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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 



:. 



THE 



MACROCOSM AND MICROCOSM; 

OE, TUX 

UNIVERSE WITHOUT AND THE UNIVERSE WITHIN: 

BEING 

AN UNFOLDING OF THE PLAN OF CREATION AND THE CORRESPOND- 
ENCE OF TRUTHS, BOTH IN 

THE WORLD OF SENSE AND THE WORLD OF SOUL. 
En 



BY WILLIAM FISHBOUGH. 




PAR T I . 

THE MACROCOSM; OR, THE UNIVERSE WITHOUT. 



Nature is a harp of BTEN TIMSS BEVEK strings, 
On which, by God's own hand, is gently played 
The ever-varied music of the spheres. 



NEW YORK: 
FOWLERS AND WELLS, PUBLISHERS, 

CLINTON HALL, 181 NASSAU STREET. 

Boston 142 Washington-st] 1852 F London, No. 142j3trand. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by 

WILLIAM FISHBOUGH, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District 
of New York. 



T. STEREOTYPE ASSOCIATION, 

201 William Street, N. Y. 



PREFACE. 



IN submitting the accompanying Treatise to the public, it may be 
proper to precede it by a few facts 'and remarks relative to its origin, 
plan, and purpose. In the summer of 1849, on retiring from the edi- 
torial charge of a Philosophical Journal, the writer announced his 
intention to prepare and publish, as soon as convenient, a work on 
Psychology a subject then, as now, exciting much interest among a 
class of readers with whom he had been holding weekly communion. 
A manuscript of such a work was, during the few ensuing months, 
nearly finished ; but various circumstances and considerations arose to 
prevent its publication, among the chief of which were, first, that with 
the materials of psychological science then unfolded, I found it impos- 
sible to bring the work to a desired state of perfection ; and, secondly, 
that facts and principles such I was then able, only, to set forth, were 
already rapidly forcing themselves into general notice in another way. 
I concluded, therefore, to await the unfolding of further light upon a 
subject of which, at that time, no one could claim more than a very 
superficial knowledge, and to postpone the publication of the results 
of my investigations until they were further matured, and until the 
state of the public mind, upon questions to which they related, gave a 
fair indication that some particular use, not accomplished by other de- 
velopments, might be possibly subserved in submitting them to general 
perusal. These statements involve an explanation and apology to a 
large portion of my former readers, who, as I learn, felt disappointed 
at the non-appearance of the announced publication at the time it was 
expected, and whose letters of inquiry respecting it I have, in some 
instances, been reluctantly compelled to leave unanswered. 

As investigations have been continued upon the great subject of 
Psychology, together with its cognate and still higher themes, it has, 
of course, greatly expanded ; until, in the aspect which the ques- 
tion finally assumed, it was perceived to be impossible to give any ade- 
quate exposition of the great realm of being within man, without the 



IV PREFACE. 

aid of some more enlarged, systematic, and interior exposition than any 
which was yet generally extant, of the great realm of being without, 
which serves to the former as a natural counterpart and exponent. 

Feeling, therefore, an embarrassment at the thought of writing upon 
the interior constitution, laws, and susceptibilities of man, without the 
comprehensive basis of a general material philosophy so universally 
harmonized and compacted, as to bring nature without into the ob- 
vious analogy of a single human being, and thus into an aspect in 
which it might be constantly drawn upon for comparisons and illustra- 
tions, I accordingly determined to precede my proposed anthropological 
Treatise by a general disquisition upon the realm of exterior being, 
which I have called the " MACROCOSM," in contradistinction to the 
human physical and psychical constitution, which I have called the 
" MICROCOSM." Both Treatises were, at first, designed to be submitted 
in one volume ; but as it was perceived that each would embrace a sub- 
ject which is complete in itself, though intimately connected with the 
other, it was finally determined to issue them separately. 

In speaking briefly of the further objects and general plan of the pres- 
ent work, I will premise that the whole realm of created being, natural, 
psychological, and even spiritual, forms (at least in the general sense) 
one perfectly united System, consistent and harmonious in all its parts 
and interactivities. To this proposition the reason and intuition of every 
well-constituted human mind responds an instant assent. But a reli- 
able conception of the universal ptan of this complex unity of created 
being, has hitherto undeniably been a grand desideratum of philos- 
ophy ; and, reasoning superficially only from the objects which come 
within the scope of the five exterior senses, and without the aid of any 
grand fundamental and interior Principle to connect and harmonize all 
things, in serial and graduated orders, from the common primary cause 
to ultimate effects men have cherished theories ever conflicting, ever 
varying, and necessarily ever disfigured, more or less, with essential 
errors and imperfections. I have ventured to hope that this defect in 
the mode of philosophizing might prove to be in some good degree sup- 
plied by a discovery, the fundamental principles of which came into 
my mind some four years ago, in a manner quite extraordinary, but of 
which I need not now speak particularly. This discovery, which I have 
called "the law of the seven-fold correspond 'ential series," or "the 
harmonial scale of creation," is, to some extent, unfolded and 



PliEFACE. V 

applied in the present volume, though but a small portion of the evi- 
dences of its truth, and the instances of its applicability, are herein 
exhibited. 

The main idea embraced in the discovery referred to is, that each 
complete system, or sub-system of creation, however great or small, is 
resolvable into seven serial parts or elemental degrees, corresponding 
to the seven notes of the diatonic scale ; that, as composed of such parts, 
the systems are arranged side by side, or one above another, as so 
many octaves, corresponding to the octaves in music ; and that, like 
them, each one serves as a general exponent of all the others, whether 
on a higher or lower scale. This idea, with its natural adjuncts, of 
which I can not here speak particularly, by harmonizing and unitizing 
all natural series and degrees of creation, also clearly illustrates the 
fact that all truths are involved in, and evolved from, one grand cen- 
tral Truth ; that they are, indeed, but parts and degrees of that one 
fundamental truth, which are ultimated in the various forms of em- 
bodiment which compose the sum total of created existence. By pur- 
suing the method of reasoning which this idea unfolds, I have endeav- 
ored to make one portion of the system of nature expose the secrets of 
another, and caused visible facts and invisible principles to mutually 
cast their light upon each other. 

That this method might be pursued in the most reliable manner, ob- 
servations are commenced upon the surface of the system of things, 
composed of those objects which are appreciable to the outer senses, 
and thence, by facts known particularly to geological and astronomi- 
cal science, I have endeavored to rationally trace the system of outer 
being to its origin, to the primal condition of its materials, and to its 
Divine Cause. Assuming, thus, a position at the center of the uni- 
versal field of thought, where all principles converge to a common 
focus, I have endeavored to survey, so far as possible, the vistas of 
creative development which thence diverge in all directions, and to 
observe truth in its progressive, serial, and orderly unfoldings, from 
center to superfices, from generals to particulars, from causes to effects, 
from origins to ultimates. Finding at this central position, the princi- 
ples and germs of general unity and systematic order, which must of 
necessity be perpetual throughout all subsequent unfoldings, I have 
attempted, through a unitary and systematic order of combined analysis 
and synthesis, to show how the system of creation must have been 



VI PREFACE. 

gradually unfolded into its present form, and to illustrate the harmo- 
nious principles, forms, movements, laws, and interactivities which 
now characterize it as a whole and in all its parts. 

It has thus been the object to draw the bold outlines of a comprehen- 
sive primordial philosophy, and to contribute, so far as possible, to the 
establishment of a system of thought, in which all truths maj be viewed 
in their serial, orderly, and mutually explanatory relations, from gen- 
erals to particulars a system whose internal, vitalizing principle will 
constantly tend to the absorption of all truths, and the elimination of 
all errors, in the same way in which the principles of music constantly 
tend to the appropriation of harmonies, and the elimination of discords. 
If I have succeeded even to the extent of unfolding, with general cor- 
rectness, the most general principles of such a philosophy, the sure 
guide-boards and indices to something vastly more perfect of the same 
kind may be considered as established ; and the key to all conceivable 
truth, whether relating to nature without, the soul within, the spirit 
world above, or to the Divine Author and Governor of all things, may, 
in some sense, be considered as in our possession ; for no one can essen- 
tially err in regard to either of these subjects, so long as he stands in 
the light of a systeia which makes all truths the clear and certain ex- 
ponents of each other. 

I would invite particular attention to that feature of the present 
volume, by which the fundamentals of an elevated theology are pre- 
served and established upon the very basis of those facts in science 
which have been thought to be rather pantheistic in their intimations. 

Following, as it does, in some respects, a comparatively unbeaten 
path, this Treatise can not, of course, reasonably claim entire exemp- 
tion from errors and imperfections. Such as it is, however, it is re- 
spectfully submitted to a candid and discerning public, with the hope 
that any criticism it may excite may not be exclusively destructive, but 
in some degree also constructive that it may not only expose errors 
and imperfections (which should be faithfully done), but suggest im- 
provementsso that by the combined intelligence of many, some 
closer approximations to the truth may be made than I dare presume 
to have yet attained, notwithstanding the degree of confidence I may 
have in the general correctness of the method which has been pur- 
sued, and the results to which it has conduced. W. F. 

WIJLLIAMSBURGH, September 7th, 1852. 



CONTENTS. 



PEEK ACE Page 3 

CHAPTER I. 

THE COGNIZABLE AND THE COGNIZING. 

Interior Faculties Exterior Objects At Equipoise Correspondence of Outer and 
Inner Course to be Pursued . 11 

CHAPTER II. 

DESCENDING SCALE OF TERRESTRIAL FORMS. 

The Three Kingdoms Geological Formations Descent through the Strata AUivcial, 
Diluvial, Tertiary, Secondary, and Transition Formations Thickness of Strata 
Simplicity of Older Fossils Primary Eocks Original Fluidity from Heat Pres- 
ent State of the Earth's Center Primitive State of the Earth's Materials 14 

CHAPTER III. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF TPIE SOLAR SYSTEM ANALOGICALLY 
RETRACED. 

Connection of Geology and Astronomy Common Source of the Planets Nebular 
Theory its Conception by Herschel Nebulous Stars Further Proofs of the Theory 
Oblately Spheroidal Forms and their Signification Gradation of Densities Ee- 
sidual Nebulous Matter" Zodiacal Light" Comets Compte's Calculations Kirk- 
wood's Law The Conclusion 22 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE SIDEREAL UNIVERSE ANALOGI- 
CALLY RETRACED. 

Stars are Suns Clusters The Milky Way The Heavens Sounded Clusters beyond 
Clusters Their Shapes and Densities Gravitation indicated Proof of other Laws 
Variable Stars Eevolving Double Stars Immense Periods of some of them 
Universality of Eevolutionary Motion Motion of the whole Solar System Maedler's 
Central Sun Still higher Systems " Magellan's Clouds" The System of all Sys- 
tems The Infinite and the Infinitesimal Nebular Theory universally Applied 
Primeval Universal Chaos 81 

CHAPTER V. 

MATERIAL BEGINNINGS AS POINTING TO A SUPER-MATERIAL CAUSE. 

Matter, ~s Physical Substance, not Eternal Logical Evidences of a Spiritual Cause 
That this Spiritual Cause was Uncaused, Personal, and DIVINE Matter Formed from 
Spiritual Substance Motion not Inherent in Matter Must have its Origin in Spirit 
IN GOD... .. 44 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL SYNTHESIS. 

Practicability of a Synthesis Effects contained in Causes Material Germs and their 
Developments Universal Materiality and Infinite Spirit Reclamation of Science 
from Pantheistic Tendencies Divine Thoughts as Archetypes Theory of Creation 
thence deducible What Man may know concerning God The " Seven Spirits of 
God" Creations hence Seven-fold Universal Correspondences The ffarmonial 
Scale of Creation, and great Musical Organ The Timbers and the Temple 51 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE SEVEN FUNDAMENTAL LAWS, AND THEIR INTIMATIONS RE- 
SPECTING THE ORIGIN AND STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE. 

Primordial Matter Origin of Motion Its Seven Laws Divine Love, Heat, and EX- 
PANSION Divine Wisdom, Light, and ATTBACTION Origin of Central Sun Origin 
of Rotary Motion Emanation Law of CIRCULATION Law of AGGREGATION Con- 
centric Nebulous Rings Their Existing Analogues Law of SEGREGATION Segre- 
gated Masses Stellar Clusters formed from these Confirmatory Celestial Appear- 
ances Immensity of Creation Analogy of Asteroids General Formation of Suns 
Formation of Planets Summary of Evidences 65 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE SEVEN DYNAMIC AGENTS, OR POTENTIAL MEDIA OF NATURE. 

Hoat, Light, and Electricity A Corresponding Trinity Inferred Proved by Reichen- 
bach's Experiments Flames from Magnets, Crystals, etc. Seven Colors of their 
Light Explains the Aurora Sorealis Heat Inferred Ethereal Emanations, and 
their Singular Effects " Odic" Heat, and its Offices "Odic" Light, and its Offices 
"Odic" Aura, and its Offices The Latter a Universal Sympathetic Medium Its 
Identity with " Animal Magnetism" Medium of Divine Action Divine Embodi- 
mentDistinction between Nature and God 91 

CHAPTER IX. 

DEFECTS OF PREVAILING COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES. 

Newton's Idea of a Primary Impulse Of Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces Diffi- 
culties in respect to the Stability of the System Their Solution Lifelesaness of New- 
ton's System It is a Dangerous Machine 118 

CHAPTER X. 

GROUNDS OF STABILITY AND GENERAL ECONOMY OF THE COSMI- 
CAL STRUCTURE. 

New Theory Propounded Illustrations Life of the System No Vacuity in Space- 
Equilibrium Recuperative Force, etc. 119 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHAPTER XI. 

PARTICULAR CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE GENESIS AND 

MODUS OPERANDI OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 
The Solar and the Universal Systems Origin of Comets The Zodiacal Light. ... 128 

CHAPTER XII. 

SYNTHETICAL VIEW OF THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH, AND ITS 
GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS. 

Seven Stages of Progress The CHAOTIC STAGE Nucleation of Earth and Moon- 
Polar Opposition Analogy of Binary Stellar Systems Common Ethereal Envelope 
Effects on Somnambulists, etc. Common Center Modified Theory of Tides SEC- 
OND STAGE THIBD STAGE FOURTH STAGK Atmospheric Conditions Early Scenery 
Described FIFTH STAGE New Red Sandstone Frost-marks, Bird-tracks, etc. 
Diversity of Seasons Marsupials SIXTH STAGE Inorganic and Organic Progress 
SEVENTH STAGE, and Completion 131 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE GEOLOGICAL AND THE MOSAIC REVELATIONS. 
Antiquity of our Globe Alarm of Theologians Truths must Harmonize Theology 
and Science Principles of Interpretation Meaning of " Day" Work of First Day 
Second Day Third Day Fourth Day Fifth Day Sixth Day Sabbatic Period- 
Coincidences Correspondential Classification 148 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE MINERAL KINGDOM, OR THE KINGDOM OF CHEMICAL FORMS. 
Its Seven Divisions 169 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 
Its Seven Divisions 172 

CHAPTER XVI. 

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 
Its Seven Divisions ITS 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE WHOLE AND ITS PARTS. 

Generals and Particulars Comprehensive Classification Illustration by Prismatic 
Colors The Temple Erected 177 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

DUALISM OF PRODUCTIVE FORCES, OR THE DIASTOLE AND SYSTOLE 
OF NATURE. 

The Two Fundamental Forces Examples in the Cosmical, Mineral, Vegetable, and 
Animal Creations Facts in Embryology Progress of Organization The Principle 
Generalized The Diastole and Systole Ulterior Laws 185 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

CIRCLES. 

The Principle of the Circle applicable to all Thing* Wheels within Wheels The 
Machine not Self-propelling 194 

CHAPTER XX. 

THE DOCTRINE OF DEGREES. 

Swedenborg's Philosophy Degrees "Continuous" and "Discreet" Improvement 
suggested Facilitates Investigation 200 

CHAPTER XXI. 

THE DOCTRINE OF CORRESPONDENCES. 
Foundation and Laws of Correspondences Importance of the Doctrine 208 

CHAPTER XXII. 

THE DOCTRINE OF PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

A pending Controversy Theory of the " VESTIGES OF CREATION" Arguments for Law. 
Creations The Nebular Hypothesis Chemistry Geology Fossilology Plant-like 
Crystallizations Arbor Diance Spontaneous Germination Transmutation of Vege- 
table Species Entozoa Animals Developed by Electricity Rudimentary and Inci- 
dental Organs Analogy of Human Fcetal and Zoological Developments Theory 
Deduced Opposition Excited Its Grounds Aspects of the Question 211 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

FURTHER VIEW OF THE SYSTEM OF LIVING FORMS, AS SUGGEST- 
ING ITS MODE OF DEVELOPMENT. 

The Light of our Philosophy Progression and Eetrogression Embryonic Forms 
Their Progress and Significance The Great Tree Genesis of Animal Kingdom 224 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

Law Defined Its Universality It is not Force Archetypes and their Clothing Hu- 
man and Divine Builder Divine Dwelling-places Creation did not Develop itself 
Diagramatio Illustration Overthrow of Pantheistic Speculations 284 

CHAPTER XXV. 

PROVIDENCES. 

Providences are Law-governed Media determine Modes of Divine Action Eecep- 
tacles modify Influence The "Light of the World" New Beginning Principle- 
Miracles Truths Sacred wherever found 249 

CONCLUSION OF THB VOLUMK 258 



THE MACROCOSM; 



OR, 



THE UNIVERSE WITHOUT. 
CHAPTEE I. 

THE COGNIZABLE AND THE COGNIZING. 

THE starting point of all thought and investigation with 
every human being, i his own interior consciousness. This, 
to every one, is the most absolutely fixed of all facts the 
most positively certain of all certainties ; and it is hence the 
position from which all other certainties and uncertainties, 
probabilities and improbabilities, possibilities and impossibili- 
ties, are estimated. But as from our individual centers of 
consciousness and intellection, we open our eyes and look 
without us, we find ourselves surrounded by appearances of 
various forms and conditions, near and remote, which act 
upon our physical, intellectual, and moral natures, and are re- 
acted upon by us ; and these active and re-active influences 
are, in some sense, at a constant equipoise. There is thus 
a universe without, and a universe within us a universe of 
cognizable forms, principles, and conditions, and a universe 



12 THE COGNIZABLE AND THE COGNIZING. 

of cognizing faculties, the one being related to, and corre- 
sponding with, the other. It is a legitimate object and privi- 
lege of every inquiring mind to understand, in some degree, 
both of these universes ; and in order to do this to the fullest 
extent, one must investigate each with a constant regard to 
its analogies with, and relations to, the other. For the pur- 
pose of mapping out, if possible, certain great outlines of 
the one united and harmonious system of truth as embracing 
both of these departments, an investigation of this kind is 
now proposed. 

The forms of the outer universe are included in a few sim- 
ple and comprehensive classifications, as they are arranged 
above or beneath each other in the scale of creation. Those 
beneath man, and which at present form the special subject 
of investigation, are embraced in the comprehensive divisions 
of animal, vegetable, mineral, geological, and astronomical or 
cosmical forms. Of these, singularly and in united groups, 
together with their more superficial properties, the interior 
soul gains a perception through some one or more of the 
sensational channels, known as Touch, Taste, Sight, Hearing, 
and Smell. Proceeding upon the basis of the impressions 
received through these avenues of sense, the ratiocinative 
faculty becomes the medium of some knowledge of the pur- 
poses and mutual relations of these, and of the laws by which 
they are governed ; and, availing itself of the contributions of 
both Sense and Reason, at the same time that it draws, from 
its own interior and independent resources, the faculty of 
Intuition decides upon their causes, their life forces, and their 
more interior significations. 

Conforming, therefore, to what, in this work, will be recog- 
nized as the true method of reasoning, it shall be our first 



COUKSE TO BE PURSUED. 13 

endeavor, by the aid of Sense, Reason, and Intuition, to trace 
analytically the descending scale of creation, from exteriors to 
interiors, from effects to causes, from ultimates to origins. If 
we can succeed by this process in establishing any reliable 
conclusions relative to the first, the elemental, and hence 
germinal form and condition whence sprang this universal 
system of things, we may then, in the light of these con- 
clusions, proceed to retrace our steps synthetically upward 
through the successive series and degrees of natural unfolding, 
and in a general way discover, how the system of creation, in 
its present completed form, came to exist, and also what are 
the prominent principles of its constitution and government. 
It is obvious that these combined processes of Analysis and 
Synthesis, if correctly pursued, will be far more efficient in 
unfolding the principles and laws harmoniously pervading and 
governing all parts of the united system of things, and in. 
exhibiting the vital relations and sympathies subsisting be- 
tween all forms and kingdoms of nature, than either one of 
these processes pursued singly, and without reference to the 
other. 

In pursuing this process of inquiry, strict attention, of 
course, shall be paid to facts and principles already firmly 
fixed upon a true scientific basis: but so long as these are 
made the basis of further reasoning, and the line of investi- 
gation is pursued in strict obedience to the established laws 
of induction and the intuitions of the interior mind, I shall 
not consider myself restricted from exhibiting, and, in some 
instances, perhaps, even insisting upon, the conclusions to 
which this process may conduct, even though these may, in 
many cases, be unknown to the prevailing philosophy. 

2 



CHAPTEE II. 

DESCENDING SCALE OF TEEBESTEIAL FOEMS. 

AMONG the systems of forms which surround man in the 
outer world, that most immediately related to him, and next 
below him in the scale of creation, is the Animal Kingdom. 
Immediately beneath this, serving as a substratum on which 
it rests, and the source from which it derives its subsistence, is 
the Vegetable Kingdom. This, again, rests upon the Mineral 
Kingdom, from which, as the next degree . below it in the 
scale of existence, it derives 'its nourishment and physical 
support. 

Then, beneath all these kingdoms, as an anterior condition 
on which their physical developments, as complete systems, 
necessarily depend, is the system of Geological Formations. 
These consist of various gradations, or of lower and higher 
stratifications, which were developed by degrees, and in suc- 
cessive periods of time. Each geological formation above the 
primary, contains petrifactions of plants and animals of a de- 
gree of organization corresponding to the degree of progression 
in the earth's crust marked by the particular stratification in 
which they are found, the lowest organizations being associated 
with the most ancient fossiliferous rocks, and the highest with 
the most recent, showing a coincident progress in the inorganic 
and organic developments. Let us now trace downward the 
various geological stratifications, from highest to lowest, in 
order that our minds may, by successive steps, be conducted 



DESCENDING VIEW. 15 

to the terrestrial conditions which preceded them all, and 
served as the material Germ of their unfolding. 

