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V 



The Crimes of the Oedipodean Cycle. 
By Henry N, Botvman, 

A Study of Vergil's Descriptions of 
Nature. By Mabel Louise Anderson, 

Deception in Plautus^ a Study in the 
Technique of Comedy. By Helen E, 
Wieand. 

A Study of Latin Hymns. By Alice 
King MacGilion, 

Latin Stems and Engush Deriva- 
tives for Cjesar. By Madge Devore, 

The Lyric Songs of the Greeks. By 
Walter Petersen. 

Selections from Catullus. By Mary 
Stewart, 

Plato's Studies and Criticisms of the 
Poets. By Carleton L, Brownson. 



RICHARD G. badger, PUBLISHER, BOSTON 



THE LYRIC SONGS 
OF THE GREEKS 



THE EXTANT FRAGMENTS OF 
SAPPHO, ALCAEUS, ANACREON, AND 
THE MINOR GREEK MONQDISTS 

TRANSUTBD INTO ENCUSH VIRSB BV 

WALTER PETERSEN, Ph.D. 

rtorsuoK or claiiici, betbaky 




)f|jw.n»vB«]T«np 



BOSTON 
RICHARD G. BADGER 

THE GORHAM PRESS 



Copyright, 1918, by Richard G. Badger 



#t.»»^'i 



All Rights Reserved 



OR, LENQ-X A-ND 
EN FCL'iJDATlONo 
1019 L 



• •• 



•••• 



• • • 






. : . • • • ; 



Made in the United States of America 



Tbb Gorham Press, Boston, U. S. A. 



• • • • 
♦ • • 

• *• • • • * , 

• • '. 



• • • • • • 

• • r • • • • 






TO 

MY MOTHER 

WHO FIRST INSTILLED INTO MB 
THE LOVE OP POETRY AND SONG 



* . " 



1 . > 



PREFACE 

These translations comprise the poems and frag- 
ments of those Greek lyric poets whose works were 
intended to be sung chiefly by the individual, i. e. 
of the Greek monodists. Of these, however, are 
given even those fragments which really belong to 
different categories, e. g. the Epithalamia of Sappho, 
which were intended for a chorus, and the Elegies 
and Epigrams of Anacreon are rendered as well as 
their other poems. Of each poet are given all 
those fragments which seemed long enough and 
clear enough to admit of any kind of satisfactory 
interpretation, omitting only mere words and short 
phrases which seemed unimportant from every point 
of view. On the other hand, many fragments have 
been received which are of no importance intrinsi- 
cally, but which might shed some light or other on 
the sphere of thought and interest of the various 
poets. On the whole my misgivings are rather that 
I have given too much than not enough. 

Since my object was to interpret the Greek lyric 
poets to the general English reader, and not to ap- 
peal particularly to the Classical scholar, it seemed 
obvious to me that ako the form should be that in 
which we are wont to see modern English lyrics. 
I have therefore used rhymed couplets and stanzas, 
which alone bring the ancient lyrics near to us, and 



\ 



I 



1' 



Contents 

PAOB 

Her Hope of Immortality 37 

Sappho's Song for Her Girl Friends 38 

Her Loyalty to Her Girl Friends 38 

Sappho's Temperament 38 

Sappho's Tastes 38 

Sappho on Her Death-Bed to Her Daughter . . 39 

Gnom^ and Proverbial Expressions .... 39 

Keep Guard on Thy Tongue 39 

Beauty 39 

Wealth 39 

Empty Pride 40 

The Rubble-Stone 40 

No Honey for Me 40 

Overfond Motjhers 40 

Death an Evil 40 

Sappho's Love of Nature 41 

The Moon and the Stars 41 

The £vening-<Star 41 

A Delightful Spot 41 

Chickpeas 41 

Doves 4a 

The Nightingale 4a 

The Swallow 4a 

Sappho and Aphrodite 4a 

Invocation 4a 

"Come to Thy Worshippers" 4a 

A Sacrifice 43 

A Prayer 43 

** Listen to My Dream " 43 

Aphrodite to Sappho 43 



Contents 

PACK 

To Aphrodite's Statue 44 

Aphrodite's Maid 44 

Adonis Is Dead 44 

To the Muses 44 

To the Muses and the Graces 45 

To the Graces 45 

Dawn 45 

Leda's Find 45 

Ares and Hephaestus 46 

Hermes (?) 46 

Nightly Worshippers 46 

Cretan Dances 46 

A Dance on the Lawn 46 

A Fair Little Maid 47 

A Comparison 47 

Lydian Dyes 47 

A Soft Cushion 47 

Fine Covers 47 

The Gloom of Night 48 

Doubt 48 

I Flutter Like a Child 48 

I Need No Advice 48 

Epigrams Attributed to Sappho 49 

Aethopia 49 

Timas 49 

Pelagon . . « 50 

Alcabus 51 

Drinking Songs 56 

In Winter 56 

In Summer 56 

In Spring 57 



Contents 

PAGS 

In the Afternoon 57 

At Night 57 

On the Stormy Sea 58 

In Grief 58 

Cheer Up 58 

Rejoice ! The Tyrant is Dead 59 

The Vine First of All 59 

Not Fastidious 59 

Wine ' a Mirror 59 

Wine and Truth 59 

Wine's Sting 60 

Cease Drinking! Seize the Rudder 60 

Wreaths and Myrrh 61 

Myrrh for Old Age 61 

Love and Friendship 6z 

In Love 6z 

A Serenade 6z 

To Sappho 62 

To Crino 62 

The Violet-Girdled Maid 62 

Menon 62 

In the Bloom of His Youth 62 

Political Songs 63 

The Ship of State Under Myrsilus 63 

A Later Tyrant Compared with Melanchrus . 63 

Pittacus in Poverty ^4 

A Warning Against Pittacus 64 

Pittacus' Last Move 64 

Pittacus in Power 64 

Pittacus the Upstart 65 

Pittacus' Ancestry 65 



^^.ntents 



\zs^ ^al:m 



:c£ ! -•^•."Z* 



sii- -ir ^ienD..;js 



.'Car**' 



•t '^i'" 









\ •*4*'^ *-*i ?-'*•' 



Irt Me Wni 

Mmlrrilimi in Drini 

TH^ftff .... 
« !•# ffalh off Zcui 



PACK 
84 
84 
85 
85 
85 
85 

86 
86 
86 
87 
87 
87 

87 
88 

88 

88 

88 

89 

89 
90 

90 

90 

91 
91 

91 

91 

91 

91 
92 

92 

92 

92 




Contents 

rAd 

The Dance of the Muses 93 

Music and Dance • • • • • 93 

Clover Garlands ....••••.••93 

Three Wreaths for Each 93 

The Festival of Dionysus 94 

Perfumed Ointment 94 

Anacreon's Popularity 94 

Anacreon's Desires 94 

Anacreon's Moderation in Love 95 

Anacreon and His Townsmen 95 

Anacreon's Shield 95 

Anacreon in Old Age 95 

A Sprinkling of Gray 96 

Patriotic and Martial 96 

To Aristoclides 96 

War of Factions 96 

Return to the Fatherland 96 

The Ruined City-Wall • . 97 

A Warrior 97 

Ares' Friends 97 

On a Chariot 97 

Carian Shields 97 

The Course of the Spear 9^ 

Anacreon in Satire 98 

Euryple and Artemon 98 

Artemon 98 

Strattis 99 

Alexis 99 

The Hen-Pecked Husband 99 

Gastrodora ; . . 99 




Contents 

PAGX 

Eros the Bronze-Smith 84 

Eros' Dice 84 

A Bout With Eros 85 

Radiant Love 85 

The Rock of Leucas 85 

Love Unrequited 85 

Too Old 86 

Prayer to Dion3rsus for Cleobulus 86 

Cleobulus 86 

Cleobulus (?) 87 

To Smerdies 87 

Leucaspis 87 

Simalus 87 

Megistes 88 

Megistes 88 

Pythomandrus 88 

Erxion 88 

Unnamed Boy Favorites 89 

A Lesbian Maiden 89 

A Coy Thracian Maiden 90 

Spurn Not Old Age, Maiden 90 

Past the Prime of Life 90 

Unloved Asteris 91 

I Have Had Enough 91 

Wine 91 

The Cup-Bearer 91 

The Right Mixture .91 

Let Me Drink 91 

Moderation in Drink 92 

Intoxicated 92 

Thirsty 9* 

In the Halls of Zeus 92 



t 



Contents 

VAGX 

The Dance of the Muses 93 

Music and Dance 93 

Clover Garlands 93 

Three Wreaths for Each . 93 

The Festival of Dionysus 94 

Perfumed Ointment 94 

Anacreon's Popularity 94 

Anacreon's Desires 94 

Anacreon's Moderation in Love 95 

Anacreon and His Townsmen 95 

Anacr eon's Shield 95 

Anacreon in Old Age 95 

A Sprinkling of Gray 96 

Patriotic and Martial 96 

To Aristoclides 96 

War of Factions 96 

Return to the Fatherland 96 

The Ruined City- Wall 97 

A Warrior 97 

Ares' Friends 97 

On a Chariot 97 

Carian Shields 97 

The Course of the Spear 98 

Anacrbon in Satire 98 

Euryple and Artemon 98 

Artemon 98 

Strattis 99 

Alexis 99 

The Hen-Pecked Husband 99 

Gastrodora ; . . 99 



Contents 

TAOM 

A Baibtrous Voice loo 

The Miletiani loo 

Stormy December loo 

The Frightened Fawn loo 

To a Swallow loi 

Hidden Reefa loi 

Midst Laurel and Olive loi 

The Cottabus Game zoi 

Good at Quoits zoi 

At the Thalysia zoa 

Persuasion ••••.•• loa 

Fearless loa 

Unrelenting « . . loa 

A Challenge io2 

Deceitful . • 103 

Stunned 103 

Despondency 103 

Dishonorable Z03 

Defamed Among Neighbors 103 

The Mischievous and the Porter 104 

Modest Strangers 104 

Returning From the Wash 104 

Like a Spartan Maid 104 

Mules 104 

Elegies 105 

Not Mine Is Love of Strife or Battle . . . .105 

In Spite of Myself 105 

No More Visits Z05 

EncRAMS 105 

Agathon 105 

Timocritus 106 



Contents 

PAOB 

An Offering to Dion3r8U8 io6 

An Offering to Hermes •••.•.•• io6 

An Offering to the Godt 107 

An Offering to Dion3r8US 107 

To Apollo 107 

To Hermes 107 

To Hermes 108 

Cleenorides 108 

A Cloak 109 

Phidoles* Horse 109 

P3rthon's Shield 109 

An Offering to Dionysus 109 

Myron's Cow no 

Myron's Cow no 

Anacreontba IZI 

A Vision of Anacreon 114 

The Lyre of Homer 115 

A Picture 115 

To a Silver Drinking-Cup 116 

To the Same Drinking-Cup 117 

To Eros 117 

To Himself izg 

On Living Without Envy 118 

To Himself When Intoxicated 119 

To a Swallow Z20 

To a Waxen Eros 120 

To Attis I2X 

To Eros laa 

To His Loves 123 

To a Dove 124 

To a Maiden 125 

To the Younger Bathyllus 126 



A Love SoDg 128 

To Erot 129 

Three Lyric Poet* M9 

Driaking ijo 

To a Maideo 130 

To Hi* Lyre 131 

A Lore Song 131 

To a Swallow I3> 

A Love Sang 133 

Love's Brand 13] 

To an Airon i}4 

LoTc'i MiMiy tJ4 

Richea and Love 135 

A Dream t3S 

A Lore Song 136 

A Lore Song 13(1 

To Ero* 137 

To the Cicada 13! 

To Eros 139 

To a Miser 140 

A Dream 140 

To a Sympoiium 141 

To Himself or to an Old Friend 141 

To Himself 14s 

To Spring or Summer 143 

A Love Song 143 

A Love Song 144 

To the Rose i44 

To Wine HS 

To Spring 146 

To Himself 146 

To R Loyer of Drink 147 



Contents 

PAGS 

In the Afternoon 57 

At Night 57 

On the Stormy Sea 58 

In Grief 58 

Cheer Up 58 

Rejoice ! The Tyrant is Dead 59 

The Vine First of All 59 

Not Fastidious 59 

Wine ' a Mirror 59 

Wine and Truth 59 

Wine's Sting 60 

Cease Drinking! Seize the Rudder 60 

Wreaths and Myrrh 61 

Myrrh for Old Age 61 

Love and Friendship 6z 

In Love 61 

A Serenade 6z 

To Sappho 62 

To Crino 62 

The Violet-Girdled Maid 62 

Menon 62 

In the Bloona of His Youth 62 

Political Songs 63 

The Ship of State Under Myrsilus 63 

A Later Tyrant Compared with Melanchrus . 63 

Pittacus in Poverty ^4 

A Warning Against Pittacus 64 

Pittacus' Last Move 64 

Pittacus in Power 64 

Pittacus the Upstart 65 

Pittacus* Ancestry 65 



Contents 

PAGB 

Pittacus and Dinomenes 66 

Pittacus' Arsenal S6 

An Attempted Bargain 6S 

Insolence of the Opponents S€ 

Resign Th3r8e]f to Peace, Melanippus .... 67 

To Antimenides 67 

Alcaeus* Armory 68 

LE88BR Martial Fragments 68 

The State's Tower of Strength 68 

Death in Battle 68 

The Terror of the Enemy 69 

A Prayer for Victory 69 

The God of War 69 

Achilles 69 

Ajax 69 

Helen and Thetis 70 

To Castor and Pollux 70 

To Apollo 71 

To Hermes 71 

To Athena 71 

To Athena 72 

Athena 72 

Eros 72 

Posidon 72 

The Nymphs 72 

Hephaestus (?) 73 

Gnoma and Proverbial Expressions .... 73 

Beware of the Rubble-Stone 73 

Money Makes the Man 73 

Poverty 73 

Nothing From Nothing 74 



Contents 

PA6B 

Guard Thy Tongue 74 

Love Thy Neighbor • 74 

Woe to the Maimed 74 

Cowardice 74 

The Swine Bristles 75 

The Rock of Tantalus 75 

A Friend Worthy of Hospitality 75 

An Ancient Story 75 

To the Limpet 75 

No Need of Witnesses 76 

Obstinacy 76 

Dazed 76 

Forlorn 76 

A Woman's Misery 76 

Relief 77 

A Disgrace to the Family 77 

In the Nick of Time 77 

Blessed Who Win You 77 

Only the Noble 77 

Migrating Ducks 78 

Autumn's Bloom * ... 78 

Gentle Winds 78 

Between the Earth and the Sky 78 

The Cottabus Game 78 

Ptthbrmus 79 

Anacrbon 80 

To Artemis 83 

Wine, Woman and Song 84 

Love and Friendship 84 

Eros King Over All 84 



• 



Contents 

PAGS 

Eros the Bronze-Smith ....•••• 84 

Eros' Dice 84 

A Bout With Eros 85 

Radiant Love 85 

The Rock of Leucas 85 

Love Unrequited 85 

Too Old 86 

Prayer to Dionysus for Cleobulus 86 

Cleobulus 86 

Cleobulus (?) 87 

To Smerdies 87 

Leucaspis 87 

Simalus 87 

Megistes 88 

Megistes 88 

P}rthomandrus 88 

Erxion 88 

Unnamed Boy Favorites 89 

A Lesbian Maiden 89 

A Coy Thracian Maiden 90 

Spurn Not Old Age, Maiden 90 

Past the Prime of Life 90 

Unloved Asteris 91 

I Have Had Enough 91 

WiNB 91 

The Cup-Bearer 91 

The Right Mixture .91 

Let Me Drink 91 

Moderation in Drink 92 

Intoxicated 92 

Thirsty 92 

In the Halls of Zeus 92 



t 



Contents 

VAGB 

The Dance of the Muses 93 

Music and Dance 93 

Clover Garlands • • • 93 

Three Wreaths for Each ........ 93 

The Festival of Dionysus 94 

Perfumed Ointment 94 

Anacreon's Popularity 94 

Anacreon's Desires 94 

Anacreon's Moderation in Love 95 

Anacreon and His Townsmen 95 

Anacreon's Shield 95 

Anacreon in Old Age 95 

A Sprinkling of Gray 96 

Patriotic and Martial 96 

To Aristoclides 96 

War of Factions 96 

Return to the Fatherland 96 

The Ruined City- Wall • . . 97 

A Warrior 97 

Ares' Friends 97 

On a Chariot 97 

Carian Shields 97 

The Course of the Spear 98 

Anacreon in Satire 98 

Euryple and Artemon 98 

Artemon 98 

Strattis 99 

Alexis 99 

The Hen-Pecked Husband 99 

Gastrodora • • • 99 



Contents 

FAGS 

A Baibaroui Voice xoo 

The Mileiiaof xoo 

Stormy December xoo 

The Frightened Fawn xoo 

To a Swallow xox 

Hidden Reeff . xox 

Midst Laurel and Olive xox 

The Cottabus Game xox 

Good at Quoits xox 

At the Thalysia xoa 

Persuasion xo2 

Fearless • xoa 

Unrelenting xoa 

A Challenge xoa 

Deceitful 103 

Stunned 103 

Despondency X03 

Dishonorable 103 

Defamed Among Neighbors 103 

The Mischievous and the Porter 104 

Modest Strangers 104 

Returning From the Wash X04 

Like a Spartan Maid 104. 

Mules X04 

Blbgibs X05 

Not Mine is Love of Strife or Battle . . . .105 

In Spite of Myself X05 

No More Visits X05 

EnctAMS X05 

Agathon X05 

Timocritus xo6 



Contents 

TAOM 

An Offering to Dionysui xo6 

An Offering to Hermes io6 

An Offering to the Godi X07 

An Offering to Dionysui X07 

To Apollo X07 

To Herroei X07 

To Hermes xoS 

Cleenorides xoS 

A Cloak X09 

Phidoles' Horse X09 

Python's Shield X09 

An Offering to Dionysus X09 

Myron's Cow xxo 

Myron's Cow xxo 

Amacreontea ixx 

A Vision of Anacreon xx4 

The Lyre of Homer 11$ 

A Picture 1x5 

To a Silver Drinking-Cup xx6 

To the Same Drinking-Cup 1x7 

To Eros 1x7 

To Himself xxS 

On Living Without Envy xxS 

To Himself When Intoxicated 1x9 

To a Swallow x2o 

To a Waxen Eros xao 

To Attis lax 

To Eros xaa 

To His Loves 123 

To a Dove 124 

To a Maiden xas 

To the Younger Bathyllus ia6 



A Lore Soag laS 

To Eros 1*9 

Three Lyric Pocti 119 

Drioking 130 

To a Maiden tjo 

To Hit Lyre tjt 

A Love SoDg iji 

To a Swallow ijl 

A Love Song 133 

Love's Brand 133 

To ao Arrow 134 

LoTc'a Miaery 134 

Richei and Lore i}5 

A Dream 135 

A Love Song 136 

A Love Song ij6 

To Ero» 137 

To the Cicada 13! 

To Ero« IJ9 

To a Miier 140 

A Dream 140 

To a Sympoaium 141 

To Himaelf or to an Old Friend 14a 

To Himielf 142 

To Spring or Summer 143 

A Lore Song 143 

A Love Song 144 

To the Roic 144 

To Wine 145 

To Spring I4<S 

To Hiinietf n6 

To a Lover of Drink 147 



Contents 

PAGE 

To Dionysus or to Wine 148 

To a Symposium . 148 

To a Maiden 149 

. On Living Without Worry 150 

To Himself 150 

To Europa 151 

To the Rose 152 

To Dionysus 153 

To a Discus With an Engraving of Aphrodite • 154 

To Gold 155 

To Wine 156 

To Apollo 157 

Let Me Drink 158 

A Good Listener 158 

CORINNA , 159 

Corinna's Theme x6i 

Helicon and Cithaeron x6i 

The Daughters of Asopus .162 

Boeotus 163 

Orion 163 

The Ship-Wrecked Odysseus 164 

A Sackei" of Cities 164 

A Contest 164 

A Warning 164 

A Loving Mother 164 

Thespia 165 

Corinna at Tanagra 165 

Awake, Corinna 165 

Myrtis and Pindar 165 

Telesilla x66 



Contents 

VAGX 

Pkaxilla '. 167 

Achilles 167 

Adonis 168 

Love the Brave x68 

Beware of Scorpions x68 

A Wedded Bride 168 

ElUNNA 169 

From the Distaff 170 

To the Pompilus 170 

Gray-Haired Women 170 

Silence Midst the Dead 170 

£PI(atAM8 X7Z 

The Picture of Agatharchis 171 

The Tomb of Baucis 171 

The Tomb of Baucis 17a 

N0TB8 X73 

Sappho 173 

Alcaeus 17^ 

Amacreom X7S 

Anacreomtea X79 

CORIMNA z8o 

Praxilla z8x 

Indices x8z 

Sappho , x8x 

Alcaeus X85 

Anacrbom x88 

COROiNA X9X 



THE LYRIC SONGS 
OF THE GREEKS 



THE LYRIC SONGS 
OF THE GREEKS 

SAPPHO 

By far the greatest of the Greek monodic lyric 
poets, and, together with her contemporary Alcaeus, 
the earliest, was Sappho, who lived in Lesbos ( Mity- 
lene or, according to others, Eresos) at the end of 
the seventh and the beginning of the sixth century 
B. c. She was the daughter of Scamandronymus, and 
had a brother named Charaxus, of whom Herodotus 
tells us that he fell under the influence of the famous 
courtezan Rhodopis, whose real name was Doricha. 
He went to Naucratis in Egypt and ransomed her, 
and on his return was met by the barbed shafts of 
the poetry of his sister, who earlier had composed a 
prayer for his repentance and return (see no. 8 
below), and on another occasion (no. 7) lamented 
that he fell into the clutches of the fair lady a second 
time after having once escaped. Other data as to 
Sappho's family are more or less uncertain. Her 
mother is said to have been named Cleis, and, to 
judge from fragment no. 9, she appears to have had 
a daughter of the same name. However, she may 

13 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



here not be speaking in her own person, and it is 
also possible that by " child " she did not mean a 
daughter, but a girl friend. That her husband, if 
she had one, was Cerq^las from Andros, is most cer- 
tainly a fiction of the comedians. 

