hem gan ful streite lace 

Her doublettis made of lyne cloth, 

A certeyn fold pat a-boute hem goth ; 

And some also dempte most surest 

To armen hem for bataille of arest, 

And dide on firste, aftir her desires, 

Sabatouws, grevis, cusschewis, & voideris 

A peire breke, aldirfirst, of maille ; 

And some per wer eke pat nolde faille 

To haii of maille eke a peir[e] bras, 

And per-w^t/i -al, as pe custom was, 

A peir Gussetis on a petycote, 

Garnyssched wz't/i gold vp on-to the }>rote, 

A pau?zce of plate, whiche of J>e silf be-hinde 

[leaf 69 c] 









24. manhod] hie manhod C. 

25. eke] om. D 2. 36. kny3tly] worthy D 2. 
38. Troye] of Troye A, D 2. 

40. werriours] conqueroMrs D 1. 
46. hem] hym A. 49. dide] dire D 1. 
52. >er] om. A. 53. bras] of bras D 1. 
56. on-to] vnto D 2, to D 1. 

BK. in] The Arming of the Trajan Lords describd. 397 

Was schet and clos, and Jjer-on, as I finde, 
Enviroiw was a bordure of smal maille. 

And some chose, of ]>e newe entaille, 60 others have 

For to be sure myd of al her foos, 

An hoi brest-plate with a rere-doos a breastplate, 

Be-hynde schet, or ellis on ]?e side. 

And on his armys, rynged nat to wyde, 64 

ber wer woiders frettid in be maille, with voiders 

in the mail. 

With cordis roimde, & of fresche entaille, 

Vauratbras with wynges, & rerebras Jjer-to, 

And j)er-on set wer* besagus also ; 68 

Yp-on ]?e heed a basenet of stele, 

})at with-Inne lokked was ful wele, 

A crafty si$t wrou^t in e viser. 

And some wolde haue of plate a bavier, 72 others have 

J?at on J)e brest fastnyd be a-forn, 

J?e canel-pece more esy to be born 

Gloues of plate of stele forgid bri^t. steei-piate 

And some wold armyd be more li$t 76 

In ])ikke lackys curid with satyn ; 

And some wele haue, of maille, wrou^t ful* fyn, [ieaf69cz] 

An haberiouw, al of but cassade, 

ftat with wei^te he be nat ouer-lade, 80 

Hym silfe to welde lik a lifly man. 

And some wil haue, of chose geseran, 

On his dublet but an haberioura, 

And some only but a sure gepouw 84 

Oner his poleyns, rechyng to j)e kne, 

And fat ]>e* slevis eke so longe be 

J3at his vauwbras may be curid ner 

A prikyng palet, of plate J?e cower. 88 

And some wil haue also no viser others have 

m i j! t i no vizor, 

lo saue his face, but only a naser : but only a 

. r .. nose-piece. 

And some wil haue a peirfe] platis li^t 

61. her] his D 1. 64. to] om. A. 

68 is misplaced at bottom of column in D 2, and marked a ; 67 is 
marked b set wer] wer set C. 72. bavier] baver A. 
73. be a-forn] was be forn D 1. 77. lackys] om. D 2. 
78. wroujt ful] ri3t C. 79. but] but of D 1. 
85. be] his D 1. 86. be] his C. 87, 88 are omitted in D 2. 
88. cower] kever D 1. 


Some have 
a shield, 

some darts, 
or a pole-ax : 

some a bow. 

Many nail 
their mates' 

Excuse me if 
I make mis- 
takes about 
their arms. 

When all 
are armd, 

Hector bids 
them itand 
in order. 

Trajan arms describd. Hector's orders. [BK. ill 

To welde hy?7i wel, whan pat he schal n^t. 92 

And some wiln han a target or a spere, 

And some a pavis, his body for to were, 

And some a targe, makyd strong to laste ; 

And some wil haue dartes for to caste, 96 

Some a pollex, heueded of fyn stele, 

And piked square, for to laste wel ; 

And some a swerd his enemy for to mete. 

And some wil haue a bow[e] for to schete, 100 

Somrae an arblast, to stonden out a-syde ; 

And some on fote and some for to ride 

Arraie hem silf, her fomen for to assaile ; 

And many on was besy for to naille 104 

His felawis harneis, for to make it strong, 

And to dresse it, pat it sete nou^t wrong, 

With pointes, tresses, and oper maner ping, 

J)at in swyche cas longyth to armyng. 108 

I haue no konnyng euery ping to telle, 

And vn-to $ow it were to long to dwelle 

AVhere I faile, ^e mote haue me excusid ; 

For in swiche crafte I am litel vsid, 112 

And ignoraimce dope my penne lette, 

In her ordre my termys for to sette. 

And oft chaurcgeth swiche harneis & devis ; 

And $e pat ben per-in experte & wys, 116 

Disdeyneth nat pat I speke in pis place 

Of her armyng : for al is in $our grace, 

Ri}t at $our luste to correcte euerydel. 

And whan Ector sawe pat al was wel, 120 

And euery man armed and a/rayed, 

J)is worpi kny^t no lenger hath delaied 

Avisely his wardis for to make, 

And prudently bad pei schuldfe] take 124 

Her grouTzde in haste, to put al in certeyn, 

And stonde in ordere endelong pe pleyn 

So pat no man were fourcde reccheles. [leaf 70 a] 

97. heueded] heedid A, hedded D 1. 

106. >at] om. D 1 ]t it] om. A, D 2 sete noujt wrong] sitt nat 
a wrong A, sete nat a wrong D 2, sit not a wrong D 1. 
119. at 3our luste] as $ou liste D 1. 

BK. in] The Commanders of the first 2 Trojan Battalions. 399 

Ector devydede his feld in-to xj wardys. 1 

And J?e gate, callid Dardanydes, 128 

With-outQ abood Ector made vnschette, 

And after bad [)>at] men schuld[e] fette 

To his presence, ]>ai it were don in haste, 

Cyncynabor, his broker born in baste, 132 

And to hym, firste of euerychon, 

And to a lord fat namyd was Glaucous, 

]pe kynges sone of Licye and his eyr, 

With many baner displeyed in }>e eir 136 

To Jns two Hector gaf J>e guarde 

And gouernaiwce of fe firste warde, 

In whiche he hath a pousand kny^tes set, 

With speris rouwde & swerdis kene whet, 140 

And on her brest ful many riche scheld ; 

And |?ei wer chose oute in * al J?e feld 

Among fe best J>at endure my^t 

Ageyn[es] Grekis manly for to fi^t. 144 

And vn-to hem Hector bad anoon, 

In Goddis name, ]?at fei schuld[e] gon 

Oute at fe gate, sothly, as I rede. 

And list J?ei fel in meschef or in nede, 148 

He assigned,* in ]>e silve place, 

With manly chere, to ]?e kyng of Trace, 

Wysly on hem to ben awaytyng, 

A Jjousand kny^tes to han at his ledyng, 152 

In a wyng kny^tly for to a-bide, 

To awaite on hem vp-on euery side. 

And with hym was his sone Achilogus,* 

Of his age a man ri^t vertuous 156 

To fulfille ]mt longeth to a kny^t ; 

For bope he had, hert & also my^t. 

And next to hem, Hector gan devise 

)5e nexte warde to J)e kyng of Fryse, 160 

130. after] aftir Jwrt D 1. 133. to] vn to A, D 2, D 1. 
136. many baner] manere D 1. 137. j>is] hem D 1. 
139. kny^tes] om. D 1. 142. in] of C. 

148. nede] drede D 1. 

149. assigned] assignet C silve] same D 1. 

154. hem] hym D 1. 155. Achilogus] Achilagus C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 68 b (red, in margin, opposite lines 
131, 132). 

appoints his 


and Prince 

chiefs of the 
1st Battalion 
of 1000 

with a reserve 
of 1000 more 
under the 
King of 

The 2nd 
Hector gives 

400 Troilus has the 3rd Battalion. Hector cautions him. [BK.III 

to King 


with 3000 

and Kin? 

The 3rd 
Hector gives 
to his brother 

with 3000 

and advises 

not to be 
or too 

In his tyme callid 3antipus ; 

And vn-to hym, $ong, strong, & desyrous, 

He assigned, to [ajwaite on his baner, 

Jpre Jxmsand kny^tes armyd bri^t and cler. 164 

With wliiche warde kyng Althomu* also 

Of Hector was cowmauralid for to go, 

And to his byddyng he mekely dide obeie. 

And ful kny^tly ]>ei han take her* weye 168 

Oute at ]?e 3ate, passyngly arrayed, 

Toward Grekis with baneris fresche displaied, 

And her penourcs vnrollid euerychon. 

And after, Hector assigned hath anon 172 

To }>e noble, $ong[e], lusty, fre, 

His broker Troylus, so fresche vp-on to se, 

Whiche in kny^thod had al suffisauwce, 

)?e Jridde warde to haue in gouernauwce [leaf 70 6] 176 

With j>re J>ousand kny^tes, ^ong of age, 

Flourynge in force, hardy of corage, 

Swiche as he was of custom wont to lede. 

To whom Hector of verray broferhede 180 

Ful goodly seide at his departyng : 

" Broker," quod he, " myn herte is so lovyng 

Tovvardis j)e of verray kyndenes, 

)5at ]>ou3e I haue in party gret gladnes 184 

Of ]?i manhod, fat so fer is kouth, 
And J?e kny3thod of j)i grene jouthe, 

3it dout[e]les, in my fantasie, 

Ful oft a-day I stonde in iuparte, 188 

Of pensifhed and inward besy drede, 

Whan I remembre vppon }>i manhede, 

Liste J>i corage be to violent, 

Of J>i lif to be to necligent, 192 

])\ silfe to put to fer in auenture, 

Of surquidie so moche for tassure, 

In j)i force kny^tly to asterte 

Euery pereil in J>i manful herte, 196 

163. awaite] waite D 1. 168. her] be C, D 2. 
169. at] of D 1. 177. >re] britty D 1. 
81. seide] spak and seyde A. 182. is] om. D 1. 

193. 2nd to] in to D 1 in] om. D 1. 

194. for tassure] to assure A, D 1. 

BK. in] Hector cautions Troilus, who promises Prudence. 401 
Hauyng no reward, in swiche mortal strife, Hector warns 

J Troilus not to 

Of wilfulnes, noufer to deth nor life, 

Nor aduertence to fi sauaciouw. 

But as Fortune tnrneth vp & doun 200 

Her whel mevable, hi^e and aftir lowe, 

In Martis Ire as fe wynde dofe blowe, 

Whiche causeth me ful ofte si$e and finke, 

And to wake whan I schuld[e] wynke, 204 

Eeuoluyng ay fin hasty wilfulnes : 

But, gentil broker, for any hardynes, 

)3is ilke day, vppon euery side, 

I praie fe so wysly to prouide, 208 

For hate or Ire, bi foos purswyng, pursue his 

foes too far, 

Nat to excede more fanne is sittyng ; 

But late prudence kepe fe in a mene, 

And wisdam eke holden a^en J>e rene 212 

Of j>in hert & fi ferce corage, 

J^at fired han J>i grene tendre age, 

Deuoide of drede eche peril to endure, 

]3at oure enmys of fi mysauenture 216 

Keioysshe nat, myn ovne broker dere. 

And my^ty Mars I pray, of hert entere, and prays 

Jjilke day on Troyanysche grourcde, hiS 8 sound? p 

From her hondys J?e to kepe sourcde, 220 

Like as I wolde fat he dide me." 

To whom anon, wit/t al humilite, 

In manly wyse fis $onge, lusty kny^t, 

]5is worfi Troylus, of hertfe] fresche & Ii3t, 224 Troilus 

Answerd ageyn, & seide w/t/i glad chere : [leaf 70 c] 

" Myn owne lord, and my brofer dere, .. promises 

And God to-forn, I fully schal obeie and not to 

To fulfille what $e liste to seye 228 

Now vn-to me of ^oure gentilnes, 

And nat declyne forti} no reklesnes 

In any point from ^oure comau?idement ; 

But with hool herte, in al my best entent, 232 

198. nor] or D 2. 201. and] om. A. 209. hate] hast A. 
211. kepe J>e] >e kepew D 1. 214. grene] grete D 1. 
219. f>ilke] pis ilke D 2, D 1, This ilke A Troyanysche] Troyans 
A, Dl. 

Troilus rides 
out of Troy 
with his aoOO 

402 Troilus leads his Troops. The 4th Battalion Leaders. [BK. Ill 

I schal take hede, and pleinly do non ofer 
ftan 30 ban seide, myn owne lord & brofer, 
So loth me were offende $ow or greue." 
And in fis wyse he lowly toke his leue ; 
And forfe he rod, so like a manly kny^t, 
at to be-holde it was a noble si3t, 
Amonge his men he haueth hym so wele 
]3re fousand kny^tes armyd in bri^t stele 
Envirou?^ rod vrith Troylus in )>e feld. 
And f ilke day he bare in his schelde, 
Passauwt of gold, )>re lyouws richely, 
J)e chaump of a^our wrou^t ful craftely. 
And be f e gate he issed oute anon, 
And vriih hym ladde his kny^tes euerychon, 
To ]>e Grekis holdyng f e nexte weye. 
And Hector hasteth, al fat euer he may, 
Prudently his wardis to ordeyne ; 
And to J>e noble worfi brefre tueyne, 
To kyng Hupon and to Ardelaus, 
He assigned, J?e stori telleth [f]vs, 
Jpe fourfe warde to guyen & to wysse. 
And in J?e lond fat callid was Larisse, 
J)e brefer two had[de] regnyd longe \ 
And kyng Hupon passyngly was strong, 
And of stature like a charnpioiw ; 
And, saue Hector, in al Troye toura, 
Was noon to hym egal as of my^t, 
More deliuere, nor a better kny^t, 
And on his fon passyng dispitous 
Whiche, with his broker, callid Ardelaus, 
Foure fousand kny^tes had[de] for to lede, 
And seuene hundrid, sothly, as I rede. 
And to hem eke, lyke as writ Guydo, 
Worfi Hector assygned hath also 
Oon of his brether, callid Brymarchus, 
A noble kny^t, in armys ri}t famws, 
And had in manhod passyng excellence. 
And of Hector fei taken han licence, 

241. in J>e] in to A, D 2, in to >e D 1. 
256. passyngly wa.s was passyngly A. 

Hector gives 

K. Hupon 
and Ardelaus 
the 4th 

with 4700 

and his 
own brother 










BK. in] The Leaders of the '5th and 6th Trojan Battalions. 403 

And rood her way amonges al j?e pres 

J3oru$ )>e gate of Dardanydes. 272 

]3e fyfpe warde to han at his ledyng, 

Was by Hector corny tted to })e kyng [leaf 70 d] 

)pat of Cesoyne lord and prince was, 

And to his broker, callid Polly damas. 276 

And Cysones wern of hi^e stature, 

And my^t in armys passyngly endure 

Vp-on whom many man behilde 

And her kyng bare no ]>ing in his scheld 280 

But a feld of goulis, as I fynde, 

Of o]?er sygne Guydo make}? no mynde. 

And forjje J?ei rood a ful sterne pas, 

)5is noble kyng and Pollydamas, 284 

Whan J?ei had of Hector leve take, 

Whiche euer in on besy was to make 

J)e sixte warde, with al his dilligence. 

And to )?e kyng, callid Pretemense, 288 

J}at was ful worjji, bojje in wer & pes, 

And to a duke J>at hi^te Sterepes, 

Whiche was also* ful worjn of his hond, 

He toke fe folke of Panonye lond, 292 

Hem to gouerne in J?e feld J>at day 

J)e whiche peple hath in custom ay 

W^t/i-oute plate, haberiouw, or maile, 

On swifte hors her fomen [for] to assaile, 296 

"With my^ty bowes & arowes scharp[e] grouwde 

)5oru3 an harneis mortally to wouwde. 

And with ]?is folke, of Hector eke also 

Dephebus assygned was to go, 300 

In ]>e feld to guye hem an[d] to lede, 

And on her wey )>ei fast[e] gaw hem spede. 

But or J)ei passe be Dardanydes, 

Ful discretly Hector for hem ches 304 

Paviseris, clad in mail and plate, 

271. amonges] amonge D 1. 

278. my3t] myghty A, my3ty D 1 endure] to endure A, D 1. 

279. many] many a D 1, ful many A, D 2, D 1. 
283. J>ei] he A. 286. besy] ful besy A, D 2, D 1. 

The 5th 
Hector gives 
to the King 
of Cesoyne, 

and Poly- 

The 6th, to 
King Pre- 



with Panno- 
nian archers 
on swift 

and Deipho- 

with armd 

290. hat hijte] called D 1. 
303. be] by D 2, D 1. 

291. was also] also was C, D 1. 

404 Men to protect the armourless Archers. The Ebony-Tree. [BK.III 

to go with 
the armour- 
less archers, 

and with the 
best knights 
of Agreste 
and Kings 
Esdras and 

Phion having 
an ivory 

with ebony 

and deckt 
with gold, 
pearls and 

Of all these, 
Hector made 
his brother 

Hew comauwdyng, at issyng of pe sate, 

"With )>e archeris in* ]>e feld to gon, 

And many worpi, wel armyd euerychon, 

To awaite on hem pat pei wer nat lore : 

For pis folke, pat I of spake to-fore, 

Of Panonye, had[de] non armure. 

But prudent Hector, for to make hem sure, 

Oute of Agreste, ]>e my$ty regiouw, 

Hath chosen out, ful worpi of renouw, 

)5e beste kny^tes of hem euerychon, 

And vritfi two kynges, Esdras* & Phion, 

Assygned hem for to taken hede 

To pe foot-men, whan pat pei haue nede. 

)5e whiche Phion, made ful rychely, 

Eood in a chaar al of yvory, 

Of whiche pe whelles, wron^t ful corious, 

Wern of a tre y-callid Ebanus, 

])e whiche tre groweth fer in Ynde, 

Blak of hewe ; and also, as I fynde, 

Whan it is corve, pis tre wil wexe anon, 

Of his nature, hard as any stoon 

Whan it is graue ouper rouwde or* square. 

And of pure* gold roued was pis* chare, 

Fret vfith perle and many riche stonis, 

J)at swiche a-noper [I trowe] nowher noon is 

In al pis world, if I schal iiat feyne. 

And it was lad of mj^ti knystes tweyne, 

Men of armys, wzt/i-Inne and wit/i-oute 

Armyd in stele, ridyng rou^de aboute 

))is worpi kynges, Esdras & Phion. 

And Hector hath callyd to hym anon 

On of his brepre, what-so pat be-falle, 

To be guyde and leder of hem alle 

J)e name of whom was Pictagoras. 

[leaf 71 a] 









307. With] And with A in] in to C. 
309. awaite] wayte D 2. 310. of spake] spake of D 1. 
316. Esdras] Esdrac C, Esdas D 1. 318. haue] had D 1. 
325. is] was D 1 wil] wolde D 1. 

327. ouj>er rouTwle or] rounde ouber C. 

328. pure] pured C bis] be C, D 1. 
335. kynges] kyng D 1. 

BK. in] The 1th Battalion is led by Eneas. The 8th by Paris. 405 

And to f e grete Troyan, Eneas, 

Of whom to-forn made is menciim, 

Hector by good deliberaciiw 

fte seuen]>e ward assigned hath to kepe, 

And vp-on stedis lusty for to lepe, 

Of swiche as wern vsauwt most to ride, 

Ful man[l]y kny^tes to haue be his syde, 

Whiche with Ewphronye vn-to Troye towi 

Comen so fer from her regiouw, 

To fosteren hem for Hectoris sake. 

And whan }>ei had of hym leve take, 

]5ei rood ful proudly forf e vfiih Eneas, 

Out at fe gate a wonder kny3tly paas, 

]pe brode feld til f ei haue atteyned. 

And in f is while Hector ha)>e ordeyned, 

Like myn auctor as I can reherse, 

J)e ei3te warde of f e folke of Perce, 

Worfi kny^tes, manly and ri^t wys, 

fie whiche wern comitted to Parys, 

On hym fat day to awaite besyly ; 

To whom Hector ful benygnely 

Spak and seide at his departyng : 

" broker myn, in al maner f ing, 

Whan f ou arte passed be Dardanydes, 

))is day to fer put f e nat in pres 

Amongfes] Grekis, nor in iupartie, 

Liste fat f i foon in meschef f e espie, 

To whom f ei haue, of old & newe date, 

In her hertis ful fresche & mortal hate, 

J?e furie of whiche her brest haf so enbracid, 

)2at it were hard out to ben arracid j 

"Wherfor, broker, loke fat fou be 

In al wyse nat to fer fro me, 

But kepe fe ne3e, fat no mysauenture 

Falle vp-on f e, so fat I may socure 

}5is day to fe, myn owne brofer dere." 

340. grete Troyan] Troyan greete A. 

341. made] as made D 1. 358. wern] we D 1. 
359. awaite] wayte D 1. 369. so] om. D 1. 
370. arracid] y raced D 1. 

340 Eneas has 

the 7th 
344 of cavalry. 



The 8th 
of Persian 
knights, is 
led by Paris, 

Hector warns 

[leaf 71 6] 




to keep near 

372 for security' 

406 The 9th Battalion is led by Hector on his steed Galathe. [BK. in 

Hector leads 
the 9th 

of 5000 of 
Troy's best 

and 10 of his 



Then he 
mounts his 

an out-and- 
out good 

and rides 
thru Troy. 

To whom Paris, with ful humble chere, 

Answer-id and seide, J>at in euery J>ing 

He wolde obeie vn-to his biddyng, 

And rood his weye anon with his meyne 

In-to j>e felde oute at J>e cite. 

And Hector ay dide his besynes 

Jpe nyn)>e warde in ordre for to dres, 

Whiche he ]>ou^ hym silf[e] for to lede, 

In whiche he put, sothly, as I rede, 

Five ]>ousand knystes bom of Troye toun, 

J5e wordiest and grettest of renouw, 

And passyngly famous in kny3thod, 

Born be discent of Troyanysche blod. 

And of his brewer he toke with hym ten, 

Swiche as he knew for most manly men, 

)3at wer foreyn fro stok of regalye, 

Oute of J>e lyne born in bastardrie, 

Whom Hector hadde in gret cher[i]te 

For ]>e kny^thod he koude in hem se. 

And whanne he Had, be kny^tly pwruyaurace, 

Alle his wardis* sette in gouernauwce, 

Liche Mars hym silf fastfe] gan him spede 

Wit/i-oute abood for to take his stede, 

Whiche was in bokis callid Gallathe, 

Of alle hors havyng ]?e souereynte, 

As fer as men ride in any coost 

Of whom Dares maketh so gret a boost, 

Of schap, of hi^te, and also of fayrnes, 

Of strengj>e, of loke, and of gret swiftnes, 

So lik an hors parformed oute & oute 

And with a wyre men my^t hym twrne aboute, 

Lik as Dares maketh mencioim. 

On whom Hector rood poru} Troye ioun, 

Armed at al, ]>at cam hym wonder wel, 

From foot til hed, ful richely & wel, 

)3at schon as bri^t as sonrie on someres day ; 










380. at] of A. 392. born] y born A. 

396. wardis] lordia C. 403. 2nd of] & D 1. 

404. and] om. D 1. 406. wyre] wher D 2. 

410. til] to D 1 richely & wel] rich in maile & stel D 1. 

BK. in] Hector assigns 1500 Knights to guard Priam. 407 

And to Priam he helde J?e ri3t[e] way. 412 

And whan J>at he was comyn to pe kyng, 

He reherseth in ordre euery Jnng 

How he hath done, and al his ordinauwce, 

And lowly seide, " so* it be plesaurace 

To 3oure noble royal excellence, 

I haue chosen vtith besy dilligence 

A fousand kny3tes, ful of suffisaimce, 

With fyve hundrid, to han attendance 

On 3our persone alweye where 36 be, [leaf 71 c] 

With alle foot-men J>at ben in J>e cite, 

J?at schal await on 3ou euere in on. 

Wherfore, my lord, as fast as we ar goon, 

Lowly I praye to 3oure worj>ines 

To sewen vs, be good avisenes, 

Out at J?e touw, and alwey eke J>at 30 

To-gidre kepe 3our kny3tes and meyne : 428 

J?is I beseche with al my f ulle my3t, 

WM-Inne J>e bou?idis where as* we schal fijt 

ftat 36 suffre noon of hem to pace, 

But kepe 2ow hool in he silfFe] place 

L j ,.- * -I ' 

Atwixe vs and pis* stronge cite, 
3if we haue nede, bat ae may ay se, 

; T A -L J 

Ys to releue kepyng 3ow a-side, 

And specially ]>er for to abide 436 

Where most is likly oure party to sustene ; 

For euer among J>er schal men go be-twene 

Of our expleit J?e trouj>e to reporte, 

[For] Whiche part Mars list J>e feld to sorte, 440 

Of his power, )>is ilke day fatal : 

For 30 schal ben oure castel & oure wal, 

And oure refuge to saue vs from al smert. 

And specialy o ting 2e aduerte, 444 

bat no deceit, fraude, nor tresouw 

Compassyd be behynde to fe toun 

Of oure foon J>oru3 oure reklesnes, 

"Whiles fat we don oure besynes 448 

416. so] to C. 430. as] Jxit C. 433. his] >e C. 
440. to] cm. D 1 to sorte] resorte D 2. 
442. 2nd oure] om. A. 

Hector teiis 
has done : 


he has orderd 

1500 knights 

pna C m > a 8 8 
420 bodyguard, 


who are to 

432 the fighters 

and Troy, 

to relieve 

them when 

need is. 

Priam is to 

stop the 

Greeks' at- 
tempting to 
get mtotiM 

d by 


while the 
Trojans are 
Bghting in 

Priam trusts 


and prays the 

that he may 



Hector takes 
his leave of 



Priam approves all that Hector has done. [BK. in 

Ageyn[e]s hem in pe feld to fijte: 

In al wyse her-to hath a sy$t, 

J)at no ping turne [vn-]to oure damage 

Jporu^ her engyn, but werkyth as )>e sage, 

With victorie fat we may conclude, 

So pat Grekis with fraude vs nat delude 

By non engyn of vnvvar violence, 

Hopyng alwey pat it is non offence 

To $oure hisnes fat I haue here saide." 

And with fat word, Priamws abraide, 

Benygnely of chere and contenaurcce, 

And seide : " Hector, my sothfaste suffisance, 460 

My final trust and supportaciourc, 

In pi wyse disposiciourc 

Hoolly I putte, as fou* liste ordeyne : 

For nexte goddis 3if I schal nat feyne 

My feith, my hope, & al my sikernes, 

And my welfare, in verray sothfastnes, 

Comytted ben hool in-to fin honde, 

And gouemaujice, playnly, of* my londe : 

As fou ordeynest, it most nedis be ; 

And pis praier I make now for f e 

To pe goddis a-boue celestial, 

)3e to p?*eserue, in party and in al, 

From eche meschef and aduersite, 

Jjat pou maiste horn to f is cite 

Eepeire in* honour with laude & victorie, 

So fat pe pris, renoim, and memorie 

Of pi name be putte in remembrauwce, 

Perpetuelly pin honour to avauwce ! 

And fare now wel, myn owne sone dere." 

And Hector po, wip ful humble chere, 

His leue toke, and forpe he rood anoon 

Among* his lordis & kny^tes euerychon, 

As he pat was rote of al noblesse, 

451. vn-to] onto A. 457. here] ere D 1. 
463. pou] j>e C. 464. goddis] god A. 
466. And] Al D 1. 467. in-to] in D 2. 
468. of] of al C. 475. in] with C. 

482. Among] Amongis C. 483, 484 arc transposed in D 1. 

483. he] om. D 1. 

[leaf 71 d] 






BK. ill] Hector & his Shield & Banner. He spurs to the front. 409 

Of kny^thod groiwde, of strengjje & hardines 484 

j)e verray stok, and j)er-to invincible. 

For-as-moche as it was possible 

Jpat Nature my^t hym grawit or* kynde, Hector has 

Touching manhod, in bokis as I fynde, 488 Nature. 

He had in hym souereine excellence, 

And gouernauwce medlid with prudence, 

J)at nou}t asterte hi??i, he was so wis & war. 

And in his scheld, I fynde, bat he bar 492 On his shield 

. and banner 

Yp-on his brest, bis Troyan champioutt, is a red Hon 

x ' on a pold 

])Q chefe of gold, of goulys a lyouw ground. 

Depeint fer-in, and in his baner bete 

\)Q silfe same ; and so amyd J>e strete 496 

He toke J?e weye to Dardanydes, 

)5at to beholde huge was ]?e pres, 

Noise of trompetis and of clariourcs, 

Baners vnrollid, & longe fresche penouws 500 

Of rede and whyte, grene, blew, & blake. 

And in ])is wyse Hector hath y-take He takes the 

be feld with-oute, with hert & hool entent, in the rear 

at first, 

As Mars hym silf had[de] be present. 504 

And pei J>at he, as Guydo maketh mynde, 

Rood with J>e warde )?at last[e] was be-hynde 

Of his manhod he nolde nat abide, 

But smet his stede scharply in be side 508 but then 

spurs t" f 

Of fel corage he hath his hors so peyned, front. 

J?e first[e] warde ]>ai he hath atteyned, 

Be vale & hil to-forn in J?e froimters, 

Not astonyd of j?e felle cheris 512 

Of j?e Grekis, nor platly nat aferd ; 

But liche a kny^t, euene a-forn her herd, 

He gan prese in, as her fo mortal. 

And in bis while, vp-on Trove wal, 516 onthewaiu 

j . . . of Troy stand 

In sondry place on J>e hi^e touris, fair young 

As fresche be-seyn as May is with his flouris, 

J?e ladies fen ascendid of j>e touw [leaf 72 a] 

So fair, so ^onge, stondyng envirou?i 520 

484. &] om. D 2. 486. was] is D 2. 487. or] of C. 
508. But] He D 1. 

jurs to the 

fear for their 
and lovers. 

410 Trojan Ladies. Lydgate laments Chaucer's death. [BK. Ill 

Helen, ])& quene Eloyiie, passyng fair to sene, 

Jni y oti!S ])& kynges doubters, & goodly Polly cene, 
Tr d oTwaiis And many o)>er, whiche of wommanhede 

In hertfe] wern ful of besy drede, 524 

Inly a-gast, and of fere affrayed 

Whan J>ei behilde in J)e feld displaied 

)5e brode baners, J>at some of tendernes, 

So?rane of loue, and sorame of kyndenes, 528 

Pale and dredful for her lordis were ; 

And somme her facis hydden [eke] for fere, 

})at were nat bold to liften vp her si$t 

To be-hold J>e armure clere and bri3t, 532 

So gliteryng ageyn )?e son[n]e schene 

Her hertis tendre my3t[e] nat sustene; 

And in her drede Jms I lete hem, dwelle. 

And of Grekis furjje I wil 3ow telle, 536 

3if so be 36 list abide a whyle ; 

For now most I my for-dullid stile 

Ageyn directe to Agamenoim. 

Wei may I make an exclamacioiw 540 

On ignorauwce, ]?at stant so in my Ii3t, 

Whiche causeth me with a ful cloudy si3t 

In my makynge to speken of j?e werre 

For lak of termys I mote nedis erre, 544 

Cownyngly my wordis* for to sette ; 

Cruel Allecto is besy me to lette, 

])Q ny3tes dou3ter, blindid by dirknes, 

Be craft of armys ]>e troupe to expresse, 548 

In ordre due a feld to discryue : 

And Chaucer now, alias ! is nat alyue 

Me to reforme, or to be my rede, 

For lak of whom slower is my spede 552 

fee noble Rethor J>at alle dide excelle ; 

For in makyng he drank of J?e welle 

Vndir Pernaso, Jjat j)e Musis kepe, 

On whiche hil I my3t[e] neuer slepe 556 

Onnejje slombre for whiche, alias, I pleyne ; 

522. doujters] doubter D 1. 535. new IT A. 
541. ray] om. D 1. 545. wordis] wardis A, C. 
554. in] of D 1. 

Now I turn 
to the Greeks. 

But my 
hinders me. 

alas, IB not 
alive to 
correct me. 

BK. in] Agamemnon arranges the Greeks in 26 Battalions. 411 

But for al f is, f er is no more to seyne. 

J9ou^ my wede be nat polymyte, 

Colourles, forfe I wil endyte 560 

As it cometh euene to my f ou^t, 

Pleinly to write how f e ky^g ha]) wrou^t, 

]3e manly kny^t, gret Agamenoiuz, Agamemnon 

Lyk as fe latyn maketh menciouw. 564 

Howe Agamenon ordeynyde syx and twenty warddys, 
and assygnede theme tyle kyngis, princes, and 
lordys of his Oste; and howe worthi Ector, at 
fe first encozmterynge, departede Patroclus 
atwyne. 1 

What ! trowe 36, fat he in his entent 

Was fovmde sloiue, ouber necligent is not negli- 

On Grekis half his wardis for to make ? 

Nay, nay, nat so; for hym list to wake [leaf 72 &] 568 

J?at tyme more, sothly,* fan to slepe, 

Ful lik a kyng fat day fe feld to kepe. 

No* necligence my$t his hert[e] fade* : 

For [in] fat day, I fynde, fat he made 572 he puts the 

Six and twenty wardis by and by, M battalions: 

So wel deuised, and so prudently 

)3at no man my^t amende his ordinau?zce. 

And of fe first he $af goue?'nau?ice 576 i. under 

To ]>e manful noble Patroclus, 

J?at with hym ladde (myn auctowr telleb bus) with the 

-_. , Myrmidons 

Miruftdones, so my3ti and so stronge, of Achuies, 

With alle f e folke fat to Achilles longe, 580 

Besyde filke fat wern of his meyne 

Whiche fat he brou^t out of his centre 

At his * comyng to * f e sege of Troye ; 

And he rood furf e vriih hem on his woye 584 

In- to f e feld, and made no delay e. 

Now, fille it so on f e same day 

J)at Achilles kepte hym in his tente, who stays in 

his tent. 

560. Colourles] Colours A. 569. more sothly] sothly more C. 
571. No] Nor C fade] sade C. 583. his] >e C to] of C. 
584. on] in D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 70 b (misplaced after line 562). 

Love of Achilles & Patroclus. The Greek 2nd Battalion. [BK.III 

Achilles was 
wounded the 
day before. 

So he gives 
his men to 

whom he 
greatly lovd, 

for their 
hearts were 
lockt to- 

2. nnder 
K in JH Merion 
and Idu- 

And for seknes J?at day oute ne wente ; 

For his lechis made hym to abstene, 

For his wou^des fresche wern & grene 

jpat he kau^t on )>e day to-fore ; 

Whiche for to hele of her akyng sore, 

He be coimseil kepte hym silf [e] cloos, 

And from his bed J?at day nat ne roos, 

In hope only ]?e bettre to endure 

Whan ]?t he was restored vn-to cure. 

But aile his men he toke to Patroclus, 

Whiche was in armys passyngly fam?/s, 

And be discent come of gret kynrede, 

And was also of hym as I rede 

Habuwdauwt of gold and of riches, 

And fer comendid for his gentilles, 

And hadde a name of hi^e discreciou?i. 

Now was ]>er eue?'e swiche affecciou?z 

Of entere lone, troujje, & feithfulnes, 

So gret desyre and inward kyndenes, 

Besy ]>inkyng, & so gret feruence, 

So moche frendeschip & Jjou^tful aduertence, 

So huge brewnyng, passyng amerous, 

Betwixe Achilles & )?is Patroclus, 

J5at her hertis were lokkid in o cheyne ; 

And what-so-euer, if I schal nat feyne, 

)5e ton hath wroujt, as broker vn-to broker, 

In hert it was confermyd of J?e tojjer : 

For wil and godys, boj>e were cowimvne, 

And to ])e deth ]?ei euere so contvne, 

W/t/i-oute chau?ige her lone so abood. 

And Patroclus furpe anoon hym* rood 

In-to J>e feld w/t/t Myrundones, 

And in his tent abideth Achilles. 

J)e secounde warde to kynge Meryouw 

Assigned was by Agamenou?i; 

And to )>e wor>i kyng Ydwme[n]e, 

593. He be] Be his D 1. 60 

[leaf 72 c] 










. anoon hym] amonge hem C. 623. to] om. D 1. 

BK. in] Leaders of the G-reek Battalions, Nos. 3 to 7. 


And to a duke j?at hi^t[e] Meneste, 

fere J>ousand kny^tes in stele armyd clene, 

With alle ]>e folke J?at cam fro Athene, 

Assygned werne with hem for to go. 

fee )>rid[de] ward to kyng Astalapho,* 

And to his sone, J>at hi^tfe] Philomene, 

WiJ) J?e kny^tes fat cam fro Kwmene ; 

fee four]?e warde, \vith-oute more lettyng, 

To Archelaus, Ipe noble wor)>i kyng, 

To Prothenor, and to Securidan, 

Whiche in his daies was so strong a maw, 

Assigned was holy to J>ese ]>re, 

And alle ]>e kny^tes with hem for to be 

Of Boece, pe grete lond famous. 

fee fytye warde to kyng Menelaus, 

With alle )>e folke of )>e regions 

Callid Spartence, of ful hi^e renou?i, 

And of ]>e lies jjat wern adiacent 

Alle j>ese with ]?e baner went 

Of Menelay, fresche and coraious. 

])e sixte warde to kyng Epistrofus 

"Was assigned, and to J>e kyng Elyde, 

With many worjn ridyng be his side 

Of ]>e prouynce and J>e famous He 

jjat callid is in Guydo Fordesyle. 

J?e seuenfe warde to Thelamonyus, 

Callid Aiax, ]>e grete kyng famous, 

Was assigned, scliortly to termyne, 

WiJ) fe folkis ])at fro Salomyne 

He with hym brou^t, & many anofer mo j 

And foure erlis with him went also : 

Theseus and eke Amphimacus, 

And ]>e )>ridde I-callid Darius, 

And pe four]?e namyd Polysarie. 

fee ei3te ward, }if I schal nat tarie, 

628. Astalapho] Astralapho C. 

630. |>at] tham A Kwmene] Cumene D 1. 

635. >ese] this A, >is D 2. 641. >e] om. D 2. 

647. and] of D 2. 649. seuen^e] sixte D 1. 

652 Salomyne] Salamyne A. 653. anobeH ober D 1. 

656. I-callid] called. A, D 1. 

624 and Duke 

with 8000 
knights and 
all the 

628 8 - K. Astala- 







4. K. Arche- 

5. K. Mene- 

644 6. K. Epis- 
trophus and 
K. Elyde. 

7. K. Ajax 


with 4 Earls. 

414 Leaders of the Greek Battalions, Nos. 8 to 20. [BK. in 

8. K. Thoas. 

9. Ajax 

10. K. Pbi- 

11. K. Pala- 


12. Duke 

13. King 

14. K. Ulys- 

15. K. 


16. Duke 

17. King 

18. King of 

19. K. Zanti- 

20. King 



Be good avis J>t day assigned was 

Vn-to ]>e kyng fat callid was Thoas. 660 

Aiax Cileus j?e ny[n]j>e warde ladde, 

And J>e ten]>e J>e kyng of Philete hadde ; 

And to )>e kyng j?e xi [he] dide assigne, 

Jjat sothly was, bope of birjje & lyne, 664 

So renomed, & of so gret encres, 

)3e my^ty kyng callid Pallaraydes, [leaf 72 d] 

Kyng Naulus sone, Invest born of blood. 

And duke Nestor, ful famws in kn[y]$thood, 668 

])e twelve warde ladde on Grekis side, 

Malencolik and surquedous of pride. 
And kyng Honux, sone of on Mabente, 

In-to )>e feld, pleinly, whan he wente, 672 

In ordre hadde of wardis J>e ])rittene, 

Proudly mowsteryng endelong ]>e grene, 

Ageyn[e]s Troyens redy i'or to fi^t. 

And eke ]>e kyng ]>at Vilixes hijt 676 

Ladde vritfi hym fe fourten]?e, as I rede ; 

And Humerus ]>e kyng eke dide lede 

))e fiftenfe, myri auctor writeth jms ; 

And a duke, callid Curibulus, 680 

J?e xvi. ladde vp-on that day, 

In whiche }>e kiiy^tes of kyng Prothesylay 

Assigned wern by gret ordinauwce, 

Tenforsen hem for to do vengau^ce 684 

Vp-on fe deth of her worjji kyng, 

By Hector slawe at Grekis arivyng. 

And kyng Royda ladde J)e seuentene ; 

And he Jmt was kyng of Octymene, 688 

]3e xviii warde had at his ledyng ; 

And 3antipus, J)at was of Lyde kyng, 

Hadde to kepe, committed to his garde, 

On Grekis side ))e nynten])e warde. 692 

And J?e twenty, myn auctor lerej) vs, 

661. Cileus] Oyleus D 2 nyn>e] ix A 

662. ten)>e]xe warde D 1-Philete] Phisyk A, Phisik D 1, Philik 

ODD. X1J X e D 1. 

**9 i^ ge3 I n i eS 2 A ? yi J D 2> 682 ' In ^ f e D 1-kyng] om. D 1. 
687. Koyda] Roydo A. 688. Octymene] Occymene A, D 2. 
689. had] om. D 1. 693. lere>] lerneth D 1 

BK. in] Leaders of the Greek Battalions, Nos. 21 to 26. 415 

Hackle ]?e kyng callid Amphimacus, 
Lik a kny$t to guye hem & to wisse ; 
And Philocetes, Jjat was kyng of Larisse, 
})Q oon & twenty had eke, as I rede. 
)3e two & twenty had[de] Dyomede ; 
And Heneus, kyng of Cypary, 
j?at was whilom so noble & so worjn, 
Jpe ]>re & twenty had in gouernaille. 
And Ipe Troyens proudly for to assaille 
))e xxiiii* 1 , with swerd, spere, and schelde, 
Kyng Prothaylus ladde in-to ]?e felde ; 
And Carpenor, of Carpadie kyng, 
In werre expert & ri^t wys in wirchyng, 
))e five & twenty, riche & wel be-seyn, 
On Grekis syde brou^t in-to J?e pleyn. 
])Q sixe & twenti, sothly, and ])e laste, 
As he J?at coude sen a-forn an[d] caste 
Euery ]?ing be good inspecciouw, 
)?e wyse kyng, J?e grete Agamenouw, 
Had \vith hym, Jns prudent werriour, 
As he ]?at was ordeyned emperour 
Of Grekis host, as wysest of echon. 





21. K. Philo- 

22. Diomede. 

23. K. Hen- 


24. K. Pro- 

25. K. Car- 

26. Aga- 

712 the Great. 

[leaf 73 a] 

Howe bothe the wardys of }>e Troyans and of J>e 
Grekys fyrst ioynede in the felde. 1 

And in )?is wise forjje J>e Grekis goon 716 

In-to ]?e feld, with pompe ful royal, 

With thensygnes and tokenes marcial, 

Han take her ground, passingly arrayed ; 

And on her stondardis, richely displaied, 720 

Erode baners an[d] many fresche penou?? 

Ageyn j>e wynde ]?at made a hidous soiw, 

And ri$t dredful, pleinly, for to here 

696. Philocetes] TMlotetes D 1. 

700. "2nd so] om. D 1. 

704. Kyng Prothaylus] Prothaylus kyng D 1. 

707. five & twenty] xxv* 1 warde D 1. 

717. In-to] In A, D 2, D 1. 720. displaied] spailed D 1. 

722. a] an A, D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 123 a (leaf 123 (according to present 
state of MS., 119) is misplaced with leaf 71 (70); the chapter- 
heading also is misplaced after line 742). 

Thus arrayd, 
the Greeks 
take the field, 

with banners 
and pennons 

416 The Pomp & Noise of the Greek Host. Hector &Patroclus.[EK.m 

The Greeks' 


and love- 

The bray of 

The neighing 
of liorseu. 

The Greeks 
and Trojans 
in face of one 

Hector rides 

towards the 

towards him. 

And fer men seie many crestis clere, 

And many tuft of gold & siluer schene, 

Meynt with fef ris rede, white, & grene, 

And deuyses wonder merueillous, 

And of folkis fat wern amerous 

J)e tokenes born to schewen openly 

How f ei in loue brenten inwardly 

Soni hi^e emprise fat day to f ulfille. 

And fer wer herd fe loude noyses schrille 

Per in f e feld, and f e dredful sownes 

Bof e of trompettis and of clarioiws, 

feat be kalendys of schedyng oute of blood. 

And vritfi fe noyse al-most for rage wood, 

fee* fomy bridelis & fe moufes blede, 

And furious neying of many [bastard] stede 

Prauwsynge of hors vp-on ouf er side, 

"With alle fensygnes fat my3t ben of pride 

On Grekis part[y], and on Troye also : 

In kny^tly wyse for to haue a-do, 

Eueryche warde stondynge in his place. 

fee first, a-sondre but a litel space, 

Be-gan to approche wz't/A al her f ul entent,* 

And Hector f o, ful inpacient,* 

Formest of alle on f e side of Troye, 

fee Ire of whom no man myjt acoye : 

But lik a lyoiw in his hungri rage 

Issed oute, furious of visage, 

Toward Grekis on his my3ti stede, 

feat wit/t his spoils made his sides blede 

His kny^tly hert so inly was to-torn 

Of mortal Ire, and as he rood to-forn, 

Breraiynge ful hote in his malencolye : 

fee whiche fing whaw Grekis gan espie, 

Patroclus, wz't/i-oute more abood, 

Of surquedie a-fore fe wardis rood, 










< 732 - 11 y ses ] noise 
737. fe] With C. 738. bastard] om. D 1 

745. approche] proche D 1 entent] myjt C. 

7 Sfl^SSwS 1 ^ d U3ty kny3t C-inpae 
752. pat with] Of wiche D 1 sides] side D 1 
754. and] om. D 1. 

t] vnpacient A. 

BK. Ill] Hector fights Patrocius, and kills him. 417 

Oute al to-forn, in bo]>e hostis sijt, 

For to encontre, pleinly, 3if he myjt, 760 

With worjn Hector whatt he him saw a-fer ; Patrocius 

And as ri^t lyne as is diameter, 

Rood vn-to hyrn in his hatful tene, charges 

J Hector, 

And with a spere, scharpfe] grouwde & kene, [leaf 736] 764 jy g d JjJ3J* 

feoru^-oute his schelde, of envious rage, 

He smote Hector, \wt7i-oute more damage, 

Except only fat ]>e hed of stele 

feat was to-forn, forged & whet ful wele, 768 

feoru^ plate & maile my^tely gan glace, and armour. 

But to J?e skyn for no Jring my^t hit trace 

Al-be it cam of passyng violence 

3 it to Hector it dide noon offence, 772 

Out of his sadel onys hym to fiitte : 

For Jjou} pat he sturdely hym hitte, 

He myjt[e] nat bakward bow his chyne, 

Nor on no parti make hym to enclyne ; 776 

But fatally to his confusion w, 

feis my^ti man, J?is Troy an champioiro, Hector bares 

In his Ire ay breraiynge more and more, 

Vp-on hym )>e hate frat so sore, 780 

Lefte his spere, myn auctor writeth J>us, 

And vrith a swerd rood to Patrocius, bis sword, 

A vised fully fat he schal be ded ; 

And furiously gan hamen at his hed, 784 

And rof hym doura, )>er was no maner lette, "SalntS?" 

In-to fe brest foru^ his basenet, 

As seith Guydo, with so gret a peyne, 

feat with Ipe stroke he partid hym on tweyne. 788 

His mortal swerde whettid was so kene, 

feat Patrocius my^tfe] nat sustene 

Yp-on his hors, but fil doim to gromide, 

As he J>at kau^t his last[e] fatal wou^^de, 792 

Beyng present his kny^tes euerychon. 

And delyuerly vp-on hym anon, 

WorJ?i Hector from his stede a-doura mounts". 

768. to-forn] a forn A. 772. to] of A. 

788. on tweyne] a tweyne A. 792. kau$t] rau^t D 1. 

418 Hector surrounded ly Greeks, and abusd ly Merion. [BK. in 

Discendid is lik a wode lyoiw, 
Of hatful Ire bre?mynge as J>e fire, 
Hector wants Havinge in hert inly gret desire 

to strip off 

Patrocius's TO spoilen liym of his armvttre anoon, 


but Merion, 
with 3000 
knights, sur- 
rounds him, 

and abuses 



In whiche J>er was [ful] many riche stoon, 
BoJ?e of rubies and saphiris ynde 
For Jrilke daies, pleinly, as I fynde, 
Kynges, lordis, & kny^tes (J?is no nay) 
To bataille went in her best array. 
And, sothly, Hector, whan he first gan se 
Jpe multitude of stonys and perre 
On Patroclus, so orient and schene, 
Vp-on his arme he hynge his hors[e] rene, 
\)e mene while, whil he of hool entent 
To cacche his praye was so dilligeiit, 
Of couetyse, in J>er alder si^tes. 
Til Meriouw, vfith J?re )>ousand kny^tes, 
Armed in stele, rouwde a-boute hym alle, 
Is sodeynly v)>-on Hector falle, 
)5e dede cors of Patroclus to sane, 
|3at his purpos Hector may nat haue, 
At liberte J>e riche kyng to spoille, 
Whiche caused hym in anger for to boille. 

[leaf 73 c] 







Howe Kynge Meryon salutede worthy Ectore as he 
was aboute for to dyspoyle Kynge Patroclus. 1 

To whom J>e kyng, callid Merion, 

Irous & wood, seide among echon : 820 

"0 gredy lyoutt, o wolfe most rauenous, 

hatful tygre, passyng envious, 

Of avarice, o beste in-saturable, 

And of desire, sothly vnstaurachable, 824 

Vp-on ]?is pray Jjou schalt J>e nat now fede, 

Go ellis- where to swe for J)i mede : 

For trust[e] well, in conclusions, 

Fifti )?ousaiid, to }>i distructiouw, 828 

821. Ind o] om. D2. 825. now] om. D 1. 
] Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 123 c (leaf 123 (119) is misplaced with 
leaf 71 (70) ; the chapter-heading also is misplaced after line 820). 

BK. in] The Greeks attack Hector, but he cuts himself free. 419 

Of oon entent, pleinly, wil nat faille 

J)in hatful pride attonys for to assaille ! " 

And sodeinly, with speris scharpfe] whette, 

On eue/y half pei gowne hym be-sette, 

Maugre his force, his my3t, & his manhede 

Enforcyng hem* tarevid him his stede, 

ftat, sothfastly, of gret violence, 

He constreyned, for al his strong diffence, 

As seith Guydo, to falle vp-on his kne ; 

But Jjoni} his my^t & magnanymyte, 

He of manhood hath his hors recurid, 

And maugre* Grekis is so moche assurid 

In his strengfe and his gret[e] my$t, 

Jjat he recurid lik a worjri kny^t 

His stede ageyn amiddes of* his foon. 

And ri^t as lyne he rood to Meiion, 

Ful desyrous on hym avengid* to be, 

In his furye of hasty cruelte : 

For Jjer-vppon was sette al his delit, 

J)at in his mortal blody appetit, 

In verray soth, he hadde hym slaw anon, 

Saue jjat j?e kyng, which called was Glacon, 

Cam to rescue hym with kyng Theseus, 

And his sone, pat hi^t Archilagus, 

As I haue tolde, Merion to rescue. 

And )>re pousaiid kny^tes gan hym swe, 

Ful assentid, attonis, in bataille, 

For lyf or deth Hector to assaille, 

In a-wait vnwar on hym to sette. 

But al J)is whyle, with whom ])at euer he mette, 

With his swerde he kylleth & bare dourc, 

)3at finally fer gayneth no rauwsouft : 

For any Greke ]>at durst wyth hym mete, 

832 Merion 

836 forces Hector 
on to his 

But he 
840 again, 

844 rides at 



and would 
have kild 
him if Glacon 

852 and others 
rescued him. 


Hector slays 

830. for] om. D 1. 832. goraie] gan A, D 2. 
834. hem] hym C. 835. sothfastly] sothly D 2. 
840. maugre] among C. 841. and] and in A. 
843. of] alle C. 

845. on hym avengid] avengid on hym C to] om. A, D 2. 
850. which] ]>at D 1 was] is A Glacon] Clacon D 2, D 1, 
Glaucoon A. 

852. Archilagus] Astrylogus A. 857. vnwar] on ware D 1. 
858. with] om. D 1. 

420 Hector has to fight on foot. Merion rescues Patroclus's corpse. 

Hector rides 
to spoil 

King Idu- 
mene with 
2000 men 
attacks him. 

They take 
his horse, 

and he fights 
on foot. 

He hews off 



and slays 15 

But Merion 
carries off 
dead body. 

At clepartyng f elte f ul vnswete ; [leaf 73 d] 

He made a weye aboute hym euery-where, 

J?at }>ei fledde hym as J>e dej? for fere, 

For where he rod he made a path f ul pleyn. 

And, as I rede, to Patroclus ageyn 

He is repeired to spoille hym $if he my$t, 

Amyd J>e feld in J?e Grekis sijt, 

As he J>at wolde his praye nat ^tly lete. 

Til Ydwme, ]>e myjty* kyng of Crete, 

With two Jjousand clad in plate & maille, 

"VVorfi kny^tes, Hector to assaille 

Whylcs )>at he was so desirous, 

As I haue tolde, to spoille Patroclus 

And new ageyn, to his confusioim, 

Lyk as I fyncle, cam kyng Merioiw ; 

And or Hector my$t[e] taken hede, 

J)ei of force reften hym his stede, 

j?at sothly he, J?er was noon o]?er bote, 

Compellid was [for] to fi^t on fote. 

And of kny^thod his hert[e] he reswmeth ; 

And -with his swerde aboute hym he cowswmeth 

Al )?at wij>-stood, bo]?en hors & man ; 

And furiously )>is Troyan kny^t be-gan 

Armys, leggis, schuldris, by )>e boon, 

To hewen of, amyd his mortal foon, 

)5at Grekis my^t a-forn hi??i nat sustene. 

And, as I rede, pat he slowe fif tene 

Of hem )>at were besy hym to take ; 

And swiche a slaw^ter he garc a-mo?zg hem make, 

)5at J>ei ne durste abide a-forn his face. 

And Merion, in ])e silfe place, 

J?is mene while, toke vp Patroclus, 

With hevy chere and face ful pitous, 

And on his stede he leide it hym be-forn ; 

And to his tent [anon] he hath it bom 

Alwey Grekis, in her cruel mood, 

Aboute Hector, furious and wood, 










870. myjty] worjn C. 879. sothly he] he sothly D 2. 
883. wi]>-stood] with stoml D 2. 894. hevy] om. D 1. 

A Trojan knight helps Hector, & kills his chief foe, Carion. 421 

Felly abood, f^tynge vp-oii fote. 

Of whiche sowme felt[e] ful vnswote, 900 

J?at preswrned vp-on hym to p?*ese ; 

But of manhod fei ne wolde sese SwuSt 661 

To be-sette hym vppon e\iery syde, Hector, 

Havinge a truste, in her grete pride, 904 

Finally at meschef hym to take : 

For pei dempte he my3t[e] nat eskape 

Her hondis, schortly, be non aventure, 

Nor his stede be lyklyhede recure ; 908 

For of force pei casten hym to lette, 

And al attonys gan on hym to sette. 

And specialy, amonge hem euerychon, [leaf 74 a] tiTknMit 

I finde, in soth, how pat per was oon, 912 canon. 

A Grekysche kny3t of ri3t worpi fame, 

And Carion, pleinly, was his name, 

))at him afforcede Hector to oppresse, 

Whan he was most in meschef & distresse, 916 

Be-set \\ith Grekys hym envirownynge : 

Til of fortune, on hym awaitynge 

J)e longe day in fat felle fi3t, 

To his rescus per cam a Troyan kny3t, 920 But a Trojan 

Myd of Grekis whan he was be-set, 

And toke two dartes, scliarp & kene whet, 

And furiously first he schot f e toon, 

And f oru3 f e hert he smote f is Carion, 924 kills Carion, 

jpat f e darte into f e felde gan glide, 

By plate & maille, poru3-out of er syde, 

)5at fatally of fat dedly wourade 

))is Carious glood anoon to grouwde, 928 

Amonge an huradrid kny3tes of his feris, 

A-fore conspired wzt/i her felle cheris 

To haue slayn Hector be some maner woye. 

But eft ageyn pis 3onge kny3t of Troye 932 

Ful deliuerly rau3t anoper spere, and takes 

And cast at on fat he sawe a-fere 8 P ear 

901. prcswmed] presume D 1. 

906. dempte] doute D 2. 

909, 910. hym] hem A. 921. Myd] Amyd D 1. 

923. schot] shok D 2. 


Hector is rescued, and remounts his Steed. [BK. Ill 

and slays 
a man trying 
to kill 

and calls on 
the Trojans 
to help' 

His brother 

with some 

charges the 
who retreat. 

Hector re- 
mounts his 

and kills 
his foes. 

Avaimce hym silfe on Hector in f e felde, 

And foru} his platis, pleinly, & his schelde, 936 

Lyne ri^t, fat he ne schuld asterte, 

Of verray my^t rofe hym f oru^ fe hcrte ; 

And after fat, in al f e haste he coude, 

Vp-on Troy ens he gan to crie loude 940 

Ten hasten hem kny^tly to secure 

Worf i Hector, fat stood in auenture 

Amonge Grekis, havynge no refute, 

Sool by hym silfe, of helpe destitute. 944 

At whiche cry, on Grekis al vnwar, 

First of alle cam worf i Cyncybar, 

}3at brof er was to Hector in bast born ; 

And hym silfe rydynge al to-forn, 948 

And f e kny^tes of whiche he was guyde, 

Wonder proudly prikynge by his syde, 

Sodeinly, bothe oon and alle, 

In a frosche be on* fe Grekis falle, 952 

J^at hadde Hector rouwde be-sette aboute ; 

And f oru} manhod of f is grete route 

jpat be# enbosched on hern at fe bak, 

fte hundrid kny^tes, of whiche J?at I spak, 956 

For-a-stonyd gan hem to wit/idrawe : 

But fritti firste cruelly were slawe ; 

And maugre hem, Hector of manhede 

Amydde fe felde taken hath his stede, [leaf 71 6] 960 

And entrid [is] in amonge f e prees. 

And he fat day, of kny^thood pereles, 

While he hilde his blody swerde on hond, 

Alle fo fat ageyn hym stonde 964 

])er was noon help, pleinly, nor no red 

But fat he brak & carfe a-two f e f rede 

And f e knot of cruel Antropos : 

Only for he was lette of his purpos, 968 

At good leyser to spoile Patroclus. 

jjerfore, in Ire wood and furious, 

935. Avaimce] A vavwte D 2, Avaunte Dl. 
937. ne schuld] nolde D 1. 938. rofe] he rofe D 1. 
940. crie] grye A. 951. bothe] be thanne D 1. 
952. on] oon 0. 

BK. ill] Troilus's 'valour. Menestheus is to attack him. 423 

Ful cruelly Grekis quitte her mede, 
Whiche from his face faste gan hem spede, 
Whos scharp[e] swerde, bafed in her blood, 
Was dyed rede : for it dide hym good 
Yp-on hem avenged for to be. 
For filke day [f e] lyouw pleyed he, 
Yp-on Grekis his manhod for to haimte ; 
For he her pride so mortally gan dauwte, 
Jpat fei hym fled, where-so fat he rood, 
Makyng al hoot f e stremys of her blood 
Endelonge to rewne vp-on f e grene, 
Til ]>e tyme f e duke of grete Athene, 
))at callid was whilom Menesteus, 
With fre fousand kny^tes ful famous, 
Of whiche he was bof e lord & guyde, 
})Q feld hath taken vp-on fe left[e] side, 
For a deceyt, in ful secre wyse, 
Where Troylus was with f e folke of Fryse, 
Wliiche [haf] fat day, who-so liste to seke, 
By his kny^thod kylled many Greke : 
Liche a tigre, gredy on his pray, 
Troylus bar hym al f e longe day, 
Sleynge of Grekis many worf i kny^t. 
And while fat he was besiest in fi^t 
Ageyn his foon, with kyng Antipus 
And fe kyng fat hi^tfe] Alcanus, 
Yp-on Grekis elyche fresche and newe, 
Makynge her sydes al of blody hewe, 
By oon assent, fis fre f oru} her manhede 
And specially, vppon his baye stede, 
Wher-so-euer fat fis Troylus rood, 
Euery Greke fat his swerd abood 
Sodeinly he made for to sterve, 
Jporu^ her platis so depe he dide kerue. 
And fis contvneth til duke Meneste 
Of Troylus saw f e grete cruelte, 

971. her] hem her A. 978. he] om. D 2. 

98'2. grete] om. D 1. 

988. Troylus was] folkes were D 1 folke] men D 1. 

990. many] many a D 1. 1004. dide] gan A gaft D 1. 


976 Hector slay s 


Duke Mene- 
stheus of 
Athens tnkes 
the field with 
984 300 men 


to attack 

992 who has been 
slaying 3 
Greeks all 




sees this. 





and beats 
him down: 

Troilus is seizd ly Menestheuss men. [BK. in 

he fights 

but is seizd. 
Miseres calle 

-on Troilus's 

to rescue 


And ]>e slawjtre J>at he on Grekis made 

Of hasty Ire, wij> face pale and fade, 

Hent a spere & J>rewe it in J:e reste [leaf 74 c] 

And Troylus smet euene amyd J?e breste 

So sternely, ]>at maugre his renou?*, 

To )>e erj>e anon he bare hyrn dou?i, 

In [j>e] myddis of his mortal foon, 

)3at cruelly hym be-sette anoon, 

And him to treyne leide out hoke & laas 

Rou?ide aboute in maner of compas 

Wi|> spere and darte & swerdis forgid bri^t. 

P>ut he hym silf diffendij) like a kny^t, 

With gret mauliod his honour to avauwce, 

Al-be liis lif was honged in balauTice, 

Where he stood, & felte fill vnswete, 

In poynt of deth amonge ])e horsfe] fete, 

With gret await of duke Meneste, 

How ]>is Troylus my^t haue take be, 

Of mortal hate castyng in his pou^t, 

At meschef take Ipat he eskape 110113 1 ; 

On euery half he was so be-sette 

With swerdis rou^de, kene gronde & whette, 

Allone, alias ! mortally be-stadde 

))ei sesid hym, & fur)>e )>ei han hym ladde, 

Til Miseres, a worjn kny^t of Troye, 

Gan to crye, as he stood in }>e woye, 

For-a-bassched, in ri^t furious wyse : 

" 36 noble wor])i men of Fryse ! 

Manly kny^tes, ay pretied in fe feld, 

Most renomed bofe vfith spere & scheld, 

Considereth now vn-to ^our hi^e fame, 

And aduerteth fe* glorie of ^oure name, 

How }>is day, J)oru^ ^oure necligence, 

By ))e power and my^ti violence 

Of |)e Grekis Troylus is I-take 

Sool in )>e feld ; for $e han hym forsake 

))at schal rebouwde to ^oure alder schame : 

1007. on] of D 1. 1018. like] as D 2. 
1028. rouwde] om. D 1. 1030. han] mn. D 1 
1038.. J>e] jour C. 1043. to] vn to D 1. 










BK. in] The Trojan allies charge the Greeks, and free Troilus. 425 

For 30, in soth, gretly are to blame, 

3if lie, fat is of worf ines[se] flour, 

Be take of Grekis for lak of socour 

))at, but }if 36 taken hasty wreche, 

Schamful report $our honour schal apeche 

Perpetuelly, and seide f er-of amys, 

In ^oure defaute fat Troylus taken is, 

Whiche named be so worfi & famws." 

And with fat word, f e kyng Alcamws 

Of malencolye felt his hert[e] ryue, 

And in his Ire hent a spere blyve, 

And prikynge after, enhastef * w[h]at he mi^t, 

Til he of hem pleinly had a 513 1, 

)}at besy wern Troylus for to lede. 

And he, ful kny^tly, sittyng on his stede, [leaf n <q 

Ran oon foru3, fat he fil dou?z ded; 

And eft ageyn, pale & no f ing red, 

In his rancour no lenger woldfe] lette, 

But a Greke, fe firstfe] fat he mette, 

)?oru3 fe body smette he with a spere, 

))at men my3t[e] se fe poynt a-fere, 

By brest and plate f 01*113 f 6 scholder-bon, 

J?at to fe grouwde he fil dou?^ ded anoon. 

And f er-wit/i-al, f e worfi Freses alle 

Cam flokmel doun, and on Grekis falle 

So my3tely, fat, maugre her diffence, 

jpei sette vp-on with so gret violence 

])at Troylus is from al dau^ger fre ; 

And foru3 her kny3tly magnanymyte 

}?ei maden hym to recure his stede. 

And specially helpyng in f is nede 

Was ^antipus, fe strong[e] manly kyng, 

Whiche of disdeyn, at his in-comyng, 

On Meneste gan his spere grate, 

And foru3 his scheld, mail, & f ikke plate, 

So sore he smot, fat f is Menestee 

1044 "If he be 

taken, your 
honour is 
gone ! " 


1052 King 





and slays 
first, one 

and then 

Ou this, his 
fellows fall 
1068 on the 


and free 

1076 Menestheus. 

1045. flour] the floure D 1. 1049. seide] seie D 1. 
1055. enhastej>] enhaste> hym C what] whmi D 2. 
1063. he] am. D 1. 1065. By] om. D 1. 
1075. manly] myghty A. 1077. grate] gate D 1. 

426 A fierce Hattle between Greeks & Trojans. Hector's valour. 

calls on his 
knights to 
avenge him 
on the 

The battle 
and rages 

Hector slays 
many Greeks 

Had be cled, nadde his armour be ; 

Whiche for Ire gan to tremble & schake, 

feat Troylus was from his hondis take, 

And eskaped to be prisoner, 

Dispit his berd, & maugre his power. 

Wherfor he gan of hasti hoot envie 

On his kny^tes furiously to crye, 

feat wer so my^ti, renomed, & stronge,* 

To peynen hem for to venge his wronge 

Vp-on Troyens, to mete hem in J)e face. 

And j>ei in hast gan my^tely enbrace 

Her scharp[e] speris, ground e for to bite, 

And felly foyne, & to-gidre smyte ; 

For }>o be-gan }>e grete mortal werre : 

fee fire brast out, schene as any sterre, 

On basenettis and her platis bri^t, 

feat ]>oru3 J?e feld flawmej? ]>Q [ferful] li$t : 

[To lyf nor deth J>ei toke ]>o non hede ;] 

[And] Domi ]>Q playn, bo}>e in lengbe & brede, 

fee wardis gan proudly to avale ; 

And \tiili lokis of envie pale, 

feei aproche, and assemble I-fere, 

In hate bre?mynge, J>at no man may stere, 

And gan hurtle* wit/i spere, swerd, & darte, 

And mortally, vp-on euery parte, 

fee slau^ter gan gretly for to rewe. 

And Iliche, alwey newe and newe, 

Hector Grekis, jjoru^ his worthies, 

Where he rood manly dide oppresse, 

And merciles slowe hem & bar doim 

Now here, nowe J)ere, w^t/i-oute excepciou??, 

So furiously, ])at rowthe was to se. 

And )>awne of new Jje duke Meneste 

Repeired is, with envious hert, 

From his hondis fat Troylus so* asterte, 

And for J?e slaw^ter eke of his meyne, 

feat wher he rood he besy was to sle 








[leaf 75 a] 1108 



1087. stronge] so stronge C, D 1. 1090. in hast] enhaste D 1. 
1095. On] Of D 1. 1097. >o] om. A, D 2. 
1103. hurtle] hurkle C. 1114. so] was so C. 

BK. in] Miseres is unhorst. The Trojans and Greeks fight on. 427 

\)& Troyan peple, whan he my$t hem mete ; 

For tavenge hym, for no Jring wold he let. 

Til casuelly amonge[s] al )>e pres, 

A kny^t he mette, fat hi^tfe] Miseres, 

Whiche, in dispit of )>is Meneste, 

Had at J?e rescus of wor])i Troylus be, 

And maugre hym put him fro his pray. 

And so be-fil [on] fe selue* day, 

As J?ei mette ageyn of aventure, 

]3at Meneste, by his cote armvre 

Marked hym, be armys j)at he bar, 

And sodeinly, or J>at he was war, 

Or jjat he my^t taken any hede, 

Furiously on his sterne stede, 

And with a spere, among* J>e rengis alle, 

Ear him ouer, & made hym for to falle, 

Maugre his my^t, to J>e erthe douw. 

And J>araie, I finde, liow J>e kyng Hupou?i 

Discendid is, ]?e story list nat lye, 

Two fousand kny^tes in his co??^panye, 

Whiche on Grekis felly gan to sette, 

And in ]>e berd king Prothenor hem mette, 

And Archelaus, )>e noble werriour, 

Of Boece lord and goumiour 

WiJ> helpe only of J>is Prothenor, 

Lik a tigre or a wylde bore, 

Gan Troyens assaille to pe deth, 

And many on )>ilke day he sleth. 

Eut kyng Hupouw, Jjoru^ his chiualrie, 

]3ilk[e] tyme in his malencolye 

Ful many Greke ^af his de]>is wou?zde : 

And ]ws ]?ei gan eche o]?er to cowfouwde, 

Swiche mortal hate amonges he?^ \er was. 

Til of fortune a kny^t, Polydamas, 

On Troye side, sone of Anthenor, 

With his kny^tes, and hym silf to-for, 

1122. J>e] om. D 1. 1124. selue] same C. 
131. among] amyd C. 1136. Two] And D 1. 
11 38. Prothenor] Prother A. 1148. >us] om. D 1. 
1149. amonges] amonge D 1. 

charges the 




1132 and unhorsea 

with 2000 

1136 attacks the 

and Arche- 
laus oppose 



and great 



p P 

K. Remus 

It's a joy to 
the Trojans to 
see how the 
Greeks break 

428 The Greeks break. Menelaus fights Remus. [BK. ill 

Is on Grekis of envious pride 

Mid her wardis fallyn in a-syde, 

And gan breke hem, & kny^tly to disseuere, 

Ageyn whos swerd* )>ei myjtfe] nat persevere 

He was on hem so inly furious. [leaf 75 6] 

And hym to helpe cam fe kyng Remvs, 

With a wynge on J>e tofer parte, 

Brekyng in vrith many spere & darte 

Ageyn[es] Grekis -with fre f ousand knyjtes, 

J?at to beholde how felly fat he fi^tes, 

It was, in sothe, vn-to hem of Troy 

A verray lust and an heuenly loye 

To sen how he Grekis brak asoudre, 

Jjat ]?e noyse, loude as any f ondre, 

In f e feld of strokis gan a-ryse. 

And while Remws, as 36 ban herd deuise, 

Vp-on Grekis was so envious, 

In-to f e feld cam Menelaus, 

With his worf i kny^tes of Spartense, 

Ageyn Remws to make resistence ; 

And ful proudly, makyng no delay, 

ftis worfi Remws & kyng Menelay, 

On hors[e]-bak, vrith scbarp[e] speris whette, 

Mid f e felde of envie mette, 

And poru} her manly prowesse & renouw, 

From bors[e]-bak eche bare of er doura : 

For noon ]?e strok of ofer my^t[e] schoone. 

And in fat while, of Anthenor f e sone, 

Polydamas, lusti, frescbe, and ly^t, 

As he fat was in his deliue?* rnyjt, 

And desirous to honour to atteyne, 

Mette in f e felde fe nevewe of Eleyne, 

J3e my^ti duk called Mereus, 

Flouring in ^outhe and ri^t vertuous, 

Fresche armed, new and lusti of corage, 

And was, in soth, but twenti ^ere of age 

Whiche of so ^onge was a noble kny3t, 

But Menelaus 


and both are 












1153. Is on] His owne A. 
1176. Mid] AmydDl. 

1156. swerd] my^t C. 

BK. in] Noted Warriors on each side are slain. King C elides. 429 

renomed bope of herb and my$t. 
But of fortune it be-fil, alias ! 
]5e Troyan kny^t, dau?^ Polydamas, 
With a spere, poru^ scheld, maille, & plate 
Hitte hym so, fat, by cruel faate, 
Amonge Grekis fat lie fil douw ded. 
Of whiche f ing, whan Menelay toke hede, 
And sawe hym ly, slay[e]n on f e grene, 
In his hert remembringe on f e quene 
I)Q quene Eleyne, whos nevew he was : 
For dool of whiche, a ful deliuer paas 
To Remvs rood, in his cruelte, 
Also fer as he my$t hym se, 
And ful kny^tly mette hym in ]>e berd, 
And smette at him vriih his scharpe swerde 
Vp-on f e hede, in his hatful tene, 
Jpat on his stede he my^t[e] nat sustene : 
His wourcde was so passyngly mortal, 
)3at Vfith f e stroke and f e perlous fal, 
His kny^tes wende ded he* had[de] be, 
And hent hym vp, and be-gan to fle 
To-Troye-ward with hym a gret pas. 
But it be-fil fat Pollydamas, 
))e maner of hem wha?i fat he be-held, 
Made hem repeire kny^tly in-to f>e feld 
Excepte ]>at somme, as ]>ei in biddyng had, 
WorJ?i Remvs horn to Troye ladde, 
Pale and ded, wt't/i his wou?idis wide. 
And fo cam in on ]?e Grekis side 
Celides,* fe lusty fresche kyng, 
Of whom Dares seith in his writyng, 
And for a soth in his boke list telle, 
How Celides alle ofer elide excelle 
BoJ>e in bewte and in semlyhede, 
Of schap, of port, and of goodlyhede, 

[leaf 75 c] 

1192 Polydamas of 
Troy spears 



1204 Menelaus 

slays Remus, 


whose corpse 
is taken to 





K. Celides 
succours the 

1192. dau%3] dan D 2. 1197. on] vp on D 2. 

1207. woimde] om. A. 

1208. 1st J>e] his A 2nd J>e] om. A perlous] perylous A, peril- 
Ions D 2, D 1. 1209. he] J>at he C. 1214. >e] om. A, D 2. 

1216. horn to] vn to D I The o in to is erased in A. 
1219. Celides] Celidis C. 

King Celides 
was lovd by 
the young 
Queen of 

430 Potydamas kills King Celides. Hector routs the Greeks. 

Surmowitynge alle, as Dares list discrive, 
As in fairnes alle J)o a-lyue 
Alle his lymys compact were so clene. 
And, as I rede, ]>e ^onge fresche queue 
Of Femenye,* whiche was of bewte flour, 
Kyng Celides louede paramour, 
J?at vp-on hym was hooly hir plesau^ce, 
He was so prnited in hir remembimmce ; 
For chef resort, sothly, of hir herte, 
Was vp-on hym euery houre to aduerte : 
For, finally, he departe}* nou^t, 
Day nor ny^t nor hour out of hir Jjou^t ; 
For he was ffully al hir owne kny^t. 4 
Eut, of fortune, he, lusty, fresche, and li^t, 
Smot his stede scharply in J>e syde 
Of surquedie, and proudly gaii to ride 
Of mortal hate a f ul furious paas 
Ki}t as lyne to Pollydamas, 
And with a spere made hym for to flytte 
and unhorses From his sadel, in whiche he dide* sitte 
He markyd hym with so gret a my3t.* 
But ageynward, ]>is manly Troyan knfyj^t, 
Pollydamas, with a dispitous face, 
Or Celydes departeth fro ]>Q place, 
"With a swerd so smet hym on pe hede, 

From his stede ]>at he fil dourc ded, 

Whiche to Grekis was gret confusiouw. 

And al J>is tyme, ferser J>anne lyoun, 

Hector Grekis kny^tly gan enchase, 

And ofte made hem for to lese her place ; 

Where-eue?-e he rood, of necessite, 

A-forn his swerd he made he??i for to fle, 

Swiche vengauwce he hath on hem take, 

J)at J?ei ])e feld were fayn to for-sake, 

And to purswe wolde he neuer fyne ; 

Til a-monge }>e peple of Salomyne, 

He charges 


but Poly- 
damas slays 


makes the 
Greeks flee. 

[leaf 75 tf] 










1229. Femenye] Fvmenye C. 

1244. in whiche he dide] whiche he dide in C 

1245. a nmt] amyjt C. 1249. so] he D 1. 
1253. Grekis] the Grekis A enchase] hem chace A 

BK. in] Hectw is wounded, and surrounded ly Greeks. 431 

Hector mette J>e worjri kyng famous 

feat was hir lord, and 1113 t[e] Thesalus, 

J?at many Troyan fat day liadfde] slawe. 

And, as Hector toward hym gan drawe, 

Kyng Teuter, j?at was of Grece also, 

A manly kny^t and prudent, bope two, 

Rau^t a spere, in al j?e haste he can, 

And vnwarly vn-to Hector ran, 

And Jjoru^ his scheld, [plate], and mail of stele 

])s spere-hed forged was so wele, 

So scharpe & square, & so kene grourade 

jjat he $af Hector a ful perillous wounde. 

But as Hector rene gan his stede, 

Proude Teuter to aquite his mede, 

He ful wysly, in al )>e hast he my^t, 

Was ri^t fer seuery[d] from his si$t ; 

Wher-of Hector malencolins, 

And of hert wod and furious 

For J)e akyng of his wouwde grene, 

In haste to avenge pe constreint of his tene, 

What Greke after schortly pat he mette, 

J)at was so bold his wey[e] to witA-sette, 

We't/i-oute mercy, he was his deth anoon. 

And, as I rede, he encouwtrid on, 

Whiche of pride wold[e] hym diuerte, 

Whom wif his swerd he rof to J>e hert, 

)5oru^ his harneis, of malencolye. 

)3e whiche stroke whan Grekis gan espie, 

ftei astonyd, of oon entenciouw, 

Perilously besette hym environs, 

And swiche assaut gan aboute him make, 

ftoru} her manhod ^if pei my^t \\irn take ; 

And of acorde, with gret multitude, 

Cruelly J>ei gan hym to include, 

Be liklyhede, in pat mortal strife 

He my^tfe] nat eskape with ]>e lyf, 

On hym pei wern so fel & envious. 

1264 As Hector 
King Teucer 


1272 wounds him, 

1276 and flees. 


1284 Hector splits 
a Greek to 
the heart, 




but is sur- 
rounded by 

1263. many] many a A. 
1280. avenge] venge D 1. 
1296. eskape] scape D 1. 

1265. Teuter] Teutor A. 
1290. Perilously] Perillusly D 1, 

The Greek 
King Theseus 

warns Hector 
that he is 
risking his 
life by 

432 Hector is warndty Theseus of his Danger, & avoids it. [BK.III 

Howe A kynge callyde Theseus, of affeccyon warnede 
Ector to be ware of A iopartdy that he stode In, 
notwithstondynge this Thesyus was a Greke ; and 
howe Ector raskewyde Polly damas J>e kynge. 1 

Til J>at a kyiig J?at hi$t[e] Theseus,* 

On Grekis side, only of gentillesse, 

Swiche rou)>e kau^t * vp-on his distresse, 1300 

To se hym stonde so ni$e vp-on ]?e wrak, 

J5us vn-to hym of manly pite spake : 

"0 flour of kny^thod, rote of hardynesse, 

Welle of manhood, stok of worfines ! [leaf 76 a] 1304 

Whi list J?e nat to haue noon adue?-tence, 

pi lif to saue, of kny^tly prouidence, 

But wilfully, where most is to drede, 

)pi lif iupartist, and take list* noon hede, 1308 

In mortal pereil how ])ou arte be-set, 

Amonge so many closed and I-schet, 

Allone, alias ! deuoide of al socour, 

And to J>i silfe wilt do no fauour, 1312 

But as fortune liketh to ordeyne 1 

pat euery wyjt owjt[e] to compleyne 

To beholde J?at so noble a kny^t, 

Whiche poruj ])e worlde cast so clere a li^t, 1316 

In worthies, & wil hyra nat with-drawe, 

Reklesly }>is day to be slawe, 

So pitously ]>i persone for to lese ! 

W^'t/i-drawe fin hond, }it sith pou maist chese, 1320 

Jjin hi^e prowes compelleth me to praye, 

At swiche meschef fat ]?ou nat ne deye." 

And whan Hector of hym gan take hede, 

He pankid hym of his goodlyhed, 1324 

And maugre, sothly, J)e power & ]>e myjt 

Of ]>e Grekis, lik a worpi knyjt 

He skapid is, myd of alle his foon, 

thanks him, 

and cuts his 
way thru his 

1298. 2nd >at] whiche D2, wiche D 1 Theseus] Teseus C. 

1299. of] for D 1. 1300. kaujt] he kaujt C. 
1305. noon] om. D 1. 1307. most] as most D 1. 
1308. take list] list take C. 

1311. Allone alias] Alias allone D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 74 a (misplaced after line 1302). 

Hector rides to the rescue of Polydamas, & kills 30 Greeks. 433 

And went his weye Jjoru^ hem euerychon, 1328 

His blody swerd alweie in his hond. 

And in his weie Pollydamas he f onde, Hector sees 


Ful lik a man, with al his besy peyne fighting with 

Diffende hym silfe ageyn )?e kynges tweyne, 1332 

Menelay and Thelamonyus, SdiSK 

Whiche vp-on hym were f ul furious ; monius, 

And, with a spere, J?is Greke, }?is Thelamou?i 

Pollydamas smot to the erthe douw, 1336 

Compellyng hym J?er was non oj>er bote 

Ageyn hem two for to fi^t on fote, 

Assentid fully on hym to ben a-wroke. 

And first J)ei han hewen and to-broke 1340 

)}e my^ti charnellis of his basenet, 

And whan his viser after was of smette, 

And his face nakid was and bare, 

J?ei fil on hym in pat mortal snare, 1344 

And token hyrn, J>e stori can deuise, 

And sent hym forj>e, in ful cruel wise, 

Toward Grekis, with many wor]?i kny^t. 

But whan Hector }>er-of had a si$t, 1348 

And sawe )>e rneschef of Pollydamas, 

He cast fully to socur in ]?is caas, hJfrScue 8 to 

And priked after, woder ]>anne lyo^ ; 

And, where he rood, aboute hym enviroiw 1352 

With his swerd he made a large space, [leaf 766] 

Til he cam to Jje same place 

Amonge Grekis, furious and wood, 

Pollidamas ]>Q silfe tyme stood, 1356 

Socourles from al remedie, 

Til J?at he on Hector cast his eye, 

))at Grekis made hastily w^t/i-drawe. 

And britti, first, of hem he hath slaw, 1360 Hector siaya 

A A A t -j 80 Greeks. 

And seuered hem, maugre al her pride : 

To-forne his swerd ]>e[i] durst[e] riat abide 

Ageyn[e]s hym, nor make noon obstacle ; 

But of kny^thod, be verray hi^e myracle, 1364 

1339. a-wroke] wroke D 2, D 1. 1341. charnellis] charnelle A. 
1342. of] so D 2. 1354. to] in D 1. 
1360. first of hem] of hem first D 1. 

434 Hector's horse is kild. He is helpt ly his bastard Brothers. [BK. Ill 


But Hector's 

and he has to 

fight on foot. 

He clears a 

space round 


Pollydamas, in meschef first awapid, 

From Grekis bond frely is eskapid. 

But freschely J>o, fe kyng Epistrophus, 

Menelay, and Thelamonyus, 1368 

With alle her kny^tes to-gidre hoi & clos, 

Ageyn Troyens to geten hem a loos, 

Been of newe entrid in bataille 

"With gret strengfe & passyng apparaille, 1372 

jjat merely Troyens fei compelle, 

In her weye fat f ei dar nat dwelle, 

]X T at-we't/2-stondynge her gret worf ines, 

Nor of Hector fe kny^tly hi^e prowes, 1376 

J)at fau^t so manly fat tyme, as I rede, 

But cowardly f ei han slawe his stede, 

hat he constreined was to fiat on fote, 

Jjat many Greke felt[e] ful vnswote. 1380 

For f er was noon fat aboute him stood, 

With his swerd fat he ne schad his blood; 

bou} he so J>ikke aboute was be-leyn, 

He voided hem & made a spase pleyn, 1384 

* J ' 

In compas rou??de, be-hind & eke to-forn ; 

And on his feet so wel he hath him born 

bilk[e] day, fat Greke was noon, certeyn, 

bat hardy was hond on hym to leyn, 1388 

He was so strong, & sturdy as a wal. 

And wha7me his brefer, callid natural, 

Sawe hym on fote, myd of alle his foon, 

On a frusche fei fel in euerychon, 1392 

And fouwden hym, f e stori makef mynde, hym silfe lik a tigre in Ynde ; 

And hym to help, f oru$ her hi^e renouw, 

^ ei fel t le ] firste on k y n g Thelamouw, 1396 

For he on Hector was so cruel foude : 

)5ei jaf to hym many blody wouwde, 

Til on of hem, namyd Dyndaron, 

Hath so fer amonge fe rengis goon, 1400 

1366. eskapid] a skapyd A. 1378. slawe] slayn D 2. 
1383. he om. A. 1385. to-forn] a forn A, D 2, D 1. 
1391. on] a A, D2. 1395. her] om. D 2 
1399. of] om. D 2. 1400. goon] romie D 1 

BK. ill] Hector gets afresh Horse. His brother attacks Theseus. 435 

And born hym so, only of manhede, 

J)at he hath wowne a passynge mi^ti stede, [leaf 76 

And brou^t to* Hector, sothly, J?er he stood, 

Amonge Grekis al baj>ed in her blood. 

fie whiche in hast, ful kny^tly he be-strood, 

And amonge hem, lik Mars \iyrn silf he rood, 

Ful many Greke makynge for to sterue ; 

And with his swerd, whetted for to kerue, 

He dauwted hath her envious pride : 

Til Dephebws entrid in a-syde 

In-to j)e feld, wij? a kny^tly chere, 

And with hym brou^t many good archer 

Of Poeme, [which] with her arowis kene, 

And with feferis of pecok, fresche & schene, 

Vp-on Grekis han pe feld recured ; 

In her schot fei wer so moche assured, 

)5at Jjoru} mail and Jrikke plate of stele 

})ei percyd han her harneis euerydel. 

And Dephobus, ful like a manly man, 

To kyng Teutran on hors[e]-bak J?o ran, 

And furiously gan his swerd enbrace, 

And wou?zded hym euene amyd pe face 

J3oru$ fe viser in his felle tene 

On hors[e]-bak he my^t[e] nat sustene. 

And J>us Troyens on Grekis arn y-rorcne, 

))at )>ei ageyn han }>e feld I-wo^ne 

]3ei wern on hem so Irous and so wood : 

But Theseus ful kny^tly hem with-stood. 

With Ipo kny^tes Jat he with hym ladde. 

And, as I rede, Hector a bro]>er hadde, 

)5e stori seith, ]?at hi^t[e] Quyntylene, 

3onge, fresche, & lusty, armyd bri^t & schene, 

Whiche with ]?e kyng callid Modernus 

Is proudly falle vp-on Theseus ; 

brings Hector 
a fresh horse, 

which he 

helps with 







1428 Theseus is 

and wounds 
K. Teutran. 


attackt by 

1401. only] inly A. 1403. to] it to C. 
1406. misplaced at top of column in C and marked b ; 
marked a. 

1406. And] om. A. 1407. many] manly D 2. 
1410. Dephebws] Deiphebns A. 1425. bus] bis D 2. 
1426. f>at] om. D 1. 1427. hem] him D 1. 
1429. bo] two A. 1433. Modernus] Modems A. 

1405 is 

436 Hector saves Theseus. He iirihorses other Greeks. [BK. in 

Hector asks 

the Trojans 
to spare 

and they 
do so. 

King Thoas 





And J?ese tweyne, to-gidre of assent, 

Be falle on hym with gret avisement, 1436 

jjat, finally, to his vnhappy chaurace, 

Jx>ru her kny^thod J>ei brou^t hi??i to onttrauwce, 

And cast[e] schortly j>at he schal be ded : 

Of whos purpos, as Hector gan take hed, 1440 

He vn-to hem, of verray genterye, 

Viith al his my^t loude gan to crye, 

Besechyng hem for no Jnng J>t he deye ; 

And louly J)ei his biddyng dide obeye, 1444 

And hem w^tA-drawe for to do vengance ; 

For Hector had fully remembraimce 

How Theseus, f>e same day to-forn, 

Toward hym so goodly had hym born, 1448 

Whan he hym sawe in meschef & distresse, 

And kny^tly J>ou}t quite his gentillesse, 

Lik as it longeth to euery gentil-xnan. 

And Theseus ful lowly tho be-gan [leaf 76 d] 1452 

To j)ank[e] Hector, pat he was eskapid. 

But kyng Thoas ]>o hath fastfe] rapid 

In-to ])e feld, wz't/i ojer kny^tes manye, 

And specialy with hem of Calydonye 1456 

Cam Philotheas, pe my^ty kyng also, 

A-geyn[es] Troyens for to haue a-do. 

And, first, Thoas vritJi a spere ran 

Furiously to Cassybellan, 1460 

Oon of )>e sonys of kyng Priamws, 

And ^af hym }>o a wou?^de so grevous, 

WM-oute recure ]>at he fil dou?i dede ; 

Of whiche strok, whan Hector gan take hede, 1464 

In his herte gan his deth compleyne, 

And in al hast dide his besy peyne 

On his broker avenge hm ^if he my^t ; 

And many oon he made to a-lijt, 1468 

Jporu} his kny^thood, fro??i his hors[e]-bak, 

1444. >ei] bat D 2. 

1448] Of knyjtly rou>e for drede he sholde be lorn D 1. 

1449] Towarde hym sawe in meschef & distresse D 1 

1450. quite] to quite D 1. 

1454. faste] first A. 

BK. in] Nestor conies to help the Greeks. K. Phion is in danger. 437 

jpat, sothfastly, al went vn-to wrak 

On Grekis side, what cam in his way, 

So worpily he bar hym al pat* day. 

Til duk Nestor is entrid in-to 63 1 

With five pousand in stele arm yd bii^t, 

Ageinfes] Troyens Grekis to socure; 

And with hym mette, of verray aventure, 

])Q kyng Esdras, so my^ti and so bold, 

And kyng Phyon in his char of gold, 

With al pe worpi nobl^ * chiualrye 

)3at from Agresta cam with leconye, 

)}e kynges sone, of pe same lond, 

Ful renomed & worpi of his honde. 

And as pei semble, & to-gidre ran, 

])Q same tyme, many worpi man 

Hath lost his lyf vp-on ouper syde ; 

And of slau^ter, with large wourcdis wide, 

Al pe soil, of bodyes pat lay dede, 

Lyk a ryuer ran with stremys rede, 

With her cheris grisly, pale, and fade, 

)?at in pe blod men my^t goon & wade 

To pe ancle : pe slau^ter was so huge. 

And kyng Phion, socure and refuge 

Yn-to Troyens, so bare hym in pat strife, 

J)at many Greke he made lese his life 

)5e same day, so wel his swerd was whet ; 

But he, vnwarly, so sore was be-set 

With multitude of Grekis rourale aboute, 

)3at of his lyf he pleynly stood i?? doute : 

For lykly was he myjtfe] nat eskape, 

And of Grekis he schuld anoon be take, 

Nadde he ben holp of worpi leconye, [leaf 77 a] 

J)at to Esdras loude gan to crye : 

"Alias ! " quod he, of routhe and pite, 

" Worpi Phion pe kyng schal take be 

Amonge Grekis, poru^ ^oure necligence, 

1470. sothfastly] sothly D 1. 1472. h a t] >e C. 
1479. worbi noble] noble worjn C. 
1485. vp-on] vp D 2. 1503. cmod] quoth A. 
1504. take] I take D 1. 


arrives with 
5000 Greeks. 



1484 There is 

slaughter on 
both sides. 



King Phion, 
helper of the 

1496 is encircled 
by Greeks. 



urges Esdras 
to help him. 

438 King Phion is rescued. Hectw renews Ms Attack. [BK. in 

But in al hast ^e* do $oure dilligence 
For to reskue pis noble worpi kyng ! " 
The Trojans And alle attonys, with-outQ more tariyng, 1508 

rescue King .. 

Pbion. Maugre alle ]>o pat made resistence, 

From Grekis swerd, be my^ti violence 

))ei ban reskued }>e noble kyng Phion ; 

And at his large with hem he is goon, . 1512 

Of his eskape wonder glad and li^t. 
Hector and And Hector pawne with many lusti kny^t 

Eetourned is, and Dephebus also, 

Pollydamas, & many anoper mo 1516 

[Of] Troyan* kny^tes, pat desyre newe 

Grekis to make sore for to rewe : 

For, of assent, pel fully hem purpose 

In swiche meschef Grekis to enclose, 1520 

ftat, ^if pei my^t, fewe schulde eskape. 

And per-vp-on, knyjtly pei hem schape, 
assail the And hem be-gan freschely for to assaille, 

'* J)at in pe feld Grekis gan to faille 1524 

Of her power, and to lese her londe, 

J)at, finally, poru^ pe iny^ti honde, 

And pe force of Troyanysche* kny^tes, 
and make \)Q Grekis had, mau^re al her myates, 1528 

them give 

way; Be brou^t pat day to confusiou?^. 

but Meneiaus But Menelay and kyno- Thelamou??, 

and Telamon , TTI 

fight boldly. Whan pei hem sawe feblyn and apeire, 

)3ei of kny^thod made hem to repeire ; 1532 

And so lik men pei ban hem silf diffendid, 

Then Eneas Til Eneas from Trove is discendid 

romcs from . 

Troy, With Ewfremws pe duk, pe manly man ; 

And with her kny^tes of newe pei be-gan 1536 

Efte ageyn Grekis to* oppresse. 
n d ew 8 e hi 8 r And *J ector a 7> f or u3 his worpinesse, 
attack. Lyk: a lyoim, with a sterne face, 

Euere in oon so gan hem to enchase, 1540 

)?at compellid of necessite 

1506. in al hast je] 3e in al hast C. 1516. mo] to A, D 2. 
1517. Troyan] Troyans C. 1523. for] om. D 1. 
1525. and] for D 2. 1527. Troyanysche] Troyanysches C. 
1537. to] for to C 

BK. in] Ajax joins the fight. He & Eneas unhorse each other. 439 

))ei wern echon a-forn his swerd to fle, 

And constreyued, ri^t of verray nede. 

Of whiche Mnf' wha?^ Aiax can take hede, 1544 Ajax, seeing 

the slaughter 

Hadde in herte grete compassiou?^ of the Greeks, 

To sen )?e slau^ter and confusions 

On Grekis side, Guydo maketh mynde, 

And gan to loke at his bak be-hynde, 1548 

And sawe wher many warde stood a-brod, 

And many baner & penourc J?at a-bood [leaf 77 6] 

Amyd ]?e feld, hole and nat forbroke, 

}?at redy wern attonis to be wroke, 1552 

3if nede were, on hem of Troye toun ; 

In whiche wardis, wzt/z-oute excepciouw, 

Was hool J?e flour of Grekis chiualrie. 

To whom, anoon, Aiax gan hym hi^e, 1556 advances, 

As he J>at was sore in herte agrevid ; 

And with his crye he hath hem so commevid, rallies the 


pat J>ei enhast hem to com to rescus, 

Amongis whom was ]?ere no refus. 1560 

And as faste as ]?ei gan assemble, 

Of noyse of hors }>e er)>e ga?i to tremble, 

Furiously as )>ei to-gidre Hinge : 

J?ere my^t men ]?e strokis here ryng 1564 

Of speris scharp, foru^ J>e harneis born, 

And ]>oru3 scheldis, wrou^t of stele & horn, 

In-to }>e brest, sturdy, squar, & brood ; 

And J>er, I finde, how ]?at Aiax rood 1568 and charges 

To Eneas, and he to hym also, 

So gret envie was a-twixe hem two, 

))at [nat] but deth my^t her Ire apese : 

For in hert nouper my^t han ese, 1572 

Til with speris scharp[e] grou?ide & whet, 

On hors[e]-bak fei han to-gidre met. 

And at coupyng so sore l>ei han hit,^ Each un- 

/ J , horses the 

pat eueryche oper to J>e er]?e smyt, 1576 other. 

1542. echon] om. D 2. 1543. nede] om. D 2. 

1553. on] of D 2, D 1. 

1557. sore in herte] in herte sore D 2. 

1559. enhast] in haste A. 1570. a-twixe] be twixe D 1. 

1575. coupyng] metinge D 1 hit] hym hit C. 

440 Sector wwnds Philoteas. Ulysses drives Tryans lack, [BK. in 

Ajax and 
Eneas fight 
ou foot. 

helps Ajax, 

and breaks 
his spear on 

who wounds 
him badly. 

Then Ulysses 
and Hume- 

with 10,000 

drive the 
Trojans back. 

feat to beholde was a kny3tly si}!;. 
And after [fat] f ei bo)>e on fote r^t, 
Be liklyhede, in her wood[e] rage, 
Ouf er to falle in ful grete damage 
Amonge J>e hors, be-cause fat fei stood 
Vp-on f e soil, al ouersprad wtU blood ; 
But Philoteas is to Aiax come, . 
And hath hym vp amorage f e hors I-nome, 
And kny^tly faujt, as makid is memorie. 
And, sothly, ellis Troyens with victorie 
Hadde had fe feld, pleinly for to seyne, 
Til Philoteas w/t/i his wardis tweyne, 
Euene in }>e face, manly hem wit/i-stood ; 
And wit/i a spere he first to Hector rood, 
And vp-on hym f e schafte, I finde, he brak : 
But, sothly, he vp-on his hors[e]-bak 
Kepte hym so wel, for al fat fel[le] stroke 
Eemevinge nat, but sturdy as an oke 
Sat in his sadel vp-rijt mt/i his chyne; 
And with a spere, rijt as any lyne, 
In-to body, depe f 01113 fe schelde, 

Philoteas he smote in-to be felde, 

feat of his lyf his kny3tes wern in doute. 

But fo cam in, witfc so gret a route, 

Kyng Humerus, and Ylixes eke, 

And vrith hem broi^t many worf i Greke 

Ten ]?ousand kny3tes, manly men echon, 

)3at gan Troyens [for] to assaille anoon ; 

And cruelly, on euery halfe certeyn, 

With multitude fei han hem so* be-leyn, 

J)at dispeired and disconsolat, 

And of longe n^t awaped and amat, 

Gan wM-drawe, faynted in bataille ; 

And eke her* hors, sothly, gonne* faille, 

}5at on her syde al went vp-so-douw. 

1578. ]>at] om. D 2, D 1. 1580. ful] om. D 1. 
1583-86 are omitted in D 2. 

1587. misplaced at bottom of column in D 2 and marked a ; 1588 
is marked b. 

1588. Til] But D 2. 1597. body] >e body D 1. 
1606. so] sore C. 1610. her] his C gonne] gan C. 

[leaf 77 c] 









BK. in] Ulysses and Troilus wound one another. 


But Paris ]x>, -with hem of Troye touw 

Is entrid in, in ful manly wyse ; 

And first he met with J>e kyng of Fryse, 

}3at to Ylixes was ny$e of allye, 

Whom Paris smot with so gret envie, 

)?at he hym slowe ; wher-of Grekis were 

Sore abavid ; and aftir, with a spere, 

Vlixes rood to avenge hym $if he my$t. 

And, first, whan he of Paris had a si^t, 

In-to )>e reste he gan his spere prowe, 

))at, finally (for he bare to lowe), 

Failyng of Paris, sothly, as I rede, 

Vnder hym he slowe his my^ti stede, 

jpat maugre hym he to groimde is goon. 

And he on hym wolde haue falle anoon, 

But Troylus ]?o mette hym in }>e berde, 

And furiously with his scharpe swerde 

He smote Vlixes jjoru^-out his viser, 

))at lyk a condut or a smal river, 

Doura by his face, of blood }>e stremys ran. 

But Vlixes, lik a manly man, 

Of )>at strok astonyd nat at al, 

But on his stede, stif as any wal, 

"With his swerde so my^tely gan race 

J3oru$ ]>e vmbrere in-to Troylus face, 

)3at he hym ^af a large mortal woiwde : 

Of whiche strok, passyngly Iocou?*de 

)3e Grekis \\ r ern, supposyng, in her Jxw^t, 

How J>at Troyens finally were brou^t 

Vn-to outtrau^ce. And sothly so J?ei hadde, 

Sane Jjat Hector, with kny^tes which* he ladde, 

And vrith hym eke Paris and Dephebus, 

And alle his brewer, in kny^thod most famws, 

Troylus also, for al his last[e] wou?zde, 

)3at was alweie so noble a kny^t I-fou?zde, 

Alle attonys, loyned in-to oon, 

1612 Paris slays 
the King of 


Ulysses kills 


1624 Paris's steed. 





and he cuts 





Then Hector, 
Paris, Dei- 
phobus and 
others join, 

1617. Grekis] the Grekis A. 1622. for] for that A to] so A. 
1628. his] a A. 1636 vmbrere] vmbrel D 1. 
1638 is transposed with 1646 D 1. 1640. Troyens] Troylus A. 
1642. which] J>at C. 1646. a] om. D 2. 

442 Hector slays many Greeks, & recites the Wrongs they've 

and charge 
the Greeks. 

slays all he 

The Greeks 
flee like a 
swarm of 

Hector, who 
has always 
been in front, 

falls back on 
his troops, 

and reminds 

of the wrongi 
the Greeks 
did their 

Vp-on Grekis sodeinly be goon. 
And worf i Hector aldir-first be-gan 
Grekis to enchase, J>at a-forn hym ran, 
Lik as bestis fat fled fro f e deth ; 
And euere in on, with his * swerde he sleth 
Whom he mette, or durst his strok abide ; 
And on his foon, with fresclie wouwdis wide, 
])Q slander he made alweie to renewe. 
And filk[e] day, in blody rosen hewe 
He hath her platis & her harneis steyned ; 
And feu} it hadde blood fro heuene reined, 
jpe soil reddere my^tfe] nou3t a ben : 
And ay I-liche, as a swarme of been, 
Jje Grekis flokmel fled out of his* way. 
And Guydo seith, al fat like day 
Hector hadde, formest on )>e plein, 
In fe frovmter of ]?e Grekis leyn, 
)2at be-hynde, ]>& kny^tes of his garde 
For lak of hym wern alle out of warde. 
Wherfore, whan he hadde foi^tfe] longe, 
And Grekis sawe of newe wexe strong, 
To his kny^tes he is a^en repeired, 
Whiche in hem silf gretly wer dispeired 
For his absence ; but J>o whan ]?ei \\\m sen, 
Ful inwardly recomforted ben, 
And wt/z glad hert han her lord received. 
And her gladnes whan he hath perceiwed, 
Spak vn-to hem ful effectuously, 
And praied hem ful benygnely, 
To remembre kny^tly in her herte, 
And considre wysly, and aduerte, 
i First, fe wrongis fat Grekis haii hem do 
Of $ore ago, and ouermore also 
3if Grekis had filke day victorie, 
Far-wel for ay J>e honour and fe glorie 

[leaf 77 d] 










1648. sodehily be] bene sodeinly D 1. 1652. his] >e C. 
1661. his] her C. 1662. al] that al A, Jt al D 2. 
1670. Whiche in] With Inne D 1 hem] hym D 2. 
1675. effectuously] affectuously D 2. 
1679. Grekis] he grekys D 2. 1680. ago] ae D 2. 
1681. >ilke] bat D 1. 1682. 2nd >e] om. D 2. 

BK. in] Hector exhorts his Troops. Greeks are slain. 443 

Of Troy an blod, in conclusioiw : 

" For, finally, we and eke oure toun 

Schal mortally tourne to ruyne ; 

And oure honour, pat was wont to scliine 

Jjoru^-oute ]>e world, & oure worpines, 

Eclipse schal, and tourne to dirknes, 

But $e J)is day like as men $ow quite. 

Wherefore I pray, fat no man atwite 

3oure hi^e reiiou?i of any covvardyse, 

To sette vp-on in ful manly wyse, 

And nat to spare for drede of deth, I pray." 

And pei echon ful lowly gan* obeie 

To his desire, w/tft-oute lenger tale ; 

And entringe in by a certeyn vale, 

Vp-on Grekis, pese worpi kny^tes alle, [leaf ?s a] 

Folwyng Hector, sodeyiily ben falle, 

Ful mortally, or pat pei wer ware. 

And Hector po no Greke wolde spare, 

But euery-where, to her confusioura, 

He killed & slow^e aboute hym envirouw ; 

And his kny^tes, ridyng be his syde, 

Made her fomen, maugre al her pride, 

To lese her lond, & flen out of her si^te : 

Til pat pe kyng whiche Thoas hi^t, 

On Grekis side, inward gan hym dresse, 

And of newe ful kny^tly gan oppresse 

Hem of Troye, )>is kyng, pis manly man, 

))at had a-forn slawe Cassibelan, 

Oon of J>e sonys of kyng Priam vs. 

But as he rood, of fortune it fel pus : 

Jpat alle }>e bre]>er on a frusche he mette, 

Whiche of assent envirou?^ hym be-sette, 

And from his sadil pat many [Greke] be-hilde 

Amonge pe hors smet hym in-to pe feld ; 

And of pei rent first his basenet, 

And cruelly pei had his hede of smet 

For he vnarmyd al at meschef stood 

1690. atwite] twyte A. 1694. gan] dide C. 
1699. Ful] For A. 1712. it fel] om. A. 
1716. in-to] in A 2nd >e] om. D 2. 


1684 Hector urgee 
his troops 

to quit them- 
selves like 








Thoas is 
1716 and his 

helmet torn 

They fall on 
the Greeks, 

who flee 
before Hector 
and his 

till Kin? 
Thoas aids 

The Duke 
of Athens 

Paris wounds 
the Duke 
with an 

444 King Thoas is rescued. Hector-Mis King Humerus. [BK. in 

Saue pat pe duke, furious and wood, 1720 

Of Athenys, rydyng a gret paas, 

Reskued hym in pis mortal cas 

With his knyjtes pat aboute him rood. 

And hym to helpe, wit/i-oute more abood, 1724 

With a spere, scharpe whet and kene, 

First of al he fil on Quyntylene, 

))at besy was Thoas to haue slawe ; 

And J>e brepre he made also w/t/i-drawe, 1728 

Whan Quyntylene of his hors was prow. 

But Paris po dro\v vp his my^ti bowe, 

And to pis duke lete an harowe glide, 

And poru^ his platis hit hym in pe side 1732 

Vp-on a rib, pat made hym sore blede ; 

Of whiche strok he ne toke noon hede 

Be-cause only pat he so fervent was 

Amyd his foon to helpe kyng Thoas, 1736 

Amonge pe horse pat was bore to growzde, 

In point of deth, vrith many mortal wouwde, 

Only for he was naked on pe hede : 

But pis duke, ful[ly] deuoide of drede, 1740 

Of his kny^thood in pis perlous cas, 

Amyd his foon hath holpfe] kyng Thoas, 

And with his lyf made him skape fre. 

And Hector ay, of cruel enmyte 1744 

I-lyche fresche, for no ping wolde leue 

Vp-on Grekis his manhood for to preue, [leaf 78 &] 

Enforcyng hym to her distrucciouw : 

And, as he rood amonge hem vp & doiw, 1748 

Kyng Humerus hath a bowe take, 

And to schete gan hym redy make, 

And hatfully per-in set* an arwe; 

And to Hector he marked hap so narwe, 1752 

Jpat he smote hym euene amyd pe face : 

But or he my^t any ferther pace, 

Hector smet hym with so gret a peyne, 

J5at with his swerd he rof his hed atweyne. 1756 

J)e deth of whom wharc pe Grekis knowe, 

1728. >e] om. D 2. 1751. J>er-in set] set >er in C. 

but he sav< 
K. Thoas. 



but Hector 
kills him. 

BK. in] Hector cuts his way thru 7000 Greeks. 445 

Myw auctor seith, )>ei hail an horn I-blowe, 

bat vnwarly. vrith ]>at dredf ul sowne, TOGO Greeks 


Seuene j>ousand kny^tes ca??i attonys dourc 1760 Hector, 

Aboute Hector, wM-oute more abood ; 

But he of force borus hem alle he rood. j> ut h & cuts 

his way 

Maugre her my^t, ]>at hym }?o ws't/i-sette, thru em 

And slowe alle J?o fat his weie lette, 17G4 

And styntfe] nat, pleynly, til he cam Prfam 68 to 

To his fader, )?e wor]ri k} r ng Priam, 

"Wzt/i many worjri, f ul faravs of renoun, 

J)at wz't/i his kny^tes fast[e] by )>e toiw 1768 

Lay al )>e day, w^t/i men on liors & fote, 

As he fat was of kny^thod crop & rote, 

And kepte hym cloos, of [ful] hi^e prudence 

Til Hector cam vn-to* his presence 1772 

And hym besou^t, in >is grete nede, and \g him 

to attack the 

With )>re fousand )?t he wold hym spede JSfJsS th 

Vp-on Grekis in her felle rage, men - 

To falle on hem at most avaimtage. 1776 

Howe the Kenge Pryamus of Troye kynghtly enterde 
in-to ]?e felde at the requeste of Ectore. 1 

And >a?zne in haste, iris worbi Priamvs, pnamatonce 


With his kny^tes fresche and desyrous, 

Towarde Grekis hath )>e weye take, 

And swyche a mordre gan vp-on he??i make, 1780 and slays 

D many Greeks. 

})at many Greke lay ded on ]>e pleyn : 

For Priamws so sore hath hem be-leyn, 

On euery half, poruj his grete my^t, 

)5at Ipei ful fast fled out of his s^t, 1784 

So sore of newe he vp-on hem sette. 

And, as I finde, "ber to-sridre mette Hector and 

Ajax meet. 

Hector and Aiax, of verray auenture ; 

And on her stedis, strong & wonder sure, 1788 

1762. 2nd he] om. D 1. 1770. As] And D 1. 
1772. vn-to] in to C. 1777. new IT A. 
1779. take] ytake D 1. 1781. pat] And D 1. 
1782. so sore hath hem] hath hem so sore D 1. 
1786. her] ]> e i D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 13. D. ii. leaf 128 b (leaf 128 (124) is misplaced with 
leaf 76 (75) ; the chapter-heading also is misplaced after line 1778). 

446 Single combats of Trojan and Greek leaders. [BK. ill 

Hector and 
Ajax fight. 

Both are 


of Troy 

and is cruelly 

The Greeks 
are harast. 

King Dnglas 
Duke of 

])Q story seith, in al pe hast pei koraie, 

Lyke wode lyouras pei to-gidre rcmne 

With so gret my$t, pat, wer pei lefe or lope, 

Vp-on pe pleyn pei wer vnhorsed bope. 

And in )>is while, Menelay pe kyng, 

Sodeinly, as he cam rydyng, 

He slowe of Troye a worpi anieral. [leaf 78 c ] 

And pus pe shunter, passyngly mortal, 

Eenewed ay : for Celydonas 

J)e nevew slow of pe kyng Thoas ; 

And Madan mette, mjn auctor write)) pws, 

A Grekysche kyng callid Cedyus, 

Whiche wit/t his swerd swiche a strok 1^ set, 

)3at J>oru3 }>e vmbrere out his eye he smet ; 

And Sardellus, pat was of Troye eke, 

])Q same while slowe a worpi Greke, 

A lord of name, and of hye prowes, 

Al-pei Gnydo his name nat expres. 

And pawne also cam Margaritouw, 

On Troye side, ageyn Thelaniouw; 

And bope two, inly set a-fire 

Of hije disdeyn and of hatful Ire, 

As pei mette on horse-bak y-fere, 

Kyng ThelamouTi, sothly, as I lere, 

3af vn-to hym a wou^de ful cruel. 

But ]>o cam in f>e Troyan Phanuel, 

And Prothenor smot dowi of his stede : 

And jms pe sonys, pleynly, as I rede, 

Of Priamws, no ping disamaied, 

J)e Grekis han on eue/y part outtraied, 

And so kny^tly al pe day hem born, 

J)at many Greke fatally* hap lorn 

His lif, in soth, of hate and enmyte. 

And kyng Duglas is falle on Meneste, 

Of Attenys duke and gouernour; 

And wz't/i a spere, of Ire and old rancour, 

He ran at hym, & smet hym myd pe schelde : 

But for al pat, his sadil $it he hilde ; 

1798. 2nd J>e] om. D 1. 1820. fatally] pat day fatally 
1822. Duglas] Duclas D 2. 1825. at] on D 1. 










BK. in] Struggle over Duke Menestheus of Athens. 447 

And for be duk spere hadde noon, 

He with a swerd to Duglas rood anoon, 1828 Athw! 

Ait. T < r- nearly cuts 

And poruj be vmbrere rot of nvae his nase, King Dug- 

las's nose off. 

pat he astonyd stood as in a mase, 

Whan bat he sawe be conduit of his blood 

So stremyn out; but, for al bat, he rood 1832 

Out a-side, fully deuoide of fere, 

In-to tyme bat he stauwched were. 

But Deamor, his ovvne brober dere, Deamor, 

Whan he behild his mortal blody chere, 1836 Dugfas's bro- 

Of hi3e disdeyn he rood to Meneste, 

And hym vnhorseth ; but vp anow sterte he, unhorses 


And or he my^t fully vp arise, 

A-nober brober in ful cruel wyse 1840 

Is falle on hym, so bat of hem bre 

Attonys wern vp-on Meneste, 

Fully in pwpos he schal lese his lyf. 

But he so kny^tly bar hym in pat strife [leaf 78 d] 18-14 who fights 

Ageyn[e]s hem, bat wonder was to se ; 

And vp-on hym most cruel of hem bre 

Was on Thoras, eldest of echon, 

Whiche him to haue slaw was besi euer in on : 1848 

For al to-broke bei han his basenet. 

But whan bat Teuter saw hym so* be-set K. Teucer 

. ~ , . ' , wants to 

A Urekiscn kyng, as made is mencioiw, help mm, 

Hadde in his herte grete compassiouw, 1852 

And bou3t[e], pleinly, of manhod him releve, 

And, 3if he my^t, his fomen for to greve. 

But al for nou^t was his besy peyne : 

For Hector bo fil on bobe tweyne, 1856 but Hector 

, T J falls on both 

Vp-on leuter and on Meneste, of em. 

And had hem slayn, nad[de] Aiax be, Ajnx, with 

Whiche vn-to Hector ffaste gan hym hi^e, charges 

J Hector. 

A bousand kny3tes in his companye, 1860 

To w^t/i-stonde hym,* and Meneste to sane 
From his hondis, 3 if he my3t Irim haue. 
But Paris bo, and be kyng of Perse, 

1828. Duglas] Douglas D 1. 1829. vmbrere] vmbrel D 1. 

1832. So] To D 1. 1850. hym so] hew bo>e C. 

1861. To witA-stonde] The which stonde A hym] hem C. 

448 Paris succours Hector, who denounces King Merion. [BK. m 
Paris and "With five pousand, as I can reherse, 

Of worpi kny^tes, & many Troyan mo, 
Be vn-to Hector alle attonys go, 
In J>rifty wyse ridyng on a rowe : 
For Paris made a trompet to be blowe,* 
At whiche per cam, knyjtly enbatailled, 
Many Troyan, ful wel apparailled, 
Whiche in pe feld of Hector wer co?meied ; 
For of oon herte pei fully han obeied 
Yn-to pe biddynge of pis Troyan kny^t, 
Al fresche and newe to begynne a fijt 

and slay Vp-on Grekis, as ferforpe as pei can, 

''Of whom was slayn many manly man. 
Arid ay pe slau^tre pitously reueweth, 
j)at many Greke sore in herte reweth 
Her gret[e] los and distruccioiw, 
Wrouj t vp-on hew by hem of Troye touw, 

Hector kins And specially of Hector, as I finde, 

Whiche on pat day, as Dares make]) mynde, 

1000 knights, Wit/i his hond a pousand kny^tes slowe, 
)?at neuer wern adawed of her swowe : 
For Greke dar noon in his weye dwelle ; 
For with his swerd he koude* hem so compelle 
To lese her grou??,de, of necessite, 
And like as schepe a-fore pe wolf [to] fle. 








and warns 
King Merion 

that his end 
is at hand. 

Of the Irouse langage that Ectore had to Meryon the 
Kynge, and howe he sclewe hym, 1 

And, as I rede, amyd of his victorie, 

Hector mette vnder a tentorie 

Amonge Grekis Meriou?^ J>e kyng, 

To whom he spake, wtt/t-oute more tariyng : 1892 

" J)ow traytowr, ]>e hour aproche)) faste, [leaf 79 a] 

For J)ow arte come, sothly, to pi laste, 

1868] For with an horn >at Paris made blowe 0, For Parys maad 
a Trompet to be blowe A, With an horn >at parys made a trompet 
to blowe D 2, For a truwipet ]>at Parys made to blowe D 1. 

1878. many] many a D 2. 1882. >at] a D 1. 

1886. koude] wold C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 77 a (misplaced after line 1894). 

BK. in] Hector kills K. Merion, & is wounded ly Duke Meneste. 449 

])\ fatal day hath his cours I-romie ! Hector 

For trust[e] wel, or westring of fe sorcne 1896 

I cast[e], platly,* to quite fe fi mede, venting 

And wi(h my swerd [in haste] fi blood to schede : 

For f ou so bolde were on me to-day 

To lettyn me of my riche praye 1900 

At f e spoilynge of kyng Patroclus 

jpat for cause f ou were presumptuous 

Me to distourbe,* fou schalt anon be ded." 

And douw he stirte, & smote of first his hed, 1904 and then cuts 

his head off. 

And hyni to spoille also gan hym haste ; 

But Meneste cam on hym as faste, uke tl 

J ' Menestheus 

Whan he be-hilde trauerse at his bake, 

And with* a spere, [in] whiche was no lake, 1908 

Smot hym in with grete violence, 

Wfc't^-oute si^t, or any aduertence 

Of worf i Hector, or any takynge hede, 

)3e wounde of whom sore gan to blede. 1912 

But out he went, and made it faste bynde ; 

And Meneste stale a-weye be-hynde, bound U P> 

Nat in purpos, sothly, }if he may, 

To mete Hector of al J>at ilke day. 1916 

But whan jjt he was [y-]bonde sore, 

His wou^de stauwche, fat it bled no more, 

More furious fan euere he was to-forn, 

Eepeired is, with anger al to-torne 1920 

(So ay fe Ire on his hert[e] fret), before - 

Jpat he bar dourc al fat euere he met 

Sleth & kylleth, he was so mercyles, 

Alle fo fat put hem silf in pres, 1924 

Or hardy wern with hym for to mete. 

For in his boke lik as writ Darete, 

For verray soth, and in fe stori seith 

(3if it be so fat men may $eue feyth 1928 

And credence of possibilite, 

1895. I-rcmne] Ronne A. 1897. platly] pleinly C. 

1903. distourbe] distonrble C. 1907. trauerse] >e trailers D 1. 

1908. with] in C. 1917. >at] om. A. 

1918. stamiche] staunched A, staunched D 1. 

1921. ay] as D 1. 1927. For] Of D 1. 

450 The Trojans put the Greeks to flight, and plunder them. [BK. in 

Hector kills 

doesn't fight 
that day. 

The Greeks 
flee to their 

and are 
spoild by the 

who take 
their loot to 

As in Guydo clerly $e may se), 

Aftir pat lie cau^t his lattre woiwde, 

Finally Grekis to confouwde 1932 

So as it is affermed in certeyn 

A )>ousand knyjtes with his hond wer slayn, 

"WYt7*-oute hem f o, }>at I spak of rath ! 

And newe alweye he ga?i his swerd to bafe 1936 

In Grekis blod, fat sodeinly fei be 

So ouer-layn foru} his cruelte, 

J)t Greke was noon, of hi^e nor lowe estat, 

J5at he ne was a-whaped and amaat, 1940 

Of his kny^thod and manly excellence : 

For J?er was IKW to make resistence, [leaf 796] 

Nor outterly, fat durst[e] take on honde 

Of al fat day Hector to with-stonde. 1944 

And as it is also made* mencioim, 

JMlke day kyng Agamenouw, 

As seith Guydo, cam nat in[-to] f e felde, 

For causes gret his presence he wM-helde, 1948 

On Grekis side J?at al goth vp-so-dou?i : 

Hector on hem so pleyeth J)e lyon, 

J)at to her tentes ]?ei fled for socours. 

And Ipei of Troye, proudly as victours, 1952 

Sued aftir, by tracis of her blood ; 

And }>er ]?ei wan tresour & gret good, 

And spoiled hem, in ful gret distresse, 

Of her armour and of her richesse, 1956 

And felle on hem, or fat fei were ware, 

And home to Troye al ]>e good J>ei bare. 

For, finally, fat day wif meschaurcce 

Grekis had be brou^t vn-to outtraurcce, 1960 

Wtt/i-oute recure, in soth, for euere-more, 

On euery parte J>ei were be-leyn so sore 

ftoru} fe manhod of Hector, & f e my^t, 

With helpe of many ofer* worfi kny^t, 1964 

frat so felly ageyn Grekis wrou^t : 

1934. kny^tes] om. D2. 1935. >o] om. D 1. 
1945. also made] made also C also] om. D 1. 
1958. J>e] that A, >at D 2. 
1964. many oj>er] ober many C worbi] om. A.] The Trojans would have beaten the Greeks, but for Fate. 451 

would have 

beaten the 

Greeks for 


if cruel Fate 

and Fortune 
hadn't ruiud 

For to swiche meschef, pleinly, )>ei hem brou^t, The Trojans 

)3at nad[de] ben her owne pitous slouthe, 

Of pride only, and of foly routhe, 1968 

.)?ei had of hem, at her volunte, 

])at day for euere hadde J>e souereynte, 

And recured, foru} her hi^e renouw, 

Lordschip of hem and domynaciouw, 1972 

Which e schuld haue laste, & be cowtjnuel, 

Victoriously and perpetuel 

Haue endurid ; saue cruel Fate 

Is redy ay \\ith Fortune, to debate 1976 

Ageyn Jnnges ]>at gynne in wilfulnes, 

To make hem fyne ay in wrechidnes, 

)3oru3 her envious disposiciouw 

Of sodeyn chaurcge and reuoluciouw, 1980 

And vnwar tournyng of hir false whele, 

J)at wil nat bide whan a Jmig is wele 

Alias, freel, deuoide of sikernesse. 

})e cause was dymmed wij? dirknesse, 1984 

))at hath Troyens Jjoru^ false oppiniou?* 

I-blended so in her discresioura, 

And specially fordirked so J>e si^t 

Of wor]>i Hector, )?e p?*udent manly kny3t, 1988 

To sen a-forn what schuld after swe, 

Be good avis pe meschef to eschewe 

)5at fol\vid hem at pe bak be-hynde. [leaf 79 c] 

Alias! pei wern wilfully made blynde, 1992 

The same day, whan pei set[e]* softe 

Be victorie on J?e hille a-lofte, 

}5at ]?ei nat koude of necligance se 

)3e aftir-fal of her felicite 1996 

So put a-bak was her aduertence 

For lak of resouw and of hi^e prudence : 

For }>ei her hap ban voided, & her grace, 

)?at presently were sette a-fore her face. 2000 

For, in a man is nat co??zmendable, 

3if Fortune be to hym fauourable 

1966. swiche] om. D 2. 1975. Fate] hate D 1. 

1977. in] of D 1. 1985. hath] at A. 1990. to] for to D 2. 

1993. sete] wer set C. 1995. nat] ne A, D 1. 

and clouded 
Hector's eyes 
to stop his 
seeing future 

The Trojans 
lackt reason 
and prudence. 

If a man 
refuses the 
chance which 
gives him, 

452 The changealleness of Fortune. Hectors ill chance. [BK. in 

And blaiwdischinge, with a forhede clere, 

To smyle on hym with a plesaiwt chere, 2004 

Only of fauour for to help hym oute, 

Whan he in meschef is be-set aboute 

}if he refuse his hap of wilfulnes, 

Fortune avoidynge poru^ vnkynd[e]nea 2008 

Whan sche mynystrep to hym of hir grace : 

Anoper tyme he schal hir nat embrace, 

Whan he hath nede to hir helpe at al, 

To socour hym or he cacche a fal; 2012 

But raper pan, for his ingratitude, 

Frowardly, with mowes hym delude, 

Whan he best wenep stond in sikernes. 

Fortune is ay so ful of brotulnes, 2016 

Remewable, and redy for to flitte 

Hir welf ul how?-, pat who list nat amytte 

With hir fauour for to ben allied, 

Anoper tyme it schal be denyed, 2020 

Whan he wer leuest finde hir fauourable : 

For in some hour, sothly, pis no fable, 

Vn-to som man sche grau^tep his desires, 

J3at wil nat after* in a pousand $eres, 2024 

Parauenture, onys condiscende 

Vn-to his wil, nor his lust hym sende, 

As it hath falle pis day vnhappily 

To worpi Hector, pat so wilfully 2028 

Wrou^t of hede Grekis for to spare, 

Fatally whan pei were in pe snare. 

For he of hem, like a conqueroure, 

With victorie, trivmphe, and honour 2032 

Mi^t haue brou^t, poru$ his hi^e renou?^,* 

fee palme of conquest in-to Troye toura,* 

Whiche he pat day reffusid folily. 

2009. sche] he D 1. 2010. hir nat] not hir D 1. 

2011. hir] om. D 2. 

2018. welful] wilfulle D 1 amytte] admitte A. 

2020. tyme] om. D 1. 2024. after] asterte C. 

2027. day] day ful A. 

2033, 34 are transposed in C. 

slie is so 

tliat she'll 
desert him 
when he 
most needs 

So, this day, 
Hector might 

have enterd 

but lie re- 
futed the 

BK. in] Hector fights with his cousin, Ajax Telamonius. 453 

Howe worthy Ector infortunately lefte the felde 
requeste of his Cosyne, Thelamonus Aiax. 1 

For, as he rood, pis Hector, cruelly 

Amonge Grekis slowe and bar al douft, 

Casuely he mette Thelamou/i, 

I mene Aiax, ny^e of his allye, 

J^at of hate and cruel hoot en vie [leaf 79 d] 

To Hector rood, like as he were wood, 

Al-be to hym he* was [ful] ny$e of blod ; 

3it, for al pat, pis $ong[e] lusty kny$t 

Dide his power & his fulle my^t, 

W^t/j-oute feynyng, to haue born hym dou?i 

(Whos fader hi^t also Thelamouw, 

)pat hym be-gat, pe stori telleth pus, 

Of Exiouw, suster to Priam vs). 

And pis Aiax, flourynge in 3onge age, 

Fresche and delyue/*, and of gret corage, 

Sette on Hector, of kny^tly hi^e prowes ; 

And, as pei mette, bope in her wodnes, 

On her stedis, pis manly champiowzs, 

Eueryche on oper lik tigers or lyons 

Be-gan to falle, and proudly to assaille, 

And furiously seuere plate and maille, 

First wit/z. speris, longe, large, & rou?ide, 

And aftirwarde with swerdis kene groimde : 

And fi^tyng pus, longe pei contune. 

Til it be-fil of cas or [of] fortune, 

Tokne or signe, or sorn apparence, 

Or by Naturis kyndly influence, 

Whiche in-to hertis dope ful depe myne, 

Namly of hem pat born ben of o lyne, 

Which cause was, parauwter, of pis tweyne, 

Naturelly her rancour to restreyne, 

And her Ire for to modefie 

Only for pei so ny^e were of allye, 

at pe 

2036 Hector meets 








Ajax Tela- 

who charges 
at him : 

he is Hector's 

They fight 
like tigers, 

first with 
and then 
witli swords. 


2042. he] bat he C. 2056. seuere] seuered D 1. 
2060. 2nd of] om. D 2, D 1. 2063. in-to] in D 1. 
2064. o] om. A. 

2068. so ny^e were] were so nyh A. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 77 d (misplaced after line 2060). 

As they are 


speaks kindly 
to Ajax, 
and says that 
if he'll leave 
the Greeks 
and come 
to Troy, 

he'll be well 
receivd there. 

454 Hector argues with his cousin Ajax, a Greek ly birth. 

Vnwist of ouper, and per-of vnsure, 

Til pei wer tau^te, only of Nature : 

For naturelly blod wil ay of kynde 

Draw vn-to blod, wher he may it fynde, 2072 

Whiche made Hector kyndly to aduerte, 

To be mevid and sterid in his herte, 

Bothe of kny^thod and of gentilnes, 

Whan he of Aiax sawe pe worpines 2076 

Spak vn-to hym ful benygnely, 

And seide : " cosyn, I seye pe trew[e]ly, 

3 if pou list Grekis here forsake, 

And come to Troye, I dare vndirtake, 2080 

To pin allyes and to pi kynrede 

)X>u schalt be pere, w/t/i-outeu any drede, 

Ful wel receyved, in party & in al, 

Of hem pat ben of pe blood royal 2084 

Sothly discendid, and hyest of degre, 

)2at it of ri^t schal suffise vn-to pe, 

And kynd[e]ly be to pe plesauwce 

For to repeire to pin allyaiwce 2088 

To gentil herte sith no ping is so good [leaf so a] 

As be confederid -with his owne blood ; 

For I conceyue be pe worpines, 

Whiche Nature doth in pe expresse, 2092 

Of Troyan blood pat pou arte descendid, 

Whiche of Grekis long hath be offendid : 

Wherfore, I rede to leue hem outterly." 

And he answered ageyn ful hu?ble]y, 2096 

feat sithen he of berthe* was a Greke, 

And was of $oupe amo?ige he??i fostered eke 

From pe tyme of his natiuite, 

And taken had pe ordre and degre 2100 

Of kny^thood eke amongis hem a-forn, 

And, ouer pis, bourade was and sworn 

To be trewe to her naciourc, 

Makyng of blood noon excepciourc, 2104 

Ajax says 
he is a Greek 
by birth, 

and bound 
by oath to 
the Greeks. 

2070. >ei] om. A. 

2079. >ou] >e D 1. 2081. 2nd to] om. D 1. 
2092. expresse] impresso D 1, Einpresse A. 
2097. he of berthe] of berth he C. 

At Ajaxs request, Hector makes the Trojans lose their victory. 455 

He swore he wold conserven his beheste ; 

And to Hector he made Jris requeste : 

)pat ^if ]>at he of manful gentilnes, 

Wolde of kny^thood and of worpines 2108 

She we vn-to hym so gret affecciouw, 

To make hem )>at wer of Troye toun 

Only wit^-drawe Grekis to pursewe, 

And fro her tentis make hem to remewe, 2112 

And resorte ageyn vn-to J>e tou?z, 

Of kny^tly routhe and compassions, 

Wz't/t-oute assailyng, or any more affray 

Made on Grekis for ]?at ilke day, 2116 

Sith vn-to hem ou^t I-now^ suffice 

)?at of J>e felde, in so kny^tly wyse, 

J?ei were of manhood fully possessours, 

And of her fomen finally victours, 2120 

Lyk as to-forn fully is diffinyd. 

To whos requeste Hector is enclyned 

(Alias J?e while !) of hasty wilfulnes, 

And made amxw, w^'t/i-oute avysenes, 2124 

Mid )>e felde a trompet for to blowe, 

Wher-by Troyens fully my^te knowe 

J)at be his wil J?ei schulde hem wttfc-draw 

Aftir j?e custom, pl[e]ynly, and ]>e lawe, 2128 

And J?e vsaurace, bo]?e ny^ and ferre, 

Amongis hem ]?at ben expert in werre 

Whan ]?ei were moste fervent for to fi}t, 

Yp-on Grekis for to preue her my^t, 2132 

And had hem chacid lowe to j^e stronde, 

J)at J>ei wer weyke of power to wet/i-stonde : 

For pei of Troye, alle of o desire, 

Gan settyn on vrith schot of wyld[e] fire 2136 

To breraie her schippis, & of hi^e meschau?zce 

Finally to putte hem at outtrawzce. [leaf so 6] 

And so )>ei had, Jns ]?e verray trouthe, 

Nadde Hector had vppon hem routh, 2140 

Makynge Troyens repeire to J?e touw, 

Yngraciously, to her confusiourc, 

Ajax begs 
Hector to 

make the 
Trojans give 
up pursuing 
the Greeks. 

Hector, alas, 

does so, 

just as the 
Trojans were 
ready to burn 
the Greek 

2127. hem] home D 1. 2130. Amongis] Amonge D 1. 

456 Hector's fatal mistake. An 8-weeks' Truce is made. [BK. in 

As )>e story schal aftir specefie. 

For po he putto, alias, in iuparte 2144 

This was a Life and deth, whiche myst haue be sure, 

fatal blunder. 

]5e whiche ageyn pei neue?-e schal recure. 
]5ei han mater to compleyne sore : 
Henceforth For fro bat day, fare-wel for euere-inore 2148 

wa* no more n i i < i c- 

triumph for Victone & laude fro hem of be toun, 


To hem denyed by disposiciouw 
Of mortal fate, whiche was contrarie 

In pis mater me liste no lenger tarie 2152 

The Trojans For "bei of Trove ben entrid her cy te, 

enter their 

city, And schet her gatis for more surete : 

and shut 

their gates. For of pat day, [lyk] as made is mynde, 

]5is was pe ende, in Guydo as I fynde 2156 

J)ei wende haue do, powaimter, for J>e beste. 

And whan pe so?zne was I-go to reste, 

)3ei toke her esc al pat like ny^t, 
Next day Til on pe morwe Tytan, clere & bri^t, 2160 

Schadde his bemys on her Emysperye, 

Makynge pe day for to schewe myrie, 

At whiche tyme Troyens anoon ri^t 

J)ei ]?at wer hool and lusty for to fi$t 2164 

nrm to renew Gan armen hem in pwrpos ful"^ bat day 

the fight. J 

Her foon to mete, platly, ^if )?ei may : 

For )?at was hool her wil & pleyn entent. 

And eke ]>ei hadden in co?mau7zdement 2168 

To-forn of Hector redy hem to make, 

Oute of her slepe amorwe whan pei wake, 

Of whiche ping pei were nat necligent ; 

GreVk^ask But to Pr y am V Q Griekis haue I-sent 2172 

8week8 Uce f ^ er messa g eris ]>e same day or prime, 

To take trewe , only for ]>Q tyme 

Of ei^tfe] wekes ; )>e whiche Priamtw, 

Be assent of Hector, pe story telleth pus, 2176 

2164. f>ei] For D 2 wer] was D 2 

2165. ful] fully C >at day] thay A. 

2163-66 are repeated after 2166 in D 2. The repeated 2163 is 
misplaced at bottom of column and marked a ; 2164 is marked b 
2167. pleyn] plat D 2. 

