HORACE W. CARPEOTKER
The Holy City;
The Gem of the Orient Earth ;
J, Dyer Ball, M. R. A. S,
The Cantonese Made Easy Series,
How to Write Chinese,
Hakka Made Easy,
&c., &c., &c.,
The China Baptist Publication Society
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Registered at the office of the Registrar-General, Hongkong,
in accordance with the provisions of Ordinance No. 2 of 1888.
Table of Contents. 1.
Geographical position 1.
City walls 3.
The Barrier 4.
The Praia Grande 6.
The Streets 7.
Camoens Grotto 8.
The Public Gardens 15.
Public Offices, &c., 15.
The Post Office 16.
The Senate House 16.
Churches, &c., 18.
Chinese Temples 26.
Santa Clara 37.
The Flora 44.
Green Island 44.
Tamtsai snd Colowan 45.
The Ten Tables 48.
The Silver Valley 48.
Pak Shan Leng 50.
The Hot Springs 51.
The Island of San Joao 53.
History ; 55.
A Tribute to Camoens 67.
The Portuguese Colony of Macao is situated on a rocky
peninsula in the Heung Shan (Fragrant Hills) District
in the Kwong Chan Prefecture of the Kwong Tung, or
Canton Province, in the south eastern part of the Empire
<>f China. This peninsula forms the most southerly point
of the large Island of Heung Shan, this latter being one of
the countless islands lying in the estuary of the Canton
River on its western side. Macao is situated in 22 degrees.
11 minutes, 30 seconds, N. lat. and 113 degrees 32 minutes,
oO seconds, E. long. It and Hongkong, from which it is
distant 40^ miles in a westerly direction, may be considered
as the extreme points of the base of an obtuse angled
triangle of which Canton, distant some 88 miles in a
northerly direction, forms the apex, the line drawn from
Hongkong, about 90 miles in length, being the hypothenuse.
The whole peninsula on which Macao is built is about 3
miles long from the extreme point which the steamers
round on passing from the outer to the inner harbour to
the long narrow isthmus of sand where Macao is joined to
the Chinese empire and less than a mile in breadth and
the circuit is said to be about 8 miles. On this peninsula
are two principal ranges of hills running north and south
and east and west respectively. They rise from 200 to 300
feet in height. Besides all the hilly portions which lend
such a variety to the coup d'oeul and throw up into prom-
inence the public and private edifices crowning their
heights or built on their sides, are numerous tracts of level
land largely utilised for the erection of houses. Not only
does the hilly nature of the peninsula give more variety to
the scene ; but the chance of a breeze is also enhanced bv
the rising ground on which the rows of houses climb and
detached residencies are perched. Several forts crown the
different heights and churches as well as other public build-
ings are by no means wanting.
Many a picturesque view is to be obtained, the fine sweep
of the the Praya Grande being universally admired.
The streets are kept bautifully clean and the public and
private buildings are often gaily coloured.
All lovers of poetry and literature will cherish Macao as
being at one time, the residence of the celebrated Portuguese
poet Camoens. The climate is pleasant and there is but
little bustle and noise ; so being within convenient reach of
Hongkong and Canton it forms a pleasent retreat for those
who are seeking rest and quiet.
The population of Macao is composed principally of
Chinese which section is an ever increasing one owing to
house-rent being cheaper than in Hongkong and life and
property being more secure under the rule of the Portu-
guese officials than under the regime of the generally
rapacious Chinese Mandarin in Canton and its neighbour-
hood. This Chinese portion of the population had increas-
ed in the 18 years between 1878 and 1897 by 11,036.
A comparison of different censuses and estimates of popula-
tion may prove of interest as showing how the once small
Portuguese settlement has grown to a large populous city
A. D. 1583 Macao contained 900 Portuguese, " besides
women, slaves and many hundreds of Chinese children''
"and a great many people who came from Portuguese
ports in Asia."
Latter end of the 17th Century the population of Macao
amounted to 19,500.
A. D. 1821, 4557 or 4600.
A. D. 1830, about 4628.
A. D. 1824, 5093.
A. D. 1874, Portuguese, 4476; Foreigners, 78; Chinese,
C.3,532 ; Total, 68,086.
A. D. 1897, Portuguese, 3898 ; Foreigners, 161 ; Chinese,
74,627, Total, 78,706.
That the number of the Chinese in Macao was not larger
at first is to be partly accounted for by the policy pursued
by the Portuguese in the earlier days of the Settlement as it
was considered wiser to limit their numbers. By thus keep-
ing down the numbers in 1697 to only those registered and
ordering all others to leave the city in three days, the re-
fractory being handed over to the mandarins as vaga-
bonds, it was doubtless hoped to keep Macao from being the
happy hunting ground of the Canton lower classes, from
the lawlessness of whom, brought down by hundreds,
through the facilities of early transit, Hongkong in later
days has often suffered. This policy however, actuated by
the best of motives, proved unavailing, the landlords though
forbidden by law (A. D. 1749) to let or sell their houses to
Chinese, still doing so; in consequence of which this order
of the senate was overruled in 1793.
In the olden days when Macao was growing into a place
of greater importance it was felt necessary to protect it from
the assaults of covetous enemies and it was determined that
a wall should be erected for that purpose.
One writer informs us that the open consent of the
Chinese officials was first sought by a deputation from
Macao but failing this, largesses prevented the corrupt
mandarins from awkward objections or a hostile attitude
to the undertaking : so that in A. D. 1622 a wall was run
from the Monte (the height in the centre of the penuisula)
in a north easterly direction to the sea near St. Francis
and, it is stated, the work might have been completed in
A. D. 1626. This wall may still be seen. It starts from
the Place of Luiz Camoens. At this point the author
remembers a small arched gate, the San Antonio gate,
(Sam Pa Mun) which was closed at night. This has now
been pulled down and the road widened. From this place
the wall runs along and then up the hill to the Monte Fort
from whence it runs down the hill on the opposite side
where at the foot there used to be another gate, that of San
Francisco, now also abolished. The wall from here runs
up the opposite hill towards the sea, to the ruined fort of
San Joao, whence it proceeds towards San Francisco fort,
which lies at one end of the Praya Grande, then running
along the side of the Estrada da San Francisco down the
hill facing the fort, mentioned above, where it ends. Thus
the city was entirely closed on the land side. Some Dutch
prisoners taken in 1622 were employed in the building of
Another short city wall is to be seen to the south of the
city. It runs from the church on Penha Hill to the road
above the disused Bom Parto Fort or just about opposite
the old Boa Vista Hotel.
This is the division between Portuguese and Chinese
territory. It is some distance along the long isthmus
which unites the peninsula of Macao to China.
To reach it from the Macao Hotel you pass the Public
Gardens at the end of the Praya Grande on your right hand
and keep straight on, passing a number of Chinese houses;
before quite reaching the end of these houses you turn to
the right and then to the left along a boulevard, on your
left being the open Campo or a Chinese village, &c. The
boulevard ended you pass in front of barracks and then the
Governor of Macao's country house set in a garden. You
keep on in the same direction, bearing a bit to the left until,
the road comes out on the sea. Turn to the left and follow
the road till a road, leading directly to the Barrier Gate.
down the centre of the isthmus, turns to the right.
Soon after passing the Governor's summer residence a
road turns to the right which leads to Cacilha's Bay with a
pretty little sandy beach. Above the road and the Bay is the
Plague Burying Ground, the graves marked by wooden
crosses. By this road one may return to the Praya Grande at
a distance of several hundred feet above the sea.
But to return to the road which leads to the Barrier.
Just before coming in sight of the sea one sees to the left
enclosed in a wall, the new Protestant Burying Ground. The
old Protestant Cemetery is below the Protestant Chapel,
next Camoen's gardens.
Below the new cemetery are the courts of the Macao
Just before reaching the Barrier a short distance is the
bathing place, the whole coast line here forming with the
sandy beach on the seaward side a magnificent roughly
semi-circular bay. Many large fishing stakes are seen with
the hovels of their owners perched up amongst the rocks.
The whole of Macao seems dominated by forts. To the left
is a large one, topping a hill, commanding the Barrier, while
to the left are two small ones overlooking the sea and
Cacilha's Bay. Once on the road, leading to the Barrier, we
see facing us the large gateway which marks the boundary
line. As already said the sandy beach is below us on the
light with some rough grassy ground between. The muddy
shores of the Inner Harbour on the left and on the falling
or lower ground between the road and the water, the ever-
industrious Chinese market-gardener has brought his skill
to bear and the result is beautiful plots of vegetables, plan-
ted in symmetrical rows, lovely in their weedless conditions
and green freshness to the eyes, but anything but agree-
able to the olfactory nerves. Arrived at the gate a guard-
house with outbuildings is seen on the left on the Portu-
guese side with soldiers. The gate itself is a large arched
one with 6 stone tablets let in, bearing different dates such
as 22nd August 1849, 22nd August 1870 and 31st October
1871. The remains of an old wall is seen on each side of
the gate, though not now continuous. The cause of the
Barrier Wall being made in A. D. 1573 was, so it was stated,
for the protection of the country (China) and to prevent
Chinese children from being kidnapped. A few Chinese
soldiers and an officer guarded the door of communications,
which was called by the Portuguese Porta do Cerco, so that
no stranger might pass the boundary. At first the door was^
only opened twice a month, then every fifth day for the
purpose of selling provisions ; after that it opened at day-
light . The tables are now turned ; for this old gate wan
destroyed in some of the wars and the present gate is a large
foreign structure with a guard house of Portuguese at it.
Beyond the Barrier there appears to be a piece of neu-
tral ground. The distinction between occidentalism and
orientalism; between civilisation and barbarism ; between
the European and the Asiatic is noticeable at once : for the
well-made Portuguese road is at once changed for the
wretched little foot path, meandering hither and thither,
rugged and uneven never, properly made, unkept and un-
cared for, running through a perfect necropolis of poorer
graves ; or, at the very best, irregularly paved with long
granite slabs unevenly laid and further allowed to sink to
The Praia Grande
One of the most enchanting scenes in Macao is that of
this beautiful bay, quiet and graceful sweep of sea wall and
rows of houses rising up the gentle slopes and the ancient
forts and modern public buildings dotted here and there,
while behind all rise the Mountains of Lappa and to the
right those beyond the Barrier. All descriptions are imper-
fect; some fail from an attempt to liken this beautiful little
gem with another world-renowned spot, the Bay of Naples.
Let it be acknowledged at once that each is sui generis and
attempt no comparison. There is no doubt when coming
in from sea towards Naples and trying to detect Macao in
Naples one does see a faint resemblence in one of the house-
c-lad hills of the latter to Macao's central portion ; but ra-
ther let one be content with enjoying the beauties of each
and attempt no belittling of the grand proportions of the
one or try to greaten the sweet gem-like curves and colour*
of dear old Macao. As an instance of what the artistic eye
finds in the latter we quote from a short account of Macau
appearing in the u Dublin University Magazine " for
"A view of Macao from the sea is exquisitely fine. The
semicircular appearance of the shore, which is unencumber-
ed and unbroken by wharfs or piers [there are one or two
small landing places projecting] and upon which the surge
in continually breaking and receding in waves of foam,
whereon the sun glitters in thousands of sparling beams,
presents a scene of incomparable beauty. The Parade
[Praia Grande] which is faced with an embankment of stone,
fronts the sea and is about half a mile in length. A row of
houses of a large description extends along its length, * * *
Home are coloured pink, some pale yellow and others whit.e
The houses, with their large windows extending to the
ground * * * with curtains. * * convey an idea to the
visitor that he has entered a European rather than an
Asiatic seaport. This idea becomes still stronger by tin;
constant ringing of the church bells and passing and repass-
ing of * * priests clad in cassocks and three-cornered
hats. But this illusion is quickly dispelled when the eye,
turning towards the sea beholds the mumerous sampans and
mat-sail boats * * * , or glancing shore wards rests upon
figures clad in Chinese costume. "
Unfortunately the outer Harbour on which the Praya
(Jrande faces is shallow and any large vessels which may
call at Macao have to lie some miles from the shore in the
offing. The Inner Harbour lying between the Peninsula
and the Island of Lappa affords a secure harbour, but, un-
fortunately it has been silting up with mud for many
years past. Of late years, however, a dredger has improved
matters. The Praya on the Inner Harbour presents a
great contrast to the other Praya for whereas quiet reigns
on the seaward one, the inland one is all bustle ; rows of
Chinese vessels are anchored off the shore and boats and
sampans line the banks on which coolies are busy loading
or unloading cargo to carry into the stores, shops, and
wholesale Chinese merchants' places of business on this
Menduia Praya or into the back streets.
To those interested in watching the life of the oriental
brought into sanitary order the busy streets of the Chinese
town will afford walks which will engage all their attention,
while the quainter, quieter, lanes, alleys, tiny squares and
larger Plazas will give a piquancy and zest and afford a
striking contrast to the bustle of the business quarters.
" The exceedingly narrow and tortuous formation of the
streets gives considerable pleasure to a ramble through
Macao, shades away the sun when it is not at 90 degrees
and reminds you of pictures you have seen of old Spanish
and German towns."
In contrast with these narrow and tortuous old street*
are the newer roads and the boulevard recently formed on
what used to be the Campo without the City walls and below
the Guia Fort and light house. Here rows of trees have
been planted, chunam or cemented walks made under or
between them with beds of flowers and a bandstand where
a military band discourses fine music once or twice a week.
Of late years Macao after a period of stagnation has been
much improved by new roads laid out over the Campo and
about the hills. A grand new avenue to cost $ 300,000 and
to lead in direct line from the Inner Harbour opposite the
Steamboat Company's wharf to the Praya Grande, was
mooted some years since; but the money has been spent on
It is situated in the Casa Gardens which are entered by a
gateway in the corner of the Plaza de Camoens. On enter-
ing, a small garden is seen in front of a large house; but
hearing off to the right instead of going to the house and
descending some steps one enters a large garden with many
broad paths leading in different directions under umbrag-
eous trees, while many ferns grow in the rocks, great
masses of which are piled about in certain parts in nature's
wild confusion. The garden until recently was private
property but a few years sime the Portuguese Government
bought it from its owner for $35,000. Since its purchase a
hand-stand has been erected and a fountain put up, the
paths ivoemented (though they still retain their slippery-
ness as in other days) and ornamental walks and vases and
borders made at certain places of little cubes or chips of
white and red stone which have a somewhat bright and
pleasing effect. Fortunately the Government has had the
good taste not to carry this ornamentation to too great an
extent and many parts of the garden are delicious in their
wild condition. In one on two places, especially in one
corner of the garden, gigantic boulders are piled one on the
top of the other and a banian is perched on the topmost,
while it sends its roots down in a perfect network over the
masses of rocks on their way to mother earth, for the sus-
tenance which the unique position of the tree prevents it from
absorbing otherwise. On one of the mass of rocks thrown
together in wild confusion was a small terrace where one
might sit and view the landscape o'er. A flight of steps led
up to it; but it has now been removed. A circular building
with a slit through its roof at one side of the garden overlook-
ing Inner Harbour will also attract attention. It was built
for Laperouse and in it the scientific officers of his squadron,
the Astrolabe and Boussole, made astronomical observations
during the stay of those vessels in the Taipa in January
But the chief object of interest in the garden is the spot
where the immortal Portuguese poet Luis de Camoens is
said to have sat while composing part of his great epic poem
the Lusiads. The retreat of the poet is not a cave, in the
common acceptation of the term. On the surface of a gentle
sloping hill, and between two large rocks, which seem to have
been originally one, but now sundered a few feet apart by
some one of nature's freeks, is the spot where PontugaFs
noblest poet used to sit. Above the cleft rocks, and on them
rests a mass of granite, which served the poet as a covert
from the noonday's sun and stormy winds. He probably
wrote the last three Cantos of the Luciads here.