Of the events of her life we know nothing more 
except that she was exiled from Lesbos and went to 
Sicily about 596 b. c. Since she belonged to the old 
aristocratic families of Lesbos, the ascendancy of the 
tyrants, whom her party had fought so bitterly, re- 
sulted in banishment for her even though she evi- 
dently did not actively lend the service of her 
poetry to the side on which her sympathies lay. 
Later she was permitted to return, like Alcaeus, no 
doubt, through the generosity of the tyrant Pittacus. 
After her return all her poetic activity was con- 
nected with the " Home of the Muses," as she 
called her abode, in which she must have lived at the 
time of her death (cf. no. 68). Here she gathered 
around her a group of younger women whom she in- 
structed in the arts of poetry and song, and whose 
beauty and friendship inspired her Muse. Among 
the names of such companions which occur in her 
fragments, may be mentioned: Hero, Mnesidice, 
Anactoria, Gongyle, and above all, the lovely 
Atthis, whose desertion for her rival Andromeda 
caused her such sorrow (no. 16). Many of these 

14 



Sappho 

girl friends stayed, it seems, till their marriage, and 
were then rewarded by a beautiful epithalamium or 
marriage hymn (nos. 26-39). 

The case of Atthis shows that Sappho was by no 
means the only competitor for the companionship of 
the beautiful and gifted young women of her com- 
munity, and in addition to Andromeda we hear of 
a rival Gorgo, on whom, as on the former, Sappho 
poured out the vials of her contempt (nos. 53-55). 
Her " Home of the Muses," then, represented a 
regular Lesbian institution; for at Lesbos women 
were not restricted as at Attica, but were allowed 
to move around freely and to be as liberally edu- 
cated as the men. In fact, were this not the case, 
the genius of Sappho herself could not have unfolded 
unhampered. 

The passionate language which our poetess uses 
of her girl friends, otherwise only the language of a 
lover to his mistress, gave rise to scandalous gossip 
among the comedians as to her alleged immorality, 
and to the fantastic story of her unr6quited love for 
the youth Phaon, which, it is said, induced her to 
end her life by throwing herself down from the 
lofty Leucadian Cliff. But even if the untrust- 
worthiness of Comedy as a source for the history of 
literature, were not evident on the surface, the myth- 
ical nature of their stories could be gathered from 

15 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



the fact that the comedians represent as lovers of 
Sappho : Archilochus, who lived a century earlier, as 
well as Anacreon, who lived over a half century 
later. 

The most outstanding feature of Sappho is that 
passionate love, that worship of beauty, which, 
though a characteristic of the Aeolians in general, 
finds its most perfect expression in her poetry, which 
'' stands highest in the passionate lyric of all times 
and ages." It is a poetry pervaded by such love and 
sympathy for nature as is otherwise unknown to the 
ancient world (cf. e. g. nos. 12, 29, 77, 79). It is 
a poetry of the most exquisite melody, of the most 
enchanting images, which may reveal in the small- 
est and apparently most insignificant fragments the 
magic touch of her genius. 

The meager remnants of Sappho which have come 
down to us through quotation by ancient writers are 
gradually being supplemented by others from the 
papyrus finds in Egypt, nos. 3, 4, 6-8, 10-13, 40, 
and 41 being translations of such modem accessions. 
Though they are usually in such a bad state of 
preservation that complete and certain restoration 
is impossible, they have added considerably to our 
knowledge of her poetry, and, above all, raise the 
hope that some time practically complete copies of 
larger parts of her work will be foimd. For, al- 

16 



Sappho 

though she wrote in the Aeolic dialect, and there- 
fore would not be universally understood, it is now 
evident that she, as well as Alcaeus, was still popu- 
lar in Egypt many centuries after her death. 



TO APHRODITE 

(i) 

Ah! gold-enthroned immortal Aphrodite, 
Daughter of Zeus, through wily cunning mighty, 

Goddess revered, to thee I pray : 

My soul-subduing griefs allay. 

And hither come thou, if before this ever 
Thou didst my distant voice to hear endeavor. 

Leaving thy father's house of gold. 

If e'er thou camest to me of old. 

Upon thy radiant chariot thee ascending 

Thy beauteous sparrows, across the earth contending. 

Carried thee down from heaven on high. 

And busily their wings did ply. 

Scarce had they passed, O goddess, earth's wide 

portal. 
When thou, with smiling countenance immortal. 

Didst ask concrming^my distress. 

What misfortune did me oppress: 

" Why call'st thou me, what all-consuming passion 
Devoureth thee? The Goddess of Persuasion 

17 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Shall whom constrain to do thy will? 
Who, Sappho, dares to do thee ill? 

"Though now she spurns thee, soon she'll friend- 
ship proffer; 

Gifts which she now refuses soon she'll offer ; 
Though now thy love she from her fling. 
Soon 'gainst thy will her love she'll bring." 

And now again come to me, cares dispelling, 
My soul's tempestuous fiery passion quelling. 

My heart's desire for me fulfill. 

And be my friend and ally still. 



TO A BELOVED MAIDEN J 

(2) 

That man who sits before thy face, 

Gfodlike he seems to me. 
He hears thy words' sweet charming grace, 

Conversing joyously. 

Thou laugh 'st a laugh of pure deKght ; 

But in my breast my heart 
Violently flutters at thy sight : 

No sound from me will start. 

My tongue is lamed, a fiery glow 

My limbs completely sears ; 
My eyes see nothing, rumblings low 

Play havoc in my ears. 

i8 



Sappho 

Hot per^iration downward dropS) 

And trembling seizes me. 
I am ghastly pale, my life-blood stops, 

Near death I seem to be. 



A VISION OF HERA 
(3) 

Thy beauteous form before me, it did seem. 
Appeared, O mistress Hera, in a dream. 

As first, by fervent prayers called, 

To Atreus' royal sons of old. 

For when they Ares' work completed had. 
From where the streams of the Scamander sped 
They started hither for their home, 
But first to Argos could not come. 

Until they prayed to thee and Zeus thy lord. 
And also Thyone*s lovely child implored — 
With incense-offerings even now 
Their townsmen keep their ancient vow. 



" DEATH IS ALL I WISH FOR ME 

(4) 

Some god hath charmed us, Gongyle. 
The children saw him visibly : 
Hermes himself did to me come. 

19 



» 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



I saw him not, yet said : " Ah, lord 1 
No pleasure can my wealth afford. 
By the blessed mistress of my home. 

" For death is all I wish for me. 

And the dewy lotus-fields to see, 

The meadows of Elysium." 



WELCOME 

(5) 

You have come, you have come, to my great delight ; 

For I have longed for your welcome sight. 

In my heart you have kindled again love's flame, 

Which was burning even before you came. 

So I wish you welcome and welcome once more. 

And I wish you welcome o*er and o'er. 

As long as the time you were absent before. 



V A REBUKE 
(6) 

To show me gratitude thou e*er refusest; 

From beauteous words with seven-stringed lyres 
allied. 
From noble words to keep thy friends thou chooscst, 

And me reproachfully to aggrieve and chide. 

Well, be it so ! With insolence be sated. 

Thou mayest allow with rage to swell thy heart. 

20 



\ 



Sappho 

But my contempt can never be abated 
To fear the wrath of such as thou now art. 



if 



CHARAXUS AND DORICHA 

(7) 

Cyprisl he found thee all too bitter, 
And many a noisy taunt he earned : 
Him Doricha once more doth fetter, 
And hath his love, for which she yearned." 



PRAYER FOR THE RETURN OF 

CHARAXUS 

(8) 

Ye Nereids, nymphs revered, my brother, 

I pray you, safely let return. 
Grant also any wishes other, 

All that for which his heart may yearn. 

May all his old shortcomings leave him. 

A joy unto his friends be he, 
A terror unto those who grieve him. 

No more a saddening care to me. 

To honor his sister be he willing, 
That she with grief be not imbued. 

E'en now my shameful sorrows stilling. 
With which my heart he had subdued. 

21 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



For his disgrace had penetrated 
Far into me, my soul to blight: 

To see my townsmen so elated 
At intermittent gossip's spite. 

But, if my song delighted ever 

Thy heart, O goddess, hear my prayer : 
From griefs, from evils us deliver; 

Give them to Night away to bear. 



SAPPHO'S DAUGHTER CLEIS 

(9) 

For me a pretty child I claim, -^ 
With form like flowers of gold. 

Beloved Cleis is her name. 
Admired by young and old. 

Were lovely Lydia all my own, 

It could not for her loss atone. 



THE FAIREST THING IN ALL 
CREATION 

(lO) 

Some think the fairest thing in all creation 
To be of horse or foot an armed host ; 

For battle-ships some have most admiration, 
But I my heart's beloved do cherish most. 

And 'tis not hard to follow me for any; 
For queenly Helen, fairest of the fair, 

22 



Sappho 

Although surveying mortal beauties many, 
Did most of all for her famed lover care. 

Forgetting her dear parents and her daughter, 
She followed him who glorious Troy destroyed. 

Far from her friends and native land he brought her, 
By vanity and patoionate love decoyed. 

For easily is woman tempted ever 

When lightly she considers what is near. 

E'en so, my Anactoria, you never 

Remember her who still today is here. 

But I her lovely foot-fall hear more gladly. 
Prefer the brightness of her gleaming eye 

To all the din of chariots rushing madly. 
To Lydian armoured foot-men's battle-cry. 

I 

I know to men the best cannot be granted: 
'Tis better far to ask a share of that 

Which once was shared, to be with this contented, 
Than, vainly reaching higher, to forget. 



PARTING FROM A GIRL FRIEND 

(II) 

My heart is broken, silent my song. 
In sad dejection for death I long: 

She, mournfully weeping, did from me part. 



23 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



§ 

And often thus she me would address: 
" Ah, me! what misery does us oppress! 

To leave thee, my Sappho, it breaks my heart." 

Then her I answered, gently caressing: 
" Depart from me with my heart-felt blessing. 
Remember me kindly, thou knowest my love. 

" Far more than of parting think thou rather 
Of the beautiful hours we have spent together. 
Remember these aye, by the gods above. 

" For many wreaths of violets blue, 
Of basil-thyme, and of roses too. 

Thy tokens of love, hast thou given to me. 

" And fragrant garlands of flowers of spring 
Thou wovest and to me often didst bring, 
About me entwining them tenderly. 

" And costly salves of sweet fragrance rare. 
And royal balsam, to soften thy hair, 

Didst thou on thy head pour frequently." 



THE BRIDE OF SARDIS 

(12) 

In Lydia's golden city, gleaming Sardis, 
With beauteous Arignota e*er my heart is. 
And Atthis, oft she thinks of thee. 

24 



Sappho 

She thinks of us of old together living, 
Of how she, godlike honor to thee giving, 
Did hear thy song writh greatest glee. 

But nowr among the Lydians she dwelleth, 
And, like the moon at night, she there excelleth, l^ 
Aye, like the rosy-fingered queen, 

Which conquers all the stars, in radiance gleaming. 
Across the briny Ocean brightly beaming, 
And o'er the flowery meadow green. 

Refreshing dew-drops leaves and flowers cover; 
The gorgeous roses and the honeyed clover, 
Anthriscus too is now in bloom. 

But when she thinks of Atthis, gentle maiden, 
Her heart with longing and with sorrow laden, 
She anxiously about doth roam. 

She loudly calls to us to follow thither. 
In vain — for Night of Thousand Ears lets hither 
No sound across the waters come. 



TO GONGYLE 
(13) 

Ah, Gongyle! come here to me. 
Clad in thy milk-white dress. 

Now Love again doth flit near thee, 
And showeth thy loveliness. 

25 






Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



The very sight of the splendor bright 
Of thy robe brought a thrill to thee; 

But Cypris herself to my great delight 
Is distraught with jealousy. 



LESSER FRAGMENTS RELATING TO 
SAPPHO'S GIRL FRIENDS 

ATTHIS 
(H) 

*Twas very, very long ago, 

O Atthis, thou my love didst know. 

(15) 

A little child thou seemedst to me; 
In thee could I no graces see. 

(i6) 

To think of me, Atthis, is hateful to thee: 
To Andromeda now hast thou flitted from me. 

HERO 
(17) 

Hero, nmner fleet, I taught. 
Who from Gyara was brought. 

26 



Sappho 

ERANNA 
(i8) 

Eranna, never yet, wherever I have been, 

Have I than thee a more disdainful woman seen. 

A COMPARISON 
(19) 

Though fair Gyrinno gentle be. 
Far lovelier is Mnesidice. 

TO DICE (MNESIDICE) 

(20) 

Put, O Dice, a wreath on thy beautiful tresses; 

With thy delicate hands shoots of anise plait; 
For a flower-covered maid by the blessed Graces 

Is favored, but those without garlands they hate. 

TO AN UNKNOWN FRIEND 

(21) 

Gently, gently mayest thou rest 
On thy dear companion's breast. 

IN THE BLOOM OF HER YOUTH 

(22) 

She now has reached her youthful bloom; 
Her time for plaiting wreaths has come. 

27 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



A GIFTED PUPIL 

(23) 

Of all the maidens fair for whom the sun doth rise, 
Now and in times to come not one will be so wise. 

A LOST PUPIL 
(24) 

Far more than I 'tis some one else 
Whose love thy heart at present thrills. 

(25) 

But utterly 
Forget'st thou me. 



BRIDAL SONGS 

THE BRIDEGROOM 

(26) 



\ 



Lift high the roof to give him room — 

Hymenaeus. 

Ye wrorkmen, lift again — 

Hymenaeus. 

Like mighty Ares now doth come 

The bridegroom taller than tall men. 

28 



Sappho 

U7) 

His rivals he outstrips with ease, 
Like Lesbian bards those of all Greece. 

(a8) 

To what, dear bridegroom, should I most rightly 

thee compare? 
I thee would best compare to a slender sapling fair. 



THE BRIDE 
(29) 

Like the sweet apple which reddens, far up on the 
high tree-top growing. 

Up on the loftiest branch, scarce itself to the gath- 
erers showing — 

They rathermore could not reach it, e'en though 
of it easily knowing. 

(30) 

Thy form, thy eyes are full of grace. 
Thy honey-sweet, thy lovely face, 
Of Aphrodite's love a token. 
Hath to me of her favor spoken. 

(31) 

In all the world thou wouldst ne'er discover 
Another maid like this, O lover. 

29 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



(32) 

" Does it appear to thee 

That I still a maid would be? " 

MAIDENHOOD 
(33) 

" O maidenhood ! O maidenhood ! where hast thou 

gone from me?" 
" I nevermore, I nevermore, shall e'er come back 

to thee." 

THE BRIDAL DAY 
(34) 

The marriage thou hast desired 
Is performed, O happy bridegroom; 

The bride which thou hast admired. 
Thine own has she now become. 

FELICITATIONS 
(35) 

Good wishes give we to the bride, 
And to the bridegroom at her side. 

THE FATHER 
(36) 

The father said: 
" Wc give this maid." 
30 



Sappho 

THE PORTER 

(37) 

Seven fathoms long, the porter's feet 
Five ox-hides for his shoes did need. 
Ten cobblers worked them to complete. 



THE UNWOOED MAIDEN 

(38) 

Just as the hyacinth purple, wrhose flowers on the 

mountain are blooming, 
Down on the ground is trod by the feet of the 

shepherds home-coming. 



VESPER 

(39) 

Evening, which bringest all thmgs which the gleam- 
ing Aurora has scatterea, 
The sheep and the goats thou bring'st home; 
Thou the son to his mother let'st come. 

ANDROMACHE'S WEDDING 

(40-41) 

" No\Y Hettor and his comrades bring home An- 
dromache, 
The bright-eyed beauteous lady, across the briny sea 

31 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Upon their ships from Thebc, from Placia's gush- 
ing streams. 

Now gold in many a bracelet, now purple in rai- 
ments gleams; 

Now many treasures bring they of fine embroidery, 

And countless silver vessels, and cups and ivory." 

He spoke, and his dear father arose in breathless 
haste. 

And through the spacious city the tidings traveled 
fast. 

Straightway their mules the Trojans to wagons 
swift and strong 

Yoked, as on them ascended the festive women's 
throng. 

The slender-footed maidens all followed, while aside 

Were seated Priam's daughters, on pompous cars 
to ride. 

The men yoked to the chariots the steeds, aye, all 
young men ; 

And then, while shouting loudly, the charioteers 
gave rein. ^ 



The elder women, shouting, did loudly all rejoice, 
And in the sweet clear paean the men poured out 

their voice. 
They called on the far-darter, whose lyre sounds 

gloriously, 
To sing of god-like Hector and of Andromache. 



32 



Sappho 

A DIVINE WEDDING FESTIVAL 

(43) 

With ambrosia the mixer was filled to the brim. 

With a flask to the immortals did Hermes pour in, 

And they all from their goblets were pouring 
libations. 

To the bridegroom they proffered their felicita- 
tions. 

LOVE'S TEMPEST 
(43) 

Like the tempest which falls on the mountain oaks, ^ 
So Love stirs our hearts with violent strokes. 



LOVE'S ATTACK 
(44) 



The bitter-sweet creature, invincible Love, 
My limbs set a-trembling, my heart doth move. 



RESTLESS THROUGH LOVE 

(45) 



%/ 



No longer, mother dear, can I 
Endure to work my wheel. 

Through Aphrodite for that boy 
Such longing do I feel. 

33 



>/ 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



MIDNIGHT SOLITUDE 
(46) 

The moon has left the heavens; 

The Pleiades have set; 
And at the hour of midnight 

In jsolitude I fret. 



TO A FRIEND 
(47) 

Come, my friend, before my face; 
Show thine eyes' engaging grace. 

TO ALCAEUS 
(48) 

If aught for honor or for right thou hadst cared, 
Nor by thy tongue to ill hadst been constrained, 
For modesty thou wouldst not have refrained, 

But openly to speak for right thou hadst dared. 

A REFUSAL 
(49) 

A friend of thee 1*11 ever be, 
But win thyself a younger bride. 

My greater age refuses me 
That always I with thee abide. 

34 



Sappho 



ANOTHER 
(50) 

I'll marry never, 
A maid be ever. 

SAPPHO'S FALSE FRIENDS 

(51) 

Those whom I serve with all my might 
With base decqption me requite. 



SAPPHO'S ENEMIES AND RIVALS 

A CURSE 
(52) 

Far from his course may winds him bear, 
And may he be oppressed with care. 



ANDROMEDA 
(53) 

What boorish creature see I there, 
With finery her rudeness veiling, 

Who doesn't e'en know how to wear 
Her robe behind her ankles trailing? 

35 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



(S4) 

A glorious return 
Andromeda did earn. 

GORGO 

(55) 

She who Gorgo once did love 
Has of her more than enough. 



THE CHILD OF POLYANAX 

(56) 

To the child of Polyanax I 
Bid a hearty and long good-bye. 

TO A RICH BUT UNEDUCATED 

WOMAN 

(57) 

When grim death thy eyelids closes, 
Then shall no one for thee care; 

For of the Pierian roses 

Thou hast failed to earn a share. 

No, for thee there will be no 'wailing: 

Unbeloved and unknown, 
Wilt thou go to Hades' dwelling 

When ttiy shade has downward flown. 