2170. slepe amorwe] ship aredy D 2. 
2172. I-sent] sent D 1. 2174. trew] 

trews A. 

BK. ill] The Tcrnibs of Patrodus and Protesilaus. 


Hatli graiwted hem, and by auctorite 

Of )>e wysest j>at wern in fat cite. 

In whiche tyme, while pei leiser haue, 

fee Grekis gan [for] to burye and graue 

]5e bodyes pat a-forn were slawe, 

Lyke )>e rytes in her paynym lawe, 

With al her my^t and her besy cure ; 

For some brent, and by sepulture 

Enclosed wern, liche her estat in al : 

And Jms )>ei hilde pe feste funeral 

Fro day to day duryng ay J>e pes, [leaf so c] 

In whiche space, I fynde, how Achilles 

Of Patroclus fe deth hath sore pleined, 

As he fat was with teris al be-reined, 

So inwardly he loued hym in his herte, 

)?at for fe anguysche & )>e cruel smerte 

He longe abood in lamentaciouw, 

And dide make, by grete affecciou?*, 

A large touwbe for a remembrau?^ce, 

Mid fe feld, as )>o was }>e vsaiwce 

Among Grekis, with grete reuerence, 

Liche J>e honour and fe excellence 

Of royal buriyng : so )>is Patroclus 

I-graue was, and Protheselaus, 

In her tou?ftbes corve of marbil gray ; 

And ny^e to-gidre in a plein J?ei lay, 

)?e werke aboute hem richely I-wrou^t ; 

And to ]>e erthe fei wer to-gider brou^t 

Solempnely, liche ]>e obseruaiu^ces 

Of her rytis, with fe circu??istauwces 

Of Grekis vsid, sothly, in fo dawes, 

Fro poynt to point as longe]? to her lawes, 

Of swiche as wern of fe estat royal : 

So holden was ]>e feste funeral 

Of fis two, whil fe trewe doth laste. 

And fei of Troy besied hem ful faste, 

With al her my^t and her besy cure, 

2187. ay] al A, D 2. 2196. Mid] Amyd D 1. 
2203. I-wrou^t] wrou^t D 1. 2208. *to] iu D 1. 

2209. estat] staat A, state D 1. 2211. trewe] trews A. 

In the Truce, 

2180 the Greeks 
bury their 


2188 Achilles 

laments the 
death of 
his friend 


and builds a 
large tomb 
for him. 


2200 Protesilaus 
has one too. 

2204 Both are 



458 Priam's grand burial of Cassibellan. Of Cassandra. [BK. Ill 

The Trojan 
wounded are 
made whole. 

sorrows for 

and buries 

in a marble 
tomb in the 
Temple of 

Her grene hurtis & wouwdes for to cure, 

Be avis of hem pat worn in surgerie 

Ful \vel expert to schape remedie, 2216 

Her swolfle] soris to soften of her peyne, 

)pat in pe space of J>is mon]>is tweyne 

))ei wer restored to helpe in euery ping. 

In whiche tyme, Priamws pe kyng 2220 

Swiche sorwe made for Cassibellan 

In his hert, pat no wi^t ne can 

Hym recouftforte of his hevynesse : 

For day by day, of inward tendirnesse, 2224 

Ful pitously he gan to sobbe & wepe ; 

And pe body he made for to kepe 

Aboue ]>e erthe for a certeyn space, 

Til he had chosen oute a place 2228 

To his buriynge and his sepulture. 

And, as Guydo vs fully doth assure, 

In Venus temple, ryche as any shryne, 

He made his werkmen a tou??^be for to myne, 2232 

In marbil gray and metal rycliely, 

In whiche he putte ful solempnely 

)pe dede cors of pis Cassibellan, 

Beynge present ful many manly man, [leaf so <q 2236 

In pe phane of Cytherea. 

sees all this, 

of the 

Howe Cassandra the prophitesse lamawtably tolde pe 
Troyans pere deststruxiow, for pe which pay 
emprisonde her. 1 

In whiche ping, whan pat Cassandra 

Wt't/^-Inne hir silfe considered & beheld, 

And saw vp offrid his helm & his sheld, 2240 

His swerd also, and vn-to Mars his stede, 

Of inward wo sche felt hir herte blede, 

Herynge pe noise and pe pitous crye, 

)?e tendre weping & sorwynge outterly 2244 

Of hem of Troye, and* lamentacioun 

2223. recoiwforte] recomfovte A. 2230. assure] ensure D 1. 
2245. and] and >e C. 
1 Koyal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 78 c (misplaced after line 2250). 

Cassandra urges the Trojans to make Peace with the Greeks. 459 

Whiche for her frendis, poru^-oute al pe tourc, 

]5ei gan to make, pat wer slawe a-fore : 

With sodeyn rage her herte was* to-tore, 2248 

So inwardly, sche niy^t hir nat restreyne 

Furiously to cryen and compleine, 

And seide, " alias ! " ful ofte, & " wellawey ! " 

" woful wrecchis pat $e be pis day, 

Vnhappy eke, and graceles also, 

Infortunat and inly wo-be-go ! 

How may ^e sufFre pe grete harniys kene 

Whiche 36 ar likly her-after to sustene 

Durynge pe sege, in pis toura be-loke, 

Seynge ^our foon, redy to be wroke, 

Aboute ^ou, beset on euery side, 

To be vengid on ^oure grete pride 1 

I wot ri^t wel $e may he??i nat eschewe, 

Jpat pei ne schal vn-to pe deth pw?*sewe 

3ou euerychon, be-segid in pis place, 

Wz't/i-oute mercy, pite,* or any grace ! 2264 

Alias ! alias ! whi nil ^e besy be, 

3e woful wrechis, schet in pis cite, 

WM pe Grelds for to aeken pes, 

Or pe swerd of vengance merciles 2268 

On hi^e and lowe do execucioim 1 

And or pis noble, worpi, royal tou^ 

Euersid be, and y-brou^t to nou^t? 

Why list ^e nat considere?i in $om pou^t 

How pe modres, with her childre smale, 

In stretis schal, with face ded and pale, 

Lyn mordred here poru$ Grekis cruelte, 

And ^onge maydenes in captiuite 

Be-wepen schal, in niyserie and in wo, 

Her seruytude *; and pis toun also, 

So famous ryche, alias, it is pite ! 

With Grekis fire schal distroied be 2280 

2247. gan to make] make be gan D 1. 

2248. herte was] hertes were C. 2249. hir] it D 2. 

2255. kene] tene A. 2257. >is] >e D 1. 2261. I] And D 1. 
2263. be-segid] besechyd A. 2264. mercy pite] pity mercy C. 

2277. Be-wepen] Be wepinge D 1 2nd in] I D 2. 

2278. seruytude] seruytute C. 



2252 warns the 
Trojans of 



their coming 

Why don't 
they try to 
make peace 
with the 
Greeks ? 

2272 They should 
think of their 
mothers and 

2276 their girls in 

and their city 


Cassandra's learning. She is imprisond. [BK. in 

Helen was 

bought too 


For her sake 

every Trojan 

will be pat to 


Priam con- 
fines her. 

nor wisdom 

counsel is 
to the ruin 
of Troy. 

In schort tyme, sothly pis no were. 

Eleyne of vs, alias ! is bou^t to dere, 

Sith for hir sake we schul euerychon, 

Pore & riche, I excepte noon, 2284 

An ende make, woful and pitous : [leaf si a] 

J}e Ire of hem schal be so furious 

Vp-on vs alle, per is noon oper mene 

Sauf only deth vs to go betwene ! " 2288 

)}is was pe noise and pe pitous cry 

Of Cassandra, fat so dredfully 

Sche gan to make aboute in Query strete 

fcoruj pe touw, whom-euer sche my^t mete, 2292 

Lyk as sche had ben oute of hir mynde, 

Til Priamus fast[e] made hir bynde, 

And schettyn vp it was pe more rou^th 

Sche was nat herde, al-be sche seide trou^ftjh : 2296 

For nouper wisdam nor discreciou^, 

Cou?iseil nor wit, prudence nor resoim, 

Trouth nor rede \\ith-outen. any lye, 

Nor pe spirite of trewe proficye, 2300 

Availeth nat, nor al swiche sapience, 

In place wher per is noon audience. 

For, be a man inly neiwe so wys 

In couwseillynge, or in hy^e devys 2304 

In werkynge, ouper in elloquence, 

Eche ping to sen in his aduertence 

Or it be falle, a-forn in his resou^, 

Amyd pe eye of his discrecciou??,, 2308 

3et for al pis (it is pe more dool), 

Wit/i-oute fauour, he holde is but a fool : 

For vnfavored, wysdam vailep* nou3t, 

Nouper trouth, how dere pat it be bou^t, 2312 

Liche as Cassandra, for al hir wyse rede, 

Dispised was, & taken of noon hede 

Of hem of Troye, to her confusiouw, 

2282. is boujt] y bou^t D 1. 
2292. f>oru3] J^oru^ out D 1 whom] whoo A. 
2294. made] gan D 2. 2305. 2nd in] or in A. 
2307. be] om. D 1. 2309. dool] the dole D 1. 
2311. vaileb] availe> C. 2312. Nou>er] Nor D 1. 

BK. in] Palamedes objects to Agamemnon being Commander. 461 

But cruelly y-prowen in prisouw, 
Where a whyle I wele leue hir dwelle, 
And of Grekis furth I wil $ou telle. 


I now turn 
to the Greeks. 

Pallamydes gruchede agayns them that choyes Kynge 
Agamenon to haue domynacyoft of pe Grekis. 1 

And, first of al, how Pallamydes 

Gan to gruche ageyn[e]s hem J)at dies 

He beynge absent kyng Agamenoim 

To haue lordschip or dominaciouw 

On hem alle ; namly, sith fat he 

Was nat worpi to suche dygnyte, 

For to gouerne so gret a my^ty host, 

)3oru3-out pe world come from euery cost, 

Of kynges, princes, so worjri. of renouw : 

For he fer-of had indignaciouw, 

And seide him silf was of more pouste 

Amonge Grekis, and gretter of degre 

Concludynge J>at, be no maner weye, 

To his power he nolde nat obeye 

In pes nor werre, as be subiecciouw, 

Sith he ne was at his elecciou?^ [leaf si 6] 

Flatly affermynge how ]>er wer but j?re, 

Whan he was chose, kynges of degre, 

Where-as pritty wer fat tyme absent ; 

For whiche he swore, it was nat his ente?zt, 

Nor acordynge with his oppiniou/?, 

In any wyse J?at Agamenoura 

Of Grekis schulde haue swiche gouemau?zce. 

Lo, what meschef lyth in variauwce 

Amonge lordis, whan pei nat accorde 

For to drawe fully by o corde : 

Envie is cause of swiche diuisiou^, 

And couetyse of dominaciouft, 

)?at euery che wolde surmouwte his felaw. 

grumbles at 

non's being 
chosen Chief 
of the Grecian 




and says he 
won't obey 
2332 Mm. 




Only 3 kings 
elected him, 

while 30 were 

What mis- 

envy does ! 

2319. new H A. 2323. On] Of D 1. 

2325] For to gouerne be worlde come from eu^ry cost D 1 

2326] And namely of so worthy an oost D 1. 

1 Koyal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 79 a. 

among lords 
ruins a 

The Greeks 

pacify Pala- 

462 Palamedes is pacified. Chiefs of the first 3 Greek Battalions. 

J3is cursid vise ofte hath w/t/>-drawe 2348 

Hap & grace, in many regiou?^ : 

For whan discord & false discenciorw 

Allied ben in hertis for to strive 

Among lordis, pt kyngda??i may nat pryve 2352 

Til pei reformed ben ageyn to pes 

Amonge hem silf pleinly pis no les. 

Of whiche ping Grekis token hede, 

And pou^tfe] nat ferper to precede 2356 

In pe matere pat Pallamydes 

I-nievid had amonge[s] alle pe pres, 

And poru^ her wit pei set al in quiete, 

And maden hym his rancour for to lete, 2360 

And to accorde fully in his herte. 

But now must I my style agein diuerte 

Vn-to pe werre, and telle pe man ere 

After pe trewe how pei mette I-fere. 2364 

Howe Agamenon comyttede his wardys to Dyomede 
and othere. And Ectore prudently, of ]?e todire 
syde, was not rekelysse, them to reco?ztyre. 1 

Like as ]>is stori make]? menciouw, 
])Q worpi kyng, grete Aganlenou?^ J 
Whan pe trewes wer passid & I-goon, 
In al hast he gan ordeyne anon 2368 

With al his myjt & waker dilligence, 
Devoide of sloupe & of necligence, 
To sette his wardis f ul a-visely ; 

And to Achille he ful prudently 2372 

J) e first[e] ward cowmittej) for to lede, 


l8 5 to kyng Menelay, 
And pe fourpe, on }>e same day, 
Hadde Meneste, pe duk of Athene, 
At his ledyng, in stele armyd clene. . 

2348. ofte] often D 1. 2349. many] many a A. 
2353. to] >e D 2, D 1. 2361. to] om. D 1. 
2365. >is] the A, >e D 1. 2369. waker] his D 1 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 79 b. 


BK. in] Hector and Achilles unhorse one another. 463 

And oper wardes, folwyng by & by, . . 

Agamenourc ]?e kyng ful manfully* 2380 

Ordeyned* [hath] how }>ei schal precede,. 

As he ]>at was in al his werke & dede 

Ful circumspect, bo]?e in werre and pes. [leaf sic] 

And worbi Hector was nat rekfelles 2384 Hector gives 

L J his 

To sette his wardis of hem of ]>e tou?^ 

In kny^tly wyse, of hi^e discrecioim ; 

And to Troylus so ^ong, so fresche, .& ly^t lst Battalion 

fie firste warde, with many lusty kny^t, . 2388 

He hath assigned, and oper wardes sette :.:.; 

So prudently, |>ei my3t[e] be no bette. .^v. 

And for]?e in haste, hym list no lenger bide, Aiisaiiyout 

With many worfi ridyng by his side, 2392 

Oute at* )>e ^atis he went of j?e toun 

Towarde Grekis, )>is troyan champiouw. 

And, firste, whan he sawe "be ferse Achille. r Hector fides 

' Y at Achilles. 

He ne koude no lenger kepe hym stille, ] 2396 

But smot his hors felly in ,J?e syde, .t;,w:;- 

And toward hym cruelly gan ryde ; 

J?e whiche fing, wa't/i a dispitous eye, ; 

Whan Achilles, sothly, gan aspye, 2400 

Ageyn Hector, of manful hardynes, 

With hert envious gan his stede dresse : 

And in ]?e felde to-gydere as J?ei mete,. 

With rou?*de speris, ]?e pointis kene whette 2404 

At ]?e encourctrynge, of kny^tly excellence, Each un- 

Eueryche o]>er, poru^ gret violence, . ' other - 

Be verray force bar o]>er vn-to grou??de, 

As ful ofte it happep, and is fouwde 2408 

Whan stronge do]? mete wz't/i his parigal : 

})er is no more,* but euery[ch] had a fal. 

But Hector first, of strengpe most assurid, Hector re- 

His stede ageyn ha)> anoon recurid, 2412 steed. 

And lefte Achilles J>o of gentilnes ; 

And in gret hast, for]?e he gan* him dres 

2380. manfully] manly C. 2381. Ordeyned] Ordeyneth C. 

2385. of hem] om. D 1. 2386. of] & D 1. 

2387. 2nd so] & D 2 &] so D 1. 2393. at] of C. 

2410. no more] non oj>er C. 2414. he gan] be gan C. 

464 Hector slays Greeks. He and Achilles fight again. [BK. in 

attacks other 
and kills 

catches his 

and slays 

He meets 

They charge. 

is again 

but some 

remount him, 

He smites 
Hector on 
the helmet. 

Amonge Grekis, & wher-so ]>at he rood, 

He killed & slou$ al ]>at hym withstood : 2416 

For with his swerd he made her wouradis wide, 

And J>oru} ]>e brest, & some poru^ J?e side 

He percid ha]>, and waged hem for eue?*e, 

And brak scheltrons, & made hem to disseuere; 2420 

For in his hert he J>oii3t it dide hym good 

To ba]?e his swerd in J>e Grekis blood. 

And pis contuneth til pat Achilles 

Cau^t his stede ageyn amonge pe pres, 2424 

And entrid in amongis hem of Troye ; 

And with his swerd he made large woye, 

Slethe and bar doiw whom pat euere he inette : 

For per was noon hardy hym to lette, 2428 

Til it be-fil, in his malencolye, 

Hector he mette ridynge, sodeinly ; 

And whan pei saw eche oper come a-fer, 

With-oute a-bood eueryche cau^t a spere, [leaf si dj 2432 

And ran to-gider, per was 110 more arest. 

But Hector first smet him in pe brest, 

})at his spere, pleinly (pis* no tale), 

Al to-schyuered in-to pecis smale, 2436 

jpat Achilles of necessite 

To grouwde goth, it wold nou o]?er be, 

And vn-horsed at J?e er]?e lay. 

And Hector fan, in al )>e hast he may, 2440 

Enforced hym for to cache his stede, 

But many [a] Greke, in pis grete nede, 

Cam to reskus of pis Achilles, 

And, for his loue, putte hem silfe in pres, 2444 

feorou} help of whom his hors he dop ateyne, 

Enhastynge hy?^ with al his my$t and peyne 

To be avenged of his grete Iniurie. 

And sodeinly in his wode furie, 2448 

With a swerd f ul scharp[e] groiwde & whet 

He smot Hector vp-on pe basenet, 

2421. he] hym D 2, hi/M D 1. 2429. it! v D 2 

2S1' l'- f( ?l in - f *n D l - 2434 - in ] on In L 

2435. >is] J)is is C, D 1. 2442. bis] his D 1 
2444. hew] hym A. 2450. vp-on] on D 1. ' 

BK. in] The fight between Hector and Achilles keeps on. 465 
bat from his sadel he made him to remewe, Achilles dis- 


)5e whiche stroke he my^t[e] nat eschewe. 2452 Hector; ' 

But, for al pat, J>is noble worpi kny^t, 

Of verray force, poru^ his grete iny^t, 

Manure his foon his sadel hap recurid, but here- 

1 mounts, 

As he pat was in manhood most assurid ; 2456 

And sodeinly in hert he wex so* wrope 

Jpat in a rage to Achilles he gope, 

And with his swerd so smet hym on l>e hede and cuts thru 

Achilles' s 

pe basenet, pat pe blood al rede 2460 

Be his face gan to renne dou/a, ?i?, blo?d 

Like a ryuer, his chekis envirouw : 
But he hym silfe diffendip as a kny3t. 
And po of newe be-gan pe cruel fi^t 2464 

Atwen hem two, to sen pat it was wonder; 
For euery stroke, grete as dent of ponder, 
Range in pe eyre, for no?^ wold oper spare ; 

And pis pe* soth : in her fyt pei fare 2468 JJ^j*} 11 

Like wode tigres, or bores in her rage, boars. 

Or sterne bolis, whan pei ben sauage, 
Jjat it sempte, in verray sothfastnes, 

3if pes two, so ful of worpines, 2472 

Contune longe in fi^tynge, & endure, 
J)e ton or bope, of cruel auenture, 
Most haue be dede, of necessite : 

J5e whiche ping had[de] be pite, 2476 

Be-cause pei were worpi kny^tes bope. 
But while pat pei in fijtyng, fel & wrope, 
Most besy wern, pe Grekis po begynne The Greeks 

J and Trojan 

With her wardes for to entre Inne ; 2480 battalions , 


And pei of Troy e, pe story makep mynde, [leaf 32 a] 

On her party lefte nou^t be-hynde, 

But in pe feld enhaste* hem euerychon 

In kny^tly wyse to mete with her foon, 2484 

f .J)at with pe prese, here & also Bonder, 

2457. wex so] wexeb C, wixe A, wax D 1 so] om. A. 

2459. so] he D 1. 2460. 1st >e] om. D 2. 

2465. was] a D 1. 2467. Range] Ran D 1. 

2468. bis be] }>us in C. 2478. in] om. D 1. 

2479. >o] to A. 2482. On] Or D 2. 

2483. in] in to D 1 enhaste] inhaste C. 2485. be] om. D 2, 

466 Diomede and Troilus fight, first on horse, then on foot. [BK. ill 


and Troilus 

unhorse each 



catches his 

and cuts off 
the jeweld 
crest of 

Troilus kills 



The Greeks 


and the 
Trojans do 
the like to 

j)e knyjtes two seuered wern assonder. 

And ]>o cam in sterne Dyomede 

With pe knyjtes whiche he dide lede, 2488 

Ful lustile, in ]>e silfe place, 

With whom ha]) mette proudly in pe face 

Worpi Troylus on his hors[e]-bake, 

J?at neuer had jet in manhod lak ; 2492 

And as pei coiwtre, pe story doth vs lere, 

Eueryche vnhorsid knyjtly hath* his fere : 

But first his hors recureth Dyomede, 

And in al haste faste gan hym spede 2496 

Tasaille Troylus, stondynge vpon fote ; 

And whan he saw ]>er was i\on oper bote, 

As knyjtly jet as euere dide man, 

Ageyn[e]s hym diffende hym po be-gan. 2500 

But Dyomede, hoot as any fire, 

Wonder envious, & hatful of desyre, 

With his swerde, of rancour for pe nonis, 

])Q riche cercle, ful of ynde* stonys, 2504 

)3at was ]>at tyme on Troylus basenet, 

Ful cruelly hath racid of and smet ; 

But Troilus nolde, for al ]>at, Inm wit/i-drawe : 

For hym diffendynge, he hath ]?e stede slawe 2508 

On whiche sat pat tyme Dyomede, 

J}at maugre hym he muste a-lijtfe] nede. 

And whan ])ei wern on fote bo))e tweine, 

)}ei dide her my^t & her cruel peyne 2512 

Eueryche of hem o)>er to assaille 

With swerdis scharp ; so pat plate & maille 

J)ei gan to seuere and assonder race, 

As wode lyouws, with mortal chere & face, 2516 

Til pe Grekis stronge, stoute, & felle, 

(As myn auctor in his boke can telle) 

Han poruj her myjt maked Dyomede 

Sodeinly to recure a stede ; 2520 

And Troyan knyjtes, on pe toper side, 

Han Troilus broujt a stede for to ride. 

2494. kny^tly hath] hath kny^tly C. 2496. spede] lede D 2. 
2497. Tasaille] To assoile D 1. 2504. ynde] riche C. 

BK. in] Troilus is capturcd-ly Diomede. but is then rescued. 467 

And whan pel wern horsid bo)>e two, Troiius and 

With-oute more, to-gidre ageyn pei go 2524 fight again, 

Wikji stronge foynes, and I-fere ronne 

Eche at o)>er, as felly as ]?ei konne, 

Til at )>e laste, cruel Byomede 

(Liche as 36 may in myn auctor rede), 2528 

Wer it be cas, happe, or auenture, and, by 

chance or 

In whiche no man i ully may assure,* [leaf 82 6] bad luck, 

Or by Fortune, with hir false visage, 

Hadde )>at tyme of Troilus avauratage : 2532 

For he on hym was falle at meschef. 

J5e whiche ping to him was no repref, 

bou2 he hym toke, amorc^e so gret a rout, . Diomede 

J takes Troilus 

On euery halfe with Grekis set a-boute; 2536 

J3ith dotous euer is pe fyn of fy^t 

Now vp, now douft, now dirke, & after bri$t* : 

For no wy^t may ben ay * victorious 

In pes nor werre, nor ylyche eurotis. ' 2540 

Late euery man, sith happe is -set in doute, 

Taken his torne as it cometh a-boute ; 

}3ou3 Troilus now was take of Dyomede, 

Anofer tyme he schal him quyte his mede : 2544 

For as pe story tellej? in ]?is place, 

)?is Dyomede but a litel space 

Troilus lad forpe as prisonere, prisoner; 

jpat to reskus, in stele armyd clere, 2548 

Many Troyan cam prikynge in fis nede, ^ he d is h 

)3at maugre al fe my3t of Dyomede Trojan*. 

Jpei Troilus han from his hondis take ; 

And }>o be-gan pe slau^te?' for his sake 2552 

On euery halfe, pat wonder is to telle, 

Of fe Troyans and pe Grekis felle. 

ban in-to "be felde is entrid* Menelay, Meneians 

enters the 

Whiche on Troyens al fat like day' 2556 field - 

Ful besy was avengid for to be, 

2530. fully may assure] may fully ensure C. 

2538. brijt] li# C. 2539. ay] ener C. 

2540. nor] nor in D 1. 2544. him quyte] quyte him C. 

2553. to] for to D 2. 

2555. be] om. D 2 is entrid] entrid is C is] om. D 1. 

468 Paris and Menelaus fight. Hector kills Bodes. [BK, in 

Paris and 

Hector slays 
more Greeks. 

The young 


who splits 
him to the 

and sends 
his steed to 

To hem he had so cruel enmyte ; 

And whaii Paris saw hi??i in pe felde, 

Towardis hym pe ri$t[e] weye he helde, 2560 

And of purpos pei her wardis sette 

Eche on oper, til pei to-gidre mette : 

And po [pe] skarmusche & ]>e slau^ter gan, 

On ouper part, of many manly man. 2564 

And al pis while Hector nolde cese 

Amongis Grekis cruelly to prese, 

And new & new, of hym as I rede, 

Iliche fresche pe blood of hew to schede : 2568 

For of his svverde pe traces wern [y-]sene, 

)pat pe Grekis my^tfe] nat sustene 

To resiste nor stonde a-forn his face ; 

But where he rood ay .pei $af hi? place, 2572 

Til pat a kny^t, whiche Boetes hi^t, 

3onge of age, whan he hadde a sijt 

How Hector slou} pe Grekis mortally, 

On euery side hauynge no mercy, 2576 

He presed in to encrese his name, 

Perpetuelly to purchase hym a fame, 

And furiously, in herte nat a-ferde, [leaf 82 c] 

He cast hym, platly, to mete him in pe berd. 2580 

])B whiche ping whan Hector gan aduerte, 

So hi3e rancour enbrasid hath his hert, 

Jpat, wz't/i his swerde, of indignaciouw 

He rofe hym euene to pe nouele douw 2584 

Fro pe crowne wip so gret a peyne, 

jpat in pe feld he parted lay in* tweyne : 

And Hector po assigned hap his stede 

To a squyer, & bad he schuld it lede 2588 

To Troye toun, wa't/i-oute more a-bood. 

And al pis* while furiously he rood 

Amonge Grekis, and euer mercyles 

He slowe al po pat putte hem* silf in pres, 2592 

And schad her blood, of hert[e] dispitous. 

)5e whiche ping whan kyng Arcliilagzw, 

Rydynge be-side, sawe & gan espie, 

2586. in] on C. 2590. Jis] J>e C. 2592. hem] him C. 

BK. in] Hector splits both Archilagus and Prothenor in two. 469 

How Boetes, his cosyn and allye, 2596 

So cruelly was of Hector slawe, Hector, 

Towardis hym m hast he gan him drawe 

Vp-on his deth avengid for to he, 

And rood at hym with grete cruelte, 2600 

Fully in purpos Hector for to quyte.* 

And sodeynly, as he gan at hym smyte,* Stwo Ut8him 

Hector vnwarly hit hym on )?e hed 

So my3tely, ]>at he fil dourc ded, 2604 

Partid on two hy cruel auenture, 

Nat-w^t/^-stondynge his my^ti strowge arnm?*e 

Ageyn his stroke it was of* no difEence : 

For it was 30110 with swiche violence, 2608 

}3at it halp hym in no maner Jnnge. 

And fan anoon, Prothenor )>e kyrig Prothenor 

Of hatful Ire and foule hardynes, 

Of surquidie and of hastynes, 2612 

Of malencolye and indignaciouw 

Kau$t in his hert a presumpcioura 

Tassaillen Hector, of inward foly pride, attacks 

And goth to hym, a-trauers on )>e side, . 2616 

Furiously, with a dispitous herte, 

))at his comynge he my3t nat aduerte 

Only for he cam at his bak he-hynde, in rear, 

Al vnwarly, in Guydo as I fynde 2620 

And Hector smot horn his hors to grouwle, and unhorses 

In whom )>er was so moche marchod fourade, 

J)at he anon, with a kny3tly herte, but Hector 

WM-oute a-hood in-to his sadel sterte, 2624 

And ri3t fersely Prothenor pwrsueth, 

)5at finally his hond he nat eschewe]) : 

For with his swerd he marked him so wel 

}X>ru3 basenet, by his breste of stele, [leaf 82 d] 2628 splits Pro- 

feat in-to tweyn, with-outen any faile, tto n ri 

2597. slawe] y slawe D 1. 

2598. he] om. D 1 him] om. D 1. 

2601. quyte] smyte C. 

2602. as he gan at hym smyte] ]>ou3t hym for to quite C. 
2607. of] at C, om. D 2. 2611. foule] fool A. 

2616. to] at D 1. 

2629. tweyn] >e breste D 1. 

470 Achilles is thwarted of his Revenge. The Trojans win. [BK. m 


Achilles sees 
his cousin 

he wants 
revenge lor 
him and 

and tries to 
get Hector 
attack t. 

But the 


and Hector 
put the 
Greeks to 

and return 
to Troy. 

He rofe him doim in-to Ins* paurcce of maile ; 

And he fil doun, in f ul pitous wyse, 

Of whiche stroke pe Grekis sore a-grise. 

And specialy )>e hardy ferse Achille, 

Whan he behelde likeclfe] ful ille 

For Prothenor was his ny^e cosyn, 

And discendid of ]>e same lyne 

For deth of whom he hath swiche heuynes, 

So inward pou^t, and so grete distres, 

In al pis worlde he nyste what to do 

For hym he hadde so moche peyne & wo. 

And for pe deth of Archilagus 

To ben avengid he was ful desirous, 

And in his herte many weye he caste, 

And in pe wardis gan to seke faste, 

With many Greke, on Hector to haue falle, 

Conspired fully, in soth, amonge hem alle, 

Of oon entent Hector to assaille ; 

But al for nou^t, it wolde * nat availle 

He was pat day so cruel in his rage, 

])&[ my^t of hym haue now avauwtage. 

And Troy an kny^tes by fauowr of fortune 

Vp-on Grekis so my^tely centime, 

Jjoru^ conueiywge of Hector, & his my^t, 

J)at Jei anon han hem putte to fli^t, 

And to her tentis, maugre who Ipat strive, 

In her pwrsut for-wouwdid ]>ei hem dryve, 

Jjat here & fere ]>ei leien in a swouj ; 

^Vnd many Greke mercyles pei slou^ 

J)e longe day, til it drowe to ny^t. 

And sothly, panne, for verray lak of li^t 

ftis Troyan kny3tes, ful worpi of renouw, 

Abouten Hector repeire to pe toun, 

And entren in with honowr and with glorie, 

ftat day of Grekis havynge )>e victorie : 

And Jms I leue hem in her towi wzt/i-Inne, 

And forpe of Grekis telle I wil be-gynne. 










2630. his] j?e C. 2648. wolde] nolde C. 

2658. many] many a A. 2663. 2nd with] om. A. 

BK. in] The Greek Leaders resolve that Hector must be kild. 471 

Howe Kynge Agamenon, with alle the princysse of 
Grece, compassyd and contryvede the dethe and 
destruction of worthy Eetor, the which Achilles 
vnmanly toke on honde. 1 

Whan Esperus, J>e faire bri^tfe] sterre, 
Ageyn[e]s eve, caste his stremys ferre, 
And in )>e weste rarest gan appere, 
Whan ]>e twyly^t, wij? a pale chere, 
In maner morneth ]?e absence of J>e sorcne, 
And ny3t aprochej? with his copis donne 
)5e same tyme, whara Titan toke Ms leue, 
Jpat clerkis calle Crepusculura at eve, 
Whiche is nafc ellis but j?e mene li^t 
Of Phebws absence, and Je dirk[e] ny^t, 
And twyli^t hatte : for it is a mene 
Of day and ny^t, departinge hem betwene, [ 
Fully nouper, but of bo}>e meynt, 
Or* ]>e heuene be clustryd and depeynt 
With bri$t[e] sterris in Je Euenynge ; 
At whiche tyme Agamenou^ "be kyng 

_, , . 

Jb or his lordis sodemly hath sent 


To come echon anon* in-to his tent. 
And whan )>ei wern assemblid alle y-fere, 
Triste & hevy, with a sorftil chere, 
J)e[i] gan ]>Q slau^ter of Hector to compleine, 
Affermynge playnly pei my^t neuer ateyne 
Vn-to victorie while he were a-lyue * : 
Wherefore pel gan to conspire blive 

u. j xi. -t 

pe detn 01 nym, in many sondry woye, 
Echon concludynge, while he wer in Troy 
It was nat likly Grekis for to wynne ; 
For he alone of hem fat were w*tA-Inne 
Was chef diffence and protections, 
And souereynly vp-holder of pe touw, 
Her my^ty castel and her strong[e] wal, 

2672. copis] copye D 2. 

2680. Or] Of C. 2684. echon anon] anon echon C. 

2689. a-lyue] on lyue C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 80 d. 

At twilight 







the Greek 

leaders to 

2684 his tent. 


, ..' They agree 

L that Hector 

must die. 


472 Achilles agrees to the Greeks scheme for killing Hector. [BK. in 

The Greeks 

say some plot 
must be laid 

Achilles must 
attack him 


But he must 
not be too 

lest Fortune 

may let him 
fall into the 
ditch he digs 
for Hector. 

And vn-to Grekis dedly fo mortal : 
For pei ne my^t his grete force endure, 
NOT neuer a-ri^t ageyu her foos be sure, 
He stondyng hool (pei seide), i?^ no degre, 
Nor whil he floureth in felicite. 
Wherfor, echon, of oon entenciou7^, 
)3ei condiscende to pis conclusions : 
Jpat be som slei^t of a-wait lying, 
Whan he were most besy in fi^tynge, 
Amongis hem in meschef or distresse, 
Jpat Achilles do his besynes, 
With al his my^t vnwarly him to assaille, 
]3at hyin to slen for no ping pat he faille. 
And Grekis alle gan her p?-ayer make 
To Achilles for to vndirtake 
Of pis emprise fynally pe swt, 
}3oru3 his manhod pat it be execut 
J2e hasty deth of her mortal foo. 
And Achilles, w^'t/j-oute wordis moo, 
Her requeste assenteth to parforme, 
And to her lust gan holly hym conforme. 
Fro * pat tyme late hym be war, I rede, 
To be to hasty pis lourne for to spede, 
Vp-on Hector his power for to kythe, 
List Fortune a-wronge hir face wripe, 
To loke on hym with a froward chere, 
Hym to bringe vn-to pe hondis nere, 
J3oru$ sort or hap, of Hector, folily 
To put his lif* of deth in iuparty, 
List vn-to hym it happe euene lyche 
To falle hym silfe in pe same dyche 
J3at he for Hector compassid hap & shape : 
For it is wonder $if pat he eskape, 
Sith Hector hadde, Av^-oute^ any d rede, 
As brewnyng Ire and as grete hatrede 
To Achilles his deth for to purvey, 

2701-2746 are omitted in D 2. 2701. He] Here D 1. 
2704. >is] his A. 2718. to] om. D 1 hym] to him D 1. 
2719. Fro] For C. 2726. lif] silfe C. 
2727. vn-to] to D 1. 2733. To] om. D 1 his] om. D 1. 










BK. in] The 6h*eek Council ends. Next day they arm. 473 

}if he hym fourcde or in place sey 

Convenient for execucioiw 

I trow per schuld hym gayn[e] no rauwsoim, 2736 

NOT oper mede his herte to quyete, 

But only deth, whan so pat pei mete : 

)?is pe ende & fyn of pis mater, I 

As in pis boke after 30 schal here. 2740 

And pus Grekis maked han* an ende The Greeks 

end their 

Of her couwseil, and anoon pei wende, council 

and go to 

Eueryche of hem, horn to her loggynge, bed - 

And toke her reste til pe morw[e]nynge. 2744 

Howe Ector, inly desyrous to have ado with the 
Grekis, entyrde the felde him selff, with C and 
fyffty thousande of pe best chosyn of the Cite of 
Troye ; and the Grekys of pa same wies. 1 

Whan Aurora, with siluer dropes schene, 
Hir teris shadde vp-on pe freshe grene, 
Compleynynge ay in wepinge & in sorwe 

Hir childis deth, euery somer morwe 2748 Next mom- 

)pis to seyne, whan pe dew so sole 
Enbawmed hath pe flour & eke pe rote 
With lusty lycour, in April and in May, 
Whan pe larke, messa?iger of day, 2752 

Of custom ay Aurora doth salue 
With sondry notis, hir sorwe to t?-ansmve 
Or Phebus ryse to loye and* gladnes, 
J)oru3 armonye to leue hir heuynes, 2756 

Takyng hir leue, \vith seint[e] lohn to borwe : 
])e same tyrne, Grekis by pe morwe, 

With lusty herte, erly dide a-ryse they rise 

And armed hem in al her best[e] wyse : 2760 

For pei hem caste pat day for to goon 
In-to pe felde to metyn vrith her foon. 
And Hector hap, pe same morwe also, 

2737. Nor] Now A. 2741. maked han] maken C. 
2748. childis] children A. 2749. f>is] pis is D 1. 
2755. and] or to C. 2763. haj>] om. A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 81 a. 

474 Hector and 150,000- Men attack the Greeks. [BK..II! 

Hector rides 
out of Troy 

with Eneas, 


Troilus, &c., 

and 100,000 
men, with 
50,000 in 

They charge 
the Greeks. 


kill many 




I-caste hym fully with Grekis haue* a-do, 2764 

And issed is kny^tly* oute of Troye, 

In herte he hath so gret desire & loye 

J5e same day with Grekis for to 113 1, 

And wet// hym ladde many lusty kny^t 2768 

Of swiche as wem of fe cite born ; 

And forf e lie rood, hym silfe al to-fom, 

And Eneas with many a worfi 

Folwede after, wonder fastfe] by, 2772 

And Paris f awne, and iiexte hym Dephebws, 

And sith Troylus, fat was so cor[a]ious, 

With 'alle f e wardis made of Troye touw, [leaf 83 c] 

In whiche, as Dares makef menciouw 2776 

Wat/i-Inne his boke, f er wer 011 Troye syde 

Of fy^tyng men f t wente and dide ride 

An hundrid f ousand, armyd for to go 

In-to fe felde, and fifty fousand mo 2780 

Whiche han hem cast fat day or at Eue 

Of oon entent Grekis for to greue : 

And so fei mette, stronge on oufer side, 

And gan assemble and to-gedir ride 2784 

Eul cruelly, and with gret hatrede. 

And with hem ])o fat Paris dide lede, 

He entrid in ful* my^ti stronge archeris 

Of Perce londe, & many arblasteris, 2788 

}3at \vith her arwes, filed scharp & rou?^de, 

And with quarelles, square whet & grouwde, 

Ful many Greke han reued of his lyf. 

And [a-]myddes of pis mortal strif 2792 

Agamenouw in-to fe felde is come, 

Towardis whom Hector haf I-nome 

})Q ri^tfe] weye, & frewe lli??^ :of his stede 

Amongis his knyjtes fat he dide lede 2796 

He spared nou3t, for al fe grete pres. 

2764. I-caste] Caste D 1 haue] to haue C. 

2765. is knyjtly] his knyjtes C. 
2770. to-forn] a torn D 2, be forn D 1. 
2781. >at day or at] or >at it be D 1. 
2787. ful] vfit/i ful C, om. D 1. 

2790. quarelles] quarell D 2. 
2796. Amongis] Among D 2, 

Amonge D 1. 

BK. in] Achilles attacks Hector. Diomede reproaches Eneas. 475 

And yer-with-al, anoon cam Achilles, 

feat in await of Hector hadde leyn ; 

And sodeinly, with al his my^t & peyne, 2800 

Hector he smote on }>e hed [so] sore, 

feat with pe stroke: (myn auctor seip no more) 

His basenet was bowed and y-crasid, 

Of whiche strok, Hector nat amasid, 2804 

On Achilles schuld anoon y-falle, 

Nadde Eneas, with his knyjtes alle, 

And worpi Troy his come & go by-twene 

fee whiche tweyne with her swerdis kene 

Gan Achilles felly for to assaille, 

To hewe his platis & to perce his maille : 

And Ipo be-gan pe slau^ter on euery* side 

Of men of fote & of hem pat ride 

Liche a condut her wourades go/me blede. 

And in pis while cruel * Diomede, 

Were it be hap, auenture, or caas, 

So as he rood hath met with Eneas; ':! &U 2816 

And ri}t anoon, as he hath him fou^de, 

He smet at hym, and $af him suche a wou^de, 

feat likly was he schulde nat recure, 

But ^if per-to be do pe bettre cure. 2820 




and smashes 
his helmet. 

Eneas and 
;,: r assail 



is rife. 



Howe Dyomede reprevyde Eneas as they met in the 
Felde, for ]>e answere pat he had afor in Troye. 1 

And ]?er-vppon, ful dispitously 

feis Diomede in his nialencolye 

Eepreued hath pis* Troyan kny^t Enee, 

And seide to hym : " al heil, for pou art he [leaf ssd] 2824 

feat whilom ^af to Prianms J)i kyng 

A fel conseil, hasty and bityng, 

Me for to haue slaw be sodein violence 

Whan I was last at Troye in his presence, 2828 

feat trust me wel, & haue it wel in mynde, 

2805. y-falle] han falle D 1. 2809. for] om. D 1. 
2811. euery] ou>er C. 2814. cruel] worbi C. 
2815. be] of D 1. 

2821. >er-vppon] here vppon D 1. 2823. bis] >e C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 81 c (misplaced after line 2822). 

and re- 
proaches him 

for haying 
Priam to 
kill him, 

476 Diomede unhorses Eneas,, and wounds Hector. [BK..III 


rides at him, 

and unhorses 

Hector cuts 



Arnyd pis* feld if I pe efte fynde, 

j?ou schalt pi conseil mortally repente, 

$if fat Fortune her-after wil assent 2832 

To bringe pe a-ri^t vn-to myn honde 

At good leyser, here in pin owne londe : 

I am ful sette pi labowr for to quyte 

And, here my troupe, pis s \v<?rd schal kerue~& bite 2836 

So kenely pi Troyan blood to schede, 

ftat finally cleth shal be pi mode, 

}5e wliiche I bere atwene mjn hondis tweyne." 

And with pat word, he my3t him nat restreyne, 2840 

)pis Diomede, but rood al sodeiuly 

Vp-on Enee, and so furiously 

He smote at hym, pis hardy cruel kny3t, 

With swyche a peyne & so gret a my3t, 2844 

)}at horn his hors he made hym for to falle, 

Maugre pe my^t of his kny^tes alle : 

])e whiche stroke he lyked[e] ful ille. 

And in pis while, Hector hath Achille 2848 

Assailled so, pat poru^ his basenet 

He perced hath, & with his swerde hym smet, 

And so narowe brou^t hym to pe point . 

Of hi^e meschef, & in swyche disioynt 2852 

Constreyned hym, pat of necessite 

He had hym take, nadde only be 

Sodeyn reskus of hym, chyualrous,* 

)3at callid is pe sone of Tideus 2856 

I mene pe felle ferse Diomede, 

Whiche Achilles hap holpen in pis nede : 

For he poru$ force of his armys tweyne 

Smot Hector tho, with so gret a peyne, 2860 

))at he hym $af a wourcde ful greuous ; 

But he no ping (myn auctour w?*itep pus) 

Astonyd was, pis kny3t, pis manly man, 

But with his swerde, in al pe hast he .can, 2864 

Smot Diomede so furious * & wroth, 

2830. t>is] >e C, D 1. 2837. kenely] kene D 1. 
2842. so] om. A. 2844. 2nd a] om. D 1. '2848. in] om. A. 
2851. narowe] narwe A. 2855. chyualrous] chyualrours C, D 1. 
2865. furious] furiously C. 

Hector and Achilles fight. The Greeks and Trojans join battle. 477 

)?at from his hors to pe er]?e he goth, 

For al his pride and his surquedie. 

J5e whiche anon, as Troylus dide espie, 2868 

WVt/i-oute abood, doura of his stede ali$t 

With Diomede on fote for to fi^t, 

And eche of hem, in sothfastnes[se], Jjanne 

Aquyt hym silf lik a manly man, 2872 

)}at nouper was, in moche nor in lite, [leaf si a] 

In no degre of manhod for to wite. 

And while fei fau^t, Hector & Achilles 

To-gider mette ageyn a-monge ]?e pres, 

And ran I-fere fersely in her rage 

As vvode lyons whan J?ei be ramage 

Ri^t so, in soth, Jjei ferde in her fi^tyng. 

And in ]>at tyme Menelay J>e kyng 

Ful proudly schope hym Troyefts for to mete, 

Ylixes eke, and also Polimete, 

And aftir hym cam Neptalonius, 

Pallamydes, and eke Scelenivs, 

Duke Meneste, Nestor, and Thoas, 

Currunulus, and Philotheas, 

And Theseus, as [it] is made mynde, 

With his kny^tes proudly cam be-hynde. 2888 

And on J)e party of hem of ]?e toim 

Cam alle ]>G kynges,* witA-oute excepciouw, 

)5at were assemblid in-to her diffence, 

Ageyn [e]s Grekis to make resistence, 2892 

Excepte ]?e kny^tes whiche Hector ladde, 

And }>e wardis fat he makid hadde 

\)Q same day, as seith )?e latyn boke, 

In knyrjtly wyse fe feld whan ]>at he toke. 2896 

And )>o be-gan fe felle mortal n^t, 

In whiche ]>at day ful many worfi kny3t 

In Fatis hondis, finally, are falle. 

And of fortune, a-monge fe wardis alle, 2900 




who fights 

Hector and 

2876 charge one 

2880 Menelaus, 
Ulysses, etc. 
prepare to 


The Trojans 
and their 

join in battle. 

to J>e er>e lie] he to J>e erthe D 1. 2869. his] om. D 2. 
2870. for] om. D 1. 2873. 2nd in] om. A, to D 1. 
2882. Polimete] Polybete D 1. 

2886. Currunulus] Currynvlus D 1 Philotheas] Phioletheas D 1. 
2890. kynges] kny^tes C. 2894. J>e] the same D 1. 

478 Menelaus unhorses Paris, and Ulysses throws Adrastus. [BK.III 

and Pantisy- 
laus un- 
horse each 




who blushes, 
lest Helen 
should hear 
of it. 

Adrastus is 

unhorst by 

Agamenoim, fe noble my3ty kyng, 

Al sodeinly as he cam ridyng, 

Pantisylaus in his weye mette, 

Ageyn[e]s whom anoon his hors he sette ; 2904 

And he to hym ful kny^tly rood ageyn, 

And as f ei mette }>er is no more to seyn 

On hors[e]-bak, whiles f ei were wrothe, 

Of violence fei were vnhorsid bothe. 2908 

And Menelay Parys mette of newe, 

J)e vvhiche two wel to-gidre knewe, 

Ful desyrous eche of er for to dere ; 

But Menelay cau^te firste a spere, 2912 

And hitte Paris \vit/i al his inward cure, 

But for surnes of his strong armvre 

And my^ty platis, his wourade was but smal, 

Whiche, in effecte, greued nat at al : 2916 

But we't/i fat stroke vn-to f e grou^de he gof e. 

Of whiche falle Paris wex ri$t wrof e, 

Wonder confus, & also red for shame, 

List fe report, in hindringe of his name, 2920 

Cam to f e eris of f e quene Eleyne, 

How he fat day my^tfe] nat attayne [leaf 846] 

With Menelay to hold en champartie, 

Lykly to sowne in-to his vileynye 2924 

J)e whiche at hert greuid hy??z ful sore. 

And Adrastus fe kyng, with-oute more, 

So as he rood, fe kyng Vlixes fond, 

And kny^tly bofe f ei fou^te?^ ho?^d of hond ; 2928 

And as fe[i] fau3t, doun to f e erfe lowe 

From his hors Vlixes haf hym f rowe, 

And ful proudly, in signe of fis victorie, 

He sent his hors home to his tentorie. 2932 

And in fat tyme, a-monges al f e pres, 

Ful sodeinly kyng Pallamydes 

Is falle on Hupon, with his lokkis hore, 

And in his Ire wouwdid hym so sore 2936 

2909. Menelay Parys} Parys Menelay D 1. 

2910. knewe] mewe A. 2917. be] om. A, D 2, D 1. 
2924. his] om. D 1. 2929. be] om. D 2 

2931. proudly] prudently A bis] his A, D 1. 

BK. in] Various Kings and Dukes, are unhorst by their Foes. 479 

kills Hupon. 

and Archila- 

J5at he fil ded* & gruf vn-to )>e grou??de, 

His mortal swerd was so kene groimde : 

Besyde whom Neptoloriyus 

Assailled hath kyng Archilagus, 2940 

Jpe whiche hym silf manly gan diffende ; 

But as )>ei fau^t, & many strokes spende 

In her diffence it wolde be noon o]>er 

Eueryche of hem hath vnhorsid o]?er. 2944 are unhorst. 

And ]>o cam in, ridyng on his stede, 

Pollydamas, and gan to taken hede Poiydamas 

Amonge J>e rengis litel hym he-side, 

Where as )>e kyng Pallamydes doth ride ; 2948 

And cruelly, so lik a manly man, 

He smet his stede, and to hym he ran, 

And maugre his my^t & his worjrines 

As )?e story pleinly bereth witnes 2952 

Only to venge J>e deth of kyng Hupouw, 

From his stede he proudly bar him douw, pafamedes 

And in his rancour & his cruel hete 

Of ]?at dispite gan hym to rehete. 2956 

And fo he-side J>e kyng Scelenus, 

Of dedly hate & herte ful Irous, 

With kyng Can-as be auenture hath mette, 

And furiously from his stede smet; 2960 

And ]>awne also )>e kyng Philemene Philemene 

Is on J>e duke fallen of Athene, 

J3at maugre bo)>e his manhod & his my$t, 

He hath his hors berafte him in }>is fijt, 

And lad with hym proudly by his side, 

Where as hym liste ]>at it schulde abyde. 

And Philotheas, )?e worj>i kyng also, 

])Q silfe tyme with Remus had a-do, 2968 

And eueryche oper, sothly, as I rede, 

His felawe hath made to voide* his stede; 

And Theseus ]?e kyng, Ipat was so sfcronge, [leaf 84 c] 

Ainyd )>e feld so as he rood a-monge 2972 

2937. ded] douw ded C, 2943. be] been A. 

2950. to hym he] vii to hym D 1. 2958. Irous] desyrous D 2. 

2962. on] to D 1. 

2970. voide] leue C. 

2964 takes the 
Duke of 
. Athens's 

and Remus 

each other 

480 Priam's Sons slay Greeks. Achilles assails Hector. [BK. in 

and Curyalus 
fight ou 

and then on 

Priam's sons 

slay many 

Thoas and 


|3e grete pres, hath mette Curyalus, 

J)e worfi kyng, of kiv^thod ri^t fanms, 

And bope two, in armys wonder stronge, 

By hem silf fai^t at leiser longe, 2976 

Til eche o)>er, with wouwdes fresche & grene, 

His felawe prewe endelonge ])e grene ; 

And afterwarde, I finde, how bei two 

Yp-on fote kny^tly hadde a-do 2980 

Jpei wern in armys so inly desyrous, 

And of manhood passyngly famous. 

And al Jns whyle ]>e sonys naturel 

Of Priamws bar hem wonder wel, 2984 

Amonge Grekis vp and clouw ridyng, 

And prudently to-gidre abidyng, 

Made [a] slau^ter of Grekis ful pitous, 

Of kynges, dukes, & lordis ri^t famous. 2988 

And, as I rede, how wor])i Thelamoiw 

Jpat tyme rnette w^'t/i kyng Sarpedouw ; 

And wit/* her speres, squared ful sharply, 

Euerych haf ober wou?zded mortally* 2992 

Jjoru^ schilde & plate & haberiou^ of maille, 

}3at, as }>e story make]? rehersaille, 

How her harneis wex of blod al red, 

And how bei fil al-most bo])e ded, 2996 

At gret meschef amonge pe horse fet, 

Of whos bledyng pe soiel ga,w wexe wet, 

]3oru^ her harneis as it gan distille. 

Whiles kyng Thoas and J>e ferse Achille, 3000 

As )>ei )>at wern of kyn and allyed, 

Amyd pe feld Hector han espied 

Where as he fau^t, be-set amyd his foon ; 

And vp-on hym of on accorde )>ei goon, 3004 

And mortally, $if it wolde availle, 

On euery halfe )>ei gan hym new assaille, 

2973. A little hook over the p in pres (blunder of copyist) C. 
2978] From his hors bak caste vp on >e grene D 1 A prefixes 
From horse bak to the same line. 

2987. a] om. A. 2992. mortally] ful mortally C. 
2993. haberioiw] habergouw D 1. 
2998] And the soille of here bloode ri3t wete D 1. ^ t . 
3006. new] to A. 

BK. in] Hector slices Thoas s nose. Paris shoots at Menelaus. 481 

And of hate, in herte bom of 3016, 

])Q\ han be-set pis Troyan kny^t [so] sore, 3008 They wound 

J)at pei, alias ! from his hed han smet head. r " 

By violence his riche basenet, 

And wouwded hyni felly on pe hed : 

But for al pat, he ne toke noon hed, 3012 

JMs worpi man, flour of chiualrye, 

But hym diffendynge po so my^tely, 

Kyng Thoas smot in pe face so, Hector cuts 

jpat with a stroke he rofe his nose a-two, 3016 Ihotrt nose. 

And shortid it by ]> e haluendel. 

At whiche stroke, pe brewer naturel His bastard 

Of manly Hector fast[e] gan hem hy^e 

To socour hym, whan pei first espie [leaf si a] 3020 

His grete meschef ; and at her in, commyng 

]3ei so manly bare hem in f^tynge 

Ageyn Grekis, fat Thoas J>ei han take ; take Thoas 

And Thelamowa so pei made* a-wake, 3024 and wound 

With new assaut of sharpe wou/zdis kene, 

J?at he was take & left vp-on pe grene, 

And of his men born home to his tent. 

And kyng Thoas home to Troye is went, 3028 Thoas is seat 

Maugre Grekis, whiche helpe him may no more ; 

For Dephebws and also Anthenor 

Han sent hym forf* to Troye ]?e cite. 

And Menelay ]>o be-gan to se, 3032 Paris 

So as he rood, Paris stonde a-side, 

And shope him shortly of hate & cruel pride, 

3if it wolde fallen on his chauwee, 

Socleinly to 3euen hym meschauwce ; 3036 

But he was war, & kepte him silf so narwe 

)3at Menelay he marked witfi an arwe,* 

|3e hed of whiche with venym was enoint, with a 

Intoxicat at fe square pointe, 3040 

]5at J>e kyng, of pat dredful wouwde 

3014. diffendynge] defended D 1. 

3024. so |>ei made] ]>ei made so C. 3026. vp-on] hym on A. 

3028. went] sent D 1. 3031. for>] home C. 

3036] Hym of manhoode so moche to auamice D 1. 

3038. an arwe] a narwe C. 

482 Menelaus is eured, and attacks Paris wheriunarmd. [BK..III 

Al dispeired of his men was fowde, 

Whiche in gret haste bar hyin to his tent. 
Meneiau? And he anoon for surgiens ha]> sent, 
surgeoS, Whiche first )>e hede toke out of his woiiwde 

Al-be it was [y-]perpid ful profouwde 

J?oru3 his harneis ful depe in-to J>e bon 

But koraiyngly )>ei dide her craft echon 3048 

To drawe it oute wz't/i.her instruments, 

And sotilly, with serteyn oynementis 

j?ei cerched han fe wouwde eimroiwz 

To make it clene fro[m] coiriipcioiw!; 3052 

who clean And prudently firste ]>ei token 'hede, 

the poison _ , 

out of his hat fce venym ferber nat procede, 

wound. n 

Eouwde in compas clensid it a-boute,. 
And after fat, bonde it sure . wi't/i-oute, 305"6. 

And defensives made on euery syde. 
And Menelay no lenger wolde bide, 
But bad in haste bringe for)>e his stede, 
In p?^rpos ful Paris to quite his mede, 3060 

3if he hym finde, be silfe same, day ; 
Hym list no lenger put it in delay, " ::;-. 
What-euere falle of his grene Wou?^de. 
He then rides And f orbe he rood, til he ha)> him fou?zde, ; ,'.:.':;::' 3064. 

after Paris, 

whom he By auenture vn-armyd in pe ielcle, 

finds unarrad, 

Wz't/i-oute swerde, polex, spere, or shelde.^ : 

Or bowe in hond were it of reclisnesj 

Or to refresche hym after werynes. eil 3068 

And Menelay anooTi a spere ha]> take, Eieaf85;a3:;;^ 

And in his Ire felly gan* it shake ;.- ^0 jrollf/i . 

Toward Paris, by gret avisenes, i *"d 

and would And schuld haue slawe him, as bi liklin^s,^:; / :o\; ,3072.. 

mm, but Nadde Eneas, whiche al ]?is }>ing behiide, : . 
Born of fe stroke with his* strongfe] schelde, 
To diffende hym in [t]his auenture - 
Destitute and naked of armvre,,. ;i7 

3050. sotilly] sothly A, D 1. 

3054. ferfer nat] no ferther D 1. 

3058. bide] abide D 1. 3060. ful] fully A. 

3062. put] to put D 1. 

3070. gan] ha]>e C. 3074. his] J> e C. 

Hector nearly captures Menelaus. The first day's Fight ends. 483 
Paris bat tvme in swiche -peril was. Eneas has 

J r Paris 

Wh erf ore, in hast, hath pis Eneas 
Ordeyned kny^tes, armyd bn^t in stele, 
Aboute Paris for to kepe hym wele 3080 

From al meschef and. confusiouw, 
Hym to conveie vn-to Troye touw, 
in dispite of kyng Menelay, 

Whiche in a- wait so for Paris lay 3084 Hector would 
Whom Hector had I-take sodeinly, Meneiaus if 

J | the Greeks 

And vn-to Troye ladde hym o utterly, hadn't stopt 

Grekis come in his diffence, 

Ageyn[e]s hyni to make insistence. 3088 

Of whiche Hector, as pei cam in his weye, 

Ful many Greke made for to deie, 

And pe remenauwt put vn-to pe fl^t, 

J)at porti} his* manhod pat day, & his my^t, 3092 

Troyens made "be Grekis for to He The Trojans 

drive the 

Vn-to her teutis, of necessite, , Greeks to 

' their tents, 

And hem to sue nolde neuere leue, 

But slen & kille til it drowe to eve, 3096 

at Phebus gan fast[e] for to weste, 

To draw he??^ horn pei pou}t[e] for Je beste : 

For Titan was at his groynsje dou?& and then go 

back to Troy. 

Whan pei gan entre in-to Troye touw, 3100 

Her gatis schette, fei to her loggyg wende ; 
And of }>is day pus pei made an ende. 

Howe kynge Pryam?;^ the next day kam to ]>e felde, 
& howe he wolde have had kynge Thoas dede, 
pat was prysonere in Troye. 1 

Til on pe morwe, pat pe rowes rede Nextmom- 

Of Phebus carte go one for to sprede . 3104 

A-forn his vp-riste in the orient, 

At whiche tyme, kyng Priamzw hape sent Priam calls 

For swiche as werne with \\iin moste preve, 

3078. in] in al A. 3085. I-take] taken D 1. 

3091. 2nd >e] om. A, D 1. 

3092. J>at jjoru^ his] And >oru^ >e C. 3094. of] of pure D 1. 
3102. made] make D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 82 d. 

484 K. Priam asks Us Council what is to le done with K. Thoas. 


On Priam's 
Council are 




Eneas, etc. 

When all are 
Priam says, 

" We have 
taken King 

who has tried 
to destroy 

and I think 

And of his cou?*seille inwardly* secre ; 

And specialy he sent[e] for be name, 

For worpi Hector, pat grettest was of fame,* 

For Paris eke, & for Dephebus, 

And for Troylus, freshe and desirous, 

For Anthenor and [for] Pollydamas, , 

And for the Troyan called Eneas : 

For he pat clay cast him nat to goon 

In-to pe felde to mete with, his foon. 

And whan pei wer?t to his paleis come, 

J)is* lordis han Jje 113 t[e] weye nome Deaf 85 6] 

Yn-to pe kyng, wit/i-Inne his closet ; 

And whan pe hussher ha)) pe dore shet, 

And eueryche hadde, liche to his degre, 

His place take, and his dewe see, 

J3is wor))i kyng, as made is mencioiw, 

Gan to declare his hertis mociou?*, 

And his menynge a-forn hem specific, 

And seide : " sirs, in whom I moste affie, ' 

To :$ow is knowe how kyng Thoas is here 

In pis cite taken prisoner, 

And is as $et be-loken in prison?*, 

AVhiche eue?-e hap be vn-to Troye tourc 

An enmy gret, vii-to,his power, 

And vs offendid, bope fer and nere, 

In many wyse (al-be. we litel reche) 

As fer as he his force my^tfe] streche ; 

And now vrith Grekis cam to sege our touw, 

As he pat wilneth oure distrucciouw, 

And [t]here-vppon hath done his besynes : 

Wherfore, of doom & of ri^twysnes, 

Bope of rescue and of equyte, 

I seie pleynly, as semeth vn-to me, 

So pat it be to 3ow acceptable, 

And pat 36 pink my cou?zseil comercdable, 

Liche as he hatli cast oure deth & shape, 









3108. inwardly] inly C. 3109. be] by his D 1. 
3110. fame] name C, D 2. 3113. 2nd for] om. D 1. 
3118. f>is] {>e C. 3120. hussher] vssher D 1. 
3136. wilneth oure] welneth oure wilnej) D 1. 

BK. Ill] 

Priam advises that they kill Thoas. 


I holde ri^tful pat he nat eskape, 

But pat of deth he resseyue his guerdous : 

For ri$t requereth, and also good resoim, 

J?at deth for deth is skilful guerdonynge, 

Vn-to my wit, and ri^t wel sittynge 

Seth 3our avis [now] pleinly in pis cas." 

And first of alle po spake Eneas, 

And seide : "lord, so it be noon offence 

To 3oure hi^nes to ^eue me audience, 

ftoru3 supporte here of hem pat be ful wys, 

I shal reherse pleynly my devys, 

What is to werken [as] in pis matere : 

Me semeth first, my lege lorde so dere, 

J)at 3oure noble, royal excellence 

Consydre shulde, with ful hi^e prudence, 

In Query werke and operacioim 

To caste a-forn, in conclusions, 

}3e final ende pat may after, swe ; 

For to a wysman, only is nat dewe 

To se pe gywnynge and pe ende* no3t, 

But bope attonis peisen in his pou^t, 

And weien hem so iustly in balance 

J?at of pe fyn folwe no repentau^ce. 

Whi I seie pis, &, platly, whi I mene, [leaf 85 e] 

Is [for] pat 36 ou^ten for to sene 

How kyng Thoas is oon pe principal 

Amonge Grekis, & of pe blood royal 

3if 36 considre, descendid as be lyn : 

Wherfore, 3if he haue pus foule a fyn, 

To be slawe while he is in presouw, 

It my3t happen, in conclusiouw, 

j)at 36 and 3ours, pat per-to assente, 

Here-afterwarde sore to repente : 

I preue it pus, pat 3if by auenture, 

Or fortune, pat no man may assure, 

Some of 3oure lordis were a-noper day 

3144. I] And D 1. 3147. 1st deth] om. D.I. 
3159. In] om. A. 3162. to] vnto D 2. 
3163. ende] endynge C. 3167. 2nd whi] what. A.. 
3175. and] or A J>er-to] her to A. 

3144 that death 
should be 
his fate. 

Death for 
death is fair 

What say 
you ? " 

Eneas says 




3160 they must 
think what 
- .1 the end '11 be. 





King Thoas 
is one of the 

and if they 
kill him in 
their prison, 

what '11 

486 Eneas advises that K. Thoas le kept in prison, not Jcild. [BK. in 

if any of 
Priam's sons 
or Trojans' 
allied Kings 
are taken by 
the Greeks - 1 

Surely the 
Greeks '11 

not spare 

K. Thoas 
ought to be 
kept in 

ready to be 
exchanged for 
any captured 
Trojan lord. 




Of Grekis take, as it happe may, 3180 

Or of ^oure sonys, so worpi of renouw, 

Or of kynges pat ben in }>is toim, 

Trustep me wel, pat swiche gentilnes 

As $e schew to hem in her distres, 3184 

ftei wil 3ou quyte whan, in cas semblable, ' i 

Fortune to hem pei finde fauerable, 

})Q whiche no man cowstreyne may nor bircde, - 

"Wherf ore, my lorde, haue pis ping in mymle : 3188 

For 3if Thoas, of short avisement, 

Shal nowe be ded poru3 hasty lugement, 

A-noper day Grekis wil vs quyte, 

And of rigour make her malis byte 3192 

Oft some of ^ouris, who-euere pat it be, 

And nouper spare hi^e nor lowe degre, 

)3ou3 he were pa?*au^ter of ^oure blood ; 

})e whiche ping, for al pis worldis good 3196 

It my^tfe] falle, pat 36 nolde se. 

Wherfore I rede, lete kyng Thoas be 

Honestly keped in prisouw, 

Lyche his estate, stille here in pis totiw, 3200. 

List, as I seide, pat anoper day 

Somme lorde of ^ouris, as it happe may, 

Casuelly were take of auenture : 

Be eschau??.ge of hym 30 my3t[e] best recure, 3204 

With-outQ strif, ^oure owne man ageyn. 

In J)is mater I can no more seyn, 

But finally pis is my ful[le] rede." 

To whiche couwseil Hector toke good hede, 3208 

And for it was accord ynge to resou?i f 

He hit co??imendith in his oppirioiw.. 

But Priam, euere of oo entenciou?i, 

S^ode alweie fix to pis conclusions, 3212 . 

Pleinly affermynge : '^if Grekis may espie 

)?at we pis kyng spare of gent[e]rye, 

3186. finde] founde D 1. 
3188. haue] hath A, ha> D2, haue> D 1. 
3204. eschauTige] chauwge D 1 hym] hern D 1. 
3207. is] om. A, D 2, D 1. 3212. >is] his D 1. 
3213. Grekis may] j>e grekis D 1. 

BK. in] Thoas s fate is not decided. They comfort Helen. 487 

J3ei wil arrette it cowardyse anoon, 

at we dar nat venge vs on* cure foon, [leaf ss <?] 

For verray drede havyng noon hardines, 

Nor herte nouper to do ri^twisnes ; 

3et, neue?*]>eles, after 3010-6 assent, 

}3at he shal leue, I wele in myn entent 

To $oure desire fully condescende." 

And of ]>is couwseil so pei made an ende, 

Wtt/i-oute more, saue Eneas is go, 

And Troylus eke, and Anthenor also, 

In-to an halle, excellynge of bewte, 

J)e quene Eleyne of .pwpos for to se, 

WitJi whom was eke Eccuba pe quene, 

And oper ladyes goodly on to sene, 

And many mayde pat $onge & lusti was. 

And worpi Troilus with pis Eneas 

Dide her labour and her besy peyne 

Eor to coimforte J?e faire quene Eleyne, 

As sche pat stood for pe werre in drede ; 

But for all pat, of verray womrnanhede, 

))ilk[e] tyme, with al hir herte entere, 

As she wel koude, maked hem good chere, 

Havynge of ko?znynge inly suffisau?ce 

Bope of chere and of dalyauwce. 

And Eccuba, beyng in pis halle, 

Verray exaumple vn-to wommen alle, 

Of bouwte havynge souereyn excellence, 

In wisdam eke, and in elloquence, 

Besou3te hem po, wonder wommanly, 

And couwsaillede eke ful prudently, 

For any haste, bope ny^e and- f erre, 

Avisely to kepe hem in pe werre, 

And nat iuparte her bodies folily ; 

But to aduerte and caste prudently 

In diffence kny^tly of ]?e tou?z, 

Hem to gouerne by discrecioiw : 

She spake of feith, & koude no pinge feyne. 

Priam still 
., n urges tliat 
3216 Thoas be 

but will give- 
in to his 
3220 Council. 

Troilus, etc., 

3224 goto 


3232 comfort 




3244 advises them 


not to be 

but discreet. 

3216. venge] avenge D 2 on] of C. 
3251. &] bat D 1. 

3228. on to] vn to A* 

488 The Lament of the Greek Soldiers over their Losses. [BK. in 

The Greeks 
lament their 


and suffer- 
ings in the 

but have no 

And f awne of hir, & after of Eleyne 

pei toke leue, and no longer dwelle, 

But went her wey. & forfe I wil 3ou telle 

How fe Grekis on f e same morwe 

Amonge hem silfe co??zpleyne & make sorwe, 

Her harmys grete, in murmwr & in rage, 

pe losse, fe costis, and f e grete damage 

pat fei han endured folily, 

Lastynge f e werre, & wiste neuer why 

pe deth, fe slau^ter of many worfi man 

Sifen tyme fat f e werre be-gan, 

Hunger & f urste, wacche & colde also, 

Ful gret vnreste, sorwe, f ou^t, & wo 

And al to-gidre for a fing of no^t, [leaf 86 ] 

In sothfastnes, $if f e groiwde be sou^t : 

pis was f e noyse & rumwr eke fat ran 

poru^-oute fe hoste J>at day fro m^ to ma?z, 

And moste a-monge fe pore sodyours, 

Whiche bere fe bront euere of suche shoures, 

And fe meschef of werre, comou?zly ; 

And fou^ fei pleyne, fei haue no remedie 

Of Binges whiche sitte?z hem f ul vnsofte. 

for their foiiy 

All night, 
thick dark- 
ness comes 







Of the orryble and hydouse tempest, thondre, levene 
that roos sodeynly vpon the Grekys. 1 

And ]ms Grekis compleyned han ful ofte 

Of many meschef f t haf on hem falle, 

pe whiche fei my^t has eschewed alle, 3276 

3 if fei ne had of foly gonne a werre, 

Oute of Grece nat comen halfe so ferre, 

To her meschef and* confusions : 

pis was fat day her lamentations, 3280 

Whiche to encrese, fe same nexte ny^t 

So dirked was, with-oute sterre Ii3t, 

o cloudy blak, and so fikke of eyr, 

Dyramed with skies foule & no fing fair, 3284 

3257. harmys] armys D 2. 3262. be-gan] gan D 2. 
3269. >e] >ese D 2. 3270. bere] bar A of] in D 2. 
3279. and] and her C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 83 c (misplaced after line 3264). 

BK. in] A terrible Storm Uows down the Grecian Tents. 489 

So wyndy eke, with tempest al be-leyn , with a storm 

Almoste for-drenchid \vith }>e smoky reyn, 

And in ]>e felde astonyed here & Bonder 

With sodeyn stroke of ]>e dredful ponder, 3288 thunder and 

And with openyng of }>e hydous levene, 

ftat it sempte in ]>e hi^e hevene 

)3e cataractis hadde bene vn-do; 

For )?e cloudis and skyes, bo]>e two, 3292 

Sodeynly wexen were so blake, 

Liche as J>e goddis wolde haue take wrak, as if the 

And had of newe assentid ben in oon drown the 

J3e londe to drenche of Deucalyon, 3296 

And al pis world, we't/z-oute more refuge, 

To ouerflowe with a fresche deluge. 

The Grekys tentys and pavelones, with stroke of 
thundure sodeynly wer cast oute of fe felde. 1 

be wynde also so sternely gan bio we, The wind 

beats down 

)3at her tentis, stondyng on a rowe, 3300 the Greeks' 

Forpossid werne, and y-bete doun ; 

And furiously, to here confusions, 

}5e flodis rau^t he?ft from her stondy?zge place, 

And bare he?^ for]?e a* ful large space, 3304 

Wher-of in meschef and in gret distresse, ' and the men 

T .L i i o i , i n are in great 

In gret labour & hertly hevynes distress. 

jpe Grekis biden al pe same ny^t, 

What for pe tempest & for lak of li^t, 3308 

Til pe flood gan ageyn withdrawe, 

)5e wynde tapese, and ]?e day gan dawe, But at dawn 

And pe heuene gan ageyn to clere, 

WM-oute cloudis, & freschely to appere ; 3312 

And Phebws eke with a f eruent hete the sun 

Hadde on pe soille dried vp pe wete [leaf so 6] 

And pe moysture environs on )>e pleyn. 

And Grekis had her tentis set ageyn, 3316 and the tents 

are set up 

And wern a-dawed of her ny^tes sorwe again. 

3285. al] also D 1. 3293. so] al A. 3304. a] in 0. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 83 d (misplaced after line 3278, and 
accompanied by a miniature : ' ' How the Grekes had* recouerede 
their pauilions "). 

490 A fresh Battle. Achilles, Hector and Diomede slay foes. [BK.III 

takes the 
to fight 
the Trojans. 

J5orii3 Jmperyng of pe glade morwe : 
Jpei hem array, no }>ing for }>e pes, 
And in-to )>e felde first went Achilles, 
As 36 shal here, of entencioiw 
Jpat day to fi^te with hem of Troye touw. 

Tlie Trojans 
sully out. 


charges the 



and kills 

Hector slays 

and Diomede 
kills Zanti- 


Howe kynge Hupon, of stature lich a geante, was 
sclayn of Ms Enn[em]y Achilles; for whoos 
dethe, worthy Ector that day, with his swerde 
wrough[t] maryeylis, and kylde mony kynges. 1 

Whawne dried was pe lusty large pleyn 
With Phebws bemys, as 36 haw herd rue seyn, 
fte Troyan knyjtes, ful wor]>i of renouw, 
Descendid ben and y-come doun, 
And in ])e feld toke* her fi3tynge place ; 
But* Achilles, to mete hem in ]?e face, 
To-forne went oute, lik as I 3011 tolde, 
With his lordis & his kny3tes bolde. 
And firste, I fincle, w/t/i-oute more abood, 
Vn-to Hupoiw furiously he rood 
(I mene Hupou?z pat was of his* stature 
Lik a geante, as bookis vs assure), 
Whom Achilles with his scharp[e] spere 
J5oru3 )?e body percid hym so fere 
)5at he fil ded, his wou?ide was so kene. 
And after ])is, ]?e kyng Octamene, 
As he fersely* on Hector wolde haue gon, 
WM-onte a-bood Hector hym slowe anon, 
And cruelly quitte hym his fatal mede. 
And sodeynly ageyri[e]s Dyomede, 
As 3antipus, ]>& worpi kyng, gan drawe, 
Ful pitously he of hym was slawe. 
And ri3t anon pe kyng Epistrophus 
[And ek )>e kyng )>at hi3te Cedius 







3318. >aperyng] appeeryng A. 

3323. dried] I dried D 1 large] om. D l' 

3320. >e] om. D 2. 
3324] f>at was a fora of be smoky reyn D 1. 

3327. And in] In to D 2-^toke] take C. 3228. But] And C. 

3333. his] hi3e C, D 1. 

3339. fersely] furiously C haue] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 84 a.- 

BK. in] Hector slays flpistrophus, but is in danger of death. 491 

Of oon assent, proudly in bataille, 

Begonnen Hector mortally tassayle ; 3348 Hector slays 

And wip a spere first Epistrophus] 

Ran at* hym, -with herte dispitous, 

And, as Guydo also doth deuyse, 

Eebuked hym in vngoodly wyse 3352 

To hym so sore in herte* he was amevid. 

Where-of Hector, furiously a-grevid, 

Hap mortally his wourcde made so large, Epistrophus, 

Jpat hym ne geynep plate, shelde, nor targe ; 3356 

For he fil ded amonge his men echon, 

To whom Hector had he shulde goon and bids him 

To be furies, depe dourc in helle. Furies in 


Swiche wordis amongis hem to telle : 3360 

" For here," qwod he, " men take of hew noon hede." 

And pus wha?^ he was wagid for his mede, 

Anon his broker, callid Cedius, cedius, 

Swiche sorwe made for Epistrophus, 3364 

So hertly dool, and so woful chere, 

J3at pite was for to sen and here, 

So inwardly on his deth he pou^t : [leaf sec] 

And with a pousand kny^tes ]>at he brou^t, 3368 withiooo 

To ben avengid by manhod of hem alle, 

Dispitously on Hector he is falle, 

Wher he hym fonde fi^tinge with his foon, 1 

J)at poru} pe force of hem euerychon, 3372 

So sore envirou?^ pei han hym be-set, surrounds 

, . ,, -, , -i -, i -i and unhorses 

pat from his stede dour* pei han hyw smet; Hector, 

Whom Cedius, ay in his cruel rage, 

Whan pat he sawe to his avauntage 3376 

Hector vnhorsid, and he on his stede, 

His swerd he lifte of inwardfly] hatrede, and lifts his 

sword to 

Markynge at hym with so gret a peyne, 8la y him - 

With al pe force of his armys tweyne, 3380 

Fully in purpos, with-onte more delay, 
To slen Hector, pleynly, $if he may. 

3347. proudly in bataille] }if it wold avayle D 1. 

3350. at] on C. 3353. so sore in herte] in herte so sore C. 

3356. geyne>] greve> D 2. 3367. So] And D 1. 

3372. pat] And D 1. 3373. han] gan D 1. 


492 Agamemnon and the Greeks make the Trojans give way. [BK. m 

But or his stroke descende my3t[e] dourc, 
Hector, of hate and indignaciouw, 
With his swerde, ]>at was ful sharp[e] whet, 
From his sholdre haj? his arme of smet; 
And after fat, he reued hym his lyf. 
Jjawne Eneas amyddes al pis strif 
Cam ridynge in, wood and furious ; 
And as he mette ]>e kyng Amphymacus, 
He fel on hym & slow hym in his* rage. 
And from Grekis holdyng her passage, 
J)er cam douw, frist Menelaus, 
And after hym kyng Thelamonyvs, 
)pe grete duke also of Athene, 
In whom }>er was so moche manhod sene, 
Ylixes eke, and cruel Dyomede, 
And eke also, to helpe hem in her nede, 
J?er cam with hem J>e kyng Machaouw, 
And alderlaste )>e grete Agamenourc, 
With alle her wardis, & fel in sodeynly 
Vp-on Troyens ; & ]>ei ful manfully 
Defende hem silf ageyn )>e Grekis proude, 
And put he?w of ful kny^tly, as )>ei koude : 
And eche on ofer, sothly, as )?ei mette, 
With spere & swerde enviously )>ei sette 

So mortal hate per was hem betwene. 

And whan )>e sowne was in Meridene, 

In mydday angel, passynge hote & shene, 

J?e Grekis gonne felly in her tene 

So my3tely to falle on hem of Troye, 

J)at pei hem made for to $eue woye, 

Of verray force and uecessite. 

And Achilles, so ful of cruelte, 
Achilles kills Amonge )>e rengis as he ga?z him drawe, 

J)e kyng Philem enviously ha]? slawe ; 
Hector slays And myd of Grekis J)e same tyme Hector, 

Maugre hem alle, slowe kyng Alphenor, 

And eke )>e kyng callid Dorovs : 

Hector cuts 
off Cedius's 

and kills 
Eneas slays 




and others 
fall on the 

and make 
em give way. 









[leaf 86 d] 3416 

two Greek 

3383. doim] a douw D 1. 3391. his] >is C. 
3408. in] om. D 2. 3419. Dorovs] Derous D 1. 

Of the Centaur archer, \ man, \ horse, who helpt the Trojans. 493 

On hem he was so cruel and Irons, 3420 

Jpat, poru$ vertu of his kny^tly hond, 

Troyens han wowne a-geyn her londe T Jt e th r jans 

Vp-on Grekis, and made hem for to fle. Gr 

Of the monstrouvse Archere that was half man half 
hors, and was with kynge Epistrophus. 1 

And pilke hour, from Trove pe cite, 3424 The Trojan 

,-, . / , , . ' allyEpistro- 

Epistroius, ful oi manlynes, phua 

)}e felde hap take poru^ his worpines ; 

And on Grekis proudly, for pe nonys, 

With his kny^tes [he] fallep al attonys, 3428 

And seuered hem & made hem for to twywne, scatters the 

And gan pe felde faste vp-on hem wywne, 

Havynge pat tyme in his companye, 

Amongis oper pat he dide guye, 3432 

A certeyn archer, pe whiche, as I fynde, being heipt 

Was monstruous & wonderful of kynde : drous archer, 

For from J?e myddel vp vn-to pe crowne 

He was a man ; & pe rernenaurcte douwe 3436 man above, 

Bar of an hors liknes and figure ; horse below, 

And horsis her, pis monstre in nature 

Hadde on his skyn growyng environs, 

Ful rowe & pikke ; & of his vois pe sowi 3440 

Was liche pe neiynge of an hors, I rede ; 

And pou3 his face, bope in lengpe & brede, 

Of shap were maraiyshe, ^et, in sothfa[s]tnes, 

His colour was semblable in liknes 3444 with a fiery 


Vn-to pe fery, hote, brewnynge glede, 

Whos even eke, flawmynge also rede and flaming 


As pe blase of an oven mouthe 

And for he was in si^te so vnkouthe, 3448 

Wher-so-euere he was mette in pe berde, 

Bope man & hors sore werne a-ferde, 

His face was so hatful and odyble, 

And his loke so hydous and orible. 3452 

3423. made] om. D 1. 3439. growyng] growyn A. 
3440. his] >e D 1. 3443. marmyshe] manliche D 1. 
3447-3506 are omitted in D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 84 c (misplaced after line 3410). 

494 The Centaur is a grand Archer, & kills many Greeks. [BK. in 

The Centaur 
had no arms 
or armour, 

bat was a 
good archer, 

and his 
arrows could 
go thru any 

All horses 
fled from 

he was so 
like a Devil. 

He slew 
many Greeks. 

And ay he had in custom & vsawice, 

As in bokis is made remembraufice, 

For to goon vn-armyd in-to pe felde, 

With-oute swerde, spere, axe, or shelde ; 3456 

For he no ping koude of pat myster : 

But, as I finde, he was a good archer, 

And bare a bowe, stif & wonder stronge ; 

And for he was also of tiler longe, 3460 

His arwes wern liche to his tiler, 

In a quyuer trussed wonder ner 

By his side, ay redy to his honde, 

Where-so he* were, ouper on se or londe. 3464 

And, as I finde, how pat noon armvre [leaf 87 a] 

Ageyn his schot pleinly my^t endure ; 

And per nas hors, stede, nor courser 

Jpat durste abide, nouper fer nor nere, 3468 

But fled anoon with al her ful my3t 

As faste as pei of hym had a si$t, 

To hern he was so passyng odyous, 

So like a deuele, and so monstruous : 3472 

And per was fouwde noon so hardi kny^t 

On hors[e]-bak pat hadfde] force or my^t 

To holde his hors whan pei rny^t hym se, 

But pat anoon abak he wolde fle. 3476 

And of pis archer I finde writen eke, 

J)at he J>at day slowe [ful] many Greke, 

And wounded hem with his arwes keue 

Jjoru^-oute pe platis, forgid brijt & shene ; 3480 

For per was norc a-forn hym pat abood, 

But to her tentis fast awey * pei rood, 

ftei my$t[e] nat his hidous loke endure. 

Howe Dyomede slewe the Sagittarye bysydes his tent, 
with a darte intoxicayte with venyme. 1 

Til per be-fil a wonder auenture : 
While pei of Troye by help of pis archer 


3454. made] maked A, D 1. 3455. in-to] in D 1. 
3456. spere] dagger D 1. 3460. tiler] teloure D 1. 
3464. he] >ei C. 3471. so] om. D 1. 
3478. many] many a A. 3482. fast awey] awey fast C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 84 d (misplaced after line 3484). 

BK. in] Diomede slays the Centaur. Hector meets Achilles. 495 

Sewe on pe chaas to her loggynge ner, 

And slowe of hem, in meschef & in drede, 

Be-syde a tent met[te] Dyomede 3488 But the 

With )>is archer, of necessite ; Diomede 

For it stood so, pat he ne my^t hym fle 

No maner weye, nor a-bak remwe 

For lyf nor deth, he my^t him nat eschwe, 3492 

So many Troyan was po at his bake, 

In his fleyng he had go to wrak : 

Wherfor, anon, pis hardy Dyomede, centaur 6 

"With cruel herte fast[e] gan hym spede, 3496 

And toward hym proudly for to dresse. 

But )>is archer, by gret avysenes, 

First with an arwe smet[te] Dyomede jjjj wounds 

ftoru} his harneis, \a\> he made him blede, 3500 

Of whiche stroke he wexe so wood & wrope, 

)5at to pis monstre, so hidous & so lope, 

He went a pas, & hym vn-armyd fond ; 

And vrith fte swerde Ipat he hilde in his hond, 3504 ThenDio- 

* mede kills 

He $af to hym his last[e] fatal wourade, the Centaur. 

J}at he fil ded, gruf vn-to [pe] grourcde. 

Jpe deth of whom Grekis reioisshinge, Greeks |the 

And, in al haste, her hertis resumynge, 3508 

Be-gan hem silf for to recouwf orte ; 

And in-to pe f elde proudly ]>ei resorte J en h e t w the 

By cowveiynge of Polixenar, 

])Q worpi duke, pat so wel him bar 3512 

Vp-on Troyens pat day in pe felde. 

But whan Hector pe sla^ter of him* behilde, [leaf s? 6] Hector 8la y 9 

Yp-on pis duke anon he gan to sette ; 

And on her stedis fersly as J?ei mette, 3516 

Hector hym slou^e, of ful grete hatrede. Polixenar, 

And after pat, on Galathe his stede, 

So as he rood forpe amonge pe pres, 

Or he was war he meteth Achilles ; 3520 

3492. nat] om. A. 3504. with] om. A. 
3507. Grekis] >e grekes D 1. 

3509. Be-gan hem silf] Hym selfe bigan D 1. 

3510. >e] om. D 2. 3514. him] hem C. 
3519] So as he rode he mete> Achilles D 1. 
3520] Of fortune ther \i$t amid J>e pres D 1. 

Hector and 

one another 

496 Hector slays Greeks. Other Greeks capture Anterior. [BK. in 

And with her speris, longe, large, & rouwde, 

In pwrpos fully eche o)>er to confoimde, 

feei ran I-fere, Irous & ri3t wrothe, 

feat with ]>e stroke pe[i] wer vnhorsid bope : 

But Achilles, with a dispitous herte, 

First, as I rede, in-to his sadel sterte, 

And besy was, with al his inward peyne, 

Gallathe to taken by pe reyne, 

feer-of for euere Hector to deprive, 

And bad his men to lede it horn as bliue, 

So ]>at Hector per was noon oper bote 

Ful* like a man fau3t stondyng on fote 

Amonge Grekis and his fomen alle ; 

And to his kny3tes loude he gan to calle, 

For his stede J?at )>ei shulde swe ; 

And )>ei in haste his hors to reskewe, 

Bene attonys fallen on Achille, 

And maugre hym, of force, ageyn his wille, 

feei han from him berafte it on ]>& pleyn, 

And to Hector restorid it* ageyn, 

Whiche in kny3thod so moche hi?ft-silf assureth, 

Dispit of hem his sadel he recureth, 

Whiche afterwarde ful dere )>ei abou3t. 

For liche a lyourc al )>at day he wrou3t, 

Amongefs] hem ridynge here & pere, 

And as ]>e deth pei fled his swerd for fere, 

feoru3 whos manhod Troyens efte be-gymie 

Vp-on Grekis pe felde ageyn to wywne. 

But it be-fil amyd her* grete fi3t, 

feat Anthenor, a certyn Troyan kny3t, 

Amonge )>e pres is so fer in goon, 

feat of Grekis he was take a-non, 

And to her tentis sent in haste he was ; 

Al-be his sone, callid Pollydamas, 

To reskewe hym dide his dilligence 

Hector calls 

on his 
to rescue 
his steed, 

which they 

Hector slays 

Other Greeks 











3522. fully] am. D 1. 3530. as] om. D 1. 

3532. Ful] But C. 3538. hym] hem D 1 his] here D 1. 

3539. him] hem D 1. 3540. it] is C. 

3541. in kny^thod] afterward D 2 hiw-silf] hew D 1. 

3549. her] >e C. 

BK. in] Darkness sends loth Armies home. They fight again. 497 

So manfully, J>at no necligence 3556 

Was fourade in hym, who-so liste to seke ; 

And )>at ful dere abou^tfe] many Greke, 

])Q same day, poni} his wor]>ines : 

But for cause only of dirknes, 3560 

And for J?at it gaw drawe towarde ny^t, 

)3ei made an ende only for lake of li^t. 

[And G-rekis wente horn to her loggyng,] 

And eke Troyens ; til on ]>e morw[e]nynge, [leaf 87 c] 3564 

j?at Phebus gan his b^tfe] bemys shewe, 

And Aurora newe gan a-dewe 

Jpe herbis sote and J>e grene levis, 

Bothe in haies and in freshe greuys, 3568 

Siluer bri^t, with rouwde perlys fyne, 

}5at so clerly ageyn pe sorane shyne, 

And shewe hem silf, so orient & shene, 

On hil & vale, and on Query grene, 3572 

fte rody morwe, til ]>e hote bemys 

Of bri3t[e] Phebws with his firy stremys 

Yapoureth vp her* moysture in-to ]>e eyr, 

\)Q wedir clere, agreable, and feir, 3576 

And attempre also of his hete, 

Whan pe Troyens [cast] hem for to mete 

With her fomen, platly, $if J)ei may. 

And oute fei wente in her beste array, 3580 

With her wardis in-to feld by rowe, 

Ageyn[e]s whom Grekis wer nat slowe, 

But shope hem for]>e, with-oute lenger let, 

Til fei to-gidir manfully han met 3584 

And with her speris & her swerdis clere, 

j)ei ran to-gedir, with a dispitous chere, 

Til shyuerid was a-sondre many spere 

On shildis stronge, hem siluerc for to were, 3588 

fails to rescue 

Both sides 
go home. 

Next morn- 

when the 
sun is hot, 

the Trojans 
march out ; 

the Greeks 
meet em, 

and the fight 

3556. manfully] manly D 1. 3560. But] om. D 1. 

3561. Jt] om. D 1 towarde] to A. 

3569. perlys] perly A. 3575. her] be C be] om. D 2. 

3477. attempre also] also atempre D 1. 

After 3584, D 1 inserts : 

with here fomen platly bis no les 
And In bei goon amo?ige al be pres. 

3587. many] many a D 1. 

Many are 
slain on both 

498 The Trojans lose the Day. The Greeks send to Priam. [BE. in 

And ryuen was on pecis many targe ; 
And, wM exis, roimde, brode, and large, 
On basenettis as )>ei smyte and shrede, 
Ful many kny3t mortally gan blede, 
In sothfastnes* ; and, as I telle can, 
))e same day was slayn many [a] man 
On ou)>er part, but most of Troye touw, 
Al-be Guy do maketh no menciourc 
Of no persone, as in special, 
On nouper syde, but in general 
Saue he concludi]), pleynly, ]>at J>is %t 
Laste fro morwe til pat it was ny3t, 
))e whiche Troyans han ful dere a-bou3t : 
For ]>ilk[e] day fortune halp hem nou3t, 
But turned hool to her confusiouw, 
And so )>ei bene repeired to pe ioun. 

but the 
Trojans get 
the worst 
of it, 

and retire 
to Troy. 





Next day the 
Greeks send 
and Ulysses 
to ask for a 
Truce of 
3 months. 

Dolon takes 

them to 

and his lords. 

Howe the Grekes sent Dyomede and Vlixes to kynge 
Pryamus for a trewes of thre monethes. 1 

And to her tentis Grekis faste hem spede, 

Til on ]>e morwe )>ei sent Dyomede 

With Vlixes to Troye J>e cite 

For a trewe, only for monypes pre, 3608 

3if kyng Priam * per-to wolde assent. 

And as )>ei two on )>is message went, 

A certeyn kny^t, born of Troye tourc, 

))at hi^t Dolon, of grete discreciouw, 3612 

And was also ri3t famous of riches, [leaf s? a] 

Of curtesye, and of gentilnes, 

His deuer dide, and his dilligence 

Hem to cowieye vn-to ]>Q presence 3616 

Of Priamws in his paleis royal ; 

And in his se, most chefe and principal, 

Where as he sat, his lordis envirouw, 

3589. many] many a D 1. 

3590. And] om. D 1 exis] hexis D 2. 

3593. sothfastnes] sothnes C. 3594. a] om. D 1. 
3598. nou)>er] ou>er D 1. 

3608. trewe.] trews A. 3609. Priam] Priamws C. 
3612. Dolon] Daloiw D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 85 b (misplaced after line 3564). 

BK. in] The Greeks ask for a Truce. Hector objects to it. 499 

With many kny^t ful worpi of renourc, 3620 

ftei gan to hym first to specefie Sd'ufsses 

Holy pe substaurcce of her embassatrie, Xace r a 

And of ]>e trewe per entent pel tolde, 

3if it so were he assenten wolde. 3624 

Howe Kynge Priamus graunt to the Grekzs ther 
askynge; bot worth! Ector was ther-to contrarye. 1 

And pe kyng benygnely hem herde, 

And by avys prudently answerde, Priam 8a y s 

Jpat per-vppon, his honour for to saue, 

At good leiser he wold a couwseil haue 3628 he'iiasknis 


With his lordis, and fully hym gouerne 

In pis mater like as pei discerne : 

And. to conclude shortly, euerychon wh ail agree 

; ' J to the truce, 

Assentid ben, excepte Hector allone, 3632 jgjgj. 

Yn-to ]>e trewe, & nolde it nat denye : 

But Hector seide, pat of trecherie, 

Only of sleijt and of false tresou?^ 

Her axynge was, vnder occasions, 3636 

First to burie Grekis pat wer dede, 

And vnder colour ber-of oute of drede who says 

the Greeks 

Afterwarde hem siluen to vitaille ; to ly et wa ro- 

For he wel knewe pat her stuf gan faille, 3640 Vision9 

And enfamyned, liste pei shulde dye, 

}3ei sou^te* a space hem siluen to pwrueye, 

By outewarde signes pat he dide espie. 

" Wherfore," quod he, " me lykep nat to lye, 3644 

By apparence, as I dar preswme, 

Whyles bat we wasten & conswme while the 

Trojans are 

Oure stuf wM-Inne, as it is to drede, 

))ei wil prouide of w[h]at pat pei [haue] nede ; 3648 

For al pat is to hem a-vauntage, 

Mut ben to vs hynderynge & damage ; 

And whiles pei encres[en] and amende, 

We shal oure store discresen and dispewde : 3652 

3623. trewe] trews A. 3625. >e] >is D 1. 
3636 was] be D 1. 3642. senate] soujten C, D 2. 
3648. >at]asDl. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 85 c (misplaced after line 3608). 

500 A ^-months' Truce is agreed on. Exchange of Prisoners. [BK.III 

But Hector 

will not 

oppose the 



if all others 

agree to it. 

So it is con- 

3it neuerpeles, how-euere pat it be, 
Towchyng pis trew as for mowpes pre, 
Sethen 36 alle assenten and accorde, 
Fro 3oure sentence I wil nat discorde, 
In no wyse to be variaurct." 
And pus pe trewe cowfermed was be grauwt, 
On ouper syde hem pou$t[e] for pe beste, 
By-cause pei shulde in quiete & in reste 
j)e mene while ese hem and releue ; 
And pei pat felte her wouwdis sore greue [ 
haue leiser hem silfe to recnre. 

Then they 
agree to 
Antenor for 
the Greek 

But Bishop 
his daughter 

whom he left 
in Troy. 



Howe durenge the trewes Anthenore was delywerde 
fro pe Grekis, for kynge Thoas and Cresseyde. 1 

And while pe trewe dide pus endure, 

Jjei fil in trete and in coniwnynge 

Of Anthenor and [of] Thoas pe kyng : 

J)at Anthenor shulde delyuered* be 

For kyng Thoas, to Troye pe cite; 

And Thoas shulde to Grekis home ageyn, 

Only be eschauwge, as 36 haw herde me seyn, 

Oon* for a-noper, as it accorded was. 

And in pis while pe byshope, he, Calchas, 

Eemembrid hym on his dorter dere, 

Callid Cryseide, -with hir eyen clere, 

Whom in Troye he had lefte be-hynde 

Whawne he wente, as pe boke makip mywde : 

For whom he felte passingly gret smert, 

So tendhiy she was set at his herte, 

And enprentid, bope at eue and morwe. 

And chefe cause & grou?zde of al his sorwe 

Was pat she lefte behynde [hym] in pe toiw 

We't/j-oute comforte or consolaciouw, 

As he caste, sothly, in his absence, 






3654. trew] trews A. 

After 3660, D 1 repeats 3593, 94 ; in 3594, man] a man. 

3666. of] om. C, D 1. 

3666 is repeated in D 2 ; but Of] pat in the repeated line. 

3667. shulde delyuered] delyuered shulde C, D 1. 
3670. eschauttge] chaunge D 1. 3671. Oon] And C. 
3672. he] of A. 3677. passingly] passyng A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 85 d (misplaced after line 3664). 

Galchas beseeches Agamemnon to exchange Cressidfor Antenor. 501 

And specially for his grete offence 

J)at he haj) wrou^t a^ens hem of Troye ; 

And, as hyw poi^t, he neuer shulde han loye 

Til he his doubter recurid hath ageyn. 

Wherfore Calchas, f e story seith certeyn, 

In his wittes many weies caste 

Howe he* my^t, while fe trew dof laste, 

Recure his dorter by som maner way ; 

And, as I fynde, vp-on a certeyn day, 

In his porte wonder humblely, 

Wiih wepyoge eye, wente pitously, 

In compleynynge, of teris al be-reyned, 

Whos inwarde wo, sofly, was nat feined, 

And on his knees anoow he fallef douw 

To-fore f e grete kyng Agamenoiw, 

Besechynge hym, with al humilite, 

Of verray mercy & of hi^e pite, 

With ofer kynges sittinge in fe place, 

To haue routhe, & for to don hyw grace, 

And on his wo to haue compassions, 

J3at he may haue restituciouw 

Of his dorter whom he loued so, 

Preyinge hem alle her deuer for to do, 

J}at f oru$ her prudent medyaciouw, 

For Antenor, fat was in her prisourc, 

With kyng Thoas she my^t eschauwged be, 

3if fat hem liste of her benignyte 

To his requeste goodly to assente. [leaf 886] 

And fei him grauwte ; & forfe anoow fei sente* 

To kyng Priam for to haue Cryseide 

For Calchas sake, & fer-w^-al fei leide 

))e charge for hir wonder specially 

On hem fat wente for fis enbassatrie 

To Troye toun and to kyng Priamz^, 

To whom Calchas was so odyous, 

So hateful* eke, foru^-oute al fe toura, 

3686. neuer shulde han] shulde nevir haue A. 
3690. he] J>at he trew] trews A do)>] om. D 2. 
3694. eye] he D 1. 3712. sente] wente C. 
3715. for] of D 1. 3717. 2nd to] om. D 1. 
3719. hateful] hathful C. 


3688 Calchas plans 
how to regain 




He kneels to 

and begs him 

3704 to get back 
Cressid as 

3708 well as Thoas 
for Antenor. 

3712 The Greeks 
ask Priam 
for Cressid. 


The Trojans 
hate Calchas 
as a traitor 


and say 
they'll never 
request ; 

502 Unwillingly the Trojans agree to give up Cressid. [BK. ill 

]3at pis reporte was of him vp and dcnm : 3720 

)3at he a tray tour was, & also false, 

Worpi to ben enhonged be }>e halse 

For his tresoim and his doublenes. 

And, ouermore, pei seiden eke expresse, 3724 

Jjat he disserued ha)?, be ri3t of lawe, 

Shamfully firste for to be drawe, 

And afterward, pe most orrible deth 

jjat he may haue, to 3elden vp pe breth 3728 

Liche a treytour in a[s] dispitous wyse 

As any herte can ]>enke or deuyse 

Eueryche affermynge, as by lugement, 

Jpat deth was noon ffully equipolent 3732 

To his deserte, nor to his falsenes, 

As 3onge & olde pleinly bar witnes ; 

Concludynge eke, for his iniquite, 

)3at pei wolde assent in no degre 3736 

Vn-to no pinge pat my^t his hert[e] plese, 

Nor of Cryseide, for to don hym ese, 

)?ei caste nat to make delyueraimce 

Leuer pei hadden to 3eue hym meschauwce, 3740 

3if pei hym my3t haue at good[e] large. 

But finally peffecte of al pis charge 

Is so ferforpe dry u en to an* ende, 

]?at Priamws hath graiwted sche shal wende 3744 

With kyng Thoas, shortly, per is no more, 

Vn-to hir fader for dau^ Anthenor 

Who-euere gruche, pe kyng in pa?iament 

Hath per-vppon 3oue iugement 3748 

So outterly, it may nat be repeled*: 

For, with his worde pe sentence was asselid, 

Jpat she mot parte, with hir eyen glade. 

And of pe sorwe, pleinly, pat she made 3752 

At hir departynge, her-afh> 36 shai here 

Whan it ageyn cometh to my matere. 

3736. J>ei] >e D 1. 3737. his herte] om. A. 
3741. haue] haved D2. 3743. an] >e C. 
3744. sche] he D 2. 3746. hir] his D 2. 

3748. J>er-vppon] her vppon D 2, here vppon D 1 joue] 1 3oue D 2. 

3749. repeled] repellid C. 3750. asselid] ewseled D 1. 
3753. departynge] partyng A. 

but at last, 


agrees to it, 

and Cressid 
must go. 

BK. ill] Hector visits the Greeks, and chats with Achilles. 503 

During the 

Hector visits 
the Greeks. 

Howe worthy Ector, durenge the trewes, kame to the 
Tent of Achilles, where they were condescendyde 
that the quarells, as wele of the Troiayns parte 
as of }>e Grekes, shulde be deraynede by the 
handys of theme two, yif J?e Troians and Grekis 
wolde ther-to consente. 1 

The trew affermyd, as $e ha% herd deuise, 
On ou]?er side, of he??i ]>ai wer ful wyse, 3756 

And ful assentid of hem euef'ychon, 
Til ]>re monies come be and goon, 
Liclie as I rede, on a certeyn day, 

Whan agreable was J)e mor we gray, [leafssc] 3760 

Blauwdiss[h]inge and plesant of delit, 
Hector in herte cau^te an appetite 
(Like as Guydo liketh for to write) 
))e same day Grekis to* vesite, 
Ful wel be-seyn, and wouwder richely, 
With many worjri in his company, 
Of swiche as lie for }>e nonys ches. 
And to Ipe tent first of Achilles, 
I fynde, in soth, pis worpi Troyan kny$t 
Vp-on his stede toke pe weie ri^t, 
Ful liche a man, as made is mencioun. 
Now badde Achilles gret affeccioura 3772 

In his herte, bope day and ny^t, 
Of worpi Hector for to ban a si^t : 
For neuer his lyue, by non occasions 
He my^t of hym ban non inspecciou?i, 3776 

Nor hym be-holde at good liberte ; 
For vnarmyd he my^t him neuer se. 
But wonder kny^tly, bope in port & chere, 
)5ei had hem bo)>e as fei mette in fere, 3780 

And ri^t manly in her couwtenauwce ; 

And at the laste f>ei fille in dalyau?^ce. They chat. 

But Achilles firste began abreide, 
And vn-to hym euene pus he seide : 3784 

3755. trew] trews A. 3762. Hector] And Hector D 2. 
3764. to] for to C. 3771. is menciowi] om. D 2. 

3778. For] om. D 1. 3779. bo>e] as wel D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 86 b. 


3768 He rides first 
to the tent of 

who longs to 
see him. 

504 Achilles tells Hector that he wants to kill him. [BK. ill 

" Hector, 
I'm glad to 
see you, 

but I want 
to kill you. 

I've often 
felt the force 
of your 

You've cut 
thru my 
armour into 
my flesh, 

and I shall 
never be 
satisfied till I 
slay you. 

" Hector," qwod he, " ful plesyng is to me 

ftat I at leiser nakid may pe se, 

Sith I of ]?e neuere my^t haue si$t 

But w[h]an ]?ou were armyd as a kny$t ; 3788 

And now to me it schal be ful greuous, 

Whiche am to J>e so inly envious, 

But pou of me )>er is no more to seyne 

Be slaie anon with myn hondis tweyne : 3792 

For pis, in soth, wer hoolly my plesau/zce, 

By cruel deth to take* on pe vengaurcce ; 

For I ful ofte, in werre & eke in fi^t, 

Haue felt pe vertu & pe grete my^t 3796 

Of pi force, poru^ many wouradis kene, 

J3at vp-on me be ful fresche & grene 

In many place, be sheclynge of my blood 

J)ou were on me so furious and wood, 3800 

Ay compassynge to my distrucciou?^ ; 

For many a mail of myn haberion 

])i sharpe swerd racid hape a-sonder, 

And cruelly seue?-ed here and Bonder, 3804 

And mortally, as I can signes shewe, 

My platis stronge percid & I-hewe, 

And myn harneis, forgid bri^t of stele, 

Mi;t neuere assured bew so wele, 3808 

In pin Ire whan pou liste to smyte, [leaf 88 d] 

)3at ]>i swerd wolde* kerue & bite 

In-to my fleshe, ful depe & ful profotwde, 

As shewif ^it be many mortal wou^de 3812 

On my body, large, longe, and wyde, 

J?at ^it appere vppon euery syde, 

And day be day ful sore ake and smerte. 

For whiche ping, me seme]), pat myrc herte 3816 

Enbolleth newe, now whan I )>e se, 

Of hi^e dispit avengid for to be 

So am I fret of envious rage, 

))at it may neuer in my brest aswage 3820 

Til J)e vengaurcce and )>e fatal sut 

Of cruel deth be on pe execut. 

3794. take] taken C. 3810. wolde] wele C, wil D 1. 
3811. fleshe] fresshe D 1. 3819. am I] I am A. 

BK. in] Achilles reminds Hector how he slew Patroclus. 505 

And of o J>ing moste is my greuaiwce, 

Whan I haue fully remembraurcce, 3824 "i recollect 

And in my mynde considre vp & dourc, 

How )?ou madist a diuisiou?^ 

Of me, alias ! and of Patroclus, how you 

So ^onge, so manly, and so vertuous ! 3828 Patroclus, 

Whom I loued, as it was skyl & rut, whom i lovd 

with my 

as my silf ,* with al my ful my3t, whole heart - 

With as hoi herte and inly kyndenes 
As any tonge may tellen or expres. 3832 

Now hast )>ou made a departisiouw 
Of vs ]>at werne by hool affecciouw 
I-knet in oon, of hertly allyauwce, 

With-oute partynge or disseueraurcce 3836 

So enteerly* oure feithful hertis tweyen 
I-lacid werne, and lokkid in o cheyne, 
Whiche my^tfe] nat for noon aduersite 
Of lyf nor deth assorider twyraied be, 3840 

Til cruelly ]?ou madest vs departe, 
Whiche poru^ n^ hert so inwardly [doth] darte, 
|3at it wil neuer, in soth, out of* my fou^t. J can never 

And, trust wel, ful dere shal* be bou^t 3844 

])e deth of hym, &, be no ]?ing in were, 
Parauenture or endid be Jris 3ere : 

For vp-on pe, only for his sake, and for his 

Of cruel deth vengauwce shal be take, 3848 

I ]>e ensure, w^tft-outen o]>er bond ; 
3if I may lyue, with myn owne hond 

I shal of deth don execuciouw, i win km 

With-oute abood or [long] dylaciouw. 3852 

For ri^t requereth, with-outen any drede, 
Deth for deth, for his final mede ; 
For I my silfe )>er-on shal be wroke, 
J)at foru^ }>e world her-after shal be spoke, 3856 

How Achilles was vengid on* his foo, 

3824. haue] hadde D 1. 3829. Whom] Whom >at D 1. 
3830. silf] lif C. 3837. enteerly] outterly C. 
3838. o] a A, D 2, D 1. 3843. out of] in C. 
3844. shal] it shal C. 3845. hym] whom D I. 
3857. on] of C. 

506 Achilles & Hector agree that one must kill the other. [BK. in 

Hector has 

wanted to 
kill him. 

Death must 
come to one 
of them by 
the other. 

For Patroclus pat he loued so. 
Achilles says And J>om fat I be to "be envious, 

he knows r ? r f 

And of pi deth inly desirous, 
N~e wyte me nat, ne put on me no blame, 
For wel I wote pou arte to me pe same, 
And haste my deth many day desyred, 
And per-vp-on inwardly conspired : 
And pus, shortly, as a-twen vs two 
j)er is but deth, wM-oute wordis mo, 
Whan fortune hath pe tyme shape, 
I hope fully pou shalt nat eskape 
Truste noon oper, I seie pe outterly ! " 
To whom Hector nat to hastely 
Answerid ageyn, -with sobre countenance 
Avised wel in al his daliaunce, 
As he fat was in no ping rek[e]les ; 
And euene pus he spake to Achilles : 
" Sir Achilles, wz't/^-outen any faille, 
|3ou au^test nat in herte to mervaille 
J^ou} with my power & my ful[le] my^t, 
With herte & wylle, of verray due ri^t, 
Day be day I pi deth conspire, 
And euer in oon compasse it & desire, 
And do my labour erly and eke late 
To pwrsue it by ful cruel hate : 
j?ou ou3teste nat to wondrew in no wyse, 
But fully knowe, by sentence of pe wise, 
In no maner, who-so taketh hede, 
Of ri3twysnes it may nat procede, 
J)at o[u])>er I or any o]>er wi^t 
Shulde hym loue, fat with al his my^t 
My deth pwrsuwetfh] and destrucciourc ; 
And ouer pis, to more confusioura, 
Hath leide a sege aboute fis cite, 
On my kynrede and also vppon me, 
And, J> er-vp-on, felly doth preswme 
With mortal hate of werre to co?zswme 
Vs euerychon I-wis, I can nat fynde 

[leaf 89 a] 

Hector says 

you can't 
wonder that 
I plot your 

for you plot 
and have 
besiegd Troy, 

to destroy 
us all. 










Truste] Truste me A. 
3889. pwrsuweth] purswed D 1. 

BK. in] Hector tells Achilles that he hopes to tame the Greeks. 507 

In myn herte, as by lawe of kynde, 3896 

Swiche on to lone, of ri^t nor eqnite, " of course i 

Nor haue hym chere, sothly, in no degre : you. 

For of werre may no frendlyhede, war doesn't 

NOT of debate lone a-ri^t precede ; 3900 ship. 

For, sothly, lone, moste in special, 

Of feithf ulnes hath his original, From Faith 

. springs Love. 

In hertis loyned by convenience 

Of oon accorde, whom no difference 3904 

Of doubilnes may in no degre, 

Noufer in loye nor aduersite, 

For lyf nor deth assouwder nor disseuere ; [leaf 896] 

For where loue is, it contuneth euere, 3908 

But of hate al is pe contrarie. From Hate, 

Of whiche, sothly, from hertis whaw pei varie, 

Precede)) rancowr, at eye, as men may se, Rancour, 

Debat, envye, strife, and enmyte, 3912 

Mortal slau^ter, bofe ny^e and ferre, slaughter, 

Moder of whiche, in sothfastnes, is werre, war. 

))Q fyn wher-of, longe or it be do, 

Seuerith hertis & frendship kut a-two, 3916 

And causeth loue to be leide ful lowe. 

But, for al Jris, I wil wel pat ]>ou knowe But know 

fii proude wordis, in hertfe] nor in pou^t, 

In verray soth, a-gaste me ri^t no^t; 3920 

And 3if I schal, ferpermore, oute-breke, 

With-oute avaurcte j>e troupe for to speke, 

I seie be, pleinly, henfnels or two sere, thatifiiive 

two years, 

3if I may live in pis werris here, 3924 

And my swerde of kny^thod forpe acheve, 

I hope, in soth, so mortally to greue 

)3e Grekis alle, whan I with hem mete, 

J)at |?ei & J>ou shul* fele ful vnswete, . 3928 

3if ^e contynewe and ]>e werris hauwt ; 

I shal sour pride & surquedie adauwte i'ii lower 

you Greeks' 

3897. Swiche on to loue] Wiclie on >e londe D 1 nor] & D 2. 

3898. hym chere] in Cheer A hym] om. D 2. 
3900. a-ri3t] and rijt D 1. 3907. nor] to D 1. 
3914, Moder] Mordir A. 3921. And] But D 1. 
3923. pleinly] platly A. 

3928. shul] shulen C shul fele] shal felen A, D 2, D 1. 


" The Pre- 
sumption of 
you Greeks 

comes from 
want of 

508 Hector challenges Achilles to a Duel, to end the War. [BK. in 

In swiche a wyse with myn hondis two, 

)3at or fe werre fully be a-do*, 3932 

Ful many Greke sore shal it rewe. 

For wel I wote, of olde & nat of newe, 

)pat $e Grekis, gadred here in on, 

Of surquedie are fonned euerychon, 3936 

Only for want of discresiouw, 

To vndirtaken of presumpciouTz. 

So hi^e a fing, a sege for to leyn, 

And $oure silfe to ouercharge \n veyn 3940 

With emprises whiche, vtith-outen fable, 

Bene of wei^t to $ou inportable, 

And fe peis of so gret heuynes, 

]3at, finally, it wil $ou alle oppres, 3944 

And $oure pride avalen and encline, 

))e berf en eke enbowe bak & chyne, 

And vnwarly cause ^ou to falle 

Or $e haue done, I seie to oon and alle ! 3948 

And, ouermore, be ful in surete, 

Jpou Achilles I speke vn-to f e, 

}pat fatal deth first schal f e assaille, 

To-forn fi swerde i?^ any fing availle 3952 

Ageyn[e]s me, for al f i worf ines ; 

And $if so be, fat so gret hardines, 

Corage of wil, vigour, force, or my^t 

Meven fin herte, be manhod as a kny^t [leaf 89 c] 3956 

To take on fe, as in dorynge do, 

For to darreyne here betwene vs two 

Jpilke quarel, how-so fat be-falle, 

For fe whiche fat we striuen alle, 3960 

I wil assent, pleinly, to luparte, 

Til fat f e deth oon of vs departe 

Jper is no more, but fat f es lordis here, 

Kynges, princes wil accorde I-fere 3964 

}3at it be do, fully be oon assent, 

And holdfe] stable, of herte & of entent, 

and will 
bring you 
to grief. 

And you, 

will be the 
first to die. 

If you've the 

let me and 
you fight it 

and settle 
this war. 

3932. a-do] al do C. 3935. $e] the D 1. 
3948. I seie] om. D 1 alle] to alle D 1. 3954. bat] om. D 
3957. on >e] on honde D 2. 3959. >at] fat it D 1. 
3962. oon] of oone D 1. 

If Achilles leats Hector, the Trojans 'II give-in to the Greeks. 509 

With-in. a felde only pat we tweyne, 

As I haue seide, pis quarel may dareyne, 

And it finyshe, be pis condicioura : 

]3at 3if it hap poru3 pin hi^e renouft 

Me to venquyshe or putten at outrauwce, 

I wil 3011 maken fully assurauwce, 

ftat firste my lord, Prianms pe kyng, 

Shal vn-to Grekis in al maner ping, 

With septre & crowne, holly him submitte, 

And in a point varie nouper nitte, 

Fully to 3elde to $oure subiectiouw 

Al his lordshipe with-Iuue Troye touw ; 

And his legis in captiuite 

Shal goon her weye oute of pis cite, 

And leue it quit in 3 oure* gouernauwce, 

With-oute strif or any variauwce. 

And here-vp-on, to maken surete, 

To deuoyde al ambiguyte, 

To-fore pe goddis be ope & sacramente 

We shal be swore, in ful good entent ; 

And, ouermore, oure feith also to saue, 

To assure 3ou, in plegge 36 shal haue, 

J?e mene while to kepe hem on $our syde, 

At 3 oure chois hostagis to abide, 

From Troye touw, of pe worpieste 

J)at 36 liste chese, & also of pe beste, 

So pat 36 shal of no ping be in were 

Of al pat euere pat I seie * 3ou here. 

And, Achilles, with-oute wordes mo, 

3if pat pou liste accorde ful per-to 

))at I haue seide, pin honowr to encrese, 

To make pis werre sodeinly to sese, 

at likly is for to laste longe 

Be-twene Troy ens & pe Grekis stronge, 

)}ou shalt nat only with honowr & with fame 

ftoru3-oute pe world getyn pe a name, 

"If you best 

Priam shall 
submit to 
the Greeks, 




and his folk 
shall quit 
3980 Troy, 

and leave it 
to the Greeks. 




Let us swear 
to this before 
the Gods, 

and you shall 
take such 
hostages as 
you choose. 



you'll win 
honour for 
ending this 

3971. at] to A. 3978. lordshipe] lordis D 1. 
3981. it quit in $oure] in quiete and in C it] om. A. 
3983. maken] take D 1. 3985. &] of D 1. 
3994. seie] seide C. 3996. ful] wel A. 

510 Achilles accepts Hectors Challenge to end the War by a Duel. 

"You'll also 
save many 
men's lives. 

So let the 
day of our 
Duel be fixt. 

If I beat you, 

you'll give 
up the siege, 

and go 
Achilles at 
once agrees 
to Hector's 

and casts 
down his 
Glove as a 

Hector gladly 
picks it up. 

But jjer-wit^-al & }>at is nat a lyte 

feoru^ }>i kny^thod to many man profite, 

feat fro )>e deth shal eskape a-lyue, 

And to his contre hoi and sorwde aryve, 

feat likly am, by cruel auenture, 

For to be ded, }if )>e werre endure. 

Come of, perfor, & late nat * be proloigned, 

But lat ]?e day atwen vs two be loyned, 

As I haue seide, in condiciouw, 

3if in diffence only of J>is toun 

I haue victorie by fortune on pe, 

I axe nat, but anoon pat $e 

Breke vp sege, and jje werre lete, 

And suffreth vs to lyuen in quiete, 

In-to Grece horn whan ^e ar goon." 

To* whiche ping Achilles anon, 

Hoot in his Ire and furious also, 

Brermynge ful hote for anger & for wo, 

Assentid is, with a dispitous chere, 

And gan anoon to Hector dresse him nere, 

And seide he wolde delyuere hi??i outterly, 

Fro poynt to point, his axyng by & by, 

And per-in made noon excepciou??, 

But of hool herte and entenciouft 

His requeste accepted euerydel, 

And, as it sempte, liked it ri^t wel. 

And, for his parte, he caste a gloue dourc, 

In signe & tokene of confirmaciourc, 

For lyfe or deth pat he wil holde his day 

Ageyn Hector, hap what hap[pe] may, 

Yn-to pe whiche Hector liny sterte, 

And toke it vp, with as glad an herte 

As euere $it dide* man or kny^t, 

feat quarel toke with his foo to fi3t : 

[leaf 89 d] 










4009. nat] it nat C, D 1. 

4011, 12 are transposed inDI and marked respectively a and b. 

4012] f>ou wilt assente to this conclusions D 1. 

4018. To] To >e C, om. D 1. 4022. dresse liiw] dressen D 2 

4031. wil] wolde D 1. 4033. be] om. D 1. 

4034. an] om. D 2. 

4035. 3it dide] dide $it C man or] ony manere D 1. 

BK. in] The Greek & Trojan Chiefs refuse Settlement ly Duel. 511 

Jper can no man, in soth, a-ri^t deuyse 

How glad he was of J?is hi^e emprise, 

Of whiche pe noise & pe grete souw 

Ran to J?e eris of Agamenouw ; 4040 

And he anoon cam doim to her tent Agamemnon 

With alle J>e lordis of his parlement, Greek lords 

Where Achilles & Hector wern I-fere, 

To wit her wille as in )>is matere : 4044 

Wher )>ei wolden assented finally 

To putte )>e quarel ful in iuparty, 

Of ouper part, atwene Ipese kny^tes tweyne, 

As ^e han herde, it fully to darayne. 4048 

And with o vois Grekis it denye, and refuse to 

And seide J>ei nolde of 'swiche a companie, enterprise on 

Of kynges, dukis, and lordis eke also, 

Bo]?e life & deth luparterc atwene two, 4052 

Nor to []>e] course of Fortune hem submitte, 

ftat can hir face alday chauwge & flitte. [leaf 90 a] 

And some of Troye, in conclusions, so do some 

luparte nolde her lyues nor her touw, 4056 

In }>e hondis only of a kny}t 

To putten al in auenture of fi^t, 

Priam except, whiche, sothly, in pis caas, tho Priam 

With-in hym silf fully assentid was, 4060 chance* 

Pleinly to haue put & set in iuparte 

Holy )>e honour of his regalye, 

Supposynge ay, as maked is memorie, reiyin^ on 

J?at Hector shuld haue had )>e victorie 4064 winning. 

Of J>is emprise, 3if it he toke on honde. 

But for Priam nmtrel nat w^U-stonde But he can't 


Ageyn so many of oon entenciouw the objectors. 

J)at were contrarie to his oppiniouw, 4068 

Bope of Grekis and on Troye side, 

[He] helde his pes, and lete it ouere-slyde. 

And so jje Grekis parted ben echon ; 

4044. wit] wete A, D 1, wyte D 2. 

4047. Of] On D 1 tweyne] oni. A. 

4052. atwene is erased inDl. 4053. to] of D 1. 

4061. haue] a A, om. D 2, D 1. 4062. >e] to D 1. 

4063. maked] makyng D 2. 4067. so] om. D 1. 

4071. ben] hem A. 

512 The Treachery of Fortune, and the Distress ofTroilus. [BK. Ill 

Hector goes 
home to 

I'll now turn 
to Troilus. 

And Hector is from Achilles goon 
Home to Troye, where I him leue a while, 
Whiles fat I directe shal my stile 
To telle of Troylus f e lamentable wo, 
Whiche fat he made to parts his lady fro. 



Fortune ! 

when folk 
most long 
for you, 

you turn 
against them. 

See how 
thrown over 

I must help 
him to 

He almost 
died when 
he knew 
Cressid must 
leave him. 

Of the sorowe that Troilus made whew Cressaide shulde 
depart. 1 

Alias ! Fortune, gery and vnstable, 
And redy ay [for] to be chauwgable ; 
Whan folk* most triste in }>i stormy face, 
Liche her desire f e fully to embrace : 4080 

Jjanwe is f i loye aweye to turne & wryf e, 
Yp-on wrechis }>i power for to kif e 
Record on Troylus, Ipai fro ]?i whele so lowe 
By fals en vie f ou hast ouer-frowe, 4084 

Oute of fe loye which [fat] he was Inne, 
From his lady to make him for to twy^ne 
Whan he best wewde for to haue be surid. 
And of f e wo fat he hath endured, 4088 

I rnuste now helpe hym to compleyne, 
Whiche at his herte felt[e] so gret peyne,* 
So inward wo, and so gret distresse, 

More fan I haue konwynge to expresse, 4092 

Wharc he knew f e partynge of Cryseide 
Almoste for wo & for peyue he deyde, 
And fully wiste she departe shal 

By sentence and lugement fynal 4096 

Of his fader, ^oue in parlement. 
For whiche, with wo & torment al to-rent, 
He was in point to haue falle in rage, 
}?at no man my^t apese nor a-swage 4100 

J)e hidfde] peynes which in* his breste gan dare : 
For lik a man in furie he gan fare, 

4073. him leue] leve hym A. 
4076. to] for to A. 4078. redy] likly D 1. 
4079. folk] men C triste] trust A, truste D 2. 
4083. on] of D 1 J>i] >e D 1. 4090. peyne] a peyne C 
4101. hid] hije D 1 which in] >at with in C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 88 a. 

BK. in] The sorrow ofTroilus and Cressid when they must part. 513 

And swiche sorwe day & ny$t to make, 
In compleyninge* only for hir sake. 
For whan he sawe Ipat she schulde a-weie, 
He leuer had, pleinly, for to deye 
)2an to lyve be-hynde* in hir absence : 
For hym pou^t, with-outen hir presence 
He nas but ded ]>er is no more to seine. 
And in-to terys he be-gan to reyne, 
With whiche his eyen gon[ne] for to bolle, 
And in his breste ]>e si^es vp to swolle, 
And )>e sobbyng of his sorwes depe, 
J)at he ne can nat but rore and wepe, 
So sore loue his herte gan constreyne. 
And she ne felt nat a litel peyne, 
But wepte also, and pitously gaw crye, 
Desyring ay pat she my^te dye 
Ka)>er pan parte from hym oute of Troye, 
Hir owne kny3t, hir lust, hir Hues loye, 
J3at be hir chekis pe teris douw distille, 
And fro hir eyen Jje rouwde dropis t[r]ille, 
And al for-dewed han hir blake wede ; 
And eke vntressid hir her abrod garc sprede, 
Like to gold wyr, for-rent & al to-torn, 
I-plukked of, & nat with sheris shorn. 
And ouer Jris, hir freshe rosen he we, 
Whilom y-meint with white lilies newe, 
With woful wepyng pitously disteyned, 
And like herbis in April al be-reyned, 
Or floures freshe, with pe dewes swete, 
Ri$t so hir chekis moiste wern & wete 
With cristal water, vp ascendyn[g] hi^e 
Out of her breste in-to hir heuenly eye ; 
And ay amonge hir lamentaciourc, 
Ofte si]?e she fil aswone dourc, 
Dedly pale, for-dymmed in hir si$t, 

[leaf 90 6] 



would rather 
die than 
leave Cressid. 

4112 He sighs and 

can only roar 
and weep. 

weeps too, 



4124 tears out her 
golden locks, 

stains her 
^ rosy cheeks 
4128 with tears, 


4136 and swoons, 
and falls 

4104. compleyninge] compleynigne C. 4105. she] he D 1. 
4107. be-hynde] beside C. 4109. is] nys Dl. 
4114. rore] to rore D 1. 4115. gan] can D 1, to D 2. 
4118. Desyring ay] Euere desirynge D 1. 

4133. ascendyng] ascenden D 2, ascendid D 1. 

4134. her] he D 1. 

514 Cressid's Sorrow. Her last night with Troilus. [BK. in 


and appeals 
to Death to 
take her. 

Troihi8 comes 
to comfort 

but they 
both renew 
their grief. 

She cannot 




And ofte seide : " alias ! myn owne kny^t, 

Myn owne Troylus, alias ! whi shal we* parte ! 

Kaper late Deth. with his spere darte 

)3oru3 myn hert, & ]>e veynes kerue, 

And with his rage do me for to sterue 

Kafer, alias ! fan fro my kny^t to twyrcne ! 

And of fis wo, o Deth, Ipat I am Inne, 

Whi nyl )>ou come & help[e] make an ende 1 

For how shulde I oute of Troye wende, 

He abide, and I to Grekis goon, 

)3er to dwelle amonge my cruel foon 1 

Alias ! alias ! I, woful creature, 

Howe shulde I fer, in f e werre endure 

I, wreche woman, but my silf allone, 

Amonge ]>e men of arrays euerychon ! " [leaf 90 c] 4152 

Jpus gan she cryen al f e longe day ; 

))is was hir cowpleint, with ful gret affray, 

Hir pitous noyse, til it drowe to ny^t, 

)pat vn-to hir hir owne trewe kny$t, 

Ful triste & heuy, cam ageyn[e]s eve, 

3if he my^t hir couwforte or releue. 

But he, in soth, hath Cryseide fouwde 

Al in a swowe, lyggynge on }>e groimde ; 

And pitously vn-to hir he wente, 

With woful chere, & hir in armys hent, 

And toke hir vp : & fan atwen hem two 

Be-gan of new swiche a dedly wo, 

J?at it was rou]>e & pite for to sene ; 

For she of cher pale was and grene, 

And he of colour liche to ashes dede ; 

And fro hir face was goon al fe rede, 

And in his chekis deuoided was f e blod, 

So wofully atwene hem two it stood. 

For she ne my^t nat a worde speke, 

And he was redy with deth to be wreke 4172 

4139. whi shal we] we shal C. 

4140. darte] and darte A. 4147. He] Here to D 1. 

4149, 50 are transposed in D 1 and marked respectively a and b 
4156. pat] Til she D 1. 4157. eve] heve D 2. 
4167. to] the A. 4171. speke] y speke A, D 2. 
4172. And] But D 1 he] cm. D 2. 





The Sorrow of Troiius and Cressid. Lydgate praises Chaucer. 515 

Yp-on hym silfe, his nakid swerd be-side ; 

And she ful of te gan to grourade glide 

Out of his armys, as she fel a-swowne ; 

And he hym silf gan in teris drowne : 4176 

She was as stille & dowmb * as any ston ; 

He had a moufe, but wordis had he non ; Troiius too 

fee weri spirit flikered* in hir breste, 

And of deth stood vnder arreste, 4180 

WYt/t-oute meinpris, sothly, as of lyf. 

And Jms fe[r] was, as it sempte, a strif, it seems 

Whiche of hem two shuldfel firste pace : whether he 

_, , or Cressid 

.tor deth portreied in her ouper face 4184 win die first. 

With swiche colour as men go to her graue. 

Of the worshipful recowmendacyone that the monke of 
Bury, fat translate fis boke, gave Chaucere fe 
chef poete off Breteyne. 1 

And fus in wo f ei gan to-gidre raue, Thus passes 

T-.. 1,1 i their last 

Disconsolat, al f e longe ny^t, nigiit 

J?at, in gode feith, $if I shulde ari^t 4188 

fee processe hool of here bof e * sorwe 

feat fei made til f e nexte morwe, 

Fro point to point it to specefie, it would 

T , , , ,, . - take me too 

It wolde me ful longe occupie 4192 longtoteii 

^. . , . you all about 

>t euery finge to make menciourc, it ; 

And tarie me in my translaciouw 
3if I shulde in her wo precede ; 

But, me semeth, fat it is no nede, 4196 and there's 

Sith my maister Chaucer her-a-forn for 'my ' 


In J>is mater hath so wel* hym born, 

In his boke of Troylus and Cryseyde 

Whiche he made longe or fat he deyde, 4200 

Rehersinge firste, how Troiius was cowtrarie [leaf 90 d] 

[For] To assendyn vp on Lovis steire, 

4177. dowmb] dowme C. 4179. flikered] flikerit C. 
4181. meinpris] mainpris A, menprys D 2, manprise Dl. 
4183. pace] y passe A, I passe D 2. 4184. her] hert A. 
4189. bohe] bo>er C. 4198. hath so wel] so wel hath C. 
4200. Jxrt] om. D 1. 4201. was] cm. D 1. 
4202. For] WasDl. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 88 c (misplaced after line 4196). 

516 Chaucer tells the whole Story of Troilusand Cressid. [BK. Ill 

tells us how 

first fell in 
love with 

and was then 
helpt by 

and all went 
well till For- 
tune frownd 
on him. 

Alas, the 
change ! 

Mirth to-day, 
Woe to- 

tells the 
whole story. 

He gilded 
our rude 

And how ]>at he, for al his surquedie, 
After be-cam oon of pe companye 
Of Lovis folke, for al his olde game, 
Whan Cupide maked hym fill tame, 
And brou^t him lowe to his subieccioiw, 
In a temple as he walked vp & douw, 
"Whan he his gwnes and his hokis leide 
Amyd pe eyen cerclid of Oyseyde, 
Whiche on fat day he my^tfe] nat asterte : 
For poru} his brest percid & his herte, 
He wente hym home, pale, sike, & wan. 
And in J>is wise* Troy his first be-gan 
To be a seruaimt, my maister telleth pus, 
Til he was holpe aftir* of Pandarus, 
})oru3 whos comforte & mediacioim 
(As in his boke is maked* mencioun) 
With gret labour firste he cam to grace, 
And so contuneth by certeyn ^eris space, 
Til Fortune gan vp-on hym frowne, 
J3at she fro?7^ hym mvst goon oute of towne 
Al sodeynly, and neiw hym after se. 
Lo ! here }>e fyn of false felicite, 
Lo ! here ]>e ende of worldly brotilnes, 
Of fleshy lust, lo ! here thuwstabilnes, 
Lo ! here fe double variacioun* 
Of wor[l]dly blisse and transmvtacioiw : 
ftis day in myrthe & in wo to-morwe ! 
For ay fe fyn, alias ! of loie is sorwe. 
For now Cryseide, vtith pe kyng Thoas, 
For Anthenor shal go forpe, alias ! 
Vn-to Grekis. and euer* with hem dwelle ! 
\)Q hoolfe] story Chaucer kan $ow telle 
3if pat ^e liste no man bet alyue 
Nor pe processe halfe so wel discryue : 
For he owre englishe giltfe] w^'t^ his sawes, 
Eude and boistous firste be olde dawes, 










4203. al] om. D 2. 4208. walked] walk A, D 2. 

4211. Jmt] a D 1. 4214. wise] while C. 

4216. aftir] first C. 4218. his] this D 1 maked] made C. 

4227. variacioun] variauwce C. 4233. euer] neuer C. 

BK. ill] Lydgate's Praise of Chaucer. Guide's Rebuke ofTroilus. 517 

)3at was f ul fer from al peri eccioiw, English was 

And but of litel reputacioiw, 4240 

Til pat he cam, &, foru} his poetrie, 

Gan oure tonge firste to magnifie, 

And adourne it "with his elloquence tin CHAUCER 

To whom honour, laude, & reuerence, 4244 

J)orm-oute pis londe aoue be & songe, Let ail the 

Land honour 

bo ]?at pe laurer oi oure enghshe tonge Mm! 

Be to hym $oue for his excellence, 

Tvljt a[s] whilom by ful 11136 sentence, 4248 

Perpetuelly for a memorial, Like as was 

done to 

Of Colurapna by pe cardynal [leaf 91 a] 

To Petrak Fraurcceis was ^ouen in Ytaille Petrarch. 

}?at J>e report neuere after faille, 4252 

Nor pe honour dirked of his name, 

To be registred in )>e house of fame 

Amonge oj^er in pe hi^este sete, 

My maister Galfride, as for chefe poete 4256 CHAUCER 

is the chief 

pat euere was $it in oure langage ; Poft Ush 

])Q name of whom shal passes in noo?^ age, 

But euer ylyche, wit/i-oufce eclipsinge, shyne. 

And, for my part, I wil neuer fyne, 4260 

So as I can, hym to magnifie m magnify 

him till I die. 

In my writynge, pleinly, til I dye ; 

And God, I praye, his soule bring in loy. 

