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Old Walla Walla County 


Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield 
and Asotin Counties 

By W^D.TYMAN, M. A., Lit. D. 






























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Old Walla Walla County 

(Embracing Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and 
Asotin Counties.) 



A land of scenic charm, of physical interest, of fertile soil and ample resources, 
of climate in which living is a delight, of two great rivers and many impetuous 
tributaries, of mountain chains with rich and varied hues and contours of stately 
majesty, — such is the imperial domain included in that portion of the State of 
Washington lying east of the Columbia River and south of the Snake. While 
this region has distinctive physical features, it yet has a sufficient family resem- 
blance to the other parts of Eastern Oregon and Eastern Washington to indicate 
a common origin. We may therefore properly take first a general view of this 
larger area. The greater part of the vast Inland Empire of Northeastern Oregon 
and Eastern Washington consists of rolling prairies, sometimes fairly hilly, with 
extensive "flats" in various parts, and low-lying, level valleys bordering the 
numerous streams. These valleys are usually quite narrow, the three marked 
exceptions being the broad valleys of the Walla Walla, Umatilla, and Yakima, the 
two latter being outside of the scope of our story. The Inland Empire varies in 
elevation above sea-level from about three hundred and fifty feet on the Columbia 
River to about nine thousand at the highest summits of the Blue Mountains. The 
larger part of the cultivated portions ranges from eight hundred to two thousand 
feet. The variations in elevation have a remarkable effect on temperature and 
rainfall, the former decreasing and the latter increasing very rapidly from the 
lower to the higher levels. The atmosphere throughout this region is ordinarily 
very clear, and the majestic sweep of the Blue Mountains and the wide expanses 
of hills and dales and flats lie revealed in all their imposing grandeur with vivid 

As there is a general physical similarity in the different parts of this entire 
Columbia Basin, so has there been a common geological history. Broadly speak- 
ing, the upper Columbia Basin from near Spokane on the north to Wallowa on 
the south is volcanic in origin. The scope of this work does not permit any 
detailed discussion of the geology of the region, but it is of interest to refer to the 
fascinating little book of Prof. Thomas Condon, formerly of the Oregon State 
University, on the "Two Islands." Professor Condon was the first systematic 
student of the geology of the Northwest, and during his active career, extending 

Vol. I— 1 


from ahoul 1855 to i8<)0,he accumulated a large and valuable collection of fossil 
remains as data from which to infer the stages in the geological history of the 
.Northwest. One of his working hypotheses was that there were two islands as 
the first lands in what is now the Northwest. These were the Blue Mountain 
Island and the Siskiyou Mountain Island. Later geologists have not entirely 
accepted all the details of Professor Condon's hypothesis, though they regard his 
general reasoning as sound. It is generally believed now that there was a very 
early uplift, possibly a third island, in what is now the Okanogan, Methow, and 
Chelan highlands and mountains. At any rate, there is a general concurrence in 
the opinion that the oldest land in this part of the continent was those very regions 
where the two or perhaps three islands are supposed to have risen. The Chelan 
region and thence a vast sweep northeast and then southeast toward Spokane 
is of granite, andesite, and prophyry, the primeval crust of the earth. Again on 
the south, the core of the Blue -Mountains, especially in the vicinity of Wallowa, 
is limestone and granite. All these formations are very ancient. On the other 
hand, the volcanic regions are comparatively recent, and those compose prac- 
tically all the central parts. This area between those two ancient formations, the 
part covering the four counties of our present story being in the very heart of 
it, seems to have undergone almost every possible dynamic influence, fire, frost, 
and flood. Apparently it W'as a deep basin between the earlier elevations and 
was the scene of stupendous volcanic and seismic energy. Then it was covered 
with water and for ages a great lake extended over much of what is now the Walla 
Walla Valley and the valleys of its tributaries and the lower courses of the other 
streams, as the Touchet and Tucanon. When the water had drained off, there 
succeeded an age of ice and frost, with disintegration by cold and even some 
glaciation. Probably there were several alternating eras of fire and frost and 
flood. The Yakima Indians have a fantastic tale of the formation of these lakes 
and from them the Columbia River, which may have some basis of scientific 
fact. They say that in the times of the Watetash (animal people, before the 
Indians) a monstrous beaver, Wishpoosh, inhabited Lake Kachees, now one of 
the sources of the Yakima. Wishpoosh had the evil habit of chewing up and cut- 
ting to pieces all the trees as well as other animals in his reach. Speelyi, the 
chief God of the Mid-Columbia Indians, endeavored to make way with this 
destructive monster, but succeeded only in wounding him severely and making 
him so angry that he laid around him with furious energy and soon _the 
rocky barriers of the lake. The water flowing out streamed over the country 
and formed the Upper Yakima. The deluge was checked by the mountain ram- 
parts of the Kittitas Valley, as we know it, and thus was formed a great lake 
over all that valley. But the raging beaver finally tore out that barrier also and 
the flood passed on into the Yakima \'alley, making another lake over the whole 
region where Yakima now is, but it was stayed for a time by the ridge just below 
the Atahnimi of the present. In like manner that barrier was torn out and the 
accumulation of waters swept on to the vast level region w-here the Snake and 
Columbia, with the lesser streams of the Yakima and Walla W'alla. unite. Thus, 
a large part of the region which we shall describe in this history was a lake. But 
the infuriated Wishpoosh was not yet content, and by successive burstings of 
barriers the Walla \\'alla lake was emptied through the I'matilla highlands, then 
the Cascade Mountains themselves were parted, and the chain of lakes was opened 


to the ocean, the Columbia River itself being the connecting stream. Wishpoosh 
having reached the ocean was making havoc among the whales and all other 
objects of creation, when Speelyi at last pierced him to the heart and his monstrous 
carcass was cast up on Clatsop Beach. There Speelyi cut him into fragments and 
of him made the various Indian tribes. 

Whatever may be the facts in regard to Wishpoosh, it is quite obvious that 
considerable areas of the lower level parts of the Columbia basin and the tributary 
valleys are lake beds. While the soil has all the indications of having been washed 
from the hills and mountains and then settled in the lakes, it is plain also that it 
was originally the product of fire. For the soil of this region is essentially vol- 
canic. In the parts which have the larger rainfall, the decaying vegetation of 
ages upon ages has covered the volcanic ash with a deep, rich loam. In other 
places the action of glaciers grinding and dumping the triturated marls and clays 
of the mountains has resulted in the deposit of heavy white and blue clays. In 
yet other parts erosion of the volcanic rocks by wind and rain and frost, together 
with the wash of the streams at flood stage, has left great beds of gravel. Through 
successive strata of these varying materials there have burst at intervals new 
volcanic eruptions. These in turn, worn away by sun and wind and frost and 
stream, have been blown and washed over the earlier strata and have formed a new 
blanket of the richest soil. This process of successive stages of volcanic outflow, 
disintegration, wash deposit, glacial dumping, dust drift, growth and decay of 
vegetation, has gone on through the ages. The result has been that tlie greater 
part of the Inland Empire has a soil of extraordinary depth and fertility. Analysis 
has shown that it possesses the ingredients for plant food to an unusual degree. 
It is said to have an almost identical composition with the soil of Sicily. That fair 
and fertile island was made by the volcanic matter blown out of Mount Etna, 
covered by decayed vegetation and worked over by frost and sun and rain until 
it l)ecame almost an ideal region for grain production. Two thousand years ago 
Sicilian wheat-fields fed the hungry multitudes of Rome, and the same fields still 


roduce a generous quota of food products. Soil experts expect a similar histo 
in this country. 

In no part of the Columbia basin have the processes of soil creation been more 
active than in the parts of the Old Walla Walla County of this history. Begin- 
ning with the Columbia River on the west we find as soon as we have passed the 
margin of river sand, which in a few places has encroached upon the customary 
volcanic covering, that the soil, though dry, is susceptible of the highest cultiva- 
tion and with water is capable of producing the finest products in the greatest 
profusion. Almost every mile from the river eastward towards the mountains 
seems to increase the blanket of loam upon the underlying volcanic dust, until 
upon the foothills of the Blue Mountains there is a soil hard to match anywhere 
in the world, a mingling of volcanic dust, loam, and clay, a strong and heavy soil, 
not difficult to work, and retaining and utilizing moisture with remarkable natural 
economy. Throughout this region the soil is of extraordinary depth and there 
seems to be no limit to its productiveness. There is a cut forty feet deep through 
a hill near Walla Walla, in which the same fertile soil goes down to the very bot- 
tom. It is of lighter color when first opened to the light, but with exposure turns 
darker and after a year or two of cultivation possesses the same friability and 
productiveness as the top soil. Wells have been bored in the Eureka Flat region 

4 uLD \\.\Li..\ WALLA COL'XTV 

wlicrc over a liundrcd ieci of soil luvc bwn pierced without the drilU even 
iuiichin{; ruck. In such soils the process of suh-soiliit); can go on almost in- 
Ucliiiilcly with cun(inuou> preservation aiul rriirwal of iiroductivrness. 

The cliniatc of the region covered in this work has the general cliaractcr of 
that of the Inland Knipire as a whole. .\s conijwred with the |>ortions of Urcgon 
and Washington west of the Cascade Mountains, the climate of our section is 
drier and has the seasons more distinctly marked, holler in summer and colder in 
winter. The average yearly tem|>craturc is, however, higher than that of the sea- 
coast, and much higher than that of the Atlantic states of the same latitude, 'llic 
average of Walla Walla is about that of Virginia, though in the latitude of 
Wisconsin and Maine. On account of lower altitude the climate of the greater 
I>art of this section, esi<ecially the |>ortions on the large ri\ers, all the way from 
Asotin to Walhila, is wanner than that of the yarts of the state north of Snake 
River. The weather reports of Walla Walla ordinarily run from four to eight 
dignes higlur than those of S|X)kane. The spring season ojK'ns from two to four 
weeks earlier than at SjKjkanc or Colfax and the difference is even greater com- 
pared with Pullman. 

Perhaps no part of the Inland Empire, unless it be the Horse Heaven and 
Rattlesnake Mountain section of Henton County, is so peculiarly the native home 
of that most dramatic atnuis])lKTic phenomenon, the Chinook wind. Scarcely can 
anything more interesting he imagined than that warm winter wind. No wonder 
that the native red man, with his sujx-rstitious awe of Nature's tokens of love 
or wrath, idealized this heavenly visitant, oiK?ning the gates of summer in mid- 
winter chill and gloom and wooing the flowers from their dark aljodes even 
while the heavy snows still crown the mountain peaks and pile the timlx;red flanks 
(>{ the hills with their frozen burdens. A long wintry period, two or three or 
four weeks in January or I'ebruary, may have sent the great blocks of ice down 
the big rivers, there may be a foot of snow ujwn the plains and much more in the 
mountains and the breath of the north may wrap all Nature in chill and gloom, 
when suddenly some afterntKin the frozen fog will lift, a blue-black band will \>c 
visible along the southern horizon, the white tops of the mountains will Inrgin to 
be streaked with dark lines, there seems to thrill through the atmosphere a certain 
rustic of ex|>ectancy, night droi>s with a rising tem|Rrature, during the night the 
snow begins to slip from the trees and slide off the roofs, and with the morning, 
rushing and roaring, here comes the blessed Cliinook, fragrant with the bloom of 
the south, turning the snow and ice into singing streams, calling the robins from 
their winter retreats, and bidding the buttercups push from their heads the crust 
of winter and oin-n their golden jK-tals to greet the sun. The Klickitat myth is to 
the effect that there were originally two sets of brothers, one of the Walla Wallas 
from the north, the other the C"hinooks from the south. The fathers of the two 
lived with their resptvtive sons ujion the shore of the Columbia near the present 
I'matilla. The Walla Wallas were the cfild wind brothers, coming down the river 
from the north, freezing the streams and whirling the dust in vast clouds. /\t 
one time thev challenge<l the Chinook brothers to a wrestling match and threw 
them all and killed them. The chilly brothers had it all their own way for a 
long time after that, and they made the lives of the poor old father and mother of 
the vancjuished Chinooks a burden. No sooner would the old man go otii in his 
canoe to fish than the implaciM.- Willi Wall.i brnthrrs would blow with their 


icy breath, crusting the water with ice and compelling the old man to hurry 
half frozen to the shore. But a deliverer was at hand, for one of the fallen 
Chinooks had left a son. His mother had taken him to the lower river, and there 
he had grown up with only the one thought of avenging his father and uncles. 
When he had become grown and so strong that he could pull up huge fir trees and 
toss them around like straws, he felt that his time had come. Going up the river 
he slept one night near the stream now called the Satus, and a curious depression 
in the hills can be seen there now which the Indians say was his sleeping place. 
After his night's rest he went on to the home of his grandparents. He found 
them in a most deplorable state, half-starved and half-frozen. Young Chinook 
washed the grime and filth from the old folks and from it came all the trout 
now found in this region. Then transforming himself into a little creature he 
crawled into the stern of his grandfather's boat and bade the old man put forth 
for fish. At once the hateful Walla Wallas swept down from the north to blow 
on the old man, but for some mysterious reason could never reach him. Striving 
desperately in vain they saw the explanation when suddenly Chinook rose to 
giant size and challenged them to wrestle. The God Speelyi now appeared to 
judge the combat. One after another the cold wind brothers were thrown. 
Chinook, more merciful than they had been, did not kill them. But Speelyei 
declared that they should henceforth lose their power and could blow only at very 
rare intervals and that Chinook should be the lord of the land. However, Speelyi 
decreed that he should blow on the mountain peaks first as a token that he was 

The meteorologists tell us that the Chinook wind is not, properly speaking, an 
ocean wind, though when there is a Chinook in the interior there is a warm wind 
with rain on the coast. They say that the Chinook is due to dynamic heating or 
atmospheric friction. When there is a low barometer on the coast and a high over 
Nevada and Utah, as is very common in winter, the high pressure will descend 
upon the low and raise the temperature at a regular rate of about seven degrees 
to a thousand feet of descent. This accounts for the fact that the Chinook 
strikes the mountains sooner than the valleys. During the prevalence of a 
Chinook, as shown by the weather reports, the thermometer will usually be higher 
at Walla Walla than at Portland or Astoria. It has been as high as seventy 
degrees in January during a big Chinook. As can be imagined, snow will vanish 
like a dream under a wind of such temperature, or even one at fifty degrees or 
fifty-five degrees, which is more common. 

A few general statistics as to the average records at Walla Walla may be of 
interest. The average annual temperature as shown by official records during 
thirty-one years is fifty-three degrees. The average for January is thirty-three 
degrees ; for July and August, seventy-four degrees. The lowest ever recorded 
was seventeen degrees below zero, and the highest was 113 degrees. The average 
rainfall is 17.4 inches. The average date of the last killing frost of spring is 
March 30th, and the first of autumn is Novemljer 7th. The average number of 
clear or mainly clear days is 262, of cloudy is 103. The prevailing wind is always 
from the south, and the highest velocity ever recorded was sixty-five miles per 
hour. There is an average of eight thunder showers in a year. The other parts 
of the four counties included in this history have essentially the same climate as 
Walla Walla. There is. however, a regular decrease of temperature and an in- 


crease of rainfall from the west to east. Recent records of the Weather Observer 
at Walla Walla, giving a comparison of \arious stations, show extraordinary dif- 
ferences in rainfall according to elevation and proximity to the mountains. Thus, 
the average precipitation, including melted snow, for some years past, has been 
at Kennewick, 6.46 inches; at Lowden, 11. 18; at Eureka, 14.35; at Walla Walla, 
^7-37 '• at Milton, 19.50; at Dayton, 22.14; ^"d at the "intake," only fourteen 
miles from Walla Walla, but at an elevation of twenty-five hundred feet (Walla 
Walla being nine hundred and twenty), and at the entrance to the mountains, it 
was, in 1916, 47.93. The natural rainfall is sufficient for all the staple grains 
and fruits in all parts except the areas in the west and north bordering the 
Columbia and Snake rivers. In those semi-arid tracts irrigation is necessary, and 
the same means of artificial moisture is practiced for a succession of vegetables 
and small fruits and alfalfa in considerable parts of the other valley lands. One 
of the interesting and important features of Walla Walla is the fine system of 
spouting artesian wells. There are now over thirty of these wells in the Walla 
Walla ^'alley, the largest having a flow of twenty-five hundred gallons per minute, 
sufficient to irrigate a half section of land. Owing to the immense snowfall on 
the Blue Mountains, ranging from ten to fifty or sixty feet during the season, 
a large part of the slopes and valleys below seems to be sub-irrigated and also to 
be underlaid by a great sheet of water. Hence it seems reasonable to expect 
that artesian w-ater will be found in other places. In general it may be said that 
the climate of the sections considered in this work is eminently conducive to 
health, wealth, and comfort. It is a happy medium between the extreme dryness 
of the Great Plateau and the extreme humidity of Western Washington ; as also 
between the rather mugg)- and enervating climate of the South and the biting cold 
of winter and prostrating heat of summer of the belt of northern states east of 
the Rocky Mountains. If we may judge by a comparison of the native races, as 
well as by the "bunch-grass" horses and cattle, the "bunch-grass" boys and girls 
will be on the road to becoming superior specimens of humanity. Thus far there 
is too much of a mixture of the human stock to make scientific comparisons. 

Old Walla Walla County shares with other parts of Washington, Oregon, 
Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia, the distinction of joint ownership of one 
of the sublimest systems of waterways on the globe. This system consists of the 
Columbia and its tributaries. The Columbia itself washes the western verge of 
Walla Walla County for a distance of only about sixteen miles. Yet, in this short 
distance the great stream sustains its reputation as belonging in the front rank of 
scenic rivers. Although the region around the junction of the blue, majestic 
Columbia and the turbid and impetuous Snake is regarded as a desert in its native 
condition, yet on one of the bright, still days of spring or autumn views of such 
grandeur looking either up or down can be obtained that no appreciative observer 
would ever say "desert." The azure and gold and russet and purple that play 
upon the mountains and islands looking up river, or upon the Wallula Gateway 
looking down, with the mile-wide majesty of the river in the midst, must be seen 
to be understood. Xo words of description can do justice to those scenes. 

An inspection of the map will show that Snake River touches a much larger 
rim than the greater stream. For it borders each one of the four counties, for a 
total distance of about a hundred and fifty miles. For this entire space Snake 
River is swift and turbid, having an average fall of about three feet to the mile. 





Nevertheless, it is navigable the whole distance during six or eight months in the 
year. The immense volume of these two big rivers is not generally understood by 
strangers. The Columbia is less than half as long as the Mississippi, yet it is but 
slightly inferior in volume to the "Farther of Waters," and far surpasses any 
other river in the United States. Its maximum flood stage at Celilo in the flood 
of 1894, the greatest on record, was estimated at one million six hundred thousand 
second feet, while the maximum of the Snake, just above its mouth, was about' 
four hundred thousand. We shall have occasion later to speak of the steamer 
traffic upon these rivers and the improvements, past and prospective, by the 
Federal Government. Suffice it to say here that as that phase of early history was 
among the most important, so it is plain that the future will bring on a new era 
of water-borne traffic, and that with it will come a new era of production. Nearly 
all the tributaries of the two big rivers flow from the snow banks and the canons 
of the Blue Mountains. Though conveying in the aggregate during the flood 
season an immense volume, the tributaries are too swift for navigation. They 
supply abundant water for irrigation where needed, and each is a superb trout 
stream. The largest, the Grande Ronde, is in truth an Oregon river, for its main 
supplies come from the Grande Ronde and Wallowa valleys, but it crosses the 
corner of Asotin County and enters Snake River within that scenic country. The 
Grande Ronde is a powerful stream and for varied scenes of wild grandeur and 
gentle beauty, it is not easily matched. The Wallowa Basin (the "Far Wayleway" 
of Longfellow's Evangeline) is sometimes called the Switzerland of the Inland 
Empire. Of the historic interest of that region which thus finds its exit through 
one of the counties of Old Walla Walla-, ■we^'SlTaTTsTpeaic again. The next affluent 
of the Snake River below the Grande: Rcmd$.^.Asotip.^Cii¥ek, a small stream and 
yet one of the busiest and most usefii!,' -fof it'is the source of the water supply 
of that fair and productive region afounji.C-la:rkft"t)K;-and extending thence to 
Asotin City. Some distance below Clackst9n'i$JJi«^rAlpo\v'a;also a historic stream. 
Yet another stage and about half way between the Grande Ronde and the mouth 
of Snake River we find one of the most charming in appearance as well as most 
attractive to the fishermen of all the Blue Mountain streams, the Tucanon. This 
also is invested with historic interest, as we shall see later.- Below the mouth of 
the Tucanon the previously lofty, almost mountainous, shores of Snake River 
rapidly drop away and the vast expanse of arid plain stretches away toward the 
crests of the Blue Mountains. No more tributaries of the Snake River enter, 
and with another stage that most interesting point in the history of this turbulent 
and historic river is reached — its mouth, and its individuality is lost in the mighty 
sweep of the Columbia. A few miles below the junction the most historic and in 
some respects most beautiful of the small tributaries of the Columbia streams 
in through the verdant meadow and overhanging willows, the Walla Walla. 
The events which have made the place of entrance, as well as many other places 
on the course of this stream famous in the history of the Northwest, will become 
manifest as our story proceeds. 

In the great semicircle of one hundred and fifty miles in which Snake River 
borders our four counties, there are frequent profound canons through which the 
snow-crested mountains from which the streams issue can be seen. The observer 
who has made that long journey and reaches the open prairie at the mouth oi 
the Snake will behold with wonder and delight the distant chain, all in one 


splendid picture, of which he had before seen broken ghmpses through the rifted 
canon walls or u]) the sources of the foaming creeks. But whether in broken 
glimpses or in their grand unity, the Blue Mountains possess a unique charm and 
individuality. While not so bold and aiguillated as the Cascades, and while there 
are no peaks standing in lonely sublimity to compel the vision of the traveller, 
like Mount "Takhoma" or Mount Adams or Mount Hood, the Blue Mountains 
are not inferior in many of the features of mountain charm to their greater 
brothers. The marvelous coloring is perhaps the most distinctive of these features. 
While most mountains are blue, these are blue blue. They are all shades of 
blue, according to the hour and the month and the season — blue, indigo, ultra- 
marine, violet, purple, amethyst, lapis lazuli, everything that one can think of to 
denote variations of blueness. "Blue Mountain" is a real name. The French 
voyageurs of the fur-traders were the first to note the characteristic blue, and 
according to Ross Cox, began at once to say, "Les Montagues Bleiics." Another 
characteristic feature of these mountains is the fact that they do not so much con- 
stitute a range or chain, like the long, narrow, regular Cascade Range, as a huge 
mass with prongs radiating from something like a central axis which might be 
considered the great granite and limestone knot of peaks about Wallowa Lake, of 
which Eagle Cap is the loftiest, over nine thousand feet in elevation. On account 
of this ganglionic structure there are many radiating canons from the long ridges 
and plateaus to the lower levels. The views from the open ridges and rounded 
summits down these canons constitute a scenic gallery of contours and colorings 
which may challenge comparison with even the views of the loftier and bolder 

The value of the Blue Mountains in condensing the moisture of the atmosphere 
and dropping it upon the plains below in rain and snow can hardly be conceived 
unless we reflect that without this vast reservoir of salvation to all growing things 
the Inland Empire would be a desert. Nor could it even be irrigated, for in the 
absence of the Blue Mountains there would be no available streams for distribu- 
tion. Wonderful indeed is it to consider how the ardent sun of the Pacific lifts 
the inconceivable masses of invisible vapor from the ocean and the west wind 
carries them inland. -The coast mountains constitute the first condenser of that 
vapor, and almost constant rain during half the year with a predominance of 
clouds and fogs at all times prevails along the ocean margin of Oregon and Wash- 
ington. The Cascade Range lifts its stupendous domes and sentinel-like cliffs 
to catch the vapor that still sweeps inland and to feed the greedy rootlets of their 
interminable forests and to clothe the heights with perpetual snow and ice. But 
those vast demands fail to exhaust the limitless resources of the sky, and there 
are yet remaining infinite treasures of moisture floating eastward. And so the 
next great suppliant for the vital nourishment of all life stands with uplifted, 
appealing hands, our wide-extended and clustered uplift of the Blues. Nor do 
they appeal in vain, as the fertile prairies and benches with their millions of 
bushels of grain and their far-reaching cattle ranges and their orchard valleys and 
their countless springs can testify. 

Whether from the standpoint of the forester or the farmer or the stockman 
or the gardener or the orchardist or the fisherman or the artist or the poet, the 
Blue Mountains constitute one of the great vital working facts, the very frame- 
work of the life of Old Walla Walla County. We shall discover that they are not 


simply a picture gallery, but that the history of this region is fairly set within this 
stately frame. 

' With these necessarily hurried and fragmentary glances at the physical scene 
of the story, we shall be prepared to bring the human characters upon the stage. 


Any history of any part of America would be incomplete without some view 
of the aborigines. Such a view is due to them, as well as to the accuracy of state- 
ment and the philosophical perspectives of history. Such a view is required also by 
justice to the natives themselves. The ever westward movement of American 
settlement has been marked by trails of blood and fire. Warfare has set its red 
stains upon nearly every region wrested from barbarism to civilization. This has 
been in many cases due to flagrant wrong, greed, and lust by the civilized man. 
It has been due also to savage cruelty by the barbarian. Perhaps more than to 
wrong by either party, it has been due to that great, unexplained and unexplain- 
able tragedy of human history, the inability of either party to comprehend the 
viewpoint of the other. And yet, most of all, it has been due to that inevitable 
and remorseless evolution of all life by which one race of plants, animals, and 
human beings progresses by the extermination of others. Perhaps the phil- 
osophical mind, while viewing with pity the sufferings and with reprobation the 
crimes and irrational treatment forced upon the natives by the civilized race, 
and while viewing with equal horror the atrocities by which the losers in the 
inevitable struggle sought to maintain themselves — if to such a philosophical mind 
comes the question who was to blame for all this seemingly needless woe — must 
answer that the universe is mainly to blame, and we have not yet reached the 
point to explain the universe. 

We have found in the preceding chapter and shall find in succeeding chapters 
frequent occasion to refer to events in connection with Indians. Our aim in this 
chapter is rather to give an outline of locations of dififerent tribes, to sketch briefly 
some of their traits as illustrated in their myths and customs, and to state the 
chief published sources of our knowledge in regard to these myths and customs. 
The history of Indian wars, which also includes other incidental matter about 
them, will be found in the last chapter of Part One of this volume. 

The literature of Indian life is \-oluminous. Practically all the early explorers 
from Lewis and Clark down devoted large space to the natives. The pioneer 
settlers knew them individually and some of them derived much matter of gen- 
eral value which has been preserved in brief newspaper articles or handed down 
in story and tradition. Out of this vast mass a few writers have formed groups 
of topics which serve well for those generalizations which a bird's-eye view like 
this must be content to take. Foremost among the writers dealing with the subject 
in a large way is Hubert Howe Bancroft. Although his great work on the history 
of the Pacific Coast has been severely and sometimes justly censured, yet it must 
be granted that, as a vast compendium of matter dealing with the subject, it is 
monumental and can be turned to with confidence in the authenticity of its sources 



Her deerskin robe, decorated with beads, elk teetli and grizzly-bear claws, is worth over one 

thousaiul dollars 


and in the general accuracy of its statements of fact, even if not always in the 
breadth of its opinions or the reliability of its judgments. 

In \^olume One, Chapter Three, of Bancroft's "Native Races," there is a 
generalized grouping of the Columbian native tribes which may well be accepted 
as a study of ethnology, derived from many observations and records by those 
early explorers most worthy of credence. These general outlines by the author 
are supported by numerous citations from those authorities. The Columbians 
occupied, according to Bancroft, all the vast region west of the Rocky Mountains 
lying between the Hyperboreans on the north and the Californians on the south. 
They are divided into certain families and these families into nations, and the 
nations into tribes. There is naturally much inter-tribal mingling, and yet the 
national and even tribal peculiarities are preserved with remarkable distinctness. 
Beginning on the northern coast region around Queen Charlotte Island are the 
Haidahs. South of them on the coast comes the family of the Nootkas, centered 
on \'ancouver Island. Then comes the family of the Sound Indians, and still 
farther south that of the Chinooks. Turning to the east side of the Cascades, 
which more especially interests us, we find on the north the Shushwap family, 
embracing all the inland tribes of British Columbia south of lat. 52°, 30'. This 
group includes the Okanogans, Kootenais, and others of the border between 
British Columbia and Northeastern Washington and Northern Idaho and North- 
western Montana. Then comes the Salish family, in which we find the Spokanes, 
Flatheads, Pend Oreilles, Kalispels, and others as far south as the Palouse region. 
There we begin with the family of Sahaptins, the one which particularly concerns 
us in Old Walla \\'alla County. Numerous citations in Bancroft's volume indicate 
that the early explorers and ethnologists did^jiQt.. altogether agree on the sub- 
divisions of this family. It would jSeeMOf-thaS^'fl'tt 'Ijvoups have been somewhat 
arbitrarily made, yet there was evid^n-flj^ .<;«»$tderaWe effort to employ scientific 
methods by study of affiliations in language, custoi]^ ^treaty relations, range, and 
other peculiarities. In general terms it fnay be said '-that- the different writers 
pretty nearly agree in finding some six or eight nations, each divided into several 
tribes. These are the Nez Perces or Chopunriish, the Yakimas, the Palouses, the 
Walla Wallas, the Cayuses, the L'matillas, the Wascos. and the Klickitats. The 
tribes are variously grouped. The modern spelling appears in the above list, but 
there is a bewildering variety in the early books. This is especially true of Palouse 
and Walla Walla. The former appears under the following forms : Palouse, 
Paloose, Palus, Peloose, Pelouse, Pavilion, Pavion and Peluse. The word means 
"Gooseberry," according to Thomas Beall of Lewiston. Our familiar Walla Walla, 
meaning, according to "Old Bones," the Cayuse chief, the place where the four 
creeV-^ meet, the Walla Walla, Touchet, Mill Creek, and Dry Creek, appears as 
Ott'llla-Oualla (French), Walla Wallapum, Wollow Wollah, Wollaolla, Wolla- 
walla, Wallawaltz, Walla Walle, Wallah Wallah. Wallahwallah, Wala- 
Wala, and Wollahwollah. For Umatilla we find Umatallow, Utalla, Utilla, and 
Emmatilly. Cayuse has as variants, Cailloux, Kayuse, Kayouse, Skyuse, Cajouse. 
Caagua, Kyoose, and Kyoots. Doctor Whitman's station, now known as Waiilatpu, 
appears in sundrj' forms, as Wyeilat, Willetpu, Wailatpui, and Wieletpoo. Some 
odd names are found in Hunt, "Nouvelles Annales des Voyages," where it is 
stated that the Sciatogas and Toustchipas live on Canoe River (apparently the 
Tucanon), and the Euotalla (perhaps the Touchet), and the Akaitchis "sur le 


Big-River," i. e., the Columbia. The tribe at the junction of the Columbia and 
Snake was the Sokulks, apparently a branch of the Walla Wallas. It would 
seem that the Cayuses occupied mainly the middle Walla Walla region including 
Mill Creek, the Umatilla, the upper Walla Walla, and across the high lands to the 
Umatilla River, while the Walla \\'allas were from the vicinity of the junction 
of Dry Creek, the Touchet, and the Walla Walla River to its mouth. It appears 
that the most of the region now composing Columbia, Garfield, and -Asotin 
counties was occupied by Nez Perces. All the tribes were more or less on the 
move all the time, to mountains, plains, and rivers, according to the season and 
variations in the food supply. The Sahaptin family seem to have been in general 
of the best grade of Indians. Lewis and Clark found the Nez Perces a 
noble, dignified and honest race, though they say that they were close and reserved 
in bargaining. Generally speaking, the inland Indians were far superior in 
physique and in mental cajiacity to those of the .Sound or the lower Columbia. 
Townsend in his "Narrative" goes so far as to say that the Nez Perces and Cayuses 
were almost universally fine-looking, robust men. He compares one of the latter 
with the Apollo Belvedere. Gairdner says that the Walla Wallas were generally 
powerful men, at least six feet high, and the Cayuses were still stouter and more 
athletic. Others remarked that very handsome young girls were often seen among 
the Walla Wallas. With them doubtless, as with other Indians, the drudgery of 
their lives and their early child-bearing made them prematurely old and they soon 
lost their beauty. 

There seems to have been much variation among these natives as to personal 
habits and morality. The Nez Perces and Cayuses are almost always described as 
clean, both of body and character. Palmer in his "Journal," says that the Nez 
Perces were better clad than any others, the Cayuses well clothed, Walla Wallas 
naked and half-star\'ed. The last statement seems not to corresp)ond with the 
observations of Lewis and Clark. Wilkes says that "at the Dalles women go 
nearly naked, for they wear little else than what may be termed a breech-cloth, of 
buckskin, which is black and filthy with dirt." About the same seems to have 
been true of the Sokulks. But among the Tushepaws and Nez Perces and Cayuses 
the men and women often wore long robes of buffalo or elk-skin decorated with 
beads and sea-shells. Famham speaks of the Cayuses as the "Imperial tribe of 
Oregon, claiming jurisdiction over the whole Columbia region." 

The chief wealth of the tribes of Old Walla Walla County was in horses. 
Doctor Tolmie expressed the supposition that horses had come from the south- 
ward at no very long time prior to white discovery. It is w-ell known that a pre- 
historic horse, the hipparion, not larger than a deer, existed in Oregon. Remains 
of that creature have been found in the John Day Basin. But there is no evidence 
that there was a native horse among the Indians of Oregon. Their "Cayuse 
horses," to all indications, came from the horses of California, and they in turn 
were the ofTspring of the horses brought to Mexico and Southern California by 
the Spanish conquerors. At the time of the advent of the whites, horses existed 
in immense numbers all through the Columbia Valley. It was not uncommon for 
a Walla Walla, Umatilla, Cayuse, or Nez Perce chief to have bands of hundreds, 
even thousands. Canoes were a highly esteemed possession of the Indians on the 
navigable rivers, and they had acquirefl marvelous skill in handling them. The 


lower Columbia Indians spent so much time curled up in canoes that they were 
distorted and inferior in physique to the "bunch-grass Indians." 

Like all barbarian people the Indians of the Columbia Valley were next door 
to starvation a good part of the time. They gorged themselves when food was 
plentiful, and thus were in distress when the bounty of Nature failed, for there 
was no accumulated store as under civilized conditions. Their food consisted of 
deer, elk, and other game, in which the whole Blue Mountain country with the 
adjoining plains abounded, and of salmon and sturgeon which they obtained in 
the Columbia and Snake rivers by spearing and by ingenious weirs. They also 
obtained an abundance of vegetable food from the camas and couse which were 
common, and in fact still are in this region. Rather curiously, considering the 
fertility of this Walla Walla County, there are very few wild berries, nuts, or 
fruits. The huckleberry is practically the only berr)' in large quantities and wild 
cherries the only kind of wild fruit. 

Such were the physical conditions, hastily sketched, of the natives of Old 
Walla Walla County. Their mental and moral characteristics may be derived in a 
degree from the events narrated in the pages which follow. In their best estate 
they were faithful, patient, hospitable, and generous. In their worst estate, in 
which the whites more usually found them, they seemed vindictive, suspicious, 
cruel, and remorseless. Too many cases of the former type occurred to justify 
any sweeping condemnation. One of the finest examples of Indian character in 
its better light is shown by an event in this region narrated by Ross Cox in his 
"Adventures on the Columbia River." The party of trappers of the North- 
western Fur Company, of which Cox was one, was on its way from Astoria to 
"Oakinagan," as he calls it — a company of sixty-four in eight canoes. When 
at a point in the Columbia about equidistant between the mouth of the "Wallah 
Wallah" and that of the Lewis (Snake), a number of canoes filled with natives 
bore down upon their squadron, apparently without hostile design. But within 
a few minutes the Indians evinced the purpose of seizing the canoes of the whites 
and plundering them by violence. It was soon give and take, and arrows began 
to fly. Pretty soon one of the company, McDonald, seeing an Indian just at 
the point of letting fly an arrow at him, fired and killed the Indian. A struggle 
ensued, but the whites broke loose and defended themselves sufficiently to reach 
an island, which must have been the one nearly opposite the present Two Rivers. 
It was a gloomy prospect. Cox says that they had pretty nearly given up hope 
of escaping, and had written farewell notes which they hoped might reach their 
friends. It was a dark, gloomy night in November, with a drizzling rain. Dur- 
ing the night the party saw signal fires on the shore to the northwest, followed 
by others to east and west. Soon after a large band of ravens passed over, the 
fluttering of whose wings they could hear. This had a most depressing efifect on 
the superstitious Canadians, and one of them declared that the appearance of 
ravens at night was an infallible sign of approaching death. Mr. Keith, one of 
the Scotchmen, seeing the gloomy state of their minds and wishing to forestall 
the efifect, instantly joined the conversation, declaring that while there was such 
a general fear of a night flight of ravens, yet it never worked disaster unless 
the flight was accompanied by croaking. But when ravens passed over without 
croaking, they were a harbinger of good news. Much relieved, the Canadians 
regained their nerve and shouted out, "you are right, you are right ! Courage ! 


There is no danger !'' The beleaguered band on their dismal retreat waited for 
the dawn, making all preparations for resistance to the death. Early in the morn- 
ing the party crossed to the north bank of the river, and there waited develop- 
ments. A large force of Indians soon appeared, well armed, and yet ready for 
a parley. The whites sent forward their interpreter, Michel, to indicate their 
willingness to parley. A group of thirty or forty of the relatives of the dead 
Indians advanced chanting a death song, which, as tiicy afterwards learned, was 
about as follows: "Rest, brothers, rest! You will be avenged. The tears of 
your widows shall cease to flow, when they behold the blood of your murderers; 
and your young children shall leap and sing with joy, on seeing their scalps. Rest, 
brothers, in peace; we shall have blood." 

The events which followed this lugubrious song cannot be better told than by 
following the vivid narrative of Cox: 

. "They took up their position in the center; and the whole party then formed 
themselves into an extended crescent. Among them were natives of the Chim- 
napum, Yackaman, Sokulk, and ^^'allah Wallah tribes. Their language is nearly 
the same ; but they are under separate chiefs, and in time of war always ttnite 
against the Shoshone or Snake Indians, a powerful nation, who inhabit the plains 
to the southward. 

"From Chili to Athabasca, and from Nootka to the Labrador, there is an 
indescribable coldness about an American savage that checks familiarity. He is 
a stranger to our hopes, our fears, our joys, or our sorrows ; his eyes are seldom 
moistened by a tear, or his features relaxed by a smile ; and whether he basks 
beneath a vertical sun on the burning plains of the Amazonia, or freezes in eternal 
winter on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean, the same piercing black 
eyes, and stern immobility of countenance, equally set at naught the skill of the 

"On the present occasion, their painted skin, cut hair, and naked bodies, 
imparted to their appearance a degree of ferocity from which we boded no good 
result. They remained stationary for some time and preserved a profound 

"Messrs. Keith, Stewart, LaRocque. and the interpreter, at length advanced 
about midway between both parties unarmed, and demanded to speak with them; 
upon which two chiefs, accompanied by six of the mourners, proceeded to join 
them. Mr. Keith offered them the calumet of peace, which they refused to 
accept, in a manner at once cold and rejnilsive. 

"Michel was thereupon ordered to tell them that, as we had always been on 
good terms with them, we regretted much that the late unfortunate circumstance 
had occurred to disturb our friendly intercourse; but that as we were anxious 
to restore harmony, and to forget what had passed, we were now willing to 
compensate the relations of the deceased for the loss they had sustained. 

"They inquired what kind of compensation was intended; and on being in- 
formed that it consisted of two suits of chief's clothes, with blankets, tobacco, 
and ornaments for the women, etc., it was indignantly refused ; and their spokes- 
man stated that no discussion cotild be entered into until two white men (one 
of whom should be the big red-headed chief) were delivered to them to be 
sacrificed, according to their law, to the spirits of the departed warriors. 

"Every eye turned on McDonald, who on hearing the demand, 'grinned hor- 


ribly a ghastly smile' ; and who, but for our interposition, would on the spot have 
chastised the insolence of the speaker. The men were horrified, and 'fear and 
trembling' became visible in their countenances, until Mr. Keith, who had observed 
these symptoms of terror, promptly restored their confidence, by telling them that 
such an ignominious demand should never be complied with. 

"He then addressed the Indians in a calm, firm voice, and told them that 
no consideration whatever should induce him to deliver a white man to their 
vengeance; that they had Ijeen the original aggressors, and in their unjustifiable 
attempt to seize by force our property, the deceased had lost their lives; that 
he was willing to believe the attack was unpremeditated, and under that impres- 
sion he had made the ofifer of compensation. He assured them that he preferred 
their friendship to their enmity ; but that, if unfortunately they were not actuated 
by the same feelings, the white men would not, however deeply they might lament 
it, shrink from the contest. At the same time he reminded them of our superiority 
in arms and ammunition; and that for every man belonging to our party who 
might fall, ten of their friends at least would suffer; and concluded by request- 
ing them calmly to weigh and consider all these matters, and tO' bear in recollec- 
tion that upon the result of their deliberation would in a great measure depend 
whether white men would remain in their country or quit it forever. 

"The interpreter having repeated the above, a violent debate took place among 
the principal natives. One party advised the demand for the two white men to 
be withdrawn, and to ask in their place a greater quantity of goods and ammu- 
nition; while the other, which was by far the most numerous, and to which all 
the relatives of the deceased belonged, opposed all compromise, unaccompanied 
by the delivery of the victims. 

"The arguments and threats of the latter gradually thinned the ranks of the 
more moderate ; and Michel told Mr. Keith that he was afraid an accommodation 
was impossible. Orders were thereupon issued to prepare for action, and the 
men were told, when they received from Mr. Keith the signal, to be certain that 
each shot should tell. 

"In the meantime a number of the natives had withdrawn some distance from 
the scene of deliberation, and from their fierce and threatening looks, joined to 
occasional whispers, we momentarily expected they would commence an attack. 

"A few of their speakers still lingered, anxious for peace; but their feeble 
efforts were unavailing when opposed to the more powerful influence of the 
hostile party, who repeatedly called on them to retire, and allow the white men 
to proceed on their journey as well as they could. All but two chiefs and an 
elderly man, who had taken an active part in the debate, obeyed the call, and 
they remained for some time apparently undecided what course to adopt. 

"From this group our eyes glanced to an extended line of the enemy who 
were forming behind them ; and from their motions it became evident that their 
intention was to outflank us. We therefore changed our position, and formed our 
men into single files, each man about three feet from his comrade. The friendly 
natives began to fall back slowly towards their companions, most of whom had 
already concealed themselves behind large stones, tufts of wormwood, and furze 
bushes, from which they could have taken a more deadly aim ; and Messrs. Keith 
and Stewart, who had now abandoned all hopes of an amicable termination, 
called for their arms. 


"An awful pause cnsurd, when our attrntiun was arrested by the loud tramp- 
ing of horses, and i: twelve ni..untc,i warriors, dashed into the 
space between the tv. they lialtcd ;iiid dismounted. 1 hey were 
headed by a young chief, of fine hgurc, who instantly ran up to Mr. Keith, to 
whom he prrsciUcd ' 1 in the most fricixlly nunncr, which example was 
fulloMcd by his con lie then commanded our enemies to quit their 
places of concealment, and to appear before him. His orders were promptly 
ol>cyed; and having nude himself acquainted with the circumstances that led to 
the deaths of the two Indians, and our efforts towards effecting a reconciliation, 
he addressed them in a si)eech of considerable length, of which the following is 
a brief sketch : 

'■ i-"ricnds and relations! Three snows only have passed over our heads since 
we were a i>oor miserable people. Our enemies, the Shoshones. during the 
summer stole uur horses, by which we were i)rc\ented from hunting, and drove 
us from the banks of the river, so that we could not get lish. In winter they 
burned our lodges by night ; they killed our relations ; they treated our wives and 
daughters like dogs, and left us either to die from cold or starvation, or become 
their slaves. 

" 'They were numerous and powerful ; we were few, and weak. Our hearts 
were as the hearts of little children ; we could not fight like warriors, and were 
driven like deer about the plains. When the thunders rolled and the rains jxjured, 
we had no spot in which we could seek a shelter ; no place, save the rocks, whereon 
we could lay our heads. Is such the case today? No, my relations! it is not. 
We have driven the Shoshones from our hunting-grounds, on which they dare 
not now appear, and have regained possession of the bnds of our fathers, in 
which they and their fathers' fathers lie buried. We have horses and provisions 
in abundance, and can sleep unmolested w ith our wives and our children, witliout 
dreading the midnight attacks of our enemies. Our hearts are great within us, 
and we are now a nation !' 

"'Who then, my friends, have produced this change? The white men. In 
exchange for our horses and for our furs, they gave us guns and ammunition ; 
then we became strong; we killed many of our enemies, and forced them to 
fly from our lands. And are we to treat those who have been the cause of this 
happy change with ingratitude? Never! Never! The white people have 
never roblxrd us; and, I ask, why should we attempt to rob them? It was bad, 
very bad! — and they were right in killing the robbers.' Here symptoms of 
ini|>afience and dissatisfaction became manifest among a group consisting chiefly 
of the relations of the deceased ; on observing which, he continued in a louder 
tone: 'Yes! I say they acted right in killing the roblnrrs ; and who among you 
will dare to contradict me?' 

" 'You all know well my father was killed by the enemy, when you all 
deserted him like cowards ; and. while the Great Master of I.ife spares me. no 
hostile foot shall again l>e set on our lands. I know you all; and I know that 
those who are afraid of their Ixxiies in battle arc thieves when they are out of 
it : but the warrior of the strong arm and the great heart will never rob a friend.' 
.•\fter a short pause, he resumed: 'My friends, the white men are brave and 
lielone to a great nation. They are many moons crossing the great lake in coming 
from their own conntrv to ser\e us. If vou were foolish enough to attack them. 

ttt*lli>i.«. 1 


I Pv*^ ■i^fel. 


t * • 



- ^- 

Hotel Diicres 

Grand Hotel 


they would kill a great many of you ; but suppose you should succeed in destroy- 
ing all that are now present, what would be the consequence ? A greater number 
would come next year to revenge the death of their relations, and they would 
annihilate our tribe; or should not that happen, their friends at home, on hearing 
of their deaths, would say we were a bad and wicked people, and white men 
would never more come among us. We should then be reduced to our former 
state of misery and persecution; our ammunition would be quickly expended; our 
guns would become useless, and we should again be driven from our lands, and 
the lands of our fathers, to wander like deer and wolves in the midst of the woods 
and plains. I therefore say the white men must not be injured ! They have 
offered you compensation for the loss of your friends: take it; but, if you should 
refuse, I tell you to your faces that I will join them with my own band of 
warriors; and should one white man fall by the arrow of an Indian, that Indian, 
if he were my brother, with all his family, shall become victims to my vengeance.' 
Then, raising his voice, he called out, 'Let the Wallah Wallahs, and all who love 
me, and are fond of the white men, come forth and smoke the pipe of peace !' 
Upwards of one hundred of our late adversaries obeyed the call, and separated 
themselves from their allies. The harangue of the youthful chieftain silenced 
all opposition. The above is but a faint outline of the arguments he made use 
of, for he spoke upwards of two hours; and Michel confessed himself unable to 
translate a great portion of his language, particularly when he soared into the 
wild flights of metaphor, so common among Indians. His delivery was generally 
bold, graceful, and energetic. Our admiration at the time knew no bounds; and 
the orators of Greece or Rome when compared-with him, dwindled in our estima- 
tion into insignificance. .; . _ " "^ ' 

"Through this chief's mediation, tlie viHolii .'claimants were in a short time 
fully satisfied, without the flaming scalp jsf. our Higntand hero ; after which a 
circle was formed by our people and the Indians iri^i^riminately : the white and 
red chiefs occupied the center, and our return to friendship was ratified by each 
individual in rotation taking an amicable whiiT from the peace-cementing calumet. 

"The chieftain whose timely arrival had rescued us from impending destruc- 
tion was called 'Morning Star.' His age did not exceed twenty-five years. His 
father had been a chief of great bravery and influence, and had been killed in 
battle by the Shoshones a few years before. He was succeeded by Morning 
Star, who, notwithstanding his youth, had performed prodigies of valor. Nineteen 
scalps decorated the neck of his war horse, the owners of which had been all 
killed in battle by himself to appease the spirit of his deceased father. He 
wished to increase the number of his victims to twenty ; but the terror inspired 
by his name, joined to the superiority which his tribe derived by the use of fire- 
arms, prevented him from making up the desired complement by banishing the 
enemy from the banks of the Columbia.* 

"His handsome features, eagle glance, noble bearing, and majestic person, 
stamped him one of Nature's own aristocracy; while his bravery in the field, 
joined to his wisdom in their councils, commanded alike the involuntary homage 
of the young, and the respect of the old. 

"We gave the man who had been wounded in the shoulder a chief's coat ; and 

* The Indians consider the attainment of twenty scalps as the summit of a warrior's glory. 

Vol. I— !l 


to the relations of the men who were kiUed we gave two coats, two blankets, two 
fathoms of cloth, two spears, forty bullets and powder, with a quantity of 
trinkets, and two small kettles for their widows. We also distributed nearly half 
a bale of tobacco among all present, and our youthful deliverer was presented 
by Mr. Keith with a handsome fowling-piece, and some other valuable articles. 

"Four men were then ordered to each canoe, and they proceeded on with 
the poles; while the remainder, with the passengers, followed by land. We were 
mixed pell-mell with the natives for several miles : the ground was covered with 
large stones, small willows, and prickly-pears; and had they been inclined to 
break the solemn compact into which they had entered, they could have destroyed 
us with the utmost facility. 

"At dusk we bade farewell to the friendly chieftain and his companions, and 
crossed to the south side, where we encamped, a few miles above Lewis River, 
and spent the night in tranquillity. 

"It may be imagined by some that the part we acted in the foregoing trans- 
action betrayed too great an anxiety for self-preservation ; but when it is recol- 
lected that we were several hundred miles from any assistance, with a deep and 
rapid river to ascend by the tedious and laborious process of poling, and that 
the desultory Cossack mode of fighting in use among the Indians, particularly 
the horsemen, would have cut us off in piecemeal ere we had advanced three 
days, it will be seen that, under the circumstances, we could not have acted 


And now we must turn to another phase of Indian life and character which 
is most worthy of record, and one in which more than anywhere else they show 
some of those "touches of nature which make the whole world kin." This is that 
phase exhibited in myths and superstitions. Here we shall f^nd, as almost 
nowhere else, that Indians are, after all, very much like other people. In this 
portion of this chapter the author is incorporating portions of articles written by 
himself for the American Antiquarian. 

Like all primitive men, the Oregon Indians have an extensive mythology. 
With childlike interest in the stars and moon and sun and fire and water and 
forests as well as plants and animal life and their own natures, they have sought 
out and passed on a wealth of legend and fancy which in its best features ,s 
worthy of a place with the exquisite creations of Norse and Hellenic fancy, 
even with much of the crude and grotesque. Yet it is not easy to secure these 
legends just as the Indians tell them. In the first place few of the early explorers 
knew how or cared to draw out the ideas of the first uncontaminated Indians. 
The early settlers generally had a stupid intolerance in dealing with Indians 
that made them shut right up like clams and withhold their stock of ideas. Later 
the missionaries generally inclined to give them the impression that their "heathen" 
legends and ideas were obstacles to their "salvation," and should be extirpated 
from their minds. Still further the few that did really get upon a sympathetic 
footing with them and draw out some of their myths, were likely to get them 
in fragments and piece them out with Bible stories or other civilized concep- 
tions, and thus the native stories have become adulterated. It is difficult to get 
the Indians to talk freely, even with those whom they like and trust. Educated 
Indians seem to be ashamed of their native lore, and will generally avoid talking 
about it with whites at all, unless under exceptional conditions. Christianized 


Indians seem to consider the repetition of their old myths a relapse into heathenism, 
and hence will parry etiorts to draw them out. Li general, even when civilized, 
Lidians are proud, reserved, suspicious, and on their guard. And with the primal 
Indians few can make much headway. The investigator must start in indirectly, 
not manifesting any eagerness, and simply suggest as if by accident some peculiar 
appearance or incident in sky or trees or water, and let the Indian move on in 
his own way to empty his own mind, never suspecting any effort by his listener 
to gather up and tell again his story. And even under the most favoring con- 
ditions, one may think he is getting along famously, when suddenly the Indian 
will pause, glance furtively at the listener, give a moody chuckle, relapse into 
stony and apathetic silence — that is the end of the tale. 

Our stories have been derived mainly from the reports of those who have 
lived much among the Indians, and who have been able to embrace the rare 
occasions when, without self-consciousness or even much thought of outsiders, 
the natives could speak out freely. There is usually no very close way of judg- 
ing of the accuracy of observation or correctness of report of these investigators, 
except as their statements are corroborated by others. These stories sometimes 
conflict, different tribes having quite different versions of certain stories. Then 
again the Indians have a peculiar habit of "continued stories," by which at the 
teepee fire one will take up some well known tale and add to it and so make a 
new story of it, or at least a new conclusion. As with the minstrels and minne- 
singers of feudal Europe at the tournaments, the best fellow is the one who tells 
the most thrilling tale. 

One confusing condition that often arises with Indian names and stories is 
that some Indians use a word generically and others use the same word spe- 
cifically. For instance the native name for Mount Adams, commonly given as 
"Pahtou," and Mount Rainier or Tacoma, better spelled "Takhoma," as sounded 
by the Indians, really means any high mountain. A Wasco Indian once told the 
author that his tribe called Mount Hood, "Pahtou," meaning the big mountain, 
but that the Indians on the other side of the Columbia River applied the same 
name to Adams. A very intelligent Puyallup Indian says that the name of the 
"Great White Mountain" was "Takhoma," with accent and prolonged sound on 
the second .syllable, but that any snow peak was the same, with the second syllable 
not so prolonged according to height or distance of the peak. Mount St. Helens 
was also "Takhoma," but with the "ho" not so prolonged. But among some 
other Indians we find Mount St. Helens known as "Lawailaclough," and with 
some Mount Hood is known as "Yetsl." Still other names are "Loowit" for 
St. Helens and "Wiyeast" for Hood. Adams seems to be known to some as 
"Klickitat." "Koolshan" for Baker, meaning the "Great White Watcher," is 
one of the most attractive of Indian names and should be preserved. There is 
"Shuksan" or "The place of the Storm Wind," the only one of the northwestern 
peaks which has preserved its Indian name. In reference to "Takhoma," a 
Puyallup woman told the writer that among her people the name meant the 
"Breast that Feeds," or "The Breast of the Milk White Waters," referring to 
the glaciers or the white streams that issue from them. On the other hand, 
Winthrop in "Canoe and Saddle," states that the Indians applied the name "Tak- 
homa" to any high snow peak. Mr. Edwin Eells of Tacoma has written that he 
derived from Rev. Father Hylebos of the same city the statement that the name 



"Takhonia" was compounded of '-Tah" and "Konia," and that among certain 
Indians the word "Koma" meant any snow peak, while "Tah" is a superlative. 
Hence, "Tahkoma" means simply the great peak. 

We tind something of the .same inconsistencies in regard to the Indian names 
of rivers. Our maps abound with supposed Indian names of rivers and yet an 
educated Nez Perce Indian named Luke, living at Kamiah, Idaho, says that the 
Indians, at least of that region, had no names of rivers, but only of localities. 
He told the author that "Kooskooskie," which Lewis and Clark understood to be 
the name of what we now call the Clearwater, was in reality a repetition of 
"Koos," their word for water, and they meant merely to say that it was a strong 
water. On the other hand we find many students of Indian languages who have 
understood that there were names for the large rivers, even for the Columbia. 
In the beautiful little book by B. H. Barrows, published and distributed by the 
Union Pacific Railroad Company, we find the name "Shocatilicum" or "Friendly 
Water" given as the Chinook name for the Columbia. It is interesting to notice 
that this same word for "friendly water" appears in Vol. II, of the Lewis and 
Clark Journal, but with different spelling, in one place being "Shocatilcum" and 
in another place "Chockalilum." Reverend Father Blanchet is authority for 
the statement in "Historical Magazine," II, 335, that the Chinook Indians used 
the name "Yakaitl Wimakl" for the Lower Columbia. A Yakima Indian called 
William Charley gives "Chewanna" as still another Indian name for the Columbia. 

We have many supposed Indian names for God, as "Nekahni," or "Sahale," 
but Miss Kate McBeth, long a missionary among the Nez Perces, records in her 
book about them that those Indians had no native name for the deity. Of these 
Indian myths many deal with the chief God, as "Nekahni," "Sahale," "Dokidatl," 
"Snoqualm," or "Skomalt," while others have to do with the lesser grade of the 
supernatural beings, as the Coyote god, variously named "Tallapus," "Speelyi," 
or "Sinchaleep." Others may treat of "Skallalatoots" (Fairies), "Toomuck," 
(Devils), or the various forms of "Tomanowas" (magic). A large number of 
these myths describe the supposed origin of strange features of the natural world, 
rocks, lakes, whirlpools, winds and waterfalls. Some describe the "animal 
people," "Watetash," as the Klickitats call them. Some of the best are fire- 
myths. These myths seem to have been common among all Indians of the 
Columbia Valley. 

In the preceding chapter we have given two of the best Indian myths, that of 
Wishpoosh and that of the Chinook Wind. We insert here two stories of a 
very different nature, derived from the same investigator as the two preceding, 
Dr. G. B. Kuykendall of Pomeroy, Washington. 

There is a legend among the Yakima Indians which seems to have the same 
root in human nature as the beautiful Greek myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, 
showing the instinctive desire of people on earth to bring back the spirits of the 
dead, and the impossibility of doing so. This myth sets forth how Speelyi and 
Whyama the eagle became at one time so grieved at the loss of their loved ones 
that they determined to go to the land of the spirits and bring them back. The 
two adventurers journeyed for a long distance over an unbroken plain, and came 
at last to a great lake, on the farther side of which they saw many houses. They 
called long and vainly for someone to come with a boat and ferry them over. 
But there was no sign of life and at last Whyama said that there could be no one 


there. Speelyi insisted, liowever, that the people were simply sleeping the sleep 
of the day and would come forth at night. Accordingly, when the sun went down 
and darkness began to come on, Speelyi started to sing. In a few minutes they 
saw four spirit men come to the bank, enter a boat and cross the lake to meet 
them. It seemed not necessary for them to row the boat, for apparently it 
skimmed over the water of its own accord. The spirit men, having landed, took 
Whyama and Speelyi with them in the boat and began their return to the island 
of the dead. The island seemed to be a very sacred place. There was a house 
of mats upon the shore, where music and dancing were in progress. Speelyi 
and Whyama begged leave to enter, and feeling hungry, they asked for food. 
The spirit land was so much less gross than the earth that they were satisfied 
by what was dipped with a feather out of a bottle. The spirit people now came 
to meet them dressed in most beautiful costumes, and so filled with joy that 
Speelyi and Whyama felt a great desire to share their happiness. By the time 
of the morning light, however, the festivities ceased and all the spirit people 
became wrapped in slumber for the day. Speelyi, observing that the moon was 
hung up inside the great banquet hall and seemed to be essential to the ongoings 
of the evening, stationed himself in such a place that he could seize it during the 
next night's meeting. As soon as night came on the spirits gathered again for 
the music and dance. While their festivities were in progress as usual, Speelyi 
suddenly swallowed the moon, leaving the entire place in darkness. Then he and 
Whyama brought in a box, which they had previously provided, and Whyama, 
flying swiftly about the room caught a number of the spirits and enclosed them 
in the box. Then the two proceeded to start for the earth, Speelyi carrying the 
box upon his back. 

As the two adventurers went upon their long journey toward the earth with 
the precious box, the spirits, which at first were entirely imponderable, began 
to be transformed into men and to have weight. Soon they began to cry out 
on account of their crowded and uncomfortable position. Then they became 
so heavy that Speelyi could no longer carry them. In spite of the remonstrances 
of Whyama, he opened the box. They were astonished and overwhelmed with 
grief to see the partiallv transformed spirits flit away like autumn leaves and dis- 
appear in the direction from which they had come. Whyama thought that per- 
haps even as the buds grow in the spring, so the dead would come back with 
the blooming of the next flowers. But Speelyi deemed it best after this that 
the dead should remain in the land of the dead. Had it not been for this, as the 
Indians think, the dead would indeed return every spring with the openmg of 

tllP lc3.VCS 

The Klickitat Indians, living along the Dalles of the Columbia, have another 
legend of the land of spirits. There was a young chief and a girl who were 
devoted to each other and seemed to be the happiest people in the tribe, but sud- 
denly be sickened and died. The girl mourned for him almost to the point of 
death, and he, having reached the land of spirits, could find no happiness there 

on account of thinking of her. , ,u ■ ^ u ■ ut +»ii 

And so it came to pass that a vision began to appear to the girl by night, tell- 
ing her that she must herself go into the land of the spirits in order to console 
her lover. Now there is near that place one of the most weird and funereal of 
all the various "memaloose" islands, or death islands, of the Columbia. The 


writer himself has been upun this island and its spectral and volcanic desolation 
makes it a fitting location for ghostly tales. It lies just below the "great chute," 
and even yet has many skeletons upon it. In accordance with the directions of 
the vision, the girl's father made ready a canoe, placed her in it, and rowed out 
into the great river by night to the menialoose island. As the father and his 
child rowed across the dark and forbidding waters, they began to hear the sound 
of singing and dancing and great joy. Upon the shore of the island they were 
met by four spirit people, who took the girl but bade the father return, as it was 
not for him to see into the spirit country. Accordingly the girl was conducted 
to the great dance house of the spirits, and there she met her lover, far stronger 
and more beautiful than when upon earth. That night they spent in unspeakable 
bliss, but when the light began to break in the east and the song of the robins 
began to be heard from the willows on the shore, the singers and the dancers 
began to fall asleep. 

The girl, too, had gone to sleep, but not soundly like the spirits. When the 
sun had reached the meridian, she woke, and now, to her horror, she saw that 
instead of being in the midst of beautiful spirits, she was surrounded by hideous 
skeletons and loathsome, decaying bodies. Around her waist were the bony arms 
and skeleton fingers of her lover, and his grinning teeth and gaping eye-sockets 
seemed to be turned in mockery upon her. Screaming with horror she leaped 
up and ran to the edge of the island, where, after hunting a long time, she found 
a boat, in which she paddled across to the Indian village. Having presented her- 
self to her astonished parents, they became fearful that some great calamity 
would visit the tribe on account of her return, and accordingly her father took 
her the next night back to the memaloose island as before. There she met again 
the happy spirits of the blessed and there again her lover and she spent another 
night in ecstatic bliss. 

In the course of time a child was born to the girl, -beautiful beyond descrip- 
tion, being half spirit and half human. The spirit bridegroom, being anxious 
that his mother should see the child, sent a spirit messenger to the village, desir- 
ing his mother to come by night to the memaloose island to visit them. She was 
told, however, that she must not look at the child until ten days had passed. 
But after the old woman had reached the island her desire to see the wonderful 
child was so intense that she took advantage of a moment's inattention on the 
part of the guard, and, lifting the cloth from the baby board, she stole a look at 
the sleeping infant. And then, dreadful to relate, the baby died in consequence 
of this premature human look. Grieved and displeased by this foolish act, the 
spirit people decreed that the dead should never again return nor hold any com- 
munication witli the living. 

As showing still another phase of Indian imagination, the stories of the 
"Tomanowas Bridge" of the Cascades may well find a place here. 

This myth not only treats of fire, but it also endeavors to account for the 
peculiar formation of the river and for the great snow peaks in the near vicinity. 
This myth has various forms, and in order that it may be the better understood, 
Ave shall say a word with respect to the peculiar physical features in that part 
of the Columbia. This mighty river, after having traversed over a thousand 
miles from its source in the heart of the Rocky Mountains of Canada, has cleft 
the Cascade range asunder with the cafion 3,000 feet in depth. While generally 


very swift, that portion of the river between The Dalles and the Cascades, of 
about fifty miles, is very deep and sluggish. There are moreover sunken forests 
on both sides of the river, visible at low water, which seem plainly to indicate 
that at that point the river was dammed up by some great rock slide or volcanic 
convulsion. Some of the Lidians affirm that their grandfathers have told them 
there was a time when the river at that point passed under an immense natural 
bridge and that there were no obstructions to the passage of boats under the bridge. 
At the present time there is a cascade of forty feet at that point. This is now over- 
come by Government locks. Among other evidences of some such actual occur- 
rence as the Indians relate is the fact that the banks of the river at that point 
are gradually sliding into the river. The prodigious volume of the Columbia 
which here rises from fifty to seventy-five feet during the summer flood and 
which, as shown by Government engineers, carries as much water as the Missis- 
sippi at New Orleans, is here continually eating into the banks. The railroad 
has slid several inches a year at this point toward the river and requires frequent 
readjustment. It is obvious at a slight inspection that this weird and sublime 
point in the course of this majestic river has been the scene of terrific volcanic 
and probably seismic action. One Indian legend, probably the best known of all 
their stories, is to the effect that the downfall of the great bridge and consequent 
damming of the river was due to a great battle between Mount Hood and Mount 
Adams, in which Mount Hood hurled a great rock at his antagonist, but falling 
short of the mark the rock demolished the bridge instead. This event has been 
made use of by Frederick Balch in his beautiful story, "The Bridge of the Gods," 
the finest story yet produced in Oregon. 

But the finer, though less known legend, which unites both the physical con- 
formation of the Cascades and the three great snow mountains of Hood, Adams, 
and St. Helens, with the origin of fire, is to this efi^ect. This story was secured 
by Mr. Fred Saylor of Portland. 

According to the Klickitats there was once a father and two sons who came 
from the east down the Columbia to the vicinity of where Dalles City is now 
located, and there the two sons quarreled as to who should possess the land. 
The father, to settle the dispute, shot two arrows, one to the north and one to 
the west. ?Ie told one son to find the arrow to the north and the other the one at 
the west and there to settle and bring up their families. The first son, going 
northward, over what was then a beautiful plain, became the progenitor of the 
Klickitat tribe, while the other son was the founder of the great Multnomah 
nation of the Willamette Valley. To separate the two tribes more effectively 
Sahale reared the chain of the Cascades, though without any great peaks, and 
for a long time all things went in harmony. But for convenience' sake Sahale 
had created the great tomanowas bridge under which the waters of the Columbia 
flowed, and on this bridge he had stationed a witch woman called Loowit. who 
was to take charge of the fire. This was the only fire in the world. As time 
passed on Loowit observed the deplorable condition of the Indians, destitute 
of fire and the conveniences which it might bring. She therefore besought Sahale 
to allow her to bestow fire upon the Indians. Sahale, having been greatly pleased 
by the faitli fulness and benevolence of Loowit, finally granted her request. The 
lot of the Indians was wonderfully improved by the acquisition of fire. Thev 


now began to make better lodges and clothes and had a variety of food and 
implements and, in short, were marvellously benefited by the bounteous gift. 
lUit Sahale, in order to show his aj)preciation of the care with which Loowit 
had guarded the sacred tire, now determined to offer her any gift she might desire 
as a reward. Accordingly, in response to his offer, Loowit asked that she be 
transformed into a young and beautiful girl. This was effected and now, as 
might have been expected, all the Indian chiefs fell deeply in love with the 
beautiful guardian of the tomanowas bridge. Loowit paid little heed to any 
of them, until finally there came two magnificent chiefs, one from the north 
called Klickitat, and one from the south called Wiyeast. Loowit was uncertain 
which of these two she most desired, and as a result a bitter strife arose between 
the two, and this waxed hotter and hotter, until finally, with their respective 
warriors, they entered upon a desperate war. The land was ravaged, all the 
beautiful things which they had made were marred, and misery and wretched- 
ness ensued. Sahale repented that he had allowed Loowit to bestow fire upon the 
Indians, and determined to undo all his work in so far as he could. Accordingly 
he broke down the tomanowas bridge, which dammed up the river with an 
impassable reef and put to death Loowit, Klickitat and Wiyeast. But, he said, 
inasmuch as they had been so grand and beautiful in life, he would give them 
a fitting commemoration after death. Therefore he reared over them as monu- 
ments the great snow peaks ; over Loowit what we now call Mount St. Helens, 
over Wiyeast the modern Mount Hood, and above Klickitat the stupendous dome 
of what we now call Mount Adams. 

And now it is a matter of much interest to learn something of the chief 
original sources and the most reliable investigators of these myths. This survey 
is necessarily incomplete. The endeavor is to name the students and writers 
of myths as far as possible. This search goes beyond Old Walla Walla and 
covers Old Oregon. 

First in the natural order of the investigators, and records of Indian myths 
come the early explorers and writers of Old Oregon. Most of these give us 
little on the special subject of myths, though they give much on the habits, 
customs, occupations, and implements of the natives. The earliest explorer in 
Oregon, so far as known to the author, to give any native legend, is Gabriel 
Franchere, who came to Astoria with the Astor Fur Company in 1811. In his 
narrative, upon which Irving's "Astoria" is largely based, we find a fine story 
of the creation of men by Etalapass, and their subsequent improvement by 
Ecannum. Franchere says that this legend was related to him by Ellewa, one 
of the sons of Concomly, the one-eyed Chinook chief, who figures conspicuously 
in Franchere's narrative. Of valuable books of the same period of Franchere, 
are Ross Cox's "Adventures on the Columbia River," and Alexander Ross' 
"Adventures on the Columbia," both of which contain valuable references to the 
customs and superstitious ideas of the natives, though not much in the way of 
myths. Ross gives an interesting myth of the Oakinackens (Okanogans as we 
now say) about the origin of the Indians or Skyloo on the white man's island, 
Samahtumawhoolah. The Indians were then very white and ruled by a female 
spirit, or Great Mother, named Skomalt, but their island got loose and drifted 
on the ocean for many suns, and as a result they became darkened to their 
present hue. Ross gives also an account of the belief of the Oakinackens in a 



good spirit, one of whose names is Skyappe, and a bad spirit, one of whose names 
was Chacha. The chief deity of those Indians seems to have been the great 
mother of Hfe, Skomalt, whose name also has the addition of "Squisses." Ross 
says that those Indians change their names constantly and doubtless their deities 
did the same. 

Of valuable books a few years later than those just named, one especially 
deserving of mention is Dr. Samuel Parker's "Exploring Tour Beyond the 
Rocky Mountains," the result of observations made in 1835 and 1836. This, 
however, contains little in the way of mythology. Capt. Charles Wilkes, the 
American explorer of the early '40s, gives a very interesting account of a Palouse 
myth of a beaver which was cut up to make the tribes. This is evidently another 
version of the Klickitat story of the great beaver, Wishpoosh, of Lake Cleelum. 
One of the most important of the early histories of Oregon is Dunn's, the 
materials for which were gathered in the decade of the '40s. With other valuable 
matter it contains accounts of the religious conceptions of the Indians, and here 
we find the legend of the Thunder Bird of the Tinneh, a northern tribe. In this 
same general period, though a little later, we find the most brilliant of all writers 
dealing with Oregon ; that is, the gifted scholar, poet and soldier, Theodore 
Winthrop. His book, "Canoe and Saddle," has no rival for literary excellence 
and graphic power, among all the books which have dealt with the Northwest. The 
book was first published in 1862, and republished fifty years later in beautiful 
form by John H. Williams of Tacoma. "Canoe and Saddle" commemorates a 
journey from Puget Sound across the; niouiifaijis^and through the Yakima and 
Klickitat countries in 1854. It cdntein^-seyera-l. fine Indian stories, notably that 
of the Miser of Mount Tacoma, and that of the Devil of the Dalles. Winthrop 
does not state from whom directly he. secured the second of these myths, but 
no doubt from the Indians themselves",' thougJi the' peculiar rich imagination and 
picturesque language of Winthrop are in evidence throughout the narration. The 
tale of the Miser of Mount Tacoma is attributed by Winthrop to Hamitchou, 
an Indian of the Squallygamish tribe. 

At about the same time as Winthrop's, occurred the visit and investigations 
of James G. Swan, whose book, "The Northwest Coast," was published in 1857. 
Tn this is found the cre.ition myth of the Ogress of Saddle Mountain, relating 
the issuing forth of Indians from eggs cast down the mountain-side by the 
Ogress. Many years ago Rev. Myron Eells told the writer a variation of that 
story, which has appeared in sundry forms and publications, being the story of 
Toulux, the South Wind, Quootshoi the witch, and Skamson the Thunder Bird. 
In addition to the legend of the Thunder Bird, Swan gives many items of peculiar 
interest. Among these we find his idea that certain customs of the Indians ally 
them with the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. His final impression seems to be, 
however, that they are autocthonous in America. He refers to the observation 
of General George Gibbs of the similarity of Klickitat myths to those in Long- 
fellow's Hiawatha. He also refers to the beeswax ship of the Nehalem. In 
connection with the thought of Indian resemblance to the Ten Lost Tribes, it is 
worth noticing that this has come forth from various directions. Miss Kate 
McBeth has expressed the same in connection with the Nez Perces. It was also 
a favorite idea with B. B. Bishop, one of the earliest builders of steamboats 
on the Columbia, who lived many years at Pendleton, Oregon. He told the 


writer that the Indians at the Cascades had a spring festival with the lirst run 
of salmon. They would boil whole the first large salmon caught', and have a 
ceremony in which the whole tribe would pass in procession around the fish, 
each taking a bit. They exercised the utmost care to leave the skeleton intact, 
so that at the end it had been picked clean but with not a bone broken. Mr. 
Bishop thought that this was a sunival of the Jewish idea of the Paschal Lamb. 

Among the great collectors of all kinds of historical data in what might be 
called the middle period of Northwest history and not exactly belonging to any 
one of the specific groups, is H. H. Bancroft, already referred to in the first 
part of this chapter. In his "Native Races," are found many myths, with refer- 
ences given, but these mainly deal with Mexican, Central American, and Cali- 
fornian Indians. He refers to Holmburg's ethnological studies in German as 
containing valuable matter in regard to our Northwestern Indians. Harmon's 
Journal, with its reference to the TacuUies of British Columbia and their legend 
of the Musk Rat, is also named. In the same connection we find reference to 
Yehl the Raven, an especial favorite of the Indians of British Columbia and the 
upper part of Puget Sound. 

From what may be termed the first group of narrators of native tales, we 
may turn to those that may be called the scientific ethnologists. We are indebted 
to Dr. Franz Boas, himself the foremost of the group, for the list of these pro- 
fessional students of the subject. These men took up the matter in a more 
scientific and methodical way than the travellers and pioneers and have presented 
the results of their work in form that appeals to the scholar, the work of trained 
investigators, seeking the facts and giving them as exactly as possible, not affected 
by the distortions and exaggerations common to unscientific observers. They 
were all connected with the Smithsonian Institute, and their work was mainly 
tmder the Government. 

The Bibliography as given by Doctor Boas, is as follov/s: 

Edward Sapir, Wishram Texts (publications of the American Ethnological 
Society, Vol. 11). 

Leo J. Frachtenberg, Coos Texts (Columbia University contributions to 
Anthropology, \'ol. I). 

Leo J. Frachtenberg, Lower Unipqua Texts (Ibid., Vol. IV). 

James Teit, Traditions of the Thompson Indians (Memoirs of the Amer- 
ican Folk-Lore Society, Vol. VI). (This is not Washington, but 
practically identical with material from the interior of Washington.) 

James Teit, Mythology of the Thompson Indians (Jesup North Pacific 
Expedition Publications, Vol. VIII). 

James Teit, The Shuswap (Ibid., Vol. II). 

Franz Boas, Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Pacifischen Kiiste Amerikas. 

Franz Boas, Mythology of the Indians of Washington and Oregon 
(Globus, Yo]. LXIII, pp. 154-157, 172-175, igo-193). 

H. J. Spinden, Myths of the Nez Perce (Journal of American Folk Lore, 
Vol. XXI). 

Louisa McDermott, Myths of the Flathead Indians (Ibid., Vol. XIV). 

Franz Boas, Sagen der Kootenay (Berlin Society for Anthropology, 
Ethnology, etc., \'ol. XXIII, pp. 161-172). 


Livingston Farrand, Traditions of the Quinault Indians (Publications 
of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. II). 

Franz Boas, Chinook Texts (Bureau of Ethnology, Government Print- 
ing Office, 1894). 

Franz Boas, Cathlamet Texts (Ibid.). 

James Teit, Traditions of the Lilloost Indians (Journal of American 
Folk-Lore, \'ol. XXV). 

Jeremiah Curtin, Myths of the Modocs (Little, Brown & Co.). 
To these may be added, as of special value, the studies of Prof. Albert S. 
Gatchett among the Modocs, found under the title, "Oregonian Folk-Lore" in the 
Journal of American Folk-Lore, Vol. IV, 1891, Houghton, Mifflin & Co. The 
other volumes of the Journal of .luierican Folk-Lore from 1888 to 1913 contain 
valuable matter. 

Doctor Boas found a treasury of information in an old Indian named Charlie 
Cultee, at Bay Center in Willapa Harbor, Wash., and from that source derived 
the material for the most scientific and uncolored study of Indian lore yet given 
to the public. These appear in the Chinook Texts of Doctor Boas. In this is a 
fine story of the first ship seen by the Clatsops. This is found also in H. S. 
Lyman's History of Oregon. In Professor Gatchett's book are found some of 
the finest fire myths and fish myths of the Northwest. 

Following the groups of the explorers and the professional ethnologists, may 
come the larger body of miscellaneous collectors and writers, who, through local 
papers and magazines and published books, as well as personal narration, have 
rescued many quaint and curious gems of Indian mythology from oblivion and 
through various channels have imparted them to the slowly accumulating stock. 
Those no longer living may properly appear first. Of comparatively recent 
students no longer living, Silas Smith of Astoria was one of the best. His 
father was Solomon Smith of the Wyeth Expedition, while his mother was 
Celiast, daughter of the Clatsop chief Cobaiway. Through his Indian mother 
Mr. Smith obtained much interesting matter, much of which was preserved 
by H. S. Lyman in his history of Oregon, and in articles in the Oregonian, His- 
torical Oiwrtcrly. and other publications. H. S. Lyman was also an original 
investigator, deriving his data mainly from Silas Smith and from a group of 
Indians who formerly lived at the mouth of the Nekanicum. These stories ap- 
pear in his history of Oregon and in a group contained in the "Tallapus Stories," 
published in the Oregonian. Another intelligent and patient investigator was 
Rev. Mvron Fells, who lived for many years on Hood's Canal. Many years ago 
the author heard from him legends from the Indians which he derived directly 
from the natives, such as the Thunder Bird, the Flood around Mount Tacoma 
C which he thought colored by the story of Noah in the Bible), and others. In the 
book by Mr. Hells, entitled "Ten Years' Missionary Work in Skokomish," he gives 
a valuable description of the "Tomanowas." In various numbers of the American 
Antiquarian Mr. Eells has valuable articles as follows: "The Religion of the 
Twana Indians," July, 1879; "Dokidatl, or the God of the Puget Sound Indians," 
November, 1884; "The Indians of Puget Sound," May, 1888, and March, 1890. 
Prominent among the scholars and lecturers of Oregon is the great name of 
Thomas Condon, for a long time in the State University, and the earliest student 
in a large way of the geology of the Northwest. He was interested in Indiaii 


myths as in almost everything that had to do with man and nature. The legend 
of the "Bridge of the Clods," already given in this chapter, particularly appealed 
to him. One of the notable students of both the geology and anthropology of the 
Northwest was George Gibbs, who came to Oregon as a Government geologist 
in 1853. In his rejiort on the Pacific Railroad in House of Representatives Docu- 
ments of 1853-4, he gives the first published version, so far as we can discover, of 
the "Bridge of the Gods." He tells the story thus: "The Indians tell a char- 
acteristic tale of Mount Hood and Mount St. Helens to the effect that they were 
man and wife; that they finally quarreled and threw fire at one another, and that 
St. Helens was victor; since when Mount Hood has been afraid, while St. Helens, 
having a stout heart, still burned. In some versions this story is connected with 
the slide which formed the Cascades of the Columbia." Mr. Gibbs also gives some 
\'akima legends. 

One of the most distinguished of all the literary pioneers of Old Oregon was 
Samuel A. Clark. In his "Pioneer Days in Oregon" are several interesting 
legends well told. In this we find the legend of the Nahalem, with Ona and Sandy 
and all their tribulations. We find here told also the story of the Bridge of the 
Gods, in which Hood and Adams are represented as the contending forces, having 
been originally the abutments of the Bridge of the Gods. But the most noted con- 
tribution of Mr. Clark to this legend -was his poem called, "The Legend of the 
Mountains," referring to the fabled bridge, which appeared in Harper's Maga::ine 
of February, 1874. This represents Mount St. Helens as a goddess for whom 
Hood and Adams contended, hurling huge stones at each other and finally break- 
ing down the bridge. The story of the bridge became the most noted of all 
native myths, being related to practically every traveller that made the steamboat 
trip down the Columbia. 

Let us now turn to those discoverers and writers of Indian myths who are still 
living. The majority of these are from the nature of the case adaptors and tran- 
scribers, rather than original students. But some among them are entitled to the 
place of genuine investigators. Among these a foremost place must be accorded 
to Fred A. Saylor of Portland. He was for several years editor of the Oregon 
Native Son, and for it he wrote a number of stories which he derived directly 
from the Indians. A student of these stories from boyhood, he has accumulated 
the largest collection of matter both published and unpublished of anyone in the 
Northwest. This collection is preserved by him in fourteen large scrap books, 
and constitutes a treasury of valuable data which it is to be hoped may soon ap- 
pear in a published form for the delight and profit of many readers. Among the 
legends of which Mr. Saylor is entitled to be regarded as the discoverer are these : 
"The Legend of Tahoma" ; "Why the Indian Fears Golden Hair," or, "The Origin 
of Castle Rock;" "Speelyi, or the Origin of Latourelle Falls, and the Pillars of 
Hercules;" "Thorns on Rosebushes;" "The Noah of the Indians;" "The Strange 
Story of a Double Shadow ;" "The Legend of Snake River Valley ;" "A Wa])pato 
Account of the Flood ;" "The Last Signal Fire of the Multnomah ;" "The Legend 
of the Willamette;" "The Love of an Indian Maid;" "Enumpthla;" "Coyote's 
Tomb ;" "Multnomah." The last named has been presented by students on the 
campus of the State University and also at the Agricultural College of Oregon. 

Of investigators known to the author, none seems more worthy of extended 
and favorable mention than Dr. G. B. Kuykendall of Pomeroy, Wash. He was 


for a number of years the physician for the Yakima Reservation at Fort Simcoe. 
He began his work of collecting in 1875, deriving his knowledge directly from 
the Indians. His authorities were almost entirely old Indians, for from such only 
could he secure narrations of unadulterated character. His first published writ- 
ings were in the "West Shore," of Portland, in 18S7. His most mature contribu- 
tion, which may indeed be considered the best yet given to the public, is found in 
Vol. II, of the "History of the Pacific Northwest," published by the North 
Pacific History Co., of Portland, in 1889. This is an admirable piece of work, 
and students of the subject will find here a treasure of native lore. The following 
is the list of stories given by Dr. Kuykendall in that work: "Wishpoosh, the 
Beaver God, and the Origin of the Tribes;" "Speelyi Fights Enumtla;" "Speelyi 
Outwits the Beaver Women;" "Rock Myths ;" "Legend of the Tick;" "Mountain 
Lake Myths;" "The Origin of Fire;" "Water Nymphs;" "Wawa, the Mosquito 
God;" "Origin of the Loon;" "Castiltah, the Crayfish;" "Wakapoosh, the Rattle 
Snake ;" "The Tumwater Luminous Stone God ;" "The Wooden Fireman of the 
Cascades ;" "Contest Between the Chinooks and Cold Wind Brothers ;" "Speelyi's 
Ascent to Heaven ;" "Coyote and Eagle Attempt to Bring the Dead Back from 
Spirit Land ;" "The Isle of the Dead." 

Another original investigator and the author of an unique and picturesque 
book devoted exclusively to Indian myths, is W. S. Phillips of Seattle, well known 
by his non-de-plume of "EI Comancho." The book by Mr. Phillips is "Totem 
Tales." Mr. Phillips says that he gathered the matter for "Totem Tales" from 
the Puget Sound Indians and from Haida Indians who had come south. This 
work was mainly done about twenty-five years ago. He verified much of his 
matter by comparing with Judge Swan, and by the stories acquired by Doctor Shaw, 
who was at one time Indian agent at Port Madison, and whose wife was one of 
the daughters of old Chief Sealth (Seattle). He derived matter for comparison 
also from Rev. Myron Eells. The chief Indian authority of Mr. Phillips was old 
Chisiahka (Indian John to the Whites), and it was a big tree on the shore of 
Lake Union that suggested the idea of the "Talking Pine," which the author wove 
so picturesquely into the narrative. Mr. Phillips has also published the "Chinook 
Book," the most extensive study of the jargon language yet made. To the others 
he has added a most attractive book entitled, "Indian Tales for Little Folks." 

Another present day investigator, whose work is especially worthy of mention 
is Rev. J. Neilson Barry, an enthusiastic and intelligent student of every phase 
of the history of the Northwest. In Chapter III of Volume I of Gaston's "Cen- 
tennial History of Oregon," Mr. Barry gives a valuable contribution to Indian 

Yet another original student is Miss Kate McBeth of Lapwai, Idaho, who with 
her sister lived for years among the Nez Perces, performing a most beneficent 
missionary work for them. In her book, "The Nez Perces Since Lewis and 
Clark," may be found the Kamiah myth, and a few others derived directly from 
those Indians. Mention may well be made here also of a Nez Perce Indian named 
Luke, previously referred to, living at Kamiah, who has a very intelligent knowl- 
edge of all kinds of Indian matters. Miss McBeth says that the Nez Perces do 
not like to discuss generally their "heathen" stories and customs. In connection 
with the Nez Perces it may be stated that Yellow Wolf of Nespilem is an authority 
on the myth of the Kamiah Monster. 


Still aiiolher enthusiastic student of Indian legends is Lucullus V. Mc- 
Whorter of North Yakima. He is an adopted member of the Yakima tribe, and 
has been of incalculable benefit to the Indians in instructing them as to their 
rights, in presenting their cause to the Government, and in making known their 
needs as well as some of their wrongs to the general public through voice and 
pen. He has made a specialty in recent years of organizing the Indians and taking 
them to "Round-Ups" and "Frontier Days." A recent pamphlet by him on the 
treatment of the Yakimas in connection with their water rights is an "eye-opener," 
on some phases of Indian service and Indian problems. Mr. McWhorter has 
gathered a large amount of matter from the Indians, in which is material for 
three books : "Traditions of the Yakimas ;" "Hero Stories of the Yakimas ;" "Nez 
Perce Warriors in the War of 1877." Among the proteges of Mr. McWhorter 
from whom he tells me much of interest could be derived, are Chief Yellow 
WoU of the Joseph Band of Nez Perces, and Mrs. Crystal ^McLeod, known to her 
people as Humishuma, or ]\Iorning Dove, an Okanogan woman of unusual beauty 
and intelligence and well instructed in the English language. Her picture appears 
in this work from photographs taken by Mr. John Langdon of Walla Walla. 

Any reference to any phase of Oregon would be incomplete without mention 
of John Minto, one of the most honored of pioneers, one of the noblest of men, 
and one of the best examples of those ambitious, industrious, and high minded 
state builders who gave the Northwest its loftiest ideals. Mr. Minto was a 
student of the Indians and discovered and gave to the world various Clatsop and 
Nehalem legends. Hon. E. L. Smith of Hood River, Ore., well known as an 
official and legislator of both Oregon and Washington, and a man of such char- 
acter that all who ever knew him have the highest honor for him in every 
relation of life, has made a life-long study of the natives and has a great collection 
of myths both in mind and on paper. He is one of the most sympathetic, tolerant, 
and appreciative of investigators, one whom the Indians of the Mid-Columbia 
trust implicitly. He has written little for publication in comparison with what 
he knows, and it is to be hoped that his stores of material may be brought within 
reach before long. Worthy of mention as a general student of the geography and 
language of the Indians is Mr. John Gill of Portland. While he has not made a 
specialty of myths, he has studied the habits and language with special attention, 
and his dictionary of the Chinook jargon is one of the most valuable collections 
of the kind. 

It is proper to mention here several who are well versed in native lore, yet 
who have not given their knowledge of legends or myths to the public in book or 
magazine form. The most conspicuous, indeed, of this group is no longer living. 
This was Dr. William C. McKay, a grandson of the McKay of the Astor Fur 
Company, who lost his life on the Tonquin. The mother of Doctor McKay was 
a Chinook "princess." He was a man of great ability and acquired a fine edu- 
cation. He lived for years in Pendleton, Ore., where he died some time ago. In 
the possession of his children and grandchildren there is undoubtedly valuable 
material and if it could be reduced to written form it would furnish matter of 
great interest. Certain others of Indian blood may be properly added here who 
could give material for interesting narrations. Among these are Henry Sicade 
and William Wilton, living on the Puyallup Reservation near Tacoma, Samuel 


McCaw of Yakima, \\'ash., and Charlie Pitt of the Warm Springs Agency in 

This summary of Indian stories and their investigators is necessarily incom- 
plete. One of the hopes in including it in this work is that it may lead to added 
contributions. As we contemplate the beauty and grandeur of Old Oregon, which 
includes Washington and Idaho and a part of Montana, and the pathos, heroism 
and nobility of its history, and as we see the pitiful remnant of the Indians, we 
cannot fail to be touched with the quaint, the pathetic, and the suggestive myths 
and legends that are passing with them into the twilight. In our proud days of 
possession and of progress we do well to pause and drop the tear of sympathy and 
place the chaplet of commemoration upon the resting place of the former lords 
of the land, and to recognize their contributions to the common stock of human 




Of all events in early American history influential in their bearing upon the 
territorial development of the United States, the Louisiana I'urchase in 1803 must 
Iw accorded the foremost place. Until that event the United States, in spite of the 
fact that it had gained indi|K-ndence, was essentially EurojK-an in its habit of 
thou(;ht and colonial in its aspirations and outlook. A few seers indeed recognized 
the possibilities of continental exjKinsion. The doctrine of "manifest destiny" 
had held the glowing vision of the place in history which might be wrought by 
a continent, or at least the dominating parts of it, under the control of the same 
race of men who had redeemed the Atlantic seaboard from the wilderness and 
successfully maintained against the greatest empire of the world the proposition 
that "Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed." 
The author of those words had seen more clearly jK-rhaps than any other the world 
vision of a great American denuKracy, indeiK-mlent of I'"uroi>e and yet by reason 
of geographical position as well as political ideals and social aspirations, the 
natural mediator among |)eoples and the ultimate teacher and enlightcner of 

When, therefore, as a result of the political revolution of 1800 and the pcr- 
HKiticnt establishment of the democratic conception in tlic leadership of .American 
l>olitics. Thomas JefTer-ion found himself invested with the enormous responsibil- 
ity of framing policies and measures for the new era, one of his foremost aims 
was to turn the face of the nation westward. Having long entertained the idea 
that the tnic policy was to secure such posts of vantage beyond the .Mlcghenies 
as would lead by natural stages to the acquisition of the country beyond the 
Mi>.sissippi, even to the Pacific, he was alert to seize any opening for pursuing that 
truly .American jwlicy. He did not have long to wait. At the time of his inaugu- 
ration the stupendous energies of the French Revolution had liecomc concentrated 
in that overjiowering iH-rsonality. Napoleon Bonaparte. Holding then the position 
of first consul, but as tnily the imperial master as when he placed the iron crown 
of the Lombards upon his own head, "the man on horsel)ack" perceived that a 
renewal of the great war was inevitable and that .Austria on land and England 
at sea were going to put metes to his empire if human power could do if. Nothing 
was more hateful to Napoleon than to let French America, or Ixtuisiana, slip from 
his grasp. Rut he had not the maritime equipment to defend it. England was 
sure to take it and that soon. Monroe, the .American envoy, was in Paris fidly 
instructed by President Jefferson what to do. ,AII things were ready. The man 
and the occasion met. The Louisiana Purchase was consummated. For less than 
three rents .in acre, a region now comprising thirteen states or parts of states, 




estimated at over five hundred and sixty-five million acres, equal in extent to 
all Europe outside of Russia and Scandinavia, became part of the United States. 

When that great event was consummated and one of the milestones in the 
world's progress upon the highway of universal democracy had been set for good, 
the next step in the mind of Jefferson was to provide for the exploration of the 
vast new land. The westward limits of Louisiana were not indeed defined by the 
treaty of purchase otherwise than as the boundaries by which the territory had 
been ceded by Spain to France, and those boundaries in turn were defined only 
as those by which France had in 1763 ceded to Spain. Hence the western bound- 
ary of Louisiana was uncertain. Although subsequent agreements and usages 
determined the boundary to be the crest of the Rocky Mountains as far south as 
Texas, Tefl'erson seems to have thought that the entire continent to the Pacific 
ought to he included in the exploration, for he saw also that the destiny of his 
country required the ultimate union of Atlantic and Pacific coasts, as well as the 
great central valley. From these conceptions and aims of Jeflferson sprang that 
most interesting and influential of all exploring expeditions in our history, the 
Lewis and Clark exploration from St. Louis up the Missouri, across the Rocky 
Mountains, and down the Snake and Columbia rivers to the Pacific Ocean. Jef- 
ferson had contemplated such an expedition a long time. Even as far back as 
December 4, 1783, in a letter to George Rogers Clark, he raised the question of 
an exploration from the Mississippi to California. In 1792 he took it up with 
the American Philosophical Society, and even then Meriwether Lewis was eager 
to head such an expedition. In a message to Congress of January 18, 1803, before 
the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson developed the importance of a thorough ex- 
ploration of the continent even to the Western Ocean. With his characteristic 
secrecy, Jefi'erson was disposed to mask the great design of ultimate acquisition 
of the continent under the appearance of scientific research. In a letter to Lewis 
of April 27, 1803, he says : "The idea that you are going to explore the Mississippi 
has been generally given out ; it satisfies public curiosity and masks sufficiently the 
real destination." That real destination was. of course, the Pacific Ocean, and 
the fundamental aim was the continental expansion of the then crude and 
"straggling Republic of the West. Considering the momentous nature of the 
undertaking and the possibilities of the unknown wilderness which it was to 
cover, it is curious and suggestive that Lewis had estimated the expenses at $2,500, 
and Jefi"erson called upon Congress for that amount of appropriation. An ex- 
plorer of the present would hardly expect to go out doors on that scale of ex- 
pense. Jeffersonian simplicity with a vengeance ! 

The scope of our book does not permit any detailed account of the preparations 
or of the personnel of the party. Suffice it to say that the leader. Meriwether 
Lewis, and his lieutenant, William Clark, were men of energy, discretion, courage, 
and the other necessary qualities for such an undertaking. While not men of 
education or general culture (Clark could not even spell or compose English cor- 
rectly) they both had an abundance of common sense and in preparation for their 
mission gained a hurried preparation in the essentials of botany, zoology, and 
astronomy such as might enable them to observe and report intelligently upon the 
various objects of discovery and the distances and directions traversed. 

Jefferson's instructions to Captain Lewis give one an added respect for the 
intelligence and broad humanity of the great democrat. Particularly did he enjoin 


upon the leader of the party the wisdom of amicable relations with the natives. 
The benevolent spirit of the President appears in his direction that kine-pox mat- 
ter be taken and that its use for preventing small-pox be explained to the Indians. 
All readers of American history should read these instructions, both for an 
estimate of Jefferson personally, and for light they throw on the conditions and 
viewpoints of the times. 

The number in the party leaving St. Louis was forty-five. But one death 
occurred upon the whole journey, which lasted from May 14, 1804, to September 
23, 1806. Never perhaps did so extended and difficult an expedition suffer so 
little. And this was the more remarkable from the fact that there was no physician 
nor scientific man with the party and that whatever was needed in the way of 
treating the occasional sicknesses or accidents must be done by the captains. 
While to their natural force and intelligence the party owed a large share of its 
immunity from disaster, good fortune surely attended them. This seems the 
more noticeable when we reflect that this was the first journey across a wilderness 
afterwards accentuated with every species of suft'ering and calamity. 

The members of the party were encouraged to preserve journals and records 
to the fullest degree, and from this resulted a fullness of detail by a number of 
the men as well as the leaders which has delighted generations of readers ever 
since. .\nd in spite of the fact that none of the writers had any literary genius, 
these journals are fascinating on account of the nature of the undertaking and a 
certain glow of enthusiasm which invested with a charm even the plain and homely 
details of the long journey. 

The first stage of the expedition was from St. Louis, May 14. 1804, to a point 
1,600 miles up the Missouri, reached November 2. There the party wintered in a 
structure which they called Fort Mandan. The location was on the west bank of 
the Missouri, op]30site the present City of Pierre. The journey had been made by 
boats at an average advance of ten miles a day. The river, though swift and with 
frequent shoals, offered no serious impediments, even for a long distance above 
Fort Mandan. 

After a long, cold winter in the country of the Mandans. the expedition re- 
sumed their journey up the ]Missouri on April 7, 1805. Of the interesting details 
of this part of their course we cannot speak. Reaching the head-waters of the 
Missouri on August 12, they crossed that most significant spot, the Great Divide. 
A quotation from the journal of Captain Lewis indicates the lively sentiments 
with which they passed from the Missouri waters to those of the Columbia: "As 
they proceeded, their hope of seeing the waters of the Columbia rose to almost 
painful anxiety; when at the distance of four miles from the abrui)t turn of 
the stream, they reached a small gap formed by the high mountains which recede 
on either side, leaving room for the Indian road. From the foot of one of the 
lowest of these mountains, which rises with a gentle ascent for about half a mile, 
issued the remotest water of the Missouri. They had now reached the hidden 
sources of that river which had never before been seen by civilized man ; and as 
they quenched their thirst at the chaste and icy fountain — as they sat down by 
the brink of the little rivulet which yielded its distant and modest tribute to the 
parent ocean — thev felt themselves rewarded for all their labors and difficulties. 
* * * They found the descent much steeper than on the eastern side, and at 
the distance of three-quarters of a mile, reached a handsome, bold creek of cold. 


clear water running to the westward. They stopped to taste for the first time the 
waters of the Columbia." 

After some very harassing and toilsome movements in that vast cordon of 
peaks in which lie the cradles of the Alissouri, Yellowstone, Snake, Clearwater, 
and Bitterroot rivers — more nearly reaching starvation point than at any time 
on the trip — the party emerged upon a lofty height from which their vision swept 
over a vast expanse of open prairie, in which it became evident that there were 
many natives and, as they judged, the near vicinity of the great river, which, as 
they thought, would carry them in short order to the Western Ocean of their 
quest. They little realized that they were yet more than six hundred miles from 
the edge of the continent. Descending upon the plain, they made their way to the 
Kooskooskie, now known as the Clearwater River. As judged by Olin D. 
Wheeler in his invaluable book. "On The Trail of Lewis and Clark," the explorers 
crossed from what is now Montana into the present Idaho at the Lolo Pass, and 
proceeded thence down the broken country between the north and middle forks 
of the Kooskooskie, reaching the junction on September 26. The camp at that 
spot was called Canoe Camp. There they remained nearly two weeks, most of 
them sick through overeating after they had sustained so severe a fast in the 
savage defiles of the Bitter Roots, and from the effects of the very great change 
in temperature from the snowy heights to the hot valley below. At Canoe Camp 
they constructed boats for the further prosecution of their journey. They left 
their thirty-eight horses with three Indians of the Chopunnish or Pierced-Nose 
tribe, or Nez Perce as we now know them. 

With their canoes they entered upon a new stage of their journey, one easy 
and pleasant after the hardships of the mountains. Down the beautiful Koos- 
kooskie, then low in its autumn stage, they swept gaily, finding frequent rapids, 
though none serious. The pleasant-sounding name Kooskooskie, which ought to 
be preserved (though Clearwater is appropriate and sonorous), was supposed by 
the explorers to be the name of the river. This it appears was a misapprehension. 
The author has been told by a very intelligent Indian named Luke, living at 
Kamiah, that the Indians doubtless meant to tell the white men that the stream 
was Koos, koos, or zvater, zvatcr. Koos was and still is the Nez Perce word for 
water. Luke stated that the Indians did not regularly have names for streams, 
but only for localities, and referred to rivers as the water or koos belonging to 
some certain locality. 

After a prosperous descent of the beautiful and impetuous stream for a dis- 
tance estimated by them at fifty-nine miles (considerably overestimated) the 
party entered a much larger stream coming from the south. This they under- 
stood the Indians to call the Kimooenim. They named it the Lewis in honor of 
Captain Lewis. It was the great Snake River of our present maps. The writer 
has been told by Mr. Thomas Beall of Lewiston that the true Indian name is 
Twelka. Still another native name is Shahaptin. The party was now at the 
present location of Lewiston and Clarkston, one of the most notable regions in 
the Northwest for beauty, fertility, and all the essentials of capacity for sustain- 
ing a high type of civilized existence. The land adjoining Snake River on the 
west is Asotin County, one of the components of our history. The party camped 
on the right bank just below the junction, and that first camp of white men was 
nearly opposite both Lewiston and Clarkston of today. They say that the Indians 


flocked frciin all directions to see them. The scantiness of their fare had brought 
them to the stage of eating dog-iiieal, which they say excited the ridicule of the 
natives. The Indians gave them to understand that the soutliern ))ranch was 
na\igable up about sixty miles ; that not far from its mouth it received a branch 
from the south, and at two days' march up a larger branch called Pawnashte, on 
which a chief resided who had more horses than he could count. 

The first of these must be the Asotin Creek, unless indeed they referred to the 
Grande Ronde, which is the first large stream, but is considerable distance from 
the junction. The Pawnashte must have been the Salmon, the largest tributary of 
the Snake. The Snake at the point of the camp of the explorers was discovered 
to be about three hundred yards wide. The party noticed the greenish blue color 
of the Snake, while the Kooskooskie was as clear as crystal. The Indians at this 
point are described as of the Chopunnish or Pierced-Nose nations, the latter of 
those names translated by the French voyageurs into the present Xez Perce. Ac- 
cording to the obser\ations of the party, the men were in person stout, fwrtly, 
well-looking men; the women small, with good features and generally handsome. 
The chief article of dress of the men w^as a "buffalo or elk-skin robe decorated 
with beads, sea-shells, chiefly mother-of-pearl, attached to an otter-skin collar 
and hung in the hair, which falls in front in two queues; feathers, paints of dif- 
ferent kinds, principally white, green, and light blue, all of which they find in 
their own country. The dress of the women is more simple, consisting of a long 
skirt of arg-alia or ibex-skin, reaching down to the ankles without a girdle; to this 
are tied little pieces of brass and shells and other small articles." Further on the 
journal states again: "The Chopunnish have few amusements, for their life is 
painful and laborious; and all their exertions are necessary to earn even their 
precarious subsistence. During the summer and autumn they are busily occupied 
in fishing for salmon and collecting their winter store of roots. In the winter they 
hunt the deer on snow-shoes over the plains, and towards spring cross the moun- 
tains to the Missouri for the purpose of trafficking for buffalo robes." It may be 
remarked here parenthetically that there is every indication that buflfalo formerly 
inhabited the Snake and Columbia plains. In fact, buffalo bones ha\e been found 
in recent years in street excavations at Spokane. What cataclysm may have led 
to their extermination is hidden in obscurity. But at the first coming of the 
whites it was discovered that one of the regular occupations of the natives was 
crossing the Rocky Mountains to hunt or trade for buffalo. 

Soon after resuming the journey on October ii, the explorers noted with 
curiosity one of the vajwr baths common among those Indians, which they say 
differed from those on the frontiers of the United States or in the Rocky Moun- 
tains. The bath-house was a hollow square six or eight feet deep, formed in the 
river bank by damming up with mud the other three sides and covering the whole 
completely except an aperture about two feet wide at the top. The bathers 
descended through that hole, taking with them a jug of water and a number of 
hot rocks. They would throw the water on the rocks until it steamed and in that 
steam they would sit until they had perspired sufficiently, and then they would 
plunge into cold water. This species of entertainment seems to have been very 
sociable, for one seldom bathed alone. It was considered a great affront to decline 
an invitation to join a bathing party. 