With a laudable desire to restore this favourite retreat
of their finest poet, to as near as possible like he left it, the
Portuguese have removed a small quadrangular building in
the Chinese style of architecture which crowned the mass
of granite "resting above the cleft rocks" and which "com-
manded a fine view of the surrounding country. Towards
cast you behold the sea and the blue outlines of Lantaoand
other islands. Southward and westward you view the Talpa
and Inner Harbour * * and various native craft. To the
north is the Barrier, which forms a line of demarcation be-
tween the foreigners and celestials, and beyond it Tseen
Shan or Casa Branca, a small walled town and military
post" and Chinese customs station, "and behind which
stretching away in the distance, is a meandering river and
innumerable inlets," and nearer at hand Green Island,
Ilha Verde, well worthy of its name. "The scenery altoge-
ther is romantic and charming." "The retreat of Camoens.
at present wears altogether a different aspect to what it did
in the days when the "poet hallowed the spot." The niche
between the rocks "the identical spot where Camoens sat'*
"is decorated with a bronze bust of the poet, upon the base
of which, in letters of bold relief, are records of his birth
and death;" as follows:
Luz DE CAMOES
Neisceo 1524. Morreo 1580.
The bust bears evidence, were none other wanting, that
be was handsome, of fine form, with eyes glowing full
A number of upright granite slabs are either in the grotto
itself or ranged in a row outside it, bearing some of them
Cantoes from the famous Lusiads while others contain
laudatory poems by different individuals.
This spot renders Macao "classic ground". A short
account of Camoens may be here interesting. He was the
most renowned of the Portuguese poets "and possessed
talents of no ordinary character * * He was born at
Lisbon" .His life seemed full of misfortunes. He lost his
father in early life and the greater part of his family pro-
perty at the same time. His mother had him educated at
the university of Corinbra. Returning to Lisbon he was
unfortunate in love being banished in consequence from
the court. He went then as a soldier in a Portuguese fleet
to Morocco where he lost one eye in a fight. He went to the
East and settled after a while at Goa and was unjustly
banished to Macao where "he lived happily and contented-
ly" for five years receiving the appointment of "Provedov
dos Defunctos" somewhat equivalent to the Official Adminis-
trator. He amassed a small fortune but lost it all in ship-
wreck only saving his poem Avhich he held above his head
with one hand while he swam ashore with the other. He
finally returned to Lisbon and his Lusiads were published in
1572. The name of this "invaluable contribution to poetic
literature" is derived from Lusus, the Latin name of Portu-
gal. It celebrates the discovery of India and has beeu
translated into various languages, there being several trans-
lations in English and French, four into Spanish and two
into Italian. It has also been translated into Latin and
On his return to his native land after 16 years absence
his misfortunes still accompanied him. He received a small
pension from the King, but he died in absolute want in a
hospital at Lisbon, the day of his death being unrecorded
and his very winding sheet being given out of charity for
his grave. "No monument told the passing stranger of
his worth till fifteen years after his decease. Now however
a splendid one perpetuates his memory".
On the different stone slabs about the poet's monument
are the following tributes to his genius by men of different
2nd Slab from left
Yo poeta tambien, tambien soldado,
Si bien no por la fama enaltecido ;
Tambien de hondas passiones arrastrado
Tambien de hados adversos combalidos
En el altar a tu estro consagrado
Menos angusto a fe que merecido
Suspendo de mi amor esta memoria
Tribute exigno de tan alta gloria.
Don Huiberto Garcia de Luenedo. 1869
3rd from left
Yasco le cui folici ardito antenno
In coutre al Sol che ue ripartaft giorus.
Spiegaric voie o ter cola ritorno
Dove ogli var che ai caderoacconuay
Non piu di to asuero near sostenrio
Quel che fece al leictope chraggo et sconno.
No che un bo 1'aygie noi suo sorggiorne
Ne die piu vel subertro a coltro penue
Et hor quelta est calti et tuon Luigi
Lantte altro stoude al glorioso velo
Che i tuoi spaluiati logai auliar meu lungo
Ouda quela a qui statzu il nostro Polo
Et achi foruea incontra 1'suoi vessigi
Per lui del corso tue la funa agginogo
On the 4th Slab
SONNET TO MACAO
Gem of the orient earth and open sea
Macao that in thy lap and on thy breast
Hast gathered beauties all the lovliest
When the sun smiles in his majesty
The very clouds that top each mountain crest
Seem to repose there, lingering lovingly
How full of grace the green cathayou tree
Bends to the breeze and now thy sands are prest
With gentle waves which ever and anon
Break their awakened furies on the shore
Were these the scenes that poet looked upon
Whose lyre though known to fame knew misery more
They have their glories and earth's diadems
Have naught so bright as genius gilded gems
Dr. Hourin (?)
Macao 3oth July 1849
On the 5th Slab
"Oh gruto de Macao soidao querida
"Onde tao doces horas de tristeza
"Do sandado pasaei! grata benigna.
*'Que escutaste metis languidos suspires;
" Que ouniste minhas queixas namoradas,
"Oh fresqui dao amena, oh grato asylo
"Onde me far acoltar de aserbas magoas
"Onde amor, onde a patria me inspiraram
"Os mariosos sous e os sons terr ivies
"Que hao de afifrontar os tempos o a injustica ;
"Tu guardaras no seio os meus queixumes,
" Que contaras as provindouras eras.
"Os segredos d'amor que me escutaste,
"E tu diras a ingratos Portuguezes
"Se portuguez ou fui, se amei a patria,
"Se alem d'ella e d'amor, por outro objecto
" Meu caracao bateu, lucton meu braco
" On modulon meu verso eternos Carmes
Viscoude D' Almeida Garrett
At the back on a slab let into the side of one of the sup-
porting boulders is the following:
Patane, lieu charmant et si cher au Poete,
Je n'oublierai jamais ton illustre retraite:
Ici Camoes, au bruit clu flot retentissant
Mela 1' accord plaintif de son luth gemissant
Au flambeau d'Apollon allumant son genie
II chanta les heros de la Lusitanie;
Du Tage, a 1'urne d'or, loin des bords pateruels
De bellone il cueillet les lauriers immortels.
Malheureux exile cet emule d'Homere
Acheta son genie ;au prix de sa misere.
II posseda, du moins pour charmer ses douleurs,
I es baisers de 1' Amour et les chants des neufs Soeurs.
1 AISUS et les Chinois hor.orent sa memoire
Le terns qui d'etrutt tout agrandira sa gloire.
Moi que cheris ses vers, que pleurai ses malheurs,
J'aiuais a salmer ces bois inspirateurs
Je visitais cent fois cet humble et noble asyle ;
Dans ta grotte 6 Louis, mon coeur fut plus tranquille.
Agile plus que toi je fegas dans les champs
Et le monde et mon coeur 1'envie et les tyrans
Au Grand Louis de famveus Portugais Domine caslillane
Soldat, religieux, voyaeur et poele exil'e.
L' humble Ixmis de Rienzi Francais d'oiigine romaine
Yoyngeur, religeux, soldat et poete expatrie
30 Mars (some designs between here) 1827
On one of the stones is inscribed the following verses
in Latin by Sir John Davis, Governor of HongKong.
In cavernam ubi
Opus egregnim composuisse fertur.
Hie, in remotis sol ubi rupibus
Fronnes per alias mollius incidit,
Fervebnt in pulchram camoenam
Ingenium Camooentis ardens
Signnm poetse marmore lucido
Spirabat olim, carminibus sacrum,
Parvumque, quod vivens amavit,
Effigie decorabat antrum ;
Sed jam vetustas, aut manus impia
Prostravit, eheu! Triste silentium
Regnare nunc solum videtur
Per scopulos, virides et umbras !
At fama nobis restat at inclytum,
Restat poetae nomen at ingeni
Stat carmen exemplum perene,
^:rea nee monumenta quaerit,
Sic usque Virtus vincit, ad ultimos
Perducta fines temporis, exitus,
Redens sepulchrorum inaues,
Mamoris et celerem ruinam
J. F. Davis
A writer thus gives his impressions of these gardens:
" The gardens of Camoens, the Portuguese poet, are full of
curious little surprises that would fill the heart of a child
with joy, something attractive meets the eye at every turn,
and the place is full of turns, at every one of which some-
thing appears which you were not expecting. Old trees
with their roots in the open air spread like a network down
the perpendicular face of a rock, cause you to start in w r on-
der at the way in w r hich the ramifications reticulate into
each other". 'The gardens are a quaint old haunt'. " On
the topmost watch-tower you have a view of the Inner
Harbour and the hills beyond; all around you besides is
foliage, and saving this view the privacy is complete,
(lose to the town, yet in effect far away from it, you can
only at intervals hear the confused hum that floats from
the large city at hand".
The Public Gardens
The author remembers the site of the Public Gardens as
simply a grassy plot; but with all the improvements, which
the Portuguese have loved to beautify their little Colony, it
has been laid out for many years past in flower-beds with
numerous paths, seats, a band-stand, fountain and an avi-
ary. The gardens are at the city end of the Praya Grande
and occupy a narrow strip of ground, but at the far end a
piece of rising ground is taken in as well. The band plays
here once a week on Thursday afternoons.
Public Offices etc.
The Governor's town residence is on the Praya Grande
and is a fine building. One of the most striking features
about the public buildings in Macao is the clean state in
which they are kept, affording often a striking contrast to
those in Hongkong: it is a pleasure to the eye to rest on
the former. The Chinese even note the difference and
animadvert on those in Hongkong. This building was
bought from the Baron do Cereal.
About the centre of the Praya Grande is situated the
building now occupied as Government Offices. It is one of
the finest and largest buildings on the Praya Grande; and
was for many years the residence of the Governors. Sr.
Roza transferred his gubernatorial dwelling to the fine
Cereal Palace, further along, which is now the Government
House of Macao; and the Judicial Department and that of
the Junta de Tazenda were moved into the former head-
quarters of the Governor. As sufficient space room for
the department of the Procurator of Chinese Affairs was
found in this same building, it was moved from its old
office, a house belonging to the old convent of Santa Clara.
A guard is always on duty at the door of this building.
Entering and passing through the Hall, ,you ascend the
stairs. In front of you is the court (a small one) for
Chinese litigation, while to the right of it is a large Court
kept in a most clean and bright condition (forming a great
contrast to the dinginess and dirt of English Courts) where
the Supreme Court holds its sittings. There is a dais at
at one end with a row of chairs on it behind a table. The
peristyle in front of this building was added amongst other
improvements by orders of the Viscount de San Januario
when presiding over the destinies of this province.
The Post Office
On the Transfer of the Governor's residence to the Ceroal
Palace the guard House at the side of the old building and
on the other side of the lane running down to the Praya
Grande was available and to the great convenience of the
public was utilised as a Post Office. It is a small one-
storied neat looking little building having a portico in front
supported by eight pillars. Previous to the governor-ship
of Sr. Roza, the Post Office was in the hands of private
individuals, but he organised the service and made it a
department of the Government. The letter-box is fastened
on the door by which one enters into the Hall where the
public may wait for the distribution of letters. The back
part of the building is partioned off with glass and forms a
small room where the mails are sorted, the addressees of
letters having an opportunity of seeing the whole process
while waiting in the Hall for their letters.
There are several letter boxes about the town as well.
Part of the same building occupied by the Post Office is
used as a Government Telegraph Office.
There is a Telegraphic and telephonic connection between
Macao and Taipa.
It may be as well to mention here that the Eastern Ex-
tension Australasia and China Telegraph Co. have an
office in a large building, in one of the inner streets, on the
gradual slope rising to the Penha Hills; and messages may
be sent hence to any part of the world.
The Senate House
The Leal Senado, or Senate House, is a very old building
though over the front door the date 1876 appears.
Entering one finds oneself in an oblong room or hall
v.-ith a door leading to a flight of steps and over this door
is the following inscription in three lines:
Cidade Do Nome De Deus, Nao Ha Outra Mais Leal
En Nome D'el Rei Nosso Senhor Dom Joao IV Mandou o
(-apitao Geral d'esta pra$a Joao de Souza
Pereira por este Etreiro cm fe da muita le aklade, quc
Conhe^u nos cidada d'ella em 1654.
This building is that in which the Government hold their
sessions: it is two stories high; its base of granite, the rest
of brick and mortar so also are the pilasters. The entabla-
tuer rests on columns and the cornice is ornamented with
green glazed vases. This spacious fabric was erected in
1784 and cost the sum of 80,000 taels. On the ground floor
are the offices of the Director of Public Works. Going up
the stone steps we find on our right hand over a door,
Secretarix da Camara, i.e. Secretariat of the Municipal
Council. Should our polite request to inspect the building
l)e granted, we shall find two very old large paintings in
the first office: one representing Macao in the olden days;
and one the beheading of Christian martyrs in Japan. We
next pass into two large rooms the Council Rooms. A
dais, under a red canopy, is at the end of the principal one
with the Portuguese coat of arms supported by two angels
and a panel of carved and gilded wood-work is below.
A small room doing duty as a chapel opens off this, con-
secrated to our Lady of Conception, in which the members of
the Senate hear mass before business. The Council Room
has a number of old fashioned antique chairs in it with red
cushions, the curtains are also red. There are a number of
old paintings representing Portuguese royalty. The Outer
Council Room has likewise paintings of the Governors of
Macao hung round it.
On the left hand side of the stairs is the office of the Ad-
mimstraQao do Concellio. In the ante room to this aro
some very old-fashioned leather chairs.
There are several markets in Macao, the Ban Domingo.-
being the only important one. Here we may remark that
many of the daily commodities of life are monopolies in
Macao, the exclusive right to import and export kerosene
was granted by tender in 1894 (to the highest bidder) for
$8100 per annum. The late salt farmer obtaining it in
1897 for $3,000: and in 1899 for $17,000: there was also a
gunpowder monopoly and a rickshaw 7 one.
One of the most imposing structures in Macao is the ruined
facade of the Jesuit Church of San Paulo which is visible
from almost every point of the compass. The church was
burnt on January 26th or 27th 1834 (or 1835?) A private
manuscript states that Francis Peres and a few Jesuits in
1565 had a house in Macao where those of their Society used
to lodge on way via Macao to Japan. The church which
was erected by the Jesuits on their arrival in this part of
China was accidentally destroyed by fire and was a noble
buildingj-noble indeed it must have been if the rest of the
structure was in keeping with the grand and picturesque
hoary ruin left. This Collegiate church was erected in 1662
as expressed by an inscription engraved on a stone iixed
in the western corner of the building:
Vrgini Magna Matri,
Civias Macaensis Lubens,
Posuit an. 1662.
The Church was consecrated to 'Nossa Senhora da madre
de Decs' like its predecessor (built circa 1565). We cull the
following description of it from an old work on Macao:
'The frontispiece all of granite, is particularly beautiful.
The ingenious artist had contrived to enliven Grecian ar-
chitecture by devotional objects. In the middle of the ten
pillars of Ionic order, are three doors, leading to the temple;
then range ten pillars of Corinthian order, which constitute
live separate niches. In the middle one above the principal
door we perceive a human figure, trampling on the globe,
the emblem of human patriotism, and underneath we read
Mater Dei. On each side of tbe Queen of Heaven, in dis-
tinct places, are four statues of Jesuit Saints. In the
Superior division St. Paul is represented, and also a dove,
the emblem of the Holy Ghost. In this edifice is a clock,
which strikes quarters and hours, and to judge from an in-
scription on the principal wheel, Louis XIV made a present
of it to the Jesuit college'.