Howe Guydo rebukethe Troylus. And of the mutabi- 
lite and varyant chaunge of womenne. 1 

And where I lefte, I wil ageyn of Troie 4264 

J?e story telle, & first how ]>at Guydo JeffhoT I>U 

WM-in his boke speketh Troylus to, Guido 

Eebukyng hym ful vncurtesly, 

)3at he so sette his herte folili 4268 

Vp-on Cryseide, ful of doubilnes : false Cr 

For in his boke as Guydo list expresse, 

4246. >e] om. D 2. 4250. cardynal] ordynal D 2. 
4251. Petrak] Petrark A. 

4256. for] for a A. 4259. wM-oute] with D 2. 
4264. of] to D 1. 4267. ful] om. D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 89 a (misplaced after line 4262). 

518 Gfuido likens Women to Serpents, and shows-wp their Tricks. 

words, says 
are stuft 
with lies. 

They weep 
false tears. 

They are like 
a serpent. 

They weep 
with one eye 
and laugh 
with the 


They're never 
satisfied with 

I man, 

but want 4. 

feat hir teris & hir conipleynynge, 

Hir wordis white, softe, & blaurcdyshynge, 4272 

Wer rneynt with feynyng & with flaterie, 

And outward farsed with many a fals[e] lye ; 

For vnder hid was al )>e variaurcce, 

Cured a-boue with feyned contenaurcce, 4276 

As wommen kan falsly teris borwe 

In her herte pou^ per be no sorwe 

Lik as pei wolde of verray troupe deie. 

J)ei can pink oon, and a-noper seie, 4280 

As a serpent vnder floures faire 

His venym hydeth, where he dop repaire 

fie sugre a-forn, pe galle hid be-hynde, 

As approprid is vn-to hir kynde 4284 

To be dyuers & double of nature, 

Kapest deceyvynge whaw mew most assure : 

For vnder colour euery ping pei wirke, 

PQ faire aboue, pe foule in pe dirke 42 8& 

J?ei hide so, pat no man may espie ; 

And pou$ so be, pat with a woful eye 

J?ei can outward wepyn pitously, 

Jpe toper eye can lau$[e] couertly, 4292 

Whos sorwes alle are temprid with allaies. 

And her colour euer is meynt* with raies : 

For vp-on chauwge and mutabilite 

Stant hool her trust and [her] surete, 4296 

So pat pei ben sure in doubilnes, 

And alwey double in her sikernes, 

Semynge oon whan pei best caw varie, [leaf 91 6] 

Likest to acorde whan pei be contrarie ; 4300 

And pus pei ben variauwte in a-corde, 

And holest seme whan per is discord. 

And Guydo seith, how per are fewe or noon 

])at in her herte apaied is with oon ; 4304 

And 3 it pei can, be it to oon or tweyne, 

To pre or foure, in her speche feyne, 

4271. 1st hir] his A. 
4991. can]ow. Dl. 
4302. And] They D 1. 
4304. her] om. D 1. 

4273. meynt] queynt D 1. 

4294. euer is meynt] is meynt euer C. 

4303. or] om. D 1. 

BK.III] Guidos abuse of Women: hovjfraudful& fickle they are. 5 

Like as )>ei wern to oon & to no moo 

Hool in her loue, for wele & eke for wo, 4308 woman's 

7 lovers thinks 

)5at eueryche shal of hym silfe deme 

bat he be next, lik as it doth seme. he's her 


And pus in hope stant eche of hem alle, 

fee trewest ay redyest to falle ; 4312 

Who serueth best, nexte to ben appaired : 

And fcus in chaiwge al her loue is f eired. but let no 

man trust 

Lat no man trust, but cache wha?z he may* ; em. 

Far-wel to-morwe, J>ou$ it be sure to-day* ! 4316 

})e faire of chaimge lasteth ouer 3 ere, 

But it is foly for to byen to dere 

Jpilke tresour, whiche harde is to possede, 

But fleeth aweye whaw men per-of most nede. 4320 

And $if it hap pat no chapman be if one hasn't 

(As seith Guydo), $it al day men may se 

It* shewed oute at large fenestrallis, she shows 

On chaumbres hi^e, & lowe douw in hallis, 4324 windows 

And in wyndowes eke in euery strete ; 

And also eke men may vrith hem mete 

At pilgry mages and oblaciouw[e]s, and in 

At spectacles in cytes and in townys 4328 

(As seit[h] Guydo), and al is for to selle : and is on 

But after hym I can no ferfer telle. 

And eke he seith, in his sentament, 

ber is no fraude fully equipollent 4332 there is no 

' fraud equal to 

lo pe fraude and sleety compassyng a woman's. 

Of a womman, nor like in worchynge : 

For who pat set al his feithfulnes, 

Wenynge in hem to fynde stabilnes, 4336 

He shal hem fynde stedefaste as J?e mone, uk ey th hanse 

J)at is in point for to chauwge sone. moon - 

3if he be 3onge, pei cast hym in a rage ; 

$if he be olde, he falleth in dotage ; 4340 

" Wherfore, my couwseil is to bo]?e two : 

4310. he] om. D 2 next] neest A, nest D 2, neste D 1. 

4311. alle] tweyne D 2. 4315, 16 are transposed in C. 
4315. trust] om. D 1. 4318. But] For D 1. 

4319. harde is] is hard A possede] precede D 2. 
4321. chapman] man D 1. 4323. It] It is C. 
4339. a] om. A. 

520 Lydgate reproaches Guido for his Abuse of Women. [BK. in 

delights in 
cursedly of 

111 may he 

I, John 
Lydgate, say 
that, for 1 bad 
woman there 
are 100 good 

Look at the 
Virgins at 

who won the 
bliss of 

Cast of }>e bridel, and ^tly^lete hem go."- 

)3us teche}> Guydo, God wot, & not I ! 

Jjat haj? delyt to speke cursidly 4344 

Alwey of \vo??imen Jjoru^-out al his bok, 

As men may se, who-so list to loke. 

To hem he had envie in special, 

)3at, in good feith, I am ri$t wroj>e with al, [leaf 91 c] 4348 

)3at he with hem list so to debate ; 

For Ire of whiche, J?e latyn to translate, 

Inwardly myn herte I felte blede, 

Of hi^e dispit, his clausis for to rede, 4352 

])at resownede, in conclusion?!, 

Only of malys to accusaciovw 

Of pis women ful euel mote he priue ! 

So generally her sect[e] to discryve, 4356 

Whiche made nat, poru^ indiscreciouft, 

Of good nor badde noon excepciouw. 

He was to blame foule mote he* falle ! 

For cause of oon for to hindren alle : 4360 

For I dar wel affermen by pe rode, 

Ageyn oon badde loen an hundrid gode ; 

And J>on^ som oon double be & newe, 

It hindreth nat to hem )>at be trewe. 4364 

And be exaumple, also, pou^ he shewe 

J?at som oon whilom was a shrewe, 

)3ei pat be gode take shal noon hede, 

For it noon hindrynge is to wommanhede, 4368 

)3ou3 two or pre can be double & feyne : 

For )>er ageyn, sothly, at Coleyne, 

Of virgines, inly ful of grace, 

Ellevene )>ousand in )>at holy place 4372 

A man may fynde ; and in oure kalendere 

Ful many maide parfit and entere, 

Whiche to )>e deth stable wern and trewe. 

For so??zme of hem with ]>e rosen hew 4376 

Of martirdom )>e blisse of heuene wo?me ; 

4342. hem] hym D 1. 4343. teche>] tellith A. 
4349. to] om. D 1. 4355. bis] be D 1. 
4359. he] hym C. 4363. newe] trewe D 1. 
4364. trewe] newe D 1. 4369. two] tweyne A. 

Lydgate defends Women, <& says we should thank God for em. 521 

And sowzme also, as bokis telle konne, 
With pe lillye of virginite 
And violettis of parfit chastite, 
Ascendid ben a-boue pe stems clere 
And pe cercle of pe nynthe spere, 
Where loie is euere, and gladnes eterne. 
Wherefor, in soth, as I can discerne, 
))ou3 som clerkis of shrewis haue myssaid, 
Lat no good wo?wman per-of be myspaid : 
For lak of oon, alle are nou^t to blame, 
And eke of men may be seide pe same. 
For to pe trewe it is no reprefe, 
)5ou3 it so be anoper be a ]>efe ; 
For what is he pe werse in his degre, 
J90U3 pe toper be honged on a tre ? 
Nor vn-to wowmen hindring is it noon, 
Among an hiwdrid pou3 pat per be oon 
Of gouernaimce pat be vicious ! 
For per ageyn a fousand vertuous, 
3if pat 30 liste, Ii3tly 36 may fynde. 
And pou} Guydo writ, pei han of kynde 
To be double, men shulde it goodly take, 
And per ageyn no maner grucching make : 
Nature in werkynge hath ful gret power, 
And it wer harde for any pat is here 
)3e cours of hir to holden or restreyne ; 
For she wil nat be guyed be no reyne, 
To be coarted of hir due ri^t. 
Jjerfore, eche man vrith al his ful[le] my3t 
Shulde panke God, and take paciently : 
For 3if wommen be double naturelly, 
Why shulde men leyn on hew pe blame 1 
For pou3 myn auctor hindre so her name 
In his writinge, only of Cryseide, 
And vp-on hir swiche a blame leide, 
My couTiseil is, Ii3tly ouer passe 
Wher he mysseith of hir in any place, 

Some women 
with the lily 
of Virginity 
and the 

4380 violets of 
have risen 
to the 9th 
Sphere of 
eternal joy. 


All women 
are not to 
be blamed 
for one's 


Against 1 
4o96 woman are 

1000 virtuous 
[leaf 91 d] ones. 


i t f\r\ shouldn't 
4400 mind Guide's 

abuse of em. 



They should 
bear with em. 

And, tho 
Guido does 


you'd better 

4386. be] om. A. 
4389. to] om. D 2. 

4387. nou^t] nat A, D 2, D 1. 
4391. is he] he is D 1. 


Cressid forsakes Troilus, and loves Diomede. [BK. in 

skip his talk 
till you get 
to Diomede, 

to whom she 
was given for 
and Thoas. 

He guides 
her to her 
father's tent; 

and as 
tells the 
whole story, 
I needn't. 

But Guido 
says Cressid 
Troilus that 
and lord 

I can excuse 
her only 

by Nature, 

who made 
her unstable. 

To hindre woramen, ouper eve or morwe 

Taketh noon hede, but late him be with sorwe, 4416 

And skippeth ouer wher 30 list nat rede, 

Til 36 come where pat Dyomede 

For hir was sent in-to Troye toura, 

Where ceriously is maked mencioim, 4420 

First, how pat she to hym delyuered was 

For Anthenor and for* kyng Thoas, 

And how Troilus gan hir to conveie, 

With many oper, to bringe hir on pe weie ; 4424 

And after ))is, how pat Dyomede, 

By pe weie gan hir bridel lede 

Til he hir brou^t to hir fadres tent ; 

And how* Calchas, in ful good entent, 4428 

Received hir, logged per he lay, 

And of hir speche duryng al pat day, 

And al pe maner hool and euerydel 

Al is rehersid ceriously and wel 4432 

In Troylus boke, as $e han herd me seyn 

To write it efte, I holde it wer but veyn. 

But Guydo seith, longe or it was* ny$t, 

How Cryseyde for-soke hir owne kny3t, 4436 

And 3af hir herte vn-to Dyomede 

Of tendirnes and of wommanhede, 

J)at Troilus wexe in hir herte as colde, 

Wet/i-oute fire as ben pese asshes olde. 4440 

I can noon oper excusacioura, 

But only kyndes transmutaciowi, 

ftat is appropred vn-to hir nature, 

Selde or neuer stable to endure, 4444 

Be experience as men may ofte lere. 

But now ageyn [vn-]to my matere [leaf 92 a] 

I mvt resort, pou$ pat I be ferre, 

As I be-gan to writen of pe werre. 4448 

4422. for] )>e C. 

4425. And] om. D 1. 4428. now] how fat C. 

4430. pat] he D 1. 

4434. efte I holde] ofte I hilde D 1 wer] was A. 

4435. was] wer C. 4439. hir] his D 1. 
4440. >ese] the A. 4447. pat] om. D 1. 

The muster of the Trojan Forces under Hector. The Greeks. 523 

Howe worthy Ector, lyche Mars hym silf, toke the 
felde with mony worthy in his company, and 
scleughe sondrey kynges, and, amonge alle other, 
with his swerde departede Merion atweyne. 1 

FTlhe tyme passed of fe trew y-take, 

I j?e next[e] morwe, whaw Titan haf forsake 
J)e vnder party of oure Emysperye, 
Where al fe ny^t he hadde* be ful merye 
With Aurora liggyng by his side, 
But in his bedde hym list no lenger bide, 
But shope hym vp, & cast his stremys shene 
On Troye wall,* whan Hector, armyd clene, 
In-to fe felde faste gan hym b^e, 
Fiftene f ousand in his companye 
Of wor))i knytes and of manly men. 
And, as I fynde, Troylus had[de] ten 
Of kny^tes eke, fat his baner swe ; 
And, in al haste, Paris gan remewe 
Oute of f e touft, with hem of Perce londe ; 
And eche of hem a bowe had in his honde, 
And arwis sharpe trussid by her side ; 
And of kny^tes fat aboute hym ride 
He had also fre fousand, as I fynde. 
And Dephebws next hym cam be-hynde 
With fre fousand kny^tes, armyd clene, 
On whos platis f e so/me shone ful shene ; 
And next hym cam f e Troyan Eneas. 
And, as I rede, sothly, fat f er was 
)pe same day with hem of Troye toun 
An huftdrid fousand kny^tes of renouw, 
Lik as recordeth Dares Frigyus, 
And in his boke Guydo writeth Jms. 
And with fe Grekis, al to-forn fat day, 
With seuene f ousand went[e] Menelay, 
Kny3tes echon, whiche he dide lede ; 

The morning 
after the end 
of the Truce, 


4456 Hector takes 
the field with 


4460 Troiluswith 




with Persian 

and 3000 

with 3000 

Eneas of 
Troy, and 
4472 others. 


knights were 

The Greeks 
have Mene- 
laus with 
7000 knights. 

4449. trew] trews A. 

4452. al >e ny^t he hadde] he hadde al >e ny3t be] om. A. 

4456. wall] wallis C. 4464. his] om. A. 

4472. as] om. A. 4479. he] om. A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 90 a. 

524 The Greek Forces. Hector kills Phillis and Zantipus. [BK. in 

has 7000 
knights ; 
Achilles, his 
Myrmidons ; 


a huge num- 

Phillis rides 
at Hector, 

who spears 
and slays 



who kills 

The Greeks 

slay many 

And with as many wentfe] Dyomede. 4480 

And next hem* folwith pe hardy Achilles, 

With his meyne callid Myrundones ; 

And 3antipus, fe worjji kyng, eke had 

Jjre pousand kny^tes, whiche fat he lad 4484 

In-to f e felde ageyn hem of fe to\in ; 

And alderlaste cam Agamenourc 

With swiche a noimbre of pe Grekis felle, 

))at wonder is for to here telle. 4488 

And whan ])e wardis in pe feld abrod 

Had take her place, wM-oute more abood, 

A Grekishe kyng, whiche ]>at Phillis hijt, 

Anon as he of Hector had a si^t, 4492 

Towardis hym, sitting on his stede, 

With his spere he gan hym fastfe] spede ; 

But whan Hector ha]) his co??^mynge seyn, [leaf 926] 

He hent a spere, & rod to hym ageyn ; 4496 

And foru} his shelde his platis rouwde 

He $af to hym his last[e] fatal wotwde. 

Vp-on whos deth avengid for to be, 

Ful many Greke gan on Hector fle. 4500 

And, first of al, fe* wor)>i kyng famws, 

J3at of Grekis was callid ^antipus, 

Of hi^e disdeyn only for Phillis sake, 

Toward Hector hath his cours I-take, 4504 

And with a spere ran at hym ful ri$t ; 

But Hector first hit him with swiche a myjt, 

)3oru3 his harneis with his speris hed, 

feat 3antipus fil to grouwde ded, 4508 

|)e deth of whom ]?e Grekis sore pleyne, 

And dide her my^t & her besi peyne, 

On euery halfe, furious and wood, 

Tavenge hem on Troyanysshe blood. 4512 

And Jjoru^ her passage cruel hardinesse 

#ei be-gan Troyens so to oppresse, 

at many oon fat day ne my^t a-sterte, 

4481. hem] hym C. 4489. abrod] aboode D 1. 
4493 is repeated in D 2. 4501. >e] >o C. 
4506. a] om. D2. 4509. 2nd >e] om. A, D 2, Dl. 
4514. oppresse] presse D 2. . 4515. 2nd >at] om. D 2. 

BK. in] Hector is wounded, but rallies his fleeing Trojans. 525 

)>e breste y-perced and* J?e herte, 4516 

For to be ded & slayn amonge J)e pres, 
Amongis whiche, cruel Achilles 
Slowe Lychaon and Euforbius, 

Noble kny3tes, ri^t worpi and fanms, 4520 

)}at wern y-come oute of her centre 
Ageyn Grekis to helpe Tpe cyte. 
And while Troyens cowstreyned [wer] so narwe, 
Were it vfiili spere, qwarel, darte, or arwe, 4524 

Hector was wouwded jwru^-oute J>e viser 
In-to ]?e face, J>at, like a ryver, 
])Q rede blood douw be-gan to raille, 

By his harneis Jjoru^ his aventaille ; 4528 

Wher-of astonyd whan )>ei had a si^t, 
Ful many Troyan toke hym to )>e fli^t, 
And to ]>e cite fast[e] gan hem drawe ; 
And at J>e chas [ful] many oon was slawe, 4532 

Or )>ei my$t out of J?e felde remewe. 
And euer in oon J>e Grekis after swe, 
Yn-to pe wallis almost of pe toun, 

Til pat Hector, )>e Troyan champiourc, 4536 

Of his kny^thod gan to taken hede, 
Al-be his wouwde sore gan [to] blede, 
[3it] Of manhod he gan hem recomforte, 
And maugre hem in-to ]?e felde resorte ; 4540 

Namly, whan he had inspecciouw, 
On fe wallis and touris of J?e tou^, 
Howe fat Eleyne, and Eccuba pe quene, 
And his suster, faire Pollicene, [ieaf92c] 

With many ofer lady gan beholde 
Hym jjou^t anoon his herte gaw to colde 
Of verray shame his kny^tes shold[e] fle ; 
And, lik a Ijoun in his cruelte, 
He made hem tourne, manly euerychon. 
And in his wey he mette Merion, 

4516. and] to C. 4522. Grekis] >e grekis D 1. 
4523. so] om. D 1. 4524. with] om. D 1. 
4525. >oru3-oute] Jxmi? D 1. 4530. ]>e] his D 1. 

4534. |>e] om. D 2, D 1 after] for to D 1. 

4535. almost] om. A. 4536-42 are repeated inDl. 
4439. 3it] And D 1. 4547. his] >ese D 1. 

Achilles kills 
Lychaon and 

is wounded 
in the face, 
and his blood 

Many Trojans 

The Greeks 
pursue em 
to near Troy. 

Hector rallies 

He sees 

. K . . Helen, 

4544 Hecuba 

and Polyxena 
on the walls. 


526 Achilles and Hector fight, and Hector warns Achilles. [BK. in 

Hector splits 
Merion in 



who cuts 

thru his 

and makes 
him stagger 
on his horse, 

and warns 

him not to 
risk a fight. 

A Grekishe kyng, fat was ny^e allie 

To Achilles, as bokis specefie ; 4552 

And with his swerd Hector smot hym so, 

ftat he hym rof vp-on pecis two. 

And Achilles, whan he sawe hym ded, 

Partid on two, euene fro f e hed, 4556 

He hent a spere, & fou^t he nold[e] faille 

To hitte Hector f oru^ sheld, plate, & niaille, 

And rood to hym ful enviously ; 

And myd fe sheld he smet hym cruelly. 4560 

But with J>e strok Hector neuer-a-del 

Remeveth nat, he sat so fast and wel ; 

But with his swerd anoon, & tarie]? nou^t, 

Yn-to Achille, with an envious f o^t, 4564 

He kny^tly ran vp-on his courser ; 

And on his creste, fat shon so bri^t & cler, 

With swiche a my^t Hector ha]) hym smet, 

Jpat he percid f oru3 his basenet, 4568 

And raced eke from his aventaille 

With fat stroke many pece of maille, 

Jpat Achilles constreyned was of nede, 

Maugre his my3t, to stakrera on his stede, 4572 

To enclyne, and to bow his bak. 

Of the wordys of worthy Ector to Achile ; & howe 
Dyomede sent Troylus hors to Cresseyde. 1 

At whiche tyme Hector to hym spak, 

And seide : " Achille, I do ful wel aduerte 

j)e grete en vie of fi cruel herte, 4576 

And specially fat f ou haste to me ; 

But 3it be war, I courcseilpe] f e, 

}?i-silfe to put so in auenture : 

For [of] o fing I pleynly ]>e ensure, 4580 

As I desire at my lust sorn day 

Here in fe felde $if I pe mete may, 

Trust me ri$t wel, fer geynef no socour, 

4560. And myd] Amyd D 1. 4575. full 3ow D 1 
4577 And] And seide Dl. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 90 c (misplaced after line 4574). 

Troilus parts Hector & Achilles. Feats of Troilus & Menelaus. 527 

at I shal* so aquite fi labour, 

So mortally, I do f e to vndirstonde, 

With pis swerd fat I holde on honde, 

ftat vfiih pe lif J>ou shalt nat eskape, 

So cruelly )>e vengauwce shal be take, 

Eft whan we mete, evene vp-on fiw hede." 

Of whiche f ircg whan Achilles toke hede, 

Aduertinge al fat he herde hym seyn, 

Bi^t as he wold haue 30116 answer a^eyn, 

Worfi Troylus kny^tly entrid Inne, [leaf 92 d] 

[And] Maked hem asourcdre for to twynne ; 

And f oru3 f e manhod of his companye 

Of worpi kny^tes, fat he dide guye, 

And hi3e prowes of his owne my^t, 

He haf f e Grekis put ageyn to fi^t, 

And slayn of hem fat day out of drede 

Sixe hundrid kny3tes, sothly, as I rede. 

For los of whiche pe Grekis fast[e] fle 

To hir tentis, of necessite ; 

Til Menelay dide his besy cure 

To maken hem f e feld ageyn recure, 

J)oru3 whos manhod pat day out of doute 

And worf i kny3tes fat wern him aboute, 

j?e feld of Grekis recured was anoon. 

But fo from Troye cam kyng Odemon, 

And in al haste possible fat he may, 

He cam enbusshed vppon Menelay, 

And hym vnhorseth in f e silfe place, 

And swiche a wouwde 3af him in f e face, 

)}at fro f e deth he wende nat eskape ; 

And, dout[e]les, anoon he had hym take 

Wiit/fc helpe of Troylus, & lad vn-to f e touw, 

But of Grekis swiche a pres cam dourc 

To reskue hym in f is grete nede, 

)5at Odemon no ferfer my3t[e] lede* 

4584. shal] ne shal 0. 4585. to] om. A, D 2. 

4587. J>e] >i DL 4591. Aduertinge] Avertyng A. 

4592. ^oue answer] answeryd A. 

4597. And] And J>oru3 D 1 owne] om. D 1. 

4604. >e feld ageyn] a geyn ]>e felde D 1. 

4618. lede] him lede C. 

4584 For Hector 

will certainly 
kUl Achilles. 

Troilus parts 




and slays 600 
ift Grecian 

4600 knights. 

The Greeks 




recovers the 

bat is un- 
horst by 
Odemon, and 
. almost cap* 
4612 tared. 

4616 The Greeks 
rescue him. 

528 Diomede sends Troilus's horse as a present to Cressid. [BK. in 



and sends his 
steed to 

begging her 
to accept it 

her knight 
and servant, 

Kyng* Menelay toward fe cite, 
Whan Dyomede cam with his meyne, 
And many worf i, ridyng hym aboute, 
And Troylus met, among[es] al f e route, 
Al sodeynly, of hap or auenture, 
And hym vnhorsith,* as it was his evre ; 
And after fat, anoon he hent his stede, 
And bad a squier fat he shuld it lede 
Vn-to Cryseyde, only for hir sake, 
Beseching hir fat she wolde it take 
As for a gyfte of hir owne man, 
Sith he fat day for hir lone it wan 
Amyd f e feld, f oru3 his grete my3t, 
Of hym fat was whilom hir owne kny^t. 
And he in haste on his weie is went, 
And f er-of made vn-to hir p?*esent, 
Preying hir, in ful humble wyse, 
Jpis litel gifte fat she nat dispise, 
But it receive for a remembraurcce, 
And wiih al f is, fat it be plesau^ce, 
Of verray pite and of wo?rananhede 
On* hir seruaurct, callid Diomede, 
To remembre, fat was be-come her kny^t. 







Of the comfortable answere that double Cresseyde gave 
to f e Messenge?- that kame frome Dyomede. 1 

Cressid says And she anoon, wiih hertfe] glad and li^t, [leaf 93 a] 
Ful wommanly bad hym repeire ageyn 
Vn-to his lord, & pleynly to hym seyn 4644 

J?at she ne my^t, of verray kynd[e]nesse, 
Of womanhede, nor of gentilnes, 
Refusen hym, platly, from hir grace, 

she cannot 

refuse him . 

who has been pat was to hir, fere in straurcge place, 
her. So kynde fo[u]nde, and so courcfortable 

In euery f ing, and so seruisable, 

4622. amonges] om. D 1. 


4619. Kyng] f>e kyng 0. 

4623. Al] And D 1. 

4624. vnhorsith] vnhorsid C. 4627. hir] his A, D 2, D 1. 
4628. she wolde] he shulde Dl. 4633. weie] om. D 1. 
4636. she] he D 1. 4640. On] Of C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 91 a (misplaced after line 4644). 

BK.III] Cressid's acceptance pleases Diomede. The Battle wavers. 5 29 

J3at it may nat Ii3tly oute of mynde 
To pinke on hyra pat was so trewe & kynde. 
With whiche answere pe messa/iger is goon 
Vn-to his lord, and told it hyra anoon, 
Word by word, like as she hath seide ; 
And he per-of was ful wel apayde, 
)?at hym pou^t, pleinly, in his herte, 
He was recured of his peynes smerte ; 
And forpe he had hym in armys as a kny^t. 
But pilke day, durynge pe stronge fi^t 
)5ei of Troye so manly han hem born, 
ftat Grekis rny^t nat stondew hem a-forn ; 
For to her tentis pei han hera chacid dourc, 
jpat, nadde ben kyng Agamenoiw, 
Grekis had be dryue oute of J>e feld. 
])Q whiche ping anoon as he beheld, 
He cam vp-on \\ith many worpi man ; 
And po of newe pe sla^ter ageyn began 
On euery half vp-on pe large pleyn, 
jpat Grekis han Troyens so be-leyn, 
}5at efte a-^eyn )?ei haue pe feld [y-]wowne, 
So pat Troyens, constreyned, po be-gowne 
To lese her lond, til Pollydamas,* 
Whiche with his kny^tes per be-side was, 
Gan falle vppon, endelonge pe grene, 
Hem of Troye [ful] manly to sustene. 
And pe Grekis he gan so to enchase,* 
Whan he cam in, pat pei loste her place, 
And to pe strond, evene vppon pe se, 
j^oru} his kny^thod he made hem for to fle, 
Of her lif pat pei wern in drede. 
)?e whiche meschef whan pat Dyomede 
Be-held & sawe howe Pollydamas * 
Mortally pursued on pe chas 
On hors[e]-bak, in pe feld a-fere, 




words are 
told to 

and they 
please him. 

The Trojans 
gain on the 
Greeks till 

4664 Agamemnon 
helps them. 


Then the 
Trojans give 
way till 






and they 
drive the 

4680 Greeks nearly 
to the sea. 


4659. as a] like D 1. 4662. hem] him D 1. 

4673. Pollydamas] Pallymadas C. 

4675. vppon endelonge] endelonge vppon D 1. 

4677. enchase] enchose C. 4683. Pollydamas] Pollymadas C. 

4685. On] And on Dl. 

530 Diomede' s steed is taken; and on it Troilus unhorses Achilles. 



and takes 
his horse 
to Troilus, 

who mounts 


and knocks 
him off his 

With cruel herte hent anoon a spere, 

And, springing out, rod to him ful ri$t ; 

And he ageyn, to quite hyra lik a kny^t, 4688 

And he pat list on no party feyne, 

Of his stede held ageyn pe reyn, 

And rau^t a spere, & prewe [it] in pe reste, [leaf 936] 

And Diomede he smet so on pe brest, 4692 

J?at mortally, liche as it is fouwde, 

He vnhorsid hyrn vfith a greuous wouwde. 

And ri^t anoon, -with a kny^tly herte, 

Pollydamas* al attonys sterte 4696 

Vn-to pe horse of pis Diomede, 

And by pe reyne proudly gan it lede 

Vn-to* Troylus, wher he on fote stood, 

Al for-baj>ed in }>e Grekis blod, 4700 

On euery halfe whiche pat he shadde 

Amongis hem so kny^tly he hi??^ hadde, 

}5at pei ne my^t endure nor sustene, 

His sharpe swerde grouwde was so kene, 4704 

And deliuerly, maugre al his foon, 

In-to pe sadel [vp] he sterte anoon, 

Of verray force, armyd as he was ; 

And vnwarly, by auenture or cas, 4708 

With sharpe swerdis, for pe nonys whet, 

As Achilles and he to-gidre mette, 

Worpi Troylus, of rancour & of pride, 

Achilles smot pat he fil a-side 4712 

Doura of his hors, lowe to pe grou^de. 

And nat-w't/i-stondi7ige his grene mortal wouwde, 

He ros ageyn, & faste gan hym spede, 

3if pat he my3t to recure his stede : 4716 

But al for nou3t, it woldfe] nat availle, 

For sodenly, wM a fresshe bataille,* 

}3ei of Troye, as made is mencioutt, 

In compas wyse beset hym enviroun, 4720 

4686. hent] he hent A. 4688. quite] aquite D 1. 
4696. PoUydamas] Pollymadas C. 
4699. Vn-to] On to 0. 4705. al] amyd al D 1. 
4706. In-to] Vn-to D 1. 4714. his grene] be gret D 1, 
4718. bataille] abataille 0. 

Telamon rescues Achilles. 3Q-days' Fight. The Greeks worsted. 531 

Eueryche of hem armyd bri^t & clene. 
And Hector ]>o, in his furious tene, 
As Dares tellej) al ])e maner how, 
J5e same day a pousand kny^tes slow,* 
Whiche him withstode only in diffence, 
For Achilles to make resistence, 
J)at tyme of deth stondynge in iupartie : 
Jpat certeinly, but }if bokis lye, 
Be liklyhed he my^tfe] nat eskape 
In J>at meschef to be ded or take, 
Hector on hym was so furious. 
But, as I rede, Thelamonius 
Reskued hym in )>is grete nede, 
And causid hym to recure his stede, 
Nat-w&tA-stondynge al }>e grete pres : 
For fe duke and lord of Athenes 
Was in ]>is cas, of hert & hool entent, 
To helpe Achille wonder dilligent, 
Jjat with hym ladde many noble kny^t. 
But for be-cause ]>at it drowe to ny^t, 
As }>e story maketh rehersaille, 
)3ei made an ende as of pat bataille, 
And pei of Troye entrid be ]>B toun. 
And after pat, as made is menciouw, 
By and by, havyng* no delaies, 
Mortally pei fau$t[e] fritty dayes 
With-outen eny Interrupciouw, 
Of ouper parte to gret destrucciou7^. 
But aldermost, for al her gret[e] pride, 
)5ei lost most on )>e Grekis side ; 
Save Prianws loste in special 
8ixe of his sonys called naturel, 
For whom he had ful gret hevines. 
And as fe stori recordef eke* expresse, 
J)is mene while Hector, in certeyn, 
In his face wounded was a-geyn. 

Hector, who 
lias slain 1000 

nearly takes 



4732 but Telamon 
rescues him 
with the help 
of Menes- 


c] 4740 Night ends 
the battle, 


which then 
goes on for 
30 days, 


the Greeks 
losing most 

and Priam 
^ 6 of his 
4752 bastards. 


Hector is 

4723. As] And A. 4724. slow] he slow C, D 1. 
4745. By] pat by D 1 havyng] makynge C no] om. A. 
4752. his] om. D 2. 4754. recorded eke] like]) to C. 

532 A Q-months' Truce. JMon, the Citadel of Troy. [BK. Ill 

Howe Kynge Priamus sent to pe Grekis for a trewe of 
vj monethes ; & of pe discripcyon of Yllyon, 1 

And pus pei han, in pis cruel rage, 

On euery part receiued gret damage, 

Til [kyng] Priain from Troye sent[e] dourc 

For a trewe vn-to Agamenoim, 4760 

For sixe monies, }if lie assentfe] wolde. 

And per-vppoii he ha]? a conseil holde 

With his lordis, what were beste to do ; 

And pei echon accorded 'be pe?*e-to, 4764 

And grauwt his axynge, in conclusiowz. 

And al pis while, wM-Innen Ylyourc, 

Duringe pe pes, on ouper part assurid, 

Of his wouwdis fully to be cured 4768 

Lay wor))i Hector, protectour of pe tourc. 

But of pis riche, royal, chefe dongouw, 

feat Ylyouw in Troye bare pe name, 

Whiche of billedyiig had[de] swiche a fame 4772 

3if pat I shulde comende it vp-so-douw, 

As Dares doth in his discripciouw 

I wante konnynge my termys to aplie ; 

For in his boke as he doth specefie, 4776 

In al pis world was per noon so riche, 

Of hi^e devis, nor of bildynge liche, 

))e whiche stood, pe more to delyte, 

As he recordeth, on twelfe stony s white 4780 

Of alabastre, shortly to conclude ; 

And twenty pas was pe latitude, 

fee grou?id y-pauyd poru^-out with cristal, 

And vp-oii hei^t p$?-formyd eue?y wal 4784 

Of alle stonys pat any man can fynde, 

Of diamauntis and saphir[i]s ynde, 

pe royal ruby, so orient and li^t, 

feat pe dirknes of pe dymrne ny^t 4788 

Enchacid was with his bemys shene ; Deaf osd] 

And euere amonge wern emeraudis grene, 

Priam asks 
for a 6- 

The Greeks 
agree to it. 

Hector is 
cured of his 

Ilion, I'm 

not able to 

It stood on 
12 stones of 

and its walls 
were gemd 

and rubies. 

4759. Til] The D 1. 4760. trewe] trews A. 
4768. his] whoos A. 4770. chefe] om. A. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 91 c (misplaced after line 4762). 

The Description of Ilion. The burial of Priam's 6 Bastards. 533 

With stonys alle, fat any maner man 

In fis world deuyse or rekne can, 4792 

]5at wern of pris, valu, or richesse. 

And ber were* wrought, of large and gret rourcdnes, nionhad 

r c ivory pillars, 

(As seith Dares) of yvory pylers, 

And fer-vp-on set at ]>e corners, 4796 crowned by 

Of purid gold, al aboue on hei^t, ftaf 6 " 

J)er wer ymages wonder huge of wei}t, 

"With many perle and many riche stoon ; 

And euery piler in f e halle had oon, 4800 

Of massif gold, burned clere and bri^t, 

.And wonderful to any mawnys si^t : 

For of bis werke fe merveillous faciouw hose mak - 

* J . ing was more 

Was more lik, by estymaciourc, 4804 

A }>inge y-made & founded be fairye, workman 8 ' 

J)an any werke wrou^t be fantasie, men's, 

)2oru3 wit of man, as be liklynes. 

For in his boke Dares bereth witnes, 4808 

))at it was like to rekne, siyt and al, 

In apparence a f ing celestial : heavenly 1 

Seth in his boke 36 gete no more of me, 

For but in writinge I my^t neuere it* se, 4812 ^Jf t never 

Al-be alle o|?er fat it dide excelle ; 

No more fer^of I Jrinke now to telle. 

How Kenge Priamus worschipfully burede Ms sonnes 
natnrel; & howe Dyomede was wondide with 
loves darte. 1 

But retourne ageyn to Priamvs, Priam 

Whiche al fis while was inly corious, 4816 

Witft Tall his myat and his besy cure, arranges 

L J J:> J the burial 

To ordeyne for fe sepulture of hi8 J ng 

Of his sonys fat afore* were dede. 

And al ]>at tyme sike laie Diomede, 4820 

4794. >er were] >er with, C. 4795. of] om. A, D 1. 
4796. at] in D 1. 4801. burned] burneisshid D 1. 
4802. any] many D 2. 4811. Seth] Sith D 1. 

4812. in] om. A neuere it] it neuere C, D 1. 

4813. Al-be] Al Jxmj be D 1. 4814. now] ?ou D 1. 
4819. afore] after C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 91 d. 

534 How Diomede longs for Cressid's love, & she toys with him. 


and grows 
pale and lean 
for love of 

and prays 
her to have 
pity on his 

as he would 
die for her. 

Bat she keeps 
him in doubt, 

as women 
will, when 
a man, 

to set him 
more on fire. 

With Louys dart woundid to |>e herte, 

As he pat felt inwardly gret smerte, 

Of woful si^es, wiche in his "brest abraide 

Ful ofte a day for loue of Cryseyde ; 4824 

For he was shake with a feuere newe, 

]9at causid him to be ful pale of he we, 

And to wexe bo)>e megre and lene ; 

For pitously he gan hym to abstene 4828 

Fro mete & drinke, and from [al] solace, 

As it was sene in his dedly face ; 

And ofte a day to hir he wolde pleyne 

Of his dissese and his mortal peyne, 4832 

Preiynge, of grace pat she wolde se, 

Vpon his wo for to han pite, 

And of mercy for to taken hede 

Of hir seruauwt, only of womrnanhede, 4836 

Or pleinly elles per is no more to seie, 

For hir sake he seide he wolde deye. [leaf 94 a] 

But konnywgly, & in ful slei^ty wyse, 

To kepe hym lowe vnder hir seruyse, 4840 

With delaies she hilde hym forpe on honde, 

And maked hym in a were to stonde, 

Ful vnsur betwene hope & dispeire. 

And whan pat grace shulde haue had repeire 4844 

To putte hym oute of al henynes, 

Daurager of newe brou^t hym in distresse ; 

And with disdeyn to encrese his peine, 

Of double were she bro^t hym in a treyne, 4848 

As wommen kan holde a man ful narwe, 

Whan he is hurt with Cupides arwe, 

To sette on hym many fel assaies, 

Day be day to putte hym in delaies, 4852 

To stonde vnsur betwixe hope & drede, 

Ki$t as Cryseyde lefte Diomede, 

Of entent to sette hym more a-fire, 

4831-36 are misplaced after 4823, but subsequently occur in their 
proper order inD2; 4823 is marked a, and 4824 is marked b. 
4827. to] om. D 1. 4840. hir] his D 2. 
4842. a were] J>e werre D 1. 4848. were] wher D 2. 
4852. to] and D 1. 

Cressid keeps Diomede in doubt. Fresh fighting. SQ-days' Truce. 535 

As pis wowmen kyndely desyre, 

Whan pei a man haue brou^t in a trauwce, 

Vn-euenly to hange him in balaurcce, 

Of hope & drede to lynke hy??i in a cheyne, 

Ay of pe fyn vnsure of hope tweyne, 

To dryue him* forpe 3eres hem to serue, 

And do no force wher he lyue or sterue : 

ftis is pe fyn of Lovis fyri rage. 

And for she wolde haue hym in seruage, 

She lokkid hym vnder swiche a keye, 

Jjat he wot nat wher to lyue or deye ; 

And in doute pus I lete hym dwelle, 

And forpe I wil of pe story telle, 

And to my mater eke resorte ageyn. 

And as myn auctor recorde)) in certeyn, 

After pe trewe were wered out & goon, 

Twelve daies, swyng al in oon, 

pe Grekis fau3t with hem of pe toun, 

To gret damage and confusiouw 

Of ouper party, and aduersite. 

And in pis while a gret rnortalite, 

Bope of swerd & of pestylence, 

Amonge Grekis, by fatal influence 

Of noyous hete and of corrupt eyr 

Engendrid was ; pat in gret dispeir 

Of her lyf in pe f eld J?ei * leye : 

For day be day sodeynly bei deye, 

And her noumbre fast[e] gan discresse. 

And whan pai sawe pat it nolde cesse, 

By her avys, pe kyng Agamenouw 

For a trewe sente to pe touw, 

For pritty dayes; & Prianms pe kyng, [leaf 94 6] 

"WVtA-onte more, grauwted his* axyng. 

4856 Women will 
keep men on 
the balance, 


not caring 
whether they 
live or die. 

4864 Cressid keeps 
under lock 
and key, 
uncertain of 
his fate. 


But, to get 
back to the 

4872 12 days after 
the 6- 
Truce ends, 
begins again. 





breaks out 
among the 

They get 30 
days' Truce 
from the 

4858. Vn-euenly] On evenly A. 4861. him] hem C. 

4862. force] fors D 2 wher] wether D 1. 

4866. wher] whebir D 1. 4868. >e] my D 1. 

4871. trewe] trews A, trewes D 2, trewse D 1. 

4881. bei] as >ei C. 

4886. trewe] trews A, D 2, D 1. 

4887] And >ei anoon with-oute lettyng D 1. 

4888. "WM-oute more] For xxx u daies D 1 his] her C. 

536 The Dream or Revelation that Andromache had. [BK. in 

When the 
plague stops, 
they plan a 
fresh fight. 

The night 

Hector's wife, 

who hns a 
baby at her 
white breasts, 

has a won- 
drous Dream 

or revelation 
from above. 

Of A wondirful dreme that Andromacha, Ectors wiff, 
had, which in effect was, that yif here husbonde, 
the next day ensewynge, went armede to f e felde, 
that he shulde dy. Where-for she toke here 
yongeste sowkynge sonne Astromanta, and pit- 
ously, on here knees, bysought Ectore to absteyne 
hym fro 1 }>e felde that day. 2 

Whan fe Moreyn & fe woful rage 
Of pestilence be-gan for to swage, 
And f e trews were wered oute & goon, 
J?e Grekis cast to mete wat/i her foon, 4892 

Vp-on a day, in platis armyd clene, 
Whan Phebws roos,* with his bemys shene, 
Ful plesaiwtly, & gan to shede his ly^t. 
But, as I fynd, to-forne f e silfe ny^t, 4896 

Andronomecha, fe feithful trewe wyf 
Of worjji Hector, hym lovynge as hir lyf, 
Be whom he had gete childre two, 

Wonder semly, and inly fair also 4900 

And Lamedonte callyd was f e ton, 
So 3onge fe tofer, ]>at hit ne my^t[e] goon, 
And Astronanta, I rede, fat he hy^t, 
Fetured wel & passynge fair of si$t ; 4904 

And, as Guydo listeth to endite, 
Of his rnoder at )>e pappis white, 
For verray ^ong fat tyme was soukynge, 
And vfith his armys hir brestis embrasynge. 3 4908 

And she fat ny}t, as made is mencioiw, 
Hadde in hir slepe a wonder visions, 
I not, in soth, what I may it nevene, 
Oufer a dreme or verraily a sweuene, 4912 

Or fro a-boue a reuelaciourc, 
As whilom had f e kyng Scipiouw 
Or a shewynge, ouf er an oracle, 

4902. hit ne] he D 1. 

4908. armys] arm D2, arme D 1. 

4894. roos] shon C. 
4907. $ong] 3oube D 1. 
4909. And] As D 1. 
4915. Or] Outhir A ou>er an oracle] or warnyng by miracle D 1. 
1 The Royal MS. has for. 2 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 92 b. 
3 The Royal MS. inserts here the heading : " Of a dreme wonder- 
ful that Kynge Sapyon had " (leaf 92 &). 

Andromache's Dream of Hector's Death. She tells him of it. 537 

Or of goddis a warnyng be myracle : 4916 

For, in sothnes, slepynge as she lay, Andromache 

Hir pou$t[e] pleynly, }if pe nextfe] day thltTf 8 Hector 

Hector went his fomen for to assaille, day, 

As he was wont, armyd in bataille, 4920 

)?at he ne shulde eskapen outterly, 

In f atis hondis to f alle finally ; he'ii be kiid. 

And, ouermore, Antropos shal fyne 

For euer-more his lyues prede to twyne, 4924 

And shewe pe force of hir fel[le] my3t, 

Whan pe parodie of pis worpi kny^t 

Aprochen shal, wz't/i-outen wordis mo, 

In-to pe feld, pleynly, $if he go. 4928 

Of whiche astonyd, streit & short of brep, 

Wher as she lay, abreid vp-on pe dep, 

And with a si^e stinte for to slepe, she sighs 

And pitously braste oute for to wepe 4932 

For pe constreint of hir hertly sorwe ; 

And specially on pe woful morwe, Next mom- 

Whan pat she sawe pis stok of worpines, him 8 arm? es 

As he was wont, manfully him dresse [leaf 94 c] 4936 

To armyn hym in stele bornyd bri^t, 

})is Troyan wal, Hector, pis worpi kny^t, 

She can no more, but at his fete fil doura, she fails at 

T his feet, 

Lowly declarynge hir avisiouw, 4940 aadteuahtm 

w^ i i her Vision. 

\\ttfi quakynge herte of verray wo??mianhede. 

Where-of, God wote, he toke litil hede, 

But J)er-of hadde indignaciourc, He is angry, 

Flatly affermyng, pat no discreciourc 4944 

Was to trest in swiche fantasies, and pooh- 

In dremys shewid, gladly meynt with lyes, 

Ful of lapis and illusioUttS, Dreams are 

Of whiche, pleynly, pe conclusions 4948 bu?. 

Be nat ellis but folkis to delude, 
Al-be it so pat [pis] peples rude 
Jper-in som while han affeccioura 

4916] Or a demonstracioim by oracle D 1. 

4930. abreid] abreidmge D 1. 4932. for] om. D 1. 

4933. hir] om. A. 4935. bis] be D 1. 

4945. trest] trist D 2. 

538 Andromache legs Priam to forbid Hector to fight. [BK. ill 




goes to 
and Hecut 

tells em her 

and prays 

to save 
Hector from 

She swoons. 

To luge and deme in her oppinioim 4952 

Diuersly what pel may pretende, 

And ofte falle & happen as pel wende, 

And folweth like, in conclusions. 

For drede of whiche, ]>& lamentaciourc 4956 

Encrese gan of Andronomecha ; 

And in hir swowe first she cried, " a ! " 

Seying, " alias ! niyn owne lord so dere, 

3our trewe wif, alias ! whi nyl ^ou here, 4960 

Whiche of so feithful hool affeccious 

Desireth ay ^oure sauacious ! " 

And vp she roos, deedly of visage, 

And like a womnian cau^t with sodein rage, 4964 

To kyng Priam & Eccuba pe quene 

In haste she wente, hir silfe to be-mene, 

And of hir wyfly hert[e], trewe as stele, 

Ceriously declarid euerydele, 4968 

Hir pitous dreme, whiche poru} rnyracle* 

To hir only, be devyne oracle,* 

I-shewed was poru3 Goddes pwruyausce ; 

And tolde hem* eke ]>Q final ordinauwce 4972 

Of Fortunes fals disposicious, 

Fully pwrueied to destruccious 

Of hir lord, with-oute more delay, 

In-to }>e felde jif he go ]>at day. 4976 

Wherfore, she preietli with a dedly hewe 

Yn-to )>e kyng, of mercy for to re we, 

Vp-on hir wo to haue compassions, 

Eor to ordeyne by discreciou^ 4980 

Of his lordship and [of] souereinte, 

)5at hir lord nat distroyed be 

Of rekleshede, nor of wilfulnes. 

And, with ]>at worde, of verray kyndenes, 4984 

In whom was ay so moche loue fousde, [leaf 94 d] 

To-fore )>e quene aswowne fil to grousde, 

4959. Seying alias] Alias seynge D 1. 

4960. 3011] 3e D 1. 4969. myracle] oracle C. 
4970. oracle] myracle C. 4972. hem] hym C, D 1. 

4973. disposiciouw] disposiciowis D 1. 

4974. destriicciouTi] destruccowis D 1. 

4982. nat distroyed] distroied nat D 1. 4985. moche] my D 2. 

Andromache appeals to Hecuba. Priam marshals his Host. 539 

And seide, " alias ! " with a ful pale cliere, 

"Helpe in )>is cas, myw owne moder dere, 

Of wo??imanhed and routhfe] dof me grace, 

JOat my lord in-to ])e feld ne pace ; 

And doth 30111' deuer, of moderly pite 

Benignely and goodly for to se 

To his kny3thod and his hi^e prowes, 

For to restreyne his renomed noblesse, 

Jpilke day to handle spere nor shelde, 

NOT fat he go armyd in-to ]?e felde." 

And boj>e tweyne assent[e] for ]>e beste, 

And condescende vn-to hir requeste, 

Finally accordynge in-to oon. 

J)at whan ]>e wardis wer redi euerychon, 

On issinge oute, & Troy 1 us, first of alle, 

And Paris next, on Grekis for to falle, 

And after hym ])e Troyan Eneas, 

Kyng Sarpedou?2, and Polly damas, 

Kyng Eroys, and kyng Epistrophus, 

And eke J?e kyng y-called Forcins, 

In plate & mail eueryche armed clene ; 

And alderlaste cam kyng Philomene, 

"With alle pe kynges & lordes of renoim, 

J5at in diffence comen of )?e toiw, 

With pe Grekis kny^tly to debate. 

And Priam^s, sothly, to ]>e gate 

Conveied hem, at her oute goyng, 

And sette her wardes, pis noble worjji kyng, 

Ful prudently J>oruj his sapience, 

And after ^af hem conge and licence 

Yp-on Grekis for to kyj?e her my^t, 

Ageyn[e]s whom ful redy for to fi^t 

Her fomen wern, with royal apparaille, 

Amycl ]>Q feld abidynge J?e bataille. 

^on P ra ys Hecuba 
4988 to stop 



She and 
Priam agree 
to do it. 

The Trojans 
get ready for 
a sally, 
Troilus first, 
then Paris, 





5012 Priam 





The Greeks 
are ready. 


4989. Of] And of D 1. 4995. nor] orD. 
4996. in-to] in D 1 J>e] om. A, D 2. 

5005. Ind kyng] om. D 1. 

5006. y-called] called D 1 Forcius] Epistrophus D 2. 
5012. And] And kyng D 2. 

5016. after] after )*t Dl. 


N N 

540 Priam Mds Hector not to fight ; but he 

[BK. in 

Priam goes to 

and forbids 
him to fight 
this day. 

Hector is 

puts the 
blame on his 


and rides 


Howe kynge Priamus chargede worthy Ectore that he 
shulde not go armede to ]>e felde ]>t daye. 1 

But Priamus, [in] ]?is mene while, 

Lyk as Guydo remembrij? in his stile, 

For pilke fyn, }>at $e han herd me seyn, 

To wor]>i Hector repeired is ageyn, 5024 

Hyra contermaiwdynge fat he lie shold gon 

j^ilke day to fi^t ageyn her foon. 

For whiche ping, of hi^e dispit he brent, 

Whan fat he saw of er lordis went 5028 

Oute at f e gate, and he allone abood ; 

For whiche he wexe furious & wood, 

Hooly f e cause arrettynge to his wif, 

)}at was of cherte so tendir ouer his lyf, 5032 

Puttinge on hir fully f e occasions 

Of his abidynge fat day in fe toiw, [leaf 95 a] 

In preiudise of his worfines 

And disencresse of his hi$e prowes. 5036 

And list f oru$ tongis to his hi^e estat, 

J^oru^ fals report it were derogat, 

He caste anoon, of a ful kny3tly herte, 

For lyf nor deth it shuld him nat asterte 5040 

With-Inne fe feld fat day to be fourcde, 

J}ou} it so wer, with many mortal wouwde 

He shulde on pecis he we be a-sourcdre, 

Yp-on fe pleyn dismembrid here & Bonder 5044 

So hool in manhod was his hert[e] sette, 

J?at he anoon, w^'t/i-oute lenger lette, 

Ageyn to arme hym was ful dilligent, 

A-gein ]?e precepte and commandement 5048 

Of his fader, & rood forfe [on] his weie. 

For fer of whiche, as she wolde deie, 

His wif of newe crie gan & shoute, 

And with hir pappis also hanging oute, 5052 

5021. his] he D 1. 5028. oher] bat obir D 1. 

5031. to] on D 1. 

5032. of cherte so tendir ouer] so cheris & tendre of D 1 
5037. to] in D 1. 5040. nor] or D 1. 

5046. lenger] more D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 93 a (misplaced after line 5026). 

Andromache, Hecuba & Helen pray Hector to stay in Troy. 541 

Hir litel childe in hir armys tweyne, 

A-forn hir lord gan to wepe & pleyne, 

Besechinge hym, of routhe and pite, 

3if he nolde [vn-]to hir sorwe se, 5056 

At pe leste, for hir wifly troupe, 

J?at he of manhod haue in herte roupe 

Yp-on hir child and on hir also, 

Whiche J?at she bar in hir armys two, 5060 

And nat my$t him fro criynge kepe, 

Whan he sawe his woful moder wepe. 

And, knelyng doim, vn-to hym she seide, 

In hir sobbynge as she my^t abreide : 5064 

"Myn owne lorde haue mercy now on me, 

And on pis litel child whiche pat 36 se 

So pitously a-fore ^bu wepe & crye ! 

Haue mercy lord on vs or we deye ! 

Haue me?'cy eke vp-on pis cyte, 

Myn owne lorde ! haue mercy or pat we 

By cruel deth passe shal echon, 

For lak of helpe, alias, whan 30 ar goon ! " 

j)is was pe crie of Andronomecha,* 

With whom was eke hir suster Cassandra, 

Eccuba, and faire Polycene, 

And Eleyne, pe lusty freshe quene, 

Whiche alle attonys fellen hym beforn, 

With heer vntressid, & wepinge al to-torn, 

And loude gan to crien in pe place, 

Besechinge hym, of mercy and of grace, 

For pilke day to abiden in pe touw, 

And in his herte to haue compassiou^ 

On her compleint & her woful mone, [leaf 95 &] 

Sith al pe trust of pe toiw allone 

In hym abode, and al pe resistence : 

For ageyn deth he was her chef diffence ; 

And in hym hooly was her affiauwce, 

Her sur[e]te, and her suffisaurace, 

with her 
babe in her 

prays Hector, 
for their 

5068 not to bring 
Death on 
them and 

5072 after he dies. 

5076 and Helen 

5080 beseech 
Hector to 
stop at home, 


as he is their 
great defence. 


5053. Hir] And wi> her D 2, And here D 1. 
5061. nat] he nat A. 5068. lord on vs] on vs lorde D 1. 
5073. Andronomecha] Andronemaca C. 5079. be] that A. 
5080. Besechinge] And besechinge D 1. 5088. surete] suerte A. 

prays Hector 
to pity her, 

and not ruin 

But he is 

542 Andromache cannot stop Hector. She appeals to Priam. [BK. in 

In eche ping pat hem my^tfe] greue. 

And }if al pis ne my^t his herte meve 

For to abide, ^it, of goodly hede, 

j?ei hym besou^t, to her wommanhede 5092 

He wolde enclyne his harde* herte of stele, 

Jjat pei my^t a litel drope fele 

Only of pite on her wo to rewe, 

)}at likly was to moren and renewe* 5096 

Finally to her distrucciouw ; 

For of pe cite, sothly, and pe ton??, 

His vnhap were endeles ruyne. 

But }it al pis my^t hym nat encline 5100 

))at he nold oute, in conclusions, 

So indurat, and hertid as lyouw 

He was alweie, cowtunynge in his rage ; 

Whos herte my^t asofte nor aswage 5104 

IsTouper praier nor wayme^taciou^, 

Hym to restreyne from his oppinioim : 

For euery pereil he leide po a-side, 

And on his weie gan anoon to ryde ; 5108 

Wher-poru} his wif noo^ oper bote can, 

But in hir rage to pe kyng she ran, 

So amased in hir mortal wo 

})at she vnepe my^t[e] speke hym to, 5112 

So diffacid and ruful of hir si^t, 

J3at by hir hewe knowep hir no wi^t : 

For lost she had bope my^t & strengpe ; 

And plat she fil to [pe] grou?zde a-lengpe 5116 

To-fore pe kyng, pat roupe was to sene, 

Besechynge hym, of entent ful clene, 

Of his grace to consider hir wo : 

For but he help, Hector was* a-go. 5120 

And he seinge hir faithful wommanhede, 

At hir requeste rau^t anoon his stede, 

And priked after, only for hir sake, 

5089. hem] hym D 1. 5092. to] of D 1. 

5093. harde] harded C. 

5096. moren and renewe] morne and remewe 0. 

5098. sothly] om. A. 5100. al] of A. 5102. as] as a A. 

5104. nor] & D 2. 5110. hir] a D 1. 5113. hir] his D h 

5120. For] om. A was] is C, D 1. 

and rides on. 

rushes to 

and begs his 

Priam rides 
after Hector. 

BK. in] Priam stops Hector. Troilus and Diomede fight. 543 

In so gret haste, pat he hap ouertake 

Worpi Hector w^-Inne pe cyte, 

And hent his reyne -with gret difficulte, 

And maugre hym made him tourne ageyn, 

In swiche wyse, he durst it nat wz'tftseyn, 

Al-be pat he* was ful lope per-to ; 

So pat by force & praier also, 

From his stede he made hym a-li$t, 

J?e areste of whom eschewen he ne my^t, [leaf 95 

For he ne wolde ageyn his fader striue, 

Al-be pat he felte his herte rive 

Of malencolie and of hertly Ire, 

And of disdeyn newe sette a-fire 

So inwardly sterid was his blod, 

}?at like a tigre or a lyoim wood, 

jpat wer deprived newly of hir* praye, 

Ri^t so firde he al pat ilke day, 

Or liche a bore pat his tusshes whette, 

While pe Grekis and pei of Troye mette, 

Furiously walkynge vp and douw. 

And in diffence, sothly, of pe toun, 

Troylus first, on his baye stede, 

Of auenture mette Diomede, 

And eche at oper, surquedous of pride, 

With sharpe speris gan to-gidre ryde ; 

And Guydo seith, wzt/i-outen any dred, 

Oon or bope had anoon* be ded, 

Nadde Menelay kny^tly go be-twene. 

And after pat, in a furious tene, 

He smet his hors, in ful kny^tly wyse, 

And Meryem, pe my3ty kyng of Frise, 

Menelaus inarkid hath ful wel, 

And with his swerd, ful sharpe grouwd of stel, 

Ynhorsid him, and prewe him on pe grene ; 

For he pe strok my^te* nat sustene, 

5124 Priam over- 
takes Hector, 








turns bis 

and makes 
him dis- 

Hector is like 
a tiger reft 
of its prey. 

Troilus and 



parts them, 

5156 and unhorses 

5129. he] hym C. 5139. Mr] Ms C. 

5146. mette] mette with D 1. 

5147. at] and D 1. 5150. had anoon] anoon had 0. 
5154. Meryem] Merien A, Meryon D 1. 

5158. myjte] ne myjt C. 

The Greeks 



544 King Meryem is rescued ly Polydamas and Troilus. [BK. in 

j)is Menelay was on him so wood, 

J)at it was likly, euene per he stood, 5160 

With pe lif he shulde nat eskape. 

For pe Grekis ful hastily hem shape, 

fiis Meriem, as 36 hau herde me seyn, 

For to be-sette rou?^de vpon* pe pleyn, 5164 

And to sese* hywz by pe aventaille, 

On euery part, and cruelly to assaille, 

Al destitut in pis dredful cas. 

But hym to helpe cam Pollydamas 5168 

With his kny^tes, & gan to nei3en ner 

Whan he hym sawe take prisoner ; 

And maugre alle pt vppon hym sette, 

From her hondis Pollydamas him fette, 5172 

At whos reskus per was so gret a strif 

))at many on per-fore lost his lyf : 

For Grekis raper J>an he shulde eskape 

From her hondis in fat hasti rape, 5176 

Caste hem pleynly ]>at he shal be ded, 

Fully in purpos to haue hadde his hed 

He stood of meschef in so gret disioynt. 

But hym to helpe, euene vppon pe point, 5180 

Cam Troylus in, most kny^tly of aray, [leaf 95 d] 

And of his manhod made swiche affray 

Amongis hem [in] reskus of pis kyng, 

J)at maugre hem, at his in-comyng 5184 

Delyuered was pis my3ty * lord of Frise 

From cruel deth, as 36 han herd deuyse. 

But per-vppon cam Thelamonivs, 

Proude in armys, and euere surquedous, 5188 

With pre pousand, ful worpi euery chon ; 

And he vnhorseth Pollydamas anoon, 

Among his kny3tes, & proudly bar him dourc ; 

But Troylus hath, poru3 his 11136 renourc, 5192 

Mid of his foon get hym his hors ageyn. 

But pei of Troye so sore were be-leyn 


rescues him. 

The Greeks 
want to kill 

comes to 

the rescue. 



whom Troilus 

5161. >e] his D 1. 5163. Meriem] Merien A, Meriomt D 1. 
5164. vpon] aboute C. 5165. sese] sesse C. 
5179. He stood] His stede D 2. 5183. bis] be D 1. 
5185. myjty] worbi C. 

BK. in] The Trojans are routed. Achilles slays Margariton. 545~ 

On euery half, poru^ fe Grekis pride, 

Jpat pel [ne] my^t a-forn hein nat abide : 5196 

For newe and newe ]>e hardy Achilles Achilles 

and his 

Assailled hem with his Mirundones, Myrmidons 

Jpat ]?ei compelled of necessite, put the 

In meschef wern maked for to fle 5200 flight. 

Home to ]?e walles & gates of J>e tourc, 
To gret damage and confusions 
Of her party ]>at abak so goon. 

Of the sorowfule dethe of Margarytone, one of the 
Basterde sonnes of kenge Priamus. 1 

)?e whiche ping, whan Margariton 5204 Margariton, 

Behilde & sawe how )>e game goth, 

In his herte he gan to wexe wroth, 

And passingly for to haue disdeyn ; 

And as fe story recordej) in certeyn, 5208 

)?at he was bo]?e hardy & famws, 

And sone also vn-to kyng Priamws, one of 

A noble kny^t, & of gret wor}>ines. bastard sons, 

And whan he saw )?e meschef and distresse 5212 

Of hem of Troye, & how ]?ei gan to fle, 

He caste anoon avengid for to be 

Vp-on Achille,* for al his grete my^t, charges 

And ran to hym, ful like a manly kny^t, 5216 

On horse-bak, for ]>e townys sake, 

And hym enforseth Achilles to take 

Amyd )?e feld amonge his kny^tes alle. 

But Achilles alias, it shulde falle ! 5220 who kills 

J?at day hym slowe, by cruel auenture, 

Wher-J>oru3 Troyens my^tfe] not endure The Trojans 

}2e felde to hold, but home[-ward] ga^ hew hi^e, 

And mortally to make noise & crie : 5224 

Firste, for )>e deth of Margariton, 

And for ]>e pursut pat^ kyng Thelamon 

Made on }>e chaas, pom3 his cruelte, 

5196. ne my3t] myght nat A ne] om. D 1. 

5197. >e] this D 1. 5204. Margariton] Mariton D 1. 
5215. Achille] Achilles C. 5226. bat] of C, D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 93 d. 

546 The Trojans are beaten lack to Troy. Hector sallies forth. 

Tho Paris 
and his 
fight well, 
they are 
beaten to 
Troy with 



arms and 
sallies out. 

The Greeks 

and lose 2 

The Trojans 
take the field 


Home to pe gatis of Troye pe cite, 
ftat slow & kylled alweie as he rood, 
Al-be pat Paris manly hym wip-stood, 
With his brepre pat in baste wer* born. 
But, for al pat, her ground pel haue lorn, 
Lefte & forsake putterly pe felde ; 
And home pei went, & bron^tfen] on a shelde 
)}e dede cors of Margariton ; 
And after pat her gatis shette anon. 
])e whiche meschef, as Hector gaw be-hold, 
Of verray Ire his herte gan to colde, 
And seide, platly, wa't/i-oute more delay, 
He wolde avenge his deth pe same day, 
And made in haste his stede to be fet, 
And vp he stirte, & on. his basenet 
Vnwist pe kyng, or who be lefe or loth 
))er was no geyn forpe anon he goth, 
Til he was passid )?e gatis of pe touw, 
More furious pan tigre or lyouw ; 
At whos corny nge, pikke as swarm of bew, 
To-forn his swerd Grekis gomie flen 
J?ei pou^t it was tyme to w^tfo-drawe. 
And first, I fynde, how pat he hath slawe 
Two worpi dukes, as he with hem mette, 
)3at besy wern his weie for to lette : 
Jpe ton y-called was Eurypalus, 
And pe toper hi^te Hascydyus. 
And so Troyens pe feld ageyn haw wowne, 
And of newe manfully be-go?me 
Grekis to sue, & folwen on pe chaas. 
And }it at meschef dau72^ Pollydamas 
J?e same tyme was of Grekis take ; 
But Hector hath so born him for his sake, 
Where as he sorest was be-leyn, 
And Jjoru} his kny^thod reskued him ageyn, 
And put pe Grekis in so gret distresse, 
his manhod and his worpines, 

[leaf 96 a] 











5231. in baste wer] wer in baste C. 5234. home] whoom A. 

5245. was] om. A. 5247. >ikke as] like a D 1. 

5255. haw] haue A. 5261. he] that he A, Jt he D 1. 

Hector kills Greeks. Achilles wants to slay him, & charges him. 547 

J}at wher-so-euere Jrilke day he rood, 
His sharp [e] swerd he ba)>ed in her blood, 
He was so cruel and so mercyles. 
But Jjan a kny^t called Leothydes 
Shope him anon with Hector for to mete, 
While he was moste Irons in his hete, 
And sette on hym ful presumptuously ; 
But Hector ]>o, deuoyde of al mercy, 
Anoon hym slow, & J?rew hym in ]?e feld : 
})e whiche )>ing whan Achilles behelde, 
)2e gret[e] slau^ter and J?e wouMis wyde 
)?at Hector made vppon euery syde, 
He gan anon compassen* in his herte, 
And vp and doun casten and aduerte, 
How J)e Grekis neuer may* be sure 
Ageyn her foon to fi^ten [n]or endure, 
Nor kepe a felde vfilh hem for to stryve, 
Al )>e while [j>at] Hector were a-lyue. 
Wherfore, he shope & castfe] many weie, 
Be what engyne Hector my^tfe] deye, 
At avaufttage $if he my^t hym fynde ; 
And ])er-to eke Polycenes of Ynde, 
A worjri duke, was also of assent 
Only for he of herte & hool entent 
In hope stood his suster for to wyve, 
For loue of whom he felt his herte ryve. 
And in hir grace better for to stonde, 
He caste fully for to take on honde 
J?is hi^e emprise, as I haue $ow tolde. 
But while }>at he was on him most bold, 
Hector hym slow, per was no^i oper geyn ; 
)2e whiche anoo?i as Achilles hath seyn, 
For Ire he wexe in his herte as wood 
As boor or tigre in her cruel mood, 
Vp-on Hector avenged for to be ; 
And furiously on hym he gan He. 

Hector slays 


5272 and kills 

Achilles sees 

[leaf 96 6] 


that the 
Greeks can't 
5280 win while 

Hector is 




5296 He rides 


at Hector. 

5265. pat] And D 1. 5276 is omitted in D 2. 
5277. compassen] compassed C. 5279. may] mow C. 
5280. nor] or D 1. 5282. J>at] om. D 1. 
5297. as wood] om. D 2. 

548 Hector wounds Achilles, and puts the Greeks to flight. [BK. in 

Achilles in 
the thigh. 

Achilles gets 
the blood 

and is ready 
to die if he 
can kill 

who makes 
the Greeks 
flee like a 
swarm of 

But Hector kau$t a quarel* sharpe [y-]grouwde, 

And brew at hyw, & $af him swiche a wou?*de 

feoru^-oute [be] bei^e, vp-on ouber side, 

feat in be feld he myjtfe] nat abide, 

But hym withdraw, and anoon is went 

With his men home vn-to his tent, 

And made anoon a surgeyn to bynde 

His mortal woimde ; & after, as I fynde, 

Whan he was stauwche, & cesseb for to blede, 

In al haste ageyn he toke his stede : 

And liste he were of bat wouwde ded 

Afterward, as it was gret drede, 

He boii3t[e] first avengid for to be 

Vp-on Hector, $if he my^t hym se, 

Of hap or sort, $if it wolde falle : 

For hym bou^t, to his peynes alle 

It were [to] hym be bestfe] remedye, 

Of his honde ^if he my^tfe] dye 

For of his lyf he rou3t[e] nat a myte, 

Be so bat he Hector my^tfe] quyte, 

Deth for deth, in collclusiou?^ ; 

For bat was hooly his entencioim, 

Of his desire fully suffisauwce, 

By deth vnwarly to ^even* hym meschaivwce. 

But al bis tyme, Hector, vp & dorm, 

As he was wont, pleieb be lyourc 

Amonge Grekis in many sondri place, 

And with his swerd gan hem so to enchase, [leaf 96 c] 

feat as be deth, where bei my^t hym sen, 

feei fledde a-forn hym like a swarm of ben : 

For noon so hardy was hym to with-sette. 

And, in bis while, a Grekysh kyng he* mette, 

Were it of hap or of auenture, 

fee whiche, in soth, on his cotearmvre 

Enbroudid* had ful many riche stoon, 

5301. quarel] darte C. 5309. stauwche] staunchyd A, D 1. 

5312. was] were D 1. 5317. J>e] om. D 1. 

5319] For of his honde jif he myjte him slee D 1. 

5320] He hou^te verraily ]>at it shulde be D 1 quyte] a quyte A. 

5324. jeven] jif C, D 1. 5328. so to] om. D 1. 

5332. he] him C. 5335. Eubroudid] Enbroudrid C. 









Hector seeks to strip a slain King of rich armour, & is to die. 549 

J)at 3af a li^t, whan pe sonne shoon, 5336 

Ful brht and clere, "bat loie was to sene : A Greek king 

' f has such 

For perils white and emeraudis cjrene, splendid 


Ful many oon, were pere-Inne set, 

And on J>e cercle of his basenet, 5340 

And rouwde enviroim of his aventaille, 

In velwet fret, al aboue pe maille, 

Safirs ynde and oper stonys rede, 

Of whos array, whan Hector take]? hede, 5344 

Towardis hym faste gaii hym drawe. 

And firste, I fynd, how he hap him slawe ; that Hector 

And after pat, by force of his rnanhede, 

He rent hym vp a-forn him on his stede, 5348 

And faste gan wip hym for to ride and rides 

From pe wardis a litel oute a-side, 

At good leiser, pleynly, 3 if he may, 

To spoillen hym of his riche array, 5352 to strip the 

-r< i i o T corpse of 

Jbul glad & li^t oi ms newe emprise. its armour. 

But out ! alias ! on fals couetyse ! 

Whos gredy fret, ]>e whiche is gret pite, But such 

In hertis may nat 113% staurcchid be ; 5356 

))e etyk gnawep be so gret distresse, 

pat it difFaceth pe h'^e worpines, 

Ful ofte sythe, of pies conquerours, 

And of her fame rent aweie pe flours. 5360 

Desyre of hauynge, in a gredy pou^t, is not worthy 

To hi^e noblesse sothly longeth nou3t, soul" 

No[r] swiche pelf re, spoillynge, nor robberie 

Apartene to* worpi chiualrye : 5364 orknightu- 

For couetyse and kny^thod, as I lere, 

In o cheyne may nat be knet y-fere ; 

For koupe it is, pat ofte swiche ravyne 

Hath cause ben and rote of pe ruyne 5368 ithasrumd 

r\ i T , , i 11 man y non * 

Of many worpi who-so liste take hede curable folk; 

Like as 30 may now of Hector rede, 

)3at sodeinly was brou3t to his endynge 

Only for spoillynge of pis riche kyng. 5372 and it works 

For of desire to hym pat he hadde, 

5354. on] of D 1. 5358. hije] grete D 1. 

5364. to] not to C, nat to D 1. 5368. ruyne] Ravyne D 2. 

550 Hector slings his Shield "behind him, and Achilles kills him. 

Hector casts 
his shield 
behind his 

so as to spoil 
the Greek 
king's corpse. 


sees Hector 
he thrusts a 
spear thru 

and kills him. 

Odemon hits 
Achilles so 

hard that he 

is thought 

and is carried 
to his tent. 

On horse-bake oute whan he hym ladde, 

Keklesly, ]>& story maketh mynde, 

He cast his shelde at his bak be-hynde, 

To welde hym silf at more liberte, 

And for to han opportunyte 

To spoillen hym, and for no wy^t spare, 

So Jmt his brest disarmyd was & bare : 

Except his platis per was no diffence 

Ageyn pe strok to make resistence. 

Alias,* why was he po so rek[e]les [ 

J;is flour of knyjthod, of manhod per[e]les, 

Whan pat his fo, al pat ilke day, 

For hym allone in a-wayt[e] lay, 

3if in meschef, of hate and of envie, 

In pe feld he my^t hym oute espie, 

J?is Achilles, cruel and venomous, 

Of hertly hate most malencolyous, 

Whiche couertly havynge hym be-side, 

Whan pat he saw Hector disarmyd ride, 

He hent a spere, sharpe grou^de & kene, 

And of Ire in his hateful tene, 

Al vnwarly, or Hector my$t aduerte, 

(Alias pe whyle !) he smote hym to pe herte, 

jporu^-oute pe brest, pat ded he fil douw 

Vn-to pe erpe, pis Troyan champiouw, 

Jjoru^ necligence only of his shelde ! 

J}e deth of whom, whan Odemon behelde, 

])Q worpi kyng my^t hym nat restreyne, 

But [to] Achilles rood wiih -al his peyne, 

And hit hym so, myd of al pe pres, 

Maugre pe rny^t of his Mirundones, 

J)at for ded, Guydo seith certeyn, 

Of pat wou?zde he nl gruf on pe pleyn. 

But his kny^tes on a sheld a-lofte 

J?ei leiden hym, & caried hym ful softe 

Vn-to his tent, in al pe haste pel can ; 

[leaf 96 d] 










5383. Alias] Alias be while C. 5386. lay] so lay A, D 1. 
5388. oute] ouht D 2, oujte D 1. 5392. bat] om. D 2, D 1. 
5402. Achilles] Achille A, D 2, D 1. 

Hectors corpse is taken to Troy. Who will help me lament him ? 551 

And pere I leue pis dedly wovmded man, 

Ful sore seke, til he may releue. 

And after tat, whan it drowe to eve, 5412 At evening 

the Trojans 

bei of Trove, with gret reuerence carry tiie 

J ' dead body of 

Dide her labour and her dilligence 

\)e dede cors to carien in-to toim 

Of worbi Hector, wlian Titan weutfe] dourc. 5416 Hector to the 

Temple in 

And to pe temple dolfully pei wende ; Troy. 

And of pat day pis was pe woful ende 

I can no more but pus pe longe ny^t 

In heuynes, as it was skil and ri^t, 5420 

I wil hem leue, and ageyn returne 

To my rnater to help hem [for] to morne. 

The lamentacyon of kynge Priamus for the dethe of 
Ector, 1 


ut now, alias ! how shal I precede HOW can i 

In pe story, pat for wo and drede 5424 mySory, f 

Fele myn hond bope tremble and quake, when my 

worpi Hector, only for pi sake, [leaf 97 a] Sbies for 

.rm . .1 T i ,1 A -j Hector's 

Of pi detn 1 am so loth to write. sake ? 

who shal now help me to endyte, 5428 

Or vn-to whom shal I clepe or calle 1 

Certis to noon of pe mvsis alle, NO Muse win 

. , , . help me. 

J3at by accorde smgen euer* in on, 

Vp-on Pernaso, besiden Ely con, 5432 

So angelik in her armonye, 

J?at tonge is noon pat may specefie Their angelic 

)3e grete swetnes of her goodly song ; 

For no discorde is fouwden hem among, 5436 

In her mvsik pei bene entvnyd so 

It syt hem nou^t for to help in wo, not a 

Nor w^t/z- maters pat be with mournynge shent, 

As tragedies, al to-tore and rent, 5440 

In compleynynge pitously in rage 

5415. toim] the touw D 1. 5417. And] In D 1. 
5419. >us J>e] >is D 1. 5420. was] is A. 
5428. now] om. D 1. 5430. to] om. D 1. 
5431. euer] alle C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 95 a (leaf 94 is missing). 

552 Lydgate appeals to the Furies to help him mourn Hector. [BK. in 

I dare not 
appeal to my 

I turn to the 
dire Furies, 

who dwell in 

Help me, 



and Tantalus, 

to pen my 
plaint for the 

Source ot 
Hector ! 

In f>e theatre, with a ded visage 

To hem, alias ! I clepe dar nor crye, 

My troubled peraie of grace for to guye 

Nou)>er to* Clyo nor Callyope, 

But to Allecto and Thesyphone, 

And Megera, )>at euere doth compleine, 

As J>ei ]>at lyve euere in wo and peyne 

Eternally, and in turment dwelle 

With Cerberus, depe dourc in helle, 

Whom I mote praie to be gracious 

To my mater, whiche is so furious. 

For to a whi^t ]>at is compleynynge, 

A drery fere is ri^t wel 'sittynge ; 

And to a mater, meynt with hevynes, 

Acordeth wel a chere of drerynes 

To ben allyed, as by vnyte. 

Wherefore, helpe now, ]?ou woful Nyobe, 

Som drery ter, in al )>i pitous peyne, 

In-to my penne dolfully to reyne ; 

And helpe also, pou cruel Yxiou?z, 

And Belydes, |>at doth ]>e boket* gon ; 

Why did 
Fate cut his 
thread of 

And with )>i stoon helpe ]?ou, 

And in ]?i riuer, helpe eke Tantalus, 

)pat for hunger haste so huge pyne, 

Jpis woful pleint helpe me for to fyne, 

Me to fortlire doth ^oure besynes. 

For now )>e stok and rote of worpines, 

Of kny^thod grou^de, of manhod sours & wel, 

J)at to-forn alle bare a-weie }>e belle 

Of dorynge do, )>is flour of hi^e prowes 

And was exaumple also of gentilnes, 

}3at neuere koude don amys nor seie, 

Alias, Hector, alias ! why shuldestou deie ! 

cruel Parchas, why toke ^e noon hede, [leaf 97 6] 

So cruelly to twyne his fatal threde 

3e were to hasty, alias ! why were ^e so ! 










5445. to] for C. 5457. allyed] allaide D 1. 

5462. boket] boget 0, D 2, D 1. 5463. ^iphas] ^epherus A. 

5466. fyne] feywe D 1. 

5474. shuldestou] shuldyst A. 

BK. in] Troy has lost its Hero, its Light. All lament Hector. 553 

And, nam[e]ly, pe prede to breke a-two, 

ftou Antropoe, poru$ pi grete envie ! 

Troye, alias ! wel maist pou wepe & crie, 

And make a woful lamentaciouw, 

Whiche hast of newe, to pi confusions, 

Loste pi diffence and pi stronge wal, 

])i berer vp, pi surete royal, 

Be whom pin honour chefly was begoraie ! 

Alias, alias ! for now pi bri^t[e] sonne 

Eclipsed is, and pou stanst desolat 

Of al comfort, and discouwsolat ; 

J)i li}t is lost, and pou in dirkenes 

I-plouwgid art : for, in sothfastnes, 

Of alle worpi, pou hast pe wordiest 

ftis day y-loste, and pe kny^tlyest 

))at is, or was, or shal, I }>e ensure, 

Bene euere born, while pe world may dure ! 

No wonder is pau^ ]>ou wepe sore, 

And day be day compleyne hym euermore, 

J)at was Ipi shelcl, bo]?e in loie and wo, 

Whom ]?ou were wont for to loue so, 

So tendirly with al ]>in hole herte, 

ftat it may nat Iy3tly ]?e asterte 

To haue hym euere in pi remembrauwce, 

Whiche was in soth pi ful suffisauwce. 

For, as Guydo maketh mencioun, 

)?er was no man dwellyng in jje touw, 

]?at he ne had, of verray kyndenes, 

For loue of hym, as he writ expresse, 

His child more lef to haue died in pis cas, 

Ouper his eyr so wel be-loued he was 

3 if pe goddis, fate, or destyne 

Disposid had pat it my^t haue be. 

Wo??imen also, of euery maner age, 

Bene for his deth falle in swiche a rage, 

Jporu^ pe cyte, aboute in euery strete, 

J?at with sobbyng and salt teris wete, 

And here to-rent for her dedly wo, 

5480 Well may 
Troy weep, 

that has lost 
its strong 
5484 defender! 

Its sun is 


5492 itsknight- 
liest man is 

No wonder 
that it 
5496 weeps! 


5504 Everyone 
would soon 

have lost his 
own child 
5508 than Hector. 


Women sob 
for him too. 

5478. And] A A, D 2. 5494. born] om. A. 

Maidens and 
matrons sigh 
and cry. 

554 The Lament of Trojan Maids, of Priam and his Sons. [BK. in 

Furiously ro?me to and fro 5516 

So mortal* was her aduersite, 

)?at to beholde, alias, it was pite ! 

3onge maydenes & matrones olde 

Sobbe and 5136, and her festis folde, 5520 

And loude crie, and seide fynally : 

" Alias ! now shal oure fadris cruelly 

In oure si^t be slay[e]n day be day ! 

Alias ]>& whyle ! & no man shal seie nay ! [leaf 97 c] 5524 

Far-wel oure helpe, now Hector is goon, 

In [whom] ]?e surnes of vs euerychon 

Was wont to reste : now is he ded, alias ! " 

Of whom }>e body whan it caried was 5528 

In-to presence of Priamus ]>e kyng, 

Anoon he lost J>e offys of spekyng, 

And gan hym silfe in salt[e] teris drowne, 

And pitously per-w^t/? fil a-swowne 5532 

Vp-on pe cors, cold as any stoon, 

Inly desyrous for to deie anoon 

Wij>-oute tariynge, on hym as he lay, 

But )>at he was by force rent awey. 5536 

His breberen eke, whan pei toke^* hed, 

Trist and pale, for sorwe wer ny^e ded, 

And ban hem silfe with rage al to-torn, 

J)at neuer was, I trowe, seyn a-forn 5540 

Of bre])ere ^it swiche ano]?er care : 

For eche of hem with hym silf gan fare 

As }>ei wolde haue died on }>e cors ; 

For of peir lif, platly, pei $af no fors, 5544 

But at ]>e grou^de with many swo^es sore, 

Liche wylde bolis* J?ei gan crye and rore, 

jpat rouj>e was her dedly wo to sene 

An herte of stele my^t it not sustene. 5548 

What schal I seyn of Eccuba }>e quene, 

Hector, their 
help, is dead ! 

His corpse 
is taken to 

who swoons. 

His brothers 

tear them- 
selves with 

and roar like 
wild bulls. 

5516. rcmne] ranne Dl. 5517. mortal] mortally C. 

5518. it] om. D 1. 5524. shal] wele D 1. 

5526. whom] om. A, D 2 surnes] suyrnesse A. 

5529. In-to] In to the A. 

5537. token] take?i C. 

5540. neuer] of no maw D 1. 5545. swo3es] sishes D 1. 

5546. bolis] boris C. 

BK. ill] The sorrow of Hecuba, Polyxena, and Cassandra. 555 
Or his suster, jonge Pollycene, Hector's 


Or Cassandra, J>e prudent and )?e wyse, sister and 

Or of his wyf, ]>e sorwe to devise ? 5552 

Whiche rent hem silf, in torment & in wo, 

As finally ]>ei wolde hem silfe for-do 

By cruel deth, so )>ei wepe and waille. 

)3at 3if I shulde make rehersaille, 5556 

To wryte her sorwes & her compleynynges, 

Her pitous sobbynge,* prowes, and wepynges, sob, weep, 

}3e woful cries,* & ]>e pitous sowns, 

Her drery pleyntis & lamentaciouws, 5560 lament, 

And al her wo for to specifie, 

A large boke it wolde occupie, 

3iffe eche pinge I shulde in order telle 

I trowe it were to longe for to dwelle, 5564 

For any man, and tedius to here. 

For many day after, as I lere, 

)5e wowmen wepte a-fore )>e cors liynge, 

Hem silfe diffacynge in her compleynynge, 5568 deface 

. , c , . . themselves, 

pat wonder was now pei my^t endure, 

But pat ]>ei han it, sothly, of nature 

And of kynde for to wepe and pleyne, 

To* si^e sore and in-to teris reyne, 5572 

Til Jje tempeste of her woful rage [ieat9?rf] 

May be processe lyte & lyte aswage. 

And }ms I leue hem si^e and sorwe make, 

))is cely wommen, in her clones blake, 5576 and shroud 

Shroude her facis, & wympled mowrne in veyn, bS. ace 

While I turne to my mater ageyn, 

Howe kynge Priamus made to be wrought an oratory 
and A College of prestes, in the which was 
fabricate a Tabernacle, wherin the body of Ector 
was, in mannys syght, reservide intigrate and 

5554. for-do] slo D 2. 
5558. and] or D 2. 

5558, 59 are transposed in A and D 1. Her pitous sobbynge and 
)3e woful cries are transposed in C. 
5572. To] pei C. 5577. wympled] wrympled A. 
5578. turne] morne D 2. 


556 Priam sends for Embalmers & Craftsmen for Hectors Shrine. 

hole, with his swerde in his honde, manasshinge 
the Grekys. 1 

Priam wants 

to keep 
corpse from 

and to 

it as if it 
were alive. 

So be sends 

for embalm- 


and crafts- 

who work in 
the Temple 
of Apollo. 

To telle pleynly how kyng Priamws 

In herte was inly desyrous 

To caste a weie, in his entencioiw, 

J?e cors to kepe from corrupcioura, 

Whiche naturelly, but men take hede, 

Corrupte muste, ri^t of verray nede : 

For, of kyndely disposiciouw, 

J?er may be made noon opposiciouw, 

Aboue pe grourcde $if J>e body lie, 

J?at of resoim it mvt putrefie, 

But }if crafte be a-boue nature, 

Vncorrupte it my^t[e] nat endure. 

Wherefore, ]>& kyng shope him to ordeyne 

To preserue it hool fro pinges tweyne : 

From odour and abomynaciouw, 

And ]>Qi-with eke, by crafty operaciow?, 

))at it in si^t* be not fouwde horrible, 

But J>at it be liny and visible 

To pe eye, as be apparence, 

Like as it were quyk in existence 

What it cost )>e kyng wil spare nou^t, 

But made anoon a-forn hym to be brou}t 

)5e craftiest maisteres of ]>e touw, 

Swiche as hadde moste discreciouTi 

To parforme his axynge coriously. 

And J?ei obeie his byddynge feithfully, 

With al her wille and enter dillygence, 

In J?e temple, moste of reuerence 

Of al )>e touw, whilom dedicat, 

And of ful ^ore also consecrat 

To Appollo, of olde fundaciou?i, 









5582. cors] corps D 1. 5587. $if] thiff A. 

5590. Vncorrupte] But corript D 1. 

5595. it in sijt] in si$t it C. 5596. liny] likly C. 

5603. coriously] Ceriously D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 96 a. The following rubric occurs 
in the Royal MS., leaf 95d, at line 5574 : "ynglisshmen owe of 
nature to wepe }>e dethe of worthy Ectore " ; and on leaf 96 a : 
"Of the sotele proporcyon wrought by Astronomeres. " 

BK. in] The Oratory and Tabernacle for the Statue of Hector. 557 

Beside a gate stondynge of J?e toiw, 
Callyd Tymbria in her Troyan tonge, 
As in* story is hope red and songe. 
And in pis phane, fat I spake* of here, 
)3ei made firste be J?e hi^e auter, 
By gret devis, a litel oratorie, 
Perpetuelly to be in memorie, 
Where was set a riche receptacle 
Made in maner of a tabernacle, 
Egal of si^t, for a large ymage, 
Jpat reised was on a riche stage, 
ftat was born vp at eche of his corneris 
Of purid golde vp-on foure pilers ; 
And on euerych, ful craftily y-di^t, 
An angel stood of golde burned bri^t, 
Coriously ]>e werke to sustene, 
With crafty archis, reised wonder clene, 
Enbowed ouer [al] }>e werke to cure 
So merueilous was J>e celature, 
ftat al fe rofe and closure envirouw 
Was of fyn gold, platid vp & douw, 
Wi]> knottis graue, wonder corious, 
Fret ful of stonys, riche and precious, 1 
Of euery kynde fat man can deuyse, 
So rially, & in so frifty wyse, 
Jjat ]>Q dirknes of }>e blake ny^t 
With fe bemys of her clere li^t 
Enchacid was, where ]>ei dide shyne. 
And from f e grouwde, vp-ri^t as a lyne, 
))er wer degres, men by to ascende, 
Made so wel fat no man koude amende 
J3e werkemanship ; & ]?ei were euerychon 
Parformyd vp al of cristal stoon, 
Attenyng* vp fro pe table bas 
Where fe stondyng and fe resting was 

[leaf 98 a] 


In this 

KCif} fane they 
OblO make an 


with a 

5620 on a stage, 



and arches. 

The roof was 
all gold, 

5632 gemdwith 


that glearad 
at night. 

Steps of 
crystal led 
5640 up to it. 


5612. in] >e 0. 5613. spake] speke C here] Ere D 1. 

5625. Coriously] Ceryously D 2. 5634. &] om. D 2. 

5643. Attenyng] Attendyng C. 

1 The following rubric occurs here in the Royal MS., leaf 965 : 
"Howe the worthy body of Ector was set in >e opposite of \>e 

558 The wondrous Statue of Hector, & his Body as if alive. [BK. in 

Within it 
stood a golden 
statue of 

facing the 

and threaten- 
ing era. 

His corpse 
was set up 
as alive, 

fresh in 
colour and 

Small gold 
pipes ran 
from his 
head all over 
his body, 

thru which 
liquor flowd. 

Of ]>is riche crafty tabernacle, 

Havynge a-boue, vp-on eche pynacle, 

A riche ruby ; and reised 11136 on 

Stood an ymage, huge & large of wei3te, 5648 

Of massyf gold, havynge J?e liknes 

Of wor])i Hector, ]>at gan his face dresse 

Toward Grekis, where he dide stonde, 

Ay Jjretynge hem with his swerd on honde. 5652 

And amyddes al ]>is* grete richesse, 

Jpei han y-set, by good* avisenesse, 

J)e dede cors of pis worpi kny^t, 

To si$t of man stondynge as vp-ri^t, 5656 

By sotil crafte, as he were lyvynge, 

Of face & chere, & of quyk lokynge, 

And of colour, sothly, and of hewe, 

Beinge as freshe as any rose newe, 5660 

And like in al, as be supposaille, 

As he lyuede in his apparaille : 

For on his hede, like as it is tolde, 

pom} smale pipes wrou^t & made of gold, 5664 

)3at be mesoz^r wern enbowed dourc 

To an entre makyd in his crown, 

Be grete avys and sub ty lite, 

To eche party and extremyte 5668 

Of his body lyneally porrect, 

J^oru} nerfe & synwe driven & direct, 

By secre poris craftely to extende, [leaf 98 &] 

Wherby J>e licour my^tfe] dourc discende 5672 

To kepe hym hool fro corrupciou?^, 

Wetft-outen any transmutaciouw 

Of hyde or hewe, in any part to tourne. 

And at his hede of gold was an ourne, 5676 

feat was filde with bawme natural 

j)at ran J>oru} pipes artificial, 

ftoru} nekke & hed in-to many place,* 

Penytrable by veynes of J>e face, 5680 

5652. on] in D 1. 5653. >is] ]>e C. 

5654. y-set] sette D 1 good] gret C. 

5657. were] was Dl. 5661. as] vs D 1. 

5670, 71 are transposed in D 1. 5675. in] or D 1. 

5678. pipes] >e pypes D 2. 5679. place] a place C. 

The embalming Fluid keeps Hectors Body the colour of Life. 559 

Jpat pom} vertu & force of }>e lycour 

He was conserued lifly of colour, 

Fresche of hewe, quyke, & no ]>inge pale, 

So my3tely fe bawme dide avale 

Comparysownyd, as it were semblable, 

To a sowle )>at were vegetable, 

fee whiche, with-oute sensibilite, 

Mynystreth lyf in herbe, flour, and tre, 

And, sembla[b]ly, in-to euery veyne 

Of )?e cors )>e vertu dide atteyne, 

By brest and arme spredynge enviroutt : 

For J?e moisture by descenciouw 

To hand and foot, sothly, as I rede, 

)3oru3 bon and loynt gan his vertu shede, 

And distillynge my^tely to flete. 

And at his feet, ful of gommys swete, 

A viol stood, temprid with bawme & meynt, 

)3at be processe may nat wexe feynt, 

But day be day encresen and amende, 

Of whiche J>e vapour vpward gaw ascewde, 

Causynge J?e eyr envirou?i be delys 

To resemble a verray paradys : 

For Ipe flavour more holsom was & soote 

))an )?e odour of spice, go?mne, or rote. 

And of pure gold were* foure lampis li^t, 

To-fore ]?e cors brewnynge day and ny3t, 

With oyle, in soth, 3if it be credible, 

J?at was be crafte made inextinguyble ; 

For it ne my^t, myn auctor seyth certeyn, 

Noujjer be queint with tempest, wiwde, nor reyn, 

Nor be processe wasten of no ^eris 

Whiche in ]>e eyr be bri^t borned weris 

Ful craftely reised werne a-lofte, 

Of whos svvetnes men reioyssed* ofte, 

In her corage it likede hem so wel. 

And whan jns werke was complete euerydel, 

By this 
body was 
kept fresli, 



for it spread 
to his hands 
5692 and feet. 


At his feet 
was a phial, 

5700 from which 





4 golden 
lamps burnt 
night and 
day before 

5697. & meynt] y meynt A. 5700. Of] Of the D 2. 

5705 were] was C. 5710] tempest wiwde] wmde tempest D 1. 

5712. weris] wyrys A, wheres D 2. 

5714. reioyssed] reioysseden C. 

560 The Ebony Eails round Hector 's Oratory. Priests pray for him. 

Oratory is set 
a railing of 

Ebony lasts 
for ever, 
won't burn, 

won't swim 
in water, 

and was so 



and Indicins 
paid in it 

their tribute 
to the 

Priam puts 

priests in the 
who pray 


Koiwde enviroiw, ful riche & freshe to se, 

]5ei made a parclos al of Eban tre, 

J)at so longe laste may and dure 

J)e whiche tre, only of nature, [leaf 98 <o 5720 

Whan it is kut smellej? wonder swete, 

And may nat waste ne brercfne] with noon hete, 

j?ou3 it be leide amonge J>e colis rede, 

Mid J>e flawme of many firy glede 5724 

It nat consvmeth, pou^ mew assaien of te ; 

And in water it houeth eke alofte, 

And kyndely to }>e grourcde it goth, 

To swywme on hei^te* in soth it is so loth. 5728 

And like also as techeth Pluvius, 

Jpis tre whilom was passingly famws, 

Of so hy^e pris and reputations, 

jjat in J>e large my^ti regions 5732 

And worbi lond* of Ethiope & Ynde. 

Of 3ore a-gon, fe folkis, as I fynde, 

Haclden ]?is tre in so gret honour, 

))at fei 3af tribut to )>e emperour, 5736 

As is* remembrid of antyquyte, 

Of gold and yuor and ]?is riche tre, 

With pese giftes, famous and royal, 

To quyte her dette to hym in special. 5740 

And whan Priam, in ful J>rifty wyse, 

Parformed hath, as 36 han hercle deuyse, 

)5is riche werke, noble & excellent, 

Of hertly loue, in al his beste entent, 5744 

Ordeyned eke, as Guy do can ^ow telle, 

A certeyn nouwbre of prestis for to dwelle 

In ]>e temple, in her deuociouws, 

Contynuelly, with deuout orisourcs, 5748 

For }>e soule of Hector for to preie, 

Jpat )>e goddis his spirit list conveie ' 

5718. al] & al D 1. 5719. and dure] endure D 2. 
5726. houeth] haueth D 2. 

5728. on hei3te] o loft C so] om. D 2. 

5729. like] eke D 1 Pluvius] Plonyvs D 2, Plevius D 1. 
5733. lond] londes C. 5737. is] it is C. 

5744. Of] In D 2. 5745. eke] hath D 1 }ow] vs A. 
5750. list] to D 2. 

BK. in] Priam endows the Priests ivho pray for Hectors soul. 561 

Eternally with hem to chvelle y-fere, 

In loie and blisse, a-boue ]?e sterris clere. 5752 

To whiche prestis pe kyng $af mansiouras, These priests 

, i i i arc richly 

per to abide, and possessions, endowd by 

J?e whiche he hath to hem amortised 

Perpetuelly, as 36 han herd deuysed. 5756 

And whiles pei knele, preie, & wake, And while 


I caste fully an ende for to make, prayin?, 

. , , , . I'll end my 

Finally of my fndde boke, 3rd book, 

On my rude maner as I vndirtoke ; 5760 

'And whiles T>ei of Trove wepe & mowrne, and get 

back to the 

vn-to ]?e Grekis I wil ageyn retowrne, Greeks. 

And with dul stile on fe story trace, 

Only born vp with support of ^our grace. 5764 

[Explicit liber Tercius 
Incipit liber Quartus]. 1 

5751. y-fere] in fere D 1. 5762. be] om. A, D 2. D 1 . 
5763. dul] my dulle D 1. 

1 The above rubric occurs in A. 

BK. iv] Agamemnon lids the Greeks rejoice at Hector's death. 563 

Her bygynneth the fourte boke of Troyee. 

Howe Kynge Agamenou^ and alle the princes of 
Grece reioyssede the dethe of worthy Ectore, 
and howe thay sent to Kenge Priamus for to 
have a trews of two monethes, whil Achilles 
were made hole of his woundys, and other 
p?lnces. 1 

HEctor )ms ded, as 30 han herd me seid, 
And Achilles in his tent I-leied, 
With his wourcdis mortal, freshe, & grene, 
Yp-on a morwe, whan }>e sowno shene 4 

Enchasid had a-way J>e dirke ny^t, 
Agamenouw, J>e wyse worj?i kny^t, 
In his werkis passingly prudent. 

Hath in al haste for his lordis sent ; 8 

And whan J>ei wern assemblid euerychon 
With-Iime his tent, to hem he seid anoon : 
" Sirs," qwod he, ' * and lordis bat ben here, 
Kynges, princes, and dukis eke yfere, 12 

3if ^e aduerte by clere inspectiou?z, 
3e owe echon with hi^e deuociouw, 
Hooly of herte oure goddis for to herye, 
And inwardly for to be ri3t merye, 16 

3if 36 considre and wysly taken lied 
ftat oure enmy Hector is now ded, 
))at whilom was berer-vp of Troye, 
Her ful[le] trust, her honour and her loye, 20 

2. I-leied] leid D 1. 4. a] >e D 1. 
10. to hem he seid] he seide to hem D 1. 
13. inspections] aspectiovw D 2. 14. owe] oujten D 1. 
18. is now] nowe is D 1. 19. whilom] svmtyme D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 97 a (miniature). 

Hector being 


and Achilles 


in his tent, 


tells his 

to bless their 

that Hector 
is dead. 

For Hector 



and other 

Greek kings, 
18 in all. 

"For his 

let us thank . 

[leaf 99 a] 

564 The eighteen Grecian kings whom Hector slew. [BK. iv 

Her hool diffence and protections, 

And vn-to vs deth and confusiouw 

Vnlikly euere vs to han had victorie 

Whiles pat he floured in his glorie, 24 

Ageyn whos swerd we my$t[e] not availe. 

For slowe he not at oure aryvaile, 

3if 36 remembre, on be firste day 

})& noble kyng callyd Protheselay ? 

And after next, ^if I shal nat feyne, 

Patroclus he parted euene on tweyne 

In pe felde amonge vs euerychon : 

Slowe he nat [eke] pe worpi kyng Meiiou?i, 

Archilagus, and also Protheuor, 

And eke pe kyng pat hi^tfe] Alphinor, 

Phillis also, and Epistrophus ? 

And to his encle he brou}t[e] 3antipus ; 

And Meryon, pe my$ti stronge kyng, 

In his weie as he cam ridynge 

He slay[e]n hath, and oper kynges two, 

Cedius and Drodius, also 

Polycenes and stronge Polybete, 

Letaboma, and pe kyng Philete, 

jpe manly kny^t, pe kyng Isydius, 

And eke pe kyng pat hi^tfe] Hvmerus : 

For in his Ire and his cruel tene, 

Of worpi kynges he slayn hath ei^tene, 

Whiche hider cam oute of Grekes * lond, 

By pe power of his my^ti hond. 

Now laude and honowr to pe goddis alle, 

Whiche causid han pat it is be-falle 

J?at he is ded, to oure encres of loie, 

And to discres of oure foon in Troye, 

As pei shal fynde in experience, 

And laude also, pris, and reuerence 

Be to Fortune pat vs hath holp[e] wele 

With pe turnynge of hir double whele, 56 








24. Whiles] While D 1 his] his lusty D 1. 

30. on tweyne] atweyne D 2, a tweine D 1. 32. eke] om. D 1. 

42. Letaboma] Letabona A. 47. Grekes] grece C. 

49. new IT D 1. 53. in] by D 2. 54. pris] pryde D 2. 

BK. iv] Victory is now assured to the Greeks. 

To hi^e comfort and consolaciou?i 

Of vs echon sittynge inviroim, 

)5at stande now in par fit, sik ernes 

)3oru3 deth of liym }>at dide vs so oppr<?sse. 

And what may ]>ei now waite?i of ]?e toun 

But after deth and destructions, 

And hastily for to ende in wo, 

Now J?at her trust, Hector, is a-go, 

With-oute whom )>ei may not long ewdure. 

Wherfore we may fully vs * assure 

Oure purpos hool ]>at we shal acheve, 

And finally daimte hem so and greve 

J)at vn-to hem it shal be importable, 

Of oon assent ^if we stonde stable : 

For her party turneth on J)e wrak, 

And her hope is fully put a-bak 

And dispeired in noon-surete. 

For outterly J>ei and her cyte 

Shal mor & mor in were of deth depende ; 

And we, in soth, shal day be day amende, 

With helpe of God, bofe on se and lond : 

For now victorie is redy to oure hond, 

Voide platly of ambiguyte, 

And excludid, at eye as $e may se, 

Bojje of wantrust & of foreyn drede. 

But I couwsaille, or fat we precede 

Any feij>er vp-on oure foon to ryde, [leaf 99 &] 

Prudently a while to abide 

And kepe vs clos for to passe oure bourcdis 

Til Achilles be helid of his wouwdis, 

And J?an echon, be my^ty violence, 

Oppresse hem, whaw ]>ei haue no diffence, 

As I haue seide, poru^ helpe of Achilles. 

And lat [vs] now sendyn for a pes 



64 "Now Hector 
is gone, 


72 the Trojans 
are in 





and victory 
is ready for 

But let us 
wait till 

wounds are 

and let us 

59. sikernes] sobernesse D 2. 

66. fully vs] vs fully C assure] ensure D 1. 67. hool] al D 2. 

73. noon-surete] noimsuretee A, nomisurete D 2. 

74. For] So D 1. 75. were] wher D 2, werre D 1. 
78. now] om. A. 79. of] of al A, D 1. 

80. at] of at D 2, at >e D 1. 85. for to passe] & passe not D 1. 
86. helid] hoole D 1. 

566 The Greeks get 2 months' Truce. Palamides's grievance. [BK. iv 

"to Priam For two monies to kvn^ 

for 2 months' J 

truce, 3if it so be he list to grawzte it vs, 92 

As it is Hkly, pleinly, fat lie shal. 

And fei fer-while with flawme funeral 

Consvme may J?e dede bodies pale 

Jpat lyen a-brod on euery hil and, vale,* 96 

Whiche by report of hem fat han repeire, 

Fro day to day infecten so f e eyre, 

Jjorii} J?e feld engendringe pestilence, 

Of stinke f er is so gret a violence ; 100 

and cure our And we foer-wliile may in ese and reste 

wounds." ' 

Oure wou??dis cure, me semef for f e. beste." 
And J>ei assent her-to euery chon. 

And vn-to Troye fe message?'es ar goon, 104 

Priam grants And han 1)6 trewe ffrau?zted of "be kyno:, 

tlietruce. J o> 

And be repeired, \vitfi-oui0 more tariyng, 

And J>er-of made ful relaciou?z 

To Ipe Grekis a-fore Agamenou?z. 108 

And after fat, whan al was at an ende, 

Home to his tent euery lord doth wende. 

Howe Kynge Palamydes of newe laborde to haue 
Agamenou?^ deposyde of fe governance of fe 

Grekys. 1 

And while fe trewe endureth & fe pes, 

SnMafns 8 f ^- mon S e Grekis kyng Pallamydes 112 

Atramem- Compleineth sore of A^ameno^, 

nan's domin- 

alion - J}at he so hadde * domynaciou?i 

Aboue hem alle, havyng fer-at 'envie. 

And on a day in his malencolie, 116 

Of hi^e despit and indignaciou?^,^ 

Ful inly fret vtiih Irous passiowz,* 

He gan breke oute, & his rancour shewe 

By certeyn signes, fou^ he spak but fewe. 120 

96. vale] dale C. 101. we fer-while] in >is while D 1. 

103. her-to] >er to D 1. 105. trewej trewes A. 

108. To] Of D 1 a-fore] to fore] D 1. 109. an] mn. D 2. 

111. new IT D 1. 112. Grekis] >e grekis D 1. 

114. so hadde] hath so C. 117, 118 are transposed in C. 

120. but] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 97 c (misplaced after line 92). 

BK. iv] Agamemnon resolves to answer Palamides. 567 

Til on a day wyse Agamenoim 

Conceyued hath of hi^e discrecioiw 

Hooly pis ping, pou^t he nold[e] spare 

From point to point him silve to declare, 124 

Whan his lordis to-gidre were present, when the 

. . Greek lords 

lo-iorn hem alle in his owne tent, wereto- 

As he pat was (pis noble worpi kynge) 

Ful circumspect in every maner pinge 128- 

Nou^t to racul nor malencolius, 

But be atemperance inly vertuous, 

Wei avised & wonderly prudent. 

Whan fat he knewe pe menynge & fentent [leaf 99 e] 132 Agamemnon, 

And f e conceit of pis Pallamydes, knowing the 

r _ objections of 

He nat to hasti nor to reklelles, Palamides 

, o toliisgovern- 

JBUt longe abiding, poru^ prudence & resowi, ance 

With-Iime pe boimdis of discrecioim 136 

Whos tonge was only of sapience 

So restreyned pat no necligence 

Of hasti speche, sothly, for no rape 

Mi^t make a word his lippes to eskape, 140 

Vn-avised for no fing hym asterte, 

But it were first examynd in his herte ; 

For ay his speche in so prifty wyse spoke thus 

J J thriftily and 

Conveied was, by doctrine of fe wyse, 144 

Ynder pe rene of wit and hi^e prudence. 

And after pat, by forme of elloquence 

Alweye so seide pat resouw went a-forn, 

So fat no word was in his tale lorn. 148 

And in pis wyse shewynge his sentence 

To-forn alle in open audience, 

Seide euewe pus, whan pat al was pes, 

Vn-to pe kyng callid Pallamydes : 152 to him. 

How Agamenon ful worshipfully replyede agaynste 
the obieccyons of Palamydes, notwithstondynge 
he resyngned the Empire of fe Grekes to ther 
owne eleccyoim, as folowthe. 1 

123. >is] al D 1 >ou3t] though A. 

125. to-gidre were] weren to gidere D 1. 137. of] to D 1. 
141. Vn-avised] On avised A. 146. >at] om. D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 97 d. 


Agamemnon 's Answer to Palamides. 

[BK. iv 

"You need 
not grudge 

me the rule 
of this host, 

given me by 
free election, 

for I have 
done my best. 

to help all 
wanting it. 

" Sothly," quod, lie, " $if 36 taken hede, 

Me semeth, pleinly, [j>at] it were no nede 

Avisely }if ^e list aduerte 

To mvse so nor gracchew in ^oure herte, 156 

Of al )>is hoste fat I haue gouemance 

Wisly considered euery circumstance, 

How I J>e-stat (whiche no marz- may denye) 

Wolde in no maner never occupie 160 

By o]?er title fan fre elleccioim, 

Nat interrupt by mediacioim 

Of brocage,* roted vp-on mede, 

Ay vnder-meynt wit//, fauour or falshede, 164 

Depict Mvith colour of trewe entencioun 

To support swiche false ambicioiw : 

Of wliiche fing here I wil me quyte 

To-fore }ow alle, )>at I am not to wyte 168 

In any wyse of so hi$e offence, 

But stonde clere in my conscience, 

With-oute spot of any swiche veyn-glorie 

Touchinge J?estat whiche is t?*ansitorie ; 172 

3et neuer-feles, I haue do my cure, 

With al my wit to helpen & procure 

)3at euery ping touching }>e cownnovnte 

Perseuere my^t in prosperite, 176 

Havyng ))e eye of myn inward si^t 

Yn-to pe estat of Query maner wy^t 

)5at were co7?^mitted to my gouernance, 

With gret labour and besy attendance, 180 

Indifferent vn-to hi^e and lowe, [leaf 99 rf] 

To helpe and fostre, whe?' I coude knowe 

})at any stood in meschef or in nede 

Day and ny3t for to taken hede, 184 

As I best koude, by avisenease, 

Ay dillygent ]?at nat felle in distresse. 

-For, sothfastly, who-so loke a-ri^t, 

153. new 1 D 1. 156. nor] or D 1. 

163. brocage] procage C, brocage A, procurage D 1. 

164. or] of A, & D 1. 168. not] om. D 1. 
175. commovnte] comunalte D 1. 

181. and] or D 2, D 1. 182. whcr] where Jxrt D 1. 
186. nat] nought A, noon D 1. 

BK. iv] Agamemnon's Defence of his Governance. 

Mi daies pinkyug & my wache a-ni^t, 

And of my 11 hert pinly aduertence, 

With-outQ frauds, slouth, or necligence, 

Was feithfully, with al my fulfle] my$t, 

Me to aquyte to euery maner wi^t 

Liche his estat, w^t/i-oute excepcioim ; 

So pat no man iustly of resouw, 

Greke nor oper pat is now a-lyvo, 

Vn-to my gilt may dew[e]ly * ascrive 

Any falsehed, engyn, or trecherie 

Of loue or hate, favour or flaterie, 

In any cause named in special, 

But pat I haue ben cliche egal 

To oon and alle, with al my besy peyne, 

jpat no man hath mater to compleyne 

For his party, of hi^e nor lowe estat. 

And to deuoide al rancour and debat 

Amongis ^ow, I haue do my dever 

In genial ping and particuler, 

jOat her-toward no ping hath mescheued. 

And, God wot wel, it shuld[e] nat agrevid 

To my lierte taset at any prys, 

3ow tachose by ^oure discret avis 

Som oper to pis domynacioim, 

And I to haue ben in subiecciou^ 

With ese of herte and tranquillite 

Liche oper lord is here of my degre, 

And in my wil fully han obeied * 

Like on of $ow outteiiy to haue deyed 

In pe quarel pat we han vndirtake, 

3if destine liad it so y-shape, 

I seie, in soth, me is ful loth to feyne. 

And ouermore, also, wher $e pleyne* 

))at I was chose w/t/<-oute ^our assent, 











" I have 
acted fairly to 
every one. 

No man can 
accuse me of 

195. is now] is nowe is D 1. 

196. my] om. D 2 may devvely] dewly may C. 

197. engyn] fraude D 1. 201. besy] om. D 1. 

207. her-toward] her D 2, Lidre to D 1. 208. wel] om. D 1. 

209. taset] to aset A, to asse?ite D 1 any] my D 2. 

212. And I to haue ben] & I taken D 2. 213. ese] om. D 2. 

215. obeied] ben obeied C. 

220. ougrmore] ferpermore D 1 pleyne] compleyne C, D 1. 

I have done 
my duty to 

and nothing 
lias gone 
I shouldn't 
have grievd 

if you'd set 
another man 
over me, 

and left me 
free of care. 

That I was 
elected with 
out your 

570 Agamemnon justifies himself, but will resign. [BK. iv 

MerueileJ) nat, sith $e ne were present ; 
ISTor longe after, }if ^e remembre a-ri^t, 
"was because Toward Trove lour weie was nat dht 22-4 

you didn't . 

join us other ^if 2 6 considre, it was after ner, 

Greeks for 

2 years; Or pat 30 cam, passed ful two $er : 
and waiting And so longe tabide soure commvnge, 

for you would 3 . J ' 

have idnderd It hadde ben to Grekis gret hyndrynge, 

Passynge liarme, and ful gret damage, 

And huge lettynge vn-to oure viage. [leaf iooa] 

For }if we had, with-outen any wene, 

On $our comynge taried at Athene, 232 

It likly is :$e can nat wel seie nay 

To haue be pere ^it in-to pis day. 
But as to our And where as ae. boua it be nat credible, 

not being ' ' J 

Affermen eke for an impossible, 236 

}2at Grekis shuld in any maner wyse 
abietoficht Dor take on hem any cret emprise 

Troy without J ^ 

y. In 3oure abscence manly to achewe, 

that is mere It is but wynde, no J>inge for to leue : 240 

humbug. For so it be to 3ou noon offence, 

)2e Grekis han, wit'/i-onte ^oure presence, 

)5oru3 her force on water and on lond 

Ful many fing parformed with her hond, 244 

And acheved Jjoruj her worj)ines. 

And of o ping jjat in me 30 gesse, 

of my rule, I ghulde in herte so reioisshe me 248 

Of )>is lordshipe and pis grete estat, 
])e more to be pompos and elat 
In chere or port ]?at I it occupie 
But me to aquite trewly, & nat lye, 252 

I wil make a resignacioura 
To-fore ^ow alle, for to excuse me, 

225. ner] fere D 1. 

229. Passynge] And passinge D 1 harme] hem D 2. 

230. vn-to] to D 1. 234. To] Not to D 1 >ere] here D 1. 
235. Jwmfl foujte D 1. 240. to] om. A. 243. her] om. A. 
246. of] om. D 1. 247. is] pis is D 1 to] }e D 2. 

248. so] om. D 1. 249. and] and of A. 
252. aquite] quite D 1 lye] to Jye D 1. 

BK. iv] Agamemnon justifies himself, but will resign. 571 

Now beth avised discretly for to se 256 "Do you 

_, . appoint an- 

Whom 2e list han ageyn to-morwe p?-ime, other chief 

7 to-morrow." 

We'tTi-oute settynge of any lenger tyme, 

Prolonging forpe, or any more delay." 

And pus pei made an ende of pat day, 260 

And went her weye only for fiat nyjt, 

Til on pe morwe, pat Titan shadde his lijt, 

At whiche tyme a conseil general Next day the 

Greeks hold 

])Q Grekis hilde ; but moste in special 264 a Council. 

Of lordis was per congregaciouw, 

As I haue tolde, for pe elecciourc. 

And whan pei were al[le] met I-fere, 

Affameooim anoon, as ae shal here, 268 Agamemnon 

7 aays that 

Seide evene pus, vrith sadde coiwtenauwce : 

11 Lo, sirs," quod he, " touchynge gouemaimce 

)3at I haue had, and domynaciou/z, 

I haue her-to wit/t hool affeccioim 272 

And clene entent do my besynes he's done ins 

utmost to 

pat euery ping mijt in welfulnes 

To joure encres perseueren and contvne, 

Eecorde I take of God and Fortune, 276 

"Whiche han conservid, & J?e cause be 

3ou for to floure in felicite, make them 


J?at joure honour and [jour] hije noblesse [ieafioo&] Their honour 

Stant hool and soimde jit in sikirnes. 280 

And while jowr fame is most in nouringe, 

As semeth me, it is rijt wel sittinge 

Myne estat fully to resygne. and iie'iinow 

resign his 

Specially while fortune is benygne ; 284 Chiefship. 

For of so many pat be now present, 

I am allone insufficient 

W/t/i-oute helpe for to bere pe* charge 

Men wz't/z to moche may oue?'-lade a barge, 288 

And nam[e]ly in tempest and in rage 

And sith je bene so discret and sage, 

258. settynge] lettyng D 2. 

259. or any] with oute D 1. 263. new 1 D 1. 
270. sirs] sire D 2 quod he] he seide D 1. 

276. and] and of D 1. 278. Jou for] Jour worshipe D 1. 
282. me] wele D 1, 287. J>e] a C. 290. and] and so D 1. 


Palamides is elected Emperor of the Greeks. [BK. iv 

bids the 

choose his 

And as men 
always like 
a new thing, 

the Greeks 

elect Pala- 

Emperor of 
the Grecian 

Of my ber)>ene late me be releued, 

So J?at no man ]?er-\vz't^ be a-grevid ; 292 

But late vs alle of oon enteneioim, 

With-oute strife or dissenciouw, 

Chesen swiche oon ]>ai be most acceptable 

To $ow echon, and most couenable, 296 

3ow to gouerneby discressiouw." 

And pei eclion \vith hool affecciou?^ 

Assentid ben. To speke in general, 

Here men may se how it is natural 300 

Men to delite in j)ing[e] pat is newe : 

Jpe trust of peple is feint and vntrewe, 

Ay vndiscrete & ful of doubilnes, 

And variable of liir sikernesse ; 304 

Ay awaitynge in her oppiniouw 
After chaurage and transmutaciouw, 

Selde or neuer stondyng hool in oon 

To-day pei loue, to-morwe it is gon 308 

In whom ful selde is any sikernes. 

For only now of newfongilnes 

}}at hath enbracid her affecciouw, 

J)ei haue in stede of Agamenorw 312 

Of newe chose, only of i'auour, 

Pallamydes to ben lier gouernour, 

And of Grece, liche as pei desyre, 

To haue ]>e septre of Jje hool empire, 316 

And to be called, [aboute] in euery cost, 

Empe?-our of J?e Grekis host, 

Ri^t as to-forn was Agamenouw. 

And J>is was fyn and conclusiou?^ 320 

For filke day of her parlernent. 

And after ]>at, euery man is went 

To his loggynge, home }>e ri3t[e] wey. 

How Achylles grochyde Agayne the eleccyourc Of 
Pallamydes, concydred )>e wysdam of Agamenou?^ 1 

295. be most] moost be A, most be D 2, moste be D 1. 
302. of] of >e D 1. 308. gon] agoon D 2. 
315. Grece] al Grece A, D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 98 b (misplaced after line 282). 

BK. iv] Achilles grumbles. Priam resolves on attack. 573 

But in his tent, wou?zded as he lay, 324 

fte hardy kny^t, ]?e cruel Achilles, 

Whan ]>at he herd of Pallamydes 

Fro point to point, & of }>e elleccioiw, 

He was displesed in his oppinioun, [leafiooc] 328 

And pleinly pou^t, as to his avys,* 

Agamenowz was passingly more wys 

And more discret vn-to goue?'naimce 

J3an }>e to))er, as to his plesau^ce, 332 

And seide it was noon elecciouw, 

But a maner subrogaciouw, 

Be-cause hym silfe in )>e parlement 

At ))e chesyng was nat ]?ere present ; 336 

Arrettinge it passing gret offence 

J)at ]>& choys was made in his absence, 

Wher-wit/i he was of herte inly wroth. 

But wher* so be ]>ai he be lef or loth, 340 

Jper is no more ; but in conclusion n, 

In his strangle stood ]>Q elecciou?i. 

Howe Kynge Pryamus, with al the worthy of Troyans 
partye, kame to the felde in his owne parsone to 
revenge the dethe of worthy Ector, And that 
same day wrought mervaylis with his swerde. 1 

The trews passid and y-werid oute, 
})e wounded eke recurid al a-boute, 344 

J)e nexte morwe after, Priamus 
In his herte was inly desirous 
With ]>Q Grekis manly for to fi$t, 
Hectoris deth tavengen ^if he my^t 
J?is olde Priam, kny^tly in }>e felde. 
)?at whan Troyens in hem silf behilde 
Jpe grete wille and ]?e hi^e corage 

327. elleccioim] lecciou?i A. 

329. to] at D 1 avys] devis C, D 1. 

330. passingly] >e D 1. 335. >e]om. D 1. 
337. passing] a fill D 1. 

340. wher] whefer C, D 1 so] it D 1 he] it D 1. 

-342. eleccioiw stuck in scribes pen, excepting the first two letters, 

Ee" A. 

546, his] oni, D 1. 347. >e] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 98 d. 

doesn't like 
the election 
of Palamides. 

was a wise 

and Achilles 
wasn't at the 

Priam wants 

348 to avenge 


All the Tro- 
jans arm. 

150,000 take 
the field, 

led by Dei- 
Paris, Priam, 

Priam un- 
horses Pala- 

and slays 

tho he is so 

The War is renewd. Priam slays Greeks, [BK. IV 

Of hym pat was so fer rorane in age, 352 

)?ei gan reioysshe & pluk vp her herte, 

And specially whan pei gan aduerte 

His grete manhod and his worpines, 

His linyhed* and his hie prowes. 356 

And for his sake eue?y maner man 

Gan armyn hym in al pe hast pei can, 

With Priamws pat day to lyve or deye. 

And in-to pe felde pei proudly hym cowveie 360 

An hundrid pousand & fyfty of pe touw, 

Like as Dares maketh mencioim, 

And wor})i kny^tes pei wern ou^ychon, 

Wit/i-oute oper J)at with Priam goon 364 

And al to-forn went[e] Dephebus, 

And Parys next, and panne Prianms, 

Menon pe kyng, and worpi Eneas, 

And alderlast cam Pollydaraas. 368> 

And, as I fynde, sterne & ful of pride, 

Pallamydes cam en pe toper side 

In-to fe felde -with many stronge bataille. 

And first whan eche o]?er gan assaille, 372 

Kyng Prianras kny^tly his weye ches 

Jporu^ pe ward is to Pallamydes, 

And hym vnhorseth poru^ his hi^e renown ; 

And lyke a kny^t he kyllep & berep dou?i 376 

])Q proude Grekis, where-so pat he rood [leafioorf] 

"Was noon so hardi pat his swerd abod : 

For so narwe he gan hem to coharte, 

]2at her ward is he made a-sondre pa?-te, 380 

On hem he was so fel and furious ; 

For he pat day dedis meruelous 

In armys wrou3t, pat wonder was to sene, 

And a merueille how he may sustene, 384 

Of so gret age. in pe felde tendure ; 

For incredible was, I 3011 ensure, 

358. hym] hem D 1 >ei] he D 2. 

356. liflyhed] liklyhed C. 

360. J>e] mn. A, D 2. 

363. }>ei wern euerychon] weren ]>ei echoone D 1. 

365. to-forn] a forn A, D 2, aforneD 1. 

379. to] so D 1. 382. For] And A. 

was] it was D 

BK. iv] Sarpedon fights well, and rallies the retiring Trojans. 575 

To sen how he, poru} his grete my^t, 
fre Grekis put proudly to J?e flijt. 
And Dephebw^ was also * nat behynde 
Ageyn his foon kny^tly, as I fynde, 
Taquite hym silfe, & make he?7i to go bak. 
And Sarpedourc, in whom eke was no lak, 
I-fallyn is on Neptolonius, 
Jje proudest Greke, & most surquedous, 
Arid most famus as of strengjje & my^t ; 
J)e whiche ageynward rod ful lynfe] ri$t 
To Sarpedoun, vritk a spere roimde, 
And deliuerly smot hym to pe grourade. 
But Sarpedouft, ful Irons in his herte, 
Wztft-oute abode on his fet vp-sterte, 
And Neptalonye, in bis Ire al hoot, 
Jporu^-out pe jri^e wit/i his swerd he smot. 
And panne anon pe kyng of Perce lond, 
))at was so wor]?i & famus of his bond, 
Of Sarpedonn whan he taketh hede, 
Kny^tly to hym restorid * hath his stede, 
Nat-wttft-stondynge fat Menelaus 
Was vp-on hym passinge dispitous, 
And vfith hym eke ]>& duke of Athenes 
Enclosid ban amonge fe grete pres 
J)e kyng of Perce alias ! it shulde falle ! 
And slay [e] n hym, as he amonge he??^ alle 
Ful knyjtly fau^t, like a champiouw, 
*With multitude enclosid enviromi 
And he hym sjlf but allone, alias ! 
Al destitut in pis mortal cas. 
])oru3 whos meschef pel of Troye toun 
Gan to wttA-drawo ; til pat Sarpedouw 
Hath holpen hem to recure her lond, 
Ful many Greke kyllyng \vi\h his bond. 
And kyng Priam, so manly founde at al, 
With his sonys called natural, 


392 Sarpedon is 
unhorse by 






who wounds 

The King 
of Persia, 

alone, is 

416 The Trojans 
give way. 

rallies them. 


389. was also] also was C. 

392. in whom eke] eke in whom D 1. 394. Greke] om. D 1. 

400. on] vp on D 1 vp-sterte] he sterte D 1. 

406. restorid] recurid C, D 1. 408. vp-on] on D 1. 

420] For he hem sleeth with his owne hond A. 

576 Priam s Slaughter and Hatred of the Greeks. [BK. iv 

Priam slays 
many Greeks, 

stird by Ins 
old hate of 

and by th 
death of 

doubled his 

The Greeks 

Which vp-on hyy/i, wher-so fat he rood, 

])e longe day manfully abood, 424 

Party 11 g nat, pleynly, fro his syde 

And as pe kyng and pei to-gidre ryde, [leaf ioia] 

Ful mortally }>e Grekis pei confou?ide ; 

For Priamws, vfiih many cruel woiiwde, 428 

Hath slayn of hem many worf i man, 

On hors[e]-bak amonge hem as he ran : 

For J>er was noon fat day, ^onge nor olde, 

Of Troye toim so hardy nor so bolde, 432 

Of noon estat, fat ha]? so wel him quitte, 

Amongis Grekis wher-so pat he ritte, 

Fro point to point to rekne euery finge, 

As hath Priam, )>e noble worfi kyng. 436 

For he allone was confusioim 

To f e Grekis, and destruccioim, 

Her outter meschef and discounfeture, 

A-fore whos face fei my^t[e] not endure ; 440 

For f inges two, in his mortal Ire, 

Inwardly setten hym a-fyre : 

)pe hertly hate fat he bare of old 

Vn-to Grekis, doublid many fold, 444 

WitJi fe deth, had in remembimmce, 

Of worfi Hector, by contynuaunce, 

]5e whiche, platly, foru^ his worfines, 

With his swerd he shope hym to redresse. 448 

For fret of hate & cowstreint of his peyne 

Wer verraily f ilke f inges tweyne 

By whiche fat day, who-so loke a-ri^t, 

His force was doublid, and his my^t. 452 

Where-foru} he toke so cruel hi^e vewgawzce, 

)5at he f e Grekis brou^te to outtrauwce, 

And poru} his knyjthod put hem to fe fli3t. 

But Grekis fan attonys dide her my^t, 456 

By assent to assemblen in-to on ; 

And for a slei3te a-syden oute f ei gon 

In-to a plein, large & fair to se, 

429. many] many a D 1. 433. Of] On D 1. 

434. >at] euere D 1. 436. As] And A. 

445. With] Wiche D 1. 452. myjt] moche my}t D 1. 

BK. iv] The Greeks are put to flight. The Trojans retire to Troy. 577 

Betwene Priam and Troye J>e cite, 460 tostopPmm 

To fyn only in her entencioim 

Hym to debarre be entre of be toun : entering 

Troy ; 

For euery weie be Grekis han wttA-set, 

Jpat bei of Troye hadde bo be let * 464 

At her repeire, be stori telle}> pus, 

Nadde pe manhod ben of Priam MS, 

)5e whiche anon, as eny lyou?^ stronge, 

With his swerd gan riden hem amonge, 468 Jjjj^[ e d j5^ 8 

And seuered hem, with large wouwdis wyde, 

And slowe al ]>o bat wold his swerd abide, 

Euery-where, endelonge )>e pleyn. 

And Paris eke hath hem so be-leyn 472 and Paris'* 

archers put 

With my^ti shot of his stronge archeris, 

And with j>e pursut of his arblasteris, 

Jjat bei ne myjt of te shot so kene [ieafioi&] 

})Q mortal harme abide nor sustene, 476 

But gan anoon [to] flen oute of be place. them to 

And kyng Priam so narwe ga?i he??z chace, 

)5at of nede and necessite, 

poru^ fe slau^ter and ]?e cruelte 480 

Of his swerd, sharpe whet & grouwde, 

)2er was no Greke in J>e feld y-fotmde 

But fled aweye, eue?-yche to his tent ; 

And bei of Troye be to her cite went 484 The Trojan* 

go home. 

Be-cause it drowe fastfe] toward ny^t, 

For Phebus had be-reved hem his Ii3t. 

And so be honour of J?is hi^e victorie, 

))e worship eke, J?e laude & memorie, 488 

Perpetuelly, and be palme also 

Priam be kyng hath wownen & no mo Priam being^ 

f * victorious. 

For bilke day, in reles of his sorwe. 

Howe Priamus sent to be Grekes for a trewe, & in be 
mene tyme ordeynd be Cors of be Kenge of Perce 
to be burede. 1 

460. Betwene] Be twix A. 463. weie] day D 1. 
464. hadde >o be let] ne hadd ]>o be bet C. 465. bus] vs D 1. 
474. his] ]>ese D 1. 479. and] and verre D 1. 
483. tent] entent D 2. 488. 2nd be] om. D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 99 c. 

578 The King of Persia emlalmd. Hectors Funeral Feast. [BK. IV 

Priam gets 
a truce from 
tlie Greeks, 

and prepares 
the funeral 
of the King 
of Persia. 

His corpse is 

and his 
in black, 

ride with it 
to Persia. 

funeral feast 

is held in 

And, as I rede, on J>e next[e] morwe 492 

He hath y-sent oute of Troye toim 

For a trew to Agamenorm, 

Whiche granted was ]?e silve day at prime, 

Al-be per-of rehersid be no tyme 496 

How longe it last, in ]>e boke expresse 

Duryng }>e whiche pei dide her besynes, 

Hertly labour, and inward dilligence 

For to ordeyne with gret[e] reuerence 500 

How J>at ]?e cors of J?e wor))i kyng 

Of Perce lond, with-oute more tariyng, 

"\Vit7i kyngly honour oute of Troye toiw 

Shal caried ben in-to his regions , 504 

To be buried with his predessessours,* 

'WitJi oper kynges, his progenitours. 

J)e whiche ping was complet be pavis 

Of Alysau?ider, ]?at called was Parys. 508 

And first J>e cors, enbawmed richely, * 

Conveied was ful sollempnely, 

As writ Guydo/* with an huge route 

Of his kny^tes rydyng him * aboute, 512 

Trist and hevy, clad in blak echon. 

And with J?e char pe ri^tfe] weie )>ei gon 

Toward Perce, ledyng of ]>is kyng 

])& dede cors toward his buriyng, 516 

Whiche halwed was, lyche his estat royal. 

And in pis while J>e fest[e] funeral 

Was holde also with gret deuociouw 

Of worpi Hector we't/i-Inne Troye toun, 520 

Liche pe custom vsed in j>o dawes 

And ]>Q ritys of her paynym lawes. 

)3e whiche fest, as made is menciouw, 

Fro 36!' to ^er by reuolucioim [leafioic] 524 

I-halwed was pe space of fourte-ny^t, 

~With many flawme and many hydous li^t 

493. y-sent] sent D 1. 494. trew] trews A to] vn to D 1. 

505. predessessours] prodessessours C. 

509. richely] was richely C. 

511. writ Guydo] Guydo writ C, D 1. 512. him] rouwde C. 

515. of Jns] for)>e >e D 1. 517. was] om. D 2. 

525. I-halwed] Halwed D 1. 

K. iv] Anniversary of 'Hector's death. Achilles goes to Troy. 579 

Jpat brent enviroim in f e seintuarye, 

And called was be Anyuersarye, 528 The Anni- 

versary of 

For fat it cam aboute 361 by $er aSS?** 8 

A certeyn day in her kalender. 
In whiche of custom for a remembrauwce 
J3e peple shulde by contunvance 532 

Pleyne and wepe, & also preie and rede is kept by the 

For her frendis fat a-forn were dede, 

Ful pitously vfith her heer [to-]torn, 

Mornyng in blak & knelynge ay a-forn 536 

\)e dede cors of fis worf i kny^t, 

Whiche in his tyme passing was of niy^t. 

And Ms was doon while be trewfels dure, During the 


So fat Grekis trastly my^t assure 540 Greeks 

Whan fat hem list, at good liberte, 

Wzt/z-oute daurager entre f e cyte 

Day be day ; and Troyens my^t also SriS*"* 

Vn-to f e Grekis frely come and go. 544 another - 

At whiche tyme, with ful gret delyt, 

Hath Achilles cau$t an appetit 

To entre and se f e maner of f e touw, 

With-ouke wisdarn or discreciou/i, 548 

For to behold, pleinly, and to se 

Hooly f e maner of f is sole??ipnyte. 

How Achilles first, in the Tempele of Apollo, was 
smyte with Cupidys darte, in lovynge of 
Polycyne. 1 

And forbe he went on a certein day Achuies goes 

1 to Troy, 

Toward Troye, in al f e hast he may, 552 

Vnarmyd, soth[ly], as myn auctor seith, 

Wttft-oate assurau/jce or any of er feith 

Excepte f e trew, who-so be lefe or loth. 

And first of al to* fe temple he goth 556 to the Temple 

Of Appollo : halwed was f e feste 

528. And] That D 1. 531. of] a D 1. 

536. a-forn] to-forne D 1. 

539. dure] dide dure D 1. 544. JHJ] am. A, D 2, D 1. 

545. new IT A, D 1. 553. sothly] sothe D 1. 

555. trew] trews A. 556. to] vn to C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 99 d. . 


Polyxena in the Temple of Apollo. 

[BK. iv 

Many wor- 
thies are in 
the Temple. 


looks like 

Hecuba and 
are there, 

and lament- 
ing Hector's 

Polyxena is 

and her hair 
is disheveld. 

