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1IH1IN6 UST MAY 1 5 la^ 

Septerriber 1915 

Volunne22 /dumber 1 

Mechanical Production of Drop-Forging Dies. By ICdw.irrt 


Heating Motor Truck Steel Tires Electrically 

Turning Tool-Holders— 2— A Study of Lathe Tool-Holders 
Used for TuriiiMK, Cuttlng-Off and Screw Cutting-. By 
JosPpli Horner 

Repairing Cracked Dies. By Robert J. Albrecht 

Snapshots on the Road — KcotKiriiy of Soda Ash vb. Soda — 
lOlihiiiK l''irni Nairics on I'roducl— BrazixiR High-Speed 
Sliil 'i'ip lo Carbon Steel Shanl<H— Saving Time on Slot- 
ting XntK— liurnham's "Wrlle-Up" 

How We Came to Have the Micrometer Caliper. By W. 
D. Forljcs 

Providing for Up-Keep In Designing Jigs and Fixtures — 
Thi- in<-ori)or:ition of Foaturt-H which llt-diice the Cost 
of JIalntcnani-i- of Tools. By Albert A. Liowd 

The Science of Machine Tools — lOditori.ii 

Standardization of Drawings— ICilitorial 

The Machine Tool Industry — lOiiitorial 

Carburization and Heat-Treatment — The Carburlzation 
of Steel anil the Heat-Treatment of Carburlzed Parts. 
By .r. Cerrisb Aycr.s, Jr , . . ,. 

Testing Locke Steel Sprocket Chain — Facilities Provided 
in ilie l.ocke .Steel Belt Co.'s New Factory. By Edward 

Recent Legal Decisions Involving Machinery 

The Heat-Treatment and Testing of Shrapnel Shells — 
Iteior.l of TlH.riiiiKli Slio|. 'I'.st.s lo Sei-nre Data for III. By. J. M. Wilson 

Standard Jig Fastening. By Charles C. Anthony ' 

Grinding Cone Pulleys at the Norton Plant. By Harry W. 

Surface Grinding — Methods of Grinding Plane Surfaces on 
KeeiproeatiiiK and Rotary Surface Grinding Machines. 
By Donglas T. Hamilton 

Don'ts for Tool Designers. Ry I-^dward .T. Utz 

Setting Timer Gears on the Franklin Car 

Rectangular Drawing and Trimming — l.avinK Out Rec- 
l.uiKUlar lii'awiiiK Dies— 1 )eterniininB Number of Oper- 
ations— TriinniinK Drawn Parts. By Josepli M. Slabel.. 

Training of Shop Teachers for Industrial Schools 

Valve Part Manufacturing on a Bench Lathe 

Holding Work on the Magnetic Chuck for Milling 

Flashback In the Welding Torch— its Results, Causes and 

.M.liioiis of Prevention. Hy .M. Keith Dunbafri 

Standardization of Scleroscope Observations. By 

J. J. 

Japan's Machinery Trade r.:i 

Tap and Screw Limits — The Importance of Obtaining 
More iTitellij,-. nt Specifications for Taps and Thread- 
in:,- Dies 54 

The Angle of Torsion. By B, D. Pinkney 5S 

History of the Micrometer Caliper Again. By Uulhcr T>. 
BurlinBame '■< 

Two Useful Types of Boring- Bars. By F. Server... 

A Dividing Head Kink. By Gustave A. Kemaclc 

Handling Large Work on a Small Planer. By Ji/nn 




Facing Piston Rings. By 

Universal Link-Cutting Die. By B. Gelsl 

Relative Value of Soda and Soda Ath. By GeorKe B. 


Testing a Square, liy Gustave A. Kemaclc 61 

Micrometer Dials' for an Old Boring Mill. By \V. Whitley 62 
To Prevent Fountain Pens Leaking. By Osborii P. Loomls 62 

Milling Machine Indicator. By .Stanley l!:dwards 62 

Die-Setter's Screw-driver. By T. K. Ward 63 

Fixture for Grinding Threading Tool Cutters. By Ch&rles 



Method of Holding Long Drawings. By James B. Nelson. 63 

Twist Drill Design. By K. C. Peck 64 

Graduating Lathe Beds. By John A. Wood 64 

Draftsman's Pen- Wiper. By Charles F. Kopp 64 

LtJbrlcants for Drilling and Tapping- By O. K. Vorls... 64 
Cleaning Threaded Holes in Hardened Work. By K. Kern 61 

New Machinery and Tools; 

Gardner I'lslc (..rrnder 6ii 

Kockford Combination Drilling and Balancing Machine. 66 

Lees-Bradner Hyiierbolold Hob 66 

llealy Valve Tools '. 67 

Cooper Universal Joint 67 

Roekford Iti-inch I.athe .., 68 

Ford-Smith Shrapnel Shell Grinder : 6S 

Roekford Boring, Drilling and Tapping Machine 6!> 

Fox .Milling Machine 69 

Cooper .Shock .Absorbing Shaft TO 

Victor Shrapnel Shell Tap "0 

Dynamic Balancing .Machine ...» 4l--- '" 

Hydraulic Nosing and Bunding IVesses U-U -j^'- 

Massachusetts High-speed Hacksaw ^}\.^^yr.. '- 

Hartford Surface Grinder <|. ./} . . .<i. . .sj3 

Keves-Davis Scrap Reel I-H -L ' 

Uff-Set Drill Press .-Mt.ich ' ■ ^■' 

Camera for Reading Meters 

Wllzin Process for Flat-Ware 

THE INDUSTRIAL PRESS, Publishers, 140-148 Lafayette Street, New York 

f '^: ^ 







The form photog'raphically 
reproduced on the right, 
about half size, is typical of 
the mass of data collected 
by Machinery, for incor- 
poration in the Nev/ Pro- 
duct Index; designed to 
greatly facilitate the selec- 
tion and purchase of ma- 
chine shop equipment. 



Nominal SizE.JAL'.i^ 

/ To 3 

Chuck capacity (round) 

Chuck " (hex. across flats) _Z_ 

Chuck " (square " " )J— 

Swing (over bed ) . 

Swing (over o rooo olioc ) 

Maximum turning length- 

T. £fi. 





^y ■• -^tTM ^uro ore . 

Threading capacity /^"^ •• // -T -1"*"" yf Ch^'^'C /l,t,M 'f^'. 

Turret type (hex., square, round, or flat) F^^^^^~ 

Turret hole diameter (regular type turret) ;; 

Turret hole diameter— in holder. (Flat type turret) eLSi 

Top of turret to center of spindle. (Flat type turret) ^ 

Turret hole center to top of turret slide 2^2 

Turret ' " " cross " -^^ 

Turret face to end of spindle (maximum). 
Spindle hole diameter — 


Operating sleeve hole diameter 

Spindle speed changes (number) 

Spindle " range (min. — max.) /3 
Belt width (cone pulley type)- 


Belt width (constant speed- single pulley type). 

Motor Drive (H. P. of motor) ^I 

Feeds— turret slide (longitudinal) 2 — 

Feeds — cross slide, turret or head (transverse). 

Floor space (without rod feed) 5' X /!%- 

Floor " (with ■■ " ) ^' K ZO 

Net weight of machine (pounds) SYO" 

Crating material (domestic, approximate weight) <» ^^ 

Boxing " (foreign " " ) / 6o0 
Box (cu. feet) 4 IS" 



The large number of Machinery's readers directly or indirectly responsible for the pur- 
chase or selection of machine shop equipment, will be specially interested in the plan devised by 
Machinery to furnish buyers with specific information in condensed form covering all Ameri- 
can machine tools. The data will appear in Machinery's Product Index and represents a 
radical and very important development in ti-ade journal service. The form reproduced above, 
one of many returned to us by manufacturers early in July, indicates the thorough and definite 
character of Machinery's plan. 

Under each heading in the Product Index there will be a concise description of the ma- 
chine, and data which will enable the buyer to determine whether or not the tool is suitable 
for the work to be done. This new service is intended to aid both buyer and seller and to save 
needless correspondence and wasteful calls of salesmen. 

For more than a year we have been working on this Amplified Index, which was held 
up penchng decision as to a condensed catalogue plan propo.sed by the National Machine Tool 
Builders' Association. In July we began sending out our forms "to manufacturers. The work 
involves the detailed examination of hundreds of catalogues, etc., and the careful preparation 
of many forms like the foregoing. This basic work is now practicaliv finished and we 
believe that our readers will welcome the news. 



1 9 1 

THE extensive In- 
dustry which 
has developed 
In this country 
during the past 
year in manu- 
facturing rifles for the bel- 
ligent European powers has 
lead to a great demand for 
drop-forgings, and hence for 
the dies used in their produc- 
tion. This demand has been 
further stimulated by the fact 
that these war orders are 
taken on contracts calling for 
such early deliveries, that the 
process of manufacture must be carried on as rapidly as 
possible. This introduces two factors which tend to shorten 
the operating life of the dies: First, the intensive use of 
the dies themselves; second, the close limits to which the 
drop-forgings are held, in order that they may fit the jigs in 
which subsequent machininR operations are performed, and 
that the amount of metal to be removed may be reduced to a 
minimum so that the machining operations may be conducted 
as rapidly as possible. 

The actual requirements of rifle manufacturers for drop 
forge dies, and the number of die-sinkers which would be re- 
quired to produce them by hand, will be readily appreciated 
from the following figures. The average military rifle con- 
tains about 2.') drop-forged parts, and when several of the 
large factories which are manufacturing rifles for the 
European powers get into full swing, they will have an ag- 
gregate production of 15,000 rifles a day. A good die-sinker 
would require about si.\ da>-s to produce an average pair of 
dies, and their life is for making not more than 12,000 

• Kor other artlcloa on tin- milking of drop forci' Ulo8 pubUshcd in 
Machineiit. spc «Ibo ••MakliiK l>npllcale nropForKlnc l>lo»," hjr C. H. 
WUi-oi, August. lOU; "Drop Forge Die Sinking." by Chester L. Luca» and 
J. W. JohDaOD, putillshed In threo Installation!! In Jul^, August, and 
September, 19H. and other artleles there referred to. 

t Associate Kdltor of Machinbrt. 

With the constantly growing demand for drop forglngs, there 
has been a relatively decreasing number of men able to make drop 
forging dies. There are several reasons for the scarcity of drop 
forge die-sinkers, among which may be mentioned the Increasing 
use for drop forgings and the fact that men possessing the re- 
quired ability are llkeiy to find more remunerative employment 
In some broader and more congenial field. These were the gen- 
eral conditions when the large orders for military rifies required 
by the belligerent European powers were placed in this country. 
They created an unprecedented demand for dies required for the 
production of drop forged rifle parts. The supply of competent 
drop forge die-sinkers was practically fixed and the time re- 
quired to learn the trade made It out of the question to attempt 
to train more men. The problem was to find some method by 
which the difference between the output of the existing supply 
of die-sinkers and the demand for drop-forge dies could be made 
up, and a solution of the problem was found in the automatic 
profiling machine. The following article gives a description of 
the Keller machine and method of operation, together with de- 
tailed information concerning its use in the production of drop- 
forge dies. While the use of this machine In making dies for 
the manufacture of rifle parts Is referred to. the fact should be 
clearly understood that the method Is applicable to the making of 
■ Id that It can also be employed 

From the preceding figures it 
win be seen that 1S8 die-sink- 
ers are required to work at 
their maximum rate of pro- 
duction at all times in order 
to replace the dies aii fast as 
they are worn out. 

The supply of good die- 
sinkers in this countrj- has 
been steadily decreasing ow- 
ing to the fact that it takes 
a mechanic of a high order to 
make a really efficient die- 
sinker. It is well known that 
the supply of high-grade me- 
chanics has been inadequate 
for several years, and the exceptional men who have 
ability to become good die-sinkers are likely to find more 
remunerative employment in some broader line of work. 
As a result, there are only a limited number of competent 
die-sinkers available. 

The demand for drop-forging dies resulting from the manu- 
facture of rifles le<l to quite a lively competition in bidding 
for the services of die-sinkers. This was merely the means 
of enabling a certain manufacturer to obtain the required 
amount of labor by inducing men to come from some other 
factory: it did not have any affect on the total supply of drop- 
forge dies which could be turned out in a given length of 
time. But the use of drop-forgings in place of other ma- 
terials has been steadily increasing, notable examples of their 
use being in the construction of automobiles, sewing ma- 
chines, typewriters, and a great variety of other machinery 
and mechanisms. This increasing demand would soon have 
led to a similar condition as regards the scarcity of die- 
sinkers, which has been emphasized by the present rush of 
war business in this country. 

How the Maklngr of Dies controls n Factory's Output 

In any Industry where drop-forgings are used, the making 
of the dies and the forgings produced in them are the first of 


September, 1915 

provides the reciprocating motion of the work-table. For 
this purpose, there is a horizontal shaft J, Fig. 2, at the base 
of the machine, fitted with a pair of friction disks. These are 
set tight enough to drive, but loose enough to slip readily, 
after the feed motion for each reversal has been obtained. 
When the motor is running in one direction, the friction 
disks on the shaft J rock the link K back, and after this has 
been done the disks slip until the motor is reversed. Then 
the link K is carried forward and the hardened steel pawl 
carried at the top of the link engages the ratchet on the feed- 
screw and rotates it the required amount to give the feed that 
is desired for each reversal of the motor, after which the 
friction disks on the driving shaft slip until the motor is 
again reversed. The pawl may be set by means of the screw L. 
Fig. 1, to obtain the required feed motion, the feeds employed 
ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 inch. A graduated wheel at the 
end of the feed- 
screw shows the rate 
of feed which is be- 
ing employed. Hand- 
wheels M and "N are 
provided for use in 
controlling the feed 
by hand. 

Construction of the 

Special Reversintf 


The reversing 
switch which con- 
trols the driving 
motor is of a special 
design developed b.v 
the Keller Mechan- 
ical Engraving Co. 
The important fea- 
ture is the provision 
of pivoted contacts 
which engage the 

Profllmg Maciiiiit 

switch and afford a full contact at all times so that 
arcing is done away with. Hand operated controlling 
switches are provided at the right-hand side of the 
machine, where they are in a convenient position for the 
operator. A separate motor is provided to drive the cutter; 
and this motor also drives the tracing point in cases where 
rotation of the tracer is required. The power is transmitted 
from the motor by means of an endless rope belt and In order 
to give the required rotary speed for the cutter, different 
spindles are provided which have pulleys of the required di- 
ameters upon them. These spindles are interchangeable in 
the bearing box, which can be readily opened for the purpose 
of substituting a spindle with the required size of pulley. 

Two general forms of cutters are used on this machine. 
For taking the roughing cut, or "hogging out" the stock from 
the die-blank, different forms of fluted end-mills are em- 
ployed ; and after 
this preliminary op- 
eration has been per- 
formed, intermediate 
and finishing cuts 
are taken with spe- 
cial cutting tools 
which are made from 
drill rod. Different 
forms of fluted mil- 
ling cutters are used 
for taking the rough- 
ing cut. The form 
of cutter generally 
used is shown in 
Fig. 3 at .1. but 
when the sides of 
the die are perpen- 
dicular the cutter 
employed is of the 
form shown at B. 
The tools used for 

KeUer Mechanical Engraving Co. 

September, 1915 


taking the intermediate and finisliing cuts are shown at 
C and D respectively; and cutters of this character are 
easily made by grinding them out of a piece of drill rod. 
In order to get the proper relation between the movement of 
the tracing point over the pattern, and of the tool which is 
cutting the die, it is necessary to have the tracing point of 
exactly the same form as the cutter which is being used. In 
Fig. 3, suitable tracing points are shown beside their re- 
spective cutters. This illustration also gives a good idea of 
the way in which different speeds of the cutter are obtained 
by substituting spindles with suitable sized pulleys mounted 
on them. 

The cutters are inexpensive, and owing to the sensitiveness 
of the machine, they last for an astonishing length of time 
before they require regrinding. It is important to note that 
the Keller automatic profiling machine is so designed that 
the cutter works on both the up and down strokes of the 
work-table; there is no idle return stroke, and as a result, 
there is no time when the machine is running that it is not 
doing useful work. Hence, its productive capacity is cor- 
respondingly high. An idea of the rate at which the ma- 
chine works may be gathered from the fact that a % inch 
cutter will take a cut 9/16 inch in depth under a feed of 
0.012 inch and a cutting speed of 5 inches per minute. 
Cutters used on the machine range from % to 3/16 inch In 

After the roughing out of the work has been done by the 
fluted milling cutter, the special cutting tools are employed 
for taking the intermediate and finishing cuts. Each of these 
tools has the same taper at its point that there is on the 
tracer, the limit being 12 degrees. For cutting dies with 
very steep sides, an angular adjustment has been provided 
on the machine, which enables the pattern and the work to 
be set in such a way that the cut taken by the angular side 
of the tool is at the required angle to the work. This 
adjustment is only necessary where the sides of the work are 
required to be at an angle of less than 12 degrees with the 
perpendicular. In the case of steep sided work of this char- 
acter when the work Is not tilted, it is necessary to revolve 
the tracer point in order that it may be readily cleared from 
the pattern. By rotating the tracer, its action upon engaging 
the side of the work Is similar to that of a screw in its nut, 
and as a result the tracer moves out of the pattern with very 
little resistance. When the tracer is required to be rotated 
in this way, it is carried in a special spindle provided with a 
pulley, and the endless rope drive from the pulley on the 
cutter spindle Is carried up to this pulley to give the re- 
quired rotation. 

Makintr a Rl^ht-hand Die (rem a Left-hand Pattern 

In some cases it is desirable to be able to make a right- 
hand die from a left-hand pattern, or vice versa. A case in 
point Is shown In Fig. 4, which illustrates the three parts of 
a die used for pressing a sword grip. The two parts A and 
B make the sides of the grip, while part C fits into the socket 
in the die-block for making the lower part of the grip. For 
the two parts .1 and B only a pattern of the right-hand side 
was made. Then in sinking the two sides of the die from 
this pattern, one was made direct while the reversing attach- 
ment on the machine was used for the other. It has already 
been explained that the work-table is given a vertical recipro- 
cating motion so that the tracing point passes back and forth 
over the pattern and causes the cutter to follow a similar 
path over the work. This motion of the table is obtained 
from a feed-screw. For use In making a left-hand die from a 
right-hand pattern, or vice versa, the work-table is in two 
parts, which are engaged by a feed-screw threaded right-hand 
at one end and left-hand at the other end. It will be evident 
that the rotation of this screw causes the two halves of the 
table to have reciprocating motions in opposite directions. 
Then the movomont of the tracer point over the pattern causes 
the tool to follow the same path but in the opposite direction, 
so that the work Is the reverse of the pattern. 

Method o( Setting-up and Oi)eratlnir the Machine 

It has already been mentioned that the dies produced on 
this machine require no preparatory roughing out. In pre- 

paring to sink a die, the first step is to set the model up on 
the work-table. Then the die blank is located in the proper 
relation to this model by means of a suitable gage, and the 
fluted milling cutter is set up in the machine. After this has 
been done, the cutter is allowed to drill Into the work to the 
required depth for the roughing cut, this being limited by the 
tracer point which engages the pattern when the cutter has 
reached the required depth. Then the feed motions are 
started and the cutter Is fed over the entire surface of the 
die for the roughing cut. The hand wheels if and A' are 
used in operating the machine while taking the roughing 
cut, as shown in Fig. 5; and the automatic feed for finishing. 
After this has been done, suitable engraving tools are sub- 
stituted in the spindle and the intermediate and finishing cuts 
are taken, which completes the machine work. The die is 
then taken to the finishing department, where It is gone over 
by hand to remove tool marks and clean it up where such 
treatment is found necessary. Absolute uniformity in the 
work is assured by this method, there being no chance tor 
errors in the depth of cut or in the outline followed by the 
tool. The perfection to which this method has been developed 
is chiefly due to the fact that the Keller Mechanical Engrav- 
ing Co. does a large business in making dies, and that they 
used a number of their own machines for this work. Hence, 
the machines have been built with the users' requirements in 
view Just as much as the machine builders', and all weak 
points of the design, which could only be discovered through 
an extensive experience in operating the machines, have been 

• • • 


An ingenious and effective method of heating steel tires 
for motor truck wheels is employed in the works of the 
Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Co., Buffalo, N. Y. The wheels are 
made of ash, and the tires are forced onto the felloes while 
hot, using a hydraulic press for the purpose. The tires can- 
not be heated very hot, of course, for if heated to a high 
temperature the heat would char the wood and spoil the 
felloes. They are heated to a temperature that Just about 
makes the wood smoke. The heating is accomplished by 
means of a transformer, the tire to be heated being laid on 
its side in a sheet steel tub containing the transformer coil. 
When the current is turned on. the action in the primary coll 
causes the tire surrounding it to act as a secondary, and 
the currents traversing the rim heat It quickly and uni- 
formly. The coil is not placed exactly In the center of the 
tire, being on the contrary, placed near one side but the 
heat is uniformly distributed. Three minutes only are re- 
quired to heat a tire about one-half inch thick, ten inches 
wide and thirty-six inches in diameter to the required tem- 
perature. There are several advantages of the practice: 
the tires are heated quickly and uniformly; there is no 
danger of fire, an important consideration In a woodworking 
shop; they are heated without l>eing sooted or oxidized; 
and the workmen are not subjected to the heat and dis- 
comfort incident to working near a large heating furnace of 
the usual type. 

The United States supplies a large proportion of the gaso- 
line used for motor cars in Germany. Russia and the East 
Indies also furnish considerable quantities. It is believed 
that these sources of supply have now been cut off, so that 
outside of the accumulated stock of motor fuel, the wells In 
Galicia are the only ones from which motor fuel can be ob- 
tained, and these wells can be depended upon for crude oils 
only in limited quantities. It is reported that at the present 
time alcohol and benzol are used exclusively by cars In the 
military service, but the supply of alcohol Is also likely to be 
limited, as the grain, potatoes, etc.. from which it Is made 
must be carefully preserved for food purposes. In a machine- 
made war, such as the present one pre-eminently is, the ques- 
tion of motor fuel Is an important Item. Germany is a 
leader in the field of chemical science, and It will be Inter- 
esting to see if her scientists will be able to solve the problem. 


September, 1915 



TilK Johnson tool-holder shown in Fig. 53 is made by tlie 
Pratt & Whitney Co. This holds the cutter in a recess 
at the side, which has beveled shoulders to fit the beveled 
edges of the cutter. The latter, as seen in the cross-sectional 
view, is concave on the sides, affording the greatest amount of 
clearance with the least reduction of area; and on account of 
the bevel it is necessary to grind the top square for a distance 
equal to the depth of cut. The clamping is performed chiefly 
by the tool-post pressure. A knurling tool is sometimes super- 
imposed on the holder, and is pivoted to throw the knurl up 
out of the way when the cutting-off blade has to be used. The 
holder manufactured by the Billings & Spencer Co., Hartford, 
Conn., is made in two parts, as shown in Fig. 54, and united 
with a couple of screws, the one at the front being quite 
heavy. The pressure of the tool-post screw is also of assist- 
ance in binding the blade with additional firmness. An 
English style of holder with one clamping bolt is shown in 
Fig. 55, the blade making a close fit throughout the length 
of the holder, and being pinched for a distance of about one- 
third the length by the squeezing-in action of the bolt and 
elastic end of the holder. 

The Western Tool & Mfg. Co., Springfield, Ohio, makes 
straight and offset holders of the types shown in Fig. 56, 
embodying the principle of vertical pressure induced by a 
screw, and transferred to a grooved clamp that forces the 
cutter downward and firmly into place. A slight amount of 
backward and forward movement is allowed to permit of 
variations in the widths of cutter, and to insure a correct 
wedging action. The offset holder is made right- and left- 
hand, the one shown being right-hand, that is, when facing the 
headstock. Fig. 57 illustrates the straight and offset holders 
made by the Ready Tool Co., in which the beveled-section 
cutter is secured by a screw on top, and a lateral screw. The 
metal in the holder Is carried forward and downward at the 
nose to give proper support where it is most needed. The 
pressure of lateral bolts is also utilized in the Armstrong 
tool-holders. Fig. 58; in the holder A, the screw bears directly 
against the face of the cutter, and a wedging action by one 
bolt is employed in more recent designs B and C. Fig. 59 
represents a holder of European design, using the pressure of 
a bolt head in conjunction with a short beveled clamp which 
fits angular seatings under the head and in the bottom of 
the holder groove. The cutter has an enlarged top to in- 
crease the side clearance. A clamp pulled in the vertical 
direction may be noted in the succeeding illustration. Fig. 60, 
this being an English design. In at least one type of holder, 
a clamp is passed right across the cutter, and is pulled up 
by a couple of bolts, see Fig. 61. This is known as the Slate 
tool-holder, and is also made offset. 

Cutting off is an operation that is likely to give some 
trouble in the breakage of cutters or damage to work, because 
of the great liability of the tools "digging in." This is in- 
duced by either of two causes — one, the tendency of the rest, 
especially if of weak construction, or loosely fitted, to lean 
toward the work; the other, the tendency of the work to climb 
up over the cutting edge. A device that is introduced to pre- 
vent these happenings is the addition of a steadyrest to touch 
the top of the work and prevent it from rising. The Slate 
holder of this type. Fig. 62, carries an extension to the cutter 
clamp, and this receives a slotted rest adjusted to suit the 
diameter of the bar being cut off. Another style, made by F. 
Burnerd & Co. of Putney, London. England, Fig. 63, has the 
steadyrest clamped by two bolts which draw clamps against 
its beveled edges. The cutter is jammed firmly in place by a 
clamp drawn up by the set-screw. This holder is also found 
advantageous for cutting square-threaded screws, particularly 
long ones which would be likely to give trouble. Cutting-off 
cutters may be mounted in duplicate for cutting out rings to 
uniform widths. The Mingst holder. Fig. 65, for this class of 

• Address: 4S Sydney Bldgs., Bntb. Englnml. 

work has a widened head adapted to receive two blades and 
one or more spacing blocks to space them apart to an exact 
distance, the hole and the spacing blocks having tapered 
sides to keep the beveled cutters upright. A set-screw binds 
the whole arrangement in place. 

Screw-cuttintf Holders 

Holders for screw-cutting represent a special class, having' 
two requirements that distinguish them. One is the desir- 
ability of using a cutter which will preserve its edge profile 
during repeated sharpenings, the other the need for a swivel- 
ing action to twist the nose of the tool so as to make it go 
into the angle of the thread groove. This is particularly 
necessary for threads of short pitch, and for deep threads. 
The swivel action saves special grinding of the cutter nose, 
and also adapts the cutter for cutting either right- or left- 
hand threads equally well. A good many of the holders illus- 
trated are suitable for threading, within certain limitations, 
but none of them embody any special provisions for this class 
of turning. A distinction which may be noted is whether the 
holder is of the fixed-top-rake or the fixed-front-rake (clear- 
ance) style. The former is not so well adapted for threading 
purposes because the nose of the cutter has to be ground to 
shape, and this shape is soon lost in sharpening, whereas a 
fixed-front-rake cutter may be made of the correct profile and 
will retain this although ground repeatedly on the top, until 
the stump Is too short to be of use. On the other hand, the 
shallower depth of a fixed-top-rake cutter is preferable in 
certain instances where a deeper cutter would foul the sides 
of the thread groove. Both types are illustrated in the ex- 
amples following. 

A simple holder with fixed-front-rake is shown in Fig. 65. 
This is made by the Ready Tool Co., and the cutter is of a 
section ground to suit the thread to be cut, only the top being 
sharpened. By the addition of serrations and a wedge, the 
cutter is held rigidly without exerting excessive pressure with 
the set-screw. The same design of holder is also made in off- 
set style. A heavy tool-holder of English design. Fig. 66, in- 
cludes a set-screw below for adjusting and maintaining the 
cutter to the correct height, clamping being effected by 
tightening the grip of the split nose of the holder. Another 
style of tool-holder designed on the same principle is also 
manufactured with a wider opening to receive a chaser in- 
cluding several threads, for finishing. A method of fastening 
the cutter or chaser, which is adopted in many cases, is to 
leave it exposed at one side, so that threading may be done 
up to a shoulder. Sometimes the cutter is formed with an 
under-cut vee on the inside, matching the side of the holder, 
and is secured with a clamp bearing against a beveled edge 
at the back (see Fig. 67). Grinding is done on top, and the 
chaser can be used as long as there is enough of it left to be 
gripped firmly in the holder. To prevent risk of slipping, the 
side of the chaser in some holders Is serrated, and the serra- 
tions engage with similar ones on the holder. 

A popular style of holder includes a fine screw adjustment 
for the cutter (see Fig. 6S). This is a heavy type of straight- 
forward holder. Holders with bent shanks are also made as 
shown by the dotted lines in the plan view. Different types 
of cutters are shown in Fig. 69, comprising single-point 
standard forms A and B for U. S. standard threads, and Whit- 
worth threads respectively; the one-sided, or "single offset" as 
it is sometimes called, shown at C : and the offset or "double 
offset" D for working up to shoulders. The last-named cutter 
can be reversed in the holder, to bring the threading point to 
the right or left. There is a point of interest in connection 
with the shape of the profile of a cutter for cutting screws on 
the so-called S. I. system, or metric "SystSme Internationale." 
The cutter is different in outline according to whether a 
screw or a tap is being threaded; if the former, the point ap- 
pears as at A, Fig. 70; if the latter, the point is as shown at 
B. The reason becomes obvious on examining the fit of this 

September, 1915 



September, 1915 


Fig. 76. Taylor Swivel Type of 

Screw-cutting Tool-bolder 

and Ita Part«. 

Flar. 78. Union Threading Tool-holder with Cutter held by a 
Taper Socket in Shank. 

Fig. 81. Armstrong Threading Tool-holde 
provided with Screw Adju 



.\\\^^iiitj^i.< ^^'j^;^^^f^^i^^^ 

FlB- 80. Tool hfldtir with DlMk Cuttir jirovidod wltb Me 
for AdjuBtiuK Hoi«ht of Cutter. 

Fig 19. Tlircttdluf 
held by Dou 

with Cutter 

FlB. 83. Tool-holder used for BackluB Off Milling Cutter; 

Fig. 84. Spring Tool-holder witt 

Rubber Pad in Gooseneck and 

End Pressure Rod. 

Fig. 85. Tool-holder for 
Circular Forming Tools. 



Iffll llljlll 'JJJ 

Fig.88. Sections for Turning. Side Cutting and Screw Cutting Tools 

are shown at A. Deep Sections for Turning, and Similar Operations 

at B. Special Sections for Cutting-off Tools at C. and Sectloos 

for Cutters for Chamfering, etc. at D. 


type of thread, see Fig. 70 at C. The bolt has flat thread tops 
and rounded roots, but a tap to cut the nut threads is the re- 
verse style, i.e., rounded tops and flat roots. 

Threading can be done more rapidly with a chaser than 
with a single-point cutter, and the finer pitches can also be 
cut at one traverse. The objection to the chaser is that slight 
differences in pitch are likely to occur between the chaser 
and the correct pitch of the screw that is required to be cut; 
hence it is desiraWe for very accurate work to use a single- 
pointed tool, or a compromise may be made, roughing out 
more rapidly with the chaser to a diameter slightly over size 
and finishing finely with a single-point cutter. Two examples 
of fine and coarse pitch chasers are illustrated in Fig. 71 at A. 
It is best to chamfer the chasers off as illustrated at B, for 
right- and left-hand threads, respectively. The first point only 
takes a very shallow cut, and the succeeding ones gradually 
deepening cuts until the complete form is finished by the 
last tooth. Another use for holders of this kind is to receive 
cutters for special operations, as chamfering, rounding, and 
profile turning; the blanks are prepared to the same outline 
as those for ordinary threading operations, but the faces are 
milled to the desired profile, and as sharpening is done only 
on the top the profile remains unaltered during the life of 
the tool. The Rhodes square-threading tool-holder, made by 

the Pratt & Whitney Co., is of the type without top rake, 
and uses a cutter ground with suitable side clearance, and 
held by a strap and set-screw. Fig. 72. The strap has an 
elongated hole and adjusts itself to varying widths of cutters. 
Right-hand threads are cut with the cutter placed at one end 
of the bar, and left-hand when it is transferred to the other 
end. A narrower roughing cutter is sometimes employed to 
rough out the thread preparatory to completing it with one 
of full width. 

Some of the holders illustrated earlier in these articles 
possess an axial swiveling motion which is very useful for 
tilting a thread-cutting tool, and there are also some holders 
especially intended for screw-cutting, which also have this 
feature. An example is shown in Fig. 73. utilizing a round- 
section cutter passing into a hole in the shank, and gripped 
by a drilled bolt which pulls it up against a collar. The 
Smith & Coventry holder previously illustrated is also built 
with a cylindrical shank. Fig. 74, to rest in a concave block 
on the slide-rest, and so be swiveled at any angle for right- or 
left-hand square threads. Fig. 75 shows two other English 
designs of threading tool-holders with swivel heads, one of 
which is locked by a bolt passing through the shank, the 
second by two bolts sunk flush with the swivel plate. Messrs. 
Charles Taylor, Ltd., of Birmingham, England, have for many 

September, 1915 


years past manufactured a swivel holder. Fig. 76, carrying a 
cutter of vee-section pressed down into a socket or barrel .1 
by the small inner screw in the loop-piece B; the latter binds 
the barrel in the holes in the holder when the larger hollow 
screw is tightened, and the angle of the barrel may, of course, 
be varied according to the amount of swivr:l of the tool point 
demanded by the thread angle. As the cutter is only locked 
by the inner set-screw, It can be removed for sharpening or 
substitution without altering the angle at which the barrel 
is set. The perspective view shows the appearance of the 
assembled holder. 

The idea of using a permanent section of cutter which will 
remain unaffected by repeated sharpcnings is very attractive, 
as may be noted from the examples of fixed-front-rake (clear- 
ance) screw-cutting holders already shown. Another device, 
not adopted to the same extent, is that of embodying the 
section in a circular or partly circular cutter, which is re- 
volved as metal is removed by grinding. This gives a com- 
pact tool that is easily produced and very stiff and strong. 
The simplest way to attach the disk to the holder is to draw 
it against the side of the latter with a bolt or set-screw, a 
method open to the objection that very hard tightening Is re- 
quired to insure freedom from slipping under the cut. A 
greater degree of frictional grip may be obtained in the 
manner seen in Fig. 77, by pulling the sides of the holder 
against the disk. The latter, it will be observed, is notched 
out in four places, giving the choice of more than one edge 
to apply to the work that is to be threaded. This is con- 
venient for three reasons; it provides a reserve of edges In 
case of breakage, it also gives a reserve to obviate the need 
for stopping to sharpen a dulled edge, and it offers the choice 
of one edge for roughing and another for finishing. Such a 
holder cannot work close up to a shoulder; hence there are 
several holders with the disk located on the side, and an im- 
proved means of binding with the exercise of but moderate 
power on the screw. One such is shown in Fig. 78, which is 
made by the Union Caliper Co., having a tapered boss on 
the cutter, and the latter spilt through in order that the 
action of tightening the bolt may expand the cutter firmly 
into the hole in the shank. Another design incorporating a 
taper flit, illustrated by Fig. 79, is manufactured by the 
Machine Tool Attachment Co., of Manchaster, England. The 
disk is solid and is drawn in by the set-screw fitting in a 
bushing with tapered head. As this bushing Is prevented 
from rotating by a plug, the effect is to enhance the frictional 
hold, securing the cutter inside and outside. 

Another solution of the probleim of securing a circular 
cutter is shown in Fig. 80. This is rather an old idea which 
was originally evolved for general turning. The pin on which 
the disk is held is so placed that the pushing forward of the 
plunger rod by the screw at the rear has the effect of raising 
the cutting edge. The other two holes arc used subsequently 
after frequent sharpening has carried the edge a considerable 
way around the circumference. The Armstrong threading 
holder illustrated by Fig. 81 utilizes specially shaped cutters 
backed off behind the edge, and adjusted through the medium 
of the small stop-screw, after which the nut on the end of 
the pivot bolt is tightened. The dotted lines indicate the 
radial course of future grindings. Multiple-threaded cutters 
or chasers, on the same principle as those shown previously 
in Fig. 71, are also made in the circular form and bolted to 
the side of a shank. Spring threading tool-holders are pre- 
ferred in many shops, and some types of these incorporate 
one or the other of the methods already shown of holding 
cutters, together with a gooseneck shank. Fig. 82 is an in- 
-stance, this tool being made by the Western Tool & Mfg. Co., 
Springfield, Ohio. Just sufficient spring is afforded to pre- 
vent chatter while cutting the thread. 

FormliiB: Tool Holders 
Forming, when it has to be done in an ordinary lathe, 
may be accomplished with cutters held in some of the 
holders already shown, the chief limitation soon reached being 
that of width. But certain designs, shown in Figs. 47 and 
48 for example, will carry forming tools of generous width. 
Relieving lathes require a considerable variety of shapes to 
suit various profiles of milling cutters, and a useful holder 

for this class of service is that represented by Fig. 83, which 
is made on a similar plan to threading holders previously 
shown, and receiving blanks with standard bodies. The 
cutter shown is a narrow delicate one, but the holder Is 
equally capable of carrying a width of working edge equal 
to two or three times the width of the shank. Spring holders 
for plain turning, or for forming are employed to a limited 
extent, and one form is shown in Fig. 84. This has a rubber 
pad adjusted by a screw to regulate the amount of elasticity. 
Circular profiling cutters, similar to those employed on the 
cross-slides of turret lathes, are often used for ordinary lathe 
service, and a typical design is that utilizing a simple bolt 
fastening, Fig. 85, to draw the cutter against the side of 
the shank. 

It has already been mentioned that the various cross- 
sections of tool steel that are used for making the cutters 
for tool-holders can now be bought In the open market. Fig. 
86 shows a variety of these sections, together with a note 
concerning their particular functions. While all these sec- 
tions are in common use, there are, of course, special sections 
which must be forged to shape. These are not illustrated tor 
the reason that they are not standard forms obtainable in 
the open market; and such special sections for handling a 
single class of work are of little interest to those who have 
not had occasion to use them. 

• • • 



Even where the greatest care is taken, blanking dies will 
occasionally be cracked in hardening. When the crack is 
parallel with the angular sides of the die, the binding screws 
in the die-block will close up the crack; but when the crack 
is at right angles to the angular sides, it is much more dif- 
ficult to make the die fit for use. In some shops it is the 
practice to grind the sides of the cracked die square and at 
right angles to the top, after which the die is inserted in a 
solid shoe. While this method gives fairly satisfactory re- 
sults, it adds considerably to the original cost of the die. 

The accompanying illustration shows a cheap method of re- 
pairing a cracked die known as the "hot patch" method. 
For this purpose a piece of machine steel of suitable size has 
a slot milled in it to one-half its depth, the width of the slot 
being about 0.010 inch to the inch less than the length of the 
cracked die-block. This piece of steel is heated to a dull red 
heat, and the die-block is placed in a vise in such a way that 
the crank will be closed up tight. The heated clamp is then 

Hot Patch" Method of rtpurinc Crackpd D: 

taken from the furnace and slipped over the die as shown at 
A in the illustration. When the clamp cools, it will contract 
and secure a very tight grip on the die, which will be quite 
adequate to keep the crack closed. It is important to note 
that the cooling of the clamp should be hastened by dropping 
a little water on it. and as soon as the clamp has secured a 
preliminary grip on the die, the die and clamp are removed 
from the vise and quenched in water to prevent the hot iron 
from drawing the temper of the die. 

■ Addrwa: 1928 No. ChtUitni St.. Riclnc. Wis. 



September, 1915 


— "that little suggestion you have just 
made is wortlf all the information I 
have given you in the last half hour" 

THE field service men run across many time and money- 
saving ideas in the shop, and some of them are not purely 
mechanical at that. For instance, one of the large auto- 
mobile manufacturers of the Middle West turned an engineer in its factory to see what he could find in the way 
of leal<age and how it could be stopped. Some of the places 
where there was found a chance to save money were rather 
surprising. One of them was at the top of the soda tank 
where the oil accumulated from dipping work for cleaning. 
It had been customary to skim the oil from the top of the 
tank from time to time and throw it away. The object was 

to keep a clean surface 
on the soda tank, and it 
was not thought that 
the oil accumulated was 
worth saving. When the 
engineer discovered this 
fact, the skimmings were 
ordered saved and the oil 
cleansed, thereby effect- 
ing a saving of several 
dollars a year. 

Another more impor- 
tanjt leakage discovered 
and incidentally one that 
may be found in almost 
any shop of any size, was 
in the use of soda. The 
matter was very simple. 
One day he saw a box 
of soda ash in the shop 
and not being very familiar with the dif- 
ferent forms of soda he investigated and 
found that soda ash was merely common 
soda with the "water of crystallization" 
driven oft. Following this investigation, 
it was found that all the soda used in the 
factory was commercial soda, which cost 
approximately eighty cents per hundred 
pounds; soda ash cost about a dollar per 
hundred pounds. Less soda ash than com- 
mercial soda was required for a soda solu- 
tion and the results obtained were 

"Of course," said the engineer, "you see 
that soda ash costs us slightly more per 
hundred pounds than the commercial soda, 
but then, we don't have to pay for all the ' f 

water we used to use and we are saving 
several hundred dollars a year on this item alone 
you are." 

Etching: Firm Names on Product 
"Say," said the shop superintendent, "that little sugges- 
tion you have just made is worth all the information I have 
given you in the last half hour." 

The field service editor had been looking around the shop 
for a half hour getting a few pointers for his journal and in- 
cidentally listening to the description of kinks that every live 
shop man has up his sleeve. And then, when going through 
the assembling department, the superintendent lamented be- 
cause the marking of the firm name on the finished product 
looked so poorly. This condition was due to the unevenness 
of the stamping, particularly in regard to the depth of the 
letters. After hardening, the surface grinding operation ac- 
centuated the trouble, and the result was a very ragged look- 
ing firm name marked on the finished product. 

The field service man suggested etching, but this to the 
shop man had always been considered a very slow method, 
and one only to be used in emergencies. In a few minutes 
time, however, he was shown how by using an inexpensive 

So there 

engraving machine on the market, he could with a few 
changes, cut the desired letters in a wax coating on the 
product and then etch the legend quickly and neatly. The 
result leaves little to be desired. 

It was just another case of reciprocation in the exchange 
of shop ideas — and it proved to be a half hour well spent for 
both parties. 

Brazing- Hitfb-speed Steel Tips to Low-carbon Steel Shanks 

There is a user of heavy planers in New England who has 
cut his high-speed steel tool bill materially by using planer 
tools with low-carbon steel shanks and high-speed steel tips 
brazed thereon. A heavy planer tool, say 1% by 2% inches 
in cross-section, represents a number of dollars on the high- 
speed steel tool bill, but the same number of pounds of 
low-carbon steel adds but little more to the total cost of the 

But It took him some time to discover a good method of 
holding the tip to the tool shank. He now accomplishes It 
by brazing, and the little kink is in the method of applying 
the flux and spelter. Anyone who has done brazing realizes 
that It is "some job" to control the flux and the spelter while 
the two pieces to be joined are at the brazing heat. 

This manufacturer uses a foreign welding preparation com- 
posed of flux and the spelter pressed into sheet form. The 
sheet is scored with grooves, dividing it Into small diamond 
shape sections. The workman breaks off a piece of the right 
size and inserts it between the tool bit and the shank when 
they have been heated to brazing temperature, and then 
presses them firmly together. Thus the flux and spelter are 
applied just where he wants them and at just the right time. 
For brazing, this little tablet is "meat and 
drink in one." 

Saving- Time on Slotting Nuts 
"Sure you may go out in the shop and 
see if you can find anything of Interest for 
your paper," said the superintendent. 

The field service man started off, but 
just as he was leaving the superintendent's 
office, he was halted with, "And if you see 
any place where we can increase produc- 
tion or improve our methods, be sure and 
tell us about it because we are not thin- 
skinned around here; we like to know of 
all the points that will help us." 

The first thing that the editor saw after 
he entered the shop was a couple of boys 
running hand milling machines and slot- 
ting nuts. The vise jaws were cut away 
so as to hold the nuts at 
an angle, and after each 
cut th-e boy unscrewed 
the vice, turned the nut 
and repeated the milling 
operation. Ninety-nine 
per cent of the time was 
spent in turning the 
handle of the vice. 

The field service man 
secured his material, and 
when he went back to 
the office, told the super- 
intendent of the hand 
milling job and suppli- 
mented it with a des- 
description of a little jig that is shown in the illustration. 
The advantage of this jig is that it is loaded and operated 
entirely by one hand, while the milling machine table is 
operated -with the other hand. 

"Say, that looks good to me." said the superintendent. 

•'Th,^ advantage of this jif is that it 
is operated and loaded entirely by one 
hand, while the milling machine table is 
operated with the other hand" 

September, 1915 



"Can you tako shorthand!" 

and he reached over for 
"article" — just as 

i slip of 
we have 

"and I'm going to make one right away. Come in again 
when you're in town. We like to have visitors like you — 
it pays!" 

Burnham'8 "Write-Up" 
Once in a while we run across a manufacturer of the old 
school who thinks the chief function of a technical journal 
is to publish "puffs" and "write-ups." These fellows gen- 
erally are proprietors of shops so far behind the times that 
none of their working methods would look well in print. 

One of these fellows 
of the old school runs a 
shop in a city not far 
from New York. When 
interviewed, he thought 
it would be a fine idea 
to have an "article" 
written about his fac- 
tory, and after some 
deliberation he turned 
around with the re- 
mark, "Can you take 
shorthand?" The visit- 
ing editor replied that 
he regretted that he 
could not take short- 
hand, but he was a 
fairly rapid writer. 
This did not seem to 
satisfy the shop owner, 
paper and wrote the following 
reproduced it: 

"Oscar Rurnham of , N. J., has a very Interesting 

factory, lie is a manufacturer of plumbers' tools and 
metal specialties. Started in business in 1876. He makes 
a specialty of tinners' torches for all the trade. The goods 
are made for gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, electricity, nat- 
ural gas, crude oil, etc. In this factory can be seen cast- 
ing, machining, soldering, brazing, stamping, drawing, etc." 
It took a little argument to convince Mr. Burnham that 
this was not the kind of an article that Maohineky cared to 
publish, and he reluctantly consented to take the visitor 
through the shop. Fortunately, or unfortunately for Ma- 
OHiNisHv's readers, the shop was so uninteresting and so far 
behind the times that no space could be devoted to any of 
the work or metliods. 

* * * 



L. D. Burlingame contributed an interesting and valuable 
article on the origin of the micrometer caliper in the June 
number. It assemble<l in convenient form, that which has 
heretofore been scattered knowledge. I believe that which 
follows will be of interest to M.\riii.NEHY's readers when 
read in connection with Mr. Burlingame's article. 

In 1887 I was doing some special work for A. C. Hobbs, 
Superintendent of the Union Metalic Cartridge Co., Bridge- 
port, Conn. Mr. Hobbs was famous as a lock picker, having 
gained the prize offered in England to anyone who could 
pick the lock made by the Bramah Co. in a given time. He 
also opened the vaults of the Scottish Bank In Edinburgh, 
but he never picked the lock of the Bank of England, as 
commonly reported. 

I was in Mr. Hobbs' private ofBce comparing some 
punches with him, using a 1-inch Brown & Sharpe micro- 
meter for the purpose, when A. D. Laws came into the 
offlce. He was, at the time, I think, connected with E. P. 
Bullard in the manufacture of lathes. Mr. Laws was fol- 
lowed into the office by S. Wllmot, who with a Mr. Hobbs 
(no relation of A. C. Hobbs I believe) was rolling sheet 
metal by a new process invented by Mr. Wllmot. Seeing the 
micrometer in my hand, Mr. Laws put his hand into his 
pocket and drew forth a micrometer and extending it, he 
shook it at me and said; "There's the first micrometer ever 

' Address: 2S6 Hempstrad St., New London, Conn. 

made." Mr. Wjlmot immediately pulled a counterpart of 
Laws' micrometer out of his pocket and then Mr. Hobbs 
cried out, "Hold on," and opening a drawer in his desk he 
fished out a third micrometer. Mr. Laws' name was stamped 
on the frame of his micrometer. Mr. Laws and I had been 
employed at the same time by the Eaton, Cole & Burnham 
Co. in Bridgeport, my position there being superintendent, 
and very often in sport, I had stolen the micrometer, always 
to be found out and abused by Mr. Laws in his peculiarly 
fantastic language, the style of which was never paralleled, as 
those who knew him, will agree. 

Mr. Wllmot then told something of the history of the 
micrometer. He said that he and Mr. Hobbs had disagreed 
over the gage of a lot of brass supplied by the Bridgeport 
Brass Co., where Mr. Wllmot was Superintendent, and both 
got pretty warm discussing the matter. Mr. Hobbs finally 
said that there ought to be a better way of determining the 
thickness of sheet metal than by using a slot In a piece of 
steel. Mr. Wllmot said; "Yes, and I will make something 
that will do it, and tell us what is the percentage above and 
below any nominal thickness asked for." Mr. Hobbs re- 
plied: "If you can, you will save the world a lot of trouble." 
Mr. Wllmot then stated that he had seen in the plant of R. 
Hoe & Co., New York City, some years before, a measuring 
machine that had given him the idea of the micrometer 
now before us. He made a sketch and showed It to 
Mr. Laws, who gave it to Hiram Driggs to make. Six mi- 
crometers were made by Driggs from the sketch. 

Mr. Laws always insisted that he had specified forty 
threads to the Inch for this tool and twenty-five graduations 
on the thimble and Mr. Wllmot claimed the same suggestion. 
I never knew a better toolmaker than A. D. Laws, and I 
knew his bent of mind thoroughly. I am sure he never 
could, and never would have thought that 40 X 25 = 1000 
— that was not in his line. I was told by Mr. Driggs that 
Mr. Laws wanted the screw cut and the barrel divided so as 
to read to sixty-fourths inch and finer. Knowing Mr. Laws as 
I did, I believe the statement true. 

Of the six micrometers made, four can be accounted for 
as being in the possession of the persons named in the fore- 
going. Where the others went, I have tried in vain to 
find out. I understand that W. F. Durfee had one and that 
Isaac Holden was at one time in possession of the other. T. 
may be possible that some of your old subscribers in Bridge- 
port could tell us where these tools are. 

Mr. Wilmot showed me a key-ring which Mr. Driggs had 
made for him and which, with the measuring instrument 
seen in the Hoe plant, gave him the idea of the micrometer 
The key-ring was of the wire link type with a piece of tub- 
ing provided to close the gap on one side where the key.< 
were Inserted. A light spiral spring inserted in the tube 
held it in position. Mr. Wilmot's first idea was to graduate 
the part of the ring over which the tube slipped, and to In- 
sert the metal to be measured between the abutment and 
the end of the tube, making the spring produce the required 
contact. But this did not give fine enough measurements, 
and in talking the matter over with Mr. Laws, he suggested 
using a thread instead of a spring, and graduating the tube, 
as was done later on the micrometer. Mr. Driggs suggested 
dividing the other parallel side of the key-ring micrometer 
into tenths, enlarging the end of the tube to a disk and 
dividing this in order to obtain larger and more visible 
divisions. A central or revolution line, of course, was re- 
quired on the coarser division side. 

But the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. undoubtedly gave to the 
world this most valuable measuring instrument, no matter 
whether it originated in Franco or In Bridgeport, Conn. 
• • • 

Experiments undertaken to determine the hardening qual- 
ity of various oils used for quenching baths indicate that 
mineral oils are superior to cotton-seed and fish oils in their 
hardening effect. If the hardening effect of water is assumed 
to be 1. the hardening effect of mineral oils varies from 
0.16 to LM, while the hardening effect of cotton-seed oil 
seldom exceeds 0.16. or of fish oil. 0.15. Rosin has a hard- 
ening effect of from about 0.13 to 0.14. 

12 MACHINERY September, 1915 




X' llaiMtirru 

Fig. 1. Jig used for drilUng Receiver of Air Ri 

THE importance of providing for up-keep In the design of 
every sort of fixture used in manufacturing work cannot 
be over-empliasized, and tlie designer should not fail to 
take precautions which will cover this point. In many cases 
provision for up-keep can be incorporated in the design with- 
out increasing the first cost of the fixture to any great extent, 
while In other instances considerably extra outlay may be 
necessary. Much depends upon the accuracy required in the 
finished product and the number of pieces which are to be 
machined. For example: In gun work, when great quanti- 
ties of parts are to be produced, no expense is spared in mak- 
ing the fixtures in as durable a manner as possible, and in 
making provision for the replacement of worn locating points, 
surfaces, or the like. On machine tool work, however, dis- 
cretion must be exercised, so that the expense of fixtures may 
be consistent with the required rate of production and ac- 
curacy of the work. 

Many factors influence design in this regard. The size and 
general character of the work determine the type of machine 
on which the fixture is to be used, and, therefore, the need 
for stability and strength. The number of pieces to be ma- 
chined is a factor which must be considered, for it is ap- 
parent that a small number does not require any special care 
to be taken in regard to the matter of up-keep while a large 
number may possibly need several fixtures in order to pro 

• For nddltloniil Infoniintlon on thf doslgn of Jigs and flituros piiMishwl 
In M.icniNKUT SCO IlK' foUowlng articles by Albert A. Dowd: "The Kloatlug 
Princlpk. ns Apidled to Fixture Work." Mny, 191.'>; "Machlnlnir Irregular 
t'otitonrs." March. 1915: "Compensating and Quick-acting Clamping De- 
vices." .lanu^y. 1015; "The Influence of Chips on the Design of Tools 
and fixtures.*' October, 1914; "Methods of Holding and Machining Thin 
Work." August. 1014; "Counterbalanced Indexing Fixtures." April. 1914. 
See also the following articles: "Clamping Work in Jigs." December. 
1S13: "Economy In Tool Design." by K. 11. Pratt. September, 1!>1:1: "Some 
Jig and Fixture Designs," by Franklin D. Jones. January. 1911: "Improvtxl 
Method of Dimensioning Jigs and Fixtures." October. 1910: "rertinent 
Points In Jig and Fixture Design." by C. Nosrac. August. 1910: "Standard 
Designs of Jigs and Fixtures tor the Manufacture of Small Interchange- 
able Parts." by F- P. Crosby, published In two parts In July and August. 
1900: "Proper Designing of Mining and Drilling Fixtures and Jigs." by 
U. B. Little, May. 1900; and "Jigs and Fixtures," by Elnar Morln, pub- 

duce the necessary amount of work. In drill jig work, the 
locating points, bushings, and feet may be made so that tbey 
can be readily replaced when abuse or wear of these parts 
tends to cause imperfect work. The probable necessity for 
replacements is naturally determined by the rate of produc- 
tion that Is required. Another condition which Is especially 
prevalent In drill Jig work is the abuse which this class of 
tool frequently receives. If of too light a construction, the 
rough handling to which these tools are subjected Is often 
the cause of breakage, and it will be found of advantage to 
make sure the amount of metal in the Jig is sufficient to 
ensure freedom from breakage in the event of careless 
handling. Milling fixtures are frequently required to stand 
very heavy cutting so that great rigidity is an important fea- 
ture in their construction. 

In the case of horizontal turret lathe fixtures or others 
which revolve about a fixed center, it may frequently be 
found desirable to make locating rings, points, or surfaces in 
such a way that adjustment can conveniently be made about 
this center. A few noteworthy points of construction are 
given herewith. First: — Location of the work. This is of 
primary importance and the various fixed points provided In 
the fixture made in such a way that they can either 
be readily replaced or adjusted, according to circumstances- 
Second:- — The number of pieces to be machined should receive 
proper consideration in the' design, both in regard to cost of 
the fixture and in regard to probable necessity of replace- 
ments. Third: — Weight and rigidity of the fixture. This 
point is naturally somewhat dependent on the class of work 
for which it is intended, and the convenience of handling. 
Fourth: — Gibs. In the case of indexing or sliding fixtures, 
suitable provision should be made for adjustment by means 
of gibs or straps, in order that natural wear may be taken 
up. Fifth: — Cutting lubricant used. This seems a small 
point to consider in regard to up-keep, but a considerable dif- 
ference will be found in the life of a fixture used with soda 
water or some kin- 
dred cooling com- 
pound, and one on 
which mineral lard 
oil is used. A drill 
jig used for a large 
number of pieces, 
and having cast 
iron feet, will be 
found to suffer con- 
siderably in ac- 
curacy when the 
soda water com- 
pound Is used for 
drilling. Harden- 
ed steel feet should 
be used in cases of 
this kind. Sixth: — 
Revolving fix- 
tures. Fixtures 
which revolve 
about a fixed cen- 
ter, if subjected to 
hard usage or used" 
tor a great number 
of pieces, may be 
advantageously pro- 
vided with means 
of adjustment 
about the center of 
revolution. This 

is a refinement that Fig. 2. Jig with interchangeable Bushings for 
Different Tools used in machining 

is very infrequently cylindrical P»rt a 

September, 1915 



used, and it is not necessary in the majority of cases unless 
extreme accuracy is required. There are few points In con- 
struction which are applicable principally to individual cases. 
These will be noted in due course, in subsequent paragraphs 
of this article. 

Drill Jig- for an Air Blfle Receiver ForKlnK- 

The work A shown in Fig. 1 has been previously faced, 
milled and bored, and tapped at the end K, leaving four holes 
C, D, E and /«' to be drilled on the jig shown in the illustra- 
tion. This type of jig is "built up" entirely from steel parts, 
a rectangular plate forming the base of the Jig. The work is 
laid down on the hardened pin B and the heads of the two 
jig bushings C and D which are ground to a uniform sur- 
face. The threaded plug at iC is provided with a knurled head 
L and draws the end of the receiver up against the steel 
block N which is screwed and doweled to the Jig base. A 
thrust washer is provided at M and a slight float is allowed 
between the block and the plug. The stud G is screwed Into 
the plate and the set screw // running through it forms an 
adjustable stop for the side of the receiver, check nuts being 
provided at J. After the work has been drawn up by the 
threaded plug at K, the set-screw in the stud P is used to 
push the work over against the point H. 

The steel clamp is slid into position and tightened, and 
the set-screw Jt in the swinging clamp Q at the other end of 
the work is brought to bear at that point. The clamp Q is 
pivoted at V, and slotted at the other end where it is locked 
by an application of the screw and washer T and S, a steel 
stud U acting as a support for this end. The four legs of 
the Jig W are made or hardened steel, screwed into the plate 
and protruding through the other side to act as a rest when 
placing the work in position. It will be noted in the con- 
struction of this jig that all parts are easily replaceable or 
adjustable for wear, and that although the Jig is somewhat 
expensive in first cost, the provision for up-keep is excellent. 
It is obvious that drilling is done against the clamps, so that 
these must necessarily be made somewhat heavier than would 
be necessary if they were simply required for holding the 

Drilling and Reamintr JIk for an Electrical Castlns: 

The work A shown in Fig. 2 is part of an electrical ma- 
chine, and has been previously turned and faced. It is re- 
quired for this operation that the work be located by the 
previously turned and faced surfaces. The Jig body In this 
instance is made of cast iron and is of box section, as 8ho\vn 
at S In the illustration ; It Is bored out to receive the two 
hardened and ground locating rings E and F. There are 
three pins C 120 degrees apart, which act as stops for the 

W' uJ 

Fig. 6. Ring B 

holding Fixture prOTided with Adjuttable CUmpi 

Fig. 3. Indexing Fixture used for milling Teeth in Clutch Orar 

end of the casting, the ends of the pins being rounded so 
that dirt or chips cannot find lodgement thereon and cause 
faulty locating. The pin D simply acts as a stop for locating 
the Internal bosses on the work; and feet are provided at B 
so that Jig casting can be set up on this end for loading pur- 
poses. A swinging clamp J Is provided at the open end of 
the Jig, and this clamp Is provided with a rocker G which 
pivots on the pin H, slot K being cut for its reception. 

A swinging clamp-screw Is located at L, which works in 
the slot on the end of the clamp J. the nut and washer at il 
being used to draw it up firmly. It will be seen that an 
equalizing action is obtained In this manner on the swivel H. 
so that pressure is equally distributed on the end of the 
casting. As It was necessary during the machining of this 
piece to use several sizes of tools and to work from both 
sides of the casting, it was found advisable to use liner bush- 
ings P in order to prevent undue wear. These bushings are 
hardened and ground, and forced into position ; and the slip 
bushings Q are slotted to receive the pin R to prevent them 
from turning. The steel studs X and on oppoelte sides of 
the Jig body are ground to a uniform surface and act as feet 
for the Jig. In connection with this Jig it Is well to note that 
all parts subject to wear are readily replaceable, thus making 
the life of the Jig almost Indefinite. 

Indexlnt; Fixture for a Clutch Gear 

In every kind of indexing mechanism one of the chief 
points in design is to prevent variations in the spacing due 
to wear on the mechanism. The fixture shown in Fig. 3 is of 
a type which the writer has used In a number of instances and 
which is so arranged that wear on the indexing points Is 
automatically taken up by the construction of the device, so 
that the provision made for Its up-keep Is excellent. In ad- 
dition to this feature, the design is not very expensive and 
it may be made up at much less cost than many other kinds 
of indexing devices. The work A Is a clutch gear, the clutch 
portion /* of which is to be machined in this setting. As the 
work has been previously machined all over. It Is necessary 
to work from the finished surfaces. 

The body of the fixture G Is of cast Iron and It Is pro- 
vided with two machine steel keys at P; these keys locate 
the fixture on the table by means of the T-slots, and the hold- 



September, 1915 

down bolts lock It securely In position. The revolving por- 
tion of the fixture F Is also of cast Iron and gets a bearing 
all around on the base, while the central stud C is used as a 
locator for the work at its upper end, and holds the revolving 
portion down flrmly by means of the nut and collar at H. 
The fitting at this point is such that the fixture may be re- 
volved readily and yet is not free enough so that there is any 
losl motion. A liner bushing of hardened steel is ground to 
a nice fit on the central stud at E and will wear almost in- 
definitely, while an indexing ring L is forced onto the revolv- 
ing portion F of the fixture, and doweled in Its correct po- 
sition by the pin Y and held in place by the four screws R. 
The work Is held down firmly on the revolving portion by 
means of the three clamps J, these being slotted at K to 
facilitate rapid removal. 

A steel index bolt M of rectangular section is carefully 
fitted to the slot in the body of the fixture, and beveled at 
its inner end S so that it enters the angular slots iS and T of 
the index ring. It will be noted that clearance is allowed 
between the end of the bolt and the bottom of these slots 
so that wear is automatically taken care of. A stud is 
screwed Into the under side of the index bolt and a stiff 
coiled spring at N keeps the bolt firmly in position. The pin 
U is obviously used for drawing the bolt back and Indexing 
the fixture. Points worthy of note in the construction of this 
fixture are the liner bushing at E, the steel locating ring L, 
and the automatic method of taking up wear by the angular 
lock bolt M. 

Fixture with Inserted Jaws for Steel Casting 

The -work shown at A in Fig. 4 is a steel casting which has 
to be finished on the inside. These castings are made in two 
sizes, one of which is 1 inch larger than the other. It was 
desired to use the same fixture for both pieces in order to 
avoid the expense of making two fixtures. (The larger piece 
of work is shown in the Illustration.) For this purpose a 
fixture D was designed to be screwed to the end of the lathe 
spindle in the usual manner. There are four jaws B which 
rest in slots around the inside of the fixture, these jaws being 
drawn back into their seats by the screws C in order to be 
ground in place to the correct diameter. Beyond the ends 

Fier. 7. Fixture for holding Casting A which 
Single Operation 

to be finished hy a 

Fie. 6. Special Intorchangoable Jaws for supporting Tall Work 
Vortical Turret Lathe 

of the jaws, the pointed hollow set-screws H are so placed 
that they will come opposite to the web portion of the cast- 
ing. By placing them in this manner it is evident that the 
entire width of the web will resist the strain of the screws 
so that they ■will not distort the work. Further than this, 
the screws H act as drivers, as they sink slightly into the 
work when set up. Two holes G are drilled at opposite sides 
of the fixture, these holes being utilized to force the work out 
of the jaws when removing it from the fixture. 

A hardened and ground tool steel bushing E is placed in 
the fixture, and acts as a pilot for the cutter-head used in 
machining the work; and it will be noted that the surface F 
of the fixture is relieved to permit the passage of the tools 
through the work. In machining the smaller piece, it is only 
necessary to remove the jaws B and hollow set-screws H. and 
substitute those suited for the smaller piece. Therefore, one 
fixture was found sufficient to handle both pieces and re- 
placements were made easy by the construction. Adapta- 
tions of this type of fixture may be made for many varieties 
of work, when several pieces are to be handled, and It will 
be found both efficient and economical in up-keep. 

Bevel Gear Fixture with Adjustable Features 

The work .1 shown in Fig. 5 is a ring bevel gear blank of 
heavy section, which has been partly machined. In this in- 
stance the fixture is really composed of two separate pieces, 
one of which B Is screwed to the nose of the spindle while 
the other C is adjustable on the first piece. It will be seen 
by reference to the illustration that the piece C is clamped 
firmly against the body B of the fixture by the steel clamping 
ring D and the screws E. and it will further be noted that 
there is a slight clearance between the outside diameter of 
the body B and the inside of part C. Three set-screws F 
are equidlstantly placed around the periphery of the ring C 

September, 1915 



and these set-screws are furnished with check nuts as shown. 
By loosening the collar D and manipulating the set-screws F, 
the working portions of the fixture can be readily trued up 
when they become slightly out of true through use or abuse. 
A steel locating ring A^ is forced on to the ring G and Is 
ground to the size of the interior gear. 

The method of clamping is somewhat out of the ordinary, 
consisting of the use of three clamps O and an operating 
screw J and a floating collar K. The three clamps are placed 
120 degrees apart and have slightly oversize holes through 
which the screws H pass. These screws have a ball surface 
on the under side of the collar corresponding to a similar 
depression in the clamps themselves. A steel bushing M is 
fitted to the body B of the fixture, and is threaded with a 
coarse pitch thread which corresponds to that on the operat- 
ing screw J. After the clamps G have been swung into place 
on the ring gear, a few turns of the screw J sets all three 
of them with a uniform pressure through the medium of the 
spherical collar K which bears against their Inner sides. It 

Fip. 8. Fixture for performinr Fin^l Uachinmr Operations on 
Partially Finished Casting A 

will be seen that although a fixture of this kind is somewhat 
expensive In first cost, all the parts can be readily replaced 
at a minimum expense and the fixture may also be kept true 
with the center of rotation of the spindle with very little 

A Set of Jaws with Replaceable Featxires 
The heavy hub casting shown at A In Pig. 6 Is to be bored 
to the three diameters shown In this illustration, the vertical 
turret latho was selected as the machine on which the work 
was to be done. As the casting was somewhat long, it was 
necessary to give It more support than would ordinarily be 
possible with the regular jaws, so that the special Jaws shown 
were designed for this purpose. The body C of these Jaws 
was made of steel, and was tonguc<i to the sub-jaws of the 
table at D. being secured In place by the screws E and F. 
The auxiliary Jaws B were shouldered and serrated at J to 
hold the lower portion of the hub. They were tongued at 

their outer end U and drawn up against the surface of the 
main Jaws by the screws G. The upper portion of each of the 
jaws C was furnished with hollow set-screws K which were 
of the cup variety, a socket wrench being used at L to oper- 
ate them. In use these screws are pulled back out of the 
way and the work centered by means of the auxiliary jaws 
after which the screws are tightened lightly against the upper 
portion of the casting In order to prevent vibration. As these 
castings were of steel there was considerable wear on the 
Inserted jaws due to the sand and grit in the castings, but 
as both jaws and set-screws were readily replaceable the 
provision for the up-keep was excellent. 

Pot Fixture for an Electrical Piece 

The work shown at A in Fig. 7 is part of an electrical ma- 
chine, which is required to be finished in one operation. 
Three holes are provided in the casting at L for clamping 
purposes only. The body of the fixture D is of cast iron, and 
is centered on the table by the plug F. Three screws are 
provided to hold the fixture in place. The vee principle is 
used in locating the work; the four set-screws B and C form 
the angle of the vee, and the casting is pushed firmly over 
against these points by the screws -V and il on the opposite 
side of the fixture. The work rests on the three screws H, 
these screws being adjustable for height so that they may be 
operated in such a way as to both tip the casting or to secure 
a firm support. The pot casting which forms the body of 
the fixture is cored at the three points E both for the removal 
of chips which would naturally accumulate on the interior, 
and also to provide access to the adjusting screw U. In order 
to provide against wear, the bushings G are set into the base 
of the fixture and are threaded to correspond with the ad- 
justing screws. The clamping is accomplished by the three 
clamps J which draw the casting firmly down on the adjust- 
ing screws. The springs K simply keep the clamps up when 
Ihey are not in use. By making the set-screws B and G ad- 
justable, it is possible to take care of variations in a lot 
of castings by making suitable changes in the screws, and, 
as very frequently there are changes caused by two or more 
patterns being used, this point is very valuable. 
Fixture for a Hub Casting 

The work A shown in Fig. 8 is a hub casting which haa 
been previously machined on the surfaces B. G, and D. The 
fixture E on which it is held for subsequent operations Is 
made of cast iron; it is centered on the table by the plug F 
and held down by the screws G which enter the table T-filots. 
A steel locating ring H is forced on to the body of the fixture 
and forms the point of location for the work. Three studs J 
are set 120 degrees apart in the base; and they are surface 
ground to the correct height to support the work. ThlB ar- 
rangement makes locations positive regardless of chips or 
dirt. The clamps K hold the work down on the pins J. Fea- 
tures of this fixture are the ease of replacement of the locat- 
ing rings and points, and freedom from trouble which might 
l)e caused by an accumulation of chips or dirt. 
• • • 

The Pennsylvania R. R. operated 69,306 passenger trains 
in the month of June, 1915. and 90.7 per cent of them ar- 
rived at their destinations "on time."' Ninety-four per cent 
made the schedule time on their runs. A train may leave one 
terminal 5 minutes late, make its schedule time over a di- 
vision, and arrive at its destination 5 minutes late. Any train 
not over two minutes late Is counted "on time." The 
Buffalo division operated 971 trains in June and 98 per cent 
of them were on time. The Allogheney and Monongahela 
divisions had 96. S per cent of their trains on time, while 
the Bellwood and Baltimore divisions had records showing a 
fraction over 95 per cent on time. Ninety-nine per cent of 
the passenger trains on the Bedford and Bellwood divisions 
in June made schedule time, while the records tor the 
Buffalo, Cresson. Renovo, Allegheny and Tyrone divisions 
showed that over 98 per cent made schedule time. Only one 
division was under 90 per cent. The records show there has 
been a steady Improvement In the past year in the number 
of trains arriving on time and making schedule time over 
the divisions. 



September, 1915 

OopyrlEbt. 1916, by THE INDUSTRIAL PBEBS 

Entered At the Poet-Offlce In New York City as Second-Claae Mall Matter 






Cable addreas, Machinery Now York 

Alexander Luchars, President and Treasurer 

Matthew J. O'Neill, General Mauaffer 

Robert B. Luchara, Secretary 

Fred E. Rogers, Editor 

Erik Oberp. Franklin D. Jones. DouBlaa T. Hamilton. 

Chester L. Lucaw. Edward K. Hammond, 

Associate Editors 

Yearly aubscrlption— $2.O0; coated paper, $2.60; Foreign edition, $3.00. 
The receipt of a subscription Is acknowledged by aendlng the current number. 
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We solicit contributions from practical men on subjects pertaining to 
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The undoubted lack of adequate knowledge of the princi- 
ples underlying the cutting of metals is obvious to those who 
have tried to depart from the beaten path of machine-tool 
and cutting-tool development. In steam engineering, the 
principles governing the action of steam have been laid down 
mathematically. In electrical engineering, the refinement of 
scientific knowledge has been carried to such a degree that 
the efiScIency curves of an electrical machine of a new type 
may be drawn before the machine is even designed on paper. 
In the machine-tool field, however, the design of a new ma- 
chine is not based upon exact principles, but simply upon a 
knowledge of what It has been practicable to do in the past, 
and a reasonable judgment as to what might therefore be ex- 
pected. Hence the many possibilities in the art of cutting 
metals are as yet far from being realized, even with the aid 
of the best modern machine tools. 

Are these statements borne out by facts? In the most 
thorough experiments so far made in the cutting of metals. 
the investigator has developed a new kind of steel, and laid 
down certain laws as to the method of obtaining the best re- 
sults, but he has retained essentially the old form of cutting 
tools, without questioning their value as compared with other 
possible forms. A later investigator finds that by a radical 
change In the cutting tool Itself and also of the principle of 
removing the chips, cutting-speeds four times as high as the 
best previous results, may be obtained. How much more can 
be done is uncertain, as the theory of metal-cutting is prac- 
tically unknown. We do not yet fully understand what takes 
place when a chip is severed from a bar, nor do we know why 
the chip and the tools heat up. We know very little definitely 
about cutting-angles of tools. A. L. DeLeeuw, who has made 
some interesting and valuable experiments along these lines, 
finds that a tool with an inclined angle of 25 degrees applied 
in a radically new way to the work (the tool being circular, 
and rotating as it cuts), will stand up for an unprecedented 
amount of work as compared with the best regular lathe- 
tools. In fact, these tools have so great a capacity for re- 
moving metal that no existing types of machine tools have 
the power and rigidly required for their regular use. 

In steam engineering, which has been reduced to a science, 
It is possible to state within quite close limits what Is the 
highest efficiency obtainable from one pound of coal of a 
given quality; in electrical engineering, the percentage of ef- 

ficiency from the prime mover to the motor may be de- 
termined to a nicety; but in the removal of metal, we have 
not yet determined the fundamental laws of metal cutting. 
We cannot say how much power Is really necessary, for ex- 
ample, to remove a pound of metal under certain conditions. 
We know little as to the limitations of efficiency of machine 
tools; but we know that a very large percentage of the power 
expended in driving a machine is wasted in friction before 
reaching the cutting point and we know that we have not 
reached the limit of efficiency In shaping cutters. 


One of the commonest causes of mistakes and misunder- 
standings in manufacturing is the lack of uniformity of prac- 
tice in making drawings. The evil is particularly felt in 
jobbing shops which bid on contracts after having studied 
the drawings submitted. Frequently these drawings leave 
much to Inference and imagination, but it is a serious matter 
to bid on a product in the belief that a certain standard of 
manufacture is required when a higher or a lower one Is 
wanted. If the would-be contractor assumes that the stand- 
ard is too high, he probably bids too high, and if he assumes 
that It does not call for high-grade work, his bid may be 
too low for making a living profit. 

The paper "Reform in Drawings" read by Mr. Fish before 
the National Machine Tool Builders' Association Convention 
called attention to the mistakes which result from the mis- 
understanding of drafting-room conventions and practice, not 
in accord to commonly accepted methods. Here is an oppor- 
tunity for the Society of Automobile Engineers to add to Its 
already great work of standardization by fixing conventions 
— by the expression of limits and tolerances, the placing of 
dimensions, uses of dotted and broken lines, etc. — in short 
everything which makes a drawing a conveyor of specific 
instructions for making a part. 

The work of standardizing drawing practice will doubtless 
be extremely difficult, but if a national body of engineers 
were to adopt a standard of practice. It would soon be used 
in the technical schools and in up-to-date manufacturing 

Never was there a time when the machine tool trade looked 
brighter than it does at the present moment. The demand 
for engine and turret lathes, milling machines and other 
machine tools employed in the manufacture of shrapnel, ex- 
plosive shells and rifles, is unprecedented; and the indica- 
tions are that this will continue for some time. This boom 
in the industry recalls other periods of sudden and extraor- 
dinary demand like that which accompanied the remarkable 
development of the bicycle industry In 1896, and of the auto- 
mobile industry in 1906. But, while the bicycle industry 
rapidly declined, the automobile business shows little indica- 
tion of lessening in the immediate future. 

The introduction of the automobile had a far-reaching ef- 
fect upon the machine tool industry and machine tool design. 
The demand for high-grade materials capable of withstanding 
shocks and stresses of high-speed cars, made it necessary to 
design machine tools capable of working the metals at eco- 
nomical speeds and feeds. These demands, in turn, showed 
weaknesses in machine tool design and construction. For 
example. It showed that cast-iron gears were entirely Inade- 
quate In many cases. Consequently, the constructions which 
had been found reliable in automobile design, were adopted 
and used in modified forms in machine tools. 

Under the heavy pressure of war orders from abroad, the 
builders of machine tools and other machines used In the 
manufacture of munitions of war were confronted with the 
problem — How may capacity be Increased? To greatly in- 
crease capacity is not an easy matter. To build new plants 
or to add extensively to old ones If often Inadvisable — especi- 
ally when the demand for a product is abnormal. The safest 
policy for meeting the emergency Is to utilize the present 
facilities more than ten hours a day; and this means prob- 
ably the organization of a night force. 

September, 1915 







FOR certain uses steel parts are required to resist wear 
and at the same time be sufficiently tough to withstand 
shocks. Unfortunately, toughness and hardness are two 
properties which are completely opposed to each other in 
steels. If we harden a 1.00 per cent carbon steel so that 
we obtain the hardness desired, it will be too brittle to 
withstand loads or shocks. If we then draw it back or tem- 
per it so that it possesses the requisite toughness, it will 
lose too much of its hardness to answer our purpose. On 
the other hand, If we choose a 0.20 per cent carbon steel, 
which would possess the desired toughness, it would be in- 
capable of becoming hard enough. 

It is obvious that the ideal steel for this purpose would 
be one which was high in carbon at the portions we re- 
quired hard and low in carbon elsewhere, to obtain the 
re<iuisite toughness. 
There is but one way 
to obtain such steel; 
this is by the car- 
burizing process. 

In this process, steel 
parts of low carbon 
stock are packed in 
metal boxes or pots 
with a carbonaceous 
compound. Those por- 
tions of the steel 
which are required to 
be hard are sur- 
rounded with the com- 
pound, while those 
portions which are to 
be soft and tough are 
-surrounded with sand, 
or otherwise suitably 
insulated from the action of the compound. 

These pots are then sealed and placed in a carburizing 
oven or furnace and maintained at a heat of 900 to 1000 
degrees C. (1652 to 1832 degrees F.) for a length of time 
depending upon the extent of the carburizing action desired. 
Hy so doing, carbon derived from the carburizing compound 
is absorbed by the steel at the spots desired and the low 
carbon steel is converted into high carbon steel at these por- 
tions, while the insulated spots retain practically their orig- 
inal low carbon content. 

We therefore have obtained exactly what we required — a 
steel of dual nature — a high carbon and a low carbon steel 
in the same piece. After the steel has been carburized it 
must be heat-treated to develop its properties of toughness 
and hardness to the fullest extent. As we now are dealing 
with a steel which is in reality two steels in one, a high 
and low carbon, it is obvious that to heat-treat it correctly 
we must give it two distinct heat-treatments, one to suit the 
high carbon portion or case, as it is termed, and one to suit 
the low carbon portion or core. 

Fig. 1 shows pieces of steel so treated. Piece A shows 
poor heat-treatment resulting in an incompletely refined 
core; ]i and C show pieces perfectly treated with the case 
clinging to the core even after the pieces are bent double 
upon themselves; D and E show fractures of alloy steel with 
tine case and core. Having thus briefly described the process, 
we will be in a better position to proceed with its study in 

Theory of the Carburlzintr Action 

When it is difficult to explain the chemical or physical 

• Tor othor iirlii-lcs on oirtnirlr.lnK anil tlic licnt trpatniont of nlool e.v 
"Antomatlc Ilont Control" In the lieccmbor. 1014, nnnilior of MACiiiNisnT; 
"IxicnlhiB tho Crltlonl Ranco with the Brlnell Ball Toslor." Doccrobcr. 1!>U; 
"A Modern Hent-trentmcnt Plant." September. lOI-l: "Some Reeent Iin- 
provements In Casehardentnit Prnetlce." Ansntit. lOll: "llnrdenlni: Bolt« 
by the Ton," June, 1914; "Gas anil Oil Flre<l riimnres for Ueattnc Steel." 
May. inu; "The Acenrate Heat-treatinent of Roller Henrlnit Tarts." April. 
1014. and nrtleles there referred to. 

t Address: 101 RosevlUe Ave.. Newark, N. J. 

action involved in a process, there are generally a host of 
theories advanced. This is true in the case of the car- 
burization of steel. We will not dwell here upon the many 
hypotheses and theories evolved in the past for the explana- 
tion of the carburizing action as we are more interested 
in present-day opinion. 

The carburization of steel may be effected by gas, liquid, 
paste or solid preparations. The last medium Is under 
discussion in this article, being in more general use. The 
fact that carburization can be effected by gases alone has 
led to a series of researches by various investigators as to 
Just what gases play the major part in the process. It has 
in consequence been found that the carburization is effected 
chiefly by carbonaceous gases, principally carbon monoxide 
and volatilized cyanogen compounds. 

The former gas re- 
sults from the partial 
combustion of the car- 
bon contained in the 
carburizing compound, 
the latter from the de- 
composition of cyanide 
compounds contained 
in the mixture or 
from a combination of 
atmospheric nitrogen 
with the carbon in the 
compound. Carbon by 
itself has practically 
no effect. As the car- 
burizing gases men- 
tioned diffuse through 
the metal converting 
the outer portion into 
higher carbon steel, 
there is at the same time a diffusion of carbon from these 
more highly carburized zones Inward toward the lower carbon 
interior of the piece. In this manner, the penetration of car- 
bon extends deeper and deeper as the time of the action is 

It must also be observed that not only does the heat of 
the furnace convert a portion of the solid carburizing com- 
pound into effective carburizing gases, but it also heats the 
steel to a temperature at which the iron has a pronounced 
affinity for carbon. Carburizing action may take place as 
low as 560 degrees C. (1040 degrees F. ), but commercially not 
below 849 degrees C. (1560 degrees F.). 

The Carburizlntf Compound 
We have already observed the manner in which carburiz- 
ing takes place. To one who is familiar with the Uieory, 
it is obvious that there must be many compounds which, 
from a chemical standpoint, will produce the desired action. 
It is perhaps due to this that so many different compounds 
are on the market and each is giving satisfaction to Its own 
circle of adherents. 

In different shops different classes of work are handled. 
Each must meet certain requirements. A mixture which 
would give satisfaction in one case might be entirely unsat- 
isfactory in another. Where very 'small amounts of the 
compound are used each day, the cost per pound Is not such 
a vital or impressive factor as where several tons are used. 
In the former case, rich cyanogen compounds, very active, 
giving rapid penetration, may find favor in spite of their 
short life due to rapid deterioration. 

On the other hand, where larfte heavy pieces, requiring 
extreme depths of case, and hence, long runs In the furnace, 
are handled, a short-lived mixture would not be suitable. 
With solid work, such as shafts or arbors, which require 
no packing with sand or other insulating material, a finely 
ground mixture may be employed, but where sand Is used 



September, 1915 

a coarser mixture which can be separated from the sand by 
screening is advantageous. It can therefore be readily seen 
that there Is much diversity in requirements for compounds 
and this accounts in some measure for the diversity of 
opinion as to their respective values and efficiencies. There 
is no one compound which is ideal in all respects and only 
the uninitiated will recommend one particular compound for 
general application to all classes of work. As soon as in- 
vestigators recognize this point their results will be of more 
practical value. Each metallurgist should study his own 
particular requirements and then strive to produce a com- 
pound to fulfill them. 

When an extremely rapid rate of penetration Is required 
cyanide compounds are frequently employed. A molten bath 
of potassium cyanide gives a very rapid penetration, but 






Tig, 8. Photomicrograph of 0.12 i)>;i cunt Caiboa Steel. Magnifloation, 800 

only a superficial case. It is not effective for extreme depths 
of penetration and its use has many disadvantages, due to 
the dangerous nature of the gas given off. It is frequently 
added to compounds to aid them in giving rapid action and 
a very intense concentration of the carbon. 

Even for this purpose it is not to be recommended, as due 
to its rapid deterioration, it soon constitutes an Inert ele- 
ment in the mixture, particularly where it Is customary to 
use a batch of the compound repeatedly with a certain re- 
newal of fresh material. Compounds of cyanide such as 
prussiate of potash (potassium ferro-cyanlde), while not 
quite so energetic in their action, are less dangerous to 

Wood charcoal is one of the best bases for a compound. 
It is a good carburlzer and is to be particularly recommended 
on account of its long life. It should always be used in 
conjunction with some other element, as alone it has too 
slow a rate of penetration for commercial carburizing. In 
Europe it is frequently mixed with various proportions of 
barium carbonate and has found much favor. This mixture, 
however, requires a temperature of at least 1000 degrees C. 
(1832 degrees P.) to give its most efficient results. This 
temperature is higher than is considered good commercial 
practice and entails excessive deterioration of pyrometers, 
■ pots and furnaces, and in some cases the steel itself. When 
cyanide is added to the mixture there is also a tendency for 
fusion to take place at this temperature, and the ware does 
not come out of the pots clean and free from adhering par- 
ticles. Some of the proportions recommended by various 
investigators are given below: 

.4. 40 parts by weight barium carbonate. 

60 parts by weight wood charcoal. 
B 60 parts by weight barium carbonaite. 

40 parts by weight wood charcoal. 

36 parts by weight barium carbonate. 
C 54 parts by weight wood charcoal. 

10 parts by weight potassium ferro-cyanide. 
Of late, wood charcoal derived from poplar wood has been 

recommended, due to its low sulphur content. Mixture A 
gives a very high carbon content; mixture B produces a 
case lower in carbon and less likely to chip off, due to brittle- 
ness; mixture C gives perhaps the highest carbon content at 
the extreme outer zone of the case. 

All of these mixtures compounded with barium carbonate 
require a minimum temperature of about 1000 degrees C. 
(1832 degrees F.) to act efficiently, as has already been noted. 
They also have a tendency to render the ware very dirty as 
it comes from the pot after cooling down. In some cases a 
decided blistering of the surface of the ware has also been 

Mixtures of charcoal, burnt leather, charred bone, and bone- 
black In various proportions and combinations are fre- 
'juently employed. There is apparently quite a latitude in 
the proportions which may be used to give satisfactory re- 
sults. The charcoal acts as a base to which the other in- 
gredients impart their respective properties. Compounds of 
the abovp nature are not likely to fuse at temperatures be- 
low lOOU degrees C. (1832 degrees F. ) and generally pro- 
duce ware which is free from any soot or other matter adher- 
ing to the surface. 

Compound D, given below, would be a characteristic one of 
this class and gives very satisfactory results. When em- 
ployed at a temperature of about 960 degrees C. (1760 degrees 
F.) it exhibits good penetration, gives a case which Is not 
likely to chip off and ware which is remarkably clean and 
bright on the surface. 

35 parts by weight wood charcoal. 
D 30 parts by weight burnt leather. 
35 parts by weight charred bone. 

In making compounds we fortunately have a ready means 
for arriving at their particular advantages by actual com- 
parative tests. This is really the best and most practical 
way to develop a compound suited for any particular case. 
If possible, the steel employed in these tests should be of 
the same analysis as that with which the compound is to be 

Gnkins at a 

employed. In addition to this, to make the test strictly com- 
parable the specimens should be cut from the same bar of 
stock. If this is impossible, careful analysis should be made 
to Insure that all specimens are from steel of practically 
identical analysis. Cylindrical pieces presenting a circular 
cross-section are more suitable than those of rectangular 
cross-section, as they absorb the carbon to a more uniform 
depth. In no case should extremely small sections be used 
to test the compound for deep penetration, as the case will 
then practically extend almost through the piece and it will 
be very easy to make an error in estimating its exact depth. 
In a test of this nature we are particularly interested in 
determining the following factors: The rate of penetration, 
the quality of the case, and the cost per cubic foot of the 

September, 1915 



Having obtained specimens meeting the requirements 
already mentioned and all of the same size, we may pack, 
say, about six each in pots containing the several mixtures 
under investigation. Round pots are to be preferred to rec- 
tangular ones, for they give a more uniform heat throughout 
their interior, and hence the test specimens will be acted upon 
more uniformly. The temperature of the carburizlng fur- 
nace and the duration of the run should be the same a-s the 
practice In the shop. These factors are very Important, aa 
some carburizlng compounds give very satisfactory results 
for short runs, but rapidly deteriorate as the time in the 
furnace Is prolonged. The same variation in results may 
be caused by the effect of different temperatures on various 

When the run has been completed, several courses of pro- 
cedure are open for heat-treatment and examination of 
the specimens. It must be borne in mind that the long run 
In the furnace at a high temperature has given very favorable 
conditions for the formation of large coarse grains in the 
steel specimens, both in the case and the core, particularly 
the latter. If we quench directly from the pot we will be 
able to refine the core to a certain extent, but the case will 
be extremely coarse. The results, however, are often satis- 
factory enough to define the limits of the case and core. 
A better method is to follow this first quenching by a second 
heat-treatment and quenching at a temperature which is 
lower and suited to refine the case. The ideal method, from 
the standpoint of perfectly refining the case and core, is to 
allow the work to cool in the pot and then give it two heat- 
treatments, one exactly suited to refine the core and the 
second to refine the case. 

After being satisfactorily treated, the test specimens should 
be broken in two and the depth of case given by each mix- 
ture determined. In breaking the specimens, one side Is sub- 
jected to compression and the othor to tension, and this often 


produces a great dissimilarity in the appearance of the trac 
ture. In instances where the case heat has been very low 
and the specimen is of low carbon stock the core will be 
pulled over into the case and lead to the erroneous con 
rluslon that the case is extremely thin at this point 
Another heat-treatment of this specimen at a somewhat 
higher temperature with a fresh fracture will show the cor 
rect depth of the case. A little care and experience will soon 
prevent incorrect conclusions on this point. 
Qualit.v of the Case 
The quality of the case is a very important consideration 
Some compounds give a high carbon case for a short distance 
into the specimen, beyond which the case possesses a de- 
cidedly lower carbon content. Others give a fairly uniform 
carbon content over the greater portion of their penetration. 
The running temperature Is also a factor which affects the 

distribution of the carbon in the case and it is for this reason 
that it is recommended to run the test at the same tempera- 
ture as Is in vogue in the shop. 

The query naturally arises as to what constitutes a case 
of high quality. This point depends, just as should the 
nature of the compound, upon the requirements of the work. 
If a heavy load is to be carried by the article a deep case 
will be required, particularly It the core is of very low 
carbon steel. If the surface required must be extremely hard 
a case of high carbon content is essential. If the article has 
many sharp corners or very thin portions, which might give 
an opportunity for the case to chip off, we must lower the 
carbon content to suit this requirement. 

Fig. 8. Photomicrograph of 1.00 per cent Carbon Stcol ihowint ExceM 
of Cirbide of Iroa or Camentite Orminl, MiKniilcation, 100 

We must also bear in mind that it is not the extreme out- 
side surface of the piece as it comes from the carburizlng 
furnace that must conform to the requirements as regards 
carbon content, but that portion which will be exposed after 
the finished grinding operations. For example, a piece might 
be carburized to 1.00 per cent carbon content for a depth of 
0.015 inch after which the content might lower to about 0.70 
per cent. If the grinding process should remove 0.025 inch, 
as is sometimes the case, we would then have exposed a 0.70 
per cent carbon zone which would not give us the desired 

To make an accurate determination of the extent and char- 
acter of the different zones of the case would require a very 
careful and laborious analysis of successive layers. In this 
connection we may more wisely resort to the use of the 
metallurgical microscope which has proved of Inestimable 
value for this purpose. Its efficient use, of course, requires 
a certain amount of experience and knowledge of the princi- 
ples of metallography. We will only briefly outline the theory 
and procedure here, as this knowledge can best be acquired 
in the many excellent works on this subject. 

Steel as It leaves the manufacturer may be in any number 
of different states as regards its mlcrostructure. In order to 
study It under the microscope it should be heated to about 
1000 degrees C. (1832 degrees F.) and then cooled very 
slowly. The different constituents then appear in what Is 
called the normalized stale and we can resolve one from the 
other. The steel must then be polished with successive grades 
of abrasives until a mlrror-Uke polish has been given to its 
surface. The steel is then etched with a suitable reagent 
which acts unequally upon the different constituents, turn- 
ing some darker than others, so they can be distinguished 
under the microscope. 

If we now examine a piece of low carbon (about 0.12 per 
cent) steel under the microscope It will appear as shown in 
Fig. 2. The dark grains are called pearllte. The white 
background Is called ferrlte, and consists principally of Iron 
with a few impurities. 

If we examine the dark grains at a higher magnification. 



September, 1915 

they will appear as shown in Fig. 3. The white laminations 
are carbide of iron Fe,C called cementile and the dark lamin- 
ations are ferrite. In other words, a piece of low carbon 
steel, treated as mentioned, consiirts of a white background 
of iron or ferrite, interspersed with a few dark grains which 
consist also of some ferrite or iron in laminations or layers 
separated by laminations of carbide of iron, or cementite. 
We may summarize thus: 

White background = iron = Fe = ferrite. 
Dark grains = iron + carbide of iron = Fe + Fe,C = pear- 
If we examine higher carbon steel, treated in the same 
way, we will notice that the chief difference in appearance Is 
a larger number of dark grains, due to the increase of car- 
bon. See Fi'g. 4. It is obvious that there must be a steel 
of high enough carbon content to be composed of all dark 
grains and no white background. This steel would, there- 
fore, be composed wholly of pearlite. If now, we examine a 
steel with still more carbon, we will notice a re-appearance 
of the white grains, but in this instance they are carbide 
of iron or cementite grains, as this would naturally have to 
be the excess element when we increase the carbon. Se« 
Fig. 5. 

Steel which is composed wholly of pearlite is called 
eutectoid and contains from 0.80 to 0.90 per cent carbon. 
All steel under this in carbon content is called hypo-eutectoid, 
and all steel over 0.80 to 0.90 per cent is called hyper-eutectoid. 
The foregoing facts should be thoroughly understood as they 
are the ABC of metallography. 

If we take a piece of this normalized steel and heat it to, say 
840 degrees C. 
(1544 degrees F.) 
and quench in 
water, it will be- 
come hardened. If 
we now repolish, 
etch and examine 
again under the 
microscope, we will 
be unable to ob- 
serve any large 
dark and light 
grains, but a very 
fine structure lack- 
ing in any particu- 
lar detail. It would 
seem as if this 
treatment had 
caused the grains 
we observed before, to become merged together into a solid 
solution. This is just what has occurred and the steel is in 
the state of a solid solution. The main difference between a 
solid solution and a liquid one is that the former takes place 
among the constituents of a solid. Heating the steel to this 
temperature has allowed the solution to form, and cooling it 
suddenly has locked the steel, so to speak, in this condition. 
If we now reheat the steel or draw it back, starting with a 
low heat of, say, 149 degrees C. (300 degrees F.) and increase 
it, the steel gradually returns to the normalized state if we 
heat it high enough. While doing so it naturally passes 
through several transition states. These are starting with 
the solid solution state, called: austenite, martensite, 
troostite, sorbite, and pearlite. 

In other words, this reheating and cooling without any 
quenching, unlocks the structure of the steel and allows it to 
return closer to the normalized state. Having thus briefly 
described these points, let us examine microscopically a piece 
of carburized steel which has been normalized, polished and 
properly etched. We may naturally expect to find all varia- 
tions of carbon content from hypo-eutectoid in the core 
through eutectoid to hyper-eutectoid in the outer zone of the 
ease. In fact, actual examination shows this to be true. 

Fig. 6 represents a cross-section of the carburized piece 
and will serve to make clear the locality on the piece of 
each photomicrograph. 

Fig. 7 is a photomicrograph which shows a portion of the 




\ \ 
\ \ 

\ \ 





\ \ 


/ / 
y / 



Fig. 6. Cross-section of Carburized Piece 

sho-ning Location of Portions slioM-n in 

Tiga. 7 and 8 

bar from the outer edge inward almost through the depth of 
the case. We note the outer hyper-eutectoid zone where the 
light network is excess cementite, the succeeding eutectoid 
zone consisting of pearlite with practically no excess con- 
stituent, and next the hypo-eutectoid zone with pearlite and 
light ferrite grains. 

Fig. 8 is a photomicrograph taken at the spot indicated in 
Fig. 6 and shows a part of the same portion of the specimen 
as shown in Fig. 7. The two white lines ruled through each 
photograph show where they might be cut and Joined to make 
a continuous view. We note in Fig. 7 that the h>T>o-eutectoid 
zone as it extends inward toward the center of the bar, 
possesses fewer and fewer dark grains until we arrive at a 
point which is representative of the steel before it was 
carburized. It will be noted that in addition to the jet black 
pearlite grains there are apparently other dark grains al- 
though of a considerably lighter hue. These are ferrite 
grains which, due to different orientation of their crj-stalline 
matter, etch to different shades. The darker shading around 
the edges of the photograph is due, however, to unequal il- 
lumination of the specimen while being photographed. These 
effects cannot cause confusion in determining the pearlite 
grains, as they are so much darker. 

In photomicrographs, Figs. 7 and 8, is shown a specimen 
which represents a good carburizing process. The case will 
be hard when heat-treated and will adhere well to the core. 
It sometimes happens, however, when a very high carbon 
case is obtained that the cementite instead of surrounding 
the grains in the form of a network actually penetrates them 
and by thus breaking up the continuity of the structure 
forms a very brittle article. 

By careful study, one may become able to judge of the 
quality of the case as regards the extent of its zones, their 
carbon content and the physical structure of the case and 
core. Unfortunately in the present state of the microscopy of 
iron and steel, no satisfactory test has been evolved for the 
determination of the sulphur or any occluded gases. Where 
possible this should be obtained by chemical analysis, as it 
has a very important effect upon the quality of the article. 
If in determining the quality of the case we have no micro- 
scopical outfit at hand, we may test as follows: 

After the specimens have been heat-treated and the depth 
of case determined, we should then proceed to test the sur- 
face for hardness, at successive depths (obtained by grinding) 
by either the file, scleroscope or Brinell ball tester. Having 
already become familiar with the requirements of the par- 
ticular parts under test, we can readily find at what depth 
they cease to have the necessary hardness. This method 
does not compare with the microscope in giving complete 
details, but it is often sufficient for all practical purposes. 
Cost of the Compound 
The cost of the compound should be based upon volume 
and not weight, as a pot is always packed until it is filled 
and not with a given number of pounds. This is an essen- 
tial point, and although very obvious is often overlooked. 
Most compounds are sold by the pound and to get a com- 
parison of the cost we should convert this into cost per cubic 
foot. Having thus tested out the various compounds, we can 
then very readily form an opinion of their relative properties 
and value for the purpose in hand. We will now consider 
that we have chosen a suitable compound and proceed with 
the discussion of the actual operations in the shop. 
In regard to the packing, we may divide the work broadly 
into two classes: first, straight packing, where the piece is 
carburized over its whole surface; and second, the packing 
of insulated work. We will discuss the former class of pack- 
ing first. 

In order that pieces be as evenly carburized as possible, 
it is essential that all portions be heated uniformly. Un- 
fortunately, under commercial operating conditions it is im- 
possible to realize this fully, but we may take certain pre- 
cautions that will greatly aid in obtaining this object. The 
pot itself should be so designed that it permits the heat to 
have equal access to all of its sides, top and bottom. A pot 

September, 1915 



Fig. 7. Photomicrograph of Outer Portion ol Case. Magnification, 60 

which takes almost the entire width of the furnace, but does 
not occupy no much of the length of the furnace will not 
lieat etiually. When several pots are placed in the furnace 
they should be spaced far enough apart to give the heat free 
access. If they are banked together the outside parts will be 
heated more rapidly than those in the center and the ware 
in the pots will not be carburized uniformly. In .some fur- 
naces the portion of the oven space nearest the door is con- 
siderably lower in temperature than the back of the fur- 
nace, due to the loss of heat through the door, which is not 
as good an insulator as the furnace walls. In this case the 
furnace should not be loaded so close to the door. 

In packing the work in the pots care should be exercised 
to see that there is a tightly packed layer of carburizing com- 
pound of an inch or more in the bottom of the pot. If the 
parts are heavy this should be increased so that they cannot 
settle through the compound and come into contact with the 
pot walls. A layer of the parts to be carburized should be 
placed upon this layer of compound and more compound 
packed tightly above them. Alternate layers of ware and 
compound should be thus packed until the pot is filled to 
within an inch or so of the top. The uppermost layer of 
compound should be amply deep to allow for any settling or 
burning of the compound during the carburizing process. 
If this precaution is not observed the ware at the top of the 
pot may become exposed and Its surface will not respond to 
heat-treatment. No fixed rule can be given for the location 
of the parts In the pot, as their size, weight and shape govern 
this. They should, however, be so spaced that neither 
jarring nor settling will cause them to come into contact 
with each other or the pot walla. 

In packing insulated parts which are to be carburized only 
in certain portions, we are often confronted with problems 
which require considerable ingenuity to solve. Some of the 
simplest problems met with may be solved by the employment 
of sand as an insulating medium. For example, in the case 
of hollow cylinders or tubes which it is desired to carburize 
only on the inside, we may pack them one upon the other, 
being careful to keep them in good alignment. They may 
then be surrounded with sand outside and packed inside with 
the carburizing compound. 

This will produce a case on the inside of the cylinder, 
while the outside will have practically no case. In this con- 
nection, it may be stated, that sand does not always entirely 
prevent the action of the compound upon the article, tor some 
of the gas may penetrate the sand and produce a very slight 
case. Pure silica or beach .sand is often less effective than 
sandy earth or clay, as the latter possesses finer particles and. 
because of the clay content, is baked into a more Impervious 
mass, which better resists the penetration of the carburizing 
gases. Whatever medium is use<i it should first be thor- 
oughly dried. When sand is used and it Is desired to use 

the compound repeatedly with a certain amount of renewal 
by fresh compound, it Is obviously necessary to have a mix- 
ture which is coarse enough to be readily separated from the 
sand by screening. 

Instead of insulating with sand, as in the case just men- 
tioned, caps may be placed over each end of the cylinder and 
held in place by a connecting bolt and nuts. This method Is 
In quite general use and Insulates more thoroughly than 
sand. Another method employed Is to copper-plate the 
article at those portions which are desired to be Insulated. 
The copper, having no affinity for carbon, prevents Its passage 
Into the steel. In this connection care should be exercised 
to see that the plating is done under correct conditions, as 
otherwise the plate chips off under the effects of the carburiz- 
ing heat. Some compounds rich In cyanogen also attack the 
copper and render It Ineffective. This Is especially pro- 
nounced as the temperature of the process approaches the 
melting point of copperf, 1083 degrees C. (1981 degrees F.). 
It Is also obious that the heat must be kept well below this 
temperature In order to avoid the danger of the copper run- 
ning on the article. Still another method Is to leave extra 
metal on the portions desired free from case. The article Is 
then carburized all over, allowed to cool in the pot and the 
excess metal is then machined off, thus removing the case at 
the desired part. The article Is then heat-treated. 

In some instances It is necessary to use one or more of 
these methods on the same piece. It is here that the me- 
chanical ingenuity of the metallurgist may be used to good 
advantage In devising new methods and combinations for 
doing the work efficiently. 

After the parts are packed in the pot the cover should be 
thoroughly looted on with fireclay to which a small amount 
of salt may be added to prevent Its cracking excessively 
under the heat. The pots may now be loaded Into the 

Temperature of the Furnace 

The proper running temperature is dependent upon several 
factors, so that no one temperature could be recommended as 
ideal. The following relations hold: The higher the tem- 
perature the more rapid the penetration and the richer the 
case is in carbon. It is, however, obvious that too high a 
temperature will make a very brittle case, will also have a 
deleterious effect upon the steel, may fuse the compound, and 
will entail excessive deterioration of furnaces, pots and 
pyrometers. Some steels, such as the alloy steels, can with- 
stand a higher temperature without injury, than plain carbon 
steels. Certain mixtures, such as the barium chloride com- 
pounds, require a high temperature to produce their best 
results. As carburization does not take place efficiently be- 
low 849 degrees C. (1560 degrees F.), temperatures around 871 
degrees C. (IGOO degrees F.) will produce a slow rate of 
penetration. By going up to, say, 927 degrees C. (1700 de- 
grees F.) we gain materially in production without in any 

Fi(. 8. ContinuatioD of Tig. T, iboving Core. Marnification iO 



September, 1915 

way Injuring a good steel. As we get much above 982 de- 
grees C. (1800 degrees F.) there Is grave danger of Injuring 
the steel. Broadly speaking, we may say that from 927 de- 
grees to 954 degrees C. (1700 degrees to 1750 degrees F.) is 
a safe temperature for good steels and gives rapid enough 
p<netration to satisfy most conditions. 
Duration oJ the Bun 

The duration of the run depends upon the depth of the 
case desired. We have already considered the most im- 
portant factors, such as the amount to he removed in grind- 
ing, the zone desired at the surface, etc., which govern the 
depth of case it is necessary to obtain. It now remains to be 
seen how we are going to ascertain when this depth has been 
reached in the furnace, so that we may promptly unload it. 
If our steel was of absolutely uniform analysis, and all fur- 
naces heated uniformly throughout, we could, by experiment, 
soon determine when to remove the charge in the furnace 
without actually inspecting the depth of penetration. Un- 
fortunately these conditions cannot always be realized, so 
that the safest way is to remove a sample from the furnace 
and inspect. Our experience will soon permit us to estimate 
at least within a few hours when the depth of case has been 
obtained, and hence by withdrawing a sample or "dummy" 
well before the estimated time, we can tell just how much 
longer to leave the pots in the furnace. This dummy should 
be of the same steel as is in the parts being carburlzed, and 
as nearly the same in size and shape as possible — preferably 
one of the parts themselves. It should be conveniently 
located in the most accessible pot. At the time decided upon, 
the pot can be withdrawn from the furnace while the dummy 
is removed and the pot promptly reloaded again. The dummy 
may be quenched in water directly from the pot, reheated to 
a lower temperature to refine the case and quenched again. 
It may then be broken and the depth of case determined by 
the eye. From this procedure, which should not take over 
five minutes, we can estimate just how much longer to leave 
the pots in the furnace. 

One precaution which is very important is the determina- 
tion of how the temperature of the dummy pot compares with 
the other pots in the furnace, for if it should be much higher 
or lower the dummy would not be a safe indication of the 
depth of the case in the other pots. In many commercial 
furnaces there is considerable variation In temperature be- 
tween different parts of the oven space and these should be 
thoroughly unders;tood. This is particularly important in the 
carburization of articles of very thin cross-sections where a 
slight variation in penetration may result in carburizing en- 
tirely through the piece. 