The explorers .seem to have had a very calm and uneventful descent of Snake 


River. They describe the general lay of the country accurately, noting that 
beyond the steep ascent of 200 feet (it is in reality a great deal more in all the 
upper part of this portion of Snake River) the cotuitry becomes an open, level, 
and fertile plain, entirely destitute of timber. They note all the rapids with suf- 
ficient particularity to enable anyone thoroughly familiar with the river to identify 
most of them. They make special observation of the long series of rapids com- 
monly known now as the Riparia and Texas Rapids, and below these observe a 
large creek on the left which they denominate as Kimooenim Creek. This is 
rather odd, for that had already been noted as the native name of the main river. 
A few miles further down they pass through a bad rapid but twenty-five yards 
wide. Of course, it must be remembered that the time was October and the river 
was about at its lowest. This was the narrow crack of the Palouse Rapids, 
which, however, is not so narrow as they estimated, even at low water. At the 
end of this rapid they discovered a large river on the right, to which they gave 
the name of Drewyer, one of their party, their mighty hunter in fact. This was 
a many-named stream, for it was later the Pavion, the Pavillion, and at the last 
the present Palouse, the equivalent, we are told again by Thomas Beall, for goose- 
berry. The principal rapids below the entrance of the Palouse are known at pres- 
ent as Fishhook, Long's Crossing, Pine Tree, the Potato Patch, and Five Mile. 
Five Mile looked so bad to them that they unloaded the canoes and made a port- 
age of three-quarters of a mile. At a distance below this, which they estimated 
as seven miles, they reached that interesting place wliere the great northern and 
southern branches of the Big River unite. They were then at the location of the 
present Village of Burbank. Many interesting events and observations are 
chronicled of their stay at that point. Soon after their arrival a regular procession 
of 200 Indians from a camp a short distance up the Columbia came to visit them, 
timing their approach with the music of drums, accompanied with the voice. 
There seems to have followed a regular love-feast, both parties taking whiffs of 
the friendly pipe and expressing as best they could their common joy at the 
meeting. Then came a distribution of presents and a mutual pledging of good will. 
The captains measured the rivers, finding the Columbia 960 yards wide and 
the Snake .575. From their point of observation across the continued plain they 
noted how it rose into the heights on the farther side of the river. They had 
already taken into account the far distant mountains to the south, our own Blue 
Mountains, which they thought about sixty miles distant, just about the right 
estimate. It is to be hoped that it was one of the perfect days not infrequent in 
October and that the azure hues of those mountains which we love today were 
before them in all their rich, soft splendor. They noted in the clear water of the 
river the incredible number of salmon. The Indians gave them to understand 
that frequently in the absence of other fuel they burned the fish that, having been 
thrown upon the bank, became so dry as to make excellent fuel. These Indians 
were of a tribe known as Sokulks. According to the description they were hardly 
so good-looking a people as the Chopunnish, but were of mild and peaceable dis- 
position and seemed to live in a state of comparative happiness. The men, like 
those on the Kimooenim, were said to content themselves with a single wife. 
The explorers noted that the men shared with their mates the labor of procuring 
subsistence more than is usual among savages. They were also very kind to the 
ao-ed and infirm. Nor were they inclined to beggary. All things considered, these 


Sokulks at the junction of the big rivers were wortliy of much esteem. Captain 
Clark made a journey up the Cohimbia, in the course of which he made sundry 
interesting observations on the Indian manner of preparing sahnon for pre- 
servation, as well as for present use. At one point he entered one of the mat 
houses. He was immediately pro\ided with a mat on which to sit and his hosts 
proceeded at once to cook a salmon for his repast. This they did by heating 
stones, and then, bringing in the in a bucket of water, they dropped in the 
hot stones in succession till the water boiled. After sufficiently boiling the 
salmon, they placed it before the captain. He found it excellent. He noticed that 
many of these Indians were blind in one or both e)'es and had lost part of their 
teeth. The first of these unfortunate conditions he attributed to the glare of the 
water on their unshaded eyes, and the second to their habit of eating roots without 
cleansing them from the sandy soil in which they grew. It would appear from 
the topography of the journal that Captain Clark went a short distance above 
the present site of Kennewick, for he was near the mouth of a large stream flow- 
ing from the west, which the Indians called the Tapteal, but which later became 
known as the Yakima, also a native name. While on land during this trip, the 
party got grouse (or what we now call prairie chickens) and ducks, and also a 
"prairie cock, about the size of a small turkey." This was evidently a sage hen. 
It is recorded that they saw none of that bird except on the Columbia. While 
camped at the jimction of the rivers, the men were busily engaged in mending 
their clothes and travelling outfits and anns, and otherwise preparing for the next 
stage of the journey. One very interesting feature of the stay here was the fact 
that one of the chiefs with one of the Chimnapum, a tribe further west, provided 
the party with a map of the Columbia and the nations on its banks. This was 
drawn on a robe with a piece of coal and afterwards transferred by some one of 
the explorers to a piece of paper. They preserved it as a valuable specimen of 
Indian delineation. 

On October i8, the party packed up and pushing oiif into the majestic river, 
proceeded downward toward the highlands, evidently what we call the Wallula 
Gateway. In the general journal, called the Edition of 1814, in which the con- 
tributions of all the party are merged, there seems to be some confusion as to the 
mouth of the \\'alla Walla River. The record mentions an island near the right 
shore fourteen and one-half miles from the mouth of Lewis' River and a mile and 
a half beyond that of small brook under a high hill on the left, "seeming to run its 
whole course through the high country." This evidently must be the Walla Walla 
River, though''it can hardly be called a "small brook," even in the low season, and 
it flows quite distinctly in a valley, though the highlands begin immediately below. 
They also say: "At this place, too, we observed a mountain to the southwest, 
the form of which is conical, and its top covered with snow." This is obviously 
incorrect, for Mount Hood, which is the only snow mountain to the southwest 
\isible anywhere near that place, cannot be seen from near the mouth of the 
Walla Walla, except by climbing the highlands. On the next day, October 19, 
the partv was visited by a chief of whom they saw more and tell more on their 
return. This was Yelleppit. They describe him as a "handsome, well-propor- 
tioned man. about five feet, eight inches high and about thirty-five years old, with 
a bold and dignified countenance." His name is preserved in a station on the 


S. P. & S. Railroad, located just about at the place where the party met the 

After the meeting with Yelleppit, the party once more committed themselves 
to the downward rushing current of the Columbia, and passed beyond the range 
of our story. Of the interesting details of their continued journey down the 
river and the final vision of the ocean, "that ocean, the object of all our labors, 
the reward of all our anxieties," we cannot speak. 

Having spent the winter at Fort Clatsop, about ten miles from the present 
Astoria and nearly the same distance from the present Seaside, they left Fort 
Clatsop for their long return journey, on ALarch 23, 1806. They saw many inter- 
esting and important features of the country on the return, which they failed to 
note in going down. Among these, strange to say, was the entrance of the Wil- 
lamette, the largest river below the Snake. The return was made as far as the^ 
"Long Narrows" (The Dalles) with the canoes, but at that point they procured 
horses and proceeded thence by land. They passed the "Youmalolam" (Umatilla) 
and then entering the highlands, were again within the area of "Old Walla Walla 
County." Reaching the country of the "Wallawollahs," they again came in con- 
tact with their old friend, whose name appears in that portion of the journal as 
Yellept. They found him more of a gentleman than ever. He insisted on his 
people making generous provision for the needs of the party, and gave them the 
valuable information that by going up the Wallawollah River and directly east 
to the junction of the Snake and Kooskooskie they might have a route full of 
grass and water and game, and much shorter than to follow the banks of Snake 
River. Accordingly crossing from the north bank of the Columbia, which they 
had been following, they found themselves on the \^'allawollah. They do not now 
describe it as before as a "small brook," but as a "handsome stream, about fifty 
yards wide and four and a half feet in depth." They got one curious misappre- 
hension here which was held later by explorers in general in regard to the Mult- 
nomah or Willamette. They understood from the Indians that the Willamette ran 
south of the Blue Mountains and was as large as the Columbia at the mouth of 
the Wallawollah, which they say was about a mile wide. They infer from the 
whole appearance, as the Indians seem to explain it, that the sources of the Wil- 
lamette must approach those of the Missouri and Del Norte. One quaint and 
curious circumstance is mentioned at this stage of the story, as it has been, in 
fact, at various times. And that is the extravagant delight which the Indians 
derived from the violin. They were so fascinated with the sound of the instru- 
ment and the dancing which accompanied it that they would come in throngs 
and sometimes remain up all night. In this particular instance, however, they 
were so considerate of the white men's need of sleep that they retired at ten 

On the last day of April, 1806, the party turned their horses' heads eastward 
up the Wallawollah River across sandy expanses, which, however, they soon dis- 
covered to improve in verdure and in groves of trees. Having followed the main 
stream fourteen miles, they reached "a bold, deep stream, about ten yards wide, 
which seems navigable for canoes." They found a profusion of trees along the 
course of this creek and were delighted to see all the evidences of increasing tim- 
ber. This stream, which they now followed for a number of miles, was evidently 
the Touchet, and the point where they turned to follow it was at the present Town 


of Touchet. Their course was up the creek for about twelve miles to a point 
where the creek bottom widened into a pleasant country two or three miles in 
width. This presumably was the fertile region beginning a mile or so east of the 
present Lamar, and extending thence onward to Prescott and beyond. The party 
made a day's march of twenty-six miles and camped at a point, which according 
to the figures of the next day, would have been near the present Bolles Junction. 
One rather quaint incident appears at this point in the narration, to the effect 
that when encamped for the night, three young men of the Wollawollahs came up 
with a steel trap which had inadvertently been left behind. The Indians had come 
a whole day's journey to restore this. This exhibition of honesty was so gratify- 
ing that the narration affirms that : "Of all the Indians whom we have met since 
leaving the United States, the Wollawollahs were the most hospitable, honest, and 

Resuming the march the ne.xt day the explorers noted at a distance of three 
miles a branch entering the creek from the "southeast mountains, which, though 
covered with snow, are about twenty-five miles distant, and do not appear high.'' 
That branch must have been our Coppei, which joins the main creek at our pleasant 
little City of Waitsburg. Having proceeded a total distance of fourteen miles 
from the previous night's camp, the travellers found themselves at a point where 
the main creek bore to the south toward the mountains from which it came, and 
where a branch entered it from the northeast. This spot was evidently the site of 
Dayton, and the branch from the northeast which they now followed was the 
Patit. The next day they crossed the Kimooenim, which is the same that they 
had designated the Kimooenim Creek on their descent of Snake River in the 
fall, being, curiously enough, as already noted, the same name that they had 
already understood to be the Indian name of Snake River. The stream was evi- 
dently the Tucannon. From the Tucannon the course led our adventurers over 
the high, fertile plains near to the "southwest mountains" to a ravine "where was 
the source of a small creek, down the hilly and rocky sides of which we proceeded 
for eight miles to its entrance into Lewis' River, about seven miles and a haH 
alx)ve the mouth of the Kooskooskie." This creek was the Asotin and therefore 
the point where they again reached Snake River was that grand and picturesque 
place where the attractive town of Asotin is now located. 

The explorers having crossed the ri\^er were beyond the jurisdiction of this 
volume, and even of the State of Washington, being within that of Idaho, and 
hence we cannot follow them further on their return journey. We must content 
ourselves, in this farewell glance at this first, and in many respects, the most 
interesting and important of all the early transcontinental expeditions, with saying 
that the effects were of momentous, even transcendent value to the development 
of our country. Without the incorporation of Old Oregon into the United States, 
we would in all probability not have got California, and without our Pacific Coast 
frontage, think what a crippled and curtailed Union this would be! We would 
surely have missed our destiny without the Pacific Coast. The Lewis and Clark 
expedition was one of the essential links in the chain of acquisition. The sum- 
mary of distances by the party is a total of 3,555 miles on the most direct route 
from the Mississippi at the mouth of the Missouri, to the Pacific Ocean, and the 
total distance descending the Columbia waters is placed at 640 miles. 

President Jefferson did not exaggerate the character of this expedition in the 



' niiii 



tribute which he paid to Captain Lewis in 1813, when he expressed himself thus: 
"Never did a similar event excite more joy throughout the United States; the 
humblesi of its citizens have taken a lively interest in this journey, and looked 
with impatience for the information which it would furnish. Nothing short of 
tile official journals of this extraordinary and interesting journey will exhibit the 
importance of the service, the courage, the devotion, zeal, and perseverance, 
under circumstances calculated to discourage, which animated this little band 
of heroes, throughout the long, dangerous, and tedious travel." 

Though many additional valuable discoveries of this land where we live were 
made by later explorers, Lewis and Clark and their assistants may justly be re- 
garded as the true first explorers. They were, moreover, the only party that came 
purely for exploration. Later parties, though making valuable explorations, did 
such work as incidental to fur trade. With the completion of this great expedi- 
tion, therefore, we may regard the era of the explorers completed and that of the 
fur-hunters begun. 


With the great new land between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean opened 
to the world by the Lewis and Clark expedition, the question came at once to the 
active, pushing, ambitious spirits of America and England, what shall we do with 
it, and what can we make of it ? The rights of the natives have usually had little 
concern to civilized man. His thought has been to secure as rajjidly and easily 
as possible the available resources, to skim the cream from the wilderness ahead 
of all rivals. Two great quests have commonly followed discovery of a new 
land ; that for the precious metals, and that for furs. Gold and silver and precious 
stones have always had a strange fascination, and the search for them and the 
wars of conflicting nations for possession of their sources of supply have con- 
stituted the avenues of approach to some of the greatest changes of history. The 
search for furs, while not making so brilliant and showy a chapter in history as 
that for gold and jewels, has had even profounder effects upon the march of 
exploration and conquest and the formation of states. 

Xow, it must be remembered that though the Lewis and Clark expedition was 
the first to cross our part of the continent and to give the world any conception 
of the interior and its resources within the area composing the western half of the 
L^nited States, yet the coast line had been known for many years, and the region 
around Hudson Bay and thence northward to the Arctic Ocean and westward to the 
Pacific had also been traversed some years earlier. Oregon had long been a lure 
to the explorers and fur-hunters of all nations. There had taken shape before the 
discoverers of the age of Columbus the conception of a Northwest passage 
through the new continent to Asia. Strange to say, they did not realize at first 
the surpassing importance of a new world, but thought of it mainly as an im- 
pediment to the journey to the land of the "Great Cham" and other supposed 
magnates of the Orient. Hence the vital thing was to find a way through the 
intercepting land. Only eight years after Columbus landed on San Salvador, the 
Portuguese, Caspar Cortereal, had announced that sailing westward from Labra- 
dor he had discovered the connecting strait between the Atlantic and the waters 
that bordered eastern Asia. Out of that supposed discovery the idea of the Strait 
of Anian grew and for two centuries persisted in the minds of mariners. It was 
while searching for .\nian that Juan de Fuca, just a century after the first landing 
of Columbus, entered that strait which now bears his name. Along the western 
edge of California and Oregon during that same century, the English flag was 
borne by the Golden Hind of Francis Drake. Later Spanish explorers, Cabrillo 
and Ferrelo, and \'izcaino and Aguilar. had made their way up the Oregon coast 
and there is some reason to believe that the last-named had looked upon the 
mouth of the Columbia. Following that earlier era of discovery, there was a long 



interval. Spain, England, France, Holland, Austria, Germany, and Italy were 
absorbed in the gigantic wars growing out of the Reformation, and their ships 
almost entirely disappeared from the Pacific. But during the latter part of the 
seventeenth century there was initiated that vast movement in eastern Europe and 
northern Asia which shaped and will yet more shape the policies and destinies 
of the world. Peter the Great, one of the world figures, started to lead Russia 
out of barbarism. Then was began that glacier-like movement of the "Colossus 
of the Xorth" toward the open waters of two continents which will no doubt never 
end until the political world comes to a condition of stable equilibrium. The 
successors of Peter pursued the same march for warm water and open ports. 
A series of explorers made their way across Siberia. In 1728 and 1741 Vitus 
Bering, one of the true "\'ikings of the Pacific," made his daring and significant 
voyages with the aim of realizing Peter's great conception of the Russian 
acquisition of the shores of the Pacific by sailing eastward from Asia to America. 
In his last voyage, after having gone as far south as Oregon, and then turned 
north along the Alaskan coast, the heroic Bering was cast upon the desolate island 
which bears his name, and there in the cold and darkness of the Arctic winter he 
died. His men found during that winter that the sea-otters of the island had most 
beautiful furs, and they clothed themselves with the skins of those animals. Re- 
turning in the spring in rude boats constructed from the fragments of their 
wrecked ship to Avatscha Bay, these survivors of Bering's voyage made known 
to the world the possibilities of the use of these treasures of the animal world. 
That was the beginning of the Russian fur-trade. A new era in history was inau- 
gurated. Within a few years an enterprising Pole, Maurice de Benyowski, con- 
veyed a cargo of furs from Kamchatka to China. That country was then the 
great market for furs, and the success of Benyowski's venture suggested to others 
the enormous possibilities of the business. The great girdle of volcanic islands 
beginning a little east of Kamtschatka and extending northeast and then south- 
east, known now as the Aleutian Islands, and the Alaskan coast and thence south- 
ward to Oregon and California, were found by Russians, Spaniards, and English 
to abound in fur-bearing animals, of which the sea-otter was most available 
immediately upon the coast, though it was soon known that the beaver, the fox, 
and many others existed in great numbers further inland. 

In connection with the eager search along the coast some of the most famous 
of all explorers steered their course. Among them was James Cook, one of the 
most manly and interepid of all that long line of navigators who bore the Union 
Jack around the "Seven Seas." Cook's great series of voyages, beginning in 
1776 and lasting several years, and extending through all parts of the Pacific, 
were designed primarily as voyages of discovery. But while in Alaskan waters his 
men secured many sea-otter furs. They did not fully realize their value until they 
reached China some time later and saw the huge profit on furs in that market. 
Now there was in Cook's service a certain very interesting American sailor, John 
Ledyard. Ledyard was a genuine Yankee, keen, inquisitive, and observing. He 
noted the possibilities of the fur-trade in Oregon and Aleutian waters, and deter- 
mined that as soon as he could reach his own home country he would interest 
his countrymen in sending their own ships upon the quest. That was just when the 
Revolutionary war was in progress and several years elapsed before Ledyard was 
in America. When there he lost no time in getting into communication with lead- 


ing Americans. Among others he greatly interested Thomas Jefferson. Here 
then we have a most important chain of sequences. Cook, Ledyard, Jefferson, 
Knglish and American rivalries and counter aims and claims on the Pacific coast 
of America. — a whole nexus of related events out of which tlic fabric of great 
history became woven. Within a few years the race for jwssession of Oretjon by 
sea was on. l-^nrlier than Cook, Ileceta. the Spaniard, had sailed along thr ( )ret'on 
coast and looked into the mouth of the Columbia. ISut after Cook came a long line 
of S|>anish explorers whose names ap|)ear u]>on our present day maps, Bodega, 
Camano, Fidalgo, Galiano, N'aldez, and many more. Then came another group of 
Knglishmcn, I'ortlock, Dixon, Meares. IJarday. Douglas. Colnelt, and, most 
prominent of all, X'ancouver. Hut to us, more important than any other of the 
nations whose banners were carried along the western coast, was the new republic, 
the L'nited States of .\nierica. The .'^tars and StrijK-s were (lying on the I'acilic. 
Uolnrrt Gr.iy in the l.ady Wasbinglon. and John Kendrick in the Columbia Kedi- 
viva had been jilaced in command of an ex|M-dition by certain enterprising mer- 
chants of IJoston in the very same year of the construction of the American 
constitution. In 17S8 they reached the coast of Oregon. Tliat was the initiation 
of the American fur-trade. Those were the great days of that business. A sbij) 
would be fitted out with a cargo of trinkets and tobacco and tixjls and blankets, 
and sail from Boston or New Bedford or .Marblehead or New York for its three 
years' round-up of the seas. The Indians had not yet learned the value of furs. 
On one occasion Gray secured for a chisel a quantity of furs worth $S,ooo. The 
cargo of trinkets and tools and blankets out and the cargo of furs in, the next 
stage of the voyage was from Oregon to Canton, in China, where the cargo of 
furs was displaced by one of tea and nankeen and silk, and then the shij) would 
square away for her home |)ort, a three-years' round-up. The glory, the fascina- 
tion, and also the danger of the sea was in it. Fortunes were sometimes made in 
a single voyage. — and also sometimes lost. For ships and crews were sometimes 
lost by wreck or savages or scurvy. Yet in spite of disasters the game was so 
fascinating that during the period from 17CX) to 1818 there were 108 .American ves- 
sels. tw«nty-two Knglish and several French and Portuguese vessels regularly 
engaged in the business on the Oregon coast. Profits were s<imetimes immense. 
Dixon, an Fnglish trader, says that during the years 178^1 and 1787 5.800 sea-otter 
skins were sold for $1^0.700. Sturgis states that he knew a capital of $50,000 
to yield a return of $j.'<4,ajo. 

The fur-trade on the coast was naturally first in the order of growth. But 
exploration of the interior would naturally follow wlu-n the great results of the 
sea-trade were known. Moreover, it must be reiiunilK.Te(l that the fur trade 
had lieen jnirsued with great assiduity and success in Canada .ind even I-ouisiana 
long years Itefore Gray and X'ancouver were contesting for the discovery of 
the "River of the West." or the solution of the mystery of Juan de Fuca. .\s 
the S|)aniards were the first to try to grasp the treasure of precious stones 
and metals in the New World, xo the I'rench were the pioneers in the attempted 
exj>loitation of the treasure of the furs. by kingly favor was the chief 
method of driving out rivals and monopolizing advantages in those days, .\t^ 
.\merican railway or iron master has a feeble grip on the l)ounty of a state or 
nation comjiared with the grip of a Seventeenth Century royal favorite. Way 
l»ack in the early part of that century, l^uis XIII and his minister. Richelieu, 


granted concessions to De Monts, Pontgrave, Champlain, Radisson, Crozat, and 
others. Later, La Salle, Joliet, Hennepin, DTberville, and still later the Veren- 
dryes and many more had similar monopolies from Louis XIV and Louis X\^ 
The regions of the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi were the 
fields of these great concessionaires. But England was not inactive all that time. 
In the desperate rivalry of Gaul and Briton for supremacy in America, the Fleur- 
de-lis was lowered before the Cross of St. George and North America became 
British instead of French. The fur-trade, one of the chief prizes of contest, fell 
to English monopolists. Long before the final decision on the Plains of Abraham 
when Montcalm fell before Wolf, Charles II had granted to Prince Rupert a 
charter to the Hudson's Bay Company. That gigantic organization, which later 
had so intimate a relation to Oregon, was established in 1670 with a capital of 
10,500 pounds. Besides the vast enterprises connected directly with the fur- 
trade, this company carried on many great geographical expeditions. But this 
great monopoly could not, even with all its privileges, entirely prevent rivalry. 
In 1783, the French and Indian wars and the American Revolution now being 
past, a new organization arose, destined to bear a vital part in northwest history. 
This was the Northwestern Fur Company. One of its leading partners, Alexander 
Mackenzie, discovered in 1789 the river which flows to the Polar Sea and which 
fittingly bears his name. Four years later he made even a more notable journey 
from the upper Athabasca waters across the mountains and down the Pacific 
slope to a point on what was later known as Cascade Inlet. There he pro- 
claimed his journey by painting upon a rock the inscription : "Alexander Mac- 
kenzie, from Canada by land, the twenty second of July, one thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-three." That was only a year after Gray discovered the 
Columbia River and \^ancouver circumnavigated the island which bears his name. 

Thus we see that from both sea and land the fur-traders were converging upon 
Oregon. It was emerging from the mists of myth and romance into the light 
of modern conditions. The rivalry between the Hudson's Bay Company and 
the audacious Northwesters who had ventured to break into their monopoly 
became keen and indeed sanguinary. Pitched battles were fought and lives lost. 
The bold and aggressive Northwesters pushed to the western side of the Rockies 
and in 1807 David Thompson, one of the most admirable of all the early explorers 
of any of the rival nations or companies, began to establish posts at various 
strategic points upon Columbia waters. During several years beginning with 
1807 he located trading stations on Lake Windermere near the head of the 
river, on the Spokane at the Junction with it of the Little Spokane, and on the 
Pend d' Oreille and Coeur d'Alene lakes. 

While the Northwesters were thus posting themselves at some of the vantage 
points of Oregon, the Americans were not idle. The reader who desires an 
extended view of the fascinating theme of the American fur-trade should con- 
sult that foremost book on the subject by Gen. H. M. Chittenden of Seattle, to 
which we here make our acknowledgments. What was to become the American 
trade began indeed with Frenchmen and Spaniards before the independence of 
the United States. In 1764 Pierre Liguest and Auguste Chouteau founded St. 
Louis, which became the center of all trading operations for many years. The 
Treaty of Paris of 1763 had as a matter of fact already delivered all the country 
west of the Mississippi to Spain, but the Frenchmen did not yet know it. In 1800 

4t; OLD WAI.I.A WAl.l.A couNr:/ 

the Louisiana 'riTritory attain Ix'canic l-rcnch, and three years later, by a happy 
juxtaposition of statcsnianslii]) and good fortune, it passed from French to 
American control. Then immediately followed, as already narrated, the Lewis 
and Clark expedition with its momentous results. After St. Louis became an 
American town the fur-trade was still largel)' in the hands of h'rench and .Spanish 
traders established there during the possession by their respective governments. 
Of these the most ])rominent were Pierre Chouteau, Jr., a L'renchnian, and Manuel 
Lisa, a S])aniar{l. The lirst expedition to the bar \\'est was that of Lisa in 
jiartnership with William Morrison, an American of Illinois, and Pierre Menard. 
a Frenchman, also living in Illinois. One interesting feature of this expedition 
is that it occurred in the same year with the tirst of David Thom])son. Another 
is that on the way the party met John Colter who had been one of the Lewis and 
Clark party, but on the return had decided to stop in the wilderness to trap and 
explore. He w-as on his way to the settlements, but was induced to return to 
the Rocky Mountains with the party. In connection with Colter we may very 
properly digress a little, for he was one of the typical adventurers of that period 
and some of the events of his career in the wilderness cast a vivid light upon 
the conditions of those times. Lisa proceeded with his party to the mouth of 
the I'lighorn River and there established a fort. Desiring to notify the Indians 
of the arrival of the party, Lisa sent Colter all alone on a journey of several 
hundred miles to the Crows on Wind River and to the Blackfeet at the Three 
Forks of the Missouri. On this journey Colter became an unwilling participant 
in a battle between those two contending tribes. lie was on the side of the Crows, 
and after rendering efficient aid to his side in winnitig a victory, w-as severely 
wounded in the leg. Nevertheless, nothing daunted, he set forth across the 
ranges of towering, snowy peaks to reach Lisa's fort. He succeeded in the soli- 
tary and desperate undertaking, and in the course of it discovered Yellowstone 
Lake and the geyser region which now makes the Yellowstone Park one of the 
wonders of the world. Returning to the mountains. Colter was captured by the 
savage and cruel Blackfeet. ^^'ishing to have a little sport wath their hapless 
victim, the Indians stripped him and asked him if he was a fast runner. From 
his knowledge of their customs he understood that he was to be put up in a race 
for life against several hundred Indians. He gave them to understand that he 
was a poor runner, though as a matter of fact he was very fast. Accordingly 
they gave him several hundred yards start on the open prairie with the Jefferson 
fork of the Missouri six miles distant. Away he sped with the whole pack 
behind him like a band of wolves, with the war-whoop ringing over the plain. 
With his naked feet torn and bleeding from the cactus Colter soon outdistanced 
most of tiie pursuers, but half way across the plain, glancing over his shoulder, 
he saw that one swift Indian armed with a spear was gaining on hiin. With the 
violence of Colter's exertions the t>lood was streaming from his nostrils down the 
front of his body, and just as the Indian was almost within striking distance 
Colter suddenly stopped and turned, a ghastly spectacle, wath extended arms. 
The Indian was so disconcerted with the unexpected move that in endeavoring 
to wield his spear he lost his footing and fell. Instantly picking up the spear 
Colter pinned his assailant to the ground and on he went again toward the river. 
The foremost of the pursuing Indians, finding their expiring comrade, paused 
long enough to set up a hideous howl and then rushed on. But Colter, though 


almost al tlic limit of his strength, drove himself on to the river ahead of the 
band, and breaking through the copse of cottonwoods which skirted the stream 
he plunged in. Just below was a small island against which drift had lodged. 
Diving beneath the drift Colter managed to find a crack between the trees where 
he might get his head in the air. There he remained undiscovered all night while 
the savages were shrieking around like so many devils. In the early morning he 
let loose from the drift and floated and swam a long ways down the stream, 
and when day fairly broke had got beyond the immediate vicinity of his enemies. 
But in what a horrid plight! Stark naked, with no food and no weapons for 
game, the soles of his feet pierced thick with the cruel spikes of the cactus ! Yet 
such is the endurance of some men that in seven days during which his only 
subsistence was roots dug with his fingers, Colter made his way to Lisa's fort. 
"Such was life in the Far-West." The story was told by Colter to Bradbury, 
who narrated it in his book, "Travels in North America." Irving used it in his 
"Astoria," and it also appears in Chittenden's "American Fur-trade." 

One of the partners of Lisa in the Missouri Fur Company, Andrew Henry, 
in 1810 built a fort on the west side of the Great Divide on a stream afterwards 
known as Henry's Fork, a branch of Snake River. It was near the present Egin, 
Idaho, and was the first structure built by white men upon Snake River or any 
of its tributaries. 

We have given the extended narration thus far of fur-traders prior to any 
actual entrance by any of them into the region treated in this work, in order that 
the nature of the business and the manner in which all parts of Oregon were 
involved might become clear. We now bring upon the scene still another enter- 
prise which came yet closer to our own region. This was the Pacific Fur Com- 
pany of John Jacob Astor. This first of the great business promoters of our 
country was born in Germany, and coming to New York in 1784 began his great 
career as a fur merchant. Having made a fortune in the business almost entirely 
by operations in Canada, Astor conceived the project of a vast emporium upon 
the Columbia to which should converge the trade in furs from all the region 
west of the Rocky Moimtains and south of the region definitely occupied by the 
Northwestern Fur Company. He contemplated also a lucrative business with 
the Russians centered around Sitka and Kodiak on the north, and the Spaniards 
on the south. It was a noble enterprise and worthy of all success. It would 
have had a most important bearing upon the progress of American enterprise 
and settlement in Oregon and might have materially changed certain chapters 
in history. That it failed of full accomplishment was due to various untoward 
circumstances, of which the chief were: first, Astor's own error of judgment in 
selecting the majority of his partners and employees from Canadians and also 
selecting captains for his first two ships who were not qualified for their im- 
portant task; and second, the War of 1812. It will be remembered that the 
Northwesters of Canada were thoroughly located upon the Athabasca and had 
crossed the Divide and as early as 1807 had built posts on the upper Columbia 
and Spokane and on the lakes in what is now Northern Idaho. Astor no doubt 
anticipated a strenuous contest with those bold, ambitious Canadians, but his own 
highly successful enterprises thus far had been with Canadians and he knew them 
well qualified. He reasoned that he could make it well worth their while to 
be loyal to him and to the company to which he admitted them. It is probable 


thai all would have worked as he calculated had nut the war with Great Britain 
defeated all his well-laid plans. 

The part of the great Astoria enterprise which more especially comes within 
the scope of our story is that of the journey of the land party across the Rocky 
Mountains and down the Snake and Columbia rivers, and the subsequent estab- 
lishment of forts and trading jxjsts. The land division was under Wilson Price 
Hunt of New Jersey, the partner second in command to Astor himself. He 
was one of the comparatively few Americans in the company and seems to have 
been a man of the highest type, brave, humane, enterprising, and whole-souled, 
worthy of a place at the head of those Jasons of the Nineteenth Century who 
sought the golden fleeces of the Far-West. Both divisions got under way in 1810, 
the land division from Montreal in July, and the sea division in September. The 
latter, however, reached the promised land of the Columbia first, for after a 
tragic entrance of the mouth of the river, the Tonquin with the party on board 
brought to in Baker's Bay on the north side of the river on March 25th. Astoria 
was founded on April 12, 181 1. A few months later, owing to the criminal 
obstinacy and bad judgment of Captain Thorn, the Tonquin with all her crew 
but one (from whom the story is derived) was captured by Indians and then 
blown up at a place presumably Nootka Sound or near there on the west side 
of Vancouver Island. 

Hunt, with three other partners, McKenzie, Crooks, and Miller, after having 
collected and fitted out a party of such miscellaneous material as they could find 
at various places between Montreal and St. Louis, left the latter place on October 
21, 1810, and reaching a stream called the Nadowa, near the present site of 
St. Joseph, Mo., stopped for the winter. Resuming the long journey on 
April 2ist of the next year, the party reached the abandoned Fort Henry on 
October 8th. They were now on the headwaters of Snake River. Down that 
wild stream they ran a losing race with oncoming winter. For before they 
reached the present vicinity of Huntington, Ore., the December snows fell 
thick upon them. McKenzie and McLellan with seven of the strongest men 
went ahead of the main party, and reaching the vicinity of the present Seven 
Devils country made their way after twenty-one days of struggle and peril 
through the great canyon of Snake River to its junction with the Clearwater, 
the site of the present Lewiston and Clarkston. They had a clear idea then 
of their location by a knowledge of the experiences of Lewis and Clark. They 
were then within the area of our four counties of this history and had no trouble 
in making their way, though in mid- winter, down the Snake, then at its lowest 
stage and not difificult to navigate, to that most interesting spot, the junction of 
the Snake and Columbia. Thus the advance party on this historic journey, the 
first of the fur-traders, though later than the Lewis and Clark expedition, reached 
the Columbia. With their canoes floating U])on its broad waters they had an easy 
and pleasant journey, after their former desperate straits, to the rude stockade 
of Astoria, which they reached on January 18, 1812. The main party had a more 
distressing time. After nearly starving and freezing they turned toward the 
mountains from the ])resent Huntington and must have very nearly followed the 
course of the present railroad from that point to the Grande Ronde. They 
were at just about the limit of endurance when on December 30th, looking down 
from their snowy elevation they saw far below them a sunny valley, looking to the 



winter-wasted refugees like a vision of paradise. Thither hastening they found 
several lodges of Indians who took pity on their forlorn and destitute state and 
provided them with food and fuel. Irving gives with his graphic pen a brilliant- 
narration of the celebration of New Year's day in this valley of salvation for 
this party. Rested and recuperated by these few days in the Grande Ronde, they 
essayed their last tussle with the mountains by scaling the snowy heights between 
their resting place and the Umatilla. Reaching that warm and beautiful valley 
they found that their deliverance was at hand, for there they took a two-weeks' 
rest. On January 2ist, having started again, they beheld before them a blue flood 
nearly a mile wide hastening toward the sunset, evidently the "Great River." 
Their journey afoot down the river to the Cascades and thence in canoes to 
Astoria was a soft and gentle exercise after the arduous struggles through the 

Such was the inauguration of the Pacific Fur Company in this country. 
While amid such suffering the Americans were endeavoring to launch their great 
enterprise, the Northwesters were employing great energy and skill in planting 
themselves upon the upper river. They, too, looked for new fields to conquer. 
In July, 1811, the redoubtable David Thompson appeared at Astoria expecting 
to file a claim on the lower river for his company. He was too late by three 
months, for Astoria had been founded in April. The Scotchmen of the Astoria 
Company fraternized with their countryman, but to David Stuart, one of the 
American partners, this was not pleasing. Hastening his preparations he hurried 
on his journey up the river. At the mouth of Snake River he found a British 
flag upon a pole and on it a paper claiming the country in the name of Great 
Britain. It was obvious to Stuart that there would be a contest between his 
company and the Northwesters. He wished to secure certain strategic points as 
far inland as possible and accordingly he pressed on up the Columbia to the 
mouth of the Okanogan, estimated to be five hundred and forty miles above 
Astoria. There on September 2nd, Stuart planted the American flag and started 
the construction of a post, the first American structure within the present State 
of Washington. 

Of the interesting and varied events in the Okanogan and Spokane countries 
Alexander Ross and Ross Cox, clerks in the Astor Company, have given the 
most complete data. These events, important as they were, are outside the scope 
of our story. We will simply say that the rivalry' between the Astorians and the 
Northwesters came to a sudden climax by the War of 1812. Misfortune dogged 
the course of the Astor Company. Hunt had gone from Astoria to Sitka in the 
second ship from New York, the Beaver, and had started a profitable business 
with the Russians, but on the return to the Columbia, the captain of the Beaver, 
finding his ship damaged by a storm, insisted on going to Honolulu, though 
Hunt's presence was sorely needed at Astoria. At Honolulu Hunt received the 
evil tidings of the wreck of the third ship, the Lark. With the cargo of the 
Beaver conveyed to Canton, while Hunt was wasting his vitally important time 
at Honolulu, the same timid captain. Sowles, lost all the best chances of the 
market, both for selling his furs and buying Canton goods. Thus the whole 
voyage was a failure. After an intolerable delay. Hunt chartered a vessel with 
which he left the Sandwich Islands and reached Astoria August 20, 1813, 


more than a year from the time of liis departure. But his return was too hite. 
The Scotch partners had sold the company out to the Northwesters. 

Such was the untoward end of the vast undertaking of John Jacob Astor. 
The Americans were down and out. The Britishers were in possession of the 
fur territory of Oregon. By the Joint Occupation Treaty of 1818, both English 
and Americans were privileged to carry on business in Oregon, but the effect 
of the downfall of the Astor Company was to place the countrj' in the hands 
of the Northwesters. That company had two great aims: first, to get rid of 
American rivalry ; second, to prevent the entrance of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany. Having accomplished the first purpose, they set about the second. The 
upshot of that was the final coalescence of the two companies in 182 1 with the 
name of the Hudson's Bay Company, but with the members of the younger 
company on equal terms, and as far as Oregon was concerned, with the advantage 
of profit in the hands of the partners of that company. And now for twenty- 
five years the Hudson's Bay' Comjiany, thus reorganized, lorded it over Oregon. 

During all the years from the time of the entrance of the Pacific Fur Com- 
pany through the struggle between it and the Northwesters and then the united 
fortunes of the Northwesters and the Hudson's Bay Company down to American 
ownership in 1846, Walla Walla and the rest of the region which now composes 
the scene of our history were prominent in the affairs of the fur-traders. Per- 
haps the most valuable narrative by any of the Astor Company of entrance into 
the Walla Walla County, is that by Alexander Ross, one of the clerks, in a book 
of which the full title is, "Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or 
Columbia River." In this narrative Ross tells of their first journey into the 
interior, beginning July 22, 181 1. Describing the passage of the Cascades and 
the "Long Narrows" (The Dalles) and the Falls (Celilo) he mentions a river 
which he calls the Lowhum (Des Chutes), then the Day (John Day), then the 
Umatallow (LTmatilla). He describes here a "large mound or hill of considerable 
height," which from its peculiar form they called Dumbarton Castle. This was 
doubtless the curious rock just east of LTmatilla, noticeable to all tra\ellers by 
steamer. Passing through the "colonnade rocks," the party soon found them- 
selves at a bluff where there "issues the meandering Walla Walla, a beautiful 
little river, lined with weeping willows." Here they found a great concourse 
of Indians, "Walla- Wallas, Shaw Haptens, and Cajouses, altogether 1.500 souls." 
Some were armed with guns and some with bows and arrows. Their chiefs 
rejoiced in the names of Tummatapam, Ouill-Ouills-Tuck-a-Pesten, and .A.II0W- 
catt. The plains were literally covered with horses, of which there could not 
have been less than four thousand in sight of the camp. Passing beyond the 
Walla Walla, the party reached the junction of the two big rivers, noting the 
difference in color of the two. Noting also the fine salmon fishing, where, how- 
ever, Ross observed that not so many salmon can be captured in a day as on the 
Copper Mine River or in Kamtschatka. They soon reach the Eyakema (Yakima), 
and here they note that the landscape at the mouth of that river surpassed in pic- 
turesque beauty anything that they had yet seen. They are surprised at being 
overtaken at that point by three Walla Walla Indians on horseback who brought 
to them a bag of shot which they had accidentally left at the preceding camp, — 
an evidence of honesty similar to that experienced by Lewis and Clark among 
the Walla W'allas. From the "Eyakema" this party proceeded up the river to 


Okanogan, where, as already related, they built the first structure erected by 
white men in the present State of Washington. 

It gives some conception of the hardihood of the traders of that time to note 
that Ross remained entirely alone at "Oakanacken," while the rest of the party 
went northward 350 miles to find a new fur region. During their absence of 188 
days Ross secured from the Indians 1,550 beaver skins for 35 pounds, worth in 
Canton (China) market 2,250 pounds ! 

One of the most characteristic incidents of the life of that time is found in an 
account given in the narratives of Cox, Ross, and Franchere, about the Indian 
wife of Pierre Dorion, a hunter in one of the parties which had been located in 
the Blue Mountains south of Walla Walla. Following Franchere's account of 
this, it appears that while a party of Northwesters of which he was one were on 
their way in 1814 up the Columbia to cross the mountains into Canada, while 
they were in the river near the mouth of the Walla Walla, they heard a child's 
voice from a canoe call out: "Arretez done, Arretez done!" (Stop! Stop!) 
The woman with her two boys were in a canoe trying to overtake the party. 
Halting, they discovered that this pitiful little group were all that remained of 
the trappers that had been located among the Snake Indians. According to 
Madame Dorion's story, while they were engaged in trapping in January, the 
trappers had been attacked one by one by the Indians and all murdered. Secur- 
ing two horses the brave woman mounted her boys upon them and started for the 
Walla Walla. In the bitter cold they could not proceed and having no other food, 
the woman killed the horses and after spending the rest of the winter in the 
mountains made her way with the children to the Walla Walla, where the 
Indians treated them with kindness and placed them w^here they might find the 
boats of the white men. Think of the endurance and faithfulness of the woman 
who could win such a fight for life for her children. 

Ross Cox gives an interesting account of his journey from Astoria to Spokane 
in 1812. He too commends the "Wallah Wallah" Indians for their honesty and 
humanity. He describes the immense numbers of rattlesnakes around the mouth 
of the Wallah Wallah, and — a more pleasing theme — the appearance of the 
mountains which he says the Canadians called from their color, "Les Montagnes 
Bleues." From what Cox says in this same connection, it appears that the name 
Nez Perces was a translation into French from the name Pierced-Nose, which 
had already been applied to the Indians up Snake River by Lewis and Clark. 

The most important event in this stage of the history was the founding of 
Fort Walla Walla, at first called Fort Nez Perces. This was founded in 1818 
by Donald McKenzie. This efficient and ambitious man will be remembered as 
one of Astor's partners, one who accompanied Hunt on his great journey and 
had been one of the most active and influential in the sale of Astoria to the North- 
western Company. Having been for ten years prior to his connection with 
Astor a member of the Northwestern Company, he felt more at home with it, 
and upon its establishment in practical possession of the fur trade of Oregon, 
McKenzie became one of its most faithful and useful managers. McKenzie 
seems to have been opposed by his associates in his desire to establish a post on 
the Walla Walla. But with a keen eye for strategic places and with a sagacity 
and pertinacity unequalled by any of them, he forced all to his views. Orders 
came from headquarters that he be allowed the needful men and equipment, 


and in July, 1818, with ninety-five men and our old friend Ross as his second 
in command, he set to work in the construction of the fort at the point half a 
mile above the mouth of the Walla Walla, long known in the annals of the 
Columbia during both British and American possession. At that spot the 
foundation of the fort may still be seen, and just abreast of it is the present 
landing of the Wallula ferry. The structure consisted of a palisade of timbers 
30 inches wide, 6 inches thick, and 20 feet high. At the top were loop-holes 
and slip-doors. Two bastions and water tanks holding 200 gallons still further 
guarded against both attack from Indians and danger of fire. The enclosure was 
100 feet square, and within it were houses built of drift logs, though there 
was one of stone. Subsequently adobe buildings were added, and some of those 
remained in some degree of preservation till the great flood of 1894. 

From Fort Walla Walla, as it came to be known within a few years, McKenzie 
carried on a great and profitable trade to the Snake country and the Blue Moun- 
tains. At one of his encampments while having a force of only three men. and 
with a very valuable stock of furs and goods, a crowd of piratical Indians tried 
to rush the camp and plunder the whole establishment. McKenzie with his 
usual nerve seized a match and holding it over a keg of powder declared that 
if they did not immediately clear out, he would blow them all up. They cleared 
out and left him in pwssession. It is said that Archibald McKinley performed 
a similar exploit at Walla Walla. 

Many interesting things could be told of this historic fort. Gardens were 
started, cattle brought to feed on the meadow land of the Walla Walla, and by 
the time that the missionaries and immigrants began to come in the '30s and 
'40s the lower Walla Walla bore a homelike and civilized appearance. Other 
pasture and garden regions were added, one of the most extensive being that 
now known as Hudson's Bay, the location of the "Goodman Ranch," about fifteen 
miles southwest of the present City of Walla Walla. 

Our limits forbid space for all the other fur enterprises and companies aside 
from the two important companies already described. There were, however, 
three Americans who come within the range of our story whose careers were 
so interesting and important that we cannot omit mention of them. These were 
Jedadiah Smith, Nathaniel Wyeth and B. L. E. Bonneville. The first named was 
a member of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, of which W. H. Ashley was 
founder. The main operations of the company were on the Upper Missouri, 
Green River, and around Great Salt Lake. Smith, however, made several remark- 
able journeys far beyond the earlier range. He was a very unique character, a 
devout Christian and yet one of the boldest of traders and discoverers. He 
might be said to have carried the Bible in one hand and his rifle in the other. 
He usually began the day with devotions and expected his men to be present. 
Yet he pushed his business and discoveries to the limit. His first great trip was 
in 1826. He proceeded from Great Salt Lake to the Colorado, thence across 
Arizona and Southern California, to San Diego, a route unknown to whites 
before. After going up and down California hundreds of miles he crossed the 
mountains and deserts eastward the next summer, following a more northern 
route abounding in perils and hardships. In 1827 the journey to California was 
repeated almost immediately upon his return from the first. In the spring and 
summer of 1828, he struck out on an entirely new course. This was up the 


Sacramento and northwesterly across the lofty ranges of Southern Oregon to the 
Umpqua on the Oregon Coast. There, with his nineteen men he did successful 
trapping, but a difficulty with the Indians resulted in the massacre of the whole 
party except himself and three others. Those three being separated from the 
leader, he made his way in utter destitution and with great suffering to the 
Hudson's Bay Fort at Vancouver. Dr. John McLoughlin, the chief factor, with 
his usual generosity supplied the survivors of this disaster with their vital neces- 
sities and sent a well-armed party to secure the valuable furs of which the 
Umpquas had robbed them. Most of the furs were brought to Vancouver and 
McLoughlin paid Smith $20,000 for them. Remaining in Vancouver till March, 
1829, Smith made his way up the Columbia to the Flathead country and thence 
along the Rocky Mountains to the Teton range on the Upper Snake River. This 
vast series of routes by Jedadiah Smith through Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, 
Arizona, California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado, was 
the most extensive that had yet been taken and did more than any other to give 
a comprehensive view of what became the west third of the United States. In 
1 83 1, lamentable to relate, this truly heroic and enterprising master trapper was 
killed by Comanche Indians on the Cimarron desert. 

Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth and Benjamin Louis Eulalie de Bonneville were 
practically contemporary, and in their adventurous careers crossed each other's 
trails. Wyeth was born at Cambridge, Mass., and from the traditions of the 
family should have been a graduate of Harvard College. He was, however, 
so eager to enter some active career that he did not complete a college course. 
He became quite fascinated with the Utopian ideas about Oregon given to the 
world by Hall J. Kelley, and in 1832 he started upon a grand enterprise toward 
the setting sun. He had conceived a general plan of a vast emporium of Ameri- 
can business in furs and salmon, similar to that of Astor. With an ardent 
imagination and yet great practical good sense, Wyeth had the material for an 
empire builder. That he failed to fulfil his grand design was due partly to 
sheer bad luck, but mainly to the invincible monopoly of the Hudson's Bay 
Company. The work of Wyeth was, however, an essential link in the great chain 
which finally led to American ownership of Oregon. The first trip of Wyeth 
was in 1832. He crossed the mountains in company with Sublette, a noted 
trapper of the Rocky Mountain Company, and after some disasters with the 
Indians, he traversed the Blue Mountains and reached Fort Walla Walla (the 
present Wallula) in October. Pierre Pambrun was the Hudson's Bay Company's 
ao-ent at Walla Walla and he received the destitute and nearly famished Ameri- 
cans with lavish hospitality. After recuperating a few days at Walla Walla, 
Wyeth descended the Columbia, with unabated enthusiasm, expecting to find the 
ship which had left Boston in the spring, well laden with stores already waiting 
his arrival. But alas for human hopes ! When he reached Fort Vancouver he 
learned that his vessel had been wrecked. His men had already suffered much 
and lost faith in the lucky star of their employer and asked to be relieved from 
further service. He was compelled perforce to grant their request, for he had 
no money. Spending the winter in and around Vancouver, treated by McLough- 
lin with utmost kindness, and acquiring much knowledge and experience, but 
no money, the indomitable Yankee determined to return and raise another fund 
and challenge fate and his rivals again. February, 1833, found him again at 


Walla Walla. Thence he piiisued a devious course to Spokane and Colville, 
across the Divide, down the luouiilaius to the Tetons on the Upper Snake, where 
he fell in with i!onne\ille. hirst jikmning to go with lionneville to California, 
Wyeth suddenly decided to return to Boston and make ready for an immediate 
new expedition to Oregon. He made an extraordinary voyage down the Uighorn 
and hnally down the Missouri to St. Louis in a "bull-boat.'" Safely reaching 
Boston in November, he brought all his contagious enthusiasm to bear on certain 
moneyed men with the result that he organized a new company known as the 
Columbia River Fishing and Trading Company. A new vessel, the May Dacre, 
was outlittcd for the voyage around Cape Horn to Oregon. 

Again with new men and equipment and with such experience from his former 
journey as made success seem sure, Wyeth started on his new expedition from 
St. Louis on April 3, 1834. One interesting feature of this journey was that 
tw'O conspicuous scientists, Thomas Nuttall and J. K. Townsend, and the advance 
guard of the missionaries, Jason Lee and party of the Methodist Church, accom- 
panied the party. But even though better equipped than before and though 
seemingly having the sanction of both Science and the Church to bless his aims, 
the same old ill-fortune seemed to travel with him. He had brought, under a 
contract made on his return the \ear before, a valuable slock of goods for the 
Sublettes of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, and now when on reaching 
their rendezvous he made ready to deliver the goods brought with so much 
toil and expense, the Sublettes refused to receive them. Their company was, 
in fact, at the point of dissolution. Though Wyeth had the forfeit money that 
they had put up with the contract, that was small recompense for his labor of 
transportation. But nothing daunted, the stout-hearted promoter declared to 
the Sublettes, 'T will roll a stone into your garden which you will never be able 
to get out." In fulfillment of his threat he prepared to invade their territory 
by building a fort in which to store the rejected goods and from which to send 
his trappers to all parts of the upper Snake. The fort thus established was the 
famous Fort Hall, the most notable fort on the whole route, in the near vicinity 
of the present Pocatello. In spite of delays, the party seems to have travelled 
with unparalleled celerity, for leaving Fort Hall they reached the Grande Ronde 
on August 31st, a date at which previous parties had hardly reached the head 
of Snake River. In the Grande Ronde the party again encountered Bonneville. 
Three days more saw them at Walla Walla, and on September 2d, Wyeth was 
once more at \'ancouver. Here came misfortune number two. He had expected 
to find the May Dacre already in the river with a good haul of salmon which 
they planned to salt and take east on the return trip. But the vessel reached 
Vancouver the next day after Wyeth's own arrival, too late for any effective 
fishing that year. She had been struck by lightning and had lost three months' 
time in repairs. With indefatigalile energy, Wyeth inaugurated his plans. He 
sent a detail of men to Fort Hall with supplies. lie conducted an extensive 
trapping expedition to Central Oregon up the Des Chutes River. He built Fort 
William on Sauvie's Island. If anyone ever deserved success, Wyeth did. But 
Doctor McLoughlin, though the kindest of men and though personally wishing 
every success to Wyeth, could not forget that he was responsible to the Hud- 
.son's Bay Company. He underbid Wyeth for the Indian trade and headed him 
ofif at every turn in opening new regions. Nothing but a purse as long as that 







of the Hudson's Bay Company's could have stood the pressure. Worst of all, 
a pestilence broke out among the Indians from which they died like flies and from 
which some of Wyeth's own men perished. The Indians attributed the scourge 
to the evil "Tomanowas" of the "Bostons" and absolutely boycotted them. The 
brave fight was lost. Bad luck and the Hudson's Bay Company were too much 
for this all-deserving Yankee. Wyeth threw up his hands, sold out to the Hud- 
son's Bay Company for what they would give, yielding to them possession of 
his cherished Fort Hall, which became one of their most advantageous posts, 
and made his way, baffled but by no means disheartened, to his New England 
home. With his downfall it became clear that no ordinary force could dis- 
possess the great British Company from its vantage ground in Oregon. 

But meanwhile Bonneville was upholding the Stars and Stripes as valorously, 
but not more successfully than Wyeth. Bonneville was a Frenchman who came 
to New York in his youth, and who had most influential friends, and had also 
the extreme good fortune of attracting the favorable notice of Washington 
Irving and becoming the hero of one of the most fascinating books of that lead- 
ing American writer, "Bonneville's Adventures." Through this introduction to 
the reading public, greedy in those days for tales of the romance and adventure 
of the Far-West, Bonneville acquired a fame and vogue and became invested 
with a certain glamour beyond .fhat't)f-a«y-»f-.tii£ iur-traders of Old Oregon. 
By the favor and influence of TJiomas Pairie, -Bdnn^ville became a West Point 
appointee and graduated in 1819.' ' Wh'e'n La'-F-aj'istt^ came to America in 1825 
Bonneville was detailed to accompany- felie' "HfEQ, of Two Continents" on his tour 
of the States. Greatly pleased- Xvith.iiii'.yr)itnJ;_^e«n'tpktriot, La Fayette took him 
back to France on his return, and for several years the young French-American 
was a member of the household of that great man. Returning to the land of 
his adoption and resuming his army connections, Bonneville 'oecame absorbed 
with the idea that he might gratify both his love of adventure and of money by 
entering the fur trade in the Far-West. Securing from the War Department 
an appointment as a special explorer of new lands, and investigator of the 
Indian tribes, he was also allowed to make a personal venture in the fur trade. 

H. H. Bancroft in his "Pacific Coast History" viciously attacks Bonneville 
as well as Irving who immortalized him. General Chittenden in his "History of 
the American Fur Trade in the Far-West" defends both in a very spirited and 
successful manner. 

The series of expeditions undertaken by Bonneville extended over the years 
1832-5. Those years were replete with adventure, hardship, romance of a sort, 
but very little success in the quest of furs. In the course of those years the 
adventurous army officer traversed and retraversed the country covered by the 
water-sheds of the Snake River and its tributaries. Green River and the Colo- 
rado, the Great Salt Lake Basin, and down the Columbia. One of the most 
valuable journeys of his party was through the Humboldt Basin, across the 
Sierras and into California, a new route somewhat similar to the earlier one of 
Tedadiah Smith. That, however, was commanded not by Bonneville himself, 
but by I. R. Walker, Bonneville's most valued assistant. The most interesting 
part of Bonneville's expedition to the inhabitants of Old Walla Walla County 
was his winter trip from the Grande Ronde to the "Wayleway" (Wallowa), 
down the Snake to the present vicinity of Asotin, thence across the prairies 



of what is now Garfield and Columbia counties, to Walla Walla. He describes 
that region as one of rare beauty and apparent fertility and predicts that it will 
sometime be the scene of high cultivation and settlement. Reaching Fort Walla 
Walla, he was received by Pierre Pambrun with the same courtesy which that 
commandant had bestowed on Wyeth, but when he tried to secure supplies for 
his depleted equipment, Pambrun assured him that he would have to draw the 
line at anything which would foster the American fur-trade. Like Wyeth, Bon- 
neville discovered to his sorrow and cost that he was "up against" an immovable 
wall of monopoly of the hugest and most inflexible aggregation of capital in the 
western hemisphere. He could not compete at Walla Walla. Descending the 
Columbia River he found the same iron barrier of monopoly. He too threw up 
his hands. The American fur-traders were at the end of their string. They 
retired and left the great monopoly in undisputed possession. 

Thus ends, in American defeat, this first combat for possession of Oregon. 
Another combat and another champion for the Americans was due. Exit the 
trapper. Enter the missionary. Another chapter — and we shall see what the 
new actor could do and did do on the grand stage of Oregon history. 


In the preceding chapter we learned that the various attempts of American 
trappers and fur companies to control the fur trade of Oregon failed. The 
Hudson's Bay Company was too tirnily entrenched in its vast domain to be 
loosened by any business of its own kind. Nor would there have been any special 
advantage to the United States or the world in dislodging the great British 
company and substituting an American enterprise of the same sort. The aims 
and policy of all fur companies were the same : i. e., to keep the country a wilder- 
ness, to trade with the natives and derive a fortune from the lavish bounty of 
wild animal life. The Hudson's Bay Company was as good as any enterprise of 
its type could be. The unfortunate fact was not so much that it was the British 
who were skimming the cream of the wilderness, as that the regime of any fur 
company was necessarily antagonistic to that incoming tide of settlers who 
would bring with them the home, the shop, the road, the church, the school, in 
short, civilization. Hence the necessary policy of the great fur company was 
to discourage immigration, or, in fact, any form of enterprise which would 
utilize the latent agricultural, pastoral, and manufacturing resources of Oregon. 
This policy existed, in spite of the fact (of which we shall see many illustrations 
later) that individual managers and officers of the company were often of broad 
and benevolent character and predisposed to extending a cordial welcome to 
the advance guard of American immigration. A few stray Americans had 
drifted to Oregon and California with the hope of inaugurating enterprises that 
would lead to American occupation. In general, however, the land beyond 
the Rockies was as dark a continent as Africa. 

But in 1832 a strange and interesting event occurred which unlocked the 
gates of the western wilderness and led in a train of conditions which made 
American settlement and ownership a logical result. In 1832 a party of four 
Indians from the Far- West appeared at St. Louis on a strange quest — seeking 
the "White R-Ian's Book of Life." EfTorts have been made by certain recent 
writers to belittle or discredit this event, for no very apparent reason unless it 
be that general disposition of some of the so-called critical school of investigators 
to spoil anything that appeals to the gentler or nobler emotions, and especially 
to oppose the idea that men are susceptible to any motives of religion or human 
sympathy or any other spirit than the mercenary and materialistic. But there can 
be no question about the journey of these four Indians, nor can there be any 
reasonable doubt that their aim was to secure religious instruction for their 
people. The details of the journey and the nature of the expectations of the 
tribe and of the envoys might of course be variously understood and stated, but 
the general statements given by reliable contemporary authorities are not open to 



To what tribe ihc Indians belonged seems uncertain. It has been stated by 
some that they were Flatheads and that tribe, though quite widely dispersed, had 
their principal habitat in what is now Northern Idaho and Northwestern Mon- 
tana, ^liss Kate McBeth, for many years a missionary to the Nez Perce 
Indians, and located at Kamiah and then at Lapwai, near Lewiston, thought that 
three of the Indians were Nez Perces and one a Flathead. Nor is it known how 
those Indians got the notion 6i a "Book of Life." Bonneville states in his 
journal that Pierre Pambrun, the agent at Fort Walla Walla, taught the Indians 
the rudiments of Catholic worship. Some have conjectured that the American 
trapper, Jedadiah Smith, a devout Christian, may have imparted religious instruc- 
tion. Miss McBeth formed the impression that their chief hope was that they 
might find Lewis and Clark, whose journey in 1805-6 had produced a profound 
effect on the Nez Perces. It is interesting to note that Clark was at the very time 
of this visit of the Indians the superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis. 
He has left no statement as to the location of these Indians, though he referred 
to the fact of their visit to several passers who have recorded his statements. 
The first published account of this visit appeared in the New York Christian 
Advocate, of March i, 1833. This was in the form of a letter from G. P. Dis- 
oway, who had charge of the removal of certain Indians to a reservation west 
of St. Louis. In his letter Disoway enclosed one from William Walker, an 
interpreter for the \^'yandotte Indians. Walker had met the four Indians in 
General Clark's office in St. Louis. He was impressed with their appearance, and 
learned that General Clark had given them some account of the origin and history 
of man, of the coming of the Savior, and of his work for the salvation of men. 
-According to Walker, two of the Indians died in St. Louis. As to whether the 
others reached their home he did not know. 

Walker's account was confirmed in a most valuable way by George Catlin, 
the noted painter and student of Indian life. He was making a journey up the 
Missouri River on one of the first steamers to ascend that stream to Fort 
Benton. In the Smithsonian Report for 1885 can be found Catlin's account, as 
follows: "These two men, when I painted them, were in beautiful Sioux dresses 
which had been presented to them in a talk with the Sioux, who treated them 
very kindly, while passing through the Sioux country. These two men were 
part of a delegation that came across the mountains to St. Louis a few years 
since, to inquire for the truth of the representations which they said some white 
men liad made among them, that our religion was better than theirs, and that 
they would all be lost if they did not embrace it. Two old and venerable men 
of this party died in St. Louis, and I travelled 2,000 miles, companion with 
these two fellows, toward their own country, and became much pleased with their 
manners and dispositions. W'hen I first heard the objects of their extraordi- 
nary mission across the mountains, I could scarcely believe it; but on conversing 
with General Clark on a future occasion, I was fully convinced of the fact." 
Rather curiously Catlin speaks of these Indians as being Flatheads or Nez Perces, 
as though the two tribes were identical. 

The letter of Disoway in the Christian Adt'ocate was discussed in the Illinois 
Patriot of October, 1833, together with the statement that the subject had 
excited so much interest that a committee of the Illinois Synod had been appointed 
to report on the duty of the churches. The committee went to St. Louis and 

From a statute on the Witherspooii Buildings Philadelphia 


conferred with General Clark, receiving from him a confirmation of the report. 
When this pathetic story, together with the stirring appeal of the committee, 
had reached the Christian people of the country, it produced a profound impres- 
sion, although, quite curiously, the little book by Lee and Frost of the first 
Methodist Mission, which passed through St. Louis in 1834, and whose members 
conferred with Gen. Clark, refers rather slightingly to the event. The decades 
of the '20s and '30s were a time of deep religious sentiment. It was the begin- 
ning of the Alissionary movements of the century. To the sensitive souls of 
the time this unheralded call from the Far-West seemed a veritable Macedonian 
cry. From it sprang the Christian Missions of Oregon. And the missionaries 
were the advance guard of immigration. And the immigration decided that 
the American home-builder and farmer should own Oregon, rather than that 
the British fur-trader and the Indians should keep it as a game preserve and 
fur depot. It would indeed be too much to say that American ownership of 
Oregon would not have resulted, if it had not been for the missionaries. But 
it may safely be said that the acquisition would have been delayed and that 
there would have been many more chances of failure, if the missionaries had 
not fitted into the evolution of the drama just as and just when they did. The 
missionary period was an essential one, coming between that of the fur-traders 
and that of the immigrants. 

While the scope of our undertaking requires us to confine our narration 
mainly to the area covered in this history, yet in order to preserve the historical 
continuity and to exhibit the forces which \kS to' subsequent developments, we 
must enlarge the picture enough to include glimpses of the mission iocntions 
outside of Walla Walla. 

The first of the Christian Crusaders to respond to the Macedonian call from 
Oregon was a party under Jason Lee of the Methodist Church. This party came 
to Oregon in 1834 in company with Nathaniel Wyeth, the American trader, of 
whose bold and worthy, and yet unsuccessful undertakings we have spoken in 
Chapter Four. Reaching \^ancouver, the missionaries presented themselves to 
Doctor McLoughlin, the chief factor. He met them with every expression of 
generous good-will and advised them to locate in the Willamette Valley rather 
than among the tribes from whom had proceeded the Macedonian call. As a 
result, Lee with his assistants, located at Chemawa, near the present Salem, 
Ore. From that mission sprang the first permanent American settlement, the 
native name of which was Chemeketa, place of Council, or peace-ground. The 
missionaries gave it the Bible equivalent, Salem, a proceeding of more piety than 
good judgment. The Willamette University of the present is the offspring of 
the school started by the missionaries for the Indian children, and within a few 
years modified so as to meet the needs of the white children. For that earliest 
mission, like the later, discovered that this great work, after all, must be for the 
white race, not for the Indians. 

The next year after the coming of the Lee party, another movement was 
initiated which was destined to have a most intimate connection with Walla 
VValla. For in 1835, the man who became the first white man, aside from the 
fur trappers and traders, in the Walla Walla Valley, left his home in New York 
for Oregon. This was Dr. Marcus Whitman, who, more than any other one 
man, put Walla Walla on the map of the world. In 1835. Doctor Whitman, in 


company with Dr. Samuel I'arker, set forth on a reconnaissance to determine 
the advisabiHty of locating a mission among the Indians from whom had gone 
the Macedonian call. Reaching Green River, the outlook seemed so encouraging 
that it was decided to part company; Doctor Parker continuing westward with 
Indians who had met them at Green River, while Doctor Whitman, the younger 
and more active of the two, returned to his Iiome in Kushville, N. Y., and there 
organized a missionary band. 

As a result of Doctor Whitman's return, a party consisting of himself and 
his bride, Narcissa Prentiss, and Rev. IT. H. Spalding and his newly wedded 
bride, Eliza Hart, set forth in 1836 for Oregon. With them was William H. 
Gray as secular agent and general manager. With the party also were two 
Indian boys who had accompanied Doctor Whitman the year before on his return 
from Green River. Of this bridal journey of 4,ocX) miles, most of it on horse- 
back, our space permits only a few hurried views. Aside from the momentous 
results in the history of Oregon and the United States, the story is one of 
heroism and devotion w'hich has few parallels, and the record closes with a 
martyr's crown for Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. 

Among the precious relics in Whitman College, is Mrs. Whitman's diary of 
the journey, and also that of Mrs. Spalding. That of Mrs. Whitman was made 
by herself from notes on the way and was sent from Vancouver to her parents 
upon the completion of the journey. Its heading is as follows : 

"Narcissa Whitman's Diary of a Missionary Tour West of the Rocky Moun- 
tains p>erformed 1836. Being the first white female ever beyond the mountains 
on the continent. ' The journey was performed on horseback — a distance of 4,000 
miles. She, in company with her husband, Marcus Whitman, M. D., and H. H. 
Spalding and wife, left the state of New York for this tour in February of 1836 
— travelled through a part of Pennsylvania, Ohio — and finally arrived at St. Louis 
in Missouri. Here they joined the Fur Company that crosses the mountains 
every year — and were also joined by Messrs. Suturly [Saturlee in Mrs. Spald- 
ing's diary] and Gray — missionaries to the West. Matters thus arranged they all 
left St. Louis in March — for the 'far West.' The further particulars of the 
journey may be learned from the following extracts from her journal taken on 
the way." 

Following this heading is a letter addressed to her parents, dated Vancouver, 
October 20, 1836, in which she says that the journal covers the journey from 
the "Rendezvous," and that while at Vancouver she had been so situated that 
she could copy her notes taken on the way. The party had crossed the Great 
Divide on July 4th, and on that day celebrated the natal day of the country, and 
as they looked down the long vista westward, seem to have felt that they would 
clpim possession of that western land in the name of the American Union and 
the Church of Jesus Christ. They had reached the "Rendezvous" on Green 
River July 6th. After several days there, refitting and resting and conferring 
with Indians, they resumed the next great stage of the march with a detach- 
ment of the Hudson's Bay Company, under Mr. McLeod, bound for Walla 

It was July 18, 1836, when they set forth under these new auspices. A com- 
pany of Flathead and Nez Perce Indians also travelled with them. It appears 
from the diary of Mrs. Spalding that the Nez Perces were very anxious that 


the party accompany them, but as they apparently wished to hunt on the way 
it was manifestly necessary- that the party go with the traders. One chieftain, 
Mrs. Spalding says, concluded to go with them, though it would deprive him 
of the privilege of securing a supply of meat for the winter. Mrs. Whitman 
tells of the tedious time which Doctor Whitman had with his wagon. This was 
one of the notable features of his journey. Some have asserted that he was 
the first to drive a wagon from the Missouri to the Columbia. This is only 
partly true. Ashley, Smith, Sublette, Bonneville, and other trappers, had driven 
wagons to the Black Hills, and to other points, but none of them had gone so far 
west as Whitman, with a wagon. But when he reached "Snake Fort," near 
Boise, generally known as Fort Boise, he left his wagon. Li 1840 Robert Newell 
went clear through the Blue Mountains and reached Walla Walla. However, 
Doctor Whitman deserves all praise for his energy and persistence in pushing 
his "Chick-chick-shaile-kikash," as the Indians called his wagon, even to Fort 
Boise, and he may be very justly called one of the first wheel-track-makers. It is 
interesting and pathetic to see how Mrs. Whitman craved some of her mother's 
bread. During part of their journey they had an exclusive diet of bufTalo meat. 
Occasionally they would have berries and fish. They had several cows with theiu 
and from them had some milk, which was a great help. They had to shoe their 
cattle (presumably with hide, though it is not so stated) on account of sore 
feet. With the cows were two sucking calves, which, Mrs. Whitman says, seemed 
to be in excellent spirits, and made the journey with no sufifering, except sore 
feet. Soon after passing a point on Snake River, where the Indians were taking 
salmon, Mrs. Whitman bade good-by to her little trunk which they had been able 
to carry thus far, but were now compelled to leave. It is truly pathetic to read 
the words in her journal. 

"Dear H. (This was her sister Harriet, to whom she is especially addressing 
the words) : The little trunk you gave me has come thus with me so far and now 
I must leave it here alone. Poor little trunk! I am sorry to leave thee. Thou 
must abide here alone and no more by thy presence remind me of my dear 
Harriet. Twenty miles below the falls on Snake River, this shall be thy place 
of rest. Farewell, little trunk. I thank thee for thy faithful services, and that 
I have been cheered by thy presence so long. Thus we scatter as we go along." 
A little later it appears that Mr. McKay rescued the trunk. Mrs. Whitman 
shows that she had quite a sense of humor by recording that when she found 
what Mr. McKay had done her "soliloquizing about it last night was for naught." 
The journal contains quite a glowing account of the beauties of Grande 
Ronde Valley, then of the toilsome, zigzag trail out of it into the Blue Mountains 
westward. On August 29th, the party stood upon the open summit, from which 
they saw the Valley of the Columbia. "It was beautiful. Jtist as we gained 
the highest elevation and began to descend the sun was dipping his disk behind 
the western horizon. Beyond the valley we could see two distant mountains. 
Mount Hood, and Mount St. Helens." The latter of those mountains was 
Adams, not St. Helens. Our missionary band were now in sight of their goal. 
It was not, however, till September ist, that they actually rode into Walla Walla. 
In fact, part of the company, including the Spaldings, did not reach the fort till 
September 3d. It was a thrilling moment to that devoted little band. It seemed 
to them almost equal to what it would to one of us moderns to enter Washinj^ton 


or Paris or London. Tliink of the journey of those two women, those brides, 
three thousand miles from St. Louis to Walla Walla, five months and mainly on 
horseback. As they drew near the fort, both horses and riders became so eager 
to reach the end of the journey that they broke into a gallop. They saw the first 
appearance of civilization in a garden about two miles from the fort. That 
garden must have been nearly upon the present location of Wallula. As they 
rode up to the fort, Mr. McLeod (who had gone ahead to prepare for their 
coming), Mr. Pambrun, the commandant, and others, came forth to meet so new 
and remarkable an addition to the population of Walla Walla. Mrs. Whitman 
has the enthusiasm of a child in describing the chickens, turkeys, pigeons, hogs, 
goats, and cattle, which latter were the fattest that she ever saw, and then she 
goes into ecstasies over the breakfast of salmon, potatoes, tea, bread and butter, 
and then the room in the fort with its comfort after all their hardships. The 
officers of the fur company treated them with the utmost courtesy and consider- 
ation. Such was that momentous entrance of the missionaries and of the first 
white women into Fort Walla Walla, September i, 1836. 

The next chapter in the story of the Whitman party was their journey to Van- 
couver, the emporium of the Hudson's Bay Company. Leaving Walla Walla by 
boat on the 7th of September, they reached the "New York of the Pacific," as 
Mrs. Whitman says they had been told to consider it, on the 14th. Mrs. Whit- 
man expresses in her journal the admiration of the party for the beauty of the 
river, more beautiful, she says, than the Ohio, though the rugged clifi:'s and shores 
of drifting sand below Walla Walla looked dismal and forbidding. They found 
much to delight them at \''ancouver, — the courtesy and hospitality of Doctor 
McLoughlin and his assistants, the bounteous table, with feasts of salmon, roast 
duck, venison, grouse and quail, rich cream and delicious butter, a picture of 
toothsomeness which it makes one hungrj' to read; the ships from England 
moored to the river brink, and the well-kept farm with grain and vegetables, 
fruits of every sort, grapes and berries, a thousand head of cattle, and many 
sheep, hogs, and horses — a perfect oasis of civilized delights to the little com- 
pany of missionaries, worn and homesick during their months on horseback 
across the barren plains and through wild mountains. 

Doctor Whitman and Mr. Spalding, leaving their wives in the excellent keep- 
ing of the LIudson's Bay people at \'ancouver, returned, in company with Mr. 
Gray, to the Walla Walla country to decide upon locations. They had expected, 
so Mrs. Whitman says, to locate in the Grande Ronde, the beauty and fertility 
of which had been portrayed in glowing colors by returning adventurers and fur- 
traders. But discovering as they passed through that it was so buried in the moun- 
tains and so difficult of access from the rivers and the regular routes of travel, 
they fixed upon Waiilatpu ( Wielitpoo, Mrs. \\hitman spells it ) for one post and 
Lapwai for another. The Whitmans became established at Waiilatpu, "the place 
of rye grass." six miles west of the present W'alla A\^alla : and the Spaldings at 
Lapwai, two miles up the I^apwai Creek, and about twelve from the mouth of the 
Clearwater, the present site of Lewiston. A few months after the location at 
Waiilatpu. on March 4, 1837. a beam of sunshine lighted in the home of the 
Whitmans, in the form of a daughter. Alice Clarissa, the first white child bom 
west of the Rockies and north of California. The Indians were extraordinarily 
pleased with the "little white papoose," or "Cayuse temi" (Cayuse girl"), and if 


she had hved, the tragedy of a httle later might not have occurred. In a letter 
preserved at Whitman College, from Mrs. Whitman to her sister and husband, 
Rev. Lyman P. Judson of ^Angelica, N. Y., dated March 15, 1838, the mother 
says : "Our little daughter comes to her mother every now and then to be cheered 
with a smile and a kiss and to be taken up to rest for a few moments and then 
away she goes running about the room or out of doors, diverting herself with 
objects that attract her attention. A refreshing comfort she is to her parents in 
their solitary situation." With her parents so needing that child, fairly idolizing 
her and their very lives wrought up with hers, it is too sad to relate that on June 
23, 1839, the bright, active little creature wandered out of the house while the 
mother was engaged in some household task, and took her way to the fatal river 
that then ran close to the mission house, though it now has a new channel a quarter 
mile away. Missing little Alice Clarissa, Mrs. Whitman hastened to the river, 
with a sinking dread, and there she saw the little cup where the child had dropped 
it. This mutely told the heart-breaking tale. An Indian, diving in the stream, 
found the body, but the gentle and lovable life, the life of the whole mission, was 
gone. The faithful and devoted father and mother had one less tie to life. The 
patient resignation with which the anguished parents endured this infinite sorrow 
shows vividly what strength may be imparted by the real Christian spirit. 

Both Doctor Whitman and Mr. Spalding were indefatigable workers and 
quickly created civilized conditions upon the beautiful places where they had 
planted their missions. That of Mr. Spalding was outside of the territory cov- 
ered by this history, and we therefore devote our larger attention to the mission 
at Waiilatpu. It should, however, be said that from the standpoint of results 
among the Indians, Mr. Spalding accomplished more than any of the mission- 
aries. This may be accounted for in some part by the superior characters and 
minds of the Nez Perces, among whom he was so fortunate as to have cast his 
lot. They seem to have been of the best Indian type, while the Cayuses in the 
vicinity of Waiilatpu were turbulent, treacherous, and unreliable. 

Doctor Whitman was a man of powerful physique and familiar from boy- 
hood with the practical duties of farm and mill. He could turn his hand to 
almost anything in the way of construction. The same was true of Mr. Gray, 
who spent part of his tim.e at Waiilatpu and part at Lapwai, though he returned 
in 1837 to the east in search of new helpers. But within a few months the Whit- 
mans were comfortably housed, and every year saw some improvement about the 
buildings and land. Seed for grain, and fruit trees were secured at \^ancouver, 
and stock was provided also. The Waiilatpu farm consisted of a fertile belt of 
bottom land of about three hundred acres between the Walla Walla River and 
Mill Creek, with an unlimited range of low hill and bench land covered with 
bunch-grass, which furnished the finest of stock feed almost the whole year 
round. Doctor Whitman was himself a practical millwright and soon had a small 
sawmill equipped about twenty miles up Mill Creek, while adjoining the mission 
house he laid out a mill dam, the lines of which can still be seen. The water for 
the mill pond was supplied from Mill Creek by a ditch which followed nearly 
the course of the ditch of the present time. The mill was a grist mill and located 
at the western side of the pond, and within a few steps of the mission house and 
the "mansion," as they called the large log building erected a few years after 
their arrival for the accommodation of the frequent visitors, especially after 


American immigrants began to come. Toiling incessantly, the missionary doctor 
and hero was rewarded by seeing his mission Drought in a surprisingly brief time 
to a condition of profitable cultivation. T. J. Farnham, who came with the so- 
called "Peoria parly" in 1839, says of Whitman's place: "I found 250 acres 
enclosed and 200 acres in good cultivation. I found forty or fifty Indian children 
between the ages of seven and eighteen years in school, and Mrs. Whitman an 
indefatigable instructor. It appeared to me quite remarkable that the doctor 
could have made so many improvements since the year 1836; but the industry 
which crowded every hour of the day, his untiring energy of character, and the 
very efficient aid of his wife in relieving him in a great degree from the labors 
of the school, enabled him, without funds for such purposes, and without other 
aid than that of a fellow-missionary for short intervals, to fence, plow, build, 
plant an orchard, and do all the other laborious acts of opening a plantation on 
the face of that distant wilderness, learn an Indian language, and do the duties, 
meanwhile, of a physician to the associate stations on the Clearwater and Spo- 
kane." Joseph Drayton of the Wilkes Exploring Expedition of the United States 
Navy, visited Waiilatpu in 1841. He says of the mission: "All the premises 
looked comfortable, the garden especially fine, vegetables and melons in great 
\ariety. The wheat in the fields was seven feet high and nearly ripe, and the 
corn nine feet in the tassel." Had not Doctor Whitman possessed great physical 
strength, as well as determination and energ}', he could not have endured the 
excessive toil which was the price of his rapid progress. Senator Nesmith, who 
came to Oregon in the immigration of 1843, said in the hearing of the author of 
this work: "Whitman had a constitution like a sawmill." Another old timer 
said of him that he had the energy of a Napoleon. Some old timer has said that 
Whitman used to ride in a day to the present site of Lewiston, from Waiilatpu, 
about ninety miles. He would do it by changing horses several times. He was 
hard on horses, and when someone remonstrated on the ground of cruelty, the 
doctor replied : "My time is worth more than the horse's comfort." 

As has been stated, Mr. W. H. Gray went east in 1857 for reinforcements. 
The next year he came again to Oregon with a valuable addition. Besides the 
addition to his own life of a bride, Mary Dix (who was one of the choice spirits 
of Old Oregon, and during many years a center of life and light in the new 
country) there were three missionaries, each also with a newly-wed wife. These 
were Revs. Elkanah Walker, Gushing Eells, and A. B. Smith. Mr. Cornelius 
Rogers accompanied the party. Reaching Walla Walla, the new arrivals were 
assigned to new stations, Messrs. Eells and Walker to Tschimakain, near the 
present City of Spokane, while Mr. Smith went to Kamiah, about sixty miles 
east of the present site of Lewiston. Mr. Rogers and the Grays went to Lapwai. 
There seem never to have been more faithful and devoted missionaries than 
were these of the four missions of Waiilatpu, Lapwai, Tschimakain, and Kamiah. 
Yet, it could not be said that they were successful in turning any considerable 
number of natives to Christianity. The Nez Perces at Lapwai and other stations 
established by Mr. Spalding, notably the one at Alpowa, were most amenable to 
Christian influences, while the Cayuses in the Walla Walla Valley were least so. 
In contemplation of the apparently scanty progress, the Missionary Board at 
Boston decided to discontinue the missions at Waiilatpu and Lapwai, to dis- 


charge Messrs. Spalding, Gray, Smith, and Rogers, and to send Doctor Whitman 
to the Spokane country. 

While these difficulties were harassing the missionaries, very important events 
were taking place in national life. The slavery and the tariff questions had be- 
come firebrands in domestic fKjlitics. The questions of annexation of Texas, of 
the occupation of Oregon, of possible trouble with Mexico over the former, and 
with England over the latter, were threatening corresponding chaos in foreign 
affairs. Doctor Whitman, reticent and sagacious, saw clearly that his chosen aim 
of leading the natives to civilization and Christianity was rapidly sinking in im- 
portance in comparison with the question of the white race in the new land, and of 
the ownership of this great region. In 1842 the Ashburton treaty with England 
settled the Northeastern boundary and the supposition was that it would also 
settle the Oregon question. But when the treaty was signed on August 9th, it 
appeared that the question of Oregon was left unsettled. In a message of August 
nth. President Tyler explained to the Senate that so little probability of agree- 
ment existed that it was thought not expedient to make that subject a matter of 

W'hile the Ashburton treaty was pending, the first real immigration, though a 
small one of 112 persons, came to Oregon. In it, among several of the most 
notable of the old Oregonians, was A. L. Lovejoy, a young New England lawyer, 
a man of energy and ambition, destined to play a conspicuous part in Oregon 
history. When the party reached Whitman's Station on the Walla Walla, they 
delivered to him letters from the United States' and discussed with him the pend- 
ing treaty and the danger that it might dra\y' me fine so. as to leave Oregon to 
Great Britain, or at least to make the Columbia River- the boundary, placing the 
entire Puget Sound Basin and the mountains and plains eastward to the river in 
possession of Great Britain. Seeing the imminence of the danger. Whitman 
determined upon a supreme effort. He decided to make a mid-winter journey 
East with three aims in view : to present to the Government the situation and the 
vital need of preserving Oregon for the United States ; to try to aid in forming and 
guiding an immigration to Oregon; and to settle affairs of the mission with the 
Board at Boston. He asked Lovejoy to go with him. It looked like a desperate 
undertaking, but Lovejoy, an athletic, ambitious young man, agreed to go. 

At this point comes in the bitterly disputed "Whitman Controversy." It is 
not within the scope of this work to undertake an argumentative treatment of this 
question. The question at issue, if rationally considered, is rather the extent of 
the services of Doctor Whitman in "saving Oregon to the United States." Mrs. 
F. V. Victor, Elwood Evans, Prof. E. G. Bourne, and Principal W. I. Marshall 
have, more than others, presented arguments in favor of the contention that 
Doctor Whitman had no important part to play in the great political drama of 
Oregon, while the claim that he had large political aims and bore a conspicuous 
part in influencing the final result has been supported in books written by Dr. O. 
W. Nixon, Rev. William Barrows, Prof. William Mowry, and Rev. Myron Eells. 
The final book by the last named, the "Life of Marcus Whitman," is, in the judg- 
ment of the writer, the final and unanswered and indeed unanswerable word on 
the subject. The author of this history has given in the Washhigton Historical 
Ouarferly of April, 1917, his reasons for thinking the statements of Professors 
Bourne and Marshall inaccurate and their arguments inconclusive. The fact 


acknowledged tiy all is that Whitman made a ride during the fall and winter of 
1842 and succeeding months of 1843, which for daring, heroism, and fortitude 
has few parallels in history. The question of controversy is, what did he make 
such a journey for? His critics say that it was in consequence of the decision 
of the Missionary Board to discontinue his mission on the Walla Walla. Mrs. 
Victor and Principal Marshall are the only ones among these critics who have 
achieved the distinction of attributing base or selfish motives to Whitman. They 
have held forth the idea that he, foreseeing the incoming of immigrants, wanted 
to maintain the station at Waiilatpu in order to raise vegetables and other supplies 
to sell at a high price. Whether a motive of that .sort would lead a man of 
Whitman's type to take that desperate ride in mid-winter through the Rocky 
Mountains, at peril of life a dozen times over from Indians, freezing, and starva- 
tion, is a question which different people would view differently, according to 
their way of estimating the motives which determine men's actions. Perhaps 
people whose estimate of human nature, based possibly on their own inner con- 
sciousness of motives, is that selfish gain is the leading motive, would agree that 
the hope of cornering the vegetable market at Waiilatpu was an adequate cause 
of Whitman's ride. To some people it would seem likely that the mainspring 
of his action was some great national and patriotic aim and that while he wished 
to maintain the mission, his great aim was to convince the Government of the 
value of Oregon and to help organize an immigration which would settle the 
ownership of Oregon in favor of his country. At any rate, he went. That much 
is undisputed. 

Practically the only account of that memorable mid-winter ride from Waiilatpu 
to St. Louis is from A. L. Lovejoy, the sole white companion of Whitman. 
Whitman himself was, like most heroes, a man of few words. He told various 
friends something of his experiences in Washington and Boston, and told to asso- 
ciates and wrote a few letters to friends about the immigration of 1843, but he 
seems to have been very reticent about the "Ride." Mr. Lovejoy wrote two let- 
ters about that journey, one dated November 6, 1869, which is found in W. H. 
Gray's History of Oregon, and one addressed to Dr. G. H. Atkinson and used by 
him in an address on February 22, 1876. This letter so vividly portrays the char- 
acter of this undertaking as it comes from the only witness besides Whitman 
himself, that we deem it suitable to incorporate it here. 

"We left Waiilatpu October 3, 1842, traveled rapidly, reached Fort Hall in 
eleven days, remained two days to recruit and make a few purchases. The doctor 
engaged a guide, and we left the Fort Uinte. We changed from a direct route to 
one more southern, through the country, via Salt Lake, Taos and Santa 
Fe. On our way from Fort Hall to Fort Uinte we had terribly severe weather. 
The snows retarded our progress and blinded the trail, so we lost much time. 
After arriving at Fort Uintfe, and making some purchases for our trip, we took 
a new guide and started for Fort Uncumpagra, situated on the waters of Grand 
River, in the Spanish country. Here our stay was very short. We took a new 
guide and started for Taos. After being out some four or five days we encoun- 
tered a terrific snowstorm, which forced us to seek shelter in a deep ravine, where 
we remained snowed in for four days, at which time the storm had somewhat 
abated, and we attempted to make our way out upon the highlands, but the .snow 
was so deep and the winds so piercing and cold, we were compelled to return to 


camp and wait a few days for a change of weather. Our next effort to reach the 
highlands was more successful; but, after spending several days wandering 
around in the snow without making much headway, our guide told us that the 
deep snow had so changed the face of the country that he was completely lost 
and could take us no further. This was a terrible blow to the doctor, but he was 
determined not to give it up without another effort. 

"We at once agreed that the doctor should take the guide and return to Fort 
Uncumpagra and get a new guide, and I remain in camp with the animals until 
he could return, which he did in seven days with our new guide, and we were 
now on our route again. Nothing of much import occurred but hard and slow 
travehng through deep snow until we reached Grand River, which was frozen on 
either side about one-third across. Although so intensely cold, the current was 
so very rapid that about one-third of the river in the center was not frozen. Our 
guide thought it would be dangerous to attempt to cross the river in its present 
condition, but the doctor, nothing daunted, was the first to take the water. He 
mounted his horse; the guide and myself shoved the doctor and his horse off 
the ice into the foaming stream. Away he went, completely under water, horse 
and all, but directly came up, and after buffeting the rapid foaming current, he 
reached the ice on the opposite shore a long way down the stream. He leaped 
from his horse upon the ice and soon had his noble animal by his side. The guide 
and myself forced in the pack animals, and followed the doctor's example, and 
were soon on the opposite shore, drying our frozen clothes by a comfortable fire. 
We reached Taos in about thirty days, having suffered greatly from cold and 
scarcity of provisions. We were compelled to use mule meat, dogs and such 
other animals as came in our reach. We remained at Taos a few days only, and 
started for Bent's and Savery's Fort, on the head waters of the Arkansas River. 
When we had been out some fifteen or twenty days we met George Bent, a 
brother of Governor Bent, on his way to Taos. He told us that a party of moun- 
tain men would leave Bent's Fort in a few days for St. Louis, but said we would 
not reach the fort with our pack animals in time to join the party. The doctor, 
being very anxious to join the party so he could push on as rapidly as possible to 
Washington, concluded to leave myself and guide with the animals, and he him- 
self, taking the best animal, with some bedding and a small allowance of pro- 
vision, started alone, hoping by rapid travel to reach the fort in time to join the 
St. Louis party, but to do so he would have to travel on the Sabbath, something 
we had not done before. Myself and guide traveled on slowly and reached the 
fort in four days, but imagine our astonishment when on making inquiry about 
the doctor we were told that he had not arrived nor had he been heard of. I 
learned that the party for St. Louis was camped at the Big Cottonwood, forty 
miles from the fort, and at my request Mr. Savery sent an express, telling the 
party not to proceed any farther until we learned something of Doctor Whitman's 
whereabouts, as he wished to accompany them to St. Louis. Being furnished 
by the gentleman of the fort with a suitable guide, I started in search of the 
doctor, and traveled up the river about one hundred miles. I learned from the 
Indians that a man had been there who was lost and was trying to find Bent's 
Fort. They said they had directed him to go down the river and how to find 
the fort. I knew from their description it was the doctor. I returned to the fort 


as rapidly as possible, bul the doctor had not arrived. We had all become very 
anxious about him. 

"Late in the afternoon he came in very much fatigued and desponding; said 
that lie knew that (iod had bewildered him to punish him for traveling on the 
Sabbath. During the whole trip he was very regular in his morning and evenmg 
devotions, and that was the only time I ever knew him to travel on the Sabbath. 

"The doctor remained all night at the fort, starting only on the following 
morning to join the St. Louis party. Here we parted. The doctor proceeded to 
Washington. I remained at Bent's Fort until spring, and joined the doctor the 
following July near Fort Laramie, on his way to Oregon, in company with a train 
of emigrants." 

In the life of Whitman by Myron Hells, there is a summary of the events 
which immediately followed, so well adapted to our purpose that we quote it here 
as resting upon the authority of Mr. Eells, whom we regard as a writer of un- 
doubted candor and accuracy. 

"When Doctor Whitman arrived at St. Louis he made his home at the house 
of Doctor Edward Hale, a dentist. In the same house was William Barrows, then 
a young school teacher, afterward a clergyman and author of Barrows' 'Oregon.' 

"Reaching Cincinnati, he went to the house of Doctor Weed. Here, accord- 
ing to Professor Weed, he obtained a new suit of clothes, but whether he wore 
them all the time until he left the East or not is a question. Some writers speak 
of him as appearing in buckskins, or something akin to them, afterwards both at 
Washington and Boston. Some, as Dr. S. J. Parker, say he was not so dressed. 
It is just barely possible that both may be true — that he kept his buckskins and 
buffalo coat and occasionally wore them. It is quite certain that he did not throw 
them away, as according to accounts he wore his buckskins in returning to Oregon 
the next summer. 

"The next visit on record was at Ithaca, New York, at the home of his old 
missionary friend and fellow traveler, Rev. Samuel Parker. Here, after the sur- 
prise of his arrival was over, he said to Mr. Parker : 'I have come on a very 
important errand. We must both go at once to Washington, or Oregon is lost, 
ceded to the English.' Mr. Parker, however, did not think the danger to be so 
great, and not for lack of interest in the subject, but because of other reasons, did 
not go. Doctor Whitman went alone, and reached Washington. 

"The doctor, or his brother, had been a classmate of the Secretary of War, 
James M. Porter. Through him the doctor obtained an introduction to Daniel 
Webster, then Secretary of State, with whom he talked about Oregon and the 
saving of it to the United States, but Mr. Webster received him very coolly, and 
told him it was too late, as far as he was concerned, for he had considered it, 
decided it, and turned it over to the President, who could sign Oregon away or 
refuse to do so. Accordingly Doctor Whitman went to President Tyler, and 
for some time they talked about Oregon. Even the Cabinet were called together, 
it is said, and an evening was spent on the subject. The objection was made that 
wagons could never be taken to Oregon and that consequently the country could 
never be peopled overland by emigrants, while the distance around Cape Horn 
was altogether too great to think of taking settlers to the country that way. In 
reply to this. Doctor Whitman told of the great value of the country and of his 
plans to lead an emigration through with their wagons the next summer. He 



stated that he had taken a wagon into Oregon six years before to Fort Boise, that 
others had taken one from Fort Hall to Walla Walla, and that with his present 
knowledge, having been over the route twice, he was sure he could take the 
emigrant wagons through to the Columbia. The President then said that he 
would wait, before carrying the negotiations any further, luitil he could hear 
whether Doctor Whitman should succeed, and if he should there would be no 
more thought of trading off Oregon. This satisfied the doctor. 

"He then went to New York to see Mr. Horace Greeley, who was known to 
be a friend of Oregon. He went there dressed in his rough clothes, much the 
same that he wore across the continent. When he knocked at the door a lady 
came, Mrs. Greeley or a daughter, who, on seeing such a rough-looking person, 
said to his inquiries for Mr. Greeley, 'Not at home.' Doctor Whitman started 
away. She went and told Mr. Greeley about him and Mr. Greeley, who was of 
much the same style and cared but little for appearances, looked out of the win- 
dow, and seeing him going away, said to call him in. It was done, and they had 
a long talk about this Northwest Coast and its political relations. 

"From New York Doctor Whitman went to Boston, where the officers of the 
American Board at first received him coldly, because he had left his station for 
the East without permission from them, on business so foreign to that which he 
had been sent to Oregon to accomplish. Afterwards, however, they treated him 
more cordially. 

"From Boston he went to New York State Then taking 
with him his nephew, Perrin B. Whitman, %; bade -them, good-by and left for 
Missouri. While there he did all he could teinduc-ei people to join the emigration 
for Oregon, then went with the emigration, assisting the guide. Captain Gantt, 
until they reached Fort Hall, and aiding the emigrants -very materially. Fort 
Hall was as far as Captain Gantt had agreed- to ^rde' them, and from that place 
Doctor Whitman guided them or furnished an Indian guide, so that the emigrants 
reached the Columbia River safely with their wagons." 

The incoming of the immigration of 1843 was a determining factor in the set- 
tlement of the Oregon question. There can be no question that Doctor Whitman 
performed a conspicuous service in organizing and leading that immigration. 
It is true, however, that many influences combined to draw that company of 
frontiersmen to the border of civilization and to give them the common purpose 
of the great march across the wilderness. The leading motives perhaps were 
the desire first to acquire land in what they thought would prove a paradise and 
second to carry the American flag across the continent and secure ownership of 
the Pacific Coast for their country. Perhaps no one ever so well expressed the 
mingled motives of that advance guard of American possession as did James W. 
Nesmith, father of Mrs. Levi Ankeny of Walla Walla, who was himself a mem- 
ber of the immigration and later became one of the conspicuous builders of 
Oregon and of the nation. Senator Nesmith's account is as follows, given in an 
address at a meeting of the Oregon Pioneer Association : 

"Without orders from any quarter, and without preconcert, promptly as the 
grass began to start, the emigrants began to assemble near Independence, at a 
place called Fitzhugh's Mill. On the 17th day of May, 1843, notices were circu- 
lated through the different encampments that on the succeeding day, those who 
contemplated emigrating to Oregon would meet at a designated point to organize. 


Promptly at the appointed hour the motley groups assembled. They consisted of 
people from all the States and Territories, and nearly all nationalities; the most, 
however, from Arkansas, Illinois, ^Missouri and Iowa, and all strangers to one 
another, but impressed with some crude idea that there existed an imperative 
necessity for some kind of an organization for mutual protection against the 
hostile Indians inhabiting the great unknown wilderness stretching away to the 
shores of the Pacihc, and which they were about to traverse with their wives and 
children, household goods, and all their earthly possessions. 

"Many of the emigrants were from the western tier of counties of Missouri, 
known as the Platte Purchase, and among them was Peter H. Burnett, a former 
merchant, who had abandoned the yardstick and become a lawyer of some 
celebrity for his ability as a smooth-tongued advocate. He subsequently emi- 
grated to California, and was elected the first Governor of the Golden State, was 
afterward Chief Justice, and still an honored resident of that state. Mr. Burnett, 
or. as he was familiarly designated, 'Pete,' was called upon for a speech. Mount- 
ing a log, the glib-tongued orator delivered a glowing, florid address. He com- 
menced by showing his audience that the then western tier of states and terri- 
tories was overcrowded with a redundant population, who had not sufficient 
elbow room for the expansion of their enterprise and genius, and it was a duty 
they ow-ed to themselves and posterity to strike out in search of a more expanded 
field and more genial climate, where the soil yielded the richest returns for the 
slightest amount of cultivation, where the trees were loaded with perennial fruit, 
and where a good substitute for bread, called 'La Camash,' grew in the ground, 
salmon and other fish crowded the streams, and where the principal labor of the 
settler would be confined to keeping their gardens free from the inroads of buf- 
falo, elk, deer and wild turkeys. He appealed to our patriotism by picturing forth 
the glorious empire we would establish on the shores of the Pacific. How, with 
our trusty rifles, we would drive out the British usurpers who claimed the soil, 
and defend the country from the avarice and pretensions of the British lion, and 
how posterity would honor us for placing the fairest portion of our land under the 
dominion of the Stars and Stripes. He concluded with a slight allusion to the 
trials and hardships incident to the trip, and dangers to be encountered from 
hostile Indians on the route, and tliose inhabiting the country whither we w-ere 
bound. He furthermore intimated a desire to look upon the tribe of noble 'red 
men' that the valiant and well-armed crowd around him could not vanquish in a 
single encounter. 

"Other speeches were made, full of glowing descriptions of the fair land of 
jjromise, the far-away Oregon, which no one in the assemblage had ever seen, 
and of which not more than half a dozen had ever read any account. After the 
election of Mr. Burnett as captain, and other necessary officers, the meeting, as 
motley and primitive a one as ever assembled, adjourned, w-ith 'three cheers' for 
Captain Burnett and Oregon. On the 20th of Alay, 1843, after a pretty thorough 
military organization, we took up our line of march, with Captain John Gantt, an 
old army officer, who combined the character of trapper and mountaineer, as our 
guide. Gantt had in his wanderings been as far as Green River, and assured us 
of the practicability of a wagon road thus far. Green River, the extent of our 
guide's knowledge in that direction, was not half-way to the Willamette Valley, 
then the only inhabited portion of Oregon. Beyond that we had not the slightest 


conjecture of the condition of the country. We went forth trusting to the future, 
and would doubtless have encountered more difficulties than we experienced had 
not Doctor Whitman overtaken tis before we reached the terminus of our guide's 
knowledge. He was familiar with the whole route and was confident that wagons 
could pass through the caiions and gorges of Snake River and over the Blue 
Mountains, which the movmtaineers in the vicinity of Fort Hall declared to be a 
physical impossibility. 

"Captain Grant, then in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company at Fort Hall, 
endeavored to dissuade us from proceeding farther with our wagons, and showed 
us the wagons that the emigrants of the preceding year had abandoned, as an 
evidence of the impracticability of our determination. Doctor Whitman was per- 
sistent in his assertions that wagons could proceed as far as the Grand Dalles of 
the Columbia River, from which point he asserted they could be taken down by 
rafts or batteaux to the Willamette Valley, while our stock could be driven by an 
Indian trail over the Cascade Mountains, near Mount Hood. Happily Whitman's 
advice prevailed, and a large number of the wagons with a portion of the stock 
did reach Walla Walla and The Dalles, from which points they were taken to 
the Willamette the following year. Had we followed Grant's advice and aban- 
doned the cattle and wagons at Fort Hall, much suffering must have ensued, as 
a sufficient number of horses to carry the women and children of the party could 
not have been obtained, besides wagons and cattle were indispensable to men 
expecting to live by farming in a country destitute of such articles. 

"At Fort Hall we fell in with some Cayuse and Nez Perce Indians returning 
from the buffalo country, and as it was necessary for Doctor Whitman to precede 
us to Walla Walla, he recommended to us a guide in the person of an old Cayuse 
Indian called 'Sticcus.' He was a faithful old fellow, perfectly familiar with all 
the trails and topography of the country from Fort Hall to The Dalles, and, 
although not speaking a word of English, and no one in our party a word of 
Cayuse, he succeeded by pantomime in taking us over the roughest wagon route I 
ever saw." 

In that immigration were nearly a thousand persons, among them several 
families whose members and descendants have borne honorable parts in building 
the region of Old Walla Walla County and the part of Umatilla County adjoin- 
ing, in Oregon. In the belief that among the readers of this work may be many 
now living in the counties covered by this story, who can trace their ancestry 
to the blood royal of that great immigration and that a list of its names would 
have a permanent value in such a record as this, we incorporate here a list of 
the names of all the male members of the train over sixteen years of age, as 
secured by J. W. Nesmith at the time of the organization of the train. His list 
included some who turned back or went to California, or died on the way. We 
quote from the "History of the Willamette Valley," by H. B. Lang: 

"The following list contains the names of every male member of that great 
train over the age of sixteen years. It was prepared by J. W. Nesmith when the 
train was organized, and was preserved among his papers for a third of a century 
before given for publication. All reached the Willamette Valley, except a few, 
the exceptions being designated by marks and foot-notes : 



Applegate, Jesse 
Applegate, Charles 
Applegate, Lindsay 
Athey, James 
Athey, William 
Atkinson, John * 
Arthur, Wm. 
Arthur, Robert 
Arthur, David 
Butler, Amon 
Brooke, George 
Burnett, Peter H. 
Bird, David 
Brown, Thomas A. 
Blevins, Alexander 
Brooks, John P. 
Brown, Martin 
Brown, Oris 
Black, J. P. 
Bane, Layton 
Baker, Andrew 
Baker, John G. 
Beagle, William 
Boyd, Levy 
Baker, William 
Biddle, Nicholas J 
Beale, George 
Braidy, James 
Beadle, George 
Boardman, — * 
Baldridge, Wm. 
Cason, F. C. 
Cason, James 
Chapman, Wm. 
Cox, John 
Champ, Jacob 
Cooper, L. C. 
Cone, James 
Childers, Moses 
Carey, Miles 
Cochran, Thomas 
Clymour, L. 
Copenhaver, John 
Caton, J. H. 
Chappel, Alfred 

Cronin, Daniel 
Cozine, Samuel 
Costable, Benedict 
Childs, Joseph * 
Clark, Ransom 
Campbell, John G. 


Chase, James 
Dodd, Solomon 
Dement, Wm. C. 
Dougherty, W. P. 
Day, William f 
Duncan, James 
Dorin, Jacob 
Davis, Thomas 
Delany, Daniel 
Delany, Daniel, Jr. 
Delany, William 
Doke, William 
Davis, J. H. 
Davis, Burrell 
Dailey, George 
Doherty, John 

Dawson, * 

Eaton, Charles 
Eaton, Nathan 
Etchell, James 
Emerick, Solomon 
Eaker, John W. 
Edson, E. G. 
Eyres, Miles f 
East, John W. 
Everman, Niniwon 
Ford, Nineveh 
Ford, Ephriam 
Ford, Nimrod 
Ford, John 
Francis, Alexander 
Frazier, Abner 
Frazier, Wm. 
Fowler, Wm. 
Fowler, Wm. J. 
Fowler, Henry 
Fairly. Stephen 
Fendall, Charles 

Gantt, John * 
Gray, Chiley B. 
Garrison, Enoch 
Garrison, J. W. 
Garrison, W. J. 
Gardner, Samuel 
Gardner, Wm. 
Gilmore, Mat 
Goodman, Richard 
Gilpin, Major 


Haggard, B. 
Hide, H. H. 
Holmes, Wm. 
Holmes, Riley A. 
Hobson, John 
Hobson, Wm. 
Hembree, Andrew 
Hembree, J. J. 
Hembree, James 
Hembree, A. J. 
Hall, Samuel B. 
Houk, James 
Hughes, Wm. P. 
Hendrick, Abijah 
Hays, James 
Hensley, Thomas J. * 
Holley, B. 
Hunt, Henry 
Holderness, S. M. 
Hutchins, Isaac 
Husted. A. 
Hess, Joseph 
Haun, Jacob 
Howell, John 
Howell, Wm. 
Howell, Wesley 
Howell, G. W. 
Howell, Thomas E. 
Hill, Henry 
Hill, William 
Hill, Almoran 
Hewett, Henry 
Hargrove, Wm. 
Hoyt, A. 

* Turned off at Fort Hall and went to California. 

t Died on the route. 

t Turned back at the Platte. 



Holman, John 
Holman, Daniel 
Harrigas, B. 
James, Calvin 
Jackson, John B. 
Jones, John 
Johnson, Overton 
Keyser, Thomas 
Keyser, J. B. 
Keyser, Plasant 



Lovejoy, A. L. 
Lenox, Edward 
Lenox, E. 
Layson, Aaron 
Looney, Jesse 
Long, John E. 
Lee, H. A. G. 
Lugur, F. i 
Linebarger, Lew 
Linebarger, John 
Laswell, Isaac 
Loughborough, J. i. 
Little, Milton * 


Lauderdale, John 

McGee, * 

Martin, Wm. J.* 
Martin, James 
Martin, Julius f 
McClelland. * 

McClelland, F.* 
Mills, John B. 
Mills, Isaac 
Mills, Wm. A. 
Mills, Owen 
McGarey, G. W. 
Mondon, Gilbert 
Matheny, Daniel 
Matheny, Adam 
Matheny, Josiah 
Matheny, Henry 
Matheny, J. N. 

McHaley, John 
Myers, Jacob 
Manning, John 
Manning, James 
McCarver, M. M. 
McCorcle, George 
Mays, William 
Millican, Elijah 
McDaniel, William 
McKissic, D. 
Malone, Madison 
McClane, John B. 
Mauzee, William 
Mclntire, John * 
Moore, Jackson f 
Matney, W. J. 
Nesmith, J. W. 
Newby, W. T. 
Newman, Noah 
Naylor, Thomas 
Osborn, Neil 
O'Brien, Hugh D. 
O'Brien, Humphrey 
Owen, Thomas A. 
Owen, Thomas 
Otie, E. W. 
Otie, M. B. 
O'Neil, Bennett 
OHnger, A. 
Parker, Jesse 
Parker, William 
Pennington, J. B. 
Poe, R. H. 
Paynter, Samuel 
Patterson, J. R. 
Pickett, Charles E. 
Prigg, Frederick 
Paine, Clayborn f 
Reading, P. B.* 
Rodgers, S. P. 
Rodgers, G. W. 
Russell, William 
Roberts, James 
Rice. G. W. 
Richardson. John 

Richardson, Daniel f 
Ruby, Philip 
Ricord, John 
Reid, Jacob 
Roe, John 
Roberts, Solomon 
Roberts, Emseley 
Rossin, Joseph 
Rivers, Thomas 
Smith, Thomas H. 
Smith, Thomas 
Smith, Isaac W. 
Smith, Anderson 
Smith, Ahi 
Smith, Robert 
Smith, Eli 
Sheldon, William 
Stewart, P. G. 
Sutton, Dr. Nathan'l 
Stimmerman, C. 
Sharp, C. 
Summers, W. C. 
Sewell, Henry 
Stout, Henry 
Sterling, George 



Mastire, A. J. 

♦Turned off at Fort Hall and went to California. 
t Died on the route. 
{Turned back at the Platte. 