If we could find a section of the earth's crust in which all 
the geological stratifications existed in their completeness, and 
were arranged on horizontal planes, in their natural order of 
superposition, and if we should then proceed to dig vertically 
downward through the strata, we would first pass -through 
layers of loam, fine sand, and gravel, of no very great or very 
definite thickness. We might find in this deposit the re- 
mains of plants and animals of existing species, together with 
the remains of man and of his works. This is the most recent, 
or what is called the Alluvial Formation. Next we would 
penetrate an irregular deposit of clay, sand, gravel, and small 
and large stones, more or less rounded by friction, and which 
is called the Diluvial Formation. We would next pass 
through layers of clay, sand, gravel, marl, etc., in greater or 
less degrees of consolidation, portions of which abound with 
the remains of animals and plants of species now mostly ex- 
tinct. These deposits have been roughly estimated as having 
the aggregate thickness of about thirteen hundred feet, and 
constitute what is called the Tertiary Formation. Next we 
would penetrate through deposits of chalk, and strata of marl- 
stone, ironstone, red sandstone, etc., to the depth of not less 
than five thousand feet, exhuming, as we proceeded, the 
remains of huge saurians and other animals of a comparatively 
low organization, and which became entirely extinct before 
the next superior formation commenced. These strata, with 
their distinctive fossils, are comprised in what is called the 
Secondary Formation. We would then descend through a 
system of deposites of not less than three thousand feet in 
thickness, consisting of strata of limestone, slate, ironstone, 
and mineral coal, constituting what is called the Coal For- 



16 GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS. 

mation. We would after this descend, in succession, through 
strata of limestone, called the mountain or carboniferous 
limestone ; through what is called the Old Red Sandstone, and 
thence through what is known as the Silurian and Cambrian 
systems of deposits. These stratifications, taken together, 
have been estimated by Dr. John Pye Smith, as measuring a 
thickness of not less than one hundred and thirty thousand 
feet. They abound with fossils which, with perhaps slight 
exceptions, and these confined to their higher portions, are 
exclusively marine ; and the character and magnitude of some 
of these, and their invariableness of size and constitution as 
they occur in all latitudes, show that a high and unvarying 
temperature prevailed on all parts of our globe during the 
period when they flourished, which could not have depended, 
in any great degree, upon the solar rays, but is generally sup- 
posed to have been caused by radiations from subterranean 
fire, then more intense than at subsequent periods. This 
whole series of stratifications has been called the Transition 
Formation, comprising, in the period of its production, those 
changes in the physical conditions of the earth's surface, which 
were necessary to qualify it for the production of terrestrial 
vegetation and the healthy sustenance of air-breathing animals. 
This completes the enumeration of the fossiliferous stratifi- 
cations, which, according to some estimates, are of an aggre- 
gate thickness exceeding twenty miles ! These all, including 
the remains of the plants and animals which subsisted during 
their respective epochs, were quietly deposited at the bottoms 
of oceans, estuaries, and lakes, and subsequently consolidated 
and petrified, and thus, as faithful records of the natural his- 
tory of our planet, they have been preserved through the 
untold ages which have elapsed from the period of their living 
existence until present time ! 



DISTURBANCES OF THE STRATA. 17 

As we have thus proceeded through the descending scale of 
geological and palseontological creations, we have seen tha-t 
animal and vegetable organisms, whose remains are entombed 
in the rocks, become more and more simple. In the lowest 
of the fossiliferous rocks, the principal animal remains are of 
the class called the Radiata, which somewhat resemble plants, 
and form the connecting link with the Vegetable Kingdom ; 
while the plants are mainly of a simple species of sea-weed, 
called fucoides. It is, however, presumable that more minute, 
and still more simple species preceded these, but of which, in 
consequence of the delicacy of their texture, all traces have 
become obliterated. 

Immediately beneath the fossiliferous rocks, we came to 
thick strata of clay slate, hornblende slate, mica slate, gneiss, 
etc., which contain no organic remains, and are called the 
Primary Stratified Hocks. Immediately beneath these lost 
strata, lies the Granite, which is unstratified, and appears to 
be the original and parent rock, from the comminuted and 
pulverized materials of which, combined with materials 
descending from the atmosphere, and evolved from the central 
mass of the earth, all the stratified rocks were subsequently 
formed. 

Some of my readers, who have not made geology a par- 
ticular subject of study, may be disposed to inquire whether 
any one has thus actually digged into the earth to the depth 
of over twenty miles, and ascertained the character and order 
of geological formations to be as I have described them ? I 
answer, no ; nor would such a mode of exploration have been 
necessary. Owing to the immense and frequent disturbances 
to which the earth's crust has been subjected, in different 
ages, from the explosive forces of internal fires, all the older 
strata have, in various places, been broken, and their upheaved 



18 GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS. 

edges have thus been exposed at the surface of the earth, and 
may be measured with little difficulty. And, although in 
most, if not all, places, some of the strata are wanting, yet, 
by observing a number of the associated links in the chain of 
development in one place, and connecting and matching them 
with corresponding sections of the chain found in other places, 
and which extend higher or lower, the whole series may be, 
and has been, re-constructed with approximate accuracy and 
certainty. And by comparing the lithological characters of 
rocks, and especially the fossils which they contain, it is 
found that the order of development is invariably such as 
I have described, and is the same in all parts of the 
world. 

It was said that the Granite, which seems to be the oldest 
of the rocks, underlying, as it does, all the stratified series, is 
itself unstratified. This is true, also, of its various modifica- 
tions in the Porphyry, Basalt, and Greenstone. These rocks, 
therefore, could not have been formed, as other rocks were, 
by sedimentary deposits at the bottom of oceans and lakes. 
On the contrary, they bear unmistakable evidences of having 
been originally in a molten state from the action of intense 
heat. That no links may be wanting in the chain of our 
further inductions, some of these evidences require to be 
briefly stated, as follows : 

It appears that, in many instances, after thick beds of 
stratified rooks, including some of the older members of the 
foseiliferous series, were formed immediately over the granitic 
rocks, the latter have flown upward, not only in hemispherical 
and conical, but sometimes in sharply angular forms, displac- 
ing the superincumbent strata, and producing mountain eleva- 
tions. In the upheaving effort it has, apparently by injection, 
filled up the smallest crevices of the contiguous rocks, fre- 



FUSION BY HEAT. 19 

quently bursting through them in various directions, forming 
" dykes " and veins with numerous branches, from an inch to 
hundreds of feet in diameter ; and, coming up frequently 
through the entire thickness of the strata, it has flown over 
the top, where it has, often in large masses, subsequently con- 
solidated. These dykes are often found to contain imbedded 
fragments of the identical rocks through which they appear 
to have forced their passage in their upward movement. The 
manner in which these fragments are imbedded, proves to a 
demonstration, that the mass by which they are surrounded 
was once in a fluid state, and that it subsequently became 
solid, as we now find it. 

That the original fluidity of these injected rocks was pro- 
duced by heat, is evident from the following, among other 
considerations: 1. The crystaline character of some of these 
rocks is such as could have been produced only by heat. 2. 
The chemical effects produced upon the stratified rocks by 
contact of the unstratified ones, are similar to those produced 
by dykes of recent lava. 3. The different unstratified rocks 
insensibly pass into each other, and indeed into modern lavas. 
Besides, the mineral composition of the rocks, as well as the 
form and position of the dykee, shows that their original 
fluidity could not have been the result of water, which is the 
only known natural element besides fire, to which their solu- 
tion could possibly be attributed in any case. 

But as the rocks of w r hich we have spoken are primary 
rocks, and serve as the basis of all stratified rocks in all places, 
and as they must, therefore, have universally prevailed ove* 
the surface of the earth before any other rocks were formed, 
if their original state was that of igneous fluidity, it may be 
assumed that such was the condition of the whole globe 
that it was one vast ball of molten lava ! This is now gener- 



20 GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS. 

ally the opinion of geologists, and is confirmed by the follow- 
ing, among other considerations : 

1. The earth is not a perfect globe, but an oblate spheroid, 
flattened at the poles the polar diameter being about twenty- 
six miles shorter than the equatorial. This is the form which 
it would necessarily have assumed from the centrifugal force 
caused by diumal revolution, supposing it to have been orig- 
inally in a fluid state. 

2. There is good evidence that our planet is still a vast ball 
of liquid fire, surrounded by a thin crust, which, in thickness, 
bears no greater proportion to the general mass of the earth, 
than the egg-shell bears to the general mass of the egg. From 
careful observations which have been made during many 
years, upon the temperature of deep mines and the waters of 
artesian wells, in various parts of the 'world, it is found that, 
after descending beyond the reach of solar influence, the tem- 
perature invariably increases, in all places, at the average rate 
of about one degree Fahrenheit for every forty-five or fifty 
feet of descent. And this rule uniformly holds good to the 
greatest depths to which the earth has been penetrated. 

Now, assuming fifty degrees as the average temperature at 
the surface of the earth, and taking the mean ratio of increase 
at one degree for every fifty feet of descent, we should, at this 
rate, at a depth of a little more than sixty-five miles, reach a 
temperature of seven thousand degrees, which would be suffi- 
cient to melt all known rocks. Supposing this state of igneous 
fusion to extend from the comparatively thin crust of the earth 
on all sides, to the center, we have still a mass of molten lava 
of more than seven thousand miles in diameter. If we suppose 
this mass to become sometimes agitated in its higher portions 
by internal gasses, or by the percolation of water through 
fissures in the superincumbent strata, we have a sufficient ex- 



THE PRIMITIVE STATE. 21 

planation of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and of the im- 
mense mountain upheavels which have occurred at different 
epochs during the geological formations; while, aside from 
the hypothesis of internal fusion, the solution of these latter 
phenomena would be extremely difficult, if not impossible. 

Thus have geologists reasoned, from substantial data, con- 
cerning the early state of our planet. But, though at this point 
the data of retrospective reasonings become less certain than 
those which have hitherto guided us, we may presume, as 
highly probable, not to say absolutely certain, that not even 
this was strictly the primitive state of our planet that the 
matter which composes it was in conditions anterior and ger- 
minal even to this ; and if we extend backward our chain of 
analogical inductions in a direct line^ it will lead us to a con- 
dition of still more intense heat heat that would be compat- 
ible only with the existence of matter in the form of vapor. 
It is. then, to say the least, an hypothesis certainly not unrea- 
sonable, that the matter of our earth was once in the state of 
igneous gas, from the cooling and condensation of which it 
assumed successively the fluid, and then its present superfici- 
ally solid state. But for the present we offer this only as an 
hypothesis to which analogies thus far developed, directly 
point. Such further and more conclusive evidences of its 
truth, as scientific data now afford, will be incidentally brought 
into view as we proceed. 



CHAPTEK III. 

THE NATUEAL HISTOEY OF THE SOLAE SYSTEM ANA- 
LOGICALLY EETEACED. 

ADMITTING that the foregoing hypothesis as to the original 
condition of the earth's materials has any foundation in truth, 
we find in it the link which connects geology with astronomy. 
It must be borne in mind that the earth is only one member 
of the great family of planets belonging to the solar system ; 
and it is fair to presume that the brothers and sisters of the 
same planetary family have the same, or a similar, origin 
especially as they have the same oblately spheroidal form, 
and observe the same laws of diurnal and orbitual revolution. 
If the earth, then, was originally in a state of igneous gas, so 
(we may suppose) were fkey ; and before the incipient pro- 
cesses of spheroidation commenced, the materials of all of 
them may have commingled, and probably did commingle, 
together in one undistinguishable mass. 

Though this hypothesis of an original gaseous state of the 
earth and planets rests upon a foundation of its own (being a 
portion of the chain of analogous developments prolonged 
directly backward from the links of substantial geological 
facts), it is precisely in accordance with the nebular theory of 
the origin of worlds and systems, which theory also rests upon 
independent grounds of reasoning. As a conviction of the 
general truthfulness of this theory is important as a basis of 
ulterior ideas to be presented in this treatise, the patient 



RESOLUTION OF NEBULJ2. 23 

attention of the reader is solicited while we briefly explain 
its nature, and unfold a summary of the evidences on which 
it is founded. 

The idea that nebulae, or loose masses of fiery vapor, which 
seemed to be floating in the depths of immensity, might form 
the materials out of which nature elaborated suns and planets, 
was originally propounded as a conjecture, by Sir William 
Herschel ; but it was subsequently brought into more definite 
and tangible form by Laplace, Comte, Nichol, and others. 
The theory supposes that loose masses of nebulous vapor, at 
first without definite form or movement, gradually assumed, 
by virtue of gravitation, a regular spheroidal and rotating form, 
lightest at the circumference, and gradually increasing in den- 
sity toward the center, at which point the greatest density is 
attained. It supposes that such forms were the original forms 
of suns that the substance of these, in this diffused state, 
originally extended from their present condensed, solar spheres, 
to the outermost limits of the planetary systems which now 
revolve about them ; and that by the combined processes of 
rotation and further condensation, successive and concentric 
rings were formed on the outer limits of the nebulous disks, 
of which we have a faint illustration in the rings of Saturn. 
These rings, it is thought, subsequently became broken up, 
when the matter composing them naturally agglomerated into 
spheres, which, by an analogous process of condensation and 
evolution of rings, produced planets and their satellites. 

It is but just to remark that many of the supposed nebula, 
which Herschel thought might form the materials of future 
suns and systems, have subsequently, by the application of 
powerful telescopes, and especially that of Lord Ross, been 
resolved into stars, apparently so close together as to cause 
the general hazy appearance which they present when viewed 



24: THE NEBULAE HYPOTHESIS. 

with the naked eye, or through a telescope of low power. 
It is reasonably suspected that many of the still unresolved 
nebulae might yield to a still higher telescopic power, were 
such available to science and art ; and acting upon this sup- 
position, some few astronomers have abandoned the nebular 
theory, in which they previously believed, and attempted to 
prove its impossibility. But in reference to this change of 
astronomical faith from such a cause, Professor Michell 
forcibly remarks, that " Herschel only adopted the [nebular] 
theory after he had resolved many hundred of the nebulae into 
stars ; and, if there ever existed a reason for accepting the 
truth of this remarkable speculation, that reason has been 
scarcely affected in any degree, by recent discoveries." 

The phenomenon of nebulous stars, especially, still remains 
in its unimpaired force, as an argument for the probable truth 
of the theory in question. These stars are spherical bodies, 
bright in the center, from which there is a gradual shading 
off into undistinguishable dimness as the circumference is ap- 
proached. They exist in all degrees of apparent concentration, 
from a diffused blur with a no very distinct nucleus, to a well 
defined star surrounded by a haze. What can these bodies be 
but masses of primeval matter, in various degrees of pro- 
gression between their original, or most chaotic state, and that 
of fully developed suns and planets? But these are pre- 
cisely the various conditions which the nebular theory sup- 
poses to take place during the different and progressive 
stages of the process by which suns and planets are ultimately 
formed. 

A brief summary of the further proofs of the nebular theory 
may be presented as follows : 

1. It has already been remarked that the earth is an oblate 
spheroid, flattened at the poles and bulged at the equator. 



FORM OF PLANETS. 25 

This same fact is also observed in relation to other planets, 
the outer ones, owing to the greater rapidity of their rotatory 
motions, being much more bulged and flattened than the inner 
ones. To the writer it is not a little surprising that this form 
of planetary bodies has not, of itself, established among 
astronomers the universal conviction that these bodies were 
formed by a contraction of their materials from a previously 
diffused state. Such, it appears, must necessarily have been 
the case, if their superior equatorial diameter had, in its origin, 
any connection with the centrifugal force produced by rotatory 
motion. For if the materials of the planet, while in an 
originally globular form, had commenced being thrown outward 
at the equator, by the centrifugal force generated by revo- 
lution, no known counter-force could have prevented them 
from being all, or nearly all, thrown outward, and continually 
farther and farther from the center, until the planet would 
have lost its identity. Especially would this have been the 
result, if the original velocity of revolution had continued un- 
diminished. For it is evident that the farther a particle, or 
collection of particles, is thrown from an axis around which 
they, in a given period, may revolve, the greater is the centri- 
fugal force generated by the rotation, and hence the greater 
is its tendency to fly off still farther; while, on the other 
hand, the farther a particle is thrown from a center of 
attraction, the less becomes the attractive or centripetal force 
to retain it from flying off still farther. 

The forces which produced the bulged form of planets at 
the equator are undoubtedly the same as those which pro- 
duced the rings of Saturn. Now, the rings of Saturn com- 
plete a revolution in 10 hours 32 minutes and 15 seconds; 
while the primary itself revolves in 10 hours 16 minutes and 
1 second, or in a period of only 16 minutes and 14 seconds 

3 



26 THE NEBULAE HYPOTHESIS. 

less. If, therefore, there was originally generated, by rotatory 
motion, at Saturn's equator, an amount of centrifugal force 
sufficient to throw off particles to the present position of the 
rings of that body, certainly the immensely increased centrifu- 
gal force generated by the revolution of those rings in about 
the same period, would have thrown the same particles still 
farther, and would probably have dissipated them into chaos 
especially as the attractive force of the primary, at that dis- 
tance, must have exerted considerably less influence upon 
them. 

The same reasoning applies with equal force to that ring, or 
circle of attached matter, which rises above the line of sphe- 
ricity at Saturn's equator, and also at the equators of other 
planets, and of the earth. The acting forces are of the same 
nature, and bear similar relations to each other in both places, 
the only difference being a difference in the degrees of in- 
tensity with which they act in the different positions. 

These considerations show that in all stages of the process 
by which planetary bodies were formed, the attractive, con- 
tractive, or centripetal force, had decided predominance over the 
centrifugal. Supposing the two forces to have always acted 
together after both became established, the centrifugal force, 
it is true, must have always restrained and modified the 
intensity of the centripetal, in the direction of the plane of 
rotation, but could never throw farther into space a particle 
which the centripetal or attractive, had succeeded, in defiance 
of the opposing, force, in bringing from a greater to a less 
distance from the center. 

The bulged form of the earth and other planets, therefore, 
could not have been produced by a throwing out of particles 
at the equator, but rather by a drawing in of particles from 
the poles, where the attractive force was comparatively unre- 



GRADATION OF DENSITIES. 27 

strained by the centrifugal ; while this latter force, attaining 
its maximum at the equator, meets and wards off the gravi- 
tating particles in their rush toward the center, and thus the 
two forces finally settle into an exact equipoise, of which the 
oblately spheroidal form of the planet is an equally exact 
expression. 

These considerations seam to sufficiently prove that the 
earth (before shown to haye been originally in a state of 
igneous, if not gaseous fluid) was formed by the predominat- 
ing force of attraction, and hence contraction, acting upon 
materials in a rarer state, and reducing them to their present 
dense form. The attractive and contractive operation must, 
of course, have proceeded through a progressive series of 
analogous stages, which somewhere must have had a begin- 
ning ; and we can not conceive of any possible beginning short 
of the greatest possible diffusion a state of diffusion which, 
originally applying to the materials of all planets, must have 
brought them all into' the form of one common vapory 
mass. 

Though this argument, in proof of the nebular theory, 
seems hitherto to have generally escaped the notice of 
astronomical writers, it is one which, nevertheless, deserves to 
be pondered and borne in mind. 

2. Another argument for the same theory, is derived from 
the regular gradations of densities of planets, from innermost 
to outermost. Thus it is stated, on the basis of mathematical 
calculations, that Mercury must be about the weight of so 
much lead ; Venus is nearly six times the weight of so much 
water ; the Earth, as a whole, is four and a half times the 
weight of water ; Mars is a little over three times the weight 
of water ; Jupiter is a small fraction over the weight of so 
much water ; Saturn is less than half that specific weight, or 



28 THE NEBULAE HYPOTHESIS. 

about the weight of so much cork ; and Herschel manifests a 
corresponding decrease of density. This regular gradation in 
the specific densities of the planets, in the order of their 
occurrence, from innermost to outermost, is precisely what it 
should be, supposing that they were all formed by the oper- 
ations of a common law, from an original sphere of fluid 
matter, which must have been most dense near the center, 
and most rare on its outer extremities. 

There is a similar relation between the distances of the 
different planets ; for, proceeding outward from Mercury, each 
successive planet (including the asteroids as equivalent to one 
planet) is about double the distance of the previous planet 
from the sun. This curious relation of distances seems, in 
like manner, to argue their production by a common cause, 
and by the operations of a common law, of which the only 
explanation yet found seems to be given in the nebular 
theory. 

3. If the theory in question is admitted as the true one, it 
inight accordingly be supposed, that after the evolution of 
Mercury, which is the planet nearest the sun, there would still 
be a residuum of nebulous or planetary matter in an unformed 
state, surrounding the more dense mass of the sun. Accord- 
ingly there actually appears to be an extensive mass of attenu- 
ated matter surrounding the sun, and is sometimes visible 
immediately after sunset, or before sunrise, as a conic, lumin- 
ous streak, projected from the horizon in the direction of the 
path of the sun, and which is called the " Zodiacal light." 

4. There are still many planets, or wandering celestial 
bodies, in a nebulous state, in which state they are called 
"comets." These appear to have been formed from a re- 
siduum of attenuated matter, after the agglomeration of the 
denser materials took place. 



5. M. Comte, of Paris, has proved, according to principles 
by which periods of rotation maintain a relation to the mass 
of the given rotating body, that the sidereal year of each planet 
actually corresponds to the period in which the sun must have 
rotated on his axis, supposing his mass to have extended to 
the orbits of such planets ; and he also ascertained that the 
periods of rotation of the primary planets with their mass, in 
a state of vapor, extending to the orbits of their satellites, 
must, in like manner, have corresponded with the present or- 
bitual periods of those satellites. 

6. A new planetary law has recently been discovered by 
Mr. Kirkwood, which seems to have an important bearing on 
the question at issue. This law, as I understand it, is, that 
the square of the number of rotations of any given planet in its 
year, is to the square of the number of rotations of any other 
planet in its year, as the cube of the diameter of the sphere 
of attraction of the first planet, is to the cube of the diameter 
of the sphere of attraction of the second planet.* Thus, for 
instance, the number of rotations of the earth in its year, bears 
a definite relation to the quantity of matter (or the amount of 
attractive force) in the Earth, in Mars, and in Venus. 

Here, then, is an indication of another relation existing be- 
tween the forces and movements of the different planets, so 
definite as to preclude every reasonable supposition that it 
came by chance, and a relation which, in common with facts 
before noticed, seems to refer all the planets to a common 
parentage, and common law of production, which is accounted 
for only by the nebular theory. Certainly so many remark- 

* The sphere of attraction of a planet, is a circle whose radius is determined by the 
point between two contiguous planets in conjunction, where an object would be at- 
tracted to neither of them, but would be exactly poised between the two contending 
forces. For an account of Kirkwood's discovery, see Silliman's American Journal of 
Science, Vol. ix., Second Series, p. 395. 



30 THE NEBULAE HYPOTHESIS. 

ably concurrent facts, pointing to the same conclusion as to 
the origin of our planetary system, can not reasonably be set 
down as so many mere fortuitous coincidences. 

Finally, the theory in question is the only one which does 
not either involve inexplicable and inconceivable mysteries, or 
suppositions totally unfounded in any of the known laws of 
causation. This theory, on the other hand, commends itself 
to human reason and intuition, without being encumbered with 
any serious difficulties ; and, as it is confessedly unphilosophi- 
cal to look for an explanation of a phenomenon without the 
sphere of known natural laws, when a full explanation may 
be found within the sphere of those laws, the nebular theory 
may be considered as established, at least until it is invalidated 
by further discoveries. 



CHAFTEK IY. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE SIDEREAL UNIVERSE 
ANALOGICALLY RETRACED. 

FROM contemplations of our own solar system, let us now 
extend our observations and reflections into the immeasurable 
realms of the stellar universe beyond, and see what gleams of 
light we can obtain in reference to the natural history of that 
grand System of systems, of which our own congeries of 
worlds forms, as it were, but an atom. Facts and analogies 
which need not here be particularized, have established the 
universal belief among astronomers that the so-called " fixed" 
stars are but so many remote suns shining to other systems. 
These are not distributed equally through the celestial spaces, 
as though they had been scattered at random from an Omnip- 
otent hand ; but they are arranged in distinct clusters^ or firma- 
ments, so called, which have little or no apparent connection 
with each other. Telescopic observations have proved that 
the bright girdle called the " Milky Way," which surrounds 
our heavens, is only a grand congeries of stars, so remote, and 
owing to their remoteness from us, apparently so near to each 
other, that their intermingling rays reach us only in the ap- 
pearance of a confused whitish light. Of this vast zone of 
shining orbs, all the less remote stars, including our own sun, 
are members, their varying directions being, in a measure, the 
result of differences in their distances from the point of observa- 
tion, and hence, of the different angles at which they are viewed. 