The heat-treatment of carburized parts is perhaps one of 
the most difl5cult thermal processes. It often prevents diflS- 
culties which baffle the most skillful and experienced work- 
men and are apparently in contradiction of theory itself. To 
obtain mere hardness or toughness alone is not so difficult a 
task, but to obtain them both in the highest state to which 
they may be developed requires the most careful manipula- 
tion. Unfortunately, there has been a somewhat common be- 
lief that any low carbon steel should carburlze successfully, 
and this has resulted in much inferior work which cannot be 
laid to heat-treatment. Of this we shall speak later. 

In heat-treating the articles, the procedure should be gov- 
erned by the nature of the work and the requirements it is 
to fulfill. If it Is absolutely necessary to have the highest 
degree of perfection in hardness and toughness, the best pro- 
cedure is to give the parts two heats; a first heat and quench- 
ing at a high temperature to refine the core and a second or 
lower heat and quenching to refine the case. As to whether 
water or oil should be used depends upon the requirements to 
be fulfilled later by the parts. Water gives a more drastic 
and penetrative quenching effect and produces a better defined 
case and core. It is more Inclined to produce distortion of 
the article, however, especially in the high first or core heat. 
For this reason its use is sometimes prohibited more from 
a mechanical than a metallurgical standpoint. 

For the second or case heat, water is far superior to oil, as 

it gives a greater hardness to the case and this Is, of course, 
the sole object of the case, the core furnishing the neces- 
sary toughness. Here again, however, distortion of the 
article may be the governing factor In deciding upon its use. 
In some cases where very large and massive articles made 
from ill-chosen steel are carburized, it is impossible to get 
them uniformly file-hard without the use of ioe-cold water or 
brine as a quenching medium for both heats. Ice-cold brine 
may be employed where the highest degree of hardness is 

In the two-heat method the parts should be allowed to 
cool in the pots until they are at least below the temperature 
at which they might scale on being exposed to the air. The 
pots may then he unloaded and the parts, after being brushed 
and wiped clean, placed in the furnace for the first heat. 
The importance of having the articles perfectly clean and 
free from oil and grease before being placed In the furnace 
should not be disregarded. This la particularly true of parts 
which have just emerged from a high first heat and quench- 
ing in oil. If this oil and loose scale (if present) Is allowed 
to adhere, it will bake on during the second heat and result 
often In soft spots. The temperature of the first heat depends 
mainly upon the carbon content of the steel and the alloying 
elements, if any are present, and on the mass of the piece. 
Method of Procedure 

For straight carbon steel of from 0.10 to 0.20 per cent car- 
bon, the temperature will range from 843 degrees to 913 de- 

Fig, 9. Photomicrograph showing Grain Size of Core of Heat-trea.t«d Car- 
burized Steel, containiiigr 0.03 per cent Sulphur and 
Phosphorus. Magnification, 100 

degrees C. (1550 degrees to 1675 degrees F.). A test specimyn 
should be placed in the furnace, and the temperature giving 
the best refinement of the core determined. Where the pieces 
are large and massive, a higher temperature will be required 
to obtain the correct results. Lower heats may be used for 
water than for oil quenching. 

After the first heat the pieces should be washed In hot soda 
water to remove any oil, if they have been quenched in this 
medium. If the oil is allowed to remain on the surface It 
will bake on during the second heat and may cause soft 
spots on the case, as already mentioned. In the second heat 
the temperature to be used depends upon the same con- 
ditions already mentioned, namely, analysis and mass. In 
this case, however, the analysis is that of the case itself 
which, of course, is dependent upon two factors, the original 
analysis of the steel and the chemical content added by the 
carburizing compound. It is. therefore, obvious that two 
pieces from the same bar of steel, carburized by different 
methods, might require different heats for the refining of the 
case. A test specimen should be used to determine the heaf 
giving the best results. A straight carbon steel of 1.00 per 
cent carbon content in the case will require a heat of from 
760 degrees to 815 degrees C. (1400 degrees to 1500 degrees 
F.) depending upon its mass and the quenching medium used. 

September, 1915 



Analysis of the Steel 

The idea that any low carbon steel is satisfactory for car- 
burizing is a fallacy which modern methods are disclosing, 
for there is no branch of the thermal treatment of steel where 
the exercise of skilled judgment, based on experience, will be 
more amply repaid. This Is particularly true of carburizlng 
processes carried out on a large scale, for here any non- 
uniformity In the analysis would result in non-uniformity in 
the product. The writer knows of Instances where much 
time and labor were lost in fruitless attempts to perfect some 
method of refining the core of carburized steels very high 
In impurities. An analysis would have promptly indicated 
the trouble as due to the steel itself, and not to its treat- 

There are in use many different analyses, some based 
merely upon precedent, others upon scientific Investigation, 
with a view to radical improvement. The latter are giving 
very promising results and show that the field Is open to 
still further investigation. The carbon runs generally from 
about 0.08 to 0.25 per cent. As to what is the best content 
is not a subject for argument, but dependent entirely upon 
the nature of the parts and the purpose for which they are 
designed. Parts of very thin cross-section where the space 
allotted to case and core is of necessity small, should, if pos- 
sible, be made of the lower carbon analysis, as greater tough- 
ness can then be obtained in the core which is otherwise 


Tig. 10. Photomi<:roKraph showing Grain Sizo of Coro of Hijat-tr««t»d Car- 
burizod Stool containing 0.06 per cont Sulphur. Maffnlflcation. 100 

likely to be impaired in this respect, due to the case extend- 
ing more or less into It. 

If a tough core for any reason Is absolutely essential In 
the highest degree, the lower carbon limit will obviously give 
the most satisfactory results. Where hardness is the most 
important consideration and the toughness of the core may 
to some extent be sacrificed, higher carbons around 0.20 per 
cent or more will give satisfaction. They should also be em- 
ployed where It is essential that the pieces as a whole should 
possess considerable physical strength or where it is necessary 
that the case be firmly supported for excessive loads. In ad- 
dition to straight carbon steels the low carbon alloy steels 
are employed. They add to the parts the same advantageous 
properties for which they are employed In other classes of 

Nickel is a valuable aid In producing a core which readily 
responds to refining and at considerably lower heats than In 
steel In which it Is absent. In some cases results have been 
obtained by a single heat-treatment which compare most 
favorably with straight carbon steel, given two heats, one for 
case and one for core. The core resulting, has a fine grain 
and is extremely tough. 

Chromium gives a very fine grain to case and core and im- 
parts additional hardness in conjunction with the carbon. It 
has, howovi-r, when present much over 0.2.'> per cent, a tend- 

ency to render the core less tough, especially in steels around 
0.20 per cent carbon, or higher. 

Chrome-nickel steels containing both these elements give 
very fine results, with a Judicious determination of their 
limits. They give very fine grained parts after heat-treat- 
ment and can be treated at a considerably lower temperature 
than straight carbon steels. 

Phosphorus and sulphur are two impurities which are very 
detrimental to carburized steel if present in quantities in ex- 
cess of 0.05 per cent. In good carburizlng steels they should 
not exceed 0.04 per cent. This is very important, for it is 
quite frequently the cause of trouble experienced in refining 
the core and results in a very brittle article. Fig. 9 is a 
photomicrograph showing the grain size in the core of a 
carburized steel that has been given two treatments. The 
steel contained 0.03 per cent sulphur and phosphorus. Fig. 
10 shows the grain size of a steel similarly treated, but con- 
taining 0.06 per cent sulphur. This steel poEsessed a very 
coarse and brittle core, as the photomicrograph clearly 
shows, while the former steel had a very fine tough core. 
Too much stress cannot be laid upon keeping these two im- 
purities below 0.04 per cent. The manganese content may 
range from 0.30 to 0.80 per cent. The higher llmitfi, how- 
ever, tend to make a more brittle case. Silicon skould be 
kept below 0.20 per cent. 

In deciding upon the limits of analysis, care should be ex- 
ercised to prevent too wide a variation in any of the con- 
stituents. Eight points In carbon is the widest variation per- 
missible for uniform work on a large scale. Manganese 
should not vary over twenty points. No fixed rule can be 
given for the allowable variation of alloying elements, such 
as nickel, chrome, etc., as this depends upon the relative 
amounts of all the constituents present in the analysis. 

Certain elements aid while others retard carburizatlon — 
some in a very marked degree — and for this reason it is very 
essential that steels of different analysis be carefully kept 
separate. The following elements aid carburizatlon: 
chromium, tungsten, molybdenum and manganese. The fol- 
lowing retard carburizatlon; nickel, aluminum, silicon and 

In conclusion, it may be observed that while considerable 
progress has of late been made in the art of carburizing, 
there still remains much to be done to place it upon as 
scientific and efficient a basis as are some of its related arts 
The packing of the work by hand is crude. Inefficient, and 
inexact and this is equally characteristic of some of the less 
important steps. In sonic of the more progressive concerns 
the articles are located in the pot by jigs and every mechani- 
cal convenience provided for accurate and efficient work in 
every particular. This practice is, however, the exception 
rather than the rule, but It is a step in the right direction, 
and shows that the opportunity for improvement has been 

An interesting use was made of moving pictures at the 
annual Graduates" Lecture delivered at the Institution of 
Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain). This year. Sir R. A. 
Hadfield delivered this lecture. Perhaps the most Interesting 
part of It was the reference to armor plate and armor- 
piercing projectiles. This part of the lecture was illustrated 
by a moving picture display, the film being composed of a 
large number of drawings showing a projectile leaving the 
gun, striking the plate, the cap expanding and flying to pieces, 
and the projectile piercing the plate and exploding on the far 
side. The whole effect was excellent and care had been taken 
to produce a film built up from well-established facts. Al- 
though it was evident that the film was arttflclally produced, 
the presentation was very effective, as the series of drawings 
from which the film was made were carefully executed. 
• • • 

The quantity of iron ore mined in the United States in 
1914 Is estimated by Ernest F. Burchard of the United States 
Geological Survey to have been between 41,000.000 and 42.500.- 
000 long tons. The average decrease In quantity mined by 
the flfty-two iron producing companies was 33 per cent com- 
pared with their output In 1913. 



September, 1915 





HE manufacture of Locke steel sprocket chains was 

described in detail in an article entitled "Chain-making 

Extraordinary in a Scrapless Press-room," by Chester 

Lucas, which was published in the November, 1909, number 

Machinery. In 


this article it was 
pointed out that the 
conversion of strip 
9teel stock into 
chain was accom- 
plished without 
wasting any of the 
material in the form 
of scrap. After go- 
ing through the new 
factory which the 
Locke Steel Belt Co. 
has recently built in 
Bridgeport, Conn., 
tli« visitor will be 
impressed by the fact 
that the elimination 

of waste has now been carried to a further point of refinement, 
not only by the exceptional factory facilities and method of 
liandling the work, but in the careful checking up of the 
various manufacturing operations and a thorough testing 
of the finished product. 

The following are features of the factory which help to 
eliminate waste. The buildings are of concrete construction, 
making them absolutely fire-proof, and as a result, expendi- 
tures for fire insurance premiums are unnecessary. The 
walls of the main building, with the exception of space oc- 
cupied by the columns, are given over to windows, so that an 
abundance of natural light is provided. This increases ef- 
ficiency in manufacturing, and is also important on account 
of the fact that experience has shown good lighting to be a 
point of cardinal importance in testing and checking a 
product, and in the elimination of industrial accidents. 

Further provision against accidents has been made by 
equipping all power presses in the factory with automatic 
feeds or Benjamin safeguards, and it is a noteworthy fact 
that the provisions which have been made for the safety of 
workmen have proven so effective that there has not been a 
single accident since work was started in the new factory. Both 
the main building in which the manufacturing is done, and 
the storage ware- 
house in which all 
material is received, 
have platforms on 
a siding from the 
main line of the 
New York, New 
Haven & Hartford 
R. R., so that the- 
unloading of ma- 
terial and loading of 
product into cars can 
be handled at a min- 
imum expense. The 
factory has been 
carefully laid out so 
that the material 
moves in a continu- 
ous circuit, thus 
simplifying the 
transfer of work 
from department tci 

General Arrani^ement of the Plant 
The plant of the Locke Steel Belt Co. is divided into four 
departments. It has already been mentioned that the build- 
ings are of concrete construction. The offices of the com- 

pany extend across 

the entire width of 
the main building at 
the front. The re- 
mainder of this build- 
ing is divided into 
three bays which run 
down the entire 
length of the shop. 
The tool-room is lo- 
cated directly behind 
the office; then 
comes the press- 
room; the testing de- 
partment and ship- 
ping room are lo- 
cated at the far end 
of the building. The 
most modern toilet facilities are provided in the basement of 
the main building. 

The heat-treating department of the Locke Steel Belt Co. 
is housed in an individual concrete building which is 
equipped with oil-heated hardening furnaces, oil tempering 
baths, and the most modern form of instruments for deter- 
mining and regulating temperatures. A third concrete 
building is provided for the storage of material, which is 
of ample capacity for reserve stocks. The fourth building 
is a small wooden structure in which the hot-rolled steel 
stock, from which the Locke chain is made, is "pickled" in 
sulphuric acid to remove the scale preparatory to sending 
the material to the press-room. The use of wood in the con- 
struction of this building is necessary as concrete would be 
rapidly damaged by the acid fumes. 

Straightenlnsf the Steel 
When stock comes to the press-room, the first step in this 
patented process of manufacture consists of straightening 
it edgewise ready to be fed into the dies. A special machine, 
shown in Fig. 4, has been built for this purpose, the design 
of which combines several interesting features. The principle 
on which it operates is the same as that of the commonly 
used type of flat straightener, in which the material is passed 

between a series of 
staggered rolls; but 
in the case of most 
tlat straighteners. 
tlie different rolls 
are provided with 
means of making in- 
dividual adjustment. 
In the machine 
which has been de- 
veloped by the 
Locke Steel Belt Co. 
for straightening 
their steel stock, 
tliere are two sets of 
rolls — one for flat 
and the other for 
I'dge straightening 
each set consist- 
ing of two rows of 
rolls. In each set. 
I he position of one 
series or row of 
rolls is fixed, while 
the other row is 

September, 1915 


carried by an adjustable frame. 
In setting the machine, the 
position of the adjustable rolls 
is so regulated that the last 
roll just touches the stock 
which is to be straightened, 
without having any offset. The 
first roll is then adjusted 
toward the fixed rolls until the 
offset is sufficient for straight- 
ening the stock on which the 
machine is required to work. 
Thus, in passing through a set 
of straightening rolls, the bend- 
ing of the stock is gradually 
decreased from the maximum offset to no offset whatever, and 
the stock comes out perfectly straight, in the plane in which 
a set of rolls has operated. 

The first set of rolls flattens the stock or straightens it flat- 
wise, but has no effect sidcwise. The stock then enters the 
second set of rolls which provides for straightening it edge- 
wise. It has been mentioned that the machine is adaptable 
for straightening all sizes of stock used In making the com- 

the operator is required to 
use the gage A for testing the 
accuracy of the length of the 
chain, and gage B for deter- 
mining the correct size of indi- 
vidual links. In using gage A. 
the chain is slipped over the 
studs a. so that the links are 
held by the gaging surfaces. 
The distance between these is 
the correct length tor a given 
number of links and by fre- 
quent use of this gage by the 
press hand, the pitch of the 
chain is checked up as it is 
made, thus enabling a high degree of accuracy to be maintained. 
Gage B provides for making four different measurements on 
the links. The pin b is of the correct size for the loop on 
the link, the width of the head of the gage is the proper 
width c for the opening in the link, the groove d is the 
proper width for the hook of the link, and the groove e is the 
proper size for the round of the link which flts through 
the loop in the adjacent link. Th>' gap'-.s A and B can be 

pany's product, and for the edge straightening operation it 
is necessary to adjust the center distance between the suc- 
cessive edge straightening rolls of each row to fourteen 
times the width of the stock which is being straightened. 
For this purpose, means are provide<l for changing the steps 
of both the fixed and adjustable rolls along the bed of the 
machine in order to give the required distance between cen- 
ters. Experience has shown that with this setting the stock 
will come out of the machine perfectly straight, whilo if the 
center-distance between ad- 
jacent rolls were less than 
fourteen times the width of the 
stock, the strain would be so 
great that the edges of the 
stock would be upset, making 
it unfit t'cir use in chain mak 
iiig. iincl a very large amount 
of power would be consumed 
Testing: the Finished Chain 
All of the chain made in tlir 
factory is subjected to a care 
ful test which will disclose any 
weakness due to inherent de 
fects in the steel or damage 
resulting from irregularities in 
the fabrication of the steel in- 
to finished chain. Gages of 
the form shown at .1 and B in 
Fig. ;) are provided for each 
press, and at frequent inter\'nls 

tested to deatruction to deterrnine tTltimate Streoffth 


used very rapidly to make the five measurements which 
have been referred to, and their constant use guards against 
the possibility of producing any appreciable amount of de- 
fective chain before the error is discovered by the power 
press operator. 

After the chain has been heat-treated, and before it Is 
ready for shipment, it is tested on the machine shown in 
Fig. 5. On this machine 10-foot lengths of chain are loaded 
almost to the elastic limit of the material, and it there are 
any weak links, they will fall 
under this test. The test Is 
conducted by hooking one end 
of the 10-foot strand of chain 
iver a stud on the table and 
then attaching the opposite end 
to a hook on the weight lever. 
The weights are then applied 
to the chain in order to de- 
termine Its reliability. 

In the article previously pub- 

-hed in M.vrniNEnY, which 

;■ scribed the manufacture of 

• he chain, it was mentioned 

■ a coil of strip steel was 

1 through the die from one 

le and that a coll of com- 

■tely finished chain, made 

'in this material, was auto- 

.itlcally wound up on a reel 

lit the opposite side of the press. 



September, 1915 


The tesU o£ the chain described In the preceding paragraph 
give a fair degree of assurance that It is up to standard, but to 
make assurance doubly sure, two links of the chain from the 
ends of each coil of steel are taken to the machine shown in 
Fig. 6, where their ultimate 
strength is determined by load- 
inr the links until they break. 
For this purpose one link is se- 
cured to a hook held by the 
frame of the machine, while the 
other link is gripped by a hook 
carried on the weight beam. 
This beam is graduated like the 
beam of an ordinary weighing 
scale, and after the links have 
been set up on the machine the 
weight is run out on the beam 
until one of the links breaks. 
In this way the ultimate 
strength of the link is deter- 
mined. The way in which the 
links break also indicates 
whether the strip of steel was 
of good quality or the heat- 
treatment of the chain was 
done in a satisfactory manner, 
i. e., whether the steel in the 
finished chain has been brought 
to the proper condition, or if 
it is too hard or too soft. Expe- 
rience has shown that if any 
variation occurs in the con- 
dition of chain made from the 
same coil of stock, the weakest 
links will be found in those 
sections of the chain made 
from the metal at either end 
of the coil, so that this test 

'^luL'l b^J^^ii^-- 

ment to department, and when the chain is finished, the in- 
formation on the tags is copied oft onto forms shown In Fig. 
10, which are preserved in the office for future reference. By 
referring to this form, it will be seen that each coil of steel is 
given the steelmaker's "heat 
number," and when a lot of 
steel from a new "heat" Is re- 
ceived at the factory, several 
of the coils are Immediately 
sent to the press-room and 
made Into chain, so that tesU 
may be conducted to be sure 
that the steel is satisfactory 
before the shipment is ac- 
cepted. In order to run this 
"test chain" through the 
factory as quickly as possible 
and to accumulate all neces- 
sary dita, a tag of the form 
shown in Figs. 8 and 9 is at- 
tached to the reel, but the tag 
used for this purpose is red, 
while the ordinary tags are 
white. The red tag indicates 
that the chain on the reel is 
to be passed along as rapidly 
as possible, and observed 
closely for proper temperatures 
of heat-treatment, etc. 
Determining the Power Capacity 
of Dlllerent Sizes of Chain 
Fig. 11 shows a special form 
of dynamometer built by the 
Locke Steel Belt Co. for use in 
determining the wearing quali- 
ties and power transmitting 
capacities of different sizes of 
chain of its manufacture, when 

id ty Inspection Department 
Results of Tests 




^l^'? STANDARD /OaX -MLAy. 

"Sljj; MADE 


* I 



HutNo- 'l 


Ill4v:v'i>3 II I pc»vtC.taoi (Ui. 

Figs. 8 and 9. Forms printed on Tags 

gives the minimum ultimate 
strength of the chain produced 
from each coil. The form 
shown in Fig. 7 is kept by the 
testing department in record- 
ing the results of the test of all 
chain made in the factory. 

In keeping up the quality of 
the product, the expedient has 

been adopted of holding each 

workman responsible for the 

quality of his own product. For 

this purpose, a careful record 

is kept which shows the press 

on which each lot of chain was 

made, the workman who op- 
erated the press and the dato 

on which the work was done 

For the purpose of keeping this 

data, tags are employed which 

have the forms shown in Figs. S and 9, printed on opposite 

sides, on which the necessary information is recorded. These 

tags are tied onto the reels of chain as they go from depart- 

icording Each Step 

From Wh«n 
Ciili I I «l & 


7 \i . 

. II 


. i .. 

. II 


. M 


. lit . 

. II 


. Ito . 

. n 


. 10 . 

• 11- 


, J.^. 

. l■^ 


. S.k . 

. II 


. i« . 

■ 11- 

1 1 

lUijU . 

■ ii 


. 11 

K^ ' 

. II . 

■ II 




used ^y Office In 
made in the 

Process of Manufacture 

running at various speeds. It 
will be seen that this equip- 
ment consists of a pair of 
sprockets over which the chain 
is run. Instead of a prony 
^ „ brake to apply the load, the 

pill s.oii shaft which carries the driven 
sprocket is belted to an elec- 
tric generator. The current 
developed is delivered to a 
series of arc lamps, the re- 
quired number of which may 
be connected to the circuit; 
and incandescent lights are 
provided for making finer ad- 
justments for the power con- 
sumption. An ammeter and a 
voltmoter are connected into 
the circuit, and from the read- 
ings of Uiese instruments the 
number of kilowatt of power developed by the generator can 
be readily calculated. As 1 horsepower is equivalent to 0.746 
kilowatt, the power developed by the generator— and hence the 

keeping a Record of Every Ci 
Locke Factory 

September, 1915 



power transmitted by the chain — may be easiiy converted into 
horsepower. This test also affords a means of determining 
the pull on the chain in transmitting power at various Bi>eeds. 
We know that 1 horsepower is equivalent to 33,000 foot-pounds 
per minute. Hence, by multiplying the number of horse- 
power transmitted by 33,000, and then dividing the speed of 
the chain in feet per minute, we obtain the pull in pounds. 
There is a commonly quoted proverb that a chain Is no 
stronger than its weakest link. The rigid tests to which all 
of the chain made by the Locke Steel Belt Co. is subjected, 
both during the process of manufacture and after completion. 
Is the means of producing a chain of great uniformity with 
any chance weak link eliminated. As a result, advantage Is 
taken of the full strength of the steel and there is prac- 
tically no danger of a chain giving trouble when it is used 
for service of the character for which it is intended. 
• • « 


Grant of Patent Equivalent to Sale 

(Federal.) A grant, for a flied royalty paid in advance, 
of the right to use a patented machine during the full term of 
the patent, when it is to become the property of the licensee 
If he has observed the terms 
of the license, is equivalent to 
a "sale," and the owner of the 
patent, having received full 
payment of the price, fixed by 
himself, cannot by a provision 
of the license, restrict the right 
of the licensee to transfer tli> 
same for whatever consider 
atlon he may see fit. This i> 
so, even though the patentee 
still has the right under its 
form of license to require the 
transferee to purchase from 
itself certain things adapted 
for use with the patented ma- 
chine. (National Malleahlr 
Castings Co. v. T. H. Syming 
ton Co., 222 Fed. 523.) 

Notice to Cancel Purchase 
Contract May be Oral 

(New York.) Where a con 
tract of sale provided that, if 
the defendant could purchase 
elsewhere a similar machine 
better suited to his require- 
ments, its contract with plain- 
tiff "should expire thirty days 
after notice of such possi- 
bility shall be served," the 

provision requiring notice could be satisfied either by au oral 
or written notice; the use of the word "served" not neces- 
sarily implying a writing. (Lang v. Lux UJg. Co., 153 N. Y. 
S. 2'.)2.) 

Waiver of Breacli of Warranty 

(New York.) Where, in an action for machinery sold and 
delivered, a reasonable time has elapsed after delivery to 
enable the buyer to examine the machinery, and to reject it 
if not conforming to sample, a failure to return or offer to 
return the machinery within such time, constituted a waiver 
of breach of warranty as a defense. (Silbcrstein v. Blum, 
153 K. Y. S. S.',.J 

Liability of Manufacturer for Sale of Dangerous Machinery 

(New York.) A manufacturer of automobiles, who con- 
structs a hand brake on an automobile of Inferior n^aterials 
and who improperly assembles the parts of the car, is liable 
to a purchaser of the car from the manufacturer's agent, who 
had purchased it from the manufacturer, for Injuries to the 
car, caused by the defective equipment and negligent as- 
sembling. iQiiackriibiish v. I'ord Motor Co.. ].'<3 \. V. S. 131.) 

Verbal Warranty of Machine not Adnilsslble as Evidence 
(Michigan.) In the trial of an action for the price of a 
machine sold to defendant, wherein defendant gave notice 
that it would show that plaintiff, to induce the purchase of 
the machine, fraudulently represented that its Installation 
would save over $3,000 a year, such representation did not 
amount to a false representation, but only to a verbal war- 
ranty, inadmissible as evidence to vary the terms of the 
written contract of sale. A buyer who kept a machine and 
continued to use it down to the trial of the seller's action for 
the price was estopped to claim a rescission of the contract as 
a defense. (Linderman Mach. Co. v. Shaw-Walker Co., 153 
N. W. SJ,.) 

Not Entitled to Allowance 
(Kentucky.) In an action for the balance due on the pur- 
chase price of certain machinery which the buyer had used 
for two years, during which time he had made payments 
and had renewed his notes for the balance, though complain- 
ing of detects, he is not entitled to an allowance for such 
defects. He should not have made payments until the de- 
fects were remedied. (Oman-Bowling Green Stone Co. v. 
Sullivan Machinery Co., 170 8. W. 913. j 

Not Entitled to Warnlni? that Machinery Was Dangerous 
(Missouri.) Plaintiff, who had worked about a baling ma- 
chine, and was familiar with 
it, and to whom the danger of 
putting his band into It while 
it was moving was obvious, 
although the machine moved 
slowly, and could be readily 
and quickly stopped by a lever, 
was not entitled to any warn- 
ing of such danger which was 
merely incidental to the ser- 
vice; although, where the dan- 
ger is an extraordinary one, 
that is, not ordinarily Incident 
to the service, and the master 
has knowledge thereof, failure 
to warn the servant of such 
ilanger would be negligence. 

In such case the foreman's 
lirection to plaintiff to operate 
ue machine with the lid raised 
'^is not actionable negligence, 
iiere the lid was not designed 
protect the servant from 
:ie danger of injury by put- 
ag his hands into the machine 
:ien in operation, ana wnere 
lue defendant could not have 
reasonably anticipated that to 
operate the machine with the 
lid raised would occasion the 
injury, which could not have occurred otherwise than oy un- 
necessary exposure to danger, since the master is not an in- 
surer of the servant's safety, and if the method adopted, 
though not the safest, is a reasonably sale one. Is not Uable 
(or having adopted such method. (Piorkowski v. A. Lctchen 
.f Sons Rope Co., nti S. W. 250.) 

County Liable for Value of Machinery 
(Texas.) A manufacturer of machinery selling one of its 
machines to a county agent not knowing him to be such 
agent, and discovering the fact may call upon the county for 
payment of the machine especially where the county has 
benefitted by the use of the machine. (Dallam County v. S. H. 
Supply Co., iTo" S. IV. ■7911.) 

• • • 

As a quenching medium for hardening, mineral oils arc 
generally more elTcctive than fish and cotton-seed oils, which 
latter for a long time have been looked upon as the best oil 
for quenching purposes. A mineral oil having a specific 
gravity of 0.S6, a flash point of 420 degrees F.. a viscosity of 
170 seconds at 100 degrees F. as shown by the Saybold 
viscosimetor. gives good results and can be bought cheaply 

28 MACHINERY September, 1915 





yy//y////// ^ ^^^^//////^jj^/jffj?^/f^^fj/ 

Fig 1 Cross-sectional View of Shrapnel Shell shoa-inK Points A, B and 
C where Tests arc made, and one of the Tensile Test Samples 

WHILE most Canadian manufacturers have overcome the 
difficulties which are now more or less to be expected 
in taking up the manufacture of such a special and un- 
usual article as shrapnel shells, many of the firms are still ex- 
experiencing some trouble in heat-treating the shells to enable 
them to fulfill the requirements of government specifications. 
The object in heat-treating shells is to give the forgings a min- 
imum strength which will enable them to resist firing strains 
at certain points. The manner in which these strains arise 
and the condition of the steel necessary to meet them should 
be clearly understood by all those who have any responsi- 
bility in the heat-treatment of shells, as it is possible to have 
good and bad shells and still meet government specifications. 
The writer of this article has been actively engaged in treat- 
ing shells since the beginning of the war, and had to rely 
entirely upon his own resources in meeting and overcoming 
the troubles which seemed to arise on all sides, causing 
manufacturers serious, and by no means unfounded, alarm 
as to the ultimate success of their efforts. 

The government shell specifications call for a yield point 
or elastic limit, after heat-treating, of not less than :!6 tons 
per square inch, a breaking point or ultimate strength of not 
less than 5C tons per square inch, and an elongation of not 
less than 8 per cent in -'k inch. Officially there is no 
maximum specified tor either of those three physical char- 
acteristics; but as a matter of fact any unusual condition 
which is not in conformity with recognized metallurgical 
practice may cause the chief government inspector for the 
district in which the manufacturer is located to reject a 
shipment. Reference has been made to certain points in 
the shell which must resist the strains due to firing. The 
nature of these strains and condition of the steel best suited 
to meet them will be understood from Fig. 1, which shows 
a cross-section of the British 18-pound shrapnel shell. When 
a shell is fired from a gun, the base A is subjected to a blow, 
i. e., a sudden increase of pressure w-hich almost instantly 
attains a maximum of 12 to 14 tons per square inch, and 
imparts the initial velocity to the shell, The shell, being 
a body at rest, opposes this velocity with its own inertia, 
the result being that both compressive and tensile strains are 




degrees F. 


Temperature of 


medium, degrees F. 

hardness No. 


Fish oil 

Coal oil 

Cottonseed oil 
Engine oil . . . 
Oil of degnis. 


50 to 55 
65 to 70 

70 to 75 
75 to SO 
K2 to 87 


set up In the shell body. The shell body assumes the con- 
ditions of a column which has a compressive load varying 
from nothing at the nose, to a maximum at the base. The 
tensile load is due to the inertia of the bullets inside the 
shell. These bullets are subject to an Increasing compres- 
sive load from the top down, the resultant strain being a 
bursting effort which attains a maximum In the region of 
the point K known as the "set-up point." 

When the time required for the fuse to act has elapsed, 
the powder charge is exploded, and the contents of the shell 
are blown forward in the usual manner. The contents are 
released either by the stripping of the tljread of the brass 
socket, or else the walls of the shell yield at the point C. 
opening the threads sufficiently to free the socket. At A, 
(the base) the shell must be perfectly sound and free from 
flaws such as minute cracks, etc., which may allow the flame 



Heat No. 





Carbon, per cent 




Manganese, percent.. 




Decalescent point, de- 
grees F 




Quenching temper- 
ature, degrees F 




Temi)erature of oil. 
degrees F 




scleroscope No 

(>.") to 75 

6.J to 75 


Temiierature of water, 
degrees F 


Re.sultaiit hardness, 
sclerosfojje No 

55 to 60 

Tempered until sliow- 
ing a scleroscope 




Yield point, tons 

Breaking point, tons.. 




Elongation. ])er cent.. 


Ki 9 



• For other artleles on the manufacture of shrapnel puhllshod in 
Maohinbuv, see "Shrapnel and Shrapnel Manufacture" by Douglas T. 
namllton. April. lOir.; "Machining Shrapnel Shells, Marob. 1915; and other 
articles there referred to. 

t Address: Metallurgist, Chapman Double Ball Bearing Co. of Canadn. 
Ltd., ;!39-351 Soraureu Ave.. Toronto. Canada. 

• Note; This shell was then reheated and quenched in water with results shown 

from the firing charge to strike through with disastrous 
results to the shell and gun. The metal in the base must 
not be too hard or it may fracture under the pressure of 
the explosion, and it must not be too soft or It may flatten 
out and spoil the rifling in the bore. At the point B there 
is no maximum requirement so far as tensile strength is 
concerned, but any abnormal strength is viewed with sus- 
picion unless it is accompanied by a generous elongation. 
At B the metal is particularly liable to distension while the 
shell is acquiring velocity, and unless the shell is strong 
enough to resist the sudden bursting strain, and the amount 
of elongation is sufficient to cushion or absorb this strain at 
the instant of firing, the shell is liable to take a permanent 
set in the region of point B, with results mentioned above. 
The shell must not be too hard at the point C as it may 
burst, thus neutralizing the real object of a shrapnel shell 
which is to project the bullets forward with increased 
velocity at the predetermined instant, being in fact an aerial 
gun arranged to discharge its contents at any desired point 
of Its flight. The favorite expression of newspaper corres- 
pondents, "a fragment of shrapnel," would therefore indicate 
a prevalence of defective shells so far as the enemy Is 

September, 1915 



Having gotten these requirements firmly established in his 
mind, the heat-treating expert is now confronted with a 
double problem: How is it possible to give steel the suit- 
able strength; and having done so, how is it possible to 
know that the desired result has been obtained, without 
actually making test pieces from each shell. The principal 
condition upon which successful heat-treating depends is 
uniformity of material. Carbon and manganese are the 
principal substances which influence the results. The exact 
composition of steel specified by the government is not given 
to any manufacturers other than steelmakers. It is, however, 
generally understood to be a 0.50 per cent carbon, 0.60 per 
cent manganese steel. Allowing five points variation in carbon 
and 10 points variation in manganese, the requirements would 
be approximately 0.45 to 0.55 per cent carbon and 0.50 to 
0.70 per cent manganese. In one carload of forgings, the 
author's firm received shells from 23 different heats or melts, 
with carbon varying from 0.60 to 0.47 per cent, and mang- 
anese varying from 0.03 to 0.4'J per cent, with all possible 
combinations and proportions between these limits. The 
number of forgings supplied from each heat varied from 
one up to 1200 so that the question of determining the best 
temperature for each carbon content was indeed quite im- 
practicable. Many manufacturers at the present moment 
may be in a similar position, and the gravity of the situa- 
tion, both from a financial and a military point of view, may 
justify a somewhat detailed description of the method which 
was followed in treating shells of such varying composition. 

It is generally known to manufacturers that the highest 
tensile strength of steel is obtained by cooling it rapidly from 
a temperature slightly higher than the decalescent point or 
critical temperature. The degree of hardness resulting from 
this operation can be ascertained quickly, accurately, and 
repeatedly by means of the scleroscope. The degree of hard- 
ness thus shown is a reliable indication of the probable 
strength of the material; that is to say, after making due 
allowance for different makes of steel and varying pro- 
portions of the principal constituents, the scleroscope read- 
ings are a reliable indication of the results which may be 
expected when a tensile test is made of any given shell. 
In the opening months of the shell business, considerable 
reliance was placed on the accurate determination of the 
decalescent point. Forgings of varying analysis were re- 
ceived; the carbon being from 0.48 to 0.53 per cent, and the 
manganese from 0.54 to 0.69 per cent. All steels whose com- 
position was within those limits showed a decalescent point 
of between 1390 and 1425 degrees F., and when quenched in 





y|— 1675 
/y^— 1660 







-2 2"? 7 2 Z 2 

c 0.42 







2:2:2,? 2:7? 




o < 












til Z ill Z 



0.56 ■ 
CV - 





^A, , '-" 

V '2 Z '"Z"2 7 


;2 '7 7'?'i'Z't 

'^Zl'Z'l ZZ'Z. 







I AViiA V\V\y\y 

'I'l.l.Z . 

^ 0.62 ■ 

212 2 212 2 Z 








0. 0.55 0.60 


0.65 0. ^ 



Scleroscope reading on 
Heat No. test piece after ma- 

Yield point. Breaking Elongation, 
tons point, tons per cent 

, Out.side 53— .5:i— 50 ( 
Inside .55— .5.5— .Vi ) 

., Outside .52—54—50 ( 
Inside .5.5—57- 53 f 

_ Outside 57—57—49 ( 
" liiMile 6()-(i2-51 S 

55.8 73.3 14.3 
.53. K 72.4 17.4 

.-,■.■ '• " ■: 12 : 

water at 50 degrees F. above the decalescent point, such 
steels would have a scleroscope hardness number a£ high 
as 85; but when quenched In ordinary fish oil the hardness 
was only slightly over 50, the sample being 1 inch square 
and % inch thick. A complete shell quenched in fish oil 
would show a scleroscope hardness number at the set-up 
point of 3S to 40. Test pieces from such a shell failed to 
reach the minimum breaking strength of 56 tons by the 
narrow margin of 0.6 tons, and this failure brought up the 
question of which was the best quenching medium. A 
series of experiments gave the results presented in Table I; 
all conditions were equal in each test, and the test pieces 
were all made from the same forging. 

From the results of the tests presented in Table I, oil of 
degras, commercially known as "No. 2 soluble quenching 
oil," was selected as the quenching medium and operations 
were commenced on forgings supplied from two separate 
heats. The results were all that could be desired until forg- 
ings were received from a certain heat, which would not 
respond to treatment based upon the results of preliminary 
experiments. Investigation yielded the results presented in 
Table II. While water-treatment of the forgings from Heat 
No. 3 gave satisfactory strengths under test, the liability of 
shells to crack, owing to their thin walls contracting more 
rapidly than the base, was a fatal objection to this method. 
Attention should be called to the fact that while the tem- 
perature at which quenching should be done is specified by 
the government at 1560 degrees F.. manufacturers are not 
tied down to this particular temperature. What Is required 
is that the manufacturers shall so treat the material that It 
will fulfill the requirements already stated. If while ful- 
filling the requirements, should the treatment prove detrimen- 
tal to the shell in other respects, then it is time for the manu- 
facturer to worry. 

Referring to results presented in Table II, Heat No. 3, 
it will be observed that the manganese is only 0.47 per 
cent with carbon 0.50 per cent. Comparing Heat No. 3 with 
Heat No. 1, it is evident that an increase of 5 points carbon 
is more than offset by a reduction of 21 points in the 
manganese. Increase of temperature seemed to offer the 
greatest possibilities and sample shells were drawn every 
12io degrees up to 1675 degrees F. The greatest hardness 
was obtained at 1637 ':« scleroscope readings of 50 to 55 be- 
ing the average. This was not considered satisfactory, and 
the oil-circulating pump was speeded up. Scleroscope read- 
ings as high as 65 were frequently obtained at a quenching 
temperature of approximately 1635 degrees, and when the 
shell was tempered to read 48 to 52 on the scleroscope, 
three test pieces from one shell gave the results presented 
in Table III. A careful study of this data revealed the fact 
that, while a low carbon, low manganese steel hardens satis- 
factorily within a very limited range of temperature, a 
medium steel has a wider range, and a high steel a still 
wider range of hardening temperature. 

When the shipment of mixed heats previously referred to 
was treated, the method pursued was to take 0.50 per cent 
carbon and 0.50 per cent manganese as a base composition 
which hardened at 1600 degrees F. to show 55 to 65 hardness 
on the scleroscope. Then: (a) If. for every point of carbon 
below 50 there be present 1 or more points of manganese 
above 60, the steel should harden satisfactorily at 1600 de- 
grees F. (bt If. for every point of manganese below 50 there 



September, 1915 

be present 2 or more points of carbon above 50, the steel 
should harden aatlsfactoriiy at 1600 degrees F. (c) If both 
carbon and manganese be below 0.50 per cent, increase the 
hardening temperature 121/^ degrees F. for each point of 
manganese short of 50, and 6V4 degrees F. for each point of 
carbon short of 50. (d) If both carbon and manganese are 
above 0.50 per cent, a hardness number above 55 will prob- 
ably be obtained at a quenching temperature of 1600 degrees 
F., but the maximum hardness, i. e., 75 to 80 will be obtained 
at a somewhat lower temperature, the exact temperature 
being most easily found by starting at 1500 degrees F. and 
trying a couple of sample shells every 25 degrees F. until 
a maximum hardness is obtained. Forgings containing 0.50 
to 0.55 per cent carbon and 0.54 to 0.62 per cent manganese in 
any varying proportions may be hardened at 1600 degrees F. 
to show a hardness number of 55 to 75; and when tempered 
to give a hardness number of from 48 to 52 they will yield 
the following results: yield point, 45 to 50 tons; brealiing 
point, 65 to 70 tons; and elongation, 14 to 20 per cent. 

Looking back, (c) offers a basis for charting the harden- 
ing points in a fairly approximate manner, to form a guide 
as to where the best hardness may be obtained. Such a 
chart is shown in Pig. 2. By following the horizontal and 
vertical lines from the carbon and manganese content until 
they intersect, a diagonal line will be found which will in- 
dicate the temperature at or about which the maximum 
hardness will be obtained. This does not prevent the use of 
1600 degrees P. as the average temperature for the majority 
of shells, provided they are strong enough when hardened at 
that temperature; but where shells do not harden satis- 
factorily at 1600 degrees F., the chart offers an alternative 
method subject to such variation as may arise due to the 
use of steel from different makers, etc. The author's prac- 
tice is to make careful scleroscope readings of each piece 
before pulling. Care must be taken to have a uniform sur- 
face on both sides, all tool marks being removed with fine 
emery cloth. The points tested are shown at A, B and G in 
Fig. 1. After the test piece is made, the value of the hardness 
number increases as a result of the piece being solidly sup- 
ported in the scleroscope, whereas when the reading is made 
on the shell, the arched form of the wall acts as a spring, 
and absorbs the shock to some extent. Readings thus in- 
crease from 2 to 10 points after the test piece is finished. 

A careful study of the data presented in Table IV re- 
veals the fact that results are not always consistent. With 
an increase of carbon, one occasionally finds an increase in 
elongation and vice versa; and the results due to variations 
in manganese content are similarly unreliable. In order 
to secure a degree of uniformity in hardness, which will bo 
suflJcient to insure test pieces standing up successfully, it 
is necessary to have the shell hard inside as well as outside, 
and a method of doing this Is referred to later. Assuming 

now that the 

shell has been 
tempered, it la 
rough - polished 
on a canvas buft- 
i n g wheel 
around the out- 
side of B. Fig. 
1 for a width of 
at least 1 inch. 
Readings by the 
scleroscope are 
made on a zone 
% inch wide 
and if they are 
between 46 and 
52 the shell may 
be relied upon to 
show good re- 
sults in the 
tensile test. In 
making test 
pieces, it is de- 

Ouen. Tern. 

Car. ManKa- ching ^'J'^' 

bon. nese. temper- ri„il' 

per per alure. hl.!^ 

cent cent ' degrees "^^■ 

•■" No. 





Three pieces from one shell 

(t.48 I 0.65 1565 49 
Three pieces from one shell 



















Y M Break- Elong- 

JtJifi, '"8 ation. 

^'„"^'. pomt. per 

'""' tons cent 

48.3 I 69.9 






























51-.-.2— 49 


r)0— 52— 50 

i54— .56— 54 

59— 60— 56 
.")5-59 + 56 

60—62- 57 




.50— 51— .59 

48.2 67 9 


57.8 80.0 

44.2 64 3 


16 9 

13 3 
15 4 

14 3 


sirable to cut the piece from a spot which reads 4S to 50; and 
in machining the test piece, care should be taken to remove an 
equal quantity of metal from either side of the wall so that 
the test piece is a true specimen of the average wall 
structure. Where a shell is carelessly quenched, and the 
test piece so machined that the surface on one side is prac- 
tically the same as the inner side of the wall, the results 
would not be a true indication of the real average strength, 
and a lot of shells might possibly be rejected on account of 
a slight oversight in this respect. Reference has been made 
to the base .-i, Fig. 1. Forging defects show up here oc- 
casionally and in such cases the shell is at once condemned. 
These flaws take the form of small cracks, from the width 
of a hair up to 1/16 inch. They seldom can be detected 
until after heat-treating, and are most easily observed by 

polishing the 
base on a disk 
grinder. Losses 
in this respect 
vary, but might 
average about 
0.20 per cent. 
The hardness of 
the base itself 
may vary from 
38 to 50, which 
insures an 
ample degree of 
toughness and 
avoids all pos- 
sibility of the 
shell cracking 
under fire. 

Many methods 
of heating, 
quenching, a n - 
nealing and 
cleaning are in 

Layout of Heat-treating Department for Factory produoin; 12,000 
to 16,000 Shrapnel ShoUs a Week 

September, 1915 



Fig:. 4. 

Special AjTangreinent of Scleroacope for Testing 
Shrapnel Shells 

use by the different firms engaged in sliell making. For 
rapidity of output, cleanliness of the resulting product, 
ease and economy of operation, and uniformity and con- 
trol of results, the author Is in favor of the lead bath 
for hardening, and semi-muffle furnace for annealing. In 
one case the use of a lead bath by a skilled operator yielded 
excellent results both as to economy and uniformity, but 
when the output exceeds 500 shells per 12 hours, a semi- 
continuous furnace meets the requirements to better ad- 
vantage. The layout of a hardening room for an output of 
12,000 shells per week is given in Fig. 3. The lead baths 
•consist of a rectangular pot of suitable capacity, resting on 
a 4%-inch hearth built of common firebrick and heated by 
either oil or gas burners below the hearth. They are built 
In pairs with a common wall between, which is thick enough 
to provide a flue to carry off products of combustion. The 
quenching tanks are rectangular, water-Jacketed, and pro- 
vided with two quenching cradles each. These cradles are 
arranged to swing lengthwise in the tank and when the car- 
rier holding the shell is lowered into the oil, a pipe is auto- 
matically extended downward Into the shell and introduces 
cold oil In the Inside of the shell, while the operator swings 
the cradle back and forth in the tank, thus cooling the 
outside of the shell at the same time. This method of 
quenching has enabled the writer to harden shells which, 
by reason of low carbon and manganese, defled all conven- 
tional m'ethods of dipping and swinging back and forth with 
tongs. The output per man 
with this apparatus is largely 
in excess of any hand method, 
while the uniformity and de- 
gree of hardness is all that 
could be desired. 

The oil pump draws the 
oil from a depth of 6 inches 
below the surface and pumps 
it through 100 feet of 1-inch 
copper pipe arranged in two 
50-foot coils in parallel. The 
cooled oil is delivered into an 
overhead reservoir, the over- 
flow being connected to both 
tanks equally. After quench- 
ing, the shells are set on 

IntorobanroabU Msthod of fastenlsr Jlr< and Flxtnret to Machine 

from the body of the furnace, by means of vertical sliding doors ; 
and a rack holding a number of shells Is deposited on the 
rails at the front end of the hearth, the door is elevated and 
the rack is slid into the main chamber. After a suitable 
lapse of time another rack is Introduced, and so on until 
the first rack is ejected at the rear end of the furnace. 
The shells are now hot enough to loosen all foreign matter 
on the surface, and a few seconds brushing with a wire 
brush cleans out the driving band groove, and leaves the 
shell with a delicate brown oxidized finish. The shell is 
now spotted on three places with a canvas buff and tested 
for hardness on the scleroscope. Fig. 4 shows the arrange- 
ment of the scleroscope aa used by the writer. The shell 
Is supported on a single narrow V-block with hardened 
edges, situated Immediately under the set-up point. A nar- 
row strip supports the open end of the shell, thus giving 
a three-point support, while a vertical stop at the back of the 
shell maintains it in a position tangential to the radius of 
the swinging arm. The usual rubber bulb was soon dis- 
pensed with as being quite unsulted for such hard service, 
and a small pump cylinder substituted. The piston in the 
cylinder Is operated by a downward pressure of the heel 
on the pedal to give compression, and a spring inside the 
cylinder gives the necessary pull when the scleroscope 
hammer Is to be raised by suction. After being tested the 
shells are ready for "nosing in." 
• • • 



In shops where a great many Jigs are used, confusion is 
bound to occur If some uniform system Is not adopted for 
securing the Jigs to the machines on which they are to be 
used. In some cases the Jig is put on the faceplate of a lathe 
or other machine for which It Is intended, the correct po- 
sition determined, and the Jig is then bolted In place. Obvi- 
ously where such a course is followed, the setting up of a 
machine takes a lot of unnecessary time. To overcome this 
difficulty, some shops resort to the practice of drilling 
dowel-pin holes, but where this Is done for a number of dif- 
ferent jigs, the operator is frequently in doubt as to which 
holes belong to the particular jig which he Is setting up. 

In order to enable any Jig to be used on any lathe, the 
writer adopted the following method. A narrow circular 
groove 4 Inches in diameter by about \^ inch in depth was 
turned In the faceplate of each lathe, as shown at A. and all 
Jigs were made with a ring of the proper dimensions to enter 
this groove. In this way all Jigs are Interchangeable be- 
tween different machines and there is no loss of time In 
setting up. For use on milling machines, shapers, planers 
and other machine tools on which Jigs and fixtures are em- 
ployed, a similar method has been adopted, except that a 
graduated base H is made; the circular groove is cut In this 
base and the base is clamped 
to the table of the machine In 
the usual way. A feature of 
this method is that any Jig 
can be set up on any machine 
which Is Idle, so that loss of 
time which would otherwise 
result through waiting for a 
given machine is avoided. Old 
Jigs and fixtures can be 
adapted to this system by 
turning a groove in the base 
of the fixture, and then fit- 
ting a ring into this grooTe. 
which is of the proper site 
to enter the circular groore 
in the faceplate or graduated 

draining racks, and then washed in boiling-water and sal-soda, 
placed on another draining rack and then roughly brushed on 
wire brushes ready for tempering. The tempering furnace is 
of rectangular form, and consists of a long flat hearth with rails 
laid lengthwise on it. At each end a space is partitioned oft 

base which supports the fixture. The method has proved a 
valuable one. and may Interest other mechanics who have 
met with the same difficulties as the writer. It Increases the 
eflJclency of the shop. 

' Addreaa: S12 rmnkUn St., RMdlat. Pi. 



September, 1915 



It is the purpose of this article to describe the grinding 
of three-step cast-Iron cone pulleys of the form shown in 
Fig. 1, and also to 

quires re-truing. The rough-grinding is the most important 
operation as the reeultB obtained at this time are responsible 
for the accuracy of the finished pulleys. 

In truing the grinding wheel for the roughing operation, 
the diamond is traversed very rapidly across the face of the 
wheel and leaves it quite rough. This condition is desir- 
able as the pulleys 

Pig. 1 


explain the use of 
the attachment em- 
ployed for truing the 
grinding wheels to 
the shape illustrated 
in Pig. 2. Probably 
the best way to give 
the reader an idea 
of the condition in 
which the work 
comes to the grind- 
ing machine will be 
to briefly describe 
the roughing opera- 
tions performed on 
the crown and bevel 
of the pulleys. The 
pulley castings come 
to the factory in lots 
of 200 and are 
drilled and reamed, 
have the inside 
turned and the hub 
turned and faced; in 
addition, the pulleys are faced on each end. 

After these operations have been performed, the work is 
taken to a 16-inch Reed engine lathe, which is equipped 
with a forming attachment for roughing-out the crown on 
the pulleys. A gang tool is used for this operation so that 
cuts may be taken over each of the three steps. The rate 
of production is 100 pulleys in a ten-hour day. The next 
operation consists of turning the bevel between the steps 
on the pulleys. A gang tool is also employed for this work, 
which is done on the same lathe that was employed for form- 
ing the crowns. On the bevel turning operation, the rate 
of production is 150 pulleys per day. After completing this 
operation the pulleys are ready for grinding. 

For the grinding operation, a 10-inch Norton plain grind- 
ing machine is employed, the machine being equipped with 
a 20K alundum wheel. The truing device, which is shown 
in place on the machine in Fig. 3, is provided with a 
templet A which is formed to the desired shape. The 
diamond B is traversed across the face of the grinding wheel 
by means of the 
handwheel C, and the 
roll D which con- 
trols the movement 
of the diamond, is 
held in contact with 
the templet A by 
means of a spring 
located under the 
arm E. The pulleys 
are subjected to 
rough- and finish- 
grinding operations 
and are handled in 
lots of four, as ex 
perience has slicwn 
that four |iiill.,\ i 
all that a wluel u ill 
grindj before It a> 


FlB. 2 


Wheel for 

• Pop other nrtlclos 
the grinding of pnu. 
pnbllsnea In Machim 
see "GrlndlnB CroM 
PuUeys" by Howard ' 
Dunbar, July, 1010. ani 
other articles there re 
ferred to. 

t Address: 19 Rockdnl 
St.. Worcester. Mass. 

are out of round as 
much as 1/32 inch in 
some cases, and as a 
result it is necessary 
for the grinding 
wheel to cut both 
freely and rapidly. 
The wheel is fed 
straight into the 
work, grinding one 
crown and one 
beveled face at each 
traverse. After four 
pulleys have been 
rough-ground in this 
way, the grinding 
wheel is dressed 
preparatory to the 
performance of the 
finishing operation. 
In truing the wheels 
ready for the finish- 
ing cut, the diamond 
is traversed across 
the face of the wheel at a much slower speed and leaves the 
face of the wheel very smooth. After truing the grinding 
wheel, the four pulleys are finish-ground by feeding in the 
wheel as in the case of the roughiag operation, and merely 
cleaning out the marks left by the roughing cut. The grind- 
ing machine table is located for each step of the pulley by 
means of a spacing bar which brings it up to a positive stop 
for each successive step on the pulley. The rate of pfoduc- 
tion is eight pulleys an hour, which includes the performance 
of both roughing and finishing operations. This means that 
from 75 to SO pulleys are ground per day. 

When one stops to consider the very satisfactory results 
w^hich are obtained by this method, and the condition of 
the pulleys as they come to the grinding machine, it will 
be granted that the rate at which the work is turned out 
is exceptionally high. In order to give an idea of the de- 
gree of accuracy which is obtained, it may be mentioned 
that the wheels will not pass inspection if a step runs 0.005 
inch out of true, and on most wheels the error does not 

exceed 0.003 inch. 
The finish Is perfect. 
To those who have 
had experience in 
using a lathe to ma- 
chine frail pulleys of 
the kind referred to 
in this article, try- 
ing to keep ihem as 
nearly round as pos- 
sible and still main- 
tain a satisfactory 
rate of production, 
these results will be 
as much of a sur- 
prise as they were 
to the writer, the 
first time he saw the 
work done. The 
method described 
will, therefore, no 
doubt be of interest 
to mechanics in gen- 
eral, and is of con- 
siderable value. 

etKoas or V^^riivdin^ rie>jxe ourtos^ces 
Surface G riivairys: Me>ocKii\es 


by Dou^dvs T. Haotviltoivt 

HE grinding of plane surfaces is called surface 
grinding and differs from cylindrical grinding In 
many respects. In the first place, the wheel 
makes greater contact with the work, especially 
when cup or cylinder wheels are used; con- 
sequently, more trouble is experienced with 
heating and warping. Surface grinding in connection with tool- 
room work is generally done dry, and is used chiefly as 
a means for correcting hardened parts or in cases where ex- 
ceptional accuracy is desired. It is also used for sharpening 
tools such as punches and dies, etc. When surface grinding 
is done wet, little trouble is experienced in heating and 
warping, but It is not always feasible to use water or other 
cooling lubricants, owing to the nature of the work, and 
other requirements, and dry grinding must sometimes be 
resorted to. In the following will be given several interest- 
ing methods for preventing undue heat and warping in grind- 
ing dry, as well as examples of work with complete data. 
Methods of Preaentiner Wheel to Work for Surfnce Orindlnp 
Surface grinding is done on several different types of ma- 
chines, some of which are adapted principally to tool-room 
work and others to general manufacturing. The most com- 
mon method of grinding a flat surface and one that is gen- 
erally used on tool-room work is shown at A in Fig 1. The 
work (i is traversed back and forth beneath the grinding 
wheel 6. as indicated by the dotted line, and either the wheel 
or work is fed laterally at each end of the stroke, so that 
the wheel gradually grinds the entire surface. 

• For aililltlonal Infornintlon on grliidiug. grliidlnp Trh«»lii. nnrt nUI"'<l nob. 
Jecta soo "lutiTmil Oilmling." lu the Augusl. 11>1.'. m.mb.r nn.l ..tli.r nrtlrl.-n 

With this method of grinding, especially on thin work, 
considerable trouble is experienced with local heating and 
warping. In order to reduce this trouble to a minimum, 
light cuts with coarse traverse feeds — almost equal to the 
width of the face of the wheel per each stroke — are advis- 
able. The chief cause of warping is due to the fact that 
the heat generated by grinding cannot be absorbed quickly 
enough by the body of the metal to allow it to expand uni- 
formly and the e.xpanslon of the heated surfaces causes it 
to assume a convex shape. When the wheel is removed and 
the heat has been absorbed by the work, the surface which 
has been ground will be concave, and to grind it perfectly 
fiat, light cuts with fast side feeds of the wheel are neces- 
sary in order to insure a more even distribution of heat. 

Another method of producing flat surfaces is shown at B 
in Fig. 1. In this case, it will be noticed that the wheel 6 
is slightly greater in width than the work, and covers the 
entire surface to be ground. When using this type of wheel, 
the grinding must be done wet as the surface contact of the 
wheel on the work is greatly Increased. When the grinding 
is done wet, very accurate work can be secured. 

The diagram at C shows still another method of producing 
flat surfaces. The wheel 6 in this case is of the cylinder 
or ring type, and the vertical surface c Is grround by being 
traversed past the face of the wheel; hence this is often 
called face grinding. This method is used quite extensively in 
the grinding of comparatively large castings such as crank- 
case covers, gear housings, crank-cases, and similar work. 

The diagram shown at D illustrates the operation of what 
is known as the vertical surface grinder. The grinding is 
done by either a cup or cylinder wheel ts which revolves 



September, 1915 


MpTMTTTT^TMMmmmMMm /////////////////// 




Fig. 1. 

Diagram illustrating Varion'? Ways of applying 
Grinding 'Wheel to Work 

about a vertical axis. Tlie work a is lield on a reciprocating 
table by means of a magnetic chuclf or other device, and is 
traversed back and forth beneath the grinding wheel. The 
wheel-head remains stationary as far as lateral motion is 
concerned, and is fed down gradually at the end of each 
stroke until the desired amount of material has been re- 
moved. The grinding is done wet. 

The diagram shown at E illustrates the operation of an- 
other type of vertical surface grinding machine. In this case 
the work-table has a rotary instead of a reciprocating move- 
ment, and the head carrying the cylinder wheel 6 is fed 
down a certain amount tor each revolution of the work- 
table. This type of machine is suitable for grinding a 
large variety of work, such as piston rings, facing sides of 



ball bearing race rings, and many other machine and engine 
parts. It can also be used for the grinding of the sides of 
saws, the required clearance being obtained by setting the 
axis of the wheel-spindle to an angle less than 90 degrees 
with the top surface of the work-table. 

Coolln(f Water for Surface brindin« 

When it is possible to use water, the trouble generally 
experienced from heating and warping of the work can be 
overcome. For the grinding of cast iron and hardened steel, 
sufBcient sal-soda should be added to the water to prevent 
rusting. For grinding soft steel, it is advisable to add some 
cutting oil to the soda water, as this will improve the finish 
on the work. The amount of oil used in the soda water is 
generally in the proportion of 1 gallon of mineral lard oil 
to 32 or 3.5 gallons of soda water. On machines of the type il- 
lustrated by the diagrams T> and E, Fig. 1, plenty of cutting 
lubricant sh;)uld be used inside the rim of the wheel, as 
over-heating of the wheel-face Is likely to cause cracking. 
In most cases, no additional lubricant would be required ex- 
cept for broad surfaces where it may be necessary to use an 
outside nozzle to assist in cooling the work. 

Preventing Thin Work from Warpini? When Grindincr Dry 

When it is necessary to grind thin pieces accurately, 
many different methods to prevent warping are resorted to. 
One method that has been used with success is illustrated 
diagramatically in Fig. 2. The piece to be ground is y^ inch 
thick, % inch wide, by 6 inches long, and is made from steel 
casehardened. In grinding this piece by holding it in direct 
contact with the face of the magnetic chuck, it is practically 
impossible to bring it to a uniform thickness. The method 
adopted in grinding this particular piece was to rough it out 
by holding it in direct contact with the magnetic chuck, 
leaving about 0.002 inch to remove in finishing. Two 

Fig. 3. 

Method used in holding a Number of Very Thin 
Pieces on a Heald Magnetic Chuck 

Fig. 2. Method of holding a Thin Piece to prevent 
warping when grinding Dry 

accurately ground parallel strips w^ere then placed on the 
magnetic chuck with the work located on them in about 
the position shown. The current was then turned on for the 
operation of finish-grinding. The first step was to true the 
face of the wheel, which it will be noticed, is provided with 
eight diagonal notches cut in its periphery at an angle of 
45 degrees with the axis of the wheel-spindle. The work 
was then ground by taking very light cuts with coarse side 
feeds and rapid table traverses, the work being inverted 
after taking a cut from each side. 

By holding the work in this manner, warping was prac- 
tically eliminated because of the reduced chances for over- 
heating. A current of air is allowed to pass through freely 
under the work at all points, except where it contacts with 
the parallel strips. In addition, the diagonal notches in the 
wheel-face convert the wheel into a fan, assisting in cooling 
the work. Even with this method of holding and grinding, 
it would be impossiblo to get the piece absolutely flat with- 
out inverting it after every cut. This method, of course, is not 
recommended for manufacturing purposes as the expense 
would be prohibitive and this illustration is given simply 
to show how a thin piece of work can be ground accurately 
when it is impossible to use water. 

September, 1915 



Figs. 3 and 4 show another method of holding thin work 
to prevent warping when grinding. In this case the work 
being ground is a steel plate 0.050 inch thick by % inch 
wide hy 1 1/16 inch long, which must be ground to a limit 
of 0.0005 inch in thickness from end to end and parallel. 
The method of grinding these pieces was to arrange 48 of 
them on a Heald 6 by 8 inch rectangular magnetic chuck 
in the manner shown in Fig. 4. Instead of placing the chuck 
on the grinding machine table in the usual manner, that is 
with the magnetic poles parallel with the axis of the wheel- 
spindle, the position was reversed so that the poles were at 
right angles to the axis of the wheel-spindle. The pieces 
were then arranged in double rows, butted together, and 
overlapping the non-magnetic surfaces in the manner il- 
lustrated. While this arrangement reduced to a certain ex- 
tent the strength of the magnetic flux, it made possible the 
holding down of the pieces with an equal pressure for their 
entire length. In order to prevent undue heating, a wheel 
of the shape shown in Fig. 3 was adopted. The efficiency 
of this method of holding is proved by the fact that 1320 
pieces were ground to the limits required in 30.6 hours. 
Holdinif Warped or Spruntr Work 

If a thin or light piece is warped when it comes to the 
surface grinding machine, considerable care must be exer- 
cised in holding it in order to prevent distortion. For In- 
stance, if it is held on a magnetic chuck, the pull of the 
chuck may so distort it as to make it out of true when 
released. Turning such a piece over several times during 
the grinding will, to a certain extent, eliminate much of the 
variation. When grinding large thin parts with a vertical- 
spindle rotary type of machine, warping can be minimized by 
placing the work central on the chuck, using suitable stops, 
and grinding the first side without using any magnetic current. 

Fig. 4. Diagri 

n showing Arrangement of Pieces held 
Chuck shown in Fig. 3. 

This operation need only be carried far enough to clean up the 
surface on one side to a fair bearing and present a flat sur- 
face to the chuck so that it can be held magnetically. Large 
thin plates such as circular saws are often best ground with- 
out using the magnetism at all. A good general rule to 
follow in practically all work that is warped or sprung out 
of shape, is not to hold it magnetically for grinding the 
llrst side, but to support it in some other way. 
Holdintr Non-matrnetlc Work 
When grinding brass, aluminum and other non-magnetic 
materials, the work must be clamped or secured in some 
other way than by direct magnetism. The method generally 
used is to employ a vise, clamping fingers, or other work- 
holding fixture for retaining the part to be ground where 
the use of such a device is possible. If the work is 
quite heavy, it can be held on a chuck by simply using a 
backing-up strip to prevent it from shifting. When the 
piece is in the shape of a ring or plate, and a vertical spindle 
rotary type of machine is used, it can be ground by being 
placed centrally on the table, as it will bo held down by the 
wheel itself and need only be centered by stops, or by a plug 
In the center of the hole, if there is one in the piece. 

Fir 6. 

Grinding a Hilling Machine Wriit on a No. 4 Br 
& Sharpe Surface Grinding Machine 

The magnetic chuck can sometimes be used to advantage 
for holding non-magnetic work by using strips or stops as 
shown in Fig. 7. In diagram A. four small steel blocks are 
placed and held on the magnetic chuck as illustrated, and 
prevent the casting b from shifting, enabling It to be 
ground. Still another method is shown at B, where a chuck 
ring c and four pieces d are used for supporting the work 
and preventing it from shifting on the magnetic chuck. 
Still another method is shown at C where the pieces for 
supporting the work are clamped by bolts to the chuck. 
This method can also be used with a non-magnetic chuck. 

Non-magnetic work of box form can be held magnetically 
by using blocks of cast iron or steel which are placed in- 
side the parts to be ground. The magnetic attraction of these 
blocks to the chuck will be strong enough to hold the work, 
provided the thickness of the latter does not exceed 1 16 
Inch. The same method has been very successful for hold- 
ing thin pressed steel boxes, the sides of which were so high 
that the boxes could not be held rigidly enough for grinding 
the upper edges, without placing the magnetic blocks inside. 



September, 1915 

Qrindlnt; Lartje CastlntfS on Planer Types ol Surface 
OrindlnK Machines 

For grinding large machine parts such as milling ma- 
chine tables, wrists, etc., the Brown & Sharpe No. 4 sur- 
face grinding machine, as shown in Fig. 5, is sometimes 
used. This particular machine carries a disk wheel A which 
Is driven from the overhead worl£S by means of the pulley li 
from a drum pulley C. The grinding wheel-head is held on 
the rail D and can be moved back and forth by means of 
power or hand feed, power feed being effected in practically 
the same manner as on a planer. It will be noticed that the 
rail swings on an arc; the reason for this is that because 
of the method of driving, the belt would be tightened and 
loosened if the rail were adjusted up and down in a vertical 
position. The point from which the rail swings is the axis 

i-magnotic Work on 

of the drum pulley C. When grinding parts on a surface 
grinding machine of the planer type, the work is generally 
clamped direct to the table by means of bolts, as illustrated, 
or is held up against angle plates, the method depending 
entirely on the character and shape of the work. 
Wheel Speeds for Surface Grinding- 

The grinding wheel speeds for surface grinding are gen- 
erally less than those for external cylindrical grinding, and 
vary between 3000 and BOOO feet per minute. The speeds 
are generally higher for a disk wheel than for a cylinder 
or ring wheel, the latter grinding on the edge instead of on 
the circumference. On surface grinding machines of the 
type shown in Fig. 3, which carry disk wheels, the wheel 
speed is kept as close as possible to 5000 feet, whereas on 
the Blanchard machine, the wheel speed is about 4000 feet 
per minute. On the Heald rotary surface grinder where a 
disk wheel is used, the speed is about 5000 feet per minute. 
Work Speeds and Feeds for Surface GrindinK- 

The feeds and speeds to use for surface grinding depend 
largely upon the method of applying the wheel to the work. 
On the type of surface grinding machine that operates on 
the principle shown at A in Fig 1, the traverse speed of the 
table varies from 25 to 50 linear feet per minute, depending 
upon material, the width of face of the wheel used, and the 
depth of cut taken. Usually the cross-feed is equal to % or 
% the width of the grinding wheel face, but this lateral 

feed Is varied, according to the finish required. When the 
piece is to be finished in one cut and a fairly smooth 
surface is required, a wheel % inch wide, and a feed of from 
1/16 inch to % inch per traverse is generally used. The 
depth of cut varies from 0.0005 to 0.003 Inch. 

When grinding on machines working on the principle 
shown at B in Fig. 1, if the work is less than 10 Inches in 

width, the wheel is not fed across the work, but the work is 
traversed back and forth under the wheel, the complete 
surface being finished in one cut. On this machine, the 
table traverse varies from 25 to 50 linear feel per minute, and 
the depth of cut from 0.0005 to 0.003 Inch per traverse. 

On surface grinding machines that work on the prin- 
ciple shown at C, Fig 1, the table Is traversed at the rate 
of from 25 to 50 linear feet per minute, and the cut varies 
in depth from 0.001 to 0.005 inch per traverse. When this 
type of machine is used for large castings, a heavier cut Is 
taken than where the work is smaller or more accurate. 

Where the grinding is done on a machine of the type il- 
lustrated at D In Fig. 1, the table Is traversed back and 
forth and usually the ring or cylinder wheel used covers 
the entire width of the surface being ground. When this Is 
the case, the only two points to consider are the table traverse 
and the down feed of the wheel per traverse. The table 
traverse varies from 15 to 50 linear feet per minute, and the 
down feed from 0.0005 to 0.002 Inch per traverse. 

On surface grinding machines working on the principle 
shown at E, Fig. 1, where the work and wheel both rotate 
but are not traversed, the two conditions to consider other 
than the wheel speed, are the speed of the work-table and 
down feed of the wheel per revolution of the work-table. 
Generally the down feed of the wheel-heeid varies from 0.001 
to 0.002 inch per revolution of the work-table and the table 
speeds vary greatly depending upon the type of machine 
and the character of the work. The type of grinding wheel 

Fig. 9. Diaeram sbawinE Working Position of Table on Blanchard 
Uachine and Method of adjusting Verticai Column 

to use on machines of this design is not adapted to deep 
cuts and more stock can be removed with less wheel wear by 
means of light cuts and comparatively fast speeds than by 
heavy cuts and slow speeds. The cut, however, should be 
deep enough to keep the wheel cutting freely, and feeds as 
fine as 0.0002 to 0.0004 inch should be avoided, as on most 
work they tend to make the wheel glaze. 

In determining the correct table speeds and depth of cut 
to use on the Blanchard high-power vertical surface grinder, 
a down feed of about 0.001 inch should be used to start 
with. If the wheel glazes, rough the face with a car- 
borundum block held in the hand, and try the wheel again, 
using the next lower table speed with slightly increased 
down feed. If the wheel appears to be too soft and wears 
away too rapidly. Increase the table speed and decrease the 
down feed. Obviously a down feed of 0.002 Inch with a 
table speed of 6% revolutions per minute removes the same 
amount of stock per minute as a down feed of 0.001 Inch 
with a table speed of 13 R. P. M. Varying the speed and 
feed to Improve the cutting action of the wheel need not, 
therefore, change the rate of cutting. It should be clearly 
understood, however, that In order to obtain satisfactory 
results, the wheel must be suited to the work. The var- 
iations of speeds and feeds will not adapt an unsuitable 
wheel to the work and they are simply used as an aid to 
secure the highest possible economy of operation with a 
wheel that has been found suitable for the work In hand. 
The Blanchard Hisrh-power Vertical Surface Grinder 

A surface grinding machine that works on the principle 
shown by the diagram at E in Fig. 1, is shown in Fig. 6. 
This is the lat^est type of Blanchard high-power vertical sur- 

September, 1915 



face grinder, and is motor-driven. The base is made of 
one casting and is of box form heavily ribbed Inside, form- 
ing a rigid support for the various parts of the machine. 
The column is of box form with internal stiffening webs, and 
carries the wheel-head. The slide upon which the wheel- 
head fits is 36 inches long and has three accurately fitted 
tapered gibs extending the entire length to provide against 
wear. The slides on the wheel-head are 30 inches long, ac- 
curately scraped to master plates and carrying a separate 
housing which contains the bearings for the upper end of 
the spindle. The spindle is made from a forging of 0.40 to 
0.50 per cent carbon steel, and is finished all over by grinding; 
it is fitted with ball-thrust bearings and an automatic spring 
talie-up; the side pull is taken by a bronze bushing at the 
lower end of the spindle and by a radial ball bearing at the 
upper end. 

The motor used on the wheel-head is 20 horsepower and 
of the alternating-current type. The field frame is centered 
in a bored recess in tlje wheel-head and is bolted to it only 
at the lower end. The upper end of the field frame has a 
cover which Iteeps out dirt and fills the space between the 
field and the upper spindle bearing. The cover carries an 
oil catcher which traps any oil escaping from the 
upper bearing, and conducts it away from the motor. A 
screened opening extending around the cover admits air 
into the interior of the motor to which it is circulated by 
fans on the spindle and discharged through hon?s in ■ the 
lower part of the motor frame. These fans force a large 
quantity of air to the motor, cooling it effectively even when 
severely overloaded. 

The gear-box shown at A, Fig. 6, through which table B 
is rotated, provides for eight changes of speeds varying 
In revolutions per minute as follows: 5, 6.5, 8.5, 13, 17.5, 
22, 29 and 44. The chuck is usually started and stopped by 
means of a hand lever on the gear-box. The foot treadle C 
is used for moving the chuck through part of a revolution 
when placing the work in position for grinding. The table 
Is brought into position under the wheel, after the work has 
been located in the chuck, by operating turnstile D. The cor- 
rect working position for table is shown in Fig. 9. 

The vertical feed for the wheel-head can be effected either 
by hand or power, and is varied by adjusting the feed variator 
E (Fig. 6). Feed wheel F is graduated in such a manner that 
a movement of % inch on the circumference of the wheel 
means a down feed of 0.001 inch. Down feeds of the wheel- 
head can be varied from 0.0002 inch to 0.005 inch per revolu- 
tion of the work-table by steps of 0.0002 inch. The down 
feed is also provided with an automatic stop which can be 
set to disconnect the feeding movment when the desired 
thickness on the work is obtained. The water tank has a 
capacity of 64 gallons, and is supplied with a submerged 
centrifugal pump having an S-inch fan and a I'i-Inch dis- 
charge pipe. 

MountiiiK and Truing- Wheels 

The grinding wheels used on the Blanchard, motor-driven, 
vertical surface grinders are 18 inches in diameter, 5 inches 

•"or*. k'Vace 





J J- 5 i 

rvvf/.A^-l ' ° 

^"1® ©I 


L.-,A''^ A 

eecTioN OF cmcum" fixture 


B MarklHery 

Work: — Pivot plate made from 0.20 per cent carbon, cold-roUed atrip ateel, 
cBHebardencM) 0.012 Inch deep. 

Operation: — Grlndtnt; both sIdeH with Norton (vltriflcdt alundum wheel; 
grain .38-4fl. (jrade G; C Inchen In diameter, ^i-lnch face; wheel apecd. 
.tlS.'S It. P. M.— 5000 feet Knrface speed; prorlded with elfbt dla«aD*l 
notche.4 around Ita perlpberj; amonnt removed from each aide. O.OOIA 
to 0.002 Inch. 

Remarks: — Table U traversed back and forth by hand and also in and 
out by band: 48 pieces held at one time on a Heald S- bj 8 Inch Bat 
magnetic chuck; pieces arranged along or parallel with magnetic poles 
Instead of spanning them; four traversea to complete each side; 2A0 
pieces turned out per each truing of wheel; production, 1320 in 80.0 
hours; machine used. No. 2 Brown & Sharpe surface grinding machine. 


Work: — Bushing for steering spindle. 0.15 per cent cartMio open-hearth 

ateel, carbonized and hardened. 
Operation: — Surface grinding large end with a Norton (Titrlfledl alundum 

wheel: grain 24, grade L; 14 Inche« in diameter. IV^-lnch face; ip««d 

1400 U. 1'. M.— r,IlU( surface speed; table apeed. 100 B. P. M.; 

head travel or traverse speed. 42.5 linear Inches per minute, amount 

removed. 0.007 to 0.010 inch. 
Eemarka: — Wheel Is traversed back and forth across work, wblcti li held 

In a special ring tliture carrying 28 bushings; production. 4000 i> 

nine hours; machine u.>^ed, Heald rotary surface grinding machine. 

deep and with rims varying from 1- to liA-inch thick, depend- 
ing upon the work to be ground; whereas those used on the 
belt-driven are IG inches. Of the 5 inches total depth, 3 15/16 
inches can be used. As shown in Fig. 8, the grinding 
wheel A is cemented into a cast-iron retaining ring B. 
which. In turn, is held to a flange retained on the lower end 
of the vertical spindle. 

There are several methods of mounting wheels of this 
type. One is to mix equal parts of Portland cement and 
sand with water, to the consistency of a thin paste; then 
wet the wheel thoroughly all over and spread a thin layer 
of the cement paste on the end that is to go next to the re- 
taining chuck. The next step is to remove all dirt and grease 
from the Inner surfaces of the retaining ring, and place the 
wheel centrally in the ring with the cemented end down; 
next fill the space between the wheel and the iron rinf 
with the cement paste, using a thin piece of metal to ram it 
In. All surplus cement should be removed from the outside 
of the ring, and then the wheel should be covered with 
clothes and placed In a covered box or barrel. The wet- 
ting of the wheel before cementing and keeping it damp 
while the cement sets, are very important. Wheels should 
be allowed to set two days, or more, varying with the brand 
of cement used. If the inside of the ring wheel has not 
already been "waxed" it should be covered with paraflne 
wax painted on hot to prevent any trouble from the water 

Another method of cementing In cylinder or ring wheels, 
which Is much quicker than that previously described. Is 
to use melted sulphur. The wheel and ring are cleaned as 
before, then the sulphur Is melted and poured into the In- 
tervening space between the wheel and ring. The sulphur 
hardens as it cools, and the wheel may be used within a 
short time after the sulphur has been poured In. 

For truing the wheel used on the Blanchard vertical 
surface grinder, a stick of special carborundum mounted In 
a cast-iron holder is used. This Is applied to the wheel by 
holding the carborundum stick-holder on the magnetic table 
and sliding the table in and out to pass the carborundum 
stick across the face of the wheel. Care should be taken, of 
course, to see that the truing device is held magnetically 
before being passed under the wheel. A new wheel should 
be trued before using, but after this first truing has been 
done the wheel should not be touched until it glazes. As 
soon as glazing occurs, the wheel-face should be roughei 



September, 1915 

Fisr. 12. Method of erijidiiig a Wrist for 

il arJiincry 
Plain Milling Machine 

Work:— Wrist for a plain uiiUliig maclilue made- from iron casting. 

Operation; — Surface grinding one face tor flnlsh with a Carborundum Co. '8 
(vitrilJeU) carborundum wheel, grain aC. grade P or M; 9 Inches di- 
ameter. % Inch face; speed, 2122 It. P. M. — 5000 feet surface speed; 
work speed — or table travel — 35 linear feet per minute: traverse feed. 
1/16 inch per traverse of wheel; amount removed from surface. 0.005 
to 0.007 inch. 

Remarks: — Narrow face wheel Is fed once across work: work Is held down 
on table of grinding machine by clamps (see Illustration); 8 pieces 
turned out to each truing of wheel; production. 9 to ID per hour; 
machine used, No. 4 Brown & Sharpe surface grinding machine. 

up with a piece of carborundum held in the hand. A wheel 
that requires this treatment frequently is too hard or too fine 
for the work and should be changed. The right wheel for 
the job will run until worn out without dressing. It should 
also be remembered that in a vertical surface grinder of this 
type, the wheel-face does not need to be kept fiat in order to 
secure flat work. 

Workintf Relation of Table to Wheel on Vertical Svirface 
Grinder- Setting- Wheel-head to Grind Work Concave 
For loading the magnetic table or chuck on a Blanchard 
vertical surface grinder, the table is moved out as previously 
described, bringing it out of contact with the grinding wheel, 
as shown by the dotted line A in Fig. 9. The work is then 
placed on the magnetic chuck, after which the table is moved 
in until the outer rim of the wheel coincides with the cen- 
tral axis of the work-table, as shown at B. The table and 
work are then rotated. 

A word here about keeping the chuck clean may be of 
Interest. It Is the practice of the Blanchard Machine Co. 
to use a loose ring of sheet steel laid around the group of 
pieces to be ground (as will be seen in the illustrations fur- 
ther on) and sometimes another ring is laid inside the piece. 
This la very clearly shown in Fig. 19, which illustrates a 
number of rifle hammers in place for grinding. When one 
side of the pieces has been ground, the chuck Is moved to 
the end of the machine, the magnetism turned off, and both 
work and the chuck rings removed, leaving the chuck fact- 
clear of everything except the water and chips. Cleaning 
is then done with a rubber edged scraper or squeegee — the 
same device that Is used for cleaning plate glass windows. 
By depressing the treadle at the front of the machine, the 
operator can set the chuck In motion without leaving his 
position at the end of the machine and with the squeegee 
can clean off the chuck face as it revolves, in a few seconds. 
This is sufficient for all but the most particular work, for 
which further cleaning is usually given with a cloth. 

For straight plain surface grinding, the spindle should 
be set absolutely square or at right angles with the chuck- 
face, so that the wheel touches the work on both sides; 
when the wheel is properly set, limits of 0.0003 inch total 
variation, can easily be worked to. There are some classes of 

Fig. 14. 

work, however, for which it is necessary to set the wheel- 
spindle at an angle to the face of the work-table, as when 
grinding the concave sides of circular saws, etc. To make 
this adjustment, the rear column support C, Fig. 9 is pro- 
vided with a graduated washer. To set the head for con- 
cave work, the three-column support bolts, C, D. and E 
should be loosened, but the two front washers should not be 
disturbed. A note should be made of the setting of the rear 
washer before changing; then turn this washer to the right 
until the spindle is inclined the desired amount and tighten 
all the bolts firmly before starting the machine. A slight 
adjustment of the rear or two side supports may be made 
by simply loosening the bolt which Is to be adjusted. 

Uacklncrg ' 
Tig. 13. Method of grindisK Both Edgos of a Killing Machine Tahla 

Work: — Milling machine table made from iron casting. 

Operation: — Grinding both edges tor finish with a Carbonindiun Co.'s 
(vitrified) carborundum wheel, grain 36, grade P; 9 inches in di- 
ameter, % inch face; speed, 2122 R. P. M. — 5000 feet surface speed; 
table traverse. .15 linear feet per minute; cross feed, 1/16 Inch per 
traverse; amount removeil. 0.005 to 0.007 inch. 

Remarks: — Narrow face wheel is fed once across work; work is held down 
on table by clamps and up against two angle plates (see illustratloo) ; 
2 pieces turned out per each truing of wheel; production, 5 per hour, 
both edges ground; machine used. No. 4 Bro\^*n & Sharpe surface 
grinding machine. 

September, 1915 



Measurini; Work on Surface Grindlngr MachineH 
The method of measuring work on surface grinding ma- 
chines depends entirely on the type of machine. On ma- 
chines of the type where the w"heel-head is lowered or ele- 
vated by means of an adjusting screw, the graduated index 
on the wheel Is generally used as a guide for grinding th<- 
work down to approximately the required thickness. The 
work is then removed from the chuck and measured from 
time to time until the desired thickness has been obtained. 
After several pieces have been ground it is possible to 
grind very close by means of the index wheel, as the only 
variation is due to the wear of the wheel. 

On the Blanchard vertical surface grinder a device known 
as a "continuous reading caliper" is applied directly to the 
work and readings are taken continuously as the work-table 
rotates. This attachment consists of an arm A. as shown 
in Fig. 10, which is clamped to a vertical post and carries 
in its front end a spindle and other members that operate 
the needle of a dial B; this dial Indicates the exact amount, 
in thousandths of an inch, by which the work thickness 

--l^- - 

■:' '.^ 


varies from the finished size. The reading is secured 
through a hardened steel button C that rests on the work 
and is connected to the gage. To set the caliper the button 
is brought down on a sizing block or finished piece, placed 
on the table, and the dial of the gage-head revolved to bring 
the zero line into agreement with the needle. 
Examples of Surface Grlndlner 
In the following will be given examples of work that have 
been accomplished on the various types of surface grinding 
machines shown by the diagrams in Fig. 1. Surface grind- 

Work: — Gear bousiog, cast Irirn. 

Operation: — Surface grinding two -Ides from tlif rough with an AmtrlcaD 
(Titrllled) carboUte n-hcel; grain 20, grade U: 16 inchea diameter. 
IVj-incta rim: speed, 1000 I(. P. M. — 1100 feet anrtace apeeO; table 
spcMl. roughing and BDinblng. 13 It. P. M.,— down feed of wheel. 
O.OOrj Inch per revolution of table; amount remoTed from eaob aide. 
0.<Xi2 inch. 

Remarlu: — 10 of these pieces are held at one time on Blanchard magnetic 
rhucli; grinding time, 7 minutes; handling time, 8 minutea; llmlta. 
pluK or minus 0.001 loch: production. 00 pieces per hour; machine 
used. Illancbnrd high-power vertical anrface grinder. 

ing has always been considered a difDcult proposition be- 
cause of the over-heating and warping of the work; there- 
fore, the examples given in the following should be of in- 
terest to those doing this class of work. 

Grindintf Small Thin Plates 
Diagram A, Fig. 11, shows an example of surface grinding 
to which reference has previously been made. This is a 
small pivot plate made from 0.20 per cent carbon, cold- 
rolled strip steel, case-hardened 0.012 inch deep. It was 
satisfactorily ground by using a Norton alundum wheel, 
grain 38-4G, grade G, by cutting diagonal notches in the 
periphery and then using a Heald magnetic chuck to which 
the pieces were held as previously described. 

Examples of Work done on Planer Type of Surface 
Grindinif Machines 

Fig. 12 shows a milling machine wrist which is ground 
on a surface grinder of the planer type illustrated in Fig. 5. 
.\ carborundum wheel, grain 36, grade P or M, 9 inches In 

Fig, 16. Method of holding and grinding Valve Push Rods on a Blanchard Vcrlual Surface Grinder at the o( T«0 per Hour 



September, 1915 


. 103 PrECES HELOO'i 

Fig. 18. Ezunplet of Snrface Grinding < 
Valre Push Rods 

Work:— lilllc liiiimuor, soft steel forging, 
Operation: — Grinding l)Olti nldes from tlie rougb 

v""^ — ' section of 
grind n cylinder wheel 
" i«"diam. 


Rifle Hammers and 

American iHlUcate) 

corundum wbeel; grain 58-24, grade % : 10 inches diameter, IVi- 
■ " " ' surf .... 


0.001 incli per revolution of table; amount removed from each aide, 
0.025 Inch, 
narks: — 103 of tiiese parts are held at one time on Blanchnrd magnetic 
chuck between two retaining rings; grinding time, 8 mluutes; handling 
time, 12 minutes; limits, plus or minus 0.000.1 inch; production, 300 
pieces per hour; machine used, Blanchard high-power vertical surface 




steel drop-forging, heat- 

Operation: — Surface grinding both ends from tlie rough with an American 
(silicate) corundum wheel; grain 30: grade l-W; 16 inches diameter, 
IVj-lnch rim; speed, 1000 H. P. M. — 4190 feet surface speed; Uble 
speed, 17 R. P. M.; down feed of wheel. 0.001,5 Inch per revolution 
of work-table; amount removed from each end, 0.010 inch. 

Remarks: — 104 of tiiese parts are held at one time on a Blanchard mag- 
netic chuck by means of a special clamping Hxture; handling time Is 
greatly reduced by providing three fixtures; production, 720 pieces 
per hour; machine used, Blanchard high-power vertical surface grinder. 

grind them to the required thickness. The bushings are 
held in a special fixture carrying twenty-eight at a time; 
the fixture, in turn. Is clamped to the magnetic chuck. The 
data for this particular operation are given at B in Fig. 11. 

The gear housings shown in Fig. 15 represent a good 
example of surface grinding as handled on the Blanchard 
vertical surface grinder. These are made from cast iron 
and 0.032 inch of metal is removed from each side from the 
rough. Ten of these pieces are held on the magnetic chuck 
at one time, and the production is at the rate of sixty pieces 
per hour, as will be seen by referring to Fig. 17 where data 
regarding the wheel, and the work speeds are given. 
Grlndintf Valve Push Rods 

The valve push rods shown clamped in the fixtures at A. 
see Fig. 16, are examples of work that can be handled on 
the vertical surface grinder. The grinding is done on both 
the small and large ends, the push rods being ground to 
the correct length within limits of plus or minus 0.001 inch. 
Two operations are necessary. The first operation, which 
is shown at A in Fig 16, consists of grinding the top 
or largest diameter of the push rod, removing about 0.010 
inch. For this operation, a blocking ring of inverted T- 
section, as shown at A, is placed under the fixture. This 
raises the fixture from the magnetic chuck and prevents 
the push rods from touching the chuck. For grinding the 
small ends of the rods, the blocking ring is removed and 
the fixture is located on the table, as indicated at B, the 

diameter, is fed across the work at the rate of 1/16 inch 
per traverse of the wheel with the work-table operating at 
a speed of 35 linear feet per minute, and removing from 
0.005 to 0.007 inch. 

Still another example of a somewhat similar nature is 
shown in Fig. 13. This is a milling machine table, and the 
grinding is done on both edges of the table. For this work 
a carborundum wheel of the same grain and grade as that 
used in Fig. 12 is used and the other facts concerning the 
job are also similar. The top of the platen has been ac- 
curately finished so that this face is used as a locating point 
for grinding the edge, the platen being clamped against two 
accurately finished angle plates. Probably a more satis- 
factory way of handling this work would be to locate the 

platen from the V-slide, having several hardened rollers fit- 
ting in the lower angle of the slide and resting on hardened 
blocks, then clamping the work in the position as illus- 
trated, and using the ways simply as a means of getting the 
sides of the table straight and parallel with the V-ways. 
Grlndlnpr Top Pace of FlaiiR-es of Bushingrs 
An interesting method of handling and grinding the 
flanges of bushings is shown in Fig. 14. The machine used 
is a Heald rotary surface grinder carrying a disk wheel 14 
inches in diameter, l^-inch face. This wheel is traversed 
back and forth across the top faces of the bushings to 


Fig. 20. Data 


Levers for Hepeating Rifle ground as shown 
in Fig, 21 

Work: — Lever for repeating rifle, soft steel forging, not hardened. 

Operation: — Surface grinding both sides from the rough with an American 
(silicate) corundum wheel; grain 68-24, grade 1; 16 Inches diameter. 
iy.-lnch rim; speed, 1000 H. P. M. — 1190 feet surface speed: table 
speed, roughing, 17 K. P. M.. finishing 5 R. P. .M.; down fe«d of 
wbeel, 0.0012 inch per revolution of table; amount removed from each 
side, 0.032 inch. 

Remarks: — 34 of these parts are held at one time on Blanchard magnetic 
chuck located inside one retainiug ring; the pieces are Hattened after 
trimming, and before grinding; grinding time, 6 minutes; handling 
time, 4 minutes; limits, plus or minus 0.001 inch; production. 204 
pieces per hour: raacbine used. Blanchard high-power vertical surface 

previously ground faces of the rods resting on the mag 
netic chuck. This feature insures greater accuracy. 

The method of clamping the push rods is simple, but ef- 
fective. The clamping device consists of two blocks o 
through which a shoulder binding stud 6 passes. This 
stud, in connection with the two clamps, holds four push 
rods in place. The studs are prevented from turning by 

Fig. 21. Method of holding and grinding Lever for Repeating Riflo 
shown in Fig. 20, on a Blanchard Vertical Surface Grinder 

September, 1915 






"*"■, \ 

wBjI^^^^^Kf^l '^ 


i 1 i 






headless screws c resting on flats provided on the studs. The 
rods are held in V-grooves In the body of the fixture and 
are located when being placed in the fixture, by the under 
surface of the head, which rests on the finished top face of 
the fixture. Three fixtures of this type are provided so that 
the handling time is reduced to a minimum. Section B in Fig. 
18 gives all the facts on the grinding of these push rods. 




Fig, 23. Eiamplo 

of Molt Chopper Di»k 
Surface Grinding 

nd Bevel Pinion 

Work: — Moat chopper disk, soft steel pnnehlnc not Iiardened. 

Operation; — Surface grinding both skies from the roiiRli with an .\niorIcan 
(sUleale) corundiini wheel; urnln 24, grade ''i ; 10 Inches (ilaiiictor, 
lV4lnch rim; speed, 1000 n. I". M. — 11«0 feet surface speed; table 
speed, roughing. l:i II. P. M., finishing, n K. P. M.; down feed of 
wheel, 0.0014 inch per revolution of work-table; amount removed from 
each side, about 0.008 inch. 

Romsj-ks: — Mi of these parts are held at one time on Blanchard magaetlc 
chuck located between two retainins rings; grinding time, 4 mlDOtes, 
handling time, 4 minutes; limits, iast clean op; production. 345 pieces per 
hour; machine used, nianchard high-power vertical surface grinder. 


Work; — Hevel pinion. 0.020 to 0.030 per cent carbon, open hearth steel, 
carbonized and hardened. 

Operation: — Surface grinding one end from the rough with an American 
(silicate) corundum wheel; grain 30. grade lli-W; 16 Inches diameter. 
1',4-lnch rim; speed, 9.M) U. P. M. — .TO71 feet surface speed; Ubie 
speed, 6 R. P. M.; down feed of wheel. O.OOa'i Inch per revolution 
of work-table: amount removed from end, 0.010 inch. 

Remarks; — 44 of these parts ore held at one time on a Blanchard mag- 
netic cliuck, being retained magnetically on pins held in a special 
tlxture; handling time, 6 minutes; production. 200 pieces per hour; 
machine ustnl. Blanchard high-power vertical surface grinder. 

Grinding Rifle Parts 

The grinding of certain rifie parts can be done satisfac- 
torily on the vertical surface grinder, because such a large 
number of pieces can be held at one time, and the method 
of holding does not require the need of special fixtures for 
many of the parts. This is clearly seen in Fig. 19, where 
103 rifle hammers are shown held on a Blanchard magnetic 
chuck by simply using two retaining rings, one inside the 
group of pieces and one outside. This brings up a point 
regarding the vertical surface grinder that is worthy of at- 
tention. I'''or a large number of parts, the surface grinder 
requires almost no fixtures; simple rings of sheet steel may 
be laid around the groups of pieces to be ground, and even 
it the parts are of irregular shape, it is usually possible to 
make a very simple magnetic fixture. 

Referring to .1 in Fig. 18, it will be seen that the rifle 
hammer is made from a soft steel forging and is not hard- 
ened. The speed of the table is changed twice for finishing 
the surface. For roughing, a speed of 17 R. P. M. is used, 
whereas for finishing, the rotative speed of the table is re- 
duced to 5 R. P. M. This enables the same wheel to be 
used for both roughing and finishing operations, and gives 
the desired finish. 

The lever for a repeating rifle shown in Fig. 20 is another 
rifle part that is ground In a similar manner on the Blanch- 
ard vertical surface grinder. Fig. 21 shows how thirty- 
four of these parts are held on the magnetic chuck at one 
time. No special fixtures are required, the pieces being 
simply located inside a retaining ring and held magnetically 
to the chuck. Referring to the data shown in Fig. 20, it 
will be noticed that roughing and finishing cuts are taken 
from each side of the forglngs, the roughing being done at 
a table speed of 17 R. P. M., and the finishing at a table 
speed of 5 R. P. M.; the same wheel, which is an American, 

Fig. 24. 

(silicate) corundum wheel, grain 58-24, grade 1, being used 
for both operations. 

Grinding Ends of Bevel Pinions 
An interesting application of the vertical surface grinder 
to the grinding of bevel pinions is shown in Fig. 22. The 
portion ground as shown at B in Fig. 23, Is the front face 
which measures about 1 7/16 inch diameter. The fixture 
used is of interesting construction, as shown in Fig. 22, and 
comprises a ring .-l in which 44 steel pins B are Inserted. 
The upper ends of these steel pins are turned to fit the holes 
in the pinions, and the latter rest on top of ring .4. The 
magnetic force holds the pinions down against the top sur- 
face of ring A, and, at the same time, prevents them from 
turning on the pins B. In this way the pieces are held very 
effectively and the grinding can be done rapidly. In this 
case it will be noticed that the wheel is rotated at 950 R. 
P. M. giving a surface speed of 3971 feet, whereas the work- 
table is rotated at 6 R. P. M., the gear blanks being finished 
at one speed. The production is 200 pieces per hour. 

Eumplu of Eoller Bearing Roll* and Race Ring 

Work; — Boiler bearing rolls, high-carbon steel, hardened. 

Operation: — Surface grinding both ends from the rough witli a Nortot 
islUcate) alundum wheel: grain .Tl 24. grade IT, 10 Inches diameter, 
IVi-lnch rim; speed, 1000 K. P. M.: — tlBO feet snrface opeed: UMe 
speed. 17 n. P. M.; down feed of wheel. 0.0012 inch per rerolotlon 
of table; amount removed from each end, O.OOO Inch. 

Remarks; — 40 of these parts are keld at one time on a Blanchard mag- 
netic chuck bj means of a special flxtnre; Umlts, pins or minus 0.001 
Inch; production. fW pieces per dajr; machine OMd. Blanchard bigta- 
;>ower vertical surface grinder. 

Work: — Roller bearing race ring. hIgh-i-srh4Mi steel t-sr-!---' 

Operation: — Grinding t>oth sides fr^- ' 



: .low.i fc,-,l of « 

eniored fn^ni each ^ 

Remarka: — 30 of these parts are held at one Um 
netlc chuck— no retaining ring nscd: limits, pi 
prmluctlon. l.vio piece* p*>r da.r; machine nse< 


'n i»ii:catei 
r. 114-lBcb 
> speed IT 
'■• of uble: 

Blanchard mig 
nlons 0.001 hic&: 

■^l^d high-power 



SeptAnber, 1915 

Grinding Meat Chopper Disks 
The meat chopper disk shown at A in Fig. 23 is another 
good example of vertical surface grinding. This disk is 
made from a %-inch soft steel punching, not hardened; 
forty-six disks are held on a Blanchard magnetic chuck at 
one time, and are located between two retaining rings. The 
wheel used is an American (silicate) corundum wheel, grain 
24, grade % ; it is operated at a surface speed of 4190 feet 
per minute. The table speed is 13 R. P. M. for roughing 
and 5 R. P. M. for finishing. 

Methods of Holding- and Grinding Roller Bearing 
Race Rings and Rolls 

The roller bearing race rings shown in Fig. 24 illustrate 
another example of work that is satisfactorily handled on 
the vertical surface grinder. For the holding of these race 
rings, no special fixture is required. The race ring blanks 
are simply placed ou the magnetic chuck without any re- 
taining ring, the magnetism holding them rigidly in posi- 
tion. The data is given at B in Fig. 2a. 

The roller bearing roll shown at A in Fig. 25 is another 
part that is ground on both ends in a Blanchard vertical 
surface grinder. Forty of these parts are held at one time 
on a special fixture, provided with V-slots in which the rolls 


are clamped by means of straps. The fixture is held on the 
magnetic ohuck. 

Grinding Micrometer Frames 
Still another example of work that can be handled efli- 
clently on the vertical surface grinder is the micrometer 
frames which are punched out from soft steel. Fig. 2G 
shows the manner in which these are held on the magnetic 
chuck. By referring to this illustration, it will be noticed 
that they are placed inside of a comparatively broad retain- 
ing ring, but otherwise are not held, except magnetically. 
The wheel found to be the most satisfactory for grinding 
these stampings from the rough is a Norton (silicate) 
alundum wheel, grain 38-30, grade J, iv,-inch rim, operated 
at a surface speed of 4190 feet. The table speed was at the 
rate of 9 R. P. M., and the down feed of the wheel 0.0016 

inch per revolution of the work-table. These parts were 
ground to a limit of 0.0005 inch, and 0.025 inch of metal was 
removed from each side. The production was 30 per hour. 
Grinding Face of Drop-forge Dies 
The drop-forge die shown on the Blanchard magnetic 
chuck in Fig. 27 is a good example of tool-room work. 
Previous to the use of the vertical surface grinder, con- 
siderable trouble was experienced in getting the top lace 
of these drop-forge dies perfectly flat, as they were warped 
considerably in hardening. This particular block is 28 in- 
ches long, 9 inches wide, by 9 inches deep, and 0.012 Inch 
of material was removed from the top surface. Formerly 
the time required to grind this size of drop-forge die block 
was three hours, and the time was reduced to 5 minutes on 
the Blanchard vertical surface grinder. 

Grinding Flat and Concave Portions of Cutting-oM Saws 

The group of cutting-off saws shown in Fig. 29, is an ex- 
ample of work for which the vertical surface grinder of the 

Work: — leinch (Higley type) metal-cuttlDg ^aw, iiigSi-speed sieel, 

Operation: — Surface finding both sides from tbe roapb wltb a Norton 

(silicate) Blundum wbeel; grain 3S-24, grade H: 16 incbee diameter. 

lii-incb rim: speed, 1000 R. P. M. — 1190 feet surface speed; Uble 

speed, rougblng, 8% R. P. M.. finishing. 5% R. P. M.; down feed 

of wheel. 0.0016 Incb per revolution of table; amount removed from 

each side, 0.015 incb; four operations — two for flat and two for concave 

Remarks: — One of these parts held at one time on Blanchard magnetic 

chuck; grinding time, S minutes; handling time. 3 minutes; limits. 

plus or minus 0.002 inch; production. 6 per hour; machine used. 

itlanchard high-power vertical surface grinder. 

rotary type is particularly adapted. As shown in Fig. 28, 
the saw is ground all over and in addition is made concave, 
nearly to the center hole to provide clearance. The flat 
surface of the saw is ground first on both sides; then the 
three-point column support of the machine is adjusted so as 
to set the spindle oft to the desired angle to give the required 
concavity. The saw^ is again placed on the machine and 
both sides reground to give the amount of clearance de- 
sired. On grinding the flat portion, one saw is held at one 
time on the magnetic chuck. See Fig. 28 for data for the 
saw shown in the center of Fig. 29. 

September, 1915 





Don't design without a system. 

Don't draw a tool to any other scale than full size. 
Don't use screw drill bushings. 

Don't forget that two operations may be cheaper than one. 
Don't forget it is harder to actually make the tool than 
to design it. 

Don't use dowel pins where cast-Iron backing is available. 
Don't forget that all wearing parts should be easily dupli- 

Don't put cast-iron bosses on wearing surfaces which are 
of importance. 

Don't use too many screws and levers on your design. 
Don't forget that certain parts of the tool must be cleaned 
after each operation. 

Don't put springs and levers or any moving part on the 
tool where the chips will fall on them, unless they are 
properly covered. 

Don't forget that many drill press tables and surface 
plates in actual practice are not true. 

Don't design point bearings on jigs and fixtures which 
have to lie on drill press tables, etc. A two-line contact is 

Don't design a tool until you have studied the conditions 
under which it has to work. By so doing, you will save time 
and money. 

Don't design an elaborate tool when something plain : nd 
Inexpensive will do the work. 

Don't forget that nine out of every ten tools are never 
duplicated; therefore take pains to design as eflficient a 
tool as possible. 

Don't design a tool that cannot be cleaned effectively in 
the least possible time. 

Don't forget that many operators are unskilled nun and 
very cheap labor. 

Don't give a toolmaker a drawing full of decimals; re- 
member, he can gage 2 inches more effectively by standard 
gages than 1.985 inch. 

Don't design parts to be countersunk; they cost money. 
Don't forget to use patternmakers' dimensions very spar- 
ingly, as they are of no use to the toolmaker. 

Don't design sharp corners on any part of the tool. 
Don't forget that cores on jigs and fixtures are expensive, 
and by careful design they may be eliminated. Show all 
drafts on your design, and show which way you wish to 
have it cast. 

Don't dimension a flat on a round piece from the center; 
always give the size from the outside diameter to the flat. 

Don't forget that drill bushings below % inch in diameter 
cannot be ground ; they must be lapped. 

Don't design drill bushings that are too thin and too short. 
Don't forget that the ends of all screws must be round for 
rough worii and flat for finished work, and that they must 
also be casehardened. 

Don't forget that in accurate drilling all holes must be 

Don't allow more than 0.002 to 0.010 inch for reaming. 
Always drill and ream in the same jig by the use of slip bush- 

Don't hold a slip bushing in any way; let it slide freely 
in the master bushing. 

Don't design collars on drill bushings; they arc of no use 
to any one and cost money. 

Don't forget that all bushings over 1 inch outside diameter 
can be made of machine steel, pack-hardened and ground. 

Don't design a tool in such a way that you must drill 
against a screw; such a construction Is not reliable. Alwa>-s 
use a clamp. 

Don't use a thumb-screw where a set-screw is needed. 
Don't design loose parts on jigs and fixtures; they are apt 

• For addiUonnl "Doo'ts" pHliIlslied In M-vnilNKUY upc illso "Don'ts 
for HnU Ilenrlui: Users." July, 1014; "nonts for HrUllng Machlnp 
Operatora," November, 1013: "Don'ta for Draflnnien." Se|iteiiilier. 1913; 
"Dou'ta tor Drill Grinders." Jul.v, 1013; "Don'ts for the Manacer." 
Novombi-r, 11)12: and "Don'ts for Tooloiakers." rieceniber. 1011. 

t Address: UX! Ulackslonc St., Woonsocket. R. I. 

to be lost and it will cost a lot of money cind time to replace 

Don't design gaging points where they will aSect the ef- 
ficiency of the operator. 

Don't design heavy jigs and fixtures; a little figuring will 
convince you as to the strength of materials. 

Don't forget that each motion that is required on your 
tool has to be duplicated on each piece, costing time and 
money. In designing gaging points always have them in 
even figures such as V4> Vi, % inch from the part to be ma- 
chined. Always use machine steel for gaging parts, and 
have it casehardened and ground to size. 

Don't depend upon springs to operate parte of a mechan- 

Don't design cams on jigs and fixtures; they cost money 
and are not reliable. 

Don't forget that standardization of screws, bushings, 
thickness of walls, size of clamps and studs will prove a 
great time saver not only to you but to all the factory. 
Adopt standards which are far-reaching and easily under- 
stood; and always look for improvements on your standards. 
Do not be satisfied with something simply because it works. 

Don't forget that two ideas are better than one; therefore, 
if there is something that you don't like, call 11 to the atten- 
tion of the chief and talk things over with him. 

Don't forget that It is easier to erase a screw or change 
its position on a design than it is after the casting is made. 
Always design the tool as if you were going to make the 
pattern and the casting, and had to do the machining and 
finally the operating. Always remember that the tool designer 
is responsible for the profit of the manufacture. Efficiency of 
(he tool means manufacturing profit. 