Story. James 


Shively, John M. 
Shirly, Samuel 
Stoughton, Alex 
Spencer, Chancey 
Strait, Hiram 
Summers, George 
Stringer, Cornelius 
Stringer, C. W.f 
Tharp, Lindsey 
Thompson, John 
Trainor, D. 
Teller, Jeremiah 
Tarbox, Stephen 
Umnicker, John 
Vance, Samuel 
Vaughn, William 



\ enion, George 
\\ iliiiont, James 
Wilson, Win. LL 
Wair, J. W. 
Winkle, Archibald 
Williams, Edward 
Wheeler, H. 
W'asjoner, John 

Williams, Benjamin 
W illiams, David 
Wilson, Wm. 
Williams, John * 
Williams, James * 
Williams, Squire * 
Williams, Isaac * 
Ward, T. B. 

White, James 
Watson, John ( Betty) 
Waters, James 
Winter, William 
Waldo, Daniel 
W^aldo, David 
Zachary, Alexander 
Zachary, John 

"There were in Oregon at the time the train arrived the following in- 
dividuals, a few names, possibly, having been omitted from the list, and the list 
not including the various missionaries named elsewhere : 

Armstrong, Pleasant 
lUirns, Hugh 


Brown, William 


Black, J. M. 

Balis, James 
Bailey, Dr. 
Brainard, — 

Crawford, Medorem 
Carter, David 
Campbell, Samuel 
Campbell, Jack 
Craig, Wm. 
Cook, Amos 
Cook, Aaron 


Cannon, William 
Davy, Allen 
Doty, William 
Eakin, Richard 
Ebbetts, Squire 
Edwards, John 
Foster, Philip 
Force, John 
Force, James 
Fletcher, Francis 
Gay, George 
Gale, Joseph 


Hathaway, Felix 
Hatch, Peter H. 
Hubbard, Thomas J 
Hewitt, Adam 
Horegon. Jeremiah 
Holman, Joseph 
Hall, David 
Hoxhurst, Weberly 


Johnson, William 



Lewis, Reuben 
Le Breton, G. W. 
Larrison, Jack 
Meek, Joseph L. 
Matthieu, F. X. 
McClure, John 
Moss, S. W. 
Moore, Robert 


McCarty, William 
McKay, Charles 
McKay, Thomas 
McKay, William C. 


Alack, J. W. 

Newell, Robert 

O'Neil, James A. 
Pettygrove, F. W. 
Pomeroy, Dwight 
Pomeroy, Walter 


Rimmick, ■ 

Russell, Osborn 
Robb, J. R. 
Shortess, Robert 
Smith, Sidney 

Smith, • 

Smith, Andrew 
Smith, Andrew, Jr. 
Smith, Darling 


Sailor, Jack 
Turnham, Joel 
Turner, John 
Taylor, Hiram 
Tibbetts, Calvin 


Walker, C. M. 
Warner, Jack 
Wilson, A. E. 
Winslow, David 
Wilkins, Caleb 
Wood, Henry 
Williams, B. 

The men in these lists, with their families, constituted the population of 
Oregon in 1S43, aside from the Hudson's Bay Company people. 

Doctor Whitman himself wrote several valuable letters referring to the 

* Turned off at Fort Hall and went to California. 


immigration of 1843. The most important of these was one to the Secretary of 
War, inclosing a proposed bill for a line of forts across the plains to defend 
immigrations. This letter has such an important bearing on the whole story of 
Whitman and his connection with the immigration and the acquisition of Oregon 
that it is incorporated here. And we would submit to the reader the difficulty 
which any candid critic would experience in examining this letter and then deny- 
ing Whitman's part in "saving Oregon to the United States." Whitman's letter 
was found among the files of the War Department, with the following endorse- 

"Marcus Whitman inclosing synopsis of a bill, with his views in reference to 
importance of the Oregon Territory, War. 383 — rec. June 22, 1844." 

Portions of the letter follow: 
"To the Hon. James M. Porter, 
Secretary of War. 

"Sir: In compliance with the request you did me the honor to make last 
winter, while in Washington, I herewith transmit to you the synopsis of a bill 
which, if it could be adopted, would, according to my experience and observation, 
prove highly conducive to the best interests of the United States generally, to 
Oregon, where I have resided for more than seven years as a missionary, and 
to the Indian tribes that inhabit the immediate country. The Government will 
now, doubtless for the first time, be apprised through you, or by means of this 
communication, of the immense immigration of families to Oregon which has 
taken place this year. I have, since our interview, been instrumental in piloting 
across the route described in the accompanying bill, and which is the only eligible 
wagon road, no less than three hundred families, consisting of one thousand per- 
sons of both sexes, with their wagons, amounting to 120, 694 oxen, and ']']2i loose 

"The emigrants are from different states, but principally from Missouri, 
Arkansas, Illinois and New York. The majority of them are farmers, lured by 
the prospect of bounty in lands, by the reported fertility of the soil, and by the 
desire to be first among those who are planting our institutions on the Pacific 
Coast. Among them are artisans of every trade, comprising, with farmers, the 
very best material for a new colony. As pioneers, these people have undergone 
incredible hardships, and having now safely passed the Blue Mountain Range 
with their wagons and efifects, have established a durable road from Missouri to 
Oregon, which will serve to mark permanently the route of larger numbers each 
succeeding year, while they have practically demonstrated that wagons drawn by 
horses or oxen can cross the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, contrary 
to all the sinister assertions of all those who pretended it to be impossible. 

"In their slow progress, these persons have encountered, as in all former in- 
stances, and as all succeeding emigrants must, if this or some similar bill be not 
passed by Congress, the continual fear of Indian aggression, the actual loss 
through them of horses, cattle and other property, and the great labor of trans- 
porting an adequate amount of provisions for so long a journey. The bill here- 
with proposed would, in a great measure, lessen these inconveniences by the 
establishment of posts, which, while having the possessed power to keep the 
Indians in check, thus doing away with the necessity of military vigilance on the 


part of the traveler by day and night, would be able to furnish them in transit 
with fresh supplies of provisions, diminishing the original burdens of the emi- 
grants, and finding thus a ready and profitable market for their produce — a market 
that would, in my opinion, more than suffice to defray all the current expenses of 
such pKDsts. The present party is supposed to have expended no less than $2,000 
at Laramie's and Bridger's Forts, and as much more at Fort Hall and Fort Boise, 
two of the Hudson's Bay Company's stations. These are at present the only stop- 
ping places in a journey of 2,200 miles, and the only place where additional su\>- 
plies can be obtained, even at the enormous rate of charge, called mountain 
prices, i. e., $50 the hundred for flour and $50 the hundred for coffee ; the same 
for sugar, powder, etc. 

"Many cases of sickness and some deaths took place among those who accom- 
plished the journey this season, owing, in a great measure, to the uninterrupted use' 
of meat, salt and fresh, with flour, which constitute the chief articles of food 
they are able to convey on their wagons, and this could be obviated by the 
vegetable productions which the posts in contemplation could very profitably 
afford them. Those who rely on hunting as an auxiliary support, are at present 
unable to have their arms repaired when out of order; horses and oxen become 
tender-footed and require to be shod on this long journey, sometimes repeatedly, 
and the wagons repaired in a variety of ways. I mention these as valuable in- 
cidents to the proposed measure, as it will also be found to tend in many other 
incidental ways to benefit the migratory population of the United States choosing 
to take this direction, and on these accounts, as well as for the immediate use of 
the posts themselves, they ought to be provided with the necessary shops and 
mechanics, which would at the same time exhibit the several branches of civilized 
art to the Indians. 

"The outlay in the first instance would be but trifling. Forts like those of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, surrounded by walls enclosing all the buildings, and 
constructed almost entirely of adobe, or sun-dried bricks, with stone foundations 
only, can be easily and cheaply erected. * * * 

"Your familiarity with the Government policy, duties and interest render it 
unnecessary for me to more than hint at the several objects intended by the en- 
closed bill, and any enlargement upon the topics here suggested as inducements 
to its adoption would be quite superfluous, if not impertinent. The very exist- 
ence of such a system as the one above recommended suggests the utility of post- 
offices and mail arrangements, which it is the wish of all who now live in 
Oregon to have granted them ; and I need only add that contracts for this purpose 
will be readily taken at reasonable rates for transporting the mail across from 
Missouri to the mouth of the Columbia in forty days, with fresh horses at each 
of the contemplated posts. The ruling policy proposed regards the Indians as the 
police of the country, who are to be relied upon to keep the peace, not only for 
themselves, but to repel lawless white men and prevent banditti, under the solitary 
guidance of the superintendents of the several posts, aided by a well-directed 
system to induce the punishment of crime. It will only be after the failure of 
these means to procure the delivery or punishment of violent, lawless and savage 
acts of aggression, that a band or tribe should be regarded as conspirators against 
the peace, or punished accordingly by force of arms. 


"Hoping that these suggestions may meet your approbation, and conduce to 
the future interest of our growing country, I have the honor to be. Honorable Sir, 

"Your obedient servant, 

"Marcus Whitman." 

It may be added that Whitman was so thoroughly interested in the idea of the 
line of forts across the continent that he wrote another communication to the 
Secretary of War from Waiilatpu in 1847, October i6th, only about six weeks 
before his murder, setting forth with similar force and clearness the wisdom of 
such a system. 

During the four years that followed the coming of the "Great Immigration," 
the mission at Waiilatpu was a center of light and help to the incoming immigra- 
tions. Many incidents have been preserved showing the industry, fortitude, and 
open-handed philanthropy of the Whitmans. The earlier immigration usually 
stopped at Waiilatpu, coming across the country in the vicinity of the present 
location of Athena and Weston and down Pine Creek to the Walla Walla. The 
immigrants were always short of provisions and generally had no money. To 
have a stock of provisions at all equal to emergencies put a tremendous strain on 
Doctor Whitman, and nobly did he meet the needs. Among many instances of 
the helping hand of the missionaries are two given in Eells' life of Whitman 
which we give as illustrative of many that might be given. 

"Among the immigrants of 1844 was a man named Sager, who had a family 
consisting of his wife and seven children, between the ages of infancy and thir- 
teen. The father died of typhoid fever on Green River, and the mother sank 
under her burdens when she reached Snake River and there died. The immigrants 
cared for the children until they reached Doctor Whitman's, but would take 
them no farther. The doctor and his wife took the strangers in at first for the 
winter, but afterward adopted them and cared for them as long as they lived. 

"Mrs. C. S. Pringle, one of these children, afterwards gave the following 
account of this event. It was written in answer to a charge made by Mrs. F. F. 
Victor that the doctor was mercenary, making money out of the immigrants: 
'In April, 1844, my parents started for Oregon. Soon after starting we were all 
camped for the night, and the conversation after awhile turned upon the probability 
of death before the end of the journey should be reached. All told what they 
would wish their families to do in case they should fall by the way. My father 
said: 'Well, if I should die, I would want my family to stop at the station of 
Doctor Whitman.' Ere long he was taken sick and died, but with his dying breath 
he committed his family to the care of Captain Shaw, with the request that they 
should be left at the station of Doctor Whitman. Twenty-six days after his death 
his wife died. She, too, requested the same. When we were in the Blue Moun- 
tains, Captain Shaw went ahead to see about leaving us there. The doctor ob- 
jected, as he was afraid the board would not recognize that as a part of his labor. 
After a good deal of talk he consented to have the children brought, and he would 
see what could be done. On the 17th day of October we drove up to the station, 
as forlorn a looking lot of children as ever was. I was a cripple, hardly able to 
walk, and the babe of six months was dangerously ill. Mrs. Whitman agreed to 
take the five girls, but the boys must go on (they were the oldest of the family). 
But the 'mercenary' doctor said, 'All or none.' He made arrangements to keep 


the seven until spring, and then if we did not like to stay, and he did not want 
to keep us. he would send us below. An article of agreement was drawn up in 
writing between him and Captain Shaw, but not one word of money or pay was 
in it. 1 had it in my possession for years after I came to the (Willamette) Val- 
ley, having received it from Captain Shaw. Before Captain Shaw reached The 
Dalles he was overtaken by Doctor Whitman, who announced his intention of 
adopting the seven, on his own responsibility, asking nothing of the Board for 
maintenance. The next summer he went to Oregon City and legally became our 
guardian, and the action is on the records of Clackamas County. Having done 
this, he further showed his mercenary nature by disposing of our father's estate 
in such a way that he could not realize a cent froni it. He exchanged the oxen 
and old cows for young cows, and turned them over to the two boys to manage 
until they should grow to manhood ; besides this, he gave them each a horse and 
saddle, which, of course, came out of his salary, as we were not mission children, 
as the three half-breeds were that were in the family. After doing all this he 
allowed the boys opportunities to accumulate stock by work or trade. Often he 
has said to us, 'You must all learn to work, for father is poor and can give you 
nothing but an education. This I intend to do to the best of my ability.' 

"Another incident with an immigrant is here related, given almost in the 
w^ords of the narrator, Joseph Smith, who came to the country in 1846. He says : 
I was mighty sick crossing the Blues, and was so weak from eating blue mass 
that they had to haul me in the wagon till we got to Doctor Whitman's place on 
the Walla Walla River. Then Mother Whitman came and raised the wagon cover 
and says, 'What is the matter with you, my brother?' 'I am sick, and I don't 
want to be pestered much, either.' 'But, but, my young friend, my husband is 
a doctor, and can probably cure your ailment; I'll go and call him.' So off she 
clattered, and purty soon Doc. came, and they packed me in the cabin, and soon 
he had me on my feet again. I eat up a whole band of cattle for him, as I had 
to winter with him. I told him I'd like to work for him, to kinder pay part of my 
bill, ^\'all, Doc. set me to making rails, but I only made two hundred before 
spring, and I got to worryin' 'cause I hadn't only fifty dollars and a saddle horse, 
and I reckoned I owed the doctor four or five hundred dollars for my life. Now, 
maybe I wasn't knocked out when I went and told the doctor I wanted to go on to 
Webfoot and asked him how we stood ; and doctor p'inted to a Cayuse pony, and 
says, 'Money I have not, but you can take that horse and call it even, if you 
will.' " 

It is worth noticing that though Mr. Smith says "Alother" W'hitman, she was 
only thirty-eight at the time. 

But at that time, the very year of the final consummation of the great work 
of Whitman, the treaty of 1846, giving Oregon up to latitude 49° to the United 
States, a consummation which must have made the brave hearts of the heroic 
pair thrill with joy and gratitude, the shadow was approaching, the end was near. 
The crown of heroism and service must be still further crowned with martyrdom. 
Even since the death of little Alice, the Indians at Waiilatpu had seemed to lose 
in growing measure the personal interest which they had manifested. With the 
coming of constantly growing immigrations and the apparent eagerness of the 
whites to secure land, the natives felt increasing suspicion. The more thoughtful 
of them, especially those who had been in the "States" and had seen the countless 


numbers of the "'Pale-faces," began to see that it was only a question of time when 
they would be entirely dispossessed. Again, the unavoidable policies of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company were hostile to the American settler. While as kind and 
courteous to the missionaries as men well could be and helpful to them in their 
religious labors, it was a different matter when it came to settlers swarming into 
the country with the Stars and Stripes at the head of wagon trains and with the 
implements of husbandry in their hands. The Indians were predisposed for many 
reasons to side with the company. With it they did their trading. It preserved 
the wild conditions of the country. The French-Canadian voyageurs and cour- 
eurs des bois were much kinder and more considerate of the Indians than the 
Americans and intermarried with them. Besides those general causes of hostility 
to the Americans, there were certain specific events during that period of doubt 
and suspicion which brought affairs to a focus and precipitated the tragedy of the 
Whitman Massacre. Some have believed that the murder of "Elijah" (as the 
whites called him), the son of Peupeumoxmox, the chief of the Walla Wallas, 
apparently a fine, manly young Indian, was a strong contributory cause. The 
young brave had gone to California in 1844 and while near Sutter's Fort had 
become involved in a dispute with some white settlers and had been brutally mur- 
dered. The old chief Peupeumoxmox had brooded over this dastardly deed, and 
though there is no evidence that he had any part in the massacre, there was deep 
resentment among the Indians of the Walla Walla Valley and no doubt many of 
them were in the mood to apply the usual Indian rule that a life lost demanded 
a life in payment. Apparently the most immediate influence leading to Ihe mas- 
sacre was due to an epidemic of measles which swept the valley in 1847. Doctor 
Whitman was indefatigable in ministering to the sick, but many died. The im- 
pression became prevalent among the Indians that they were the victims of poison. 
This idea was nurtured in their minds by several renegade Indians and half- 
breeds, of whom Lehai, Tom Hill, and Jo Lewis were most prominent. 

Seeing the gathering of clouds about the mission and the many warning indi- 
cations, Doctor Whitman had taken up the project of leaving Walla Walla and 
going to The Dalles, a point where he had in fact at first wished to locate, but had 
been dissuaded by the Hudson's Bay Company officials. The story of the mas- 
sacre has been many times told and may be found in many forms. We can but 
briefly sketch its leading events. Mr. Spalding of Lapwai was temporarily at 
Waiilatpu, and on November 27, 1847, he and Doctor Whitman went to the 
Umatilla in response to a request for medical attention. Feeling uneasy about 
affairs at home. Doctor Whitman returned on the next day, reaching Waiilatpu 
late at night. On the following day, the 29th, while engaged with his medicine 
chest, two Indians, who seem to have been leaders in the plot, approached him, 
and while one, Tilaukait, drew his attention by talking, the other, Tamahas, struck 
him with a tomahawk. He fell senseless, though not yet dead. Jo Lewis seems 
to have directed the further execution of the cruel conspiracy and soon Mrs. 
Whitman, shot in the breast, fell to the floor, though not dying for some time. 
She was the only woman slain. There were in all fourteen victims of this dread- 
ful attack. Several escaped, Mr. Spalding, who was on his way back from the 
Umatilla, being one of them. After several days and nights of harrowing suffer- 
ing, he reached Lapwai. There were forty-six survivors of the massacre, nearly 
all women and children. Many of these are said to have been subjected to cruelty 


and outrage worse than death, though it may he noted that some of the few Hving 
survivors of the present date deny the common opinion. They were ransomed 
by Peter Skeen Ogden of the Hudson's Bay Company, and transjxirted to the 
Willamette X'alley. The full story of the war which follows belongs in the suc- 
ceeding chapter. 

So ended in darkness, but not in shame, the mission at Waiilatpu. The 
peaceful spot six miles west of Walla Walla, in the midst of the fair and fruit- 
ful valley, is marked with a granite monument on the summit of the hill, "and a 
grave at the foot. There the dust of the martyrs rests in a plain marble crypt 
upon the surface of which appear their names. It is indeed one of the most 
sacred spots in the Northwest, suggestive of patriotism, devotion, self-sacrifice, 
suffering, sorrow, tragedy, and final triumph. In November, 1916, the remains 
of W. H. Gray and Mary Dix Gray, his wife, were removed from Astoria and 
placed in the grave at Waiilatpu. As associates from the first of the Whitmans, 
and engaged in the same arduous struggle for the establishment of civilized and 
Christian institutions in this beautiful wilderness, they are fittingly joined with 
them in their final resting place. 

By reason of priority in time as well as its connection with immigration and 
public affairs, and also its tragic end, and perhaps, too, the controversies that 
have arisen in connection with it, the Whitman Mission has secured a place in 
history far more prominent than that of any other, either east or west of the 
Cascade Mountains. But it should not be forgotten that within a short time after 
the incoming of white settlers, all the leading churches sent missionaries into the 
Northwest, both for the Indians and whites. Next in point of time after the 
Methodist missions of the Willamette Valley and the Presbyterian and Congre- 
gational missions of the Upper Columbia and Snake rivers, came the Catholic. 
It should be understood that in speaking of that church as third in time, we speak 
of the era of the beginnings of settlement. For it should be remembered that 
there had been visiting Catholic priests among the Hudson's Bay posts long prior 
to the coming of Jason Lee, the first of the Protestants. The French-Canadians 
were almost universally of Catholic rearing, and the officers of the company en- 
couraged the maintenance of religious worship and instruction according to the 
customary methods. There were not, however, any regiilar permanent Catholic 
missions until a little after the Protestant missions already described. The inau- 
guration of regular mission work by the Catholic Church grew out of the planting 
of a settlement at Champoeg on the Willamette by Doctor McLoughlin during 
the years from 1829 on. Quite a little group of retired Hudson's Bay Company 
men, French-Canadians with Indian wives and half-breed children, became located 
on the fertile tract still known as French Prairie. So well had the settlement 
thrived that in 1834, the year of the arrival of Jason Lee in the same neighbor- 
hood, an application was made to Doctor Provencher, Vicar Apostolic of Hudson 
Bay, to send a clergyman to that point. Not till 1837 could the request be ful- 
filled. In that year Rev. Modeste Demers went to the Red River, and the follow- 
ing year, in company with Rev. Francis N. Blanchet, resumed the journey to 
Oregon. In the progress of their journey they stopped at Walla Walla for a day. 
Reaching Vancouver on November 24, 1838. they entered with zeal and devotion 
upon their task of ministering both to the whites and Indians. Remaining at Van- 
couver till January, 1839. Father Blanchet started on a regular course of visita- 





tions, going first to the settlement on the Willamette where there were twenty-six 
Catholic families and where the people had already constructed a chapel. Next 
he visited Cowlitz Prairie, where there were four families. These stations were, of 
course, outside of the scope of the present work, but reference to them indi- 
cates the time and place and manner of starting the great series of Catholic mis- 
sions which soon became extended all over Oregon. While Father Blanchet was 
at Cowlitz, his fellow worker, Demers, started on an extended tour of the upper 
Columbia region. In the course of this he visited Walla Walla, Okanogan, and 
Colville, starting work among the Indians by baptizing their children. From that 
time on Father Demers or some one of the Jesuit priests made annual visits to 
Walla Walla, adding children by baptism each year. In the meantime another of 
the most important of the Catholic missionaries, and the one to whom the world 
is indebted for one of the best histories of Oregon missions, was on his way. 
This was Rev. Father Pierre J. De Smet. In March, 1840, he set out for Oregon 
from the St. Joseph Mission at Council Bluffs, journeying by the Platte River 
route. On June 25th he reached Green River, long known as a rendezvous of 
the fur-traders. There he held mass for the trappers and Indians. Referring 
to this in a subsequent letter he writes thus : "On Sunday, the 5th of July, I had 
the consolation of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice sub dio. The altar was placed 
on an elevation, and surrounded with boughs and garlands of flowers; I ad- 
dressed the congregation in French and inv English and spoke also by an inter- 
preter to the Flatheads and Snake Indiatis. It was a spectacle truly moving for 
the heart of a missionary to behold an assembly composed of so many different 
nations who all assisted at our holy jmysteries with great satisfaction. The 
Canadians sang hymns in French and Latfrt.'ahU'the Indians in their native tongue. 
It was truly a Catholic worship. The place has been called since that time by the 
French-Canadians, la prairie de la Messe." 

After a week at the Green River rendezvous, Father De Smet with his 
Indian guides resumed the journey westward by way of the Three Tetons to the 
upper waters of Snake River. While at Henry Lake he climbed a lofty peak 
from which he could see in both directions and while there he carved on a stone 
the words: "Sanctus Ignatius, Patronus Montium, Die Julii 23, 1840." That was 
as far west as Father De Smet went at that time. After two months among 
the Flatheads about the head of Snake River, he returned to St. Louis in the last 
part of the year. One point of interest in connection with this return, as showing 
the disposition of the Indians to seek religious instruction, is that a certain Flat- 
head chief named Insula who accompanied Father De Smet to St. Louis, had 
gone to Green River in 1835 to meet missionaries. It is stated by Rev. Father E. 
V. O'Hara in his valuable "Catholic History of Oregon" that Insula was much 
disappointed to find, not the "black-gowns" as he had expected, but Doctor 
Whitman and Doctor Parker on their reconnaissance. It is probably impossible 
to determine just what distinction between different denominations of Christians 
may have existed in the Indian mind, but it may be recalled that Whitman and 
Parker while at Green River deemed the outlook so encouraging that they decided 
that Whitman should return to the "States" for reinforcements, while Parker 
went on with the Indians and made an extensive exploration of the entire Oregon 
country. Father De Smet returned to the Flathead mission in 1841 and in 1842 
proceeded to Vancouver by way of the Spokane. In the course of the journey 


he visited all the principal Indian tribes in the Kootenai, Pend Oreille, Coeur d' 
Alene, and Spokane countries. In the progress of this journey he made a brief 
visit at Walla Walla. Returning to the East after twenty-five months of mis- 
sionary ser\ice in Oregon and then spending some time in Europe, he returned 
with quite a reinforcement in the ship "L'Infatigable" in 1844. The ship was 
nearly wrecked on the Columbia River bar, and of the experience De Smet gives 
a peculiarly vivid description. He deemed the final safe entrance due to special 
interposition of Divine Providence on account of the day, July 31st, being sacred 
to St. Ignatius. Father De Smet was a vivid and interesting writer and a zealous 
missionan,'. He greatly overestimated the number of Indians in Oregon, placing 
them at a hundred and ten thousand and in equal ratio estimated the converts at 
numbers hardly possible except by the most sweeping estimates. 

The Catholic missions were gradually extended until they covered points in 
the entire Xorthwest. The bishop of Oregon was Rev. Francis N. Blanchet who 
was located near Salem. In 1845 ^"d 1846 he made an extensive tour in Canada 
and Europe for the purpose of securing reinforcements. As a result of his 
journey and the action of the Holy See the Vicariate was erected into an eccle- 
siastical province with the three Sees of Oregon City, Walla Walla, and Van- 
couver Island. Rev. A. M. A. Blanchet was appointed bishop of Walla Walla, 
and Father Demers bishop of Vancouver Island, while Bishop F. N. Blanchet was 
promoted to the position of archbishop of Oregon City. Bishop A. M. A. 
Blanchet reached Fort Walla Walla on September 4, 1847, having come with a 
wagon train by the usual emigrant road from St. Louis. This might be regarded 
as the regular establishment of Catholic missions in Walla Walla. The bishop 
was accompanied to Walla Walla by four oblate fathers of Marseilles and 
Father J. B. A. Brouillet as vicar general, and also by Father Rousseau and 
Wm. Leclaire, deacon. Bishop Blanchet located among the Umatilla Indians 
at the home of Five Crows. The mission was fairly established only a few days 
prior to the Whitman Massacre. Bishop Blanchet went to Oregon City after 
the massacre and by reason of the Indian war he found it impossible to return 
to Walla Walla. He established St. Peter's Mission at The Dalles, and there he 
remained till September, 1850. During that year there came instructions from 
Rome to transfer the bishop of Walla Walla to the newly established diocese 
of Nesqually. The diocese of Walla Walla was suppressed and its administra- 
tion merged with that of Colville and Fort Hall in the control of the archbishop 
of Oregon City. 

That event might be considered as closing the missionary stage of Catholic 
missions in Walla Walla, though Father Brouillet remained into the period of 
settlement and in conjunction with Father Arvidius junger, founded the Catholic 
Church at Walla Walla of what may be called the modern period. There was 
during the period of the Hudson's Bay Company and of the Indian wars, a 
location at Frenchtown, known as St. Rose Mission. There was a little church 
building there until a few years ago. 

With the period of Indian wars it may be said that the missionar)' era ended 
and after that sanguinary interim the modern period began in Walla Walla. 

Archbishop Francis N. Blanchet, 1838 

Rev. J. B. A. Brouillet. 1847 Bishop Morleste Deniers, 1838 

Bisli(i|) A. M. A. Blaneliet. 1847 



In the preceding chapter we have narrated the Whitman Massacre. It was 
followed by the first of the succession of wars which desolated Old Oregon for 
about eleven years. During that time Walla Walla, as well as the other parts 
east of the mountains, was swept clean of white settlers. Not till the public 
proclamation of opening Eastern Oregon by General Clarke in 1858 and the 
beginnings of immigration in the next year can the epoch of Indian wars be said 
to have ended. 

The war following the Whitman Massacre may be taken as the starting point 
of this chapter. Great praise must be accorded to the Hudson's Bay Company's 
people for promptness and efficiency in meeting the immediate emergency. Dr. 
John McLoughlin, with whom we have become acquainted in earlier chapters, had 
retired from the company and made his hom€ at Oregon City. This truly great 
man, a man for whom no conimendatian, seems too' strong in the minds of the 
old-timers, had been deciding during the year's following the advent of the mis- 
sionaries that American possession of-Oregor; was infeVrtable and that in order to 
ally himself with the future he should' -become 'an' American. His humane and 
liberal policy toward the American immigrants w-as. disapproved by the company 
in London, and in 1844 James Douglas was appointed to succeed him. The good 
doctor thereby not only lost what was then and in those conditions a princely 
salary, $12,000 per year, but was charged by the company for the large supplies 
which he had advanced to the Americans, who in many cases were unable to pay. 
Moving to the Falls of the Willamette where he had taken up a valuable claim, 
he started the process of naturalization. But after the Treaty of 1846, his claim 
was contested by the representative of the Methodist ^Mission, Rev. A. F. Waller, 
and the first territorial delegate to Congress, Samuel R. Thurston, was chosen 
largely on the platform of hostility to the Hudson's Bay Company and the British 
in general, and he secured a provision in the Congressional land law debarring 
anyone who had not acquired his final naturalization from holding a donation 
claim. This law deprived Doctor McLoughlin of the main part of his property. 
It was a cruel blow. He said with grief and bitterness that he had intended in 
good faith to become an American citizen, but found that he was rejected by 
the British and not received by the Americans and was practically a man without 
a country. It may truthfully be said that he died of a broken heart. It is 
gratifying to remember that the Oregon Legislature, recognizing the injustice, 
made amends by restoring his land claim. But this action came too late to do 
the "Old King of Oregon" any good. We have digressed to make this reference 
to Doctor McLoughlin, inasmuch as his change of location and condition occurred 
just prior to the Oregon Treaty and the \\'hitman Alassacre. James Douglas, 



the new Chief Factor, while not at all equal in breadth and philanthropy to Doctor 
McLoughlin, was an energetic and efficient manager. Upon learning of the 
tragedy at Waiilatpu he immediately dispatched Peter Skeen Ogden to rescue the 
survivors. As narrated in Chapter Five, Ogden performed his duty with prompt- 
ness and success, and as a result the pitiful little company, almost entirely women 
and children, were conveyed to the Willamette Valley, where nearly all of 
them made their homes. A number of them are still living in different parts of 
the Northwest. 

When the tidings of the massacre reached the Willamette Valley, then the 
chief settlement in Oregon, there was an immediate response by the brave men 
who were carrying in that trying time the responsibility of the government of the 
scattered little community. And yet the situation was a peculiar and difficult 
one. The formal treaty placing Oregon within possession of the United States 
had legally set aside the Provisional Government. But Congress was absorbed, 
as it frequently has been, in furthering the little schemes of individual members, 
or in promoting the progress of slaverj- or some other tyrannical and corrupt 
interest, and hence had done nothing to establish a territorial government. In 
the emergency the Provisional Government assembled on December 9th and 
provided for a force of fourteen companies of Oregon volunteers to move imme- 
diately to the hostile country. Every feature of equipment had to be secured 
by personal contribution, and the services of the men were purely voluntary. It 
was a characteristic American frontiersmen's army and movement. Several men 
well known in Walla Walla and vicinity took part in this campaign. The com- 
mander of the force was Cornelius Gilliam, an immigrant of 1845 from Missouri. 
His son, W. S. Gilliam, was one of the best known and noblest of the pioneers 
of Walla Walla County. He was truly one of the builders of this region. Daniel 
Stewart, Ninevah Ford, W^illiam Martin, and W. W. Walter were among the 
citizens of the Walla Walla country and adjoining region who were in that historic 
army of the Cayuse war. While we shall not usually load this work with lists of 
names or other purely statistical matter, yet in the belief that the list of volunteers 
in the Cayuse war may have a permanent reference value to possessors of this 
volume, we are including here such a list derived from the "History of the 
Pacific Northwest," publised by the North Pacific Publishing Co. of Portland 
in 1889: 

First Company, Oregon Rifles : Captain, Henry A. G. Lee ; first lieutenant, 
Joseph Magone ; second lieutenant, John E. Ross ; surgeon, W. W. Carpenter ; 
orderly sergeant, J. S. Rinearson ; first duty sergeant, J. H. McMillan ; second 
duty sergeant, C. \\'. Savage; third duty sergeant, S. Cummings; fourth duty 
sergeant, William Berry ; privates, John Little, Joel McKee, J. W. Morgan, Joseph 
B. Proctor, Samuel K. Barlow, John Richardson, Ed Marsh, George Moore, Isaac 

Walgamot, Jacob Johnson, John Lassater, Edward Robeson, B. B. Rodgers, 

Shannon, A. J. Thomas, R. S. Tupper, O. Tupper, Joel Witchey, G. W. Weston, 
George Wesley, John Flemming, John G. Gibson, Henry Leralley, Nathan Olney, 

Barnes, J. H. Bosworth, Wm. Beekman, Benjamin Bratton, John Balton, 

Henry W. Coe, John C. Danford, C. H. Derendorf, David Everst, John Finner, 

James Kester, Pugh (killed by Indians near the Dalles in a skirmish), 

Jackson (killed in a skirmish near the Dalles). John Callahan, Alex McDonald 


(killed by a sentry, who mistook him for an Indian at the camp on the east side of 
the Des Chutes). Forty-eight men. 

Second Company: Captain, Lawrence Hall; first lieutenant, H. D. O'Bryant; 
second lieutenant, John Engart; orderly sergeant, William Sheldon; duty ser- 
geants, William Stokes, Peter S. Engart, Thos. R. Cornelius, Sherry Ross ; Color- 
bearer, Gilbert Mondon ; privates, A. Engart, Thos. Fleming, D. C. Smith, W. R. 
Noland, Jos. W. Scott, G. W. Smith, A. Kinsey, John N. Donnie, A. C. Brown, 
F. H. Ramsey, S. A. Holcomb, A. Stewart, Wm. Milbern, A. Kennedy, Oliver 
Lowden, H. N. Stephens, P. G. Northrup, W. W. Walter, J. Z. Zachary, Sam Y. 
Cook, J. J. Garrish, Thos. Kinsey, J. S. Scoggin, Noah Jobe, D. Shumake, J. N. 
Green, J. Elliot, W. Williams, John Holgate, R. Yarborough, Robert Walker, 
J. Butler, I. W. Smith, J. W. Lingenfelter, J. H. Lienberger, A. Lienberger, Sam 
Gethard, John Lousingnot, A. Williams, D. Harper, S. C. Cummings, S. Fergu- 
son, Marshall Martin. 

Third Company: Captain, John W. Owen; first lieutenant, Nathaniel Bow- 
man; second lieutenant, Thomas Shaw; orderly sergeant, J. C. Robison; duty 
sergeants, Benj. J. Burch; J. H. Blankenship, James M. Morris, Robert Smith; 
privates, George W. Adams, William Athey, John Baptiste, Manly Curry, Jesse 
Clayton, John Dinsmore, Nathan English, John Fiester, Jesse Gay, Lester Hulan, 
Stephen Jenkins, J. Larkin, Joshua McDonald, Thomas Pollock, J. H. Smith, S. 

P. Thornton, William Wilson, Benjamin Allen, Ira Bowman, Currier, George 

Chapel, William Doke, Linnet, T. Dufield, Squire Elembough, Henry Fuller, 

D. H. Hartley, Fleming R. Hill, James Keller, D. M. McCumber, E. AIcDonald, 
Edward Robinson, Chris. Stemermon, Joseph Wilbert, T. R. Zumwalt, Charles 

Fourth Company: Captain, H. J. G. Maxon; first lieutenant, G. N. Gilbert; 
second lieutenant, Wm. P. Hughes; orderly sergeant, Wm. R. Johnson; duty 
sergeants, O. S. Thomas, T. M. Buckner, Daniel Stewart, Joseph R. Ralston ; 
]3rivates, Andrew J. Adams, John Beattie, Charles Blair, John R. Coatney, Reuben 
Crowder, John W. Crowel, Manly Danforth, Harvey Graus, Albert H. Fish, 
John Feat, Andrew Gribble, Wm. Hawkins, Rufus Johnson, John W. Jackson, 
y. H. Loughlin, Davis Lator, John Miller, John Patterson, Richard Pollard, Wm. 
Robison, Asa Stone, Thos. Allphin, Wm. Bunton, Henry Blacker, Wm. Chapman. 
Samuel Chase, Sam Cornelius, James Dickson, S. D. Earl, Joseph Earl, D. O. 
Garland, Richmond Hays, Coalman Hubbard, Isaiah M. Johns, S. B. Knox, 
Tames H. Lewis, Horace Martin, John McCoy, James Officer, Henry Pellet, Wm. 
Russell, John Striethofif, A. M. Baxster, D. D. Burroughs, Samuel Clark, John 
M. Cantrel, Asi Cantrel, Albert G. Davis, S. D. Durbin, Samuel Fields, Rezin 
D. Foster, Isaac M. Foster, Horace Hart, Wm. Hock, Wm. A. Jack, Elias 
Kearney, James KiUingsworth, Isaac Morgan, N. G. McDonnell, Madison McCully, 
Frederick Paul, Wm. M. Smith, H. M. Smith, Jason Wheeler, John Vaughn, 
Reuben Striethofif, Wm. \'aughn, Wm. Shirley. 

Fifth Company: Captain, Philip F. Thompson; first lieutenant, James A. 
Brown; second lieutenant, Joseph M. Garrison; orderly sergeant, George E. 
Frazer; duty sergeants, A. Garrison, A. S. Welton, Jacob Greer, D. D. Dostins; 
privates, Martin P. Brown, William A. Culberson, Harrison Davis, James Elec- 
trels, William Fads, Alvin K. Fox, William J. Garrison, William Hailey, John 
A. Johnson, J. D. Richardson, Martin Wright, William Smith, E. T. Stone, 


John 'J"lioiiii)son, H. C. Johnson, Joseph Kenny, Henry Kearney, Jacob Leabo, 
Daniel Malheny, Wilhani McKay, John Orchard, John B. Rowland, John Copen- 
hagen, Bird Davis. John Eldridge, John Faron, C. B. Gray, Robert Harmon, 
James O. Henderson. Green Rowland, William Rogers, Thomas Wilson, William 
D. Stillwell, William Shepard, Alfred Jobe, T. J. Jackson, Jesse Cadwallader, 
Andrew Layson, J. C. Matheny, Adam Matheny, Charles P. Matt, James Pack- 
wood, Clark Rogers. 

McKay's Company: Captain, Thomas McKay; first lieutenant, Charles 
McKay; second lieutenant, Alexander McKay; orderly sergeant, Edward Dupuis; 
duty sergeants, George Montour, Baptiste Dorio, David Crawford, Gideon Pion; 
privates, John Spence, Louis Laplante, Augustine Russie, Isaac Gervais, Louis 
Montour, Alexis Vatrais, Joseph Paino, Jno. Cunningham, Jno. Gros, Louis Joe 
Lenegratly, Antoine Poisier, Antoine Plante, Pierre Lacourse, Ashby Pearce, 
Antoine Lafaste, Nathan English, Charles Edwards, Gideon Gravelle, Chas. 
Corveniat, Antoine Bonanpaus, Nicholas Bird, Francis Dupres, William Torrie, 
Thomas Purvis, A. J. Thomas, J. H. Bigler, Mongo Antoine Ansure, Narcisse 
Montiznie, Edward Crete. 

English's Company : Captain, Levin N. English ; first lieutenant, William 
Shaw; second lieutenant, F. ^L Munkers; orderly sergeant, William Martin; 
duty sergeants, Hiram English, George Shaw, Thomas Boggs, L. J. Rector ; 
privates, Jackson Adams, L. N. Aljel, William Burton, Joseph Crauk, John Down- 
ing, Thos. T. Eyre. R. D. Foster, Alexander Gage, Thomas Gregory, G. W. 
Howell, Fales Howard, J. H. Lewis, N. G. McDonald, James Officer, Joseph 
Pearson, Jackson Rowell, William Simmons, Lewis Stewart, Charles Roth, Daniel 
Waldo, George Wesley, William \'aughn, L. N. English, Jr., Nineveh Ford, 
Albert Fish, A. Gribble, Samuel Senters, Thomas Wigger, Richard Hays, Wesley 
Howell, Richard Jenkins, G. H. March, William Medway, J. R. Payne, Benjamin 
Simpson, Alexander York. 

Martin's Company: Captain, William Martin; first lieutenant, A. E. Gar- 
rison; second lieutenant, David Waldo; orderly sergeant, Ludwell J. Rector; 
duty sergeants, William Cosper, Fales Howard, Joseph Sylvester, Benjamin 
Wright ; privates, J. Albright, H. Burdon, T. J. Blair, Joseph Borst, George Crab- 
tree, Joseph Crauk, Wesley Cook, Samuel Center, John Cox, John Eads, Parnel 
Fowler, S. M. Crover, John Kaiser, Clark S. Pringle, Israel Wood, Lewis Stewart. 
Pleasant C. Kaiser, Thomas Canby, Sidney S. Ford, William Melawers, A. N. 
Rainwater, B. F. Shaw, Wm. Waldo, Silas G. Pugh, G. H. Vernon, Isaiah 
Matheny, Thomas T. Eyre, John C. Holgate. 

Shaw's Company : Captain, William Shaw ; first lieutenant, David Crawford ; 
second lieutenant, Baptiste C. Dorio; orderly sergeant, Absalom M. Smith; duty 
sergeants, George Laroque, Vatall Bergeren. George W. Shaw, Charles McKay ; 
privates, John H. Bigler, O. Crum, Joseph Despont, William Felix, Xavier Plante, 
Eli Viliell, F. M. Mankis, Antonio Plante, Charles Edwards, Andrew Heeber, 
Xavier Gervais, David Jones. John Pecares, Samuel Kinsey, Joseph Pearson, 
William Towie, Peter Jackson. .Alexander Laborain. William McMillen. B. F. 
Nichols, Hiram Smead. William Marill, Francis Poiecor. George Westley. 

Garrison's Company: Captain. J. M. Garrison: first lieutenant, A. E. Gar- 
rison; second lieutenant, John C. Herren ; orderly sergeant. J. B. Kaiser: duty 
sergeants, George Crabtree, George Laroque, Joseph Colester; privates, E. Bier- 

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naisse, Thomas R. Blair, John C. Cox, Joseph Despart, Caleb M. Grover, Isaiah 
Matheny, John Picard, William Philips, Henry Barden, Silas P. Pugh, Isaac 
Wood, Penel Fowler, Andrew Hubert, Daniel Herren, Xavier Plante, Vitelle 

Colonel Gilliam, though having had no military education, had the American 
pioneer's capacity and fertility of resources, and conducted his midwinter cam- 
paign with courage and energy. As already noted, Peter Skeen Ogden of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, had ransomed the captives of Waiilatpu long before 
even the scantily equipped regiment of Oregon volunteers could take the field. 
But even though the first necessity, that of rescuing the captives, had been filled, 
the command felt that the situation compelled a definite campaign and the cap- 
ture and bringing to justice of the murderers. Hence Colonel Gilliam pressed 
on his march as rapidly as possible. On the last day of February, 1848, he 
crossed the Des Chutes River to a ]3oint where hostile Indians had already taken 
a stand. A battle ensued the next day, resulting in the defeat of the Indians 
and a treaty of peace with the Des Chutes tribe. Pressing on toward Walla 
Walla, the command was checked at Sand Hollows in the Lower Umatilla River 
Valley, by a strong force of Indians in command of Five Crows, a Cayuse chief. 
This chieftain claimed the powers of a wizard and declared that he could swallow 
all the bullets fired at him by the whites. Another brave called War Eagle, or 
Swallow Ball, made equal claims to invulnerability. The two chiefs undertook 
to demonstrate their wizard powers by dashing out in front of the volunteers. 
Tom McKay, who was the stepson of Doctox .McLoughlin and was then the 
captain of a company composed mainly of ,E;i"enGh-C&Baclians, could not withstand 
the challenge and sent a bullet from his tnisfy fifl.e through the head of Swallow 
Ball. At the same time Charles McKay sent a companion ball into the supposedly 
invulnerable anatomy of Five Crows;' vijounding him 'so severely that he was 
out of the war henceforth. After a desultory series" o"f-engagements, the Indians 
retreated and Colonel Gilliam's command pushed on to Waiilatpu, which point 
they reached on March 2d. At the desolate spot they discovered that the 
remains of the martyrs of the Whitman Mission had been hastily interred by 
the Ogden party, but that in the interval of time coyotes had partially exhumed 
them. They reverently replaced the sacred remains in one large grave, cover- 
ing them with a wagon box found on the ground. There in that abandoned place 
the bones of the martyred band remained unmarked for many years. As now 
known to all residents of Walla Walla, a monument was reared upon the hill 
overlooking the scene of the tragedy, and the remains were reinterred and covered 
with a marble slab inscribed with the names of the victims of the massacre. A 
lock of long fair hair was found near the ruined mission which there is every 
reason to think was from the head of Mrs. Whitman. It is now preserved 
among the precious relics in the museum of Whitman College. 

With the volunteers was Joseph L. Meek, one of the Rocky Mountain trappers 
who had settled in the Willamette Valley and had become prominent in estab- 
lishing the Provisional Government of Oregon in 1843. He now with a few 
companions was on his way across the continent to carry dispatches to Washing- 
ton announcing the Whitman Massacre and urging the Government to make 
immediate provision for a proper territorial government. Meek had come thus 
far with the troops, but now passed beyond them on his difficult and dangerous 


journey. Jt may be added lliat with nnich hardship from cold and near starva- 
tion he reached St. Louis in the extraordinarily short time of seventy-two days. 

I'he dilatory and scheming Congress and administration was roused by the 
Whitman Massacre to some sense of the needs of far-away Oregon. A great 
struggle ensued over the slavery question in which Calhoun, Davis, Foote, and 
other southern senators made determined efforts to defeat the prohibition of 
slavery in Oregon. They were overpowered by the eloquence of Corwin, the 
determination of Benton and the statesmanship of Webster, and on August 13, 
1848, the bill to establish a territorial government for Oregon with slavery pro- 
hibited passed Congress. President Polk appointed Joseph Lane governor, Joseph 
Meek marshal, and William B. Bryant judge in the new territory. Not till ALirch 
3, 1849, did they reach their stations and take up their duties. Of all the history 
of the great congressional discussion with the momentous national questions 
involved, there is a graphic account by Judge Thornton, while Benton in his 
"Thirty Years in Congress" gives a vivid and illuminating view. 

Meanwhile the little army of Oregon volunteers were engaged in a long-drawn 
and harassing series of marches and counter marches in search of the guilty 
murderers. An adobe fort, called Fort W^aters, from Lieut. Col. James Waters, 
was built at Waiilatpu. The Cayuses had counted upon the help of the other 
tribes, but the Nez Perces and Spokanes repudiated their murderous kmdred, and 
the Yakimas took an attitude of indifference. Peupeumoxmox of the Walla 
Wallas, though having more of a real grievance against the whites than any 
other Indian on account of the brutal murder of his son, as related in the pre- 
ceding chapter, did not actively aid the hostiles. He played a wily game, and 
was justly regarded with suspicion by the command. 

In the midst of the tangle and uncertainty, and the scattering of the guilty 
parties in all directions, Colonel Gilliam decided to make an expedition north- 
easterly to the Tucanon and Snake rivers in the hope of encountering and 
destroying the main force of the hostiles and bringing the war to a conclusion 
at one blow. Reaching the mouth of the Tucanon, a few miles below the present 
Starbuck, the colonel was outgeneraled by the wily Indians who gave him to 
understand that the Indian camp was that of Peupeumoxmox. Taking advantage 
of the delay the Cayuses drove their large bands of stock into the Snake River 
and made them swim to the north bank. The main body of Indians succeeded 
in getting away with their valuable stock. The Palouses were doubtless aiding 
and abetting them. Disappointed in his aims Colonel Gilliam gave the order to 
return to Walla Walla. Upon reaching the Touchet in the near vicinity of the 
present Bolles Junction, the Indians made a rush for the Touchet River in the 
evident hope of entangling the troops at the crossing. A desperate encounter 
took place, the hardest, and in fact the only real battle of the year, in which the 
whites fought their way through the stream and made their way to the Walla- 
Walla. Reaching Fort Waters at Waiilatpu on March i6th, it was determined 
by a council of war that Colonel Gilliam should go to The Dalles with 160 men 
in order to meet and escort a supply train to the Walla Walla, while Lieutenant- 
Colonel Waters should take command at the fort. On the way, just having 
crossed the Umatilla, Colonel Gilliam while in the act of drawing a rope from 
a wagon accidentally caught it in the trigger of a loaded gun. The weapon was 
discharged and the commander was instantly killed. This was a most lamentable 


loss, for Colonel Gilliam was not only an efficient commander, but was one of the 
best of the Oregon pioneers, with the capacity for a most useful career in the 
new land. Lieutenant-Colonel Waters became colonel in command upon the 
announcement of the death of Colonel Gilliam. He undertook at once a march 
to Lapwai under the belief that the murderers were harbored among the Nez 
Perces. Nothing definite was accomplished by this expedition. According to the 
assertions of the Nez Perces Telaukaikt, one of the supposed leaders of the 
Whitman Massacre, had fled. The Nez Perces delivered a number of cattle and 
horses which they said belonged to the Cayuses. The attempt to seize the mur- 
derers themselves being seemingly futile, Colonel Waters returned again to the 
fort at Waiilatpu. It had now become evident that the condition did not justify 
the retention of a regiment in the Cayuse country. Goveror Abernethy, still 
acting as head of the Provisional Government of Oregon, decided to recall the 
main body of troops. A small force under Major Magone was sent to Chima- 
kain, the mission near Spokane where Eells and Walker were located, in order to 
bring that missionary band to a place of safety. It was found by Major Magone 
that the Spokane Indians had been faithful to their teachers and had guarded 
them from danger. Few things more thrilling have been narrated in the hearing 
of the author than the accounts given by Mr. Eells and Mr. Walker, and above all 
by Edwin Eells, oldest son of Father Eells, of the conditions under which that 
devoted group existed for some days when it was thought that the hostile 
Indians were on the way to Spokane to destroy them. On one evening hearing 
an awful powwow and hullaballoo from a crowd of mounted Indians and seeing 
them rapidly approaching in the dim light, Father Eells went out bravely to 
meet them, thinking it likely was the dreaded marauders, to discover in a moment 
that it was their own Spokanes, armed for their defence. 

Escorted by the company of volunteers, the missionaries of Chimakain went 
to the Willamette Valley where the Walker family made their permanent home, 
while Father Eells with his family remained twelve years and then returned to 
the Walla Walla country to found Whitman College and to make his home for 
a number of years at Waiilatpu. 

While Major Magone was thus engaged in caring for the last of the mis- 
sionaries, Capt. William Martin was left at Fort Waters (Waiilatpu) with fifty- 
five men to look out for the interests of immigrants who might enter the country 
and to keep a vigilant eye upon the movements of the savages. This Captain 
Martin, it may be remembered by some readers, took up his residence at Pendle- 
ton in 1880 and was long a leading citizen of that city. One of his sons now lives 
at Touchet in Walla Walla County and one of his grandsons, of the same name 
as himself, became one of the most noted athletes at Whitman College and now 
occupies a place as physical director in a large eastern university. Another small 
force in command of Lieutenant Rogers was stationed at Fort Lee at The Dalles. 
But as to further operations in the field they seemed to be at an end. The Cayuses 
scattered in various directions, and other Indians, while making no resistance to 
the whites, gave them little or no assistance. Finally in 1850 a band of friendly 
Uraatillas pursued a bunch of Cayuses under Tamsaky or Tamsucky to the 
headwaters of the John Day River and after a severe struggle killed Tamsaky 
and captured the most of his followers. 

The last act in the tragedy was the execution of several Indian chiefs who had 


voluntarily gone to Oregon City and had been seized and subjected to trial as 
being the murderers of the \\ hitman party. There is a very unsatisfactory con- 
dition of testimony about the real guilt of this group of Indians. The Cayuse 
Indians claimed, and many of the whites believed that one only of the five who 
were hung on June 3, 1850, was guilty. As a concluding glance at this grewsome 
event, the reader may be interested in the following official declaration of inno- 
cence of those Indians. 

"Tilokite — I am innocent of the crime of which 1 am charged. Those who 
committed it are dead, some killed, some died ; there were ten, two were my sons ; 
they were killed by the Cayuses. Tumsucky, before the massacre, came to my 
lodge ; he told me that they were going to hold a council to kill Doctor Whitman. 
I told him not to do so, that it was bad. One night seven Indians died near the 
house of Doctor Whitman, to whom he had given medicines. Tumsucky's family 
were sick; he gave them roots and leaves; they got well. Other Indians died. 
Tumsucky came often. I talked to him, but his ears were shut; he would not 
hear; he and others went away. After a while some children came into my 
lodge and told me what was going on. I had told Tumsucky over and over to let 
them alone; my talk was nothing; I shut my mouth. When I left my people, 
the young chief told me to come down and talk with the big white chief, and tell 
him who it was, that did kill Doctor Whitman and others. My heart was big; 
'tis small now. The priest tells me I must die tomorrow. I know not for what. 
They tell me that I have made a confession to the marshal that I struck Doctor 
Whitman. 'Tis false! You ask me if the priests did not encourage us to kill 
Doctor Whitman? I answer no, no." 

"Monday, 1 1 :30 o'clock — I am innocent, but my heart is weak since I have 
been in chains, but since I must die, I forgive them all. Those who brought me 
here and take care of me, I take them all in my arms, my heart is opened." 

"Quiahmarsum (skin or panther's coat) — I was up the river at the time of 
the massacre, and did not arrive until the next day. I was riding on horseback ; 
a white woman came running from the house. She held out her hand and told 
me not to kill her. I put my hand upon her head and told her not to be afraid. 
There were plenty of Indians all alx)ut. She, with the other women and chil- 
dren, went to Walla Walla, to Air. Ogden's. I was not present at the murder, nor 
was I any way concerned in it. I am innocent. It hurts me to talk about dying 
for nothing. Our chief told us to come down and tell all about it. Those who 
committed the murder are killed and dead. The priest says I must die tomorrow. 
If they kill me, I am innocent." 

"Monday, 1 1 : 30 A. M. — I was sent here by my chief to declare who the guilty 
persons were; the white chief would then shake hands with me; the young chief 
would come after me ; we would have a good heart. My young chief told me I 
was to come here to tell what I know concerning the murderers. I did not come 
as one of the murderers, for I am innocent. I never made any declarations to 
any one that I was guilty. This is the last time that I may speak." 

"Kloakamus— I was there at the time ; I lived there, but I had no hand in the 
murder. I saw them when they were killed, but did not touch or strike any one. 
T looked on. There were plenty of Indians. My heart was sorry. Our chief 
told us to come down and tell who the murderers were. There were ten ; they 
are killed. They say I am guilty, but it is not so ; I am innocent. The people do 


not understand me. I can't talk to them. They tell me I must die by being 
hung by the neck. If they do kill me, I am innocent, and God will give me a big 

"jMonday, ii : 30 A. j\L — I have no reason to die for things that I did not do. 
My time is short. I tell the truth. I know that I am close to the grave ; but my 
heart is open and I tell the truth. I love every one in this world. I know that 
God will give me a big heart. I never confessed to the marshal that I was guilty, 
or to any other person ; I am innocent. The priests did not tell us to do what 
the Indians have done. This is my last talk.'' 

"Siahsaluchus (or Wet Wolf) — I say the same as the others; the murderers 
are killed; some by the whites, some by the Cayuses, and some by others. They 
were ten in number." 

"Monday, 11 : 30 A. M. — I have nothing more to say; I think of God. I for- 
give all men ; I love them. The priests did not tell us to do this." 

"Thomahas — I did not know that I came here to die. Our chief told us to 
come and see the white chief and tell him all about it. The white chief would 
then tell us all what was right and what was wrong. Learn us (how) to live 
when we returned home. Why should I have a bad heart — after I am showed 
and taught how to live ? My eyes were shut when I came here. I did not see, but 
now they are opened. I have been taught ; I have been showed what was good 
and what was bad. I do not want to die; I know now that we are all brothers. 
They tell me the same Spirit made us all." 

"Monday, 11 : 30 A. M. — Thomahas joined with Tilokite. My heart cries my 
brother was guilty, but he is dead. I am innocent. I know I am going to die for 
things I am not guilty of, but I forgive them. I love all men now. My hope, the 
priest tells me, is in Christ. My heart shall be 'big with good." 

"(Signed) .". 

Henry H. Crawford, 

Sergeant, Co. D, R. M. R. 
Robert D. M.vhon, 

Corporal, Co. A, R. M. R." 

Following the close of the Cayuse war there was a lull in hostilities during 
which several white men came to the Walla Walla country or near it, with a view 
to locating. In Col. F. T. Gilbert's valuable history of Walla Walla and adjoin- 
ing counties, pubhshed in 1882, we find the data for a summary of the earliest 
settlers as follows: 

The first settlers of all were ivilliam C. ^McKay, son of Thomas McKay (who 
himself was the step-son of Dr. John McLoughlin) and Henry M. Chase. These 
men were located on the Umatilla River in 1851 at a point near the present Town 
of Echo. Doctor McKay later became a resident of Pendleton where he was 
well known for many years. In 1852 Mr. Chase went with Wm. Craig to the 
Nez Perce country near Lewiston where he entered the cattle business. In 
1855 he went to the region of the present Dayton and a short time later to Walla 
Walla. He lived in Walla Walla a number of years and was well known to all 
old-timers. He lived upon the property now the site of St. Paul's School. Louis 
Raboin, a Frenchman, though an American citizen, was in the Walla Walla 
country a number of years beginning in 1851. In 1855 he located at what is now 


the Town of Marengo on the Titcanon. V. M. Lafontain came to the region in 
1852 and located a claim adjoining that of Mr. Chase, near the present Dayton, 
in 1855. Lloyd Brooke, George C. Bumford, and John F. Noble came to Waiilatpu 
in 1852, and in the following year established themselves there in the cattle 
business. There they remained till driven out by the War of 1855. A. P. Wood- 
ward was a resident of the Walla Walla country during the same period. It is 
proper to name here Wm. Craig who had been a mountain man a number of 
years and became located among the Nez Perce Indians at Lapwai in 1845. 
From him Craig Mountains took their name. He was an important personage 
as interpreter and peace-maker among the Nez Perces during the great war later. 
There were several men drifting through the country employed as laborers by 
Mr. Chase and by the cattle-men at Waiilatpu. 

There was at that time quite a settlement on the Walla Walla around what 
is now known as Frenchtown, about ten miles from the present city. These were 
Hudson's Bay Company men. We find in the list of names several whose 
descendants lived subsequently in that region, though they mainly left during 
the Indian Wars and did not return. There were two priests among them. 
Fathers Chirouse and Pondosa, and they were assisted by two brothers. James 
Sinclair had at that time charge of Fort Walla Walla on the Columbia. Though 
the region was then in possession of the United States, the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany had not yet delivered up its locations. 

During this lull a very important event occurred. On March 3, 1853, the 
Territory of Washington was created and Isaac I. Stevens was appointed governor. 
The first Territorial Legislature laid out sixteen counties. Among them was 
Walla Walla County. That was the first "Old Walla Walla County." That it 
was much more extensive than the area especially covered by this work will 
apf>ear when the boundaries are given, thus : "Beginning its line on the north 
bank of the Columbia at a point opposite the mouth of Des Chutes River, it ran 
thence north to the forty-ninth parallel." It therefore embraced all of what 
was then Washington Territory east of that line, which included all of present 
Idaho, about a fourth of present Montana, and about half of what is now Wash- 
ington. That was the first attempt at organized government in Eastern Wash- 
ington. The county seat was located "on the land of Lloyd Brooke," which was 
at Waiilatpu. The Legislature further decreed : "That George C. Bumford, 
John Owens, and A. Dominique Pambrun be, and they are hereby constituted 
and appointed the Board of County Commissioners; and that Narcises Remond 
be, and hereby is appointed sherifif ; and that Lloyd Brooke be, and is hereby 
appointed judge of probate, and shall have jurisdiction as justice of the peace; all 
in and for the County of Walla Walla." These appointees with the exception of 
Mr. Owens (who lived near the present Missoula), were residents of the region 
of Waiilatpu and Frenchtown. That county organization was never inaugurated, 
and it remains as simply an interesting historical reminiscence. 

In March, 1855, another most notable event occurred, the first in a series 
that made much history in the Northwest. This was the discovery of gold at 
the junction of the Pend Oreille River with the Columbia. The discoverer was 
a French half-breed who had previously lived at French Prairie, Ore. The 
announcement of the discovery caused a stampede to the east of the mountains 
and inaugurated a series of momentous changes. 


Governor Stevens had entered upon his great task of organizing the newly 
created territory by undertaking the establishment of a number of Indian reserva- 
tions. The necessities of the case — both justice to the Indians and the whites, 
as well as the proper development of the country whose vast possibilities were 
beginning to be seen by the far-sighted ones — seemed to compel the segregation 
of the natives into comparatively small reservations. The history of the laying 
out of these reservations is an entire history by itself. There has been contro- 
versy as to the rights and wrongs of the case which has been best treated by 
Hazard Stevens in his "Life of Governor Stevens" (his father) in defence, and 
by Ezra Meeker in his "Tragedy of Leschi" in condemnation. Suffice it to say 
that the reservation policy was but faintly understood by the Indians and occur- 
ring in connection with the gold discoveries and the entrance of whites, eager for 
wealth and opportunity, it furnished all the conditions requisite for a first-class 
Indian war. Doubtless the great underlying cause was, as usual in Indian wars, 
the perception by Indians that their lands were steadily and surely passing out of 
their hands. 

In 1854 and 1855 a general flame of war burst forth in widely separated 
regions. There can be no question that there was an attempt at co-operation by 
the tribes over the whole of Oregon and Washington. But so wide and so scat- 
tered was the field and so incapable were the Indians of intelligent unity of action 
that the white settlements were spared a war of extermination. The centers of 
warfare were the Rogue River in Southern Oregon, a number of points on Puget 
Sound, especially Seattle and vicinity, and White River Valley. 

In May, 1855, Governor Stevens with a force of about fifty men reached Walla 
Walla for a conference with the tribes. The best authorities on the conference are 
Hazard Stevens, then a boy of fourteen, who accompanied his father, and I-ieu- 
tenant Kip of the United States Army. This meeting at Walla Walla was one 
of the most interesting and important in the annals of Indian relationships with 
the United States Government. There seems some difference of opinion as to the 
exact location of the conference. It has generally been thought that Stevens' camp 
was at what is now known as "Council Grove Addition," near the residence of 
ex-Senator Ankeny. When General Hazard Stevens was in Walla Walla some 
years ago he gave his opinion that it was in the near vicinity of the residence of 
Mrs. Clara Ouinn. William McBean, a son of the Hudson's Bay Company 
agent at Fort Walla Walla during the Cayuse war, who was himself in Stevens' 
force, as a young boy, told the author nearly thirty years ago that he believed the 
chief point of the conference was almost exactly on the present site of Whitman 
College. It appears from the testimony of old-timers that Mill Creek has changed 
its course at intervals in these years, and that as a result the exact identification 
is difficult. It seems plain, however, that the Indians were camped at various 
places along the two spring branches, "College Creek" and "Tannery Creek." 

With his little force, Governor Stevens might well have been startled, if he 
had been a man sensible of fear, when there came tearing across the plain to the 
northeast of the council ground an army of twenty-five hundred Nez Perces, 
headed by Halhaltlossot, known to the whites as Lawryer. After the Indian cus- 
tom they were whooping and firing their guns and making their horses prance and 
cavort in the clouds of dust stirred by hundreds of hoofs. But as it proved, these 
spectacular performers were the real friends of the Governor and his party and 


later on their salvation. Two days after, three hundred Cayuses, those worst of 
the Columbia River Indians, surly and scowling, made their appearance, led by 
Five Crows and Young Chief. Within two days again there arrived a force of 
two thousand Yakimas, Umatillas, and Walla Wallas. The 'A'alley of Waters" 
must have been at that time a genuine Indian paradise. The broad flats of Mill 
Creek and the Walla \\'alla were covered with grass and spangled with flowers. 
Numerous clear cold steains, gushing in springs from the ground and overhung 
by birches and cottonwoods, with the wild roses drooping over them, made their 
gurgling w-ay to a junction with the creek. Countless horses grazed on the l)unch- 
grass hills and farther back in the foothills there was an abundance of game. No 
wonder that the Indians, accustomed to gather for councils and horse-races, and 
all the other delights of savage life, should have scanned with jealous eyes the 
manifest desire of the whites for locations in a spot "where every prospect pleases 
and man alone is vile." 

It became e\ident to Governor Stevens that a conspiracy was burrowing be- 
neath his feet. Peupeumoxmox of the Walla Wallas and Kahmiakin of the 
Yakimas were the leaders. The former was now an old man, embittered by the 
murder of his son Elijah, and regarded by many as having been the real fomenter 
of the Whitman Massacre. Kahmiakin was a remarkable Indian. Winthrop. in 
his "Canoe and Saddle," gives a vivid description of him as being a man of 
extraordinary force and dignity. Governor Stevens said of him : "He is a pe- 
culiar man, reminding me of the panther and the grizzly bear. His countenance 
has an extraordinary play, one moment in frowns, the next in smiles, flashing with 
light and black as Erebus the same instant. His pantomime is great, and his ges- 
ticulations many and characteristic. He talks mostly in his face and with his 
hands and arms." He was a man of lofty stature and splendid physique, a typical 
Indian of the best type. This great Yakima chief saw that his race was doomed 
unless they could check White occupancy at its very beginning. Restrained by no 
scruples (as indeed his civilized opponents seldom were) he seems to have con- 
spired with the Walla Wallas and Cayuses to wipe out Stevens and his band, then 
rush to The Dalles and exterminate the garrison there ; then with united forces 
of all the Eastern Oregon Indians sweep on into the principal settlements of the 
whites, those of the Willamette \'alley, and wipe them out. Meanwhile their 
allies on the Sound were to seize the pivotal points there. Thus Indian victory 
would be comprehensive and final. Preposterous as such an expectation appears 
now to us, it was not, after all, so remote as we might think. Six or seven thou- 
sand of these powerful warriors, splendidly mounted and well armed, if well 
directed, crossing the mountains into the scattered settlements of Western Oregon 
and Washington might well have cleaned up the country, with the exception of 
Portland, which v^'as then quite a little city and in a position which would have 
made any successful attack by Indians hopeless. 

But the Nez Perces saved the day. Halhaltlossot perceived that the only hope 
for his people was in peace and as favorable reservation assignments as could be 
secured. lie nipped the conspiracy in the bud. Hazard Stevens gives a thrilling 
account of how the Nez Perce chief went by night to the Governor's camp and 
revealed the conspiracy. He moved his own camp to a point adjoining the whites 
and made it clear that the hostiles could accomplish their aims only in the face of 
Nez Perce opposition. This situation made the conspiracy impotent. 

Lewis MeMorris 

,1. J. Kuliii 

Dr. .Tdliii Tcin[]aiiy 

Michael Kenny jDsi-pli ilcKvuy 



Not all, however, of the Nez Perces approved the tactics of Lawyer. There 
was a powerful faction that favored the Yakimas, Cayuses, and Walla Wallas. 
While Governor Stevens had been gradually bringing the main body of the Nez 
Perces to consent to a treaty assigning certain reservations to them, and was 
flattering' himself that with the aid of Lawyer he was just about to clinch the 
deal, there was a sudden commotion in the council, and into the midst there burst 
the old chief Apashwayhayikt (Looking Glass). He had just been on a raid 
against the Blackfeet, and hearing of the probable outcome of the Walla Walla 
Council, had made a ride of 300 miles in seven days. With his little band of at- 
tendants he came racing over the "bench" on which "Garden City Heights" is now 
located, and with scalps of several slaughtered Blackfeet dangling from his belt 
he rushed to the front, and fixing his angry and reproachful eyes upon his tribes- 
men he broke forth into a harangue which Hazard Stevens was told by some 
Indians began about thus: "My people, what have you done? While I was gone 
you sold my country. I have come home and there is not left me a place on which 
to pitch my lodge. Go home to your lodges. I will talk with you." Lieutenant 
Kip declares that though he could not understand the words, the effect was 
tremendous and the speech was equal to the greatest bursts of oratory that he had 
ever heard. The council broke up and the nearly accepted treaty went to naught. 

With great patience and skill Stevens and Lawyer rallied their defeated forces 
and, in spite of the opposition of Looking Glass; they secured the acquiescence of 
the main body of the Indians to three .i-egervations. These were essentially the 
same as now known: the Yakima, theUmatilfe, 'ah^- die Nez Perce. In case of 
the last, however, there was a lamentabk- and distressing miscarriage of agree- 
ment and perhaps of justice. William. McBean;, -already mentioned as a half- 
breed boy employed by Governor Stevens, stated to the author many years ago 
that he discovered that the general impression among the Nez Perce Indians 
was that by accepting the treaty and surrendering their lands in the Touchet, 
Tucanon, and Alpowa countries, they would be assured of the permanent posses- 
sion of the Wallowa. Now, if there was any region more suitable to Indians and 
more loved by them than another, it was that same Wallowa, with its snowy 
peaks, its lakes and streams filled with fish, its grassy upland with deer and elk, 
its thickets and groves with grouse and pheasants. The understanding of the 
"Joseph band" of Nez Perces was, according to McBean, that the loved Wallowa 
was to be their special range. Upon that supposition they voted with Lawyer 
for the treaty and that was the determining influence that secured its passage. 
But twenty years later, white men began to perceive that the Wallowa was also 
suitable to them. With that lack of continuity in dealing with natives in face of 
a demand for land by whites which has made most of our Indian treaties mere 
"scraps of paper," the administration (that of Grant) forgot the understanding, 
the Indians were dispossessed, and the Nez Perce war with the very people who 
had saved Stevens in 1855 was precipitated in 1877. Young Joseph (Hallakalla- 
keen) led his warriors in the most spectacular Indian war in the history of this 
country, as a result of which his band was finally overpowered and located on the 
Nespilem, a part of the Colville reservation. Kamiakin had seemed to agree to 
the treaty at Walla Walla. But he was only biding his time. Governor Stevens, 
having, as he thought, pacified the tribes by that group of treaties, proceeded on a 
similar mission to the Flatheads in Northern Idaho. There, after long discussion, 


a treaty was negotiated by which a milUon and a quarter acres was set aside for 
a reservation. The next move of the Governor was across the Rocky Mountains 
to Fort Benton. 

But what was happening on the Walla Walla? No sooner was the Governor 
fairly out of sight across the flower-bespangled plains, which extended 200 miles 
northeast from \\'alla Walla, than the wily Kamiakin began to resume his plots. 
So successful was he, with the valuable assistance of Peupeumoxmox, Young 
Chief, and Five Crows, that the treaties, just ratified, were torn to shreds and 
the flame of savage warfare burst forth across the entire Columbia Valley. 

Hazard Stevens, in his invaluable history of his father, gives a vivid picture of 
how the news reached them in their camp, thirty-five miles up the Missouri from 
Fort Benton. Summer had now passed into autumn. A favorable treaty had 
been made with the Blackfeet. On October 29th the little party were gathered 
around their campfire in the frosty air of fall in that high altitude when they 
discerned a solitary rider making his way slowly toward them. As he drew near 
they soon saw that it was Pearson, the express rider. Pearson was one of the 
best examples of those scouts whose lives were spent in conveying messages from 
forts to parties in the field. He usually traveled alone, and his life was always 
in his hand. He seemed to be made of steel springs, and it had been thought that 
he could endure anything. "He could ride anything that wore hair." He rode 
1,750 miles in twenty-eight days at one time, one stage of 260 miles having been 
made in three days. But as he slowly drew up to the party in the cold evening 
light, it was seen that even Pearson was "done." His horse staggered and fell, 
and he himself could not stand or speak for some time. After he had been revived 
he told his story, and a story of disaster and foreboding it was, sure enough. 

All the great tribes of the Columbia plains west of the Nez Perces had broken 
out, the Cayuses, Yakimas, Palouses, Walla Wallas, Umatillas, and Klickitats. 
They had swept the country clean of whites. The ride of Pearson from The Dalles 
to the point where he reached Governor Stevens is one of the most thrilling in 
our annals. By riding all day and night, he reached a horse ranch on the Umatilla 
belonging to William McKay, but he found the place deserted. Seeing a splendid 
horse in the bunch near by, he lassoed and saddled him. Though the horse was 
as wild as air, Pearson managed to mount and start on. Just then there swept 
into view a force of Indians who, instantly divining what Pearson was trying to 
do, gave chase. Up and down hill, through vale, and across the rim-rock, they 
followed, sending frequent bullets after him, and yelling like demons. "Whupsiah 
si-ah-poo, Whup-si-ah!" ("Kill the white man!") But the wild horse which the 
intrepid rider bestrode proved his salvation, for he gradually outran all his pur- 
suers. Traveling through the Walla Walla at night Pearson reached the camp of 
friendly Nez Perce Red Wolf on the Alpowa the next day, having ridden 200 
miles from The Dalles without stopping except the brief time changing horses. 
Snow and hunger now impeded his course. Part of the way he had to go on 
snowshoes without a horse. But with unflinching resolution he passed on, and so 
now here he was with his dismal tidings. 

The dispatches warned Governor Stevens that Kamiakin with a thousand war- 
riors was in the Walla Walla \^alley and that it would be impossible for him to 
get through by that route, and that he must therefore return to the East by the 
Missouri and come back to his territory by the steamer route of Panama. That 


meant six months' delay. With characteristic boldness, Governor Stevens at 
once rejected the more cautious course and went right back to Spokane by Coeur 
d'Alene Pass, deep already with vi'inter snows, suffering intensely with cold and 
hunger, but avoiding by that route the Indians sent out to intercept him. With 
extraordinary address, he succeeding in turning the Spokane Indians to his side. 
The Nez Perces, thanks to Lawyer's fidelity, were still friendly, and with these 
two powerful tribes arrayed against the Yakimas, there was still hope of holding 
the Columbia Valley. 

After many adventures, Governor Stevens reached Olympia in safety. Gov- 
orner Curry of Oregon had already called a force of volunteers into the field. 
The Oregon volunteers were divided into two divisions, one under Col. T. W. 
Nesmith, which went into the Yakima country, and the other under Lieut.-Col. 
J. K. Kelly, which went to Walla Walla. The latter force fought the decisive 
battle of the campaign on the 7th, 8th, 9th and lOth of December, 1855. It was 
a series of engagements occurring in the heart of the Walla Walla Valley, a 
"running fight" culminating at what is now called Frenchtown, ten miles west of 
the present City of Walla Walla. 

The famous battle of the Walla Walla, being so conspicuous and so near the 
present city, is worthy of some detail. The report of Col. J. K. Kelley is as 
follows : 

"On the evening of the 8th inst., I gave you a hasty report of our battle with 
Indians up to the close of the second day's fight, and then stated that at a future 
time I would give a more detailed account of all transactions that occurred since 
the march from the Umatilla River. Owing to active engagements in the field, 
and in pursuit of the Indians, I have not hitherto had leisure to make that reportf 

"As soon as it was dark on the evening of the second, I proceeded with my 
command from Fort Henrietta to Walla Walla, having left a detachment of 
twenty-five men, under command of Lieutenant Sword, to protect the former 
post. On the morning of the third we encamped on the bank of the Walla Walla 
River about four miles from the fort; and, proceeding to the latter place, I found 
it had been pillaged by the Indians, the buildings much defaced and the furniture 

"On the morning of the fourth, a body of Indians was observed on the opposite 
side of the Columbia, apparently making preparations to cross the river with a 
large amount of baggage. Seeing us in possession of the fort, they were deterred 
from making the attempt, when I sent a small detachment down to a bar making 
into the Columbia immediately below the mouth of the Walla Walla, and opposite 
to where the Indians were, with directions to fire upon them and prevent the 
removal of their packs of provisions. The width of the river at this place is 
about 250 yards ; and a brisk fire was at once opened upon the Indians, which 
was returned by them from behind the rocks on the opposite shore. No boats 
could be procured to cross the river in order to secure the provisions or to attack 
the body of Indians, numbering about fifty, who had made their appearance on 
the hill north of Walla Walla, who, after surveying our encampment, started off 
in a northeasterly direction. I at once determined to follow in pursuit of them on 
the following day. 

"Early on the morning of the fifth I dispatched Second Major Chinn, with 
150 men, to escort the baggage and packtrains to the mouth of the Touchet, there 


to await ni)- icliiin with thu ix-niainder uf the forces under my command. On 
the same morning 1 marched with about two hundred men to a point on the 
Tuuchet l\i\er about twelve miles from its mouth, with the view of attacking 
the Walla Walla Indians, who were supposed to be encamped there. When I was 
near to and making towards the village, Peupeumoxmox, the chief of the tribe, 
with six other Indians, made their appearance under a flag of truce. He stated 
that he did not wish to fight ; that his people did not wish to fight ; and that on the 
follow-ing day he would come and have a talk and make a treaty of peace. On 
consultation w'ith Hon. Nathan Olney, Indian agent, we concluded that this was 
simply a ruse to gain time for removing his village and preparing for battle. I 
stated to him that we had come to chastise him for the wrongs he had done to 
our people, and that we would not defer making an attack on his people unless 
he and his five followers would consent to accompany and remain wdth us until 
all difficulties were settled. I told him that he might go away under his flag of 
truce if he chose; but, if he did so, we would forthwith attack his village. The 
alternative was distinctly made known to him ; and, to save his people, he chose 
to remain with us as a hostage for the fulfillment of his promise, as did also those 
who accompanied him. He at the same time said that on the following day he 
would accompany us to his village; that he would then assemble his people and 
make them deliver up all their arms and ammunition, restore the property which 
had been taken from the white settlers, or pay the full value of that which could 
not be restored ; and that he would furnish fresh horses to remount my command, 
and cattle to supply them with provisions, to enable us to wage war against other 
hostile tribes who were leagued with him. Having made these promises, we re- 
frained from making the attack, thinking we had him in our power, and that on 
the next dav his promises w^ould be fulfilled. I also permitted him to send one 
of the men who accompanied him to his village to apprise the tribes of the terms 
of the expected treaty, so that they might be perpared to fufill it. 

"On the sixth, we marched to the village and found it entirely deserted, but 
saw the Indians in considerable force on the distant hills, and watching our move- 
ments. I sent out a messenger to induce them to come in, but could not do so. 
And I will here observe that I have since learned from a Nez Perce boy who was 
taken at the same time w'ith Peupeumoxmox, that instead of sending word to his 
people to make a treaty of peace, he sent an order for them to remove their 
women and children and prepare for battle. From all I have since learned. I am 
well persuaded that he was acting with du])licity, and that he expected to entrap 
my command in the deep ravine in which his camp was situated, and make his 
escape from us. We remained at the deserted village until about one o'clock in 
the afternoon ; and seeing no hope of coming to any terms we proceeded to the 
mouth of the Touchet with a view of going from thence to some spot near Whit- 
man's Station, where I had intended to form a permanent camp for the winter. 

"On the morning of the seventh. Companies H and K crossed the Touchet, 
leading the column on the route to Whitman's A'alley, and when formed on the 
plain, were joined by Company P.. A few persons in front were driving our cattle : 
and a few were on the flanks of the companies and near the foot of the hills that 
extended along the river. These persons, as well as I can ascertain, were fired on 
by the Indians. Immediately all the companies except A and F fwho were or- 
dered to remain with the baggage) commenced an eager chase of the Indians in 



sight. A running fight was the consequence, the force of the Indians increasing 
with every mile. Several of the enemy were killed in the chase before reaching 
the farm of La Rocque, which is about twelve miles from the mouth of the 
Touchet. At this point they made a stand, their left resting on the river covered 
with trees and underbrush, their center occupying the fiat, as this place was cov- 
ered with clumps of sagebrush and small sand knolls, their right on the high ridge 
of hills which skirt the river bottom. 

"When the volunteers reached this point, they were not more than forty or 
fifty men, being those mounted on the fleetest horses. Upon these the Indians 
poured a murderous fire from the brushwood and willows along the river, and 
from the sage bushes along the plain, wounding a number of the volunteers. The 
men fell back. The moment was critical. They were commanded to cross the 
fence which surrounds La Rocque's field, and charge upon the Indians in the 
brush. In executing this order. Lieutenant Burrows of Company H was killed; 
and Captain Munson of Company I, Isaac Miller, sergeant-major, and G. W. 
Smith of Company B, were wounded. A dispatch having been sent to Captain 
Wilson of Company A to come forward, he and his company came up on the 
gallop, dismounted at a slough, and with fixed bayonets pushed on through the 
brush. In the course of half an hour Captain Bennett was on the ground with 
Company F ; and, with this accession, the enemy was steadily driven forward for 
two miles, when they took possession of a farm house and close fence, in attempt- 
ing to carry which Captain Bennett of Company F and Private Kelso of Company 
A were killed. .-/I.'.'V w ;.• •;••" 

"A howitzer found at Fort; ^^R^ilAjallasjunciftr ?harge of Captain Wilson, by 
this time was brought to bear lipon the enemy. Fouf rounds were fired, when the 
piece bursted, wounding Captain %V:if/on.'':The Indians then gave way at all 
points; and the house and fence" NVFrE-seized-artd held by the volunteers and the 
bodies of our men recovered. These positions were held by us until nightfall, 
when the volunteers fell slowly back and returned unmolested to camp. 

"Early on the morning of the 8th the Indians appeared with increased forces, 
amounting to fully six hundred warriors. They were posted as usual in the 
thick brush by the river, among the sage bushes and sand knolls, and on the sur- 
rounding hills. This day Lieutenant Pillow with Company A and Lieutenant 
Hannah with Company H were ordered to take and hold the brush skirting the 
river and the sage bushes on the plain. Lieutenant Fellows, with Company F, 
was directed to take and keep the possession of the point at the foot of the hill. 
Lieutenant Jeffries with Company B, Lieutenant Hand with Company I, and 
Captain Cornoyer with Company K, were posted on three several points on the 
hills, with orders to maintain them and to assail the enemy on other points of the 
same hills. As usual, the Indians were driven from their position, although they 
fought with skill and braven,'. 

"On the ninth, they did not make their appearance until about ten o'clock in 
the morning, and then in somewhat diminished numbers. As I had sent to Fort 
Henrietta for Companies D and E, and expected them on the tenth, I thought 
it best to act on the defensive and hold our positions, which were the same as on 
the eighth, until we could get an accession to our forces sufficient to enable us 
to assail their rear and cut ofT their retreat. An attack was made during the day 
on Companies A and H in the brushwood, and upon B on the hill, both of which 


were repulsed with great gallantry by those companies, and with considerable loss 
to the enemy. Companies F, I, and K also did honor to themselves in repelling 
all approaches to their positions, although in doing so one man in Company F 
and one in Company I were severely wounded. Darkness as usual closed the 
combat, by the enemy withdrawing from the field. Owing to the inclemency of 
the night, the companies on the hill were withdrawn from their several positions, 
Company Li abandoning the rifle pits which were made by the men for its pro- 
tection. At early dawn on the next day, the Indians were observed from our 
camp to be in possession of all points held by us on the preceding day. Upon 
seeing them. Lieutenant McAuliffe of Company B gallantly observed that his 
company had dug those holes, and that after breakfast they would have them 
again. And well was his declaration fulfilled; for in less than half an hour the 
enemy were driven from the rifle pits, and had fled to an adjoining hill which 
they had occupied the day before. This position was at once assailed. Captain 
Cornoyer with Company K and a portion of Company I, being mounted, gallantly 
charged the enemy on his right flank, while Lieutenant McAuliffe with Company 
B, dismounted, rushed up the hill in face of a heavy fire, and scattered them in all 
directions. They at once fled in all directions to return to this battlefield no more; 
and thus ended our long-contested fight. 

"I have already given you a list of the killed and wounded on the first two 
days of the battle. On the last two days, we had only three wounded, whose 
names you will find subjoined to this report. J. Fleming of Company A, before 
reported as mortally wounded, has since died. I am happy to state, however, that 
Private Jasper Snook of Company H, reported by me as mortally wounded, is in 
a fair way to recover. The surgeon informs me that all the wounded in the hos- 
pital are now doing well. The loss of the enemy in killed, during the four days, 
I estimate at about seventy-five. Thirty-nine dead bodies have already been found 
by the volunteers; and many were carried oiT the field by their friends and com- 
rades. So that I think that my estimate is about correct. The number of their 
wounded must, of course, be great. In making my report, I cannot say too much 
in the praise of the conduct of the officers of the several companies and most of 
the soldiers under my command. They did their duty bravely and well during 
those four trying days of battle. To Second Major Chinn, who took charge of 
the companies in the bush by the river, credit is due for his bravery and skill, 
also to Assistant Adjutant Monroe Atkinson for his efficiency and zeal as well in 
the field as in the camp. And here, while giving to the officers and men of the 
regiment the praise that is justly due, I cannot omit the name of Hon. Nathan 
Olney, although he is not one of the volunteers. Having accompanied me in the 
capacity of Indian agent, I requested him to act as my aid, on account of his 
admitted skill in Indian warfare ; and, to his wisdom in council and daring courage 
on the field of l)attle. I am much indebted and shall never cease to appreciate his 

"Companies D and E having arrived from Fort Henrietta on the evening of 
the tenth, the next morning I followed with all the available troops along the 
Nez Perces' trail in pursuit of the Indians. On Mill Creek, about twelve miles 
from here, we passed through their village, numbering 196 fires, which had been 
deserted the night before. Much of their provisions were scattered along the 
wayside, indicating that they had fled in great haste to the north. We pursued 
them until it was too dark to follow the track of their horses, when we camped 


on Coppei Creek. On the twelfth we continued the pursuit until we passed some 
distance beyond the station of Brooke, Noble and Bumford on the Touchet, when 
we found the chase was in vain, as many of our horses were completely broken 
down and the men on foot. We therefore returned and arrived in camp on yes- 
terday evening with about one hundred head of cattle which the Indians left scat- 
tered along the trail in their flight. 

"On the eleventh, while in pursuit of the enemy, I received a letter from 
Narcisse Raymond by the hands of Tintinmetzy, a friendly chief (which I en- 
close), asking our protection of the French and friendly Indians under his charge. 

"On the morning of the twelfth, I dispatched Captain Cornoyer with his com- 
pany to their relief. Mr. Olney, who accompanied them, returned to camp this 
evening, and reports that Captain Cornoyer will return tomorrow with Mr. Ray- 
mond and his people, who nbw feel greatly relieved from their critical situation. 
Mr. Olney learned from these friendly Indians what we before strongly believed, 
that the Palouses, Walla Wallas, Umatillas, Cayuses, and Stock Whitley's band 
of Des Chutes Indians were all engaged in the battle on the Walla Walla. These 
Indians also informed Mr. Olney that, after the battle, the Palouses, Walla Wallas, 
and Umatillas had gone partly to-the Grande Ronde and partly to the country of 
the Nez Perces, and that Stock Whitley, disgusted with the manner in which the 
Cayuses fought in the battle, has abandoned them and gone to the Yakima coun- 
try to join his forces with those of Kamiakin. We have now the undisputed pos- 
session of the country south of the Snake River; and I would suggest the pro- 
priety of retaining this possession until such time as it can be occupied by the 
regular troops. The Indians have left much of their stock behind, which will 
doubtless be lost to us if we go away. The troops here will not be in a situation 
for some time to go to the Palouse country, as our horses at present are too much 
jaded to endure the journey ; and we have no boats to cross Snake River and no 
timber to make them nearer than this place. But I would suggest the propriety 
of following up the Indians with all possible speed, now that their hopes are 
blighted and their spirits broken. Unless this be done, they will perhaps rally 

"Today I received a letter from Governor Stevens, dated yesterday, which I 
enclose. You will perceive that he is in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the 
war. With his views I fully concur. 

"I must earnestly ask that supplies be sent forward to us without delay. For 
the last three days none of the volunteers, except the two companies from Fort 
Henrietta, have had any flour. There is none here, and but little at that post. 
We are now living on beef and potatoes which are found en cache; and the men 
are becoming much discontented with this mode of living. Clothing for the men 
is much needed as the winter approaches. Tomorrow we will remove to a more 
suitable point, where grass can be obtained in greater abundance for our worn- 
out horses. A place has been selected about two miles above Whitman's Station, 
on the same (north) side of the Walla Walla; consequently I will abandon this 
fort, named in honor of Captain Bennett of Company F, who now sleeps beneath 
its stockade, and whose career of usefulness and bravery was here so sadly but 
nobly closed. 

"Very respectfully, your ob't serv't, 

"James K. Kelly, 
"Lieut.-Col., Com'g Left Col." 


A most bitterly disputed feature of this battle was the killing of Peupeuiiiox- 
niox. It has been esteemed by many as nothing short of murder. The author 
of this work found difference of opinion among the old-timers formerly resident 
in Walla Walla, as Lewis McMorris and James McAuliffe, as to the rights and 
wrongs of the case. The former narrated a ghastly story as follows : The Indian 
chief having been taken prisoner with several followers was under guard. In 
the hottest of the fight they undertook to escape. The guards shot them down. 
The body of the old chieftain was mutilated. His ears were cut ofif and put in a 
jar of whiskey in order to preserve them, and subsequently they were nailed to 
the State House at Salem. But, according to McMorris, the whiskey in the jar 
disappeared. It was believed by the soldiers that a certain lieutenant had taken 
it for beverage purposes, and it was common for someone in camp to bawl out at 
night when he could not be identified, "Who drank* the whiskey off of Peupeu- 
moxmox's ears ?" This event, while so repulsive, casts a certain light on the con- 
ditions. Perhaps a fuller view can be obtained by quoting the official superin- 
tendent, Joel Palmer, as follows: 

"We arrived near the camp (Walla Wallas) just before night (the 5th of 
December), and were met by Peupeumoxmox and about fifty of his men with a 
white flag. They asked for a talk. We halted (Colonel Kelly's command) and 
demanded what he wanted. He said peace. We told him to come with us and 
we would talk. He said no. We then told him to take back his flag and we 
would fight. He said no. We then told him to take his choice — go back and fight 
or come and stop with us. He chose the latter. We retained him until the next 
day. We tried to come to an understanding, but could not. We still retained 
him as a prisoner, with four of his men who came along with him. The next 
morning, the seventh, a large force attacked us as we left camp. In tr)'ing to 
escape from their guard during the seventh, they w'ere killed." 

As presenting the other view of the subject, we quote from Colonel. Gilbert as 
follows : 

"An important event transpired that day which it would be more proper to 
designate as a disgraceful tragedy enacted, that is omitted from this oflicial 
report. The following is an account of it, as given to the writer by Lewis Mc- 
Morris, who was present at the time and saw what he narrated. * * * The 
combatants had passed on up the valley, and the distant detonation of their guns 
could be heard. The flag of truce prisoners were there under guard, and every- 
one seemed electrified with suppressed excitement. A wounded man came in with 
his shattered arm dangling at his side, and reported Captain Bennett killed at the 
front. This added to the excitement, and the attention of all was more or less 
attracted to the wounded man, when some one said, 'Look out, or the Indians will 
get away !' At this, seemingly, every one yelled, 'Shoot 'em ! Shoot 'em !' and on 
the instant there was a rattle of musketry on all sides. 

"What followed was so quick, and there were so many acting that McMorris 
could not see it in detail, though all was transpiring within a few yards of, and 
around him. It was over in a minute, and three of the five prisoners were dead; 
another was wounded, knocked senseless and supposed to be dead, who after- 
wards recovered consciousness, and was shot to put him out of misery, while the 
fifth was spared because he was a Nez Perce. * * * .A.11 were scalped in a few 
minutes, and later the body of Yellow Bird, the great Walla Walla chief, was 


mutilated in a way that should entitle those who did it to a prominent niche in 
the ghoulish temple erected to commemorate the infamous acts of soulless men. 
Let us draw a screen upon this affair that has cast a shadow over the otherwise 
bright record of Oregon volunteers in that \TOr, remembering, when we do so, 
that but few of them were responsible for its occurrence." 

Following this decisive victory of Colonel Kelly and his command, in Decem- 
ber, 185s, on the Walla Walla, a second regiment of Washington volunteers was 
despatched for Walla Walla in the smnmer of 1856 in command of Col. B. F. 
Shaw. On July 17, 1856, Colonel Shaw gained a brilliant victory over the allied 
forces of the savages in the Grande Ronde. While this important campaign was 
in progress, Governor Stevens had his hands full in Western Washington. The 
little settlement at Seattle had been nearly destroyed. Many of the settlers in the 
scattered settlements on the sound had lost their lives, their homes were destroyed 
and their stock driven off. In the spring the Klickitat Indians had made a sudden 
dash upon the settlements on the Columbia River between the White Salmon and 
the Cascades. A certain young lieutenant, afterwards somewhat distinguished, 
fought his first battle at the latter point. It was Phil Sheridan. In spite of these 
absorbing events in Western Washington and at the Cascades, Governor Stevens, 
realizing the vital importance of holding the allegiance of the Nez Perces, pro- 
ceeded to Walla Walla for another council. His location was about two miles 
above the camp of 1855. Shortly after his arrival, Col. E. J. Steptoe of the 
regular army made camp at the location of the present fort. 

And now came on the second great Walla Walla council. The tribes were 
fathered as before, and were aligned as before. The division of Nez Perces under 
Lawyer stood firmly by Stevens and the treaty. The others did not. The most 
unfortunate feature of the entire matter Was that Colonel Steptoe, acting under 
General Wool's instructions, thus far kept secret, refused to grant Stevens ade- 
quate support and subjected him to humiliations which galled the fiery Governor 
to the limit. In fact, had it not been for the vigilance of the faithful Nez Perces 
of Lawyer's band, Stevens and his force would surely have met the doom pre- 
pared for them at the first council. The debt of gratitude due Lawyer is incal- 
culable. Spotted Eagle ought to be recorded, too, as of similar devotion and 
watchfulness. Governor Stevens afterward declared that a speech by him in 
favor of the whites was equal in feeling, truth, and courage to any speech that he 
ever heard from any orator whatever. 

Rut in spite of oratory, zeal, and argument, nothing could overcome the influ- 
ence of Kamiakin, Owhi, Ouelchen, Five Crows and others of the Yakimas and 
Cayuses. Nothing was gained. They stood just where they were a year before. 
The fatal results of divided counsels between regulars and volunteers were ap- 

The baffled Governor now started on his way down the river, but not without 
another battle. For, as he was marching a short distance south of what is now 
Walla Walla City, the Indians burst upon his small force with the evident inten- 
tion of ending all scores then and there. But Colonel Steptoe established a rude 
stockade fort on Mill Creek in what is now the heart of the present Walla Walla 
City, and went into winter quarters there in 1856-57. Governor Stevens returned 
to Olympia and launched forth a bitter arraignment against Wool. The latter, 
however, was in a position of vantage and issued a proclamation commanding all 


whites in the upper country to go down the river and leave the Cascade Moun- 
tains as the eastern hmit of the white settlement. Thus ended for a time this 
unsatisfactory and distressing war. 'Jo all appearances Kamiakin and his adher- 
ents had accomplished all they wanted. 

But this was not the end. Gold had been discovered in Eastern Washington. 
Vast j)ossihilities of cattle raising were evident on those endless bunch-grass hills. 
Although there was as yet little conception of the future developments of the 
Inland Empire in agriculture and gardening, yet the keen-eyed immigrants and 
volunteers had scanned the pleasant vales and abounding streams of the Walla 
Walla and Umatilla and Palouse, and had decided in their own minds that, 
Wool or no Wool, this land must be opened. In 1857 the Government, as already 
noted, decided on a change of policy and sent Gen. N. S. Clarke to take Wool's 
place. General Clarke opened the gates, and the impatient army of land hunters 
and gold hunters began to move in. Meanwhile, Colonel Wright and Colonel 
Steptoe, though formerly they had closely followed Wool's policy, now began 
to experience a change of heart. Out of these conditions the third Indian war, 
in 1858, quickly succeeded the second, being indeed its inevitable sequence. 

Three campaigns marked this third war. The first was conducted by Colonel 
Steptoe against the Spokanes and Coeur d'Alenes, and ended in his humiliating 
and disastrous defeat. The second was directed by Major Garnett against the 
Yakimas, resulting in their permanent overthrow. The third was conducted by 
Colonel Wright against the Spokanes and other northern tribes who had defeated 
Steptoe. This was the Waterloo of the Indians, and it ushered in the occupation 
and settlement of the upper Columbia country. 

The Steptoe expedition, the first of that series of campaigns, was one of the 
most disastrous in the history of Indian warfare. When the command had reached 
a point near Four Lakes, probably the group of which Silver Lake is largest, a 
formidable array of Indians met them, all the hosts of the Spokanes, Pend 
Oreilles. and allied tribes. Seeing the dangerous situation into which they were 
running, Steptoe gave the word to retreat. 

The force turned back and that night all seemed well. But at 9 o'clock the 
next morning, while the soldiers were descending a canon to Pine Creek, near the 
present site of Rosalia, a large force of Indians burst upon them like a cyclone. 
As the battle began to wax hot the terrible consequences of the error of lack of 
ammunition began to become manifest. Man after man had to cease firing. 
Capt. O. H. P. Taylor and Lieutenant Gaston commanded the rear-guard. With 
extraordinar}' skill and devotion they held the line intact and foiled the efforts of 
the savages to burst through. Meanwhile the whole force was moving as rapidly 
as consistent with formation on their way southward. Taylor and Gaston sent a 
messenger forward, begging Steptoe to halt the line and give them a chance to 
load. But the commander felt that the safety of the whole force depended on 
pressing on. Soon a fierce rush of Indians followed, and, when the surge had 
passed, the gallant rear-guard was buried under it. One notable figure in the 
death-grapple was De May, a Frenchman, trained in the Crimea and Algeria, and 
an expert fencer. For some time he used his gun barrel as a sword and swept 
the Indians down by dozens with his terrific sweeps. But at last he fell before 
numbers and one of his surviving comrades relates that he heard him shouting 
his last words, "O my God, my God, for a sabre !" 


Ikit the lost rear-guard saved the rest. For they managed to hold back the 
swarm of foes until nightfall, when they reached a somewhat defensible position 
a few miles from the towering cone of what is now known as Steptoe Butte. 
There they spent part of a dark, rainy, and dismal night, anticipating a savage 
attack. But the Indians, sure of their prey, waited till morning. Surely the first 
light would have revealed a massacre equal to the Custer massacre of later date, 
had not the unexpected happened. And the unexpected was that old Timothy, 
the Nez Perce guide, knew a trail through a rough canon, the only possible exit 
without discovery. In the darkness of midnight the shattered command mounted 
and followed at a gallop the faithful Timothy, on whose keen eyes and mind their 
salvation rested. The wounded and a few footmen were dropped at intervals 
along the trail. After an eighty-mile gallop during the day and night following, 
the yellow flood of Snake River suddenly broke before them between its desolate 
banks. Saved ! The unwearied Timothy threw out his own warriors as a screen 
against the pursuing foe, and set his women to ferrying the soldiers across the 
turbulent stream. 

Thus the larger part of the command reached Fort Walla Walla alive. 

With the defeat of Steptoe, the Indians may well have felt that they were in- 
vincible. But their exultation was short-lived. As already noted, Garnett crushed 
the Yakimas at one blow, and Wright a little later repeated Steptoe's march to 
Spokane, but did not repeat his retreat. For in the battle of Four Lakes, on 
September ist, and that of Spokane Plains on September 5th, Wright broke 
forever the power and spirits of the northern Indians. 

The treaties were thus established at last by war. The reservations, embracing 
the finest parts of the Umatilla, Yakima, Clearwater, and Coeur d'Alene regions, 
were set apart, and to them after considerable delay and difficulty the tribes were 

With the end of this third great Indian war and the public announcement by 
General Clarke that the country might now be considered open to settlement, 
immigration began to pour in, and on ranch and river, in mine and forest, the 
well-known labors of the American state-builders and home-builders were dis- 
played. The ever-new West was repeating itself. Almost immediately upon the 
tidings of General Clarke's proclamation, a motley throng of prospective miners, 
cowboys, pioneer merchants, promoters and adventurers of all kinds began to 
pour into the "Upper Country." The fur-traders, foreign missionaries, scouts, 
and advance guard of pioneers were passing off the stage and the modern build- 
ers were coming. The varied activities and enterprises of these builders of the 
foundations during the decades of the '60s and '70s, which may be styled the first 
division of the era of modern times will compose Part Two of this volume. 





In an earlier chapter we have narrated the first attempts by the first Legis- 
lature of Washington Territory, in 1854, to establish Walla Walla County. It 
consisted of the entire territory east of a line running north from a point on the 
Columbia River opposite the mouth of the Des Chutes River, practically at the 
present Fallbridge. Thus the county included all of the present Eastern Wash- 
ington, with the entire present State of Idaho and about a fourth of Montana. 
The only settlement in that vast area was around Waiilatpu and Frenchtown. 
Though officers for the proposed county w'ere appointed, they did not qualify 
and the proposed county never completed its organization. Then came on the 
Indian wars, lasting till Colonel Wright's decisive victory at Spokane in August 
and September, 1858, closed that era. Following that event General Clarke's 
proclamation opened the "Upper Country" to settlement. Not till the spring of 
1859, however, did Congress ratify the treaties for the three reservations, Nez 
Perce, Umatilla, and Yakima. But almost immediately upon General Clarke's 
proclamation the impatient immigration began to enter the Walla Walla Valley. 
We may consider the immigrants of 1858 and 1859 as the vanguard of permanent 
settlement. Yet, it should not be forgotten that several names of permanent im- 
portance are found in the annals of 1851-55. during the period between the 
Cayuse war and the Great War of 1855-58. Those names appeared in the chap- 
ter on the Indian Wars. 

A number of the pioneers of 1858-59 had been connected with those wars, 
either as members of the United States army or as volunteers. Others came from 
Oregon and California, full of the restless spirit of the country and time, eager 
for the possibilities of a new land. Those first locations were mainly in the near 
vicinity of the present City of Walla Walla, with a few on the Touchet. While 
it is hardly possible to avoid some omissions, we will endeavor to present a list 
of those who, most of them with families, settled in the years named, a few com- 
ing even prior to 1858. Some of them, it may be stated, came and "looked" and 
then returned for family or equipment and came back in a year for a permanence. 
A few here given left the country after a few years, and others were simply 
transients. But in general they with their families became essential factors in 
the upbuilding life of the region. Among them were business men and profes- 
sional men, but the majority were stockmen. It was not realized that the gen- 
eral body of upland was adapted to grain production. The first settlers generally 
sought locations convenient to water, with bottom land where they thought grain 
and vegetables might flourish, but with the range of luxuriant bunch-grass as 
the essential consideration. Apparently the first to become actually established 



in periiiaiiciit locations weru Thomas Tage, James Foster, Charles Russell, J. C. 
Smith. Christian Maier, John Singleton, and Joseph McEvoy, all in the near 
vicinity of Fort Walla Walla. That fort, it should be understood, was the one 
of the present location, laid out in 1857, following the fust American fort of 
the name in the city limits of W'alla W'alla on Mill Creek near the American 
Theater of today. Among the pioneer business men of the same time were three 
worthy of special note whose coming inaugurated the business history of Walla 
Walla. These were Dorsey S. Baker, Almos H. Reynolds, and William Stephens. 
Worthy of special mention in this connection is Mrs. Almos H. Reynolds, the 
first white woman to reside in the Walla \\alla Valley, after the period of the 
Whitman Mission. Mrs. Reynolds, nee Lettice Millican, was a member of the 
immigration of 1843, lived during childhood and youth in Oregon, was married to 
Ransom Clark and came with him in 1855 to a donation land claim on Yellow- 
hawk Creek. Driven from their home by the Indian War of 1855, Mr. and Mrs. 
Clark returned to Oregon, and there Mr. Clark died in 1859. With remarkable 
fortitude and courage, Mrs. Clark returned at once to complete residence and 
make proof on the valuable claim, the Government having cancelled the lapse of 
time covered by the wars. In 1861 Mrs. Clark was married to Mr. Reynolds and 
the remainder of the lives of both was spent in the city which they did so much 
to advance. 

In connection with the reference to the Ransom Clark donation land claim, it 
is of interest to record the fact that there were five such claims established in 
the Walla Walla Valley. To those not familiar with the early history of Oregon 
it may be well to explain that the Provisional Government in 1843 provided that 
each American citizen in Oregon might locate 320 acres of land, or each married 
couple might have double that amount. That offer was one of the great in- 
centives to immigration, though it would, of course, have been nugatory if the 
United States had not got the country. When Oregon was acquired by the United 
States that law was confirmed by Congress. The law lasted but ten years after the 
acquisition of Oregon, and almost all the locations under it were in the Willamette 
and Umpqua valleys. There were a few, however, in the Cowlitz Valley and on 
the north side of the Columbia and on streams entering Puget Sound. Mr. and 
Mrs. Clark were the only locators who came here from the Willamette Valley 
jiurposely to locate a donation claim. There were, however, three former mem- 
bers of the Hudson's Bay Company who located donation claims in the vicinity of 
Frenchtown. These Were Louis Dauney, Narcisse Remond (or Raymond it ap- 
pears on the Land Office map), and William McBean. In addition to those four 
donation claims, the United States Government allowed the American Foreign 
Missionary Society a square mile of land at the Whitman Mission, and in 1859 
Gushing Fells purchased their right and established himself upon the claim. The 
St. Rose Mission also had a filing at Frenchtown, but did not complete proof. 

A number of names of the "advance guard" will be found in this chapter 
under the heads of county and city officials. In order, however, to present all in 
one view, we are giving here as complete a list as possible of the settlers of 1857- 
58-59. It is derived in part from the record in "Historic Sketches" by Col. F. F. 
Gilbert, and in part from the records of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association, 
supplemented by personal inquiry by the author. It is inevitable that a name here 














and there should be omitted and the author and publishers will appreciate any 
further information from pioneer sources. 