This splendid facade is nearly intact though slightly tou-
ched by the demolishing hand of time, and this though
hundreds of storms and typhoons must have assailed it
from every quarter of the compass during nearly three cen-
turies and three quarters. The site of the church, only some
walls being left to mark its position, has been used as
a cemetery, though unused for some time now. A long
night of steps leads up to it; this flight contains 130 steps
of granite of a width of from 60 to 80 feet. This church
was formerly the Cathedral; standing thus on a height uiv
der the walls of the Monte Fort it must have been even a
more conspicusous land mark than the present Cathedral.
There are stories current of subterranean passages leading
from St. Paul to Green Island which was formerly owned
by the Jesuits. In 1838 the side walls, though of great
thickness, were considered unsafe and were cut down to a
height of 22 feet; the facade, which is the most striking
object in the view of Macao from the harbour, was left
standing. This church took 8 years to build (1594-1602)
the Jesuits who erected it had early settled at Macao and
their followers provided the funds to purchase a house next
to this church; and in this house the Chinese were instruc-
ted and Portuguese educated. Even before 1594 this was
converted into an extensive Seminary of St. Paul and
in it often more than 'children of the inhabitants' were
taught the rudiments of learning A "College was afterwards
founded. It had J\vo classes for Latin, two chairs for
theology, one for philosophy, and one for belles lettres.
The circuit of the Seminary contained a large hall for the
library, one for astronomical purposes, and an apothecary's
shop. Missionaries going and coming w r ere lodged in the
Seminary which could accommodate 70 or 80 individuals.
This celebrated seat of learning (and of political influence)
in the East was broken up (1762) by order of Joseph I,
king of Portugal, and their members dispersed."
It appears that the church of St. Paul itself was entirely
built by Portuguese and Japanese, the latter probably being
converts exiled on account of their profession of Roman
Catholicism. Chinese are not mentioned, as at that date in
Macao's history the Chinese were not employed by the
Portuguese and were only permitted to sell provisions du-
ring the day in Macao and having to leave the City at night.
Vaults credited with containing treasure (for the Jesuits
had gathered much wealth together and were forced to
leave Macao with nothing but their breviaries) are, it is
stated, known to be under the long flight of stone steps in
front of the facade. And one writer affirms that not only
subterranean passages lead under water a considerable
distance to Green Island or Priests Island, but also up to
the Guia Fort.
which is also a conspicuous object from many parts of
the City is a large building with two towers; one containing
a clock with two faces, the other a peel of three bells and a
small one. It has a ceiling of wood, pulpit and six con-
fessionals, old wood stalls and a curious old organ, a large
one being in the gallery above the main entrance. In one
of the rooms or passages at the back is an old painting of
the crucifixion of twenty- three Roman Catholic saints in
Japan in the 16th Century at Nagasaki. Two old red
leather chairs, like those in the Senate House, arc placed
for the Governor and the Judge, with red stools. A picture
of St. John the Baptist preaching is more real than many
of the pictures in Roman Catholic churches. The Cathe-
dral is dedicated to St. Peter. The principal district in
Macao derives its name from the Cathedral and is known
jis the Bairo da Se. It is built on the high ground rising
behind the centre of the Praia Grande.
The next largest district in the City is called Bairo de
St. Lourenco. This church of San Lourenco, it is stated,
may have been rebuilt in A. D. 1618. and within the last
few years again as the roof fell in a few years ago. It is
a large church, with broad stone steps leading up to it, being
on a higher level than the road below. A picture of the
saint is behind the high altar with a crown and dove de-
scending from heaven on him. Two madonnas, with swords
sticking in their breasts, and other images and altars
abound. There are two towers to it: one containing a clock
and the other a peel of three bells.
This smaller church is on the Square of Luiz Camoens,
opposite to the entrance to Camoens' Gardens. It was
burned down in 1809 and rebuilt by contributions. It con-
tains the painting of a martyr saint bound with cords and
shot at with arrows, which is worthy of a longer glance than
the most of the paintings in the Macao churches deserve.
One of the nicest churches in Macao is that of San Jose
attached to the College of that mame. Though built many
years before that date the Jesuits to whom it belongs, had
not the pleasure of hearing mass in it before A. D. 1758.
Architecturally, the proportions of the building are har-
monious. The cupola is pierced with small, stained-glass
windows, light is also admitted from the front, while other
stained glass windows are to be found in the building. In
one of the towers is a chime of six bells with an apparatus
to work them consisting of a number of wooden handles (in
a framework of wood) and attached to the bells by a system
of rattan strings. A painting of St. Francis Xavier, ap-
parently on his deathbed, is in this church as well as several
mural tablets, amongst them that of Gonsalves, who was a
Professor in the College, as well as a Chinese scholar. His
tombstone consists of a Ions: black slab let into the wall on
on the left-hand side, beyond the entrance from the front
door. It bears the following inscription:
Hie jacet Rever. D. Joaquimus Alfonsns G on salves Lu-
citanus Presbyer Congregation is Missionis in regali Sancti
Josephi Maconensi Collegio Professor cximus Regalis So-
cietatis Asiaticse solius extex Pro sinensibus missionibus
solicitus petrutitia opera amico lusitano Lationque sermono
composuit et in lucem alidit moribus suavissimo doctrina
Prsestanti integra vitaque plenus diebus in Domino quievit
sexagenario Major quinto nonas Octobris anno MDCCCXLI.
In memoriam tanti viri equs amici Jitteraturaeqiie cultorcs
Hunc lapidem consecravere.
Exit can be had to the roof of the church where a fine
view of the city and its surroundings can be obtained:
From the cupola standing on the roof, one sees the front of
San Paulo, the Monte Fort, the forts of Donna Maria II and
Monha, Camoens' Gardens, the hills beyond the Barrier,
the Inner Harbour, Barracks, the Penha Hills, Taipa, and
other islands. On a clear day the sea seems, beyond the
Roads, almost locked in with islands; near and in the dis-
lance they lie blue on the horizon,
In the playground of the College, which is at the side of
the church, are two large banyans, one of Falstaffian pro-
portions. A stone seat runs all round it, at one or two points
nearly touching the tree. This seat is about fifty or sixty
feet in circumference. It takes twenty boys, joining hands,
to form a circle round this ancient giant. On one of the
author's visits to this spot he and six of his friends tried to
form a ring round this tree, but it would have taken four
more men to complete it.
In this connection it may be as well to give a short account
of St. Joseph's College, the Jesuit clerical educational estab-
lishment, to which this church is attached.
This college, the Royal College of St. Joseph, has been
termed the principal seat of learning in Macao. Founded by
the Jesuits, at their expulsion in 1762, its activity ceased
for twenty years when in 1784 the Court of Lisbon transfer-
red this establishment to the "Congregation of Missions" and
in 1800 the charges to be paid by the Senate were definitely
settled. The priests belonging to this college are all Euro-
pean Portuguese, commonly six: their superior is appointed
from Europe. Of this institution, the principal aim is to
provide China with Evangelic teachers. Young Chinese, not
exceeding twelve in number, are admitted, and furnished
with what they necessarily want. If they evince a sincere
desire to become priests their education is directed that way;
but it generally requires ten years before the candidates
can receive the first order. Those whose vocation is dubious
wait longer or leave the college; others who want application,
or are noted for a misdemeanor, are sent away. The Pro-
fessors give instructions in the Portuguese and Latin Gram-
mer, arithmetic, rhetoric, philosophy, theology, <fcc. Many
children of the inhabitants participate in them though few
of them are made priests. The Chinese language is taught
and English and French occasionally. Parents who can af-
ford to pay for their children small monthly remuneration for
food and a cell (sic) fix them at the college, where the stu-
dents learn to speak genuine Portuguese, and acquire some-
times a taste for the improvement of their minds. Some
children dine at the college and join their families at night;
others attend the lectures delivered "gratis" by the Profes-
sors at distinct hours! So much for an old account of it.
The college contains a large number of class rooms and
spacious corridors. It is two stories high and has a base-
ment as well. When the author visited it a few years since
there were seventy-five boys being trained to be priests,
thirty-three of whom were Chinese, the rest being Portu-
guese. There are two dormitories, each with twenty-five
beds, for the Portuguese boys, each boy having a bed to
himself. One dormitory serves for the Chinese. The col-
lege buildings are put up round three sides of a square and
on one of the verandahs there is a photographic studio.
The library, contained in a small room, has some 600 vol-
umes in it, in Portuguese, Latin, and English, c. The
old library was burned. There is a replica in the library
of the bu?t of Camoens. An old bell is hung up near ;i
ilight of stairs bearing an inscription and the date 17.1'.*.
In the sitting room in the college is a painting, by a Chi-
nese probably, of Gonsalves with the following inscription :-
O Revdo. Pe. Joaquim Alfonso Gonsalves
da congregacao de S. Vincente de Paulo, insigne
sinologo Portuguez, nascao em Tojal aos de Marco
de 1781 e falleceu no Seminario de 8 Jose de Macau
dos 3 de Outubro de 1841.
The Bishop of Macao has a sitting room and bed-room
on the top floor, and the servants have their quarters in the
There is a printing office and book-binding place in tin;
college. Books are printed and published here, and a week-
ly religious newspaper issued.
HERMITAGE OF PEN HA
Though the city his now grown up to this small church
yet when it was first erected it was so far out in the country
as to merit the name of hermitage. An old writer thus
"On the western hill, denominated Nillau, the Augustine
friars began (1662) the Hermitage of Penha 'ermida de
nossa Senhora da Penha de Franca' devotees enlarged it
in 1624. Portuguese ships going into the harbour are ac-
customed to salute the hermitage with a few guns. Its rev-?
enue depends upon the liberality of individuals and on
promises sea-faring people occasionally make in an hour of
distress, to acknowledge by gratuities the favour which they
think the Virgin Mary bestowed upon them, in preserving
their lives and property".
The view from this church is very tine, forming a coun-
terpart of that from the Mongha fort, while yet many
features not visible from that vantage point come into view
from this. The whole city lies spread out before our feet.
In the distance the hills in Chinese territory with the
graceful sweep of the Barrier isthmus and the old gateway,
a trifle nearer rises the Mongha Fort, then in the mid-
distance the square old Monte Fort, covering the top of tin-
hill it is placed on, and cutting out of view the valley and
the Campo which He behind it. Then a dip in the hills,
which rise again, crowned by the Guia Lighthouse and its
encircling fort, while the ground appears to fall towards the
sea at the extreme end of the Praya, the Gap being hidden
by the hills, capped by the ruined fort (which has lately
being repaired) beneath which stands the Military Hospital;
next come the San Francisco Barracks and Fort of San
Francisco and the neat little Gremio down on the Praya.
Then the beautiful curve of Praya Grande itself, which ends
at the Bom Parto Fort, nearly below us, but a little to the
right. Behind the Praya the ground rises again and a
ruined garden enclosed in stone walls is below us. The
Cathedral, some distance off, is a prominent object though
by no means picturesque, the ruined portico of San Paulo
forming a much more pleasing subject for the eye to rest
on. This is to the left of the Monte. Still somewhat
distant, and somewhat to the left, is the green grove which
we know to be Camoens' Garden and the muddy waters
of the Inner Harbour are still further to that side, broaden-
ing out in the distance with a panorama of hills as a
background. Its hither shores are lined by the Chinese
quarters of the town. In the mid-view rises St. Joseph
with its cupola and further off San Lorenzo is seen.
There are a number of other churches in Macao, but none
that call for any special mention. They are San Lazaro,
Santa Clara, in connection with the old Convent of that
name, San Agostino, opposite the theatre and San Dornin-
gos which is near the entrance to the square at the opposite
end of which is the Senate House. The facade of this is
distinctly Iberian in character.
There is a small chapel in the Guia Fort the 'ermkla da.
nossa senhora da Guia, or Neves'.
THE ENGLISH CHURCH
The English church is in the Plaza do Luiz Camoens
No. 11, next the entrance to Camoens' Gardens. It is a
small chapel, seating about forty persons. There are two
mural tablets: one to the memory of Mr. Endicott and one
to Mr. H. D. Margesson. Below the church at the back is
the old Protestant Cemetery. Here lie the remains of
many who were well known in the early days of English
intercourse with China. Amongst the graves may be
noticed those of the Rev. Robert Morrison, D. D., F. R. S..
first Protestant missionary to China, who arrived in that
land in 1807, and who founded the Anglo-Chinese College
in Malacca, an institution which did much good in its day.
He likewise made the first translation of the Bible into
Chinese, prepared a Chinese-English Dictionary and other
works. He was also employed as a translator by the Hon-
ourable East India Company and after living a quarter of a
century in the East, died in Canton in 1834. The grave of
George Chinnery, the painter, who lived many years in
Macao, is to be noted; and those of the English Admiral.
Sir Philip le Fleming Senhouse, who died at Hongkong in
1841, and from whom Mount Senhouse, on Lamina Island,
near Hongkong, is named. Also that of the Right Honour-
able Lord Henry Churchill, Captain of H. M. S. "Druid",
fifth son of the late Duke of Marlborough. Also the grave
of J. R. Morrison, a distinguished Interpreter in the early
days of European intercourse with China.
The New Protestant Cemetery is out near the Barrier,
near to Bella Vista. On the slopes of Bella Vista are some
old English graves, one being that of an infant son of Dr.
Morrison. Time has worn off most of the inscriptions.
(One or two old graves of former English residents are to
be found in Camoens' Garden. ) There are eleven of these
old tombstones, belonging to the century before last and
the first half of last century. There are graves of Protes-
tant English and Germans, who were not allowed to be
buried within the precincts of the Holy City. The hill was
then called the Meersberg.
There is one Chinese temple within and three without lli
limits of the city. In short there are several of them about
Macao, and worthy of a visit by the curious.
THE A MACAO TEMPLE
The temple near the inner harbour is remarkable for its
situation. A mass of gigantic boulders are heaped together
by Nature in chaotic confusion and at their feet are the
main buildings of the temple while stone steps lead up
amongst the masses of the rock, amidst which here and
there, are perched different buildings and shrines. Inscrip-
tions are cut in the rocks, and stone seats are placed on the
little terraces, which occupy every coin of advantage, grudg-
ingly granted by the great granite boulders.
In the main building of the temple is a very good model
of a Chinese junk with wooden anchors, &c., complete. The
goddess came from Foochow to Macao in the junk of which
this is a model, after various oppositions made to her de-
parture. One of the signs that she should go was the falling
ill of all the sailors with colic. The sword of a large sword-
fish is also preserved in this temple as a thank-offering
presented by a fishing-junk for a fruitful season in fishing.
This temple which is known as the Amacao Temple, or that
of 'The Lady of the Celestial Chambers', had its beginning
about A. D. 1573, when a Fukienese ship becoming unman-
ageable at sea, all perished but one sailor, a devotee of the
goddess, Matsopo, who embracing her sacred image with the
determination to cling to it was rewarded by her powerful
protection, according to his own belief, and preserved from
perishing. The ship, driven through the storm, weathered
it, and the devoted sailor landed at Macao and built on this
spot a temple at the hillock of Amako, as being the best
situation he could find for the only temple to his patron
saint which his slender means would permit of his erecting.
Fifty years after an Imperial Messenger in the course of a
dream had the locality of a lake, containing many and
valuable pearls revealed to him by the goddess, and in gra-
teful acknowledgement of the great favour thus granted
him, he built a temple on the spot to her.