36 



Sappho 

SAPPHO TO HER LYRE 
(58) 

Come now, tortoise-shell divine, 
Tuneful powers of speech be thine. 

SPURIOUS FRAGMENT TO THE MUSE 

(59) 

Teach me, I pray, O Muse enthroned in gold, 
Delightful songs like that famed singer old, 

The bard of Teos, sang, whose lyre 

Fair Tean women did inspire. 

SAPPHO THE PUPIL OF THE 

MUSES 

(60) 

To me they bounteous honor brought; 
To me their heavenly arts they taught. 

SAPPHO ON HER GENIUS 

(61) 

It seems to me, it would not lack much 
But that the heavens I would touch. 

HER HOPE OF IMMORTALITY 

(62) 

In future ages, I am sure. 
Our memory will still endure. 

37 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



I SAPPHO'S SONG FOR HER 

GIRL FRIENDS 

(63) 

For the maidens to whom I'm by friendship bound, 
For their pleasure this beautiful song shall resound. 

HER LOYALTY TO HER 
GIRL FRIENDS 

(64) 

Whose honor e'er is steadfast found, 
To you by eternal ties I am bound. 

SAPPHO'S TEMPERAMENT 

(65) 

I have not a malignant mind, 
But gentle as a child and kind. 

(66) 

In me doth bum the fire 
Of longing and desire. 

SAPPHO'S TASTES 
(67) 

In dainty luxury I delight; 

I love the beauteous sun-beam bright. 

38 



Sappho 

SAPPHO ON HER DEATH-BED TO 
HER DAUGHTER 

(68) 

Nay, uttering dirges in the Muses' seat 
We suffer not; for us that were not meet. 



GNOM^ AND PROVERBIAL 
EXPRESSIONS 

KEEP GUARD ON THY TONGUE 

(69) 

When seized by passion's angry lure, 
A chattering tongue do not endure. 

BEAUTY 
(70) 

The fair are beautiful alone for sight; 

But beauteous too are those who follow right. 

WEALTH 

(71) 

Mere wealth with virtue not allied 
I scarce would welcome at my side. 

39 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



EMPTY PRIDE 
(72) 

Don't plume thyself upon a thing 
Of no more worth than is a ring. 

THE RUBBLE-STONE 

(73) 

The rubble-stone 
Leave thou alone. 

NO HONEY FOR ME 

(74) 

No honey be for me; 
For me no honey-bee. 

OVERFOND MOTHERS 
(75) 

Though Gello children doth adore, 
Yet loveth she them even more. 

DEATH AN EVIL 
(76) 

The gods have judged: an evil 'tis to die. 
If good it were, Death would not pass them by. 

40 



Sappho 



SAPPHO'S LOVE OF NATURE 

THE MOON AND THE STARS 

(77) 

Around the full moon's silver face, 
When brightest it doth beam, 

And when its orb is all ablaze. 
The stars conceal their gleam. 

THE EVENING-STAR 
(78) 

Of all the stars this star 
Most beauteous is by far. 

A DELIGHTFUL SPOT 

(79) 

Cool water trickles from above n/ 

Through apple-trees. 
Sleep stealedi from their leaves, which move 

In the murmuring breeze. 

CHICKPEAS 
(80) 

Golden chickpeas, brightly glowing, 
On the sandy shore were growing. 

41 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



DOVES 
(8i) 

At ebbtide is their life's chilled flow ; 
Their feathered wings are drooping low. 

THE NIGHTINGALE 
(82) 

The lovely harbinger of spring, 

The nightingale, sweet strains doth sing. 

THE SWALLOW 

(83) 

What is the message with which thou dost come, 
O lovely swallow, daughter of Pandion? 

SAPPHO AND APHRODITE 

INVOCATION 
(84) 

Come, Cypris, to our banquet, 
With golden cups come here; 

Pour out the gleaming nectar, 
Bring us luxuriant cheer. 

" COME TO THY WORSHIPPERS " 

(85) 

To Cjrprus now do thou thy presence give; 
May Paphus or Panormus thee receive. 

42 



Sappho 

A SACRIFICE 
(86) 

Accept upon thy altar a snow-white goat from me. 
Upon it a libation of wine I'll pour to thee. 



A PRAYER 

(87) 

O Aphrodite, crowned with gold, 
May I this glorious lot behold. 



" LISTEN TO MY DREAM " 

(88) 

* 

Her who was in Cyprus bom, 
Of our dream did we inform. 



APHRODITE TO SAPPHO 

(89) 

Why, O Sappho, call'st thou ever 
Aphrodite, blessing-giver? 

(90) 

Sappho, 'tis not only you, 
But my servant Eros too, 

43 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



TO APHRODITE'S STATUE 

(91) 

The purple scarf wilt thou dishonor, 
Which ornaments thy comely hair; 

Which from Phocaea sent its donor, 
To thee a costly present rare. 



APHRODITE'S MAID 
(92) 

Aphrodite's maid behold, 
Gleaming brightly, just as gold. 



ADONIS IS DEAD 
(93) 

Beauteous Adonis is dead. Cytherea, what shall 
we do? 

" Maidens, beat wildly your breasts, and your gar- 
ments be rent in two." 



TO THE MUSES 
(94) 

Muses, hither come; 
Leave your golden home. 

44 



Sappho 

TO THE MUSES AND THE GRACES 

(95) 

Fair-haired Muses, beauteous Graces, 
Hither come, accept my praises. 

TO THE GRACES 
(96) 

Ye with arms of rosy bloom, 
Beauteous Graces, hither come. 

(97) 

Hither come, ye Graces, know: 
My heart fluttered long ago. 

DAWN 

(98) 

To me the golden-sandalled Dawn 
Just now her glorious light has shown. 

LEDA'S FIND 
(99) 

An egg with hyacinth twined around, 
'Tis said, by Leda once was found. 



45 



Lyric Sottas of the Greeks 



ARES AND HEPHAESTUS 

(lOO) 

By his own might could he, Ares doth say, 
Easily carry Hephaestus away. 

HERMES (?) 
(loi) 

Downward from the heavens he sped, 
In a purple mantle clad. 

NIGHTLY WORSHIPPERS 

(102) 

The women, while brightly the full moon gleamed, 
As though standing around an altar seemed. 

CRETAN DANCES 
(103) 

Around the altar the maidens of Crete 
In their graceful dances time did beat. 

A DANCE ON THE LAWN 

(104) 

Upon the soft bloom of the sod 

And delicate flowers the maidens trod. 

46 



Sappho 

A FAIR LITTLE MAID 
(105) 

A fair little maiden, as fair as can be, 
A-gathering flowers one day I did see. 

A COMPARISON 
(106) 

The harp can ne'er so sweetly sound, 
Nor gold can thus in gold abound. 

LYDIAN DYES 
(107) 

Her feet fine leather, richly dyed. 
The work of Lydia, did hide. 

A SOFT CUSHION 
(108) 

Upon a cushion velvety 

My limbs I lay down wearily. 

FINE COVERS 
(109) 

Covers rough though delicate 
Over him with care he laid. 

47 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



THE GLOOM OF NIGHT 

(no) 

Upon their eyes did now alight 
Black and u{^y gloom of night. 



DOUBT 

(III) 

No inkling have I what to do; 
My thoughts are surely cleft in two. 



I FLUTTER LIKE A CHILD 

(112) 

Like a child behind its mother, 
Even so do I now flutter. 



I NEED NO ADVICE 
("3) 

This I myself 
Know without help. 

48 



Sappho 



EPIGRAMS ATTRIBUTED TO 

SAPPHO 

AETHOPIA 
(114) 

Children, if some one should ask, though speech- 
less, thus should I answer, 
Through an untiring speech, written in front 
of my feet: 
I am to Leto's maiden, Aethopia, set up by Arista, 

Hermoclides' child, son of Sayna'iades. 
Be thou, O mistress of women, propitious to her, 
thy true servant. 
And on those of our blood do thou thy praises 
bestow. 



TIMAS 
(115) 

This is the dust of Timas, who died before she was 
married. 
And by Persephone was in her dark chamber re- 
ceived ; 
But even though she was dead, with iron recently 
whetted. 
All her companions her hair made a delight to 
behold. 



49 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



PELAGON 
(ii6) 

Basket and oar by his father Meniskus is here dedi- 
cated, 
Showing how Pelagon lived, wretched like all 
fishermen. 



SO 



ALCAEUS 

Next to Sappho, but by no means equal to her, : 
was her older contemporary Alcaeus, a name linked ' 
with hers on the one hand by the common literary 
interests of two lyric poets living at the same time 
and place, on the other hand, by a personal connec- 
tion which is shown by the ode which Alcaeus ad- 
dressed to Sappho (no. 20). His family also be- 
longed to the old Lesbian aristocracy, and most of 
what we know concerning his life is centered around 
the struggles of his native city Mytilene. He 
fought with his townsmen against the Athenians 
for the colony Sigeum in the Troad, and it was 
here that he lost hi& shield in flight from the vic- 
torious enemy, as Archilochus had done before him 
and Anacreon after him. The Athenians then 
hung it up as a trophy in the temple at Sigeum, and 
Alcaeus related the incident in an ode addressed to 
his friend Melanippus. Later, when an inconclu- 
sive peace was made, we find him addressing an ode 
to this same friend (no. 38), exhorting him to re- 
sign himself to peace and not to attempt the im- 
possible. 

By far the greater part of Alcaeus' life, however, 
was pervaded by the incessant civil strife in which 

51 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



his native city was engaged. The oppressive mis- 
rule of the oligarchs and subsequent usurpation of 
power by tyrants led to one revolt after another, 
and Alcaeus, a reckless and zealous partisan of the 
aristocrats, fiercely hated his opponents with all the 
fire of his Aeolic temperament. J First his bitter at-i 
tacks were directed against Melanchrus (no. 27).^ 
When he was assassinated, Myrsilus succeeded to 
Alcaeus' hate together with the tyranny (nos. 25, 
26), and when he too was murdered, the poet burst 
into wild strains of jubilation (no. 9). Finally, 
when conditions had become unendurable, the wise 
and kind Pittacus was appointed aisymnetes, L e. 
temporary dictator, to heal the wounds of the ex- 
hausted state, and Alcaeus was more exasperated 
than ever. While pouring out upon him a never- 
ending stream of abuse for various reasons (nos. 
28-35), he seems to have been most angered by 
the notion that Pittacus was of " low-born " origin, 
was an " upstart " — it was not that the former 
tyrants were hated as enemies of liberty, but com- 
mon people as well as tyrants were alike obnoxious 
to the violent partisan of the nobility and the cham- 
pion of the tyranny of the few. It was probably 
after Pittacus had come to power that Alcaeus and 
his brother Antimenides had to go into exile. The 
latter took service under Nebuchadnezzar in 

52 



2» 

Alcaeus 

Babylonia and was honored with a prize of an 
ivory-hilted sword, which he had received for slay- 
ing a gigantic warrior (no. 39), while Alcaeus wan- 1 
dered to various places including Egypt. Finally 
Pittacus allowed him to return to M3rtilene with 
the famous comment '' Forgiveness is better than 
vengeance/' and fragment no. 17 seems to be the 
words of an old man who feels that his struggles 
are over and that he may expect to die at home in 
peace. 

The poetry of Alcaeus, like Sappho's, distinctly; 
mirrors the circumstances under which he lived, as < 
well as his own character, and so we find great 
similarities as well as great differences between the 
two Lesbian poets. The subjective and passionate 
nature of their song, the use of their home Lesbian 
dialect, and many of their metrical forms were 
common to both; but their spheres of interest wer(j 
widely divergent. Sappho's whole life as well as 
her poetry centers around the passion of love; but 
Alcaeus, although he also wrote love songs (nos. 
18-24), <Ioes not sparkle particularly here. 
Neither were his hymns to the gods (e. g. nos. 
49~52) ever considered as part of his best or most 
interesting work. It was his warlike and politi- '. 
cal career and his reckless gaiety and love of drink- ' 
ing-bouts that inspired his most characteristic poe- 

53 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



try. The ancients thought most of his political 
songs, but probably rather because of their his- 
torical and personal interest than because of their 
literary merit. In this respect his drinking-songs A 
undoubtedly take first place. This theme he treats 
with so great a variety and such a picturesque 
background from nature as well as events in hu- 
man life as to arouse interest ever anew. The . 
many different motives for drink which appear in v 
his poems have often been commented upon: sum- 1 
mer or winter or spring, daylight or night, joy or \ 
sadness, all were made an excuse for carousing. 
Wine is to drown one's cares and to help celebrate 
one's good fortune; it warms one's blood in winter 
and cools in summer. And yet Alcaeus was not a 
mere tippler; for he counsels moderation and warns 
against the effect of too much (nos. 14, 15). 

Just as Alcaeus was contrasted with Sappho in 
his subject matter, so in his style. Instead of Sap« 
pho's light and airy grace and glorious imagination, 
we find in him a heavy and sometimes ponderous 
stateliness and dignity and grandeur. An ancient 
writer also praised his figures of speech, but the 
extant remnants show such a sparing use of them, 
that we would not consider them in any way char- 
acteristic. 

Of Alcaeus also, as of Sappho, new fragments 

54 




Alcaeus 

are being found from time to time among the Egyp- 
tian papyri, those in a comparatively good state of 
preservation being translated below (nos. 6, 15, 31, 
33,36-38,48,49, 69). 



55 



Lyric Songrs of the Greeks 



DRINKING SONGS 

IN WINTER 
(I) 

Now Zeus sends rain; a powerful wintry blast 
Blows down from heaven; the streams are freezing 
fast. 

Strike do>yn the winter, piling up the wood 
To feed the fire, and let us warm our blood 
With honeyed wine profuse, while thou, I pray, 
Beneath our heads soft cushioned pillows lay. 



IN SUMMER 
(2) 

Q)me, wet thy chest with wine: the dog-star now 
Is rising high, the oppressive sultry glow 
Of summertime brings parching thirst to all. 
Now from the leaves the locust its loud call. 
Its sweet shrill song, pours out from 'neath its 

wings. 
The blazing heat, which witherejlh all things, 
0*cr all the earth is spread ; the blooming thistle 
Holds up its head; now womankind doth bristle 
With passion most, and man is haggard worn ; 
For Sirius his head and limbs doth burn. 

56 




Alcaeus 

IN SPRING 
(3) 

I heard that flowery spring 
Its glories about is to bring. 
Mix therefore wine with great speed, 
A bowl full, as honey sweet. 

IN THE AFTERNOON 
(4) 

Let us drink — do not tarry till night. 
Why wait for the lamp's pale light? 
But a brief span of life is a day. 
My dear friend, let us drink while we may. 
The large figured cups from above 
Take down; for the son of Jove 
And of Semele wine gave to man 
To release him from misery's ban. 
Do thou therefore mix two and one: 
0*er the brim so it almost doth run, 
For us all one large goblet fill. 
And then come with another one still. 

AT NIGHT 

(5) 

Let us drink, let us drink, let us drink; 
For the dog-star is up o'er the brink. 



57 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



ON THE STORMY SEA 

(6) 

Her cargo all is cast into the waters, 
To save the ship perchance; yet now she totters, 
Struck by a loudly thundering wave, 
Which fills with terror e'en the brave. 

No more to struggle against the stormy weather, 
The savage tempest, she desires, but rather 
To founder on the hidden reefs — 
Thus mountain-high the Ocean heaves. 

This to forget, my friend, wish I — *tis better 
In thy glad company my cares to scatter. 
Of love and friendship let us think. 
And honeyed wine with Bacchus drink. 

IN GRIEF 
(7) 

Nay, give not up to grief, it profits nothing, 
Nor do we remedy our ills by loathing. 
O Bacchus, best our cares to still 
It is to drink of wine our fill. 



CHEER UP 
(8) 

Come, cheer up. Drink this cup. 

38 



Alcaeus 

REJOICE! THE TYRANT IS DEAD 

(9) 

Now shall we drink our fill ; 

Now in carousal mad 
Drench ourselves with a will: 

Now is Myrsilus dead. 

THE VINE FIRST OF ALL 

(lO) 

Before the vine no other tree 
Or shrub do thou set out for me. 

NOT FASTIDIOUS 
(II) 

The wine they drink now honey-sweet, now worse 
And sharper is than are the prickly burrs. 

WINE A MIRROR 

(12) 

For wine for men 

A mirror is, themselves to ken. 

WINE AND TRUTH 
(13) 

Ever wine, dear boy, 
Doth the truth decoy. 

59 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



WINE'S STING 
(14) 

He thinks that he is then most blessed 
When he at drinking is the best. 
Yet though sweet wine his heart delight, 
Its curse rebounds with twofold might: 
His head weighed down with heaviness, 
He chides his soul and does confess 
Repentance in his grief. Not then 
" Drink, drink ! ** is still a pleasing strain. 



CEASE DRINKING! SEIZE THE 
^ RUDDER! 

(15) 

Pray, mix no more into the bowl, but know 
That I dislike to have thee labor so. 
Singing, carousing, gaily drinking. 
As though all parched, of naught else thinking. 

Why do we let the wintry morning breeze 
Sweep ever idly o*er the glistening seas? 
Would that a ship we quickly boarded. 
Cutting it loose from where we moored it. 

Then would we joyously the rudder seize, 
And then the sail-yards turn to front the breeze, 
Merrily thus forgetting evils — 
Far better 'tis than boisterous revels. 

60 




Alcaeus 

WREATHS AND MYRRH 

(16) 

Around our necks may some one lay 
Fresh wreaths of fragrant anise plaited; 

And some one down our breasts, I pray, 
Pour ointment sweet with perfume sated. 

MYRRH FOR OLD AGE 

(17) 

Upon this head oppressed with miseries sore 
And down this aged breast sweet ointment pour. 



LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP 

IN LOVE 
(18) 

I have fallen into Cypris' hands, 
And am now obeying her commands. 

A SERENADE 
(19) 

Accept, accept my serenading; 
Pray, listen, listen to my pleading. 



6x 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



TO SAPPHO 
(20) 

violet-tressed Sappho chaste, 
O maid with honeyed smile! 

1 fain would tell what is in my breast, 
Did shame me not beguile. 

TO CRINO 

(21) 

Crino, the beautiful Graces 
Received thee in their embraces. 

THE VIOLET-GIRDLED MAID 

(22) 

Sing and celebrate 

The violet-girdled maid. 

MENON 
(23) 

Some one call Menon, charming boy, 
If I the drinking shall enjoy. 

IN THE BLOOM OF HIS YOUTH 

(24) 

To thy presence having come, 
Sharing now thy youthful bloom, 

62 




Alcaeus 



POLITICAL SONGS 

THE SHIP OF STATE UNDER 
MYRSILUS 

(25) 

The winds' fierce strife I understand no longer; 

The rolling billows e'er are towering stronger, 
Now here, now there. We, tempest-tossed, 
In the black ship between are lost. 

The fury of the storm our limbs is chilling, 
The ship with water to the mast-hole filling. 
Great rifts in every sail are torn. 
To shreds our slackening cables worn. 

(26) 

Now comes a wave o'ertopping those before, 
Upon the ship its waters piling o'er. 
And we to bail must labor evermore. 



A LATER TYRANT COMPARED 
WITH MELANCHRUS 

(27) 

Thy treatment of our city is worthy of respect, 
Melanchrus, when one sees how he doth us aifect. 



63 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



PITTACUS IN POVERTY 

(28) 

Even thistles thou now must taste. 
Howe'er, for Arcadians 'tis no disgrace. 

A WARNING AGAINST PITTACUS 

(29) 

That man who now is reaching out for greatest 

might 
Will soon the state overturn — the danger is at its 

height. 

PITTACUS* LAST MOVE 

(30) 

From its line his last piece, untouched before, 
He has moved, and thus has prevailed once more. 

PITTACUS IN POWER 
(31) 

At every drinking-bout does he carouse, 
And silly triflers feasting fill his house. 
Well, let him boast in his exultant pride 
That he from Atreus* lineage won his bride. 
As he devoured the state with Myrsilus, 
So let him now, until success to us 
By Ares be restored, and we again 
Relax our wrath and soul-consuming pain, 

64 



Alcaeus 

And our intestine strife, stirred up 'mongst us 
By some Ol5niipian god: to Pittacus 
He gave the glory he to see did lust, 
But on our people mournful ruin thrust. 



PITTACUS THE UPSTART 

(32) 

The low-born upstart Pittacus they made 
The tyrant of our spineless wretched state. 
To him they all together homage paid. 



PITTACUS' ANCESTRY 
(33) 

They boisterously fill each cup 

With unmixed wine the whole day long. 
At night their blustering crowds turn up 

Where often they are wont to throng. 

Since first this fellow came on top. 
These customs never he forgot; 

For every night did he bob up. 
Then clanged the bottom of the pot. 

From such forefathers did you come, 
And yet you have an equal fame 

With freemen from a noble home, 
Who from the noblest parents came. 