John F. Abbott 
H. C. Actor 
Charles Albright 
Milton Aldrich 
Newton Aldrich 

C. R. Allen 
F. M. Archer 
Wm. H. Babcock 
Chester N. Babcock 

D. S. Baker 

S. D. Baldwin 
W. A. Ball 
Joseph Bauer 
Charles Bellman 
Wm. Bingham 
A. A. Blanchard 
Mrs. Elizabeth J. Blanch- 
P. J. Boltrie 

E. Bonner 

D. D. Brannan 

E. H. Brown 
H. N. Bruning 
James Buckley- 
John Bush 
John Cain 

J. M. Canaday 

C. H. Case 

J. Clark 

Ransom Clark and sons 

Charles and William 
Mrs. Ransom Clark 
George E. Cole 
J. M. Craigie 
Louis Dauney 
George Delaney 
W. S. Davis 
N. B. Denny 
J. M. Dewar 
James Dobson 
Jesse Drumheller 
N. B. Dutro 
N. Eastman 

R. A. Eddy 
Gushing Eells 
!W. L. Elroy 
S. H. Erwin 
'Edward Evarts 
Ij. H. Fairchild 
jWm. Fink 
tj. Foresythe 
Ijames W. Foster 
J. Freedman 
Ijames Fudge 
I James Galbreath 
S. S. Gilbreath 
Thomas Gilkerson 
W. S. Gilliam 
Braziel Grounds 
Ralph Guichard 
|W. R. Hammond 
Joseph W. Harbert 
Solomon Hardman 
Martin H. Hauber 
Daniel Hayes 
Samuel E. Heam 
Joseph Hellmuth 
H. H. Hill 
Henry Howard 
Thomas Hughes 
Lycurgus Jackson 
Samuel Johnson 
James Johnston 
Wm. B. Kelly 
Robert Kennedy 
]\Iichael Kenny 
James Kibler 
L. L. Kinney 
Wm. Kohlhauff 
J. M. Lamb 
Samuel Legart 
A. G. Lloyd 
J. C. Lloyd 
Francis F. Loehr 
James McAuliffe 
Wm. McBean 

M. C. McBride 
Robert McCool 
Thomas McCoy 
Joseph McEvoy 
j. W. McGhee 
Neil McGlinchy 
Wm. McKinney 
Lewis McMorris 
Wm. McWhirk 
Christian Maier 
John Mahan 
John Makin 
John Manion 
Pat Markey 
S. R. Maxson 
John May 
Wm. Millican 
R. G. Moffit 
Louis A. Mullan 
Lewis Neace 
James O'Donnell 
John O'Donnell 
Robert Oldham 
Frank Orselli 
Thomas P. Page 
A. D. Pambrun 
Edward D. Pearce 
Jonathan Pettyjohn 
John Picard 
Francis Pierrie 
George T. Pollard 
P. Powel 
I. T. Reese 
Mrs. C. Regan 
R. H. Reighart 
A. H. Reynolds 
R. A. Rice 
Thomas Riley 
A. B. Roberts 
A. H. Robie 
J. J. Rohn 
Charles Russell 
Mrs. Louisa Saunders 


Louis Scholl S. D. Smith W. W. Walter 

-Mrs. Elizabeth Fulton II. IT. Spalding A. G. P. Wardle 

Scholl Wm. Stephens R. Warmack 

Marshall Seeke B. F. Stone John Welch 

J. M. Sickler Frank Stone E. I!. Whitman 

John M. Silcott Christian Sturm Jonas Whitney 

J. A. Sims T. J. Sweazea Mrs. M. A. Wightnian 

Charles Silverman W. J. Terry W. W. Wiseman 

John Singleton John Tempany Thomas Wolf 

J. C. Smith Augustus Von Hinkle F. L. Worden 

As it was becoming e\ ident that Walla Walla possessed the resources and 
attractions for drawing and sustaining a large population of the best American 
citizenship, the Legislature of the territory passed an act on January 19, 1859, to 
provide a government for A\'alla Walla County. Meanwhile, however, the limits 
of the county had been greatly reduced, for in 1858 Spokane County had been laid 
out and this embraced the larger part of the vast area covered by the first Walla 
Walla County. In 1859, Klickitat County (spelled Clikatat in the Act), embracing 
the area between the Columbia River and the Cascades, was erected. By these 
two acts Walla Walla County was reduced to the area south of Snake River and 
east of the Columbia. Or it would have been so reduced, if the organization of 
Spokane County had been practically accomplished. But it was not, and in 
T863, the new Territorj' of Idaho was established by act of Congress, and at 
about the same time Stevens County in Washington was laid out, covering 
Eastern Washington east of the Columbia and north of Snake River, and includ- 
ing the abortive County of Spokane. Not till 1879 did Spokane become a sep- 
arate county. It is interesting to note also that with Stevens the County of 
Ferguson was created, including what now composes the counties of Kittitas, 
Yakima, and Benton. In the general shuffle of time and fate the name of Fergu- 
son has disappeared, but Stevens still remains to perpetuate geographically (there 
is little need historically) the name of the doughty and invincible first Governor 
of Washington Territory, though the land area covered by the name has been 
greatly reduced by the successive subtractions of Whitman, Spokane, Adams, 
Franklin, Grant, Lincoln, Okanogan, Chelan, and Ferry counties. 

By the act of 1859 referred to, the necessary officers of Old Walla Walla 
County were' established as follows: County Commissioners, John Mahan, Walter 
R. Davis, and John C. Smith (better known as Sergeant Smith) ; Sherifif, Edward 

D. Pearce; Auditor, R. H. Reighart ; Probate Judge, Samuel D. Smith; Justice 
of the Peace, J. A. Sims. Commissioners Mahan and Davis met at Walla Walla 
on March 15, 1859, and to fill vacancies left by the non-acceptance of the auditor 
and sheriff, appointed James Galbreath for the former and Lycurgus Jackson 
for the latter position. At a meeting of the commissioners on March 26, 1859, 
they found it necessary to make changes again in the personnel of county 
officers. As a result the following assumed office in their respective places: 

E. H. Brown, probate judge; Lycurgus Jackson, assessor; Neil McGlinchy 
county treasurer; and William B. Kelly, superintendent of schools. 

The next stage in the political evolution of the county was the appointment 
of a date for general election. This was set for the following July. The county 


was divided into two voting precincts, Steptoeville, and Dry Creelc. The former 
seems to have included the region centering around the United States Fort Walla 
Walla, and thence down Mill Creek to the Walla Walla. There was a general 
habit of designating the region around the fort as Steptoeville, a clumsy and 
illogical name, for it is not euphonious nor would it seem that it would have 
been popular, for certainly the officer who met such disastrous defeat at the hands 
of the Spokane Indians did not bring great glory to the Stars and Stripes nor 
great security to possible settlement. Fortunately the name was not preserved. 
The election place in "Steptoeville" was appointed at the house of W. J. Terry 
but that was subsequently changed to "The Church at Steptoeville." The only 
church here at that time seems to have been a Catholic church built at some time 
in 1859 on the location of the subsec^uent McGillivray house, afterward occupied 
by Jacob Betz, near the present home of George Welch. The "church," we may 
say in passing, consisted of poles stuck in the ground and covered with shakes. 
It had no floor and its only seating facilities consisted of one bench. J. A. Sims, 
Wm. B. Kelly, and Wm. McWhirk were the judges and Thomas Hughes the 
clerk for the election in "Steptoeville" precinct. In Dry Creek precinct, which 
seems to have included all the rest of the county to the east and north, the elec- 
tion board consisted of E. Bonner, J. M. Craigie, and Wm. Fink. The clerk was 
W. W. Wiseman. The polling place was at the residence of J. C. Smith. That 
was the first real election in Walla Walla County or anywhere in Eastern Wash- 
ington, though there had been "kind of" an election in 1855 among the few 
settlers around Waiilatpu and Frenchtown. It is worth noting that the retiring 
board of commissioners had two meetings prior to the election. One of these was 
on June 6th, and at that meeting it was voted to pay $20.00 per month for the 
rent of a building for a courthouse and to impose a tax of seven mills. At a 
meeting on July 2d the resignation of James Galbreath was presented and Augustus 
Von Hinkle was appointed for the vacancy. At the same meeting the name of 
Waiilatpu was substituted for Steptoeville. 

The election of July seems to have duly occurred, but apparently the records 
have been lost. That officers were duly chosen appears from the fact that 
on September 5th the new board of commissioners met and determined their 
terms of service: Charles Russell, one year; John Mahan two years and Wm. 
McWhirk three years. The following incumbents of county offices were elected : 
I. T. Reese, auditor; Lycurgus Jackson, sheriff; Neil McGlinchy, treasurer; 
Thomas P. Page, assessor; C. H. Case, surveyor; J. M. Canaday, justice of the 
peace. I. T. Reese was granted $40.00 per month for the building used as the 
courthouse, and that building was nearly opposite the present courthouse. The 
county hired the upper story, the lower being a saloon. On November 17, 1859, 
the board of commissioners voted to locate the county seat at the point first 
named "Steptoeville," then Waiilatpu, but now by their vote duly christened 
Walla Walla. Thus, on November 17, 1859, the "Garden City" officially entered 
the world under the name by which the Indians at the junction of the Big Rivers 
introduced themselves to Lewis and Clark, the first white explorers, and pre- 
served, though with many changes of spelling, through the era of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, and by that company applied to the fort on the Columbia. Now 
by the action of the first elected board of county commissioners the musical 
name was attached to the newly established town of 1859. I*^ '^ worthy of notice 

Vol. 1—8 


that the name is commonly supposed to mean tlic 'A'alley of Waters,"' referring 
to the numerous sjirings in the vicinity of the city. The author has been told 
by "Old Bones," an Indian of the Cayuse tribe who lived for many years near 
Lyons' Ferry on Snake River and was known to all old-timers, that the name was 
understood by the natives to signify that section of country below Waiilatpu, 
"where the four creeks meet;" viz., the Walla Walla, Touchet, Mill Creek, and 
Dry Creek. The Walla Walla above that point was commonly known to the 
Indians as "Tum-a-lum." The sound "Wall" is common in Indian words all over 
the Northwest as \\'illamette, Wallula, Wallowa, Waiilatpu, or, as some got it, 
vV'allatpu. Many poetical and some prosaic accounts have been given of the origin 
of the name. Among others, Joaquin Miller, "Poet of the Sierras," insisted that 
when the French voyageurs first looked down from the Blue Mountains ("Les 
Montagnes Bleues" in their Gallic speech) upon the fair fertile valley, they ex- 
claimed : "Voila, Voila !" (Behold, behold !) and thus the name became fixed. This 
fantastic idea is, however, easily disproved by the fact that Lewis and Clark, who 
entered the countr}' by Snake River, got the name from the Indians on the 
Columbia near the mouth of the Walla Walla. In the same connection, while 
speaking of the local names used by the aborigines, it is of interest to observe that 
the commonplace appellation of Mill Creek for the beautiful stream which flows 
through Walla W'alla City has supplanted a far more fit and attractive native 
name. It is somewhat variously pronounced and hence spelled. Rev. Henry 
Spalding gives it as Pasha. Thomas Beall of Lewiston gives it as Pashki. Others 
have gotten the sound as Paskau, or Pashkee. It seems to signify "sunflower." 
Mr. Beall regards the name as applying rather to the tract of land extending 
a mile or two above Walla Walla where the sunflower is very frequent than to the 
creek itself. Another mellifluous name said to be used by some of the natives is 
"Imchaha." It is truly regrettable that so common a name as Mill Creek should 
have become fastened upon so attractive a feature of the city. 

As indicated above, the location of the United States Fort Walla Walla was 
largely determinative of the location of the city. The first business of the region 
arose for the purpose of providing supplies for the fort. Several of those whom 
we have named in the "Advance Guard" were directly connected with that busi- 
ness. .An example is found in Charles Russell who was connected with the 
quartermaster's department of the fort, and seeing the heavy burden of trans- 
porting supplies from the Willamette \'alley determined to test the valley 
land. Accordingly he sowed eighty acres to barley at a point north of the fort 
on what later became the Drumheller place. It yielded fifty bushels to the acre. 
In the same season Mr. Russell raised a hundred acres of oats on the place which 
he soon after took up on the creek which bears his name. That might be regarded 
as the inauguration of agriculture in this vicinity though it should be remembered 
that Dr. Whitman twenty years before had raised prolific crops of all kinds at 
Waiilatpu. Wm. McWhirk was the first merchant in Walla Walla. He erected 
a tent for a store in the spring of 1857 at a point near what is now the comer 
of Main and Second streets. During the fall of the same year, Charles Bellman 
set up another tent store at the point occupied by the Jack Daniels saloon for 
many years at the site of the present "Togs." Apparently the old-timers are at 
variance as to the builder and location of the first actual building. Some have as- 
serted that Wm. McWhirk erected, in the summer of 1857, a cabin on the north 


side of ^lain Street, nearly where the Farmers' Savings Bank now stands, and 
that in the fall of the same year Charles Bellman put up a structure a little east 
of that at about the point of the Young and Lester florist location. In April, 
1858, Lewis McMorris erected a slab and shakes structure for Neil McGlinchy 
on about the present southwest corner of Main and Third. \'arious rude buildings 
appeared in 1858, some for residences, some for saloons (which we regret to 
record seems to "have been a very active line of business at that time). These 
were constructed by James Galbreath, W. A. Ball, Harry Howard, Michael 
Kenny, William Terry, John Mahan, James Buckley, and Thomas Riley. The 
first building with floor, doors, and glass windows was erected by Ralph Guichard 
and Wm. Kohlhauff at the point now occupied by the White House Clothing 
Store at the northwest corner of Main and Third. 

.\t that time there were two rival locations : one at the point started by Mc- 
Whirk, McGlinchy, and Bellman, and the other at a cabin built by Henry Howard, 
known as the "half-way house ;" i. e., half-way to the fort. Spirituous refreshment 
seems to have been much appreciated by the gallant defenders of their country at 
the Fort Walla Walla of that time, and a half-way house was quite a desirable 
accessory of a trip to "town." As we have already noted, there was a difference 
of opinion as to the name of the town, but that of Walla Walla finally prevailed 
over all rivals. On November 17, 1859, the commissioners laid out the town with 
the following boundaries : Commencing in the center of Main Street at Mill 
Creek, thence running north 440 yards, thence running west one-half mile to a 
stake, thence running south one-half mile to a stake, thence running east one-half 
mile to a stake, thence running north to the place of commencement; 160 acres 
in all. 

The town government was organized by the appointment of a recorder, L T. 
Reese, and three trustees, F. C. Worden, Samuel Baldwin, and Neil McGlinchy. 
The town was surveyed by C. H. Case, providing streets eighty feet wide running 
north and south, and one hundred feet wide running east and west. The lots were 
laid out with a sixty-foot front and a depth of 120 feet. They were to be sold for 
S5.00 each, with the addition of $1.00 for recording, and no one person could buy 
more than two of them. Ten acres also were set aside for a town square and the 
erection of public buildings, but this was reduced to one acre. 

The first lots sold were those taken by L T. Reese and Edward Evarts, both in 
block 13, the sale being recorded November 30, 1859. On December 22d, of the 
same vear, 150 acres of land was surveyed into town property for Thomas Wolf 
and L. C. Kinney, the former soon selling his interest to the latter. 

The original plat of the town is not now in existence, having been destroyed, 
probably by the fire of 1865. The earliest survey on record is a plat made in 
October, 1861, by W. W. Johnson, which purports to be a correction of the work 
of C. H. Case. 

On November 5, 1861, the board declared the survey made by W. W. Johnson 
to be official, and W. A. George was employed as an attorney to secure for the 
county a pre-emption title to the land on which Walla Walla was built. W. W. 
Johnson was appointed to take steps to secure the title at the \'ancouver land 
office, but he did not do so, and thus the effort of the county to secure the site 
failed. This ended what might be called the embryonic stage in the municipal life 
of Walla Walla, and we find the next stage to be actual incorporation. 


The Lit}' of Walla Walla was originally incorporated by an act of the Terri- 
torial Legislature, ])asscd on January ii, 1862. By the provisions of said act the 
city embraced within its limits the south half of the southwest quarter of section 20, 
township 7 north, range 36 east, of the Willamette meridian. The charter made 
provision also for the election, on the first Tuesday in April of each year, of a 
mayor, recorder, five councilmen, marshal, assessor, treasurer and surveyor, all 
vacancies, save in the offices of mayor and recorder, to be filled by appointment by 
the council, which was also given the power of appointing a clerk and city attor- 
ney. No salary was to attach to the offices of mayor or councilman until the popu- 
lation of the city had reached one thousand individuals, when the stipend awarded 
these officers was to be fixed by an ordinance enacted by the council. The charter 
designated the following officers to serve until the first regular election under said 
charter : Mayor, B. P. Standef er ; recorder, James Galbreath ; councilmen, H. C. 
Coulson, B. F. Stone, E. B. Whitman, D. S. Baker, and M. Schwabacher ; marshal, 
George H. Porter. The council assembled on the ist of March to perfect its organ- 
ization, when it developed that Mr. Schwabacher was ineligible for office, as was 
also Mr. Coulson, who proved to be a non-resident. Mr. Stone presiding, the 
council proceeded to fill the two vacancies by balloting, and James McAuliflf and 
George E. Cole thus became members of the council, S. F. Ledyard being appointed 
clerk. The council again met, pursuant to adjournment, on the 4th of the same 
month, when Mr. Cole was chosen chairman; Edward Nugent, city attorney; 
and Messrs. McAuliff, Whitman and Stone were appointed to prepare a code of 
rules for the government of the council. 

Four hundred and twenty-two votes were cast at the first election, held April i, 
1862, the following being the result: Mayor, E. B. Whitman; councilmen, J. F. 
Abbott, R. Jacobs, L T. Reese, B. F. Stone and B. Sheideman; recorder, W. P. 
Horton ; marshal, George H. Porter ; attorney, Edward Nugent ; assessor, L. W. 
Greenwell ; treasurer, E. E. Kelly ; surveyor, A. L Chapman ; clerk, S. F. Ledyard. 
On the nth of April, W. Phillips was appointed councilman in place of J. F. 
Abbott, while in the succeeding year it appears that H. Hellmuth had been ap- 
pointed in the place of B. F. Stone. The recorder resigned in January, 1863, his 
successor, J. W. Barry, being chosen at a special election held on the last day of 
that month. H. B. Lane succeeded Mr. Greenwell as assessor; on April 11, 1862. 
Henry Howard was appointed treasurer, and W. W. DeLacy, surveyor, while in 
January, 1863, H. B. Lane was noted as clerk. The city revenue for the first six 
months aggregated $4,283.25, of which sum liquor and gaming licenses con- 
tributed $1,875. When it is remembered that this was at the height of the gold 
excitement, this last item may be well understood. 

During the last quarter of the year the revenue of the new city was $2,714.19, 
but so large were the expenditures that the opening of the year 1863 found in the 
treasury a balance of less than five dollars. The value of property in the city 
was assessed in 1862 at $300,000, the succeeding year witnessing the increase of 
the same to $500,000. 

Such may be regarded as the establishment of Walla Walla City up to the time 
of incorporation. During the period from January 19, 1859, the appointment by 
the Legislature of the Territory of officers for the county, down to the date of the 
incorporation of the city, the county organization had been launched after the 
typical .American fashion. The two only absolutely sure things in this world — 


death and taxes- — were established. It is certain that there were deaths in that 
time, and at the meeting of the county commissioners on May 7, i860, a tax levy 
of seven mills was voted. At the same meeting the county was redivided into 
voting precincts for the coming election in July. It gives some conception of the 
points of the beginnings of settlements to note that the precincts were as follows: 
Walla Walla, Dry Creek, .Snake River, East Touchet, and West Touchet. Coppei 
Creek was the dividing line between the two last-named precincts. The following 
extract from Colonel Gilbert's "Historic Sketches" will give a view of conditions : 
"At this election the question of whether a tax for building a courthouse 
and jail should be levied, was submitted to the people, and though, as before 
stated, no returns are on file, a negative vote is indicated from the fact that neither 
were built at that time, prisoners being sent to Fort Vancouver for incarceration. 
From their official bonds it appears that the following named were the successful 
aspirants for office at the election of July, i860: 

Auditor and Recorder — James Galbreath. 

Sheriff — James A. Buckley. 

Surveyor — M. J. Noyse. 

Assessor — C. Langley. 

Coroner — Almiron Dagget. 

Justice of Peace, Walla Walla — William J. Horton. 

Justice of Peace, Dry Creek — John Sheets. 

Justice of Peace, East Touchet — Horace Strong. 

Justice of Peace, West Touchet — Elisha Everetts. 

Justice of Peace, William B. Kelly. 

"No footprint of transactions coming under supervision of the board while 
this set of officers were acting, prior to October 12, 1861, remains, and we are 
forced to skip the intervening time, and commence again with the latter date. A 
county election had occurred in July, 1861, and W. H. Patton, S. Maxson and 
John Sheets appear at this time as the board of commissioners. November 5th, 
Sheriff James Buckley, who was ex officio tax collector, w'as appointed county 
assessor in place of S. Owens, who, having been elected in 1861, failed to qualify. 
On the 8th of the same month a contract was given Charles Russell to build a 
county jail at a cost of $3,350. He finished the work in 1862, was paid $6,700 in 
script for it, and in 1881 re-purchased the same building from the county for 
$120, and, tearing it down, moved it out to his ranch. 


"Up to 1 86 1, there had been nothing of special moment, calculated for inducing 
emigration to settle in the vicinity of the Blue Mountains. There was unoccupied 
land enough in various parts of the United States to prevent its soil from being 
much of an inducement, and, at that time the agricultural portion of Eastern 
Washington was supposed to exist in limited quantities. There was, practically, 
no market for farm products, as they would not pay the expense of shipment, 
and, outside of the garrison, its employes and dependents, there was no one to 
purchase them; still a few people had found their way into the country from 


( )rcgoii. ill 1859 and i860, with stock, and had taken up ranches along the various 
streams. \'ery few came to locate with a view of establishing a home here, their 
l)urpose being to graze stock for a few years and then abandon the country, rais- 
ing some grain in the meantime for their own use, and possibly a little to sell, if 
anybody should wish to buy. Had the military post been abandoned in i860, but 
few whites would have remained east of the Cascades, and stock raising would 
have been the only inducement for any one to remain there." 

Perhaps in no other way can we give so perfect a view of the Walla Walla of 
1861 as by extracts from the first issue of the IVasliiiigton Statesman. The be- 
ginning of the paper was itself one of the most notable events of the time. It 
was not only the first newspaper in Walla Walla, but the first in the whole vast 
region between the Missouri and the Cascade Mountains. We are indebted to 
Dr. Frank Rees for the opportunity to use the priceless treasure of a complete 
file of the paper for the period from the first number. November 29, 1861, 
through the remainder of that year and those following. We find at the heading 
of this paper that it was issued every Friday morning and that N. Northrop, 
R. D. Smith and R. R. Rees were the editors and proprietors, and that the office 
was on Main Street, Walla Walla, W. T. The rates of subscription were $5.00 
per year, $2.50 for six months, and 25 cents for a single copy. 

We quote here several paragraphs from the opening editorial : 

"We send forth this morning, with our congratulations, the first number of the 
Washington Statesman, and respectfully solicit the attention of the people of 
Walla Walla and county to its pages. From a careful consideration of the de- 
mands of the people to whom we shall look for support in sustaining a weekly 
newspaper at this point, we feel warranted in the conviction that we are inau- 
gurating an enterprise which will be a means of vastly enhancing the develop- 
ment, prosperity, and permanent interests of this most favorable section of the 
upper country, and which, conducted with prudence and economy, will be reason- 
ably remunerative to its projectors. * * * 

"That a weekly publication, devoted to the various interests of the country, 
containing all the news v\'hich may be gathered from different quarters, is essen- 
tially needed in the Walla Walla \'alley, we premise no permanent resident will 
deny ; this admitted, we have no misgivings as to the disposition of the people to 
come forward and promptly sustain an enterprise so materially calculated to 
further their own interests as a community. Hence, we expect at least that every 
man who is fortunate enough to possess a home in this beautiful valley will at 
once subscribe for the Statesman, and pay for it in advance. Flome pride will 
])rompt every man to do thus much for the benefit of the vicinity in which he has 
chosen his residence, even if he already has more papers than he finds time to 

Following this introduction the editorial jjoints out the special need of the 
farmer, the stockraiser, the merchant, and the mechanic in the existence and sup- 
port of such a jjaper. 

The editorial then proceeds to indicate its policy as follows : 

"As indicated in our prospectus, the Statesman will be independent on all sub- 
jects. By independent we do not mean neutral: Ijut, when occasion requires, we 
shall express our views fearlessly upon all subjects legitimate for newspaper dis- 
cussion ; and in doing this, we shall be our own advisers and regulate our own 


business in our own way. The Stutcsinan will not be devoted to the interests or 
claims of any political party ; but ignoring partisan measures, will adhere to 
and support those measures which in our judgment are best calculated to preserve 
and perpetuate the bonds of our national union, under whose yet waving and 
revered flag alone we hope for success. * * * Arrangements will soon be com- 
pleted for obtaining all the items of news from the different leading points in 
the mines, and from various places within this territory and Oregon bearing rela- 
tions to us commercially or otherwise. * * * 

"The coming season with us at home will be an auspicious one. Adding to the 
importance of the developments which must immediately follow in the train of' 
an immigration to the upper country in extent unparalleled, the course and prog- 
ress of which our people should all be made aware of — adding to this the mighty 
results developing in the East, it can readily be seen that material is afforded for 
making up a paper which will be indispensable to the people of this section, as 
well as those of the territory at large. 

"We shall liberally distribute copies of this number in the different sections 
where we desire the paper to circulate ; and we take the present occasion to request 
the people generally of this valley and the upper country to call and furnish 
themselves with copies for distribution in their several neighborhoods, thereby 
lending us a hand in obtaining a subscription list as early as possible." 

We find most of the news items in this first number of the Statesman to per- 
tain to the mines in Idaho. There is a correspondence between Henry M. Chase 
and Capt. E. D. Pearce in regard to certain captive children in the hands of the 
Indians. The tone of this correspondence shows something of the strenuous con- 
ditions of those days of war and pioneer settlement. 

The most notable local event apparently was the Firemen's ball, given by the 
members of the Union Hook and Ladder Company at the Walla Walla Hotel. 
This news item declares that the ball was a successful and brilliant affair and 
that the smiling faces and social congratulations of the large number of ladies and 
gentlemen present well attested how eminently successful had been the efforts of 
the firemen to render the occasion in every respect a pleasant one. The mottoes 
displayed in the room were quite interesting as showing what the ambitious fire- 
men of that first period wanted to set forth as guiding them. The motto of the 
Union Hook and Ladder Company was "We Destroy to Save." There were 
several mottoes from Portland and The Dalles fire companies, as follows : "Wil- 
lamette No. I, Conquer We Must;" "Multnomah No. 2, On Hand;" "Columbian 
No. 3, Always Willing;" "Young America No. 4, Small, but Around;" "Vigilance 
Hook and Ladder Company, We Climb;" "Dalles Hook and Ladder Company, 
We Raze to Save." 

Another local item of some interest is to the effect that the Robinson The- 
atrical Troupe had been performing in the city for several weeks, almost every 
night having crowded houses and appreciative audiences. A little description is 
given of the new theater, which it states is situated in the lower part of town, but 
a short walk from the business part of the city. The city editor exhorts all the 
people in town to patronize this theater for the sake of spending a pleasant 


Another item of historic interest is the statement that orders have been for- 
warded to Lieutenant Mullan instructing him to send back his escort of one 


Inindred United States soldiers, who had been laying out the great road known 
as the "Alullan Road." The party at that time was in the Hitter Root Mountains, 
and it was considered impracticable for them to cross those mountains in the 
winter season. 

Although, as will be seen from the date of this paper, the time was the 
opening of the Civil war, yet it is noticeable that there was a great scarcity of 
information in regard to that great event. The latest news of any kind from the 
East is dated November 15th, just two weeks before the date of publication of the 

Another news item is to the effect that on account of an unpardonable delay 
in the arrival of material, press, and fixtures, from The Dalles, the publication of 
the first issue was delayed beyond expectation. The proprietors seem to feel very 
bad over this delay. 

The advertisements in this first number of the Statesman are of great interest. 
Among a number beyond our space to quote here we find an entire column devoted 
to the wholesale and retail business of Kyger & Reese. They seem to have been 
prepared to deal in almost every conceivable object of need in the way of clothing, 
groceries, hardware, crockery, drugs, medicines, books and stationery, as well 
as some supply of the spirituous refreshments which were so much desired at that 
time. We find several advertisements of stage companies ; among others the 
Walla Walla and Dalles Stage Company, which advertises to make the run be- 
tween the two places in two days. Miller and Blackmore were the proprietors. 
We find also the advertisement of Abbott's Livery, Sale and Exchange Stables on 
Main Street. The Oregon Steam Navigation Company advertises the steamers 
Julia, Idaho, and Tenino, running between Portland and the Nez Perce mines 
with portages at the Cascades and The Dalles. The fare from Portland to The 
Dalles was $8.00, with an extra charge for portage at the Cascades. Animals from 
Portland to The Dalles were $5.00. The fare from Des Chutes to Wallula was 
$15.00. A number of names prominent later on in the legal and medical history 
of Walla Walla, appear in the advertising columns. Among the physicians 
we find I^. C. Kinney, L. Terry, R. Bernhard, J. A. Mullan, L. Danforth, and I. H. 
Harris. Among the lawyers we find W. A. George and I. N. Smith. We find a 
very small advertisement by D. S. Baker, in which the strong point is of a fire- 
proof, brick building. That was the only fire-proof, brick building in Walla 
Walla at that time. 

By way of comparison with the present cost of living, it is of some interest 
to give the Walla Walla prices current as appearing in that issue of the Statesman. 
The following are the items: 

Bacon — Per lb., 25c. 
Flour — Per hundred, $5 to $6. 
Beans — Per lb., 12c to 15c. 

Sugar — China, 18c to 20c; New Orleans, 23c to 25c; Island 20c to 22c; 
crushed, 26c. 

Rice — Per lb., i8c to 20c. 
Dried Apples — Per lb., 20c to 25c. 
Yeast Powders— Per doz., $4 to $6. 
Candles — Per lb., 60c. 


Soap — Hill's, per lb. i7^c; Fay's, i6c. 

Tobacco — Per lb., 6oc to $i. 

Nails — Per lb., i6 2/2c. 

Butter — Fresh Rolls, per lb., jsc ; Oregon, 50c. 

Eggs — Per doz., $1. 

Oats — Per lb., 2yic to 3c. 

Wheat — Per bushel, $1.25 to $1.50. 

The reader of that tirst issue of the Statesman would readily arrive at the 
conclusion that business was booming in Walla Walla and that there was a 
demand for almost all of the commodities common in any new and active com- 
munity. The philanthropist is somewhat pained indeed to observe the large 
amount of attention paid to the liquor business in its various forms. The Nez 
Perce mines and the various stage lines seemed to demand a large share of at- 
tention, both in advertising and in news items. After all, people are very much 
the same from generation to generation and we can readily infer that what the 
people of Walla Walla were in the '60s, their children and grandchildren are 
largely the same in this year of grace, 1917. 

In the early history of the territory before government was organized to 
protect life and punish criminals, the miners organized courts of their own to try 
those who committed any crime within the camp, but there were no courts to try 
the criminals whose work was outside of the miner's camp. As a result crime 
flourished in the towns that supplied the camps and on the road between the 
town and the camp. 

There were organized bands of criminals who plundered the merchant in 
the town, the packer and the stage on the road, and the miners to and from the 
different camps. The members of these organizations had pass words by which 
they could make themselves known to each other, routes along which they 
operated, stations where members on the gang were located. They also had 
members in every camp and town engaged in various occupations, trades and 
callings. Stage stand tenders and sometimes the drivers themselves were mem- 
bers of the gang, and when organized government was established they succeeded 
in getting themselves elected to the office of sheriff, marshal, etc. These men 
knew when every pack train started, what it had, where it went and how much 
gold dust it brought back on its return ; watched every stranger and learned his 
business; took notice of every good horse; knew of the departure of every stage, 
the number of passengers and the probable treasure carried. The lone traveler 
was robbed of his horse by a false bill of sale. The returning packers were held 
up, robbed and sometimes murdered. The stage was stopped, the passengers 
ordered out and relieved of all their money and other valuables. Frequently the 
Wells Fargo box containing thousands of dollars would be among the prizes 
taken from the stage. 

One of the most noted of these road agents was Henry Plummer. He came 
of a good family, was gentlemanly in bearing, dignified in deportment, of strong 
executive ability and a fine judge of human nature. While a young man he 
drifted west, became a successful gambler and acquainted with various phases 
of a criminal's life. In the spring of 1861 he came to Lewiston, Idaho. This 
town was then the head of navigation on the Snake River, had a population of 


several hundred, among whom were thieves, gamblers, escaped convicts and 
criminals of all kinds. 'J'hese he organized into a band of highwaymen, to 
operate on the road between Walla Walla, Washington, and Orofino, Idaho, 
directing the operations from Lewiston which was a midway ground. Two sub- 
stations were located, one at the foot of Craig Mountain, east of Lewiston, and 
the other w-est, at the junction of Alpowai and Pataha creeks. These were called 
"shebangs" and were the rendezvous of a band of robbers. Soon robberies and 
murders on this road were common, but the respectable, law abiding citizens 
were in the majority and they soon organized themselves into a law^ and order 
body, which made the operations of the robber gang dangerous and unprofitable. 

The mines at Orofino were soon worked out. This, together with the 
citizen's organizations and the fear on the part of Plummer of being exposed for 
crimes committed by him while in California, caused him to flee from Idaho 
and go to Alontana. Upon his arrival there he apparently desired to reform and 
live the life of a law- abiding citizen. He married a nice young woman and 
entered upon an honorable means of earning a living. But he was a criminal by 
nature, environment and practice and not strong enough, had he desired it, to 
break with his old associates and habits and like all criminals was haunted by 
fear of detection. 

When he left Idaho a companion by the name of Cleveland went with him. 
They were together when Plummer was married near Fort Benton and they both 
a little later went to Bannack. He and Cleveland had a bitter c]uarrel over the 
young lady who married Plummer. This, together with his fear of his associates 
in crime, made him suspicious and in a saloon brawl a short time later he shot 
Cleveland. This started him again on a carnival of crime that has no parallel 
in the history of the Northwest, and just as he had organized the criminals when 
in Idaho, he again organized them in Montana on a much larger scale. These 
men were bound by an oath to be true to each other and were required to per- 
form such service as came within the defitied meaning of their separate positions 
in the band. The penalty of disobedience was death. If any one of them, under 
any circumstances, divulged any of the secrets or gxiilty purposes of the band, 
he was to be followed and shot down at sight. The same doom w'as prescribed 
foranv outsider who attempted an exposure of their criminal designs, or arrested 
any of them. Their great object was declared to be plunder in all cases, without 
taking life if possible, but if murder was necessary, it was to be committed. 
Their password was "'innocent.'' Their neckties were fastened with a sailor's 
knot, and they wore mustaches and chin whiskers. Plummer himself was a 
member of the band. 

The duties of these men may be gained from the work assigned them as 
revealed by one of their number. Henry Plummer was chief of the band ; Bill 
liurton, stool pigeon and second in command; George Brown, secretary; Sam 
Burton, roadster; Cyrus Skinner, fence, spy and roadster; George Shears, horse- 
thief and roadster; Frank Parrish, horse-thief and roadster; Hayes Lyons, tele- 
graph man and roadster; Bill Hunter, telegraph man and roadster; Ned Ray, 
council-room keeper at Bannock City; George Ives, Stephen Marshland, Dutch 
John (Wagner), Alex Carter, Johnny Cooper, Buck Stinson, Mexican Frank, 
Bob Zachary, Boone Helm, Oubfoot George (Lane), Billy Terwiliger, Gad 
Moore, roadsters. 


But Plunimer soon ran his course. He was captured and had to pay the 
penalty for his crimes. "Red" Yager, a member of Plummer's gang, was hanged 
by a vigilance committee. Before his execution he made a confession, giving 
the names of all the members of the band and stating that Plummer was the 
leader. Plummer, with two others of the organization, were at Bannock. No 
trouble was experienced in arresting the other two, one being captured in a 
cabin, the other stretched out on a gambling table in a saloon. But great care 
had to be exercised in the arrest of the leader of the band, who was cool-headed 
and a quick shot. Those detailed to capture him went to his cabin and found him 
in the act of washing his face. When informed that he was wanted he mani- 
fested no concern but quietly wiped his face and hands. He announced that he 
would be ready to go within a short time, threw down the towel and smoothed 
out his shirt sleeves, then advanced toward a chair to get his coat, but one of 
the party, by great good fortune, saw a pistol in the pocket and replied, "I will 
hand you your coat," at the same time taking posession of the pistol. Otherwise 
Plummer would likely have killed one or all of those attempting to capture him. 
He, with the other two criminals arrested were escorted in the bright moonlight 
night to the gallows which Plummer himself had erected the year before and 
used in the hanging of a man, he being at that time sheriff. As they appeared 
in sight of the gallows the other criminals cursed and swore, but Plummer was 
begging for his life. "It is useless," said one of the vigilantes, "for you to 
request us to spare your life, for it has already been settled that you are to be 
hung." Plummer then replied, "Cut off my ears, cut out my tongue, strip me 
naked, let me go. I beg you to spare my life. I want to live for my wife, my 
poor absent wife. I want to settle my business affairs. Oh, God." Then falling 
upon his knees, the tears streaming from his eyes, and with his utterance choked 
with sobs, he continued: "I am too wicked to die. I cannot go bloodstained and 
unforgiven into the presence of the Eternal. Only spare me and I will leave 
the country." But all this was to no purpose. His time had come and the 
leader's stern order, "Bring him up," was obeyed. Plummer, standing under 
the gallows, took off his necktie, threw it to a young man who had boarded with 
him, saying, "Keep that to remember me by," and then turning to the vigilantes, 
he said, "Now, men, as a last favor, let me beg that you will give me a good 
drop." The favor was granted and Plummer, one of the most noted outlaws 
ever known to the Northwest, was no more. 


The two essentials of a city seem to be : first, a location in a region of such 
resources as to attract and provide industries for the maintenance of an in- 
coming and ever increasing population; and, second, such a location as will be 
a natural point of exchange of commodities with more or less distant centers of 
production, and as a corollary of this, feasible facilities of transportation. 
Four towns were started in the "Upper Country" in the early sixties, which 
were to stand these tests of a city location. They were : Walla Walla, Umatilla, 
Wallula, and Lewiston. The obvious disadvantage of the first was that it was 
not on navigable water, and water carriage was then the cheap and convenient 
way of conveying any large amounts of freight or passengers. Its countervailing 
advantage, and the reason why by common consent settlers sought it in preference 
to the river towns was that it was right in the center of resources. While the 
first settlers had no conception of the future of agriculture and horticulture, 
it was clear that a region near enough the mountains to be easily accessible 
to timber, and abounding in streams of the purest water, with infinite grazing 
resources, was a paradise to the stockman. And while with the first influx of 
settlers in 1858, 1859, and i860, there was not yet any knowledge of the event 
which within a few months was to transform the entire history of the Inland 
Empire, i. e., the discovery of gold in Idaho, yet the minds of the people of the 
time were quivering with the feverish anticipations of fortune engendered by 
the California mining history. Hence the settlers in Walla Walla in i860 were 
right on the qui vive for "big things." Such reasons, together with the very 
important fact that the United States Fort Walla Walla was located there (for 
the same reasons of grass, water, and timber) were potent in detennining the 
growth of the largest town. Umatilla and Wallula had the very marked ad- 
vantage of water transportation to a limitless degree, but on the other hand, 
the arid climate and the barren soil (barren without irrigation, of which nothing 
was conceived at that time), and distance from the timber counter-balanced the 
advantage. If it had then been fully realized, what we now know, that Lewis- 
ton combined nearly all advantages, with no disadvantages, the site at the junc- 
tion of the Snake and Clearwater would have seemed to possess unequalled at- 
tractions. But Lewiston was at that time so far up Snake River and so remote 
from general apprehension as a center of production that Walla Walla had an 
easy lead in attracting incoming settlers. 

In 1850 and i860 the chief lines of business, as already indicated, were cattle- 
raising and supplying the Fort. The suitability of this country to stock-raising 
was obvious to the fur-traders of the Hudson's Bay Company regime, and they 
had quite a number of cattle at Fort Walla Walla (Wallula), at "Hudson's Bay," 



near the present Umapine, and at the near vicinity of what is now Touchet. 
Doctor Whitman brought with him several head of cattle and even two calves 
across the plains in 1836 and afterwards secured more from Doctor McLoughlin at 
Vancouver. In the early '50s, Messrs. Brooke, Bumford, and Noble located at 
Waiilatpu for the same business, while H. M. Chase and W. C. McKay on the 
Umatilla in 1851 started in tlie same kind of enterprise. From these various 
sources the idea had become disseminated that Walla Walla was the place for 
the cowboy. Thus was inaugurated the first movement which, interrupted for 
a period by gold excitement, was resumed with even greater energy as the 
demands of the mines for provisions became known, and for a number of years 
was the dominating interest of Old Walla Walla Coimty. 

The stock business was, however, interwoven in a curious and interesting 
way with all the other lines of enterprise. Especially was this true of the mining 
and transportation interests. The three were dovetailed together by reason of 
the fact that food and pack trains were vital necessities of the mines. 

The mining history of the "Upper Country" began in the spectacular way 
usual with discoveries of the precious metals. Colonel Gilbert tells a fantastic 
tale of the train of circumstances which led to the first prospecting tour into what 
became the great gold field of Central Idaho. This tale involves E. D. Pearce, 
who, as we have seen, was one of the early office-holders of Walla Walla County. 
He is described as a man of somewhat imaginative and enthusiastic character, 
quick to respond to the calls of opportunity. He had been in the gold mines 
of California before coming to Walla Walla, and while there had become ac- 
quainted with a Nez Perce Indian who in some way had drifted into that region. 
This Indian impressed Mr. Pearce with his dignity and intelligence and excited 
his interest in a romantic story of his home in the mountan fastnesses of Idaho. 
He declared that he, with two companions, while encamped in the mountains had 
seen in the night a light of surpassing brilliance, like a refulgent star. The 
Indians regarded the distant glow with awe, deeming it the eye of the Great 
Spirit. In the morning, however, plucking up sufficient courage to investigate, 
they discovered a glittering ball like glass embedded in the rock. They could 
not dislodge it from its setting and left it, thinking it a "great tomanowas." 
Pearce became impressed with the thought that the Indians had found an enor- 
mous diamond of incalculable value, and he determined that, if ever the oppor- 
tunity was afiforded, he would seek its hiding place. Accordingly, having reached 
Walla Walla after many wanderings, he bethought himself of the diamond and 
organized a company of seven men, whose names with the exception of that of 
W. F. Bassett, do not seem to be recorded in the account. They made their way 
in i860 into the wild tangle of mountains on the sources of the Clearwater. The 
party were looking for gold, but Pearce had the diamond in mind. Indians com- 
ing in contact with the party became suspicious and ordered them out. Pearce, 
however, pretending to obey orders, induced a Nez Perce squaw to guide the 
party into the heart of the mountains of the north fork of the Clearwater. 
There, Bassett, while prodding around in the soil of a small creek, discovered 
shining particles. Gold! It was only a few cents worth, but it was enough. 
That was the first discovery of gold in Idaho. The place was the site of the 
Oro Fino mines. Extracts from a former account written by the author, in 
which are incorporated items from the Washington Statesman will indicate the 


progress of the discovery and the effects on the newly-started town of Walla 

"After washing out about eighty dollars in gold, the party returned to Walla 
Walla, making Iheir headquarters at the home of J. C. Smith on Dry Creek, and 
finally so thoroughly enlisting his interest and cooperation that he fitted out a 
party of about fifteen men, largely at his own expense, to return to the new 
gold fields for the winter. Sergeant Smith's party reached the mines in Novem- 
ber, i860, arousing the antipathy and distrust of the Indians, who appealed to 
the Government officers for the protection of their reserve from such encroach- 
ments. A body of soldiers from Fort Walla Walla started out for the mines, 
with the intention of removing the interlopers, but the heavy snowfall in the 
mountains rendered the little party of miners inaccessible, so they were not mo- 
lested. During the winter the isolated miners devoted their time to building five 
log cabins, the first habitations erected in Oro Fino, sawing the lumber by hand. 
They also continued to work for gold under the snow, and about the first of 
January, 186 1, two of the men made a successful trip to the settlements, 
by the utilizing of snow-shoes, while in ]\Iarch .Sergeant Smith made a 
similar trip, taking with him $800 in gold dust. From this reserve he was 
able to pay Kyger & Reese of Walla Walla the balance due them on the prospect- 
ing outfit which had been supplied to the adventurous little party in the snowy 
mountains. The gold dust was sent to Portland. Ore., and soon the new 
mines were the subject of maximum interest, the ultimate result being a "gold 
excitement" quite equal to that of California in 1849, and within a few months 
the rush to the new diggings was on in earnest, thousands starting forth for the 
favored region. 

The budding City of Walla Walla profited materially by the influx of gold- 
seekers, who made their way up the Columbia River and thence moved forward 
to Walla Walla, which became the great outfitting headquarters for those en 
route to the gold country. .\t this point were purchased provisions, tools, camp 
accoutrements and the horses or mules required to pack the outfits to the mines. 
Through this unforeseen circumstance there was now a distinctive local market 
afforded for the products of the Walla Walla country, and the farmer who had 
produce of any sort to sell might esteem himself fortunate, for good prices were 
freely oft'ered. Nearly all the grain that had been produced in the country was 
held, in the spring of 1861, in the mill owned and operated by Simms, Reynolds 
& Dent, the total amount being less than twenty thousand bushels. This surplus 
commanded a high price, the farmers receiving $2.50 per bushel for their wheat, 
while at the mines the operators were compelled to pay Si a pound for flour 
manufactured therefrom. The inadequacy of the local supply of food products 
was such that, had not additional pro\ender been transported from Oregon, starva- 
tion would have stared the miners in the face. This fact gave rise to the almost 
unprecedented prices demanded for the products essential to the maintenance of 
life. New mining districts were discovered by the eager prospectors and all was 
hustle and activity in the mining region until the fall of 1861. In November 
of that year many of the miners came to W'alla \\'alla for the winter, bringing 
their hard-earned treasure with them and often spending it with the prodigality 
so typical of the mining fraternity in the early days. 

Although many of the diggings yielded from six to ten dollars per day, many 


of the operators feared the ravages of a severe winter and fully reahzed the 
animus of the merchants at Oro Fino, who refused to sell their goods, believing 
that starvation would ultimately face the miners and that they could then secure 
any price they might see fit to demand. In November of the year noted, the 
prices at Oro Fino were quoted as follows on certain of the necessaries of life : 
flour, $25 per 100 pounds ; beef, 30 cents per pound ; coffee, not to be had ; 
candles, not for sale; and bacon and beans, exceedingly scarce. That the pros- 
pectors and miners should seek to hibernate nearer civilization and take refuge in 
Walla Walla was but natural under the circumstances. 

During the rush to the mining districts, both in 1861 and 1862, Walla Walla 
was the scene of the greatest activity; streets were crowded; the merchants 
were doing a thriving business, and pack trains moved in a seemingly endless 
procession toward the gold fields. The excitement was fed by the glowing reports 
that came from the mining districts, and the natural result was to augment the 
flood of gold-seekers pouring into the mining districts in the spring of 1862, as 
will be noted later on. As an example of the alluring reports circulated in the 
latter part of 1861, we may appropriately quote from the IVashington Statesman 
of that period. From an editorial in said publication we make the following 
extract : 

"S. F. Ledyard arrived last evening from the Salmon River mines, and from 
him it is learned that some six hundred miners would winter there ; that some 
two hundred had gone to the south side of the river, where two streams head 
that empty into the Salmon, some thirty miles southeast of present mining camp. 
Coarse gold is found, and as high as one hundred dollars per day to the man has 
been taken out. The big mining claim of the old locality belongs to Mr. Weiser. 
of Oregon, from where $2,680 were taken on the 20th, with two rockers. On 
the 2 1 St. $3,360 were taken out with the same machines. Other claims were 
paying from two to five pounds per day. Flour has fallen to 50 cents per pound, 
and beef, at from 15 to 25 cents, is to be had in abundance. Most of the mines 
supplied until first of June. Mr. L. met between Slate Creek and \\'alla Walla, 
en route for the mines, 394 packs and 250 head of beef cattle." 

In the issue of the Statesman for December 13, 1861, appears the following 
interesting information concerning the mines and the inducements there offered : 

"The tide of emigration to Salmon River flows steadily onward. During the 
week past, not less than two hundred and twenty-five pack animals, heavily laden 
with provisions, have left this city for the mines. If the mines are one-half so 
rich as they are said to be, we may safely calculate that many of these trains 
will return as heavily laden with gold dust as they now are with provisions. 

"The late news from Salmon River seems to have given the gold fever to 
everybody in this immediate neighborhood. A number of persons from Florence 
City have arrived in this place during the week, and all bring the most extrava- 
gant reports as to the richness of the mines. A report, in relation to a rich 
strike made by Mr. Bridges of Oregon City, seems to come well authenticated. 
The first day he worked on his claim (near Baboon gulch) he took out fifty-seven 
onuces ; the second day he took out 157 ounces: third day, 214 ounces, and the 
fourth day, 200 ounces in two hours. One gentleman informs us that diggings 
have been found on the bars of Salmon River which yield from twenty-five cents 
to two dollars and fifty cents to the pan, and that on claims in the Salmon River, 


c''g&''''oS have been fouml where "ounces" won't describe them, and where they 
say the gulches arc full of gold. The discoverer of Baboon giilch arrived in this 
city yesterday, bringing with him sixty pounds of gold dust, and Mr. Jacob Weiser 
is on his way with a mule loaded with gold dust." 

Within the year more than one and one-half millions of dollars in gold dust 
had been shipped from the mining districts — a circumstance w-hich of itself was 
enough to create a wide-spread and infectious gold-fever. Anticipating the rush 
for the mines in the year 1862, a great deal of livestock had been brought to the 
Walla Walla country in the latter part of 1861, while the demands for food 
products led many ranchers to make provisions for raising greatly increased crops 
of grain and other produce to meet the demands of the coming season. 

The winter of 1861-2 was one of utmost severity, and its rigors entailed a 
gigantic loss to residents throughout the eastern portion of Washington Territory 
— a section practically isolated from all other portions of the world for many 
weeks. It has been said that this "was the severest winter known to the whites 
on the Pacific Coast." The stock in the Walla Walla country perished by the 
thousands, the animals being unable to secure feed and thus absolutely starving 
to death. From December to March the entire country here was effectually 
hedged in by the vast quantities of snow and the severely cold weather. Not until 
March 22d do we find the statement in the local newspaper that warm rains 
had set in and that the snow had commenced to disappear. One result is shown 
in the further remark that "Occasionally the sun shines out, when the sunny side 
of the street is lined with men." The loss of stock in this section during that 
memorable winter was estimated at fully one million dollars, hay having reached 
the phenomenal price of $125 per ton, while flour commanded $25 per barrel in 
Walla Walla. It may not be malapropos to quote a list of prices which obtained 
in the Oro Fino mining region in December, 1861 : bacon, fifty to sixty cents 
per pound; flour, twenty-five to thirty dollars per 100 weight; beans, twenty-five 
to thirty cents per pound; rice, forty to fifty cents per pound; butter, seventy- 
five cents to one dollar; sugar, forty to fifty cents; candles, eighty cents to one 
dollar per pound ; tea, one dollar and a quarter to one and a half per pound ; 
tobacco, one dollar to one and a half ; coffee, 50 cents. 

In view of subsequent gold excitements in Alaska, how familiarly will read 
the following statements from the IVasliington Statesman of March 22, 1862: 
"From persons who have arrived here from The Dalles during the week, we 
learn that there were some four thousand miners in Portland fifteen days ago, 
awaiting the opening of navigation to the upper country. Hundreds were arriv- 
ing by every steamer, and the town was literally filled to overflowing." Under 
date of April 5th, the same paper gives the following pertinent information: 
"From one hundred and thirty to one hundred and forty passengers, on their 
way to the mines, come up to Wallula on every steamer, and the majority of 
them foot it through to this place (Walla Walla)." By the last of May it was 
estimated by some that between twenty-five and thirty thousand persons had 
reached or were en route to the mining regions east of the Cascades, but con- 
servative men now in Walla Walla regard that a great overestimate. The mer- 
chants of Walla Walla profited largely through the patronage of the ever advanc- 
ing column of prospectors and miners, but the farmers did not fare so well, owing 
to the extreme devastations of the severe winter just passed. Enough has been 


said to indicate the causes which led to the rapid settlement and development of 
Eastern Washington and Oregon — an advancement that might have taken many 
years to accomplish had it not been for the discovery of gold in so romantic a 
manner. The yield of gold reported through regular channels for the year 1862 
aggregated fully seven million dollars, and it is certain that several millions 
were also sent out through mediums which gave no record. 

In February, 1S62, food products and merchandise commanded the following 
prices at Florence: flour, $1 per pound; bacon, $1.25; butter, $3; cheese, $1.50; 
lard, $1.25; sugar, $1.25; coffee, $2.00; tea, $2.50; gum boots per pair, $30; 
shovels, from twelve to sixteen dollars. 

That year of 1861 was a great year in the annals of Walla Walla County. 
Cattle drives, gold discovery, hard winter. Civil war ! The last named stupendous 
event was shared by the pioneer communities on the Walla Walla and its tribu- 
tary streams, but it afi^ected them in a unique manner. This was nothing less 
than the period of the Vigilantes. While this organization was due to a variety 
of conditions, the state of affairs which led to its existence grew out of the con- 
flict of opinions about the war. Yet it must be said that the character of popula- 
tion that flowed into Walla Walla after the gold discoveries and the establishment 
of the town as the leading outfitting place for the mines was a suitable seed-bed 
for the growth of conditions which at sundry times and places in the West have 
produced vigilance committees. This peaceful and law-abiding "Garden City" 
of 1917, a center of homes and educational institutions, conspicuous for morality, 
intelligence, and comfort, was in the 'Goa about as "tough" a collection of human 
beings as could be found. It was indeed. a- -motley that poured in as the 
mining excitement grew and spread. The/^l^t ati^ Worst jostled each other on 
the dusty and unsightly streets with their shackV aft'A 'tents and saloons and dance 
halls. Philanthropists and missionaries anH';eHti(Hrtors were represented by Revs. 
Eells, Spalding, Chamberlain, Berry and Flinn_,' Father Wilbur, Bishop Scott, 
Father Yunger, and Bishop Brouillet. Some of the noblest and most liberal- 
minded and honest of business men, some of whom continue to this day, gave 
character and standing to the commnuity and laid foundations upon which the 
goodly superstructure of the present has been reared. We have but to call up the 
names of Baker, Rees. Moore, Paine, O'Donnell, Whitman, Guichard, Reynolds, 
Stone, Jacobs, Johnson, Isaacs, Sharpstein, Abbott, Reese, Boyer, McMorris, 
Stine, Thomas, Drumheller, Painter, Ritz, Kyger, Cole, and others too numerous 
to mention, among the business men of that time, to know that the best was then 
in existence. Old timers delight to tell how John F. Boyer was intrusted by 
miners with sacks of gold-dust while they were gathering supplies and packing 
for new ventures, with never a receipt or stroke of pen to bind him, yet never a 
dream that he would fail to restore every ounce just as he received it. But the 
men of this type, some with wives of the same high type (though most of them 
were young men without families), were daily and nightly jostled by the mis- 
cellaneous throng of gamblers, pickpockets, highway robbers, hold-ups, and pros- 
titutes who ordinarily fatten on the gold-dust bags and belts of the miners 
assembled at their yearly supply stations. Strange stories are told about the 
number and variety and unique names and characters of the various "joints" in 
the Walla Walla of the decade of the '60s. In some newspaper a few years ago 
appeared an alleged reminiscence of a visitor to Walla Walla, in which he tells 


of going to a saloon, in which the floor was covered with sawdust. That was 
usual enough, but the odd thing was that each patron received with his drink a 
whiskbroom. Puzzled as to the jjurpose of the latter, the visitor waited for 
developments. He soon discovered that the whiskey was so strenuous as to be 
pretty sure to induce a fit, and the use of the broom was to sweep off a place 
on the dirty floor to ha\e a lit on, after which the refreshed and enlightened 
( ?) patron of the place would return the broom and proceed on his way. 

Such were the mongrel conditions of life during the first years of the Civil 
war. It is not surprising therefore, that such a ju.xtaposition of forces should 
have caused a perfect carnival of crime, and that out of it as a defence by the 
decent elements of the community should have arisen the organization of the 
\'igilance Committee. 

Two incidents prior to the formation of the \'igilantes indicate the uneasy 
condition induced by the presence of the soldiers at the fort and the considerable 
number of southern sympathizers in the community. In the JVashington States- 
man of April 19, 1862, we find an account of a riot at the theater out of which 
a correspondence arose between Mayor E. D. Whitman of Walla \Valla and 
Col. Henry Lee, commander of the post. This is also made the subject of 
editorial comment and from this comment we glean the following paragraphs 
as showing the state of mind at that time. 

"We publish today an interesting correspondence between Mayor Whitman 
and Lieut. Colonel Lee, growing out of the recent unfortunate afifray at the 
theater and the conduct of some of the soldiery since that event * * * On the 
part of the citizens who were engaged in the afifray, notwithstanding the fact that 
officers of the law had been sufl'ered to be stricken down and their authority con- 
temned and boldly set at defiance, we are satisfied they cherished no disposition 
to aggravate the difficulty either by word or deed. Remaining within the limits 
of the city, they have peaceably and quietly pursued their accustomed business. 
Not so the soldiers. Cherishing unjustifiably an excited and hostile disposition, 
they imitated the unwarrantable conduct of their fellows on the night in ques- 
tion, by parading our .streets with an armed force, thus exhibiting a total and 
wanton disregard for law and civil authorities. The mildest terms that can 
be applied to this procedure must characterize it as a high-handed outrage upon 
the rights of the people of this city, and a gross insult to the dignity and 
authority of their laws." 

The editorial proceeds to score Colonel Lee severely for his answer to the 
protestations of Mayor Whitman. It appears in brief that a group of soldiers 
had gone to the theater and made so much disturbance as to nearly break up the 
program and in an attempt to put them out one of the soldiers was killed. The 
next morning a band of from seventy-five to one hundred soldiers came armed 
into the town and seized the .sheriff and took possession of the street. Colonel 
Lee, in his statement of the case, disclaimed all responsibility and declared that 
the man who killed the soldier was a notorious criminal named "Cherokee Bob." 
The colonel sarcastically expresses surprise that the citizens of Walla Walla did 
not take interest enough in the matter to have Cherokee Bob arrested, and he 
states that he himself would heartily co-operate in any attempt to enforce law 
and order. He says that he will answer for the good conduct of the men under 
his command if the mayor will do the same for the citizens of the town. He 


declares that his men will not disturb the citizens if they are let alone. Alayor 
Whitman, in responding to this, declares that the soldiers initiated all the trouble 
by their incivility at the theater and that when an attempt was made by the 
proper peace officers to enforce order the fracas ensued in which three citizens, 
including two peace officers, were wounded, one mortally, and one soldier was 
killed and one wounded. This seems to have been the most serious afifray in that 
part of the history of the old town. It, like other events of the kind, seems to 
have been mixed up somewhat with the war conditions of the country, a good 
many of the people of the town being southern sympathizers and regarding the 
soldiers as representatives of the National Government. 

About a month later, another afifray took place which is described as follows 
in the columns of the Statesman: 

"On last Saturday afternoon, while the convention for the nomination for 
county officers was in session in this city, an afifray occurred between a soldier 
belonging to the garrison and a citizen named Anderson residing some miles from 
this place in Oregon. Ofifensive words were passed between them, when Ander- 
son seized a stone and threw it violently at the soldier, striking him on the head 
and felling him prostrate to the ground. Citizens who witnessed the act denounce 
it as unjustifiable and cowardly. The city marshal was present but for reasons 
best known to himself did not arrest the offender. Anderson was intoxicated 
and quarrelsome and should have been arrested. Another officer of the law 
immediately issued a warrant, but in the meantime Anderson had escaped. There 
was quite a gathering of soldiers present who were aware of the above facts, 
some of whom even saw and read the warrant. On the same evening an armed 
company of soldiers marched through our streets, took possession of our city, 
and surrounded the jail building in which the marshal was at the time attending 
to his duties. They demanded his arrest and threatened to effect it before they 
left the city. Shouts of "hang him," "He's a damn secessionist" and other mob- 
like expressions were used. It was to all intents and purposes a mob and the 
crowd were becoming excited and boisterous, when Captain Curry approached 
the spot and succeeded, after a short controversy, in getting them into line and 
marched them back to their quarters. We understand Anderson has left for 
Salmon River. On Monday morning the marshal tendered his resignation to the 
council, a meeting of which body was immediately held and another officer 

The editor proceeds to comment upon the fact that while the marshal seems 
to have been grossly derelict in his duty, there was no reason to charge the 
officers or the citizens of the town with being secessionists and that the idea of 
conspiring against the garrison was "all bosh." He charges that the soldiers 
were frequently drunk and objects of danger to the people of the town. 

It is interesting to notice that in the same issue of the Statesman, June 28th. 
the regular Union ticket for the election to take place on July 14th appears and 
has for its motto, "The Union Must and Shall be Preserved." 

It is evident from the Statesman as well as from the recollections of old- 
timers that there was a very strong secessionist influence in Walla Walla at that 
time. The general attitude of the Statesman is interesting to the historian because 
it represents so large a class of the citizens of the LInited States at that time. 
While the paper is uncompromisingly for the Union, it is mortally afraid of the 


question of emancipation and of anything like "nigger equality." Its tone toward 
President Lincoln is rather critical and in several cases it charges him with being 
swayed by abolitionists. As time went on the Union sentiment became more 
and more pronounced. Mr. F. W. Paine gives us an anecdote which shows the 
tension in the year 1863, as follows : 

In 1863 Delazon Smith and Dave Logan were candidates respectively on the 
democratic and republican tickets in Oregon for representative to Congress. 
They met to speak in the vicinity of Milton, a commnuity which at that time 
was intensely democratic. A number of Walla Walla republicans, among whom 
were Mr. J'aine and Charles Painter (and all who knew Mr. Painter will recall 
that although one of the kindest of men and best of neighbors, he was an intense 
republican and not at all averse to fighting for his opinions) went to Milton to 
lend their encouragement to the republican side. Reaching a sort of public house 
in the vicinity, they waved a flag which they had taken along and finally put 
it up on a corner of the building. The proprietor coming out and discovering 
it, inquired of Mr. Paine if it were his, to which Mr. Paine made answer that 
although the flag was not his, it had come with the company of which he was a 
member, and he presumed it was the intention to let it remain where they had 
put it until they were ready to take it down themselves. The proprietor then 
demanded that it should be taken down. The republicans replied that that flag 
would not go down as long as there was a man left who had put it there. A 
fracas seemed imminent and in fact began when the proprietor of the house, 
whose valor seems to have been considerably of a spirituous nature, backed out 
and the flag remained. 

Besides the influence of divided politics, and the friction between the soldiers 
and the citizens, besides all the general lawlessness of that period of miners, 
cowboys, and Indians, there was a special feature of the times which aided 
in leading to the formation of the Vigilance Committee. This was the existence 
of organized bands of thieves and cattle-rustlers all over the Northwest. The 
ramifications of these groups of law-breakers extended from California to 
Montana and Idaho. The recently published book by Ex-Governor W. J. McCon- 
nell of Idaho, in regard to early times in the mines of Northern Idaho and the 
Boise Basin, the Magruder murder, and the operations of the Vigilantes in those 
sections, with many other similar incidents, gives a vivid picture of the times 
of horse-thieves, cattle-thieves, and gold-dust thieves. In fact, as it was an era 
of thieves and highwaymen of all sorts, so it was also an era of vigilance com- 
mittees over the same era as a necessary defense against desperadoes. Judge 
Thomas H. Brents, as his friends well knew, had a fund of hair-raising stories 
of his own experiences as an express rider during that period. Another man 
well known around Walla Walla and throughout Eastern Oregon as an express 
rider during the same time was no less a person than Joaquin Miller, "The Poet 
of the Sierras." 

A number of incidents scattered through the columns of the Statesman in 
1863, 1864, 1865, indicate the kind of events which led directly to the formation 
of the Vigilantes. For instance, in the issue of May 2, 1863, is an account of the 
discover}' of about a hundred horses which were cached away in a mountain 
\alley at the head of the Grande Ronde River. It was believed by those who 
discovered them that they had been driven there by a bunch of "road agents" 


who had been hung at Lewiston a few months before. Li the issue of the States- 
man of June 20th of the same year, there is an item about the recovery of seven- 
teen stolen horses on Coppei Creek near Waitsburg by a vigilance committee. 
In the next number is an item to the effect that the same men that had stolen 
the seventeen horses came back and ran away six more, and sent word back that 
they had the horses on the north side of Snake River and they dared the owners 
to come over for them. They said that there were seven of them and they had 
three revolvers each and they would be glad to see company. The farmers of 
Coppei organized a well armed force and crossed the river. They discovered the 
horses and took possession of them, but the vainglorious road agents were 
nowhere in sight. 

In the Statesman of April 14, 1865, we find the first definite account of the 
operations of the Vigilantes. It appears that a certain individual called "Dutch 
Louie" had been taken, according to his account, from his bed by Vigilantes 
at the hour of midnight, and hanged until he was nearly dead, in order to make 
him testify against someone whom he did not want to name. It appears at 
the- same time that there was an anti-Vigilantes organization which took posses- 
sion of another man who was in the habit of coming to town and getting "d. d.," 
and tried to compel him to give evidence against the Vigilantes. In the next issue 
of the Statesman there is an account of the pursuit of cattle thieves who had 
run away sixty cattle from the Wild Horse Creek, and had come to a halt on 
Mill Creek three miles above Walla Walla. Mr. Jeffries followed them with 
a posse of citizens and fomid some of the cattle, and according to the story one 
of the thieves was hung by the Vigilantes, although the paper intimates that the 
story of the hanging was without foundation. In the same issue there is an 
account of Mr. Samuel Johnson (and he was well known for many years as 
one of the prominent citizens of the Walla Walla country) having lost sixty head 
of cattle out of his band and following them by a trail from the Touchet to a 
point on the Columbia River sixty miles above Priest Rapids. The same paper 
also has an item about the "skeedaddling" of thieves, and it gives a suggestion 
that there is a point beyond which endurance ceases to be a virtue, and that 
the farther these worthies "skeedaddle" the less chance there will be of their 
being found some morning dangling at a rope's end. 

The Statesman of April 21, 1865, contains an account of some regular "hang- 
ings" by the vigilance committee. It seems that on the Sunday morning previous, 
a man named McKenzie was found hanging to a limb near the racetrack, which 
at that time was a short distance below town. It appeared from reliable tes- 
timony that he was implicated in the theft of the cattle stolen from Mr. Jeffries. 
During the same week, two men named Isaac Reed and William Wills, were 
caught at Wallula, charged with stealing horses, and they traveled the same road 
as McKenzie. Before taking their final jump-off, they acknowledged that they 
were members of a regular band who had a large number of stolen horses on 
the Columbia somewhere above Wallula, and that there had just been a fight 
among the members of the band, in which one had been killed. During the same 
week the famous hanging of "Slim Jim" was consummated from a tree which 
still stands in the southern part of town. He was charged with having assisted 
"Six-toed Pete" and Waddingham to escape from the county jail. The author 
of this work derived much of his information in regard to the period of the 


\'igilantes from Richard IJogle and Marshall Seeke, both well known for many 
years in \\'alla Walla, now deceased, but all who were residents of the town 
during 1864 and 1865 are sufficiently familiar with the events of the time. They 
do not, however, seem to be inclined to talk very much about it. The general 
supjx)sition is that the most prominent citizens of Walla ^^'alla were either 
actively or by their support concerned in the organization. They had secret 
meetings and passed upon cases brought before them with great promptness, but 
with e\ery attempt to get at the essential facts. In case they decided that the 
community would be better without some given individual, that individual would 
receive an intimation to that effect. In case he failed to act upon the suggestion 
within a few hours, he was likely to be found adorning some tree in the vicinity 
of the town the next morning. Although to modern ideas the Vigilantes seem 
rather frightful members of the judiciary, yet it is doubtless true that that swift 
and summary method of disposing of criminals was necessary at that time and 
that as a result of it there was a new reign of law and order. 

The most famous of all the cases during that period, was that of Ferd Patter- 
son. This famous "bad man'" had begun his career in Portland by killing a 
captain in the Union army, as a result of an encounter which took place in one 
of the principal saloons of that city. This man, Captain Staple, lifted his glass 
and cried out, "I drink to the success of the Union and the flag!" Patterson 
was a southerner and when all the men about him lifted their glasses he threw 
his down exclaiming, "The Union and the flag be damned !" The other men 
cried out to Captain Staple, "Bring him back and make him drink !" The cap- 
tain turned to follow Patterson, who Was upon the stairs, and at the instant a 
revolver shot rang out and the captain fell with a bullet in his heart. Patterson, 
however, was acquitted on the ground of self-defense. _ In fact, like other pro- 
fessional "bad men," he was skilled in getting his opponent to draw first and 
then with his great quickness he would send a deadly shot before the opponent 
could pull his trigger. After several similar instances, Patterson came to \\'alla 
Walla and was located for a time at what is now called Bingham Springs. It was 
a station at that time on the main stage line between The Dalles and Boise, 
and had a good hotel, bath-house, and other conveniences for travelers. On a 
certain day there app)eared at Bingham Springs the sheriff of Boise, whose name 
was Pinkham. Pinkham was a strong Union man and Patterson, as we have 
seen, just the reverse; and the two parties at that time were so well balanced 
that it was just a turn of the hand which would hold supremacy. Meeting 
Patterson one day, as he was just emerging from the bathing pool, Pinkham 
slapped him in the face. Patterson said, "I am alone today without my gun, but 
one of these days I will be fixed for you and settle this matter." Pinkham replied, 
"The sooner the better." A few days after this, Patterson walked up and 
slapped Pinkham. Both men drew their revolvers, but Patterson's shot took 
effect first, and another man was added to his long score. The brief item in 
respect to this Pinkham affray appears in the Walla Walla Statesman of July 
28, 1865. 

Some weeks passed by and Patterson came to Walla Walla where he was 
supported mainly by various light-fingered arts and gambling games in which 
he was an adept. It was considered by many that he was too dangerous a man 
to have in the community, but it was a very difficult matter to get any evidence 


against him. \'ery few dared to incur his enmity. Finally, a man named Don- 
nehue, who w'as a night watchman in the town, took upon himself to try, convict, 
and execute the famous gambler all in one set of operations. It appears from 
the account given by Richard Bogle that between eight and nine o'clock on Febru- 
ary 15, 1866, Patterson had entered his barber shop, which was then situated 
on Main Street, between Third and Fourth, as it would be at the present time. 
While the barber was engaged upon the countenance of the gambler, Dohnehue 
entered and stood for some little time watching the operation, and just at the 
moment of completion of the combing of his hair, about which the gambler was 
very particular, Donnehue suddenly stepped up and shouted, "You kill me or I'll 
kill you." And at the same moment he let fly a bullet from his revolver. Patter- 
son, who was a man of magnificent physique, although mortally wounded, did not 
fall but endeavored to reach his own gun ; and while doing so, and in fact having 
gotten out upon the street, Donnehue emptied the revolver into the staggering 
form of his antagonist. Patterson died within a few minutes and Donnehue 
was arrested at once without resistance upon his part, and taken to jail. He was 
never tried, but soon after left town, with his pockets lined with gold dust, accord- 
ing to reports. It was generally supposed for many years that the Vigilantes had 
passed upon Patterson's case and had appointed Donnehue to execute their sen- 
tence in the only way that could be done without loss of somebody else's life. 
We are informed, however, by one of the most reliable old-timers in Walla Walla, 
a man still living, that the Vigilantes did not pass upon Patterson's case and that 
his death was pure murder on the part of Donnehue. However that may be, 
there is no question but that the community drew a long sigh of relief when it 
was known that Ferd Patterson had been retired from active participation in its 
affairs. With the death of Patterson, and the close of the Civil war, and still 
more as a result of the beginnings of farming, it may be said that the era of the 
Vigilantes came to an end. They gradually disbanded without anyone knowing 
exactly how or why, and by degrees there came to be established an ever-growing 
reign of law and order in Old Walla Walla. 

As constituting a vivid narrative in the history of the Vigilantes, we include 
here a historic sketch by Prof. Henry L. Tolkington of the State Normal School of 
Idaho. It appeared in the Lezmston Tribune of August 19, 1917. It will consti- 
tute a part of a book now in preparation by Professor Tolkington entitled "Heroes 
and Heroic Deeds of the Pacific Northwest." 

While the conclusion does not occur within the limits of Old Walla Walla 
County, it is a part of the same story and is intensely characteristic of those times. 


In previous chapters we have presented the facts in relation to the first attempt 
at organization of Walla Walla County in 1854, prior to the period of great 
Indian wars. We took up again the reorganization and development in 1859 with 
the incoming of permanent population. We also mentioned the first charter and 
the inauguration of permanent city government. In the chapter dealing with the 
beginnings of industries we showed the first locations at the different points which 
have become the centers of population in the four counties. 

It remains in this chapter to take up the thread with the growing communities 
and the government over them which composed the old county down to 1875, when 
Columbia County was created, embracing what are now the three counties of 
Columbia, Garfield and Asotin, and thus reducing Walla Walla County to its 
present limits. After that we shall trace the story of the successive subtractions 
of Garfield from Columbia and then Asotin from Garfield. 

The authorities to which we have had recourse are first the county records, 
so far as available ; second, the files of the newspapers covering the periods ; 
third, Col. F. F. Gilbert's Historic Sketches, published in 1882, to which frequent 
reference has been made and which seems in general to be very reliable; and 
fourth, the memory of pioneers still living or from whom data were secured prior 
to their death. In respect to the public records it may be said that a destructive 
fire on August 3, 1865, of which an account is given in the Statesman of the 4th, 
destroyed the records, though the more important ordinances and other acts of 
city and county government had appeared in the Statesman and from that source 
were replaced. 

The most important events in the political history were connected with, first, 
the county, its legislative and local officers, and the chain of circumstances going 
on to county divisions ; second, the city government and the movement of laws 
and policies through various reorganizations to the present; and third, the place 
occupied by the old county in relation to state and national affairs. 

In the way of a general view of political conditions in the period from the 
creation of county offices by the Legislature of the Territory on January 19, 
1859, through the period of war, it may be said that the prevailing sentiment was 
at first strongly democratic. The majority of the settlers in Old Oregon, from 
which had come a large proportion of the earlier comers to Walla Walla, were 
from Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, with quite a sprinkling from Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky and democratic views preponderated in the sections from which the majority 
came. With that strange inconsistency which has made American political his- 
tory a chaos for the philosopher and historian, that early democratic element here 
and elsewhere was in general bitterly opposed to "abolitionists and black repub- 



licans." While a great majority of them did not favor slavery and to a consider- 
able extent had left slave states to get rid of it, yet they were mortally afraid of 
"nigger equality." When the war broke out there was a considerable element 
that were carried so far by their hatred of abolitionists that they even became 
rank "Secesh." That, however, was a temporary sentiment. The feeling of 
union and the preservation of an undivided nation gradually asserted itself, and 
by the time the war was half through democrats as well as republicans stood 
firmly on the platform of the maintenance of the Union. One of the best ex- 
pressions of that sentiment is found in the resolutions of the democratic conven- 
tion on May 23, 1863, reported in the Statesman of the 30th. We find these ex- 
pressions : "That the democracy are unalterably attached to the union of these 
states." "That the right of secession is not reserved to the States." "That the 
Federal Government has a right to maintain the constitution and enforce the laws, 
if need be, by force of arms, and so far as the acts of the present administration 
tend to these desirable ends, it has our cordial support and no further." 
Then as an olifset, the fourth resolution declares : "That the democracy of Wash- 
ington Territory view the declared intention of such men as Horace Greeley and 
Charles Sumner — who desire the prosecution of the present civil war for the 
abolition of slavery, and who utterly scout the idea of any peace which is not 
founded on the condition that the social fabric of the insurgent states is to be 
totally uprooted — with abhorrence." 

A good evidence of this is the inability of men brought up with certain views 
and prejudices to grasp the logic of events. Then as since, "there are none so 
blind as those that won't see." That sentiment was also well shown in the con- 
tinuance of the campaign of 1863, in which Geo. E. Cole of Walla Walla was 
democratic candidate for Territorial Delegate. An editorial in the Statesman of 
June 5, 1863, commends Mr. Cole as a Union man and a democrat. In the same 
issue appears the resolutions of the Clarke County Democratic Convention which 
had been adopted in substance by the territorial convention which nominated Mr. 
Cole, and to which the democrats of Walla Walla pledged themselves at a rati- 
fication meeting on July nth. As showing the stamp "of thought prevailing at 
that time in the party, it is of interest to read these resolutions : 

"Resolved, That the democracy (of Clarke County) are for the Union, and 
the whole Union, and in favor of the vigorous prosecution of the efforts of the 
Government in crushing the present unholy and wicked rebellion, when such 
efforts are not actuated by any other motives than a single desire to maintain the 
honor and dignity of the nation and enforcement of the laws. That we are op- 
posed to the conclusion of any peace involving in its terms the acknowledgment 
of the so-called Southern Confederacy, and that we hereby pledge ourselves, 
come weal or woe, in life and death, now and forever, to stand by and defend 
the flag of our country in its hour of peril." 

It is indeed one of the most significant evolutions in American history ; that 
of the gradual passing over from a support of slavery by the larger part of the 
democratic party to a stage where they no longer supported that "sum of all 
villainies" and yet had a profound hatred of "abolitionists," to the point where 
they perceived that the maintenance of the Union was the great essential, whether 
slavery was lost or saved, and yet further to the point, which many reached, of 
an unflinching support of Abraham Lincoln in his abolition as well as Union 


policies. It is all an exhibition of the c\olution of nationalism, to which free 
labor is essential. And in tliat evolution, the West has borne the larger part. 
The sentiment of state pride, the local prejudices and narrow vision conmion in 
the older states and which in the South became intertwined with slavery and pro- 
duced economic and political deformity and arrested development, was shuffled 
of^" when people of East and North and South and Europe all joined to lay the 
foundations of genuine American states in new regions unhampered and undis- 
torted by caste and prejudice. This state of affairs in the West prepared the way 
for a new democracy, a national democracy, a genuine democracy for all men. 
The transformation of Walla A\'alla politics was simply a sample of a movement 
taking place all over the country. As a result, during the decades of the sixties 
and seventies, many former democrats, notably some who had been brought up 
in Missouri and other slave states, finding the democratic party, as they thought, 
still a laggard on progressive issues developed by the war and reconstruction, left 
the party and joined the republicans. Doubtless the Statesman may be taken as 
a good exponent of the pre\ailing democratic views in Walla Walla. It was 
strong for the L'nion, but was horribly afraid of "abolitionists." When W. H. 
Newell acquired the paper in November, 1865, he adopted the policy of support- 
ing President Johnson against Congress. The republican party steadily gained, 
and in subsequent decades Walla Walla County, as all other parts of the states 
of Washington and Oregon, became overwhelmingly republican. By the progress 
of the same evolution, progressive politics have had a powerful hold upon the 
people of these states, as well as of the entire Pacific Coast, and the support given 
to democratic candidates, state and national, in 1916, is a thoroughly logical de- 
velopment. The people have been consistent, though party names have not. 

One of the interesting facts not generally realized is that Walla Walla 
County in the sixties contained so large a part of the population of the territory. 
In the Statesman of December 30, 1864, we find a report from Edwin Eells, 
enrolling officer of the county, in which it appears that the draft enrollment in 
\\'alla Walla County was 1,133, while in the entire territory it was 4,143. 

A few figures at various times in the sixties will be found of interest. 

The vote for Territorial Delegate in 1863 by counties was as follows, as 
given in the Statesman of August 22: 

George E. Cole, J. O. R.wnor, 
Democrat Republican 

Chehalis 22 21 

Clallam 45 27 

Clarke 173 100 

Clickitat 25 37 

Cowlitz 39 57 

Island 72 31 

Jefferson 148 120 

King 68 93 

Kitsap 130 99 

Lewis 63 77 

Pacific II 90 

Pierce 95 106 

Sawamish 36 19 


George E. Cole, J. O. Ravnor, 

Democrat Republican 

Skamania 48 35 

Snohomish 35 30 

Spokane 56 12 

Thurston 132 171 

Wakiakum 12 

Walla Walla 398 140 

Whatcom 32 56 

Total 1,628 1,333 

A few figures at various times in the sixties will be found of interest. In the 
county election of June, 1864, we find the following vote by precincts: 

Precinct Democratic Republican 

Walla Walla 287 149 

Lower Touchet 1 1 33 

LTpper Touchet 41 49 

Snake River 2 7 

Wallula I 12 

Palaha 2 10 

Total 344 260 

The Statesman of September 9, 1864, says that nine-tenths of the immigrants 
coming in at that time were Democrats. 

That claim was not quite realized, however, in the election of June 5, 1865, for 
the republican candidate for Territorial Delegate, Arthur A. Denny, received 336. 
while the democrat, James Tilton, had 406. 

Though the population was small and scattered there were many intricacies 
involving county and city politics. Into those details we cannot go. Doubtless 
some of them would best rest in oblivion. 

We incorporate here, as valuable for reference, the list of legislative choices 
and of the chief county officers beginning with 1863 and extending through all 
elections prior to county division in 1875. 


Daniel Stewart, joint councilman ; S. W. Babcock, F. P. Dugan, L. S. Rogers, 
representatives; W. S. Gilliam, sheriff; L. J. Rector, auditor; C. Leyde, assessor. 


J. H. Lasater, attorney; Alvin Flanders, joint representative; A. L. Brown, 
F. P. Dugan, E. L. Bridges, representatives ; W. G. Langf ord, councilman ; J. H. 
Blewett. probate judge ; James McAuliff, treasurer ; W. H. Patton, assessor ; 
Charles White, surveyor; H. D. O'Bryant, commissioner; A. J. Theboda, coroner. 



B. L. Sharpstein, councilman ; D. M. Jessee, R. Jacobs, R. R. Rees, H. D. 
O'Bryant, T. P. Page, representatives; James McAuliff, treasurer; H. M. Hodgis, 
assessor; W. G. Langford, superintendent of schools; T. G. Lee and H. A. Liv- 
ingston, commissioners. 


W. H. Newell, councilman; J. M. Vansycle, joint councilman; W. P. Horton, 
E. Ping, J. M. Lamb, P. B. Johnson, B. F. Regan, representatives; H. M. Chase, 
probate judge; A. Seitel, sheriff; J. H. Blewett, auditor; J. D. Cook, treasurer; 
C. Ireland, assessor; C. Eells, superintendent of schools; S. 'M. Wait, W. T. 
Barnes, and A. H. Reynolds, commissioners. 


Daniel Stewart, councilman; N. T. Bryant, joint councilman; D. Ashpaugh, 
J. H. Lasater, John Scott, A. G. Lloyd, E. Ping, T. W. Whetstone, representa- 
tives; N. T. Caton, attorney; R. Guichard, probate judge; James McAuliff, 
sheriff; H. M. Chase, auditor; A. Kyger, treasurer; A. C. Wellman, assessor; 
J. L. Reser, superintendent of schools; C. C. Cram, Francis Lowden, 1. T. Reese, 


Fred Stine, councilman; C. H. Montgomery, joint councilman; N. T. Caton, 
O. P. Lacy, E. Ping, C. L. Bush, John Bryant, and H. M. Hodgis, representatives; 
L Hargrove, probate judge; B. W. Griffin, sheriff; R. Jacobs, auditor; R. R. 
Rees, treasurer; W. F. Gwynn, assessor; A. W. Sweeney, superintendent of 
schools; D. M. Jessee, W. P. Bruce, and S. L. King, commissioners. 


E. Ping, councilman; W. W. Boon, joint councilman; R. G. Newland, J. B. 
Shrum, P. M. Lynch, John Scott, A. G. Lloyd, and H. M. Hodgis, representa- 
tives; T. J. Anders, attorney; R. Guichard, probate judge; G. F. Thomas, sheriff; 
R. Jacobs, auditor; R. R. Rees, treasurer; S. Jacobs, assessor; A. W. Sweeney, 
superintendent of schools ; Charles White, C. S. Bush, C. C. Cram, commissioners. 

This was the last election prior to county division. The elections after that 
event will appear in chapter one of part three. 

In the early times they seem to have had a frank and outspoken and energetic 
manner of writing about each other, and the inference is plain that they talked in 
a similar way. Each man had ready access to his hip pocket, and was commonly 
qualified to support his views by force of arms when necessary. We find as a 
sample a discussion between Sheriff E. B. Whitman and certain critics in the 
Statesman of May 30 and June 13. 1863. It pertains to the arrest of one Bunton. 
An address signed by sixty-nine residents of the Coppei appears in the earlier 
issue. In it is charged that a flagrant and wilful murder had been committed by 


William Bunton on the person of Daniel S. Cogsdill and that Sheriff Whitman 
made no effort to arrest Bunton, and when, at the instance of citizens, Deputy 
Hodgis arrested Bunton, and delivered him to Whitman that the latter was too 
merciful to the prisoner to put him in jail; "but at the request of Bunton put him 
in charge of a lame or a crippled man, with, as we believe, the intention of his 
escape." Tliey therefore declare that they have no protection when the high and 
responsible office of sheriff is filled by the friends of murderers and thieves. They 
therefore recommend that the commissioners should remove said Whitman and 
appoint ''Deputy Hodgis or some other good man." 

Sheriff Whitman makes in reply a lengthy and moderate explanation, the main 
point of which was that the county jail was so insecure that by the advice of 
Judge Wyche he put Bunton in the hands of J. O. Putman, one of the signers of 
the above statement, and that after some trouble Bunton got away. In the issue 
of June 13, the citizens returned to the attack with renewed energy, and this 
brought from Mr. Whitman a vitriolic response. He begins: "Editor Statesman: 
As your columns seem to be at the disposal of parties who may wish to belch 
forth personal slander, persecution, malignity, and falsehood, it is but just that 
the party vilified should have the opportunity of replying through the same me- 
dium. Upon reading the article, dated at Coppei, I thought I would let the matter 
rest upon its own merits, as the style and manner in which it is written shows 
that it originated from a vindictive, mischievous, and depraved appetite for 
notoriety, which at times controls men of depraved tastes." Among the sixty- 
nine signers of the document were some who were, as also Sheriff Whitman him- 
self was, among the most worthy of the foundation builders, and who now all 
rest in honored graves. We are giving the incidents here as a historical curiosity, 
and as showing how men's minds were keyed up in those days of war and vigi- 
lantes to a high pitch. 


One of the most exciting political questions of the sixties was that of an- 
nexation of Walla Walla County to Oregon. We find in the Statesman of Octo- 
ber 20, 1865, a report of a mass meeting of October 18, at which resolutions were 
passed advocating the annexation and inviting the people of Oregon, through 
their Legislature, to unite in the movement, and also calling on the representatives 
and senators from Oregon and the Territorial Delegate, A. A. Denny, to use all 
honorable means to induce Congress to take that action. They mention, which is 
historically interesting, that the people of Oregon in accepting their Constitution 
had done so with the understanding that the line should follow the natural boun- 
dary of the Columbia and Snake rivers. The convention also censured Judge 
J. E. Wyche, judge of the First Judicial District of Washington Territory, located 
at Walla Walla. The committee composing the resolutions consisted of J. H. 
Lasater, A. Kyger, and Drury Davis. J. H. Blewett introduced a resolution call- 
ing on President Johnson to remove Judge Wyche. The resolution was lost. A 
committee consisting of A. J. Cain, A. L. Brown, and H. P. Isaacs was appointed 
to draft petitions, one to Congress and the other to the Oregon Legislature, look- 
ing to the execution of the plan. 

In the same issue of the Statesman a call appears for a meeting to "take such 


steps as they may deem proper to frustrate the designs of those who would saddle 
upon the people of this county a proportion of the debt of the bankrupt State of 
Oregon, with her j)eculiar institutions." 

It is asserted that Anderson Cox was the prime nio\er in the annexation 
project, though his name does not appear in the rejjort in the Statesman. The 
Oregon Legislature was nothing loth to add this desirable section to the limits 
of the inothcr state and duly memorialized Congress to that effect. Years passed 
by, and in 1875, just after county division had been effected. Senator J. K. Kelly 
of Oregon introduced a bill providing for the submission of the question to the 
people of Walla Walla and Columbia counties. This bill failed, as did also one 
to the same effect in the House by Representative LaFayette Lane of Oregon. 
The failure of the annexation plan produced additional activity in projects look- 
ing to statehood. There was during that period (and it has not entirely ceased 
to this day) a good deal of friction between the Walla Walla section and the 
Puget Sound section. The former had early commercial and political relations 
with Portland of a far more intimate nature than with the Sound. The ma- 
jority of the leading business men were from Oregon. The common feeling was 
that the Sound was very selfish and narrow in its dealings with the eastern section, 
desiring its connection mainly for taxation purposes. It was largely from that 
feeling that annexation projects arose. The Sound, on the other hand, had accused 
the Walla Walla section of being disloyal to the state and seeking local advantage. 
Opposition in the territory therefore delayed action. According to statements 
made by Hollon Parker to the author a number of years ago, he himself made 
a special trip to Washington to head oft' the movement. At any rate, it was never 
carried. Walla Walla County had at the time of the presidential election of 
1876 a sufficient majority of Democrats to have toppled the slight scale by which 
Hayes held the presidency over Tilden, and if the county had been in Oregon 
Tilden would have had a majority and the Electoral Commission would never 
have been created, and quite a section of national history would have had another 

In 1865 the Territorial Delegate was Arthur Denny of Seattle. The States- 
man refers to him as the "Abolition Candidate." Passing on to 1867 we find 
national, state, and local affairs of a very strenuous nature. Perhaps the inser- 
tion here of extracts from a book written by the author sometime ago will con- 
vey a clear view of the course of events in the elections of 1867 and 1869. 


A review of the political situation in 1867 shows that there was an extraordi- 
nary interest and activity in the ranks of both the democrats and the republicans. 
The principal point of contest and interest was in the selection of a delegate to 
Congress, each party having a number of aspirants for the important office. 
The people east of the Cascades felt that they were entitled to have a candidate 
selected from their section of the territory, inasmuch as the honor had hitherto 
gone to a resident of the .Sound country. From the eastern section of the ter- 
ritorv were five democrats and two republicans whose names were prominently 
mentioned in this connection, and while the republican convention for \\'alla Walla 
Countv sent an uninstructed delegate to the territorial convention, a vigorous 


effort had been made in favor of I he candidacy of Judge J. E. Wyche. At the 
county democratic convention the delegates chosen were instructed to give their 
support to W. G. Langford, of Walla Walla, so long as seemed expedient. They 
were also instructed to deny their support to any candidate who endorsed in any 
degree the project of annexing Walla Walla County to Oregon. In the territorial 
convention Frank Clark of Pierce County received the nomination of the de- 
mocracy for the office of congressional delegate, the balloting in the convention 
having been close and spirited. The republican territorial convention succeeded 
in running in the proverbial "dark horse," in the person of Alvin Flanders, a 
Walla Walla merchant, who was made the nominee, defeating three very strong 

Owing to the agitation of the Vigilance question, referring to diverging 
opinions of the citizens as to the proper method of administering justice, the 
politics of the county were in a peculiarly disrupted and disorganized condition, 
and the Vigilance issue had an unmistakable influence on the election, as was 
shown by the many peculiarities which were brought to light when the returns 
were fully in. The democrats of the county were particularly desirous of elect- 
ing certain of their county candidates, and it is stated that the republicans were 
able to divert many democratic votes to their candidate for delegate to Congress 
by trading votes with democrats and pledging their support to local democratic 
candidates. The fact that such bartering took place is assured, for while the 
returns gave a democratic majority of about two hundred and fifty in Walla Walla 
County for all other officers, the delegate received a majority of only 124. This 
action on the part of the Walla Walla democrats secured the election of the repub- 
lican candidate, whose majority in the territory was only ninety-six. 

Tlie result of the election in the county, held on the 3d of June, was as fol- 
lows : Frank Clark, the democratic candidate for delegate, received 606 votes, 
and Alvin Flanders, republican, 482 votes. The other officers elected were as 
follows : Prosecuting attorney, F. P. Dugan ; councilman, W. H. Newell ; joint 
councilman (Walla Walla and Stevens counties), J. M. Vansycle; representatives, 
W. P. Horton, E. Ping, J. M. Lamb, P. B Johnson and B. F. Regan; probate 
judge, H. M. Chase; sherifl", A. Seitel ; auditor, J. H. Blewett; treasurer, J. D. 
Cook; assessor, C. Ireland; surveyor, W. L. Gaston; superintendent of schools, 
C. Eells; coroner, L. H. Goodwin; county commissioners, S. M. Wait, D. M. 
Jessee (evidently an error in returns, as W. T. Barnes, a democrat, was elected), 
and A. H. Reynolds. 

The sheriff resigned on November 7, 1868, and on the same day James Mc- 
Auliff was appointed to fill the vacancy. A. H. Reynolds resigned as commis- 
sioner, in May, 1869, Dr. D. S. Baker being appointed as his successor. Of the 
.successful candidates noted in the above list, all were democrats except P. B. 
Johnson, J. D. Cook, C. Eells, S. M. Wait and A. FI. Reynolds. 

Again in this year was there to be chosen a delegate to Congress, and the 
democracy of Walla Walla County instructed their delegates to the territorial 
convention to insist upon the nomination of a candidate resident east of the Cas- 
cade Range — the same desideratum that had been sought at the last preceding 
election. In the convention F. P. Dugan, J. D. Mix, B. L. Sharsptein and W. H. 
Newell, of Walla Walla, were balloted for, but the nomination went to Marshall 
F. Moore, ex-governor of the territory. 


Tlie republican iioniinalion was secured by Selucius Garfielde, surveyor-gen- 
eral of the territory. The names of two of Walla Walla County's citizens were 
presented before the convention, Dr. D. S. Baker and Anderson Cox. The nomi- 
nation of Garfielde proved unsatisfactory to many of the party adherents and dis- 
sention was rampant. The disaffection became so intense in nature that a number 
of the most prominent men in the party ranks did not hesitate to append their 
signatures to a circular addressed to the "downfallen republican party," said docu- 
ment bearing fifty signatures in all. On the list appeared the name of the dele- 
gate in Congress and the chief justice of the territory. The circular called for a 
radical reorganization of the party, charged fraudulent action in the convention 
and made many sweeping assertions. This action provoked a strong protest, and 
the disaffected contingent did not nominate a ticket of their own, and Mr. Gar- 
fielde was elected by a majority of 132. He received in Walla Walla County 384 
votes, while his opponent, Mr. Moore, received 740. 

According to all data available, the political pot boiled furiously throughout 
the territory as the hour of election approached. Lack of harmony was manifest 
in both parties, and, as before, the chief interest centered in the election of a dele- 
gate to represent the territory in the Federal Congress. Those office-holders who 
were most vigorously protestant and visibly disaffected were summarily removed 
from office in January of this year by the President of the United States, this 
action having been recommended by the congressional delegate, Mr. Garfielde, 
who thus drew upon himself still greater dislike and opposition. A change in the 
existing laws made it necessary to elect a delegate again this year, and a strong 
attempt was made to defeat Mr. Garfielde, who was confident of being returned 
to office. There could be no reconciliation of the warring elements in the repub- 
lican party. The republican territorial convention of 1869 had appointed an ex- 
ecutive committee, whose personnel was as follows : Edward Eldridge, M. S. 
Drew, L. Famsworth, P. D. Moore, B. F. Stone, Henry Cook and J. D. Cook. 
In February a circular was issued by Messrs. S. D. Howe, A. A. Manning, Ezra 
Meeker, G. A. Meigs, A. A. Denny and John E. Bums, who claimed to have con- 
stituted the executive committee. The convention as called by the regular com- 
mittee met in April and renominated Mr. Garfielde. The recalcitrant faction 
presented the name of Marshall Blinn in the convention, the bolters not being 
strong enough to hold a separate convention, but hoping to gain sufficient votes 
to prevent the nomination of Garfielde. 

The democratic convention was far more harmonious, the nomination going 
to Judge J. D. Mix, one of the most honored citizens of Walla Walla, and one 
enjoying a wide acquaintance throughout the territory. The campaign developed 
considerable acrimony between the factions of the republican party, but the re- 
sults of the election showed that the disaffected wing gained but slight popular 
endorsement. Six thousand three hundred and fifty-seven votes were cast in this 
election, representing a gain of 1,300 over the preceding year. Garfielde was 
elected, securing a majority of 736 over Mix, the total vote for Blinn being only 
155. Upon the question of holding a constitutional convention there were 1,109 
votes cast in opposition, and 974 in favor. 

By reason of the change in the law the county election also was held a year 
earlier than usual, occurring June 6, 1870. The democracy was victorious in 
the county, electing their entire ticket with the exception of superintendent of 




schools. For delegate James D. Mix received in his home county 670 votes, while 
Selucius Garfielde had 527. The officers elected in the county were as follows: 
Prosecuting attorney, N. T. Caton; councilman, Daniel Stewart; joint council- 
man (Walla Walla, Stevens and Yakima counties), N. T. Bryant; representatives, 
David Aspaugh, James H. Lasater, John Scott, A. G. Lloyd, Elisha Ping and 
T. W. Whetstone; probate judge. R. Guichard ; sheriff, James McAuliff; auditor, 
H. M. Chase ; treasurer, A. Kyger ; assessor, A. C. Wellman ; surveyor, A. H. 
Simmons (he was succeeded by Charles A. White, who was appointed to the 
office May i, 1871) ; school superintendent, J. L. Reser ; coroner, L. H. Goodwin; 
county commissioners, C. C. Cram, F. Louden and L T. Rees. 

The officials elected in the county this year did not assume their respective 
positions until the succeeding year. The officers elected in the preceding year 
had been chosen for a term of two years, and they contended that the change in 
the law of the territory which made it necessary to hold the election in 1870, in- 
stead of 1871, did not invalidate their right to hold office until the expiration of 
their regular term. The matter was brought into the courts for adjudication, in 
a test case, the prosecuting attorney-elect against the incumbent of the office at 
the time of the last election. In July James W. Kennedy, judge of the first dis- 
trict, rendered a decision in favor of the defendant, holding that officers elected 
in 1S69 retained their positions until 1871, thus reducing the term of the officials 
last elected to one year. 


One of the burning questions at all times in political life has been the County 
Courthouse. As the county dedicated its first courthouse in the year 1867, it is 
incumbent that we make a brief reference to the same at this juncture. As early 
as 1864, the grand jury had made a report on this matter, and from said document 
we make the following pertinent extracts : "We, the grand jury, find that it is 
the duty of the county commissioners to furnish offices for the different county 
officers. This we find they have not done. Today the offices of the officers are 
in one place, tomorrow in another, and we hope at the next meeting of the board 
of county commissioners that they will, for the sake of the integrity of Walla 
Walla County, furnish the different county officers with good offices." Notwith- 
standing this merited reproof, no action of a definite character was taken by the 
board of commissioners until a meeting of March 11, 1867, when it was voted to 
purchase of S. Linkton a building on the corner of Alder and Third streets, the 
same to be paid for in thirty monthly installments of $100 each. A further ex- 
penditure of $500 was made in fitting up the building for the use of the county, 
and thus Walla Walla County was able to hold up a dignified head and note with 
approval her first courthouse. That the structure was altogether unpretentious 
and devoid of all architectural beauty it is perhaps needless to say. The executives 
of the county were at least provided with a local habitation. 

Though the housing of the county was a lame affair a number of years 
passed before there w'as any permanent action. During nearly all elections from 
1869 on we find a vote on two general questions : a constitutional convention and 
a courthouse. In 1869 there was a vote of 24 for, and 286 against a constitutional 

Vol. I— 10 


Tlie interval of elections was changed following the election of 1869, so that 
the next occurred on June 6, 1870. That of 1872 took place on November 5th. 

In August, 1870, the City Council deeded to the county the block of land on 
■Main Street on which the permanent courthouse was built. In the election of 
1872 the vote in favor of building a courthouse was 815 to 603. A vote, as usual, 
was taken on constitutional convention, with the result of 57 aiifirmative and 809 

Since the majority had expressed their desire for a courthouse the commis- 
sioners in February, 1873, set on foot the arrangements for plans, and those pre- 
sented by T. P. Allen were accepted. These called for a brick structure with 
stone foundation, two stories, dome, main part with an ell. Meanwhile various 
schemes for inducing the commissioners to locate farther from the center of 
town by offering land, with a view to enhancing the values of land adjoining, were 
under consideration. After having turned down several such plans and pro- 
nounced in favor of the block donated by the city, the commissioners rather 
suddenly changed their decision and accepted four blocks between Second and 
Fourth streets, a quarter mile north of Main Street. A first-class ruction arose 
over this decision. Changes were made in the plans also, by which the building 
was reduced in size and dignity. Finally, as Gilbert says, with some degree of 
keenness, '"the last act, and under the circumstances, the most judicious one, was 
not to erect the building at all." 

After this the courthouse plans rested awhile, and no action was taken until 
after county division. The question of constitutional convention, however, kept 
pegging away, and in the election of 1874, the result was similar to that of previous 
elections, 24 for, and 236 against. 

It will be found of value to incorporate here the list of Territorial Delegates 
and Governors. Walla Walla was well represented in the list, both before and 
after county division, as also both before and after statehood. 


1857 — I. I. Stevens, democrat. 

1859 — I. I. Stevens, democrat. 

1861 — W. H. Wallace, republican. 

1863 — George E. Cole, democrat — from Walla Walla. 

1865 — A. A. Denny, union. 

1867- — Alvin Flanders, union — from Walla Walla. 

1869 — Selucius Garfielde, republican; J. D. Mix, of Walla Walla, democratic 

1870 — -Selucius Garfielde, republican. 

1872 — O. B. McFadden, democrat. 

1874 — Orange Jacobs, republican; B. L. Sharpstein, democratic candidate, 
Walla Walla. 

The next election came in 1876 and there was a considerable falling off in 
the vote on account of county division in the previous year. It may be worth 
noting that the total vote of Walla Walla County in each election was as follows : 
1857, 39; 1859, 164; 1861, 361; 1863, 590; 1865, 742; 1867, 1,088; 1869, 1,124; 
1870, 1,201; 1872, 1,555; 1874, 1,549. 


In the election of 1876, the total vote was 938. It is also interesting to note 
that in every single election up to the time of county division and in fact to 1878, 
when T. H. Brents of Walla Walla was the candidate, the county went demo- 
cratic, and that, as we shall see later, the republicans carried most elections 
after that date to the present time. 


1853-6 — I. I. Stevens. 

1857-8 — Fayette McMullan. 

1859-60— W. H. Wallace. 

1862-5 — William Pickering. 

1866-7 — George E. Cole. 

1867-8 — Marshall F. Moore. 

1869-70 — Alvin Flanders. 

1870-2 — E. S. Salamon. 

1873-9 — E. P. Ferry. 

Three of the above incumbents of the gubernatorial chair were Walla Walla 
men : Cole, Flanders, and Salamon. 

In 1869 Philip Ritz of Walla Walla was United States Marshal. S. C. Win- 
gard, for many years one of the most honored of the citizens of Walla Walla, was 
United States attorney in 1873, and associate justice in 1875-82. After his long 
service under the Federal Government he made his home in Walla Walla until 
his death at an advanced age. 


Turning now from the county and its relations to the territorial and national 
Government, to Walla Walla City, we may for the sake of topical clearness repeat 
a little of what was given in earlier chapters. 

By act of the Legislature of January 11, 1862, Walla Walla became an in- 
corporated city, with the limits of the south half of the southwest quarter of 
section 20, township 7 north, range 36 east. The charter provided for the elec- 
tion, on the first Tuesday of each April, of a mayor, recorder, five councilmen, 
marshal, assessor, treasurer and surveyor. All vacancies were to be filled by ap- 
pointment of councilmen, except mayor and recorder. The council also had the 
power to appoint a clerk and attorney. 

The first election vmder the charter occurred on the first day of April, 1862, 
at which election the total vote was 422. In the Sfatcsnian of April 5 there is a 
criticism in rather mild and apologetic terms for the loose and careless manner in 
which the judges allov/ed voting. The assertion is made that men who were well 
known to reside miles out of the city were allowed to vote. Not over three hun- 
dred voters, according to the paper, were bona fide residents. A well considered 
warning is made that such a beginning of city elections will result in a general 
illegal voting and ballot-box stuffing. In the Statesman of April 12 is a report 
of the first council meeting on April 4. At this first meeting the votes of the 
election of the first were canvassed, .showing that out of the 422 votes, E. B. 
Whitman had received 416. The recorder chosen was W. P. Horton, whose vote 


was 239 against 173 for W. W. Lacy. The councilniun chosen, whose votes ran 
from 400 to 415, were L T. Rees, J. F. Abbott, R. Jacobs, B. F. Stone and B. 

(jeorge II. Porter was chosen marshal by a vote of 269, with 136 for A. Seitel 
and 17 for A. J. Miner. E. E. Kelly was the choice for treasurer by the small 
margin of 219 to 200 for D. S. Baker. The assessor was L. W. Greenwell by 413 
votes. A. L. Chapman was chosen surveyor by 305 against 119 for W. W. John- 
son. S. F. Ledyard was appointed clerk by the council, B. F. Stone was chosen 
president of the coimcil at the meeting of April 10. 

One of the tirst questions which the council had to wrestle with, as it has been 
most of the time since, was revenue and the sources thereof. The saloon busi- 
ness being apparently the most active of any at that time became very naturally 
the foundation of the revenue system. People supposed then, as many have 
since, that they could lift themselves by their boot straps and that a traffic which 
cost a dollar for every dime that it brought into the treasury was essential to the 
life of the town. However, a "drj' town" at that day and age and in a place whose 
chief business was outfitting for the mines and serving as a home for miners oft' 
duty, would have been so amazing that the very thought would have been suf- 
ficient to warrant an immediate commitment for lunacy. If the spirits of the 
city authorities and citizens of that date could return and see the Walla Walla of 
1917, with not a legal drop of intoxicating fluid, it is safe to say that "amaze- 
ment" would but feebly express their mental state. According to the revenue 
ordinance of that first council, a tax was to produce about a third, and licenses 
and fines the remainder of the city income. During the first six months the total 
revenue was $4,283.25, and the licensing of liquor sales and gambling tables 
amounted to $1,875. Taxes amounted to about $1,430. The rest of the revenue 
was from fines. We may note here by way of comparison that in 1866 the city 
revenue was $15,358.97, of which $9,135.13 was from licenses. 