The origin of the present congeries of buildings was due to
Kukienese and Tiuchiu merchants subscribing 7000 taels to
build some more fitting shrines for the favourite object of
their worship. The upper temple is dedicated to the God-
dess of Mercy; the middle one is styled The Temple of
Universal Benevolence; while the lower one is named
THE MONGHA TEMPLE.
This is a historically interesting spot, as here the first
treaty between the United States and China was signed on
the 3rd of July 1844; and also here in 1849 the head and
arm of Governor Amaral were hidden in ashes, after he had
been massacred at the Barrier by the Chinese. This temple
H at a little distance along the lane that is at the back of
the New Protestant Cemetery. It has a blank wall at each
side. Entering the garden, one finds oneself in a large open
space, behind which are the several buildings composing
the temple. In these buildings are to be found the Three
Precious Buddhas, a goddess riding on an elephant and
other idols. Chinese frescoes, some in relief, adorn the place:
one of them representing The Fat Buddha with a pack of
boys playing with and teasing him, though such a god, the
personification of good-nature, is evidently too good-natured
to be teased. A garden is attached to the place, and in it
there is some curiously ornamented tiling, the figures, &c.,
being in high relief; but which is, however in rather a dila-
MA KAU TEMPLE
Under the curious little fort of Donna Maria II, a rocky
point runs out into the sea, and just above the rocks is a
very small temple to the Goddess of Heaven. It depends
for its revenue partly on a tax on fishing-boats 1 , which it
levies, but the silting up of the water in the bays has caused
this revenue to decrease of late years: the temple is one that
has been in existence for some hundreds of years.
It is from these rocks, the Ma Kau Rocks, that Macao
takes its name. A path leads down to the temple from tin
There was enmity "between the Dutch and the Portuguese
and for this, and probably other reasons, Macao, being an
open, unprotected place, it was resolved to wall and fortify
it. In 1607 it seems to have had no such defences: the
Monte Fort was built in A. D. 1675. The Monte Fort, or
Fortaleza do Monte de St. Paulo, is a conspicuous object,
viewed from almost every part of Macao. It is a large square-
fort covering the whole of the top of a large hill, which rise^
with gradual slopes and occupies, roughly speaking, the
centre of the peninsula. It is a spot of considerable his-
torical interest, coming often into notice in the earlier re-
cords of the settlement. It was from this fort that the shot
was fired which killed the leader of the Dutch when they
landed at Ca^ilha's Bay and were marching along the
Campo to take the City. The place where the Dutch ad-
miral fell is now marked by a monument. There are a num-
ber of buildings inside the walls of this old fort, some of
which serve as a prison. A polite request will secure
permission from the officer in charge to enter. A climb up
to this fort (though the lanes and alleys one passes are
narrow and the houses of the humbler class), will repay one
by the extensive view which one obtains of this picturesque
Portuguese Colony. The City lies below r one's feet, to the
loft the Barracks, Fort of San Fransco, the Military Hospital.
the old tiny fort of San Joao, recently rebuilt, and the an-
<-ient grey wall of the City which leads from this Monti-
Port down the hill and rises up on the other side to the old
fort and then goes down the hill again towards the Pray a.
There is the cupola of San Jose, and beyond it the Penh a
Hills. The islands in the Inner Harbour from this point
look different. One sees the Campo, the Guia, Monga.
Donna Maria Segonda Forts, the Church and Cemetery of
San Michael, the Barrier, Green Island, The Chinese Ter-
ritory, Camoens' Gardens, the Cathedral, the Chinese town
and gardens are all visible; but it is well nigh impossible
to enumerate all the objects to be seen from this vantage
ground; for a walk round the ramparts of this fort presents
a varying panorama and most of the objects of interest
eome in view, one after the other, as th<> Spectator's stand-
THE MONGA FOIIT
The Monga is a small square fort, placed on the higher
one of two rocky hills overlooking the peninsula. A broad.
but almost disused road, leads up to it from the gate of The
New Protestant Cemetery. It is w r ell worth an ascent, as the
view is very fine and a fresh breeze is often blowing. Ar-
rived at the fort, to the north lies the large gate of the
Barrier, with the road running along the middle of the is-
thmus to it and through it to Chinese territory. Beyond
lie some lower hills, while a ridge of higher heights shuts out
further view of what used to be an unapproachable land.
This ridge is called by the Chinese, Pak Shan Leng, The
Northen Hills. Turning towards the south, the whole pe-
ninsula lies spread out below one's feet. To our right are
the muddy waters of the Inner Harbour with its compara-
tively narrow 7 neck opening out into a wide bay-like ex-
panse, Green Island in its centre, and the river coming
down into it in the distance. At our feet a large level plain
spreads itself out, well-cultivated vegetable-gardens, in-
tersected by one or tw r o roads, Chinese hovels, and hamlets
lie in different places on its edges. The green little knowl
and umbrageous trees, amidst which is nestled Camoens 1
(irotto, forms a pleasant background to the mass of Chinese
roofs, while it itself is nearly surrounded by hills, thus giv-
ing a pleasing variety to the view. The Monte Fort shuts
out a sight of the Praya, but in the distance to the right is
seen the Penha Hills and the old grey City wall rises first
to the Monte then down and up again to the little old fort
and again down, this fort of San Paolo and part of the City
are also seen, A peep of the Outer Harbour shows between
the Monte Fort and the hill, on the brow of which stands
the Military Hospital, portion of which is in the line of view
and so are also the Gap and the height above it, on which
the lighthouse and the Guia Fort rear themselves. This
range of hills continues till it sinks into Cagilha's Bay, ris-
ing again with a hill to support the Fort of Donna Maria II,
while the ornamented Bella Vista is closer at hand, and still
further beyond the hills fall into lower heights and run out
in a long tongue which terminates in masses of rock, washed
and beaten and hollowed out by the dashing waves of cen-
turies of the restless ocean. This rocky portion is called
Macao Rock and there is a temple here. Beyond lies the sea
with islands and islets, fretted with silver foam when the
wind roars and raves in its mad glee. Towards the East
are the Nine Islands and the lofty, abrupt top of Laiitao
which now is British, rises to the height of 3050 feet.
The Bar Fort, or Fortaleza de Santiago is at the entrance
to the Inner Harbour, It is built on the lower slope of the
hill at the water's edge. The soldiers have tastefully laid
out several flower beds in it. There is also a chapel ded-
icated to the patron saint, who appears life-sized and armed
with sword and shield and in warlike dress.
FORTE DE D. MARIA
From this fortress which overlooks Camilla's Bay, the
view is also very fine; but considerably different in its
character from that seen from Monga Fort; though many
of the same objects appear, yet viewed from a different
standpoint, the panorama spread out before one's eyes from
the different heights in Macao present considerable differ-
ences. The outlook from this height is more of the country
and the sea, as some of the hills now hide the greater por-
tion of the dwellings. The fort itself is a curious little
place, a drawbridge carries one over the dry moat at the
^ate which is arrived at, after ascending a zig-zig path. A
well of delicious cold water is within the walls of the fort.
From this spot are seen Camoens' Gardens, the Monte Fort,
the Inner Harbour and the large hills on the opposite side
with Cacilha's Bay lying below.
THE GUI A FONT
The (luia Fort i* one of the most conspicuous objects in a
landscape whore nearly very thing seeins conspicuous. l\
crowns the Guia Hill and is approached by a zig-zag path
from the Gap. Within its enclosures is an old chapel, con-
taining old graves and opened once a year when a proces-
sion ascends to it. The lighthouse is also within the walls
of this fort, The light is a revolving one going by clock-
work, the works being wound up by two convicts, who have
a cell for their incarceraton within the fort. The Guin
Fort was built in A. D. 1637 and the lighthouse in 1865.
FORTS OF SAN FRANCISCO, BOM PAHTO AND ST. PETER
The Praya Grand is bounded by two forts and had a little
fort, that of St. Peter, in the middle. The two other forts
are one at each end of the Praya. San Francisco, of grey
stone, being just below the Barracks (several yellow build-
ings, through which entrance into it is effected) of that
name and nearest the Guia Fort. In 1622 there was but
one battery, 'the lower battery dates from 1632'.
The Bomparto Fort, Bartuarte de nossa Senhora de Bom-
parto, is at the far end of the Praya. It is, we believe, not
used as a fort now, but serves as a residence for one of the
A city wall, already mentioned, ascends to the chapel on
the top of the hill above it. An extension of the Praya
Grande and the Praya Menduca (the Praya at the Inner
Harbour) is contemplated from below this fort, round to
the Bar Fort, The Bomparto Fort had three batteries.
This fort is connected with the fort at Taipa Point, on one
of the islands lying off the Outer Harbour, by a telegraph
line, which lands at Bishop's Bay, a small sandy bay n
little beyond the end of the Praya, below the Penha Hills..
The end of the cable may be seen at low water and a soldier
is here to guard it. The telegraph offices for this Govern-
ment telegraph are at the fort, and signals can be exchanged
with other places. There is a lay figure dressed in armour
in this fort and, in one of these forts, there is an old bell
bearing an inscription in Portuguese and the date 1707.
It will be found on visiting the forts in Macao that everv
tiling is most beautifully clean and neat and the soldiers
ji nd officers most polite and civil. Above Bishop's Bay
were a number of dirty squatters' houses. These are being,
or have been, cleared out for sanitary reasons.
From forts it is an easy transition to the Military Hospital
of San Janario, which, erected in 1873, is built on a most
commanding and healthy site fronting the sea. It is on
the slope of the hill, just below the old fort of San Joao and
just above the San Francisco Barracks, being one of the
first objects that the visitor to Macao sees from the deck of
the steamer. It is named after the Viscount S. Januario, a
former Governor of the Colony, during whose term of office
it was built, the former military hospital being in the old
Convent of San Augustino. The site was that of an old
gunpowder manufactory. The model for the construction
of the building was the Hospital of San Raphael in Belgium.
It cost $38, 500, and covers 75 metres by 34. The building
consists of a main body facing the sea with several wings
running back from it. In the front are the Entrance Hall,
the porter's Lodge, the Quarters for the Chief Hospital At-
tendant and his Assistant, and the stairs to the Secretary's
Office in the upper story. In the Northeast part there are
apartments for the Physician, the Chaplain, a room contain-
ing surgical instruments, the Dispensary, and the ChapeL
while in the South-west portion of the building there are
Quarters for the Officers, Bath-rooms, and the Linen Stores.
The upper storey contains the Committee Room, Secretary's
Office, and the Director's Office. The wings contain Surgical
and other wards for Sergeants and Reserved Ward, Ac-
countant's Quarters, and a Hall for Surgical Operations,
Cells, and Quarters for Military Servants.
The Mortuary, Room for Post Mortem Examinations and
Room for the Collection of Soiled Linen are in a separate
building some four or five metres distant from the main
building and still further distant in the same direction is
the Guard House. There is a garden to the South-west for
the use of convalescents and there is also a tower for an
ST. RAFIO, OR CIVIL HOSPITAL
This hospital, one of the ancient institutions, was erected
by the Brotherhood of Mercy. Admission was by petition
to the Provedor and both heathen and Christians were ad-
mitted, a wall dividing the male and female quarters.
THE LEPER ASYLUM
This is another of the ancient charitable institutions of
SANTA CASA DE MISERICORDIA
As the font and origin of the charitable institutions of
Macao, it will be interesting to quote an account of this
parent association from an old writer on Macao:
"Donna Leonara, consort of King John II, founded in Lis-
bon (1489) a Brotherhood of Mercy, known by the appel-
lation of 'comfraris be nossa Senhora ba Misericordia,'
The foundation of the Santa Casa de Misericordia, The
Holy House of Mercy at Macao was laid in 1596 and its first
Provisor, "Provedor" was Melchior Carneiro, Governor of
the Bishoprick of Macao. To assist fellowmen, whose means
of subsistence are too small and inadequate for the main-
tenance of a numerous family, to relieve bed-ridden, respect-
able people, and those who reluctantly go abroad asking
for alms, and to bring up orphans and foundlings; these are
the sacred duties which this worthy society profess to im-
pose upon themselves. In any country w r here Portugal ever
settled their thoughts were bent, it seems, upon forming-
benevolent institutions, like that we are alluding to. Re-
formed rules for its management were drawn up, (1617) and
confirmed (1649) by John IV, who took the Santa Cantn
Casa de Misericordia under his immediate protection. In
compliance with the "compromise" of 1627, the collective
numbers nominate electors to choose a Provisor, Secretary
and Treasurer, with the Deputies to form a Board of thirteen.
The individuals thus selected are at liberty to decline the
trust or to accept their respective charges for the period of
one year, ending on the 3rd of July. The Provisor may with
the concurrence of a majority of the Board, take certain
resolutions; but in fixed cases, such as in the election of new
members, a general meeting is required. The Board meets
twice a week, in a spacious hall not far from the fine church,
dedicated to our Lady of Mercy, nossa Senhora da Miser-
icordia. The members of this brotherhood do not contribute,
duty bound, to the formation of a productive fund; they
engage merely to act as trustees. On certain bulky articles
of trade one per cent, being added to the regular custom-
house duty, [ There is no custom-house in Macao now, as
there was in the days when this was written as Macao is
now a free port,] half of its total amount is, at the end of
the year received by the Treasurer, the other half goes, as
alread mentioned, to the Monastery of St. Clare. In 1833
the receipts were 3806 taels; besides this stock, which
is, of course, subject to much fluctuation, the members of
the Board manage all those sums which living or deceased
persons may choose to throw into the coffers for purposes
fully explained in writing." This Holy House of Mercy
was abolished about thirty-five years ago; but was revived
again in 1832 when, as stated below, a lottery was first star-
ted. 'The old rules were revived and the sanction of the
authorities obtained'. Of late years a lottery has been
resorted to as a means of obtaining money. It was farmed
to a wealthy merchant, representing a Chinese syndicate
The proceeds were thus allotted: 54 per cent, in prizes of
different amounts and 25 per cent., less 8 per cent, paid to the
Santa Casa, went to the merchant. So that the main subsidy
now is the monthly one derived from the lottery. The funds
of the Santa Casa are invested in shaTes of Hongkong public
Companies. The institution is in a flourishing state, great
care, it is said, being exercised in the management of the
Society's money matters; and the institutions, such as the
San Raphael Hospital, mentioned above, the Asylums, and
others are also carefully managed.
THE CHINESE HOSPITAL
Copying the Christian practices of Western nations in
instituting hospitals for the sick, the wealthy Chinese, in
Hongkong, Canton, and Macao, as well as at some other
ports and cities, have within the last score or two of years
established charitable societies, having often a hospital in
connection with them. The one in Hongkong has had tin-
benefit of being under Government supervision (having
first been forced into existence by the Government) and for
some time past having doctors trained in Western science
connected with it. The same holds good with the Macao
Chinese Hospital, which is subjected to thorough Govern-
ment inspection by the Portuguese authorities, who insist
on the place being kept in a clean and wholesome condition.
"A full account of all that transpires" is given to the
Portuguese Government physician, who has a frequent in-
spection of the hospital. The entrance to this hospital is
not very prepossessing, as a stone wall fronts one. A clean
Chinese attendant meets one and points the way to the in-
ner departments, first of which to be seen is that devoted to
the idols. Instead of being venerable in dirt and cobwebs,
this temple apartment is clean, "the floors are scrupulously
white and not a bit of dirt is visible." A cup of tea is pre-
sented to the visitor, who then interviews the attendants,
amongst whom is seen a well-dressed doctor. The drug-
store is well-stocked with many of the herbal simples of the
Chinese pharmacopcea, noi amongst the materia medica art-
wanting several well-known Western medicines; behind the
drug-store are seen a number of "benches arranged facing a
sunny out-look" on which the convalescents are seated. "A
stately flight of stone steps" and 'a promanade through a
carefully kept garden" lead to the various wards. "From
the open doors and ventilated roofs the patients can see
beautiful flowers and foliage and rest their weary eyes upon
one of the loveliest bits of landscape gardening in Macao".