65 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



PITTACUS AND DINOMENES 

(34) 

Thou, sitting by Dinomenes, 
A cup art drinking to its lees. 

PITTACUS' ARSENAL 
(35) 

For Hyrrhas' son and Dinomenes still 
Do gleaming arms the Myrrhineum fill? 

AN ATTEMPTED BARGAIN 

(36) 

The Lydians, father Zeus, did make advances 
To us, two thousand staters they would pay, 

To undertake, in case of circumstances, 
Into the sacred city to make our way. 

Between us so far there was no connection ; 

No favor had we yet received or known. 
But, like a cunning fox, he thought detection 

To escape when he the ease of it had shown. 

INSOLENCE OF THE OPPONENTS 

(37) 

Insolent crimes these men committed: 
None of them could be endured. 

Yet we often were defeated 
Ere our victory was assured. 

66 



Alcaeus 

RESIGN THYSELF TO PEACE, 
MELANIPPUS 

(38) 

Ah, Melanippus, why dost thou lament to mc? 
How canst thou think once more the sun's pure 

light to see, 
When over Acheron's whirling stream thou wilt 

have crossed? 
Come, seek not aher lofty things : recall the boast 
Of Aeolus' son, King Sisyphus, of men most sly, 
Who thought to him alone death never would come 

nigh. 
Yet he, for all his cunning, met his fate at last: 
The second time he Acheron's whirling river passed, 
The mighty son of Cronos in the world below 
Imposed on him a heavy task of grievous woe. 



TO ANTIMENIDES 

(39) 

From the end of the world thou hast just returned, 
And an ivory-hilted sword hast thou earned, 
A sword which is all overlaid with gold, 
A magnificent prize for thy labors bold. 
Which by Babylon's men was given to thee ; 
For thou from their troubles thine allies didst free. 
Thou slewest a royal warrior, a man 
To be five ells tall lacking only a span. 

67 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



ALCAEUS' ARMORY 
(40) 

Its whole large hall with bronze is brightly beaming, 
Its roof bedecked with flashing helmets gleaming, 
Grim tools of war. White crests of horses' hair 
Nod at their tops, a treasured pride to wear 
For warriors on their heads. Upon each wall 
The pegs by flashing greaves are hidden all. 
Against swift darts a brazen bulwark strong, 
And by new linen corslets, and a throng 
Of curved shields and of Chalcidian blades, 
Tunics, and belts, and other warlike aids. 
These can we not forget and e'er must heed, 
Since once we undertook this martial deed. 



LESSER MARTIAL FRAGMENTS 

THE STATE'S TOWER OF STRENGTH 

(41) 

A tower of strength for every state, 
So are its mighty warriors great. 

DEATH IN BATTLE 
(42) 

Who dies in war. 
His lot is fair. 
68 



Alcaeus 

THE TERROR OF THE ENEMY 

(43) 

They crouched before him as small birds do, 
When an eagle suddenly comes in view. 

A PRAYER FOR VICTORY 

(44) 

Immortal gods, we pray that ye 
Grant to us the victory. 

THE GOD OF WAR 

(45) 

Thee, Ares, we revere. 

Through whom comes murderous fear. 



ACHILLES 
(46) 

Achilles, thou who dost command 

O'er those who dwell in the Scythian land. 

AJAX 
(47) 

O Ajax, gallant scion of Cronos' royal son, 
Achilles only greater fame than thou hast won. 

69 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



HELEN AND THETIS 
(48) 

To Priam and all his sons a bitter end 
Because of evil deeds the gods did send. 
O Helen, thou didst cause their ire, 
Which sacred Troy laid low with fire. 

Not like to thee that beauteous maiden was, 
Led homeward by the son of Aeacus 
From Nereus' halls to Chiron's home. 
Whither all blessed gods had come. 

Invited guests, they to the wedding thronged, 
For which the noble Peleus' heart had longed. 

The blissful union with the maid. 

Who was the fairest Nereid. 

Within a year the hero of greatest might 

Was bom, who knew the tawny steeds to guide. 

But, battling for Helen in the fray, 

Phrygians and city ruined lay. 



TO CASTOR AND POLLUX 

(49) 

Come hither, ye mighty sons of Zeus 
And Leda; Olympus leave behind. 
Your flashing home. With gladsome mind. 

Castor and Pollux, appear to us. 

70 



Alcaeui 



Ye who traverse the whole expanse 
Of the earth and over the spacious seas 
On your swift-footed steeds, ye save with ease 

All men whom to meet chill Death did chance. 

On the tops of the well-benched ships ye leap, 
Gleaming afar in the murky night. 
As ye land on its cables ye bring a light 

To the swift black ship which sails o'er the deep. 

TO APOLLO 

(50) 

To thee, Apollo, glorious king. 
Son of mighty Zeus, I sing. 

TO HERMES 
(51) 

O ruler of Cyllene, hail. My lyre 
Doth me to celebrate thy birth inspire, 
How Maea, on hallowed mountain-tops adored, 
Met Cronos* son, the universal lord. 

TO ATHENA 

(52) 

Athena, hail, dread war-sustaining queen. 
Thou who on Coronea's meadows green 
Before the temple tarriest ever. 
Alongside the Coralius River. 

71 



Lyric Sonffs of the Greeks 



TO ATHENA 

(53) 

O goddess, thou our scattered host of men 
Inspire with courage and collect again. 

ATHENA 
(54) 

May thy maiden lead, 
To complete this deed. 

EROS 
(55) 

Most dreaded him of all the gods 

Did sandalled Iris bear. 
His father was wild Zephyrus, 

With locks of golden hair. 

POSIDON 
(56) 

Posidon at that time not yet 

The briny sea had in commotion set. 

THE NYMPHS 
(57) 

From Aegis-bearing Zeus, they ween, 
The fair Nymphs trace their origin. 

72 



Alcaeus 

HEPHAESTUS (?) 
(58) 

Not one Olympian god but he 

Could us from these our troubles free. 



GNOMiE AND PROVERBIAL 
EXPRESSIONS 

BEWARE OF THE RUBBLE-STONE 

(59) 

If thou from gravel and loose silt 
Willt move a stone wherewith to build, 
If then thou showest no proper care, 
Of injury to thy head beware. 

MONEY MAKES THE MAN 

(60) 

Aristodemus ohce upon a time, they say, 
In Sparta spoke the following saying wise: 
Tis money makes the man,*' and truly: no one 

may. 
If he be poor, to honor and influence rise. 

POVERTY 

(61) 

A grievous evil hard to endure is Poverty, 
With Sister Helplessness all crushing easily. 

73 



<( ) 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



NOTHING FROM NOTHING 

(62) 

With nothing naught 
Is ever bought. 

GUARD THY TONGUE 

(63) 

If thou speak'st all that thou mightst desire, 
Thou wilt hear what thou mightst not admire. 

LOVE THY NEIGHBOR 
(64) 

To those of us who are near thee never 
To cause vexation thou endeavor. 

WOE TO THE MAIMED 

(65) 

The deaf, the maimed, the lame, the blind, 
These does vexation always find. 

COWARDICE 
(66) 

In the breast of a deer 
Noise is replete with fear. 

74 



Alcaeus 

THE SWINE BRISTLES 
(67) 

The swine again a little 
Doth with excitement bristle. 

THE ROCK OF TANTALUS 

(68) 

Aesimides, a mighty rock 

Over our heads our way doth block. 

A FRIEND WORTHY OF HOSPITALITY 

(69) 

A fine porker and kid to a friend like thee 
To serve, is a custom kept up by me. 



AN ANCIENT STORY 
(70) 

Thus, you know, the story goes, 
From our fathers which arose. 

TO THE LIMPET 
(71) 

O limpet, daughter of the sea 
And of the hard precipitous rocks, 

Thou puffest up with vanity 
The young, whose empty pride us shocks. 

75 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



NO NEED OF WITNESSES 

(72) 

I need no witnesses to show 

All this which by myself I know. 

OBSTINACY 

(73) 

E'en though from somewhere else he came, 
Thou wouldst say from yonder all the same. 

DAZED 

(74) 

Completely he befogged his mind 
And did him of his senses blind. 

FORLORN 

(75) 

I am all forlorn; 

For my friends I mourn. 

A WOMAN'S MISERY 
(76) 

Ah, me! how wretchedly I fare; 
Of every ill I have a share. 

76 



Alcaeus 

RELIEF 
(77) 

Thou from my grief 
Gavest me relief. 

A DISGRACE TO THE FAMILY 

(78) 

For thy house thou now hast caused 
All its honor to be lost. 

IN THE NICK OF TIME 
(79) 

He from ruin them defended 

When their lives seemed well-nigh ended. 

BLESSED WHO WIN YOU 

(8o) 

Those who have won you at the gods' behest, 
Their lot for all eternity is blessed. 

ONLY THE NOBLE 
(8i) 

You as well as we, 
Whoever noble be. 

77 




Lyric SottffS of the Greeks 



MIGRATING DUCKS 
(82) 

From the ends of the earth and the Ocean 
Came these birds in violent commotion. 
They are ducks with bright-colored rings 
On their necks and far-stretched wings. 

AUTUMN'S BLOOM 
(83) 

The delicate bloom 

Which doth in tender autumn come. 

GENTLE WINDS 
(84) 

Blasts not by winter chilled, 
But gentle winds and mild. 

BETWEEN THE EARTH AND THE SKY 

(85) 

The parts that far above us lie, 
Between the earth and snowy.sky. 

THE COTTABUS GAME 

(86) 

Many splashing drops 
Fly from Tean cups. 

78 



PYTHERMUS 

P5rthermus of Teos, a countryman and predeces- 
sor of Anacreon, is said by Athenaeus to have intro- 
duced the Ionian key. He is mentioned as being 
chiefly a composer of drinking-songs (skolia). The 
following fragment is quoted as being from him: 

Nothing then was all the rest; 
Gold showed itself by far the best. 



79 



ANACREON 

The third and last greater poet among the Greek ; 
monodists was Anacreon of Teos, an Ionian city on j 
the coast of Asia Minor. The first part of his 
life was contemporaneous with the reign of Cyrus, \ 
the founder of the Persian empire, the attacks of 
whose satrap Harpagus on the Greek cities of the 
coast (545 B. c.) caused a general emigration of , 
Tcans to Abdera in Thrace, and among them was ' 
Anacreon. During his stay here is to be placed ■ 
his military life, from which he won little glory — 
he too, like Alcaeus, lost his shield in flight, and 
jestingly mentions the fact in an ode (no. 47). 
From here he accepted the invitation of Polycrates,'^,^ 
the tyrant of Samos, to come to his brilliant court, \ 
and there he remained in high favor until the mur- / 
der of Polycrates by the Persian satrap Oroetes 
(522 B.C.). That Anacreon owed his popularity 
not only to his ability to entertain the tyrant and 
his frivolous court by his light and graceful song, 
but ^Iso had a deeper influence, is shown by his 
presence, recorded by Herodotus, at the interview 
between the tyrant and the envoy of Oroetus. From 
Samos Anacreon was pompously taken to Athens in 

80 



1 



Anacreon 



2L galley at the order of the tyrant Hipparchus. 
After he too had been assassinated, Anacreon prob- 
ably went to Thessaly to the court of the Aleuadae, 
at any rate fragment 94 seems to imply residence 
there. The end of his life came in his native city 
Teos, if we may trust epigrams of Theocritus and 
Simonides which presuppose his tomb at that place. 
He was fully eighty-five years at the time of his 
death) which, the legend declares, came to him 
from choking on a dried grape — evidently an in- 
vention, since the same thing is also reported of 
Sophocles. 

In form and subject matter Anacreon was closely 
related to Alcaeus and Sappho. As they had used 
the Lesbian dialect for their Lesbian audience, so 
Anacreon wrote in the Ionic of his home for the 
amusement of the Ionic court of Samos. The 
principal burden of his song was love, the theme 
of Sappho, and wine, the chief subject of Alcaeus. 
Not, however, the passion of love, as the Lesbian 
poetess, nor was there any real impetuosity com- 
parable to that of Alcaeus in his drinking-songs. 
With Anacreon both were merely pastime — he 
worships the fleeting pleasure of the moment, and 
consequently there is a want of depth and sin- 
cerity in all of his work. When e. g. he claims 
that he is about to throw himself down from the 

81 



*^ 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Leucadian cliff in the frenzy of his love (no. 8), 
It is evident that he does not wish to be taken^scri- 
ously. While at the court of Polycrates, he sang 
chiefly of the beauties of the court favorites, e. g, 
the luxurious-haired boy Smcrdies (no. 14), the 
bright-eyed Cleobulus (nos. 11-13), and the blond 
maiden Eurypyle (no. 59). Sometimes he was ex- 
pressing not his own admiration, but that of his 
patron, whose point of view he has also adopted 
when he blames Smerdies himself for cutting off 
his hair, though in reality it was the result of his 
falling into disfavor with Polycrates. The very 
atmosphere in which he lived thus prevented Ana- . 
creon from singing freely of his own impulses and ] 
passions. Moreover, the light and often frivolous 
character of his poetry was exactly what the light- 
minded courtiers could appreciate, so that Ana- 
creon is the court poet par excellence. Not depth 
of thought or feeling, but simplicity and grace and 
polish are his principal characteristics. 

Anacreon, the gay poet of love and wine, who 
continued to his old age to think of nothing but 
pleasure, with an occasional passing regret that this 
could not go on forever (no. 48), soon became a 
conventional figure, and gave his name to whole 
schools of poets of similar trend (cf. e. g. the An- 
acreontea, p. iii, and modern Anacreontic poetry). 

82 



Anacreon 

However, his poetic interests and his abilities were 
not quite so narrow as would appear from his repu- 
tation. First, we have from him a few fragments 
of h3niins to the gods, but these are nothing more 
than new settings for his love poetry (cf. no. ii). 
Then there are a few fragments of a patriotic or 
martial content (nos. 50-58), besides remnants of 
elegit (nos. 89-91), epigrams (nos. 92-107), and 
iambics (e. g. nos. 63, 66). He was, in fact, a fol- 
lower of Archilochus as well as of Alcaeus and Sap- 
pho, and a number of fragments show that he was 
able also to use the bitter shafts of Satire (e. g. no. 
60). However, in all of this he is easily outdis- 
tanced by others — in the poetry of pleasure he 
reigned supreme. 



TO ARTEMIS 
(I) 

Huntress of stags, hear thou my prayer. 
Daughter of Zeus with golden hair, 
Artemis, mistress of wild deer, 
Come thou to the Lethaeus River. 

And to the city of valiant men. 
Joyful of heart, direct thy ken; 
For not a wild and savage clan 

Are the townsmen thou cherishest ever. 

83 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



WINE, WOMAN, AND SONG 

(2) 

On honey-cake I first did dine, 
Broke off a little piece, 

And then I drank a jar of wine, 
And then my harp did seize. 

Now with its strains I serenade 

My lovely friend, the pretty maid. 

LOVE AND FRIENDSHIP 

EROS KING OVER ALL 

(3) 

Of beauteous Love I fain would sing, 
Whose belt e'er teems with flowers. 

To him the gods their homage bring; 
He mortals overpowers. 

EROS THE BRONZE-SMITH 

(4) 

'Tis a bronze-smith Eros is like; 
For with mighty blows he doth strike 
With a hammer, immerses me then 
In a wintry torrent again. 

EROS' DICE 
(5) 

Frenzy and tumult are the dice 
With which dread Eros ever vies. 

84 



Anacreon. 

A BOUT WITH EROS 
(6) 

Bring water, boy, bring wine, 
And flowers in wreaths entwine. 
Come quickly; for I crave 
With Love a bout to have. 

RADIANT LOVE 
(7) 

Love for the maiden he doth admire, 
Radiant and glad with longing desire. 

THE ROCK OF LEUCAS 

(8) 

Down from the stony crag above, 
The rock of Leucas, I shall leap, 
And plunge into the hoary deep, 
My heart aglow with frenzied love. 

LOVE UNREQUITED 
(9) 

My airy pinions have I spread 
On flight to heaven above. 

Because of Eros; for the lad 
Will not requite my love. 

85 



Svm^ «/ tike 



TOO OLD 

(lO) 

And vben iznr Ixatrd be did ^ifhoM, 

J^It sged gngi^ bcsxd. 
On brDtzT prnicmy hn^Oi ss gold 

U? ^puciflT dwagipraTed- 

PRAIXR TO DIONTi'SUS FOR 
CLEOBULUS 

Ixyrd, irbcKT plsxTDSlxs sit xxmQucnzig Lxnr;, 
Aad liir fair XTZophs urA ctb diiit*UiXL, 
And Tod-^^iected Ap^iroditr too, 

ThoB frho l u tum es t tbr hrigte abcTrc 

Them miiD lag^ mammnF diost farnjiinrff, 
Thet I beseedu bef cut oizt face 
Came wiiL i^nr kind, i^nr fBPormg; grace. 

To IS OUT d«ibfd mite enott. 

For CkioiialiKh irnr dcBTCst fricnid, 

l^£xycst liiou % lind adriacr Ic; 

And, I^anysiisu do tbou Jdt mr 
T<d Inm IDT bcart-feh larr cxnnmBcid. 

CLEOBULUS 

(32) 

To CfepihuluF nrr lovr I gsre, 
For Qfiobuhis I imdOhr txvcu 
At Clcobulig otst glanfffg grsve. 



Anacreon 



CLEOBULUS (?) 
(13) 

O boy, with glance like maidens fair, 

I seek thy love in vain. 
Thou knowest not or dost not care, 

Yet o'er my soul dost reign. 



TO SMERDIES 
(14) 

The splendid soft bloom off thou hast shorn, 
The hair which did thy head adorn. 



LEUCASPIS 
(15) 

A harp of twenty strings I play. 
Which in my hands I hold; 

And more, Leucaspis, day by day, 
I am by thy youth enthralled. 



SIMALUS 

(16) 

My eyes at Simalus happened to glance. 

As he played his beautiful harp in the dance. 

87 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



MEGISTES 
(17) 

Fully ten months have from us sped, 

Since affable Megistes ever 
With willow withes has crowned his head, 

And drinking sweet must ceases never. 

MEGISTES 
(i8) 

I hate all men with manners stem, 
As though from 'neath the earth they came; 

But thou, Megistes, I did learn. 

Art calm of mind and e'er the same. 

PYTHOMANDRUS 
(19) 

And Pythomandrus once again 

A refuge proved for me. 
As he in former times had been. 

When I from Love did flee. 

ERXION 
(20) 

A cup I had, filled to the brink. 
To white-necked Erxion to drink. 



88 



Anacreon 
UNNAMED BOY FAVORITES 

(21) 

I long to enjoy myself with thee: 
Thy charming manner pleases me. 

(22) 

For those slender thighs, my friend, 
I this wine as pledge will spend. 

(23) 

A lovely boy thou art, 
And dear to many a heart. 



A LESBIAN MAIDEN 
(24) 

Once again with a purple sphere 
Eros, god with the golden hair, • 
Strikes me and doth a challenge bear 

With a maid of broidered sandals to sport. 

But she, who doth ip Lesbos abide. 
Well-built island, my hair doth chide. 
Blaming me for its color white. 

While her gazing eyes another court. 

89 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



A COY THRACIAN MAIDEN 

(25) 

Thracian filly, why so shyly 

Doest thou glance and flee from me? 

Knowest thou not my cunning wily, 
Cruel maid, to capture thee? 

Know full well, however wilful 
Thou mayest be, yet that I know 

How to bridle thee, am skilful 
With the reins to make thee go. 

Now, o'er meadows bounding ever. 
Dost thou lightly sport and feed; 

For not yet hast thou a clever 
Rider who can guide a steed. 

SPURN NOT OLD AGE, MAIDEN 

(26) 

Though I am old, yet maiden, to me listen. 
Thou, beauteous-haired, whose robe with gold doth 
glisten. 

PAST THE PRIME OF LIFE 

(27) 

I am past the prime of life, a maid forlorn ; 
Loss of my charms I through thy passion mourn. 

90 



Anacreon 

UNLOVED ASTERIS 
(28) 

O Asteris, I love thee not, 
Nor has thy love Apelles sought. 

I HAVE HAD ENOUGH 
(29) 

Like a cuckoo I 
Do me from her hie. 



WINE 

THE CUP-BEARER 
(30) 

The maid sweet honeyed wine poured out; 
With three-cupped jar she went about. 

THE RIGHT MIXTURE 

(31) 

From a spotless jar pour in 
Six parts wine, of water ten. 

LET ME DRINK 

(32) 

Come now, boy, a jar bring in, 
A deep draught to take; 

91 



Lyric Son^s of the Greeks 



Ten cups water, five of wine 

Pour, a pledge to make, 
That, like Bacchus, mildly I 

Into frenzy break. 