The year of 1862 was one of great activity. A. J. Cain laid out his addition, 
though the plat was not recorded till the next year. The Statesman of October 
i8th gives a glowing account of the improvements, stating that fifty buildings had 
been completed during the summer and that thirty more were in progress of con- 
struction. Most of these were no doubt flimsy wooden structures, but it is men- 
tioned that the buildings of Schwabacher Brothers and Brown Brothers & Co. 
had been nearly completed. At the head of Second Street A. J. Miner was erect- 
ing a planing mill, and a sash and door factory. Beyond the city limits Mr. 
Meyer had put up a brewerj- (this afterwards developed into the Stahl brewery 
on Second Street). In Cain's addition, where there had been only eight houses, 
the numl>er was more than doubled. As a matter of fact, though there was 
much improvement at that time, our fair City of Walla Walla of the present, 
with its elegant homes and trees and flowers and broad verdant lawns, with 
paved streets and bountiful water supply, would not recognize the ragged, dusty, 
dirty, little shack of a town of which the Statesman was so proud in 1862. 
The ease with which the people of that time have adjusted themselves to all the 
conveniences and elegancies of the present day, shows something of the infinite 
adaptability of human nature, and still more it shows that the foundation build- 
ers of the pioneer days had it in them to create all the improvements of later days 
Raw as Walla Walla must have looked in the '60s, the essential conditions were 


there which have made our later age; rich soil, water, good surrounding country, 
industry, taste, brains, home spirit, good citizenship — and a certain reasonable 
amount of time. There we have all the elements that wrought between the Walla 
Walla of 1862 and that of 1917. 

Early Walla Walla had the usual experience with tires, such occurrnig on 
June II, 1862 ; May 8, 1864; August 3, 1865 ; and July 4, 1866. As a result of the 
first, Joseph Hellmuth undertook to organize a fire department. His public 
spirit was not very cordially supported, but subscriptions to the amount of $1,600 
were received, and by advancing $500 himself, he secured an old Hunneman ''tub" 

The most destructive of these early fires was that of August 3, 1865. The 
Statesman of August 4th gives a full account of it, estimating the loss so far as 
obtained at that time at $164,500. The paper adds $20,000 for loss not then re- 
ported. The heaviest losses were sustained by the Dry Goods Company of S. 
Elias & Brother, by the store and warehouse of C. Jacobs & Co., and by the 
Bank Exchange Saloon and dwelling house of W. J. Ferry. The building used 
for courthouse, with the county and city records, was destroyed. In 1863, a fire 
company was organized, Fred Stine being the leader in the enterprise. 

Perhaps the most vital feature of a growing city is pure and abundant water 
supply. Walla Walla was fortunate in early days in the presence of a number 
of springs of pure cold water. But though that supply was abundant for a small 
place, increasing demands made some system of distribution imperative. There 
was also need for sufficient pressure for fire defense. 

While the water system was at first a private enterprise, it became public 
property in due course of time, andhence it is siiitable to begin the story in this 

In 1S66 and 1867 four of the most energetic citizens of the town took the 
initial steps in providing a system of water distribution. H. P. Isaacs, J. C. Isaacs, 
A. Kyger and T- D. Cook obtained a charter in 1866 and the next year established 
at a point near the present Armory Hall a plant consisting of a pump, a large 
tank, and a supply of wooden pipe. It almost makes one's bones ache in these 
eiifete days to think of the amount of labor which the pipes for that pioneer 
water system demanded. The pipe consisted of logs bored lengthwise with 
augurs by hand. It would not comport with the dignity of a historical work to 
stiggest that the whole proceeding was a "great bore," but it was duly accomplished 
and the pipes laid. Water was derived from Mill Creek, but the system seems 
to have been somewhat unsatisfactory to the projectors, and Mr. Isaacs entered 
upon a much larger undertaking, that of establishing reservoirs in the upper part 
of town. It was not until after the date of county division that the reservoir 
system was fully installed. In 1877 the reservoirs were built on both sides 
of Mill Creek, one on what is now the property of the Odd Fellows Home and 
the other in the City Park. These reservoirs were filled from the large springs 
and for some years supplied the needs of the town. Mr. Isaacs is deserving of 
great praise for his unflagging energy in endeavoring to meet that primary need 
of the town. The corporate name of Mr. Isaacs' enterprise was the Walla Walla 
Water Company. The controlling ownership was ultimately acquired by the inter- 
ests represented by the Baker-Boyer Bank, and Mr. H. H. Turner became secre- 


laiy and manager. That, however, was long subsequent to county division and 
the further history of the water system belongs to another chapter. 

We perhaps should interject at this point the explanation that although 
chapters preceding this have been carried to the present date, we are bringing the 
political history of the city to the stage of county division only in order to har- 
monize with that of the county, and tliat point in case of the county constitutes 
a natural stage by reason of the marked change in all political connections occa- 
sioned by the division. 

Among miscellaneous events having political connections may be mentioned 
that omnipresent and usually disturbing question of the fort. We have earlier 
spoken of its first location at the point nowr occupied by the American Theater, 
right in the heart of the city, and its removal in 1857 to the present location. 
It was maintained at full strength until the close of the Indian wars and then 
during the period of the Civil war there was a full supply of men and equip- 
ment. At times, as already narrated in an earlier chapter, there was much fric- 
tion between civilians and the military. The merchants and saloon-keepers, 
however, considered the presence of the Fort very desirable from a pecimiary 
standpoint. There were in those early days, as there have been more recently, 
an element in the city that attached an exaggerated importance to the presence 
of the soldiers as a business matter, while there was also another sentiment which 
became the most persistent and inherited one in the history of the town ; that is, 
the sentiment that while the officers and their families composed the social elite, 
the common soldiers were taboo. This was perhaps the nearest to a caste system 
ever known in the free and unconventional society of Old Walla Walla. Between 
those tW'O viewpoints, the business and the social, there was the larger body of 
citizens who shrugged their shoulders over the whole question, deeming it un- 
important either way. But when by order of Colonel Curry the Fort was 
abandoned, save for a small detachment, in the winter of 1865-6, there went 
up a great protest, and all the machinery, congressional and otherwise, was set in 
motion, as has been so familiar since down to the present date, to secure orders 
for the maintenance of the post. 

No results were attained, however, and the Fort remained abandoned, until 


Congress had, in fact, passed a law in 1872, for the sale of the military res- 
ervation, authorizing the Secretary of the Interior to cut it up into blocks and 
lots and dispose of it as his judgment warranted. The tract was surveyed and 
laid out by instructions from Washington. But as a result of the famous Modoc 
war in Southern Oregon, the view prevailed at headquarters that the rehabilita- 
tion and reoccupation of Fort Walla Walla would be wise. Accordingly, in 
-August, 1873, six companies w^ere established at the Fort, and from that date 
for nearly forty years the military was a constant factor in the life of this 

The expenditures were very considerable. It is estimated in Gilbert's His- 
toric Sketches of 1882 that the Fort was then purchasing annually about 10,000 
bushels of oats, 5.000 bushels of barley. 500 tons of hay, 200 tons of straw, 
500 barrels of flour, besides large quantities of meat, wood, and other supplies. 
Perhaps the most excited and acrimonious discussions, public and private, in 
newspapers and otherwise, have dealt with the retention of the Fort, or with 


some phase of its life. Most of the features of the story came at a date long 
after county division. 

Another event of that period, not strictly political, yet belonging to the public 
life of the community, was the completion on June i, 1870, of the telegraph line 
between Portland and Walla Walla, via Wallula. This line was built by the 
O. S. N. Company. The office was at the southwest corner of Third and Main 
streets, and James Henderson was first operator. Mayor Stone sent this message 
to Mayor Goldsmith : "To the Mayor of Portland : — Greeting. Allow me to 
congratulate you upon the completion of the telegraph that places the first city 
of Washington Territory in direct communication with the first city of Oregon, 
and to express the hope that it is but the precursor of the iron rail that is to unite 
us still more indissolubly in the bonds of interest and affection." 

A prompt response in like spirit came from Mayor Goldsmith of Portland. 

Another event of importance, which also prepared the way for infinite 
political maneuvers and back-room deals was the establishment in 1871 of the 
Walla Walla Land District. As first constituted, the district embraced all of the 
territory east of the Cascade Mountains. Some appointees came from the East 
to fill the various positions, though the majority of them were local men, usually 
of the highest character. In this, as in other departments of government depend- 
ing to some degree on the favor or otherwise of members of Congress, there has 
been a certain proportion of pie-counter politicians who have kept up a regular 
procession toward the land office. 

William Stephens, registrar, and Anderson Cox, receiver, were the first in the 
office, opening the doors on July 17, 1871. P. B. Johnson followed Mr. Stephens 
in 1875 and J. F. Boyer became receiver in 1872. Better men could not have been 
found in the Inland Empire. 

Such may be regarded as the essential events to the limits of our space in 
the history of Walla Walla County and City to the time of county division. We 
have already given the tabulation of county officials, as well as that of those of 
the Territorial Delegates and Governors, together with such others as especially 
belonged to this region. We incorporate here a list of city officials to the same 


Mayor — George Thomas. 

Council— W. A. Ball. I. T. Rees, Fred Stine, B. Sheideman, Wm. Kohl- 
hauff, O. P. Lacy. 

City Clerk — A. L. Brown. 


Mayor — C. B. Whiteman. 
Recorder — W. P. Horton. 
Marshal — W. J. Tompkins. 
Treasurer — H. E. Johnson. 
Assessor — O. P. Lacy. 

Council— Fred Stine. I. W. McKee, Cal P. Winesett, Geo. Baggs, John J. 



Mayor — James McAuliff. 

Recorder — O. P. Lacy. 

Marshal— E. Delaney. 

Assessor — M. Leider. 

Treasurer — H. E. Johnson. 

Surveyor — W. L. Gaston. 

Council— C. P. Winesett, 1 T. Rees, Wm. Kohlhauff, J. F. Abbott, W. Brown. 


Mayor — James McAuliff. 

Recorder — Lewis Day. 

Treasurer — H. M. Chase. 

Council — J. F. Abbott, Fred Stine, H. Howard, Wm. Kohlhauff, A. Kyger. 


Mayor — Frank Stone. 
Recorder — O. P. Lacy. 
Marshal — E. Delaney. 
Treasurer — H. E. Johnson. 
Assessor — J. E. Brown. 
Surveyor — A. H. Simmons. 

Council — James Jones, W. S. Miner, Thos. Tierney, P. M. Lynch, Thos. 


Mayor — Dr. E. Shiel. 

Recorder — W. P. Horton. 

Marshal — E. Delaney. 

Treasurer — H. E. Johnson. 

Assessor — J. M. Rittenhouse. 

Surveyor — A. H. Simmons. 

Council— J. F. Abbott, H. M. Chase, G. P. Poor, Wm. Kohlhauff, N. T. Caton. 

187 1 

Mayor — E. B. Whitman. 

Recorder — W. P. Horton. 

Marshal — E. Delaney. 

Treasurer — H. E. Johnson. 

Assessor — M. W. Davis. 

Surveyor — A. L. Knowlton. 

Council— R. Jacobs, P. M. Lynch, N. T. Caton, G. P. Poor, Frank Orselli. 


Mayor — E. B. Whitman. 
Recorder — O. P. Lacy. 

^Sj^|,\^^; ~; ,/i;^^*'v vrj-J'' ,' ',',1 





Cl>'i.i-%|f III (.;;;-. 


Marshal — John P. Justice. 
Treasurer — H. E. Johnson. 
Assessor — M. W. Davis. 
Surveyor — A. L. Knowlton. 

Council — Sig. Schwabacher, N. T. Caton, AL C. Moore, L H. Foster, John 

Mayor — E. B. Whitman. 
Recorder — L D. Sarman. 
Marshal — John P. Justice. 
Treasurer — H. E. Johnson. 
Assessor — M. W. Davis. 
Surveyor — A. L. Knowlton. 
Council— M. C. Moore, N. T. Caton, L H. Foster, Wm. Neal, John Fall. 

Mayor — James McAuliff. 
Marshal — John P. Justice. 
Recorder — O. P. Lacy. 
Treasurer — C. T. Thompson. 
Assessor — J. B. Thompson. 
Council— F. G. Allen, Z. K. Straight, Wm. Kohlhauff, Ed C. Ross. 

• 1875 
Mayor — James McAuliff. 
Marshal — John P. Justice. 
Recorder — J. D. Laman. 
Treasurer — F. Kennedy. 
Assessor — S. Jacobs. 
Council— O. P. Lacy, Ed C. Ross, M. Belcher, J. D. Laman, Wm. Kohlhauff. 


Mayor — Jas. McAuliff'. 

Marshal — John P. Justice. 

Treasurer — H. E. Holmes. 

Assessor — S. Jacobs. 

Council— G. P. Poor, Wm. Kohlhauff, A. H. Reynolds, O. P. Lacy, M. 

It remains in this chapter to speak of the events leading to the division of 
Old Walla Walla County. The first movement in that direction originated at 
Waitsburg. That active place, in the center of one of the fairest and most 
fertile tracts in all this fertile region, had come into existence in 1865. We 
find an item in the Statesman of June 30, 1865, to this effect: "Waitsburg is the 
name of a town just beginning to grow up at Wait's Mill on the Touchet. 
The people of that vicinity have resolved to celebrate the coming 4th, and are 
making arrangements accordingly. W. S. Langford of this city has accepted an 


invitation to deliver the oration."' In 1869 a senlinient developed that the large 
area south of Snake River, 3,^20 square miles, was too large for a single county, 
and that it was only a question of time when there must be another county. 
Not seeming to realize that if such event occurred the natural center must be 
farther east than W'aitsburg, the citizens of the "Mill Town" pushed vigorously 
for tlieir project of division, with their own town as the seat of a new county. 
A petition signed by 150 citizens was conveyed to Olympia by a delegation who 
presented it to the Legislature. Though their effort failed it served to keep 
the plan of division alive, and with a rapid flow of immigration into the high 
region of the Upper Touchet, the movement for a new county constantly grew. 
We have already spoken of the early locations on the Touchet and Patit. In 
1871 and 1872, there became a concentration of interests which made it clear 
that a town would develop. It became known as Dayton from Jesse N. Day. 
1 lere was a location more suitable geographically than W'aitsburg, and sentiment 
rapidly gathered around Dayton as the natural vantage point for a new county. 
Elisha Ping was chosen to the Territorial Council in 1874 to represent Walla 
W'alla County, and as a citizen and prominent land owner of Dayton he became 
the center of the movement. 

The first boundary proposed called for a line running directly south from the 
Palouse ferry on Snake River to the state line, thus putting W'aitsburg just 
within the new county. This was not acceptable to that place. If it could not 
be the county seat, it preferred to play second fiddle to Walla Walla rather 
than to Dayton. Mr. Preston went to Walla \Valla to represent the Waitsburg 
sentiment. As a result a remonstrance against county division was prepared and 
forwarded to the Legislature. Representatives Hodgis, Lloyd, Lynch and Scott 
took positions in opposition to division. A. J. Cain and Elisha Ping condticted 
the campaign from the standpoint of Dayton. It became a three cornered com- 
bat in the Legislature. The Walla Walla people, as almost always is the case in 
a growing county, though it is very poor and selfish policy, opposed any divi- 
sion. The Waitsburg influence was for division provided it could ha\e the 
county seat but otherwise opposed, and the Dayton influence was entirely for 
division with the expectation that Dayton would become the county seat. Like 
most county division and county seat fights, this was based mainly on motives 
of transient local gain and personal advantage, rather than on broad public policy 
for the future. Piut so long as human nature is at such a rudimentary stage 
of evolution it would be too idealistic to expect otherwise. But whether with 
large motives or small, the final outcome, as well as the subsequent divisions by 
which Garfield and Asotin were laid out, was for progress and eflSciency. Walla 
Walla interests were overpowered in the Legislature and a bill creating Ping 
County was duly passed. This, however, encountered a snag, for Governor 
Ferry vetoed it. Another bill, avoiding his objections, naming the new county 
Columbia, was finally pas.sed and on Nov. 11. 1875. Columbia County duly came 
into existence, embracing about two-thirds of Old Walla Walla County, being 
bounded by Snake River and the state line on the north, east and south, and 
by Walla Walla County on the west. 

The hi.story of the erection of Garfield and Asotin counties will belong prop- 
erly to a later chapter, and with this final view of old Walla Walla County as 
it had existed from 1859 to 1875, we pass on. 


It is but trite and commonplace to say (yet these commonplace sayings 
embody the accumulated experience of tlie human race) that transportation is 
the very A. B. C. of economic science. There can be no wealth without exchange. 
There is no assignable value either to commodities or labor without markets. 

New communities have always had to struggle with these fundamental prob- 
lems of transportation. Until there can be at least some exchange of products 
there can be no real commercial life and men's labor is spent simply on pro- 
ducing the articles needful for daily bread, clothing and shelter. Most of the 
successive "Wests" of America have gone through that stage of simple existence. 
Some have gotten out of it very rapidly, usually by the discovery of the precious 
metals or the production of some great staple like furs so much in demand and 
so scarce in distant countries as to justify expensive and even dangerous expedi- 
tions and costly transportation systems. During nearly all the first half of the 
nineteenth century the fur trade was that agency which created exchange and 
compelled transportation. 

After the acquisition of Oregon and California by the United States there 
was a lull, during which there was scarcely any commercial life because there 
was nothing exchangeable or transportable. 

Then suddenly came the dramatic discovery of gold in California which 
inaugurated there a new era of commercial life and hence demanded extensive 
transportation, and that was for many years necessarily by the ocean. The 
similar discovery in Oregon came ten years later. As we saw in Chapter Twd 
of this part there came on suddenly in the early '60s a rushing together in old 
Walla Walla of a confused mass of eager seekers for gold, cattle ranges, and 
every species of the opportunities which were thought to exist in the '"upper 
country." As men began to get the measure of the country and each other 
and to see something of what this land was going to become, the demand for 
some regular system of transportation became imperative. 

The first resource was naturally by the water. It was obvious that teaming 
from the Willamette Valley (the only productive region in the '50s and the 
first vear or two of the '60s) was too limited a means to amount to anything. 
Bateaux after the fashion of the Hudson's Bay Company would not do for the 
new era. Men could indeed drive stock over the mountains and across the plains 
and did so to considerable degree. But as the full measure of the problem was 
taken it became clear to the active ambitious men who flocked into the Walla 
Walla country in 1858, 1859, and i860, and particularly when the discovery of 
gold became known in 1861. that nothing but the establishment of steamboats 



on the Columbia and Snake rivers would answer the demand for a real system 
of transi)ortation commensurate with the situation. 

I'o fully appreciate the era of steamboating and to revive the memories of 
the pioneers of this region in those halcyon days of river traffic, it is fitting that 
we trace briefly the essential stages from the first api)earance of steamers on 
the Columbia River and its tributaries. To accomplish this section of the story 
we are incorporating here several paragraphs from "The Columbia River," by 
the author: The first river steamer of any size to ply upon the Willamette 
and Columbia was the Lot Whitcomb. This steamer was built by W'hitcomb 
and Jennings. J. C. Ainsworth was the first captain, and Jacob Kamm was the 
lirst engineer. Both of these men became leaders in every species of steam- 
boating enterprise. In 1851 Dan Bradford and B. B. Bishop inaugurated a 
movement to connect the up-river region with the lower river by getting a small 
iron propeller called the Jason P. Flint from the East and putting her together 
at the Cascades, whence she made the run to Portland. The Flint has been 
named as first to run above the Cascades, but the author has the authority of 
Mr. Bishop for stating that the first steamer to run above the Cascades was 
the Eagle. That steamer was brought in sections by Allen McKinley to the 
Upper Cascades in 1853, there put together, and set to plying on the part of 
the river between the Cascades and The Dalles. In 1854 the Mary was built 
and launched above the Cascades, the next year the Wasco followed, and in 1856 
the Hassalo began to toot her jubilant horn at the precipices of the mid-Columbia. 
In 1859 R. R. Thompson and Lawrence Coe built the Colonel Wright, the first 
steamer on the upper section of the river. In the same year the same men 
built at the Upper Cascades a steamer called the Venture. This craft met with 
a curious catastrophe. For on her very first trip she swung too far into the 
channel and was carried over the Upper Cascades, at the point where the Cas- 
cade Locks are now located. She was subsequently raised and rebuilt, and 
rechristened the Umatilla. 

This part of the period of steamboat building was contemporary with the 
Indian wars of 1855 and 1856. The steamers Wasco, Mary, and Eagle were of 
much service in rescuing \ictims of the murderous assault on the Cascades by 
the Klickitats. 

While the enterprising steamboat builders were thus making their way up- 
river in the very teeth of Indian warfare steamboats were in course of con- 
struction on the Willamette. The Jennie Clark in 1854 and the Carrie Ladd 
in 1858 were built for the firm of Abernethy, Clark and Company. These 
both, the latter especially, were really elegant steamers for the time. 

The close of the Indian wars in 1859 saw a quite well-organized steamer 
service between Portland and The Dalles, and the great rush into the upper 
country was just beginning. The Senorita, the Belle, and the Multnomah, under 
the management of Benjamin Stark, were on the run from Portland to the Cas- 
cades. A rival steamer, the Mountain Buck, owned by Ruckle and Olmstead, 
was on the same route. These steamers connected with boats on the Cascades- 
Dalles section by means of portages five miles long around the rapids. There 
was a portage on each side of the river. That on the north side was operated 
by Bradford & Company, and their steamers were the Hassalo and the Mary. 
Ruckle and Olmstead owned the portage on the south side of the river, and 


their steamer was the Wasco. Sharp competition arose between the Bradford 
and Stark interests on one side and Ruckle and Olmstead on the other. The 
Stark Company was known as the Columbia River Navigation Company, and the 
rival was the Oregon Transportation Company. J. C. Ainsworth now joined 
the Stark party with the Carrie Ladd. So efficient did this reinforcement prove 
to be that the transportation company proposed to them a combination. This 
was effected in April, 1859, and the new organization became known as the Union 
Transportation Company. This was soon found to be too loose a consolidation 
to accomplish the desired ends, and the parties interested set about a new com- 
bination to embrace all the steam boat men from Celilo to Astoria. The result 
was the formation of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, which came into 
legal existence on December 20, i860. Its stock in steamboats, sailboats, wharf- 
boats, and miscellaneous property was stated at $172,500. 

Such was the genesis of the "O. S. N. Co." In a valuable article by 
Irene Lincoln Poppleton in the Oregon Historical Quarterly for September, 
1908, to which we here make acknowledgments, it is said that no assessment 
was ever levied on the stock of this company, but that from the proceeds of the 
business the management expended in gold nearly three million dollars in 
developing their property, besides paying to the stockholders in dividends over 
two million and a half dollars. Never perhaps was there such a record of 
money-making on such capitalization. 

The source of the enormous business of the Oregon Steam Navigation Com- 
pany was the rush into Idaho, Montana, and Eastern Oregon and Washington by 
the miners, cowboys, speculators, and adventurers of the early '60s. The up-river 
country, as described more at length in another chapter, wakened suddenly 
from the lethargy of centuries, and the wildness teemed with life. That was the 
great .steamboat age. Money flowed in streams. Fortunes were made and lost 
in a day. 

When first organized in i860, the Oregon Steam Navigation Company had 
a nondescript lot of steamers, mainly small and weak. The two portages, one of 
five miles around the Cascades and the other of fourteen miles from The Dalles 
to Celilo Falls, were unequal to their task. The portages at the Cascades on 
both sides of the river were made by very inadequate wooden tramways. That 
at The Dalles was made by teams. Such quantities of freight were discharged 
from the steamers that sometimes the whole portage was lined with freight from 
end to end. The portages were not acquired by the company with the steam- 
boat property, and as a result the portage owners reaped the larger share of the 
profits. During high water the portage on the Oregon side at the Cascades 
had a monopoly of the business and it took one-half the freight income 
from Portland to The Dalles. This was holding the whip-hand with a vengeance, 
and the vigorous directors of the steamboat company could not endure it. Accord- 
ingly, they absorbed the rights of the portage owners, built a railroad from Celilo 
to The Dalles on the Oregon side, and one around the Cascades on the Washington 
side. The company was reorganized under the laws of Oregon in October, 1863, 
with a declared capitalization of $2,000,000. 

Business on the river in 1863 was something enormous. Hardly ever did a 
steamer make a trip with less than two hundred passengers. Freight was offered 
in such quantities at Portland that trucks had to stand in line for blocks, waiting 


tu deliver and receive their loads. New boats were built of a much better class. 
Two rival companies, the Independent Line and the People's Transportation Line, 
made a vigorous struggle to secure a share of the business, but they were eventually 
overpowered. Some conception of the amount of business may be gained from 
the fact that the steamers transported passengers to an amount of fares run- 
ning from $i,ooo to $6,000 a trip. On April 29, 1862, the Tenino, leaving Celilo 
for the Lewiston trip, had a load amounting to $10,945 for freight, passengers, 
meals, and berths. The steamships sailing from Portland to San Francisco 
showed equally remarkable records. On June 25, 1861, the Sierra Nevada con- 
veyed a treasure shipment of $228,000; July 14th, $110,000; August 24th, 
$195,558; December 5th, $750,000. The number of passengers carried on The 
Dalles-Lewiston route in 1864 was 36,000 and the tons of freight were 21,834. 

It was a magnificent steamboat ride in those days from Portland to Lewiston 
The fare was $60; meals and berths, $1 each. A traveler would lea\e Portland 
at 5 A. M. on, perhaps, the Wilson G. Hunt, reach the Cascades sixty-five miles 
distant at 11 A. M., proceed by rail five miles to the Upper Cascades, there 
transfer to the Oneonta or Idaho for The Dalles, passing in that run from the 
humid, low-lying, heavily timbered West-of-the-mountains, to the dry, breezy, 
hilly East-of-the-mountains. Reaching The Dalles, fifty miles farther east, he 
would be conveyed by another portage railroad, fourteen miles more, to Celilo 
There the Tenino, Yakima, Nez Perce Chief, or Owyhee was waiting. With the 
earliest light of the morning the steamer would head right into the impetuous 
current of the river, bound for Lewiston, 280 miles farther yet, taking two days, 
sometimes three, though only one to return. Those steamers were mainly of 
light-draught, stern-wheel structure, which still characterizes the Columbia River 
boats. They were swift and roomy and well adapted to the turbulent waters of 
the upper river. 

The captains, pilots, and pursers of that period were as fine a set of men as 
ever turned a wheel. Bold, blufi^, genial, hearty, and obliging they were, even 
though given to occasional outbursts of expletives and possessing voluminous 
repertoires of "cusswords" such as would startle the efifete East. Any old 
Oregonian who may chance to cast his eyes upon these pages will recall, as with 
the pangs of childhood homesickness, the forms and features of steamboat men 
of that day ; the polite yet determined Ainsworth, the brusque and rotund Reed, 
the bluff and hearty Knaggs, the frolicsome and never disconcerted Ingalls, the 
dark, powerful, and nonchalant Coe, the partriarchal beard of Stump, the loqua- 
cious "Commodore" Wolf, who used to point out to astonished tourists the "dia- 
bolical strata" on the banks of the river, the massive and good-natured Strang, 
the genial and elegant O'Neil, the suave and witty Snow, the tall and handsome 
Sampson, the rich Scotch brogue of McNulty, and dozens of others, whose com- 
bined adventures would fill a volume. One of the most experienced pilots of 
the upper river was Captain "Eph" Baughman, who ran steamers on the Snake 
and Columbia rivers over fifty years, and is yet living at the date of this 
publication. W. H. Gray, who came to Waiilatpu with Whitman as secular 
agent of the mission, became a river man of much skill. He .gave four sons, 
John, William. Alfred, and James, to the service of the river, all four of them 
being skilled captains. A story narrated to the author by Capt. William Gray, 
now of Pasco, Wash., well illustrates the character of the old Columbia River 



navigators. W. H. Gray was the first man to run a sailboat of much size 
with regular freight up Snake River. That was in i860 before any steamers 
were running on that stream. Mr. Gray built his boat, a fifty ton sloop, on 
Oosooyoos Lake on the Okanogan River. In it he descended that river to its 
entrance into the Columbia. Thence he descended the Columbia, running down 
the Entiat, Rock Island, Cabinet, and Priest Rapids, no mean undertaking of 
itself. Reaching the mouth of the Snake he took on a load of freight and 
started up the swift stream. At Five-mile Rapids he found that his sail was 
insufficient to carry the sloop up. Men had said that it was impossible. The 
crew all prophesied disaster. The stubborn captain merely declared, "There is 
no such word as fail in my dictionary." He directed his son and another of the 
crew to take the small boat, load her with a long coil of rope, make their way 
up the stream until they got above the rapid, there to land on an islet of rock, 
fasten the rope to that rock, then pay it out till it was swept down the rapid. 
They were then to descend the rapid in the small boat. "Very likely you may be 
upset," added the skipper encouragingly, "but if you are, you know how to 
swim." They were upset, sure enough, but they did know how to swim. They 
righted their boat, picked up the end of the floating rope, and reached the sloop 
with it. The rope was attached to the capstan, and the sloop was wound up 
by it above the swiftest part of the rapid to a point where the sail was suffi- 
cient to carry, and on they went rejoicing. Any account of steamboating on 
the Columbia would be incomplete without reference to Capt. James Troup, who 
was born on the Columbia, and almost, froipjearly boyhood ran steamers upon it 
and its tributaries. He made a ^pecialj^?^ pf running. Steamers down The Dalles 
and the Cascades, an undertaking sometimes rendered necessary by the fact that 
more boats were built in proportion tcJ demand' on the upper than the lower river. 
These were taken down The DaHes;-and sometiiTies: down the Cascades. Once 
down, they could not return. The first steamer to run down the Tumwater 
Falls was the Okanogan, on May 22, 1866, piloted by Capt. T. J. Stump. 

The author enjoyed the great privilege of descending The Dalles in the D. S. 
Baker in the year 1888, Captain Troup being in command. At that strange point 
in the river, the whole vast volume is compressed into a channel but 160 feet 
wide at low water and much deeper than wide. Like a huge mill-race this 
channel continues nearly straight for two miles, when it is hurled with frightful 
force against a massive bluff. Deflected from the blufif, it turns at a sharp angle 
to be split in sunder by a low reef of rock. When the Baker was drawn into 
the current at the head of the "chute" she swept down the channel, which was 
almost black, with streaks of foam, to the blufif, two miles in four minutes. 
There feeling the tremendous refluent wave, she went careening over and over 
toward the sunken reef. The skilled captain had her perfectly in hand, and 
precisely at the right moment, rang the signal bell, "Ahead, full speed," and ahead 
she went, just barely scratching her side on the rock. Thus close was it neces- 
sary to calculate distance. If the steamer had struck the tooth-like point of 
the reef broadside on, she would have been broken in two and carried in frag- 
ments on either side. Having passed this danger point, she glided into the 
beautiful calm bay below and the feat was accomplished. Capt. J. C. Ainsworth 
and Capt. James Troup were the two captains above all others to whom the 
company entrusted the critical task of running steamers over the rapids. 


In the Overland Monthly of June, 1886, there is a valuable account by Capt. 
Lawrence Coe of the maiden journey of the Colonel Wright from Celilo up what 
they then termed the up])er Columbia. 

Tliis tirst journey on tliat section of the river was made in April, 1859. The 
pilot was Capt. Lew White. The highest point reached was Wallula, the site 
of the old Hudson's Bay Fort. The current was a powerful one to withstand, 
no soundings had ever been made, and no boats except canoes, bateaus, flatboats, 
and a few small sailboats, had ever made the trip. No one had any conception 
of the location of a channel adapted to a steamboat. No difficulty was expe- 
rienced, however, except at the Umatilla Rapids. This is a most singular obstruc- 
tion. Three separate reefs, at intervals of half a mile, extend right across the 
river. There are narrow breaks in these reefs, but not in line with each other. 
Through them the water pours with tremendous velocity, and on account of their 
irregular locations a steamer must zigzag across the river at imminent risk of 
being borne broadside on to the reef. The passage of the Umatilla Rapids is 
not difficult at high water, for then the steamer glides over the rocks in a straight 

In the August Overland of the same year, Captain Coe narrates the first steam- 
boat trip up Snake River. This was in June, i860, just at the time of the begin- 
ning of the gold excitement. The Colonel Wright was loaded with picks, rockers, 
and other mining implements, as well as provisions and passengers. Most of the 
freight and passengers were put off at Wallula, to go thence overland. Part 
continued on to test the experiment of making way against the wicked-looking 
current of Snake River. After three days and a half from the starting point a 
few miles above Celilo, the Colonel Wright halted at a place which was called 
Slaterville, thirty-seven miles up the Clearwater from its junction with the Snake. 
There the remainder of the cargo was discharged, to be hauled in wagons to the 
Oro Fino mines. The steamer Okanogan followed the Colonel Wright within 
a few weeks, and navigation on the Snake may be said to have fairly begun. 
During that same time the City of Lewiston, named in honor of Meriwether 
Lewis, the explorer, was founded at the junction of the .Snake and Clearwater 


While the river traffic under the ordinary control of the O. S. N. Company, 
though with frequent periods of opposition boats, was thus promoting the move- 
ments of commercial life along the great central artery, the need of reaching 
interior points was vital. The only way of doing this and providing feeders for 
the boats was by stage lines and prairie schooners. As a result of this need there 
developed along with the steamboats a system of roads from certain points on the 
Columbia and Snake rivers. Umatilla, Wallula, and Lewiston became the chief 
of these. And in the stage lines we have another era of utmost interest and 
importance in the old time days. 

J. F. Abbott was the pioneer stage manager of old Walla \\^alla. It is very 
interesting to note his advertisements as they appear in the earliest issues of the 
IVashington Slatesman. But he began before there was any Statesman or paper 
of any kind between the Cascade Mountains and the Missouri River. For in 1859 


he started the first stages between Wallula and Walla Walla. In i860 he entered 
a partnership with Rickey and Thatcher on the same route. In 1861 a new line 
was laid out by Aliller and Blackmore from The Dalles to Walla Walla. The 
stage business went right on by leaps and bounds. In 1862 two companies started 
new lines, Rickey and Thatcher from Walla Walla to Lewiston through the present 
Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield and Asotin counties, and Blackmore and Chase 
between Wallula and Walla Walla. During the next two decades the stage busi- 
ness became one of the great factors in the growth of the whole vast region from 
Umatilla eastward into the mining regions of Oro Fino, Florence, Boise Basin, 
and ultimately into Wyoming and Utah. 

The most prominent manager on the longer routes and one of the most promi- 
nent and useful of all the business men of early Walla Walla, was George F. 
Thomas. He laid out a route from Wallula to Boise by way of Walla Walla and 
the Woodward Toll Gate Road over the Blue Mountains. 

In 1864 there came into operation the first of the great stage systems having 
transcontinental aims and policies. This was the Holladay system. That period 
was the palmy time for hold-ups, Indians, prairie-schooners, and all the other 
interesting and extravagant features of life, ordinarily supposed to be typical of 
the Far- West and so dominating in their effect on the imagination as to furnish 
the seed-bed for a genuine literature of the Pacific Coast, most prominent in 
California with the illustrious names of Bret Harte and Mark Twain in the 
van, and with Jack London, Rex Beach, and many more in later times pursuing 
the same general tenor of delineation. The Northwest has not yet had a litera- 
ture comparable with California's, but the material is here and there will yet be 
in due sequence a line of story writers, poets and artists of the incomparable 
scenery and the tragic, humorous and pathetic human associations of the Columbia 
and its tributaries, which will place this northern region of the Pacific in the 
same rank as the more forward southern sister. Indeed we may remark inci- 
dentally that the two most prominent California poets, Joaquin Miller and Edwin 
Markham, belonged to Oregon, the latter being a native of the "Web-foot State." 

The amount of business done by those pioneer stage lines was surprising. In 
the issue of the Statesman of December 20, 1862, it is estimated that the amount 
of freight landed by the steamers at Wallula to be distributed thence by wheel 
averaged about a hundred and fifty tons weekly, and that the number of pas- 
sengers, very variable, ran from fifty to six hundred weekly. As time went on 
rival lines became more and more active and rates were lowered as competition 
grew more keen. The author recalls vividly his first trip from Wallula to Walla 
Walla in his boyhood in the summer of 1870. 

The steamer was jammed with passengers who disembarked and made a rush 
for something to eat in the old adobe hotel on the river bank at the site of the 
old Fort Walla Walla. There were a dozen or so stages, the driver of each 
vociferating that on that day passengers were carried free to Walla Walla. It is 
asserted that on some occasions competition became so hot that the rival stage 
managers ofifered not only free transportation, but free meals as a bonus. When- 
ever one line succeeded in running off competitors the rates were plumped right 
back to the ordinary figure. In view of the wagon traffic of that period it is 
not surprising that sections of the road are yet worn several feet deep and that 
for years there were four or five tracks. They never worked the roads, but 

Vol. I— 11 


depended purely on naluie, rrovidence, and the movement of teams to effect any 
changes. With the somewhat strenuous west winds which even yet are sometimes 
noticed to prevail on the lower Walla Walla it is not wonderful that a good 
part of the top dressing of that country has been distributed at various points 
around Walla Walla, Waitsburg, Dayton, "and all points east." How regular 
teamsters got enough air to maintain life out of the clouds of dust w^hich enveloped 
most of their active moments is one of the unexplained mysteries of human 

The closing scene of the stage line drama may be said to have been the 
establishment in 1871 of the Northwestern Stage Company. It connected the 
Central Pacific Railroad at Kelton, Utah, with The Dalles, Pendleton, Walla 
Walla, Colfax, Dayton, Lewiston, Pomeroy, and "all points north and west." 
During the decade of the '70s that ftage line was a connecting link not only 
between the railroads and the regions as yet without them, but was also a link 
between two epochs, that of the stage and that of the railroad. 

Tt did an extensive passenger business, employing regularly twenty-two stages 
and 300 horses, which used annually 365 tons of grain and 412 tons of hay. There 
were 150 drivers and hostlers regularly employed for that branch of the business. 


• But a new- order was coming rapidly- As the decades of the '60s and '70s 
belonged especially to the steamboat and the stage, so the decade of the '80s 
belonged to the railroad. It is one of the most curious and interesting facts in 
American history that during the period between about 1835, the coming of the 
missionaries and the period of the discoveries of gold in Idaho in 1861 and onward, 
there was an obstinate insistence in Congress, especially the Senate — a great body 
indeed, but at times the very apotheosis of conservative imbecility — that Oregon 
could never be practically connected with the older parts of the country, but 
must remain a wilderness. But there were some Progressives. When Isaac I. 
Stevens was appointed governor of Washington Territory in 1853 he had charge 
of a survey with a view of determining a practical route for a northern railroad. 
It is very interesting to read his instructions to George B. McClellan, then 
one of his assistants. "The route is from St. Paul, Minn., to Puget Sound by the 
great bend of the ]\lississippi River, through a pass in the mountains near the 
forty-ninth parallel. A .strong party will operate westward from St. Paul : a 
second but smaller party will go up the Missouri to the Yellowstone, and there 
make arrangements, reconnoiter the country, etc., and on the junction of the main 
party they will push through the Blackfoot country, and reaching the Rocky 
Mountains will keep at work there during the summer months. The third party, 
under your command, will be organized in the Puget Sound region, you and your 
scientific corps going over the Isthmus, and will operate in the Cascade range 
and meet the party coming from the Rocky Mountains. The amount of work 
in the Cascade range and eastward, say to the probable junction of the parties at 
the great bend of the north fork of the Columbia River, will be immense. Recol- 
lect, the main object is a railroad survey from the headwaters of the Mississippi 
River to Puget Sound. We must not be frightened by long tunnels or enormous 
snows, but must set ourselves to work to overcome them." 


Growing out of the abundant agitation going on for twenty years after the 
start given it by Governor Stevens, the movement for a Northern Pacific Railroad 
focahzed in 1870 by a contract made between the promoters and Jay Cooke & 
Company to sell bonds. It is interesting to recall that Philip Ritz of Walla Walla, 
one of the noblest of men and most useful of pioneers, was one of the strong 
forces in conveying information about the field and inducing the promoters to 
turn their attention to it. In fact Messrs. Ogden and Cass, two of the strongest 
men connected with the enterprise, afterwards stated that it was a letter from Mr. 
Ritz that drew their favorable attention to the possibilities of this country. Work 
was begun on the section of the Northern Pacific Railroad between Kalama on 
the Columbia and Puget Sound in 1870, but the financial panic of 1873 crippled 
and even ruined many great business houses, among others Jay Cooke & Co., and 
for several years construction was at a stand still. In 1879 the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Co. was reorganized, work was resumed and never ceased till the iron 
horse had drunk both out of Lake Superior and the Columbia River. 

One of the most spectacular chapters in the history of railroading in the 
Northwest was that of the "blind pool" by which Henry Villard, president of the 
Oregon Railway and Navigation Co., obtained in 1881 the control of a majority 
of the stock of the N. P. and became its president. The essential aim of this 
series of occult finances was to divert the northern road from its proposed 
terminus on Puget Sound and annex it to the interests centering in Portland. 

In 1883 the road was pushed on from Duluth to Wallula and thence by union 
with the O. R. & N. was carried on down the Columbia. The feverish haste, 
reckless outlay, and in places dangerous construction of that section along the 
crags and through shaded glens and in front of the waterfalls on the banks of 
the great river, constitute one of the dramas of building. Even more spectacularly 
came the gorgeous pageantry of the Villard excursion in October, 1883, in which 
Grant, Evarts, and others of the most distinguished of Americans participated, 
and in which Oregon and the Northwest in general were entertained in Portland 
with lavish hospitality, and in which Villard rode upon the crest of the greatest 
wave of power and popularity that had been seen in the history of the North- 
west. But in the very moment of his tritunph he fell with a "dull, sickening 
thud." In fact even while being lauded and feted as the great railroad builder 
he must have known of the impending crash. For skillful manipulations of the 
stock market by the Wright interests had dispossessed Villard of his majority 
control, a general collapse in Portland followed, and the Puget Sound terminal 
was established at the "City of Destiny," Tacoma. Not till 1888, however, was 
the o-reat tunnel at Stampede pass completed and the Northern Pacific fairly 
established upon its great route. 

Since the completion of the main line of the N. P. R. R. it has sprouted out 
feeders in manv directions. The most interesting and important of these to the 
Walla Walla Valley is the Washington and Columbia River Railroad, commonly 
known in earlier times as the Hunt Road. That road was started as the Oregon 
and Washington Territory R. R. by Pendleton interests in 1887. Mr. G. W. 
Hunt, a man of great energy and ability, and possessed of many peculiar and 
orio'inal views on religion and social conditions as well as railroads, came to the 
Inland Empire at that time and perceiving the great possibilities in this region, 
made a contract to construct the line. Finding within a year that the projectors 


were not succeeding in raising funds Mr. Hunt took over the enterprise. In 
i888-yo he carried out a series of Hues from Hunt's Junction, a short distance 
from Wallula, to Ilehx and Athena and finally to Pendleton in Umatilla County, 
Ore., and to Walla Walla, Waitsburg and Dayton, with a separate branch up 
Eureka Flat, that great wheat belt of Northern Walla Walla County. The hard 
times of the next year so affected Mr. Hunt's resources that he felt obliged to 
place his fine enterprise in the hands of N. P. R. R. interests. But it still retained 
the name of Washington and Columbia River Railroad and was operated as a 
distinct road. The first president following Mr. Hunt was W. D. Tyler, a man of 
so genial nature and brilliant mind as to be one of the conspicuous figures in 
Walla Walla circles during his residence in this region and to be remembered 
with warm friendship by people in all sorts of connections, afterward living in 
Taconia until his lamented death. He was followed by Joseph McCabe who was 
a railroad builder and manager of conspicuous ability and who continued at the 
head of the line until he was drawn to important railroad work in New England. 
The third president of the road was J. G. Cutler who ably continued the work 
so well begun. In 1907 the line was absorbed by the Northern Pacific and has 
since that date been managed as a section of that line. Mr. Cutler continued 
for a time as the general manager until failing health compelled his retirement 
and to the deep regret of a large circle of friends and business associates he died 
within a few months of his retirement. S. B. Calderhead, who had been during 
the presidencies of Mr. McCabe and Mr. Cutler the traffic manager of the original 
road, became the general freight and passenger agent of the division in 1907 and 
continues to hold the position at this time. The road has been extended to Turner 
in the heart of the barley belt of Columbia County. It does an extraordinary 
business for the amount of mileage and population. Within the year of the com- 
pletion of the lines to Dayton, Pendleton, and the Eureka Flat branch, a total 
mileage of 162.73 miles and with a scanty population at that date of 1890, the road 
conveyed about forty thousand tons of freight into the regions covered and 
carried out about a hundred and thirty thousand tons of grain and 20,000 tons 
of other freight. 

The other transcontinental line in which the Walla Walla country is especially 
interested is the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company's line. This acquired 
the Walla Walla and Columbia River line in 1878 and the property of the O. S. 
N. Co. in 1879. Henry Villard was the great organizer of the O. R. and N. 
line, which was a portion of the Union Pacific system, covering the territory 
between Huntington and Portland. Of Villard's operations in this connection 
with the N. P. R. R. we have already spoken. Although the attempt to divert 
that system down the Columbia proved a failure, the O. R. and N. R. R. has 
become one of the great systems of the United States, and as a part of the present 
Oregon and Washington system it performs a vast commercial service in the 
regions covered by its lines. By the acquisition of the Walla Walla and Columbia 
River R. R. (Dr. Baker's road) and the O. S. N. Co. lines and steamboats (for 
that was mainly a river system) the O. R. and N. R. R. succeeded practically 
to the whole pioneer system of steamboats and stage lines of the previous era. 
It has become a vast factor in the commercial life of the Columbia River region 
and by its branches north and west has become a competitor with the Northern 
Pacific and Great Northern systems throughout the state. Its chief lines in the 


counties covered by this work are that from Pendleton to Spokane, going right 
through the heart of the region, with branches from Bolles Junction to Dayton 
and Starbuck to Pomeroy. It joins with the N. P. R. R. in a hne from Riparia 
on the north side of the Snake River to Lewiston, by which the splendid country 
centering around that city is reached and by which the equally beautiful and 
productive region of Asotin and Garfield counties on the west and south of 
Snake River are indirectly touched. To reach that highly productive region 
the company maintains several steamers which ply during the proper stage of 
water and convey millions of bushels of grain from Asotin and other points down 
the river to railroad connections. One of the important developments of the line 
is the Yakima branch, extending from Walla Walla to that city and projected, 
as is supposed, to ultimate connections on Puget Sound and possibly through 
the Klickitat country about the base of Mount Adams to Portland, tapping an 
entirely new country of great and varied resources. In 1914 the main line 
between Portland and Spokane was constructed down the Snake from Riparia 
to Wallula. 

The Northern Pacific and Oregon-Washington railroads have not far from 
the same mileage in these counties, the latter somewhat larger, and do approxi- 
mately the same amount of local business. A general estimate by one of the 
best informed railroad men of Walla Walla is that the combined receipts for 
freight in Walla Walla County alone — the present county — for the last year was 
about one million dollars for outgoing and about six hundred thousand dollars for 
incoming freight. 


We have reserved for special consideration the most interesting and from 
the historical standpoint the most important of all the railroads of Walla Walla, 
the Walla Walla and Columbia River, Doctor Baker's road. The history of this 
enterprise is most intimately connected with the development of this region. It 
is not only a rare example of the growth of a local demand and need, but con- 
stitutes a tribute to the genius of its builder, one of the most unique and power- 
ful of all the capable and original builders of the "Upper Country." 

To trace the movements leading to the creation of this vital step in the com- 
mercial evolution of Walla Walla, we must turn to the files of the Washington 
Statesman. In the issue of May 3, 1862, we find the leading editorial devoted to 
urging the need of a railroad. It notes the fact that Lewiston and Wallula are 
endeavoring to divert the trade from Walla Walla and that with $500,000 
invested in the city, as much more in the country, and with crops yielding 
$250,000, besides stock, the people of Walla Walla cannot rest content with the 
exorbitant expense of freighting by teams to and from the river. It says 
bitterly that those engaged in freighting have thought it a fine thing to get 
from twenty dollars to one hundred dollars per ton for carrying freight in from 
Wallula. It urges people to bestir themselves and provide a railroad, which, it 
declares, if it cost $750,000 or even $1,000,000 to build, will save that amount in 
the next ten years. 

The issue of June 7 returns to the charge, dealing in more specific figures, 
estimating the probable expense of the thirty miles of road not to e.-cceed 


$600,000. It appeared from this article that the Legislature of the previous year 
had granted a charter for the purpose, and as the editor urges, the people have but 
to take advantage of the opportunity open to them to secure the results. 

The Statesinan of August 23, 1862, gives the provisions of that charter with 
the list of those named in it. The names of these men are worthy of preserva- 
tion, as .showing the personnel of the most active business forces of that date. 
They are as follows : A. J. Cain, E. B. Whitman, L. A. Mullan, W. J. Terry, C. 
H. Armstrong, J. F. Abbott, L T. Reese, S. M. Baldwin, E. L. Bonner, W. A. Mix, 
Charles Russell, J. A. Sims, Jesse Drumheller, James Reynolds, D. S. Baker, G. 
E. Cole, S. D. Smith, J. J." Goodwin, Neil McGlinchy, J. S. Sparks, W. A. 
George, J. AL \ansycle, W. W. DeLacy, A. Seitel, W. A. Ball, B. F. Stone. J. 
Schwabacher, B. P. Standifer, S. W. Tatem, W. W. Johnson and "such others as 
they shall associate with them in the project." 

It is worth noting that in the issue of September 6th, an item is made of the 
fact that fares to The Dalles have been lowered, being $10 to The Dalles and 
only 50 cents from there to Portland. It is declared in the item that that is a 
scheme of the Navigation Company to crush out opposition. The opposition line 
of that year was in control of Doctor Baker, who was associated in the enter- 
prise with Captain Ankeny, H. W. Corbett, and Captain Baughman. Their 
steamer on the lower river was the E. D. Baker and on the upper river the 
Spray. Doctor Baker had previously undertaken a portage railroad at the 
Cascades, but had been compelled to retire before the O. S. N. Co. So for the 
new undertaking they were obliged to use stages over the five miles of portage 
between the lower and the upper Cascades. The Spray and the Baker, it may 
be said, carried on a lively opposition but in the Statcsiiian of March 21, 1863. 
we find that the O. S. N. Co. had bought out the line and once more monopolized 
the traffic. Affairs and time were both moving on and we find valuable data 
in three successive issues of the Statesman, December 20 and 27, 1862, and 
January 3, 1863. That of December 20th repeats the names given in the charter 
and some further provisions of that document. Among other requirements was 
that forbidding the railroad to charge passengers over 10 cents per mile or 
over 40 cents per ton per mile for freight. Comparison shows how the world 
has changed. Railroads in this state at present cannot charge more than three 
cents a mile for passengers, and as for freight, when we remember how we 
"kick" now at exorbitant freight rates, and yet remind ourselves that the rate 
on wheat from Walla W'alla to Portland is $2.85 per ton, or less than twelve mills 
per ton mile, we realize the change. But it must be remembered that building a 
railroad in 1863 in the Walla Walla country was a very different proposition 
from the present. The Statesman figures that even if traffic did not increase 
there would be a weekly income for the road of $2,400 or about one hundred and 
thirty thousand dollars a year. Allowing the cost to be $700,000, with interest 
:it 10 per cent or $70,000 a year, there would be a margin of $65,000 per annum 
for operating and contingencies. "Who is there," demands the Statesman, 
"amongst our settled residents that cannot afford to subscribe for from one to 
ten shares of stock at $100 per share?" 

In the paper of December 27th. another editorial urges citizens to attend a 
meeting the next week to consider the vital subject. 

The meeting duly occurred on the last day of December, 1862, and is reported 


in the Statesman of January 3, 1863. The meeting was called to order by E. B. 
Whitman and W. W. Johnson acted as secretary. Mention is made of a letter 
from Capt. John Mullan stating that there was a prospect of securing from two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars to three hundred thousand dollars worth of 
stock in New York. A group of men at money centers was appointed to act as 
commissioners for receiving subscriptions for stock. A committee consisting of 
W. W. Johnson, W. A. Mix, and R. R. Rees was appointed to draw up articles 
of association and by-laws for the company. On March 14th a meeting was 
held to listen to the report of the committee. 

It appears from the issue of April 11, 1863, that a new opposition steamer, 
the Kius, had made her first trip from Celilo to Wallula, beating the Spray by an 
hour. Fares had been cut again, being only $3.50 from Celilo to Wallula. The 
following number of the Statesman notes the interesting item that the Kius had 
made a trip the previous week to the mouth of the Salmon River on the Snake, 
and proposed to continue investigations with a view to determining the prac- 
ticability of a regular route. In the paper of April 25th is an editorial deprecat- 
ing the "cut-throat competition" on the river, pointing out the fact that heavy 
stocks of goods had been imported under previous rates and that tiie carrying 
in of freight at ruinous rates will embarrass the regular merchants under the old 
rates. In the same issue announcement is made of the important fact that the 
railroad portages of the O. S. N. Co. at both the Cascades and The Dalles had 
just come into operation. By Alay 9th, it appeared that another rapid change 
in freight rates had taken place, both lines receipting freight from Portland 
to Lewiston at $25 per ton. For some time the rate from The Dalles to Wallula 
had been $3 per ton. But a little time passed and the omnipresent O. S. N. Co. 
bought out the opposition boats Iris and Kius, and up the rates went with 
another jump. The figures were: 

Freight — Portland to The Dalles $15.00 per ton 

Portland to Wallula 50.00 per ton 

Portland to Lewiston 90.00 per ton 

Passage — Portland to The Dalles 6.00 

Portland to Wallula 18.00 

Portland to Lewiston 28.00 

Meanwhile development in the mines and on the stock ranges and farms and 
even in horticulture was going on apace. But the railroad enterprise hung fire 
and several years passed by without results. The community seems to have been 
waiting for the man with the brains, nerve, resolution, and resources to lead and 
take the risk. The man was there and he had all the requisites from his first 
entrance to Walla Walla in 1839 except the resources. This was no less a man 
than Dr. D. S. Baker. During the years of agitation he had been prospering in 
business and by 1868 was coming into a position where he could see his way to 
take the initiative in what he had recognized all the time as the great next step in 
the growth of the Walla Walla country, as well as one in the advancement of his 
own personal fortunes. The thought of a sort of community ownership had 
never left the minds of the original promoters although they had failed to come 
to a focus. On March 23, 1868, there was a meeting which was the outcome of 


a second era of popular discussion. That meeting eventuated in the actual incor- 
poration of the Walla W'alla and Columbia River Railroad. The incorporators 
were D. S. Baker, A. H. Reynolds, L 'i\ Reese, A. Kyger, J. H. Lasater, J. D. 
Mix, B. Scheideman, and W. H. Newell. They planned to place $50,000 of stock 
in the city, .$200,000 in the county, and $100,000 with the O. S. N. Co. An act of 
Congress of March 3, 1869, granted a right of way and authorized the county 
commissioners to grant $300,000 in aid of the road, subject to approval of the 
people by .special election. The election was set for June 21, 1871. Expressions 
of public opinion made it so clear that the proposal would be defeated at the 
polls that the order for election was revoked. The incorporators of the road 
now made a proposition that in case the people of the county would authorize 
an issue of $300,000 in bonds, they would build a strap-iron road within a 
year, would place the money from down freights in the hands of the county com- 
missioners as a sinking fund, allow the commissioners to fix freight rates, pro- 
vided they were not less than $2 per ton nor so high as to discourage shipping, 
and secure the county by first mortgage on the road. An election was held 
on September 18, 1871. A two-thirds majority was required out of a total 
vote of 935, and the proposition was lost by eighteen. Thus the second attempt 
at a publicly promoted railroad for Walla Walla went glimmering. 

Doctor Baker now felt that the time had arrived for pushing the enterprise to 
a conclusion by private capital. A new organization with the same name was 
effected, of which the directors were D. S. Baker, Wm. Stephens, L T. Reese, 
Lewis McMorris, H. M. Chase, H. P. Isaacs, B. L. Sharpstein, Orley Hull, and 
J. F. Boyer. Grading was begun at Wallula in March, 1872. 

Meanwhile many rumors and proposals as to railroad building were in the 
air. In 1872 the Grande Ronde and Walla Walla R. R. Co. was incorporated, and 
a survey made thirty-six miles to the Umatilla River. But there the movement 
ceased. A very interesting project came into existence in 1873 for the Seattle 
and Walla Walla R. R., and in the prosecution of plans for this, A. A. Denny 
and T- J- McGilvra visited this region and held public meetings in Walla Walla, 
Waitsburg, and Dayton. Five directors, S. Schwabacher, W. F. Kimball, Jesse 
N. Day, W. P. Bruce, and W. M. Shelton were appointed to represent this sec- 
tion. Great enthusiasm was created, but the project, feasible though it seemed 
and backed though it was by reliable men, never got beyond the stage of agita- 
tion. Another enterprise which occasioned great public interest was the Port- 
land, Dalles, and Salt Lake R. R. designed as a rival to the O. R. & N. system. 
That never got beyond the promotion era. The most interesting locally of these 
incipient railroads was the Dayton and Columbia River R. R. incorporated in 
August. 1874. Its proposal was to build a narrow gauge from Dayton to Wallula 
via Waitsburg and Walla Walla. The plans contemplated a boat line to Astoria 
with railroad ]X)rtages at Celilo and the Cascades. That would have been a great 
enterprise, but it was beyond the resources of its promoters, and it died 

While these gauzy visions were flitting before the minds of the people of 
old Walla Walla County, Doctor Baker was going right on with his own road, 
in the peculiarly taciturn, quiet and unremitting manner characteristic of him. 
In March, 1874, the road was completed from Wallula to the Touchet, the first 
eight miles with wooden rails, capped with strap-iron. Maj. Sewall Truax was 


the engineer in charge. Strap-iron rails were laid on the ''straightaway" sec- 
tions as far as Touchet, with T-iron on the curves and heavier grades. The 
expense of getting ties and iron was very great and the execution of the work 
was costly and harassing. Nothing but Doctor Baker's pertinacity in the face 
of many obstacles carried the work to a successful conclusion. An attempt to 
run tie timber down the Grande Ronde River to the Snake and thence to Wallula 
proving unsuccessful, the doctor turned to the Yakima. That effort proved the 
winning card, but the cost was great. The ties cost over a dollar apiece at 

But from the first the road justified its cost and demonstrated its utility. 
In the year that it was completed to Touchet over four thousand tons of wheat 
was carried out and 1,126 tons of merchandise was brought in. In January, 
1875, Doctor Baker proposed to the people of the county that he would com.- 
plete the road to the city if $75,000 were subscribed to the capital stock. A 
meeting was held at which it was decided impossible to raise that sum. The 
company returned with another proposition; i. e., that they would complete the 
road if the people would secure a tract of three acres for depot grounds and 
right of way for nine miles west of town, and subscribe $25,000 as a subsidy. 
After much wrestling and striving this proposal was accepted. On October 23, 
1875, the rails were laid into Walla Walla and during the remainder of that 
year 9,155 tons of wheat were hauled over them to the river. 

Thus that monumental work (monumental considering the times and resources 
available, though of course of small extent compared with the railways of the 
present) was brought to a triumphant conclusion. 

A peculiar condition arose in the next year after completion which has his- 
torical bearings of much interest. According to the account as given by Col. F. 
T. Gilbert the advance of rates from $5 per ton to Wallula to $5.50 caused a 
revolt on the part of shippers, although the haul by team before was more than 
twice as much. Shippers urged the county commissioners to put the wagon 
road in good condition as a weapon to curb railway monopoly. As the directors 
of the road did not reduce rates, a movement ensued in the Grange Council 
looking to boycotting the railroad. The feasibility of a canal from Waiilatpu to 
Wallula was considered. Some wheat and some merchandise were transported 
by teams at $5 per ton. A movement was started at Dayton to haul freight to 
the mouth of the Tucanon, where the O. S. N. steamers might pick it up and 
carry to Portland for $8 per ton. It cost $4.50 to reach the boats. That was 
the state of affair? which produced Grange City at the point v.diere the Walla 
Walla-Pendleton branch of the O. W. R. R. now leaves the main line betweeen 
Spokane and Portland. It was thought at one time that Grange City might 
become quite a place. One interesting feature of that period was the con- 
struction of a steamer named the Northwest at Columbus by the firm of Paine 
Brothers and Moore and its operation on the Snake River for about two years. 
The Northwest did a fine business, but like its predecessors was absorbed by 
the O. S. N. Co. 

It was discovered after sufficient experience that teams could not compete 
with the railroad and the attempts at that method of transportation were aban- 

In the year 1876, the O. S. N. Co. received at Wallula 16,766 tons of freight. 


of wliich 15,266 came by rail and 1,500 by teams. It delivered for conveyance 
to Walla Walla 4,054 tons, of which all but 513 was conveyed by rail. Doctor 
Baker's ownership and management of the Walla Walla and Columbia River 
R. R. was brief but profitable, for in 1878 he sold out a six-seventh interest to 
the O. R. & N. Co. The remaining seventh was sold to Villard when he bought 
the O. R. and N. properties. 

The pioneer chapter of railroading in Walla Walla was ended. Whatever the 
personal idiosyncracies of Doctor Baker and whatever may have been thought 
;>s to his aggressiveness in business, it becomes evident with the retrospect of 
history that he was a far seeing, sagacious, energetic, and successful business 
man and that his career in Walla Walla was one of its greatest constructive 


It remains in this chapter only to take a glance at the next great stage in trans- 
portation. We have spoken of the old steamer lines as composing the first of 
those .stages, the stage lines the second, and the railroads the third. The fourth 
may be called the new era of water transportation. This era is as yet only dawn- 
ing, but it is obvious that the opening of the Columbia and Snake rivers to traffic 
by means of canals and locks and improvement of channels will create a new 
development of production and commerce. As far back as 1872 Senator Mitchell 
of Oregon brought before Congress the subject of canal and locks at the Cas- 
cades. The matter was urged in Congress and in the press, and as a result of 
ceaseless efforts the people of the Northwest were rewarded in 1896 with the 
completion of the canal at the Cascades. While that was indeed a great work, 
it did not, after all, affect the greater part of the Inland Empire. 

Its benefits were felt only as far as The Dalles. The much greater obstruc- 
tions between that city and the upper river forbade continuous traffic above The 
Dalles. Hence the next great endeavor was to secure a canal between navigable 
water at Big Eddy, four miles above The Dalles, and Celilo, eight and a half miles 
above Big Eddy. It is of great historic interest to call up in this connection 
the unceasing efforts of Dr. N. G. Blalock of Walla Walla to promote public 
interest in this vast undertaking and to so focalize that interest backed by insist- 
ent demands of the people upon Congress as to secure appropriations and to 
direct the speedy accomplishment of the engineering work necessary to the result. 
Like all such important public matters, this had its alternating advances and re- 
treats, its encouragements and its reverses, but patience and perseverance and 
the strong force of genuine public benefit triumphed at last over all obstacles. It 
is indeed melancholy to remember that Doctor Blalock, of whose good deeds and 
public benefactions this was but one, passed on before the improvements were 
completed. But it is a satisfaction to remember, too, that before his death, in 
April, 1913, he knew that the appropriations and instructions necessary to insure 
the work had been made. In fact, the work continued from that time with no 
pause or loss. 

The Celilo Canal was completed and thrown open to navigation in April, 
191 5. In the early part of May the entire river region joined m a week's 
demonstration which began at Lewiston, Idaho, and ended at Astoria, Oregon. 


Nearly all the senators, representatives and governors in the northwest attended. 
Schools and colleges had a holiday, business was largely suspended, and the entire 
river region joined a great jubilee. A fleet of steamers traversed the entire 
course from Lewiston down, 500 miles. Lewiston, Asotin, and Clarkston were 
hostesses on May 3; Pasco, Kenewick, Wallula and Umatilla on May 4; Celilo, 
where the formal ceremonies of dedication occurred, and The Dalles, May 5 ; 
Vancouver and Portland May 6 ; Kalama and Kelso May 7 ; and Astoria May 8, 
and there the pageant ended with a great excursion to the Ocean Beach. 

As expressing better in the judgment of the author than he could otherwise 
do, the profound significance of that great step in the history of the commercial 
development of this section and as giving a view of the historic sequences of old 
Walla Walla County, he is venturing to incorporate here an address delivered 
by himself on Alay 4 at Wallula in connection with that celebration: 

Officials and Representatives of the National and State Governments, and Fellow 

Citizens of the Northwest: 

It is my honor to welcome you to this historic spot in the name of the people 
of the Walla Walla \^alley; the valley of many waters, the location of the first 
American home west of the Rocky Mountains and the mother of all the com- 
munities of the Inland Empire. On the spot where we stand the past, the present 
and the future join hands. Here passed unknown generations of aborigines on 
the way from the Walla W'alla Valley to ascend or descend the Great River, to 
pass in to the Yakima country, or to move in either direction to the berry patches 
or hunting grounds of the great mountains ; here the exploring expedition of 
Lewis and Clark paused to view the vast expanse of prairie before committing 
themselves to what they supposed to be the lower river; here flotillas of trappers 
made their rendezvous for scattering into their trapping fields and for making 
up their bateau loads of furs for sending down the river. On this very spot 
was built the old Hudson's Bay fort, first known as Nez Perce, then as Walla 
Walla ; here immigrants of '43 gathered to build their rude boats on which a 
part of them cast themselves loose upon the impetuous current of the Columbia, 
while others re-equipped their wagon trains to drive along the banks to The 
Dalles. Each age that followed, the mining period, the cowboy period, the farm- 
ing period, entered or left the Walla Walla Valley at this very point. Here the 
first steamboats blew their jubilant blasts to echo from these basaltic ramparts, 
and here the toot of the first railway in the Inland Empire started the coyotes and 
jackrabbits from their coverts of sagebrush, \\heresoever we turn history sits 
enthroned. Every piece of rock from yonder cliflis to the pebbles on the beach, 
fairly quivers with the breath of the past, and even the sagebrush moved by the 
gentle Wallula zephyr, exhales the fragrance of the dead leaves of history. 

But if the past is in evidence here, much more the present stalks triumphant. 
Look at the cities by which this series of celebrations will be marshalled and the 
welcome that will be given to the flotilla of steamers all the way from Lewiston 
to Astoria. Consider the population of the lands upon the river and its affluents, 
nearly a million people, where during the days of old Fort Walla Walla the only 
white people were the officers and trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

But if the present reigns here proudly triumphant over the past, what must 
we say of the future? How does that future tower! Where now are the hun- 


dreds, there will be thousands. Where now are the villages, will be stately cities. 
We would not for a moment speak disrespectfully of the splendid steamers that 
will compose this fleet by the time it reaches Portland ; but we may expect that 
after all they will be a mere bunch of scows in comparison with the floating 
palaces that will move in the future up and down the majestic stream. 

Therefore, fellow citizens of the Northwest and representatives of the Na- 
tional Government, I bid you a threefold welcome in the name of the past, present 
and future. And I welcome you also in the name of the commingling of waters 
now passing by us. While this is indeed Washington land on either side of the 
river, this is not Washington's river. This shore on which we stand is washed 
by the turbid water of Snake River, rising in Wyoming and flowing hundreds 
of miles through Idaho and then forming the boundary between Idaho and 
Oregon before it surrenders itself to the State of Washington. And, as many of 
you have seen, half way across this flood of waters we pass from the turbid 
coloring of the Snake to the clear blue of the great northern branch, issuing from 
the glaciers of the Selkirks and the Canadian Rockies nearly a thousand miles 
away, augmented by the torrents of the Kootenai, the Pend Oreille, the Coeur 
d'Alene and Spokane, draining the lakes, the snow banks, the valleys and the 
mountains of Montana and Idaho. And two or three miles below us this edge of 
river touches the soil of Oregon, to follow it henceforth to the Pacific. This is 
surely a joint ownership proposition. And, moreover, this very occasion which 
draws us together, this great event of the opening of the Celilo Canal, is made 
possible because Uncle Sam devoted five millions of dollars to blasting a channel 
through those rocky barriers down there on the river bank. It is a national, not 
simply a Northwest aflfair. 

But while we are thus welcoming and celebrating and felicitating and an- 
ticipating we may well ask ourselves what is, after all, the large and permanent 
significance of this event. I find two special meanings in it: one commercial and 
industrial, the other patriotic and political. First, it is the establishment of 
water transportation and water power in the Columbia Basin on a scale never 
before known. Do we yet comprehend what this may mean to us and our descend- 
ants in this vast and productive land? It has been proved over and over again 
in both Europe and the United States that the cost of freightage by water is but 
a fraction, a fifth, a tenth, or sometimes even a fifteenth of that by land — but, 
note this is under certain conditions. What are those conditions? They are that 
the waterways be deep enough for a large boat and long enough for continuous 
long runs. The average freight rate by rail in the United States is 7.32 mills per 
ton mile. By the Great Lakes or the Mississippi River it is but one-tenth as 
much. Freight has in fact been transported from Pittsburgh to New Orleans for 
half a mill a ton a mile, or only a fifteenth. Hitherto, on account of the break in 
continuity in the Columbia at Celilo, we have not been able to realize the benefits 
of waterway transportation. The great event which we are now celebrating con- 
fers upon us at one stroke those benefits. Not only are the possibilities of trans- 
portation tremendous upon our river, but parallel with them run the possibilities 
of water power. It has been estimated that a fourth of all the water power of 
the United States is found upon the Columbia and its tributaries. By one stroke 
the canalization of rivers creates the potentialities of navigation, irrigation and 
mechanical power to a degree beyond computation. Our next great step must be 


the canalization of Snake River, and that process at another great stroke will 
open the river to continuous navigation from a point a hundred miles above 
Lewiston to the ocean, over five hundred miles away. Then in logical sequence 
will follow the opening of the Columbia to the British line, and the Canadian 
Government stands ready to complete that work above the boundary until we may 
anticipate a thousand miles of unbroken navigation down our "Achilles of rivers" 
to the Pacific. Until this great work at Celilo was accomplished we could not feel 
confidence that the ultimate end of continuous navigation was in sight. Now 
we feel that it is assured, the most necessary stage is accomplished. It is only 
a question of time now till the river will be completely opened from Windemere 
to the ocean. We welcome you, therefore, again on this occasion in the name of an 
assured accomplishment. 

The second phase of this great accomplishment which especially appeals to me 
now is the character of nationality which belongs to it. While this is a work that 
peculiarly interests us of the Northwestern States, yet it has been performed by 
the National Government. Uncle Sam is the owner of the Celilo Canal. It 
belongs to the American people. Each of us owns about a ninety millionth of it 
and has the same right to use it that every other has. This suggests the unity, 
the interstate sympathy and interdependence, which is one of the great growing 
facts of our American system. In this time of crime and insanity in Europe, due 
primarily to the mutual petty jealousies of races and boundaries, it is con- 
solation to see vision and rationality enough in our own country to disregard 
petty lines and join in enterprises which encourage us in the hope of a rational 
future for humanity. It is a lesson in the get-together spirit. Every farm, every 
community, every town, every city from the top of the Rocky Mountains and from 
the northern boundary to Astoria shakes hands with every other this day. And 
not only so but every state in the Union joins in the glad tribute to something 
of common national interest. But while we recognize the significance of this 
event in connection with interstate unity we must note also that the Columbia is an 
international river. It is, in fact, the only river of large size which we possess in 
common with our sister country, Canada. About half of it is in each country. 
Its navigability through the Canadian section has already been taken up energet- 
ically by the Canadian Government. Think of the unique and splendid scenic 
route that will sometime be offered when great steamboats go from Revelstoke 
to Astoria, a thousand miles. Scenically and commercially our river will be in a 
class by itself. 

Such are some of the glowing visions which rise before our eyes in the wel- 
come with which we of the Walla Walla Valley greet you. I began by a three- 
fold welcome in the name of the past, present and future. I venture to close in 
the name of the native sons and daughters of Old Oregon. There are many of 
these within the sound of my voice. Perhaps to such sons and daughters a few 
lines of "Our Mother Oregon" may come with the touch of sacred memory. 
Let me explain that Old Oregon includes Washington and Idaho, and in com- 
posing these lines I used the name "Our Mother Oregon" to include our entire 
Northwest : 

Where is the land of rivers and fountains, 
Of deep-shadowed valleys and sky-scaling mountains? 
'Tis Oregon, our Oregon. 


Where is the home of ihe aijple and rose, 

Where the wild currant blooms and the hazel-nut grows? 

'Tis Oregon, bright Oregon. 
Where are the crags whence the glaciers flow. 
And the forests of hr where the south winds blow ? 

In Oregon, grand Oregon. 
Where sleep the old heroes who liberty sought. 
And where live their free sons whom they liberty taught? 

In Oregon, free Oregon. 
What is the lure of this far western land. 
When she beckons to all with her welcoming hand? 

It is the hand of Oregon. 
Oh, Oregon, blest Oregon, 
Dear Mother of the heart ; 
At touch of thee all troubles flee 
And tears of gladness start. 
Take thou thy children to thy breast. 
True keeper of our ways. 
And let thy starry eyes still shine 
On all our coming days. 

Our Mother Oregon. 


In closing this chapter we may express the conviction that while this fourth 
era of transportation — a new period of steamboat traffic — is surely coming, though 
yet but in its dawn, there is now taking shape still a fifth era of transportation. 
This is to be nothing less than an era of good roads and transportation by auto 
trucks as feeders to steamboat lines. The most conspicuous fact at the time of 
publication of this work in this section as in the covmtry at large is the movement 
in the direction of good roads as the logical sequence of the development of auto- 
mobiles. This movement will inevitably become coupled with that of impro\ement 
of rivers as a means of cheap water transportation. With this improvement of 
rivers will be another sequence, that is, the creation of cheap electric power. 

We are at the dawn of a day in which the two most vital needs of mankind, 
after production, that is, transportation and power, are to be provided at a low 
degree of cost not hitherto conceived of. As a backward glance in our own section 
it is well nigh incredible to call up that the cost of transporting a ton of freight 
by steamer with portages at certain points from Portland to Wallula has run from 
$10.00 to $60.00, and from Wallula to Walla Walla, by wagon, from $8.00 to 
$20.00 or $30.00, and by the first railroad from $4.00 to $5.50, while at the present 
time the railroad rate (which we think is high) on wheat from Walla Walla to 
Portland is $2.85 per ton, and only $1.65 by steamer from ^^^allula to Portland. 
Our imaginations are strained almost to the breaking point when we recall that 
experience on improved rivers in Europe and the older America shows that by 
continuous improved rivers, supplemented by good roads, it may cost not to exceed 
a dollar, possibly not more than half a dollar from Walla W'alla to Portland. That 
new era is near at hand. 





We have given in the first chapter of this volume a view of the physical 
features, geological formation, and climate of this region. It was obvious from 
that description that the Walla Walla country, like most of Eastern Washing- 
ton, Northeastern Oregon, and even Northwestern Idaho, would be thought of 
at first inspection as a stock country. The army of early immigrants that 
passed through on their way to the Willamette Valley saw the upper country 
only at the end of the long, hot, dry summers, when everything was parched 
and wilted. It did not seem to them that any part would be adapted to agricul- 
ture except the small creek bottoms. They could, however, see in the oceans 
of bunch grass, withered though it was by drought, ample indications that stock 
to almost limitless extent could find subsistence. 

Hence with the opening of the country in 1859 the first thought of incoming 
settlers was to find locations along the creeks where a few acres for garden and 
home purposes might be found, and thea a wide expanse of grazing land adjoin- 
ing where the real business migiit be conducted. The first locations from 1859 
and until about 1870 denote, tire ^.(^ftijiance of that idea. We have already noted 
the beginnings of stock raising during the Hudson's Bay Company regime and 
the period of the Whitman mission. We- have .seen that Messrs. Brooke, Bum- 
ford and Noble started the same industry at Waiilatpu in 1851 and later on the 
Touchet and maintained it until expelled by Indians in 1855. H. M. Chase laid 
the foundations of the same on the Umatilla in 185 1 in conjunction with W. C. 
McKay, and later upon the Touchet near where Dayton is now located. J. C. 
Smith on Dry Creek in 1857 had the same plans. 

The incoming of settlers in 1859 and i860 and the location of the Fort in- 
duced a mercantile class to gather in the vicinity of that market. When gold 
discoveries set every one agog with excitement, the first effect was to create 
a line of business almost entirely adapted to supply miners' needs. The 
second eiTect speedily following was to lead thoughtful men to consider the 
region as a suitable location for producing first hand the objects of demand. 
Stock was foremost among those demands. The Indians already had immense 
droves of "cayuse" horses, and considerable herds of cattle. Many cattle 
were driven in in 1861. The hard winter of 1861-2 caused severe loss to cattle 
raisers, but so well were the losses repaired that it was reported in 1863 that 
there were in the valley, including the Touchet region, 1,455 horses, 438 mules, 
'1,864 sheep, 3,957 cattle, and 712 hogs. According to the Statesman 15,000 
pounds of wool were shipped out in that year. Sheep increased with extraordi- 



nary rapidity. 'J"hc valley became a winter feeding ground and the sheep were 
driven in from the entire Inland Empire. The Statesman asserts that in the 
winter of 1855-6 there were 2oo,ocK) head in the valley. They were worth at 
that time only a dollar a head. From that time on the stock business in its 
various branches became more definitely organized and shipments to the East 
and to California went on apace. It was not, however, for some years that the 
importation of blooded stock for scientific betterment was carried on to any 
considerable degree. It would be impossible within our limits to give any com- 
plete view of the leading promoters in the different lines. Practically every 
settler in the country had some stock. Those who may be said to have been 
leaders during the decade of the '60s in introducing stock into the various 
pivotal points of the old county may be grouped under some half dozen ter- 
ritories, which have later become the centers of farming sections and in several 
instances the sites of the existing towns. 

This list cannot in the nature of the case be exhaustive, for, as already noted, 
every settler had more or less stock. In naming some rather than others, we 
would not wish to be making any invidious comparisons, but rather selecting a 
few in each pivotal place, who came in earliest and had the greatest continuity 
of residence and the most constructive connection with the business. Naturally 
first in order may be named the vicinity of Walla Walla City as it has become, 
and the region adjoining it on the south into Oregon. 

Perhaps typical of the larger stockmen of the earliest period were Jesse 
Drumheller and Daniel M. Drumheller. The former of the brothers came first 
to Walla Walla from The Dalles with the United States troops in the War of 
1855-6, as manager of transportation. When the wars were ended he settled 
on the place now owned by Charles Whitney. Subsequently he made his home 
for many years on the place west of town known to all inhabitants of the region. 
The younger brother came to the region in 1861 and located at what is still 
known as Hudson's Bay, and from that time on the two were among the fore- 
most in driving stock in from the Willamette Valley and in extending their 
ranges in all directions. Like so many others they were wiped out in the hard 
winter of 1861-2, but nothing daunted, recognizing the superior adaptability 
of the region they renewed their drives and within a few years had stock, at 
first horses and cattle and then sheep, ranging from Couse Creek in Umatilla 
County to the Snake River. One of their greatest ranges was just north of 
the present Freewater and westward to the present Umapine and Hudson's Bay. 
Resides the Drumhellers some of the most prominent stockmen in that region 
ranging along the state line were John Bigham, W. S. Goodman, the Fruits, 
Girards, Shumways, Ingalls, and Fords. Ninevah Ford was one of the most 
noted of early Oregon pioneers and coming in that early day into the upper 
country became one of the permanent builders of Umatilla County. The Berry 
and Cummings families were a little farther north. Among the leaders in intro- 
ducing a high grade of horses and cattle and later on in farming on a large scale, 
as well as connected with every public interest of importance, were the Resers, 
of whom the second and third generations are present-day leaders in all phases 
of the life of their communities. Their places were in the fertile foothill belt 
southeast of Walla Walla. In the same general section were many others whose 
main dependence at first was cattle, but who entered into the raising of grain 


earlier than those in other sections, by reason of the manifest advantages in 
soil and rainfall. Among such may be named Daniel Stewart, Christian Meier, 
Stephen Maxson, Thomas McCoy, S. W. Swezea, Orley Hull, Philip Yenney, 
Brewster Ferrel, James M. Dewar, the McGuires, Sheltons, Copelands, Barnetts, 
and Fergusons. Two of the prominent business men living in town might be 
mentioned as interested in stock raising and doing much to promote it, Dr. D. S. 
Baker and John Green. Among the most prominent pioneers in the section on 
Mill Creek, who afterwards were leaders in grain raising, but like all others 
turned their first attention to stock, were Robert Kennedy, W. S. Gilliam, James 
Cornwell, J. M. Lamb, Joseph Harbert, E. G. Riffle, W. J. Cantonwine, David 
Wooten, Thomas Gilkerson, J. Kibler and a little later several leading families, 
those of Evans, Thomas, Kershaw, Lyons, and Aldrich. 

Another great section of the cattle ranges was on Dry Creek and northward 
over the hills to and beyond the Touchet. Among the earliest settlers in that 
region whose first business was stock raising, but who afterward became pioneers 
a second time by entering into grain raising were Jonathan Pettyjohn, W. W. 
Walter, John Marion, J. C. Smith, S. H. Erwin, A. A. Blanchard and the Lamars. 
At a somewhat later date, but among the most important of all the cattle men 
of the valley, now known and honored by all in his advanced age, is Francis 
Lowden, whose ranges were in the middle and lower valley, and whose son, 
Francis, Jr., has become one of the leading meat market men in the Inland 
Empire. Mr. Lowden imported the first high-grade cattle, Shorthorns, and that 
was in 1864. Another growing center, at first for stock, then for farming, then 
for fruit, and finally for towns, was the upper Touchet, of which Waitsburg, 
Dayton, and Huntsville have become centers. As we have stated earlier, some of 
the first locations were made on the Touchet. The first settler at the junction of 
the Touchet and Coppei was Robert Kennedy in 1859, but the next year he moved 
to his permanent place near Walla Walla. During 1859 and the few years 
following there were located, at first engaged in cattle raising, but soon to branch 
out into farming, A. T. Lloyd, J. C. Lloyd, A. G. Lloyd, G. W. Loundagin, 
George Pollard, James Woodruff, Isaac Levens, Joseph Starr, Luke Henshaw, 
Martin Hober, Jefferson Paine, Philip Cox, W. P. Bruce and Dennis Willard. 

Farther up the Touchet, going on to the Patit and beyond in the vicinity of 
the present Dayton, Henri M. Chase and P. M. La Fontain had located before 
the great Indian wars, as already related. In the second stage of settlement, 
beginning in 1859, F. D. Schneble and Richard Learn upon the present location 
of Dayton, and near by Elisha Ping, J. C. Wells, Thomas and Israel Davis, S. L. 
Gilbreath (Mrs. Gilbreath was the first white woman to live in Columbia County), 
Jesse N. Day, Joseph Ruark, Joseph Boise, G. W. Miller, John and James Fudge, 
and John and Garrett Long, may be regarded as most distinctively the pioneers 
in the stock business, proceeding on within a few years to the usual evolution into 
farming and other branches of growing communities. 

The region of what is now Garfield and Asotin counties had an early history 

similar to that of the Walla Walla, Mill Creek, Touchet, Coppei, and Patit 

regions, though not so complete. Settlers entered during that same stage of the 

'60s and sought stations on the creeks from which desirable cattle ranges extended. 

One of the earliest of all settlers of the old Walla Walla County was Louis 

Raboin at the point on the Tucanon now known as Marengo. Raboin might justly 
Vol. r— 12 


be called a pioneer of the pioneers, not only in stock raising, but in everything. 
Governor L L Stevens, in his report of railroad explorations, mentions him as 
located with his Indian wife and six children on the Tucanon, and the possessor 
of fifty horses and many cattle, and as having four acres of land in which 
potatoes and wheat were growing. The governor calls him Louis "Moragne'." 
According to Gilbert that name, from which Marengo was derived, had a curious 
origin. It seems that Raboin had been, like almost all the early French settlers 
of the Inland Empire, engaged in the trapping business. He was of a lively, 
active disposition and known by his comrades as "Maringouin" (mosquito). 
This cognomen became corrupted by the English-speaking people and finally 
became "Marengo." 

Incoming settlers, seeking water courses for homes and bunch-grass hills and 
prairies for stock ranges after the usual fashion, were not long in discovering the 
best locations on the Pataha, Tucanon, Alpowa, and Asotin, and small spring 
branches, and cabins and cattle began to diversify that broad expanse through 
which Lewis and Clark had wandered in 1806, and with which Bonneville and 
other fur hunters of the '30s were delighted. 

It was fully equal to the Touchet, Walla Walla, and Umatilla, with their 
tributaries toward the west. The advance guard upon the Pataha and the vicinity 
where Pomeroy now stands were Thomas Riley, James Rafiferty, James Bowers, 
Parson Quinn, J. M. Pomeroy, from whom the town was named, Daniel Mc- 
Greevy, and the brothers James and Walter Rigsby, Joseph S. Milan, Henry 
Owsley, Charles Ward, and Newton Estes. 

Among the streams on which early settlements were made was the Alpowa, 
the pleasant sounding name of which signified in Nez Perce "Spring Creek." 
H. M. Spalding, the missionary, made a station there among the natives of the 
band of Red Wolf and in 1837 or 1838 planted apple seeds from which some 
trees still exist. Timothy, famous in the Steptoe campaign, in which he saved- 
the command from destruction and was afterwards rewarded after the usual 
fashion of the white race in dealing with Indians by being deprived of a country, 
was located on the Alpowa. His daughter was the wife of John Silcott of Lewis- 
ton, one of the most noted of early settlers. 

Asotin Creek, with its tributaries, at the eastern limit of the region of 
which this history treats, is another section with a distinctive life of its own. It 
is one of the most beautiful and productive sections of this entire area, but being 
a little to one side of the sweep of travel and settlement, having no railroads to 
this day, was later of settlement than the other sections. Jerry McGuire is named 
as the first permanent settler on the Asotin, though there were several transients 
whom we will name later. 

We will emphasize again that we are not trying here to name all the settlers 
of sections, but rather those who from continuity of residence and subse- 
quent connections become most illustrative of that first stage of settlement. 

A great impetus was given to the systematic development of the various 
branches of the stock business by the entrance of certain firms of dealers during 
the decade of the '70s. In Colonel Gilbert's history of Walla Walla and other 
counties he presents valuable data secured from the foremost of these dealers, 
as also one of the foremost of all the citizens of Walla Walla, William K. Kirk- 
man. After having been engaged in Idaho and California in the cattle business. 


in the course of which time he operated more or less in and out of Walla Walla, 
Mr. Kirkman took up his permanent residence here in 1871. He formed a part- 
nership with John Dooley and from that time until the lamented death of the 
two members of the firm they were one of the great forces in the organization 
of the industry of marketing both livestock and dressed meat. From the valuable 
data secured by Colonel Gilbert from Mr. Kirkman and from Mr. M. Ryan, Jr., 
another prominent dealer, we gather the estimate of 259,500 cattle driven out of 
the Inland Empire during the period from 1875 to 1880. Prices were variable, 
ranging from $9 to $25 per head, usually $10. W. H. Kirkman, son of W. K., 
relates this interesting incident. He was, as a boy, riding with his father on the 
range, when they encountered a number of extra fine fat cattle, and the father, 
looking over them with delight said, "Look there, my boy, every one of them is a 
$20 gold piece !" It might be added that those same cattle now would be wortli 
$100 apiece. It is surprising to see from the exhibit given in the figures the large 
number of dealers operating in the country at that time. There were no less than 
forty-five firms or individuals engaged in shipping, mainly to Eastern markets, 
though a considerable amount went to California, Portland, or Puget Sound. 

It is of interest to see the enumeration by the assessor of the quantity of stock 
given at two different dates following 1863, for which the figures have already 
been given. In 1870 the assessment rolls show the following: Horses, 5.787; 
mules, 1,727; cattle, 14,114; sheep, 8,767; hogs, 5,067. In 1875 a great change 
occurred of which we shall speak at length, that is the division of the county, by 
which Walla Walla County was reduced to its present limits. We may, therefore, 
take that year as the proper one f 91;. fi_riaL figures on the old county. The year 
1875, according to the assesson;\haid iVe'f allowing livestock population: Horses, 
8,862; mules, 401 ; cattle, 17,756 (there were' 22.960 the previous year) ; sheep, 
32,986; hogs, 8,150. ■ " ■• •• 

We find various local items strewn, through the files of the Statesman dealing 
with stock which are worthy of preservation. In issue of January 10, 1862, men- 
tion is made of a steer handled by Lazarus and brother, which weighed, dressed, 
1,700 pounds. 

A few weeks later it is stated that a cow and calf were sold for $100. That 
will be remembered as the winter of the extreme cold weather. There are numer- 
ous items speaking of a.ififering and loss of stock. It was well nigh exterminated 
in some quarters. But it did not take long to change appearances, at least in the 
cattle that lived through the winter, for an item in the number of June 14 speaks 
of the fattest cattle and best beef that the editor had ever seen, and of the fact 
that large herds of cattle were going to the mining regions of Salmon River and 
South Fork. It is estimated in the issue of October 25, 1862, that 40,000 head of 
cattle had been brought into the East-of-the-mountain country during the year. 


It appears that during the summer of 1862 a race track was laid out by Mr. 
Porter at a point on the Wallula Road three miles west of town, known as the 
Pioneer Race Course. A race is reported in the Statesman of September 27, in 
which a roan mare won a purse of $100 from a cream horse. That perhaps 
may be considered the beginning of the Walla Walla Fair. 


The sheep bu>ines!> serins to have moved on apace during those early years, 
for in the |>a|jcr o( May 23, i8<»3. we learn that A. I'rank & Co. Iiad just shipped |KJUiids of wool to I'ortland, and expected to ship 7,000 more in a short 
time. Anjonjj the most prominent sheep men wliose o[>eratioiis have covered a 
field in numy directions from Walla Walla is Nathaniel Webb, one of the honored 
pioneers. In recent times, o|)cratin({ cs|>ccially in the Snake River region, leading 
sheep raisers have been Davin Brothers, Adrian \fagallon. and Leon Jaussaud. 
all Frenchmen. 


I'ron) stock we turn to farming as the next great fundamental industry to take 
sha{)c. We have already noted the fact that there was little comprehension of 
the threat upland region, rolling prairies and swelling hills, as adapted to raising 
grain, ^■et we know that Doctor W liitman had demonstrated the practicability 
of producing all standard crops during the ten years of his residence at Waiilatpu. 
loscjih Drayton of the Wilkes KxjH-dition sjK-aks with surprise of his observations 
there in 1S41, seeing "wiieat in the lield seven feet high and nearly ri|»e, and corn 
nine feet in the tassel." He also saw vegetables and melons in great variety. 
The Iluilson's I5ay i>eo])!e had line gar<lens near Wallula, at the time of the 
arrival of the Whitmans in 1^3(1, and later on at the Touchet and on Hudson's 
Bay, as it is now known, southeast of Walla Walla. They had abundant pro- 
vision also for dairy and poultry 

Hence farming and gardening and fruit raising had been abundantly tested 
in the more favorably situated locations long prior to the founding of Walla 
Walla. With the establishment of the Fort at its present location. Capt. W. R. 
Kirkwood laid out a garden, the success of which showed the utility of that 
location. The next year Charles Russell, then the wagon master at the fort, 
tested the land north of the post, afterwards owned by Mr. Drumhellcr, with 
eighty acres of barley, securing a yield of fifty bushels to the acre. He raised 
100 acres of oats on the place which he afterwards took up on Russell Creek. 
The location must have been on the land now owned by O. M. Richmond, and 
there is remarkable evidence of the productiveness of that land in that it has 
produce<l nearly every year to the present. It is worth relating that after Mr. 
Russell had sowed the oats the Indians were so threatening that he abandoned 
the place, and cattle ate the growing grain so closely that there seemed no hope 
of a crop. But in June, the Indians having withdrawn. Mr. Russell went out 
ind fenced the field, the oats sprung up anew and yielded fifty bushels to the acre. 
In the same year of 1858. Walter Davis seeded 150 acres to oats at a place on 
Dry Creek. The Indians warned him to leave, but a scjuad of soldiers went out 
and cut the oats for hay. In i860 Stephen Maxson raised a fine crop of wheat 
on the place on Russell Creek still owned by his descendants. 

Perhaps the oi)erations of Messrs. Russell, Davis, and Maxson may be con- 
sidered the initiation of the grain production in the Inland Fmpire. Probably 
there would have l>een but a slow development had not the discovery of gold 
stimulated the demand for all sorts of agricultural products. 

In 1863 a few experiments on the higher land began. Milton Evans has told 
the author that in that year he tried a small piece of wheat a few miles northeast 


of Walla Walla, but that it was a complete failure, and hence the impression 
already common was confirmed that the upland was useless, except for grazing. 
In 1867, however, John Montague raised a crop of oats, over fifty bushels to the 
acre, on land apparently afterwards part of the Delaney place northeast of town. 
Even that was not generally accepted as any proof of the use of the uplands. 
Some of the old-timers have said to the author that they seemed determined that 
grain should not grow on those lands. 

But with the rapid influx of settlers and the flattering returns from the 
trade in provisions with the mines, the more desirable places in the foothill belt, 
and then on the benches and plains and then on the hills, were taken up, and by 
1875 it was generally understood that a great wheat belt extended along the 
flanks of the Blue Mountains all the way from Pendleton to Lewiston, with a 
somewhat variable width upon the plains. Not imtil another decade was it 
understood that the grain belt covered the major part of what now composes the 
four counties of our story. 

We find in the valuable history of Colonel Gilbert, to which we have made 
frequent reference, so good a summary of certain essential data in respect to the 
development to date of publication in 1882 of that great fundamental business of 
wheat raising, in which are included also certain alHed data of importance, that 
we insert it at this point in our narrative. 

"An agricultural society was organized in July of this year, 1866, by an 
assemblage of citizens at the courthouse, on the 9th of that month, when laws 
and regulations were adopted, and the following officers chosen : H. P. Isaacs, 
president; A. Cox and W. H. Newell, vice presidents; J. D. Cook, treasurer; 
E. E. Rees, secretary; and Charles Russell, T. G. Lee, A. A. Blanchard, executive 
committee. For the fair to be held on the 4th , 5th and 6th of the ensuing October, 
the last three gentlemen became managers, and the following executive committee : 
H. P. Isaacs, J. D. Cook, J. H. Blewett and W. H. Newell. 

In 1867 the grain yield of the Blue Mountain region exceeded the demand, and 
prices that had been falling for several years left that crop a drug. It was sought 
to prevent an entire stagnation of agricultural industries, by shipping the surplus 
down the Columbia River to the seaboard. Freights on flour at that time were : 
From Wallula per ton to Lewiston, $15; to The Dalles, $6; to Portland, $6; and 
the following amounts were shipped : 

To Portland, between May 27 and June 13, 4,156 barrels; to The Dalles, be- 
tween April 19 and June 2, 578 barrels ; to Lewiston, between April 18 and May 
14, 577 barrels; total to June 13 by O. S. N. Company, 5,311 barrels. 

The same year Frank & Wertheimer shipped from Walla Walla 15,000 
bushels of wheat down the Columbia, thus starting the great outflow of bread 
products from the interior. 

In 1868 Philip Ritz shipped fifty barrels of flour from the Phoenix mills in 
Walla Walla to New York, with the following result; (It was the first of Wash- 
ington Territory products seen in the East.) 

First cost of flour, $187.50; sacks for same, $27.00; transportation to San 
Francisco, $100.00; freight thence to New York, $107.80; total cost in gold, 
$422.30; profit realized on the transaction, $77.46, or $1.55 per barrel. 

Wheat had fallen to 40 cents per bushel in Walla Walla because of the follow- 
ino- scale of expenses of shipping to San Francisco : 


Freight per ton to Wallula, $6.00 ; thence to I'ortland, $6.00; thence to San 
Francisco, $7.00; drayage, ?i.50; commission, $2.00, $3.50; primage and leak- 
age, $1.00; bagging, $4.50, $5.50; total expense to San Francisco, $28.00. 

In 1869 there was a short crop, due to the drought and want of encouragement 
for farmers to raise grain. June 14, a storm occurred of tropical fierceness, dur- 
ing which a waterspout burst in the mountains, and sent a flood down Cottonwood 
Canon that washed away houses in the valley. In consequence of the short crop, 
wheat rose to 80 cents per bushel in Walla Walla, and flour to $5.50 per barrel. 
In November hay brought $17 per ton, oats and barley 2 cents per pound, and 
butter 37>^ cents. 

Having traced agricultural development from its start and through its years 
of encouragement, till quantity exceeding the home demand had rendered it a 
profitless industry in 1868 and 1869, let us glance at the causes leading to a re- 
vival of inducements for tilling the soil in the Walla Walla country. It should 
be borne in mind that the farmers in the valley and along creeks nearer the mines 
than this locality, were supplying the principal mountain demand, and the only 
hope left was to send produce to tide water and thus to the world's market. 
What it cost to do this had been tried with practical failure as a result. This 
shipping to the seaboard was an experimental enterprise, and there was not suf- 
ficient assurance of its paying to justify farmers in producing quantities for that 
purpose, consequently not freight enough of this kind to warrant the Oregon 
Steam Navigation Company in putting extra steamers or facilities on the river 
to encourage it. The outlook was, therefore, gloomy. This was a state of things 
which caused an agitation of the railway question, resulting in the construction 
of what is more familiarly known as Baker's Railroad, connecting Walla Walla 
with navigable waters. The building of this road encouraged the farmers to raise 
a surplus, it encouraged the Oregon Steam Navigation Company to increase the 
facilities for grain shipment, it caused a reduction of freight tarifl^s all along the 
line and made it possible for a farmer to cultivate the soil at a profit. Something 
of an idea of the result may be gathered from an inspection of the following 
exhibit of increase from year to year, of freights shipped on Baker's Road to 
Wallula en route for Portland. Between 1870 and 1874, down freights shipped 
yearly at Wallula did not exceed 2,500 tons. In 1874 Baker's Road had been com- 
pleted to the Touchet, and carried freight from that point to Wallula at $1.50 per 
ton. In 1875 it was completed to Frenchtown and charged $2.50. Walla Walla 
rates averaged $4.50. 

Freight tonnage from Touchet in 1874 to Wallula aggregated 4,021 tons; 
in back freight, 1,126 tons; from Frenchtown in 1875 to Wallula, 9,155 tons; 
back freight, 2,192 tons; from Walla Walla in 1876 to Wallula, 15,266; back 
freight, 4,043 ; from Walla Walla in 1877 to Wallula, 28,806 tons ; back freight, 
8,368 tons; from Walla Walla in 1878 to Wallula, 35,014 tons; back freight, 
10,454." Such are Colonel Gilbert's statements. 

The estimated wheat production in the entire upper country in 1866 was half 
a million bushels, of which half was credited to the Walla Walla Valley. From 
that time on to the present there has been a steady development of wheat raising 
throughout the region south of Snake River, as well as north and throughout the 
Inland Fmpire. 

In the decade of the '70s there came to Walla Walla a man destined to leave 


upon the entire region the impress of one of the most remarkable characters in 
far vision, noble aims, and philanthropic disposition that ever lived within the 
State of Washington. We refer to Dr. N. G. Blalock. Eminent in his profession, 
his ceaseless industry and progressive aims did more perhaps than any other 
single life to broaden and advance all phases of the section in which he lived and 
wrought. He was the pioneer in wheat raising on a large scale, as well as in 
many other lines of activity and experiment. Making, though not retaining, sev- 
eral fortunes, his life work was to mark out the way for others less venturesome, 
to follow to success not alone in the acquirement of wealth, but in the nobler and 
more enduring products of education, philanthropy, patriotism, public service, 
and genuine piety. Coming to Walla Walla in 1872 and entering at once upon an 
extensive medical practice, Doctor Blalock had a vision of the future as well as 
the capacity to utilize at once the varied opportunities offered by the soil, the 
climate, and the location. He saw the splendid wild acres of land by the thousands 
lying in all directions and determined to make a thorough test of its adaptability 
to raise wheat on a large scale. He made a bargain for a tract of 2,2CX) acres six 
miles south of Walla Walla for a price of ten bushels of wheat per acre, to be 
paid from the first crop. The expense of breaking so large a body of land was 
great, but the first crop yielded thirty-one bushels per acre, a sufficient demon- 
stration of the capacity of the land. 

In 1 88 1 the crop on the tract averaged thirty-five and one-fourth bushels, 
while 1,000 acres of it yielded 51,000 bushels. The acreage and the yield, very 
carefully ascertained, was reported to the Government and stood then, and prob- 
ably does yet, as the largest yield from that amount of land ever reported. Even 
more remarkable yields, but on smaller areas, have been known. Milton Aldrich 
produced on his Dry Creek ranch, on 400 acres, an average of sixty-six bushels 
of wheat and the next year there was a volunteer crop of forty bushels. Re- 
cently in the same vicinity Arthur Cornwell obtained an average of seventy-three 
bushels per acre. A hundred and ten bushels of barley per acre have been grown 
on the Gilkerson ranch on Mill Creek. 

An item of historic interest may be found in an estimate of cost made for a 
special number of the Union during the first years of the industry by Joseph 
Harbert, one of the most prominent pioneers and successful farmers in the valley. 
The crop was on 400 acres, which yielded 10,000 bushels of blue-stem wheat. At 
fifty cents per bushel for the crop, this will be seen to represent a profit of about 
two thousand three hundred dollars from land worth $12,000, or nearly twenty 
per cent, from which, however, should come wages of management. 

The land was summer fallowed in 1894 and valued at thirty dollars per acre. 
The estimate is in a locality where water and material to work with are reason- 
ably convenient. The land is not very hilly and comparatively easy to work The 
report is as follows : 

Itemized Expenses Crop In. Pd. Inst. Total 

Planting, 90c per acre $ 360.00 20 $60.00 $ 420.00 

Harrowing, lie per acre 44.00 .. 7.83 5^-^3 

Plowing, second time, June, 1894 360.00 18 54.00 414.00 

Harrowing before sowing 44.00 16 5.87 49-87 

500 bu. seed wheat, highest market price 250.00 . . 250.00 


In IM 
















67 .00 



49" 4 



















184 OUi U .\Ll-.\ \S'.\LLA COUNTY 

Itemized Ivx|iensc!» 
Graniiig seed wheat 
125 lbs. vitriol at (k 

Using vitriol on \vhe;it 

Sowing, October, 1894, 15c per acre. . 
Harrowing after sowing, iic. 

Cutting, $1.00 [>er acre 400.00 

4,400 sacks, $49.00 per M 215.(0 

Thirty |>ounds of twine, ^3 1-3C. . 

Throliing 10.000 bushels, 4' ..c 

Hauling to railro^id, 2).ic per sack. , 

Warehouse charges to Jan. I, 1896 I20.00 

Total cost $2492.10 $182.40 $2,074.50 

It may be added that estimates of cost by a number of prominent farmers 
in the jn-riod of iiStjo and thercalKiuts, indicated that the e.\|<cnse of sowing, seed- 
ing, harvesting, and putting into the warehouse, ran from twenty-one to forty 
cents a bushel, varying according to locality, yield, and other conditions. 

M a usual [)rice of fifty or sixty cents a bushel, there was not a large margin 
above the interest on investment, maintenance of stock, machinery, imi)rovements, 
and ta.xes. Nevertheless the farmers of this section felt every encouragement 
to continue, unless it were in the evil harvest year of ifkjy^, when the |)rice ran 
about twenty-five to thirty-five cents a bushel, and when rains, floods, strikes, and 
general calamity llircatined to engulf, and did actually engulf some of the best 
farms. It is a historical fact that had it not been for the liberality of the 
banks in the four counties south of Snake River, which held obligations from a 
large numln-r of the best-known farmers, there Wf>uld have Ix-en widespread dis- 
aster. Thanks to the Iwnks, as well as to the j)ersistence an»l fortitude of the 
farmers and the solid resources of the country, these counties emerged from 
those years of dqiression with less injury and rejxiired their losses more quickly 
than any other section of the entire Northwest, or |)erha|>s of the whole country 

It may be added in connection with cost of wheat raising, that within the years 
since the o[»ening of the j)rescnt century there has been an enormous outlay by 
farmers in all kinds of farm machinery, the itjmbines having l)ecoine the usual 
means of har\csting, and traction engines for the combines and to some degree 
for plowing having superseded horse i>ower. Ilut cost of labor and general rise of 
prices have pushed up ex|K'nses, until now the most of farmers would estimate 
the cost of a bushel of wheat at fifty cents or more, some say even a dollar. .Xs an 
ofTset to this there has come a great advance in price, insonnich that the farmers 
of Walla Walla and its sister counties have Ijccome the lords of the land. One of 
the most pleasing results of this new order of things is that the farmers, being 
almost entirely free from debt, have In-gtin to build comfortable and even elegant 
homes. With on the farms and in the cities and to surround themselves with the 
conveniences of life, as automobiles, and to spend money in travel and luxuries 
which make some of the old-timers, accustomed to the deprivations of pioneer 
days, ojx-n their eyes with wonder, and possibly even Ii i*. not ob 


servable, however, that the young folks on the farms have any backwardness in 
utilizing the good things of life which are the logical consummation of the fore- 
sight and industry of parents and grandparents. It is probable that no people in 
the United States have more reliable and steady incomes and greater sources for 
all the needs and enjoyments of life than do the farmers of old Walla Walla 

The experience of other sections was similar to that of the region immediately 
around Walla Walla. The first thought was of stock ranges, with such small 
patches of farming land adjacent to the creeks as might supply the family needs. 
It is stated that Elisha Ping and G. W. Miller raised crops of wheat and oats 
on the present site of Dayton in i860. For the oats they received seven cents a 
pound and for the wheat two dollars a bushel. The location of the subsequent 
Dayton became a regular station on the stage line from Walla Walla to Lewiston, 
and that fact led J. M. Pomeroy, a little later the founder of the town named 
for him, to raise a crop of barley for horse feed. That was in 1863. As time 
passed on, and especially after the founding of flouring mills by S. M. Wait, there 
came a general movement to raise grain crops on the hills and plains and it was 
discovered, as a little earlier around Walla Walla, that the entire region was the 
very home land for grain. Within a few years it was found that barley of espe- 
cially fine quality and heavy yield was one of the best crops, and Columbia 
County has become the center of barley production. Almost the entire county, 
with the exception of the timbered mountain belt, has become a grain field. 
Within recent years the region around and particularly east of Dayton has become 
the leading center of corn production. 