Jporu^-oute J>e toura, doun vn-to J>e lest, 

J?at clepid was J>e Anyuersarie, 

As 36 han herde, what shuld I lenger tarie 2 

And many worjn present was * J>er-at, 

Amyd J?e temple, of hi^e and lowe estat 

Lordis and ladyes, of affecciouw, 

From euery part gadred of J?e toim. 

Now was the cors of pis wor)>i kny^t 

As freshe of colour kepte vn-to pe si^t, 

As lifly eke, and as quik of hewe 

To be-holde as any rose newe, 

J?oru3 vertu only of pe goramys swete 

And pe bawme pat gan aboute flete 

To eue?*y loynt and eche extremyte. 

And at pis feste and solempnyte 

Was Eccuba and ^onge Polyeene, 

So wommanly and goodly on to sene, 

With many oper of hi^e estat and lowe,* 

To-fore }>e cors sittynge on a rowe 

With heer vntressid, clad in wedis blake, 

J?at euere in on svvich a sorwe make 

)?at routh[e] was and pite for to sene 

How ]>ei pleyne & ])e deth be-mene 

Of worjji Hector, of kny^thod grou?z,de & welle 

But trowe 36 (as Guydo list to telle) 

)3at Polyeene, in al hir woful rage 

I-chau^gid hath vp-on hir visage 

Hir natif colow, as fresche to J?e si^t 

As is ]>e rose or j?e lillye whi^t ? 

Oufer )>e freshenes of hir lippes rede, 

For al ]?e terys pat she gan to shede 

On hir chekis, as any cristal clere 1 

Hir heer also, resemblyng to * gold wyre, 

Whiche lay abrood like vn-to J?e si^t 

[Of] Phebus bemys in his spere bri^t, 










560. herde] om. D 1 what] wher to D 1 lenger] om. D 1. 

561. was] wer 0. 563. and] om. D 2, D 1. 
575. lowe] lawe C. 578. make] >ei make D 1. 

584. I-chaimgid hath] Chaunged hadde nou^t D 1 D 2 repeats 

590. to] vn to C. 591. >e] om. A. 

BK. iv] Achilles falls desperately in Love with Polyxena. 581 

When he to vs doth his li^t avale. 

And ay she rent with hir fyngeris smale 

Hir golden here on hir blake wede, 

Of whiche Jring Achilles toke good hede, 

And gan merueille gretly in his pou^t 

How God or Kynde ever my^t haue wrou^t 

In her werkis so fair a creature : 

For he pou^t he my^tfe] nat endure 

To beholde be bri3tnes of hir face ; 

For he felt Jjoru^ his herte pace 

])Q percyng stremys of hir eyen two, 

Cupides brond hath hym markid so, 

For loue of hir, fat in his desire 

He brent as hoote, in soth, as any fire, 

And after sone \tiili sodeyn colde he quoke, 

And ahveye fix on hir he hadde his loke, 

So fat be arwe of fe god Cupide 

Percid hym evene boru^ be syde 

To be herte, & ^af hym swiche a wou?ide 

feat neuere was lykly * for to soimde. 

And ay in oon his loke on hir he caste, 

As he durste, and gan to presse faste 

Toward hir, namly, with his eye, 

j)at hym fou^t he most nedis deye, 

But 3 if fat he fou^de in hir some grace 

J)er was no geyn : for pleinly in fat place 

Of newe he was kau^t in lovis snare, 

J?at of helth and of al welfare 

He was dispeired in his herte so, 

j)at he ne knew what was best to do. [leaf 102 ] 

Eche of er f ing, I do $ow wel assure, 

He set at nou^t. and toke of hit no cure ; 

His Jjou^t was hool on hir & on no mo ; 

fee longe day Jms went he to and fro, 

Til Phebw* char lowe gan declyne 

600. 1st he] hym A, D 2, D 1. 602. his] hir D 1. 

612. lykly] lyke C for] efte D 1. 

613. in oon] on hir D 1 on hir] om. D 1. 
615. namly] & namly D 1. 

620. 2nd of] om. D 1 al] om. A. 622. what] }>at D 2. 
627. lowe] douw D 1. 

tears her hair. 

596 Achilles 


feels his heart 
pierst by her 
glances ; 




616 and he thinks 
lie must die 
unless she 
favours him. 




Achilles, love-struck, goes to bed, and moans. [BK. IV 

Hecuba and 
go home to 

His golden axtre, )>at so cler doth shine, 
j)is to seyne, ]>e sonne went[e] doiw 
Whan Eccuba, quene of Troye tou?z, 
And hir dau^ter Pollycene, also, 
Oute of j?e temple to J>e paleis go ; 
And ay Achilles on hir hadde a si$t 
While he my^t, til for lak of li}t 
He may no more haue leyser oportune 
To loke on hir, cursed be fortune. 




to bed, 

and lan- 
guishes for 

Achilles, in the syght of Polycene, kaght his dethe, 
and so went oute of ]>e Tempyle to his Tente. 1 

AcMiies goes For whiche in haste he makid ha]?e his went 
With his kny3tes home vn-to his tent, 
Wher he anon, with-outs more tariyng, 
To bedde goth, ful trist in compleyniwg, 640 

Ay in hym silf casting vp and doura, 
In his mynde, and eke in his resouw, 
From hed to foot hir bewte euerydel. 
And in his hert he felt & knewe ful wel 644 

))at final cause of his languysshinge 
Was Polycene, of bewte most passinge : 
For loue of whom so moche peine he felte, 
))at with J>e hete he pou^t his hert[e] melte 648 

Ay on his bedde walwyng to & fro 
For )>e constreint of his hidde wo, 
For whiche almost him pou^tfe] ]>at he deide, 
And to him silfe even fus he seide : 652 

"Alias," quod, he, " how me is wo be-goon, 
|?at of my sorwe know[e] ende noon ; 
For I suppose, sith ]>e world be-gan 

N"e was per neue?*e a wofuller man : 656 

For I pat whilom was of so gret my^t, 
So renomed of euery maner 

He is woe- 

the saddest 
man that ever 

629. J>is] f>is is D 1. 640. ful trist] wooful D 1. 
644. ful] om. D 1. 646. Was] Wh D 2. 
647. so moche] suche D 1. 653. new 1T D 1. 
654. knowe] knowe I D 1. 

657. whilom] somme tyme D 1 my3t] a my^t D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 100 b (misplaced after line 640). 

BK.IV] Achilles laments that a young Maiden has overcomehim. 583 

Jjoru^-oute pe world, bope of 11136 & lowe 

For per was noon, in sope, pat koude knowe 660 

A man in armys pat was more famws, Tin now, 

Nor I-holde more victorius, 

To-fore )>is tyme reme?;ibrid be no stile 

In-to pis day alias, pe harde while ! 664 

Nouper Hector, pleinly, nor noon oper, 

Of Polycene pat was pe worpi broker, 

ftat power had whan pei wM me mette, overcome* 8 

For al her myjt, me to ouer-sette, 668 him 

Nor in pe felde my force for to daiwte, 

Here priuely as I me dar avaimte ! 

But now, alias, a mayde of tender age [leaf 102 z>] but now a 

Hath sodeinly me brou$t in swiche a rage, 672 jjj'jjj, uerd 

))at with pe stremys of hir eyen tweyne him - 

She percid hath and corve[n] euery veyne 

Of myn hert, pat I may nat asterte 

For to be ded, poru} constreint of my smerte ! 676 

For who shal now wissen me or teche, 

Or who, alias, shal now be my leche, 

Or who shal now helpe me or saue ? 

j?er is but deth, and after bat my graue, 680 peath alone 

is left him. 

For oper hope, pleinly, is per noon 

Saue in hir mercy, alias, & pat is goon ! 

For nouper prayer, tresour, nor richesse, 

Force nor my^t, nouper hi^e provvesse, 684 

Hi^nes of blood, birpe nor kynrede 

May availle * [n]or helpen in pis nede hertm 6 " 1 

To meven hir, nor my sadde troupe, 

Vp-on my wo euere to haue roupe ! 688 

What newe furie or importune rage 

Hath brought myn herte in-to swyche outrage,* 

Ageyn[e]s whiche I can not debate 

To loue hir best bat dedly doth me hate ! 692 as he loves 

J her who must 

And, in good f eith, who wisly list aduerte, hate nim ^ 

663. To- fore] Bifore D 1. 668. to] not D 1. 

669. my force] me D 1. 

670. me dar] dar me A, dare make D 1. 
676. For] om. D 1 smerte] herte D 2, D 1. 

686. availle] availlen C. 690. outrage] autrage C. 
692. best] breste D 1. 693. And] For A. 

Achilles despairs of gaining Polyxena's love. [BK. iv 

Achilles says 
must hate 

as he slew 
her brother 

He is in 

and must die. 

He weeps, 

and is reck- 

Litel wonder ]>ou$ she me hate of herte, 

Sith I am come hyder fro so ferre 

On hir kynrede for to make werre, 

In J>e whiche, to my confusions, 

Hir kny^tly broker, most worjri of renouw, 

Haue fatally with myn hondis slawe, 

Whiche in pis worlde had[de] no felawe 

Of wor}?inesse nor of manlyhede ! 

Alias ! alias ! now may I quake and drede, 

And of niy lyf fallen in dispeire : 

For how shuld I be bold to haue repeire, 

Or dorn, alias, comen in hir si^t ? 

I woful wreche ! I vnhappy wy^t ! 

Or how shal I ben hardy to appere 

In J>e presence of hir eyen clere ? 

Certys, I se non oj>er mene weye 

But finally pat I must[e] deye 

So dispeired I stonde on euery syde, 

Of ojjer helpe I can me nat prouyde." 

And ri^t anoon, with profouwde si^es depe, 

}5is Achilles brast oute for to wepe, 

With dedly chere, pale and funeral, 

And with his face turned to ]>e wal, 

)3at roufe was and pite for to sene 

])Q hertly f urie of his peynes kene. 

For so oppressed he was in his pou^t, 

Of lyf nor deth ]>at he rou3t[e] nou^t ; 

And fis contvneth til it drow to ny^t, 

))at Titan ha)> wz't/idrawe his clere li^t. 

[leaf 102 








Howe Achilles sent his messanger to 'qtlene Eccuba for 
to have Polycene : wherfor he wolde set )>e Troyans 
and j>e Grekes at finale pece. 1 

And eue?*e in oon lith fis woful man 

I-liche sike, of colour pale and wan, 724 

With-oute slepe, so fretyng was his sorwe, 

699. Haue] I haue D 1. 700. Whiche in] WiJ> ynne D 2. 
702. and] for D 1. 709. Certys] Nowe certes D 1. 
710. I] I here D 1. 720. he] he ne A, D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 100 d (misplaced after line 738). 

BK. IV] Achilles sends a Friend to Hecuba with Proposals. 585 
Til Lucifer, on fce nexte morwe, But next 


To-fore pe sonne, with his bemys clere, 

Ful lustely gan for to appere 728 

In pe orient, whan pis Achilles, 

Vnpacient, with-oute reste or * pes, 

Quakynge euere in his feuere newe, 

As it was sene, pleinly, in his he we 732 

Til he abreide of anguysshe sodeyrcly, 

And called oon pat was with hym prevy, 

And of couwseil whom he triste p wel ; frierid to 

And vn-to hym he tellep euerydel 736 

From point to point with hi??i how it stood, 

And sent him forpe, be-cause he koude his god, 

On his message street to Troye toim 

"With ful avis and informaciourc 740 

Of pis mater to Eccuba pe quene, Hecuba 

))oru3 his wisdam for to ben a mene, 

3if he my^t, by his discrecioiw, 

Fynde any waye of sauaciouw 744 

Vn-to his lord, pat he louyd so. 

And to pe quene anon he is go, 

And his mater wysly gan corweie 

To-forn or he of grace wolde preie 748 

}3at she enioieth to $eue hym audience : 

For in his tale per was noon offence 

He was no fool, nor newe for to lere. 

Wherfore, J>e quene goodly gan hym here 752 gjjj hears 

Of al pat euere hym likep for to seyn 

)3er was no worde y-lost nor spoke in veyn, 

For his tale no man koude amende. 

[And] Craftely he gan to discende 756 

To pe substauwce, and tolde clerly out, 

With premisses ful wel brou^t about, 

)3at finally, in conclusions, 

J)e chefe, he seide, of his entenciouw, 760 

Effectuelly,* }if it wolde be, 

728. for] om. D 1. 730. or] and C. 

731. euere] ay A, D 2, D 1. 

732. sene pleinly] pleinly seen D 1. 738. his] om. D 1. 
754. y-lost nor spoke] spoke ne lost D 1. 

761. Effectuelly] Effectuously C. 

586 Achilles proposes to iced Polyxena, and stop the War. [BK. iv 

friend says 
lie wants to 
make peace 
between the 
Greeks and 

by wedding 
Polyxena to 

if Hecuba 
can persuade 
Priam to 

consent ; 

but on con- 
dition that 
the Greeks 
stop the war. 



and answers 



Was for to make pes and vnite 
Atwene Grekis & pe folke of Troye, 
To whiche ping he knew no better woye 
J^an of pe werre, for her alder ese, 
By his wit prudently tapese 
}5e mortal strife and pe bitter rage 
By allyauwce only of mariage, 
3if pat hir liste, pis wyse, wor]>i quene, 
)?at hir doubter, faire Pollycene, 
May weddid be vn-to Achilles, 
Wher-poru^ per my^t be a final pes 
3if Eccuba, by* hir discresioim, 
j)oru3 hir wit and mediacioim, 
And hir prudence my^t aboute brynge 
J)at Priamws were fully assentynge, 
]3at Achilles my^t his doubter wyve, 
So pat it my^t parformyd ben as blyue 
(Lyke as I haue made mencioiw), 
By couenauwt only, and condiciouw 
J)at pe Grekis shal her werre lete, 
And suffire him * to lyuen in quyete 
3if pe mariage of pis ilke tweyne 
Parformed be, and knyt up in a cheyne. 

[leaf 102 d] 







Of the answere of Eccuba, and howe she exortede 
Kynge Pryamus to pe same entent. 1 

And whan pe quene hath knowera his extent, 

Ful sobirly, by good avysement, 

To-forn or pat * any word asterte, 

Ful pitously she sy^ed in hir herte ; 788 

And, at pe laste, with a sobir chere, 

She seide pus to pe messager : 

" My frend," qwod she, " touching pi request, 

I can no more make pe beheste, 792 

762. Was] And D 1. 763. Atwene] Betwene D 1. 
766. tapese] to peese D 1. 
769. pis] the D 1 wyse worpi] worthy wyse A. 
773. by] >oru$ C. 777. his] hir D 1. 778. my^t] om. D 1. 
779. I haue] is D 1. 782. him] hem C. 785. his] om. D 1. 
787. or bat] hat or C. 790. She] He D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 101 a (misplaced after line 790). 

BK. iv] Hecuba favours Achilles. She pleads with Priam. 587 
But at be leste I wil condiscende Hecuba 

\TTI i i ii -I i promises to 

What lyth in me to bringe to an ende do her best 

i lordis wil, with al myn herte entere. jJSHi; 

But here-vp-on, I muste firste requere 796 

)5e kynges wil, }if he wil ^eue assent 

To * pe pwrpos [for] whiche pou art sent ; 

And, ouermore, I muste wyte also but she must 

3if pat Parys be willyng eke per-to 800 

Of whiche ping, with euery circumstauwce, 

I wil my silfe maken enquerauwce 

Ful f eithfully of Priam and Parys, Priam and 

J?e mene whyle, what is her avys, 804 

Wt/i-oute more, wz't/^-Inne dayes bre, in s days 


At whiche tyme come ageyn to me friend is to 

come again 

From Achilles, }if he wil pe sende, to her - 

And finally pou shalt knowe an ende 808 

Of pis mate?*, and an answere pleyn." 

And home he goth to Achilles ageyn He returns to 

With f ul glad chere, his lord pe mor to plese ; 

And for to sette his hertfe] bet at ese, 812 

Avisely, of hi^e discrecioim, 

He hath so made his relacioiw, 

And told his tale in so prifti wyse, 

As he pat koude his wordis so deuyse 816 

To bringe in hope [in-]to his lordis herte, 

With ful reles of his peynes smert, [leafiosa] 

Wher-by he made his sorwe to wit^drawe. 

And jms while hope gan [for] to a-dawe 820 

Amyd his brest, Eccuba J?e queue Hecuba talks 

To Priam spak of pis Polycene, 

Touchinge pe sonde of pis Achilles, 

And of his profre for to make a pes 824 

She tolde hym al, & for-gat no pinge. 

Howe Priamus disclosyde the privite of Ms conseyte 
and gruchinge to be allyed with Achilles. 1 

798. To] For C. 799. oumnore] ferthermore D 1. 

820. while] a while D 1 a-dawe] dawe D 1. 

821. his brest] be brest of D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 101 b (misplaced after line 832). 

588 Priam at first revolts at Achilles as his Son-in-law. [BK. iv 

Priam is' 

at Achilles 



He slew 

the light of 

Priam won't 
be allied with 

Wher-of astonyd, Priamws ]>e kyng 

Spak nat a word half an oures space, 

But in hym silfe gan for to cornpasse 828 

Ful prudently what it my$t[e] mene, 

ftat Achilles wolde haue Polycene 

Vn-to his wyf, ay wondrmg mor & more ; 

And at }?e last, si^ynge wonder sore, 832 

He discloseth J>e conceit of his herte, 

And seide, " alias ! how sore it doth me snwte 

To remembre J>at * I may haue no pes 

J?e grete offence of ]?is Achilles 836 

Towardis me, pleinly, whan ]?at he 

Slowe worpi Hector, J>oru his cruelte, 

)3at hooly was vp-on euery side 

J^assurauwce, gouernour, and guyde 840 

Of me and myn, platly, for to seyne, 

And, f er-wit/j-al, of myn eyen tweyne 

He was allone e verray sothfast ly^t, 

Shelde & protectour foruj his gret[e] my^t 844 

And his manhod ageyn ]?e mortal rage 

Of Grekis werre in my croked age ! 

But now, alias, to my confusions 

He slawen is, so wor]?i of renouw, 848 

Be Achilles, whiche may not out of myrcde 

J)at in myn hert I can neuere fynde 

To hen allyed vriiJi my mortal foo, 

Rote & grouwde of al my sorwe & wo ! 852 

It were ful harde myn hertfe] to apese 

To loven hym J)at cause]? myn vnese 

On euery half, wher-Jwru^ my cruel foon, 

)3e proude Grekis, hertid ben echon 856 

Ageyn[e]s me, now fortune is contrarie, 

Torned of newe my quarel to apaire 

J)at causeth Grekis, wood and furious, 

On me, alias, to be presumptuous, 860 

Only for Hector is me berafte away. 

826. astonyd] stonied was D 1 827. a] oone D 1. 
829. myjte] wolde D 1. 833. conceit] constreint D 1. 
835. >at] how C. 845. And] And in D 1. 
861. for] of A. 

BK. iv] But Priam at last consents to give Polyxena to Achilles. 580 

But as he 
can't help 

and must 
save his other 

Priam will 
consent to 


if he'll make 
peace between 
Q7 the Greeks 
0/0 and Trojans. 

But sithen I noon ofer chese may, 

Ageyn[e]s herte, fou$ it for anger ryve, 

In fis mater assay I shal to strive, 864 

JX>u} me be loth, & sitteth me ful sore 

3it to eschewe harmys fat ben more,' 

Whiche likly ben here-after for to falle, [leaf 1035] 

And for to saue myn ofer sonys alle, 868 

I wil concent fat fis Achilles, 

So fat he make a trewe final pes 

Atwene Grekis and also fis cite, 

With-oute more, pleinly, how fat he 872 

Haue vn-to wyfe my doubter Polycene. 

But list fat he any tresous mene, 

My wil is, first, how-so fat it wende, 

Of his beheste fat he make an ende, 

Wif-oute fraude : fis is myn avis." 

To whiche conseil assenteth eke Parys, Paris agrees, 

And more rathe, in conclusions, 

For f er was made noon excepcious 880 

In fis * trete of f e quene Eleyne, 

)?at Menelaye euere shulde atteyne 

Hir to recure ageyn vn-to his wyf 

For whiche Paris, wz'M-oute noise or strife, 884 

Or grucchinge ouf er, vn-to fis entent 

Witih-InnQ hym silf was fully of assent, 

)3er-by hopynge, with -oute fere or drede, 

Perpetuelly Eleyn[e] to possede 888 

Ei3t at his lust, & no man shal seie nay. 

And after fis, vppon f e fridfde] day 

Achilles hath, to wyte of fis mater, 

To Eccuba sent his Messa?2ger ; 892 

And she tolde hym f e answere of fe kyng, 

Ceriously gynnynge and endynge, 

And how fat he assenteth wel fer-to, 

And Paris eke, & she hir silfe also, 896 

3 if it so were, pleynly, she hym tolde, 

hoping to 
keep Helen. 

tells this to 

867. likly] om. D 1. 871. Jris] the A. 
879. rathe] rather A in] in ful D 1. 
881. J>is] be C. 883. Hir] For D 1. 
889. at] as D 2, D 1 lust] wyf D 2. 

877. fis] bat D 2. 
885. J>is] his D 1. 

590 Achilles thinks he can persuade the Greeks to peace. [BK. iv 

Achilles must 
first get peace 

His friend 
reports all 
to him, 

and he sees 
that he must 

Then he 

but fancies 
no Greek will 
deny him, 

aa all lovers 

Touchinge pe pes pat pe pz^-pos holde, 

And firste pat he his heste bring aboute 

J?at pei be sure : pawne him dar not doute 900 

J?at he shal haue his pwrpos euerydel, 

3if pat he wirke prudently and wel. 

And here-vp-on, with informaciouw 

))is messanger, oute of Troye touw, 904 

"WWi-oute abood, in al pe haste he may, 

To Achilles helde pe ri^tfe] way, 

And tolde him hool peffect of pis mater. 

And he alweie feruent and entere, 908 

In herte brent hoot as any glede, 

And saw per was no waye for to spede 

But only pes, as 36 han herd me telle ; 

And ay his brest with si^es gan to swelle 912 

For pe loue of pis Polycene, 

And cast a[l]way, a-monge his peines kene, 

To his purpos a weie for to fynde. 

And whiles he was besy in his mynde [leafiosc] 916 

How he shuld his purpos bringe a-boute, 

And in hym silf cast[e] many a doute, 

Anoon Dispeir in a rage vp-sterte 

And cruelly* cau^te hym by pe herte, 920 

Whiche hath hym prowe in-to swiche a were, 

)}at hym pou^te it nas in his power 

His beheste to fulfille in dede, 

Excepte he hadde wel pe lasse drede 924 

Euery ping to puttefn] in certeyn, 

Wenyng no Greke wolde his lust w^seyn, 

From his desire to be variable. 

And to hym silf pus was he fauourable 928 

For to parforme, and no ping denye 

Al pat was lusty to his fantasye 

As is pe maner of loners euerychon, 

Jpat pei suppose to acheue anon 932 

898. hat] J>at he D 1. 

900. dar] thai- A, D 2 not] no D 1. 

907. him] om. D 1 bis] his A. 912. with'] his D 2. 

914. alway] a weie D 1. 918. a] om. D 2. 

920. cruelly] cruelle C. 927. to] for to D 1. 

932. suppose] purpose D 1. 


BK. iv] Achilles thinks the Greeks cant win Troy without him. 591 

What ping it be }>at fei take * on honde, 
In what disioint fat )>e mater stonde, 
Al-pei} it be a verray impossible 
In her foly J?ei bew [ay] so credible. 
And so Achilles trusteth finally 
To fulfille his hestes outterly, 
Supposyng ay, for his worpines, 
For his manhod and his hi^e prowes, 
In whiche he dide hym silfe glorifie 
Somwhat of pride and of surquedie, 
How ]>e Grekis shulde be dispeired 
Bobe of her trust & her my3t apeired, 
Vp-on Troyens to wynnen any londe, 
3if it so were he with-diowQ his honde 
To helpen hem, and )>er-wM-al also 
Home in-to Grece ]>at bei wolde go 
From }>e sege, only for his sake, 
And her quarel outterly forsake, 
But it so were pis hardy ferse Achille 
With hem abood )>e cite for to spille. 
For whiche ping fe lordis by assent 
Assemblid wern to heren be entent 
Amonge hem alle of bis Achilles, 
By pe biddynge of Pallamydes. 




the Greeks 
will despair 

of winning 
Troy if he 
doesn't help 

948 and that 
they'll go 
home for his 



Howe Achilles, for the love of Polycene, exortede in- 
stantly the Grekis for to take A parpetuale pece 
with the Troyans, be which pece he mevyde by 
many a sotele mene. 1 

And whan bei wern gadrid alle I-fere, 

To-forn hem alle, like as 36 shal here, 

j)is Achilles hath his tale gowne, 

And seide : " sirs, pat so moche komie 960 

Bo]>e of wisdam and of hi^e prudence, 

So renomed eke of sapience 

933. >at] mn. D 1 take] toke C. 
944] Howe ]>e grekes my^te be apeired D 1. 
947. J>er-witfc-al] ther with D 1. 948. >ei] J>e D 1. 
952. hem] hym D 1. 959. new IT A. 
961. prudence] prowesse D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 101 d (misplaced after line 958). 

makes his 

592 Achilles reminds the Greeks of their sacrifices for Menelavx. 

" Renowned 

Think how 
you came 

risking your 
lives for only 
one man, 

who was robd 
of Helen ; 

think how 
you left your 

and wives 
and children. 

J?oru3-oute J)e worlde, and of discreciourc, 

And ben so worjn also of renoiw, 964 

Kynges, dukis, of whom j?e rial name [leaf 103 d] 

From est to west flourej? $it pe * fame, 

Bo])e of kny^thod and of manlihede, 

To J)at I seie, I praye 3011 take]) hede : 968 

))is to seyne, ^if fat 36 considere 

))Q pleyn entent of oure comynge hider, 

By good avis and discrecioim, 

Had no grouwde founded on resourc 972 

Nor cause roted on no titel of ri^t, 

3if it so be, )>at je lifte * vp ^oure si^t 

And adue?'ten clerly in ^oure mynde : 

Fnl fer abak wit was sette be-hynde, 976 

Prudent lokynge, and avisenesse ; 

For first whan we, of foly hastynesse, 

Toke vp-oii vs to come fro so ferre 

Ageyn[e]s Troy ens for to gynne a werre, 980 

And to iuparde oure lyves eue?ychon 

For )>e lone of o man allone 

3e weten alle, I trow[e], whom I mene : 

Kynge Menelay, defrauded of his quene 984 

To telle troupe, me list nat for to feyne ; 

For 36 wel wite, only fat Eleyne 

Was * growide & gy^nynge of al pis debate, 

or whom so many wor])i of estate, 988 

Recurles of any remedy e, 

Life and good han putte in iupartie 

Oure londis left and oure regiouras, 

Oure cites eke & oure riche tonnes, 992 

Whiche by oure absence stondfe] desolat 

Wives and childer eke disconsolat, 

In wo abide, mournynge, & distresse, 

Whiles ]?at we, J>e sothe to expresse, 996 

Fro day to day, be-set on eue?*y syde, 

963. ]5oru3-oute] pom} D 2. 

966. floure> $it >e] flouring jit in C fame] same D 2. 

969. seyne] mene D 1. 972. on] in D 2. 

974. lifte] liften C. 980. a] om. D 1. 

987. Was] As C. 995. abide] abydynge D 2, abidynge D 1. 

BK. iv] Achilles says Helen is not worth the Men slain for her. 593 

Lyn in J>e felde, and oure deth abide 

In sorwe & care, in labour and in wo. 

And, -wiih al pis, 36 wete wel also, 1000 "Think, too, 

Sipen tyme pat pe werre be-gan, 

Of oure Grekis how many worbi man how many 

worthy folk 

Hath loste his lyf poru^ defis fatal wouwde, 

feat my^t her-to haue lyued & be souwde 1004 

At home in Grece assured wel in loye, 

3if fei ne hadde comen vn-to Troye 

feat to remembre it is f ul gret pite. 

And, ouer pis, I seie also for me, 1008 

Amonge Troy ens in her cruel mood, 

I haue y-lost so moche of my blood, have lost 1 

feat hath ful ofte made me pale of hewe ; much blood 

feis o]?er day, also, grene and newe, 1012 

I hadde of Hector swiche a mortal wou?ide, 

With a quarel sharpe whet & grouwde, [leaf 104 a] me 

Aboue pe Jji^e, so kene was j>e hed 80 that 

fee same day a-forn fat he was ded, 1016 

Of verray hap as it was y-shape, 

feat fro J>e deth vnnebe I my3te eskape. i nearly died. 

Whiche [$it] al freshe is vppon me sene, 

Large and wyde, and as $it but grene, 1020 

fee smert of whiche sore $it I pleyne. 

And, in good feith, me semeth fat Eleyne, K^worth" 

3if 30 aduerte wysly in ^our foujt, we e 'v P e ri plid. 

With swiche a pris shuld[e] nat be bou^t, 1024 

Wher-foru^ oure lyf and oure good y-fere, 

And oure honour arn y-put in were, 

And dredfully hangen in ballauwce. 

For ^if fat 36 in ^oure remembrauwce 1028 

Conceyve a-ri^t and castfen] vp & doun 

fee sodeyn chau/zge and reuolucioll?^ 

feat fallen hath sith ]>e werre gan, 

fee slau^ter & deth of many worfi man 1032 

999. &] in D 1. 1001. tyme] }>e tyme D 1 be-gan] gan D 2. 
1004. her-to] til nowe D 1. 

*1010. y-lost] lost D 2, D 1 moche] mychyl A, mochyl D 2. 
1016. a-forn bat] to forn or D 1. 1026. arn] ben D 1. 
1031. gan] bigan D 1. 

" Let her 
stay in Troy, 

and let us 
try to get 

Menelaus to 
find another 

594 Achilles urges the Greeks to give up Helen and the war. [BK. iv 

])at for hir sake hath here lost his lyf, 

3et }>e werst of )>is mortal strif 

Doth most rebourcde [in-]to oure damage, 

To disencres and eke disavaiwtage, 1036 

And likly is to encrese more 

3if ordynaurcce be nat made f er-fore, 

And remedie shape on ou)>er side, 

By fyn only fat Eleyne abide 1040 

With hem of Troye, stille here in f e tou^^. 

And late vs cast, by good inspections, 

For oure ese som of er mene way, 

So fat fe kyng called Menelay 1044 

Chese hym a wyf in som of er lond, 

Lyk his estat be surarwce or be bonde, 

Vnder wedlok confermed vp of newe, 

))at vn-to hym wole be fouwde trewe, 1048 

Sif en fat he, wit/^-oute gilte or sy?^Ile, 

May be fe law from Eleyn[e] twymie : 

For of dyvos causis ben y-nowe, 

)3oru^-oiite fe worlde of euery wi^t [I-]knowe, t 1052 

Of avoutri for f e foule vice. 

For to lawe is no preiudice, 

Jjouj Menelay iustly hir for-sake, 

Whan so hym list, and anofer take 1056 

)}at shal hi??z bet bof e queme & plese. 

And so to vs it shal be ful gret ese, 

Whan f e werre is brou^t to an ende, 

Whiche likly is many man to shende, 1060 

3if it so be fat it forf e contvne. 

J)e grete labour is so inportune, 

}3at we ne shal no while mowe sustene : [leaf 104 6] 

For fis is soth, wit7i-outen any wene, 1064 

Troy ens }it ben flourynge in her my^t, 

And with hem han ful many worf i kny^t 

To helpen hem, of hi^e & lowe degre ; , 

1035. Doth] Deth D 2 in-to] vn to D 1. 

1040. By] And by D 1. 1041. stille here] here stille D 1. 

1050. >e] om. A, D 2, D 1. 

1052. of euery wijt] & bew ful wel D 1. 

1055. 0113] J>orgh D 2. 1057. at] om. D 1. 

1062. inportune] oportune D 1. 

since he can 
be divorst 
from Helen 

for her 

Then we can 
end the war. 

The Trojans 
are still 

BK. iv] Achilles appeals to the Greeks to end the War. 595 

And ber-wzt/-al, so stronge is her cyte 
On euery parte, wztft-outen & wz't/i-Inne, 
J3at we ar nat likly for to wynne 
In oure purpos, fou^ we eue?*e abide. 
Wherfore, be wisdam lete vs voide pride 
And wilfulnes, only of prudence 
To ban J?e eye of oure aduertence 
To oure profyt more ban to veyn-glorie, 
And while oure honowr shynef by victorie, 
A wysdam is to wztMrawe oure hond, 
Sith we may nat constreyne by no bond 
Fortunys whele for to abide stable. 
Wherfor, I rede, or she be mutable, 
j)is gery goddes with hir double cher, 
Lat vs $eve vp swiche ping as li]>e in wer 
Whiles bat we mow oure worship saue : 
For of be werre }>e laude }it we haue, 
Considered wel how by oure manlyhede 
Oure most[e] fo, Hector, is now dede ; 
And while bat we in oure honowr floure, 
My couwseil is, or Fortune loure, 
As I seide er, to chau?ige hir bri^tfe] face, 
While fat best we stonde in hir grace, 
By on assent and oon oppiniouw, 
With-outen any contradicciouw, 
Of hert & wil, bofe of on and alle, 
Or oure honowr on any party palle, 
In-to Grece bat we home * retourne. 
For }if bat we lenger here soiounie 
On be quarel fat we haue longe swed, 
Dout[e]les it may nat bene eschewed 
Ful gret damage jns w^t/i-oute faile 
Or we haue don, shal folwen at fe taile, 
Wherfore, best is oure foly vp resigne. 
And while oure hap is welful & benygne, 

1068 "Troy is still 

We're not 
likely to win 





We'd better 

Fortune is 

Our chief foe, 
Hector, is 

1088 Before For- 
tune changes, 


let us go 

1096 If we stay 


we shall be 

1068. is] in A, as D 1. 1070. for] it for D 1. 
1078. Sith] Sith >at D 1. 1081. hir] his D 1. 
1082. libe] lych D 2. 1083. mow] may A, D 2. 
1085. oure] om. D 2 manlyhede] manhood A. 
1088. or] or bat D 1. 1090. best we] we best D 1. 
1095. bat we home] home bat we C. 1100. at >e] a D 1. 

596 Achilles ends his Appeal to the Greeks for Peace. [BK. IV 

"If any one 
objects that 
we can't, 
with honour, 
leave without 

I say that 1 

we've as good 
as she is 
among us, 


whom Tela- 
mon keeps. 

Set her 1 


and let us 
have peace." 

Most blauwlisshinge, and of face faire, 

Jpe tyme is best to maken oure repeire, 1104 

While fat we stonde, in party & in al, 

With oure enemyes in honour perigal 

And fer aboue, pleinly, 3if fat we 

Koude han an eye to * oure felicite, 1108 

While * fat is in his ascenceouw. 

But list som man wil make obiecciou?i 

))at we may nat [so] oure honour saue, 

To repeire, pleynly, but we haue [leaf 104 c] 1112 

Eleyne ageyn, fat is cause of al : 

To whiche ])ing anoon answer I shal, 

3if any man in his fantasie, 

To dishonour or to vyllenye 1116 

Arrette wolde, in any maner kynde, 

We to gon horn & leven hir be-hyude, 

Shortly to seyn, I holde it be no shame, 

Sith fat we han on as gret of name 1120 

As is Eleyne, and of berthe as good, 

Amongis vs y-come of kynges blood, 

Suster to Priam, lord of Troye tou?i, 

Exyona, whom J>at Thelamou^- 1124 

In kepyng haf , $if I shal nat feyne, 

In Troye towi as Paris haf Eleyne. 

And sithe now it may bene noon of er, 

Lete J)e ton be sette ageyn fe tofer ; 1128 

And J>e surplus of olde enmyte 

Betwyxen vs and Troye J>e cite, 

My conseil is, for oure bof en ese, 

By on assent wysly to appese 1132 

)?is al and som & fat we hen[ne]s wende. 

I can no more ; my tale is at an ende." 

Howe Kynge Menelaus, Heleyn-is husbonde, replyede 
agayns the exortacyons of Achilles. 1 

1106. oure] oute D 1. 1108. to] in C. 
1109. While] Whiche C is] he is D 1. 
1020. as] as of A of] a A. 1121. berthe] hir birthe A. 
1124. whom] sommetyme D 1. 

1130. Betwyxen] Bitwene D 1. 1133. pis] ft is D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 102 d. 

BK. iv] Menelaus answers Achilles, who goes away angry. 597 

To whom anoon kyng Menelaus, 

For verray Ire wood and furious, 1136 

And kyng Thoas, pe duke eke of Athene, 

As pei pat my^t no lenger hym sustene, 

To suffren hym pei were so rek[e]les 

Spak alle attonis vn-to Achilles, 1140 

Nat only pei, but, poru} inpacience, 

J?e court parturbid, with-oute prouidence 

With tumult go/me to repreue 

ftis Achilles, and proudly hem commeve 1144 

Ageyn[e]s hym and hys oppiniouw. 

And seide shortly, in conclusions, 

Yn-to his reed pei nold[e] neuere assent 

Nor condescende to no ping pat he ment, 1148 

To be gouerned by hym in pis cas ! 

For whiche ping anoon Achilles was 

So full of Ire and rancour in his hert, 

Jpat sodeinly from his se he sterte, 1152 

And went his way, as he were \n a rage, 

Triste and pale, and a wood visage, 

And shortly seide, for hym list nat feyne, 

J)at he ne wolde lenger don his peyne 

To helpen hem, how-so pat pei spede, 

Ageyn[e]s Troyens, for no maner nede ; 

And bad anon, pis hardy Achilles, 

To his kny^tes, called Mirundones, 1160 

)?at pei no more with spere nor with shelde [leaf 104 d] 

To helpe Grekis entren in-to felde,* 

But kepe \\zin clos at home wzt/i-Inne her tent. 

j)us in his Ire he }af * commauwdement 1164 

To alle his men, as $e han herd deuise, 

Hem to we'tMrawe at euery hy^e emprise, 

Whan-so-euere pei goon in-to bataille. 

And in pis while skarsenes of vitaille 1168 

1135. new U D 1. 1142. parturbid] parturbled D 1. 

1143. tumult] al >e multitude & D 1. 

1144. hem cowmeve] gan hem meve D 1. 1146. seide] om. D 1. 

1153. were] was D 2 a] om. D 2. 

1154. a wood] with a D 1. 

1155. for] om. D 2. 1159. And] Thamie D 1. 

1162. entren in-to] whanne pei bene in D 1 felde] he felde C, D 1. 
1164. *af] 3af in 0. 


and Thoas 


They'll never 
give-in to 

He starts up 
in a rage, 

says he'll no 
longer help 
1156 the Greeks, 

and bids his 

stay in their 

598 Famine in the Greek host. Then, food is provided. [BK. iv 

The Greeks 
want food. 
Many die. 


sends to 

whose king 

his purveyors 

to get victuals 
for the 

who sail off 
with them. 

Fil in pe hoste of fleshe, bred, & wyn, 

Jpat many Greke brou^t vn-to his * fyn ; 

For ]>ei ne my^t endure for distresse, 

Constreint of hunger dide hem so oppresse, 1172 

Til at the last kyng Pallamydes, 

As lie pat was in no ping rek[e]les, 

Hath )>er-vp-on maked purviauwce, 

Eemedie, and redy ordinauwce. 1176 

And by assent & coimseil of echon, 

He ha)? y-sent wyse Agamenoura, 

)3e wor])i kyng, to Messa pere beside, 

A litel He, only to prouide 1180 

For pe Grekis, }if he my^tfe] spede 

Hem to releue in pis grete nede. 

And Theleplms, kyng of pilke lond, 

Of gentilnes hath put to his hond, 1184 

As he fat was large & wonder fre, 

And renomyd of humanite, 

To socour hem, cowmauftdinge anoon 

His puruyours in al haste to goon 1188 

From euery party abouten environs 

Jporu} alle pe bouwdis of his regioiw, 

Arid feithfully to cerchyn euery coste 

To take up vitaille for pe Grekis host. 1192 

And after pat, ful hastely he made 

To stuffe her shippes, pleinly, & to lade 

With euery ping pat was necessarie 

To pe Grekis, and be water carie, 1196 

At request * of Agamenouw, 

W^t^-oute tariynge or dilacioura. 

And so pe kyng, wit/i plente of vitaille 

Frau3t and y-lade, gan anon to saille 1200 

Toward pe sege, he & his meyne, 

Ay costeiynge by pe Grekysshe se. 

fte wynde was good, & pe kyng as bly ve 

1169. bred] of bred D 2. 

1170. brou^t] it brou3te D 1 his] J>e C. 

1172. hem] hym D 2. 1175. J>er-vp-on] here vpponD 1. 

1178. y-sent] sent D 1. 

1195. >ing] thyngis A was] is D 1. 

1197. request] >e request C. 1200. y-lade] D 1. 

BK. iv] The Greek ships are repaird. The war is renewd. 599 

With his navie at Troye dide aryve 
In fewe dayes ; and Grekis anon ri^t 
Of his repeire were ful glad & ly^t, 
Of his expleit and his gode speed, 
))at he so wel hath born hym in ])is nede. 
And after )>is, Pallamydes anoon, 
As seith Guydo, is to his shippes goon 
For to considre and loken al aboute 
Wher nede was, w&t/i-Inne & with-oute, 
Any of hem to [a]mendyn or repare,* 
As he )>at list for no cost to spare, 
In euery ping, with-oute necligence, 
Touching his charge to don his dilligercce, 
Til ]?e trews fully wern oute ronne, 
And J)e werris new ageyn be-gonne, 
Which e many man, sothly, dere abou^t. 
And ceriously to write how J?ei wroujt, 
My purpose is, pleinly, in sentence, 
Vnder support of ^oure pacience. 

[leaf 105 a] 






sees to his 

ships' repairs. 

Of the dethe of Dephebus, sclayne by the hondys of 
Kynge Pallamydes with a spere. 1 

Dvring in oon )>e dedly cruel hate, 
\)ai stynte may nor cesse by no date 
Atwyxe Grekis and hem of j)e toun, 
To grete damage and destrucciouw 
On ou)?er part, felyng ful vnswete, 
Til on a day J?ei caste for to inete, 
As }>ei wer wont, proudly with spere & sheld, 
With her wardis entryng in-to felde,* 
Armyd ful bri^t vp-on ouper syde, 
And embatailled stoute, & ful of pride, 
Ful kny^tly han chose her grouwde, & take 
Her large baners, with ]>e wynde y-shake, 

1210. seith Guydo] Guydo seith D 1. 

1213. repare] repeire C. 1219. many] many a D 2, D 1. 

1225. Atwyxe] Betwene D 1. 

1227. On] And on D 1. 1228. caste] caste hem D 1. 

1230. felde] }>e felde C, D 1. 1231. ouj>er] euery D 1. 

1234. y-shake] dope shake D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 103 a. 


1228 The war 

begins again. 




Slaughter ly Deiphobus t Diomede t and Ajax. [BK. iv 

kills the 
Greek Cre- 

The Greeks 

Diomede and 

with 20,000 
fall on the 

Ajax Tela- 

slays Ceci- 

a son of 

Til fei to-gidre sodeinly ban met. 
And alderfirst, Dephebws hath set, 
Freshe & lusty, and of herte Irous, 
Yp-on a kyng called Cresevs ; 
And of envie, fe story tellef fan, 
On hors[e]-bake as f ei to-gidre ran, 
Dephebus first with his spere as bliue 
Jjora^-oute )>e brest euene dide liim ryve 
Yn-to fe herte, fat lie spake no more. 
J)e deth of whom Grekis pleine sore, 
And for his lone swiche a wo f ei make, 
))at al astonied* fei han fe feld forsake, 
And gan anon vn-to her tentis fle. 
)pe whiche, in soth, whan fei of Troye se, 
Yp-on f e chas fast[e] gan hem spede, 
Yn-to f e tyme fat worf i Dyomede, 
And wif him eke f e kyng Pallamydes, 
Of hi^e dispit, cruel and merciles, 
"With twenty fousand worfi kny3tes alle, 
Yp-on Troy ens sodeynly arn falle, 
And mortally made hem lese her woye, 
And to resorte horn ageyn to Troye. 
And eke with Grekis, fel & furious, 
})Q same tyme cam Thelamonyvs, 
)5at hi^t Aiax, f e stronge kny^tly man ; 
And like a lyowi amonge hem as he ran 
Yp-on Troyens and hem ouer-sette, 
Casuelly in his weye he mette 
Cecylyen, lusty, freshe, and li^t, 
And of his tyme a wonder manly kny^t, 
And sone was to Priam, as I rede, 
Whom Thelamoim, prikyng on his stede, 
Slowe cruelly witJi his swerde anoon, 
Racynge his arme fro fe sholder bon, 
J)at he, alias ! fil ded in fe feld. 
J5e deth of whom whan Dephebws behelde, 

[leaf 105 b] 











1235. han] ha> D 1. 

1246. astonied] attonis C. 1250. ]>e] om. D 2. 
1254. arn] bene D 1. 1259. knyitly] myjty D 1. 
1268. his] be D 1. 

BK. iv] Ajax is unhorst. Deiphobus is mortally wounded. 601 

Woder anon fan tigre or lyouw, 
With a spere ran to Thelamouw, 
And smet hym so f oru^ his platis bri^t, 
Of verray force fat he made hym li$t, 
And lese his sadel, be-set amonge f e pres. 
pe whiche strok, whan Pallamydes 
Behelde & sawe, & clerly gan aduerte, 
Irous & wood, with a furious lierte 
Caste hym anoon tavenge Thelamouw 
On Dephebws, ful worf i of renouw, 
And mortally his guerdouw hym to quyte ; 
And with a spere, grourale for to byte, 
Sharpe & kene, large, rouwde, & square, 
Ful cruelly, or fat he was ware, 
Jporu^ his harneis, wit/wrote more arest, 
Dephebws he smote so in * f e brest, 
Jpat with f e strok he brake f e shafte a-two, 
So fat fe tronchouw & f e hed also 
Left in his brest, fat f er was no weye, 
Finally, but fat he muste deye 
J)er was noon helpe nor reniedie at al ; 
J2e wouTide was so cruel and mortal, 
)pat with fe lyf he my^t[e] nat abyde. 
And in f is while, Parys cam be-side, 
Of auenture, while f is Dephebus 
Was of his wouwde so inly anguysshous, 
And gan in hast for taprochen ner, 
With face pale and [ri3t] an heuy cher, 
And for distresse wepte pitously, 
And his kny^tes commandid hastily, 
His wouwded brof er oute a-syde fere 
In al haste fat f ei shulde bere, 
Oute of f e wardis fro f e grete pres, 
Vn-to his peyne for to do reles, 
For tabref e hym at leyser, or tavente 
In open eyr. & f ei vn-to hym wente, 




1276 Palamides 



breaks his 
spear in 


1292 and wounds 
him mortally. 

Paris tells 


1300 his knights 
to carry 
from the 


1274. lijt] to lijt D 1. 1279. tavenge] to venge D 1. 
1281. quyte] a quite A. 1284. was] were D 1. 

1286. so] >o D 1 in] on C. 

1287. brake] braste D 1 be] his A. 1303. fro] for A. 

602 Deiphobus begs Paris to revenge him on Palamidcs. [BK. IV 

laid on the 

and appeals 
to Paris, 

as Death 
will soon part 

to avenge 
him on Pa- 

and slay him 
before he, 

Maugre pe Grekis, wher he woimded was, 

And bare hym oute a ful esy pace [leaf 105 e] 1308 

Toward pe wallis, fast[e] by pe toiw, 

And witfi gret dool and lamentacioim 

Ful soft[e]ly on pe ground e hym layde, 

Til at the laste pis dedly man abreyde, 1312 

With mortal loke and face funeral, 

And chere pitous, so pat eche bal 

Gan turnen vp of his dedly eye, 

And euene pus to Paris he gan seie : 1316 

Dephebus requirede his brother Parys to revenge his 
deth vpone Kynge Pallamydes. 1 

" broper myn, whom pat I louede so, 

Haue now pite & re we vp-on my wo 

Of kyndenes and of broperhede, 

And to my wordis of roupe take now hede, 1320 

Sith we be deth muste asonder twynne ; 

For Antropos shal no lenger spy line 

My lyues prede, but pe knotfte] breke. 

Wherfor, broper, I praye pe be wreke 1324 

Vp-on my deth, or I hen[ne]s pace, 

3if J?at pou list [to] do me swiche a grace 

Of kyndenes, ^et or I be ded, 

Out of my brest or pis speris lied 1328 

Be rent a-wey, pat pou avenged be 

Vp-on my fo, as I trust in pe, 

J)at I may wyte he be ded or I, 

And pat his spirit passe finally, 1332 

And first descende depe douft in helle, 

Eternally with Pluto for to dwelle, 

Mid his bouwdis, pat dirke ben & lowe. 

For, finally, so pat I may knowe 1336 

)5at he be ded per is no more to seie, 

I gif no fors how sone pat I deie." 

1309. wallis] wall D 2. 1317. new H D 1. 

1320. take now] now take D 2, to take D 1. 

1326. bat] om. D 1 a] om. D 2, D 1. 1327. I] om. D 2. 

1328. pis] pe D 1. 1335. Mid] Amyd D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 103 c. 

BK. iv] Palamides kills Sarpcdon. Paris shoots at him. 603 

To whos requeste Paris toke good hede, 

And in pe feld fast[e] gan hym spede, 

For poi^t & wo pitously wepynge, 

While his broper lay per languysshinge, 

Nat awayting but only * after deth, 

Vp-on pe point to 3elden vp pe breth. 1344 

And with his kny3tes Paris vp & dowi 

pe wardis sou3t aboutefn] envirouw, 

Til at pe last Pallamydes he fond 

With Sarpedouft fi3tynge hond of hond. 1348 

JSfow was pis kyng, pis worpi Sarpedourc, 

Come in diffence of hem of Troye toiw, 

Whiche of his hond was a noble * kny^t. 

And while pat he with al his ful[le] my3t 1352 

Most besy was Pallamydes topresse, 

Liche a lyowi whetted wip woodnes, 

Pallamydes, in hert[e] nat aferd, 

Lete fleen at hym with his sharpe swerd 1356 

So my3tely, pat it was a wonder; [leaf 105 d] 

For he his pi3e partid hath a-sonder, 

And smote it of by pe harde boon, 

pat Sarpedouw fil doun ded anoon 

So pat Troyens, whan pat he was slawe, 

Were compelled of force hem to wztft-drawe, 

poru3 pe pursut of kyng Pallamydes 

Whiche vp-on hem was so mercyles, 1364 

And as cruel as a wood lyouw, 

After pe deth of worpi Sarpedouw. 

pe whiche, alias, whan Paris did espie, 

He markid hym with a cruel eye, 1368 

And hent a bo we pat passingly was stronge, 

And with an arwe to his tiler longe, 

Entoxycat with venym in pe hed, 

pat whom he smot per-w/t/t was but ded, 1372 

And hitte hym so in pe aventaille, 

1340. in] in to A, D 1 be] om. A, D 2. 

1343. Nat] Noujt D 1 but only] only but C. 

1345. kny^tes] kny3te D 1. 1351. noble] worjri C. 

1353. topresse] to presse D 2. 1354. wi>] in D 2. 

1350. his] a A. 1357. a] om. A. 1364. vp-on] on D 1. 

1365. 1st as] as a D 1 2nd as] or D 1. 

Paris and 
his knights 
1340 seek 

and find Pa- 

who cuts off 
the thigh of 
a Trojan ally, 

1360 and kills 

Paris shoots 
at Palamides 

with a poi- 
sond arrow. 

604 Paris kills Palamides. Trojans plunder the Greek tents. 

Paris's poi- 
aond arrow 
kills Palam- 

The Greeks 

Their new 
is dead. 

The Trojans 
pursue em. 

They turn 
and fight ; 

but it's no 

The Trojans 
plunder the 
Greek tents. 

jjoru^-oute J>e stuf and be bikke maylle 

In-to his * brote fat it gan foru^ pace, 

j)at he fil ded in fe silve place, 1376 

Pallamydes, fis manful worfi kny^t. 

Wher-foru^ Grekis toke hem to fe fli^t, 

And made a noyse and a woful crye, 

))e deth compleynyng wonder pitously 1380 

Of her lord and my}ty gouernour, 

But late chose to ben Emperour, 

Her chefe socour and soue?-eyn refut. 

But now, alias ! fei stonde destitut 1384 

Of gouernauTCce, broke & disaraied, 

With-oute guyde, ri^t as shepe dismayed, 

Disconsolat & confortles y-shent, 

}?at eche of hem fleth vn-to his tent. 1388 

And f ei of Troye suede on fe chas 

On hors[e]-bak a wonder huge pas, 

And mercyles slowe )>em as bei fle, 

On euery side, ]?at rou]?e was to se, 1392 

With-oute pite or any o)>er grace : 

For lyke lyou^s ])ei gan hem enchase 

Til pei, compelled of necessite, 

Constreyned wern J>oruj her cruelte 1396 

To turne ageyn & hem silfe defende. 

And J>ei of Troye doim anoon descende 

Of hors[e]-bak, euene vp-on pe pleyn ; 

And alle attonya ]?er was 110?^ oj)er geyn 1400 

})ei gan ]>Q Grekis proudly to outraye, 

And cruelly so to dis[a]maye, 

)5at finally fer geyneth no diffence, 

So mortal was J?e my^ti violence 1404 

Of Troyens, fat Grekis so diffoille ; 

And aldirlast at leiser fei dispoille [leaf io6] 

}5e Grekis tentis of gold and richesse. 

At whiche tyme Troylus gan hyra dresse, 1 408 

And Parys eke dourc to her navie 

With Jjritty ]> ousand in her companye, 

1375. his] >e C, om. D 2. 
1400. alle] cm. A, D 1. 
1405. OfJ Of >e D 2. 

1382. ben] bene her D 1. 
1404. mortal] mortally A. 

BK. iv] Ajax Telamonius, ly his valour, saves the Greeks. 605 

Kyllynge alle J?o, pleynly,* pat }>ei mette, 

And on her schippes wylde fire ]>ei sette, 

feat to J>e wallis of Troye }>Q cyte 

Men my^tfe] [wel] }>e hydous flawme se. 

And all hadde gon to destruccioim, 

Nadde Aiax, y-called Thelamouw, 

pom} his manhod and * kny^tly excellence 

Come anon and maked resistence 

Of J>e Grekis, with many worj>i kny^t. 

And po * of newe be-gan J?e mortal fi$t 

A-twen Troyens and )?e Grekis stoute, 

])& rede blood raylyng al aboute 

Vp-on ]?e pleyn, so hydous[ly] pei blede ; 

And here & J?ere, bo)>e in lengpe & brede, 

Ded & maymed, and ful pale of sijt, 

Vp-on ]>e soyle lay many noble * kny^t, 

Atwixen hem so cruel was ]?e hate : 

For in her fi^t * to-gidre )>ei debate 

As wylde boris, evene so )>ei fare, 

For non of hem list o)>er for to spare. 

And in Ipe felde worpi Thelamou?i 

J^oru^ his kny^thod & his hi^e renou/i 

So manly bare hym Grekis to diffende, 

})at no man my^t in * manhod him amende, 

]?oru3 al ]?e worlde Jjou^ men had [de] sou^t ; 

For he ]?at day in his pe?*son hath wrou^t 

Merueille in armys, J?oru3 his gret[e] my^t, 

))at, in sothnes, Grekis anoon ri^t 

Wit/i-outen hym hadde finally be shent, 

And her shippes attonys lost & brent, 

Jjoru^ ]?e pw?*sut of Paris ])ilke day, 

And worpi Troylus, ]>at made swiche affray 

Amonge[s] hem foruj his hi^e prowes, 

1411. alle po pleynly] pleynly alle )x> C pleynly] om. D 1. 
1413. wallis] walle A, wal D 2. 1416. y-called] called D 1. 
1417. and] and his C. 1418. Come] Home D 2. 
1420. >o] so C. 1421. A-twen] Bitwene D 1. 
1422. raylyng] re?mynge D 1. 

1426. many] many a D 1 noble] worj>i C. 

1427. Atwixen] Bitwene D 1. 1428. fijt] sijt C. 

1430. for to] om. A. 1434. in] in his C. 1435. men] me D 2. 
1439. hadde finally] finally had D 1. 1441. jrarsut] swte D 1. 

1412 The Greek 
ships would 
have been 

and all de- 

1416 but tor Ajax 
3 Telamonius, 

who rallies 
tlie Greeks, 





defends them, 

1436 and does 
wonders in 


606 The Trojans triumph. Prince Heber reproaches Achilles. [BK.IV 

The Trojans 
win the day. 

50 Greek j^at fifty shippes, Guydo doth expresse, 1444 

ships are lost. 

Wer lost & brent or pat Thelamoura 

To reskuse cam with his kny^tes dou?^ 

Vn-to pe se, pe remenaurct for to save. 

But for al pat, Troyens fat day haue 1448 

]5e hi^er hond of ])is mortal fi$t, 

pom} pe force and pe grete my^t 

Of Troylws only, whiche hath so many slayn 

Of pe Grekis, in sop, pat J>ei were fayn 1452 

Hem to withdraw, and pe felde to lete, 

For in abidyng pei fond ful vnswete. 

Howe pe Kynge of Trace kam to pe tente of Achile, 
and exortyd hym to take the felde. 1 

Wherfore,* pel gan for to lese her place, [leaf loca] 

Amonge whiche pe kynges sone of T?'ace, 1456 

j)at Heber hi^te, wouwded to ]>e deth, 

}5at he my^t vnnepe drawe liis breth, 

"With a spere in his brest stikynge, 

To Acliilles he cam in compleynyng 1460 

Vn-to his tent, euene pere he lay, 

Whiche in pe feld was nat al ]?at day 

For the sake only of Polycene, 

})e love of whom was so sharpe & kene, 1464 

Ay at his hert, y-liche grene and newe. 

To whom Heber, with a mortal hewe, 

Compleyneth sore, arettynge cowardyse, 

And in rnanhod a verray trowandyse, 1468 

])B,t he pat day my^tfe] so for shame ! 

W^t/idrawen him, in hyndering of his name, 

Out of J>e feld, to hy??^ ful gret repref, 

Of }>e Grekys seyng pe meschef 1472 

pat pei wern In, and confusiourc, 

Y])-on pe brinke of her perdicioutt 

Heber, the 
wounded son 
of the King 
of Thrace, 

comes to 

and re- 
proaches him 

for not help- 
ing the 

who are on 
the brink of 

1451. only] om. D 1. 1455. Wherfore] perfore C. 
1459. his] om. D 1. 1462. nat] nas A. 
1464. was so sharpe] so sharpe was D 1. 
1468. trowandyse] trewandyse A, truandise D 2. 
1471. ful]omt)l. 

1474. perdiciovm] confusiou?i A, D 2, distrucciovw D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 104 6 (misplaced after line 1460). 

BK. iv] Heber dies. Achilles is told of the Defeat of the G-reeks. 607 

Abrod pe feld to sen hem so lye dede, 
And list not onys for to taken hede 
Of his kny^thod Grekis to releue. 
And while Heber gan hym pus repreve, 
And ]>e spere whiche in his body was 
Al sodeynly was drawen oute ; alias ! 
With eye * vp-cast in rancour and in Ire, 
Ful pitously Heber dide expire 
In pe presence of pis Achilles. 
And per-wztA cam in a sodeyn res 
In-to his tent a certeyn kny^t of his, 
Of whom Achilles axep how it is 
Amonge Grekis, & clerly how it stood. 
And he answered, ful Irous in his mood : 
" Certis," quod he, " ful vnhappily ; 
For pei of Troye han so cruelly 
Oure Grekis alle pis day in her fi^t 
Ful shamefully put vn-to pe fli^t, 
So many slayn alias & wellawaye ! 
J)at vnnepe noon ne went away 
Vn-hurt-maymed, or w it/? -oute wouwde, 
So fel on vs Troyens were y-fouwde. 
And of hem eke was swiche a multitude, 
))at I suppose, shortly to conclude, 
})is day per nas, to myn oppiniouw, 
Nat left a man w/t/i-Inne Troye tourc 
))at able was to stonden in bataille, 
With spere or swerd his enmy to assaille, 
I wene, in soth, but pei comen oute 
With vs to ti^t, per was so huge a route 
)5at we ne my^t of force take on honde 
In pe feld ageyn[e]s hem to stoude. 
But now, my lord, it drawep vn-to nyjt, 
}pat pei be feynt any more to fi^t, 
3 if it were plesyng to $our worpines, 
To 30111 manhod & $oure hi^e noblesse 





The spear 
paid from 


and he dies 
in Achilles's 

Achilles is 

how the 
Trojans put 

1492 the Greeks 
to flight. 



[leaf 105 c] 1504 


They were so 

that the 
stand against 

1475. so] om. A. 1481. eye] eyen C. 1494. ne] cm. D 2. 
1499. nas] was A, D 1 to] in A. 

1506. to] om. D 2 stoude] with stonde A, wi> stonde D 2. 
1509. to] vnto D 2. 

608 Achilles is unmovd "by Entreaty. He is in love. [BK. iv 

Achilles is 
appeald to, 

for Glory's 

to arm and 

conquer the 

But he takes 
no heed of it; 

it goes thru 
his ears like 
a sound. 

Honour and 

Love can lay 

To take on ^ou to ^oure encres of fame, 

For euere-more to $ete 3011 a name, 1512 

And J>er-wz't/z-al for 300 re owne glorie, 

Perpetuelly to ben in memorie, 

To rysen vp and arme $ow anoon, 

And sodeinly [vp-]on hem to goon, 1516 

Feble and weyke to make resistence 

Ageyn ^QUTQ manly famous excellence, 

Jper wer no more, but we wer victours 

For euere-more, and verray conquerours, 1520 

Durynge ]?e world to ben in remembrance, 

And )>ei for euere brou^t vn-to outra[u]nce 

In sothfastnes, I haue of hit no drede." 

But Achilles toke of hym noon hede, 1524 

Nor to Heber J>at lay aforn hym ded, 

Ful colde and starke, of colow like to led, 

NOT onys list to $eve hym audience, 

Nor vn-to hym han his aduertence 1528 

fter may no word in his hert[e] myne 

To )>at he seide to maken him enclyne : 

For, outerly, evene like he ferde, 

As Jjou^e he no maner worde ne herde ; 1532 

For )>oru3 his eris it passed as a soiw. 

Lo, here be maner and condiciouw, 

\)e verray custom & be pleyn vsau^ce 

Of ])is loveris, hangyng in a trance : 1536 

Honour, worship, manhod, & prowes, 

Strengbe, myjt, fame, and hardines, 

Encres of name, vertu, and victorie,* 

Kny^thod, noblesse,* and in armys glorie * 1540 

Alle bese can Lone leyn a-syde : 

Swiche is be my^t of ]je god Cupide, 

Whiche hertis hi^e vfith his hok * can sese 

1511. of] & D 2. 1513. >er-witfc-al] ther with D 1. 

1514. ben] be put A. 1518. famous] and fanms D 1. 

1519. victoura] victoryous A. 

1529. herte] breste A myne] fyne D 1. 

1532 is omitted in D 1. 1533. For >oru$] As >ou3 D 1. 

1539. victorie] glorie C. 

1540. noblesse] noblesses C glorie] victorie C. 

1541. Loue] loue in sothe D 1. 

1543. hertis] om. D 2 hok] hokis C, look D 1. 

Achilles fears to offend Polyxena. Deiphobus is near Death. 609 

So loth j>ei arne, pleynly, to displese 

Ouper in cher or in contenauwce, 

In wil or dede or disobeisaunce 

To hir J>at is her souereyn lady dere. 

For, with a loke of hir eyen clere, 

She can ful wel daiwte[n] al her pride : 

For Venus sone so felly can * prouyde 

His arvvys kene to perce nerf & veyne, 

And hem enlacen in his firy cheyne, 

J3at only jjoru^ his importable charge [leaf ioed] 

)3ei ben restreyned for to gon at large ; 

Whiche cause was j)is day, dout[e]les, 

ftat }>is noble hardy Achilles 

Wolde nat, w^tA-outen any wene, 

Come in fe feld, for drede of Polycene, 

List J)at she were offendid in hir herte 

3if any ping eskaped or asterte 

Jpis Achilles, poru} mysgoue?'naii7ice. 

And whiles he henge Jws in balauwce, 

])Q Grekis fau^t with hem of J>e toiw 

Til bri^t Phebws was at goynge dou7^, 

)}at Troyens, of necessite, 

For lak of Iy3t entre )>e cyte. 

And while ]>at )?ei homward be repeired, 

Lay Dephebw^ 1 , of his lyf dispeired, 

Compleynynge ay on his dedly wouwde. 

And whan Paris & Troyl?^ han hym foimde 

In ]?at meschef) J)ei gan wepe & crye, 

As Jjei wolde for verray roupe dye, 

"With woful noyse and with pitous soun : 

}?e saltfe] teris gan to renne doun 

On her chekis vp-on ouj>er syde ; 

And whiles pei vppon hym abide, 

J)is * wounded man gan drawe to his ende, 

1544 Lovers are 
loth to dis- 
please their 




won't take 
1556 the field for 

fear of 






Paris and 
Troilus weep 
for the 
1572 Deiphobus. 


1547] In wille or speche to his souereyn lady dere D 1. 

1549. her] ]>e D 2. 

1550. so felly can] can so felly C can] gan D 1. 

1551. arwys] arwe A. 1558. feld] feerde D 1. 

1562. henge Jras] bus henge D 1. 1564. Phebws] beemes D 1. 
1571. >at] the A. 1573. 2nd vriih'] om. D 1. 
1574. douTi] a doun D 1. 1575. On] Vppon D 1. 
1577. pis] pe C. 

610 Deiphdbus dies. Royal funerals for him and Sarpedon. [BK. IV 

When Dei- 


knows that 

Paris has 

slain Palam- 


lie has his 


pluckt out, 

and dies. 

All Trojans 
weep for him. 

Priam gives 
royal funerals 
to Deiphobus 
and Sarpe- 

and the 
Greeks make 
a rich tomb 
for Palam- 

Whos spirit was redy for to wende 

Out of his brest, & his wery gost, 

Ful hastely in-to an o]?er coste, 1580 

With dedly eyen turned vp-so-doiw. 

Whan J>at he knewe by relacioiw 

))at Paris hath Pallamydes y-slawe, 

Anoon he bad ])at J>ei shulde out drawe 1584 

jpe large tronchoim with * j?e stelen hed ; 

And per-w/t/fc-al anoon he fil douw ded. 

And with j>e cors J?ei gan hem fastfe] spede 

Toward J>e toun : but for it is no nede 1588 

])e dool to write and lamentaciouw 

Jjat maked was for hym and Sarpedoun 

Jtorii^ J>e cite, &, namly, of J)e king 

And of e quene, euere in on wepynge, 1592 

Of his brepren and his sustres dere, 

It were but veyne to rehersen here. 

How Prianvws burede Dephebws and Sarpedone, and 
howe the Grekes choyes Agamenow Emperowre. 1 

But Priam hath with gret[e] dilligence 

Twey tombes made, of royal excellence, 1596 

For Dephebus and kyng Sarpedouri, 

With many ymage graven invirouw, 

And many knotte korven here & Bonder, 

And buried hem but a litel assouwder, 1600 

Lyke J>e custom of her rites olde. 

And whiles Jjei j>e f este halwe & holde [leaf 107 o] 

)?at called is )>e feste funeral, 

J3e Grekis han do made in special 1604 

A riche tombe to J>e wor)>i kyng 

Pallamydes, and for his buriyng 

Solempnely maked ordynau^ce 

Amonges hem, as it was vsauwce ; 1608 

And with gret dool & pitous heuynes 

1585. large] longe D 2 with] & C. 
1594. here] it here D 1. 1595. new IT D 1. 
1598. many] many an D 1. 1599. many] many a D 1. 
1600. litel] lite A, lyte D 2. 1608. Amonges] Amonge D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 105 a. 

Agamemnon re-elected Emperor. Troilus routs the Greeks. 611 

Jpei han fis kyng of gret worj>ines 

Bially brou^t to his sepulture. 

And for J?ei my^t longe nat endure 1612 

With-oute an lied and a gouernour, 

ftei chosen han to her Emperour, The Greeks 

-r> i . choose Aga- 

By on assent and affecciourc, memnon as 

. Emperor. 

J3e worjn kyng, wyse Agamenoura. 1616 

And after [fat] fei made no lettynge, 

J?ei of Troye ]?e nexte day suynge, 

With her wardis in-to ]>e feld to goon, 

Fully purposed to fijtfe] with her foon ; . 1620 

And Grekis manly in J>e face hem mette. 

But worjji Troylus so hem ouersette, TroUus 

)3at Greke was noon, shortly for to telle, 

ftilke day a-forn hym myjtfe] dwelle, 1624 

So cruelly he gan hem for to chase : 

For where he cam or rode in any place, 

Jpei fled his swerd, of her lif in doute, 

His ^onge kny^tes rydynge hym aboute, 1628 

Swyche as he was vsant for to lede ; 

And euere in oon ]>e Grekis blod )>ei shede, siay Greeks 

Whiche lyke a streme disteyned al fe pleyn. 

And al pis while was so huge a reyne, 1632 amidst rain 

and mist, 

pe same day, and so huge a myst, 

ftat euery man hath his felawe myst, 

Specially vp-on }>e Grekis syde : 

Jjat for Jje storme and her wotmdes wide, 1636 

And for J>e manhod of J>is Troyan kny^t, 

Wor])i Troylus, so ^ong, so fresh e & ly$t, 

})ei were coact, poru^ his cruelte, 

Maugre her my^t, for drede of deth to fle 1640 and pursue 

To her tentis socour for to fynde, their tents. 

Troyens * ay pursuyng be-hynde 

Ful mortally, with a sterne pas ; 

But for ]>e storme fei cessen of )>e chas, 1644 

1617. new IF D 1 >at] om. D 2, D 1 ncl om. D 2. 
1619. ]>e] om. A, D 2 to] om. D 1. 
1622. hem ouersette] fersly on hem sette D I. 
1635. ]>e] om. D 1. 1638. &] so D 2. 

1642. Troyens] Troylus C ay pursuyng] pwrswyng ay faste D 1. 

612 Troilus slays Greeks. They get a Z-montlis Truce. [BK. IV 

Troilus slays 
Greeks till 


For 7 days be 

takes venge- 
ance on them, 

so that they 
get a 2- 
months' truce 
from Priam. 

sends mes- 
sengers to 

And home repeire to her cyte strong. 

Til on f e morwe, fat f e larke songe, 

j?at Troylus eft, most manly in bataille, 

Jpe Grekis new cast hyni for tassaille; 1648 

And Guydo writ, f is 3onge champiourc, 

J^ilke day as he rod vp and doim 

Amonge his foon, foru his hi^e renoun [leaf 107 6] 

Jtat fere nas kyng, duke, erle nor barons, 1652 

With his swerd, where-so fat he wende, 

))at of her lyf he made a mortal ende, 

Al f e while fat Phebws gaf his ly^t ; 

Til at fe laste fat it drowe to ny^t, 1656 

])at he to Troye repeireth manfully. 

And sevene dayes, suynge by and by, 

jjis lif he ladde, with his kny}tes felle, 

Vp-on Grekis, as Guydo can $ow telle; 1660 

Ay newe & newe he gan hem so confouwde, 

His cruel swerd was so kene grouwde, 

))at f ei ne my3t in his mortal tene 

Aforn his si$t abide nor sustene, 1664 

Nor f e vengauftce fat he on hem toke : 

For where he rod f e weye f ei forsoke, 

In his traas f e reugis were so rede 

Of hem, in soth, fat in fe feld lay dede. 1668 

For whiche slai^ter and confusioim, 

J)e Grekis newe sent[e] to f e tovw 

For a trew to Priamws f e kyng ; 

And he anoon graunted her axyng 1672 

For two monf es, fully be thassent 

Of alle f e lordis of his parlement. 

Wher-of f ei made ful relaciouft 

Thenbassatours to Agamenoiw ; 1676 

And to her loggyng after furf e f ei went. 

But how fat he vn-to Achilles sent 

)3e mene while his messageris wyse, 

So as I can, I shal anoon deuyse. 1680 

1646. larke] large D 1. 1647. manly] ma?iful D 1. 
1648. for] om. D 2. 1664. his] om. D 1. 
1667. traas] traces D 1. 1670. to] vn to D 1. 
1671. trew] trews A. 1676. to] of A. 
1680. I shal anoon] anoon I shall D 1. 

BK. iv] Agamemnon sends to Achilles. Ulysses s speech to Mm. 61 3 

Achilles kept his Tent, and in no wyes wolde fight 
agayns pe Troians, for pe love of Polycene ; for 
the which, Agamenora, with pe princes of Grece, 
kam to viset hym in his tent. 1 

AGamenouw, as Guydo list endyte, 
His lordis sent Achilles to visite 
For certeyn causes, like as ^e shal here, 
Whiche in }>e story be rehersid here. 
And with Vlixes and worpi Diomede, 
Duke Nestor went, pleynly, as I rede, 
To fyn only, by her conseillynge 
In-to his hert pat pei my^t[e] bringe 
And induce hym to han a fantasie 
To be willy,* poru$ his chiualrie, 
"With hem to stonde as he hap do to-forn, 
)3at han so many of her men y-lorn 
For lake only of his [hi^e] presence. 
And Achilles with digne reuerence 
Reseyved hem, & with ri^t kny^tly chere. 
And after pat, whan pei wer set y-fere 
Like her degre anoon in audience, 
Wyse Ylixes, ful of elloquence, 
Gan his tale prudently deuyse, 
To Achilles seyinge in pis wyse : 






Ulysses, Dio- 
mede and 
Nestor to 

who receives 
them with 

[leaf 107 e] 1700 Ulysses says 

Vlixes taile to Achile. 2 

" Sir Achilles, most renomed of glorie, 

Jporu^-oute pe world to ben in memorie, 

And of kny^thod verray sours & welle, 

Displese it nat, now pat I shal telle 1 704 

To ^oure noble famous excellence, 

Nor to $QW eris late be * noon offence 

ftat I shal seyn, but of goodlyhede, 

1687. fyn] hym D 1. 1690. willy] wille C. 

1691. he hab do] J>ei have don D 1 to-forn] a forn D 2. 

1692. her] his A y-lorn] lorn D 2, D 1. 

1695. &] om. D 1 rijt] om. D 2. 1698. Wyse] With D 1. 
1701. new IT D 1. 1704. now] om. D 1 shal] shal to 3ow D 1. 
1705. noble] noble & D 1. 1706. be] it be C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 105 b. 
2 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 105 c, in red (margin). 


let not my 
words offend 

614 Ulysses s appeal to Achilles to help the Grreeks* [BK. IV 

"Take heed 
to what I say. 

At first, you 

agreed with 
us all that 
Troy must be 

But you now 
turn against 

and let us be 


and see our 
ships burnt, 

tho you slew 

Paciently J>at 30 wil take hede 1708. 

To my wordes, seide of hert and fou^t, 

I $ow ensure, for I feyne nou^t ; 

j}is to seyn, $if $e remembre wel, 

}3e first[e] cause and pwrpos euerydel 1712 

Of )>e Grekis }if $e haue mencioim 

Was fully set by oon entenciouw, 

As wel of 30 w as of vs, parde, 

Whan we cam firste to )>is cite, 1716 

Kynges, princes, I excepte noon, 

Of whiche, in soth, to rekne euerychon, 

3oure-silf[e] was, to speke in special, 

On of )>e first & most principal . 1720 

Assentid ful how Troye pe cite 

)3oru3 oure manhod distroied shuldfe] be 

Perpetuelly brou^t vn-to ruyne. 

But now of new, I not what doth enclyne 1724 

3oure worpines sodeinly to varie, 

An[d] to oure purpos for to be contrarie : 

Considerid first of ^ow ]>at ben so sage 

\)e wronges done & )>e gret damage 1728 

In Grekis lond of hem of fe touw, 

Conspirynge ay to oure distrucciouw 

3if 3^ aduerte wysly in ^oure fou^t 

)}at slay[e]n han and to an ende brou^t 1732 

Ful many worpi, sifen go ful ^ore, 

And f tresour, J>at no man may restore, 

Dispoiled vs, & brou^t in gret distresse, 

Oure goodes rau3t, oure gold & oure richesse, 1736 

Oure shippes brent, pom} her cruelte ! 

And to al J?is, alias, ^e list nat se, 

Now fat ]>ei ben (whiche may not be delaied) 

)5oru3 jour manhod finally outtraied, 1740 

Sith ^e han slayn her hope, her sufnsance, 

Hector, in whom was al her afiiauwce, 

Fully her trust and diffence also, 

1710. for] >at D 2. 1716. cam] come A, D 2, D 1. 
1721. ful] fully A. 1727. so] om. D 2, D 1. 
1732. ende] hende A. 1739. be] om. D 1. 
1741. 2nd her] and her A. 1743. and] and her D 1. 

BK. iv] Ulysseslegs Achilles Jbrkis Fame's sake, tohelp the Greeks. 615 
And Dephe'bus also is ago, 1744 "Deiphobus 

A 3 vi 1 i - -, tooiskild, 

And likly arn more to ben appaired 

Fro day to day, and finally dispeired, 

So frowardly Fortune on hem lowreth : a d Fortune 

frowns on the 

And now ^owre honour & $our fame floureth 1748 Tr J an s- 

In his worship, and $oure hi^e renoim [leaf 107 d] 

Atteyned hath the exaltacioiw But you are 

.,,...,_, on the top of 

And nicest pnkke of Fortunys whele, Fortune's 

It were gret wronge, and 36 loke wele, 1752 

Of wilfullnes for to ben vnkynde 

To hir ]>at 36 so frendly to 3011 fynde, 

Or to be froward while she is benygne, 

By influence graciously tassygne 1756 

Hir spokes meue vn-to ^oure plesauwce, and can turn 

And hap to -tourne with plente on* $our chauwce, please. 011 

After whos help $ou nedeb nat to calle. 

Wherfore, alias, whi wil 30 suffer passe 1760 why win you 

* i i ,, r suffer the loss 

5oure noble lame, of verray wilfulnes, of your fame? 

While it is hiest in his wor bines 1 

3oure kny3% prudence it shold not asteHe ! 

Of whiche bing euery gentil herte 1764 

Sholde haue roupe and compassiouw. We pray you 

Wherfore we praie, of discreciourc, ou?wwj 8 " 

J?at 36 3ou shape J?is purpos to amende, 

And ]>at 36 wolde of hertfe] condescende 1768 

With vs to stonde kny3tly in ))is werre, 

By 3owre manhod, ]>at is spoke of so ferre, 

feat 3our renouw to ]>e worldis ende so that your 

, , renown may 

Reported be, wher-so ]>at men wende, 1772 

Perpetuelly, by freshnes of hewe 

Day by day to encrese newe, and daily 

))at )>e triumphe of ))is hi3e victorie 

Be put in story and eke in memorie, 1776 

And so enprented, fat fo^etilnes 

]STo power haue by malis to oppresse 

1744. ago] y goo D 1. 1745. arn] bene D 1. 

1746. finally] finally be D 1. 1747. lowreth] frowne}> D 1. 

1748. jour] om. A. 1750. the] J>e vprest D 1. 

1754. so] nowe so D 1 to 3011] om. D 1. 1758. on] of C. 

1760. passe] to passe D 1. 1763. not] om. D 1. 

1775. hije] om. A, D 2. 


Ulysses ends his Appeal to Achilles for help. [BK. iv 

" You are 
clouding your 
fame by not 
aiding us. 

You see 
Greeks slain 
before your 

and heed 
them not ; 

you, who 
once were 
their cham- 

you, without 
whom we can 
do little. 

We pray you 
help us ! " 

3oure fame in kny^thod, dirken or difface, ',,- 

)3at shyneth $it so clere in many place 1780 

With-oute eclipsynge, sothly, pis no les 

Whiche to conserve * 36 be now rek[e]les, 

Of wilfulnes to cloude so J?e Iy3t 

Of $oure renoiw J?at whilom shon so bri^t, 1784 

3oure my^ty hond of ma?ihood to watMrawe. 

Considred first how Grekis arn y-slawe 

To-fore ^oure tent, with mortal woimdis wide, 

Jjoru^-oute }>e feld vp-on Query side, 1788 

And haue disdeyn, only for lak of rouj>e, 

Alias J>e while ! for a litel sloujje 

To leie to hond in her meschef at al, 

Jtat. whilom wern her stronge my^ty wal, 1792 

Her chef diffence and her champioim, 

Souereyn helpe and protecciou.%, 

For whom 36 han so ofte shad 30 we blood, 

Ageyn her foon with hem whan 36 stood, 1796 

Ful my3tely her enmyes to assaille, 

WitTi-oute whom pei litel may availle, [leaf ios a] 

In verray soth, ne noon of vs echon, 

But 36 of kny3thod list with vs to goon 1800 

Ageyn Troy ens as * 36 wer wont to do, 

As is oure trust and final hope also, 

J)at 36 shal helpe and oure socoure be. 

And her-vppon, we praie now* J?at 30 1804 

Seye 3 oure avis and 3oure fulle wille." 

The answer of feres Achile to the mocyown of wies 
Vlixes and othere princes of Grece. 1 

And fan anon, ]?e hardy ferse Achille, 

1782. conserve] considers C now] now to A. 

1783. cloude] conclude A. 1784. whilom] somtyme D 1. 
1786. arn y-slawe] ben slawe D 1. 1791. in] at D 1. 
1792. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 

1794. and] and eke D 1. 

1798. litel] lightly D 2. 1801. as] lik as C to] om. D 2. 
1802. final] oure D 1. 1804. now] how C. 
1806 is expanded into three lines in D 1, as follows : 
Whe]>er }e liste vs to save or spille 

And )>a7ine anoon Achilles ]>e hardy 
Hem answered sterne & boldely. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 106 a (misplaced after line 1808). 

Achilles answers Ulysses. The War was founded on Folly. 617 

Whanwe Vlixes concludid hadde his tale, 

With a face for anger ded and pale 1808 Achilles, pale 

with anger, 

Seide euene Jms, al openly and pleyn : says; 

" Sir Ylixes, $if so be as * $e seyn, "uiysses! 

And ban declared, in conclusion, 

feat oure pwpos and entenciouw 1812 

Was finally to brennen and distroye if we meant 

to burn Troy, 

feis royal cite )?at is called Troye, 

I holde, in soth, (me liketh nat to lye) 

feat oure entent was grounded on folye 1816 

To putte vs alle Jjoru^ indiscreciouw, 

Of rekleshed and basty mocyourc, 

Of lyfe and deth in swyche lupartye. 

And specially alle l>e cheualrye 1820 chivalry of 

Greece for a 

Of Grekis lond, for so smal a )>ing P altr y thin s- 

So many prince & many worjri kyng, 

feat ban iupartid ber body & her good, 

I-lost her lyf, and I-spent her blood, 1824 

Whiche my$t haue be?^ ful wel at home in pes. 

And is nat now ]>e kyng Pallamydes Sain mide8 is 

I-slawe also, as who seij) * but of newe, 

feat was so wis, so manly and so trewe, 1828 

Of whom }>e lyf was of more pris allone 5 h08e ,J ife 

fean ]>e cause for whiche fat we echone SSJour ** 

Be gadred here, who-so loke a-ri^t. cause; 

And of Grekis many a noble knyst 1832 and many 

noble Greeks 

feat baue be slayn, bo)>e of j?e wordiest, ar e wu. 

fee world to seke, and ]?e manly est : 

For oute of euery lond and region, 

On Grekis * party, & with hem of )>e tourc, 1836 

Of chiualrie and of kny^thod floure, 

To wywne in arrays worship & honour, 

1807. hadde] ha> D 1. 

1810. be] om. D 2 as] rijt as C, D 2, A. 

1813. finally] fully D 1 and] and to D 1. 

1816. on] vpoTi D 1. 1822. prince] Princes D 1. 

1823. good] bloode D 1. 1824. blood] goode D 1. 

1825. ful wel at home] at horn ful wel D 1. 

1827. sei>] seie C. 1830. Jxrt] om. D 1. 

1836. Grekis] >e grekis C with] om. D 1. 

1837. and of kny^thod] )>e verray souerayn D 2, D 1, & of 
knyghthood the verray souereyn A. 

618 Achilles refuses to risk his Life again in the War. [BK. IV 

" More must 
die if the war 

Perhaps all 
gentle blood 
will perish, 

and churls 
alone be 

Hector has 

and I might 
have gone 

But I will 
not risk my 
life further. 

Assemblid ben, and come fro so ferre, 
Of whiche, in soth, by dures of }>is werre 
Ful many oon in pe felde is ded ; 
And, verraily, wip-outen any dred, 
}2er * shal wel more $if J>e werre last : 
For every day J>e noumbre lasseth fast 
Of worjri kny^tes, ded w^t/i-oute roupe, 
)}at I dar seyn & conclude of troupe, 
In Jns rage, furious and wood, 
Ful likly is j>at al pe gentil blood 
Jporu^-out }>e world shal distroied be ; 
And rual folke and pat wer gret pite 
Shal han lordshipe & holy goumiauwce, 
And cherles eke, with sorwe & meschauwce, 
In euery lond shal lordis ben allone, 
When gentil-men slay[e]n bene echone. 
Is nat Hector, J>at was so noble a kny^t, 
J2at was pis worldis verray so?zne & li^t, 
Of manhood flour, slay[e]n pitously 
In ])is werre? in soth, and so my^t I, 
Par auenture, whiche may nat atteyne 
To his noblesse, }if I shal nat feyne. 
For be what way shal we ]>e deth eschewe, 
With al oure my^t }if Ave it purswe 
Fro day to day while fat we lyn here 1 
frerfore, shortly, me for to requere, 
Touching )>e werre, ouj>er for to praye, 
Is but [in] veyn. & herkeue what I seye : 
I nat purpose in pis werre or strif 
For to iuparte any more my lif, 
For leuer I haue bat palled be my name 
j)an to be slayn, & han an Idel fame ; 
For worpines, after deth I-blowe, 

[leaf 108 6] 









1840. dures] diuersite D 1. 1843. per] f>ei C. 

1846. of] for a D 1. 1847. furious] so furious D 1. 

1849. f>oru$-out] Thoru} Jns D 1 shal distroied] distroied shal 

1851. holy] hooly be D 1. 1852. cherles] clerkes D 1. 
1856. &] om. D 1. 1858. in soth and so] and sothly so D 1. 
1862. it] be deth D 1. 1864. for] om. D 1. 
1867. or] of D 2. 

BK.IV] Achilles urges the Greeks to make Peace with the Trojans. 619 

Is but a wynde, & lasteth but a prowe ; 

For pou3 renoiw & pris be blowe wyde, 

For^etilnes leith it ofte a-syde 

By lengpe of ^eris and obliuiouw, 

J?oru3 en vie and fals colluciouw. 1876 

)pe laude of kny^thod & of worpines, 

Of wysdam eke, & of gentilnes, 

Fredam, bouwte, vertu, & swiche grace, 

For^etilnes can dirken and difface ; 

And, J>er-wit/i-al, malys and envie 

I-serid hath pe palme of chiualrie 

By fals report. Wherfore, I seie, for me, 

I wil of wisdam swiche foly lete be, 

And in quiete forpe my lyf now lede ; 

And ouer pis, to 3011 }>re I rede 

To seke pes with Troyens ^if $e may, 

In hasty wyse, wi)>-oute more delay. 1888 

}?is is my conseil, platly, to ^ow alle, 

Or pat meschef of deth vp-on $ow falle ; 

It were wel don pat 30 token liede, 

Bope Vlixes and pou Dyomede, 1892 

And Nestor eke, sipen 36 be wyse, 

To werke, pleynly, lyke as I deuyse. 

j?is is pe somme & fyn of myn entent, 

And so reportep to hym pat hap 3011 sent." [leafiosc] 1896 

And pei anoon, with short conclusions, 

Repeired ben to Agamenouw 

With swiche answer as 36 han herd me seyw, 

It nedeth nat to write it new ageyn. 1900 

And her-vppon kyng Agamenou?z 

Lete make anoon a convocaciouw 

Of his lordis ; &, in her presence, 

Fro point to point, sothly, in sentence 1904 

He hath reheresed how pat Achilles 

Was desirous for to han a pes 

1872 "Fame is but 
a wind, 

and is soon 

1880 Oblivion 

darkens it: 
malice sears 

For me, I 
will lead my 
1884 life in peace; 

and I advise 
you to make 
peace with 
the Trojans. 

That is my 

Ulysses and 
his fellows 
report this 
to Agamem- 

who calls a 
Council of the 
Greek lords. 

1876. envie] emnyte D 1. 

1881. J>er-wtU-al] other with all D 2. 1884. lete] lat D 2. 

1890. of] or D 1. 1892. >ou] ?e D 1. 

^893. And] om. D 1 be] be so D 1. 1896. hym] $ow D 1. 

1897. new IF D 1. 1898. to] vn to D 1. 

620 Menelaus declares the Greeks can win without Achilles. [BK. iv 

As Achilles 
won't fi^rht 
against Troy, 

what is to be 
done ? 


"I'll never 
consent to 
make peace. 

Hector and 
the best Tro- 
jans, are 

and tho 
won't help 

we can win 



Ulysses and 

Nestor deny 

They say : 
Of course 
won't consent 
to peace, 

With hem of Troye, and platly how ]>at he 

For no praier \vil in no degre 1908 

Ageyn Troyens, with spere no[r] with shelde, 

In helpe of Grekis ben arm yd in )>e feld. 

Wherfore, J?e kyng, as he ]>at was ful wys, 

Her-vppon axed her avys, 1912 

And what hem Jjou^te was best for to do 

In }>is mater, sij?en it stood so. 

And first of alle speke]) Menelay, 

With angry chere, & seyde, platly, nay, 1916 

To han a pes it was nat his entent, 

Ne fat he wolde per-to be of assent, 

SiJ>en ]>e cite, in conclusion, 

Stood on ]?e prikke of his distruccioiw, 1920 

Now fat Hector & Dephebws were dede 

)5at whilom wern her trust \n euery nede 

And her diffence ; but now f ei arn a-goo 

Fare wel her trust & her hope also, 1924 

With-oute more, and al her olde pride, 

J3ei may nat now but after def abide : 

" And trustej? wel, wzt/i-oute[n] any les, 

)>ou3 it so be fat fis Achilles 1928 

Ne helpe vs nat toward oure emprise, 

We dar nat drede, in no maner wyse, 

With-outen hym [for] to han victorie 

By oure manhood & oure owne glorie, 1932 

I am ful sure her-of and certeyn." 

But Ylixes gan replie ageyn ; 

Nestor also, of sodeyn mociouw, 

Contrarie was to his oppiniourc, 1936 

Affermynge, platly, J?at no wonder was 

\)ou$ Menelay, sothly, in }>is cas 

Vn-to [)?e] pes wolde nat assent ; 

For* openly pei wiste what he ment, 1940 

1908. wil] wolde D 1. 1912. axed] axed openly D 1. 

1913. And] In D 1. 1920. on] of D 1. 

1921. new IF A were] bene D 1. 

1923. arn] ben D 1. 

1930. dar] thar A, D 2. 1934. gan] gan to D 1. 

1937. bat] >ou3 D 1. 1938. 0113] That D 1. 

1940. For] Ful C. 

BK. iv] Ulysses & Nestor oppose Menelaus. who causd the War. 621 

For he was grouwde & rote of al J>e werre 
And cause also pel comen were * so ferre 
Oute of her lond, he & }>e quene Eleyne. 
And for J?e sake only of hem tweyne, 
j)e Grekis alle, whiche no man may denye, 
Her lyves putte in swiche lupartye, 
For hym & hir, y.i )?e groiwde he sou3t ; 
For wel J?ei wiste Jjat he rou3t[e] nou^t, 
J)is Menelay, what wo )>ei endure, 
So he his wyf my^t ageyn recure. 
And wher he sei)> jjat Hector is ded, 
He hath an eyr, to speke of manlihed * 
And of kny^thod, as it wil be fonde, 
And called is Hector }>e secouwde, 
Worjji Troylus, whiche pat is his broker ; 
In al this world is not swiche. anojjer 
Of worjjines, for to reknen al : 
For he of Troye is J>e my^ti wal 
And diffence, now Hector is [a-]goon ; 
3e knowen it wel $oure silven euerychon, 
3if it so be Jjat 36 list take hede, 
Whos sharp [e] swerde sore doth vs blede 
Euery day in his furious hete, 
Amyd Jje feld whan we with him * mete. 
And in stede of worpi Dephebus, 
Whiche in his tyme was wonderly famw-s, 
His broker Paris is now foiwde at al 
In worjnnes of kny^thod perigal, 
So J>at of hem we han non avanwtage 
In-to )>is hour, but raper gret damage, 
To reknen al, sipen we be-gonne : 
)5is verray soth, we haue but litel wowne, 
But we ar lykly alwey more to lese 
3if we contune ; but si]>e we may chese, 


for he, Mene- 
laus, and his 

wife Helen 
were the sole 
cause of the 

[leaf 108 rt] 

1948 the source of 
all the Greek 






and tho Hec- 
tor is dead, 

a 2nd Hector, 

slays Greeks 

and instead 
of Deiphobus, 

Paris fights. 

1972 The Greeks 
have won 

and are likely 
to win less. 

1941. grounde & rote] Rote & ground D 2, roote & groiwde 
D 1 be] bis D 1. 

1942. were] was C. 1952. manlihed] manhed C, A. 
1953. wil be] is wel D 1. 

1960. knowen] knewew D 2 it] om. D 2. 

1964. we wit/i him] he witfc vs C. 1965. in] in be D 1. 

1973. we] om. A ar] bene D 1. 

622 The Trojan traitor Calchas urges the Greeks to persevere. [BK. iv 

the Trojan 

urges the 
Greeks not to 
change their 

against the 
will of the 

Troy must be 

Victory is 

if the Greeks 


It wer holsom to lyven in quiete, 
To ban a pes, and pis werre lete, 
By oon assent, sijjen 30 be wyse." 


Howe the Grekes had broke ther sege, ne had J)e 
exortacyon ybe of ]>e Troy an traytcwr Calchas. 1 

And with J>at word, Calcbas gan to rise, 
fie Troyan traytar, with a pale chere 
For verray Ire, & seide as 36 sbal here : 
"A, worjn princes, what finke 36 to done, 
To cliaimge so, lyk as doth ]?e mone, 
^oure olde purpos & 3 our first en tent, 
Ageyn J?e wil and comaurcdement 
Of )>e goddis, J>at euery Jring gouerne 
By purviauwce, who-so can discerne. 
Alias, alias, whi nyl $e'at J)e leste 
Credence and feitb ^even to her heste, 
Whiche in no wyse may nat be fallible : 
For, in soth, it wer an impossible, 
utterly, but Troye }>e cite 
Of ordinance and necessite, 
Mut be distroied hen[ne]s but a lyte, 
3if ^oure sloujje be it nat to wyte, 
So }>at victorie, worship,* and honour, 
And final palme eke of J?is labour, 
To be reported on water & on lond, 
Reserued ben hooly to ^oure bond, 
In ^oure purpos $if $e forjje con tune, 
And hindre nat of foly ^oure fortune. 
)3is is in soth, I dar it wel conclude, 
And perilous is ]>e goddis to illude 
Of necligence or slouj?e wilfully. 
Wherfore, I rede )>at now manfully, 
Of herte & Jjou^t, & of ful vnite, 

[leaf 109 a] 








1979. new IT A. 1981. new H D 1 A] D 1. 

1983. olde] firste D 1 first] olde D 1. 1987. leste] lette D 1. 

1995. victorie worship] worship victorie C. 

1996. eke] oon. D 2. 1998. 3oure] oure D 1. 
1999. contune] fortune D 1. 2001. is] om. A, D 2. 
2004 is omitted in A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 106 A (misplaced after line 1978). 

BK. iv] Calchas persuadesthe Greeks to fight. Troilus attacks em. 623 

Flatly deuoidynge al ambyguyte, 

To sette vppon, & kny^tly to reswnie 

3oure force ageyn, fully to conswme 

3oure cruel foon ; & late be shet with-oute 

Wanhope & drede, dispeir & euery doute, 

Castynge of peril, sloujje & cowardyse ; 

And lete manhod outterly dispise 

Al drede of deth, pat cause]) hertis feinte 

With cowardyse for to bew atteynte, 

feat finally, as goddis han be-hi^t 

feoru^ prescience of her eternal my^t, 

To victorie J>at $e shal atteyne 

Lyke $oure desyre, per is no more to seyne." 

And whan Calchas, in conclusiou/z, 

feis fals[e] tray tour vn-to Troye tou?z, 

fee Grekis had poru^ his wordis faire, 

Touching }>e werre, put out of dispaire, 

Of hert al oon [J^ei] caste hem to fulfille 

Hooly his couwseil, pou^ so be fat Achille 

Be froward [ay] to helpe hem in her nede 

feei yd no force, & toke of it now hede ; 

But euerychon pei hem redy make, 

As $e shal here, pe feld in hast to take. 

2008 Calchas urges 
the Greeks 
to give up 


and dread of 
death ; 

victory is 
certain for 




They resolve 
to fight on, 
2024 and pay no 
heed to 


Aftir the trewes, the Troyans and pe Grekes resumede 
the felde, in pe which the Grekis might not 
susteyne against pe swerde of Troylus; for ]>e 
which Agamenon sent for a trewe of vj monethes. 1 

The trew[e]s passid of j?e mo7i)>es tweyne, 
In-to J?e feld fe Grekis hem ordeyne ; 
And J>ei of Troye ageyn he??^ issen oute. 
And worfi Troylus with an huge route 2032 

fee Grekis gan alderfirst assaille ; 
And with his swerd he made first to raile 
fee rede blod Jjoruj her harnes bri^t, 
feat as j>e deth )>ei fled[de] fro his si$t : 2036 

2016. my3t] si3t D 1. 2017. 30] he D 2. 
2024. so be Jt] ]>at so D 1 be] om. A, D 2. 
2027, 28 are omitted in D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 107 a. 

They take the 

Troilus at- 
tacks em, 
and they flee. 

624 Troilus slays 1000 Greek knights, & unhorses Diomede. [BK. iv 

To avenge 



Troilus slays 
1000 Greek 

and puts the 
rest to flight. 

Next day 

kills Trojans 
till Troilus 


and he is 



off the field. 

For he J>at day Jjoru^ his cruelte 

Cast hym fully avenged for to be 

Vp-on J?e deth of Hector, outterly. 

And as Dares reherseth specially, 2040 

A pousand kny^tes J>is Troyarc champiouw 

J?at day hath slayn, ridyng vp & dovw, 

As myn auctor, Guy do, list endite [leaf 109 &] 

Saue after hym I can no ferfer write, 2044 

In his boke he ^eveth him swiche a name 

j?at by his manhod & his kuy^tly fame 

\>Q Grekis alle wer put vn-to J?e fi^t 

Al Jnlke day, til it drowe to ny^t. 2048 

And on the morwe in fe daw[en]ynge, 

})Q Grekis han, at Phebws vp-rysynge, 

I-armed hem with gret dilligence, 

Ageyn Troyens to stonden at diffence. 2052 

Amonges whom )>at day, as I rede, 

So wel hym bar worjri Diomede, 

J)at many Troyan Jjoru^ his cruelte 

Hath loste his lyf, til Troilus gan to se 2056 

J}is Diomede in )>e feld ridyng, 

To whom anoon, wet/t-oute more lettyng,* 

With his spere jjrowe * in-to J)e reste, 

J^is Troilus rod, & hit hym oon the breste 2060 

So my^tely, fat of verray nede 

Dou??, of his hors he smet Dyomede, 

Al-be of wouwde he had[de] no damage. 

And furiously Troilus in his rage, 2064 

Of envie gan hym to abreide, 

Whan he was douw, J>e love of Cryseide, 

Of his deceit and his trecherie. 

And Grekis pan fast[e] gan hem hye, 2068 

Amonge the hors in meschef where he lay, 

To drawe him oute in al ]?e hast pel may ; 

And on a sheld, brosed & affraied, 

)5ei bare hiw horn, so he was dismaied 2072 

2047. 2nd >e] om. D 2, D 1. 2058. lettyng] tariyng C. 

2059. >rowe] >rewe C in-to] in D 1. 

2060. rod] om. D 1. 

2070. To drawe] And drowe D 1 oute] om. D 1 J>ei] he D 1. 

BK. iv] Troilus unhorses loth Menelaus and Agamemnon. 625 

Of fe stroke, home vn-to his tent. 
And Menelay )>e same while haj? hent 
A my3ty * spere tavenge Dyomede, 
And to Troilus fast[e] gan hym spede, 
Fully avysed to vnhorsen hym anon. 
But Troylus first made his stede goon 
So swyfte a course toward Menelay, 
J)at he anoon at ]>e erpe lay, 
So my^tely he hit hyw with his spere, 
ftat shelde & plate my^tfe] hym nat were, 
To sauen hym from a mortal wouwde. 
But his kny^tes, anon as pei him fouwde, 
Oute of )>e pres whaw pei had* hym rent, 
)5ei bar hym horn to his owne tent, 
e Grekis ay stondyng in distresse 

)>e* kny^thod & J>e* hi3e prowes 





2080 butisun- 

horst by him, 

2084 and carried 
away by 


Of J)is Troylus, whiche ha}> hem so beleyn, 

On Query part, where he rod on )>e pleyn, 

Til vn-to tyme ]>at Agamenou?i 

In-to fe felde is avaled douw [leaf 109 c] 

With many wor)>i abouten his baner, 

ftat shon ful shene ageyn Jje sowne cler. 

And vrith his kny^tes [hym] ridyng environs 

He sore enchased hem of Troye touw, 

Wouwdeth & sleth & put hem to pe fli3t, 

Hym silfe aquytynge lik a manly kny^t ; 

But for al J>at, wit^-oute more abood, 

Amongis Troy ens fersely as he rood, 

jtis worfi kyng, grete Agamenou7^, 

With a spere Troylus smet hym doun 

Maugre his Grekis J)er* geine)? no socour. 

And whan pei sawe her lord, her gouernour 

2073. vri -to] to D 1. 

2075. my^ty] my^te C tavenge] to venge D 1. 

2080. be] om. D 1. 2081, 82 are transposed in D 2. 

2081. his] a D 2. 

2082. &] nor D 2, ne D 1. 2085. had] han C. 

2087. t>e] And so be D 1 ay] om. D 1 2088 >e] his C. 

2039. whiche] bat D 1. 2090. rod] lyth D 2. 

2091. vn-to] vn D 2 tyme] be tyme D 1. 

2095. hym]om. D 1. 

2098. aquytynge] quityrcge D 1 manly] manful D 1. 

2103. ber] bei C, bo D 1. 2104. 2nd her] and A. 






slays Trojans 

till Troilus 
smites him 

626 The Greeks get Q-months Truce. Cressid to visit Diomede. 

Seeing the 
injury Troilns 
does the 

In swyche meschef at pe grourcde lyende, 
}5ei hent hym vp, & made hym to ascende, 
ftoru} her manhod, on his stronge stede. 
And he of wyt gan to taken hede, 2108 

And consider wysly in his pou^t 
In what disioynt Troylus had hem* brou^t, 
And how his* Grekis, for al her gretfe] pride, 
To-forn his swerde my^tfe] nat abide 2112 

He prudently, of hi^e discreciouw, 
Agamemnon J}is noble kny^t, kyng Agamenoim, 
As he pat hadde ay his aduertence 

On gouernauwce, poru^ his prouidence, 2116 

Whan?ie he sawe his Grekis go?zne faille 
And wexe feble to stonden in bataille 
For lak of stuf pat shulde hem recouwforte, 
Ful prudently he made hem to resorte, 2120 

Eueryche of hem, to his owne tent. 
And after pat he hath to Priam sent 
For a trew, to Troye pe cite, 

For sixe monpes, 3 if it my^tfe] be. 2124 

And by his conseil, Priamws pe kyng, 
With-oute abood granted his axyng, 
Al-be pat so??zme, as Guyclo list endite, 
Were euel apaied so longe to respite 2128 

Her mortal fon, in any maner wyse ; 
But 3it his grauftt, as $e han herd deuise, 
Stood in his strengpe fully, as I rede. 

sends his men 
to their tents, 

and asks 
Priam for a 


which he 

Howe doubyle Cresseyd, agayns the wylle of here 
Fader, went to vyset Dyomede in his Tente. 1 

In which e tyme, of verray womanhede, 2132 

Cryseyde list no lenger for to tarie, 
hir fader wer per-to contrarie, 


Cressid re- 

solves to visit For to visite, and to han a sbt 

Diomede. , 

Of Diomede, pat was be-come hir kny^t 

2108. he] om. D 1. 2109. consider] considrid D 1. 
2110. hem] hym C, D 1. 2111. his] h e C. . 
2116. prouidence] prudence D 1. 2120. Ful] And D 2. 
2123. trew] trews A. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 107 c (misplaced after line 2134). 

BK. iv] As Cressid pities wounded Diomede, she gives up Troilus. 627 

Whiche had of Troylus late koi^t a wourcde. 

And in his tent wharcne she ha]? hym foimde, 

Benignely, vp-on his beddis syde 

She set hir douw, in j>e silve tyde, 

And platly cast in hir owne pou^t, [leaf 109 d] 

Touchinge Troylus, bat it was for iiou^t 

To lyue in hope of any more recure, 

And Jxn^t she wolde for no J>ing be vnsure 

Of puruyaurcce, nor watft-oute stoor : 

She $af anoon, w^'tA-outen any mor, 

Hooly hir herte vn-to Diomede. 

Loo ! what pite is in wommanhede, 

What mercy eke & benygne routhe 

pat newly can al her olde* trouthe, 

Of nature, late slyppe a-syde 

KaJ>er J>a?me )>ei shulde se abide 

Any man in meschef for hir sake ! 

])& change is nat so redy for to make 

In Lombard Strete of crowne nor doket 

Al paie is good, be so be prente be set : 

Her lettre of change doth no man abide ! 

So Jmt be wynde be redy and be tyde, 

Passage is ay, who-so list to passe ! 

No man is lost pat list to seke grace 

Daunger is noon but couwterfet disdeyn ; 

)}e se is calme and fro rokkis pleyn : 

For mercyles neuer man ne deide 

at sou$t[e] grace ! recorde of Cryseyde, 

Whiche finally hath ^oven al hir herte 

To Diomede in reles of his smerte, 

And praide hym to be ri^t glad & li^t, 

And called hym hir owne maw, hir kny^t, 

And hym behi^t, ra]>er J>an he deie, 

In euery fing how she wolde obeye, 

)}at were honest, hym to do plesauftee : 



Cressid sits 
on Diomede's 
bed, and, 

throwing over 

gives him her 

2148 for pity's 

2152 ashe'ssufferd 
for her. 

Not in Lom- 
bard St. 
could you 
change a 
2156 ^ ucat 80 soon 


2164 Cressid love* 


and promises 
to obey him. 

2150. olde] newe C. 
2153. man] om. D 1. 

2144. wolde] nolde D 1. 

2152. se] so D 2, se and A. 

2160. to] om. A, D 2. 

2168. called] callith A, D 1, calleb D 2 2nd hir] and A, & D 1. 

2171. hym] to hym D 2. 


628 Achilles agrees to let his Myrmidons help the Cheeks. [BK. IV 

Cressid would 
rather change 
her love than 
not pity 

Now I'll tell 
you how Aga- 

goes to 
and prays 
him to save 
the Greeks. 

Achilles still 

wants peace, 

but, for love 
of Agamem- 

agrees that 
his Myrmi- 
dons shall 

r fight with 
the Greeks, 

tho he still 

For leuere she had chaurage & variance 2172 

Were foimde in hir jmwne lak of pite, 

As sittyng is to femynyte, 

Of nature nat [to] be vengable, 

For feith nor o])e, but raper mercyable 2176 

Of marmys lyf stondyng in distresse. 

Her-of no more ; for now I wil me dresse 

To telle forjje in my translaciouw 

Ceriously how Agamenouw 2180 

Duryng J?e trewe & J?e tyme of pes 

Hym siluen went vn-to Achilles, 

Besechynge hym som rewarde to haue, 

Of his kny^thod Grekis for to saue, 2184 

And his presence no more to wz't/fdraw, 

To suffren hem so mortally be slawe 

Of her enmyes, pompos and elat. 

But Achilles, alweye indurat, 2188 

I-liche newe, bojje in herte & Jou^t, 

From his purpos platly chau?ige}> nou^t, [leaf no a] 

Fully enclyned for to han a pes. 

But for-as-moche as Jns Achilles 2192 

Of enternes and affecciou^ 

So lovynge was to Agamenouw, 

He vn-to hym grauwted at ]je leste 

A gret parcel touchinge his request : 2196 

J)is to seyn, J?at Jns Achilles 

Granteth to hym hys Mirundones, 

Ful kny^tly men, only in his absence 

"With [J?e] Grekis to make resistence 2200 

In ]>e felde ageyn hem of ]pe towi. 

For whiche grant, kyng Agamenourc 

And duke Nestor )>ankyd hym of herte. 

But he, alweye contunyng in his smerte 2204 

For J>e loue of feire Polycene, 

Ne knewe no geyn to his wourcdis grene, 

2173. of] or D 1. 2174. femynyte] femynynyte A, D 2. 

2176. o>e] deth D 1. 

2181. trewe] trews A trewe & >e tyme] tyme & ]>e trewe D 1. 

2185. his presence no more] no more his presence D 1. 

2193-97 are omitted inD 1. 

2198. Granteth] Graiwtid D 1. 

. iv] Achillas Myrmidons are routed by Troilus. 


But dispeired, languysshef euer in oon. 

And whan )>e trews passed wern & gon, 2208 

Vp-on a day, fe morwe, ful benygne, 

Achilles his kny^tes dide assigne 

])Q feld to take with Agamenou^ ; 

And, as fe story make)) mencioura, 2212 

He $af to hem bendys fresche of red, 

)3at men may knowe by her manlyhed 

With whom fei wern wM-holde in special. 

And lyke a man dedly and mortal, 2216 

In his tent Achilles abood, 

In-to f e feld from hym whan fei rood, 

Only for dool fei shuldfe] from him twyraie, 

In his absence a werre to be-gynne 2220 

Maugre his wille ageyn hem of f e toun ; 

But forf e fei went with Agamenourc 

Vp-on Troy ens, stern e and ful of pride. 

But with hem mette on fe to])er syde 2224 

fre manly kny^tes of Troyanyshe * blod, 

Whiche wern on hem so furious and wod, 

J3at cruelly f e Grekis fei oppresse, 

So J?at abak for fere fei gan hem dresse 

))ei wern on hem so inly fel & kene 

Til j)at fe duke fat lord was of Atthene 

Entrid in f e * Grekis to diffende. 

But vp-on hym, vnwarly, or he wende, 2232 

am my^ty Troylus lyk a wod lyouw, 

And from his stede anoon he bar him doura ; 

And, after fat, he put hym so in pres, 

Til he mette with Mirundones, 

And of hem slowe Ipat day ful many on. 

And so fer in Troylus is y-goon, 

J3at he Grekis putte outterly to fli^t [leaf no 6] 

J)oru3 his kny^thod, til hit drow to ny$t : 2240 

For from his swerd no ransourc rny^t hem borwe. 

And Guydo writ, fat on f e nexte morwe 

Ful mortal was f e slau^ter on owfer syde, 

2213. of] & D 1. 2225. Troyanyshe] >e Troyanyshe C. 

2226. so] om, D 1. 2227. >e] om. D. 1. 2231. >e] with C. 

2238. y-goon] goon A, D 1. 2239. he] he J?e D 1. 

Achilles bids 
his men join 
the other 

and gives em 
red bands. 

With Aga- 
they attack 
the Trojans, 

2228 who drive 
them back. 

Troilus un- 
horses the 
Duke of 

2236 slays many 

and puts the 
Greeks to 

630 Troiluss steed is Tcild, lut another is brought him. [BK. iv 

Tlioas is 
captured by 
tbe Trojans, 

but rescued 
by the 

who kill 

Paris helps 

to another 


is slain by the 

Amyd pe feld as pei to-gyder ryde, 2244 

Of manly kny^tes, pat wonder was to sene. 

And, as pei fau^t, pe kyng Philymene 

With helpe only of Pallydamas 

Taken hath pe worpi kyng Tlioas, 2248 

And gan hym lede toward Troye toiw ; 

But Mirundones on hym come doim 

"Wonder proudly, & after gan to swe, 

And poru} her my^t Thoas pei'reskwe, 2252 

And hym delyuere, for pel wer so stronge. 

But Troylus pan hurtled * hem amonge 

Furiously, lyke a champioim, 

Now her, now per, cast & prewe hem douw : 2256 

Sowme he slowe, & so??ime he made blede, 

Til cruelly pei slow his my^ty stede 

Whiche he sat on ; and ^it, neue?'peles, 

He fau^t on fote ageyn Mirundones, 2260 

J}at had caste Troylus to haue take. 

But Parys tho gan hem so awake, 

With his breper pat a-boute hym rood, 

jpat in pe place where as * Troylus stood 2264 

Vp-on his fet, but hym silfe allone, 

Of Mirundones ]>ei * slow many one, 

])&t of kny^thod, poru^ her manlyhede 

))ei vn-to hym brou^t anoj>er stede, 2268 

Amyd his foon, and made hym to ascende. 

And he ful kny3tly gan hym silfe diffende, 

Beset with Grekis in Jje silfe stouwde, 

)5at neuere ^it a better kny^t was fonde : 2272 

J)ei felt it wel, J>ei pat wer his foon. 

But panne * his broper, called Emergaron, 

So as he fau^t, putty nge him silfe in pres, 

Was slayn, alias ! amonge Mirundones. 2276 

}3e deth of whom, in a cruel ire, 

2246. >e] om. D 1. 2250. domt] a doim D 1. 

2254. hurtled] hurkled 0. 2256. hem] om. D 1. 

2260. ageyn] a3ens D 1. 2263. brewer] bro])ir D 1. 

2264. as] >at C, D 1 stood] rood D 1. 

2265] He hym silf as who seij> but allone D 1. 

2266. >ei] he C. 2270. silfe] to D 1 diffende] to diffende A. 

2272. fonde] wouwde D 2. 2274. >anne] J>at C. 

BK. iv] The Myrmidons are put to flight ~by Troilus <& Paris. 631 

Troylus with anger newe set a-fire, 

Pleynly pwrposeth tavenge $if he may ; 

And with his swerd he gan to make way, 

And Parys ay fast[e] by rydynge, 

And alle his brejjer vp-on him awaitynge, 

Whiche alle I-fere wer so mercy les, 

As I fynde, vp-on Mirundones, 

))at of force and necessite 

J5ei wer compelled pleynly for to fle, 

Troylus on hem was so furious, 

So vengable eke and so dispitous, 

Jpat he hem $af many mortal wouwde. 

And }it, in soth, fat day J>ei wer fouwde 

Noble kny^tes, & quit hem wonder wel : 

For )>ei ]>e crafte knewe[n] euerydel 

Longynge to armys, of hem as I rede. 

But for al J?at, he made her sydes blede 

J?oru} J>e maille & her plates shene, 

}2at fei ne my^t, pleynly, nat sustene 

])e swerd of Troylus, hem chasyng oueral, 

Al-be fei kepte hem clos as any wal 

Hool to-gidre, and went nat asouwder. 

But Troylus ay hem chaseth* her & Bonder, 

And seuered hem maugre al her my^t. 

Til in-to feld with many worjri kny^t 

Cam Menelay and kyng Agarnenouw, 

Vlixes eke, and cruel Thelamouw, 

And Diomede, whiche of his wouwdis grene 

Eecured was, as sei]> myn auctor clene ; 

And on Troyens sodeinly ]?ei falle 

With her wardis and her kny^tes alle : 

And ]>o began J?e fi^tfe] to renewe 

On euery half, ]>at with blody hewe 

Jje platis bri^t wern of newe steyned ; 

And J)ei of Troye /so manly haw hem peyned 

2280. he gan] be gan D 2, bi gaw D 1 way] a way A. 

2281. ay] alweie D Iby] by him D 1. 

2282. alle] om. D 1 vp-on] on D 1. 
2288. so] om. D 1. 2296. nat] hem D 2. 
2300. ay] om. A hem chaseth] chaseth hem C. 
2302. feld] >e feelde D 1. 



and Paris 
put the 

2284 Myrmidons 
to flight, 

[leaf llOc] 2288 




tho they stick 

2304 Ulysses, Ajax, 

and Diomede 
join in the 



632 Ajax attacks the Trojans ; but Troilus routs the Myrmidons. 

Troilus routs 
the Greeks 

till Ajax 
conies to their 

fiut again 
drives off 
the Greeks, 

captures 100 

and sends the 

with 100 


to Achilles, 

who mourns 

Ageyn her foon in pis my^ty stryf, 

)2at many Greke was beraf te his lyf ; 

And where pei wern most my^ti in batail, 

Troy his cam in, & gan hem to assail 2316 

On euery parte, with many blody wouwle, 

And by his kny^thod gan hem so cowfouwde 

J?at ay pei fled, so pei wern aferd 

J)e mortal strokis of his sharpe swerd, 2320 

Her dedly foo and destruccioun, 

And ]ns contuneth til kyng Thelamouw, 

By his manhod, whan pat he beheld, 

])Q Grekis made recure ageyn pe felde, 2324 

And gan Troyens assaille wonder sore. 

And Ipo be-gan pe slau^ter more & more 

On eche-a-side, til Troylus newe ageyn 

])& Grekis hath so fersly ouerleyn, 2328 

Mirundones and hem euerychon, 

Aforn his swerd pat he made hem goon 

To her tentis, and pe feld forsake. 

And with his hond pat day he ha)? take 2332 

An hundrid kny^tes pat cam in his woye, 

Jporu^ his prowesse, & sent hem m-to Troye. 

And euere in on gan so to enchase 

Mirundones, pat pei lost her place, 2336 

And to Achille, liggynge in his tent, [leaf no d] 

}3ei repeire, for-wouwded & to-rent, 

Her harneis broke, hope plate & maille. 

And of noumbre, I fynde, pat pei faille 2340 

An hundrid kny^tes, slayn & ded, alias, 

))at after wer y-fou/zde in pe taas 

Amyd pe feld, poru^ girt with many wou^de 

Of Troylus swerd, Hector pe secouwde. 2344 

Wher-of Achille, whan he had a si3t, 

So hevy was al pe next[e] ny$t, 

2315. where] whawne D 1. 2323. By] With D 1. 
2324. made recure ageyn] he made a gein recure D 1. 
2327. a-side] side D 2. 2334. m-to] to A, D 1. 
2337, 45. Achille] Achilles A. 
2339. broke] to broke A. 

2342. after] aftirwarde D 1 y-fouwde] founder D 2, D 1 taas] 
chas D 2. 

BK. iv] Achilles is torn ~by Love & Anger. He thinks of Death. 63S 

In his bed walwynge to and fro, 

Deuoide of slepe for cowstreint of his wo, 2348 Achilles can't 

sleep, for the 

At his hert his wouwde was so kene, loss of his 

men, and for 

What for his men & faire Polycene, Poiyxena. 

Wetyng wel, $if he dide his peyne 

To be vengid, he shulde nat atteyne 2352 

In no wyse vn-to his desire. 

And pus he brent in a double fyre 

Of loue and Ire, pat made him si$e sore ; 

But for cause loue was pe more, 2356 

He was a-ferd ageyn hem of pe toun 

In his persone to done offenciouw, 

List Prianms and Eccuba ]>e queue 

Offendid wern, & namly Polly cene. 2360 

And }ms he stood in a double wer, 

j)at at his hert sat hy?n wonder ner, 

With many wonder * diuerse fantasie, 

As haue louers pat be in point to dye : 2364 

Bi$t euene-so fareth pis woful man, 

For verray wo pat no red ne can, and thinks of 


So entriked pat he wende dye, 

Of his recure he knewe no better weye. 2368 

And while he laie pus \n his prowes white 

(Liche as Guydo pleinly list * endite, 

And pe story makep menciouw), 

ftat dayes seuene pei of Troye tourc, 2372 For 7 days 

To encres & awgment of her sorwe, 

With pe Grekis metten every morwe : the fighting 

goes on ; 

ftat poru^ pe force of her boper my^t, 

On ouper part was slay[e]n many kny3t. 2376 

And al pis while lay pis Achilles, 

Of Grekis deth y-liche rec[e]les, 

For loue only, & toke no maner hede 

Who- so were hool or mortally doth blede, 2380 

2349. his woimde was] was his wourade D 1. 2361. a] cm. A. 

2362. sat] it sat D 1. 2363. wonder] wor>i 0. 

2365. euene-so fareth] so farith enene D 1 so] om. D 2. 

2367. dye] to dye D 1. 2369. his] om. D 1. 

2370. pleinly list] list pleinly C. 

2375. bo>er] bothe A, D 2, bothers D 1. 

2376. many] many a A. 

634 Agamemnon gets a Truce, to lury his Dead. [BK. iv 

Achilles is 

and weary 
of life. 

Or who )>at pleyneth with his woiwdis large 
Hym Jjou^t it was no parcel of his charge, 
So moche he ha]? on oj?er Jnng to )>enke, 
))at ofte he waketh whaw he sholde winke, 2384 

J)ou3tful ay and ymagynatyf, 

And verray wery of his owne lyf. [leaf in a] 

Agamemnon Til on a day, kyng Agamenouft, 

Seynge ]>& deth and destruccioiw 2388 

On Grekis halfe, with-outQ remedie, 

To Troye sent by enbassatrye 

For a trewe certeyn dayes space, 

Eut he my3t )?er-of haue no grace 2392 

Lenger tyme, platly, to endure, 

jjan for leyser of ]>Q sepulture 

Of worpi kny^tes fat wer ded * to-forn, 

In J>e feld on ouj>er part y-lorn, 2396 

Which * in J)e taas ful besely )>ei sou^t. 

And after J>is, pleynly, how )>ei wrou^t 

Duryng j)e sege with * gret violence. 

I shal discrive with $oure pacience. 2400 

asks for a 

dead Greeks. 

Mars kindles 
anew the fire 
of hate 

Greeks and 

Howe the Troyans, the trewes endede, made so mortale 
were vpone the Grekes that, thorght the manhode 
and the blody swerde of Troylus, the Grekes wer 
brought ful nygh to outterance. 1 

The cruel force & J)e mortal Ire 
Of Martis my^t, alweie set a-fire 
With newe en vie, gowne of old hatrede, 
Bre?inynge in hertis hoot as any glede, 2404 

Atwixe Grekis and Troye ]?e cyte, 
Whiche likly is nat staunched for to be 
Til deth consume with his mortal darte 
Ful many worj>i vp-on ouj>er parte, . 2408 

Texecute, alias ! by fynal fate 

2385. f)oujtful] Ful }>ou3tful D 1. 2391. trewe] trews A. 

2395. wer ded] ded wern C to-forn] a forn A, D 2, D 1. 

2396. part y-lorn] party lorn A, D 2, partie lorn D 1. 

2397. Which] WftA C taas] chaas A. 2399. with] by C. 
2403. newe] om. D 1. 2405. Atwixe] Betwene D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 108 d. 

BK. iv] War is renewd. 6rreek and Trojan chiefs fight. 635 

Eche on oj>er penvious dedly hate, 

Whiche j?ei ne my3t by destyne remewe 

Nor for parchas at liberte eschewe : 2412 

For Antropos wil suffre it be noon oper, 

j)at is maistresse & guyer of )>e rother 

Of Dethis ship, til al go vn-to wrak ! 

And Fortune gan turne hir face bake 

Of hi^e disdeyn fro Troye )>e cite, 

As in J)is story ri^t sone 30 shal se. 

For whan Jje trews ]>at J?ei had[de] take 

Wer werid oute, J>ei gan [hem] redy make 2420 

#e proude Grekis, & in-to felde ]>ei gon 

Vp-on a morwe, whan Phebws bri}t[e] shon, 

Armyd ful shene, eueryche at his devis. 

And Menelay first mette with Parys, 

J)ilke day, in story as I rede, 

And eche of hem smet ofer of his stede ; 

At whyche tyme, dau?^ Pally damas 

To Vlixes rod a sterne pas, 2428 

And eche at oj?er, of cruel enmyte, 

With stiffe swerdis gan to-gidre fle, 

))at nouper was of manhod for to wyte. 

And with a spere, squared for to byte, 2432 

)3e my^ty duke, called Meneste, 

Eood lyne ri^t, pat alle my^tfe] se, 

To Anthenor, J?e Troyan ful of pride, [leaf 111 6] 

And from his sadel cast hym dourc a-side, 

In his furie & his hatful tene. 

And J)o in al haste ca?ft kyng Phylymene, 

Only in helpe of hem of ]>e touw, 

And gan assaille kyng Agamenouw 

)3oru3 his kny^thod & his hardynes, 

J?at he him * had brou3t in gret distresse, 

To outter meschef and confusioiui, 

Nadde only be ]>at kyng Thelamou^ 

Fate, the 
steerer of 
Death's ship, 

will ruin 

2416 Fortune 
turns her 
back on it. 

When the 
truce ends, 

the Greeks 
take the field. 

2424 Menelausand 

unhorse one 





2440 charges 



2411. remewe] rewnewe D 1. 2413. it] for to D 1. 

2415. vn-to] to D 1. 2417. fro] om. D 2. 

2418. ?e shal] shal 30 D 2. 2424. mette] om. D 1. 

2429. at] of A. 2434. se] it see D 1. 2438. al] om. A. 

2442. him] hem 0. 

636 Troilus slays Greeks, lut is attackt ly Myrmidons. [BK. IV 

Philomene is 


slays Bru- 
mus, a son 
of Priam. 

Troilus slays 

many Greeks. 

The Myrmi- 
dons beset 

Ful proudly cam hym [for] to reskewe, 

And after sore gan for to purswe 

With a spere vp-on Philomene, 

And from his horse he leide hym on ]?e grene, 2448 

Maugre his force, J>e story tellej) Jms, 

For he to hym was mortally Irous. 

And after fat, ^onge Archilogus * 

A mortal cours ran vn-to Brumvs, 2452 

Oon of J>e sonys of Priamws )>e kyng, 

3onge and delyuer, & best in his lykyng ; 

But * he hym smet with so gret a my^t 

}5at he fil ded, Jns freshe lusty kny^t : 2456 

])Q deth of whom, whan )>ei of Troye espie, 

))ei made a shou^t, & pitously gan crye 

Of woful routh, & his deth compleyne, 

Til )>e noise gan outterly atteyne 2460 

To Troylus eris, platly, where he rood. 

And he no lenger after J>at abood, 

But to pe place felly gan aproche, 

And -with his swerd for to sette a-broche, 2464 

WM-oute rouj>e, }>e Grekis hatful blood, 

And, mercyles, al pat hym w/t/d-stood 

He slowe J>at day, by cruel auenture, 

j?at Greke was noon, J?e whiche my^t endure 2468 

To-forn his swerd he gan hem so oppresse : 

For of kny^thod and [of] hi^e prowesse 

He hadde hem putte outterly to fly^t, 

]STad[de] ben J>e manhod & fe my^t 2472 

Of Miruudones, whiche al )?at day 

By oon assent vp-on Troylus lay, 

Wher-of he was ful malencolius ; 

And of corage & manhod most famws, 2476 

He ne list no lenger for to lette, 

B[ut] al attonys vp-on hem he sette, 

2445. for] om. D 1. 

2446. after] aftir hym D 1 gan for to] he gan D 1. 
2448. hym] om. D 1. 2450. For] And D 1. 

2451. Archilogus] Archilagus C. 2452. Brumvs] Brvnus A. 

2455. But] pat C. 2460. ]>e] on >e D 2. 

2461. To] Til D 1. 2469. hem] hym D 1. 

2471. to] to >e D 1. 

2476. corage & manhod] manhode & corage D 1. 

BK. iv] Troihis drives the Greeks to their tents, 637 

And furiously gan amonge hem ryde. 

And sorame he smet euene Jjoru} J>e syde, 2480 ^g u a 8 tt f ^; 

})oru$ the body, & some J?oru$ )>e herte ; don^ yrmi " 

And with his swerd }>om$ doublet & sherte, 

Jjoru^ sheld and plate, & poru} haberioun 

He percid hath, and like a wood lyourc [leafiiic] 2484 

He slow J>at day of hem many oon, 

feat maugre hem fei fledden euerychon, and they flee, 

With be Grekis, eueryche to his tent. Greeks, to 

their tents, 

And J>ei of Troye after hem be went 2488 

Swyf tly on horse, til jjei han hem take ; 

And swiche a morder of Grekis ]?er J>ei make, 

))at finally J?er was no bet reskus 

But only deth, so passyngly confus 2492 

Jje Grekis wern at meschef desolat, 

Troilus so narwe brou^t hem to chek-maat, 

))at J>ei koude no better remedie 

But hidously * for to wayle and crye, 2496 

To deth forwouwded, with a grisly chere. 

Howe Achilles for-gat the love of Polycene when lie 
sawe the Grekis at |>e poynt of cowfusyow. 1 

)5at Achilles, whan he gan first here Achilles bears 

\)Q dredful noise and )>e woful SOUTI, 

)?at caused was by reflecciou/i 2500 

Of eir a-^en who-so koude it knowe 

In rochis harde and kauernys lowe, 

Lyke as it wer o* word spoke of two, 

ftat men ar wont to callen an Ecko 2504 

So confus was j^e lamentacioun 

On Grekis side ; of whiche J?e dedly soun 

So pitously to Achilles is ronne, 

Of hem J>at laye ageyn )?e hote sonne, 2508 

With mortal wouwdes ^eldinge vp J>e brefe, 

2485. >at day of hem] of he??i >at day D 1. 
2488. went] y wente D 1. 2489. take] a take D 2, D 1. 
2496. hidously] pitously C. 2497. forwotmded] wounded D 1. 
2498. fat] But D 1. 2499. woful] dredful D 1. 
2501. eir] herte D 1. 2503. o] a C. 

2504. ar] ben D 1 to] om. D 1. 2507. ronne] y ronne D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 109 6. 

told of the 
slain Greeks 

and the Tro- 
jan victory. 

638 Achilles, threatend with a Trojan charge, arms. [BK. iv 

With rowmble & swowe resownyrag in-to de)>e 
Svviche a noise Grekis made pere. 

Achilles is And what it mente Achilles dide enquere, 2512 

And what J?e cause was of her clamour ; 
And J>ei tolde hym, for lak of socour 
]2e Grekis wern eche in his tentorie 

Of Troylus slayn, so J>at ]?e victorie 2516 

Goth finally wit/z hem of Troye toun 
For euere-more, in conclusions : 
So many Greke lay slay[e]n in his tent, 
Gaping vpward, pat ha]? his blood y-spent, 2520 

Jjoru} pe constreynt of his wouwdes smerte. 
And while Achilles J)is meschef g&n aduerte, 
Ful sodeinly per cam to hym a man, 
))e whiche his tale euene pus be-gan : 2524 

" Alias," quod he, "how may $e sustene 
To sen 3 our men her vp-on pe grene 
A-fore ^oure face slayn & ly[e]n dede, 
And liste nat onys for to taken hede, 2528 

But stonde stille, pensif in ^oure tent, 
Vp-on pe point ^oure silfe to be shent 
In hasty hour, 3 if $e here abide : 

For fifty pousand kny^tes here be-side, 2532 

Redy armyd in platis and in maille, [leaf in a] 

Cast hem pleinly attonys }ou tassaille 
}?is no doute vn-armyd as }e stonde, 
Eut ^e of kny^thod manly take on honde 2536 

To resiste in )?is silfe place, 
And like a man to mete hem in ]?e face." 
For whiche anon, in a cruel mood, 

J)is Achilles, like as he were wood, 2540 

Armed hym, fomyrige as a boor ; 
Fare-wel his loue ! he set of it no stoor ; 
Of hasty hete his Ire was so kene 

])at he forgat faire Polycene 2544 

And hir bewte, pat whilom made him smerte. 

A man comes, 

and re- 
proaches him 

for doing 

when 50,000 
armd Trojans 

are about to 
attack him 

On this, 

foaming like 
a boar, arms, 

and forgets 

2519. many] many a D 1. 2520. y-spent] spent D 1. 
2521. new IT D 1. 2533. 1st in] om. D 2. 
2534. tassaille] to saylle A. 2535. is] is is D 1. 
2539. a] his D 1. 2545. whilom] somtyme D 1. 

BK. iv] Achilles and Troilus unhorse and wound one another. 639 

And in a rage vp anoon. lie sterte, 
And toke his stede, as any lyoura wro]?e 
Ageyns Troyens, & in-to feld he goth : 
Lyche a wolfe }>at is with hunger gnawe, 
Ei^t so gan he ageyn his foon to drawe ; 
And where he rood, wfct/i-oute excepciouw, 
He woiwdej?, sle)>, kyllej>, & bereth douw 
Now here, now ]?ere in a lytel jjrowe, 
))at J>ei of Troye gan his swerd [to] knowe, ' 
Whiche was infect of newe * with her blood : 
For per was noon as 3it pat hym wM-stood, 
So mortally he gan aboute hym leyn 
)3e dede bodies endelong j)e pleyn. 
Til casuelly Troylus gan espie 
)?is Achilles, as he caste an* eye, 
And gan his hors with spores to constreyne, 
And rood at hym with al his my3t & peyne ; 
But Achilles, of hym war also, 
Smette eke his stede & made hym for to go 
Toward Troylus in fe silfe tyde. 
And with ful cours as pei to-gider ride 
Ful lyne ri^t, her speres* sharpe whet, 
With swiche a my3t j?ei han to-gider met, 
Of hi^e disdeyu per is no more to seyn, 
)5at to pe grouwde J)ei fel bojje tweyne ; 
But Achilles kau3te swiche a wou?zde 
In his body, so depe and so profouwde, 
J^at long he lay (myn auctowr seij? certeyn) 
Or he to hel))e restored was ageyn. 
And Troilus eke, Jjoru^ platis, mail, and al 
(As writ Guydo) had a wouwde smal, 
Whiche vn-to hym dide no greuauwce. 
And pus J?at day by contynuau^ce, 
And dayes sixe, swynge by and by, 

^ charges the 
2548 Trojans like 

a hungry 

2552 and kills 

many of em. 