Don't forget that your requirements are large; therefore 
keep up with all the latest technical journals; not only read 
them but study them. 

Don't forget that in your design many parts such as 
screws, clamps, etc., should only be shown on two views. 

Don't forget that it is easier to make a free-hand sketch 
to get an idea if your plan will work than to start on the 
drawing board, and finally have to throw the whole design 

• • « 


At the H. H. Franklin Mfg. Co.'s factory in Syracuse, 
N. Y., where the Franklin car is manufactured, the opera- 
tion of setting timer gears either in the factory or outside 
is greatly facilitated by broaching the timer gears with 
irregularly spaced multiple keyways at the time of manu- 
facture. The illustration shows the positions of the four 
keyways that are broached at varying distances In the 
timer gears, both the gear on the magneto and that 
on the camshaft being 
similarly treated. It 
will be readily appre- 
ciated that with the 
option of setting the 
timer gear at any of 
four designated posi- 
tions on the shaft, each 
of which gives slightly 
different timing, the 
proper adjustment Is 
easily made. 

Especially does this 
feature prove valuable 
to the car owner who 
has broken a timer gear 
and orders a new one 
from the factory. He has no trouble in locating the gear 
on the shaft, nor is it necessary to mark the gear for any 
particular position and have a keyway especially cut. for 
out of four possible positions, one is sure to give correct 
timing. Moreover, this advantage does not add appreciably 
to the manufacturing cost of the car. C L. L. 

our Irr«fularly Sp«c«d Ke;w&f» i 
Tlme^ Oor* to facilitate Settint 



September, 1915 




THE drawing of rectangular shapes does not seem to be 
understood by many tool- and die-makers as well as 
cylindrical drawing, which is doubtless due to the 
fact that rectangular dies are not as common as those used 
for drawing cylindrical parts. Consequently when a rec- 
tangular die Is to be made some experimental work is usually 
required, although much of this could be eliminated if cer- 
tain fundamental points in regard to rectangular drawing 
were understood. The writer will endeavor to explain some 
of the points which experience has shown are essential to 

Shape of Drawn Part and Points to Consider when 
Selecting Material 
The first thing to consider is the design or shape of the 
part to be drawn. This is often overlooked by the designer, 
as all he may have in mind is to produce a box of a certain 
size. Therefore he may specify a radius of % inch at the 
corner of this box when the radius could just as well be % 
inch, and perhaps the radius at the lower corner could also be 
larger than is specified. This matter of corner and edge 
radius is Important and may greatly affect the drawing oper- 
ation. The kind of metal to be used should also be con- 
sidered. It is often more profitable to make small parts of 
brass than of steel because there Is less wear on the dies and 
fewer spoiled parts. When steel is to be used and the depth 
of the draw exceeds one-half the width of the box, a "deep 



Fig. 1. Bectonpular Die with Inserted Corner Pieces 

drawing" steel should be used. A deep drawing steel which 
has proved satisfactory contains from 0.08 to 0.18 per cent 
carbon (preferably about 0.10 to 0.12 per cent) ; about 0.35 per 
cent manganese with less than 0.03 per cent phosphorus and 
sulphur. It is advisable to be on the safe side when deciding 
what thickness of metal to use; that is. It is preferable to 
use a little extra metal and have ample strength at the lower 
edge of the box where the greatest strain from drawing oc- 
curs, than to use a metal that is barely strong enough to with- 
stand the drawing operation. This is especially true if the 
part must be drawn to considerable depth. When using brass 
and aluminum, the cost of the material is an important factor 
and it is common practice to begin with stock, say, 1/32 Inch 
thick; the original thickness is retained in the first draw, but 
is reduced in each succeeding draw so that when the box is 
finished the sides will be considerably thinner than the bot- 
tom. With this method, less metal may be used or, in other 
words, a smaller blank than if the box were made of uniform 
thickness. The reduction of thickness at each draw should 
not exceed 0.0025 inch on a side. Thinning the sides In this 

♦ For fidtlltlonal Information on dies, see tlie foUowinR articles previously 
puMlBhed In Maciiinkrv: "Automatic IndexlnR Multiple Drawing nie." .Tul.v. 
ISIB; "Peep Dniwlne In Combination Dies." April. lOir,; "Dies for Drawing 
Flanged Shells." March, lOin: "Press Tools for Making a Holler Roaring 
Cage," March, 101!); "Forraulna for Blank Diameters of Drawn Shells," 
■Iiinuary, lOl.'S: "Kdgc Uadius of Drawing Dies." Octoher. 1014; "Sob press 
Manufacture." Jul.v, 1914; "One-piece Armature Disk 

way is not considered practicable when using steel, owing to 
the comparative cheapness of steel and the increase in wear 
on the dies which would result. 

Layintf Out Rectanifular Dies 

After having carefully considered the design of the part 

to be drawn and the material from which it is to be made, 

the next step is that of laying out the die or dies, as the case 

may be. Tbere are several fundamental points that should be 

of Different 81ze< 

considered before proceeding with the laying-out operation. 
For instance, there may be some doubt as to the practic- 
ability of drawing a box in one operation, and one might 
naturally suppose that by employing two operations many dif- 
ficulties would be avoided, because the work is divided be- 
tween two dies. There may be more trouble, however, when 
using two dies, especially if steel is to be drawn, because the 
drawing operation is confined to the corners, and forming 
the sides of the box is nothing more than a folding or bend- 
ing operation ; consequently the wear of the diee is in the 
corners, and as the result of this wear and increase of clear- 
ance space the metal thickens at the corners. In some cases 
the metal will thicken to such an extent as to make it im- 
possible to push the work through the second die when two 
are employed, without rupturing the box at the corners. 



N. Y. 

Moreover, when there are two operations, annealing may be 
required between the draws, and if this is done in an open 
fire, oxidation takes place which would require a pickling 
operation to free the part from scale. Even though a closed 
furnace is used, the parts should be washed to free them from 
grit, as otherwise the die would be lapped out very quickly. 
If there is no doubt as to whether a box should be made In 
one die or two. It is advisable to first make the finishing die 
and attempt to produce the part in one operation. If this 
trial draw shows that one die is not practicable, then the 
first-operation die can be made. 

September, 1915 



'The amount of clearance at the corners is another Im- 
portant point. By allowing a little more than the thickness 
of the metal between the punch and die at the corners, the 
pressure required for drawing is considerably reduced. For 
instance, if stock 0.0625 inch thick were being used, a space 
of about 0.0G7 inch should be left at the corners; this clear- 
ance is advisable for a one-operation die and also for the flnal 
die of a series. The top surface of a first-operation die should 






Fig. 4. Simple Design of Ecctangnlir Drawing Die 

be perfectly flat and smooth. If this surface is ground, the 
grinding marks should be polished out, as otherwise the 
pressure of the blank-holder will tend to hold certain parts of 
the blank more than others, causing an uneven draw. 

The corners of the die, as well as the punch, should be 
made very hard. The writer has used a die equipped with in- 
serted corner pieces, as shown in Fig. 1. This form of die 
was designed for drawing a large number of steel parts, 6 by 
8 Inches in size, and up to the present time the sides have 
outworn at least six sets of corner pieces, not counting the 
number of times these pieces have been reworked. This con- 
struction allows the corners to be made much harder than if 

Fig. 6. Fixture for trimming 

they were part of a solid plate. It also permits the use of 
expensive steel, such as high-speed steel, for these corner 
pieces, as they are small in comparison with the rest of the 
die. This form of die Is not recommended for small work. 
Driiwlnur Edtre Radius of Rectunwrular Dies 
The radius r (Fig. 1) of the drawing edge is another point 
which often does not receive the attention that Its importance 
merits. In the first place, this rounded surface should be 
uniform and smooth. The edge radius of the first drawing 
die (assuming that more than one operation is required t is 
the most important. Theoretically, this radius should be as 
large as possible, but it is restricted for the reason that the 
larger the drawing radius the sooner the blank is released 

from under the blank-holder or pressure pad, and if this re- 
lease occurs too soon, the metal will wrinkle; wrinkling of 
the metal will cause a fractured corner. 

It is also important to make the corner radius as large as 
possible. Fig. 2 shows, In part, the outline of a blank and 
also corners of Vi and M- Inch radius, respectively. The dotted 
lines a-a indicate the metal in the blank which must be folded 
up and compressed into a corner. When the corner radius 
does not exceed % inch, the radius of the drawing edge of 
the first die should be about the same as the comer radius, 
whereas for a corner radius exceeding ^4 inch, the drawing 
edge radius of % Inch should be retained. 

Determlnlnif Number of Drawlnsr OperatloiiB-Ccmer RaxUua 
In laying out rectangular dies, naturally one of the first 
things to consider is the number of operations required to 
complete the box or whatever part is to be drawn. The 
number of operations is governed by several factors, such, for 
Instance, as the quality of material, Its thickness, the corner 
radius and also the radius at the bottom edge of the drawn 
part. In some cases, this lower edge can be rounded con- 
siderably, whereas in others It must be nearly square. Obvi- 
ously, when the corner is sharp a fracture at this point Is 
more likely to occur, owing to the pull of the drawing punch. 
Because of these variable conditions no definite rule can be 
given for determining the number of operations, although the 
following information will serve as a general guide. 

Fig. «. Trimming Knife for cutting Two BIdel in One Suoko 

When drawing brass, it is safe to assume that the part can 
be drawn to a depth equal to six times the corner radius. 
This rule has been applied to all radii not over ^4 Inch. For 
rectangular parts having larger corner radii, the depth would 
be somewhat less than six times the corner radius. Suppose 
a box is to be drawn that la 5 inches wide, 6 Inches long and 
3 inches deep, and that the corner radius is Vj inch, and the 
lower edge rounded to about 14 inch radius. By applying the 
foregoing rule we find that this can be done in one opera- 
tion; thus, the depth equals six times the corner radius, or 
6 X Vj = 3 inches. If the corners were of % Inch radius, 
then two operations would be required. 

When two dies are required the first die should have a 
corner radius equal to about five times the radius of the 
finished part. The relation between the corners of the first 
and second dies Is Indicated by the diagram A. Fig. 3. As 
will be seen, they are not laid ofl from the same center but 
so that there will be enough surface x between the two cor- 
ners to provide a drawing edge. The reason for selecting 
such a large corner radius for the first die is that when these 
large corners are reduced to the smaller radius in the second 
die a large part of this compressed metal Is forced out Into 
the sides of the box. Now if the first die were laid out as 
indicated at B or from the same center as the second die, 
there would be a comparatively large reduction at the corner 
and, consequently, the metal would be more compressed and 
the drawing operation made much more difficult, because, as 
previously mentioned, the drawing action Is confined to the 
corners when drawing rectangular work. Sometimes dies are 



September, i915 

made as Indicated at B, but the reduction necessary in the 
second operation is lilcely to result in fracturing the metal. 
The radius of the first die should be laid out from a center 
that will leave a surface x (see sketch A) about % inch wide, 
although this width should be varied somewhat, depending 
upon the size of the die. 

The amount y that a rectangular part can be reduced be- 
tween draws depends upon the corner radius and diminishes 
fvS the corner radius becomes smaller. For instance, a box 
with corners of % inch radius could not be reduced as much 
as one with corners of % inch radius. To obtain the total 
amount of reduction, or 2y (see Fig. 3), multiply the comer 
radius required for the drawn box by 3 and add the product 
to the width and length, thus obtaining the width and length 
of the preceding die. This rule should only be applied when 
the corner radius is less than V2 inch. For all radii above 
i-o inch, simply multiply the 
constant 0.5 by 3 in order to 
obtain the reduction. Sup- 
pose a box is to be drawn 
that is 5 inches wide, 6 Inches 
long, % radius at the corner, 
and we desire to establish the 
size of the first-operation die. 
By applying the rule just 
given, we have % X 3 + 5= 
5% inches, and % X 3 + 6 = 
6% inches. Therefore, the 
die should be made 5% 
inches by 6% inches. As pre- 
viously mentioned, the corner 
radius for the first-operation 
die should be about four 
times the corner radius of 
the finished part; hence the 
radius in this case would 
equal % X 4 = % inch. In 
this way, the number of oper- 
ations required to draw a rec- 
tangular part is determined. 
Shape of the Blank 
After the drawing dies are 
completed, the shape of the 
blank must be determined. 
While a blank can be laid out 
which would be of approxi- 
mately the required shape, 
the exact form must be de- 
termined by trial before the 
blanking die can be made. (A 
good method of laying out 
blanks for rectangular parts 
was described in the April 
number of Machinery, page 
687.) The proper way is to 
first lay out the blank and 
then cut out two blanks so 
that after one has been drawn 
the other can be changed as 
may be found necessary. When laying out the blank, it Is 
often advisable not to attempt to secure a shape that will 
form corners that are level with the sides of the drawn 
part, but rather a form of blank that will produce corners 
tliat are a little higher than the sides. This is desirable for 
two reasons: In the first place, as previously mentioned, 
the wear on the die is at the corners, and when wear occurs 
the metal will thicken and then the drawn part will be low 
at the corners, provided no allowance is made on the blank. 
Second, the shape of the blank for drawing an even level 
corner would often correspond somewhat to that indicated 
by tile dotted line h in Fig. 2, and the tendency of the high 
projections c would be to carry the metal toward the corner 
and cause a seam, due to the low part 1). Incidentally, a burr 
along part of the blank edge often causes trouble, because it 
tends to hold that part of the blank tighter under the blank- 
holder than the remainder, thus causing an irregular shape. 


Type of Die for Use In 8inB-le-action Press 
Many are of the opinion that a double-acting press is neces- 
sary for this kind of work unless the drawn part is shallow 
and a combination die is used, but this is not the case. A 
single-acting press which is geared for reduced speed will 
serve the purpose, and a simple type of die may be employed. 
The speed, however, should not exceed 60 revolutions per 
minute. The greatest difficulty connected with the use of a 
single-acting press is the arrangement of the blank-holder or 
pressure pad. This can be made in several ways. One method 
is to attach the drawing die to the ram of the press and the 
punch below In the die-shoe with the pressure ring extending 
around the pnnch and resting on pins that pass through the 
shoe and bear against a plate which is backed up by a rubber 
buffer or spring pressure attachment that can be adjusted to 
give the pressure required. This arrangement is satisfactory 
for many classes of work, but 
when drawing comparatively 
deep parts it is objectionable 
in that the blank-holder 
pressure increases as the die 
descends; consequently, if 
this pressure is sufficient for 
the beginning of the drawing 
operation, it will be excessive 
at the end of the downward 
stroke. This defect is some- 
times remedied by using ex- 
tra long springs or buffers, or 
a special "compensating at- 
tachment." For deep draw- 
ing, when a single-acting 
press is to be used, the writer 
prefers a die equipped with a 
pressure pad of the type 
shown in Fig. 4. The die and 
die-shoe rest upon the bolster 
of the press and Into the lat- 
ter are screwed two shoulder 
studs S having coarse threads 
onto which are fitted the 
handled nuts N. These nuts 
serve to hold down the press- 
ure pad which is pivoted on 
one of the studs and slotted 
to receive the other so that 
it can be swung out of the 
way. (See plan view.) The 
under side of the pad is 
faced with a hardened tool- 
steel plate ^i inch thick. 
When using the die, the 
pressure pad is swung out, 
the blank placed in position, 
and then the pad is swung 
back and tightened by nuts 
N. After a few parts have 
been drawn, the operator will 
be able to determine how 

Trimming Fixture for drawing Steel Parts 

much these nuts should be tightened to prevent wrinkling. 
The heavier and more rigid the studs and pad are, the less 
tightening is necessary, because the object is simply to con- 
fine the metal before it goes into the die so that wrinkling 
will be impossible. This form of die has proved satisfactory 
and it is similar In effect to the action of the double-acting 
press. A vent hole should never be omitted in the drawing 
punch, as this facilitates stripping the drawn part. 
Trimmint? Drawn Rectang^ular Parts 
After a square or rectangular part is drawn, it is necessary 
to trim the edges unless the depth of the draw is compara- 
tively small, as in the case of can or box covers, etc. There 
are several ways of trimming the edges in a punch press. If 
the box is square it can be placed on a fixture of the type 
shown in Fig. 5 and be trimmed by cutting the four sides 
successively, the work being indexed by turning spindle B. 
Each cut should overlap the other by a small margin to in- 

September, 1915 



sure a smooth even edge. The spindle B is a running fit in 
the main casting A and holds the hardened tool-steel knife C. 
The dotted lines show the position of the box to be trimmed. 
As shown, a tapered wedge D which slides in under the lower 
side of the box serves to locate the box and also to take the 
downward thrust of the cut. The blade or knife E. which is 
attached to the ram of the press, may be ground square across 
the end or at a slight angle on the cutting face; a slight 
amount of angle or rake is desirable when trimming thick 
stock. If the part to be trimmed is rectangular, the length of 
the knife should be equal to the length of the longest side 
of the box minus the radius of one of the corners. For in- 
stance, a box 5 by G inches having a Vi-inch corner radius 
should be trimmed with a knife bVz inches long. The two 
long sides should be cut first because if the short sides were 
cut first, there would be a tendency to distort the corners. 
When the sides are unequal, the wedge D should either be 
double-ended or have enough taper to compensate for the dif- 
ference in the box dimensions. 

Another method of trimming is shown in Fig. 6. In this 
case, two sides are cut simultaneously so that only one index- 
ing is required. This method Is satisfactory for soft metal 
such as brass or aluminum, but is likely to cause trouble 
when trimming steel, because the corners are so hard as the 
result of drawing that the top corner o might split from the 
strain of the cut, unless the box were annealed for trimming. 





■*' M'l.ln 


rig. 8. Trin 

ction with Fixture 

The fixture for indexing and supporting the work is similar 
to that Illustrated in Fig. 5. 

To avoid making four cuts when trimming steel parts, and 
also to obviate annealing, the special trimming die shown In 
Fig. 7 was designed. This die has been in use for the past 
seven years and has trimmed thousands of boxes each year. 
It has a lower knife A, held by spindle B. which Is a running 
nt in a bearing at the rear of the main body casting C. The 
box to be trimmed is placed over knife A. Spindle B is held 
In position by nuts (not shown) and has a %-inch knockout 
rod extending through it which acts upon a knockout pad D. 
This pad also serves as a stop-gage for regulating the depth 
to which the box is trimmed. A fixed length is retained ir- 
respective of how much knife .1 is ground. Four pins E are 
screwed into the pad and pass through holes in knife .1, rest- 
ing against the face of a hardened bushing in the casting. 
This allows the face / of the knife to be ground repeatedly 
because knife .1 rests against the shoulder on spindle B and 
pins E hold i)iid D stationary. The knockout rod (not shown) 
is actuated by a series of levers connecting with a handle at 
(he left of the operator. The hardened plate F is for taking 
the thrust of the top knife which is held in the punch-holder. 
This plate is secure<l by cap-screws I, and it can be adjusted 
by screw H and wedge G to compensate tor sharpening the 
top knife. The two slides J which have hardened faces K 
slide underneath the box and serve to loc;ite it In position, 
and also support It rigidly against the thrust of the cut. 
These slides are operated by lever L through pinions M and 
N. Pinion ^f has its bearing in the right-hand slide and en- 
gages a stationary rack beneath It. Attached to the right- 

hand slide K is an extension X having rack teeth which mesh 
with the pinion N mounted in a stationary bearing. This 
pinion, in turn, meshes with a rack above it attached to slide 
K. Thus it will be seen that a movement of lever L from 
right to left causes both slides K to move in under the box to 
be trimmed. This same movement of the lever also moves 
arm and slide P into position for clamping the bottom of 
the box, the clamping being effected by pilot wheel .S. which 
is attached to the screw shown. With this arrangement only 
a small movement of the screw is required, and when lever L 
is thrown to the right and the distance block P is removed 
there is plenty of space for taking out the trimmed box and 
inserting another. A detailed view of the trimming knife or 
punch is shown in Fig. 8. Considerable experimenting waa 
necessary before securing a trimming punch that was per- 
fectly satisfactory. The edge having a 30-degTee angle on 
each side shears the side of the box down a little beyond the 
center; the 5-degree edge provides the necessary clearance; 
whereas the 45-degree section cuts out the round corners of 
the box, after which there is a slight shearing cut to the 


In dealing with the subject of the training of teachers for 
industrial and trade schools, there are two general classes 
that must be recognized, depending upon, or resulting from, 
the two general sources from which such teachers come. These 
sources are the trained academic teacher and the trained 
mechanic. There is a division of opinion as to which source 
furnishes the better type of teacher. There are those who 
believe that the primary requisite of such a teacher is the 
ability to grasp the educational value of a subject, and to 
deal with and give Instruction to the learner. These hold 
that pedagogical training is the basis upon which must be 
placed enough knowledge of the subject to enable the teacher 
to meet the problems of the school shop. There are others 
that believe that, since it is Industrial training that is 
wanted, the essential things are the industrial atmosphere, 
methods, and standards of efiSclency. These hold that any 
mechanic of a degree of intelligence to become a candidate 
for a teacher's position can be trained sufficiently in methods 
of instruction to make him the better type of shop teacher. 
Of course the ideal shop teacher is the one who is thoroughly 
trained in both phases; but since a thorough training In 
either Involves several years of time and study, we are likely, 
at the present salary schedule, to have to choose between the 
two types. 

To discuss the ability of the mechanic teacher It Is neces- 
sary to establish the rank In the Industry from which the 
average candidate comes. Shop instructors are generally re- 
cruited from the ranks of journeymen. Some of these have 
only a common school education, a few have high-school edu- 
cation, but none of them are college men. This statement 
would hold in general for all apprenticeship schools 
established by railroads and factories. In the public schools 
the situation Is slightly different, with probably a little more 
inducement for the man of higher rank to enter. Yet. Just 
as the railroad shops or factories cannot take their foremen 
to teach the apprentices, so society cannot take trained fore- 
men as teachers in public Industrial schools. In other words. 
Industry outbids the public schools for such men. Dr. 
Snedden, probably the one most influential in the demand 
for the mechanic teacher, says that the rank of foreman is 
preferable, but recognizes that he can only demand that of 

To those of us who know the present method of com- 
mercial production and the lack of apprenticeship in the In- 
dustries, the requirement of journeyman standing does not 
insure ability. The Journeyman Is usually the victim of the 
factory system or the contractor's policy of keeping him at 
the one special job which he can do best. He might be 
highly skilled In laying floors, shingling, lathing, framing. 



September, 1915 

stair building, or some other specialty, but not have a gen- 
eral training in carpentry. He might be a specialist in some 
phase of machine work, but we have heard lately, from Mr. 
Ford, that it takes only two weeks to train a specialist. 

Observation seems to show that the candidate is usually a 
young handy man of a high degree of intelligence, who has 
been earning his living at some form of the work he Intends 
to teach, and who is dissatisfied with the social position of a 
worker in Ms trade, and desires to make more money per 
year and have a summer vacation. 

Strong- Points of the Mechanic Teacher 

1. He can do good work himself. This gives him a confi- 
dence in demonstration, and gives the boys a confidence in 
him that is Invaluable. There seems to be to us all, and 
especially to the boy, a strong appeal in the ability to do 
things with the hands. 

2. He can apply commercial standards. Most of our school 
shop work falls below commercial standards for two reasons: 
First, the workers are only of apprenticeship rank; and 
second, the teacher does not know the commercial construc- 
tion which they would be able to use. Also, the element of 
time does not enter into school shopwork, and only a trained 
mechanic knows how to appreciate this. 

3. He can create a shop atmosphere. An atmosphere is 
the most intangible, elusive thing in the world, and yet it is 
the most influential. A school boy changes from a careless, 
indifferent piddler to an earnest, zealous workman with a 
change of atmosphere, and yet one could see no concrete 
thing that he could say, "That is it." Perhaps the air of 
quiet confidence in the ability to turn out work that is worth 
while gives the boys the same confidence. 

4. He is in sympathy with the labor element of society. 
One of the large features In the training of the worker of 
today should be the giving of an outlook on life and social 
problems that would rescue him from the agitator. This 
would mean constructive leadership by the teacher in the 
affairs of citizenship and social conscience. This could best 
be done by the mechanic, because the problems of labor today 
must be solved by the friends of labor, otherwise there will be 
no solution. The trained academic teacher is usually not 
wholly In sympathy with the labor element, because he is a 
product of a selective institution, deals largely with abstrac- 
tions, and is more interested in teaching the traditional past 
than the progressive present. 

5. He can give the student correct guidance as to desir- 
ability, opportunity, and dangers of the trade in question; 
in other words he is a better authority on that vocation, hav- 
ing followed it, than the trained pedagogue who has read 
about it. This vocational guidance is also one of the large 
functions of the industrial school teacher of the future. SU- 
tistics show that only a small percentage of the pupils really 
follow the vocation for which they train in trade schools. 
So we must make the schools more than ever a tryingout 
place, and save some of the misfits if we can. 

"Weak Points of the Mechanic Teacher 
1. He does not understand teaching principles. In the 
learning process there are certain fundamental laws and 
principles. These laws and their operation are the subject 
of years of study and training for the teacher, and it would 
be too much to assume that a worker who had spent no 
thought upon the subject would not suffer in comparison in 
this field. We are all familiar with the mechanic teacher 
who makes the jigs, sets the machine, gives the finishing 
polish, and makes a splendid exhibit. On the other hand, 
these laws are not so occult that the intelligent person desir- 
ing to impart knowledge or training to a pupil cannot by 
good sense accomplish largely what he intends, without hav- 
ing heard of one of them. Also, he is dealing with pupils who 
will not recognize if they are the victims of poor pedagogy, 
while ofttlmes they would recognize quickly if the teacher 
did not use correct shop methods. 

The laws and principles of teaching should be one field of 
training lor the mechanic candidate. The teacher must be 
able to recognize the stage of progress of the learner and be 
able to carry him forward in sequence. He must recognize 
that while the learner consciously controls the stroke of the 

hammer, he Is quite as likely to hit his thumb as the nail; 
that it is the aubconscious control that brings skill in opera- 
tions; that it is one thing to do a thing well, and quite 
another to tell just what coordinations are necessary to 
bring the result. He must recognize that training In trade 
processes is not necessarily education, but may be made the 
basis and motive for education. He must recognize the 
value of initiative and resultant satisfaction on the formation 
of habits, and a few other things like these, before he is pre- 
pared to stand before a class to teach. 

2. He does not understand scientific management. The 
urgent demand for better organization and more scientific 
management everywhere concedes that the standards of ef- 
ficiency are not so generally recognized as we are sometimes 
led to believe. Why are not the skilled trades more highly 
organized and systematized than the unskilled? When or- 
ganization and system are introduced into an industrial plant 
today, it Is not the trained mechanic who is called in to estab- 
lish the system; it Is usually the specialist, a college man. 
This means merely that the college man is of a more highly 
selected group, with greater capacity for organization. 

3. He cannot grasp new problems or problems outside his 
own specialty like the teacher. In one case a machinist of 
many years' experience and a technically trained teacher 
came upon the problem of a change-gear box, where by shift- 
ing three levers it was possible to get sixteen changes of 
speed. After a glance at the instructions the teacher could 
make any desired change Instantly, while the mechanic had 
to go over and over the operation until it became a part of 
his experience. This is only one "robin," and does not make 
it spring, but according to observation, the more highly 
selected and trained group of teachers will be able to dupli- 
cate these results In most new situations. 

4. In administrative capacity he is likely to over-empha- 
size his own trade. In a prominent high school there is what 
seems a decidedly one-sided equipment and over-emphasis of 
machine work. There, In an equipment costing one hundred 
twenty-five thousand dollars, one-half of it went to the ma- 
chine work alone. The pattern shop, foundry, and me- 
chanical drawing rooms were simply auxiliary departments 
to the machine shop. All other trades commonly taught in 
school were ignored. 

Trainlner the Teacher 
The strengths and weaknesses of the academic teacher 
candidate have been given by inference in contrast to the 
weaknesses and strengths of the mechanic candidate. All 
things considered it seems that the weaknesses just about 
balance the strength of each. Why then Is the weight of 
sympathy of the organizer today toward the mechanic candi- 
date? Is It not because of the methods of training the 
teacher candidate? The mechanic frankly accepts the fact 
that he must study, and spend good time and money, before 
he can accept a position, and then he usually goes in as as- 
sistant, while the teacher candidate heretofore has been ac- 
cepting positions without further preparation than the study 
of classroom methods of a slightly different kind. The 
trouble has been that we have been giving both classes of 
candidates exactly the same type of training, while their 
previous experience demands opposite kinds of training. 
The mechanic candidate needs the theory and practice of 
teaching and classroom management. The academic candi- 
date needs the actual participation In the production In the 
line he proposes to teach. Let him count the difference in 
wages In shop and his school salary as the price he pays for 
training for a new and better paying position. What he 
should do Is frankly to accept the fact that this Is a new field 
of knowledge to him, and that he must study in this field by 
actual participation. With the addition of this experience he 
will become, because of, more rigid selection, the better type 
of teacher. 

The conclusion then Is that If the demands of an organizer 
of a school system were such as to bring two classes of 
candidates, one class with five years experience as mechanics 
and one year as teachers, and another class with five years 
experience as teachers and one year as mechanics, the better 
type of teacher would be found in the second class. 

September, 1915 




The two small parts 
shown in Fig. 1, and in 
detail in Fig. 2, are used 
In a newly designed 
pneumatic valve. These 
pieces are shown greatly 
enlarged in Fig. 2, the 
Bench Lathe actual slze being less 

than % inch long for the larger part, and Vi inch diameter 
for the smaller hemispherical part. Both pieces are made of 
steel. The production required was not sufficient to warrant 
tooling up a screw machine and milling machine, and yet the 
output was large enough so that it would not be economical 
to make them up without special tools or fixtures of any 
kind. The Rivett Lathe & Grinder Co. of Brighton, Boston. 
Mass., recently completed the tooling up of one of its lathes 
for producing the parts, using Its regular turning, milling and 
grinding fixtures. No special attachments of any kind were 
used; and this shows what can be done with standard equip- 
ment when properly used. 


Fig. 2. Details of Valvo Partu 

Taking first the piece designated as A: this is made of 
cold-rolled steel, and the first operation consists in gripping 
the 11/32-incli round bar stock in the collet chuck while it 
is formed with a circular forming tool held on the forming 
tool-slide, as shown in Fig. 3. At the rear side of the slide 
a set-screw may be seen that limits the cross travel of thi' 
slide to the point, which leaves the finished diameter 0.15(1 
inch. After this piece has been formed, the cutting-off tool 
mounted at the rear side of the slide is brought in, the 
part 8evere<l from the bar and the stock fed forward to a 
stop ready for forming the shank of another piece. This 

operation forms the entire shank of this piece. The next 
operations are on the head. 

Next the partly formed piece is held shank inward in a 
collet chuck, and spotted with a drill in the tailstock turret. 
Then the hole 0.120 inch diameter Is drilled to a depth of 
0.360 inch. After this the 0.143-inch section at the end of 
the hole i< couruerbored for a depth of 0.110 inch. 

Fig. 4. MiUing Attachment in Ute 

The third phase of the work is performed in the manner 
shown in Fig. 4. This Illustrates the shaping of the sides 
and the forming of the face with the aid of the regular milling 
attachment for the bench lathe, the part being held by the 
.shank in a draw-in collet. At this setting the milling of 
four tapered sides is done with a pair of angular mills that 
are held on an arbor in the spindle of the lathe. These two 
cutters are spaced exactly the right distance apart, and by 
feeding the work vertically between the cutters, two sides 
are straddle-milled. The part is then indexe<l 90 degrees, and 
the two opposite sides are similarly finished. The end face 
of this part is also concaved and grooved at this setting. 
The only change in the tools for doing this operation is the 

Fir. 6. Oriading Ball on Bench Lathe 

substitution of a hob of the correct diameter, \ inch, and the 
cross-sUde is fed toward the hob until the desired finish of 
the face Is secured. 

The last series of operations on this part is performed 
upon the rear end by milling with straddle-mills so as to leare 
the central "fin" only, as shown in Fig. 2. After this, the 
part is slipped into a simple jig and a No. 60 hole is drilled 
crosswise through the web. This completes the part, leaT- 
ing it as shown. 

In the manufacture of the half-bjill-shaped piece shown at 
B. the first operation Is to drill and countersink the end of 
the bar, and then to form It with the attachment that has 



September, 1915 

been shown in Fig. 3. The part is then hardened and is 
ground in the manner shown in Fig. 5, using the regular 
Rivett grinding attachment for the bench lathe. The worlt 
is held on a stud arbor, with expanding Jaws that are opened 
under preHsure of a small screw that operates in the end of 
the arbor. 

These two examples of work serve well to show what can 
be done with standard binich lathe equipment plus a little in- 
genuity. C. L. L. 
* * * 


The magnetic chuck has for year.s been a familiar shop 
fixture for holding work for surface and cylindrical grind- 
ing, but its operation has been largely restricted to use on 
grinding machines because of the low gripping power usu- 
ally developed. The Heald magnetic chuck made by the 
Heald Machine Co., Worcester, Mass., has gripping power 
sufficient to hold work for other machining operations such as 
shaping and milling. Kigs. 1 and 2 illustrate vertical and 
horizontal milling operations, as performed on work held 


with Heald chucks. Pig. 1 shows an end milling operation 
on the body of a magnetic chuck casting; the material in 
this chuck casting is cast iron, and the depth of the cut 
is 3/16 inch. These castings are 8 inches wide and 24 
inches long, and the time required to mill one of them is 
five minutes. A steel plate is bolted to the end of the chuck 
to act as a stop against which the thrust of the cut is taken. 
No gripping device of any kind other than the magnetic 
chuck is employed for holding the work. 

An even more severe milling operation is the one illus- 
trated In Pig. 2 that shows the milling of a bar of cold- 
rolled steel, 32 Inches long, 2 inches wide, and % inch thick. 
The operation being performed is the tapering of the piece 
to the shape of a wedge, measuring % inch at the thin end 
and % inch at the thick end. The depth of the cut is 3/16 
inch and the feed is five inches per minute. A feed of 
seven inches per minute was attempted, but the machine 

Horizontal Milling Operation performed with Aid of 
Magnetic Chuck 

would not pull the cut. No holding-down clamps of any 
kind are employed, but guide blocks at the sides and one 
end are used to support the work; these do not exert any 
downward pressure on the work. The chucks furnish the 
holding-down power, and show absolutely no tendency to 
allow the work to lift or move. C. L. L. 




Flashback In the welding torch is the skeleton in the 
closet of the oxy-acetylene industry. We who have sold 
apparatus, especially in the early days, know the care we 
have taken in demonstrating the equipment not to bring 
the welding tip too close to the molten metal, how we avoided 
unduly iieating the head, and with what inward fear and 
trepidation but outward nonchalance, we turned over the 
torch to the green workman and awaited the almost in- 
evitable scream of the flashback, as the trembling hand 
plunged the tip into the molten mass of metal. Vou who 
use apparatus or are around where it is being used know 
the unpleasant noise when the torch flashes. If you are a 
nervous man you are invariably startled, yet there is no 
danger; but the user must flgure the results of flashback on 
a dollars and cents basis, for persistent flashback will waste 
gases and labor to an enormous extent. 

Catalogues are very reticent when it comes to the ques- 
tion of flashback. Instruction books say that it is caused 
by lack of acetylene pressure, by the sparks igniting the 
mixture (this explanation seems wholly mysterious, as the 
mixture is already ignited), by forcing the flame back into 
the mixing chamber when it is brought too close to the 
metal, by excess heating of the chamber or nozzle contain- 
ing the mixed gases, by a burr or obstruction in the tip, etc. 
The manufacture of oxy-acetylene apparatus apparently be- 
ing a profitable one, and the industry still being in its swad- 
dling clothes, it presents an inviting field for the brass 
specialty factories to enter. In many cases their product 
has shown real Yankee ingenuity, but unfortunately with 
unmistakable evidence of a lack of knowledge of the re- 
quirements of the gases used. One of these tell-tale features 
is the persistent flashback of the torch when any tips but 
the smallest are used or when the weld is being made on a 
hot casting where the heat rising to the torch from the 
metal is considerable. 

The user of such a torch generally will swear at oxy- 
acetylene welding rather than by it, so for the good of the 
industry let us open the closet and look at the skeleton. 
Flashback is costly; the gases burn just the same, but they 
burn inside the torch, and in the meantime the weld begins 
to grow cold. This means lost labor, lost gases and the 
likelihood of producing blow-holes or unfused metal, while 
the torch is being cooled, relighted and readjusted. I have 
in mind the welding of two gears, each identical in weight, 
shape and character of weld. The welds were preheated and 
kept at a red heat by gas torches during the time that the 
weld was being made; this is a rather difficult test for a 
torch, but one which is frequently necessary where heavy 
castings are welded. Two different welding torches were 
used, the work being started on both gears at the same time. 
I remember that the workman using the correctly designed 
torch finished the weld in a little less than forty minutes 
without a flashback. We gave up timing the other man 
when the hour limit was reached and he had had eleven 
flashbacks. Each torch had the same size of tip, the hourly 
consumption of oxygen being about 50 cubic feet. One can 
readily appreciate, then, that on heavy hot work, a torch 
which has the "flashback habit" may easily cost from 25 to 
100 per cent more to operate than the torch which is free 
or relatively free from flashbacks. 

The results of a flashback a-e a considerable source of 
annoyance; they introduce the possibility of poor welding 
and are responsible for a serious loss of efficiency. The 
cause is a little more difficult to understand. Acetylene will 
not burn unmixed with air or oxygen: but it must be re- 
membered that the welding torch does mix the oxygen with 
the acetylene In the tip, the head or sometimes just beyond 
the handle. A mixing chamber and tip are shown in the 
accompanying Illustration which does not represent any 
particular torch, but is a general type. It has already been 

* Ailiiross: Room i:i7.'.. .'iO Church St.. New York City. 

September, 1915 




found that acetylene and oxygen will burn backward, i. e., 
against the flow, unless the mixed gases have a speed of 330 
feet per second. Note carefully that it is not one gas or 
the other which must attain this flow, but both together. 

One of the first causes of a flashback may be lack of 
velocity; and in securing the necessary speed, the manu- 
facturer unfamiliar with the proportions of gases, and using 
the general type of mixing chamber illustrated, is very 
likely to secure an oxidizing flame by using a high oxygen 
pressure to attain the proper ve- 
locity. This is the reason why, 
when all other explanations of 
flashback seem futile, the in- 
struction book tells you to in- 
crease the pressures. But sup- 
pose that the pressure has been 
Increased until the flame will 
stand no more and is ready to 
blow away from the tip; that the 
velocity is even in excess of that 
required and the torch contin- 
ues to flash. We unscrew the 
tip and may find a shoulder 
caused by careless drilling, per- 
haps a chamber or recess (com- 
mon with copper-end tip.s) or 
maybe some chips or filings. Did 
any one of these cause the flash? 
General Type of Mixing ciiam- Perhaps SO, since an obstruction 
*"" acetvTene "lifrches '^''^ "'" depression would have the 

tendency to retard the flow of 
gas temporarily, and therefore cause the speed of the gases 
to be momentarily checked and the flame to back up to that 

We secure a perfect tip, thread it into the chamber and 
begin welding again. This time the torch works much bet- 
ter, but when we start welding in a depression, where there 
is no escape for the heat waves except directly against the 
flame, the torch again flashes, and this time we must look 
for trouble elsewhere than in the tip. We note that there 
Is soot or carbon in the chamber of the mixed gases, so 
we must conclude that this chamber has in some manner 
acted as a retarding agent and checked the proper speed 
of the gases. This mixing chamber or expansion point is 
necessary in some types of apparatus, especially where the 
acetylene is under little or no pressure and the force of the 
oxygen must be used to inject or suck the proper proportion 
of acetylene into the nozzle. The velocity of the gas in this 
case might be too great to hold the flame at the end of the 
tip, so the expansion chamber is necessary to retard the 
speed. But if these mixed gases are not everywhere moving 
at the reciuired speed to prevent the backward propagation 
of the flame, the flame will burn back if sufliciently tempted 
to that point where the speed of the gases is not sufficient. 

I'erhaps the construction of the torch is such that it per- 
mits unscrewing the mixing chamber from the head. In 
such a torch we may find soot or carbon in the acetylene 
chamber, perhaps as far back as the entrance of the acety- 
lene tube to the head. Then the gases must have been burn- 
ing back to this. point. Since acetylene alone will not burn 
without the air or oxygen mixture the oxygen must have 
"backed up" to this spot, and the speed of the gases at this 
point being very low (the acetylene under a comparatively 
low pressure and only a small amount of oxygen backing 
up) the flashback continued here until the gases were shut 
off. Here is the cure for all flashbacks — preventing the 
oxygen from entering the chamber or tube of acetylene will 
absolutely prevent flashbacks, providing the speed of the 
mixed gases is up to the required point. 

Obstructions, depressions or rough spots in the tip will 
cause a momentary backfire but will not cause a flashback. 
The backfire is simply a snapping, i. c. a tendency to burn 
backward; the flashback is the actual burning back of the 
flame which continues till one or both of the gases are shut 
off. A torch may show this tendency to burn back, but will 
not do so if the rule outlined above can be followed in con- 

struction details. Curiously enough, it may be impossible to 
so construct the torch as to prevent the mixture of the 
oxygen with the acetylene at the wrong point; it depends 
entirely upon the pressure of the acetylene. If the low- 
pressure type of generator is used, delivering the gas to the 
torch under a few ounces pressure, the high velocity of the 
oxygen necessary to inject the acetylene must result in a 
considerable opportunity for this high pressure to back up 
or partially back up, and mix with the acetylene to cause a 
flashback. This high velocity also makes necessary an ex- 
pansion chamber as previously noted, which is another 
temptation to retard the speed of gases too much. Never- 
theless, In torches of this type, it is possible by very careful 
construction and with a full knowledge of the difficulties, to 
get good working results; but the torch cannot be abso- 
lutely free from flashbacks since It is mechanically impos- 
sible to prevent the oxygen getting into the acetylene 

There Is, however, another type of generator known as 
the medium pressure t>"pe. which delivers the gas to the 
welding torch at a pressure somewhere under 15 pounds per 
square inch — the limit allowed at the generator. With the 
acetylene under some pressure, it is entirely possible to so 
reduce the velocity of the oxygen that its tendency to back 
up into the acetylene chamber is considerably reduced, al- 
though it is not eliminated, since the pressure of the oxygen 
is still considerably in excess of that of the acetylene. An 
expansion chamber is sometimes employed in this type of 
torch, but it Is not necessary and if it is not used another 
invitation to flashbacks is obviated, so that generally speak- 
ing it is possible to construct a torch using acetylene under 
some pressure but the oxygen under a considerably higher 
pressure, so that flashbacks are intermittent only. 

Besides the low- and medium-pressure types of generators, 
acetylene may also be used from storage tanks in which It 
is dissolved In acetone, and the acetylene in this instance 
may be delivered to the welding torch under a sufficient 
pressure to so lower the velocity of the oxygen that the 
entrance of the oxygen into the acetylene chamber becomes 
impossible, because the pressure of the acetylene is as great 
as or greater than that of the oxygen. If from this point to 
the burning point of the two gases the speed of both gases 
is correct, flashback becomes Impossible under any condi- 
tions. Naturally, there are other things to take Into con- 
sideration in the construction of a welding torch, such as 
rigidity of the flame, the proper proportion of the gases, and 
the possible danger of too high an acetylene pressure; and 
the prevention of flashback may at times be considered sec- 
ondary in importance to one or all of these items. 

The point to be clearly understood, however. Is the de- 
sirability of using the welding torch designed for the acety- 
lene supply. An Injector torch should not be used on dis- 
solved acetylene, for the simple reason that it does not take 
advantage of the pressure in the dissolved acetylene cylin- 
der to avoid flashbacks, and while it is exactly what is 
required for a low-pressure generator, from the standpoint 
of the elimination of flashbacks (as well as for another 
reason not a part of this subject) It Is not an economical 
torch to use where the acetylene Is already under a suf- 
flcient pressure so that a high velocity of the oxygen Is 
unnecessary. For the same reasons the medium-pressure 
torch should not be used on dissolved acetylene, but to se- 
cure the greatest efflciency the torch must be constructed In 
all cases with a view to taking advantage of acetylene pres- 
sure. Unfortunately, some manufacturers, either through 
lack of knowledge or In a spirit of "anything-Is-good-enough" 
make and sell apparatus wholly unsuitable from the stand- 
point of efficiency or economy. The use of such apparatus 
is a serious detriment to the oxy-acetylene Industry. It- In 
well to understand that a flashback should be a rare occur- 
rence in any type of apparatus, but that In apparatus using 
dissolved acetylene It can be wholly eliminated. 
• • • 

Chinese white silver, which Is simply a variety of German 
or nickel silver, contains about 40 per cent copper. 32 per 
cent nickel. ..'> pt-r cent zinc, and 3 per cent iron. 



September, 1915 



Criticisms are often heard concerning the scleroscope as 
an Instrument (or determining the condition of metals; and 
the following account of an experience with this instrument 
may help in extending its field of usefulness. Journals 
somewhat similar to that shown in Fig. 1 are used in large 
quantities in a shop making universal joints for auto- 
mobiles. They are made from a very tough steel, drop- 
forged, annealed, machined, casehardened and ground. The 
soft tough core carries the load and takes the shock, while 
the case serves to prevent undue wear. Seven sizes are 
used, the largest being about l'^ inch in diameter at the 
bearing points. Inspection is very rigorous and the stand- 
ards are high. A change of men brought together a new 
heat-treating foreman and a new foreman of inspectors, 
whjch led to a difference of opinion on the question of the 
proper hardness for these journals. The inspector reported 
that the pieces were coming too soft, while the heat-treating 
foreman claimed that 
it was impossible to 
satisfy the demand 
that they be case- 
hardened so that 
they could not be 
touched with a file. 
It was proved that a 
new fine file of the 
best grade would 
touch even the test 
block used for stand- 
ardizing a sclero- 
scope, which had a 
hardness of 103; but 
the tester's files were 
found to be of all 
degrees of sharpness. 
No trouble had been 
previously experien- 
ced, and so little at- 
tention had been paid 
to the matter. 

It was decided to 
employ a more exact 
method, and finally a 
scleroscope was pur- 
chased for the use of 
the inspection de- 
partment. As a 
standard, the mini- 
mum limit was set 
to the readings taken 
from a journal that 
had seen over 60,000 
miles of service in a 
heavy car, and that 

4.,, , J . ,. Uurvature on Hesu 

Still showed grinding 

marks over almost all of the bearing area. But the troubles 
became worse; and lot after lot of the journals were returned 
as unsatisfactorily casehardened. The entire gamut of case- 
hardening possibilities was tried, but without success; and 
the handling of the scleroscope was criticised and investigated, 
but no fault could be found. Finally it was proved to the 
satisfaction of all that a small journal giving low readings, 
as compared with a large journal giving much higher read- 
ings, was really harder as shown when tested with a new 
fine file in the hands of the same man. For the same size 
journal the scleroscope gave readings which could be com- 
pared, and the instrument was standardized on this basis. 
The six larger journals were made from an open-hearth 
basic stock with a carbon content of 0.12 to 0.20 per cent, 


A 0.505/0.507 
B 0.630/0.632 
C 0.630/<l.632 
D 0.759/0.761 

a 0.127/0.129 
b 0.191/0.193 
c 0.191/0.193 
d 0.254/0.256 





A 0.505/0.607 
B 0.630/0.632 
D 0.759/0.761 
E 0.884/0.886 

<i 0.127/0.129 
(' 0.191/0.193 
it 0.254/0.256 
<• 0.318/0.320 




• For additional Information on the use of the scleroscope sec als. 
Buence of the Scleroscope In Metallurgy ami Muniifncturlng." by 
S.hore, published In MAcniNBRT for August, 1009. 

t Address: 40 Flushing Ave., Jamaica, N. T 

which is designated as stock A. For machine shop reasons, 
the smallest journal was made from stock B, which contains 
0.08 per cent carbon, with a narrow allowable variation range. 
From a medium sized forging, four pieces were made as 
shown in Fig. 1; and the journals proper on these were made 
of different sizes to allow of comparison. Four pieces, as 
shown in Fig. 2, were machined directly from a bar of stock 
B; and fiats were milled on each to find the effect of curva- 
ture and to afford a basis of comparison between the different 
sizes, with the unknown eliminated. Handling was made as 
close to regular practice as possible, and the machining and 
grinding limits were standard, the diameters being the same 
as in general use. After machining, the journals were case- 
hardened with a regular run of work. The time was about 
eight hours, and the temperature was kept below 1650 degrees 
F. They were quenched in water direct from the hardening 

The Test 
In conducting the tests, care was taken to see that the 
scleroscope tube was vertical; and In taking readings on 
the round, the piece was centered by means of the small 

notch at the bottom 
of the guide. The 
flats were lined up 
by means of the 
milled surface on the 
bottom of the ham- 
mer guide. Two sets 
of readings were 
taken on the pieces 
shown in Fig. 2, one 
with the piece laid 
loose in the support- 
ing V-block, and an- 
other with the piece 
held firmly. A num- 
ber of readings, were 
taken on each diam- 
eter; the maximum 
and minimum are 
given in Table I for 
the journals and in 
Table II for the test 
pieces. Two of the 
diameters of the 
journals were made 
the same to find the 
effect on the unifor- 
mity of the case due 
to difference in posi- 
tion. In hardening, 
two pieces of each 
kind were put in one 
pot and one of each 
kind in two other 
pots. The pots were 
then put in different 
parts of the furnace. 
Sections made at 
several points showed a practically uniform depth of case- 
hardening on all, but on the small diameters and at the cor- 
ners there was a slightly greater depth. The file could detect 
no differences in hardness. The assumption was therefore 
made that the case was equally hard throughout. 

The following conclusions were drawn from the results 
of the tests: On pieces up to % inch in diameter, the 
scleroscope reading for the same hardness is less for small 
diameters than for large. For any one cross-section, the 
reading is higher on a fiat than on a cylindrical surface. 
With a casehardened piece there may be as much as 30 
points difference in the scleroscope reading, depending on 
the volume of the piece at the point tested and the shape 
of the surface. Both cylindrical and flat surfaces were 
finely ground so that the differences in readings were not 
to be laid to that factor. Seemingly, stock B gave about 
five points better results than stock A. Whether this was 





Material: stock a 0.12-0.20 per cent carbon 


Part of Universal Joijit on which Determination of Haxduess ^ve Trouble 



mill flats 


scleroscope test 

Material: stock b o.os per cent carbon 


September, 1915 



Vi inch diam. (A) 

% inch diam. (B) 

S inch diam. (C) 

^> inch diam. (D) 

Piece No. 
















78-82 82 








82-86 87 








86-88 88 








78-88 79 





74 ' 



83 84 


due to greater suitability 
for caseharden-ing, to Its 
being better adapted to 
the casehardening treat- 
ment adopted, or to the 
more favorable distribu- 
tion of the metal could 
not be told from the data 
of this test. 

Shop Instructions 

The following method 
is now employed in the 
manufacture and testing of the journals. A minimum limit 
was set for each diameter of Journal. Two samples from 
each lot of casehardened material are roughly ground on a 
wheel of standard grit for that service and tested under the 
scleroscope. If these are found satisfactory, the entire lot 
goes to the grinding room; if not, they are retreated. After 
grinding, each journal Is tested several times on each cylin- 
drical portion to make certain that It is uniform all over, 
and it is then either sent to the stock room or returned. 
Since these precautions have been observed, the proportion 
of work found below standard is negligible. No trouble is 
ever found with soft parts in service. 

The results of the scleroscope are now depended upon in 
that shop — when used in the proper place and in the proper 
manner. It is valued for what It tells about metal without 
injuring the finest finished surface. 
* * • 


The importations of machinery to Japan during 1914 had a 
value of about $12,500,000 as compared with $18,750,000 in 
1913. Fifty per cent of this machinery came from the United 
Kingdom during both the years mentioned. Very few orders 
have been placed since the war broke out, but confidence is 
gradually returning, and it is believed that within the next 
few months the buying of machinery for Japan will be re- 
sumed. The Japanese government, however, is ardently sup- 
porting a policy to favor the home industries and encourages 
the placing of orders in Japan whenever It is possible to do 
so. Another important factor is that Japanese engineering 
works are increasing in number and capacity. It has been 
pointed out that makers of machinery of a class that is not 
too large and that is made in standard sizes should keep 
a small stock in Japan, so that the buyer could obtain im- 
mediately what he requires, in which case he would be more 
likely to buy from the importer than from a Japanese builder; 
but If he has to wait eight or nine months for delivery he Is 
tempted to try the Japanese machine which he can obtain 
quicker and cheaper. As the importing firms are unwilling to 
tie up their capital in stock, manufacturers whose products 
can be regularly sold in Japan must be willing to place their 
machines in the warehouses of the local Importers. 

One of the Interesting features of the machine shop busi- 
ness in Japan, according to a trade report by the British com- 
mercial attachf' at Yokohama, Is the very large number of 
small establishments consisting of a shop with one lathe and 
two or three employes. These small shops make a great deal 
of government work at low prices, as they have very small 
overhead charges. They do not quote on work directly, as 


they are too small to do 
that, but a Bort of broker 
takes the order from the 
arsenal or other depart- 
ments and then sub-lets 
it to these different 
shops. As they are con- 
ducted on such a small 
scale, there Is consider- 
able irregularity In the 
output and the rejection 
is large, but the compe- 
tition from these small works is very keenly felt by the larger 
concerns. A peculiar condition existing In Japanese machine 
shops and other Industrial plants is that the foremen are 
invariably in sympathy with the men and opposed to the 
management in case there is any labor trouble. Men of the 
"middle class" never gain practical experience by putting 
In a certain number of years In the works. Apparently they 
are above manual work; hence the engineers are nearly all 
graduates of technical colleges with little practical experience. 
The workmen on the whole are industrious, but their rice 
diet appears to be unsuitable for machine shop work, as they 
lack the necessary bodily weight for heavy work, and the 
percentage of days that they are absent on account of sick- 
ness is very high. The wages of the machinists are generally 
very low. 

• • • 

Attention is called in the Travelers Standard to the relation 
of noise to accidents. As Is well known, fatigue has a notable 
influence in causing accidents, and anything that will tend to 
reduce or increase fatigue among workers Is therefore, an im- 
portant factor. Noise, therefore, has a prominent place in 
the items causing accidents, because loud noises, even if 
produced for only a short time, irritate the average person, 
and if they are continued every day and all day they will have 
a serious effect on the nervous system and become a serious 
factor in causing fatigue. Older employes in a noisy shop be- 
come more or less accustomed to noise and can generally detect 
any new or unusual sound that may indicate that something 
is out of order or that some danger is present. New men are 
likely to be confused by the constant loud noise and are less 
likely to note warning sounds. A systematic effort to sup- 
press noise wherever possible in shops and factories will work 
to the advantage of all concerned. It will increase the safety 
of the workmen, and it is quite likely to increase their effi- 
ciency and working capacity. 

• • • 

The Ljusne-Woxna Co. of Ljusne, Sweden, has a power 
plant where power on a large scale is probably produced 
more cheaply than anywhere else In the world. This power 
plant is designed for a maximum output of 4200 horsepower, 
although the first installment provides for only 2200 horse- 
power. The fuel consists of a mixture of from 80 to 90 per 
cent sawdust, and from 10 to 20 per cent wood shavings. 
This mixture is charged into gas producers. The consump- 
tion of fuel Is about four pounds per horsepower-hour, the 
fuel costing about 24 cents per ton at the mill. It Is esti- 
mated that the cost of production with a plant of 2200 horse- 
power, including overhead charges and depreciation at the 
rate of 10 per cent per annum, will be about 0.11 cent per 




Piece No. 

H inch diameter (A) 

% inch diameter (B-C) 

*i inch diameter (D) l H inch diameter (E) 






Flat Round 


Loose Firm 







Loose Firm 

Loose Firm 

Loose Finn Loose Finn 

Loose Finn 



58-70 65 
65-66 66 
67-t!!) 7ti 
65-66 6i) 
fifi till 







83 85 

83 86 ' 

84 86 
83 86 

85-89 91 
84-88 i 82-84 
89-91 1 87 

92 92 92-93 88 
98 91 SS-91 92 

91 91 91-92 90 

92 90 !«-94 92 
'.M <.»2 91 

92 92 

93 94 

92 95 

93 96 

92 SM 



September, 1915 


WllK.V one stops to consider the accuracy dehianded in 
taps and threading dies at the present time, and an- 
alyzes the problem from all standpoints, it is inter- 
esting to note how little the close limit* generally specified by 
buyers and users of these tools, really amount to in general 
practice. In fact, it is hard to see how so many intelligent 
buyers and users of taps and dies are led to specify ridicu- 
lously close limits, thereby causing their firms a lot of un- 
necessary expense and making a lot of unnecessary trouble 
for the tap and die maiiers. The only explanation of this 
useless refinement in specifications for taps and dies seems 
to be that the purchasers obtain their ideas in regard to 
the requirements of these tools from theorists who have 
little practical knowledge of the subject. If purchasers and 
users of taps and dies would stop to consider the cutting 
action of these tools, the holders in which they are used, the 
method of driving them, the machines in which they are used, 
and the condition of the tools themselves, there would un- 
doubtedly be an immediate change in the method of drawing 
up specifications. 

It would be quite natural for makers to believe that these 
close limits were specified because very accurate fits were 
required between the screws and tapped holes in certain 
lines of manufacture, such as machinery that is subjected to 
shocks or excessive vibration. But even in such cases, why 
should the taps be required to take care of all inaccuracies, 
i. e., not only the inaccuracies in the taps themselves, but in 
the screws which are to be fitted into the tapped holes? 
Taps are always subject to inaccuracies caused by distortion 
during the hardening process, and it is practically impos- 
sible to eliminate errors resulting from this source, unless 
the taps are ground after hardening, which would add so 
much to their cost that few users could afford to pay for this 
additional work. But the dimensions of a threading die can 
be easily controlled; and this statement applies with equal 
force to both the diameter and the lead of the thread. In 
cases where absolutely accurate fits are required, the screws 
can be made by special machinery or they can even be 
threaded in lathes so as to obtadn accurate dimensions for 
the diameter and lead, so that the only errors to be contended 
with would be those of the tap. 

Another reason why a screw should be subjected to closer 

limits than a tap is that, as anyone at all familiar with the 
subject knows, a tap hardly ever duplicates its own size In 
the tapped hole, the hole nearly always being larger than 
the diameter of the tap. This result is saving many users 
and buyers of "close limit" taps a lot of trouble, as their 
specifications are generally given without any thought as 
to the relation between the error in the diameter and lead 
of the tap or screw, which serves as a further illustration 
of the utter lack of study and analysis of the subject which 
precedes the drawing up of many specifications. And If it 
were not for the fact that the diameter of the threaded hole 
is usually larger than the tap which cut the thread In it, 
many screws would not enter the full distance into the 
holes in the work. The intention in this article is to outline 
the conditions regarding taps and dies, their production, 
use and relation to each other as they actually exist in 
practice, with the view of familiarizing the users and buyers 
of the tools with these conditions in order that they may be 
in a better position to help solve the problem of drawing 
up specifications, which, at the present time, is apparently 
in a state bordering upon chaos. 

The conditions to be considered may be briefly outlined 
as follows: First: The relation existing between the error 
in diameter and lead of the tap and of the screw; and the 
same relation between the screw and the tapped hole. 
Second: The length of the hole or nut to be tapped. 
Third: The relation of the accuracy of one portion of the 
tap to another. Fourth: The condition of the threaded 
portion of the tap itself. Fifth: The method of holding 
the tap while tapping. Sixth: The method of starting and 
feeding or "following up" the tap. Seventh: The relief 
of the threads on the tap. Eighth: The material being 
tapped. In order to be able to more clearly illustrate the 
first point given, we will take as an example a specification 
for a 1-inch United States standard tap, the diameter of 
which is not to exceed the standard size by more than 0.003 
inch, while the error in the lead must not be over 0.002 
inch in one inch of length. Such a specification is not at 
all out of the ordinary; in fact, it very closely approaches 
the commercial limits on this size of tap. We will also as- 
sume that the length of the nut is equal to the diameter of 
the tap, this being the case with both United States standard 


A. Amount of oversize of angle diameters of taps, which 
is required to enable a screw of standard angle diameter 
and standard lead to go through a tapped hole, where the 
lead error is as given below in a length equal to the 
diameter of the tap. 

1>. roiidiiions as given for section A of the table, exct-pi 
that the screw has a lead error equal to that of the tap and 
in the opposite direction. For example, if the tap should 
be 0.002 inch long in the lead for a distance of 1 inch, the 
lead of the screw would be 0.002 inch short in distance of 
1 Inch. 


Oversize Necessary 


c S 


Oversize Necessary 

Oversize Necessary 

oE ^g 

Oveisize Necessary 1 



Error per 



Error per 

0.002-inch , 0.003-inch 
Lead Lead 

Error per i Error per 
Inch Inch 


Error per 



Error per 





















Error per 


Error per 






























(1 iioi:i 

















































































1 1 




















11 6 
14 6 
16 54 
If 5 
li 5 

2 4i 
24 4J 
2i 4J 
21 4 
24 4 
2| , 4 

2I 3J 

3 3} 
8i 3J 
34 3i 
3i 3 

4 3 

0.0096 0.0142 
0.0104 0.0156 
0.0112 0.0168 
0.0120 0.0182 
0.0130 0.0194 
0.0138 1 0.0208 
0.0148 0.0220 
0.0156 ! 0.0234 
0.0164 0.0246 
0.0174 0.0260 
0.0182 0.0272 
0.0190 0,0286 
0.0200 0.0298 
0.0208 1 0.0312 
0.0226 0.03:« 
0.0242 0.0364 
0.0260 0.0390 
9.027S 0.0416 


September, 1915 









. Upper Illustration Bhows Condition when 
Correct and Lead of Screw Thread is Inaccu 
tion shows Condition when Lead of Thread 
Screw- is Inaccurate, with the Errors 

and Whitworth standard 
nuts. (See Machinery's 
Handbook, pages 765 and 766.) 
We will also assume that the 
screw is allowed to have the 
same amount of error in lead 
as the tap, i. c. 0.002 inch in 
1 inch of length, and that the 
pitch diameter is allowed to 
be the same amount under 
the standard size as the tap 
was allowed to be over the 
standard size, i. e., 0.003 inch. 
The tap will be assumed to 
cut its own correct size, a 
condition which is not act- 
ually the case, but which 
seems to be the generally ac- 
cepted idea. • 

Conditions which are likely 
to be found in the tap are as 
follows: First, it is of the correct diameter with no 
lead error, but such a tap will not be seriously considered 
as its production is a practical impossibility. Second, the 
tap has the maximum diameter and the maximum lead error. 
Third, it has the correct (standard) diameter and maximum 
lead error. Fourth, it has the maximum diameter and no 
lead error. Conditions which are likely to be found in the 
screw are as follows: First, the screw is of the correct 
(standard) diameter with no lead error. Second, it is of the 
correct diameter and has the maximum lead error in a 
direction opposite to that of the tap. Third, it is of the 
correct diameter with the maximum lead error in the same 
direction as that of the tap. Fourth, It is of the minimum 
diameter with no lead error. Fifth, it is of the minimum 
diameter with the maximum lead error in the opposite direc- 
tion to that of the tap. Sixth, it is of the minimum diameter 
with the maximum lead error in the same direction as that 
of the tap. 

Comparing each of the conditions of the tap with those 
of the screw, the following results will be found: Com- 
paring the tap of maximum diameter and maximum lead 
error with the screw of correct diameter and no lead error, 
it will be found that the screw will not go through the 
tapped hole. In order to allow the screw to go through the 
hole, the tap w-ould have to be 0.00046 inch larger on the 
diameter, or the screw should be 0.00046 inch smaller on the 
diameter. (See table.) 

Comparing the tap of correct diameter and the maximum 
lead error with the screw of correct diameter and no lead 
error, it will be found that the screw will not go through 
the tapped hole. In order to do so, the tap should be 0.00346 
inch larger on the diameter or the screw 0.00346 inch 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and no lead 
error with the screw of correct diameter and no lead error. 
it will be found that the screw will go through the tapped 
hole. The screw will have 0.003 inch play all the way 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and maximum 





Liad of Thr 

lead error with the screw of 
correct diameter and maxi- 
mum lead error in the oppo- 
site direction to that of the 
tap, it will be found that the 
screw will not go through the 
tapped hole. In order to have 
it do so, the tap should be 
0.00346 + 0.00046 = 0.00392 
inch larger on the diameter, 
or the screw should be the 
same amount smaller on the 

Comparing the tap of cor- 
rect diameter and maximum 
lead error with the screw of 
correct diameter and maxi- 
mum lead error in the op- 
3oth n'ui and'"^ posite direction to that of the 

Opposite lap, it will be found that the 

screw will not go through the 
tapped hole. In order to do so, the tap would have to be 
2 X 0.00346 = 0.00692 inch larger on the diameter or the screw 
would have to be the same amount smaller on the diameter. 
Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and no lead 
error with the screw of correct diameter and maximum lead 
error in the opposite direction to that of the lap, it will 
be found that the screw will not go through the tapped hole. 
In order to do so, the tap would have to be 0.00046 inch 
larger on the diameter or the screw would have to be the 
same amount smaller on the diameter. 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and maximum 
lead error with the screw of correct diameter and maximum 
lead error in the same direction as that of the tap, it will 
be found that the screw will go through the tapped hole. 
The screw will have 0.003 inch play all the way through. 

Comparing the tap of correct diameter and maximum lead 
error with the screw of correct diameter and maximum lead 
error in the same direction as that of the tap, it will be 
found that the screw has a perfect fit in the tapped hole. 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and no lead 
error with the screw of correct diameter and maximum lead 
error in the same direction as that of the tap, it will be found 
that the screw will not go through the hole. In order to do 
so, it would have to be 0.00046 inch smaller on the diameter 
or the tap would have to be tbe same amount larger on the 

Comparing tbe tap of maximum diameter and lead error 
with the screw of minimum diameter and no lead error, it 
will be found that the screw will go through the tapped hole. 
The screw will have 2 X 0.003 — 0.00346 = 0.00254 inch play 
in one end and 2 X 0.003 = 0.006 inch play in the other end 
of the tapped hole. 

Comparing the tap of correct diameter and maximum lead 
error with the screw of minimum diameter and no lead error. 
it will be found that the screw will not go through tbe tapped 
hole. In order to do so, it would have to be 0.00046 Inch 
smaller than standard or the tap would have to be the same 
amount over the standard size. 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and no lead 


Fif. 3. Tap Iwnt 



September, 1915 

Flgr, 4. Tap with So-called 
produooa Ov«rsi 

Thread, which cuts unevenly and 
u^hly Threaded Holes 

error with the screw of minimum diameter and no lead 
error, it will be found that the screw will go through the 
tapped hole. It will have 0.006 inch play all the way through 
the hole. 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and maximum 
lead error with the screw of minimum diameter and max- 
imum lead error in the opposite direction to that of the 
tap, it will be found that the screw will not go through the 
tapped hole. In order to do so, it would have to be 
2 X 0.00046 = 0.00092 Inch under the standard size, or the 
tap would have to be the same amount over the standard 

Comparing the tap of correct diameter and maximum lead 
error with the screw of minimum diameter and maximum 
lead error in the opposite direction to that of the tap. It 
will be found that the screw 
will not go through the tap- 
ped hole. To do so, the screw 
would have to be 0.00046 -f 
0.O0346 = 0.00392 inch under 
standard size, or the tap 
would have to be the same 
amount over standard size. 

Comparing the tap of maxi- 
mum diameter and no lead 
error with the screw of mini- 
mum diameter and maximum 
lead error in the opposite di- 
rection to that of the tap, it 
will be found that the screw 
will go through the tapped 
hole. The screw will have 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and maximum 
lead error with the screw of minimum diameter and max- 
imum lead error in the same direction as that of the tap, it 
will be found that the screw will go through the tapi)ed hole. 
The screw will have 0.006 inch play all the way through the 

Comparing the tap of correct diameter and maximum lead 
error with the screw of minimum diameter and maximum 
lead error in the same direction as that of the tap, it will 
be found that the screw will not go through the tapped hole. 
In order to do so, it will have to be 0.00046 inch undor the 
standard size or the tap will have to be the same amount 
over the standard size. 

Comparing the tap of maximum diameter and no lead 
error with the screw of minimum diameter and maximum 
lead error in the same direction as that of the tap, it will 
be found that the screw will go through the tapped hole. 
It -will have 0.00254 inch play. 

From the preceding, it will readily be seen that were it 
not for the fact that taps generally cut a thread larger than 
their own diameter, and that screws are generally allowe<i 
larger undersize limits than taps are allowed to be oversize, 
there would be a majority of cases where the screw would not 
go through the tapped hole. Why screws in general, and 
more especially those used in connection with "close limit" 
taps, should be allowed to be a greater amount under stand- 

O.OOG — 0.00346 = 0.00254 inch 

ard size than taps are allowed to be over the standard size 
(and not only this, but that the screws are allowed wider 
limits between their maximum and minimum sizes and a 
ifreater lead error than allowed in the taps) is a condition 
which has not been satisfactorily explained, unless It is due 
to lack of study of the subject by those who are responsible 
for the drawing up of specifications. Before proceeding 
further with the subject, attention should be called to the 
fact that the diameter, as referred to in this article, means 
the pitch or "angle" diameter. The outside diameter of a 
tap, as long as it is up to the standard size or any amount 
over standard, has no particular bearing upon the fit between 
the screw and the tapped hole; of course, in order to have 
no bearing upon the fit of the screw in the tapped hole, the 
outside diameter of the screw must not be over the standard 

The accompanying table has been figured out to give the 
minimum oversize of 0.002 inch for the "angle" or pitch 
diameter of taps, with 0.003 inch, error per inch in the 
lead, to allow screws of standard diameter to go through the 
holes in nuts tapped with them. The nuts are assumed to 
be of the same length as the diameter of their respective 
taps; and the holes in the nuts are supposed to be the exact 
size of the taps in all cases. As it is reasonable to expect 
that the screws will have at least the same amount of error 
in lead as the taps (in most cases this error is very much 
greater than in the taps), figures have also been tabulated 
for screws having the same lead error as the taps, these 
figures being given for screws with lead errors in the op- 
posite direction to that of the error in the taps, in order 
to show the great amount that the diameters of the taps 
are required to be oversize in 
order to allow the screws to 
go through the holes tapped 
with them. As in the preced- 
ing cases, theee figures are 
based on the assumption that 
the taps cut to their true 
diameters. To thoroughly un- 
derstand the preceding state- 
ments, the reader Is referred 
to Fig. 1. 

The accompanying illustra- 
tions show clearly that, con- 
trary to the general opinion, 
taps do not cut to their true 
diameter, but generally cut a 
certain amount over this size; and a few words of expla- 
nation may not be out of place. One of the reasons for this 
cutting action of the tap is due to the threaded portion being 
bent, this condition being shown exaggerated in Fig. 2. This 
fault is very hard to remedy, and even to detect, and it is also 
very difficult to compensate for such an error no matter 
how the tap may be made, held or used. It can also be 
readily seen that the deeper or longer the hole to be tapped 
with such a tap, the greater will be the error in the hole 
being tapped. Of course, it may be claimed that the tap 
could be ground in cases where extreme accuracy is needed; 
but while this may sound feasible, and although it is ac- 
tually done at times, the difficulty of doing such an operation 

September, 1915 



and the added expense of such taps makes the procedure Im- 
practicable for general use. It is difficult and expensive 
enough to grind a plug thread gage, as anyone familiar with 
this work knows, and such a tool has a short thread and an 
uninterrupted thread surface. In a tap, the long thread and 
constant interruption of the thread surface by flutes, together 
with the provision of relief to give the required cutting action, 
makes the grinding very difficult. 

While the preceding error in the size of a hole cut by a 
tap is probably the most frequently found defect due to the 
distortion of taps in hardening, there are other errors In- 
troduced by this operation which cause undesirable results 
that a close study has shown to be equally hard to remedy. 
A possible exception to this statement is the condition il- 
lustrated in Fig. 3, which shows a tap bent along its entire 
length. It this tool Is not straightened. It will produce a 
hole tapped as shown; and even if a tap bent In this man- 
ner Is straightened to run true at A, the defect shown In 
Fig. 2 will often remain, which is much harder to remedy 
as the portion to be straightened is short, hard all over, hard 
to test while straightening, etc. Two other defects result- 
ing from the hardening operation are shown in Fig. 4 and 
at A in Fig. 5, the former illustration showing what is called 
a tap with a "drunken" thread, and the latter an end view 
of an "out of round" tap. While the illustrations clearly 
show the results of these errors in taps in introducing In- 
accuracies in the holes in which they work, it may not be 
amiss to mention that evenly fluted taps which are out of 
round will not cut uniformly, but will chatter, etc.; and this 
results in producing oversize and roughly threaded holes, 
noth of the lat- 
t e r defects 1 n 
taps may be at- 
tributed more to 
the material 
from which the 
taps are made 
than to the 
method of con- 
ducting the har- 
d e n i n g opera- 
tion. Steel which 
has been unev- 
enly rolled or 
unevenly anneal- 







Uarklitrr^ | 

Fig, 9. 

B, W 

od, or where the tap blank was not straight before it was 
turned so that the tool cut to different depths below the decar- 
bonized surface, are conditions which are likely to cause the 
tap to be out of round. Aside from these sources of error, 
there are many minor defects of workmanship in laps, such 
aa uneven chamfers on the different lands, excessive rake 
of the chamfered portion of the tap on top of the thread, an 
excessive amount of undercut in the flutes, an excessive 
amount of relief in the thread angle, etc., all of which are 
easily remedied, but any of which may make the taps cut 
holes larger than their own diameter. 

In addition to the preceding undesirable conditions in the 
taps themselves, there are several factors connected with 
the use of taps which should not be passed by unnoticed, as 
they may also result in the production of oversized boles. 

Tig. 8. Condition 
Truth, but 

The one most frequently found is undoubtedly that of the 
center of the tap-holder being out of line with the center of the 
hole which is to be tapped, as shown at A In Fig. 9. Few 
machine tools after they have been in use for any length of 
time will have the centers in accurate alignment, due to 
wear in the bearings and slides. These conditions are shown 
at B in Fig. 9, and in Figs. 7 and 8. Other ways in which a 
tap can produce an oversize, or at the best a roughly threaded 
hole, are shown in the following illustrations. At B In Fig. 
5 the tapped hole is shown out of round, and at B in Fig. 9 
the holder for the work is out of line with the center of the 
tap-holder, while in Fig. 6 the tap is out of true with the 
face of the nut. These are all common conditions and the 
errors which they produce can readily be appreciated. If 
a floating tap-holder is used, greater accuracy should be ob- 
tained, the in- 
crease of accu- 
racy depending 
upon the style 
of floating tap- 
holder employ- 
ed, the amount 
of float, the 
amount of error 
in the alignment 
of the centers, 

The condition 
shown in Fig. 9 
would result if 

be tapped uro out of Aligun 



of Truth, and 

i Alignment with Center of Tap-hold 

ihe shank of the tap were out of line with the threaded 
portion, which is a condition not infrequently found in manu- 
factured taps. Another common condition which results in 
lapping oversize holes is that the tap is relieved too much 
in the angle of the thread or given too much of a "hooking" 
flute for the material which is to be tapped, and when such 
taps are forced to lake hold of the work either by hand or 
meclianically they produce holes that are too large. While 
arguments may be put forth that taps cut oversize when 
working under the best conditions, and hence there is all the 
more reason for making them to close limits, it must be 
contended that the tap manufacturer or toolmaker should 
make a more thorough and careful study of the minor causes 
which make taps cut oversize, i. e., such conditions as the 
effect of varying the fluting, relief, etc.. with a view to re- 
moving those causes which are easy to overcome. This would 
Involve no extra expense in the cost of manufacture. It 
must also be contended that the tap user or buyer should 
concentrate his efforts along the line of producing screws 
and bolts to close limits for those cases where great ac- 
curacy Is a necessity. This is at least possible, and certainly 
does not require any great expenditure to be made. If 
those who are using taps would occasionally examine their 
machines, tap-holders, holes to be tapped, etc.. and correct 
errors found In this way, they would find it unnecessary to 
expend large sums of money for "close limit" taps, but would 
be able to use those made to commercial limits. A further 
beneflt of such a course would result from the fact that such 
taps are usually carried In stock by all manufacturers of taps 
and threading dies. 



We pay only Jor articles published exclusively In Machinery 

The article on the "Angle of Torsion" by W. B. Gilbert, 
that appeared in the June number of, shows that 
he has understood my contribution on the same subject 
which was published in November, 1914. The illustration 
accompanying Mr. Gilbert's article shows one of the numer- 
ous cases where the elastic strength of shafting must be 
equalized, either for economical reasons or otherwise. Mr. 
Gilbert said that the only question in his mind was whether 
it would be as satisfactory to apply the motive power at a 
point off center. For the sake of uniformity it is desirable 
to have the power applied midway between the loads, or 

- ^ ^' i A r 


Fig. 1. Proper Position of Coupling 

proportionately with reference to the angles of torsion if 
the loads are unequal. 

I have experienced trouble of the nature Mr. Gilbert refers 
to, and have remedied it by equalizing the angle of torsion. 
A case in point was in the design of a gantry that spanned 
two freight tracks and a small warehouse; but in this case 
I had to correct the angular difference by employing a spring 
equalizing sprocket, as the shaft diameters could not be 
changed. The best and most reliable way, however, is to 
correct the shaft diameters by the method I have already 
explained. The nature of crane service is such that the 
angle of torsion should not exceed 0.05 degree per foot — a 
condition which would bring the shaft under Class I, as 
referred to in my article in November, 1914. Mr. Gilbert 
shows the shaft diameter reduction as occurring in the "dis- 
tance of greatest torsion." This will cause trouble in keep- 
ing the key tight in the coupling, and even shrinking the 
coupling onto the shaft is not satisfactory where one end 
of the shaft carries the maximum load momentarily. 

Fig. 1 shows the corrected position of the shaft coupling 
with reference to Mr. Gilbert's illustration, and Fig. 2 shows 
a preferable method of design. The shaft diameter at the 

Fig. 2. Preferable Layout for Shafting of the Same Installation 
as Fig. 1 

short end is reduced, and a shaft coupling employed to con- 
nect the shafts of equal diameters. The shaft diameters are 
corrected for service which comes under Class I which has 
already been referred to. The short length of shaft should 
be of high carbon steel w^ith a carbon content of from 0.30 
to 0.45 per cent, on account of the reduction in the shaft 
diameter; and the remainder of the shaft may be made of 
cold-rolled steel. In dealing with such problems in shaft 
design, the reader will be assisted by the table giving the 
modulus of torsion for various materials which appeared in 
connection with my article on page 19S of the November, 
1914, number of Machinerv. 

Newport, Ky. B. D. PiNKNET 


In the article "How we came to have the Slocomb Shop 
Micrometer," by J. T. Slocomb, in the August number of 
Machi.skky, Mr. Slocomb quotes from a number of past 
Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co.'s employes and expresses views re- 
garding the early development of the micrometer caliper so 
contrary to the facts that for the sake of historical accuracy 
they should not stand uncorrected. The fact that Mr. 
Slocomb did not work in the micrometer department when 
he was employed by the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., may ac- 
count for his having so little knowledge of what was then 
being done in the micrometer line as to publish under his 
name statements regarding this matter that were not borne 
out by fact. 

1. Mr. Slocomb quotes Mr. Thurston as writing, regarding 
the use of micrometers at the Brown & Sharpe works, that 
up to July, 1882, "the micrometer was very little in use, there 
being only two or three in the entire plant." However, the 
Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co.'s stock-book, listing tools in use 
January 1, 1882, shows that the tool-rooms were liberally 
provided with micrometers, seventeen being used in the works 
at that date, besides those privately owned by workmen in the 

2. Mr. Slocomb quotes old employes as saying, regarding the 
use by the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. of two-inch micrometers 
during the years 1885-90, that "as far as they knew, there 
was not a two-inch tool in use anywhere except the one be- 
longing to Mr. Burnham." The stock list of January 1, 1885, 
shows that there were then three two-inch micrometers in 
use in the works and that on January 1, 1889, there were ten 
in use, these being in addition to those which were privately 
owned, such as the one referred to as belonging to Mr. 

3. Mr. Slocomb further quotes to the effect that "some 
time about 1880 they (Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co.) started to 
make a lot of fifty one-inch micrometers." In 1880, the 
Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. was regularly making one-inch 
micrometers in lots of five hundred, and had been making 
them in lots of this size for several years prior to that date. 
A year or two later one-inch micrometers were made in lots of 
one thousand. 

4. Mr. Slocomb further quotes to the effect that with the 
goods purchase<i by the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. from the 
Victor Sewing Machine Co. "there was a precision screw made 
by the Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn., and this was 
afterward used for making accurate micrometer screws." 
All that is correct about this statement is that there was 
such a screw at the time of the transfer of the micrometer 
business of the Victor Sewing Machine Co. to the Brown & 
Sharpe Mfg. Co. This screw and the lathe in which it was 
mounted were not wanted by the latter company and were 
sold to other parties. The Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. had al- 
ready perfected its own machines and methods for making 
accurate screws and were not dependent upon the Victor Sew- 
ing Machine Co. for the accuracy of their work. 

As to matters of opinion expressed by Mr. Slocomb, such 
as that he is the only one able to commercially cut accurate 
threads on tool steel and as to the value or lack of value of 
the clamping device for micrometers, etc., while much might 
be said on these points, it is not the purpose of this comment 
to enter into such a discussion, but simply to deal with mat- 
ters of historical fact. I would, however, add in closing that 
in reviewing the whole situation the surprise to me is that the 
micrometer found its way so rapidly into use among me- 
chanics who had been trained in the use of the vernier 
caliper and this especially in the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co.'s 
shop, where the latter tool had its origin. 

September, 1915 



Mr. Slocomb quotes several Brown & Sharpe workmen 
as remembering that half of the men owned one-Inch 
micrometers at the time he is discussing. If this is true it 
would indicate a very decided appreciation of the value of 
this tool, being as it was in a shop so well supplied both in 
tool-rooms and other departments with vernier and mi- 
crometer calipers which the workmen could take for use at 
any time on check. Luther D. Bublingame 

Providence, R. I. Hrown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. 


Two useful types of borinn-bars that were designed to speed 
up operations where the adjustment or changing of tools had 
formerly consumed too much time, are shown in the accom- 
panying illustrations. The bar shown in Fig. 1 is for per- 
forming recessing operations, and it can be very quickly set 
to bore a recess of specified depth. The feature of the second 
type of bar, shown in Figs. 2 and 3, is the holder in which 
the bar is mounted. This is particularly useful in cases 
where the roughing and finishing operations have to be per- 
formed with separate bars, the holder enabling the change of 
tools to be made in a very short space of time. The same 
type of holder could be used for carrying the reamer used for 
Uie following operation. 


Fig. 1. Handy Type of Boring-bar for porforminp Rocessijlfr Operations 

It will be seen that the recessing bar shown in Fig. 1 is 
made with a hole through the center in which a shaft A is 
mounted. This shaft has an eccentric teat B turned on oni- 
end to fit Into a slot cut in the side of the recessing cutter C. 
In opt rat ion, the hole In the work is first bored out, after 
which the recessing is done in the following manner. The 
shuft .1 is turned by means of the pin I) which swings in a 
slot cut in the body of the bar K. until the teat li has carried 
the recessing cutter C back a suflicient distance to enable It 
to enter the hole that has already been bored in the work. 
The bar Is then advanced into the hole to be recessed and lo- 
cated in the correct position to start the cut, after which the 
shaft A is again 
turned until the cut- 
ler C has been ad- 
vanced into the work 
to the depth to which 
it is required to ma- 
chine the recess. 
This depth is easily 
determined by means 
of the line on the pin 
D which is brought 
into coincidence with 
the proper gradua- 
tion on the body of 
the bar. After the 
cutter has been lo- 
Ciited in this way. 
the shaft .1 is locked 
by tightening the 
binding screw F. and 
when this has been 

O : 




1 r\ 1 


1 1 





1 *-->' 1 fj 


— ' 



-,<'■' : 






h ,. .r=^ 

[ ^7'1\ 


,^ -t , 

L ^— 

■ «4k 

J ' 

' — ^ nsar— ^ ^ 

Fig. 3. B«ck-faclnr Bar witli Holder similar in Purpoae to th. 
one .hown in Tig. 2 

done the recessing operation is performed. The cutter is then 
drawn back into the bar to enable the bar to be removed. 

It frequently happens that a number of holes are to be 
drilled and reamed in a single piece, or that roughing and 
finishing operations require the use of different tools, and con- 
siderable time is occupied in making such changes. To over- 
come this diflflculty, the spindle-nosed fixture shown in Fig. 2 
was designed. This consists of any form of boring-bar with 
a shank which is shouldered at A and which is of the proper 
size to fit into the socket in the driving unit B In the manner 
shown. A driving pin C is mounted in the shank of the bor- 
ing-bar, this pin being of suitable size to slip into the slot D 
in the driving unit. In back of the unit B there is a steel 
driver E which is secured to the socket B by means of a screw 
F. thus enabling different units B to be employed for holding 
different sizes of boring-bars. The driver E is secured to the 
cast-iron member which is screwed onto the threaded end of 
the spindle. It will be seen that the slot to receive the pin C 
is cut on a slight angle which tends to draw the boring-bar 
back and hold it in place while cutting. 

The driving unit shown in Fig. 2 is suitable for a variety 
of boring and reaming operations but cannot be used where 
there Is any back facing to be done. For such work the driv- 
ing unit shown in Fig. 3 was designed. Referring to this Il- 
lustration It will be seen that the pin In the boring-bar A is 
held in a slot which has a right angle bend in it. In placing 
the bar .1 in the driving unit B. the pin is slipped to the end 
of the straight part of the slot, after which the bar is twisted 
to bring the pin to the position shown in the illustration. 
When held in this way, it will be evident that back-facing 
operations can be performed without danger of the bar pulling 
out of the holder. This type of holder is equally suitable for 
ordinary boring, reaming and similar operations. 

F. S»\-rB 

Sometimes when it is required to get a certain number of 
divisions by means of the milling machine dividing head and 

the machinist starts 
to set up a machine 
for handling the Job, 
he finds that there 
is not an index plate 
with a circle of the 
proper number of 
holes. If the work 
Is In a hurry, or if 
it is not of sufficient 
importance to war- 
rant ordering an In- 
dex plate for the pur- 
pose, satisfactory re- 
sults may be ob- 
tained by employing 
the simple method 
which it is the pur- 
pose of the follow- 
ing article to de- 

Borinr-bar and Holdrr (uitablo for Plain Borinf 



September, 1915 


|5 I. Ir I. ~I7I( U la. 1 

Hothod of makinf? Temporary Index PLat« with Circle of any 
Required Number of Holes 

A fairly satisfactory Index plate can be made by taking a 
strip of paper about Vi inch wide by 14 inch longer than 
the circumference of the index plate on which it is to be 
used. This strip of paper Is divided up Into the number of 
spaces It is required to obtain, using a sharp lead pencil for 
this purpose. The strip of paper is then pasted to the cir- 
cumference of the Index plate with the additional 14 Inch of 
length overlapping. A piece of sheet metal, cut to the shape 
shown in the illustration, may now be clamped to the index 
arm so that the point extends over the divisions provided on 
the circumference of the plate to form an indicator. 

Although the results obtained by this method are not as 
reliable as where a regular index plate is used, they will be 
found reasonably satisfactory. Assuming that 40 revolutions 
of the index arm are required for one revolution of the work, 
and that the diameter of the work is the same as that of the 
index plate, it will be seen that it would require an error of 
0.040 inch in the Indexing to produce an error of 0.001 inch 
in the work. 

Newark, N. J. Gustave A. Remaole 


The accompanying illustration shows a method that has 
proved very satisfactory for finishing the ends of a number 
of long castings on a small planer. The castings were located 
on the planer table in the position shown, and the cutting tool 
was carried by the auxiliary housing. To support the over- 
hanging end of the work, an old planer table A was set up on 
edge, and fastened to a cast-iron baseplate B on the floor. 
The form of sliding bearing originally used for supporting 
the extended end of the work, is shown in detail, as well as 
the improved bearing now In use. Two right-angle castings 
C were clamped to the side of the work by means of the long 
bolt D, their bottom surfaces acting as the sliding bearing on 
the edge of the planer table A. The work was adjusted to the 
correct level by means of the studs threaded into the bearings. 

This form of bearing was later changed to a roller bracket, 
which developed less friction. The edge of the planer table 
used as the bear- 
ing surface was 
well lubricated. 
It would appear 
at first sight 
that the over- 
hanging end of 
the work would 
lag and tend to 
shift the position 
of the casting at 
the moment of 
reversal of the 
planer table, but 
no difficulty 
was experienced 
from this cause. 
This probably 
would have oc- 
curred If the 
casting had been 

supported under the extreme end. The planer used for 
this work measured about 3 feet 6 Inches between the houe- 
Ings, and the castings were about 8 feet long. This method 
can be used only when the distance from the cutting tool 
to the housing face is greater than the width of the work. 
Moore, Pa. John Keafstbom 

In the following is described a fixture for facing pUton 
rings. Referring to the accompanying illustration, the part A 
is made of cast Iron and fitted to the nose of the lathe spindle 
In order to make it come central, while the four slota en- 
able the fixture to be bolted to the faceplate. The part B 
is made of machine steel about % inch in thickness and Is 
a running fit on the pilot of fixture A. Part B Is secured 
to part A by means of one straight screw at C and one 
tapered screw at D, the tapered screw spreading the plate B 
and tightening It against the Inside of the piston ring. 

Fixture for Use in facing Piston Rinrs 

The offset E on the plate B is provided to accommodate 
rings that are of less thickness than the plate. Plates B 
of various sizes to hold the different piston rings which are 
to be faced, can be used on the same fixture A. The fac- 
ing is done by tools held in a tool-holder of the form shown 
at F. The tools are made of square high-speed steel and 
held in position by set-screws in the usual way. They are 
set at the correct distance apart, and one cut taken with 
the cross feed reduces the ring to the desired thickness and 
makes its sides parallel. 

Franklin, Pa. A. F. Maxsbeboeb 


We had to make a number of links of various lengths, all 
of which were % inch wide by V^ inch thick, with a 3/16- 
inch hole at each 
end. as shown 
at A in Fig. 1 
Instead of mak- 
ing a separate 
punch and die 
for blanking out 
each length of 
link, we made 
the universal 
tool shown in 
Figs. 1 and 2. 
The cost was no 
more than that 
of a single-pur- 
pose tool for 
making any one 
size of link; and 
in making the 
links in this way 
there is very lit- 


Method of handling Long Work on Small Planer and Enlarged View of Two Types of Supporting Bearings 

September, 1915 








io® ^ ®° 




. — r-. 



1. Ui 

1 Link-cutting Die 

tie scrap produced. The stock bought was of the correct 
■width and thickness, and the only loss amounts to about % 
inch between the ends of successive links. 

The die is shown In Fig. 1 with the stripper removed, In 
order that the design and method of opera- 
tion may be more clearly illustrated. It 
win be seen that the stop-bar B Is doweled 
to the die and extends beyond it for a dis- 
tance equal to the length of the longest link 
that it is required to make. The stop C 
elides on the bar, in which there is a 
doweKpin hole to locate the stop in the 
proper position for each length of link. 
This arrangement makes it very easy to 
change the die for making any size of link 
which comes within its range. No descrip- 
tion of the punch will be necessary to make 
Its design clear. 

To use this punch and die, the operator first runs the stock 
under the punch to round off the end and punch the first hole. 
He then advances the finished end of the stock until it con- 
tacts with the stop C and again trips the press. This stroke 

In answer lo ihe question "What is soda?" it may be said 
that it is a chemical compound known as sodium carbonate 
which has the formula N'a,Co„ and that the greatest supply 
comes from Syracuse, N. Y. The actual method of manu- 
facture is a secret process, but it is known that limestone and 
common salt are used in large quantities. It may be a 
surprise to some people to learn that nearly two-thirds of 
the weight of washing soda is due to the water which it 
contains; and that this so-called "water of crystallization" 
has no value as a cleaning medium. As a result, the pur- 
chaser will obtain more for bis money by buying soda ash 
instead of soda. Soda ash has the same chemical composi- 
tion but does not contain any water, and as the cost per pound 
is only about 10 per cent more than that of soda. It is far more 
economical to use. Soda ash contains certain impurities 
which are not found in soda, but the amount of these is less 





— ' 



1 [ 





Fig. 1. Method of tMtinc a Square with a Straichtedcr and SuKacs Plate 

than 1 per ceni and the impurities are of such a character 
that they are harmless. 

If you wish to convince yourself of the relative strength 
of soda and soda ash, weigh out exactly equal amounts of 
the two materials and place them in beakers. Add enough 
water to each beaker to dissolve its contents and then run 
in the required amount of commercial muriatic acid to neu- 
tralize the solutions, as shown by testing with blue litmus 
paper or some other indicator. This test will show that the 
soda ash requires about 2i.| times as much acid to neutralize 
it as is required to neutralize the same weight of soda, i. e., 
the soda ash Is 214 times as strong as the soda, and one ton 
of it will go as far as 2i/4 tons of soda. 

Buffalo, N. Y. Geoboe B. Morris 

Fig. 2. Link BliLnking and Pirroing Punch 

results In completing one link and rounding and piercing one 
end of the following link. It will be evident that each stroke 
of the press now results in the completion of one link. 
Belleville, 111. B. Geist 

'There are few substances which are used in greater 
quantities in American factories than soda; It is employed 
for cleaning machine parts, for scrubbing 
floors, and for numerous other purposes. 
Many shops have had experience in trying 
other cleaning compounds for which great 
claims are made, but eventually they come 
back to the use of soda. It is not the in- 
tention to say that there are not a great 
many good cleaning compounds on the mar- 
ket, but in most cases the difference be- 
tween their cost and the cost of ordinary 
washing soda does not warrant using 


It is common though Incorrect practice to test a square by 
comparing it with some other square. This method is un- 
reliable because the discovery of an error does not necessarily 
mean that the inaccuracy is in the square being tested. Fig. 
1 shows a simple lest that gives satisfactory results. A strip 
of stock A with two parallel sides should be held In a clamp 
B. with the parallel sides protruding beyond the Bides of the 
clamp. Laying this upon a surface plate, the parallel strip 
is brought square with the plate by tapping It at one side 
or the other. The square is accurate if no light can be seen 
when the blade is held against either side of the parallel strip. 
If the strip is square with the surface and the square is In- 
accurate, the error will appear to be of equal magnitude on 
each side of the strip. 

Fig. 2 Illustrates another method of testing a square. The 
cylindrical test block should be hardened and ground, and 

Testinr a Square with a Oroand CyllAdrioal Block 



September, 1915 

when such a block has been made it can be preserved as a 
permanent reference gage for this purpose. In grinding, care 
should be taken to keep the diameter the same at all points; 
and the end faces of the block should be ground at the same 
setting. While grinding, the work should be held on a plug 
arbor. Assuming that the block has been ground in accord- 
ance with the preceding instructions, it will readily be seen 
that AB and AC form an almost perfect square, which can 
safely be employed for testing purposes. 

Newark, N. J. Gc.sta%'e A. Remaci.e 



Tx ° 




For some months I have been operating a ten-foot boring 
mill which Is not provided with graduated dials on the feed- 
screws, as this is 
quite an old ma- 
chine. Machinists 
who have oper- 
ated this boring 
mill in the past 
have evidently 
felt the need of 
graduated dials, 
for the collar on 
each of the feed- 
screws bears evi- 
dence of attempts 
to graduate it 
with scribers, 
prick-punches or 
cold chisels. To 
set a tool with 
any degree of pre- 
cision by such a 
substitute for ac- 
curately g r a d u- 
ated dials, certain- 
ly requires a man 
to be a clever 

With the view 
of getting some- 
thing better for 
this purpose, the 
device which 
forms the subject 
of this article was 
developed. It con- 
sists of two princi- 
pal parts, one 
being a dial and 
its mountings 
which may be 
fitted on either of 
the feed-screws, 
and the other a 
plate mounted on 
the stud which 
carries the gear 
that drives the 
feed-shaft pinions. 
Fig. 1 shows 
the cross-sectional 
view of the part 
used in connec- 
tion with the feed- 
screws, and refer- 
ring to this illustration it will be seen that the hub A car- 
ries a split collar B on which the pointer C that is shown in 
Fig. 2 is mounted. The dial T) is divided into sixteen spaces, 
eacli of which corresponds to a movement of the tool of 1/32 
inch. The dial may be moved around the hub for the pur- 
pose of adjusting It to the zero position, and It will be seen 

that it is locked in position by meaas of a set-screw K which 
is carried in a collar F threaded onto the hub. The hollow 
set-screw (i holds the entire mechanism in place on either of 
the feed-screws on the boring mill. 

Reference to Fig. 2 will show that the second part of the 
mechanism consists of two scales H. and J. one of which In- 
dicates the traverse feed and the other the vertical feed of 
the tool. The traverse feed is '•. inch per revolution, and 
the vertical feed 7/16 inch per revolution of the feed-shaft. 
Both scales are divided into thirty-one divisions, and both 
have a range of 1/32 inch, so that each division indicates a 
movement of 0.001 inch of the tool. 

Assuming that the device is to be used for a boring opera- 
tion. It is set up on the machine as shown in Fig. 2, and the 
screw K is adjusted to locate the pointer C in the required 
position, the screw being left loose enough so that the pointer 
may be moved by hand. A pin placed in the hole L locks the 
pointer C to the scale. The tool is now adjusted to the work 
by means of the dial D and the work Is brought to within 
1/32 inch or less of the required size. The pin is now re- 
moved from the hole />. after which the work is finished to 
size by means of the scale J. which is the one used to regu- 
late the traverse feed of the tool. Should more than 1/64 
inch of final adjustment be required, it is advisable to move 
the pointer to the end of the scale J before starting the final 
finishing cut. This device can be easily shifted to any of the 
feed-screws; and it offers a means of improving the ef- 
ficiency of the machine by providing an accurate method of 
showing the amount of traverse and vertical feed, where the 
usual form of dials cannot be used on the feed-screws. 

Butte, Mont. W. Whitley 

Fig:. 2. As; 


Fountain pens are likely to leak at the Joint where they 
part for filling. While this leak is small, being simply a 
capillary effect, it is none the less annoying, for no matter 
how dry the joint is wiped, the fingers are bound to become 
smeared whenever the pen is used, because they touch at this 
very joint. To prevent this trouble, use "tanglefoot" such as 
found on sticky fly paper or painted on trees to keep the 
insects from climbing. Put a small amount on the threads 
and joint with the point of a toothpick, screw the joint 
together and wipe off the surplus. This "tanglefoot" always 
remains sticky, never dries up and no ink can ever pass by 
it. One application will last at least a year in continuous 

Newport News, Va. Osbobn P. LooMis 


The accompanying illustration shows a very simple and 
dependable form of indicator for use on milling machines in 
cases where it Is required to bore a hole at a certain dis- 
tance from a finished surface, or for locating the table at a 
given distance from the center of the spindle. The tap- 
ered bushing A fits In the milling machine spindle and is 
bored with a tapered hole to receive the spindle B on which 
the ball bearing C is mounted. This spindle can be made 
any required length, or several spindles of different lengths 
can be made to fit in the same bushing A. The diameter 
of the projection D on the spindle Is made of such a size that 
the inner race of the ball bearing can just be pressed onto 
It by hand, and this part of the spindle should be turned 
with the indicator in place in the milling machine spindle. 
For this purpose the turning tool is held in a vise on the 
table of the machine. 

To use the indicator, the finished face on the work is fed 
against the outer race, and as soon as the work touches, the 
race will stop rotating. The dial of the feed-screw is then 
set to zero, the table backed clear of the work, and then 
moved longitudinally or vertically, as the case may be, 
through a distance equal to one-half the diameter of the 
outer race. This brings the center of the spindle exactly in 
line with the finished face on the work. The dial on the 
feed-screw is again set to zero, after which the work is 

September, 1915 



Simple Type of HLUin; Hachine Indicator adapted for Hard Service 

moved through the required distance to locate it in the 
proper relation to the spindle for boring the hole in the 
work. A steel disk may be used on this type of Indicator 
in place of the ball bearings, but it is not nearly so 

Denver, Colo. Stanley Edw.\bds 


The accompanying illustration shows a convenient form 
of screw-driver for use in setting up tools in a power press, 
which is especially useful when it is desired to replace the 
stripper without taking the cutting die out of the bolster. 
An ordinary screw-driver could not be used because there 
would not be enough room under the plunger of the press. 
In cutting out stock for jewelry, the stripper plate Is gener- 
ally removed and the stock .sheared to fit the guide slot in 
it. In the meantime, the punch and die have been set up in 
the press, and when the operator 
receives the stock and stripper 
plate, the use of this tool enables 
him to attach the stripper very 

.\ screw-driver of this form is 
much easier to handle than the 
common form of offset screw- 
driver. The forefinger of the 
left hand is placed at the top of 
the disk to apply the necessary 
pressure and the disk is turned 
with the thumb and second finger 
of the right hand. The edge of 
the disk is knurled so that a 
I have also made tools of this 
type with the edge of the disk scalloped, and also with a star 
shaped handle in place of the disk, but the form of tool shown 
in the illustration has given the best all-around results. The 
disk has a square hole in the center and the screw-driver is 
milled so that it can first be driven into the hole, and then 
riveted over at the top. In hardening the screw-driver, care 
must be taken to leave the shank soft enough so that It can 
l)e headed over. The foreman of the press department came 
into the tool-room where the writer is employed, saw this tool 
lying on the bench, and carried it right out to the press room. 
.\fter using it, he declared it the handiest screw-driver for the 
purpose he had ever seen. 

Attleboro, Mass. T. E. \V.\Kn 

Die-setter's Screw-driver 

good grip may be obtained. 


The grinding of threading tool cutters of the form shown 
in Fig. 1, which are used in spring or so-called "gooseneck" 
holders, is often found difllcult lusijuise the cutter is quite 
short and hard to hold while grinding. Furthermore, it is 
difficult to grind the angle true for the entire length of the 
cutting face, so that when the tool is sharpened it will only 
need grinding at the top. The fixture shown in Fig 2 was 
designed for doing lliis work and has given satisfactory 

The baseplate .1 
has a ridge planed 
on it at an angle of 
15 degrees, which 
will give the cutter 
the proper clear- 
ance. Plate R is se- 
cured onto the 

< ^ 1 

e v- 1 


ridge on the baseplate, and a Starrett protractor C is screwed 
to the plate B. The tool to be ground is carried in a toolpost 
D which is held stationary by the lock-nut E. In setting the 
fixture ready for grinding any required tool, the indicator F. 
carried by the toolpost, enables the proper setting on the pro- 
tractor to be made. 

In using this fixture, the tool is first tightened in the tool- 
post; then the lock-nut is unscrewed and the indicator set 
to one-half the included angle which is required on the cut- 



A A^ 








Tig. 2. Fixture for rrindinc Threadinc Tool Cutters 

ter. The lock-nut is then tightened to secure the tool in 
place preparatory to grinding. The fixture can be used by 
passing it under the surface grinder by hand or it may be 
strapped to the table of the surface grinder and the machine 
used in the regular way. 
Waterbury, Conn. CH\Bi,K>i Grii i kv 


In the drafting-room where the writer is employed some 
very long drawings are made, and as the longest available 
board is only 6 
feet in length, the 
following method 
is used to hold the 
portion of the 
drawing that is 
not being worked 
on. A roller and 
guide are secured 
to each end of the 
drawing board by 
strips, as shown 
In the accompany- 
ing illustration; 
one end of the 
paper is pasted 
onto each roller 
and it is then 
wound up tight on 
one roller. As the 
work progresses, 
it will be appar- 
ent that the 
paper is drawn off 
one roller and 
wound up on the 
other one until 
the entire draw- 
ing has been com- 

Jamks B. Nelson 

Toronto, On- 

tarlo, Canada. 






f ^ ■ ' ' 

1 1! . 




Fir. 9. Cross-i 

of Drawut Board 



September, 1915 


We have read with much Interest the editorial entitled 
"Standard Twist Drill Design" in the August number of 
Machinkby. The implication seems to be that the business 
of manufacturing twist drills has been, until very recently, a 
"rule-of-thumb" affair in which a certain design has hap- 
pened to become standard because each new arrival in the 
field has blindly accepted the traditions of his predeceseors. 
This state of affairs is now somewhat altered, however, by 
the fact that "a new development has recently been made 
by a twist drill maker in changing the angle of lead of the 

We are inclined to think it will be interesting news to 
the majority of twist drill manufacturers to learn that there 
has heretofore existed a standard design for such tools other 
than the separate standards of individual makers. As to the 
matter of the angle of spiral, let me quote from a little 
booklet, "Twist Drills — Their Uses and Abuses", first pub- 
lished by the Cleveland Twist Drill Co. some fifteen years 

"There are various shapes of flute and angles of spiral 
on the drills made by different manufacturers, the shapes 
of flute varying by only a small amount, while the angles 
of spiral range from 18 to 35 degrees. Theoretically, the 
finer the pitch of the spiral grooves, or the greater the angle 
of spiral to the axis, the easier it should be to sever and 
bend or curl the chip; but there are practical considerations 
which counteract the advantage of mere ease in severing 
chips, and it becomes advisable to make this angle somewhat 
more acute than would otherwise be the case. Among the 
practical objections to a very fine pitch of spiral may be 
mentioned the weakness of the cutting edge and its inability 
to carry off the heat generated. Such a groove also packs 
up with chips more readily. From a large number of tests 
we have found that angles of spiral ranging from 25 to 30 
degrees give the best results in drills for average work — 
t. e., where the holes are between one and three diameters 
deep. For deeper holes than this, a coarser pitch (with less 
angle to the axis) might be desirable, and for shallower 
holes, a finer one." 