MODERATION IN DRINK 

(33) 

Come now, do at last 

Cease to roar and shout. 
Do not drink so fast. 
Stop that Scythian bout. 
Rather let us drink with measure. 
And in beauteous song find pleasure. 

INTOXICATED 

(34) 

Since I am drunken now with wine, I pray, 
Wilt thou not let me homeward wend my way? 

THIRSTY 
(35) 

A friendly maid to strangers certainly art thou; 
Since I am thirsty, wilt thou me to drink allow? 



IN THE HALLS OF ZEUS 

(36) 

The high-roofed halls of Zeus resounded, 
And with the violent roar rebounded. 

92 



Anacreon 

THE DANCE OF THE MUSES 

(37) 

The beauteous-haired maidens of Zeus did com- 
mence 
Nimbly the gracefully figured dance. 



MUSIC ANE) DANCE 
(38) 

Whom see I there? Whom meets my glance? 

Who turns our thoughts to lovely youth? 
Who to the three-holed flute doth dance, 

Whose delicate notes our spirits soothe? 



CLOVER GARLANDS 
(39) 

With plaited garlands of clover 

Their necks and their breasts they did cover. 

THREE WREATHS FOR EACH 

(40) 

Three wreaths to each man were given, with roses 

two entwined, 
The third made of papyrus, of the Naucratite kind. 



93 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



THE FESTIVAL OF DIONYSUS 

(40 

Over our eyes with parsley wreaths 

Let us our brows enfold) 
And then a cheerful festival 

To Dionysus hold. 

PERFUMED OINTMENT 

(42) 

How now? Upon thy wings thou art soaring, 
Perfumed ointment downward pouring 
Upon thy breast more hollow far 
Than pipes of tuneful shepherds are. 

ANACREON'S POPULARITY 

(43) 

Because of my words, because of my song 
I am loved by the boys who about me throng; 
For pleasant the songs I know to sing, 
And pleasant the spoken words I bring. 

ANACREON^S DESIRES 
(44) 

'Twere not worth while, to me it appears, 

The horn of plenty to attain, 
Not for one hundred fifty years 

Would I o*er proud Tartessus reign. 

94 



Anacreon 

ANACREON'S MODERATION IN LOVE 

(45) 

I am in love, and then again no love I have. 
I am raving mad, and then again I do not rave. 

ANACREON AND HIS TOWNSMEN 

(46) 

Neither steadfast, firm, nor kind 
To my townsmen is my mind. 

ANACREON'S SHIELD 
(47) 

Along the fair stream's banks through fright 
I threw away my shield in flight. 

ANACREON IN OLD AGE 

(48) 

My temples now with gray are sprinkled, 

And on my head my hair is white; 
My youth is gone, my forehead wrinkled, 
My teeth have lost their lustre bright. 
My closing years pass by in haste: 
Soon I no more sweet life shall taste. 

And now my eyes with tears are swelling, 
Because dread Tartarus I fear; 

95 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



For terrible is Hades' dwelling, 

The journey downward sad and drear; 
For up no more his way he wends, 
Who once beneath the earth descends. 

A SPRINKLING OF GRAY 

(49) 

When with white my dark-brown hair 
Will be sprinkled here and there. 



PATRIOTIC AND MARTIAL 

TO ARISTOCLIDES 
(50) 

Aristoclides, sadly I lament 

Thee first of all, my brave and precious friend, 
Of all the brave who their young lives have spent, 

To save from slavery our fatherland* 

WAR OF FACTIONS 
(51) 

Throughout our island men of factions join in fray, 
And o'er our sacred city, Megistes, hold their sway. 

RETURN TO THE FATHERLAND 

(52) 

Land of my fathers, suffering grievously. 
Fulfilled will be my hope thee again to see. 

96 



Anacreon 

THE RUINED CITY-WALL 

(53) 

And now the city's circling wall 
In utter ruin low did fall. 

A WARRIOR 

(54) 

The tearful spear 
To him was dear. 

ARES' FRIENDS 
(55) 

I 

He who in battle steadfast stands 

The esteem of impetuous Ares commands. 

ON A CHARIOT 

(56) 

On a chariot by white horses drawn 
Thou art whirling on and on. 

CARIAN SHIELDS 
(57) 

Each through the holder of a shield 
By Carians made his one hand held. 



97 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



THE COURSE OF THE SPEAR 

(58) 

Through the midst of the neck went the spear 
And the beautiful mantle did tear. 



ANACREON IN SATIRE 

EURYPYLE AND ARTEMON 

(59) 

Eurypyle the yellow-haired 

For ill-famed Artemon has cared. 

ARTEMON 
(60) 

In ragged dress attired before, 
A wretched covering bound tight, 

Wood ear-rings in his ears he wore, 
Around his sides a worn ox-hide, 

An unwashed cover of a shield. 

Nor did the wretched Artemon, 
A livelihood forlorn to yield, 

The baker-women and harlots shun. 

Yhe stocks did often hold his neck. 
And oft he on the wheel appeared. 

98 



Anacreon 



A leather whip oft scourged his back, 

And then they plucked his hair and beard. 

And now the son of Cyce he, 

On chariots rides, gold ear-rings wears ; 

A parasol of ivory 

Like women in his hand he bears. 

STRATTIS 
(6i) 

Strattis I asked, the maker of perfumes rare, 
Whether he now would leave unshorn his hair. 

ALEXIS 

(62) 

Alexis bald of head 
Now again would wed. 

THE HEN-PECKED HUSBAND 

(63) 

This is the chamber, not in which he wed. 
But into wedlock let himself be led. 

GASTRODORA 

(64) 

Don't babble like an Ocean wave, 
Nor, drinking always without measure, 

Drain thou the hearth-gods* cup for thine 
And chattering Gastrodora's pleasure. 

99 






Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



A BARBAROUS VOICE 
(65) 

Mayest thou to silence choose 
That barbarous voice, O Zeus. 

THE MILESIANS 
(66) 

"Tis very, very long ago 
Milesians did some daring show. 



STORMY DECEMBER 
(67) 

December now himself doth show: 
The clouds are weighted down with rain ; 

Now wintry storm-blasts fiercely blow, 

And creak and roar with might and main. 

THE FRIGHTENED FAWN 

(68) 

Gently like a frightened fawn 
Newly born, a suckling tender. 
Through the forest which doth wander, 

When its homed mother is gone. 



100 



Anacreon 

TO A SWALLOW 

(69) 

Charming swallow, let thy sound 
Of sweet melody rebound. 

HIDDEN REEFS 
(70) 

O'er reefs beneath the waters buried 
By the swift wind my ship is carried. 

MIDST LAUREL AND OLIVE 

(71) 

A waving back and forth there is seen 
Midst dark-leaved laurel and olive green. 

THE COTTABUS GAME 

(72) 

In the Sicilian cottabus he dashes 
Out from his wrist the wine-drops with loud 
splashes. - 

GOOD AT QUOITS 

(73) 

Targelius says adroit 
Art thou to pitch the quoit. 

lOI 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



AT THE THALYSIA 

(74) 

In ofiering first-fruits of the harvest-yields 
He mocks again those with the dark-blue shields. 

PERSUASION 
(75) 

Nor had Persuasion, silver-gleaming, 
Ever before on earth been beaming. 

FEARLESS 
(76) 

Though with no bolt the double door he closes, 
Yet he in peace and quietude reposes. 

UNRELENTING 
(77) 

Unrelentingly 

Didst thou act toward me. 

A CHALLENGE 
(78) 

The one who likes to fight 
May fight — it is his right. 

102 



Anacreon 

DECEITFUL 
(79) 

A base deceiver he 
Of us would gladly be. 

STUNNED 
(80) 

And now my mind 
Is stunned and blind. 

DESPONDENCY 
(81) 

Would that I die: no other way I see 
That ever might me from these troubles free. 

DISHONORABLE 
(82) 

Dishonorable thus 
It is nor like to us. 

DEFAMED AMONG NEIGHBORS 

(83) 

Thou wilt give me an evil name, 
And midst my neighbors me defame. 

103 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



THE MISCHIEVOUS AND THE PORTER 

(84) 

With the porter at the door 
The mischievous are at war. 

MODEST STRANGERS 
(85) 

Ye seem like modest strangers who desire 
No more than shelter and hospitable fire. 

RETURNING FROM THE WASH 

(86) 

Up from the river everything 
Gleaming and shining- white I bring. 

LIKE A SPARTAN MAID 

(87) 

She, like a Spartan maid, 
Aside her tunic laid. 

MULES 
(88) 

Mules first by Mysian men, 'tis said, 
Were from mare-covering asses bred. 

104 



Anacreon 

ELEGIES 

NOT MINE IS LOVE OF STRIFE OR 

BATTLE 

(89) 

Him do I love not, who, at the wine-bowl sitting 
and drinking. 
Speaks of naught but strife, ever of tearful war 
speaks. 
But much more the one who mingles with gifts of 
the Muses 
Aphrodite's glad gifts, ever inspiring good cheer, 

IN SPITE OF MYSELF 
(90) 

'Tis in no way to my liking, yet doubt I not to 
await thee. 

NO MORE VISITS 

(91) 

To that Thracian maid now no more visits I pay. 

EPIGRAMS 

AGATHON 

(92) 

« 

Agathon, terribly mighty, who died for his city Ab- 
dera, 

105 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



All his townsmen bewailed, when they his body 
did bum; 
For no other young man like him by blood-thirsty 
Ares 
Ever yet has been slain ih the dread eddies of war. 



TIMOCRITUS 

(93) 

This is the tomb of the warrior Timocritus, mighty 
in battle: 
Ares the best never spared, but spared the cow- 
ards far more. 



AN OFFERING TO DIONYSUS 

(94) 

Me did set up Echecratides, the chieftain of Thes- 
saly, 
For thy sake, Dionys, and for the city's delight. 

AN OFFERING TO HERMES 

(95) 

This of Calliteles is an ancient offering; his grand- 
sons 
Set jt up in this place, whom he gave thanks in 
return. 



r/^A 



Anacreon 

AN OFFERING TO THE GODS 

(96) 

Consecrated by Praxagoras, son of Lycaeus, 
To the gods, these gifts by Anaxagoras were made. 

AN OFFERING TO DIONYSUS 

(97) 

This Areiphilus* son, Melanthus, to Semele*s 
wreathed son 
Dedicated, that he victory in dance might pro- 
claim. 

TO APOLLO 

(98) 

2Jealously, silver-bowed god, to Aeschylus* son give 
thy favor. 
To Naucrates; these vows graciously from him 
receive. 

TO HERMES 
(99) 

Pray that to Timonax the gods' herald be e*er pro- 
pitious. 
He who appointed me here to this my glorious 
place 

107 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



At the gates of the temple of Hermes, the lord, 
where receive I 
In the gymnasium both townsmen and strangers 
alike. 



TO HERMES 

(lOO) 

Grant, O son of Maea, to Tellias a life that is 
pleasant, 
Giving this in return for lovely gifts which he 
gave; 
Grant that he, 'mongst the Euonymes devoted to 
justice 
Ever dwelling, might share of all the good things 
in life. 



CLEENORIDES 
(loi) 

Thee too, O son of Cleenor, thy love of thy father- 
land ruined. 
When thou thyself didst entrust to the fierce win- 
try South-wind; 
For the irresponsible storm overwhelmed thee; the 
billows 
Cruelly washed away far the best part of thy life. 

io8 



Anacreon 

A CLOAK 

(102) 

By Prexidice made, this cloak was planned by Dys- 
eris, 
So that common to both was this their exquisite 
skill. 

PHIDOLES' HORSE 
(103) 

Here is set up this horse of Phidoles, from spacious 
Corinth, 
Offered to Cronos* son, telling of swiftness of 
foot. 

PYTHON'S SHIELD 
(104) 

By this shield protected from discordant battle, did 
Python 
Hang it up in this glebe, whidi to Athena belongs. 

AN OFFERING TO DIONYSUS 

(105) 

She who has the wand, Heliconias, with her Xan- 
thippe, 
With her Glauce too, all from the mountain pro- 
ceed; 

109 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



And, as they come to the boisterous orgies, to Diony- 
sus 
Bring they ivy and grapes, and a large well-fat- 
tened goat. 

MYRON'S COW 
(io6) 

Cowherd, thy herd keep away from here far distant, 
so that thou 
Drivest not away Myron's cow, as though alive, 
with the herd. 

MYRON'S COW 

(107) 

Not in a mould was cast the cow which Myron has 
fashioned 
With his own hand, but in bronze was it through 
old age worked out. 



1 10 



ANACREONTEA 

The Anacreontea are a collection of poems from 
the Roman and Byzantine periods which were at- 
tached to the Anthology of Constantinus Cephalas. 
They are imitations of the traditional Anacreon, 
Anacreon conceived as a light-hearted, jovial old 
man who had no other interests than love, wine, 
and song. The superscription in the manuscript 
claims Anacreon himself as author, and consequently 
they were accepted as genuine even as late as last 
century. In fact, the prevalent conception of that 
poet has come altogether from these imitations rather 
than the genuine fragments. 

As long as the Anacreontea were supposed to have 
come from Anacreon himself, they received the most 
extravagant admiration and were lauded to the 
skies. Just so soon, however, as it was known that 
they were spurious, many went to the opposite ex- 
treme and found them all an absolute abomination. 
In reality, as is to be expected of a collection from 
the hands of different authors of different periods, 
their merit varies widely. Some, e.g. nos. 31 and 
32, are perfectly worthy of Anacreon. Others, e. g. 
no. 13, are worse than worthless, coming in the 

III 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



category cither of the grotesque or silly, or of medi- 
ocre insipidity. 

The reasons for rejecting the genuineness of the 
Anacreontea are various. In the first place, some 
are attributed also to other writers, e. g. no. 5 to 
Julian, and others show that the author himself had 
no desire of palming off his work as Anacreon's. 
In no. I Anacreon appears to the author in a dream, 
in no. 58 we find an exhortation to imitate Anac- 
reon, in no. 20 he is mentioned with Sappho and 
Pindar as one of three great lyric poets, apparently 
of the past, and in no. 14 there appear references to 
him which never could have been made by himself; 
for he appears surrounded by a sort of halo which 
shows that he had become a traditional figure. In 
the next place, there are references to conditions and 
circumstances which are much later than the time of 
Anacreon, e. g. Rhodian painters (no. 15), the Par- 
thians (no. 26b), the Stoic philosophy that the sun 
feeds itself from the sea (no. 21), and the use of 
doves as letter-carriers (no. 14). On the other 
hand, references to the peculiar circumstances and 
persons which surrounded the real Anacreon arc 
wanting. We see nothing of the court favorites 
like Smerdies or Cleobulus, only the shadowy name 
Bathyllus, with no reference to real personal traits 
or events. Furthermore, there arc almost no traces 

112 



Anacreontea 



of imitation of the Anacreontea by Horace, although 
the real Anacreon shows his influence repeatedly. 
Similarly, they are quoted only twice by ancient 
writers, while from the real Anacreon some 170 
quotations are found. To all this must be added 
differences in the general atmosphere, in dialect, and 
in meter; carelessness as to the latter showing dis- 
tinctly that the later Anacreontea belong to a period 
when the old quantitative differences between the 
vowels had been wiped out. 

The whole collection may be divided into three 
parts, comprising nos. 1-20, 21-34, and 35-60. In 
the first two there are some poems which may be as 
early as the first century b. c, and on the whole 
they are earlier than the third group, though some 
must be put as late as the Byzantine period, e. g. 
no. 4, an inferior imitation of no. 3. Both these 
groups seem to be characterized by a distinct striv- 
ing for novelty of some kind, which here and there 
leads to pedantries and even ridiculous absurdities, 
e. g. nos. 5, 8, 12, 13. However, these attempts 
at displaying fancy went wrong particularly in the 
first group, while the writers of the second had 
better success. In the third group, there is very 
much less striving for novelty, and consequently 
these writers are saved from most of the absurdi- 
ties found in the first. However, as a result of their 

113 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



being content to be merely imitators, we find the 
same motives of love, wine, song and dance, free- 
dom from care, repeated in the most barren and 
unimaginative way possible, although this does not 
mean that there were no new motives introduced at 
all. That some novel subjects were found is shown 
e. g. by no. 44 (To Spring) y 55 {To a Discus with 
an Engraving of Aphrodite) y and 56 (To Gold). 
This third group shows a contrast to the others also 
in this respect, that, as opposed to the simplicity and 
grace which is characteristic of the best poems of the 
earlier parts, some poems (e. g. 36) show a tendency 
to rhetorical effects. This group in its entirety, as 
is shown by metrical considerations, dates from the 
Byzantine period. 

A VISION OF ANACREON 

(I) 

Anacreon, the Teian bard. 

In nightly dream appearing, 
Saw me and spoke, and I did start 

Toward him with love and endearing; 
And then I felt his kind embrace, 
Who aged was, yet fair of face. 



Yes, fair he was, a lover still. 

And, though by youth forsaken. 
Yet e'er he followed Eros* will, 

114 



Anacreontea 



Who hold of him had taken. 
And now he gave to me a crown, 
Which from his head he had taken down. 

Just like Anacreon'is lips the wreath 
With breath of wine was florid, 

And foolishly I from beneath 
Did place it on my forehead ; 

And ever since and even now 

Will love no respite me allow. 

THE LYRE OF HOMER 
(2a) 

The lyre of Homer to me bring, 
Without its bloody murderous string; 
And o'er the goblet's sparkling flame 
The festal laws I shall proclaim. 
Then shall I steep myself in wine 
And dance; and then with rage divine, 
Though temperate, I shall play the lyre, 
And ne'er of drinking songs Til tire. 
The lyre of Homer to me bring, 
Without its bloody murderous string. 

A PICTURE 
(2b) 

Best of painters, come to me. 
Listen to my lyre's sweet ditties: 

On thy picture let me see 
First hilarious laughing cities. 

IIS 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Sporting Bacchae paint below, 
Flutes with music light rebounding; 

If thy wax so much could show, 
Also strains of love resounding. 



TO A SILVER DRINKING-CUP 

(3) 

Hephaestus, silver-smith divine. 

Fashion for me thy metal, 
Not into panoplies — not mine 

Is love of strife and battle. 
A hollow drinking cup for me 
Make thou as deep as deep can be. 

Engraven on the cup I care 

To have no constellations: 
With surly Orion and the Bear 

I have not the slightest patience. 
What care I for the Pleiades? 
Perdition may Bootes seize. 

Pray, vines and clustered grapes for me, 
And Maenads them to gather, 

And wine-vats flowing bounteously 
Do thou engrave much rather. 

Bathyllus and Lyaeus fair 

Shall press, and Love with golden hair. 



ii6 



Anacreontea 



TO THE SAME DRINKIN&CUP 

(4) 

O thou of wondrous skilful art, 
Fashion for me a cup of spring: 

First roses to delight our heart 
Shall us the early seasons bring. 

Of gleaming silver work it out; 

Put on a pleasant drinking-bout. 

Not foreign rites depict thou, nor 

Their odious philosophy; 
Nay, rather Bacchus, whom I adore, 

The son of Zeus, engrave for me. 
Cypris, who sings the wedding hymn, 
Be mystagogue of Bacchus' stream. 

And unarmed Cupids' winsome shapes 
Depict, and laughing Graces too. 

Under a leafy vine, whose grapes 
Are hanging down in clusters blue. 

Here handsome youths engrave, I pray, 

And there let sportive Phoebus play. 

TO EROS 
(5) 

Once as I a chaplet wound. 
Though I never sought him, 

I midst roses Eros found: 
By his wings I caught him. 

117 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Then I dipped him in my wine, 
Let it downward trickle — 

Now within these limbs of mine 
E*er his feathers prickle. 

TO HIMSELF 
(6) 

" Anacreon," the women say, 
" Thou art surely growing old. 

Just take a mirror, look, I pray. 
Thy scanty hair behold." 

And my bald forehead then they show, 

But I must needs confess, 
I know not whether it is so. 

That e'er my hair grows less. 

Of this, however, I am sure : 

The nearer is my death. 
The more do joys of life allure. 

While still I draw my breath. 

ON LIVING WITHOUT ENVY 

(7) 

For Gyges* wealth I do not care, 
The far-famed Sardian king; 

No grudge within my heart I bear, 
The tyrants envying. 

ii8 



Anacreontea 



But as to me, far more with myrrh 

I care my beard to wet ; 
Fresh wreaths of roses I prefer 

To place upon my head. 

Today means everything to me, 

Tomorrow hidden lies. 
As long as it fair weather be, 

Do drink and throw the dice. 

And also to Lyaeus pour 

Libations; for, I fear, 
Disease will say, '* Pray, drink no more," 

Whene'er it will appear. 

TO HIMSELF WHEN INTOXICATED 

(8) 

By the gods, by the gods I conjure. 