Troilus sees 

Achilles rides 
at Troilus. 

Each un- 
horses the 

Achilles is 
^ badly 
2572 wounded: 



The fight 
goes on for 
6 days. 

2546. he sterte] asterte D 1. 

2548. &] om. A, D 1 feld] he felcle D 1. 2549. a] as a D 1. 

2555. infect of newe] of newe infect C, infecte newe D 1. 

2559. Troylus] f>is Troylus D 2. 2560. an] his C. 

2563. of hym war] ware of hym D 1. 

2563-70 are omitted in D 2. 2567. speres] spores C. 

2576. writ Guydo] Guydo writ D 1. 

640 How Achilles soon gave up his love for Polyxena. [BK. iv 

Both sides 
suffer greatly. 

Priam is 

sorry that 


has forgotten 


Tho Achilles 
was once in 

he doesn't 
hesitate to 
offend his 

Priam re- 
Hecuba for 


fte proude Grekis mette cruelly 2580 

Amyd J?e feld hem of Troye tourc, 

To gret damage and confusioim [leaf 112 ] 

Of ou]>er party, pleinly, jris no nay : 

For many worjri was slayn day by day 2584 

In her rancour & hertly hoot envie, 

Al-be Guydo doth nat specefye 

Noon of her names, pleinly, in his boke, 

As ^e shal fynde ^if $e list to loke. 2588 

And al Jris while, for Jris sodeyn Jring 

Pensyf & trist was Prianms J?e kyng, 

}3at Achilles torned hath so clene 

His hert away fro ^onge Polycene, 2592 

And for Jris chau?ige, so sodeyn & so newe, 

jpou^t his behestis wer[e] nat al trewe, 

But on deceit and on doubilnes, 

On fraude falsly, & newfongilnes, 2596 

On sle3ty tresoiw and on couert gile, 

Or rage of loue, fat lasteth but a while, 

Was outterly founded his beheste : 

For like a wynde, J>at no marc may areste, 2600 

Fareth a word, discordaurct to fe dede, 

Of whiche a wysman take shal noon hede, 

But lete passe, as he were rek[e]les. 

For, al-be-it fat Jris Achilles 2604 

Was whilom cau^t with-in Louys snare, 

Hym lyst nat now onys for to spare 

Of hy^e rancour his lady to offende 

It was nat lyche as J)ei of Troye wende, 2608 

Eccuba noufer Pollycene. 

Wher-of Priam spak vn-to fe quene 

In an anger, and gan hir to abreide 

J)at she hir trust so enterely leyde 2612 

On Achilles, J>at can so falsly mene ; 

Wherof * ful trist was Jris Polycene, 

2583. party] part A. 2584. was] werew D 1. 

2589. new IF A. 2593. for] so D 1. 

2599. foimded his] founde in his false D 1. 

2601. to] fro A, D 1, for D 2. 2604. al-be-it] al be D 1. 

2605. whilom] somtyme D 1. 2608. nat] om. D 2. 

2614. Wherof] Wherfore C. 

BK. iv] Achilles resolves to take Vengeance on Troilus. 641 

)?at was inclined, vtiih hir eyen clere, Poiyxena 

By be couwseil of hir moder dere 2616 

To haue be wedded to bis Achilles, hoped to wed 


To fyn only J>er shuld haue ben a pes and win peace 

Atwen Grekis and hem of Troye toim. 

Howe the next morowe Achilles resumede the sprete 
of rankoure and envye, and there-vpon, agayns 
the ordure of knyghthode, proditoriously com- 
passede be dethe of worthy Troylus. 1 

But al was fals, in conclusions ; 2620 

In f e fyn was be troupe sene : 

For wharcne Achilles of his wou^des grene when 

, TT _ ., ... . Achilles' s 

Was fully curid, by a certeyn day, wound is 

He gan compasse, in al fat euere he may, 2624 

And ymagyne in his envious herte he plans 

To be venged of his wouwdis smerte 

Vp-on Troylus, fat stak ay in his mynde, Troilus. 

At avaurctage ^if he my^t hym fynde 2628 

To hym he bar so passyngly hatrede, 

In his herte brewnynge as the * glede, 

"Whiche day nor ny$t may in no degre [leaf 112 6] 

Fully be queynt til he avenged be, 2632 

J)e hote rancour gan so on hym gnawe 

A vised platly fat he shal be si a we 

Of his hondis, whan-so fat it falle. 

And on a day to hym he gan calle 2636 Hecaiishis 

_ ... ... Myrmidons 

Mirundones, his kny^tes euerychon, together. 

Vp-on a morwe whan f e Grekis gon 

To-fore f e touw, in stel armyd bri^t, 

Ageyns Troyens in pwrpos for to fi^t ; 2640 

And f ei wer come proudly in-to felde 

In thoposit, -with many riche shelde, 

Newly depeynt vritfi colours freshe & fyne, 

Vp-on whiche ful bri$t[e] gan to shyne 2644 

2616. hir] his D 1. 2617. haue] om. D 1. 
2618. haue] om. D 1. 2621. sene] ysene A, D 2. 
2630. the] any C. 2631. nor] arid A, or D 1. 
2640. in] of A, D 2. 2642. shelde] shed D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 110 a (misplaced after line 2626). 

Achilles begs 
liis Myrmi- 

642 Achilles lids his men trap Troilus, and hell kill him. [BK. iv 

Firy Titan, gold-tressed in his spere, 

At his vprist with his bemys clere, 

Whan Jris felle envious Achilles 

To his kny^tes, called Mirundones, 2648 

Yp-on Troylus gan hym to compleyne, 

Besechynge hem for to done her peyne 

Ageyn pis Troylus in J>e feld J>at day, 

To cachen hym at meschef }if pei may, 2652 

And besely to done her dilligence 

On hym to han her ful aduertence, 

By oon assent, wher-so pat he ride 

Al oj>er ping for to sette a-syde, 2656 

And of nou3t ellis for to taken hede, 

Sauf finally ageyn hym to precede 

3if pei my^t cacche hym in a trappe 

Wit/i-Inne * hem silf Troilus for to clap, 2660 

To enclose and sette hym rouwle aboute 

In al wyse pat he go nat oute. 

And whan he were be-set amowge hew alle, 

Nat to slen hym, what-so-euere falle, 2664 

But poru$ her rny^t manly hym conserue 

Til he hyw silfe come & make hym sterve, 

With his swerd, he & noon oper wy^t. 

Lo ! here a manhod for to preise a-ri^t ! 2668 

Vengauwce of deth, of rancour, & of pride, 

Compassid tresou?*, kny^thod leyde a-side ! 

Worpines be envie slawe, 

Falshed alofte, troupe a-bak y-drawe ! 2672 

Alias ! in armys pat it shulde falle, 

Of trecherie pat pe bitter galle 

Shuld in pis world in any kny^t be fouwde, 

Jpat be to troupe of her order bouwde ! 2676 

Alias, alias ! for now pis Achilles 

Conspired hap vfith his Mirundones 

}3e deth of oon pe worpiest[e] wy^t 

j)at euere was, and pe beste kny^t ! [leaf 112 c] 2680 

to attend to 
nothing but 

Troilus in a 

to surround 

and keep him 
till Achilles 
can come and 
slay him. 

Snob that he 

Alas that any 

knight could 
be such a 

2655. he] hei D 1. 2657. of] on D 1. 

2660. Witfc-Inne] And with Inne C. 2664. falle] be falle D 1. 
2671. slawe] is y slawe D 1. 2672. y-drawe] is drawe D 1. 
2677. now >is] Jris nowe D 1. 

BK. iv] The Myrmidons promise to obey Achilles' orders. 643 
Alias ! for wo myn herte I fele* blede 

heart bleeds 

ior his sake, pis story whan I rede. for Troilus! 

But whan Fortune ha}) a ]ring ordeyned, 

)3ou3 it be euere wailled and compleined, 2684 

J?er is no geyn nor no reraedie 

Jpou^ men on it galen ay & crye 

I can no more touchinge pis matere, 

But write for]>e, lik as 36 shal here, 2688 

How Mirundones han her lord be-hi^t, Achilles' 

With al her power & her fulflel my;t promise to 

, . lcn , . ^ do as he bids 

lo lulnllen his comauradement ; em. 

And in- to feld with Grekis jjei be went. 2692 

Howe Mirmidones grauntede Achilles to vmbilap 
Troilus, wherthorgh he myght the esylyer scle 
hym. 1 

But Troylus first, in pe opposit, Troilus rides 

Of verray kny^thood haj? so grete delit 
With-oute abood manly hem to mete 

He was y-brent with so feruent hete 2696 
Of hardines and [of] hi^e corage, 

Of worpines and of vasselage, 

)5at hym ne list no lenger to abide, 

But with his folk in be-gan to ride 2700 

Amonge Grekis, bis stok of hi3e renouw. against the 

And with his swerd he wowzdej? & berep dowi, 

SleJ) and kylle}>, vp-on Query halfe and slays 

So mortally, fat )>er may no salue 2704 

Her sores souwde ; for per was but deth, 

Wher-so he rood, and gelding vp ]>e breth, 

So furiously he gan hem enchase ; 

And made hem lese in a litel space 2708 

Her lond echon, and a-forn hym fle : He puts em 

to flight. 

In Troylus swerd ]?er was swiche craelte, 
))at maugre hem he )>e feld ha]? woraie. 

2681. myn herte I fele] I fele myn herte C. 
2686. on it] am. D 1 galen] gasen D 1. 
2692. feld] >e feelde D 1. 2696. y-brent] bre?it D 1. 
2700. be-gan] he gan A. 2706. and] om. D 2. 
2707. hem] he?ft to D 1. 2708. lese] to lese D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 110 b (misplaced after line 2688). 

644 Troilus is attackt by 3000 Myrmidons t who killhis horse. [BK.IV 

At midday 

the Myrmi- 

form a circle 
Troilus ; 

but he fights 
like a tiger, 

kills many, 

and makes 
play among 

j)e same tyme whan J?e bri^t[e] somie 2712 

Hi3e in fe south at mydday-marke shon, 

Euene at }>e hour whan it drowe to noon, 

Whan Mirundones, gadred alle in oon, 

In compasse wyse roimde aboute hym gon, 2716 

And furiously, of oon entenciou^, 

])Q\ made a cercle aboute hym envirouw, 

Whan ]?ei sawe him of help[e] desolaat. 

But he of hert nat disconsolat, 2720 

Vp-on no side, )>oru$ his manlyhede 

Lik a lyoura toke of hem noon hede, 

But J?oru^ his famws kny^tly excellence 

As a tigre stondeth at diffence, 2724 

And manfully gan hem to encombre, 

And [gan] to lasse & discres * her noumbre. 

And somme he may me]? & wou^dej? to ]?e dej?, 

And somme he made to ^elden vp ]?e brej>, 2728 

And somme he laide to pe erthe lowe, [leaf 112 d] 

And so??zme he made for to ouer-prowe, 

With his swerd of her blood al wet, 

At gret meschef under* his horse fet ; 2732 

Vp-on his stede sturdy as a wal, 

}5is worthy * kny^t, ]>is man most marcial, 

Pleyeth his pley anionge Mirundones, 

Hy??z silf, God wote, allone al help[e]les. 2736 

How worthfy] Troylus was besett with iij. thousands 
Knyghtes ; and how knyghtly he defendid him. 1 

But what can But fco, alias ! what myst his force avail 

he, alone, do J ? 

fo?s? 8t 3 Whan J>re pousand kny^tes hym. assail, 

On euery part, bo)>e in leng))e and brede ! 

They slay his And cowardly first Jjei slow his stede 

With her speris, sharpe & square [y-]grou?zde : 
For whiche, alias ! he stont now on pe grouwde 
W^-oute reskus, refut, or socour, 
J?at was J>at day of chiualrie flour. 

2716 follows 2718 in D 1. 2726. discres] to discres C. 
2732. under] at C, D 1. 2734. worthy] manly C. 
2738. hym] hem D 1. 2744. flour] ]>e flour D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 110 c (miniature). 



BK. iv] Achilles gets behind Troilus and cuts his head off. 645 

But, weillawey, fei ban hym so be-set, 

Jjat from his bed fei smet his basenet, 

And brak his harneis, as fei hym assaille, 

And seuere * of stele fe my$ti strong[e] maille. 2748 

He was disarmyd, bofe nekke and hed, 

Alias fe whyle ! & no wi^t* toke noon hede 

Of alle his kny^tes longynge to f e toim ; 

And $it alweye fis Troyan champioiw 2752 

In kny^tly wyse, naked as he was, 

Hym silfe diffendeth, til Achilles, alias ! 

Cam ridynge in, furious and wood. 

The Myrmi- 
dons hack off 
helmet and 

leaving his 
1 lead and neck 

Hut lie still 
fights on, 

How worthy Troylus was cowardly slayn by Achilles. 1 

And whan he sawe how Troilus nakid stod, 2756 

Of longe fi^tyng awaped and amaat, 

And from his folke allone disolat, 

Sool by hym silf at meschef pitously, 

J3is Achilles wonder cruelly, 2760 

Be-hynde vnwarly, or fat he toke hed, 

With his swerd smytef of his hed, 

And cast it ibrfe of cursed cruel* herte, 

And f ou3t[e] platly,* it shuld him nat asterte 2764 

To shewe his malys, fis wolfe vnmerciable ! 

Ful vnkny3tly to be more vengable 

Yp-on f e body fat lay ded and colde 

Alias, fat euer it shuld of kny3t be tolde, 2768 

Wryte, or rehersed, to do so foule a dede, 

Or in a boke, alias, fat men shuld rede 

Of any kny3t a story so horrible, 

Yn-to fe eris passingly odible : 2772 

For fis Achille of cruelte, alias ! 

J?e dede cors toke oute of f e taas, 

And vengably bond it, as I fynde, 

2747. hym] hem D 2. 2748. seuere] seuered C. 
2750. wijt] man C noon] om. D 1. 2756. how] >at D 1. 
2761. >at] om. D 1. 2763. cursed cruel] cruel cursed C, D 2. 
2764. platly] pleynly C. 

2768. it shuld of kny}t] of kimt it shulde D 1. 
2770. shuld] shal A, D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 110 d (misplaced after line 2762; 

till Achilles 
comes una- 
wares behind 

cuts off his 

binds the 
dead body 

646 Lydgate reproaches Homer, and laments Troilus. [BK. IV 


to the tail of 
his horse, 

and drags it 
thru the field. 

At j?e taille of his hors be-hynde, 
And hatfully, Jjat euery wy$t behilde, 
Drowe it hym silf eu[de]longe pe feld 
j?e rengis and fe wardis alle. 

[leaf 113 a] 

Alas that any 
knight^ could 
be so cruel ! 

Shame to 
you, Homer, 

for jnakiiis: 
so much of 
Achilles ! 

For all your 
honey moutli, 
you' re greatly 
to blame for 


who slew 
2 Hectors. 

How the translate! compleyneth of Achilles for his 
treson, and deth of worthy Troylus. 1 

But, o alias ! ]?at euere it shulde falle 2780 

A kny^t to bene in herte so cruel, 

Or of hatred so dispitous fel 

To drawe a man after he* were ded ! 

J>ou, Oraer, for shame be now red, 2784 

And be astonyd, ]>at haldest ]?i silfe so wyse, 

On Achilles to setten swiche a pris ! 

In bi bokes for his chiualrie 

Above echon dost hym magnyfye, 2788 

J?at was so slei^ty & so ful of i'raude ! 

Whi ^evest ])ou hym so hi^e a pris & laude ? 

Certis, Omer, for al )>m excellence 

Of rethoryk and of eloquence, 2792 

\)\ lusty songes and bi dites swete, 

jrin hony moupe )>at doth with sugre flete 

3et in o bing pou gretly art to blame : 

Causeles to }eue hym swiche a name, 2796 

"WWi a title of triumphe and glorie 

So passingly putte hym in memoiie, 

In bi bokes to seyn and write so, 

Jporu^ his kny^thod he slowe Hectoris two : 2800 

First hym ]>at was lik [vn-]to noon oj)er, 

And Troilus after, Ipat was his owne broker ! 

3if )>ou arte meved of affecciourc, 

Whiche |)at ]?ou hast to Grekis naciouw, 2804 

To preise hym so, for J>ou canst endite, 

))ou shuldest ay, for any favour, write 

2783. he] hat he C. 2784. new f A. 
2795. ]>ou gretly art] thou art gretly A, gretly bou art D 1. 
2797. of] & of D 1. 2798 putte] to putte D i. 
2802. owne] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 111 c (at the head of the column, 
misplaced after line 2877). 

BK. iv] Lydgate abuses Achilles for Cowardliness. Homer. 647 

be troupe pleinly, & ben indifferent, 
And seie )>e sobe clerly of entent. 
For whan he slowe Hector in )>e felde, 
He was a-forn disarm yd of his shelde 
Arid besy eke in spoylyng of a kyng : 
For }if he had be war of his comyng, 
He had hym quytte, boru^ his chiualrie, 
His fals deceit and his trecherie, 
})at he ne had so li^tly from \\jin gon. 
Troilus also was naked & allone, 
Amyd foure bousand closed & be-shet 
Whan Achilles hab his hed of smet, 
At his bak of f ul cruel herte, 
Whan he no ping his tresouw dide aduirte. 
Was bat a dede of a manly kny^t 1 
To slen a man forweried in fi^t, 
Fey nt of travail, al be longe day 
Amonge so many stondyng at abay, 
A kynges sone, and so hi^e born, 
Naked J?e hed, his arrnure al to- torn, 
Euene at ]>e deth on be silfe point, 
At disavauwtage, & pleinly oute of loynt, 
Of his lyf stondyng on be wrak 
Whan Achilles cam falsly at be bak, 
Assaillynge hym whan he was half ded, 
And lyk a coward smot of paraie his hed, 
}?at was to-forn hurte & woiwded sore ! 
Wherfor, Omer, preise hym now no more. 
Lat nat his pris )>i rial boke difface, 
But in al haste his renoura oute [ajrace : 
For his name whan I here nevene, 
Verrailly vp vn-to be heuene 
(As semeth me) infect is be Eyr, 
}3e sown )>er-of so foule is * & vnfair ! 



Achilles slew 
Hector by 

treachery ; 

2816 and Troilus, 
when un- 
arm d, 



[leaf 113 6] 



he crept up 
to behind, 

2832 andkild. 

So, Homer, 
take the 
praises of 
Achilles out 
2836 of your royal 
book ! 
His name 


infects the 

2817. be-shet] beset D 1. 

2826. }>e] his D 1 al to-torn] also torn A. 

2830. J>e] his A. 2834. hym now] hou hym D 1 . 

2836. oute a race] out ]jou race D 1. 

2837. here] here it D 1. 

2838. vp vn-to >e] hi3e vp in to D 1. 
2840. so foule is] is so foule C. 

648 Achilles still abused. Menon and Troiluss Corpse. [BK. IV 

If Achilles 
had cared for 

knight- or 

he'd never 
have done so 
foul a deed. 

Paris and 

Eneas try to 




but in vain. 

Menon re- 

on vengeance. 

.For $if fat he had hadde his aduertence, 

Ouf er f e eye of his prouidence 

Yn-to kny^thod or to worf ines, 

Ouf er to manhod or to gentilnes, 2844 

Or to e renourc of his owne name, 

Or to fe report of his kny^tly fame, 

In any wyse to haue taken hede, 

He hadde neuer don so foule a dede : 2848 

So vengably [for] to haue y-drawe 

A kynges sone after he was slawe ! 

And namly hym, fat was so gode a kny^t, 

Whiche in his tyme, who-so loke a-ri^t, 2852 

Passed Achille, I dar it wel expresse, 

Bo}>e of manhod and of gentilnes. 

But for al fat, he is now ded, alias ! 

J)e deth of whom whan Pallydamas 2856 

And Paris eke dide first espie, 

J)ei ferde, in soth, as f ei wolde deye. 

And specially, with face ded and fade, 

Paris, alias, swiche a sorwe made 2860 

For f e constreint of his dedly wo, 

Whan he sawe [fat] Troylus was a-go, 

And fat he shal neuer a-lyue hym se. 

Swiche sorwe also fe Troyan daim^ Enee 2864 

For hym hath made, & many a-nofer mo. 

And alle attonys f ei to-gidre go, 

])Q dede cors to recure ^if f ei maye ; 

But Grekis wern so fel on hem fat day 2868 

))at her labour was outterly in veyn, 

In any wyse fe cors to gete ageyfn], 

Til fat Menouw, fe noble worf i kyng, 

Whiche loued Troilus ouer al[le] fing, 2872 

Cau^t swiche routhe of affeccioim, 

Jjat he in haste, ferser f awne lyou/z, 

On his deth caste hym to be wreke. 

And first for Ire f us he gan to speke [leaf us c] 2876 

2845. Or to J>e] OuJ>er to D 1. 2846. >e] om. D 1. 

2849. y-drawe] drawe D 1. 2864. sorwe] a sorwe D 2. 

2868. so fel on hem] on hem so fel D 1. 

2873. routhe] a routhe A. 2876. Jras he gan] gan he for D ]. 

BK. iv] Menon upbraids Achilles, & wounds & unhorses him. 649 
To Achilles for his hue tresoim : Menon abuses 


11 O foil traitour ! o f ou scorpioim ! 

fou serpent, ful of trecherie ! 

Whiche in dishonour of al chiualrie, 2880 

)3oru$ fals engyn hast fis day [y-]slawe 

Oon of f e best, fat hadde no felaw 

Whan he deide, in fis world a-lyve ! 

Alias, alias ! who may ari^t discrive 2884 

])\ venym hid, ))i malis & vntroufe, 

Watft-oute pite or, vnkny^tly, roufe 

To drawe a knyst, so gentil & so good, for dragging 

Troilus. at his 

A kynges sone of so worjn blood, 2888 horse's tail. 

jporu^-oute fe feld fin horse tail behinde, 

j)at after euer [it] schal ben in mynde, 

]5is cruel dede and vngentilnes ! " 

And with fat word, Menouw gan him dresse 2892 Recharges 

Toward Achille, with-outG more arest ; 

And with a spere smet hym in * f e brest, 

Enviously of so grete hatrede, 

}pat he vnnefe kepte hym on his stede. 2896 

And Menouw after pulled oute a swerde, 

And cast hym manly to [mete] hym in f e berde, 

And rood to hym, fully deuoide of drede, 

And swiche a wourale $af him on fe hede, 2900 wounds him 

jpat maugre hy??i, in many manwys si^t, 

To f e erthe he made hym to ali$t, jjj unhorses 

For al his pride, in a mortal trauwce : 

For of fat wourcde he felt[e] swiche greuauwce, 2904 

J)at at f e deth he lay an huge whyle, 

In a swowe f e space of halfe a myle, 

Til Mirundones, assemblid in- to oon, The Myrmi- 

dons rescue 

With gret labour hent hym vp a-noon, 

Ful dedly pale, so he gan to blede. 

But for al fat, fei sette him on his stede, 

And at f e last his hert he kau^t ageyn, 

And smet his horse, of hate & hi^e disdeyn, 2912 

2881. y-slawe] slawe D 1. 2883. deide] dide D 1. 
2885. &] & bin D 1. 2888. of] and D 1. 
2891. fis] The D 1. 2894. smet hym in] hit hym on C. 
2898. 1st hym] om. A. 2900. $af] he jaf D 2, he yaf A. 

650 Achilles & Menon fight again. Myrmidons are to kill Menon. 


and Achilles 

fight on 

but are 

At sundown 
the Greeks 
and Trojans 
leave the 

Achilles bids 

his Myrmi- 
dons en- 
circle Menon. 

And toward Menoiw faste gan liym hi^e. 
But whan Jjat he his comynge dide espie, 
Ful lyke a kny^t list nat to a-bide, 
But hit his horse sharply in J?e side 
Arid mette Achilles proudly on ])e plein ; 
And vrith her swerdis J>ei to-gidre leyn, 
And gan to hurtle* on horse-bak I-fere, 
With hert envious and dispitous chere. 
But kyng Menourc was at avauratage 
Of Achilles, for* al his wode rage, 
In poynt tabrou^t hym to confusiouw, 
Til j>e wardis of newe come dou^ 
On oujjer part, bo)>e here & Bonder, 
Whiche sodeinly seue?-ed hem a-sonder. 
And as )>e story telleth pleinly, Jjaraie 
Be-gan ]>e slau^ter of many manly man : 
For nouj>er party pe felde nolde* leue 
Of verray pride, til it drow to eve, 
)}at Phebus gan aswagen of his hete, 
And gan to baj?en, in )>e wawes wete, 
His bri^tfe] bemys, of )>e occian, 
}pat fro )>e feld horn goth euery man 
To her loggyng ; & after, seuene daies 
Jpei fau^t y-fere, & made no delaies, 
Ful mortally, by cruel auenture, 
While Achilles besy was* to cure 
His wou^des grene, & his soris souwde. 
And }>awne he hath a newe tresou?* fouwde, 
To be venged vp-on kyng Menon : 
For al his wit he sette ]>er-vppon. 
And so Jris cruel envious Achilles 
I-charged hath his Mirundones 
Worthy* Menon amonge hem to embrace, 
$if ]>ei hym fourcde in oportune place, 

[leaf 1 IS d] 









2914. dide] gan D 2. 2919. hurtle] hurcle C. 

2922. for] in C. 2924. douw] a doiw D 1. 

2925. ouber] euery D 1. 2929. nolde] wolde C. 

2931. gan] bi gan D 1. 2932. be] here D 1. 

2933. of] in D 1. 2938. besy was] was besy for C. 

2939. soimde] to soimde D 2. 

2944. I-charged] Chargid D 1. 2945. Worthy] f>e kyng C. 

BK. iv] Achilles slays Menon when encircled by Myrmidons. 651 

With al her my^t and her besy 

From her hondis J?at he eskape nou^t 

Til he hym silfe avenged on hym be. 

And so bifel, as J>ei Menon se, 

\)e nexte morwe like a manly kny^t 

Ageyn ]?e Grekis arm yd for to fi^t 

On Troye side as he was wont to do 

Of auenture J>at day it fil so, 

)3at Achilles and ]>is Meuon mette : 

And eche of hem gan on oj?er sette 

On horse-bak, of ful gret en vie ; 

And so longe in her malencolye, 

Myn auctor writ, J?ei to-gidre fi$t, 

})at eche made ojjer of force to ali^t. 

And whan Menon stood vpon fe ground e, 

Mirundones went aboute hym rovwde, 

As pel wer charged of pe fei'se Achille 

Whan he, alias ! wztft-oute Goddes wille, 

Disseuered was from his kny^tes alle. 

And at meschef ]?ei vp-on hym falle, 

Destitut, allone, and help[e]les, 

And in swiche point slowe hym Achilles. 

But in J>e story like as it is fouwde, 

J?is Menon first $af hym swiche a wouwde, 

To-forn his deth in al J>is felle strif, 

jpat he dispeired was, pleinly, of his lyf 

pis Achilles, for al his false tresoiw. 

Take hede, Omer, & deme in J)i resou?^ 

Jpe false fraude and |?e slei^ti gyle, 

|pe tresouw caste to-forn \\iQi many wyle 

Of Achilles ; and luge now a-ri^t, 

3if euere he slowe any wor)>i kny^t, 

But it were by prodiciouw 

Record I take of )>e kyng Menou?* : 

So J?at )?e title of his laude, alias, 




Next day 

Achilles and 
Menon fight 

[leaf 114 a] 

2960 and unhorse 
one another. 
The Myrmi- 
dons sur- 
round Menon, 


2968 and Achilles 
slays him, 


Homer! see 



how Achilles 
kild knights 
only by 
treachery ! 

2954. bat day it fil] til it bifelle D 1. 

2959] Myn auctor telli> eche with obir dide fijt D 1. 

2972. was pleinly] pleinly was D 1. 

2976. to-forn] a torn A, D 2, D 1. 

2980. be] am. D 2. 

652 Homer reproacht. Greeks drive Trojans into Troy. [BK. IV 

Entriked is with fraude & with f alias, 
Homer, tho bat bou, Omer, maist with no colour, 


withgoM bou$ bou peinte with gold & with a^our, 
you can't hide In bi writvnsr his venvm nat enclose ; 

the venom of 

Achilles! But as ])& born hid vnder be rose, 
Whos malys ay dareth by be rote, 
bou$ ]>e flour a-boue be fayr & sote, 
bat men be fraude vnder may nat se 
Of his * tresouw 30 gete no more of me. 



The Greeks 

drive the 

into Troy, 

their cham- 
pion Troilus 
being dead. 

Their woe 

could not 

The missauenture and discomforde that came amonges 
the Trogians after the deth of Troylus. 1 

But I wil telle how Grekis do bat day, 

How Meneste and kyng Menelay, 2992 

Dyomede and Thelamonyus 

On Troyens wern passyng dispitous : 

For cruelly with her wardis alle, 

In her meschef ben vp-on hem falle, 2996 

And made hem fle horn vn-to be toun. 

For whilom Troylus, bat was her champioun, 

Is ded, alias ! & hath hem now forsake. 

Of whom bei haue J>e ded[e] body take 3000 

be same day, wife gret diffyculte, 

And dolfully in-to )>e cyte 

bei han it brou^t, criyng ofte " alias ! " 

And for his deth swiche a wo per was, 3004 

bat I trowe ber is no man a-lyue 

Whiche koude ari}t haluendel discryue 

Her pitous wo nor lamentaciourc : 

Certis not Boys, bat had[de] swiche renouw, 3008 

With drery wordis to be-wepe and crye 

In compleynynge to philosophie, 

boru} his boke accusynge ay Fortune, 

bat seld or nou3t can in oon contune 3012 

She is so ful of transmutaciowz. 

2982. 2nd with] om. D 1. 2985. In] With D 1. 
2990. his] his C. 2991. new H A. 
2996. ben vp-on hem] vppon hem bene D 1. 
2998. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 112 a. 

BK. iv] The woe of the Trojans is the greatest ever known. 653 

Stace of Thebes, make no host nor soiw 
Of drerinesse for to write at al, 

NouJ>er of deth nor festis funeral, 

Of makyng sorwe nor aduersite ; 

Late be ])i wepynge, o j)ou Nyobe, 

3e suster also of Melleager, 

ftat custom han for to fle so fer, 

From $er to ^ere ^oure brofer to compleyrie ; 

And J>ou ]>at weptist oute Jrin eyen tweyne, 

Edippus, kyng of Thebes jje cyte, [leaf 11*6] 

))ou wol'ul Mirre, and Calixtone, 

)?at so wel can in rage * 3011 be-mene, 

And Dido eke, of Cartage quene, 

Lat be ^oure dool and contricioun ! 

And Philis eke, for J?i Demephouw, 

And Echcho eke, j>at now dost be-gyraie 

To crie & waille, & also J>ou Corrynne, 

)5at whilom were in so gret affray 

For deth only of )>i popyngay, 

As in his boke tellej? vs Ouyde, 

Late al J>is wo now be leide a-side, 

And make of hit no comparisons 

Vn-to )>e wo )?at was in Troye tou?^ 

For deth only of }>is worj)i kny^t ! 

For loue of whom, euery maner wi^t, 

Hi^e & lowe, olde & ^onge of age, 

Are falle of newe * in-to swiche a rage 

)3at pei c'oude of her wo noon ende ; 

Whos salt[e] teris wil her eyen shende, 

So pitous was J>e lamentaciouw 

In euery strete Jioru^-oute al ]?e toun. 

Alias ! who koude al her sorwes telle 1 ? 

1 trowe, certis, Pluto depe in helle, 
For al his torment & his peynes kene 








Let Statins, 




and Corinna, 

not compare 
their woe 
with that of 
the Trojans, 

whose salt 
tears fall in 

3044 every street. 

Neither Pluto 

3016. nor] nor of D 1. 3019. also] alle D 1. 

3022. weptist] wepest D2, wepist D 1. 

3025. so wel can] can so wele D 1 rage] a rage C. 

3029. Echcho] Ecco A, Eccho D 1 now] newe A. 

3031. whilom] somme tyme Dl. 

3040. newe] now C. 

3042. wil] shal D 1. 3045. sorwes] sorwe D 1. 

654 The Lament of the Trojans for Troilus. A Truce made. [BK. iv 

nor Proser- 

Ixion nor 
could weep as 
the Trojans 
do for 

as Priam, 


Paris and 
Helen weep. 

Who shall 
now be their 
refuge P 

Death and 
Troy's ruin 
are at hand. 

Priam asks 
the Greeks 
for a truce, 

which is 

ISToufer she, Proserpina his * queue, 3048 

Nouper J>e wery wode Tycyus, 

Ixioim, nor hungri Tantalus 

Ne coude nat, for al her bitter peyne, 

So furiously wepen & compleyne 3052 

As don Troyens, Troylus, for Jn sake. 

For who can now swiche a sorwe make, 

Or who can wepe as kyng Priamws 1 

Who wepeth now, with face ful pitous, 3056 

Or maketh sorwe but Eccuba ]?e quene 1 

Who wepeth now but faire Polycene ? 

Who wepeth now but Paris & Eleyne 1 

Who can now wepe or in-to teris reyne 3060 

As do Troyens, with dedly swolle chere 1 ? 

It neded hem no wepers for to here, 

)}ei hadde I-nowe of her owne stoor, 

Alias, for now )>ei ben for euermor 3064 

Of helpe al sool, of courcfort destitut. 

For who shal now ben to hem refut, 

Now fat Hector and also Dephebus 

And Troylus eke, J?at was so vertuous, 3068 

Be dede, alias ! who shal her socour be, 

Or sustene J?e werre of her cyte^ 

)}er is no more, in conclusion/!, 

But after deth fully destrucciouw [leafiuc] 3072 

Of her touris and her wallis stronge. 

In ))is mater what shulde I pleyne longe 1 

It vailleth nat alweye so to mourne, 

Wherfore, I wil new ageyn retoume 3076 

To my mater, and telle how ]?e kynge 

To Grekis ha)), with-onte more tariynge, 

For a trewe and a pes y-sent, 

A certeyn tyme, by gret avisement, 3080 

Which e graunted was of* Agamenouw. 

And whan pei were repeired to J>e toun, 

3048. his] >e C. 3052. &] nor D 1. 

3054. For who] Or D 1. 3056. ful pitous] dispitous D 1. 

3057. Or] And D 1. 3060. or] & D 2 in-to] in D 1. 

3072. fully] ful D 1. 3080. A] For D 1. 

3081. of] by C. 

Priam's rich Tomb for Troilus. Hecuba's plan to kill Achilles. 655 
Kvnjr Priamvs dide his besy cure Priam ims 

J ' a rich tomb 

For to make a riche sepulture 3084 

For Troylus cors, ful noble and rial, Trolius* 

As seith Guydo, of stonys & metal, 

And hym enclosed, of gret affectiourc. 

And ny^e beside was be kyng Menoim 3088 and Menou, 

Solemnely buried and y-graue. 

And after bat, day by day )>ei haue, 

Lvke be custom, of festis funeral and holds 

J funeral feasts 

And ofer ritys Ceremonyal, 3092 for them. 

For hem bobe, vfith due obseruauwce, 

Seruyse doon by contynuaunce 

In her temple, lyk as was be gyse, 

Whiche were to longe me [for] to deuyse, 3096 

And tedius eke for 3011 to dwelle. 

How Achilles was slayne by Paris in the Temple of 
Apollo, by the deuice [of] Eccuba pe quene. 1 

But I purpose ceriously to telle I'll now tell 

you how 

How Eccuba, as I can endyte. Hecuba plans 

the murder of 

Hir caste fully Achilles to quyte 3100 Achiiies. 

His tyraraiy, sothly, 3 it' she may. 

And vn-to hir she calleth on a day 

Alysauradre, in ful secre wyse, 

And vn-to hym, as I shal deuyse, 3104 

With wepynge eyen & ful * heuy chere 

Seide euene bus, lyk as $e shal here : she reminds 

" Parys," quod she, " alias, sauf Goddis wille, Pans how 

bou knowest wel how be ferse Achille 3108 siain nearly 

r all her sons, 

My sonys hath slay[ejn ny$e echon 

]5er is non lefte but )>i silf allone : 

He hath me made (alias, ber is no geyn) 

Ful cowardly, of children now bareyn 3112 

Bofre of Hector & Trovlus * eke fcer-to, including 

Hector and 

Whiche were to me in euery trouble & wo Troiius. 

3083. new IF A. 3089. Solemnely] Solemply A. 
3096. for] om. D 1. 3097. 3011] om. D 1. 
3102. vn-to] on to D 1. 3105. ful] vrith C, D 1. 
3107. new IT D 1 alias] om. A. 3113. Troylus] of Troylus C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 112 c (misplaced after line 3106). 

656 How Hecuba plans the treacherous Murder of Achilles. [BK.IV 

And as 
Achilles slew 
her sons by 
so Hecuba 
will treach- 
erously slay 

He wants 
to wed 
Polyxena ; 

so Hecuba 
will get him 
into Apollo's 

and there 
Paris and his 

must kill 

Paris agrees, 

and hides in 
the Temple 
with 20 

Hecuba sends 
for Achilles. 

Fully couwfort, plesauwce, and solace. 

Wherfore, I caste pleynly to compasse, 3116 

By som engyn his deth to ordeyne ; 

And lyke as he by tresoim dide his peyne, 

Traytourly with his swerd to smyte, 

Ri^t so, I fink, with tresotm hym to quyte, 3120 

As sittyng is of ri^t and equyte. [leafiud] 

And sith pou wost pleynly how pat he 

Hath sette his herte & his lone clene 

On my doubter, $onge Polycene, 3124 

To fyn only to hauen hir to wyve 

For whiche I caste to hym sende blyve 

For to come and trete of pat mater 

In pe temple of Ap polio here 3128 

In pe temple, most chef of pis cite. 

Whiche tyme, my wil is. pat pou be 

j?i siluen armyd per ful priuely, 

With certeyn kny^tes in pi company, 3132 

Armyd also ageyn pe same day, 

Jpat in no wyse he skape nat a-way 

From ^our hoiidis, but pat he be ded, 

As I haue seid; and perfor take good hed 3136 

Vn-to pis ping, with al myn herte, I praie, 

Fro point to point my biddyng to abeie." 

And he assentep with al his hool[e] herte, 

Behotyng hir he shulde nat asterte. 3140 

And with hym toke twenty & no mo 

Of manly men, pat wel durste do ; 

And in pe temple, by ful good avys, 

J)ei wern y-hyd by byddyng of Paris, 3144 

While Eccuba, couert in hir entent, 

Hir Messager to Achilles hathe sent, 

As ^e han herde, in conclusions, 

To come in haste vn-to Troye toun 3148 

After peffect was of hir message, 

3122. pleynly] platly D 2, D 1. 3124. ^onge] fuire D 1. 

3126. to hym] for hym to D 1. 

3129. In pe temple] pe whiche is D 1. 

3136. perfor] \>er of D 1. 3140. Behotyng] Beholdynge D 2. 

3141. And] am. D 1 toke] he toke D 1. 

3144. y-hyd] hyd D 2, hid D 1. 

BK.iv] Achilles comes to wed Polyxena. Paris attacks him. 657 

Only to trete for a mariage. 

And he in haste cometh at hir sonde, 

As he pat koude no ping vndirstonde 

Hir tresouw hid, nor pleinly it aduerte : 

He was so hote marked in his herte 

With Louys hrond & his firy * glede, 

Of lyf nor deth pat he toke noon hede, 

But sette a-side wit and al resoiw, 

To caste a-forn by gode discrecioiw 

What was to do, with lokyng ful prudent. 

But he, in soth, was with love blent, 

In-to Troye w[h]an he shulde goon, 

Lyke as it fareth of lovers euerychon : 

Whawne pei haue kau^t in herte a fantasie, 

For no pereil, pou$ pei shuldfe] deye, 

)pei haue no xny^t nor power to be ware, 

Til pei vnwarly be trapped in pe snare, 

Her maladie is so furious. 

And pus Achilles and Anthilogus, 

Uestoris sone, han pe weye nome 

Toward pe touw, & ben to-gidre come [leat ii5] 

In-to [pe] temple, as ^e han herd me tellc. 

And Paris po list no lenger duelle, 

But, vnwarly, with his kny^tes alle 

On Achilles is at meschef falle, 

Eueryche of hem with a swerd ful bri^t. 

And sonrwe bokis seyn it was by ny$t, 

Wlian his deth, longe a-forn desired, 

By Eccuba & Paris was conspired. 

But Achilles in pis mortal caas, 

Arnonge hem alle, naked as he was, 

Kent onte a swerde in pe silve steuene, 

And like a kny$t he slow of hem seuene 

Of verray force, maugre al her my^t. 

But whan Paris per-of hadde a si^t, 

j)re dartes rau^t pat were kene & square, 

And sodeinly, or pat he was ware, 

3155. firy] fire C. 3160. blent] y blent D 1. 

3180. hem alle] all hem D 2. 3182. knyjt] kny D 2. 

3185. rau$t] cau^te D 1. 

comes at 
3152 once, 


3160 being blind 
with love. 


3168 Nestor's son, 
goes with 

3172 Paris and his 
knights fall 
on them. 



Achilles slays 

7 of them. 

3184 Paris takes 
8 darts, 

658 Achilles is murderd. Thus God punishes him. [BK. iv 

and runs 
Achilles thru 
the body; 

the knights 
hew him to 

and thus quit 
him for his 

The body of 
Achilles is 
thrown to 

to be eaten in 
the street. 

See how God 
slaughter by 
treachery ! 

At Helen's 

Ful secrely hid vnder )>e shade, 

Markyng at hym, & no noyse made, 3188 

Caste at hym euene as euere he can, 

)2at lied & shafte Jwru} his * body ran ; 

And J>er-wetA[-al] knyjtes nat a fewe 

With sharp[e] swerdis gan vp-on Inim hewe, 3192 

And left hym nat til he lay at grourade 

Ful pale ded, with many mortal woimde. 

And rijtfully, of resoim as it sit, 

Jpus was ]?e fraude & }>e falshede quit 3196 

Of Achilles, for his hi^e tresou?^ : 

As deth for deth is skilfully guerdons 

And egal mede, wat/i-outen any fable, 

To hem )>at be merciles vengable. 3200 

For jnlke day, Guydo write)) Jms, 

)?at Achilles and Anthilogus 

Of Paris wern in )>e temple slawe ; 

And afte?*ward pe body was * out drawe 3204 

Of Achille fro fe holy boimdis, 

And cruelly prowen vn-to hou?zdis 

To be deuourid in )>e brode strete, 

pe canel reraiynge \vtth his wawes wete 3208 

With-oute pite or any maner routhe. 

Loo ! here )>e ende of falshed & vntroujje, 

Loo ! here J?e fyn of swiche trecherie, 

Of fals deceit compassid by envie ! 3212 

Loo ! here )>e knot and conclusions, 

How God quyt ay slangier by tresouw ! 

Loo ! here pe guerdourz & )?e final mede 

Of hem )>at so deliten in falsehede : 3216 

For euery )>ing, platly for to seyne, 

Like as it is, his guerdons doth atteyne, 

As 36 may se of )>is Achilles, [leaf 115 6] 

Whiche on a ny^t in ]>Q temple les 3220 

His lyf ; for he was ay customable 

By fraude & tresouw for to be vengable. 

But it befel, at request of Eleyne, 

)pat ]>Q bodies of Jris ilke tweyne 3224 

3189. euene] as euene D 1. 3190. his] be C. 

3203. slawe] yslawe A. 3204. body was] bodies wern C. 

BK. iv] The Greeks lament Achilles and Antilochus. 

Conservid wern from )>e hungri rage 

Of best and foule, gredy & ramage. 

And }it ]>e[i] laie amyddes ]>e cite 

Ful openly, jjat men my$t [hem] se, 

To gret[e] gladnes to hem of jje tou?<, 

In-to tyme )>at Agamenou^ 

To kyng Priam sent his massageris 

To haue licence to fet hem horn on beris ; 

By graurct of who?^ J?ei haw ]>e corsis take. 

For whom Grekis swiche a sorwe make, 

J3at pite was and routhe for to here. 

And eue?*yche spake pus vn-to his fere : 

" Fare wel oure trust, now Achilles is dede ! 

Fare wel oure hope, & holly al our spede ! 

Fare wel oure loye, & oure chef diffence, 

feat had in manhod so gret excellence ! 

Fare wel, alias ! oure souereyn assurauwce ! 

Fare wel in kny^thod al oure suffisaurcce, 

For now, alias ! vnlikly is )>at we 

Shal euere wy?ine or geten pis cite 

To vs, alias,* so frowarde is fortune ! " 

But for pat pei my^tfe] nat contune 

Alweye in wo, nor in peyne endure, 

jpei maked han a riche sepulture 

To Achilles of stonys precious, 

And a-noper to Anthilogus. 

What shuld I now any lenger dwelle 

Ceriously pe rytis for to telle 

Of her buriyng? nor what wo }>ei make'? 

Her wepyng al, nor of her elopes blake, 

Nor how somme louren in her hood, 

And how so??ime go with mylke & blood, 

With doolful * herte, & in-to fire it shede ? 

And how oj>er caste gommys swete 

the corpses 
of Achilles 
and Antilo- 
chus are pre- 
served from 
beast and- 
fowl. Yet 
they lie 
openly in 

till Agamem- 
non sends for 

The Greeks 
lament their 

loss of 






3248 They raise 
rich tombs 
over Achilles 
and Antilo- 



3229. 2nd to] of D 2, D 1. 3230. In-to] Vn to >e D 1. 

3233. corsis] cors A, D 1. 

3236] And eche of hem )nis spake to his fere D 1. 

3241. alias] oure hope D 2. 

3245. alias] alle C. 

3254. of] am. D 2. 3256. how] oni. A. 

3257. doolful] woful C shede] shete A, D 2, D 1. 


66,0 Funereal rites of Achilles. Agamemnon's Speech to the Greeks. 

The games Amyd be grete flawme funeral, 

and .wrestling. ' 

at the funeral ]S"or of be pleies called palestral, 3260 

of Achilles 

cims Antil ~ ^ Or J* 6 wras ^ e ly n o p a * was a ^ J> e wake 1 

It were but vein me to vndirtake 

To tellen al ; wher-fore I lete be, 

Fully in purpos, like as $e shal se, i 3264 

To resorte, in conclusion??, 
Agamemnon To telle how j?e grete Agamenouft 

For his lordis in al hast ha)) sent.* 

And whan J?ei wern* assemblid in his tent, [leaf 115 <?] 3268 

Ful prudently J>is kyng, pis manly man 

WiJ> gret avis Jms his tale began : 

addresses the 
Greek lords : 

; Fortune has 

enraged you 

by the 
murder of 

If you're 

you'll revenge 
it when time 

How the Grekes, after that Achilles was slayne, toke 
their councell to fecche Firms his son. 1 

"Sirs," quod he, "Fortunys variaimce, 

Hir cher fraward & dowble.couwtenauwce, 

And sodeyn torn of hir false visage 

3oure hertis hath putte in swich a rage 

For J?e mordre, to God & man odible, 

Of Achilles, cruel and orible, 

By compassyng of Eccuba J>e queue. 

Now semeth me ]?at it shal be sene 

3if any manhod in joure hertis be, 

Or kny^tly force, in aduersite 

For tendure by vertu of suffe/'auwce, 

Til of his deth $e take may vengauwce, 

And manly quyte J)is outragous offence, 

Whan tyme cometh to make recompence. 

But sith ]>at $e be manly and prudent, 

I wolde first se J;e pleyn entent 

In J>is mater of ^ow J>at be so wyse, 

Here-vppon what is $oure a-vyse, 

By oon assent & voys in comwne : 






3259. flawme] fire & flawme D 1. 3261. 1st >e] of >e D 1. 
3263. be] it be D 1. 

3267. in al hast ha> sent] ha]> in al hast y sent C haj>] om. D 1. 

3268. J>ei wern] >ern C. 

3270. his] >is D 2 began] gan A, D 2. 3271. new IT A, D 1. 
3276. and] and the deeth A. 3289. &] a A. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 113 b (misplaced after line 3248). 

BK. iv] Tho Achilles is dead, the Greeks will continue the Siege. 661 

Wher pat 30 wil ]?e werre forpe contune, 
And ]>e sege [y-]go?me vppon J>is toura, 
Til ]?ei be brou^t to confusiou?*, 
Or in-to Grece now resorte ageyn 
For cause only [J>at] Achilles is slayn, 
pat whilom was ^oure stronge champiouw, 
3oure diffence and proteccioim, 
But finally now fat he is dede : 
Here-vppon, late se what is ^oure rede 
Seith openly, and no lenger tarie." 
And so?ftme anon gowne for to varie 
And to grucche, castynge to and fro, 
Stondynge in doute what \\er best to do. 
And some seide, on )>e tofer syde, 
For lyf or deth )>ei wolde an ende abide. 
And somme of hem J?at of wit were rude, 
For her party goraie to conclude, 
pat pei wold home ageyn retourne. 
And o)>er seide fat fei wil soiorne 
Stille at j>e sege, hap what hap[pe] may. 
And fus J?ei treten al fe longe day, 
Euery man like his oppiniouw, 
Til at ]>Q laste, in conclusiourc, 
)?ei ben accorded fully in-to oon, 
Fro ]?e sege neuer for to goon 
Vn-to J>e tyme ]?ei haue of J>e toiw 
j?oru^ her kny^thod ful possessiomz-, 
At her fre wil to spillen and to saue, 
Al-be Achilles was buried & y-graue. 
For ]5e trust of euery worfi kny^t 
Was finally, as goddes han be-hi3t, 
pat fei in hast shal fe toun possede : 
pis was hir hope, fully deuoide of drede, 
Vndispeired in ther oppinioun. 
And fanne anoon Aiax Thelamoura, 
A wor])i kny3t, & inmus of his bond 
Among alle fo of fe Grekis lond, 

" Will you go 
on with the 

or go home 
Achilles is 
dead ? " . 



3300 Some Greeks 



some say 
' fight on ' : 

some want to 

go home. 

3312 At last they 
resolve to 
carry on the 


till they win 

[leaf 1 15 d] 


3324 AjaxTela- 
in on speaks. 

3290. Wher] Wheber D 1. 3291. y-goraie] be gonne D 1. 
3295. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 3297. now] howe D 1. 
3306. go/me] be guraie D 1. 3308. wil] wolde D 2, D 1. 

662 By Ajax's advice, Achilles s son Pyrrhus is sent for. [BK. i\r 

" As Achilles 
is dead, I 
advise you 

to send for 
his son 

Pyrrhus or 



whom, pro- 
phets say 
Troy '11 never 
be taken. 

So, send for 
him at once." 

They send 
Menelaus for 

Seide euene J>us, pleinly in sentence : 

" Sirs," quod he, " fat ben here in presence, 3328 

My coiwseille is, platly, & my red, 

Now it stant so fat Achilles is ded, 

For his sone in al haste to sende 

Heder to come for to sen an ende 3332" 

Of ]>Q sege, and helpe vs in f is nede, 

Whiche now abit vrith kyng Lycomede, 

His bisaiel, and named is Pirrus. 

And some hym calle ISTeptolonyus, 3336 

Ri$t lusty, fresshe, &, by liklynes, 

Able to atteyne to gret worfines, 

As ]>e report & f e fame is kouthe, 

3if he hi??i drawe to armys in his $ouf e. 3340 

And sothfastly, but if bokes lye, 

As I have red & herd by prophesye, 

J?at finally Troye f e cyte 

Wit/i-outen hym shal neuere womie be 3344 

j)us bokes seyn, fat ben of olde memorie 

And how Grekis shal haue 110 victorie 

Til he come, f is soiie of Achilles : 

Wherfore, in haste, & beth nat rek[e]les, 3348 

Sendeth for hym, fat it be don anon." 

And f ei commende his conseil euerychon, 

And to his* red fully hem assent. 

And by avys ful prudently f ei sent 3352 

In al haste on f is embassiat 

])Q wyse kyng, ful fixmus of estat, 

I mene [fe] prudent noble Menelay. 

And forjje he goth ]?e silfe same day, 3356 

And on his lourne gan hi??z fast[e] spede 

Til fat he cam vn-to Lycomede, 

J)e olde kyng, as $e han herd me telle, 

Wher for* a tyme I wil leue him dwelle, 3360 

And to Grekis in J?e mene whyle, 

So as I can, directe ageyn my stile. 

3335. bisaiel] bysayl A. 

3340. him drawe] drawe hym A, drawe hym D 2, D 1. 
3342. red & herd] herde and red D 1. 3347. >is] the D 1. 
3350. cowmende] eomended D 1. 3351. his] his C. 
3352. ful] om. D 1. 3360. Wher for] Wherfore C. 

BK. iv] Tile effect of Summer Heat on Green things and Fruit. 663 

-How the Grekes held a great batayle agay[n]st the 
Troyans ; and how duke Meneste slew Polidamas, 
a troyen knyght; and how Paris slew kynge 
Thelamon with an arowe, 1 

The tyme of 361 whan pe shene sorane 
In )>e Crabbe had his cours I-ro/me 3364 

To J>e hi^est of his ascencioim, 

Whiche called is J)e somer staciouw, [ieafii6a] in summer, 

Whan pe vertu oute of Query rote 

Is drawen vp, and ]>e bawme soote 3368 

In-to )>e croppe ; & )>e freshe floure 
Moste lusty is of hewe & of coloure, 
Til Phebus chare, in his discencioim, 
Oute of pe Crabbe toward pe Lyouw 3372 

Holdeth his course in )>e firmament 
I mene whan he is retrogradient, 

And drie)> vp pe moysture & )>e weete when the 

Of herbe & floure with his feruent hete ; 3376 wMtMtb 


And al pat ver a-forn }\\m made grene, greenery 

To whyte he turneth with his bemys shene 

Bope seed and greyn be decoccioura* : 

For naturelly by digestioun, 3380 

)?at first was raw in fruitis & in flouris, 

And watrie eke be plente of humowrs, 

He drieth vp and ripeth at J>e fulle f r n u 1 t ripen8 

With his feruence, pat men may hem pulle, 3384 

Eche in his kynde, after pe sesou7^, 

Fro $er to ^er by reuolueiourz,, 

On her brauwchis freshely as pei sprede : 

Whan fat cheries plowbly ben & rede, 3388 

First in lune, fat sweth after May, in June, 

Whan pe hote mery somers day 

No dwery is, but like a geant longe 

)pe same tyme, }>e Grekis, stoute & stronge, 3392 the Greeks 

With rancour brent of her envious hete, 

3379. decoccioim] decoccoccoim C, decoacoicyouw A, decoctioiw 
D 2, decocciouw D 1. 

3381. tirst was] was fyrst D 2, 3388. plowbly] powbly A. 
3392. 2nd \>e]om. D 2, D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 113d 

664 Thf6 Greeks and Trojans muster again for Battle. [BK. IV 

The Trojans 
do so too. 

Ajax Tela 


rides with 
no armour 
but his 

Hath shapen hem vrith her foon to mete; 
take the field. And bri^t armed in-to J>e f eld pel go. 

And }?ei of Troye oute of ]>e toun also, 3396 

With her wardis ordeyned euerychon, 

Jpe feld haue take to mete with her foon, 

And gan tassemble vp-on ou)>er syde. 

But Thelamoiw, of foly and of pride, 3400 

fie same day (of hym as I rede), 

As he fat had of his deth no drede, 

Disarmed was for batail of a-reste, 

Of mail and plate bare vp-on be brest: 3404 

For of foly and surquedous outrage, 

Bare his hed, and bare eke liis visage, , 

And bare also, wM-oute basenet, 

And naked eke of viser and palet 3408 

He rood alday, of no Jung afferd, 

Havyng no wepene * but a naked swerd. 

For wilfully he left at home his shelde 

And his spere whan he toke J?e feld, 3412 

Ful lyk a knyjt sittynge on his stede. 

And after hym folweth Dyomede, 

Like Mars hym silfe, aboute him his meyne, [leaf 1166] 

And faste by cam duke Meneste, 3416 

Kyng Ylixes, and Agamenouw. 

And Prianms with hem of Troye toun 

Toke eke be feld, with a ful hevy chere : 

For he was bope ferful & in were, 3420 

In gret dispeire and inly ful of drede 

To issen out, now Hector was dede 

Worjri Troylus and also Dephebus 

For in hym silfe he dempte pleynly )ms : 3424 

Jjat he was febled gretly of his my^t 

Wtt/i-onte hem with Grekis for to fi^t ; 

But oute he goth, hap what hap[pe] may, 

And Parys eke, ful kny^tly of array, 342S 

3394. foon] enemyes D 1. 3395. >e] om. A, D 2. 
3404. J>e] his D 2, D 1. 3407. also] anoon D 1. 
3410. wepene] spere C. 3418. new IT A. , 
3419. eke] om. D 2 a] om. D 2. 
3424. he dempte pleynly] plemly he dempte D 1. 
3426. Witfc-oute hem] After her deth A. 

Priam feels 

his forces are 
weak, with- 
out Hector, 

BK. iv] TJie Greeks are worsted by Paris and the Trojans. 665 

Kyng Philymene and Pollydamas, 

Wor]>i Esdre, and with hym Eneas 

By oon assent, J>er is no more to seie, 

Jpe same day, kny^tly to lyue or deye 

In her diffence, and outerly iuparte, 

As goddes list, J>e felde to departe.* 

And proudly first )>e Grekes bei gan peree ; 

And Paris bo, with hem pat wern of Perce, 

Fil in a-side wij> ]>e sonne shene ; 

And his archeris vrith arowes square & kene 

}3e Grekis gan assondre to disseuere : 

For in be feld bei my^lfe] not perseuere, 

Only for shot of be strong archeris 

Of Perce lond, and be arblasteris, 

"VVhiche made hem fle, ri3t of verray nede, 

In-to be tyme J>at proude Diomede, 

Whan he of Grekis saw be sodeyn fli^t, 

Hem to releue, lyk a manly kny^t 

Is come vppon felly in his tfene. 

And first of al he sette on Phylymene, 

A worjri kyng, )?at cam on Troye syde ; 

Jpe whiche ageyn gan at hym [to] ride, 

]5at Diomede hath but litel wonhe,- 

With swerdis stif as ]?ei to-geder rorine 

]3at to behold it was a noble si^t, 

How eche of hem quyt hym like a kriy^t, 

As )>ei to-gider ran on horse-bak, 

)?at no man koude in nou)>er se no lak. 

But euere in on Troyens were so felle 

Vp-on Grekis, pat fei ne my^tfe] dwelle 

To kepe her lond, so )>ei made he?ft blede, 

Maugre }>e force of pis Diomede. 

}3e slau^ter was so hidous & so strong, 

})at poru^ )>e feld J?e woful noyse rong, 


3436 Paris and 
his Persian 



put the 

_, . . i Greeks to 
3444 flight. 


3448 attacks King. 
' Philomene, 




3430. hym] hem D 2, D 1. 3432. to] om. D 2. 

3434] What fyn folwe as goddes list departe C, What fyn folwe 
to felde to departe D 1. 

3435. proudly] prudently D 2 >e Grekes }?ei gan] J>ei gan be 
grekes D 1. 

3444. he] om. A, D 2. 3445. he] om. D 2 >e] bis D2, D 1. 

3450. at hym to] to hym D 1. 3456. nou>er] o>ir D 1. 

3457. euere in on Troyens] Troyens euere in On D 2 4 

but the 
Greeks lose- 

-666 Menestheus unhorses Polydamas. Ajax slays Trojans. [BK. IV 


fleeing the 
Greeks in 


and unhorses 

He is rescued 
by Philo- 


Ajax, armd 
only with 
his sword, 

slays many 

And mortal cry of wouwded folke pat lay 

Slayn on pe soyl, endelong pe way, [leaf lie c] 3464 

Til Meneste, sittynge on his stede, 

))e worpi duke, gan to taken hede 

In what meschef Grekis^were be-set, 

And hent anoon a spere sharpfe] whet, 3468 

Smytynge hys hors felly in pe side ; 

And poru$ pe rercgis kny^tly he gan ride, 

And stint[e] nat, so furious he was, 

Til pat he mette with Polly damas, 3472 

A Troyan kny^t and a manly man ; 

And vnwarly, at hym as he ran, 

He hitte hym so, in many mannes si^t, 

To pe erpe pat he made hym a-li^t ; 3476 

And with a swirde, at grouwle whan he lay, 

He hadde him * slawe }>e silfe same day 

In his rage and his cruel tene, 

Nadde only be )>at kyng Phylymene 3480 

Had hym reskwed in }>is auenture, 

Which so frendly for hym dide his cure, 

Maugre pe my^t of pis Meneste, 

From his hondis pat he went[e] fre, 3484 

Al forbaped & be-spreint with blood. 

And al pis while Aiax proudly rood, 

Of surquedie and of wilfulnes, 

Of foly rage and foule hardynes, 3488 

Naked his body, bed, and euerydel, 

Amyd his foon armed bri^t in stele, 

And of Troyens swiche a slau^ter made 

Jpat pei lay dede, bo]>e in soraie & shade, 3492 

Jjoro^-oute pe feld, where pis Thelamouw 

Amonge hem rod woder pan lyou?& 

)}at Troyen noon my^tfe] hym wet/istonde 

While pat he held his blodi swerd in * hond, 3496 

3463. lay] day A. 3468. whet] y whet D 1. 
3470. rengis]\enge D 1. 3473. and] om. A. 

3475. many] euery D 1. 

3476. he] om. D 2 a-li}t] to lighte D 2, li^t D 1. 

3477. at] at >e D 1. 3478. him] be C. 3480. be jt] the A. 
3486. al] in A. 3493. poroj-oute] J3oru$ D 1. 

3495. hym] hym ]>o D 2, D 1. 3496. in] on C, D 1. 

Ajax slays Persians. Paris shoots him with a venomd Arrow. 667 

Jpat wonder was, naked as he rood, 

WM-oute wouwde* ]>at he so longe a-bood. 

And, as Guydo make]) rehersaille, 

And write)) eke for a gret mervaille, 3500 

j)at he vnslayn my^tfe] so contune : 8lain - 

But whan a bing is shapen of Fortune, But Fortune 

It mote be-falle, what-euere J>ing it be, 

In wele or wo, loye or aduersite 3504 

Whan oon shal deye or whan he shal eskape. and his death. 

But she, alias ! can alder-best be-iape, 

And bring a man vnwarly to meschauwce 

Whan he best weneth to han assuraunce 3508 

In }>is lady of transmutacioun, 

Lik as it fil of worj)i Thelamouw 

bis same day, whiche of foly pride He foolishly 

rides among 

Amonge his foon gan so fer to ride, 3512 his foes, 

I-liche freshe, ri^t as he be-gan, 

And slowe of Perce many manly man, 

And of hym silfe toke no maner hede, 

His kny^tly hert so voyde was of drede. 3516 

Til Paris sawe his gret[e] hardines, and Paris 

And how fat he his kny^tes dide opp? f esse, 

Enchasyng hem so mortally & narwe * : 

Wz't/i-oute abood anon he toke an arwe, 3520 

Eutoxicat, sharpe, & venemous, shoots him, 

And in his Ire fel and despite us, W o)!d 

And shet at hym in be silfe tyde, arrow. 

As seith Guydo, and* smet hym boru} pe side, 3524 

J)at of pat hurte )>er is no more to seie 

He felte wel hat he muste deye. Feeling he 

must die, 

And whan he sawe noon oper remedie, 

Forpe he rood, supprised vrith enyie, 3528 

J3oru^-oute J>e pres, his* swerd ay in his hond, 

In-to tyme ]>at he Paris fonde, 

And vn-to hym, m't/i a pale chere, 

He seide bus, anon as 30 shal here : 3532 and says: 

3498. woimde] a woimde C. 

3503. what-euere fing] what )>ing e\\ere D 1. 

3514. many] many a D 1. 3519. narwe] norwe C. 

3522. his] this A. 3524. and] he C. 3529. his] >e C. 

3530. tyme] >e tyme D 1. 

668 Ajass tells Paris that hell send him to. Hell first. [BK. iv 

"As you've 
wounded me, 

I'll stop your 
going back to 

You shall go 
to Hell before 

and I'll di- 
vorce you 
from Helen. 

For, thru 
the adultery 
of you two, 
have many 
worthy folk 
lost their 

How Kyng Thelamon, after that he had his dethes 
wounde of Paris, Slew Paris after, with a 
sworde. 1 

" Parys," quod he, " as Jjis mortal wounde 

Of J>in arwe, sharpe & square y-grou?ide,* 

Hath finally my lyf put in dispeire, 

ISTeuere in-to Grece for to han repeire, 3536 

Ki^t so shal I, be short conclusions, 

A weye shape, fat in-to Troye tou^ 

With J>i lyf pou entre shalt no more, 

At myn hert fe venyin bit so sore, 3540 

)5at ofer geyn is ]?er iioon but detli. 

But $it to-forn or I ^elde vp fe breth, 

Trust me ri^t wel, ]>er may be no socour, 

J2at J>ou slialt first be my predecessour 354 

And gon a-forn, depe donn in* helle, 

J)er 'with Pluto eternally to dwelle, 

So as of ri^t it is necessarie : 

)5e tyme is set, whiche may nat tarie, 3548 

And my troujje for morgage in depos, 

)pat in al haste I shal make a dyvos 

Atwixe ]?e and fe queue Eleyne, 

And twynne assonder eke fe' false cheyne, '' . 355 

Whiche lynked was by colour of wedlok', ' 

And hath so longe be shet vnder loke 

Only by fraude & false engyn also. 

But now ]>e knot shal be broke a-two, 3556- 

With my ri^t hond, fe troufe to darreyne ; 

For poru^ cause only of ^ow tweyne, 

In Jjis werre many worj>i khy^t 

His lyf hath lost, & many an-ojw wy^t, , 356(> 

On ou]>er side, for ^oure bojje sake. 

But of al )>is I shal an ende make [leaf ma] 

Of ^oure loue & foule avoutr[i]e : 

For, finally, Paris, J>ou shalt dye 3564 

3534. y-grouwde] graimde 0. 3539. J>i] J>e D 2. 
3543. wel] om. D 1. 3545. in] in to C, to A. 
3551. Atwixe] Atwene D 1. 3557. With] And wij> D 1. 
3558. cause] the cause A, >e cause D 1. 

1 Koyal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 114 c. 

BK. iv] Ajax kills Paris. The Greeks encamp under Troy's walls. 669 

Of myn hondis, as it is jji chauwce ! " 

And with pat word his swerd he gaw 

A-boue his lied, & smet hym in J>e face, 

J)at he fil ded in pe silve place ; 

For his hed he parted hath on tweyne. 

And ri}t fiirpe-w?'tA, )>er is no more to seyne, 

Aiax, alias, of his mortal wouwde 

Fil ded also, gruf vn-to pe grou??de 

Ful pitously ; & panne pei of Troye 

Han Paris take vp oute of pe woye, 

And bare hym horn in-to her cite. 

But Diomede & duke Meneste, 

With many Greke ridynge environs, 

Swen pe chaas euene to pe toun ; 

But for cause Titan gan to * lowe, 

Doun by pe arche of his daies bowe 

Fer in-to weste, vnder pe rowes rede, 

And Espirus gan his Ii3t to shede 

))is to seyn, for it drowe' to ny^t, 

)?e Grekis ben repeired anoon ri^t, 

Eueryche of hem to his loggynge place 

To take her reste al fat ny^tes space 

Saue, as I rede, J?at Agamenoim 

]5e Grekis made fast[e] by )>e toun 

To sette her* tentis and papillyouws, 

Habitacles, and newe mansiouws, 

Of verray pride faste by J>e wal. 

And )>ei of Troye, dispeiyed- oueral, 

Ko refut koude Grekis for to lette, 

But of assent fast her gates shette, 

And al J?e ny3t on ]?e wallis wake, 

And ouere pis, swiche a wo pei make 

Jjoru^ ]?e cite, pat Paris was so ded ; 

For, finally, now pei can no red, 

But wepe & crye & sorwen eue?'e in oon, 

Ajax splits 
Paris's skull 
in two. 

The Trojans 
bear him into 

The Greeks 





but night 

3584 and they go 

3588 tho they pitch 
their tents 


close to the 
walls ofTroy. 

3596 The Trojans 
weep for 

3569. his hed he] he his hede D 1. 3572. vn-to] to D 2. 
3575. hym] hem D 1 her] Troye A. 3579. to] go C, goo D 1. 

3580. arche] arke A, D 2, D 1 bowe] rowe D 1. 

3581. in-to] in he Dl. 3583. to] is to D 1. 
3587. as] J>at D 1. 3589. her] his C. 

670 The sorrow of Priam, Helen, &c.,for Paris' s death. [BK. iv 

The Trojans 
are in 

There's no- 
thing for 
them but to 
keep close 
inside their 

Priam sheds 

weeps and 


tears her hair 

and clothes. 


clasps Paris's 
corpse in her 

Now alle )>e sonys of Priam us wer goon ! 3600 

Fortune, alias ! hath hem so appeired, 

))at of her lyf bei ben dis[es]peired, 

Of al hope and of good welfare 

Perpetuelly for to lyue in care 3604 

Yn-to her deth ; and )>at was fast[e] by : 

For now ber is no maner remedie 

Vp-on no syde, nor refut noon at al, 

But hem to kepe clos wtt7*-Inne wal, 3608 

))at for to sen it was a pitous bing. 

And swiche a wo make)? now be kyng 

For Paris deth, bat for dedly smerte [leaf 1175] 

Hym bou^tfe] platly J>at his sorfnl herte 3612 

Eecurles wold[e] riue a-tw[e]yne ; 

And in-to terys he gan stille and reyne, 

As he wolde for verray sorwe deye. 

And of be quene, alias ! what shal I seye, 3616 

Eccuba his owne moder dere, 

J3at crieth, wepeth 'with a woful chere 

Of Polycene, bat was so wo-be-goon, 

And of his sustren also euerychoon, 3620 

J3at han her heer & her clones torn, 

As bei had* her owne deth [y-]sworiij 

For drery wo, and for pitous peyne. 

But for-by alle, be faire quene Eleyne 3624 

"Wailleth, crieth wi)> a dedly chere, 

J)at her eyen, whiche whilom wer so clere, 

For-dirked wern vrith doolful teris smerte. 

And to be cors sodeynly she sterte, 3628 

And clippid * it in hir armys tweyne, 

And pitously enbrace it and restreyne, 

Like as she wolde vrith hym dye anoon ; 

3600. new IT A. 

3602. ben] ben so D 1 dysespeyred A, disespeyred D 2: 

3608. wal] be wal D 1. 

3609. sen] seyn A. 3610. now] eke D 1. 

3612. sorful] wooiulle D 1. 3618. crieth] crieth & D 1. 

3619. Of] And of D 1. 3622. had] hat C. 

3623. drery] verrey D 1. 3624. for-by] Jit to fore D 1. 

3625. Wailleth] f>at weileth & D 1. 

3626. whiche whilom] bat some tyme D 1. 
3629. clippid] clappid C, D 2. 

3631. vrith hym dye] die with hym D 1. 

Helen is 
taken by force 
from Paris's 

Her rosy hue 

is changed to 
ashy pallor. 

She swoons 

and wants to 
die with her 

BK. iv] The great Grief of Helen for the Death of Paris. 671 

JFor stille she lay, dowmbe as any stoon, 3632 

As marbil cold, hir lymys cravmpisshing, 

Eedy at al toward hir buriynge, 

Til men by force fro?^ ]?e cors hir hente ; 

And she hir heer & hir cliekes rente, 3636 

As she wer fallen in a rage, 

}3at changed was, alias ! in hir visage 

Hir natif colour and hir rody hewe, 

Whilom as fresche as any rose newe : 3640 

Now is she like vn-to asshes colde ; 

And with hir hondis, ay to-gider folde, 

Hir silfe she smot on hir pale face ; 

And eue?-e amonge j>e cors she dide enbrace, 3644 

In hir swowes as she nl to grourade, 

Twenty tyme, and wepte ful his wou-wde. 

With wo she was so waped and amaat, 

Of al couwfort, alias ! disconsolat, t 3648 

In herte beyng inly desirous, 

ftoru^ hir rage passyng furious, 

To deye attonys with hir owne kny^t ; 

And* toward deth enclosid was hir sijt, 3652 

As she fat lyst to lyve now 110 more. 

I trow[e] fat neuer man be-fore 

No woman sawe falle in swiche distresse, 

In swiche disioint of dedly hevynes, 3656 

Nor for no wo so pitously raue : 

Nat Cleopatre goynge to hir graue, 

Nor woful Tesbe, pat fro J>e kave sterte, 

Whan she hir silfe smote vn-to J>e herte, [leaf 117 c] 3660 

Nor J?e feithful trewe Orestille, 

Whan J>at she sawe hir lord ageyn hir wille, 

Marcus Plancus, vn-to shipe goon, 

And for his love fil doim ded anon, 3664 

Nor J?e sorwe of trewe lulya, 

Nor j>e feruence of feithful Porcia, 

3632. dowmbe] stille D 1. 3636. chekes] clones D 1. 
3638. in] om. D 1. 3640. Whilom] Somme tyme D 1. 
3651. attonys] allone D 1. 3652. And] For C. 
3655. woman] man D 1. 3657. raue] y Rave A, D 2. 

3661. feithful trewe] trewe feithfulle D 1 Orestille] Orystylle A. 

3662. }>at] om. D 1. 

Her distress 
is greater 

than that of 
of Thisbe, 


of Julia, 

or of Portia, . 

672 Helen's Grief for Paris was the, greatest ever known. [BK. iv 

Of whiche pe ton fil ded sodeynly, 

For she sawe blood spreint so cruelly 3668 

On hir lordis dredful garnement, 

And Porcia, so trewe in hir entent, 
Brutus'swife, Whan pat hir lord Brutus lost his lyf, 
who burnt For be-cause she mvit haue no knvfe, 3672 

herself to 

death, Wip colys rede slovve hir silfe, alias ! 

Was nat also in be silfe caas 
oro/Arte- Arthemysya, queue of Tarse lond? 
who raixt the Of Mausolus pe graue whan she fond, 3676 

ashes of her 

M^Ss ^ r owne k n J T 3t f w h s bonis smale, 

Ful wofully, & vfith a cher 113 1 pale, 
Sink daily ^ ie P owc ^ er ma de, & drank it euery morwe. 

But al fie wo and pe furious sorwe 3680 

Beater than Qf j> e se echon jet may nat atteyne 

W rief Helen ' 8 ' ^ n ' to f e sorw e of be quene Eleyne, 

])at finally wil hir silfe for-do 

for Paris. For Paris sake, whom she loued so : 3684 

For after hym she wil nat lyve a day, 
But ben awreke, pleynly, }if she may, 
Vp-on hir lyf rather panne disseuere. 
And pus in wo ay she doth perseuere, . 3688 

In hir hert Paris sat so depe. 

! some Alias ! who seith wo??imen can nat wepe ! 
dout[e]les pei haue it of nature, 
it so be* pat pei no wo endure, 3692 

ham and $it can pei feyne and saltfe] teris fynde. 

weep without J 

real sorrow. Plente y-nowe, of her owne kynde, 

And sorweles monies and compleyne. 
But Helen I seie nat pis for be quene Eleyne, - 3696 

was wounded * 

to the heart, j^at was with wo wouwded to pe herte, 

J?at fro pe deth she wendfe] nat a-sterte- 

For depis darte hir herte made ryve, 

And ^it she roos ageyn fro deth to lyve, 3700 

3674. also] so D 1. 3676. Mausolus] Mausalus A, D 2, D 1. 
3677. kny^t] om-. D 1. 3681. may] may it D 1. 
3682. quene] faire quene D 1. 3683. finally] wilfully D 2. 
3687. rather hanne] ]>anne to D 1. 

3690. seith] seith that A. 

3691. Jet] $es C. 3692. so be] be so C. 
3698. a-sterte] haue sterte D 1. 

women can 

Every woe 
has its 


^ - ^ n couldn't 
3708 slay herself. 

But I'll not 
write more 
about her 


BK. iv] Helen cannot kill herself. Paris is grandly buried. 673 

-Only by grace, for al hir fel[le] rage : 
For euery wo by processe muste aswage, 
And oue?'gon and wasten by myracle ; 
For eche venym maked is triacle, 3704 

And euery wo hath his remedie. 
For pou^ Eleyne faynfe] wolde die, 
Hir kynde nolde assent[e] jet )>er-to, 
So sodeinly to slen hir silfe for wo : 
She was a wowman, no man shuld her wyte ! [leaf 1170} 
Me liste no more of hir wo endite, 
List vn-to $ou J>at it were tedious 
To heren alle hir peynes furious, 
Hir cruel wo and lamentaciouw, 
Whiche wold[e] meve to compassions, 
In verray soth to writen eue/ydel 
Any herte j?ou^ it were made of stel. 3716 

For kyng Priarn and )>e quene also 
Hadden svviche routh of her pitous wo, 
To sene hir so wepen * and compleyne, 
]?at for hir )>ei felt as moche peyne 3720 

As Ipei dide al-most for Paris. 
Her-of no more : for Priam by devys, 
After pis rage and ]ris mortal wo, 

Amyd )>e temple sacrid to luno 3724 

Ordeyned hath, wi]> ful besy cure, 
For pe cors a riche sepulture, 
And in al haste }>er-m made it shette, 
J?at in sothnes jiffe I shulde * lette 3728 

To tellen al pe ritis and pe guyse 
)?at f>er wer made \n her peynym wyse, 
And Ipe costis of his buriynge, 

It shuld[e] be to longe a tariynge, 3732 

Ceriously per-on to abyde, 
Wherfore, as now I lete ouerslyde 
Her peynym ritys supersticious. 

3707. assente Jet] jit assente D 1. 3710; endite] to endite D 1. 
3713. cruel] mortal D 2. 3716. Any] An D 1. 
3719. so wepen] wepen so C. 

3728. shulde] shuld not (the word not partly erased) C, shuld 
not D 1. 

3734. lete] lete it D 1. 

Priam and 
grieve almost 
as much for 

as they did 
for Paris, 

who is richly 
buried in the 
Temple of 

But I can't 
delay to 
describe bis 
Pagan rites. 

674 Priam won t fight in the open. The Queen of the Amazons. 

Priam orders 
the gates of 
Troy to be 
kept shut 

as Ms men 
daren't take 
the field. 


him to come 
out and 

but he says 

he'll only do 
that when lie 

For the Queen 
of the Ama- 
zons is com- 
ing to help 

How Kyng Pryam kepte the Citee of Troye, And 
durste no lengere holde Batayle agaynst the 
Grekes; and how the quene of Ama^onis came, 
with other of her ladies, to helpe the Troyans. 1 

And telle I wil how kyng Priamws 3736 

Ccwzmaiwded ha]?, of meschef & of nede, 

]3oru$ Troye touw, only of verray drede, 

To shette her gatis strongly as )?ei may, 

And per-vppon, bo)>e ny$t and day 3740 

To kepe wache : for, shortly, }>ei of Troye, 

Disconsolat of al her olde loye, 

Can no refut, but wepe and sorwe make ; 

For )>ei ne durst no more vndirtake 3744 

Ageyn Grekis in-to feld to goon. 

Til on a day kyng Agamenoim 

His messager by good avisement 

To Priamws in-to Troye hath sent, 3748 

Bequeryng hym, of manhod like a kny^t, 

To issen oute with Grekis for to fi$t, 

As he was wont, with his chiualrie. 

But kyng Priam his axyng gan* denye, 3752 

And shortly seide to hym pat was sent, 

]3at lie ne wolde at his assygnement 

Nat onys passe J>e gatis of ]>e toun, 

But at his owne fre elecciotm, 3756 

Whan-euere hym list, with oute?i co??ipellyng. 

And $it, in soth, cause of his tariynge [leaf us a] 

Was for J?e hardy quene of Femyiiye 

Toward Troye faste gan hir hi^e 3760 

Oute of hir lond, a litel region??, 

jpe whiche, as bokis make meuciou?*, 

After )>e syyt of )>e firmament 

Is in )?e plage of fe orient, 3764 

And called is }>e regne of Ama^onys, 

3736. new IT A how] of D 2. 
3745. in-to] in >ey D2 feld] the feelde D 1. 
3751 is misplaced at bottom of column in D 2. 
3752. his axyng gan] gan his axyng C. 
3760. Toward] pat towards D 1 . 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 115 d (misplaced after line 3748). 

Of the Amazons. How they learn to fight, & to breed Children. 675 

Of whiche f e custom[e] & f e wone ys, 
))at only wommen f er-in shal abide : 
And f ei ar wont armyd for to ryde, 
And han in armys gret experience ; 
For her labour & her dilligence 
Is finally to hauen excersyce 
Fro day to day in Martis hi^e seruyse. 
And ouer-more, her custom and vsavwce, 
As to f is day is maked remembrauwce, 
Is fat no man shal hem ny^e ner, 
But }if it be f re monies in f e ^er : 
)3is to seyn, In lune, April, & May ; 
And fan f e wommen han in custom ay 
Vn-to an yle a litel f er be-syde, 
Wher as ]>e men by hem silfe abide 
Fro $ere to $ere to-gidre euerychon, 
Vn-to fe men oute of her lond to gon, 
And fere abide in fat regiouw 
Til tyme cometh of concepciouw, 
Wz't^-oute tariynge any lenger while ; 
For f awne anoon home vn-to her He 
Jpei repeire oute of fat centre 
Vn-to tyme fat f ei delynered be. 
And as faste as fe childe is born, 
For lak of kepynge f at it be nat lorn, 
He fostrid is, til f re ^ere be a-goon, 
Amonge fe wommen; & fa?zne ri^t anon 
To f e He besiden adiacent, 
Vn-to fe men fe childe in haste is sent, 
3if fat it be of kynde masculyn. 
And $if it falle fat it be femynyn, 
With f e wommen abide stille it shal 
Til fat it be in actis marcial 
Ful wel experte, & fat she can eke knowe 
To handle a spere or to drawe a bowe, 
Lyke f e statutis of fat regiourc, 


In the He of 
the Amazons, 
only women 

who daily 
do warlike 
3772 exercises, 



and go with 
men only in 

April, May, 
and June, 

in the Men' 

3784 When they've 
conceivd chil- 

they go home, 


and bring the 
children up 
till they're 
3 years old. 


Then the 
Boys are sent 
to the Men, 

3796 but the Girls 
are kept by 
the Women, 


and taught 
how to fight. 

3766. wone] vsage D 1. 3768. ar] be D 1. 
3775. hem nyje] ny3e hem D 1. 3777. to] is to A, D 1. 
3779. a] om. A, D 2. 3788. tyme] >e tyme D 2, D 1. 
3791. a-goon] goon D 1. 3799. eke] it D 2. 


676 Of the Amazon Queen, Penthesilea, &her love for Hector. [BK. IV 

Of this Ama- 
zonian He 
Europe and 

the Queen is 


renownd in 

womanly and 

She loves 
Hector for his 
nobleness ; 

and when she 
hears of the 
Greek siege 
of Troy, 

she aqd her 
1000 armd 

)5e whiche, as bokes make mencioim, 

Is set be-twene Ewrope & Asya. 

And of ))is lond was Pantysyllya 3804 

Whilom lady and gouerneresse, 

Ful renomed of strengpe & hardynes 

J)oru^-oute pe world, bope in lengpe & brede; [leaf us 6] 

And ^it, in soth, to speke of woramanhede, 3808 

For al her my^t she had an huge pris, 

For bope she was vertuous and wys, 

Wonder discret, & had an honest name, 

Nat-w^tAstondynge }>e excelle of fame 3812 

Of hir renoim in armys and pe glorie : 

For of conquest and of hi^e victorie 

She was most surmovntyng, out of drede, 

Of any woraman pat I can of rede ; 3816 

And, sothly, }it bokes bere witnesse, 

Of wommanhede and of gentilnesse 

She kepte hir so pat no pmge hir a-sterte. 

])Q whiche loued w^tft al hir hool[e] herte 3820 

Worpi Hector, and with al her my^t, 

Only for he was so noble a kny^t, 

}?at hir loye & worldly plesauwce, 

Hir hertly ese & souereyne soffisaurcce, 3824 

In verray soth, where she wake or winke, 

Was euere in oon vp-on hym to pinke, 

Of verray feith, with-outen any sloupe. 

And vn-to hym she was be bond of troupe, 3828 

Confederat of olde affecciou?^ 

j)at whan she herd how pat Troye toun 

Besegid was of pe Grekis felle, 

ftis hardy quene liste no lenger dwelle, 3832 

But hasteth hir, as fast as euere she may, 

Toward Troye in ful good array 

With alle pe * worpi wommen of hir londe, 

Ful wel expert & preved of her honde, 3836 

Wei horsed eke, and armed richely. 

3805. Whilom] Somtyme D 1. 3814. 2nd of] om. D 1. 
3823 is omitted in D 2 and replaced by 3821. 
3825. where] whe>er D 1. 3826. to] om. D 2. 
3828. be] om. D 1. 3835. >e] hir C. 
3837. eke and] & eek D 2. 

BK. iv] Penthesilea persuades Priam to fight the Greeks. 677 

And, as I fynde, in her company, Penthesiiea 

A pousand maidenes ridinge by her side, armd Ama- 

jjis worpi quene, )>at durst[e] wel abide, 3840 her . 

She with hir brou^t, in steel armyd bri^t, 

For loue of Hector, hir owne trewe kny^t. 

And on hir weie fast she gan hir * spede 

To helpen hym $if she seie nede : 3844 to help 

For in no pinge she koude hir more delite 

jjarcne towarde hym feithfully hir quyte, 

For fat was al hir lust & hertis loye. 

But whan J?at she corner was to Troye, 3848 whenshe 

And herde telle by relaciouw na hears 

J Hector is 

]5at he was ded, most wor}>i of renou?i, dead 

To whom she was so lovinge & so trewe, 

Anoon she gan to chaungen cher and hewe, 3852 

And pitously for to wepe & crye, she weeps, 

And ferd in soth as she wold[e] deye 

For verray wo and hertly hevynes, 

And Jjou^t she wold pom} hir wor pines [leafiisc] 3856 and resolves 

Avenge his deth, platly, ^if sh may, h m. 

On J?e Grekis ; and so vppon a day 

She preieth Priam, with gret affeccioiw, she beg? 

Priam to 

For to oppene )>e gatis of ]?e toura, 3860 P^ 8 the 

And to gon oute with Grekis for to 63 1 Greek! ht the 

))at fei may knowe & be expert ari^t 

Of J>is womman J)e grete worjnnes, 

And of ]>is quene ]>e famous * hardines. 3864 

And so ]?e kyng,* hopynge for )JG beste, 

"Wtt/i-oute abood g-rauwted hir requeste He agrees, 

be nexte morwe, whaw Phebws shon ful shene : and next day 

out they go, 

And al to-forn out goth Phylymene, 3868 

])& noble kyng, w^t7i hem of Paffaganye ; 

And after hym oj>er kny^tes manye 

Folwed after with worj)i Eneas, with Eneas, 

Jje Troyan eke, daiw$ Pallydamas. 3872 

3840. durste wel] wel durste D 1. 3843. hir] to C. 

3844. 3if] if that D 1. 3845. in] om. D 2, D 1. 

3846. f)a?ine] pat D 1. 3848. J>at] om. D 1. 

3856. worbines] hai-dinesse D 1. 3857. platly] pleinly D 1. 

3864. famous] grete 0. 3865. kyng] quene C. 

3867. ful] om. D 1. 

678 Pentliesilea unhorses Menestheus and Diomede. [BK. iv 

Pentnesiiea And paraie ])& quene Pantasyllya 

Amazons By J?e gate called Dardanyca 

Toward Grekis proudly Issed oute, 

With hir woramen ridyng hir aboute. 3876 

})e whiche anoon whan Grekis dide espie, 

are met by In-to }>& f elde gan hem faste 

And first of alle wor))i Meneste, 

Pantasillia wharaie he dide se, 3880 

With his sporis made his stede gon ; 

And with a spere rood to hir anoon, 

Of whom }>e quene astonyd neuer-adel, 

Cau$t eke a spere pat was squarid wel, 3884 

Ro[u]nde pe shafte, and pe hed wel groiwde, 
she unhorses Whiche as l>ei coupe smet him doim to groimde. 


And inaugre hym reved him his stede. 
But* panne in haste in cam Diomede, 3888 

And cruelly to J>e quene gan ride ; 
And she as faste on pe toper side 
Rood eke to hyni, in platis bri$t & shene ; 
And as J>ei mette -with her aperis kene, 3892 

She hitte so Jis feile Diomede, 
For al his rny^t and his manlyhede, 
and Diomede, Jjat she hyui made his sadel for to lese 

Jper is no more, he my^tfe] po nat chese. 3896 

And in dispite of his men echon, 

She hath his sheld hym beraft anoon, 

And it delyuereth, proudly as she rood, 

To a maide J?at vppon hir abood. 3900 

How Pantasilia toke Thelamon prisoner. 

and fights And like a tigre in his gredinesse, 
or a lioness. Or like, in soth, to a lyouwesse, 

}5at day she ferde, ridynge vp & 

Amonge )>e Grekis, til fat Thelamou?i 3904 

Gan beholde ]?e slau^ter [pat] she made, [leaf us d] 

Of hi^e dispit and rancour ouerlade, 

3879. new IT A wor>i] >e worbi D 1. 3881. gon] to goon D 1. 
3888. But] And C. 3892. her] his D 2. 
3895. hym made] made him D 1. 3896. bo nat] not J>o D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 1166 (misplaced after line 3898). 

Ajax is taken prisoner ~by PenthesUea, but rescued by Diomede. 679 

As he fat my^t for Ire not sustene, 

Gan ren his hors to falle vppon bis* quene. 

But whan J)at she his comynge dide espie, 

She fil on hym in hir malencolye 

So mortally, maugre his kny^tes alle, 

]5at to ]?e grouwde she made hi?ft for to falle, 

And Grekis put in so grete dis[a]ray, 

Wher-euere she rood al bat ilke day ; 

For J>ei my^t a-forn hir nat sustene. 

And boru^ )?e helpe of kyng Philymene, 

As myn auctor recordeth in his boke, 

Amyd be feld ThelamouTi she toke, 

And sent hym forbe boru} her hi^e renou^ 

As prisoner toward Troye touw. 

Til vn-to rescus cam cruel Diomede, 

And cruelly on hem bat gan him lede 

He fil vnwarly, with an huge route 

Of his kny^tes ridynge hym ahoute, 

And from her hondis, maugre al her my^t, 

He hym deliuereth like a manly kny$t. 

At whiche tyme, j)is hardy quene anon, 

With hir wommen aboute hir eue?'ychon, 

)3e Grekis hath a-forn hir on ]>e pleyn 

(As writ Guydo) so mortally be-leyn, 

}3at she hem made of necessite 

Oute of ]>e feld with her swerd to fle, 

J)at verrayly it was incredible, 

And to leve a maner impossible, 

To sene J>e wo??zmen Grekis so enchase, 

Whiche my^tfe] nat abide a-forn her face, 

Nor in ]?e feld in any wyse stonde : 

For pei hem dryve to pe silfe stronde, 

DOUTI to J>e clyf of )?e salt[e] se, 

And slowe of hem so huge gret plente, 

J)at finally fei had[de] be distroyed 

For euere-more, and outterly accloied, 


Ajax charges 

3912 butisunhorst 
by her, 



and made 

but is rescued 
by Diomede 

3924 and his 

she and her 
3928 Amazons 



drive the 

to the sea- 

3940 and slay lots 
of em. 

3908. >is] be C, D 1. 3911. maugre] amcwge D 1. 

3912. for] om. D 1. 

3915. For] pat D 2, D 1 my3t] ne my3te D 1 nat] om. D 2, D 1. 

3929. hir] hym D 1. 3936. a-forn j forne D 1. 

680 The Amazons & their Queen retire victorious to Troy. [BK. iv 

Diomede is 
the stay of 
the Greeks, 

their sturdy 

but Penthe- 
silea and her 

go back 
to Troy, 

where Priam 
thanks her, 

and offers her 


She daily 
attacks the 

Nadde Diomede stonde[n] at diffence, 
And of kny^thod maked insistence : 
For he fat day, in parti and in al, 
For Grekis stood as a sturdy wal, 
And was allone her helpe & chef socour. 
But for al fat, with worship & honour, 
Pantasillya, as made is memorie, 
Repeired is wif conquest and victorie, 
With alle hir wommen in-to Troye touTfc 
Vp-on f e hour of Phetws goynge doun. 
And by f e side of f is hardy quene, 
Armyd in stel, rood kyng Phylymene, 
Whom Priamws hath with gret reuerence 
Kny^tly reseved, & dide his dilligence 
Hem to refreshe with euery maner fing 
)?at my^tfe] be vn-to her likyng, 
As her hertis koude best deuyse. 
And after fis, in ful goodly wyse, 
He Ranked hath f e noble hardy quene, 
Of hir goodries fat hir lyste to sene 
To helpyn hym in his grete nede, 
And offrid hir (in Guy do as I rede) 
Al fat he hath, tresour and richesse, 
Hopynge fully jwru^ hir worf ines 
Yp-on Grekis avengid for to be, 
And for to kepe hym and his cite 
Maugre Grekis, whiche of hem seye nay. 
For, as I rede, after day be day 
She stint[e] nat proudly hem tassaile, 
Ageyn whos swerd fei my^t[e] nat availe, 
So mortally she made her sides blede. 

[leaf 119 a] 









How Firms, the son of Achilles, was Keceyuyd 
Kyng myrundones. 1 

tm Pyrrims Til Menelay fro kyng Lycomede 



Repeired is wif Neptolonyus, 

3957. Hem] Hym D 1. 3959. her] om. D 2. 
3961. >e noble hardy] >is hardy noble D 1. 
3966. Hopynge] Kepynge D 2 worjnnes] hardinesse D 1. 
3971. proudly hem] hew proudly D 1. 3974. fro] fro the D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 116 d (misplaced after line 3980). 

BK.IV] Pyrrhus is welcomd ~by the Myrmidons & the Greeks. 681 
Whiche is in bokes called eke Pirrus, 3976 

-r-i-r, ., Achilles' s 

Whilom J>e sone of cruel Achilles, son, 

Whom for to sen ful huge was )>e pres 

Of j^e Grekis goynge envirouw. 

And for he was by successions 3980 

Born to ben eyer of fis Achilles, 

He was resseyued of Mirundones is received 

"With grete honour & gret solempnite, midons, 

So glad were )>ei her ^ong[e] lord to se, 3984 

To whom echon J>ei maden affiaurace, 

And wern eke sworn by bo?ide & assurance who swear 

faith to him. 

For lyf or deth to hym to be trewe, 

As his liges, and chaunge for no newe 3988 

To obeie his lust in al maner )>ing. 

And after J>is, Agamenouw )>e kyng He is 

Made hym kny^t ; and Thelamonivs Agamemnon, 

With a swerde girte a-noon Pirrus, 3992 and girt with 

. a sword by 

Seiynge to hym in }>e silve place, Ajax, 

With ]?e baudrik whaw he him dide embrace : 

" Take hede," qiwd he, " myn owne cosyw dere, 

To resemble in manhod & in chere, 3996 Wh 5> bids . Mm 

be like his 

In kny^thod eke, and in worjrinesse father, 

To Jn fader, whiche in sothfastnesse 

In his tyme was so noble a kny^t ; 

And ouermore, with * al ])i f ul[le] myjt 4000 

Tavensje his deth Ipat tou do l)i peyne." and avenge 

his death. 

And )>a?me of Grekis worjri dukes tweyne 

Ful humblely gonne douw to knele, [leaf 119 6] Gold spurs 

And sette a spore vp-on ou)>er hele, 4004 his f"* 18 - 

As was )>e maner, of gold bornid bri^t. 

And in pis wyse Pirrus was made kny^t, 

As $e han herde, in ful hi^e presence, 

With gret honour and due reuerence, 4008 

Like ]>e custom of pe Grekis lawes 

And fe rytis vsede in )>o dawes. 

And panne anoon hath Agamenouw, Agamemnon 

With ful glad chere and gret aifecciouw, 4012 

3976. eke] om. A. 3983. honour] renerence D 1. 
3988. As] And D 1. 3994. him dide] dobe him D 1. 
4000. with] by C. 4004. ouber] enery D 1. 

682 The Greeks honour Pyrrhus. He fights for them. [BK. iv 

gives Pyrrhus 
his father 


the Greeks 
devote 8 days 



Delyuered hym fully by sentence 
])e armys hool, with-onten difference, 
Whiche Achilles be his lyve bar 
His worf i fader on his sholdris squar, 
As for next eyr of lynfe] by discent ; 

and treasure; And al f e tresour also & his tent, 
Armvre & al, deliuered wern anoon 
Vn-to Pirrus; and Grekis euerychon 
Ey^te dayes, swyng by and by, 
Jjoru^-oute fe oste, ful solempnely 

to his honour, jjei halwe in honour of fis $ong[e] kny^t. 

How Fantasillia the quene and her wemen and the 
Troyens obtaynede a great felde agaynst the 
Grekys, and putt them to flyght: wich felde 
endured the space of iiij wekes & more. 1 

Til on [a] morwe [whan] Phebws shoon ful bri}!, 4024 

Whiche with his li^t fat shynef fro so ferre 

Diffacid haf f e stremys of f e sterre 

Lucifer, f e daies Messarcger, 

Whan Grekis gan in platis bri^t & cler 

Enarmen he?n fat day, for sour or swete, 

Fully in purpos with her foon to mete ; 

And manfully oute of her tentis wyde 

Ageyn Troyens fei be-gan to ryde, 

Warde after warde, proudly in-to feld. 
and Pyrrhus And Pirrus bar fat day vp-on his shelde 

His fadris armys, like as seit[h] Guydo ; 

And of f e same he hadde vp-on also 

A cote armvre fat by-cam hym wel ; 

And forfe he rood, armed bri^t in stel, 

And casuelly, formest as he was, 

He mette first with Polly damas, 

A kny$t of Troye, a ful manly man : 
charges Poly- And furiously Pirrus to hym ran 


Then they 
take the field 
against the 





On horse-bak, wa'tTi a my^ti swerde, 

4017. As for] And D 1. 4019. wern] was D 1. 
4024. whan] bat D 1. 4029. or] & D 1. 
4033. feld] |w felde D 1. 4042. to] vnto D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 117 c (misplaced after line 4132.) 

Philomene and PyrrJius fight. The Queen of the Amazons. 683 

And gan to hurtle* with him in J>e berde 4044 

So my^tely, in Jjis hatful strif, 

Pollydamas had[de] loste his lyf 

Nad reskus be, with-outs more tariynge, 

Of Phylymene, ]>e noble worjn kyng, 4048 

Only of kny3thod & of worthies. 

To whom Pirrus faste gan him dresse 

With his swerd, & smet hym in pe siy^t, 

ftat from his horse he made him to a-li^t; [leaf 119 c] 4052 

For he ]?e strok my3t[e] nat sustene. 

And sothfastly ]?is worfi Philymene 

Of Pirrus had y-take be * anoon, 

Save his kny^tes, assemblid in-to on, 

Of Pafagonye, cam hym to reskwe : 

But Pirrus ay so fersly gan purswe 

Vp-on ]>is kyng with Mirundones, 

Beset in meschef amonge ]>e grete pres, 

J)at many kny^t of ]>is noble kyng 

I-slay[e]n was at his reskwyng 

He stood of deth in so streit a caas. 

Til of fortune cam Pollydamas 

To his reskus, and dide his fulfle] my$t 

Hym to deliuere, & quyt hym lyke a kny$t ; 

But, in sotbnes, ]>er& was swiche resistence 

Of Pirrus kny^tes, stondynge at diffence, 

}3at ay in meschef stood kyng Philymene, 

Til Pantasillya, of Femenye* [J^e] quene, 

Wi}? hir wo??zmen a gret companye, 

Gan )?is finge of auenture espie, 

Whiche wern echon, for }>e more delyt, 

On her armvre J>at day clad in whyt, 

]3at verrayly )>er was no lylye flour 

Nor snowe pat flake)) fro lubiteris tour 

Of whitnes fressher on to sene, 

J?anwe in pe feld was )>is hardy quene, 

Whiche first of alle amonge []?e] Grekes ches 

Polydamas is 
rescued by 


and would 



4064 but for 





and Penthe- 

Queen of the 

who is 
clad in 

and falls on 
the Myrmi- 

4044. hurtle] hnrcle C. 4055. y-take be] be take C. 
4057. hym] in A. 4062. I-slayen] Slayn D 1. 
4070. Feinenye] Femenyne C. 
4077. Of] On D 1 on to] vnto A. 

684 Penthesilea slays Myrmidons, and rescues Philomene. [BK. iv 

slays many 

Ajax and si 

unhorse one 

She and her 
free Philo- 
mene from 

the Myrmi- 


says it's a 
shame to see 
men so driven 
back and slain 
by women. 

Proudly to falle on Mirundones. 4080 

Amonges whom ridyng vp & doiw, 

She hem vnhorseth poru} her hi^e renoim, 

And slowe of hem vp-on euery syde, 

Makynge her rengis for to seuere wyde, 4084 

Til Thelamoiw in a furious hete 

With a spere vnwarly dide hir mete, 

And in a rage smot hir to pe pleyn. 

But she anoon ful lyfly roos ageyn, 4088 

And with hir swerd so marked Thelamouw, 

))at from his hors she made hym Iy3t[e] dourc, 

Plat to pe grourcde on his hondis tvveyne. 

And paraie hir wommen dide her besy peyne 4092 

To make her quene hir stede to recure. 

And al pis while stood in auenture 

Of his lyf worpi Philymene, 

Pirrus kny^tes wern on hym so kene, 4096 

Maugre his men pat pei han hym take 

It geyneth nat diffense for to make, 

J5e Grekis han so strongly hym be-set ; 

And forpe pei lad him,* it my$t[e] be no bet, 4100 

Toward her tentis, poru3-oute al pe feld. [leaf 119 d] 

\)e whiche ping whan pe quene behyld, 

With hir wommen pat a-boute hir rood 

Pursued after, vtith-outQ more abood, 4104 

)}at finally J?ei han so after swed, 

)2oru3 her force pat he was reskwed, 

Maugre pe manhood of Mirundones. 

And Pantasillia was so mercy les 4108 

Yp-on Grekis, pat of necessite, 

j^oru} hir force and hir cruelte, 

Aforn hir swerd pei durst[e] nat abide. 

But whan Pirrus* sawe hir gretfe] pride, 4112 

To his kny^tes lowde he gan to crye, 

And seide it was shame & villenye, 

For pe wommen so* to lese her lond 

4082. hem] him D 1. 4089. marked] markith A, marki> D 1. 

4090. hors] stede D 1 doim] a doun D 1. 

4100. lad him] hi?M lad C. 

4112. Pirrus] bat Pirrus C. 4115. so] for C. 

BK. iv] The Queen of the Amazons upbraids Achilles's son. 685 

And to be sleyn so felly of her hond : 

" Wherfore echon $oure hertis* doth resvme, 

And of assent late vs now conswme 

j?e pride of hem, )>a^ noon awey eskape ; 

For, but $if we som remedie shape 

))is like day her force to confouwde, 

Shamful report to vs shal rebouwle 

Perpetuelly, wher we slepe or wake ! " 

And as Firms gan his swerde to take, 

Furiously and wiih a kny^tly chere, 

)}is hardy quene happed for to here 

Al ]?at Pirrus to his kny^tes spak 

Hir liste nat onys for to tourne bake, 

Nor of his thret for to taken hede ; 

For platly she hade of hym no drede, 

But ri$t proudly gan to nei^en nere, 

And to hym seide anoo?z, as 36 shal here : 

" J>ou Pirre, sone of Achilles, 

jpat slowe Hector, in kny^thod per[e]les, 

jporu^ his treynes & his trecherie, 

By malys only and by fals en vie, 

Vnwar, whan he no J>inge dide aduerte ! 

J)e whiche neuere may oute of myn herte, 

So grene it stikej) in my remembrauwce, 

Vp-on his deth for to do vengauwce ! 

And it sit wel, as senieth vn-to me, 

j)at his deth be venged vppon the 

First of al, and on }>i fadres blod, 

For lone of hym, so gentil & so good 

])Q deth of whom shuld al ]>e worlde co??ipleyne. 

Nat only men done her besy peyne 

To quyte his deth, but woramew eke also 

Wiih al her my^t helpen eke per-to, 

As ri}t requereth, wit/i-oute excepciou?z, 

J5er-on to done ful execuciouTi ; 

exhorts his 
to rout the 






4132 reproaches 
him tor his 
murder of 


4140 She will 

avenge this 
on him, 



for all the 

[leaf 120 a] 

4117. echon 3oure hertis] 3oure hertis echon C. 

4122. vs] vs al D 1. 4123. wher] wheher D 1. 

4124. to] om. D 2. 4126. for] om. D 2, D 1. 

4128. bake] a bak A, abak D 2 ; here bak D 1. 4131. rijt] ful D 1. 

4133. new ^ D 10] S D 1 Pirre] Pirrus A. 

4140. for] om. A. 4148. helpen] to helpe D 1. 


tells Pyrrhus 
that women 

will shed his 

He charges 
her furiously, 

but she un- 
horses him. 

Then lie 
fights her 
on foot ; 

but she bents 
him down, 

and the 
rescue him. 

Penthesilea unhorses and fights Pyrrhus. [BK. iv 

'' And I now stonde in pe same plite. 

And for pou hast vs woramen in dispit, 4152 

Of oure power, shortly in sentence, 

Jpow shalt in haste haue experience 

And knowe oure force, sothly, euerydel, 

Ri^t in short tyme, truste me ri^t wel, 4156 

Here in pis feld, in shedynge of pi blood ! " 

Wher-of Pirrus wexen gan as wood 

As any tigre, boor, or wood lyoim 

So frat pe colre in his complexiovm. 4160 

And in his Ire fel and dispitous, 

He hent a spere, pale and furious, 

And ran at hir with al his my^t & peyne ; 

And a-geynward, as she pat list nat feyne, 4164 

Encontrid hym al deuoide of fere. 

But Pirrus firste brak on hir his spere, 

Al-be pat he my^t hir nat remeve 

In hir sadel, nor but litel greue. 4168 

But she ageyn so sore gan him hitte, 

On his stede pat he may nat sitte, 

But descendeth endelonge pe pleyn ; 

And vp he ros \viih ful gret disdeyn, 4172 

And hent a* swerd in his hond anoon, 

And made his stede lyne ri^t to goon 

Vp-on pis quene of passyng worpines, 

And mwardly of hate & of wodnes 4176 

In herte y-fret, smet at hir many stroke. 

But euere she sat stille as any oke ; 

And of force in hir Ire pale, 

Efte ageyn she made hym to a vale 4180 

To pe erpe, maugre al his peyne. 

And pus pe fi$t lastep of hem tweyne 

A large whyle, til Mirundones 

Han take her lord by force oute of pe pres, 4184 

4151. I now] now I A, D 1. 4156. truste] trusteb D 2. 
4158. wexen gan] gan wexe D 1. 4159. tigre] boole D 1. 
4160. be] with I) 1. 4161. his] bis D 2. 
4168. nor] ne hir D 1. 4173. a] his C. 
4175. bis] be D 1. 4176. 2nd of] ora. D 1. 

4177. y-fret] frette D 1 many] many a D 1. 

4178. oke] hook D 2. 4184. by force] om. D 1. 

The Battle rages. Slaughter ~by Pyrrhus & Penthesilea. 687 

And maked hyra his hors recure ageyn. 

And in Jns tyme on J?e silve pleyn 

With his baner is descendid dowi 

}?e wor)>i kyng, grete Agamenouw, 4188 

With kynges, dukes, endelonge ]>e grene, Greeks 

With her* wardis, pat wonder was to sene, 

So prudently in ]?e feld batailled, 

bat han Troyens mortally assailled. 4192 


But po in hast )>e kyng Phylymene, 

As $e han herde, reskwed by }>e quene, 

Whan he hath pankyd to hir worjrines, 

With his kny3tes in he gan him dresse, 4196 

And Pantasillya, assembled bofce in oon, 

silea attack 

Vp-on Grekis gonne for to goon, tiie Greeks,. 

Where men may se, w^t^ speris sharpe grouwde [leaf 1206] 

Eueryche o]>er beren vn-to J>e grou/zde. 4200 

\)GY men may sen, proudly, with-oute lak, 

])Q manly kny^tes ren on horse-bake ; 

And j)e wo??^men mortally oppresse and oppress 

\)Q felle Grekis jjoru^ her hardyines, 4204 

Only foru^ force of J>e my3ty quene, 

JOat ded }?ei lay, curynge al )>e grene. 

WheT-with cam in dau?i3 Pollydamas, 

Fro deth reskued, & with hym Eneas, 4208 J5 1 8 e d enter 

Kyng Esdras eke, of Troye j?e cite. 

And ]>o Ipe wardis gan to-gidre fle 

On ou)>er party, fel and furious ; 

But moste of alle Neptolonivs, 4212 Pyrrhus 

ftat Pirrus hi^te, ))e Grekis champiourc, 

Irous & wood on hem of Troye toun, 

Made his swerde in her fleshe to byte. 

And Pantasillya, proudly hir to quyte, 4216 Pentiiesiiea 

Ne spareth nat with mortal wouradis wyde 

Grekis to sleen vp-on euery side k Ms Greek, 

Now here, now ]?er, to her confusioun. 

And Pirrus paraie is fallen on Glaucous, 4220 

])Q halfe broker to Pollydamas, 

4190. her] his C. 4191. prudently] rially D 1. 
4193. new IF D 1. 4199. groimde] y grovmde D 1. 
4208. Fro] Fro >e D 1. 4211. ou>er] ei>er D 1. 

688 Grlaueon is slain. His Death is avenged on the Greeks. [BK. iv 






They unhorse 
each other, 
and fight on 

revenges his 
deatli on the 

who flee, 

till turnd by 
Ajax and 

The Greeks 
are worsted. 

Night falls. 

For Anthenor eke his fader was 

And Pirrus so, in a cruel Ire, 

"With malencolye newe sette a-fyre, 4224 

Smot Glaucouw so, or pat he toke hede, 

Amonge pe pres fat he fil dour* ded. 

And Pantasillya from hir wommen alle 

)?e same tyme is on Pirrus falle ; 4228 

And he, of hir whan he hadde a si^t, 

Rood vn-to hir lyke a manly kny^t : 

And as pei hurtle on hors[e]-bak I-fere, 

Of auenture with swerdis stif & clere, 4232 

Eue?'yche made oper to a-ly^t ; 

And hatfully on fote so pei fi^t 

Longe or ouper nry^t of oper wynne, 

Til pei were niade of force for to twymie 4236 

By pe wardys pat went hem a-twene 

I mene Pirrus & pis hardy quene. 

And al pis tyme dau^ Pollydamas 

So wood for Ire in his herte was, 4240 

Amyd Grekis, for his broker deth, 

Jpat whom he mette for his loue he sleth, 

With-ouie mercy, in his hatful tene, 

})at he allone and pis hardy quene 4244 

Swyche [a] slau^ter on pe Grekis make, 

))at pei pe feld outterly for-sake, 

And gan to flen to her tentis dourc, 

Til* Diomede & Aiax ThelamouTz [leaf 1200] 4248 

And Pirrus eke made hem turue a-geyn ; 

But pei, in soth, wer so ouer-leyn 

J)at )>ei ne my^te al pat* day releve. 

And pus pei fau^t til it drowe to eve 4252 

J)e moste damage on pe Grekis syde, 

Til Phebus gan his bri^tfe] chare to hide 

Lowe in pe west & to sh[r]oude his ly$t 

Vnder cou[r]tyn of pe blake ny^t, 4256 

J?at ouper parte pou^t[e] for pe beste 

4225. so] om. D 1. 

4228. tyme] tyde D 2, tide D 1 on] vp on D 1. 

4237. a-twene] bitwene D 1. 4243. hatful] fatal D 1. 

4244. hardy] my^ty D 1. 4248. Til] Til pat C. 

4251. pat] >e C. 4253. on] of D 1. 

BK. iv] Fighting goes on. Penthesileas death draws nigh. 689 

To departe and drawe * to [her] reste, 
And toke her ese Jiat ny^t as }>ei may. 
And al J>e mon)>e, swynge day by day, 4260 DaHy battles 

any interupciouw month. 

I-fere, al-be no mencioiw 
Be made ]>er-of nor wryte in special 

Of no persone, but in general : 4264 

Who J>at euere dide evele or wel, 
In Troye boke I fynde neuere-a-del, 
Saue ]?e quene, like as writ Guydo, 
Of hir wowmen an hundrid hath for-go, 4268 A hundred 


ftat slay[e]n wern filke moneth day. are slain. 

J)e deth of whom, pleynly, $if she may, 

Shal wel be quyt, $if so * J>at Fortune 

Be fauourable frendly to contune 4272 

)?at hir face chauwge nat contrarie. 

But she J>at can euery day so varie, 

Alias ]>e while ! & selde in oon soiourne, Fortune 

Gan fro )>is quene hir loke* aweie to twrne, 4276 against their 

To enhaste J>oru$ hir vngoodlyhede 

Antropos to breke hir lyves threde, 

As }>e story pleynly shal $ou lere, 

Benygnely ^if ^e list to here. 4280 

[How Penthesilea, the Queen of the Amazons, was 
cruelly slain by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles ; and 
how the Greeks slew ten thousand of the Trojans, 
and pursued them to the gates of their city. 1 ] 

e fatal how, harde for to remewe, Death draws 

Of cruel dejj, which no ma?i may eschewe 
Nor in ]>is lyfe finally eskape, 

Specially whan parchas han it shape, 4284 

Aproche gan it may noon o)>er bene, 
Alias J)e while ! of )>is hardy quene, 
Whiche on a day, furious and wroth, 

4258. drawe] to drawe C. 4263. Be made] I made D 1. 
4267. like] om. D 1. 4271. so] so be C, D 1. 
4274. euery day so] so eche day D 1. 4276. loke] face C. 
1 Two leaves missing in the Royal MS. Heading supplied by 



Penthesilea wounds Pyrrhus. She is injured. [BK. iv 

attacks the 

and charges 

whose chest 
her spear- 
head pierces. 

The Greeks 

surround her, 

and shiver 
her helmet, 

mail and 

In-to pe feld oute of Troye goth, 4288 

And gan on Grekis proudly for to sette. 

And alderfirst Pirrus -with hir mette 

Of mortal hate and indignaciouw ; 

And she in haste by J>e rengis dorm 4292 

Rood vn-to hym swiftly on hir stede, 

Whos sporis sharpe made his sides blede. 

And as pei mette, her speris in )>e rest, 

jpei bare so evene, markyng at pe brest, 4296 

ftat her shaftis, sothly pis no tale, [leaf 120 d] 

Gan to shyuere alle on pecis smale, 

Wflt/i-oute bowynge ouper bak or chyne : 

For nouper made oper to enclyne 4300 

Saue pe hed, forged harde of steel, 

Of Pantasillya, pat was groimde wel, 

In Pirrus brest percid hath so depe 

}3at plate, in soth, nor mailpe] my3t hym kepe, 4304 

But pe sharpnes of pe speris hede 

Was of his blod in party died rede. 

J?e whiche strok whan Grekis dide* espie, 

For-astonyd loude gan to crye, 4308 

And alle attonys for J>e noise & souw 

Vp-on pis quene in pe feld cam doiw, 

In compas wyse goynge envirouw. 

But poru^ hir prowesse & hir hi^e renown 4312 

She hir diffendeth, pat it was mervaille ; 

But pei, alias ! so sore hir gan assaille, 

Jpat al to-hewe pei han hir basenet, 

Amyd Grekis so pikke she was beset 4316 

Jpat vfith axes and her swerdis square 

Hir hed in soth maked* was al bare, 

And hir shuldris were nakid eke, alias ! 

Jpe maille hewe of and pe rerebras. 4320 

And Pirrus pan, lyke as it is fouwde, 

For anguyshe only of his grene wouwde, 

4294. his] hir D 2, here D 1. 4299. bak] of bak D 1. 
4301. harde of] of bri^t I) 1. 4307. dide] gan C. 

4311. goynge envirouw] in the feelde cam doim D 1. 

4312. But] And D 1. 4313. was] is D 1. 

4314. hir gan] gan hir A. 4318. maked] maketh 0, made D 1. 
4320. hewe] ]>ei hewe D 1. 

BK. iv] The Queen of the Amazons is hewn to pieces by Pyrrhus. 691 

In doute pleynly wher he slmlde eskape, Pyrrhus 

Toward )>is quene faste gan hym rape 4324 Penthesiiea, 

To be avengid, what-so-euere falle, 

Amyd )>e feld amonge [)>e] Grekis alle. 

And whan she sawe ]>at he cam so faste, 

Of force only to mete him $it she cast, 4328 

And with hir swerd first gan hym assaille ; 

But of hir strok it happed hir to faille, 

Amonge J>e pres so narwe she was beset. 

And Firms swerd was so sharpfe] whet, 4332 

bat sodeinly of hir arme he smette cuts off her 

right arm, 

Alias ! J?er was now armour hym to lette, 

But raceth poru^ al ]>e shulder bon, 

So pat Jris quene fil douw ded anon. 4336 

And of malys for to venge hym more, 

At his hert ]?e Ire frat so sore, 

jpat wz't/i a chere of verray angir pale 

He hath hir hewe al on pecis smale, 4340 and hacks her 

fie whiche was to * f oule a cruel dede ! 

But euere in on Pirrus so gan blede, He then 

nearly bleeds 

Ni$e to J)e detb, of his mortal wou?ide, to death, 

For lak of blod pat he fil to groimde 4344 

In a trawnce ful longe gruf he lay, 

Til his kny3tes, in al ]>e haste J?ei may, [leaf 121 a] 

Han take hym vp & leide him on a sheld ; 

And doolf ully home oute of J?e feld 4348 but is carried 

))ei ban hym born, wouwded as he was. 

And ]>Q wo?ttmen of )>e queue, alias ! The Amazons 

For verray sorwe & imvard dedly wo, 

Whan pei sawe her lady was a-go, 4352 

For to be ded pei were so desirous, 

bat in al haste, wood and furious, furiously 

attack the 

In a rage, wit/t-oute goue?'naile, Greeks, 

Grekis J>ei gan of newe for to assaille 4356 
Tavenge her quene }>ei wer so hertly kynde to av enge 

])at J?ei si owe, sothly, as I fynde, death ' 

4323. wher] whe>er D 1. 

4325. what-so-euere falle] what som euere bifalle D 1. 

4327. so] om. D 1. 4330. But] And D 1. 4341. to] so C. 

4342. so gan] gan so P 1. 4351. mward] verre D 1. 

4356. for] om. D 1. 4357. Tavenge] To venge. D 1. 


692 Two thousand Greeks are slain, and 10,000 Trojans. [BK. iv 

The Amazons 


The Trojans 

have lost 
their leader, 

and 10,000 
of em are 

They are 
chased to 

and are f'orst 
to stay there, 

Two Jxmsand Grekes on hem }>ei wer so wod. 

But, o alias ! in gret disioint )>ei stood, 4360 

Only for lak )>ei haue no gouernour ; 

For she was goon ]>at was her chef socour, 

Whiche was also, to speke of hardynes, 

Of wommen alle lady and maistresse, 4364 

As of Mr hond )>at I can of rede. 

36 Troyens ! 36 stonden in gret drede, 

Am yd )>e feld al oute of gouenmmce ! 

])Q day is come of ^oure vnhappi chaiwce : 4368 

For now haue 36 leder noon nor gyde 

Far wel 3oure trust now on euery side ! 

And Grekes ben vp-on ^ou so stronge 

)5at 36 TpQ feld may nat kepe longe ; 4372 

For ]>ei cast hem fully 3ou to quyte 

j?is same day, as Dares list endite : 

For, as he writ, homward as pel drawe, 

Ten jjousand Troiens wern of Grekis slawe. 4376 

For alle her wardis cam attonys douw, 

And mortally, with-onie excepciou?*, 

]?ei kille and sle al ]>ai hem w^stood ; 

And moste j?ei wern on J?e wommen wood 4380 

To be avenged, pleinly, as I rede. 

On euery halfe, & her blood to shede 

WitA-oute mercy or remyssiouw, 

Chasyng Troiens home in- to ]?e touw 4384 

Oute of j?e f elde ; for J>er was noon abod, 

So pitously )>o vfith hem it stood 

)?at J>ei ne can noon ojjer recure caste, 

But kepe her toun & shet her gatis faste, 4388 

For al her hope clene was agoon 

Any more to fi3te wij> her foon. 

For now her trust of kny^thod was a-way, 

Her worj>i men slay[e]n, well la way ! 4392 

Eefut was noon, but in her cyte 

To kepe hem clos it may noon o)>er be : 

4366. neto IT A. 4373. fully] felly D 2. 

4376. of] of Jie D 1. 4380. on] vpon A, D 2 >e] J>ese D 1. 

4386. >o Vfith hem] wi> hem tho D 1. 

4388. shet her gatis] here $atis shit D 1. 

4389. clene was] was tho D 1. 4392. slayen] slayn nowe D 1. 

BK. iv] The Greeks refuse to give the Trojans Penthesilea's corpse. 693 

For hem J>ou3t pei my^t it kepe longe, [leafiaid] The Trojan 8 

Her walles wern so nrnti & so stronge, 4396 can stand 

the longest 

}if j>ei had plente of vitaille ; 8j ege. 

jpou^ all )>e world attonis hem assaille, 

)5ei may be sure while ]?ei kepe hem In, 

For euere-more pat no man shall hem wywne. 4400 

3et neue?--Jjeles, erly arid eke late 

be Grekes made to-forn euery gate The Greeks 

watch every 

Ful my^ti wache & a- wait ml stronge, gate. 

Wi]> pryvy spies goynge in amonge, 4404 

ftat of her foon noon eskape away 
By noon ewgyn, as ferforthe as j?ei may. 

[The sorrow of the Trojans for the death of Penthe- 
silea; and how the Greeks cast her dead corse 
in a lake. 1 ] 

And, in Jris while, vfith-Irme Troie toura, The Trojans 

More pan I can make descripcioiw, 4408 

For J?e quene }?er was so gret a sorwe sorrow for 

Of euery whi^t, bojje at eve & morwe, ally, 

))at she, alias ! was slay[e]n for her mede, tho Queen of 

Whiche cam so fer to helpe hew in her nede ; 4412 

And aldermost for pei ne my^tfe] haue 

)?e dede cors, to burie [it] and to graue 

Wiih reuerence and wi]> honour dwe, 

For whiche J>ei gan to J)e Grekis sWe 4416 The Greeks 

With gret praier and gret[el besynes. em her corpse 

D , , . , . , L , J to bury with 

But al in veyn and in ydelnesse honour. 

Was her requeste J)e Grekis wer so wrope. 

And finally, with many sondry ope, 4420 

Only of malys and of hoot envie, 

)2e dede cors to hem J>ei denye, 

And shortly seide, of mortal enmyte, 

]3at of hourcdis it shal deuoured be 4424 

]3er was no geyn her rancowr to compesse. 

4397. 3if ] For if D 1. 
4411. alias was slayen] was slayn alias A. 
4414. 2nd to] om. D 1. 4415. wib] eke D 1. 
4417. grete] om. D 1. 4420. many] manye a D 1. 
1 Supplied by editor. 

694 Penthesilea is thrown into a Lake. Lydgate scolds Mars. [BK. iv 

would grunt 

but Diomede 
remses it. 

The Greeks 
cast Pentlie- 
corpse into 
a lake close 
to Troy. 

But Pirrus fa?me of verray gentilnesse 

Nolde assent to so foule a dede ; 

But, wood and wrofe, cruel Diomede 4428 

Seide openly, how * it Was fittynge 

Jjat she faile of hir buriynge, 

frat slay[e]n hadde so many worjn man. 

And Jms J>e strif amonge ]>e Grekis gan, 4432 

With grete rumour and altercaciouw, 

Til at f e laste vnder Troye ioun 

Of hir f ei han fe dede cors y-take, 

And cruelly in a profowide lake 4436 

}3ei han it cast, where I lete hir lye, 

And vn-to Troie ageyn I wil me hye 

To telle forfe ho we fei lyve in pyne. 

[How the translator complaineth of Mars for his 
cruelty to the Trojans; and of the treason of 
Anchises, -ffineas, and Anthenor. 1 ] 

cruel Mars, fat hast made for to fyne 4440 

Jjora} fin Ire al f e worf i blood 
for his cruelty Of Troie, alias ! why hastow ben so wood 

Ageyn[e]s hem, to slen her kny^tes alle 1 

Why hastow lete fi bitter venym falle [leaf 121 c] 4444 

On hem, alias, f ou sterre infortunat ! 

With al f e world to make hem at debat, 

hatful sterre, hoot, co??ibust, and drye, 

Fyry, Irous, grou^de of al envie, 4448 

Hasty euere, ful of discenciouw, 

And col[e]rik of }>i complexiou7^ ! 
and his love In inordrc and deth ay is ]>i delit, 

In takyng vengaurace most fin appetit, 4452 

First meuer of auger and of hate, 

Rote of contek, causynge to debate ! 
and strife. In strif and murmwr most is fi desyre, 

Lydgate up- 
braids Mars 

4429. how] fat C. 4432. 2nd be] om. D 1. 

4435. hir] Ire D 1 y-take] take D 1. 

4437. it] here D 1 hir] it D 2. 4439. lyre] haue lyved A. 

4440. new H A. 

4451. and] of D 1 ay is] is ay D 1 is] om. A. 

4452. most] is moste D 1. 4454. to] of D 1. 

1 Supplied by editor. 

BK. iv] Lydgate continues his Reproaches of Mars. 


Ferful of loke as any wylde fyre, 
And gastful euere of ]>i wode si^t ! 
As any levene so flawmynge is J>i li^t, 
Liche in twynklynge to ]>e sparkis rede 
In grete fyres J?at abrod so sprede, 
Consvvmynge ay be malencolye 
Hertis j?at ben enbracid wij? envie, 
])\ wrath is ay so fretynge & so kene ! 
And causest men to be longe & lene, 
Consumpt, sklendre, browz, & citryn* hewed, 
Vnmerciable & ri^t evele thewed, 
Wouwder slei^ty and Engynyous, 
Compassynge and suspecious, 
Trist and soleyn, & ful of hevines, 
And assentynge to al cursidnes 
To awaitynge, deth, and robberie, 
To mordre also, and to trecherie, 
Wijj-oute remors of any conscience, 
So venymous is ))in influence ! 
'And helper art vn-to fals tresoiw, 
Jje hous of whom is ]?e Scorpion??, 
.And crowned art in J>e Capricorn, 
But in J>e Bole is ]>i kyngdam lorn ; 
For fer-in is J?i deieccioura, 
J)i power lost and domynacioura. 
^And hast also in )>i subiecciouw 
Exile, werre, cheynes, and presouw, 
Proscripciou^ and captiuite, 
)?at for y\ malys on Troye J>e cite, 
So wolde God, I koude chide a-ri^t, 
J?at hast on hem kyd ]>i felle my^t, 
Of }>i rancour hooly ]?e outtrau?zce : 
First on hem [for] to do vengauwce 
With speris sharp & swerdes kene whet, 
An[d] now in prisoiw tenclose?z hem & shet, 
So vengably jjat Tpei dar nat oute, 



The wrath of 
Mars is 

4464 ruin to men, 


leading to 
. ._ . murder and 
4472 treachery, 





and captivity. 

4484 Lydgate 
wishes he 
could rightly 
chide Mars 
for his ran- 
cour to Troy. 


4459. sparkis] spavcles D 1. 4460. lyres] fire D 1. 

4465. citryn] ceferyn C. 

4468. Compassynge] Ferre compassinge D 1, 

4474. ]>in] |>e foule D 1. 4487. outtramice] variaimce D 1. 

696 The Harm that Mars has done to Troy. He's sown Treason there. 

J?e Grekis felle ay liggynge hem aboute. 4492 

The Trojans hei be nat holde in no maner wyse [leaf 121 d] 

owe no 

to C Mare ^ n ^ temple to do sacrifyse, 

Nouper with boles nor with bores wylde, 

NOT with bestis pat euere ben vnmylde, 4496 

As tigres, beris, nor ]>e wood lyouw, 

Of whiche pou art souereyn and patrouw. 

))ei ar nat holde to do ]?e bryrcston smoke 

On J>in auteris, whiche art so felly wroke 4500 

On hem, alias ! & now ^it, werst of alle, 
And now J)ou hast shad out chef of al J>i galle, 
brought trea- Amonge hem silfe to bringe in tresouw, 

son among 

them, Feyned trou]?e and symulaciouw, 4504 

To maken hertis amonge hem silfe devide ! 

Lo, how )>e serpent of discord can glyde 

Ful sly^ly in til he haue cau^t a place 

To voide away boj>e hap and grace 4508 

j^made With his* venym of dissenciourc, 

Whan it is sprad in any regioiw, 

In any comovw, borwe, [toun], or cite, 

Amongis men of hi^e or lowe degre ! 4512 

For whan hertis in loue ben nat oon, 

Fare wel Fortune, her grace is clene a-goon : 
at discord, For w her Discord holdeth residence, 

wiSthan ** * s we ^ wers f an swer( i or pestilence ! 4516 

pestilence. ]? or wna t i s worse, ou}?er fer or nere, 

J)an a foo fat is famylyer ] 

For who may more harme^, 3 if hym liste, 

pan an enmye vp-on who??* men triste 1 ? 4520 

pat to discryve, shortly in a clause, 

pe verray rote and fe trewe cause 

Of al meschef and confusions 

In euery lond is dissenciou?i, 4524 

And more perlous $if it be preve. 

Recorde I take on Troye fe cyte, 

4499. ar] bene D 1. 

4501. On] Of D 1 now $it] Jit nowe D 1. 

4506. serpent] serperpent C. 4507. slyjly in] sleijtly D 1. 

4509. With his] Whiche is C of] and his D 1. 

4511. borugh toiw A, borgh toun D 2, burwe tonn D 1. 

4512. or] & D 2. 4516. or] of A, D 2. 4525. $if] and D 1. 

BK. iv] The 4 treacherous Trojan Leaders who will letray Troy. 697 

)pat fond Fortune frendly ay at nede, 
Til longe hid hate gan a-brood to sprede. 
For prudence, sothly, hath prouyded 
frat a regne in hit silfe deuided 
Shal recurles tourne wilde and wast, 
And )>e dwellers desolat in hast : 
For Mars )>at is of envie lord 
Amonge hem silfe sowen hath discord, 
Ageyn )>e whiche may no socour be 
For wers fan werre, sothly, semeth me 
Tresou/i cured vnder a feyned pes. 
And rote of al was olde Anchyses, 
With his sone called Eneas, 
Da^} Anthenor, and Pollydamas, 
)?at han contreued amonge hem outterly, 
And vnder veil concelyd secrely, 
3iffe it falle pat Grekis Troye haue, 
First how pei may her owne lyves save 
By som e[n]gyn, slei^tis or trete. 
And $if so* wer ]>at it,may nat be 
As ]>ei caste, by no maner wove, 
jjei wold[e] raj>er traitowrs be to Troye, 
Priuely, so it wer nat espied, 
And couertly with Grekis ben allyed, 
J3an stondew hool w^ ]>e touw of troujje, 
And wilfully, of necligence & slou}>e, 
Suraimce & o|)e of old made to ]?e touw 
Refuse pleinly, in conclusions, 
And allyau?ice lete slake and slyde, 
And her lygauwce sette also a-syde, 
In her avys ]>ei pou^tfe] for ]>e beste. 
For J>ei hem caste [for] to lyve at reste, 
And meryer eke, for ernest or for game, 
To saue her lyf & wander forpe in shame 
]5an wilfully dyen at meschef. 

4527. frendly ay at] redy at hir D 1. 

4542. concelyd] counselid D 1. 

4543. J>at] om. A, D 2 haue] to haue A. 
4546. so] it so C. 4553. &] of D 1. 
4558. for] om. D 1 at] so at D 1. 
4561. dyen] to die D 1. 



[leaf 122 o] 

A realm 
divided in 
itself ia lost. 

And Mars 
has sown dis 
cord in Troy, 

4536 which is 

worse than 


4540 Antenorand 
are the 
schemed to 
give Troy 
to the Greeks 
if they can 
save their 
own lives. 




They want 
only to live 
at ease, 

4560 tho in shame. 

698 The 4 Trojan Traitors' absurd Request to Priam. [BK. iv 

Eneas, An- 
tenor and 

advise Priam 

to beg the 
Greeks for 

to give up 

to give 

and repair 
the harm 
done by 

tho they 
know the 
Greeks will 

never consent 
to this, 
which would 
have secured 
the reign of 
Priam and 
his sons. 

To traisshe her towi pei hild it no repref, 

So pei my^t eskape hem silfe a-lyve, 

Hem list no pinge for pe toura to stryue ; 4564 

)5ei sou^te, in soth, for sour or for swete, 

A mene weie to lyven in quiete. 

And here-vp-on pei han her weie nome 

Vn-to }>e kyng ; & whan pat pei wer come 4568 

To his presence, in ful couert wyse, 

Vnder colour pei be-gan deuyse 

To telle her tale, so fat finally 

Her couftseil was, pat Priam outterly 4572 

In no maner be nat rekkeles 

To purs we to Grekis for a pes, 

3if it so be pat he it geten may 

And ^elde ageyn to kyng Menelay, 4576 

With-outQ strife, pe freshe quene Eleyne, 

And, ouermore, pat he nat disdeyne 

)3e harmys don by Paris gon ful ^ore 

In Citherouw iustly to restore. 4580 

But, o alias ! of fals iniquite 

}?is couwseil roos ; for vndre in secre 

)5e venym was, as sugre vnder gallc : 

For'wel pei wist pat pe Grekis alle 4584 

Isolde acorde, in conclusions, 

To haue * a pes with hem of Troye toun 

Whiles pei wern to swiche meschef broujt 

To trete per-of, in soth, it was for nou^t. 4588 

For Priam pawne, and Eccuba pe quene, 

With his sones, and wij> Polycene, 

J?at }it were lefte with hym in pe tou?*, [leaf 1226] 

Mi$t haue regned by longe succession, 4592 

}if pat Grekis ful (and nat repented) 

Vn-to a pes hooly hadde assentid. 