The recognition of the value of various angles of spiral 
for various purposes is, therefore, not new, and twist drills 
differing considerably with respect to this angle have been 
on the market for a number of years. The question is asked: 

•"Is there any assurance based upon practical tests carried 
out with scientific precision, that twist drills are made of a 
form most advantageous for the rapid removal of metal?" 
In our judgment the answer to this question hinges largely 
on the meaning of the words "scientific precision". We 
do know, however, of several lengthy tests that were made 
on a carefully prepared apparatus by expert workmen, to 
determine the very points in question. (A description of this 
apparatus appeared in the Americojt Machinist, May 30, 1901, 
and will also be found, together with a review of the tests, in 
the booklet "Twist Drills — Their Uses and Abuses.") The 
result was that one manufacturer expended large sums of 
money (1) to change the angle of spiral on the bulk of his 
product from within the range between 33 and 35 degrees 
to within that of 25 to 2714 degrees, and (2) to procure an 
entirely new equipment of cutters to produce a shape of 
flute which should, while consuming practically no more 
power, free Itself of chips more readily. We also know that 
a 1%-inch twist drill has removed 113 cubic inches of metal 
in one minute. 

We quite agree that because a thing has been made a 
certain way for a long time it does not follow that it is the 
best way, and we do not believe that one angle of spiral or of 
point could be found that would be best for all kinds of 
•work. There are too many varying conditions, some of which 
require the sacrifice of a certain amount of power to accom- 
plish the work at all. 

We question, however, if any data sheets which attempted 
to cover these points would be of much practical value to 
efficiency engineers, unless the whole experience of a drill 
maker went with them. The makers of twist drills sell 

"holes" these days ae the criterion of value for their pro- 
ducts, and it strikes us that the shortest and most direct 
road to drilling efficiency is for the man that has a difficult 
drilling problem to put it up in detail to several of the 
leading twist drill manufacturers and let them furnish sam- 
ples that in their judgment are best suited for the work. 
If these are then run under the conditions recommended by 
each manufacturer the user can readily select the tools that 
show the highest productive capacity in the job. In our 
judgment the twist drill manufacturers would be glad to 
submit their product to such competitive conditions, and 
would welcome any improvement in design that might be 
thus scientifically demonstrated to be such. 

E. C. Peck, 
Cleveland, Ohio. General Superintendent, 

Cleveland Twist Drill Co. 

In operating long lathes I have found it a convenience to 
have graduation marks 1 foot apart stamped in the metal be- 
tween the ways, with numerals beside them which show the 
distance from the face of the chuck. This device will en- 
able the operator to locate the tailstock and steadyrest when 
setting up the machine for long work, without having to 
use a rule for making measurements. These graduations 
will not disfigure the machine, and as they are permanent 
they are always ready for instant use. This has been found 
a great time saver in handling certain classes of work. 
Los Angeles, Cal. John A. Wood 


For cleaning my ruling pens, and especially bow pens and 
compass pens, I find an old tooth-brush much more satis- 
factory than the time-honored "rag." By drawing the point 
of the pen across the brush, it is thoroughly cleaned with- 
out leaving any lint. This method of cleaning with a brush 
is much easier than squeezing a piece of cloth between the 
pen points. The brush lasts longer and looks better. It can 
be conveniently kept in an instrument tray. 

Amite, La. Chables F. Kopp 


For drilling and tapping nickel steel, linseed oil is one of 
the best lubricants I have ever used. Where tool steel is 
being drilled with fine drills, sweet milk is a very efficient 
lubricant. It is important to note in this connection that 
sour milk will not give satisfactory results. Using a 0.020- 
icch drill in tool steel, I have found that the tool lasted ten 
times as long with sweet milk as a lubricant than it did 
when any other cutting compound was used. 

Dayton, Ohio. O. E. VoBts 


There are many toolmakers who use a tap to remove the 
scale from threaded holes in a die after it has been hardened. 
I have found that by taking a screw and filing a few flutes in 
it, I can make a tool that will clean out the threads of a die 
just as well as a regular tap, and its use avoids damaging an 
expensive tool. 

Long Island City, N. Y. E. Kebn 

* • • 

In the March, 1915, number of M.\chinerv, page 558, In the 
article on "Wire Springs," it is stated that D = outside di- 
ameter of spring. This is an error, as Z) = mean diameter 
of spring. This correction should be taken account of through- 
out the article. 

In the article "Spacing of Bolts for Wrench Clearance." on 
page 982 of the August number of Machinery, there is an 
error in Formula (4). This formula should read: 
D, = 1.76(f + 0.062 + 0.86(1 + 0.072 + 0.5d = 3.11d + 0.134. 




The No. 50 disk grinder illustrated and described herewitli 
Is a recent product of the Gardner Machine Co., Beloit, Wis. 
The design represents a departure from standard practice in 
the construction of disk grinding machines, and the present 
machine is adapted for an unusually wide range of work. 
The grinder is said to have a high productive capacity and it 
is a complete unit, each machine being equipped with a dust 
exhauster, a water system, and a cast-iron hood. The spindle 
Is made of crucible steel and 
accurately ground to a diame- 
ter of 3 inches; it is mounted 
in S. K. F. radial ball bearings, 
and the end-thrust is also 
taken by ball bearings of the 
same make. The spindle pul- 
ley is 12 inches in diameter 
by 10 inches face width, which 
provides an abundance of pow- 
er. It will be noted that the 
rocker-shaft has a bearing at 
each end, in which it oscillates 
when the table is rocked back 
and forth to move the work 
over the grinding wheel. This 
design has resulted in a rigid 
construction which enables a 
high degree of accuracy to be 
obtained in the product. 

When the work is forced 
against the grinding wheel, it 
will be evident that there is a 
tendency for the rocker-shaft 
to move to the right, but this 
is resisted by a heavy collar Just outside the left-hand bearing. 
A second collar at the right prevents movement of the rocker- 
shaft in the opposite direction; and this second collar also 
has a ledge formed on its under side in which there is an 
elongated curved slot. This slot carries a stop-screw, and by 
adjusting the collar on the rocker-shaft and locking it with a 
set-screw, the limits of oscillation of the table may be accu- 
rately regulated. The table column and top are heavily con- 
structed, the column being 5 inches in diameter. The column 
extends into the counterweight at a point directly over the 
center of the rocker-shaft, and is held In the required 
position by two locking-screws which pass through the left- 
hand side of the weight. A graduated clamp collar just 


above the counterweight on the column can be employed when 
it may be desired to set the table at an angle with the grind- 
ing wheel. 

There are three %-inch T-slots in the table and the work- 
ing surface of the table is 18 by 10 inches in size. A channel 
surrounds the table, which is provided with the necessary 
pitch to carry the water off into a drainage basin when wet * 
grinding is being done on the machine. The feed mechanism 
which moves the table toward the grinding wheel is a fea- 
ture of the design of this machine. Provision is made for 
employing either lever, screw 
or spring-actuated feed. When 
the lever feed is employed, the 
screw wheel is disengaged by 
removing a taper pin which fits 
through its hub, so that the 
travel may be actuated by a 
pinion secured to the inner end 
of the lever shaft, which en- 
gages a rack secured to the 
under side of the table. The 
second handle mounted on the 
lever shaft, which projects to- 
ward the front, is for the pur- 
pose of assisting in rocking the 
table. The positive screw fee<l 
is obtained by replacing the 
taper pin in the hub of the 
wheel and turning the hand- 
wheel to the right. A spring 
pressure of from 1 to 300 
pounds can be obtained by ad- 
justing the screw handwheel 
when the latter is disengaged. 
When the spring feed is used, 
the hand lever is employed to secure any additional pressure 
which may be required, and for backing the table away from 
the grinding wheel. A micrometer stop-screw, shown in the 
front view of the machine, provides for accurately governing 
the forward movement of the table. 

This machine may be equipped with either a 30-inch steel 
disk wheel or a 20-inch ring-wheel chuck. The abrasive 
wheel is used when it is desired to do wet grinding and the 
disk wheel when dry grinding is to be done. There are two 
openings at the bottom of the cast-iron hood, one of which 
is for the water and the other tor the dust. When one of 
these openings is in use, the other is closed by means of a 
hinged cover. When the machine is used for wet grinding. 

of Oaidner No. 60 Disk Orlsdor 

Fig. 2. Opposite Side 01 Mnchlnc shown in Fi(t. 1 

rir. 3. End Viow at Gnndr." ilow.nj Dnie «o W>t«T Pnmp 



September, 1915 

the water is carried off into a drainage basin from wliicli it 
overflows into tiie removable reservoir which will be seen in 
the rear view of the machine; and from this reservoir it Is 
pumped back to the grinding wheel. The water pump is of 
the geared type and is driven from the machine spindle by 
a sprocket-and-chain drive. The dust exhauster is contained 
within the base of the machine and is driven by a belt; it 
is connected with the bottom of the hood and discharges at 
a point near the base of the machine at the rear, where a 
thimble is provided for connection to the exhaust pipe. The 
front of the hood is enclosed with cast-iron sections which 
can be removed or inserted to make the opening of the re- 
quirecT size for the work. The chain and belt which drive 
the water pump and exhauster, respectively, are enclosed by 
a cast-iron guard which has a hinged door to give access to 
the drive. 

Fig. 4 shows the machine engaged in surfacing the bot- 
toms of electric sad irons, and this operation reveals some 
interesting data. The area to be surfaced was approximately 
21 square Inches and the parts were ground on the Gardner 
No. 50 disk grinder at the rate of six per minute. In order 
to obtain comparative data, some of the same irons were 
ground on a Gardner No. 7 disk grinder of standard design, 
which is also equipped with a 30-inch disk wheel. On the 
latter machine It was only possible to finish two irons per 
minute. When grinding on this machine, there was also a 

Tig, 4. Facing Electric Sad Irons on Gardner No. 60 Disk Grinder 

tendency for the operator to merely grind through the scale 
on the work, but when the No. 50 machine was used more 
stock was frequently removed than was actually necessary 
to clean up the surface, owing to the rapidity with which 
the machine cut. As regards the relative cutting speeds of 
the two types of machines, it may be stated that the No. 50 
machine will grind away twenty ounces of iron per minute, 
while the No. 7 machine only removes 414 ounces of iron 
per minute. 


The accompanying illustration shows a combination drilling 
and balancing machine which is a recent product of the 
Rockford Tool Co., Rockford, III. It will be seen that the shaft 
which carries the part to be balanced is supported by two 
pairs of hardened disks. These disks are mounted on stand- 
ards which may be adjusted on the bed of the machine to 
give various distances between the standards up to thirty 
inches. The machine is intended for use in balancing pulleys 
and flywheels ranging from 10 to 18 inches in diameter, and 
it can be arranged either for individual motor drive or for 
belt drive. 

This machine is very convenient to operate; the disks 
always remain true and do not require to be leveled up. The 
provision of the drill on the balancing machine does away 
with the necessity of removing the work from the standards 
and taking it to the drill after each test for balance has 

bj the aockford 

been made. As a result, alternate drilling and balancing 
operations can be readily performed until the work is found 
to be perfectly balanced. An adjustable stop is provided 
which prevents the work from sliding up against either of 
the standards— a condition which would hinder it from revolv- 
ing freely. 


For years the technical papers have discussed the merits 
of the liobbing process, pro and con; but much of the criti- 
cism of results obtained by the bobbing process has arisen 
I'ither directly or indirectly from errors in the hob or from 
poorly designed bobbing machines. The fundamental princi- 
ple of gearing must be observed in the case of gears produced 
on bobbing machines. Obviously, the bearing must be con- 
centric with the pitch circle of the gear, and the sides of the 
teeth must be uniform if satisfactory results are to be ob- 
tained, but many writers have shown that the teeth of certain 
hobbed gears were not uniform, and that the pitch circle 
was not concentric with the bearing. These defects were 
due to errors in the hob and bobbing machines, respectively. 
In practically all cases the fiats on the teeth of hobbed gears 
were caused by inaccuracies in the hob. These inaccuracies 
were due to the combined effect of theory and practice, i. e.. 
the outline of the hob was theoretically wrong, and it was found 
practically impossible to harden the hob without distortion. 
The gear bobbing machine must also be designed in such 
a way that it is powerful and rigid enough to take advantage 
of the multiple cutting edge of the hob. The Lees-Bradner 
Co., Cleveland, Ohio, which is a pioneer in the art of bobbing 
gears, has been making a careful study of this subject for 
a number of years, as a result of which the "hyperbolotd" 

A>A yfi^ A 

t-Bradner H^perboloid Hob 

September, 1915 



hob shown in accompanying illustration has been developed. 
The theoretical considerations calling for the use of a hob 
of this form are that the cutting edges of each series of 
teeth must enter and depart simultaneously on a theoreti- 
cal line, which has been designated the "generating plane". 
It will be apparent in a hob of the solid cylindrical type, 
which is fluted at right angles to the lead, that the row of 
teeth which is generating presents an elliptical outline to 
the gear being cut. In addition, the helical flute presents 
a warped surface with one end of the flute stubbed and 
the other end raked, as far as the generating plane is con- 
cerned: This can be readily seen if the fact is grasped 
that a section taken through a cylinder at right angles to 
the axis is a circle, that a section taken through a cylinder 
parallel to the axis is a rectangle, while a section taken 
through a cylinder at an angle to the axis is an ellipse. 
As a result, it will be evident that with the hob set at Its 
working angle, an elliptical outline will be presented to the 
work. Therefore, to obtain a hob that will produce a rec- 
tangle under these conditions, it is necessary for the tool 
to be of hyperboloid outline. The hyperboloid hob developed 
by the Lees-Bradner Co., which is shown in the accompanying 
illustration. Is made up of a series of high-speed steel racks 
which are ground for lead, side relief, top relief, and to 
provide sharp cutting edges. These racks can be renewed as 
they become worn out, and as the housing is hardened and 
the bore ground to a plug gage fit it will last indefinitely. 


For use In reseating motor valves the Healy Tool & Ap- 
pliance Co., Buffalo, N. Y., Is now manufacturing a set of 


Fig. 1, Set of Healy Valve Tools 

tools which is Illustrated and described herewith. Fig. 1 
shows the tools and Figs. 2 and 3 show the use of a face 
cutter in the dresser head, and of the seating cutter. The 
dresser head, shown in Fig. 2, has a tube to receive the 
valve stem and there Is a long adjusting screw to form an 
end bearing. There is also an inside chuck which has a 
double-ended bearing, and by means of the adjusting mechan- 
ism this chuck Is closed and locked onto the valve stem. 

just permitting the 
stem to rotate with 
the bit-brace. The 
dresser head is pro- 
vided with one 
guide and two face 
cutters which are 
set by micrometer 
screws, so that a 
very fine cut may 
be taken on the 
head of the valve. 
The seating cut- 
ters, one of which 
is shown in use in 
Fig. ;J, are made of 
tool steel and have 
from 20 to 24 cut- 
ting edges, accord- 
ing to size. Means ^'«- '• ^»5^ *» '"»''"* 8<«Un« Cott«r U u.^ 
are provided to permit a cutter which is ':', Inch larger than 
the valve to enter the port; a cutter the same size as the 
valve will not take oft the shoulder, but a larger cutter will 
do so. The pilots are made of steel, ground to within 001 
inch of the standard size and hardened to afford the required 
durability. The port steadyrest is an Important feature of 
this tool; each end of the rest is made with a running thread 
on the taper so that the rest will engage a port of any size. 


The Cooper universal joint, which is illustrated and de- 
scribed herewith, provides for securing absolute uniformity 
between the angular velocity of the driving and driven mem- 
bers at all points of the revolution. The driving member 
consists of a flange A which is carried by the shaft B, with 
provision for locking the fiange securely to the shaft. A 
shell C, which Is spherically shaped Internally, is fastened 
to flange A by means of a dovetailed spline and from two to 
eight hexagonal headed cap-screws, according to the size of 
the joints. There are four holes spaced 90 degrees apart In 
this shell, and four V-shaped trunnions D are Inserted In 
these holes. The driven member of the joint consist* of four 
cross-lieads /; which have three flat si.'rtaces at right angles 

of Face Cutter In Dresser Head 

Cooper TTnivcrsal Joint \s!..v;. ;;_'v.^.. a 1 
between Dririnir and Driven Members 

to each other, while the remaining surface is spherical. These 
cross-heads are Inserted In the spherlcal-«haped shell C ao 
that they come between the four trunnions D and leave a 
square opening from the shaft. The backs or spherical 
shaped sides of the cross-heads are grooved at F to form 
recesses for a sufficient volume of lubricant to last for one 
year. A cover G mounted on a squared driven shaft H and 
held against the exterior of the shell by a spring / serves 
to exclude dust and retain the lubricant In the joint. 

In operation, the cross-heads E oscillate between the trun 
nlons D and against the spherical interior of the shell C 
the movement being through a number of degrees corre- 
sponding to the Included angle between the shafts. Owing 
10 the large flat driving surface, ample lubrication and 
slight movement of the parts, friction losses are prac- 



September, 1915 

Fig. 1. End View of Rockford Lathe 

Fig. 2. Rockford 16-iQcb High-power M&nufacturing Lathe 

tically negligible. Varying the angle of this joint does not 
cause the driving or driven member to shorten centers during 
a revolution, and as a result the angular velocity of the 
driven member is the same as that of the driving member 
at all points during each revolution. Consequently, the use 
of the second compensating joint is unnecessary. All working 
parts of the joints are made of hardened steel and ground 
to size so that satisfactory wearing properties are assured. 
This universal joint is made by the Cooper Flexible Trans- 
mission Co., Inc., Sth Ave. and 18th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 


The design of the 16-inch high-power lathe which has 
been placed on the market by the Rockford Tool Co., Rock- 
ford, 111., has been particularly worked out to meet the require- 
ments of those manufacturers who produce duplicate parts 
in large quantities. To adapt the machine for heavy work, 
the headstock is ribbed to provide ample rigidity, and the 
spindle is made from a crucible steel forging. The spindle 
bearings are provided with babbitt metal liners which are 
seated In dovetailed slots; the front bearing is 2% inches in 
diameter by 6V4 inches long. An oiling system supplies 
lubricant to all the bearings. 

The manipulation of a single lever operates a powerful 
friction clutch and also applies a brake which stops the spin- 
dle almost immediately. The bed is of deep section and 
adequately ribbed; es- 
pecially wide V-bear- 
ings are provided. The 
tailstock is clamped 
by two bolts, and to 
provide for taper 
turning operations, 
the tailstock may be 
set over. The car- 
riage has a wide bear- 
ing surface, and the 
apron is heavy and 
deep. A heavy plain 
rest Is regularly fur- 
nished which has a 
dovetail slide 7 J^ 
inches wide. This 
slide has tapered gibs 
which affords a means 
of compensating for 
wear. A large dial 
graduated in thous- 
andths of an inch is 
mounted on the cross- 
feed screw. Power 
longitudinal feed is 
provided with four 

quick changes; the Ford-Smith Heavy Type of Wide-wheel 

cross-feed is operated by hand. A large pan for oil and chips 
is regularly furnished with this lathe. The drive is from a 
two-speed friction countershaft which should be arranged to 
run at from 80 to 225 R. P. M. The countershaft pulley Is 14 
inches in diameter and carries a belt 4 inches in width. 

The principal dimensions of this machine are as follows: 
Hole through spindle, 17/16 inch in diameter; swing over 
bed, I6V2 inches; swing over plain rest, 8V4 Inches; maximum 
distance between centers for a machine with a 6-foot bed, 2 
feet 2 inches; length of carriage, 24 inches; width of cross- 
slide, 7% inches; and weight of machine with 6-foot bed, 
2200 pounds. 

The accompanying illustration shows a heavy type of wide- 
wheel grinder which has been developed by the Ford-Smith 
Machine Co., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, for use in grinding 
shrapnel shells, high-explosive shells, and other types of 
wide-wheel work which come within its range. The machine 
is especially adapted for grinding shrapnel shells in a single 
operation, and is designed along lines which provide for 
obtaining the maximum output from the best abrasive 
wheels. It will be obvious that the power requirements of 
the machine for driving both the wheel-spindle and work- 
spindle are unusually high, and to provide an abundance of 
power the wheel-spindle is driven by two 6-inch belts, while 

the work -spindle 1 s 
driven by a 4-inch 
belt and a 1 to 4 
geared drive. During 
the early stages of the 
development of this 
machine, trouble was 
experienced in obtain- 
ing suitable formed 
grinding wheels, but 
several manufacturers 
are now producing 
grinding wheels which 
cut freely and bold 
the required shape for 
a reasonable length of 
time. It is stated that 
65 shells can be 
ground accurately to 
gage without truing 
the wheel, and where 
the wheel is touched 
up occasionally with a 
hard dresser, without 
the use of a diamond, 
it is possible to grind 
150 shells. 

Grinder for finishing Shrapnel SheUs ThlS machine pPO- 

September, 1915 



vides for finish- 
ing the outside 
of the shell at a 
single operation, 
and the work is 
perfectly c o n - 
centric, symmet- 
rical, and true 
t o shape and 
size. The ma- 
chine can be 
operated by un- 
skilled labor, 
and the expense 
of diamonds for 
truing the 
wheels has been 
largely eliminat- 
ed through the 
use of a hard dresser for keeping the wheel In condition. 
In the article entitled "Shrapnel and Shrapnel Manufac- 
ture", published in the April number of Machinery, a com- 
plete description was given of the method of truing the 
wheel. The equipment of the machine includes a pump, 
tank, water connections and a formed truing device for the 
grinding wheel. The principal dimensions of the machine 
are as follows: Height from floor to center of spindle, 39 
inches; diameter of grinding wheel, 20 inches; width of 
form face of wheel, 8Vi inches; diameter of wheel-spindle 
bearings, 3% Inches; diameter of headstock bearings, 4 
inches; length of headstock bearings, 7V1> inches; length of 
bed, 5 feet 6 Inches; width of bed, 5 feet; speed of wheel 
countershaft, 575 R. P. M.; speed of work countershaft, 275 
R. P. M.; power required to drive the machine, 25 horse- 
power; and net weight of machine and countershaft, 7500 

Rockford Double-head BorinK, Drilling and Tapping Machine with Spindl< 

Jlorse taper ; 
and size of table, 
24 by 72 inches. 
There are eight 
changes of feed, 
any of which Is 
instantly obtain- 
able. There are 
four different 
drives. In one 
style of drive 
there Is a two-, 
three-, or four- 
step cone pulley; 
in the second 
style, the nj a - 
chine is equip- 
ped with a tight 
and loose pulley 
and a gear-box which gives eight changes of speed; In the 
third style, the drive is through a constant-speed motor and 
gear-box; and the fourth style of drive Is from a variable- 
speed motor. ■ 

at Bight Angle 


The double-head horizontal boring, drilling, and tapping 
machine which is illustrated and described herewith is a re- 
cent addition to the line of the Rockford Drilling Machine 
Co., Rockford, 111. This machine is built in two different 
types, one of which has the right- and left-hand heads ar- 
ranged as shown in the illustra- 
tion, with the spindles at right 
angles to each other. The other 
type of machine is built with the 
right- and left-hand heads at op- 
posite ends of the bed, so that the 
spindles are opposed to each other. 
Both types of machines are made 
in three different styles, one of 
which has both heads arranged 
with a lateral adjustment of 3(i 
inches and a vertical adjustment 
of 18 Inches; another, which has 
both heads provided with only ver- 
tical adjustment; and a third style 
in which one head is provided 
with both vertical and lateral ad- 
justment, while the other head has 
only the vertical adjustment. 

The machines have a capacity 
for driving high-speed drills up to 
3 Inches in diameter, and boring 
tools up to S inches in diameter 
when boring out cored holes in 
cast iron. The principal dimcn 
sions are as follows: Diameter of 
spindle, 2 1/16 inches; diameter of 
spindle sleeve, 3% inches; maxi- 
mum spindle travel, 25 Inches; 
hole in spindle, bored No. 5 fox No, 3', M.iimg Ma 

In the No. 3% milling machine made by the Fox 
Machine Co., 641 Front Ave., N. W., Grand Rapids, Mich.. 
both hand and power feed are provided; the machine Is 
suitable for a variety of light tool work and manufacturing 
operations which come within its range. Micrometrlc dials 
are provided on the screws which govern the vertical and 
transverse movements. Both the front and rear spindle bear- 
ings are of hard bronze which possesses excellent wearing 
properties, and each bearing is independently adjustable. The 
thrust Is carried on the main column, and as it is transmitted 
through the driving cone, none of the thrust is carried by 
either of the bearings. 

The saddle is made exceptionally long, being designed to 
afford a maximum rigidity; and the table has been made 
proportionately heavy so that vibration is reduce<i to a mini- 
mum. The knee bearing is extended so that It comes prac- 
tically flush with the top of the table, and this extended 
bearing, in addition to having a tendency to reduce vibration, 
provides additional strength for the knee. The knee Is raised 
and lowered by a telescopic screw 
which does not require a hole to 
be cut in the floor. A locking- 
screw is provided on the dial 
which enables it to be loosened 
so that it can be set back to zero, 
after w'hich the screw is retight- 
ened and the table raised or low- 
ered, as may be required. The 
design of the feed mechanism has 
been carefully worked out to com- 
bine the features of simplicity 
and durability. The regular 
equipment furnished with the ma- 
chine consists of an overhanging 
arm, a plain countershaft and a 
suitable equipment of cranks, 
wrenches, levers, etc. Either a 
%- or 1-Inch arbor is pro%'Med 
w^lth the machine. 

The principal dimensions of 
this No. 31^ milling machine are 
as follows: Automatic longitudi- 
nal movement in either direction. 
IS inches; transverse movement, 6 
inches; vertical movement. 16 
inches; maximum distance from 
table to spindle, 15Mi inches; else 
of working surface on table. 6 by 20 
ith Hand and Power Tt^ inches; and taper hole in spindle. 



September, 1915 

No. 9 Brown & 

S h a r p e . The ma- 

chine Is provided 

with six available 

feeds of 0.003, 0.005, 

0.006, 0.007, 0.010, 

and 0.014 Inch per 

revolution of the 

spindle, and the 

available spindle 

speeds range from 

21 to 425 revolutions 

per minute. The net 

weight of the machine, including countershaft and other 

equipment regularly provided, is 855 pounds. 

It IS 


and tear on all parts 
of the transmission 
system. This device 
is primarily intend- 
ed for use on auto- 
mobiles, and in such 
cases It is built right 
into the transmis- 
sion. It is also suit- 
able for drives that 
transmit power to 
many types of ma- 
chines, and wherever 
used it will be the means of eliminating vibration and 
due to the sudden application of the drive. 


The shoclc absorbing shaft which forms the subject of 
this article has been developed by the Cooper Flexible Trans- 
mission Co., Inc., 8th Ave. and 18th St., Brooklyn, N. Y., 
for the purpose of supplying a simple mechanism which Is 
applicable for use in connection with all forms of power 
transmission systems where a gradual application or power is 
desirable. The construction of this device and the principle 
on which it operates will be readily apparent by referring 
to the accompanying illustration. For convenience of expla- 
nation it will be assumed that the case A is the driving 
member. This case is threaded internally to receive a worm 
B that Is carried by the spllned shaft C which extends through 
the stuffing-box D at the end of the case. Two springs E 
and F are mounted on each side of the worm, one end of 
each spring being engaged by 
the projections G and H on 
the worm, and the opposite 
ends by the projections / and 
J on the stufflng-box and at 
the bottom of the case, re- 
spectively. The case is filled 
with oil and an adjust- 
able by-pass is provided 
through the worm. When the 
case or driving member A Is 
rotated, it will be found 
that the worm B moves 
toward the solid end of 
the case. This results in 
the displacement of the oil, 
which escapes through the by-pass to the opposite side of the 
worm, and at the same time the spring E is wound up. 

During the initial part of the movement, the driven shaft 
C remains stationary and continues to do so until the com- 
bined pressure of the worm on the oil and the tension of 
spring E exactly balance the torque which is required to 
start shaft C rotating. After starting the rotation, the speed 
of the driven shaft will be gradually accelerated until it 
reaches its normal speed. As soon as shaft C has reached 
its maximum speed — which is slightly In excess of the normal 
speed — a reaction takes place and the starting torque 
is reduced to the normal running torque. This allows 
the worm B to move slightly toward the right-hand end 


thus reducing 
the pressure on 
the oil and the 
tension of 
spring E suffi- 
ciently to reduce 
the torque and 
running speed to 
the normal con- 
dition. The ab- 
sence of sudden 
strains in start- 
ing reduces the 

amount of wear Tig. 2. Cross-soctional Vie 

Tig. 1. Victor CoUapsible Tap used in machinuif Shrapnel SheUs 


For use in machining shrapnel shells to receive the timing 
fuse, the Victor Tool Co., Waynesboro, Pa., has developed a 
collapsible tap which is shown In the accompanying illustra- 
tions. The body of this tool is made of a tough grade of ma- 
chine steel which gives plenty of strength to enable it to 
stand up under the conditions of rapid production which are 
usually maintained in factories working on ammunition 
orders. The chasers are adjusted by the hardened set-screw 
.1 at the front end, which has 32 threads per inch, so that 
very fine adjustments may be made. After the chasers have 
been set to size, they are rigidly clamped in such a way that 
there is no chance of their slipping. The screw B at the 
rear end of the holder adjusts the tension of the spring which 
controls the tripping device. 

All parts of the tap which 
are subject to wear are har- 
dened and ground. The chas- 
ers are of high-speed steel 
and are made exceptionally 
heavy to stand up under the 
strains which exist in cutting 
shrapnel or high-explosive 
shells made of crucible steel. 

tThis tap may be used in eith- 
er a turret head or in the 
lathe spindle, and gives equal- 
ly satisfactory results In 
either type of machine. In 
operation, the tap is fed in 
until the collar Is engaged by 
the work. This releases the tripping device and allows the 
spring to draw back the central plug C. The result is that 
the chasers are moved in toward the axis of the holder so 
that the tap may be withdrawn from the work. The tool is 
reset by moving the lever D forward to the position shown 
in Fig. 2, which expands the tap and locks the chasers in 
place ready for taking the next cut. 

In order to bring a body into dynamic balance, the following 
principles must be observed: First, a body cannot be in 
dynamic balance unless It is also in static balance, and the 

first step is to 
secure a condi- 
tion of static 
balance. This 
simply means 
that the center 
of gravity of the 
body must b e 
made to He on 
the axis of rota-.. 
tion. Second, a 
body which Is 
statically bal- 
anced canbe 

ctor Collapsible Tap shown in Fig. 1 brought IntO 

September, l'J15 



Dia^am showinfp Frincipl 

dynamic balance 
by introducing a so- 
called "centrifugal 
couple", i. e., by add- 
ing two -weights or 
drilling two holes in 
the plane in which 
the disturbing cen- 
trifugal couple is 
acting. In special 
cases, such as a 
three-throw crank- 
shaft, it may be nec- 
essary to split up one of the weights or holes between two 
adjoining cranks so that the resultant added weight or drilled 
hole will be in the same plane with the other weight or hole 
and the axis of rotation of the body. These principles have 
been applied by the Dynamic Balancing Machine Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in the development of the machine which forms 
the subject of this article. 

In this machine the balancing device consists of a so-called 
"squirrel-cage" system made up of two or more disks A which 
are made in halves and fitted over the unbalanced body li. 
that is indicated by the dotted lines in Fig. 1. To explain 
the action of the device, imagine an even number of rods C 
to be located at the same radial distance from the axis of 
rotation, all of the rods being of the same weight and size. 
Under these conditions the cage is perfectly balanced so that 
any lack of balance can only be due to the body B which is 
under test. It will be evident that if means are provided to 
bring about a condition of perfect dynamic balance by mov- 
ing one of the rods C through some distance D, it would 
enable us to know the exact value of the necessary centrifugal 
couple which must be introduced by drilling or adding weights 
in order to secure a perfect condition of dynamic balance in 
the body B. Khowing the weight of each rod, its radial dis- 
tance from the axis, and the necessary displacement D that is 
required to bring the system into a condition of dynamic 
balance, all of the necessary data is available. The product 
of these three quantities is the required centrifugal couple, 
and any oppositely applied centrifugal couple of the same 
numerical value will place the system in a condition of dynam- 
ic balance, i. e.. it will then run true when all the rods C 
are kept central. 

In drilling the holes In the body nr adding weights to 
bring it into a condition of dynamic balance, there Is only one 

which the DTnAmic Balancing 


condition to be con- 
sidered; i. e.. that 
the resultant centri- 
fugal couple which 
is introduced must 
be numerically equal 
to the value deter- 
mined by moving one 
of the rods C. There 
are three elements 
to be considered : 
The change of 
weight to be brought 
about by drilling or adding material; the distance from 
the axis at which metal Is added or removed; and the 
longitudinal distance of this point from the corresponding 
point at the opposite side of the body. These conditions can 
be made to suit the practical requirements of each case, so 
that there are a great variety of solutions for any given 
problem. I^ will be seen that the relative longitudinal posi- 
tion of the rods C in the cage does not alter the static bal- 
ance of the system, and that the displacement of the rods not 
only locates the plane of unbalance, but also the exact numeri- 
cal value of the correction which must be made. With a cage 
comprising six rods, the body can be balanced in only three 
planes located' 120 degrees apart; and with a greater number 
of rods the body can be balanced in a correspondingly greater 
number of planes. In practice, it is so easy to fix the cage 
around the body in some other position than that in which 
the test has already been made, that the number of rods can 
be kept down to three or four. 

Fig. 2 shows the method of procedure in testing a crank- 
shaft and flywheel for a six-cylinder motor. In this illus- 
tration, the cage is clearly shown at the center of the shaft. 
Means of moving the rods C to and fro while the system is 
revolving are provided by means of compressed air nozzles 
supplied from pipe E which deliver the air against the small 
fans F. one of which is located on each rod. There are three 
pairs of fans located in corresponding positions on opposite 
rods, and independent valves (I control the air delivered 
from the respective nozzles to each pair of fans. The holes 
in the disks A are tapped to receive the threaded ends of the 
rods C. Lack of space makes it impossible to refer to all of 
the refinements which are provided. This machine is suitable 
for use in balancing a great variety of parts, such as turbo- 
rotors, armatures, pullcy.s, propollors. rrankshafts etc. 

Fit. 2. Dynamic Balaacint Machine eii(a(od in balancini Crankahaft and Flywheel of Siz-cylialar MoUr 



September, 1915 


For finishing steel sliells utter tliey liave been forzec] 
and drawn into sliape, two pressing operations are required, 
i. e., the shells must be subjected to a "nosing" operation in 
which the end of the shell is partially closed in, and then 
the copper band must be shrunk around the shells. The 
Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co., 84 Lincoln Ave., Mt. Gilead, Ohio, 
is now building two hydraulic presses for performing these 
operations. The nosing process is illustrated In Fig. 1; and 
Fig. 2 shows the press for shrinking the copper band onto 
the shells. 

Reference to Fig. 1 will show that the nosing press is of 
the upward pressure type. After the shells have been formed 
from the solid billets, drawn into shape and partially ma- 
chined, the ends of the shells are heated and the shell is placed 
in a centering die on the platen of the press. A die having a 
conical shape to correspond with the nose of the finished 
shell is attached to the head of the press. As the ram rises, 
the shell Is forced into this die and the edges are turned in 
to form the nose or point of the shell. A revolving loading 
attachment is carried on one of the strain-rods, and as a 

li- •>U-s-<f. 

result, the operator can be setting up a shell in the outer 
end of the loading attachment while the press is working 
on another shell. This press is capable of exerting a maxi- 
mum pressure of 150 tons; and to enable it to stand up under 
this severe strain, steel Is used throughout the construction. 
The press is operated either direct from an individual pump 
or from an accumulator system. 

After the nosing operation has been completed It is still 
necessary to shrink the copper band onto the shell, and tor 
this operation the Hydraulic Press Mfg. Co. has developed 
the four-cylinder horizontal hydraulic press shown in Fig. 2. 
It will be seen that the rams from four cylinders operate In 
the direction of a common center, which results in compress- 
ing the band from four sides. In order to secure the band 
properly at all points, the shell is turned two or three times 
during the pressing operation. From 20 to 75 tons pressure 
is necessary for performing this work. During the pressing 
operation, the shell is supported in the center of the press 
by a detachable table or stand. This press will develop a 
pressure up to 75 tons. 

The No. 5 high-speed hacksaw machine which Is illustrated 
and described herewith is a recent product of the Massachu- 
setts Saw Works, Springfield, Mass. The machine is particu- 
larly designed for the rapid cutting of all metals in sizes up 
to 9 by 9 inches and is heavily constructed with all intricate 
mechanism eliminated, so that the necessary strength and 
durability are provided. The machine is set low on a solid 
foundation with wide-spread legs to give the maximum rigid- 
ity and steadiness. The bed of the machine is surrounded by 

Hiph.spoed Hacksaw made by the Massachusetts Saw Works 

a pan which is provided with a 9-gallon tank covered by a 
screen to exclude chips. The tank, pan, bed and legs are 
cast in a single piece. The head of the machine, which car- 
ries all working parts, swings on a shaft-center, and the 
design has been worked out in such a way that a very steady 
silent motion is obtained. Particular attention has been paid 
to the provision of means for lubricating all working parts. 
The manufacturers of this machine state that the trials to 
which it has been subjected have shown that the tendency 
to break the saw blades before they are worn out is practically 
eliminated. This is largely due to the smoothness and accu- 
racy of the stroke, resulting from the extreme rigidity of 
the machine, which is an important factor in assisting the 
shock-absorber to take up vibration. Means are provided for 
lifting the saw clear of the work on the idle or non-cutting 
stroke. The principal dimensions of the machine are as fol- 
lows: Capacity for cutting stock up to 9 inches square; size of 
blades used, from 12 to 17 inches in length; size of pulleys, 
IG inches in diameter by 3 inches face width; floor space 
occupied, 5 feet 3 inches by 2 feet 8 inches; and weight of 
machine S45 pounds. 

September, 1915 



Fig. 1. •■Hartford" Surface G 
Food in Eitl 


The accompanying illustration shows the "Hartford" sur- 
face grinder which is manufactured by the National Machine 
Co., Hartford, Conn. This machine is suitable tor grind- 
ing and finishing flat surfaces on punches, dies and 
hardened machined parts where the finished surfaces are 
required to be flat and true. The machine is said to have a 
high productive capacity and to produce very accurate work. 
Reference to Fig. 1 will show that the wheel-spindle is 
carried by a horizontal slide, with provision for giving 
the wheel a reciprocating travel across the face of the work. 
The arrangement of the drive for transmitting power to the 
crank, which actuates the movement of the wheel-slide, ■will 
be evident from the illustration. It will also be noticed 
that the work table provides for movement in three direc- 
tions. The wheel cuts easily and wears evenly. 

By moving the crankpin in the slotted crank on the under 
side of the wheel-slide, the length of stroke of the wheel 
may be quickly adjusted. The wheel-spindle runs in phos- 
phor-bronze bearings mounted in the slide, and there are 
guards over the ways to prevent them from being damaged 
by dust and grit. The work may be hold to the table bv 

means of adjustable clamps; and in some cases, it is found 
desirable to use a regular milling machine vise or a special 
work-holding fixture. The machine Is made In two sizes 
which will grind work to 8 inches wide by 18 inches long by 
12 inches high, and 14 Inches wide by 32 Inches long by 12 
inches high, respectively. In both cases, the height of 12 
inches Is based upon the use of an 8-inch wheel. The coun- 
tershaft which drives the machine is equipped with tight and 
loose pulleys 6 inches in diameter by 3'^ inches face width, 
and should run at 350 revolutions per minute. The net 
weight of the No. 1 machine is 900 pounds, and the No. 2 
machine has a net weight of 1200 pounds. These grinding 
machines are used extensively for sharpening powder cutter 
knives, and when used for this purpose, they are equipped 
with the special attachment shown in Fig. 2. 

The Davis automatic scrap reel, for winding up the .scrap 
from punch presses so that it may be conveniently handled, 
is manufactured by the Keyes-Davis Co., Inc., Battle Creek, 
Mich. These reels reduce the amount of labor required to 
operate punch presses, and where they are employed 
one operator can attend to several presses equipped with 
automatic feeds. The machines are kept running continu- 
ously on blanking operations, and the punches and dies are 
safeguarded by a device which stops the press instantly in 

Grinder for 

case the strip of scrap metal is broken, so that the press 
tools cannot be damaged by the scrap piling up between the 
punch and die. On blanking operations where ribbon stock 
is used, all the operator has to do is to put the coil of ma- 
terial on the slock reel at the left-hand side of the press, run 
it through the automatic feed rolls and attach the opposite 
end to the reel at the right-hand side of the press. When 
the feed rolls release the end of the strip, the re«l speeds up 
and the press is instantly slopped. 

It takes only IVj to 2 minutes to remove the scrap and put 
on another reel, and as a result one operator can attend to 
a number of presses, depending on the length of the stock 
and the rapidity with which It is run through the dies 
I'nder average working conditions, the operator can look 
after from five to eight presses, so that the labor cost Is 
very low. Fig. 1 shows a Davis automatic scrap reel attached 
to a power pres,«. and the way in which the mechanism oper- 



September, 1915 

Fig, Z. Details of Operating Hecli 

ates will be readily understood by reference to Fig. 2 in con- 
nection with the following description: 

In this Illustration the clutch-operating rod which makes 
connection with the foot-treadle is shown at A; the bracket 
bolted to the side of the press at B; the starting lever at C; 
stopping lever at D; and the stopping lever operated by a 
chain from the clutch on the reel at E. In case the strip of 
scrap breaks, lever E operates to stop the feed. This scrap 
reel may be readily attached to any type of power press and 
it is capable of handling scrap up to 3% inches in width. 
The starting lever C supplements the foot-treadle and makes 
it possible to start the press either by hand or foot. The 
press can be instantly stopped by means of lever D. This 
scrap reel is adjustable both vertically and horizontally, and 
It can be tilted to any angle to which an inclinable press 
may be set. The spring by which the reel is operated must 
be kept wound up by the belt shown in Fig. 1, the clutch con- 
necting the pulley with the winding mechanism being con- 
trolled by a lever shown at the rig'ht-hand side of the reel. 


To provide for performing various operations with a drill 
press in a position that could not be reached by a tool 
mounted directly in the spindle, the Off-Set Tool Co., Bridge- 
port, Conn., has recently brought out the 
attachment illustrated and described 
herewith. It is easily attached or re- 
moved from the machine and enables such 
tools as counterbores, drills, reamers, 
milling cutters, or a chuck for holilinR 
various tools, to be used in an off sii 
position in the drill press. 

The attachment is fastened to the sta- 
tionary sleeve which surrounds the spin- 
dle and consists of two main parts — the 
body and arm. The arm is held to the 
body by a clamping screw which provides 
for the use of a longer arm when neces- 
sary. The attachment is made of malle- 
able iron, with hardened 
steel gears and bronze 
bushings. It is made In 
three sizes. These are 
designated as the A-1, A-2 
and A-3 sizes, and have 
minimum arm lengths of 
2, 3, and 4 inches, re- 
spectively. The cutting 
tool is held by a slot and set-screw, and is centered by the 
shaft which passes through the bevel pinion. This tool saves 
considerable time when the work is of such a character that 
It can not be reached by a tool mounted in the usual way. 
• • « 

The yearly index to the twenty-first volume of Machinery, 
completed with the August number, is ready for distribution, 
and copies will be sent to any address on receipt of request. 


Engine Lathe: Putnam Machine Co., Fitchburg, Mass. A 
42-inch lathe intended for use on exceptionally hea\'y reduc- 
tion work and especially for the machining of heavy forg- 
ings. The machine is of unusually heavy construction, and 
it is claimed that it will work high-speed steel cutting tools 
to the limit of their capacity. 

Dust Collector: Whiting Foundry Equipment Co., Harvey, 
111. This device is used for collecting the dust from tumbling 
mills, emery wheel.s. sand-blast equipments, etc. Cloth-screen 
dust arresters are employed inside of a sheet metal case, 
which are relied upon to remove the dust from the air and 
still allow the air to pass through freely. 

Self-Adjusting Wrench: Hay ward Wrench Co., St. Louis, 
.Mo. A self-adjusting pipe wrench in which the movable jaw 
is operated by a link mechanism which gives an almost 
parallel motion. The wrench may be adjusted so rapidly 
that it is said to constitute almost the equivalent of a ratchet 
It is suitable for use on bolts, nuts and pipe. 

Cuttlng-off Machine: Williams Tool Co., Erie, Pa. A spe- 
cial cutting-off machine designed for facing the bottom or 
closed end and cutting off the ragged end of 4^-inch shrapnel 
shells. The machine is of rugged construction, to enable it 
to stand up under the severe conditions of rapid production 
for which it is intended. The weight is 3800 pounds. 

Shell Turning Lathe: Amalgamated Machinery Corpora- 
tion, Chicago, 111. On this machine both the headstock and 
the tailstock are cast integral with the bed; and the bed 
is heavily ribbed to provide ample strength. This is essen- 
tially a single-purpose machine. It occupies a floor space 
of 6 feet 2 inches by 10 feet, and weighs 4200 pounds. 

Horizontal Keyseater: Chattanooga Machinery Co., Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. A machine designed for keyseating holes of 
unusual length, and especially for cutting the keyseats in 
long rolls. The machine consists of three essential parts, 
i. e., a jig for holding and centering the work, a bar and 
cutting tool, and mechanical means for reciprocating the 

Elevating Truck: Columbus Lift Truck Co., Columbus, 
Ohio. In this truck the elevating of the freight platform 
from the floor is accomplished by means of four levers, two 
of which are located at each end of the truck. Each lever 
is pivoted to the truck frame, and the ends of the levers 
are raised by cams which are rotated by operating the lever 
at the front of the truck. 

Hose Coupling: National Hose Coupling Co., Peoples Gas 
Bldg., Chicago, 111. This coupling is adapted for use on 
hose lines carrying compressed air, steam or water, and 
may be attached without the use of clamps, straps or special 
fastening tools. The sockets are made of malleable Iron, 
and all other parts of steel, so that a high degree of strength 
and durability is assured. 

Multiple Punching Machine: Bertsch & Co., Cambridge 
City, Ind. The special features of this machine consist of 
the use of a cored section frame, and of the employment of 
a special type of coupling for the gagged punches. The head 
of the machine contains twenty punching units, each of which 
is provided with a gag, so that any number of punches from 
one to twenty can be used at a time. 

Screw Press: Charles Stecher Co., Chicago, 111. A press 
designed especially for testing all kinds of cutting, stamping, 
embossing and forming dies. The slide is fitted with a regu- 
lar press cap instead of a set-screw, and has long guides 
and liberal bearing surfaces. The press will hold tools with 
shanks up to 3 inches in diameter. As its name implies, the 
slide of this press is operated by a screw. 

Friction Clutch Pulley: L. W. Carroll Mfg. Co.. Batavia, 
Ohio. This clutch pulley is of simple and compact con- 
struction, and is equipped with a friction disk of large 
diameter, which affords a firm grip when the clutch is 
engaged. The sleeve which carries the friction disk is 
threaded on the end to receive the clutch dog and fingers, 
thus providing means for making accurate adjustments. 

Shrapnel Shell Spraying Machine: Spray Engineering Co., 
Boston. Mass. A machine developed for use in spraying the 
inside of shrapnel shells or any other work where the surface 
on which the protective coating is to be applied is relatively 
inaccessible. The shells are sprayed with asphaltum paint 
or other non-corrosive material, and the machine applies a 
uniform coating to the shell without wasting any of the 

Cutting-off Machine: Brightman Mfg. Co.. Columbus. Ohio. 
A special t>-po of machine developed for use in cutting off all 
sizes of round vanadium and special alloy steel bars and 
shafting. Means are provided for backing out the tools by 
power after the cut has been completed; and the machine is 
capable of cutting short pieces from both ends of a long bar, 
or of cutting the work up into disks. This cutting-ofl 
machine weighs approximately 11,000 pounds. 

Surface Gage: W. D. Forbes, New London, Conn. A sur- 
face gage of simple construction which can be made to sell 

September, 1915 



at a low price. Rapid vertical adjustment is obtained by 
sliding the supporting arm on the column, and a thumb- 
screw permits the arm to be shifted to any desired position. 
A coarse vertical adjustment may be obtained by tilting the 
supporting arm, and micrometer adjustment of the needle 
is secured by operating a knurled thumb-nut. 

Cylindrical Grinder: Queen City Machine Tool Co., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. The design of this grinder follows lines simi- 
lar to those of the machine which this company has been 
manufacturing. The chief point of difference lies in the fact 
that many parts are made heavier. The present machine was 
primarily designed for performing grinding operations on 
explosive shells, and it is also adapted for any plain cylindri- 
cal, taper or formed grinding which comes within its capacity. 

Drilling Machine: Charles Stecher Co., Chicago, 111. A 
high-speed bench drilling machine, which can either be 
provided with a bench or set up on the work bench, accord- 
ing to the requirements of individual users. The head of 
the drill is stationary, but provided with means of com- 
pensation for wear in the spindle sleeve. The spindle is 
counterbalanced and provided with a drift hole of the usual 
form; it is bored No. 1 Morse taper and runs in bronze 
bushed bearings. 

Belt Shifter: Dearborn Steel & Iron Co., Chicago, 111. A 
belt shifter which eliminates the use of a pole when chang- 
ing the belt from one step of the cone pulley to any other 
desired position. This shifter can be readily attached to a 
machine, and provides for shifting the belt by means of two 
convenient handles. The provision which is made for shift- 
ing the belt by a purely mechanical means, does away with 
the danger of accidents which sometimes occur In the shifting 
of belts with a pole. 

Portable Electric Drill: Standard Electric Tool Co., Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. A portable drill in which the motor is sus- 
pended from a trolley track, making it easy to move the 
tool from one piece of work to another. The motor is for 
use in connection with 110-volt direct current, but special 
motors may be furnished for connection with any voltage up 
to 250. Ball bearings are employed throughout the machine, 
and these bearings are packed with grease and carried in 
dust-proof chambers. 

Boring and Threading Tools: Rigid Tool Holder Co., 149 
Carroll St., S. E., Washington, D. C. This concern is manu- 
facturing three types of tool-holders and a boring-bar, wliich 
have been designed with the view of securing maximum 
rigidity. The boring-bar is held in a yoke which can be 
raised or lowered in order to bring the point of the cutter 
into any desired position. Of the three tool-holders, one 
Is of the adjustable type, one is a single reversible holder, 
and one is a "gooseneck" holder for threading tools. 

Spur Gear Planing Machine: George A. Schipper, Aurora, 
liid. One of the noteworthy features of the design of this 
machine is that a roughing and a finishing cutter are carried 
In the same slide in such a way that tlie tools work alter- 
nately. The cutters are formed so that they may be ground 
all over after hardening. The work spindle is mounted in 
such a way that the maximum rigidity is obtained; and 
there is said to be no tendency for the tool-slide to chatter 
when the machine is working at high speed. This machine 
Is particularly adapted for manufacturing, and is said to 
possess a high capacity for producing accurately finished 
spur gears. 

Thread Milling Machine: A. R. Williams Machinery Co., 
Ltd., 64-66 Front St., W., Toronto, Canada. This machine is 
built by the Holden-Morgan Co.. Ltd., of Toronto; and the 
A. R. Williams Machinery Co. has the sales agency. The 
machine is designed for threading high explosive shells, and 
win produce a perfect thread In the base of a shell in ap- 
proximately 2% minutes. One maolilne Is re(iuired for re- 
cessing and threading the base of the shell and one machine 
for threading the nose of the shell. The shell is placed 
inside of a revolving spindle, where It is automatically cen- 
tered; and the machine is fitted with an automatic stop 
which comes into action when the thread has been com- 
pleted. The cutter used on this machine Is of such a shape 
that it can be sharpened without changing the form; the 
cutter is designed to mill the top of the thread as well as 
the sides. One operator can run several niaciiines. and it is 
claimed that their operation is so reliable that all risk of 
having shells rejected on account of stripped threads is 

* * • 

The cost of a moderate sized heat-treating department, in- 
cluding a coal fired furnace, five to seven barrels of harden- 
ing oil, one barrel of drawing oil, tanks for holding the oil, 
and a pyrometer, varies from $500 to $600. This equipment 
Is sufficient for ordinary hardening. When ciisehardening Is 
roqulrod, casehnrdenlng boxes and carbonizing compound 
must bo added to the equipment mentioned, and a second 
furnace is desirable. Hence, the equipment for caseharden- 
tng costs more than that required for regular hardening. 

To provide a reliable method of reading gas, electric, and 
water meters, in which the possibility of error is eliminated 
and a permanent record is available in case of dispute, the 
Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N. Y., has developed a spe- 
cial camera which is known as the "factograf. Another 
application is In reading the "peak" on demand meters before 
they are reset for the next month, where the application of 
the camera is particularly valuable in that It records with 
photographic accuracy. The meter-reader can not only work 
more accurately with a "factograf" camera than he could by 

Fig. 1. Eas 

Factoffraf" for tfie in recording Reading! of M« 

the old method, but he can also work more rapidly; and 
when his record Is turned In at the office there can be no 
doubt as to its reliability. The reading of a meter Is taken 
by placing the front of the camera against the meter dial and 
pressing down on the exposure lever. This automatically 
turns on the light, opens and closes the shutter, and turns off 
the light. After each exposure, the shutter is automatically 
locked and remains locked until the film for the next exposure 
has been wound into place. The shutter is then automatically 
returned to the "set" position. In this way, the possibility 
of a double exposure Is eliminated; and there can be no 
blanks, because the film cannot be wound off until the expos- 
ure has been made. These results are obtained by having 
the winding reel and shutter Interlocked. 

The camera is shown in Fig. 1, which gives a good Idea of 
its general appearance. It measures 4^4 by 5?4 by 12Vi 
inches and Is made from a selected grade of mahogany which 
Is specially treated to withstand the action of moisture. The 
camera is equipped with an anastigmat lens working at F 
6.3 and a simple automatic shutter. Exposures can be made 
varying from 1/5 to Vi second, according to the light condi- 
tions. The necessary light for the exposure is furnished from 
two four-cell dry batteries which are stored at each side of 
the camera and supply current to four 3.8-volt miniature 
tungsten lamps. The exposure is recorded upon a special 
sensitive emulsion on a paper support, the size of the picture 
being IV2 by 2% inches. The film is supplied in the familiar 
cartridge form and the 
camera may be loaded 
in daylight. Storage 
space for two extra rolls 
of films Is provided In 
the dark chamber of the 
camera so that the ca- 
pacity Is for 225 read- 
ings. There is a small 
drawer in front of the 
camera carrying six 
extra lamps, and the 
camera is equipped with 
a reinforced handle by 
which it is carried; 
by pressing n small but- 
ton located below the 
exposure 1 e v r , the 
lights may be turned on 
to convert the camera 



September. 1915 

into the equivalent of an electric torch for locating meters or 
finding one's way through dark cellars. 

A desk-holder is provided with the camera, equipped with a 
mirror for reversing the readings which are negative. The 
camera may be provided with a card showing the meter read- 
er's name, route number, and the date, which may be placed 
against the front of the camera and photographed to identify 
the record. There appear to be a variety of applications for 
the "factograf" camera in factory use. The first actual appli- 
cation has been made in electric central-stations for photo- 
graphing the meter readings; and there is the same applica- 
tion in reading the meters in the works of gas companies and 
water pumping stations. In machine shops, the camera could 
be used to advantage in recording the readings of gas, water 
and electric meters. 

* * * 


FoT use in the manufacture of all kinds of flat-ware from 
the different metals used in this industry, Arthur Wilzin, 
managing director of the E. W. Bliss Co.'s branch in Paris, 
has developed an improved process which is described in the 
following article. The principal merits of this process are 
that not more than 10 per cent of the material is wasted in 
the form of scrap, that imperfections in the material are 

the profiling dies used in this machine. Fig. 7 shows the 
die used for cutting up the blanks and for preparing the ends 
for subsequent treatment, and Fig. 8 shows the tools used 
for performing the "bowl spreading" operation on stioons. 
These tools will be referred to in detail in subsequent para- 

Strip Cutting and "Packag-e" Assemblingr 

The material used is ribbon stock, and the first step con- 
sists of cutting this material up into strips of suitable length. 
For this purpose, a standard form of power press is employed 
which is equipped with a cutting-ofi attachment that provides 
for the production of all sizes of strips. In most cases, the 
strips contain sufficient metal to produce two blanks, but in 
the case of very small spoons, the strips are made large 
enough to produce four blanks. The rate of production Is 
from 50 to 60 strips per minute, one strip being cut off at 
each operation. The strips are next assembled into pack- 
ages as shown at the top of each illustration, in Figs. 1 to 3, 
each package containing from 8 to 18 strips, according to the 
gage of metal being used. Each package contains sufficient 
metal to produce from 16 to 48 blanks, i. e., 8 to 18 two-blank 
strips or 12 four-blank strips. 

The Profiling- Operation 

The packages of strips are next subjected to a profiling 
operation In a Wilzin quadruple expansion press; one of these 
presses is shown in Fig. 4, and Fig. 5 shows a close view of 

Figs. 1 to 3. Successive Steps involved in the Manufacture of Spoons, 

remedied by the process so that very few defective parts are 
produced, and that unskilled labor can be utilized. It will thus 
be evident that this process provides for making a material 
reduction in the cost of manufacture. The first patents were 
issued in France in 1909, and since that time a series of 
special presses, tools and dies has been developed in the 
factory of the E. W. Bliss Co., St. Ouen, France, under the 
personal direction of Mr. Wilzin. Foreign patents have been 
obtained and the Wilzin Process Corporation, 60 Wall St., 
New York City, has recently been organized for the purpose of 
licensing American flat-ware manufacturers to operate under 
the Wilzin patents. That this process has been developed to 
a point where it is entirely ready for practical application is 
attested to by the fact that a number of the leading European 
manufacturers are now using it. The process is applicable 
in the manufacture of all styles and patterns of flat-ware, 
regardless of the base metal that is used. 

The successive steps involved in this process and the man- 
ner in which they are conducted are well shown by the ac- 
companying Illustrations. Figs. 1 to 3 show different classes 
of flat-ware in the successive steps through which the work 
passes before reaching completion. Figs. 4 and 5 show the 
Wilzin quadruple expansion profiling press, and Fig. 6 sliows 

Fish Knives, and Forks by the Wilzin Process for Flat-ware Hanufacture 

the working mechanism with the die-holder drawn forward 
to the position which it occupies while changing the tools. 
The press applies a pressure of from 150 to 250 tons on all 
sides of the material, and two or three profiling operations 
are required, according to the character of the work. It will 
be seen from Fig. 5 that two sets of dies are employed in the 
profiling press. At each side of the metal there is a flat die 
which serves to restrain the material from flowing sidewise, 
and the same flat dies can be used for all classes of work. 
The profiling dies are shown in place in Fig. 5, and a detailed 
view of different types of these dies is presented In Fig. 6. 
The profiling dies act on the edges of the strips and cause 
the metal to flow longitudinally without change of thickness, 
the condition of the work after successive profiling operations 
being shown in Figs. 1 to 3 for different examples of flat-ware. 
It will be evident from the illustrations that the profiling 
dies are of very simple construction so that they are Inex- 
pensive to make, and one set of tools has been found to have 
a capacity for producing over 1,000,000 pieces. The time re- 
quired for changing and setting up the profiling tools is less 
than two minutes, their correct longitudinal and lateral po- 
sitions being determined without having to make careful meas- 
urements. Knii blocks center the punches longitudinally and 

September, 1915 



the lateral position is determined by side pressure blocks, 
so that the only adjustments required are for height and 
back gage. The Wilzin quadruple expansion profiling press 
was especially designed for this work, and it embodies 
well-known features of E. W. Bliss power presses, which insure 
rapid and reliable operation. Each press is equipped with 
a pressure indicator which records the pressure for each 
stroke of the press and enables the operator to set the 
plunger adjustment without danger of injury to the dies and 
without resorting to any cut-and-try methods. It was men- 
tioned in the introductory paragraph that one of the features 
of this process consists of overcoming imperfections in the 
material, so that no detective pieces are produced. This 
is due to the high pressure applied to the surface of 
the metal ttom all four sides, which results in improving its 
structural qualities, so that slight flaws are closed up. This 
feature stands out in marked contrast to the results obtained 
by other methods, 
where the working of 
the metal serves to ac- 
centuate any defects 
in the material. 

The number of pro- 
filing operations that 
are necessary differs 
with the character of 
the work. For spoons 
of all sizes two opera- 
tions are required, 
with one change of 
profiling dies. For 
forks of all sizes, 
three profiling opera- 
tions are required 
with two changes of 
dies. Other articles 
need two or three pro- 
filing operations, ac- 
cording to the size 
and shape of the work. 
All the profiling oper- 
ations are performed 
on the cold metal with 
the exception of 
blanks for the larger 
sizes of tablespoons, in 
which case the work 
requires one annealing 
treatment. The capac- 
ity of the profiling 
press is for seven to 
ten operations per 
minute and 16 to 4S 
blanks are produced 
at each operation. 

Fig. 4 

Parting- the Blanks 

The strips of metal, as they leave the profiling press, are 
next cut into individual blanks in a press fitted with a 
parting tool. For spoons, the entire package of strips is 
parted in one or two operations, according to the size of 
the spoons, one operation being employed for each package 
of two-blank strips, and two operations for each package 
of four-blank strips. Twenty operations are performed 
per minute; sixteen to thirty-six blanks are cut oft 
per operation on the two-blank packages, and twenty-four 
blanks per operation from the tour-blank packages. For 
forks of all sizes, the strips are parted separately with the 
combination parting and end-preparation die shown in Fig. 7. 
Twenty operations are performed per minute and two blanks 
are produced at each operation. 

End Preparation 

The individual blanks are next submitted to the action 
of end-preparation dies, one of which is shown in Fig. 8; 
these are fitted to presses of suitable capacity according to 

the size of the blanks. This operation completes the shaping 
and grading of the blank with the exception of the stem. 
The end-preparation dies shown in Fig. 8 are for use on spoon 
blanks; the lower tool is a hardened tungsten steel block with 
its working surfaces absolutely straight, so that it is easily 
ground. This tool may be employed for all shapes and sizes 
of bowls, the contour of which is determined by the edge 
confining pieces that are simple to make and easy to place 
in the gaging pieces, which are standard for all sizes of 
spoons. The exact grading of the bowl is secured by the 
action of surface punches. It will be understood, of course, 
that by convexing their surfaces, the bowls are graded to 
secure the desired distribution of the metal; i. e.. thin In the 
center and increasing gradually in thickness toward the edge. 
By hollowing out the punches at the base, it is an easy matter 
to accumulate any amount of metal required for the relief of 
flowered or figured designs. For spoons and similar articles, 

two operations are re- 
quircd with one 
change of dies, while 
for forks only one op- 
eration is required. 
For spoons, the rate 
of production Is twen- 
ty operations per min- 
ute and one blank i-; 
produced at each op- 
rration; the rate of 
liroduction is the 
.'^ame for forks. 

Upsettlnu. Flat Pollsh- 

Inu-. Embossing. Trtm- 

min^r and Final 


The stems of all 
blanks are next sub- 
mitted to the action 
of a simple stem-up- 
setting die which is 
fitted in a flywheel 
press of standard de- 
sign. The rate of pro- 
luction is twenty op- 
• rations per minute, 
and one blank is pro- 
duced at each opera- 
tion. After this work 
iias been completed, 
I lie flat blanks are 
next polished on a cot- 
ton buff. This opera- 
tion is generally done 
by hand, and the out- 
put depends largely 
upon the experience 
(ii tile oper.iiiir. In some cases, an automatic polishing ma- 
chine is used, which greatly increases the rate of production. 
The blanks produced by the Wilzin process have an even 
surface, due to the high pressure to which the metal Is sub- 
jected and, as a result, very little polishing is required. The 
blanks are then ready for the final stamping and embossing 
operations tor which one-piece embossing dies are used in 
E. W. Bliss embossing presses especially designed for use In 
the manufacture of flat-ware. The rate of production is from 
eight to twelve operations per minute, depending upon the 
size of the pieces, and one piece is produced for each opera- 
tion. The embossed pieces have a slight "flash" around the 
entire edge, which is removed by a suitable size of press 
fitted with a simple trimming die. The amount of scrap 
metal produced in this way never exceeds 10 per cent. The 
rate of production is twenty operations per minute, one piece 
being produced at each operation. The final polishing opera- 
tion consists of smoothing and rounding the edges of the work 
after the flash has been removed, and of giving the surfaces 



September, 1915 


A Good Machine for Cutting Both 
Spur and Bevel Gears 

That's the type of a gear cutting machins tha'. is a good investment for the small shop or 
the shop using both spur and bevel gears, but not enough of each kind to make it worth 
while installing machines to handle each type. Again it is a productive and economical 
machine for turning out bevel gears on a large scale. For roughing operations on b6vel 
gears it has the necessary power and sturdiness to remove metal at a maximum rate. In 
general design the machine is typical of the efficiency and has features similar to those 
of the spur gear machines in our line. Like them it has a powerful single pulley drive 
adapting it well to the application of a motor drive. The cutter carriage on the 

B. & S. No. 13 Automatic 

Gear Cutting Machine 

is adjustable to any angle up to 90 
degrees. An arc graduated to half 
degrees indicates the angle of eleva- 
tion. Once set the carriage can be 
rigidly clamped in position. 

Like all machines in the line, particu- 
lar attention has been given, in the 
design of the indexing mechanism, to 
insure a high degree of accuracy in' 
spacing the gear teeth. This mechan- 
ism operates at a constant high speed 
independent of the cutter slide and 
provision is made so that the locking 
disk controlling the mechanism will 
take more than one turn, thus reliev- 
ing it of the strains incident to index- 
ing for small numbers of teeth. The 
index wheel is large in proportion to 
the work and is cut with extreme 
care on special precision machinerj'. 

The cutter spindle has a smooth and powerful drive. A balance wheel on the end of the 
spindle helps maintain a constant speed for the cutter, thus preventing chatter and uneven 
cutting action. The feeding mechanism for the cutter slide is disengaged while indexing 
and only resumes operation after indexing is completed. 

The general proportions of the machine are such as to guarantee years of continuous good 
service. All bearings are of liberal proportions and are finished with extreme care to 
insure accuracy and true alignment. Why not write for descriptive circular and look 
further into the possibilities of a productive machine that will handle your spur and bevel 
gear cutting efficiently and economically? 

Brovrn & Sharpe Manufacturing Co. 

OFFICES: 20 Vescy St.. New York, N. Y. ; 654 The Bourse, Phlladelphts, Pn.; 826030 Washington Blvd., Chlcaeo. 111.; 305 Chamber of Commerce Bld«., 
BoolLstiT. N. y.; Itoom 410, University Block. Syracust, N. Y. 

aEPBESENTATIVESt Balrd Machinery Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., Eric. Pa.: Carey Machinery & Supply Co., Baltimore. Md.: E. A. KInsey Co.. Cincinnati. O.. 
Indianapolis, Iiul.: Poclflc Tool & Supply Co.. San Francisco, Cal.: Strong. Carlisle A Hammond Co.. Cleveland. O.. Detroit, Mich.; Colcord-Wrlght Machinery 
& Supply Co., St. Louis, Mo.; Perlne Machinery Co., Seattle, Wash.; Portland Machinery Co., Portland, Ore. 


September, 1915 



A Good Machine for Making Parts 
From Bar Stock in Small Lots 

In many shops there is a good deal of work, such as screws, studs, bolts, nuts, small machine 
parts, etc., made from bar stock, that comes in lots too small to make it worth while setting 
up on an automatic screw machine. Some of the jobs, unless handled on an efficient ma- 
chine, would take longer to set up than to finish. To do this work economically a machine 
is necessary that can be quickly set up and rapidly operated. Another point — short jobs 
will not warrant the expensive special tooling that is often required when a job is long 
enough for an automatic machine, so it is necessary to provide a machine that will handle 
the work with simple tool equipment. Meeting all these requirements the 

B. & S. No. 4 Wire 

Feed Screw Machine 

effectively supplements a group of 
automatic screw machines and makes 
a valuable addition to the equipment 
in the shop for handling work that 
comes mainly in small lots. 

Our Automatic Chuck, an exclusive 
Brown & Sharpe feature, saves much 
time in setting up. It operates as 
quickly as a spring collet, by a single 
lever, but has the added advantage of 
being self-contained and universal in 
range. It is adjustable for any size 
of stock within its capacity by simply 
turning with a wrench like a uni- 
versal chuck. There is no hunting 
around for loose parts every time a 
job is set up. A few turns of a 
wrench and the chuck is set. Any 
standard shape of stock can be 
handled without special jaws. 

The Automatic Roller Feed, another important feature, is operated in conjunction with the 
chuck by the same lever. Like the Automatic Chuck it is universal in range and is ver>' 
quickly adjusted. It feeds to any length without adjustment, and being located directly 
behind the chuck, will feed practically to the end of the bar. 

The turret is indexed each time it is returned and when brought into working position it 
is automatically locked and clamped, thus insuring proper alignment at all times. Eight 
changes in feed for the turret slide are available for each spindle speed. This feed is 
driven direct from the spindle by sprocket and chain. Many other features are outlined in 
detail in our descriptive literature. Send for it. 

Providence^ Rhode Island, U. S. A. 

CANADIAN: Tlio Cima.lian Falrbmk»-Mor»e Co.. Ltd., Montreal, Toronto. Winnipeg, CilKar.T. VinconTer. SI. John. 

FOBEION: liiuk a llKkiuan. Ltd., London, Birmtn(taani. Mancheater. SholBeld, GlaaKow. G. F. Kreturhnirr A Co.. Frankfurt a.M.. Gennanr: V. Ixiw»ner. 
Oopenbagen, Denmark. Stockholm, Sweden, Ohrlatlania, Norway; Sehuchardt * Sohutte, Petroitrad. Runia: Fenwlck Frrrea * Co., Parla. France; LI»fJ, 
Beljlum; Turin. Italy; Zurich. Swltierland; Barcelona. Spain; F. W, Home Co., Toklo, Japan; U A. ValJ. Melboarae, Aoatralla: F. L. Stronf. ManlU, P. I. 



September, 1915 

of the work the final polish; this is done with a cotton buff, 
without requiring the use of an emery belt. The labor in- 
volved in the performance of the latter operation is materially 
reduced owing to the fact that a high burnish and luster is 
imparted to the worlc by the embossing dies. 
Advantatres of the Wilzln Process 

The advantages of the Wilzin process for the manufacture 
of flat-ware may be briefly summarized as follows: (1) It 
eliminates the cross and grade rolling operations. (2) It 
reduces the applied labor costs of manufacturing the flat 
graded blanks. This saving is due to the low labor cost of 
the press operations, to the possibility of profiling the blanks 
in packages containing from 16 to 48 blanks, and to a 
reduction of the number of annealing treatments that are 
necessary or the complete elimination of annealing. (3) 
Absolutely uniform blanks are produced. (4) The applied 
labor costs of grinding, polishing and buffing are materially 
reduced. (5) The pressure applied to the metal in the pro- 
filing operation improves its structural qualities; and the high 
pressure applied in subsequent operations produces an ex- 
tremely hard burnished surface. (6) The combination of 
the polished blank, the highly burnished embossing die, and 
the slow elastic squeeze of the embossing press, transfers the 
high luster of the embossing die to the surface of the work. 
(7) The amount of material lost in the form of scrap does 
not exceed 10 per cent. (8) The cost of the tools required 
is relatively small, as these are of simple design. 

The Wilzin Process Corporation has acquired the exclusive 
rights to this process of flat-ware manufacture in the United 

Fig. 6. Close View of ProlilinE Tools with Die-holder drawn Forward 

States, and is prepared to grant licenses to flat-ware manu- 
facturers to operate under its patents. The plan is to lease 
the Wilzin quadruple expansion profiling presses and to sell 

Tig. 7. Combiiutt 

the necessary equipment of the E. W. Bliss power presses, 
tools, and dies which are required. The Wilzin Process 
Corporation will act as selling agent in the United States 

Fig. 6. Different Type 

n the WUzin Proc 

Fig. 8. Tools used for performing Bowl Spreading Op< 

for all equipments required In using the Wilzin process, and 
the equipment will be built by the E. W. Bliss Co., Brooklyn, 
X. Y. A service department will be maintained for the regu- 
lar inspection of the quadruple expansion profiling presses, 
and the services of the engineers of the Wilzin Process Cor- 
poration will be available in making estimates of the manu- 
facturing cost of any piece or series of pieces by the Wilzin 
process, and in giving expert advice to licensees. 
« * * 


J. 0. Hobby, Jr., was appointed treasurer of the American 
Locomotive Co., 30 Church St., New York City, at the meet- 
ing of the board of directors held August 11. 

Albert J. Ott, formerly with the Landis Tool Co., is now 
Western representative for the Modern Tool Co., Erie. Pa., 
makers of self-contained grinding machines and precision 
tools, with offices at 32 North Clinton St., Chicago, 111. 

W. S. Burgess has disposed of his interest in the Stoddard- 
Burgess Co., 426 S. Clinton St., Chicago, 111., to E. B. Stoddard, 
who will continue the business. Mr. Burgess has been sales- 
man for eight years with the Imperial-Brass Mfg. Co., and 
is well acquainted with brass foundry and machine-shop 

Fred. H. Moody, mechanical editor of the Canadian Rail- 
way and Marine M'orJd. has joined the Canadian expedition- 
ary force and gone to the front. He has been promoted to 
the rank of captain and is second in command of his com- 
pany. Mr. Moody was formerly associate editor of 

J. F. Richman, formerly factory production manager of the 
Cole Motor Car Co.. Indianapolis, Ind.. has been promoted 
to the position of factory manager of the standardized plant. 
Mr. Richman has been with the Cole Motor Car Co. for about 
three years. His practical knowledge of the gas engine and 
motor car has been an important factor in perfecting the , 
Cole eight-cylinder car. ft 

0. P. Hand has been appointed director of publicity of the] 
liurd High Compression Ring Co.. Rockford. 111., manu- 
facturer of Burd high compression piston rings. Mr. Hand, 
who will assume his new duties at once, comes to Rockford 
after fourteen years" experience as advertising manager for 
the Minneapolis Iron Store Co. and an extended connection 
as editor of a prominent trade journal. 

Howard E. Coffin and Andrew L. Riker. past-presidents of 
the Society of Automobile Engineers, have been selected to 
serve on the civilian advisory board, which will be organized 
by the United States Navy Department in September. Mr. 


September, 1915 




Let the Machine 

Not the Operator U' L 

Do the Heavy Work 

One of the big- features in- 
troduced on our Semi-auto- 
matic Millers several years 
ago was the Power Quick 
Traverse and Return. Now 
you can have it on any 
Plain or Vertical Miller. 

It is entirely divorced from 
the feed mechanism. That 
avoids running the feed-shafts and gears at excessive speeds. 

Most simple to use. Direction the lever is moved indicates di- 
rection the table will travel and the instant the operator's 
hand leaves the lever, the table stops. He can't turn and talk 
politics with Jim Smith and let the table travel on towards 
trouble. He can't engage it when the regular feed is being 
used; no accidents possible that way. He can use it when set- 
ting up, when the machine itself is stopped. 

It is always available, foi^ard 
or reverse, the instant the regu- 
lar feed is tripped. 

It saves all the time and all tlie 
energy the operator formerly 
wasted in moving the table to 
the work, returning it again 
after the cut and moving the 
table back and forward when 
setting up. 

Let us show you how it will 
save money on your work. 





September, 1915 

Riker was the first president of the Society of Automobile 
Engineers, serving in this capacity three terms. Mr. Coffin 
became its president in 1910, and was the prime originator 
of the movement which has resulted in the standardization 
of component materials and parts of automobiles. 


John Parker, for over twenty years in charge of the 
uiilllnK machine designing for the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., 
died July 23, following a brief illness, aged fifty-one years. 
Mr. Parker's whole life was practically devoted to the 
mechanical field, and many successful developments in the 
design and construction of machine tools are largely due 
to his efforts. His first employment, covering four years, 
was in the drafting department of the Corliss Steam Engine 
Co., Providence, R. I. Leaving this company, he went to 
the Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co. in 1S91; and in 1893 took active 
charge of the milling machine designing. In connection with 
this position he also held that of assistant chief draftsman, 
from 1895 to 1902, when the volume of work on milling ma- 
chines at this time became so great that it required almost 
exclusive attention. As assistant chief draftsman he de- 
veloped good executive ability in putting work through 
correctly and efficiently, and this stood him in well in after 
years. During liis service Mr. Parker gained a wide and valu- 
able experience, for he was called upon at different times 

to assist in the designing of machines for almost every line of 
work carried on by the company. Many patents were 
granted him, chiefly in connection nith his work on milling 
machines. Few men have devoted more careful study and 
given greater effort to develop these machines than Mr. 
Parker. Largely due to his credit stands the modern con- 
stant-speed drive machine with speeds and feeds inde- 
pendent. He was a member of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, before which body he presented and 
discussed several papers. He also contributed some im- 
portant articles to the technical press on milling machines 
and other subjects. Mr. Parker's quiet disposition won him 
many friends, and his firm, yet kind and liberal personality 
had a strong influence on the men who worked under his di- 
rection. His methods were such as tended to develop the 
full ability of men, by placing on them as great respon- 
sibility as possible; at the same time he always stood ready 
to give them the benefit of his wide experience. His clear 
logical manner of solving problems and his patience and 
willingness to explain at length those points which often 
troubled his men will long be remembered. In his dealing 
with the men in both the drafting department and the shop 
he seldom made a ruling or gave an order that he could not 
consistently follow himself. Mr. Parker had a remarkable 
capacity for details, and his ability to answer correctly and 
off-hand many questions connected with his work was often 
a great help to those working with him. He is survived by 
his widow, a son, a daughter, five sisters and two brothers. 


September V-10. — Twenty-third iiimual convention 
of the TravellnB Engineers' Association. Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago, 111. W. O. Thompson, secre- 
tor.v. East Buffalo, X. T. 

September 9-11 Swedish engineering convention 

In the United States; meeting In Chicago. Secre- 
tary, Baatcrn organljiatlon committee, E. Oberg. 
!(« 08th St.., N. T.; secretary Western 
organization committee. C. G. Axell. 601 City HaU 
Square Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

September SS-October 2.— Annual exhibit of the 
Koundry & Machine Exhibition Co.. Atlantic City, 
N. .1.. In ron.|un<-tion with the American Foundry- 
men's Association convention. Foundry & Machine 
E.thlbltlon Co.. 191!) W. Madison St., Chicago. 111. 

September 27-October 1.— Annual convention of 

the An 

Association, Atlantic 

City, N. 1. 


Swedisli Engineering Convention in the United 
States. Program of the convention to be held at 
the r,aSallc Hotel. Chicago, Septenilier 9, 10 and 
11. 191.'>. containing useful Information and out- 
lining the program, which consists of two engin- 
eering sessions with tour papers, as well as visits 
to a number of industrial works in and around 
Chicago, Including the Gary Steel Works, the Pull- 
man Co. Works, the Fiske St. Power Station, the 
Western Electric Co.. and the Union Stock Yards. 
C. G. AxeU, lloom 619. City Hall Square Bldg., 
Chicago, in.. Is the secretary of tlie convention. 
A party of engineers from the Bast will leave 
New York City September 0. stopping over at 
Schenectady and Niagara Falls, and visiting In- 
dustrial plants at these iMlnts. 


An Investigation of Iowa Firo-Clays. By Milton F. 
Beocher. ll."> piigos. by 9 inches. Bulletin 
No. 40. pulilLslHxi by the Engineering Experi- 
ment Station, iowa Stage College of Agricul- 
ture and .Mechanic Arts, Ames, lown. 
Wind Stresses in the Steel Frames of Office Build- 
ings, By W. M. Wilson and O. A. Maney. 
88 pages, « by 9 inches. 3'i charts and tables. 
Published by the Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion, rnlversltv of Illinois, TJrbana. lU. 
This is Bulletin No. 80 of the Engineering Ex- 
periment Station of the University of Illinois, and 
contains a description of an accurate method used 
for determining wind stresses. Copies of the bul- 
letin may be obtained free of charge by applica- 
tion to C. R. Richards, acting director of the 
Engineering Experiment Station. University of Illi- 
nois, Urbana. 111. 

Directory of Piston King Sites, Applicable to auto- 
mobiles, uiotoreycles. cycle cars, trucks, trac- 
tors and engines. Published by Burd High 
Compression Illng Co., Uockford, HI. Price, 50 
This little book gives Information intended for 
the owner and repair man of automobiles, motor- 
cycles, etc., as well as for the dealer. It speci- 
lies the number of rings per piston and the number 
of cylinders, as well as the of the rings of a 
great number of automobiles and motorcycles, 
trucks, etc. Those piston rings are supplied by 
the Burd High Compression Ring Co. The book 
contains Instructions for fitting rings into the 
piston groove, lifting cylinders, etc. 
Combustion and Smokeless Furnace, By Joseph W. 
Hays, lis pages. 6 by 9 inches. Illustrated. 
Published by Combustion Appliances Co., Rogers 
Park, Chicago, lU. Price, $2. 
The Importance of smokeless combustion Is ap- 
preciated by all who have given any attention to 
elimination of smoke, and the elimination of smoke 
In yrreat cities means great saving of property 

s[iolled by soot, the general promotion of personal 
comfort, etc. The damage caused by smoking 
chimneys In Chicago alone Is estimated by one 
writer to be {40,000.000 annually. This Is the 
second edition of the book that was first pub- 
lished in 1906. It has been revised and brought 
up to date, and treats of heat and combustion, 
combustion and the boiler furnace, combustion and 
the steam boiler, the chimney evil, smokeless fur- 
naces In general, mechanical stokers and hand-flred 

Mathematics for Uachinists, By R. W. Bumbam. 

220 pages, 5 by 7 inches. 175 illustrations. 

Publlshe<l by John Wiley & Sons, New York 

City. Price, $1.25. 
This is one of the volumes in the WUey Tech- 
nical Series for Vocational and Industrial Schools, 
and has been prepared especially for the use of 
trade schools and for home study. Beginning with 
fractions, the book alms to give, in an elementary 
form, an explanation of tbe calculations most fre- 
(luently met with in machine shop work. The 
treatment has been made a.s simple as possible. 
An attempt has been made to show the steps In a 
calculation in logical order, find it is believed that 
tlie material presented In this book and the method 
of treatment will be found well adapted for trade 
school e^lucation. The book contains chapters on 
common fractions, decimal fractions, percentage, 
blueprints, measurements, powers of number«, 
square root, lathe work, threads and thread cut- 
ting, simple machines, work, power, ratio, gear 
calculations, milling machine indexing, volume and 
weight, shop trigonometry, and business organi- 

Electrical Measurements and Meter Testing, By 
David Penn Moreton. 328 pages. 4 by 6^ 
Inches. 191 Illustrations. Published by Frede- 
rick J. Drake & Co.. Chicago, III. Price. 
bound In cloth, $1. 
This work was prepared to meet the needs of 
practical men desiring to obtain a working knowl- 
edge 01 electricity as applied to electrical measure- 
ments and meter testing, but who arc unable to 
take a complete course In electrical engineering. 
The author is assistant professor of mechanical 
engineering. Armour Institute of Technology. Chi- 
cago, and has prepared the work in plain language 
to meet the needs of this class. It treats of the 
direct-current circuit, magnetism, electromagnetlsm 
and electromagnetic Induction, inductance and its 
measurement, capaclt.v and Its measurement, alter- 
nating-current circuit, calculation and measure- 
ment of resistance, measurement of current and 
pressure, construction and operation of wattmeters. 
construction and operation of watt-hour meters, 
methods of distributing energy, calibration of gal- 
vanometers, ammeters, voltmeters and wattmeters, 
testing watt-hour meters and special indicating 
and recording Instruments. The work Is one that 
should be found generally satisfactory to those 
who wish to get, a working knowledge of electrical 
measurements In the simplest terms. 
Modern Plumbing Illustrated, By R. M. Statlinck. 
407 pages, 7 by lOVj Inches, GS full-page Illus- 
trations. Publlsbe<l by Norman W. Hciiley A 
.Son, New York City. Price, J4. 
This Is a comi>rehonslvo and tiioroughly practical 
work on the mcKlem and most approvt^l metiiods 
of plumbing construction. Intended especially for 
plumbers, architects and builders, as well as for 
trade classes in plumbing. It should be useful 
also for property owners, boards of health, and 
plumbing Inspectors. Great changes have taken 
place during the last dtM-ade or two Ip relation to 
plumbing, and in bringing out the thlnl edition of 
this book the rwiuired revisions to bring the work 
up to date have, therefore, been made. The work 
is designed to cover the entire add of plumbing 
as far as possible, and the subjects considered 
cover a variety of lines of work, including fixture 
work In detail, the construction of the drainage 
and vent systems In detail, and complete plumbing 
systems of buildings of various kinds. While the 

work is intended to cover Bubje<-ts pertaining to 
drainage alone, the subject of water supply la 
In many instances clottely associated with the 
drainage problem, and the author has therefore 
found It atlvisahle. in many instances, to take op 
the subject of water supply. It woald be impos- 
sible to give an idea of the contents of the book 
In a brief review of this kind, as each of me 
fifty-eight full-page Illustrations Is accompanied by 
a chapter of descriptive matter, every one of w-hlch 
doals w-lth some particular phase of plumbing. The 
work gives evidence of the fact that the author baa 
endeavored to convey the information in as com- 
plete and concise a manner as possible, making 
it at the same time entirely clear and conipreheti- 
sible. Unnecessary and obsolete matter has been 
excluded In the new edition, and os far as possible 
the work has been kept up to date. 


Philadelphia. Pa. Catalo^e 
nd variable speed cbaoges. 

Reed & Prince Mlg. Co., Worcester. Mass. Cata- 
logue of taps, micrometer calipers and screw gages. 

Automatic Drill Chuck Corporation. Detroit. Mtdi. 
rirciilar of "Quictite" full automatic chucks for 
^Irillinp machines. 

Eub-on Uf g. Co. , Inc. . Uray ton St . . Buffalo. 
N. Y. Circular on a combinatioD jack, auto-tuni 
Jacl:. and towing truck for garage use and for 
towing In crippled cars. 

Templeton, Ke'nly ft Co., Ltd.» 1020 S. Central 
Ave.. Chicago. lU. Bulletin 115 describing -Slm- 
piex" jacks for steam and electric railroads, auto- 
mobiles, and general purposes. 

D & W Fuse Co., ProTidence. R. I. Booklet of 
I> & W enclosed fuses, tllustratinf; and describing 
construction, and listing fuses from 30 amperes 
to 1000 amperes capacity. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey Cltj. N. J. 
Booklet about graphite brushes for commutators 
of electric motors and generators. The lKX)kIet 
ilescribes how the characteristic lubricating quali* 
ties of graphite reduce commutator troubles to a 

National Machinery Co., Tiffin. Ohio. Folder re- 
lating to "Tapping Nuts 'Square' on the National 
Automatic i Bent Tap) Nut Tapper". The folder 
i-ontains Illustrations showing clearly the action 
of the machine in tapping nuts. 

Canton Foundry ft Hachine Co., Canton. Ohio. 
Catalogue of alligator shears of the stationary and 
lM>r table types and the low-knlfe and blgh-knlfe 
types. The heaviest shear has a capacity of fonr- 
inch square bars In soft machinery ateel or iron. 

Offset Tool Co., Bridgeport. Conn. Circular of an 
offset drilling machine attachment for drilling, 
reaming. countertwrlng. countersinking, hollow- 
milling, etc., under le<lges and in other plaees 
inaccessible to the ordinary drilling machine 

Ellsworth Haring, IHllS Liberty St.. New York 
City. Catalogue of reidstance metals. Ignltioo 
metal, spark-plug wire, nickel sheets and wire, 
nickel alloys, music wire, etc. The catalogue con- 
tains tables giving electrical properties of the 
resistaniX" metals listed. 

Stow Kfg. Co., JBlnghaniton. N. Y. Bulletin 4O0. 
Illustrating and describing 9ome of the portable 
tools made by the company, including portable 
drills, grinders, screwdrivers, etc., both- belt- and 
motor-driven, as well as flexible shaft center grind- 
ers, drills, oiuery grinders, etc. 

Foote Bros. Gear ft Machine Co., 210-:^^ N. 
("arnMiter St.. Chicago. 111. Catalogue Illustrating 
and describing the Foote-Strlte transmission, adap- 
table to practically any tyi>e of tractor. Thia ia 
a new departure in the gear line of the company, 
and is just being placed on the market. 

September, 1915 



The Efficiency Engineer is Abroad in the Land 

but there are efficient and inefficient efficiency 
engineers (as v^eW as machines). Some efficiency 
engineers figure that any machine vy/'ith certain 
speeds and feeds v/iU. produce a certain amount 
of worK, BUT if the OPERATOR must use any 
part of his mental energy looKing for possible mis- 
haps, the efficiency is just that much impaired. 








Is Automatically SAFE 

Lucas Machine Tool Co., 


Cleveland, 0., U.S.A. 



September, 1915 

New Departure Mfg. Co., lirlstol, Conn. Bulle- 
tin 30 ■Hall ricariUBB 111 Manual Training School 
I.alhc' Work"; 40. •ChuiiKenpeed Gearing for 
ll.avyduty .Metal-working .Maehlnery"; 41, MU- 
.•illaniKiUK Two-liearlng Mounllngx"; 42, "Ball- 
iH-arlng Splnille for SenHltlve UrlU I're«»". 

Shepard Electric Crane Ic Hoi«t Co., Montour 
rails. X. Y. Bulletin 50«. llluslratlng a variety 
of eleclrle hoist types, all diara'terlzi^d by pro- 
vision for dirt exclusion, bath lubrication and P"' . 

ent alignment. The holats lllu«trate<l arc built |„„„,;„j.,gt. 7,„,„p,;' l,„l„need pumps; doubb-suctlon 

nultl-Ktage pumps; pumps for boiler fettling 

apacltlCB ranging from 1 to 12% 'o"*- 

^entlnl material. The size Is alwut 4 by 7 Indies, 
uuiklng It handy tor desk use and reference. 

Lea-Courtenay Co., Newark. .V. J. Calalogue 
II-'J on centrifugal pumps, llluatratlnK and de 
scribing the pumps manufactured by the company 
The book Is divided Into a number < 
covering gciienil types of centrifugal puini»«, in- 
dlcallng wlK-re each type Is used; necessity of an 
elllclent testing plant; lusi)ectlon of parts; detaibi 
of pump de 
for lo 

heads; single 

Crucible Steel Co. 
Oatnloguc of "Hex" 

J E. Snyder & Son, Worcestt . . 

,Bons and Hats. The catalogue ,^^-,.-^'f J,„ „, aiming machines. Illustrating and August 
L-stlons for forging, grinding ;,";;"r||,,„g '„,|; ,„„ u,,,." of Snyder upright drilling 

of America, Pittsburg, Pa. ,i,.„i multlslaKe pumps; undei 
hlgh-HpcMl steel. gU-log the ^„,i |,ortable sluklng pumps 
Hlzes In which t:hls <iuallty of steel Is nind( 
rounds, squares, octagons and Hats. The catalogue 
also contains Hugge 
hardening and annealing "Hex" high-speed steel 

Sto.ndard Pressed Steel Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
IU)oklet cntltli^l "Data on Safety and EHlclcncy In 
power Transmitting Alliances, Catalogue No. 2". 
This booklet contains much valuable Information 

for millwrights ond othera concenTOd with the 

pr(>l>leniB of j>ower transmission in slioiis, mills and ferent types and sizes are illusi 
ractoriea. - and. In addition, drill chuck 

Premier Maoliinory Co,, .Milwaukee Wl.s. Circu- 
jiir of tlic "rlercules" combined milling machine. 
Internal and external keyseater and gear cutter. 
I'lie Illustrations show how adaptable this little ma- 


11 r 

teui Is also being InsUlled. together wllb consld 
erahle additional e<)nl|imeut. 

Fox Machine Co., 641 Front Ave.. N. W.. Grand 

Itailds Mich., manufacturer of milling machines 

and multlple-splndle drills, coofeniplates removing 

banters fom '''"•"i Uaplds to the southern part of the 

tcted. and a large foundry will also be con- 
rucled. The concern, at the present time. 1» 
s'tag'e working twenty-three hours a day. 

Clipper Belt Lacer Co., lO-JO Front Ave., Grand 

Itaplds, Mich., is erecting a large —■•'•— - ••- 

factory which 



pplng machines. The catalogue comprises 

bout lltly pages and Is arranged with the lUus- 
ration of a drilling machine on the left-hand page 
nd a brief description and general dimensions on 
be right-linnd page, making the catalogue very 

...,v, n. for reference. In all. twenty-three dif- 

itfKl and desorlbed president: 
and drill sockets trea 

additloD to iU 

..^ _ ..111 greatly Increase the capacity. 

K<xite president of the company, recently re- 
led from a buslneea trip abroad which resulted 
many large orders. During the early part of 
large order was booked for 14 tons 
belt lacings and another for Tt tons. 
Ciico Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati. Ohio, haf 
purchased the Von Wyck Machine Tool Co. at 
Elmore St. and C. H. & I). R. «-. Cincinnati, and 
will make a nnmber of Imiirovements In the 
building and equipment. The odlcers are: H. C. 
Busch. president; James I. Stephenson, vice 
A. Sebastlanl. secretary and 
HortoTi. general manager. 

lid sleeves for Morse taper shank drilU are listed. 

Webster 4 Porka Tool Co., Springfield. Oliio. 
tbe Kaurotb Machine & Tool Co.. Toledo. Ohio. Uav 

types 15, L, and C. 

chine tietall these fans, sbowing the 

to a large 
sliop and how It ct 

ijulring jiortabllity. .. 

Alfred Box tc Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Bulletin h"".''.'.'".f..A'i^^'^';?;. ■!"» "l\Jl"i 
of the Box wire rope hand crane, type B2U: 
letln of the Box Jib crane, type AFC; bulletin 
or electric traveling and Jib cranes, 
with numerous examples of Instaliat 
luilictlu 1200 of monorail hoist types. Illustrated 
with examples of installations. 

Lewis T. Kline, Alpena. Mich. Catalogue of Booklet 
excelsior and wood-turning machinery, illustrating apprent 
machines for making excelsior, bal- 
cut-off saws, barkers, 
rs, broom-handle ma- 
nucblnes. bolting saws. 

ustruction by imjiroved 

Jans of halftone niustrations and line engravings, ejjulpment will ">'^f "j;,""^„"'";f„j'^; "hZ nan,; 
rbc type E exhaust fan Is designed especial y for he •->';; ^^^P^^"/ ^orsolW.ied bSslnTs. wlU be 
.„r,,ii nc shnvlnifs. dust and rcfusc. or tor any ano uiaiiuKcuieiii wic 

. heavy material that will not be Injurwl by passing 

SOO tlii-ougli the fan. The types I, and C fans are 

uiustiatcd designed especially for cotton-gin work, but can 

ions- and also be used successfully for exhausting air or 

IS, and very light dust or waste material. 

Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., Providence. R. I. 

litlwl "Apprenticeship", describing the 

of the Brown 


BulUtd Mkchine Tool Co., Bridgeport. Conn., has 
granti-il an eight-hour day without reduction of 
wages to its employes. The plant will be roa 
twentv-four hours a day In three shifts of eight 
hours each. The working hours of the Bmt shift 
will be from 7 A. M. to 3 P. M.. the second shift 
starting at 3 P. M. and finishing at 11 P. 

and describing 
Ing presses, wood splitte 
knife grinders, spur gnnde 
sjwol machines, plug 

„i ii>i ..„.«., ». .... — -■-" ,|,,r] j,|,i(, ^.111 be a balancing shift to keep tbe 
with tbe pun.ose of giving ;.",X„'"J^p„tments caught up and their produc 


!. the learning of 
Brown & Sharpe '1™ uniform, 
trance requirements " " 

slitting saws, and woo<l-turnlng machinery In 

Mott Sand Blast Mfg. Co., 1157 E. lS8th St., 
New York City. Four circulars relating to nia- 
chinery and accessories for sandblasting, entitled 
respectively: "Dlre^t-pi-essure Sandblast Machine. 
Hose Type": "Sandblast Tumbling Barrel with 
Hcvolving Table and Cabinet. Type G": "Sandblast 
TumWing Barrel, Type P.V.S., Double"; and 
■■.Mott Saiulblast Accessories". 

Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Co., Carteret, 
N. J. "I'sychronietrlc Tables for Cooling Tower 
Work", being a small handbook for engineers 
which gives dry and wet bulb thermometer read- 
ings, dew* point, humidity and pounds of water 
va[or per thousand cubic feet and per hundred 
pounds of air. Tills is a companion book to the 
company's ''Steam Tables for Condenser 'Work". 

Thermalene Co., Chicago rieights. 111. Booklet 
.iifillcd "The Oxy-Thermalene Method of Welding 
:iiiil Cutting", describing the use of the so-called 
■■tlicriiNilene" gas os a substitute for acetylene gas 
HI autogenous weeding and cutting of metals. 
The booklet illustrates and describes the apparatus 
used in connection with thermalene gas generation 
and the torches, etc., used in ■welding and cutting. 

Cooper Flexible Transmission Co., 8tli Ave. 
and IKth St.. Brooklyn. N. Y. Catalogue lllus- 
and explaining the design of the Cooper 


ShariK- Mfg 
information as to what c<j 
the machinist's trade at 

works, and explaining th,i ,.-....« — .-., --. -- - ^ - m~ ^ i. is.^.. i*« 

the conditions of service, and the lines of ad- its plant and olBces to IVoy. Pa. 

vancement that may follow a successful comple 

tion of an apprentrceshlp. The greatest emphasis 

is placed on the machinist's trade, but. in addl 

tion, apprentices arc trained for drafting work 

patternmaklng. molding, coreniaking. and black 

smithing. The book is profusely ill'- — 

halftone Illustrations showing apprentices at work quarters ^ tne 
at various machines In the shop. The book is 

luable contribution to the literature on appren- Pratt & 'Whitney Co.. 

outline of what Is now being that it has oiiened an otiice and show-room at lo-ie 
Fremont St.. 
formerly man 

Thomas Coupling Co., Warren. Pa., will 
Hces to IVoy, Pa., where a 
hop Is being erected. When completed, 
plant will be up to-date In every particular, 
machinery equipment will consist of new ma- 
chines throughout. The company has heretofore 
molding coremaking. and black- speciallied on the Thomas "Little Giant" coop- 
b^k is^proftisely illustrated with lings '- """hafts, but In the new and enUrg«l 
.1.-.,.. ,.t.„...i„„ „„..™„.ino« «t work quarters the manufacture of a complete trans 
ission line will be undertaken. 

Hartford, Conn. 

ticeship, giving 

in up to-date manufacturing plants 


Ingcrsoll Milling Machine Co., liocktord. 111.. 
has chani.-cil the location of its Detroit. Mich.. 
olllcc from 827 Ford Bldg., to 800-808 Davis Whit- 
ney Bldg. 

W. S. Barston & Co., Inc., '.O Pine St.. New- 
York City, has reorganized its department of con- 
struction" engineering with Arthur M. Porrey, 
formerly with Hlldreth & Co., New York City, in 

an Francisco. Cal. S. G. Eastman. 
:er of the company's Chicago office, 
A large stock of Pratt & Whitney 
hines, small tools and gages will be carried 
for the convenience of Paciflc coast customers. 
The company has also been appointed agent for 
the entire line of the Niles-BementPond Co.'s 
machine tools, cranes, steam hammers, etc. 

Mesta Machine Co., Pittsburg. Pa., is now build- 
ing a complete line of hydraulic and steam hy- 
draulic presses for piercing, drawing and forging. 
Fifteen of these presses were being put through 
the plant in July and August. The company is also 
king accumulators in various 

American Locomotive Co., 30 Church St., Ne^ ^^..jj^ hydraulic systems. One of these 

Y'ork City, announces that at the meeting of the 

lly large 

izc and capacity, having a diameter 

d of directors of the company held August 11, ^j •.,„ inches and a stroke of 23 feet. It will deli 


al Joint, shock-absorbing shaft, and flexible ^ .( 
g. The design of the Cooper universal Joint ,„„ 

Kempsmith Mfg. 

appointed treasurer of th 

pressure of 2500 pounds per 


is based on a principle claimed 
irregularities in speed during tbe 
sliaft — Irregularities wbicli other 
are subjected to. 

Walker M. Levett Co., 10th Ave. and SGth St., 
New York City. Circular of "Magnallte" pistons 
for Internal combustion engines. Mngnalite pis- 
tons weigh one-third as much as cast-iron pistons 
of the same dimensions; thus their inertia eflfcct 
Is much less than that of cost-iron pistons 
claim Is made that the thermal conduct! 
inagnnllte Is 14 to 1 as compared with ca 
which has the effect of cooling the engli 
promoting lubrication. 

Kerr Turbine Co., WellsviUe, N. T. Bulletin 
.%4 on "Kcononiy" turbo-alternators and generators, 
covering tlie advantages of turbine-driven genera- 
tors in botli large and small units, and describing 
and illustrating, by halftones and line engravings, 
n number of Installations of these turho-altei-nators 
and generators. An interesting cliart showing rein- manufact 

tlve space occupied by "Economy" turbines as ' " 

coiniiared with hlgb-spee<l reciprocating engines or 
tandem compound rtM?lprocatlng engines Is included. 
Foxlioro Co., Foxboro. Mass. Catalogue covering 
Instninicnts made by tlie company. 'These Instru- 
ments iiH-iude tachometers; recording hygrometers; 
"Durand" radial plantineters; electric pyromoters: 
meclunilcal and electrical tlnie-rworders: recording 
pressure and vacuum gages: siphon and mercury 
gages; revolution countere; therniograplis: and va- 
rious other precision Instruments. The Foxlioro In- 
struments are manufactured by the Fo.xhoro Co.. 
but at ttie present time are sold by the Industrial 
Instrument Co., a subsidiary company. 

Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co., Milwaukee. Wis. 
Ix^ose-leaf catalogue relating to electric controlling 
devices. The catalogue covers both direct and al- 
ternating current motor starters and spewl regu- 
lators, self starters and elevator controllers, as 
w-ell as accessories and miscellaneous resistance 
units, rheostats, etc. It contains a great mass 
of tabulated data and important' information, and 
Is also cliaracterir.ed by the elimination of unes- 

watcr to the pros 
square inch. 

Western Kieley Steam Specialty Co., llG-12 

W. Illinois St.. Chicago. 111., announces that i 

writ of Injunction was Issued June 23, 1015, b; 

the Circuit Court of Cook Co.. state of Illinois 

perpetually enjoining James McAlear, Kieley 

Metals Coating Co, of America, 122 S. Michigan Mueller, inc., and the Kieley Spccialt; 

Ave Chicago. III., announces that the concern has using the name "Kieley Specialty Co 

opened an oHlce nt 100 Summer St.. Boston. Mass.. other coriiorate. copartnership 

Co., Milwaukee. Wis., mann- 
lachlnes. Is working night and 
ctlng an addition to the fac- 
will be in the market for 

lution of the ^n'siderable new equipment. 

Iversal Joints 



... barge of Herbert Jaques. Jr., who Is prepared 

to furnish information and demonstrate the Schoop 

niclal coating process to Interested manufacturers. 

Rockford Tool Co., Rockford, 111., has just coin- 

hich includes the name "Kieley" and the 
or«l "Specialty" In any combination in any 
anner whatsoever. 

Billings & Spencer Co,, Hartford, Conn., has 
hip In the Ric 

cutting machine on the market 

Moltrup Stool Products Co., Beaver Falls, Pa., 
Is erecting an addition to Its plant for the pro- 
luctlon of llnlshed crankshafts and other steel spe- 
cialties. The addition is built of brick and con- 
crete, and is 00 by 2.10 feet. The company also 
cold drawn steel bars, machine keys 
and racks, and llnlsbed steel plate. 

Wilmarth t Merman Co., 1180 Monroe Ave., 
N. W., Grand liaplds, Mich 
for a large two-story modern brick addition 
Its present plant that will double the present lloor 
space. A great deal of new equipment has been 
installed, and it Is expected that the company „ j„,e„j, 
will s*ion be able to make prompt deliveries on iU 
grinding machines. 

Rockford Milling Machine Co., Rockford. 111. 
has purchased the plant recently 
KockfonI Tool Co.. In order to i 
connection with Its i)resent shops. A 
tion has also been made to the presei 
that the ovalloble lloor si>ace Is now- 
doubled. The company intends to Incn 
of milling machines. has spent ii 

Duff Mfg. Co., Pittsburg. Pa., manufacturer of built Severn 
the Barrett lifting Jacks, is building an extension ciuipped Ih' 
to its main factory building, l.'iO feet by 12r. feet 

lings & Spencer Co. are: C. E. Billings, president 
and general manager: F. C. Billings, vice-president 
and .superintendent; Ix)uis G. Parker. trMsurer: 
E. II. Stocker. secretary; and F. II. Stockcr. assist- 
ant secretary and treasurer. 

Universal Machinery Co., 1910-1920 St. Paul X-re.. 
Milwaukee. Wis., announces that the concern has 
purchased the drawings, patterns, tools and equip- 
ment for the manufacture of lathes from 12 to 
has broken ground jjj i,„.i,ps swing, with from 6- to S-foot beds and 
er. and that a large quantity of these lathes, 
peclally the IC-lnch by foot size, is now belnp 
plcttHl. The company also annotmces that later 
* to manufacture a nunilicr of other 
uincblne tools. Incluiling drill presses, 
grinders, turret lathes, and screw machines. 
Goorge Schow, Suite 717, tU!4 S. Michigan .\vc.. 
cupled by the oi,i,.ago. III., has organlied a foreign trade service 
this plant In hurenu for the purpose of developing ei|>ort trade 
K recent addl- ,o Europe. Mr. Schow. with assistants, will visit 
plant, so |{i,5Jsia. Norw-ay. Sw-eden. Denmark. England and 
lOre than prsmce to establish and or-.-anlie a chain of sales 
> Its Hoe agencies for lending American manufacturers. He 
has spent many years in the foreign fleld. having 
nufacturing plants in Europe and 
1th American machinery and tools, 
nti-d the Fox Slachine Co.. Graml Ra|ilds, 
In width The mSlir'bnlldTng'wlth the extension Mich., for the past ten years. .\ llinlted nnmber 
win be C'2n feet long by 12.'-i feet wide. A ttve-ton of lines of machine tools will be handled, 
bridge transfer crane and monorail conveying sys- which 

-ill conflict. 



^^ /9IJ 

Vol.22 Mo 2 


Oxy-Acelylene Welding and Cutting Equipment. Ky S. W. 