32 THE SIDE HEAL UNIVERSE. 

Not only have the relative distances of various portions of 
this grand cluster been proximately determined, but the spaces 
beyond have been sounded. The process by which these re- 
sults have been accomplished, may be easily brought within 
the reader's comprehension by the following illustrations: 
Suppose any given object is removed from a point of observa- 
tion to a distance at which it is barely discernible by the 
naked eye. Now, a telescope which has the power of pene- 
trating space to ten times the distance that can be reached 
with the naked eye, would show that same object, with the 
same degree of distinctness, ten times as far off. Take, then, 
a telescope of twenty degrees of space-penetrating power, and 
remove the object twenty times its first distance, and it will 
still be seen with equal distinctness and apparent nearness. 
And so also of still larger telescopes and correspondingly 
farther distances. 

Now, when we gaze into the heavens on a clear night, with 
the naked eye, we observe, in any given portion of the Milky 
Way a distinct number of stars, the faintest of which are 
barely discernible. If the astronomer, then, takes a telescope 
of ten powers, as compared with the unassisted eye, and sur- 
veys the same field, all the stars before observed will appear 
with increased brilliancy, besides which many more will be 
visible, the remotest and faintest of which may be presumed 
to be ten times as far off as the farthest ones which previously 
appeared. He then takes a still larger telescope, and still 
more objects appear, the remotest of which may, in like man- 
ner, be presumed to be situated in a relative depth of space 
proportioned to the increased degree of telescopic power. So 
correspondingly of a larger, and still larger, instrument, until 
one is obtained which reveals no more stars, but only shows 
those in the same field of view, in increased brightness. The 



THE HEAVENS SOUNDED. 33 

space-penetrating power is again augmented, and still no more 
stars are brought into view. The observer, therefore, legiti 
mately concludes that he has reached the outer limits of the 
great cluster to which we belong, and is now traversing the 
blank void beyond. 

But is he to conclude that he has sounded the system of 
stellar creations to its remotest depths, and that beyond these 
boundaries, there are no more vestiges of the Creator's 
energy 7 Let him augment the optical power but one degree 
more, and perhaps in the dim and awful distance he will be- 
hold a faint and scarcely discernible speck or streak of whitish 
light. In the excitement of irrepressible curiosity, he hastens 
to direct to the spot the largest telescope the observatory 
affords, and that same whitish spot glows into myriads of beau- 
tiful stars another galaxy or Milky Way another firma- 
ment, perchance, displaying its glories to its own unnumbered 
worlds, and pealing its own notes of silent harmony, respon- 
sive to the movements of all kindred systems ! 

As by the indefatigable exertions of the two Herschels, the 
heavens have been swept by the telescope in all directions, 
more than two thousand five hundred of these isolated stellar 
systems have been brought to light, some smaller and some 
larger than the grand cluster in the midst of which our own 
sun and system are situated. 

Let us now look at some of the phenomena which these vast 
starry congregations present, and from which inference may 
be drawn as to whether, in regard to their internal structure 
and laws, and hence their modes of origin, they have any thing 
in common with our own solar system, and whether the anal- 
ogies of one may be applied in unfolding the mysteries of the 
other. 

And the first thing that naturally attracts attention in such 



34 THE SIDEEEAL UNIVERSE. 

an investigation, is the shapes and apparent relative densities 
of these starry clusters. By telescopic measurements of rela- 
tive distances in relative directions, accomplished in the man- 
ner before illustrated, Sir William Herschel decided that the 
great cluster, of which our own sun is a member, and of which 
the greater portion of stars, owing to their immense distances, 
seem to rest on one general plain, and surround us in the 
great zone called the " Milky Way," is of an irregular form, 
approaching that of a circle, but thick in the middle, and thin 
toward the edges, in one of which there is a horizontal split 
or opening. Other clusters are of all conceivable forms, but 
of these forms the round, or oblately spheroidal, most pre- 
vails. Even in elongated, curved, angular, and branching 
clusters, there are often apparently several centers of incipi- 
ent rotundity. Generally these centers are well denned, and 
toward them the stars, though with an inappreciable motion, 
are apparently flowing from all directions, becoming thicker 
and more compressed as they approach, and being thinner, 
and gradually shading ^>ff into invisibility, at more distant 
removes. 

The general uniformity in the appearances of these spherical 
aggregations, and especially of their comparative denseness in 
the center, which thence gradually and regularly diminishes, 
in all directions, toward the circumference, shows that their 
aggregation is governed by some grand law ; and what can 
this be but the familiar law of Gravitation that identical law 
which, in the same form of action, is so potent in our own 
system, giving sphericity to every collection of fluid particles, 
from those which compose the planet, to those which form the 
dew-drop 1 It is gratifying to find in those remote creations 
such distinct indications of a property which is possessed in 
common with our own system, and which binds the nearest 



VARIABLE STARS. 35 

and remotest forms in the celestial spaces, in one common 
bond of sympathy and brotherhood. 

But the discovery of the law of gravitation, as applicable to 
these distant worlds as well as to the orbs of our own planetary 
system, naturally engenders the presumption that the whole 
series of laws and general operations with which gravitation is 
here necessarily connected, applies to them also, with little or 
no modification. And a further inquiry will disclose celestial 
phenomena which tend greatly to strengthen this presumption, 
if not to convert it into a positive conviction. 

Contemplating our own solar system, we are struck with 
the fact that revolutionary motion every where prevails. The 
planets are constantly whirling upon their axes, and perform- 
ing their grand orbitual circuits in the heavens. The sun him- 
self rotates upon his own center, once in about twenty-seven 
days. -This revolution has been ascertained by the periodical 
variation of the position of spots on his disk. 

But several of the stars of our firmament exhibit a phe- 
nomenon similar to this, from which our sun's rotatory motion 
has been inferred. That is, they alternately, and in regular 
periods, give forth a greater and a less degree of light, as 
though they had a brightest side and a side of a less degree of 
brightness, which were alternately, and at regular intervals, 
presented to us by a revolution upon their axes. This is one 
of the facts which have confirmed astronomers in the otherwise 
very natural presumption, that the stars are suns like our own, 
and whose apparent diminutiveness is only owing to their 
immense distances. 

There are also many instances in which the varying relative 
positions of t\YO or more stars are such as to indicate a revo- 
lution aroinid each other, and around a common center. Some 
of these stars have vast periods, as, for instance, the double 



36 THE SIDEKEAL UNIVERSE. 

star Castor, whose constituents revolve around each other in 
215 years; Gamma, in the constellation of the Virgin, whose 
constituents revolve in 628 years ; Gamma of the Lion, whose 
constituents revolve in 1200 years ; and Mizar and Alcor, in 
the tail of the Great Bear, which, according to Professor 
Nichol, would probably consume not much less than the in- 
conceivable period of 190,000 years in completing a single 
revolution around each other ! Others accomplish their revo- 
lutions in much less than 100 years. 

By establishing the fact that rotatory and orbitual motions 
are experienced by many of the stars, the extreme probability 
is at the same time established on analogical grounds, that 
similar motions are experienced, with, perhaps, some modifi- 
cations, by all stars. We are, at least, not without strong, 
not to say demonstrative evidence, that motions of this kind 
are going on in the celestial spaces, on a much grander scale 
than any we have yet described. By comparing the positions 
of the stars in the modem heavens with their positions as rep- 
resented in ancient catalogues, Sir William Herschel found 
that in one quarter of the firmament, they were apparently 
drawing nigher together, while in the opposite, quarter they 
were apparently receding from each other. To account for 
these changing appearances, Herschel conjectured that our own 
sun, with all his retinue of planets, was moving in some grand 
path toward a point in the constellation Hercules. After 
much doubt and many critical examinations, subsequent 
investigators have succeeded in establishing this opinion on 
an indubitable basis. 

But in the hands of Argelander, Struve, Peters, and especi- 
ally of Maedler, the theory of this solar motion was made to 
assume still more definite form. Inferring, with others, from 
analogy, that the path described by our luminary must be the 



3T 

curve of an orbit around some remote center, the latter of 
these astronomers betook himself to the examination of 
ancient catalogues of stars, with a view to ascertain if there 
was any discoverable district in the heavens where all the ap- 
parent motions of the stars were such as to comply with the 
conditions which must necessarily characterize a central region. 
Such a district was found; and the star ALCYONE, in the 
cluster Pleiades, was decided to be its center. Around this 
point, therefore, our own sun, and the whole firmamental 
cluster to which it belongs, were supposed to be revolving 
with immense velocity, in orbits coincident with the general 
plane of the Milky Way, and requiring no less than eighteen 
millions of years to accomplish a single revolution ! 

Whatever diversity of opinion there may exist relative to 
the legitimacy of the conclusion of Maedler, which locates the 
center of alleged orbitual motion at the point occupied by the 
star Alcyone, I believe it is now generally, if not universally 
admitted by astronomers, that such orbitual motion does exist 
around some center, not very remote from that region. 

The evidence upon this point greatly strengthens the 
analogy which, of itself, points to the conclusion that those 
isolated globular and other clusters of stars, situated in the re- 
moter realms of space, and which appear to have been aggre- 
gated by internal power of gravitation, are also scenes of per- 
petual rotatory and orbitual motion. Did not these motions, 
with their resultant centrifugal forces, exist to countervail, in 
some degree, the force of internal gravity, those firmamental 
clusters would doubtless exist in much more dense masses 
than those in which they now appear. 

But if this conclusion thus approximates to a certainty, 
there are facts which point to a still more extended appli- 
cation of its principles. In the southern heavens, and quite 

4 



- 



38 THE SIDEEEAL UNIVERSE. 

detached from the Milky Way, are two bright spots which 
southern navigators have designated by the name of " Magel- 
lan's Clouds" During his astronomical residence at the Cape 
of Good Hope some years ago, Sir John Herschel, by the aid 
of his twenty feet telescope, succeeded in analyzing these ob- 
jects, and found that each of them, and especially the larger 
one, was a system of firmaments, combining many extensive 
clusters into one! Of these, as systems, analogy would 
authorize us -to predicate internal gravity and general and par- 
ticular rotatory and orbitual motions. But the magnitude of 
this complex unity, however inconceivably great, may, after 
all, be but an atom in the immensity of ulterior creations to 
which it belongs ; and, on the bases of its analogies, we may 
rise to the ideal of a still higher system a system which may 
be supposed to embrace in its structure all the firmamental 
clusters, nebulae, and systems of systems heretofore known to 
telescopic observers, and countless more besides. 

Nor is the idea of such an all-comprehensive system of sys- 
tems without the support of facts, as well as of analogies. It is 
said that although nebulae, resolvable and irresolvable, appear 
in every quarter of the heavens, they appear in greatest 
abundance in a comparatively narrow zone which encircles 
the heavens, cutting the plane of the Milky Way at right 
angles. This arrangement goes far to establish the idea of a 
Frimament of firmaments, a Galaxy of galaxies, in which all 
sidereal creations which have come within the reach of the 
most powerful telescopes, are bound together in one common 
structure, brought within the sphere of the same common laws, 
and made to observe throughout, similar rotatory and orbitual 
motions with those which prevail in our own solar sys- 
tem, which latter may be considered as an epitome 
representative of the whole ! 



THE GEE AT CENTER. 39 

We have thus seen that wherever the wonders of the 
celestial spaces have been distinctly unfolded, the revolution 
of satellites around planets, of planets around suns, of suns 
around still greater suns, of systems around still greater 
systems, of clusters around still greater clusters, is revealed 
as an omniprevalent law. And seeing the complete unity of 
plan and harmony of operations so far as we have gone see- 
ing the affectionate co-relations which are exhibited between 
molecules, and worlds, and systems, and all stellar congre- 
gations, with all their included parts may we not prolong 
the chain of analogy one link farther, and conclude that they 
all, together with the myriads of similar creations which dwell 
in depths of space which no optical power can ever penetrate, 
owe the bond of unity w r hich connects them, and the har- 
monial influence which wields them in their mighty courses, 
to one grand Source of central power, whose attractions they 
all implicitly obey, and from whose genial radiations all 
receive their life 1 If the links of the analogical chain have 
been found to closely adhere through all the labyrinths of 
every realm of being whose existence may be verified by 
other processes, who shall begin to distrust that chain for the 
first time, after it has conducted us safely thus far 1 

Though the hypothesis of a common Pivot and Center of 
gravity of the whole universe may not, in the nature of 
things, be susceptible of an ocular or complete mathematical 
demonstration, yet there is interior evidence I had almost 
said even the evidence of intuition that it is true in some 
form ; and I believe this idea is now extensively received as 
an article of astronomical faith. 

Let no one suppose that amid these inconceivable dis- 
tances and magnitudes, the fixed principles of reasoning lose 
their validity and become untrustworthy. It is true that in 



40 THE SIDEREAL UNIVERSE. 

these giddy flights, the imagination and conceptive powers 
become lost and bewildered ; but so they do, in a great de- 
gree, before we have traveled beyond the immediate neigh- 
borhood of our own mundane sphere. The distance from the 
earth to our own sun is measured by millions of miles ; and 
even this, as one of the shortest of astronomical distances, the 
imagination can but faintly conceive. The distance from the 
sun to the stars is measured by millions of diameters of the 
earth's orbit ; the distance from firmament to firmament is 
measured by millions of interstellar spaces; the distance 
even of the most interior firmament from the great Center of 
all centers, may, in the efforts of the imagination, be measured 
by millions, or even billions of inter-firmamental spaces ; and 
the circumference of the whole Grand Structure, may even 
transcend all human conceptions of infinitude; yet form, 
locality, relative position, center, circumference, and hence 
limits, must exist as absolutely as they exist in the smallest 
spherule of matter visible to the human eye ; and to the view 
of an absolutely infinite Being, the whole Universe of uni- 
verses may be of comparative dimensions not greater than a 
single grain of sand ! And if Ehrenberg could, by the aid of 
the microscope, descry a whole animal kingdom in a single 
drop of water, each individual of the myriads of whose ani- 
mated forms must have had eyes, teeth, stomach, intestines, 
and all the appurtenances of a complete anatomical structure, 
governed by unvarying physiological laws; and if by the 
same means he could demonstrate that a particular geological 
deposit, fourteen feet thick and miles in extent, was made up 
almost exclusively of the skeletons of animals, forty-one bil- 
lions of which could exist in a single cubic inch, then we may 
rest assured that the principles of nature exist in no greater 
completeness, and in no higher or more inconceivable compli- 



A GENERALIZATION. 4:1 

cations, 'm infinites than they do in infinitesimals. We may, 
then, without crowding out any natural principle, or doing 
violence to any just method of reasoning, reduce the scale of 
the universe, in our imagination, to dimensions convenient to 
be contemplated on all sides, and follow out our reasonings 
with ease and comparative certainty respecting its properties, 
forces, laws, internal arrangements, and progressive processes 
of formation, from beginnings to ultimates. 

Considering, then, all general natural principles as applying 
equally to greatest and to smallest analogous cosmical forms, 
and to the whole universal structure as well as to its indi- 
vidual parts, we proceed to another branch of the chain of 
analogical reasoning, which will speedily conduct us to the 
primal condition of the substance from which the material uni- 
verse and all it contains, was organized. 

The nebular theory of planetary and solar formations, as 
applying to our solar system, has been shown to rest on so 
many probabilities as seemingly to justify the undoubting 
conviction of its truth. But if this theory is admitted as ap- 
plicable to our own solar system, its applicability to forma- 
tions in the sidereal realms will, after the foregoing system of 
universal analogies has been traced out, scarcely be disputed, 
especially as it was in the sidereal realms that the first facts 
were observed which seemed to intimate its truth. And if all 
planetary and solar agglomerations originated from previously 
diffused nebulous masses, then, in view of the unbroken chain 
which, we have seen, binds all systems together as one system, 
the following statement is its own sufficient proof: 

As the satellites were formed from the same original nebu- 
lous mass from which the planets originated, so a prior state 
of that mass was a state of unity and interdiffusion with the 
mass which composed the sun. The materials of that mass, 



42 THE SIDEREAL UNIVERSE. 

in like manner, were previously connected and inte'rdiffused 
with the mass which formed the more interior sun around 
which it revolves, and out of which were formed all such other 
ultimate suns as, in common with our own, now revolve around 
the same center. The substance of all suns and systems com- 
posing our firmament, may be supposed also to have been 
previously interdiffused in one amorphous, undistinguishable 
mass. So the substance of the suns and systems of all other 
firmaments, together with the substance of the great central 
sphere of universal attraction which binds and subordinates 
them all, was, in like manner, in an original nebulous and 
formless state ; and the whole universal substance was then 
but one substance, so highly attenuated and expanded as to be 
without definite forms, divisions, or compartments an in- 
definable, universal MONAD ! In short, as our own solar sys- 
tem is a child of the great Universal System, and is formed in 
the image of its parent, the primal condition of the materials 
of one, must have been precisely analogous to that of the 
other; and if the solar system germinated from an original 
nebulae, so did the system of the whole universe. 

But in thus unraveling the complexity of all material for- 
mations, and tracing them all to an original, unitary, and 
chaotic state, we at the same time unravel the complexity of 
motion, and not only arrive at its original and simplest form, 
but at a state in which it must necessarily have had no form-r- 
a state in which its principles were as chaotic as original mat- 
ter itself, or, what is the same thing, at a state in which no 
established motion existed. 

We have thus arrived by an easy, and, admitting our pre- 
mises, an apparently certain, process, at the very root of the 
Tree of universal material creations at the great unitary 
Germ of all firmaments, suns, systems, and worlds, with the 



ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS. 43 

mineral, Vegetable, animal, and human forms which dwell 
upon their surfaces. If there has been any error in the fore- 
going reasonings, it has probably been an error in. the form 
rather than in the principles of our conclusions, and the error 
therefore does not essentially effect the main object contem- 
plated in this disquisition. But of the truth of the position to 
which we have arrived by this analytical process, from ulti- 
mates to origins, or from effects to causes, additional evidences 
will hereafter incidentally occur as we proceed, by an opposite 
and synthetical process, from causes to effects. The two pro- 
cesses will serve as mutual correctives of each other ; and by 
the aid of both united, we hope to somewhat enlarge our 
truthful conceptions in relation to those principles, laws, and 
operations of the universe without, which naturally lie beyond 
the province of mathematics and ocular demonstration, but 
which, nevertheless, have their counterparts, representatives, 
and exponents in the universe within. 



CHAPTER Y. 

MATEEIAL BEGINNINGS AS POINTING TO A 
SUPEK-MATEEIAL CAUSE. 

HAVING thus traced the system of material creation through 
a series of anterior conditions, comprehending periods which, 
perhaps, no assemblage of arithmetical figures could express, 
to a state in which the materials of all worlds, systems, and 
firmaments, were in a condition of diffused attenuated vapor, 
with no definite or established motions, the inquiry next 
arises, Was even this the absolutely primitive state of material 
things? Did matter ever exist in any form or forms previous 
to this state of chaos 1 or, if not, was it, in this state, eternal 1 
or, if not absolutely eternal either in the state of forms or of 
chaos, whence and how did it originate 1 

The idea that matter ever existed in any mundane forms 
previous to this, and became subsequently dissolved, not only 
has no analogy to support it, but seems to be contradicted by 
an established law of nature. I refer to that law by which 
amorphous or chaotic matter in motion has the general and 
predominant tendency to assume and multiply forms. It is 
not denied that motion of particles tends also to the dissolu- 
tion of material forms, but that dissolution is always subser- 
vient to immediate and higher recombinations. The kingdom 
of motion and forms, therefore, have ever been, and still are 
(and we may confidently believe ever will be), making farther 
and farther encroachments upon the realms of chaos and 



SUPEK-MATERIAL CAUSE. 45 

inertia ; and whatever is conquered by the former can never 
be fully reconquered by the latter. And this is because the 
former power is positive, and the latter is negative. 

If matter, therefore, was ever in a state of mundane or or- 
ganized forms previous to the chaotic state now under contem- 
plation, it must have for ever continued in that same general 
state, and even to progressively unfold the tendencies by which 
its forms were assumed; and no natural power could have 
brought it back again to the formless state. The chaotic or 
nebulous state in which we have seen it must necessarily have 
existed at the beginning of the cosmical creation, may, there- 
fore, be inferred to be its primitive state. 

But that matter, even in this indefinite state, was absolutely 
eternal, is an idea which analogy, so far as it speaks upon the 
subject, distinctly contradicts.* The material of each form 
and kingdom in nature may be traced backward from highest 
to lowest developments, immediately beyond which latter it 
loses itself in a more rudimental creation, which serves as its 
groundwork. Thus the animal kingdom, traced downward to 
its lowest and simplest forms, finally loses its character as 
animal, and merges into the vegetable ; the vegetable, in like 
manner, finally loses itself in the mineral ; the mineral or 
crystalline forms pass downward into the general amorphous 
mass of planetary matter ; planetary matter may be traced 
downward through more rudimental geological conditions, and 
through igneous liquid, and aeriform fluid, until its distinction 
is lost in planetary nebula; this, in imagination, may be 
traced, in like manner, until it is lost in the general gaseous 
mass of the uncondensed sun ; and so we may proceed, in re- 
trograde steps, until we find the materials of all forms and 

* Let it be remarked, once for all, that by " matter," I mean physical substance in 
contradistinction to spiritual substance. 



46 MATERIAL BEGINNINGS AND 

kingdoms are lost in the great common mass of original cha- 
otic matter. 

But in thus tracing back all forms and kingdoms to their 
respective and immediate predecessors, we at the same time 
trace backward the one and analogous kingdom of Universal 
Matter as such (which includes all the other kingdoms), from 
its highest to its lowest forms ; and as there is a point beneath 
which all kingdoms lose their identity, and their essences are 
merged in an anterior kingdom, so analogy would seem to in- 
dicate that there is a prior point of attenuation and refinement 
at which the great kingdom of Matter also loses its character 
as matter or physical substance, and thus that it originated as 
matter, from a prior source, as did all its included sub-king- 
doms. This idea would appear in greater clearness and force 
of probability, if contemplated in the light of the doctrine of 
Series, Degrees, and Correspondences, hereafter to be brought 
into view ; and it will receive incidental confirmation as we 
proceed to consider the origin of Motion. 

If (contrary to an extreme probability, not to say absolute 
certainty, established in previous remarks) the hypothesis is 
still insisted upon, that the chaotic matter of which this uni- 
verse is composed, consists of the dissolved elements of a pre- 
vious material universe, the question will still arise, Whence 
originated the matter composing that universe 1 And so we 
may extend our inquiries back through a thousand imagined 
pre-existent universes ; but the mind must come to a resting- 
place somewhere. It is logically just as certain that there was 
a first universe (if we are mistaken in supposing that this is 
the first), as it is that there was a first vegetable form or class 
of forms, which latter proposition is positively demonstrated 
by facts in geology. And after we have gone back in imagi- 
nation, to an absolutely first universe, the question will still 



SUPEB-MATEEIAL CAUSE. 47 

return unanswered, Whence originated the physical substance 
composing that universe 1 

As the line of progression traced backward necessarily leads 
to a beginning of the system of developments to which it 
applies, so the line of causation, inversely traced, necessarily 
leads to a .Mr^ Cause, which is itself uncaused, though contain- 
ing in itself the elements of all causes, and hence all exist- 
ences. And as the whole Animal Kingdom, for example, 
necessarily rests upon the basis of a prior and immediately 
corelated and correspondent Kingdom the Kingdom of Veg- 
etation so the whole Kingdom of universal materiality, so to 
speak, as necessarily rests upon the basis of a prior and imme- 
diately corelated and correspondent Kingdom. This King- 
dom, then, must be ^ra-physical, in the same way as the 
Vegetable Kingdom is ultra-animal ; and it must differ in na- 
ture and constitution from the whole Kingdom of physical 
substance, at least as much as the Vegetable Kingdom differs 
from the Animal, or as the impelling and moving essence of 
the human mind differs from the impelled and moved essence 
of the human body. 

Now, unless we suppose this ultra-physical (and hence un- 
physical) Kingdom to be a Kingdom of Spirituality, there is 
no conceptive power corresponding to it in the human mind, 
and hence it is to the human mind a nothing, and can not even 
be an object of thought, much less of faith. 