Ventilation is ensured in each small apartment, both at the
side and at the top. Small comfortable beds are provided
for the patients and warm coverlets, which latter attract at-
tention from their cleanliness. "A tiny tea-set, a bowl,
chop-sticks, and the other little table ornaments which the
Chinese seem to think necessary" are provided for each
patient. Everything in this hospital is described as beinu
clean, or clean and tidy, and this extends even to the kitch-
en itself, which in an average Chinese house is the
dirtiest part of the dwelling. Disinfectants are freely
used the floors being washed twice a day, furniture, "and
the beds are dusted with a wet cloth" once in that period,
the bed-linen and towelling are changed daily, the patients
also mirabile dictu having a bath once a day and a change
of underclothing. The attendance given to the charity
patients by the Chinese of the hospital is described as most
tender and kind. "In some of the spaces were mildly in-
sane patients, and it was noticeable that the attendants
treated them with the utmost gentleness".
A Leper Hospital is kept up on the Island of Caho by tho
St. Clare, or Santa Clara
Mosteiro de Sa, Clara This old convent is just behind
the Public Gardens where an ancient gateway gives access
to a long flight of stone steps leading up to the door of this
former nunery. "A nun of Toledo by the name of Jeronyma
de Ascencao chose China for her field of labour. She arrived
at Manila (1621 ) with some nuns. Liberty was at last gran-
ted to her to go to Macao and there lay the foundation of
a convent in honour of St. Clare. Jeronyma died and six
nuns came to Macao with the Abbess Leonora de St. Francis
in November 1633. Erected by voluntary contributions and
alms of the faithful, the nuns took possession on the 30th.
of April 1634. Convent was consumed by conflagration in
1825, but is now 1634 rebuilt." There were forty nuns in
this convent; but it is now turned into a school. It is curious
to go through the building with its large spacious rooms.
When we visited it the Lady Superioress had not been
outside its walls for twenty years. There is a chapel in con-
nection with this convent.
There are a number of other educational institutions in
Macao besides those mentioned above. We have already spo-
ken of St. Joseph's College or the Seminario de S. Jose, which
has a long list of Professors, headed by a Rector and Director
Esperitual, comprising in their number Instructors in The-
ology, Philosophy, Rhetoric, Natural History, Physics, La-
tin, Geography and History, French, English, Portuguese,
Chinese, and Music.
THE CENTRAL SCHOOL AND OTHERS
The Escola Central is for Primary Instruction and has a
number of masters. It is divided into three, a Higher, Mid-
dle, and Lower School. Instruction is aso given in Music,
Gymnastics, Dancing, and Chinese in both Pekingese and
Near the end of the old City wall is a small building, the
Escola Publica de Lingua Portugeza para China, for the
instruction as the name shows, of Chinese in the Portuguese
Language. It is presided over by one Professor or Master.
There is an association for the promotion of the instruction
of Macaoese, consisting of a President, Secretary, Treasurer,
and four members.
There is a Public School for Girls in the parish of Saint
Lourenco, and one in the Cathedral parish. There are also
one or two Public Schools for Boys.
Besides the above there is, or was, an Escola Commercial
with an Englishman and Chinese as Professors. Amongst
the schools may be mentioned the Italiae School, Asylo das
Filhas de Caridade Canosimas, having eight sisters as teach-
ers with a Regenta as Head.
THE COLLEGE OF SANTA ROZA
This institution has its origin as an asylum for female or-
phans well-nigh two centuries ago. It is thus written of:
"An institution of this kind was an early thought of the
Brotherhood of Mercy; but no efficient means could be de-
vised for its duration. A temporary foundation for thirty
widows and orphans began in 1726; they were fed, and the
orphans taught to manage a house. One of the most deserv-
ing of the inmates was annually endowed with the amount
of one-half per cent, on the whole importation of trade,
which the Senate had set apart for a nuptial portion; this
half per cent, rose in 1726 to 406 taels; in 1728, to hardly
CO taels. From this epoch the institution remained suspend-
ed till in the year 1782 the Brotherhood made a proposition
to establish a new one in conjunction with the Senate: the
proposal was accepted. The Senate gave four thousand taels
and the name of Asylum of Sta, Rosa de Lima, Rccolhi-
mento de Santa Rosa de Lima. This stock increased by lib-
eral gifts and legacies is lent at respondentia. The net
proceeds of the premium, determines the number of girls
who can be admitted. No one is received but with the con-
sent of the Bishop, who appoints a priest (for there is a
chapel in the house), an Inspector, and a woman of good
repute, Regent of the Community. A school mistress teach-
es Religion, Reading, Writing, and Needlework. Female
children, whose fathers can afford to pay a certain allowance
for food, lodging, &c., are not refused admittance when pla-
ces are vacant, and the Bishop does not start any objections.
Orphans there educated, may with his consent, accept the
situation of a teacher in any family, and the proposal of a
matrimonial union (should a suitable match happen to be
offered). In this event a portion is bestowed, but the a-
mount depends on the resources and the good will of the
The College of Santa Coza da Lima for Girls is now pre-
sided over by a Committee, consisting of the Bishop as Pres-
ident, a Vice-president, a Treasurer, and Secretary, and a
couple of members. There are a number of Professors,
English, French, Music, and Dancing being all included in
ARTISAN TRAINING SCHOOL
A school described as such was started in Macao "for the
benefit of Macaoese orphans and sons of poor persons who
are unable to provide for the higher education of their
children. An annuity was necessary for the maintainance
of the establishment in its different branches, but this is
fully provided for by subsidy from the Government and the
various charitable institutions of Macao".
As to the maintinance of some of these schools the Leal
Senado supports two free schools, a boys' and a girls' The
Escola Central do Sexo Masculine and The Escola Central
do Sexo Feminino.
Besides these there are the Lyceum, maintained by
Government, the Senate contributing $4000 annually.
The Club Unioao is presided over by a Committee, con-
siting of a President, Secretary, Treasurer, and two mem-
bers. The habitat of the Club is or was, the pretty theatre
of Dom Pedro II. The spacious room in the centre which
serves as a theatre can be used as a ball-room, while the
smaller rooms in front serve as a reading-room, &c. A num-
ber of papers are to be found on the tables and a consider-
able number of books in the book-shelves.
The Gremio Militar is a military club on the Praya just
beyond the Public Gardens. It is a tasteful, pretty, little
building containing Reading Room, Card-rooms, &c, &c.,
The Committee is composed of a President, a Vice-President.
a Treasurer, a Secretary, and a Vice-Secretary. It appears
to have been somewhat enlarged of late years.
The Tennis-Club is just behind the New Protestant Ceme-
tery. It has two chunam Courts. Visitors are allowed to
join on application to the Secretary and payment of a
small monthly subscription.
In what was the Campo behind the range of hills on
one point of which is the lighthouse, but which part of the
Campo is now taken into the boulevard-like garden, or
garden-like-boulevard, is a monument erected to the memo-
ry of the victory over the Dutch when Macao was attacked
by the latter "during the long-continued war in the East
between Portugal and Holland, the latter capturing many
of the Portuguese Colonies, such as Malacca, Point de Galle,
&c. On June 22nd 1622, Admiral Ryersyoon with eighteen
vessels appeared off Macao from Batavia. He landed a con-
siderable force at Cagilha's Bay and advanced upon the
City, but after an unavailing attempt to capture it, was
obliged to retrace to his ships, leaving the Commander of
the land force behind him. This officer was killed by a
round shot from the Monte Fort." It was a disasterous
defeat for the Dutch, the Portuguese fighting bravely.
The monument is a short, thick, octagonal, stone column,
mounted on a stone base, surmounted by the Portuguese
coat of arms, carved in stone also. The whole is surrounded
by an iron railing with granite pillars. There are inscrip-
tions on both front and back of the column in a scroll. In
front is the following:
Para perpetua na Memoria dos Vindouros
A Victoria que os Portuguezes de Macau
For Intercessao do Bemaventurados. Joao Baptist
A quern Tomaram por padroeiro
Sobre Oitocentos Hollandezes Armados
Que de Trese Naos de Guerra Capitaneados
Pelo Almirante Roggers
Desembarcaram na Praia de Cacilha
Para Tomarem esta Cidade
Do Santo Nome de Deus de Macau
Em 24 de Junho de 1622.
That on the back is as follows:
No Mesmo Logar Oude
Uma Pequena Cruz de Pedra
A Accao Gloriosa dos Portuguezes
Levantar este Monumento
No anno de 1864.
On the base in front is the date
(The bust of Camoens has already been noticed in an
account of the Gardens where his cave or grotto is to be
found.) On the opposite side of the road from that on
which the monument to the great Portuguese Victory is
situated, but further away from the City, is a piece of
ground laid out as a garden and having in its centre a statue
to the late Count de Senna Fernandes, which was erected
by some of the Chinese in the Colony. The statue of the
Count is in official dress, and on the pedestal there are in-
scriptions in Portuguese and Chinese. The former is as
Para Perpetua a Memoria do Beneniseito
Bernandino de Senna Fernandez
Commendador da Ordem Militer de
Nosso Senhor Jesus Christo
Commendador da Ordem de Elephante Branco
Cacalleiro de Antica e Minto pobre Ordem
Da Torre e Espada, do Valor Lealdade e Merito
Fidaho Cavalleiro da Casa Real
Consul de Siam e da Italia
I Barao Viscounte e Conde de Senna Fernandez
A graciado Comamedalha de Frata
de Merito Philanthropia e Generosidade
Chevalier Sauveteurs des Alpes Maritime**
Socio Protettore de Associazioni dei
Muito Apreciado pela Communidade Chineza
Pelo seu animo justiceiro e provada
Estima e sympathia
Aos negociantes Chinezes
A quern sempre Dispensava Proteccao
Esta Estatua foi Mandaro Erigir por
Lu-Cheo-Chi, Cham Hau-in, Ho-Liu-Vong,
e outros negociantes Chinezes de Macau
Em Testemunho de Amizade e Gratidao.
There are several fountains, or hydrants, where the
water is supplied for public use. One or two of these are
rather pretty spots. Especially is (or perhaps was, as we
believe some alterations are in progress here) this the case
with the Fonte de Solidao. The "fonte" itself calls for no
especial notice, the water being simply conducted into a
trough; but a little to the left a flight of stone steps leads
up from the road and by going up and trending a little to
the right, one comes in a few steps to a pretty double grot-
to a lovely little spot, hewn out of the solid rock, and
green with numbers of beautiful ferns, with water dripping
from the rock and trickling down over the greenery. This
"fonte" is on the land-side of the sea-side road leading from
the Gap to Cagilha's Bay.
Another of these places is behind the Padre's Gardens as
they used to be called, but which now form the Governor's
Summer Residence in the Campo. It is called the Fonte
da Inveja, 1882. The water comes out of a fish's mouth,
while a gilt dog's head is above. A short path leads up be-
yond it, shaded on both sides by bamboos, to the source of
the water; and one finds a gateway with wooden doors.
Peeping in, one sees a small stone arch with the rock below
it and a few ferns.
A little to the left of this and immediately behind the
gardens spoken of above is another called Fonte da Flora
1882. A Chinese-like building of square form, surmounted
by a vase and flowers is here. A dragon empties the water
into a stone tank in front. Above this is a square tank
with a flat top. The water is strained in this before it goes
down to the little building below. The road to these two
fountains as they are called, leads up from the direct road
to Cagilha's Bay. After passing the Barracks and a ruined
old guard-house, the road leading up between the last and
the gardens is the one to take. After going up a little way,
the Estrada, da Victoria turns off to the right, running at
at the back of the Barracks and finally running at right
angles to the road that leads up from the Campo to the
Gap. Instead of, however, turning into the Estrada da
Victoria, keep on and you come to the fountains. There arc
a number of stone seats and tables here, two of the latter
being old Chinese proclamations engraved in stone, these
are turned face up and placed on two upright stones and
thus serve for tables.
"Bica de Lilau in Penha, at one time supplying water of
undoubted excellence" is ceasing to be of much public utili-
ty. "The supply from the Fonte de Felicidade in Flora
Many of the houses in Macao have wells inside their pre-
cincts or in the gardens attached to them.
The Flora is the summer residence of the Governor of
Macao. It has a large garden attached to it and is at the end
of the new boulevard. It was built in 1850 by the Parish
priest, Padre Almeida and hence known then as the Padre's
Garden. It is also sometimes called the Almeida.
Green Island is a pretty little island, at the top of the
Inner Harbour. The Jesuits held it in the early days of
the Colony, and the Bishop had a residence here afterwards.
If we forget not, some sisters of mercy had here a school.
Of recent years a causeway has been built connecting it with
the peninsula near the Barrier. Green Island (consists
principally of a little hill with a small bit of level ground
on both sides. It is now used for the Green Island) Cement
Co., for their cement works. The great fall in exchange has
benefitted this company largely, who thus, under the con-
ditions that prevail with a low rate of exchange, can oust
their rivals in Europe and hold their own against them:
though the company in the past has had much to contend
against. Amongst different matters which have handicap-
ped it in the past has been the sinking of large amounts in
remidying initial mistakes and in the expenditure of large
sums of money in new machinery, buildings, &c.
"The raw materials for cement are limestone and clay, of
which enormons quantities are within easy reach. The
first is procurable in the provinces of Kwangtung and
Kwangsi; and the latter in the Inner Harbour itself, just in
front of the very works * * * Most of the output goe^
to Manila, various ports of China, Hongkong, Japan, and
other distant parts." This port-land cement produceed in
Macao is of most superior quality, and is largely used in
this part of the world.
Tamtsai and Colowan
These are two dependences of Macao and are situated on
two islands to the southward, and within sight and easy
reach of Macao. Two steamlaunches make the journey back
and forward twice a day, starting from a small wooden land-
ing beyond the Hongkong Canton and Macao steamer
wharves in the Inner Harbour. When we took the journey
some time ago the times were approximately as follows:
Leave Macao: Arrive at Tamtsai: Arrive at Colowan
7 A. M. in about in about
11 A* M. 50 minutes. One hour
1. P M. and a quarter.
3 P. M.
Leave Colowan: Leave Tamtsai: Arrive at Macao:
7 or 7. 30 A. M. 9. 30 A. M. or so. in about
9 A. M. One between the 50 minuter.
1 P. M. above time and
2. 30 P. M. the next, which is at
1. 30 P. M.
2 P. M, or so.
Starting say at 7 A. M. the boat soon leave? the Inner
Harbour and makes out for the open. Rounding the end
of the Peninsula Malau Chau, Monkey Island, is seen off to
the Westward on the stern quarter of the launch. On
this island are situated the Imperial Maritime Customs
Station. We then pass some rocks, visible at low water, the
Pedra de Areia lying off the Southern end of the Peninsula.
After steaming for about forty minutes or more the launch
arrives at the fort on the point at Taipa. Another ten
minutes and she arrives at Tamtsai when a lot of little sam-
pans come round her to take passengers off on shore. The
time the launch waits here is not sufficient to go ashore and
return before she leaves for Colowan, should one wish to go
on there, as the boat only stops for a quarter of an hour or
so. Starting from Tamtsai we make for another island
where we arrive at 8. 20 A.. M., and go ashore by sampan.