AMilli-i- S5 

Oxy- Acetylene Welding and Cutting — Edilorial 100 

New American Industries — Eilitorial 100 

The Theorist as a Factor In Progress — Kdilorial 100 

Preparation of the Worl< for Oxy- Acetylene Welding 101 

Practice of the Oxy-Acetylene Welding Process IOC 

Swaging IHexagon Holes 117 

Selection of Grinding Wheels — Abrasives, Processes of Manu- 

facliirr, Bonds — (^Iioosinj; Grade and Grain for Grinding 

Uiidor Varying Conditions. By Douglas T. Hamilton US 

Avoid Unnecessary Purchases 129 

Charts for Determining Sizes of Transmission Shafts. By Josof 

Y. Paldstrand 123 

Gear Diagrams — Methods for the Hapid Solution of Problems 

ill Gear Pesign. By H. D. Hess i:U- 

Scarclty of Copper Alloys in Germany 131 

A Problem In Slotting and Indexing. By Ponald A. Hanipson. ISf) 

Drilling Motorcycle Hubs 136 

Consumption of Oil Fuel for Forge Fires 13G 

Punch and Die Standards — Application of Manufacturing 

Methods In Tiioliiialdng Operations. Ky Edward K. 

llammiind 137 

Recent Legal Decisions Involving Machinery 140 

What's the Matter with the Foundries? By J. V. Bropliy Ill 

Photographic Shop Operation Sheets 142 

Checking Drawings— How and Why. By Charles V. Scrlbner. . 143 

The Swedish Engineering Convention In the United States 143 

'\ Hydrniillc Wrench Testing Device lit 

140-14S Lafayette 

Give and Take 144 

Chemical Engineering Department of Columbia University 144 

What is Vanadium Steel? By D. J. Evans 145 

Economical Fixture Design. By Arthur B. Babbitt 145 

A Use for an Old Slide-Rule. By Frederick W. Salmon 146 

Babbitt Bearing Mold. Hy 1>. S. Mann 146 

Shall We Use Wide or Narrow Guides? By Shi-rwood C. Bliss. 147 
Drafting-Room Kinks Which Eliminate Shop Errors. By F. 

Server I4S 

Conflict of One-Haif-lnch Thread Pitches. By John A. Wood. 148 

New Machinery and Tools: 

N'ational-Aome Single and Multiple Drilling Machines 149 

iiiiprcived Wahlstrom Drill Chucks 151 

Gleason Bevel Gear Planing Generator 152 

RocUford 17-lnch Kngine Lathe 153 

— Bemls Four-Spindle Drill 154 

Whitney Hand-Operated Punches 155 

lioyersford Poublo Back-Geared Drill 155 

Modern Collapsible Tap 1S6 

Hoco Kleclric Tempering Oven 158 

Kane & Uoach Grinder 157 

Anderson Die Forming Machine 157 

Superior Kngine loathe 16S 

Newton Worra-Wheel Hobblng Machine 169 

Bicknell-Thomas Tapping Chuck 15? 

Barrett "Gaspowrvile" 1»»'^ 

K. G. Smith Pocket Level I'"" 

Heed & Prince Micrometer. . . l''ii 

l.indgren High-speed Bench Drill 161 

Holdcn-Morgan Plug Miller 161 

American High-speed Silent Chain 161 

W. ..V. Whitney Channel Iron Punch 16: 

PRESS, Publishers 
Street. New York 



MaKe It Definite 

Recently the writer rode by a clothing store which was con- 
ducting a big closing-out sale with the aid of signs which cov- 
ered the whole front. One of the signs, the biggest of all, 
said this: — 


Evidently the proprietor considered this fact a very im- 
l^ortant one to put before the public, and it was, because there 
are many mushroom concerns operating fake sales in big cities. 
His was a genuine sale of a i^eal business — one that was estab- 
lished in 1892. But how long ago that was the writer did not 
stop to figure out. How many passersby would make the calcu- 
lation, and how many would be impressed with the figures 1892? 
Very few, we believe. The sign should have read : — 


That would have told the whole story. Advertisement 
writers sometimes fail to get their points home definitely and 
effectively, because the passing reader must do some guessing, 
figuring or thinking himself, in order to grasp their signifi- 
cance. Such advertisements make only a weak impression. 

If weight in a machine is important, it is better to say it 
weighs 4200 pounds than to say it is hea\y. A paper weight is 
very heavy compared with a feather. If precision is a valuable 
point it is better to specify the actual degree of precision in 
thousandths of an inch than to merely claim accuracy. Words 
are common property. If power is a strong point, don't expect 
the reader to stop and wonder how pow^erf ul the machine is — he 
may just pass on. Tell him definitely and specifically, or better 
still, show him a picture of the machine doing a job demanding 
unusual power. That is the best method so far devised in 
mechanical advertising to demonstrate with convincing power 
the talking points of a machine. Show it doing practical 
work, and give the figures. 

Two kinds of readers see every advertisement in 
Machinery — the casual and the specially interested. The more 
definite and specific the advertisement is, the better in both 
cases. The man specially interested is looking for real informa- 
tion. And the needs of the casual reader often send him back a 
day, a week or perhaps a month later, to re-examine the specific 
points noticed in passing. And thereby hangs a sale. 




19 15 

or Iron by 

ELDING is under- 
stood by the 
average person 
to mean the 
uniting of two 
pieces of steel 
heating to the 
at which they 

here published. 

become softened, without 
melting them, placing them 
together, and hammering, or 
in some way bringing them 

into intimate contact. As is well known, this cannot be done 
in the case of the common metals other than wrought Iron 
or steel. It will however be readily seen, even by those 
unfamiliar with oxy-acetylene welding, that if two pieces of 
metal can be melted together the union will be sound and the 
joint invisible, even in the case of a casting. The fact that 
this could be done in the case of cast metals such as cast 
Iron, cast steel, brass, etc., has been known for years, and the 
use of this method — termed "burning in" in foundries — is of 
frequent application. However, there is no assurance that a 
sound structure will be produced, because there Is no possi- 
bility of observing what is going on at the junction of the 
old and new metals. The field of application is somewhat 
limited, and the results frequently unsatisfactory, owing to the 
conditions under which the work Is done. 

If, however, some process were devised by which these 
difflculties could be overcome, that is, by which the action 
of the melted metal could be observed and the expansion and 
contraction could be taken care of, and by which it could 
be insured that sound unions would be made under all con- 
ditions, it is evident that a very useful addition to the 

Ten years ago the oxy-acetylene method of welding and cutting 
metals was hardly more than a laboratory process, but In the 
course of these few years It has become one of the most im- 
portant methods In the metal- working Industries. It has made 
possible the making of repairs in broken machine parts that previ- 
ously had to be replaced by an entirely new casting or forging. 
Not only has the process proved of the utmost importance In re- 
pair work, but Its application has also proved of the greatest 
value In the manufacture of many articles. Much has been pub- 
lished relating to this process, but the articles have generally 
been descriptive of odd Jobs. It is believed that the series of 
articles In IVlachinery beginning in this number will constitute 
one of the most complete records of the principles and practice 
of the art of oxy-acetylene welding that has so far appeared In 
any publication. The wide experience of the author in the prac- 
tical application of the process, and the success he has attained 
in his business, vouches for the reliability of the extensive treatise 


srtlcles referring to oxy-scotylonc weldlnK and klDdn^l 
■liiNKHY, August, 1015. •Kluiea for Oi.v Aii-Lvlenc Wrl.l- 
; Juno. lOIf.. Fluxi'a for OxyAcctylHie WfUIIng": October. 1012. 
' lu-atllig Molnla to bo Wohloil by OiyAoclylonc Process"; Jsnusry. 
••The Mnnufnctiire of Tubing by Autogenous WoMIng", and other 


t Add 

t S. W. Miller wns born In New York Olty anil graduated from Stevens 
Institute witb tbe degree of meebanleal engineer. lie serv.^l a 
apodal apprentlcosbli* In the shops of the Pennsylvania Lines West of 
Pittsburg, and among other positions has held that of master tnechanic 
of the Pennsylvania Lines, and superintendent of the American Locomotive 
C«. Ho is now the proprietor of tbe Rochester Welding Works. Uochester. 
N. T.. which he has eondueted for Ave years past. Ills specialty Is oiy- 
acetylene welding and research work connectwl with this branch of 
mechanical development. 

mechanical arts would be pro- 
duced, and one which would 
be of wide application. Such 
is the oxy-acetylene process, 
or, as it is frequently called, 
"autogenous welding," th« 
word "autogenous" meaning 
"self-produced." The use of 
the term "autogenous" is 
rather unfortunate. As stated, 
it means eelf-produced, 
which is certainly not true in 
the case of a weld made by the oxy-acetylene process. The 
word "autogenous" is used in biology and physical geography 
in its correct sense. The idea that should be conveyed by 
any term describing this kind of a weld is that it is made 
with the same kind of material as that of which the piece Is 
composed. The word "autogenous" does not convey this 

Another idea that should be conveyed is that the process 
involves the melting of the metal during the making of the 
weld. It might be possible for one skilled in the dead lan- 
guages to devise some term that would cover these points, 
but it would undoubtedly be a cumbersome word or combi- 
nation of words, and therefore as unsatisfactory as the word 
"autogenous". Probably there is no word which conveys all 
of the ideas involved, but "homogeneous" would better explain 
the uniformity of the character of the weld than "autogenous". 
This is, however, a long word and not really descriptive of the 

As stated, one of the essential features of the proceae Is 
the melting of the metal, and as It is not true in all cases 
that the process uses the same kind of metal for Joining as 
is in the original piece, it would seem that the term "fusion 
weld", which Is short, descriptive and distinctive, should be 
entirely satisfactory. The author will therefore use It in these 
articles, employing also at times the term "homogeneous" to 
describe, when necessary, the uniform character of the weld 
and piece. In certain cases other gases than oxygen and 
acetylene are used, but It is not necessary to consider them 
here, as by far the most important work In fusion welding 
is done by the use of oxygen and acetylene. 



October, 1915 

Equipment for Weldlner 

The welding eQuipment necessary will depend on the kind 
and amount of work to be done. It will include the necessary 
torches and hose, oxygen and acetylene generators or con- 
tainers, pressure gages and reducing valves, dark glasses, etc. 
Only the best apparatus should be purchased, and as in many 
other cases, it is advisable to know that the manufacturer is 
sound financially and is going to continue in the business. 
The patent situation with regard to welding equipment, and 
even in regard to certain processes, is somewhat confused at 
the present time, and it is well to be sure that after It is 
cleared up repair parts can be obtained. The manufacturers 
of the best apparatus have more experience and are able to 
give assistance and information to the beginner which is not 
obtainable elsewhere. Poor apparatus is expensive to operate 
and therefore costly, even when the purchase price may 
appear low. 

The Welding- Torch 

The first practical welding torch was devised by Fouch6 
and Picard in France in 1901, and the first industrial appli- 
cation was made by them in 1903, after many experiments 
to avoid the danger from explosion. It was also found nec- 
essary to take care of "back-firing". If a tube of compara- 
tively large diameter is filled with a gas and ignited at one 
end, the flame will travel to the other end at a certain speed, 
depending chiefly on the nature of the gas, but also on some 
other considerations, such as 
the size of the pipe. The 
flame from ordinary city gas 
or natural gas will not travel 
back through pipes of the 
size ordinarily used in carry- 
ing it. It has been found, 
however, that it is necessary 
to have a very small pipe to 
prevent this action in the 
case of acetylene, and also 
that the speed of travel of 
the flame is very high in the 
case of this gas. The dangers 
resulting from not taking 
proper precautions to prevent 
such flame-travel are well 
illustrated in the terrific mine 
explosions which have oc- 
curred and which have been 
duplicated in experiments on 
full-sized tunnels in which the 
speed of travel of the flame of 
burning mine gases has been 
accurately measured. 

It is evident, however, that if the gas issues from the end 
of the pipe with a velocity greater than that with which the 
flame travels backward in the pipe, it will burn without any 
danger. In the early torches with comparatively large acety- 
lene openings, it was necessary to provide a chamber in the 
torch filled with asbestos and provided with wire gauze par- 
titions to prevent this back-firing; but it was later found 
possible to do away with this precaution if the acetylene 
holes in the head of the torch were made sufficiently small. 

There are a large number of torches on the market, some 
of which are good and some of which are bad. One of the 
most essential features of a torch is the use of as little oxygen 
as possible in proportion to the acetylene used; early torches 
were very defective in this respect. The result of this was 
unsatisfactory welds, particularly in steel or any metal which 
is easily oxidized, such as aluminum. Modern torches give 
much better results, and It is believed that still further pro- 
gress will be made in the future. The actual amount of 
oxygen used should be the same as that of acetylene, and 
this is quite closely approached at the present time in some 

It has been stated that the intensity of the flame from an 
oxy-acetylene torch is the highest that can be produced by the 
burning of gases. It is impossible to measure the temper.i- 
ture directly, but from theoretical considerations it has been 

determined that it is about 6300 degrees F. When it is con- 
sidered that the melting point of cast iron is about 2100 
degrees F., that of soft steel about 2600 degrees F., and of 
wrought iron about 2700 degrees F., it will be seen that there 
is no difficulty whatever in melting any of the metals. 

Good welding can be done with any good torch; as stated, 
the best is the one which uses the least oxygen in proportion 
to acetylene, because it is less expensive in operation and 
tends to give a more neutral flame. The number and sizes 
of the torches depend on the character of work to be done, 
but there should always be a full set of tips provided. It 
this is not done experience proves that a time will come 
unexpectedly when a tip not on hand will be needed. Hose 
should be of the best quality. It is subject to quite heavy 
strains, and as the lighter the torch is, the easier it is to 
handle, the best quality is necessary to avoid excessive wear. 
The oxy-acetylene welding torches which are in use at the 
present time may be divided into two general types, according 
to the pressure under which the acetylene is supplied. These 
are known as the low-pressure torch and the medium or 
"positive" pressure torch. The term medium-pressure is em- 
ployed to distinguish torches of this type from the high- 
pressure torches which were used in France at the time that 
the oxy-acetylene welding and cutting industry was in the 
early stages of its development; this name also distinguishes 
the medium-pressure torch from the so-called low-pressure 
torch in which the acetylene 
is delivered at slightly above 
atmospheric pressure, while 
the oxygen is under a higher 
pressure than is the case 
with the medium-pressure 
type of torch. As the pressure 
under which the gas is de- 
livered at the outlet from the 
tip or burner is necessarily 
that of the gas which is at 
the highest pressure, the low- 
pressure torch may deliver 
the mixed gas at a higher 
pressure than that under 
which the gases are delivered 
from the medium-pressure 
torch. The low-pressure torch 
works on the injector princi- 
ple, the oxygen being under 
high pressure so that it flows 
rapidly through the duct in 
the head of the torch and 
draws in the acetylene. As 
the two gases flow on through 
the duct or mixing chamber in the head or burner tip, they 
are mixed together ready tor combustion to take place as 
they emerge from the orifice at the end of the tip. 

In the medium- or positive-pressure type of torch, both 
the oxygen and acetylene are under pressure, so that the 
flow of the acetylene is controlled without employing the 
injector principle. In this type of torch the oxygen and 
acetylene are carried to the head through two tubes which 
deliver the gas into a mixing chamber; and the mixed gas 
then flows through this mixing chamber or duct to the orifice 
at the tip of the burner. It will be noted that in both types 
of torches shown the oxygen and acetylene travel through a 
duct of considerable length, so that a complete mixture Is 
obtained by the time the orifice at the tip is reached. Figs. 
1 and 2 illustrate medium- and low-pressure torches. 

Figs. 1 and 3 show the design of welding torch which has 
been adopted as a standard construction by the Davis-Bour- 
nonville Co., New YorK City. This torch is made in different 
sizes to meet the requirements of various classes of work. 
One of the basic principles of this type of torch — which was 
covered in the original French patent and also by patents in 
the United States — provides for using different sizes of inter- 
changeable burner tips in a given size of torch, in order to 
adapt it for handling various kinds of work. The gases enter 
the tip at separate points, and the pressure of each gas is 

October, 1915 



Tig. 3. Standard Typo Potitlvo-pressure Weldins Torch 

regulated to obtain exactly the required mixture. Each tip 
provides a size of flame suitable for various classes of worlc. 
In this connection it is interesting to note that a patented con- 
struction has been employed for fitting the burner tip into 
the head of the torch. Instead of using a threaded joint. It 
will be noted that the tip is tapered at A to fit a tapered 
socket in the head of the torch. This does away with trouble 
from damaged threads which resulted from the earlier con- 
struction in which the tip was screwed into the head; and 
leakage caused by expansion or contraction of the different 
parts of the torch due to variations in the temperature has 
been done away with. It will, of course, be evident that the 
tip is held in place in the head of the torch by the nut H. 
and that the oxygen enters the tip through the axial duct, 
while the acetylene enters the groove C which leads the gas 
to the four ports or transverse ducts in the tip. 

Each of the two sizes in which this torch Is made is 
provided with five different sizes of tips. The five smaller 
sizes provide for welding metal from 1/32 up to '4 inch 
In thickness, while the five larger sizes are employed for 
heavy welding operations on metal from V* inch in thick- 
ness and up. When using each size of tip, a definite specified 
pressure of the oxygen and acetylene is secured through the 
use of pressure regulators. The pressure of the oxygen and 
the size of the axial duct in the tip bear such a relation to 
the pressure of the acetylene and the size of the ports or 
transverse ducts, that the ratio between the consumption of 
oxygen and acetylene is 1.14 to 1, which gives a neutral flame. 

Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of the welding head of the 
Oxweld low-pressure or injector type of torch, as made by 
the Oxweld Acetylene Co., Chicago. The notation In the 
illustration shows the construction clearly. P'ig. 4 shows a 
type of torch which differs in its arrangement to a consid- 
erable extent from the other two types shown. This is made 
by the Prest-0-Lite Co., Indianapolis, Ind. This torch is used 
for compressed or medium-pressure acetylene only, and there- 
fore no injector device Is necessary. The gases mix near 
the handle, and flow together along the full length of the 
stem. The handle of the torch is fitted with "anti-fire-back" 
chambers for both gases, filled with material through which 
it is impossible for the flame to pass. 
Cuttlntf Torches 

In cutting iron and steel with the oxy-acetylene torch, the 
cut Is made by the burning away of the metal along the 
line on which the cut is to be made. In order to under- 
stand the operation of the cutting torch, the reader must 
first grasp the idea that the burning of any matter — regard- 
less of whether it is coal, oil, wood, or metal — Is due to 
the chemical combination of the oxygen with the material 

le tij the DaTls-BoumoD7iiit; Co. 

which is being burned. In the case of iron and steel, this 
burning action can only take place at very high temperatures 
and for this reason the metal is heated by means of the oxy- 
acetylene flame, which raises its temperature to a point 
where the metal will combine with the oxygen; but ordinanr 
air consists of one part of oxygen to four parts of nitrogen, 
and as a result the cutting action would be quite slow If 
additional oxygen were not supplied. In the early forms 
of cutting torches, this was done by attaching a separate 
tip at the side of the welding torch, which was connected 
to a third tube that carried an auxiliary supply of oxygen 
and discharged It against the heated metal. The flow of 
oxygen through this auxiliary tip was controlled by means 
of a valve which was held open by depressing a thumb-lever. 
To avoid the use of this construction, and to provide a 
cutting torch on which only two hose connections are required, 
the Davis-BournonviUe Co. Is now manufacturing a torch of 
the form shown in Fig. 5. In this torch there are two rubber 
tubes which connect the torch with the supply of oxygen and 
acetylene. The torch Itself is provided with three metal 
tubes A, B and C, and the tip Is drilled with three longitudinal 
ducts D, E and F. Each of the ducts D and E delivers a 
mixed supply of oxygen and acetylene which burns at the tip 
of the burner, serving to heat the metal to the oxidizing tem- 
perature. So far as the method of effecting the mixture of 
the oxygen and acetylene is concerned, each of the ducts D 
and E is analogous to the ducts of the welding tip which 
has already been described. The central duct F delivers a 
supply of pure oxygen to the metal when the thumb-lever O 
is thrown over to open the valve in tube .1 to the oxygen 
supply. This pure oxygen strikes the metal which has been 
heated to a high temperature by the oxy-acetylene flame and 
causes a rapid oxidation or burning of the metal to take 
place. In this way the metal is burned away along the line 
of the cut, but with a narrow saw-like kerf which, when the 
cutting is skillfully done, does not give the metal the ap- 
pearance of having been burned or melted. The torch is 
made with three sizes of interchangeable tips for cutting dif- 
ferent thicknesses of metal. The smallest tip cuts metal 
from U to % Inch In thickness, the medium tip from 1 to 
3 inches In thickness, and the largest size from 3 Inches In 
thickness up. As In the case of the welding tips, each size 
of cutting tip uses the oxygen and acetylene under specifled 

Fig. 6 shows a group of the different styles of welding and 
cutting torches manufactured by the Davls-Bournonvllle Co. 
A large size of welding torch is shown at .1. this being a 
standard torch for performing medium and heavy welding 
operations In making boiler repairs, and for general shop 

Fii. 4. Typ« of Woldinf Torch made bj- ;hi- Pr«»tO-Lit. Co. 


October, 1915 

work. The torch is fitted with a set of the five large sized 
welding tips, and is adapted for welding metal from 5/16 
Inch in thickness up. It is 20 inches long and weighs 2 
pounds. A special torch of this size is made in a 3-foot 
length for very heavy work where it is desirable to enable 
the operator to get as far away from the work as possible, 
owing to discomfort experienced from the intense temperature 
of the metal. The standard two-hose cutting torch is shown 
at B. This torch is 20 inches long and weighs 40 ounces. 
What is known as a "manufacturer's" torch is shown at C. 
This torch meets the requirements for light and medium 
sheet metal welding; it Is especially adapted for manufac- 
turing operations on boilers, steel barrels, iron and steel 
tanks, cylinders, etc. A small size of the standard welding 
torch is shown at D, this torch being convenient for use on 
light and medium sheet metal welding and on light repair 
work. Its length is 14 inches and weight 18 ounces. This 
torch is provided with a set of the five small sized tips, and 
is adapted for welding metal from 1/32 to 5/16 inch in 
thickness. A torch for circular hand cutting is shown at E. 
This torch is of the same general type as the standard cutting 
torch, but is fitted with a compass attachment to adapt it 
for cutting circular holes. Torches for use on cutting and 
welding machines arc shown at F and G, and a torch with 
a water-cooled head and tips at H. This is for use on heavy 
welding where there is a tendency for the head and tip of the 
torch to become overheated from the intense heat radiated 
by the metal that is being operated upon. This is especially 
true in cases where the head of the torch is surrounded by 
the heated metal, and to overcome this difficulty a supply 

soon as the pressure falls, the action is reversed, and the 
supply of oxygen is renewed. The oxygen passes from the 
chamber D, through a connection not shown, to the hose. 
The regulator for cutting is similar in design to that for 
welding, but as the cutting pressures may run up to 100 
pounds, it is made heavier, and provides for a larger flow of 
gas. The differences in conditions make it necessary to use 
different regulators for welding and cutting, and good results 
will not be obtained unless the proper regulator is used. 
Oxygen is a gas which constitutes about 20 per cent of the 
air in the atmosphere, the other 80 per cent being nitrogen, 
a gas which does not support combustion. Oxygen, however, 
is the active agent in maintaining life and combustion; its 
properties have been known since the end of the eighteenth 
century. Oxygen can be produced in several ways at such 
a price as to make it commercially useful. At the present 
time the largest proportion of it is made by the liquid air 
process invented by Dr. Linde in 1897. Almost every one 
remembers the demonstrations a few years ago of liquid 
air, and of the many curious and interesting things that 
were done by its use. Most of these things, however, were 
mere laboratory experiments, and its most important appli- 
cation, that of producing oxygen for commercial use, was not 
thought of at that time. The possibility of producing oxygen 
in this way has been one of the chief factors in promoting 
the use of oxy-acetylene welding, as it is has reduced the 
cost of the oxygen. The process simply consists in liquefying 
air and allowing it to again vaporize. The boiling points of 
oxygen and nitrogen are considerably different; hence, the 

X X- 


Fig. 6. Davis-BournonTille Cutting Torch 

of cooling water is circulated through the head and tip 
by means of two extra hose connections provided for the 
purpose. At 7 is shown an oxyhydrogen cutting torch in 
which hydrogen gas is burned in place of acetylene. 

In Fig. 7 is shown the Oxweld cutting torch, which 
differs from the welding torch made by the same concern 
mainly in that an additional oxygen duct is provided. 
Reg-ulatinp Valves 

Regulating valves should be kept in good condition. Unless 
this is done, so that the reduced pressure remains constant 
under all conditions, the action of the torch will be irregular 
and unsatisfactory. In the course of time the diaphragms 
become buckled, and have to be renewed. This and dirt in 
the small passages are the only difficulties in a well designed 
valve. Gages and regulating valves should be suitable for 
the work, and of substantial design. The gage capacity should 
be about one and one-half times the maximum pressure 
used. The gages for welding torch pressures should be grad- 
uated in single pounds, and need not have over 50 pounds 
capacity. For cutting torches the gages should be graduated 
to about 250 pounds. Good gages give practically no trouble. 

Fig. 8 shows a section of the Oxweld Acetylene Co.'s oxygen 
welding regulator which reduces the oxygen tank pressure, 
about 1800 pounds, to that necessary for welding, as the latter 
pressure does not exceed from 10 to 30 pounds. Its action 
is as follows: The oxygen enters from the tank through 
passage E to valve F, the seat for which is held away from 
the valve by the spring K acting through the diaphragm C. 
which can be adjusted by turning handle //, to obtain any 
desired pressure. The oxygen then passes Into chamber D. 
and when there is sufllcient pressure, the diaphragm is forced 
to the left, allowing the small spring if to pull the valve 
seat against the valve and shut off the supply of oxygen. As 

gas desired may be collected and the other allowed to 

The oxygen, after purification, is compressed into cylinders 
or tanks, and can then be shipped wherever it is desired 
for use. The principal impurity in oxygen thus made is 
nitrogen, a percentage of which is likely to be present, and, 
which even when small, has an adverse effect on a weld, and 
is particularly objectionable when using a cutting torch. 

The next most important process for producing oxygen is 
the electrolytic. The decomposition of water by electric cur- 
rent into its two elements, oxygen and nitrogen, has been 
practiced for many years; but it was not until the cost of 
electric current was reduced to a low point that it was 
possible to use this process commercially. It was also found 
by experiment and test that the production of an eflScient 
and safe electrolytic cell was not an easy matter. It is, 
however, at the present time a thoroughly practical process, 
and one which Is gaining ground daily. It is exceedingly 
flexible, and while the cost of cells is prohibitive for a small 
plant, yet, where considerable oxygen is used with regularity 
and the expense can be afforded, it is much used, as it 
produces the purest commercial oxygen. The only impurity 
in it of any importance is a small percentage of hydrogen, 
which does not Injure the weld, nor is it of disadvantage in 
cutting, as it burns, producing heat. 

There are a number of other processes for producing oxygen, 
the only important one being by heating chlorate of potash 
in a retort, passing the gas through a washing apparatus 
and collecting It in a gasometer. It can then be compressed 
to the required pressure and used as needed. Oxygen should 
never be generated from chlorate of potash under a pressure 
of more than a few ounces, on account of the danger of 
explosion. Oxygen, particularly when moist, as after passing 

October, 1915 



through a washer, attacks the piping, etc., resulting In a 
weakening of the pipes, which cannot be generally detected 
in time to prevent serious results. Oxygen la also liable to 
cause an explosion when it is heated and comes into contact 
with any carbonaceous material, such as splinters of wood, 
in the retort. Serious accidents have occurred from this 
cause. The method, however, is perfectly safe if care is 
taken and apparatus is procured from reliable manufacturers. 
The generation of oxygen from chlorate of potash under 
pressure is considered much more hazardous. 

The gas produced by the chlorate-of-potaah process Is quite 
expensive, and contains a certain amount of chlorine which 
Is detrimental to the strength of the welds and, therefore, 
unsatisfactory. This chlorine, however, can be removed en- 
tirely If proper apparatus is used, and under certain circum- 
stances, as where the cost of shipping tanks back and forth 
is very high, the use of chlorate of potash for generating 
oxygen may be advisable. At the present time, the European 
war has greatly increased the cost of chlorate of potash, 
and this should be considered In making estimates. 

As commercially used in 
the oxy-acetylene welding 
Industry, oxygen may be 
made or bought. The latter 
is the cheaper method it the 
location is near a large plant 
making oxygen as a commer- 
cial product, as it saves the 
installing of a somewhat ex- 
pensive apparatus. If It is 
necessary to make oxygen, 
either on account of cost or 
Irregularity in delivery, the 
best process on a small scale 
is the heating of chlorate of 
potash in closed retorts, the 
resulting gas being passed 
through washers and collect- 
ed In a gasometer, as de- 
scribed, from which it is 
pumped into tanks by a small 
compressor, generally belt 
driven. The usual maximum 
pressure in the tanks is 
about 300 pounds, and they 
generally have a capacity of 
100 cubic feet of oxygen 
measured at atmospheric 
pressure. These tanks are 
convenient for shop use, but 
for outside work they are 
somewhat heavy and bulky, 
and can be replaced with ad- 
vantage by smaller tanks of 
the same capacity, but hav- 
ing pressure of about ISOO 
pounds per square Inch. 
These tanks are not sold 

pounds of the mixture is put in the retort at a time. The 
gas from the retort is delivered through a series of three 
washers C, which serve to remove Impurities, after which It 
passes on and is collected In the gasometer D. From the 
gasometer the oxygen is piped to the air compressor E, 
which compresses It Into cylinders at the required pressure 
ready for use. The purity of the oxygen obtained by this 
method is slightly over 97 per cent. 

Manulacture of Oxytren by the Liquid Air Process 
In the manufacture of oxygen by the liquid air process, 
the oxygen is obtained by making a separation of the oxygen 
and nitrogen, which are the chief constituents of air. This 
is done by first bringing the air to the liquid condition by 
the combined action of high pressure and low temperature, 
and then separating the oxygen from the nitrogen by taking 
advantage of the difference In the boiling points of these 
two constituents of the air when in the liquid condition. 
This method allows oxygen to be obtained at a relatively 
low cost, but the plant required is only suitable for working 
on a large scale. Consequently, the method Is suitable for 
the use of manufacturers of 
oxygen rather than for the 
users of welding and cutting 
torches who desire to make 
only enough oxygen for their 
own use. It is for this rea- 
son that many users of weld- 
ing and cutting torches have 
found it more advantageous 
to buy their oxygen In cylin- 
ders ready for use than to 
make their ovm supply in a 
{jotassium chlorate or an elec- 
trolytic plant. To meet the 
demand from this class of 
consumers, the L I n d e Air 
Products Co. has established 
generating plants in thirty- 
.seven of the most important 
industrial centers throughout 
the United States. These 
plants supply oxygen to the 
consumer, which is contained 
in pressure cylinders ready 
for use; and as a result of 
these numerous plants, many 
consumers get the advantage 
of buying their oxygen with- 
out having to pay freight on 
the filled cylinders or on the 
empty ones which must be 
returned to the generating 
plants. In many cities where 
there is not enough manufac- 
turing to warrant the main- 
tenance of generating plants, 
warehouses have been cstab- 

but are 

oxygen by the oxygen companies on reasonable terms, and 
when empty may be returned for refilling. Oxygen can be 
obtained in this way much more cheaply and conveniently 
under ordinary conditions than by making It. It should be 
noted that all tanks shipped must comply in all respects 
with the requirements of the Federal Bureau of Explosives. 
Potassium-Chlorate Method ot Oxyiren Generntlon 
A diagrammatic view of the apparatus used for making 
oxygen by the potassium-chlorate method Is shown in Fig. 9. 
The potassium chlorate is sealed in a retort .1 and heated 
by gas burners B. The heating causes the potassium chlorate 
to give off oxygen, but this reaction would proceed too 
rapidly if the charge placed in the retort consisted of pure 
potassium chlorate. It has been found, however, that by 
mixing thirteen pounds of manganese dioxide with 100 pounds 
ot potassium chlorate the chemical reaction will proceed mora 
slowly. The manganese dioxide plays no part In the chemical 
reaction, but is merely used as a retarding agent. Tea 

Fig. 6. Siffuont lypoa of Cuttinf and Woldinc Torchei 

furnished, filled with llshed in which a supply of filled oxygen cylinders is carried 

so that orders can be promptly filled; but In these cases the 
price is necessarily higher, as freight charges must be Included. 
It has already been stated that the method by which 
oxygen Is obtained from the mixture of nitrogen and oxygen 
in the air, consists of first bringing the air to the liquid 
condition by the combined application of high pressure and 
low temperature, and then separating the oxygen and nitrogen 
by allowing the nitrogen to boll off from the mixed liquid. 
Fig. 10 shows a diagrammatic view of the plant employed 
for this purpose. This diagram gives a comprehensive idea 
of the principle involved and the general character of the 
equipment which is used. The diagram is presented simplr 
as an adjunct to the following description, and many details 
have been omitted. It Is well known that atmospheric air 
contains appreciable quantities of carbon dioxide gas, and 
the first step in the manufacture of oxygen by the liquid air 
method is to remove the carbon dioxide. This is done by 
drawing the air through a pit containing lime, which absorbs 



October, 1915 

the carbon dioxide by a chemical reaction resulting in 
the formation of a compound known as calcium carbide. 
After leaving the lime pit, the air goes to a flve-stage com- 
pressor In which the pressure is raised to 3000 pounds per 
square Inch, and means are provided for cooling the air 
between each stage of compression so that it leaves the 
compressor at about room temperature. After leaving the 
compressor the air is delivered through pipe A to the "fore- 
cooler", in which the first reduction of temperature is ef- 
fected. This fore-cooler is equipped with three sets of colls. 
The first coil contains carbon dioxide supplied from an 
external refrigerating system, and the other two coils contain 
the oxygen and nitrogen gas which have already been separ- 
ated from the liquid air and are at very low temperatures. 

As a result of its passage through the fore-cooler, the 
temperature of the air has been reduced to about zero degrees 
C. After passing through the fore-cooler, the air enters 
pipe B which carries it to a third unit of the plant, known 
as an "interchanger." This pipe B leads to a coil C which 
is submerged in the liquid air in the interchanger, and the 
purpose of passing the air through this coil will be subse- 
quently explained. After leaving the coil C, the air, which 
it will be remembered is at a pressure of 3000 pounds per 
square inch, is allowed to 
pass through an expansion 
valve D, where the pressure 
is suddenly released. This 
results in a rapid expansion 
of the air, that, in turn, 
causes a further reduction of 
temperature, with the result 
that the air is brought to the 
liquid condition by this ap- 
plication of the Thomson- 
Joule principle. The liquid 
air passes through the verti- 
cal pipe to the top of the in- 
terchanger where it is dis- 
charged through the atomizer 
E, which is located at the top 
of a tower filled with perfo- 
rated baffle plates F. The 
liquid air passes down over 
these baffle plates and finally 
reaches the container in which 
the coil C is submerged. 

We are now in a position 
to go back to the reference 
which was made to the pur- 
pose of the coil (7. It will be 
recalled that the air left the 
fore-cooler at a temperature 
of approximately zero de- 
grees, and although this is a 
relatively low temperature, it is quite high when compared 
with the boiling points of liquid nitrogen and oxygen, which 
are 194 and 184 degrees C below zero, respectively. The 
result is that the passage of the air through coil C causes 
the liquid in the container to boil in the same way that a 
coil containing high-pressure steam would cause water 
to boil. But as the boiling point of nitrogen gas is 10 degrees 
higher than that of oxygen, the nitrogen must be removed 
from the liquid before the oxygen will start to boil. The 
result is that the nitrogen gas passes up through the baffle 
plates /•' in the tower, and in so doing heats the licjuid 
air sufficiently to remove a large part of the nitrogen before 
the liquid actually reaches the container. The boiling of the 
nitrogen sets up a pressure in the interchanger which is 
sufficient to force the liquid oxygen up through the pipe G 
into the inner tube of the double coil H which surrounds 
the tower in which the baffle plates F are located; and the 
nitrogen which has been removed from the mixture passes 
down through the outer tube of the coil H which surrounds 
the tube carrying the oxygen. The result is that the oxygen 
gradftally rises through the inner tube of the coil, and while 
doing so changes from the liquid to the gaseous condition. 


rig. 8. 

In order to keep the temperature of the interchanger down, 
the coils and other portions of the apparatus are carefully 
Insulated by packing the space in the outer case with lamb's 
wool, which effectually prevents the absorption of heat from 
the outside. 

After passing through the coil H in the interchanger, the 
pipes containing the oxygen and nitrogen — which are still 
at a very low temperature — are carried over to the fore- 
cooler where they enter two coils. It will be recalled that 
in the preceding description of the fore-cooler, mention was 
made of these coils through which the low-temperature 
oxygen and nitrogen were passed. The purpose Is to utilize 
the low temperature of these gases to assist the carbon 
dioxide coil in reducing the temperature of the air as it passes 
through the fore-cooler on its way to the interchanger. After 
passing through the coil in the fore-cooler, the oxygen and 
nitrogen pass out through pipes and the oxygen is ready to 
be collected in compression cylinders. At the present time 
the only use for the pure nitrogen gas which Is made by 
this method is in incandescent electric light bulbs. Nitrogen 
is very suitable for this purpose because it is chemically 
inert, and so does not have any effect upon the incandescent 
filament. Research work is also' done with the view of 
developing a method of "fix- 
ing" the nitrogen, i. e., of 
developing a method of chem- 
ically combining the nitrogen 
with some other element or 
elements so that it may be 
used as a fertilizer, and in 
various chemical industries. 
The Linde Air Products Co. 
is prepared to guarantee a 
purity of 98.5 per cent for its 
oxygen, and as a matter of 
fact, the purity is in the 
neighborhood of 99 per cent. 
The 1 per cent of impurity 
is nitrogen which is chemi- 
cally inert, so that it has lit- 
tle detrimental effect upon 
the steel or other metal 
which is being welded. 

The Electrolytic Method of 
Generatinfr Oxytren 

For those shops which use 
oxygen in sufficient quanti- 
ties to warrant the installa- 
tion of a plant for generating 
the gas by the electrolysis of 
water, there is probably no 
more satisfactory method. It 
is well known that water is 
composed of two parts of hy- 
drogen chemically united to one part of oxygen, and that 
when an electric current is passed through water — with the 
necessary amount of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, 
or some other chemical dissolved in it to make the solution 
a conductor of electricity — the chemical bond between the 
hydrogen and oxygen will be broken down. The result is that 
hydrogen gas is given off at the cathode or negative pole, 
and that oxygen is liberated at the anode or positive pole of 
the electrolytic cell. 

In the manufacture of oxygen by this method, the electro- 
lyzer in which the dissociation of the hydrogen and oxygen 
takes place is so arranged that the two gases are kept 
separate from each other and carried off through individual 
pipes. iFig. 11 shows the arrangement of the type of electro- 
lytic cell made by the Davis-Bournonville Co. The reservoir 
in which the potassium hydroxide solution is contained is 
divided by a metal plate .-l ; and an anode B. on which the 
oxygen is formed, is suspended in the solution on each side of 
the partition. The cell itself is made of metal, and the con- 
tainer and metal partition form the cathode or negative 
pole from which hydrogen is evolved. To provide for 
keeping the oxygen and hydrogen separate, an asbestos cur- 


Diagrammatic Section of Oxygen Welding BeglilAtor made by the 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

October, 1915 



Tig. 9. Diafframmatic View of Potasaium-chlorate OxyKt-'D P 

tain surrounds each of the anodes li; this curtain extends 
almost to the top of the cell and keeps the oxygen separate 
from the hydrogen. The oxygen gas is carried off through 
the two pipes D which are connected with the off-take pipe E, 
that carries the oxygen from all of the cells to the gas holder 
In which It is collected. Similarly, the hydrogen is carried 
oft from the cell through pipe F, which is connected with 
pipe G that carries the hydrogen from all of the cells. 

When the electric current Is passed through the cell, the 
entire volume of water is placed in a state of charge, which 
results in the liberation of oxygen at the anode and hydrogen 
at the cathode. There is no tendency for these gases to be 
liberated at any point except at their respective terminals in 
the cell, and so the asbestos separator C will keep the two 
gases from mixing. It is important, however, for the pres- 
sure of the oxygen and hydrogen to be kept the same, in order 
to avoid the tendency for the gas at higher pressure to be 
forced through the asbestos curtain. This equalization of the 
pressure is provided for by having the two pipes E and O 
pass the gas which they carry through two water seals. 
These are arranged so that the pressure head of water is 
the same in each seal, and, as a result, the back pressure 
exerted on the oxygen and hydrogen leaving the cells is 
maintained exactly the same. Some factories make a practice 
of collecting the hydrogen gas which is generated, for use in 
oxy-hydric cutting torches; and, in certain cases, the hydrogen 
has been employed for lilling the bulbs of incandescent electric 
lights. In many shops, however, it is not found worth while 
to attempt to utilize the hydrogen, and in such cases this 
gas is allowed to pass off into the atmosphere. 

Fig. 12 shows the arrangement of a complete plant for the 
generation of oxygen an,d hydrogen by the electrolytic method. 
In which provision is made for collecting both the oxygen 
and hydrogen. In this Illustration, the motor generator 
which supplies current to the electrolytic cells is shown at A. 

The cells are shown at B ; the gas holders for the oxygen 
and hydrogen, at C and D, respectively; the compressors for 
compressing the oxygen and hydrogen, at E and F; and the 
pressure tanks to which the compressors deliver the oxygen 
and hydrogen, at G and H. It will also be noted that pro- 
vision is made for connecting portable cylinders / and J 
direct to the compressors so that these cylinders may be 
filled with oxygen and hydrogen. 

In presenting a description of thf^ operation of the plant, it 
will simplify matters to refer only to the equipment used 
for the generation and compression of the oxygen. The 
equipment shown for handling the hydrogen gas works on 
exactly the same principle, so that one description will apply 
in both cases. Upon leaving the electrolytic cells B. the 
oxygen is passed along to the gas holder C, which is of the 
standard type in which an inverted bell Is suspended over 
water by means of a counterweight. As the oxygen enters 
the gas holder the bell rises, and when it has reached a 
predetermined limit — or when the gas holder is filled to Its 
capacity — an automatic switch is thrown which starts the 
electric motor that drives the oxygen compressor E. This 
results in pumping oxygen out of the gas holder and com- 
pressing it in the oxygen pressure tanks G. These tanks 
are usually arranged for a maximum pressure of 300 pounds 
per square inch, and when this has been obtained a pres- 
sure regulator of the Bourdon spring type, which is located 
on the switchboard A', throws a relay that, in turn, trips the 
compressor motor switch and stops the compressor. 

While the compressor is in action it will be evident that 
oxygen is being withdrawn from the gas holder r. with the 
result that the bell descends; and when the bell has reached 
the lower limit of its travel — so that practically all of the 
oxygen has been pumped out of the holder — an independent 
electric switch will be thrown to stop the compressor motor. 
When the compressor is stopped in this way, the motor gen- 






' i|> -iir 





Fif. 10. Diairammatic Vien o( a Liquidair Oi^fpn Plaot 



OctX)ber, 1915 

erator A continues to run so that the supply of oxygen 
from the electrolytic cells B is continued until the gas holder 
C is filled to its capacity. When this result is obtained the 
normal sequence of events would be for the switch which 
governs the compressor motor to be thrown over, in order 
to start the compressor. It may happen, however, that the 
pressure in the oxygen tanks G is at the maximum of 300 
pounds per square inch; when such is the case means are 
provided to make it impossible for the switch to be thrown 
to start the compressor motor. Under such conditions, an 
automatic switch is thrown, which stops the motor generator 
and cuts off the generation of oxygen in the electrolytic cells. 
As soon as the oxygen in the pressure tanks has been par- 
tially consumed, thus lowering the pressure, the compressor 
motor automatically starts to deliver more oxygen to the 
pressure tanks, with the result that the gas holder starts to 
descend. This, in turn, closes the switch controlling the 
motor-generator set, which restarts the motor-generator and 
causes the electrolytic cells to begin to generate more oxygen. 
The 500-ampere cell requires 1% gallon of water to be added 
each twenty-four hours, and the 1000- 
ampere cell requires 2% gallons of water 
per twenty-four hours; otherwise the 
only attention necessary is the mainten- 
ance of the different units of the plant 
in running order, and this takes very 
little time. The purity of the oxygen 
generated by this process is in excess of 
99 per cent. 


Acetylene has been known for a great 
number of years, having been discov- 
ered in 1836, but until 1892 its production 
was merely a laboratory experiment. In 
that year calcium carbide was accidentally 
manufactured in an electric furnace at 
the works of the Willson Aluminum Co., 
in North Carolina. It was considered of 
no value and was thrown into the river. 
It was then accidentally discovered that 
the gas arising from it when thrown into 
water, would ignite, and a further inves- 
tigation proved that this was acetylene. 
Its commercial exploitation began shortly 
afterward in its use for isolated lighting 
plants, as in a suitable burner it produces 
an intensely white and very pleasing 
flame; and as the generation is compara- 
tively easy and safe, it has attained a 
wide popularity. 

Acetylene is composed entirely of car- 
bon and hydrogen, both of which ele- 
ments, when combined with oxygen, 
burn, producing heat. Acetylene has the 
property of having more heat units per 
cubic foot than any other gas; it contains in this volume 
1630 heat units, or nearly Ave times as many heat units as 
hydrogen. Consequently, if it were completely burned, it 
would produce the maximum temperature possible in a gas 
flame. This was appreciated by a number of experimenters, 
but they found great danger from its explosive properties. 
For instance, if mixed with air and compressed to about 30 
pounds gage pressure, it explodes. Even if not mixed with 
air it cannot be compressed above this pressure and subjected 
to heat, shock or other disturbances without being decom- 
posed into its elements; and then a violent explosion results. 
This is one reason why acetylene generators must be properly 
designed and taken care of; also, to prevent overheating, a 
large excess of water should be used, as one pound of carbide 
will raise the temperature of one gallon of water 90 degrees F. 

It has been found, however, that certain liquids have the 
peculiar property of absorbing many volumes of acetylene. 
The most satisfactory liquid for this purpose is acetone, and 
this is used in all compressed acetylene tanks at the present 
time. It is also found advantageous and safer to fill these 

Fig. 11. One of the 
lytic Oxysei 

cylinders completely full of asbestos or other porous material, 
so that there will be no chance of dead spaces which might 
otherwise become filled with air and make the cylinders 
more or less unsafe. In this porous material is contained 
the acetone, and in the acetone is dissolved the acetylene. 
It Is perfectly safe to compress acetylene into such tanks, 
and they have been subjected to the most violent shocks, 
such as firing a rifle bullet through them, dropping large 
weights on them, and even putting them into hot fires, 
without explosion. Acetylene may also be produced In a 
generator suitable for the purpose by bringing in contact 
water and calcium carbide. This produces gas more cheaply 
than that furnished in tanks, and if the generator is of the 
proper design, it will be found entirely satisfactory for most 

Generatlntr Acetylene Gas 

When calcium carbide is brought into contact with water, 

acetylene is given off and slaked lime left as a residue. 

There are three kinds of generators, the essential differences 

being the methods of uniting the carbide and the water. 

These methods are: 

1. Dropping the carbide into a large 
body of water. 

2. Allowing the water to rise slowly 
against the carbide. 

3. Dropping the water on the carbide. 
The first is by far the safest method; 

it keeps the pressure uniform, gives 
cooler and purer gas, and is in every way 
to be preferred. In any case, the direc- 
tions furnished by the makers of the 
generator should be strictly followed, or 
an explosion may result. The safety 
valve should be tested daily to be sure 
that it is working properly; the regulator 
should be kept in condition so that the 
working pressure will be kept within 
proper limits; leaks of all kinds should 
be carefully avoided; and the feeding 
mechanism should be stopped, and the 
cut-out valve in the supply pipe shut off 
every night or when the generator is out 
of service for any length of time. Keep 
flames or lights of any kind away. An 
excess of precaution is advisable in hand- 
ling acetylene, and the matter of insur- 
ance should receive special attention, as 
improper location or installation may in- 
validate any insurance in force. If the 
generator is worked too hard it will be- 
come hot, and in this condition is dan- 
gerous. The maker can say how many 
torches of a given size should be con- 
nected and working at one time. If a 
generator becomes hot for any reason, 
stop the use and generation of gas until it is cooled down, no 
matter how long it takes. 

A generator with carbide in it should never be moved 
around; it it liable to be upset, and the water, coming sud- 
denly in contact with a large quantity of the carbide, will 
raise the pressure to the explosive point, which is about 30 
pounds per square inch when acetylene has any air mixed 
with it. Fatal accidents have occurred from this. Freezing 
must be guarded against, but if thawing out is necessary, 
hot water applied externally is the only safe method to use. 
Where flash-back chambers are provided, keep them in proper 
condition, filling them with water every time carbide is put 
in. If any part of the generator is not understood by the 
user, consult the manufacturers; they will give full instruc- 
tions and advice. 

The end of the discharge pipe for the residue should be 
where it can be seen, so that if there is a loss of v.-ater due 
to a leaky valve, it can be noticed. If water is gradually 
lost, it may in time entirely drain out, and the generator 
will run hot. It will not give a sufficient or uniform supply 

October, 1915 





of gas and will be In a dangerous condition. Do not open 
the hand-hole, or any opening in the body of the generator, 
under such conditions, as it is liable to produce an explosion. 
Let the generator cool down until it reaches the room tem- 
perature. The proper method of handling depends on the 
type of generator, and if one is not sure what to do, he 
should consult the manufacturer. Explosions will never 
occur if the generator is watched and handled in the proper 

There are two general types of acetylene generators used 
in the United States, which are called high- or medium- 
and low-pressure, respectively. The first uses acetylene under 
a pressure as high as 6 pounds per square inch at the torch, 
while the other uses a pressure of only about as many ounces. 
The torches for these two systems are entirely different in 
construction, and must be handled differently in operation. 
Care must be taken to follow the instructions of the manu- 
facturers in regard to their operation in every case, or sat- 
isfactory results will not be obtained. 

Impurities in Calcium Carbide 

Calcium carbide, being made of coal or coke and lime by 
heating them together in an electric furnace, naturally con- 
tains some of the impurities in these substances. Neither 
coal nor coke is 
free from sul- 
phur, nor Is lime 
entirely free 
fro m phospho- 
r u s ; therefore, 
acetylene made 
in a generator 
will contain 
more or less sul- 
phuretted hydro- 
gen and phos- 
phoretted hydro- 
gen, the amount 
depending on the 
purity of the 
original m a t e - 
rials. These im- 
purities, and the 
exceedingly fine 
dust that is 
.sometimes car- 
ried over with 
the gas, give to 
the welding 
II a ni (' a some- 
w h a t yellow 
color which is 
not noticed 
when dissolved 

. , Fig. 12. Plan of El 

acetylene is 

used, the flame then having a slight violet tinge. 

The presence of these sulphur and phosphorus compounds 
can be shown by a very simple test. Moisten a piece of white 
blotting paper with a 10 per cent solution of nitrate of silver 
and turn a Jet of acetylene on it. If these gases are present, 
the moistened spot will turn black, and a rough idea may 
be obtained of the amount of the impurities by the rapidity 
with which the action takes place, Inasmuch as both sul- 
phur and phosphorus, when present in more than very slight 
amounts, are injurious to iron and steel, it is necessary to 
provide for the removal of these gases from acetylene, it 
important welds are to be made. The importance of purify- 
ing generator acetylene is not realized In this country, 
allhoush both in England and on the Continent purifiers 
are in quite general use. They are of comparatively simple 
construction, and it is believed that it is only a question of 
time until their use will be general in this country. 

Sulphur and phosphorus compounds are not so injurious 
to otluT metals as to iron or steel, and as the quantities are 
small when good carbide is used, ordinary work is not 



i ! i! 11 !l i! i j I! : 

' 1— 1! ^ ^L-JlV Ji- 



j-1. n 


seriously damaged. The dust carried over the gas consists 
very largely of lime, which has an exceedingly injurious 
effect on any steel or iron weld. 

A yellow deposit on the lime residue indicates that the 
generator has been working at too high a temperature, and 
in fact, a dangerous one. It is not often that this is found. 
Generators for Acetylene Gas 
Fig. 13 shows the form of generator developed by the 
Davls-Bournonville Co. for use with its positive-pressure (of- 
ten erroneously referred to as high-pressure) torches. In 
this generator the carbide Is introduced Into the hopper A 
through two filling holes at the top of the generator. As 
acetylene is an extremely Inflammable gas, it must be bandied 
with considerable care. The operation of acetylene genera- 
tors has been made the subject of careful study in the labor- 
atories of the fire underwriters. At present, the rules of the 
Insurance companies require a generator to be operated under 
such conditions that the gas will be produced at the rate of 
1 cubic foot per pound of carbide per hour. As a result, 
means must be provided for dropping the calcium-carbide 
from the hopper A into the water in the generator at a 
prescribed rate. This is accomplished by means of a clock 
motor which Is driven by the counterweight B. This motor 

causes the rota- 
tion of a disk at 
the bottom o t 
the hopper, and 
as the disk re- 
volves the car- 
bide Is swept off 
by an Inclined 
plate or vane. 

With acety- 
lene gas under 
pressure of 
more than two 
atmospheres — 
3 pounds per 
inch — there is 
danger of endo- 
therraic explo- 
sion; and to 
provide an ade- 
quate margin of 
safety, the pres- 
sure of the gas 
in the generator 
is not allowed 
to exceed 15 
pounds per 
square inch. 
When the 
pressure reaches 
15 pounds per square inch, the first one of these two dia- 
phragms is distended, with the result that a locking device 
stops the clock motor and hence cuts off the supply of calcium- 
carbide. As a safety device, a second flexible diaphragm is 
provided which operates at a pressure slightly above 15 
pounds per square inch. In case the first diaphragm should 
fail to work, the second one would rise and engage a locking 
clutch which stops the motor. In addition, a safety valve is 
provided at C which will blow off In the event of the pressure's 
rising above the required point. This safety valve is con- 
nected to a pipe which extends up above the roof of the 
generating house so that the acetylene may be discharged 
into the atmosphere. In this way all danger of explosion Is 

Lump carbide, designated as the lU by =S Inch sire. Is used 
in the generator. When this carbide is dropped from the 
hopper, it sinks to the bottom of the water in the generator, 
and as a result the acetylene gas which is liberated must 
rise through the full depth of water. Two advantages are 
secured in this way: first, the acetylene receives a preliminary 


ctrolytio Oxygon FUnt 



October, 1915 

washing in the generator; and second, the heat produced by 
the chemical reaction of the carbide with the water is ab- 
sorbed by the water so that the gas is passed on at a rela- 
tively low temperature. Upon leaving the generator, the gas 
passes into the pipe D which carries it to the bottom of the 
flash-back chamber E. This chamber is full of water and 
serves the double purpose of giving the gas a second washing 
and forming a water seal between the service pipe and 
the acetylene in the generator. After passing through the 
flash-back chamber the gas enters the filter F which is filled 
with mineral wool that serves to remove suspended impuri- 
ties, and upon leaving this chamber the gas enters the service 
pipe G, from which connection is made direct to the torches. 
It is not within the scope of this article to give instructions 
regarding the operation of the acetylene generator, but the 
manufacturers issue a booklet in which complete information 
is given in regard to this branch of the welding and cutting 
industry. The generators are made in five sizes, with capaci- 
ties for charges of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 pounds, respec- 
tively. One pound of carbide will produce iVz cubic feet of 
acetylene, so that the different sizes of generators will pro- 
duce 112, 225, 
450, 9 0, and 
1350 cubic feet 
of acetylene 
from a single 
charge. These 
generators are 
intended for use 
in shops where 
the acetylene is 
used direct from 
the generator, 
but the Davis- 
I5ournonville Co. 
also makes a 
known as the 
"Navy" type, 
which is design- 
ed for use in 
connection with 
a compression 
plant for collect- 
i n g the acety- 
1 e n e in cylin- 
ders for porta- 
ble use, and 
acetylene can 
also be taken di- 
rect from the 
generator under 
pressure for use 
in the cutting and wehling torches. In this type of plant, 
provision is made for drying the acetylene and removing 
the air from it preparatory to compression. 

The generators which have just been described are made 
for installation in a fixed position, but for some classes of 
work it is desirable to be able to move the source of acety- 
lene about from place to place. To meet this requirement, 
the Davis-Bournonville Co. makes two styles of portable out- 
fits which are shown in Figs. 14 and 15. In one of these, a 
two-wheeled truck is employed, on which are mounted an 
oxygen cylinder and a cylinder containing the acetylene gas. 
In the other style of portable outfit, an acetylene generator 
and a battery of oxygen cylinders are mounted on a four- 
wheeled truck. This equipment is made with either the 25- 
pound or 50-pound acetylene generator, and with a corre- 
sponding number of oxygen cylinders, according to the re- 
quirements of the plant in which it is to be used. It is 
often found convenient to use one of these portable outfits to 
avoid the necessity of moving heavy work, or for working in 
different places in large factories, where it Is easier to take 
the torch to the work than to bring the work to the torch. 
Pig. 16 shows the generator furnished by the Oxweld Acety- 
lene Co. This is a low-pressure generator, used in connection 



with the company's low-pressure torch. The illustration, 
with the arrows indicating the flow of the gas, shows clearly 
the action of the generator. The apparatus to the left is the 
generator proper, while that to the right is the gasometer, used 
for storing the gas at low pressure. 
Acetylene piping should be carefully designed, especially 
in regard to size. Frequently trouble is caused, particularly 
in the case of low-pressure systems, by having the pipe too 
small. The manufacturers of the equipment will give advice 
in this connection. Acetylene piping can be put together with 
ordinary screw joints and pipe grease; or other lubricants, 
such as red or white lead, may be used. It is better, how- 
ever, to weld the pipe and insure in this way against 

In the case of oxygen piping, no grease or oil whatever 
should be used, if it is put together with screw joints, as a 
lubricant should not be depended on to make a pipe joint 
in any case, but only to allow the threads to be easily 
screwed into place, the joint depending on the threads. Soap 
answers the purpose for oxygen pipe very well. It is, how- 
fever, advisable, 
as in the case of 
acetylene p i p - 
Ing, to weld the 
joints. Piping 
for both oxygen 
and acetylene 
should be galva- 
nized. The ends 
of all pipes 
should be ream- 
ed out to make 
the pipe of 
uniform size 
Where piping is 
welded, no fi t - 
tings should be 
used. Valves 
should be of the 
best quality and 
o f suflBciently 
large area, par- 
ticularly with a 
low-pressure sys- 
tem, to avoid re- 
ducing the pres- 
sure. After the 
piping is all 
erected, it 
should be tested 
to at least 100 
pounds pressure per square inch, and leaks, if any, stopped. 
The best method of testing is with soap suds, brushed not 
only on the Joints, but all over the pipe, as there are sometimes 
pin holes or slight defects in the body of the pipe. 
Acetylene and Oxytren Tanks 
Portable acetylene tanks are provided by the makers of 
acetylene gas, from whom they may be obtained on reasonable 
terms. The cost of the gas is about 2Vj times that made in 
a generator, but this expense is warranted in some cases 
even for shop work, on account of the tanks costing less 
than the generator. Each case has to be considered separ- 
ately. The larger the shop, the greater the advantage in the 
use of a generator. The charging pressure of these tanks is 
about 225 pounds per square inch, but this varies so much 
with the temperature that the pressure alone is no indication 
of the amount of gas in the tank. It is sometimes found 
that after working an hour or so, the pressure is equal to or 
greater than that at the start, due to the tank being warmer. 
Tanks should be kept in a cool place and the outlet capped 
to be sure that there is no chance for a leak. 

Compressed acetylene should never be used at a greater 
rate per hour than one-seventh of the capacity of the tank. 
For instance, if a tank holds 300 cubic feet, 45 cubic feet per 



October, 1915 



hour is about the maximum rate at which the acetylene 
should be drawn. If it is necessary to use a torch large 
enough to exceed this rate, two or more tanks should be 
coupled together with manifolds which can be procured from 
the manufacturers of the tanks, or made in any good machine 
shop. A greater rate of discharge than that stated above 
results in some of the acetone being drawn out, which is 
liable to cause bad welds. 

The Federal law requires that in shipping a tank contain- 
ing oxygen, or a full acetylene tank, a label be pasted on it, 
colored green or red, respectively, and worded according to 
the instructions on the subject issued by the Bureau of Ex- 
plosives, 30 Vesey St., New York City, from which copies may 
be obtained. Empty oxygen tanks need no label, but the bill 
of lading or express receipt should specify that the tanks are 
empty, in order to obtain the advantage of the lower freight 
rate. Empty acetylene tanks must have the red label re- 
moved before shipment and can only be shipped by freight. 
Any tank found to be detective should be tagged, and the 
manufacturers notified by letter. It occasionally happens that 
a valve cannot be shut. Such a matter should be reported to 
the manufacturers, and if the valve is found defective, they 

sideration, particularly with a low roofed building, as the heat 
from heavy welding fires is great. Overhead wooden truss 
members and Joists should have the accumulation of dust 
cleaned oft at frequent intervals, as it Is liable to catch fire 
from charcoal sparks. A coat of whitewash, using the acety- 
lene generator residue, is a good thing to keep sparks from 
catching, as well as being of considerable assistance in lighting 
the shop. Charcoal fires should be kept covered with asbestos 
paper to hold sparks down. It should be remembered that 
even if the fire insurance were paid the day after the fire, 
there would be a great loss from not being able to do business 
and that, therefore, all precautions should be taken. Insur- 
ance should be considered as a protection against the mis- 
takes of others, and not as a license to be careless. If every- 
one would act as If no insurance could be collected for damage 
caused by his own carelessness, there would be fewer fires, 
and insurance rates would not be as high as they are. 
Eye Protection 
Dark glasses should always be worn while welding, as one's 
eyes are liable to be injured, particularly by the intense glare 
from the flux used in welding cast iron. For cast iron, very 
dark glasses, with a greenish tinge, are most suitable. For 

Fig. 16. 

will make an adjustment for the amount of gas lost. All 
tanks, both oxygen and acetylene, are provided with safety 
disks or plugs. These are intended to prevent excessive pres- 
sure caused by heat or otherwise, by allowing the gas to 
escape gradually and thus prevent an explosion. In some 
cases these safety devices are so arranged that they are 
sealed to prevent tampering with them. If this seal Is broken 
no adjustment will be made. Therefore, if anything goes 
wrong with the valve or disk, do not attempt to repair it, 
but return it in exactly the condition in which it was found. 
(If course, it an acotylono tank .■should leak, it should be 
placed out of doors to avoid danger of explosion. The per- 
centage ot such ditllculties is exceedingly small. 
Fire Risk 
Chlorate of potash and carbide are both dangerous from a 
fire standpoint, and should be kept outside of the shop, pre- 
ferably in a shed separated entirely from the building. Most, 
if not all, cities regulate the storage of these chemicals. If 
possible, a shop location should be selected away from a bad 
lire risk, such as a lumber yard, planing mill, cabinet shop, 
oil store, etc., as these automatically increase the insurance 
rate no matter how well the welding shop is protected. The 
installing of automatic sprinklers should receive careful con- 

other metals, lighter colored glasses are better, as they permit 
a clearer vision of what is being done. In any case, glasses 
are dark enough, if immediately after welding It Is possible 
to see clearly, without being bothered with white spots in 
front of the eyes after taking oft the glasses. 

Machine Tool Equipment (or Weldlntr Shops 

The machine tool equipment to be provided will depend 
upon circumstances. For a shop where welding alone Is done, 
the following should be provided: 24-inch upright drill; floor 
stand; two-spindle emery wheel for 10-inch wheels; flexible 
shaft grinder with 6-inch wheel. These tools can be driven by 
a small electric motor, if current is available. Any other 
motive power can be used, although a gasoline engine should 
be carefully installed to avoid fire risk. The author permits 
no gasoline in his shops under any pretext whatever. 

For a large shop, or where a good machine shop Is not 
available, it may be necessary to install more machinery. The 
following additional tools will cover practically everything 
necessary: Lathe, 20-inch swing, 4 feet between centers: 
lathe, 30-inch swing, S feet between centers; planer, 36-inoh by 
36-inch by 6 feet; pillar shaper. 12-inch stroke; horizontal 
boring mill, 4 feet between heads; 3-foot plain radial drill. 

These tools must be accurate, but as there is no question 



October, 1915 

of production in quantity Involved, they may be of light and 
simple construction; for instance, it is not necessary to have 
quiclc change-gears on the lathes. All such expense should 
be avoided. Very careful thought should be given to the 
machine tool equipment. It is expensive, and unless enough 
work is (lone, it will not pay to install it, but it will be 
cheaper to do the work with hand tools, or even send it to a 
shop at some distance. 

The real cost of operating a machine is frequently under- 
estimated. Interest, depreciation, repairs, insurance and 
laxes have to be paid, even if not charged in the operating 
expenses. Taking the sum of these items at 15 per cent per 
year on the cost of a machine, and assuming the installed 
cost at $2000, there will be a monthly expense of $25 
against the machine. If it is operated 200 hours per month, 
the hourly expense will be I214 cents; if it is used only 20 
hours per month, the hourly expense will be $1.25. It is 
evident that no ordinary charge for work, say 60 or 75 cents 
per hour, will cover the latter expense, which Is exclusive of 
labor, power and supplies. Each case is a law in itself, and 
all that is urged 
is that careful 
and intelligent 
consideration be 
given, to avoid 
financial loss. 
Other Equipment 

It is generally 
necessary to 
heat pieces be- 
fore welding to 
obtain a sound 
weld as well as 
to economize in 
the gases. For 
this purpose, 
plain blacksmith 
forges are the 
most convenient 
for small work. 
Their tuyeres 
should be level 
with the bottom 
of the pan, 
which should be 
of cast iron. The 
pan should 
measure about 
23 by 36 inches 
inside and 
about 4 inches 
deep, which will 
allow the bot- 
tom to be lined 
with 1 - i n c h 
thick firebrick, laid in fire-clay, and still leave the sides high 
enough to keep the fire off the floor. The simplest fan drive 
is good enough, as it is never used except in starting the 
fire. It is well to have plenty of forges, as a good welder 
on moderate-sized work can keep two or three busy without 
any difHculty. 

For heavy work a concrete or brick floor is necessary; this, 
if of concrete, should be at least 6 inches thick, laid on a solid 
foundation of cinders that should be free from coal and 
well rammed; and proper provision should be made for drain- 
age. The concrete may be a rather lean mixture, but should 
have a top dressing % inch thick of a rich cement mortar. 
The floor should be about 10 feet by 15 feet or 12 feet by 12 
feet, preferably the former, as it is more convenient for a 
number of fires. Over the floor should be some kind of 
hoist of a capacity of about 3 tons, which will handle almost 
any work that can be brought into the shop. The kind of 
hoist depends upon the circumstances, such as the construc- 
tion of the building, space around the floor, etc. A jib crane 
is very convenient, but expensive. If the roof trusses are 
strong enougli, an I-beam extending between them and carry- 

ing a trolley and chain hoist is ample and cheap. If the 
floor of the building is of concrete, be sure that it is heavy 
enough to stand considerable heat. Of course a fire should 
never be built directly on the concrete. A layer of firebrick 
can be placed under the entire area to be covered \9 the 
fire, and the piece laid on this raised enough to get the fire 
in place; or plates of cast iron or steel can be laid on bricks 
to give air space underneath and the fire built on the plates. 
Cast-iron plates 1 by 3 feet are best. They should have 
1-inch holes cored in them about 6 inches apart for draft, and 
when setting up, they should be left slightly apart for the 
same reason. Angle-plates of the same general design may be 
used for walls instead of bricks, and in some cases are very 
convenient. They should not have any holes in them. They 
radiate more heat than bricks, but do not fall over so easily. 
Some of them should be 18 inches long for small fires. 

Firebrick will also be needed for holding the fires in place 
on the forges, and for use on the floor. Hard-burned brick, 
while not so good for the regular purpose for which firebrick 
is used, Is better for this purpose, as it does not break or 

chip so easily in 

Examples of 

Fig. 17 shows 
a cast-iron table 
30 inches wide 
and 60 inches 
long. It is plan- 
ed on the top, 
bottom and a 1 1 
edges, and has 
a support made 
of old %-inch 
pipe welded to- 
gether. It is 26 
inches high 
from the floor, 
which is found 
to be most con- 
venient, as small 
work can be 
done by the 
welder while 
sitting, and for 
large work, such 
as rear axles, 
rear axle hous- 
ings, cylinders, 
etc., which have 
to be tested, and 
which are fre- 
quently setup 
high on block- 
ing. Is not too 
high for convenience. Another view of the table is shown 
in Fig. IS, which also shows an angle-plate that is very con- 
venient. It will be noticed that the rib Z). which is -.'^ inch 
thick, extends on two sides of the table, while the other two 
sides are provided with a flange B. As stated, all of these 
edges are planed. This permits of clamping pieces vertically 
or horizontally, as the case may be, and has been found to be 
an exceedingly convenient arrangement. 

Fig. 17 also shows what was originally designed as a jig 
for welding crankshafts, although it has been found that it is 
a valuable appliance for many other purposes, particularly in 
welding bars, tubing, etc., that must be kept straight. It is 
shown at C. The V-blocks are provided with tongues which 
slide in the groove D; the slots E and F are at unequal dis- 
tances from the groove. This is done to insure proper setting 
of the V-blocks. The base is planed on top and bottom, and 
after the bases of the V-blocks were machined, they were 
bolted in place and the V's in the top of them planed at the 
same time to insure absolute alignment. The V-block caps 
have the holes for the studs drilled % inch large, so that 
there will be no difficulty in clamping when screwed down 

pressure Acetylene Generator 

October, 1915 



Fiif. 17. Welding T:;ble, Wcldins Jig. Bud V-Mocks 

on a round piece. The base of this Jig is 10 inches wide and 
3fi inches long. The V-bloclts are of different thicknesses, 
the wide ones being 2V1> inches and the narrow ones 1% inch. 
This permits of getting into corners, which is sometimes de- 
sirable. There are also shown a plate of graphite at A and 
a set of ordinary V-blocks at B. which are better shown in 
Fig. 19. Two sets of these are useful for holding shafts and 
similar pieces that must be kept straight in welding, and will 
be found of advantage for many other purposes. The six 
V-blocks should be made from one casting, first planed and 
then cut off to the required thickness. Each one of a pair 
should be planed to the same thickness, and the 1- and IVi-inch 
sizes together should have the same thickness as the 2%-inch 
size. The grooves should be 
planed in the casting before 
cutting oft, to enable the 
blocks to be placed in the 
same line as when originally 
planed, it being difficult other- 
wise to plane the V's ex- 
actly symmetrical. The va- 
rious devices shown in these 
two illustrations make it pos- 
sible to take care of almost any shape that must be kept 
square or In line. 

A kerosene-oil burner can, in many cases, be used for heating 
large articles in vvliich contraction strains will not cause any 
trouble, and is useful to have in a welding shop. 

The general tendency in a shop of any kind is to allow 
bars, mandrels or similar material to lie around in corners 
or under the bench where they are difficult to roach, and fre- 
ciucntly damaged. A rack for such parts, shown in Fig. 20, Is 
safer, and improves the appearance of the shop. This rack is 
about 5 feet long and 3 feet high, and is made out of old 
%-inch pipe welded tocethpr. On the right-hand end is 

FiK- 18. Anothp 

of Woldinr Table and Angle FI> 

shown a device which in its different forms is frequently of 
service in preventing the melting of babbitt bearings. It 
cannot be used in all cases, but where there is much work of 
one kind to be done, it pays to use it. This particular device 
consists of cold-drawn steel tubing about % inch thick and of 
proper outside diameter to fit the bearings of the Ford auto- 
mobile cylinder block. When it is necessary to do any weld- 
ing on one of these cylinders, this piece is clamped into the 
bearings Just tight enough so that it will not turn readily, 
and filled with water. The ends shown hanging down stand 
up straight. Any change in the position of the cylinder in 
the fire can be taken care of by keeping the legs upright. 
It is necessary to watch the water carefully so that it does 
not evaporate. 

Fig. 21 shows the use of 
the cooling apparatus for pre- 
serving the babbitt bearings 
in the upper half of a Ford 
crank-case. The illustration 
shows the device held in place 
by wires. This was found at 
the first trial to be unsatis- 
factory, as It did not hold the 
pipe in contact with the bearings closely enough, and at the 
present time bolts and 'i-inch pieces of steel are used to 
overcome the trouble. 

Miscellaneous Equipment 
A substantial work bench with one or two vises should 
be provided. It two vises are provided, one vise should have 
Jaws 5 inches wide, for general use; the other may be a sec- 
ond-hand one, to be used for holding pieces while welding, 
when they cannot be easily blocked up so that the welder can 
reach all parts of the weld. The good vise should never be 
used for welding, as the heat will in the course of time draw 
the temper of the Jaws. Of course the total number of vises 

Pip* Kandnl nitd to prtTut MdtiBf of Babbitt Boariac* 



October, 1915 




■K — "^^NH 

' '^' ''^-■'.^:^'^^^^^^^k 



Fig. 22. Miscellaneous Clamps and Blocking required in Welding 

and size and number of benches will depend on the number of 
welders employed. For four men, one old vise and two good 
ones will be enough; the bench may have a length of about 
25 feet, or three small benches may be used. Several pairs of 
"pick-up" tongs for handling bricks and other hot objects, and 
gas pliers 10-inch and 13-inch sizes for use around the forges 
are necessary; their screwdriver ends should be ground off or 
bent over to make them safe when lifting with the end toward 
the face. The sharp end has caused bad injuries. As soon 
as the jaws become slippery, the pliers, should, of course, be 
thrown away. 

In many cases, especially where the pieces are of cast iron, 
and heavy, or where lugs or projections have tc be built 
higher than the adjacent surfaces, time will be saved by build- 
ing a dam of some refractory material of the proper shape, 
and melting the metal into it. The best material for this in 
the case of cast iron or steel is a graphite mixture, such as is 

used in crucibles. This can be obtained in blocks of any size 
and shape, by ordering it specially; but rectangular blocks 
from i,i inch thickness up, and round rods of various diame- 
ters, for use in keeping holes from filling up, are stock sizes, 
and can be obtained on short notice from crucible manufac- 
turers. An assorted stock will be of great aid in quick work. 
In using this material, it will be found advisable to have it 
in position while preheating. It is more or less porous, and 
when covered over during the welding, the heated air com- 
ing from the pores will cause pin holes, as it has no other 
way to escape than through the weld. Preheating the graphite 
expels some of the air and leaves less to cause trouble; but 
if a smooth, thoroughly sound weld is required, it will be 
necessary to turn the piece over, remove the graphite, and 
melt the metal until the blowholes are eliminated. 

An assortment of C-clamps, with from 3- to 10-inch opening, 
is needed for clamping work together or to the table; also two 

Fig. 23. View of Welding Shop 

October, 1915 



Fig. 24. Preheating floor for Building Firci 

bar clamps taking in about 30 
or 36 inches, such as are used 
by carpenters; these are handy 
for long work. Of course the 
regular metal-working hand 
tools will be needed, such as 
hammers, chisels, files, hack- 
saws, calipers, squares, 
straightedges, surface gages, 
etc. A number of cold-rolled 
steel bars, about 30 inches long, 
and of various diameters, are 
of great assistance in lining up 
automobile crank-cases a n d 
other parts. They may be ob- 
tained as they are needed. 

A collection of pieces of 
scrap of various sizes and 
thicknesses for liners, as 
shown in Fig. 22, is necessary 
for lining up. The thicknesses will range from a piece of tin 
to 2 inches. The thicker ones should be of cast iron, to avoid 
injury by heat. It is also of advantage to have some of the 
thicker pieces In pairs and planed to the same thickness. 
These pieces should not be exposed to great heat, to avoid 
warping them. They are of special advantage in blocking up 
pieces with finished surfaces. 

Asbestos building paper is used to protect the welder from 
the heat; to confine the heat to the piece being heated; to keep 
drafts off a casting that has been welded, which without 
such protection would tend to crack; and after it has been 
broken up so small as to be useless for these purposes, it i.s 
valuable for packing cylinders, etc., to allow them to cool uni- 
formly. This material comes in rolls of about 100 pounds 
and in thicknesses varying from 6 to 12 pounds per 100 square 
feet. The 8-pound material is heavy enough for general use. 
Plaster-of-Paris Patterns 

Some knowledge of patternmaking is very helpful, espe- 
cially where pieces of some size are missing. It is ex- 
pensive to fill up such places with the torch. If a pattern 
can be made to fit, its use will make a cheaper and better 
looking job, particularly if the surface is irregular. Even if 
the pieces are not missing, but are many in number and 
small, so that the total lensfth of welds would exceed the 
length of the weld required if a single casting were used for 
the repair, it generally pays to make one. Plaster-of-paris 
is the most convenient material to use for patterns for this 
purpose. Wooden patterns are very expensive, and unless 
they are simple, and a number of castings are to be made, 
are out of the question. 

It requires some experience to handle plaster-of-paris suc- 
cessfully, and it is impossible to lay down rules f(ir its use 
that will fit all eases. 
Therefore, the following 
su.ugestions will not al- 
ways apply, and good 
judgment and ingenui- 
ty will have to be used: 

Do not mix the pins- 
ter toa dry, or it will 
set too soon. 

Do not mix too much 
at once, hut have sev- 
eral batches ready to 
mix one after anotluT, 
if a large quantity Is 

Prepare the piece by 
chipping or In o t h i' r 
ways, so that the pat- 
tern will CO 111 (■ u t 

Make the shape of 
the pattern as simple as 
possible, by cutting out 
irregularities a r o u ii d 
the sides. The sum oi 
two sides of a triani;U' 
is always greater than 
the third side, and cut- Fig. »». Int«rn«tion»l Oiygen Co, 

ting off angles, of course, 
means a saving in welding. 

Bevel the edge of a cast-iron 
piece before pouring the plas- 
ter-of-paris, and bevel the edge 
of the pattern before taking it 
out; it comes out more easily 
and saves preparing the cast- 

Do not bevel too much, but 
leave enough so that it can be 
fitted tightly in place. This 
helps in less contraction of the 
weld. The fit need not be per- 
fect, but the better it is the 
better the Job will be. 

In the case of aluminum, Qt 
well, but do not bevel unless 
over % inch thick, and then 
leave about >4 inch bearing, as 
aluminum crushes easily when 
hot, and there should be bear- 
ing enough to force expansion 
without crushing, if possible. 
Have the molder rap the 
pattern well; the shrinkage of cast iron in casting is % inch 
per foot, and of aluminum 7/32 inch per foot. In the case 
of large patterns it will be necessary to add the needed amount 
to the proper edges and surfaces to allow for the shrinkage, 
and enough more to permit of any finishing that may be 

General Shop Arrang-ement 

Fig 23 shows one of the author's shops. The arrangement 
is not ideal, because there are windows only on one side of 
the shop which leaves considerable floor space that cannot 
be utilized. The arrangement of the forges and welding 
table should be noticed, particularly with reference to the 
work bench. In arranging a welding shop, the welding table 
and forges should be located near a good light, preferably 
daylight, so that the lining-up of work can be done quickly 
and accurately. 

Old carbide cans are used under the forges to catch the 
ashes from the charcoal fires. These cans are kept partly 
full of water all the time. Before closing at night, the 
wooden floor around the forges is well soaked with water. 

The acetylene generator room A is built in accordance with 
the underwriters' requirements and has a standard fire-door. 
No light, except daylight, is permitted in the room, nor is 
there any opening except one window and the door into the 
shop. It would be preferable to have the door opening from 
the outside of the building into this room, but in this case 
it could not be so arranged. The work on the concrete floor 
shown in the foreground is reached by the use of long hose 
extending from the regulating valves on the wall. 

Fig. 24 shows the concrete floor on which the heavy weld- 
ing is done. In certain cases, as for instances, when a large 
number of cylinders are to be repaired, and the forges are in 
use for other work, sp.oial fires, as at B, are built on It. 

Of course such fires are 
not built directly on the 
floor, but on sheet-iron 
or cast-iron plates 
which rest on bricks. 
There are four cylin- 
ders of various sizes In 
the fire B. At D is a 
home-made furnace 
lined with firebrick I 
inch thick on the bot- 
tom and sides which Is 
used for preheating. 
Its dimensions are 25 
by 21 by 10 Inches, and 
the top angle-iron is 34 
Inches from the floor. 
A better slie is 42 by 21 
by 12 Inches deep. A fur- 
nace of these dimen- 
sions would be large 
enough to handle the 
largest •'six-ln-block" 
Appuatui for makiag oxTgrr. cylinder made. 



October, 1915 

Oopyrlirbt, 1916, by THE INDUSTRIAL PRESS 

Bntered at the Poat-Offlce In New York Olty aa Second-Claas Matl Mattar 






Cable address, Machloery New York 

Alexander Luchars, President and Treasurer 

Mattbew J. O'Neill. G-aneral Manaffer 

Robert B. Lucbars, Secretary 

Fred E. Rogers, Editor 

Brlk Obersr. Franklin D. Jouea. Dpufflas T. namllton. 

Chester L. Lucas, Edward K. Hammond, 

Associate Editors 

Yearly subscription— $2.00; coated paper, $2.60; Forelom edition, $8.00. 
The receipt of a subscription is acknowledged by sending the current number. 
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We solicit contributions from practical men on subjects pertaining to 
machine shop practice and machine design. All contributed matter published 
exclusively In MACHINERY is paid for at our regular space rates unless 
other terms are agreed on. 

OCTOBER, 1915 



In this number begins a series of articles on oxy-acetylene 
welding and cutting which will cover the subject thoroughly 
and be of great value to those engaged in this kind of work. 
The author of the articles, who has conducted a successful 
oxy-acetylene welding repair shop for over five years, has 
endeavored to describe the principles in general use on re- 
pair work. Photographs are invaluable aids to description, 
and a large number showing actual operations will be in- 
cluded — all of work done successfully in the author's own 

It should be understood that even a man who is fairly 
expert with the welding torch may find it difficult to pre- 
pare or preheat a repair job which is different from any with 
which he is familiar. Even with wide experience, it is not 
always possible to say off-hand how a piece of work can be 
best handled, and often the desired results cannot be obtained 
at the first trial. The beginner is therefore sometimes dis- 
couraged because he does not obtain satisfactory results; but 
he should persevere. In acetylene welding practice, progress 
is slow, and it is best to undertake at first only such work as 
a novice is fitted to handle, until the operator gains suf- 
ficient experience to warrant him in undertaking more dif- 
ficult work. 

The experience of the author in the oxy-acetylene welding 
field has been unusually extensive, but having been mostly on 
repair work he has written for those engaged in a similar 
line. Little mention will be made of the many applications 
of the welding torch in manufacturing work, as these appli- 
cations are special in each case, and sometimes require a 
great deal of experimenting before success is attained. Most 
of the work so far done with the oxy-acetylene welding torch 
has been on repairs, and while descriptions have appeared 
from time to time in the mechanical journals of repair work, 
they represent isolated cases, and not complete repair work 
practice; so this treatise will fill a gap in existing mechani- 
cal literature. 

In this series time and cost data have been purposely 
omitted, because in the present state of the practice it is not 
possible to give accurate data on repair work. Two good 
welders working on repairs of a similar character will often 
vary as much as 50 per cent In the time consumed, and as 
shop conditions also vary to a great extent, It is almost im- 
possible to give accurate figures regarding costs. 


When the European war broke out, few manufacturers 
realized what the effect of the stoppage of commerce between 
America and Germany would be; but soon the full force of 
the embargo laid on many German manufactured products 
was felt, and consternation reigned. It was impossible to 
obtain supplies from abroad, and conditions in this country 
did not seem to warrant the establishment of factories for 
the manufacture of chemicals and other supplies formerly 
obtained from Europe. It was feared that if the war ended 
suddenly the "infant" industries established here would perish, 
because our markets would be again supplied with foreign 
products at prices much lower than American manufacturers 
could compete with. 

The war has lasted over a year and its end is not yet in 
sight, so American manufacturers have taken courage and 
have established factories for producing many of the supplies 
formerly obtained abroad, and in many cases are making big 
profits. Last July the market price of picric acid was forty 
cents a pound; now it is $1.70. Before the war began the price 
of carbolic acid was seven cents a pound; now It is $1.35. 
Prices of metals have increased from 25 to 100 per cent. 
As a result of these unlocked for changes during the past 
year the great steel companies are planning to produce raw 
materials and by-products which formerly were purchased 
abroad to the extent of hundreds of dollars annually. 

The effect of the war doubtless will be to give the industrial 
life of America a great impetus, and to make it more inde- 
pendent of foreign supplies than it was before. It will tend 
to develop here a class of industrial experts such as has 
flourished in Germany. But this must be done without ex- 
pecting that a high tariff will be created for protection. 
This country Is too great, and its tendencies are too well 
defined in the direction of freer trade, to permit it to revert 
to the high protective tariff policy. 


The sb-called "practical man" often sneers at the impractical 
ideas of the theorist; and just because he has sneered so much 
and so long at the man with a theory, he is today doing his 
practical work in much the same way as it was done a 
quarter of a century ago. 

"The practical man," says one of the most brilliant and 
original of the investigators in the machine tool field today, 
"is a man who knows the limitations of doing certain work in 
a certain way; but he does not endeavor to exceed these 
limitations, because he knows from experience that he would 
meet with failure; and he does not inquire into the whys 
and wherefores of the limitations. He does not concern him- 
self with the reason for the heating of a cutting tool beyond 
the limit of endurance, for example, when a certain cutting 
speed is exceeded. He accepts facts as they are presented." 

Now the theorist conies along and says: "There must be a 
reason for this limitation. If I can find the cause 1 may be 
able to overcome it." So he sets out to think along new lines, 
not merely accepting the apparent results of past experience. 
He thinks out a new way of doing the same work, so as to 
avoid the causes that created the practical man's limitations. 
He broaches his new idea, and the practical men are likely 
to join in saying: "He is too impractical. He hasn't had 
experience. Whoever heard of anyone trying to do this 
work in such a way before?" If the man of theory — that is, 
the man of a new idea — has no influence to make himself 
heard, that is the end of It; but if he has a chance to experi- 
ment, to try out his ideas, the result in the end is often a 
complete reversal of practice. After having been shown, the 
practical man adopts the new theory, calls it good practice. 
and holds on to it tenaciously if anyone attempts a change. 

The practical man believes that there is "too much theory." 
As a matter of fact, there is too little. The theory of yesterday 
is the practice of today, and the more assistance we can en- 
list from theory today, the better practice will we have 



T is generally essential that a weld be made 
through the whole section of a break. Some- 
times this is not necessary, and in exceptional 
cases it may be impossible; for instance, in the 
case of a break through the eye of a cast-iron 
piece, where the diameter of the hole is small, 
compared with its length, it is generally impossible to reach 
all of the crack with the torch from the inside of the hole, 
and there is danger of producing hard spots, which cannot be 
removed except with special grinding machinery that is not 
usually available. In such cases extra caution must be used to 
insure a saHsfactory Job. 

For ordinary work it is sufficient to bevel the edges of the 
broken parts so that when placed together the included angle 
will be 90 degrees, and so that just enough of the old break 
will be left to enable it to be correctly set up for welding. 
The reason for opening the break to a 90-degree angle Is to 
permit the flame of the torch to get to the bottom of the V. 
so that the metal may be melted thoroughly and the natural 
bridging effect of the melted metal, with the resulting imper- 
fect weld, may be avoided. It is not unusual for even an 
experienced welder io find such an imperfection in one of his 
welds, particularly if it is a, rush Job; and it is one of the 
difficulties' a beginner must carefully avoid, partlcular\y if 
the piece can be welded from one side only, as is frequently 
the case. In such cases the crack must bo entirely burned 
through with the torch, even if drops of metal remain hanging 
under the weld. 

It is especially important that the 90-degree angle be 
maintained in preparing steel. This metal sets so rapidly 
that the bottom of the weld will be full of cold shuts, or a 
great amount of time will be lost and gases wasted in burn- 
ing away metal to get a good w^eld, unless the beginning of 
the weld Is made easy to reach. It is also advisable, partic- 
ularly with torches having comparatively light tips, to have 
plenty of room for the flame to spread, and avoid burning 
the tip. 

A very good way of preparing parts where there is not 
sufficient room for a 90-degree angle, and also for he.ivy 
welds, by which a considerable saving of gases and time 
may be accomplished, is to drill out the bottom of the crack 

with a ''s-inch drill and bevel the sides to less than 9U 
degrees. This applies to both steel and cast iron, and is 
especially useful when the break is in a comer, where it Is 
evident that a 90-degree angle cannot be obtained. This 
method also frequently reduces the time of preparing the 
work, as w'ith cast iron the remainder of the V can be easily 
removed with a sledge and handle chisel. 

The piece should always be prepared from both sides when 
possible, resulting in a double V, as shown in Fig. 1. It 
will be evident, upon a little consideration, that this needs 
only half the welding that a single V does, besides which, It 
tends to produce a better weld. A crack remaining in the 
center of a piece is not nearly as dangerous as if it were on 
the outside, and the shallower the V, the more readily is a 
good weld made. 

Any method of making the V is allowable, the object being 
to open up the V well, and to permit of making the best and 
easiest weld. For small pieces of any metal, an emery wheel 
is probably as good as any. Cold chisels and sledges or 
hammers are excellent for cast iron, where the piece will 
stand their use. In some cases a hacksaw is most useful. 
Drilling along the crack and chipping out the bridges roughly 
is a good method where the piece is cracked and not broken. 
The drill should be ground to an included angle of the lips 
of about 120 degrees, and the point of the drill should just 
go through the metal. If it goes too far, there will be trouble 
on account of the bottom of the hole burning through too 
quickly, especially if a heavy tip must be used. The diame- 
ter of the drill should be about e<iual to the thickness of 
the piece to be welded. 

There Is one method which is of much assistance in such 
cases, for example, as that of a large pipe or pipe fitting 
flange broken otT at the root, where the body of the casting 
is not very thick, say \ inch. A fitting, such as an elbow, 
must be kept in a fire to avoid cracking and Is awkward to 
turn while red-hot, as well as hard on the welder. The 
part being welded would ordinarily be above the fire by an 
amount equal to about the diameter of the flange, which 
would allow It to cool rapidly, making welding difficult and 
probably resulting in a cracked casting when cooled. If. how- 
ever. 111. iii-;i.l. ot the crack be chipped out to the regular V 



October, 1915 

halt way through, and the outside e Iges left nearly parallel, 
and about % inch apart, leaving a faw narrow parts of the 
old crack to line it up by, the elbow can be set with the 
flange downward in the Are and allowed to remain there 
until the outside is entirely welded. This Is easily done by 
playing the flame between the parallel sides of the crack, 
which, as they confine tho htat closely, soon become melted, 

and run together at 
the bottom, with care- 
ful handling of the 
torch; after this, suf- 
ncient metal is added 
10 complete the out- 
: ide of the weld. It is 
then an easy matter 
10 weld the inside, as 
the part worked on 
c n be in the fire all 

Tig. 1. Work beveled from Both Sides 

the time. 

It is sometimes best not to bevel the edges o£ the pieces. 
This is true of thin pieces, where it Is unnecessary. In the 
case of cast iron and steel, pieces % inch thick or less can be 
welded without making the V. In aluminum nothing less 
than V2 inch thick and in brass and bronze nothing less than 
Vi inch thick should be beveled. These rules are only ap- 
proximate and experience will determine what should be 
done. At the beginning, it may be best to bevel everything 
with the exception of very thin pieces, except in aluminum. 

Sometimes it is best to burn out the crack without beveling 
it. This is true of an irregular piece, not very heavy in 
section, on which there are no finished surfaces that can be 
used for lining up, and which has to be lined up true by the 
crack. It should not be forgotten that burning out is expen- 
sive and should not be resorted to unless necessary. The 
metal is melted with the torch, and pulled out with the 
welding stick, until the V is made, when welding proceeds 
as usual. 

It requires considerable ingenuity sometimes to prepare a 
piece, especially a heavy one, with an irregular break, so 
that ;; minimum of handling will result, as It is neither 
desirrblc nnr comfortable to handle a heavy red-hot piece. 
After it i:; o:iJO set up, it i.s sometimes dangerous to turn a 
heavy piece over, as the weld may break, or a sudden draft 
may crack it outside of the weld. The author has seen 
many pieces where the first consideration in preparing has 
been ease of handling while hot, and the cheapness of pre- 
.paring has been a minor matter. 

Handling- Heavy Hot Pieces 

It is well to speak here of handling heavy hot pieces; they 
have frequently, even with the best preparation, to be turned 
over or moved during the welding. It does not do to be at 
all uncertain of what will have to be done at such times; and 
it has been found very helpful in case of doubt, to put the 
cold piece through the motions that are thought to be advisa- 
ble when welding, using chains, hoists, bars, rollers, etc., 
just as if the piece were hot. The temptation to use the 
hands on the piece in this test must be carefully avoided. 
This trial shows what changes, if any, should be made in the 
plans, and also has the advantage that all tools used may 
be laid together till needed, and great loss of time and temper 
avoided by not having to hunt for them while under stress 
of work. It would appear, therefore, that before starting a 
job, careful attention must be paid to planning, as the prepar- 
ation has a very important bearing ou the quality, speed, 
ease and cost of the work. 

General Remarks on Preparation for Weldlntf 

After the piece is beveled, it is necessary to set it up so 
that it can be readily welded; the method of preparation will 
have an important bearing on this, sometimes deciding the 
question. Other things being equal, the piece should be set 
with the weld on top, so that the melted metal will not run 
away. It Is easy to weld steel on the side or even on the 
bottom of a piece, and cast iron, brass and bronze may also 
be so handled by an expert welder; but it is more difficult to 
produce as good a weld, and some metal is lost, making it a 

^ilower and mere expensive process. _ Aluminum can also be 
so welded, being nearly as easy to handle as steel, but it is 
seldom necessary to resort to the practice. 

Next in importance to a sound weld, and even sometimes 
more necessary, is the need of so welding the piece that it 
has such finished surfaces as required in line. Of course it 
is not possible In all cases, and is difUcult in any case, to pro- 
duce a perfect eondition. In some cases, allowance must be 
made for machining. No rules i^n be laid down; but some- 
times metal en be added so that the part can be machined 
to the original size; sometimes machining may be done with- 
out adding metal. Sometimes the metal may be heated and 
sprung or peened into place, or this may be done cold. Steel 
m^y be so treated, either hot or cold, depending on the nature 
of the piece; aluminum, brass, bronze and malleable castings 
must be peened or bent cold; cast iron cannot be so treated, 
but may sometimes be bent or straightened by clamping one 
end on the table, heating with the torch to nearly the melting 
point, ^nd pulling down on the other end with another clamp 
very slowly. 

Warping' or Cracking 

Warping or cracking is caused by the expansion and con- 
traction due to the heat of welding. It is not possible to 
avoid these conuiticns, and they, therefore, must be con- 
trolled by making allowance for them. The principle of con- 
trol is best Illustrated by a simple test, as follows: prepare 
two pieces of cast iron as shown in Fig. 2 and bolt them 
tightly to some heavy piece of metal; the sides of the holes 
should bear against the bolts and the bottom edges of the V 
just touch. The hpavy piece to which the smaller pieces are 
bolted is kept from being expanded by the heat from the 
torch, by putting it in water or by some similar method. 
Then make the weld, using no more metal than enough to 
fill the V and doing the work as quickly as possible, but 
being sure to burn through the bottom so that the weld will 
be sound. On cooling off, the piece will invariably break some- 
where, and there will be a gap between the pieces which in 
the case shown amounted to 0.011 inch. If the piece the 
work is bolted to is not rigid enough, or the fit of the bolts 

Fig. 8. lUustration of Com 

against the holes is not tight, or if there is a trifle of spring 
in some of the parts, a light tap on the piece may be neces- 
sary to cause it to break; but the gap will always be there 
after breakage. If another test piece be made, and the ends 
left free, there will be no difficulty in making a satisfactory 
weld. Again, if the bottom edges of the V are butted together, 
the ends of the piece will rise, which is only another mani- 
festation of shrinkage, as the metal on top is hotter than at 

October, 1915 



the bottom, and the bottom edges act as a fulcrum. The 
remedy is to leave the pieces slightly apart, or to clamp or 
weight them down. 

These things occur in every welding job, whether it ap- 
pears so or not. Holding the ends rigid, compels the expan- 
sion from the heat to go to the center, and when the piece 
cools off, there is sufficient contraction to break it. It is 
very easy to see what happens in a simple case like th:' 
one given, but the successful application of the principle to 
complicated and unusual cases is a different matter. As a 
matter of fact, making a sound weld is a comparatively easy 
thing to learn and many learn it; but the control of expan- 
sion and contraction is much more difficult to understand, as 
it requires a development of the imaginative faculty that is 
rarely met with, and there are few indeed who master it. 
It is a specific application of inductive reasoning. The propo- 
sition is not, 'if we do not control the expansion and contrac- 
tion in this piece, it will warp or crack, and be useless", but, 
"how shall we control the expansion and contraction in thi.s 
piece 80 that it will not crack or warp"? In other words, 
"what cause or combination of causes will produce the result 
we so much desire"? The practical reply to this question 
requires experience and imagination, the latter of which ena- 
bles the welder to successfully apply his experience to an 
entirely new problem, which could not otherwise be solved, 
except by cut-and-try methods which are tedious and expen- 
sive and generally impossible. In this connection the author 
advises, when a difficult or unusual piece of work comes in, 
to sit down quietly and reason out completely the entire 
method to be followed. Do not decide hastily; time spent in 
planning is well spent. Control of expansion and contraction 
will be further discussed in connection with specific cases. 
Setting- up 

In setting up a piece for welding, do It if possible, on a 
planed surface plate or table, using the finished surfaces of 
the piece, if any, to go by. If there are none, or if they can- 
not be used, set up the piece before making the V, using the 
crack to determine the necessary amount of blocking to hold 
it In line, and clamping It to be sure that it will not move. 
Then remove the pieces without disturbing the blocking, V 
them, replace on the blocking and reclamp. It is well in all 

made on the pieces with a very fine pointed tram, so that it 
will be possible to tell just what is happening. C«nter-punch 
marks are of little value, except to keep the trajn-marks from 
being lost, and the tram-marks must be used. 

Frequently it is necessary to set up pieces in the fire, either 
because they are too heavy to weld otherwise, or because of 

Fig. 3. Hoisting Enrino Drum propirod lor Weldlni 

cases of complete breakage to separate the parts at the final 
• I up by just enough to compensate for the shrinkage of the 
"'•Id. This is absolutely necessary if the original dimensions 
liavo to be maintained. The amount of separation varies with 
the piece and material, but generally 1 32 inch in cast iron 
i>nd % inch in aluminum will be suflJcient; experience alone 
will tell. Sometimes the allowance will be incorrect, and the 
piece -win have to be cut and rewelded, changing the allow- 
:'>iee. In case great accuracy is nee<led. tram-marks must be 

Tin. 4. Example of Prfhe.t.cj 

expansion or contraction causing them to break if welded cold. 
In such cases block them up as if on the table, but be sure 
that the heat does not affect the blocking or pieces so as to 
destroy the alignment, which should be again tested before 
welding; be careful to arrange the blocking to allow this. 
Sometimes such pieces may be clamped to a heavy block, 
preferably of cast iron, which docs not bend as readily under 
heat as does steel. The clamps and block should be pro- 
tected from the fire, or exposed to air to keep them cool. If 
possible. It is also possible, at times, to take red-hot pieces 
from the fire and clamp them on the table, or on previously 
prepared blocking, as the torch will keep the parts hot enough 
while welding. With heavy pieces in large fires on the floor, 
it is necessary to be exceedingly careful that the alignment 
does not change during preheating. The blocking must be 
of such material (preferably cast iron) and so arranged, that 
the danger of moving will be reduced to a minimum. The 
blocking must be on a foundation independent of the fire 
support, if there is any danger of the latter moving on 
account of the heat. In any case, allowance must be made 
tor the contraction of the weld, by holding the crack open in 
some way. 

Materials Used for Weldins: 

In almost all cases it is necessary to use additional mate- 
rial to fill up the V left by the preparation of the piece. The 
material to use for this purpose depends partly on the metal 
in the piece and partly on the result desired; in almost all 
oases this additional metal is furnished in the form of wire 
or rods from 1/16 to •% inch in diameter. Special cases may 
rwiuire larger or smaller sizes, but it has been found that 
the range given is ample to cover the ordinary run of repair 

For cast iron the material comes in rods from 3/16 to *»i 
inch in diameter, the small rods being used for small work 
and small tips, while the heavier rods are for the larger 
work and hoavy tips. When pieces are used up so they are 
too short to hold comfortably, they may be welded together; 
but it does not pay at the current prices of this material to 
weld i-j-inch pieces of cast iron less than 4 inches long, or 
■Si-inch pieces less than 3 inches long, as the cost of the gases 
and labor required is more than the cost of the metal. The 
cast iron In these rods should be of first-class quality, high 
in silicon and low in manganese and sulphur, so that it may 
be easily melted, reducing the gas consumption and conse- 
quently the expense, and producing a soft weld. These rods 
are at present a specialty, and an ordinary foundry cannot 
produce them. It Is a serious mistake to use cheap welding 
rods of any material, as the gas consumption is much higher 
and the work much slower, resulting In increased cost. 

In welding steel nothing but the best and most suitable 
wire should be used. Wire purchased at an ordinary hird- 
ware store is of no value, as It is hard to melt and will not 
give good results. It Is generally claimed that Norway iron 
wire is the best for this purpose and that the imported wire 



October, 1915 

Is better than the domestic. The writer is inclined to believe 
that this Is true for ordinary steel, although it does not malce 
a homogeneous weld. A highly polished section through a 
weld made with Norway iron wire shows a very marlied dif- 
ference between the original and added materials. Etching 
such a piece for microscopic examinations shows the differ- 
ence still more clearly, the etching action being much slower 
on the added material. It is, however, somewhat of a ques- 
tion in the writer's mind as to whether material with a 
small percentage of carbon, say 0.1 per cent, would not give 
better results, provided the impurities such as sulphur and 
phosphorus were kept to as low a point as is the case in 
Norway iron. The trouble with ordinary Iron or steel wire 
is not so much the carbon percentage, the writer believes, as 
the impurities present, such as slag, sulphur, phosphorus, etc. 
There are other matters in connection with this subject that 
have never been investigated as far as the author knows, 
and inasmuch as their investigation requires great accuracy, 
and considerable time and expense, the lack of information 
is not to be wondered at. It is a fact, however, that the use 
of Norway iron or any pure iron wire gives good results, and 
until the matter is more carefully investigated, one is safe 
in using that material. 

There are advertised a number of other materials such as 
nickel steel, vanadium steel, etc., with which the writer 
has had no experi- 
ence. On theoretical 
grounds, however, the 
use of these materials 
is questionable. Van- 
adium is never added 
to steel in any appreci- 
able amount. Whether 
such steel would re- 
tain its properties on 
heating to the welding 
temperature is stil! 
another question, and 
if a weld can be pro- 
duced by the use of 
Norway iron, which is 
strong and ductile 
enough, the use of al- 
loy steels appears to 
be unnecessary. The 
use of alloy steels for 
welding has never 
been investigated, and 
as in other matters of 
this kind, innovations should be followed with caution. 

For cast aluminum, an alloy of 93 per cent aluminum and 
7 per cent copper, which is the standard No. 12 mixture, 
gives satisfactory results and can be cast by any good alumi- 
num foundry in sticks Vi inch in diameter and 12 inches 
long. It is convenient for small work to have sticks 3/16 
inch in diameter and sometimes for large work % inch is 
better, but it is seldom that either of the two latter sizes is 
required. For sheet aluminum, strips of the same metal are 
generally most satisfactory, though aluminum wire will fre- 
quently be all right. Cast aluminum sticks cannot be used. 

For welding copper, copper wire or rod having a small 
percentage of phosphorus is necessary. The phosphorus elim- 
inates the oxygen which would otherwise be absorbed by the 
copper, and which would make the weld porous. 

For almost all brasses and bronzes, manganese bronze Is 
most satisfactory. It can be used in the form of 14 -inch 
sticks 12 inches long and can be made by any good brass 
foundry. For sheet brass, rolled manganese bronze or tobin 
bronze rods of the proper size, 3/16 or Vi inch, are most 
satisfactory, as they make a little smoother weld and are 
more fluid. This fluidity is sometimes a disadvantage, par- 
ticularly in welding on curved surfaces, and it is well to 
have the various kinds of welding rods on hand, using the 
one that suits the case best. As far as strength is concerned, 
there appears to be no practical difference. 

Fie. 6. 

welding completed 

Fig. 3. 

In the case of thin sections of malleable iron which are 
"white-heart" entirely through, it is possible to weld them 
with regular steel welding wire, and this should be attempted 
in such cases before anything else is done. In "black-heart" 
castings, the use of steel wire will simply result in the metal 
sticking to the wire and pulling away from the casting, the 
same as when it is attempted to use welding wire on cast iron. 
In addition to this, blow-holes apparently form in the piece. 
In cases where strength is not necessary, such as in filling 
holes or covering over defects, cast iron is the best material to 
use. It amalgamates quickly with the malleable iron and 
makes a good smooth job, but the chances are in favor of hard 
spots being produced, or the melted malleable iron becoming 
white or chilled iron on solidifying. For the majority of 
work, manganese bronze is the best to use, and that coming 
in rolled rods is most satisfactory. Properly used, a first- 
class job can be done, and as the bronze is stronger than the 
malleable iron, the weld, if properly made, will give no trou- 
ble. Malleable iron should not be brought quite to the melt- 
ing point, and after a little experience, this can be deter- 
mined with great accuracy. If it is hotter than this, it is 
detrimental to the strength of the casting. It should not be 
forgotten that no two pieces of malleable iron are alike and 
that it is impossible to predict what the result will be before 
the welding is begun. 

It is sometimes ad- 
visable or necessary 
to weld broken leaves 
in automobile springs, 
and while it appears a 
doubtful performance 
as far as strength is 
concerned, the writer 
has never known one 
welded in his shops to 
break. The proper ma- 
terial to use for this 
is old bed springs, 
which can usually be 
found around an or- 
dinary scrap yard. Or- 
dinary welding wire 
is not satisfactory. 
Care must be taken 
in using this material 
not to burn it. .\ 
fairly large t^ip shoulil 
be employed and the 
work done rapidly. 
The welding ot cast steel is generally possible and gives 
good results. There are some kinds, however, that are diflS- 
cult to weld, and others can only be welded with cast iron. 
Evidently, if strength is a consideration, cast iron must not 
be used. Usually ordinary welding wire is suitable, but it is 
well to keep the pieces that are cut out during the prepara- 
tion, so that in case it is found difficult to weld with ordinary 
steel, the pieces themselves may be used as a filler, at least 
as far as they will go. Sometimes it is possible to cut off 
surplus metal from other parts of the casting and use it. 