Garfield and Asotin counties repeated the experience of Walla Walla and 
Columbia ; first stock ranges, then a few acres along the creeks as an experiment, 
soon the breaking up of the rich sod on the high plains and flats; and within a 
few years, a perfect ocean of waving grain over the greater part of the area. 
The first settlers already named in the section of this chapter on stock raising 
were the pioneers also in the wheat business, as the Rigsby brothers, J. M. Pom- 
eroy, James Bowers, Parson Quinn, and others. Garfield and Asotin counties 
are in general more elevated than Walla Walla and Columbia, and their frontage 
on Snake River is more abrupt. This has given rise, first to a margin of ideal 
fruit and garden land between the river and the bluff's, which in case of Asotin 
is of considerable breadth, and in case of both of them has raised the question 
of conveying grain from the high plateaus to the river. In some places this has 
given rise to contrivances which are a great curiosity to strangers, the "grain- 
chutes" and "bucket lines," as devices to lower the grain from warehouses on 
the precipitous bank, sometimes eighteen hundred feet above the steamer land- 
ing. There is not yet a railroad on the south bank of Snake River, and water 
transportation is the only available means of getting the vast quantities of grain 
from those high prairies near the river to market. 

Items appear in the various issues of the Statesman during the first years 
of its existence in regard to grain raising which possess great historical interest. 
An editorial appears in the issue of February i, 1862, urging farmers to go into 
grain raising extensively and declaring that all the indications point to a demand 
from the mines for all kinds of farm products. 

An advertisement for supplies at the Fort on July 19 calls for 375 tons of 


oats, lOO tons of oat straw, and 1,200 cords of wood. Alention is also made 
in the paper of the farm of J. W. Shoemaker a short distance below the garrison, 
where grain to the value of S3,0oo, and garden produce to the value of $1,500, 
was raised. 


One of the most important features of industry allied to grain production 
was flour milling. The first flour mill was erected in 1859 by A. H. Reynolds in 
jiartnership with J. A. Sims and Capt. F. T. Dent, the latter being a brother 
of Mrs. U. S. Grant. It was located on the land then owned by Jesse Drum- 
heller, now part of the Whitney place. In the issue of March 29, 1862, is an 
advertisement of the Pasca 2\Iills by Sims and Mix, which must have been the 
same mill built by Mr. Reynolds. In 1862 Mr. Reynolds built another mill, 
known as the Star Mill, on the Yellowhawk, near the present residence of his 
son, H. A. Reynolds. This was subsequently acquired by W. H. Gilbert. Mention 
is made in the Statesman of August 2, 1862, of the flour mill of J. C. Isaacs. 
Apparently this is a confusion in name of the brothers, as the author is credibly 
informed that the mill opened at that time was the Excelsior mill built by H. P. 
Isaacs, subsequently the leading mill man of the Walla Walla country and one 
of the leaders in all forms of enterprise. The name Excelsior was later replaced 
by North Pacific. It was located on the mill race, whose remains still cross 
Division Street and was actively employed until about 1895. There is an adver- 
tisement in the Statesman of March 21, 1863, to the efifect that Graham flour and 
corn meal were being turned out at Mr. Reynolds' mill. In the number of March 
31, 1865, is the announcement that Kyger and Reese, who were among the most 
extensive general merchants in Walla Walla, had leased the water power and 
site of E. H. Barron just below town on Mill Creek and were making ready to 
install a first-class mill, having three run of four-foot burrs and a capacity of 
150 barrels a day. The firm were also establishing a distillery. It would seem 
that the latter manufactory was in larger demand than the former, for it was 
completed sooner. The mill, however, began grinding in October of that year, 
^hat mill became the property of Andrew McCalley in 1873, and after his death 
in 1891 was maintained by his sons until the property was lost by fire in 1897. 
One of the most important mills of the valley was that built by Messrs. Ritz and 
Schnebly about a quarter of a mile below the McCalley mill, known first as the 
Agate and then as the Eureka, conducted for some time by W. C. Painter, then 
sold to Welch and Schwabacher, and in turn disposed of by them in 1880 to 
Dement Brothers, and managed up to the present time by F. S. Dement. The 
mill is now known as Dement Brothers' mill and is one of the most extensive in 
the Inland Empire, making a specialty of choice breakfast cereals and through 
them as well as its high-grade flour carrying the name of Walla Walla, Wash., 
around the globe. 

The mills on the Touchet speedily followed those on Mill Creek. S. M. Wait, 
from whom the beautiful little city at the junction of the Touchet and the Coppei 
took its name, was the pioneer mill man as well as the founder of the town. The 
Statesninn of June 2, 1865, mentions the fact that Mr. Wait's mill was just open 
and that it was one of the best equipped in the country and produced a grade 

2 d 

a- 1. 
- o 








i=2 > 


03 t> 

2 ^ 


of flour equal to the best from Oregon. A town soon began to grow at the location 
of the mill. Mr. Wait sold the mill to Preston Brothers and the stock to Paine 
Brothers and ^loore of Walla Walla. The latter firm acquired an interest in the 
mill, but .subsequently disposed of all their holdings to Preston Brothers, under 
whom the mill became one of the largest mill properties in the Northwest, being 
connected with large mills at Athena, Ore., and elsewhere, and under the more 
recent management of ^lessrs. Shaffer, Harper, and Leonard, conducting one of 
the most extensive milling lines in the country. 

Mr. Wait inaugurated also the milling business in what is now Columbia 
County. Going to that region in 1871 where Jesse N. Day, from whom Dayton 
was named, had been endeavoring since 1864 to launch a town with but scanty 
success, Mr. Wait proposed to build a mill, provided inducements were oflfered. 
Mr. Day accordingly agreed to give five acres of land as a site, with a block of 
land for residences, and upon that Mr. Wait and William Metzger proceeded to 
launch the milling business at Dayton. In building that mill, with a brick building 
for a store and a planing mill, Messrs. Wait and Metzger laid out about $25,000, 
a large amomit for those days. At the same time the Dayton Woolen Mill was 
undertaken, A. H. Reynolds being chief owner, F. S. Frary the secretary and 
manager and Mr. Wait the president of the company. The woolen mill had a 
land site of seven acres donated by John Mustard and a building was erected at a 
cost of $40,000. The new town of Dayton was booming in consequence of these 
investments. The flour mill proved a great success and with various changes of 
ownership is now one of the great mill prcjpertics of- tli€-G»tHit*y, but the woolen 
mill, from which so much was expected, di(i.,n^t'"^ypvV'^'fiTiartciali success and was 
closed in 1880. It is rather a curious fact? mat iTo'^drie xk'ihe '■vvpolen enterprises 
in the Inland Empire has met with large ^ucces6ive!XiC8pt!tbat ati Pendleton, Ore., 
the success of which has been so great thal4tis_a_puzzle;^M26tliers have mainly 

The great development of wheat raising in what is now Garfield County led, 
as elsewhere in the region, to flouring mills. The pioneer mill at Pomeroy was 
started in 1877 by W. C. Potter and completed the following year by Mr. Pom- 
eroy. , 

Three miles above Pomeroy and for some years a rival to the lower town was 
Pataha City. It was on land taken up at first by James Bowers in 1861 and 
acquired in 1868 by A. J. Favor, who undertook a few years later to start a town. 
In pursuance of his plans he oft'ered land for mill sites, and as a result J. N. 
Bowman and George Snyder constructed a mill in 1878. Subsequently John 
Houser became the great mill man of that entire section and his mill became 
one of the most widely known in the Inland Empire. He made a specialty of 
shipping flour to San Francisco for the manufacture of macaroni, the large per- 
centage of gluten in the wheat of that region fitting it especially for that use. 
The son of Mr. Houser, Max Houser, going to Portland in about 1908, has become 
known the world over as the most daring and extensive wheat buyer on the Pacific 
Coast and has acquired a fortune estimated at six millions. The pioneer flouring 
mill of Asotin was built in 1881 at the town of that name by Frank Curtis and 
L. A. Stimson. The town itself upon one of the most beautiful of locations on 
Snake River, with the magnificent wheat fields of the Anatone flats on the high 


lands to the south and west, and a superb bek of fruit land extending down the 
river and broadening out at Clarkston, was laid out in 1878. 

Other mills were established at later dates, of which the most extensive were 
the mill at Prescott, erected by H. P. Isaacs in 1883, the City mill on Palouse 
Street in W'alla Walla, built in 1898 by Scholl Brothers; Long's mill, a few miles 
below Dayton; the Corbett mill at Huntsville. 

In summarizing grain raising as the leading industry of old Walla Walla 
County it may be said that for several years past the total production for the 
four counties has been about 12,000,000 bushels per year. The value has, of 
course, varied much according to price. It is conservatively estimated that the 
value of the grain crops, including flour and feed in various manufactured forms 
for 1916, was approximately $15,000,000. 


As grain raising put a 'finer point upon industry than its predecessor, stock 
raising, so in turn the gardens and orchards have yet more refined and differ- 
entiated the forms of industry and the developments of life in the growing com- 
munities of our story. As already related these lines of production had been 
tested by the Hudson's Bay Company and by the missionaries. Whitman and 
Spalding. It was, therefore, to be expected that even in the first years of settle- 
ment some attempts would be made to start orchards and gardens. The first 
nursery in Walla Walla seems to have been laid out in 1859 on the Ransom Clark 
donation claim on the Yellowhawk. In 1859 trees were set out on the J. W. Foster 
place. It is said that Mr. Foster brought his trees here on muleback over the 
Cascade Mountains. We are informed by Charles Clark of \\'alla Walla that 
most of Mr. Foster's trees were secured from Ransom Clark. In i860 A. B. 
Roberts set out an orchard within the present city limits of Walla Walla on what 
later became the Ward place. In 1861 a notable step in fruit raising was taken 
by the coming of one of the most important of all the great pioneers of the Inland 
Empire. This was Philip Ritz. We find in the Statcsiuan of December 5, 1861, 
announcement that Mr. Ritz had arrived with a supply of trees from his nursery 
at Glen Dale near Corvallis, Ore., and that the trees were for sale at the store 
of John Wright. Subsequent items in the Statcsiuan furnish an interesting ex- 
position of the progress of both gardens and orchards. The Statcsmairwas wide 
awake as usual to the needs of the country and did not fail to exhort the citizens 
of Walla Walla to prepare for the demand which it was sure would come. On 
March 29, 1862, mention was made of the fact that green fruit, presumably apples, 
from the Willamette Valley, was selling for from twenty to fifty cents per pound. 
The paper expresses surprise that farmers are so slow about setting out trees. 
On June 21, 1862, it was announced with much satisfaction that scarcely had the 
snow from that extremely cold winter melted before there were radishes, lettuce, 
onions, and rutabagas brought in from foot hill gardens, and that there were new- 
potatoes in the market by June 14th. The issue of July 26th notes the fact of 
green corn in abundance and that of August 2d declares that the corn was equal 
to that of the Middle Western States, and that fine watermelons were in the mar- 
ket. August 1 6th is marked by thanks to G. W. Shoemaker for a fine watermelon 
and the statement that there were others to come that would weigh forty pounds. 


In the number of August 30th it appears that Mr. Shoemaker brought to the 
office a muskmelon weighing eighteen pounds, and in the same issue is an item 
about a 103-pound squash raised by S. D. Smith. John Hancock is credited on 
September 6th with a watermelon of thirty-three pounds. Complaint is made, 
however, in the same number, of the fact that there is a meager supply of apples, 
plums and pears from the Willamette, and that the apples sell for twenty-five 
cents apiece, or fifty cents a pound. The Statesman of September 27th has the 
story of Walter Davis of Dry Creek sending a squash of a weight of 134}^ 
pounds and twelve potatoes of a weight of twenty-nine pounds to the Oregon State 
Fair at Salem. Lamentable to narrate it appears later that these specimens of 
Walla Walla gardening disappeared. The Statesman indulges in some bitter 
scorn over the kind of people on the other side who would steal such objects. 
In an October number mention is made that James Fudge of Touchet had brought 
in three potatoes weighing eight pounds. In the Statesman of December 20th is 
an item to the effect that Philip Ritz has a large assortment of trees and shrubs 
at the late residence of J. S. Sparks. It is also stated that Mr. Ritz is going to 
try sweet potatoes. In the issue of January 17, 1863, is the statement that Mr. 
Ritz had purchased land of Mr. Roberts for a nursery. In successive numbers, 
beginning February 28th, is Mr. Ritz's advertisement of the Columbia Valley 
nursery, the value of the stock of which is stated at $10,000. It seems to have 
been an extraordinary stock for the times, and the enterprise and industry of Mr. 
Ritz became a great factor in the development of the fruit business as well as 
many other things. There are several interesting items later on in 1863, showing 
that gardening, particularly the raising of onions, was advancing rapidly. In the 
spring of 1865 A. Frank & Co. shipped 40,000 pounds of onions to Portland. In 
the Statesman of July 4, 1863, it is stated that John Hancock had corn fifteen 
feet high. During 1863 and 1864 there was much experimenting with sorghum. 
T. P. Denny is mentioned as having brought a bottle of fine sorghum syrup, and it 
is stated that Mr. Ritz was experimenting with Chinese and Imphee sugar cane. 
Mr. Ritz was succeeding well with sweet potatoes, and a fine quality of tobacco 
was being produced. The biggest potato story was of a Mechannock potato from 
Mr. Kimball's garden on Dry Creek, which weighed four and one-half pounds. 
In several numbers in September, 1863, mention is made of delicious peaches 
brought in by A. H. Reynolds. 

In short, it was well demonstrated that conditions were such that it might be 
expected that Walla Walla would become, and it has for some years been known 
as, the "Garden City." 

In the '60s and '70s a considerable amount of land south and west of Walla 
Walla was brought into use for gardening, and in various directions orchards 
were set out. One of the finest was that of W. S. Gilliam on Dry Creek. 
Everything looked encouraging for fruit raising at that early day, but in 1883 
there came a bitter cold day, twenty-nine degrees below zero, far colder than ever 
known at any other time in Walla Walla, a most disastrous dispensation of nature, 
for many orchards, especially peaches and apricots, perished. 


Broadly speaking, it may be said that there are five regions in Old Walla 
Walla County which have become important centers of fruit raising and intensive 


farming in general, since fruit raising, gardening, dairying, and poultry raising 
have to varying degrees gone right along together. The first in age and extent 
is the region immediately around Walla Walla ; the second that of Clarkston and 
down the Snake River to Burbank ; the third that on the Touchet from Dayton to 
I'rescott; the fourth the long narrow valley of the Tucanon; and the lifth that 
on the lower Walla Walla from Touchet and Gardena to the Columbia and thence 
through Attalia and Two Rivers to P.urbank at the mouth of Snake River. 
There are, of course, some excellent orchards and gardens in portions not covered 
in this enumeration, and it is also proper to say that the most productive and 
compact single body of country is that j5ortion of the Walla Walla \'alley south 
of the state line extending to Milton, Ore. 

It is impossible within our limits to describe these different areas in detail. 
Each has some distinctive features. The youngest and least developed is that 
of the lower Walla Walla and the Columbia River. By reason of great heat 
and aridity and long growing season, that region is peculiarly adapted to grape 
culture and melon raising. Alfalfa produces four and five cuttings and the 
prospect for successful dairying is flattering. The expense of reclaiming the land 
and maintaining irrigating systems is high, but when fairly established it may be 
expected to be one of the most attractive and productive sections. 

The Walla Walla section has had the advantage of time and population and 
in the nature of the case has become most highly developed. In garden products 
Walla Walla asparagus, onions, and rhubarb may be said to be champions in the 
markets of the country. One of the important features of Walla Walla garden- 
ing is the Walla Walla hothouse vegetable enterprise on the river, five miles 
west of the city, conducted by F. E. Mojonnier. This is the largest hothouse in 
the Inland Empire and, with one exception, in the entire Northwest. It has two 
and a half acres under glass and does a business of thousands of dollars with the 
chief markets north and east. 

In orchards Walla \\'alla, while not in general in the same class for quantity 
with Yakima and Wenatchee, has the distinction of possessing two of the largest 
and perhaps most scientifically planted and cultivated orchards in the entire state; 
the Blalock and the Baker-Langdon orchards. The latter contains 6So acres of 
a])]>les, is on sub-irrigated land of the best quality, and may be considered the 
last word in orchard culture. The manager, John Langdon, reports for 1917, 
200,000 boxes, or about three hundred car loads, worth on cars at Walla Walla, 
at present prices, about three hundred thousand dollars. It is anticipated that 
when in full bearing at the age of twelve to fourteen years, the yield will be 
1.000,000 boxes. Doctor Blalock was the great pioneer in fruit raising, as in 
grain-raising, on a large scale. The story of his carrying on the gigantic enter- 
prise with inadequate resources to a triumphant conclusion, though not himself 
being able to retain possession, is one of the greatest stories in the Inland 

The Touchet belt may be said to be distinguished by its special adaptability 
to high grade apples of the Rome Beauty and Spitzenljerg varieties as well as 
by the extraordinary and profitable production. In that belt are two orchards 
which while not remarkable for size have had about the most remarkable history 
of any in the state. These are the Pomona orchard of J- L. Dumas and that 
of J. D. Taggard between Waitsburg and Dayton. There are a number of other 

\li:\\ 111- A WAIJ.A WALLA ((ll'XTV ORCHARD 



orchards of high grade in the Touchet \'alley, and it may be anticipated that 
within a few years that rich and beautiful expanse will be a continuous orchard. 
Conditions of soil and climate make it ideal for apple-raising. 

The valley of the Tucanon, a ribbon of fertile soil deep down in the tim- 
bered heights of the Blue Mountains and lower down its course surrounded by 
the wide flats and benches of Garfield and Columbia counties, is the natural home 
for berries and "truck" of all sorts. The strawberries and melons are of the 
finest. The sparkling stream — one of the finest fishing streams by the way — 
affords limitless opportunity for easy and economical irrigating and the soil is 
of the best, even in a region where good soil is no curiosity. 

The Snake River section, extending down the western and southern bank of 
the river from Asotin, with frequent breaks on account of the bluft'y shores, 
its largest expansion being at Clarkston, with considerable areas at Alpowa, 
Kelly's Bar, Ilia and other points, is a unique region. We shall speak at 
greater length of the Clarkston and Asotin regions, but it may be said in general 
terms that the long narrow belt of land bordering the river, having its counter- 
part on the opposite side in Whitman County, has long been recognized as the 
very homeland of the peach, apricot, nectarine, grape, berries of all sorts, and 
melons. It is of low elevation, from seven hundred and fifty feet at Asotin 
to about four hundred at Page. It is almost semitropical in climate, its products 
getting into market nearly as early as those from Central California. Injurious 
frosts in blossom time are almost unknown. The soil is a soft warm friable 
volcanic ash with loam surface. Though there is no railroad and not even 
continuous wagon roads on the river hai&, t^^Vie.a^^SQB'ierotiSj points of approach 
down the valleys and coulees enteringf tbe' xi^^er^ .aiid ,tile(.3tream itself affords 
water navigation for large steamers ali>ut half the year! aric{ for small boats at 
all times. With the system of canalization ri'tiw'ih ct)n-templa|ion by the Govern- 
ment the river will become continuously •navigable.-tliEOi^giio^t the year and will 
possess infinite possibilities both for power and navigation. It should also be 
stated here that Asotin County has a larger acreage in fruit trees than any 
other of the four counties. 


While we shall speak of certain special features of each section in our 
descriptive chapter covering the present time, we may properly give here a sum- 
mary of recent production for the four counties. 

The reader is asked to recall the earlier figures in order that he may form 
a proper conception of the change wrought. We present here the figures pre- 
served in the office of the Commercial Club of Walla Walla for the year 1916. 
They are given in roimd numbers, but may be considered reliable and con- 

Production, 1916 Value to Growers 

Wheat — 1 1,000,000 bushels $12,100,000 

Barley — 1,300,000 bushels 910,000 

Corn — 250,000 bushels 200,000 

Alfalfa — 140,000 tons 1,800,000 

Apples — 1 ,000,000 boxes 1,000,000 


Production. iyl6 \aluc to Growers 

Pruri. ■ • m rons :»o,ooo 

thci ; - '< Ions . to,ooo 

Onions— 2tx>.ooo sacks . . 32-2.500 

- • 50.000 

iig hay other than alfalfa, vege- 
tables other than onions and as|>aragus 600.000 

Livestock, dairy prcxiucts. |>oultry, wool, flour and chop 8,000000 

Total agricultural, horticultural, and stock products. . 25.262,500 

The L'nited States census re|K>rt for 1910 gives a population for the four 
counties of 4i).oo.V If we allow for lo jH-r cent increase in I'>i6. we shall have 
approximately lifty-four thous;ind |)copli- in Old Walla Walla County. The year 
1916 represents, therefore, a gross income of nearly $4^>S for each man. woman, 
and child in the area. Tliis, it must of course he observed, is the income from 
tht soil, and takes no account of the earnings of the manufacturing, mercantile, 
professional, and laboring classes. It is safe to say that few regions in the United 
States or the worhl can match such an income reprtstnting the absolute increase 
in wealth taken right from the earth. It is no wonder that the farmers of our 
four counties have automobiles and household luxuries galore, and when harvest 
time is over take trips to California. Honolulu, or "back East." or. before the war. 
to Kurope. It is of interest to add here the approximate areas in cultivation 
in the four counties. It was reported in 1016 as follows : 

(irain lands, in bearing and in summer-fallow — 

Walla Willa County 500,000 acres 

The other counties 500,000 acres 

Fruit lands — 

Asotin County . .^Soo acres 

(Note: An underestimate of Asotin County.) 

Walla Walla County ^.f^rp acres 

Columbia County '.045 acres 

Garfield County ... 525 acres 


We have contmed our attention thus far to what might l>e regarded as the 
natural fundamental industries of stock raising, farming, and horticulture. 

But along with those essential industries to which the country was naturally 
a<lapte<l. there went of necessity some mcrvantile and manuf.icturing enterprises. 
I-ater on the professional classes liecame interrelated to all the others. While 
the region covered by our four counties is not naturally a manufacturing 
country, yet from the first there have l»een those whose tastes and interests have 
lead them to mechanical pursuits. In a growing community where the founda- 
tion prrKJucls are those of the soil and yet where the building arts arc in constant 
demand there must necessarily U- some manufacturing. Most of the enter- 
prises of that nature in this section have liccn connected either with buildmg 
tnaterials or with agricultural implements. Saw-mills came in almost with the 


dawn of civilized life. Hence we are not surprised to find that the first pioneer 
in Walla Walla, Dr. Marcus Whitman, built a saw-mill. That mill was on Mill 
Creek, apparently nearly where the present Shemwell place is located. As is not 
known to many there was a small saw-mill on the grounds of the United States 
Fort. The flume ran nearly along the present course of Main Street and the 
mill was on the northern edge of the military reservation opposite Jesse Drum- 
heller's residence. Doubtless it was those mills which gave our beautiful 
creek its unfortunate name, in place of the more attractive native name of Pasca 
or Pashki, "sunflower." 

The Statesman of December 13, 1861, notices the building of a -saw-mill on 
the Coppei by Anderson Cox, one of the foremost of the early citizens of Walla 
Walla, who also had large interests in and around Waitsburg. Another promi- 
nent old-timer, W. H. Babcock, is reported in the issue of June 2, 1865, as 
having purchased a saw-mill on the Walla Walla. One of the earliest saw- 
mills, built at the close of 1862, was on Mill Creek in Asotin. There were 
various little mills in the timber land of the Blue Mountains. In the '80s Dr. 
N. G. Blalock and a little later Dr. D. S. Baker inaugurated the business of 
fluming from the mountains to Walla Walla. In the case of the former this was 
a calamitous business venture, but the latter with his usual sound judgment 
made a great success of the enterprise. 

The most extensive lumbering business of Walla Walla in the earlier days 
was that still known by the corporate name of the Whitehouse-Crawford Co. 
This company was founded in 1880 by Messrs. Cooper and Smuck. In 1888 G. 
W. Whitehouse and D. J. Crimmins became chief owners, though Mr. Cooper 
retained his connection with the business. In 1905 J. M. Crawford acquired 
the business, being joined by his brother J. T. Crawford, in 1909. The business 
has become very extensive, having numerous branches, with the general name 
Tum-a-Lum Lumbering Co. There have been established in more recent years 
the Walla Walla Lumber Co., the Oregon Lumber Co., and the Bridal Veil 
Lumber Co., all doing large lines of business. 

A large amount of capital has been invested in the manufacturing of agricul- 
tural machinery. The most extensive establishment in these lines in Walla Walla 
was the Hunt Threshing Factory founded in 1888 by Gilbert Hunt and Chris- 
topher Ennis, who purchased the machine shop of Byron Jackson, which became 
the property of Mr. Hunt in 1891. The special output of the factory was the 
"Pride of Washington Separator," but subsequently iron work and belting and 
wind mills and other lines were added. Owing to financial difficulties precipitated 
by the hard times beginning in 1907 this great establishment, which employed 
from seventy-five to a hundred men, was obliged to close its doors. 

For a number of years the northwestern branch of the Holt Harvester 
Works, of which Benjamin Holt was manager, was located in Walla Walla. 
It conducted an immense business, particularly in the "side-hill" harvester and 
in tractors. The main northern house is now located in Spokane, while the 
Walla Walla branch is managed by E. L. Smith and Co. 

Among the other manufacturing enterprises worthy of larger notice than our 
space permits may be named the Brown-Lewis Corporation, the RinghofTer 
Brothers Saddle-tree Factory, the Webber Tannery, the Washington Weeder 
Works, the Walla Walla Iron Works, and the Cox-Bailey Manufacturing Co., 


now succeeded by separate enterprises of the two partners. From a historical 
point of view the iron foundry conducted by J. L. Roberts during the decade 
of the '90s was one of the most conspicuous industries. The foundry business 
was later conducted by the Hunt Company. 

It will give a view of the distribution of business houses and industries to 
insert here the tabulation of these on file in the Commercial Club office. 


Accountants (public) 4 

Apartment houses 8 

Architects 3 

Banks 5 

Bakeries 6 

Barber shops 20 

Bowling alleys 2 

Blacksmith shops 10 

Bottling works 2 

Coal and wood yards 7 

Contractors and builders (all kinds) 33 

Dentists 20 

Doctors — a — physicians and surgeons 27 

b — Osteopaths 6 

c — Chiropractors 3 

Dressmakers and fitters 24 

Electricians 5 

Electric light plants i 

Garages 14 

Gas plants i 

Hospitals and sanatoriums 3 

Hotels 4 

Lawyers 24 

Liveries — a — -horse 3 

b — Auto 3 

Machine shops 5 

Moving picture theaters 4 

Newspapers 4 

Painter and paper hangers 4 

Plumbing shops , 4 

Pool and billiard halls 6 

Photograph galleries 4 

Printing offices 4 

Real estate dealers 31 

Restaurants 22 

Rooming houses 

Shoe repair shops 6 

Tailor shops 12 



l)t'])artniciit t 

Drug 8 

Dry goods 8 

Electrical supply o 

Flour and feed ^ 

Furniture 4 

General 2 

Grocery 35 

Hardware 6 

Harness and saddlery 6 

Implement 5 

Jewelry 5 

Meat 5 

Millinery 8 

Shoe 8 

Variety — 5 and 10 cent 2 

Ladies' suits and cloaks 2 

Perhaps no one business fact is so good a commentary on the financial con- 
dition of a community as the bank deposits. 

The banks of Walla Walla have had during the year 191 7 an average of 
seven million dollars deposits. On January i, 1918, deposits exceeded eight 

As we shall see, the banks of the other cities of the district have similar or 
even greater amounts in proportion to population. It would doubtless be safe 
to estimate the bank deposits of the four counties at eleven million dollars, or 
over two hundred dollars per capita. 

As a means of indicating the financial status of Walla Walla, with Garfield 
and Columbia counties, the following clipping from a local paper of October 
16, 1917, will be of permanent value: 

"Announcement of the official allotment of Liberty loan bonds to each bank 
in the Walla Walla district comprising Garfield, Columbia and Walla Walla 
counties, was made for the first time last evening by P. M. Winans, chairman of 
the executive committee, following receipt of a telegram from the Federal Reserve 
P>ank at San Francisco, giving the total minimum and maximum allotments for 
this district. As soon as these figures were learned the allotments for each of 
the fourteen banks in the district were figured on a basis of deposits at the last' 
federal call. 

"The minimum allotment for the district was placed by the Federal Reserve 
Bank at $1,483,000 and the maximum allotment at $2,457,842. From the way 
the campaign has been going it will require every energy to raise the minimum, 
which is 50 per cent more than the allotment for the district for the first Liberty 
bond issue. 

"This time Walla Walla County alone must subscribe $1,044,000 or as much 
as the entire district subscribed for the first loan. The City of Walla Walla 
must subscribe $874,000 to report the minimum desired. Columbia County 
must subscribe $240,000 and Garfield County $199,000." 



The official allotment which each of the fourteen banks of the district was 
expected to subscribe among its customers, follows : 
Walla Walla- 
First National Bank $235,000 

Baker-Boyer National Bank 243,000 

Third National Bank 109,000 

Peoples State Bank 135,000 

Farmers Savings Bank 152,000 

Touchet State Bank, Touchet 7,000 

First State Bank, Prescott 12,000 

First National Bank, Waitsburg 121,000 

Exchange Bank, Waitsburg 30,000 

Columbia National Bank, Dayton 146,000 

Broughton National Bank, Dayton 85,000 

Bank of Starbuck, Starbuck 9,000 

Pomeroy State Bank, Pomeroy 132,000 

Knettle State Bank, Pomeroy 67,000 


It may be added that the amount actually subscribed exceeded the maximum, 
being $2,647,000. 


One feature of constant interest in any growing American community is the 
annual county fair. As a yearly jubilee, a display of products, and a general 
"get-together" agency, this characteristic feature of American rural life is 
entitled to a large place. It co-ordinates industries, creates enterprise, kindles 
ambition, and promotes the spirit of mutual helpfulness in pre-eminent degree. 
The Walla Walla fairs have had essentially the familiar features of all such 
institutions ; i. e., the exposition of agricultural, horticultural, and other products. 
Since the fairs have been held at the present grounds south of the city, the 
exhibition of live-stock and the horse racing features, and in the three prior 
years to the date of this work, the "Pioneer Days," have become leading events 
and have drawn thousands of visitors from all parts of the country. 

The first fairs were somewhat broken and irregular. 

Apparently the germ of our county fairs was the establishment of a race 
course on the flat west of town running around the hill adjoining what is now the 
Coyle place, by George H. Porter. In the Statesman of October 18, 1862, is 
quite a flaming advertisement of the races'. They were to last four days, October 
30th to November 2d. There were to be purses of $100. $50 and $150 for win- 
ners, with 20 per cent for entries. Buckley's Saloon was to be headquarters for 
making entries. Admission was to be 50 cents. The proprietor seems to have 
been somewhat on the order of a "bad man," as he later became involved in a 
murder case. 


On July 9, 1866, an agricultural society was organized, of which the officers 
were: President, H. P. Isaacs; vice presidents, Anderson Cox, and W. H. 
Newell; treasurer, J. D. Cook; secretary, R. R. Rees; executive committee, 
Charles Russell, T. S. Lee and A. A. Blanchard. Under the management of this 
society the first county fair was held on October 4, 5 and 6, 1866. 

Another organization, known as the Washington Territory AgricuUural, Min- 
ing, and Art Fostering Society, undertook the maintenance of fairs in 1870. 
In September of that year the first of a series was held until 1873. Finding that 
the grounds were loo far from the city they were sold and the fairs discon- 

In 1875 C. S. Cush laid out a race-track at the place where Watertown now 
exists, and there a fair was held in October of that year. That place was for 
many years the location of races and fairs and public gatherings of all sorts. 

During that same year of 1875 the first definite organization looking to pro- 
moting immigration was organized, and a thirty-page pamphlet was published 
setting forth the attractions of the Walla Walla Valley for business and residence. 

As years passed increasing interest in the annual meets led to an attempt 
to give them a permanent character, and in 1897 the Fruit Growers Association, 
of which Dr. N. G. Blalock was president, undertook to finance and manage the 
fairs with a degree of system which had not hitherto prevailed. The first fair 
under the auspices of the Fruit Growers was held in the courthouse. The two 
succeeding were held in Armory hall. In 1900 a pavilion was erected on Second 
Street and for several years the annual fairs were held at that place. As an 
illustration of the character of the fairs of that stage of history we are- incor- 
porating here an account of the fair of 1900, taken from the October number of 
the Inland Empire magazine: 

"The Fourth Annual Fniit Fair of the Walla Walla Valley was held in the 
City of Walla Walla October i to 7 inclusive, and was in every way the most 
successful and satisfactory exposition ever attempted in Southeastern Washing- 
ton. This was true as to the financial aspect of the fair, as to the attendance and 
as to the quality of fruit on display. 

"Nature was responsible for the latter feature of the success of the fair, as 
she is responsible for much that goes to make up the category of the virtues 
of the Walla Walla Valley. Give our agriculturists and horticulturists a year 
with a well regulated rainfall, and frost which considerately stays away when 
not wanted, and they will with diligence and careful culture produce grapes, 
pears, apples and most every kind of fruits and vegetables of such quality and 
size as are seen in no other part of the Union. 

"In 1899 the fair continued six days, but this year a full week was given, 
and the attendance exceeded that of previous years by over three thousand paid 
admissions. The visitors were not restricted to Walla Walla and the imme- 
diate vicinity ; fully one thousand came from Waitsburg, Dayton and other 
neighboring towns, and 500 from Pendleton, Milton, Athena, and various points 
in our sister state. The scope of the fruit fair is broadening and exhibits are 
received from an ever increasing extent of territory. 

"From a financial point of view, the officers of the exposition have every 
reason to be congratulated. The gross proceeds of the fair were something 
over seven thousand dollars, and about eleven hundred dollars of this is profit. 




and is deposited as a nestegg for the fair of 1901. This is the first year in the 
history of the fairs that any material profit has resulted in dollars and cents. 
Last year $80 was taken in over and above expenses, and the year before nothing. 
Better management is responsible for this result, and a more thorough appre- 
ciation of the requirements of the fair. 

"T. H. Wagner's military band, of Seattle, furnished music for the fair, giv- 
ing concerts every afternoon and evening. 

"Mrs. Jennie Houghton Edmunds was the vocal soloist, and Herr Roden- 
kirchen, who is known to fame in the East and West, was their cornet soloist. 

"One of the special features of the programme of the fair was an Indian 
war dance. A score of bucks and half dozen squaws from the Umatilla Reserva- 
tion were the performers, and their presence recalled to many of the visitors 
the days when the proximity of redskins was a consummation devoutly to be 

"The woman's department was this year under the direction of Mrs. John 
B. Catron, and formed the most interesting and tasteful display at the fair. A 
part was devoted to collections of Indian curios and relics, and this department 
was always crowded with visitors. Lee Moorehouse of Pendleton has on exhibi- 
tion many of his photographs of Indians and scenes on the Umatilla Reserva- 
tion, pictures which even now are of interest, and which fifty years hence, when 
the development of the country has crowded the redskins further to the wall, 
will be of great historical value. 

"More than ever before have the people Bf.thi^" valley appreciated the value 
of fruit fairs and industrial expositions. ; Her£ tfae farJJiejs.i^nH those interested 
in the various lines of agriculture and j^orticulture have an' (Opportunity to see 
the results of each others' labors and profit by their '^xpehence. They are 
encouraged by the success of others, and obtlin- suggestions. vvhich are invaluable 
in their work. They learn in what direction the efforts of theif neighbors are 
being exerted, and keep in touch with the development of the various agricul- 
tural pursuits. 

"The Belgian hare exhibit, prepared by S. C. Wingard and E. A. Coull, was a 
feature not before seen at these fairs. This exhibition, with its hundreds of 
dollars' worth of valuable imported specimens of Belgian hares and fancy stock, 
was perhaps the most valuable at the fair, and of the greatest interest because 
of its novelty. Belgian hare culture is yet in its infancy, and the gentle long- 
eared creature was the center of attraction for those who wished to know more 
of these animals which are monopolizing so much attention among breeders of pet 

"The railroads doing business in Walla Walla took a most active interest in 
the fair. Two pretty and unique booths were erected and they proved among 
the attractive features of the event. 

"The Northern Pacific and Washington & Columbia River railways took 
the cue of the Boxers and a pretty pagoda was designed. The structure was 
erected near the band pavilion and was provided with seats and accommoda- 
tions for the ladies and children. The pagoda was built of native woods and 
finished with moss brought from Tacoma for the purpose. The work was artis- 
tically done. At night a number of colored electric lights gave a finishing touch 


to the scene. The design was largely the idea of Niaiuger McCabe and Pas- 
senger Agent L'alderhcad, of the W'asliinglon & Columbia River Railway 

"The booth of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company was IcKatcd near 
the nuin entrance and it was neatly planned. A commodious square l>oo(h was 
finished and trimmed with grains and fruits taken from the company's cxperi- 
111' tiial farm near the city. The ceiling wa-; niadc of a variety of handsomely 
Lulnrcd wools in the unwoven state, blended together with artistic effect. The 
walls of the booth were hung with pictures, and chairs and reading offered rest 
and entertainment to all. The booth was in charge of General Agent Hums and 
C. K. \'an Ue Water." 

The officers of the association for 1900 were as follows: W. A. Kitz. presi- 
dent; C. F. \'an De Water, secretary; O. R. Hallou, superintendent; Mrs. J. B. 
I'atron, superintendent of the woman's department. 


The I*"air assumed different aspects in different years, sometimes taking on 
as the predominant interest the exhibition of fruit and vegetables, and at other 
times stock and machinery. At still other times the "horse race" was the domi- 
nant feature. 

In 1903 a new organization was effected known as the Walla Walla Race 
Track Association. At a meeting of a number of the leading men of the city 
.and county, of which Judge T. H. Brents was chairman, the following were 
elected trustees of the association : W. S. Offner, Joseph McCabe, R. B. Caswell, 
James Kidwell, Wm. Hopotoom, John McFceley, Chris Ennis, W. G. Preston 
and Frank Singleton. Under the auspices of the association the first of a new 
series of fairs was held in the autumn of 1903 at the present location upon the 
land known as the "Henderson" tract, purchased by the association. The name 
of the association became changed to the Walla Walla County F'air Associa- 
tion. In 1906 the fnvilion still used was erected. In 1907 the dominant interest 
was the "Harvest Festival," the chief features of which were carried out within 
the city. This will Ik: rememl)crcd as quite a gorgeous pageant. J. J. Kauffman 
was duly crowned as King Rex, and Hattie Stine became queen of the carnival 
as Queen Harriet. Both coronations were signalized by s[)ectacular f)ara<lcs and 
general hilarity which made that celebration the most memorable of the scries 
In 1908, August 8th. a great disaster occurred at the Race Track, the destruc- 
tion by fire of the barns, together with several valuable horses, entailing severe 
loss both to the association and to several individuals, especially Wm. Hogoboom. 
In the same year the street railway line was extended from the city to the 
grotmds. As indicating the [>ersonnel of the association of that period, it will be 
valuable to present here the names of the officers and trustees: T. 11. Brents, 
president; Grant Copeland, vice president; R. E. Guichard, secretary; trustees, 
F. Tausick, M. Toner. W. A. Ritz. Sam Drumhcller, Mordo McDonald. J. H. 
Morrow, J. G. Kidwell, Frank Singleton, Wm. Hogolxxim. C. I.. Whitney, B. F. 
Simpson, Ben C. Holt. J. P. Kent, J. Smith, .and Wm. Kirkman. Throughout 
the period to the present the association has l)een an incorporated organization, 
with the stock distributed widely among the farmers and business men of the 
community. Judge Brents continued as president until 1914, when bodily in- 


firmity forbade further continuance, and his lamented death soon followed. 
Robert Johnson became secretary in 1907 and in 1909 W. A. Ritz became man- 
ager, being chosen president in 19 14 upon retirement of Judge Brents. Messrs. 
Ritz and Johnson became so closely identified from that time on as to be asso- 
ciated with every feature of the history of the Fair. The woman's department 
was conducted with equal efficiency during the same period by Mesdames J. B. 
Catron, W. A. Ritz, and W. D. Lyman. 


In 1913, feeling that the common routine had rather palled, the managers 
decided to inaugurate a new order of things, and as a result the "Frontier Days" 
came into existence, with its spectacular displays of "bull-dogging," relay races, 
stage-coach races, cow-boys, cow-girls, Indians, etc., one of the last stands of the 
Wild West. In spite of the great success of these exhibitions as a means of 
drawing crowds and creating interest, the frontier days were not a financial suc- 
cess. After the meeting of 1915, the Fair Association decided not to continue, 
and hence there was no fair of any kind upon the grounds in 1916. There was 
conducted, however, a Merchants' Carnival upon the streets which while per- 
haps tame in comparison with its predecessors served to signalize the autumn 
season and to create a period of good fellowship and community enjoyment. 
During 191 5 and 1916 the question of purchase of the Fair Grounds by the 
county became one of the especial subjects of local politics. A general spirit 
of caution and economy prevailed, and the proposition failed of a sufficient vote 
in the election of 1916. The grounds remain, therefore, in possession of the 
County Fair Association, and it is just to the members of the association to say 
that the thanks of the entire community are due them for their patriotism and 
genuine life in maintaining at a financial loss this important feature of com- 
munity progress. 

With the cessation of the regular Fair there was a lively demand in every 
direction for something that would keep the Queen Mother of the Inland Empire 
upon the map as an autumn amusement center. In response to this public call, 
George Drumheller, the greatest wheat farmer of the Inland Empire (and for 
that matter doubtless the greatest individual wheat farmer in the world, having 
about twenty thousand acres of wheat land), rose to the occasion and prepared 
a program for a new exhibition, "The Pioneer Pow-wow." The personnel 
of the management was as follows : George Drumheller, managing director ; O. 
C. Soots, secretary ; Tom Drumheller, arena director ; Bill Switzler, assistant 
arena director; John Neace, Jim McManamon, and George Marckum, judges: 
A. G. Busbee, chief announcer; Ben Corbett, assistant announcer. 

As a permanent record of the Pow-wow we are incorporating here the sum- 
mary of it as given in the Walla Walla Bulletin at the close of the events : 

"After three days of some of the finest riding, roping and feature cowboy work 
ever seen in the West, the first annual Pioneer Pow-wow came to a close last 
night. The Pow-wow was a success from every standpoint; so successful, in 
fact, that plans will be made for a second and greater Pow-wow next year, prob- 
ably to be put on under management of a new county fair association, for which 
the event this year was a benefit. 


"Yesterday's great sliow in the arena and uii the track at the fair grounds 
eclipsed, if possible the performances of the two preceding days, and the large 
crowd which lilled the grand stand until there was not a reserved seat left and 
overflowed the north bleachers was brought to its feet time and again with 

"All in all the I'ow-wow program for the three days was voted by nearly all 
who saw it the finest Wild West show ever staged here, and the success of the 
enterprise reflects great credit upon George Drumheller, well known farmer and 
stock-raiser of the valley, who managed the show, and upon Sec. O. C. Soots, ' 
secretary of the Commercial Club, who acted as secretary for the enterprise, as 
well as upon each one of the other officials. 

"A feature of the program yesterday afternoon was the cowboys' relay race, 
in which the crowd was probably more interested than in any other event. Nep 
Lynch was the winner and by defeating Drumheller can lay claim to the cham- 
pionship of the world in this event. 

"When Drumheller's horse got away from him for an instant on the second 
change yesterday the race was changed from a neck and neck contest between 
Drumheller and Lynch to an easy victory for the latter. On Friday Lynch was 
also victor, while on Thursday Drumheller came in ahead by a length. 

"The cowboys' bucking contest for the Pow-wow. went to Yakima Canute, and 
the choice of the judges after the finals yesterday proved popular with the crowd 
who gave the clever rider a big hand. The prize $250 saddle and $2.50 cash goes 
to the winner of this event. 

"The three riders who were chosen for the finals yesterday were Leonard 
Stroud, Yakima Canute and Dave White, and they drew as mounts for the final 
bucking events Sundance, Culdesac and Speedball, respectively. The three ani- 
mals are probably the toughest buckers in the world. Sundance tossed a rider 
over his head Thursday, while Culdesac had a record of two down for the Pow- 
wow. Speedball also had proved one of the hardest to ride. All three riders 
showed great skill, although White was forced to pull leather when the halter 
rope was jerked out of his hand. 

"Another relay feature that was popular with the crowd during the entire 
Pow-wow was the cow-girls' relay race. Mabel De Long was the winner, with 
Donna Card and Josephine Sherry second and third. Miss De Long proved 
unusually skillful on the change and frequently jumped from one horse to another 
without touching the ground. 

"Both the steer-roping and bulldogging was the greatest ever seen here. 
Tommy Grimes was the first with a total time of 63^ seconds for two throws, 
while Jim Lynch took the bulldogging contest with a total time of 63^ seconds 
for two throws. Lynch's time yesterday afternoon, twenty-one seconds, is one of 
the fastest records ever made for this event. 

"One pleasing feature of the Pow-wow this year was that not a single cow- 
boy or animal was seriously hurt during the entire three days. This was not 
because the show was more tame than before, because such was not the case, 
but was due partly to good fortune and more to the skillful management 

"A feature of yesterday's program was the drill given by Maj. Paul H. Wey- 
rauch's battalion of field artillery. The battalion, about three hundred strong. 









executed a review in tlie arena, passing in front of Major Weyraucli, reviewing 
ofificer. The boys made a great showing for the short time that they have been 
in training, going through their maneuvers hke clock work. Major Weyrauch 
and his men were given a great hand by the audience and the most impressive 
moment of the day came during the drill, when the band played "The Star 
Spangled Banner," the soldiers stood at attention, and the great crowd rose to 
its feet as one man, with the men standing bare-headed until the last strains of 
the national anthem had died away. 

"A. G. Busbee, who had been the efficient chief announcer at the Pow-wow 
for the three days, gave the spectators yesterday a thrilling exhibition of bull- 
dogging at the close of yesterday afternoon's bulldogging contest. Busbee, clad 
in his full Indian regalia, downed one of the steers in front of the grandstand. 
He declared afterwards that he could have won the event if he had been allowed 
to enter. Officials of the Pow-wow needed Busbee as announcer and refused 
to run any risks of his being laid out. 

"George Drumheller, managing director of the Pow-wow, said last night that 
he was not yet in a position to say how successful the Pow-wow had been finan- 
cially, but that he hoped to at least break even, and possibly clear a little for 
the benefit of the fair association. 

" 'It's play with us,' he said. 'The boys like it and it gives them something 
to talk about during the winter. The people supportad.^the show well, and I hope 
something of the kind can be arranged again ne^cfeyfe^r. ";'•■; ;•■ : 

One of the most pleasing features of the Pioneer Pow-wow, is well as of the 
Frontier Days preceding was the prominence gfven to the pioneers. In 1915 a 
log-cabin was erected on the fair grounds as a typtcal pioneer rest home durmg 
the period of the fairs. This was the rallying place of the gray haired sires and 
mothers of the valley, and significant and beautiful were the reunions of the 
"Builders" of old Walla Walla at that point. At the Pioneer Pow-wow the 
address to the pioneers was given by Governor M. C. Moore, last territorial 
governor and one of the most honored of the pioneers. His address at the 
gathering of 1917 was so fitting and constitutes so complete a retrospect of the 
history of the region that we believe it will be seen with deep regard by the 
pioneers in this history. 

We therefore take from the columns of the Jl^alla ]]'alla Union the report, 
as follows : 

"These pioneer meetings are significant events ; they aftord opportunity for 
meeting old friends. They are occasions for retrospection and reminiscence. 
We live over again in memory, 'the brave days of old.' We recount the courage, 
the lofty purpose, the sacrifices of the early settlers, not only of those still living, 
but of those who have crossed the Great Divide." 

These words, taken from the speech of ex-Governor Miles C. Moore, delivered 
at the Pioneers' barbecue meeting at the fair grounds yesterday noon, explain 
the significance of the Pioneer Pow-wow to the early settlers of this country, 
to whose memory the big fall celebration is dedicated. That the sturdy old 
plainsmen appreciated the honor was evident by their numbers and the hearty 
manner in which they participated in this event. Hundreds of them were present 
and all pronounced the juicy beefsteaks served by the Royal Chef Harry Kidwell, 
to be near-perfect. 


The pioneers' program was short but filled with interest and the social time 
that followed was hugely enjoyed. Judge E. C. Mills made a short address 
and vocal solos were rendered by Mrs. F. B. Thompson and A. R. Slimmons and 
a reading by Mrs. Thomas Duff. Mrs. A. G. Baumeister was chairman of the 
committees in charge. 

Ex-Governor Moore's address, coming from one of the most prominent north- 
west pioneers, was the feature of the program, and was most interesting to the 
early settlers. It is given in full as follows : 

"Walla Walla is proud to act as host today to the pioneers and feels she is 
entertaining old friends. 

"Many of you came here long years ago and saw the city in its earliest begin- 
nings; saw it when it was only a frontier trading post — an outfiting point for 
miners bound to the mines of Pierce City, Orofino and Florence in Northern 
Idaho and to Boise in Southern Idaho — all new camps. A little later Kootenai 
in British Columbia, and the mining camps of Western Montana became the 
Mecca of the gold seeker. 

"Many of them outfitted here and were followed by pack trains laden with 
supplies. Many of you will remember the tinkle of the mule bell which the 
pack mules followed in blind obedience. 

"All day long these pack trains filed in constant procession through the streets 
of the busy little city, bound on long journeys through the mountains to the 
various mining camps. 

"Indians, gaudy with paint and feathers, rode their spotted, picturesque cayuse 
in gay cavalcades along the trails leading to town to trade for fire water and 
other less important articles of barter. 

"Covered ox wagons laden with dust begrimed children and household goods 
'all the way from old Missouri,' ranchmen, and cow-boys in all their pristine 
swagger and splendor helped to make up the motley throng that filled the streets 
The cow-girl who rides a horse astride had not then materialized. 

"The packers and many of the miners came here to 'winter' as they expressed 
it in those days. They spent their money prodigally and unstintingly in the 
saloons, in the gambling and hurdy-gurdy houses, and in the spring would return 
to the source for fresh supplies of gold. 

"Some of the more successful would return to the States and all expected 
to when they had 'made their pile.' None of us had any idea of making this 
a permanent place of residence or of being found here fifty years later. As 
youngsters we sang with lusty voices: 

'We'll all go home in the spring, boys, 
W't'W all go home in the spring.' 

Later as the years went by and we did not go, there was added by the unsenti- 
mental, this refrain: 

'Yes, in a horn; 

Yes, in a horn.' 

"This describes conditions existing in old Walla Walla fifty years ago, or in 
the decade between i860 and 1870, and are some of the moving pictures painted 
on the film of my brain when in the fall of 1863 I wandered, a forlorn and 


homesick lad, into this beautiful valley. Friends and acquaintances I had none, 
except the two young men who came with me from Montana. 

"My resources were exceedingly slender, and the question of how meal tickets 
were to be obtained was much on my mind. That was fifty-four years ago — 
and like many of you present here today I watched the years go by with 
gradually increasing faith in the country's resources ; a faith that ripened into 
love for the beautiful valley, its people and its magnificent surroundings. Walla 
Walla all these years has been my home, her people became my people, her 
interests were my interests. It is hoped you will pardon these personal allusions 
but after all history is defined as 'the essence of innumerable biographies.' 

"It is a goodly land — a fit abode for a superior race of people, a race to 
match its mountains, worthy of its magnificent surroundings. 

"Along in the early '60s, stockmen from the Willamette Valley, attracted 
by the bunch grass that grew in wild luxuriance over all the hills and valleys 
of this inter-mountain region, brought horses and cattle and established stock 
ranches along the streams. Later it was discovered that grain would grow on 
the foothills, and that the yield was surprisingly large. The wheat area was 
gradually widened and land supposed worthless grew enormous crops. Now 
wheat has everywhere supplanted the bunch grass and the Inland Empire sends 
annually about sixty-five million bushels to feed a hungry world. 

"Walla Walla in the early '60s was a town of about two thousand inhabitants 
and the only town between The Dalles and Lewiston. Now this region is filled 
with cities and towns and villages, dotted all over with the happy homes of a 
brave, enterprising, peace-loving, law-abiding people. 

"Many of us have seen the country in its making, have helped to lay the 
foundations of the commonwealth, have seen the territory 'put on the robes of 
state sovereignty,' have seen it become an important unit in the great federation 
of states, have recently seen its young men pour forth by thousands to engage in 
a war not of our making but in the language of President Wilson, 'that the world 
may be made safe for democracy.' 

"These pioneer meetings are significant events ; they afford opportunity for 
meeting old friends. They are occasions for retrospection and reminiscence. We 
live over again in memory 'the brave days of old.' We recount the courage, the 
lofty purpose, the sacrifices of the early settlers not only of those still living, but 
of those who have crossed the Great Divide. 

"They were a sturdy race; they braved the perils of pioneer life, and 'pushed 
back the frontiers in the teeth of savage foes.' We are old enough now to begin 
to have a history. In fact, this Walla Walla country is rich in historic interest, 
and inspiring history it is. Lewis and Clark passed through it on their way to 
and from the coast. Whitman established his mission here in 1836 and eleven 
years later gave up his life as the last full measure of his devotion to the cause 
he loved so well. Other missionaries and explorers saw it and were impressed 
with its fertility and the mildness of its climate. Indian wars raged here, and 
it was here, almost on this spot, that Governor Stevens held the council and made 
treaties with 5,500 Indians. 

"No other part of the northwest has such a historic background. All this 
will continue to be an inspiration to the people who are to reside here. 

"Wherever the early settler built his cabin, or took his claim, he left the 


impress of his jxisonality. Tliese personal exjx;riences should be woven into 
history and it is hoped that Professor Lyman in his forthcoming history of old 
\\ alia Walla County will include many of these personal memorials. 

"The restless impulse, the wanderlust implanted in the race, the impulse 
that carried the first wave of emigration over ~ Cumberland Gap in the Alle- 
ghenies and down the Ohio to Kentucky, 'the dark and bloody ground,' swept 
over the prairies of Illinois and Iowa, across the Mississippi and Missouri. Here 
it halted on the edge of the Great American Desert, until the gold discovery in 
California in '49 gave it new impetus and it swept on again. These indefatigable 
Americans crossed the Great Plains, they climbed the Rocky Mountains, they 
opened mines, they felled forests, tilled the land, developed water powers, built 
mills and manufactories, filling all the wide domain with 'the shining towers of 

"The liberal land laws of the Government — giving a homestead to each 
man brave enough and enterprising enough to go out and occupy it, the mines it 
ofi'ered to the prospectors were the powerful factors that gave us population and 
led to the development of the country. 

"All honor to the pioneers — 
"They have made this beautiful land of ours 
To blossom in grain and fruit and flowers.' 

Many of them have passed to a well earned rest. May the living long remain 
to enjoy the fruit of their labors. 

"Walla Walla has been pleased to have you here today and hopes to see you 
all again at future Pow-wows. Her good wishes go with you wherever you 
may be." 

There have been various interesting and valuable exhibitions in Walla Walla 
in recent years which are entitled to extended mention, but the limits of our 
space compel us to forego details. One of the most conspicuous of these has 
been the "corn-show," maintained by the O.-W. R. R. management. "Farmer" 
Smith has been conspicuous in these shows, other experts in corn production, as 
well as in the allied arts of the use of corn in cookery and otherwise, have been 
in attendance, banquets have been held attended by some of the chief officials 
of the railroad company, and a public interest has been created already bearing 
fruit, and sure to be a great factor in agriculture in the future. A hearty 
tribute is due the O.-W. R. R. for the broad and intelligent policy which has 
led to this contribution to the productive energies of this region. 


To those who were in Walla Walla at the "Pageant of May" in 1914, that 
spectacle must ever remain as incomparably the most beautiful and poetical 
exhibition ever given in Walla Walla. Indeed it may well claim precedence over 
any spectable ever presented in the Inland Empire. It was in all respects in a 
class by itself. It was conducted under the auspices of the Woman's Park Club. 
The Pageant consisted of two movements, diverse in their origin and nature and 
yet interwoven with such artistic skill as to demonstrate rare poetical ability and" 
inventive genius on the part of the author, Mr. Porter Garnett of Berkeley, Cal. 




This event was of such entirely exceptional character and so well set a 
pattern for po5;3ible future occasions and created such interest in the minds of 
all who witnessed its beautiful scenes in the park, that the author feels con- 
fident that the readers of this volume will be glad to read the Foreword and the 
Introduction as given in the book prepared by Mr. Garnett and inscribed by him 
with this graceful dedication : 








The foreword is as follows : 


The history of "A Pageant of May" is briefly told. 

In November, 1913, the Woman's Parle Club, which, in 191 1. inaugurated an annual 
May Festival, conceived the idea of holding a pageant in our city. 

Correspondence with the American Pageant Assocjiation ij^j^to Ih'e .ihViting of Mr. Porter 
Garnett of Berkeley, California (one of the directS'ns ef.the assqciation),. to come to Walla 
Walla for a conference. Mr. Garnett arrived on ^lar'ch 26th. '-On' the 30th, having in the 
meantime selected City Park as the most suitable -site, he suJbmittejl. the outline of "A Pageant 
of May." It was officially approved on March 3lsf, and the work ol prpparation was begun. 
Since the construction of a pageant is usually a matTeifb'f'rtiany-months it seems proper, 
in this case, to call attention to the fact that within a period of seven weeks Mr. Garnett 
has written the text of "A Pageant of May," designed the costumes and properties, invented 
the dances, selected the music and rehearsed a cast of over three hundred. 

Grateful acknowledgment is made of the assistance of the Commercial Club and of the 
many citizens of Walla Walla who have given so generously of their time and talent, insuring 
the success of the "introduction of pageantry in the Northwest." 

Grace G. Isaacs, 
Mabel Baker Anderson, 
Lydia P. Sutherland, 
Mary Shipman Penrose, 
Marie A. Catron, 
Executive Committee for the Pageant, 
Woman's Park Club. 

Mr. Garnett's Introduction, interpreting the Pageant, is presented in these 
words : 


Although May festivals are held in almost every community, it is in the agricultural 
community, such as this of Walla Walla with its vicinage of fertile acres, that the celebration 
of spring — the season of renewal — is most appropriate. 

A Pageant of May is a May festival and something more. In it, instead of restricting 
the ceremonies of the more or less hackneyed forms, an eflfort has been made to utilize 
the traditional material and to import into it certain elements of freshness and fancy. 


Tlie inti'iition lias been not so much to give an cxliibition as to afford the community 
an opportunity for self-expression. The real purpose of the pageant is to remind the 
people of Walla Walla that since they owe their existence to the soil, spring should be 
for them a season of sincere and spontaneous rejoicing. It should not be necessary to 
cajole them into celebrating this season which brings in bud and blossom an earnest of 
tlic harvest to come. They should not only be willing but eager to make merry on the 
Green and to dance around the May-poles. They should remember tlial the earth which 
gives them sustenance is not their servant but their mistress and that without her gen- 
erous gifts they would be poor indeed. A pageant of May offers them an opportunity 
to pay their homage to Earth the Giver whom the Greeks personified and worshipped 
as the goddess Demeter (Ceres). 

In the Masque of Proserpine, which forms the first part of the pageant, the return 
of spring is treated symbolically. The myth upon which the masque is built has, on account 
of its peculiar appropriateness, been used at various times and in various ways to cele- 
brate the season of rebirth, but the present adaptation with its free use of comedy is 
entirely original. It has been necessary, of course, to take many liberties with the accepted 
versions, notably the e.xcision of that part of the myth which deals with Ceres' wanderings 
in search of Proserpine. Those who may be desirous of reading the myth in its most 
charming form are referred to the translation of an Homeric hymn which Walter Pater 
incorporated in his essay, Demeter and Persephone, contained in his volume "The Greek 

The second part of the pageant is based upon the traditional English May Day cele- 
brations. The traditions, however, are by no means strictly followed for there seems 
to be no justification for a rigid adherence in America to customs which are essentially 
English. I have used Robin Hood and his Merrie Men because, through literature, they 
have been made the heritage of all English-speaking people; I have, however, omitted the 
Morris-dance because, in America, it has no significance whatever. 

Since it is hoped that the pageant will be interpreted throughout in a spirit of gaiety; 
since the participants will be expected to forget (as far as possible) that there are any 
spectators, the spontaniety which is difficult to attain rather than the expertness which is 
comparatively easy, will be looked for in the May-pole and other dances. To Mrs. E. R. 
Ormsbee's able direction is due whatever measure of success may be achieved in this 
regard. The Dance of the Seeds and the Dance of the Fruits and Flowers owe the charm 
of their form and detail to the inventive fancy and skill of Miss Rachel Drum. 

In both the Masque and the Revels realism has been scrupulously avoided because 
in the author's opinion realism on the stage is inartistic and futile. There is no reason 
why a pageant — whether of the historical or festival type — should not be consistently 
expressed in terms of beauty. 

To this end the masque feature has been employed as affording the best possible means 
by which the note of beauty may be introduced. I believe that the introduction of the 
masque feature in all pageants, by increasing the gap which already exists between formal 
and creative pageantry and the familiar tawdriness of the street-fair and carnival, would 
do more to raise the standard of pageantry than any other single thing. 

The text of A Pageant of May has been reduced to the simplest possible terms. It 
contains no more lines than were necessary to unfold the plot and deliver the message. 
The lines, moreover, have been uniformly written with the fact in view that they were 
to be delivered and delivered in the open air. Syllables that open the mouth have been 
more important therefore than poetic embellishments. As far as possible pantomime has 
been used to reveal the story. A Pageant of May is not intended for closet reading, and 
if the reader who did not see its realizement in action on the four-acre stage in Walla 
W'alla's city park finds it somewhat jejune he is asked to bear that fact in mind. 

I cannot leave unexpressed mj' grateful acknowledgments to the members of the 
Costume Committee who have worked most efficiently under the direction of Mrs. A. J. 
Gillis, the designing of the children's costumes being admirably done by Miss Helen Burr 
and Mrs. W. E. Most. To the chairman and members of the other committees, and to 
the organizers and chaperones of the various groups I am indebted for the invaluable 
assistance which they have rendered. Finally, I would take this opportunity to express 


my gratitude to the women of the Executive Committee who, putting aside every con- 
sideration of personal convenience, have labored indefatigably for the success of the 
pageant and the benefit of the community. 

P. G. 
Walla Walla, Washington. 
May 14, 1914. 



While the eastern jKirts of tlic United States and pre-eminently New F-ng- 
laml. alK>vc all the State of Massachusetts, have assumed, and to considerable 
<if{;rff justly, that tliey hohl priority in education, yet the pcoj)le of the Far- 
West may rifjht fully claim that within the past dozen or twenty years they have 
tiLidf such pains in educational ]•■ ;in<l results as to place them in the 

irniit rank. The ri|)ort of the Ku- ■ F^oundation a few years ago that for 

all 'round efficiency the schools of Washington State were entitled to first place 
in the I'nited States, was not surj>risinjj, ihouph pratifyinp to those familiar with 
the extraordinary growth in equijHnent and teaching force during the last decade. 
As is well known, several western and Pacific Coast states outrun all others in 
freedom from illiteracy, having practically no jK-rmanent residents of proper 
age and normal faculties unahle to read and write. It is one of the glories of 
American democracy, and in fact the logical consequence of self-government in 
this or in any country, that the craving for knowledge and power and advance- 
ment exists in the masses. Thus and thus only can democracy justify its 
existence. In the West, and perhaps even most intensely in the Pacific Coast 
states, the ambition to succeed, the spirit of personal initiative, the feelings of 
indeiK-ndence and equality, were the legitimate product of the pioneer era. 

The state builder.', the offspring of the immigrant train, the homesteaders 
of the Walla Walh country, were, like other westerners, anxious to In-queath to 
their children In-tter opportunities for education than they in their primitive sur- 
roundings could command. Hence they had hardly more than satisfied the 
fundamental necessities of location, shelter, and some means of income than 
ibey K-gan to raise the (|ucstion of schcKils. In the earliest numlnrrs of the 
H'ashitKjIon Slalcsmati the pioneer newspaper of tlu- Inland Empire. Ix-ginning 
in 1861, we fmd the question of suitable school buildings raised. liut that was 
not the iK-ginning. It is interesting to recall that IV>ctor and Mrs. Whitman were 
constantly active in maintaining a sch<Kil .-it Waiilatjni. not only as a missionary 
enterprise for the Indians, but, as time went on, for the children of the immi- 
grants, who gradually formed a little group arouncl tlie mission. Then after the 
long period of Indian wars and the establishment of the United States garrisfin 
in its present location, there was provision made in 1857 for teaching the children 
of the garrison together with a few stray children in the community. The 
teacher of that little group was Harry Freeman of the first dragoons, Troup E. 
Tlie building used was on the garrison grounds. Among the children were 
several well known later in Walla Walla and the state, as James and Hugh 


Green Park Scliool 
Washington School 

Jefferson School 

Lincoln School 
Sharpstein School 



McCool and their sister Maggie, afterwards Mrs. James Monaghan, mother of 
the gallant Lieutenant Monaghan, who lost his life heriocally in the Samoan 
Islands and for whom a commemorative monument stands at the southern end of 
the AJonroe Street bridge in Spokane. In that first little company of school 
children were Robert Smith, Mrs. Michael Kenny, and the Sickler girls, one 
of whom is now Mrs. Kyger. The first school within the limits of Walla Walla 
was conducted in 1861-2 by Mrs. A. J. Miner in a private house at about what 
would now be Alder and Palouse streets. Another pioneer teacher was J. H. 


Prior to 1862 there had been no public school organization. The scholastic 
needs of the children had been recognized, however, in the first permanent 
organization of the county on March 26, 1859, by the appointment of Wm. B. 
Kelly as superintendent of schools. At the election of July 14, 1862, J. F. Wood 
was chosen superintendent, and District Number i was organized, a room rented, 
and a teacher appointed. Progress seems to have lagged, however, until the fall 
of 1864, in which year the census showed a school population of 203, though 
of that number only ninety-three were enrolled. A meeting on December 12th of 
that year voted to levy a tax of 23^^ mills for the erection of a building. Dr. D. S. 
Baker donated the land now occupied by the ^Bilker. ..Sxiaol and a building was 
erected at a cost of $2,000, the first public scfobbl bti3dirig:rn the Inland Empire. 
In 1868 a second district numbered 34 was orgfefzfed'lri'^e' Southwestern part 
of town at the corner of Willow and Eighth .stents, ,.,T|iat building with some 
additions served its purpose till 1879, and Sn that year the Park Street building, in 
use for a number of years, was put up at a cost of $2,000. Districts number 
I and 34 were consolidated by the Legislature in 1881 and the board of directors 
consisted of the directors of the two districts. As a matter of record it is worth 
while to preserve the names of that board: H. E. Johnson, D. M. Jessee, B. L. 
Sharpstein, N. T. Caton, Wm. O'Donnell, and F. W. Paine. E. B. Whitman was 

By vote of the district on April 29, 1882, a much more ambitious plan of 
building was adopted, one commensurate with the progress of the intervening 
years, and a tax of $17,000 was levied for the purpose of erecting a brick 
building. That building accordingly was realized on the Baker School ground, 
in which many of the present "grave and reverend seigniors" of Walla Walla had 
their first schooling. Not until 1889 was there any high school work in Walla 
Walla. In that year Prof. R. C. Kerr, who was city superintendent, met the 
few pupils of high school grade in the Baker School building. In the following 
year those pupils were transferred to the Paine School, now known as the Lincoln 
School, which had been erected in 1888. 


The first high school class was graduated in 1893. Up to 1900 there was a 
total number of high school graduates of eighty. New buildings have been 


added from tinic to time and new courses esublished, with suitable equii^mcnt 
and tcaihinK force. Perhaps we can in no way bcttrr indicate the growth of tlic 
scliools of Walb Walla County and city, than by incorporating here a rcj»ort 
prepared by County Supt. G. S. Bond in 1900 for a history of Walla U'alla by 
the author of this work, and contrast with it the last report of City SujH. W. M. 
Kern. While Walla Walla and adjoining communities have not been considered 
as of rapid growth, compared with some other parts of the state, a perusal of 
th< sc reiiorts, seventeen years a|>art, will give the present citizen some conce|Mion 
of the changes in that short period. 

Professor Bond's rejwrt follows: "It is the primary object of the writer, in 
pre|>aring this statement, to present to the public a brief recital of the present 
condition of the educational facilities of Walla Walla County, rather than attempt 
to give any account of the history and growth of those facilities. Were it even 
desirable to do so, it would, for two reasons, prove a somewhat difficult undertak- 
ing. The records compiled by the earlier school officers are quite incomplete, if 
compared with present requirements, and the subdivision of the original county 
into the present counties of Columbia, Garfield, Asotin and Walla Walla, occa- 
sioned many changes in the various school districts, and led to a complete rc-dis- 
tricting and re-numbering. This, the records in the county superintendent's office 
show, was done between the years 1879 and 1886. 

"In i8<^i. the county suix-rintendent. by order of the county commissioners, 
brought together in one bcjok the i)lats and boundaries of the \arious districts, 
numbered consecutively from one to fifty-three. Since that date, to meet the 
requirements of the constant increase in i»o|)ulation, many changes in boundaries 
have been made and thirteen new districts have l)een formed, making a total 
of sixty-six. Six of these are joint with Columbia County. 

"The subdivision of the county into sixty-six school districts brings nearly 
every section within easy range of school facilities. Especially is this true of 
the eastern and southern portions where the county is most densely populated. 
With but few exceptions these districts have good, comfortable schoolhouses. fur- 
nished with modern jatent desks, and fairly well supplied with apparatus. Six 
new schoolhouses were built, and a considerable amount of furniture was pur- 
chased last year. 

"A movement which is receiving considerable attention and which is proving 
of great service to the county is the establishment by private enterprise, enter- 
tainment or subscription of district libraries. About twenty have received their 
l>ooks which arc eagerly read by l)oth pupils and parents. Others arc preparing 
entirtaiiunents to raise a library fund. It is greatly to be hoped that our Legis- 
lature may pass some law at this session to encourage the district library. It is 
one of the measures most needed to improve our rural schools. 

"Another feature that is proving of l>enefit to the country schools is common 
school graduation. An opportunity to take an examination for graduation is 
given at various times, to eighth grade pupils in any of the schools. The diplomas 
admit to high school without further examination. Many take pride in having 
finished the common school course, and are induced to remain in school much 
longer than they otherwise would. 

"Eight <listrirt<: are at present maintaining graded schools. There seems to 


be a growing sentiment in some of the more densely populated sections to gather 
together their pupils for the superior advantages of the graded schools. Walla 
Walla (No. i) provides an excellent four-year high school course. No. 3 (Waits- 
burg), also has a high school department. 

"Were all the schools in session at the same time there would be required 
a force of 116 teachers. The districts employing more than one teacher are: 
Walla Walla — 30, Waitsburg — 7, Prescott — 3, Seeber — 3 and Dixie, Wallula, 
Harrer and Touchet — 2 each. Of those employed at this time, 7 hold life 
diplomas or state certificates, 18 normal diplomas, 25 first grade certificates, 21 
second grade, and 15 third grade. Twenty applicants failed last year. If the 
present crowded condition of the Walla Walla and Waitsburg schools continues 
next year it will necessitate an increase in the teaching force of five or six at 
the former place and of one at the latter. 

The Teachers' Reading Circle was reorganized in January, and meetings have 
been arranged for the more central points throughout the county. The sessions 
are well attended, the exercises carefully prepared. About fifty teachers have 
purchased one or more of the books and enrolled as members. All teachers have 
free access to a library of about seventy-five volumes, treating principally on 
theory and practice, or the history and philosophy of education. 

Our school districts never began a year on a more solid financial basis than 
they did the present one. Fifty-one of the sixty-six had a good balance to their 
credit in the hands of the county treasurer. A comparison of the last financial 
statement with that of previous years is given to mark the increase. 

Receipts 1897 1898 1900 

Balance in hands of county treasurer $ 9,521.43 $ 9.279.24 $ 25,838.81 

Amount apportioned to districts by county 

supt 32,104.54 56,210.31 58.574-66 

Amount received from special tax 11,761.62 26,346.81 26,503.99 

Amount from sale of school bonds 500.00 1,410.00 500.00 

Amount transferred from other districts 

Amounts from other sources I3I-54 82.69 2,212.15 

Total $54,019.13 $93>34705 $113,629.61 

Expenditures 1897 1898 1900 

Amount paid for teachers' wages $47,278.95 $38,691.71 

Amount paid for rents, fuel, etc $38,027.39 10,697.78 13,65306 

Amount paid for interest on bonds 2,578.00 2,645.55 4.301. 00 

Amount paid for sites, buildings, etc 2,902.68 32,152-61 

Amount paid for interest on warrants 4,i 13-75 5.649-78 1.650.94 

Amount reverting to general school fund 2.75 

Amount for other districts 12.86 

Total $44,721.89 $69,173.94 $90,962.18 

Balance on hand 9-297-24 24,173.11 22,667.43 


"The hard times experienced two or three years ago materially affected 
teachers' wages in this county. The average amount paid male teachers, accord- 
ing to the annual report of the county superintendent in 1898, was $56.57; for 
female teachers, $39.54. For 1900, male teachers, $62.50; female teachers, 
$52.40. There seems however, to be dawning a brighter future for the con- 
scientious teacher. Rigid examinations for two years have lessened the competi- 
tion from those who entered the work only because they had no other employ- 
ment; the districts are able to hold longer terms and pay larger salaries now. 
The minimum salary this year is $40, other rural districts pay $45 and $50. 
Salaries in the graded schools are from fifty-five to one hundred dollars per 
month. The average length of term in 1898 was 6j^ months; the average from 
1900 is /J4 months. 

"The estimate in the county superintendent's annual report for 1898 places 
the total value of schoolhouses and grounds at $162,080; of school furniture, 
$15,317; of apparatus, etc., $3,871; of libraries, $1,690. Amount of insurance 
on school property, $79,605; of bonds outstanding, $45,300; warrants outstand- 
ing, $41,274. The last enumeration of children of school age shows 4,275 resided 
in the county on Jime 1st; of these 3,621 were enrolled in the public schools, and 
made an average daily attendance of 2,076. 

"For 1900, schoolhouses and grounds, $194,060; furniture, $16,350; apparatus, 
$4,000; libraries, $2,450; insurance, $100,650; bonds outstanding, $75,300; war- 
rants outstanding, $82,721.16; children of school age, 4,767; children enrolled, 
4,102; average daily attendance, 2,322. Such was the report of the county 
superintendent in 1900. Now we present the report of city superintendent, W. 
M. Kern, for year ending in 1917: 

Enrollment Boys Girls Total 

Elementary schools 1,280 1,234 2,514 

High school 428 393 821 

Night school 46 81 127 

Total 1,754 1,708 3.462 

Transfers to high school 17 26 43 

Total actual enrollment i,737 1,682 3,419 

Deduct night school 46 81 127 

Actual enrollment, grade and high school 1,691 i,6or 3,292 

Teachers in city schools, loi ; valuation of property of city schools, grounds 
and buildings, $790,000; equipment, $72,000. 

"Over seven thousand children of school age reside in Walla Walla County, 
according to the 1917 school census, completed yesterday. The census shows a 
total population of school children of 7,331. Of this number 3,928 live in the 
city school districts and the rest in the other districts of the county. 

"The number of children in the county this year is almost identical with 
that of last year, 191 7 showing a decline of two. Last year's figures showed 


7,333, as against 7,331 this year. In the city there was a dedine in the number of 
children, the census this year being 3,982 as against 4,000 last year. The county 
districts, however, showed a gain of sixteen. 

"The city school census of 1917 shows the following: 

Number of pupils receiving diplomas — 

Boys Girls Total 

Green Park 21 12 33 

Baker 12 11 23 

Sharpstein 17 40 57 

JeiTerson 17 17 34 

Washington 8 6 14 

Total, grades 75 86 161 

High school 44 55 99 

Per cent of attendance — 

Grades 98.17 

High school 98.10" 

As will have been seen, Professor Kern's report fives a view of the buildings 
and other successive additions to the facilitieig>''^6f!' the "public schools of Walla 
Walla City. Similar development has takert 'pfece: In Wai'tsburg;, Prescott and 
Touchet, as will be seen from the following. It may be. added jhat the smaller 
places, and the country districts also, have eixperienced a like- irapf ovement. 


Waitsburg has maintained excellent schools for many years. We have pre- 
sented some facts in regard to the earlier schools of the place, and are giving here 
a view of present organization and equipment. 

At this date the board of education consists of Messrs. N. B. Atkinson, J. A. 
Danielson, and W. J. Taylor. Miss Mary Dixon is clerk. The faculty consists 
of the following : Superintendent, James H. Adams ; high school, principal and 
instructor in science and athletics, B. B. Brown ; instructor in English, Edna 
McCroskey ; instructor in Latin and German, Freda Paulson-; instructor in mathe- 
matics, lone Fenton; instructor in history, Elizabeth Nelson; instructor in 
domestic science and art, Gladys Persels ; instructor in manual training and 
mechanical drawing, Earl Frazier. 

The Central School contains the grades, eight in number, Anna GofF being 

Waitsburg is provided with three excellent buildings valued as follows : high 
school, $20,000; Central School, $25,000; Preston Hall, $35,000. The last named 
is the pride of the Waitsburg School system. It is, in fact, a structure and an 
instrumentality of unique interest. It was the gift of W. G. Preston, one of the 
most conspicuous of the pioneers of Walla Walla County. It was the result 
of the philanthropic impulse as well as the practical good judgment of its donor, 
for Mr. Preston had formed the impression during his busy and successful career 


that a ktiowlcd^ uf the nuiuutl arts was viul to the average boy and girl. The 
building was completed in 11^13 and was provided with the must perfect equip- 
ment for manual in!.truciic)n which the space would allow. During the jiast 
)ear there were enrolled in the manual training course, thirty-four boys, in the 
sewing course thirty-live girls, and in the cooking course, thirteen girls, llicre 
is also a wcll-e(iuip|)cd gymnasium in the building. The campus on which the 
IukIi school and I'reston Hall stand contains live acres of bnd, about half of 
which is covered with a grove, while the athletic field occupies the remainder of 
the 0(>cn space. 

Some other valuable data we derive from the information kindly supplied 
by Su|)crintendent Adanjs. Wc find, as an interesting point worthy of preserva- 
tion for future comparison, that the average salary during the past year paid the 
male teachers was ^i.^oS.j^, and that of the female teachers was $74<».J5. In- 
cluded in these averages arc the superintendent and principals. The total enroll- 
ment during 1916-17 was: boys, 216. girls, 208. rerccntage of daily attendance 
was 95.1 for the boys and 95.3 for the girls. The number in the high school was: 
First year, 48; second year, 30; third year, 28; fourth year, 18; a total of 124. 
The school library contains the following number of volumes: high school, 700; 
grades. 400. 


Prcscott, while not a large town, is an ideal home town in the midst of a 
inagnilicent and extensive farming country, and conducts an amount of business 
quite beyond the ordinary volume for its population. The county tributary to 
I'rescott produces about seven hundred thousand bushels of grain annually, and 
here is grown the famous blue-stem wheat, the higlicst grade milling wheat pro- 
duced in the Northwest. The land here yields from twenty-five to forty bushels 
of wheat per acre. Crop failures arc quite unknown. The laudable pride 
and ambition of the people has led them to the construction of so fine a 
school building as to be a source of wonder and admiration to all visitors. In 
this elegant building there is sustained a high school department of four years 
curriculum, with four teachers and, during the past year, forty pupils. Part of 
the building is occupied by the grades. The value of the school jiroix-rty is esti- 
mated at fifty- ffiur thousand dollars, the most of which is included in the high 
school building. Situated upon a slight eminence overlooking the fertile and 
beautiful Touclut \allcy. with the vast sweep «if the wheat covered hills closing 
it in. this I'rescott school building presents an ap|)earance which many large towns 
might envy. Dtiring a numlxrr of years past a succession of peculiarly well quali- 
fie<l teachers have devoted iheniM-lves to the |)rogress of the Prcscott schools, and 
as a rcstilt have lifted them to a status which has l)een indicated in the high 
grades which the pupils have attained in higher institutions and the efficiency 
whiih thev have shown in business engagements up<in which they may have 
entered. Prcscott obtains its water supply from the snow-capped Blue Moun- 
tains, lying twenty miles to the east. Tlius Ix-ing assured of a perpetual su|)ply of 
pure water. Prcscott is nofe<l for its health ftilncss. 

Descending the Touchet about twenty miles we reach its junction with the 





Walla Walla, and there we find another of the tine little towns which border 
that beautiful and historic stream. 


The Town of Touchet is at a lower level, only 450 feet above sea level, and 
by reason of that and of its more westerly situation it has higher temperature and 
less rainfall than any other of the Touchet towns. It is consequently an irrigated 
fruit and alfalfa section. The splendid Gardena District on the south and the 
productive lands in the Touchet and Walla Walla bottoms north and east and at 
their junction, give the town a commanding location. It is accordingly an active 
business center, with several well stocked stores, a bank, an attractive church of 
the Congregational order, and a number of pleasant homes. 

The pride of the place, however, like that of Prescott is the school building. 
This is a singtilarly attractive building, built for the future, though well utilized 
in the present. The valuation of school property in the Touchet District is 
$27,500, practically all represented in the high school building with its equipment. 
There is a total enrollment of 203 pupils with eight teachers. There are forty 
pupils in the high school, and a four year course is provided. 


;-i-^;;" Wii; ,:(;;t ; 

The following statistics from the report Of the' itate' stlpeintlfeildent for 1917 
will indicate the general condition of the schools o-f: Walla Walla County. These 
figures are for the school year 1915-16. 


Number of census children, June i, 1916 3.646 

Number of pupils enrolled in public schools 3,122 

Average daily attendance 2,466 

Total number of teachers employed 218 

Average salary paid high school teachers $ 990.10 

Average salary paid grade teachers 788.45 

Average salary of superintendents, principals, and supervisors 1,328.00 

Number of children over six years of age not attending school 600 

Number of children between the ages of five and fifteen years not attend- 
ing school 32 

From every point of view it may be said that the schools of Walla Walla 
County (as will be seen in later chapters the same is true of Columbia, Garfield, 
and Asotin counties) have kept pace with the general progress of the regions in 
which they are located. 


From the public schools we turn to the various private institutions. Fore- 
most of these, and indeed in many respects the most unique and distinctive 

V ■ 








feature of Southeastern Washington, hoth from a historical and existing view- 
IX)int, is Whitman College. This institution grew out of the mission at Waiilatpu, 
with its brave and patriotic life and tragic end. After the period of Indian 
wars, beginning with the Whitman Massacre in 1847 and continuing, with some 
interruptions, till 1858, there occurred a return to Waiilatpu, one of the con- 
structive events in our history. In 1859 Father Cushing Eells came from Forest 
Grove, Ore., where he had spent some years as a teacher, to the Walla Walla 
country, with a view to a new enterprise of a very different sort from that which 
had led Whitman, Spalding, and Gray in 1836, and Eells, Walker, Smith, and 
Rogers in 1838 to come to Oregon. The first aim was purely missionary. The 
twenty and more following years had demonstrated the fact that this country 
was to be a home missionary field, instead of foreign. It was clear to Father 
Fells that the educational needs of the boys and girls of the new era must 
be regarded as of first importance. Standing on the little hill at Waiilatpu and 
viewing the seemingly forsaken grave where Whitman and his associates had been 
hurriedly interred twelve years before. Father Eells made a vow to himself and 
his God, feeling as he afterwards said, "The spirit of the Lord upon him," to 
found a school of higher learning for both 'sexes, a memorial which he was 
sure the martyrs of Waiilatpu, if they could speak, would prefer to any other. 
That vow was the germination of Whitman Seminary, which grew into Whitman 

In pursuance of his plans, Father Eells acquired from the foreign missionary 
board the square mile of land at Waiilatpu allowed them as a donation claim and 
there he made his home for several years. It was his first intention to locate the 
seminary at the mission ground, but as it became obvious that the "city" would 
grow up near the fort six miles east, he decided that there was the proper place 
for his cherished enterprise. The years that followed were years of heroic self- 
denial and unflagging labor by Father and Mrs. Eells and their two sons, Edwin 
and Myron. They cut wood, raised chickens, made butter, sold vegetables, exer- 
cised the most rigid economy, and by thus raking and scraping and turning every 
energy and resource to the one aim, they slowly accumulated about four thousand 
dollars for their unselfish purpose. On October 13, 1866, the first building was 
dedicated. It was on the location of the present Whitman Conservatory of 
Music. The building was removed to make way for the conservatory and now 
composes part of Prentiss Hall, a dormitory for young men. The land on which 
Whitman Seminary and subsequently the college was located was the gift of 
Dr. D. S. Baker. 

Space does not allow us to enter into the history of the seminary, but the 
names of those longest and most efficient in its service should be recorded here. 
Aside from Father Eells and his family, Rev. P. B. Chamberlain, first pastor of 
the Congregational Church, with Mrs. Chamberlain and Miss Mary A. Hodgden, 
were the chief teachers during the time of beginning. Later Prof. Wm. Marriner 
and Capt. W. K. Grim were the chief principals. Associated with the latter was 
Mr. Samuel Sweeney, still well known as a business man and farmer, and the 
only one of the seminary teachers still living in Walla Walla, aside from the 
author of this work, who was for a short time in charge of it in 1878-g. In 
1883 the second great step was taken by the coming of Dr. A. J. Anderson, who 


had been for several years president of the State University at Seattle. The 
history of Doctor Anderson's connection with Whitman College and the general 
educational interests of Walla Walla and surrounding country constitutes a 
history by itself worthy of extended notice. He was ably assisted by his wife, 
one of the finest spirits of early days in Walla Walla, and by his sons Louis and 
George, the former of whom became later one of the foremost teachers in the 
expanded college and is now its vice president. With the coming of Doctor 
Anderson the seminary was raised to college rank with new courses and added 
teaching force. In the same year of 1883 a new building was erected which 
served as the main building for nearly twenty years. For the purpose of raising 
money for furtlier development Father Eells made a journey to the East at 
that time. Although he was becoming advanced in years and the work was 
trying and laborious, he succeeded nobly in his aims, securing $16,000 and lay- 
ing the foundations of friendships which resulted later in largely added amounts. 
During the eight years of Doctor Anderson's presidency Whitman College, 
though cramped for funds and inadequately provided with needed equipment, 
performed a noble service for the region, laying broad and deep the foundations 
upon which the enlarged structure of later years was reared. Some of the men 
and women now holding foremost places in every branch of life in the North- 
west, as well as in distant regions, were students at the Whitman College of 
that period. 

After the resignation of Doctor Anderson in 1891 there was a period of loss 
and uncertainty which was happily ended in 1894 by what might be considered 
the third great step in the history of the college. This was the election to the 
presidency of Rev. S. B. L. Penrose, a member of the "Yale Band" of 1890 and 
during the three years after his arrival the pastor of the Congregational Church 
at Dayton. Of the monumental work accomplished by Doctor Penrose during 
the twenty-three years of his presidency, we cannot here speak adequately. Suf- 
fice it to say that while Whitman is still a small college in comparison with the 
state institutions of the Northwest, the increase in buildings, endowment, equip- 
ment, courses and instructors has been stich as to constitute a chapter of achieve- 
ments hard to match among the privately endowed colleges of the United States. 
We have spoken of three great events in the history of the college, the founding 
of the seminary by Father Eells, the establishment of the college by Doctor 
Anderson, and the assumption of the presidency by Doctor Penrose. It remains 
to add a fourth of the great events. This was the raising by Walla Walla and 
vicinity of the accumulated debts of a series of years caused by the heroic 
eflforts to keep pace with necessary improvements while resources were still 
scanty. Due to those conditions the college was heavily encumbered and much 
handicapped as a result. In 191 1 an oflFer of large additions to the endowment 
was made by the General Education Society of New York, on condition that all 
debts be raised. This led to a campaign in 1912 for the funds needed for that 
purpose. This may truly be called a monumental event, both for the permanent 
establishment of the college upon a secure foundation, as well as a remarkable 
achievement for Walla Walla. For though the city and county are wealthy and 
productive, yet to lay right down on the counter the sum of $213,140.30 was 
notable and the gift was rendered more remarkable in view of the fact that about 


eighty thousand dollars had just been raised for the Young Men's Christian 
Association, that churches were raising contributions for expensive buildings, 
that costly school buildings had just been erected, and that the need of a new 
high school and a new courthouse building was becoming agitated. It may be 
added that within a year the burning of St. Mary's Hospital precipitated a call 
for large contributions to replace it. This was duly accomplished in the erection 
of one of the best hospitals in the Northwest. It is probably safe to say that 
the amount put into public buildings, together with contributions to the Young 
Men's Christian Association, the college, and the hospital, during a period of 
about three years, exceeded a million dollars — a noteworthy achievement even 
for a wealthy community, and one demonstrating both the liberality and resources 
of Walla Walla. From the standpoint of Whitman College it may be said that 
aside from the indispensable aid which this large contribution afforded, there was 
another result of the campaign equally valuable. This was the commensurate 
interest felt by the community in the college and all its works. Up to that debt- 
raising campaign there had been an indifference and in some quarters even a 
certain prejudice which crippled the efforts of the college management. With 
the raising of the debt there was a new sense of harmony and community interest 
which will bring immeasurable advantage to the future both of the college and 
the community. 

As a matter of permanent historic interest it is well to incorporate here the 
names of trustees and faculty, as given in the catalog for 1917. 


The president of the college, ex-officio, William Hutchinson Cowles, A. B., 
Spokane, 1919; Allen Holbrook Reynolds, A. M., Walla Walla, 1919; Louis 
Francis Anderson, A. M., Walla Walla, 1918; Park Weed Willis, M. D., Seattle, 
1920; John Warren Langdon, Walla Walla, 191 7; Miles Conway Moore, LL. D., 
Walla Walla, 1918; Oscar Drumheller, B. S., Walla Walla, 1917; Edwin Alonzo 
Reser, Walla Walla, 1920. 

Numbers indicate the years in which terms of trustees expire. The election 
takes place at the annual meeting in June. 


President, Miles Conway Moore, LL. D. ; treasurer, Allen Holbrook Reynolds, 
A. M. ; secretary, Dorsey Marion Hill, Ph. B. 


Stephen Beasley Linnard Penrose, D. D., president and Cushing Eells pro- 
fessor of philosophy; Louis Francis Anderson, A. M., vice president and profes- 
sor of Greek; William Denison Lyman, A. M., Nelson Gales Blalock professor of 
histoPi': Helen Abby Pepoon, A. B., professor of Latin; Benjamin Harrison 
Brown. A. M., Nathaniel Shipman professor of physics; Walter Andrew Brat- 
ton, A. B., dean of the science group and Alexander Jay Anderson professor of 

Billinijs Hall, Dei)aitment of Science Tlie Gymnasium 

Whitman Memorial Building 
Reynold's Hall. Young Ladies Dormitory McDowell Hall, Conservatory of Music 



mathematics ; James Walton Cooper, A. M., professor of Romance languages ; 
Howard Stidham Erode, Ph. D., Spencer F. Baird professor of biology; Edward 
Ernest Ruby, A. M., dean of the language group and Clement Biddle Penrose pro- 
fessor of Latin; Helen Louise Burr, A. B., dean of women; Elias Blum, professor 
of the theory of music; William Hudson Bleakney, Ph. D., professor of Greek; 
William Rees Davis, A. M., Mary A. Denny professor of English ; Walter 
Crosby Eells, A. M., professor of applied mathematics and drawing; Raymond 
Vincent Borleske, A. B., director of physical education ; Charles Gourlay Good- 
rich, M. S., professor of German; Frank Loyal Haigh, Ph. D., professor of 
chemistry; Arthur Chester Millspaugh, Ph. D., professor of political science; 
Thomas Franklin Day, Ph. D., acting dean of the philosophy group and acting 
professor of philosophy; Frances Rebecca Gardner, A. B., acting dean of women; 
William Ezekiel Leonard, A. M., acting professor of economics and business ; 
Walter Cooke Lee, A. B., associate librarian; Milton Simpson, A. M., acting 
associate professor of English ; Harriet Lulu Carstensen, A. M., assistant librarian ; 
Alice Popper, instructor in French and German; Margaret Lucille Leyda, A. B., 
instructor in English and physical training for women. 

The catalog shows also that at the present date the college owns equipment, 
buildings, and grounds to the value of $466,091.40 and endowment funds to the 
amount of $684,247. The expenses for the session of 191 5-16 were $88,892.92. 
The enrollment of students in the literary departments for 1916-17 was 312, 
and in the conservatory of music 289. ; >.'-;-: ' v.~5 ;■•-•;..•••" 

The graduates of the college who have .rec.eised. bachelor's degrees during 
the years 1886-1917 aggregate about four hiindred and twenty-five. The large 
majority of these have received their degrees during the seven years ending 
with the latter date. Classes were very small u^'t'o abouf igror -'Since that time 
the number of seniors has been from twenty-five to forty. Besides those who 
have graduated with the regular college literary and scientific degrees, a large 
number have graduated from academic, normal and conservatory courses. 

We are indebted to Mr. W. L. Stirling of the board of trustees of St. Paul's 
.School for Girls for the sketch here subjoined. 


Saint Paul's School was opened in September, 1872, as a day school for girls 
by the Rev. Lemuel H. Wells, a missionary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
who had come to Walla Walla the previous year and organized Saint Paul's 

Seeing the need of a girls' school, a board of trustees was selected consisting 
of the Rev. Lemuel H. Wells, John S. Boyer, Philip Ritz, B. L. Sharpstein, A. B. 
Elmer, Judge J. D. Mix and John Abbott. Funds were obtained in the East and 
a frame building was erected near the corner of Third and Poplar streets. 

The school prospered, and it was decided to make it a boarding school. More 
money was raised in the East and in Walla Walla, more land was purchased and 
a dormitory was built. 

In September, 1873, it was opened as Saint Paul's Boarding and Day School 
for Girls, with Mrs. George Browne as principal. Mrs; Browne was succeeded 


llciirictla B. Garrction (who laler became Mrs. Lemuel IL Wells) and 

J. D. Lathrop, U. D. 

In the earlier days of the school, pupils {rom Idaho, Montana and Eastern 
L>re);on frequently ]>aid their tuitions in gold du>t, and there were a few cases 
where |>ayment was even made in produce, such as flour, and jwtatoes. One 
parent jiaid in cattle, which remained on the ranch and miiltij>licd until tliey iwid 
for an addition to one of the school buildings. 

The school was successfully maintained until lin m.h 1885, when it u.i- 
closed. It was reojKrncd in 1S97 under Miss Imogen lioycr, as principal, it was 
incorporated September 14, 1897, by E. B. Whitman, Kev. Francis L. Palmer, 
B. L. Sharpstcin, W. 11. I'pton, and J. II. Marshall, Rev. V. L. Palmer being 
chosen its first president. 

In 1899 a new site was purchased on Catherine Street, and a new tliree story 
building erected named ".\ppleton Hall." The trustees at that time were Bishop 
Wells, The Kev. Andreas Bard, IS. L. Sliari>stein, Levi .\nkeny, K. 1*. Smitten 
and W. II. Upton. Miss Imogen Boycr was princi|xil, and so continued until her 
resignation in KjO^. L'nder Miss I'.oyer's administration the school increased 
substantially in prestige and in the nmnbcr of pupils in attendance. 

In 1903 Miss Caroline !■'. Buck was elected principal, and by formal agree- 
ment Ix-tween Bishop Wells and the board of trustees the school was thence- 
forth to be conducted as a diocesan school of the Protestant Episcc)|>al Cimrch. 
In it/xj Miss Buck was succeeded by Kev. Andreas Bard, as principal. 
In HjOi) funds were .secured by Bishop Wells for the erection of a new three 
story brick dormitory named "Ewing Hall" which greatly increased the accom- 
modations for bojirders and njaterially assisted in the growth of the school. 

In 1907 Rev. Andreas Bard resigned and was succeeded by Miss Anna E. 
Plympton, who remained until 1910. Miss Nettie M. (jalbraith was then elected 
princi|>;il. and under her able administration, assisted by Miss Mary E. Atkinson, 
as vice principal, the school has grown rapidly year by year until it is now the 
largest, as well as the oldest school for girls in the .^tatc of Washington, and 
prol>ably in the entire Northwest. 

In n>i I Bishoj) Wells secured additional fun<ls for the jnirchasc of the Sharp- 
stein j)n»|KTty adjoining the school grounds to allow for ex|)ansion in the near 
future. The acquisition of this line |)ro]Kriy Joo feel by 2C» feet gave the scIhkiI 
a frontage of 543 feet on Catherine Street, one of the linest pieces of \m)\>cTiy in 
the city. 

In 1910 Bishop Herman Page, of Spokane, succeeded Bishop Wells as presi- 
dent of the board of trustees; the other memliers of the l)oard at that time being 
Rev. C. E. Tuke. George .\. Evans. W. .\. Kilz. Dr. K. W Rees. H. (i. Thompson, 
Dr. H. K. Keylor. }. W. l-ingdon and W. L. Stirling. 

The need of increased accommodation for boarders Inring imi)erativc. Bishop 
Page un<lertook to raise the -^um of $10,000 to Sij.fKW for a new building pro- 
vided $5,000 .-idditional should \tc subscriljcd by the jjcople of Walla Walla. This 
was done and a new fire proof brick building was erected in 1917. containing 
assembly hall, g^•mnasium and dormitories. an<l named "Wells Hall" in honor of 
Bishop Wells, who had foundeil the school in 1R72 and had ever since l>ccn its 
most constant and devoted supporter. Even with its new equipment the school 


at once became crowded to its capacity, there being tifty boarders, as well as a 
large number of day scholars, and plans are being considered for another new 

Although the school now has an annual budget of nearly twenty thousand dol- 
lars, it has never been -entirely self-supporting, being without endowment, and 
always having given the greatest possible service at a very moderate charge. The 
raising of an adequate endowment fund is contemplated as soon as circumstances 
will permit. 

The school offers a systematic and liberal course of study, maintaining kinder- 
garten, primary, intermediate, grammar, grade, academic and music departments, 
also special post graduate, business, and finishing courses. The course includes 
eight years in the elementary school, completed in six or seven years when possible, 
and four years in the academic department. There is also an advanced course 
offered for irregular students and for those graduated from the high schools and 

The instructors are Christian women, and it is the aim of the school to 
administer to the individual needs of girls ; to aid in their moral, intellectual and 
physical development by offering them the advantages of a well ordered school 
and the wholesome influence of a refined home. The scholarship of Saint Paul's 
is attested by the fact that Eastern and Western examiners of leading educa- 
tional institutions have expressed their willingness to accept its graduates without 
examination. Saint Paul's covers a wide field, having had among its boarders in 
recent years scholars from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, 
Panama and Alaska. 

The location of the school is exceptionally fine, the grounds extensive, well 
laid out and shaded, and the buildings, four in number, are spacious, well con- 
structed and conveniently arranged and equipped. 


The Catholic Church has maintained two academies, one for boys and one 
for girls, for a number of years. These were founded early in the history of 
Walla Walla. In 1864 the Sisters of Providence opened the doors of a school 
for girls on the location where St. Mary's Hospital now stands. Rev. J. B. A. 
Brouillet was at that time at the head of the local church and the school was 
officially under his oversight. In 1865 St. Patrick's Academy for boys was 
opened. This was on the site of the present Catholic Church, and the first teacher 
was H. H. Lamarche. He acted as principal for fifteen years. In 1899 notable 
changes occurred in the academy. In that year fine and noteworthy exercises 
in its dedication occurred under charge of Rev. Father M. Flohr. The presence 
of Bishop E. J. O'Dea added to the interest of the occasion. In August follow- 
ing three brothers from San Francisco arrived to take charge of the academy. 
In honor of St. J- B. De La Salle, founder of the congregation to which those 
brothers belonged, the name of the academy was changed to De La Salle Insti- 
tute. It opened in September, 1899, with 100 pupils. The numbers and influence 
of this institute have steadily increased. The teachers at the present are : Brother 


Luke, director; Brothers Daniien and Daniel, teachers. The number o( boys 
cnrulird is eighty. 

llie sciioul for girls, founded in 1K64, as slated, developed into St. Vincent 
Academy, and as such it has occupied a position of great influence and usefulness 
ever since its fuuiularion. K\ery facility for academic study, with sj«ecial atten- 
tion to the varied accuni|)li>hiiirnts of music, drawing, painting, and decorative 
work, as well as the practical branches in needle work, in stenography, and in 
lypev^riting, is afl^ordcd by St. \'incent's Academy. Kxtracts from the current 
re|)orts indicate the present conditions. 

The Sister Sujierior in charge of the academy is Sister Mary Mount Carmel. 
There are six teachers eni|)loyed at the present time. The enrollment consists of 
1(14 girls and fourteen small boys. 


Walla Walla has become known as an educational center, and in addition to 
the public schools, and private institutions within the city, there is still another 
outside the city limits entitled to interest. This is Walla W^•^lla College at 
College Place, a flourishing suburb of the city. The college is under the direc- 
tion of the Seventh Day Adventists. It was founded by that denomination in 
iS«v upon land donated by Dr. X. G. lUalfK-k and has iK-en maintained by con- 
tributions from the membership of the church and tuitions from the students. 
In connection with it there is a well conducted hospital. There is a beautiful 
and commodious main buildinp, l)esi<les the other buildings needful to provide 
for the large number of students who come from elsewhere and make their home 
at the college. From the current catalog we derive the following exhibit of the 
managers and faculty. 


William W. Prescott. 1892-04: Edward A. Sutherland. 1894-97; Emmett J. 
Hil)l>ard. iH<;7-98; Walter H. Sutherland, 1898-1900; E. L. Stewart, n/X>-02: 
Charles C. Lewis, 1902-04; Joseph L. Kay. 1904-05; M. E. Cady, 1905-11 ; Emest 
(■ Kellogg. 1011-17; Walter I. Smith, 1017-. 


C. W. Flaiz, College Place, Wash.; 11. W. Decker. College Place, Wash.; F. 
S Bunch. College Place, Wash.; H. W. Cottrell. Portland. Ore.; J. J. Ncthcry, 
College Place, Wash ; J. F. Piper. Seattle. Wash.; G. F. Watson, Bozeman. 
Mont.; F. W. Peterson. Collree Place. Wash : E. C. KcIIocir. College Place. 


C. W. Flaiz. chairman: E C Kellogg, .secretary; I" W Peterson, treasurer. 





Walter Irvine Smith, president, mathematics and astronomy 5 Elder O. A. 
Johnson, Bible and ecclesiastical history; Elder F. S. Bunch, Bible and pastoral 
training; George W. Rine, history and public speaking; Winifred Lucile Holmden, 
ancient and modern languages ; J. Alvin Renninger, English and Biblical literature ; 
Clara Edna Rogers, rhetoric ; Bert Bryan Davis, normal director, psychology 
and education ; William Miller Heidenreich, German ; Arthur C. Christensen, 
chemistry and biology ; George Kretschmar, physics and mathematics ; A. Wilmar 
Oakes, director of music, violin, orchestra and chorus; Grace Wood-Reith, piano- 
forte and voice ; Estella Winona Kiehnhoff, pianoforte, voice and harmony ; 

, stenography and typewriting; William Carey Raley, bookkeeping and 

accountancy; Win S. Osborne, art. 


Charles Oscar Smith, grades seven and eight; Grace Robison-Rine, grades 
five and six, intermediate methods ; Rosella A. Snyder-Davis, grades three and 
four, manual arts; Anna Aurelia Pierce, grades one and two, primary methods. 


.'[■'"f '■'•'.•^'^ '&''• ■ 

Frank W. Peterson, superintendent; Gl6n-.R,:. 'J^lderty printing ; Wm. B. 
Ammundsen, carpentry; Philip A. Bothwell, baking; Mrs.^. R, D- Bolter, dress- 
making; Mrs. F. W. Vesey, cooking. ■ " ''li'.-t' 

The catalog shows an enrollment of 293 pupils. ' 

From a historical and educational standpoint there is no more interesting 
institution under private control than the 


That community of beautiful homes and intelligent citizens, of which much 
more will be said in other parts of this work, has always recognized the value 
of education, and it is not surprising to find a demand in the early days for 
a more advanced type of education than that afforded by the common schools. 
During the first part of the decade of the '80s that demand eventuated in the 
appointment by the United Presbyterian Church of Rev. Joseph Alter in 1884 to 
go to Eastern Washington as a general organizer of home missionary and educa- 
tional work. The church founded by Mr. Alter secured Rev. W. G. M. Hays 
as its pastor in 1886. Being filled with the spirit of the need of higher education 
and encouraged by ample evidence of probable support of a first-class academy. 
Doctor Hays became a steadfast advocate of such an undertaking and on Septem- 
ber 14. 1886, the church building was opened for the meeting of the first classes. 
Prof. T- G. Thompson being placed in charge of the work. At that time the 
academy had no corporate existence and no board of trustees. But in 1887 
the infant institution was adopted by the synod of Columbia of the United 

2-Jt, ui.lJ WALi.A WALi-A COUNTY 

I'resbylcrian Church of North America and became regularly incoriMrated with 
its first board of trustco lOiisistinj. of ihc Kiv>. llujjh I". Wallace, W. G. Irvine, 
W. A. S|«ilding, W . t.. M. Hays, and J. 11 Nililock, and Messrs. A. \V. llulips, 
David Roberts. E. F. Cox. T. J. Hollowell, and J. E. Vans. In May, 18K7, in 
imrsnance of llic plans of the board, a joint stock conijiany was ori^anizcd to 
conducl (lie academy. Six thousand dollars was raised, of which $4,000 was 
devoted to a building and the remainder to sup|ilementing tuition as a means of 
maintenance. Uurin{; the ten years following the founding, Doctor Mays, Rev. 
\\ . R. Stevenson, and Miss Ina I'. Robertson made journeys cast for the puqwsc 
of securing funds for building and endowment. As a result of the last aimjiaigii 
of Miss Robertson, funds were secured for an excellent building which was 
erected in i8y6. During the entire term of its existence Waitsburg .\cadcmy 
received the resjjcct and supixirt of the community, and its teachers were men 
and women of the highest tyjK-. 