Let me drink, let me drink evermore. 

For madly to rave do I crave, 

As Alcmaeon before did rave. 

And barefoot Orestes too. 

Who in frenzy their own mothers slew. 

But no one would I want to kill. 

But my cup e'er with red wine fill. 

Thus madly to rave do I crave, 

As Heracles too did rave. 

When his terrible quiver he shook, 

And his bow from Iphitus took. 

So formerly Ajax raved. 

Who the corpse of Achilles had saved, 

119 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Who the sword of Hector did wield, 
And brandished his terrible shield. 
But I for a cup only care, 
And a wreath to put on my hair. 
No bow and no sword will I have: 
Thus madly to rave do I crave. 

TO A SWALLOW 
(9) 

Come, what shall I do to thee. 
Noisy, chattering swallow? 

Wouldst thou after thee have me 
With my scissors follow? 

Shall I clip thy airy wings, 
So thou ceasest flying, 

Or thy tongue which ever sings, 
With famed Tereus vying? 

Why from me, not yet awake, 
With thy noisy chatter. 

Didst thou my Bathyllus take 
From my dreams, O prater? 

TO A WAXEN EROS 
do) 

I met a youth who on his hand 

A waxen Eros had. 
And right beside him I did stand. 

And then to him I said: 

1 20 



Anacreontea 



" This figure which was made by thee 
For how much wilt thou sell to me? " 

And, answering, he turned about, 

With Doric accents broad: 
" Pay what thou wilt, thou wilt find him out 

My skill I do not laud. 
But I no longer with me now 
The villain Eros will allow." 

" Give quickly, quickly give to me ; 

A drachma will I pay. 
Eros, my fair companion be; 

Inflame me e'en today. 
But if thou canst not me inspire, 
ril melt thee in the gleaming fire." 

TO ATTIS 
(II) 

With fair Cybebe once, they say, 

Attis became enamoured: 
Half woman, raving, far away. 

He on the mountains clamored. 

Some, shouting loud on Clams' shore, 

In frenzied madness totter. 
Where laurelled Phoebus men adore. 

They drink the babbling water. 

But rather I with cheering wine 
And ointment would be sated. 

121 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Through thee, dear maid, companion mine, 
rU madly be elated. 



TO EROS 

(12) 

I wish to love, to love desire — 
So Eros would persuade me; 

But not so soon did I take fire; 
My stubborn mind delayed me. 

And then at once he raised his bow, 
And let his arrows rattle; 

His golden quiver he did show. 
And challenged me to battle. 

With breast-plate like Achilles I 
My shoulders then defended. 

My spear and ox-hide shield to try, 
With Eros I contended. 

He shot, I fled, and, in his heart 

Ferocious anger feeling. 
His arrows gone, he threw a dart. 

Himself in it concealing. 

He touched my heart, he laid me low 
No arms can now protect me. 

Without why should I missiles throw? 
Within strife doth affect me. 

122 



Anacreontea 



TO HIS LOVES 

(13) 

If thou the leaves of every tree 
Wouldst understand to count for me, 
If thou couldst find the billows all, 
Which on the Ocean rise and fall, 
rU grant thee then and then alone 
That all my loves by thee arc known. 
In Athens first do I adore 
Full twenty loves, then fifteen more. 
Next Corinth with whole chains of loves 
My heart e*cn more than Athens moves; 
For Corinth by Achaea is claimed. 
Which is for women's beauty famed. 
From Lesbos and Ionia, 
From Rhodos and from Caria 
Two thousand loves put down for me. 
What sayest thou ? Do I pallor see ? 
Still of the Syrians must thou learn, 
Canobians for whom I yearn. 
Who dwell in Egypt's sultry heat, 
And those from all-resourceful Crete, 
Where Eros orgies celebrates 
Throughout its populous city-states. 
Why shall I name those who me please 
Beyond the pillars of Hercules, 
The Bactrians and Hindoos too, 
Whose Orient charms my heart doth woo ? 



123 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



TO A DOVE 
(14) 

" Lovely dove, pray whither, whither 

Do thy wings thee bear, 
As thou bravest wind and weather, 
Speeding through the air? 
Why so fragrant are thy wings? 
Pray, what care thee hither brings? " 

** To Bathyllus I am going. 

By Anacreon sent. 
To the boy whom all are wooing. 
King of all and friend. 
Venus sold me for the price 
Of a song of smallest size. 

" With Anacreon now I tarry 

Ever lovingly. 
Him I serve, his letters carry, 
As thou well mayest see. 
He declares not long he'll wait 
Till he me will liberate. 

" Yet rU serve him still — with shudder 

Freedom's thought me fills; 
For why should I sadly flutter 
Over fields and hills? 
Why should I alight on trees. 
Some coarse rustic food to seize? 

124 



Anacreontea 



" Now my bread I have been snatching 

From Anacreon's hands ; 
He the wine he has used for pledging 
Me to drink commands; 
Him, when to his lute he sings, 
Shade I with my dancing wings. 

" Then my feathered wings droop slowly. 

As to sleep I go 
On his very lyre. Now wholly 
Thou my tale dost know. 
Sir, depart; to thee I owe 
That I have chattered like a crow." 



TO A MAIDEN 
(15) 

Master of the Rhodian art. 
Best of painters, I implore thee, 

Paint the mistress of my heart 
As I say, as though before thee. 

First her hairs, which downward flow. 
Paint thou soft, dark-brown, unbraided; 

If thy wax so much can show, 
Let them be with perfume sated. 

'Twixt her cheek and ebony hair 
Paint like ivory her forehead; 

'Twixt her eyes paint not too rare 
Of her brows the hair nor florid. 

J25 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Let thy picture just as she 
Show her eye-brows well united; 

Only let this hidden be, 
Near the eye-lids barely sighted. 

Paint her glance like fiery flame, 
Like Athena's brightly gleaming; 

Winsome be it all the same. 
Just like Cytherea*s seeming. 

Paint her cheeks and paint her nose, 
Roses with white milk commingling; 

Lips so each like Pitho's shows 
E'er itself with kisses tingling. 

O'er her chin and marble neck 
Let all Graces seem to hover. 

For the rest, her body deck 
And with purplish garments cover. 

Yet a little let appear, 
Of her beauteous form a token. 

'Tis enough: I herself see here. 
Soon, O wax, thou wilt have spoken. 

TO THE YOUNGER BATHYLLUS 

(i6) 

My friend Bathyllus, I beseech, 
Paint just as I thee now shall teach. 
Give to his hair a glossy sheen. 
And let it be all black within, 

126 



Anacreontea 



But at its edges sunny white. 
His noble locks do not bind tight: 
Though gathering each disordered curl, 
To flow at random them unfurl. 
Below his forehead soft as dew 
Be eye-brows dark like serpents blue. 
His eyes with black shall brightly glow, 
And yet complacent calmness show: 
A mixture of Ares, battle-lord, 
And Cytherea thus afford. 
The former shall inspire with fear, 
With kindly hope the latter cheer. 
His downy cheek paint thou like rose. 
So that it like red apples glows; 
A blush as though of modesty — 
I see thou canst — put on for me. 
As to his lips, I scarcely know 
What mould thou shouldst on them bestow. 
Well, let them soft and tender be. 
On them may we Persuasion see. 
Thus showing all these charms, the wax 
Doth speak aloud, yet voice it lacks. 
An ivory throat paint 'neath his face. 
More than Adonis full of grace. 
His hands, his breast, let them suggest 
The hands of Hermes and his chest. 
His abdomen like Dionys, 
Like Polydeuces paint his thighs; 
And then the parts that lie above 
Depict so that they challenge love. 
But how thy art is niggardly! 
I fain his back would also see: 

127 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



'Twere better far to show that too, 
And not, begrudging, hide from view. 
Why of his feet shall aught I say? 
Whatever thou wilt receive as pay. 
Apollo, whom thou seest, take down. 
And with Bathyllus win renown. 
If e'er in Samos thou appear, 
Paint Phoebus like Bathyllus here. 



A LOVE SONG 
(17-18) 

Give me to drink, to drink give me, 
Of Bromius, women, ceaselessly: 
Already now I am moaning, 
.Overcome with heat, and groaning. 

To deck my head bring flowery wreaths 
Of vine; my forehead bums and seethes. 

But, by love's heat afiFected, 

O heart, how be protected? 

ril to Bathyllus' shadow flee 
For refuge — 'tis a beauteous tree. 
Its leaves, to a soft branch clinging, 
E'er back and forth are swinging. 

Close by Persuasion's spring doth flow, 
Which with excitement sets aglow. 
Who, after all observing. 
Could e'er aside be swerving? 

128 



Anacreontea 



TO EROS 
(19) 

Long the Muses Eros sought, 

And at last they found him. 
Then they him to Beauty brought, 

When with wreaths they had bound him. 

Cytherea is ill at ease. 

And she feareth greatly; 
But she hopes him to release 

With a ransom stately. 

E'en though some one set him free, 

Eros, there remaining, 
Nevermore will try to flee: 

Slavery is in his training. 



THREE LYRIC POETS 

(20) 

Sweetly did sing Anacreon, 

Sappho did e'er sing sweetly; 
Grand odes of Pindar let some one 

Mix and pour in, odes stately. 

If Dionys should taste these three. 
And Aphrodite, with beauty beaming. 

And Eros too, it seems to me. 

Naught would be left in the goblet gleaming. 

129 



Lyric Sottas of the Greeks 



DRINKING 

(21) 

The black earth drinketh merrily, 
The trees then drink the earth, 

The sea, the streams, the sun, the sea. 
All drink with bounteous mirth. 

And then again the moon the sun 
Doth drink; but ye, my friends. 

Pray, quarrel not — 'twere not well done — 
When thirst to me extends. 

TO A MAIDEN 

(22) 

The maid of Phrygian Tantalus 

Is now a figure of marble. 
And she who Pandion's daughter was. 

Doth like a swallow warble; 
But I would fain a mirror be. 
So e'er thy eyes be on me falling; 

I fain would be a dress on thee, 
So I behind thee e'er be trailing. 

Ah! would that I pure water were, 

Thy charming body cleansing; 
To be thy ointment I prefer, 

Thy skin's pliant softness sensing. 
To be a band upon thy breast. 
Thy necklace which with pearls is laden, 

130 



Anacreontea 



To be thy sandal would make me blessed, 
To have thy feet tread on me, maiden. 

TO HIS LYRE 

(23) 

Of Atreus* sons I first intended 

To tell, of Cadmus I would sing. 
My lyre, however, always ended 

So all its strings with love did ring. 
Then first I tried to change each string. 
Then changed the lyre. 
The lyre entire. 

And then did I in rhythms stately 

To sing of Hercules aspire. 
Again, howe'er, most obstinately 

Did strains of love sound from my lyre. 
Heroes, begone. Of you we tire; 
For only love 
My lyre doth move. 

A LOVE SONG 

(24) 

His hoofs did Nature give the steed. 
Their horns she gave to cattle; 

The hare in speed of foot doth lead. 
With teeth fierce lions battle; 

The fish to swim, the birds to fly 

She taught, and man with thought to vie. 

131 



i 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



For woman nothing did appear. 

What then? She gave her beauty. 
For every shield and every spear 

And armor it doeth duty. 
For she whose beauty we admire 
Doth conquer iron and gleaming fire. 



TO A SWALLOW 
(25) 

Thou, dear swallow, as before, 

Coming every year, 
For the summer-time once more 
Build 'st thy dwelling here. 
When 'tis cold. 
As of old. 
On the Nile thou playest. 
And in Egypt stayest. 

Love his dwelling e'er doth build 

Right within my heart. 
And with young Loves it is filled. 
Some whose wings just start, 
Some eggs, some 
Out would come. 
E'er the nestlings clamor, 
Ope their mouths and stammer. 

Then the little Loves beget 
Others as they grow, 

^32 



Anacreontea 



And by these again are bred 
Others even so. 
Help I see 
None for me, 
OfiF these Loves to frighten, 
And my load to lighten. 

A LOVE SONG 
(26a) 

Thou sing'st of Thebe's glory, 
Of Phrygian war-cries he; 

But I shall tell the story 
Of my captivity. 

No foot or horse did harm me, 
I was not by navies caught. 

Far stranger was this army — 
By eyes I have been shot. 

LOVE'S BRAND 

(26b) 

Its branded hip e'er showeth 
Us where a horse is bred; 

The Parthian men one knoweth 
By tiaras on their head. 

Whene'er I see a lover, 
At once I understand — 

'Tis easy to discover 

Love's spiritual subtle brand. 

133 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



A LOVE SONG 
(29) 

Violently did Eros smite me 
With his hyacinthine rod. 
To a run did he invite me; 
So o*er swollen streams I trod, 

And through glens and thickets ran, 
Till I to perspire began. 

To my throat my heart was aching, 

Almost, almost did I choke; 
But, his forehead at me shaking, 
And his pinions, Eros spoke: 

" Wonder not thou canst not run : 
Ne'er hast thou to love begun." 

A LOVE SONG 
(30) 

On tender myrtle branches I 

Desire my limbs to stretch. 
As on a clover lawn I lie, 

I wish to drink a pledge. 

May Eros pour my wine for me, 
While, o'er his shoulders wound, 

A tunic, fastened carefully, 
Be with papyrus bound. 

For life like chariot wheels rolls by; 
Not long will death delay. 

136 



Anacreontea 



Naught but a little dust we lie, 
When once our bones decay. 

Why anoint a stone? Why offerings give 

To those who long are dead? 
Anoint me rather while I live ; 

With roses crown my head. 

And, Eros, call the best of maids. 
Ere Death me downward bears 

Where e'en the dancers all are shades — 
I want to drown my cares. 



TO EROS 
(31) 

The midnight hour was passing. 

The Bear was about to set, 
And Bootes his course was tracing 

Behind him with noiseless tread. 

And all the mortals unnumbered 

Were asleep, with labor sore. 
Then Eros came as I slumbered, 

And knocked and knocked at my door. 

" Who is pounding my door? " I demanded, 
" My dreams dost thou make disappear " ; 

And Eros, " Pray, open," commanded, 
" I am merely a child ; do not fear. 

137 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



** I am drenched with rain and did wander 
From my road in the moonless nig^t." 

I, pitying, not long did ponder, 
But arose a lamp to light. 

A child with a bow and quiver 

On his winged back I saw; 
And then, as I saw him shiver, 

I him toward my hearth did draw. 

I warmed his cold hands trembling, 
From his hair the water I pressed. 

When he became warm, dissembling. 
He said : " This bow let us test. 

" I fear lest, its bow-strings laming. 
The rain set at naught my art." 

He stretched his string: at me aiming. 
He hit the midst of my heart. 

And he leaped and bounded with laughter, 
And said : " My friend, be thou glad. 

My bow is unharmed, but hereafter 
Thou wilt in thy heart be sad." 

TO THE CICADA 
(32) 

Happy insect, we admire thee, 
Who on leafy boughs dost sing. 

Tiny dew-drops to inspire thee 
Ehrink'st thou, living like a king. 

138 



Anacreontea 



All is thine where'er thou goest; 

All in fields and woods thou knowest. 
Thou, of husbandmen the friend, 
Ne'er with harm dost them offend. 

All the mortals give thee honor, 
Summertime's sweet prophet true. 

Phoebus, thy clear music's donor, 
And the Muses love thee too. 

Thee old age oppresses never; 

Wisdom, song thou lovest ever; 

Earth-bom, bloodless, blithe of heart, 
Almost like the gods thou art. 

TO EROS 

(33) 

Eros once in rosy bowers 

Failed to see a bee. 
Which amidst the fragrant flowers. 

Stung him grievously. 

With his finger sorely paining. 

Loudly he cried out; 
Then to Venus flew complaining. 

And to her did shout: 

" Mother, I by death am smitten ; 

I am ruined, see. 
Me a small winged snake has bitten : 

Farmers call it bee." 

139 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



And she said : " Thus sorely troubled 

By a bee thou art? 
Eros, think what pain redoubled 

Brings to man thy dart." 

TO A MISER 
(34) 

If Plutus gave to man to lengthen 
His life through power of paltry gold, 

My courage would I surely strengthen, 
So that of him I would take hold. 

And when it were my time for dying, 
For gold Death then would pass me by ; 

But now of life there is no buying. 
For gold why should I therefore sigh? 

For e*en if death is surely fated. 
Why should I always groan in vain ? 

Why should I be with sorrow weighted? 
Far more by drink I hope to gain. 

To drink sweet wine, which cares e£Faces, 
To be with friends is my desire. 

And to love's tender sweet embraces 
May Aphrodite me inspire. 

A DREAM 

(35) 

Once at midnight I was sleeping. 
Under purple rugs I lay; 

X40 



Anacreontea 



Had myself in wine been steeping — 
Now I dreamed of maidens gay. 
Racing with them like a steed, 
On my toe-tips I did speed. 

Beauteous boys began to jeer me, 

That with charming maids I played. 
All did vanish who were near me, 
When to kiss them I essayed. 
No more sleep; for, all alone. 
For my dream did I atone. 

TO A SYMPOSIUM 
(36) 

Merrily let us drink sweet wine. 
In songs of praise of Bacchus join. 
Who first did graceful dances learn. 
Who e'er for song and dance doth yearn, 
Who like light-hearted Cupids lives, 
To whom her love fair Venus gives ; 
Through whom strong drink, hilarious mirth, 
Through whom was good will given birth. 
Through whom from sorrows comes relief. 
Through whom is laid to rest our grief. 
Now beauteous boys, distributing. 
Wine mixed with water to us bring; 
But from our hearts has sadness fled. 
Mingled with blasts by tempests fed. 
The wine, pray, let us therefore take, 
But off from us our sorrows shake; 
For tell mc what it profits thee 

X41 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



To pine in anxious misery? 
The future whither do we know? 
Hidden man's life doth onward flow. 
Anointed, I for drink will care, 
And dance and play with maidens fair. 
But as to cares, be they endured 
By those who are by cares allured. 
Merrily let us drink sweet wine, 
In songs of praise of Bacchus join. 

TO HIMSELF OR TO AN OLD FRIEND 

(37) 

A mirthful man, though old he be. 

In high esteem I hold. 
A youthful dancer I love to see; 
But when an aged dancer I find. 

His hair to me seems old. 
But ever youthful is his mind. 

TO HIMSELF 
(38) 

Since I myself a mortal know. 
My forward course o*er life's path shaping, 
I know the road where I have been stepping. 

But not the part I still must go. 

Ye cares, begone, by me abhorred. 
Before my end on me advances, 
I shall take part in mirthful dances, 

rU laugh and with Lyaeus sport. 

142 



Anacreontea 



TO SPRING OR SUMMER 

(39) 

There to stroll is a delight 
Where luxurious grass is growing, 

Where o*er meadows, sweet and bright, 
Gentle Zephyr^s breath is blowing. 

I delight in Bacchus' shade 
*Neath a leafy vine to tarry, 

Talking with a lovely maid, 
E*en whose breath doth Cypris carry. 



A LOVE SONG 
(40) 

The dance of Bacchus I admire, 
In sportive mirth abounding; 

With youthful friends to hear my lyre 
At drinking-bouts resounding. 

However, with wreaths of- hyacinth gay 

My festive head to cover, 
And then with charming maids to play, 

Of this I am most a lover. 

My heart bleak envy knoweth not; 

At drink I hate all quarrels; 
The darts by tongues abusive shot 

To shun — these are my morals. 

143 



Lyric Son^s of the Greeks 



With blooming maidens I desire 

To banquet and to revel, 
And, dancing to the tuneful lyre. 

To keep life free from evil. 

A LOVE SONG 

(41) 

Upon our temples let us place 

Garlands of fragrant roses wound; 

With wine let us our spirits brace; 
Let joyous laughter here resound. 

A graceful maid performs a dance. 
And, stepping to the lyre, she holds 

Two rustling thyrsi in her hands. 
Which ivy foliage enfolds. 

A youth with soft luxurious hair 

In sweet shrill song his voice doth raise ; 

His breath doth fragrant perfume bear, 
While on his harp he gaily plays. 

Eros, the god with hair of gold, 
Fair Cytherea, and Bacchus too. 

Our gladsome revels all behold. 
Which e'en the aged with pleasure view. 

TO THE ROSE 

(42) 

The rose, which red with Cupids glows, 
With vines we'll interlace; 

144 



Anacreontea 



The beauteous-leaved, the fragrant rose 

Well o*er our temples place; 
Of joyful laughter let us think, 
And let us cheer our hearts with drink. 

Thou, rose, which of flowers dost most delight, 

Spring's favor hast thou won ; 
The gods take pleasure in thy sight, 

And Cytherea's son. 
With Graces dancing, e'er doth crown 
With wreaths of rose his hair's soft down. 