The welding of tool steel is generally unsatisfactory, partic- 
ularly where the material is to be used for heavy cutting. 
It is not possible to avoid entirely the liurnitlg of the metal. 
Borax or other suitable flux should be used as a coating for 
the steel, to keep the air from it. The use of spring steel 
wire for filling, and of a rather large tip, with the quickest 
possible speed for doing the work, will give as good result.-; 
as can be obtained. It is a mtvterial that Is very seldom 
handled in repair shops. 

In order to make a fusion weld, the metal in the pieces 
to be welded must be brought to the melting point ; and as 
all metals are good heat conductors, the pieces will be heated 
for some distance from the weld, the temperature of the piece 
decreasing as the distance from the weld Increases. All of 
this heat must be supplied in some way, and it is possible 

Fig. 8 finished 

October, 1915 



to do it with the welding torch in case the section is light. 
The matter is different for heavy sections; for, while the 
intensity of temperature of the welding flame Is very high, 
the quantity of heat In it is very small; also, the cost of the 
welding gases is high, so that some other fuel is more eco- 
nomical where much heat has to be provided. 

Many pieces must be kept hot all over while being welded, 
and this cannot be done with the torch. Such parts as 
water-jacketed cylinders, cast-iron heating boiler sections, 
aluminum and cast-iron crank-cases and transmission cases 
for automobiles, and other large castings come under this 
head. Good hardwood charcoal is then the best all-around 
fuel. It burns without smoke, does not injure finished sur- 
faces as does coal, gives off no offensive odors, burns slowly 
and evenly, does not need a fan blast to keep it going, will 
heat any piece red-hot, and is easily controlled. Many pieces 
have to be cooled off in the fire so that they will not contract 
too fast or unevenly. Charcoal is also the best fuel for this 
purpose, as the heat from it dies out slowly. 

The best hardwood charcoal is necessary. That made from 
soft wood breaks up easily, has little heat, and clogs up the 
fire 80 that it does not burn well. It is advisable to remove 
the dust and small pieces, by screening through a Vi-inch 
mesh sieve. For handling charcoal from the storage bin to 
the fire, old carbide cans with the top cut out, are very con- 
venient, and save many steps. It is well to store as little 
charcoal as possible, as it is easily ignited by a chance 
spark; and as it gives no warning by smoke, it is liable, if 
ignited, to gain considerable headway before being observed. 
Gas furnaces are very convenient for preheating to reduce 
the torch gas expense, but for anything else they are of little 
value. Kerosene torches are frequently of value for heavy 
work of certain kinds, especially where no contraction strains 
exist. Gasoline torches cannot be recommended in a welding 
shop. In some cases ordinary Bunsen burners or modifica- 
tions similar to those used in gas stoves may be used, par- 
ticularly on light work. They are of special value where 
many pieces of one kind have to be welded, because the 
burner can be made to suit the job. 

A very satisfactory method of preheating shafts and other 
solid pieces is by the use of a gas torch using illuminating 
or natural gas and compressed air under about one pound 
pressure. These torches may be held in clamps, and mounted 
on a flat firebrick-covered table, which may be surrounded 
with firebrick, to keep in the heat. It is necessary to have a 
blower to obtain the air pressure, and its operation is some- 
what costly, unless there is plenty of work of this kind, which 
is not often the case in a repair shop. 

There are two objects for which preheating is used. The 
first, merely to heat the piece to save time and gas and make 
a better weld; and the other, to take care of the natural 
contraction of a welded piece. In the first case, which ap- 
plies to plain heavy pieces, it is only necessary to put them 
in the fire, heat them as rapidly as possible, weld them, and 
let them cool off slowly. The second case is very different. 
Such pieces as gas engine cylinders (which have two walls 
joined together to form a water space), flywheels with heavy 
rims and light spokes, stamping pnss and punch press frames 
with two rigid uprights, automobile crank-cases of aliuuinum 
or cast iron, or any other pieces where the shrinkage of the 
weld would produce a strain, should be preheated in part or 
as a whole so that the strains during the cooling may be 
eciualized or eliminated. It is impossible to give any general 
directions, but specific cases are treated of later. 

The only guide at the present time as to the amount to 
which a piece should be preheated is experience. It may be 
said, however, that as far as eliminating strains or securing 
a sound weld is concerned, taking nothing else into consid- 
eration, the hotter the piece is heated the better. Care should 
be taken, however, not to heat a piece so that it will distort. 
It is easily possible to heat a cast-iron piece so hot that it 
not properly supported it will sag at the unsupported place, 
and, of course, care must be taken to avoid this. This prop- 
erty of cast iron is. however, of value at times in straighten- 
ing pieces that have been warped by welding, it being possible 

in many cases to clamp a piece at one end rigidly on a true 
surface and pull the other end down slowly with another 
clamp, while keeping the weld quite close to the melting point 
with the torch. 

Examples of Preheating 

In Fig. 4 is shown an instance of the necesaity of proper 
preheating to insure sufilcient expansion so that there will 
be no strain in the piece after welding. The two sides K 
are identical in construction and the section below the piece 
broken out is identical with it. The casting is about 3^ 
feet square, and the thickness of the welds, except at the 
flange, is about IVi inch. In order to check the expansion, 
tram-marks were made at A. B. C and D. .IB being equal to 
CD. Inasmuch as the casting was very rigid, it was neces- 
sary to take special precautions to avoid strains in the welded 
piece. The method followed was to heat the side CD both 
top and bottom to a sufDcient temperature to give an equal 
expansion to that of the side AB which was heated only at 
the bottom, in order to keep the top as cool as possible, forc- 
ing the expansion to take place everywhere except at the 
break, the torch being sufficient to counteract the beat at 
the part below the break. The fires were started slowly, 
charcoal being used. The fire on the side CD is longer than 
the one at AB, the latter being very little longer than the 
piece broken out, but care was taken to tram both slde« 
Just before welding to be sure that the expansion was the 
same. During the firing, side CD was kept covered with 
asbestos paper, while the piece broken out and the casting in 
the vicinity were not so covered. Care was taken, however, 
to prevent sparks from rising from the fire by covering the 
space between the bricks and AB. The illustration shows the 
bricks X laid on their side to permit a good view of the 
breaks, but they were later placed on edge in order to confine 
the heat. The fire, however, was not allowed to reach thi- 
break, but was kept about 3 inches above the bottom section. 
A large tip was used to make the welds, as the casting was 
comparatively cold. Weld /•' was made first, allowed to cool 
to the temperature of the casting, the tram-marks checked 
again, and then weld H made. Both welds were burnt en- 
tirely through from the top, and each one wsis finished un- 
derneath after it was made, taking down enough of the out- 
side bricks to reach it, and covering over the fire to hold 
the heat in the bottom section. After welding, this cover was 
removed, the bricks replaced and the casting allowed to 
cool down in the fire. It was found that before welding at //. 
the crack was open about 1/32 inch, which was sufficient 
under the conditions to take care of the contraction. It is 
necessary in this and similar cases to make the weld as 
quickly as possible, so that the heat conditions at all points 
will remain as nearly constant as possible. 

Fig. 3 shows the method of preparing, blocking up and 
preheating the rope drum from a hoisting engine. Both 
ends were cracked in the same way, although the upper one 
in the illustration was not cracked so badly. It was im- 
possible to prepare the drum from the other side, which 
would have been desirable on account of the greater ease 
of doing the work, as it could have been done under a drili 
press. The crack extended through at the root of the fric 
tion block cavity, making It impossible to prepaj^ by any 
other method except that used. An electric drill was used and 
the necessary material chipped away as shown, the same pro- 
cedure being followed on both ends to produce the Vs. As the 
easting was quite heavy, it was necessary to block it up 
inside of the crack, because if it had been blocked up under 
the outside, it would probably have been distorted when it 
became red-hot. 

Fig. 3 also shows the pieces of sheet iron practically sur- 
rounding the casting, and the charcoal in place ready to 
ignite. Of course, pieces of sheet iron entirely surrounded 
the flange during the preheating, welding and cooling off. 
Care was taken to melt through the bottom of the crack to 
insure a sound weld. Fig. 5 shows the piece after welding. 
There was no necessity for any flniBhing except just sufficient 
grinding with a flexible shaft emery wheel to remove the 
principal roughnees. sto that the rope would not chafe. 

IIIORE are a number of points to be considered in 
;i general way in oxy-acetylene welding, which 
apply equally to the welding of all metals. These 
will now be considered, and in subsequent arti- 
cles the special points applying individually to 
each metal will receive attention. Some of the 
instructions may seem unnecessarily minute, and even super- 
fluous. In some cases full explanation cannot be given with- 
out going into metallurgical theories more than is thought 
wise, but the reader may rest assured that for what is said 
there are good reasons, and the author has obtained the best 
results by adhering closely to the rules laid down. 
General Rules 

1. Follow strictly and without deviation the instructions 
given by the manufacturers of the apparatus used, in every 
respect. Reputable manufacturers, the only ones whose ap- 
paratus should be purchased, are not only willing, but anxious, 
to assist when difficulties are encountered. These manu- 
facturers have spent thousands of dollars to find out how to 
handle their apparatus, and it is to be assumed that they 
know the best way and instruct accordingly. 

2. Remember that a welding torch is an instrument of 
precision, and handle it as such. Throwing it down on a 
table, dropping it on the floor, or other misuse, is sure to 
result in more or less Injury to the welds made. If the 
torch tip becomes hot, do not plunge the whole head in water. 
Cool off the tip first. When it is thoroughly cool, the head 
may be cooled off. Lack of attention to this point in certain 
types of torches will damage the end of the tip in the head, 
and may cause injury to the threads in the head, when the 
tip Is removed. 

3. Keep all the torches in first-class condition, free from 
leaks, and with clean tips. See that the gages register 
properly at all times, and that the reducing valves act 
promptly. Good results cannot be obtained with defective 
apparatus. See that all joints are tight, so that neither 
acetylene nor oxygen may be wasted. An oxygen leak may not 
seem very dangerous, but it may result in a rapid burning 
of the welder's clothes or cause some wooden article to burn 
where a spark falls on it, when otherwise no damage would 
result. An acetylene leak is dangerous. If it were gener- 

ally appreciated that a quart can filled with an explosive 
mixture of acetylene and air has enough potential energj- to 
kill a person nearby, no acetylene leaks would be permittcl. 
Be particularly careful to see that no leaks exist in the hose 
or torch. The hose on the floor is liable to have pieces of 
metal dropped on it which damage it, and even with the best 
of care it will in the course of time wear out, the inner lin- 
ing becoming porous and allowing the escape of the gases. 
Hose in this condition cannot be repaired; it Is dangerous 
and should be replaced at once. Leaks around the torch are 
liable to burn the welder and cause explosions, and should not 
be tolerated. 

4. Adhere strictly to the pressures specified by the manu- 
facturer for the different sizes of tips. Do not attempt to 
force the tip by increasing the gas pressure to obtain a 
larger flame, but use a larger size of tip. The excess of 
oxygen caused by the forcing of the tip will result in decreas- 
ing the strength of steel welds and will damage other welds 
seriously. This is a point which is generally overlooked, but 
which is exceedingly important. Use a tip large enough to 
do the work easily, but under no circumstances use too large 
a one, as damage to the weld will probably result. 

5. Unless otherwise specified, always use a neutral flame. 
The flame of a torch may contain an excess of acetylene or 
an excess of oxygen, or it may be strictly neutral. It is no'. 
to be understood by the expression "neutral" that one torch 
may not consume more oxygen than another even when the 
flames appear neutral in both cases. The neutrality of the 
flame refers to the small welding flame only, and simply In- 
dicates that to the eye the flame has just suflBcient oxygen 
to burn the acetylene completely and no more. If care is not 
used a considerable amount of oxygen, over and above this re- 
quirement, may escape through the torch tip and damage the 

Pig. 1 shows a photograph rf the neutral flame as it ap- 
pears to the eye, but magnified three times. The length is 
about three times the diameter of the largest part; the small, 
intensely white flame A is sharp in outline, and is sym- 
mclricrl "nd smooth. A jagged or irregular flRme indi- 
cates th.t the hole in the end of the tip is not true, or is 
roi'.gh; it is necessary occasionally to run a drill of the 

October, 1915 



proper size carefully into this end and to clean it out and 
true it up. The thinner flame B, as it appears in the illus- 
tration, is due to the burning of the hydrogen left when 
the acetylene is broken up into Its constituents, carbon and 
hydrogen. The fact that the photograph was given a one- 
niinute exposure with a very rapid plate shows that the con- 
ditions were not very different during that time, because of 
the sharp outlines of both flames. It might be stated that 
ihis stability of the flame is characteristic of the torch use<l 
to produce the photograph. 

Fig. 2 shows the correct shape of the neutral flame. This 
Iihotograph was taken with quite a long exposure through a 
light filter, the conditions not being changed in any way from 
those under which Fig. 1 was taken. It will be noticed that, 
while the flame is of the same length, the width has been 
reduced; the hydrogen flame has practically disappeared. It 
will be also noticed that there is a considerable halo on 
both sides of the flame, which the writer believes is caused 
by a small amount of acetylene which escapes without com- 
bining directly with the oxygen, and which is probably burnt 
by oxygen from the surrounding air. It will be noticed that 
there is none of this halo at the end of the flame. This, how- 
ever, does not appear to be of serious importance from the 
practical side of welding. 

In Fig. 3 it will be noticed that the neutral flame has en- 
tirely disappeared and in its place is a longer white flame, 
characteristic of an excess of acetylene. When the acetylene 
Is reduced, or the oxygen increased, this flame decreases in 
size and becomes sharply defined. Upon a further increase 
of oxygen with no change in the acetylene this sharply de- 
fined neutral flame becomes somewhat shorter and takes on a 
violet tint which indicates a surplus of oxygen in the flame 
itself. If the increase of oxygen continues, the flame will 
be blown out. This excess of oxygen flame is shown in Fig. 
4, and It will he noticed that it is shorter than the neutral 
flame and also smaller in diameter, and that it has a 
bulbous enlargement at the end, while the neutral flame. 

Fig. 2. Neutral Flame photorrarhed throtcU a Light Flltti 

as it appears to the eye, is more elliptical. It will also be 
noticed that the outline of this flame is sharper. The hydro- 
gen flame has a peculiar shape at the top. The cause of 
this is not at present known, but it is probably due to the 
peculiar shape of the small flame, which is not symmetrical. 
It is believed that this is the first time that micro-photo- 
graphs of the various flames have been published, and their 
appearance indicates the necessity of further study of them. 
For the present purpose, it is enough to show them as they 
actually appear. 

6. Always light the acetylene first and turn it off last. In 
some types of torches this may avoid an explosion or "back- 
fire," which, while it may cause no damage, is to be avoided 
whenever possible. Back-fire, as It is commonly called, is 
really a burning of the acetylene inside of the torch. This, 
of course, is accompanied by a deposit of soot which may col- 
lect in the small passages and prevent the torch from work- 
ing satisfactorily. If this is the case, the passages will have 
to be cleaned out, although sometimes the deposit will burn 
out after a short period of use. The temporary reduction in 
the size of the welding flame, however, tends to make a bad 
mixture, with resulting damage to the weld. Never use any 
oil or grease around a torch, or for that matter, around any- 
thing exposed to the action of oxygen. Fires may result from 
this, as the oil is rapidly oxidized with a considerable in- 
crease of temperature. 

7. It may seem superfluous to call attention to the tact 
that an acetylene leak, particularly in a generator, should 
not be stopped by attempting to weld it, or by using any heat 
at all; but the writer knows of one case of this kind which 
resulted in the explosion of the generator and the instant 
death of the man who attempted to w^ld it. 

8. In case repairs are needed on the torch, it is best to 
send it to the manufacturers. Of coursp, a mechanic familiar 
with the construction can make repairs, but the relation of 
the sizes of the passages to each other must be maintained 
for efficient work, and the manufacturer can do this best. 

Fij. 3, ApiH-aniiu-.- of rinm.- « '.h nii Etcss of A.-.^lyl.-r.- 

Fir. *. Appraranco of Flame with an Eiceii of 0xj(< 



October. 1915 

Fig. S. Section of Cast-iron Weld broken at Eight Angles to the Line of Weld aad magnified about Three Times. Note Uniformity in Grain of Iron 

9. Never use copper tubing for acetylene piping. It is 
easily attacked by acetylene, particularly if it is impure, and 
an explosive compound is created which detonates at the 
least shock. 

Weldiny (Jast Iron 

Cast iron is the easiest metal to weld and therefore should 
be ithe first one tried by the beginner. It is best to begin 
with small pieces, say % by 2 inches in section. Bevel both 
sides of the two pieces so that the included angle is about 
90 degrees (see Fig. 1 in the preceding article) and grind off 
the sand, scale and dirt for about \U inch away from the V. 
Set the ends about 1/32 inch apart, and somewhat above the 
surface of the table, say on two V-blooks of the same thick- 
ness. Use the size of tip recommended by the manufacturer, 
adjust the flame to neutral and bring both edges to a bright 
red; then melt down the bottom of the V, applying a little 
flux or scaling powder with the heated end of the filling rod. 
Do not add any metal from the filling rod until the bottom of 
the V is filled from the sides. Be sure that the metal runs 
together freely. When ready to add metal, put the end of 
the filling rod in the melted metal of the weld and play the 
flame on both the rod and the weld so that the metal runs 
together. As often as is necessary dip the rod in the scaling 
powder and proceed with the filling in. Be careful not to add 
too much at one time, using just enough to make the metal 
run freely. The weld should be made in steps. If too much 
metal is added in one place, it is likely to run over into the 
bottom of the V, and unless the welder is experienced and 
careful, will cause a cold shut which, of course, makes a de- 
fective weld. Afi the filling progresses, be sure that the 
metal is welded at both sides. Most welders are right-handed 
and the tendency is to get the left side of the weld well made, 
while the right side is likely to be "cold-shut" on account of 
sufficient heat not being applied at that point. The "feel" 
of the torch in the hand turns the tip toward the left rather 
than the right. Left-handed welders, therefore, will do just 
the reverse. 

After all the metal necessary has been added (It should be 
enough to raise the weld slightly above the surrounding sur- 
face), play the torch flame at the junction of the old and new 
metal until the new metal runs into the old. At this time, 
do not add any scaling powder. If this is done properly, and it 
should, in fact, be done at intervals, as the weld progresses, 
there will be no hard spots at the junction. These hard spots 
are caused by the melted metal striking a colder surface and 
chilling. They may be caused, even with the utmost care 
on the part of the welder, by unsatisfactory welding material, 
but with good material and care they will not exist. The 
scaling powder has nothing to do with them, but does at 
times, if of certain compositions, produce a thin intensely hard 
scale, which, however, is readily removed by chipping or grind- 

It should be remembered that the beginning and end of a 
weld require less heat than the middle, because there is not 
the amount of metal present to absorb the heat, and unless 
care is taken to keep the torch somewhat away from the metal 
at the beginning and end, the tendency will be to burn it; 
also, at these points, in the case of cast iron, there Is 
a tendency for the metal to run away, and when adding metal 
there, the torch flame should be directed toward the center 
of the piece rather than toward the edge. It will also be 
found best to use but little scaling powder, as the slag which 
forms on the surface of the iron tends to hold the melted 
metal in place. In many eases the welding rod can be held 
close to the edge, and by manipulating it and the torch the 
metal will be held in place. 

After one side is welded, turn the work over and repeat 
the operation on the other side, beginning where the weld 
on the first side ended; this saves gas. After the sides are 
welded, it is advisable to touch up the edges so that the 
metal will be welded entirely through the Vs. Enough metal 
should be added so that the piece will "square up" when 
ground to its original size, and care should be taken that it 
does not run away. Evidently the full heat of the torch is not 

October, 1915 



needed at these points. In the 
case of a small weld like the 
one described, there will prob- 
ably be no casting strains. It 
is wise, however, to take the 
precaution of heating the weld 
uniformly in order to be sure 
that this difficulty does not ex- 
ist. After the weld is finished, 

bout Tliree Timta 

which also makes the work 
Blow, and tends to burn out the 
carbon of the iron, making it 
hard and brittle. The proper 
size of tip can be found after 
a few trials, and experience 
will soon tell a welder what 
tip to use without trial. 
As an illustration of the de- 

allow it to cool off in a dry, warm place. When cold, grind or fects that are likely to occur in a cast-iron weld, the piece 

'*'i°"'° 'o Pies. 6 to 9 was prepared— the beveling being 
done from one side only, and the piece nicked with a 
hacksaw and broken in order to show the defects more clearly, 
f^g. 6 shows the front of the weld or the top as the work 
was being done, and shows how the weld should be made in 
steps in order to prevent cold shuts. The steps extend from 
.-1 to B, the portion from B to C being welded entirely through, 
some of the metal hanging from the bottom of the weld in 
drops. Fig. 7 shows the back of the weld, and it w-ill be 
noticed that from A to B the original break remains, while 
from B to C it has disappeared. In this view It would ap- 
pear that the weld is very nearly through, but upon examin- 
ing Fig. 8 it will be found that it is not through by about H 

otherwise remove the surplus metal to the same size as the 
original casting, and put it in a vise with the top of the Jaws 
at the center of the vvclil. If the weld has been properly 
made, it will be found impossible to break the piece with a 
hammer, except outside of the weld. It should be necessary to 
break off the piece at both ends of the weld and then break 
the weld crosswise (or lengthwise of the original piece) to 
see what the fracture looks like. It this is done, it will be 
noticed that the weld merges into the original metal without 
any distinct line of domarkation, and that the grain of the 
weld is somewhat finer than that of the casting; also that the 
color is slightly different, being generally a trifle darker. 
The finer grain is due to the fact that the metal is added in 

small quantities, and therefore cools more quickly than the 
whole casting does, which produces a finer grain. In a prop- 
erly made weld, the V should be much larger than the one 
made in the preparation before welding, because of the melt- 
ing down of the sides. The difference in color is due to the 
difference in quality between the filling rod and the casting. 

Fig. 5 shows the uniformity of structure of a properly made 
cast-iron weld. There is a slight difference in the size of the 
grains between the center where the weld is, and the body of 
the casting, the latter being somewhat larger. This differ- 
ence is more noticeable in a larger piece, and is more appar- 
ent in the piece itself than in the illus- 

There is a small projection Just to 
the left of the center of the larKi' 
blow-hole, which is a particle of for 
eign matter, probably sand, that gave 
off enough gas to produce a blow-hole 
This can be eliminated in welding by 
melting to the bottom of the hole and 
floating the dirt to the surface. 

The first piece welded by a beginner 
will probably show defects caused by 
the metal not being thoroughly melted 
and only sticking together in some 
places instead of being solid. The only 
way to gain experience is to break a 
considerable number of pieces and re- 
peat the trials until a sound weld is 
easily made. The difficulty in making 
sound welds increases with the size of 
the piece, and until one Is sure that 
he can make good welds In small 
pieces, he should not try large onee. 
It may also be found that the proper 
size of tip is not used. Too small a 
tip will ri<6ult in cold shuts and slow 
work. Too large a tip will result In 
blowing the metal away on account of 
the higher oxygen pressure ushmI. 

inch, due to the bridging action of the melted metal here- 
tofore referred to. This Is the real danger of a weld that is 
not burnt through. It is apparently sound, but really the 
condition is much worse than it appears. It will be seen, 
however, that where the metal has been burnt through, the 
weld is perfectly sound. As a matter of fact, it was found 
impossible to break the weld without nicking it with a hack- 
saw. At C. Figs. 8 and 9, will be seen a spot where the metal 
has run over from the added material, forming a cold shut, 
which is very distinct, and, of course, a serious source of 
weakness. In addition to the above. It will seen that the 
weld is full of blow-holes for some 
distance from the bottom of the V. 
These were caused by adding metal 
before the pieces were thoroughly hot. 
The part of the weld which is level 
with the original pieces seems to be 
sound at the top. which Is proof that 
while a weld may be sound to all 
appearances. It may be very far from 
sound inside. 

Examples of Cast-iron Welda 
Fig. in shows a cast-iron exhaust 
manifold with one of the bolting lugs 
broken off. This Is quite a frequent 
occurrence, and is generally due to the 
sharp corner left when the nut-side of 
the lug is machined. In order to keep 
the broken lug straight with the rest 
of the face, a planed piece of cast Iron 
Is clamped across the face, as shown. 
It is best to weld the back of the lug 
first on both sides of the clamp, going 
almost through. Then the clampe and 
block can be removed and the Job 

It is easier In many casee to hold 
such pieces in a vise than to block 
them up on the table. After the weld 
Is made on the outside, the inside 



October, 1915 

Fig. 13. Cast-iron Cn 

should be finished, care being taken to burn out all remnants 
of the crack. The last thing done should be the finishing 
of the faces, and care should be taken to avoid hard spots. 
If it should so happen that the lug does not come true after 
the weld is finished (it should be tested with a straightedge), 
a small amount of metal can be added so that there is suffi- 
cient stock to grind and file. The finished weld is shown in 
Fig. 11. 

Fig. 12 shows the frame of a machine in which the break B 
occurred close to a babbitt bearing .1. It was decided to 
save this bearing if possible, as there would have been con- 

siderable expense in renewing it, not so much on account of 
the babbitt, as because of the difficulty of alignment. 
No finishing was necessary at the weld. This made it 
much easier to save the babbitt, because even if a few hard 
spots did exist at the weld, it would make no difference. The 
casting was laid flat on the table, the parts lined up after 
preparation, and preheated with a Bunsen burner, during 
which time wet crushed asbestos was kept on both the top 
and bottom of the babbitt bearing. At frequent intervals 
water was poured on the asbestos to keep it wet. As soon as 
the casting had been well warmed, the weld was made on 
one side, using a heavy tip, which was necessary on account 
of the absorption of heat by the cool metal. After the first 
side was finished, the work was turned over, repacked in 
asbestos, and the weld completed. The weld was then heated 
uniformly its entire length with the torch and allowed to 
cool in the air. Had the break occurred at about the place 
where the rule is shown, it would have been impossible to 
save the babbitted bearing, and an entirely different procedure 

Fig. 15. Casting that 

in Fig. 13 

would have had to be followed. Undoubtedly the babbitt 
would have been melted out and more care would have had 
to be taken to prevent the contraction of the weld. Two 
torches would have been advisable, welding both breaks at the 
same time. 

Welding a Cast-iron Crank-case 
Figs. 13 to 17 show a large cast-iron crank-case of the barrel 
type, with a piece broken out and missing. Fig. 13 shows the 
preparation of the edges, which was done prior to making 
the pattern for the missing piece. This is permissible in this 
instance, because the metal is cast iron iind somewhat over 

> I inch in thickness, and also because the new casting used 
in repairing was made with enough stock on it to allow for 
finishing on the hand-hole (ace. Fig. 14 shows the asbestos 
backing for the pattern, supported by a sheet of iron and a 
mandrel through the cam-shaft bearing boles, this being 
an easy way of supporting the backing in this case. Broken 
up asbestos paper is now used altogcth.r in the author's 
shops for the purpose indicated, on account of the ease tnd 
rapidity with which it can be applied. Prior to its adoption, 
it was the custom to use plaster-of-paris, trimming it off to 
the inside surface of the pattern it was desired to make. Thi 
asbestos used is -socked in water and squeezed out until it is 
just plastic. It is then pressed into place and smoothed down 
uniformly to the desired level. A sheet of tissue paper is 
then placed on it and oiled to prevent the plaster-of-paris 
used for the pattern from sticking to it. The plaster-of-paris 
is next poured into place, and as it gradually hardens, it is 
broiight to the required contour and allowed to dry. Th. 
result is shown in Fig. 16, in which it will be noted thai 
sufficient stock for finishing has been left on the hand-hole 
face of the casting, and that the plaster-of-paris, when dry, 
has been beveled out to make the V. A gentle tapping on the 
casting around the pattern loosens it, and it is easy to lift it 
out without breakage. Care should be exercised at this stage 
of the operation, and the plaster-of-paris should be allowed to 
become quite hard, although it need not be entirely dry. 
I'pon removal, air-holes and irregularities on the inside face 
will be found, and they should be filled up. Attention should 
also be paid to so- making the pattern that it can be drawn 
from the sand. 

The casting made from this pattern is shown in Fig. 15, 
and the welded job in Fig. 17. This job was welded in a 
large forge, the break being turned downward into a charcoal 
fire, allowed to get nearly red-hot, turned over, carefully cov- 
ered with asbestos paper and welded, but only from the out- 
side, as it was not necessary from the standpoint of 
strength to do more than this Thp weld, of course, was 

Fig. 16. Flaster-of-Paris Pattern Completed 

made entirely through the section, and what beads resulted 
were chipped oft after the case was cold. After welding, the 
weld was turned into the fire again, allowed to come to a 
uniform temperature, and then packed in asbestos to cool. 
In this instance it was not necessary to , heat the entire 
casting to the same high temperature, but the casting was 
all hot, the coolest part being at a temperature much 
above that of boiling water. It is one of the instances where 
it is not necessary to heat the whole casting to as high a 
temperature as the part to be welded, nor indeed is it desira- 
ble to do so. The case is stiff enough to gradually force the 
contraction to take place in the weld as it is made, and by 
allowing it to come to a uniform high temperature after 

Weld Completed 

October, 1915 



the weld is finished, any strains that may be caused in 
welding are eliminated. 

Weldinsf a Shaper Rocker Arm 
Fig. 18 shows a cast-iron arm from a shaper. An attempt 
was made to weld this by some one without either the nc 
essary knowledge or facilities, with unsatisfactory result 
The weld at A and the opening at li showed that the weM 
did not extend in more than Vi inch. The work was not 
preheated or prepared. The photograph was taken after the 
break at C was partly prepared at the writer's shop. The 
essential thing in this piece was to make the edges of the 
slots D. which form a fork at the end of the casting, come 
at right angles to the surfaces i) and f. and also to have these 
two surfaces in line. It was necessary also to be sure that 
the surfaces // and / were parallel, as a sliding block oper- 
ates between them. The method of doing this was to clamp 
the piece on the corner of the welding table, as shown in 
Fig. 19. In order to remove the chill from the casting to 
some extent, a Bunsen burner as shown at .1 was directed 
against the break at li. The upper half of the weld was 
made, the casting turned over and blocked up carefully and 
the weld nnished. It was then tested to see that everything 
was straight and square. It was found to be in good shape, 
but if it had not been, the difficulty would have been corrected 
by heating the weld H with a large torch, when the piece C 
could be carefully pulled into position by means of wedge? 
and clamps. The weld was allowed to cool and the piece 
blocked up on the table as shown in Fig. 20, all the surfaces 
on the lower side being laid on V-blocks of the same height. 
The fork-end was then clamped into position so that the slots 
were true with a square both ways and the top halt of the 
weld E made. It should be noticed that there was enough 
of the finished surfaces underneath B and C to allow a narrow 
V-block to be set underneath which held it true in one plane, 
while blocking was put under the fork to hold it true in 
the other direction. Of course, the piece was clamped down 
tn the table, while the first part of weld E was being nuulo. 

broken again 

It was then turned over and the weld finished, and the piece 
again tested to see that it was in good condition. It is evident 
that after these operations the piece was true and in line, 
and with reasonable care would remain so. There was, how- 
ever, danger of a strain in making th? last weld. This was 
overcome by putting tram-marks at A and B. Fig. Ill, :;nd 
heating the opposite side in a charcoal fire sufllcicnlly to 
give the necessary expansion, which was, of course, checked 
by the tram-marks. The piece was carefully blocked up to be 
sure that no sagging would take place and half the weld made. 
It was then turned over and the weld finished, the piece 

Tig. 20. Blocking 

of Welded Paiu 

removed from the fire and allowed to cool down In asbestos. 
The conditions required that all of these welds be made with- 
out heating the piece re<l-hot. because it would have been 
very difficult to keep the parts in line, had the whole piece 
been put in a hot fire. 

One difficulty in this cace was that all of the faces were more 
or less worn, and some judgment had to be used in checking 
them up. However, th? piece after finishing gave entire 

Fig. 21. Completed Eocker-arm properly welded 

satisfaction. The use of small torches or gas burners in this 
or similar cases is of great assistance, because while they 
do not bring the piece to a red heat, yet enough of the chill 
is taken from the metal to save a considerable amount of 
welding gases, and this helps to make a better weld. It Is 
evident that it would be quite difficult, it not impossible, to 
block up such a piece on the table and build up a charcoal 
fire under it, the heat being likely to warp or crack the table. 
A Difficult Repair Job 

Fig. 22 shows what frequently happens when some part of 
the connecting-rod in a motor lets go. This damage Is gen- 
erally the result of not keeping the rods tightened up as 
they should be. The case illustrated is not nearly as bad as 
some instances, but great care must be exercised in following 
the crack to the end. If the crack extends entirely through a 
piece, it will prevent the heat of the torch, when applied to 
one side, from passing to the other, with the result that 
where the piece is heated it will become red, while the other 
side will stay black; but if the crack extends only partly 
through, as is frequently the case, this test is valueless, and 
the only thing to do is to melt the Iron in the direction In 
which the crack extends and pull it out with the welding rod. 
If there is a crack, it will show up as a white streak in the 
center of the melted portion. Therefore in all cases of this 
character, and in the case of Jacket cracks, the weld should 
be made entirely through the piece at least 1 inch further than 
the crack shows on the surface. In order to be sure that the 
end Is reached. In the present instance, the crack at corner A 
extended »4 inch beyond where it was visible. The piece* 
were not prepared, nor is it the practice In the writer's 
shops to \' the pieces in such cases. 

Cylinders should always be heated slowly, and the base 
of the cylinder kept somewhat away from the fire, which 
should not be too heavy at the beginning. The cylinder should 
be tilled at an angle so that the heat will pass up through 
the bore and around the outside, underneath the asbestos 
paper with which it Is covered. After the work Is thoroughly 
warmed through, the defective part should be placed in the 
firo so as to become more thoroughly heated than the re- 
mainder. At this stage the heating should be watched ftire- 
lully. and when it hSs nrrivcd at the proper point, while the 
temperature is .itiU rising. It should be welded in the fire. 
Under no circumstances must a cylinder be removed from the 



October, 1915 

fire while the weld is being made, and sufficient asbestos 
paper should be properly located to cover all the cylinder 
except the part being worked upon. 

It is very difficult to explain how hot to heat a cylinder. 
It possible to avoid it,- the heat should not be great enough to 
make it red at any point. In certain cases, the cylinder must 
be heated to a red heat, particularly where there is a rigid 
connection between the barrel and the jacket at several points, 
or where the cylinders have large flat sides. Frequently the 
proper temperature can be determined by the paint and filler 
on the cylinder being turned to a rusty brown powder. 
This test is only of value when the cylinder is on a rising 
temperature. It is evident, if it has been heated to this 
point and then allowed to cool, that it may not be warm 
enough to avoid shrinkage cracks, while it may appear so 
to the eye. The best way to obtain experience is to get 
some old cylinders and experiment with them. More can be 
learned in this way in a short time than by pages of de- 

In this case, as soon as the cylinder arrived at the right 
temi>erature, which was higher than for an ordinary jacket 
crack — very close to a red heat — it was turned into the position 
shown in Fig. 22, and the pieces welded on. The welding 
began at A. went from there to B and C and so on back to the 

starting point. This gave the maximum chance for contrac- 
tion to take place without difficulty. The weld was burnt 
completely through, and as soon as finished, the cylinder was 
turned over in the fire and the inside of the weld completed 
and smoothed off with a special torch. This is necessary in 
order to prevent pre-ignition in operation due to small points 
projecting into the cylinder becoming red hot, or to carbon 
collecting on such points and causing the same trouble. It 
is sometimes necessary to have more than one special torch 
to reach all the corners. Occasionally a cylinder broken in 
the dome is split part way down the barrel. Sometimes this 
weld can be made from the outside of the barrel, and the 
inside not welded. A better job, however, is made by welding 
on the inside as well as the outside, and afterward regrinding 
the cylinder. 

After the dome was welded, the cylinder was packed away 
in powdered asbestos until it was cold; the proper openings 
were then plugged and the cylinder tested for leaks. This 
is always a safe precaution, because while, if the work is 
properly done, there is little chance for trouble, yet. it there 
is any difficulty, or if any crack is overlooked, it can be 
welded much more easily than if the jacket is welded right 
away. However, when time is an object, as it occasionally 
is, and if the welder is sure that he has welded the dome 

Fie. 2«. Oylindf 

October, 1915 



Fig. 27 

properly WoM«d Cylindo 

Rfturh Condition of Iniide of Dom 

properly, the jacket may be welded at once, the whole cylin- 
der packed In asbestos and allowed to cool. 

After the cylinder was tested and everything found satis- 
factory, it was reheated, the jacket put in place as shown 
in Fig. 24 and welded, beginning at A and going to B, after 
which it was welded around the boss, again started at B 
and continued around to C. This took care of the contraction 
better than any other method. The surface C was set, 
before starting to weld, a little higher than /) to allow of 
finishing the boss around the 
center hole. 

Mention has been made of 
the possibility of a crack p.\ 
tending on the inside of a piecr 
where it is not. visible on thr 
outside. A very good lllustra 
tlon of this Is shown in Figs 
25 and 26, which show a piece 
broken out of an automobile 
cylinder jacket In order to weld 
the dome. In Fig. 25 a crack 
was visible at the top and bot 
torn of the piece as a very fine 
line, but it was not visible for 
more than % inch in either case on the outside of the piece. 
However, it will be noticed that it extends along and is quite 
clearly visible Inside In Fig. 26. This condition may exist 
not only In cylinder jackets, but in any other pieces of the 
same general nature, and the illustrations are shown to em- 
phasize the necessity of following the crack all the way to 
the end. 

Improper Weldlntr of Cylinders 

As an illustration of what results from improper welding 
of cylinders, Figs. 27 to 29 are shown. The original damage 
to this cylinder is indicated in Fig. 27. and consisted of a 
crack in the dome. From the appearance of the inside of 
the cylinder shown in Fig. 28, It looks as if the dome was 
broken in a number of pieces. It does not appear on exanii 
nation of the cylinder whether the Jacket was cut out to get 
at the broken dome, or whether it was broken out originally 
by the damage. However that may be. in attempting to put 
It back, the cracks kept on extending until the cylinder was 
cracked through two port plug holes. In addition to this, 
the corner of the cylinder as welded, was much flatter than 
it should be, the result being that it would have been im- 
possible to grind out the cylinder without going through the 
weld. In addition to the above, there was no attempt made 
to smooth off the Inside of the dome, with the result that 
the cylinder would have knocked, on account of pre-ignltion 
due to the roughness. The ovllnder as it stands is not beyond 

repair, if handled by one who knows how to do it, but the 
owner purchased a new cylinder, believing that It could not be 

This is a good Instance of the damage to the reputation of 
the oxy-acetylene welding process caused by those who do not 
know how to do the work and who have not the proper facili- 
ties. This cylinder was not preheated, and nothing else than 
what happened could have been expected. The possession of 
a hammer, chisel and monkey wrench does not make the 
owner a machinist; neither does the fact that one has a 
welding torch and oxygen and acetylene tanks enable him to 
weld anything that comes along. It should be emphasized 
that proper apparatus, instructions and training are necessary 
for the successful carrying out of work like that shown. 

As a contrast to the foregoing. Figs. 30 to 33 are shown. 
P^g. 32 shows the damage to the dome, and the pieces of the 
jacket cut away to reach It. Fig. 30 shows, on the right, the 
pieces of the dome, and on the left the pieces of the jacket. 
In the center Is shown the plug going through the top of 
the dome and jacket. It will be seen that the thread on this 
i.'i badly damaged. The dome was broken Into twelve pieces 
and the jacket into eight pieces. At A. B, C and D are shown 
tlie points where the four ribs extending between the dome 
and jacket are located, the ribs themselve* not being shown. 
The pieces are shown laid together on wet asbestos and 
carefully lined up. They were then "tacked" together with 
the torch so that they could be used as patterns for castings, 
the amount of yveldlng all the pieces being too great; besides, 
it would be difficult to put the pieces accurately Into place. 
On the castings from these patterns, as shown in Fig. 34, 
stock was left for finishing, except at the points A. B. C and D, 
where the connecting ribs between the dome and Jacket had 
to be built up. Fig. 31 shows the dome welded In. Fig. 33 
sliows the jack. I welded in and the dome plug with metal 
added on the threads. All the 
machining was done on an or- 
dinary lathe. It was not pos- 
sible to get exactly the same 
thread on the dome plug as on 
the original, but this made no 
difference, as the stock on the 
threads permitted any suitable 
thread to be used. It was Im- 
possible in this case to obtain 
a new cylinder, as the manu- 
facturers had gone out of busi- 
ness; but the cost of repairs 
was considerably less than the 
cost of a new cylinder. 
For the benefit of those who do not have any foundry 
located near them, it should be stated that the welding of the 
pieces together and setting them back into place Is perfectly 
possible. They should all be welded together on both sides, 
the inside of the dome smoothed off by grinding, fitted in 
place and welded. In such cases enough of the Jacket should 

of Improperly Welded 



October, 1915 

Fig. 30. Pieces of Broken Dome and Jacket of Cylinder sh' 

Fig. 32 

be cut away at the beginning to enable the work to be done 
rapidly, and the planning should be done ahead, so that it 
will be known exactly how the work is to be handled. There 
is no necessity of having to plan these things while the work 
is beihg done. 

Weldint? a Heating- Boiler Casting 

Figs. 35 to 39 show a section of a cast-iron heating boiler. 
Quite a number of these heater sections break, and as they 
are expensive, they are well worth welding. The reasons 
for their breaking generally come under three heads: 1. 
Allowing the water to become too low in the boiler. This 
permits the section to become red-hot, and when it is cooled 
off, or cold water turned in, a crack results. 2. Casting 
strains in the pieces. The 
writei: has seen new sections 
not yet installed with bad 
cracks which certainly could 
not have passed inspection at 
the foundry. Sometimes, upon 
inquiry about a cracked sec 
tion, the statement is made 
positively that the water was 
not low, and while this state- 
ment may not always be true, 
although the person making it 
believes it to be so, yet a suf- 
ficient number of cases have 
come to the writer's attentnon 
in which he believes the infor- 
mation to have been correct, to 
warrant the belief that strains 
in the casting are really a fre- 
quent cause of breakage. It is 
also well known that it is difficult to cast pieces of the shape 
of these sections without experiencing casting strains due to 
the difference in temperature of different parts while cooling 
off in the sand. 3. Strains are sometimes caused by tlie holes 
for the push nipples, which connect the sections, not being 
bored true, or in line; or if the sections are not put up cor- 
rectly, the same trouble may exist. It is also possible to 
pull the sections together too tightly, and as the push nipples 
are tapered and fit in tapered holes, an enormous strain can 
be set up by too much tightening. 

Cracked heater sections are generally very difficult to weld, 
particularly if the cracks are in the body of the section. Of 
course, if only a corner is broken off, or if the section has a 
long leg on each side and the defect is in one of them, the 
difficulty is materially decreased. Considerable experience is 

Tig. 31. Dome welded in Place 

required to make a sound permanent job, and even then satis 
factory results may not b^ obtained at the first trial. The 
difficulties met with are the trouble of controlling the con- 
traction when cooling, and of preheating correctly, if this is 
done locally, as well as the trouble of turning the section 
over while heating in order to reach the other side of the 

In order to overcome these difficulties, it is necessary, in the 
first place, according to the writer's experience, to heat the 
entire section red-hot; this heat must also be uniform. It 
is believed useless to spend any time trying to heat such a 
casting locally, or to provide for the contraction by heating 
one part somewhot more than another. The cause of the 
crack cannot always be known. 

Fig. 32. Cylinde 

and inasmuch as the real cause 
may be a combination o f 
causes, the only safe way is to 
eliminate all strains by thor- 
oughly preheating to a high 
temperature. The contraction 
while cooling may be overcome 
by slow cooling obtained by 
packing the welded casting in 
asbestos and thoroughly pro- 
tecting it from drafts. In the 
case of large sections, thij 
cooling may require forty-eight 
hours. If the work Is to be done 
outside, in cold weather, great 
precautions must be taken to 
insure that the outside edges 
of the casting do not cool too 

The difficulty of turning over the casting can best be over- 
come by providing special means for handling. What is done 
depends on conditions, and no fixed rule can be laid down: 
but the casting must be handled quickly, and if it is turned 
over, it must be allowed to reach to a uniform temperature 
before the final weld is made. After welding, the casting 
should again be brought to a uniform temperature and then 
carefully packed as outlined. 

Fig. 35 shows a section in which the crack was probably 
caused by an original strain in the casting. The crack was 
barely visible, and in order to show in the photograph, It 
was necessary to wedge it open somewhat. There was some 
discussion in the shop as to just how to prepare the crack for 
welding. It wiis manifestly impossible to get any torch tip into 
the hole, which is about 1 inch in diameter, as the section 

*-ay to 

Figs. 31 and 33 

October, 1915 



was about 4 inches thick at that point. It was tlnally decided 
to prepare the casting as shown In Fig. 36, saving the piece 
th .t was cut out (the cutting being done t)y a liael<saw and 

hammer and chisel), so that it 

could be replaced. The wisdom 
of this method was apparent 
when the piece was removed, 
as It was found that there 
was a boss IVi inch thicli 
around the 1-inch hole, the 
piece cut out of the boss being 
shown in Fig. H6 at .'I, while 
the main piece removed is seen 
at B. The boss can be seen in 
Fig. 38, where the section is 
shown laid on steel platrs 
blocked u,p from the concrete 
lloor and with firebricks under 
the corners to leave space for 
the fire. The tram-marks will 
also be noticed at A. B and ('. 
the distance AC being equal to 
AB, and being used as refer- 
ence length. 

Fig. 39 shows the use of old 
carbide cans cut up into strips 
of the proper size for confining 
the fire. These are very satis- 
factory for the purpose, as they 
can readily be bent to any 
shape and are inexpensive. 
Tile fire is applied to such a casting hy lighting a considerable 

itinr prep«r*d for Wfl'Urp 

is a hard thing to do. 


increase in temperature. This 
experience is the only guide. 

It is evident that there is more chance for a draft around 
the outside of the casting than 


in the center, that a heavier 
section will require more char- 
coal than a lighter one, and 
that in the open spaces too 
much charcoal should not be 
applied. In this particular 
case, in spite of what was 
thought to be right, it was 
found that too much fire had 
been put along the part AB. 
Fig. 39, so that after the cast- 
ing had become quite warm, 
the distance between the tram- 
marks had Increased X, inch. 
In order to remove the strain 
set up, the fire was shifted to- 
ward both ends, but still after 
the casting had become red. It 
was found that after allowing 
for expansion, the tram-marks 
had separated 3 16 inch, which 
indicated that there was a 
strain somewhere in the origi- 
nal casting. 

When the charcoal was first 
placed underneath the section, 

HontinK Boiler Cstlnj in which Weld i. Sni.hed ^^^^ ^^ ^^y^^^ ^^^ ^^ „g^ ^^ 

much, and from time to time, as the casting became warm. 

iiuantity of charcoal in a forge and shoving it underneath 
till- casting, being sure to distribute it so as to obtain a uniform 

it w^as added in small quantities, but more rapidly toward 
the latter part of the heating: of course, during all this time. 

Tit. 38. Hoating Boilo 

showing Arrangf^m 

tine Boiler Castinr ready for Prehraunf Fir* to b* itart^d 



October. 1915 

Tig. 40. Upright 

the top of the casting was kept covered with asbestos paper. 
It is necessary, however, to punch holes in the paper to per- 
mit of sufficient draft to keep the charcoal burning. The 
paper tends to distribute the heat more uniformly. 

The first welding done was to weld the boss. On account 
of the difficulty of reaching it, it was necessary to raise the 
casting from the fire and stand it on end, so that the work 
could be done quickly. It was carefully covered with asbestos 
paper while this weld was being made, then replaced in the 
fire and allowed to come to a uniform temperature. Then the 
piece which had been cut out was put into place, and the 
sides C and D. Fig 39, welded. The casting was then turned 
over, again allowed to come to a uniform temperature, and, 
beginning at what was then the bottom of the welds, the V's 
were filled up and the weld finished at the boss. 

During the welding it was necessary to pack the top of 
the casting heavily with asbestos, as the welders had to stand 
over it to reach the bottom of the vertical welds. It always 
pays to protect the welders as well as possible in case of heavy 
fires, as if this is not done, they cannot do good work. 

After the weld was finished, it was found that the trammed 
distance had increased % inch. Inasmuch as there was no 
strain in the casting after the work was done, as it had been 
uniformly heated after welding, this % inch represented the 
total amount of strain in the casting. Where it was, it Is 
impossible to say, but it evidently was there. When cold, 
a thorough hammer test with a light sledge was made, as 
well as a pressure test, and 
everything was found to be in 
good condition. 

It is evident that this Vg- 
inch expansion had to be taken 
care of, as the push nipples 
could not be put back in place 
if it were not. The following 
method of taking care of it has 
been found in all cases to be 
entirely satisfactory. The push 
nipples are made either of cast 
iron or steel, and the method 
followed is to cut the nipple in 
half with a hacksaw. The sec- 
tion is erected in place with 
each half of the push nipple in 
its respective hole. A line is 
then carefully scribed with a 
sharp point along the exposed 
surface where the two halves 
offset, the pieces removed and 
welded to suit their new posi- 
tion. If this is carefully done. 

Fig. 42. 

Fig. 41. Showing Breaks through MeUl 5 by 17 md i bv H In i..-s 

it will be found that the result is entirely satisfactory. 
Welding- a Press Frame 
Fig. 45 shows a large press frame which is broken. The 
top of it is very close to the wooden roof of the building. 
Inasmuch as it would have been quite expensive to remove 
the casting, it was thought wise to attempt to weld it in 
place. Fig. 40 shows the size and nature of the breaks, the 
bottom of one of which was comparatively easy to reach, 
both to prepare and weld. 

Fig. 41 shows that the top break was prepared nearly 
through the casting at the point A from the side shown, 
while at B the preparation was made equally on both sides 
This was done in order to save the bearing. It will be noticed 
from Fig. 45 that the bearing on the inside of the broken 
side had a large projection, and nearly half of this would 
have had to be cut off if the bevel had been prepared evenly 
on both sides. 

The 'heating of these breaks, particularly the upper one. 
was quite a problem, and trouble was anticipated in controll- 
ing the contraction, partly because the upper part of the 
casting was much heavier than the lower part, and also 
because, as it was very close to the wooden roof, it was 
feared that sufficient heat could not be applied to raise the 
casting to the same temperature as below; that this fear was 
justified was proved by the results. However, it was deter- 
mined to make the attempt, a plan having been worked out 
whereby. If trouble should occur, it could be overcome. The 
heating was done by pans made 
of old carbide cans hung by 
wire from the upper part of 
the casting and surrounding 
the welds. These pans were lo- 
cated to get as uniform an 
expansion as possible, and while 
the breaks shown In Fig. 41 
were being welded, fire was 
maintained in pans on the op- 
posite side in order to avoid 
any irregular strains due to 
vertical contraction. It was, 
however, not anticipated tliat 
any trouble would comei from 
the vertical contraction. The 
difficulty feared was the differ- 
ence between the horizontal 
contractions at C and D, Fig. 
41. It is evident that section 
C is much lighter th'an D and 
that in order to extend the 
castings the same amount, a 
much heavier fire would have 

October, 1915 



Tii. 43. ( ; I ' i-)3ite Upright prepared for Welding 

to be maintained at the latter point than at the former. While 
the pans were placed entirely across the top at D. it was found 
impossible with as heavy a fire as could be kept up, to get 
the same amount of expansion horizontally, although the 
width of the fire was about 4 inches all around the casting, 
except at E where the pan was cut off to allow the casting 
to stay as cool as possible. In other words, the lower pan 
went no further than the break, while the upper pan not only 
covered the break but also the opposite side of the casting. 
In spite of these precautions, and while no new cracks ap- 
peared directly after the welds were made, a hammer test 
later developed a crack al 
A, Fig. 43. This was the result 
anticipated. Tho solution ot 
the trouble was to first cut 
the casting entirely through, 
as at B, and weld A. The 
crack at A only extended about 
4 inches from the inside cor- 
ner, but the V was made on 
both sides about 1^^ inch deep 
at C, in order to insure uni- 
form heating with the torch. 
It was an easy matter to place 
a pan opposite li and one at D, 
and also two others opposite li 
and D on the other side of the 
frame. The desired expansion 
was obtained without any trou- 
ble, and the casting welded at 
B; the tram-marks showed that 
the casting came back to its 
original position. 

In Fig. 42 will be seen the 

preparation of a small crack 

on tho left upright. This gave 

no trouble in welding, as the 

large body of metal left forced 

the expansion to take place as 

was desired. However, tlie 

precaution to heat the other 

upright also was taken while 

welding. The whole casting 

weighs about twelve tons. 
Tho problem in this case w:\s 

to do the welding without re- 
moving the frame. There 

would have been no trouble in 

welding it had it been removed, 

because not only could the 

different parts of the casting 

Tig. 44. Sect.:. '■'" ■■ r.g 

be brought to a uniform temperature, but as the welding 
would have been done horizontally, it would have been much 
easier. As it was, all the metal had to be added on the side. 
The two main breaks required four welders for a period of 
twenty-two hours, as the heat was very great due to the low 
roof which it was necessary to protect from damage by fire, 
and also due to the fact that the space between the uprights 
was only about three feet, so that part of the time the men 
were working between the pans on the upright. 

There was a shrinkage strain in the original casting; this 
made it necessary to rebore the bearings. It was, of course, 

realized before the job was 

started that this would have to 
be done. This frame has been 
In service several months since 
welding, and has been subject- 
ed to heavier work than ever 
before, with entirely satisfac- 
tory results. 

• • • 


The hexagon holes In one 
make of safety set-screws are 
neatly shaped In a punch press 
operation. The screws are 
blanked on screw machines, the 
hole for the wrench being 
drilled to a diameter equal to 
the distance across the cor- 
ners of the hexagon desired. 
The exterior ot the screw is 
turned to two diameters, that 
at the point being the external 
thread diameter. The bo<ly of 
the blank Is turned sufflclenily 
larger than the point to re- 
duce to the external thread 
diameter when the hexagon 
socket is swaged. The swag- 
ing Is done In a punch press, 
using a hexagon punch which, 
scate.1 in the hole, pushes the 
blank through a die. The die 
reduces the diameter and the 
excess metal Is forced Inward 
against the punch, which acta 
as a former. The blank, thus 
reduced to the correct external 
thread diameter throughout lu 
length. Is threaded In a bolt 



Atr^^sives, Processes of M^>sJ\uft)octure, 
Bonds ^ CKoosiriAvGreKde bj\dGrddi\for 
Gni\diiv=^Ui\der Veu3aiYSCoi\di ti on s 

6y DousiJasT.HdaiiUTOiv + 



HIi niotlein grinding wlieel, wln-u pioperlj- selett(_<l 
for the work upon which it is used, is very effi- 
cient, especially for the finishing of accurate 
work. The developments in the manufacture of 
grinding wheels within the past few years have 
assisted in placing the grinding machine in a 
class with other highly productive tools and have made pos- 
sible great decreases in manufacturing costs. A grinding 
wheel may be compared to a milling cutter having an infinitely 
greater number of teeth or cutting points. For instance, on 
an average wheel 24 inches in diameter and 4 inches face, ap- 
proximately, 1,086,171,000 cutting points come into contact 
with the work each minute. The teeth or points that do the 
cutting are called "grains", whereas the material used for 
holding the grains in the form of a wheel is called the 

Grade of Grinding' Wheels 
The term "grade", as applied to a grinding wheel, refers to 
the tenacity with which the bond holds the abrasive grains 
in place, and does not refer to the hardness of the abrasive. 
A wheel from which the abrasive grains can easily be dis- 
lodged is said to be soft or of soft grade, whereas one which 
holds the grains more securely Is called a "hard wheel." 
By varying the amount and composition of the bond, wheels 
of different grades are obtained. The hardness of the wheel 
is also governed to a certain extent by the size of the grains; 
for instance, if two wheels have the same bond, the one 
composed of the finer grains of abrasive is the harder. In 
other words, a 120-grain wheel would be harder than a 24- 
grain wheel of the same bond. The combination of different 
sized grains also causes a variation in the hardness of the 

• For lUlditloual Intoniiution 
ously jniUHshed in M-vchinrry; 
ternal Grinding," Ansust. 1915 
1915; •■Holding lioU^ 
•'Grinding r 

grinding, spe the following nrtioles previ- 
"Surface Griudiug." September, 1915: ••In- 
Plain Cjilndrlcal External Grinding," Jul.v, 
g Kiu'p.s for Internal Grinding," May, 1915: 
191.'j; 'Scloction ot Wliecis for Cylindrical 

Grinding." January. 1015; 'Tile Toitord Bail Grinding Maclilne"; "Grinding 
vs. Milling": •'Operation of Grinding Wheels in Machine Grinding": "Data 
on Snrfnre and Cylindrical Grinding." December. 1914: "Ring Wheels and 
SoMii \v;. ■<■}.-- r.-T m«k Grinding'^; "Wheels fer Cylindrical Grinding.'^ No. 
'■ !' 'VII lulling and I-apidng Small Work": "Selection of Wheels 

' ' I I 1^. I, Ml.-," (ictoncr. 1!)14; ■■.\lal<iiii; .\loxlte Grinding Wheels,'^ 
^ l:':i l,..bdell Calender lioll Grinding .Miuliines" : "Work-lioldlng 

1 >ii; 1^ ihi \uliial Snrtace Grlnder"t "Cranlislnirt Grinding." August, 
lini, ,-iigiii,.eriiig edillon: "Safety as Apiilied to Grinding Wheels." July. 
1914. engineering edition, and other articles there referred to: '•The Use 
ot Photographs In Grinding and Polishing Departments," July, 1914: "Work 
Speeds In Grinding.'^ April. 1914: ".Machining Armature Shafts," Feliroary. 
1914: •'Grinding Wheel Protection Devices," January. 1914. engineering 
edition: ••Fixture for Grinding Valve Push Rods." June. 1913: '•E.thaust 
System for Grinding. Polishing and nulling Wheels^': "A ThreePoInt Mi- 
crometer and Its Use," May. 1913; "ElUclent Grinding ot Cyliudrical Worli.'^ 

Grinding- Wheel Grading: Syatems 
The grade of a grinding wheel is designated either by letters 
of the alphabet or numbers, or a combination of both, as will 
be seen by referring to Table I. According to the system 
employed by some manufacturers, the letter M represents a 
medium grade, and the successive order of letters or numbers 
preceding and following M denote softer or harder wheels. 
This method of grading wheels is not universal, as no stand- 
ard system of grading has been adopted by the various 

Table I gives lists ot grading letters and numbers used 
by the principal grinding wheel manufacturers, and in this 
connection it should be clearly understood that these should 
not be used on a comparative basis. In the first place, the 
present method of grading wheels is not a mechanical test, 
but is done by hand as shown in Fig. 1, and requires con- 
siderable skill and experience. The tool used has a ball- 
shaped handle and a blade which is beveled on the end like 
a cold chisel. When making the test, the beveled end of this 
tool is simply presse<i into the side of the wheel and then 
turned. The resistance offered by the bond of the wheel to 
this twisting action indicates, to the experienced man, the 
grade of the wheel. The extremely delicate sense of touch 
essential is soon lost even by an expert, who finds it neces- 
sary to discontinue the work now and then for a short time. 
Considering the method used in testing, it is not surpris- 
ing to find that the grade letters or numbers adopted by 
different manufacturers cannot be used interchangeably. A 
few examples will probably make this point clear. Careful 
comparison of the grade marks used by the Norton Co. and 
the American Emery Wheel Works has shown that a grade L 
American wlieel agrees closely with a- Norton L wheel as to 
hardness, but by referring to Table I it will be noted that 

December. 1912: •'Commercial GrlDdlng.'^ October, 19L2: ••GrlDdlng Calender 
ItoUs," August. 1912: "Grinding and Corrugating Klonr MIU Rolls," July, 
1912; ••Internal Grinding Practlee In Ilardlnge Rros. Stiop.'^ Mar. 1912; 
••Holding Work for Grinding'^; "ElBclency in Cylindrical Grinding.'^ March. 
1912: •Grinding Aluminum Castings on a Vertical Spindle Disk Grinder." 
January. 1912: "Grinding Unnlened Gears.'^ September. 1911: •'The Field 
for Grinding — A Comment." July. 1911: •'Rougb-luniing vs. Rough-grinding 
of Crankshaft Plus," March, 1911: "The Field for Grinding": "Precision 
Grinding. *• January. 1911: •'Grinding Adding Machine Side Frames," De- 
cember. 1910: •'Grinding Economy. •• July. 1910: •'Ulstory ot Hie Invention 
ot the Universal Grinding .Machine.^' July. 1910. engineering edition; •'Grit 
and Grinding Chips." Juue. 1910. engineering edition: •'Kconomv In Grind- 
lug.^^ .May. 1910: "Errors In Grinding Taixred Reamers and Milling Cutters.'^ 
December. 1909: •'Form Grinding Operations In the Shop ot the l.andls 
Tool Co.." August. 1909; "Twist Drill Grinding." June. 1900: "Cylindrical 
Grludlng," May, 1909; •'Grinder Kinks." December. 1908: •'Grinding Thread- 
ing Chasers tor Brass Work." November. 1908: ••Devices tor Grinding 
Fluting Cutters." October. ItH»: •'Helps and Don'ts tor Grinding.^' August, 
190S; ••Grinding Threading Dles.^' Decenitier. 1907. 
t Associate Editor ot .M.icui.n'Ert. 

October, 1915 



the Norton grade L wheel is 
graded as fourth in the "me- 
dium soft" column, whereas 
tlie "American" L wheel is 
graded as third in the "soft" 
column. The grade marks 
used for wheels made by the 
various processes also indicate 
different grades, although the 
wheels in each case may be 
known as soft, hard, etc. For 
instance, in the Norton list a 
grade 1 elastic wheel is not 
of the same hardness as a 
grade B vitrified or silicate 
wheel, although both are called 
soft wheels. 

Grain of a Grlndlnjf Wheel 

The grain or coarseness of a 
wheel is designated by num- ^'«- '• *'""'°'' "' <i<""rainin 

bers which indicate the number of meshes to the linear inch 
through which the kernels of abrasive will pass. For instance, 
lifi grain means that the abrasive will pass through a sieve 
having 36 meshes to the linear inch. The grains commonly 
used for plain cylindrical grinding vary from 24 to 60. There 
are two kinds of grains — straight and combination. In a 
straight-grain wheel all the particles of abrasive are of about 
the same size, whereas in a combination grain wheel the 
particles of abrasives are of different sizes. The combination 
of grains in a wheel is never specified by a manufacturer, as 

it requires considerable experi- 
menting to determine the cor- 
rect proportions lor any com- 
bination. Sometimes a num- 
ber is arbitrarily selected to 
indicate the combination of 
grains, whereas in other cases 
the number given indicates the 
coarsest grain in the wheel. A 
correct combination of grains 
cuts fast and leaves a good fin- 
ish on the work; moreover a 
combination wheel will gener- 
ally remain jn a good cutting 
condition longer than a 
straight-grain wheel. 

Abrasives Used In the Manufac- 
ture of Grindlntf Wheels 

The abrasives used In the 
manufacture of grinding wheels 
are both natural and artificial. The chief natural abrasives 
are emery and corundum. Those artificially produced are 
adamite, aloxite, alundum. boro-carbone. carborundum, car- 
bolite, crystolon, etc. Of the natural abrasives, corundum is 
the most widely used; it contains a much larger percentage 
of crystalline alumina, than emery does, this being the ele- 
ment in both abrasives that does the cutting. Emery is very 
tough, but contains iron and other non-cutting elements, and 
is seldom used in wheels employed on automatic grinding 
machines. Willi the exception of corundum, most of the 

of Grinding Whc 




1 Co. 


Material Co. 

American Emery 
Wheel Works 

„. . Cortland Detroit 

Si^™ Pi Corundum Grinding 
dumCo. Wheel Co. , Wheel Co. 

Norton Co. 

Safety Emery i 
Wheel Co. 

Wheel Co. 

Wheel Co. 




Grade Index of Grinding Wheels used for Different Processes of Manufacture j 

Vit. ' t 
and Elast. 





Elast. ' and 






Vit. Sil. 

Vit. , 
and Elast. 

and Elast. 








Sil. : 





.. 1 D 


i ' 


e i 

1 1 



• ■ 1 





li u 


















V.TV Sill't- 
























9 G 



K 1 


*i 1 

2 1 2 1 

c 1 *i 1 









8 H 



1- li 


21 2i , 

Cl IE : 


^"11 i 







( ; 
1 J 


. . 2* 
.. 2|l 

C2 HE 



7 i J 



C3.' 2E 



.Meiliuui I 









.1 ■-'* 


P. '^}^ 


Soft 1 








01 8E 






IW . . 











M :( 


8* 1 

8 i! 1 

D3 3|E 



Mfiliiini. . { 









N 4 


3J 3i i 

E -IE 











El 4iE 



11 • • 













Q 5 



E3 SK 



Milium 1 














V 'Jl-. 

Hur.1.,. 1 






























( > 


1 3i 

PJ 6K 



lliird ...,.; 











ra 6|E 



u ■ .. 













1 .. 


U 1 












Himl.., 1 




>i 'i 








6 S' 

K\tr<'nir ' 





Iv llanl , 









K.\tra llai^ 

1 '■ 



Note: This list of wheel Krudings as given by the ' 

manufacturers should not be used on .i conipjrativc bjMS. 



October, 1915 

abrasives used in grinding wheels are produced artificially 
In the electric furnace from bauxite and carbide of silicon. 
The chief constituents and methods of manufacture of a 
number of the natural and artificial abrasives — designated 
by various trade names — are given in the following: 

Adamite is an artificial abrasive produced in Austria and 
used by the Detroit Grinding Wheel Co. The chief con.stit- 
uent is aluminum-oxide, which is mixed with certain ingre- 
dients to remove the impurities and is fused at a high tem- 
perature in the electric furnace. This abrasive is used in 
wheels for grinding materials of high tensile strength, such 
as soft and hardened steel, etc. 

Alundum is an artificial abrasive first produced by Charles 
B. Jacobs, consulting electro-chemical engineer. The original 
process, however, has been perfected and commercially ap- 
plied by the Norton Co. Alundum is made by fusing the 
mineral bauxite in the intense heat of the electric arc fur- 
nace. Bauxite is a soft earth resembling light yellow clay, 
and, chemically, is the purest form of aluminum-oxide found 
in nature. It Is one of the most commonly occurring sub- 
stances in nature and is usually found mixed with other 
materials from which it is exceedingly difficult to separate 
it. Separation was impossible previous to the invention of 
the electric furnace. Bauxite derives its name from the 
ruined city and castle of les Baux, in the southern part of 
France, where it was originally discovered. Large quanti- 
ties of this mineral are now mined in Georgia, Alabama, and 
Arkansas. It is found in pockets and is mined in open cuts, 
then carefully washed, dried and shipped to the plant where 
It is purified and subsequently fused in the electric furnace. 
Alundum Is used in wheels for grinding materials of high 
tensile strength. A special temper or "white" alundum Is 
used by the Norton Co. in the manufacture of wheels for 
certain classes of work. This is designated as No. 38 to dis- 
tinguish it from ordinary alundum. 

Alowalt is a trade name given to an abrasive used by the 
Waltham Emery Wheel Co., which is the product of the 
electric furnace and is made from aluminum-oxide in practi- 
cally the same manner as aloxlte. 

Aloxite is the trade name given to an abrasive manufac- 
tured by the Carborundum Co. that is made from pure crys- 
talline aluminum-oxide, produced by fusing bauxite in the 
electric arc furnace. In converting bauxite to aloxite, three 
operations are necessary: first, the removal of approximately 
15 per cent of moisture; second, the removal of iron and 
silica; and third, the changing of amorphous bauxite into 
crystalline aloxite. Bauxite is received from the mine in 
small lumps, and after being crushed It Is calcined in rotary 
kilns, fired with producer gas, which removes the moisture 
and volatile matter. It is then mixed with a certain per- 
centage of coke, after which it is placed in the electric fur- 
nace. The furnace consists of a crucible-shaped steel recep- 
tacle, about five feet In diameter, which is lined with carbon 
and is movably mounted. The top Is open and two vertical 
carbon electrodes extend down into the charge, which is 
fused between the arcs formed by the electrodes. The elec- 
tric arcs generate a temperature estimated to be about 4000 
degrees P. The charge of bauxite is fed into the furnace 
from time to time until an ingot has been formed weighing 
several tons. The current is then shut off, and the mass al- 
lowed to cool slowly. The ingot Is then removed, freed from 
unfused mixture and metallic reduction products, and broken 
into small blocks. It is then crushed, concentrated and graded, 
anil mixed with the bond ready for molding, truing and burn- 
ing. Aloxite is used for grinding materials of high tensile 

Boro-carbone Is the trade name for an abrasive used by the 
Abrasive Material Co. which is also a product of the electric 
arc furnace. It is manufactured in southern France and is 
oxide of aluminum in crystalline form.itlon produced by fus- 
ing bauxite at a temperature of about 3SO0 degrees F. The 
temper of boro-carbone is varied according to the kind of 
work on which it is to be used, and its physical formation 
is such that it presents sharp cutting points when fractured. 
It is used for grinding materials of high tensile strength. 

Carbide of silicon is the name given to an abrasive used by 
the Abrasive Material Co. in making grinding wheels for ma- 
terials of low tensile strength, such as cast iron, brass, etc. 
The chief constituents of this abrasive are coke and cand. 
The coke supplies the carbon and the sand the silicon. These 
two substances are volatilized in the electric furnace. 

Carbo-alumina Is the name of an artificial abrasive used 
by the Detroit Grinding Wheel Co. in the manufacture of 
wheels for grinding materials of high tensile strength. It 
is produced from bauxite in a somewhat similar manner to 

Carbolite is the trade name given to an abrasive used by 
the American Emery Wheel Works in the manufacture of 
wheels for grinding materials of relatively low tensile strength, 
such as cast iron, brass,, aluminum, etc. Carbolite Is another 
name for carbide of silicon in crystalline form, and is made 
from coke and sand which Is volatilized In the electric furnace. 

Carbolon, which is manufactured by the Exolon Co. and 
sold by Alden Speare's & Sons Co., is used by the Vitrified 
Wheel Co. in the manufacture of wheels for grinding mate- 
rials of low tensile strength. Pure silicon carbide is a hard 
crystalline material in which the individual crystals are ar- 
ranged in comparatively thin transparent layers of a greenish 
hue. Commercially, silicon carbide may be of a greenish hue, 
black, or highly colored. The black variety frequently has 
extremely thin layers of impurities, such as metallic silicon, 
metallic iron, etc., deposited between the crystalline layers. 
Carbolon is made from coke and sand in the electric furnace 
in a manner similar to carbolite. It has been found that an 
accurate control of temperature in the reaction zone of the 
furnace is of the utmost importance, and also that the slight- 
est variation in the mixture of raw materials produces a 
marked effect on the nature of the resultant crystalline mass. 

Carborundum Is the trade name given to an artificial abra- 
sive manufactured by the Carborundum Co., which is a chemi- 
cal combination of carbon and silicon, discovered by Edward 
G. Acheson in 1891. The principal materials used in the 
manufacture of carborundum are coke and sand. The coke 
is used to supply the carbon, and the sand the silicon. These 
two substances are raised to a temperature of about 7000 
degrees F. All the impurities and other substances in the 
coke and sand other than carbon and silicon are driven oft 
in gaseous form, and these two elements unite, forming the 
abrasive known as carborundum. 

Carbowalt is the name of an abrasive used by the Waltham 
Emery Wheel Co. It is manufactured from coke and sand 
in a somewhat similar manner to carborundum. 

Corex is the trade name for an abrasive used by the Safety 
Emery Wheel Co. in the manufacture of wheels for grinding 
cast iron, unannealed malleable Iron, brass, bronze, etc. It 
is produced from coke and sand in the electric furnace. 

Corowalt Is a special temper corundum abrasive used in 
the manufacture of grinding wheels by the Waltham Emery 
Wheel Co. It is especially useful for the grinding of har- 
dened low or high carbon steel. It Is produced in the electric 
furnace in a manner similar to alundum. 

Corundum is the purest of natural abrasives and is a min- 
eral composed of native alumina, which is noted for its 
hardness. This mineral was first found In India in the 
eighteenth century, and derives its name from a native 
Indian name, kurundam. The finely colored transparent va- 
rieties of this abrasive include such gems as the ruby and 
sapphire, while the impure granular and massive forms are 
known as emery. Next to the diamond, corundum Is the 
hardest known mineral. Large deposits of this mineral are 
found in Georgia and North Carolina, and also in Ontario, 
Canada. Corundum is also produced artificially, although it 
Is artificial only in the sense that it is crystallized by means 
of the electric arc furnace instead of by nature. Chemically, 
natural and artificial corundum are alike, both being com- 
posed of aluminum oxide in the crystalline form. A special 
grade of artificial corundum made by the American Emery 
Wheel Works is known as No. 58 to differentiate it from the 
natural corundum. Artificial corundum was first made by 
Moissan, in Paris, in the electric furnace, about twenty-three 

October, 1915 



years ago. Shortly afterward, the original process was im- 
proved by Werlem and patented in P'rance. By these im- 
provements, the impurities in the natural alumina were 
removed in the crystallizing process, so that practically pure 
crystalline alumina was the result. Wheels made from ar- 
tificial corundum are either given a trade name, such as 
"Oxaluma," or are designated by some number to distinguish 
them from wheels made from natural corundum. For in- 
stance, for grinding certain materials, such as steel, etc., the 
American Emery Wheel Works produces an abrasive known as 
No. 58 corundum. 

Crystolon is an artificial abrasive produced by the Norton 
Co., the chief constituents of which are carbon and silicon. 
Crystolon Is made from coke, sand, sawdust and salt. Coke 
is used to furnish the carbon element; the silicon comes from 
a pure silica sand which is secured from large deposits in 
Illinois. Crystolon is a very hard brittle abrasive, and ranks 
next to the diamond in hardness. It Is a mass of gray or 
green multi-hued crystals of attractive appearance. The ele- 
ments previously mentioned are fused in an electric furnace, 
at a temperature varying between 3500 and 4500 degrees F., 
the sand and coke combining to form carbide of silicon. This 
abrasive Is used in the manufacture of wheels for grinding 
cast iron, brass, bronze, etc. 

Emory is a natural abrasive, and is an intimate mixture 
of corundum (oxide of aluminum) and magnetite or hematite 
(oxide of iron). It usually occurs in large irregular masses 
resembling a fine grain of iron ore, which it was originally 
thought to be. In the Grecian and Turkish mines it occurs 
in nodules or irregular masses, some of which are several 
yards in diameter and average about 40 tons in weight. Prior 
to 1847 all emery used throughout the world came from the 
Grecian Isle, principally from the Isle of Naxos, but in 1847 
Dr. J. Lawrence Smith of Louisville, Ky., discovered consid- 
erable masses of emery ore in Asiatic Turkey. Emery is also 
mined in Chester, Mass. Emery is classed as a form of corun- 
dum, corundum itself being divided into three classes, viz., 
sapphire, comprising the transparent form, such as the ruby 
and sapphire; corundum, comprising the translucent form, 
such as commercial corundum; and emery, comprising the 
massive and black or dark colored varieties. Emery Is a 
very tough and durable abrasive, but contains Iron and other 
non-cutting elements, and is seldom used in grinding wheels 
for use on automatic or semi-automatic grinding machines. 
Analysis of emery obtained from the three principal sources 
showed the following percentages of crystalline alumina: 
Naxos emery, 63 per cent; Turkish emery, 57 per cent; Ches- 
ter emery, 55 per cent. 

Oxaluma is a trade name given to an aluminum-oxide abra- 
sive used by the Cortland Corundum Wheel Co. in wheels for 
grinding materials of high tensile strength, such as soft or 
hardened steel, etc. 

Hex is the trade name for an aluminum oxide abrasive 
used by the Safety Emery Wheel Co. in wheels for grinding 
either soft or hardened steel. This abrasive is the product 
of the electric furnace, the process of manufacture being 
similar to that of aluudum. 

Bondlnif Processes Used In the Manufncture of Grlndiiitf Wheels 
l!y the use of different abrasives, grinding wheels can be 
produced which are adapted to a variety of purposes. The 
important properties of an abrasive are hardness, toughness, 
absence of impurities, uniformity and "fracture" or sharp- 
ness. Inasmuch as these qualities vary to some extent in 
different abrasives, grinding wheels may be produced which 
possess varying characteristics, and therefore are effective In 
grinding not only metals of different compositions but various 
other materials. The characteristics of a grinding wheel can 
also be changed by using different bonds, the bond being the 
substance which holds the abrasive grains together. The 
throe most important bonding processes are known as the 
vitriflcd, silicate and elastic processes, and these names are 
applied to the wheels. For instance, a wheel made by the 
vilritled process Is commonly referred to as a vitrified wheel. 
Other processes occasionally employed are the vulcanite pro- 
cess, the celluloid process, and the oil process. 

The first abrasive wheels known were natural stones, but 
the uses of these were greatly limited because they did not 
possess the required physical properties for the efficient cut- 
ting of metals. Subsequently, artificial abrasive wheels for 
grinding metals were bonded with hydraulic cement, which 
did not prove very satisfactory. Attempts were then made 
to use organic substances which melt when heated and be- 
come hard when cold. Shellac-, resin-, sulphur-, and rubber- 
bonded wheels were then tried, and, of these, shellac and 
rubber were successful to a certain degree. The next advance 
was to use silicate of soda, and the vitrified or fused clay 
processes. These two processes are largely used today, the 
latter chiefly In the manufacture of wheels for use on auto- 
matic grinding machines. 

The Vitrified Process 

As vitrified grinding wheels are used to a greater extent in 
connection with machine shop practice than those made by 
the silicate or the elastic process, the manufacture of wheels 
by this process will be described at some length. The bond 
consists of suitable clays — generally a pure grade of kaolin, 
which is a clay used in the manufacture of porcelain. When 
the material for vitrified wheels Is mixed by the wet process, 
power-driven kettles are used. When the mixture attains the 
consistency of thick paint, it is transferred from the mixing 
kettle to a mold. When the mold is full, the mixture is 
carefully worked to remove all air bubbles and Insure a solid 
wheel. The molds are then partially dried In an open room 
to prevent formation of cracks. This preliminary drying is 
followed by a more complete drying in the heated room. 
When the molds of the wheels are hard enough to be handled, 
they are ready to be turned to shape preparatory to burning In 
the kiln. The wheels are, of course, molded large enough to 
allow for turning and also to compensate for shrinkage in 

The molded wheel is then trued and turned to the required 
form on a "potter's" wheel. This is a very simple device 
and consists principally of a revolving table and a horizontal 
cross-rail, along which the tool-slide is fed by hand. The 
wheel to be trued is not held in any way, but Is simply 
placed on the center of the table, which is made of plaster- 
of-paris. The tool used for turning plain surfaces is a piece 
of flat unhardened steel. This can be fed either vertically or 
horizontally, and the graduated scales on the machine enable 
the operator to turn to the required dimension without tak- 
ing any measurement. 

The wheel is not reduced to the size finally required, an 
allowance being made for shrinking In the kiln, and also to 
provide for the final turning operations after burning. This 
allowance depends upon the size and grain of the wheel. 
A coarse wheel requires a greater allowance than a fine 
grain one, other conditions being equal. In the operation of 
the potter's wheel, hand tools are used to a certain extent, 
particularly in the formation of special shapes. 

The next process in connection with vitrified grinding 
wheel manufacture is the burning of the wheels in order to 
partially melt the bond and form a solid but porous wheel. 
Much skill and care is required to burn wheels successfully, 
as the temperature must be very accurately controlled for a 
long period. The wheels to be burned are stacked in a 
brick kiln and are protected against the direct action of the 
flames and gases by packing them in fireclay saggers. When 
the kiln is full, the door is closed and luted with fireclay 
and the burning begins. This is continued without interrup- 
tion for a period of from three to five days. The furnace is 
then allowed to cool slowly for a week. 

When very hard close vitrified wheels are required, they 
are molded under hydiaulic pressure. Very strong molds 
must be used, as the pressures are enormous. For example, 
a 36inch wheel would require a pressure of about 1000 tons. 
The bond and grain for pressed wheels are first mixed dry In 
a tumbling barrel, after which water is added until the 
proper consistency is obtained. The mixture Is then placed 
in a steel mold and pressed, after which the wheels are re- 
moved from the mold, dried and "fired" in the same manner 
as other vitrified wheels. 



October, 1915 

still another method of molding vitrified wheels is known 
as the "tamped" process. The abrasive grains and clay for 
the bond are mixed together in a comparatively dry con- 
dition, and this mixture is then tamped into molds of the re- 
quired size. After molding and drying, the wheels are 
burned in the kiln the same as wet mixed wheels. The 
tamped process is used principally for making small wheels. 
A vitrified grinding wheel has the following qualities: it is 
very porous and therefore free cutting; it is not affected by 
water, oils, temperature or climatic conditions; the bond is 
hard and practically an abrasive itself. The wet-mixed vitri- 
fied process insures uniformity in the wheel, there being no 
hard or soft spots. The high temperature required for vitri- 
fied wheels burns out impurities, leaving nothing but the 
abrasive and its bond. 

The disadvantages of the vitrified process are that it is 
slow; large wheels are likely to be cracked in the kiln; it 
is impracticable to produce wheels larger than about 34 
inches in diameter and many manufacturers will not make 
wheels larger than 24 or 30 Inches; the burning process is dif- 
ficult to control perfectly, so that a given lot of wheels are 
likely to be somewhat oft grade. 

Vitrified wheels are extensively used for cylindrical grind- 
ing, for surface grinding when a disk form of wheel is used, 
for internal grinding, and for cutter grinding. They can 
readily be distinguished from other wheels by the reddish or 
reddish-brown color and the clear ringing sound produced 
when they are tapped. 

The Silicate Process 

In the silicate process, silicate of soda is the chief con- 
stituent used. The abrasive grains are first mixed with the 
bond in special machines, and the mixture is then tamped 
in a moid by hand. Some shapes of wheels are molded under 
hydraulic pressure, this method being used for disk and very 
hard wheels. After the wheels are molded, they are dried 
and baked in special ovens, from which all the fire gases are 
excluded. This causes a chemical reaction which hardens 
or sets the bond. The temperature of the oven is much 
lower than that required in the vitrified process. Silicate 
wheels can be made of large size and can be produced in a 
comparatively short time. Silicate wheels are made as large 
as 60 inches in diameter, and are especially adapted for grind- 
ing operations in which it is important to have the lowest 
possible wheel wear compatible with free cutting. One par- 
ticular use of these wheels is for the grinding of large cal- 
ender rolls used in paper mills. For this kind of work sili- 
cate wheels give excellent results, producing the desired 
"mirror" finish. 

Elastic and Vulcanite Processes 

Very thin wheels are made by the elastic or the vulcanite 
process. In the elastic process shellac is the principal in- 
gredient in the bond, and the wheels are baked at a low tem- 
perature to set the shellac. Wheels made by this process are 
strong and have considerable elasticity, so that very thin 
wheels can be used with safety. Vulcanite wheels are bonded 
with vulcanized rubber. Very hard, tough, thin wheels can 
be made by this process, but they are rather expensive. Elas- 
tic and vulcanite wheels are made by a pressing or rolling 
operatioi), and have a very dense structure, the abrasive 
grains being embedded in the bonding material. This does 
not permit of as fast grinding as is possible with vitrified 
or silicate wheels. 

Elastic and vulcanite wheels can safely be run in water, 
but elastic wheels should not be used in oil or caustic soda.' 
The oil softens the bonding material so that the wheel wears 
down quickly, and the caustic soda causes disintegration of 
the wheel structure. This is not the case with vulcanite 
wheels, as they can be operated in both the liquids men- 
tioned without injury to the bond or abrasive. 

Elastic and vulcanite wheels are made as thin as 1/32 inch 
up to 4 inches in diameter, 1/16 inch up to 8 inches in 
diameter and 3/32 inch up to 12 inches in diameter. Wheels 
of very fine grain and of small diameter have been made as 
thin as 1/G4 inch. Solid elastic wheels are being made com- 

mercially as large as 26 inches in diameter with a 2-inch 
face and vulcanite wheels 16 Inches in diameter with a 2-inch 

Thin wheels are used for slotting and cutting off stock, 
whereas thicker wJieels are used for" saw grinding, grinding 
between the teeth of gears, sharpening milling cutters, etc. 
They are also used on roll grinding for cutlery work where a 
very smooth polished surface is desired. For cutting off a 
wheel speed of from 9000 to 11,000 feet surface speed has been 
found most efficient, but for most other operations a wheel 
speed of from 5000 to 6000 feet surface speed is recommended. 
For general-purpose cutting-off wheels, where the speed of 
cutting is not a decided factor, vulcanite wheels seem to be 
the best. However, for cutting off tempered tool steel or alloy 
steel tools, where cool cutting is the main consideration 
elastic wheels are the best, because of their softer grades and 
resulting cooler grinding action. While elastic and vulcanite 
wheels are being used for other operations, aside from slot- 
-ting, grooving, nicking and cutting off, they are slowly being 
superseded by wheels manufactured by the vitrified process 
The more porous structure of the vitrified wheels allows of a 
much freer and cooler grinding action with a proportionate 
increase in production. 

Celluloid and Oil Processes 
Grinding wheels made by the celluloid process have a 
bond of celluloid, as the name implies. The abrasive grains 
are mixed with the celluloid and this mixture is then rolled 
in sheets from which the wheels are cut. After seasoning 
for several months, the wheels are ready to finish. In the 
oil process, an oxidizing oil is mixed with the abrasive 
grains. This mixture is then formed into wheels by com- 
pressing it into molds in a hydraulic press. Oil-bonded wheels 
are similar in action to vulcanite wheels but are less depend- 
able as to grade and uniformity. Celluloid and oil process 
wheels are only used to a very limited extent. 
Selection of Wheels lor Grinding 
In selecting a grinding wheel, there are several factors to 
be considered. The grain and grade depend largely upon 
the area of contact between the wheel and work, the kind oi 
material to be ground, the degree of hardness, etc. A harder 
wheel should be used on soft machine steel than on hardened 
tool steel. The reason for this will be best understood if we 
think of a grinding wheel as a cutter having attached to its 
periphery innumerable small teeth. When the wheel is of 
the proper grade, each small piece or cutting particle is held 
in place by the bond until it becomes too dull to cut ef- 
fectively, when it is torn out by the increased friction. Obvi- 
ously, these grains or cutters will become dull sooner when 
grinding hard than when grinding soft steel; hence, as a 
rule the harder the material the softer the wheel, and vir, 
versa; although soft materials, such as brass, are ground 
with a soft wheel which crumbles easily, thus preventing the 
wheel from becoming loaded or clogged with metal, which 
would be the case if a hard-bond wheel were used. 

When a hard wheel is used for grinding hard material the 
grit becomes dulled, but it is not dislodged as rapidlv as it 
should be, with the result that the periphery of the" wheel 
is worn smooth or glazed, so that grinding is impossible with- 
out excessive wheel pressure. Any undue pressure tends to 
distort the work, and this tendency is still further increased 
by the excessive heat generated. If the surface of the wheel 
becomes loaded with chips and burns the work, even when 
plenty of water is used, it is too hard. When too soft a wheel 
is used, the wear is. of course, greatly increased, as the 
particles of grit are dislodged too rapidly and consequently 
the wheel is always "sharp." This means that the abrasive 
has not done sufficient work to become even slightly dull, 
and the result is a rough surface on the work. 

In regard to selecting the proper grinding wheel, as a gen- 
eral rule, materials of high tensile strength, such as soft and 
hardene<l steol. etc.. require a wheel made from an aluminum- 
oxide abrasive; whereas, tor grinding materials of low teuMle 
strength, such as cast iron, brass, bronze, etc.. a wheel made 
from a carbide of silicon abrasive should be used. 

October, 1915 



Arc of Contact a Dectdlnfr Factor in the Selection of 
Grlndlntf Wheels 
One of the many factors to consider in the selection of 
grinding wheels is the grading of the wheel with reference 
to the arc of contact that it makes with the work. Fig. 2 
shows diagrammatically the principal conditions that must 
be met when selecting wheels from the standpoint of the arc 
of contact. These diagrams have been arranged in the order 
of the care necessary in selecting the proper grain and grade. 
For grinding small cylindrical work, as shown at .1, the 
conditions are ideal, because of the small arc of con- 
tact; the work and wheel are easily cooled, and, in addition, 
the dull abrasive grains readily fall out of the way and do 
not interfere with the grinding operation. An increase in 
the diameter of the work b, in relation to the wheel diameter, 
increases the arc of contact and may necessitate using a 
wheel of different grade. All other factors being equal, the 
larger the diameter of the work, the softer the grade of the 
wheel should be. 

On surface grinding with a disk wheel, as shown at B, the 
conditions are not quite so satisfactory because, in this case, 
a greater portion of the wheel surface conies into contact 
with the work. When a narrow wheel of this shape is used 
and is fed across the work c a certain distance for each tra- 
verse of the table, very little difficulty is encountered if water 
or other cooling lubricants can be used. When the grinding 
must be done dry, however, 
considerable trouble is some- 
limes experienced due to heat- 
ing and warping, especially 
when the work is thin; there- 
lore wheels of a softer grade 
are used for grinding under 
the conditions shown at li 
than for grinding cylindrical 
parts as indicated at .1. 

For internal grinding, as 
shown at C, still more atten- 
tion must be given to the 
grading of the wheel, because 
the arc of contact between the 
wheel and work d is much 
greater than in the other cases 
mentioned, and the difficulty 
of using a cooling lubricant 
i!i also increased. On small- 
hole work, wheels are usually 
specified to be of the same 
diameter as the hole or slight- 
ly larger, and then are true<l 
until they Just enter the hole. 
In such a case, the arc of con- 
tact is greatly increase<l, and 
the work and wheel tend to 
heat more rapidly; the diffi- 
culty of injecting a cooling 

Fig. i. 

Diagram iUustmling ReUtio 

Work — A Dociiling Factor in tho Selection 

the edges of the work on the surface of the wheel. As the 
contact area is reduced, a wheel of finer grain and harder 
bond may be used. 

Selecting Wheels for Plain Cylindrical Grlndinfi: 

While it is impossible to give definite information regard- 
ing the selection of grinding wheels under all conditions, 
owing to the different factors which must be considered in 
each case, the wheels listed in the accompanying tables will 
enable one to obtain a general idea of the grades and grains 
that are commonly used for grinding different materials 
under ordinary conditions. 

In the article on "Cylindrical Grinding" in the July number 
of Machi.nekv, considerable space was devoted to the selection 
of wheels, and in order to amplify t|^fc data, the information 
given in .Table II has been compiled. This table gives a list 
of wheels recommended by various wheel manufacturers, for 
grinding soft, hardened, and alloy steel, cast iron, brass, bronze 
and aluminum and can be used as a basis in making the 
proper selection. By referring to this table, it will be noticed 
that for grinding cast iron, cast brass, bronze, and aluminum, 
in most cases wheels made from carbide of silicon abrasives 
are recommended, although a few manufacturers recommend 
aluminum-oxide abrasives for this work. It will also be 
noticed that the bonding processes recommended by the va- 
rious manufacturers differ to some extent. 

For large-diameter cast- 
iron work, the Norton Co. re- 
commends a grain 30, grade 
J. cryslolon wheel, and for 
small-diameter cast iron, a 
grain 30, grade K. crystolon. 
The wheel for large diameters 
is one grade softer than that 
for comparatively small diam- 
eters. For bronze, a grain 30, 
grade K crystolon wheel has 
been used to advantage. When 
grinding armatures or other 
parts where copper and 
wrought iron pieces are ar- 
range<l alternately, a Norton 
crystolon elastic wheel, grain 
46. grade - 2, has been used 
with success. For grinding 
chilled cast-iron rolls of large 
diameter, where it is desireil 
to have a surface free from 
scratches, a cryslolon wheel, 
grain SO, grade J has given 
good results. Of course it 
should be understood that 
this information is intended 
only as a general guide. . 

There are so many different 
allovs in use that it is difll- 

__. of Wliccl to 

lubricant into the hole is also increased. This makes it nec- 
essary to use a •much softer wheel than if the wheel were 
smaller in relation to the diameter of the hole. 

The most severe condition under which a grinding wheel 
operates and the one that requires the greatest attention in 
the selection of the proper grade and grain is that of sur- 
face grinding by the method illustrated at U. There are two 
conditions that must be taken into consideration. The first 
one is where the work / is wider than the diameter of the 
ring or cylinder wheel used. As the entire cutting face of 
the wheel is in contact with the work, a wheel of extremely 
soft bond and coarse grain should be used to secure satis- 
factory results; otherwise, the work will be heated to such 
an extent that it will spring out of shape and accurate re-, 
suits will be impossible. It is also necessary to have a copi- 
ous supply of cooling liquid to reduce the heat. 

The other condition is where the work c is less in width 
than the diameter of the wheel. In this case, the work has 
a tendency to tear the grains out of the bond; hence, a wheel 
of hnrder bond is required because of the chisel action of 

cult to specify any particular grain or grade of wheel that 
can be used satisfactorily on all of them. For instance. It Is 
now necessary to distinguish between numerous kinds of 
brass of high and low zinc content, such as "red" and "yel- 
low" brass, bronze, naval brass, and many others. The term 
"bronze" was formerly employed to indicate an alloy whose 
chief constituents were copper and tin-copper— but in recent 
years many different alloys are referred to as bronzes. 

Commercial brass is generally understood to mean an 
alloy of two-thirds copper and one-third zinc, but this varies. 
The copper content may vary from 60 per cent to SO per cent; 
likewise the amount of copper and tin in bronze also varies 
considerably. With but two exceptions alloys of zinc. tin. 
lead. iron, manganese, and nickel with copper require no 
change in the grade and grain of the grinding wheel. The 
exceptions are nickel-bronze and bell metal— two of the hard- 
est alloys. These can be ground with success by the same 
wheel as the other alloys, but where a large number of pieces 
are to be ground a different wheel should be selected. For 
nickel-bronze a wheel made of crystolon, grain 24, grade Q, 



October, 1915 

Pig. 3. BLagran 

gives good results. For bell 
metal, a wheel of the same 
material but of a little harder 
grade is recommended, such 
as grade R and grain 24 or 
3 . Comparatively thin 
wheels are often used for 
such metals, and the work Is 
ground by what Is known as 
the "fixed wheel" method. 
Careful experiments made In 
grinding brasses and bronzes 
with a crystolon wheel, show- 
ed that a grain 30, grade P 
wheel gave the best results. 

Wheels for Form-grindintf 

I n form - grinding, the 
wheel is fed straight in on 
the work without being tra- 
versed and therefore is re- 
quired to take both a roughing and a finishing cut. Usually 
I)ieces that are form-ground — crankshafts not included— are 
finished right from the rough-turning to the final grinding 
in one straight-in cut. It is not uncommon, therefore, to find 
that the wheels generally recommended for form-grinding are 
of a combination grain. Table III gives the grain and grade 
of wheels for form-grinding, as recommended by various grind- 
ing wheel manufacturers. The conditions that govern the 
grain and grade of the wheel for form-grinding are: the width 
of the face of the wheel in contact with the work, tha rigidity 
of the machine in which the wheel is held, and the speed at 
which the work is rotated. For average work a combination 
grain, grade M or N wheel is recommended. These grades 
have been found to give good results on 0.20 to 0.50 carbon 
steel, not hardened, as well as chrome-nickel or chrome-vana- 
dium steel heat-treated. 

Wheels for Internal Grindinir 

The selection of the proper grain and grade of wheel for 

governing Selection of WheeU for 

internal grinding is one that 
cannot be easily decided upon. 
The grain and grade to use 
on any given job depends not 
only upon the kind of work 
arid the work and wheel 
speeds, but also very largely 
upon the stiffness of the ma- 
chine and the firmness with 
which the wheel-epindle is 
supported. Briefly summa- 
rized, some of the points to 
take into consideration are: 
diameter of hole; speed of 
wheel-spindle; kind of work; 
whether the hole is plain or 
keyseated; nature of mate- 
rial; stiffness of machine; 
rigidity of wheel-spindle ; 
method of holding grinding 

wheel; and character of operation — whether cut is for rough- 
ing or finishing. 

As regards the diameter of the hole, there are several points 
to consider. In the first place, where the hole is below ^4 
or 1 inch diameter, for economical reasons, it is necessary 
to have the wheel as large as possible; the wheel is usually 
ordered of the same diameter or larger than the hole to be 
ground and is then trued until it enters the hole. By using 
a wheel of practically the same size as the hole, as shown at .1 
in Fig. 3, the arc of contact of wheel and work is large and, 
consequently, a much softer bond wheel must be used than 
if the wheel were small in relation to the diameter of the 
hole. Where the wheel is small. In proportion to the diameter 
of the hole, a harder bond and finer grain wheel can be used. 

The speed at which a wheel should be operated for internal 
grinding is not always an easy matter to determine. In the 
first place, if the wheel is very small a high peripheral speed 
is necessary, and difficulty is experienced in obtaining a 


Wheel Manufacturers 

.\brasive Material Co 

American I'^mery Wlieel W'or 

CarlicirniKlmii Ci> 

t",ortl:inil C'liniiiiliim Wheel C (iriiuliiiK Wlieel Co .. 

Norton Co 

Safety Emery Wheel Co 

SterliiiK (iriiidiii^' Wheel Co. . 

Vilrili.Ml Wheel Co 

W.illhaiii Eiiiery Wlieel Co. . . 
Waltham Emery Wheel Co. . . 

(All Wheels Bonded 
by Vitrified Process) 









24 to 46 









80 to 3() 

20 to 86 

24 to 36 

80 Ct)mb. 



M to N 


M to P 
2 to2i 
D- to D» 
3i to 3| 

Wheel Manufacturers 


(Vitrilied Bond except 

where marked under 


.\brasivo Material Co 'Carbide of Silicon 

Aiiit'iiraii Emery Wheel Works. Carbolite 

.Virierican K.iiiery Wlieel Works. Corundtiin ] 

CarboriiiKluni Cii Carborundum 

Cortland ('(iniTiduiii Wheel Co.. Carboruiuliini 

CoiUaiul Corundiini Wheel Co. . Oxalunia 

Detroit Grinding Wlieel Co Carborundum 

Norton Co Crystolon 

Safety Emery Wheel Co Corex 

Stirling (Jrindins Wlieel Co Corundum 

Vilriti.'.l Whci'l Co , Carbolon , 

Waltliani Knierv Wheel Co i Corundum ■ 

Waltham Eruei'v Wheel Co Carbowalt 

to CO 
to 54 

to 60 
to 30 

to 36 

to 36 
to 46 

to M 


to 5» 
to PJ 
to 3 

to E, 


24 to 46 


38 to 46 


30 to 36 

36 to 40 


K to L 
O toP 


E' to E* 

24 to 46 





24 to 86 

24 to 36 



24 to 30 

20 to 30 

24 to 30 

80 Comb. 




M toO 


2J to 3 
D» to E' 
3i H) 3| 

Cast Brass and Bronze 

Cast Aluminum 

24 to- 36 

20 to 36 
86 to 46 

20 to 80 


:t(l to 46 

L to N 80 to 38 2E to 3Ef 

46 to 60 2E to 2JEt 

MtoN I 

L to M 16 to 24 2t 

N to P* 
K to L 
PJ to I J 


2? to :U 

16 to 80 
20 to 36 

30 to 36 
30 to 36 


:ii) t."> 46 

J to K* 

MJ to PJ 
3 to :{j 


• Grinding wheel Iwnded b.v silicate process. 
t Grinding wheel Inrnded by elaKlic proces.-*. 
Note: The numbers 88 and 5S preceding, lu 

iDiUcute a special manufacturing process for the abraslr 

October, 1915 MACHINERY 125 


Wheel Manufacturers 

(VltrlOea Bond 
except where 

under grade) 

0.20 to O.M 

Per Cent Carbon 

Steel (Soft) 

O.M to 0.50 Per 

Cent Carbon Steel 


Abrasive Material Co | Boro-carbone 

American Emery Wheel Works. Corundum 

Carborundum Co I Aloxlte 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. Oxaluma 

Detroit Grinding Wheel Co....| Carbo-alumlna 

Norton Co Alundum 

Safety Emery Wheel Co Rex 

SterlinK Grinding Wheel Co Corundum 

Vitrified Wheel Co Corundum 

Waltham Emory Wheel Co Alowalt 

24 Comb. 
24 to 30 
24 to 54 
36 to 46 
24 Comb. 


24 to 60 

20 to 36 



L to M 



1 M to P» 

I LtoN 

M'/^ to Pi/. 

3 to3V. 

24 Comb. 

46 to 60 

24 to 30 
24 to 60 
36 to 46 
20 Comb. 

or 46 

24 to 60 

20 to 30 

36 to 54 





2% to 31', 

or Cbrome-Tanadinm 
Steel (Heat-treated) 



24 Comb. 


5S-36 to 58-60 


24 to 30 


30 to 46 

K toM 

36 to 46 

M to 0* 

24 Comb, 
or 46 

J to M 

24 to 60 


16 to 20 


36 to 46 

D, toE 

4C to 60 


* Grinding wheel bonded by ttlticate pruc 
Note: The number 58 preceding, In hou 

the grain sizes Indicates a special manufacturing process (or tbc abrnalve listed. 

bearing for the spindle that will stand up to the speed at 
which the grinding wheel would give the best efficiency. The 
lower the wheel speed, the harder the bond should be, other 
conditions remaining the same. 

When a smooth hole is plain, as shown at 13, F'ig. 3, a 
softer wheel should be used than when the hole is keyseated, 
as shown at C and D. Slots or keyseats have a chisel action 
on the wheel face and quickly tear out the grains; hence 
lor keyseated work a harder wheel should be used than on 
plain-hole work, and it should also have a wider face. 

The nature of the material to be ground is also a deter- 
mining factor in the selection of the grade and grain of 
the wheel, as well as the abrasive. For grinding soft steel 
varying from 0.20 to 0.30 per cent carbon content, the bond 
sliould bo harder than for grinding the same steel in its 
hardened condition. Hardened steel has a tendency to glaze 
the wheel much more rapidly than soft work, and glazing is 
one of the greatest difficulties met with in grinding. Wheels 
made from aluminum-oxide abrasives give excellent service 

on steel. For grinding cast iron, carbide of silicon abra- 
sives are more satisfactory; the latter can also be used on 
brasses and bronzes, aluminum, nickel-bronze and government 

The rigidity of a machine has about as much to do with 
the selection of the grade and grain of the wheel afe any 
other one factor. The fact is often overlooked that a ma- 
chine which is not rigid should use a harder bond wheel 
than one which is. The greater the rigidity of the machine, 
the softer the grade and the coarser the grain of the wheel 
should be. Of course the rigid machine also has the advan- 
tage of being able to remove the stock with rapidity and 
without chatter marks. 

For rough internal grinding it is generally advisable to use 
a wheel of coarse grain and soft bond, because of the greater 
cutting capacity of the wheel; under average conditions, a 
wheel of finer grain and harder bond would be better for 
finishing. In commercial grinding, however, the time neces- 
sary to change the wheels for roughing and finishing would 


Wheel Manufacturers 


(VltrlOed nond 

except where 

marked under 


0.20 to 0.50 Per 

Cent Carbon Steel 


0.20 to 0.50 Per 
Cent Carbon Steel 

Cbrome-nlrkel or 


Steel (Heat-treated) 

Abrasive Material Co Boro-carbone 

-Vnierican Emery Wheel Works. Corundum 

Caihorunduin Co Aloxlte 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. Oxaluma 

Detroit Grinding Wheel Co Carbo-alumina 

Norton Co Alundum 

Safety Emery Wheel Co Hex 

Vilritlpd Wheel Co Corundum 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co .-Vlowalt 


(Vltrltled Bond 

except where 

marked under 


46 to 60 
34 to 46 

46 to 50 



46 to 60 

M toN 
J to K 

L to N» 
J to M 
M to P 

D, to D. 

2^ to 3 

46 to 60 
46 to 60 

46 to 60 



46 to 60 


J toK 
M to N 

J toK 

J to L 
M to P 
D, to D, 
2^ to 3 

46 to 60 



46 to ,",0 





46 to 60 

M to X 
K to L 
I toK» 
J toK 
M toP 

2% to 3 

......,, ^ Carbide of 

Abrasive Material Co Silicon 

American Emery Wheel Works. Carbolite 

„„ , . Carbolite or 

American Emery Wheel Works. Corundum 

(^arborundum Co Carborundum 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. Carborundum 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. Oxaluma 

Hetroit Grinding Wheel Co.... Carborundum 

Norton Co Crystolon 

Safety Emery Wheel Co Corox 

Vitrilied Wheel Co Carbolon 

Vltrltiod Wheel Co Corundum 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co Cnrbowalt 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co Alowalt 

• Orln.llnp wheels bonded bv silicate proci 
t UrlndluK wheels bonded !))■ clastic i>roce 
Note: The numbers ;t8 and 88 preceding. 

46 to GO 
46 to 60 

36 to 40 
30 to 46 

36 to 46 

30 to 46 

36 to 60 


30 to 46 

K toM 
J to L 


K toM* 

1 toL 
M toM»4 

2 to 3 

46 to GO 
40 to 50 

46 to 60 
36 to 46 
30 to 46 
36 to 60 

M to I' 



K to M 

M toMMi 

(^•t Alamlnnm 

46 to 60 2E to 3EI 
46 to 60 lUjE to 2Et 


36 to 54 
24 to 36 

36 to 60 





M toN 


2 to3t 

M to M% 


2>.j toC?i 

30 to 46 1% to 2t 

LifacturlDg procvM (or the abrasive Hated. 



October, 1915 


GrindinK Wheels of Disk Type 

Wheel ManufacturerH 

Abrasive Material Co 

American Emery Wheel Works. 

f'arlionindiini Co 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. 
Detroit Grinding Wheel Co.... 

.N'orton Co 

.SalCty Emery Wheel Co 

Vitrified Wheel Co 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co 

Abrasive Material Co 

American Kmery Wheel Works 

Carborundum Co 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co. 