But it may be asked, " Whence originated this Kingdom of 
Spirituality, which it is here alleged must have served as the 
basis of physical creation 1" If we should answer that it 
originated in a higher and ulterior spirituality, and that that 
originated in a still higher, and that in a still higher ; and if 
we could thus prolong our thoughts to an absolute eternity 
and in search of the Origin of origins, we would still have only 



48 MATERIAL BEGINNINGS AND 

spirituality an INFINITE REALM of Spirituality, beyond the 
idea of which our thoughts could not possibly go. We may 
set it down, then, as a conclusion which all analogy affirms, 
and which there is no conceivable reason to doubt, that this 
whole realm of Materiality, originated in this prior and cor- 
respondent Realm of SPIRITUALITY. 

Now, spirituality, in its interior nature, possesses the prop- 
erties of affection, thought, and volition, and these, again, are 
the attributes of personality. This ultimate, and hence infinite, 
Realm of Spirituality, therefore, involves the idea which we 
mean to convey by the term GOD : and the infinite series of 
degrees of spirituality of which the mind has just conceived in 
its search after the Origin of origins, may be supposed to cor- 
respond to the infinite series of degrees of the harmonious 
faculties of the one Infinite God, as these may be supposed to 
be represented in their ascending scale, from the most exterior 
portion of the Divine nature which connects with Materiality, 
to the most interior portions of the Divine Soul, which pro- 
jects, generates, and vitalizes all things. 

In saying, therefore, that the whole Kingdom of Physical 
Substance as such, originated in a prior and corresponding 
Kingdom of Spirituality, we, in effect, say that it originated 
In a Source possessing affection, intelligence, volition, and hence 
personality in a Being, who, without any restraint or constraint 
from outer and physical influences (which did not then exist), 
could freely create, or abstain from creating, according to the 
internal promptings of his own Infinite Mind. 

But let me not be understood as arguing that the matter of 
this universe was created by God out of nothing. The mind 
can not conceive of any such thing as nothing, or of something 
coming out of nothing ; and therefore the idea may be at once 
dismissed from the mind as being itself a mental nothing. But 



SUPER- MATERIAL CAUSE. 49 

if we suppose that spirit is an essence, and that matter, as such, 
was created out of this essence, there will at least in this 
be no violation of the laws of thought; and the reasons on 
which such suppositions may be grounded will incidentally and 
more distinctly appear as we proceed. 

There is a philosophy extant which insists that matter has 
of itself an inherent 'power of motion, and that matter (or phys- 
ical substance) is eternal. But that this assumption is unten- 
able, is obvious from the following considerations : Motion in 
matter, as shown before, necessarily tends to bring matter 
into forms ; and if motion was from eternity in eternal matter, 
then matter must from eternity have been brought into forms 
nay, into the ultimate and highest forms which that motion 
is qualified to engender. But as it is sensibly certain that 
these highest forms did not exist for.ever, and rationally cer- 
tain that they must have ultimately sprung from a state of 
primeval chaos, it follows, of necessity, that motion in matter 
could not have been from eternity. 

Moreover, if motion is an inherent property of matter, that 
motion must be the result of a force adequate to produce it ; 
and that force must be either mechanical or chemical. But 
that matter contains of itself, and in itself, no mechanical force, 
is self-evident. Conceive of any body of matter, whether an 
atom or a world, being in a state of perfect rest : it is evident 
that that body has within itself no mechanical force adequate 
to move itself, much less to act upon kindred bodies. It is 
clear, therefore, that matter has within itself, and originally of 
itself, no mechanical force adequate to produce motion in 
any case ; and, therefore, if a body at rest is not acted upon 
by an extraneous moving force, it will necessarily remain, for 
aught mechanical forces can do, in precisely the same place, 
and will possess precisely the same bulk and constituents, to 

5 



50 MATERIAL BEGINNINGS. 

all eternity. This self-evident and generally recognized prop- 
erty of matter is called its inertia. 

It is not denied that a chemical power a power of expan- 
sion and condensation, or of altering the internal arrangements 
of particles may be lodged in bodies of matter; but this 
power is only the striving of particles for an equilibrium. But 
unless there is a constantly active influence received from a 
foreign source, the equilibrium must necessarily be finally at- 
tained, and all action would then cease, never to be renewed 
by any inherent force, simply because such force is exhausted. 

If we then consider the whole universal mass of physical 
substance, as the mass of particles supposed to be subject to 
this internal chemical action, that action, and its producing 
force, could not be eternal and unoriginated, because in that 
case it would manifestly, from eternity, have attained to an 
internal equilibrium, and all action would have ceased. These 
considerations show that even chemical action, and therefore 
chemical force, must have had a beginning, and therefore a 
cause, in some power or contriving agent beyond themselves, 
and outside of the matter in which they inhere.* But as there 
was no other realm of physical matter from which they could 
be supplied, we are driven to the only other alternative of sup- 
posing that they were supplied from a Spiritual Source from 
the personal Realm of affection, intelligence, and volition, which 
we have before proved to be unoriginated, and hence infinite. 

If this reasoning is correct, then the conclusion is obvious, 
that all motion of whatever kind, as well as the physical sub- 
stance acted upon by it, must have had in ultimate origin in 
Spirit IN GOD ! 

* It may be added, that chemical forces, as inherent properties of original, amor- 
phous, nebulous matter, must have been exceedingly weak, if in such matter such in- 
herent forces could have existed at all, which is extremely doubtful. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

PEINCIPLES OF UNIVEESAL SYNTHESIS. 

WE have now completed our descending view of the realm 
of Being without us, and traced the material creation to its 
super-material hence spiritual hence Divine, Cause. The 
completion of this general analysis unfolds to us the true basis 
of all synthesis ; and, keeping in view the Spirituality, Self- 
existence, and Divinity of the Original Cause, we may now 
proceed to inquire, what may be known, or legitimately 
believed, in relation to the origin, modus operandi, and govern- 
ment of Matter and Motion, and of all the subsequently 
established creations, systems, and kingdoms now comprised 
in the general fabric of outer Being? 

I am aware, however, that many will be likely to consider 
questions of this nature as too far above the sphere of the hu- 
man intellect, to justify an attempt even at the most general 
solution. But let us not be discouraged. It was intimated in 
the outset of the present treatise, that nothing exists in the 
realm of being WITHOUT man, which has not an antitype and 
correspondent in the realm of being WITHIN him, and that all 
which exists without, and all which exists within, possess 
toward each other the relations of cognizable objects and 
principles, and cognizing faculties. Besides, we have already 
found reason to believe that Law is unvarying; and if so, it 
may be traced in its operations, not only inversely from ulti- 
mates to origins of creation's unfoldings, but also directly 



52 PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. 

from origins to ultimates. And as the wonderful powers 
of analogy have conducted us with apparent safety through 
the immense labyrinths of the stellar creations, in our efforts 
to trace them downward to their common source, we should 
not despair of deriving some substantial aid from the same 
mode of reasoning, when applied to the solution of those more 
profound and important questions which are embraced in a 
synthetical investigation of the system of Being. 

As forming the basis of the process of investigation now to 
be pursued, we here lay it down, as a self-evident proposition, 
that each and every effect is germinally contained in its cause, 
and hence, when developed, necessarily corresponds to its cause. 
Were this not the case, neither cause nor effect could properly 
be called such, and there could be no conceivable sequential 
relation between the two. 

For example, in the order of tangible developments by 
which man is surrounded, the Vegetable Kingdom precedes, 
and serves as the material so.urce, of the Animal Kingdom. It 
therefore forms the material element of the cause of the 
Animal Kingdom, though a more essential element of the 
cause of this and all other creations, is of a spiritual character, 
supplied from a source that is above the particular creation to 
which it applies, as will be further illustrated hereafter. But 
the two kingdoms, sustaining toward each other, as they do, 
the relations of the material element of a cause, and the 
material element of an effect, stand, thus far, as mutual cor- 
respondents and exponents of each other. In like manner, the 
Vegetable Kingdom stands as a material correspondent and 
exponent of the Mineral Kingdom, which is its material source 
and cause, and contains the fundamental principles of its com- 
position and physical properties, though in a lower degree. So 
the Mineral Kingdom, in like manner, has its physical corre- 



PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. 53 

spondent in the mass of amorphous planetary matter which 
served as its source ; and so, by like gradations, the chain of 
analogy carries our minds backward through planetary nebulas, 
solar nebulae, etc., until we come to the one great, universal, 
undivided mass of chaotic matter, which must necessarily 
have contained within itself, undeveloped, the material ele- 
ments of stellar systems, solar systems, planets, minerals, 
vegetables, animals, and even the physical elements of the 
human constitution. Though indefinite in the extreme, this, 
in its occult properties and adaptations, .must, as a universal 
material Germ, have involved the physical correspondences of 
all the creations which subsequently sprang from it, in the 
same way as the acorn involves the physical correspondences 
of the future oak ; and by an intelligence capable of perceiv- 
ing its interior properties and adaptations, it might have been 
predicted, in a general way, what kind of creations were des- 
tined to spring from it. 

But as the Animal Kingdom, physically speaking, was 
previously contained in the Vegetable, and the Vegetable 
Kingdom was contained in the Mineral, and so on throughout 
the descending scale, so the great original, universal Kingdom 
of unformed matter, and whose undeveloped properties and 
principles were typical of all subsequent and subordinate 
Kingdoms, was itself as one Kingdom, previously involved 
in the infinite, eternal, and unoriginated Kingdom of Spirit- 
uality, which, as before shown, constitutes the DIVINE PER- 
SONALITY. This Kingdom of Spirituality in other words, 
the Divine Personal Being comprises, therefore, not only the 
material (or substantial), but the spiritual and volitional, and 
hence the entire elements of the Cause of all things in universal 
creation ; and hence the Creator and the created must stand as 
mutual exponents of each other. 



54: PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. 

That the great Kingdom of universal matter, and what, for 
the sake of perspicuity, we have called the great Kingdom of 
universal Spirit, stand in relations to each other similar to 
(though more comprehensive and perfect than) the relations 
subsisting between any two conjoined subordinate kingdoms 
in nature, is an idea which it is desired the reader should dis- 
tinctly comprehend, as it lies at the foundation of all true, 
material, and spiritual philosophy, and will, as it is believed, 
tend to entirely reclaim science from the general ten- 
dency which it has long apparently had, to Pantheism and 
Atheism. 

Considering that matter, as such, originated in the creative 
efforts of Spirit, and hence Mind, there is another point of 
view, from which it will appear that matter, both in its 
primeval state, and in all its subsequent states of mundane 
forms, must necessarily have been in exact correspondence 
with its Source and producing Cause. We know something 
of the nature and operations of Mind, by experience and con- 
sciousness. We know that the mind of the architect, for 
instance, constructs an edifice within itself, or within its own 
conceptions and thoughts constructs it as an invisible and 
spiritual edifice before proceeding to give it a physical 
form in the outer world. After the building is physically 
erected, therefore, it stands as a precise image and corre- 
spondent of its archetype or conception which first existed in 
the mind. 

Applying these principles to the subject under present in- 
vestigation, we may consider the Divine Thought as the Archi- 
tect, and the universe, or any of its systematically organized 
stages of development, as the Edifice. Not only, then, must 
the archetype of the universe in its maturity, with all its har- 
monious worlds and systems, but even the archetypes of 



PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. OO 

those atomic and infinitesimal forms constituting original 
chaotic matter, have distinctly pre-existed in the Divine, 
spiritual, and mental constitution.* 

The Deity and the universe the realm of Spirit and the 
realm of Matter therefore, stand to each other in the relation 
of Archetype and Antitype of Cause and Effect and there- 
fore the two, as before remarked, stand as mutual exponents 
of each other. In order, therefore, to arrive at some general 
conclusions in reference to the constitution and principles of 
creation as a whole, and also in respect to the constitution and 
principles of its included and correspondent sub-systems, let 
us first briefly interrogate Reason and Intuition in reference to 
some such general facts as we can comprehend, respecting the 
constitution of the Divine Being. 

The only way in which we can obtain any definite and pro- 
per conception of the Divine Being, is by first conceiving of 
a true and undegenerated human being such being the culmi- 
nating point of all Divine creations, and hence the embodied 
representative of all the Divine affections. Although it is not 
the intention to base the propositions of this work on the au- 
thority of inspired writings (whatever confirmations of such 
writings may be incidentally developed in the course of our 
philosophical investigations), we can not, in this place, avoid 
noticing the biblical declaration that " God created man in his 
own image," as impliedly sanctioning an endeavor on our part 
to understand all that we may comprehend of God, by a com- 
parison of the knowledge we have of man. Spirit, indeed, is 
essentially of the same nature wherever found, whether exist- 
ing in a finite or an infinite degree, though it is acknowledged 

* The idea of Archetypes, as here presented, was originally conceived by Plato, 
and formed a prominent feature of .his philosophy; though the author here derives it 
from sources independent of Plato's teachings. 



56 PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. 

that it may exist in different shades of moral character as 
resulting from different combinations, developments, and direc- 
tions of the faculties. Conceive, then, of a perfectly consti- 
tuted man a man whose physical, intellectual, and moral 
natures are in harmonious development, and then conceive 
this man to be expanded to infinitude, and you have the truest 
and highest conception of God of which the human mind is 
capable. 

But it would be diverting the reader too far from the object 
of this portion of our treatise, to enter at present into an 
elaborate discussion of the question, What is man? This 
question shall be discussed at length in the second part of this 
work. But for the present we must confine ourselves to a few 
propositions which, to intelligent minds, will appear more or 
less self-evident, and of the truth of which, as well as of the 
ulterior positions which they will serve to illustrate, confirma- 
tion will accumulate as we proceed, until any reasonable 
doubts with which some minds may at first regard them, will, 
it is believed, be either greatly diminished or entirely dissi- 
pated. 

Let it be apprehended, then, that the most general constitu- 
ents of human personality, are three; viz., 1. Soul, or interior 
vitality, which is the seat of the affections ; 2. Spirit, or the 
organized, pervading nerve-element, which, in its lower de- 
grees, is the vehicle of sensation, and in its higher degrees, is 
the seat of the understanding ; and 3. Body, or vehicle of 
outer manifestation and action. 

Precisely corresponding to these are the three most compre- 
hensive constituents of the Divine Being ; viz., 1. Interior 
Soul, Life, or Love ; 2. Spirit or Wisdom ; 3. Outer sphere 
or vehicle of operative Energy, the latter corresponding to the 
body in man. 



THE SEVEN-FOLD SERIES. 57 

But the constituents, both of the human and Divine person- 
ality, considered in more detailed reference to elements, forms, 
and outer objectivities, are also, in each case, susceptible of a 
seven-fold division, which may be briefly stated as follows: 1. 
Subjective Love, or Love as an abstract quality of the personal 
essence ; 2. Subjective Wisdom, or Wisdom as an abstract 
quality of the personal essence ; 3. Subjective volition, or 
volition as an abstract power of the two previous elements com- 
bined, and a procedure from them both; 4. The essences 
having the properties of Love, Wisdom, and Volition, em- 
bodied in personal organism ; 5. Objective Love, or Love as 
related to outer forms ; 6. Objective Wisdom, or Wisdom as 
related to outer forms ; 7. Habitation, or a complete system 
of outer objects and conditions related to the whole personal 
nature and desires, and in which such nature and desires be- 
come embodied and represented. 

In man the elements of this seven-fold classification con- 
tain within themselves many corresponding sub-divisions, 
some of which are much more obvious than the foregoing 
general divisions, as will be seen when, in the course of our 
inquiries respecting the MICROCOSM or the universe within, it 
comes in order to discuss them. In God the elements of this 
seven-fold division may be presumed to contain an infinite 
number of sub-divisions, all of which are, in like manner, sus- 
ceptible of corresponding seven-fold classifications ; and their 
co-relations and inter-communications may be supposed to 
constitute the infinite harmonies and beatitudes of the Divine 
soul ! Our object at this stage of our treatise, however, is 
little more than to unfold the idea of these classifications as a 
basis on which the great plan-work of creation may be con- 
ceived, leaving such evidences of their truthfulness as exist in 
the nature of things to be incidentally developed as we proceed. 



58 PRINCIPLES OF SYN-THESIS. 

I 

This seven-fold classification of the principles of the Divine 
constitution, is probably what the inspired seer St. John had 
reference to when he spoke of the " seven Spirits of God which 
go out into all the earth." And it was undoubtedly the out- 
goings and efficient operations of these which produced the 
various seven-fold Divine antitypes which were shown to the 
same inspired seer under the forms of the seven churches of 
Asia Minor ; the Lamb with seven horns and seven eyes ; the 
book with seven seals, and their successive openings at seven 
different epochs ; the seven angels with seven trumpets ; the 
seven thunders ; the seven last plagues, etc.* 

If it be true, then, that there are these seven natural 
divisions in the constituents of the one Divine Being, it is 
obvious that any system of creation or operation which 
presents a complete reflex of what is contained in the 
Divine Source from which it sprang, must contain a re- 
presentation and outer expression of each one of these Di- 
vine constituents, and must therefore, as a whole, be also 
seven-fold. 

But we have seen that Nature, as a Whole, is divided into 
many Systems, Kingdoms, or more properly speaking, Dis- 
creet Degrees, rising one above another. Each one of these 
Kingdoms or Degrees (as will gradually be illustrated in what 
follows) contains within itself the seven-fold series of parts, 
as the natural evolution, and reproduction, on a higher scale, 

* The number seven appears to have been anciently recognized as a general number 
of completeness, and as such it appears to have been habitually employed by the 
sacred writers. Thus, in their classifications, there were seven days (or periods) of 
creation ; seven days of the week ; seven years from one sabbatic year to another ; seven 
tunes seven years from one jubilee to another, etc., (see by the aid of the concordance, 
the numerous instances in which the number seven occurs in the Old and New Testa- 
ments). Some of the ancient heathen nations, also, adopted the seven-fold classifica- 
tion as of extensive application, especially- to spiritual and Divine things ; and it waa 
introduced by Pythagoras from India into Greece. 






HARMONIAL SCALE OF CREATION. 59 

of the seven-fold series of the Degree or Kingdom im- 
mediately below it in the order of development ; and all of 
these, separately and collectively, are evolutions from, and 
correspondents of, the Divine seven-fold Constitution, which 
is the Originator and Cause of all. Each one of these seven- 
fold series, moreover, corresponds to the diatonic scale in 
music, and which, with its seven constituent notes, is therefore 
its natural oral interpreter and exponent, Thus the various 
Degrees or Kingdoms of natural developments, may be con- 
sidered as octaves, rising one above another, the same as the 
octaves in music. Each octave exactly corresponds to, and 
harmonizes, note by note, with all other octaves, whether they 
be on a higher or lower scale ; so that if we fully understand 
any octave, Degree, or Kingdom of natural development, we 
have in it a measure and exponent of all others. Thus the 
system of nature, as a Whole, may be considered as one 
grand Musical Organ, compassing all these octaves, and which, 
in the hands of the Great Organist, the Divine Being, in 
whose infinite series of octaves of Love and Wisdom, exists 
the very soul and origin of all harmony, is capable of 
sending forth every where those silent notes of harmony 
and music which have been perceived and deeply felt, 
by every truly elevated and interiorly developed human 
soul ! 

The idea of the " music of the spheres," therefore, is not 
merely a poetic fancy, but a sublime reality, whose basis and 
origin are exhibited in the foregoing simple principles. 

That this harmonial scale of creation, as corresponding to 
the harmonial scale of degrees of Love and Wisdom of the 
Divine Mind, is not a mere fanciful conception, will become 
more and more obvious as we proceed, It will be shown, 
that not only does each one of these degrees or octaves of 



60 PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. 

creation, by its correspondence with all others, serve as their 
natural exponent, but that each octave, if its constituents 
are correctly classified, rests upon internal evidence of its 
own. And if this serial order of graduated progression is 
duly recognized, and its laws are properly understood, we 
may use any seven-fold classification, known to be correct, in 
correcting the errors of others, just as the musician would 
correct the discords of one octave by the harmonies of 
another. 

But before proceeding further, we must speak briefly of 
the laws which, as we proceed, will be seen to govern the 
septinary classifications, and by which it may be generally 
known whether any classification is correct. In each correct 
classification, the members, in their numerical order, may, in 
general terms, be distinguished as follows : 

Number ONE is the number of simple unity. 

Two is the number of productive unity, and in general 
terms comprises positive and negative, active and passive, or 
male and female, principles. 

THREE is the number of self-sustaining unity. 

FOUR is the number of Organization. 

FIVE is the number of exterior completeness. There being 
five exterior properties to outer things, man, hence, has five 
exterior senses, whose object is to give information of them to 
the interior soul. As the five exterior properties also exist, 
with express reference to two interior and higher properties, 
the number five is also a number of aspiration, as will be 
better understood hereafter. 

Six is the number of subordinal association, and of 
harmonial, peripheral revolution, as around a governing 
center. 

SEVEN is the number of final completeness, embracing both 



NUMERICAL CLASSIFICATION. 61 

exteriors and interiors. Hence it is the pivotal and governing 
number of the series.* 

This septinary classification may also be embodied in the 
triad. Thus the first, second, and third members of any 
seven-fold series, form one trinity, and therefore may count as 
a unit ; the fourth, fifth, and sixth members form a second 
trinity, and count another unit; while the seventh member, 
which is always equal, or rather superior, to all the rest put 
together, forms a third unit, and completes a general trinity. 
As a guide to correctness in any septinary classification, it is 
important to observe that the first and second trinities in the 
series, should bear a certain general and particular correspond- 
ence with each other. 

Whatever obscurities may at first exist in the foregoing 
statement, will be abundantly clarified by the illustrative 
examples which will incidentally occur as we proceed. It is here 
given mainly as a hint to the reader, that the classifications in 
which we shall have to deal, are not arbitrary, but founded 
in the nature of things. Considering, therefore, that each 
natural seven-fold series corresponds to, and illustrates every 
other, and that this septinary arrangement runs through every 
complete creation, system, and Kingdom in nature, the degree 
of reliance which may be placed on the legitimate results of 
the method of investigation now propose^, as well as the 
character and extent of those results, as compared with what 
may be obtained by other processes, may be illustrated as 
follows: Suppose there are a large number of timbers, 
hewn, squared, morticed, etc., and piled confusedly together. 

* The ancient inspired records also deal largely in the number twelve and its 
multiples, as an interiorly significant number. It may be remarked that the number 
twelve is evolved from the seven-fold series, and is simply the number of six pro- 
ductive unities, or positive and negative, active and passive, or male and female, 
principles. It is therefore, also, a number of subordinal association. 

6 



62 PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. 

The superficial observer, uninstructed in the synthetical 
principles of architecture, may take most accurate measure- 
ments of each of those timbers, and may give most correct 
descriptions of their shapes, abstract qualities, etc., ju-st as 
science, as ordinarily pursued, gives accurate descriptions of 
abstract facts which constitute the timbers of the great temple 
of Nature. Such an observer, however, may not be able to 
discover any intended connection between many of those 
timbers ; may be able to form little or no idea of the form, 
proportions, or correlative parts of the building which they 
would constitute, if all put together, and may even doubt that 
they were ever all intended to go together in any definite 
form ; and that science which merely analyzes, but does not 
synthesyze, experiences much the same difficulty in viewing 
the timbers of the temple of Nature. But suppose, now, that 
a skillful architect comes on the ground : he views those ap- 
parently heterogeneous timbers, not only analytically (or in 
isolated detail), but also synthetically, or in their relations to 
each other ; and, by the observance of simple rules, he pro- 
ceeds without any paring or forcing perhaps without even 
the "noise of the hammer" to erect a magnificent and 
glorious temple, in which there is a place for every timber, 
from greatest to smallest, and a timber for every place which 
requires one. Then even the previous superficial and merely 
analytical observer of the timbers will know, if he surveys 
the edifice, that those timbers were intended to go together 
precisely in the relations in which he now finds them ; and 
that the rule or theory by which they are brought together, 
is true. 