Now wreathe me too — Til play the lyre, 

And with a maid, whose gown 
In deep folds falls, do I desire 

In Bacchus' shrine to crown 
With wreaths of rose again hiy hair, 
And in hilarious dancing share. 

TO WINE 

(43) 

Whene'er myself in wine I steep. 
My cares and sorrows go to sleep. 
Why should I groan and troubles bear? 
Why burdened be with anxious care? 
He too must die who Death abhors. 
Why stray at random o'er life's course? 
In Bacchus' company divine, 
Pray, let us therefore drink our wine. 
Whene'er ourselves in wine we steep. 
Our cares and sorrows go to sleep. 

145 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



TO SPRING 
(44) 

Spring IS here : the Graces see 

With red roses teeming; 
See the billows of the sea, 

How they are calmly gleaming. 

On the mirrored waters* plane 

See how ducks are diving; 
See how journeys there the crane, 

From the South arriving. 

Now the sunlight brightly beams; 

Breezes drive the shadows 
Of the clouds; for mortals gleam 

Houses, fields, and meadows. 

Olive branches downward bend; 

Grapes with wine- juice swelling 
Down from leaves and twigs extend. 

Of our Bromius telling. 

TO HIMSELF 

(45) 

I now am very old, 'tis true, 

Yet more I drink than young men do. 

And when to dance I would commence. 

Then will I rush 

Into the crush, 
Then like Silenus will I dance. 

146 



Anacreontea 



A wine-bag then my staff shall be; 
For nothing means a wand to me. 

The one to whom *tis dear to fight, 
May ever fight with all his might. 
To me a cup be brought by thee, 

O boy; I enjoin, 

Sweet honeyed wine 
Mix in it and bring here to me. 
I now am very old, 'tis true. 
Yet more I drink than young men do. 



TO A LOVER OF DRINK 

(46) 

When Bacchus here is present, 
My cares are put to sleep; 

Like Croesus* riches pleasant 
Is my contentment deep. 

With ivy o*er my temples, 
ni sing a graceful song; 

My mind on all things tramples. 
Pour in — to drink I long. 

A cup do to me carry: 
Than lying dead, my boy, 

'Tis better to-be merry, 
And lie one's drink to enjoy. 

147 



Lyric Songs of the Greets 



TO DIONYSUS OR TO WINE 

(47) 

Whenever Bacchus, son of Zeus, 
Lyaeus, who our cares doth loose, 
The giver of wine, my spirit reaches, 
Then he to me blithe dances teaches. 

But something gladsome also is mine, 
I, who a lover am of wine: 
Venus me too with song entrances; 
Again will I take part in dances. 



TO A SYMPOSIUM 

(48) 

Whenever I am drinking wine. 
Then warm becomes this heart of mine. 
With strains that clear like crystal ring 
Of Muses I begin to sing. 

Whenever I am drinking wine. 
Then to the winds which beat the brine 
Of the Ocean do my cares depart, 
All sombre counsels of my heart. 

Whenever I am drinking wine, 
Then Bacchus, author of sport divine, 
Stirs me, who doth in drink delight, 
Through breezes charged with flowers bright. 

148 



Anacreontea 



Whenever I am drinking wine, 
Then wreaths with flowers I entwine; 
I place them on my head and sing 
Of life as calm as balmy spring. 

Whenever I am drinking wine, 
With fragrant ointment then I shine. 
And, with a maiden in my arms, 
I sing of Aphrodite's charms. 

Whenever I am drinking wine, 
My mind unfolds with joy divine; 
Under the hollow cups I long 
For ple'asures of the youthful throng. 

Whenever I am drinking wine. 
No other gain do I feel mine: 
With this alone away 111 go; 
For death all mortals layetfi low. 

TO A MAIDEN 
(49) 

Maiden, when thou seest 
That my hair is gray, 

That thou therefore fleest 
Not from me, I pray. 

And because with beauty 
Thee thy youth imbues, 

Deem it not thy duty, 
My gifts to refuse. 
149 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



See how charming posies 
Do our hearts delight 

When in them are roses 
Mixed with lilies white. 



ON LIVING WITHOUT WORRY 

(50) 

Why teachest thou the laws to me, 

And orators' necessities, 
And all the useless vanity 

Of all these words which cannot please? 

To drink sweet wine teach thou, I pray; 

With golden Venus to delight 
Myself in sportive frolic gay. 

The hair which crowns my head is white. 

Bring water, boy, wine to me give, 
So that my sleeping soul may rest. 

Shortly I too no more shall live; 

No pleasures for the dead have zest. 

TO HIMSELF 
(51) 

Whenever I young men behold. 

My youth to me returns; 
Within me then, though I am old. 

My heart for dances yearns. 

150 



Anacreontea 



Cybebe, I am in frenzied rage; 

To wreath myself I long. 
I'll dance, while stripping off old age, 

A youth among the young. 

That I an old man's strength may show, 

A stream of wine bring me. 
I know to talk, to drink I know: 

My mirthful madness see. 



TO EUROPA 

(52) 

Zeus that bull doth seem to me, 
Whom thou seest there: 

A Sidonian maiden he 
On his back doth bear. 

Now, O boy, his course he steers 
O'er the spacious sea. 

And his hoofs the billows pierce, 
Plying busily. 

In the herd no bull could be, 
Who would e'er not fail. 

If he tried across the sea. 
Like this one, to sail. 



151 



Lyric Sonffs of the Greeks 



TO THE ROSE 
(53) 

Rose, which spring-time loveth dearly, 

Spring, e'er crowned with wreaths of rose. 
Praising thee, my song rings clearly: 

From the gods thy fragrance flows; 
Mortals give thee joyous praises, 
Thee, the glory of the Graces; 

Thou art Aphrodite's joy. 

And the flowery Cupids' toy. 

Thou of poets art a treasure. 

Thou delight'st the Muses* mind. 

He who seeks thee e'en finds pleasure 
Thee in thorny paths to find. 

Pleasant too it is to take thee 

In one's hand and warm to make thee, 
To the temples thee to move, 
Thee who art the flower of Love. 

Where the festive banquet lingers. 

How could roses absent be? 
Think of Dawn of rosy fingers. 

Nymphs whose arms glow rosily, 
Rose-complexioned Aphrodite, 
Named by those in wisdom mighty. 

Roses sickness, death oppose; 

Time is conquered by the rose. 

Of the rose whose beauteous glory 
Makes old age breathe youthfully, 

152 



Anacreontea 



We shall now relate the story: 
*Twas when from the foamy sea 

Dewy Aphrodite rising, 

First was bom, while Zeus, apprizing 
All the gods of Pallas' birth, 
Showed his head whence she sprang forth. 

And the warrior-goddess frightened 

All Olympus, but the rose 
With its splendor then first brightened 

Every land where'er it grows; 
And, its cups with nectar filling, 
And immortal beauty instilling, 

Bacchus godlike it would show: 

From the thorns he let it grow. 

TO DIONYSUS 

(54) 

That god to us doth now appear. 
Who from young lovers takes their fear; 
Through him the troubled no more tire. 
Whom drink and dancing doth inspire. 
To man a wondrous charm he hath shown. 
Love to arouse, yet not to groan. 
He guards the offspring of the vine. 
Which in its fruit hems in the wine 
Imprisoned in the clustered grapes. 
When once from them their juice escapes, 
Then all without disease shall be. 
Then sickness shall our bodies flee, 
And from our glad minds disappear, 
As time flies on year after year. 

153 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



TO A DISCUS WITH AN ENGRAVING 

OF APHRODITE 

(55) 

Who fashioned artfully this sea 

In wild enthusiasm? 
Who on this discus cunningly 

Furrowed the waves* deep chasm ? 

Upon the Ocean's back whose art 
With white shows Cypris gleaming? 

Gods surely did his skill impart, 
Who was godlike visions dreaming. 

Her upper half alone doth show, 

Without a dress or cover ; 
The half of her that is below, 

The waves are passing over. 

A furrow she behind her draws, 
As she skims o'er them lightly; 

Just like a delicate flower she goes. 
While calm is beaming brightly. 

The wave which o'er her soft neck heaves. 
And o'er her breasts like roses, 

She vigorously before her cleaves. 
Nor long it her op]>oses. 

And in the furrow right between 
Cypris, like lilies' whiteness 

154 



Anacreontea 



With violets entwined, is seen 

Through the cahn's peaceful brightness. 

On dancing dolphins Love doth ride, 

And Eros, gaily smiling; 
Pothos o*er silvery waves doth glide, 

His playful steed beguiling. 

And shoals of tumbling fishes gay 
Over the waves are skimming; 

Near smiling Paphia they play. 
As she is onward swimming. 

TO GOLD 
56 

When gold, the fugitive runner fleet. 

Doth me to flee endeavor 
Upon his swift tempestuous feet — 

Well, let him shun me ever — 
rU never follow him; for who 
Would such a hateful thing pursue? 

But, since I far away have strolled. 

And gave my grief to carry 
Upon the wind to fugitive gold. 

Now I again am merry: 
Into my hands I take my lyre. 
And love I let my song inspire. 

But when my mincf again brings me 
Some insolent aspiration, 

155 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



Then comes the fugitive suddenly 

With mental intoxication, 
That I seize him — 'tis his desire 
I should forget my dainty lyre. 

Ah ! faithless, faithless gold, by stealth 
Thou vainly tryest to harm me; 

The bow-strings more than golden wealth 
With love — pray, listen — charm me. 

For envy, love of treachery 

Doth reach the mind of man through thee. 

But, mixing cups which do not grieve, 

Of love and trusty kisses. 
These all the lyre doth to us give. 

Thee when thou wilt, one misses. 
However, naught could me beguile 
To leave my lyre a little while. 

Thou crafty stranger dost admire 
Far more than all the Muses; 

The heart of me who plays the lyre 
The Muse as dwelling uses. 

Would that her echoes here ring bright, 

And that she sends us gleaming light. 

TO WINE 

(57, 1.I-I3) 

Men and maidens both make merry. 
When in baskets grapes they bring, 

And them on the shoulders carry. 
And into the wjne-vats fling. 

156 



Anacreontea 



wm 



Men alone the purple grapes 
Press, so that the wine escapes. 

To the god they sing loud praises, 

Vintage songs; upon the juice, 
As it bubbles, each one gazes. 
At the jars; but through its use 

E*en the trembling gray-haired dare 
Now to dance and shake their hair. 

TO APOLLO 

(S8) 

I shall arouse my slumbering lyre : 
'Tis not a contest for a prize. 
But there is need of exercise 

For those who wisdom's flower desire. 

I to my plectrum's strokes shall sing 
In Phrygian rhythms a loud clear song; 
Just as with flapping wings the swan. 

Friend of the winds, his strains lets ring. 

Thou, Muse, to join our dance be moved ; 
For tripod, laurel, and the lyre, 
To Phoebus sacred, me inspire 

To tell of the gadfly which he loved. 

Still he did not fulfill his aim: 
The modest maid, his love to escape. 
Once more entirely changed her shape; 

A blooming plant she now became. 

IS7 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



But Phoebus ever onward went ; 

For Phoebus thought the maid to seize. 

He plucked a green leaf from the trees, 
Thus thinking to his love to tend. 

Come now, my heart, I pray thee, hark: 
Which frenzy were to have the best ? 
The goodness of thy weapon test, 

That thou beest sure to hit the mark. 

Shoot thou with Aphrodite's bow. 
Which conquers each and every god; 
Songs like the bard whom all men laud, 

Anacreon, on us bestow. 

A bowl of words to those who are 
Still children pledge, a lovely bowl. 
With nectar we ourselves console. 

And let us shun the scorching star. 

LET ME DRINK 

(59) 

Boy, bring water; boy, bring wine; 

Let me drink, to sleep put me; 
I now by this cup of mine 

Am informed what I must be. 

A GOOD LISTENER 
(60) 

If some one doth to talk desire. 
Of hearing she doth never tire. 

158 



CORINNA 

Corinna of Tanagra in Boeotia was a con- 
temporary of Pindar (sixth and fifth centuries 
B. c), and is reported to have influenced the great 
Lyric poet in his earlier years; be it as instructor, 
or be it as rival. On the one hand, there is 
a story that she criticized Pindar's earlier efforts 
adversely, at first because of poverty of mythological 
content, and then because of the reverse fault, warn- 
ing him " to sow with the hand and not with 
the sack." On the other hand, she is said to have 
won the prize over Pindar in a contest five times. 
However, since Corinna censured Myrtis for con- 
tending with Pindar on the grounds that she was 
a woman (no. 14), it is hard to believe that she 
would have done the same thing herscff, even 
if we are willing to grant the Boeotian judges the 
requisite stupidity for such a decision. 

Pausanias reports that the reason for a victory 
of Corinna over Pindar was the fact that she wrote 
in the native Boeotian dialect, and although we 
have seen we must reject the story of her con- 
test, yet he no doubt gives a real reason for her 
popularity at Boeotia. She was indeed a thor- 
oughly local poetess; she wrote in the language of 
her own people instead of an artificial literary dia- 
lect, and her principal themes were local myths. 
So it happened that for the very reason that she 

IS9 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



was unknown outside of Boeotia, she continued to 
be read there for centuries. Finally, when the 
Alexandrian grammarians became interested in the 
Greek dialects, one of them must have procured a 
copy of Corinna's works in Boeotia, and then in- 
troduced them in Alexandria, possibly in the second 
century b. c. No citations from her appear be- 
fore the time of the Empire, and these are quoted 
for grammatical or metrical reasons. However, the 
shorter fragments were supplemented by the dis- 
covery in 1906 of two considerable parts of long 
m3rthological poems (nos. 2 and 3) on a papyrus 
of the second century a.d. 

These larger fragments confirm the opinion of 
Corinna which one gets from the earlier shorter 
ones. She relates her story in a dry matter-of-fact 
way, and shows no sign of the imagination of an in- 
spired poet. Were it not for the interest in her 
language and perhaps subject-matter, she, like her 
contemporary Myrtis, would have disappeared al- 
most without trace. Her provincial character, 
which at first sight seems to have prevented her 
reputation from overstepping the boundaries of 
Boeotia, in reality accounts for the antiquarian in- 
terest of the later grammarians, which alone could 
have resulted in the preservation of any part of her 

works. 

160 



Corinna 

CORINNA'S THEME ' 

(I) 

Of heroes and heroines I shall tell, 
And on their virtues my song shall dwell. 

HELICON AND CITHAERON 

(2) 

" The goddess Rhea through a ruse 
From crafty Cronos then took Zeus. 

" Great honor won he since that day 
Among the gods." Thus ceased his lay. 

The Muses did the gods enjoin 
Into gold urns immediately 
To place their pebbles secretly. 

They all arose and stood in line. 

Most votes were for Cithaeron claimed; 
Loudly as victor he was named 

By Hermes, messenger clear-voiced. 
Immediately. Now wreaths were wound, 
With which the gods Cithaeron crowned. 

He greatly in his heart rejoiced. 

But Helicon by burning grief 
Was seized; and now, to find relief. 

Upon the smooth rock he laid hold. 
The mountain yielded: grievously 
Lamenting, he below did see 

It bury multitudes untold. 

i6i 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



THE DAUGHTERS OF ASOPUS 

(3) 

" Of Zeus and of the goddesses will she a servant 

be: 
In this will she be blessed; but of her daughters 

three 
By Father Zeus are taken, the king of gods and 

men, 
Three others by Posidon, who o'er the seas doth 

reign, 
And two doth Phoebus marry. By Maea's 

goodly son. 
By Hermes, still another fair daughter has been 

won. 
For Eros thus, and Cypris, induced them, who 

had come 
On secret visits so far, to see them in their home, 
The maidens nine to marry. These some time 

will give birth 
To a race of godlike heroes, and spread o*er all 

the earth. 
Old age will find them never, as I have recently 
Learned from Apollo's tripod, sign of his 

prophecy. 
Midst many mighty brothers this prize alone was 

mine. 
Truthful Acraephe won I, prophet of this dread 

shrine. 
For first the son of Leto to Euonymus did grant 

162 



Corinna 

To tell among his tripods his oracles to man. 
Position's son named Hurieus him from the land 

did cast; 
The second to hold this honor, the prize to him 

now passed. 
Next was my sire Orion, his land again he won, 
And, leaving me for heaven, this honor gave his 

son. 
Friend of the immortals, therefore, do thou thy 

grief dispel; 
Take cheer, divine of marriage, true oracles I 

tell." 
Thus spoke the sacred prophet. Asopus did re- 
joice. 
Seizing his hands and weeping, he thus poured out 

his voice: 



BOEOTUS 

(4) 

To thee, O blessed son of Cronos, do I sing; 
To thee, son of Posidon, O Boeotus, king. 



ORION 

(S) 

Orion, victor, for might far-famed. 
After himself the whole land named. 

163 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



THE SHIP-WRECKED ODYSSEUS 

(6) 

On a beam o'er the waters he did glide, 
Exactly as one a horse would ride. 

A SACKER OF CITIES 
(7) 

The dty in ashes he laid low 
As soon as he himself did show. 

A CONTEST 
(8) 

And now for thee as prize 
\^th Ares Hermes vies. 

A WARNING 
(9) 

For the envious divinity 

Not always thus will favor thee. 

A LOVING MOTHER 
do) 

Her son desired she tx> enfold 
And in her loving hands to hold. 

164 



Corinna 

THESPIA 

(n) 

O Thespia, with oi]kpring fair, 
Which strangers loves, to Muses dear. 

CORINNA AT TANAGRA 

(12) 

A beauteous stately song I'll sing, which will delight 
The Tanagran women who are clad in robes of 

white ; 
For wonderfully do my citizens rejoice 
At my clear-sounding, eloquent, and lively voice. 

AWAKE, CORINNA 
(13) 

Corinna, thee asleep I see? 

'Twas not thus with thee foraierly. 

MYRTIS AND PINDAR 
(H) 

Though Myrtis' song rings bright and clear, 

I cannot this commend : 
She, though a woman, did not fear 

With Pindar to contend. 

i6s 



TELESILLA 

Telesilla of Argos is usually placed at the end 
of the sixth century B.C.; for it is said that when 
the Spartans under Cleomenes had annihilated the 
Argive army in 510, she called upon the women 
of the city to arm themselves in defence. How- 
ever, Herodotus, although he relates the story of 
that struggle, is silent about Telesilla, and this 
leads to the suspicion that it is a later mjrth. 
Eusebius, doubtless more correctly, places her much 
later — 451/0 B.C. 

Aside from indirect quotations and single words 
there is only one extant fragment : 

O maidens, this is Artemis, 

Who from the Alpheus River flees. 



166 



PRAXILLA 

Praxilla of Siq^on lived about 455 b. c. according 
to Eusebius. She wrote various kinds of lyric 
poetry, but was best known for her skolia or drink- 
ing-songs, in fact no. 3 is expressly called a skolion 
by Aristophanes, though without mention of the 
author. It seems that she was particularly popu- 
lar at Athens, as Aristophanes on two occasions im- 
plies a general familiarity of his audience with cer- 
tain quotations from her. She is also mentioned as 
giving her name to a certain meter, as an example 
of which is quoted the original of fragment 5. 

In addition she wrote poems in hexameter, as is 
shown by nos. i and 2. The latter gave rise to the 
proverb " more foolish than the Adonis of Praxilla," 
but it may well be that she intentionally repre- 
sented Adonis as being naive rather than that it 
was a slip on her own part. 

Of the general merit and character of her poetry 
it is, of course, impossible to judge from the five 
short extant fragments. 

ACHILLES 

But the will in thy breast till now I have never per- 
suaded. 

167 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



ADONIS 

(2) 

Fairest of things I leave is the sun so beauteously 

gleaming, 
Second, the face of the moon and all the stars 

brightly beaming, 
And the cucumbers and apples and pears with which 

orchards are teeming. 

LOVE THE BRAVE 
(3) 

These words thou of Admetus learn. 
My friend, to love the brave ; 

From cowards do away thee turn. 
For they no graces have. 

BEWARE OF SCORPIONS 

(4) 

'Neath every stone, companion dear, 
The presence of a scorpion fear. 

A WEDDED BRIDE 
(5) 

O thou, who through the window there 

Thy beauteous eyes dost show. 
Though with a head like maidens fair, 

A wedded bride art thou. 

i68 



ERINNA 

Erinna was in ancient times reputed to have been 
a pupil of Sappho, and by a modem scholar it was 
suggested in support of this tradition that Eranna, 
a name mentioned by Sappho in one of her frag- 
ments (no. i8), looks suspiciously like Erinna, and 
probably should be emended thus. However, Euse- 
bius gives as her date 352/1 b. c, and this removes 
her fully two centuries. It was merely her suc- 
cessful imitation of Sappho which gave rise to the 
tradition of a personal relation. 