Detroit Grinding Wheel Co 

Norton Co 

."safety Emery Wheel Co 

Vitrified Wheel Co 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co 


(Vltrlfled Bond 

except where 

marked under 


0.20 lo CM Per 

Cent Cartjon Steel 


0.20 to O.SO Per 

Cent CarlioD Steel 


Cbrome-olckel or 

Chrome- vanadium 

Steel <Beat-treatedl 

Grain Grade 






24 Comb. L to M 

24 Comb. 


24 Comb. 



30 to 46 J to K 

36 to 46 

I to J 

58-30 to 58-46 

I to J 


24 N to P 


R to S 




24 to .-iO K to L 

24 to .30 


30 to 46 

J toK 


16to4fi EtoM* 

24 to 46 


24 to 46 



14 to 24 J to K 

14 to 30 

H to Kv 

14 to 30 



30 to GO 


36 to 46 


36 to 46 

M to P 


36 to 46 


46 to 60 





36 to 46 


36 to 46 

2 to 2% 

36 to 46 

2 to 3 

Grinding Wheels ot.Ring Tjrpe 




20 to 30 





58-20 to 58-30 

v'i tolV'* 

24 to 36 

Vj to 1» 

58-20 to 58-30 

If. tol* 







R to S 


24 to 30 


24 to 30 


30 to 46 

J to K 


16 to 24 


24 to 46 


24 to 46 



14 to 36 

I toKt 

14 to 36 


14 to 36 



24 to 46 

M to M% 

36 to 46 


36 to 46 





36 to 46 





36 to 46 

2V. to 3 

36 to 46 

2 to 2?4 

36 to 46 

2 to 3 

•c-ls hoiuUil h.v silic-atc pn 

lilk'iite bond. 

nbcr TjS preceding, in some 

s, the grail) sizes : 

more than overbalance the gain made by using a wheel best 
suited tor both purposes, so that a wheel is generally selected 
which will be fairly suitable for both roughing and finishing. 
When a good finish is desired, it is the general practice to 

diL-utes B -special iiiauufucturtug process for the abrasive listed. 

dress the wheel, after taking the roughing cut, by passing a 
diamond slowly across the face. 

In Table IV are given the grade and grain selections of 
grinding wheels for the internal grinding of soft, hardened 


Grinding Wheels of Disk Type 

Abrasive Material Co Carbide of Silicon 

American Emery Wheel Works. Carbolite 

Carborundum Co Carborundum 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. Carborundum 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. Oxaluma 

Detroit Grinding Wheel Co Carbo-alumina 

.\orton Co Crystolon 

Norton Co Crystolon 

Safety Emery Wheel Co ' Corex 

Vitrified Wheel Co Carbolon 

Vitrified Wheel Co Corundum 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co Carbowalt 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co Carbowalt 

Wkr.l .ManufacUu- 

Vitrified 30 to 46 

Vitrified 36 to 46 
Vitrified 24 

Vitrified 20 to 30 


Silicate 16 to 36 
Vitrified or Silicate 20 to 30 


Vitrified 20 to 26 

Vitrified 20 to 36 


Vitrified 24 to 36 

Three Processes 

Abrasive Material Co Carbide of Silicon 

Abrasive Material Co Boro-carbone 

American Emery Wheel Works. Carbolite 

American Emery Wheel Works. Carbolite 

Carborundum Co Carborundum 

Carborundum Co Aloxite 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. Oxaluma 

Detroit Grinding Wheel Co.... Carbo-alumina 

Norton Co Crystolon 

Norton Co Alundum 

Safety Emery Wheel Co Corex 

Safety Emery Wheel Co Rex 

Vitrified Wheel Co Carbolon 

Vitrified Wheel Co Corundum 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co Carbowalt 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co Alowalt 



MVj topi/j 

30 to 46 

36 to 60 


"20 to 24 
24 to 46 

20 to 30 
30 to 36 

24 to 36 

24 to sis 




MVi toP 


2 to 3 










30 to 36 
36 to 60 


20 to 24 
20 to 36 
24 to 46 

36 to 46 

20 to 36* 

24 to 36 

2E to 3E 


5 to 6 


I, to M, 

IVi to2i{. 


■ ■ 44' ' ' 

"1% to '2 

24 Comb. 

30 to 36 

16 to 24 
14 to 20 
16 to 30 

14 to 36 

36 to 60 

16 to 30 

24 to 36 



Q toR 


E, to E, 
2Vj to3 

M to 30. cradc .) 

October, 1915 MACHINERY 



Grinding Wheels of Ring Type 1 

Wheel Manufacturers 


Bonding ' 
ProceKH 1 

Cait Iron 

Catt Brass 1 
and Bronze 1 





Carbide of Silicon 











I to J ' 20 to 30 1 

1 to J 

G toK 

' Vto L ' 
M'/j toP 

"e, ' 

2 to " 

American Emery Wheel Works. 

Carborundum Co 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. 
(Portland Corundum Wheel Co.. 
Detroit GrindinK Wheel Co.... 
Norton Co 

Vitrified 1 16-24 
Vitrified 24 
Vitrified 20 to 30 


Silicate 16 to 24 
Vitrified or Silicate 14 to 30 


Vitrified , 20 to 36 
'Vitrified i 30 



20 to 30 

'20 io 24 
16 to 36 

14 to 30 
30 to 36 


Safety Emery Wheel Co 

My. to PY2 

Vitrified Wheel Co 

Vitrified 1 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co 

Vitrified ' 24 to 36 2 to 3 

Three Processes 24 to rin 

Wlic.'l .ManufiMlun-rs 



Cast Alumluum 

Iron Ca*t.' . 





Carbide of Silicon 









24 to 30 

'20 to 30 

'20 to 24 
20 to 36 
16 to 30 

'36 to 46 

'20 to 36 

'24 to 36 


" "j " " 


Q toR 

20 to 24 

ItoK 14 to 24 
5 to 6 

16 to 24 

American Emery Wheel Works. 
Carborundum Co 

Cortland Corundum Wheel Co.. 
Detroit GrindinK Wheel Co 



" ' " '4 ' 


14 to 20 
16 to 30 

Alundum i Vitrified or Silicate 
Corex 1 Vitrified 
Rex 1 Vitrified 
Carbolon ' Elastic 

14 to 30 H to L» 

Safety Emery Wheel Co 

Safety Emery Wheel Co 

Vitrified Wheel {'o 

36 to 60 

■ "24 " 
'24 to 36 


"e, " 


Vitrified Wheel Co 





Waltham lOmery Wheel Co 

Waltham Emery Wheel Co 

• Kor riMiKh c-asllnB». uiianneal 

and alloy steels, and cast iron, brass, bronze, and aluminum. 
These gradings are supplied by the various grinding wheel 
manuraoturer.s, and as will be noticed, cover a considerable 

Wheels for Surface Grinding- 
There are several conditions in surface grinding which 
govern to a marked extent, the grain and grade of wheel to 
use. For instance, the arc of contact of a ring type wheel 
with the work is much greater than it is on disk wheels 
used for either cylindrical or Internal grinding. In surface 
grinding there are three chief conditions: first, where a disk 
wheel is used, as shown at 11 in Fig. 2; second where a ring 
or cylinder wheel is used on work wider than the wheel diam- 
eter; and third where the work is less in width than the 
diameter of the wheel, as shown at U in the same illustration. 
In Tables V, VI and VII are given the wheel selections for 
surface grinding different materials with the disk type and 
ring or cylinder types of grinding wheels. 

Some of the other conditions which govern the selection of 
wheels for surface grinding are: materials to be ground, 
degree of accuracy required, quality of finish, and shape and 
size of work. l>"'or grinding with disk wheels used on the 
planer type of surface grinding machines, the grain com- 
monly used varies from 46 to 60, whereas the grade is about 
H for hardened steel, when using wheels made from alumi- 
num-oxide abrasives. For hardened high-speed steel or very 
thin pieces of hardened carbon steel, the bond of the wheel 
should be about grade G, the same grain being used. For 
grinding cast iron, wheels ma<le from carbide of silicon abra- 
sives are employed, the grain being about 36. and the 
grade J. 

When grinding with eyliuder of ring wheels, the greatest 
trouble is to get rid of the chips and prevent heating of 
the work. The grinding of a continuous fiat surface with a 
ring wheel makes it necessary to employ a rapid work speed 
and shallow cuts, using wheels of relatively coarse grain 

crjsloloii, Krain l(i lo J4. Kfade J I ■ M 

and soft bond. This is necessary so as to make very small 
chips which will not fill the spaces between the cutting 
points on the wheel. When the work is narrow in proportion 
lo the diameter of the wheel, as shown at /( in Fig. 2, there 
is less trouble with chips. For surface grinding work with 
ring wheels, the Norton Co. recommends the grades and 
grains as follows: cast iron, grade I; chilled cast iron, grade 
I or J; hardened steel, grade G or H; high-speed steel, grade 
I; nickel-bronze, grade Q or P; government bronze, grain 24, 
grade Q to grain 3G, grade P. 

For surface grinding unannealed rough malleable iron cast- 
ings, the Norton Co. recommends a crystolon, vitrified wheel, 
grain 20 to 30, grade J to N for disk wheels, and grain 16 to 
24, grade J to M for ring or cylinder wheels. For annealed 
malleable iron castings that are fairly smooth, the Norton Co. 
recommends an alundum wheel, vitrified process, grain 14 to 
36, grade I to K for disk wheels, and alundum, vitrified or 
silicate, grain 14 to 30, grade H to L for ring or cylinder 
wheels. This same information applies to all other listings 
given in Tables VI and VII. 

The wheels used on Blanchard vertical surface grinders 
are of the cylinder type, 16 inches in diameter. 5 inches 
high, and of widths of rims varying from ItJ to 1*4 inch. 
All wheels used on Blanchard surface grinders are wire wound 
by the maker. In selecting wheels for this machine, the two 
most important factors to consider arc the material to be 
ground and the area presented 10 the wheel. For grinding 
cast iron, aluminum, brass, and alloys of low tensile strength, 
wheels made from carbide of silicon abrasives, and having a 
vitrified bond have given the best results. For steel, either 
hard or soft, and for the tougher and stronger bronzes, wheels 
made from aluminum oxide abrasives and bonded by the 
silicate process are used. As a general rule, hard-bond wheels 
should be used on soft tough stock, and soft-bond wheels on 
hardened stock. 

The area to be considered in grinding on a surface grinder 



October, 1915 

of the rotary table vertical spindle type is that presented to 
the wheel by a group of pieces held on the chuck at one time. 
Those have been divided into three classes, viz., those of nar- 
row, niediuiu, and broad surfaces. The wheels recommended 
by the Blanchard Machine Co. for these various classes of 
work are given in Tables VIII, IX, and X, respectively. These 
tables will serve as a general guide in selecting the wheels, 
but cannot be expected in all cases to give the best wheel for 
every job. The wheels listed are those made by the Ameri- 
can Emery Wheel Works and the Norton Co. The reason for 
this is that a large number of tests have been made with these 
particular wheels, on the work specified. 

The illustration shown in connection with Table VIII is 
given to indicate "narrow" surfaces. At A is shown a ring 
with a %-inch rim. At B is shown a group of rings with 
walls Vi inch wide, whereas at C are shown castings having 
ribs Vi inch wide and small bosses that must be ground. 
These are shown to indicate in a general way what is meant 
by "narrow surfaces". 

The illustration accompanying Table IX shows examples of 
work to indicate medium surfaces. Ring-shaped parts like the 


Illustration indicates G 


Chilled ( 
Ca-st Iron I 






Hardened ( Corundum 
Steel i Alundum 







38- ;» 

• Iteconimended by the Blanchard Machine Co. 

t For brass, bronze, and similar allojs of low 

vbcels as for cast li<.ii. I''or linrd bronze use sani 

} No. 46 grain and same grade is also used on 

sile sti-enRth, use same 
vbcels as for soft steel, 
rrow surfaces to obtain 

„ ..aloother'ilniBli. 

Note: The numbers S8 and 58 preceding, In some cases, the grain sizes 

liidlcnti' a special manufacturing process f«r the abrasive listed. 

one shown at A may vary in width from 2 to 3 inches; the 
parts shown at B are washers 3% inches in diameter with a 
2-inch hole, leaving a wall of % inch. Thirty-four pieces 
are held on the table. If a single instead of a double row of 
pieces was held on the chuck at one time, this class of work 
would be considered as having narrow surfaces. The castings 
shown at C have a ground surface about 1V4 inch wide, and 
sixteen pieces are held on the table. 

Summary -Points on the Selection of Grlndlnur Wheels 
The following are the most important conditions governing 
the selection of grinding wheels: Speed of wheel and work, 
size and shape of piece ground, composition and temper of 
metal, design and condition of machine, rigidity of floor, wet 
or dry grinding, quality of finish wanted, amount of stock to 
be removed, etc. Usually a wheel should be selected that is 
nearly the same as that found on previous jobs to give sat- 
isfaction, and then watched carefully under working condi- 
tions to see what the cutting action is. The following are a 
few of the most important points to be considered in making 
a selection of the correct grain and grade of wheel to use: 


nitucratlon Indicates General Claea of U'ork for which the 
Wbeela listed are adapted 

Cast ' 

Chilled / 
Cast Iron ( 

Soft I 
Steel f 

Hardened / 
Steel s 

Highspeed i 
Steel )■ 





Carbolite Vitrified 





Corundum Silicate 



GrmiD I Gnde 




38-24 a 


• Recommended bv the Blanchard Machine Co. 

t For brass, bronze, and similar allo.vs of low tensile strengtb, use 
same wheels as for cast iron. For hard bronze use same wbeela as for 
soft steel. 

Note: The numbers 38 and 58 preceding. In some cases, the grain sizt-s. 
indicate a special manufacturing process for tbe abrasive Usted. 

1. For materials of low tensile strength, use grinding 
wheels made from the carbide of silicon abrasives. For ma- 
terials of high tensile strength, use grinding wheels made 
from aluminum-oxide abrasives. 

2. If a wheel glazes over, fills, and cuts slowly, it is too 
hard — try one or two grades softer. 

3. If a wheel wears away too fast, wears out of round or 
quickly loses its shape, it is too soft. Users often think that 


Bonding of 

Process Wbeel 

I Rim 

Cast ) Carbolite 

Iront f Crystolon 

Q,,ff ) Corundum 

If" V. Alundum 

^^®^' ) Alundum 

Hardened [ Corundum 

Steel \ Alundum 










Corundum Silicate 



• Hecommended b.v the Blanchard Machine Co. 

t For brass, bronze, and similar alloys of low tensile strength, use same 
wheels as for cast Iron. For bard bronze use same wheels as for soft steel. 

t Wheels made b.v vltrifled process are used onl.v for roughing purposes. 

Note; The numbers .S8 and 58 preceding. In some cases, the grain sizes. 
Indicate a special manufactucing process for the abrasive listed. 

October, 1915 



because a wheel wears out of round, It has "soft spots", but 
this is a mistake. It is a sure indication that a harder grade 
or higher wheel speed is necessary. 

4. Increasing the speed of a wheel will make It act like 
a wheel of harder grade, and decreasing the speed will make 
it appear softer. A wheel should be speeded up as the diame- 
ter is reduced by wear, in order to maintain the proper sur- 
face speed. 

5. The greater the surface contact between the wheel and 
the work, the softer the grade of the wheel should be. Thus 
a ring, cylinder or cup-wheel should be softer than a disk 
wheel for grinding the same material, and a very thin disk 
wheel should be harder than a thick one. 

6. In cylindrical grinding, work of large diameter will 
require a softer wheel than work of small diameter. Pieces 
which have a narrow surface or edge to be ground need a 
harder wheel than wide surfaces. 

7. In cylindrical grinding, increasing the work speed tends 
to wear away the wheel faster. Vibration due to worn bear- 
ings, lack of rigidity in the machine, or a shaky floor, has 
the same effect. With any of these conditions, a harder wheel 
should be used. 

8. The use of water permits a wheel of slightly harder 
bond to be used and improves the finish of the work. It prevents overheating of the work and the resulting 

9. A wheel is the most efficient when It is just ssft enough 
to cut freely without excessive wear, and not hard enough to 
cause glazing. 

10. To preserve some special shape of face, a relatively 
hard wheel should be used — generally a wheel of combination 
grain is recommended for form-grinding. 

11. Always keep the face of the wheel true by frequent 
use of a diamond. 

12. When surface grinding dry, do not let the wheel glaze. 
As soon as it shows a black spot Indicating glazing, use a 
carborundum or aloxlte block, depending on the abrasive 
used in the wheel. 

13. Do not take heavy cuts with ring, cylinder or cup- 
wheels which grind on the edge, and use comparatively high 
work speeds. 

* * * 


It hardly seems necessary to say that it is poor business 
management to purchase unnecessary equipment, whether it 
bo intended for the home, the office or the factory. But 
many concerns are burdened by expenditures for equipment not 
needed, and which can never be made profitable. It Is a case 
oftentimes of not knowing what Is already available or what 
with slight changes could be made so. Take the case, tor 
example, of shop trucks. They are constantly in demand 
throughout the plant, and if not promptly returned to some 
central spot much time is lost by the men in looking for 
them. The conclusion may bo Jumped at that more trucks 
are needed, when as a matter of fact there are plenty but no 
system Is applied to effect their return when the workmen 
have used them. A rearrangement of machinery groups or a 
more systematic handling of materials that makes machines 
more effective may eliminate the necessity of purchasing 
moro machines. To make equipment more efficient by re-ar- 
ranging and facilitating movement of the work to and from 
the machines is obviously better management than building 
additions and installing more machinery. 

In the exhibit of the United States Steel Corporation at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition In San Francisco, more than six 
miles of motion picture films are shown to give visitors an 
idea of the operations required to convert Iron ore Into 
finlshiHl products. Those familiar with motion picture films 
know that each foot contains sixteen small pictures, ».', by 1 
Inch. In six miles of films, therefore, there are somewhat 
more than 500,000 individual pictures, each slightly different 
from the one Immediately preceding. In these 600,000 pic- 
tures Is shown the entire "story of steel." 



The relation existing between the power transmitted by a 
shaft and the diameter of the shaft and its torsional stress, 
when the shaft is subjected only to a torsional stress and 
Is running at a certain number of revolutions per minute, 
can be expressed by the following equation: 
12 X 33,000 H.P. SiirD' 


2t R.P.M. 16 

where H.P. = horsepower transmitted by shaft; 

R.P.M. = number of revolutions per minute made by 

Si = torsional stress In shaft In pounds per square 

D ■— diameter of shaft in Inches. 
The preceding equation Is one which the engineering de- 
partment of almost every manufacturing plant has occasion 
to use. This is especially the case in factories engaged In 
the manufacture of turbines or motors, which are direct con- 
nected to fans, pumps, generators, and similar units where 
couplings are required between the driving and the driven 
members. The speed and power Is varied to suit different 
conditions, and the shaft ends to which the coupling Is con- 
nected have to be proportioned accordingly. If a number of 
couplings have been adopted as standards, with their re- 
spective bores of the proper sizes to receive different stand- 
ard shaft ends, It Is necessary to check up these dimensions 
against the power and speed conditions for each case In order 
that the most suitable size of coupling may be selected. It 
often happens that one manufacturer furnishes the turbine, 
motor or other driving member, while another manufacturer 
furnishes the fan, pump, generator, or other driven member; 
and in such cases the shaft end of either the driving or 
driven member frequently has to be made special to suit the 
coupling. This makes It necessary to check up the torsional 
stresses to be sure that they do not exceed the highest value 
that is suitable for the material from which the shaft Is made. 
The chart shown in Fig. 1 has been found extremely use- 
ful for determining the relation between the diameter of the 
shaft and the amount of power it Is capable of transmitting, 
the chart being used both for determining the required shaft 
diameter to transmit a given amount of power and for check- 
ing up the capacities of existing transmission systems. Aside 
from the amount of time which is saved through the use of 
this chart. It has been found of value In eliminating errors 
which sometimes find their way into results obtained by cal- 
culation. The well-known fact that the amount of power 
transmitted by a shaft of given diameter, which is subjected 
to a certain torsional stress, Is directly proportional to the 
speed at which the shaft Is running can be readily seen from 
Formula (1). Sometimes it is found convenient to use the 
number of horsepower transmitted per hundred revolutions 
per minute as the unit of power transmitted by a given shaft 
at different speeds; and the curves shown In Fig. 1 (the 
curves on the right-hand side are a continuation of those on 
the left) represent the values of this unit for different sizes 
of shafts subjected to torsional stresses of 3000, 6000, and 7000 
pounds per square inch, respectively. 

As an example of the uses of this chart, consider a case In 
which it Is assumed that a steam turbine developing 900 
horsepower and running at a speed of 2000 revolutions per 
minute is to be coupled to a generator. It Is desired to find 
the proper diameter of the shaft at the coupling, that will, 
safely transmit the power from the turbine to the generator, 
it being as.<:urae<I that it is the practice of the manufacturer to 
allow a maximum torsional stress of 5000 pounds per square 
Inch for the shaft. Dividing 900 by 20, It Is found that (so 

• For other urtUl.- 
dubjocts, puhlt^hwl 
B. P. PInkncT. N- 
Brirlnn," bj W. 
tXtrs. bT w. c; 
I>onff Sti«ft»," bT ^'' 
■nd Tumlni: .Momru 
bj E. H.immnr«lrotn, 
of Shnrt*." J«nii.irT 
Shtfrtnc." Sfi'lwbcr 

t AddrMs: Ctrr ol 

rilDf ttar dim 

-il, 19H; 
cu»t. 1913; 
rr. I 
. *• 1 


r .'? • 



IPI .. 






April. 1911; "Th* Bfffct of K»j-w>y» on th« StrmrHl 
, 1911: ind "Tibl* (or Oompotlnf Hollow lad Solid 
. lOOkV 
r Kerr Turhin* Co.. WrlUrlll*. N. T. 



October, 1915 

far as the torsional 
stresses are concern- 
ed) 45 horsepower 
per hundred revolu- 
tions per minute i>^ 
equivalent to 9(mi 
horsepower at a 
shaft speed of 2000 
revolutions per min- 
ute. From the 5000- 
pound curve in Fig. 
1, the minimum shaft 
size is found to be 
3.08 inches in diame- 
ter. The chart is 
used not only for de- 
termining the sizes 
of shaft ends to fit 
into a coupling; it 
can also be employed 
for determining the 
diameter of any shaft 
which is subjected 
only to torsional 
stresses. In cases 
where the bearing 
supports are close to- 

ning Required Diameter of Shaft to transmit Various Numbe; 
Hundred R. P. M. for Torsional Stresses of 3000, 6000, and 7000 
Pounds per Square Inch in Shaft 

gether, so that the stresses due to bending are small as com- 
pared with the torsional stresses, the curves can be used for 
finding the shaft size after all other considerations such as 
deflection and rigidity have been properly looked after. 

The three turves shown at the left-hand side of Fig. 2 are 
used for determining the required size of keys to use in a 
shaft, coupling, pulley, gear, or similar member which has 
to transmit a specified amount of power at a certain number 
of revolutions per minute, and with a fi.xed shearing stress 
per square inch in the key. The following formula shows 
the conditions which fix the value of the shearing stress Ss. 
12 X 33,000 H.P. Ss.4/> 

= (2) 

2ir R.P.M. 2 

where H.P., R.P.M. and D have the values already given; 

A ^ total shear area of key 
in square inches; 

,S% -^ shearing stress in key 
in pounds per square inch. 

These three curves at the 
left-hand side of Fig. 2 are 
plotted on the basis of horse- 
power transmitted per hun- 
dred revolutions per minute 
by one square inch shear area, 
with 2500, 4000, and 5500 
pounds per square inch shear- 
ing stress in the key, respec- 
tively. On the right-hand side 
in Fig. 2 curves are drawn for 
the sake of convenience, 
which give the total shear 
area for different total lengths 
of keys, ranging in width 
from I4 to 2 inches 

As an illustration of the 
use of this chart, suppose it 
is necessary to determine the 
size of keys that must be 
used in the coupling for con- 
necting the turbine and gen- 
erator of the unit referred to 
in the preceding problem, as- 
suming that the manufacturer 
allows a maximum shearing 
stress of 4000 pounds per 
square inch in the key. It is 
also assumed that 3.125 inches 
was settled upon as the proper 



J 20 




























" '^/ 










■■ 1.^ 

/A/' vyy 





v^ 1 *VI 







iU /y¥../ 




/ '/ / /yy^ y 




y / / / / / y y^ 




:->/ / / yy y /'^y 



' ^1 / /y/ y -^ y 





1 ^1 / ///y y / ^y 



_\^/ ////// y y^^ - 




j ////////'_/ y^ 




! ////yyyy'y^ ,/' v,^ 




w/yy/// / ^ >^ 





^ \f//////Xy^^^-^ i^ 

10 J 















,— --^ 



— -"^ 





. . 





;: I ■; > 1(1 1; ■ : ;, :•; ^ 





J 1 2 3 

5 G 7 ^ 9 10 











Fip. 2, Chart showing Horsepower per Hundred R. P. H, transriCUted 

by One Square Inch of Key Area for Shafts of Various Dfkmcters; 

Also Total Ksy Area for Keys of Various Widths and Lengths 

diameter of the shaft 
end instead of the 
value 3.08 inches 
which was determin- 
ed in the preceding 
problem. On the 
4000-pound stress- 
curve in Fig. 2, it is 
found that 1 square 
inch of key-area is 
capable of transmit- 
ting 10 horsepower 
per hundred revolu- 
tions per minute, 
with this shaft diam- 
eter. Thus the trans- 
mission must have 
4.5 square inches of 
key-area in order to 
transmit 45 horse- 
power at 100 R. P. M. 
or, what amounts to 
the same thing (so 
far as the shearing 
stresses in the keys 
are concerned) to 
transmit 900 horse- 
power at 2000 revolutions per minute. From the curves on 
the right-hand side in Fig. 2, it is seen that if two keys are 
to be used and the coupling fit made 5 inches long, giving a 
total key length of 10 inches, the keys would have to be made 
about 7/16 inch wide, or % inch in width if only one key 
were used. 

The stresses allowed in eacli separate case are naturally 
dependent on the material and the uniformity with which 
the power is -transmitted. For the best grades of steel and 
for a uniform load, a torsional stress of 7000 pounds per 
square inch in the shaft, and a shearing stress of 5500 pounds 
per square inch in the keys, gives a satisfactory factor ot 
safety. For cases where the load is not uniform, lower 
stresses should be used, an allowance of 5000 pounds torsional 
stress and 4000 pounds shear- 
ing stress being representa- 
tive of ordinary practice in 
designing the shaft ends of 
small steam turbines. In 
proportioning keys, it is com- 
mon practice to make the 
height of the key equal to the 
width, so that the total crush- 
ing area is made half of the 
total shear area, on the as- 
sumption that the keys enter 
the shaft to the same depth 
as they enter the coupling or 
pulley. This is satisfactory 
so far as the keys and the 
shaft are concerned, but it 
may result in allowing too 
high values of the crushing 
stress for the material of the 
bored member, especially if 
the material is cast iron. In 
such cases, the curves in Fig. 
2 may be used for determin- 
ing the proper crushing area 
for a certain allowable crush- 
ing stress, in a similar man- 
ner to that employed when 
finding the shear area, and 
the keys are then proportion- 
ed accordingly. 

These charts have been 
found useful by the writer in 
designing turbine shafts. 

October, 1915 





TIIK designing of gears by the usual method of trial is a 
tedious if not a difficult problem for the draftsman who 
has not had considerable experience with work of 
this nature; and ; even the experienced designer frequently 
spends a lot of time before he obtains a satisfactory solution. 
For the purpose of affording a rapid method of handling prob- 
lems in gear design, the writer developed a set of gear dia- 
grams based on the Lewis formula, which forms the subject 
of this article. He has found them to be of considerable value 
in his own work, and they are presented with the hope that 
they may prove of equal value to other readers of Machinery. 
The significance of the symbols which are used In the text is 
as follows: 

J/ = twisting moment, in inch-pounds; 
H. P. = horsepower; 

N = revolutions per minute; 

Fig. 1. Diarram for dotermtnmg Required Pitch when Twiatinr 
Moment, Formissiblo Fiber Stress, and Ratio of Face Width to 
Circular Pitch are known 

IV = force acting on the face of a tooth, in pounds: 
s — allowable working liber-stress on the tooth at the 

velocity r, in pounds per square inch; 
/= width of the tooth face, in inches; 
n = number of teeth in the pinion or gear, depending 

upon which is being considered at the time; 
?■ = radius of the gear or pinion, in inches; 
p.- = circular pitch, in inches; 
p.i — diametral pitch; 
.1 and B = ordinates in the diagram; 
r = velocity in feet per minute at the pitch circle; 
C, = constant depending on the ratio of fiice width to the 

circular pitch; 
C, = constant depending on the material and the desired 
working fiber-stresses. 

• For additional luformatlon ou the strength of gear teeth see also '■Con- 
venient Form of Lewis formula for Strength of Gear Tectb." bv J. 11. 
Carver, published lu M.icui.Nt:KX for October, 1914, and other articles there 
referred to. 

t Address: Sibley College of Mechanical Enflncerlng. Cornell Unl»crslt.v. 

The basis of the diagrams is the Lewis formula: 
0.684 \ 
W — sp,fl 0.124 1. 

■ = «Pe / n 

The diagra^m shown in Fig. 1 is intended to give the pitch 
when the twisting moment transmitted by the pinion or gear, 
the desired working fiber-stress and the ratio of face width to 
circular pitch are known. The diagram shown in Fig. 2 is 
quite similar, excepting that in this case the face width in 
inches is assumed. The algebraic calculations are as follows 
for 14'/{!-degree involute teeth of standard height: 

W = sp,fl 0.124 I (1) 

Wr = sfnp 

0.684 \ 

1 / 
/ 0.684 , 

.(0.124-— j 


1000 M 

















"' >->■ 






1 ^ 
















































'' • ■ 


-' \~ 




O.S I' 

I 1.0 

;.i !.■-■ 

.3 ! 

1 !.: 

i.ri :i 


-' - ' 

if, :.> 


. .:. . .. :.. : U :. . \ 

Fig. 2. Diagram for determining Required Pitch when Faca 
Width of Gear is aaaumed 

Substituting for r its value 

we have: 

1000 J/ 

'ii tip, 

1000 Mpc' 

0.684 \ 

("•^^'^-— ) 

0.684 \ 




«/ 6.28 

The quantity 1000 has simply been inserted on both sides 
of the equation to eliminate decimals. Equation (4) has been 
used to, plot the diagram shown in Fig. 2. 
Iff -~^ r, p,. we have: 

1000 Jf 1000 »ip,' , 0.684 \ 

= ( 0.124 ) (6) 

sC, 6.28 V » ' 

Equation (5) has been used to plot the diagram Fig. 1. 
The solution of the following problems will serve to Illus- 
trate the use of the diagrams shown in Figs. 1 and 2. 

Problem 1. — Considering the strength only, what pitch will 
be required for a 15-tooth, cast-iron pinion, to transmit 20 



October, 1915 

horsepower when making 225 revolutions per minute? The 
fiber-stress is not to exceed 6000 pounds per square inch, and 
the face width is 3.25 inches. 
The twisting moment on the pinion shaft is: 

63,025 H. P. 63,025 X 20 
3/ — = =- 5G00 inch-pounds. 


1000 X 5600 

diagram Fig. 

1000 Jlf 

6000 X 3.25 

: 287, we find that the required circular pitch, 
(iOOO X 3.25 

for n = 15, is 1.24 inch, which corresponds to a diametral 
pitch of 2.5. 

Problem 2. — In Problem 1, if the ratio of face width to the 
circular pitch had been given, the diagram in Fig. 1 would 
have been used. Taking the same problem and assuming 
/ H- pc = Cj = 2, the solution would be as follows: 
1000 M 1000 X 5600 

= = 467. 

sCi 6000 X 2 

The circular pitch given by the diagram Fig. 1, correspond- 
ing to the ordinate 467 and 15 teeth, is pc = 1.30 inch; and 
the required face width would be 1.36 X 2 = 2.72 inches. 

The diagrams shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are intended to permit 
of the selection of the proper pitch when the horsepower 
which is being transmitted or the twisting moment is known, 
together with the materials of which the gears are made, the 
number of revolutions per minute, and the law of reduction 
of the working fiber-stress with the increase of velocity. 
This law has been assumed as given by the heavy curves in 
the diagram presented in Fig. 5. The assumption for cast 
iron is that for velocities of the teeth at the pitch circle ex- 
ceeding 100 feet per minute, the fiber-stress for cast iron may 

vary as . If the material Is steel the fiber-stress may 



be taken as 

These stresses were suggested by C. R. 


FIj. 3. Diagram for determiningr Required Pitch when Horsepower 

or Torque, B. P. H., Material and Ratio of Face Width to 

Circular Pitch are known 

Tig. 4. Diairam for determining Required Pitch when Horsepower 

or Torque, R. P. H., and Material are known and Face 

Width of Gears is assumed 

Whittier in Machinery for August, 1909, and agree very 
closely with those suggested by Wilfred Lewis for use with 
his formula. The purpose of the diagrams in Figs. 3 and 4 
has been to provide charts that would avoid the necessity of 
making an initial guess as to the gear proportions in order 
to find the force W acting on the teeth and the allowable fiber- 
stress. In designing gears, either the horsepower they are to 
transmit and the number of revolutions per minute, or the 
twisting moment and the number of revolutions per minute 
will be given. When the horsepower and the number of 
revolutions per minute are given, the twisting moment is 
readily found from the relation: 

63,025 H. P. 

M = . 

Formula (1) is now transformed by substituting the fol- 
lowing values: 


W ■ 


/ 0.684 \ 


(for cast iron) 







X Pc X / X 
V "Pc iV 

Myi =48.540 II- ih^ / 

The diagram shown In Fig. 
width of / inches so that: 

= 48,540 »- pc'l 

In the diagram shown in Fig. 3, / = C, pc so that: 
MX ' I 0.684 " 

= 48,540 n' Pc^ ( 0.124- 

C, \ 

The working fiber-stresses for cast iron and steel are given 

by the diagram Fig. 5, as recommended by Mr. Lewis, and as 

October, 1915 



suggested by Carl Barth and used with his slide-rule; and 

they are also given as conforming to the quantities and 



= 0.68. 




respectively. This leads to the introduction of a 

factor C, in the diagrams, Figs. 3 and 4. The value of C, tor 
cast iron is 1; and this basis of the stress in cast iron cor- 
responds to Lewis' value of a maximum of 8000 pounds per 
square inch at a velocity of 100 feet per minute. To plot 
the assumed curve for any other material or fiber-stress, 

multiply the quantity • ■ by the ratio of the maximum 

desired fiber-stress to 8000; thus steel with an allowable fiber- 
stress of 20,000 pounds per square Inch at a peripheral speed 

of 100 feet per minute, gives a ratio of = 2.5 and the 


ijuantity becomes 

8,000 X 2.5 220,000 

The curves thus 

V V Vv 

constructed give values exceeding the maximum, for values of 
V below and approximating 100 feet per minute, so that the 
diagrams should be used with caution for these low values of 
V. On the diagram Fig. 5, the fiber-stresses have also been 
plotted for a maximum fiber-stress of 15,000 pounds per 
square inch at a speed of 100 feet per minute. This may be 
used tor steel castings although some designers use 20,000 






__|_) 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



C, X 8B.O0O 






> • .LEWIS'S 

























1 1 1 1 1 1 





















i 1 










= = 






"0.^ — = 



' — 








- 1 



NO 1 



1 1 




100 200 300 40O 500 600 TOO 900 900 1000 1200 1400 ItWO ISOO 2000 

C, CVlV 3X1 V150 
In this diagram, for B = 0.68 and n = 15, we find p = 152 
inch. This would make the face width 1.52 X 3 = 4.56 
inches. Using the nearest stronger diametral pitch would re- 
quire 2 diametral pitch, and the face could be made 4.5 inches. 

number of teeth 15 

The pitch diameter of the pinion is = = 

diametral pitch 2 

7.5 inches. The gear diameter Is 7.5 X 5 = 37.5 inches. If 
desired, the velocity at the pitch line and the working fiber- 

n.V 15 X 150 

stress may be found. The velocity is u = = 

3.83 Pa 3.83 X 2 
= 295 feet per minute. The diagram Fig. 5 gives the fiber 
stress corresponding to this velocity as 5000 pounds per 
square inch. 

Problem f— The conditions of this problem will be the 
same as in Problem 3, excepting that the face width will be 
assumed as 3.75 inches. The solution requires the use of the 
diagram shown in Fig. 4. 

H. P. 25 

B = = = 0.545. 

C,/V^ IX 3.75 V 150 
From Fig. 4 the circular pitch corresponding to B = 0.545 
and n = 15 is pc ^ 1.74 inch; and this is approximately 
equal to a diametral pitch of 1.75. The pitch diameter of the 
n 15 

= 8.57 inches, while the pitch dl- 
p„ 1.75 


ameter of the gear is = 42.86 inches. 

The face width, as assumed, is 3.75 inches. 
Problem 5.— The conditions of this prob- 
lem are also like those of Problem 3. The 
twisting moment on the pinion shaft is 
10,500 inch-pounds, but the pinion and gear 
are made of different materials. Assume 
the pinion to be made of forged or rolled 
steel and the gear of cast iron. The fiber- 
stresses will be those given by the diagram 
Fig. 5, for the upper and lower curves. Con- 
sidering first the pinion, the twisting mo- 
ment M on the pinion shaft is 10,500 inch- 
pounds and the face width will be taken 
as three times the circular pitch. In the 
diagram Fig. 3, we have: 


A = . 

For rolled steel Cj=2.5 and in thi.< prob- 
lem C, = 3. 

10.500 V 150 

pinion then is — = • 

Fig. 6. Diagram for determining Safe Fiber-strosa for Various Speeds i 

pounds per square inch on both rolled steel and steel castings. 
The ordinates for the diagram shown in Fig. 3 are: 

A =■ 


A = - 

and B = 


Tho ordinatps for the diagram shown in Fig. 4 are: 


A = and B = . 

C./ CfVN 

The solution of the following problems will serve the pur- 
pose of illustrating the niPthod of using these diagrams. 

Problem 3. — Design a pair of gears to transmit 25 H. P. 
at 150 revolutions per minute of the pinion, with a reduction 
of 5 to 1 to the gear. Assume both the gear and pinion to be 
made of cast Iron, and that the desired fiber-stress will vary 
as given in the diagram Fig. 5 inversely with the square- 
root of the velocity at the pitch circle. Take the face as 3 
times tho circular pitch, and as.<;uuie the pinion has 15 toeth. 

As the gear and pinion are of the same material, the pinion 
teeth will be tho weaker and we nee<l only design for it. To 
use the diagram Fig. 3, we find: 

t wiUl m Practice 3X25 

For A = 17,150 and n = 15 the diagram gives p, = 1.06 
inch. Now for the gear, the twisting moment .V will be 10,500 


X 5 = 52,500 inch-pounds and .Y = = 30. For cast iron 

C, = 1. 

M vlf 52.500 X V 30 

4 = = = 96.000. 

C,C, 1X3 

In the diagram Fig. 3, p. = 1.32 Inch, for .1 = 96.000 and 
n = 75. Comparing the pitches found for the gear and the 
pinion, it Is seen that the gear requires tho greater pitch and 
since thev must be alike the 1.32-lnch circular pitch must be 
used. The face width will be 1.32 X 3 = 3.96 Inches or ap- 
proximately 4 Inches. The nearest stronger diametral pitch 
is 2.25. On the basis of diametral pitch, the pitch diameter 

of the pinion will be =■ 6.67 Inches. The pitch diameter 


of the gear is = 

as previously stated 

33.33 inches. 

The fnr 

iflth is 4 inchos. 



October, 1915 

When the desired liber-stresa doee not follow the curves as- 
sumed, the pitch Is not quite so readily obtained from the 
diagrams but may be determined as follows: 

Problem 6. — In Problem 1, instead of giving the flber-stress 
we will assume that it is required to follow the curve repre- 
senting Mr. Earth's equation, shown in the diagram Fig. 5, 
for cast iron. Assuming that one has no idea what the pinion 
diameter will be, it la better to first find the pitch required 

as if the allowable fiber-«tress varies as . 

1.30 X 18 
The diameter of the pinion is = 7.45 inches. 


MVN 5600 V 225 

A = - 

■ = 25,800. 

0,f . 0, X3.25 
From the diagram Fig. 4, pc = 1.45 inch; and the value 
of i; corresponding to this pitch is: 
np,N 15 X 1.45 X 225 

V = = = 408 or approximately 400 

12 12 

feet per minute. 

It will be sufficiently close to assume that the relation be- 
tween the working fiber-stresses at the actual velocities will 
approximate that for 400 feet per minute. From the diagram 
Fig. 5, the fiber-stresses at 400 feet per minute, according to 
Earth's (light line) and the heavy line curve, are 6000 and 
4400 pounds per square Inch, respectively. The ratio of these 

stresses is = 1.36. In Formula (6) from the diagram 

Fig. 4, for cast Iron: 

88,000 V 12 npc I 0.684 \ 

M = Wr = X Pc/ X ( 0.124 1 . 

Vnp.N 6.28 V « / 

If the twisting moment or the horsepower is to remain con- 

88,000 V 12 

stant while the fiber-stress, stated in the portion 

V npcN 
varies, then pc must change to preserve the equality. If the 
ratio of the two fiber-stresses Is a, then pc must vary in- 
versely with the factor p = a', i.e., the cube-root of Its square. 
To use the diagram, a^ = 1.36' = 1.23. The corrected pitch 
Pc 1.45 

then is — = = 1.18 inch. Had the ratio of the face 

p 1.23 
■width to the circular pitch been given. Instead of the width 
of the tooth face In inches, then the factor would have been 
/) = af> and the diagram Fig. 3 would have been used. An- 
other problem will illustrate the last suggestion. 

Problem 7. — Design a pair of gears to transmit 80 horse- 
power, the pinion to be eteel with 18 teeth while the gear will 
be cast iron with 90 teeth. The ratio of the face width to the 
circular pitch will be 4 to 1; and the allowable fiber-stress on 
the pinion shall be that given in the diagram Fig. 5 for steel. 
For cast Iron, Earth's curve shall be used. The pinion runs 
at 400 revolutions per minute. 
For the pinion, C, = 4 and C, = 2.5. 
H. P. 80 

B = = = 0.40. 

C,C,VN 4X2.BV^0 
Then from the diagram Fig. 3, pe = 1.15 inch. For the 
gear, (7, = 4 and C, = 1. 

H. P. 80 

B = = = 2.23. 

C.CVN 4 X 1 V 80 
Then from the diagram Fig. 3 pc corresponding to B = 2.23 
for 90 teeth Is 1.46 Inch. This Is the value which must be 
used, as It Is the g^reater of the two pitches. The velocity at 
1.46 X 90 X 80 

the pitch line of the gear is = 876 feet per 

minute. From the diagram Fig. 5, the allowable fiber-stress 
given by the two curves is 4000 and 3000 pounds per square 
inch, respectively. From these values: 

a = = 1.33. 

p = a« = 1.33^ =1.12. 

p. 1.46 

Hence the revised circular pitch Is = = 1.30 inch. 

1.12 1.12 

The diameter of the gear is 

1.30 X 90 

= 37.24 inches. 


Instead of changing the circular pitch, the working-stress 
in the teeth might have been Increased by reducing the width 
of the face, as the fiber-stress and the width of the face vary 
inversely with each other. The gear with 3000 pounds per 
square inch fiber-stress had pc = 1.46 Inch, so that the gear 
1.46 X 90 

diameter Is = 41.82 inches, while the pinion dl- 

1.46 X 18 

ameter is = 8.37 Inches. The face width Is 1.46 X 

4 = 5.84 inches. Had it been deemed desirable to use a nar- 
rower face width, the face could have been made % X 5.84 = 
4.38 inches; and this would have Increased the fiber-stress 
from 3000 to 4000 pounds per square inch, which Is the de- 
sired limiting fiber-stress. 

Similar diagrams may be used for the design of gears 
with stub teeth or for other ranges of pitches. The diagrams 
give the minimum pitches and consequently the smallest 
diameters for the given conditions. Where the frame con- 
ditions require larger gears, owing to the desired distance be- 
tween the gear centers, the pitch found in the diagrams 
still gives a good suggestion as to the probable dimensions. 

In the issue of July 30, of Die Werkzeugmaschine, a letter 
from the German war department to the Society of German 
Machine Tool Builders is published. This refers to a request 
made by the machine tool builders for brass and phosphor- 
bronze, which metals apparently have been entirely appro- 
priated by the government. The letter states that the release 
of such quantities of brass and phosphor-bronze as had been 
requested would be impossible on account of the necessity for 
safeguarding the supplies necessary for the army for a long 
time to come. It is stated that while, without question, the 
elimination of copper alloys in the construction of machine 
tools would mean greater wear and heavier stresses in many 
machine details, these evils must be taken into consideration 
and accepted by the buyer during the war. According to the 
opinions of experts, however, cast iron can be used, says the 
war department, for all journal bushings where the revolutions 
per minute do not exceed 300 to 400. Cast iron, as well as 
hardened steel, can safely be run in cast-iron bearings. When 
machine steel is used in cast-iron bearings, the machine steel 
journal should be casehardened. White metal bearings are 
also, at the present time, recommended in place of brass and 
bronze bushings. The lubrication should be suited to the 
metals used in bearings, ring oiling, forced lubrication, etc.. 
being preferable. Graphite should be used when running-in 
journals to produce a smooth surface. The letter ends with a 
further request to the machine tool builders to regard these 
points in machine tool construction, and to consider it a duty 
to use the greatest economy in the employment of metals 
which the government considers it necessary to save. 

The United States government has installed an eight-effect 
distilling plant for supplying water to a fortification where 
fresh water is not available. The apparatus, of the Lillie 
design, is of the reversible type. The hot effects can be made 
the cool effects, and vice versa; the object of reversibility Is 
to reduce the scaling to a minimum. The eflaciency obtained is 
six pounds of distilled water per pound of steam at forty-five 
pounds gage pressure. The apparatus cost about $16,500 
complete with boilers and auxiliaries and has a capacity of 
7000 gallons per day of twenty-four hours. The cost per 
gallon of distilled water when the plant is run twenty-four 
hours a day, 300 days to the year, is one-quarter cent, coal 
being charged at $3.50 per ton. This charge Includes a de- 
preciation charge of 12 per cent on the investment. 

October, 1915 





Several interesting points were presented by a certain con- 
tract job tliat was recently handled In our shop, and I have 
prepared the following description of our method of doing 
the work with the hope that it may prove of Interest to some 
of Maciiineby's readers. The part with which this article 
concerns Itself consisted of machining three cast-iron rings, 
which were 34 inches outside diameter, 23 Inches inside 
diameter and 1 Inch In thickness. After machining these 
castings, It was necessary to cut radial T-slots across their 
faces. There were twenty slots cut in the first ring, forty 
In the second and sixty in the third. These slots were V4 
Inch wide with a total depth of 9/16 inch, and were under-cut 

Tig. 1. Sot-np for FIrit Operition performed on Pluier 

for bolt heads V4 by 1 inch In size. As shown in the ac- 
companyinK illustrations, some of the slots were widened out 
at the ends, but this has no particular connection with the 
way in which the work was handled. 

Just how to Index these slots correctly and still handle 
the work economically caused considerable speculation, and 
required some of us to give the problem a good deal ot 
thought. Safety In handling was of primary Importance be- 
cause breaking a ring of these dimensions was an ever-present 
possibility, and would have Involved a serious delay and loss 
In labor charges. Index centers of the ordinary type could 
not be employed In this case, and laying out the work would 
not give the required degree of accuracy. The fixtures that 
were finally made for handling this job are shown In Figs. 
1 and 2, which also show the work In two different stages. 
The method of procedure consisted in taking stocking cuts 
of the full Vo inch in width and of nearly the full depth on 
the planer, then doing the T-slottlng with a standard T-slot 
cutter used In the milling machine. The greatest permissible 
variation In the spacing was 0.005 inch at the outside of the 

The indexing fixtures used on the planer are shown in 
Pig. 1. They consist of a cast-iron spider 23 Inches in di- 
ameter, that had a hole bored In the center, and was turned 
on the outside to the required size; a plug to go in the 
central hole of the spider; an index plate having holes for 
twenty, forty and sixty divisions; and an Index pin. The 
center plug was tapped at its lower end and screwed down 
tightly against the planer table over a bolt placed in the 
middle T-slot. This plug was reduced to a diameter of 14 
inch at its upper end, which was the same as the width of 
the slots to be cut, and by setting the slotting tools to this 
plug, the slots were cut exactly on the diameter. The spider 
was slipped over the plug and clamped securely In place. In 
making the index plate great care had to be exercised to 
Insure having it of the required accuracy. The position of 
the plate on the spider was such that the work could be 
revolve<l below it; but this arrangement made it necessary 
for the Index plate to be removed every time a fresh ring 
was put on the .spidor. and on this account substunliiil <lowol- 
pina were provided In addition to two Vj-lnch cap-screws. 
There were four holes tor the index pin, there being one 
zero hole and one hole for twenty, forty and sixty divisions, 
respectively, all of the holes being located on a circle 33 
Inches In diameter. These holes were located by the button 

• AilJross: .'il llnnford St., MUldlptown, N. T. 

method, and bored a close fit for an Index pin % Inch In 
diameter, so that the pin could be flattened on two sides to 
present a broader and larger wearing surface to the slots 
in the work. As the flattened sides were slightly tapered, 
they took care of variations in the width of the slots which 
might result from wearing of the tool. 

Considerable care had to be exercised in setting the spider 
and index plate, for It will be evident that any error intro- 
duced at the start would be cumulative, i. e.. while all of 
the slots Indexed would be equally spaced only thirty-nine 
Indexlngs are required for a forty-slot ring, so that the last 
space would receive the entire error Introduced at the start 
of the machining operation. This was the chief objection to 
the method of indexing that was employed, but by taking 
great care at the two "danger points" — spacing of the plate 
and setting the work for milling the first slot in the ring — 
the difficulty was overcome. In handling the work, the ring 
to be slotted was clamped in place and the first slot cut. the 
tool having been set central by means of the plug at the 
middle of the spider. The spider was next undamped and 
swung around until the zero hole, which is on the right- 
liand side, was over the cut slot with the index pin firmly 
in place. After clamping the spider, the ring was turned to 
the left until the slot was under the forty hole (assuming 
a forty-slot ring Is being handled), after which the index pin 
was slipped into this slot. The ring was next clamped and 
the spider undamped and revolved until the zero hole once 
more lined up with the slot, after which the index pin was 
inserted and the spider permanently fastened. This resulted 
in locating the zero hole on a diameter exactly 9 degrees from 
the diameter covered by the slotting tool. 

Twenty-, forty- and sixty-hole rings were handled by means 
of corresponding holes In the Index plate, these holes only 
being used for the first setting, after which only the zero 
hole was used for successive indexing operations without 
requiring the spider to be moved. With the zero hole proper- 
ly placed, the operation resolved itself into one of plain 
Indexing, and the work was done so carefully that the sixty- 
slot ring showed a total error of 0.004 Inch, while the error 
In the forty- and twenty-slot rings was only 0.006 inch. These 
results showed the care which was exercised in setting up 
the work to overcome the weak features of this method of 
indexing. The tool used for slotting was an Armstrong 
special planer tool-holder carrying two high-speed steel bits, 
one of which took the roughing cut and the other the sizing 
cut. This is shown in detail in Fig. 3. As the slots were 
planed 0.010 inch less than the required depth, the broken 
surface which the tools left in the bottom of the slots made 
no difference. Originally it was intended to make a special 

Fi(. 3. Set. up for Second Opentlon dona on MllUnr Machine 

tool fixture, but by cutting the slot In the head bolt a lltUe 
longer, the Armstrong holder answered the purpose required 
of It. Incidentally, this affords a good example of adapting a 
standard tool for a special job, as compared with the mors 
expensive method of making up a special tool for the purpose. 
After the slots were planed, it was necessary to under-cut 
them on a plain milling machine, no tools other than the 
shop's regular equipment being used for this purpose. Two 
or three points in connection with this part of the work are 
worthy of special mention. For holding the work, two 24- 
tnch angle plates were bolted to the milling machine table 
with their surfaces slightly overhanging lu edge. This method 



October, 1915 

Fig. 3. Details of Tools used for Planing and Hilling Operations 

was resorted to because the capacity of the machine would 
not permit of the rings resting on top of the table, but with 
the angle plates they could be set up to extend about 6 inches 
below its working surface. As there was no center web to 
support the ring, the operation of shifting and re-allgning 
the work for each cut would have been a formidable one 
had it not been for the provision of two small rollers, which 
can be seen in Pig. 2 on the inside of the ring near the top. 
These rollers were mounted on shoulder bolts set in the 
angle plates, and served the triple purpose of centering the 
ring, forming anti-friction bearings on which to turn it, and 
by means of a flange on the inside of each roller, avoiding 
any chance of a ring slipping off and falling while the 
C-clamps were loosened for turning the work. 

Ordinary T-slot cutters were used for the undercutting 
operation, and after the first slot was properly aligned and 
centered with the cutter, the work was located for subse- 
quent operations by direct indexing. A piece of steel had a 
14-inch slot cut in it and a second piece of steel % inch square 
was machined to fit snugly in the slot. The %-inch bar 
was then laid in the aligned slot in the ring and in the piece 
of flat steel held against the angle plate. C-clamps fastened 
the bar in- place, thus holding the w-ork in the desired posi- 
tion. The work was then located for subsequent operations 
by loosening the clamps and turning the ring until the bar 
dropped into both the slot in the work and the index slot. 
That this method gave satisfactory results is evidenced by 
the fact that the entire milling operation was performed at 
an average rate of 8 minutes per slot, this time including 
everything except setting up the work ready for the first 
operation. The rollers on which the work was held on the 
angle plates made it possible for the milling machine operator 
to mill the rings without requiring any assistance. 
* * * 


The drilling of the spoke holes in the hubs of "Indian" 
motorcycles at the factory of the Hendee Mfg. Co.. Sprins 
field, Mass., is a Job worthy of mention. These hubs ari' 
made of low carbon steel and the end flanges through which 
the holes are drilled are one-eighth inch thick. Through 
each flange sixteen No. 25 holes are drilled at a slight angle 
so that the direction of the drilling is along the lines of ;i 
cone. The distance between the holes is about one-half inch. 

The spindles of the multiple spindle drilling machine in 
which the work, is done are guided in their inclination by a 
steel ring supported from the head of the machine. The ji.s; 
is of the swiveling type, permitting the holes in one end of the 
hub to be drilled, after which the work-holding part of the 
Jig is swiveled ISO degrees and the holes in the opposite 
end are drilled. The drilling is performed by running the 

head and drills down to the work, which on account of 
the Inclination of the spindles is the only way possible. 

In order that the work may be quickly inserted and re- 
moved, the jig Is made In halves. As the illustration shows, 
these halves are hinged at the left and held together for 
the drilling by a latch that appears at the right of the 
illustration. The drill bushings are located in the faces of 
the halves of the jig. After the holes in one flange of the 
hub have been drilled, the steel plate that takes the thrust 
is removed from beneath the work. Then by withdrawing 
the index pin at the left, the working part of the jig can be 
turned 180 degrees to present the other face of the hub to 
the drills. The heavy stud on which the jig swivels is directly 
behind the work and therefore not visible in the illustra- 
tion. The index pin is inserted, the thrust plate is replaced 
and the drilling of the hub is completed. The hubs, each 
having thirty-two holes — sixteen to each end — are drilled at 
the rate of 300 per ten-hour day. C. L. L. 

In order that forge fires may be operated economically, 
there should not be an abundance of flame passing out of the 
door openings of the furnace. Greater heat and economy of 
fuel are secured by so regulating the burners that only a 
greenish haze about six inches long is visible passing out of 
the furnace doors when opened. With the correct number 
of burners properly adjusted for the capacity of the furnace, 
the average consumption of oil when heating for a 1000-pound 
steam hammer is 3'/4 to 4Vj gallons per hour. It has been 
found in one of the foremost forge plants in this country that 
nineteen pounds of steel can be heated to each gallon of oil 
consumed. The steel used is chiefly vanadium alloy. 

D T H 

SwivelinK Drill Jig for Motorcycle Hub: 

October, 1915 





Fib. 1. Standard Methods of supporting Perforating Punches 
in Punch plates 

IN many shops there is still a tendency to regard toolmaking 
as work on which it Is inevitable for the labor charges 
to be high. Toolmakers who have learned their trade 
in such an atmosphere may be capable of doing very good 
work, but it is natural that they should have formed a habit 
of working slowly. Such men invariably run their machines 
at the slowest speeds and feeds, and as it is a foregone con- 
clusion that the work will be expensive, no particular effort 
is made to devise ways and means of increasing the rate of 
production and making a corresponding reduction in cost. In 
the up-to-date tool-rooms of progressive manufacturing plants, 
all precedent is discarded in striving for increased efficiency. 
Necessarily there is a definite relation between the rate at 
which the work is produced and the accuracy of the product; 
l)ut toolmaking methods have been carefully investigated with 
the view of increasing the output to the maximum that is 
consistent with the attainment of the reiiuired degree of 

Briefly speaking, this change in toolmaking practice has 
consisted of the introduction of manufacturing methods in 
the tool-room wherever such a course seemed feasible. An 
excellent example of this kind is seen in the system which 
has been developed by the Western Electric Co. for the pro- 
duction of all sizes of punches and dies which are used in 
this company's factory at Hawthorne, 111. For example, in 
the case of tandem perforating and blanking dies, the use of 
six standard sizes has been adopted with the view of reducing 
the cost of production of these tools. Each size is designated 

• AaaorlBte Editor of M.\cniNr.nT. 




















90 > > 

y // 


by a number, and standard di- 
mensions have been establishel 
for the die-block, stripper, die- 
holder, punch-holder, and punch- 
plate for each size of punch and 
die. The punch is made espe- 
cially at the time that the order 
for any griven punch and die Is 
being filled, and the die-block 
is left soft ready to have a hole 
of the required shape cut in it. 
The use of standard sized har- 
dened and ground dowel-pins, 
and standard round steel com- 
pression springs has also been 
adopted in punch and die work. " "" """ 

Increased efficiency of production is secured in several 
directions through the establishment of these punch and die 
standards. Most important among these is the fact that the 
adoption of uniform sizes insures the existence of a future 
demand for parts of the different standard sizes of punches 
and dies. As a result, these parts can be produced on a 
manufacturing basis, a series of each of the parts being made 
and delivered to the stock-room, where they are kept, pend- 
ing the receipt of requisitions from the tool-room for the 
necessary number of parts to fill orders for punches and dies 
to be used in the various manufacturing departments. Need- 
less to say, punches and dies can be produced far more eco- 
nomically in this way than would be possible in making indi- 
vidual parts for a given punch and die at the time the order 
was issued. 

In addition to effecting a saving in the cost of labor for 
toolmaking, this method Is also the means of making a note- 
worthy saving of labor in the drafting-room. When an order 
is received to design a punch and die for producing some 
new part, the draftsman's work is quite simple. All that he 
has to do is to make a detail drawing of the part to be pro- 
duced and an assembly drawing of the punch and die to be 
used for its manufacture. The size-number of the standard 
punch and die to be employed is specified on the drawing, 
and the two drawings, when approved, are sent to the tool- 
room. The tool-room foreman then sends a requisition to 
the stock-room, calling for the standard parts that are re- 
quired for producing this punch and die. It will be obvious 
that the punch must be made especially for the part which 
is to be produced, and it has already been mentioned that the 
standard die-block is sent to the stock-room in the annealed 



V ~ 








. t 


No. of 


H 1. i' 

, 1 








0.-H7 1 
0.510 • 







It <<.<\- 





October, 1915 














































No. of 




































































- H " H 






i ^ 




^/M \_y 


-" 1 

c B > 





< K 5 

i . 





1 c. .1 



—0—4. E » 


No. of 

A B 























H I 

1ft" 2i" 
V, 2i 
IJ 3i 
21 43 
3 6 
3i 7 
























No. of 
Dowel Pin 



Make from 















No. 8 drill rod (0.197 inch) . . 
No. 8 drill rod (0.197 inch i . . 
No. G drill rod (0.261 inch). 
No. G drill rod (0.261 inch). 
No. P drill rod (0.323 inch). 
No. P drill rod (0.32;^ incli). 
No. W drill rod (0.386 inch) . 
No- W drill rod (0.386 inch). 
}-iuch tool steel 


^>j-inch tool steel 


Note.— Dotted circles show dowel-pins in punch-plate No. 4 


0.153 0.082 0.057 
0.124 0.063 0.110 

o.isn 0.120 0.1 i)8 

0.213 O.lV'O O.l'.iS 

0.260 o.r.>o o.i'.is 

0.176 O.KW 0.-->.'->6 
0.207 0. 1(H O.'JM; 
0.260 0.1-IS 0.242 
0.385 0.120 0.1, S3 
0.38r) 0.120 0.1. S3 
0.301 0.162 0.2.")6 
0.257 0.1 !I2 ().2.S6 
0.237 0.225 0.3 lit 

M,„ F per In. ^y^i 
^.^' W=infi F— 0.1 



36 0, 



36 0, 

U 0, 



IJ 0. 

li 0. 

li 0, 
36 0, 
36 |0. 

3995 515 
1055 43 
0576 213 
0980 163 
1273 143 
0578 3115 
0688 362 
1004 246 
2432 107 
2432 107 
1082 288 
0766 -196 
0624 774 

per in. 

0903 643 


0. 06010 [o 
0. 08888 ;0 








0.347 0. 

0.347 0. 
0,42!) 0. 
0.340 0. 
0.465 0. 
0.636 0. 
0.636 0. 



225 0.850 

225 0.350 
192 0.300 
244 0.369 
244 0.369 
307 0.463 
307 0.463 
480 0.555 
307 0.495 
362 0.550 
362 0.550 
500 0.750 
500 0.688 
750 1 .000 
875 1.063 

f^Bx. M-„ F per in. _ ^\ , 
nerin " Lh.s '"ch 



626 0. 

626 0. 

358 0. 

781 0. 

644 0. 

964 0. 

964 0. 
3046 . 

851 0. 
1385 0. 
1309 0. 
3191 0. 
2565 0. 
4820 n. 
8018 0, 

01400 0.0721 
01400 0.0721 
03906 0.0256 
01003 0.0985 
01361 0.0736 
01361 0.0736 
IK1198 0.5162 
01838 0.0540 
00875 0.1139 
01036 0.0963 
00200 0.4935 
0<r>.52 0.1796 
00440 0.2280 
00198 0.5116 

Note: F=compression in sprins ; W=load on spring : For other notations see diagram. 

October, 1915 




SECTUN B-B i''"-K''«-ry 

No. of 
and Die 

No. of 
and Die 


A -18 

i -13 


















1 " 





























li U 














3i 1 li 














2i U 

















condition, so that It Is ready to have the hole machined In 
It. After this work has been done, the punch and die are 
hardened and the entire tool may then be assembled. 

In connection with the design of perforating punches and 
dies, standard methods have been adopted for holding the 
punches In the punch-plate, these standard constructions being 
shown in Fig. 1. All punches made of larger sections than 
No. 1 drill rod are strong enough to do without a supporting 
sleeve, and the standard construction for such punches Is 
shown at .-1. For small punches where a supporting sleeve Is 
required, the standard construction is shown at li. where it 
will be seen that the supporting sleeve slides in a bushing 
carried in the stripper-plate. In some cases, however, the form 
of bushing shown at B occupies too much space, and where 
the amount of available room for the bushing in the stripper- 
plate is limited, the form of construction shown at C has been 
adopted. At D is shown the method of holding punches 
which must be sheared into the die. Reference to the Illus- 
tration will show that the punch is provided with a o-degroe 
taper shank which supports it securely in the punch-plate. 

As an example of the way In which this system works 
out. consider the case of making a tandem perforating and 

blanking punch and die for 
producing the part. Fig. 2. 
Ribbon stock is used for this 
purpose, and the assembly 
drawing of the punch and 
die is shown at the top of 
Table VIII. Reference to 
this illustration will show 
that the tool Is provided 
with a pair of perforating 
punches for piercing the two 
holes In the work, and a 
blanking punch for stamp- 
ing out the nnished part 
from the stock. At each 
stroke one finished part 
is produced, while the per- 
forating punches make the 
two holes In the part which 
will be stamped out from 
the stock by the following 
stroke of the press. It will 
be seen that the assembly 
drawing gives the toolmaker 
complete Instructions, and 
with the standard parts of 
the punch and die In stock 
ready for use, the work of 
making the tool Is a mat- 
ter of simple routine and 
can be handled very rapidly. 
Toolmakers will doubtless 
be Interested in the mate- 
rials which are specified by 
the Western Electric Co. for 
making the standard parts 
for the type of tandem per- 
forating and blanking dies 
which has been referred to. 
The punch-plates are made 
of machine steel, the carbon 
content of which must not 
exceed 0.20 per cent. These 
parts are completely finish- 
ed, including the screw and 
dowel-pin holes. The punch- 
holders and die-holders are 
made of cast Iron, and they 
are finished ready for tise. 
The stripper-plates are made 
of machine steel with a car- 
bon content of not over 0.20 
per cent. The screw holes are machined at the time the strip- 
per-plates are made, while the dowel-pin holes are Iransferre*! 
from the die-block at the time the die Is made up. The die- 
blocks are, of course, made of tool steel, with the screw and 
dowel-pin holes and all surfaces finished ready for use. The 
stock tor making dowel-pins Is given in Table VI. 

The "suggestion box" idea is used In the Hawthorne shops 
of the Western Electric Co., with the view of encouraging 
employes to hand In written suggestions regarding Ideas for 
the Improvement of manufacturing methods. One employe 
suggested making dowel-pins which were 0.001 Inch over sUc. 
for use In cases where the dowel-pln holes In the die-block 
had been lapped too large. One of the rules in connection 
with the operation of the "suggestion box" is that a report 
shall be sent to the employe, either accepting his Idea or giv- 
ing the reason for Its rejection. The dowel-pln Idea was 
turned down, because It was felt that the stocking of the«e 
over-size dowel-pins would tend to create a spirit of car^ 
lessness on the part of the toolmakers. which would be verr 
undesirable. Furthermore, If the plan of carrying special 
parts of this character In stock were adopted, an excessive 
amount of storage capacity would be required. 






12 -24 
i -20 
A -18 
§ -16 
A -14 


24" i'." 

24 .'s 

3 ,'= 

3i ,'. 

5 ,'. 

5J .. 



October, 1915 

It has been the purpose of this article to describe a princi- removed from the sprocket to change the machinery, and that 

pie of toolmaking rather than to give specific information on 
the making of punches and dies. The tables give the sizes 
which the Western Electric Co. has found .satisfactory for use 
in making tandem perforating and blanking punches and dies. 
The Western Electric Co. has also developed standards for 
sub-press dies and other classes of dies, which enable the 
same economies to be taken advantage of; but it is not within 
the scope of this article to give detailed information in re- 
gard to the dimensions of the different sizes of tools in these 
classes. The sizes would necessarily vary with the character 
of the work, and manufacturers would therefore be able to 
adopt standards that are best suited to their requirements. 


Patent Infrintrements 

(Federal) The making of what is ^ single part in a 
patented machine in two pieces does not avoid infringement, 
where they do the same work as the single piece in substan- 
tially the same manner. The United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals has so held in Stockland v. Russell Grader Mfg. 
Co. The Russell Grader Co. was the owner of a patent for 
certain improvements in a road grading machine. Defendant 
Stockland built a similar machine, but containing more parts 
to it. The question was whether this second machine in- 
fringed the first. The court in holding the Russell Grader 
Mfg. Co. to be Infringed said: "In determining the question 
of infringement, the court or jury, as the case may be, 
are not to judge about similarities or differences hy the 
names of things, but are to look at the machines or their 
several devices or elements in the light of what they do, or 
what office or function they perform, and how they perform it, 
and to find that one thing is substantially the same as an- 
other, if it performs substantially the same function in sub- 
stantially the same way to obtain the same result, always 
bearing in mind that devices in a patented machine are dif- 
ferent in the sense of patent law when they perform different 
functions In a different way, or produce a substantially dif- 
ferent result, * * * as it is necessary in every such in- 
vestigation to look at the mode of operation or the way the 
device works, and at the result, as well as at the means by 
which the result is attained. Inquiries of this kind are often 
attended with difficulty; but if special attention is given to 
such portions of a given device as really do the work, so 
as not to give undue importance to other parts of the same 
which are only used as a convenient mode of constructing the 
entire device, the difficulty attending the investigation will be 
greatly diminished, if not entirely overcome." Damages were 
awarded to the Russell Co. (Stockland v. Russell Grader Mfg. 
Co., 222 Fed. 906.) 

Use Not Essential to Maintenance of Patent 

(Federal) Machines which, although patented, were not 
practically operative and wore abandoned after slight use, are 
not anticipations which will invalidate a subsequent patent 
for an operative and successful machine. In a suit by the 
Benthall Machine Co. v. National Machine Corporation, the 
Benthall Co. charged the National Corporation with having 
made and sold machines for picking peanuts from vines which 
infringed its patents. The defense of the National Corpora- 
tion was that the Benthall Co.'s patent was impractical and 
inoperative and had been discarded after slight use, and that 
the National Corporation had lmprove<l and changed the ma- 
chine so that it became a machine which was practical and 
operative. The United States District Court at Norfolk, Va., 
having jurisdiction of the ease, held the National Corpora- 
tion's machine to bo an infringement of the Benthall patent. 
The court said that non-use of a machine would not affect the 
legal rights of the patentee to enjoy the monopoly given it by 
virtue of the patent. (Benthall Machine Co. v. National 
Machine Corporation, 222 Fed. 931.) 

Neg-Ugrent Operation of Machinery 
(Pennsylvania) Where, in an employe's, action for injuries 
from being caught in a moving sprocket of a machine which 
plaintiff was adjusting, it appeared that the guard had been 

before making the adjustment plaintiff had been ordered by 
the foreman to replace the guard, but had failed to do so, 
plaintiff was guilty of contributory negligence barring his 
right to recover. (Peiper v. Reading Iron Co., 9.} A. HO.) 
Defective Appliances 

(Pennsylvania) Where, in an employe's action for injuries 
from the breaking of a machine, causing a load to fall and 
crush plaintiff's fingers, there was evidence that the broken 
link had not been properly welded, and that the imperfect 
welding would have been discovered by a proper inspection, 
the court properly affirmed a point to the effect that such a 
defect was a structural detect of which the employer is pre- 
sumed to have knowledge. (Case v. Lehigh Coal & Xavigation 
Co., 91, A 25S.) 

MerErer of Corporations 

(New Jersey) Under New Jersey corporation laws provid- 
ing that any two corporations organized under the laws of the 
state to carry on any kind of business of the same or a similar 
nature may merge into a single corporation, which may be 
either one of them, or into a new corporation, a corporation 
whose charter authorized it to construct bridges, buildings, 
machinery, electric works, waterworks, canals, and other 
means of transportation, and to sell or otherwise dispose of 
or to maintain and operate the same, and whose specified 
objects and powers were declared to be in no way limited by 
reference to or inference from the terms of any other clause 
of the certificate, in some of its objects was not similar to 
any of those of a corporation chartered with the primary 
object of manufacturing, selling, leasing, and dealing in ma- 
chinery of every kind, and especially shoe machinery, so that 
the two could not be merged. (Copeland v. United Shoe Ma- 
chinery Co., 5.} A. .'i05.) 

Remedy of Sellers 

(Connecticut) WTiere a contract for the sale of a machine 
contained a written promise by the buyer to pay therefor 
within 30 days, and a printed clause reserving title in the 
seller until payment was made, and providing that in case of 
rejection the property should be returned within 30 days or 
the objection thereto would be waived, the printed clause, 
when construed in harmony with the buyer's promise to pay, 
gives him only the right to reject for good cause, not to reject 
at will. A contract of sale which provides that in case of 
failure to pay in installments the whole contract price shall 
become due and payable and the seller shall have the right 
to retake the property and retain it or resell it, gives the 
seller an option to retake the property or to recover the price. 
(United Machinery Co. v. Mctzel A Sons. !>', .1 S.m.) 
The Return of Defective Machinery 

(Kentucky) It a purchaser of machinery, upon ascertain- 
ing that it fails to fulfill the conditions of the contract as 
to amount and quality ot work it can turn out, wishes to can- 
cel the contract or hold the seller liable tor breach thereof, 
he must, within a reasonable time, offer to return the ma- 
chinery and rescind the contract. 

The time within which a purchaser of machinery found to 
be defective must return it and rescind the contract ot sale 
may be extended by promises on the part ot the seller to 
repair, and by its insistence that the purchaser keep the ma- 
chinery and give him an opportunity to make it do the 
agreed work. What is a reasonable time for a purchaser of 
machinery to return it and rescind the contract for detects 
in the machinery depends upon the tacts ot the particular 
case. (Meek Coal Co. v. George D. Whitcomb Co., 176 
S. TV. S5.',.) 

Ongruarded Machinery 

(Missouri) The operator of a wood-working machine, 
while attempting to adjust a defective and rapidly revolving 
drill, reached around the saw on the same shaft in order to 
pick up a screwdriver with which to throw off the belt. His 
hand was caught by the saw, which was not guarded as re- 
quired by Kansas law. Held, that plaintiff was not gnilty of 
contributory negligence as a matter of law. either by plac- 
ing the screwdriver where he did, or in attempting to adjust 
the drill without stopping the machinery. fHughes v. D. E. 
Marshall Contracting d Mfg. Co.. 176 S. TV. 53.i.) 

October, 1915 





Undoubtedly, thousands of people who have more or less 
to do with foundries will claim that there is nothing the 
matter with them, but from experience — and some of it really 
costly — I must say that there is much the matter with many 
of the foundries in this country at this time, and there has 
been right along. I maintain that as far as the quality of 
castings is concerned the foundries are not one particle better 
than they were twenty or more years ago. There is just as 
much uncertainty now as to what you might expect from your 
patterns from so-called first-class foundries as there was a 
quarter of a century ago. Many will perhaps take exception 
to this positive statement, but it is based on bitter experience. 
Poor castings are detrimental in two ways. The one who 
receives them and does more or less work on them perhaps 
discovers in the last operation that there is a blow-hole or a 
dirty spot in some section, and the consequence is that he 
generally loses the labor expended. More than this, in many 
instances it sets back the producing power of his plant, 
bec;uise a number of inferior castings coming in quantities, 
of which you perhaps have none in stock, means that all 
the operations of setting up and machining are wasted. 

The foundry likewise suffers a loss of the castings, and 
in some cases inferior castings are charged back to them, 
and any one would think that the foundries would try to find 
out, scientifically or otherwise, what is the matter and why 
so many poor castings are returned to them every day. 

All lines of manufacturing have advanced wonderfully un- 
til at present in many large plants the loss from poor work 
is a minimum. Much has been written about the great strides 
foundries have made in producing castings. Nevertheless, they 
are slow to grasp or slow to be able to improve to the extent 
of being able to anywhere nearly guarantee that if you order 
fifty castings from one pound to one thousand pounds they 
will be practically all the same and usable. 

The foundry business seems to be a somewhat mysterious 
proposition. The pattern is placed in the sand, all the work 
performed to complete the mold, the iron is poured in and 
MO one knows for a certainty what the result will be. I don't 
pretend by any means to understand the foundry business, but 
there is negligence somewhere that certainly should be rec- 

The producing of small castings by the use of machinery 
and otherwise has perhaps reached the maximum in the foun- 
dry, but when it comes to quality, uncertainty prevails in all 
directions. If it is because of inferior sand being used or 
inferior ramming of the mold, or inferior venting or anything 
inferior in the labor in preparing the flask for the metal to 
be poured, why is it that with all the experience the foundry- 
men have had for a generation they have not been able to 
discover where the trouble lies and are not able to say for a 
certainty what the results are going to be? 

When returning inferior castings to the foundries, either 
before or after work has been performe<i on them, they take 
it as a matter of course and seem to expect a considerable 
portion of their castings to be returned. If you send in a 
complaint, there is a possibility that the foundry foreman will 
visit you and talk matters over, but from past experience you 
feel almost certain that all this talk is a waste of time, for 
the reason tli'ut they do not seem to be able to improve in 
producing their product. 

If a pattern is sent to a foundry today (and it makes no 
difference what foundry it might be) which is cored consider- 
ably, you can feel quite certain that the cores will either be 
set in the wrong position or something will happen to this 
easting— perhaps two or three times — before you finally obtain 
the results that can be obtained after a great many have been 
made. In any other lino of business it is not expected that 
anything like this will occur. For this reason it might well be 
asked: "What's the matter with the foundries?" 
Many large foundries would be ahead thousands of dollars 

Ch'Vi-lnuil Aulooiatlc Macliln.' Co., 

a year in net earnings it the castings they produced came 
anywhere near a fair percentage In soundness. It Is a com- 
mon occurrence to find a large blow-hole bidden in a casting 
that does not show up in the manufacturing, but under strains 
after It has left your plant and reached the customer break- 
age takes place and you are condemned, whereas it Is impos- 
sible for you to discover this particular blow-hole or weakness 
In your own plant. 

Is It possible that the foundries are careless in mixing their 
iron before placing it in their cupola? Is It not possible that 
the iron is not brought to the proper temperature before 
being poured? Is It not possible that the gates where the 
metal travels to Its destination are in the wrong position — too 
small or too large — is there something wrong with this part 
of the foundry business? 

Many foundries are exceptionally negligent in their mixture 
of iron — there is no question about this. Many times you pay 
for what you don't get. Cast Iron should be of a standard 
tensile strength, at least In the machine tool business, and 
when 20 per cent steel Is used there should be a standard for 
this also. The writer has known of cases where 20 per cent 
steel was asked for, and in analyzing no steel could be discov- 
ered at all, but an inferior grade of ordinary cast Iron. This 
shows that some foundries are exceptionally careless, or else 
wilfully accept money that doesn't belong to them. To be 
anywhere nearly sure of what you are receiving, it seems 
necessary to analyze each lot of castings to determine their 

Up to this point this talk has been on ordinary gray iron. 
The same might be said of steel castings. Xo dependence 
can bo placed on steel castings. You never know what you 
are getting. The writer has attempted to use steel castings 
for cams and spur gears and obtained these castings from 
various foundries. In the rough they look fairly good, but 
after being machined they show up their weaknesses. There 
is no question but that the steel casting business Is Just as 
far behind as it was twenty years ago. 

We read considerable about this line of business also, and 
according to articles about same it has reached the highest 
pinnacle of perfection. This argument might be considered 
O. K. if you used rough castings and the patterns were large 
enough to stand for weaknesses here and there owing to 
inferior metal, but when the casting must be machined then 
you will discover that the steel casting business seems to be 
only in its infancy, and that the producers are not thoroughly 
posted as to what they are capable of doing. This may ap- 
pear to be a somewhat severe criticism but there is no guess- 
work on the part of the writer. Experience has been the 
teacher in this case. 

Consider malleable iron also. We do not seem to have any 
improvement on this line of goods. It seems to be made in 
the same old way. There is no telling, for a certainty, what 
you are going to receive. It tested for tensile strength you 
will discover that it varies in all directions. I have known 
of many cases where the foundries wanted greater length of 
time to produce castings. They explained that they required 
to dry their molds out thoroughly, but even after this was 
done the'results were Just the same as explained In this article 
— a real game of chance. 

Another source of considerable trouble is the fact that you 
never know when you have a fair size casting made, weighing 
say 1000 to 1500 pounds, and your pattern is •"Sj inch thick, 
whether your casting will be hi Inch or In inch thick. You 
certainly cannot depend upon the foundries to produw cast- 
ings of the same thickness as your patterns. This is cither 
carelessness in rapping the pattern before removing It from 
the mold, or in giving you over-weight castings. Many times 
when a casting should actually weigh 1000 pounds It will 
come 1200 or i:!00 pounds. This Is Inexcusable, but It seems 
almost Impossible to defend yourself against It. 

Regardless of the kind of castings being made, large or 
small, the metal In many cjises is poured from one cupola, 
and you take what you get and let it go at that In the 
writer's estimation It seems that any good foundry should 
have a number of cupolas with various mixtures to suit the 
requirements of the various castings they are producing. 



October, 1915 

Fig. 1. Shop Operation Sheet for roug-b- turning & Pulley 


The accompanying illustrations show a method for making 
shop operation sheets used by the Jones & Lamson Machine 
Co., Springfield, Vt. Figs. 1 and 2 show the photographs and 
instructions mounted on cardboard, as given to the machine 
operator, while Figs. 3 and 4 show the shop operation sheets 
or records retained by the efficiency department and filed 
away for future reference. As shown, the machine operator 
is given a photograph of the proposed method of setting up 
the machine for a given job, and on the same sheet instruc- 
tions are given as to the speed and feed to use and the 
time required for the job. The object of the photograph is to 
record accurately the tools to be used, how they are used, 
what clamps and holding-down screws are used, and to show 
clearly all special arbors and fixtures. The photograph is 
superior to a drawing, especially when used by more or less 
unskilled operators. In general, it is far easier for the shop 
man to set up work in a machine from a photograph than 
from a drawing. 

In order to determine the proper speeds and feeds and the 
time required, the work is first done in a special department, 
which determines what methods are to be used. The job 
is started at a speed which experience has shown to be as 
rapid as possible for the work In hand. Ten pieces are made 

— i 

•■- /" j 


«,.nM. u- ,/ •- /. ... . 

Tig. 2. Shop Operation Sheet for Xllling w«..TiIi.. job 

and the operations timed. No time of less than a second is 
considered, and usually on a job of several minutes duration, 
the time is taken to the nearest multiple of five seconds. 
Apart from this brief explanation, the shop operation sheets 
speak for themselves. Sometimes reference letters are marked 
with Ink on the photographs, in order to more clearly indi- 
cate the requirements to the operator. The illustrations 
shown have been furnished through the courtesy of F. E. 
Lockwood, in charge of the efficiency department of the Jones 
& Lamson Machine Co. 

• • • 

Elimination of waste and saving labor are cardinal princi- 
ples of efficiency; they make for greater comfort and higher 
standards of living for all. Some of our Institutions have 
applied the principle of eliminating waste and saving with 
remarkable results. A well-known Cleveland hotel provides 
ice water on draft in the guest rooms besides hot and cold 
water. The annoyance of summoning a bell-boy to fetch it 
Is avoided. An automatic switch extinguishes the electric 
light when a guest leaves his room, the action of locking the 
door on the outside actuating the switch. The same action 
is reversed when the door is unlocked, the lights going on as 
the door Is opened. Thus the guest has the comfort of going 
Into a fully lighted room but the management is not burdened 
by the waste of electricity uselessly consumed while the guest 
is not occupying his room. 

s k 1- 1 

"-" ' 




k .jte^H 


'^L JiBSi^Jl 





. „. , 


'■■'■ \- ■- y«.OS »l 0-~!( _« „. 

Fir. 3. Effioiencj Department Seoord of Operation Sheet Fi(. 1 

Fig. 4. Secord preserved of Operation in Tig. 2 

October, 1915 





When the activity of your drafting room has increased so 
that you employ ten times as many men as heretofore, un- 
less your chief draftsman has organized his department in 
a systematic manner for the handling of the increased vol- 
ume of work, his hair will soon turn grey with worry and 
deep furrows will line his once placid brow. If his system 
of checking has been such that each man has been required 
to check his own work, the new order of things will mean 
not ten times the previous number of errors — in some cases 
It will mean ten times ten. It Is a hard matter to make 
such an enlargement to a drafting room without getting a 
certain percentage of unskilled and careless men, especially 
when all your competitors are making the same change. 

Under these conditions a factory that was recently called 
upon to make such additions to its normally small force of 
men in the drafting room, decided to adopt a system of 
checking all drawings that would eliminate, as far as pos- 
sible, the chances of errors being passed along to the fac- 
tory; and that would enable the responsibility for errors 
found in the shop to be placed upon the proper employes. 
Several men who had been employed for some time In the 
drafting room were chosen to act as checkers, and were 
supplied with blueprint copies of the following checking list. 
This list had been typed on thin bond paper, using a sheet 
of carbon paper reversed against lis back, so that good clear 
prints were obtained. The checkers were also supplied with 
complete lists of "standards," as were all draftsmen, and 
they had access to the pattern Index flies so that S'tock pat- 
terns would be used wherever possible. In checking, items 
were taken up according to number, so as to avoid skipping 
any Item which might later give trouble. The checking 
list follows: 

Standard Instruction Sheet No. 84. 

March 22, 1915. 
From: Engineer-In-Charge, 
To: Checkers, Drafting Room. 

Beginning today, all drawings will be checked for er- 
rors in accordance with the following list. Check the 
drawing for Item 1, then for Item 2, etc. Don't skip 
around — by so doing, you may make a costly mistake. 

1. Is the size of sheet correct? 

2. Is the title, scale, drawing number, model, number 
required, etc., correctly given? 

3. Is there a sufficient number of views to correctly 
show the piece? 

4. Are all views detailed in third-angle projection? 

5. Are full and dotted lines shown In their proper 

6. Are dimensions properly located? 

7. Are views shown correctly as to right and left 
hand? Are even numbers used for right-hand patterns 
and odd numbers for left-hand? 

8. Is the design correct in principle? 

9. Is It what Is needed and can nothing better be sug- 
gested? Can It be made cheaper? 

10. Is the drawing correct to scale, and are those dimen- 
sions not scaling correctly underlined? 

11. Are arrow-heads neatly and properly shown? 

12. Is all necessary information given, and are all di- 
mensions "tied up"? 

13. Are all dimensions given in decimals, except where 
fractions are necessary? 

14. Are tapped holes shown correctly? 

15. Are "f" marks shown where needed? 

16. Is the proper draft provided for all patterns and 
forging dies? 

17. Are all corners provided with rounds or fillets? 

18. Is a note given in regard to counterboring or other 
finish for screw heads? 

19. Are all bosses large enough? 

20. Are all parts of proper strength? 

21. Are detail notes provided regarding heat-treatment, 
polishing, electro-plating, etc.? Are such notes correct? 

22. Are parts marked "grind," where needed? 

23. Are all given dimensions correctly figured? 

24. Will the piece properly tit parts with which it is 
to be assembled, and will it work without interference? 

25. Is clearance provided for wrenches and screw- 


Address: P. O. Box 556, Hartrord, Conn. 

20. Is there clearance provided to allow for all varia- 
tions and tolerances? 

27. Are proper oil-holes provided, and is there a suf- 
ficient number of them? 

28. Are all parts provided with a sufficient number of 
threads of proper pitch for the material used? 

29. Is the allowance for driving and running fits ex- 
pressed In thousandths of an inch, and are the parts 
marked with their plus and minus limits? 

30. Are developed lengths of parts shown? 

31. Are all parts "necked" to provide clearance for 
the wheel when grinding? 

32. Is provision made on all drill Jigs, fixtures, etc., for 
the removal of burrs and chips? 

33. Constructive changes: Note position, relation, di- 
ameter, length, thickness, width and bearing on prior ef- 
fective changes. 

34. Has proper consideration been given to the subse- 
quent attachment of other parts? 

35. Is the material cross-sectioned according to 

36. Has the following information been given regard- 
ing springs: Temper, gage number and decimal diameter 
of wire, number of coils. Initial tension, Inside diameter 
and length in compression? 

37. Is it shown on dies where they are to be ground? 

38. Is relief provided on the corners In casement fits? 

39. Is clearance provided for the leaf swing on jigs 
and fixtures? 

40. Can the bosses shown be drawn from the sand? 

41. If two dowel pins are used. Is one shorter than the 
other so that one can enter before the other? 

42. Are all male fillets from 1/16 to 1 Inch provided 
with a plus radius of 1/16 inch and from 1 to 2 Incbee 
with a plus radius of % Inch? 

43. Are you willing to stand responsible for any er- 
rors noted above. If this drawing Is sent into the factory? 

44. Have you signed this drawing as "checked?" 


The first Swedish Engineering Convention In the United 
States was held at the La Salle Hotel, Chicago, September 9, 
10, and 11, and was attended by over two hundred engineers 
of Swedish extraction, both from Sweden and from all parts 
of the United States. Owing to the disturbed conditions in 
Europe, the delegation from Sweden wis very much smaller 
than had been originally expected, only fifteen engineers from 
that country having braved the present dangers of the sea 
to come to the United States. Papers were read by J. KJirner, 
of Vesteras, Sweden, on "The Industries of Sweden and their 
Forms of Organization;" by F. Sandelln, of Sandvlken, Swe- 
den, on "The Natural Resources and Future Industrial Pos- 
sibilities of Sweden;" by A. G. Witting, of the Indiana Steel 
Co., Gary, Ind., on "The Uses of the By-products of the Steel 
Industry;" and by A. Engblom, of Shelton, Conn., on "Scien- 
tific Management and Its Practical Applications." Excursions 
were made to the Gary Steel Works, the Pullman Car Works, 
the Western Electric Co., and the Union Stock Yards. The 
convention was very successful as regards the exchange of 
ideas of an engineering nature and also from a social point 
of view In that it brought together a great number of engi- 
neers who had known each other In the past years but who 
have been scattered all over the United States. It was pro- 
posed to make the convention organization a permanent one 
and to hold similar conventions at certain Intervals In the 
future, alternately In Sweden and In the United States. The 
holding of a convention of this kind, at this time. Is espe- 
cially significant, as the United States and Sweden are at 
present the only two nations of any Industrial Importance 
that are at peace with each other and the rest of the world. 
• • • 

The first calculating machine invented was made by Pascal, 
the eminent French mathematician, about 1641. He was not 
only one of the foremost mathematicians in his day but also 
excelled in mechanics. The next notable production In this 
field was made by Leibnitz, about 1671. He made several 
multiplying and dividing machines, and one constructed about 
1700 is still in existence. In some of Its features, this ma- 
chine resembled the Thomas machine which was built and 
marketed one hundred and twenty years later, improved 
types of which are still In use. 



October, 1915 


At the factory of the Crescent Tool Co., Jamestown, N. Y., 
manufacturer of wrenches and similar tools, there is in 
operation an apparatus for wrench testing that is of interest 
because few tool manufacturers subject wrenches to an 
actual gage test before being sent into service. This apparatus 
is shown in the accompanying illustration, and the principle 
upon which it operates includes the engaging of the wrench 
jaws by a central stud that is turned by hydraulic pressure 
until a predetermined pressure has been applied to the 

The apparatus is mounted upon a post, and consists of 
a cast-iron cylinder A, within which is a piston carrying a 
rack that meshes with a spur gear keyed to stud B over 
which the wrench jaws fit. As the handle of the wrench is 
prpvent(>d from turning through contact with a pin C, it 

How "Crescent" Wrenches are tested 

is obvious that the continued rising of the piston and con- 
sequent turning of stu<l H places the same strain upon the 
wrench that it would receive in actual service. The piston 
is hydraulically operated, and the supply pipe through which 
water pressure enters is shown at D. The water passes 
through a reducing valve E, that can be set to different 
pressures for the different sized wrenches, so that only 
enough pressure will be turned on to test the particular 
type of wrench that is going through. At F is a three-way 
valve. When this valve is open the pressure through the 
supply pipe comes down and around into the cylinder, forces 
the piston up, and through the rack and pinion, causes the 
.<tud to turn and thus places a strain on the wrench. Drain 
pipe H allows the water in the cylinder to be let out after 
the testing action has talien place and the plunger is free 
to return to its normal position. A continuation of the 
supply pipe turns the corner at G and runs up to the pres- 
sure gage shown above the testing block. This indicates at 
all times the amount of pressure being applied to the 

wrench. Valve E may be set so that this pressure will not 
exceed a predetermined amount. In drain pipe G is a check 
valve whose function it is to keep the back pressure from 
entering the apparatus. 

With this apparatus the Crescent Tool Co. is enabled to 
test various sized wrenches with a surety that the tools that 
leave the factory have passed a test as severe as any they 
will receive in service. C. L. L. 


Modern manufacturing methods have in many cases re- 
duced the cost of products so low that further reductions 
seem hardly worth striving for, unless corresponding reduc- 
tions in selling costs can be effected. The great problem of 
the day is to secure more efficient means of distribution. 
Improved machinery is offered for sale to all alike, and con- 
cerns in competing lines using standard machinery are 
brought to an even footing as regards facilities for manu- 
facturing, provided their capital is sufficient to provide for 
the equipment needs. Plant management, first-class material 
and selling efficiency are what count in the game of com- 

The modern manager is keenly alive to the importance of 
keeping up to date by reading the technical journals in his 
field, and some subscribe to these publications for their fore- 
men. In view of this eager desire for knowledge and keen 
appreciation of that gained from other sources it seems un- 
wisely selfish to maintain a semi-closed shop policy, but many 
do. An editor visiting one of these plants may be courte- 
ously received and shown through, but he must promise not 
to print anything about what he saw. Knowledge is broaden- 
ing and the technical editor gladly avails himself of every 
opportunity to see what is going on in all shops within his 
field, but he also wishes to make such excursions profitable 
to the larger circle of his readers. 

The funny part is that visiting courtesies are often ex- 
tended to men, who, unknown to the proprietor, have connec- 
tions with competitors. They get the details in a more or 
less accurate way and use them to their own advantage, when 
their own factory practice is behind the times. The ostrich 
who hides his head in the sand, thinking thereby he is sate 
from annoyance, is not more self-deceived than many of the 
smartest men acting in the capacities of general managers of 

industrial plants. 

* * • 


Columbia University has established a separate department 
of chemical engineering upon the s;mie plane of importance as 
mining, civil, electrical and mechanical engineering in recog- 
nition of the tremendous development of our chemical indus- 
tries that is bound to take place because of the European war. 
The sudden demand for products previously secured from 
Europe has greatly stimulated activity among chemical manu- 
facturers. In many cases, it is necessary first to develop the 
raw material supplies, as for example in the manufacture of 
coal tar dyes, where large quantities of benzol, phenol, toluol, 
etc. are required. The demand for these materials is being 
met by the installation of large plants for the recovery from 
coke oven gases of these heretofore waste products. Such 
concerns as the Lackawanna Steel Co., United States Steel Co. 
and other large coke producers, both in the United States and 
Canada, are now recovering these products. Similar activity 
has developed in other fields, the large demand for explosives 
having enormously increased the production of sulphuric and 
nitric acids. Entirely aside from these abnormal develop- 
ments, forced upon us by the war, it should be noted that im- 
portant chemical processes are being established in • other 
fields. Recently, two enormous installations, one at the Ana- 
conda Smelter and another at Chuquicamata. Chile, have been 
started for the extraction of copper by chemical methods. 
Plants for the production of sulphuric acid from the roasting 
of sulphide ores have also been established. 


We pay only for articles published exclualvely In Machinery 


Some time ago a concern in which the writer is interested 
placed an order with a steel foundry located somewhat less 
than 100 miles from the Chicago postoffice for the following: 
Six tray lips, pattern A-1044. These lips are to be of 
vanadium cast steel 0.S5 to 0.45 carbon, annealed. 
Care should be taken that the metal in the cutting 
edges is solid and of the best quality. 

These castings were shipped direct to a coal dock where 
they were to be used. Some of them broke within a few 
hours and all within a comparatively short time after being 
put into service, and did not last as long as some ordinary 
open-hearth steel tray lips which had previously been used. 
Payment of the bills was refused and the steel foundry brought 
suit in which the following testimony was developed. 

The superintendent of the steel foundry testified that 6\i 
pounds vanadium (alloy about one-tliird pure) was used in 
each pot of 1600 pounds steel, which would amount to 0.15 
to 0.16 per cent (calculation shows 0.1354 per cent) and in 
reply to a question regarding standard vanadium stated that 
vanadium put in castings varies from 0.05 to 0.15 per cent — 
sometimes higher if it is ordered higher; also that the amount 
of ferro-vanadium lost in the melt varies a good deal with 
the temperature of the steel, from nothing up to one-half of 
one per cent. 

A chemist testifying for the defendant stated that he found 
the vanadium content of the castings, defendant's exhibits 
1 and 2, to be 0.03 and 0.04 per cent; carbon content 0.375 and 
0.384 per cent. 

A metallurgist of twenty-eight years active experience, the 
last six years devoted especially to vanadium alloys, testify- 
ing for the defendant, stated that if 6'^ pounds of ferro- 
vanadium (33 1/3 per cent vanadium) were added to 1600 
pounds of steel, it would be equivalent in round numbers to 
0.14 per cent vanadium, and that there would be at least 20 
per cent and possibly 30 per cent of that lost. The result 
would be about 0.10 per cent in round numbers of vanadium 
remaining in the steel. He further stated that there is a 
reeoynized standard vanadium steel, containing not less than 
0.15 per cent vanadium, and that castings containing only 
0.03 and 0.04 per cent would not be castings of standard 
vanadium steel, and that the two castings — defendant's ex- 
hibits 1 and 2 — showe<l numerous gas cavities and blow-holes. 

Three other witnesses testifying for the defendant stated 
that after the castings were broken they observe<l numerous 
holes, variously designated by them as air-holes, blow-holes, 
sand-holes, etc., and specified various sizes up to an inch — a 
little larger — a little smaller. 

The attorney for the plaintiff stated verbally, "When you 
specified vanadium as you did In the contract, you left it 
entirely to us, to our Judgment, as to the amount of vanadium 
to be put in," and, in his brief stated, "We submit that if 
there is a 'standard,' under the contract the plaintiff was not 
required to furnish it, and that if it was required to do so, 
it did furnish steel substantially complying with the alleged 
standard specifications as disclosed by the record." (K. W. 
Hunt & Co.'s analysis as testified to above shows vanadium 
0.03 to 0.04 per cent.) 

The Kncyclopa'dia Uritannica, Vol. 14. page 812 says, "Va- 
nadium in small quantities (0.15 or 0.20 per cent) is said lo 
improve sti'el greatly, especially in increasing its resistanci 
to shock and to oft-repeated stresses." 

Notwitlistanding the above testimony as to vanadium con 
tent and defects in castings, a decision was given for the 

The question now comes up, which interests all purchasers 
of steel castings of special alloy or otherwise: "Is there a 
standard vanadium steel existing, and to what extent must 
full and complete specifications, chemical as well as j;)hysical. 

be given in a simple order when not covered by a term con- 
tract in which these elements are covered?" 

Ijet the steel foundries come forward and declare themselves. 
Would all of them make the claim put forward by the attor- 
ney for the plaintiff in the above case, and would they, under 
the circumstances, claim that these were merchantable cast- 
ings? What is the opinion of the trade on this subject? 

Chicago, HI. D. J. Evans 

When laying out jigs or fixtures tor handling a variety of 
similar classes of work, it is economical to design the parts 
in such a way that many of them can be made in duplicate. 
This allows the same patterns to be employed and enables 
the machining operations to be '•..t..!,,,.i...i yi. efficiently. 

For example, let us assume that the spindle shown at the top 
of the accompanying table is to be made in three standard 
sizes, the dimensions of the different sizes being given in the 
table. In designing a spindle-clamping fixture for holding 
this work for milling the keyways, a little study would enable 
many of the parts of the fixture to be standardized, thus rt- 
ducing the cost of producing them to a minimum. 

A fixture that may be used for holding the spindle for mill- 
ing the kej-ways is shown In the accompanying illustration. 



woooAu rr key 









i S|. Xo IS 









,-. •• •■ -.'3 









A • 23 



October, 1915 

This may be briefly described as follows: The base A of 
the fixture, which Is bolted to the milling machine table, has 
a cap B connected to it by means of a link C and bearing pins 
D and E, the arrangement being such that the cap B may 
be swung up to provide for removing finished work from the 
fixture. The ends of the pin H are eccentric to that portion 
of the pin which has a bearing in the base of the fixture, the 
amount of eccentricity being sufficient to allow the clamping 
bar O to swing out of the groove / and over the curved sec- 
tion J as the handle K is raised to a vertical position. This 
allows the cap B to be raised to the position shown by the 
dotted lines, to provide for setting up the work. 

To make this fixture so that it will accommodate the three 
sizes of spindles dimensioned in the table, to enable the parts 
to be manufactured in duplicate and simplify the pattern work. 
is what may properly be termed "economical tool design." 
It has been found possible to make in duplicate the link C, 
link pins D imd E, links F, clamping bar G, eccentric H, and 
handle A'. In laying out the base A and cap B, the length of 
the bearings should not be more than 2Vi Inches, which is the 
minimum dimension F in the table. The diameter of the 
bore for the three sizes of spindles would be 1%, 19/16 and 
1% Inch, respectively. This requires that the thickness of 
the metal shall be sufficient to provide strength for hold- 
ing the spindle of 134 inch diameter, and also that the core 
shall be small enough for the spindle of I14 inch diameter. 
Care given to these details will not only save money in mak- 
ing the fixtures, but it will also result in a saving of the space 
required for storing and listing duplicate tool patterns. 

Brookline, Mass. Arthur B. Babbitt 


Many men have an old slide-rule that is so worn or warped 
that it is no longer useful for its original purpose. In almost 
every drafting room there are one or more such slide-rules 
knocking about. The scales on these rules can be used to 
excellent advantage as logarithmic scales for use in making 
graphical analysis of problems in machine design, and for 
many other purposes. This is done by simply taking the rule 
apart and beveling the edges of the wood under the scales, as 
shown in Fig. 1. With an ordinary Mannheim slide-rule the 
writer prefers to bevel the under side of the A scale, where 
large work is to be handled; while in the case of small dia- 
grams, the C scale is very satisfactory. As these rules are 
generally made of straight grained wood, it is an easy matter 
to bevel the edges with a small plane or even with a pocket 

Another use that these scales can often be put to is in pre- 







8W g 
700 i 





400 ^ 



300 ^ 


1 8 


12 16 20 24''" 

IN INCHES Jfart/«r, 

Fiff. 2. An Examplo of Use of Lo^&rithmic Scales shows in Fir- 1 

paring tables or diagrams of weights of certain parts of com- 
plete machines. An example is shown in Fig. 2, where one 
curve of a diagram of the weights of cast-iron pulleys of a 
given diameter and of various face widths, is presented. Of 
course, the complete diagram shows a large number of curves 
for pulleys of different diameters, but for the sake of sim- 
plifying the chart for reproduction, the curve for only one of 
these diameters is shown. In this case, it was desired to il- 
lustrate the weight of these pulleys within a small percentage 
of the actual weight, this percentage of error being the same 
for all sizes of pulleys. A table covering all sizes of pulleys 
which can be shown on such a chart would have filled several 
pages of a salesman's book, and such tables would have re- 
quired a lot of time to calculate. By making a rough sketch 
of a pulley and calculating the necessary dimensions for the 
allowable stresses for each of four widths for each diameter, 
it was possible to draw curves through the four points so 
determined. The weights of the remaining twelve pulleys 
of each diameter could then be found on these curves, as 
accurately as the commercial practice requires. 

Rirmingham, Ala. Frederick W. Salmon- 

r»». I. Lorarithn 

ade from Worn-out Slide-rulo 

In the December and March numbers of Machinery, des- 
criptions were published of molds for making babbitt bear- 
ing bushings. After reading these descriptions, the writer 
is inclined to believe that the mold which forms the sub- 
ject of the present article is more efficient than either of the 
two previously described. The first cost is no greater and 
it appears that this mold could be operated more rapidly and 
that It would be longer Ilred. 

Referring to the accompanying illustration, it will be 
seen that the main casting or frame consists of an angle 
block on which the cores or half-arbors A are mounted. 
The molds E are made of cast iron and are pivoted on a 
shoulder bolt at the bottom of the steel center piece C. The 
molds are operated by the handles at the top and are held 
against the center piece by a spring which extends across 
between the pins T). When the mold is open, this spring 
passes below the center of the hinge pin and serves to hold 

October, 1915 











M = NfA + NfD + RB (1) 
In order to have the mechan- 
ism in equilibrium, the moment 
of the reaction of the guiding sur- 
faces S must equal M. Hence we 

M = SL (2) 

By equating Formulas (1) and 
(2) we obtain the following ex- 
pression : 


y = (3) 

L — fA—fD 
As the propelling force must 
equal the resistance overcome, we 

F = R + 2A7 
Solving Formula (4) 
value of y, we obtain: 
F — R 

for the 

Then by equating Formulas (3) 
and (5) we find the following 
value of F: 


L A +D 


Improved Typo of Mold for Us* 

casting Babbitt Bearing' Bushing's, ajid Ono of the Finished Bushings 


the two halves of the mold apart. The pouring is done 
through a hole in the center piece E which is hinged at the 
back of the angle block; and a tapered pouring hole con- 
nects with the molds through two small holes in the center 
piece C. 

After the bushings have been poured, the center piece E 
is driven up with a light lead hammer, and in so doing cuts 
off the babbitt sprues extending into the holes in the center 
piece C. At the same time this jars the bushings loose. 
The piece of babbitt which is left in the center piece E 
drops out due to the tapered opening. The mold Is then 
opened by means of the two handles, and the ejecting pins F 
strike the posts O. The movement of the ejecting pins Is 
limited by collars on the stems, being just sufficient to force 
the bushings out of the molds. There Is, of course, a small 
projection of babbitt left on one side of each bushing, but 
this Is easily removed on the disk grinder or by filing. When 
the mold is again closed, the springs on the ejector pins push 
thom back to their proper positions. When the mold is open, 
the halves are in a nearly horizontal position so that they 
are easily inspected or cleaned. The entire apparatus is 
bolted to a bench when in use. 

D. S. Mann 

By an inspection of the illustration we find that the distance 
C from the line of action of the force F to the center line 


between the guiding surfaces S has a .value of . 

Substituting this value In Equation (6), 
F = R-\ 

we have: 




The accompanying illustration shows the saddle of a ma- 
chine tool sliding on the guiding surfaces S and propelled 
by a force /■' which overcomes the resist- 
ance R due to the tool carried on the 
saddle, etc. To simplify the following dis- 
cussion, the propelling force F and the ex- 
ternal resistance R have both been shown 
in a plane passing through the center line 
of the guiding surfaces S. Assuming the 
surfaces T to be frlctionless and that the 
normal pressure A' is concentrated at the 
ends of the saddle, we have: 

yf = G 
where / = coefficient of friction ; 

G = frictional resistance at the ends 
of the saddle where they slide 
upon the surfaces S. 

The total moment M about the line of 
action of the propelling force F due to 
the resistance overcome is as follows: Di«iram ibowin* Princip.! ForcM 

By an inspection of Formula (8), bearing in mind that 
the surfaces T have been considered frlctionless, and also 
that the inertia due to the weight of the saddle has been 
neglected, we reach the following conclusions: First, as the 
width of the guides does not enter into the equation, it does 
not affect the force required to propel the saddle over the 
guides. Second, other conditions being fixed, the value of the 
propelling force F is a minimum: (1) When the distance C 
is zero; (2) When the distance B is zero; (3) When the 
distance L is Infinite; (4) When the value of / is zero. 
Third, other conditions being fixed, the value of the propell- 
ing force F is infinite, or In other words the guide is self- 
locking, when the distance C is equal to L h- 2/c. 