Suppose the observer noticed, however, that in the erection 
of the building, some of the timbers were a little pared, 
or forced, or warped, in order to make them join with 



THE TEMPLE AND ITS PAETS. 63 

others : still, if the building, when erected, exhibits unmis- 
takable indications' of order, and symmetry, and harmony 
of its numerous parts, it stands as evidence of general truth- 
fulness of the architectural rules by which it was erected ; 
and, if it is then known that the hewer of those timbers was 
absolutely perfect in his art r the inference would be legitimate, 
that the paring and distortion used in putting them together, 
were owing to the ignorance or unskillfulness on the part 
of the builder, by which a joist or a post was occasionally 
inverted, or made to take the intended place of another of 
somewhat similar form. 

Now, all natural facts (which, it must be confessed, 
the science and philosophy of the day view in an aspect 
somewhat heterogeneous) are timbers of the great temple of 
Nature. A system of classification and reasoning, therefore, 
by which these various facts, as timbers, may be, without 
any warping or forcing, brought into the form of one 
grand system, among the myriads of the complicated parts 
of which there may be observed a mutual dependence and 
harmony so perfect, that the loss of a single part would 
sensibly mar the symmetry of the whole ; then we may be 
assured that this system is the true one, and that the 
structure erected by it is a structure of truth. Now, a 
system of classification of this kind must exist somewhere in 
nature, if it be admitted that nature is not, after all, a more or 
less heterogeneous and disconnected mass. If the reader can 
not believe, with me, that the doctrine of the seven-fold series 
and its natural adjuncts, as herein briefly unfolded, constitutes 
that system, it is confidently believed that he will at least find it 
immensely suggestive, compelling nature, in many instances, 
to tell her own story, and to give up secrets which science 
and philosophy have hitherto been inadequate to wrest from 



64 PRINCIPLES OF SYNTHESIS. 

her grasp. For the several years which have elapsed since I 
was so fortunate as to be led to the discovery of this method 
of correspondential reasoning, I have pursued it with results 
which, to my own mind, at least, have been intensely satis- 
factory ; and, I confess, that without its aid I could not have 
had any conceptions which might have been regarded even as 
an approximation to a solution of many of the questions 
discussed in this work. 



CHAPTEK VII. 

THE SEVEN FUNDAMENTAL LAWS, AND THEIE INTIMATIONS EE- 
SPECTING THE ORIGIN AND STEUCTUKE OF THE UNIVEESE. 

DEEMING the foregoing a sufficient exposition of the prin- 
ciples which shall guide us in our further inquiries, we now 
proceed to our proposed synthetical investigation of the system 
of being without us. Pursuing the natural order of pro- 
gression, from fundamentals and generals to ultimates and 
particulars, we will first institute some comprehensive in- 
quiries respecting the origin, structure, government, etc., of 
the physical universe as a whole; and afterward, similar 
inquiries shall be pursued in relation to the Solar System, the 
planet on which we dwell, and the various systems of inani- 
mate and animate creation which exist upon its surface, of 
which the ultimate and highest is the human organization. 

And, in view of the new method of reasoning which we 
have unfolded, let it be borne in mind that if the origin, con- 
stitution, laws, functional operations, etc., of any one of the 
systematic creations proposed for investigation, can be eluci- 
dated directly and more clearly than any other, it will serve 
as a correspondential guide to the further elucidation of all the 
others. Thus, with a proper classification of the correspond- 
ing series and degrees of nature's unfoldings and operations, 
the known will 'cast the whole light of its analogies upon the 
unknown just as each timber of a temple hints the shape and 
nature of the timbers with which it is to be conjoined, and 



66 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

thus serves as a guide to the erection of the edifice ; or, as a 
single fossil bone of an extinct and previously unknown 
animal, enables the comparative anatomist to describe with 
accuracy, the animal as it lived and moved upon the earth in 
its organic completeness. Our method, if successfully pur- 
sued, will, moreover, develop the unity of principle pervading, 
in different degrees, all creations, from lowest to highest the 
unity and harmony, therefore, of the one and only system of 
universal truth; and, as we pursue the revelations of the 
physical universe, from its rudiments to its higher unfoldings, 
our thoughts, from the accumulating analogies, will gain such 
an upward impetus as may hereafter carry them directly 
through the line of those higher and corresponding truths, 
which relate to man physiologically, psychologically, spiritu- 
ally socially, politically, and religiously. 

With respect to the origin, structure, laws, etc., of the uni- 
versal cosmical system, we commence our reasonings with a 
postulate which, whether strictly true or not, can not lead us 
into important error in our subsequent deductions, since we 
have so many correctives of inharmony, as involved in the 
general series of corresponding and harmonious octaves of 
developments through which the path of our investigations 
will lead us. The postulate is, That God, from the prompt 
ings of his own interior soul, which is Love, under the 
direction of his Wisdom, which gave order and form to the 
operations of Love, formed from the most exterior, or, if the 
expression may be allowed, the least Divine and most nearly 
physical, portion of his own personal emanations, as many de- 
grees, varieties, or perhaps classes of atomic particles, as cor- 
responded to the general seven-fold harmonies of his own 
Infinite nature. The supposition that the varieties of these 
primitive atoms are, in number, just seven, or a multiple of 



PRIMORDIAL MATTER. 67 

seven, is admitted to be purely a priori, but is a legitimate 
deduction from principles before established : it is here 
offered as an introduction to propositions more certain, and 
from which it, in its turn, will receive confirmation ; though, 
if it could be proved to be untrue, it would not essentially 
affect our main argument. These varieties of atoms, then 
(whatever their number may have been), may be supposed to 
have constituted Matter in its primitive state, which probably 
was characterized by none of the distinctive properties of oxy- 
gen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, potassium, or any others of 
the so-called "elements" known to chemistry. In being 
evolved, in particleized form, from the emanated personal 
Essence of the Divine Being, the substance thus particleized 
ceased to constitute any necessary portion of the Divine 
Person, and formed a Realm or degree of Being by itself, but 
still a Realm of Being corresponding to, immediately connected 
with, and capable of receiving direct influx of vital energy from, 
the great Personal Realm of Spirit from which it proceeded. 
This vital influx, however, may be supposed to have been 
altogether optional on the part of the great Generative Spirit, 
even as was the evolution and particleization of essence 
itself; and, without the direct communication to it, of an im- 
pelling energy from the Divine source of all energy, matter, 
thus constituted, would, as before shown, have forever re- 
mained inert. 

We are next, therefore to inquire into the origin and laws 
of MOTION in this primeval chaotic mass. 

Admitting, what was before proved, that inertia is an 
inseparable property of matter left solely to itself, it is self- 
evident that Motion could have been the product only of a 
Force adequate to overcome the tendency of matter to remain 
fixed. Though force is essentially of the same general nature 



68 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

in whatsoever direction it may act, there are several modifica- 
tions of the dynamic agents in which force originates. These, 
requiring, as they do, a separate chapter for their proper eluci- 
dation, shall only receive such allusions in this place as will 
be necessary to the explication of the laws by which force 
acts in producing motion, aggregation, segregation, reciprocal 
transference, and structural stability. 

It has before been repeatedly remarked, that the universe 
without corresponds to the universe within man, and that 
therefore all principles and developments of the outer universe 
may be conceived of by the fully unfolded human faculties. 
This is because man is, physically and spiritually, an epitome 
of all previous Divine unfoldings, and therefore is a microcosm 
or little universe of himself. Though it is proposed to con- 
sider the discreet degrees of creation in their natural order of 
unfolding, tracing each octave fts it passes upward and merges 
into a higher and corresponding one, until the whole merge 
(loosely" speaking) into man ; yet, for the purpose of illustrat- 
ing the forces and laws of the physical universe by the same 
forces and laws which, in an ultimately sublimated degree, ap- 
ply to man, we will here so far anticipate the appropriate 
subject of the second part of this work, as to exhibit the fol- 
lowing self-evident truths respecting the human economy. 

In man (the microcosm or little universe) there is, 1. Pas- 
sion or Love, which corresponds to Heat ; 2. Intelligence or 
Wisdom, which corresponds to light ; 3. Nerve-essence, which 
corresponds to electricity (these three forming a trinity) ; 4. 
The agent which attracts circulating particles, and deposits 
them in the solid portions of the organism ; 5. The agent 
which removes particles from lower tissues, and deposits them 
in higher ; 6. The agent which acts and re-acts sympathetically 
between one organ and another (these three forming a second 



DYNAMIC AGENTS AND LAWS. 69 

and corresponding trinity of dynamic agents) ; and, 7. The 
interior, unitizing, and vital agent, which pervades and governs 
all the preceding. 

Accompanying, and precisely answering to, these seven 
dynamic agents in man, are seven laws, or modes, by which the 
former operate. These are, 1. Expansion, governing all dias- 
tolic movements ; 2. Contraction, governing all systolic move- 
ments ; 3. Circulation, governing all rudimentally reciprocat- 
ing movements (first trinity) ; 4. Aggregation, governing all 
depositing and organizing operations ; 5. Segregation, governing 
all ascending movements ; 6. The law governing all sympa- 
thetic movements (second trinity) ; 7. The law of all vital, 
unitizing, and governing operations, the vital and spiritual 
constitution as a whole being here the mover. 

Now, in the macracosm, or great universe, we have, 1. 
Heat, which corresponds to Passion or Love ; 2. Light, which 
corresponds to Intelligence or Wisdom ; and 3. Electricity, 
which corresponds to nerve-essence, in the little universe 
these forming a fundamental trinity of dynamic agents as 
operative in outer nature. There is also a second and corre- 
sponding trinity of dynamic agents in nature, and also a seventh 
and vitalizing agent, as corresponding to the same in man ; 
but these important agents shall be illustrated hereafter. 
Assuming their existence for the present, however, we may 
remark, that, corresponding to these seven dynamic agents, 
there are also seven laws which govern the outer universe, a-nd 
all its correspondent sub-creations, whether in the animate or 
inanimate departments of being. These laws, indeed, are the 
same throughout with those which we have seen to apply to 
man, though in lower creations they exist in lower degrees of 
development. They may be exhibited, with their ternary re- 
lations, in the following table : 



70 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 

1. Expansion. 

2. Contraction or Attraction. 

3. Circulation. 



SECONDARY TRINITY. 

4. Aggregation. 

5. Segregation. 

6. Sympathetic reciprocation. 



7. Vital complex unity. 

Here, it will be perceived, is a regularly graduated progres- 
sion in the order o*" elements, ascending from first to last, as 
it were, through the different stratifications of one complete 
system. They maintain relations to each other similar to the 
relations of the different parts of a tree ; viz., the first is the 
root of the series ; the second is the trunk ; the third is the 
branches ; the fourth the leaves, and the completion of the 
organic form of the tree (wherefore, No 4. in any seven-fold 
series always corresponds to aggregation, organization, or as- 
sociation) ; No. 5 commences the segregative or reproductive 
process, and corresponds to the flower buds ; No. 6 corre- 
sponds to the flowers, and No. 7 always corresponds to the 
fruit, embodying in itself the sublimated elements of the whole 
tree, together with the seed or germ of a future and corre- 
sponding creation. 

The first trinity in the series approximately corresponds to 
the second, but the correspondence is rather by way of coun- 
terpart, or antithesis, than in any other way which may be 
easily defined ; and in the general trinity, comprehending the 
whole septinity, may be observed a general correspondence 
with the sub-trinities.* 

These, let it be borne in mind, are claimed simply as the 
fundamental and all-comprehensive laws of natural and moral 

* These g&neral principles of classification, not only in respect to dynamic agents 
and laws, but their corresponding forms and developments, are applicable to all natural 
series or octaves, and by duly comprehending and observing them, with the peculiar 
and relative characteristics of their parts, we may be able always to distinguish true 
*rom false classifications. 



PRIMEVAL OPERATIONS. 71 

existence, saying nothing of those numerous sub-modes of ope- 
ration, commonly called laws, which grow out of them. The 
essential principles of these general laws, in their simple and 
combined states, and in their various degrees of sublimation 
and ascension, as applicable to the different degrees of creation, 
will, we apprehend, be found to involve a sufficient explanation 
of every mode in which original Divine Force operates in the 
production of the various phenomena of creation. 

Considering, then, that the primeval chaotic materials, out 
of which the universe was formed, did not originally, and of 
themselves, possess any force or motion, we proceed, in the 
light of the foregoing principles, to inquire more particularly 
Whence, and how, originated the forces, laws, and motions 
from whose diversified operations has resulted the stupendous 
system of being by which we are surrounded, and of which 
we are a part 1 and what was the order of progressive devel- 
opment, and what is the general structural form of the cosmi- 
cal universe, which must have legitimately resulted from these 
causes ? And, as it has been before shown that all the prin- 
ciples that are involved in the infinite, may be epitomized in 
the infinitesimal, we may, for the sake of convenience, and 
without injury to the argument, reduce the subject of our con- 
templations to an imaginary scale of magnitude which may 
easily be conceived by the human mind, and which will allow 
of all progressive operations being surveyed as from a single 
stand-point. 

The influence which may most naturally be conceived to 
have first acted upon primordial matter to impel it to ascending 
developments, was Divine Love. Now, Divine Love corre- 
sponds to Heat is, indeed, spiritual heat itself, and thus is the 
first expansive impulse of mind. It is so in man, as well as in 



72 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

the Deity ; and its correspondence with physical heat is instinct- 
ively recognized by the human mind, and is implied in the 
phraseology with which men naturally speak of it. Thus we 
speak of one in whom the love or passional principle predom- 
inates, as a "warm-hearted man," as an "ardent enthusiast," 
or as a man of "fiery disposition." On the principle, there- 
fore, that all bodies are developments from an interior soul, 
and all natural phenomena have an ultimate spiritual origin, we 
may conceive that while the great Kingdom of Matter was in 
such immediate relation and juxtaposition to the great King- 
dom of Spirit, its Cause, Divine Love (or Divine Spiritual Heat) 
flowed directly into the Realm of Matter, and especially into 
its seventh or highest and proximately vital degree as being 
most in affinity with the Divine Spirit itself, and that the 
effect of this influx was an immediate generation of a corre- 
sponding natural heat.* This heat must necessarily have been 
attended by an immediate expansion of the recipient particle 
or collection of particles, and by the evolution of a magnetic 
or magnetoid atmosphere partaking of the nature of the parti- 
cle's interior vitality. Divine Wisdom (or spiritual light) 
entering w r ith, and acting through, the Love, pervades this 
atmosphere, and brings it into the nature of physical light, to 
which wisdom corresponds.f 

The expansion resulting from the heat must necessarily have 

* That natural heat may be produced by what we have here termed spiritual heat, 
is shewn by the fact, that when passion flows from the interior soul into the nervous 
tissues of the human body, it raises the general temperature of the body, quickens the 
circulations, produces a flush of the countenance, and a burning of the cheeks, and, in 
general, greatly increases the physical powers. It may be remarked, that the general 
principles of this portion of our theory were taught by the celebrated Swedenborg, though 
we have arrived at them by an independent process of induction. 

t It is well known that natural light consists of seven prismatic rays ; and this fact 
hints at the corresponding seven-fold nature of Divine Wisdom, and hence, also, of 
Divine Love, its inseparable associate. 



O BIG IN OF CENTRAL SUN. 73 

produced a comparative vacuum that is, a vacuum in respect 
to those essences which were subjected to the expansion, and 
therefore produced a tendency to an absorption or rushing in 
of corresponding essences composing neighboring particles, 
and which had not yet, in the same degree, been acted upon 
by the expansive force. Moreover, the active light-sphere (or 
Wisdom-principle) which is an orderly procedure from Heat, 
(or Love), or accompaniment of, and the administration to, its 
wants, formed a recognizing and sympathetic connection be- 
tween the particle first acted upon and the particle immedi- 
ately conterminous ; and by an envelopment of the relatively 
passive particle in the light-sphere of the relatively active one, 
the former would become assimilated to the latter, and, float- 
ing to it through the circulating currents of the enveloping 
light-sphere, in the same way that the particle of iron "floats 
to the magnet through currents of the magnetic essence, it 
would become incorporated with it as a part of the same 
body. Thus, as each particle is made the recipient of the 
essence of Divine Love, it lovingly opens its heart, and ex- 
tends its ethereal arms to receive and embrace its brother, and 
the two thus become one. And being thus united, and be- 
coming recipients for a further influx of heat, the same opera- 
tion that before took place, is now repeated on a little larger 
scale, and more particles are attracted. And so the process 
continues to be repeated, until the minute nucleus of a CEN- 
TRAL SUN is fully established, which, by a continuation of the 
same process of unfolding, goes on to complete development, 
forming the whole universal mass of physical substance into 
one coherent and undivided Body, dense in the center, and 
gradually shading off into extreme levity toward the circum- 
ference. 

If^ instead of supposing this operation to commence in in- 

7 * 



74: LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

finitesimal particles, \ve suppose it to commence in a few 
cubic feet, or in hundreds, or thousands, or millions of cubic 
miles of central matter, or if we suppose (what is probably 
more nearly the truth) that all particles in the universal mass 
were simultaneously vitalized, but in different degrees, by the 
influx of Divine spiritual heat, and that each commenced 
forthwith, a tendency toward particles more vitalized than 
themselves, and all a tendency toward the particle most vital- 
ized, the principle involved will be the same, and the ultimate 
result of the operation will be the same. 

If the foregoing theory of the initial steps of the creative pro- 
cess is true, it not only affords us an example of the incipient 
operations, but an illustration of the very cause of gravitation, 
of which latter I believe no adequate explanation has yet been 
afforded by any of the common philosophies of the day. 
There are, however, in subsequent stages of the creative un- 
folding, higher elements and forces which enter into, modify, 
and render more definite, the phenomenon of gravitation, as 
will be seen. 

The manner in which two streams of particles flowing from 
opposite directions toward a common center, tend to produce 
a rotatory motion in any collection of central particles, has been 
explained by those who have written on the nebular theory of 
the origin of worlds and their motions.* The idea may be 
apprehended from the following illustration : Suppose that 
two balls of equal weight, are rolled with equal velocity, over 
the floor from opposite sides of a room, and that they at the 
same instant impinge upon a third ball lying at rest in the 
center of the floor. If the two strike the ball at rest in a line 
exactly cutting its center, no motion will be generated in the 

* See particularly Nichol's " Architecture of the Heavens." 



ORIGIN OF KOTAEY MOTION. 75 

latter ball. But there are a great many chances against both 
balls striking in such a line, and if we suppose a constant stream 
of balls (corresponding to particles) flowing inward toward the 
central ball, the probability of the latter being soon struck a 
little out of the line of its center, would amount to an almost 
absolute certainty. In case this should happen, a rotary mo- 
tion of the central body would necessarily take place as a re- 
sult of the momentum of the body or bodies impinging upon 
it, especially if the latter bodies, as a result of magnetic or 
other attraction, attach themselves permanently to the surface 
of the former while still under the influence of this mo- 
mentum. 

Suppose, then, there is a constant stream of bodies flowing 
inward from all directions toward the central body, as is sup- 
posed to be the case with particles of nebulous matter flowing 
inward toward a common center ; the rotation of the central 
mass itself when once established, will, by the friction of its 
revolving atmosphere, if from no other cause, be sufficient to 
throw the approaching end of every radial line of gravitating 
particles out in the same direction from its center, and thus the 
momentum of every impinging particle will add to the ten- 
dency to central rotation. As the particles gradually estab- 
lish relations with each other, through their various degrees 
of attenuation from center to circumference, rotation will 
gradually be established throughout the whole mass, the mo- 
tion being relatively swift at the center, and gradually grow- 
ing slower at every remove toward the circumference, where 
it is the slowest. 

The idea has been illustrated by a reference to the effect 
produced by different currents of water flowing toward a com- 
mon center, which effect is well known to be that of a whirl, 
rapid at the point of meeting, and growing more tardy at 



Y6 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

every remove from said point, until it dies upon the shore, or 
is lost in the general motion of the stream. 

If we have in these principles, as we appear to have, a su 
ficient account for the origin of all rotatory motion in the 
celestial spaces, it were certainly unphilosophical to look for 
its origin in any foreign or arbitrary impulse. 

All the phenomena we have thus far considered, therefore, 
may be traced to the operations of two Jaws, viz., Expansion 
and Attraction the first being based upon Heat, and the 
second upon Heat and Light combined which elements, again, 
owe their origin to the corresponding principles of Divine 
Love and Wisdom, or spiritual Heat and Light. We come 
now to consider the operations and results of a third law the 
law of Circulation. 

While men of science have minutely traced the operations 
and phenomena of gravitation, they have taken comparatively 
little cognizance of any reactive force from the attracting 
body. Yet, without the aid of a reactive or emanative force, 
to counterbalance, in some measure, the gravitative power, it 
would be impossible to conceive, on rational principles, of the 
formation of any other body than the first and universal Body, 
which would selfishly absorb all materials, and give forth none. 
But it would only be in accordance with universal analogy, to 
suppose that while this constant secretion was going on, there 
was also as constantly kept up a countervailing process of ex- 
cretion. Particles absorbed into the central mass (or, what is 
the same thing, the denser portion of the whole united mass), 
would, by the action of its superior vitality, undergo a quasi 
process of digestion, and portions of their essence would be- 
come refined and sublimated, and would be sent off again into 
space, to the opposite materials of which they would in their 
turn be attracted^ in the same way as positive and negative 



LAW OF CIRCULATION. 

electricities are mutually attracted. As all gravitating parti- 
cles can not go absolutely to the center (some being crowded 
out by others), and all emanated particles can not, for a similar 
reason, recede to the circumference, so each finds an equilib- 
rium, and takes a position, between center and circumference, 
according to its specific density or levity. And now, a similar 
process of digestion necessarily go3s on among gravitating 
and emanating particles which find their common equilibrium 
at any given distance from the center, and by their mutual 
action and reaction, another change and excretion takes place, 
and the rejected particles, being in a state exactly opposite to 
that of the particles thrown off from the great Center, now 
gravitate again toward that Center, there to experience and 
produce still further changes. Thus there is a constant action 
and reaction, flux and reflux, between center and circumfer- 
ence, and between all intermediate parts of the great mass ; 
and the law governing this reciprocating movement is what we 
mean by the law of Circulation. It corresponds to circulation, 
or to the flux and reflux of venous and arterial blood to and 
from the heart in the little universe, or the human system, 
even as the laws of Expansion and Attraction (or contraction), 
before considered, correspond respectively to the diastolic and 
systolic motions of the heart, Jungs, and perhaps the minute 
vesicles, or " corcula," of the brain. Being the third law of 
the universe, it corresponds to the third element of the Divine 
essential Constitution, which is the Divine Sphere of operative 
Energy, which, again, corresponds to the nerve-essence in man, 
and which latter corresponds to Electricity in the universe 
this being actually the agent mainly concerned in the pro- 
duction of the phenomenon now under special consideration. 

The laws of Expansion, Contraction, and Circulation, there- 
fore, form a trinity, as dependent upon the triune elements 



78 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

of Heat, Light, and Electricity ; and which latter are related 
to the corresponding three-fold Divine spiritual elements of 
Love, Wisdom, and Vehicle of operative Energy. 

The Fourth law, is a law of Organization, and brings the 
elements and motives previously developed, into a state of 
systematic and serial Aggregation. 

Before rotatory motion is fully established in the mass of 
matter, the gravitating and emanating particles would proceed 
toward, and from, the center, in nearly straight lines. But 
after said motion is fully established, and becomes general 
throughout the mass, both kinds of particles would proceed in 
aberrent or curved lines, the curves corresponding to the direc- 
tion of motion in the revolving matter in the same manner 
in which a person attempting to row a boat in the direction of 
a radius of a circle or vortex of water flowing round a center, 
would, if he kept the side of his boat always square to the stream, 
be carried out of a direct line a distance proportioned to the 
rapidity of the current, and would thus describe a curved path. 