But pat conseil $oue was to late, 

Sypen Grekes of wel elder date 4596 

Hadde profrid first at Thenedourc 

4562. hild] holde A, hold D 2. 4563. So] So >at D 1. 
4567. new IF D 1. 4581. new IT A. 4586. haue] holde C. 
4587. to] in D 2, D 1. 4594. asseutid] consentid D 1. 
4597. Thenedoiw] Thevedomi A. 

BK. iv] Why the Greeks are not likely to grant the Trojans peace. 699 
By thavys of kyng Acamenoutt For, at first, 

J f J J ' the Greeks 

A fynal pes, shortly for to seyn, offerd peace 

So he wolde restore ageyn Eleyn 4600 [ ) e ) t e ^ ndto 

Wip amendis, requerid of resou?a, and compen- 

sation made 
Oi damages wrou:t at Cytherouw, for the 

' J damage done 

His messageris first whan J?at he sent b y Paris - 

To Priam? w, pat woldfe] nat assent 4604 But the 

Trojans re- 

lo pe requeste instly pt pei brou^t : fused it. 

For of pes pe menes pat pei sou^t 

Of verray pride wern to hem denyed, 

By wylfulnes, alias, so wer pei guyed, 4608 

For lak only of wyt & of prudence. 

But now pei han -with cost & sjret dispence, And now that 

the Greeks 

With slau^ter of men and many grete damage, 

be sharpe shoures & pe cruel rage 4612 have stood 

this deadly 

Abiden fully of pis mortal werre ; war > 

It is ful sure pat pei wil nat differre 

J)e tyme forpe to trete for a pes, 

Hem list no l>ing to be so rekkeles, 4616 isitiikeiy 

' & that they'll 

Kor vn-avysed what hew ou^t to do. 

Trowe ^e pei wil so ly^tly go 

Home in-to Grece wit/i-outen recompense ? 

bei woldfe] seme it were a necligence. 4620 go home 

without re- 

Speke nat per-of, for it wil nat be, ward 

Specialy now Troye pe cite when Troy is 

near its end? 

In meschef stant vp-on pe final fate. 

J)is remedie shape was to late ! 4624 

For Grekis poi^t [ri3t] of verray trust, 

)3at pei of Troye stoden at her lust, 

Holdynge hem silfe verrayly^ victours, 

And of her foon fully conquerours, 4628 

Wip-oute doute or ambiguyte. 

For pe couwseil of pis ilfce Enee, 

Of Anthenor and pis Anchises, 

As 36 han herd, to trete for a pes, 4632 

Ne roos in soth but of doubilnes, 

4598. Agamenoim] lamedoiw D 2. 

4604. wolde] nolde D 1. 4606. pes >e] JHJ pes D 1. 

4616. >ing] lenger D 1 so] om. D 1. 4617. to] 0771. D 2. 

4623. >e] his A, D 2, hir D 1. 

4627. verray ly] verray C, hooly D 1. 

700 The Trojan Council held on the Traitors' proposal. [BK. iv 

Priam and 
his sou 
machus liold 
a Council on 


Anteuor says, 

if they won't 
do what his 
friends ad- 

they'll get 
no more help 
from him. 

answers : 

Only of tresoim & of hi^e falsenes, 
As Priamws conceyue)? by her chere, 
Lyke in fis boke as $e shal after here. 


How Kynge Priamus and his son Amphimacus helde 
a great councell amonges the Troyens, as con- 
cernyng the pece betwene them and the Grekes, 
att the concell of Anthenowr, wherof he made 
delay. 1 

For on a day whan )>at Prianms 

With his sone called Amphymacus 

A conseil helde, with oper of J>e touw, 

)5is }>re ban made a suggestions [leaf 122 c] 4640 

Vn-to J>e kyng toUchynge )>e trete ; 

But he anon, discret and avisee, 

Prudently, or he wolde assent, 

Gan vndergrope, pleinly, what ]?ei ment, 4644 

Only of witte and discreciou.%, 

Or he it putte in execuciowi, 

Makynge j?er-of a maner of delay. 

But proudly paraie, stondynge at a-bay, 4648 

Jpis Anthenor wijj-oute reuerence 

Spak to pe kyng in open audience, 

And shortly seide with a sterne chere : 

" 3if fou liste oure cou?iseil for to here 4652 

And do J>er-after, platly, J>ou maist chese, 

And but pou wilt, wher Jjou wywne or lese, 

\)(s is J?e fyn, pou gest no more of me, 

Werke after hem fat of )>i coimseil be." 4656 

The wise and discrete answere that Kyng Priamus 
made vnto Anthanor. 2 

To whom J>e kyng wonder soberly 

Answered ageyn ful benygnely : 

" Sir Anthenor, ^e ou^te ^ou nat to greue, 

4635. her] his D 1. 4636. J>is] his D 2 after] om. A. 
4637. new If D 1 . 4640. a] a grete D 1. 
4647. >er-of] cher of D 2. 4654. wher] whejwr D 1. 
4659. ^ou nat] not 3ou D 1 to] om. A, D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 120 b. 
2 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 120 c (misplaced after line 4728). 

BK. iv] Priam s Speech to Antenor, and Ms Answer to Priam. 701 
For myn entent is nat to repreue 4660 "Antenor, i 

won't blame 

3oure wyse conseil nor $our prudent rede, your advice 

3if it conclude to be comouw spede f it's for the 

help of my 

Of my peple and sauaciouw ; P e P le ; 

But wete rist wel, iustly of resoiw. 4664 but if it's 

' ' craftily 

Vnder sugre $if J>er be cured galle, against that, 

In preiudice of my liges alle, 

Causyng hem in meschef for to fyne, 

I wil fcer-from outterly declyne, 4668 riihave 

J J nothing to do 

As ri^t requereth, for oure alder ese. with it." 

And, me semeth, J)is sholdfe] not displese 

To J)i conceit, nor do ]?e noon offence : 

For eue?*y man is holden of prudence 4672 

jpe wers to leue and )>e better take, 

Wysdam to swe and foly to forsake, 

And remedie to seke for his sore." 

The Replication of Anthenor and Enee to the ansswere 
of Kyng Priam us. 1 

And with )>at word, }>e Troyan Anthenor 4676 Antenor 

Of sodeyn Ire gan to chaurage his blod, 

And, abreidynge, on his feet he stood, 

And ful felly seide vn-to )>e kyng : 

" Now, sekerly, ]>is is a wonder ping, 4680 " you are 

TT . , p wilfully blind 

How ^our wisdam &* avisenesse not to see 

Ar blinded so of verray wilfulnesse, 

J)at ^e may nat on no side se 

be grete meschef nor aduersite 4684 the mischief 

we are in, 

))at we are In, vp-on euery side ; 

For we may nat dyssymvle nor hide 

In what disioint, pleinly, )?at we stonde. 

Be nat oure foon also here at honde, 4688 with our foes 

all round us, 

And han be-set oure walles rouwde aboute? [leaf 122 d] 

And we for fer dar nat issen oute, so that we 

dare not go 

Nor be so bolde to* vndone a gate, 

Wi]> hem to fi$t fat vs dedly hate, 4692 

4681. &] & lour C. 4685. are] beue D 1. 
4689. walles] wall D 2. 

4691. be] we be D 1 to] for to C vndone] vn to do D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 121 a (misplaced after line 4788). 

702 Antenor's reasons why the Trojans should seek Peace. [BK. IV 

" We are so 

weak, and 

they so 


50 kings hav 

vowd our 


Your sons 
are dead ; 

your knights 
are slain. 

And before 
we are too, 

we ought to 
ask for peace, 
to give back 

to Menelaus, 

and repair 
the damage 
Paris did in 

We be so feble, & )>ei are so stronge. 

For, sothly 3 it, pel han hem amongo 

Fifty kynges worjri of renoiw, 

Confederat to oure destrucciouw, 4696 

And fer-vp-on, platly, wil abide, 

Whiche vowed han in her grete pride, 

Xeuere to parte hen[ne]s fro ]>e towi 

Til J>e walles be twrned vp-so-douw. 4700 

3oure worfi sonys also be now dede, 

jpat 3ow were wont to helper \n $our nede ; 

3oure manly kny^tes slay[e]n euerychon, 

Jjat vs to saue remedie is noon ! 4704 

It is in veyn to treten of diffence. 

Wherfor, I rede, of resoiw & prudence, 

Or we be slayn and oure cite lese, 

Of tweyne harmys ]?e lasse for* to chese : 4708 

ftis to seyn, )>at in onre entent, 

As fittynge is and expedient, 

We trete of pes and no lenger feyne, 

And her-wi]?-al restore ageyn Eleyne, 4712 

For loue of whom many worpi man 

Hath lost his lif sithen }>e werre gan 

For now Paris is vnder stoon y-grave 

Jpe beste rede, in sotb, J>at 36 may have, 4716 

To sende hir home ageyn to Menelay, 

And to profre, as ierforthe as ^e may, 

To restore wit/i-Inne a litel while 

])Q harmys done by Parys in )>e He 4720 

Whiche men are wont Citliera to calle. 

}pis is my rede here a-fore 3011 alle." 

And vfiih pat word vp roos Amphymacws, 

To pis* couwseil ful contrarius, 4724 

And shortly seide [fat] it shal nat be 

4693. are] bene D 1. 

4699. to] 07/1. A, D 2, D 1 parte] departe D 1. 

4701. be now] nowe bene D 1. 

4703. slay en] slayn bene D 1. 4704. is] is ther D 1. 

4708. tweyne] two D 1 for] is for C. 

4709. pis] This is D 1. 4711. trete] to trete A. 
4714. gan] be gan D 1. 4715. y-grave] graue D 1. 
4721. are] be D 1. 4722. afore] byfore D 2. 

4723. new IF D 1. 4724. J>is] be C. 4725. shal] myjte D 1. 

BK. iv] Amphimachus upbraids Antenorfor his Treachery. 703 

As Anthenor hap raad, in no degre ; 

And evene pus, witA-oute more respit, Amphi- 

He spak to hym of verray hi^e dispit : 4728 reproaches 

Anteuor : 

" bou Anthenor, I haue espied wel, 

' "We can't 

We may truste in pe neueradel trust you. 

Wip vs to stonde in oure gret[e] nede : 

For troupe & faipe in pe be now dede, 4732 Your truth 

Falshed hath slayn in pe stabilnes ; 

And in stede of pi sikernea 

We fynde in pe, sothly, varyauwce. 

Wher is be-come pe feith of * pi lygau?ace, 4736 where is your 

fnith to your 

jpin hestis made to stonde with pi kyng? King? 

Where ben pin opes, so double in inenynge 1 [leaf 123 a\ 

Wher is now hid pin olde assurawice ? 

Where is be-come pi feyned fals Constance ? 4740 

In stede of whiche, mvtabilite 

Hath take his place, like as we may se, 

With new[e] cbaurcge. J;ou art so rem[e]vable, 

Vp-on no gimwde pou maist nat stonde stable ; 4744 

fti troupe is goon, of old affeccioiw, 

J)at pou shuldist han to stonde with pe touw, YOU ought 

S\P P i to live or die 

Oi ieith with vs for to lyve or deye : with us; 

For trust & hope exiled bene a-weye 4748 

In pi persone, shortly for to wryte, 

J)at besi arte pe kyng to excite, but you try 

T J f 1 I t0 make 

In disencres of his estat royal, Priama 

J thrall to the 

Vn-to Grekis now to be so thral 4752 Greeks, 

To seke a pes, as it were for drede ! 

J9ou shuldest rather of pi manlyhede instead of 

Haue profrid hym pe cite to diffende, fend him. 

))er-on pi life at outtrauwce to dispende ! 4756 

Wherfore, in sothe, here I pe assure, 

Raper ban we shulde pis endure. Rather let 

rr. 1 1 .! Ti! 2 . 000 <> f us 

Twenty pousand shal \\ith spere & sheld hesiamthan 

^ T T -i , r T suffer this. 

Vp-on a day be slay[e]n in pe feld. 4760 

)5i worde I holde for no prophesie, 
For it precede th of verray trecherie, 

4726. in] at D 2. 4729. new IF A. 4736. f?e feith of] )>i feith & C. 
4737. >i] ]>e D 1. 4740. Constance] continaunce D 1. 
4757. Wherfore] Wherof D 1. 4761. for] om. D 1. 

704 Eneas lacks Antenor in urging the Trojans to seek peace. 

" Treachery 
is under your 

like a serpent 



Then Eneas 


to be true : 

"All hope 
has left us. 

We daren't 
open our 

Of doubilnes & of false tresoim, 

Vndirmynynge with prodiciouw 4764 

#0113 pat j)ou outward shewe faire, 

J?e venym hid pi tale doth empaire, 

Liche a serpent stinginge vndir floures 

)3er be to fele of swiche conseillours ! " 4768 

And in pis wyse with wordis dispitous 

Ful bytyngly * hath Amphymacus 

Al openly Anthenor repreved, 

With his coimseil so he was agreved, 4772 

Seynge pe tresoim pat he wolde mene, 

Til Eneas gan to goon be-twene 

With florisshed speche fill of flaterie, 

And gan his tale so to modifie 4776 

Like as he ment troupe in his entent ; 

But per-in was double intendement : 

He spak but oon, & $it he ment[e] tweyne, 

Amphymacus only to refreyne, 4780 

Tatempren hym of his malencolye, 

Only til he my^t a tyme espie, 

Liche his purpos pat he may precede 

To execute it fully vp in dede. 4784 

And whan pat he fouraden had a space, 

Vnder pretens of a trewe face 

With his tale he gan to breken oute, [leaf 123 &j 

Many Troy an stondynge him aboute, 4788 

And shortly seide, for* conclusions, 

Touching diffence, pleinly, of pe toun, 

How pat it hinge hooly in ballaunce, 

" For bopen hope, truste, and assuraurcce 4792 

Of pe cite taken han her * fli^t ; 

For finally oure manhod & oure my^t 

And oure kny^thod to-gidre ben a-goo, 

With pe Grekis more to haue a-do. 4796 

And pei ben redy vppon vs to sette ; 

And we dar nat oure gatis more vnshet, 

4768. be] by D 2. 4770. bytyngly] bytynge C. 
4784. fully vp] vp fully D 1. 4789. for] for a C. 
4792. bo>en hope] hope & D 1. 4793. her] >e C. 
4796. a-do] to do D 1. 

BK.ivJPrmm reproaches Antenorand Eneas for their Falseness.705 

We ben, alias ! supprised so wij> drede. 
)2an, semeth me, how it wer gret necle 
By good avys for to seke a mene 
In |)is meschef how we shal vs demeno. 
And, for my parte, sothfastly I seie, 
I know as now noon so redy \veie 
As prudently for a pes to trete." 
But Priam panwe, in a sodeyn hete, 
Wi)>-oute abood, of chere and face pale, 
Of rancour gan intemipte his tale ; 
For he attempre my^t[e] nat his herte, 
So fretingly ]>e tresou?*, made hym smerte. 
And for he my$t hi??i silfe nat restreyne, 
Jjus he seide vn-to bope tweyne, 
To Anthenor and also to Enee : 
" I wonder gretly J>at 36 hardy be 
In 3oure troupe, for shame ! so to varie, 
And fat 36 ben so rebel & contrarie 
To me, only of false collusioiw 
Vs to bringe in dispmicioim 
Me and my liges, }if I shal nat feyne, 
Of false en tent to cacche vs in a trayne ! 
Alias ! how may 36 in ^our hert[e] fynde 
Ageyn Nature for to ben vnkynde, 
)?at whylom wern of my cou?iseil chef 
Of euery )>ing or it was brou^t to pref ; 
For ^e absent, I koude no ping fyne. 
And now, alias ! 30 castfe] to declyne 
Away fro me, bareyne lefte and sool, 
)2at to remembre it is to gret a dool, 
How any wy^t, alias ! so chaurcge can ! 
For who shal more trusten any man, 
Whan ^e be fouwde double of entent 1 
Can 36 nat pinke, how by $our assent, 
By 30111*6 conseil and by 3oure avys, 
Whilom how I sent[e] for]?e Paris 


" Let us treat 
with the 

4804 Greek* for 


Priam hotly 

Antenor and 


He wonders 

they are so 
false to him, 




of whose 
Council they 
4824 were chief. 



Who can be 
trusted, when 
they have 
deceivd him ? 

4800. how] >at D 1 wer] was D 2. 
4808. gan] gan to D 1. 4821. herte] hertis D 1. 
4823. whylom] somtyme D 1. 4824. was] were D 1. 
4834. Whilom] So?nmetyme D 1. 

706 Priam's reproachful Speech to Antenor and Eneas. [BK. iv 

"You, An - 
tenor, were 
the chief :id- 
viser in my 
demand for 

And I should 
never have 
sent Paris to 
if Eneas had 

He and you 
were the chief 
cause that 

Helen here. 

And now my 
sons are dead, 

you advise 
me to sue to 
the Greeks 
for peace, 
and forget 
their infinite 
outrages ! 

In-to Grece, of ful ^ore a-goo ? 

And, Anthenor, J>ou wost )>i silfe also, [leaf 123 ci 4836 

How )>ou were first made embassatour, 

And fer-vppon chevest conseillour 

Toucliinge J>e sonde made for Exioiw ; 

And, after pat, cause and mocioiw 4840 

J)ou were in soth J>at Paris sliuld[e] go 

In-to Grece, }>ou wost wel it is so ! 

For I ne durst, of presumpcioiw, 

Haue sent Paris vn-to Cytherouw 4844 

Wip-oute avis and auctorite 

Of Eneas, pleinly, and of ]>e 

Vp-on Grekis a werre to haue gonne. 

I trowe in sotli ]>at 30 nou]>er konne 4848 

Excuse hym silfe, and 36 ben avised ; 

For eue?y Jmig wroujt was & deuised 

And execut by conseil of 3011 tweyne : 

For whan Paris wente for Eleyne, 4852 

Grouwde & rote, to speke in special, 

Were pou, Enee, and cause principal, 

Present also whan euery J>inge was wro^t, 

Oute of Grece whaw she was hede?* brou3t. 4856 

For J)is ]>e sofe, oute of )>at regioim 

She neuere hadde comen to )>is toim 

3if )?ou haddest be per-to contrayre, 

Al-be fou woldest with J)i wordes faire 4860 

))[ silfe excuse here in audience, 

As J>ou knewe nou3t of fat offence, 

But fully were vnwytmge of )>e* dede. 

And now my sones euery chon be dede, 4864 

And 36 me sen allone, destitut, 

3oure conseil is, as" 5 *" for chef refut, 

Me to pw/'swe to Grekis for a pes, 

As I were for^etel, rekkeles* 4868 

To remembre J?e infinit outtrages, 

})e mortal werre, slau3ter, & damages, 

4839. for] of A. 4848. je] 3our D 2. 4857. >is] >is is D 1. 
4858. to] in to D 1. 4862. nonjt] nat D 2, not D 1. 
4863. of }>e] to >at C. 4866. as] al 0. 
4863. rekkeles] and rekles C. 

" I'd rather 

die than 

sue for peace,. 

for I see the 
falseness of 
you both." 

Priam refuses to sue for Peace. He weeps, fearing Treachery. 707 

J3e cruelte and distruccioim 

})at j>ei ban wrou^t here vp-on J)is toiw, 4872 

Jpat, verraily, whan I al recorde, 

For to be ded, I can nat acorde 

With hem to trete, like as $e deuise. 

For I espie in many sondri wyse 4876 

In ^oure en tent a ri$t pe?*lous snare, 

So coue?*tly vnder falshed dare, 

Jjat it wil be to my conf usioim 

3if $e acheve ^oure entenciou?^ 4880 

Finally as 36 haue it shape. 

For impossible it were to eskape 

Shamefully at meschef. me to dye, 

"WYt/i-oute recure of any remedie : 4884 

For ]>is ]>e fyn, I knowe it oute of doute, Deaf 123 <*] 

Of Jje trete jmt }e ben a-boute ! " 

And ri$t anoon J>e Troyan Eneas 

Of Ire & rancour so [a]meved was 4888 

Ageyn ]>e kyng, with a swollen herte, 

J)at sodeynly oute at ])Q dore he sterte, 

After he hadde, for to ben a-wroke, 

Ful many worde ageyn )>e kyng y-spoke 4892 

He went his way and Anthenor also. 

And Priamws of verray Ire and wo 

Sodeinly braste oute for to wepe, 

He my$t hym silf nat for anguysh kepe, 4896 

j)e anger frat vp-on hym so sore 

WM-Inne hym silfe co??ceivynge more & more, 

By evidence of discreciouTi, 

Jje cou'ert gyle and )>e false tresoiw 4900 

)pat jjei for hym and [for] his cite 

I-shapen Imn, but he avised be 

Dredynge ay fat J>ese ilke tweyne 

Be som engyn or conspired treyne 4904 

To ]>e Grekes wolden hym be-tray. 

Eneas angrily 
rashes away, 

and Antenor 

Priam weeps, 

dreading that 
they'll betray 

him to the 

4877. a ri}t] ri3t a D 1. 4885. bis] J>is is D 1. 

4889. swollen] swollyng A. D 2. 

4890. at]ofDl. 

4897. vp-on] on D 1. 4903. jjese] this A, Jns D 2. 



Priam wants 

to repay 

reason by 

So he tells 

that as An- 
tenor and 

Eneas have 

against him, 

they must 
be trapt, 
and put in 
the ditch 
they've dug 
lor Priam. 

Priam's plan to kill Antenor and Eneas. [BK. iv 

How Kyng Priamus, with his son Amphimacws, deuysed 
to bryng Eneas and Anthanowr to deth. 1 

Wherfore, pe kyng cast & wolde sale 

Shape a wei her mails to wit^-stonde, 

So pe tresoura pat pei toke on honde, 4908 

Only of ri^t, in dede, or it were foiwde, 

Yp-on hem silfe my^t ageyn rebouwde, 

J?at pe f ulle execusioiw 

Of her contrived conspiracioiw 4912 

Resorte ageyn, in ful due wyse, 

Only on hem pat gan it first deuyse. 

Tresoim for tresovw is conuenient : 

For to falshede pe guerdoiw pertyn'ent 4916 

Is shameful deth, and )>e final mede. 

Wherfore, to shape in pis grete nede 

A remedie, pis olde Priam vs 

Calleth to hym his sone Amphimacns, 4920 

And pitously, allone but pei tweyne, 

In teris drownid gan to hym compleyne 

On Anthenor and on pis Eneas, 

And seide : " sone, take hede in pis caas, 4924 

And pinke how I am |)i fader dere, 

And how per be now no more* in fere 

Of my sonys lef te with me a-lyve 

But pou allone ; & perfore as blyve, 4928 

Touchynge pe tresoim conspired & y-sworn, 

What-euere falle, lat vs be to-forn 

Only of wysdam a weie for to make, 

Jpat we may first in pe trappe hem take, 4932 

And to purveie for hem evenelyche, 

jpat iustly pei may fallen in pe diche [leaf 124 a] 

Whiche pei han made & for vs y-treyned. 

And in al hast late so* be ordeyned 4936 


4916. J>e] om. D 1. 
4929. y-sworn] sworn D 1. 

4906. sale] faye A, D 2, assay D 1. 
4926. now no more] no mo now C. 

4930. falle] be falle D 1. 

4931. a] & a D 1 A sign of contraction occurs over the y in 
wysdam C. 

4933. to] for to D 1. 4934. in] euene in D 1. 
4935. y-treyned] contrived D 1. 4936. so] it C, it so D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 121 c (misplaced after line 4920). 

BK. iv] Amphimackus is to kill Antenor and Eneas. 709 

feat bis mater cloos he kepte in inewe. Antenor and 

Eneas must 

To fyn only pat pei nat eschewe 

For to be slayn, of equyte and ri^t, bekiidat 

In pis place evene toward ny^t. 4940 

For I purpose, pleinly, for her sake, 

A-geyn tat hour a courcseil for to make, 

fo J call em to a 

And, vnder coloure, make hew& bope calle, council, 

And bou vnwarly shalt vp-on hem falle 4944 and Ampin- 

* machus will 

With* kuy^tes sworne [vn-]to pe and me, murder em. 

In pis mater for to ben secre." 

And ri3t anoon pis Amphymacus 

Assentid is vn-to Priamus, 4948 He agrees 

to do so. 

To acomplishe in f ul secre wyse 

Fro point to point, as $e han herde deuise. 

But soth is seid of ful ^ore a-goon But secrets 

Of olde wyse, pat courcseil is per noon 4952 

In al pis wor[l]d so priuely y-cast 

)at it wil oute, platly,* at pe last. wil1 out. 

For pe peple which pat is* rual 

:Seith pat secres, whiche be nat koupe at al, 4956 

j})e erthe wil, as pei make mynde, The earth 

Discuren hem of his owne kynde, 

And of nature vp casten & disclose win discover 

things hidden 

Jpe ping J)t men ar wont in it to close. 4960 in il - 

Late eutfry man be war, as it is good, 

Or his council go to fer a-brood ; 

And specialy lordes han grete nede : 

Of alle men pei stonde most in drede, 4964 

So gret a-wait is vp-on hem laide, 

bat whan it happeb [bat] a bing be seide And when a 

i r \.r j r lord 81 , ea ] <8) 

Or onys spoke of a lordis moupe, 

It falleth ofte pat it is ful koupe, 4968 

And reported & y-sprad* ful wyde his words get 

J L . reported. 

In many cost by hem pat stonde a-side, 
Or he be ware, by sodeyn auenture. 

4945. With] And C. 4947. new IT D 1. 

4954. platly] pleinly C. 4955. which >at is] j>at is called C 

rual] Rural A. 4957. as] ]>at Dl. 

4958. his] hir D 1. 45)66. 2nd J>at] om. Dl be] to be D 1. 

4969. y-sprad] y spoke 0. 

4970. by] of Dl a-side] be side D 1. 4971. he] om. D 1. 

710 Priam s plot against Eneas and Antenor gets known to em. 

Folk should 
hold tlxeir 

You can't 
trust common 

Priam's plot 
is told to 
Eneas ; 

and he 

and Antenor 

and others 

For so?ftme, in hap, in whom he doth assure, 4972 

Wil first of al hym report amys ; 

fterfore, in soth, best for hem is this : * 

For to be war and to kepe her tonge. 

A purpose cast shuld[e] nat be ronge 4976 

Nor spoke a-brood amonges f olkes rude ; 

For gladly ay ]?e werstfe] }>ei conclude 

Of euery }>ing, while )>at it is newe, 

In report variawit and vntrewe. 4980 

For after resou?^ no j>ing ]>ei expowne, 

But after wil, ]?e folke ]?at bew of tovne, 

Like fe purpos whiche ]>ei desire ; [leaf 124 &] 

For J>ei faren as a wisp a-fire :* 4984 

Whawne it brenne|> bri^test in his blase, 

Sodeinly it waste]? as a niase. 

On swiche folke, platly, is no trist, 

})at fire & water holden in her fist, 498& 

Beinge with bo)>e y-liche indifferent, 

Now hoot, now colde ; liche as }>ere entent 

Of newe change]), so, in her corage, 

After J?e calm folweth sodeyn rage : 4992 

To-day ]>ei loue [&] to-morwe hate, 

To trust a comovn lastej) by no date 

Late nat a lord make hem to secre ! 

For now ]>e conseil is ro?zne to Enee, 499(> 

J3at Priam wend had[de] ben ful cloos r 

For )>e rumour & pe wynde a-roos 

By false report, and so fer is blowe, 

Jpat Eneas & Anthenor well knowe 5000 

Ende & gynnynge, & euery maner ])ing, 

And hool ]?e conseil of Priam^s ]>Q kyng. 

And bo]>e two, ful of oon entent, 

Wij> o)?er [eke] ]?at wern of her assent 5004 

Conspired ben and to-gidre sworne, 

And couertly caste a weie a-forne, 

4973. hym] of hym D 1. 4974. is this] it is C. 
4984. a-fire] of fire C, D 1. 4987. Ou] Of D 1. 
4988. fist] first D 1. 4992. sodeyn] ]>e sodeyn D 1. 
4993. hate] >ei hate D 1. 4994. by no] but a D 1. 
4996. is ronne] rimne is D 1. 
5001. 2nd &] of D 1. 5006. a-forne] to forn D 1. 

Eneas' & Antenorsplan to thwart Priam'splot, &give up Troy. 711 

J5at finally Troye )>e cite 

By her engyn shal distroied be, 

And of accorde caste pleinly Jras : 

3if it hap fat kyng Priamus 

Sende for hem, shortly to conclude, 

J)ei wolde com with swiche a multitude 

Of armed men, $if }>ei seie nede, 

Jjat of hym Jei shulde no J>ing drede. 

For Eneas was in J>at cite 

Of gret power and auctorite, 

Bo)>e of blood & of kynrede allied, 

And for his gold gretly magnyfied 

Jporu} ])e cite most in special, 

J5at he in my$t & power perigal 

(As seith Guy do) was vn-to J?e kyng. 

And Anthenor almoste in euery * J>ing 

Was vn-to hym egal of power. 

And bo)>e tweyne of oon herte entere 

Conspired han in soth ageyn J?e touw, 

Finally to Jris conclusiou?z, 

)pat }>ei of Grekis myjt haue surete, 

"With her tresour to goon at liberte, 

With her allies borne of Troye touw, 

Whanne al wer brou3t to distrucciouw 

With lif & good, sauf, wz't/i-oute mor. 

How Eneas & A[n]thanowr Vnderstode how the Kyng 
had conspired their deth, came to J>e kyng with a 
grete multitude, & seide : l 

At whiche tyrne for dau/&3 Anthenor [leaf 121 c] 5032 

And Eneas Priam^s hath sent, 

To a-complishe pe fyn of hys entent. 

And pei in haste vrith so gret a route 

Cam of kny^tes stuffed hem aboute, 5036 

pat ]?er-of was astonyd Priamws, 

And made sende for Amphymacus, 

5011. for] aftir D 1. 5012. a] am. A, D 2. 
5022. euery] al mancr C. 

5030. brou3t] born D 2. 5037. f>at] And D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 122 a (misplaced after line 5064). 




5020 For he, 

that tliey'll 
ruin Troy, 

and that if 
Priam sends 
for em, 

they'll go 
with such a 
lot of nrmd 
men that 
they can defy 



and Antenor 
are both as 
powerful as 
And they'll 
sacrifice Troy 

if the Greeks 
'11 save them 
and their 
and treasure. 

and they go 
to liim with 

712 Eneas, defying Priam, says lull ask the Greeks for Peace. [BK. iv 

Priam sees 

that his plot 
is discoverd, 

and that 
Eneas is 
favourd by 
the Trojans. 

Eneas then, 

tho he knows 
Priam is 
against it, 

says that, 
Priam likes 
it or not, 

they'll at 
once treat 
with the 
Greeks for 

Co??imau?2dmge hi??i to chaurage his purpos ; 

For wel he wist his coiwseil was nat clos, 5040 

And be signes gan wel vndirstonde 

Jpat pe mater whiche pei had on honde 

Discured was, to his confuskH^ : 

Bope pe mordre and conspiracioim, 5044 

A-parceivynge in his inward si^t 

)}e grete power of pis Troian kny$t, 

And pe fauour of pis Eneas, 

And of pe comou?^ how he fostred was. 504& 

])Q whiche prowdly in open audience 

To-fore pe kyng declareth his sentence, 

Fully concludinge, maugre who seith nay, 

How pat per was noon oper mene way, 5052 

Refut nor geyn, nor oper remedie 

But only pes, who-so it denye 

Oper eskapynge, pleinly, was per noon. 

And per-vppon pe comou??,s euerychon 5056 

With o vois gan to gale and crye, 

And his conseil gretly magnefie, 

Al-be pe kyng was per-to contrarie. 

But Eneas list no lenger tarie 5060 

Nor differre pe fyn of his purpos, 

But wonder Irons from his se he ros, 

And ful vngoodly spak vn-to pe kyng, 

And shortly seide, w/t/^-oute more tariyng : 5064 

" Wher-so be-falle pou be lefe or lothe, 

Or wip pis purpos plesid ouper wrope, 

J)ou maiste wel truste it shal noon oper be : 

For finally, herkene pis of me ! 5068 

Maugre pi wille & also [al] pi my^t, 

Jpis same day, }it or it be ny^t, 

For a pes wip Grekis we shal trete ! " 

And whanwe pe kyng sawe pe ferue?it hete 5072 

Bope of pe comow^ and of Eneas, ' 

He gan anoon dissymulen in pis cas ; 

For of prudence he clerly gan to se, 

5045. A-parceivynge] And parceivynge D 1. 

5053. Refut] Refuse. 5057. gale] calle D 1. 

5062. he ros] a ros D 2, aroos D 1. 5065. Wher] Whejnr D 1. 

BK. iv] Anterior goes to the Greeks to sue for Peace. 


For pat tyme it may non oper be. 

Wherfore, sitli he my^t it not a-mende, 

He wysly gan for to condecende 

To pe purpos, platly, of Enee, 

And seide he wolde goodly take at gre 

And accepte what hyrn list ordeyne. 

And so ]>e kyng lerned for to feyne 

Ageyn pe conceit, platly, of his herte ; 

For oper wyse he koude nat asterte, 

Coact of force and of violence. 

And whan he sawe in his adue?-tence 

J)at he my^t diuerten on no side 

From pe fraude, pat sowe was so wide, 

With-oute grucching he fully $af assent, 

]2at Anthenor shulde forpe he sent 

By comouw choys to trete for pe toiin 

Whiche was to-forn, in conclusion??, 

With [pe] Grekis acorded finally, 

Toucbinge theffect of his embassatry, 

Fro point to point, wher he wolde stonde 

Variaimt fro pat he toke on honde. 

And for pei had a-forn hy??^ ful conceived, 

With better chere he was of hem received. 

And in pis while pat Anthenor was oute 

For to trete -with )>e Grekis stoute, 

As ^e han herde, for a pes final, 

In pe tou?^ aboute on euery wal 

}5ei of Troie gan ascend e blyve 

With pe braunchis of many i'reshe olive, 

In tokne of pes ; & Grekes eke ageyn 

Amyd ]>e feld, endelonge pe pleyn, 

Shewed hem, pat alle my3t[e] sene, 

Eke of olyue lusti bowes grene. 

And to coftferme pis fro point to point, 

And pat no ping stood in no disioint, 

])& worpi kyng, grete Agamenouw, 

[leaf 124 d] 

5076 Priam has to 
give in, 







and agree 
that Antenor 
shall be sent 
to treat with 
the Greeks. 

While he is 
with them, 

the Trojnns 
on the walls 

hrunches of 
5104 olive, 

and the 
Greeks on 
the plain 
show them, 


5077. sith] om. D ]. 5082. for] om. A, D 2. 
5089. fully] falsly A. 5097. bad] om. D 1. 
5107. sene] it sene D 1. 5109. >is] is D 2. 
5111. grete] >e grete D 1. 

714 Antenor's treacherous Agreement ivith the Greeks. [BK. iv 

Committed hath of hi^e discrecioiw 5112 

The King of Fully power and auctorite 

and For ]>& Grekis, pleinly, vn-to )>re, 
re appointed First of al for a pes to trete : 

on the Greek 

side. Vn-to ]?e wyse wor])i kyng of Crete, 5116 

To Vlixes and to Diomede 

To chese mo hem Jxm^t it was no nede ; 

For what )>ei do ]>ei wil holde stable, 

And finally nat be variable 5120 

From )>e ende, platly, fat pei * make. 

And here-vppon was assurance take 

Of ou)>er part by bonde of sacrament. 
They go with And so bei be -with Anthenor y-went 5124 


Oute a-side, )>ese wor]>i lordes Jn*e. 
And wharane )?ei wern at her liberte, 
From al tvmulte allone prively, 
who, fun of his Anthenor, ful of trecchery, 5128 

treachery, ' 

Replet of falsehod & of doubilnesse, 

Gan his purpos vn-to hem expresse, [leaf 125 a] 

agrees to Byhotynge hem to traisshe ]>& cite, 

to them if go tei wolde make hym snrete, 5132 

they will f7 

guarantee h a t fi rs t hym silfe & with hym Eneas 

freedom to ' J J 

E^nea* 1 ^ a ^ f re ^am han in euery maner caas, 
aiifes. heh Wij) her allies and goodis euerychon, 

Wher ]>at hem list at large for to goon, 5136 

At her chois, or dwellen in )>e tou?i, 

With her richesse and posessioim, 

WttAroaten harme or any more damage, 

Liche as pei se it be to avauratage 5140 

Of her personys, to voiden or abide. 

And ]?ei wer sworn on )?e Grekis side 
Both parties Couenaimt to holde in parti and in al, 

swear to this. . 

As was rehersid a-forn in special, 5144 

And as J>ei werne by her o)?es bounde, 
So fat ]?er be no variaiuzce fou^de 

5119. wil] wi]> D 2. 5121. >ei] Je C. 

5122. here-vppon] ther vppon D 1. 

5127. al tvmulte] al )>e multitude D 1. 5132. hym] hem A. 

5137 is repeated in D 1. At] With in the repeated line. 

5139. or] of D 1. 5141. or] or to A. 

5142. on] in D 1. 

BK. iv] Antenor insists on the Greeks keeping the Treaty secret. 715 

On ouper parti, platly, nor no strif, 
And pei be-hi^te vp pereil of her lyf. 
And whan he had assuramice of he?# pre, 
He charged hem to kepen in secre 
Al pat was seid, fat no ping be discured 
Vn-to tyme pat pei were * assured 
Of pe ende, grocid vp in dede : 
For it were good pat pei toke hede 
List her purpos perturbed were or shent 
By cowmvnynge, wip-oute avisement, 
Of pis tongis, pat be so longe & large. 
Wherfore he gan coraiuren hem & charge, 
In al[le] wyse for to bene preue, 
So pat no wy$t but he and pei pre, 
Of noon estat, nowper hi^e nor lowe, 
Fully pe fyn of her entent ne knowe. 
" And couertly oure purpos for to hide," 
Quod Anthenor, "vp-on euery side 
To voide a-weie al suspeciourc, 
fris myn avys : pat * to Trove toun 
fie wyse kyng called Taltibyvs 
Shal go with me to kyng Priamw0, 
For he is hoor and y-ronne in age, 
Coy of his port, slei^ti & ri^t sage, 
And per-wfc't/i-al sadde, demwr, & stille. 
Of whom Troy ens no ping shal mysille, 
But pat he come to tretyn for a pes, 
To ben assured and witen dont[e]les 
Wher pe Troiens agreen wil per-to, 
In every ping finally to do 
As Anthenor pe Grekis hath be-hi^t. 
)?us shal pei ben devoided anoon ri^t 
poru^ his comynge from al suspeciouw, 
Til pat we han oure conclusions, 

charges the 
3 Greeks to 
keep their 
treaty secret, 




5160 so that he 
and they 
alone may 
know it, 


and advises 
that they 
shall send 
witli him to 
old King 

[leaf 1256] 


to see that 
the Trojans 
will agree 

5176 to all that 

Antenor has 


5147. ou>er] neyther A, nou>er D 2. 5148. vp] in D 1. 

5152. tyme] he tyme D 1 were] ben C. 

5156. cowmvnynge] commyng A. 5157. so] om. A, D 2, D 1. 

5163. oure] her A. 5166. myn] is myn D 1 bat] bat $e C. 

5167. Taltibyvs] Taltibus A, D 2. 

5172. no bing shal] shulle no Jriwg D 1. 

5175. Wher] Whe>ir D 1. 5177. be] om. A, D 2, D 1. 

716 Antenor tells the Trqfans the Greek terms of Peace. [BK. iv 

The Greeks 
agree to 
proposal ; 

and lie asks 
for the corpse 
of the Ama- 
zon Queen, 
to bury it in 

Next day he 


reports the 
result of his 
going: to the 

As 30 han herde, parformed euerydel." 

Of whiche ping pe Grekis like we], 

And ben apointed vp-on euery ping 

What pei wil do, & how pis olde kyng 5184 

Wip Anthenor shal to Troye goo. 

And after pis, he axede eke also 

Of Pantasile pe body for to liaue, 

In pe cite pat men mj^t it graue 518& 

With due honour longynge to hir estat, 

To voide aweie suspeciou?/ and debat. 

And Anthenor (for it drowe to eve) 

Of pe Grekis taken hath his leue, 5192 

And wit/j. pis* kyng repeirep in-to towz. 

Where-of was made anoon relacioim 

To kyng Priam, wit/j-oute more delay. 

And he in hast vp-on pe nexte day 5196- 

Made assemble alle his Cite^eyns, 

Secrely deuoidyng alle foreyns,* 

Where Anthenor in open audience, 

jporu^ pe halle whan maked was silence, 5200 

His tale gan with sugred wordis swete, 

Makyng pe bawrae outward for to flete 

Of rethorik and of elloquence, 

Of clier nor word pat per was noon offence, 5204 

In shewynge oute so circu??ispect he was, 

Jpat no man koude, in no maner cas, 

Be signe outward nor by cou?ztenau??ce 

Parceive in hym any variance 520S 

So harde it was his tresoura to espie 

Th effect declaringe of his embassatrie, 

With cler report of his answer ageyn, 

In his menyng pou} lie wer nat pleyn : 5212 

For vnder-nepe he was with f raude frau^t, 

})is slei^ti wolfe, til he his pray hap kau^t : 

For he was clos and couert in his speche 

5186. eke] for D 1. 5193. pis] J>e Ctoun] J>e toun D 1. 
5195. wit/i-oute] with A. 

5198 is misplaced at bottom, of page, in C, and marked b ; 5197 i& 
marked a. 

5198. foreyns] forereyns C, foreyeyns A. 5212. nat] but D 2. 
5213. vnder-nehe] vnder D 1. 

BK. iv] Antenors Reasons why the Trojans should make Peace. 717 

As a serpent, til he may do wreche, 

Hydinge his venym vnder floures longe ; 

And as a be, pat stingep wip pe tonge 

Whan he hap shad oute his hony sote, 

Sugre in pe crop, venym in pe rote 

Ri^t so, in soth, with tonge of* scorpiouw 

})is Anthenor, rote of al tresou??, 

His tale tolde wip a face pleyn, 

Liche pe sonne pat shynep in pe reyn, 

J)at fair[e] shewep pou^ pe weder be 

Wonder diuers & troubly for to se. 

So pis tigre, ful of doubilnesse, 

So couertly his tresoim dide expresse, 

As he nat inent but troupe to pe toim, [leaf 125 c] 

Fully affermyng, in conclusiomi, 

How pe Grekis my^ti were and stronge, 

And likly eke to abide longe, 

Day be day redy hem tassaille, 

And hadde also plente of vitaille 

Concludynge ay per was no remedie 

Ageyn[e]s hem to holde champartie 

Nor with hem any more to stryue. 

For (he seide) pei had 3et a-lyve 

Her worpi kny3tes, hardy as lyowzs, 

Her manly men and her champioiws, 

Whiche, here lyves, platly, to iuparte, 

From pe cite caste hem nat departe 

Til her purpos acheued be in al : 

" For finally nouper tour nor wal, 

Nor 3oure gatis of Iren poii3 * 30 shette, 

\)e Grekis shal on no side lotte, 

But pat pei wiln vs wywne at pe laste ! 

Wherfor, it nedeth a mene weie to caste, 

Sipen of my3t nor fauour of fortune 

We may nat longe ageynfes] hem contwne. 

Wherfore," quod he, "so 30 condescende, 

I can n'3t wel al pis ping amende, 

Remedien, so pat 30 nat varie 

5221. of] of a C. 5234. also plente] plente also D 1. 
5245. I>ou3] 30113 C. 5253. Remedien] And remedie D 1. 

5216 Like a ser- 






hides his 

and tells the 
how strong 
the Greeks 

and that it 
was no good 
5236 to fight more 
with em. 


5244 They can't 
possibly be 
kept out of 


"So you'd 
_ better do as 
5252 I advise. 

718 Antenor urges Acceptance of the Greeks' terms for Peace. [BK. iv 

"The Greeks 
will agree to 

if you com- 
pensate em 

for the harm 
Paris did em 
at Cytliera. 

It's no good 

Of 2 evils, 
choose the 


Life is better 
than gold. 

To fat I seie for to be contrarie 

J?is to mene, shortly out of doute, 

Embassatour whan [fat] I was oute 5256 

Wif J)e Grekis last whan $e me sent, 

ftei seide goodly, how fei wold assent 

Vn-to a pes by * )>is condicioim : 

)2at 30 wil make restitucioim 5260 

Of fe harmys and fe violencis, 

)3e wrongis done, and also * )>e offencis 

By Paris wroujt in Grece at Citheroim, 

As it is ri^t, me semeth, of rescue. 5264 

For her request is meint vfith equite, 

And we be driven of necessite 

Vn-to her lust iustly to enclyne, 

Maugre oure wil fe werre for to fyn 5268 

For al is now in her elleccioun, 

We may nat make no rebelliou?i, 

Now fe mater is so fer y-brou^t, 

To strive a^eyn, in soth, it helpith nou^t, 5272 

It may apeire but no ping availle ! 

Therfore * pe beste fat I can consaille, 

As in prouerbe it hath be seied of }ore, 

)3at ^if a man be constreyned sore, 5276 

And may nat fle, to fallen in a treyne, 

Lete hymchese fe lasse harme of tweyne, [leaf 125 a] 

And f e gretter prudently eschewe. 

And lete oure gold, ]>at is kepte in mewe, 5280 

To saue oure lif make redempcioun : 

For better it is, demeth of resoun, 

Spoiled to ben only of richesse, 

})an wilfully deyen in distresse : 5284 

pe lyf is bet J>an gold or any good 

Set all at nou^t in saving of ^our blood ! 

For foly is a man for his welfare 

couetyse any gold to spare ! 5288 

5255. pis] This is D 1. 5257. whan] whan Jxit D 1. 
5259. by] wi> C. 5262. and also] also of C. 
5271. fer y-broujt] ferre broujt D 1. 5273. but] & D 1. 
5274. Therfore] Wherfore C. 5275. in] in a A. 

5279. eschewe] to eschewe A, teschewe D 2. 

5280. oure] your A is kepte] ye kepe A. 

Antenors Arguments for Peace are accepted by the Trojans. 719,* 

And now oure lyf dependej? in balaurace, 

Late gold fare wel & goon with meschaunce, 

We may here-after, by sort or auenture, 

Gold by grace and good ynow^ recure ! 5292 

And sithen we, as I haue $ow tolde, "We can now 

May byen [a] pes finally for * golde, 

And wit/i oure tresour stinten eke pe werre, and stop the 

It were foly, pleinly, to differre 5296 

With j>e Grekis outterly tacorde : 

For $if so be I to hem recorde 

J?at ^e assent, wttft-outen variauwce, 

))er may of pes be no pa?'turbauce - 5300 

It is so ly^t now to be recured ! 

For as sone as bei ben assured, AS soon as 

. . you 

By lust report, of ^oure entenciouns, their terms, 

)5ei wil do write obligacioiws 5304 the Greeks 

Of couenautttis, pat nat be byhynde ; , securities to 

And ]>at 30 shal in hem no faute fynde, Peace." 

Whan assuraimce from ouper parte is hadde, 

)per-vppon endenturis shal be made, 5308 

So pat of feith 36 mow he??i nat repreue. 

And for pat J>ei fully trust and leue, 

W/t/i-oute fraude, my relaciourc, 

I wil now make no dilaciou?& 5312 

To signefie to hem, in certeyn, 

Hooly ^effect of fat ^e wil seien." 

How that A[n]thanor, Enee, and Taltibus were made 
Imbassators to the Grekes, to trete for A pece; 
and of the Answer of Kynge Vlixes, Diomede, and 
the King of Crete, and of theire demawnd. 1 

And >e peple loude gan to crye The Troj!ins 

Alle wM o vois, and to magnyfie 5316 

Al pat euere Anthenor hath seide ; 
And vp-on hym pei han pe charge leide 

5293. I] we D 1. 5294. for] wi> C. 

5303. report] recorde D 2. 5314. fat] bat Jwt D 1. 

5318. leide] y leide D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D ii. leaf 71 c (70), transposed with leaf 123 

720 Peace-negotiators appointed. Priam laments his fate. [BK. iv 

Tbe Trojans 



and K. Tal- 


to make a 
final Peace 
with the 

But Priam 
suspects their 

and laments 
-his fate. 

He can't help 

He must pay 
his treasure 
to his foes. 

Fate is 
against him. 

Of her answere and entent final, 

And by record to reporten al, 5320 

)5at no ping be forjeten in pis cas. 

J3ei han assigned also Eneas 

"Wip liym to goon for pe same ping, 

In pe presence of pe olde kyng 5324 

Taltibivs, wliiche also of entent 

With Anthenor was to Troye sent : 

])Q whiche pre han pleinly vndirtakej . [leaf 126 a] 

As ^e han herde, a final pes to make, 5328 

Al-be pat pei in couert tresoiw ment. 

And on her weie forpe anoo?z pei went, 

With pleyn power committed of pe toun.. 

But kyng Priam hath ay suspeciorm 5332 

To Anthenor and also to Enee, 

How pat pei shal distroyen his cite ; 

And to hym silfe, trist of hertly wo, 

He seide : " alias ! what is* best to do 5336 

In pis meschef pat I am in falle ! 

And jit is pis to me werst of alle, 

Jjat I am now porn} myn aduersite 

Boimde & compelled of necessite, 5340 

Maugre myn hed, in maner of ran sou 7* 

For my lyf , to make redempcioim 

Vn-to my foon pat I haue most at herte. 

I se rijt wel I may it nat asterte : 5344 

For I mote paye per geyneth no socour 

My good, my gold, richesse & tresour 

To my most foon, and dar it nat denye ! 

And jit I stonde of lif in iupartie, 5348 

With-oute refut hangircge in ballau?^ce, 

Alias ! constreyned poruj my woful chaunce 

Tobeie her lust, pat mortally me hate, 

Driven per-to of birpe Jjoruj my fate, 5352 

So parchas han my destine y-shape, 

5325. Taltibivs] Taltibus A, D 2, Taltilius D 1. 5326. to] for D 1. 
5334. >at] om. D 1. 5335. trist] ful D 1. 5336. is] is me C. 
5349. ballaimce] bataylle (marked with a little cross to indicate 
blunder] D 2. 

5351. Tobeie] To abeye A, To bye D 1. 
5353. y-shape] >us shape D 1. 

Helen wants Menelaus again. Pentkesilea's funeral Rites. 721 

By noon engyn I may it nat eskape ! " 

And while Priam gau Jms [to] compleyne, 

To Anthenor cam ]>& quene Eleyne, 5356 Helen comes 

Ti i i i i t Antenor. 

JbJeseching hym in his embassatne and begs him 

Of gentilnesse for to specefie, 

)?oru3 his prudent mediaciou^, 

To fynd a wale in conseruacioim 5360 

Of hir estat, finally J>at she 

To Menelay may reconcyled be, to reconcile 

J J J Menelans 

5if so falle * J)at \>e trete holde with iier. 

So ]>at hir lord of his grace wolcle 5364 

Kestoren hir vn-to hir degre, 

Only of mercy and of hi^e pite. 

And Anthenor vn-to hir requeste He promises 

3af audience, makynge a beheste 5368 

How he wolde, with al his herte entere, 

Be dilligent to trete of* )>is matere ; 

And fer-wit/a-al of hym she toke hir leve. 

And ]>is was done on J>e same Eue 5372 

)3at Anthenor (I pray God }if him sorwe !) 

To Grekis went on ]?e nexte inorwe, Next day be 

-. , ,, . tfoes to the 

Only to trete ior a pes nnal. ureeks. 

And in ))is while ]>e feste funeral [leaf 126 &] 5376 Funeral rites 

_ T _ , , , . rn are ' ie 'd in 

Was holde m Iroye, myn auctor write]) ]>us, Troy for 

Of a lorde fat called was Glaucus, 

A manly kny^t to-forn in his lyvinge, 

And sone was to Priamtt* J>e kyng. 5380 

And ouer fis, liche as seith Guydo, 

)5at kyng Priam* besi[e]de hym also, 

Of Pantasillya ho\v J)e body my^t Penthesiiea. 

Be conseruid freshely to ])e si^t ; 5384 

And, for loue of ))is worfi quene, 

Of purid golde & of stonys shene 

He lete make a vessel ful royal, 

And filde it ful of bawme natural 5388 

5355. new HA gan Jms to] Jnis gan D 1. 

5358. for] om. A. 

5363. falle}be C >e trete] cure tretes D 1. 

5370. Be] By D 1 of] in C. 5372. was] om. A. 

5379. to-forn] mn. D 1. 5380. to] of D 2. 

5382. pat] The D 1 Priam] Priamus 0. 

72 2 Penthesilea is embalmd. The Greek Envoys enter Troy. [BK. i\r 

The Amazon 
corpse is em- 

so as to be 
taken home 
:iud buried 
with her 

For the treaty 
of peace, 

and the King 
of Crete 

come to 
Troy with 

The Trojans 
think it 
will end 
their sorrow. 

Priam con- 
vokes them. 

To kepe J>e cors fro corrupciovw 

Til ])e werre of Grekis & J>e* toura 

Jtoru; J>e trete wer y-stynted clene : 

So Jjat ]>Q kyng callid Philymene 

j)is dede quene my^t of affeccioim 

Carye it home in-to hir region?!, 

With hir auwcetris buried for to be, 

Liche J>e maner of old antiquite, 

And J?e custom vsid in j?at tyme 

It wer in veyn mor per-of to ryme ; 

I passe oue?*e vn-to J>e trete 

A-twene Grekis and Troye }>e cite. 

And for ]?e parti of Grekis, as I rede, 

First Vlixes, and wiiJi hym Diomede, 

Assigned wern, and ]>e kyng of Crete, 

With Anthenor and Eneas to mete. 

And alle y-fere, shortly in sentence, 

By conduit first, and after by licence 

Of )>e noble wyse Agamenoim, 

)}ei entred ben in-to Troye tou?i 

By conveiynge of J>is Eneas. 

Of whos commynge s \viche a loye Iper was 

Of )>e comowns, whiche in jnnges newe 

Reioyshen ay, after pou^ )>ei rewe, 

Wenynge ful wel in her oppinioim, 

J)at by pe good[e] mediaciou?? 

Of Ylixes and ]>e kyng of Crete, 

And Diomede, pat cam eke to trete, 

]3at )>ese pro shuldc make as fast 

A final pes, euere for to last, 

And a ful ende of her alder sorvve. 

And ]?er-vppon, erly )>e nexte morwe 

Priam lete make a convocaciouft 

Of alle )>e worpi w/t/^-Inne Troye tourc. 

And whan ]?ei were assemblid alle in oon, 

))e wyse Vlixes roos hym vp anoon, 











5390. of] of }>e D 1 >e] of >e C, D 1. 

5391. y-stynted] stynted A, stinted D 1. 5392. now IT A. 
5402. vrith] after 1)1. 5414. ]>e] om. D 2. 

5416. to] for to D 1. 5423. in oon] in fere D 1. 
5424. roos hym vp anoon] seide as 36 shulle here D 1. 

BK. iv] Ulysses declares the Greek Conditions of Peace. 723 

And his tale gan in swiche a wyse, [leaf 126 c] uiysses 

So prudently his wordis to deuyse, 

J3at to herkene eue/y man hath loye, 

And specially }>ei fat werne of Troye, 5428 

]3at of his inward menynge fraudelent 

Ful litel wiste, nor of his entent, 

To her plesauwce so he koude feyne. 

And first he axeb of hem binges tweyne. 5432 asks theTro- 

. .Jans 

]3e ton was f is : fat of fe cite 

He wolde haue gold an huge quantite m t0 h pay id- 

In recompense of harmys fat wer do ; 

A-no)>er f ing he axede eke also : 5436 

WVt/t-oute abood bat Amphymacus, 2. to banish 

5 Araphima- 

}pat sone was to kyng Priamvs, chus - 

Perpetuelly fat he exiled be, . 

Neuere to entre Troye fe cite, 5440 

For gold, praier, nor for no ransou?*. 

How A[n]thenor is confederate with the Grekes, and 
of his grete dissimulacion agaynst his prince, 
kynge Priamus. And of the suspectiou^ of a 
great noyse of Armure herd in Troy by nyght. 1 

And bis was doon by swestioiw This wa 

' . . Antenor's 

Of Anthenor, fals and malicious, suggestion, 

Only for he was contrarious 5444 

)5at he shold[e] trete?i for a pes, 

And for fat he was nat rek[e]les 

To seyn a troufe fis Amphymacus. because 

)?erfore, in soth, f is serpent envious, 5448 cims 

Now he hath foiwde a tyme for to byte, 

He fou^t he wold cruelly hym quyte 

For troube only bat was in his entent. boldly spoke 

/ J r the truth. 

J}erfore it is fill expedient, 5452 

Of prudence eue?y man to charge, 

bat his tonge be nat ouer-large : But truth 

isn't always 

Iroufes alle be nat for to seyn ; to be told, 

5441. no] om. D 2. 5448. envious] venymous D 1. 
5450. cruelly hym] hym ciu^lly D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 72 c, d (71), transposed with leaf 124 
(120) ; the heading is misplaced after line 5558. 


724 The Advantage of Silence. Ampliimachmis'banisht. [BK.IV 

when you're 
in trouble. 

Better then 
be silent 

and suffer. 

Silence often 

For Amphi- 

was banislit, 

tho God paid 
back Anterior 

for his lies, 

as he was 
turnd out of 
Troy by 

For wisdam is, som tyme for to feyne 

And dissymule in aduersite, 

Specially whan men in trouble be, 

And sene her speche may he?tt nat availle : 

Better is panne jjat her tonge faille, 

Jjan folily to her damage speke. 

Men most amonge cure and oue?Teke 

])Q troufe of pinges, only of prudence, 

And humblely suffre in pacience 

For fals report of folkes envious. 

Who can so done, I holde hym vertuous : 

For bet it is a whyle to abide 

j}an seyn al oute of rancour & of pride. 

Silence, in soth, hath ofte in hasty strif 

Hadde of victorie a prerogatyf, 

And J)e palme of debatis wonne, 

Jjat wel are pei pat so suffre konne, 

And bene of speche nat presumptuous. 

For, as I tolde, pis Amphymacils, 

Not-wiJ>stondynge fat he troupe ment, 

3it for a worde he [in-]to exile went, 

Al-be fat God fill iustly after warde 

Hath Anthenor quyt for his rewarde ; 

For wit/i fe same he was after hit 

For his falshede, duely as it sit : 

])is to seyn, for his iniquite 

He was to exile and captiuite 

For-iuged after, in-to proscripcioun, 

And relegat oute of Troye toun 

Perpetuelly by pe procuringe 

Of Eneas. Lo ! how pe ri^tful kynge, 

]?at al may sene in his prouidence, 

Ful iustly can maken recompence 

Of doubilues and simulaciouw, 

And of al swiche contrived fals tresoura : 

For who avenge)? with falshed for his part, 

He shal ben hit wip pe same dart ; 

He skapep nat for to haue a wonde. 

[leaf 126 d] 











5466. can so] so can D 1. 
5481. to] is to D 1. 

5480. duely as it] as it duely D 1. 

BK. iv] Ulysses and Diomede fear the Trojans will murder em. 725 

For falshede ay wil ageyn reboumle 

Where it roos first, to his original 

llesorte ageyn, ri^t as doth a bal. 

For, who for fraude euere doth him caste, 

Truste ri$t wel, it wil out at ]?e laste ; 

And who supplau/ite)) shal supplau?^ted be, 

By good example, as }e shal after se, 

Of Antlienor )?e story 3 if $e rede. 

And whiles J)ei treten and precede 

Touchinge J?e exile and proscrlpcioiw, 

Captiuite and relygacioiw 

J)at J>ei caste for Amphymacus, 

J?er was herde a noyse merveilous, 

A gret tumulte and a wourcder soiw, 

Like as it were a lamentacioutt 

Of sondri folke pleynyng* in distresse 

For hetly wo and inward heuynesse. 

Oute of e trete eveiie whan ei gon, 

pis confus cry after gan anoon, 

Where-of Vlixes and eke Diomede 

Sodeinly fillen in a drede, 

Supposynge in her oppinioiw 

J5at som rumowr was fallen in J?e toun, 

Amongo ]>e peple and fe co??imovnte 

Of hasty rancour avenged for to be 

For }>e loue of Amphymacus, 

i|3at causeles was exiled Jms 

Of volunte, ageyn al troupe & ri^t. 

Wherfor )>ei drad, whan it drow to ny3t 

To be mordrid of comou?zs of ])e touw 

For }?e fraude and conspiracioiw 

Falsly compassid of old enmyte 

By Anthenor and by fals Enee. 

And, sothly ^it, J>er was no maner man 

J)at koude wyte where-of it be-gan, 

Nor espie first where it aroos, 

In al J?e paleis nor Joruj-otite ]?e cloos : 

[leaf 127 a] 










While the 
Envoys are 




they hear a 
sound of 
tumult and 
in Troy. 

Ulysses and 
Diomede fear 

the people 
are going to 
take venge- 
ance for the 
of Amphi- 

and murder 


for the fraud 

of Antenor 
and Eneas. 

5501, 2 arc, transposed in D 2. 
5517. and J>e] in D 1, in he U 2. 
5530. nor] om. D 2 2nd pe] al 

5509. pleynyng] pleynly C. 
e D 1. 

Dioraede are 


but Antenor 
them ; 

and when 
Ulysses com 
plains of his 

726 Antenor explains why the Trojans lament. [BK. rv 

jpei herde it wel, but pei seie nou^t. 

Wher-of pei werne astonyd in her pou$t, 5532 

And affraied of verray sodein drede, 


Vlixes moste, and also Diomede, 

Liste wip co??^movns pei had be byset. 

But Anthenor, w/t/i-oute longer let, 553fr 

To make hem sure, fro??? al tvmulte & cry 

]3e Grekes hath conveied secrely. 

And whan pei wern assured of her place, 

Vlixes first, with a chauwged face, 5540 

Gan pynche sore in pe selfe while 

At Anthenor of tresoun and of gyle, 

|3at \vith his hestis so fro day to day, 

Of verray sleijte, putte hem in delay, 5544 

Semynge fully, for ou[j]te he koude espie, 

Jjer was deceit, fraude, or trecherie 

In pe covenants pat he hath be-hijt. 

To whom anoon, pis fals[e] Troyan kuyjt, 5548 

With sadde chere & sobre contenau??,ce, 

Wel avised in his dalyau?^ce, 

Answered ageyn, & pleinly dide expresse : 

"I-wys," q?^od he, "I take vn4o witnesse 5552 

]?e hi^e goddes,"^ j?at euery ]?ing may se, 

Wit//-oute feynynge J>#t I haue besy be 

Fro point to point jour pz/rpos to acheue ; 

But finally, so it ^ow nat greve, 5556 ; 

And paciently pat ^e list to here, 

)3er is o ])ing perturbeth )>is mater, 

Whiche fat I shal, so it be noon offence, 

Pleinly remembre here in ^oure presence : 5560' 

J2is to seyn, of bide antiquite, 

First at pe bildyng of Troye pe cite, 

)5at whilom was y-called Yllyou/i, 

For cause only at his fundaeioun, 5564 

Kyng Ylyvs, sith[en] go ful longe, 

he says he has 

been true to 

and he'll 
explain the 
trouble in 
the city. 

"When Troy 
was built, 

5531. seie] seye it D 1. 

5535. >ei had be byset] bat bei had be sette D 1. 

5537. al tvmulte] multitude D 1. 

5540. Vlixes first] Firste Vlixes D 1. 

5553. goddes] goodes C. 5562. 1st be] &m. D 1. 

5563. whilom] somtyme D 1 y-called] called D 1. 

How a marvellous Image ivas sent from Heaven into Troy. 727 

J?e founder was of }>e walles stronge, 

After whom, as made is mencioim, 

It called was and named Ylyoim, 

In )>e which e, with grete & besy charge, 

In Pallas name he made a temple large, 

jpat passyngly was hadde in reuerence. 

And whan j>is phane of most excellence [leaf 1276] 

Parformed was by masoiwri ful wel, 

And, sane pe rofe, complet euerydel, 

Of my^ti stoon ]?e bildynge wel assured 

But or it was with led & tymber cured, 

Ageyn[es] tempest for to bene obstacle, 

))er fil a wou^der only by myracle, 

j)at I dar wel afferme in * certeyn, 

Swiche a-nofier was Ipere neuere seyn 

Who-so list se and considren al 

}5is merveil was so celestial : 

Former cam doun horn )>e hi3e heuene, 

By Pliades and }>e sterris seuene, 

And pom} ]>e eyr holdyng his passage, 

Like a fairy a merueillous ymage, 

J5at in pis world pou^ men had[de] so^t, 

Ne was per noon halfe so wel [y-Jwrou^t. 

For, as it is trewly to suppose, 

Pigmalyon, remembrid in ]>e Rose, 

In his tyme hadde no konnyng 

To graue or peint so corious a ping : 

For it was wrou^t wip dilligent labowr 

By hond of auwgil in J>e heuenly tour, 

Jjoru^ Goddes my^t & devyn ordinau?ice, 

And hider sent * J>orii} his puruyaiwce, 

For a relik, only of his grace, 

And prouided to pe same place, 

j?er tabide for a protecciouw, 

For a diffence and saluaciouw, 


"the founder 
of it 

built Pallas 
a grand 

5572 And when it 
was all done 

but the roof, 






there came 
from Heaven 

a wondrous 

better than 
could have 

5596 which was 
sent by God 


as a protec- 
tion to Troy. 

5566. walles] \valle A, wall D 2. 

5568. It called] I named D 1 named] called D 1. 

5572. of most] nioste of D 1. 5573. by] with D 1. 

5579. in] it in C, D 1. 5583. new IT A. 

5587. in] Jxm? D 1. 5591. no] oin. A. 

5593. was] is D 1. 5596. sent] it sent C. 


Antenor describes the Palladium of Troy. [BK. IV 

" So that 
Troy can 
never be de- 
stroy d till 

this relic is 

No one can 
move it 

except the 
priest in 
charge of it ; 

and no one 
whether it's 
stone or 


Perpetuelly whil pe world may dure, 

Ageyn al meschef and inysauenture, 

Euery trouble and tribulacioiw, 

In sustenynge and reuelacioiw, 

And souereyn helpe eke of pis cite. 

\)e whiche newr may distroyed be, 

By noon engyn pat men may pwrchase : 

])Q goddes han grawited swicbe a grace, 

And swicbe vertu annexed eke per-to, 

)pat Troye in sotb may neuer be for-do 

Til pis relik stole be a- way. 

And ^it, in soth, per is no man pat may 

From pe place stere it nor remewe, 

But pe prest to whom it is dwe 

Only of offys to touche it vfiih his bond. 

So my^tely conseruyd is pe bond, 

})at who attempteth, in conclusioim, 

It to remewe of presumpciou??, 

At pe fyn, platly, he shal fayle : 

For force noon may \\iin nat availle ; 

For it in soth wil nat renieved be 

Excepte of hym to whom of duete 

It aparteneth, as $e han herde to-forn. 

And, ouermore, per is no man ^it born, 

J)at rede can, nor telle in no degre, 

Yerraily, wher it be stoon or tre, 

Nor how it was deuysed nor y-wrou^t 

))er is no wy^t so sotil in his pou^t 

Ceriously to tellen pe manere. 

For Minerua, pat is so freshe & clere, 

)5e sterne goddesse, poru$ hir gretfe] my^t, 

)3at is so dredful bope of loke & si^t, 

Whiche on hir brest haueth of cristal 










5601. world] life D 1. 5606. neuer may] may neuere D 1. 
5607. D 1 repeats engyn. 5609. vertu] a vertu D 2. 

5616. myjtely] iustly D 1. 

5617. who] who so D 1. 5618. of] by D 2. 

5620. force] om\ D 1 may] did D 2 may him nat] but pat hym 
may D 1. 

5621. it in soth] in sooth it A wil] may D 1 removed] renewed 

5623. aparteneth] perteyneth D 1. 5626. wher] wheper D 1. 

BK. iv] Still of the Palladium. It is named after Pallas. 729 

Hir shilde Egys pis goddesse mraortal 

I-graiwted hath, in bokes as I lerne, 

poru^ hir power whiche [pat] is eterne, 5636 

bis holy relik for a memorial 

To hir temple of * bildyng most royal, 

It to conserue from al assaut of * drede, 

And to socour in euery maner nede 

Ageyn her foon vn-to Troye toiw, 

While it is kept with deuocioim : 

So pat alweye by successioim, 

From kyng to kyng in pe lyne dou?i, 5644 

By iust title lyneally succede, 

Here-to annexed pat )>ei taken liede, 

Prudently avoidynge necligence, 

It to conserue we't/i due reuerence, 5648 

As pei are boimde & y-holde of ri^t. 

pa?me shal noon enmy power haue nor my3t 

To do damage in hyndrynge of pe tourc. 

And whi it is called Palladyoura, 5652 

Like as clerkis write of it and seyn, 

Is, for Pallas, to make hir knm certeyn, 

pis relyke sent fro pe heuene doiw. 

And to conclude shortly my resouw, 5656 

pis is pe cause oure purpos is so let." 

" pan," quod Vlixes, " sith it may be no bet, 

Oure labour is in ydel and in veyn, 

Wit/i-oute recure, ^if it be certeyn, 5660 

As ]>ou hast seyd, pis touw in no degre 

poru} pis relyk may not distroied be : 

It was foly pe to vndirtake 

Vn-to Grekis beheste for to make. 5664 

Wtt/<-oute pis, Jjoii haddest* be ful sure." 

Qwod Anthenor, " ^it per is recure : 

As I haue hi$t, 36 shal haue pe toura, 

"granted tins 



5640 to help Troy 

against its 

foes ; 


. Egys ]>is goddesse inmortal] wiche is verre celestial D 1. 
. of] in C. 5639. of] & C, D 1. 5642. with] in D 

5649. are] bene D 1. 5651. do] do no D 1. 

5657. is J>e] om. A 1st is] om. D 2. 

5658. J?an] Sethe D 1 sith] om. D 1. 

5663. ]>e] to the D 1. 5664. Vn-to] And vii to D 1. 
5665. haddest] hast C ful] \vel A, D 2. 

730 Antenor will bribe the Priest of the Palladium. [BK. iv 

" Wait," says 


"I'll bribe 
the priest 

to bring the 
relic where 
you appoint." 

Ulysses and 
Diomede go. 

Antenor says 

he'll arrange 
the sureties 
for Peace 
with Priam, 

and the 
money he's 
to pay. 

He goes to 

Al-pei$ per be a dilaciorw ; 5668 

And pe maner anoon I shal telle, 

3if it so be $e list a whyle dwelle [leaf 127 d] 

Wit/i-oute noyse oupe[r] perturbaiwce. 

jpe prest, pe whiche hath pe gouernaimce 5672 

Of pis relyk, shal be spoke vn-to, 

By good avys, and y-treted so, 

jDat he shal be f ul of oure assent ; 

For he with gold & tresour shal be blent, 5676 

jpat he accorde shal to oure purpos, 

To bringe ]>e relike, whiche is kept so clos, 

To what place pat $e list assigne. 

Beth stille of port, goodly, & benigne 5680 

In 3011 re werkis til I haue brou^t aboute 

Fully J>is ping, and beth no ping in doute, 

I dar my silfe take it wel on honde." 

And whan pei had his menyng vndirskwde, 5684 

J)ei toke leue & wente oute of pe touw. 

But first to voide al suspeciou^, 

At her goynge Anthenor hath hi^t 

How pat he wold goon )>e same ny^t 5688 

To Priam us, " to maken ordinau?^ce 

How ]>e bondis and )>e assurau7^ce 

Of ))e pes shulde y-maked be, 

And for to knowe eke J?e quantite 5692 

Of J>e gold ]?at ^e shal recey ve : 

J9us shal I best J>e purpos aparceyve 

Of fe kyng to* knowe it euerydel." 

And )?ei concent, & like wonder wel 5696 

Euery ping pat Anthenor hath seide ; 

And so pei parte, glad & wel apaide, 

And wente her way & made no tariyng. 

And Anthenor goth vn-to pe kyng, 5700 

Hym couraseillynge, he make no delay 

To calle his lordis ageyn pe next[e] day, 

And his liges to assemble y-fere, 

5670. so] om. D 1 dwelle] to dwelle D 1. 

5671. ouber] ober D 2, or D 1. 5672. 3rd >e] om. D 1. 
5673. spoke vn-to] spoken to D 1. 5681. hroujt] be D 1. 
5694. aparceyve] perceyve D 1. 5695. to] and 0. 

5701. make] made D 1. 

BK. iv] The Greek Price, in Money and Wheat, for Peace. 731 

Finally tengrosse pis matere, 5704 

As it was sittinge and expedient. 

And wha?me pe kyng m open parlement 

Crowned sat in his regalie, 

)?is Anthenor gan to specefte 5708 Antenor says 

In audience, pat men my$t[e] knowe, 

To eche estat, bo)>e hi$e and lowe, 

J?e Grekis wille, $if pei agre per-to, 

And what )>e some was of gold also 

Whiche pei axe, $if pe pes shal stonde : 

Twenti pousand marke to haue in honde 

Of pured gold, whiche most anow be paid, 

And of siluer, pat may nat be delaied, 

Jjei most eke han pe same qnantite ; 

And ouer J)is, as bei accorded be, 

Certeyn mesours be couenaiu?t also haue [ieafi28a] 

Of whete & flour, her lyues for to saue 

In her repeire by pe large se, 

Whan J>ei saille home to her contre, 

And pat pe collect maked be anoon, 

By good avis of hem euerychoon, 5724 

J3at al be redy be a certeyn day. 

J)er was no man pat durst po seie nay 

Nor contrarie pat Anthenor hap seide, 

Wher-so pei wer wel or evele apaide, 5728 

But fill assent, in conclusions. 

And in al haste, poru3-oute al pe tous, 

\)e colytours gadrid vp pe gold, 

Like pe sowme pat* I haue 3011 told, 5732 

Of pore and riche per wer spared noon. 

J5e whiche tyme Anthenor is goon 

Yn-to pe prest pat called was Thonauwte, 

3if he my^t in any wyse hym daimte : 5736 

To make his herte fully to enclyne, 

Ful craftely he leyde oute hoke & lyne, 

5704. tengrosse] to grose vp D 1. 5710. bo>e] bothe to D 1. 
5712. was of gold] of golde was D 1. 5715. pured] pure D 1. 
5719. also] to D 2. 5719, 20 are transposed in D 2. 
5725. 2nd be] om. D 1. 5728. Wher-so] Whe]>er D 1. 
5729. assent] assentid] D 1. 5731. colytours] colectours D 1. 
5732. >at] as C. 5733. wer] was A, D*2. 

To Priam 
and his Par- 

the Greeks 


20,000 marks 
in gold, 

5716 and 20,000 
in silver, 

5720 with lots of 
wheat and 

by a fixt day. 

No one dares 
say nay. 

The money is 

Antenor goes 
to the Palla- 
dium priest 

732 Antenors Bribe to the Priest of the Palladium. [BK. iv 




for the Pal- 

much gold, 

enough to 
make him 

and liis kin 
very rich ; 

and no sus- 
picion shall 

attach to 

With lusty bait of fals[e] couetyse, 

Excitynge hym in fill secre wyse, 5740 

))at he woldfe] ben of his assent, 

And* condescende vn-to his entent, 

To putten hym in pocessioiw 

Of J>e relik called Pall&dioutt, 5744 

Wzt/i-oute abood it may delyuered be ; 

And ^af hym gold an huge qua?tite, 

And hjm to blende moclie more him [be-Jhy^ 

And ]?is was don fid pmicly by ny^t, 5748 

Shortly concludynge, }if he condescende, 

}pat he \volde his estat amende 

So passyngly, J>at for eue?'more 

He and his heires shulde haue gold in* store, 5752 

Plente y-nowe, )?at noon indigence 

Shulde haue power him to done offence. 

" For vn-to ]?e, )>is a-vow I make," 

Q?/od Anthenor, " and platly* vndirtake, 575ft 

Of gold & good ]?ou shalt haue suffisa?zce, 

And of tresour passinge habimdaiwce, 

))at pou shalt, in verray sikernesse, 

Al jn kyn excellen in richesse, 5760 

3if ]>ou de]yue?-e, like to myn axynge, 

Palladiou7^, which e is in Jn kepynge. 

And I be-hote J>ou maist trestfe] me 

By bond of fei)) it shal be secre, 5764 

List it were hindringe to )>i name : 

For ^if so be, pat ])ou drede shame, 

To be esclauwdrid* of so foule a dede, 

I shape shal* j}t }>e thar nat drede [ieafi-286j 5768- 

Nor ben agast in 110 maner wyse ; 

For swiche a way, in soth, I shal deuise, 

}5at no man shal be suspecious 

To }>i persone, nor engynyous 5772 

5739. bait] herte D 1. 5741. ben] iustly D 1. 

5742. And] And to C. 5747. be-hy3t] hyjt D 1. 

5752. in] & C. 5755. >e] om. D 1. 5756. platly] plainly C^ 

5758 is repeated and partly erased in D 1 of] om. A. 

5762. is] om. D 1. 5764. fei>] it A, om. D 2 feij>] troufe D 1. 

5767. esclau?uhid] ensclauwdrid C, sclau?idred D 1. 

5768. shape shal] shal shape C pe thar] J>ou shalt D 1. 

BK. iv] Antenor 'II blame Ulysses for stealing the Palladium. 733 

To deme amys, how pis mater goth. 

For be wel ware, pt me were as loth 

To be diffamed of* so false a ping, 

To knowe per-of, or be assentynge 5776 

In any manor, pat pel of )>e toun 

Sholde to me haue suspeciouw, 

Lat be, lat be, leuere I hadde deie ! 

We shal per-for cast a-noper weie, 5780 

Oure honour saue, so }>at pou & I 

Shal goon al quyte I seie pe outterly, 

)5at nouper shal be hold[e] partener* 

Of pis thefte, but stond[e] hool & cler 5784 

What-euere falle, witfi-outen any shame : 

For Vlixes shal beren al pe blame 

Of pis dede and pis pefte also ; 

For men shall sein, whan [pat] it is go, 5788 

By his engyn & his slei^ti wyle, 

JX>ru3 his treynes & his false gyle, 

]5at he hath stole aweie Palladiouw 

From pe temple, in lesyng of pe toun 5792 

Jpat, finally, duringe al his lyve 

Men shal to hym pis falshed ascryve, 

And al pe gilt arretten his * offence ! 

)3at pou and I, only of Innocence, 579G 

jjoru^-oute pe world of pis iniquite 

Shal be excused, platly, & go fre. 

It nedeth not tarie in pis matere, 

Come of attonys ! lo, pi gold is here ! 5800 

For pou ne shalt lenger delaied be. 

And sith pou seste pat no difficulte 

Is on no part, pereil nor repref, 

Shame nor drede, sclauwder nor meschef, 5804 

Delaie nat to take pis ping on honde ! " 

And first pis prest gan hym to wit/i-stonde 

Antenor will 
manage so 

that no one 
will suspect 
him or 

Thonant of 
the theft of 
the Palla- 

All the blame 
shall be laid 
on Ulysses ; 

and Thonant 
and Antenor 
will be held 

5774. be wel ware] trnste me welle D 1. 5775. of] with C. 

5779. deie] to deie D 1. 5783. partener] parcener C, D 2. 

5784. thefte] >ing D 1 but] to D 2. 

5786. blame] name A. 5788. go] a goo D 2. 

5789. &] and in D 1 wyle] wyse A. 5791. f>at] om. D 1. 

5795. his] to his 0. 5798. excused] excluded D 1. 

5802. sith] se])en D 1 seste Jxrt] ne seeat D 1. 

734 Antenor sends the Palladium of Troy to Ulysses. [BK. iv 
Thonant at Ful iny^tely, and seide, for no pinge, 

first de(*hu*6s 

Xouper for praier nor for manacmge, 5808 

^ 01 8^ uor o 0( lj lie no maner mede 
jj e no id e assent to so foule a dede ! 
(jpus he answered at pe prime face.) 

But ofte sithe it happeth men purchase 5812 

^ 3^ te ^ S 00( ^> ^ s P e ke in wordis pleyn, 
him give in: j^t troupe in pouert my^t neuer atteyne : 
For mede more by falshede may co?iquere 
}5an title of ri^t, pat men in troupe lere ; 5816 

And $iftes grete hertis can encline ; [leaf 128 c] 

And gold, pat may in * stele & marbil myne, 
JMs prestis hert hath so depe graue, 

}3at Anthenor shal his purpos * haue, 5820 

For to possede pe Palladiouw, 
jporu^ false engyn and conspiraciouw 
Of pis prest, pat called was Tonauwt, 

ISte from the Wllicne of falshede my^t hym best avau?^te, 5824 

Temple, j^t y ls Ie ife f ro y Q temple rent. 

And to Ylixes Anthenor it sent, 

Qute of pe tonw, in al pe haste he my^t, 

By a seruau?zt secrely by ny^t : 5828 

of th! Tro" ay ^ ner -f Troyens mortally dismaied, 
jans. And poru^ tresou?^ finally outtraied, 

Wrou^t by pis prest wM couetise blent, 

False Anthenor beynge of assent. 5832 

How the translator compleyneth hym of the trans- 
mutaciou?i and couetousnes of prieste^. 1 

Weil may Troye, alias ! wel maistow mowne & wepe, 
at being In compleyny?ige with hertly si^es depe, 
its paiia- Falsly def raudid of Palladioim, 

dium ! 

And pntte for eue?'e oute of pocessiou7^. 5836 

my^ti goddes, pat pe world gouerne, 

5808. 2nd for] for no D 1. 5809. good ne] siluer for D 1. 
5811. be] mn. D 1. 5813. good] golde D 1. 

5818. in] no C. 5820. shal his purpos] his purpos shal C. 

. >is] >e D 1. 5833. new IT A. 
5834. In] With D 1 

5831. bis] be D 1. 5833. new 
h D 1 with] of D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 126 a. 

BK. iv] The evil of Priests corrupted by Covetousness. T35 

And euery J)ing Jx>ruj ^our my^t concerne, 

Ri^t as it is,* of ^oure deite, 

And troupe & falshed may to-gedre se* 

In euery herte porti} pure puruyau?zce, 

Whi toke $e nat on ]>is prest vengaiwce ? 

))at traitourly, foru^ his iniquite, 

For gold and good be-traisshed pe cite 

Of Troye, alias ! wz'tA-oute more recure. 

Who shal emforfe any more be sure, 

Or any place stonde in sikerte, 

Sith holynesse of so hi3e degre 

May bene infect & corrupt wij> mede ? 

Euery hert ou^te quake and drede 

To sene, alias ! by false ypocrisye, 

Prestis, ]>at shulde )>e worlde exernplifie 

With good[e] doctrine of perfeccioiw, 

To make so sone a transmutaciouw, 

Of double entent sodeinly to varie ! 

For dout[e]les, ^if J>e seintuarie 

Be pollut fowide in conuersacioim, 

Naked and bare of deuociou??, 

And ]>at ]>e shynyng of her parfit li$t 

I-turned be by derknes vn-to ny^t, 

Yn-to what place shal men fer)>er go 

To take ensaw/zple what hem ou}t[e] do ? 

Certis, pe rote & grounde* of euery del 

Is couetise who-so loke wel, 

Of whiche }>e greyne is so fer y-sowe, 

])&t who-so list auarice knowe, [leaf 128 rf] 

Amonge prestis he shal it rathest fynde ; 

For )>er-\vzt7<-al ]>ei be maked blynde 

To her estat, fat }>ei may nat se. 

For, in sothnes, fer is no degre 

5838. euery fing Jjoru^ ^our my3t] Jjoruj 3oure my^te euery jnng 
D 1 concerne] conserve A. 

5839. it is] 3011 liste D 1 is] is due C. 5840. se] be C. 
5842. prest] thing D 1. 5846. emfor)>e] hensforthe A, D 1. 
5850. quake] to quake D 1. 

5853. of] and D 1. 5856. ^if] }if pat D 1. 
5859. >at] cm. D 1. 5862. do] to do D 1. 

5863. rote & ground*] grou?ide & rote C. 

5864. loke] lokith hit D 1. 5866. knowe] to knowe D 1. 


Why didn't 
the Trojans 
take venge- 
ance on this 
5844 priest Tho- 
b nantforhis, 
treachery ? 



5856 If the light 
of the sanc- 

is turnd into 


where can 
men go for 
guidance ? 

5864 Covetousness 
is the root 
of all evil, 

and is soonest 
found among, 


736 The Avarice of Priests, like this Thoncmt of Troy. [BK. iv 

No men are 
more covet- 
ous than 

The bright 
.gold blinds 
their eyes. 

Avarice is in 


the vice of all 


this priest 
who sold 
the Palla- 
dium while 
the Trojans 

their l.uge 
ransom lor 
the Greeks. 

Gredier nor more ravynous 
Of worldly good, nor more coueitous 
pan prestis ben to cacche what pel may : 
For it is goon sithen many day, 
pat in her brest ficched was J>e rote 
Of couetise, whiche sit so sote 
pat no man may arrace him nor remewe ; 
For at her* tail euere it doth hern swe, 
pis false werme, moder & norice 
Of al meschef and of euery vice. 
For gold is now so shynyng & so brijt, 
So percinge eke, & so clere of ly^t, 
pat prestis ben \vitfi his stremys blent : 
For, in sothnes, ]>ei ben in her entent 
Of couetise verray receptacle, 
And to possede eke )>e tabernacle. 
Her hert is ay so gredy to embrace, 
pat auarice ha]) his loggyng place 
Mid of her breste, j>is vice of vices alle ! 
pat cause]) vertu rarest for to falle, 
Wher he abit, so he can supplaimte. 
Recorde I take of pe * preste Tonauwte, 
pat for tresour to Anthenor ha}) sold 
pe ricbe relik ])at he had in hold, 
Palladioun, while }>ei of Troye tou?i 
Han gadrid vp abouten enviroiw, 
Of riche and pore ])oru$[-out] )?e cite, 
Gold and sillier an huge quantite, 
Flour & whete to paien her rauwsouw. 
pe whiche so??mie of entencioiw 
pei made kepe wysly and conserve 
In ]>Q temple pat longej) to Minerve, 
Purposynge after, of oon affecciouft, 
pe cite^ens ))oru3-oute al ])e tou?i, 
Hopynge ])er-by for to fare ]?e bet 
Vp-on a day, assigned and y-set, 










5874. many] many a D 1. 5878. her] J>e C. 

5880. Of a!] In euery D 1. 

5889. Mid] And D 1. 5891. so he can] he can so D 1. 

5892. be] >is C. 5903. oon] om. D 1. 

BK. iv] The Trojan Sacrifices to Apollo fail. 737 

To Appollo in her paynym wyse 

Solempnely make a sacrifise, 5908 sacrifice to 

With slau^ter of bestis, with enceuce & blood. 

Off the Meruelous obstacle and wondre perceyued in 
makyng of their sacrifice to Appollo ; and how an 
Egle dyd bere away their sacrifice. 1 

On whiche clay, whau be prestis stood and when the 


In compas routtde abouten f e autere, 

And gan to kyndle }>e coles brijt & clere 5912 }jgj tthe 

Vp-on fe are, pleinly, as I rede, 

To offren vp ))e bestis ]>at were dede, 

In fe flawme and fe grete levene, [leaf 129 a] 

To Appollo stellefied in lieuene, 5916 

Whan fei to offre wer most laborious, 

Jjer be-fil two Binges menieilous : 

Jje first[e] was, fat f e sacrid fire 

Ne wolde brenne like to her desire, 5920 it won't 

Nor J>e flawme vp ascende alofte, 

Al-be fat fei assai[e]den ful ofte, 

More fawne ten tyme, & jit it nolde be ; 

For ay i t queinte, fat fei ne my jt[e] se 5924 but goes ont 

NoU^t but Smoky resolliciouras, and smokes. 

Horrible and blak, like exalac[i]ouws 

Of newe tyme whan fat it is meint 

Wif water colde & of his hete queynt, 5928 

Jjat fei myjte* in no maner wyse, 

For lak of fir, don her sacrifise ; 

For ay ]?ei fonde a wonderful obstacle ! 

And be nexte was a mor miracle : 5932 Next, when 

they spread 

On her auter whan bei can to sprede out the en- 

trails of Hie 
J?e entrailles of bestis fat were dede, kild bea8t " 

To queme Appollo with flawmys [brijt and] faire, 

)?er cam anon douw oute of f e ayre 5936 

A royal egle, ful percinge of his loke, aneagie 

5908. make a] to make D 1, make thy D 2. 
5913.' are] auteer A, D 1. 5922. ful] om. D 1. 
5923. ten] om. D 2. 
5926. exalacioims] exaltacioims D 2. 
5929, my3te] ne myjt C. 5935. brijt and] om. D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 126 c (misplaced after line 5918). 

73.8 An Eagle carries the Trojan sacrifice to the Greek ships. [BK.IV 

carries them 
off in bis ' 


and lets era 
fall on tlie 
Greek ships. 

The Trojans 

ask Cas- 
sandra what 
this means. 

she says 

Apollo is 

angry be- 

And in his clees be offringe vp he toke 
And be entreylles liggynge environ?*, 
In his discence makynge swiche a souw, 
]5at noon so hardy of herte nor manhod, 
But J>at he was astonied ber he stood, 
And supprised fcorti^ nerf and euery veyne 
Of bis nierueile and ]>is cas sodeyne. 
But be egle, abidinge ber no more, 
Ouer be toun ful hi^e gan to sore, 
Toward Grekis enhastinge what he my$t, 
And on her shipes sodeynly a-li$t,* 
And be entrnilles of be bestis alle 
pis egle lete from his clees falle : 
Wher-of Troyens, whan bei token hede, 
Dis[a]maied wi]? a mortal drede, 
By signes han clerly comprehendid 
)5at her goddcs gretly wer offendid 
Ageyn )>e toun, whan be fire went oute ; 
And for bei wold be putte oute of doute, 
To be sure what ]>is merveile ment, 
To Cassandra in al haste bei went, 
Fully to han deelaracioun, 
And ber-vp-on plein exposiciourc. 







was murderd 

How Appollo, their god, by many signes and tokynges 
shewing vn[to] them, perceyuid he was sore dis- 
plesid for the polucioim of his temple with the blode 
of Achilles, wich by treason was slayne in the 
temple. 1 

And she tolde hem, platly, oute of drede, 

)5at ]?e quenchinge of her* fires rede 

Was vn-to hem a demonstraciol^?^ 

Bojje of Ire and indignaciouTz [leaf 129 1] 5964 

)pat Appollo hath to Troye bore, 

For te blood bat was shad be-fore 

Of Achilles, in his temple slawe, 

in his temple. Yengably mordrid and y-drawe, 


5948. a-li^t] he li^t C. 5953. han clerly] oonly han D 1. 
5962. her] )>e C. 5968. y-drawe] with hors drawe D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 126 d (misplaced after line 5968). 

Cassandra's interpretation of the failing Fire & the Eagle' s flight. 739 

Watft-outen any maner reuerence 

Or honour done to ]?e excellence 

Of Appollo, beynge per present, 

]?at }>e phane and placis adiacent 5972 

Wern defouled and pollut with [}>e] blood. 

Wherfore, she seid[e] shortly, it was good 

)Pat j?ei went on processions, 

With herte contrit and deuociouw, 5976 

To pe toumbe of Achilles at ny^t, 

Only to fette on her tapris li^t 

Sacrid fire, brewnynge at }>e wake, 

Fully in purpos by assent to make 5980 

For his mordre satisfacciouw, 

" ])Q whiche fire be noon occasions 

Shal uat quenche, but his flawmys holde, 

)3oru3 noon assaut of stormy wyrcdes colde ; 

J?e sacrifise vp-on )>e autere 

To-forn Appollo brerme shal so clere." 

And* )>ei of Troye wrou^tfe] by her rede. 

But of J>e egle she bad hem taken hede, 

[ftat] No finge was but tokne of tresouw, 

Pronostik and declaraciouw, 

Finally how Troye and Yllyou?i 

Shal turne in haste to destrucciouw : 

For pe fleynge of )?is foule royal 

Ouer ]>e toun and )?e my3ti wal, 

With his fethres mailed, bri3t, & shene, 

And ]>e entreylles in his clees kene,* 5996 

To Troye was a final demonstrauwce, 

Sothfast shewynge & signeficaurace, 

at grace and ewre [and hap] of olde fortune 

Be lyklyhed my^tfe] nat contvne 

Nor perseuere in her first[e] ly^t ; 

For alle attonys ]>ei haue take her fli^t, 

PalladiouTi my3t hem nat wif-holde, 

5970. Or] Of D 1. 5971. Of] To D 1. 5975. on] on a D 2. 

5987. And] f>at C. 5988. taken] take good D 1. 

5990. Pronostik] Prenostynge D 1. 5996. kene] clene C. 

5997. demonstraimce] demonstracioiw D 2. 

5998. signeficauwce] signeficaciomi D 2. 
6003. wi>-holde] holde D 1. 


And so the 
Trojans must 

go to Achil- 
les's tomb 
and burn 
tapers on it, 

whose flame 
shall last for 
5984 ever. 

They do this. 
5988 The Eagle 

5992 foretells the 

of Troy, 

from which, 
6000 has fled. 


Calchas, the Trojan traitor, aids the G-reeks. [BK. iv 

The Greeks 
wonder what 
the entrails 
brought by 
the eagle 

Calchas tells 
em it's for 

their good, 

and bids em 
make an 

offering to 

This Bishop 
Calchas is a 
traitor to 

feat stole was, like as I $ow tolde ; 

For no man may his fatal chaurcce refuse. 

And Grekis eke faste gan to mvse, 

And inwardly in her wittes sou^te 

Of pe entrailles }>at J>e egle brou^te, 

And Jjer-vp-on gan to-gider rowne, 

Til fat Calchas dide euery )>mg expowne, 

And vn-to hem fully gan assure 

feat ]?e fyn of )>is aveiiture 

Conclude shulde vppon her welfare, 

And bad also, for no cost fei spare 

To perseuere and ben of herte stable, 

By fortune hem silfe to enable, 

Hem couwseillynge to do her besy peyne, 

Solempnely in haste to ordeyne 

A certeyn offringe, born oute of fe felde, 

To faire Pallas with hir cristal shelde, 

And to hir make a riche sacrifise, 

As )>e story by ordre shal deuyse. 

[leaf 129 c] 






How the Traytor Bysshop Calcas ymagined a large horse 
of brasse, wherin was a M 1 . knyghtes, fainyng a 
sacrifice to be done to Paullas. 1 

Bysshop Calchas, with his lokkes hore, 
Traitour forsworn sifen go ful $ore, 
feat falsid haf troupe & his lygauwce, 
Whom clerkis han putte in remembrauwce 
In her bokis, wij? lettris, olde and newe, 
To* exemplifie no man be vntrewe : 
For J?au3 3eris passe faste a-weye, 
Ruste of sclauftdir li^tly wil nat deye ; 
fee fret per-of is so corosif , 
feat it laste)) many mawnys lyf, 




6004. stole] sotle A I Jow] I haue D 1. 

6006. eke] om. D 2. 

6007. inwardly in her wittes] in her wittis inwardly D 1. 
6010. dide euery fing] eche ]>\ng dide D 1. 

6025. troupe & his] his troufe & D 1. 
6028. To] Te C. 6030. Ii3tly wil nat] wil not li^tly D 1. 
6032. many] ful many A, D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 75 a (74), transposed with leaf 127 

Calchas s plan of the Horse of Copper & Brass to win Troy. 741 

And is ful hard to arrace away ; 

Of whos venym ful selde is made alay 

Eeporte per-of blowen is so wyde, 

Pe/'petuelly )?at it wil abide, 

Remembrid new & freshly had in mynde. 

Recorde of hym ]>at koude a weye fynde : 

Olde Calchas, evele mote he sterue ! 

Vnder colour of offringe to Mynerue, 

To make Grekes eutren in-to town, 

}){$ slei^ti serpent, fader & patrons 

And fynder-vp of tresouw and of gyle, 

Compassid hath and y-fouwde a wyle, 

How* Grekis shal ]?e cite wywne & take, 

Pretendynge hem sacrifise to make 

Yn-to Pallas, as I shal * expresse : 

For )>is traitour, meiour of falsnesse, 

}5e Grekis ^bad for to do her peyne 

To Minerva an off[e]ringe to feyne, 

And in al haste J>at J>ei shuld he?ft spede. 

And of assent ]?ei dide make a stede, 

Large and wyde, of coper & of bras, 

By crafte of Synoim, fat contrived was 

)3at it my^t resseive large and wel 

A fousand kny^tes armed bri$t in stel, 

ftoru} fe slei^te and fe compassynge, 

\)Q sotil wit & merveillous werchinge 

Of )>is wyse and crafty Greke Synoiw, 

Whiche, poru} his castynge and discreciouw, 

Parformed haf pis riche stede of bras, 

As 36 han herd, be biddinge of Calchas, [leaf 129^3 

And by thavys of Appivs ]>e wyse, 

J)at halpe also J>e stede to deuyse, 

To fyn only Jjat of deuocioiw 

Grekis my3t requeren of ])e toura 


curse him! 
6040 under pre- 
offering to 







invents a 
dodge to 
make the 
Greeks take 

They get a 
horse of cop- 
per and brass 
to hold 
1000 urnul 

made by 

and Appius. 

6041. tovw] be toim D 1. 6043. fynder] findith D 1. 
6045. How] How be C, D 2. 
6047. shal] shal }ow 0. 

6051. & in al haste ffor to do her peyne D 2. 

6052. And] om. D 1 bei dide make a] to make a large D 1. 
6054. By crafte of Synoim bat] And by Synoim it D 1. 

6062. biddinge] bildynge D 1. 

742 The Brazen Horse to ruin Troy. Priam's Allies leave Troy. 

This Horse 
the Greeks 

will ask leav< 
to bring into 

with 1000 
inside it, 

under pre- 
tence of an 
offering to 

Before the 
taking of 

Priam's allies 
leave him. 

takes home 
the body of 
Queen of the 

Whan it were made to grauwt[e] hem licence 

It to present in pe reuerence 6068 

Of my^ti Pallas, in stele armyd bri^t, 

Amyd hir temple, large & ful of Ii3t, 

By pe offringe to fynde occasioiw 

To haue entre frely in- to toiw, 6072 

By pilgrimage her vowes to fulfille : 

In whiche stede daren shal ful stille 

A pousand kny^tes, as Calchas be devis 

Ordeyned ha)?, pat was so sli^e & wys. 6076 

By crafte of Syno^ and of Appivs, 

j?is large stede, of makynge merveillous, 

Ynder pretence of oblaciouw, 

Was complet ful to his perfecciouw 6080 

Of werkemanshipe, as I tolde a-fore, 

j?e same ^ere pat Troye was for-lore, 

Whan pe sege, sothly, gan to fyne, 

And ]>e cite was brou^t to ruyne 6084 

ftoru^ Grekis my^t ; & pe walles stronge 

Were bete dou^, large, pikke, and longe ; 

})G whiche ^ere, as made is menciouw, 

A lite a-forn takynge of pe touw, 6088 

Kynges echon J>at come fro so ferre, 

A-lyve lefte after pe mortal werre, 

Whan pei saw how Priam be couenauwte 

Vn-to Grekis ha]) outterly made granite 6092 

Al hast possible to paien his ransouw, 

\)ei toke leve, and went oute of )>e toun. 

And first, I fynde, how kyng Philymene 

With hym ladde )>e body of ]>e quene 6096 

Pantasillya home to hir centre, 

Ful richely per to buried be ; 

And of two pousand kny^tes pat pis kyng 

Brou^t vn-to Troye first at his comy^g, 6100 

6068. to] om. A. 6069. stele] story D 2. 

6072. toim] >e toun D 1. 

6079. oblacioim] obligacioun D 1. 

6081. a-fore] to fore D 1. 6084. to] vn to D 2. 

6088. a-forn] to-fore the D 1. 6089. come] cam A, D 2. 

6092. Vn-to] Vnto \>e. D 2 graunte] a grauwt D 2. 

6100. vn-to] to D 1 first] om. D 1. 

BK. iv] The Greeks make a fraudulent Peace with the Trojans. 743 

No mo pan fifty home with hym he ladde. 

And of* woramen pat pe quene eke hadde, 

Of a pousand, pe story seith certeyn, 

But foure hundrid repeired horn ageyn. 

And pus whan alle were fro Troie gon, 

J)e morwe next Priamws anon 

With his lordis rood oute of pe toura, 

As was pacord for confirmacioiw 

Of pes final vp-on ouper syde. 

And in pe feld Grekis hym abide ; 

And, on relikes openly y-born, [leaf iso a] 

Jper pei wern on ouper parti sworn, 

On pe forme to ^ow a-fore recorded, 

As Anthenor \vith Grekis was accorded. 

And for Grekis firste swore Diomede, 

ftei of Troie takynge lytel hede 

How pe ope was in eondicioiw, 

Cured a-bove vnder false tresoiw, 

Sipen Grekis po in her sweryng 

Ne bouwde hem silfe to no manere ping 

To stonde to, as in special, 

But for to holde & kepe in general 

J)e poyntes hool engrosid, and no mor, 

In pilke trete pat daiiTi} Anthenor 

With Grekis helde, pis traytowr fraudelent ! 

In whiche pei werne ful double of extent 

Meint wa'tft tresoiw, as 30 han herd to-forn, 

"Whiche to obserue only pei wer sworn, 

By fraude of ope, & nat by wordis pleyne, 

Her aduersaries to taken in a treyne, 

Excludyng hem fro her menyng ferre, 

Pes in pe face, but in pe herte werre, 

Al openly confermyd w^'t/*, her hond, 

Inly to tresouw, by assurance of bond. 



Only 50 of 
2000 men are 
left him, 
and only 400 
of 1000 

Priam and 
his lords ride 
out to settle 

a final Peace. 

6112 It is sworn 
to by both 



6124 But the 

scamp An- 
tenor has 
arranged the 


Greek oath 

6132 peace in the 
face, war iu 
the heart. 

6102. of] of )>e C bat] om. D 1. 
6109. Of] For D 1. 

6111. y-born] borne D 1. 6113. On] Vn A. 
6114. was] was ful D 1. 

6114 is inserted at head of column in C, and marked b ; 6113 is 
marked a. 

6127. to-forn] by forn D 2. 6134. to] of D 1. 

744 God knows the Greeks' deceit. Helen is handed to Menelaus. 

But God 
knows the 

He judges 
the heart, 
not the word. 

The Greeks 
deceive the 

as the latter 

Helen is 

given up to 

But pou^ pe venym was* closid with a wal, 

It was nat hid from him pat knowep al : 6136 

For, certeynly, so as clerkes teche, 

Who pat swereth falsly in his speche, 

Florisshinge outward by a fair colour 

For to desseive his trewe ne^fejbour, 6140 

He is forsworn, what-so-euere he be ! 

fte tresourc hid pou$ men may nat se, 

How-so pe word be a-way [y-]born : 

Who swerep by craft is by craft for-sworn; 6144 

J?er may be made noon excusacioiw. 

For God pat knowep pe entenciourc, 

Demeth-pe herte, & pe word ri^t nou^t ; 

For he pe wil knowep and pe pou^t 6148 

Of euery man, ny^e and eke a-fere : 

})erfore be war, no man hi?^ for-swere, 

As Grekis dide Troiens to deceyve, 

J}at pe fraude koude nat conceyve, 6152 

Supposinge fat pe Grekis hadde be 

Feithful and trewe of her surete 

But no ping oon J>ei in herte J>ou$t, 

Whiche in )?e ende ]?ei ful dere abou^t, 6156 

Whan )>ei founds fully )?e reuers, 

And to her speche J>e dede so diuers. 

It were but veyn by & by to write 

Her feyned o]?es, nor her wordis whyte, 6160 

Nor J>e cheris pat J?ei koude feyne. [leaf iso 6] 

But, to conclude m't/i, pe quene Eleyne, 

Duri[n]ge pe trete, vp-on ]>e same day 

Delyuered was to kyng Menelay ; 6164 

And after pat, was payed pe rauftsouw, 

Grau?ztid to-forn and gadrid in pe towi : 

Gold & siluer, whete & also flour ; 

And to her shippes wM dilligent labour, 6168 

6135. was] be C, om. D 1. 

6143. word] world A y-born] born D 1. 

6148. and] & eke D 1. 6149. Of] For D 1. 

6152. conceyve] parceyve D 1. 6153. >e] om. A, D2, D 1. 

6157. Whan] And whawne D 1. 

6158. >e dede] they did A, >ei dide D 1. 6162. with] of A. 
6165. was payed] waide D 1. 6167. & also] also and A. 

The Greeks get Priam's leave to bring the Horse of Brass into Troy. 745 

In ful gret hast euery }>ing was broujt, 

Wher-poru^ fe cite after cam to nou^t. 

And Grekis fanrce, by symulaciouw, 

Makyng a colour of deuociouw, 6172 

feoru^ holynes, vnder ypocrosye, 

Falsly feyned by fraude & flaterie, 

fee kyng ban preied to ban liberte 

Frely to entre in-to J>e cite, 6176 Tr y 

To make a-seth by oblaciourc 

For fe fefte of Palladiouw, 

And offren vp fe ricbe stede of bras Hoi2o? e 

To J?e goddes fat called is Pallas, 6180 gST to 

Whan kyng Priam like)) to assigne 

feat she to hem be willy & benygne " 

In her repeire seilynge be fe se 8allin * home - 

Home in-to Grece toward her contre, 6184 

Whan she is quemed with ]ris * large stede. 

Of whiche, alias ! Priam toke noon hede j 

fee tresouw hidde he koude nat aduerte, 

But graurated hem with al his hole herte, 6188 

Whan fat hem list to bringe it in-to touw, 

By false entising and suggestion/^ 

Of Anthenor and also of Enee, 

Havynge no drede nor ambyguyte 6192 

In his entent, nor suspecioura 

Noufer of feynyng nor of fals tresouw, treachery. 

But, ri^t frendly, liche to his beheste, 

Condescendeth vn-to her requeste, 6196 

Her avowes fat fei my^t obserue, 

To offren vp )>is hors vn-to Minerue. 

And Grekis J>o, with gret[e] dilligence, The Greeks 

Ful gret honour and huge reuerence 6200 

Han shapen hem with processioim SSSiET 

To bringe J? e stede in-to * Troie touw, H<SStato 

fee men of armys being ay fer-Inne, 

By whom fei cast Troie for to wynne 6204 

In short tyme, for it stood on j>e date. 

6175. han] hem D 1. 6177. a-seth] asseth A. 6185. >is] >e C. 
6189. touw] >e toun D 1. 6195. rijt] jit D 1. 
6198. >is] fe D 1. 6202. in-to] vn to 0, in D 1. 


As the Troy 
Gate is too 
narrow for 
the Horse of 

Priam has 
the wall pulld 

The Greeks 
make offer- 
ings to 

The Trojans 

But worldly 

soon passes 

The Horse of Brass is brought into Troy. [BK. IV 

How the Grekes had licens to breke the walle of 
Troy, to brynge in their large stede of brasse, to 
Offer vnto Pallas in sacrifice ; & how the knyghtes 
came oute in the nyght, & betray de fe citie. 1 

And whan f is hors brou^t was to f e gate, 

It was so narwe fat ber was no space 

For f e stede in-to f e tou^ to passe, 6208 

Al-be fat f ei assaied oueral. 

Wherfore Priam bete adoura J>e wal [leafisoc] 

To make it large, ri^t at her devys, 

In whiche* )>ing, alias ! he was vnwis : 6212 

For cause chef of his confusioim 

Was fat fis hors cam in-to fe toiw. 

But humblely forf e bei gan procede 

To be temple wif bis large stede ; 6216 

And to Pallas mekely dou?i knelynge, 

Alle attonis bei made her off[e]ringe, 

With feyned chere and fals deuociouw. 

Wherof * in herte glad was al fe touw, 6220 

And specially f ei fat wern of Troye. 

But soth is seid, fat ay f e fyn of loye 

Wo occupieth, as men ful ofte se : 

For vnwarly cometh aduersite 6224 

After gladnes, and mysaventure, 

Whan men best wene for to stonde sure. 

In worldly blis is noon affiauwce, 

So diuers is his vnhappi chau^ce 6228 

Ful of deceit, euere meint with trouble, 

And for to triste variauwt and double, 

And selde in oon abidinge eny f rowe. 

For worldly lust, fou$ it be now bio we 6232 

With pompe and pride, & with bost & souw, 

Anon it passeth : record of Troie touw, 

))at wende wel, by fis riche stede 

6208. 2nd J>e] om. D 2. 6210. adoiw] doim D 1. 
6212. whiche] ]>e whiche C. 6214. >is] >e D 1. 
6220. Wherofj Wherfore C. 6222. >at] om. D 1. 
6228. his] om. D 2. 6232. blowe] y blowe D 1. 
6233. pompe] boost D 1 bost] pompe D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 76 a (75), transposed with leaf 128 
(124). The heading is misplaced after line 6214 (miniature). 

BK. iv] The Greeks pretend that they 'II sail away from Troy. 747 

To haue be sure & deuoide of drede 6236 

Perpetuelly, as I haue told to-fore. 

But whan Grekis han ]?is hors y-bore The Greeks 

To-fore Pallas, as $e haue herde me telle, 

Hem liketh nat lenger for to dwelle 6240 

In }>e bourcdis of pis my^ti toura ; 

But of purpos to be Greke Syuouw g^e the 

* management 

J?ei haue co?rcmitted hool J>e gouernaille tos5 oria 

Of bis stede, []>e] whiche wil nat faile, 6244 

Whan he oportunyte, 

By his engyn to traisshe ]>e cite. 

And Grekis han in ]>is while fouwde 

A newe slei^te hem fully to confouwde : 6248 

]3is to seyn, )>ei haue made her sonde Mam that 

To kyng Priam, J>ei wold[e] go fro londe iaW 111 ' 

Vn-to )>e see toward Tenedouw, Tenedos, 

And pedir seille, for J?is conclusiourc : 6252 

For }>at Eleyne, by good avysement, HeiSTthere 

In secre wyse ]?edir shal be sent ; 

'For )>ei dradde ^if vppon )>e londe 

She were delyuered, shortly, to her honde, 6256 

Grekis wold of malys done her peyne, 

])Q more parti to sleen }>e quene Eleyne : 

For she was grouTzde & gyrcnynge of her wo, [leaf isod] 

J3e verray rote and )>e cause also 6260 

Of )>e slau^tre of many * worj>i man, 

Sifen J?e tyme ]?e sege first be-gan. 

Wherfore, (j>ei seide) for to stinte al strif, 

And to be sure for to saue hir lyf, 6264 

)3e beste was to send hir oute of si^t, at ni & ht 

Secrely to Tenedouw be ny^t. 

Jjus }>ei feyned of ful false tresourc, 

Priam to putte from al suspeciouw, 6268 

Askauws ]?ei wolde neuere after her lyve come"blck 

Eesorte ageyn with Troye for to strive to Tr y- 

6237. told] tolde the D 1. 6244. J>e] om. D 1. 

6247. fouwde] y founde D 1. 6248. hem fully] fully hem D 1. 

6249. pis] pis is D 1. 6250. fro] fro J>e D 1. 

6251. Tenedouw] Tevedouu A. 6255. 3if] J>at if D 1. 

6258. 2nd J>e] this A, >is D 2. 6261. many] manly C. 

6263. to] om. D 1. 6269. neuere after] aftir neuere A. 

748 The Greeks enter Troy, and join those from the Horse. [BK. iv 

The Greeks 



)3us J?ei made Priam for to wene ; 
But in )?e hond he was deceived clene, 
Of her deceit knowynge neuere-a-del ; 
For in his herte he pou^tfe] nat but wel, 
Grauwtinge hem al pat my^t hem plese. 


They sail to 

Sinon un- 
locks the 

and shows a 
light to the 
Greeks at 

They ride to 

and enter it 
thru the 
broken wall. 

How the Grekes spoyled and burned the citie of Troy, 
and after toke shipping ; and of their misauenture 
on )>e see. 1 

And wharcne pel had at leiser & good ese 6276 

Fro Troye seiled vn-to Tenedoura 

With her navie, J>e false Greke Synoura 

In Troie waker gan to take kepe 

)3e hour whan men wern in her first slepe ; 6280 

And, in al haste, wij> his slei^ty gyn, 

Many vys and many sotyl pyn 

In }>e stede he made aboute goon, 

Jje crafty lokkes vndoynge euerychon; 6284 

And oute [he] goth, & gan anoon to calle 

Wfc'tft-Inne Jje hors ]?e worjn kny^tes alle, 

So secrely no man my^t espie ; 

And traitourly he gan hym for to hi^e 6288 

Yp-on j>e walles, ])e silfe same ny^t, 

And toward Grekis gan [to] shewe a ly^t, 

Where as J>ei leye to-fore Tenedouw, 

Redy armyd to falle vppon J>e tourc. 6292 

And whan )>ei hadde ]>e sodein li^t espied, 

On* hors[e]-bak anoon )>ei han hem hy^ed 

Toward Troy, armed clene at al ; 

And in pei went by ]?e same wal 6296 

Which e for J>e hors was but late broke ; 

And mortally, for to ben a-wroke, 

J)e kny^tes eke in ]?e stede of bras 

Han "with hem mette, a ful sterne pas, 6300 

And gan anoon J>oru3-oute )>e cite 

6276. wharaie )>ei had] whadde D 2. 
6279. In Troie] I trowe A. 6282. Many a (twice] D 1. 
6286. 2nd )>e] om. D 1. 6292. armyd] y armed D 1. 
6294. On] An 0. 
1 Royal MS. 18, D. ii, leaf 129 a (misplaced after line 6440). 

BK. iv] The Greeks slay Trojans. Their Treachery is disclosed. 749 

The Greeks 

the sleeping 

On euery half for to kylle & slee, 

With blody swerd vp-on euery side, 

And made her wondes brode, large, & wyde 6304 

While pei, alias ! no ping aduertinge, 

At mydny^t hour a-bedde laie slepynge, 

Ful Innocent and pou$t[e] nou^t but good 

Al for-baped in her owne blood, [leafisia] 6308 

Bope man & childe, vfith-ouie exceptions, 

fie Grekis sparinge no conditions 

Of old nor ^ong, woramas, wif, nor maide 

J}at with pe cry Priam us abraide 6312 Priam wakes. 

Oute of his slepe, & sodeynly a-woke, 

Whiche laye al ny$t & noon hede [ne] toke 

Of pe sla^ter and mordre in pe tons ; 

But po he wist pat per was tresous 

Falsly compassid vn-to his cite 

By Anthenor and also by Enee, 

Of whos malis he was no mor in doute : 

For pe venym was now broken oute, 

And now pe galle of conspirac[i]ouw, 

Jpat vnder sugre of symulacious 

Hath so longe closid ben and hidde, 

In dede is now execut and kyd. 

And now pe fraude fully of tresous, 

\)e cast also of false collusions 

Be raked oute, and abrood y-blowe, 

And pe autours openly y-knowe. 

Now hath envie and contrived hate 

Of her engyn set a-brood pe gate ; 

Now * hath deceit & olde conspiracie 

And feyned opes, alle of oon allie, 6332 

Openly shewed her falsnesse, 

And disclosid al Mr doubilnesse 

So fer a-brod, pat now is per no geyn ! 

For now, alias ! pe wilde fire is seyn 6336 

6307. nou3t] nat A, D 2, not D 1. 
6311. woramaw. wif] wife childe D 1. 
6315. and] nor D 2, D 1. 

6315 is inserted in the lower margin in D 2, and marked a ; 
6316 is marked b. 

6326. f>e] They A. 6331. Now] And now C olde] om. D 1. 
6333. Openly] Al opinly D 1. 

6316 The treachery 
of Antenor 
and Eneas 


6324 is made clear. 


The sham of 
the Greeks' 
false oaths 
is shown. 

750 Troy is sackt, and 20,000 Trojans are slain. [BK. IV 

In touris hi^e with pe wynde y-blasid, 
Priam flees Wherof* Priam, astonyd & amasid, 

Al awaped sterte oute of his bedde, 
to the Temple And couwfortles to pe temple is fledde 6340 

of Apollo. ' 

Of Appollo, to saue hym ^if he my^t. 

And ay pe flawme of pe fires bri^t 

Brent in pe toiw, & conswmeth al 

\)e riche bildinge, whilom so royal, 6344 

))at be walles with her* roves huge, 

Couered with leed for a chef refuge, 

Were now, alias ! bare & bareyne maked.* 
The Greeks Jje Grekis ay wip her swerdes naked 6348 

Mordre and sle where-so pat pei go, 
murder 20,000 J)at twenti bousand, pilke ny^t, & mo 

Jpei kylled han, longe or it was day ; 

And in pis slau^ter & pis grete affray 6352 

and plunder Spoile & robbe, & take what pei fynde, 

Tresour & good, and left[e] nat bi-hinde, 

Be my3ti hond & sturdi violence. 

And ])Q temples, wip-oute reue?*ence 6356 

)pei han dispoilled poru^-oute al )>e touw, [leaf isi6] 

And gredely rent and racid doun 

Of golde & siluer ]je ornementes alle 

To-fore ]?e goddes foule mote hem falle ! 6360 

Priam awaits Kyng Priam ay with a dedly chere 

To Appollo makyng his praiere 

Furiously, pis hertly woful man, 

As he, in soth, pat no red ne can 6364 

But waite his deth &* his fatal ewre. 
Cassandra And* Cassandra, pat* holy creature, 

Of inward wo desirous to sterve, 

runs to the Compleynynge ran vn-to Minerve, 6368 

Paiias. Makynge to hir a lamentacioutt 

With oper gentil-wommen of pe touw. 

6337. y-blasid] biased D 1. 6338. Wherof ] Wherfore 0. 
6344. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 6345. her] be C. 
6347. bare & bareyne maked] bareyn & bare y maked C. 
6354. nat] nou^t D 1. 6360. falle] befalle D 1. 

6361. Kyng] And kyng D 1 dedly] gastly D 2. 

6362. makyng] makith D 1. 6365. new IT A &] in C. 
6366. And] And of C hat] >e C. 6368. vn-to] to D 1. 
6370. o>er gentil-wommen] many gentils & womnew D 1. 

BK. iv] The Trojan Ladies woe. The Greeks plunder Him. 751 

And per, alias ! as pei wolde dye, 
Ful pitously pei sobbe, wepe, arid crie. 
And in her dool per y lete hem dwelle ; 
For alle her sorwes 3if I shulde telle 
In ]>is story, and her wo descrive, 
Mi percne shuld of verray routhe rive, 
Rehersinge eke how in euery strete, 
Her elopes blake, rodi, moiste, and wete, 
As pei, alias ! bothen oon and alle, 
On her lordes douw a-swone f alle, 
With her blod be-dewed & y-spreint, 
Wher men may seen pe cristal teris meynt 
Of her wepinge in per wouwdes grene, 
)3at lay and bledde ageyn pe sowne shene, 
With dedly eyen castinge vp pe whyte : 
It were but veyne al her wo to write, 
Nor pe maner of her mortal sorwe. 
But Guydo writ, pat pe* same morwe, 
How Anthenor, and with hym [fals] Enee, 
Conveied han poru^-oute pe cite 
J)e my3ti Grekis vn-to Ylyouw, 
J?e royal tour and riche mancioun 
)}at whilom was of most excellence ; 
In pe whiche pei fourcde no diffense 
Of hi^e nor lowe, nor of noon estat, 
For it was left allone dissolat, 
With al pe gold and richesse of pe toura 
Shet & closed in pe chefe dongoun. 
But for per was no man pat wztft-stood, 
J}ei brake pe lokkes & rau^t [away] pe good 
And pe tresour pat was shet wa't/i-Inne, 
Eche for his partfy] pat he my^t[e] wynne : 
j)ei $af no fors who was lef or* loth. 
And Pirrus after to pe temple goth 

6374. telle] hem telle D 1. 

6378. rodi] redy A. 6380. falle] J>ei falle D 1. 

6387. her] >e D 1. 6388. >e] on )>e 0. 

6390. foruj-oute] >oru3 D 1. 6392. and] and the A. 

6393. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 

6396. dissolat] al desolate D 1. 6397. gold] goode D 1. 

6398. closed] enclosyd A, D 2. 

6402. party] parte D 1. 6403. or] nor C. 

The Trojan 



6376 My 

would split 
if I described 
their woe. 






Antenor and 
Eneas lead 
the Greeks 
to Ilion, 

where all the 
treasure of 
Troy is ; 

6400 and they 

carry it off. 


752 Priam is murderd. Hecuba and Polyxena flee. [BK. iv 


kills Priam 

kneeling at 
the statue of 

Hecuba and 

flee thru 

but find no 

Of Appollo by gret cruelte, 

And fil on Priam knelynge on his kne, 

And wi)> his swerd, furious and wood, 

To-fore pe autere shadfde] J?ere his blood, 

J3at J>e stremys of his wouwdys rede 

So hi^e rau}t, bo]?e in lengpe and brede, 

))at ]?e statue of gold bornyd bri^t 

Of J)is Appollo, for al his grete my^t, 

For al his power and his sterne face, 

Defouled was, and pollut al j?e place 

Only by deth of J>is worbi kynge 

By Pirrus slayn while he lay knelynge, 

Of olde hatrede & envious pride, 

While Anthenor and Enee stod be-side* 

Jpat routhe was and pite to beholde, 

To sen hym lyn on be stonys colde, 

So pitously to-forn be auter blede. 

Where-of , alias ! whan Eccuba toke hede, 

And hir doubter, faire Polycene, 

With here to-rent, as any gold wyr shene, 

Inly supprised wib sorwe to pe* herte, 

Whan ]>ei began considren and aduerte 

Jpe noble kyng, [with] blody stremys rede 

Al fordrowned, his* eyen dirke & dede, 

Wib Pirrus swerd girt boru^ ouber side, 

For mortal fere bei durst[e] nat abide ; 

But inwardly J>oru}-darted with ]>e si$t, 

Al in a rage toke hem to ]?e fi^t. 

And $it, in soth, j^oru^-oute ])e cite 

}pei wist[e] neuer whiderward to fle, 

Eeskus was noon nor no remedie 

Of kyn nor frend, nor of noon allie ; 

With Grekis swerd J>e touw was so be-set. 

[leaf 131 c] 









6408. shadde }>ere] >ere he shad D 1. 

6409, 10 are transposed in A. 6418. be-side] a side C. 

6419. routhe was and pite] roube and pite was D 1. 

6420. lyn] ligge D 1. 6421. to-forn] before D 1. 
6425. ]>e] her G. 

6428. fordrowned] for wounded D 1 his] with his C, with D 1. 

6429. ouj)er] bo)>e D 2, >e D 1. 

6434. wiste] niste D 2 wiste neuer] ne wiste D 1. 
6436. 2nd of] om. D 1. 

BK. iv] Hecuba reproaches Eneas fiercely for his Treachery. 753 

And, in her fli^t, Jris woful quen hab met Hecuba meets 

Eneas, causer of al Jris wrak, 

Vn-to whom, rebukynge, bus she spak : 6440 

" bou traitour, most malicious ! and upbraids 

him as a 

J)ou false serpent, adder envious ! traitor, 

Crop and rote, fynder of falsnesse, 

Sours and welle of vnkyndenesse, 6444 

How my^testow in Jrin herte fynde 

Vn-to bi kyng to be so vnkynde ? 

Gynner and ground, exauraple of tresouw, 

And final cause of oure destruccioura ! 6448 and the cause 

,r -i , i i / i ., of their ruin; 

How my^tLejstow, devoide of al pite, 

Be hold, alias ! boru^ Jri cruelte 

Of Jri kyng to shede so J?e blood, the shedder 

})at euere haj> ben so gentil & so good, 6452 of Priam, 

So gracious lord, specialy to the ! 

And, ouermore, boru^ his hi^e bouwte 

The honoured and y-magnified [leafisirf] who honourd 

lii in 

Al his lyve it may nat be denyed 6456 

}?at lib now ded in be temple, alias ! 

J?ou wer nat only traitour * in Jris cas, 

But to his deth conspiryng & vnkynde, 

Pirrus conveiyng where he shuld h[i]ra finde, 6460 

To-forn Appollo myd of Jris cite, 

Where bou sholdest of verray duete and whom he 

* t * was bound to 

RaJ>er haue ben his protections, protect. 

His my^ti sheld and sauaciouw 6464 

J5at hast bis cite & Jris town y-lorn 

In whiche J?ou were fostrid & y-born, 

On be gretest of reputaciouw 

Of alle J)e lordis dwellyng in bis touw, 6468 

In whiche JJQU haddest whilom most plesauwce ! 

6441. new IT D 10] om. D 1. 6445-48 are omitted in D 2. 
6446. to be so] for to be D 1. 6447. Gynner] Begynner D 1. 
6451. to] om. D 2, D 1. 6452. 2nd so] om. D 2. 
645 B. lord specialy] a lorde & specially vn to D 1. 

6454. ouermore] ouere ]>is D 1. 

6455. y-magnified] so magnified D 1. 

6457. li> now] nowe lieth D 1. 

6458. only traitour] traitowr oonly D 1 traitour] troitour C. 
6461. To-forn] Aforae D 1. 6462. duete] deitee A. 

6465. y-lorn] lorn D 1. 6466. In] I D 2 fostrid] y fostrid D 1. 
6467. On] And oone D 1. 6469. whilom most] sowityme D 1. 


Hecuba appeals to Eneas to save Polyxena. [BK. iv 

If any pity 
ia left in 

Hecuba ap- 
peals to him 
to save her 
young daugh- 
ter Polyxena, 

and so shield 
himself from 


and shame. 

For herself, 
Hecuba is 
willing to die. 

Eneas takes 

But al is now oute of remembraiwce ! 

3it in pin herte $if any drope be 

Of gentilnesse, merci, or pite, 6472 

In pis dedly rage ful of tene, 

Rewe on my doubter, $ong[e] Polycene, 

From Grekis swerd hir ^oupe for to save, 

3if pin herte may eny roupe haue, 6476 

Of manly pite on hir maydenhede 

Diffende hir now & kepe hir oute of drede, 

3if pou canst fynde any weye, 

In any wyse pat she may nat deye, 6480 

at her-after, whan men sen and rede 

j)e false tresourc and pe foule dede 

JOat pou hast don vn-to Troye touw, 

It may in parti be protecciourc 6484 

To pi fame, pe venym to allaye 

Of J>is tresouw ; whan men wiln assaie 

By iust report pi name to accuse, 

J?is dede may [pe] helpen to excuse 6488 

Ageyns tonges pat speken of Enee : 

)?an wiln pei seyn, pou haddist $it pite 

On Polycene, only of gentilnes, 

J^er-wztft to sugre al }>e bitternesse 6492 

Of pi decert, blowe forpe by fame, 

By rehersaille of pe foule blame 

)3at shal of )>e poru^ )>e world be born, 

With sclauTider infect whaw ]>ou art al to-torn, 6496 

})at ]?ou ne shalt jje shame mowe sustene ! 

Jpan shal my doubter faire Polycene 

Be pi defence ageyns swiche farnws strif , 

3if it so be* now pou saue hir lyf 6500 

Of me no fors pou$ pou make as blive 

])Q swerde of Grekis poru3 myra hert[e] rive." 

And so by praier of pis woful quene, 

J)is Eneas toke to hym Polycene, [leafisaa] 6504 

6480. may nat] not ne D 1. 6486. >is] his D 2. 

6488. j>e] om. D 1 to] the to D 1. 

6490. >ou] >at fou D 1. 6491. On] Of D 1. 

6492. >e] thy A. 6500. so be] be so C. 

6504. f>is] om. D 1 toke to hym] to hym toke faire D 1. 

BK. iv] The Trojan Ladies: Troy is burnt ; Hion cast down. 755 

Whos traitour hert, for al his cruelte, 
On hir ^oupe was mevid of pite, 
Only of roujje J>at in his brest aros, 
And secrely putte hir vp in clos, 
List J?at Grekis fouwde occasions 
Ageyn[e]s hym. & Aiax Thelamouw 
Toke to his warde Andronemecha, 
Ectoris wyf, and wyse Cassandra 
Oute of ]?e temple longinge to Minerue, 
From Grekis swerd her lyves to conserue. 
And Menelay toke Jje quene Eleyne 
In-to his garde, for whom so grete a peyne 
Bood in his hert many day to-forn, 
By whom, alias ! )>e cite is now lorn. 
And Grekes ay were besy in her Ire 
To sleen and kylle, & cruelly to fire 
On euery side and to bete doim 
Palais & house & walles of }>e touw : 
J)ei spare nou^t, for al goth to ]>e fire, 
So feruent hate brent in her desire 
Of olde envie avenged for to be, 
}3at )?ei ne lefte witA-Inne J>e cite 
No |)ing vnbrent ; and also Ylyouw 
Was in J>is rage turned vp-so-douw. 
)3er maked wern noon excepciouras, 
Only outake )>e possessions 
Of Anthenor (evele mote he fare) 
And Eneas, whom pe Grekis spare, 
As )>ei to hem were bourcde by her ope. 
And Jms J>e Grekis, furious & wro))e, 
Han al J>at day robbed and y-brent, 
Til }>at ]>e kyng Agamenouw haj) sent 
For his lordis to assemble I-fere 
In Pallas temple, only for to here 
Her wyse avis vppon Jnnges tweyne : 







and hides 

Ajax takes 
and Cas- 

takes Helen. 

The Greeks 
slay, burn, 

and spare 

llion is over- 

But the goods 
of A n tenor 
and their 
friends are 
6532 Presenrd. 

6536 Agamemnon 
liis lords. 

6507. brest] herte D 1. 6513. po] om. D 2. 
6517. many] many a A, so many D 1. 
6520. to fire] to sette a fire D 1.' 6521. and] om. D 2. 
6523. )>e]0m. D 2, Dl. 

6531. evele] rijt yuele D 1. 6532. And] And Also D 1. 

756 The Trojan plunder is to le shared rateaUy. [BK. iv 

The Greeks 

decide to 
keep faith 
with the Tro- 
jan traitors, 

and to share 
their plunder 

As to Helen, 

Ajax says 
she deserves 

and so say 
many more. 

First, $if |>ei wolde holde, & nat feyne, 6540 

Holy her feith, witft-oute excepciouw, 

To hem by whom J>ei wan first e tou?^ 1 

And, ouermore, he axed hem also, 

Touching pe goodis, what ]>ei wold[e] do 6544 

With gold, tresour, and possessions 

J)at J>ei haue wo?^ne poru^ her hi^e renouw 1 ? 

And J?ei answerid, wz't/i-oute more tariyng, 

J)ei wolde her feith kepe in euery Jring 6548 

As ]?ei wer sworn, & her hestis holde ; 

And, ouer J)is, pei seide [how] fei wold 

J)at gold, tresour, and good of pe cite, 

As ri^t requereth and also equyte, 6552 

Be iustly partid by diuisiourc, [leaf 1325] 

To euery wy^t made distribuciourc 

Liche his merit, of hi3e & lowe degre ; 

And ]>at pe kyng eke of resou?z se 6556 

Eche to rewarde after his labour, 

So as it longeth to a conqueronr, 

})at no man haue mater to compleyne. 

And so ]?ei fil in spekynge of Eleyne, 6560 

Euery che after his oppiniouw ; 

And to-forne alle Aiax Thelamou?* 

Shortly seide she ha|) deserued deth, 

For whom so many haj? ^olde?^ vp ]?e breth, 6564 

Pleinly affermynge per in parlament, 

Of ri^twisnesse and trewe iugement 

She shulde nat eskape with fe lyf, 

J?at gymiyng was & cause* of al her strif, 6568 

Rote and grouwde of al her sorwe & wo ; 

And so seide eke many a-noj)er mo. 

And for J)e uoyse and Jje grete affraye, 

Agamenourz nor kyng Menelay 6572 

Ne durste a worde for her parti meve 

To saue )>e quene, list Grekis wold hem greve, 

6540. 3if) om. D 2. 6542. wan] haue D 1. 

6543. oumnore] ouer >is D 1 hem] hem eke D 1. 

6551. tresour and good] good & tresour D 1. 

6553. partid hy] departed withoute D 1. 6556. ]>at] om. D 1. 

6568. gymiyng] gynner D 1 cause] causer C, D 1 al her] Je D 1. 

6572. nor] and D 1. 

BK. iv] Agamemnon gets Cassandra. Helenus is allowd to live. 757 

Ageyn[e]s hem J>er was so gret rumour. . 

Til Vlixes, chefly hir socour, 6576 uiysses 

J m strives 

his wit and his elloquence, 

His deuer dide and his dilligence 

To saue hir lyf, and fully to purchace to save^ 

Of J)e Grekis for to gete hir grace. 6580 

And, as Guy do also doth vs lere, 

Agamenouw gan Grekis to [rjequere Agamemnon 

To grauwten hym, for a chef guerdon??, aandra. 

Of Cassandra to han possessions, 6584 

Al her lyve wij) hym to abide. 

Eke Eneas & Anthenor beside Elieas and 


Of Elenus to ]>e Grekis tolde, 

How to J>e werre he neuere assentfe] wolde, 6588 

And how ]>at he, prudent & vertuous, 

In cousseillyng was contrarius 

To alle fo, of hi^e and lowe estat, 

In Troye first jmt be-gan debate 6592 

A-twixe Grekis and J>is* my^ti toivi ; 

Eke by his helpe and mediaciou?* 

Achilles was buried and y-graue, W1UJ buried 

J)e dede cors from houndes for to saue, 6596 

Whan he was slayn in f ul cruel wyse 

By ny^ter tyme, as ^e han herd deuise : 

For, sothly, he and Cassandra bojje 

Of J>is* mordre in herte were ful wrojje 6600 

And sory eke of many anojjer Jnng 

Wrou^t in fe tou?^ wit//.-oute her wy tinge, [leaf 132 c] 

And for J?ei wer of malys Innocent, 

\)Q Grekis lian fully by assent 6604 and he is let 

Grau?ited to hem a prerogatif 

By parlement for to han her lyf. 

But Elenus, first in teris drowned, 

To-fore ]?e kyng pitously liaj? swowned, 6608 

6582. gan Grekis] Grekys gan A, D 2, D 1. 
6587. Elenus] Eleine D 1. 6589. he] she D 1. 