The princii)als with their terms of service wen ilu^e: |. C. Thon]j)sciii, 
1886^; T. M. McKinney. iK,S<hX>; W. G. M. Hays. i8.x)-i; Ina F. RolK-rtson. 
|S<^I.4 ; and Rev. J. A. Keener. iftj4. to the termination of the life of the institu- 
tion. I'or rather sad to relate Waitsburg .\cademy. in spite of all its excellent 
work and a growing Imdy of alunuii enthusiastic in its supiHjrt, foun<l itself in 
the situation which has confronted practically all such educational institutions in 
the West. When high school instruction was undertaken at Waitsburg it was 
found that the inlrrest and desire to sui)|)tirt that public systenj was so general 
that the support of the academy fell off. and though the jx-oplc of the community 
Ii.k! no sentiment other than of connn<-ndatioii, yet their first interest was in the 
public siliool system. As an inevitable secpience the academy found it wise to 
disband. Its building was sold to the district and there the public school work of 
part of the city is conducted. The aca<lcmy. though disbanded, had jjerformed 
a great mission, and the present excellent high school, as well as the general 
culture and intelligence a|)parent in the l)eautiful little City of Waitsburg. ma\ 
lie attributed in large degree to the noble work of the academy. 

We have elsewhere given a general view of the public school systems of the 
county, and in that the schools of W'aitsburg apfx-ar. But there is one feature 
of the schools of Waitsburg already named so unique and interesting as to call 
for further s|H:cial mention. This is I'reston Hall, connected with the high 
school. This beautiful and well-e(|uip|Kd building was the gift of one of the 
noblest and most philanthropic citizens of the Inland iMnpire. a man of whom 
old Walla Walla County, and [wrticularly Waitsburg. may well be jiroud. This 
was W. (1. Preston. This big-souled and big-brained buibler of the large affairs 
of his community, had a deep sense of the value of practical industrial training 
for the growing youth of the lan<l. Carrying out his favorite idea he gave alKiut 
twentv-'.ix thousand <lollars for the creation of a building, with suitable equip- 
ment for the liest type of industrial education, as well as gymnastic training. 
While this was but one of the many contributions to the advancement of the 
rommunitv in which the Preston family lived so long ancl so well, it is perhaps 
the one which will be most wide-reaching in influence and the one which will 
perTK'tuate most effectively the influence of its donor. 

n. fnrr Ic.nvint: the subject of the schools it may Ik? suitable to note the 


fact that the schools in what was old Walla Walla County, as well as the 
narrower limits which now retain the name, have during the past ten or 
fifteen years shown a great tendency to build more beautiful and better equipped 
houses. This has been due partly to the increase in wealth and culture and 
to the general recognition that the old bare unlovely and forsaken-looking school- 
houses of the earlier times are an affront to the progressive spirit of a time 
which is demanding the best for the boys and girls, but much of the motive power 
of this great improvement must be attributed, in Walla Walla County, to the last 
two superintendents of schools, Mrs. Josephine Preston and Paul Johnson. Dur- 
ing the eight years of service of these two efficient public officials the idea of 
the rural school as a community center and a focus of social life has gained 
a hold on public interest and support truly wonderful. A debt of gratitude is 
due these and other incumbents of the same office in the other counties covered 
by this work in inaugurating a new era in school architecture and beautification 
of grounds. The influence of this on coming generations for character, patriotism, 
and efficiency, as well as artistic taste and general culture, will be incalculable. 
It is fitting that special note be made here of the fact that in the smaller towns 
of Walla Walla County, Prescott, Touchet, Dixie and Attalia, the school build- 
ings represent large outlay and contain the best modern features. If there is one 
thing more than another in which the people of this section may take satisfac- 
tion, it is the school system, both town and rural. 

There is another institution in Walla Walla of rare interest, which while not 
educational is allied with that branch of social progress. We refer to the 
Stubblefield Home. From Mr. C. M. Rader, one of the trustees, we derive the 
following account of this noble institution. 


To Joseph Loney Stubblefield and his good wife Anna, are indebted the chil- 
dren and widows who in the past have been, or in the future may become members 
of this home. In early life Mr. and Mrs. Stubblefield experienced the hardships 
incident to poverty. They emigrated from Missouri in the early '60s and settled 
about seven miles southeast of Walla Walla, where by most frugal habits and 
great industry they accumulated, for the early days, a considerable fortune. 
The wife died in 1874 without issue. She and her husband often talked of the 
great need of a home for caring for aged widows and orphan children and the 
wife said she wanted her money to be used for such purpose. She left no will, 
except as it was impressed in the heart of her husband. 

On November 16, 1902, six months after making his will, Joseph L. Stubble- 
field died at the age of seventy-eight years. By the thirty-first clause of this will 
he left about one hundred and thirty thousand dollars, the bulk of his accumula- 
tions, for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a home for "fatherless or 
motherless and indigent children, and worthy elderly indigent widows, residents 
of Washington and Oregon." This fund was willed to R. M. Dorothy, E. A. 
Reser and Cary M. Rader, who were named as trustees to manage the fund and 
the home to be established. These trustees were appointed to serve for life, 
unless any should resign or be removed. The successors of these trustees under 


jhc icnii> of ilic will arc to be a|>|wintc<l by tlie cuunty conmiissioncrs of Walla 
NS'alla ami L'liiatilla cuiintics, acting juiiilly but by and with the consent u( the 
two 'ruslccs remaining on the bo;ird. A second wife, wliom Mr. Stubblctield liad 
amply jirovidid for, attempted to break tlic will by proceedings in court, but the 
will was fully sustained both in the Su|>erior and Supreme courts of Wash- 

Numerous citizens interested themselves in an attempt to secure the location 
of the home mar Walla Walla and raised a donation of something more than ten 
thousand dollars to assist in |)urchasing a suitable site. The trustees purchased 
the present grounds consisting of forty acres al>out one mile southeast of the City 
of Walla Walla and there on November i6, 1904, exactly two years after the 
death of Mr. Stubblcheld, with appropriate ceremonies, the home was formally 
opened with .Mphonso K. Olds as sii|(tTiiilen(lem and his wife Mtta I". Olds 
as matron. 

The home remained under the very cfTicitiii iii.iii;igemcnt of these good people 
for eight years. On tlu-ir resignation, occasioned by ill lu-alth, Luther J. Campbell 
and wife Maggie were appointed respectively as superintendent and nutron, 
and have since been in charge of the institution. R. M. Dorothy, in 1912. resigned 
as trustee and was succeeded on the l>oard by Francis M. Stubblefield, a nephew 
of Joseph L. Stubblefield. These are the only changes of officials connected with 
the institution. 

The home rapidly tilled after the opening and there has since rarely Inren a 
vacancy for any considerable time. The number of memlx-rs in the home is 
usually cIom- to twenty-live and of these most are children. There have never 
lieen more than three widows in the home at one time. The children are taught 
to work and soon become quite expert for children — the boys as gardeners and 
the girls at hr)useht)ld duties. In 11)15 •'' team of three girls from the home won 
a i)rize at the Walla Walla County I'air and also at the State I-air as exiK-rts in 
canning fruits and vegetables. The children attend school at the Bcrney Graded 

The fund left by Mr. Stubblefield, by judicious handling, has about doubled 
and is at present mostly invested in wheat lands, which furnish sufficient income 
to defray all exjKnscs. 

THK rlll'KC'iil-:S OK WAI.I..\ WAIX.\ COfNTV 

.\s elsewhere in this work we speak first of the institutions lix-ated in Walla 
Walla City itself. By reason of priority of settlement the institutions of all sorts 
grr)wing around that jxiint were representative of the entire region and hence 
iK-long as truly to the jKirls which subse<|»iently were set aside for other counties. 
We shall elsewhere endeavor to give similar brief views of the churches of the 
other parts of the region covered by our story. .\s will Ik- obvious to the reader, 
the liniitatifins of space com|K-l us to consider the churches as a whole, iin|)ortant 
as they arc in the life of the community, without dwelling u|)on details, significant 
and inspiring as they often are. Practically all the learliiig ("hrislian denomina- 
tions have In-en represented in Old Walla Walla. The Methodist seems to have 
l>ecn the |)ioneer among the Protestant denominations, though the Catholic was 
first to provide a place of worship. It was in 1X50 that a structure of piles 

White Ti'inplr Baptist Church 

Presbjterian Chinch 

Central Christian ( luinli 


driven into the ground and covered with shakes was prepared for worship by the 
Catholics of the Httle community on Mill Creek. The location was near the 
present lumber yard on Third Street and Poplar. In i860 the Methodists built 
the first regular building on the corner of the present Fifth and Alder. That 
church had various vicissitudes, for it subsequently moved to Second and 
Alder and was used for a time as a house for the hosecart of the fire department. 
Later on it received a second story and became the "Blue Front," still later burned. 

We give here a sketch of the early history of the Methodist Church, not with 
the desire to overemphasize that denomination at the expense of others, but that 
by reason of its pioneer nature it was peculiarly typical of the first days. We 
take this from a historical report prepared by J. M. Hill and E. Smith and pre- 
sented at the conference at Walla Walla on February 7, 1900. This report con- 
tains so much interlocking matter of different kinds as to give it a permanent 
value : 

"On page seventy-four of Rev. H. K. Hines' Missionary History of the 
Pacific Northwest, we find that the first sermon preached west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains was delivered by Rev. Jason Lee at Fort Hall, on Sunday, July 27, 1834. And 
in a book entitled Wild Life in Oregon, on pages 176-7, we will find that the first 
A'lethodist sennon preached at or near Walla Walla was by the Rev. Gustavus 
Hines, on May 21, 1843, at Doctor Whitman's mission, six miles west of this city. 
Rev. Gustavus Hines also preached at Rev. H. H. Spalding's Lapwai mission, on 
Sunday, May 14, 1843. 

We find that the first Methodist Episcopal Chjifc^ tjf^ahlzafibh that was per- 
fected in Walla Walla, or in that part of the; country^ {cn&wn as Eastern Oregon 
or Eastern Washington, was in 1859, and at that time the'Walla Walla Valley 
was just commencing to be settled up with stock raisers and traders. The Town 
of Walla Walla was the principal or most impoxtant pointy the*United States 
military post being located here, and this place having become the wintering place 
for miners, packers and freighters from the mines north and east of this country. 

The Oregon conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, having jurisdiction 
over the church work in this section, took up the matter of supplying it with the 
gospel, and at the annual conference held at Albany in August, 1859, appointed 
Rev. J. H. Wilber as presiding elder of this field, calling it the Walla Walla 
circuit, which took in most of that part of the country east of The Dalles, Oregon, 
comprising the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, Snake River and Columbia River 
valleys as far north as the British line and east to the Rocky Mountains, and ap- 
pointed Rev. G. M. Berry as pastor for Walla Walla circuit. 

Brother Wilber and Brother Berry at once started for their field of labor. 
They came to Walla Walla and commenced the work by holding meetings at 
dififerent places, at the homes of some of the people and at times in the old log 
courthouse at the corner of Main and Fifth streets. Soon after taking up the 
work Brother Wilber and Brother Berry decided to organize a class at Walla 
Walla, and on Monday, October 11, 1859, met and organized the first class in the 
district; also held their first quarterly conference. The quarterly conference was 
called to order by the presiding elder. Rev. J. H. Wilber, and opened with singing 
and prayer. The pastor, Rev. G. I\L Berry, was appointed secretary of the meet- 
ing. The following named brothers were elected as the first board of stewards : 


S. M. Tiujs. W illiam U. Kelly. John Moar, A. B. Roberts and T. P. Dcnney. A B. 
Rolnrrts was riccicd as the rrcdrding steward. 

In January, iK<jO. tlic ila>s dnidcd to build a churclj in the Town of Walla 
Walla, and np|>ointcd a building; connnitlee to undertake the work, consisting 
of the |xistor. Rev. ti. M. Merry, iSrotlicr Thomas Martin and Brother John Moar. 
At a nteeting held in A|)ril, iWio. the committee reported that they luid selected 
for a church site lots (> and 7, block 10. at the corner of .Mder and Fifth streets, 
and that Rev. tl. M. Berry had nia<le application to the Board of County Commis- 
sioners asking; them to donate the lots to the church. .\t a meeting held on May 
.ii, 18/10, the (irst iKKird of trustees of the church of Walla Walla was ap|>ointed, 
l)einf; Brothers T. P. Dcnncy, S. M. Titus. John Moar. Thomas Martin an<l Wil- 
liam B. Kelly, and on May 22, iWo, lots 6 and 7 of block 10 of the original Town 
tif Walla Walla were transferred to the alwvc named trustees for the church by 
the Board of County Commissioners of Walla Walla County. 

The building committee — the pastor. Rev. G. M. Berry, as its chairman — with 
the few nu-mbcrs. at once took up the work of building the church, which was 
complete*! in the fall f)f iSTo. It was the first church of any denomination built 
in Walla Walla, and was built at a cost of $1,046.52, with un|).-iid bills to the 
amount of $131.02. These items are taken from the re|»ort of the auditor of 
accounts of the building committee as reported at the third quarterly conference, 
held at Walla Walla on June 24. iS^)i, by Andrew Keys, auditor. The jwstor. 
Rev. G. M. Berry, bad jjractically been Sunday-school suin-rintendent as well as 
pastor ever since the organization of the class until the church was completed We 
fail to find any record of the <ledication of this church. 

The ( >regiin annual conference of \f^>i created the Walla Walla district and 
appointed Rev. John IHinn as presiding elder and jjastor of Walla Walla. .\t the 
Dregon annual conference, held in iSr>7, the Walla Walla district was divided into 
one station and four circuits, viz.: Walla Walla Station. Walla Walla. Waits- 
burg, Grande Rondc and Umatilla circuits. 

In ifViS. the class having become strong, and desiring a new l(K-ation for their 
church building, the board of trustees prmured lots on the corner of Poplar and 
Second streets, bought on May 30, iW)8, from W. J. and .Mh-II Arncr for $250.00, 
and deeded to the following named trustees: H. Parker, T. P. Deiiney, J. L. 
Rcser. Joseph Paul and John W. McGhee. The old church was moved to the 
new location, repaired and enlarged, and a parsonage was fitted up just cast of the 
church, facing on Popular Street. 

.\t the Oregon annual conference, held at luigrne. .XugU'^t 5 to 0. \F/'»). all 
of the meml>ership and apfwintments formally denotninaled Walla Walla Station, 
Walla Walla Circuit and Dry Creek were formed a>. one charge and called Walla 
Walla Circuit, to whidi Rev. John T. W..lf,- wn- appointed .1- i>..sinr .tikI Rev 
Cliarles 11. Iloxic as assistant pastor. 

Rev. Tames P.. Calloway was presiding iMi-r of the district. ,iml on .S»-|)iiniUT 
18, 1869. called together at Walla Walla all of the official mcmliers of the new 
circuit and organized the first quarterly conference, electing the following board 
of trustees: diaries Moore. T. P. PKnney, !>. M. Jessee. M. Emerick. Benjamin 
Wayward, .\. II. Simmons, M. McKverly, William llolbrook and Oliver Gal- 
lahcr. .At the Oregon annual conference, held at \"ancouvcr. on .August 25, 1870. 


Walla Walla City was again made a station, separating it from the Walla Walla 
Circuit, and Rev. H. C. Jenkins was appointed as pastor. 

Early in the spring of 1878, under the leadership of the pastor, Rev. D. G. 
Strong, the class undertook the erection of a new church building. The old church 
was sold to Mr. J. F. Abbott for $250.00 and moved ofi' the lots, and through 
the efforts of the pastor and his board of trustees, consisting of B. F. Burch, J. E. 
Berryman, M. Middaugh, John Berry and O. P. Lacy, together with the faithful 
members and friends, the new church was completed at a cost of about $10,000, 
receiving from the church extension society of the church a donation of $1,000 
and a loan of $500. The loan in due time was paid back. After the completion 
of the new church. Rev. W. G. Simpson was the first pastor and Brother E. Smith 
was the first Sunday-school superintendent. For some reason not on record the 
church was not dedicated until August, 1879. The collection and services at the 
dedication were in charge of Bishop Haven, he being the bishop of the annual 
conference held at Walla Walla August 7 to 12, 1879. 

It having been discovered in 1883 that the board of trustees had never been 
incorporated under the laws of the Territory of Washington, the quarterly con- 
ference directed that articles of incorporation should be prepared. B. L. and J. L. 
Sharpstein, attorneys, were employed to prepare incorporation papers, and on 
February 9, 1883, they were signed and acknowledged by the following board of 
trustees: Donald Ross, C. P. Headley, S. F. Henderson, J. M. Hill, H. C. Sniff, 
H. C. Chew, E. Smith and G. H. Randall, and filed with the territorial auditor 
and the auditor of Walla Walla County. At the first meeting of this board of 
trustees they elected the following officers : J. M. Hill, president ; Donald Ross, 
secretary; C. P. Headley, treasurer. 

During the summer of 1887, the class, under the leadership of the pastor. Rev. 
Henry Brown, with the ladies of the church and the trustees, consisting of J. H. 
Parker, C. P. Headley, S. F. Henderson, J. M. Hill, H. C. Sniff, H. C. Chew. 
G. H. Randall and E. Smith, undertook the building of a new parsonage, and 
with the bequest of $500 from the estate of our departed brother, E. Sherman, 
designated by him to be used for a new parsonage, and $596.47 raised principally 
by. the efforts of the ladies' parsonage committee, a two-story, seven-room par- 
sonage was erected on the grounds of the old parsonage, facing Poplar Street, and 
this was turned over to the board of trustees free of debt and fairly well fur- 

During 1887, through the efforts of Rev. J. H. Wilber, a small church was 
built in the eastern part of the city and called Wilber Chapel. Brother W. J. 
White donated a lot for that purpose, $300 being received from the Church Exten- 
sion Society, part of the balance being subscriptions from friends, but the greater 
part being given by Rev. J. H. Wilber himself. The church cost $1,500 and was 
deeded to the trustees of the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Walla Walla, 
viz. : J. H. Parker, J. M. Hill, C. P. Headley, S. F. Henderson, H. C. Sniff, H. C. 
Chew, G. H. Randall and E. Smith. The church was sold to the German Lutheran 
Society for the sum of $1,600 on September 5, 1892. returning to the board of 
the church extension about $400 due them in principal and interest. The dedica- 
tion of Wilber Chapel was by Rev. N. E. Parsons, presiding elder, assisted by 
Rev. J. H. Wilber and Rev. Henry Brown. During 1894 the church, under the 
leadership of Rev. V. C. Evers, the pastor, with the trustees, enlarged the present 


church by extending il to the north line of tlic property, increasing tlic seating 
capacity of the church with lecture room to 5^5 persons. 

(Jur church property at this time is free from debt and consists of : 

One church building :ii)d lot, value $11,50000; one jxirsonage and fraction of 
lot, value $j,000j00; total $13,500.00. 

The following are the names of the ^J.l^llll> uf Walla Walla and time of serv- 
ice: 1859 to 1861. Rev. (ieorgc M. Berry; iWm to 1W.3. Rev. John l-'linn ; 1863 
to !W)5. Rev. William Franklin; 1865 to i8^/j. Rev. James Deardoff ; 1866 to 1867, 
Rev. John I- Reser ; 18^.; to 1869, Rev. John T. Wolfe ; liVx) to 1870, Rev. C. H. 
Uo.xie; 1870 to 187,'. Rev. 11. C. Jenkins; 1872 to 1873, Rev. J. W. Miller; 1873 
to 1874, Rev. S. G. Havemiale; 1874 to 1875, Rev. G. W. Grannis; 1875 to 1876, 
Riv. S. H. Uurrtll; 1876 to 1878. Rev. D. (]. Strong: 1878 to 1880, Rev. W. G. 
.Simi>son; 1880 to 1882, Rev. G. M. Irwin; 1882 to 18S3, Rev. A. J. Joslyn; 1883 
to 1884, Rev. W. C. Gray; 1884 to 1885, Rev. J. D. Henner; 1885 to 1886, Rev. 
P. (;. Strong: i88r. to 1889. Rev. Henry Hrowti; 1880 to 1892, Rev. W. W. Van 
fhisen; i8.,j to i8</>. Rev. V. C. Kvers ; i8<>6 to i8f^>. Rev. W. C. Reuter : i8o<< 
to 1900, Rev. I^e A. Johnson. 

The following are the names of the presiding ciders of Walia Walla district 
and time of service: 1859 to iSfn, Rev. J. 11. Willier; i8<^>i to i8<>4. Rev. John 
Flinn; l8r^ to 1866, Rev. Isaac Dillon; 1866 to 1869. Rev. J. B. Calloway; i86fi 
to 1870, Rev. W. H. Lewis; 1870 to 1874. Rev. IL K. Mines; 1874 to 1878, Rev. 
S. G. llavcrmalc; 1878 to 1882. Rev. D. G. Strong; 1882 to 1885, Rev. W. S. 
Turner; 1885 to 1886, Rev. I^vi L. Tart; 1886 to 1888, Rev. N. E. Parsons; 
1888 to i8<,2. Rev. D. G. Strong; 1892 to 1898. Rev. T. A. Towner; 1898 to 1900. 
Rev. M. II Marvin."* 


In 1861 the Catholics built their first permanent house near the present site of 
St. \incent's Academy. Bishop Blanche! was pre.sent during that period and 
Father Yunger became pastor. He was succeeded by Rev. J. B. Brouillet, who 
lirst came to the \\ alia Walla country as a missionary to the Indians in 1847. 

Connected with the Catholic Church are St. \incent's Academy and De La 
Salle Institute, descrilK-d elsewhere, lKsi<les St. Mary's Hospital, founded in 1870 
and now e>tablished in one of the most |>erfect buildings in the Northwest. 

While our limits do not in-rmit details in regard to each of the churches of 
Walla Walla, we wish to incorporate a sketch of the early Episcopal Oiurch, 
for the rea'ion that it casts such a vivid light upon the early days as to give it a 
sjK-cial historic value. This sketch was pre|Kjred by F-dgar Johnson, one of the 
Whitman College class of 1917, as a research study in his history course and in 
the judgment of the author is worthy of a place in this volume. 


.\ccording to the old adage, "Well l>egun is half done," this thurch conii)leted 
half its work in its earliest jicriod. The history of all churches when tinally 
established in a civili/xd community is much the same. But what was the history 
of this church before Walla Walla became civilized' 

• In aniclf quoted the name Will)cr appears a numl)cr of time* hut it should Ix- noted 
that the correct spelling is Wilbur. 

I K 

S ^ 
K > 



This is the atmosphere I have to picture ; the condition of the times as it 
reflected on the growth of the church, and the condition of the church as it re- 
flected on the growth of civihzation in this city. 

From the historical data accompanying this review, it will seem that St. Paul's 
Church was first begun by services held by a traveling missionary, Bishop Morris. 
The church did not take on definite unity, however, until 1871, when it was placed 
under the care of Rev. L. H. Wells, a comparatively young missionary from the 
East. In September, 1871, the first services were held in the building (now gone) 
on Third Street, between Poplar and Alder streets. This building served as a 
combined courthouse, hall, church ; and the basement housed Stahl's Brewery. 

At the time of Bishop Wells' arrival in Walla Walla, this city boasted of 
one thousand inhabitants, while Eastern Washington had seven thousand settlers. 
At this date, it would strike us that the little city of one thousand would band 
itself together to protect themselves from the Indians. But fifteen years or more 
had passed since the last of the Indian wars, and the wealth of the mines of Idaho 
and Washington found its way into the city and aided in the carousals of its 
"short-time" owners. For the uninitiated, the center of the street, or open door- 
ways were the safest stops in the city. The Vigilantes ruled as a secret power 
behind the throne. Suspicion was fixed upon every law-abiding citizen by those 
who lived to break the law, as a member of this band. 

The wives of several saloon-keepers were members of the church ; and one 
wife succeeded in converting her husband. But inability or lack of desire to 
learn a new trade, always drove the new convert back itlto his old business. 
After efficiently illustrating back-sliding methods thrice over, this particular saloon 
man never appeared upon the church rolls iagain.' He furnished, however, the 
material for a story which emphasizes the uhcouthne&s of the times. He main- 
tained a flourishing saloon on the corner of Third and Main streets, and one 
evening a miner from the Florence District showed up with his nuggets and gold 
dust. After treating the house several times, he began searching for more amuse- 
ment. Finally, thinking that the mirror behind the bar might prove a worthy 
object at which to pelt gold nuggets, he began firing. Needless to say, he smashed 
it into bits and then careening up to the bar, he simply asked : "How much do I 
owe?" The saloon-keeper recovered several hundred dollars' worth of nuggets 
from the floor and after removing the board floor from the saloon succeeded in 
washing out $200 more from the gold dust which had been lost throughout the 
previous period. This became an annual event and never failed in bringing 
a hundred dollars or so. 

In 1S72 the bishop started his day school, following this in 1873 with a 
boarding school for girls. In this year a fire burned them out entirely and a 
larger building was constructed. The life of the bishop was not an easy one. He 
lived in his little cabin next to the church and whenever a new girl came to the 
boarding school, he would be forced to give up some of his furniture for the new 
girl. He was finally reduced to sleeping on a cot, with his overcoat for a cover- 
let. It was very difficult to keep the coat from falling away during the night ; 
and when another girl came and the couch was needed for her room, the bishop 
having received no new furniture, built himself a box and filled it with straw, in 
which he slept and in which he had no difficulty in retaining his overcoat as a com- 


Liold dust and iuit;f;c-ts were llic incdiuin uf exchange and the chunrh and 
>cl)ool both had gold-wcigliing scales. Many pco|>lc carried httle scales with them 
in niorix-co case>. (itild dusi was generally carried in buckskin sack> alMiut a foot 
in de|>(h and alnjut three indies wide, and many |>eu]ile left iliem lyin^; aUait the 
front porch in disguised covering, as the safest pbcc to keep them from thieves 
and rcneg:ide Indians. Three grades of gold found its way into Walla Walla. 
riu'SC Were the LIdorado, l-loreiice and I'liigle Creek, so named fron> the district 
in which they were mined. Merchants kept on hand small round stones with 
streaks of all three KT'''<'fs in them, hy which to measure the dust, as the three 
f;railcs were worth dilUrciit amounts of nioney. 

It was in this atmosphere that the church began, truly, in a missionary dis- 
trict. Net it grew, and mainly through the spirit of co-o|K-ration of the other 
churches in the territory. At this time there were also the Mithodist, Congrega- 
tiotud, I'resbyterian and the United Brethren churches. Hishop W'clls recently 
told me of the kindness of the L'nited Hrethren minister. One ■' ' K- walk- 

ing down the street, he was hailed hy this minister who was on i iv. The 

old minister ojK-ned the conversation: "Young man. \'\v iK-en watching you, and 
so have my congregation. It strikes us that you've seen city life ami I'm only a 
country preacher. If you will take care of my congregation, you may have the 
church and I'll go into the country, where I can do some good." Naturally, the 
ofTer was accepted. 

In 1R77 the new church was erected, and it still stands. This was built on 
the corner of Third and Pojjlar streets. The lumber for it was hauled from 
Touchet. where then- was a mill. One difficulty presented itself, however, and 
that was that the lumber obtainable from there was very short. IJut the long 
haul from W'allula made In-tter lumlK-r altnost prohibitive, and the church was 
built from lumlier cut in this vicinity and planed at Touchet. 

Even at this date, forty years ago, Walla Walla was little more than a frontier 
town. The Joseph wars broke out as a result of the white man's raid on their 
land. .\ few years previous to this the ricivernmcnt had sent out men to see what 
could be done for the Indians. The white men were o[xrn in their statements 
that they intended to get the Indians' lands. The Joseph war was followed by 
the llann(Kk war. In the latter. Walla Walla was seriously threatened, the Indians 
coming up through Pendleton and striking near the foothills of this city. A 
very pretty tale is told regarding a Pendleton sheep man and his dog Hob. Tlic 
Indians murdered the herders, killed many of the shc-ep and went on their way. 
The owner stayed in Pendleton fearing to go to his flocks, and did not go near 
them until a week or two had elapsed. When he did find them, he discovered that 
the <log Hob had not onlv gathered all his own sheep into the flock, but had 
collected more stray sheep froni other fl<Kks that had l>ccome lost, than the Indians 
themselves had killed I'lirthermore. he had only killed two small lambs for his 
own sustenance. 

Recitation of early events, and incidents, couUI g<i on forever. And also it is 
hard to shape a series of stories, and a few simple historical facts, into an inter- 
esting history. I'ut the foregoing gives the reader an idea of the times into 
which the missionary was forced to introduce the Giristian teachings. A glance 
at Walla Walla today, called often the City of Churches, and then the retrospective 
glance into the '705. shows the results of the influence which liegan work at that 


early date and by its everwidening influence succeeded in civilizing this North- 


Of the many worthy and powerful preachers of early Walla Walla it may be 
said that four seem to stand out beyond all others in the minds of pioneers. 
These are Gushing Eells, missionary, educator, school builder, and all-round 
saint ; John Flinn, a man of somewhat similar type, patient, tireless in good deeds, 
saintly and unselfish ; J. H. Wilbur, one of the big figures of early days ; and P. B. 
Chamberlain, first pastor of the Congregational Church and first principal of 
Whitman Seminary. Each of these men had his peculiarities, some amusing, 
some pathetic, all interesting and inspiring. Old-timers, even those not at all 
given to walking the straight and narrow way, had profound regard for those 
militant exponents of the gospel. Father Wilbur had worked at the blacksmith's 
trade before entering the ministry and had muscles of iron around a heart as 
tender and gentle as ever beat. He was of giant strength and not at all times a 
non-resistent. It is related that once in Oregon before he came to Walla Walla, 
some rowdies persisted in disturbing a camp meeting which he was conducting. 
After warning them a time or two in vain he suddenly descended from the plat- 
form, keeping right on with the hymn in stentorian voice, swooped down on the 
two rowdies, seized them in his brawny hands, knocked their heads together a few 
times and almost shook the breath out of them, singing all the time, until it was 
plain that they would interrupt no more services, then returned to the pulpit, 
going right on as though nothing had happened. 

Mr. Chamberlain was a man of very different appearance, small, delicate, 
refined in tone and speech. At first meeting one had little conception of his 
tremendous energy and iron will. He was a man of electric oratory and swayed 
pioneer audiences in his little church or in the groves at public gatherings as few 
men in Walla Walla ever have. He was, however, a genuine Calvinist in his 
theology, an intense Sabbatarian, and felt called on to attack secret societies and 
supposedly unorthodox churches with conscientious severity. Thus, though he 
was admired and respected by all, he could not maintain a working church. As 
showing something of the character of the man, we include brief extracts from 
entries made by him in the records of his church, pertaining to his first church 
building. The building was completed in 1866 at a cost of $3,500, most of which 
was Air. Chamberlain's own money. Of it he says: "So it now stands consecrated 
to God, as all property should be. I leave it with Him, to be refunded or not as 
He may, at some future time, move the hearts of the children of men to desire 
to do." On July 13, 1868, two days after the fire, he writes: "God has put His 
own final construction upon the last part of the foregoing record. Last Saturday, 
between twelve and two, our pleasant church was entirely destroyed by fire, the 
fire originating in a neighbor's barn, situated within a few feet of the church. 
Thy will, not mine, be done." It is gratifying to record that the Methodists at 
once offered to share their house with their stricken neighbors and that within a 
few months the generous contributions of the people of Walla Walla enabled Mr. 
Chamberlain to gather his congregation again on the same place, corner of Second 
and Rose, and there the Congreg^tionalists continued to worship under several 


)>a»(uratcs until during that of Kcv. Au!>tin Rice in k/X) the present builciin); on 
I'alouiie and Alder streets was erected. 

Uurnig the past '■ : -• a nuinltci ui iiiii' (.miuii bu)lJin(;s li.isc t>crn 

erected, of whicli the i . the I'rcbbytcrian, the l5ai>ti»t, tlic Marvin Method- 

ist, and the First Methodist, may be e$|)ccially named. 

A distniuuishinj; feature- of jireseiit cliureli hfe may \k said to be the dejjrce 
to which it has taken li<>I<l <>l niunitijial and jHjhlical que>lions, reforms, and jirob- 
Icms of practical life. In that respect the present churches of Walla Walla arc 
essentially modern. I'.esidcs the churches named altove, the United Hrethren, 
Lutheran, Gcmun Methodist, German Congregational and Giristian Science 
Churches, maintain influential organizations, and the Salvation Army is active 
and useful. 


Somewhat similar to the churches in philanthro|)ic aims and to considerable 
degree composed of the same type of members are the fraternal orders. 

If Walla Walla and its kindred communities may be regarded as the homes 
of schools and churches, they may in equal degree be regarded as the hon»ts of 
lodges. Almost all the fraternal orders usual in American cities are found here. 
As in case of the churches \vc find ourselves compelled by the limitations of s|iace 
to accord too brief attention to these imjx)rtant and ixjjmlar organizations. 

The Masonic order has been for many years represented by an active mem- 
l)ership, having two lodges, one chapter, a comman<lery, and a chapter of the 
(Vdcr of the I'astcm Star. The first lodge was Walla Walb No. 7, which came 
into iK'ing October IQ, 1R59. At that date a disjiensation was granted to C. R. 
Allen. Hraziel Grounds, A. B. Rol)crts, H. N. Hruning. T. V. Page. Jonas Whit- 
ney, diaries Silverman, J. Frecdman, and R. H. Reigert. Not till Septemlx-r 3. 
iSfjo, was the lodge organized. A. B. Roberts was the first Worshipful Master; 
I. M, Kennedy, senior warden; B. .Schcideman, junior warden; T. P. Page, 
treasurer; W. B. Kelly, secretary; C. A. Brooks, senior deacon; J. Caughran, 
junior deacon; W. H. Babcock, tylcr. In the summer of 1864 the lodge built 
a home at the comer of Third and .Mder streets. But this building was destroyed 
by fire in ifW>. and for many years following the lodge held its .sessions in the 
Knights Templar hall in the Doolcy Block. For several years past the u|)j)er 
story of the Motett Building on .Mder Street has been used as a Mastmic lodge 

The Odd Fellows have l>een represented in Walla W'alla since iJV)^. and it is 
a matter of historic interest to record that the first dispensation to organize a 
loflge of Odd Fellows in Walla W^alla was granted in that year to A. U. Purdy, 
lames McAulifT, W. B. Kelly, L. A. Burthy. and Meyer l^izanis. With addi- 
tions from time to time there have come into existence three Uxlges, one encamp- 
ment, one canton, and two lodges of the Daughters of Rcl)ekah. One of the 
notable institutions of the Odd F-VIIows is the Home on Boyer Avenue. This is 
an institution covering the state and now is housed in two commodious and at- 
tractive buildings with accommodations for a large numl>er of old people and 
orphan children. The home is located upon five acres of fertile and wholesome 
land secured from H. P Isaacs. The first building of wood was constructed in 


The "St. Paul of the jSTorthwest." Missionary to the Indians, 1838-47. 
Afterward teacher and preacher, and founder of Whitman College. 


1897 and opened for use in December of that year. The second building of brick 
was constructed in 1914. There are many shade and fruit trees upon the grounds 
of the home, and it is truly an attractive and beneficent place. The order has also 
a fine hall on Alder Street. 

Perhaps most rapid in growth of all the orders in Walla Walla has been the 
Elks. The Walla Walla lodge of Elks No. 287 was organized August 10, 1894, 
with fifteen members. The first member to fill the place of Exalted Ruler was 
Judge W. H. Upton, known for many years as one of the most scholarly, intel- 
lectual and capable of the lawyers and jurists of the Inland Empire. His death 
in 1906 was a great loss, deeply deplored by many circles, not alone in fraternity 
organizations, in which he was conspicuous, but in all lines of social and profes- 
sional life. After a slow growth of a number of years the fraternity took on 
a swift development and at the date of this publication the membership exceeds 
six hundred. The lodge possesses one of the most beautiful buildings in the city, 
dedicated with a series of appropriate ceremonies and entertainments on May 23, 
24, and 25, 1913. The Elks have led many movements for public betterment, as 
the municipal Christmas trees, park benefits and other benefits, Red Cross cam- 
paigns, and other endeavors of philanthropic and patriotic service. One of the 
recent enterprises of the lodge was the establishment in 1916 of Kooskooskie Park 
on Mill Creek, fourteen miles above Walla Walla. There in the beautiful shade 
along the flashing crystal waters of our creek (Pashki the stream ought to be 
called), the Elks and their friends are wont to disport, themselyes, at intervals in 
the hot season, as their four-footed prototypesj thelf'totejii," ■of 'prehistoric times, 
were accustomed to do. The present Exalted :Ruier isC. S,! Walter's. There is a 
regular publication called The Lariat, issued; everj new moon by ithe secretary, 
Fred S. Hull. '-■ ■ :,"' -:-;. 

Of what may be called the great standard fraternities the next to be noted is 
the Knights of Pythias. It is an interesting historical fact that Walla Walla 
was the first location of a lodge of that order on the Pacific Coast north of San 
Francisco. That pioneer lodge was known as Ivanhoe Lodge No. i. Its early 
records are not available, but it continued in existence till 1882, in which year it 
surrendered its charter and went out of existence, to be succeeded by Columbia 
Lodge No. 8, instituted on October 23d of that year. Of the new lodge the first 
Past Chancellor was S. A. Deckard, and Chancellor Commander W. N. Gedders. 
The lodge has been maintained with vigor and success to the present date. 

Of what may be considered the more specialized and limited organizations 
there have been and are a number: The Young Men's Institute and Knights of 
Columbus, Catholic organizations ; Woodmen of the World, Modern Woodmen of 
America, Royal Arcanum, Women of Woodcraft, and National Union, insurance 
fraternities ; and of more miscellaneous character the United Artisans, the 
Pioneers of the Pacific, the Degree of Honor, Ancient Order of Hibernians, 
American Yeomen, the Foresters of America, the Rathbone Sisters, Ladies of the 
Maccabees, Ancient Order United Workmen, Loyal Order of Moose, Improved 
Order of Red Men, Degree of Pocahontas, Good Templars, Sons of Hermann, 
Fraternal Order of Eagles, and Order of Washington. 

Here as elsewhere throughout our country, and worthy here as everywhere 
of profound respect, is a post of the Grand Army of the Republic, This was 
chartered March T2, t88i, and the names appearing upon the charter are these: 


John 11. Smith, J. F. .McLean, 1'. B. Johnson, J. M. Coolidge, R. P. Reynolds, 
Abram Ellis, James Howe, J. A. Neill, O. 1'". Wilson, IL (J. Simonds, Samuel 
Xulph, Charles llcim, Isaac Chilberg, A. D. Rockafellow, William Leislie, F. F. 
Adams, I'". B. Morse, R. M. Comstock, and Ambrose Oldaker. The first com- 
mander of the post, known as Abraham Lincoln Post, No. 4, G. A. R., was John H. 
Smith. In April, 1886, the A. Lincoln Relief Corps, No. 5, was established, 
with twenty-hve charter membt-rs, ^Irs. Jane Erickson being president. Filtmgly 
included with the two previously named posts are the United Spanish War 
Veterans and the Sons of Veterans. 

There are found in Walla Walla also, of more recent date, the Park Associa- 
tion, one of the most important and influential of all in the beautirication and 
sanitation of the city, the Gun Club, Isaac Walton Club, Golf Club, Anti-Tuber- 
culosis League, and several Reading and Art clubs which have played important 
parts in ministering to the recreation, the health, the intellectual life, and the 
artistic taste of the people of \\'a]]a Walla and the region adjoining. It is to be 
regretted that the limitations of space forbid including here the many interesting 
details of these various organizations. 

The Walla Walla Commercial Club occupies so commanding a place in the 
business life of this entire region and has such connections with similar organ- 
izations throughout the entire Northwest and even in the nation at large as to be 
worthy of a history of its own. 


The Commercial Club came into existence in 1885. It was represented in that 
year by delegates to an Open River meeting in The Dalles. For a number of 
years it was suggestive and mutually stimulating to its small membership, rather 
than possessing any regular organization. It met irregularly both in time and 
place. In 1904 John H. McDonald became secretary, but the organization was 
not such -as to provide for a secretary who could devote his entire time to it, and 
hence there was not then a real commercial club in the modern sense. But a new 
era began with the appointment in 1906 of A. C. Moore as the first regular and 
exclusive secretary. Mr. Moore had come to Walla Walla in 1888 and had been 
up to 1906 engaged in the O. R. & N. R. R. office. With his entrance into the 
secretaryship of the club new and broader plans for publicity and expansion 
by new member.ships were begun. In 1908 the first of a series of regular pub- 
licity campaigns was begun. That was a time signalized by the seaboard cities of 
California, Oregon, and Washington — Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle, Tacoma, Astoria, Everett and Bellingham — with special efforts 
to attract immigration and new enterprise. It was the publicity era par excellence. 

Tom Richardson and C. C. Chapman of Portland accomplished wonderful 
things in that city and in Oregon. Both became well known in Walla Walla, 
where they were greatly admired and where their enthusiasm imparted such an 
impulse to the Commercial Club as to lead to a new organization with the special 
aim of advertisement and general pviblicity. It may be said that the real history 
of the club as a definite organization begins at that time, 1908. 

The articles of incorporation are as follows: 




The name of this corporation, and by which it shall be known, is "Walla Walla Com- 
mercial Club." 


The time of existence of this corporation shall be fifty years from the date hereof. 


The purposes for which this corporation is formed shall be to establish, equip, acquire, 
keep and maintain club rooms with the usual and convenient appliances of a social club ; 
to engage in literary, educational and social pursuits and to provide ways and means 
therefor, and for the development of the physical and mental capacities of its members, 
and others, and for their social advantage, improvement and enjoyment in connection 
therewith; to advance the prosperity and growth of the City of Walla Walla and of the 
State of Washington ; to ejicourage the establishment of manufactories and other indus- 
tries ; to seek remunerative markets for home products, and to foster capital and protect 
labor mutually interested in each others welfare; to collect and disseminate valuable agri- 
cultural, manufacturing and commercial information; to extend and develop trade agricul- 
ture, merchandise, banking and other lawful business pursuits, and to do any and all 
things necessary for the accomplishment of these purposes. 


The principal place of business of said corporation shall be at Walla Walla, Walla Walla 
County, State of Washington. 


The members of this corporation may be individuals, co-partnerships or corporations. 
It shall have no capital stock, and shares therein shall not be issued. The interest of 
each ijiember shall be equal to that of any other, and no member can acquire any interest 
which will entitle him to any greater voice, vote, authority or interest in the corporation 
than any other member. The corporation may issue membership certificates, which cer- 
tificates shall be assignable under such provisions, rules and regulations as may be prescribed 
by the by-laws of the corporation. Memberships in the corporation may be terminated 
by voluntary withdrawal, by expulsion and by death, and the loss of membership through 
any such causes and the incidents thereto shall be governed by the by-laws of the cor- 


The number of trustees of this corporation shall be nine, and the names of tlie trustees 
who shall manage the affairs of the corporation until the second Thursday in April, 1909, 
are F. W. Kaser, H. H. Turner, F. S. Dement, W. H. Kirkman, J. M. Crawford, B. C. 
Holt, J. C. Scott. C. F. Nosier and J. P. Kent, all of whom reside at Walla Walla, 

The first election provided for in the foregoing articles occurred on the second 
Thursday of April, 1909, and resulted in the election of the following officers and 
trustees.; J- C. Scott, president; J. H. Morrow, vice president; George E. Kel- 
lough. treasurer; A. C. Moore, secretary; L. M. Brown, assistant secretary (pub- 
licity). Trustees: J. C. Scott, J- H. Morrow, George E. Kellough; O. Druin- 
heller, J. M. Crawford, F. S. Dement, R. H. Johnson. F. W. Kaser and E. C. 

-MO OLD WALLA \\ .\IA..\ LL>L.\l\ 

Staiidiiic Luiiiiiiittccs: Frciglit and 'IraiisjKirtation — B. C. Uoli, H. B. Strong, 
Oscar Drumlirllrr, I-'rcd (ilafkc ami Julin Sniitli. 

House Committee; T. M. MiKiiinty. ( ir<> Stniihcrs, H. A. Gardner, F. S. 
Dement and J. 1*. Kent. 

Membership: W. H. Meyer, A. C. \ .m l><, J. M. Crawford, \\ . H. 
Paxton and U. M. Beatty. 

Kece|>tion and Kntcrtainment : T. M. Manger, 1*. M. W'inans, H II Turner, 
R. !•:. Allen and W. A. Kit/.. 

.Auditing: C. S. ISulTum, J. G. Anderson, R. 11. Johnson, K. C. Mills. 

Library and IVopcrty : J. W. Langdon, J. J. KaulTman, J. H. Morrow, J. G. 
l-'ninkland ami (". M. Rader. 

Manufactories and New Industries: F. \V. Kascr, 11. II I urntr, J. M. Craw- 
ford, W. H. l-"oshay and L. M. Brown. 

The memlx-rship given in the handbook of 1910-11 includes ^jj individuals 
and firms. The club had been, up to iyo8. housed in the Ransom Building, now 
the (irand Hotel, but in that year of reorganization, madi- arrangements with the 
city for the present (juarters in the City Hall. I-argc sums of money were raised 
during the "I'ublicity Fra," alxiut $JO,ooo each year. Mr. A. C. Moore continued 
to act as secretary until 1912, but in 1908 L. F. Meacham In-came publicity man- 
ager, which i>ost he retained until IQIO, when he was succeeded by L. M. Brown. 
Mr. I'rown became secretary in 1912, u|)on the resignation of Mr. Moore, and he 
in turn was succeeded in 1Q14 by Mr. O. C. Soots, the present secretary. 

The next epoch of the history of the Commercial Club may be said to have 
Inrgun with the adoption of the bureau system at a special election in .-Xpril 8. 
H)I5. The essential provisions of the new system may be found in excerpts which 
follow from the amended by-laws of the club: 


Section I The membership of this organization shall be also formed into three main 
ilivi'ions. accordinR to the cxi>rr<;<o(I preference of each mcml>rr, for the purpose of 
dividing the work of the orf^nizatinn into departments or hurcaiK. the<c bureau* to he 
dcsiiniated as follows : 

1. Civic and Publicity. 

2. Commercial and Industrial. 

J. Horticultural and .Ai;rirultural. 

All mrmlvr* who fail or nrRlcci, within a reasonable time, to express their preference 
as to bureau afhliation, shall he assiimed to the several bureaus by the President in such 
proportion as may most nearly njuatize the total member»hip of the several bureaus. 

Section 2. After a member of the Club shall have expressed his preference as to 
I'ureau affili.-ition. or shall have been astiftned to bureau alTiIiation by the President, hit 
afTdiation shall be conditional tipon his election to such bureau by an aflfirmative vote 
of a maiorily of those present at any meeting of the Bureau Committee. 

Section 3. Subject to these Ry-Ijiw(. each bureau shall have ireneraJ charge of all 
matters relating to the general lines of work included in such bureau. 

.Section 4 The work of each bureau »ha!l t>e under the immediate direction of a 
Itureau Committee of not less Mian five. rnnsistinK of the Chairman, who shall have 
l>een desiimated Vice-President in rharfre of the Board of Trustees, and not less than four 
others selected from the membership represented in that bureau by him in conjunction 
with the President and from nominees of double the refjiiired number made by the 
membership of ttie bureau. 

Section ' ''■'" -'T^dinK and special committees of the Club shall l>e classified under 



the several bureaus according to the nature of their duties by the Board of Trustees 
upon the advice of the President and Secretary. Until other assignments are made by 
the Board of Trustees, the cotnmittees shall be classified under the several bureaus as 
follows : 

Civic and Publicity Bureau — Municipal and County Affairs ; Publicity ; Conventions ; 

Commercial and Industrial Bureau — Entertainment; Good Roads; Investigation and 
Endorsement ; Manufacturers ; Frontier Days ; Freight and Transportation. 

Horticultural and Agricultural Bureau — Horticulture ; Agriculture ; Live Stock ; By- 
products ; General Farming; Fruit Growers. 

Section 6. The President, with the advice of the Vice-Presidents of the respective 
bureaus, shall appoint annually the standing committees of the Club included within the 
several bureaus. He shall appoint standing committees on Membership, Finance, House, 
and such special committees as may be found necessary. Each bureau shall have at 
least one member on the Finance Committee. 


Section i. The authority of tliis organization shall be vested in a Board of Trustees 
numbering nine (9). 

Section 2. There shall be elected in every year of even numbers four Trustees, one 
from each bureau and one from the Membership Council. There shall be elected in 
every year of odd numbers five Trustees, one from each Bureaa and two from the Mem- 
bership Council, these Trustees to serve for two years- each. Provided, that at the first 
election there shall be elected nine Trustees, two from each Bureau and three from the 
Membership Council, of whom five, three from the Bureaus and two from the Mem- 
bership Council receiving the highest votes shall serve, until the election in 1917 and 
four, one from each bureau and one from the Membership Council receiving the next 
highest vote shall serve until the annual meeting of 1916. All of the provisions of Article 
VI shall apply to the special election held on the 8th day of April, 1915, to be known 
as the first annual meeting under these By-Laws. 

The first president under the bureau system was a man whom all people of 
the city delight to honor and whose appointment as commander, with rank of 
Major of the First Battalion of Field Artillery, N. G. W., is recognized by hosts 
of friends throughout the state as an eminently fit employment of ability, patriot- 
ism and energy. This first president was Maj. Paul H. Weyrauch. Mr. O. C. 
Soots has continued to fulfill his functions as secretary with conspicuous ability. 

The present personnel of officers and trustees is thus : E. L. Smalley, presi- 
dent ; K. Falkenberg, vice president, Civic and Publicity Bureau ; O. M. Beatty, 
vice president. Commercial and Industrial Bureau ; John W. Langdon, vice presi- 
dent, Agricultural and Horticultural Bureau ; F. S. Dement, treasurer ; O. C. 
Soots, managing secretary. Directors : E. L. Smalley, F. S. Dement, J. A. Mc- 
Lean, J. W. Langdon, O. M. Beatty, K. Falkenberg, Fred Glafke, Louis Suther- 
land, O. T. Cornwell. 


This is one of the largest and most influential organizations in the city. As 
compared with its brother organizations in the seaboard cities or in Spokane, it 
was late in formation. A community like Walla Walla, a rich agricultural region, 


docs iiut sccni tu Ijc (lie natural home for lalior unions. The conuiicrcial and 
niaiiufacturini; and mining cities arc the natural locations for these orf^anizations. 
Uui in process of time the skilled laborers of Walla \\'alla were drawn \>y luitural 
evolulion into the great circle of or^janized labor. 

The t'i(;ar-niakers', the Carpenters' and the Painters' unions were the first in 
the field. They came into existence in ifxx>. 

Other Kfoi'I"* rajjidly followed and at the present time there arc seventeen 
unions. The mceiinfj places and times and the officers of each union are indicated 
by their |>ublished directory : 


Trades and I.jbor Council — Meets every Friday evening in I^bor Temple. 
S. S. Stovall, president ; L. F. Garkc. secretary. 

CarjK-nters & Joiners. Local 1214 — Meets in Labor Temple every Wednesday 
night. .\. \'. Mur|)hy, i)residcnt ; O. D. Keen, financial secretary; C. R. Nelson, 

rrconlinc secretary: C, .\. I'ompkins, treasurer. 

rrintiiij; I'res.siiien, Local J17 — Meets second \\ ediiesday of each month m 
I-alx)r Temple. William I'otgetlu-r. president: A. 1.. .\ngcr. secretary. 

loiirneymeii I'liimbers — Meets in l-al)or Temple every second and fourth 
Thursday of each month. Marry Hartcr, president; W. G. Collins, recording 
secretary ; Fred Bowman, financial secretary. 

Painters, Paperhangers and Decorators — Meet first and third Monday evening 
of each month at Labor Temple. H. R. McCoy, president; O. K. Sweeney, 
recording secretary; H. J. Hurke, fmancial secretary; Charles Hazlewood, treas- 

Bricklayers* I'nion — Meets in I^bor Temple first and third Tuesdays of each 
month. Louis Hcrmish, president; Wm. V. Taylor, fmancial secretary; Russell 
Taylor, corr«-«;]K>nding secret.iry : George Root, treasurer. 

Meat < niier-- l.iHai .Meet-, iir^t Monday of month in I-abor Temple H. N. 
Kettleson, vice president; .\. Mcl-eod. financial secretary; Theodore Maskcyleny, 

Musicians' Protective L'nion — Meets in Germania Hall second Sunday of each 
month. M. A. Power, president; H. S. BufTum, secretary 

Teamsters — Meets at I^lior Temple second and fourth Mondays. Walter 
Klliott. president; Frank Dunnigan, financial secretary; Frank Lansing, corre- 
sjKjnding secretary. 


Building Trades Council — Meets every Friday night at Labor Temple. F. J. 
Myers, president; James Grindle, secretary. 

Allied Printing Trades Council — Meets in Labor Temple second Wednesday 
of each month. R. C. McCracken, president ; Charles Francke, secretary. 

Typographical Union No. 388 — Meets last Sunday of each month in Labor 
Temple. H. F. Heimenz, president ; J. M. Baldwin, financial secretary ; Al Berg, 
recording secretary. 

Electrical Workers — Meets first and third Wednesdays at Labor Temple. E. 
M. Cruzen, president; Mitchell Anderson, secretary-treasurer. 

Journeymen Barbers — Meets first Thursday of every month in Labor Temple. 
N. J. Nicholson, president; H. S. Graves, secretary. 

Woman's Union Card and Label League — Meets in Labor Temple the first 
Tuesday of each month, at 2.30 P. M. Mrs. L. F. Clarke, president ; Mrs. J. A. 
Lyons, secretary; Mrs. O. K. Sweeney, treasurer. 

^ulinary Alliance, Local 626 — Meet first and third Wednesdays in Labor 
Temple. Will Williams, president; Charles Miller, financial secretary; Fred Ken- 
worthy, recording secretary; William Bowden, treasurer. 

Theatrical Stage Employes and Moving Picture Operators — Meets at Labor 
Temple first and third Sundays. J. A. Duggar, president ; Frank Wright, vice 
president ; Carl Crews, secretary ; Blain Geer, treasurer. 

Sheet Metal Workers — Meets at Labor Temple second and fourth Mondays 
each month. O. L. Demory, president; C. C. Shafer, secretary. 

Hod Carriers, Building Laborers — Meets at Labor Temple every Thursday. 
Conrad Knopp, president; Fred Breit, financial secretary. 

Cigarmakers' Union — C. M. Golden, president; George Surbeck, secretary. 

The general management of these unions is delegated to the Trades and 
Labor council, in which each union is entitled to three representatives. The com- 
paratively quiet and comfortable conditions in Walla Walla have not induced 
radical action by the unions and they have been a regularizing and balancing force 
of efficacy in their own lines and usually an influence for harmony in industrial 

The organ of the unions is the Garden City Monitor, published by L. F. Clarke 
and Jesse Ferney. A special number of the Monitor appears annually on each 
Labor Day. It is worthy of all praise, both from the editorial and the typo- 
graphical standpoints. 

The membership of the Walla Walla unions now is about five hundred. 


KAHMCk.s' I'MoX 

llic l;ir{;c>t and in rt>|><rci!. iiuot iin|Mjriant nrKanizaiioii in the four 
counties is tlic Karniirs' Union. This great organization is national in its aims 
and nienibcrshi|). Washington and Northern Idaho constitute one unit of the 
N'.itidnal. and in turn it is divided into county units, either single counties, as 
ilic large ones of the stale like \'akinia or U hitman, or by grouping, as in the 
smaller. Our counties belong in the latter category, and we lind the Tri-County 
Union of Wall;i Walla, Cijlumbia, and (iarticld. ( )f this union G. M. Thompson 
of Dayton is at this date president, and A. L'. .Moore of Walla Walla is secretary. 
In the Tri-Uounty Union there arc eight local unions. They ap|>ear, with the 
secretary of each in this enumeration: Waitslnirg No. t, W. D. Wallace; I'res- 
cott, .\'o. 2. O. V. Crow; Dayton, .\o. 3, Roy Ream; Mayview, No. 4, C. W. Cot- 
ton; Pomcroy. No. 10, W. J. Schmidt; Walla Walla. No. 27, W. J. .McUan ; .Star- 
Inick, .No. 119, E. W. Powers; Central, No. 145, J. E. Tuclh. .As will be seen, 
Waitsburg has the distinction of being the premier union in point of time. It 
was organized in May, ujOJ, the first president being N. H. .Atkinson, and the 
lirst secretary, J. A. i!nochs. 

The total membership of the Tri-State Union is about six hundred. That of 
the Walla Walla Local is about one hundred and lifty. 

intinuitily related to the Farmers' Union is the Farmers' .Agency. While 
the officers are entirely distinct, the membership is practically identical, since the 
provisions of membership require any who own stock in the agency to belong to 
the anion. .Any farmer, however, may market his grain with the agency. At the 
present day Hon. Oliver Comwcll is president of the .Agency, and the secretary 
is Eugene Kelly. As first organized and conducted for several years under the 
presidency of Hector McLean, the Agency was an information bureau only. Hut 
when Mr. Comwcll became president he entered upon the large task of creating 
out of it a genuine co-operative grain buying organization. After some years of 
experiment and adjusting, at times with very strenuous conditions, the effort was 
wholly successful and the .Agency iK'came a coherent organization, backed by the 
united force of the l-"arniers' I'nion and by the inain weight of the farming com- 
munity of Walla Walla. The primary object of the .Agency is to co-opieratc to 
advantage in the marketing of crops. The local Walla Walla .Agency has come to 
Ik? a tremendous factor in the wheat market. Its existence has In-en abiiiulantly 
justified by its success during these recent years in maintaining steady markets 
.ind in securing to its memlxTS all |>o<;sible advantages. 

Aside from the immediate business aim of marketing crops through the Agency, 
the I'armers' Unions. l)oth in their local capacity and in the Tri-County organ- 
ization, have come to Ik- one of the great forces in the j»olitical and social life of 
the region. Questions of roads and bridges, taxes, public buildings, state educa- 
tional and penal institutions, problems aflTccting transjiortation and the labor mar 
ket anfl lalK>r union questions,^ have In-en subjects of discussion and recommen- 
dation at the regular weekly meetings. Lectures from time to time by recognized 
ex|)crts in the various problems involved have l)ccn presented and public men in 
state and county jKisitions have been glad to consider with the unions the subjects 
relating to their functions. 

It is safe to say that any measures agreed upon by the Farmers' Unions are 




pretty certain to become the action of the body politic in the different counties. 
Once each quarter, and sometimes oftener, there axe meetings of the Tri-County 
Union, at which the larger problems of farm life are considered, and in connec- 
tion with which appetizing banquets prepared by the skillful hands and fine artistic 
taste of the wives and daughters bring joy and gayety and good fellowship to all 

To many of the readers of this volume, and in years to come to their chil- 
dren and grandchildren, the most significant of all the organized associations of 
their home country is the 


This association was formed in 1900, largely under the initiative of Dr. N. G. 
Blalock. While there has been little machinery or formality about it, its yearly 
meetings for renewing the old ties have been among the most anticipated and 
cherished of all in the minds of many of the builders, the fathers and mothers 
of the Inland Empire. While the main membership has been in Walla Walla 
County or her daughter counties, it is not confined to that county, and a number 
of members live in Umatilla County, Oregon, and in Whitman, Adams and 
Franklin counties on the north side of Snake River. 

The ofificers of the association chosen at the fitstmeeting were: Dr. N. G. 
Blalock, president ; W. P. Winans, A. G. Lloyd and Ben Burgunder, vice presi- 
dents ; Marvin Evans, secretary ; Levi Ankeny, treasurer ; W. D. Lyman, his- 
torian. These officers were almost constantly i-e-elected. Until the lamented deaths 
of Doctor Blalock, Mr. Winans, and Mr. Lloyd. Ben Burgunder was chosen 
president to succeed Doctor Blalock, and at the present time F. M. Lowden, 
Joseph Harbert and W. D. Wallace are vice presidents. 

With the feeling that the members of the association and many others will be 
glad to read some of the proceedings and to see the list of members as a matter of 
permanent reference, we close this chapter with the excellent accounts given in the 
IValla IValla Union of October 15, 1904, and June 2, 1911, of the annual meet- 
ings of those years. 


About one hundred and fifty of the pioneers of Southeastern Washington 
and Northeastern Oregon, sturdy men and women, who have seen the country 
grow from a desolate looking waste of sagebrush and sand to one of the beauty 
spots of the Northwest — men and women who had not only seen this take place, 
but had helped, and are still, many of them, helping in this wonderful evolution — 
people who thirty or forty years ago were neighbors, though living many miles 
apart, met yesterday and sat down to the festive board loaded with the good cheer 
provided by the devoted pioneer women of this city in honor of the occasion. 


The crowd assembled in the Goodman Building and there registered and re- 
ceived their badges, after which they marched to the banqueting rooms. There 


were many licarty handshakes as these old nciylibors met, and the scene was one 
uf i'\.n\ rt-tmiun. Tlirrc were tlu- more elderly wlio had come here in the prime 
iif life and whose gray hairs and wrinkled cheeks recalled the energy and vitality 
that had l>een spent in building up a new country. There were the younger men, 
those whose memories of older lands are hut indistinct visions, and who have 
Ijrowii up with the country. Hut all had the common bond of acquaintance dating 
far back, a friendship tried and found worthy in the strife of many years. 

v Kl. si \i i:ri.\KD 

Mowers in profusion in the iiaiuiuti hall told of th* interest and devoted 
preparation of the pioneer ladies for this great annual event. The long tables in 
the room were ladcned with an ai)undance of every delicacy of the season. Be- 
fore beginning the feast all stood with bowed heads while Rev. J. W. .\lcGhcc 
returned thanks, after which the edibles were enjoyed by the hapi>y throng, 
reminiscences adding much pleasure to the occasion. 

I)r. X. G. I'.Ialock. as toastmastcr, at the close of the banquet, made a short 
address of welcome to the pioneers and spoke with much feeling in commemora- 
tion of |x'oplc who had blazed the way to the present civilization and ofTered a 
tribute to their noble heroism and the deeds of courage and self-sacrifice. 


The toastmaster introduced as the "Pioneer Indian War X'etcran" oi lin- 
association, Hon. A. C. Lloyd of Waitsburg. Mr. Lloyd gave a brief account of 
campaigning in 1855 in the Yakima Indian war. In one instance the volunteers 
were caught in a snowstorm •and were cut off from supplies at The Dalles and 
were rc<luced to a small amount of flour and some tobacco. They furnished their 
own clothes and horses and could not draw on the Government supplies as there 
were none to draw on. Mr. Lloyd closed with the patriotic remark, "I*ut we 
only did our duty and no more." 


Capt. P. B. Johnson responded to "The Pioneer Newspaper Business." He 
relntcfl the anecdote of the adopted child which replied to the iKtasts of other 
children that it had no (>,-i|>a and mamma, that "^'our papa and mamma are 
yours because they have to l>e, mine are mine because they want to Ik." He 
referred to the younger pioneers iK-ing pioneers l)ecause they had to l)e. 

Captain Johnson said that when he had an opjiortunity to come here from 
.\rizona he looked up the location on the map and expected to find fruits and 
fields similar to those in the same latitude east, but when in ifVi4 he arrived at 
\\ allula, by steamer, he saw a vast extent of sagebrush ancl nothing more. He 
then reacl from Bancroft's history some interesting items showing the contrast of 
forty vears. .\ weekly mail had l>cen est.nblished In-tween Walla Walla and 
P<»rtland. The town contained 800 inhabitants. The only reference to the agri- 
cultural possibilities of this valley was the fact that some man had succeeded 
in raising a fine quality of sorghum which produced an excellent quality of syrup. 


Of the county officers that year the following are still alive and citizens of 
this city: Councilman, Daniel Stewart; sheriff, W. S. Gilliam; treasurer, James 


Captain Johnson compared the advanced conditions of the present civil- 
ization, with the start of the country newspaper and the paper of today. "The 
news item at the early stage was the local news, births, marriages, deaths and the 
few other happenings; the editorials were devoted to national and territorial 
affairs and to my contemporary, the Statesman, across the street. I am out of 
the business, but I believe that the little four-page paper of those days had more 
influence than the large papers of today. My happiest days were when I was 
running a little country newspaper." 


"The Pioneer Business Man," was responded to by Benjamin Burgunder, a 
retired merchant of Colfax. "The work of the pioneer merchant was not all 
glory. Our patrons all claimed that we sold our goods too high. In the early 
days we had to go to San Francisco to buy our goods, then they came by water 
to Portland, by steamer from Portland to the lower Cascades, thence to the 
upper Cascades by rail, then again by steamer to The Dalles, from The Dalles to 
Celilo by rail and again by steamer to Wallula. From there they were brought 
by ox teams and pack horses to the interior. In some instances in the mines 
goods were carried on the backs of men. In one case it cost me just 60 cents 
per pound to deliver my goods at their destination. But those were times when 
we got dollar prices. I lost $25,000 once in developing the interests of the 
Northwest by trusting mining men." 

Mr. Burgunder paid a high tribute to Rev. H. H. Spalding, pioneer mission- 
ary, as one who had done more than any other for the development of the North- 


J. F. Brewer responded to "Pioneer Farming." "Farming in the Willamette 
Valley was first done by the crudest methods. I remember raking the grain that 
my father cradled. Later the mowers and reapers came and the header evolved 
from these. I came to Walla Walla in 1862. All south of the place was a barren 
sagebrush plain, and only one house, a stage station, in this region as far as I 
knew. In other parts of the valley there were a few farmers, all on the creeks. 
I remember the remark of Mr. Swezea, a prominent pioneer farmer, 'Your sons 
and mine may see railroads here but we never shall.' " 

Miss Nettie Galbreath recited "The Pioneers," a poem, which was received 
with hearty applause. 


Rev. Henry Brown responded to the "Pioneer Minister." "I came to Walla 
Walla in 1886, by way of Pasco. There had been a fire and about all there was 


left was a safe which I was told belonged to the county, Pasco being a county 
seat. Several men with loaded guns were guarding the safe. At night I rented 
a wood shed, put my family in it and loaded two guns that I had and prepared 
to guard my family, thinking 1 had reached a land of ruffians and toughs. Father 
Wilbur, the pioneer missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, happened 
to be there; he asked what I was doing with my guns." 


"Colville Reminiscences," was responded to by W. P. Winans. "One of the 
interesting features of that time was the social courtesies. A dance was given 
at the cantonment, to which every person in the valley, at least 400, was in- 
vited. The large hall was decorated with flags, banners and sabers. Immense 
chandeliers were formed of sabers, a candle being placed on the point of each 
saber. The effect was very unique. The guests were refreshed with all they 
could eat and drink. On New Year's Day we Americans drove to Angus Mc- 
Donald's to make a call. He insisted on us staying to dinner. He entertained 
at that time in all 130 persons. We had no salads, but we had a good dinner. 

"In 1870 I heard the first Protestant sermon; it was preached by Rev. 
Gushing Eells. I took up the first collection in the Colville Valley, with which 
Father Eells bought a Bible, which is now in the Congregational Church at 


Harry Reynolds responded to the "Pioneer Women." "The sublime sacrifice 
on the part of woman made by the pioneer women is unique in history. Those 
women were not fleeing from persecution or punishment, but were sacrificing 
the comforts of civilization for their devotion to duty and home. They rep- 
resent the purest home life of America; the best womanhood. The pioneer 
women are the builders of the Inland Empire." 


"If we are not pioneers because we wanted to be and wear different colored 
ribbons, we have one advantage, we came at a tender age," said W. H. Kirk- 
man, responding to "Pioneer Sons." "I came when I was two years old and 
brought my father and mother along with me. This valley was a barren waste 
of land then ; now it is the finest valley the sun shines on ; all honor to the 

"I remember when the \'illage of Seattle boasted of being as large as Walla 
Walla ; now, Seattle is the third city of the coast. Again all honor to the pioneers 
who have wrought such changes." 


"Pioneer Education" was responded to by Professor Lyman. "I could draw 
contrasting pictures of the privations, rude homes and dangers on one side and 




the triumph of civilization on the other side of the line of pioneers, the log 
schoolhouse with the puncheon floor of the early days, with the well-equipped 
buildings of today. But is there more heart, soul and energy now than then?" 


The old officers were re-elected to serve for 1904-05 : President, Dr. N. G. 
Blalock; first vice president, James McAulifife; second vice president, Milton 
Evans ; third vice president, A. G. Lloyd ; secretary, Marvin Evans ; treasurer. 
Senator Levi Ankeny; historian, Prof. W. D. Lyman. 

A committee on necrology was appointed, consisting of Professor Lyman 
and Marvin Evans. 

The third Thursday of September was appointed as the permanent day for 
holding the annual meeting of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association. The 
limit of eligibility was extended from 1875 to 1880. 

The following were among those present: 

Pioneers of 1843 — Daniel Stewart. 

1845— Mrs. N. A. Jacobs, George Delaney, A. C. Lloyd, W. W. Walker. 

1846 — Charles Clark. 

1847— Mrs. W. C. Painter, Elizabeth J. Scholl. 

1849 — J. Pettyjohn, F. M. Lowden, J. M. Gose. 

1850 — Samuel Kees, Lizzie Kees, Mark ?i. Eivans, Jolin.-McGhee. 

1851— E. T. McNall. , •'-; ■; ■ .; : 

1852 — Eva Coston, Charles Lampman, Mrs. Jackson Nelson, C- C. Cram, 
Solomon Gumming^, Hollon Parker, Peter Meads, Rebecca J. Meads, Nat Webb, 
John F. Kirby, Jennie Lasater, A. Wooton, Mrs. A. J. Colvin; Mrs. S. M. Cram. 

1853 — J. N. McCaw, Angehne Merchant, W. D. Lyman, Mrs. Catherine 
Ritz, J. F. Brewer, A. McAlister, Catherine McAlister, Evaly Fleetch, Jacob 
Kibler, Mrs. M. H. Kirby, C. R. Frazier and wife. 

1854— Nellie Gilliam Day, James McEvoy, Mrs. Nat Webb, D. Wooton. 

1855 — Alice E. Chamberlain, L. L. Hunt, John Rohn. 

1857 — William Clark, Clare E. Cantonwine. 

1858 George W. Brown, E. H. Massam, William Coston. 

1859— W. P. Winans. 

j86o — Philip Yenney, H. C. Chew, Thomas Gilkerson, C. F. Buck. 

1861 Charles H. Gregory, Mrs. N. E. Rice, A. J. Evans, Mrs. Araminta 

J. Evans, M. Evans, J. L. Hawley, Mrs. Mary Ernest. 

1862 Mrs. E. E. Kellogg, Christine Winans, William Glasford, Ben Bur- 


1863 — H. A. Reynolds, Isabella Kirkman, W. J. Cantonwine. 

1864 Anna Stanfield, P. B. Johnson, William Stanfield, Sallie Stanfield, 

Hettie Malone, W. D. Paul, M. A. Caris and wife, George Dehaven, Caroline 


1865— Daniel Garrecht, James Mclnroe, S. F. Bucholz, J. A. Beard, Mrs. 

George Dehaven, John Sanders. 
1867 — Louis Scholl. 

1868— Maggie Clark, W. H. Kirkman, J. W. Frazier, Marvin Evans. 
i86g — Charles Painter, Mrs. W. C. Prather, D. C. Ingraham, Mina Evans. 


1870 — Joseph MeiThant, F. A. Garrecht, Z. K. Straight and wife. 

1871— Alice McEvans, George H. Starrett, Mrs. S. J. Pettyjohn, B. A. Her- 

1872— N. G. nialock. 

1873 — F- -^- Gowan, Mrs. F. S. Gowan. 

1874 — Julia Brown, Mrs. N. W. Dunnington. 

1875 — D. D. Earp, Chris Seibert, Victor Schaffer. 

1876 — J. F. Bucholz, George Whitehouse. 

1880— M. G. Parr. 

Unknown date — Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Nuttall, G. W. Loundagin and wife, 
Theodore Wolf and wife, Joseph Braden. 


(From Walla Walla Union of June 2, 1911). 

Though Father Time's blade has cut with remorseless sweep, and though 
the pioneers of the Walla Walla Valley have fallen before its swing, the 
attendance at the annual reunion of the pioneers yesterday was greater than has 
ever been known. 

More than two hundred people who came to the Northwest before railroads 
were built attended the annual meeting of the Inland Empire Pioneer Associa- 
tion at Whitman College yesterday. 

Honoring for the twelfth time Dr. N. G. Blalock, the Pioneer Association 
yesterday re-elected him its president. Marvin Evans was also chosen to fill 
the office of secretary for the twelfth successive time. Doctor Blalock and Mr. 
Evans both sought to refuse, but the overwhelming sentiment forced them to 
accept the positions. 

"I feel that I shall not be with you again," said Doctor Blalock, "but if I 
can do any good w'hile I am living, I am willing to do so. My health is such 
that I can do but little; but while life lasts I am ready to serve you, if you 
desire it. I had hoped to retire, but being an American, I must sacrifice my per- 
sonal desires to the will of the majority." 

Hotly scoring the features of the meeting a year ago, Solomon Rader made 
the first address of the day. 

"Political whitewash, the seeking of coal mines and the passing of two- 
gallon demijohns are out of place at a pioneers' reunion. Last year we had all 
three, this year I trust we will have none. I believed last year, when I made 
my farewell address, that I would not live to be present at this meeting, but I 
am here, and I feel twenty years younger than a year ago." 

Mr. Rader carried his remarks into a prohibition talk, and reviewed the local 
situation, stating he believed that the votes of women might change affairs, 
r^octor Blalock then stated that he believed it the duty of all women to vote 
and that the pioneer woman should be first of all to cast her ballot. He intro- 
duced Mrs. Lulu Crandall of The Dalles, who spoke on "How We Preserve 
History at The Dalles." 

She told of the acquisition of the old surgeons' quarters of the old Fort 
Dalles, how they had been furnished, and how the relics of pioneer days were 
preserved there. An historical society has been organized, w^hich is supported 


by three classes of members: Active, who are members of the state historical 
society; associate, who are not members of the state organization; and honorary, 
those who made history in early days. The first two classes of members pay 
annual dues of $2. The plan, stated Mrs. Crandall, is working nicely. 

C. R. Frazier of Dixie was called upon, and his address, read by the secre- 
tary, follows : 

"Fellow members and friends of the Walla Walla County Pioneer Asso- 
ciation : 

"As a member of the Walla Walla Pioneer Association I appreciate very 
much the fact that I again have the privilege to attend another one of this 
society's annual meetings and to meet with fellow members and friends of our 
association. To meet old pioneer friends and to talk over old times with them 
is something that affords me genuine pleasure. Certainly as long as I am able 
to get about you'll always find me in attendance at the annual meetings of this 

"The few brief things I wish to say at this gathering I have had written 
out for when I attempt to talk at such gatherings as this one I find that my 
memory is not as good as it used to be and it is hard for me to say anything in 
a connected way. 

"For forty-seven years I have been a resident of the Walla Walla Valley. 
As 1 have expressed myself many times before I think our valley, its climate 
and resources considered, is one of the greatest countries in the world. For years 
on my farm at Dixie I have been a producer of a varied line of farm products, 
not the least of which was much choice fruit and also several varieties of nuts. 
My orchards were not purchased ready made and I might say that I was the 
original planter of every tree on my place. During late years a picture of one 
of my apple trees has appeared in many newspapers and magazines throughout 
the world because it is a tree that holds a record for producing in one season 
as much as 126 boxes of fine apples. I will admit that I am proud of that 
old apple tree. 

"While I have always been a hard worker I feel that the Walla Walla 
Valley has been kind to me and mine. I first made the trip across the plains 
from the east in 1853. This time, as a boy driving cattle, I made California. 
After spending a short time in California I returned east to my old home in 
Sullivan County, Mo. In 1863, with my earthly possessions consisting of my 
young wife and two children, a team of oxen and a somewhat delapidated vehicle 
that might be called a wagon I left Nebraska for the old Oregon country. 
Travelling over the old well known trails it was a long' journey before we 
reached the Walla Walla Valley. On the trip across one of my children was 
born ; other mishaps, more or less the result of fording streams and hitting the 
rough spots on the trail, also fell to our lot, but with us all such accidents were 
accepted as a matter of course and we didn't waste much time grieving about 
them. Our little caravan on its journey west was headed for Vancouver, but 
when it hit Meacham Mountains one fine fall day in the year 1864 and we had 
an opportunity to see the beautiful Walla Walla Valley I decided right there and 
then that I would travel no farther and that the Walla Walla Valley would be 
quite good enough for me. 

"Reaching Walla Walla we found a town of some eight hundred people ; 


I ninvtd on up to the Dayton country and soon had located a chum near Dixie. 
I'll never forget such famiHes as Longs, Lambs and Locks whom we came up 
with in our new home. Right from the start they were kind to us and helped 
us to get started in a country that was new to us. After we once got a start 
with a cow and some chickens the rest was comparatively easy. In the old 
])ioncer days in this valley neighbors were very kind to one another. 

"liut perhaps I have said enough. I do not wish to tire you. In concluding 
I will say that this gathering is one that I esteem a great occasion ; as it affords 
me an opportunity to meet many of my old friends and a chance to- talk over 
old times with them it is a gathering I would not miss for anything. Thanking 
you very kindly for listening to my few brief remarks, I remain, 

"Yours truly, 

"C. R. Frazier." 


In an interesting and instructive talk. Prof. W. D. Lyman told of the intro- 
duction of apples and cattle into the Northwest. He stated that the first apple 
trees known to have been planted in the Northwest were grown from the seeds 
planted by Doctor Whitman and Reverend Spalding at Waiilatpu and .Alpovva. 
"The first trees of any consequence, however, were planted in the Willamette 
Valley in 1847 ''y Henderson Llewellan, who brought 700 small trees from Ohio 
in a crude wagon that had been fitted out to carry the trees. The wagon in 
which the trees were packed, in boxes, was heavy and time and again Llewellan 
was urged by his comrades to abandon the wagon, but he had an idea that 
fruit would grow well in the new Northwest country and he would not give 
up his travelling nursery. The trees, which were apple, pear, peach and cherry, 
were planted and it is recorded that most of them grew, and from this first 
small orchard grew the great fruit industry of the Northwest. 

"The introduction of cattle into the Inland Empire, while as important in the 
results created, is more picturesque historically. The Hudson's Bay Company 
had a few cattle here as early as 1830, but they were very scarce, so scarce 
that Doctor McLoughlin made a rule against killing them. Marcus Whitman 
brought sixteen head of cattle with him when he first came to this country, 
while in 1838 Doctor Eells brought in fourteen head. These were only the small 
beginnings and were confined mostly to this immediate vicinity. 

"The general cattle business of the Northwest was developed largely by 
the efforts of W. A. Slacum, who was sent to this country in 1836 by the 
United States Government to ascertain some of its resources and size it up 
generally. While in this country Mr. Slacum talked with the different American 
settlers and came to the conclusion that the introduction of cattle would do more 
toward securing a foothold for the United States than anything else. The hard 
part of it was to secure cattle. The Hudson's Bay Company would not sell 
their stock, even to their own people, but rented it out. In 1843 Ewing Young 
came to the Northwest from California, where he was known as a cattle rustler, 
and finding that his reputation had come along with him, settled in the Chehalem 
Valley, where it was his intention to make liquor and sell it to the Indians and 
wandering white men. He was, however, persuaded by Slacum and Doctor 




McLoughlin, who also saw the importance of securing cattle for this country, 
to go to CaUfornia and bring a drove of cattle to Oregon. This drive took 
place in the years of 1S37 and 1838. Young started from California with joo 
head of cattle and arrived in the Willamette Valley with Bcxd head. 

"The second great cattle drive started in 1839 with a group of Americans, 
eager to develop their own interests and the interests of the United States in 
this section of the country. Under the leadership of John Gale they built a 
small schooner called "The Star of Oregon," in which after many difficulties, 
they arrived where San Francisco is now located and after trading their 
schooner for 300 cows, took what money they had and purchased i,2CX) cattle, 
3,000 sheep and 600 horses. The sheep were purchased by the dozen, while the 
horses brought from three to six dollars a head. Consider the hardship these 
few men went through, bringing these animals that long distance under those 

"The introduction of fruit and cattle into the Inland Empire meant much 
to the early settlers and meant vastly much more to the present generation." 


Following this address. Vice President Ben Btirgundei;; c^T^S- attention to the 
fact that Kettle Falls, on June 23d, would celqbrate'"'tiie.ahniver5a*yj of its dis- 
covery by David Thompson. Delegates from the association were ksked ; and 
Pres. N. G. Blalock was authorized to appoint whoever he'skSj^! Ben Bur- 
gunder volunteered to act as a delegate, and any .otliiers. .who ean'go, will be 
made delegates. 

Election of officers was then taken up, and despite his protests, Doctor 
Blalock was re-elected. The other officers elected are : first vice president, Ben 
Burgunder of Colfax; second vice president, A. G. Lloyd of Waitsburg; third 
vice president, Natt Webb ; secretary, Marvin Evans ; treasurer, Levi Ankeny ; 
historian, W. D. Lyman. 

The association then adjourned to Reynolds Hall, where a dinner was served 
by Miss Burr, and the tables were presided over by young ladies of the dormi- 
tory. The banquet was most successful, about two hundred sitting down to the 

' A number of short talks then followed. President Blalock calling upon the 
members of the association for brief addresses. 

"I came here thirty-two years ago," said Rev. John LeCornu, "and at that 
time I knew nearly evervone. Now I know hardly anyone. I used to go where 
I pleased across corners, but it's all fenced now. Where there were formerly 
stables on Main and Alder streets, are now big buildings ; and where we then 
drove through dust or mud, we now have pavements. Schoolhouses, everything, 
have grown in numbers. We have grown, and we will continue to grow." 

A. G. Lloyd of Waitsburg, second vice president of the association, expressed 
his pleasure of being present. He had been in the valley for more than fifty 

W. P. Winans, who has been in the northwest for fifty-two years, made a 
brief talk, stating that fifty-two years ago yesterday he was on the Arkansas 
River, headed for this country. 


"These reunions are the pleasantest times in Hfe. Not only for the present, 
but the future reminiscences of them, bring us pleasure, and I trust they will 
continue as long as we have pioneers." 


Pres. S. B. L. Penrose of Whitman College, was then called upon for an 
address, and extended an invitation for the association to make its permanent 
meeting place at Whitman College. By rising vote, this was accepted. 

"The college is a pioneer, it was founded by pioneers, and its existence will 
be fresh a thousand years hence, when we are all forgotten. The association can- 
not, I think, do better than to link its existence with this institution, whose life 
will be endless; and I extend to you an invitation to hold your future meetings 
at the college." 

Cal Lloyd was the next speaker, and he expressed his pleasure at being 
present, and his hope that he would see every member at the next meeting. 

H. A. Reynolds expressed a desire to have the word pioneer defined, and 
to have an organization, separate from the present one, for the sons and the 
daughters of pioneers. 

"You cannot make a man a pioneer by legislation, any more than you can 
make a Grand Army of the Republic man. I was born here, but do not claim 
to be a true pioneer." 

"I am not that kind of a pioneer," stated W- H. Kirkman, "for when I was 
two years old, without a quaver or misgiving, I took my father by one hand 
and my mother by the other, and faced boldly to the west, leading them to Walla 

"The pioneers have laid here the foundation for the greatest civilization the 
world has ever known; and it is for them to enjoy, as fully as possible, the fruits 
of their labors." 

"I too, used to know the country and every man in it," said William Rine- 
hart, formerly of Union, Oregon, but now of Walla Walla. "At Union I was 
secretary of the Pioneers' Association : and we had enjoyable reunions, much 
like this one. I enjoy them, and trust I will be able to attend many yet.'.' 

Following the reading of the resolutions, which were unanimously adopted, 
members of the association were given an hour's ride about the city in auto- 

The attendance was more than two hundred, the largest in the history of 
the organization, according to old timers who have been in constant attendance. 


Following is the report of the resolutions committee, composed of Prof. W. 
D. Lyman, A. G. Lloyd and W. S. Clarke: 

"Resolutions of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association, June I, 191 1. 

"Resolved : That we recognize with deep gratitude to Providence this oppor- 
tunity which our gathering gives us for renewing the old friendships and making 
new ones. 

"Resolved : That the heartv thanks of the association be extended to Presi- 


dent Penrose and to the officers of Whitman College for the use of Memorial 
Hall; and to Miss Burr, manager of Reynolds Hall, for the delicious banquet 
provided; and to the young ladies for their service upon the tables. 

"Resolved: That we heartily thank the members of the Whitman College 
Glee Club for the beautiful vocal selections which added so pleasant a feature 
to the occasion. 

"We also thank the staff of the local newspapers for their presence and 
interest in this meeting; and we recognize in their reports an indispensable 
means of bringing the aims and work of the society before the public. 

"We thank the president, other officers and committee of arrangements for 
the preparations and completion of this meeting, which will occupy so attractive 
a place in our memories. 

"Resolved, in conclusion : That we would urge upon the members of this 
association the desirability of preparing and giving to the historian biographical 
data to the end of fulfilling one of the great aims of the association, the preserva- 
tion of matter otherwise liable to be lost. 

"We incorporate herewith our heartfelt recognition of those of our members 
who have passed on since our last meeting." 

Death has been active in the list of pioneers during this brief period. 

The association recognizes the loss of these valued friends and members of 
the ranks the inevitable movement of time and the fulfillment of lives nobly 
.spent and of influences which have done much to make this country what it is. 

The association extends its condolence to the members of the families 
bereaved through these deaths, and joins with them in the sentiments of joy 
and pride which their good deeds must impart to all whom their lives have 

The following is a list of those included in the number : Mrs. Kate L. Butz, 
Amos Cummings, William Coston, Mrs. M. E. Ernst, Mrs. Chas. Lampman, Mrs. 
E. H. Massam, L. P. Mulkey, Mrs. Lydia Olds, Mrs. Martha A. Payne, Dale 
Preston, William Stanfield, James J. Gallaher, Mrs. Hollon Parker, Joseph 
McCoy, Mrs. Martha Lovell, Jesse Cummings. 

Members of the Inland Empire Pioneer Association are: Mr. and Mrs. A. 
L. Ring, Dollie Auker, Harry Gilbert, John A. Taylor, William Glasford, G. 
A. Evans, C. H. Kaseberg, A. G. Murphy, Thomas Gilkerson, Henry Chew, 
America DeWitt. Oliver DeWitt, J. J. Rohn. Mrs. Chris Sturm, Henry Ingalls, 
D. Wertheimer, D. H. Irvin, Mrs. Mary Irwin, John McCausland, Mr. and Mrs. 
H. H. Hungate, Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Dunlap, Ben Burgunder, John Tempany, 
G. W. Bowers, Mrs. Isabella Kirkman, Levi Malone, Robert Kennedy, Mrs. J. 
C. Smith, Mrs. C. W. Reser, Miss Reser, Mrs. R. R. Rees, Fannie Hall, Mrs. J. 
W. Foster, N. G. Blalock, Mrs. E. A. Edwards, T. J. Hickman, Mr. and Mrs. 
Joe Harbert, Mrs. Alexander Johnson, Mrs. E. Lewis, Mrs. Mary Jett, S. W. 
Smith, Mrs. Esther Smith, Mr. and Mrs. W. Thomas, Mrs. J. L. Robinson, Mrs. 
J. J. Morrison, George Dehaven, Mrs. Mehala Dehaven, Joseph McEvoy, Mrs. 
J. W. Cookerly, Mrs. Kate Henderson, John Braden, Joe Braden, Mrs. J. F. 
Brewer, Mrs. S. A. Stanfield, Mrs. Lucy Buff, Mrs. Dora Walker, Mrs. D. H. 
Coffin, Mrs. Mary McCoy. Natt Webb, Eliza Jane Webb, Mr. and Mrs. Frank 
Harbert, Mrs. A. T. Bedell, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Cornwell, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest 
Cantonwine, C. R. Frazier, P. Lightle. Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Weidick, Mrs. Jessie 


Jones, Mrs. B. L. Sharpstein, Mrs. Frank Sharpstein, Mrs. .\ddic Upton, Mrs. 
Charles Painter, J. C. Painter, Mr. and Mrs. L. L. Hunt, L. F. Anderson, Mrs. 
D. S. ]5aker, Charles McEvoy, Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Hart, Mr. and Mrs. A. J. 
Evans, Mrs. Margaret Dovell, Mr. and Mrs. Woodson Cummings, Agnes L. 
LeVine, Mrs. Kominsky, Peter Meads, John Hodges, Mr. and Mrs. James Cum- 
mins, Hampton Huff, Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Malloy, Mr. and Mrs. H. L. Cauvel, 
Robert Cummings, J. A. Ross, F. A. Ross, Mrs. Rose Winans, Lulu Crandall, 
Mr. and Mrs. William Hardese, Mr. and Mrs. R. C. McCaw, Doctor and Mrs. 
Probst, Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Clark, William Preston, D. G. Ingraham, Mr. and 
Mrs. A. G. Lloyd, \\'. Manning, S. E. Manning, J. A. Beard, Agnes Beard, Mrs. 
J. P. Denn, J. C. Lloyd, J. H. Pettyjohn, Mrs. Kate Pettyjohn, Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Rinehart, Caroline Ferrel, W. D. Lyman, A. M. McAllister, Dorsey Hill, 
Marvin Evans, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Halter, W. P. Winans, Mr. and Mrs. C. L. 
Whitney, Thomas Mosgrove, Perry J. Lyons, W. S. Offner, Sidney Coyle, Mrs. 
Sarah Coyle, C. B. Lane, Frances E. Lane, Mr. and Mrs. John LeCornu, Mr. 
and Mrs. A. M. McLellan, H. V. Grubb, Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Reynolds, W. H. 


The newspapers of any region must always be given prominence in any 
history of it as being one of the great constructive forces as well as con- 
stituting the indispensable record of events. Besides these fundamental func- 
tions, there is usually found in connection with the press of a new region 
a group of men alive to the needs and opportunities and hence concerned 
in those varied interests which always take shape in new places. Add to this 
the fact that generally there are found among newspaper men odd, unique, and 
entertaining characters, and we evidently have all the material for one of the 
most interesting sections of any history. Walla Walla has had, even more than 
most places, several unique and marked personalities among her "knights of the 
quill." In dealing with them, as with other parts of this work, we feel regret- 
fully the pressure of the inexorable limits of space and are compelled thereby 
to omit the portrayal of some of those amusing, odd, and racy characters and 
events which might enliven the sober pages of history. 

We have had occasion to refer many times to the Statesman as authority for 
early events and have also said something of its first appearance and early man- 
agement. Appearing under the names of Washington Statesman and Walla 
Walla Statesman, it continued for many years to fulfill its mission in the Walla 
Walla country and more than any other may be considered as the historic paper 
of this section. The Statesman had a kind of a double origin. For in Septem- 
ber, 1861, two brothers, W. N. and R. B. Smith, set on foot an enterprise through 
the acquisition of an old press from the Oregon Statesman and sent it to Walla 
Walla. Rather curiously, apparently without knowledge of the other design, N. 
Northrop and R. R. Rees started a similar enterprise only two days later. They 
had obtained a press of the Oregonian, and it was doubtless the first press in 
the Inland Empire, after that used by Rev. H. M. Spalding at Lapwai. Dis- 
covering each other's plans the two parties speedily coalesced and began the 
publication of the Washington Statesman. The first issue appeared on November 
29, 1861. The editors and proprietors are announced as N. Northrop, R. B. 
Smith and R. R. Rees. We have given in an earlier chapter copious extracts 
from the first number. Several numbers in April, 1862, were on brown and 
yellow paper, for which profuse apologies are oflfered. On May 10, the editor 
has the following quaint "kick" : "Our patrons, in sending us gold dust on sub- 
scriptions, or otherwise, will confer an especial favor by making a proper allow- 
ance for the weight of the sand. We can't make those who buy the dust of us 
believe that the sand is as valuable as the gold ; nor do we believe it, either. 
^Besides, in disposing of the dust, we are compelled to see it 'blowed' and 

Vol. I 17 



'magnetized' until it is pioixMlv cleaned, and the result is that that which we 
receive for $5 sometimes dwindles down to $2.50." 

i'.y the retirement of .Mr. Smith in January, 1862, and l)y the death of Mr. 
Northrop in I'"cbruary, 18O3, the Statesman became the property of R. R. Rees, 
but in association with his brother, S. G. Rees, whose name appeared for the 
first time in the issue of October 11, 1862. Jn the number of May 9, 1863, the 
lirm name appears as R. R. and S. G. Rees. In the luunber of September 2, 1864, 
the name ll'alla IValla Statesman was substituted for Washinytun Statesman, 
but without comment. 

The tirm name of R. R. and S. G. Rees was continued till November 10, 1865, 
when a notable change occurred. Wm. H. Newell became proprietor. In the 
paper of that date he makes his debut in an editorial which indicates his strong 
personality and his fine command of good English. It is a just tribute to Major 
Rees to say that his management of the Statesman, like that of the many other 
enterprises which made him one of the conspicuous figures in early Walla Walla, 
was broad, intelligent, and patriotic. 

Mr. Newell was a character, bold, energetic, caustic, and as a writer, incisive 
mid forceful. It is related that once having a joint debate with Judge Caton, 
he began by saying: "Fellow citizens, it is a disagreeable task to skin a skunk, 
but sometimes it has to be done. I am going to skin N. J. Caton." Judge Caton 
reached for his hip-pocket and the meeting broke up in a general row, though 
it does not appear that any one was seriously hurt. The Statesman under Mr. 
Newell was democratic in politics and during the enibroglio between President 
Johnson and Congress it was an active supporter of the former. It is said by 
some that its attainment of the place of United States official paper in the terri- 
tory was due to that support. In 1878, the Statesman became a daily, the first in 
the Inland Empire. But on November 13th, the active, scheming mind of the 
editor was stilled by death. After a month's interval, Frank J. Parker, a son- 
in-law of Newell, and himself as unique a character as the former editor, began 
his long career as a journalist. The daily was somewhat in advance of the 
times and was discontinued within a short period, but in February, 1880, was 
again undertaken, not to be discontinued so long as the Statesman was a separate 
paper. Colonel Parker owned the Statesman till June, 1900, in which year it 
went into the hands of the Statesman Publishing Co., Dr. E. E. Fall being the 
leading member of the company. 

During a large part of that portion of the career of the Statesman Waller 
Lingenfelder was editor in chief. He was a man of much journalistic ability, and 
later entered upon a brilliant literary career in New York. 

The IValla IValla llnioii was the next newspaper to attain a permanent stand- 
ing in Walla Walla. This was the uncompromising radical republican organ and 
was the natural counterpart of the Statesman. It was founded in 186S by a 
grouj) of strong supporters of Congress in the great reconstruction struggle then 
in progress. 

The first number appeared on April 17, 1869. H. M. Judson was the editor, 
but the policy of the paper was under the control of a committee consisting of 
P. B. Johnson, E. C. Ross, and J. D. Cook. Within a short time R. M. Smith 
and E. L. Meriff became the owners of the paper and E. C. Ross became editor. 
In 1878 Capt. P. B. Johnson succeeded Mr. Ross as editor, and with his entrance 


into the field of journalism there began one of the most forceful and influential 
careers in the journalism of Walla Walla. Captain Johnson was a man of 
intense and dominating personality and possessed much ability with the pen. His 
politics were those of the stalwart republicans. He had been a soldier and 
officer of the Civil war, and the great conflict had so burned its traces upon his 
mind that it was difficult for him to think in terms of patience of any other 
policies than those which had saved the Union and freed the slave. He acquired 
the property control of the Union and until 1890 was sole owner and proprietor. 
In that year he disposed of his interest to Charles Besserer, who had for some 
time been publishing the Walla Walla Journal. And as soon as we name Charles 
Besserer old-timers will at once recognize the fact that we have arrived at the 
uniquest of the uniques. Nature broke her mold at that point and never made 
another of the same kind. German by birth, though as he once told the author, 
of Spanish origin, well educated in his home land, a soldier in the Crimea, in the 
Civil war in this country, and in various Indian wars, fulfilling at various times 
the functions of manager of a bakery, a distillery, and a hotel, a postmaster, a 
justice of the peace, a sheep man, a farmer, and finally an editor, Mr. Besserer 
maintained under all circumstances his characteristic self. He wielded a trenchant 
pen and though his obituaries were sometimes of a type to add pangs to the 
thought of approaching death on the part of citizens of old Walla Walla, he had 
a high conception of the responsibilities of journalism and of the requisites of 
a well managed newspaper. In 1896 the ownership of the Union passed from 
Mr. Besserer to Herbert Gregg and Harry Kelso. It was conducted by them 
as a bed-rock republican paper and disposed of three years later to J. G. Frank- 
land, Lloyd Armstrong and Bert La Due. After conducting the paper with 
success for a year the firm disposed of it to a group of leading republicans, 
among whom was D. B. Crocker. J. Howard Watson, well known over the state 
<iS a brilliant writer, for some time a correspondent of the Seattle Posf-Iiitclli- 
gencer, was installed as editor in 1900 and held his place with conspicuous edi- 
torial ability until failing health compelled him to retire. He made his home 
for a time on a beautiful place on Lake Chelan, but finally succumbed to an 
untimely death from tuberculosis. Mr. Watson was succeeded in 1902 by A. F. 
Statter, a man of many accomplishments, who conducted the Union with great 
ability for several years and then became private secretary to Sen. Levi Ankeny, 
from which post he attained a national position, becoming assistant secretary of 
the treasur}' in 1907. Eugene Lorton followed Mr. Statter as managing editor in 
September, 1903. In 1907 a marked change occurred in the status of Walla 
Walla newspapers, for in that year the Union and Statesman were brought under 
the one control and ownership of the Washington Printing and Book Publishing 
Co., with Percy C. Holland, who had been for some time connected with the 
Union, as manager. For sometime after the merger, Carl Roe acted as editor of 
the Union, which continued as a morning paper, while the Statesman, still an 
evening paper, was edited by Seth Maxwell. During several years following 
Dr. E. E. Fall became one of the chief owners and the manager of the Union, 
and there were a number of editorial writers and city editors of variable and 
some of them of transient careers. Among them was Walter Lingenfelder 
already mentioned in connection with the Statesman, who has become prominent 
in the East ; Scott Henderson, who subsequently became assistant attorney-general 


of the state ; Wni. Guion, who was known as a capable editor and brilUant writer, 
and Harold Ellis, now city editor of the Bulletin. While those changes were in 
progress, a new afternoon daily, destined to be a great factor in subsequent 
journalistic history, had been launched by Eugene Lorton. This was the Walla 
IValla Bulletin, and its first number appeared on February u, 1906. Another 
stage of importance occurred in 1910. In that year the publication of the 
Statesman was discontinued. That pioneer paper, a monument to the enterprise 
and capacity of Major Rees, and later of W. H. Newell and Colonel Parker, 
having had many ups and downs, but entitled to the leading place among the 
journals of the Inland Empire, thus closed its career after forty-nine years of 
active participation in the foundation period of Walla Walla. 

Dr. E. E. Fall still continued as manager of the Union, but in December, 
1912. he disposed of his interests to Berton La Due and D. W. Ift, while John 
H. McDonald acquired the ownership of Mr. Ankeny's share of the pa{>er. In 
1916 Mr. McDonald disposed of his share in the company to E. G. Robb. At 
the date of this publication the Union is therefore the property of Messrs. La 
Due, Ift, and Robb. Of the many who have been connected with the Union it 
may be said that Mr. La Due is the dean in service, having been connected with 
it for eighteen years. Most of the others have had brief tenures. The Wash- 
ington Printing and Book Publishing Company are not only providing a first- 
class newspaper in the Union, but do an immense printing business of the best 

The Walla Walla Bulletin, founded, as we have seen, by Eugene Lorton in 
1906, was acquired by John G. Kelly, formerly of Omaha, Neb., on February i, 
1910. Under his management the Bulletin has become one of the successful and 
influential daily newspapers of the Northwest. It is an independent newspaper. 
It has always stood for definite purposes and for the advancement of the general 
good as against special interests. It has been the leader in many movements 
for public betterment, notably the commission form of city government for 
Walla Walla, adopted in 1911, and for state-wide prohibition, which attained 
a sweeping triumph in both 1914 and 1916. The Bulletin appears every after- 
noon except Sunday and has the full leased wire reports of the Associated Press. 
The Sunday morning edition has the full leased wire report of the United Press 
Association. The independent policy of the Bulletin backed up by its superior 
news service, including telegraph, local news and correspondence from nearby 
towns, together with a splendid distribution service, has brought to it the largest 
circulation of any publication in Southeastern Washington and Northeastern 
Oregon. The Bulletin has a strictly modern mechanical plant. A site for a 
permanent home has been secured at the northwest corner of First and Poplar 
streets and there a first class modern newspaper building will soon be erected. 

The Statesman, the Union, and the Bulletin may be regarded as the leading 
general newspapers of Walla Walla. But a number of others have been founded 
with more specialized aims which have played important parts for comparatively 
limited time, j'et are well worthy of a place in a historical record. A brief 
item about each of these is due to history. 

The Spirit of the West was founded by J. M. Ragsdale in 1872. Charles 
Humphries assisted as editorial writer. He was succeeded in turn by L. K. Grimm 
and Charles Besserer. Mr. Besserer becoming owner in 1877 changed the name 


to Walla Walla ]Vatchuian, to be changed in turn to Walla Walla Journal. The 
Journal in time, as already noted, became merged with the Union, and for a time 
the paper, known as the Union-Journal, was under the ownership of Mr. Besserer. 

Mr. M. C. Harris was for a time concerned in newspaper ventures, pubHshing 
the Morning Journal in 1881 and the Daily Events in 1882. In the latter year 
also appeared the Washingtonian, published by W. L. Black, an accomplished 
writer, who also conducted Totvn Talk. 

Li April, 1894, W. F. Brock started the Garden City Gazette and in the next 
year J. J. Schick brought out the Watchman. In the Garden City Gazette Mr. 
Brock undertook the establishment of a distinctively local and social department, 
which Mr. Schick carried on into the Watchman. In 1900 the owners of the 
Union, Messrs. La Due, Frankland, and Armstrong, acquired the plant of the 
Gazette and the Watchman and continued the publication under the name of the 
Saturday Record. 

In 1898 Walter Lingenfelder and C. H. Goddard started the Argus. This 
paper had the avowed aim of exposing abuses and humbugs and grafts, and ful- 
filled its mission by causing cold chills on the part of many who were conscious 
of belonging in those categories. It became ultimately the sole property of Mr. 
Lingenfelder, but he left it to become associated with Doctor Fall in the Union. 

In 1900 A. H. Harris brought out an excellent monthly,- maintained for sev- 
eral years, known as the Inland Empire. 

In 1916 there was founded at Walla Walla, as a democratic campaign advo- 
cate for the. re-election of President Wilson and Governor Lister, the Walla 
Walla Democrat. The managers were Charles Hill and Ernest W. Lanier. Rus- 
sell Blankenship and W. D. Lyman were regular editorial contributors during 
the campaign. The triumph of the cause in the election of both the democratic 
President and democratic governor was a sufficient encouragement to Mr. Lanier 
to maintain the pubhcation, and it is accordingly continued with vigor and suc- 
cess. At the present date Mr. Fred H. Butcher is associated with Mr. Lanier 
in the ownership and management of the Democrat. They maintain a well 
equipped printing establishment, in which they make a specialty of embossed 

The first issue of the Garden City Monitor (weekly) was dated October 10, 
1908. This paper was established by Jesse Ferney to represent the interests 
of union labor in Walla Walla and Southeastern Washington. It has been the 
official organ of the Walla Walla Trades and Labor Council since its inception. 
In 1910 L. F. Clarke purchased a half interest in the paper. Ferney & Clarke, 
the publishers, have endeavored to make the paper progressive yet represent 
the conservative rather than the radical forces of union labor. A feature of the 
publication is an illustrated annual edition appearing on Friday before Labor 
Day each year. 

One of the notable publications of Walla Walla, filling a field not occupied 
by any other, is the monthly Up-To-The Times Magazine. This valuable pub- 
lication was founded in November, 1906, by R. C. MacLeod, and he has been 
editor and manager to the present date. Mr. MacLeod is entitled to great credit 
for his faith in the appreciation of a community which ordinarily would hardly 
be regarded as possessing sufficient population to justify a monthly magazine. 

The aim of the magazine is to secure greater efficiency in education, agricul- 


ture, commercial, and industrial life. It also maintains a department devoted 
to historical and pioneer subjects. Today, the magazine, independent of any sub- 
sidy from any source, is the only publication of its kind in the interior Northwest. 
Its success has been due to the steady maintainance of high literary as well as 
business ideals. 

The importance of U p-To-Thc-Tinies as a publication may be inferred from 
the fact that it has paid for printing to one firm of Walla Walla ])rinters the 
sum of $40,000, and that its half tone cuts of local scenes and industrial and 
agricultural life have called for an expenditure with a Spokane engraving house 
of $5,000. The cuts accumulated during the years of its existence constitute 
by far the most extensive and valuable collection of pictorial matter in this sec- 
tion of the state. 

The field of Up-To-Thc Times is some eight counties of Washington and 
Oregon, but it may be noted that it has subscribers and readers in many other 
parts of the United States and Europe. The staff of the magazine at the present 
date consists of Mr. MacLeod as editor and manager, and A. F. Alexander, as 
secretary and circulation manager. There are a number of regular correspondents 
and contributors in Walla Walla and elsewhere. 

In addition to the publications in Walla Walla City, this is the proper place 
to name the pioneer papers of the other towns of the old county. We turn first 
of all to Waitsburg in respect to its leading paper. 


This has been the leading paper and most of the time the only paper of 
Waitsburg for a period of thirty-nine years. This paper originated in a joint- 
stock company formed in 1878, a number of 'local business men feeling that the 
little community should have a weekly spokesman. The first editor was B. L. 
Land and the first issue appeared in March, 1878. A few months later the plant 
was leased to D. G. Edwards, and later to J. C. Swash. The following year 
C. W. Wheeler was induced to lease the plant and he liked the work so well 
that the next year — 1880 — he purchased the property from the stockholders. 
Under the influence of C. W. Wheeler the Times became an influence in the com- 
munity and in Walla Walla and Columbia counties. The paper continued under 
the management of Mr. Wheeler until 1900 when he leased the plant to two 
of his sons — E. L. and Guy Wheeler — so that he might enjoy a well-earned 
rest from the grind of newspaper work and take up the work of traveling lec- 
turer for the Woodmen of the World fraternity, that he might be able to fulfill 
his desire to travel in the West extensively. These two sons having been 
practically raised in a printing office, were able to take entire charge of the paper. 
A couple of years later E. L. Wheeler, the older son, purchased the paper and 
plant from his father, and has been sole editor and proprietor since. 