Kenmore. N. Y. Sherwood C. Buss 

Nfl ' 



S&ddlc utd QiLldM of M&chiaa Tool 



October, 1915 


A drawing is tlie best and clearest method of conveying an 
idea to a worltman, but it is highly important for all draw- 
ings to be made so explicit that they cannot be misunder- 
stood. It is the purpose of this article to explain one or 
two simple "kinks" which have been found useful in eliminat- 
ing certain mistakes that are sometimes made by the 
mechanic who has not had a great deal of experience in 
"reading drawings." 

Fig. 1 is a reproduction of a drawing of a small machine 
steel block on which the surfaces which are to be finished by 
grinding are marked with a letter G. As these surfaces are 
not too clearly indicated, it is not uncommon for the grinding 
operation to be omitted. Another somewhat common error 
on this job is for the man who orders the stock to use hLs 
own judgment when ordering material Instead of following 


_ , 





1 -M.S.-P.H. 



the drawing. B''ig. 2 shows the same drawing in which these 
two items of the shop instructions are brought forcibly to 
the mechanic's attention by employing arrows as "tell-tales" 
which call attention to the notes concerning the method of 
finishing the work and the material to use. 

Another source of annoyance for which there is no real 
necessity is the obscure way in which the identification num- 
bers are often placed on drawings. As the number is the 
point looked for in locating a given drawing, it should be 
made quite conspicuous, and this is done in Figs. 3 and 4 by 
putting the number in the upper right-hand corner where 
it is readily seen. A similar source of trouble arises when 
the arrow points indicating the termination of dimension 
lines on drawings are so faint on blueprints that they are 
not readily discernible. Where the dimension lines are made 
continuous, as shown in Fig. 3, it is sometimes very hard 
to tell from what points they extend. By staggering thejn, 
as shown in Fig. 4, much of the trouble from this source is 

F. Server 


Does it not seem strange that in these days of efficiency 
systems and all the rest of the modern requirements tending 
toward high-speed production, two pitches of thread for the 
half-inch diameter screw should be tolerated? The U. S. 
standard pitch for the half-inch screw is thirteen threads per 



1-C. R. S. 

Fig. 3. Contmuous DimenBion Lines which Bometlmes rive Troable 
on Indistinct Blueprints 

inch, and yet the market is supplied with screws having both 
twelve and thirteen threads per inch. In the shops where the 
writer is employed, the half-inch machine bolts and headless 
set-screws used have thirteen threads per Inch while cap- 
screws and common set-screws have twelve threads. In case 
it is desired to change from one kind of set-ecrew to the 
other after a hole has been threaded, the thread has to be 
practically ruined to effect the change. 

Other standard screw sizes show no such conflict of pitches, 
and there seems to be no good reason why there should be two 
pitches in common use. for the half-inch screw. Of course, 
if the purchasing agent specifies when ordering that all bolts, 
cap-screws, .studs, set-screws and nuts, should be of a certain 
pitch, he would probably be supplied with what he orders, 
and so confusion in that particular shop would be prevented. 
But what does the average purchasing agent know about 
such things? The proper ones to remedy the fault would sf-em 
to be the manufacturers; they should adhere to the estab- 
lished standard pitch for the half-inch screw as they do for all 
others. This matter would seem to be of sufficient importance 
to require attention and action — the sooner the better. 

Los Angeles, Cal. John A. Wooii. 

[The condition described by Mr.' Wood is one that has long 
existed, and it has caused endless trouble and confusion. It 
is true that thirteen threads to the inch is the Sellers or 
V. S. standard, but perhaps the founders of this standard 
made a mistake in using thirteen threads to the inch instead 
of twelve. The standard boiler thread is twelve threads per 
inch for all sizes, and of course a half-inch boiler stud or 
cap-screw is not an exception to the rule. Perhaps it would 

By staggering Dimension Lines as shown 
they stand out more clearly 

this niustrati( 

have been wiser on the part of those who formulated the 
Sellers standard to have sacrificed an ideal number of threads 
in the case of the half-inch screw and made it the same as the 
boiler standard which had long been in use. Some of the 
largest manufacturers have clung to the half-inch twelvt 
threads standard, notably the Westinghouse Air Brake Co 
Notwithstanding the fact that the railroads generally have 
adopted the U. S. standard system, the Westinghouse Air 
Brake Co. has continued to make its half-inch studs and 
cap-screws with twelve threads per inch. The trouble inci 
dent to this double standard in railroad shops is typical of 
the condition generally existing where the two standards arCi 
used side by side. — EniTOR.l 

• * * 

Reinforced concrete is so rapidly coming into general use 
that figures relating to bridges of this construction are of 
unusual interest. The Walnut Lane Bridge has ai span ot 
233 feet; at Grafton, New Zealand, there is a bridge with 
a span of 320 feet; over the Tiber, at Rome, 328 feet; and 
at Largweiz. Switzerland, 330 feet. 




IN American metal-working machinery and tools 


Fif. I. National-Acme Style D Sinffle-Bpuidle Drilling Hachi: 

The following description explains the essential features of 
a line of machines developed for performing such second oper- 
ations as drilling, facing and counterboring on automatic 
screw machine product. It vAll be seen from, the illustra- 
tions that the first two machines are of essentially the same 
design, with the exception that one has a single spindle while 
the other has two opposed spindles. These machines are for 
use in drilling one piece of work at a time. The third ma- 
chine of the line is equipped with four spindles and a three- 
faced turret, so that four pieces of work can be drilled at a 
time; and the product can be removed from the fixtures and 
fresh blanks set up in place on two faces of the turret while 
the drilling operation is being performed on the work held in 
fixtures of the third turret face. The fourth machine is pro- 
vided with six spindles and a compound slide on which the 
work-holding fixtures are carried. This slide enables either of 
the six alternate fixtures to be brought into line with the spin- 
dles so that the drilling operation can be performed on the 
work held in these six fixtures; and at the same time, the 
product can be removed from the other six fixtures and fresh 
blanks set up in place for the next drilling operation. 

In the manufacture of screw machine parts in large quan- 
tities, the expeditious performance of such second operations 
as drilling, facing and counterboring is of vital Importance. 
For handling such operations on the product after it 

has left the automatic screw machine, the National-Acme 
Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio, has developed a complete line of 
single- and multiple-spindle drilling machines, the design of 
which includes some particularly interesting features. One 
of these machines of the single-spindle type, which Is known 
as Style D, is shown in Fig. 1. It has a maximum capacity 
for driving drills up to V* Inch In diameter and Is suitable 
for such worlt as light drilling, counterboring and the re- 
moval of burrs; and the rate of production Is said to be very 
satisfactory. Reference to Fig. 1 will show that the machine 
is of simple construction. The driving shaft or drill spindle 
is carried by a ball thrust bearing which enablt-s the spindle 
to run smoothly at the highest speeds required. The fixture 
mounted on the slide shown in the accompanying illustration 
is not part of the regular equipment; but was furnished to 
meet the requirements of a particular class of work. Thl.'; 
slide Is operated by a single lever, and the work is carried 

Tig. 8. National-Acme Stylo D DouMo-npindlc Drillinit Machine 

by a suitable fixture secured to the top face of the slide. An 
adjustable stop governs the depth to which the hole Is drilled. 
The opposed-spindle drilling machine shown in Fig. 2 is con- 
structed along the same lines as the slngle-splndle machine 
shown In Fig. 1. The capacity of this machine is also tor 
drills up to Ml inch in diameter. 

The multiple-spindle drilling machine shown In Fig. 3 Is 
semi-automatic in operation. It is known as the N'o. 4 mul- 
tiple-spindle drilling machine and Is equipped with four drill- 
ing spindles and a three-sided turret on which the work is 
carried. The capacity is for driving drills up to 3/16 inch 
In diameter when working in steel, and for drills up to 5/16 
inch In diameter when working in brass. The machine is 
particularly adapted for the drilling of pins or holes in 
screws and similar parts, in addition to performing gen- 
eral drilling operations. In operation, it is customary to 
employ fixtures which provide for holding four piece* of 
work on each face of the turret, and in order to increase the 
rigidity of the turret as the work is fed forward to the drills, 
the turret Is engaged by a pilot which enters the bushing In 
its face, thus maintaining precise alignment. As the turret 



October, 1915 


Pieces Per 
Ten Hours 

Gears on 
Worm Shaft 

Gears on Stud 

R.P. 10 hours of 












































































































































slide is drawn baclf, tlie turret is automatically indexed 
through one-third revolution, after which it is once more 
advanced to drill tour more holes in the work. While the 
drilling is being done on the work clamped to the first faci- 
of the turret, the operator removes the finished product on 
the second face and sets up fresh blanks in the fixture carried 
by the third face of the turret. It will be evident from 
this description that the operation of the machine is quit ■ 

Fig. 4. National-Acme Six-spindle Bolt Drilling Machine 

The drive is provided by two main belts, one of which drives 
the drill spindles and provides power for operating the oil 
pump by means of an auxiliary belt. The second main belt 
provides power for traversing the triangular work-turret to 
and from the spindles, the movement being effected by means 
of cams; and this belt also provides power for indexing and 
locking the turret for successive drilling operations. Change- 
gears, which are applied similarly to those on the regular 
National-Acme multiple-spindle automatic screw machines, are 
provided for varying the cutting speeds; and the cam-shafts 

are automatically accelerated during the Idle motion by means 
of an intermittent drive. The approximate productive capac- 
ity of this machine and the proper gears to use under differ- 
ent operating conditions are given in the accompanying table. 
The figures showing production are only approximate, but 
will serve as a guide when calculating the maximum output 
which can be expected under various working conditions. 
The saving of time resulting from the employment of the 
three-sided work-turret with which this machine is equipped 
has been found to materially increase the rate of production 
on certain classes of work as compared with the output ob- 
tained from machines where production stops while removing 
the finished product and setting up fresh blanks. On certain 
classes of work one man can easily look after two of these 
National-Acme multiple-spindle drilling machines. 

Fig. 4 shows a general view, and Fig. 5 a close view, of the 
mechanism of a drilling machine which differs considerably 
from the machines shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. This machine 
is designed for use in drilling transverse holes in six bolts 

Fig. 5. Close 

View of Drill Spindles and FixtureJ of National-Acme 
Six-spindle Drilling Machine 

at a time. The high rate of pro(Juction secured by drilling 
bolts simultaneously Is further increased by the fact that 
provision is made for setting up six blanks in the fixture 
while the holes are being drilled in six other bolts, the total 
capacity of the fixture being for twelve bolts, as shown In 
Figs. 4 and 5. The machine is equipped with a compound 
slide, the lower slide being for the purpose of moving the 
work toward or away from the drills, while the upper slide 
provides the necessary lateral movement for bringing either 
series of six bolts opposite the drills. Both slides are con- 
trolled by levers which are operated by individual cams 
mounted on ^i drum nnd di?k. and the same system of dinner- 

.) 1 

- - .• .- .. ^ 



mf/ 'f^' 






View of Cam-shaft and Drive to Pump 
shoini in Fig. 4 

October, 1915 



gears is employed for varying the speed of the cam-shaft as 
that which is used on other machines made by the National- 
Acme Mfg. Co. The change-gears and cams are shown in 
detail in Fig. G. 

Twelve Jigs of suitable design to hold the work to be drilled, 
are mounted on the top slide; six of these jigs are in line 
with the drill spindles and hold the work that is to be drilled, 
while the finished product is being removed from the other 
six jigs and blanks set up in its place. The jigs in 
line with the drills are advanced for the drilling operation 
by means of a compound lever and are returned to the starting 
point by means of the cam on the disk. As soon as the return 
motion of the lower slide has been completed, the upper slide 
is shifted laterally to bring the fresh blanks into line with 
the drills. The fixtures which hold the fi.nished work are 
automatically released by the lateral movement of the slide, 
and the same movement automatically 
clamps the fresh blanks in the other six 
fixtures. The machine is particularly 
adapted for handling small work, and it will 
be evident from the preceding description 
that the rate of production will be quite 
satisfactory. Correct speeds for the drill 
spindles are secured through a three-step 
cone pulley which is shown at the right- 
hand side of the machine in Fig. 4, and a 
clutch lever gives the operator complete con- 
trol of the drive. At the top of the machine ^' 
there is a reservoir for the cutting fluid, and each drill is 
supplied with lubricant from individual pipes, the supply 
being adequate for the maximum requirements. The pump, 
and chain and sprocket which drive it will be seen at the 
right-hand side of the machine, and in detail In Fig. 6. 

in direct proportion to the amount of power which is required. 
Fig. 1 shows the chuck jaws in the extreme closed position. 
When the shell B is held back against the rotation of the drill 
spindle, the extension pieces D run on their cam surfaces 
until engagement is made with the shoulders which separate 
adjacent cams. At this point the jaws run off the extension 
pieces into direct contact with the cam surfaces, and the 
motion Is continued until the jaws come up against the side 
of the next extension piece which abuts against the shoulder 
at the end of the cam. This is the maximum opening. 

The chief objection to the original form of construction lay 
in the fact that there was a possibility for the extension 
pieces to be tilted out of alignment with the chuck jaws, due 
to the Introduction of dirt or chips Into the chuck. When 
this condition occurred, the chuck Jaws would fail to grip 
the drill properly and efficient operation of the chuck was 


In the May, 1914, and October, 1912, niiml)(TS of Mac:iii.nkuy, 
descriptions were published of Wahlstrom automatic drill 
chucks for holding straight and taper shank drills. At the 
time these articles were published, the Wahlstrom Tool Co., 
346 Carroll St., Brooklyn, N. Y., had just taken up the manu- 
facture of drill chucks; and although the service which these 
tools have been giving during the past three years has been 
satisfactory, experience has suggested certain improvements in 
the design. These will be beat understood by referring to 
Figs. 1 and 2, which show the old and improved styles. 

In order to explain the improvements which have been made 
in the design, it will be desirable to describe the operation 
of the old style chuck for the benefit of those who are not 
familiar with the construction of this tool. Referring to the 
(Mul view Fig. 1, the chuck body is shown at A, and B is a 



¥\g. 1. Early Typo of Wahlstrom Automatic Drill Chuck 

shell in which three cam surfaces are machined. Between 
the chuck Jaws C and the cam surfaces there arc extension 
pieces D. The outside of the shell B Is knurle<l to provide 
a good grip for the hand, and by holding this shell back 
against the rotation of the drill spindle the extension pieces D 
run on their respective cam surfaces, which results in open- 
ing the Jaws. When the drill is inserttnl and the shell B 
S leased, a spring causes the shell to rotate, with the result 
ait the cam surfaces force the Jaws Into contact with the 
shank of the drill. The grip secured in this way is sufficient 
to start the tool cutting, after which the resistance of the cut 
sets up a torque which causes the eccentric inner Jaws to 
l)lnd against the shank of the drill, the grip obtained being 

2. Wahlstrom Drill Chuck with Improved Type of Jaws 

impossible. This difficulty has now been obviated by the 
employment of an improved form of Jaws shown in the end 
view Fig. 2, which does away with the use of extension 
pieces, the jaws being in direct contact with the cam surfaces 
at all times. The method of operation is essentially the same 
as that described for the old style of chuck, and the end view 
Fig. 2 shows the chuck in the extreme open position. But 
in the case of the improved Wahlstrom chuck, each Jaw 
engages only one of the cam surfaces. When the shell of the 
chuck Is held against the rotation of the drill spindle, the 
Jaws run over the cam surfaces until they come into contact 
with the shoulders at the ends of the cams. After this point 
is reached, the jaws are rocked over so that the shoulders 
on the cams enter the spaces provided by the segments which 
are cut out from the Jaws. This is the position shown in 
Fig. 2. The largest size of drill for which the chuck Is 
adapted can now be slipped up into the chuck, after which the 
shell is released and the spring causes It to snap back, with 
the result that the cams force the jaws into contact with the 
shank of the drill. The Jaws are eccentric, and when the 
drill begins to cut, the resistance causes them to rock 
around so that their eccentric form makes them bind on the 
shank of the drill. This principle is the same as that of the 
original form of Wahlstrom chucks, and as 
in the earlier type, the grip obtained is In 
direct proportion to the cutting power re- 
quired of the drill. 

The improved Wahlstrom chucks are 
made for holding both straight and taper 
shank drills. The chucks for straight shank 
drills are made in three different sizes 
which have capacities for drills from No. 
1 to "^ inch, from % to % inch, and from 
17/32 to 1 inch, respectively. The ^-Inch 
chuck has either a No. 1 or 2 Morse taper 
shank, the ^-inch chuck either a No. 2. 3 or 4 Morse taper 
shank, and the 1-Inch chuck either a No. 3 or 4 Morse 
taper shank. Special shanks can be provided to order. The 
taper shank chucks are made In one size only, and are adapted 
for holding drills with No. 1. 2 or ;{ Morse taper shanks; and 
the chucks are furnished with either No. 3 or 4 Morse taper 
shanks. The operation of these chucks Is the same as that 
of the straight shank chucks, and as the Jaws grip directly on 
the shank of the drill, the drive Is not In any way dependent 
upon the tang. .No collets are used. .Vs a result, there Is no 
loss of drills from broken tangs where the Wahlstrom chuck 
is used, and drills which have accumulated in the shop with 
the tangs twisted off can be made use of. 



October, 1915 


The manner in which thr ncncratiny motion is obtained on 
this machine represents a departure from the crown gear and 
segment construction employed on other Gleason bevel gear 
generators. In the present design, the cradle carrying the 
tools and the spindle carrying the work are rolled by means 
of a reversing mechanism, a geared connection being used 
to transmit the drive to each member. The correct relative 
roll is secured by means of compound change-gears and a scale 
is provided to enable the operator to check up the accuracy of 
the roll at any time. On flat gears of fi to I ratio, the capacity 
of the machine is for gears up to 32 inches in diameter; and 
miter gears up to 25 inches in diameter can be handled. The 
range of pitches is from the finest up to 1^ diametral pitch; 
and the maximum face width of gears which can be cut is 5 

To meet the requirements of automobile trucic builders and 
other manufacturers who are in need of machines for cut- 
ting quiet running bevel gears and pinions, the Gleason 
Works, Roches- 
ter, N. Y., have 
added to their 
line a 25-inch 
bevel gear plan- 
ing generator of 
the t w - 1 o 1 
type. The capac- 
ity of this ma- 
chine is for flat 
bevel gears up 
to 32 inches in 
diameter for an 
8 to 1 ratio; and 
gears of 45-de- 
gree face angle, 
i. e., the so- 
called "miter- 
gears," can be 
cut in diameters 
up to 25 inches. 
The range of 
pitches for 
which the ma- 
chine is adapted 
is from the fin- 
est up to 1% 

J, i , ,1 , Fig. 1. Gleason 25-iiicb Bevel Gear Planing Generate 

diametral pitch; 

and the maximum length of the tool stroke is 6 Inches, 
which provides for cutting gears with a face width of 
5 inches. 

Provision is made for planing gears with a long hub at the 
back by allowing enough space so that the end of the work- 
Hpindle can be set 20 inches from the tools. To adapt the 
machine for planing pinions which are an integral part of a 
long stem, the work-spindle is made hollow so that pinions of 
this character can be set up with the stem carried inside of 
the hollow spindle. The time required for finishing one tooth 
ranges from 30 seconds to 2 minutes 50 seconds, according 
to the material and the size of the gear which is being cut. 
The floor space occupied is relatively small in comparison to 
the size of work which can be handled on the machine, thi 
extreme dimensions being 8 feet 2 inches long by 6 feet ■) 
inches wide. The net weight of the machine is 11,000 pound.-^ 
The machine works on the generating principle and is 
fully automatic in operation. The tools are mounted in 
clapper-blocks which are carried by long slides operating 

in arms shown 
at .4 in Fig. 1; 
and the setting 
is made for any 
required length 
of stroke by ad- 
justing the grad- 
uated crank- 
plate B, Fig. 2. 
The slides are 
fully protected 
from chips and 
dirt, and the 
arms may be set 
for any tooth 
angle by means 
of a turnbuckle 
C. Fig. 3. and 
graduations D, 
Fig. 4. After the 
arms have been 
eet in the re- 
quired positions, 
they are secure- 
1 y fastened t o 
the carriage E, 
Fig. 5; the car- 
riage holds the 

October, 1915 



mechanism for driving the tool-slides and is solidly bolted 
to a cradle F, Fig. 3. The speed of the tool-slide can be 
varied by means of change-gears G, Fig. 5. The cradle F 
has circular V-ways which are designed with liberal bearing 
surfaces and provided with forced lubrication. 

The generating motion employed on this machine repre- 
sents a departure from the regular Gleason crown gear and 
segment method. In the present design, the cradle which 
carries the tools and the spindle which carries the work are 
rolled by means of a reversing mechanism, and a geared con- 

FiB. 4. View of Muclii 

Work-spindle End 

nection is used to transmit the drive to each member. The 
final pair of gears in each train is a worm and worm-wheel 
which are made of suitable pitch to insure accurate control. 
The correct relative rolling motion of the cradle and work- 
spindle is secured by means of compound change-gears, shown 
at U in Fig. 2; and the graduations /, Fig. 4, allow the 
operator to check up the accuracy of the rolling motion. The 
indexing mechanism Is positively driven and operates by one 
turn of a stop-plate. This motion is joined with the drive 
for the generating roll 
of the work by means 
of a differential mechan- 
ism, and a single train 
of driving members car- 
ries the combined mo- 
tions to a worm-wheel 
on the spindle. This ar- 
rangement permits of 
employing a very com- 
pact design which docs 
away with the swinging 
bracket construction 
used on earlier types of 
(jlcason bevel gear gen- 
orating machines, there- 
by saving a considera- 
b 1 e amount of floor 

The head is carried 
on a swinging base J. 
Fig. 1, which carries 
the work to the tools; 
and the proper depth of 
cut Is obtained by ad- 
justing the graduated 
lover £■, Fig. 4. The 
base J Is driven by cam 







y^ Uorhln.ry 

Tig. 8. Form of Tool. holder uied 

L and the cam, In 
turn, receives Its 
motion from a 
worm and worm- 
wheel which run In 
an oil bath M. The 
tools are o f the 
rack tooth type, 
and can be madi' to 
14%-, 20-degr.. .r 
any other pri.--iir' 
angle which m a y 
be required. Th^- 
cutter is made of 
high-speed steel and 
mounted on a car- 
bon steel holder, as shown In Fig. 6, where It will be seen 
that the cutter Is positively located on the holder by means 
of a double tongue and groove joint. Owing to the present 
cost of high-speed steel, this type of tool Is far more economi- 
cal than a solid tool, and aside from the saving In coat the 
arrangement has the further advantage of enabling the cutters 
to be quickly interchanged when they require regrlndlng or 
when gears of some other pitch are to be cut. 

The oiling of all worm-wheels, cradle-ways, heavy-duty 
gears and cutting tools is effected by a system of forced lubri- 
cation which receives oil from two pumps that are located 
inside of the cradle base at 0, Fig. 5, where they are accessi- 
ble at all times. Aside from the saving of space which is 
secured by this arrangement, there Is the further advantage 
r)f having all gears and driving chains fully guarded. All 
other oil tubes on the machine are grouped In convenient 
places as shown at P In Fig. 2, so that the operator Is not 
likely to overlook any of them. All gears on the machine, 
with the exception of the change-gears, are made of steel 
and casehardened to make them durable. The tools are easily 
and accurately set by means of gages which may be tested 
at any time with a proof plug; and the gear blank to be cut 
can also be quickly set up on the work-spindle by means of a 
cone distance gage. These provisions which are made for 
the rapid adjustment of the machine in connection with the 
features of the design which afford rapid and automatic opera- 
tion, make the rate of production very satisfactory. 

Fig. 6. Opposite Side of Machine f 

In the October, 1914, number of Machinery a deecription 
was published of the 13-inch "Economy" engine lathe manu- 
factured by the Uock- 
ford Lathe & Drill Co.. 
Rockford, III. Since 
the appearance of the 
article referred to. this 
concern has added to 
its line a 17-inch en- 
gine lathe, the design of 
which Is essentially tht^ 
same as that of tin' 
smaller sized machine. 
It Is built in two types, 
one of which is equip- 
ped with a quick 
change-gear mechanism 
and the other with 
what Is styled as a 
"seml-quick" change- 
gear device. In the 
former type of machine 
the feed-box Is of sim- 
ple and powerful con- 
struction; all gears are 
cut from solid steel and 
thirty-two changes are 
obtained through elid- 
ing gears and hardened 
that iho.n m Fi... 1 and « Steel clutch«« that are 



October, 1915 

rig. 1. Front View of Bemis Four- 
spindle Semi-automatic Drill 

controlled by two handles. The lead-screw and feed-shaft 
operate independently, and either the screw or shaft is en- 
gaged by operating a knob at the front of the gear-box. 
In the lathe with the semi-quick change-gear box, three 
changes of feed are obtainable for each change of gearing 
through sliding steel gears and hardened steel clutches 
which afford a powerful drive. This gear-box simplifies 
thread cutting operations, as all pitches are obtainable with- 
out the necessity of compounding gears. These new lathes 
swing 181^ inches over the ways and 11% inches over the 
carriage; the distance between centers on a lathe with a 6- 
foot bed is 27 inches. The ratios of the double back-gears 
are 3.5 to 1 and 11.13 to 1, respectively. The machine is 
built with 6-, 8-, and 10-foot beds. 


The semi-automatic four-spindle ball bearing drill shown 
in the illustrations presented in connection with the follow- 
ing description, was developed by Edgar W. Bemis, Worces- 
ter, Mass., for use in drilling clearance holes in threading 
dies and for similar work. The table is equipped with five 
chucks so that the finished work may be removed from one 
chuck and a fresh blank placed in position while the drills 
are working on the pieces held in the other four chucks. The 

Fig. 3. Opposite View of 
Uadiiiie shown in Tig. 2 

general arrangement of the machine will be readily under- 
stood by reference to the front, rear and side views shown in 
Figs. 1, 2 and 3; and from Figs. 4 and 5, which show the in- 
dex mechanism and method of driving. In operation, the piece 
to be drilled is set up in the chuck at the front of the machine, 
the lock-pin is withdrawn and the table revolved to bring the 
work under the first spindle. While the table is being raised 
to feed the work to the drill, the operator places another 
piece in the second chuck and continues setting up work until 
all of the chucks have been filled. After the operation has 
once been started in this way, it is merely necessary for the 
operator to remove the finished piece and set up a fresh 
blank in each successive chuck as it comes to the idle posi- 
tion at the front of the machine. 

The work-table is supported on ball bearings on the lifting 
table which is moved up and down to teed the work to the 
drills and withdraw it after the operation has been com- 
pleted. The work-spindles have gears keyed to them which 
mesh with a gear carried by the hub of the lifting table. 
As the work-table is indexed to bring the work-spindles into 
successive positions under the four drill spindles, the gears 
just referred to index the work to the proper positions for 
drilling. The feeding of the work-table to and from the 
drills is effected by means of rolls carried on the lifting rods; 
these rolls run on cams fastened to a worm-geaj which re- 

Fiff, 4. Flan View of Head showing liow Spindles are driven 

Fig. 5. Flan View of Table showing Arrangement of Index Mechanism 

October, 1915 



volves around the post and is driven 
by the gears on the main driving 
shaft. A stud at the top of the post 
supports a cone pulley, the top step of 
which receives the belt which runs 
over idler pulleys from the main driv- 
ing pulley. An endless belt runs 
around the four pulleys on the drill 
spindles, and the desired tension of 
this belt is maintained by means of 
idler pulleys. 

The locking-pin which locks the 
work-table to the lifting table is ad- 
justable to allow the center of the 
chucks on the work-table to be moved 
from the centers of the drills, thus 
enabling four holes to be drilled on any 
circle up to 3% inches in diameter. 
A convenient handle located at the side 
of the machine operates a sliding 
clutch on the worm-shaft to provide for 
stopping or starting the feed. The 
worm-gear which carries the lifting 
cams rests on '/^-inch falls, thus re- 
ducing the frictional resistance. The 
lifting cams fastened to the worm-gear 
may be adjusted to provide for drilling 
to any required depth which comes 
within the range of the machine. Thi' 
lifting rods on each side of the ma- 
chine are threaded for a part of their 
length, and the rods pass through 

handwheels that are used to adjust the °^°" " mprove -n 
position of the table relative to the drills. The shank of the 
chuck is drilled half way through its length so that long drills 
can be put up in the shank and then drawn down to any 
required position. An oil chamber is cored around the head 
of the drill behind the spindle bearings, and valves are tapped 
Into this chamber to make' connection with pipes which carry 
oil to each of the drills. A pump driven from the main shaft 
keeps the chamber full of oil. The capacity of this machine 
is for drilling holes through 1800 pieces of 5/16-inch stock 
per day. 

:h Double Back-geared Drill 

to the center of a 7%-inch disk, and 
the height of the gap is % inch. One- 
half turn serves to drive the punch 
through V4 inch of metal. The weight 
of the tool complete is 21 pounds. The 
No. 20 ball bearing punch shown in 
Pig. 2 is made of chrome-nickel steel, 
heat-treated to obtain the required 
properties. The capacity of this tool 
in for punching holes up to V6 inch 
in diameter through iron % Inch in 
thickness. The depth of the throat is 
2 Inches, the height of the throat 1% 
inch, and the weight of the tool 20 

Fig. 3 shows a No. 40 ball bearing 
punch which, like the No. 15 punch 
shown in Fig. 1, Is equipped with a 
ratchet head and socket handle. The 
capacity of this tool is for punching 
holes up to % inch In diameter in Iron 
% inch in thickness; the depth of the 
throat is 3 inches, the height of the 
throat 2 inches, and the weight of the 
tool 51 pounds. The No. 15 tool re- 
quires a pressure of 15,300 pounds to 
punch a hole 5/16 inch In diameter 
through iron 5/16 inch in thickness. 
The No. 20 tool requires 39,300 pounds 
pressure to punch a hole '/^ Inch In 
diameter through iron '/» inch in thick- 
ness. The No. 40 tool requires a pres- 
sure of 88,400 pounds to punch a hole 

inch in diameter through iron 'U inch in thickness. 


The accompanying illustrations show three hand-operated 
punches which constitute recent additions to the line of 
punches and shears made by the Whitney Metal Tool Co., 
Uockford, 111. In addition to punching metal, these tools may 
also be employed for setting the heads of rivets, in which 
service they give very satisfactory results. 

Fig. 1 shows the No. 15 ball bearing punch which has a 
capacity for munching holes up to 5/16 inch in diameter 
through Iron 5/lG inch in thickness. The tool will reach 


The design of the improved 20-inch double back-geared drill 
which has recently been placed on the market by the Royers- 
ford Foundry & Machine Co., Royersford, Pennsylvania, 
combines the features of simplicity, strength and rigidity 
with speed and accuracy of production. The capacity is for 
drilling holes up to 1% inch in diameter. All the gears are 
machine cut, and the bearings are liberally proportioned; the 
change from direct to double back-geared drive or t'ice versa 
is instantly obtained by simply sliding the gears In to or out 
of mesh. It will be seen from the illustration that the drill 
is made with a square base. 

Eight changes of spee<l are provided, and the feed may be 
obtained by power, by hand through a feed wheel, or by 
means of a feed lever. The spindle Is counterbalanced by a 

FiB. 1. Wtiitn,-y No. 16 BrU Soaring Punch 
for Shcpt Iron up to 6 16 Inch in Thictaios 

Fig. t. Whitney No. 20 Ball Bearins Punch for 
Sheet Iron up to ', Inci in Thickneai 



October, 1915 

weight inside the column and is provided with an automatic 
stop and quick return. There is a quick-acting screw for 
raising or lowering the table. The principal dimensions of 
the machine are as follows: maximum distance between table 
and spindle, 36 inches; maximum distance between base and 
spindle, 45 inches; distance from column to center of spindle, 
10V4 inches; diameter of column, 5Vi inches; traverse of 
spindle, 9 inches; traverse of table on column, 21i/4 inches; 
diameter of table, 18 inches; floor space occupied, 23 by 50 
inches; horsepower required to drive drill, 1; and net weight 
of machine, 800 pounds. 



The collapsible adjustable tap illustrated and described 
herewith is a recent product of the Modern Tool Co., Erie, 
Pa. This tool Is designed for use in machining shrapnel 
and high-explosive shells, and it is said that it Is con- 
structed along such rigid lines that it possesses practically 
the same strength as a solid tap. The design of the mechan- 
ism is extremely simple, yet it governs the operation of the 
tool in such a way that the collapse of the tap is insured at 
any predetermined point, thus permitting the quick with- 
drawal of the tool without injury to the work. In addition 
to the collapsing feature, the construction provides for mak- 
ing adjustments for producing tight and loose threads. 

The cutting menihers consist of but two parts, being iden- 
tical with a solid tap split through the center. Each blade has 
two or more flutes — as in the case of a solid tap — and the 
shank of the blades terminates in a 
square base which is inserted in a 
correspondingly shaped hole in one 
of the two slides in which the 
blades are fastened by set-screws. 
These two slides are secured in a 
T-shaped groove in the head, and 
are movable transversely to enable 
the blades to slide past each other. 
In this way the diameter of the cut- 
ting tools is reduced or increased 
as required. Each sliding block 
terminates on the outer end in a 
curved surface which is operated 
upon by cam surfaces on the inside 
of a ring which encircles the blocks. 
These cams are of sufficient depth 
to force the sliding blocks to move 
in opposite directions through a dis- 
tance sufficient to bring about the 
collapse of the tap, so that it is 
clear of the work and may be ra- 
pidly withdrawn when the tapping is completed. 

The head which carries the sliding blocks and cam ring is 
mounted on a shank that is clamped in the chuck or turret 
head in the usual manner. The shank may be made integral 
with the head or provided with longitudinal float as desired. 
It will be evident from the description and illustrations that, 
In designing this tap, the Modern Tool Co. has utilized the 
same principles and practically the same construction as 
employed in the Modern self-opening and adjustable die-head. 

Tig. 2. Parti of Kodern Tool Co.'* Hew T>; 

The chief points of difference are that the slides have been 
reduced to two in the case of the tap, and that the cutters 
are made for cutting internal threads instead of external 
threads. As the operation of the tool is controlled by cams 
and springs which are independent of the cutting members, 
and as there are no delicate parts inside the tap, work of 
exceptionally small diameters may be threaded. This tap is 
made in four sizes ranging from Vn to Z inches in diameter. 

Fig. 1, CoUapsible Tap 

by the Mode 


The enviable reputation which is enjoyed by English tool- 
smiths was built up in the days when the equipment available 
for hardening tool steel consisted 
of a coke fire. After the tools had 
been hardened, the method of tem- 
pering consisted of heating a large 
block of steel to a cherry red, and 
then placing the hardened tools on 
this block until their temperature 
had been raised to the desired de- 
gree as indicated by the color, 
which ranged from straw to a dark 
blue. Although the results ob- 
tained by this method were of such 
a high quality that the reputation 
established by the old English tool- 
smiths has been held to the present 
day, the method of tempering re- 
ferred to is not adapted to the re- 
quirements of modern manufactur- 
ing. To provide tor handling work 
more rapidly, the general method 
of tempering in American manufac- 
turing plants consists of immersing 
the hardened parts in a bath of oil, the temperature of which 
has been raised to the proper degree. There are, however, 
certain undesirable features connected with this process, such 
as the difficulty of handling the work, the untidy appearance 
of the tempering room, which is unavoidable, and the fact 
that the best grades of tempering oil cannot be heated above 
liOO degrees F., so that the method is not adaptable for tem- 
pering many classes of high-speed steel which require the 
application of higher temperatures. 

With the view of developing a method of tempering which 
would obviate the objectionable features of the oil tempering 
bath, and enable work of the high quality produced by the 
old English toolsmiths with their heated steel blocks to be 
turned out at a rate that could meet modern conditions of 
competition, the Heco Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass., has developed 
the electric tempering oven shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration, for which H. B. Eaton & Co., Inc., 144 Pearl St., Bos- 
ton, Mass.. have the eastern sales agency. The advantages 
of the method of "dry" tempering may be briefly outlined 
as follows: The metal can be brought to a uniform condition 
from the outer surface to the center of the work; and with 
the Heco electric oven, the work can be handled even more 
rapidly than in the case of the oil bath. Any desired tem- 
perature is available up to 800 degrees P., the control being 
maintained by a rheostat. The heating units are placed at 

October, 1915 



the bottom of the 
oven and are lo- 
cated in parallel 
rows from front 
to back, so that 
every part of the 
oven receives an 
absolutely u n i - 
form heat, with 
the result that 
the temper of all 
parts is drawn 
uniformly. The 
ovens are provid- 
ed with 4 - 1 n c h 
heat retaining 
walls, and it is 
stated that with a 
maximum temper- 
ature of 800 de- 
grees F. the exte- 
rior remains cool. 
With intelli- 
gent use, the 
ovens should last 
tor years, but the 
heating units require renewing after approximately 3000 
hours of service. The Heco electric tempering ovens are made 
in three stock sizes, known as Nos. 1, 2 and 3. The No. 
1 oven is 12 inches wide by 12 inches deep by 8 inches high, 
and the ai)proximate consumption of electric power is 1000 
watts per hour. The No. 2 oven is 18 inches wide by 18 inches 
deep by 8 inches high and the approximate consumption of 
electric power is 1500 watts per hour. The No. 3 is 24 inches 
wide by 24 inches deep by 8 inches high and the approximate 
consumption of electric power is 2000 watts per hour. All 
sizes of ovens are made for various voltages and for use on 
alternating or direct current. 


ley provides two 
changes of speed. 
The different 
grinding wheels 
used on the ma- 
chine are carried 
by taper shank 
mandrels. The 
swinging or 
swivel sleeves 
which carry the 
work are made to 
fit bushings for 
the various forms 
of straight or ta- 
pered shanks o n 
the cutters or 
mandrels. These 
bushings and 
mandrels are not 
furnished with 
the machine, as It 
1 s necessary for 
the user to make 
the attachments 
to suit his own 
particular work. The swivel head, which Is ready to receive 
the work-holding bushings, constitutes part of the regular 
equipment of the machine, and the same Is true of the coun- 
tershaft. The floor space occupied is approximately 3% feet 
by 1 foot 8 Inches, and the complete height is 3V4 feet. 


The grinding machine which forms the subject of this 
article is a recent product of Kane & Roach, Niagara and 
Shonnard Sts., Syracuse, N. Y., and is adapted for grinding 
all kinds of milling cutters. The illustrations show the 
machine set up for four typical operations, which will give 
the reader an idea of its range. This machine has been in use 
in the manufacturers' shops for a considerable time, during 
which It has been employed on a great variety of cutter 
grinding work, and the experience gained has enabled weak 
features to be 
eliminated. All 
the attachments 
used on the ma- 
chine are graduat- 
ed in degrees so 
that they can be 
swiveled or tilted 
to any angle that 
may bo required 
by the work. Also, 
the head can be 
moved in or out, 
and the table can 
be raised or low- 
ered into any de- 
sired position. 
The result is that 
the grinding ma- 
chine is adapted 
tor a wide range 
of work. 

The counter- 
shaft is furni.shed 
with the machine 
and the cone pul- ^'- *■ 5"'?" i"'"*"" ""''■■''' 

"^ HortiontAl Position 

The machine shown by the illustrations presented in con- 
nection with the following description Is built by the Ander- 
son Die Machine Co., 590 Water St., Bridgeport, Conn., and Is 
especially adapted for finishing blanking dies and similar 
work after the hole has been roughed out In the usual way. 
11 is driven by a motor that can be attached to an ordinary 
lamp socket. It will be evident from the illustrations that 
the machine is equipped with a special cutter which is shaped 
like a file but operates more on the principle of a milling 
cutter. The cutting edge is one continuous spiral, and the 
cutter is driven by a rotating spindle. The die Is fed up 
to the cutter by hand. The following advantages are claimed 
for the machine: First, that It cuts very rapidly and 
without interruption; second, that it Is unnecessary to 
change the cutter for every variation in contour of the sur- 
face being operated upon; third, that the work-table is always 

set at right angles 
to the spindle so 
that the cutter, 
which has the 
same taper as the 
clearance required 
In the die, always 
produces a u n i - 
form clearance re- 
gardless o f h o w 
the work is pre- 
sented to the cut- 
ter. TTie result is 
that when the die 
is ground to re- 
new its cutting 
edge, the opening 
is uniformly en- 
larged without 

The motor Is 
connected to t h e 
horizontal driving 
shaft on the ma- 
chine by means 
of a seml-fleilble 



October, 1915 

Fig. 1. Control Side of Anderson Die Forming Machine 

coupling, and connection between the driving shaft and ver- 
tical spindle is by means of a pair of spiral gears. It virlU 
be seen that the driving mechanism is completely enclosed 
with the exception of a small opening at the bottom of the 
case, which provides ventilation to prevent heating of the 
electrical parts. The design of the motor windings has been 
worked out with particular reference to the intermittent loads 
to which the Anderson die forming machine is subjected. 

The cutter is carried in the machine by means of a har- 
dened and ground collet which is held in the closed position 
by a powerful spring at the lower end of the spindle. When 
it is desired to remove the cutter from the spindle, the collet 
is opened by raising the hand lever. The spindle is har- 
dened and ground, and runs in phosphor-bronze bearings; 
the upper bearing is of the double angle type and the lower 
bearing of the straight type. An adjustable thrust collar 
is provided to engage the lower face of the upper bearing, 
thus reducing to a minimum the changes in adjustment 
resulting from variations of temperature. A knurled 
ring is provided on the end of the spindle which prevents 
chips or dust from finding their way into the bearings. The 
centrifugal force due to the rapid rotation of the spindle 
largely prevents the lodging of chips or dust in the collet, 
but should the collet require cleaning, the table can be tilted 
back to make it easily accessible, this position being shown 
in Pig. 2. A switch is located on the base of the machine 
for starting or stopping the motor. 

The cutters used on this machine are so designed that the 
use of feed-screws, slides or vises is unnecessary for holding 
the work and feeding it up to the cutter. The work is held 
by hand and guided up to the cutter in any direction, so that 
either straight or irregular lines can be followed. The cutting 
is the result of a continuous shearing action of the tool, 
which not only removes the excess stock from the die but 
also serves to hold the die-block down on the table. As all 
chips are carried down, no trouble is experienced from the 

obscuring of the outline laid out on the die-block. The 
cutting edge of the tool is not subjected to any appreciable 
shock while In operation, and so it will be evident that the 
life of the tools is quite satisfactory. Cutters for die work 
can be furnished to produce any desired degree of clearance, 
and they can be made to leave the die straight for % or 3/16 
inch, after w4iich the clearance is of the usual form. All 
sizes of cutters are made with shanks 14 inch in diameter 
so that it is unnecessary to change the collet In the machine 
when a change of cutters Is necessary. 

The cutting action of the tool is such that wooden patterns 
can be formed to give the required draft and there is no 
danger of splitting the wood, no matter what direction 
the grain runs in. The finish produced is very smooth 
and the pattern will require very little, if any, hand work 
to be done on It alter leaving the machine. The draft on 
the pattern will be uniform on all sides because the amount 
of draft is controlled by the taper of the cutter. Suitable 
cutters are made to produce any required degree of draft for 
wooden or metal patterns. The regular equipment furnished 
with the machine includes the driving motor, a heavy flexible 
cord and attachment plug, a fixed or portable tool rack, and a 

Fig. 2. OppoBito Side of Machine showing how Moto 
and Gearing is covered 

Fig. 3. Close View of Cutting Tool, Collet and Spindle 

set of twelve cutters of any form that may be desired. In 
addition to its application for finishing blanking dies, the 
machine will be found useful in making irregular-shaped 
drawing dies, templets, small sheet metal model parts, form- 
ers for profiling gages, irregular-shaped gages, formers for 
cams, metal patterns, and small wooden patterns. The prin- 
cipal dimensions of the machine are as follows: Capacity, 
tor finishing dies up to 1% inch in thickness; size of cutters 
used, % to 5/16 inch in diameter; size of table, 7 inches in 
diameter; height of table from bench, lOU inches; bench 
space occupied, 9 by IS inches; and weight, including motor, 
551 pounds. 


The unusual demand which now exists for many types of 
machine tools makes the question of prompt delivery of great 
importance to many prospective purchasers. This is particu- 
larly true of lathes which are being used in great quantities 
both in this country and Europe for the turning of shrapnel 
and high-explosive shells. The Superior Machine Tool Co., 
Kokomo, Ind., has recently added to its line an 18-inch engine 
lathe which is shown in the accompanying illustration, and 


October, 1915 



this concern an- 
nounces that it is 
in a position to 
make early deliv- 
eries on orders. It 
will be seen that 
the design of the 
machine follows 
closely establish- 
ed practice in the 
construction o f 
modern engine 
lathes, and the 
features of the 
machine will be 
evident from the 
illustration with- 
out requiring a 
detailed descrip- 

The principal 
dimensions of the 
machine are as 

follows: Swing over bed, ISVi inches; swing over carriage, 
llVi Inches; size of front spindle bearing, Z% by 5 5/10 
inches; size of rear spindle bearing, 2 7/16 by 4V4 inches; di- 
ameter of hole through spindle, 19/16 inch; diameter of spin 
die nose, 2 11/16 inches; width of belt for machine with four- 
step cone pulley, SVi inches; width of belt for machine with 
three-step cone pulley, 3% inches; size of cutting tool, % by 
1»4 Inch; diameter of tailstock spindle, 2Vi inches; length of 
carriage bearing on bed, 27 inches; ratio of back -gears, 3.27 to 
1 and 10.5 to 1; size of countershaft pulleys, 12 by 4 inches; 
speed of countershaft, 225 to 400 R. P. M.; lengths of beds fur- 
nished on machine, 6 to 16 feet; distance between centers for 
machine with 8-foot bed, 56 inches; net weight of machine 
with 8-foot bed, 3000 pounds; and additional weight per foot 
of bed, 145 pounds. 

Latho manufactured by the Superior Uachu 


In a worm-wheel bobbing machine which has recently been 
added to the line of the Newton Machine Tool Works, Inc.. 
Philadelphia, Pa., provision is made for generating the teetli 

with either a ta- 
pered hob or fly- 
cutter. The gen- 
erating tool has 
the general form 
of a tap and U set 
in the same posi- 
tion as that occu- 
pied by the worm 
when in mesh 
with the wheel, 
j. e., at the same 
distance from the 
axis and at the 
same angle with 
the plane of the 
wheel. The gen- 
eral practice in 
bobbing iB to 
cut the wheel 
teeth to a gradu- 
a 1 1 y increasing 
depth by feed- 
ing the cutter in a radial direction toward the center of the 
wheel. On the Newton bobbing machine this practice is not 
followed; in the present case the cutter is fed along a tangent 
to the wheel. As a result, the smallest diameter of the 

Fix. 2. Oenentini W 

1 with Flj-cutter 

tapered hob starts cutting, and as the hob is fed across the 
wheel, the taper causes the teeth to cut to steadily increasing 
depths. The largest diameter of the hob cuts the teeth to the 
required depth. Fig. 1 shows the machine generating a worm- 
wheel with one of the special tapered hobs, and Fig. 2 shows 
the teeth of a large worm-wheel being generate<l by a fly- 
cutter. In the latter case the worm-wheel has 92 teeth of 2 
pitch and triple lead; the outside diameter of the wheel is 
47% inches and the face width SVj inches. The cutting of 
the teeth in this wheel was completed in ten hours. 

Nowton Worm-wheel Hohbin^ Machine equipped with One 
of the Special Tapered Hobs 


The distinctive features of the frlction-drlven tapping chuck 
which has been added to the line of the Bicknell-Thomas Co., 
Greenfield. Mass., are the simplicity of the design and the 
compact form of construction which has been developed. 
The latter feature makes the chuck suitable for use on many 
machines where some types of tapping chucks are too cum- 
bersome, a case in point being on certain types of multiple- 
spindle drills or tapping machines where the center distance 
between the holes is relatively small. The friction drive is 
adjustable so that sufficient power can be provided to drive 
the tap under normal working conditions; but If a hard 



October, 1915 

F.g. 1. Bicknell-TliomiUl Friction-driven lapping Chuck 

spot in the work is encountered or some otlier abnormal con- 
dition arises, the friction will slip before sufficient strain 
develops to break the tap. Another class of work on which 
this adjustable friction drive is of value is in setting 
up a machine for tapping blind holes. In such cases an error 
in judgment on the part of the operator is likely to result 
In driving the tap to the bottom of the hole and breaking it. 
With the Bicknell-Thomas tapping chuck such accidents are 
virtually impossible. 

Fig. 2. Driving Mecha 

of BickneU-Thomas Chuck 

Fig. 2 shows the driving mechanism of the Bicknell-Thomas 
chuck, from which it will be seen that the friction drive is 
provided by a split fiber disk which fits around a beveled cen- 
ter piece. A cylindrical member located under the jaws of 
the chuck fits over the split disk, and the two halves of the 
disk are forced against the inner surface of this part by 
drawing the beveled center piece down into the shank of the 
chuck. Thus provision is made for adjusting the radial posi- 
tion of the halves of the driving disk to give the necessary 

power for the size 

J of tap being used. 

The adjustment of 
the frictions i s 
made by turning 
the locking-nut at 
the back o f t h e 
chuck. It will be 
evident from Pig. 
3 that the chuck 
jaws are designed 
in such a way 
that they grip 
both the round 
shank of the tap 
and the squared 
portion at the 
These chucks are made in five differ- 
and the capacities 

Fig. 3. Jaws 01 (Jliiick showing Provisit 

for holding on both Round Sliank and 

Squared End of Tap 

end of the shank. 

ent sizes known as Nos. 952 to 950, 

of these tools are % to % inch, S/IG to % inch, % to % 

inch, 5/16 to % inch, and 9/16 to 1 inch, respectively. They 

are made with an assortment of Morse taper shanks or straight 

shanks of various diameters to meet the requirements of 

different machines on which this tapping chuck can be used. 



The accompanying illustration shows a slide-rule known as 
a "gaspowrule" which has been developed by D. O. Barrett, 
8 2 S . McDon- 
ald St., Lima, 
Ohio, for use in 
determining the 
a p p r o X i - 
mate horsepow- 
er developed by 
four - cycle gas 
and gasoline en- 
gines. The rule 

also gives quite satisfactory results for two-cycle semi-Dleeel 
oil engines. This rule has been developed from data obtained 
in making a great number of engine tests, and while It is not 
claimed that the results are absolutely accurate, it affords a 
means of rapidly comparing the results obtained from vari- 
ous sizes of engines. 

The No. 2 pocket level which forms the subject of this de- 
scription is known as the "Tampa" which-way level, and Is 
a recent product W E. G. Smith, 315 West Park Ave., Tampa, 
Fla. This tool consists of a circular vial which Is fastened 
in a steel casing 1 inch in diameter 
by % inch high. There are three 
%-inch holes in the base of the cas- 
ing for fastening the level to a 
larger surface. Levels of this type 
may be provided with a polished 
brass base either li^ inch or 2% 
inches in diameter. These bases 
are graduated at 50 to 100 spaces 
respectively, to facilitate pointing 

out in which direction the work is out of level; and the 
levels are carefully finished and nickelplated, so that to use 
the phrase of the manufacturer "they are attractive enough 
for a watch charm." 

The micrometer caliper which has recently been placed on 
the market by the Reed & Prince Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass.. 
follows the general lines of the micrometer calipers which 
have been manufactured by this concern for the past five 
years; but the new tool comprises several noteworthy im- 
provements. The anvil is fixed instead of being adjustable, and 
this change has made it possible to reduce the depth of the 
frame at the anvil so that the micrometer can be used In 

I I I j I ! I iiii|i;ni 


Improved Reed & Prince Micrometer 

narrower places. Adjustment for wear is made by means 
of a two-part thimble; the knurled part of this thimble is 
permanently attached to the spindle and the sleeve or plain 
part can be rotated, while the spindle and anvil are 
in contact with each other, until the zero mark on the 
thimble corresponds with the zero graduation on the 
barrel. The two parts of the thimble are a friction fit, and 
when assembled together they are locked in such a way that 
the spanner wrench provided for this purpose must be used 
when making the adjustment. There is no danger of the set- 
ting being accidentally changed. This extremely simple ad- 
justment is easily and accurately made and the same spanner 
wrench that is used for adjusting the sleeve is also employed 
for regulating the tension nut. A hardened bushing is pressed 
into the frame to guide the spindle; and this bushing is 
ground and lapped to the required size. The spindle is taper- 
threaded and 
locked into the 
thimble in such 
a way as to se- 
cure a rigid 
joint, the end 
being riveted 
over to give 



T: T - T' I T " . i.Ti I II Till 

•Gaspowrule" for calculating Power developed ky Four-cycle Gas and GaaoUne Engines 

October, 1915 




The F. W. Llndgren Co., Rockford, 111., has recently placed 
on the market a 13-inch high-speed bench drill which is 
suitable for all kinds of light drilling and is particularly 
adapted for tool and die work. To provide for operation at 
high speed, all the bearings are bronze bushed and equip- 
ped with ring oilers, which provide constant lubrication; 


The llolden-Morgau Co., Toronto, Canada, has recently 
added to its line a machine for use In turning the gas check 
plug and milling the thread for high-explosive shells. In 
addition to the two operations referred to, the machine also 
provides for facing the plugs. The entire operation Is per- 
formed at a single chucking of the work, and the time re- 

F. W. LindgTon IS-inch Hig:h-»poed Bench Drill 

when worn, the bushings can be readily replaced. The 
crown gear is fitted with a thrust bearing at the end of the 
hub, and a fiber washer prevents the escape of oil. The 
spindle is e(iuipped with ball thrust bearings, and the sleeve 
is graduated in inches. The capacity of the machine Is for 
drills up to % inch. 

The principal dimensions of this drill are as follows: Height, 
37% Inches; maximum distance from spindle to base, 21 
inches; maximum distance from spindle to table, 15 inches; 
diameter of column, 31i inches; size of table, 9 by U inches; 
hole In spindle. No. 1 Morse taper; width of belt on coiio 
pulleys, 1% inch; width of belt on tight and loose pulleys, 
1% Inch; floor space occupied, 32 by 12 inches; and net weight 
of machine, 155 pounds. 

Holden-Morgmn MachlnQ for turning uid mlUmr. Thread OD Gai Ch*ok 
Flu(t for Hirh-ezploaiTO Shelli 

quired to completely mill a plug is from two to three minutes. 
The machine is equipped with an oil pump, quick-acting collet 
and automatic stops for all the feed movements. The method 
of operation is so simple that satisfactory results can be 
obtained with unskilled labor. The A. R. Williams Machin- 
ery Co., Ltd., 64-66 Front St.. West, Toronto, Canada, has ihe 
exclusive sales agency for the machine. 

The characteristic feature of the high-speed silent chains 
manufactured by the American High Speed Chain Co., Indian- 
apolis, Ind., Is the simplicity of the design. These chains *r« 

Fir. 1. Amoricftn Silent Chain — note the Three-part Construction 

Fi(. I. Application of the American Silent Chain 



October, 1915 

composed of three parts, namely, the links, connecting pine 
and washers, which are made of chrome-nickel steel hav- 
ing a tensile strength of 170,000 pounds per square Inch. 
The links are of sufficient thickness to enable them to be 
casehardened to provide greater strength and durability, and 
at the same time allow the metal in the interior portion of 
each part to be left In its natural condition of toughness, 
with the result that the chain possesses the desirable prop- 
erty of flexibility. The pins and washers are also casehar- 
dened, and are said to be practically indestructible. The pins 
are not held stationary; they are free to rotate, and, there- 
fore, distribute the wear around the entire surface. 

The links are accurately machined in relation to the pin- 
holes and pitch-line, and the angle of the links is GO degrees, 
which experience has shown to be well suited for maintain- 
ing the proper relation between the links and the sprockets 
over which they run. The links are fitted perfectly against 
the sprocket teeth and make contact without friction, so that 
noise Is virtually eliminated. This correct meshing of the 
chains and sprockets, and the distribution of the load over a 
large number of teeth, is constant, regardless of the wear 
which may have developed from long usage. This condition 
is effected by an automatic adjustment which provides for 
assuming a correspondingly large pitch diameter of the wheels 
as the teeth or bearings wear and the chain stretches. 


The W. A. Whitney Mfg. Co., Rockford, 111., has recently 
added to its line of hand-operated metal punches a portable 
channel iron punch of the same general construction as the 
No. 2 punch manufactured by this company. All parts of the 
new channel iron punch are interchangeaible with the stand- 
ard No. 2 punch, which enables shops to interchange punches, 
dies, etc., between the two tools. The capacity of the chan- 
nel iron punch is for holes up to Vt inch in diameter through 
iron % inch in thickness; and it is capable of reaching to the 
center of a 4-inch channel iron with IVi-inch flanges. This 
is said to be the only portalble channel iron punch on the 


Portable Magnetic Separator: Cutler-Hammer Clutch Co., 
Milwaukee. Wis. A portable outfit for use in various depart- 
ments of a factory for removing particles of iron from brass 

Hanger ■ Insert for Concrete: Diamond Expansion Bolt 
Co., 90 West St., New York City. Two forms of bolts for 
use in concrete buildings, to provide for securing pipe hang- 
ers and other supports to the walls, ceiling or floor. 

Engine Lathe: McCoy-Brandt Machinery Co., House Build- 
ing, Pittsburg, Pa. Heavy-duty engine lathe intended for 
use in machining shrapnel shells. The machine is built with 
a swing of 18 inches and an 8-foot bed. There are six changes 
of speed. The carriage is equipped with a six-hole turret or a 
compound rest as desired. 

Screwdriver with Rubber Covered Handle: H. D. Smith 
& Co., Plantsville, Conn. A screwdriver which has a handle 
covered with hard rubber so that a very firm grip is secured. 
In addition, the rubber cover constitutes a safety feature 
when the screwdriver is used on electrical apparatus. The 
tool measures 11% inches in length. 

Shell-Band Turning Lathe: Jenckes Machine Co., Sher- 
brooke, Canada. A machine particularly adapted for turn- 
ing the copper rifling bands for use on the larger sizes of 
high explosive shells. The turning operation is performed 
by roughing and finishing tools which are carried at the front 
and back of the cross-slide, respectively. 

Concrete Drill: Diamond E.xpanslon Bolt Co., 90 West St., 
New York City. An improved form of drill for use in brick 
or concrete. This is an improved design of the drill formerly 
manufactured by this company, the chief improvement con- 
sisting of the provision of an adjusting screw for regulating 
the power of the blow delivered to the drill. 

Bar Bending Machine: Wallace Supplies Mfg. Co., Chi- 
cago, 111. A machine adapted for heavy bending operations 
such as bending l^-inch twisted reinforcing bars to any 
desired angle or to a U-shape. The machine is also suitable 
for bending ordinary square, round or flat Iron bars; and 
can be arranged for bending channels, TIrons. etc. 

Moving Picture Outfit: The Optigraph Co., Chicago, 111. 
A portable moving picture projector which is particularly 
adapted for industrial purposes, such as showing prospective 
purchasers the operation of machine tools in which they are 
interested. The apparatus can be operated from an ordinary 
electric light socket and uses standard sized films and slides. 

Work Cabinets: Berger Mfg. Co., Canton, Ohio. A line 
of pressed steel work cabinets developed for the purpose of 
providing secure and convenient storage facilities for dies, 
tools, blueprints, etc. The cabinets are substantially con- 
structed of pressed sheet steel, and equipped with a heavy 
top which can be used as a bench for laying out work. 

Special Punching Machine: Cleveland Punch & Shear 
Works Co., Cleveland, Ohio. A special punching machine 
of unusual size, which was designed and built for the Bethle- 
hem Steel Co. for use in performing all punching operations 
involved In the fabrication of heavy steel sections. The 
machine has a capacity for punching eight 1-lnch holes In 
1-lnch material. 

Multiple Spindle Drill: Gem City Machine Co., Dayton, 
Ohio. A 44-spindle machine built for the purpose of drilling 
and countersinking holes in aluminum automobile retaining 
strips. Kach of the spindles is equipped with a combination 
drill and countersink, and the machine Is constructed In 
such a way that any number of spindles up to the full capac- 
ity may be used. 

Multiple-spindle Drilling Machine: National Automatic 
Tool Co., Richmond, Ind. A ten-spindle drill which Is known 
as the standard No. 13 machine of the line manufactured by 
this company. The same type of drill is also made with 
various numbers of spindles according to the requirements 
of different users. Both the table and drill head are adjusta- 
ble on the column. 

Tapping and Countersinking Machine: Poese Machinery 
& Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio. An automatic machine designed 
for tapping either "blind" or through holes up to ^4 inch In 
diameter. The machine taps the hole to the required depth, 
reverses and backs out the tool without requiring the opera- 
tion of a hand lever or foot treadle. The weight of the 
machine is 125 pounds. 

Saw Setting Device: Hunter Saw & Machine Co., Pitts- 
burg, Pa. A device for setting the teeth of Inserted-tooth 
saws. It Is a generally known fact that in order to obtain 
the best results with saws of this type, the teeth must be set 
at exactly the same height. With the device developed by 
the Hunter Saw & Machine Co., all teeth can be set to an 
accuracy of 0.001 Inch. 

Slitting Machine: Charles Lefller & Co., 61 Clymer St., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. A machine for slitting metal sheets Into 
strips. It Is furnished with automatic power feed and a 
grinding attachment for sharpening the cutters. The cutters 
are 6% inches in diameter and double edged. The machine 
represents an improved design of the slitting machine form- 
erly manufactured by this concern. 

Sheet Metal Forming Machine: C. L. Frost & Son, Grand 
Rapids, Mich. A rolling machine for use In forming strips 
of sheet metal Into various shapes. The capacity of the 
machine is for forming from 4000 to 4500 feet of strip metal 
per hour. The coll of material to be formed is placed on a 
reel at one end of the machine, from which It is drawn 
between the forming rolls as required. 

Countershaft: Cincinnati Tool Co., Norwood, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. A "single-pull" countershaft In which the oscillating 
lever to which the cord is attached is kept in position by a 
compression spring which locks the shifter bar at the end 
of each stroke. A single pull of the cord stops or starts the 
machine; and, of course, the height of the celling does not 
affect the operation of the countershaft. 

Sanitary Water Cooler: L. G. Stebblns, New London. Conn. 
.\ drinking water cooler particularly suited for shop use. 
The ice is placed In a separate compartment at the top of 
the cooler and the water melted from it runs down through 
a pipe into a false bottom, from which it Is drawn off. The 
ice chamber is surrounded by an air-tight compartment which 
prevents the ice melting too rapidly. 

Shrapnel Shell Grinding Fixture: Ransom Mfg. Co., 
Osbkosh, Wis. A fi.xture designed for use in removing the 
center bosses from shrapnel shells by grinding. This fixture 
is used in connection with a Ransom disk grinding machine, 
and enables this work to be done very rapidly and accu- 
rately. In finishing shells in this way, the work is placed In 
a V-block and does not require to be clamped. 

Belt Shifter: Diamond Clamp & Flask Co., Richmond, Ind. 
This belt shifter has been developed to reduce the possi- 
bility of accidents in shifting belts. It is applicable to any 
type of countershaft which has a tight and loose pulley; 
but It cannot be used on a countershaft that has a reverse 
pulley. This shifter is made in five different sizes for hand- 
ling belts ranging from Pj to 6 inches In width. 

Autogenous Welding Table: Cave Welding & Mfg. Co., 
Springfield. Mass. A universal table designed to facilitate 
repair welding and manufacturing operations in which weld- 

October, 1915 



ing has to be done. The table is particularly suitable for 
use where it is desirable to strap the work down, and then 
alter the position of the table, as may be retjuired, without 
loosening the straps until the welding Is finished. 

Heavy Wire Drawing Machine: Morgan Construction Co., 
Worcester, Mass. A machine developed for use In drawing 
large wire of round, square or hexagon sections. The accu- 
racy of the product turned out in this way enables the stock 
to be handled in the gripping dies of automatic forming 
machines which require a smooth, clean bar of accurate size. 
The capacity of the machine is for drawing wire In sizes up 
to IVi inch in diameter. 

Saw Tooth Grinding Machine: Huther Bros. Saw Mfg. 
Co., 1108 University Ave., Rochester, N. Y. A special type 
of grinding machine for use in sharpening saws of the In- 
serted-tooth type which are used for cutting off bar stock 
and structural material. The grinding wheel can be set 
for various tooth angles. In operation, the saw is mounted 
on an adjustable table which is carried by the base on which 
the grinding wheel is mounted. 

Multiple-spindle Drill: National Automatic Tool Co., Rich- 
mond, Ind. A No. 12 macliine whicli is equipped with the 
company's regular type of attachment for throwing in or 
disengaging the power feed, and for making other adjust- 
ments. Two changes of power feed are provided, and there 
are four changes of speed ranging from 350 to 1020 revolu- 
tions per minute. The machine is equipped with a tapping 
attachment. Its weight is 2000 pounds. 

Annealing Boxes: Pittsburg Annealing Box Co., Pittsburg, 
Pa. Reinforced boxes designed to withstand the intense 
heat omployod in annealing furnaces. For this purpose 
forged supports or pedestals are provided which are riveted 
to the bottom and edges of the annealing boxes at the points 
subjected to the greatest strains. The pedestals support the 
boxes at a sufflclent height from the floor of the furnace to 
permit a complete circulation of the hot gases all around the 

Filing Machine: Robinson Tool Works, Inc., Waterbury, 
Conn. A No. 2'/^ macliine which has been developed to meet 
the demand for a filing machine of larger capacity than has 
formerly been made by this company. Either regular flies 
or special flies with Vi-inch shanks can be used in the 
machine. The table is adjustable for any angle of clearance 
in the die which is to be filed, and has a working surface 
8 inches square. The machine makes 600 strokes per minute 
and weighs 50 pounds. 

Shell Banding Press: Chapman Double Ball Bearing Co. 
of Canada, Ltd., Toronto, C'anada. A machine for use in 
compressing the copper rifling bands onto shrapnel shells. 
This press is of about the standard design; it has an 8-inch 
ram, a stroke of 8 inches, and a pressure capacity of 75 tons. 
The die is made with eight wedge-shaped fingers which are 
forced against the copper band when the ram is raised, by 
means of tapered surfaces on the outside of the wedges 
which engage a hardened steel ring secured to the top of the 

Plain Turning Lathe: Earle Gear & Machine Co., Stenton 
and Wyoming Aves., Philadelphia, Pa. A heavy-duty, plain 
turning latlie built especially to meet the requirements of 
machining shrapnel and high explosive shells. The design 
has been developed along extremely simple lines and par- 
ticular attention lias been paid to securing a very rigid 
machine. The bed is 7 feet long and is cast integral with 
the headstock. Eight spindle speeds are available and there 
are twenty-four combinations of feed and speed.. The ma- 
chine is made in three sizes of 18, 20, and 24 inches. 

Precision Computer: Computer Mfg. Co.. 2.') California St., 
San Francisco, Cal. A circular slide-rule which has been de- 
veloped by Louis Ross, anil which is manufactured by 
the company referred to. The instrument consists of a 
graduated dial which rotates under a slotted cover, a float- 
ing guide, and a slide mounted beside the slot. The opera- 
tion of the dial gives results to an accuracy of five significant 
figures. The slide carries a miniature of the dial and may 
be used separately to obtain an accuracy of three figures; it 
is used in connection with the dial to check the result ob- 
tained and to locate the decimal point. 

Years ago builders of transmission machinery turned shaft- 
ing for their customers, but now the manufacture of turned 
shafting Is no longer a prolitabic part of the business. Power 
^transmission machinery concerns make hangers, couplings, 
clutches, pulleys, sheaves, etc., and furnish turned or cold- 
polled shafting that Is bought from the regular shaft mak- 
ing concerns. Turning shafting is somewhat like steel mill 
production, being a tonnage proposition. The power trans- 
mission concerns generally buy their shafting and sell It at a 
small profit to their customers when filling orders for power 
transmission equipment. 



We recently received an order which required two spiral 
grooves 1/16 inch deep by % inch wide, with a lead of 1 
inch, to be milled in rods % inch In diameter. Thla work 
did not have to be very accurate, a tolerance of 0.005 Inch 
being allowed. We used the milling machine and dividing 
head for cutting the grooves in the first lot of rods, but this 
method required a separate cut to be made tor each of the 
two grooves in the rod, and consequently took considerable 
time. To enable the work to be bandied more rapidly, I 
designed a special machine for milling the two spiral grooves 
simultaneously, thus greatly increasing the rate of production. 

When using this machine It is first necessary to make a 
pilot or "leader" from a piece of rod G or 8 inches long and 
of the same diameter as the work. This leader has two spiral 
grooves cut in It of the same lead that it Is required to mill, 
and is threaded on one end to enter a tapped hole In the 
end of the work. In assembling the machine, the leader Is 
passed through the guide bushing A and moved past the 
milling cutters B to engage the nut C on the machine, which 
controls the lead of the spiral grooves that are milled in 

Special MUUng Maclune lor cuu.nB Two Spiral GrooTpi m S-mch R«di 

the work. The leader Is now set so that the rod to be milled 
will come Into contact with the cutters; this rod is then 
screwed onto the leader and a clamp Is attached to a rod at 
a point beyond the machine, so that it can be turned by hand, 
very little effort being required. 

It win be evident that as the rod Is turned, it is also 
drawn past the cutters through the connection of the threaded 
leader in the nut C; and that after the pilot has passed 
through the nut the grooved rod enters the nut and acts as 
its own leader. When pushed to its full capacity, the 
machine will cut the spiral grooves at the rate of 6 Inches of 
rod per minute, but under ordinary operating conditions the 
rate of production Is about 3 inches of rod per minute. The 
machine is so simple that any boy of average intelligence 
can be taught to run It. When the milling of the spiral 
groove In the rod Is completed, the rod Is cut up into pieces 
of the required length ready for use. 

Having referred to the work done by the machine, a brief 
description will now be given of Its design and construction. 
The arrangement of the guide bushing A. milllDK cutters B. 
and lead nut C have already been referred to. It will be 
seen that the nut C is carried at the end of threaded bush- 
ings D. The lead nut is formed by means of set-ecrews E 
which have pilots at their ends that are of the proper size 

' Atlilrriu: SK s. 10th St.. Nrwark, N. 1. 



October, 1915 

to engage the grooves In the rod without any lost motion. 
The set-screwB E are provided with lock-nuts, as shown ; 
and a locli-nut F is also provided to hold the threaded bush- 
ing D in the required position. The outboard bearings O and 
H in which the spindles are carried are threaded into the 
frame of the machine so that they can be readily removed 
when it is necessary to change the cutters. It will also be 
noticed that adjusting collars / are provided at the pulley 
ends of the spindles. The angles J and K are equal to the 
spiral angles of the grooves being milled. 
* • • 


The demand which has been created by the manufacture of 
shrapnel and high-explosive shells in this country for ma- 
chines to cut oft short lengths from bar stock ranging from 
3 to 9 inches in diameter, led the Newton Machine Tool Works, 
Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., to make a special study of the require- 
ments which are imposed upon machines employed for this 
purpose. Investigations were conducted in plants of American 
and Canadian manufacturers and special tests were run off in 
the Newton Works. The data gathered from these sources 
has made possible the standardization of equipment for cut- 
ting off onfi, two, three, five and any other number of bars 
at a single operation. 
The machine shown 
in the accompanying 
illustration is ar- 
ranged for cutting 
off three blanks from 
three bars 3% inches 
in diameter at a 
time; and although 
much higher feeds 
are possible for 
demonstration pur- 
poses or even for 
continuous opera- 
tions over consider- 
able periods of time, 
the rate of feed 
recommended for 
regular work is 2 
inches per minute 
when cutting three 
bars simultaneously, 
and 2^^ inches per 
minute when cutting 
one bar at a time. 

In order to increase the rate of production by decreasing 
the lose of time which formerly occurred in setting up work 
in the machine, the use of a stock feeding trolley is recom- 
mended. Such an equipment acting in connection with the 
Newton air-controlled clamp with which the machine is pro- 
vided, saves a considerable amount of time which would 
otherwise be lost between cutting operations, and also reduces 
the number of operators required to run the multiple ma- 
chines. The rates of feed which have been previously re- 
ferred to are calculated for constant service during twenty- 
four hours per day; and in determining these rates, consid- 
eration has been giveji to the cost of maintenance — especially 
in regard to saw blades. In the Newton cold saws, all bear- 
ings are bronze bushed, the driving worm-wheel Is made of 
phosphor-bronze, and the worm is of hardened steel with a 
roller bearing to receive the thrust. The machine is provided 
with a lubricant pump and piping, and all gears are covered 
to conform with the most stringent safety laws. 
• • * 

Proper heat-treatment makes possible the use of gears of 
less heavy sections than would otherwise be required, and 
while this may not be necessary to save weight, It may be 
desirable to economize in space. The greatest advantage of 
Tieat-treated gears, however, is their long life, which means 
the elimination of repairs and replacements. 


A number of new ideas in engineering and trade education 
have been inaugurated during the last few years, many of 
which give promise of considerable success. The most im- 
portant of these is the "cooperative" engineering course at 
the University of Cincinnati. In order to give the student 
of engineering a theoretical and at the same time a practical 
training, a course of six years' study has been adopted. 
During this period the students work alternate weeks in 
the shops of the city and in the class-rooms of the uni- 
versity. The students are arranged in pairs, bo that when 
one of them works in the shop, the other receives class-room 
instruction. The next week the two students will change 
places. In this way, the practical and theoretical training 
is carried on simultaneously, with very satisfactory results 
During the summer months the students work the entire 
time in the shops. A system of this type, of course, can be 
instituted only in large industrial centers, where there are 
great numbers of shops, each of which Is willing to take one 
or more pairs of students for training. Possibly there Is 
not another city in the United States so well fitted for this 
type of engineering education as is Cincinnati. Neverthe- 
less, the method must be considered as showing the most 
advanced idea in engineering education at the present time. 

A similar plan 
adapted to mecliani- 
cal trade education 
has been adopted by 
the high schools of 
Fitchburg, Mass., the 
idea having been pat- 
terned after the Cin- 
cinnati plan. In 
this case, the boys 
who wish to be ap- 
prenticed in the 
shops of the city are 
given an opportunity 
to acquire training 
in the shops at the 
same time that they 
receive a high school 
education. The 
course here is four 
years, the first of 
which is spent en- 
tirely in the school, 
while the next three 
years are spent one 
week in the shop and one week at the high school, the boys 
being arranged in pairs for this purpose and alternating with 
each other. 

In Worcester, Mass., a distinct step toward better trade 
education also has been taken. The Worcester Trade School, 
the first building of which was opened in the early part of 
1910, Is intended to give a complete trade training to boys 
and young men between fourteen and twenty-five years of 
age. Instruction is offered In machine work, toolmaklng, 
pattern making, power plant engineering, and a number of 
other trades. Each course comprises four years, and the hope 
is that when a boy has finished his course in this (fade 
school, he will be able to obtain work in his trade at Joutuey- 
man's wages. A complete shop equipment is maintained for 
this purpose, and the work, so far as possible, is conduci 
along commercial lines. It has been stated by Worci 
manufacturers that, if anything, the boys who have been 
trained for four years in the trade school are worth mi 
at the end of that time, than those who have been regulafl? 
apprenticed in the shop. This, of course, Is due to 
fact that when apprenticed in the shop, the boy is often ki 
on the same class of work for long periods of time, whereas 
in the trade school he is given an opportunity to broaden his 
knowledge, on account of the greater diversity of the work 
which he is called upon to do. 

Newton Cold Saw equipped with Hultiple Work-holdinr Fixture for 
cutting off Shrapnel Shell Blanks 


October, 1915 



A new Idea In engineering laboratories has also been de- 
veloped recently. The old method of equipping an engineer- 
ing laboratory at a school of technology was to buy, or to ob- 
tain as gifts, a variety of machines, equip the plant and test- 
ing room, and give the students year after year the same 
stereotyped course of practice and study. That was a con- 
venient and simple method, as the Instructor met few new 
problems, but after a few years the equipment became obso- 
lete, and the students seldom obtained a knowledge of the 
latest practice. The new idea Is exemplified in the Mason 
Laboratory of the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale Uni- 
versity, and aims at a constant rotation of the equipment. 
No machines are bought— in fact, they are not even accepted 
as gifts, a radical departure in the practice of an endowed 
college or university; but Prof. Breckenridge, who is In 
charge of the mechanical engineering department, accepts 
with appreciation the loan of any machines — from electrical 
machinery and steam engines to machine tools and motor- 
cycles — for experimental purposes. In order to carry out — by 
their aid— a number of tests, covering a period of several 
months. Then the machines are returned to the manufac- 
turers in perfect condition, and other tools and machines take 
their place. 

It is easy to see how great are the advantages of this system 
over the old permanent equipment system. In the first 
place, the students have an opportunity to familiarize them- 
selves with a much greater variety of machinery during their 
term at college. They constantly see new things; their In- 
terest is Increased; they do not get an opportunity to look 
upon their education as a fixed quantity — they become more 
aware of their limitations — a most Important thing for a 
college student; and, last but not least, their whole educa- 
tion is more complete, and more in harmony with conditions 
In the outside world. 

There Is also another Important aspect to the system of 
constantly changing the equipment. The effects upon the 
professors and Instructors themselves must be very valuable. 
They are In this way enabled to obtain first-hand knowledge 
of new developments, and they are forced to keep pace with 
the progress of actual practice. The system Increases their 
interest in their work, as it eliminates much of the set routine 
of the same tests being made over and over again, and the 
same machines — often old — being used constantly for demon- 
stration purposes. It presents to them new problems which 
must be solved — thus preventing them from petting into a 
rut. Briefly, it ties the school and practical engineering 
closely together, and It Is to be expected that the plan will 
be adopted by many more engineering educational institu- 
tions In the future. 

• * * 

In investigations to determine the effect of relative humid- 
ity on oak-tanned leather belts, made by Prof. William W. 
Bird and Francis W. Roys, of Worcester, Mass., as reported 
in a paper before the American Society of Mechanical Engin- 
eers, the general conclusions arrived at are as follows: 

1. If a belt be set up at low relative humidity, slipping 

will probably occur If the humidity Increases to any great 

extent, especially it accompanied by a rise In temperature. 

C If B belt be set up at high relative humidity, excessive 

|| pressure on the bearings and stretching of the belt will 

U|. result from a decided decrease in humidity, especially If ac- 

cottpanled by a fall In temperature. 

' '• 8? If a belt be set up at a medium relative humidity, the 

• \ tensions will not be excessive at lower humidities, nor will 

,d^Ul«re be any great danger of slipping at higher humidities, 

^^■Wess accompanied by excessive temperature changes; in 

other words, the factor of safety in the ordinary bolt rules Is 

|>.^UAfflc.iont to take care of the effect of changes in the relative 

numidlty if the set-up be made at a medium per cent of rela- 

"^ivp humidity. 

'4. It a belt be set up at any relative humidity with a 
spring or gravity tightener, a load 50 per cent greater than 
the standard can l>e transmitted at either high or low humid- 
ity without danger of stretching the belt, slipping or excessive 
pressure on the bearings. 


October L'l will be commemorated as the thirty-sislh anni- 
versary of the invention of the electric incandescent lamp by 
Thomas A. Edison. Carbonized cotton thread and narrow 
paper strips were used first tor the filaments, but were too 
fragile and short-lived to be commercially used. A search 
tor grasses and fibers throughout the world resulted in the 
discovery of the value of Japanese bamboo for the purpose, 
and carbonized bamboo was the only substance used for about 
ten years. This was followed by the "squirted" filament, 
employing carbonized cellulose In one form or another, next 
the metallized carbon filament, then the pressed tungsten 
filament and finally the special form of drawn tungsten wire 
used in the modern Mazda lamps. Working down from a 
consumption of four or five watts of electrical energy per 
candlepower In the carbon filament lamps to the standard a 
few years ago of 3.10 watts per candlepower, the Mazda lamp 
has brought this down In about five years to about one watt. 
In the larger sizes of Mazda gas-filled lamps, the reduction 
in current consumption has reached the low level of nearly 
a half-watt per candlepower. And no one can forecast the 
marvels that are yet to be unfolded in electric lamps and 
methods of lighting. Light without heat Is the Ideal, but 
that is still tar oft. The electric Incandescent lamp of today 
contains the cheapest form of filament that has ever been 
produced, but some day it will be better and cheaper still. 
• • • 

An Interesting paper has been read before the Academy of 
Sciences, in Paris, describing experiments undertaken to de- 
termine the velocity of the waves used In wireless telegraphy. 
These experiments were undertaken first between Paris and 
Toulon in France, and finally between Paris and Washington. 
The methods employed to measure the time enabled the 
measurement precisely of an Interval of 0.00001 second. It 
was found that the wireless telegraphy waves are carried 
along the surface of the earth with a velocity slightly lesi 
than that of light. 


H. C. Elliott, vice-president of the Marshall & Huschart 
Machinery Co., Chicago, resigned, his resignation taking effect 
September 1. 

R. S. Bryant, for many years consulting engineer of the 
Standard Welding Co., Cleveland, Ohio, has been appointed 
factory manager in charge of all manufacturing. 

H. L. Wittstein, efficiency engineer with the Knox Motors 
Co., Springfield, Mass., has resigned to take the position of 
assistant to the management of the Standard Fuse Corpora- 
tion of Paulsboro, N. J. 

L. F. Hamilton, advertising manager of the National Tube 
Co., Pittsburg, Pa., was awarded a gold medal for planning 
the exhibits of the National Tube Co. at the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition in San Francisco. 

L. S. Neuschul, engineer and director of M. Mett Engineer- 
ing Co., Petrograd, Russia, Is making a trip through the 
Middle West for the purpose of obtaining a representation 
for a few more lines of machine tools in Russia. 

B. J. Morrison, mechanical engineer and general manager of 
the National Supply & Equipment Co. of Philadelphia. Pa., Is 
in Europe on a three to five months' business trip, acting ae 
consulting engineer for some American concerns. 

A. B. Hazzard, president of the Falcon Motor Truck Co. of 
Detroit. Mich., has been appointed general works manager 
of the Hall Switch & Signal Co.. Garwood, N. J. Mr. Hazzard 
was for ten years general manager of the J. Morton Poole Co.. 
Wilmington, Del. 

W. S. Hardy, for the past eleven years connected with the 
Diamond RublH^r Co. and the B. F. Goodrich Co.. and lately 
in charge of the sales of their mechanlcjil rubber goods 
division, has been appointed sales manager of the Boston 
Belting Co., Boston, Mass., manufacturer of mechanical rubber 

A. B. Howard, for many years connected with the New 
York office of the American Express Co.. 65 Broadway, has 
sailed for Buenos Aires to establish the Initial South Ameri- 
can office of the American Express Co., wliere Mr. Howard, 
as manager of the South American department, will make 
his headquarters. 

John J. Eberhardt. foreman with the SImonds Mfg.. Co.. has 
been promoted to the position of superintendent of the Fitch- 



October, 1915 


For Easy Operation 

That's characteristic Brown & Sharpe design — simplifying 
and centralizing the control so that operation is easy and 
natural. Every handwheel and lever is located where an oper- 
ator can get at it without reaching. Speeds and feeds are 
quickly controlled from a single point. Through this mechanism 
an almost universal range of independent speeds and feeds can 
be instantly secured. The two levers around the dial at the left 
of the machine marked "Head" and "Table" control the speed 
of the respective parts. 

For Fast Production 

This mechanism is an important factor. To begin with, the 
most productive combination of speed and feed can ahrays be 
obtained, and obtained quickly too. Then the long lever behind 
the dial controls the entire machine, independent of the grinding 
wheel. By pressing down on this lever the table and headstock 
are instantly stopped — one simple motion does it. The work 
can be quickly removed, another piece put in, the lever pulled 
back, and the machine is again in operation. Non-productive 
time between grinding is thus reduced to a minimum. 

For Uniform Results 

in the quality of work and cost of production you have exactly 
the required features in Brown & Sharpe machines. When a 
job is done under conditions that give satisfactory production 
the natural thing to do when that job comes in again is to dupli- 
cate those conditions. 

That's very easy with our variable speed mechanism. If 
slight variations are necessary to meet some new condition the 
combination of speed and feed can be varied to suit. The best 
working conditions are always available, keeping costs low and 

Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co.. 

OFFICES- 20 Vcsey St., New York; 654 The Bourse, Phlladelj'hU, Pa.; 6;6-6:i0 Washington Blvd., 
Rochi'stor'. N. T.; Boom 419, University Block, Syracuse, S. ^i. 

representatives: Boird Machinery Co.. PlttsburRh. Pa., Erie, Pa.; Carey Machinery A Supply Co. 
O In.UiinapoUs Inil.; Paclllc Tool & Supply Co., San Francisco, Cal.; Strong, t arllsle & Haniii 
Mililiiii.r.v k- Supply Co., St. Louis, .Mo.; Perlne Machinery Co., Seattle. Wash.: Portland Ma.-hl 

Chicago, 111,; 305 Chamber of Commerce Bldg,, 

Baltimore. : 
Co., Cleveland. 
'o.. Portland, Ore, 

October, 1915 



No. 11 Plain Grinding Machine 

This representative of our line, shown above, in addition to being equipped with the 
feature just described is entirely self-contained, resulting in a more efficient drive, 
the pi'actical elimination of overhead worl<s, and adaptability to motor drive. 

A high degree of accuracy in the work produced is assured by the true, carefully made 
alignments and the solid support and rigid construction which insure the maintenance 
of the original accuracy through years of service. And pi-oduction — well, it's a very un- 
reasonable demand in this direction that this machine cannot meet. In fact on some work 
the productive capacity of the machine is limited to the speed of the operator in handling 
the work. In this connection there's an advantage that cannot be over-emphasized. This 
machine is so handy, efficient, and smooth-running that an operator has no difficulty in 
maintaining maximum and uniform production throughout the day. There's no after- 
noon fatigue attendant upon the operation of these machines. Your operators will like 
them. So will your production men. 

If your shop is not equipped with any of these handy machines get in touch with us 
and we will show you where we can reduce your grinding costs and keep them uniform. 
Descriptive literature free on request, also our booklet, "Points About Grinding Wheels 
and Their Selection." 

Providence, R. I., U. S. A. 

CANADIAN AGENTS: The Csnndlnn Knlrbnnks. Morse Co 
V. IxnvciuT. Coin'nhdgi'n. Don 
Fruiicp; I.ligo. Ki'IkIiiiu: Turin 
Strong, Manlln. P. I. 

Ltd.. Montr.-nl. Toronto, Wlnnlpcf. Cal(irr. V«nconT«r. St. John. 
Hlfkmnn. I.til.. Ix)mlon. Blrmlnxtiam. .M«nctie»tfr. SticlMold. Gltseow; F. O. Krct»<-hm»r A Co.. FrMkfnrt •/»!.. Ofrainj. 
imnrk. .Stockholm. Swodpn. Cbrlatlnnla. Norway; Scluiclinr,lt A Srhutto. Pelrocmd. RumU: F«iirlok rnm * Op. P»rU. 
. Italy; Zurloli, SwIUerland; B«rc«lona. Spain; Tho F. W. Homo Co.. Toklo. Japan: L. A. ^ all. Mflboarar. Autnlla. r. U 



October, 1915 

burg, Mass. shops of that company, succeedinK Gifford K. 
Simonds. Mr. Eberbardt has been connected with the com- 
pany for the past six years, having served as foreman In 
several departments. He was previously with the Iver John- 
son Arms & Cycle Works of Fltchburg. 

Benjamin G. Lamme, chief en-gineer of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Co., has been named a member of the Naval 
Advisory Hoard by Secretary of the Navy Daniels. Mr. 
Lamme is a graduate of the Ohio State University. He en- 
tered the employ of the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. in 
the testing department In 1889; in 1900 he was made assist- 
ant chief engineer, and succeeded to the position of chief 
engineer in 1903. 

J. A. Massel, special agent of the Department of Commerce, 
has been making a tour of American cities for the purpose 
of ascertaining tlie general in South American trade. 
He found lively interest in the subject, manufacturers gen- 
erally expressing willingness to expend reasonable sums to 
lay the foundations for substantial trade relations in the 
South American field. Mr. Massel's headquarters are Room 
409, Custom House, New York City. 

Leo. T. Neldow and Frank G. Payson have opened offices in 
the Madison Terminal BUlg., 9 S. Clinton St., Chicago, III., 
under the name of Neldow & Payson, where they will con- 

duct a general machinery agency. Mr. Neidow has been with 
the Niles-Bement-Pond Co. for the past eighteen years in the 
Chicago office. Mr. Payson was formerly with the Niles- 
Bement-Pond Co., and for the past four years was western 
representative of the Union Petroleum Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 
mineral lard oil department. 


John C. Wood, for more than fifty years connected with 
the U. S. Government Armory at Springfield, Mass., died at 
his home in Springfield, September 10, aged eighty-eight 

Edward W. Moore, formerly United States commissioner of 
patents and an expert in patent law, died at his home In 
Washington, D. C, September 6, aged sixty-three years. Mr 
Moore was commissioner of patents from 1907 until 1913. 

Samuel T. Davis, Jr., president of the Locomobile Co. of 
America, Bridgeport, Conn., died at his summer home at Fair- 
field, Conn., September 1, aged forty-two years. Mr. Davis was 
a founder and the first president of the National Association 
of Automobile Manufacturers which later became the Auto- 
mobile Chamber of Commerce, of which he was a director 
lie was a pioneer in automobile manufacturing. 


October 28.29. — AnniiiU convention of tlio Na- 
tional Machine Tool Hullders ARsoclatlon. Hotel 
Astor, New York Clt.v. CbnrlcB B. Hllilreth. gen- 
eral manager. Worcester, Mass. 

December 7-10. — Annuiil meeting of the American 
Society of Mechanical Unglncers. New York City; 
Engineering Societies Rldg., headquarters. Calvin 
vv. Rice, secretary, 29 W. ;)!)th St., New York 


University of South Carolina, Columbia. S. O. 
Catalogue 191f.-19Ifi. containing the calendar tor 
the sessions 19141ftIS and 1915-1916. as well as an 
outline of the courses Included In the curriculum 
of the university. 

School of Mines and Metallurgy, University of 
Missouri, RoUa, Mo. Hulletln for March. 191,'>, from 
catalogue 1914-1915, giving the calendar for 1915- 
191(1. and Information on the courses In mine en- 
gineering, metallurgy, civil engineering and gen- 
eral science that this university offers. 

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Brooklyn. N. 
Y. Catalogue of evening technical cour.'<es, 1915. 
1918. The courses comprise chemistry, civil en- 
gineering, electrical engineering and physics, me- 
chanlcnl engineering, mathematics, English, French. 
Oerman. Spanish, history, economics and physical 

Columbia University, New York City, has es- 
tablished a separate department of chemical en- 
gineering upon the same iilane of Importance In 
the Columbia graduate engineering school as min- 
ing, civil, electrical and mechanical engineering. 
The head of tlie new department will he Prof. 
M. C. Whltaker, who has been professor of chemi- 
cal engineering at Columbia University for the 
past Ove years. 

Wentworth Institute, Huntington Ave. and Rug- 
gles .St.. Boston. Mass. Catalogue of the Went- 
worth Institute for 10151910. Two new courses 
have been added, the first being a one-year day 
trade course In forging, hardening and tempering, 
and the second a one year day trade preparatory 
course Intendtnl for young men who wish to enter 
some one of the manufacturing Industries. The 
Institute also offers for the first time the second 
year of Its courKc In architectural construction. 
This course Is for training building superintendents 
specification men nnd constructionists for archi- 
tects and building contractors. 


The Testing of Rubber Goods. 89 pages, 7 by 10 
Inches. 85 Illustrations. Published bv the De- 
partment of Commerce, Washington, "n. C, as 
Circular of the Bureau of Standards No. 38. 
SpecUo Heat and Heat of Tuaion of Ice. Bv H. C 
Dickinson and N. S. Osliorne. 32 pages. 7 by 
10 inches. Illustrated. Published bv the De- 
partment of Commerce, Washington. D. C. as 
Scientific Paper of the Bureau of Standards 
No. 248. 
A Study of the ftuality of Platinum Ware. By 
George K. Burgess an<l P. D. Sale. 20 pages, 
7 by 10 luches. Illustrated. Published bv the 
Department of Commerce. Washington. li. C., 
as Scientific Paper of the Bureau of Standards 
No. 254. 
Measurements for the Household, 149 pages, 7 by 
9 inches. 62 illustrations. Published by the 
Department of Commerce. Washington, D. C, 
as Circular of the Bureau of Standards No. .W. 
The purpose of this circular Is to give Infor- 
mation as to units, methods and instruments of 
measurement useful In household activities, and to 
describe the available means of assuring correct 
quantity of articles bought by weight and measure. 
The aim is to awaken appreciation of the Import- 
ance of correct measurements In the daily life of 
the family. 

The Modoni Gasoline Automobile — Its Construction, 
Operation, Maintenance and Repair, By Victor 

\V. Page. .ST.'! pages, 5 by TA Inches. 411 
illustrations. Published by the Norman W. 
Henley Publishing Co., New York City. Price. 
This book Is tbe 191C edition of a work that 
has been noticed in these columns before. A 55- 
page supplement treating of ttie twelve-cylinder 
V-Miotor. eight-cylinder V motor, new valve operat- 
ing systems, Stewart vacuum fuel feed, electric 
self-starting principles, cantilever and underslung 
springs, tilting steering wheels, hydraulic brakes, 
etc., has been added which brings au already ex- 
cellent work up to date, making it one of the most 
practical treatises on the modern gasoline automo- 
bile published. 

Effective Business Letters. By Edward Hall Gard- 
ner. S76 pages. 5^4 by 7"4 Inches. Published 
bv the Ronald Press Co., New York City. 
Price. $2. 
An enormous amount of business Is done by cor- 
respondence, and It is highly imitortant that busi- 
ness letters be clear, concise and accurate in state- 
ments. The book was written for those in business 
or who intend to enter business. Its object being to 
supply In systematic form the principles embodied 
iii the best modern business letters. It treats of 
the general principles of business correspondence, 
the importance of appearance and correctness, the 
make-up of the letter, paper and envelopes, print- 
ing, mistakes In language, how letters asking for 
Information should be written, etc. As might be 
inferred, the principles are demonstrated with 
many examples of letters, offered as suggestions of* 

Practical Mechanics and Allied Subjects. By 
Joseph W. L. Hale. 228 pages, 4% by 6% 
Inches. 201 illustrations. Published by the 
.MclJraw-HIll Book Co., Inc., New York City. 
Price. $1. net. 
This book is based on the author's appreciation 
of the needs of trade apprentice schools. Difficulty 
has been experienced In securing books suitable 
for these schools, and this work was complied to 
meet tbese needs as the author saw them. It 
treats of forces, gravitation, center of gravity, 
density and specific gravity, screw threads, calcu- 
lation of levers, pulleys (block and tackle). In- 
clined planes and wedges, screws, gears, lathe 
gearing, belts and pulleys, efficiency of macbloes, 
motion, cutting speeds, speeds of lathes, volume 
and pressure of gases, work and iiower. calcula- 
tion of belting, energy, logarithms, measurement 
of right triangles, measurement of oblique trlan* 
gles. electricity and strength of materials. As 
Indicated In tlie foregoing enumeration of contents, 
the book covers a wide range of subjects, and of 
course it deals with the elements only. 
Valves and Valve Gears. By Franklin DeR. Fur- 
man. 200 pages. G by 9 inches. 213 Ulustra 
tlons. Published by John Wiley & Sons. Inc.. 
New York City. Price. $2. net. 
The second part of this work on valves and 
valve gears treats of gasoline, gas and oil engines, 
while the first volume treated of steam engines 
and steam turbines. It deals with the general 
characteristics of internal combustion engines, tbe 
commercial applications of various forms of valves 
and valve gears to gasoline engines, gas engines, 
aeroplane engines. Diesel oil engines, and compares 
prime movers. This volume, doutttless, will be more 
highly appreciated. If tM)sslble. than the first, deal- 
ing as It does with the characteristics of the In- 
ternal combustion motor which has become of such 
great lmi>ortance within Uie last decade because 
of the widespread development of tbe automobile, 
the motor boat and the aerojilane. Valve construc- 
tions once believed to be out of the question for 
gas engines, are now freely admissible and some 
of them promise to rival the old reliable poppet 
valve because of their smoother action and more 
easily controlled operation. This treatise on valves 
and valve gears Is recommended to all w-lshlng 
to obtain an up-to date and reliable work. 
Principles and Practice of Linear Perspective. By 
Itermnn T. C. Kraus. ,V1 pages. 9Vj by 14'i 
Inches. Fifteen plates. Published bv Norman 
W. Henley Publisbiug Co., New York CItv. 
Price. $3.50. 
This is a well worked up and typographically 

pleasing work on the theory and practice of linear 
l)erspectlve as osed In architeotoral. coglneerlnc 
and mechanical drawing. The l>ook Is made large 
enough so that complete per»[>ectlve drawings in 
a fair scale can be reproduced on a single page. 
The plates are all at the leftband side, while 
the descriptive text explaining the plate Is given 
<>ii the opposite page, making reference to the 
Illustrations very convenient. The work comprises 
a complete course In perspective drawing. One of 
tlie plates entitled "Self explanatory Linear Per- 
spective Chart" give* In brief outline the funda. 
mt-ntals of perspective drawing, together with a 
clear Illustration of tbe methods used. On this 
chart all construction lines are shown by fine 
dotted Unes, and the names and purposes of these 
lines are clearly Indicated. This chart alone con- 
stitutes, practically speaking, a condensed conrse 
In perspective draw-ing. The book can well be 
recommended to those wtH> wiah to make a com- 
prehensive study of perspective drswlng. 
Problems Pertaining to Steel Tubes. By O. G. 
Wellton. 172 pages. 5 by 7 Inches. 34 Illus- 
trations. Published by C. W. K. Gleerup. Lund, 
Sweden. Sold In the United States by D. 
Van Nostrand Co.. New York City. 
The author of this book, who for several years 
was lecturer and assistant professor of mechanical 
engineering in the School of Mining. Queens Uni- 
versity. Kingston. Canada, has recorded In this 
book the results of his Investigations Into the 
mechanical problems pertaining to steel tubes when 
used as conductors of liquids attove ground. The 
treatise Is profound in character, dealing in a 
highly scientific manner with the subject, and 
analyzing It by the aid of mechanics and mathe- 
matics. As practically nothing has been published 
on Ibis subject In tbe past, the l>ook no doubt 
will prove of interest to those of an investigating 
type of mind, to whom mathematical discussions and 
scientific methods of treatment are not objection- 
able. The book Is divided into a number of chap- 
ters, of which the first Introduces the subject In a 
general manner, defines the problem, deduces the 
bending moments, derives the normal and shearing 
stresses, and discusses the maximum error due to 
ai>proxlmatlon8. The deformation of the shell Is 
then taken up. In a second chapter, the problem U 
taken up. Including the weight of tbe shell. This 
naturally complicates the whole question somewhat 
and, in a third chapter, tbe conclusions obtained in 
the two previous chapters are combined, thus treat- 
ing as one the two problems previously proposed. 
The lK>ok gives evidence of great thoroughness In 
Its preparation and Is an example of tbe enorm- 
ous amount of work required to Investigate scien- 
tifically a single mechanical problem. 


Gould & Eborhardt, Newark. N. J. Circular of 
a routliiuotis circular milling maohioe. 

Crucible Steel Co. of America, Pi t tsburg. Pa . 
Rooklet of "Hex" hlRh-speed eteel. contalDlns sug 
gi'stions for heat-treatment, etc. 

J, Q. Blount Co.. Rrerett. Ma!)9. Catalogue 17 
descriptive of the line of grinding and polishing 
machinery and speed lathes made by tbls company. 

Royersford Foundry 8t Machine Co.« .M N. r>th 
St.. Phllndelpbla. Pa. Circular of the "ExceNior" 
twenty inch double back-geared vertical drilling 

Hydraulic Press Kfg. Co., 84 Lincoln Ave., Mount 
Cfllead. Ohio. Bulletin .'lOO.I illuittratlng nosing and 
Imnding presses for use In the manufacture of 
steel shells. 

American Blower Co., Detroit. Mich. Bulletin 
entitled 'Sirocco Service." Illustrating Sirocco- 
heating and Tcntilating outfits installed in a large 
variety of plants. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. . Fisher Bldg. , 
Chicago. 111. Bulletin 1<10 on the lubrication of 
pneumatic tools, Illustrating and describing auto- 
ni:itic oilers and irre.i!;*' machines. 

General Electric Co., Schenectady. N. T. Pam- 
phlets on constant ciirr.-nt transformrrs for "Matda" 

October, 1915 



Flanged Spindle End and High Power Face Mill 

The Same 
Face Mill 
Can Now 
Be Used 

On 22 


Because each of these machines has the same size spindle that we originally designed for 
the largest machine. A simple way of getting that very desirable thing — complete inter- 
changeability of face mills — isn't it? 

And that's where the improvement BEGINS. There's more to it. 

Every man who's used a face mill knows the trouble he has had getting it off the spindle 

after a heavy drive. That was because of the threaded end. 

Well, we've done away with that by abolishing the threaded spindle end. 

The spindle ends are flanged and fitted with hardened keys. 

Cutters are easily removed even after the hardest service. 

The drive is entirely 
through the hardened keys 
which are fitted to and form 
part of the spindle. 

Cutter Arbors for these 
machines have a similar 
flange with a corresponding 
keyway. They are driven 
direct by the same keys in 
the flanged spindle end that 
are used for driving face 
mills. There is no inter- 
mediate driving collar. 

We have a Special Bulletin 
on this and other interest- 
ing improvements. Where 
shall we send your copy? 

The Cincinnati 

Milling Machine 







October, 1915 

atreet llgbtin; systems, and "Novalux" street 
IlgtitlDff units for "Maz(Ja" series lalDjis. 

Ltunen Bearing Co., BuflTalo, N. Y. llooklet on 
bajbbitt metuls, Ustiag ttie geucral line of babbitts 
made by tbis company, and giving tbe composi- 
tion of each and tbe use for wbicb they are 

Speed Controller Co., Inc., 2.'iT'2Sg Wlilinni St.. 
New Yorii City. Circular of tbe arc controller, a 
device for regulating the feed of tbe carbons In 
arc lonips fo uk to maintain perfect lighting elli- 
ciency contlnuouHty. 

Columbus Lift Truck Co., Columbus. Ohio. Cir- 
cular of tile Columbia lift truck for handling mate- 
riuls. Tbis truck is made lu three styles and two 
cnpncItieB — the capacities being 1000 to 1500 (lounds, 
and 2000 to i.-iOO pounds. 

Lapointe Machine Tool Co., Hudson. Mass. Cat- 
alogue of Uiiiolnte machines and tools for broach- 
ing. Some Interesting examples of work done on 
this machine are shown, illustrating the economies 
that can be elTected by broaching. 

Hydraulic Proas Mfg. Co., S4 Lincoln Ave., Mount 
Giioad, Ohio. Itnlletin 5002 Illustrating and de- 
scribing a hydraulic press designed for billet pierc- 
ing and drawing ojierntlons on steel shells. These 
prcHHes iiave pressure capneities ranging from 150 
to 1000 tons. 

National Machinery Co., Tlflln, Ohio. Tapper 
Talk 11 discusses the retooling of the National 
automatic (bent tap) nut tapper. It is claimed 
that the average operator, after a little expe- 
rience, can change the machine when tapping 
square nuts for tapping hexagon nuts, or vice versa, 
in Urteen or twenty minutes. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Piiiladelphia, Pa. 
Record No. 81 on the triple articulated compound 
locomotive built for the Erie liallroad Co.. illus- 
trating and describing In detail this ponderous 
locomotive which has twenty-four driving wheels; 
the total weifc-ht is SS.'i.O.'iO pounds and tbe tractive 
elTort lUO.OOO pounds when working comiiound. 

New Departure Mfg. Co., Hrlstoi. Conn. Bulletin 

43 FE of miscellaneous nut locking and bearing 
retention methods of value in machinery design; 

44 FE, ball bearings In portable electrically-oper- 
ated drilling machine; 45 FE ball bearings for 
water and air pump crankshafts; and 40 FB, ball 
bearing mounting for lineshaft friction clutch. 

Thomas Elevator Co., 20-22 S. Hoyne Ave., Chi- 
cago, III. Circular of the "Baker" wrenchless 
chucks for lathes. The Baker wrenchless chuck is 
operated by a hand lever, the opening and closing 
of the Jaws being actuated by a set of gears 
constantly in mesh, two of which are mounted on 
swinging arms to wiiich the lever is attached. 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., East Pitts- 
burg, Pa., has recently issued leallets 3805, 3806. 
and 3807 on the application of automatic control 
apparatus tu cranes and steel mills. They show the 
scheme of main connection, and describe the method 
of operation of the magnetic unit switches, as 
arranged for the severe service of steel mill prac- 

Boston Gear Works, Norfolk Downs, Mass. Cat- 
alogue E8 of cut steel, east Iron and brass spur 
gears, brass racks, brass Internal gears, steel, cast- 
iron and lirass bevel gears, worms and worm-wheels, 
helical gears, ratchets, sprockets, transmission 
chain, universal Joints, bobs, automobile gears, 
Hlndley worm-gears, e<c. Data and tables useful 
to mechanics are included. 

ITnion Chain & Mfg. Co., Seville, Ohio. Folder 
describing the construction of the new Uniou steel 
rlvetiess chain. The links of this chain are stamped 
and formed In one piece, producing a rigid and 
Beif-eontained construction that disjienses with 
riveting. When worn, the bushings and pins can 
be used upside down, thus bringing the unworn 
surfaces into service and giving tile chain a double 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J. 
has published a twenty-page treatise by F. J! 
Jarosch, chief engineer of the Bearings Co. of 
America, entitled "The Use and Abuse of Ball 
and Koller Bearings." The text gives help in the 
selection, mounting and lubrication of bail and 
roller liearings in automobile construction, etc. 
Nineteen drawings were used to illustrate the 

Standard Machinery Co., Auburn, R. I. General 

catalogue on presses, illustrating reducing presses 

plain and back-geared— Inclinable presses, arch 
frame presses, toggle or knuckle Joint embossing 
iresscs, transfer presses, cut and carry presses, 
heavy douiile-actlag