6593. A-twixe] Betwene D 1 >is] |>e C my^ti] worthy D 2. 

6594. his helpe] here hope D 1. 6598. ny^ter] ny^tes D 1. 
6599. he] she D 1. 6600. >is] his 0. 

6602. wiU-oute] a3ein D 1. 6603. for] forn D 1. 

6607. Elenus] Eleyne D 1 drowned] al y drowned D 1. 

6608. kyng] Grekys A. 

758 Hecuba, & her Ladies arepardond. A storm stops the Greeks. 

And abraidinge, vfith a dedly face, 

In humble wyse besou^t him of his grace, 

Heienus Of kny^tly pite to haue his aduertence 

memnon To spare his swerde fro blood of Innocence, 6612 

And of merci fat he nat disdeyne 
To grauwt[e] lyf to fe sones tweyne 
Of worf i Hector, his brof ei 1 moste entere, 

to spare And eke to re we on her moder dere, 6616 


Only of grace, fat she be nat ded, 

A wido lefte, allone, and can no red, 

And wot not winder fat she may diuerte. 

And so fe kyng, ameved in his herte 6620 

Of his wordis and his woful chere, 
He does so, Benignely grannted his praiere, 
and frees her, And ^af eke lyf & fredani for to go 

and her To f c moder and hir childer two ; 6624 

women. And to f e ladies & gentil-wommen alle 

Jpat for mercy to his grace calle, 

He graunted eke of compassions 

A saufconduit and a fre pardoim, 6628 

Where j?at hem list in f e totm abide, 

Or in f e contre adiacent beside 

He put it hool in her elecciouw. 

And, fankyng hym, fei fel on knees dou^ 6632 

With many tere dewed in f e face ; 

And so f e kyng parteth fro f e place. 
The Greeks And after fat, Grekis ri3t a-noon 
home! 08 ' Fully purpos to schipfpe] for to goon, 6636 

In haste to seile toward her contre. 
but a storm But swiche a tempest roos vp in* fe see, 

Of wawe & wynde & of cloudes blake, 
delays em for Al a moneth fat fei dar nat take 6640 

j?e water salt, for drede fat Neptunws 

Of verray Ire, and also Eolus 

6610. his] om. D 1. 6612. blood] >e bloode D 1. 
6616. to] om. D 1. 6619. wot] wete D 1. 

6624. hir] >e D 1 childer] children A, D 1. 

6625. to] tho A J>e] om. A, D 2. 

6626. calle] wolde calle D 1. 6629. Where] WheJ>ir D 1. 
6633. many] many a D 1. 

6638. in] on C, vppon D 1. 6641. >at] of D 1. 

BK. iv] Calchas lyingly demands the Death of Polyxena. 759 

Was vn-to hem in euery Jnng contrarie, 

)3at on J>e lond made hem longe tarie 6644 

])e se was ay so fel and boilynge : 

Til J>at Grekis of Calchas enqueringe The Greeks 

By on assent, what it iny^t[e] be, 2o. f 

))at euere in oon so diuers was ]?e se 6648 

In his rage boj>e at eve and morwe 1 

And he answered (God seve hym evele sorwe, And h e 

J curse the old 

))is olde shrewe, with al his prophesie, [leaf 132 d] liar! 

))at can so wel whan him list to lye !) 6652 

How jjis tempest caused was at al tKiieGods 6 

By ]>e goddes and furies infernal, 

ftat neuere wolde apese nor be stille a Vh eaId tiii be 

Til pe mordre, platly, of Achille 6656 $ e A ^,5;J e g r 

Avenged be, & shedynge of his blood. is aven se d 

For whiche (he seide) AppolJo was eke wood, 

For his temple to hym consecrat 

Was Jjoru} his deth in Troye violat : 6660 

Wherfore Jjer muste boru$ redempciouw * 

By blood ageyn be made satisfacciou?^ 

Of hir fat was rote in special, 

J^oru} hir bewte, and original, 6664 

Cause of his deth 3onge Polyceue jjj^f 8acri ' 

And gywnynge first of his mortal tene ; 

Jjerfore to Appollo she mut [vp] off rid be, 

By sacrifice to queme his deiete, 6668 

With deth ageyn to make recompense, 

Bi$t as by deth first was thoffense : 

))is * Grekis muste outterly fulfille, 

3 if ]?ei desire for to han at wille 6672 

))e large se to seillen in quiete. 

And Pirrus }>o, in a furious hete, ?(ik/S? U8 

Gan enquere aboute of euery man 

For Polycene ; but no wy;t telle can 6676 

Of hir a word, nor, shortly, wher she was, 

6644. made hem longe] longe made hem D 1. 
6661, 62 are transposed in C, A, D 2. 

6661. Wherfore] Wher-J>oru3 redempcioun] satisfaccioiw D 1. 

6662. satisfacciowi] redempcioun D 1. 

6668. queme] plese A, D 1. 6671. is] f>e C. 
6675. enquere aboute] aboute enquere D 1. 


Polyxena is to be put to Death ly Pyrrhus. [BK. IV 

Antenor (God 
damn him!) 

finds Polyx- 

and drags 
her out. 

She is doomd 
to be slain by 


The fair 
maiden is 
pitied by 

who weep for 

Sauf some seide how )>at Eneas 

And Anthenor hadde hid hir preuely, 

Wher-of J?er ros amonge hem sodeynly 6680 

Swiche a grucchinge of Grekis al aboute, 

Of her lyf fat pei wern in doute, 

So inwardly ]>is ping )?ei toke at gref. 

Til Anthenor (God ^eue him euele pref ! 6684 

))at may of tresoim as wardeiw her ]>e keie), 

To she wen oute his malis euery weie, 

So longe hath sou^t, til in a chaumbre olde 

He hath hir foimde, and pe Grekis tolde, 6688 

And brou^t hir forpe vn-to her presence, 

By cruel force & hatful violence, 

WitA-oute pite or compassiouw, 

And hir deliue?*ed to Agamenouw. 6692 

And he, alias ! by hasti lugement, 

With-oute respit or avisement, 

Shortly hath dempte ]>ai, she shal be ded, 

Jjat was flouringe in hir maideiihed. 6696 

And for to don execusiouw, 

She was assigned by Agamenoim 

Vn-to Pirrus ; & he of tyranye 

Ladde hir forfe, & fast[e] gan hym * hije [leaf 133 a] 6700 

To )>e place where she shulde deye. 

Gret was pe pres, fat in al ]?e weye 

Gan crowde & shone * to beholde & sene 

])is $onge maide, faire Polycene, 6704 

)?at for hir bewte & hir semlynesse, 

Hir woramanhed and excellent fairnesse 

Of al y-fere whan fei token hed - 

))ei hadden roufe ]>at she shnlde be ded, 6708 

W^t/z-oute gilt or any more trespas, 

Where men may sen vppon many face 

)}e salt[e] teris faste falle doim, 

Of verray pite and compassiou;^ 6712 

6684. God] crist D 1 pref] mischef D 1. 

6685. her] be D 1. 6700. Ladde] Had D 1 hym] hir C. 
6703. shoue] showe C. 6705. f>at] om. D 1. 

6708. rouj>e] gret rou>e D 1 shulde] shal A, D 2. 

6710. many] many a D 1. 

6711. falle] fel D 2 doim] a doun D 1. 

At the Grave of Achilles, Polyxena prays to the Almighty Gods. 761 

For man nor child was noon so harde of herte, The Greeks 

But he felt for hir sake smerte, 

Hir goodly lace whan )>ei beholde & se, 

And fayn[e] wolde, }if it my$t haue be, 6716 

Delyuered hir of verray force anoon 

From Firms hond, but for pei wende echora 

With-outs hir deth neuer to han repeir 

In-to Grece, nor J?e wedir fair, 6720 

As Calchas had made suggestions 

And brou^t hem alle in oppiniourc. 

And at ]>e last, whan Jris Polycene, 

Of dede & wil a verray maide clene, 6724 

"Was to be graue of Achilles broust. But she is 

brought to 

She kneleth donn. & with an humble boust the grave of 


Caste vp hir eye & gan si^en ofte, 

And to J>e goddes, hwnblely & softe, 6728 

With dredful herte and deuociourc, and there 

Made in Jis wyse hir lamentaciouw. 

How Cruele Firms, tavenge fe dethe of his fadire, 
dismembred yonge Pollycene, and threwe here 
blode abowt his fadirs grave. And of J>e sorwful 
]>at she made to the goddys. 1 

almy^ti, Ipat fis world gouerne, prays to the 

And eue?y j)ing co^sidren & discerne, 6732 Gods 

By whom J)is world, so huge, large, & rousde, 
Bo)>e eyr & see, heuene & eke )>e grouwde 

At $oure devis with a word was wrou^t, wio rule this 

And sothfastly knowen euery J>ou^t, 6736 

Bi3t as it is, of euery maner wy^t, 
With-oute lettinge, so percyuge is ^owre si^t, 
)5at no ))ing is conseled* nor y-wrye 

From pe beholdyng of ^oi^re eternal eye, 6740 

And euery ping may attonis se, 
Vp-on my soule hatli merci and pite ! 

6714. hir sake] his woo D 1. 6723. >e] om. D 1. 
6730. Made] And made D 1. 6738. lettinge] lette D 1. 
6739. conseled] conselit C. 6741. And] pat D 1. 
6742. hath] haue D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 130 c. 


Polyxena's Prayer to the Almighties for Pity. [BK. iv 

"Have pity 

on my woe ! 

I've led my 

life in chas- 

cent of n 8ii" no " 
Yet now i am 

condemnd to 


of Achiiies, 

for which i 

And of $oure grace & benigne cure, 

Vp-on my wo and pitous auenture 6744 


Haueth som roupe, now })at I shal dye, 

My woful spirit to leden & conveye 

Where as $ow list, now ]>at I * shal pace ! 

For vn-to 3011, in Jris * silfe place, 6748 

I me confesse with al humylyte, [leaf 133 6] 

hat heder-towarde I haue in chastite 


Lad al my lyf, & kept my maydenhede 

In }oure seruyse, bof e in fou^t & dede, 6752 

In port and chere, and in couwtenauwce, 
Or forfeture of any dalyaimce, 

With o mysloke I neuer $it a-breide, 

So fat in soth I deye shal a mayde, 6756 

As ^e wel knowe, of symie al Innocent, 

^ OU 3 ^- ^ e now dempte by lugement 

For to be ded, with-ouie gilt at al 

Witnesse of }ou fat ben inmortal, 6760 
Clene of entent of fat I am accused ! 

And ^it, alias ! I may nat be excused, 

But fat fe swerd of vengau/ice mote byte, 

Routheles, whiche am no Jring to wyte, 6764 

But stonde clere & pure of al offence, 

And dischargid in my conscience, 

* dar afferme and full y gilt[e]les 

Touchinge fe mordre of worfi Achilles, 6768 

Whiche slowe my brofer, & after loued me, 

And is now cause of myn aduersite : 

And $it, in wil, dede, word, nor fou^t, 

Vn-to his deth assentid was ri^t nou^t, 6772 

But J)er-of was ri^t sory in myn herte, 

Al-be j)at I may nat now asterte 

For to be ded, only for his sake. 

On me allone vengauwce shal be take, 6776 

6743. benigne cure] benignite D 1. 

6744. pitous auenture] aduersite D 1. 6745. Haueth] Haue D 1. 

6747. as 3ow] )>at 30 D 1 now >at I] J>at I now C. 

6748. >is] >e 0. 6750. heder-towarde] hertoward A, D 2. 
6751. al] om. A. 6753. 1st and] in D 1. 

6758. by] with D 1. 6760. of] on A, D 2. 
6772. assentid] assentant D 2, assentinge D 1. 
6774. nat] >at D 1. 

Polyxenas Prayer. She denounces the Cruelty of the Greeks. 763 

merci, in fill cruel wyse 
With my blood to make sacrifice 
To pe goddis, her wrathe* for to queme ! 

peple blinde ! in soth amys 36 deme, 
Ageyn[e]s me joure herte is to cruel, 
To merciles, to Irous, and to fel, 
Wit/i-oute rou]>e, to mykel indurat, 

To sleen a maide, all one disolat ! 

Oute of 3oure herte, alias, pite is gon ! 

Harder, in troupe, ))an ouper stok or stoon, 

And more cruel in ^oure oppiniourc, 

For lak of pite, fan tigre or lyouw. 

Certis, 30 ben gretly for to blame, 

And ou3te her-of for to haue gret shame 

To assent to so foule a dede, 

To slen a maide, quakyng in her drede, 

And grau?zte hir noon oportunyte 

For to be-wepe hir virginite : 

ftat of )>is cruel and [pis] pitous wreche 

My blood 3oure gilt her-after shal apeche, 

And accuse also }oure grete envie 

To pe goddes, fat shal iustefie 

Euery vnri3t, bope of hi3e and lowe, 

Ful egally, and make to be knowe 

})e troupe plein, & spare no degre, 

But maken open pat is nowe secre. 

1 seie nat pis, nor my silfe compleyne 
To haue redres of my fatal peyne, 

For deth is now more welcom [vn-]to me 
])an is my lyf, and more I-take at gre, 
Sipen my brej>ere, most worpi of renoura, 
Be slay[e]n alle and buried in pis toim : 
My fader ded in his vnweldy age, 
And I allone lefte in al pis rage, 
And haue abide pitously to se 
Fynal ruyne now of pis cite, 

[leaf 133 c] 









" My blood is 
to be offerd 
as a sacrifice 
to the Gods. 

O blind Greek 

you're cruel- 
ler than the 

My blood 
shall here- 
after accuse 
you to the 

I do not com- 
plain for my- 

since my 
brothers are 

my father 

6812 and Troy 

6779. wrathe] wroth C. 6783. mykel] moche D 1. 

6790. her-of] ther of D 1. 

6795. cruel] de>e D 1 pitous] cruel D 1. 

6797. And] And eke D 1. 6805. vn-to] to D 1. 


" I'd rather 
end my woe 
than live. 

Then wel- 
come, Death ! 

Show thy ' 
might 011 me, 

a pure 
maiden ! 

I commend 
my spirit to 
the mercy of 
the Gods'. 

And, Maid- 

weep for me, 

slain in my 
youth " 

Polyxencis Prayer. She welcomes Death. [BK. iv 

Whiche at myn herte sittef now so sore, 

})at leuere I haue fa?ine to wepe more 

Deye attonis in reles of my wo, 

Sif al my kyn is passed & a-go, 6816 

Lenger to lyve were to me a deth. 

For bet is here* to ^elden vp fe breth 

)?an to be ladde oute of fis cite, 

Amonge straimgeris to live in pouerte ! 6820 

deth, welcome ! & no lenger lette 

)pi dredful dart to filen and to whette, 

My tendre hert f er-wif-al to ryve ; 

Ageyn fi my^t I shal neuer striue. 6824 

Now is tyme to kyfe ]>i power 

On me fat am of wil & herte entere 

A clene maide, so as I be-gan, 

Wiih-oute touche of eny maner man 6828 

In al my lyf to J>is same day 

J?is lite avauftte make }it I may, 

In myn ende, to [fe] goddes alle, 

After whos helpe now I clepe & calle. 6832 

And to her merci mekely I co???mende 

My woful spirit, & praie hem J>at fei sende 

To euery maide better happe and grace 

)5an I haue now, and a lenger space 6836 

In hertly loie and honour to contvne, 

Wit/i-oute assaut of any infortwne 

To lede her lyf in prosperite ! 

And alle maidenes, remewibref vp-on me 6840 

To take exaumple how ^e shal ^ow kepe, 

And ]?at ^e wolde a fewe teris wepe 

Whan fat 36 jnnke vppon Polycene, 

})at was of age and of ^eris grene 6844 

Whan she was slayn by cruel auenture. 

And to ]?e goddes, for to han in cure, 

My dredful goost hooly I betake, [leafissd] 

Eternally ; and Jnis an ende I make." 6848 

And wz't/i fat word hir hed she gan enclyne 

Ful humblely, whan she shulde fyne, 

6814. haue] hadde D 1. 6818. here] me C to] om. D 1. 
68.44. 2nd of] om. A. 6846. for to] >at D 1. 

6852 Pyrrhus 

6856 hews Polyx- 
ena to bits 
with bis 


and casts her 
blood round 

6864 his father's 


BK. iv] Polyxena is hackt to pieces savagely ly Pyrrhus. 765 

And of hir eyen lielde )?e lydes down. 
And Pirrus paraie, woder pan lyou^, 
Disniembrid haj? vtith his sharpe swerde 
Jpis maide ^onge, dredf ul & a-ferd ; 
And, ouermore, his cruelte to shewe, 
On pecis smale he hap hir al to-hewe 
End[e]long his fadris sepulture. 
Alias ! how my^t his cruel herte endure, 
Merciles to done so foule a dede ! 
I am astonid, sothly, whan I rede, 
After hir deth, how it dide hym good, 
Like a tiraurcte to cast abrood hir blood, 
Or a tig re, J>at can no routhe haue, 
Roumie environs aboute his fadris graue 
He spreint of hate and of cruelte. 

ou Pirrus ! pou maist [f ul] wel [y-]be 
Achilles sone by lyneal discent ; 

For like to hym of lierte & of entent 
)2ou wer, in soth, deuoide of al pite, 
And wers J>an he ^it in o degre : 
For of pi fader in al his ly vynge 
Ne redde I neuere }it so foule a ping 
j)ou} I wold of hatrede hym abraide 
For no rancour pat euere he slow a maide ! 

1 fynd[e] wel pat he hadde his part 
Whilom in lone of Cupides dart, 

jpat made hym sore in his lyue smerte, 
Whan pat lie was wounded to pe hert 
Wit/i )>e castyrig only of an eye, 
Wenynge fer-by wistly* for to deye 
He my^tfe] nat ]>e sodeyn stroke eskape ; 
And afterward, as his fate hath shape, 
He mordrid was for loue of Polycene, 
Whom fou hast sleyn in ]>i cruel tene, 
Furiously, w^t/f-oute routhe or shame : 
For whiche ])ing ))e foule hatful fame 

6861. Mr] his D 1. 6865. spreint] serpente D 1. 

6866. y-be] be D 1. 6876. Whilom] So?rcme tyme D 1, 

6S77. smerte] to smevte D 1. 

6880. wistly] wisly C wistly for] vtterly D 1. 

6883. was] is D 1 . 6885. or] & D 2. 

He is like 
that father, 


but worse 
than he, 

6872 who never 
slew a maid, 

6876 tho Cupid's 

pierst his 


id he was 

mui-ilerd for 
his love of 
6884 Polyxena. 

766 Hecuba goes mad, is stoned to death, and 'buried. [BK. iv 

this story is 
Ml be curst 
for slaying 
an innocent 

It drives 
Hecuba mad. 

She bites 
and fights. 

She is sent 
to an ile, 

and stoned 
to death. 

The Greeks 

bury her in a 

rich tomb. 

al pe world her-after shal be sprad, 
Whan pis* story rehersid is and rad ; 
fran shal be seide, how Pirrus roupeles 
Slowe in his Ire a maide gilt[e]les, 
And warie shal pi name most odible 
For pis dede passingly horrible, 
For loue only of faire Polycene. 
))e deth of whom wha^ Eccuba pe quene 
Hath seyn, alias ! as she be-side stood, 
For verray wo gan to wexe wood, 
And for sorwe oute of hir wit she went, 
And hir elopes & hir heer she rent 
Al in [a] rage, and wot nat what she doth, 
But gan anoon wz't/z. hondis & vfith tope 
In her furie cracchen and eke byte, 
Stonys caste, and wi\h fistes smyte 
Whom she mette ; til Grekis made her binde, 
And sent hir forpe, also, as I fynde, 
In-to an Ile to Troye pertenent, 
Wher she was slayn only by lugement 
Of pe Grekis, and stonyd to pe deth. 
And whan she had golden vp pe breth, 
)?is woful quene, by cruel auenture, 
]5e Grekis dide make a sepulture 
Coriously of metal and of stoon, 
And toke pe cors and buried it anoon 
With gret honour and solempnite, 
J)at longe after men per* rny^t[e] se 
Jpe riche tourabe, costful and royal, 
]5ere set and made for a memorial 
Of Eccuba, whilom of gret[e] fame ; 
And after }af to pat place a name, 
And called it, to be long in mynde, 
Locus infestus, in Guydo as I fynde. 
And pus pe quene, only for sorwe wood, 

6888. pis] >e C. 6891. most] mood A. 
6899. doth] deethe D 1. 6900. to>e] tethe D 1. 
6911. Coriously] Ceriously D 2. 
6914. men >er] J>er men C, D 1. 

6917. whilom] so?mne tyme D 1. 

6918. after] aftir >at D 1 >at] >e D 1. 



[leaf 134 a] 6896 







Lydgate curses the false, Gods for not punishing the greeks. 767 
Whan Mr doubter hadfdel shad hir blood, Forti.emm- 

' L ^ der of Hecuba 

Of Grekis stonyd dide hir ende make, 

As ^e han herde, pleinly, for ]>e sake 6924 

Of Polvcene, whilom by Calchas d Poiyxena 

J * ^ J by tlie Greeks 

Vn-to Appollo falsly oti'rid was, 

By Pirrus swerd Achilles avengynge, 

To make J>e se calm & blawndisshinge, 6928 

)?at ]?e goddes take* no vengaimce the Gods take 

Vp-on Grekis. J?at an evele chaw/zee j ^ 

Come [to] }>eis false goddes euerychoon ! JJ 1 ^ 6 false 

And her statues of stokkes & of stoon, 6932 

In whiche t>e serpent & be olde snake, > winch the 

' old snake 

Sathan hym silf, gan his dwellirage make ; Sat dwells! 

And fraud en tly folkes to illude, 

Ful sotilly kan hym silfe include 6936 

In ymagis, for to make his hold, 

j)at forged* bene of siluer & of gold, 

Jpat by errour of false illusioim, 

He hath y-brou^t to confusions, * 6940 

jjoru^ myscreauwce, Ipe worj?i kynde of man, 

Sifen tyme J)at aldirfirst be-gan 

\)Q false honour of ydolatrie 

And J>e* worship [vn-]to mawmetrie, 6944 

By sacrifice of bestis and of blood, [leaf 134 6] 

Tapesen hem whan )>at J>ei are wood, 

And to queme, bo)>e at eve and morwe. 

I praie to God, $eue hem alle sorwe, 6948 May God 

Wher-so )>ei ben, wit^-Iime or w/t/i-oute ! to grief!" & 

I noon excepte of J)e false route, 

Satorn nor Mars, Pallas* nor luno, Saturn, Mars, 

lubiter, Mercurius, nor Pluto, 6952 Jupiter, Me?' 

Kouper Flora, fat doth )>e floures sprede, Flora, 

6922. hadde shad] shad had D 1. 
6925. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 

6926 is misplaced at foot of column in D 2 Vn-to] Falsly vn to 

6927. avengynge] venging D 1. 6929. take] toke C. 

6938. f>at forged] I forged D 1 forged] forget C. 

6940. confusiowi] conclusioim C. 

6942. tyme] >e tyme D 1. 6944. J>e] to do C. 

6946. bat] om. D 1 are] were D 1. 6949. or] & D 2. 

6951. Mars Pallas] Pallas Mars C. 

768 Lydgates List of the False Gods whom he curses. [BK. iv 








the DanaTds, 



the Furies, 
the Fates, 

the Muses, 

Cybele, Ceres, 


Genius the 






Nouper Bachus, with grapis whyte & rede, 

Nor Cupido, with his eyen blinde, 

Nouper* Daphne, closed vnder rinde, 6956 

Jjoru^ Tellus myjt, of pe laurer tre, 

Nor pou Diane, with pi chastite, 

Mi}ti Venus, nor Cytherea, 

With pi dartis, nor Proserpyna, 6960 

})at lady art depe dou in belle, 

Nor Belides pat drawej) at pe welle, 

Ixyouw, nor pou ^iphus, 

Nor with pin appil, pou cruel Tantalus, 6964 

Nor pe furies pat bene infernal, 

Nor 30 pat spyraie pe lives prede fatal 

Vp-on pe rokke of Query maner man, 

Nor pe mvses pat so singen can 6968 

Atwen pe coppis of Nysus & Cirra,* 

Vp-on pe hil be-side Cirrea, 

Nor pe, Cibeles, nor Ceres with pi corn, 

Nor Eolus, of whom pe dredful horn 6972 

Is herde so for, whan pou list to blowe, 

Nor lanus Bi Irons, with bak cor bed lowe, 

Nor Priapis, nor Genyvs pe prest, 

pat curseth ay, with candel in his fist, 6976 

Hem po echon pat fro ward be to Kynde, 

Nor Imenevs, whos power is to bynde 

Hertis pat ben cowiunct in mariage, 

Til pe goddesse of discorde and rage 6980 

Disceuereth hem by diuisiourc, 

Nouper Manes, pat ban her mansions 

Mid pe erpe in derknesse and in wo, 

Nor peis elves, pat are wont to go 6984 

In vndermeles, whan Phebws is most shene, 

Nouper fauni,* in tender grevis grene, 

Water-nymph es, nor pis nay[a]des, 

6956. Nou>er] Nor C, D 1. . 6969, 70 are transposed in C. 
6969. Atwen] Betwene D 1 Nysus] ysus D 2. 

6975. Genyvs] Genus D 1 pe] om. D 1. 

6976. candel] Candels A. 6978. to bynde] ton bynde C. 
6979. comunct] knett A. 

6982. Nou>er] Nor D 1. 6983. Mid] Amid D 1. 

6986. Nouper] Nor D 1 fauni] fawner C. 

6987. nayades] Nardes D 1. 

Pagan G-ods are the Devil's Friends, & bring their trusters Woe. 769 

Satiiy, nou]?er driades, 

feat goddesse bene of wode & wildernes, 

Nor oj>er goddes, nouj>er more ne lesse, 

As Morpheus )>at is [J?e] god of slepe, 

I holde hym wood J?at take]) any kepe 

To done to hem any obseruauwce : 

He may nat faille for to haue meschawzce [leaf 134 c] 

At pe ende, pleinly, for his mede ! 

For al swiche feined falsnes, oute of drede, 

Eoos of ]?e deuel, and first by his engyn, 

And of his slei^ti treynes serpentyn, 

Only mankynde whane he made loute 

To false ydoles ; J>e whiche, oute of doute, 

Are but deuelis, Dauid berej? witnesse 

In J?e Sauter, where he writ expresse, 

And confermeth J)er as he endites, 

How J>e goddes of paganysme rytes, 

On & alle he excepteth noon 

Be made of gold, of siluer, and of stoon, 

Forged of bras, of metal and of tre, 

And eyen han, and $it J?ei maye nat se, 

And alle are fendes, so as Dauid seith. 

feat who in hem haueth any feith, 

Hope, credence, or in hem delite, 

It is no drede, J?at Jjei wil hym quyte 

With swiche guerdouw as )>e soule sleth 

Perpetuelly, so )>at ]>e fyn is deth 

Of her seruise, whan men hen[ne]s passe, 

And in her lyf vnhap and evele grace, 

Meschef and wo, and confusiouw, 

As men may sene example* be J?is toun, 

feat wende wel assured for ta be, 

And to haue stonde in longe prosperite 

Ageyn her fon pom} helpe of Appollo, 

Of Venus eke, and favour of luno, 

feoru} Pallas my^t, Diane and Minerue, 

6990. goddes] om. D 1. 6991. ]?e] om. D 1. 

6998. And] om. D 1. 

7001. Are] Bene D 1 Dauid] as Dauid D2. 

7008. >ei] ne D 2. 7009. are] her A, bene D 1. 

7018. example] exanple C. 7023. myjt] myghty A. 

6988 Satyr., 

Dryads, and 
other gods, 
such as 

Morpheus ! 


6996 All these 

sprang from 
the Devil, 






as David 

they are 
Those who 
trust em 

shall end in 
death and 

as Troy did, 

which ex- 
pected to 
7020 Prosper by 

its false Gods' 

770 Lydgate grieves for the sad fate of ruind Troy. [BK. iv 

Whom ]?ei wer wont to honour & to seme 7024 

With Cerymonyes & with sacrifise, 

As 36 to-forn ban herde me deuise, 

J3at hem han brou^t now vn-to ruyne, 

By cruel deth maked hem to fyne. 7028 

Here may $e sen how ]>e venym bites, 

At J>e ende, of swiche olde rytes, 

By evidence of )>is noble toun. 

What may availle now Palladiouw] 7032 

What may now * helpe her frauded fantasie 

Of al her olde false ydolatrie 1 

Alias, [alias !] )>ei bou^t it al to sore. 

Now fare wel Troye, farwel for euere-more ! 7036 

Farwel, alias ! to cruel was pi fal ! 

Of pe no more now I write shal. 

For jri sake, in sojje, whan I take hede, 

Of inward wo myn herte I fele blede ; 7040 

And whan pat I remembre \n my pou^t, 

By ruyne how pou art brou^t to nou^t, 

)?at whilom were so noble & so riche, [leaf 134 d] 

))at in pis world I trowe noon was liche 7044 

Nor perigal, to speken of fairnesse, 

To speke of kny^thod and of worpinesse, 

As clerkis seien pat pi bildyng knewe, 

J?at al pe world ou}t[e] for to rewe 7048 

On pi pitous waste walles wylde, 

Whilom so rial wha?i men gan to bilde 

)3in touris hi^e, & kyng Priamus 

J)e first be-gan, most riche & glorious, 7052 

And sette his se in noble Ylyou?z. 

0, who can write a lamentaciouw 

Conuenient, o Troye, for pi sake ! 

Or who can now wepe or sorwe make, 7056 

])\ gret[e] meschef to compleyne & crie ] 

7024. 2nd to] om. D 2, D 1. 7027. han] haue A. 
7028. maked] in a bed A. 7029. new IT D 1. 
7033. What may now] May now ou^t C now] om. A. 

7043. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 

7044. noon was] was noon A liche] >e liche D 1. 
7050. Whilom] Somme tyme D 1. 7051. &] )>at D 1. 
7052. pe] om. D 1. 

Here you 
may see the 
result of 
Pagan faith. 

What can the 
and idolatry 
avail ? 

Troy, fare- 

My heart 
bleeds for 


that were 
so rich, and 

All the world 
should pity 

Who can 
write a fit 
Lament for 
Troy ? 

No Hebrew Prophet could have rightly mournd Troy 's fate. 771 
Certis, I trowe nat olde leremye, Neither 

, . . Jeremiah, 

pat so be-wepte pe captmite 

Of ]>ilke noble rial chefe cite 7060 

Jerusalem, and his destmccioiw, 

With al pe hole transmygraciowa * 

Of pe lewes ; nor )>ou E^echiel, Kzekiei, 

ftat were pat tyme pat pe meschef fel 7064 

Vn-to )>e kyng y-called Sedechie, 

In Ba[b]ilon, & for pi prophesie 

With stonys were cruelly y-slawe ; 

Nor he pat was departed with a sawe, 7068 

$e bo]>e two, pat koude so compleyne, 

Nor Danyel pat felt so gret[e] peyne norD.miei, 

For pe kynges transmutaciouw 

In-to a beste, til poru$ pe orisourc 7072 

Of Daniel he restored was 

To mynde ageyn, & ete no more no gras : 

3et verrailly, pou$ $e alle pre 

With soure wepincr had alive be 7076 had they 

been alive, 

And present eke at pe destrucciouw 

Of pis noble worpi royal toiw, 

To haue beweiled pe meschef & pe wo, 

And pe slaujter at pe sege do 7080 

On ouper party in ful cruel wyse, 

Alle 2oure teris myatfel nat suffise could have 

J? L J mournd 

To haue be-wepte her sorwes euerychon, Sfrrowa'of 

Be tresou?z wrou^t, as wel as be her foon ! 7084 Tr y- 

Here-of no more ; for it may nat availle. 

But like as he pat gy/meth for to saille 

Ageyn pe wynde, whan pe mast dop rive, 

Ri}t so it were but in veyn to strive 7088 

Ageyn pe fate, bitterer panrce galle, 

By hi}e vengauwce vp-on Troye falle, 

Nor to presvme her furies, sharpe whette, 

Ceriously in pis boke to sette : [leaf 135 a] 7092 

So gret a ping I dar nat vndirtake, I can't do it. 

7062. hole] noble A transmygracioiw] transmutacioun C. 
7064. 3rd J>at] wha?ine D 1. 7074. 2nd no] om. A, D 1. 
7086. bat] om. D 1. 7088. but in veyn] in veyne for D 1. 
7089. galle] )>e galle D 1. 


772 Lydgate ends his Bk IV. Bk V 'II be on the Greeks at sea. [BK. iv 
so here i end But evene here a pitous entle I make 

the Siege of 

Troy, Of pe sege, after my symplesse * ; 

And 0113 my stile, blottid* with rudenes, 7096 

As of metre, be rusty and vnfiled, 

Jjis ferpe boke, pat I haue compiled 

With humble hond, of fer pat doth me quake, 
and commit Vn-to soure grace holy I betake, 7100 

ittoyour & . . J . ! 

mercy. Of ^oure merci no pmg in dispeir, 

rn now tell So as I can, makyng my repeir 
adventures of To "be Grekis, & no lender dwelle, 

the Greeks in * 

Her aventures of J>e se to telle, 7104 

their journey In ber resort home to her centre ; 


And how [pat] pel pere received be, 
Only of support, so 36 not dispise, 
in my 5th Jpe fi[f]the boke shortly shal deuise. 7108 

[Explicit liber Quartus 
Incipit liber qumtus & vltimus] 1 

7095. symplesse] sympelnesse C. 

7096. blottid] be blotted A, blottid be C. 

7099. hond of fer] herte ofte D 1. 7101. in] }e D 2. 
1 The above rubric occurs in A. 

Tho there's outward calm, Fortune makes the Greeks quarrel. 773 

Her bigynneth be fifft boke, & be laste, of Troye. 1 

'haw Eolus, which dob be wisdes rore, 
Apesid was, bat he blewe no more, 
Which is of stormys gouemowr & lord 
And was also fully of accord 
Wib my^ti Iimo, lady of be eyr, 
To make be skye and be wedir fair, 
j)at cloude noon in heuene dide appere, 
And Neptunws, blauwdisshing of chere, 
Was of assent, be stori seith forsobe, 
To make be se fro tempest calm & smobe, 
Wttft-oute boilyng or trouble of [any] wawe, 
J?e my^ti Grekis to ship ward gan he?7i drawe 
For to repeire home to her centre, 
After bei had wo?znen be cite, 
Put her fomen fully at be worse. 
But Fortune, ay f reward and peru^rse, 
Hath vfith her myrthe meynt aduersite : 
For whan bei wende ful assurid be, 
And haue stonde stedefast in quiete, 
))is blinde lady falsly made flete 
In-to her sugre galle of discordance, 
Amonge hem silf to bring in variauwce, 
And her hertis, of rancour & of pride, 
Contagiously to seueryn & deuyde, 
Whan bei sat hiest in her glorie, 
With be palme of conquest <fe * victorie, 
Fully reioyssinge, boru^ her h^e renoura, 
)}e crowne of laurer in possessions, 

when Eoius, 

Juno and 

8 Neptune 

united to 

make the 

12 the Greeks 

get ready to 

16 But Fortune 


puts discord 

among em, 

24 to divide em. 


2. blewe] blowth A. 

1. Illuminated initial cut out in D 1. 
12. hem] om. D 1. 26. &] & of C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 132 b (128), below miniature. 


Ajax Telamon accuses Ulysses of Injustice. [BK. v 

Tho the 

Greeks have 


Envy has 

strd up 


as to the 
of Tro U 

He says, 

And had also at her lust al worwe, 
Whan bri^test shon J)e lusti freshe so/me 
From Est to west of her worthies, 
A cloudy sky vnwarly vrith dirknesse 
Eclipsed hath a parti of her li$t, 
And diffacid j>e holsom bernys bri^t 
Of her welfare and prosperite, 
By ^envious fals contagiouste 
Of ])& serpent, pompos and elat, 
Anionge hem silfe to make hem at debat, 
Inducing in rancour and discord : 
For or pei entre watArlnne shippes bord, 
^S e y n Vlixes wor]?i Thelamourc, 
In presence of kyng Agamenou?j, 
Purposed hath, pleinly, his matere 
To-fore Grekis, a-noon as $e shal here. 





How Thelamon, in p?-esence of Kyng Agamenon, vttred 
his grugge agayn Kyng Vlixes. 1 

" Sirs," qwod he, " so it $ow nat greue, 

Me seme)? iustly of resou?* I may meve, 

Touching Jje wyrmyng & getmg of Jns toun, 

With gold, richesse, and possessiouw, 48 

Fully deliuered and taken to oure hond, 

With al J)e tresour fou?iden in fe lond, 

)}e whiche, me finkef in myn inward si^t, 

Ne hath nat bene departed halfe a-ri^t 52 

Amonges vs, by iust diuisiou?^, 

N"or be egal distribusiouw 

" considering Considred first, by title of equite, 

Of euery wy^t Jjestat -and dignite, 56 

Eemembrid eke, in ])is sharp[e] shour, 

jj e wor]>ines, [|)e] merite, &* labour, 

And decertis in }>is mortal strif, 

Graunting to euery che his prerogatif 60 

deserving, Lik fortune as he hath disseruyd. 

81. her worj)ines] the worjneste D 1. 
45. new 1 A 3ow nat] nat 3ow D 2. 47. J)is] J>e D 1. 
50. )>e] fis D 2. 53. diuisioim] avisyou?i D 2. 
56. and] of A. 58. &] & ]>e C. 59. And] And the D 2. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 132 c. 

our labour 

Ajax claims to have done more for the Greeks than Ulysses has. 775 

But ]>is ordre hath nat ben obserned, 

Amonges vs, vfith-oute excepcioim, 

In delyuerance of Palladioim, 

Whiche Ylixes, I seie wM-oute drede, 

To-fore ^ou alle vniustly doth possede, 

On hym vsurpinge by fals oppimouw, 

By meritorie retribucioiw 

And apparence his title for to gronde, 

Vnder pretense of colour, falsly fotwde, 

Jjat he )>is relik reioisshe shulde of ri^t,* 

Be slei3te woraie raper J>an of myjt, 

And vsurpeth, be maner of avaiwt, 

As it were 30116 to hym by graimt 

Of 3011 echon for a chef guerdoun. 

But I wil make a replicaciouw, 

)5at pis relik is nat to hym mete, 

Whiche he shal nat reioisshe in quiete, 

3if )>at I may disturben hym or lette : 

For I it cleyme duely of dette 

As for guerdoun to me conuenient ; 

So ]>at 36 list to bene indifferent, 

Of resouw only, as it doth $ou seme, 

Atwen vs two egally to deme, 

Justly, first, vfiih euery circumstaimce, 

Oure ou])er merit weied in haiku/ice, 

First considered 3 if it may availle 

Mi dilligence & my gret travaille 

)pat I endured forpe fro day to day 

Al )>e while J>at ]>e sege lay, 

|3at 36 shulde of plente of vitaille 

On no side for no meschef faille. 

And 3if I shal, wz't/i-oute avaimt, oute breke, 

As of kny3thod and * armys for to speke : 

In ]?e feld by longe contynuauwce 

Of manly force and perseueraimce, 

Vp-on oure foon, |?at wer so fel & kene, 

Day by day I was armyd clene 

64 "the delivery 
of the 
to Ulysses 
is unjust. 

[leaf 135 <] 68 





He has no 
right to it. 

80 I claim it as 
due to me. 

our merits. 

88 I daily workt 

to get food 
for our host, 

and fought 
against our 
96 foes. 

63. Amonges] Araonge D 1. 71. of ri$t] arijt C. 

74. 3oue] om. D 1. 81. for] for a A. 

84. Atwen] Betwene D 1. 94. and] in C. 

776 Ajax praises his own Valour, and runs down Ulysses. [BK. v 

" I slew 

and brought 
you his 

I kild the 
king of 

and won two 
regions for 

I workt with 

But Ulysses 

has neither 
manhood nor 

It nedeth nat to make mencioim, 

With my ri^t hond how I slovve Philemoiw, 100 

As $e wel know, which had in his keping 

)5e 3ong[e] sone of Priamus pe kyng, 

Freshe and lusti, and of gret fairnesse, 

And with hym had infinit ricbesse, 104 

Of tresour, gold passingly plente, 

And euerydel was brou^t to ^ou by me, 

3if 36 remembre & list take hede, 

j)at ^e were quyte of indigence & nede 108 

By occasions of pat gret[e] good. 

And poru} my manhod shad I nat pe blood, 

Merciles, in ful cruel wyse, 

For 3oure sake of pe kyng of Fryse, 112 

And pe tresour in his cofres sou^t, 

And al y-fere to pe sege y-brou^t 1 

And be my kny^thod, sithfen] go ful $ore, 

Haue I nat eke awmentid & made more 116 

)pe Grekis lond with possessions, [leaf 135 d] 

By conquest only of two regiouns, 

)3oru3 my prudence & my labour wonne, 

Sipen pat 36 pe sege first bego?ine, 120 

With provinces to Troye adiacent 1 ? 

To $oure encres I was so dillygent ! 

And with Achilles, pe worpi werrioure, 

3e bene expert ful wel of my labour, 124 

J3at we wrou^t to ^oure avau/itage ! 

And sipen 36 so prudent ben & sage, 

Nat for^etil, but fully remembring, 

It nedeth nat rehersen * euery ping. 128 

And to dispreve, manly as a kny^t, 

His title and * cleime pat he hath no ri^t, 

])G doom co??imittyng to ^oure oppiniotms 

Be rehersaille of his condic[i]ouns : 132 

He nouper hap manhod nor prowes, 

101. know] knewe D 1. 107. take] to take noon D 1. 

127. for^etil] forjetinge D 1. 

128. rehersen] rehersyng D 2, to rehersen C, D 1. 
130. and] I C. 132. rehersaille] rehersyng D 2. 

133. nouper ha)>] hath nouther A. The second halves of lines 
132-139 are missing inD 1. 

Ajax accuses Ulysses of Cowardice & Craft, & asks for Judgment. 777 

Force, kny^thod, noujjer hardines, 

And, at a point for to haue rewarde, 

In doring do preved a coward ! 

Experience hath shewed 3ow, in dede, 

How )>at he is, whan it cowmeth to nede, 

But word & wynd & slei^ti compassyng, 

And on falshede euere ymagynyng : 

For neuere $it to J>is day was preved, 

)3at eny ))ing was by hym acheved 

Whiche my3t be entitled to his laude, 

But }>e ende medlid were wz't/i fraude. 

For vnder colour he can curen al, 

Preteride fair, liche a peinted wal, 

Diners hewed, J>at noujjer hi$e nor low, 

]3er may no man his pleyn[e] menyng know ! 

And with swiche slei^t cowpassid be tresouw., 

Oute of Troye he gat Palladyouw, 

Whiche is gret shame & sklauwde?* to us alle : 

For of oure conquest it is Jms be-falle, 

More of tresouu we haue ]>e cite wonne 

\)anne of kny^thod, [as] men report[e] kone. 

And crop & rote, $if I reherse shal, 

Vlixes here is ground e & cause of al, 

And gyraiynge first of pis vnhappi fame 

}3at reboundeth to oure alder shame ! 

And sip * )>e troupe is platly knowe & wist, 

Mi tale is ended, demeth as $ou list." 

: Ulysses 

136 is a mere 

He is crafty 
and false. 

Fraud is in 
all be does, 






Judge you 
between him 
160 and me!" 

and by that 
he got the 
out of Troy; 

not by 

How Kyng Vlixes vnderstode the maleys of Thelamon, 
and of J>e great stryff, and [how] Aiax was slayn. 1 

Vlixes }>awne, in his aduertence 

Conceived hath J>e grete inpacience 

Of Thelaniouft, and J>e grete en vie, 

|5e fervent rancour & malencolie, 164 

140. falshede] falshood A. 143. Whiche] The wiche D 1. 

152. of] am. D 1. 155. And] om. A. 

156. here] he A cause] rote D 2. 157. J>is] >e D 1. 

159. si}>] sihen C. 161. new H A, D 1. 

164. rancour] hate D 2. 

1 Koyal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 1336. 

778 Ulysses defends himself. His skill ruind Troy. [BK. v 


For-bar hym first, be f ul erret avis, 

deliberately: As he pat Was fill* prudent & f ul * WyS, [leaf 136 a] 

And pou^t he wolde make per-of no Tape, 
By no word for haste pat shuld eskape, 168 

2<[ouper by noon vnbridled contenanrace 
Outward conceived in his dalyaunce, 1 * 
And abraiding, wip a stable face, 

" Sirs," qwod he, " so I may haue grace, 172 

Vnder support of ^oure hi^e presence, 
})at my tale may haue audience, 
I nouper am in doute nor in drede, 
"i am justly Of equite pat I shal possede 176 

entitled to 

Palladium Palladiouw duringe my lives day, 

Maugre pe my^t of who[-so] pat seie nay. 
For $if 36 list of resoura for to se, 

At f 6 S6 o re leide first to > is cite 180 

I haue my silfe in double wyse aquit, 
by fighting As wel by knv^thod, sothly, as by wit, 

and by ad vice. J 

And poru^ my counseil & my besy cure 

Ben oft cause of her discourcfeture, 184 

Ay dilligent to ^oure avauntage, 

Wrou^t & compassid [vn-]to her damage, 

Tro f w '""' ^ a ^ * ^ s ^ a ^' ^ n so ^ n ' ne ^^d 6 I be, 

S U1I H- fcei had floured in her felicite, 188 


In her force contuned and welfare. 
And $if pat I pe troupe shal nat spare, 
3if it be dempt & loked of rescue, 

I was most cause of her confusiou^, 192 

Who-so-euere ageyn[e]s it replie ! 
How ofte went I on embassatrie, 
With importable costis & dispense, 

)3e trete ay concludinge in sentence 196 

i furtherd To "be forpering of soure entencioun, 

your ends and Y o 

injured Troy. And disencrese & hindnnge of pe toim ! 
And whan I sawe oper mene noon, 

In myn avis and wittis eue?ychon, 200 

By oure force pe cite for to wymie 

166. ful (both)] ri$t C. 167. J>ou#] J>ou3 D 1. 
170. dalyaunce] contenau?tce C. 187. I] om. D 2. 
190. 3if] I D 2. 191. dempt] demed D 1. 

BK. v] Arbitrators judge Ulysses entitled to the Palladium. 779 

While pei hadde pe relik hem wit/i-Inne, 
)3er-vp-on so sotilly y wrou^t, 
ftat vn-to ^ow Palladyouw I brou^t, 
Whiche Thelamouw, fat of mails stryveth, 
Of olde hatrede vn-to my gilt ascrivep 
Hooly pis ping pat I haue for $ow wrou^t. 
But ^e, pat ben so prudent in $owre pou^t, 
Aduerteth wisly and an ende maketh, 
And in $oure hond pis qz^arel fully takep, 
PalladyouM iustly to prouyde, 
And al favour late be leide a-side 
Sith al pis ping }e platly vnderstonde, 
And lete vs bope to ^oure demy/age sto?ide 
By oon assent, how-so pe mater wende 
Lo, here is al my tale is at an ende." 
jpanne Thelamou?i, in Ire ful feruent, 
Of [inward] hate made inpacient, 
And of envie inwardly amevid, 
Vlixes hath [dejspitously reprevid, 
Only of malis and of hi^e disdeyn ; 
And Vlixes rebukyng him ageyn 
Ful bitterly, \\iih-oute abood anoon, 
And so pei tweyne made ful mortal foon 
In pe presence of Agamenouw. 
But furiously Aiax Thelamouw, 
Of malencolie pale & no ping red, 
)5ratte Vlixes pat he shal be ded 
Of his hondis he slmld it nat eschewe ! 
And Grekes po, al rancour to remewe, 
fcis quarel putte in arbitraciouw 
Of Menelay and Agamenouw, 
at caused after a ful mortal strif : 
For, be sentence anoon diffinitif, 
))ei putte Vlixes in possessions 
Perpetuelly of Palladyouw, 
With hym confermyng to abide stable. 
And cause why pei were favourable 

[leaf 136 bl 








" By my 
skill 1 got 
you the 

Ajax's attack 
on me is mere 

Do you 
settle our 
quarrel ! " 

Ajax scolds 

who rebukes 

The Greeks 
refer the case 

232 toMenelaus 

who adjudge 
the Palla- 
236 diumto 

202. ]>e] >t D 2, D 1. 212. leide] sette D 1. 
215. K| )>is D 1. 217. new II D 1. 
218. inward] om. A. 230. >o] om. D 1. 

780 Ajax swears vengeance on Ulysses and the Arbitrators. [BK. v 

To Ylixes, lyche as Guydo writ, 
because he Was for bat he so goodly hath. hi??i quit 240 

saved Helen 

en they Vn-to Eleyne at getyng of be 

Beynge in cause of hir saluacioun, 
tho the Dispeired and of hir lyf in drede, 
kui'her to Grekis willinge to haue had hir dede. 244 

But boru^ his prudent mediaciou?*, 

Maugre be my^t of bis Thelamouw, 

He hath be quene fro [be] deth preservid, 

Al-be bat she hadde it wel deseruyd, 248 

As Grekis seide in beir oppiniouw. 

And bus diffrauded of Palladyoura, 

As $e haue herde, was bis worbi kny^t, 

For al his manhod & his grete my^t ; 252 

Ajax hates Wher-boru^ ber gan in his hert[e] brede 

Passinge envie & f ul gret hatrede, 

And bou^t he wolde avengid be som day 
uiysses, Vp-on Ylixes and on Menelay, 256 

Menelaus and J ' 

Agamemnon, And eke also vp-on Agamenourc ; 

And oute he brak like a wode lyouw, 

With his kny^tes aboute hi??^ bat wer stronge, 

^^ Se ^ 6 ' P^ 6 ^^) f ft 8 g rete WIOHge, 260 

For to be ded, he wolde avenged be, 

And specially on bis ilke bre. 

And ber-wa't/i-al, furious and wroth, 

Tornynge his * bak oute anon he goth, [leaf we c] 264 

In herte fret vtiih ful mortal tene, 

With many Greke his quarel to sustene, 

})at in herte sore gan disdeyne 

Ageyn Vlixes and be tober tweyne. 268 

But bei ful war, what-so-euere falle, 

Her kn y$ tes made aboute hem for to calle, 

And with gret stuf, wher bei wake or slepe, 

To waite on hem & manly for to kepe 272 

With ful good wache enviroim al be cloos. 

But ful erly or be sonne aroos, 

242. in] om. A. 

243. Dispeired] Disespeired D 2, Disepeired D 1. 
262. ilke] eche D 1. 264. his] be C. 

268. tober] ober D 2, D 1. 271. wher] whe>r D 1. 
272. waite] a wayte A, D 1. 

BK. v] Ajax is murderd. Ulysses flees from Pyrrhus's threats. 781 

}5is worpi Aiax in his bed vp-ri^t 

I-mordrid was, ]>e silue same ny^t, 

And al be-bled in ]>e morwe fourade, 

On pecis he we vrith many mortal wo mule, 

)3at for ))is J?ing, cruel and horrible, 

To God & man lothsom & odyble, 

Ful many Greke J>at woful morwe wep 

To sen a kny^t so mordrid in his slep, 

)5at ]>G cri and ]>e noise ran 

J3oru$-oute ]>0 hoste anon fro man to man. 

And for constreint of )>is foule dede, 

Eue?yche of hem felt his herte blede, 

Ful desirous to make an ordinance 

On Jns mordre for to do vengaunce, 

Havinge per-of gret suspeciourc 

To Menelay and Agamenou?i, 

But to Vlixes moste in special, 

By comou-ft vois to him arettinge al, 

Jje foule fame he my^tfe] nat asterte. 

But Pirrus moste toke Jns ping at herte, 

Makynge a vowe, furious and wood, 

To be veugid, pleynly, on fe blood 

Of Thelamou?*, vp-on Vlixes hed, 

Hym manascinge fat he shal be ded, 

So sore on hym freting was jje sorwe. 

But Vlixes erly on a * morwe, 

For drede of Pirrus taken hath )>e se, 

And with his shippes fast[e] gan to fle. 

But or he went, platly, as I rede, 

Palladyoim he toke to Dyomede, 

Hauynge in herte a f ul gret remors. 

And Pirrus }>anne taken hath ]>e cors 

Of Thelamouw, for loue in special, 

And dide make a flawme funeral, 

Large & gret, of colis hoot & rede j 

And amyddes ]?e feruent firy glede, 

Ful many Greke stondynge to biholdo, 

277. al] om. A in] om. D 1. 287. an] om. D 1. 

291. But] And D 1. 294. at] to D 1. 297. vp-on] and on D 1. 

300. a] fyc C. 311. many] many a A. 

Ajax is tnur- 
derd in his 
276 bed tlie same 



fastens on 
Menelaus and 
but specially 
on Ulysses, 




300 who, to 

avoid the 
of Pyrrhus, 
sails off, 

leaving the 
304 with 


makes a 

308 funeral pyre 
for Ajax. 

782 Antenor reconciles Pyrrhus with Agamemnon, etc. [BK. v 

Pyrrhus puts 
the ashes of 
Ajax in a 
golden urn, 

and sends em 
to the land 
of which he 
was king. 

wants to 
avenge Aj ax's 
murder on 
and Mene- 

They are 
deadly foes. 

But Antenor 

at-ones em, 

and invites 

He let hit brenne in- to asslies colde. 312 

And, in pe story after as Is tolde, [leaf ise*] 

He closed hem in an vine of golde 

Ful reuerently, & after hath it shet ; 

And per-vp-on he hath pe prent [y-]set 316 

Of his arrays, coriously y-graue, 

From al meschef pe asslies for to saue, 

And sent hem home by grefc affeccioim 

To be conserued in )>e regioim 320 

Where he was kyng while he was a-lyue ; 

And euery ping was parformed blive, 

After pe rytes in J?o* daies vsid. 

And euere in oon Pirrus hath y-mvsid 324 

Vp-on pe mordre traitourly y-wrou^t, 

And caste it shulde be fnl dere abou^t, 

)3e* pitous deth of pis Thelamoiw, 

Hauynge ay herte to Agamenowz, 328 

And hadde eke suspect olde Menelay, 

ftat in a-wait eche for oper lay, 

Makynge hem silfe Vfith her kny^tes strong, 

To trien oute who hath ri^t or wrong : 332 

For Firms nolde lete it li^tly goon. 

And pus pei wern maked mortal foon, 

ftis ilke pre, platly, to pe deth, 

Jjoru^ false envie whiche her hertes sleth. 336 

And while ]?ei wern among \\vni silfe vntrewe, 

Strif vp-on strif gan eue?-y day renewe, 

And debatis for to mvltiplie, 

Til Anthenor gan pis ping espie, 340 

And, by his wisdam, to stinten al clisdeyn 

Hem recoimciled vn-to pes ageyn, 

And caused hem to accorde in al, 

And after made a feste ful royal, 344 

Beseching hem ful lowly, alle pre, 

To grauwten hym per-at for to be, 

Of gentilnesse, pat Grekis myjt eclion 

317. coriously] ceriously D 2, D 1. 321. a-lyue] on lyue D 2. 

323. in] and C, D 1 >o] >e C, D 1, A. 

325. )>ej this D 2, J>is D 1. 327. }>e] f>at C, D 1. 

338. renewe] growe newd D 1. 

BK. v] Anterior s Feast. Eneas is to be banishtfrom Troy. 783 

Outward conceive ]>at )>ei were al oon. 348 

And to J)is feste lie manly made calle, 

As writ Guydo, pe worjri Grekis alle 

Of hi^e nor lo\ve was noon excepcioim. 

But $if I shulde make descripcioun,* 352 

How J?e lordes and estates sete, 

Of sondry coursis, & }>e ^iftes grete 

}5at Anthenor $af on eue?-y side, 

It were to longe to $ou for to abide, 356 

}3er was of plente so gret suffisau?ice. 

And, I finde, )>ei fil in daliauwce, 

Sittinge at mete, to speken of Enee, 

Brou^te In of hate & of enmyte, 360 

And of disdeyn, shortly in sentence, 

)3ei putte on him many grete offence, [leaf m o] 

And specially, in her hasti tene, 

Whilom how he conceiled Policene, 364 

And by his slei3te made hir be withdraw, 

Which was in cause Achilles was slawe 

Shortly concluding, by oon oppinioun, 

His final exile oute of Troie toiw, 368 . 

Not-witft-stondinge Jje grauwt & liberte 

3oven to hym tabide in )>e cyte, 

Al-so longe as hym list deuise. 

But Grekis han annullid his fraunchiso, 372 

Fro )>e lowest vp on-to J>e meste, 

|)at wern p?'esent at j?is hi^e feste ; 

But dout[e]les I can nat wel espie 

By whom was wrou^t pis conspiracie, 376 

In Troie boke I finde can no more, 

Saue J>at hym silfe witte it Anthenor 

I-liche false bo)je in o degre, 

As 30 haue herd, betraisshinge Jje cite, 380 

Liche as J?ei hadde spronge out of o rote ! 

And whan he knewe per was mxw olper bote, 

\)is Eneas his dome to modifie, 

351. nor] & D 2. 352. descripcioun] distribucioim C. 
353. and] and )>e D 1 sete] bene sete D 1. 
364. Whilom] Sowtyme D 1. 371. so] om. D 1. 
373. vp on-to] vpon to A on-to] vn to D 2, D 1. 
376. wroujt] brought A >is] >e D 1. 

and all the 
Greeks t a 

They talk 
of Eneas, 
who, they 

had hid 
from them 

who causd 

They resolve 
to banish 
Eneas Irora 

He blames 

for this 

784 Eneas returns to Troy, lamenting his Treachery. [BK. V 

Eneas begs 

for 4 months' 

and the 22 
ships that 
Paris took to 

He goes back 
to Troy, 

sad for his 

betrayal of it, 

and his loss 
of the favour 
of the Greeks. 

For this, 
lie blames 
An ten or. 

He preied hem of her curtesie, 384 

At f e lest for to graiwte him grace 

Foure monies, fat he my^t haue space 

To make his stuf & his apparaille, 

And hym silf to punieie of vitaille, 388 

Eke to graimte hym fat f ei wold assent 

]?ilke shippes fat vfith Paris went 

To Cytheroiw, vn-to fat temple olde, 

Jpat wern in noumbre two & twenti tolde. 392 

And with ful graimt of his peticiourc, 

He is retonrned home to Troye toiw, 

Triste and heuy to sen & beholde 

Jpe waste cite wz't/< his wall is olde, 396 

And for sorwe* felt his herte blede, 

W^t/i-Inne hym silfe whanwe he takef hede 

And remembrid in his aduertence 

fie false tresoiw and f e grete offence 400 

By hym compassid to ]> e toun a-forn, 

And how fat he so sodeinly hath lorn 

)5e grace of Grekes, & stood discoiwsolat, 

J}at whilom was of so gret estate, 404 

Now in his herte fully dissepeired, 

)5at he vnwarly was .so euele appaired 

Vn-to Grekis behinden at his bak, 

Beinge vngilti and wttfc-outen lak ; 408 

And be whom he koude nat wel deme, 

Saue be signes, as it dide seme, 

)?at Anthenor was most for to wyte, [leaf is? 6] 

And caste pleinly fat he wolde hyrn quyte. 412 

How Eneas, beyng still in Troy, councelled the Troyans 
to sende for A[n]thenor, and to make hym their 
kyng. 1 

And foru^ f e toiw he made sende blive 
For filke fewe fat were lefte a-lyve, 

391. olde] holde A. 393. his peticiowi] here proteccioiw D 1. 
397-924 are omitted in D 2. 397. sorwe] >e sorwe C. 

404. whilom] some tyme D 1. 

405. dissepeired] disespeired A, D 1. 

407. behinden at] so bihinde D 1. 413. sende] to sende Dl. 
1 RovalMS. 18. D. ii. leaf 134 b. 

Eneas tells the few Trojans left, to make Antenor their King. 785 
Comynge anoon at* his cowmaimclement ; Eneas gets 

/ ' the Trojans 

And whan )>ei wern euerychon present : 416 together, 

" Sirs," quod he, " 30 sen how pat Fortune 

Towardis me gynneth discontune, 

Ay vnstable vtith hir eyen blynde, 

As ^e expert in 3oure silfe now fynde, 420 

Whilom froward, now twrned werse, 

J3at of clerkis called is aduerse, 

Whan hir list hir cruelte to shewe. 

Now it stant so : 36 be her but a fewe, 424 

And I mvt parte, and 30 stille abide ; 

But it so be )>at 36 wil prouide, 

Stondynge allone deuoide of al socour, and advises 

them to 

Amonge ymr silt to make a gouernour, 428 

I can nat se but 36 shal be acloied 

On euery parte, & finally distroied, 

A[s] sely shepe, pat ne can no rede,* 

Al disparpiled, whiche stond in grete drede.* 432 

Wherfore, best is, in pis dredful ping, 

By oon assent to chese jow a kyng ; choose as 

And most able pestat to occupie, 

From al assaut manly 3ow to gnye 436 

Is Authenor, of kny^thod & renoun, Antenor, 

3if it accorde with 3oure oppiniourc. 

Wherfore in haste, vn-to }>is entent, 

With-oute abood late hym fore be sent ; 440 

And, at his comynge, pleinly, in-to towne, 

Vp-on his hed lat be set a crowne, & crown 

Grawjtynge to hym scepter and regally, 

By his wysdam pat he may 3ou guy 444 

From al assaut of any perturbauwce, 

By his kny3thod and prudent goue?'nauwce." 

And pel assent, makynge no delay ; xiiey agree. 

)5er was neuer oon pat like)) to seie nay, 448 

But wer rijt glad in al manere pinge, 

415. at] to C. 417. new IT A, D 1. 
421. Whilom] Somme tyme D 1. 431. rede] qued C. 
432. whiche stond in grete drede] whiche can no red C, with oute 
herde or hede D 1. 

435. )>estat] the state D 1. 

437. Is] This D 1 renoun] resoim A. 445. of] or D 1. 

786 Eneas tries to kill Antenor, and tells his evil deeds. [BK. v 

The Trojans 
don't know 

He means to 
kill Antenor, 

whom his 
armd men 
surround ; 

but the 
Trojans pray 
him to have 

Eneas says: 
"He's a 
and ought to 
be hangd. 


and got the 
Greeks to' 
banish me, 

As ^e han herde, for to make \\\m kyng. 

But ]>ei ful litel, sothly, in her sonde, 

Of Eneas }>e menynge vndirstonde, 452 

For lie ne ment but tresou?? & falsehede, 

How at his ent[e]ringe he shal be dede 

Ful traitourly in a- wait liggynge 

To slen hym falsly at his [in-]comynge. 456 

But Anthenor, of al Jns no )>ing war, 

Disarmyd cam & no wepne bar ; 

And Eneas wz't/i an huge route 

With swerdis drawe set hy??z rouwde aboute, [leaf 137 c] 460 

Til j?ei of Troie, bo)>e $onge & olde, 

Ran a-twen & manly hym wit/i-holde, 

And on her knees iil[le] mekely dourc, 

Besechinge hym to haue compassioura, 464 

Of worfines & also of manhede, 

Liche as a kny^t for to taken hede 

How j)ei were lefte but of peple bare, 

Besechinge him his dredful swerd to spare, 468 

And his rancour & his Ire leve, 

List ]>e slau^ter wolde hem alle greve, 

And on ]?e comourc J>ei besou3t him rewe. 

Qwod Eriea*, " is he nat vntrewe 1 ? 472 

Is he nat double, traitour, & eke fals, 

Worjji to bene honged by j>e hals, 

Of al deceit & of fraude welle, 

Amonge no comouw wor)>i for to dwelle? 476 

Hath he nat be chef occasion?* 

Of ^oure vndoynge & destrucciouw 1 

And of newe, J>is serpent which her goth, 

Vndisservid made J?e Grekis wroth 480 

Ageyn[e]s me, by false collusioura, 

And myn exile conspired fro )?e touw, 

Whiche may nat be repellid* nor wz'tMrawe ! 

But with my swerd first he shal be slawe, 484 

Jjat his falshede may finally be daiuztid, 

453. For] But D 1. 456. slen] om. D 1. 

462. a-twen] bitwene D 1 hym witA-holde] gan biholde D 1. 

466. as] om. D 1. 471. comovm] comouws D 1. 

474. honged] Enhongid A. 483. repellid] replied C. 

BK. v] Antenor's ill deeds. He is banisht, and sails away. 787 

as he ha|> me traitourly supplau/ztid, 
|3e Grekis mevyng, fer oute of pis He, 
By his engyn me, pleinly, to exile, 488 

"Where-as I caste, aif it myat haue be, "when i 

_. J * wanted to 

IJope in loie and in aduersite live among 


To haue had my part, what[-so] had[de] falle, 

Duringe my lyf, her amonge $ou alle. 492 

But he, poru$ whom al is wrowge & kourbid, 

Of my desire hath pe fyn perturbid, 

Whiche in myn herte abide)) alwey grene. 

Was he nat cause eke pat Pollicene 496 He was the 

cause of the 

1-slawe was at Achilles graue i murder of 

Polyxena ; 

And for al pis, $it $e wolde hym save ! . and tho you'd 

But outterly per shal no mene geyne, 

Who-so-euere per ageyn[e]s pleyne, 500 

J)at he, whos hert al tresouw hap compiled, 

Perpetuelly shal now ben exiled he must be 


Oute of pis tourc per shal hit no mm* lette ! " 

And by assent pei his tyme sette, 504 

Whiche he shold for no rauwsom passe : 

Jjis was pe fyn, he get noon oper grace. 

J?us bope fals, as broker like to broper, Tims each 

Eueryche of hem hap exiled oper, 508 traitors, 

Traitours bobe to Trove l>e cite, [leaf 137 a] Antenor and 

Eneas, con* 

}5is Anthenor & with hym eke Enee. SiiTof'tiie 

But Anthenor gan hym redy make, other - 

And in al haste hath pe see y-take 512 

With many Troian in gret apparaille. 
))e wynde was good, & he gan to saille Antenor at 

once sails off 

By many cost & many sondry yles wilh his 

It nedeth nat rehersen alle pe myles, 516 

Nor pe perelles, pleinly, whiche J?at he 

At gret meschef eskaped in pe se, 

I haue no loie per-vppon to dwelle, 

His auentures by & by to telle. 520 

But, shortly, he in a litel while ""<* *n 

comes to a 

Arived vp at a noble lie noble IIe - 

489. it] I D 1. 497. I-slawe] I slayn D 1. 

503. hit no marc] no man hit C. 512. y-take] take D 1. 

513. in] and Dl. 


788 Antenor settles in the He Corbodya, & builds a Qity there. [BK. v 

In this ile, 
builds a fine 

The kinp, 


and many 

settle in his 

city Menelon. 

Now I'll drop 
this traitor, 

and tell you 
how Cassan- 
dra foretold 
what should 
befall the 

J)at whilom was Corbodya y-called, 

Where he bilt a cite strongly walled, 524 

As writ Guy do, large, wide, & longe, 

Vp-on a roche, which * passingly [was] stronge, 

Whiche had envirouw, as myn auctowr tellis, 

Wodis, rivers, and many lusty welles, 528 

And had plente of al maner Jnng. 

And Thetides called was }>e kyng 

)?at helde in pes his scepter & his crowne, 

On whom Fortune list nat for to frowne, 532 

But fauourable fully to his wille, 

Conseruynge hym in pes & [in] tranquille, 

W^'t/^-oute trouble many [a] day a-for, 

To whom accepted was })is Anthenor, 536 

And ri^t welcome, as J>e story seith, 

And vn-to hym confederat by feith, 

Fully assured, be-cam * his lige man, 

Whom Thetides in al }>at euere he can, 540 

ftis worfi kyng, dide magnefie. 

And from Troye gret now^bre of his allie 

J?er cam in soth to visite hym and se, 

And tenhabite )>is my^ti stronge cite, 544 

Ful coriously bilt of lym and stoon, 

In Julke daies called Menelou, 

To whiche he dide gret riches acroche 

Be-side J>e se set vp-on a roche 548 

And besi was wt't/i plente it tastore. 

Of J)is traitour what shuld I write more ? 

With his name my penne is so accloyed, 

By whos falshed Troye was distroied, 552 

As in pe story 30 haue rad & seyn. 

But now most I pleinly resort ageyn, 

And to reherse do my besi cure, 

How Cassandra told ei\ery auenture 556 

Jjat to J>e Grekis after shuld [e] falle ; 

And how ]>at she told amonge hem alle, [W 138 a] 

523 whilom] so?/tme tyme D 1. 

524. walled] y walled D 1. 526. which] of stoon C. 

533. to] at D 1. 539. be-cam] he cam C. 

544. >is] his A. 547. acroche] approche Dl. 

549. tastore] to store D 1. 557. >e] om. A, D 1. 

Ajax leaves '2 Sons. Menelaus & Agamemnon sail for home. 789 

As she J?at was prudent & vertuous, , 

)5at traitourly wet/i-Inne his owne hous 

Agamenoura shulde mordrid be : 

j?at fatal ende for no Jjing my^t he fle. 

Lat hym be war, & prudently prouide ; 

For in ])is lyf he shal nat longe abide, 

Ageyn his fate was noon o]>er red. 

Eke Guydo writ, whan Thelamoura was ded 

By fals mordre (as 30 han herd to-forn), 

Two sonis he had of sondri wyves born, 

J5at wer comitted to be [in] kepynge 

With worjri Theutre, a ful manly kyng, 

feat norisshed hem, Jje stori seith for so}>e, 

Til J?ei after were worpi kny^tes bo}>e : 

fie ton of hem called Anthenicus, 

And fe tofer hi^t Antyssacus, 

Of shap ful semly & wonder fair of face. 

And shortly here Guydo doth for)>e pase, 

And list of hem no lenge?* processe make, 

But bringe}) in, how Menelay ha)> take 

His leue of Grekis, with Agamenourc, 

Eueryche to saille to his regiouw, 

With many a Greke in her companye. 

And jjou} Grekis first gan hern denye, 

At J?e last with instaurcce and peyne 

)pei had leue to seille boj?e tweyne. 

And to J>e se pel faste gan hem hi^e, 

Mid of autu??zpne,* whiche is cold & drye, 

Melencolyk of complecciourc, 

Whan Phebus is passed pe Lyouw, 

)5e heuenly beste, fe beste moste royal, 

And half y-rowne pe signe virginal, 

Whiche after somer is naked & bareyn, 

Whan Ceres hath ful riped euery greyne, 

)?e tyme of 3ere ful strauwge & [ful] diuers, 

And sondri floures, rede, white,* & pers, 



ObU the murder of 


Ajax leaves 

568 two sons, 

brings up, 





and Antis- 

Menelaus and 

584 sail off, 

each to hi 
home, in 



592 at harvest- 

561. shulde mordrid] mordred shulde Dl. 
573. called] was called D 1. 576. here] as D 1 for be] for A. 
580. 2nd to] in D 1. 586. autwnpne] autumpnus C. 
594. rede white] white red C. 

790 A Tempest brings Disaster to the Greek Ships. [BK. v 

when flowers 

when fevers 

when winds 

and folk pray 
to Bacchus 
that no 
storms and 
frost may 
come and 
spoil their 

Then the sea 
is rough 

and perilous. 

fie whiche in May so lusti wern & glade, 

Vp-on her stalk e gynne droupe & fade, 596 

And enclyne her freshe lusty cheris 

At goynge oute of )>e caniculeris, 

Whan wykked humowrs inwardly habouwde, 

With sodeyn fevere folkis to confouwde, 6'00 

To maken hem in an accesse shake ; 

And of custom wyndes gynne wake, 

BoJ?e bowe & leef causing for to falle, 

On )>e tyme whan folk to Bachus calle 604 

From storme & reyn her grapis to cowserue, 

))at hidous tempest make hem nat to sterue, 

Nor no duresse of freiinge of no frost, [leaf iss&j 

Where-poru} ful ofte moche fruit is lost, 608 

And also eke with J?ondriuge & with levene, 

Whiche vnwarly sniyte fro J>e heuene, 

fie se ful ofte with swiche wedris kene 

Boilyng vp with many wawes grene, 612 

Koringe & row^e, & froward to manace, 

And passingly perlous by to passe, 

Al-be ]>at it be blandyssinge a while, 

fie dredful calm, Jjou} it be smojje & smile, 616 

J)er is no trust ]?at it will long abide. 

The Greeks 

have 3 days 
fine weather. 

Off A grete tempest of thonder & lytenynge that 
came to the nauye of Greeke-s, that brente and 
drowned .ccxxij. of their Shippes. 1 

Eecorde of Grekis, ]>at swiche a lusty tide 

fie se ban take & be-gan to saille 

With al her stuf and her apparaille 620 

Home in-to Grece, ful many lusti man, 

With al J>e gold & tresour pat ]>ei wan 

At J>e sege, and infinit richesse. 

And daies )>re, devoide of al distresse, 624 

fie se obeyed* fully to her wille, 

598. goynge] >e goinge D 1. 607. duresse] during D 1. 
612. Boilyng] Is boilinge D 1. 

614. perlous] perillous A, D 1. 616. smile] file D 1. 
618. of] on D 1. 625. obeyed] obreide C. 

1 Royal MS. 18 D. ii. leaf 135 b (misplaced after line 620). 

BK. v] Disaster to the Greek Ships. Minerva's Vengeance. 791 

Devoid e of trouble and of wedris ille : 
For )>ei [ful] lusti wit/i-Inne shippes bord, 
j)e foure wyndes beinge of accord 
Hem to conveie to euery mane?- cost. 
Bnt gladly euere whan men trustfe] most 
Vn-to Fortune to stonden in her grace, 
She sodeinly change can her face, 
Smyle a-forn & mowen at J?e bak ; 
For she vnwarly turned al to wrak, 
J)is chauwteresse & pis stormy quene : 
For whan Grekis effectuously best wene 
In her passage fully assured be 
Vp-on j>e se J>at called was Egee, 
)5is false goddesse he[m] anoon forsoke ; 
And Boreas, ]?e felle wynde, a-woke, 
And vfith his hidous dredful noise & soun 
He turned al her quiete vp-so-douw, 
And made J?e wowes grisly to arise. 
And, as }>e story shortly doth deuyse, 
]?e bri^t[e] day was turned in-to ny^t, 
})e heuene dirk, except J?e dredful li$t 
Of IpQ leuene, whiche made hem sore agast ; 
And ]>Q pondre, fat seuerede sell & mast, 
Her toppes smet in-to peces smale, 
And in-to water made hem lowe a vale ; 
And fir of li^tnynge sodeinly fere-wij?, 
)?at Wolcanus forgeth* on his stith, 
Hath bord fro bord with ]>e flawme rent, 
And two & twenti of her shipes brent, 
Wi]>-oute eschape, platly, or refuge, 
))oru3 )>e rage of Jus fel deluge. 
For al to wrak pis woful navie goth, 
Whilom with Grekes Minerva was so wroth, 
For J?ei dide hir no reuerence ; 
And specially for )>e grete offence 
j?at spitfully Cylleus Aiax wrou^t, 

The Greeks 
on shipboard 
628 think they're 
all right; 

but Fortune 
changes her 

632 face - 


640 The wind 
rages j 


the day turns 


fires the 

652 8hi P s ; 

[leaflSSc] 656 

22 are burnt. 

Minerva is 
wroth at 
Oileus Ajax's 

660 her - 

636. new II A. 637. passage] passyng A. 

646. dirk] dirked D 1. 652. forgeth] forged C. 

658. Whilom] Somme D 1. 

659. hir] to hir D 1. 

792 Minerva's Vengeance for Oileus Ajax's despite of her. [BK. v 

Ajax ha to 
swim ashore, 

and is near 
death : 

Minerva is so 
angry with 
him for 
at her altar. 

For his pre- 
many Greeks 

and others 

both high 
and low. 

Whiche in pis tempest he ful dere abou^t : 

For whan [h]is shippes wer almost [y-]drowned, 

Jjis goddesse hap so on him* frowned, 664 

And of vengauttce so felly hym awaked, 

)3at he was fayn for to swyrame naked, 

As seith myn auctowr, at meschef to pe loud. 

And per he was fonden on )>e sonde, 668 

Al-most at deth, wet/i-oute remedie, 

To hym Minerva hath so gret envie ; 

For he so woodly to hir temple went, 

And Cassandra to-fore hir auter hent 672 

By cruel force & hatful violence. 

Lo, what pereil is to don offence 

Of hi^e dispit to any hooly place ! 

I doute nat, he shal faile grace, 676 

Who-so-euere vseth * hit in dede, 

At pe last God wil quyte his mede 

[And] Rewarde hym lyk as he disserveth. 

And for swiche ping many Greke now* stervep, 680 

Be-cause only of swiche occasions, 

Texemplefie, for no presm^pciourc 

Folily tatame, as I haue tolde : 

For ageyn God who-so be to bolde 684 

Shal repent sonner pan he weneth ; 

And many man pat noon harme [ne] meneth 

Suffrep vengance for trespas of oon ; 

})e first auctor goth not quite allone, 688 

But many oper his offence abeith. 

For ceriously Guydo writ & seith, 

Suynge in ordre }>e woful auenture 

Jjat euery Greke homward did endure, 692 

Of hi3e and lowe sparinge noon estat : 

How some welful & some infortunat, 

Bojje of her wo & [of] her welfare, 

as it fil pe stori shal declare. 696 


662. abou^t] bou$t D 1. 663. shippes wer] ship was D 1. 

664. him] hem C frowned] y frowned D 1. 

677. vseth] vsed C, vse A. 680. now] ]>er C, om, D 1. 

682. Texemplefie] The exemplifie D 1 for] of D 1. 

684. to] so D 1. 686. meneth] wenyth A. 

694. 1st some] sowme werew D 1. 

695. the 2nd of is repeated in D 1. 

BK. v] Of Palamedes, & the Trouble that, rose from his Murder. 793 

How Kyng Naulus by treason was caused to sett 
vpon the Grekes nauye, & draue pern vppon 
Kokkes. 1 

In Grece whilom was a wor])i kyng, 
Manly & riche, & prudent of living, 
And had, in soth, lik as writ Guydo, 
In his tyme worpi sonys two : 
Pallamydes was pe eldest broker, 
And Oetes called was pe toper, 
Bope tweyne of o moder borne. 
And as pe stori rehersed hath to-forne, 
Pallamydes was a noble kny^t, 
Ful famous eke of power & of myjt, 
And fer spoke of in many sondri cost, 
And hadde also of al pe Grekis host 
For his wisdam whilom goue?'naille ; 
But he, alias ! was slay[e]n in bataille, 
J3oru$ vnhap of Martis cruel tene, 
Whawne pe sonne shon most bri$t & shene 
Of his kny^thod & his worpines, 
Lik as to-forn pe stori bereth witnes, 
And of his deth doth pleinly specefie. 
But now, of malys, hatrede, & en vie, 

J ' 

Of swiche as haue tonges infortunat, 

To make [only] kyng Naulus at debat 

With* )>e Grekes, contrived was* of newe 

An hi^e tresou?z, fals & ful vntrewe, 

))e whiche, in soth, was neuer don ne wrou^t, 

Nor, in effect,* ymagined nor j>ou$t, 

But a fals ping [y-]feyned of malis : 

)5at pis kyng, so manly & so wys, 

And so prudent, pis Pallamydes, 

Shuld of envie, God wot, causeles, 

At pe sege of Troye pe cite, 



708 once chief ot 


716 Mischief- 

makers, who 

wish to set 



that hi8 8on 

697. whilo?tt] som tyme D 1. 704. rehersed J rehersith A. 
709. whilom] sowityme D 1. 710. was slayen] slayne was D 1. 
714. to-forn he stori] J>e storie to forne D 1. 
719. With] Whiche C was] ha?t C. 720. ful] om. D 1. 
722. effect] enfect C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 135 d. 

794 K. Naulus is told a false Story of the Murder of Palamedes. 

was murderd 

by Ulysses 
and Diomede, 

and that 
the Greeks 
to it, 

(although, in 
truth, it was 
all a lie) 

and that 

was bribed by 
the Trojans 

to destroy 
tlie Greeks. 

To make 
their story 
appear more 

Vp-on a ny^t falsly mordred be, 728 

So pat pis slau^ter & pis lothsom dede 

By Vlixes & by Dyomede 

Wer fully wrou^t, as 30 han herd deuise, 

Whiche euery hert ou$t[e] to a-grise. 732 

j^is fals also, pat pis tale han feyned, 

To kyng Naulus han traitourly compleined 

Al-be in dede it was neuere ment 

J)at Grekis wern also of* assent 736 

To pis mordre and conspiraciou/z, 

Bope Menelay and Agamenouft 

Al-be, in soth, pat euerydel was false ! 

)?at hanged be pei hi^e be pe halse, 740 

)}at can talis so forgen & contrive, 

To make frendes causeles to strive ! 

For pei poru$ fraude of fals collusiou?* 

Kyng Naulus putte in suspeciouw, 744 

}5at Grekis had conspired, dout[e]les, 

Vp-on pe mordre of Pallamydes, 

Making her grouwd, whiche pei dide feyne, 

)3at fro Troye wer sent lettris tweyne 748 

To Pallamydes, in-mediately direct, 

Whiche concluded tresou^ in effect : 

How pat he was, for al his hi^e estat, 

Falsly allied and confederat 752 

To hem of Troye for a somme of gold, 

(Al pis pei* han feyned and y-told) [leaf is9a] 

And how he had oute of pe cite 

Of gold resseyved huge quantite, 756 

To fyn only Grekes to be-traye, 

And to prolongs hem, platly, and delay 

At pe sege in getynge of pe touw, 

By his engyn and mediacioura. 760 

And to conferme al pis in sentence, 

To make Naulus $eue* ful credence, 

)?ei seide pleinly, in conclusion?^ 

733. his fals] hese false tonges D 1. 

736. also of] alle of oon 0. After 744 D 1 repeats 738, 39. 

1 50. concluded] concludyng A. 

754. Al his hei] As hei hat C. 756. gold] good A. 

762. jeue] to $eue C. 

BK.,V] The Liars say that Palamedes was bribed by Trojans. 795 

Jpe lettres which* wer sent fro )>e toun 

I-fonde wern enclosed in a sheld 

Vp-on a kny^t y-slawen in )>e feld, 

Comprehendynge hool )>e trecherie, 

fee tresourc ful, and confederacie 

Atwene j?e toun and Pallamydes, 

Verraily, pou^ he were gilt[e]les. 

And to 3euen more open euydence, 

To make a pref of pis grete offence, 

)5ei seide Ylixes affermynge in certeyn, 

Accorded was with a chaumberleyn 

)3at was in offis with Pallamydes, 

Wondre secre & no Jnng rekkeles, 

For to assent to ]>is conspiracie, 

Wrongly compassid of bre?myrag hot envie, 

Behotynge hym guerdoiw & gret mede, 

Like his devis texecute in dede : 

To take a tresour & a so?rame of good, 

Ful secrely, & knyt it in an hood, 

And hyden it, whan voided was J>e pres, 

Vnder }>e bedde of Pallamydes. 

And more to putte Grekis in surete, 

)?e tresour was }>e same of quantite, 

jjat it ne my^t after be denyed, 

Liche as J>e lettris hadfde] specified. 

And whan al Jns fourade was & knowe, 

J3oru$-oute j?e hoste noised & y-blowe, 

Bo)>e of ]>Q lettris & J?e gold also, 

Fro point to point according bojje two, 

Whiche Jjat J)is kyng, assentyng to tresouw, 

Receyved hadde oute of Troye toun, 

To be assentid (as 30 han herd me telle), 

)5e Grekes ]>o no lenger wold[e] dwelle, 

But shop hem forpe, alle of on entent, 

And in al haste cam in-to pe tent 

Of pis kyng, ful Innocent & clene, 

put litel knewe what }>ei wolde mene, 

764. which] with fat C. 

765. I-fonde] Enclosed D 1 enclosed] & closed D 1. 

766. y-slawen] slaweit D 1. 777. )ns] his D 1. 
790. y-blowe] blowe D 1. 798. in-to] vnto A, D 1. 






the liars tell 
Naulus that 
letters from 
the Trojans 
to Palamedes 
were dis- 
covered in 
the shield of 
a dead 

and that 


bribed a man 

to hide 
under the bed 
of Pala- 

of the same 
value as the 
Trojan letiers 

This report 






796 the Greeks 
rusht to 


7 96 Naulus is told that Palamedes offered to fight his Accusers. [BK. v 

to take 
on him, 

Menelaus and 
being eager 
for it. 

But Pala- 
medes, bold 
as a lion, 

said he'd 

his accuser 

who brought 
the false 
against him. 

But vp-on hyni, fill kny^tly as he stood, 

In her Ire furious and wood, 

To be vengid loude gan to crie 

))er may no man her malys modefie, 

))ei wern on hym so merciles at al. 

And, as I fynde, most in special, 

Kyng Menelay and Agamenovw, 

Only meved of indignaciouw, 

Wolde haue preceded vn-to lugement, 

Of hasty rancour w?'t7i-oute auysement 

On pis tresourc avenged for to be, 

Nat-wtft-stondynge al his hi^e degre ; 

But, in sothnes, whan pis worpi kyng 

Conceyued hath pis malis in werkyng, 

First astonid in his inward si^t, 

Al sodeynly stirt vp lik a kny$t, 

))is wyse worpi, pis Pallamydes, 

Hardy as lyourc amyd al )>e pres, 

No ping agast, him kny^tly gan excuse, 

And pleinly seide he wolde nat refuse 

Taquite hym silf of pis orrible cas, 

N"at excepting pat he so worpi was 

Of birpe & blood & of hi$e kynrede, 

Al pis devoidinge, of kny^thod & manhede, 

As he pat gaf of lif nor deth no fors, 

To-forn hem alle to iuparte his cors 

WWi-Inne a feld, wher hem list ordeyne, 

Lyk as a kny^t his quarel to darreyne 

With who J?at list or durst it vndirtake, 

Excepciouw hym liked* noon to make 

Of hi^e nor lowe, who pat were so bolde 

To preue )>e tresouw, pat I haue $ow tolde, 

Besechinge hem to make no delay 

Nor prolonge hym, but pe same day 

Manly requeringe it may be don in hast. 

But pei pat had falsly pis ping* compast, 

[leaf 139 6] 










802. furious] furyously A, fill furious Dl. 

811. to] to haue A. 818. as] as a A. 821. of] in A. 

828. his] >is D 1. 830. liked] liketh C. 

836. falsly pis Jnng] >is bing falsly C. 

BK. v] The false Tale to Naulus ahoid the Murder of Palamedes. 797 

Of his answer astonyd wern eclion 

In al )>e host pat per was nat oon 

J)at hardy was, $if I shal nat feyiie, 

In chaumclos pis quarel to darreyne 840 

Nouper Vlixes, nouper Dyomede, 

Chef werkers of J)is foule dede. 

But Vlixes, as he was customable, 

In euery jring to be deceyuable, 844 

Double in his werk & ful ay of deceit, 

Liche a serpent pat lyth in a-wait, 

Whiche vnder floures can * so glide & trace, 

Ri$t so Vlixes, with a feyned face, 848 

Whan fat he sawe j>e kny^tly hi;e prowesse, 

J)e manly cher, and pe hardynesse 

And hi3e renoura of pis Pallamydes, 

Anoon of falshede put hym silf in pres, [leaf 139 c] 852 

And liche a frende pat ment[e] nat but wel, 

Brotel as glas, p?'etendinge outward stel, 

With oon pe first gan [him] to excuse, 

Hem conseillinge no lenger for to muse 856 

On pis mater, for her alder ese, 

And by craft gan hem so appese, 

Touching pe rumow?' of pis hi$e tresouw, 

)5at he hath voided al suspeciowa 860 

Oute of her hertis, co?icludynge, in certeyn, 

)3is accusynge made was in veyn, 

And conspired only of hatrede 

Al-be hym silf was rote of al |>is dede. 864 

But whawne he saw he my$t[e] nat acheve, 

As 30 han herd, pis worj>i kyng to greue, 

Som spot of tresourc on hym for to leye, 

He hath anon fouwde ano)>er weye 868 

By thassent fully of Diomede : 

Vnder pretence, pleinly, of frendlyhede 

Comynge to hym ageyn a certeyn ny$t, 

Vnder surance, as he was trewe kny^t, 872 

Couraseil to kepe, oujjer for sote or sour, 

Enformyng hym of a grete tresour 

No one would 
take up 

So Ulysses, 
deceiver ever 

the Greeks 
that the 

of Palamedes 
was false. 

But, with 
he went to 


845. ful ay] ay ful D 1. 
858. hem] oni. D 1. 

847. can] ga?i C. 

798 The false Tale to Naulus about the Murder of Palamedes. [BK. V 

and told liim 
that a lot of 
treasure was 

hid in a well 

The three 
went to the 

got into it, 

and Ulysses 
and Diomede 
cast stones 
on him, 
and murderd 

This is the' 
lying story 
told to King 

was really 
slain by Paris 
(p. 604, 

Of gold & good and iufinit richesse 

To hem discured vnder secrenesso, 

)2e whiche, sothly, no man dide knowe, 

Hid & enclosid in a welle lowe 

Witft-Inne a feld a litel f er be-side, 

fte whiche hem list fro hym nat * to hyde, 

But of trust vn-to hym discure, 

So he wolde done his besy cure 

)3e same ny^t with hem for to go 

Vn-to fe welle fei fre & no mo 

To fet a- way fat grete some of good. 

And he, in soth, fat no fing vndirstood 

What fei ment, assentid was anoon ; 

And so fei fre be to-gidre goon 

Vn-to f e welle, lik as I haue told, 

And for fat he most manly was & bold, 

Pallamydes, liche as fei hym telle, 

Descended is lowe in-to fe welle, 

Supposinge to haue a tresour fouwde. 

But fei, alias ! hym falsly to confouwde, 

Han mordrid hym with stonys gret & huge, 

He in f e botme havynge no refuge ; 

And whan fei had acomplished fer entent, 

ftei be repeired eueryche to his tent. 

)}is f e tale, f e stori telleth vs, 

jpat feyned was to fe kyng Naulus, 

Tochinge f e deth of Pallamydes, 

Hem to disclaundre fat were gilt[e]les ! 

For Vlixes, & with hym Diomede 

Were Innocent, platly, as I rede, 

And Grekis alle, bof e ny^e & ferre : 

For he was slayn kny^tly in fe werre, 

Duringe f e sege, of Paris with an arwe. 

But who is fals, feyne can ful narwe 

To fynde a tale fat neuere $it was f oi^t ! 

And of f e tresoura fat shuld haue be wroi^t 

[leaf 139 d] 










880. f>e whiche] Though A fro hym nat] nat fro hym C. 
885. >at] >e D 1. 898. eueryche] eche D 1. 
899. new IT A. 903. with hym] also D 1. 
910. ]>e] om. D 1. 

BK. v] How King Naulus wrecks 200 of the Greek Ships. 799 

Touchynge J?e lettris sent oute of }>e touw, 

Ji?er was no swiche conspiracioura 

By Grekis vvrou^t, but a fable vnsoth, 

Falsly feyned to make Naulus wroth 

With Vlixes and Diomede also, 

Agamenoun, and o)>er Grekis mo, 

To letten hem homward in her weye, 

And hyndre also per is no more to seie 

As J?ei repeire to her regiou?zs. 

And Naulus Jjarme by ]ns occasiouws, 

And Oetes his sone, a manly man, 

Accorded ben, in what J?ei may or can, 

Be oon assent tavenge merciles 

)3e cruel mordre of Pallamydes, 

And to ordeyne at her horn passage 

To werke fully in-to her damage, 

For Grekes moste of necessite 

Homward saille for-by his contre. 

Wherfore * pis kyng shapen hath a wyle : 

On hilles hi$e, by a lytel yle, 

In wynter sesoura euery maner ny$t 

To make fires and to sette vp ly^t, 

To causen hem on J>e se to erre. 

For, as Grekis savve pe fire a-ferre, 

Vnwar of harrne, cast hem for to londe, 

As pei pat coude no pereil vndirstonde, 

But shopen hem -with al her ful[le] my^t 

For to arive fast[e] by pe li^t, 

Wher-wit/i two hundrid of her shippes brak 

Amonge rokkes, and fully go to wrak, 

J^at per was drowned many worpi man. 

And pus pe vengauwce alderfirst be-gan 

)?at kyng Naulus hath on Grekis take 

Of dedly hate for his sonis sake, 

To gret mischef and confusioun 

Of Grekis navie ; but Agamenoun 

917. letten] settyn A. 920. Jns] the A. 

923. tavenge] to venge D 1. 927. Grekes] Greky D 2. 

929. Wherfore] ferfore C. 

935. Vnwar of harme] Vnharme vnware D 1. 

937. shopeii] shopem for>e D 1. 938. >e] that A. 

912 This false 
story was 
told to make 

916 hinder the 

920 "So he and 

his younger 
son Oetes 


have fires 
lighted on an 
{land's hills, 

which the 

Greeks muke 




and 200 of 

their ships 

940 getwreckt. 


800 Oetes writes a lying Letter to Agamemnon's wife. [BK. v 

Many Greek 
nobles are 

Then Oetes, 

to annoy 



writes to his 
y wife, Cly- 

that her 

has wedded 
a daughter 
of Priam, 

and means 

With gret pereil is }>e deth eskaped, 

)3at had almost among hem be beiapid : 948 

For erlys, dukis, & worjn kynges crowned, 
feoru^ ]?is treyne in }>e se wer drowned. [leaf no ] 
But Menelay and also Diomede 

Eskapeden pis meschef, as I rede. 9j52 

And when )>ei wern from al dauwger goon, 
feis Oetes, wood for Ire, anoon 
In his herte shope anofer wyle, 

And ]>ou$t he wold Agamenoiw be-gyle, 956 

Compassinge a ful mortal strif, 
Leet send a lettre anon to J?e wyf 
Of pis my^ti grete Agamenouw, 

In whiche J>er was included fals tresoim ; 960 

For evene lik, }if I shal nat lye, 
feus in effect pei dide specefie : 
First, how hir lord Agamenouw J?e kyng 
Hadde at pe sege wrou^t a wonder J>ing 964 

In preiudyse and sclauwder of hir name, 
Al-be in hir was no maner blame, 
(Liche as he wrot) platly, nor trespace 
His kyngly honour of foly to difface ; 968 

ftis to seyn, Guy do telleth ]ms, 
He loued a doubter of kyng Priamws, 
And for bewte had hir to wyve take, 
And hir in herte finally for-sake, 972 

J?is worj>i quene, whilom of so gret fame ; 
And Clemestra sothly was hir name, 
Wonder semly and ri$t fair wM-al, 

And be descent borne of J>e stook royal, 976 

Hir tellynge eke, for al hir excellence, 
Al-be J?at she neuere dide offence, 
3et hir lord of newfangilnesse 

Toke ano)>er, ))e lettres dide expresse, 980 

Fully in purpos anoon at his repeire, 
Clemestra wer bo]?e good & fayre, 

950. bis] his D 2. 952. Eskapeden] Escapen D 1. 

961. I] it D 1. 962. >ei] it D 1. 965. hir] his D 

969. pis] >is is D 1 >us] vs D 1. 

973. whilo?/i] somtyme D 1 so] om. D 1 . 

976. stook] bloode D 1. 

BK. v] Agamemnon s wife believes the false Accusal of him. 801 

Al sodeynly hir[e] to exile 
Oute of his lond many pousand rnyle, 
Warnyng hir pat she be prudent. 
Jpis was pe substauwce, as in sentament, 
)?at Oetes wrote vn-to pis quene, 
Al-be pe kyng was Innocent & clene, 
And was to hir in al his forn lyvynge 
Lovynge and trewe in al maner ping, 
And hir to plese passinge ententif 
In word and dede duryng al his lyf, 
As fer as ou^t of resourc be desyred. 
But pe letteris, pat falsly were conspired, 
)3ei han hir put, par cas of Innocence, 
For to ^even to hastily credence, 
j?ankynge first Oetes for his troupe, 
)3at so goodly hym list to haue roupe 
Vp-on hir wronge of hi$e compassiou?z. 
(And $et pe story makep menciowe 
Here-after ward, as I shal descrive, 
])at she was pe falsest oon alyve 
Vn-to hir lord in his longe absence.) 
And in al hast she made strong diffence 
Ageyn pis kyng, & gan hir to purueie 
Be swiche fraude pat she shal nat deie ; 
But of hir werk, in soth, she was to wyte, 
]5e whiche, alias ! I must anoon endite, 
As pe story, platly, doth me lere, 
Whiche doolf ul is & mortal for to here ! 

[leaf 140 6] 






to banish his 
first wife. 

This letter, 
non's wife 

(tho she was 
false to him), 

1004 and plans to 
thwart him. 


It is a dolefu 

How kynge Agamenon, by treason of Oetes afore- 
saide, by his owne quene Clemestra was slayne 
in his bedde; and how she marled Egistus. 1 

Ovnsur trust of al worldly glorie, 
With sodeyn chauwge put oute of memorie ! 1012 
loie vnstable of veyn ambiciourc, 

984. his] this A many] many a D 1. 989. forn] for A. 
994. >e] >is letteris] lettre were] was D 1. 
996. hastily] hasty A. 1003. in] and in A. 
1004. strong] a strong A. 

1006. shal] om. D 1 nat] nat ne D 2, not ne D 1. 
1010, doolful] wooful D 1. 
i Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 1376. Clemestra] Chemestra. 

802 The Unstdbleness of Fortune instanst by Agamemnon. [BK. v 

Fame is over- 
whelmd in a 

Fortune is 

When a man 

is highest, 

he shall be 
cast down. 

the mighty 

who was 
murderd ! 

God, why 

wilt Thou 

not punish 

the Murder 
of a King? 

With vnwar torn reuersed vp-so-douw ! 

ydel fame, bio we up to )>e skye, 

Ouer-whelmyd with twyncliwg of an eye ! 1016 

pompe, o bost of tryuraphe & victorie, 

Liche a shadewe wast & transitorie ! 

Fortune, fals and vnassured, 

|3at [to] no man was neuer fully lured, 1020 

To hi^e nor lowe of no maner estat, 

With bond of f eith to be confederat ; 

Ageyn whos my^t no man may him diffende, 

But at his torne fat he shal descende 1024 

Whan he sit hi^est on fin vnstable whele, 

)}i brotel fauour, forgid not of stele, 

Meynt and allaied with mutabilite : 

For welfulnesse and fals felicite 1028 

With sodeyn swi$ froward f ou canst avale ! 

Now freshe of chere, now for anger pale, 

Of hi^e disdeyn J>ou sparest no degre ; 

For princes, dukes, nicest in her se, 1032 

Mi^ti kynges & worpi Emperours 

J)at richest regne in her royal floures, 

With sceptre & crowne fou canst pulle dourc ! 

1 take witnesse of Agamenourc, 1036 
})at was so noble & my^ti in his lyve, 

As sondry auctowrs his hi^e renou?i discrive ; 

But, sothfastly, for al his excellence, 

He my^tfe] nat make no diffence, 1040 

With alle }>e kynges )?at his baner swe, 

Conspired mordre to voiden & eschewe. 

Reskus was noon pat he koude make ! 

For whiche, alias ! my penne I fele quake, 1044 

j)at doth myn ynke blotten on my boke. 

my3ti God, fat with fin inward loke 

Sest eue?*y f ing f oru$ fin eternal iny^t, 

Whi wiltow nat of equite and ri^t [leaf HO c] 1048 

Punishe & chastise so horrible a ping, 

And specialy fe mordre of a kyng 1 

1019. fals and] alias and euere D 1. 1020. to] om. A. 
1025. hi^est] first D 1. 1040. nat] om. D 1. 
1046. inward] ei^en D 1. 

The Sin of murdering a King. Agamemnon lands at Home. 803 

Alias ! pe peyne of Yxyouw in helle, 
Or of Manes pat with Sathan dwelle, 
Were nat egal nor equipolent 
To venge mordre, nor sufficient : 
For it excedeth in comparisons 
Al felonye, falshede, and tresoiw. 
Wherfor, o Lord, pat sest & knowest al 
J^oru} )>i power pat is eternal, 
Suffre now swiche to live vp-on }>e grouwde- 
Wers pan tigre or Cerberus pe houwde, 
)3at cheyned lyth, bouwde at helle gate ; 
Whiche, of malis pleinly pou$ he hate, 
He berkep first or he do offence : 
But mordre gladly is wrou^t in silence 
Or men aduerte or taken any kepe. 
Alias ! a prince to slen hym in his slepe, 
On his pilwe whawne he slepeth softe, 
))at crieth wreche to 11136 God alofte 
And axe]? vengaurcce to be take as faste : 
J)ou$ it abide it wil oute at pe laste ! 
Alias ! a kyng, spoken of so ferre, 
})at was so worpi outeward in pe werre ! 
His cruel fate, passinge odious, 
Disposed hath in his owne hous 
His mortal ende to ben execute, 
Ageyn[e]s whiche per was no refute. 
For ri$t as he his ship to lond[e] sette, 
j)e quene Clemestra on pe strond [him] met 
With humble chere & loke f ul benigne, 
And shewed oute many feithful signe 
Of winy troupe in hir couratenauwce, 
Al-be in herte per was variauwce, 
Nat parceived pleinly in her face. 
Whom pe kyng goodly dide embrace, 
As he in soth pat but troupe ment ; 
And to his paleis pe hi^e weie he went, 

No punish- 
ment is great 
1052 enuffor 


suffer not 




To slay a 
King asleep 

1068 cries to God 
for venge- 





Yet renowned 
is to be done 
to death in 
his own 
house ! 

When he 
his queen 
greets him, 

and they go to 
their palace. 

1059. >e] this A. 1060. Wers] For wers D 1. 
1076. whiche] be wiche D 1. 
1080. many] ful many A, many a D 1. 
1082 is misplaced at bottom of column A. 

non's wife, 

804 EgistTius murders Agamemnon, and weds his Widow. [BK. v 

Nat aduerting Ipe tresouw ]>at was shape, j 

)?e whiche, alias ! he my^tfe] nat eskape 
Of J>e falshede he koude no J>ing fele. 
But I ne may no lenger it concele, 
Ageyn hir lord how Clemestra wrou^t ; 
For on hir bond of wedlok she ne Jjou^t ; 
J?e trewe lok, sothly, of spousaille 
Ageyn hir malis lite my3t availle 
Yn-to hir lord hir troujje to conserue. 
Newfangilnesse causede to sterve 
Hir olde feith and hir assurauwce. [leaf i40d] 

Hir loue abood on a fikel chaurcce ; 
Longe absence had hir hert appalled. 
She loued oon fat was Egistus called, 
Whiche a-f orn alle in hir grace stood, 
)2at noufer was of birjie nor of blood 
Litel or nou^t of reputaciouw, 
Nor renomed of manhod nor renouw, 
Nor of kny^thod nor of hi^e prowesse, 
But for his labour & his besynesse 
And good await [vp-]on hir be ny^t. 
fterfor he was best forfered in hir si3t, 
Suche drede hadde she for to lyn allone, 
Sorweles so wel she koude grone. 
I can nat seyn what lif Jjat ]?ei ladde, 
Except ))at she by hym a dorter hadde ; 
And Erigona Guydo seith she hy3t. 
And vn-to hym Clemestra behi3t, 
Assurynge hym vp peyne of hir hed, 
He sholde regne whan hir lorde wer ded ; 
And to enhaste J)is conclusions, 
Hir wor|)i lord, kyng Agamenourc, 
Hemurderd be nextfel ny3t was* mordred & I-slayn 

Agamemnon, ^ . /.IP 

By fals Egistus : & fe quene ful fayn 

No lenger bood, J>e story can 3ou lere, 

and wedded But in al hast bei wedded wern I-f ere. 

bis widow. 

has, during 
his absence, 
lovd Egis- 


a man of no 

because be 
slept witli 

sbe disliked 
lying alone, 

and bad a 
by him. 









1092. of] on D 1. 

1102. pat nou>er].Nouthir that A Itid of] om. A. 
1107. vp-on] on D 1. 1109. lyn] leve D 1. 
1119. was] after was C. 

BK. v] Egisthus is King of Messina. Agamemnon's son Orestes. 805 

And by hir false & slei^ti compassyng Egisthus u 

Of Messene she made hym crowned kyng, 1124 of Messina? 

And putte hym ful in possessions. 

Alias ! pat synne hath domynacious 

To former wronge and abate ri^t ! 

For in }>is worlde falshed hath more my^t 1128 

Ful ofte sithe pan hap ri^twisnesse, 

And in pestat set of worpinesse. 

Lo, how pe synne of avouterye see how 

Brou$t in mordre by conspiracie ! 1 1 32 brin g 8 in 

Synne vp-on synne lynked bope tweyne,* 

And, enbracid in pe fendis cheyne, 

Perpetuelly in helle to endure ! 

Alias ! who shal hym silfe ful assure 1136 whocanfeei 

Fro cruel inordre his body to w^tMrawe, Kings are 

Whan pat kynges in her bed are slawe ? 

Whiche bringeth in alyenacious, 

By extort title fals successions ; 1140 

Jper may colour of pretense seme, 

But ful streitly God shal after deme But God . 

. , . ,, .,, , will take 

And lastly venge with due recompense vengeance. 

Intrusions brou^t in by violence, 1144 

And felly quite swiche horrible pinges 

As sodeyn slau^ter,* specially of kynges, [leaf HI a] 

Gretly to drede in euery regions. 

And, as I finde, bat Asramenouw 1148 Agamem- 

1 non's son by 

By Clemestra, pe false double quene, ciytem- 


Hadde a sone passing fair to sene, 

gracous n euery masnys s3t ; 

And Horestes pe bok seith pat he hi^t, 1152 Orestes, 

Wonder semly & but 3ong of age. 
And for gret fer in J?is mortal rage 
List he wer slayn, as it was to drede, 
Tanulle his title Jjat he nat succede, 1156 

Hym to preserue pat he wer nat shent, 
Kyng Taltibus* vrith power hap hym sent* is sent 

1124. crowned] crowne D 2, D 1. 
1133. lynked] kyndled D 1 tweyne] in tweyne C. 
1146. slau^ter] mordre C, slaughtre and A. 
1154. in] of D 2, D 1. 1156. his] the A. 
1158. Taltibus] Tartibws C sent] hent C. 

806 Agamemnon s son Orestes is safe in Crete. Diomede' s fate. [BK. v 

to King 

of Crete, 

and is 

till he can 
recover his 

But I must 
leave Aga- 
son Orestes, 

and tell you 
the adven- 
tures of 

You've heard 
how Naulus 
tried to 
hinder the 
Greeks going 
home from 
Troy (pp. 

Ful secrely oute of )>at cuntre 

Vn-to a kyng called Ydumee, 1160 

Jpat held his sceptre & his royal sete 

Ful my^tely in J>e lond of Crete. 

And Carkasis named was ]>e quene, 

j)at hadde a doubter called [eke] Clymene, 1164 

Born to ben eir of J>at regioiw. 

And, as it is made eke mencioiw, 

))is Horestes, to reknen al[le] J>ing, 

Was with ]?e quene and also with ]>e kyng 1168 

Cherisshed as wel, })e story can }ou lere, 

As Clymena hir owne doubter dere, 

And was eke kept and hadde in cherte 

Fro point to point, liche to his degre, 1172 

With attendauwce convenient & due 

To his estat, }>at euere vp-on hym sue, 

Of swiche as wern most expe?*t & sage 

To gouerne hym til he com to age, 1173 

To reioishe, $if God $af hym my^t, 

His heritage to* whiche he hadde ri^t 

By clere discent, $if happi were his chauwce. 

)}us leue I hym vnder gouernau?zce, 1180 

\)Q ^onge sone of Agamenouw. 

For I mvt make a digressions 

Fro jjis mater, and telle of* Diomede 

J)e auentures, in Guy do as I rede, 1184 

His woful fate & his peynes smerte, 

]3e whiche, alias ! he my3t[e] nat asterte, 

As is remembrid pleinly in writing, 

))at Oetes, sone of J>e rich6 kyng 1188 

Called Naulus, as 36 han herd to-forn, 

Swiche he vines in his herte haj> born 

Vn-to Grekis repeiring home fro Troye, 

Jjat his lust & his inwarde loie 1192 

Was hem to hindre, boj>e hi3e & lowe ; 

And cause whi to $ou is nat vnknowe : 

To hem he was so passing envious, [leaf HI 6] 

1166. And] om. D 1. 117(5. com] cam D2. 
1178. to] J>e 0. 1183. of] how C. 
1187. in] in his D 1. 

BK. v] OfDiomede & his wife Egra, & Oetes's ill mil to him. 807 

In wil and pou^t yliche desirous 1196 

3if he my^t, sothly pis no lees, 

\)e deth tavenge of Pallamydes, 

Liche as to-forn J>e story can deuise 

To 3011 pat ben so prudent & so wyse. 1 200 

And how Oetes now of malis wroust, Nauius's son 

. , .. , Oetes seeks 

And traitourly newe menys soust to destroy 

, , Diomede. 

3it he my^t be any maner weye 

Diomedes vnwarly distroye, 1204 

Of al pis ping I castfe] nat to faile 

Ceriously to make rehersaille. 

How quene Egra, the wyff of Dyomede, exilede hym 
when he wolde have reparyde to his owne 
kyngdam fro Troye, by the fals ymaginacyoim 
of Oetes, Palamydes brothere. 1 

In Grece was a kyngdam wyde & large, of a wide 

. J realm in 

Comunct in oon, Calydonye & Arge, 1208 Greece 

Ful abundaurat of riches and of rent, 

Of whiche pe kyng called was Pollent, Poiient is 

A worpi man & of a noble fame, 

And had a son Assandrus was his name 1212 He has a son 


And a doubter passing fair of * si^te, a "d a 

And, sothly, Egra I fynde pat she l^te. E s ra 

And for hir fader, lik as writ Guydo, 

Had no mo but pese children two, 1216 

For hem he haj> of wisdam so prouyded, 

j)is my^ti regne for to be deuided 

Atwene hem two after his disses, 

Eche vfith his part for to liven in pes, 1220 

Texcluden hem fro indigence or* nede. 

And she was wyf vn-to Diomede, who i8 the 

wife of 

Al-be to-forn )>e story of hym saide 

1198. tavenge] to venge A, D 1. 

1202. newe menys] a newe mene A. 

1204. distroye] to distroye A. D 2. 1207. new IT A, D 1. 

1211. 2nd a] om. D 2, D 1. ' 1212. was his] by D 1. 

1213. of] to C. 1219. Atwene] Bytwene D 1. 

1221. or] and C. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii leaf 138 b. 

808 Of Assandrus, the Brother-in-law of Diomede. [BK. v 

starts for 
Troy with 
his brother- 

A storm 
drives em 
to King 

He attack s 

and Assan- 

slays many 
of his men. 

)3at he whilom loued wel* Cressaide 1224 

I can nat seine wher it was doubilnesse, 
But wel wot I, Guydo bereth witnesse 
And in his book, sothly, seith non oper, 
And how Assandrus, his owne wyves broker, 1228 

Ful lusti, fresshe, & f ul of manlihede 
To Troie went wip Jris Diomede ; 
But in )>e se for-driven vp-so-doim,* 
))ei ryved vp in pe region?* 1232 

Called Boece, al discourcsolat, 
With tempest drive, wery & ful maat, 
Hem to refresshe & for non oper ping ; 
In whiche lond Thelephus was kyng. 1236 

Of whos rivaille whan he herd[e] seyn, 
In his herte he hadde hi^e disdeyn 
)3at pei wer bold to don so gret offence, 
Tentre his grourcde havinge no licence ; 1240 

And $it, in soth, pei dide no damage 
To hi^e nor lowe of no maner age, 
Nor toke nat pat rny^t disavaille 

. Vn-to pat lond, but it were vitaille, [leaf HI <?] 1244 

For whiche pei paied iustly at J>e fyn, 
For flesshe & fysshe & for bred & wyn. 
3it for al pat, of indignaciouw 

Kyng Thelephus is descended douw 1248 

With gret array, to harme hem }if he my^t ; 
And so pei gan to bikeren & to fi^t. 
And Assandrus, ful of hi^e prowesse, 
Liche a lioim his fomen gan oppresse, 1252 

And wonder kny^tly pe feld vp-on hem wan, 
And slow pat day many worpi man, 
Of hi^e corage and of manly pride. 

And whan pe kyng, whiche pat stod a-side, 1256 

Sawe his men slawe on euery part, 
Of hi^e disdeyn hent anon a dart 

1224. whilom loued wel] loued wel whilom C whilom] sometyme 

1225. wher] whe}>er D 1 was] were D 1. 

1231. vp-so-douw] vp and domt C. 

1232. f>ei] The A. 1249. he] >ei D 2. 
1253. vp-on] on A. 1257. slawe] slayn D 1. 

BK. v] Assandrus is slain. Oetes tells Lies to Diomede s wife. 809 

And cast at hym, alias, ]>e * mortal fate ! 

And percid hath foru^ mailles & plate 1260 

Of Assandrus, fat he fil doun ded, 

)5e soil aboute of his blood al red, 

His dedly wouwde so be-gan to blede. 

And wod as tigre fo cam Diomede, 

And hym to avenge bar hym lik a kny^t, 

Sle]> and kyllef , & putte hem to f e fli^t, 

And after fat swiche sorwe gan to* make 

Of kny^tly rouf e for his broker sake, 

))at he ne wist what was best to do. 

But, as I fynde, myd of al his wo, 

Fro best & foule f e dede cors to save, 

Liche his estat he lete make a graue 1272 

And buried hym after rytes olde. 

But Oetes to his sister tolde 

J)at he was slayn by fraude of Diomede, 

To fyn fat* he my^tfe] [ful] possede 

Jpe regne of Arge hool, wit/i-oute strif, 

With ]>e purpa[r]ti annexid to his wif ; 

For by his deth he my^tfe] sesouw take : 

And told [hir] eke fat she was for-sake, 

)pis faire Egra, for al hir wommanhede, 

Of hir lord called Diomede. 

All f is he told (in helle be he cheyned !). 

And, ouermore, he forged haf & feyned 1284 

How of envie Assandrus lost his lyf ; 

And how hir lord haj> take a-nof er wif, 

j)at was to hir dishonour & shame, 

And passingly gret sclauwder to hir name 1288 

In p?*eiudise doon to* hir estat. 

Al f is he tolde to make hem at debate, 

Liche as he wrot, in conclusions, 

To Clemestra of Agamenouw, 1292 

1259. fe] }>at C. 1260. mailles] maylle A &] & J>orgh D 2. 

1265. avenge] venge D 1. 1266. to )>e] vnto D 2. 

1267. sorwe gan to] a sorwe gan C. 

1272. he lete] lete do D 1. 

1276. >at] only >at C myjte ful] my^te fully D 1. 

1277-3212 are missing in D 2. 

1284. ouermore] ferj>rmore D 1. 

1289. doon] y doon A to] of C. 

King Tele- 
phus slay a 


1264 Diomede 

avenges him 
by killing 
many foes. 


He buries 

Oetes lies 
about this, 
and tells 

,-_. Egra that 
1276 Diomede 

slew Assau- 
drus by 

1280 and that he 
has forgotten 

and taken 
another wife. 

810 Diomede is banishtfrom his land, & flees from Salerne. [BK. V 

Thru Oetes's 

wife, Egra, 

to avenge 
her brother's 


from his 

goes to 

Teucer, the 
brother of 
Ajax Tela- 
mon, is king. 

But Teucer 
pursued him, 

and he had 
to flee. 

Whiche hir herte made sore greve : 

For he putte hir fully in byleve 

Of al J>e tresous, $e haue herde me told, 

)?at for Ire she wexe pale* and cold, 1296 

Vnkyndenesse so hir herte sleth, 

And hevinesse of hir broj>er deth. 

For neuer ^it, Guydo doth assure, 

No womman louede bet a creature 1300 

j}an she louede hym, in* no manere age : 

[For] First at nou^t she sette hir heritage 

In comparisons of hir broker lyf 

Lo, how Oetes made a newe strif, 1304 

As 36 han herde in fe story rede ! 

j)at gilt[e]les worfi Diomede, 

Whan he haf long at )>e sege leyn, 

And to his kyngdam wolde has corame ageyn, 1308 

By my^ti hond of bis worbi queue, 

And hir liges fat assented bene, 

He was exiled oute of fat regions, 

j)er may be made no mediacious. 1312 

})us, in hym silfe maat & dis[es]peired, 

Discoussolat he is ageyn repeired 

To Salerne, a lond of gret richesse, 

Wher fat Teuter foru^ his worfinesse 1316 

With crowne and scepter had[de] regned longe 

With his liges and his kny^tes stronge, 

And brof er was to Aiax Thelamous, 

Mordred to-forn, as made is menciouw. 1320 

And Diomede, pore and destitut, 

May in Salerne fynde no refut : 

For whan Teuter first gan hym espie, 

He suede after by ful gret envie, 1324 

Havynge to hym ay suspeciouw 

Touching f e deth of kyng Thelamous. 

But Diomede on a certeyn ny$t 

Ful secrely hath taken hym to flijt, 1328 

1293. sore] so A grevej to greve D 1. 

1296. wexe pale] pale wexe C, D 1. 

1298. broker] brotheris A, brokers D 1. 1301. in] of C. 

1305. herde] herde me D 1. 1324. after] hym A, D 1. 

BK. v] Askt by Eneas, Diomede goes to Troy to help the Trojans. 811 

And fro Salerne fast[e] gan hym hi3e 

In hope to fynde better remedie, 

Helpe or socour in som ofer place, 

}if fortune wolde graurat hym grace. 1332 

For of hym silf ashamed & confus, Diomede 


As man forsake, abiect, and refus, about, 

Ri}t so ferde he, wandring to & fro, 

As he bat nist what was best to do. 1336 not knowing 

* what to do. 

But, I fynde, J>e Troyan Eneas, Eneas is stm 

J)at al }>is while stille at Troye was, 

Only of roufe and compassions 

To supporte hem fat wer left of fe toura, 1340 

Beynge alweye of her lyf in doute, 

Of her fomen rourcde be-set aboute, [leaf 142 a] 

As f ei fat lyvede for lak of an hed 

Continuelly in meschef and in dred, 1344 

Knowynge no refut nor courafort in f is cas, 

Til by couwseil of }>is Eneas, 

To support hem in f is gret[e] nede 

)pei sent in haste for f is Diomede, 1348 and sends' for 

Diomede, I j( 

Knowynge ful wel his desolaciouw, 

How he was prescript fro his regiouw 

Besechinge hym, of marched & of rouf e, begging him 

Hym to enhaste, watA-outen any sloufe, 1352 

With al )>e stuf fat he gete can, 

And sowden vp euery manly man 

W^-oute abood & to Troie hem lede, to come to 

To socour hem in ]?is grete nede. 1356 

And Diomede cam, & tarieth nou^t, 

At her request, as he was be-sou^t, 

To releue hem in fis sharp[e] shour, 

And with hym brouit many soudiour. 1360 with many 

J J soldiers. 

And Eneas on J> e weie hym mette 

In frendely wyse, & in-to toun hym fette, 

And to hym made passingly gret chere. 

And J>er fei gan to comwne y-fere 1364 

1337. new IF A. 1340. wer left] lefte wercw D 1. 
1347. grete] om. D 1. 1354. sowden] sowde A. 
1360. many] many a D 1. 1362. in-to] in to >e D 1. 
1364. to] om. D 1. 

812 Diomede fights well for Troy. His Queen hears his Fame. [BK. v 

The poor 

are belpt by 
and other 


becomes chief 
Protector of 


His fame 

His queen, 
Egra, hears 
of him, 
and fears lie 
may make 
war on her. 

Her auentures bo]?e on lond and se, 

Entermedlyd wijj gret aduersite, ' , 

})at no man may deuoide nor eschewe, 

But take his part, as it to hym is dwe, 

As sort or hap doth his bridel lede. 

And in pis story shortly to procede, 

Cely Troiens, ]>at almost were shent 

With her fomen of lies adiacent 

J3at hem be-set abouten enviroiw, 

[But] Jporu} pe manhod and pe hi^e renourc 

Of Diomede and his sowdiours 

And oper kny^tes, noble werriours, 

Jpei wer reskued & holpen outterly ; 

And foure daies pei fau^t by and by, 

In kny^tly wyse deffendinge pe cite ; 

And poru^ pe prowesse also of Enee 

ftei slen and take al pat hem w^t/i-stood, 

And in diffense of Troianyshe blood, 

Swiche as ]>ei fouwde to pe cite fals, 

])&i henge hem vp hi^e by ))e hals, 

And puny she [d] hem for her gret[e] wrong. 

And Diomede )ms gan wexe stronge 

By longe processe, as made is mencioun, 

Chef protector now of Troie toun, 

ftat enmy noon by a large space 

Durst abide, but he hadde grace, 

To his ligaurace so he made hem loute. 

And }>us his name sprede gan aboute, 

})at of his fame }>e gret oppiniou?^ 

Dilated is vn-to ]>& Eegiouw, 

By swift report, of Calydonye & Arge, 

Whiche fe quene gretly gan to charge ; 

And astonyd, whan she take)) hede, 

His power gan & his my^t to drede, 

List he wolde hir lond vp-on hir wyrme, 

And of kny^thod a werre newe be-gyraie. 

And secrely gan mvsen on pis ping, 

J)at hir lord & hir my^ti kyng, 

[leaf 142 6] 










1368. to hym is] is to hym A. 
1389. enmy] en vie D 1. 

1371. Cely] e sely D 1. 

BK. v] Diomede is happily restord to his Kingdom and Queen. 813 

Late exiled & [y-]putte to* fli^t, 

Hath grace fouwde in Fortunys si$t, 1404 

And is remounted to so hi^e estat. 

Wherof * she was in hir self chek-maat, So she 

And weyes cast, as she )>at was prudent, 

By hool avis of hir parlement, 1408 and her 

TO..,, parliament 

W*t&-oute grucchmge or rebellious, 

Hym to reuoke to his Begioun ; 

And per-vppon to hym louly sent. send to him 

And with lettres ]?e messager forjje went, 1412 

))e cause anullynge for whiche he was exiled, annulling his 

. . . ... ... banishment, 

And how he was fully reconsiled 

By hool assent of his liges alle, 

And ful louly, euerychon, ]>ei calle, 1416 and asking 

For her offence & [for] her trespace, 

Wiih-OMte rigour for to don hem grace. 

And he anoon, liche a manly kny^t, He forgives 

Mor of mercy, sothly, jwme of ri^t, 1420 

Whan he hath her sond[e] wel conceived 

And her menynge fully apparceived, 

To stint al strif jjou^tfe] for Jje beste 

In goodly wyse to grauwte her requeste ; 1424 

And to his regne w/t/i-Inne a certeyn day and goes 

J J back to his 

He is repeired in ful riche array. kingdom, 

Of whos cowmyng ful glad his liges ben ; 

And recouwcyled bo be he & J>e quene, 1428 is reconciled 

A , , * 1,1 i to his queen, 

And al rancour of any old ottence 

Only of wysdam pei put in suspence ; 

And of oon hert a blisful lyf fei lede and leads a 

In Troie boke no more of him* I rede, 1432 

But late him* lyve in felicite ! 

Ageyn resortynge to tellen of Enee, ru now 

After how he hath his tyme spent, Eneas. 

Whiche is fro Troie m'tA many Troyan went. 1436 

His shippes stuffed, he & his meyne 

Be seiled forfe by many straunge* se, 

1403. to] vn to C. 1406. Wherof] Wherfore C. 

After 1410 D 1 repeats 1395-98. 1414. he] she D 1. 

1417. 2nd for] of A. 1422. apparceived] eke parceyved D 1. 

1425. wtU-Inne] with D 1. 1432. him] hem C. 

1433. him] hem C. 1438. straunge] stronge C, large D 1. 

814 For the Adventures of Eneas, see Virgil. Orestes s Vengeance. 




with his 



All about his 
wife Creusa's 

and about 

you can read 
in the Eneid 

of Virgil. 

I'll go on 
with Guide's 
Troy Book, 
and tell you 
how Orestes 
avenges his 

Many daiwger & many streit passage, 

To-forn or he arived in Cartage, [leaf 1*2 c] 1440 

Ledyng wip hym his fader Anchises, 

ftat, be )>e waye, I fynde pat he les 

His wyf Crewsa by fatal auenture ; 

But al pe wo pat he dide endure, 1444 

Who-so list ceriously to sene, 

And how pat he falsede* pe quene, 

I mene Dido, of wommanhede flour, 

j?at gaf to hym [hir] richesse & tresour,* 1448 

lowelys & gold, & al pat my^t hym plese, 

And euery ping pat my^tfe] do hym ese, 

But for al pat, how he was vnkynde, 

Rede Eneydos, & per 36 shal it fynde : 1452 

And how pat he falsly stale away 

By ny^ter tyme while she a-bedde lay, 

And of his conquest also in Yta[i]lle, 

Where he had many stronge bataille, 1456 

His auentures and his werkes alle, 

And of pe fyn pat is to hym falle, 

3e may al seen, by ful souereyn style 

From point to point compiled in Yirgile, 1460 

Written & made sipen go ful 3 ore ; 

For Troie boke spekep of hym no more, 

But procedeth, as I shal endite, 

How Horrestes cast hym for to quyte 1464 

His fadres deth, pleinly, & nat spare, 

3if ^e list here as Guydo shal declare. 

Howe Horrestes was commawnded by the goddis, 
that he shulde repayre to Ms kyngdam, and 
Cruelly, without pite, scle Ms moder Clemestra, 
for the mordere of his Fader, Agamenourc. 1 

It is requerid of equite & 1-13 1, 
Of Jrilke luge pat is most of myjt 1468 

And egally holdeth his balauwce, 
On deth conspired for to do vengauwce : 

1446. falsede] falshede C. 
1456. many] many a D 1. 
1467. &]andofDl. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 1396. 

1448. tresour] hir tresour C. 
1458. is to hym] to hym is D 1. 

BK. v] God ordains Orestes to avenge his Father s murder. 815 
be vois of blood doth so ay contune The voice of 

blood cries 

To crye wreche with clamowe importune 1472 for vengeance 

On hem, in soth, fat it iniustly shede ; 

For mordre wrou$t wil han his egal mede SUST" 

And his guerdouw, as he hath disservid. 

J)ei may nat fle fe lugenient reservid 1476 

Of hym fat sitte nicest in his throne, 

And al beholdeth by hym silf allone, 

Ful ri3tfully, }>e noble my^ti Kyng ; 

For fou$ he suffre, he forget no ping, 1480 

But al considereth in his inspecciouw.* 

And for be mordre of Agamenouw. For the 

murder of 

fee my3ti Lord, whiche is most souereyn God, Agmeumon, 

Made his mynystre of )>e same blood, 1 484 hi8 

3onse Horrestes, ful of hiae prowesse. son Orestes 

the executor 

Texecute his dome of riatwisnesse, of avenge- 

' ment. 

And gaf to hym power, grace, & my^t. 

And he anoon toke fe ordre of kny^t 1488 

Of Ydumeus, liche as it is tolde, [leaf u-2 <t] Orestes, 

Whan he was foure & twenti wynter olde, is knighted, 

Fresshe and lusty, & wonderly prudent, 

And inwardly desirous of entent, 1492 

3if fortune wolde hym nat wyth-seyn, and resolves 

His heritage to recure ageyn hi8 heritage, 

Whiche Egistus falsly hym denyeth, of which 

Egisthus has 

And J>e crowne iniustly occupieth 1496 deprivedhim. 

By fals title of hir fat was his wyf. 

But Horrestes wil iupart his lif, 

And aventure, while him lasteth breth : 

First to be venged on his fadris deth 1500 

Vp-on hem fo fat j)e tresourc wrou^t. 

And alderfirst ful louly he be-sou^t He begs King 

^r-, f i ' -n i j Idomeueusto 

Kyng Ydumee of his goodlyhede 

To forferen hym in fis gret[e] nede; 1504 help him. 

And J>e kyng benignely anoon 

Assigned hath wa't/i hym for to goon 

1479. my3ti] worj>i D 1. 1481. inspecciouw] aspecciouw 0. 
1483. most] om. D 1. 1487. power grace] grace power A.\ 
1499. And] And in A him] he D 1. 1501. bo] om. D 1. 
1504. >is] his A. 1505. And] And J>o D 1. 

816 Orestes prepares his ^Expedition against Egisthus. [BK. v 

gives Orestes 
1000 knights. 

He gets 

and goes 
to King 


threw over 

for Clytem- 

A pousand kny^tes, manly & ri$t etronge, 

To redresse pe grete horrible wronge 1508 

Of Egistus wrou}t by violence. 

,And by his wysdam & his dilligence, 

fris Horrestes gan hym so purueie, 

W^-Inne a while, per is no more to seie, 1512 

J?at he hym gat (J>e story wil nat lye) 

A-noper pousand in his companye 

Of worpi kny^tes, alle of oon accorde 

To go with hym, as with her souereyn lord, 1516 

In euery ping his biddyng to obeie, 

As $e han herde, Egistus to werreye. 

And pus Horrestes, in ful riche array, 

Gan hosteye & made no delay, 1520 

And his loggynge aldirfirst gan chese 

In a cite J>at called was Troe^e, 

Received fere with grete reuerence 

Of pe kyng, pat named was Forence, 1524 

A manly kny^t, as bokes specefie, 

And bare in herte passing gret envie 

To Egistus, by double occasiouw : 

First, for pe deth of Agamenouw, 1528 

And eke for he hadde a doubter dere 

pat was to hym inwardly entere, 

Bope good & fair, & but ^onge of age, 

)pat whilom was $oven in mariage 1532 

To Egistus ; but he of doubilnesse, 

Of fals tresouft & newfongilnesse 

)}e kynges doubter hap outterly for-sake, 

And in al haste dide a lybel make, 1536 

And forge a writ of repulsiouw, 

Al-be he hadde no trewe occasiouw, [leaf 143 a] 

)?is Egistus, pat he hir for-soke, 

Saue pat he falsly to wyve toke 1540 

J)e quene Clemestra, a-geyn al [ri^t and] lawe, 

1510. &] & by D 1, 1514. in] to D 1. 

1520. made] make D 1. 1522. Troe^e] Troyese A, Troyeje D 1. 

1523. Received] And resceyued D 1. 

1524. Forence] Florence D 1. 1532. whilom] somme tyme D 1. 
1535. hat outterly] outtirly hath A. 1537. forge] forged D 1. 
1540. to] vnto >e D 1. 

BK. v] Orestes' s ally Forentius. His resolve to kill his Mother first. 81 7 

Whanwe by assent J>ei mordred han & slawe 

Agamenouft, as it to-forn is tolde, 

Jjat whilom was so my^ti & so boold. 

And for J>e hatful fals conspiracie, 

As wel of mordre as [of] avoutrie, 

To venge boj?e by due recompense, 

Jpe worpi kny^t, J>e my^ti kyng Forrense* 

Offred Horestes for to make hym stronge 

And go with hym to helpe venge his wrowg, 

And with hym ladde, armed bri^t in steel, 

Foure hundrid kny^tes, horsed wowder wel, 

Takynge J>e feld with a manly chere. 

And so Horestes and )>e kyng y-fere 

Be riden forpe with many manly man. 

But Horestes, or [he] pis werre gan, 

Whan bri^tfe] Pheb^s in be Bole shoon, 

To ]>e temple is ful lowly goon, 

And to be goddis in his best[e] wyse 

With humble herte dide sacrifice, 

Fully in hope J>e better for to fare : 

Wher he was bode, for lif nor deth to spare, 

With-oute merci or remissions, 

J)e deth to venge of Agamenouw 

On Clemestra, Jwt was most to wyte, 

And bat he make first his swerd to bite 

On his moder, with his hondis tweyne, 

And ouermore to done his besy peyne, 

"Wit^-oute pite, & no merci shewe, 

On smale pecis til she be to-hewe 

And dismembrid assondre loint fro loint, 

And eke fat he for^ete nau^t a point, 

lustly to punyshe by rigour & by ri^t 

Egistus eke, J?e fals vntrewe kny3t, 

And fat he be nat slowe nor necligent 

To execute fe commauwdement 

Of fe goddes, list what after falle. 


1548 KingForen- 
tins joins 
Orestes with 

1552 400 knights. 

1556 Orestes sac- 






rifices to the 

resolving to 
kill first Ins 
mother Cly- 


and then 


1544. whilom] sowime tyme D 1. 1546. 2nd of] om. A. 

1547. by] wi> D 1. 1548. Forrense] Horrense C, Florence D 1. 

1550. to] om. D 1. 1555. many] many a D 1. 

1556. he] om. D 1 gan] bigan D 1. 1557. Bole] somer D 1. 

1562. bode] beden D 1. 1570. be] be al D 1. 

818 Orestes puts his mother Clytemnestra in chains. [BK. v 

Orestes and 

in which Cly- 
temnestra is. 

They stop 
from aiding 

and carry 
the town by 

Orestes puts 

in chains. 

And panne Horestes with his kny^tes alle, 

And Forense* pe my^ti kyng also, 

Of oon herte be to pe sege go 

Of J>e cite pat called was Methene, 

With-InnQ whiche was pe fals[e] quene 

Clemestra, God }if hir harde grace ! 

And whanne Horestes seged haj) pe place, 

With his kny^tes set it rouwde aboute, 

False Egistus was y-riden oute 

To gadre men and to ben awreke, [lea 

And falle vppon & pe sege breke 

3if he my^t, on eny maner side ; 

And with gret stuf pus he gan to ride, 

Takyng vp men fro eue?*y cost, 

Til he hym made a ful my^ti host. 

But Horestes, whiche at pe sege lay, 

His gouernauwce espieth day be day, 

And sent oute men, as he pat was ful sage, 

To stoppe weies & lettyn his passage, 

And made kny^tes, a ful huge* route, 

To pursewe hym eue?y cost aboute. 

And of pe sege, manfully be-gonne, 

By assaute he hath pe to^ y-wonne, 

And entrid in on a ny^t ful late, 

And set[te] wardis stronge at euery gate. 

And in [a] dongouw, moste stronge & principal, 

J3at was of bildynge my^ti and royal, 

))is Horestes first his moder fond, 

))e quene Clemestra, lady of pat lond, 

Whiche for drede sore gan to quake ; 

But merciles anoon he made hir take 

And putte in cheynes til pe next[e] morwe. 