The Times boasts of one of the finest country plants in the state at the present 
time, owning its brick building and being equipped with modern presses, two 
magazine intertype type-casting machines, electric and water power and all other 
conveniences of present day journalism. 

Not since the day that C. W. Wheeler took charge of the paper has the Times 
missed an issue. 


In politics the Times is republican. 

There was published for a short time in Waitsburg a democratic weekly, the 
Gazette. Its first issue appeared on June 29, 1899. R. V. Hutchins was pro- 
prietor and editor. In the next year C. W. McCoy acquired the Gazette, but in 
less than a year he in turn sold out to J. E. Houtchins, by whom the paper was 
conducted for some years, to be discontinued in 1905. 

The pioneer newspaper of Dayton, while it was still in Walla Walla County, 
was the Dayton Nezvs, founded in September, 1874, by A. J. Cain. In April, 
1878, county division having come in the meantime, E. R. Burk began publica- 
tion of the Chronicle, still one of the leading papers of Columbia County. H. H. 
Gale was first editor. In 1879 O. C. White became owner of the Chronicle. In 
1882 T. O. Abbott started the publication of the Democratic State Journal. It 
was designed to maintain the banner of democracy in Columbia County which 
had been lost when the Dayton Nezfs plant was destroyed by fire in 1882. 

The first newspaper in what is now Garfield County was established at Pome- 
roy on April 12, 1880, by F. W. D. Mays, and named the Washington Independent. 
The Pomeroy Republican came into existence March 4, 1882, founded by Eugene 
T. Wilson, who admitted F. M. McCully to an equal partnership two months 
later. The ambitious little Town of Pataha became also the home of a news- 
paper, the Pataha Spirit. Its founder was G. C. W. Flammond and its first 
issue was in January, 1881. The next year it came into the hands of Dr. J. S. 
Denison and Charles Wilkins. Both the Pomeroy Republican and the Pataha 
Spirit were republican in politics, the Independent being generally true to its 
name, though inclining to democratic and populistic views. 

The publications named may be regarded as the pioneers in the parts of the 
old county now comprising the three counties outside of Walla Walla. During 
the years following county division a number of others came into existence and 
now represent the press of their respective towns, and of them we shall make 
mention under the different counties. 

The quest for journalistic history in the present Walla Walla County outside 
of Walla Walla City and Waitsburg leads us to the editorial sanctum of the 
Walla Walla Spectator of Prescott, presided over by Charles H. O'Neil, a native 
son of the "Valley of Waters," and a leading spirit among the pioneers and 
"Boosters" as well as the newspapermen of this section. The Spectator was 
established November 22, 1902. Mr. O'Neil has followed the occupation of 
printer during almost his entire business life, having spent a number of years in 
the printing establishments of Walla Walla before entering upon his independent 
venture. The Spectator has performed a service of conspicuous importance for 
the rich farming region in which it is located by helping organize public senti- 
ment in the direction of community enterprise and civic advancement. As a result 
of these enlarged ideals through the schools, church, business men, and homes of 
the town, as well as the part borne in the same direction by the Spectator, Pres- 
cott has become somewhat remarkable, for a town of its population, for its high 
community spirit. 

The veteran journalist of the west end of Walla Walla County is R. C. 
Julian of Attalia. Mr. Julian has been connected with several newspaper enter- 
prises and at the present time is the owner and manager of the Walltda GatenHiy, 
the Attalia News-Tribune, and the Helix Advocate, at Helix, Ore. The Wallula 


Gateway was launched on December 25, 1905, by Harter and Julian. After a few 
months Mr. Julian bought out his partner and has since conducted the paper 
alone. On May 11, 1907, he started the Touchet Pioneer, selling it after a year 
to A. M. Cummins. After sundry ownerships, the Pioneer became the Touchet- 
Gardnia Empire, and is at the present time pubhshed by Ferney and Clarke of 
Walla Walla. The Attalia News-Tribune was the successor of the short-lived 
Two Rivers Tribune, which was started in 1908 by A. B. Frame to "boom" the 
land project at Two Rivers. The plant of the latter paper was secured by D. 
D. Swanson, formerly of Minneapolis, apd in May, 1909, he entered upon, the 
publication of the News-Tribune at Attalia. After three months Mr. Swanson 
retired, disposing of his establishment to Messrs. Cummins and Julian. Within 
another short period Mr. Julian became the sole owner and has so continued to 
this day. Looking still further, Mr. Julian started yet another weekly journal at 
Helix. Ore., the Helix Advocate. Having disposed of it in 191 5 to J. J. Lewis, 
Mr. Julian reacquired possession in August, 191 7, and thus is now the sole pro- 
prietor of the three weeklies. 


A special interest always attaches to the legal, judicial and medical repre- 
sentatives of any country, and especially a new country. The lawyers and 
judges necessarily play so large a part in the creation of laws and the founding 
of institutions that their history is well nigh co-extensive with the development 
of their country. The physicians are so vital an element in the home life and the 
general conditions of their communities, that their history also comes near being 
a history of these communities. 

We are presenting here several special contributions from representatives of 
these classes of citizens. We have had occasion at many points in the progress 
of this history to name prominent representatives of the bench and bar, and of 
the medical profession. 

We present first a sketch of the early Walla Walla bench and bar by one of 
the foremost lawyers of the city, who is himself also a member of a family 
which has, perhaps, been more closely identified with the bench and bar of this 
section of the state than any other. We refer to the Sharpstein family, and we 
have the privilege of here presenting this article by John L. Sharpstein : 

The intention is not to make this matter relating to the first judicial district 
of the Territory of Washington such a complete history as would be demanded 
if it were written more exclusively for the use and information of attorneys. 
The judicial system which existed in the Territory of Washington prior to its 
admission as a state possessed some characteristics which in the present time 
would be regarded as peculiar. There were originally three district courts estab- 
lished under the acts of the Congress of the United States, and which were 
known as territorial district courts. These courts had jurisdiction of all matters, 
both civil and criminal, other than probate causes and each county in the terri- 
tory had its own probate judge who was not necessarily a lawyer. The peculiarity 
referred to above was the fact that the Supreme Court was composed of the 
judges who were the district judges, so that the same judge who presided in the 
trial of a case in the lower court also participated in its final decision in the ter- 
ritorial Supreme Court. 

As originally constituted there were three judicial districts in the Territory 
of Washington. The first judicial district consisted of all of Eastern Washington. 
Subsequently Eastern Washington was divided and a new district was created 
which was known as the Fourth Judicial District, with its presiding judge resi- 
dent at the City of Spokane. The District Court in the First Judicial District 
was organized at Walla Walla on June 4, i860. Judge William Strong, who 
afterwards became a practicing attorney at Portland, Ore., was the presiding 
judge. The first attorneys admitted to practice in this court were Edward S. 



Bridges and Otis S. Bridges. They were admitted on June 4, i860. John G. 
Sparks was the next attorney admitted to practice, and the date of his admission 
was June 5, i860. W. A. George was admitted on April 15, 1861, and his prac- 
tice at the bar in Eastern Washington probably covered more years than that of 
any other attorney who has ever practiced in this jurisdiction. 

At the organization of the court a grand jury was inij)anellcd and included 
in the members of that grand jury were W. S. Gilliam and Milton Aldrich, both 
of whom afterwards became prominent in both business and political affairs in 
Walla Walla County, and were among the most useful and respected citizens of 
that community. 

As originally constituted the territorial District Court comprised all of 
Eastern Washington, but by division the territorial jurisdiction was gradually 
reduced so that the southern half of Eastern Washington practically constituted 
the first district at the time of the admission of the territory as a state. After 
the first organization of he court and the appointment of Judge Strong, among 
the presiding judges were E. P. Oliphant, James A. Wyche, James K. Kennedy, 
J. R. Lewis, S. C. Wingard and William G. Langford. William G. Langford was 
the last judge prior to the admission of the state. Judge Wyche, Judge Kennedy 
and Judge Wingard after their retirement from the bench made their homes 
in Walla Walla Cit}', and were useful and respected members of that community 
until the dates of their respective deaths. 

While the systems prevailing prior to the admission of the state in the terri- 
torial courts permitting the judge who tried the case to be a member of the 
Supreme Court on the hearing of the case on appeal would seem to be peculiar, 
it was not so unsatisfacotry in its results as one would be inclined to think it 
might have been. 

J. L. Sharpstein. 

We next present a contribution from Judge Chester F. Miller, of Dayton, long 
and intimately identified with the legal practice and with the court decisions of 
this section. We have had occasion to refer to Judge Miller many times in the 
course of this history, and we have had the privilege of enrolling him among the 
advisory board for the work. Anything from his pen is of exceptional value. 
His contribution follows here: 


The district court of \\'alla Walla County, with jurisdiction over all of the 
eastern part of the territory, was created by the Legislature in i860, and made a 
part of the First Judicial District of the territory. Judge William Strong of 
Vancouver then presided over this court, and held his first term at Walla Walla 
on Tune 4, i860. In 1861, James E. Wyche was appointed judge of the district, 
took up his residence in W'alla Walla and thereafter held regular terms in that 
])lace. The territorial judges succeeding him were James K. Kennedy in 1870, 
J. R. Lewis in 1873, Samuel C. Wingard in 1875, and William G. Langford in 

The only resident attorneys appearing of record at the first term of court 
held in Walla Walla were Andrew J. Cain and Col. Wyatt A. George. There 
may have been other mining camp lawyers in Walla Walla at that time, but they 


did not remain long enough to become identified with the courts or the early 
history of this section. William G. Langford, James H. Lasater and James D. 
Mix came in 1863, Benjamin L. Sharpstein in 1865, Nathan T. Caton in 1867, 
Thomas H. Brents in 1870, Thomas J. Anders in 1871, John B. Allen and Charles 
B. Upton in 1878 and Daniel J. Crowley in 1880. Although these lawyers resided 
in Walla Walla, and were more closely identified with the history of that county, 
yet they should be mentioned here, for the reason that they followed the judge 
around the circuit of the old first judicial district, and practiced in the district 
courts of Eastern Washington, as fast as they were created by the Legislature. 
The court practice in those days was very different from what it is now. When 
Judge Wingard was appointed in 1875, he held court in Walla Walla, Yakima and 
Colville. Afterwards Dayton, Colfax and Pomeroy were added to the court 
towns. Court was held two or three times each year in each town, and usually 
lasted for two or three weeks. The judge was followed around the circuit by the 
members of the bar above mentioned. They took their chances of picking up 
some business at each term, and on account of their experience and ability were 
usually associated with local counsel on one side or the other of each case. 
There was no preliminary law day, and the attorneys had to be ready on a 
moment's notice to argue the motions and demurrers, and get their cases ready 
for immediate trial. Stenographers and typewriters were unknown, and the 
lawyer prepared his amended pleadings at night with' pen and ink, and in the 
morning proceeded with the trial of his case. .Law books were few and far 
between ; a good working library consisted of the session laws, ''Bancroft's Forms," 
"Estee's Pleadings," and a few good text books. -.Supreme Court reports were 
unknown in this section of the country, and the case lawyer had" not yet come 
into existence. In the arginnent of legal questions, decisions of the courts were 
seldom mentioned, but the lawyers depended upon their knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of the law, and their ability to apply those principles to the facts of the 
case on trial. There were no specialists in different branches of the law in those 
days and the successful lawyer was able to take up in rapid succession, with 
only one night for preparation, first an important criminal case, then a com- 
plicated civil jury case, and then an intricate equity case. There may be at this 
time abler lawyers in some one branch of their profession, than were this pioneer 
bar, but for a general knowledge of all the branches of the law, and readiness 
in applying the fundamental principles of the law to their particular case, with- 
out having reference to the court reports, the pioneer lawyer was far in the 
lead of the modern practitioner. This method of practice made big, broad and 
ready men; the little lawyer drifted in and soon drifted out; only the big ones 
remained, and they made their mark both in law and in politics. In those days, 
when there were no railroads, no daily newspapers, no moving picture shows, 
or other places of amusement, the people from far and near came to tovra during 
court week and regularly attended its session, enjoying the funny incidents com- 
ing up during the trials, and listening attentively to the eloquent speeches of the 
able lawyers. 

The District Court for Columbia County was created in 1878, and in June 
of that year. Judge Wingard held his first term in Dayton. In addition to the 
Walla Walla lawyers above mentioned, the following members of the local bar 
were in attendance at that time: Andrew J. Cain, Robert F. Sturdevant, Wyatt 


A. George, Morgan A. Baker, Mathew W. Mitchell, Thomas H. Crawford, John 
T. Ford, William Ewing and John D. McCabe, of Dayton and William C. Potter 
and Joseph H. Lister of I'omeroy. 

Judge Wingard was red headed, a little dyspeptic, somewhat irritable at times 
and usually wore a shawl around his shoulders, while occupying the bench. He 
was much given to imposing lines on lawyers, jurors and witnesses who came in 
late, but generally remitted them after he had cooled off. He was always kind 
to the young, inexperienced lawyer, giving him good advice, and extending a 
helping hand when the young fellow was lost in his case and grasping for a 
straw. He was more exacting with the older lawyer and quickly became impatient 
when one of them tried to mislead him as to the law. However, he was a good 
judge, honored and respected by all, and administered the law as it appeared to 
him, without fear of being recalled. 

Andrew J. Cain was probably the pioneer lawyer of Southeastern Wash- 
ington, and made his first appearance as a clerk in the quartermaster's depart- 
ment, at the time the treaty was concluded by General Wright with the Indians, 
at Walla Walla in 1858, and assisted in preparing the terms of this treaty. He 
practiced in Walla Walla from i860 until 1873, when he came to Dayton and 
soon afterwards founded the Dayton News, Dayton's pioneer newspaper. He 
had full charge in the Legislature of the bills creating the present County of 
Columbia, is frequently mentioned as the father of that county, and was its first 
county auditor. He was always considered an able and well equipped lawyer, 
not particularly eloquent, but very forcible in his speech, and was quite suc- 
cessful while engaged in the practice. He died in 1879. 

Col. Wyatt A. George was born in Indiana in 1819, and after serving in the 
Mexican war, came to the coast during the gold excitement of 1849. ^^ ^o^' 
lowed the mining camps until i860, when he settled in Walla Walla, practicing 
there until the District Court was established in Dayton in 1878, when he 
removed to that town. He practiced in Dayton for ten years and then went to 
Pomeroy for a short time, then to Colfax, and afterwards returned to Walla 
Walla, where he died without means, his last wants being administered by the 
members of the bar, with whom he had practiced for so many years. His knowl- 
edge of the law was wonderful, and he was often referred to as a walking law 
library, and by many as "Old Equity." He seldom referred to a law book, yet his 
knowledge of the principles and reasons of the law, and his familiarity with the 
technical system of pleadings then in vogue, was such that he seldom entered a 
case, without interposing a demurrer or motion against the pleading of his 
adversary, and always demanded and collected terms before allowing them to 
plead over. He was perhaps the ablest common lawyer in the territory, and was 
very successful in his practice. The old colonel with his tall, slender form, his 
white beard, his stove pipe hat and cane, was noticeable in any gathering, and he 
always believed in maintaining the dignity of his profession in the manner of his 
dress and his bearing on the street. The colonel wasn't much of a joker, but 
had a sense of dry humor about him, which sometimes cropped out, and was 
much appreciated by his associates. There was a drayman in Dayton in those 
days, known as "Old Jake," who drove a pair of mules to his dray. His mules 
were attached and he employed Colonel George to claim them as exempt. The 
previous Legislature in describing the property exempt to a teamster, had unin- 


tentionally omitted the word "mules," and Judge Wingard held against the 
colonel. After studying the statute for a moment, the colonel remarked to the 
judge that the members of the late lamented Legislature had evidently overlooked 
mules, but that it was the first time in the history of the world that a mule 
had been overlooked by a set of jackasses. 

Judge Sturdevant came to Dayton in 1874, and was soon elected prosecuting 
attorney of the first judicial district. He was the first probate judge of Columbia 
County and its prosecuting attorney for many years. He was a member of the 
constitutional convention, and the first judge of this judicial district after we 
became a state. He practiced law in Columbia County until a few years ago, 
when he removed to Olympia, but occasionally comes back for the trial of some 
case and recalls old memories. The judge was of a very genial disposition, 
always ready to lay aside his work and tell a good story, yet withal he was a 
splendid lawyer, trying his cases closely and generally with success, and even 
yet in his old age, he retains his knowledge of the law, his cunning and his 
ready wit, and bids fair to practice law for many years to come. 

Morgan A. Baker was a young man when he came to Dayton from Albany, 
Ore., in 1877. He was a good office lawyer and a safe adviser. He was some- 
what diffident in court, but usually tried his cases well. As a politician and 
manager of the old democratic party in this county, he was in a class by himself. 
He practiced here for thirteen years and was very successful in his profession 
and in a financial way. He removed from here to Seattle and afterwards returned 
to his first home at McMinville, Ore., where he died a few years ago. 

The other local lawyers who were present at the first term of court, did not 
remain here long. M. W. Mitchell is still living at Weiser, Idaho. Tom Crawford 
located at Union, Ore., and attained considerable political prominence in that 

In 1879, David Higgins and James Knox Rutherford came to Dayton. Hig- 
gins was an elderly man, and somewhat hard of hearing; he never had to amend 
his pleadings, because no one could read his writing ; he had a very good knowl- 
edge of the law, and is principally remembered as the man who broke the first 
city charter. He afterwards located at Sprague where he died many years ago. 

Rutherford was prosecuting attorney for several years and assisted John B. 
Allen in the prosecution of Owenby, McPherson and Snodderly, the most cele- 
brated murder trials of this part of the state. Rutherford went from here to 
Whatcom, and when last heard from was working at his old trade as a paper 
maker at Lowell, Wash. 

In 1880, Melvin M. Godman and John Y. Ostrander located in Dayton. 
Judge Godman was then a young lawyer, from Santa Clara, Cal., but was 
very successful from the start, and soon attained prominence in his profession. 
He was acknowledged by all, as one of the greatest trial lawyers in Eastern 
Washington. He was an eloquent advocate, with a good knowledge of the law, 
forcibly presenting the strong points of his own case, and quick to discover 
the weak points in his opponent's case, and turn them to his own advantage. 
He was twice a member of the Legislature, a member of the constitutional con- 
vention, the second superior judge of this district, an unsuccessful candidate 
for supreme judge, congressman and governor of the state, and at the time of 
his death was chairman of the Public Service Commission. He was one of the 


great men of the state. John Y. Ostrander was the son of Dr. Ostrander, and 
born in Cowlitz County, but came to Dayton from Olympia. He was a good 
lawyer for a young man; was red headed and a natural lighter, and even when 
he lost his case, he gave his op])oncnt good reason to remember that he had been 
in a lawsuit. 

In 1881, Elmon Scott was admitted to practice in the courts of this district, 
at Dayton, and located at Pomeroy, where he became i)rominent in his profes- 
sion, and when we became a state, he was elected to the Sujjreme Court, doing 
honorable service for twelve years. He then retired from practice and is now 
living quietly at Bellingham, enjoying a well earned competency. In 1883, Mack 
F. Gose took his examination at Dayton and also located at Pomeroy, where he 
developed into one of the most successful lawyers in Eastern Washington. He 
served for six years on our supreme bench, where he justly earned the reputation 
of being one of the greatest judges our state has yet produced. Judge Gose 
delved deeply into the law and his thorough knowledge of its fundamental prin- 
ciples was responsible for his great success upon the bench. The judge is 
admired by his acquaintances and worshiped by his friends in Garfield County, 
where he spends his summers on his ranch at Mayview. 

In 1884, Samuel G. Cosgrove located at Dayton and was admitted to practice 
in the courts of the territory, but soon removed to Pomeroy. He was a veteran 
of the Civil war, an orator and an excellent trial lawyer. His predominant 
characteristics were amljition and perseverance, never losing sight of his goal 
until by persistent efforts he had reached it. He was a member of the constitu- 
tional convention and finally achieved his life long ambition to be governor of 
Washington. It is to be regretted that he did not live to enjoy the fruits of 
his life long work. 

Much might be said of these three men, but their history is a part of the 
history of the state ; they put Pomeroy on the map, and gave it the reputation 
of having produced more prominent men than any small town in our state. 

During the year 1886, Charles R. Dorr and James Ewen Edmiston, both of 
whom had read law in Dayton, took the examination and were admitted to prac- 
tice. Charlie Dorr w^as an orator and a student and quickly took his place among 
the leading lawyers, and it was often said that he was the most brilliant young 
lawyer in this part of the state. With him ambition reigned supreme, and this 
coupled with natural industry and backed by that drive power which causes 
men to do things worth while, would have made him a power in this state, had 
he lived a few years longer. He was prosecuting attorney for two years, and took 
his place among the campaign orators of the state. His death in 1892, after six 
years of practice, was the cause of much regret. 

James E. Edmiston in private life was a quiet unassuming gentleman, loved 
and respected by everyone. As a lawyer he was successful from the start, and 
soon built up a large practice. His knowledge of men and his ability to judge 
them as they are. gained from his experience as a teacher, a minister and a 
business man, prior to his taking up the law, made him a dangerous opponent 
in the trial of cases in court. He was well founded in the principles of the law, 
was a convincing speaker and had great weight with a jury. He filled the office 
of prosecuting attorney for two years, with credit to himself. His death in 
iqoo, while yet in the prime of life and the midst of his usefulness, was a great 




loss to the community. It can be truly said, that a better, kinderhearted man than 
J. E. Edmiston, never Hved. 

The history of this state cannot be written without referring many times to 
the lawyers mentioned in this paper. A senator, a congressman, a governor, many 
judges of the Supreme and Superior courts, and all have made good in the 
positions to which they were called. Southeastern Washington has been the 
training ground for many great men. 

The present bar of Columbia, Garfield and Asotin counties are mostly home 
products, but they are good lawyers, upholding the honor of their profession, and 
full of promise, and will undoubtedly follow in the footsteps of their predecessors, 
and help write the future history of our great state. 

The representative of bench and bar in old Walla Walla County who has 
attained the most distinguished rank in office, having been a member of the 
State Supreme Court of Washington, as well as possessing high rank in the 
regard of multitudes of his fellow-citizens, is Judge Mack F. Gose of Pomeroy. 
He also, like the other contributors, belongs to a prominent pioneer family, and 
also a family of lawyers. He too is on our advisory board. 

We have the pleasure of presenting here a special sketch by Judge Gose, 
including a narration by him of a case of peculiar interest and importance, the 
case of old Timothy, the Nez Perce hero of the Alpowa : 


On a broad fertile plain on the Snake Hiver>near.tlJe ihouth of the Alpowa 
Creek, about 1800, there were born two Ntez P.fer-ce 'ichildreH. of the full blood, 
a boy and a girl, named Timothy and Tima, who, upon attaining the age of 
manhood and womanhood, became husband and wife arid 'remained such until 
the death of the wife which occurred in 1889; '"TlTnothy,-tlie subject of this 
sketch, passed on about a year later. He was a chief of the Nez Perce tribe and. 
from the time of his birth until his decease, dwelt at the place where he was 

He was converted to Christianity by the Reverend Spalding, and became a 
licensed preacher. There was born to Timothy and Tima as issue of their 
marriage four children, three sons and a daughter : He-yune-ilp-ilp, or Edward 
Timothy, Jane Ti-moochin, Estip-ee-nim-tse-lot, or Young Timothy, and Amos 
Timothy who died during childhood. Edward was twice married. There was 
born to his first wife a daughter Pah-pah-tin, who married Wat-tse-tse-kowwen. 
To them was bom a daughter Pitts-teen. The issue of his second marriage was 
a daughter Nancy Tse-wit-too-e, who was married to Rev. George Waters, an 
Indian of the Yakima tribe. The issue of this marriage was two daughters, 
Ellen and Nora. Jane Timoochin was twice married. To her was born a son, 
William, the issue of her first marriage. To William was born a daughter 
named Cora. To Young Timothy was born a daughter Amelia, who had a son 
named Abraham. The living issue of Timothy and Tima at the time of the death 
of the latter was Jane Timoochin, Pitts-teen, Ellen, Nora, Cora and Abraham. 
The second husband of Jane Timoochin was John Silcott, a prominent and much 
respected citizen of the State of Idaho, with whom she lived until her death in 
1895. In 1877 Timothy filed his declaration of intention to become a citizen of 


ihc L'nitcd States. A yrar later he tiled a humcstead entry on the tract of land 
U|K>n which he was bom. and had continued to reside. In 1K83 he made final 
proof as a naturalized citizen of the L'nited States, and a year later received liis 
letters |>atent. No record evidence of his naturalization lus been found, but 
there is abundant evidence that he voted at least once and that he was a ta.xpayer. 

A reference to the dates given will show that Tinioihy was a lad four or 
live, |>erha|>s six, years of age when the Lewis and Clark party niade its memor- 
able voyage down the Snake Kivcr in 1805 and stop|)ed at the Indian village 
where he resided. The writer has heard it stated by a friend of I iinothy that 
he claimed to remember seeing these white men. There can be but little doubt 
that he was old enough to have an txcurrcnce so strange to him indelibly stani|>ed 
u|>on his memory. I'mm early manluKul until his death Tinuiiliy was a good ni.iii, 
whether measured by the white skin or the red skin standard. He early adopted 
the habits of civilized life, and was a friend of the white race. Histor)- rri. :■! 
that he was instrumental in .saving the lives of tieneral Steptoe and his > :: 
tnand. Gen. Hazard Stevens in the life of his father, the eminent Gen. Isaac 
I. .*>itvens. relates that Timothy attended the great Indian council held at Walla 
Walla between (iovcrnor Stevens and many Indian trilK*s in 1H53, at which time 
and place a treaty was concluded, and that "the morning after the council, being 
Sun<Iay, he (Timothy) preached a sermon for the times and held uj) to indigna- 
tion of the triln.' and the retribution of the Almighty those who would coalesce 
with the Cayuses and break the faith of the Nez Perces." Like I-awyer, the head 
chief of the N'cz Perce tribe at the time this council was held and the treaty 
was made, Timothy loved to dwell in j)cace. They alone amoni; all the chiefs 
there assembled saw the folly of fighting the white man. 

The remains of Timothy rest in an unmarked grave on the banks of .^nakc 
River — the spot of his birth, his life and his death. lifTorts have been made to 
secure Congressional recognition of his worth to the white man when he was 
struggling to make a settlement in the Northwest in the heart of a country 
|)copled by thousands of Indians, many of whom were hostile to our race. So 
far the effort has been unavailing. It is said that there were but two pictures in 
Timothy's simple cabin home — one of George Washington, the other of himself. 
This may excite the derision of those who know nothing of the simple, honest, 
Cliristian. loyal character of Timothy ; but to those who know his history it seems 
not an improjK-r linking of two names : one great and loyal to all that was right 
and just ; the other, obscure as measured by white .skin standar-'^ '"' .dso loyal 
to right and justice as he understood the Christian teaching. 

With this sketch of Timothy and a projKr understanding of the prominent 
l>art that he jilayed in several of the njomentous events of history in this section, 
the reader will sec the interest which gathers around a noted law case connected 
with the land upon which he filed near the junction of AIjHjwa Creek with Snake 

A summary of the case is as follows : 

Tlie patent through which Timothy accjuired the legal title to his homestead 
recites that the land shall not be sold or incuml)cred for a period of twenty years. 
Despite this limitation. Timothy and Tima. in Jure. 1RR4. about two months after 
the patent had l>een issued, executed an tmacknowledgcd lease of the land to 
John M Silcolt for a term of ninety-nine years The expressed consideration 


for the lease was a nominal sum, payable yearly. In April, 1890, Silcott assigned 
an undivided one-half interest in the lease to L. A. Porter. In March, 1892, he 
assigned the remainder of the lease to Richard Ireland. In March, 1902, Silcott 
conveyed his interest in the land to Ireland by a deed of quitclaim. In October, 
1903, Ireland and wife conveyed their interest in both the land and lease to 
William A. White and Edward A. White. In March, 1904, Porter assigned his 
interest in the lease to W. J. Houser and Ross R. Brattain, and at the same time 
conveyed to them certain fee interests in the land which he had purchased from 
certain of the heirs of Timothy and Tima. 

In May, 1904, Houser and Brattain entered into a contract with White 
Brothers, above mentioned, whereby they agreed to convey to them the Porter 
interests, both fee and leasehold. 

About 1903 or 1904 Charles L. McDonald, a lawyer residing and practicing 
his profession at Lewiston, in the State of Idaho, purchased the inheritances of 
Cora, the granddaughter of Jane, and Abraham, the grandson of young Timothy, 
and of Noah, the father of Abraham. The other interests were claimed by 
White Brothers. They also claimed the one-sixth interest inherited by Cora. 

As an outgrowth of the facts stated, intricate and prolonged litigation fol- 
lowed. Mr. McDonald commenced a suit against White Brothers, alleging that 
the lease was invalid on two grounds: First, because the lease was unacknowl- 
edged, and second, because the patent to Timothy should have contained a five- 
year non-alienation clause in accordance with the act of Congress of March 3, 
1875. He also asserted title to the entire fee in the land acquired as he claimed 
through conveyances from all the heirs of Timothy and Tima. He did not claim to 
have acquired the inheritances of Silcott or of the heirs of Edward, but his con- 
tention was that Silcott and Jane had not been legally married and that Edward 
had not married. 

At the trial it was established that in early times living together in the manner 
usual between husband and wife constituted a legal marriage, according to the 
Nez Perce tribal custom. It was also established that, according to the same 
custom, either spouse was at liberty to separate from the other and at once take 
a new mate ; thus giving legality to both the divorce and second marriage. From 
the evidence offered the court found that Edward was twice married; that there 
was living issue of both marriages, and that Silcott and Jane were legally mar- 
ried. It was shown that Rev. James Hines, an Indian preacher, licensed but not 
ordained, performed the marriage ceremony between Silcott and Jane about the 
year 1882, at some place on the Alpowai Creek, in the then Territory of Wash- 
ington. Mr. McDonald's contention that only ordained ministers could perform 
the marriage ceremony and that a ceremonial marriage without proof that a mar- 
riage license had been procured was invalid, was held to be without merit. 

The evidence showed that the actual consideration for the lease was that 
Silcott should support Timothy and Tima during their natural lives ; that he did 
so, and that he gave them a decent burial was amply proven. Under the laws of 
Washington an unacknowledged lease of real property for more than a year is 
not valid. The Whites relied upon permanent and valuable improvements and 
the long continued possession of their predecessors under the lease as constituting 
both laches and estoppel against the right to assert the invalidity of the lease. 
Touching this aspect of the case it was shown that the land was unfenced and 


covered with sage brush, except about one acre which had been used as an Indian 
garden when the lease was made; that the land then had a value of five dollars 
per acre ; that in the fall of 1890 Silcott and Porter plowed, cleared and leveled 
about sixty acres and planted it to fruit trees ; that the next spring they planted 
about twenty acres to alfalfa; that in the fall of 1903 White Brothers planted 
about twenty acres additional to orchard; that water had been carried to the 
land for irrigation by those claiming under the lease, and that at the time of the 
trial (about 1906) the orchard was in good condition and the land of the value 
of $20,000. 

Both the trial court and the supreme court took the view that the heirs were 
guilty of laches, w^hich precluded setting aside the lease, they having permitted 
those claiming under it to have the undisturbed possession of the land for more 
than twenty years. It was also held that, in view of the valuable improvements 
placed on the land by those who in good faith believed the lease to be valid, it 
would be doing violence to the plainest rules of equity to permit those who have 
remained passive when it was their duty to speak, to be rewarded for their inat- 
tention to their legal rights. Upon these principles the lease was sustained. Mr. 
McDonald was adjudged to be the owner of the one-sixth interest inherited by 
Cora and the one-third interest inherited by Abraham and his father, Noah, mak- 
ing an undivided one-half of the fee simple title. White Brothers were adjudged 
to be the owners of the remaining fee interest composed of the inheritances 
through Edward and of John Silcott, all, however, subject to the ninety-nine-year 
lease. The marriages and heirships were proven by the testimony of Indian wit- 

The case was tried at Asotin. One old Indian testified that he was born 
there and that he owned the town and adjoining land. In testifying to the first 
marriage of Edward, he caused some merriment by saying that he was busy as 
usual when it happened and gave little attention to an incident so trivial in his 
busy life. Edward Reboin, whose father was a Frenchman and whose mother 
was a Nez Perce Indian, was used as an interpreter. He testified to the customs 
of marriage and divorce among the Nez Perce Indians. He said in early times 
two marriage customs were recognized and followed. The simplest one has been 
stated. The other was to have a wedding feast, attended by the relatives and 
friends of the young couple ; following which the happy pair betook themselves 
to the tepee of the husband and they twain became husband and wife. 

The trial of the case consumed several days. The court permitted wide lati- 
tude in the presentation of the evidence. Several white men and many Indians 
gave testimony on the various phases of the case. Among others, Mr. R. P. 
Reynolds, now a resident of the City of Walla Walla, made oath that he was 
well acquainted with Timothy; that he explained the lease to him before he 
signed ; that the actual consideration for the lease was that Silcott should support 
Timothy and Tima during the natural life of each thereof; that he did so and 
that he gave each of them a decent burial. The examination of an Indian witness 
through an interpreter is an interesting experience. The Indian carries his 
traditional stoicism to the witness stand. There he is as impassive as a piece of 
marble. Neither by sign nor act does he give any indication of the working of 
his mind to the examiner. His answer to one question rarely suggests another 
question. The examiner works his way in the dark as best he may. This expe- 


rience is particularly true of cross-examination. It has been said that cross- 
examination is an art. Some artist may have seen the light in cross-examining 
an Indian, but to the writer the Indian has been a man of mystery. 


From the bench and bar we turn to the medical profession. It is hard to ex- 
press the debt of gratitude which these pioneer communities owe to their phy- 
sicians. Among those who have completed their work and passed on, the minds 
of all people of old Walla Walla would turn with profound respect and veneration 
to Dr. N. G. Blalock as justly entitled to be called the foremost citizen of this 
section, and among the foremost of the State of Washington. Conspicuous 
among the great physicians who have passed away, Dr. John E. Bingham would 
be called up by all the old-timers as a man of extraordinary ability, great attain- 
ments in general knowledge, and a skillful and successful practitioner. Many 
others, gone and still living, have made noble contributions to the upbuilding of 
the region covered by our story, but limits of space forbid special mention. 

Among the living representatives of the medical profession undoubtedly the 
man whose name would come at once to the minds of all in his section of our 
field is Dr. G. B. Kuykendall of Pomeroy. We have had occasion frequently in 
these pages to refer to this foremost of the physicians of his section of the state. 
Prominent both by reason of his medical ability and his peculiarly genial and 
attractive personality. Dr. Kuykendall has also been one of the leading historical 
students, and one of the especially gifted writers in this section of our field. In 
this chapter we give a contribution by this well-known and well-loved physician 
of Garfield County : 



Forty years as a measure of the earth's geological changes, or of the history 
of the world, are as but a moment — as the lightning's flash or the fall of a meteor. 
The same lapse of time in the life of a physician, during the early settlement of 
the Inland Empire, seems long when viewed in retrospection. A sketch of those 
forty years would be a vitagraph of the most active period of his life and also 
the panorama of the building of an empire. 

Four decades ago, the larger part of all this country was a wilderness — a 
typical western frontier. 

In those days, when the physician started out in the country to visit his pa- 
tients, he rode over a region covered with tall grass, swept into wavy undulations 
by the western winds. As far as the eye could see there were but few human 
habitations ; and seldom a fence to mar the landscape or obstruct the way. 

The doctor's mode of travel then, on medical trips, was usually on the "hurri- 
cane deck of a cayuse horse," and his armamentarium was carried in the old-time 
saddle or pill bags. Often the jolting and jostling of the bottles therein caused 
the effluvium of ether, valerian and other odoriferous medicaments to exude and 
make the air redolent with their perfume. We had to carry our medicines with 
us, and a pretty good supply of them, too ; for we never knew what we should 
find or how many sick we might meet before our return. 

In the pioneer days of this coimtry, the "settlers" had small houses and but 


few convenience!! as we now know ilicni. Mostly ihcy lived in domiciles ol one 
room, and there were few indeed that had more. \\ hen sickness came it always 
found them un|)re]>ared. 

Dust, flics and impure water were the curse of the sick, and made it un 
|K)Ssible to give them prujjer sanitary environnirnts. Dust in those days was 
nmch worse than now, as roads were then in the making by the easiest and quickest 
route. They lasscd uj) and down the bunchgrass hills and across the sage |)lains, 
the soft, ashy soil being ground into dust of prodigious depth by "single-track" 
sununer travel, l-rcight wagons, incoming settlers and caravan trains kej)t the 
roads so dusty that the traveler was greatly inconvenienced. 

Homesteaders at first procured water from the little gulches near their homes 
or from shallow wells of seepage water. In either case, it was nearly always im- 
pregnated more or less with alkali and loaded with organic matter. The result 
was that every year, after the country had a considerable ]X)pulation, ty|)hoid 
(then called mountain fever) appeared, and every summer and fall there were 
numerous cases. People, then, had not been educated to the necessity of projK-r 
care of the body and knew scarcely anything of disease germs, antiseptics or 
sanitation. Bath rooms, hot and cold water in the home, existed only in 
memories of the past or dreams of the future. 

Many times when 1 was called to a country home to see a patient, to dress a 
wound or reduce and dress a fracture, I frequently went out to a hole in the ground 
dignified by the name of well, to wash the dust from my face and hands. We 
got along almost "any old way" those days, and did not soiin u> mind so very 
much the inconveniences either. 

In those days we did not have telephone lines running e\iTywhere over the 
country and to nearly every home, as now. When a member of a pioneer family 
suddenly became sick, or when someone had been "bucked" from a horse and got 
a leg or arm broken, or the baby had a collection of wind crosswise in its stomach 
and was howling "loud enough to raise the rafters," then there was a sudden 
demand for someone to go, from three to twenty-five miles, for the doctor. They 
could not step to a phone and call him up and ask advice, or request him to start 
at once. The program was to rout out the hired man or one of the boys, or send 
to a neighlxir. and have him saddle a horse and start to town for the physician. 

It is remarkable how nnich worse green plums and cucimil>ers affect the in- 
ternal apparatus of a "kid" in bad weather, and what a predilection colic has for 
attacking the "in'ards" of a baby on dark, stormy nights. It always seemed to 
me that the children of the early settlers passed by the "moonshiny" nights and 
selected the very worst possible weather for their birthdays. This seems to be 
one of the inscrutable arrangements of providence, and bears indisputable testi- 
mony to the early age at which human perversity l)cgins. 

In those days the time required to get word to the doctor and secure his at- 
tendance was so great that the patient sometitnes died or recovered before the 
physician rould possibly reach him. During all this time the patient and friends 
were kept in an agony of uncertainty and suspense. 

In retrospection, some of my long, hard night drives through darkness, freez- 
ing cold, snowdrifts, rain, slush or mud. are still like memories of a horrible 

There have l)een several epidemics that swept over the country since the be- 


ginning of its settlement. The first was smallpox. It is a remarkable fact that 
many physicians diagnosed the disease as chickenpox, until it began to slay many 
of its victims. There was at that time quite a controversy among the physicians 
and a part of the people in regard to the nature of the disease. 

In the spring of 1888, epidemic cerebro-spinal meningitis appeared in Gar- 
field County and the surrounding country. It came on so suddenly and the 
symptoms were so violent, and the results in many cases were so rapidly fatal, 
that it created consternation among the people. The physicians over the country 
generally had not previously met the disease nor had any experience with it, 
and were puzzled both as to diagnosis and treatment. The writer had, during the 
epidemic, an experience that was enough for a lifetime. The disease prevailed 
more or less for about two years. In Garfield County there were a large number 
of cases on the upper and lower Deadman Creek, Meadow Gulch, Mayview, 
Ping, along the Snake River and in Pomeroy and Pataha. It is probable that Gar- 
field County, in proportion to its population, had more cases than any county in 
the .state. 

The attacks of the malady were of all shades of severity and the symptoms 
of the greatest diversity. It attacked, for the most part, young persons from the 
age of three to twenty years, but there were numerous cases older and younger. 
In some instances the person was taken instantly, while apparently in ordinary 
health, with agonizing pains in the head and spine, with or without vomiting, and 
in a few minutes he became wildly delirious, with convulsions, muscular con- 
tractions, rigidity of the neck, head drawn far back, and was soon unconscious ; 
and in some cases, died within a few hours. In other cases, the patient lingered 
on for many weeks or even months, halting between life and death, with ex- 
cruciating agony, only at last to die, worn out and reduced to a skeleton. Others 
slowly emerged from their desperate condition to regain complete health, while 
others were left partially paralyzed, with distorted and shrivelled limbs or im- 
paired mental powers. 

I witnessed many harrowing scenes among my meningitis cases, and when the 
epidemic was past, I fervently thanked God and wished I might never again 
have to pass through a similar experience. 

Following up the meningitis scourge, there came along soon afterwards a 
notable epidemic of influenza or la grippe. The symptoms it produced were very 
characteristic of and came near to answering the description of epidemic "Rus- 
sian influenza," graphically pictured in old medical works. Whole communities 
were prostrated in a few hours. It seemed to spread through the medium of the 
atmosphere, and was also very contagious, passing from person to person. Many 
were stricken and overpowered almost or quite as suddenly as the meningitis cases, 
while some exhibited meningeal tendencies that made the diagnosis doubtful at 


I remember of going to Ilia to see a patient with the disease, and before get- 
ting back home I had been called to prescribe for seventeen persons ; and a few 
days later I took the disease myself. 

The eflfects of this epidemic were manifest for years, there being left in its 
wake a multitude of cases of enlarged and suppurating cervical glands, otitis 
media (suppuration of the middle ear), weakened lungs, bronchitis, and a num- 
ber of cases of tuberculosis. 


Before the country was fenced up, when the roads were few and settlements 
sparse, the doctor's trips were occasionally very lonely. When going out into 
remote parts after nightfall, traveling an unfamiliar road and uncertain as to 
where it led, without a house, fence or sign of human habitation in sight, I have 
been startled by the weird, doleful bowlings of the coyote or the melancholy hoot- 
ings of the prairie owl. At such times there came over me an undefined feeling 
of loneliness, not real fear, but perhaps it was that instinctive dread of dark- 
ness and danger at night that has come down to us from savage and superstitious 
ancestors of past ages. Be that as it may, the sight of a candle or lamp gleaming 
across the prairie, from some settler's window, had a most welcome and cheering 
eftVct. Even the barking of a dog or the noise of domestic fowls, or any 
sound indicating the proximity of human beings tended to enliven the gloom and 
make home seem nearer. 

Thirty or forty years ago we never dreamed that we should ever drive over 
the country in an automobile. We considered ourselves pretty "well fixed" when 
we had a good top buggy and a nimble team with which we could make eight or 
nine miles an hour. In the fine weather of spring and early summer, if there 
happened to be no need of special haste, it was often a real pleasure to drive 
out through the country. When the air was redolent with the perfume of flowers 
and growing vegetation, or sweet with the perfume of new mown hay, the blue 
sky above, the distant pine-covered mountains, the rolling, grass-covered hills and 
prairies, all formed a combination well calculated to exhilarate and give delight. 

But night visits in the winter time, during cold, stormy weather, were alto- 
gether different, when, with darkness there was snow and mud, or strong wind 
and hard freezing, and the physician had to plod his way slowly along, sitting 
chilled through and through, feet almost frozen, hands and fingers so benumbed 
they could hardly clasp the lines — no play of the imagination could make it seem 
a pleasure trip. It was far worse, however, when there were added to these con- 
ditions the feelings and emotions caused by the consciousness that off in a little 
pioneer cabin on the prairie, or in some gulch, or up in the mountains, there was a 
patient that was lying at the point of death, with wild delirium or low muttering 
and stupid mental wandering, or some woman shrieking in agony and praying to 
God to send her relief from the suffering she was enduring to give life to another, 
while friends distracted were waiting and wishing the doctor would come. Spurred 
by these reflections I have often plied the whip and automatically pushed on the 
lines, to help my horses, my mind running ahead to my destination. As disagree- 
able as were the outward circumstances, often the state of mental torture and 
suspense were worse than the physical discomfort. 

In those days, the physician had ample time to think while on his long trips 
in the country, particularly when patients presented no serious symptoms, or when 
returning home. Often on such occasions, I have looked up at the starlit sky and 
the myriads of scintillating worlds therein, and thought of the vastness of the 
universe, and of the aeons of ages since all these blazing worlds were set float- 
ing in space. Then came the thought of the immensity of the distance to even the 
nearest fixed star, and of the vast stretches of the illimitable universe beyond: 
and of the worlds in the outer confines of space beyond the Milky Way or the 
Pleiades, whose light took thousands of years to reach the earth. Then would 
come the thought, "Why all this stupendous, illimitable, incomprehensible aggre- 


g-ation of worlds?" "Are any of the planets of these glowing orbs inhabited by 
intelligent beings?" "If not, why do they exist at all?" Thus my thoughts have 
run on and on, until cold, darkness, discomfort and almost everything else have 
been forgotten and lost in my contemplations, and time passed almost unper- 
ceived as I traversed the miles in solitude. At other times my thoughts would run 
upon the problems of human existence, the connection between mind and matter, 
the mystery of life and death. 

Traveling on a moonlit night along the breaks of Snake River, Tucanon or 
Alpowa, watching the silvery lights and dark shadow along the escarpments and 
basaltic walls that border these streams and make such grand and beautiful 
scenery, I pictured to my mind this country when fresh from the hands of the fire 
gods, a seething, sizzling mass of molten basalt. Then I thought of the long years 
of its cooling, the gradual crumbling of the rock and the formation of the soil, the 
appearance of plant and animal life, and of the tropical and semi-tropical climate 
that must have existed; and of the wonderful extinct animals that once inhabited 
our hills and valleys; of the hairy mammoth, the three-toed horse and the other 
strange beings that roamed through the forests that one time were here. 

As I looked far down into the wonderful gorge through which Snake River 
flows, and contemplated the many centuries it must have taken to cut the great 
channel, it gave me a more comprehensive conception of how the author of the 
universe operated in creation. 

Back in the days when we drove buggies or rode horseback, we had time on 
the road to do a lot of thinking, as well as of freezing and scorching, or plodding 
through snow, mud or dust. 

A physician trained in thought is sure to thresh out in his mind while on the 
road, during the day or night, many knotty problems in the isms, ologies and 
pathies of medical practice; and when serious sickness claims his attention, and is 
pressing for his best endeavors, he will search all the treasure houses of his 
memory for everything that he has ever read or heard of in relation to similar 
cases. Often the time was wearisome, roads were long, and waiting for pay for 
services was long, and all this longness tended to make a shortness of the pocket- 

When in the midst of weary night vigils, or when nearly worn out and ex- 
hausted by loss of sleep, or when chilled to the bone by cold and exposure, I have 
thought that if ever any one was justified in taking a stimulant to "brace up," 
it is the overworked physician. While I never took any kind of stimulant or nar- 
cotic, I have felt like making some allowance for the hard driven doctor who 
occasionally took something to brace him up and deaden his sensibility to cold and 

One of the worst combinations a doctor had to meet was a deep snow, dense 
fog and unbroken roads. If added to this there was intense cold, the trip was to 
be dreaded. One would be about as well ofif in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, 
without a compass, as in such a snow and fog. Whether one looked up, down or 
any other direction, the appearance was all the same — it was one blank, im- 
penetrable, misty- white. If a man turned around and once missed his bearings, 
he was lost indeed. There were instances, those days, where persons were caught 
out in the darkness and wandered around all night on a forty-acre tract, utterly 


bewildered. One who has been lost in one of those foggy snows will never forget 
his sensations and feelings. 

Time has wrought many changes since the days of the early settlement of the 
country. Places that were reached only with the greatest difficulty and sometimes 
with peril, we now drive up to on smooth roads of easy grades. Where we could 
scarcely get to a cabin on horseback, one now drives up with ease in an automobile 
to a beautiful modern home. 

Where it used to take many hours or a whole day to make a visit, the 
same distance can now be made in an hour or even in minutes. The telephone, 
good roads, automobiles and new discoveries and advances in medical science, 
surgery and pharmacy, have revolutionized medical practice. 

Riding out today, over on Snake River, out in the Deadman country, up on 
the Pataha Prairie, up to Peola or the Blue Mountains, over on the Tucanon or 
toward Lewiston or Dayton, one still sees here and there the reminders of "old 
times" and "'old timers." Here are the relics of old cabins, where the pioneers 
first had their homes. 

Memory goes back to a desperate case of typhoid fever here, or of pneumonia 
or other disease over there. There come up memory pictures of scenes of anxiety, 
suffering and suspense and then of recovery, or possibly death. 

Over yonder stood the home of an early pioneer. In that house was born a 
son or daughter that today is leading in business and society ; the father and 
mother are sleeping in one of the cemeteries of the county. A few are still linger- 
ing, old and feeble, waiting for the final summons. Back in the mountains, where 
today we go gliding along in automobiles on summer outings, there are still 
seen the fading sites of the sawmills, pole and shingle mills that were operated 
there in early days. These remind me of broken legs and arms, of wounds and 
accidents, and of serious sickness that happened between thirty and forty years 
ago. The places where the old mills stood are marked by little clearings now 
overgrown with weeds and brush, with here and there a few slabs, dim in piles of 
sawdust, and scattering stumps. The old mills are gone and the people who 
owned and ran them have died or left the country. 

As I write these hasty reminiscences, I wonder if thirty-five or forty years 
from now will bring as many changes to this country as the same length of time 
in the past. 

What wonderful improvements the science of medicine the past forty years 
have brought ! What additions to our knowledge of the cause of disease, of 
disease germs and how to combat them, of serums, opsonins, vaccines and of 
physiological chemistry! What advances have been made in the knowledge of 
antiseptics and preventative medicine, and what great strides in surgery and the 
treatment of wounds! What a vast field has been opened up in the study of 
internal secretions of the ductless glands and their relation to the well-being of 
the human physical system. 

What will be the state of medical science forty or fifty years from now? 
Will physicians make their country calls in airplanes, soaring over hills and plains 
high in air? In pioneer days anxious ears strained for the sound of the gallop 
of the doctor's horse ; later the patter of horses' feet and the rattle of the buggy 
denoted the approach of medical aid ; now the gleam of the motor car lights an- 
nounce that relief is near. A few years hence, mayhap, anxious ones awaiting 


the doctor will be made aware of his coming by the whir of the airplane motor 
and anxiously view his approach through powerful binoculars. Even now the 
most rosy dreams of our trail-making fathers have been far surpassed. That 
vast expanse of sage and sand that formed a large part of the Columbia River 
Valley will have become the garden and granary of Northwestern America. 

But the beautiful homes, fertile fields, green expanses of alfalfa, the fruit- 
laden orchards, the cities and towns, schools, churches, factories, mills and marts 
of industry, will, to those who never saw the country in its original wildness, have 
little to tell of the toils, struggles, waiting and weariness that were the cost of this 
marvelous transformation. 






Beginning in 1876 with reduced area, but with rapid growth and with encour- 
aging outlook in all lines, Walla Walla County entered upon what might be de- 
scribed as the third stage of her growth, that from county division to statehood 
in 1889. 

It is of interest to note a few statistics of the period of transition. In 1870 
the population of the Old County was 5,102. In 1877, the reduced county showed 
a population, according to the assessor, of 5,056, while Columbia County had, by 
the assessor's report of the same year, 3,618. By the report of 1875, still the Old 
County, the assessed valuation was $2,792,065. In 1876, the valuation of the 
reduced county was $2,296,870. There were reported at the same time 5,281 
horses, 239 mules, 11,147 cattle, 13.233 sheep, 4,000 hogs, 1,774 acres of timothy, 
700 acres of corn, 2,600 acres of oats, 6,000 acres of barley, 21,000 acres of wheat 
and 700 acres of fruit trees. 


The political subject of greatest general interest was Statehood and a Con- 
stitutional Convention leading thereto. The project of annexation to Oregon was 
by no means dead. Senator Mitchell of Oregon continued the efforts made by 
.Senator Kelly. A considerable local interest, supported by the Walla Walla 
Union, and its able editor, P. B. Johnson, still urged annexation. One favorite 
idea, which has taken shape from time to time since, was to join Eastern Oregon 
with Northern Idaho into a new state. In the Congressional session of 1877-8. 
Delegate Orange Jacobs requested a bill for introducing Washington to statehood 
with the three counties of Northern Idaho added. But no action was taken by 
Congress. In spite of that the Territorial Legislature in November, 1877, passed 
a law providing for an election to be held April 9, 1878, to choose delegates to a 
convention to meet at Walla Walla on June 11, 1878. Up to that time, as we 
have seen, repeated attempts to secure a vote for a convention had failed in 
Walla Walla. The act of the Legislature provided that the convention should 
consist of fifteen members from Washington, with one, having no vote, from 

In pursuance of the announcement the election was duly held, though with 
the scanty vote of 4,223, not half the number of voters in the territory. The 
convention duly met at Science Hall in Walla Walla, and W. A. George of that 
city, one of the leading lawyers as well as one of the most unique characters of the 
Inland Empire, acted as temporary chairman. 



The {icriiiancnt organization consisted of A. S. Aberncthy of Cowlitz County 
as president, \V. IJ. Daniels and William Clark as secretaries, and H. D. Cook as 
''■:'"»s After a Ic-ii ion tlic convcntiim !>ubM:ittcd a constitu- 

ii was voted uimn at i general election in November. Though 

a considerable nujority was secured, exactly two-thirds, the total vote of 9.693 
fell const. ' hurt of the vote cast for delegate, and it seems to have been 

generally , ird in Congress as evidence that the i>eoj)lc of the territory 

did not consider the time ripe for statehood. The whole matter was, therefore, 
indetlniti ' nt-d 

That ; ;. tion of 1878 was notable for Walla Walla in several resjiects. 

Two citizens of the city were rival nominees for the i)osition of congrcs<ioiuil 
delegate. Thomas H. Rrents for the republicans and Nathan T. Caton for ih< 
democrats. It was the first election in which the republicans won in Walla 
Walla County. Mr. Brents had a majority of 146 in the county and 1.301 in thu- 
territory. The [Militical tide had turned and from that time to the present the 
republicans have been, on any ordinary issue, overwhelmingly in the majority 
In 1880 Mr. l?r<nts was again chosen delegate, this time against Thomas Hurke. 
the democratic candidate, and by a majority of 1.707. During the first term Mr 
Brents endeavored to induce Congress to confer statehood upon the territory but 
unavailingly. Still again in 1882 Mr. Brents was honored, and with him also 
Walla Walla, and in fact the territory honored itself in the re-election of one of 
its most useful and |>()pular citizens, by anfither term as delegate. During the 
six years of Mr. Brents' incumbency the territory was making trenmendous 
strides. The projection of the Northern Pacific and Oregon Short Line Kail 
roads, the sale of Doctor Baker's railroad in 1879 to the O. R. & N. R. R.. the 
N'illanl coup d'etat in 188.V made the decade of the '.'<os the great buildinj; jK-rio*! 
for the territory and for Walla Walla. It was evident that there was abundant 
justification for the creation of a new state. Mr. Brents kept the subject alive 
in Congress up to and through 1S85, when his term expired, and he was succeeded 
by one of the most brilliant and popular politicians and lawyers ever in the ter- 
ritory, C". S. X'oorhees. Mr. N'oorhces. son of the "Tall Sycamore of the Wabash." 
was, of course, a <lemocrat, and though at that time cpiite young, exercise*! a large 
influence both at home and at the capital. He was twice chosen Delegate, in 1884 
and 188^). In 1888 the office returned to Walla Walla and to the republican |>arty. 
In that year John B. Allen U'gan his distinguished career at the national c:i|>ital 
He had held the jjosition of United States attorney, succeeding Judge Wingard. 
from 1875 to i88/'(. In the latter year he removed to Walla Walla, and his 
career from that time on was a jart of the history nf his home citv .nnd of the 
territory and state. 

As we have seen, F.. I', lerry was governor at the tunc of county fiuisiou in 
1875. lie held the oflficc until 1880. W. A. Newell was the next governor hold- 
ing the position for four years, when Watson C. Squire received the a|>pointment. 
retaining the place till 1887. I"<i11owing came Fngene Semple for two years. 
The |H'ri(Kl of statehoo<l was now near at hand, and it may well l)e a matter of 
pride and interest to Walla Walla that by appointment of President Harrison 
the last territorial governor was a citizen of this place. Miles C. Moore. Governor 
Moore had left his home in Ohio in 18/0 hardly more than a l>oy, and after some 
adventures in Montana, had reached Walla Walla in 1862. to become from that 




time onward one of the most eminent citizens as well as one of the foremost 
business men of the community and of the Northwest. It was recognized through- 
out the territory that the appointment was exceedingly fitting from the standpoint 
of capacity to fulfill the duties of the office, and was also a suitable compliment 
to the historic city and mother county of Walla Walla. Although Governor 
Moore's term was short, it possessed the unique interest of covering the transition 
from territoryhood to statehood of what in general judgment is destined to be- 
come one of the most important commonwealths of the Union, and hence it cannot 
in the nature of the case be duplicated by any other term. 


The Enabling Act of Congress, approved by President Harrison on Febru- 
ary 22, 1889, had the unique distinction of being the only one providing for the 
erection of four states at once. These were Washington, South Dakota, North 
Dakota, and Montana. As indicating the fundamental basis on which the four 
states rest, the reader will be interested in the following provisions of the Enabling 

"And said conventions shall provide by ordinances irrevocable without the 
consent of the United States and the people of said states : 

First. That perfect toleration of religious sentiment shall be secured, and 
that no inhabitant of said states shall ever be molested in person or property on 
account of his or her mode of religious worship.. . 

Second. That the people inhabiting said proposed states do agree and declare 
that they forever disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated public lands 
lying within the boundaries thereof, and to all lands lying within said limits owned 
or held by any Indian or Indian tribes ; and that until the title thereto shall have 
been extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain subject 
to the disposition of the United States, and said Indian lands shall remain under 
the absolute jurisdiction and control of the congress of the United States; that 
the lands belonging to citizens of the United States residing without the said state 
shall never be taxed at a higher rate than the lands belonging to residents there- 
of ; that no taxes shall be imposed by the states on lands or property therein 
belonging to or which may hereafter be purchased by the United States or reserved 
for its use. But nothing herein, or in the ordinances herein provided for, shall 
preclude the said states from taxing as other lands are taxed, any lands owned or 
held by any Indian who has severed his tribal relations, and has obtained from 
the United States or from any person a title thereto by patent or other grant, 
save and except such lands as have been or may be granted to any Indian or 
Indians under any act of Congress containing a provision exempting the lands 
thus granted from taxation ; but said ordinances shall provide that all such lands 
shall be exempt from taxation by said states so long and to such extent as such 
act of Congress may prescribe. 

Third. That the debts and liabilities of said territories shall be assumed and 
paid by said states respectively. 

Fourth. That provision shall be made for the establishment and maintenance 
of systems of public schools, which shall be open to all the children of said states 
and free from sectarian control." 


In accordance with the Lnahling Act, the Conititutioiul Convention of Wash- 
ington Territory n«ct at Ulyinpia, July 4, 18S9. The constitution prepared during 
tlic liftyday session was ratilicd at the polls on Octohcr i, 1889. Of tlic seventy- 
five members of the convention three represented Walla Walla, two were from 
Dayton, and one from I'omeroy. It may be safely said that every one was a nun 
it) whose knowk<lj;e and judgment his fellow citizens could rejxjse confidence, 
while the |>ersonal character of each was such as to secure the hearty affection 
of his community. The entire convention, in fact, was a body of whom the 
state has always l>een proud, and l»eing to a peculiar degree the result of |K)puIar 
choice the election of such men is a convincing evidence of the worth and capacity 
of democratic institutions. Not the least of the counties to be congratulated on 
their choices were those coni[>osing Old Walla Walla. 

The members of the convention from Walla Walla included two of the fore- 
njost lawyers of the territory, Judge B. L. Sharpstcin, whose long life left a legacy 
of good dtids to his city and state and whose foremost {Msition at the bar has 
Ikcu maintained by his sons, and U. J. Crowley, one of the most brilliant lawyers 
ever known in the state, whose residence in Walla Walla was short, though his 
influence was great. His early death was a great loss to the state. Dr. N. G. 
Itlalock, the "Good Doctor," honored and loved perhaps beyond any other mar 
in the history of Walla Walla, was the other representative of his county. It 
was a source of just pride to Doctor I'.lalock that he was the author of the pro- 
vision forbidding the sale of school land at less than ten dollars per acre. By 
this and other allied jjrovisions the school lands have been handled in such a way 
as to provide a great sum for the actual use of the children of the commonwealth 
instead of l)cing shamefully squandered by cul|)able (jfficials, as has been the cxi>e- 
ricnce in some states, notably our sister state of Oregon. Judge Sharpstein and 
Doctor Blahxk were democrats in political faith, but neither was a {^artisan Mr 
Crowley was a republican. 

S. G. Cosgrove of Pomeroy was the representative of Garfield and /Vsotin 
counties, one of the best of men and one of the ablest lawyers of his section, later 
elected governor of the state, but dying almost immediately after his inauguration 
tn the j)rofound regret of men of all [larties. He was an independent republican 
in politics. lie had been a college classmate and intimate friend of \'ice Prcsi 
dent I'airbanks. The delegates from Columbia County were M. M. (iodman, a 
democrat, one of the leading lawyers and foremost politicians of the state, subse- 
(|uently a member of the Public Service Commission of the State, and R. F. Stur- 
devant. a republican, also a lawyer of high ability and well proven integrity, 
afterwards the superior judge of this district. 

By the twenty-second article of the Constitution the legislature was so appor- 
tioned that Asotin and Garfield counties constituted the Sixth .^Nonatorial District 
entitled to one senator and each was entitled to one representative in the House; 
Columbia l)ecame the Seventh District, having one senator and two representa 
lives; and Walla Walla comfKised the F.iglith District with two senators, and in 
the House three representatives. 

The first legislature of 1R80-OO had in its senate, from our four counties, C. G. 
.\ustin of Pomeroy for Garfield and Asotin; H. H. Wolfe of Davton for 
Columbia ; Piatt Preston of Waitsburg and George T. Thompvm of Walla Walla 
for Walla Walla. The representatives were : William Farrish of .Asotin Gty for 


Asotin and Garfield; H. B. Day of Dayton and A. H. Weatherford of Dayton for 
Columbia; and J. M. Cornwell of Dixie, J. C. Painter of Estes, and Z. K. Straight 
of Walla Walla for Walla Walla County. 

That first legislature enacted that the senate should henceforth consist of 
thirty-four members, and the house of seventy-eight; that the counties of Gar- 
field, Asotin, and Columbia should constitute the Eighth Senatorial District, 
entitled to one senator ; that the counties of Franklin and Adams, and the Third 
and Fourth wards of the City of Walla Walla, and the precincts of Wallula, 
Frenchtown, Lower Touchet, Prescott, Hadley, Eureka, Hill and Baker, of Wall; 
Walla County, should constitute the Ninth Senatorial District, entitled to one 
senator; that the First and Second wards of the City of Walla Walla, and the 
precincts of Waitsburg, Coppei, Dry Creek, Russell Creek, Mill Creek, Washing- 
ton, and Small, should compose the Tenth Senatorial District, entitled to ont 
senator; that Asotin should constitute the Eighth Representative District with 
one representative; Garfield, the Ninth with one representative; Columbia, the 
Tenth with one; the First and Second wards of Walla Walla City, with the 
precincts of Waitsburg, Coppei, Dry Creek, Russell Creek, Mill Creek, Wash- 
ington, and Small, the Eleventh District with one representative ; and the Third 
and Fourth wards of Walla Walla City, with the precincts of Wallula, French- 
town, Lower Touchet, Prescott, Hadley, Eureka, Hill, and Baker, the Twelfth 
District with one representative. 

Such was the induction of the State of Washington into the Union, and the 
representation of our four counties in the first Legislature. We shall give later 
the delegations to subsequent legislatures, with the lists of county officers. 

Politics in the new state bubbled vigorously at once and during the twenty- 
seven years of statehood Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield, and Asotin have 
played their full parts in state aflairs. To enter into an extended account of state 
politic? is beyond the scope of this work. We can speak of it only at its points 
of contact with our county history. 

In the first election of United States senators November, 1889, John B. Allen 
of Walla Walla, and Watson C. Squire were chosen, the former drawing the 
four-year term, which entitled him to the place until March 4, 1893. The sen- 
atorial election of 1893 was one of the most extraordinary in the history of such 
elections and involved a number of distinguished men in this section of the 
state. The fundamental struggle was between the adherents of John B. Allen 
of Walla Walla and George Turner of Spokane, both republicans. It became a 
factional fight of the bitterest type. One hundred and one ballots were taken 
unavailingly and then the Legislature adjourned sine die, with no choice. The 
last ballot records the names of two citizens of Walla Walla, one of Dayton, and 
one now, although not then, a citizen of Walla Walla. The Walla Walla candi- 
dates were John B. Allen with fifty votes, lacking seven of a majority, and Judge 
B. L. Sharpstein. The Dayton name was that of J. C. Van Patten, and the name of 
the present citizen of Walla Walla was Henry Drum, now warden of the peni- 

Upon the failure of the Legislature to elect, Governor McGraw appointed 
John B. Allen to fill the vacancy. Proceeding to Washington Mr. Allen presented 
his case to the Senate, but in that case, as in others, that body decided and very 
properly, that the state must go unrepresented until the Legislature could perform 

Vol. I Ifl 


.its constitutional duties. It is safe to say that tliat experience, with similar ones 
in other states, was one of the great influences in causing the amendment to the 
Constitution providing for direct election by the people. The spectacle of tfie 
Legislature neglecting its law-making functions to wrangle over the opposing 
ambitions of senatorial aspirants, fatally impaired the confidence of the people in 
the wisdom of the old method of choice. That amendment may be regarded also 
as one of the striking manifestations of American political evolution, in which 
there has come a recognition of the danger of legislative bodies, chosen by popular 
suffrage, becoming the tools of personal or corporate interests instead of the 
■servants of the people who chose them, and by which, in consequence, the evils 
PI popular government are being remedied by being made more popular. 

Two other citizens of Walla Walla have represented the state in the National 
Congress, and several others have been willing to. These are Levi Ankeny and 
iMiles Poindexter, the latter having begun his political career at Walla Walla, but 
having removed to Spokane and become superior judge there before entering 
upon his term as congressman in 1909 and senator in 191 1, to be re-elected in 
1916. Senator Ankeny, one of the most prominent of the permanent citizens of 
Walla Walla, and one of the greatest bankers in the Northwest, being president 
of eleven banks in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, was elected senator in 
1903 and served until 1909. He was deservedly popular throughout the section 
in which he lived, for his broad and generous business methods as well as for his 
general character. During the hard times of the '90s, in which many of the 
farmers of Walla Walla and Columbia counties were next door to ruin, it is re- 
membered that Mr. Ankeny could have acquired by foreclosure of his immense 
loans lands whose value is now tenfold the amount of the mortgages of those 
hard times. But by aiding and encouraging the struggling farmers of that time 
and neglecting the advantage which he himself might have gained he kept them 
upon their feet and thus conferred an immeasurable benefit not only upon in- 
dividuals, but upon the country as a whole. During Mr. Ankeny's term in the 
Senate extensive improvements were made in the buildings at Fort Walla Walla. 


Another of the leading political connections of Walla Walla County with the 
state was the penitentiary. This institution was removed from Seatco to Walla 
Walla in 1887. The county commissioners at that time were F. W. Paine, Fran- 
cis Lowden, and Piatt Preston. These men, and particularly Mr. Paine, felt that 
not only from the standpoint of the state, for desirability of location and economy 
of subsistence, but from the fact that constructive works might be operated which 
could be of benefit to the farmers of the region, this change of place would be 
wise. The most distinctive features of labor have been the brick yards, which 
did a very large and profitable work for many years and were discontinued in 190c 
to allow the management to put the main force upon the jute mills, for the making 
of grain bags and rugs and other fabrics. This system of constructive labor by 
the inmates of the penitentiary is to be attributed largely to the intelligent busi- 
ness conceptions as well as philanthropic interest in the men by Mr. F. W. Paine 
and Mr. W. K. Kirkman. They had formed the impression that for the sake of 
health of mind and body in the prisoners systematic labor was a necessity, and 

Warden's Residence Wuik Sliups 

Administration Building 
The Hospital The Jute Mill 



also that the products of that labor might go far to lighten the burdens of tax 
payers. Their theory has been triumphantly vindicated by the history of the 
penitentiary. Not at all times in the thirty years of its existence has the institu- 
tion been conducted in the interest either of reclamation of criminals or of saving 
expense to the state. As in all such cases there have been times when the main 
aims were political rather than penal or economic, and there have been still more 
times when the other party said they were, even when governors, boards, and 
wardens were doing their best in the public interest. 

The wardens in order of service, several of them being citizens of Walla 
Walla, and about an equal number coming from other parts of the state, have 
been John Justice, F. L. Edmiston, John McClees, J. H. Coblentz, Thomas Mos- 
grove, J. B. Catron, Frank Kees, F. A. Dryden, Charles Reed and Henry Drum. 

There have been a number of tragic events in the history of the penitentiary 
of which perhaps the most thrilling was the attempted escape of a large number 
of prisoners during the wardenship of Mr. McClees in 1891. At that time it was 
the practice to run a train of flat cars to Dixie to get clay for the brick yards. 
Two desperadoes conceived the idea of capturing a train as it went through the 
gate, loading a number of prisoners on it, running to Dixie, there turning loose 
on the farms, getting horses and provisions, and striking out for the mountains. 
It was a bold, well-conceived project and carne near execution. A number of 
prisoners were. "in" on the scheme, and at the givjCH signal,- several who were 
experienced engineers and firemen performed tfioif part; of- the ;gl6t by seizing 
the locomotive. At the same instant the two ringleaders by a bold dash seized 
Warden McClees and walked him toward the, gate, commanding him on pain of 
instant death to order the opening of the gates and" therteiring -of the track for 
the passage of the train. The warden preserved most extraordinary nerve, even 
while the two ruffians were holding over his head knives which they had snatched 
up from the kitchen. In the instant he called out to Phil Berry, one of the guards 
on the wall, whom he knew to be a dead shot, "Be cool, Phil, take your time!" 
Even while the two knives were in the very act to strike, Berry's rifle cracked 
twice in succession, and the leaders fell on either side of the warden, each with a 
bullet in his heart. About the quickest work of the kind ever known here or 
elsewhere. The fall of the leaders disconcerted the whole program, and after 
a few moments of intense excitement the guards got control of the situation, and 
the affair was all over. 

Another of the desperate events was the case of Warden J. H. Coblentz. He 
was an appointee of Governor McGraw and was the most conspicuous example of 
a purely political appointment. After a slashing career in which he endeavored to 
dictate the politics of the county purely in the interest of himself and his clique 
he found himself on the verge of exposure for irregularities in his accounts. 
Governor McGraw with other state officers came to Walla Walla to investigate. 
and while they were in the penitentiary office conducting the investigation, Cob- 
lentz, seeing that conviction was inevitable and knowing that if he himself became 
an inmate of the penitentiary along with the prisoners whom he had abused, his 
life was not worth a nickel, anticipated the verdict, and snatching up a pistol, 
put it to his head and fell dead in the presence of the governor. 

It is no disparagement to the earher wardens — for the conditions probably 
did not make earlier action feasible — to say that Mr. Reed and Mr. Drum have 


represented a new order in the hisiiory of the penitentiary, liotli liavc l>ccn 
>tudrnt!> of criniiiUil(>(;y, arc iliinkers and |<liilantliropist!>, and have inaugurated 
advanced niethwls which liavc placed the U a!>liin){tun |K-nitcntiary in the front 
rank of well conducted institutions of its cbss. 

l.m.\L IVLlTlcAl- HISTOKV 

lurniiif; now Ironi slate connections to matters local to Walla Walb County 
it may l>c said that there was during; the period of 1875-89 a marked tendency tc 
that |ioliiical conservatism which is apt to characterize a growing agricultural 
comnuinity. \\ alia Walla, like rortland, has been since its first era more of the 
lliisttrii tyjK- than of the characteristically Western. The general tendency has 
liecn, ill iKjIitics as in business, to play safe and not make reckless cx|»crimcnts. 
fhis attitude is denominated wisdom or moss-backism by different |jarties very 
much according to their view|>oint, and csix-cially whether they arc "in" or "out." 
Ihc great "isms" which swept the country in ihc "Sos and '90s, populistic move- 
ments as represented by Bryan and other great leaders, in general received the cold 
shoulder from Walla Walla. That statement should be qualilied to considerable 
degree, however, by the fact that the combination of democrats, populists, and 
silver republicans, carried several elections, and that even the republican leaders 
vcrv' largely accepted the doctrine of "16 to i." 

There were also, even in conservative Walla Walla, many enthusiastic fol- 
lowers of Governor John R. Rogers, "Wheat Chart" Jones, Judge Ronald, and 
ihat most brilliant and s[H'ctacular of all the |)oIiticiaiis of the jHjriod, the "ijink- 
whiskered" James Hamilton Lewis, whose great abilities, even under the out- 
ward guise of certain "airs" and "fopperies," have been conceded by his critics 
.ind detractors down to the |)rcsent date of his distinguished service as senator 
from Illinois. It is remembered, however, by men of both |>arties that at a cer- 
tain historic joint debate in Walla Walla on October 22. 1898, even the brilliant 
"Dude Lewis" was somewhat seriously "Ixaten up." metaphorically sjKaking, h\ 
WCiley L. Jones, and that the former somewhat lust prestige as a result, and 
that the latter was launched by that event upon what has proved to be a con 
tinuous service in Congress as representative and senator from 1899 to the present 

A few figures of elections during that period will be found of interest. In 
1880. F'Vrrv. republican candidate for govenior, the first under statehood, received 
in Walla Walla County 1.4.^3 votes to 1.1S6 for .^emple, the democratic candidate. 
In i8<)2 McT.raw. rejuiblican. had 1.211 to I.322 for Snively, democrat. There 
were a few votes for tlreene and Young in the latter election, so that the total 
vote in 1892 was 2.81)7, as ag:iinst 2.f>i9 in 1881). 

The presidential vote of 1892 shows that Walla Walla County cast for the 
highp'it republican elector i.3''>2 ballots and for the highest democratic i.^i.V with 
a few for the people's party and prohibitionists, a total of 2.889. In the presi- 
dential election of iSf/i. the republican vote was 1.596, the people's party (fusion 
of democrats. poi>"Iists and silver rrpublicans) had a vote of 1.652. while there 
were a few prohibitionists and gold democrats, a total of 3.349- Comparing these 
figures with those of 190R and 1016. the following interesting results appear 
in 1908. Bryan, i.fifio; Taft. 2.843; a few for others, so that the total was 4.676; 


for governor, Pattison, democrat, i,88i ; Cosgrove, republican, 2,670 — total vote, 
4,551. In 1916, results were: Wilson, 4,421; Hughes, 4,403; total, 8,824; for 
senator. Turner, democrat, 3,328; Poindexter, progressive republican, 5,454; for 
governor. Lister, democrat, 4,991 ; McBride, republican, 4,040. The great in- 
crease in the last election is due to woman suffrage. 

Analysis of the above and of other election returns plainly signifies that vvhik 
Walla Walla County may in general terms be considered conservative, there is a 
healthy balance of parties, and that no particular group of politicians can count 
with any certainty on "delivering the goods." The result of the last election in 
these counties of Old Walla Walla, as well as the state at large and indeed the 
West as a whole, may be considered as a demonstration of the progressive and 
independent spirit of this new country, which resents "bossism" and "back-room" 
politics and moves ever more steadily toward genuine democratic government. 
While on general views of historic questions, particularly those concerned with 
slavery and secession and those bearing upon nationalism as against state rights, 
these sections are overwhelmingly republican, after the historic views of Clay, 
Webster, Lincoln, Seward, Blaine, and other national leaders, yet upon the newer 
issues of economics, government control of railroads and other public utilities, 
and foreign relations, they may be counted on to do their own thinking and to 
make decisions very disconcerting to the old-time bosses. 

In connection with the figures which we gave it is interesting as a side light 
on population and the shiftings of growth to give here certain figures of com- 
parison between Old Walla Walla and other parts of the state in early days and 
now. In 1880 the largest urban center was Walla Walla, with 3,588 people, Seattle 
was next with 3,533. Spokane had 350. In 1890, Walla Walla had 4,709; Seattle 
42,837; Spokane, 19,922. In 1910, Walla Walla, 19,364; Seattle, 237,194; Spo- 
kane, 104,402. In 1917, estimated: Walla Walla, 25,000; Seattle, 330,843; Spo- 
kane, 125,000. The enormous increase in population upon the Sound as a com- 
mercial center, and at Spokane as a prospective manufacturing and an actual 
railroad center, is simply an indication of the natural tendencies of trade and 
industry characteristic of the world's growth. A purely agricultural region can- 
not expect to keep pace with those marked out by nature for commerce and manu- 

It is, however, an interesting point in the history of Walla Walla whether, 
if it had "taken the tide at the flood," it might not have maintained its leadership 
as an inland city. It is a favorite idea with some of the best observers among 
the old-timers that Walla Walla, instead of Spokane, might have been the manu- 
facturing and transportation center for the Inland Empire, if certain conditions 
had been fulfilled. The first of those was location. The true spot for the large 
city in the Walla Walla Valley was where Touchet is now located. While Walla 
Walla is an admirable location for a large town, the Touchet region is better. 
The great point, however, is elevation. Walla Walla is 920 feet above sea 
level, Touchet is 447. Walla Walla is thirty-two miles from the Columbia River, 
Touchet is sixteen. It would have been quite feasible to make a canal from 
Touchet to the Columbia. That question was agitated and if the town had been 
there instead of on Mill Creek, it would no doubt have been made. If that had 
been done, or even if not, the railroad and wagon haul to Touchet was so much 
easier and shorter, as to represent a great saving in cost of transportation. If 


that condition of location had been realized, and if inducements had been 
offered to tlic Niirllicrn racific Railroad Idiildt-rs, it is asserted by tlioie who 
know that that railroad would have preferred Walla Walla (or Touchet) a& its 
cliief jKjint in interior Washington. The difference between 930 and 447 feet 
would have been determinative of grades. The Northern Pacific officials were 
really desirous — so it is claimed — to take a more southern route, following ihc 
Mullan Koad through the Hitler Roots, then down the Clearwater and the .*^iiake 
to a jKjint on the l.owtr Walla Walla. Finding no local encouragement or in 
ducemcnts, they linally undertook the more northern route, and S|Mikanc is the 
result. However, all that is matter of conjecture, rather than demonstration. 


One of the questions of Walla Walla jxjlitics, as of the rest of the stale an< 
indeed of the country, was wmiian suffrage. .\s the logical evolution of dem(x- 
racy that view of suffrage a])|Kalcd to the Western man, and the conveniional 
objections had little weight with him. Pressure was brought from all sides u|>on 
the legislative delegations to submit the projwsilion to a popular election — and 
when that occurred in 1908, it carried in the county and the state by a heavv 
vote. It has seemed to the voters of both sexes so natural a condition that they 
can now hardly conceive of any other. The woman suffrage amendment came 
with a remarkable quietude and almost as a matter of course. 

Far more vigorously contested was the question of prohibition. For many 
years Waitsburg and almost all the farming country had Ixen strongly in favor 
of prohibition. Waitsburg had under the local option law e.xcluded s-Hl(K)ns. 
Hut the saloon influences were strong in W'alla Walla City, and underground 
agencies of sundry kinds had maintained a tight grip on municipal politics. Al 
various times somewhat spasmodic waves of moral reform swept over the city, 
as in the orgimization of the Municipal league in i8g6 and in other similar move 
ments at later times. Hut in general both city and county politics, as in most 
parts of the United States, were seemingly dominated by the liquor interests. 
Yet all through those years there was in progress one of those elemental popular 
movements going down to the very foundations of society which when finally 
directed toward a defmite end become irresistible. Moral, economic, sanitary. 
educational, religious, domestic innucnccs. were for a generation moulding the 
opinions of an amiy of voters and the combined effect In-gan to \tc manifest from 
about 1900 onward to a degree that even the blindest could not fail to sec. In 
1908, 1910. and 1912, a determined and growing effort by the fanners who had 
seen the economic loss through lal)orcrs and even their own sons going to town 
and carousing and so losing a day or more every week, started a corresjwnding 
njovement in town. At first not successful, the campaign kept gaining. Council- 
men in the city and commissioners in the county were chosen more and more in 
the direction of reform. The churches. Young Men's Giristian Association, 
schools, women's organizations. Salvation .\nny. Good Templars, and especially 
the .Anti-Saloon League, each contributed its push. .\ city election under the 
local option law occurred in IQI2. The conservative business interests opixjsed 
the proposition and even imported distinguished speakers from the East, par- 
ticularly from the beer center, Milwaukee, and on election day the liquor traffic 



(styled "Personal Liberty") was still in the saddle. But it was clear that the 
vote of the city, combined with that of the county, would come back with greater 
strength in another election, and some of the more far-seeing liquor dealers began 
arrangements to enter other business. In the great historical election of 1914, 
the State of Washington secured a definite prohibition law by referendum, though 
with the "permit" system of personal importation of limited amounts of liquor. 
Walla Walla County was one of the strong counties in support of the law, being 
surpassed only by Yakima and Whitman in majority for the measure. It was to a 
degree an "East Side" victory, for the East Side gave over 25,000 affirmative 
while the West Side, due to the heavy negative vote of Seattle, gave 10,000 
negative. None who was in Walla Walla during the strenuous campaign in 
October of 1914 will forget the powerful addresses in favor of the law by H. S. 
Blandford, one of the most eloquent speakers known in this section. His thrilling 
appeals and incontrovertible arguments brought many voters to the standard of 
prohibition. His lamented death in 191 5 robbed the Walla Walla bar of one 
of its brightest ornaments. 

Old John Barleycorn died hard, and in the election of 1916 the battle was 
fought over again by a vote on several initiative and referendum measures, as a 
result of which the "permit" system was replaced by a "bone-dry" law, and the 
liquor propositions were buried so deep that no resurrection now seems possible. 
In Walla Walla the gloomy predictions as to unused buildings and ruined business 
and overwhelming taxation have failed of fulfillment to. .a dsgxee ;to make them 
absurd. . ' ■ 

The most prominent questions of local improvement during recent years in 
Walla Walla County have been the new courthouse and the paving and other im- 
provement of roads. Several elections of commissioners turned upon the first 
question. There were three propositions ardently advocated from 1910 to 1914. 
One was to repair the old building, though it had been condemned by experts; 
another was to make a costly structure at a maximum outlay of $300,000; the 
third proposal was for a substantial, but plain and modest building, of approxi- 
mately a cost of $150,000. The latter proposition commended itself to the gen- 
eral judgment, and the commissioners of 1912 and 1914, H. A. Reynolds, E. D. 
Eldridge, and J. L. Reavis, interpreted their election as a commission to proceed 
with such a plan. The result has been realized in one of the most fitting and 
dignified and altogether attractive, though not showy, courthouses in the state, a 
just pride to the county and an object of admiration to visitors. 

Of the road question it may only be said that it is in a formative state. Much 
money has been wasted in both city and country by ill-constructed pavements, and 
it can only be hoped that the next decade will see more definite progress than has 
characterized the experimental stage of the last. 

We have given in a preceding chapter the tabulation of county officials to the 
time of county division in 1875. We now present the legislative delegations and 
the chief county officials from that date to the present : 


In 1876, Walla Walla County was represented in the Legislature by Daniel 
Stewart, councilman, and W. T. Barnes, William Martin, A. J, Gregory, and H. 


A. X'ansyclc. representatives. The county officers were : T. J. Anders, attorney ; 
*-» !■■ " -licritT; T. P. I'agc, atiditur ; W. O'Donndl, trrasurrr; Samuel 

Jacob>. : , 1'. Zaiuier, surveyor; A. \V. Sweeney, superintendent of schools; 

L. H. Goodwin, coroner; D. J. Storms. James Ltradcn. and Dion Kcefe, commis- 

1 lir iliiiion in 1878 resulted thus: J. H. Day, councilman ; J. A. laylor, D. J. 
Storms. J. M. Dewar. and M. F. Coh. representatives; K. F. Sturdevaiit, attorney; 
R. (iuichnrd. prolate judj;c; J. H. Thompson, sheriflf; VV. C. Painter, auditor; 
J. !•'. Hover, trra-surcr; S. Jacobs, assessor; P. Zahncr, surveyor; C. W. Wheeler, 
superintendent of schools; J. .M. Boyd, coroner; M. 15. Ward, Amos Cumininifs 
and S. 11. Krwin, comiiiis.>iioncrs 

In l8^<o. election results were these: H. L. Sharpstein. councilman; J.icoh 
Hoover, joint councilman; R. R. Recs and W. G. Preston. rej>rcscntatives ; J. M 
Comwell. joint representative; R. Guichard. probate judge; G. T. Thompson, at 
torney; W. C. Painter, auditor; J. B. Thompson, sheriff; J. F. Boycr. treasurer 
S. Jacobs, assessor; F. H. Loehr, surveyor; C. W. Wheeler, suiK-rintendcnt of 
schools; H. G. Mauzcy, coroner; M. B. Ward. Amos CumminRS. and S. H. Krwin. 
commissioners; A. S. LeGrow, sheep commissioner. As may be seen from the 
above, nearly all the incumbents of 1878 were re-elected for another term. That 
jiolicy became common in subsequent elections. 

In 1882 we tind the following choices: II. II. Ilungatc. A. G IJoyd. and 
Milton Kvans, re(>rescntativcs; G. T. Thompson, attorney'; W. C. Painter, auditor; 
J. B. Thom|JSon. sheriff; J. F'. Boyer, treasurer; William Ilarkness, assessor; F. 
H. Loehr, surveyor; J. W. Brock, school superintendent; R. Guichard. probate 
judge; M. B. Ward, Amos Cummings. and S. II. Erwin. commissioners; W. B. 
Wells, coroner ; A. S. LeGrow, sheep commissioner. 

The choices in 1884 were these: J. F. Brewer. William I-"udgc. and J. W. 
Dewar, representatives; F. K. Manna, attorney; W. C. Painter, auditor; A. S. 
Bowles, sheriff; J. F. Boycr, treasurer; L. H. Bowman, assessor; J. B. Wilson, 
surveyor; J. W. Morgan, superintendent of schools; R. Guichard, probate judge; 
II. R. Ktylor, coroner; Amos Cunimings, W. P. Reser, and W. G. Babcock, 
commissioners; A. S. LeGrow, sheep commissioner. 

In 188/). results were as follows: Piatt Preston and W. .\1. Clark, rep- 
resentatives; L. R. Hawley, auditor; A. S. Bowles, sheriff; J. F. Boyer, treas- 
urer; M. 11. Paxton, assessor; J. M. Allen, surveyor; Ellen Gilliam, sujxrrin- 
tendrnt of schtwls ; T. C Taylor. Joseph Paul, and Fdwin Weary, commission- 
ers; II. R. Keylor, coroner; Timothy Harry, sheep commissioner. 

The election of 1888 brought these results: J. M. Dewar, councilman; E. L. 
Powell. W. H. I'pton. an<l I.. T. Parker, representatives; T. J. ,\nders, attorney; 
L. R. Ilawley. auditor; J. M. McFarland, sheriff; M. McM.inamon, Fdwin Weary, 
and J. W. Morgan, commissioners ; IL W. Eagan, prolute judge ; J. F. Boycr, 
trea'-urer; M. II. Paxton. assessor; J. B. Gehr. school sujierinfendent ; I.. W 
Loehr. sur\'eyor; Y. C. Blalo^k. coroner. 

In 1880 came entrance to statehood, and of that we have already spoken. The 
election of Octolnrr 1st. of that year proviflcd for the choice of congressmen, 
state officers, legislators, judge of Superi'"^ ri.urt .tiuI <fninty clerk. Of the first 
two we have given the results earlier. 

The following were chosen memlnrrs of that first State legislature: George 


T. Thompson and Piatt Preston, senators; J. C. Painter, J. ]\L Cornwell and 
Z. K. Straight, representatives. 

All the above were republicans. 

William H. Upton became superior judge for the district, including Walla 
Walla and Franklin counties. E. B. Whitman was chosen county clerk. Both 
were republicans. One strange thing was that Walla Walla, like the other coun- 
ties of the group, voted against the Constitution. 

The year i8go saw the following members of the Legislature and local officers 
chosen: J. L. Sharpstein, dem., and J. C. Painter, rep., representatives; H. S. 
Blandford, dem., attorney; H. W. Eagan, dem., clerk; W. B. Hawley, rep., 
auditor; J. M. McFarland, rep., sheriff; R. Guichard, dem., treasurer; J. M. 
Hill, rep., Milton Aldrich, rep., and Francis Lowden, dem., commissioners ; J. B. 
Gehr, rep., superintendent of schools; M. H. Paxton, rep., assessor; Y. C. Blalock, 
rep., coroner; L. W. Loehr, rep., surveyor. 

Of the interesting national and state choices of 1892, we have already given 
the figures. The legislative and local results were these: A. Cameron, rep., 
Joseph Merchant, rep., and David Miller, dem., representatives ; J. L. Roberts, 
rep., senator; W. H. Upton, rep., superior judge; H. W. Eagan, dem., clerk; 
Miles Poindexter, dem., attorney ; W. B. Hawley, rep., and J. J. Huffman, dem., 
had a tie for auditor, and by mutual agreement the office was divided, each 
serving as principal one year and as deputy one year; C. C. Gose. dem., sheriff; 
H. H. Hungate, dem., treasurer; Edward McDonnell, J. B. Caldwell, and F. M. 
Lowden, all democrats, conmiissioners ; E. L. Brunton, rep., superintendent of 
Schools; T. H. Jessup, dem., assessor; J. B. Wilson, rep., surveyor; C. B. Stewart, 
dem., coroner. 

As will be seen, that was a democratic year, eleven to seven. 

The election of 1894, the "calamity year," reversed conditions, two democrats, 
Ellingsworth for sheriff and Nalder for commissioner, being the only successful 
democratic candidates. The outcome was thus: Joseph Merchant and J. W. 
Morgan, representatives ; Mr. Morgan having but two the lead of Francis Gar- 
racht, his democratic competitor ; R. H. Ormsbee, attorney ; Le F. A. Shaw, clerk ; 
A. H. Crocker, auditor; Wm. Ellingsworth, sheriff; M. H. Paxton, trea.surer; 
E. L. Brunton, superintendent of schools ; J. B. Wilson, assessor ; E. S. Clark, 
surveyor; S. M. White, coroner; Frank Nalder and Amos Cummings, com- 

The year 1896 brings us to the great "16 to i" campaign, Bryan and the "cross 
of gold," populists, and general upset of all political programs. In local, as in 
the national votes, the "Pp." appears with somewhat startling frequency. 

Results appear as follows: John L Yeend, Pp., state senator, ninth district; 
David Miller, Pp., state senator, tenth district; A. Matthoit, Pp., representative, 
eleventh district; J. H. Marshall, rep., representative, twelfth district; T. H. 
Brents, rep., judge Superior Court ; Frank Sharpstein, Pp., attorney ; A. H. 
Crocker, rep., auditor; J. E. Mullinix, Pp.. clerk; Wm. Ellingsworth, Pp., sheriff; 
M. H. Paxton, rep., treasurer; E. S. Clark, rep., surveyor; Wm. Gholson, Pp., 
assessor; G. S. Bond, rep., superintendent of schools; W. D. Smith, rep., coroner; 
Milton Evans, Pp., and Oscar Drumheller, Pp., commissioners. Nine "Pps." and 
seven "Repubs." 

In 1898 the normal dominance of the republicans was re-established. The 


.its coiistitulional dulics. It is safe to say that that experience, with similar ones 
.in other. states, was one of the great influences in causing the amendment to the 
Constitution providing for direct election by the people. The spectacle of the 
Legislature neglecting its law-making functions to wrangle over the opposing 
ambitions of senatorial aspirants, fatally impaired the confidence of the people in 
the wisdom of the old method of choice. That amendment may be regarded also 
as one of the striking manifestations of American political evolution, in which 
there has come a recognition of the danger of legislative bodies, chosen by popular 
suffrage, becoming the tools of personal or corporate interests instead of the 
servants of the people who chose them, and by which, in consequence, the evils 
of popular government are being remedied by being made more popular. 

Two other citizens of Walla Walla have represented the state in the National 
Congress, and several others have been willing to. These are Levi Ankeny and 
Miles Poindexter, the latter having begun his political career at Walla Walla, but 
having removed to Spokane and become superior judge there before entering 
upon his term as congressman in 1909 and senator in 191 1, to be re-elected in 
1916. Senator Ankeny, one of the most prominent of the permanent citizens of 
Walla Walla, and one of the greatest bankers in the Northwest, being president 
of eleven banks in Oregon. Washington, and Idaho, was elected senator in 
1903 and served until 1909. He was deservedly popular throughout the section 
in which he lived, for his broad and generous business methods as well as for his 
general character. During the hard times of the '90s, in which many cf the 
farmers of Walla Walla and Columbia counties were next door to ruin, it is re- 
membered that Mr. Ankeny could have acquired by foreclosure of his immense 
loans lands whose value is now tenfold the amount of the mortgages of those 
hard times. But by aiding and encouraging the struggling farmers of that time 
and neglecting the advantage which he himself might have gained he kept them 
upon their feet and thus conferred an immeasurable benefit not only upon in- 
dividuals, but upon the country as a whole. During Mr. Ankeny's term in the 
Senate extensive improvements were made in the buildings at Fort Walla Walla. 


Another of the leading political connections of Walla Walla County with the 
state was the penitentiary. This institution was removed from Seatco to Walla 
Walla in 1887. The county commissioners at that time were F. W. Paine, Fran- 
cis Lowden, and Piatt Preston. These men, and particularly Mr. Paine, felt that 
not only from the stand])oint of the state, for desirability of location and economy 
of subsistence, but from the fact tha-t constructive works might be operated which 
could be of benefit to the farmers of the region, this change of place would be 
wise. The most distinctive features of labor have been the brick yards, which 
did a very large and profitable work for many years and were discontinued in 190c 
to allow the management to put the main force upon the jute mills, for the making 
of grain bags and rugs and other fabrics. This system of constructive labor by 
the inmates of the penitentiary is to be attributed largely to the intelligent busi- 
ness conceptions as well as philanthropic interest in the men by Mr. F. W. Paine 
and Mr. W. K. Kirkman. They had formed the impression that for the sake of 
health of mind and body in the prisoners systematic labor was a necessity, and 

Waidcn's Residence Work Shops 

Administration Building 
Tlie Hospital Tlie Jute Mill 



for a number of councilnien. As a matter of historical reference, we deem it 
worth while to incorporate that ordinance here: 

Ordinance No. 1S5 passed the council of the City of Walla Walla February 
22, ii<84, receiving the approval of the mayor on the same day, and being entitled 
as follows: "An ordinance to divide the City of Walla Walla into wards, and 
apportionment of coimcilmen." The text of the ordinance is as follows: 

Section i. The City of Walla Walla shall be and is hereby divided into four 
wards, to be known as the first, second, third, and fourth wards. 

Sec. 2. The first ward shall be bounded as follows: Commencing at a point 
where the center of Main Street intersects the center of Third Street, thence 
southerly along the center of Third Street to the center of Birch Street, thence 
easterly along the center of Birch Street to the center of Second Street, thence 
southerly along the center of Second Street to the south boundary of the city ; 
thence along the south boundary of the city easterly to the southeast corner 
of the city; thence northerly along the east boundary of the city to the center 
of Mill Creek ; thence down Mill Creek to the center of East Main Street ; thence 
along the center of East Main and Main streets in a westerly direction to the 
place of beginning. 

Sec. 3. The second ward shall be bounded as follows: Beginning at the 
intersection of Main and Third streets; thence southwesterly along the center of 
Main Street to the west boundary line of the city ; thence south along the west 
boundary line of the city to the southwest corner of the city; thence easterly 
along the south boundary of the city to the center of Second Street; ihence 
northerly along the center of Second Street to the center of Birch Street ; thence 
west along the center of Birch Street to the center of Third Street ; thence 
northerly along Third Street to the place of beginning. 

Sec. 4. The third ward shall be bounded as follows: Beginning at thi 
center of Main and North Third streets where they intersect, thence running 
northerly on the center line of North Third Street to the center of Elm Street ; 
thence northeasterly on the center line of Elm Street to the center line of North 
.Second Street ; thence northerly on the center line of North Second Street to 
the northern boundary line of the city ; thence east along said northern boundary 
line of said city to the northeast corner of the northwest quarter of the northeast 
quarter of section twenty (20), in township seven (7) north, range thirty-six 
' 36) east ; thence south to the northeast corner of the southwest quarter of the 
northeast quarter of said section twenty (20) ; thence east to the northeast corner 
of the city; thence south to the center of Mill Creek; thence down the center 
of Mill Creek to the center of East Main Street ; thence westerly along the center 
of East Main and Main streets to the place of beginning. 

Sec. 5. The fourth ward shall be bounded as follows: Commencing at the 
center of Main and North Third streets where they intersect, thence running 
northerly on the center line of said North Third Street to the center of Elm 
Street, thence northeasterly on the center line of Elm Street to the center of 
North Second Street : thence northerly on the center line of North Second Street 
to the northern boundary line of the city; thence west on said northern boundary 
line to the northwest corner of said city ; thence south along said west boundary 
line to the United States ^Military Reservation ; thence easterly and then southerly 



on the line of said military reservation to the center of Main Street; thence 
easterly on the center line of Main Street to the place of beginning. 

Sec. 6. The number of councilnien to which each ward is entitled shall be 
as follows: First ward, two councilmen; second ward, two councilnien; third 
ward, two councilmen ; fourth ward, one councilman. And they shall be elected 
as is provided in section 7 of this ordinance. 

Sec. 7. There shall be elected from the first, second and third wards each 
at the next general election and at every general election thereafter, one council- 
man, and in the fourth ward at the next general election and thereafter biennially, 
one councilman. 

Sec. 8. All ordinances and parts of ordinances, so far as they conflict here- 
with, are hereby repealed. 


. The city is divided into eight election precincts, designated as follows : Lewis, 
Clarke, Whitman, Steptoe, Mullan, Fremont, Stevens and Sims. 


Yet another change of great importance occurred by which, in a special elec- 
tion of July 10, 1911, the commission form of government was adopted, 1,943 for 
and 1,049 This went into effect September il, 1911, with A. J. Gillis 
as mayor. This step was one of the manifestations of that interesting evolutior 
of political ideas common over the United States, perhaps especially in the West 
consisting of two working propositions which seem antagonistic and yet are not 
really so, but are rather parts of one movement under two different phases. 
The first has been the initiative and referendum and recall, by which in legislative 
matters a larger exercise of popular knowledge and oversight of laws is sought. 
That idea has a permanent place in Washington and most western states. The 
other idea is that of the commission form of city government, apparently just 
the reverse, by which executive authority is centralized and responsibility is 
localized in the hands of experts. If these two working forces may be harmonized 
in practical action, we may justly claim to have solved the fundamental questions 
of democracy and efficiency. 


Municipal ownership of water works and the creation of a system of sewerage 
have been two of the most important of all questions in the city. We have 
already described the water system inaugurated by J- D- Cook, J. P. Isaacs and 
H. P. Isaacs and subsequently acquired by the Baker-Boyer Bank. On July n, 
1 88 1, the first election on municipal ownership occurred, and the proposal was 
defeated by an adverse majority of sixty-five. But the natural evolution of a 
city calls for the public ownership of the water system, and the agitation con- 
tinued. In 1887 the Walla Walla Water Company had made a contract with the 
council by which, upon the fulfillment of certain improvements, they were to 
have exclusive right to furnish water for twenty-five years. But in spite of 


the contract, an ordinance providing for a public system was presented to the 
voters in 1893 under tlie mayorahy of John L. Roberts. By an overwhchiiing 
vote the ordinance carried. The water company brought suit to restrain the city 
from instalhng its system, pleading its contract. After a tedious course of litiga- 
tion the suit at last reached the Supreme Court of the United States. There it 
was decided in favor of the Water Company. The city was thus left in a hole, 
after much expense. But popular opinion had become thoroughly committed to 
the policy of public ownership and by a special election on June 20, 1899, ai 
ordinance was passed for the purchase of the entire property of the Water Com- 
pany for the sum of $250,000. With the purchase of the water system went 
also the adoption of a sewerage system. Many improvements and extensions 
have been made of both. In April, 1907, the headworks and intake on Mill 
Creek were installed. Extracts from the last report of Water Supt. R. F. 
McLean are here inserted and from them can be derived a view of the present 
condition of the water and sewerage systems : 

The present mileage of the pipes in the water system is approximately seventy 
miles, of which something more than twelve is in the conduits extending from 
the intake to the city, and something more than fifty-seven is in the distribution 
pipes. The number of fire hydrants is 300. There are 524 gate valves for 
isolating different districts as desired. On December 31, 1916, the date of the 
report, there were 3,961 water services, and of these about eighteen per cent, or 
789 are on meters. The meter rate runs on a sliding scale from twenty cents 
per 1. 000 gallons to eight cents per 1,000 aboVfe 100,000 gallons. The flat rate is 
Si monthly for each kitchen, with 25 cents for each bath and toilet, and $1 for 
each lot irrigated. 

The financial exhibit is in the highest degree encouraging to believers in the 
municipally owned system. The earnings of the system for the year 1916 were 

The mileage in the sewerage system in the last report is thirty-eight miles 
and 4,632 feet. 

The report of the city clerk for the water department assets and liabilities 
is as follows: 

Assets : 

Water system property and plant $635,762.85 

Sewerage system 210,41 1. 91 

Water system sinking fund 42,091.18 

Total $888,265.94 

Liabilities : 

Bonds due November, 1919 $133,000.00 

Warrants outstanding 1,257.72 

Total $134,25772 

During the past ten years street paving has been steadily continued, until at 
the present time there are twenty-three miles of paved streets. While some of 


this work wtis very poorly done and the city has been compelled to repair the work 
of incompetent or dishonest contractors at a large expense, the paving system 
in general has been satisfactory, and is one of the great improvements of recent 

One of the most important of all the features of municipal life is the parks. 
This topic will find place in the last chapter in a special article by Miss Grace 
Isaacs, who has been intimately connected with the establishment of a park 
system from the beginning. 


Another valuable instrumentality of municipal life, which while not political 
in the common use of the term is under municipal control, is the city library. 
The last report of the librarian, Miss Ellen Smith, will give a view of present 

Walla Walla Public Library, Walla Walla, Wash. : Annual report — January, 

The Board of Trustees — Dr. E. E. Shaw, president; T. C. Elliott, secretary; 
Rev. C. E. Tuke, Rowland Smith and H. W. Jones. 

The Library Staf¥ — Ellen Garfield Smith, librarian; Dorothy Drum, first 
assistant; Nell M. Thompson, assistant; Ethel Jamieson, assistant. 

Library Hours — Week days, g A. M. to 9 P. M. ; Sundays and holidays, 
2 to 6 P. M. 

There are 4,962 active readers enrolled, or about one-fourth of the popula- 
tion of Walla Walla. Of this number 1,082 adults and 498 children were added 
the last year, making a total of 1,580 new registrations. 

The readers took home 59,580 books, periodicals and pamphlets. Fiction read- 
ing is not so important a part of the circulation as many people think, as 55 
per cent of the books read were of an instructive and informing character, an 
increase of 3 per cent over last year. The most popular classes of books of 
non-fiction in order of circulation are literature, useful arts, travel and sociology. 

We have added I, ,305 new books at a cost of $742.64. 

Gifts have numbered 253. 

There were 206 volumes worn oijt and withdrawn and fifty-six missing at 
inventory so the number in the library is 12,060. 

Whoever you are, you must need to ask questions sometimes. There must 
be some things you do not know that you want to know. Librarians are paid 
to find the answers to your questions. These are a few samples of the questions 
that we have answered during the last year: 

The number of grain bags used in the United States. 

The design of the Christian flag for Sunday schools. 

Directions for glazing of pottery. 

Statistics of water-power plants. 

Where is Matzos? 

What is the high jump record of a horse? 

How to pickle olives? 

You have more than twelve hundred reference books, and hundreds of pam- 
phlets which we are taking care of for you, waiting for you to come and ask 


.lllli lUC IK-\\ >J>.1|<CI » III the 

burrowed fur liuiiic reading, 
i he current nuinb<rr» ut .lilanhc, Lenlury, Ufltneator, Good Housekfcpmy, 

"■me Journal and Literary Digest may be borrowed 
fur an extra iu|i). 

lite story hour is conducted during the winter months on \\'ednc&day after- 
no«': ■ ■ . • ■ • ' I- is twenty. 

1 .iiriiig the year. 

The children's ruuni contains more than two thousand books including the 
best book* written fi : ' ' ' <\\. The jjreatcst care has been used in tlie selection. 

Help i> (;i\en t<' in >elecling books for iiurchasc. The smallir the 

sum to s|>end. the more ini|>ortant the selection. 

f" 'I and nineteen teachers have s|)ecial teachers' cards for school 

um. ;>rty county teachers. City teaclurs may ha\c ten Ixjoks at a 

time; county teachers may have five. 

The .Nrt Club, Women's Rcadinfj Club. luiiicatiidial I luli and .sketch Llub 

meet rcgubrly in the club room at the ]>ublic library. In addition to this the 

(lood Government League, debating teams and clubs of college and high school, 

' -cs of the Woman's Park Club and Young Women's Gub have appre- 

■lie use of the room. 

The day of largest circulation was February uth, when 388 books and 
periodicals were loaned for home reading. 

Twelve hours every week day your public library is "at your service." Sun- 
day afternoon the librai^ is open for reading only — often every chair is taken. 

I'sefiil arts, next to literature, was the most jMjjiular class of non-fiction cir- 
culated last year. Arc you one of those who has profiled liv ilie luijiful l«Kiks 
on salesmanship, bees, advertising, poultry, etc.? 

When you go on your vacation next summer take te