There is nothing much to see,-two police stations and a
number of Chinese houses, shops and hovels. Saltfish is
one of the staple commodities. There is a -temple to the
Queen of Heaven, the sailor's patron saint, and an offering,
in the shape of a model of a junk, as at the Matsopo temple
in Macao. In a short time the blast of the whistle warns us
it is time to hurry back, when we retrace our way to Macao.
Typa and Kongpeng are two islands almost connected, the
channel between them being too slightly submerged at high
water to permit a steamlaunch to proceed through the pas-
sage, as the water is only about two feet deep. The view we
get of Macao on the way back from Taipa is very pleasing:
the City with its numerous public buildings and churches,
with the Praya Grande in front, lies between two masses of
hills; those crowned by the Guia Fort on the one hand, and
the Penha Hills on the other.
Tamtsai situated on the Kongpeng Island has a population
of say 3000 Chinese. It has a large church, which is a con-
spicuous object as seen from Macao.
Colowan is much smaller, having only, say 1200 or 1300
Chinese. Both of these islands are hilly. A large number of
fishing junks are anchored at Tamtsai.
The large island on the other side of the Inner Harbour is
called Lappa. The Portuguese in the early days had some
settlements on it; but it is now entirely in the hands of the
Chinese. It "is much larger and more important than is gen-
erally supposed. The actual area is about thirty square
miles. As far as the base of the mountains its soil teams
with vegetation. Here and there is a small village, chiefly
inhabited by farmers and labourers of the lowest class. Large
tracts of land covered with paddy-fields which furnish the
industrious owners with rice of a superior quality. Cabbages,
turnips, the famous Macao potato, gourds and pumpkins,
peas and beans, are also exported from the island. Sugar-
cane, though planted in many places, does not seem able to
hold its own against the. same article exported from the
riverine ports. The earth at the base of some of the Lappa
Mountains is calcareous, while that in other places is in-
termingled with soft, whitish stones". There are several
very pretty walks to be taken on Lappa rambling by Chinese
footpaths near the shores on more level ground, or wander-
ing up amongst the hills, or penetrating up the valleys, rock-
strewn with gigantic boulders, piled in the utmost confusion
one on the top of the other.
A very pretty walk may be had by taking a sampan and
crossing over to this other side of the Inner Harbour, to a
stone pier at a place called Shek-kok-tsui, Stony Point.
This landing place is nearly opposite to Camoens' Gardens.
The time it may take to go across depends entirely upon the
state of the tide: the journey over the water may take forty
minutes, or only twenty-five. Some very fine views of Macao
and its guardian forts are obtained. Arrived on the other
side, you have the choice of several walks: you may keep
by the water's edge, or you may strike up in to a valley
strewn with great masses of boulders, left piled up in most
wonderful positions by the denudation of the soil with trop-
ical rains. These boulders covering the beds of the nullah p
are of splendid finely grained granite. Mumerous pretty
ferns are to be found, and when in season sweet honeysuckle,
rhodomyrtis, and other flowers repay one for any fatigue
from the rough walk. A curious sort of large lizard, six or
eight inches long, may be seen here. If one is about the
stumps of a bush, it looks uncommonly like a part of the
bush itself. They are not all the same colour, one seen by
the writer had its head and shoulders of one shade, while
another was entirely black and rapidly disappeared down a
hole in the earth. The Chinese say they are very poisonous.
A rickshaw coolie, whom we engaged one day, had a won-
drous story to tell about the danger of being bitten by this
lizard at a certain hour.
THE TEN TABLES
On landing on Lappa at the spot mentioned above, take
the path to the right as above, and after walking half a mile
or nearly a mile, the path, it will be seen, bifurcates. Eschew
the lower one near the water, and follow the other which
slightly trends up. After a short distance, turn up a cul-
tivated valley, reaching a mile or two into the hills and go
on to its upper end, where will be found a stream crossed
by bridges, numerous little shrines, larger buildings, wind-
ing paths, inscribed rocks, a shed with stone tables, large
enough to picnic a good company and all the other adjuncts
with which the Chinese delight to embellish a lovely nook,
already wild and beautiful in its natural state. A small
pagoda is seen up the rocky bed of the stream. The Chinese
call the place the Chuk Sin T'ung (Chook Seen T'oong),
The Grotto of the Bamboo Fairy.
THE SILVER VALLEY
This is also on Lappa; but at the Southern end, near the
entrance to the Inner Harbour. From the top of the Penha
Hills is seen on the opposite shore of the Inner Harbour a
beautiful green valley: this is the Silver Valley (Ngun Hang
in Chinese). It is a very pleasant excursion to take on the
evening of a summer's day, or the morning or afternoon of
a winter's one, the only thing to be sure of is that it is high
tide, otherwise there is a mud flat which prevents landing.
Going down to the Pray a Menduca, a sampan may be hired
for twenty cents for the trip. Rowing across and down the
Harbour, in about twenty minutes, one arrives at some large
rocks at the north side of a sandy beach. Landing on these,
you cross them towards some native houses and follow the
path which runs between these houses. In some of these
houses the Chinese mou tsoi (mooee tsoi) or sour crout, or
salt rotten vegetables, is prepared. Also some shallow tank-
like places are to be seen where paddy-husks are being pre-
pared for the purpose of being manufactured into Chinese
tooth-powder, which is used to whiten the grains of rice after
they have been hulled. Finally clear the inodorous habita-
tions with their yelping curs, but still keeping at the side of
the running streamlet, or rather small channel of water,
with at certain seasons of the year beautiful green paddy-
tields lying below you to the left, and soon seeing a stream
Mowing below you also on the same hand, you continue to
ascend slightly, the scenery being very pretty, and beautiful
ferns growing about, for a walk along this winding path for
about a mile or rather more, you come to a Chinese p'ai lau,
or honorific portal, which you pass through, still keeping on,
but slightly more to the left and in two or there minutes
you come across a bewildering confusion of boulders, piled
about in all directions in the valley. If in difficulty in find-
ing the exact spot, a native, if you can get him to under-
stand what you Avant, will point it out to you. On the sv.r-
face of several of these boulders, it will be noticed that cer-
tain spots have been hammered on, and these places, if
struck with an iron instrument, will give out a clear metal-
lic ring, though not with so much resonance as a bell would
have* The sound is more like that produced by striking a
piece of metal. The view down the valley from this spot is
lovely with a peep of the sea at the end. Quarrying opera-
tions have taken place during recent years by which some of
these sounding rocks have been destroyed, so that if any
difficulty is experienced in finding the spot, it is well to
solicit the assistance of some of the Chinese in the neigh-
bourhood to point out those that remain.
If desired, an extension of this walk can be made by foJ-
J owing a path running along the hill slopes at right angles
to the path from the Inner Harbour, and which strikes off
from the nighbourhood of the p'ai-lau. It is a most plea-
sant and interesting walk up the hill by Chinese paths.
Passing a Chinese Imperial Maritime Station, one gets a
splendid view of Macao. Then descending one soon gets on
level ground, passing a guard-house of the Customs, one;
can continue the walk to the Ten Tables, by the path al-
ready described, or taking a sampan at the pier mentioned
a few pages back return to Macao.
This is the name of the range of high hills beyond the Bar-
rier on Chinese territory, as as well as the name of a village
of a thousand or two thousand inhabitants, situated not far
from the foot of the hills. This is about the only place by
which one can go by riskshaw out of Macao, as the road is
broad for a Chinese road. Leaving the Barrier, the path
for a few steps is through sand which is so heavy a drag on
the wheels of the vehicle that it is only fair to the men to
walk till you come to a stone (granite), paved road. Soon
after starting the road forks: that to the right leads to the
village of Shui Chung, some of the white houses of which
are seen in the distance. The road branching off to thtj
right is the one to be followed. Our way here is through a
perfect necropolis; for the Chinese graves are thicker than
is generally the case, and more like, in their rows upon rows,
the way in which graves are disposed in a foreign Cemetery,
though near large cities, even in China, the houses of the
dead are thus placed close together. After getting off the
isthmus, they are, however not so very abundant, though
common enough. The stone road soon ends and sandy
pieces occur every little distance, and into the ruts filled
with the loose sand, the wheels of the vehicle sink, giving
the passenger some very rough jolts.
After leaving the isthmus, the road winds through fields,
principally rice, with a small range of low hills to the right,
while the higher range looms off in the distance and further
to the north-west. Some footpaths lead to the hills off to
the right. The land is open towards the Inner Harbour,
hut after a while a low range rises a little way off between
it and us. On one low height are the ruins of an old Chinese
fort. Occasionally we cross the narrow channels of water
by the small rough bridges, consisting of slabs of granite
laid side by side, when the rickshaw coolie has to exercise
special care to prevent the wheels of his rickshaw being
caught in the spaces between the slabs. In nearly half an
hour from the Barrier we reach, at a small distance from
the path, a small pagoda, (a man-t'ap), which looks new,
and has been rebuilt, as far as we can learn. This pagoda
is visible from the Barrier. A footpath leads off to the left
by which one goes to Ts 4n Shan, the Casa Branca of the
Portuguese. It is about two or three miles further off. Stop
at this place and give the coolies a rest under the shade of
some beautiful trees and at the side of a small temple.
From this spot a path also leads off by which, amongst other
places, one may go to Canton. After a rest, we go to the gate
of the village (which latter was built in the Ming Dynasty)
in a brick wall. There is also a wall formed of rough-hewn
slabs of granite, piled upon the top of each other, header
and stretcher fashion, and without any cement, rising to
the height of fifteen or twenty feet and the length of a slab
in width. This wall surrounds a great part of the village
and attests to the truth of what our jinrickshaw coolies tell
us, viz., that the village is a wealthy one. Compradores
and men who have been in Shanghai, Foochow, and Cali-
fornia retire here. Many of the houses are good, and
though there are poor ones, not so many as in some places.
About half an hour takes us back to the Barrier and about
the same time to the Praya.
The Hot Springs
It is a pleasant and interesting trip to these at a place
called Yung Mak, north-north-west of Macao and about
twenty miles by steamlaunch, which has to be specially
hired for the trip, unless one goes by the passenger-boat,
which leaves at 8 A. M. returning at 3 P. M. If a steam-
launch is specially hired, one of those going generally to
Taipa is open to a bargain.
There are three pools at the Hot Spring, but they are said
to vary in number and position from time to time. And it is
further stated that cold springs formerly existed there. Tin-
following short account of an excursion to them by a party,
of which the author was one, may give SOTIIC idea to intend -
ing tourists what they are like. All preliminaries bein.u
arranged, and starting from the Inner Harbour at about 9.
15 A. M., we steam up the Harbour, close to Green Island,
when we turn to the left and proceeding about half an hour
from the wharf, we pass Ts'in Shan where there are three
or four Chinese (native) revenue cruisers: one lot collecting
kerosene dues; one for opium dues; and another for general
goods. Even before we reach these vessels there are two or
three Customs mat-sheds. After a while the stream nar-
rows. There are high hills in the back-ground with low-
lying flat ground, and bushes and groves every now and
then, with villages lying at the foot of the hills, lower hills
being near at hand. We pass Sha Mei, opposite a temple-.
In nearly an hour after leaving Macao, we enter a river,
another branch coming in from the left, as the stream flows.
Extensive muddy fields are on each side of the stream and
the hills recede some distance back from the river. At 10. 15
A. M. we turn round to the right and pass a Chinese
(native) revenue-cruiser lying to the right. The scenery is
pretty. Owing to the banks hiding the different channels
and water-ways, boats seem to be sailing along the fields.
Pretty little clumps of bamboo with mat sheds below them
and low-wooded hills with temples nestling at their feet all
add to the picturesqueness of the other scenery.
We arrive at our destination at 11. 40 A. M.; going up n
small branch from the stream, we finally turn into a chan-
nel about the breadth of the boat. Landing we walk about
forty feet and get to a pool about twelve feet across and
several feet deep, nearly circular, out of the centre of which
bubbles are coming up. The water is as hot to the touch
as a very hot bath. A narrow channel connects this with
About two minutes walk from this first one, we come to
another not connected with the stream as the other was. It
is about six feet across and nearly circular, a little longer
than wide with bubbles rising from several places at the
bottom. The water is much hotter than the other very
much hotter in fact. It runs out by a small channel, a
stream rising from it. The thermometer we have with us
rises as high as it can when put into this pool and not being
able to rise any higher stops at 148.
One and a half minute's walk from the second brings us
to the third, about eight feet by five feet in dimensions. It
is clearer, connected with the outside water, and not so hot
as the second one, but hotter than the first. The thermo-
mether rises to 142, A very little stream, almost imper-
ceptable rises from it. Occasionally a few bubbles come up
from the spots on the bottom.
These three pools are situated amidst a lot of paddy fields
with some huts shanties, close to the third, an amphithea-
tre of hills all around. "They are situated in a valley sur-
rounded by high mountains, and from the position of the
springs at the centre of the circle of mountains it is general-
ly considered that the site is that of an extinct volcano."
That these pools were the subject of superstition was
evinced by some candles placed at one of them by the
Chinese; at the same time the Chinese is nothing if not
utilitarian, and in this case they turn them to account by
plucking fowls at the hottest of them.
The Island of San Joao
The Portuguese first came to China in the year 1517, and
at first they appear to have anchored at a port on the north-
west coast of the Island of San Joao, San-cheun, San-chuen-
shan, San-shan, Sancian, or St. John, as it has been various-
Here they do not appear to have built houses, but we
read of a fort having been erected, which, however, did not
stand long. The port of Tamao was closed to foreign trade,
and the whole of this trade in A. D. 1554 was concentrated
at Lampacao, an island visible from Macao on a clear day.
In one of the lives of the great poet Camoens, prefixed to
an edition of his own w r orks in his own language, it is sai 1
that the poet lived at Lampacao, and there are good rea-
sons for believing that the Portuguese had fixed habitations
on this island of Lampacao.
The "Great Apostle of the East," as he has been called,
and the first Jesuit missionary to China, St. Francis Xavier,
died December 1552 in sight of that land for which he so
earnestly prayed, and was buried on this island. A monu-
ment was erected to him in 1639 with the following inscrip-
tion in Portuguese:
I. H. S.
Aqui foi sepul
tado S. Francis
co Xavier doco
Panhia de Jesus
There is also an inscription in Chinese.
Pilgrimages are annually made by the Roman Catholics
of Hongkong and Macao to this tomb on the saint's day.
His body, however, does not rest here now. As already
noted a large painting of his lonely death is hung in St.
Joseph's College Chapel in Macao.
The island is stated to be five leagues in length from N.
N. E. to S. S. W. Approaching it from the east, it looks as
if separated in the middle, giving rise to the supposition
that it was two islands instead of one. "There are several
bays on its north-west and eastern sides. That of Shan-
chowtong on the north-west appears to have been the one
usually frequented by the Portuguese traders, and is the
place where St. Francis Xavier was interred. It was then
called Tamao; that is according to Portuguese pronuncia-
tion Tangao, or Ta'aou, The Great Bay. The Portuguese
first traded here in 1517. In 1521 they were expelled; but
before 1542 they appear almost to have deserted it for Lam-
pacao, to the eastward. Macao began to rise in promin-
ence. The last mention of Lampacao states that there were
500 or 600 Portuguese living permanently there.
There is a little chapel on the island called after the saint,
doubtless, St. Francis, which was almost completely ruined
by the Chinese.
There is a village on the island and a mission-house and
chapel about a mile away from the chapel already mention-
ed. There is a "bust of the saint erected upon a massive
stone pedestal, about thirty feet in height, situated some
two hundred yards above the church, to mark the place
where the great saint breathed his last."