And Egistus, God $if hym euele sorwe ! 

With al pe stuf pat he my^t acroche, 

Toward pe touw fast[e] gan a-proche 

In purpos ful Horestes for to greve, 

And hem wit^-Inne sodeynly releve.* 










1579. Forense] Forensis C, Florence D 1. 

1586. False] And fals D 1. 1588. vppon] vp on hem D 1. 

1597. huge] hoge C. 1614. releve] to releve C. 

BK. v] Egisthus is put in chains. Clytemnestra is cut in bits. 819 

But al, in soth, my^tfe] nat availle ; 

For or pat he )>e cite my$t availle, 1616 

Horestes kny^tes vnwarly han hy??i met, 

And alle attonis proudly on liym set : 

First slayn his men & putte he??i to ]>e flijt, 

And taken hym, maugre al his my^t, 1620 

And with cheynes, lik as J>ei hym finde, 

Merciles ful fast[e] )>ei hym binde, 

And shet hym vp, fetrid in prisouw. 

And alle fals immden in ]>e touw, 1624 

)3at wer assentid, willy, or helpynge 

To ]>e mordre of )>e worpi kyng, 

Grete werkers and conspira tours, 

Ageyn her lord rysing as traitours, 1628 

Alle were take and bouwde be rigour 

})& same ny3t, & shet vp in a tour, 

Til on pe morwe, lik as fe lot be drawe, 

Eueryche of hem vndirfonge his la we 1632 

Liche his decert, excepciourc was noon. 

And whawne }>e ny^t passed was & goon, 

And Phebws ros estwarde in his spere 

And on J>e toures shon ful bri^t & clere, [leaf use] 1636 

Wharaie Clemestra, rote of al falshede, 

Was brou^t for]?e, quaky ng in her drede, 

Beforn Horestes to lugement I-fet, 

He, wiih a swerde, sharpe and kene whet, 

Liche as }>e goddes chargid hym to-forn, 

On pecis smale he hath hir al to-shorn, 

And made hir bern oute of ]?e tovnis bouwdis 

To be vowrid of bestis & of hourcdis : 

Pite was noon in his brest reseruyd, 

But quitte hir fully as she ha)) disservid 

Fro point to point, & forgat ri^t nou^t. 

And J>awne cheyned Egistus was for)>e brou^t, 1648 

And iustly dempt by rigour of )>e lawe 

1621. lik] anoon D 1. 1622. >ei] J>ei gan D 1. 
1624. alle] alle >e D 1. 1627. werkers] werkerys A. 
1641. to-forn] be forn A. 

1643. bern] to be bore D 1 tovnis boundis] toim D 1. 

1644. vowrid] devourid D 1 hoiwdis] lyoun D 1. 
1648. cheyned] gyued D 1. 


men slay 

and put him, 
in prison, 

with all the 
murderers of 


Orestes cuts 

to pieces, 

1644 and gives 

them to dogs. 


820 Agamemnon's murderers are hangd. Menelausin Crete. [BK. v 

is hangd ; 

and so are 
all traitors. 

On an hirdel naked to be drawe 
))oru3-oute )?e touw, pat alle my$t[e] se, 
And after hi^e [enjhangid on a tre, 
For to rote & drye ageyn fe sonne. 
Lo, how mordre ha]? his guerdoim womie ! 
Lo, how falshede his maister can* awake ! 
And alle )>e traitours in ]?e toim y-take 
Wern on galwes enhonged euerychon, 
Til pel were seuered asonder bon fro bon, 
Hi^e on an hil ageyn )>e sterres shene. 
)5us was ])Q toun fro tresourc purged clene, 
And with troupe awmentid & y-morid ; 
Orestes is And to his regne Horestes ful restorid, 

restored to 

bis kingship. As ]>e story suynge shal expowne, 

And of ]>e day whan he toke his crown e. 






returns to 

with Helen, 
his Queen, 

for whom 
Troy was 

Howe kynge Menelay, brother to Agamenon, set a 
parlement at Athenes, wher he entendyde to haue 
deprivede Horrestes of his kyngdam, for )>e dethe 
of his moder ; bot Horrestes was crownyde. 1 

And whaw J?e myst & eue?^y cloudy skye 
Of fals tresouw and conspiracie 
Were tried oute, vp-on euery side, 
Jjat falshed had no place to abide, 
e story seith, in ordre rehersynge, 
)5e same tyme Menelay pe kyng, 
Oute of ]>e se ful of wawys wete, 
Fro Troie-ward arived was in Crete, 
Frely eskapid many drede and peyne, 
'With his quene, }>e goodly freshe Eleyne. 
And for cause she was so famous* fair, 
Gret was J>e pres & merveilous repaire 
Fro euery part hir bewte to beholde, 
For whom Troie, with wallis not ful olde, 
Destroied was, pe noble royal touw ; 

1652. hi3e] ful hije D 1. 1655. can] gan C. 
1656. y-take] take D 1. 1658. were] om. D 1. 
1660. fro] of D 1. 1662. ful] fully D 1. 
1673. many] in many A. 1675. famous] famour C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 140 b. 




BK. v] Menelaus wishes to dethrone his nephew Orestes 821 

And many man, ful worpi of renoim, 1680 

Hap lost his lyf per may no man seie nay 

Al for Eleyne, wyf to Menelay : 

Whan ping is doon, it may be noon oper. 

But whan pis kyng knewe fully of his broker 1684 when 

Agamenoim mordre and euerydel, [leaf 143 d] 

He was ful trist, & liked no ping wel, 

But inwardly felt[e] ful grete smerte ; 

And his nevew he hadde also at herte 1688 finds that 

T TT his nephew 

1 mene Horestes )>at so merciles, Orestes has 

Liche a tyraurcte fat were graceles,* 

His moder slowe, and had[de] no pite, Mia MB own 

Of mortal Ire in his cruelte, 1692 

And fully cast pat he wolde blive Meneiaua 

Of scepter & crowne, platly, hym deprive, dethrone 

Fully affermynge, for pis hatful cas 

By al lawe pat he vnworpi was 1696 

His fadris regne as eyr to possede, 

lustly considrid his horrible dede. 

And al attonis, furious and wroth, 

W^-oute abood vn-to ship he goth, 1700 

Malencolyk in his grete tene, soMeneiaus 

Oute of Crete selling to Athene, Athens, 

And toke pe lond oute of shipes bord 

Where duke Nestor was gouernour & lord, 1704 

Whiche hym receiveth, like a gentil kny^t, is wen 

With al his power, dilligence, and my^t. by Nestor, 

But Menelay, of rancour and gret hete 

Gan with pe duke secrely to trete 1708 

To fynde a mene in his inwarde si^t 

For to deprive Horestes of his ri^t. 

And per-vp-on to haue a iugement, 

At Athenes was holde a parlement 1712 and holds a 

Of pe lordis of pat regiou?^, there, ng 

To $eve per-on a diffinicioim, 

In whiche was shewed, openly y-nowe, to winch 

How Horestes his owne modir slowe, 1716 

1680. many] many a D 1. 1685. mordre] mordred D 1. 
1690. graceles] graciles C. 1695. hatful] fatal A. 
1705. hym] hem D 1. 1711. a] om. D 1. 


822 Orestes justifies his Murder of his Mother & is made King. [BK. v 

And pe maner of his grete offence, 

Hym silf[e] po beyng* in presence. 

And whan pis ping he fully dide espie, 

For his party he gan ageyn replie, 

As he pat felte hym frely at his large, 

For hym alleggynge pat he had in charge 

Of pe goddis, shortly to declare, 

His mortal swerde pat he nat ne spare 

Yp-on Clemestra, rote of false tresoim, 

J)at slowe hir lord, kyng Agamenouw, 

And pe niordre poru} hir malis wroujt. 

Wherfore Horestes humblely beso^t 

Joe lordes alle, with a manly herte, 

Of equite considren and aduerte, 

For no malis, rancour, nor for* rage 

Hym to deprive of his heritage, 

Sipen he was sone of Agamenouw, 

Borne to ben eyr of pe Regiouw, [leaf 144 ] 

As $e han herd, pat called was Methene, 

Al-be his moder, Clemestra pe quene, 

Compassid had his destructiouw. 

But duke Nestor, ymeved of resourc, 

In sustenyng of Horestes ri^t, 

Roos vp anoon lyk a manly knyjt, 

Offringe him silf proudly for his sake 

J^is hi^e quarel for to vndirtake, 

With his body to pe deth darreyne 

Wip whom pat list his title to wM-seyne. 

But per was noon in al pat companye 

J}at durste a word a-geyn[e]s him replye, 

So hool he stood in his oppiniouw. 

And by his kny^tly mediaciouw 

He bar hym so, feynyng in no ping, 

Jjat Horestes was [y-] crowned kyng 

Of Methene, alle beyng of assent. 

And whan dissoluyd was pe parlement, 

)5is Horestes of his liges trewe 

1718. >o beyng] beyng \>o C. 1731. for] for no C, D 1 
1734. >e] }>at D 1. 1746. a-geynes] a geyn A, D 1. 
1750. y-orowned] crowned D 1. 


urges that 
the gods 

bade him slay 
for murder- 
ing her 

and he asks 
the Greek 
lords not to 


for he is Aga- 

Nestor backs 

and offers to 
fight for him. 

No one 

so Orestes is 
crownd king, 










BK. v] Orestes weds Hermione. Erigona hangs herself. Ulysses. 823 

Resseyved was \\iih a crown e newe, 
And by trete of lordis many oon 
Kyng Menelay & he wer made at oon, 
And gan her Ire & her rancour lete. 
And Ydumee, pe my^ty kyng of Crete, 
So prudently gouerneth J>is matere, 
)3at Hermyone, f>e ^ongfe] doubter dere 
Of Menelay and ])e quene Eleyne, 
So 3ong, so freshe, of bewte souereyn, 
I-wedded was wzt7i-oute more tariyng 
To Horestes, j)e newe lusty kyng. 
And by cause of J?is allyau^ce 
Devoided was al rancowr and distaunce 
Atwene )>e kynges, Menelay )>e olde 
And Horestes, of whom ri^t now I tolde. 
)}us leue I hem, as it was J?e beste, 
Eche in his regne ly ve in pes & reste ; 
For al strif was cessid in Jns cas. 
But Erygona, fat J>e doubter was 
Of Egistus, as $e han herd me telle, 
For sorwe & drede list no lenger dwelle, 
But toke a rope, & liste no Jriiig to spare, 
And per-wM-al gan hir silf to gnare, 
j)e story seith, hi^e vp-on a tre : 
)?is was hir fyn, 30 gete no more of me 
But I wil forj?e ceriously entrete 
Of J>e story to tellen ^ow }>e grete. 

1756 Menelaus ami 
Orestes are 

1760 and Orestes 
weds Her- 
mione, the 
daughter of 
Menelaus and 



1772 Erigona, the 
daughter of 


1776 hangs herself. 


The wonderfule eskaipis of Vlixes aftire fat he 
departede fro Troy; and howe he made a 
soroweful compleynte against fortune to the 
worshipful kynge, called Ydumye. 1 

Vlixes, by ordre in my writyng, 
)pin aventures commerc on ]>e ring, 
Ful wonderful bo))e on lond and se, peaf wi6] 

Entermedlid with grete aduersite ! 1784 

I'll now tell 
you of 
and his 

1763. I-wedded] Wedded D 1. 
1770. lyve] to lyue D 1. 

1757. gan] om. D 1. 
1769. }>ejfor >e D 1. 
1781. my] om. D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 141 a. 

824 The Adventures of Ulysses. He is twice captured. [BK. v 

Ulysses fits 

out 2 ships, 

hoping to 
escape all 

but he is 

and driven to 

Ajax's land, 

where he is 
arrested for 
the murder- 
ing of Ajax, 

but gets free, 

tho left 

Then he is 
chaind for 
the murder 

but escapes 

For Guydo, first discrivinge Jn repeire, 

Seith how fou fouwde weder foule & faire, 

Now agreable, now J>e thoimder sowne, 

Now stille and* smothe, now with clowdis frowne, 1788 

And seith also, pat foil dedist ordeyne 

To pi passage my^ty shippes tweyne, 

Apparailled al for marchauwdise, 

J3at fou my^test in most secre wyse 1792 

Euery meschef of J)e se eskape. 

But for al fat pou haddist a fel iape : 

For as pis auctor pi resort do]? wryte, 

He seith Vlixes, for al his wordis white, 1796 

I-robbed was of riches and of good, 

Contrarious wynde so a-geyn him stood 

J3at he was drive, to his confusioim, 

In-to }>e my^ty stronge regiouw 1800 

Where Thelamourc regned by his ly ve ; 

And fere he was hent & take bly ve, 

Be my^ti hond sesid by pe brest, 

And merciles put vnder arest; 1804 

For pei laim had suspect in werkyng, 

Touching pe niordre of pe same kyng. 

But he so wrou^t by his slei$ti wyle, 

And his tale sette in swiche a stile, 1808 

))at hem alle he [pleinly] hath be-iaped, 

And fro her hond frely is eskaped 

Except pat he, for al his queyntfe] fare, 

Of his tresour was [y-]made ful bare ; 1812 

And for his passage was to hi??^ vnkouj? e, 

He fil a-geyn in-to fe wolves mouf e : 

For, verraily, as it is specified, 

Kyng Naulus men han hym eft espied, 1816 

Take & bou/ide & cheyned mercyles, 

For ]>e mordre of kyng Pallamydes. 

But fe story reherseth in certeyn, 

By his prudence he eskaped is a-geyn, 1820 

For he was hope expert, wys, & olde 

1785. disci! vinge] descryveth A. 1788. and] now C. 
1795. resort] resourc D 1. 1797. I-robbed] Robbed D 1. 
1820. eskaped] scaped D 1. 

BK. v] Ulysses tells his Adventures to King Idomeneus. 825 

Al-pei J>e maner be not fully tolde 

Of his eskape, poru^ his besy peyne, 

Out of dauwger of )>ese kynges tweyne 1824 

Til Jjoru} fortune he cam fro meschef fre 

To ]>e presence of kyng Ydumee 

In symple array and torne apparaile. 

Wher-of pe kyng gretly gan mervaile 1828 

To sen his pouert in so lowe nianer ; 

But for al pat he maked him good cher, 

J^ou} jjilke tyme he were Infortunat, 

He hyin resseiveth liche to his estat. [leaf 144 <?] 1832 

And whan })ei wern bope tweyne allone, 

In compleynyng Ylixes made his mone 

Vn-to pe kyng, as he pat was ful sage, 

Ceriously pe sort of his passage, 

With face sad and a sobre chere, 

Fro point to point, anon as $e shal here. 

" My lord," quod, he, " shortly to expresse, 

Of trust I haue in $oure gentilnes, 

I shal to $ow myn aventures alle 

Eehersyn her, ri^t as it is falle : 

First, whan pat I Troye lond forsook 

And pe water with my shippes took, 

I was a-noon with wynde pesible blowe 

To an yle whiche was to me vnknowe, 

Callid Mirma, of gret habourcdance ; 

And al[le] }>ing pat was to my plesauwce, 

J)at may for siluer or for gold be bou^t, 

I redy fonde, & wantid ri$t noi^t, 

And per abood ful longfe] while in loie 

With pe tresour ]>at I gat at Troye, 

My shippes stuffed, my men hool & sourcde, 

And for commodite of J?at ilk[e] grounde, 

We lyked so ]?e contre enviroiro, 

})at, for disport and recreacioun, 

Oure tariyng per we pou^t not longe, 

1822. >ei] [>ou3 D 1. 1824. 1st of] of ]>e D 1. 
1839. new IF D 1. 1843. new IT A. 
1847. Mirma] Mynerva A. 1851. while] tyme D 1, 
1857. longe] ful long A. 

Ulysses gets 
to King Ido- 


and says that 






1856 where he 
stayd some 

after he saild 
from Troy 

lie came to 
the Hand 

826 Ulysses's Adventures. He is plunderd in Sicily. [BK. v 


saild to Clan- 
stafages ; 

and then took 
ship again. 

After 3 day's 

a tempest 
drove him 

to Sicily, 

where the 
2 kings, 


and Coclopas 

and both 


his shi 

and left him 
bare of goods. 

For no man dide vn-to vs no wronge. 

Til on a day }>at e eyr was stille, 

)3e wynde also fully at oure wille, 1860 

We seyled forpe in quiete and in pes 

Vn-to a port called Clanstafages, 

Wher with my meyne long & many day 

I fond al ping according to my pay, 1864 

J?e wedir lusty, agreable, and feir 

But who may trust ouper in wynde or eyr ! 

For vp-on feith of ]?e smofe skye 

Ageyn to ship fast I gan me hye, 1868 

Taried nou^t, but tok anoon pe see, 

Smojje & calm enduring daies pre, 

|5at in pe wedir fourcde was no lak. 

But sodeynly ]?e heuene twmed blak, 1872 

Jpe hydous te??ipest & ])e wawes grene 

Oute of hope han me dispeired clene, 

Troublid my spirit & made me [so] pensif, 

WM-oute refut teskape vrith >e lyf, 1876 

Possid & drive by many sondri yle, 

Til at }>e last, cast vp at Cecyle, 

Eecuryng lond with gret annoy & peyne, 

Wher pilke tyme regned kynges tweyne. 1880 

And as I can reme?wbre douteles, [leaf id] 

J}e ton of hem called Sorigenes, 

Whiche vn-to me ful contrarious was, 

And }>e toper named Coclopas, 1884 

Brepren of birj>e, and, in conclusions, 

I-lyche cruel of condiciou?t : 

For pou^ my sort had shape for }>e nonys, 

Bope tweyne fil on me attonys, 1888 

Oppressing me in ful gret distresse, 

Spoiled my shipes of tresowr & richesse, 

And for no pite liked not to spare, 

Til I was left destitut and bare 1892 

Of al my good, alias, my mortal chauwce ! 

1863. many] many a A. 1868. gan me] ganne A. 
1869. anoon] a3ein D 1. 1872. turned'] tourneth A. 
1874. han me dispeired] gan me dispeire D 1. 
1883. was] om. A-. 1884. named] y-namyd A. 

BK. v] Ulysses s Adventures. He and Alphenor are imprisond. 827 

And most of al was to me grevaimce, 

Whan of my gold ]>ei* my^t no more restreyne, 

J)ei sent doun her my^ti sonys tweyne : 1896 

Alipham, ]>at was f ul large & long, Aiipham 

A T -r> T T and tne K> a t 

And .rolipneme ]?e my^ti geawit strong, Polyphemus 

Whiche on my men tavenge hew wer so fayn, 

J3at }>ei of hem han an hundred slayn, 1900 knnooof 

Disaraied to stonden at diffence. men, 868 

And of malys, with sodeyn violence 

}3ei token me, for meschef almost lorn, and put him 

And Alphenor, myn owne broker sworn, 1904 friend 

And hatfully, as )>ei han vs fou^de, 

In cheynes cast and in stokkys boimde, 

And after J?at ylokked in presoim. in prison. 

And for to make platly menciouw, 1908 

}}is my3ti man, j>is gret[e] Polyplieme, Polyphemus 

A suster had, shortly for to demc, fai sister, 

Oon )>e fairest J?at &uer $it was born 

She my^t in bewte so be set a-forn, 1912 

Nature hir gaf swiche a prerogatyf 

A clene niayde, sothly, & no wyf, 

Flouryng bojie in fairnes & boimte, 

Whom Alphenor whan he dide se, 1916 with whom 

A l "U -u f i. 'T Alphenor 

Al-be he was fetrid in prisons, 

For loue he lost wit & eke resoiw, 

And wex al mad, so na[r]we she dide hi??z binde, fails madly 

Saue [vp-]on hir alwey was his mynde, 1920 

And closid ay* was his perlous wouwde. 

And sixe monies bus we leie bofulnde, After e 


Bofe he & I, to seyn fe plat[tej troupe, uiysses 

Til Polypheme had vp-on vs rou]>e ; 1924 

And Jjoru^ his grace and mediaciouw 

lie quyt vs fre out of fat prisoim, are d stt P free r 

And shewed vs, of mercy and pite, 

After oure sorwe gret humanite. 1928 

But Alphenor, yliche of oon entent, 

1895. >ei] }>er C my^t] may A no more] not D 1. 
1899. tavenge] to vewge D 1. 
1921. ay] alwey C perlous] perillous D 1. 
1923. sevn] set D 1. 1924. Til] This A. 

828 Ulysses 's Adventures. He puts out Polyphemus' s one eye. [BK.V 

steals the 
sister of 

who pursues 
him and 
takes her 

who cuts out 
his one eye, 

and sails 
away. . 

(Ovid tells 
us about 

and his eye, 

and his vain ] 
search for 


Was with )>e brond of Cupide brent, 
And felt his part with many mortal fyt, 
Til he so wrou^t by his sotil wyt, 
at on a ny$t, who was lef or lo)>e, 
He stale pis mayde, & his weye he gope, 
J^oru} help of men with him at pat tyme. 
But on ]?e morwe at pe hour of pryme 
Poliphenms gan vs for to sewe, 
Whos my^ti hond we my^t[e] nat eschewe 
And swiche a-saut on vs pei gan make, 
J)at of force pei han pe mayde take 
From Alphenor, niaugre al his rage. 
And Polypheme vn-to my damage 
With his kny^tes so sore vp-on me lay, 
feat I my^t vnnepe eskape a-way 
To saue my* lyf, compassid envirouw, 
To deth purswyd of fat champioura. 
But whan I sawe per was now oper geyn, 
To fle pe deth, shortly for to seyn, 
"While }>is geaurat most fersly on me sette 
With my swerd oute his eye I smette ; 
And vn-to ship witJi my companye 
I fledde in haste, ]>at no man my$t espie 
Where I be-cam, nor Alphenor my fere. 
And whan ]>e wawes gon[ne] for to clere, 
And gracious wynd gan to vs awake, 
))ilk centre we han anoon forsake 
It was nat holsom for vs to abide." 
But of pis man like as writ Ovide, 
Poliphemws pe geau?it, out of drede, 
Had an eye mydde of his forhede, 
Whiche Vlixes smot out at a stroke ; 
And like ]?e bowes of a brau?ichid oke 
Was al his heer & his longe berde, 
On whom to loke childer were a-ferd. 
And whan Ipat he had[de] lost his si^t, 
A-mouge ]?e hilles he renneth day & ny^t, 

[leaf 145 a] 










1945. my] me C. 1950. my] >is D 1. 
1951. vn-to] to A. 1955. And A D 1. 
1956. }>ilk] And >ilke D 1 han] gan D 1. 

BK. v] Ulysses's Adventures. The enchantress Circe. 829 

In a rage, to fynde liym som refuge, 

Castfe] roches and grete stones huge 1968 

On euery part enviroim ]?e centre, 

On Vlixes avenged for to be. 

J)US Seith Ovide, in COnclusioUW, You can read 

In his boke of trans formaciouw 1972 ovid'sMeta- 


Methamorphoseos per 36 may it se, 

Whan-so-eue?-e fat 3our leyser be 

Ceriously }>e story for to rede. 

And in writinge for)>e I wil precede, 1976 

How Vlixes, wit//, face ded and pale, when 


To Ydumee toldfel forte his tale, escaped from 


Kenersyng pus, supprised & a-wapid : [leaf 145 6] 

" Fro Polipheme whan we wern eskaped, 1980 

oure vnhap and infelicyte 

In-to an vie myddes of be see he was driven 

/ totheiland 

We were dryve, whan it gan to ny^te ; Eiodium, 

And Eiodium fat litel kyngdam hy^te, 1984 

Wher bat Circes, be gret enchawiteresse, where the 


pilke tyme was lady and goddesse, circe could 

)pat koude hir craft so wonderly* performe, 

Al sodeynly a man for to transforme 1988 change men 

into any 

To haue be liknes (& lesen his resouw) beasts she 


Of hors or bere, tigre or lyowi, 

Wolf or fox, or what hir list deuise 

Hir dredful craft was shapes in swiche wise, 1992 

So my^ti wern hir straunge pociou?is, 

Her letuarye[s] and confecciou/is. 

And she also so fair vp-on to se, she was o 

lovely that 

Jjat fro hir power no man my^tfe] fle. 1996 uiysses 

For be J>e werke of Jns sorceresse, 

I was so fonned vppon hir fairnesse, 

J)at finally Jms with me it stood : 

bat al a jere I vfith hir [albood, 2000 stayda year 

with her. 

And pleynly had power noon ne my$t 
For to depart, noufer day ne ny^t, 

1968. Caste] Castinge D 1. 

1985. enchauwteresse] chauntcresse D 1. 

1987. wonderly] wondirfully C. 1989. resou^i] rennoun D 1. 

1998. I]HeDl. 

830 Ulysses's Adventures. Circe's son ly him. Her sister. [BK. v 

On Circe, 

Ulysses begot 
a son, 


and then 
stole away. 

His ship was 

blown to 
an ile, 
where Caly- 
pha, Circe's 
sister, was 
queen ; 

and he was 
kept there 
for a time, 

but escaped 
to another ile 

whither folk 
came to 
consult an 

So lusti was j>e lyf pat I ladde, 

In whiche tyme by me a child she hadde, 2004 

Bi^t inly fair & goodly to J?e si^t." 

And Thelagonivs in sothnes he hi^t, 

Whiche afterward, I [wel] reherse can, 

By processe wex a manly man. 2008 

" And be my sotil secre* prouidence, 

Of hir craft I hadde experience, 

)?at maugre hir enchaiwtementes olde, 

I stale a-way she my^tfe] me nat holde. 2012 

And finally my fate to conclude, 

With my konnyng hir craft I gan delude, 

J?at vtiih my men I skaped fro her hond 

And went at large fre out of hir lond. 2016 

But al )>is J)ing me litel dide availe ; 

For on my way as I gan to saile, 

For al my slei3t, in a litel while 

I bio we was vp in-to an yle 2020 

Wher Calypha, suster to Circes, 

Was crowned quene, & held her scepter in pes ; 

Whos craftis wern so my^ty & so strong, 

Maugre my wil she held me J?er ful long. 2024 

But she, in soj)e, to speke of wo?ftmanhed, 

Of bounte, fredam, and of goodlyhed, 

Surly had so souereyn excellence, 

ftat myn abood to me was noon offence. [leaf 145 c] 2028 

But who-so-euere J?er-at crye or clappe, 

At J>e last I skaped fro hir trappe 

And cam to an yle, ri^t as any lyne, 

Whiche specialy Jjoru^ hi^ power devyne 2032 

Ordeyned is of 3ore be myracle, 

As it were, a spiritual oracle 

A man to haue in a temple J?ere 

Sodeyn answere of what him list enquere, 2036 

Of questions and demaundes alle, 

And of soule[s] what shal eke be-falle 

2006. Thelagonivs] Thelagemws D 1. 2009. secre] socre C. 
2011. J>at] }>at moche D 1 hir] alle hir D 1 enchaimtementes] 
chaimtementes D 1. 
2032. hi3] his D 1. 

BK.V] Ulysses s Adventures. Charyldis: its Sirens & Mermaids. 831 

Whan men ar dede & graven vnder stoon. 
And I gan axe in pe temple anoon 
Myn aventures pat shuld after swe, 
And wher a man my^t his fate eschewe ; 
And of al pis, lyk to myn entent, 
I had answere ful conuenient 
Saue what befalleth whaw a soule is goon, 
DiffynyciouTi vn-to me was noon, 
Swiche ping tasoile acordep nat to ri}t : 
It is reserued vn-to Goddes my^t, 
And excedeth resouw & wit of man. 
And fro pens forpe to seile I gan, 
Dreven with wynde, & no part socoured, 
Wher I was ]yk to haue be deuourid 
Of Caribdis, with his profoiwde welle, 
Where Sirenes, Meremaydnes, dwelle, 
)3at fro pe brest, vrith skalis siluer shene, 
Ben of her shap fysches freshe & clene, 
And vpper-more, Kynde doth compasse 
Hem to apere femynyn of face, 
Lyk virgines pat were of nature 
With-oute spot, vndefouled pure. 
And of custom, in wawis as pei flete, 
\)Q song of hem is so heuenly swete, 
So angelik and ful of armonye, 
}3at verrailly pe sugred melodie 
Kavisshe wolde any man a-lyve, 
Of inly loie almost his hert[e] ryue : 
Make a man, of sodeyn hi^e plesauwce, 
For^ete hym silf & lese his remembraimce, 
Devoide hym clene from his owne pou^t, 
Til vnwarly he be to meschef broujt. 
And with her song, or he* take kepe, 
He shal be broujt in a mortal slepe ; 
And pei anoon it may not be wtt/tdrawe 
Wil drenche his ship lowe vnder pe wawe ! 

2040 Ulysses 
the Oracle, 




but can't 
learn wliat 
befalls the 
soul after 

He sets sail, 
and is driven 

to Charybdis, 

where Mer- 
maids are, 

2056 with fishes' 
scales below, 


but girls' 
faces ; 

whose sing- 
ing is so 


that it makes 
a man forget 
2068 everything, 

till he comes 
to grief, 


and his ship 
is drownd. 

2039. ar] bene D 1. 2042. wher] ]>ere D 1. 

2045. a soule] soules D 1. 2051. no part] vnne>e D 1. 

2057. vpper-more] vpher more A, D 1. 

2066. ryue] to ryve A. 2071. he] >ei C. 

832 Ulysses's Adventures. He escapes the Sirens. His ill plight. 

By stopping 
their ears 
with wax, 

Ulysses and 
his men 
escape from 
the Sirens, 

and anchor at 

where his 
men are 

and lie 

So lie is in 
evil plight, 

and has told 
King Ido- 
meneus his 
because lie 
trusts him. 

)3us J?e swetnes of her heuenly sou/?, 

Bringeth a man to confusioim 2076 

Who-so-eue?'e by her boimdis pace. [leaf 145^3 

But with )>e lif I eskaped by grace : 

For myn erys with wex & gommys clere 

Were stoppid so, ]>at I ne my^tfe] here 2080 

Touche nor werble of her instrumentis, 

Wher-by }>e resou?^ of [a] man y-blent* is. 

And, finally, poru^ my sotilte, 

I and my men ben eskapid fre, 2084 

Selling forpe, al mat of werynesse, 

Til we cam vp, -with ful gret distresse, 

At Phenyce, & toke a-noon fe lond, 

Cast anker, and oure shippes bond. 2088 

But, sothly, )>er it fil vs ful vnfaire ; 

For ]>Q peple, cruel and contraire, 

Only of malis fil on me anoon, 

And slowe my men almost euerychon ; 2092 

Tresour & good,litel }>at I hadde, 

Was me by-raft ; and al with hem ]>ei ladde ; 

And fewe of hem pat wer left alive, 

feei token hem & put in prisou?^ blyve. 2096 

)3us ha]> Fortune lad me on her dauwce 

With litel loie and plente of meschau?zce, 

Of whos dauTzger lerned and expert, 

I am falle in meschef and pouert ; 2100 

And with gret dool & sorwe ful my brest, 

On se and londe, by soupe & nat by est 

I am com vn-to 3 oure presence, 

And haue declared pleinly in sentence 2104 

Myn auentures to ^oure worfinesse, 

Of trust only and of feithfulnesse 

Jpat I haue to jow in special. 

And now I haue rehersid & told al 2108 

To 3oure hi3nesse in my best[e] wyse, 

Wit/i-oute more to me it doth* suffise." 

2078. eskaped] skapid A, scaped D 1. 
2082. y-blent] blent C, A, D 1. 
2102. est] west D 1. 
2110. to me it doth] it doth to me C. 

BK. v] Ulysses is helpt ~by K. Idomeneus, & sails to K.Alphenon. 833 

Of ]?e grete comforte that kynge Ydumew^ shewed 
to Vlyxes; and howe kynge Alpheon, for his 
grete wysdam, ressavyd hym worshipfully, and 
conveyed hym to his kyngda?^, 1 

And pan} in hert he was constreyned sore, 

frilk[e] tyme Vlixes spak no more, 2112 

But held his pes, ful hevy in lokyng. 

And Ydumeus lik a gentil kyng King 

. Idomeneus 

Couftforted hym al )>at euere he my^t, comforts 

And besy was his hert[e] for to li^t, 2116 

And hym besoust his heuynesrse] lete, and asks him 

7 . to stay in 

And as long as hym list in Crete Crete. 

With hym abide, he made hym surete 
He shuld[e] faren also* wel as he, 2120 

And nat want of what may do him ese. 
And whan his sorwe som-what gan apese, 
))at his rage drow vn-to an ende, 

Leue he toke, & seide he wolde wende 2124 But when 

Oute of pat londe home to his contre. go home/ 

But first ]?e kyng, of fredam & boimte, [leaf noa] 
3af vn-to hym gret riches and array, idomeneus 

And what-so-euere was vn-to his pay, 2128 

Gold, tresour, & many o]>er pinges ; money 

And at J>e partynge of J>ese tweyne kynges 

Jpere wer shippes whan hi??^ list to saile, and ships, 

Eedy stuifid with meyne* and vitaile. 2132 

And Jms Vlixes gan hym redy make ; and uiysses 

And whan he baj>e his leue fully take, 
He hasted hym & toke anoon ]>e se, 

And gan saile toward his contre. 2136 sails home- 

But first he went to kyng Alphenouw, but nVst 

Whiche passingly hadde affecciouw 
To sen Vlixes at his home-comyng, 

And desirous ouer al[le] thing 2140 

To han of hym newly aqueyntaimce : 

2111. new H D 1. 2120. also] as C. 

2130. >e] om. A, D 1 tweyne] twoo D 1. 

2131. him] hem D 1. 2132. meyne] money C. 
2140. oner] of ovir A. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 142 c (misplaced after line 2108). 


Ulysses hears news of his true wife Penelope. [BK. v 

Ulysses is 
well receivd, 

and hears of 
his wife 

the crown of 

She ever kept 
true to her 

tho she often 
feard for 
him at the 

For vn-to hym was inly gret plesaiwce 

To here hym talke, for his elloquence, 

For his wysdam & his hije prudence. 2144 

And )>er he was, after al his smert, 

Receyved pleinly with a[s] glad [an] hert 

As euere $it was any maner man 

SiJ?en tyme fat )>e world be-gan; 2148 

And to encres of his Felicite, 

J3er herd he first of Penolope, 

His trewe wyf, mt/j-oute spot or blame, 

Of whom $it grene* is }?e noble fame, 2152 

Whiche from hir lord, for al his long absence, 

In jjou^t nor dede nevir dide offence, 

But sothly was, boj?e in chere & dede, 

J^crtij-oute Grece example of wommanhede. 2156 

And jit was she, as bokes list expresse, 

J^oruj-oute ]>e world merow of fairnes, 

And among Grekis born of hijest blood, 

Called of auctows bo)>e fair and good; 2160 

And $it seyn bokes of hir, douteles, 

Was neuer noon J>at had so gret pres, 

But she hir kepte, chaiuigmg for no newe, 

Vn-to hir lord eue?'e I-liche trewe, 2164 

Of hert [ay] oon, nat partid in-to tweyne, 

);at she is called queue & souereyne 

Of wyfly troupe in pis bokis olde. 

And oft, I fynde, hir hert[e] wold[e] colde, 2168 

She turne pale for hir lord so ferre, 

In hir closet to heren of pe werre, 

Of drede she had, & for fere eke quake, 

Of fantasies for hir lordes sake ; 2172 

For his absence, bofe eve & morwe, 

2148. tyme] >e tyme D 1. 2151. or] of A. 

2152. 3it grene] grene 3it C. 

After 2157 Dl inserts: 

Thoraj Grece exaumple of wommanhede 
And jit was she with outew ony drede. 

2159. of] of >e D 1. 2161. And jit] As D 1. 

2169. She turne] And wexe D 1 so] was so D 1. 

2170. heren of] >enke on D 1. 

2171. Of] And of D 1 & for fere eke] ofte she dide D 1. 
2173. eve] on euen D 1. 

BK. v] The wifely worth of Penelope. Bad wives and good. 835 

Was deth to hir & importable sorwe. 

And ay, in sothe, for loie or any game, [leaf H6&] 

Whan it fel she herd Hectoris name, 2176 whenever 

T i i r.i Penelope 

in any place anoon she ill a-swowne, eard of 

Hector, she 

And gan hir silf al in teris drowne, 8W d 

Of wowmanhed so she was a-ferde for fear that 

To here pe slau^ter of his mortal swerde, 2180 meetuiysses. 

List hir lord, of kny^tly surquedie, 

Hadde of fortune falle in iupartye, 

Of hap or sort tamet pat worpi kny^t, 

))at selde or neuer she felt hir hert[e] li$t. 2184 

And many a dreme * a-ny}tes dide hir gaste, 

Al pe while pat pe sege laste ; 

And euery play was venym in hir si^t, Absence from 

Whan pat she was from hir owne kny^t : 2188 

For in pis world she had loie noon away ail 

Of hi^e nor lowe, pleinly, but of oon, 

For whos sake al myrpe she refuseth. 

And who-so be* pat in his hert[e] museth 2192 

Of any womman any ping but good, 

Of malencolye mevid in his blood, 

Lat hym aduerte of wisdam and [y-]se, 

And remembre on Penolope, 2196 

For his decert list pat he be blamyd ! 

And. o Guydo, bou shuldest ben * ashamed Guido, you 

. . ought to be 

To seyn of wy ves any bing but wele : ashamed to 

abuso wives ! 

For, in good feith, as fer as I can fele, 2200 

oon or two do among offence, 
She pat is good poru$ hir prouidence 
Is per-of no ping for to wyte. 
And poui Guydo in his boke endite 2204 Against 

Helen, Cres- 

)3e variauttce of Eleyne or Cryseyde, 8 ><i, and 

Or Medea, pat for sorwe deyde, Medea, set 

Lete per ageyn, of ri^t and equite, 

)?e wyfly trowpe of Penolope, 2208 Penelope and 
j)e maydenhed of $ong[e] Policene, Poiyxena. 

2174. &] an D 1. 2185. a dreme] dremes C. 
2189. >is] >e D 1 had loie] ioye hadde A. 
2192. be] he be C. 
2198. And] am. D 1 ben] bem C. 


836 The Conspiracy of certain lords to ravish Penelope. [BK. v 

See too the 
goodness of 


Ulysses is 
told of a con- 

spiracy of 
lords to 


by force; 

and tho she 
cleverly frus- 
trates it, 

it enrages 

And J?e goodnes of Eccuba pe quene, 

Of Cassandra eke pe stedfastnes, 

And vfiih al pis, take pe kyndenes 2212 

Of Pantasile, witft-oute variaiwce, 

And put al pis to-gidre in balauwce, 

And 36 shal fynde, 3if 36 list acouwte, 

Maugre who grucchip, trouth[e] shal surmouTite, 2216 

I dar aferme & here a-weye pe pris : 

J)er wil no man replie pat is wys, 

He were to feble in his oppinioura ! 

And while Vlixes was with Alphenouw, 2220 

It was to hym made relaciourc 

Of an hatful conspiracies, 

}?at certeyn lordis envirouw his contre 

Ravisshe wolde his quene Penolope, [leaf nee] 2224 

Maugre alle po pat were per ageyn, 

Al-be pat she was euere I-like pleyn, 

In hir troupe stidefast as a wal. 

$et J>ei haue cast, pleynly, pat she shal 2228 

Be take of force, it may nat be eschewed, 

But it so be in haste she be reskewed : 

For pei hem cast pe tyme nat aiourne ; 

For day and ny^t vriih hir [pei] soiourne, 2232 

Inly in herte for loue disamaied. 

But of wisdam she hape hem so delaied, 

)}at per was noon so manly nor so sage, 

J?at koude of * hir geten avauntage, 2236 

So avise she was in hir wirkyng. 

And whan Ylixes conceyved al pis ping, 

And fully knewe by open evidence, 

And also [had] in special credence 224.0 

Sent vn-to hym fro Penolope, 

]5e mater hool declaringe in secre, 

His owne sone Thelamonevs, 

He wexe in herte wood and furious, 2244 

2210. And] om. D 1. 2225. were] wil be D 1. 

2236. of] on C. 

2237. avise] avised D 1. 

2238. whan] om. D 1 conceyved] conceyvith A, conceyueth D 1. 
2244 is misplaced at the top of the column in C, and marked b ; 

2243 is marked a. 

BK. v] Ulysses reaches home, and cuts off his Enemies' heads. 837 

And wolde make no delacioim, 

But in al haste besouste Alphenoun, uiysses begs 

. . /. i . i . i Alphenon to 

fee my3ti kyng, of his hi3 boiwte 

To releue hym in his aduersite, 2248 

And pat he wold poru3 his my^ti hond 

Of gentilnes conveye hym to his lond.* send him 

He grauwtep hym & seip nat onys nay ; 

And hope two in ful gret array 2252 Both sail to 

Taken pe se whan pe wynd was good ; 

Wei fortuned, for no J?ing hem wz't/i-stood, 

jpei be arived & hadde no lettyng, ithaca, 

Wher Vlixes, as ae han herd, was kyng. 2256 

. , , , . . , at night has 

And secrely a-ny^t pei wer conveied 

To hem pat han his ligaurace disobeied ; 

And merciles, or pei my3t a-wake, 

In her beddes pei han hem alle take, 2260 

Makyng noon prolongyng til pe* morwe, 

But in al hast, for no wy^t durst hem borwe, 

Smet of her hedes by iugement final ail his foes 

And set hem vp on pe castel wal, 2264 

Eueryche by oper endelong J>e rowe, 

Vp-on pe howr whan J>e cok gan crowe. 

And )>us al ny^t pei kept hem silf[e] cloos, 

Til pat Phebus meryly aroos 2268 and next 

T . , , , morning, 

In pe orient, whan J>e larke song ; 

And po pis kynges with her meyne strong, 

Freshely beseyn, entre pe cite. enters his 

Who was po glad but Penolope ! 2272 | c 'j mdb 

Who made loie but pis goodly Iquene, Penelope. 

Ful desirous hir owne lorde to sene ! [leaf i*ad] 

But $if I shulde al in ordre sette, 

)3e grete myrpe pei made whan pei^mette, 2276 

Make rehersaile of compleintes olde, They ten each 

' other their 

And how pei gan her hertes to vnfolde troubles. 

Eche to oper, and list no ping concele, 

2250. lond] hond C. 2253. Taken] Token D 1. 

2255. arived] armed D 1. 

2257. a-ny^t] by ny}t D 1. 

2261. >e] on >e C. 2262. durst] sholde D 1. 

2277. Make] And make D 1. 

2278. her] om. D 1. 

838 Ulysses marries his Son to Alphenoris Daughter. [BK. V 

folk rejoice 
at his return. 

He makes 
much of 

to whose 
daughter he 

weds his son 

Guido is brief 
about all this, 

saying that 
went home, 

and Ulysses 
and Penelope 
livd happily 

till they died. 

And J?e gladnes )>at )>ei inly fele, 2280 

3if I shulde put al in memorie, 

Jje reioisshinge and ]>e hertly glorie 

)?at his liges made at his comynge, 

fee costis eke ]>ei hadde at his metynge, 2284 

Jpe ^iftes grete and presentis riche, 

In al j)is world, I trow[e], noon I-liche 

It were to long tariyng for my boke ! 

And how ]?at he newe assuraurcce toke 2288 

Of his lordis and his liges alle, 

And how J>at j)ei to his grace falle, 

)pe chere he made eke to Alphenoim 

Of gentilnes Jjoru} his hi^e renouw, 2292 

And how ])e doubter, inly debonaire, 

Of Alphenouw, Nausia J>e faire, 

By Ylixes mediacioun* 

I- wedded was vn-to Thelamouft, 2296 

Born by discent J?er may no man say nay 

To reioisshe his crowne after his day : 

And Jms cam in by his purviaiwce 

Of two regnes ]>e my^ti alliaunce, 2300 

And how al J)is brou^t was to J?e knotte, 

Men wolde deme me pleinly to sotte, 

To presume of oppiniouw 

For to delate a descripcioun, 2304 

SiJ>en Guydo, touching but J>e chef 

In ])is mater, of stile was but bref , 

Shortly rehersing how kyng Alphenouw 

Eepeired is horn to his regioun, 2308 

And Ylixes in his chefe cite 

Abood stille with Penolope, 

Where I hym leue in loie and in solace 

Til Antropos likej> to purchace 2312 

For to ficche finally ]?e date, 

j)e thred [to] vntwyne of his lyues fate. 

2290. to] vn to A. 2294. Nausia] and Nausia D 1. 
2295. mediacioun] meditacioun C. 
2302. me pleinly] pleinly me D 1. 
2311. 2nd in] om. A. 
2313. ficche] tfynyche A. 

I mast now 
tell you about 


His grand- 
father was 
his grand* 
Thetides ; 
his father 
his mother 

and her 


BK. v] Ancestry of Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus), the son of Achilles. 839 

Howe Firms, the sonn of Achilles, scleughe Mena- 

lippus and Folistines, sonnes to Atastus, which 

kept kenge Pelle out of his kyngdam, to ]>e 
which Firms restoryd him ageyne. 1 

Now mvste I ful besy ben a whyle, 
To directe J?e tracis of my stile 2316 

In discryving, shortly of entent, 
j)e stok of Pirrus by lyneal discent, 
Myn auctor folwe & be compendious 
Whos olde fader hi^te Pelleus, 2320 

His granmoder called Thetides, 
Of whiche two cam wor)>i Achilles, 
Jjat at Troye by tresoiw lost his lyf ; [leaf 147 a] 

And Dardanya called was his wyf, 2324 

Pirrus moder, & doi^ter, as I rede, 
Vn-to J?e kyng called Lycomede, 
Havyng a fader J>at Atastus hi^te, 

Whiche, in sothnes, al J?at euere he my^t 2328 

Bare heuy herte to kyng Pelleus, 
To Achilles and also to Pirrus, 
To al ]?e* kyn, pleinly, on J>at side. 
And of nialis, rancour,* & of pride, 2332 

And of envie in an hatful rage, 
Whan Pelleus falle was in age 
He beraft hym boj>e septer and crowne, 
And from his se lowe ali^te him downe ; 2336 

And in-to exile, availle may no stryf, 
He made hym go with Thetides his wif, 
Of hi^e disdeyn, geyne may no grace, 
And in his hert gan day & ny^t compasse 2340 

}3e deth of Pirrus, kepe him $if he can ! 
And J>er-vp-on maliciously began 
To shape a way, by await liggynge 

Hym for to slen at his home comynge. 2344 

But )>is Pirrus, from his treynes fre, 
Many daunger eskaped of )>e se, 

2320. olde] bele D 1. 2331. )>e] J>at C. 

2332. rancour] of rancour C. 2335. hym] om. A. 

2337. in-to exile] in thexyl A. 

1 Roval MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 143 c. 

who took 



and banisht 
him and his 

and tried to 
kill Pyrrhus 

but he 


Pyrrhus at Malasus. He sails for Thessaly. [BK. v 

Pyrrhus first 
landed at 


His foe 


has 2 sons 

and one 

Peleus and 
his wife are 
imprisond in 
an old castle. 

Pyrrhus sails 

for Thessaly, 

but sends 2 
spies before 

Many wawe and many tempest wood, 

With gret[e] los boj>e of men and good, 2348 

At Malasus aldirfirst gan londe, 

A strong* cite a litel fro fe stronde, 

Wher J?at he was refreshed wonder wel. 

And ]>er he knewe groiwde & euerydel, 2352 

First of j?e exile, like as men hym tolde, 

Of Thetides and Pelleus Jje olde, 

And how Atastus bar to hym hatrede 

Vn-to J>e deth; wher-of he gan drede, 2356 

And pou^t he wolde, as he fat was ri^t wys, 

Be som engyn eschewen his malys, 

And Jjer-vp-on don his besy peyne. 

Now hadde Atastus ofer sonys tweyne, 2360 

Menalippus and Polistenes, 

And a doubter called Thetides. 

And al j>is while woful Pelleus, 

In a castel olde and ruynous, 2364 

With Thetides, ful of sorwe and care, 

For drede of deth day & ny$t gan dare, 

Dis[es]peired in his vnweldy age 

Recur to finde of J>is mortal rage, 2368 

Except J?at he had an hope of 3ore 

)2at Pirrus shuld help him and restore 

At his repeir, whan-so J>at it falle 

After whos comyng often he gan calle, [leaf U7&] 2372 

])Q tyme curse J?at he so long abood. 

But whan Pirrus* al J>is vndirstood 

At Malasus by relaciouw, 

Ful faste he gan haste oute of J>e touw, 2376 

Toke ]?e se and faste gan hym hy$e 

Toward J>e lond called Thesalye, 

Of entent to maken ordinauwce 

On Atastus for to do vengauwce. 2380 

But aldirfirst, ])is Pirrus ful prudent, 

Espies tweyne he to-forn hath sent 

2347. Many (both)] many a D 1. 

2350. strong] straimge C 2nd a] om. A. 

2362. called] y callid A, y called D 1. 

2372. calle] falle D 1. 2374. Pirrus] >at Pirrus C. 

2375. by] by trewe D 1. 2377. Toke] And tooke D 1. 

BK. v] PyrrJius lands in Thessaly, and meets Peleus. 


To Thesalye forj>e to-gidre goon ; 

And Crilippus called was jje ton, 

And Adrastus named was his fere 

}3ei wern expert, hem nedeth nat to lere. 

In whos expleit, to more avaiwtage, 

J)is Pirrus haj?e direct his message 2388 

Of Thesalye to a cite^eyn 

Called Assandrus, a maner chamberleyn 

With Pelleus, and whilom ful secre 

While he was flouringe in felicite. 

And whan Pirrus, in conclusioun, 

Knewe al J>e sothe by relacioim, 

On se nor lond hym ne list to * tarie, 

Al-be )?at he fond J?e wynde contrarie ; 2396 

But he, eskaped many dredful stourcdis, 

Of Thesalye aproche)> to J>e bouwdis : 

For Eolus hath his lust obeied, 

And, of fortune wonderly conveied, 2400 

He driven was, as it wer, by grace 

To ariven in ]>e same place 

Wher Pelleus in a doolful cave 

For drede of deth lay hym silf to saue, 2404 

Soule saue his wyf, with-o\iten any feris, 

Al enclosed with busshes and with breris. 

And Pirrus per went vp first to londe, 

Sool by hym silf walkyng on ]?e stronde, 2408 

Pensif and trist, and his weye toke 

Where Pelleus in J>e caue quoke, 

Hauyng with hym jjo noon o]>er guyde 

Saue his swerd hangynge by his syde. 2412 

And vnwarly, with a dredful hert, 

Pelleus oute of J>e caue sterte 

Disamayed, of his lyf in doute, 

Whan he behelde a kny^t Jjere walke aboute, 2416 

And astonyd abood & stood ful stille, 

Imaginynge j>at he sawe Achille, 

By )>is Pirrus stondyng in ]>e place, 

2385. Adrastus] Adastrus A. 2391. whilom] so?ntyme D 1. 
2395. to] nat C. 2398. Of] And of D 1. 
2415. of] and of D 1. 

2384 Pyrrhus's 

go to a citizen 
of Thessaly 
to get 

2392 WhenPyr- 
rhus knows 
all is safe, 

he sails to 

Peleus is, 
in a cave; 

and when 
he lands, 


he, Pyrrhus, 
is Achilles, 

842 Peleus tells Pyrrhus his story. Atastus & his Sons hunt. [BK. v 

for Pyrrhus 
is so like his 

His grand- 
father Peleus 

and tells him 
his mis- 

and how 
hates him. 

Pyrrhus goes 
back to his 

and hears 
that Atastus 
and his 2 sons 

are hunting 

He dresses as 
a poor man, 

takes his 
and goes to 
the forest. 

By alle J>e signes shewid in his face : 2420 

For nature, with-oute variaimce, [leaf 147 c] 

Made hem so lik of chere & contenauwce, 

Of forme, of shap, and lymys euerychon, 

ftat difference in effect was noon. 2424 

And Pelleus, with-oute lenger space, 

Gan anoon Pirrus to enbrace, 

And abraide oute of his dedly Jjou^t, 

And for loie sette al his sorwe at noi^t ; 2428 

And gan to hym by & by declare 

Bo])e his exile and his euele fare, 

His pitous lyf, his pouert & meschauwce, 

And Fortunys fals[e] variaimce, 2432 

And of Adastus be feruent hoot envie, 

I)Q cruelte and be tyranye 

Ceriously he told Pirrus al. 

And he, ful sobre, stood stille as a wal. 2436 

With face pale and in hert[e] wroth, 

Specheles to ship a-geyn he gooth ; 

And ber [he] was informed, dout[e]les, 

J?at Menalippus and Polistenes 2440 

And Adastus, to-gidre alle bre, 

With huge array and a gret nieyne 

J5e same day, ful snrquedous of pride, 

Hunte a forest, a litel bere beside. 2444 

And whan Pirrns ber-of toke good hede, 

With-oute a-bood chauwge gan his wede,* 

Ful porely, rent, and disarayed, 

Liche a man pat were for bou^t dismaied 2448 

Girt with his swerde, made no delay, 

But to be forest toke be ry$t[e] way, 

Sool by hym silf, with-oute companye, 

So secrely bat no man my^t espie. 2452 

And as he drewe many diuers bouwdis, 

He herdfe] homes & vncouplyng of houradis ; 

2422. hem] hym A. 2423. and] of D 1. 
2432. And] And also D 1. 2433, 2441. Adastus] Atastus A. 
2444. 2nd a] om. A. 2445. toke good] had take D 1. 
2446. wede] wete C. 

2453. And as he] As he hat D 1 many] to many D 1. 

2454. &] om. A, D 1. 

BK. v] Pyrrhus tells a lying Story to Atastus's two Sons. 843 

And, like a man J?at list make his mone 
Fro si$t of folke, he drewe him ay allone. 
And, casuely disseuered fro J>e pres, 
First he mette with Polistenes, 
Menalippus ridyng by his side ; 
And bo)>e two on Pirrus gan abide, 
And boistously of hym to enquere 
Fro whens he cam & also what he were, 
So febly clad and of so pore estate, 
Walkyng pere as he were disolat. 
And lowly he of chere & contenaiwce, 
Stille and humble in his dalliaiwce, 
Answerid ageyn, & seyde how J>at he 
Fordriven was with meschef of* j>e se, 
And affermyd, pale & no jring red, 
His felaship drowned was and ded 
Fyve hurcdrid J?e wawes were so rage 
Of olde & ^onge and of mydel age 
And he eskaped J>e tempest was so rif, 
As he hem tolde, vnnepe with ]>e lyf. 
And, ouer-more, he tolde hem platly eke, 
Towching his birpe, J?at he was a Greke, 
And went[e] per, destitut of loie, 
Late comen fro ]?e sege of Troye, 
And besoust hem toward his lyving 
To helpen hym with som refreshing, 
As hym )>at had catel loste and good, 
Like as pei sawe naked how he stood, 
Praiyng also, in hope it shulde availe, 
Hym to releue with eloping or vitaile, 
To his refut sumwat to prouide. 
And pei bad hym pat he shuld abide ; 
For pei wil wit, pleynly, what he can. 
And pilk[e] whyle be-sides he??^ per ran 
A ful gret hert doun by pe riuer ; 
And Menalippus priked his courser, 





meets Atas- 
tus's 2 sons, 

and Mena- 

He tells em 

[leaf 147 d] 

how 500 of 
liis men were 
2472 drowndat 
but he 

2476 and is a 

come from 
the siege of 


He begs food 
and goods of 
2484 them. 


2459. Menalippus] And Menalippus D 1. 
2461. of] to A to] gan D 1. 2468. of] on C. 
2481. hym] he D 1. 2485. refut] refuyt D 1. 
2487. wit] wete A, D 1. 

844 Pyrrhus kills Atastus's two Sons, and a Knight of his. [BK. V 

follows a stag. 


and lies 

kills him, 

and Mena- 
lippus too, 
when he 
returns ; 

as well as 

a knight of 

Pyrrhus goes 
back to his 

As hym sempte it was to hym dewe, 

)3oru3 J>inne & pikke only to pwrswe 2492 

He spareth nat, but alweye after rood ; 

And his broker with Firms stille abood 

Polistenes and toke of it noon hede, 

But in al haste a-^te fro his stede, 2496 

On Jje grene to reste hym )>er beside, 

As he pat was wery for to ryde, 

With-oute meyne beyng hym silffe] sool, 

Lestyuge of Pirrus J?e compleint & j?e dool. 2500 

But sodeynly, or he nry^t aduerte, 

Cruel Pirrus ran hym to f>e herte, 

And left hym ded, lyggynge on )>e plein. 

"Whan Menalippus repeired was ageyn, 2504 

Seynge his broker baskyng in his blood, 

And Pirrus eft, furious and wood, 

With a face of colour pale and wan, 

To Menalippus in his ire ran,* 2508 

And slowe hym eke, or J>at he toke hede. 

And Jms j?ei laie on J>e grouwde & blede, 

))e brewer two, with Pirrus swerd I-slawe. 

And he anon aside gan hym drawe, 2512 

Metyng a kny^t, wer it of sort or cas, 

As seith J>e story, called Cynaras, 

Of whom Pirrus gan in hast enquere, 

Whos man he was or what he dide [tjhere ; 2516 

And he answered, & made no tariynge, 

He was servauwte with J?e my^ti kyng 

Called Atastus, lord of ]?at centre. [leaf us a] 

And Pirrus ]?o, of dedly enmyte, 2520 

With cruel swerde, al freshe & red of blod, 

Ran hym poru^-oute, as any lyouw wood. 

And after J>at )>e forest he forsoke, 

And in al hast ]>e ri$t[e] weye he toke 2524 

To ship ageyn, pale & blak of hewe, 

2491. hym] it A. 

2497, 98 are transposed in D 1, and marked b and a. 

2500. Lestynge] Listnynge D 1 2nd he] om. A. 

2502. Cruel] Cruelly D 1. 2504. Whan] And whamie D 1. 

2508. ran] he ran C. 2511. I-slawe] slawe D 1. 

2519. Atastus] Adrastus D 1. 

BK. v] Pyrrhus meets Atastus, and says he is Priam's son. 845 
And gan anon to araie hym newe, dresses in 

A , . ., , . , , . ._. royal purple, 

Al in purpil, wmche, as clerkes telles, 

Is for kynges & for no wy$t elles. 2528 

And Jjarane Pirrus, freshe & wel be-seyn, 

To J>e forest repeired is ageyn, 

Wher sodeynly of hap in his walkyng 

In short while he mette with ]>e kyng, 2532 meets King 

Old Atastus, pat asked of Pirrus, 

"What man art J>ou, [fat] be J>i silf[e] Jms 

Walkest )ws [here] al day to and fro ? " 

" Certes," quod Pirrus, " ful of sorwe & wo, 2536 

Inly supprisid of hertly compleynyng, 

Oon of Jje sonys of Prianms )>e kyng and says he 

I was whilom, put oute of memorie, Priam's sons, 

Whan J>at Troye floured in his glorie, 2540 

Now refutles, in-to meschef bro^t, 

I walke sool, ful of care & J>ou$t, 

Per in exile oute of Troie touw, 

With cruel Pirrus to lyven in presouw, 2544 imprisond by 

Bourcde vn-to hym, J?ou3 me be ful loth, 

Myn hond assured with many ful gret oth 

Tobeye his lust in captiuite 

Lo, here is al, Jms it stant with me ! " 2548 

Howe Atastus enquyred of Pirrus if he knewe ought 
of Pirrus governance, and Pirrus made him a 
synge to J>e Cave wher Pelle was, to thentent 
to scley hym in lokenge thidere. 1 

Atastus )>o, of entenciouw, Atastus asks 

After many o]?er questiouw, 

Enquered of hym in his daliauwce, 

3if he knewe ou$t of Pirrus gouernauwce, 2552 

Or 2if bat he koude ouat vnderstonde him where 

Pyrrhus i*. 

Wher he hym kepte sith he cam to londe. 
"I-wis," quod he, "jif 36 list hym haue, 

2527. Al] As D 1. 2533. Atastus] Adastus D 1. 
2535. >us] om. D 1 al day] a day D 1. 

2539. whilom] som tyme now D 1. 2541. in-to] nowe to D 1. 
2549. Atastus] Adastus D 1. 2550. oj>er] anothir D 1. 
2551. Enquered] Conqueryd A, Enqueringe D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 144 c. 

846 Thetides pray sPyrrhus to spare Atastus. Peleus appears. [BK. V 



in yon cave, 

and draws 
his sword to 
slay Atastns. 

But Queen 


prays him to 
spare her 


says he'll kill 
Atastus for 


On which, 
Peleus is 
brought out 
of the cave. 

He kepij) hym cloos in ]>e 3onder cave 2556 

Amonge bruskaile with a shrouded face," 

Makyng a signe to J?e same place. 

And al was doon for an ydel ma^e : 

For while ]>e kyng J>edirward gan ga$e, 2560 

Hasti Pirrus gan his swerd oute drawe 

In purpos f ul Atastus to haue slawe ; 

But wonderly, J>e story can $ow lere, 

Queue Thetides dide anoon appere, 2564 

Al be-reyned with terys on hir face, 

And gan J>e swerd of Pirrus to embrace, 

Preiyng hi?ft his dedly hond restreyne. 2567 

" Hastow * nat slayn my ^ong[e] breper tweyne? [leaf us &] 

And now, alias ! my fader, hoor and gray, 

Merciles fro me wilt take a-way 1 

Put vp ]ji swerde ! & no blood ne shede ! 

And haue pite vp-on Jri kynrede, 2572 

And aduerte clerly to ]?e fyn, 

How ]?ou art come of ])e same lyne, 

And hatful is, who-so loke a-ri3t, 

Vnkynde blood in euery mamiys sijt." 2576 

And Pirrus Jx>, as any tigre wro]?e, 

Gan afferme, with many ful gret ofe, 

))at who-so grucche or a-geyn[e]s pleyne, 

He shal hym sleen with his hondis tweyne : 2580 

" For hath nat he be fals extorcioim 

Put Pelleus oute of his regiouw, 

Whiche is ^our lord, & 36 his trewe wif ? 

Jjat finally he shal lese his lyf, 2584 

And here anoon of myn hondis deye ; 

In Jns mater J?er is no more to seye." 

But Pelleus, darynge in Jje cave, 

Of grace only list his* lif to saue 2588 

Al o)>er help platly is for nou^t. 

And Pelleus was anoon for]?e brou^t, 

Croked & olde, vnweldy eke to se, 

And to-fore Pirrus fil douw on his kne, 2592 

2556. >e] om. D 1. 2562. Atastns] Adastus D 1. 

2568. Hastow] And hastow C. 2578. many] many a D 1. 

2588. his] hir C. 

Pyrrhus spares Atastus. They are to share the Rule ofThessaly. 847 
Beseching hvm vriih a pitous face Peieus begs 

, , . . , . Pyrrhus not 

At nis request taken hym to grace, 

And J?at he wold in his manly herte 

Goodly considre J>e dedly wo & smerte 2596 

Of Atastus. and be mortal pevne to kin 

r Atastus, 

J)at he hadde for his sonys tweyne, 

Whiche laie ded to-forn hym on J>e grene, whose 2 sons 

" Slayn viiih $our swerde J>at is so sharp & kene, 2600 

Whiche he ne may recuren in no wyse, 

J)e sorwe of whiche* ou^t I-now sufFyse, 

ftou} $e on hym do no more vengaurcce : 

Al J>is peised iustly in balauwce ; 2604 

Sith he is hooly submitted to $our my$t, 

Take]) now hym to merci anoon ri$t, 

And late $oure swerd his age not consume 

J3is my request, as I dar presume." 2608 

And }>araie Pirrus, shortly for to seyn, Pyrrhus 

Whan he hadde put vp his swerd ageyn, 

Seynge merci my^tje] most availe, 

With-onie wordis or any rehersaile, 2612 

First of al, to-forn hem euerychon, 

be kynges made accorden in-to oon, Then he and 

J J Atastus agree 

By his wisdam, concluding vp in dede, 

}5at eche of hem shulde his ri3t possede 2616 

In Thesalye, parted in-to tweyne, [leaf use] to divide 

)3at noufer hadde mater to compleyne, 

Eueryche to regne in his dewe se. 

And while ]>ei were to-gidre alle jjre, 2620 

Oute of presence of any o)>er man, 

Atastus first Jms his tale gan : 

Howe Atastus resygnede his parte of the kyngdam 
of Thesalye to his cosyne Pirrus. 1 

" Sirs," quod he, " to ^ow is nat vnknowe 

How J>oru3 age now I am hrou^t lowe, 2624 proposal 

2602. whiche] swiche C. 2603. Je] thou A. 
2608. }?is] This is D 1. 2609. new 1 A. 
2614. made] he made D 1. 2617. in-to] in A. 
2622. gan] bigan D 1. 2623. new 1 D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 145 a. 


Atastus gives up Thessaly to Pyrrhus. [BK. v 


and hie eons 

resigns the 
crown of 

ng And j)oru3 naturis kyndly mocyouw 
Am wexe feble of wyt and [of] resouw, 
Beyng vnweldy of my lymes alle 

So many ^eris am vp-on me falle 2628 

And can vnejje any )>ing discerne, 
To feble, in soth, a kyngdam to gouerne, 
Of lyf nor deth takyng now noon hede, 
Sith my sonys slay[e]n ben and dede, 2632 

And sool am left now wet/i-oute eyr, 
Of worldly lust fully in dispeir, 
j?e tyme passed of my felicite. 

Fortunys turne with mvtabilite 2636 

Hath tau^t me, plewly, I dar it wel expresse, 
In worldly loie is no sikernesse, 
Nor verray trust no while to abide ; 
But I wil now for my silf prouide, 2640 

And in al hast, by prudent puruyauwce, 
Me discharge * of al gouernauwce 
Ageyn my sort me list not maligne ; 
But septer & crowne frely I resigne, 2644 

Of Thesalye lordshipe & eke lond 
Of my fre wil hool in-to ]>in hond, 
)per schal no man reclayme nor* seye nay, 
Interupte nor make no delay 2648 

Touching j>is J?ing, by no collusiouw, 
For I J>e putte in* pocessioura." 
And, here-vp-on, of al fat euere he seide 
Makyng ful feith, his hond in his he leide, 2652 

Quene Thetides sittyng J?ere present. 
And Pelleus, of J>e same en tent, 
Yn-to Pirrus for his purpa[r]tye 

Eesigned eke J>e ri3t of Thesalye, 2656 

Fully affermyng J?at of $ore a-go 
His ful desire and his loie also 
Was euere in oon his nevew to succede, 
As ri3tful eyr his kyngdam to possede, 2660 

2626. Am] I am D 1. 2628. arn] bene D 1. 
2632. Sith] Sithen D 1. 2637. tau^t] caujte D 1. 
2642. discharge] dischange C. 2646. hool] hoolly A. 
2647. nor] & C, ne D 1. 2650. in] in >e C. 
2651. here-vp-on] ther upon A. 

BK. v] Pyrrhus is crownd King of Thessaly. 

" And outerly, wM-oute repentaurcce, 

Al pat longe]) [vn-]to my lig[e]auwce, 

Septer & swerd, crowne* & diademe, 

So as a kyng lyf and* deth to deme, 

In-to )>in bond, w/tft-oute lenger date, 

)?is same lioure hooly I translate." [leaned] 

And whan J>e knotte of fis co?menciou?i 

Was fully brou^t to conclusions, 

Parformyd vp hool J>e vnite 

For euermore, atwen J>ese kynges J)re, 

Atastus kny3tes, disseuered envirouw, 

Oute of }>e forest be descended douw, 

And be bidding, platly, of her lord 

Jpei were echon sworn to J)is acord. 

And attonis ]>is lusti companye 

To Thesalye fast[e] gan hem hi^e ; 

And Pirrus folke, ligginge on j>e se, 

Be seiled for)>e, streit to J)e cite. 

And Atastus doth sette a parlement, 

Where openly he gaf coramauwdement 

jpat alle his liges, of hi^e or* lowe estat, 

WM-oute strif or any more debate, 

Specially of gentil blod y-born, 

J?e same day to Pirrus to be sworn 

Like her degres in J>e royal halle, 

To perseuere his trew[e] liges alle 

Durynge her lyf, for ernest or for game. 

And Pelleus coramauwded hafe ]?e same 

For his parti, wz't^-outen any fraude. 

And fus "with loie & solemne laude, 

Pirrus was of euery maner age 

Gladly accepted to his heritage. 

And on a day fortunat and good, 

With glad aspectus whan )>e heuene stood, 

Wei according to swiche maner J>ing, 

Worjri Pirrus was y-crowned kyng 





When this 

is settled, 


2676 and 

men sail to 


All the folk 

2684 swear alle- 
giance to 



and he is 
crownd King 
2696 of Thessaly. 

2662. to] vnto A. 2663. swerd crowne] crowne swerd C. 

2664. and] or C. 2675. And] Alle D 1. 

2679. Atastus] Adastus D 1. 2681. or] & C. 

2689. For] On D 1. 2696. y-crowned] crowned D 1. 

850 Menalippus and Polisthenes are buried royally. [BK. v 

I'll not say 
anything of 
the Corona- 
tion revels, 

but turn to 
King of 

who was suc- 
ceeded by his 


buries royally 
and Poll- 


I'll now tell 
you the end 
of Pyrrhus. 

Of Thesalye, ]>e riche regiourc 

It were but veyn to make mencioiw 

Of her reuel ne her gret array, 

NOT of Jje fest made Jje same day, 2700 

Eke in J?e story I fynde it nat, in soth. 

I wyl passe ouer as myn auctor doth 

Saue in his boke it is specefied 

J?at J>e kyngdam was fer magnified 2704 

Of Thesalye by J>e grete rny^t 

Of ]?is Pirrus, whilom so good a kny^t, 

Where I leue hym in his royal se, 

Tournyug agayn to kyng Ydumee, 2708 

Whiche in jris while was graue vnder stoon. 

And after hym, his sone Mereoiw, 

j)e story seith, was crownyd ki/zg of Crete ; 

But a while regnyng in quyete, 2712 

He deide also it wold[e] be noon oj)er. 

And ]>awne anon Leorica, his broker, 

As ri^tful eyr be successions [icafiwa] 

Was crowned kyng of fat regiouw, 2716 

In whiclie tyme Atastus, out of drede, 

By ]?assent of Pirrus, as I rede, 

Ful besi was to make in special 

A riche toumbe, passyngly royal, 2720 

Where buried wern \viih ful huge pres 

Menalippus and Polistenes, 

Bo]?e two in ]>e forest slawe 

jporu^ Pirrus swerde, be ful cruel la we 2724 

Of hem can I noon o)>er processe make, 

But euene her fully my leve * I take 

Of hem boj>e, and also eke yfere 

Of Atastus, her owne fader dere, 2728 

Of whom, sothly, for al his lokkes hore, 

In Troye boke rede I can no more. 

But now mvst I ageyn to Pirrus* wende, 

To write of hym pe sory woful* ende, 2732 

2706. whilom] somtyme D 1. 

2714. And >awne] Thanne in haste D 1. 

2717. Atastus] Adastus D 1. 2719. Ful] But D 1. 

2724. be] with D 1 cruel] gret D 1. 2726. leve] tale 0^ 

2731. Pirrus] pwrpos C. 2732. sory woful] woful sory C. 

falls, madly 
in love with 
the wife of 
Orestes ; 

ravishes her, 

and takes her 
home as his 

BK. v] Pyrrhus ravishes Hermione, the wife of Orestes. 851 

Whiche, whati he sat hi;est in his se, 
Made ful blind wit/?, veyn prosperite, 
Gouernyng ]>e lond of Thesalye, 
He falsly fil in-to a fantasie 
To sette his loue on Hermyon ]>e quene, 
Horestes wyf, regnynge in Methene, 
For whom he brent hoot as any fyre. 
And in fulfillyng of his foule desire, 
His pwrpos hool )>us he brou^t aboute : 
Hir rauyssynge whil hir lord was oute, 
Lad hir hoom & hilde hir as his wyf, 
Semyng to hym it was a blisful lyf 
And ful reles of his peynes smerte. 
Of whiche Horestes bar ful hevy herte, 
And cast hym pleynly avengid for to be 
Whan he may haue opportunyte ; 
For )>ilk[e] tyme, pou^ he had[de] wrong, 
He was to feble & Pirrus was to strong. 
Whiche held also, in stori it* is tolde, 
Andronomeca with hym in housholde, 
Hectoris wyf, by whom whylom she Ijad 
A litel child, whiche with hir she lad 
)3e sege complet and destrucciouw 
Whan she was brou^t out of Troye tourc : 
Lamedonta, I fynde, was his name, 
Encresyng after to ful worjn fame. 
And by Pirrus she had a sone also 
Called Achilleydos, so as writ Guydo ; 
And J>is wommen, for al hir gret estate, 
Atwen hem silf amonge wern at debate : 
And Hermonye, in hir Ire al hoot, 
In compleynyng to hir fader wrot 
ftat hir fere, for al hir hi$e degre, 
Andronomeca was cherisshed bet J?an she 
Of kyng Pirrus, besechyng Menelay 
Tenhasten hym, in al ]>at euere he may, 
Come hym silf anoon fat it were do, 



2 744 




by whom he 
has a son, 
2760 Achilleidos. 

tlio he baa 





[leaf u&] 2764 


writes in 
wrath to her 
father, Mene- 

that Pyrrhun 
to her. 

2736. falsly] fully D 1. 2751. it] as C. 

2753. whylom] somtyme D 1. 2756. out of] vn to D 1. 

2762. Atwen] Betwene D 1. 



Orestes kills Pyrrhus in the He of Delos. [BK. v 

To sle )>is woman & hir* childe also. 
And he bood nat, "but faste gan hi??z 
In an hete, towarde Thesalye 
tries to kiii To be vened with his swerde of stele 


but she is 
rescued from 

Vp-on hir pat trespasse]?* neuer-a-dele. 

But maugre hym, in al his cruelte, 

She was reskewed myd of pe cite. 

It is a )>ing whiche ha]>* nat ben herd : 

To a wo?wman a kyng to drawe his swerd- 

I wil no more in ]>is mater dwelle, 

In maner shamed it to write or telle. 




This was 

Pyrrhus was 
in Delos, 

to pray to 
Apollo for 
the soul of 

Orestes goes 
to Delos with 
his knights, 

ami slave 

How Cruelly kynge Horrestes, in the Tempylle of 
Appollo within the Ille of Delos, scleugh Pirrus, 
for that he had ravisshede quene Hermone, his 
wyff, and here kept in avoutreye. 1 

But }>is was doon while Pirrus of corage 

To Delos was goon on pilgrymage, 

Havyng with hym but a litel rout, 

To Appollo to knelen & to loute, 2784 

For ]?e soule to preyen of Achille, 

And his avowes also to fulfille, 

And ]>anken hym with hu??zble affecciourc 

Of good expleit he had at Troye tourc, 2788 

And for wreche, also, })at was take 

At pe cite for his faderis sake. 

But al ]?is )>ing here y-specified 

Kyng Horestes warly hath espied, 2792 

And to Delos gan hasten him ful ri^t, 

Ledyng with hym many lusty kny^t ; 

And vnwaiiy he with Pirrus mette, 

And vengably vp-on hym he sette, 2796 

feat finally in )>at strauwge londe 

Horestes slow hym with his owne hond. 

2770. hir] >is C. 2774. trespasse>] trespassed C. 
2776. myd of] amid D 1. 2777. ha>] has C. 
2781. of] om. D 1. 

2791. al] for al D 1 y-specified] specified D 1. 
2794. many] many a D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 145 d. 

BK. v] Pyrrhus is buried. Orestes recovers his wife Andromache. 853 

I fynde, in soth, he made no diffence, 

So sodeyn was J?e mortal violence 2800 

Of his enmy, he koude nat asterte : mn'tdetad 


.bor or fat he my^t his^werd aduerte, 

He was on hym enviroim al be-set, 

ftilke tyme it my^tfe] be no bet ; 2804 

For J?er was nouper socour nor declyn. 

ftus was Firms brou^t vn-to his fyn, and is wid. 

Late crowned kyng of Thesalye. 

Lo, here be guerdouw of avoutfelrie ! 2808 see the 

T ., reward of 

JLo, now pe mede and reward is fill rif, adultery: 

To mysuse anoper ma?inys wyf ! 

It is no drede, folowe shal vengaimce, 

Sodeyn deth, or vnwar meschaimce, 2812 

Whiche euery man gretly ou^te charge. [leaf iwcj 

And in Delos in a temple large 

Kyng Firms was lokked vnder stoon ; Pyrrhus is 

And Horestes forthe his weie is goon, 2816 Orestes takes 

111. i f his wife 

And by torce gat his wyi ageyn home. 

)per was no wy^t durste hym J>o wet^-seyn 

And to Methene proudly is repeired. 

And Thesalye, pitously dispeired,* 2820 Theswiy i 

Destitut, as fei fat can no red, 

Whan )>ei wist her wor]?i kyng was ded 

And eyr was noon, by successions an heir to 

To gouerne ]?at noble regiou?z 2824 

Sane Achilleydos, bat but litel a-forn except 

T ,* . AchilleiUos, 

In rirrus abscence was in Grece born, 

Fully of age nat a quarter clene : 

)5e 3ou)>e of whom, sothly, was to grene, 2828 who is too 

Who liste considre, & to tendre of my^t, 

Ful many day, to reieishe his ri$t, 

And to goue?*ne with septer in his hond 

J?e large bou^dis of so gret a lond. 2832 

And }it )>is child, likly and ri^t faire, 

In verray soth was born to ben eyre 

2805. nouj>er socour] socoure noon D 1. 

2808. here] howe D 1. 2809. fnl rif] ful of strif D 1. 

2813. gretly oujte] ou3te gretly for to D 1. 

2820. dispeired] disepeired C, disespeyred A. 

2827. of age] om. D 1. 2830. many] many a D 1. 

854? The Trojan captives in Thessaly are set free. [BK. v 

After Pirrus : pis is pe trouthfe] pleyn 
J3er was no man J>at list it wM-seyu. 2836 

when But, I fvnde, whan he cam to age 

Acl.illeidos . J 

comes of age, He resigned hool his hery tage 

he resigns 

Thessaly to ^ h{ s broper frely and his ri$t 

Hecto?'- son Lamedonte, a wonder manly kny^t, 2840 

)pat was discendid of Troianysshe blood, 

Doun fro pe stook of hym J)at was so good, 

Flour of kny3thod, diffence of Frigia, 

j)at hym begat on Andronomeca 2844 

Ordeyned now, who-so gruche or frowne, 

Of Thesalye for to here pe crowne. 

And whan he was made lord of pat lond, 

And al was frely resigned to his hond, 2848 

who orders He hath comauwded, no man dar replie, 

all the Trojan , < i mi i 

captives Jjoru^ pe kyngdam 01 al Inesalye, 
)3at alle pat wern in captiuite 

Or prisoners of Troye pe cite, 2852 

For loue or hate, excepciou?^ was noon, 
to be set free, Jjat alle shulde at her large goon, 
By ful assent of Achilleydos ; 

And swiche as wern eke in presoim cloos, 2856 

"WWi-oute raunsou?^ shal deliue?'ed be, 
And reioisshe pe fulle liberte 
By custom vsid, bo]>e in borwe & toun, 
Of J>e liges of J?at regioura. 2860 

And jjus )je folke \>ai cam pral fra Troye 
to their great Restored ben sodeinly to loie [leaf U9d] 

By Lamedonte, and I-maked fre. 
And he eke regned in his royal se 2864 

Ful my^tely, as I haue made mynde ; 

In Troye boke no more of hym I finde, 

Nor of Pirrus, nor of his kynred. 

Fro hens forj>e I can no processe rede, 2868 

But incidentes pat here no substaurace, 

Whiche were but veyn to put in remembrance, 

2835. is] om. A. 2841. Troianysshe] Troyans D 1. 
2848. to] in to D 1. 2859. borwe] burgh A. 
2864. regned] regneth A, D 1. 
2868. processe rede] more precede D 1. 

BK. v] Miraculous appearance of King Menon' s dead Queen. 855 

Except myn auctor, I not to what entent, Guide here 

Here Impeth in a litel incident 2872 Sen?" 

I-wrou^t & doon of ful $ore a-goon, 

Touching )>e deth of ]>e kyng Menon, about King 

Whiche be envie of cruel Achilles 

Was slawe, in soth, among Mirundones, 2876 

Only for he proudly gan purswe 

Vp-on Achilles Troylus to reskwe. 

Whom kyng Priam made buried be 

Beside Troylus in Troye J?e cite, 2880 

In a temple y-bilt of marbil olde. 

Howe quene Menone, longe aftire that she dyed, 
kam to ]?e towmbe of here husbonde, & karide 
away his bones. 1 

And to what fyn [|>at] Jris tale is tolde, 

In J>is chapitle I shal reherse anoon : 

fte noble quene of J>is kyng Menon, 2884 His dead 

After J?e tyme long & many day 

)3at she was ded & grauerc vnder clay, 

At hys toumbe heuenly gan appere deckt with 

Al be-set with bri^t[e] stems clere, 2888 appears at 

Whos similitude, for to rekne al, 

Was lyke a }>ing ]>at were immortal, 

)3at no man my^t outterly sustene 

To beholde, of lok she was so shene, 2892 

DOUTI discendyng fro ]>e firmament, 

Ful many man being J>ere present, 

Clad in a mantel ful celestial, 

And of hir port passingly royal, 2896 

With swet[e]nes freshe as any rose, 

Made in al haste )?e toumbe to vnclose * opens it, 

Of hir lord, & take]? oute J>e bonys, bones, 

And in a cheste made of gold & stonys 2900 them in a 

2874. 2nd )>e] om. D 1. 2878. Troylus] to Troylus D 1. 
2881. y-bilt] bilte D 1. 2883. new IT A. 
2885. many] many a D 1. 2894. many] many a D 1. 
2898. vnclose] enclose C. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 1466 (misplaced after line 2882). 

856 . Lydgate is weary ; l>ut will tell Ulysses's end. [BK. v 

Queen then 
disappears ; 

and as this is 

beyond my 

I'll tell you 
the end of 


and sharpen 
my pen to 
do it, 

for I'm tired, 

and near the 
end of my 
Troy Book. 

She couched hem, as fast as euer she may, 

Disapered, & wente anoon hir way. 

And to-for J?at nor after, in certeyn, 

In Jjilke place she was neuer seyn. 2904 

So??mie affermyng, as by liklynes, 

She was oujjer auwgel or goddes, 

J3e soule or fate of j?e same kyng 

I can not deme in swiche heuenly ping, 2908 

Nor fer-in holde noon oppinioiw, 

For it transcendeth, shortly, my resouw. 

And me list nat in swiche mater diffyne, [leaf isoo] 

But resort ri$t as any lyne 2912 

To Ylixes, & a while dwelle, 

Of his ende }>e surplus for to telle, 

And how J?at he my$t[e] nat eskape 

])e parodye,* J>at was for hym shap ; 2916 

For Parchas han his laste terme set, 

And Antropos mesured oute & met 

His lyues jjrede, on ]>e rokke sponne. 

Defende ]?i silf, Vlixes, $if J>ou konwe ! 2920 

Shewe )>i manhod, & be nat afferde, 

And be wel war of ])i sonys swerde ! 

For I shal now, lyk as I am wont, 

Sharpen my penne, boj>e rude & blont, 2924 

To descryue J>e fyn of J>i soiour, 

Yp-on J?e bouwdis set of my labour : 

For almost wery, feint & waike I-now 

Be )>e bestes & oxes of my plow, 2928 

J)e longe day ageyn ]?e hil to wende. 

But almost now at ]>e londes ende 

Of Troye boke, ficche I wil a stake, 

Saue I mote spende a fewe lines blake 2932 

))e laste chapitle shortly to translate 

Of al J>is werke, and ympen in ]>Q date 

Of * }>ilke day deth sette on hym arest, 

Ful execute by hym he louede best. 2936 

2916. parodye] parodoye C. 2919. sponne] y sponne D 1 

2931. ficche] pycche A. 

2933. chapitle] chapitre A, D 1. 

2935. Of] On C. 




BK. v] Ulysses's Dream. A lovely Lady appears to 

Of A wonderful dreme that kynge Vlyxes had, and 
J>e last in his days, which was a[ss]ingede by his 
clerkes, that one next of his blode shulde gyve 
hym his dethes wownde. 1 

LOwe on my knees now I muste loute 
To J>ilk[e] god fat make]) men to route, 
And causeth folke to haue glad[e] swevenes, 
Boj?e at morwe & on lusti evenes, 
Whan Morpheus, with his slepi wond, 
Whiche ]>at he holdeth alweie in his bond, 
Hath marked hem a-geyn J)e dirke nyjt, 
To makew men bo)>e mery and ly$t, 
And som while for to han gladnes, 
And sodeynly to falle in hevynes, 
Lik as to hem he 3eveth euydence 
By sondry signes in his apparence. 
Vn-to Jjat lord now moste I mekely preie, 
At jns tyme my stile to conveye 
Of Vlixes J)'e dreme to discrive, 
J)e laste of alle he hadde be his lyue, 
Declaryng hym be tokenes ful notable 
And by signes verray demonstrable, 
As he slepte ageyn ]>e pale mone, 
His fatal day Jjat shulde folwe sone. 
For it fel )ms : as he a-bedde lay, 
After mydny^t, to-fore J>e morwe gray, 
Hym Jjou^t he sawe appere a creature 
To his sijt celestial of figure 
Noon erthely Jing, but verraily devyne, 
Of port, of chere wonder femynyne, 
And, as hym sempte in his fantasye, 
Like a ping sent oute of fair[i]e ; 
For Jje bewte of hir goodly face 
Recouwforted, pleynly, al J>e place, 
Moste surmouwtynge & most souereyne ; 
And j>e clernes of hir eyne tweyno, 

2945. somwhile] somtyme D 1. 
2949. Vn-to] Nowe vn-to D 1 now] om. D 1. 
2958. to-fore J>e] to D 1. 2962. 2nd of] and D 1. 
1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 146 c. 

him. 857 

I must now 
kneel to the 
God of 

and pray him 
to help me 

2952 Ulysses's last 


[leaf 1506] 2960 

As he lies 
in bed, 
after mid- 
night appears 
to him a 
lovely lady 

2964 from fairy- 


858 Ulysses's Dream. He wants his will of the Lady. [BK. v 

Al sodeynli, or men my$t aduerte, 

Perce wolde euene to J>e herte 

Diffence noon my^tfe] be devysed. 

And Vlixes, with hir loke supprysed, 2972 

Gan hir beholde al-weie more & more, 

And in his slep for to si^e sore, 

Presyng ay with ful besy peyne 

Hir tenbracen in his armys tweyne ; 2976 

But* ay J?e more he presed hir to se,* 

Ay J)e more from hym [she] gan to fle ; 

And* ay J>e more [j>at] he gan purswe,* 

She ageynwarde gan hym to eschwe, 2980 

So contrarie to hym was fortune ! 

And whan she sawe he was importune, 

She axed hym, shortly, what he wolde ; 

And he to hir J?e platfte] troujje tolde : 2984 

" Certis," quod he, " my lyues emperesse, 

Wher jmt }e ben woman or goddes 

I can not deme nor lugen half ari^t, 

I am'so dirked and blendid in my sijt; 2988 

But I dar wel affermyn in J>is place, 

My lyf, my deth stant hooly in $our grace, 

More of merci requiryng J>araie of ri^t 

To rewe on me, whiche am jour owne kny^t, 2992 

And of pite and compassiou^ 

Goodly to sen to myn sauaciouw : 

For my desire but I may fulfille, 

ftis silf[e] ny$t to haue of $ow my wille, 2996 

To my recure I can no remedie, 

For lak of rouj>e but I most[e] dye. 

Now haue I al, a-twexe hope & drede, 

My silf declared to $oure wowmanhede." 3000 

And after J?at she kepte hir clos a while, 

Ulysses tries 

tt> embrace 
this dream- 

but she flees 
from him. 

She asks 
him what 
he wants. 

He says, 

his will of 

or he'll die. 

2969. Al] And D 1. 

2975. Presyng] Percyng A, Parceyuynge D 1. 

2976. Hir] Hym D 1. 

2977. 78 are misplaced with 2979, 80 in C. 
2977. But] And C, D 1. 

2979. And] But C purswe] to pursue C. 
2986. Wher] Whe>er D 1. 2988. sijt] myght D 1 . 
2993. of] haue D 1. 2998. but] but )>at D 1. 
2999. a-twexe] bitwene D 1. 

The Dream- 
lady says 
love for her 

means the 
death of one 
of them. 

BK. v] Ulysses's Dream. The Lady disappears. Ulysses wakes. 850 

And ful sadly gan on hym to smyle, 

And, as it is put in remembraimce, 

Seyde vn-to hym, wM sobre courctenauwce : 3004 

" Sothly," quod she, " fin affecciouw 

Wolde fully turne to confusiouw 

Of vs bofe, it is so perillous, 

So inly mortal and contagious, 3008 

ftat outterly, ]>er geynfe] may no red, [leaf 150 cj 

But oon of vs moste anoon be ded 

Jjis is fe fyn of fe hatful chauwce 

J}at shulde folwe after oure plesauwce," 3012 

And as Vlixes gan to ney^e nere, 

Beholdyng ay on hir heuenly cher, 

Where-as she stood vpri^t on fe grouwde, 

He sawe hir holde a spere longe & rouwde, 3016 

)2e hed f er-of al of burned stele, 

Forged new & grou^de wonder wele ; 

And f er-vppon in his avisiou^ 

He sawe a baner biased vp & doura, 3020 

])Q felde f er-of al [of] colour ynde, 

Ful of fysshes betyn, as I fynde, 

And in som bokys like as it is tolde, 

In fe myddes a large crowne of golde. 3024 

And or fat she turne gan hir face, 

Likly anoon to parte* oute of )>e place, 

She spak to hym, & seyde \n wordes pleyn : 

" J5is ful tokene of partyng of vs tweyn 3028 sheteiis him 

For euere-more, nowfer for sour nor swete, 

After fis day neuer ageyn to mete ! " 

And, disapering, anoorc hir leue she toke. 

And after fat he sodeynly* a-woke, 3032 

And gan to mvse in his fantasie 

What f ing J>is dreme my^tfe] sygnyfie ; 

But wher it ment owfer euel or good, 

])e secrenes he nat vndirstood, 3036 

For it surmouwtid, sothly, his resouw. 

3003. put] y-put A. 3007 to end of Troy Book, missing in A. 
3015. she] om. D 1. 3016. longc] large D 1. 
3020. biased] blasinge D 1. 3026. parte] parten C. 
3028. pis] f>is is D 1. 3032. he sodeynly] sodeynly he a 
3035. wher] whe>er D 1 ow>er] om. D 1. 

He sees that 
she hits a 
spear with 
a head of 

and a dark- 
blue banner, 

with fish 

and a golden 
crown em- 
on it. 

they'll never 
meet again. 
She vanishes; 

and Ulysses 

860 Ulysses s Dream interpreted. He imprisons his Son. [BK. v 

Ulysses sends 
for men to 

expound his 

They say he 
will soon be 

speard by 
his next of 

Ulysses tries 

to avoid this, 

and puts liis 
son Telamon 
in prison, 

so that no ill 
chance may 
befall him. 

}0er-fore he sent poru^ his regiouw 

For swiche as wern sotil expositours 

Of fate or sort, or crafti devinours, 3040 

For alle pe clerkis soget to his crowne, 

Tassemble in oon his sweuene to expowne. 

And whan pei knewe be informacioim 

)?e maner hool of his avisioiw, 3044 

J3ei conclude, accordynge in-to oon, 

})e tyme aprochep & shal come anoon 

}3at oon pat is nexte of his kynrede 

With a spere shuldfe] make hym blede. 3048 

Lat se wher he his fate can remewe ! 

Sip it is hard destyne to eschewe, 

As seyn po folke in per oppiniourc, 

)5at werke & truste on* constellaciourc. 3052 

And Ylixes, mvsyng on pis tale, 

Chauwgeth colour & gan wexe pale, 

Wonder dredful & ful of fantasies, 

Gan in hym-silf seke remedyes 3056 

To voide a-weie ping pat wil nat be 

He stareth brode, but he may nat se, [leaf iso d] 

His inward loke was vrilh a cloude shewt ; 

But wenyng he to haue be prudent, 3060 

Made calle his sone Thelamourc, 

And to be take & shette vp in presouw, 

He supposyng fully in his wit 

Fro alle meschef per-by to go quyte 3064 

He nat aduerteth nor ne toke noon hede 

To pe sharpnes of [pe] speris hed, 

Nor to pe fysshes in pe baner bete, 

Nor to pe se, wher pei swymme & flete, 3068 

Nor of pe quene pat called is Circes, 

))at signes brou^t of werre & nat of pes, 

Nor of pe crowne, tokene of dignite 

Of oon pat shal holde his royal se, 3072 

Mid pe wawes, bope fel & wood, 

3042. sweuene] dreme D 1. 3045. conclude] concluded D 1. 

3048. blede] to blede D 1. 3052. on] oon C. 

3053. pis] his D 1. 3060. to haue] for to D 1. 

3062. And] om. D 1. 3065. ne] om. D 1. 

3068. to] of D 1 &] or D 1. 3073. Mid] Amid D 1. 


3080 Ulysses 
only his son 


BK. v] Ulysses forgets he has had a Son, Telegonus, ly Circe. 861 

Amonge J>e fysshes in )>e large flood ; 

And he shal make J>e devisioiw, 

To-forne remembrid in thavisiouw, 

Ageyn his wil, of verray ignorauwce, 

And execute J?e fatal purueiaurcce 

Vp of )>e dreme wz't/i his spere of stele, 

Whiche Vlixes ccmsidereth neue?-e-a-dele, 

Nor to no wy^t hath suspeciouw 

But to his sone called Thelamouw, 

JOat is closed & shet vp in a tour. 

And Vlixes, with coste & gret labour, 

Fro day to day doth his besynes 

For hym-silf to make a forterresse, 

Bilt on a roche, of lym & square stonys, 

Depe diched aboute for ]?e nonys, 

Jpat no man may entre on no side, 

Where he caste}) al his lyue tabide 

With certeyn men chose in special, 

Nijt & day to wache on J>e wal 

J?at no wy$t shulde haue [noon] entre, 

But it so falle pat he be secre, 

Knowe of olde, and to couwceil sworne. 

Now, as J>e story rehersed hath to-forne, 

])e olde fool, pis dotard Vlixes, 

A sone hadde be-geten on Circes 

Freshe & lusti, ^onge and coraious ; 

And he was called Thelagonyus, 

Born in pe se amonge pe flodis rage, 

))at was also, [for] to rekne his age, 

Fyue & twenti $ere or pere a-boute ; 

But of his fader he was ay in doute 

What man he was or who it myjtfe] be, 

Beinge pere-of in noon-surete. 

Til on a day he, desirous to kuowe, [leaf 151 a] 

To his moder fil on knees lowe, 3108 

Beseching hir, goodly (& nat spare) 

Of his fader ]>e troupe to declare ; 

and builds a 

to live in, 


to stop any 
one entering 

But this old 
fool forgets 
that he has a 
uon by Circe, 

3100 eald Tele- 

aged 25; 

3104 and he 

doesn't know 
who his 
father is. 




He begs his 
mother to 
tell him. 

3079. Vp of] Vp on D 1. 3088. Depe] And depe D 1. 

3090. al] om. D 1. 3092. on] vppon D 1. 

3101. >e se] an He D 1. 3105. who it] what he D 1. 

862 Circe tells Telegomis that Ulysses is his father. [BK. v 

Circe puts 
her son 
off at first, 

but at last 
tells him his 
fattier is 


He resolves 
to see 


and sails to 


learns where 
Ulysses is, 

goes there, 

and asks for 

What he was, & where he shulde dwelle, 

He besou^t pat she wolde telle. 3112 

But, sothly, she long and many dales 

Of prudence put hym in del ayes, 

Til J?at she sawe she my^t haue no reste, 

So inportune he was in his requeste ; 3116 

And whawne she knewe ]>er was non o]>er bote, 

Fro point to point she tolde hym crop & rote 

Of Vlixes, & where fat he was kyng. 

And he anoon made no lettyng, 3120 

But toke leve it may no better be 

And seide pleinly he wolde his fader se ; 

Wher-of j>e quene gan in herte colde. 

But whan she sawe she my$t him nat witft-holde, 3124 

She hym besou^t, with chere debonaire, 

)?at he wolde sone ageyri repeire. 

And forthe he seileth onward on his wey, 

WM-oute abood, )>e silf[e] same day, 3128 

By many port and many fer contre, 

Til he was brou^t ]>ere he wolde be 

To Achaia, a lond of gret renouw. 

And he gan cerche Jjoru^ }>e regiouw 3132 

After j>e place and paleis principal 

Where-as ]>e kyng helde his se royal ; 

And he so long in ]>e contre rood, 

Til he was tau$t where )>e kyng abood, 3136 

])er Vlixes was shet vp in mewe, 

To whiche place in haste he gan pwrswe, 

A gret party releued of his sorwe. 

And on a Monday, erly be pe morwe, 3140 

Vn-to ]>e brigge J>e ri^t[e] weie he toke, 

And fond a porter deynous of his loke ; 

And lowly first he gan hym to preie 

)5at he wold goodly hym conveie 3144 

In-to J)e courte, & make no tariyncr, 

For a message he hadde to J>e kyng. 

But proudly he denyed hym J>e gate, 

3111. was &] is or D 1. 3118. hym] om. D 1. 
3121. no better] noon o>ir D 1. 
3140. Monday] day Dl. 

BK. v] Ulysses is mortally wounded ~by his son Telegonus. 863 
And shortly seide )>at he cam to late 3148 uiysses's 

m . . porter says 

lo entre ]>ere in any maner wyse, he can't 

And vngoodly gan hym to dispise, 

Frowarde of speche and malicious. 

But in al haste Thelagonyus, 3152 on which 

As he ]?at was in herte nat afferde, 

fee proude porter hent[e] be be berde, breaks ins 

And with his fyste brast * his chawle boon, 

feat he fil ded, mvet as a stoon ; [leaf isi&j 3156 andkuuium. 

And o)>er eke j>at hym bo with-stood 

He made proudly to lepe * in-to [be] flood ; 

And whan mo cam to make resistence, 

He hent a swerde, be manly violence, 3160 Then he 

And furiously in his Irous tene swo e rd, a 

(fee story seith) he slowe of hem fiftene, and sfoys 

Hym-silfe al-moste wounded to be deth, 

And gan, for-wery, sothly, faile bretli. 3164 

And Vlixes, what for noise & soun, uiysses 

m , -i , TIT comes down, 

lo pe brigge is descendid douw, 

Findinge his men at entre of J>e gate 

Ded & slayn be ful mortal hate ; 3168 

And he ful Irous hent anoon a darte, and hurls 

a dart at 

Of auenture stonding }>o a-parte, Tdegonus. 

And cruelly caste at Thelagoura. 

But J)e stroke, as in conclusions, 3172 

Damageth nat, for it glood a-side ; it slips aside; 

And he for haste no lenger wolde abide, 

Hent* vp be darte, wzt/i-oute more areste, and with it 

And smot be kyng lowe vnder be breste 3176 

feoru} be ribbes, shortly for to seie, wounds 

[feat] Of ]?e woiwde lie * moste [nedis] deie, mortally. 

Having J?o noon oppinioun 

feat he was kyng, nor suspeciouw, 3180 

Nor ]?at he had his owne fader slawe. 

Whiche faste gan to his ende drawe ; 

His wouwde was so dedly & so kene 

3155. brast] roof C. 3158. lepe] lepen C. 

3170. stondyng )>o a-parte] & >ou3te he shulde haue parte D 1. 

3173. Damageth] Damaged D 1. 

3175. Hent] Kent C vp >e darte] it vp D 1. 

3178. he] bat he C. 


Ulysses falls 

and, recollect- 
ing his 

tells liis men 
to fetch Tele- 
eonus to 

says he is the 

son of Circe 

by a king c:tld 

whom lie is 

Telegonus tells Ulysses that he is Circes son. [BK. v 






)?at he my^t hi?ft silve nat sustene, 
But pale & wan to J>e grouwde gan glide, 
His men aboute vp-on euery side, 
)5at besy wern to help hym and releue. 
But his sore gan so ake and greve 
}2at he wel felte )?at he mvste be ded ; 
But abrayding, as he lifte vp his heel, 
Havyng as 3it mynde & good rescue, 
Eemembre gan on his avisioun, 
And how it was tolde him, oute of drede, 
jpat oon ]>at was nexte of hys kynrede, 
Descendid dou?z from his owne lyne, 
His sweuene shal parforme to ]?e fyne 
And a-complisshe with* a dart of stele. 
And for he coude nat conceyve wele 
What ]>at he was, nor who it shulde be, 
He bad anoon vn-to his meyne, 
With-oute harme or any violence 
Fette anoon vn-to his presence 
])e $onge man whiche at J)e gate stood, 
Jpat hath )?at day shad so moche blood. 
And whan he was a-forn Vlixes * brou3t, 
Of hym he hath enquered oute & sou^t, 
Firste of his kyn and nexte of his contre : 
" Certis," quod he, " I was born in J>e se, 
Amonge fysshes myd pe wawes grene," 
And seide also his moder was a queue 
Called Circes, of whom e name is kouj^e 
Bo)>e Est & west, and ri^t fer be soupe, 
And tolde also his fader was a kyng, 
)pat hym begat at his home-comyng 
Fro Troye touw, toward his contre ; 
" And as my moder Circes tolde me 
Secrely, J?at he Vlixes hi^te, 
Of wham desirous for to han a si^te, 
I entred am J)is my3ti regiouw, 
And haue pursuyd vn-to Jris dongoun 

[leaf 151 <?] 






3192. on] of D 1. 3197. And] om. D 1 with] it \vith C, D 1. 
3205. Vlixes] hym C. 3209. myd] amid D 1. 
3213. D 2 begins again. 3220. And] I D 1. 

BK. v] Ulysses tells Telegonus that he has kild his own Father. 865 

Only in hope my fader to haue seyn ; 
But I se wel my labour is in veyn. 
And sith, in soth, loste is my traueyl, 
And fat it may on no side aveyle, 
It were foly lenger here to dwelle : 
Lo, here is al fat I can $ou telle 
Of my kynred ; axeth me no more." 
With fat Ylixes gan to sy$e sore, 
For lak of blood, as he fat was ful pale, 
And seide anoon, whan he herde his tale : 
" Now wote I wel my woful destine 
Fulfilled is it may noon of er be ! 
Now wote I wel fat it is to late 
To grucche or strive ageyn my pitous fate ; 
For my sone, as clerkes whylom tolde, 
Hath made an ende of my daies olde, 
)5er-on expectant, with peynes ful greuous ! " 
And, with fat word, Thelagonyus, 
Whan he wist ageyn natures lawe 
)?at he, alias ! hadde his fader slawe, 
Whiche in fat lond longfe] bar his crowne, 
W/tft-oute abood he fil anoon a-swo[w]ne, 
His clofes rent, his ^olwe here to-torn : 
" Alias ! " quod he, " fat euere was I born ! 
For cursid is my woful destine 
And my fortune, whiche I may nat fle ! 
Cursid my sort, cursid myn auenture ! 
And T, refus of euery creature, 
Forwaried eke my disposicioura, 
And cursid is my constellaciourc 
Cursed also and infortunat 
]3e hour in whiche my fader me [bejgat ! 
So wolde God, wetft-oute lenger red, 
Taquiten hym anoon fat I were ded, [leaf 151 d] 
To leie my lif for his deth to borwe ! " 
And whan f e kyng sawe his gretfe] sorwe, 

3234. ageyn] a3ens D 1. 3235. whylom] somtyme D 1. 

3242. a-swowne] in swowne D2, in swoun^D 1. 

3244. was I] I was D 2. 

3247. Cursed (both)] Cursid be D 1. 

3252. in] of D 2. 

He fears his 
labour is in 


3228 Ulysses 

and says his 
fate is seald, 

for his slayer 
is his son. 



and curses 
his destiny, 






3252 and the hour 
in which 
Ulysses begat 


866 Ulysses at-ones Telegonus & Telamon ; & then dies. [BK. v r 

Ulysses for- 
gives Tele- 
gonus for 
killing him, 

and sends 
for his son 

whom li 

to love 
and share his 
goods with 

Ulysses dies. 

And wist he was his sone of Circes* bom, 

By many signe rehersed here-to-forn, 

He vn-to hym anoon for-gaf his deth ; 

As he my^t for want & lak of breth, 3260 

So importable was his passioiw. 

And his sone ycalled Thelamoiw, 

Whiche haj> in presoim so many day be shet, 

To his presence in al haste was fet ; 3264 

Whiche, whan he saw his fader in swiche point, 

Vp-on J>e deth stondyng in disioint, 

And knewe also, & be troupe [ha)>] fouwde 

By whom he had his laste dedly woiwde, 3268 

A swerd he hent, &, mortally Irous, 

And haue roraie on Thelagonivs, 

Of hi$e dispit avenged for to be. 

But Ylixes of faderly pite 3272 

Made his men hold hym & restreyne ; 

And amyd of al his greuous peyne, 

By his prudence & J?at was don anoon 

He made his sones for to be al oon ; 3276 

And gaf in charge vn-to Thelamouw, 

Of enternes and affecciourc, 

And of hool herte, feyned neuer-adel, 

Al his lyue to loue his broker wel, 3280 

To parte wiih hym tresour, gold, & good, 

As to J>e nexte born of al his blood. 

And ]?o, in soth, was no lenger taried, 

Jjtit Vlixes rially was caried 3284 

Of Achaya to J?e chefe cite ; 

And after bat lyued daies bre, 

Wfct/i-oute more, & bo gaf vp be gost. 

I can nat seyn, pleynly, to what cost, 3288 

After ))is lyf bat his soule is goon, 

3257. Circes] Cures C. 

3258. signe] signes D 2, D 1 here] om. D 1. 
3263. many] many a D 1. 

3263, 64 are omitted in D 2. 

3266. >e] his D2, D 1. 3270. Thelagonivs] Thelamonivs D 1. 

3278. and] and of D 1. 3282. ]>e] om. D 2. 

3285. Of] To D 1 to] Jt was Dl. 

3289. Jns] his D 1. 

BK. v] Ulysses is buried. His Sons are Kings ofAchaia &Aulis. 867 

But in a towmbe of metal & of stoon uiysse* is 

J)e body was closed and yshet ; 

And after pat maked was no let, 3292 

frat Thelamouw, with gret sollennite, Hit son Tei*- 

I-crowned was in his fadres see, crownd king 

Swerd & septe?* deliuered to his hond 

Of Acliaya, a ful worpi lond, 3296 ofAchaia, 

Ri$t abundaurct of tresonr & of good. 

And Thelagouw with hym per abood 

A aere complet, wel cherisshed in his sht, and knights 

liis brother 

And of his broker toke ]?e ordre of kny3t ; 3300 Teiegomw, 

And for hym list no lenger per abide, 

fte kyng for hym wysly gan prouide, 

ftat he with gold, gret tresour, & plente [leaf 152 a] 

Repeired is home to his contre : 3304 wh 

' goes home 

And his moder, of age wex[e] sad, 15 molher 

Of [his] repeire passingly was glad, 

As she pat sawe be hir sorserie 

He skaped was many iupartie, 3308 

Many pereil, & many gret distresse. 

And after pat, she fil in-to seknesse, 

And hir dette ^alde vn-to nature, 

Whiche eskape may no creature 3312 

In al pis world pat is here lyuyng. 

After whos deth hir sorie was made kyng deathls'mad. 

Of Aulydos, pe merueillous contre, Auiu, f 

As I haue tolde, enclosed with a see, 3316 

Amonge rokkes, wher many shippes drowne ; 

And sixti 3ere per he bar his crowne, 

Jpis manly man, [pis] Thelagonyus. > ear8 

And his brother, Thelamonyus, 3320 

Regned also in his regiourc for 7o reif? " 9 

Seuenti wynter, as made is menciouw. 

And after pat, pei made a royal ende, 

And bope two to lubiter pei wende, 3324 

3293. sollennite] solewpnyte D2. 
3295. Swerd & septerj Sceptre & swerde D 1. 
3303. he] om. D 1 gret] & D 1. After 3322, D 1 inserts the 
following line : And aftir J>at ]>ei made is mencioun. 


868 Of Dares & Dictys, Trojan & Greek Writers, onthe Siege of Troy 
To regne fere among pe sterris bri^t. 

Here Dares, 
the poet ot 
Troy, stops. 

He was at 

the Siege; 

and Dictys 
tlie Greek was 
also there. 

They don't 
differ in 

save that 

says 800,006 
Greeks were 

and Dares 

fays 600,086 
were too. 

The Siege 
lasted 10 
6 months, 

and 12 days, 
ere the Greeks 
had lull 
of Troy. 

But now )>e lanter and )>e clere li 

Is wastid oute of Frigius Darete, 

Whilom of Troye wryter & poete, 3328 

Guyde haue I noon, forpe for to passe : 

For euene here in J>e silf[e] place 

He ficched hath )>e boiwdis of his stile, 

At J)e sege he present al ]>e while, 3332 

And ay in oon vrith hem dide abide 

Dites Jje Greke on pe toper side. 

And hope two as in her writyng 

Ne varie nat but in litel Jnng 3336 

Touching mater, as in special, 

)?at is notable or historial : 

I do no fors of incidentes smale, 

Of whiche, in soth, it is but litel tale. 3340 

Saue )>is Dites maketh mencioun 

Of pe noumbre slay[e]n at J>e ioun 

Lastinge ]>e sege, affermyng, out of drede, 

Ey^te hundrid pousand & sixe wer \er dede 3344 

On Grekis side, vpri^t in J>e felde ; 

And as Dares also jjere behelde, 

On Troye party in J>e werre kene 

Six huwdrid fousand seuenti & sixtene 3348 

Were slay[e]n j>ere in Gtiydo $e may se 

With hem pat cam to help[e] pe cite 

Fro many coost & many regiouw, 

In diffence & reskus of )>e toun. [leaf 152 6] 3352 

And ful ten $ere, so as I can caste, 

And sixe monies ]?e my3ti sege laste, 

Or it was gete, Dares writ hym silve 

And, ouermore, coinplet dayes twelve 3356 

Or Grekis hadde ful pocessiowi, 

By fals engyn of J?e Greke Synouw, 

3326. lanter] lanterne D 2, D 1. 

3328. Whilom] Somtyrae D 1. 

3329. Guyde] Of Guydo D 1 I noon for>e] not fer>er D 1. 
3336. in] in a D 2. 

1 There is no space between lines 3325 and 3326 in the MSS. 
Large capital supplied by editor. 

BK. v] Lydgate finisht this Troy Book, A.u. 1420. 


Like as to-forn rehersid was but late. 
I haue no more [of] latyn to translate 
After Dites. Dares, nor Guy do, 


And me to adden any more ber-to 

fean myn auctours specefie & seyn, 

fee occupaciourc, sothly, wer but veyn, 

Lik a maner of presumpciouw. 

And tyme complet of J>is translaciouw, 

By iust[e] rekenyng & accouwtis clere, 

Was a pousand & foure hundrid 3ere, 

And twenti ner, I knowe it out of drede 

After Jwt Crist ressey ved oure manhede * 

Of hir fat was Emperesse and quene 

Of heuene & helle, and [a] maide clene 

fee ey3te ^ere, by computacioun, 

Suynge after ]>e coronaciouw 

Of hym pat is most gracious in werkyng, 

Kerry )>e Fytye, J>e noble worjn kyng 

And protector of Brutis Albyoun 

And called is, foru^ his hi^e renouw, 

feoru^ his prowes & his chiualrie, 

Also fer as passe)) * clowde or skye, 

Of Normauwdie ])& my^ti conquerour : 

For poru^ his kny3thod & diligent labowr, 

Maugre alle fo )>at list hym [to] wzt//-seyn, 

He hath conquered his herytage ageyn, 

And by his my3ti prudent gouernau^ce 

Recured eke his trewe title of Frauwce : 

feat who-so liste loken and vnfolde 

fee pe-de-Grew of cronycles olde, 

And cerchen bokes y-write longe a-forn, 

He shal f ynde bat he is iustly born 

* " 

To regne in Frauwce by lyneal discent. 
And onward now he is made regent 
Of )>ilke lond durynge his fader lyf, 

3364. but] in D 2, D 1. 3365. Lik] And like D 1. 

3369. ner] Jeere D 1. 3370. manhede] maidenhede C. 

3380. Also fer] As ferforthe U 1 passejj] passed C. 

3387. so] om. D 2 loken] and loke D 1. 

3389. cerchen] cerchej> D 2, cerchetli D 1. 

3392. made] y mad D 2. 3393. fader] faders D 1. 

3360 I've no more 

of Dictys 

Dares or 



This trans- 

3368 A-D. 1*20, 


3376 of Henry v, 




the Con- 

who has 
Kingship or 


to which he 

is lineally 

3392 He is Regent 

870 Henry Vto be King ofFrance,& wed Princess Katherine. [BK. v, 

After Charles 
VI's death, 
Hy. V '11 be 
King of 

Then I hope 
the Golden 
Age '11 come 

and war 

between ua 
and France 

the two 

for Henry V 
is the Prince 
of Peace. 

He is to wed 

of France. 

Of his goodnes to voide werre & stryf, 
He to reioisshe, wfc't/i-oute more delay, 
Septer & crowne after j>e kynges day, 
As it is clerly, in conclusions, 
Enrolled vp in be coymencioim. 
And bawne I hope be tyme fortunat, 
Of be olde worlde called aureat, 
Kesorte shal, by influence of grace, 
))at cruel Mars shal no more manace 
With his lokis furious and wood, 
By false aspectus for to shede blood 
A-twene be folkes of bis rewmys tweyne, 
Whiche eue?y wy^t ou$t[e] to compleyne. 
But, as I trust in myn oppiniou?*, 
J?is worbi kyng of wisdam & resou^ 
And of kny^thod shal so doon his peyne 
To makcn oon bat longe hath be tweyne : 
I mene )>us, J>at Yngelond and Frau^ce 
May be al oon, with-oute variaunce, 
Oute of hertis old rancour to enchase 
By influence of his my^ti grace, 
)pat called is of clerkis, dout[e]les, 
))e souereyn lord and be p?*ince of pes. 
And I hope his grace shal now reyne, 
To sette reste atwene bis rewmys tweyne : 
For in his power, sothly, stondeth al ; 
And alliaiwce of be blod royal, 
J3at is knet vp by bonde of mariage, 
Of werre shal voide aweie }>e rage, 
To make pes with bri^t[e] bemys shyne. 
And on J>at is called Kateryne, 
And namyd is ri^t good & faire also, 
Shal be mene a-twixe boj>e two, 
Of grace enprentid in hir wommanhede, 
jDat to compleyne we shal haue no nede. 
And I hope hir gracious arryvaille 

[leaf 152 o] 










3404. aspectus] aspectis D 2, D 1. 

3405. A-twene] Betwene D 1. 

3409. so doon his] do his besy D 1. 3410. longe] nowe D 1. 
3413. Oute] And oute D 1. 3422. J>e] al J>e D 1. 
3426. a-twixe] bitwene D 1. 

BK. v] Lydyate prays Blessings on Princess Kathcrine & Hy. V. 871 

In-to fis lond shal so moche availle, with 

)pat loie, honour, and prospmte, lUthcriM, 

With-oute trouble of al aduersite, 3432 wSpiw- 

Repeire shal, & al hertly plesau?jce, peace, 

Plente, welfare, & fulsom abundaurace, 

Pes & quiete, bo))e ny^e and ferre, 

With-oute strife, debat, or any werre, 3436 

Meschef, pouert, nede, or indygence, 

With ful ceessyng of deth & pestilence and an end 

Sothly, al pis I hope $e shal sen 

Come in-to lond vriih pis noble quene, 3440 

bat we shal seyn of liert, & feyne nomt : so that we 

may bless 

Blessed be she fat al fis hath vs brou^t ! ir. 

And he fat haf f 01113 my^t of his werkyng, 

Of his kny^thod concluded al pis ping, 3444 

And swiche mervailles in armis don & wrou^t, 

And his pwrpos fully aboute brou^t 

Of hi^e wisdam set in his inward si^t, 

Reioisshynge al fat longeth to his ri^t, 3448 

And nicest sit of worfinesse in glorie 

With fe scepter of conquest and victorie [leaf 152 d] 

I praie to God only for his beste, 

Whan he hath al set in pes and reste, 3452 

And is ful put in clere pocessioura 

Of al fat longeth to his subiecciouw, 

To sende hym home vriih as gret honour home with 


As euere $it hadde any conquerour, 3456 

Longe after, in loie and in quyete Jo r [? IO K 

For to regnen in his royal sete ! 

us shal I ay f er is no more to seye 

Day & ny^t for his expleit y-preye 3460 

Of feythful herte & of hool entent, 

Jjat whylom gaf me in cowmaiwdement, He bade me. 

Nat ^ore a-go, in his faderes tyme, Jjjjj. g ie 

\>Q sege of Troye on my maner to ryme, 3464 siege of Troy. 

3438. &] & of D 2. 3440. lond] >is loml D 1. 

.'3442. t>is] J>is >mg D 1 vs] mn. D 1. 3443. And] As U 1. 

3445. in armis] mn. D 1. 3447. hi$e] his D 1. 

3456. Jit] om. D 1. 3457. Longe] And longe D 1. 

3460. y-preye] to preie D 1. 

3462. whylom gaf me] to me }af I) ] . 3464. on] in D 1. 

872 Lydgate legs his Headers to forgive his poor Verse. [BK. v 

For Hy. Vs Moste for his sake, to speke in special. 

Al-pou} pat I be boistous and rual, 

He gaf me charge )>is story to translate, 

i, John Rude of koranynge, called lohn Lydgate, 3468 

MonW' Monke of Burie be profession/?, 

Vsynge an habite of perfecciouw, 

Al-be my lyf acorde nat per- to 

I feyne nat ; I wote wel it is so 3472 

It nedeth nat witnesse for to calle, 
i.ave engiisht Eecord I take of my brethren alle, 

this Poein. 

pat wil nat faille at so gret a nede. 

And al fat shal Jris noble story rede 3476 

i beseech my I be-seche of support and of grace, 

readers . 

per 1 onende in any maner place, 
Or wher-so-euere pat pei fynde errour, 
Of gentilnesse to shewe pis fauour : 3480 

Benygnely for to done her* peyne 
to correct, To correcte, raber ban disdeyne. 

and not * V T J 

disdain, For wel wot I moche ping is wrong, 

my faults, Falsly metrid, bope of short & long ; 3484 

And, $if pei shuld han of al disdeyn, 

It is no drede, my labour wer in veyn. 
and let Late ignoraiuzce & rudnesse me excuse : 

my ignorance 

excuse me. For ^if p a t ^ e , platly, al refuse, 

For certeyn fautes whiche ^e shal fynde, 

I doute nat, my pank is set be-hynde ; 
Thomy For in metring pou} per be ignorauwce, 
poor, 2 e t in te story ae may fynde plesauwce 3492 

my author s J J l 

Touching substauwce of [pat] myn auctoz/?* wryt. 

And pou3e so be pat any word myssit, 

Amendeth it, \\ith chere debonaire ; 

For an errour to hyndren & appaire, 3496 

feat is nat seide of purpos nor malys, 

It is no worshippe to hym pat is wys ; 

And no wy$t gladly so sone ^evep [a] lak [leaf isa] 

(Specialy be-hynden at pe bake), 3500 

3479. so] J>at D 1. 3481. her] his 0. 

3483. moche] >at moche D 1. 

3493. substaiwce] J>e substaiwce D 1. 3494. And] om. D 1. 

3496. &] or D 1. 3498. It] fat D 1. 

3500. Specialy] And specialy U 1. 

BK. v] Lydgate asksfw kindly judgment, in Chaucer's temper. 873 

As he, in sothe, fat can no skyl at al 

He goth ful hool fat neuer hadfde] fal! 

And I nat fynde, of newe nor of olde, 

For to deme f er is noon so bolde, 3504 NO one is so 

. . . bold to blame 

As he fat is blent with vnkonwyng : as the 

For blind Baiard cast pereil of no f ing, 

Til he stumble myddes of f e lake ! 

And noon so redy for to vndir-take 3508 

ban he. in soth, nor bolder to seie wers, and the man 

who can't 

pat can no skyl on prose nor on vers ; writ e- 

Of alle swiche fat can nat be stille, 

Litel forse, wher J)ei seie good or ille ! 3512 

For vn-to hem my boke is nat direct, My book is 

. not meant 

But to swiche as hauen, in effect, for him, 

On symple folke ful compassiouw, but is for 

simple folk 

Jpat goodly can by correccioura 3516 whocn 

Amende a f ing, & hind re neuere-adel, 

Of custom ay redy to seie wel : and take it in 

good part. 

For he fat was gronde of wel-seying, 

In al hys lyf hyndred no makyng, 3520 

My niaiste?- Chance?*, fat fouwde ful many spot 

Hym liste nat pinche nor gruche at euery blot, 

~Noi meue hym silf to parturbe his reste 

(I haue herde telle), but seide alweie fe best, 3524 WM aiway 

Suffring goodly of his gentilnes 

Ful many fing enbracid with rudnes. 

And }if I shal shortly hym discryve, 

Was neue?' noon to bis day alvue, 3528 NO living 

man is 

To rekne alle, bofe $onge & olde, hoi!!ni!s to 

J)at worfi was his ynkhorn for to holde. inkhorn. 

And in fis lond $if ber any be, But if he hn 

In borwe or touw, village or cite, 3532 

J)at konnyng haf his tracis for to swe, a competent 

Wher he go brood or be shet in mwe 

To hym I make a direccioun 

Of fis boke to ban inspeccioiw, 3536 

3507. myddes] amiddes D 1. 3512. wher] whe]>er D 1. 
3520. no] his D 1. 3524. telle] told D 2, tolde D 1. 
3532. borwe] borgli D 2 1st or] om. D 1. 
3534. Wher] Whe>er D 1 go] so I) 2. 

874 Lydgates Lesson of his Troy Book. All here is worthless. [BK. v 

I ask him to 
alter my verse 
as he likes. 

Tho I've not 



I've told my 
story plainly; 

and in it you 
can see how 
Fortune is, 

kings into 

and upsetting 

and then 
taking ven- 

so that every- 
thing here 
wastes like 
a fitnvpr. 

Our life is 
but a pilgrim* 

Besechyng hem, vfith her prudent loke, 

To race & skrape poru^-oute al my boke, 

Voide & adde wher hem semeth nede ; 

And J>ou3 so be ]>at )>ei nat ne rede 3540 

In al Jris boke no rethorikes newe, 

3it I hope )>ei shal fynde trewe 

fie story pleyn, chefly in substauwce. 

And who-so liste to se variance, 3544 

Or worldly ]>ing wrou^t be dales olde, 

In )>is boke he may ful wel beholde 

Chauwge of Fortune, in hir cours mutable, 

Selde or nat feithful ouj?er stable, [icafiss&j 3548 

Lordes, princes from her royalte 

Sodeinly brou^t in aduersite, 

And kynges eke plouwged* in pouert, 

And for drede darynge in desert, 3552 

Vnwar slau^ter compassed of envie, 

Mordre execut by conspirasie, 

Awaitfe] liggyng falshede and tresouw, 

And of kyngda?mnys sodeyn euersiowi, 3556 

Rauysshyng of wommen for delyt, 

Rote of J>e werre & of mortal despit, 

Fals mayntenaurace of avout[e]rye, 

Many worjn causyiig for to dye, 3560 

Syraie ay ccwcludynge, who-so take]? hede, 

Vengauwce vnwar for his final mede 

To declare, pat in al worldly lust, 

Who loke ari^t, is but litel trust, 3564 

As in J>is boke exaumple $e shal fynde, 

3if j)at ^e list enp?*ente it in ^our mynde 

How al passeth & halt here no soiour, 

Wastyng a-way as doth a somer flour, 3568 

Riche & pore, of euery maner age : 

For oure lyf here is but a pilgrymage, 

Meynt with labowr & with moche wo, 

)?at $if men wolde taken hede J?er-to 3572 

And to-forn prudently aduerte, 

3551. ploiwged] ploimget C. 3552. desert] couert D 1. 
3563. fat] om. D 1. 3564. Who] Who so D 1. 
3565. As] And D 1. 

BK. v] Lydgate prays God to prosper Henry V. 875 

Litel loie )>ei shuld ban in ber berte 

To sette ber trust in any worldly ping ; Trust not in 

For )>er is nouper prince, lord, nor kyng, 3576 ff&J? 1 

Be exauwple of Troye, like as $e may se, 

)5at in ])is lif may haue ful surete. 

Jterfore, to bym j)at starf vppon }>e rode, 

Suffringe deth for cure alder goode, 3580 

Lyfte vp $oure hertis & Jnwke on him among : Lift up your 

TI ! hearts to 

Jb or be ^e neuere so my^ti nor so strong, chri>t. 

"WYt/i-oute hym al may nat availle ; 

For be can }if victorie in bataille 3584 He alone can 

And bolde a felde, sbortly to conclude, 

With a fewe ageyn gret multitude. 

And be grace he make]) princes stronge, make Princes 

And worpi kynges for to regne longe, 3588 

And tirautttis sodeynly oppresse, and throw 

))rowe hem dourc, for al her gret richesse ; Tyrants. 

And in his bond power he reserueth 

Eche man taquite liche as he disserueth 3592 

To whom I preie with deuociouw, Him i pray 

With al myn herte & hool affeccioura, 

)?at he list graunt longe contenuaurcce, to grant 

Prosperite, and good perseueraurace, 3596 P 

Helte, welfare, victorie, and honour [leaf 153*] and victory 

* to the noble 

Vn-to pat noble my^ti conquerour, 

Kerry )>e FyfJ>e, to-forn y-specefied, Henry v, 

So J?at his name may be magnified 3600 

Here in Jris lyf vp to J>e sterres clere, 

And afterward,* aboue J?e nyn]?e spere, and hereafter 

Whan he is ded, for to ban a place ! Heaven. 

))is praie I God* for to send hym grace, 3604 

At whos biddy nge, as I tolde late, At his 

First I be-gan J?e sege to translate. began tin* 

And now I haue hooly in his honour 

Executed )>e fyn of my labour. 3608 

Vn-to alle bat sbal bis story se, and to ail 

who see it 

3576. lord] om. D 1. 3584. victorie] victor D2. 

3590. JJrowe] And >rowe D 1 . 3592. taquite] to quite D 1. 

3599. y-specefied] specefied D 1. 

3602. afterward] after bat C. 3604. Cod] good C. 

876 Lydgates Envoy to Henry V t praising him. [BK. v 

I humbly 
commit it. 

With humble herte and al humylite 

ftis litel boke lowly I be-take, 

It to supporte and )ms an ende I make. 

Explicit liber quintus et Yltimus. 


Most worthy 

born to rule 

two realms, 

known o'er all 
the world as 

the best 
and worthy 
to be highest 
in the House 
of Fame, 

crownd with 


Most worjn prince, of kny^thod sours * & welle, 
Whos hi^e renoun }joru$ J>e world doj? shwe, 
And alle oper in manhood dost excelle, 
Of merit egal to ]?e worjn nyne, 4 

And born also by discent of lyne 
As ri^tful eyr by title to atteyne, 
To bere a crowne of worjji rewmys tweyne ! 

And also fer as Phebus in his spere 8 

From est to west shedej? his bemys bri^t, 

And Lucyna, with a shrowdid chere, 

Goth compas rou??de with hir pale li^t, 

))ou art [y-]rekned for ]>e best[e] kny^t, 12 

To be registred wor)>i as of name 

In J>e hi3est place of J?e hous of fame, 

To holde a palme of kny3thod in J?in hond, 

For worjrines and for hi^e victorie, 16 

As J?ou J>at art drad on se & lond, 

And euermore* with laude, honour, & glorie, 

For iust conquest to be put in memorie, 

With a crowne made of laurer grene 20 

Vp-on pin hed, to-fore J?at fanms quene 2 

Whilom ordeyned only for cowquerours, 

Stable of herte, with longe perseuerauwce, 

And gaf nat vp til fei wer victours, 24 

Emprises take for no sodeyn chaunce, 

1. sours] flcwr 0. 8. also] as D 1. 12. f>ou] For )>ou D 1. 
18. euermore] oumnore C. 22. Whilom] Somtyme D 1. 
24. nat vp] it vp not D 1. 25. sodeyn] sedeyn D 2. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 149 d, and D 2. 
2 Tliere is no space between this and the following stanza in C. 

BK. v] Lydgates Envoy to Htnry V, singing his Praise. 877 

Whos name ay flouref with newe remewbrauwce 
And fadeth nat of $eris $ore a-goon, 
Amonge whiche fou maist be set for oon : 

For foru} J>e world in Query regioun [leaf 153 a] 

Eeportid is with fame pat fleth wyde, 

ftat naturelly Jri condiciourc 

On jring be-goraie is kny^tly to abide, 

And for j>e tyme manly sette a-side 

Reste and ese, what cost fer-on be spent, 

Til jjou haue cheved f e fyn of Jrin entent. 

Most circu??ispect and passinge avysee, 
Al Jri werkes conveied with prudence, 
Saad & demvre, like to losue, 
Ageyn whos swerd is no resistence, 
And hast also heuenly influence, 
With Salomon, wysly to discerne, 
Only be grace Jri peple to gouerne 

Mercy eke meynt with Jri magnificence, 
On alle oppressed for to haue pite, 
And of rebelles be manly violence 
Abate canst )>e grete cruelte 
And so with Damd fou hast kyngly pite, 
And hi^e prowes with Sesar lulius, 
In his tyme most victorius. 

And manly boldest in Jrin hondes two 
Who can beholde by clere inspeccioim 
})e swerd of kny^thod & J>e scepter * also : 
The ton to bring to subiecciou?* 
Hertes made proude by fals rebellious, 
And wiih J>e scepte?' to rewle at J>e beste 
J)i pore liges, J?at wolde live at reste. 

Now, foil fat haste manhod, vertu, & grace, 

Attemperauwce, fredam, & bounte, 

Lowly I praie, with a dredful face, 

Disdcyne nat benyng[e]ly to se 60 

39. Ageyn] Ageins D 1. 43. Jn] om. D 1. 

45. violence] influence D 1. 

50. manly] nanily D 2. 52. scepter] swerde C. 








firm as 

wise as 


pitiful like 

48 conqueror 
like Caesar, 

52 holder of 
sword and 


I pray you 
look benignly 

878 Lydgate begs Henry V to accept his Poem kindly. [BK. v 

on nay book, Vp-on Jris- boke rudly made by me, 

To fyn only to agreen J>in hi^nesse 
And rewe of merci vp-on my symplesse,* 

And [eke] in ]>\ kny^tly aduertence 
Considre & se, my souereyn lord most dere, 
Of y\ Innat famous sapience, 

and .as Christ }}at Crist lesus received * with good chere 
^ e * we y Mynutes joue of herte entere 
j>y j, e \yydowe, \vhiche of wille & J)ou3t 
Gaf al liir good, & kepte hir silf ri^t nou^t. 

widow" 16 
2 mites, 



accept my 
little gift, 

and don't 
disdain it. 

rn ever pray 

that you may 
please God, 

that your 
rule may con- 
tinue long, 

and that ("od 
may grant 
you every 

By whiche ensample, so J)t it nat offende 

ftoru} myn vnkoraiynge to pin hi^e noblesse, [>af 1540] 72 

Late good wil my litel gift * amende, 

And of ))i mercy & renomed goodnesse 

Haue no disdeyn of my bareyn rudnesse, 

And, in makyng Jjou^ I haue no mvse, 76 

Late trewe menyng j>e surplus [al] excuse. 




Mo*re fan good hert hath no mauer 
To presente noufer to God nor man, 
And for my part to f e, as it is ri^t, 
])at gyf I hool as ferforf e as I can, 
Ay to perseuere, fro tyme fat I gan, 
With wil & f ou^t for pin estate to preie, 
Whiche to conserue, f us finally I seie : 

First of al, Almy^ti God to queme 

With al fat may be to his plesauwce, 

And to fi crowne and fi diademe 

Grace & good eure with long corctinuauwce, 

Of f i liges feithful obeisauwce, 

And eche vertu ft man may specefie, 

I praye God grauwte vn-to fi regal ye ! 

62. agreen] gree D 1. 63. symplesse] sympilnesse C. 

67. received] received C good] gret D 2. 

68. 3oue of herte] of herte 30 ve D 1 of] \\ith D 2. 

72. hi$e] om. D 2. 73. gift] gilt C. 75. no] noon D 2. 

79. nor] no D 1. 80. be] jou D 1 is] is to D 2. 

81 - gyf] 3 e ue D 1. 82. gan] by gan D 1. 

83. bin] ^owre D 1. 

84] Which to consydre for thyn estat I preye D 2. 

86. to] vn-to D 1. 89. Of] And of I> 1. 91. bi] ^oure D 1. 

BK. v] Lydgates Address to his Troy Book. 


Verba translatoris ad librum suum. 1 

Go, litel bok, & put j>e in ]>e grace 92 

Of hym )>at is most of excellence ; 

And be nat hardy to apperen in no place 

With-oute support of his magnificence : 

And who-so-eue?*e in j>e fynde offence, 96 

Be nat to bold for no presumpciouw 

J)i silfe enarme ay in pacience, 

And )?e submitte to her correcciow*. 2 

And for JJQU art enlumined with no fioures 1 00 

Of rethorik, but with white & blak, 

Jperfore Jjou most abide alle showres 

Of hem fat list sette on )?e a lak ; 

And whan jjou art most likly go to wrak, 104 

Ageyn[e]s hem J>in errour nat diffende, 

But humblely wtt^-drawe & go a-bak, 

Eequerynge hem al J)t is mys to amende. 

Amen : Amen -: 3 

Little book, 
get the favour 
of your King, 

and patiently 
submit to 

As you're not 

take blame 

and ask 
to amend 
your faults. 

94. apperew] appere D 1. 96. in J>e fynde] finde in the D 1. 
103. a] no D 2. 105. hem] him D 1. 

1 Royal MS. 18. D. ii. leaf 150 b, and D 2. 

2 There is no space between this line and the next, in C. 

3 Occurs in D 2. 



MAR 14 

- " /e