But it is evident, for reasons already intimated, that neither 
can all the gravitating particles take, at any one time, a 
position entirely at the center, nor can all the emanating 
particles take a simultaneous position entirely at the circum- 
ference, but that each will assu'me a position with reference to 
the two extremes, where it finds an equilibrium, and will keep 
this position until a change fits it for another. Suppose, then, 
that a gravitating and emanating particle are in exactly op- 
posite states to each other in respect to their degrees of 
positiveness or negativeness : it is evident that both particles 
would find a common equilibrium only at the same distance 
and position between the center and circumference. They 
would there meet, and by virtue of their elective affinities, 
form a union as male and female particles, and would assume 



CONCENTRIC RINGS. 79 

a circular or orlitual motion, coincident with the rotating 
motion of the general mass, which MOTION the united mo- 
menta of their previously gravitative and emanative movements 
would tend to sustain. 

Now, supposing that there were originally just seven kinds 
or classes of atomic particles (no matter into how many more 
kinds or classes these were susceptible of being subdivided), 
it is easy to perceive that the foregoing principles would 
probably involve something like the following results: one class 
of atoms, rejecting the immediate companfcmship of all others, 
would cluster around a central point, and form a sun. Each 
of the other six classes of atoms, in like manner, rejecting the 
immediate companionship of other atoms, while obeying the 
impulses of its internal and strongest affinities, would assume 
a general distance from the center determined by its specific 
point of equilibrium, and there, contracting upon itself, 
would form a mass of its own, in the general shape of a ring, 
surrounding the interior solar mass. Here we have a law of 
deposition and aggregation, corresponding to the law by which 
particles, circulating in the human blood, are deposited and 
aggregated in the form of muscle, cellular tissues, etc. 

The universal system, as thus definitely organized, would, 
therefore, supposing that there are seven general varieties of 
matter, present the form of six concentric rings of nebulous 
matter, surrounding the seventh formation, which is the central 
sun. But if there were a greater or less number of kinds of 
matter, there would be a correspondingly greater or less num- 
ber of rings, but all constructed on the same principle. Of 
this annular structure we have a general analogue, though on 
a small scale, in the rings of the planet Saturn, and also on a 
larger scale, in the annular nebulae, of which there are a few 
examples in the heavens. 



80 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

It should be added, however, that the idea of this concentric 
annular form of structure can only hold when associated with 
the supposition, that the primitive point of general gravitation 
was at, or near, the center of the chaotic mass. If the gravi- 
tative point was far out of the center, then the evolved 
masses, instead of assuming the forms of circles, would assume 
the form of ellipses, having a preponderance of their materials 
on one side of the sun, where, indeed, the whole might be sub- 
sequently drawn by the superior gravitating force of their 
major quantity, and form a separate revolving mass. In 
either case, however, the fundamental principles involved 
would be the same. But of the general prevalence of the 
annular, or, at least, elliptical form of structure, in the sidereal 
realms, there is a sufficiency of ocular proof, as incidentally 
exhibited in a previous chapter. 

The FIFTH law, governing a corresponding fifth develop- 
ment, is the law of SEGREGATION, by which the materials of 
the previous annular formations, obeying higher and more 
specific elective affinities, separate into different masses, of 
higher and lower degrees of refinement. 

The nature and modus operandi of this law, may be under- 
stood by the following considerations : The completion of the 
last or circular formation, brings the materials of the universe 
to a triune degree above their primeval or chaotic state. Of 
course, therefore, not only the essences, but the activities and 
inter-activities of the \vhole structure, are more refined, 
diversified, and systematic. Each nebulous ring is now itself 
a comparatively independent theater of molecular force and 
motion, and all of them act upon each other by their gravi- 
tative and emanative forces, while the central sun, as the 
great heart of the system, continues to send forth his vivify- 
ing and generative influence to all. 



SEGEEGATED MASSES. SI 

It is easy to conceive that the annular masses, being not 
only internally active, but penetrated in various directions by 
the refracted emanations from the central sun, would be 
liable to be rarefied at particular points and condensed at 
others, and- thus to be shrunken and cleft apart, at particular 
lines and angles, and that by inherent action of the particles 
of the rings themselves, contraction would take place from 
these lines of cleavage, and that the materials previously 
united, would thus be segregated into separate masses. These 
masses would, on the same principle, be liable to be sub- 
divided into inferior masses of greater or less number, in 
proportion to their respective original magnitudes. This 
whole process of segregation or fragmentation, is faintly 
illustrated by the breaking up of the clouds after a storm, and 
their resolution into separate masses. 

According to principles before explained, each general 
mass, owing to its particles gravitating to a common center 
within itself, would assume a general rotatory motion which, 
for reasons which mathematicians will readily conceive, would 
necessarily conform in its direction to the revolution of the 
great ring of mundane materials to which it belonged, and 
each sub-mass would have a particular rotating motion of its 
own, which would conform to the motion of the general mass 
to which it belonged, i. e., supposing that there were not in 
either case any particular or incidental causes of disturbance. 
Thus general masses and their included ^6-masses, with their 
general and particular centers of gravitation and revolution, 
would, by further progression, form general stellar systems, 
and their included sub-systems, and finally, also, systems of 
planets and satellites, all of which latter would be evolved by 
the progressive unfoldings of the same principles heretofore ex- 
plained as governing the formation of the universal structure. 



82 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

In this way, therefore, as may be rationally supposed, 
originated all the nebulae, clusters, stellar systems, or firma 
ments, which the telescope has revealed, together with untold 
millions of others of like nature, which lie forever concealed 
from mortal vision ! In other words, each one of these 
originated from a fragment of the periphery of a great wheel 
or circle of nebulous materials, surrounding the great Center 
of all centers. 

This hypothesis, relative to the origin of the stellar clusters, 
is not without strong confirmatory evidence in celestial ap- 
pearances. I have suggested that the vivifying emanations 
from the central sun, acting upon the angular masses of 
nebulous matter, would produce planes 'of rarefaction and 
cleavage in various directions, from which planes each result- 
ant insulated mass, as also each of its subordinate and in- 
cluded masses, would contract upon its own center. It is 
evident, therefore, that each general mass, with its included 
sub-masses, would first be of an angular form on the same 
principle on which any cooling and contracting substance 
tends to separate into angular masses, and as is sometimes 
exemplified in the cleavages of igneous rocks. But, by the 
force of internal gravity, and the rotatory motion which, 
according to principles before explained, would naturally 
result therefrom, these nebulous masses would all tend, as 
they progressed, to assume the elliptical or spherical form. 
Now, this is precisely what is observed in relation to the 
nebulous and stellar masses of space. Some are of exceed- 
ingly irregular form, having long and sharp projections from 
their sides, and are of irregularly alternating degrees of density 
in their centers, as though they had, by variously intersecting 
forces, been subdivided into numerous inferior compartments. 
Commencing at these extreme irregularities, there are all 



PROGRESSION OF FORMS. 83 

intermediate degrees of symmetry in shape, down to the per- 
fectly globular shape, to which the prevailing forms of these 
stellar masses manifest more or less approximation. Judging 
from appearances, therefore, one would say that these masses 
are evidently in all degrees of progression, between rudi- 
mental and ultimate forms, and that, in general, those of the 
most angular forms are the least, while those of the globular 
form are the most, progressed.* This is all manifestly in 
exact harmony with the hypothesis of nebular and angular 
segregation, and subsequent firmamental, solar, and planetary 
conglobation, which we have proposed. 

Moreover, these nebular or stellar masses, although they 
appear in all directions in the heavens, are said to appear, as 
already intimated, in greatest abundance in the direction of a 
particular plane, which cuts the plane of our Milky Way at 
right angles. In the direction, perpendicular to this plane, 
they grow comparatively thin (as do the stars in the direction 



* In illustration of the progression from angularity and ellipticity to sphericity in 
these bodies, I may quote the following from the splendid work of Sir John Herschel, 
embodying the results of his observations at the Cape of Good Hope. With reference 
to the engraved figures of two particular nebulae existing in the southern heavens, ho 
says: "These figures exhibit elliptical nebulae, normal in their character that is to 
say, in which, as the condensation increases toward the middle, the ellipticity of the 
strata diminishes, or in which the interior and denser portions are obviously more 
nearly spherical than the exterior and rarer. A great number of such nebulae, of every 
variety of ellipticity and central condensation, are figured in my northern catalogue. 
Kegarding the spherical as only a particular case of the elliptic form, and a stellar 
nucleus as only the extreme stage of condensation, at least nine-tenths of the whole 
nebulous contents of the heavens will be found to belong to this class ; so that, as 
regards a law and a structure, the induction which refers them, as a class, to the 
operation of similar causes, and assumes the prevalence within them, of similar 
dynamical conditions, is most full and satisfactory. To abstain altogether from specu- 
lation as to what may be the nature of those causes and conditions, and to refuse all 
attempts to reconcile the phenomena of so large and so definite a class of cosmical 
existences, with mechanical laws, taken in their most general acceptation, would be to 
err on the side of excessive caution and philosophical timidity." HEBSCHEL'S Results 
(tt tiM Cape of Good Hope, p. 22. 



LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

perpendicular to the plane of the Milky Way), suggesting the 
idea of a very remote approximation to the horizontal 
boundary of the stratum. Though it is a thought bordering 
on the confines of the human concept! ve powers, and thus 
penetrating somewhat into the realms of uncertainty and doubt, 
it may still be propounded as a query Whether the plane of 
this grand stratum of sub-universes, may not indicate the 
direction of the plane of the great Ring of original nebulous 
materials, from which these nebulae and stellar systems be- 
come segregated and resolved into their present forms, and 
whether all firmamental creations, revealed by the telescope, 
may not thus be included within a comparatively small 
fraction of a segment of one of the great cosmical rings which 
surround the Center of all centers ? Though a question so 
profound can probably never be finally decided by the human 
intellect, the indication of this grand plane of cosmical for- 
mations, tends, so far as it bears upon the subject, to confirm 
our hypothesis, that all visible neb"" 1 ^ ^nd stellar systems, 
are segregations from one general mass of nebulous matter, 
originally existing on one general plane ; and the analogies of 
all known definite motions and formations in the stellar 
spaces, point to the idea of a circular or elliptical form as 
characterizing this grand plane of creations. 

While this theory gives definite form and order to the sub- 
ject of our contemplations, it opens the mind to the most 
sublime conceptions of magnitudes and distances. Herschel 
estimated that his great telescope would reveal the existence 
of a star so far removed into space that light, traveling at 
the rate of twelve millions of miles in a minute, would require 
three thousand five hundred and forty-one years to pass from 
that star to our earth. Such, therefore, may be supposed to 
be the approximate distance of the remotest of those luminous 



IMMENSITY OF CREATION. 85 

masses which were resolvable into stars by his telescope. 
He, however, computed that his large telescope would follow 
one of those large clusters, as a general mass, if plunged so 
deep into space that its light would require three hundred 
and fifty thousand years to reach us ; and, it is thought that 
the great telescope of Lord Ross would pursue the same 
object to ten times that distance, or _a distance which light, 
with its inconceivable velocity of motion, would consume 
more than three millions of years in traversing!* This, 
therefore, may be assumed as the proximate distance of the 
remotest nebulae rendered- visible by Lord Ross's instrument. 
If, as is probable, all stellar creations, included in a sphere 
bounded on all sides by this enormous distance, constitute 
only a small fraction of a segment of one such circle of 
creations as we have supposed to surround the great common. 
Center of attraction, it would not be advisable for the reader 
to attempt to conceive of the dimensions even of one of those 
whole circles, much less of the whole universe ; which latter, 
however, if created, must be inferior to the Creator, and thus 
finite. 

But, applying the same general laws to the creation of the 
solar, and the creation of the universal, system, it may be 
asked, " Why is it that either the unitary agglomeration repre- 
sented by single planets, or the multiplied segregated division 
which we have supposed to be represented by nebulas and 
stellar clusters, did not take place uniformly in both systems 
as the formation from the materials of the nebulous rings ?" 
The answer, I apprehend, may be found in the different condi- 
tions of the rings in the two systems, as involved in their 
different magnitudes. In the great system of systems, the dis- 



* See Mitchell's "Planetary and Stellar World," p. 23&-T. 

8 



86 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

tance of particles at any two extremes, must have been so 
great as to prevent them from having any appreciable attrac- 
tion for each other. Some tendency to draw together and form 
a single permanent mass, indeed there must have been ; but 
this tendency at the more distant points in the mass, must 
have been so small, and the activity of particular districts, es- 
pecially after incipient nucleation, must have been so great, 
and so rapidly increasing, as to give rise to subsequent and 
numerous mundane forms and systems the very thing pro- 
posed in our theory of segregation, and confirmed by appear- 
ances in the heavens. 

But in the solar system, the distance from one extreme of 
the annular formation to the other, was comparatively small ; 
and besides this, we may suppose that the varieties of matter 
in so small a mass, were less extreme, and that their affinities 
were more intimate, than in the universal mass previously 
spoken of. There was, therefore, not only a possibility, but a 
high degree of probability, that the materials of each of the 
rings of nebulous matter formed around our sun, would assume 
the form of one mass, which would subsequently move in an 
orbit whose plane and distance would be coincident with the 
previous ring. 

But, admitting the nebular hypothesis, the multipled segre- 
gative process actually does seem to have taken place in one 
instance even in our solar system, and given rise to several 
planetary bodies as the products of one ring. It i-s scarcely 
necessary to say that we refer to those strange bodies called 
the asteroids, which revolve at almost equal distances from 
the sun, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, and of which 
there is now known to be fifteen or sixteen in number. That 
these bodies must have originated from one primitive mass of 
planetary matter, there can be but little doubt, as such an 



ASTEROIDS. SOLAKIZATION. 87 

hypothesis is necessary to preserve the uniformity of the sys- 
tem, and to supply the vacuity that would otherwise have 
existed between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 

If, therefore, instead of being without progeny, and revolv- 
ing in solitude (which can only be owing to their diminutive- 
ness), each asteroid were attended by a numerous family of 
children and grand-children (or satellites and sub-satellites), 
and revolved around one of their number, while performing 
their general circuit around a superior center, they would ex- 
actly illustrate, on a small scale, our idea of the segregated 
stellar clusters of the universe each of which latter may be 
supposed to revolve, as one general body, like the asteroids, in 
an orbit generally coinciding as to plane, and distance from the 
great and common Center, with the plane and distance of the 
great ring of nebulous materials in which it had its parentage. 

But it should be understood, that the fifth stage in the pro- 
cess of creation, considered merely as a process of segregation, 
is complete with the formation simply of separate angular 
masses and sub-masses, from the general materials of the neb- 
ulous rings. 

The sixth process in the creative procedure, is a process of 
solarization, or one by which these previously segregated and 
indefinitely formed masses and their sub-divisions, become 
established suns. This process is accomplished by gravita- 
tions to, and emanations from, central points in the segregated 
masses, on principles essentially the same with those previ- 
ously explained as applying to the formation of the first great 
central Body ; but in this higher process, the operations may 
be supposed to be more refined and regular in proportion to 
the superior refinement of the elements and dynamic agents 
which are involved. These suns assume specific distances and 
orbits determined by the laws of equilibrium, and com- 



00 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

mence their harmonious actions and reactions upon each other, 
developing a sixth law the law of universal cosmical sympa- 
thy and reciprocation corresponding to the nervous sympathy 
and reciprocal action existing between the different organs of 
the human body, the little universe. 

The seventh and last law and process in this series of uni- 
versal creations, is that by which planetary masses bodies 
destined to become ultimately habitable were evolved from 
the previous solar masses. Of course it is to be supposed 
that these bodies were produced from the solar masses by evo- 
lutions of nebulous rings, and by agglomeration of the materials 
of these, according to principles before explained. This de- 
velopment completes the fundamental structure of the material 
universe as suck, and serves as the Basis and material Germ 
of all subsequent and more refined unfoldings. 

The different stages through which the universal mass of 
materials have passed, from germinal to ultimate forms, may 
therefore be summarily represented in the following formula : 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 

1. Heat-pervaded chaos. 

2. Luminous attractive nucleus. 

3. Electro-interactive spheroid. 



SECONDARY TRINITY. 

4. Concentric nebulous rings. 

5. Segregated masses(from rings). 

6. Suns and clusters of suns. 



ULTIMATE 
..-.,*_ , 7. Habitable worlds. 

It is true that we can have no final and absolutely sensuous 
demonstration that such is the structure of the. universe, be- 
cause the telescope, with all its magic powers, has probably 
revealed, as it were, but an infinitesimal fragment of the great 
united System. Yet, considering that the telescope has expli- 
citly revealed that the same laws of gravitation and revolution- 
ary motion which apply to our own planetary worlds, apply 



SUMMARY OF EVIDENCES. 89 

also to the most distant clusters of stars, thus binding all sys- 
tems and firmaments together in one family relation, and re- 
ferring them to a common parentage considering, therefore, 
that our own solar system is of itself a little universe, exem- 
plifying all the principles involved in the- great universe, of 
\vhich it is a child and antitype and considering, as we may 
now well do, that the nebular hypothesis of creation is the 
correct one, and that laws are uniform throughout the whole 
realm of being the preponderance of analogical evidence 
must, we think, be admitted to be in favor of the general 
truthfulness of the theory here propounded. For, in the first 
place (admitting the nebular hypothesis), our own sun, en- 
throned in the midst of our system, affords an ocular proof 
that matter in a primitively diffused state, and obeying the im- 
pulses breathed into it from the Divine spiritual source, will 
assume a central, gravitating, and rotating Nucleus ; and this 
hints &t the great Nucleus, which, on the same principles, seem- 
ingly must have necessarily been formed in the midst of the 
originally chaotic materials of the whole universe. Moreover, 
the rings of Saturn show the forms naturally first assumed by 
the attracted and emanated materials of a central body, which 
forms will be of varying distances "from the central body, ac- 
cording to their specific degrees of density or levity. Some 
such forms seemingly must have necessarily been elaborated, 
not only by our own central sun, but by all other suns of suf- 
ficient magnitude and activity, and especially by the great Sun 
of all suns. But such annular forms, of course, can be pre- 
served through subsequent condensation, only in case of the 
nicest equilibrium in their materials and motions, such as is 
characteristic of Saturn's rings. If there is 'any considerable 
inequality in either of these particulars the annular mass, in 
contracting, will inevitably resolve itself into the form of one 



90 LAWS AND DEVELOPMENTS. 

or more bodies, whose orbit of revolution will be such as was 
described by the position of the previous ring. 

This consideration not only explains the origin of the planets 
satellites, and asteroids, of our own solar system, from the 
materials of previous nebulous rings, but suggests that anal- 
ogous singular and multiple conglobations must, seemingly of 
necessity, have, in like manner, been formed in the sidereal 
spaces, from the materials of nebulous rings surrounding their 
Respective centers, these all being subordinate to a final and 
common Center, as all created things proceed from a final and 
common Cause. 

We may, therefore, say, that there are many avenues open 
toward the hypothesis we have propounded respecting the 
origin and structure of the universe, and many guide-boards 
(or facts and principles), pointing along these avenues, all in the 
same direction ; while, if the mind attempts to travel in a dif- 
ferent direction, and in quest of other conclusions, it not only 
finds no such guide-boards to direct it, and no such avenues 
open for its passage, but it is constantly obstructed by barriers 
of philosophical difficulty, and each of the steps of its progress 
is planted only on the miry and treacherous ground of assum-p- 
cion. While, therefore, the mind is ever held open to the re- 
eption of new light, and a willingness is preserved to abandon, 
any present errors for the sake of subsequently unfolded 
truths, it would seem that we might, without subjecting our- 
selves to any just charge of philosophical rashness, settle, in 
the present conviction, that the foregoing hypothesis, at least, 
as to its general and most essential princioles, can not vary 
much from the truth. 



CHAPTEK VIII. 

THE SEVEN DYNAMIC AGENTS OR POTENTIAL MEDIA 
OF NATUEE. 

* 

To facilitate a clear conception of the relations of the Deity 
to, and his mode of acting upon, the universe, as well for 
other important uses, we will now endeavor to attain to 
some further conceptions of the dynamic agents immediately 
connected with the seven general laws, and their correspond- 
ing seven-fold developments, considered in the foregoing 
chapter. 

It was before intimated, on grounds which appear even to 
transcend mere probability, that the agents immediately con- 
cerned in generating in the universal chaotic mass, the first 
three phenomena of Expansion, Contraction, and Circulation, 
were Heat, Light, and Electricity. By the agency of these 
three principles, we have supposed that the mass was suc- 
cessively developed from a chaotic, to a nucleated, and 
spheroidal form. Another and corresponding trinity of agents 
was hinted at, which will now form the subject of special con- 
sideration and illustration. 

In unfolding the doctrine of the seven-fold series, it was 
shown that the fourth, fifth, and sixth members of such a 
series, composing a Secondary Trinity, bear a certain corre- 
spondence, respectively, to the first, second, and third mem- 
bers, which compose a Primary Trinity. Thus, as the Pri- 
mary Trinity of conditions in the universal material mass, 



92 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

consisted of the chaotic, the nucleated, and the spheroidal, so 
the Secondary Trinity (comprising nebulous rings, segregated 
and contracting fragments, and developed solar forms) may 
be characterized as secondary chaos, secondary nucleation, and 
secondary spheroidation. This being so, and the dynamic 
elements of the first Trinity being Heat, Light, and Elec- 
.tricity (each probably in a gross degree of development), a 
carrying out of identical principles will lead to the supposition 
Jthat the dynamic agents peculiar to the Secondary Trinity, 
are such as would correspond to Heat, Light, and Electricity, 
in a secondary degree of development, so to speak, without, 
however, supposing that they are absolutely identical with 
Heat, Light, and Electricity, as these terms would ordinarily 
be understood. This, however, is a mere deduction from 
principles and correspondences ; let us now see if there are 
any substantial facts to support it. 

Such facts are involved in a series of interesting and most 
important discoveries, made by BARON VON REICHENBACH, a 
few years ago, and of which we will now speak briefly. The 
course of experiments which led this ingenious philosopher to 
the discoveries in question, was commenced by testing the 
properties of magnets. By the assistance of a number of 
delicately organized persons, mainly cataleptic patients, in 
whom the senses, especially sight and feeling, were in an un- 
common degree of exaltation, he ascertained that from either 
pole of an open magnet, there was constantly given forth a 
luminous, flame-like appearance, visible in a dark room, but 
only to such as possessed this uncommon acuteness of vision. 
The flames sent forth from the poles of a large horse-shoe 
magnet, capable of supporting ninety pounds, were described 
as about eight inches in mean length, mingled with irridescent 
colors, and gently nickering and waving, shortening and 



EXPERIMENTS. 93 

elongating, and yielding when blown upon, and when the 
hand or any other solid body was passed through them. 
The whole appearance was described as being exceedingly 
beautiful. 

This experiment was repeated with many different observ- 
ers, from all of whom the same general description was ob- 
tained the accuracy of which was further tested by varying 
the experiments without the knowledge of the observers, and 
noting the corresponding and uniform variations of the ap-. 
pearances described. 

But, in order to obtain still further assurance that those 
luminous appearances described by others were real, though 
invisible to himself, the experimenter, by the aid of another 
scientific gentleman, instituted the following additional test : 
A very sensitive daguerreotype plate was prepared and placed 
opposite to a large open magnet, in a closed box, enveloped 
in thick bed-clothes, so that not a particle of ordinary light 
could enter it. After the lapse of sixty-four hours, the plate, 
when exposed to mercurial vapor, was found to be distinctly 
affected, as by light. Another plate had been, at the same 
time, similarly prepared, and inclosed in a dark box, without 
a magnet, and after a similar length of time this was found to 
be entirely unaffected. 