As to her birth-place nothing definite is known. 
The fact that she uses Dorian forms in her epi- 
grams would seem to point to a Dorian nativity. 
Of the four places mentioned by various writers, 
either Telos or Rhodes would consequently be pos- 
sible, with the preponderance of opinion favoring 
the former. 

Of her poetic ability we can hardly form an esti- 
mate from the few extant fragments. We need 
not take seriously that ancient admirer who com- 
pared her with Homer, any more than similar com- 
parisons of the hopelessly prosaic Corinna with the 
Theban eagle Pindar. Aside from three small 
fragments of her most famous poem, The Distaff, 

169 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



written in hexameter, we have only three epigrams 
which show no extraordinary ability. 



FROM THE DISTAFF 

TO THE POMPILUS 

(I) 

Thou, fateful fish, who escortest the sailors over the 

Ocean, 
Homeward escort thou her whom I love with 

ardent devotion. 



GRAY-HAIRED WOMEN 

(2) 

Gray-haired women are sparing of words, of old age 
are the flower. 



SILENCE MIDST THE DEAD 

(3) 

Therefore o'er Hades only the empty echo docs 

hover ; 
Silence there is midst the dead, while their eyes the 
darkness doth cover. 



170 



Erinna 



EPIGRAMS 

THE PICTURE OF AGATHARCHIS 

(4) 

*Tis a deft hand which painted this picture. 
Dearest Prometheus, 
Men also surely are like unto thee as to skill: 
Truly, whoever painted this maiden, well might it 
be said: 
If the voice were there too, 'twere Agatharchis 
herself. 

THE TOMB OF BAUCIS 

(5) 

Grave-stone and Sirens of mine, and thou, O urn 
full of sorrow, 
Who thou containest within all that is left of 
my dust, 
Give to those who come to my tomb my kindliest 
greetings. 
Whether they townsmen be, whether they come 
from afar. 
Also tell them that I while a bride in this tomb 
have been buried; 
Baucis was the name by which my father me 
called. 
This also may they know that I am from Tenos; 
Erinna, 
My dear friend, for this tomb wrote the inscrip- 
tion ye see. 

171 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



THE TOMB OF BAUCIS 

(6) 

I am of Baucis the bride; but thou, who passest 
this grave-stone, 
This I ask thee to tell Hades who dwells 'neath 
the earth : 
" Hades, malignant thou art " ; to him who sees this 
fine tomb-stone 
It doth clearly relate Baucis' most heart-rending 
fate, 
How the maiden for whom they sang Hymenaeus 
with torches. 
Was on the funeral-pyre burnt by her relative 
instead. 
Thou too, now Hymenaeus, the tuneful song of her 
wedding 
Fit to the mournful sound of her sad funeral 
dirge. 



172 



NOTES 
SAPPHO 

Numbers 9, 16, 17, 24, 25, 28, 35, 38, 44, 46, 64, 
66, 72, 87, 93, and 103 are not expressly attributed 
to Sappho in the ancient writers who quote the re- 
spective fragments, but are assigned to her by con- 
jecture of some modern scholar. 

3. A badly mutilated fragment of the Oxyrhyn- 

chus Papyri. The text followed is the 
tentative restoration of Wilamowitz-Moel- 
lendorfl, Neue Jahrbiicher vol. 38 p. 228. 

4. A Berlin fragment (no. 9722 p. 4), with vari- 

ous doubtful places both as to readings and 
interpretation. 

5. The " Julian " fragment. The text as in J. 

M. Edmonds, Sappho in the added Light of 
the New Fragments, Cambridge 19 12. 

6. A Berlin fragment (no. 5006), as restored by 

Blass and others. Possibly the person ad- 
dressed is Charaxus, the brother of Sappho 
referred to in the two following fragments. 

7. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (ed. Grenfell 

and Hunt), vol. 10 no. 123 1. For Cha- 
raxus and Doricha, the Rhodopis of Hero- 
dotus, see p. 13. 

8. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. i no. 7. 

The last stanza is much mutilated, the 
translation representing the uncertain res- 
toration of Blass. 

173 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



9. Possibly Cleis is not a daughter, but a girl 
friend. However, that Sappho had a 
daughter, is also claimed by Maximus 
Tyrius, who says that fragment 68 was 
addressed to her daughter on her death- 
bed. 

10. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. 10 no. 

1 23 1. The fourth stanza is uncertain be- 
cause of doubtful readings, and the last 
stanza is merely a tentative restoration. 

11. A Berlin fragment (no. 9722 p. 2). 

12. Also in the Berlin Museum (no. 9722 p. 4). 

Text and interpretation according to Wila- 
mowitz-Moellendorff. 

13. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. 10 no. 

1 23 1. Gongyle is also mentioned in 4. 

14-25. Atthis is also mentioned in 12. Other 
names of girl friends occurring in the longer 
fragments are: Gongyle (4, 13), Anac- 
toria (10), Arignota (12). 

16. For Andromeda, a rival of Sappho's, cf. 53f. 

20. Most probably Dice is here a clip name for 
Mnesidice of the last fragment, although 
some think that the goddess of Justice is 
thus addressed ! 

23. Perhaps addressed rather to a friendly com- 
petitor, although the future makes it look 
more like a prophecy of success for one of 
Sappho's pupils. 

24f. These fragments, as Hartung thought, may 
refer to Atthis (cf. 16). 

26-39. The Epithalamia or bridal songs were 

174 



Notes 

sung by a chorus instead of an individual. 
They were nevertheless closer to the style 
of popular poetry than almost any of the 
other poems. Cf . e. g. the humor of 26 
and 37, and the popular repetitions of 28 
and 33. 

37. According to Francis Brooks: "Possibly 
taunts directed by maidens against the 
bridegroom's friend who kept guard over 
the marriage chamber." 

4of. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. 10 no. 
1232. Because of their almost Epic detail 
Wilamow^itz-Moellendorfl thinks these frag- 
ments, though attributed to Sappho in the 
manuscript, are spurious. 

45 f. These fragments, like the bridal songs 
(26-39) and 93, have the appearance of 
folk songs. 

47. This has been referred both to a brother of 

Sappho and to the bride at the wedding 
festival. Both interpretations are contrary 
to Athenaeus, who says that Sappho is 
speaking to " him who is much admired be- 
cause of his form and is considered beau- 
tiful." 

48. The answer to Alcaeus 20. 
50. From an epithalamium. 

53f. Andromeda is also mentioned in 16. 

56. Maximus Tyrius refers to cither Andromeda 

or Gorgo. 
59. The spuriousness of this fragment lies on the 

surface; for Sappho was over a half ccn- 

175 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



tury older than Anacreon. 

74. A proverb referring to those who wish for 

good unmixed with evil. 

75. Gello, a girl known for her fondness of chil- 

dren, was said to have flitted around nights 

after her death. 
77-83. Sappho's feeling for nature appears also in 

12, 29, and 38. 
99. Refers to the story that Helen, considered the 

daughter of Leda, in reality originated from 

this egg. 
102. Some think of magic rites, others of a wed- 
ding. 
104. Possibly should be united with the preceding. 
114-116. All are doubtful, the last being most 

probably spurious. 

ALCAEUS 

Numbers 14, 21, 22, 23, 28, 42, 43, 45, 55, 85, 
and 86 are attributed to Alcaeus by conjecture of 
some modem scholar, not on the testimony of the 
ancient writers who quote the respective fragments. 
6. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. 10 no. 
1234. The similarity to 25 and 26 sug- 
gests that this also may be allegorical. 
9. Might equally well have been placed under 

the heading " Political Songs." 
15. A Berlin fragment (no. 9810), imperfectly 

restored. 
17. No doubt refers to Alcaeus himself. 
20. Answered by Sappho 48. I have followed 

176 



Notes 

Bergk and others in joining two frag- 
ments which are separated in the An- 
thology: nos. 34 and 19. 

21. I have followed Bergk in his substitution of 
the vocative of the girPs name Crino for 
the unintelligible manuscript reading: the 
dative of Cronos, retained in the Anthology. 

25f. For Myrsilus cf. also 9. He is mentioned 
with Pittacus in 31. 

28. Botji the authorship of Alcaeus and the refer- 
ence to Pittacus are very doubtful. 

30. The text of Bergk is here followed. 

31. An Oxyrhynchus fragment (vol. 10 no. 1234). 

33. From the same source as 31. 

34. Dinomenes was a favorite of Pittacus. 

35. Pittacus was the son of Hyrrhas. 

36. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. 10 no. 

1234. Both the nature of the bargain re- 
ferred to and the identity of the opponent 
described as a " cunning fox ** are obscure. 
However, since Pittacus is certainly the 
subject of the poem following in the manu- 
script (31), he is probably referred to here 
also according to Grenfell and Hunt. In 
our interpretation the " fox " must rather 
be a Lydian. 

37. From the same source as the preceding. 

38. Also an Oxyrhynchus fragment (vol. 10 no. 

1233). The peace referred to is that be- 
tween Mytilene and Athens in their 
struggle for Sigeum in Asia Minor. 

39. For Antimenides see p. 52. 

177 



i 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



40. The martial deed referred to was no doubt 
some factional fight against a tyrant. 

48. From the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. 10 no. 

1233. The second and third stanzas refer 
to Thetis, the mother of Achilles. 

49. From the same source as the preceding. 

56. May refer to some storm during the journeys 

of Alcaeus. 
59-69. Cf. also I2f. 
69. Also from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, following 

no. 31. It was the beginning of a poem. 
76. If we may judge from the imitation of Horace 

(Carm. 3. 12) this is the complaint of a 

love-sick girl. 

84. Allegorical, according to Bergk. 

85. Like 84 probably allegoric'al, according to 

Bergk. 

ANACREON 

Numbers 3, 28, 34, 36, 78, 85, and 97 are at- 
tributed to Anacreon by conjecture of some modern 
scholar, but are not expressly assigned to him by 
the ancient writers who quoted these fragments. 
I. The city of Leucophrys in Asia Minor is re- 
ferred to. 
14. For the allusion cf. p. 82. 
24. Erroneously supposed to refer to Sappho. 
27. The meter of the original is one characteristic 

of "iambic " or satiric poetry. 
30-35. Drinking naturally is closely joined with 
love in much of Anacreon *s poetry: cf. 

178 



Notes 

2, 6, 17, 20, 22; also the prayer to the god 
of wine (11). 

33. Possibly belongs to the same poem as 32. 

34. Is referred by some to the stay of Anacreon 

in Athens. 

51. Megistes is a favorite who is also mentioned 

in lyf. 

52. Is supposed to have been written in anticipa- 

tion of his return home during the last 
years of his life (p. 81), but both the inter- 
pretation and Anacreon's return rest upon 
a very uncertain foundation. 

59. Artemon was Anacreon's successful rival for 
the affection of Eurypyle. 

74. The Thalysia were the harvest-festivals. 

76. Like 27, this fragment is in a meter used for 
" iambics " or satire. 

86. The subject is feminine. 
102-107. These are all erroneously attributed to 
Anacreon in the Palatine Anthology. 

ANACREONTEA 

9. An allusion to the story of the sisters Philo- 
mela and Procne. Tereus had cut the 
tongue of the former, whom he had in- 
duced to become his wife after making her 
believe that his first wife Procne was dead. 
Though thus made speechless and confined 
in a lonely hut, Philomela managed to con- 
vey to her sister her plight, and after tak- 
ing bloody revenge on Tereus and whefi 

179 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 



being about to be put to death by him, she 
was transformed into a swallow according 
to the version followed here, otherwise a 
nightingale, Procne being the swallow. 
Tereus was changed into a hoopoe. 
Bathyllus was one of Anacreon's favorite 
boys, but his name does not appear in his 
genuine fragments. 

II. Cybebe or Cybele was an Asiatic name for the 
goddess Rhea or Mother-Earth. 

14. For Bathyllus see on 9. He is the subject of 
15 and 17. 18. 

22. The first two lines are an allusion to Niobe, 

who, together with her children, was turned 
to stone because she had the presumption to 
compare herself and her children favorably 
with Leto and her children, Apollo and 
Artemis. The next two lines refer to the 
metamorphosis of Procne or Philomela into 
a swallow (see on 9). 

23. It was the custom to exchange the strings of 

the lyre for others which fitted the new 
subject better whenever the theme of the 
song was changed. 

34. Plutus was the god of wealth. 

45. The beginning of the second stanza is an imi- 
tation of Anacreon no. 78. 

49. Evidently an imitation of Anacreon no. 26. 

CORINNA 

2f. These two fragments are found on a papyrus 
in the Museum at Berlin (no. 2847). 

180 



Indices 

2. A contest in music between Helicon and 

Cithaeron. At the beginning of the frag- 
ment the latter was just finishing his lay 
telling of how the infant Zeus was rescued 
by Rhea from his father Cronos, who was 
wont to devour his own offspring. 

3. Asopus asked the oracle of Apollo in Ptoion 

in Boeotia concerning the future of his 
daughters, and receives the following an- 
swer. 

PRAXILLA 

Number 5 is assigned to Praxilla by conjecture, 
although she is not expressly mentioned as the 
author in the source of the quotation. 

INDICES 

(The numbers in the three columns are, respec- 
tively, those of this translation, of the Anthologia 
Lyrica ed. Hiller-Crusius, and Bergk's Poctac 

Lyrici, fourth edition.) 



SAPPHO 



I I I 

222 

3 — — 

4 — — 

6 — 56A Adesp. 

181 



Lyric Songs of the Greeks 


7 


_i~ 





8 







9 


84 


85 


lO 






II 







12 






13 







14 


28 


33 


15 


29 


34 


i6 


39 


41 


17 


72 


71 


i8 


76 


77 


19 


75 


76 


20 


77 


78 


21 


82 


83 


22 


54 


73 


23 


70 


69 


24 


20 


22 


25 


60 


21 


26 


89 


91 


27 


90 


92 


28 


100 


104 


29 


91 


93 


30 


97 


100 


31 


102 


106 


32 


98 


102 


33 


103 


109 


34 


96 


99 


35 


101 


105 


36 


94 


97 


37 


95 


98 


38 


92 


94 


39 


93 
182 


95 



Indices 


40 








41 




— 




42 


48,49 


51 




43 


35 


42 




44 


38 


40 




45 


88 


90 




46 


50 


52 




47 


57 


29 




48 


23 


28 




49 


47 


75 




50 


103a 


96 




51 


II 


12 




52 


15 


17 


(1. 2f.) 


53 


71 


70 




54 


58 


58 




55 


45 


48 




56 


24 


86 




57 


69 


68 




58 


42 


45 




59 


21 


26 




60 


9 


10 




61 


103b 


37 




62 


27 


32 




63 


10 


II 




64 


12 


14 




65 


73 


72 




66 




23 




67 


78 


79 




68 


103k 


136 




69 


22 


27 




70 


32 


lOI 




71 


79 
183 


80 





Lyric Songs of the Greeks 


7a 


30 


35 


73 


I03f 


114 


74 


I03e 


"3 


75 


44 


47 


76 


— 


137 


77 


3 


3 


78 


19 


133 


79 


4 


4 


8o 


25 


30 


8i 


13 


16 


82 


37 


39 


83 


86 


88 


84 


5 


5 


85 


6 


6 


86 


7 


7.8 


87 


8 


9 


88 


85 


87 


89 


59 


59 


90 


74 


74 


91 


41 


44 


92 


56 


57A 


93 


63 


6a 


94 


83 


84 


95 


61 


60 


96 


67 


65 


97 


103c 


55 


98 


16 


18 


99 


65 


56 


100 


68 


66 


lOI 


66 


64 


102 


51 


53 


103 


52 
184 


54 (1. If.) 



Indices 


104 


53 


54 (1- 


3) 


105 


— 


121 




106 




122 




107 


17 


19 




108 


33 


50 




109 


87 


89 




1 10 


55 


57 




III 


31 


36 




112 


36 


38 




113 




IS 




"4 


104 


118 




"5 


1 05 


119 




116 


106 


120 




ALCAEUS 








I 


16 


34 




2 


43 


39 




3 


71 


45 




4 


44 


41 




5 
6 

7 


38 


40 




17 


35 




8 


31 


54A 




9 


8 


20 




10 


46 


44 




II 


77 


47 




12 


18 


53 




f3 


79 


57 




14 


— 


50 




15 




— 




16 


28,29 


36 




17 


45 
185 


42 





Lyric Sonffs of the Greeks 



l8 

19 
20 

21 

22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 

37 
38 

39 
40 

41 
42 

43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 



81 


60 


87 


56 


34.19 


55 


70 


62 


30 


63 


7a 


46 


86 


lOI 


6 


18 


7 


19 


9 


21 


23 Adesp. 


38 


74 


25 


40 


82 


42 


37- 


69 


52 


88 


94 


36,37 


33 


56 


15 


35 


23 


H 


30 


12 


27 


64 


80 


13 


28 


75 


48B 


63 


48A 



186 







Indices 






50 


I 


I 




51 


2 


5 




52 


3 


9 




53 


4a 


66 




54 


4 


14 




55 


5 


13B 




56 


II 


26 




57 


49 


85 




58 


62 


II 




59 


42a 


— 




6o 


59 


49 




6i 


73 


92- 




62 


25 


76 




63 


47 


83 




64 


54 


88 




65 


84 


98 




66 


83 


97 




67 


85 


99 




68 


76 


93 




69 




— 




70 


23 


71 




71 


60 


SI 




72 


91 


102 




73 


50 


86 




74 


21 


68 




75 


39 


81 




76 


80 


59 




77 


89 


95 




78 


24 


74 




79 


27 


73 




80 


41 


13A 




81 


66 


96 




82 


48 
187 


84 



Lyric 


^off^x 0/ f Af Greets 


83 


82 6t 


84 


57 16 


85 


58 17 


86 


65 43 


ANACREON 




I 


I I 


2 


13 17 


3 


47 65 


4 


48 47 


5 


39 46 


6 


44 62 


7 


— 13A 


8 


15 19 


9 


22 24 


10 


23 25 


II 


2 2 


la 


3 3 


13 


4 4 


14 


49 48 


15 


14 18 


16 


20 22 


17 


30 41 


18 


69 74 


19 


43 61 


20 


78 82 


21 


33 44 


22 


56 66 


23 


89 93 


24 


9 14 


25 


70 75 


26 


71 76 




188 



Indices 



27 


83 


87 


28 


67 


723 


29 


25 


29 


30 


28 


32 


31 


3» 


44 


32 


45 


63 (I. 1-3) 


33 


45a 


63 (1. 4-6) 


34 


58 


56 


35 


59 


57 


36 


10 


78 Adesp. 


37 


63 


69 


38 


16 


20 


39 


38 


39 


40 


79 


83 


41 


55 


54 


42 


7 


9 


43 


34 


45 


44 


6 


8 


45 


85 


89 


46 


12 


15 


47 


24 


28 


48 


32 


43 


49 


73 


77 


50 


74 


"4 


51 


3-5 


16 


52 


62 


36 


53 


66 


72 


54 


27 


3» 


55 


64 


70 


56 





12B 


57 


87 


91 


58 


77a.b 
189 


80 





Lyric 


Songs of the Greets 




59 


18 


21 (I. if.) 




60 


19 


21 (1. 3ff-) 




61 


26 


30 




62 


61 


68 




63 


82 


86 




64 


86 


90 




65 


76 


79 




66 


81 


85 




67 


5 


6 




68 


52 


51 




69 


60 


67 




70 


37 


38 




71 


72 


78 




72 


54 


53 




73 


II 


40 




74 


8 


13B 




75 


29 


33 




76 


84 


88 




77 




7 




78 


88 


92 




79 


68 


73 




80 


75 


81 




81 


51 


50 




82 


65 


71 




83 


42 


60 




84 


53 


52 




85 


80 


84 




86 


21 


23 




87 


41 


59 




88 


17 


35 




89 


90 


94 




90 


91 


95 



190 







Indices 






91 


92 


96 




92 


94 


100 




93 


95 


lOI 




94 


96 


103 




95 


97 


104 




96 


98 


105 




97 


99 


106 




98 


100 


no 




99 


lOI 


III 




lOO 


102 


112 




lOI 


103 


113 




I02 


104 


109 




I03 


105 


102 




104 


106 


107 




105 


107 


108 




106 


108 


115 




107 


109 


116 




CORINNA 








I 
2 


4 


10 




3 
4 


2 


I 




5 


3 


2 




6 


6 


14 




7 


8 


16 




8 


5 


II 




9 


3a 


4 




10 


II 


19 




II 


14 


23 




12 


I 


20 




13 


13 


9 




14 


12 


21 



191 



i 



Lyric SonfS of the Greeks 



The numbers of the Anacreontea and of the frag- 
ments of Praxilla and Erinna correspond to those 
both of the Anthologia Lyrica and of Bergk's 
fourth edition. 



192 



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f