The history of Macao is a most interesting one. In the
first place because the Portuguese were earliest amongst
European nations to settle in China; and secondly, on ac-
count of the sturdy behavour of the Senators of this valorous
little city in asserting their rights and fighting for them. Of
course, to find the counterpart of some of the earliest Por-
tuguese arrivals in far Cathay one must read the story of
the adventurers in our own Queen Elizabeth's time, who
sailed over sea and main fighting for the mere love of con-
quest and power to rule over others. There are two sides
to the story of how Macao came into the hands of the Por-
tuguese as related to us by its historians. The Sweedish
Knight, Sir Andrew L Jungs ted t, espoused what would be
the Chinese side of the story and proved entirely to his own
satisfaction that the sovereignty of Portugal over Macao
was mythical against the opinion that had been held on the
subject. There can be but little doubt that the rights of
property were not subjected to such scrupulous criticism in
the 16th century as Lungstedt subjected them to in the.
19th. Again we say that men of the stamp of the 16th
settlers at Macao, of the spirit of the English adventurers
of the period of our Queen Elizabeth, for it may be conceded
at once, would not trouble their heads much as to any for-
mal cession of territory to them. Might was right in those
days and still is to a large extent. All the better, if after
the material assistance rendered the Chinese against the
pirates which infested the southern coast of China, the Por-
tuguese obtained some document as written proof of tacit or
or verbal permission to settle, or remain, being already set-
tled, in Macao. The Portuguese say there was such a docu-
ment; but, unfortunately the Chinese would, of course, deny
it; a denial by Chinese statesmen is of no value, nor even
is it unfortunately, amongst European statesmen. Know-
ing what we do of the Chinese, we cannot expect them to
acknowledge it even if it could be produced at this day,
for with the Machiavallian policy, so loved by them, it
would be repudiated by Peking, if signed in Canton, or
some fatal flaw would be detected, in what probably was a
simple document, not ironclad against the red-hot argu-
ments of Chinese plenipotentiaries, unless combatted by a
mailed fist and a firm attitude.
Martinoe de Nello and Castro's memorandum relates that
the jurisdiction of Macao extended over conquered tracts in
the Hong Shan District where Portuguese owned farms and
kept the Colony supplied with their products. En passant,
we may remark, that on Lappa itself the Portuguese were
settled on various spots, and probably even on Monkey
Island; but these have all passed out of their hands, the
Chinese according to the above memorandum, entered upon
the conquered tracts in the Hong Shan District, the fertility
of the soil being the attraction, and the mandarins resumed
their jurisdiction. This seems an explicit enough state-
ment, and Mr. Montalto de Jesus, to whom we are indebted
for some of the above information, goes on to show how a
bribe given to a corrupt madarin was eventually transfor-
med into ground rent. So many different assertions have
been made on the subject that the matter does not seem so
clear as one would like to have it; but then many a histori-
cal subject is in a somewhat bemuddled state. For ex-
ample, Ljungstedt quotes a former Bishop of Macao who
was an acting Governor of the Colony, in 1777 to this effect
that "By paying ground rent, the Portuguese acquired
the temporary use and profit of Macao ad libitum of th<-
Emperor." We unfortunately have not the original docu-
ment before us to see whether the argument or the context
alters or qualifies this statement. And we must say thai
Mr. M. de Jesus in his admirably written papers in "The
China Review," since published with others in bookforni,
states in a most conclusive manner the Portuguese case.
But really the matter is of little "consequence nowadays,
as, if any real flaw existed in Portugal's claim to Macao, it
lias been rectified and all doubt set at rest by the recent
treaty between Portugal and China. The question at the
present day has simply an academic interest. Portugal'*
absorption into the Spanish kingdom in 1582 would natural-
ly be expected to affect the relation of Macao with Europe ;
but while acknowledging the new condition of affairs in the-
mother-country, the Macaoese patriotically used their best
endeavours to prevent Spanish Governors from having rule
over their city and the result was the Senate, to which elec-
tion was once in three years, and universal suffrage, i. e.,
every Portuguese resident was entitled to vote by ballot for
:-ix electors, who drew up lists of persons fit to be Senator*.
The Chief Justice, with powers of an Administrator, from
them prepared another and the final decision rested with
the Viceroy of Goa, as well as the appointment of other
officials. A general Council deliberated upon the most im-
portant matters, being composed of ex-senators, Bishop and
clergy, Capitao de Terra, and the citizens, all the latter-
capable of bearing arms formed a municipal guard. The
Government in Goa .determined to have a company of 100
sepoys and 50 artillery in Macao in 1784.
The revenue in these days consisted of the Customs dues
which were levied in kind and sold at auction. The Char-
ter of the Senate bears date 1586 and was issued by the
Viceroy of Portuguese India. A capitao de mer Commi-
dere also had a share in the Government of Macao, then*
being no Governor in these days.
We cannot follow the bold action of the Senators and
people of Macao in standing up for what they considered
their rights in a short account like this. "In the begin-
ning of the eighteenth century" Governors and Captains
General came from Goa, with the intention of balancing
the overgrowing preponderance of the Senate. Violent
party disputes arose; but the Senators generally got the
better of their antagonists.
Macao was a most flourishing place in the 18th century:
both the East India Company and the Dutch Company
having establishment there, the former company having a
library of 4000 volumes in Macao. The Chinese continued a
semblance of authority, having a Custom's House in the
place and taking 500 taels a year as rental from the Por-
tuguese till 1849, when Governor Ferreira de Amaral refu-
sed to pay it any longer and drove out the Chinese officials.
In this connection the two following extracts from the
Friend of China, a paper published in South China may be
The Governor has prohibited the Chinese officers of Cus-
toms from levying duties upon goods or produce exported
from Macao to ports in China, or imported from Chinese
ports * * * (With the view that obtained as to the pos-
session of Macao, the paper goes on to say) It is true that
Macao was and strictly speaking is, a feudatory possession,
paying an annual ground rent, or rather supposed to pay,
for we believe the rent has not been collected for years, but
without enquiring very minutely into the strict legality of
the step, we certainly admire the independence of feeling
and courage displayed by Signor Amaral. With a force of
not over 200 disciplined troops and a civic guard not much
to be depended upon he has, to use an American vulgarism,
'regularly stumped" the Celestial Empire. The Governor
vowed to put into Gaol three officials (of some rank whom
Sen [the Viceroy of Canton] had appointed to investigate
the circumstances connected with the deportation of the
Chinese officers of Customs) if they landed in Macao (21st.
Mar^h 1849 V The Governor of Macao, taking advantage
of the existing difficulties, has deported the Chinese officers
of Customs who have been in the habit of collecting duties
in the settlement of Portugal. He has thus declared Macao
to be perpetually independent of China; the Chinese affect
to look upon the Portuguese as tenants at will and until
recently the Mandarins at Casa Branca exercised the right
of sovereignty over the Chinese inhabitants taxing and
punishing them without consulting the Portuguese. Sen's*
intentions with regard to Macao are not fully known, in the
meantime he has ordered all the Chinese to leave the
town which a good many of them have done and the con-
tumacious Governor and the Christian inhabitants are to
be starved into submission." (31st. March 1849)
This action of Governer Amaral combined with the cut-
ting of new roads through some Chinese graves scattered
according to Chinese custom over the hills, so incensed the
neighbours that he was assassinated while he was riding with
his Aide-de-camp near the Barrier. A Chinese presented a
bunch of flowers to him; taking this as an act of kindness,
he was taken off his guard and brutally murdered, his head
being taken off and hidden in the Mong Ha Temple for a
while. It is possible more sinice that a reward was offered
for the "foreign devel's" head. His ring and the knife
which was used was still in the possession of natives some
years afterwards, The author's father procured the knife
eventually from the Chinese and was in treaty to obtain
the ring, but the negotiations fell through as doubtless the
villains, or their friends, or descendants, feared that the
perpetrators of the foul deed might be tracked.
Hongkong being started as a free port took away the
trade from Macao with a custom House. The Portuguese
authorities took steps by lowering the tariff to try and bring
back the trade again, and finally it was made a free port;
but unfortunately it was too late to have the desired effect.
The Coolie trade was started and had its headquarters in
Macao for many years. Unscrupulous men unfortunately
took it up; and it is almost well-nigh impossible with the
exorcise of the greatest caution to prevent the Chinese who
net as gatherers together of the intending emigrants from
using all sorts of tricks to beguile the innocent country folk,
and entrapping many against their will, these crimps telling
all sorts of lies to entice their victims. Brought into Macao,
the coolies were kept in large buildings called barracoons,
many of the superb mansions of the former opulent mer-
chants being converted into these places. The whole system
became so pregnant with abuses, and a mutiny and a mas-
sacre on one or two of the vessels drew a world-wide atten-
tion to these abuses and the trade was abolished in 1874.
American and ships of other nationalities engaged in this
coolie traffic. The Author visited an American ship lying
in Macao Roads fitted up for the embarkation of these coo-
lies in 1858 or 1850, To keep the coolies in good humour
the Captain had boxes of Chinese novelettes and fiddles on
board. Some of the ships Were fitted out in Hongkong for
The fearful typhoon of 1874 came as another disaster to
Macao, laying a considerable portion of her buildings in
ruins. The elements seemed pitiless in their fury at the
devoted city; for a fire broke out at the same time destroy-
ing the best houses in San Antonio Green, one of which is
is still in ruins.
Much activity has been displayed of late in Macao in
improvements and repairs to the streets, &c., such as the
'aying out of the Boulevard, known as the Avenida Vasco da
Gama, the making of new roads, and the general embellish-
ment of the place, amongst which may be noticed the plan-
ning of that portion of the peninsula known as the Bella
'Vista and Montana Rnssa. Here on hot evenings the in-
habitants can repair for cool breezes.
A new path has been made to lead zig-zag from the Bon.
levard up to the centre of the range of hills running between
Oagilha's Bay and the Guia Fort. Here on the top a line
view is obtained both inland and out to sea. Dredging o
the Harbour has been, or in to bo, undertaken. An observa-
rory is, we believe, also planned. But not least amongst
ihese improvements is the clearing away of overcrowded,
Insanitary districts and Chinese low hovels in the endeavour
to eradicate the plague, which of late years has visited, to a
greater or lesser extent, Macao as well as other portions of
Southern China. In 1894 while the plague was epidemic
in Hongkong having newly arrived there, the greatest care
was taken in the Holy City in the inspection of all incomers
;tnd no time was wasted. If any quarters were considered
insanitary the most drastic measures were taken for their
removal. The Macao authorities deserve the greatest praise
for their promptitude and energy in their attempts to combat
the plague; and no unreasoning opposition by the inhabi-
tants were apparently allowed to baulk the wise plans of the
Macao officials. The following will give some idea of the
method employed: "Some suspicion exists regarding cer-
tain parts, of China town, and in one locality, the Horta
de Volong, near St. Lazarus Church, the officers of the P.
\V. D. have been for some days carrying on wholesale de-
struction, tearing up roads, opening drains, and in fact pip-
ing the iilthy quarter out ef existence. Our methods hen*,
are sharp and summary; a few hours notice for the people
to get out, and without further parley the work is completed.
If these plans are not interrupted in our sister Colony of
Macao, before long no insanitary districts will be left in the
Gambling is most unfortunately licensed in Macao, large
establishments being fitted up for the purpose, and with
(heir allurements cause many fools to part with their hard-
earned gains to the detriment of their wives an.d families
and their own morals. The revenue of Macao is pretty
nearly a million dollars in 1901 it was estimated at $980.
522, and the expenditure was also estimated at $606,159.
The freedom from the squeezes of the corrupt Chinese
oineials in their own land and the lower rentals than those
prevailing in Hongkong have all largely tended to increase
the Chinese population of Macao, many men in Hongkong
having houses and their families resident there.
Some of the Canton foreign firms have branches in thir
pleasant Portuguese Colony, notably amongst them Messrs.
Deacon & Co., who are agents for the P. & O. Co., and ,-r
number of different insurance offices, and shipping lines; and
;ilso Messrs. Herbert Dent <fe Co., who are likewise agent-
tor a number of shipping lines and insurance offices.
There are also several Portuguese firms of general rm-r-
fhants and commission agents.
Numerous stores for the sale of foreign goods will be found
scattered here and there in different parts of the city. A
number of them are congregated in the Rua Central, a street
parallel with the Praya Grande and a few steps up from it
by some of the side streets.
The native quarters of Macao abound with native shops
of all kinds and descriptions.
The Portuguese support several newspapers published in
Macao in their own language; and there is one Chinese paper.
Ever since therefore the days of the Governor Sr. Feireint
do Amaral when on the 12th March 1849, he ousted the last
vestiges of Chinese authority by forcibly closing out tin-
Chinese Custom House in Macao and snapped with a bold
hand the last links of connection with China by refusing t<>
continue to pay any longer the yearly rental of 500 taels to
the Canton authorities, the Chinese mandarins have had no
power nor semblance of it in Macao. We are told that t<>
farther accentuate the new order the same Governor also
desired the Mandarin at Macao to notify his colleagues that
they must abstain from sounding the gong the usual Chi-
nese notice of an official's advent when visiting Macao, and
the Portuguese military in its place were to accord the cus-
tomary honours paid to foreign functionaries.
The Governors of Macao are appointed from Portugal and
hold besides the appointments of Ministers Plenipotentiary
to the Courts of Peking, Yedo, and Bankok. They have -,\
Secretary-General who is also a Secretary of Legation.
The Secretariat has a Civil and a Military Department:
the former consisting of a Head of Department and Assistant
Head and .several Clerks; the latter consisting of a military
commissioned officer as Head and several non-commissioned
officers as clerks. The Chinese Department likewise con-
sists of about half-a-dozen Interpreters not Chinese, an
they all bear Portuguese names. There are four Council?
of which the Governor is the President. The Governors'
Council consisting besides of the Secretary-General, the Bisli -
op, the Judge, the First and Second Cornmandante of the
Guarde Policial, the Delegado do Procueado du Coroa, the
Inspector da Fazenda, the President and Chief of the Sani-
The Provincial Council consists of the Governor, the Sec-
retary General, the Procurador da Coroa, and the Inspector
<1a Fazenda, the President of the Senate, and Chief of the
Sanitary Board (Service de Saude).
The Council of Public Works consists of the Governor, tlu
Director of Public Works, the Port and the Delegado do
Procurador da Coroa and Inspector da Fazenda and a Sec-
retary. The Council of Public Instruction consists of the
Governor, the Bishop as V ice-President and three members.
The Junta de Justica or Supreme Court is divided into two
Sections, Civil and Military, over both of which the Governor
presides, the members consisting in the former of the Judge,
the two elective members of the Provincial Council, the
President of the Municipal Chambers and the Procurador
dos Negocios Sinicos, while in the Military Section the
members consist of the Judge, the Commandant of the
Police, the Capitao de Mer e Guerra, the Chefe da Estac,ao
Naval, and the Captain of Artillery.
The Judicial Department itself consists of a Judge, and
two Deputy Judges, the Attorney General and others.
The Revenue Department, which looks after that import-
ant function of Government, serves for both Macao and
There are quite a number of other officials" belonging to
other Departments, such as those subordinate to the Director
of Public Works with its Committee, presided over by the
There is also an Administrative Council for Macao, an<J
another for Taipa and Colowan.
There is a Fire Brigade, a Board of Health or Sanitary
Hoard, and a Post Office, a Chinese Department, a Harbour-
Master's Department, a Police Force, and a large Municipal
Chamber and Municipal Council and other Government
Departments and Officials.