The light was also subjected to the test of the convex lens, 
and was found to be converged and thrown upon the wall in 
the same way as any other light, but at a considerably greater 
focal distance, w T hich fact of itself proves that the luminous sub- 
stance was different from ordinary light. 

By tests similar to those w^hich were employed with the 
magnet, it w r as subsequently ascertained, with equal certainty, 
that similar lights were also emitted from crystals. The flames 
issuing from the points of large crystals were described by 



94: DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

those who could see them, as being somewhat in the shape of 
a tulip, and singularly beautiful. One young lady used, when 
ill, to lie awake nights enjoying the sight of the beautiful flame 
emitted from a large rock crystal which had been left in her 
room. But bodies confusedly crystalline exhibited but little of 
this phenomenon, and bodies entirely amorphous exhibited 
none, but nevertheless gave forth, in common with crystals, 
magnets, and other things, a still more subtle influence, which 
will hereafter be described. 

Our experimenter subsequently introduced other tests with 
the view of ascertaining to what extent this newly-discovered 
force prevailed in nature. He extended the end of a wire 
through the keyhole of the door of a perfectly darkened room, 
in which he placed a person whose senses were sufficiently 
acute to detect any luminous or other phenomena which might 
present itself as the result of any experiment. The other 
end of the wire he attached to a metallic plate, which, without 
letting the observer placed in the room know what he was 
doing, he would push out into the rays of the sun, or of the 
moon, or of the planets, or fixed stars ; or would place an 
animal, a plant, or his own hands, upon its surface ; or would 
subject it to chemical action, or the action of heat, cold, or 
electricity. He found the results of all these experiments 
nearly uniform in one particular, viz., in respect to the emis- 
sion of a narrow tuft of light several inches in length, from 
the end of the wire, which would begin to be visible soon 
after the agent experimented upon was brought to bear upon 
the plate. Indeed, whatever possessed in itself the least mo- 
lecular force or action, was found to be capable of evolving a 
greater or less degree of this luminosity. 

Other processes gave an analysis of these lights, and showed 
remarkable relations in their constituents, to different points 



S E V E N - F O L D LUMINOSITY. 95 

in the terrestrial and celestial spheres. It was found, for example, 
that the flames from the poles of a large electro-magnet (which 
were much larger and brighter than those emitted from the 
permanent steel magnet) would, after the galvanic circuit was 
completed, slowly and gradually resolve themselves into dis- 
tinct stratifications of color, presenting, in fact, the seven-fold 
luminosity of the rainbow, with the red below and the violet 
above. These colors, again, were found to vary with the 
varying distances at which they were viewed the whole of 
the appearances, when taken together, showing that each one 
of the differently colored radiations terminated, for the most 
part, at a certain distance from the common center of lumin- 
osity. This distance, though Reichenbach did not remark it, 
was probably nearly the same all around; the differently 
colored rays thus forming a system of concentric spheres of 
light. 

Guarding against errors which might arise from variations 
in these colors as resulting from the varying distances at which 
they were viewed, our philosopher was now prepared for 
another interesting step. Having previously found that a mag- 
netic bar, with poles in the direction of the dip, always emitted 
different colors from those it gave in the meridian, he pro- 
ceeded to ascertain what effect other positions of Jhe pole 
would have upon the character of the luminosity. For this 
purpose he caused a magnetic bar to revolve lengthwise, first 
in a vertical circle in the direction of the magnetic meridian, 
then in a vertical circle in a direction east and west, and lastly, 
in a horizontal circle. He found that in each case different 
colors were evolved according as the magnet was pointed in 
different directions, and that as it passed, in each case, through 
a complete circle, it evolved, in regular succession, all the colors 
of the rainbow ! 



96 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

By subsequent electro-magnetic experiments with an arti- 
ficial globe called the terrelle, Reichenbach succeeded in pre- 
cisely reproducing the appearances of the aurora borealis, and 
may be considered as having probably afforded a complete 
solution of that interesting phenomenon. 

We find in these remarkable facts a complete verification of 
our previous hypothesis, so far as it relates to an essence 
which may be called secondary light. While this light is, in 
some particulars, similar to ordinary light, it differs from it 
totally in others, as the foregoing description renders obvious ; 
and it therefore may be judged to belong to a somewhat differ- 
ent degree of natural developments. Considering this, there- 
fore, as one of the members of our supposed Secondary Trinity 
of imponderables, we shall now see that our hypothesis, so far 
as it relates to the other two members, is not without the sup- 
port of similar facts. 

When a horseshoe magnet was closed by an armature, all 
appearances of a luminous flame would immediately cease, 
but would be instantly reproduced on the removal of the 
armature. This establishes the probability that the same force 
which in the open magnet generates the luminosity, is, by the 
application of the armature, simply rendered latent, so far as its 
flame-generating power is concerned, but that it nevertheless 
still exists in the closed magnet, and acts as an internal prin- 
ciple, or as a principle corresponding to fire or heat. This 
view is further confirmed by the fact that one of Rsichenbach's 
subjects saw even closed magnets, and, indeed, metals of all 
kinds, luminous in the dark, as though they had been heated 
to incandesence without, however, giving forth any flame-like 
scintillations. Such, then, are the evidences of a Secondary 
Heat. 

But still more conclusive indications were obtained of an 



EFFECTS OF MAGNETS. 97 

electroid, or electricity-like agent, as connected with the identi- 
cal sources of these other phenomena. It was found that 
magnets, crystals, or whatever afforded the phenomena of this 
attenuated light, together with many things which did not, 
also emitted an influence or aura which was capable of acting 
decidedly upon the nerves of a certain proportion of persons. 
This aura was described as warm or cold, according as it was 
received from either pole of the magnet or crystal, or accord- 
ing to the positive or negative quality of any other source 
from which it was obtained. It was found capable of acting 
at a distance, and of being transmitted through conducting 
media, and of sometimes acting so powerfully upon the sensi- 
tive as to produce catalepsy and dangerous spasms. Thus, at 
one time, during the illness of one of Reichenbach's employees^ 
he held a large magnet, capable of supporting ninety pounds, 
at the distance of six paces from her feet, as she lay on her 
bed, with her physician by her side. While the armature 
was attached to the magnet she felt no peculiar sensation, but 
the instant it Avas removed she fell into tetanic spasms and 
complete unconsciousness from its action. The armature 
being again attached, the girl slowly recovered her senses, 
and her physician advised that the experiment should not be 
repeated. Another lady, subject to attacks of catalepsy, 
could instantly detect the approach of an open magnet, 
though the latter was brought, without her knowledge of the 
intention, near the head of her bed, on the opposite side of 
the wall. 

Magnets, crystals, etc., were also found to powerfully at- 
tract the hands of cataleptic patients, even during the un- 
consciousness of their fits. 

It was also ascertained that amorphous bodies, in common 
with others, sent forth this ethereal influence, though, as before 

9 



98 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

shown, they gave forth no light. And here it was more fully 
ascertained, that the ethereal emanations from different sub- 
stances^ were specifically different as to their effects upon the 
human nerve, thus affording indications of the distinctive 
characters of the emanating sources. One peculiarity of 
amorphous (that is to say, uncrystallized and unorganized) 
bodies was, that their exhalations gave a nauseous, accompa- 
nied by either a cold or warm, and sometimes also a prickly, 
sensation, to persons whose nerves were in a sufficiently 
sensitive state to test them ; and some bodies imparted these 
sensations in a greater degree than others. In the investi- 
gation of this point, Reichenbach took the trouble to try more 
than six hundred bodies with reference to their nauseating 
force. The young lady through whose aid the tests were 
made, could easily give to every substance its proper place in 
the scale of force, and this she could repeat, without failure, 
after intervals of several days. " It soon appeared," says our 
philosopher, " that these bodies arranged themselves accord- 
ing to their electro-chemical value, and, indeed, in suchwise 
that the highly electric stood at the top, and the indifferently 
so at the bottom of the scale, without regard to their polar 
opposition." 

When the same substances 'were tried on this same young 
lady while in a state of catalepsy, "the results were the same 
in kind, but in degree much stronger. The substances at the 
top of the scale, laid in her hand, caused violent spasms, 
whereby they were thrown at a distance, and her hand then, 
as usual in catalepsy, retained the new position. . . It was 
soon observed that many substances began to act before they 
touched the hand, and it was enough to place them near it." 

These experiments were repeated, not only with other 
nervous patients, but with several gentlemen in a state of per- 



EMANATIONS FKOM MEDICINES. 99 

feet health, with results differing from the abova no more 
than what might easily be accounted for by the different de- 
grees of susceptibility in the experimenters. The different 
substances tried are enumerated by Reichenbach according to 
their specific effects, but it will here be sufficient to say that 
sulphur was found to be the general representative of those 
which, without contact, gave the sensation of cold, and gold 
of those which gave warmth ; and almost every one whose 
hand was made to pass over small plates, coated respectively 
with these substances, felt, in some degree, these correspond- 
ing sensations, and some felt them quite vividly. 

Without any knowledge of Eeichenbach's investigations, 
Dr. G. R. Buchanan, of Cincinnati, was engaged, about the 
same time, in a similar course of experiments with amorphous 
bodies, and developed results similar in-character, but in some 
respects even still more decisive. Without here entering into 
the details of his experiments or inquiries, it will be sufficient 
to state that they resulted in establishing the fact, that 
medicines, holden in the hand of the patient, even when 
wrapped up in paper and concealed from view so as to guard 
against the effects of imagination, will, in a large proportion of 
cases, have all the effects that the same medicines will have, 
taken internally. Out of about one hundred and thirty 
medical students belonging to a class which attended the 
lectures of Dr. Buchanan, forty-three declared themselves 
fully affected by this experiment, to which they had been sub- 
jected during the delivery of one lecture.* 

Similar phenomena have been observed as the results of 
similar experiments in other instances, but we have no room 
for further details on this branch of our subject. In all such 

* See "Buchanan's Journal of Man" for February, 1819, Art 1. 



100 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

cases the action of the medicines is doubtless due to an ab- t 
sorption of their subtle and characteristic emanations, through 
the pores of the skin, whence they are diffused through the 
nervous medium of the system, acting upon the vital forces 
which control all the functions of the physical organism. 

By experiments which placed deception out of the question, 
it was found that these ethereal influences of different sub- 
stances, could be conducted through wires to a distance of 
from three to one hundred and thirty-two feet, so as to be dis- 
tinctly perceived by the more sensitive of Reichenbach's ex- 
perimenters. 

But a fact still more important in its bearings was, that differ- 
ent bodies placed in contact with, or in close proximity to, each 
other, would mutually impart their influences to each other, so 
as to modify or totally change the effects which they would 
otherwise produce upon sensitive patients. In other words, 
and to use a figure of speech that will be perfectly understood, 
they would mutually magnetize, or mesmerize, each other 
would enter into a sort of rapport or reciprocal sympathy, by 
an interdiffusion of their spheres or ethereal emanations. Thus 
it was found that sulphur, which of itself would impart a cold 
and prickling sensation to impressible persons, even at a dis- 
tance of several feet, and without a conducting wire, would, by 
contact or close proximity to other substances, empower 
them, for a time, to give forth a similar influence, even though 
their own proper influences might be of an opposite, though 
less powerful, character ; and so of other substances, and their 
modifying influences upon others.* - j^----- 

The general reliability of the foregoing and other alleged 

* For further details of these interesting experiments and their results, the reader is 
referred to Reichenbach's " Physico-Physiological Researches on the Dynamics of Mag- 
netism," etc., New York. J. S. Redfleld. 



COMPLEXITY OF THE FORCE. 101 

results as obtained by Reichenbach, will not be disputed by 
those who know the character of the experimenter, or w r ho, 
from a careful perusal of his report, have noted his exceedingly 
cautious mode of proceeding. Reichenbach is known through 
out Europe as a chemist second only to Liebig himself, and, 
speaking of this same course of investigation, Professor 
Gregory declares that " it was not possible for any experi- 
ments or discoveries to be presented to the scientific world by 
one more entitled to confidence in every point of view." Be- 
sides this, his more important experiments have been repeated 
by others, and their results verified, in many instances, both 
in this country and in Europe. 

Availing himself of the plasticity of the German language, 
Reichenbach designates the new force (rather forces) which he 
discovered, by the German suffix "00?," and indicates the 
sources whence this force is obtained, by their names prefixed 
to that syllable, as "magnetod," " crystalled," " thermod," 
" photod," etc., as respectively indicating a connection of the 
force with magnets, crystals, heat, light, etc. In the English 
language, therefore, this new imponderable has been rather 
clumsily designated as the " odic force," or " odylic force." 

But the various phenomena exhibited by this so-called force, 
show that it is not simple but complex, or rather that it in- 
volves a number of distinct forces. Its rudimental existence 
in the closed magnet, as also in various unmagnetic bodies, 
was not only intimated by the luminous and incandescent ap- 
pearance of the bodies of metals, before spoken of, but is also 
implied as an antecedent of the luminous, flame-like appear- 
ance which it engenders at a further stage of development 
just as the existence of common caloric is implied as an ante- 
cedent of common flame. The light itself is a second devel- 
opment ; and the ethereal aura which, without any luminous 



102 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

phenomena, acts upon the human nerve, is a third. The three, 
therefore, may be variously characterized as " odic heat," 
" odic light," and " odic electricity," or " odic ether ;" and here 
we have our previously conjectured Secondary Trinity of 
dynamic agents, corresponding to the Primary Trinity, which 
consists of Heat, Light, and Electricity, as these terms are 
ordinarily understood. 

In the same way in which the Primary Trinity of dynamic 
agents is* concerned in the Primary Trinity of each system of 
physical developments, the Secondary and corres2^onding Trin- 
ity (in connection with the Primary, which is still and always 
in force) is concerned in each secondary and corresponding 
Trinity of developments, with their peculiarities.* 

Thus the principle which we have called " Odic Heat," may 
be considered as the internal love-principle by which particles 
associate in organic forms, and therefore is the fundamental 
dynamic principle connected with the fourth law the law of 
Aggregation or Organization, whether relating to the universe 
as a whole, or to any of its definitely constituted parts. 

The " odic light" appears to be expressive of the ethereally 
aspirative operations of the organic structure from "which it 
proceeds. It was before mentioned that this light consisted 
of the seven different colors of the iris, which seemed to sur- 
round the center of luminosity as so many concentric spheres 
of light ; and that when Reichenbach caused a magnetic bar 
to revolve lengthwise on horizontal and vertical planes, the 
light exhibited successively all the different colors of the rain- 
bow, as the magnet was pointed in the different directions in 
respect to the earth and heavens, which lay in the plane of the 

* It is not claimed that these dynamic principles apply identically to each and 
every seven-fold system of developments, as to some systems they apply only by their 
natural representatives, analogues, or correspondents. 



POLARITY, AFFINITIES, ETC. 103 

circle. I can not but regard these results as exceedingly inter- 
esting and important, as showing the relative degrees and 
states of polarity of particular points and directions of the 
earth's surface, and of the surrounding and celestial spaces 
thus, as suggesting the different qualities or states of the ma- 
terials of which the earth and all correlative creations are 
composed thus, as suggesting the correlative affinities and 
forces by which these materials became associated in their 
present structural form and finally, as suggesting something 
of the perpetually repeated round of changing influences and 
ethereal forces through which (in analogy to the revolving 
magnet) the earth and all celestial bodies pass in performing 
their rotary and orbitual revolutions. If there is any validity 
in these suggestions, then these degrees of polarity, states and 
affinities of matter, changing ethereal forces, etc., all exemplify 
the seven-fold series as corresponding to the seven colors of the 
iris, which, in the experiment referred to, were successively 
given forth by the revolving magnet. And, applying these 
remarks (as analogy would justify us in doing) to all mundane 
organizations to the solar system, the sidereal systems, and 
to the whole universe as one Body as well as to the earth, 
we have in the " odic light" a universal dynamic correlative 
of the fifth law the law of segregation, or the law by which 
unity is divided into parts of different and connected grada- 
tions. 

Concerning the third member of this trinity of agents the 
" odic," electroid, or ethereal emanation which was found to 
produce such marked and singular effects on the sensitive hu- 
man nerve, the following remarks may be submitted : 

1. All things subjected to careful experiment, whether in 
the animal, vegetable, or mineral Kingdoms, or in the 
celestial spaces, were found to send forth this subtile eman- 



104: DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

ation, which in each case may be called the sphere, or 
ethereal atmosphere, of the substance or form from which it 
proceeds. It may . therefore be presumed, on analogical 
grounds, that things also not available for experiment, and 
that, indeed, absolutely all things, from atoms to worlds and 
systems, and even the whole universe, considered as a tlnit, 
are in like manner characterized by a surrounding and per- 
vading ethereal sphere.* 

2. The emanating spheres of smaller bodies associated with 
larger ones, must necessarily be included in the emanating 
spheres of the larger bodies on which they rest or depend. 
The sphere of a single particle of mineral matter, for example, 
is comprehended and encircled in the general sphere of the 
whole crystal of which it forms a part; and the same remark 
applies to particles and organisms in other kingdoms in 
nature. The spheres of all minerals, vegetables, animals, 
etc., separately and collectively, are involved and compre- 
hended in the general sphere of the earth ; the sphere of the 
earth, together with the spheres of all other planets, with 
the satellites and comets, is involved and comprehended in 
the general sphere of the whole solar system ; that sphere is 
comprehended in the general sphere of the great stellar vortex 
in which, accompanied by myriads of like systems, it moves ; 
and that sphere is comprehended in the general sphere of the 
whole Universe ; and that sphere is, in like manner, enveloped 
in, and pervaded by, the great sphere of the infinite Divine 
Being, which is the Essence of all essences, the Force of all 
forces, and the Vitalizer of all vitalities ! Here, then, is a 



* This doctrine of " spheres " was taught by Swedenborg, and by others since his 
day. It may almost be said that it has a sufficient foundation in the developed intu- 
itions of the human mind, and it would stand even independent of Keichenbach'a 
most conclusive scientific verifications. 



DOCTRINE OF SPHERES. 105 

progressive gradation from the smallest to the greatest, from 
the infinitesimal to the Infinite, from the atom of matter to 
the incomprehensible fullness of a Divine Spiritual Being. 

3. The spheres of all bodies in the universe, from smallest 
to greatest, while they are generically similar, are specifically 
different, and the sphere of each body corresponds to that 
body's internal character. This is a conclusion which, as re- 
garded merely by the reasoning powers, is necessitated, by the 
obvious differences in the intrinsic nature of things, and it is 
confirmed by the differences in the effects produced by the 
ethereal emanations of medicines and other substances, and 
even by the heavenly bodies, and by different districts of the 
celestial hemisphere which were subjected to tests. 

4. As it was proved that the spheres of sulphur, gold, 
medicines, etc., acted and reacted upon, and mutually modi- 
fied, each other, and this, too, when the solid bodies were a 
distance apart ; so, carrying out this principle, it may be pre- 
sumed that the spheres of all bodies, terrestrial and celestial, 
from smallest to greatest, from atoms to worlds, stellar sys- 
tems, and the whole universe, in like manner, act and react 
upon, and modify each other, according to their relative degrees 
of magnitude and power. And this mutual interdiffusion of 
spheres, and their harmonious and reciprocal action and re- 
action upon each other, while each particular form and system 
preserves its own identity, constitute an important part of the 
physiological and functional operations of the great Anatomical 
Structure of Creation, and which, as before intimated, corre- 
sponds, in principle, to a single human body. The great 
ethereal Sphere of all spheres may be considered as the 
sympathetic nerve-essence of this Anatomical Structure, viewed 
as a whole, while the sphere of each sun, world, and atom, 
may be considered as its own particular nerve-essence ; and it^ 



106 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

is through these nerve-essences that each part of the whole 
Body sympathises with all other parts, and that the equili- 
brium and harmonious functional operations of the whole sys- 
tem are preserved. 

This subtile and variously qualified electroid or magnetoid 
element, therefore, being the sixth in the seven-fold series of 
dynamic agents, is intimately allied to the sixth general law, 
which we have seen is a law of hannonial and sympathetic 
reciprocation. 

It is true that the discoverer of these previously unknown 
subtile agencies did not exhibit, and perhaps did not, to 
any extent, perceive their cosmological bearings, especially 
as these are attempted to be set forth in the foregoing re- 
marks. His main object appears to have been to develop 
facts, leaving the more comprehensive conclusions to which 
these might naturally conduce, to be unfolded by subsequent 
investigations, and by others as well as by himself; and as 
his facts, by their publication, and their verification by the 
parallel experiments of others, have become the property of 
the world, any one may elaborate and synthetize them who 
has the inclination and mental qualifications to do so. 

In respect to this " odic," or magnetoid element, which per- 
vades and emanates from greatest and smallest things, the 
following additional and important remarks" may be sub- 
mitted: As this influence, proceeding from various bodies, 
near and remote, was found to have such remarkable effects 
upon the sensitive human nerve, it may be considered as 
being closely allied, in its general nature, to the nervous in- 
fluence pervading the human body, and emanating from it as 
an " odic " sphere. Indeed, Reichenbach actually proved its 
identity, in the general sense, with the medium through which 
* one human being produces those effects upon another, com- 



MODE OF DIVINE ACTION. 107 

monly known as " magnetic " or " mesmeric ;" and the world 
is indebted to that philosopher for physical demonstrations in 
this department, which place the fundamental doctrines of 
Animal Magnetism beyond all possible doubt. 

Now, operations called "magnetic" as performed by one 
human being upon another, are known to depend greatly, for 
their character and efficiency, upon the exercise of the will. 
If, therefore, the medium through which such magnetic oper- 
ations are performed, is generically the same with the " odic" 
spheres given forth by all bodies in nature, do we not find in 
this " odic " element the general connecting link between mind 
and matter? If, upon the basis of this certainly plausible 
idea, we should suggest that this everywhere present " odic " 
element, as associated with the different bodies in nature, and 
with nature as a Whole, may hereafter prove to be a medium 
through which mind can, in certain conditions, and to a certain 
extent, act upon and move outer tangible matter, without the 
contact of the physical organs, the suggestion would doubtless 
be met with general incredulity, especially by those who are 
not familiar with certain strange phenomena of our day. It 
could not be esteemed more incredible, however, than would 
have been an assertion made fifty years ago, that by a 
peculiar mechanical contrivance, a certain subtile agent in 
nature might be efficiently employed in the accurate and 
instantaneous transmission of thought to the distance of a 
thousand miles! But not to press these thoughts for the 
present, if our foregoing generalizations are correct, then we 
hazard little in saying, that as the all-pervading "odic" 
sphere of the universe, as a whole, in its ultimate degree, con- 
nects with the sphere of the Deity, so the Deity, through this 
medium, acts upon the universe, in the same way as any two. 
juxtaposed substances or forms in nature act upon each other 



108 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

through their " odic " spheres, and as was illustrated by ex- 
periments before related. And as the Deity, moreover, is a 
personal and intelligent Being, he may through this medium 
act, not only spontaneously, but volitionally and directly, upon 
the universe, or upon either of its corresponding sub-creations, 
and control it to any extent which may comport with the 
integrity of his general plan. 

But we come now to another point : As each previous stage 
of creation, with its peculiar law of developments, from the 
first to the sixth, was thus accompanied with, or related to, a 
corresponding dynamic agent, the same fact may be supposed 
to hold with reference to the seventh stage, which, in the cos- 
mical creation, as before shown, consisted in the development 
of habitable worlcls. And as this is the final development of 
the seven-fold cosmical series and brings the physical struc- 
ture of the universe as such, to a completeness so we may 
suppose that the dynamic principle related to this develop- 
ment, is also the ultimate and completion of its series. And 
being the last of a series in which there is observed a progres- 
sive refinement from the first, at least to the sixth, it may be 
supposed to unite in itself the principles of all the others in a 
still superior degree of refinement. 