The Naval Force consists of two gunboats, the 'Din',
706 tons, 6 guns and 200 horse-power and the 'Bengo' 462
tons 4 guns, and 400 horse-power and the smaller vessel
; Dilly' of 100 tons, 2 guns and 40 horse-power.
The Military have under their charge the different forts
and the Military Hospital of San Januario.
The Ecclesiastical Government of the Colony is likewise
pretty extensive in its organisation, headed by the Bishop,
the Vicar-General, and its Vicars, Chaplains, &e, for its
thirteen places of worship.
The Hong Kong, Canton, and Macao Steamboat Go's. S.
S. 'Heung Shan' runs daily between Hongkong and Macau
leaving the former port generally at 2 P. M. and and return-
ing from the latter at 7.30 or 8 A. M. usually. But it would
be well to inquire before starting, as otherwise one may find
the steamer gone an hour before its usual time.
Starting then from Hongkong we steam rapidly out of tht
Harbour, the city and island showing well to advantage
from the deck of the steamer, as it steers its way through
the numerous ships and innumerable boats and junks which
lie thick all over the waters, or sail with the wind or tack
against it across from one point to another. But we rapidly
leave the Harbour behind us, gliding out through the'Sul-
pher Channel, named after H. M. S. 'Sulpher,' and dividing
Hongkong from Green Island. Out in the open we make
for Double Island. Pokfulum soon comes into view with its
bungalows and many of those on the Peak are alsa seen,
Passing through the wider waters, but with many islands
scattered all round, some being but the upmost peaks of
some sub-marine mountain, while others rear massive slopes
into the air; even far away on the horizon they form a bound-
ary to the water in one direction or another. The most of
them are small, but none the less picturesque on that ac-
At about 2.30 p. in. we reach Cheong Chow, or Long Is-
land, or, as it is also called. Dumb Bell Island. This is now
British, but was formerly one of the stations of the gunboats,
or revenue-cruisers, of the Imperial Maritime Customs of
China in the so-called blockade of Hongkong. Numerous
Chinese fishing-junks are all about, plying their trade.
For a couple of hours or so one skirts along the Southern
shores of the large Island of Lan-tao, an island larger than
Hongkong, with grand mountains culminating in a peak
3050 feet in height. The views are beautiful on a clear day.
At the western end of this island is a small levelled spot on
which in the early days of European intercourse with China,
the Dutch are said to have built a fort. Then leaving the
shelter of this island one is shortly in a bit of more open sea.
Between 4 and 5 p. m. Macao's white houses are seen in the
distance, after having first looked at the two I. M. Customs
Stations outside the Colony. In this vicinity are the Mine Is-
lands as well as other islands. It is a very pleasant \valk
out from Macao, past the shore and by inland paths to
these stations. We soon pass Cagilha's Bay, the Cliff Road?
the Lighthouse and rapidly nearing the Holy City, it opens
out, hills and forts and churches coming into view one after
the other. We admire the beautiful sweep of the Praya
Grande and then, rounding the Penha Hill, the Inner Har-
bour comes into sight and we rapidly enter it. Monkey Is-
Jand (Ma Lau Chow) with another I. M. Customs Station
(in it to the left, and Lappa opposite Macao. A neat little
Portuguese gunboat with the beautiful Portuguese flag
guards the entrance. The Bar Fort is passed, the temple
t>i Matsopo, the Barracks, the Harbour Master's, hundreds
of Chinese shops, and finally we are fastened up at the wharf,
where a crowd is awaiting the arrival of the steamer, while
M-oivs of roomv rickshas are on shore, ready to wheel us off
to any of the three Hotels, or wherever we want 10 go. The
Hotels are the Boa Vista, the Macao, and the Internacional.
Another steamer belonging to the same Company leaves
Macao for Canton in the early morning and Canton on the
alternate days. The China Merchants' Steam Navigation
Company have also a steamer or two on the line. The jour-
ney takes about seven or eight hours, or upwards, depend-
ing, of course, on state of wind and tide, &c.
Besides the steamer mentioned above there is a smaller
boat that leaves Hongkong for Macao at 7 oclock every
morning, returning the same day from Macao, giving the
visitor an hour or two or so in Macao itself.
There are a number of these useful little vehicles plying
for hire and the gradients of most of the streets are not suf-
ficiently steep, as in Hongkong, to prevent them going up
and down hill. The fares of these licensed vehicles, unless
altered of late, are as follows:
An hour, or anything short of it, within the walls of the
city 5 cts.
Outside of the city walls for an hour 10 cts.
And for each extra half-hour 5 cts.
If two get into the same rickshaw, the price to be arranged
with the coolie.
There are about 170 of these plying for hire on the streets.
They are registered like the rickshaws, and numbered, and
the Bearers have also a board with the fares printed on
them. If not recently altered the fares are:
From (> a. in. till (> p. m.
One hour 10 cts.
Six hours 50 cts.
Twelve hours $.1.
During the evening "> ets. more an hour.
A Tribute to Camoens
Camoens, noblest of thy ancient race.
Illustrious sires and noble dames thy forbears.
Adversity's stern rule thy youthful school,
A scholar thou; thy natural tastes most keen;
A warrior bold with heart of steel and thoughts
That hewed their way spite bitter adverse foes,
Till one and all now bend the rev'rent knee
Before thy shrine. That shrine no gilded fane
That rears ambitious head aloft to cope
With brightest heaven; but buried, hid 'midst shade
Of trees and rocks. And here thy fav'rite haunt,
What time an exile thou from Tagus' shore
And India's strand, thou past thy happiest days
Amidst these groves, thy Lusiads to pen*
Alas! that noble gifts so great as thine
Should flicker out J midst poverty and pain.
Unknown, unwept, a pauper's grave thy fane,
ft matters not where now thy dust is laid.
Immortal is thy fame: thou livest still.
Patane's sylvan shades are classic ground,
And hallowed by thy name: they form a shrine
Where all who love the poet's art shall flock,
To dream of thee and all thy glorious task,
While those who shunn'd or did thee grossest ill ;
Have changed to dunt forgot with all their works.
bautiful read beautiful.
21 before quiet insert with its.
38 for Menduia read
to the state.
liefore East insert the.
2 5 9
33 Dr. Hourin ,,
, fresqui dao
99 ; 9
sous ? ,
8 for Fervebnt read Fervebat.
after Signum insert et.
ingeni read ingenii.
Redens ., Spernens.
, partioned partitioned.
, opportunity opportunity.
, En Em.
, after o insert Governador e.
, d'esta da.
, Etreiro letreiro.
, le aldade lealdade.
, Conhecu conheceo.
, cidade ,, meradores.
, entablatuer entablature.
Secretarix ,, Secretaria.
before way insert the.
Monha ,, Mongha.
before Praya insert the.
LDrenzo read Lorenco.
, coin coign.
, Fransco ,. Francisco.
> M >t
., Janario ,, Jan uario.
before Convent insert the.
Lourenco read Lourenco.
before the insert by
Cosa read Rosa.
before Joao insert S.
Cacilha read Cacilha.
Parao ViscDmte ,,
Com a medalha.
before Bica insert
after clear insert of.
before Stop insert We.
Selevantem read Selevantou.
before Port insert Captain of the.
I 29 '
& II .. strike out and the Bengo,
tons 4 guns and
400 horse power.
for Mime read
Administrative Council 64.
Almeida, The 44.
Amacao, Temple of 27-28.
Amaral, Governor 28, 58, 59.
Artisan Training School 39-40.
Assassination of Governor Amaral 59.
Astronomical observations 9.
Asylums 35, 38-39.
Attorney General , 63.
Avoneda Vasdo da Gama .- 60.
Bad characters 3.
Bamboos 48, 52.
Bandstands 8, 15.
Bar Fort 31, 32, 65.
Bairo da Se 20.
Bathing beach 5.
Bartuartede nossa senhora de Bomparto 32.
Bella Vista 26, 31.
Bica de Lilau 44.
Bishop's Bay 32,33*.
Boa Vista 4, 66.
Boats , 7,52.
Bomparto Fort 4/25,82.
Boulders and rocks 8,9,27,28,31,47,49.
Brotherhood of Mercy 34,38.
Camilla's Bay 4,5,29,31,41,43,44,60,65.
Caho Islands 30.
Camoens' Gardens, or Camoens' Grotto, or Casa Gardens
Capitao de Terra 57.
Capitao do Mar 57.
Captains General 58.
Casa Branca 10,51,52,59.
Cement works 44.
hentral School for boys 38,40.
Cereal, Baron de 15.
Chairs, Old 17.
,, Sedan : 66-
Charter of Senate 57.
Cheung Chow 65.
Chief Justice . 57,63.
China Merchants Steam Navigation Company 66.
Chinese Department .64.
,, newspaper 62.
not employed and kept out 3,20.
,, population 61.
quarters, or town, or houses. .25,29,30,33,46,49,61.
,, road 50.
,, shops 62-65.
Chuk Sin Tung or Ten Tables 48.
Chinnery, George. : 26.
Churches, or Chapels 2,18-26,35,37,55,64,65.
Classic ground 10.
Cliff Road 65.
College of San Jose 22-24.
,, Paulo 19.
Santa Roza 38-39.
Colowan 45, 64.
Compradores, Retired 51.
Concilho Administragao 17,64.
Convent of Santa Clara 37.
Council of Public Instruction 63.
Council Rooms 17.
Court, Supreme 15-16.
Crimps, Coolies,' 60.
Director of Public Works 63.
, Office of 17.
Distance from Hongkong 1.
Donna Maria II, Fort of . . 22,28,29,31.
Dues on kerosene and opium, and general goods 52.
Double Island, or Dumbbell Island 64-65.
,, prisoners 4.
, Victory over the 29,40.
Eastern Extension, &c Telegraph Co 1C-
Ecclesiastical Government 64.
East India Co., 58.
English Church 25.
Escola Central 38.
,, Publica de Lingua Portugucza para China 38.
Estrada da Victoria 44.
de San Francisco 4.
Facade of San Paulo . , 18-19,20,25.
Farms , 47,56.
Fat Buddha 28.
Felicidade, Fonte de 44.
Fernandez, Count, Monument to 12.
Ferns.. .. 8,47.
Fire Brigade 64.
Fishing Junks 46,65.
stakes. . 5.
Flora, The 44.
Fonte da Flora 43.
,, de Solidao 43.
Foreign firms 61.
Free port 59.
, Public 4,8-14,25,29.
General goods 62.
Geographical position 1,2.
Goddess of Heaven 28.
Gong, Sounding the, 62.
,, House 15.
and Public Offices 15.
Governor's Council 63.
Graves, Chinese, 59.
Green Island (Ilha Verde) 10,19,20,29,30,44-45,52.
Gremio Militar 25,40.
Grotto of the Bamboo Fairy 48.
Guard Houses 16,33,44,50.
Guia Fort 8,20,25,29,30,31-32,46,60.
Gunpowder, Monopoly of, 18.
Happy hunting ground 3.
Hermitage of Penha , 24-25.
Heung Shan District , 1,56.
Hills and mountains
Canton and Macao Steamboat Co 45,64-66.
Horta de Volong 61.
Hot-springs of Yung Mak 51-53.
Ilha Verde, See Green Island.
Improvements, Sanitary and otherwise 33,61.
Independence of Macao 59,62.
Insanitary Districts 60-61.
Internacional Hotel 63.
Island of Heung Shan 1.
Italia n School 38.
Judicial Department, or Junta de Justicia 15,63.
Junta de Fazenda 15.
Justice, Chief, : , . 57,63.
Kong Peng 46.
Latitude ~ 1.
Leal Senado, See Senate House
Leper Asylum 34,37.
Long Island 65.
Macao Hotel 66.
or Makau Rocks 28,31.
Machiavellian policy 56.
Makau Temple 28.
Malau Chow 46,65.
Market gardens and gardeners 5.
Martyrs in Japan 17,20.
Matsopo Temple 27-28,46,65
Menduca Praya 7.
Merchants and shipping firms 7,61-62-
Minister Plenipotentiary 62.
Models of Junks 27,46.
Mongha Fort 22,24,29,30-31.
Monkey Island 46,65.
Montanha Russa 60.
Morrison, Rev. Robert 26.
Mountains, See Hills.
Municipal Council 17,64.
,, Guard 57.
Mural tablets 21-22,26.
Name of Macao, Origin of, 23,31.
Naples, Bay of, 6.
Naval force 64.
Ngan Hang, See Silver Valley.
Nine Islands 31,65.
Nuptial portions 39.
Offing, The, 7.
Outer Harbour 7,30,32.
P. &0 64.
Paddy fields 49,53.
Padre's Garden 43,44.
Paintings, Old, 17,20,21,24,54.
Pedra Areca 46.
burying ground 4.
Porta do Cerco 6,24.
Post office 16.
Praya Grande 2,4,5,6-7,8,15,16,20,25,29,32,40,46.
Printing Office 24.
Procurador of Chinese Affairs 15.
Protestant burying ground 26,28,40.
Provedor dos Defunctos , 11.
Provincial Council. . . . 63.
Public Buildings 2,6,15.
School for boys 38.
,, girls 38.
Queen Elizabeth 55,56.
of Heaven, Temple of, 46.
Retreat, A, 2.
Revenue and Revenue Department 61,63.
Ringing Rocks 49.
Rocks, See Boulders.
Royalty, Portuguese 17.
Roza, Sr 16.
Rua Central 62.
Se, See Cathedral.
Salt farmer 18.
San Antonio Church, Gate and Green 3-4,21,60.
,, Domingos 25.
, Market of 18.
Francisco Barracks 25,33.
San Januario Hospital 25,33-34,64.
,, Joao, or San Chuen Shan, or San Shan, or Sancian,
or St. John's, or San Chuen. 53-55.
Fort ....".' '.*.'; :.:. .:;; 4,29,32,33.
,, Island of, 53,55.
Jose Church. 21.
Lazaro 25,61 .
,, Lorengo. 21-25.
Michael Church and Cemetery '. 29.
Pedro Fort . . . 32.
Rafio Hospital 34,35.
Sanitary Board 64.
Sanitation. . 33,60-61,64.
Santa Casa de Miserecordia 34-35,38-39.
Santa Clara Church and Convent 25,35,37.
Rosa. ...-. : 39.
Santiago. Fortaleza de, 31.
Secret passages , 19,20.
of the Municipal Council 17.
Secretary General 62,63.
of Legation 62.
Security of life and property 2.
Sedan chairs 66.
Seminary of San Paulo 19.
Senhouse. Sir Peter, 26.
Sha Mei 52.
Shan Chow T'ong 54.
Shek kok Tsui 47.
Shops, &c 62,65.
Shui Chung. 50.
Silting of the Bar and Harbour 7.
Silver Valley 48-50.
Sisters of Mercy 44.
Size of Macao 1.
Solidao. Fonte de, 43.
Sourcrout. Chinese, 49.
Sovereignty. Right of, 59.
Spanish rule 57.
Subterranean passages, 19,20.
Supreme Court , 63.
Taipa. ! . . .9,10,16,22,32,46,52,64.
Telegraph. Government, 32.
Ten Tables. The, 48,50.
Tennis Club s 5,40.
Theatre , 40.
Three Precious Buddhas. 28.
Timor , 63.
Toothpowder. Chinese, 49.
Tribute to Camoens. A, 67.
Ts'in Shan.. .10.51,52.
Utilitarian Chinese 53.
Vegetable gardens 30.
Vicar General 64.
Viceroy of Canton 53.
Viscount de San Januario 16.
Visits of Chinese Mandarins 62.
Walls. City, 3-4,29,30,32.
Yung Mak. Hot Springs of, 51-53.
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