But we have seen that the series of universal cosmical de- 
velopments included in what we have called the great King- 
dom of Materiality, must have been based upon, and have 
sprung from, an antecedent, unoriginated, and infinite Kingdom 
of Spirituality, which we call GOD. If this same Principle, 
like the vital elements of the germ of a tree, lies at the basis, 
and is reproduced at the completion, of the unfolding, then 
this seventh dynamic principle, concerning which we are now 
inquiring, can be nothing less than a degree of the seven-fold 
elements of the originally generative Divine Spirit, now em- 



DIVINE EMBODIMENT. 109 

bodied in cosmical investiture. Viewed in this light, this 
seventh dynamic principle may be called Soul or Vitality the 
Soul or vital Principle of the cosmical universe, or the Princi- 
ple by which it, as a universe, lives and performs all its normal 
movements ! 

Let me not, however, be understood as intimating that the 
all of God was thus embodied in the universal cosmical struc- 
ture. Neither the imiverse of material worlds, nor of heavens, 
nor the heaven of heavens, can contain HIM who is absolutely 
INFINITE, and it must have been, comparatively speaking, an 
exceedingly small ray from his interior and ineffable effulgence 
that sufficed to give birth to, and move and regulate, the ma- 
terial structure which we have been contemplating, however 
sublime and inconceivable to human intellect 'this maybe. 
Nor was the Divine embodiment of which we speak, neces- 
sarily an embodiment which, in its immediate exterior mani- 
festation, would take the form of what is generally understood 
by intelligence; though intelligence, as an attribute of a much 
higher and more interior degree of the Divine Spiritual Con- 
stitution, was the projecting, planning, and (acting through the 
ultimately refined " odic" spheres, or quasi nerve-essences of 
his creations, before spoken of) is the constantly supervising 
and all regulating Principle. The Divine qualities as intelli- 
gence were subsequently and, at a much higher degree of 
creative progression, finitely expressed in the human micro- 
cosm, which is expressly declared to be an "image of God." 

It is, however, here submitted as a truth which, it is be- 
lieved, will become more evident in proportion as its founda- 
tion and bearings are better understood that the .identical 
principles of what we know as intelligence, are embodied 
(though not as intelligence) in each kingdom or system of 
creation below man, and finally in the universal kingdom of 

10 



110 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

cosmical forms ; these various descending embodiments bear- 
ing to each other the relations of descending octaves. Thus 
what is called intelligence in man, is called instinct in animals. 
But plants also-, have a kind of instinct ; and so in lower degrees, 
have minerals, worlds the whole universal System of worlds 
each embodying and representing a lower degree of what 
may receive the general designation of Love, Wisdom, and 
Volition; or Expansion, Attraction, and Circulation ; the lowest 
triune degree of which is embraced in the functions of Heat, 
Light, and Electricity. 

The seventh dynamic principle of the universe, therefore, 
which pervades and governs all other principles, is only an 
embodiment of that degree or octave of the principles of the 
Divine soul which is in immediate relation with, and serves 
to control the functional operations of, the universal cosmical 
Body ; while the higher degrees of the seven- fold Divine har- 
monies, flowing downward from the infinite sources of Divin- 
ity, are left to be embodied and represented in subsequent and 
more refined creations, or remain at infinite removes above 
the sphere of all terrestrial and celestial forms. 

Of the doctrine intended to be conveyed in these remarks, 
a more distinct and enlarged understanding will be obtained 
as we proceed. 

But, presuming that the reader already sufficiently compre- 
hends the fundamental principles herein set forth, he is desired 
to bear constantly in mind, that the dynamic principles of the 
cosmical creation, were not developed by the creation itself, 
but developed it ; and the same may be said of the vitalizing 
and moving elements of all degrees of material unfolding. 
The dynamic principles (constituting, indeed, what may, in the 
aggregate, be called the general Soul) are thus the immediate 
Cause of the outer development (or Body), which is the Effect. 



LAWS. NATURE. GOD. Ill 

And here it may be remarked, that if there is any relation be- 
tween Cause and Effect, it must not only be a relation of 
generals, but of particulars ; and thus the Cause must be a 
precise archetype of which the Effect is an antitype or em- 
bodied representative ; and hence the two must, throughout, 
precisely correspond to each other. Every degree of creation, 
therefore, may be considered as a precise outer expression of 
the corresponding degree of Divine Love, Wisdom, and 
Energy which vitalizes and governs it, and in which it was 
previously contained as an archetype. 

Moreover, these interior Divine dynamic principles, together 
with their prescribed modes of action, constitute the operative 
laws of nature. According to this view, while there is a law 
for every class of natural and even spiritual phenomena, and 
all things may be explained without a resort to corafra-natural 
or contra-legal agencies, laws, on the other hand, are not those 
lifeless, unintellectual fatalities which they are represented to 
be in prevalent philosophies of the day, but they are the ex- 
press modes of perpetual Divine volition. In looking, there- 
fore, upon this universe, with all it contains, as faw-governed, 
we may, at the same time, look upon it as 6W-governed. But 
on this point, more in its proper place. 

If this view is correct, then there is, in reality, no necessary 
antagonism between materiality and spirituality, nature and 
heaven, reason and revelation, science and theology, but each 
may be regarded, when correctly understood, as the exponent 
of the other. Quite distinct, however, is this view from that 
gross speculation which makes of God nothing more than the 
ultimately sublimated and self-moving essences of the natural 
universe a kind of universal hyper-galvanic battery which, 
by its perpetual and self-generating action, produces solar and 
planetary revolution, terrestrial changes, and those movements 



112 DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

in the refined essences of the human brain which constitute 
Thoughts. In our philosophy, God is God, and nature is na- 
ture the two being eternally distinct, though intimately con- 
nected and co-related with each other. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

DEFECTS OF PREVAILING COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES. 

IF the foregoing theory of the origin, structure, dynamic 
agents, and laws, of the universe, has any foundation in truth, 
it can scarcely fail to throw important light upon some still 
ulterior questions relating to the prescribed distances, motions, 
reciprocal attractions, etc., of planetary and sidereal creations. 
It may even show that some time-honored theories upon these 
subjects, however sanctioned by the authority of great names, 
are, in certain particulars, radically defective ; and this it will 
do, if at all, by transcending them in the ease, naturalness, 
and completeness with which it accounts for certain existing 
phenomena. 

It was supposed by Sir Isaac Newton, that all rotatory and 
orbitual motion of the heavenly bodies, originated from a pri- 
mary and external impulse received from the hand of the Crea- 
tor, as they were launched into space. To this was added the 
philosophical axiom, that any body put in motion in a vacuum, 
will continue forever to move in a straight line, unless de- 
flected from its course by some other force. This deflecting 
force, as applied to the motions of the planets, Newton found 
in the law of gravitation, which was by him proved to apply 
to all planetary bodies. By the precisely counterbalancing 
action of these two forces, called the centrifugal and centripetal 
forces, the motions of the planets were supposed to be regu- 
lated in circular or elliptical orbits round the sun, the specific 



114 DEFECTS OF PREVAILING 

distances of these being greater or less according to the near- 
ness or remoteness of the point where these two forces were 
exactly balanced against each other. 

But Newton soon found this theory, seemingly perfect in 
other respects, encumbered with difficulties in respect to the 
stability of the system. He found that the different planets 
were not only attracted by the sun, but mutually attracted by 
each other. These different attractions, varying in intensity in 
the inverse ratio of the squares of distances, according to a 
law discovered by Kepler, were accompanied by perturbations, 
producing irregularities in orbitual motions which were sub- 
ject to secular increase. The system, thus, left to its own in- 
ternal provisions, seemed to prophesy its own progressive 
derangement, and its ultimate entire disorganization ; and 
Newton felt impelled to call upon God to avert such a catas- 
trophe, by supplying a force from without, which he supposed 
did not exist within, the system. 

The calculations of subsequent mathematicians, however, 
served, in a good degree, to dispel these gloomy forebodings, 
and led to the conclusion that the irregularities and apparent 
incipient derangements in the motions of the system, would 
finally reach their maximum, after which there would be a 
gradual return to the condition of primeval equilibrium ; that 
thence there would be a progressive tendency to irregularity 
in the opposite direction, to be succeeded by another reaction; 
and that the perpetual vibrations of these irregularities, like 
the oscillations of a mighty pendulum, would serve to mark 
the hours and moments of eternity ! 

This conception of the laws, internal arrangements, and 
movements, of the system, together with the apparent mathe- 
matical evidences which have been arrayed in its support, 
can not otherwise than be regarded as one of the greatest 



COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES. 115 

triumphs of human genius. Yet, even while overwhelmed 
with a sense of its sublimity, one can not well suppress a sense 
of sadness as he contemplates its cold, mechanical lifelessness 
I had almost said Godlessness ! Contemplated in this light, 
the universe appears somewhat analogous to an ingeniously 
constructed machine, which is wound up, and left to go of 
itself, while its maker withholds all further exercise of power 
from it, and forever withdraws all immediate personal care 
over it, as being unnecessary. With this philosophy impressed 
upon our minds, we look up into the heavens, and, though we 
behold incessant motion and activity in every direction, we 
see no necessary evidence of immanent life or spirit nothing 
with which our souls can sympathize as the present pervading 
Animus and constantly impelling Cause of the phenomena we 
behold ; and it is only by an almost painful stretch of the 
powers of inductive reasoning, that we can attain to any sub- 
stantial conviction of a spiritual or voluntative Cause, as having 
been connected with the system even at its origin ! 

It may be added, that thousands of persons, on arriving at 
a full comprehension and conviction of the truth of the Newto- 
nian theory of a merely mechanical universe, and of vacuity 
in the interplanetary and interstellar spaces, have anxiously 
inquired, " Where and what, then, is that spiritual world to 
which our interior natures aspire, and for which Revelation 
encourages us to hope]" and nature, viewed in this aspect, 
has not only refused to respond in language which appeals to 
the conceptive and reasoning powers, but has interposed a 
cloud of darkness and doubt between the inquirer and the sub- 
ject which he seeks to comprehend ! In its efforts to satisfy 
the irrepressible yearnings of the spirit within, Fancy has 
erected a formless, unextended, unsubstantial even unaerial 
figment, that bears no relation to space or the material uni- 



116 DEFECTS OF PREVAILING 

verse, or to any of the rational faculties of the soul ; and in 
this mankind have been told to have faith, as the place or state 
of future human destination ! But a rational faith in such an 
utter inconceivability is out of the question, and an extra- 
rational and mere dogmatic faith, in such an idea, can not 
generally, if ever, be kept free from superstition, and hence, 
from a greater or less degree of mental degradation and 
slavery. Hence, in case of full adoption of the Newtonian 
system of cosmogony, a determination to follow only the con- 
victions of reason will necessarily tend to skepticism with 
reference to spiritual, and to s.rme extent even with reference 
to Divine things ; and there is no latent force in the theory 
which, by any development can ever correct this mental ab- 
erration. In the spirit and tendency of this merely me- 
chanical mode of philosophizing upon the universe, may, I 
apprehend, be found the main cause of the growing materialism 
and skepticism of these modern days, especially among minds 
called scientific. 

Subjected to the test of rationality, however, the Newtonian 
system, in *at least one of its features, seems to be almost as 
bad off as the only spiritual and theological theories that can 
be rationally associated with it. It predicates mutual gravita- 
tion of any two distant bodies, while it fails to recognize, if it 
does not, by implication, entirely preclude the idea of, any 
intervening gravitating agent. But that any two bodies can 
in any way act upon each other, either without immediate 
contact, or . the intervention of some substantial medium by 
which they can touch each other, is utterly inconceivable, and 
can no more bo supposed than any effect can be supposed to be 
disconnected with an adequate cause. We do not, however, 
charge the theory with absolutely and necessarily precluding 
such a medium ; but by manifesting, at its very starting point, 



COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES. 117 

such a strong inclination to the idea of absolute vacuity in the 
interplanetary spaces, it not only fails to provide such a me- 
dium, but, in effect, discountenances the idea that such exists. 
In the theory which we have maintained in the preceding 
pages, however, the medium in question, is abundantly pro- 
vided. 

Moreover, the system as conceived by Newton can not, after 
all, be contemplated without some degree of apprehension in 
regard to its safety. For, notwithstanding the figurings of sub- 
sequent mathematicians respecting the reaction which tends to 
restore lost equilibrium, if we do away with the immediate 
immanence of Divine Vitality in other words, with the im- 
mediate presence and agency of that degree of the Divine Es- 
sence and Power of which the universe forms a suitable 
habitation, and which is necessary to the life and functional 
operations of the latter as of one Body then there are many 
chances against the existence of an absolute equilibrium in the 
different parts and forces of the great Whole : and if there is 
ever a disturbance of the equilibrium to an extent which can 
not be entirely restored by a counter oscillation, even though 
this be only the fraction of the weight of a planet, or even the 
amount of a single pound, the disturbance will progressively 
aggravate, and a universal catastrophe will be the final and 
inevitable result ! 

If, therefore, the stability of the universe depends merely 
upon the nice counterpoise of the centrifugal and centripetal 
forces, as independent of this constant Divine Force, and of 
any elastic, active, and reactive medium to keep the various 
celestial bodies within prescribed boundaries, then human rea- 
son can not withhold the suspicion of danger as it contem- 
plates the stupendous Machine, or suppress the apprehension 
that it may one day fly to pieces, and involve us all in the 



118 NO VACUITY IN SPACE. 

common wreck ! This apprehension greatly increases, when 
it is considered that Newton's hypothesis of absolute vacuity 
in the spaces through which the celestial bodies move an 
hypothesis upon which, according to him, the equilibrium 
between the centrifugal and centripetal forces necessarily 
depends has proved unfounded, and that the phenomena of 
retardation of comets in their orbits, has proved that the in- 
terplanetary spaces are pervaded by an attenuated fluid or 
ether, capable of exerting some resistance to their progress. 

It is here submitted, with all due deference to the superior 
intelligence of many who have never entertained a doubt of 
the entire truthfulness of Newton's theory, that that theory, 
at least without essential modifications, would probably never 
have been propounded by Newton, or adopted by others, had 
the theory of the nebular origin of the universe, with its accom- 
panying evidences, and natural corollaries, been previously- 
subjected to familiar contemplation. 

We now proceed to briefly unfold a theory respecting the 
foregoing subjects, which, whatever may be its imperfections, 
seems to the writer, at least, much less encumbered with diffi- 
culties than the merely mechanical theory of Newton, while 
it is certainly more compatible with the idea of an immediate 
and universal Divine superintendence. 



CHAPTEE X. 

GKOUNDS OF STABILITY AND GENEKAL ECONOMY OP 
THE COSMICAL STKUCTUEE. 

As a preliminary step toward a due comprehension and 
appreciation of the theory now to be offered respecting the in- 
ternal forces, movements, grounds of stability, and general 
economy of the universe, the reader is requested to bear dis- 
tinctly in mind that principles operate indifferently upon a 
large and a small scale that the magnitudes and distances of 
the objects to which they apply, are absolutely of no conse- 
quence as affecting the essential nature of their operations. 

Now, in the light of this truism, let us suppose some simple 
vegetable form say an apple to be placed under a micro- 
scope so exceedingly powerful as to magnify it to the apparent 
size of that immense spheroid of stellar orbs with their planets, 
which is known to us as the Milky Way, and in the midst of 
which our world is situated. We will suppose that the pores 
of the apple would, in that case, appear of a magnitude equally 
great with the interplanetary and interstellar spaces, and that 
the molecules would be magnified to the apparent size of 
worlds. Moreover, the internal motions of the molecules, ob- 
serving the natural order of vegetative circulation and pro- 
gression, would bear a certain resemblance to the rotatory and 
orbitual motions of suns and planets, and all, obeying the law 
by which the distinct stratifications and compartments of the 
apple are formed, would give an appearance somewhat similar 



120 GENERAL ECONOMY OF 

to distinct systems, and systems of systems of suns and 
plan%ts, as these are successively brought ' into the field of a 
telescope. Suppose, that after this optical arrangement is 
completed, some learned Newtonian astronomer, who is en- 
tirely ignorant of its nature, is invited, on some clear even- 
ing, to look through the instrument, which is represented to 
him as a newly invented telescope, instead of a microscope. 
The astronomer gazes with wonder and astonishment, and 
thinks he has obtained a new and favorable view of some 
stellar and planetary creation which has not before appeared 
to him exactly in the same aspect. 

" Well, Mr. Astronomer," demands an inquirer, " what is 
your opinion respecting the origin of the motions, the laws of 
operation, and the soured of stability, of the system which you 
are now surveying "?" 

" Why, undoubtedly," replies the astronomer, " the same 
principles are applicable here that apply to all planetary and 
stellar creations;" and if he added no more, he would thus 
far be correct. But he continues, " Undoubtedly each one of 
those bodies received a certain mechanical impulse as it was 
launched into space from -ihe hand of the Creator. Each one 
moves in a vacuum, and would have continued its primitive 
motion in a direct line forever, had it not been deflected from 
its course by an equal and perpetually operative force of grav- 
itation, whence its present motion is in a circular or elliptical 
orbit. If either one of those revolving bodies," continues 
the sage astronomer, " were arrested in its orbit, and the cen- 
trifugal force were thus destroyed, gravitation would immedi- 
ately draw it to the central sun, and this would probably so 
derange the equilibrium of the system as to ultimately pro- 
duce a universal catastrophe !" 

If the astronomer is now shown a direct view of the real 



THE COSMICAL STRUCTURE. 121 

subject of these speculations is shown that it is merely an 
apple he will consider this as of itself a sufficient refutation 
of his speculations, so far as that object was concerned ; be- 
cause he considers the internal molecular motions of the apple 
as being governed by a principle of life, and this he regards 
as of itself amply sufficient to keep up the equilibrium of its 
particular parts. 

But each cluster, or firmament, of suns, with its planets, is, 
in principle, but an apple on a large scale. Some of the more 
distant, and less easily resolvable, nebulae, indeed, appear to a 
telescope of small power, almost in the identical form and 
sitfe of an apple ; and, viewed apart from all other considera- 
tions than those suggested by their own proper aspects, as the 
white, milky spots, which they present to telescopes incapable 
of resolving them, one might have easily conceived that they 
were agitated by internal motions ; but the conception that 
these internal motions were referable to external and mechan- 
ical impulses, and that the moving bodies (which the distance 
of view reduces to molecules) were sustained in equilibrio by 
counter impulses, according to the Newtonian theory of plan- 
etary motion, would have been as unnatural and far-fetched, 
as would be precisely the same theory applied to the internal 
molecular motions of an apple. 

Indeed, it is conceivable that one might be miraculously 
elevated above the whole plane of sidereal creations to a 
distance so great that, as he looked down upon the whole uni- 
verse of firmaments, the whole might present one unresolved 
mass apparently, from that distance, no larger than the size 
of an apple. Now, when we remember that in the workings 
of principles there is absolutely no distinction made between 
great and small bodies, how naturally may it be supposed that 
the whole universe, with all its included sub-universes is per 

II 



122 GENERAL ECONOMY OF 

vaded, like the apple, by an internal principle of Life, and 
that this is the cause of all its internal motions, and the sus- 
tainer of equilibrium among all its constituent orbs, which, to 
it, are in reality no more than what the molecules are to the 
apple ! 

But let us endeavor to obtain a more distinct view of some 
of the constituent elements embraced in this general theory : 
Our theory, before propounded, of constantly emanative, as 
well as constantly gravitafive, forces as connected with planets, 
suns, systems, and firmaments, seems, if correct, to necessi- 
tate the conclusion that universal space is constantly filled 
with substance. This substance is in the solid, fluid, aeriform, 
and ethereal states. In its densest state, it may be supposed 
to be indefinitely more dense than the heaviest substances 
known upon earth, and in its rarest state, it may be supposed 
to be indefinitely more rare than electricity, and between these 
two extremes, there are probably all intermediates. The uni- 
verse may thus be regarded as only one vast ethereal Body, 
having in its general mass innumerable points of condensation, 
which are suns, planets, etc. 

Now, the force which originally induced nebulous circles, 
firmaments, suns, planets, satellites, etc., to assume their re- 
spective orbits at specific distances from their primaries, and 
which perpetually operates (with some modifications, accord- 
ing to different stages of progression) to keep these bodies in 
those general orbits after they are assumed, may, in a degree, 
be conceived by the following illustration : The ponderable 
atmosphere of the earth at a level with the sea, is relatively 
dense, while at the tops of the highest mountains it is rela- 
tively rare ; and at an altitude of forty-five or fifty miles, ac- 
cording to received estimates, its existence ceases to be appre- 
ciable. Hydrogen gas is much lighter than the ponderable 



THE COS MIC A L STKUCTUKE. 123 

terrestrial atmosphere at a level with the sea'; and when con- 
fined in a balloon, it ascends, with its envelope, to an altitude 
determined by the degree of buoyancy of gas and balloon 
united, and there it floats until dissipated. Now, each solar 
and planetary body in jspace, is surrounded by a calorific, 
luminous, electric, and ethereal atmosphere, which, in like man- 
ner, varies in density and power with the distance from the 
center of condensation ; and, by virtue of the respective 
super-aerial atmospheres of any two bodies sustaining to each 
other the relations of primary and secondary, the secondary 
body assumes an orbitual distance from the primary, which, 
as in the case of the balloon, is. governed by the law of equi- 
librium which distance, however, is somewhat modified by 
centrifugal force. 

This illustration of the balloon, however, is very imper-fcct, 
and only serves to enable the reader to approximate to a con- 
ception of the true idea ; for we are not to eonsider any planet 
or other celestial body, as having the same degree of affinity 
for its primary as the balloon has for the earth, or as being 
attracted to it in exactly the same way, or as it would be, if 
there were no greater dissimilarity between its matter and the 
matter of the primary, than there is between the matter of 
the balloon and that of the earth. But each celestial body is 
composed of materials, and possesses calorific, electric, odic, 
and other forces and properties, and hence affinities, peculiar 
to itself, and which, in general, differ from those of any other 
given body in proportion to the distance of its natural situ- 
ation. Moreover, each planet, sun, etc., as before intimated, 
is only the condensed center of a general ethereal body of no 
particularly defined circumference, but whose refined emana- 
tions, growing more rare with each remove from their centers, 
extend indefinitely into space, In this way, each body inter- 



124 GENERAL ECONOMY OF 

communicates with, and acts upon, all kindred bodies, and is 
acted upon by them in return ; the action consisting in an in- 
terblending of the forces and properties of the different 
bodies. When this interblending is harmonious, the action is 
attractive ; when it is conflicting, it is repulsive. Beyond cer- 
tain limits of distance, the interblending actions of any two 
bodies, however dissimilar in constitution, is always harmoni- 
ous and hence attractive ; within those limits of distance, 
the action is crowding and conflicting, and hence repellant. 

Suppose, then, that by some controlling arm, or some acci- 
dental impediment, a planet were suddenly arrested in its 
orbit, and were thus relieved from the influence of centrifugal 
force: it would immediately be drawn toward its primary 
with a force which would uniformly increase as the square of 
the distance decreased, provided no counteracting force were 
developed by the approach to the central body. In falling in- 
ward, however, although the attractive force would, for a time, 
be increased (that is, until the previous centrifugal displace- 
ment was overcome), its elastic atmosphere w r oulcT begin to 
crowd more and more upon the elastic atmosphere of the sun, 
and even its own solidified particles, by the increased calorific, 
photic, electric, odic, and vital action due to the proximity of 
the two bodies as centers of such action, would, in themselves, 
develop an emanative or repellent force in respect to the pri- 
mary ; and, owing to these causes, the secondary body could 
not approach within a certain distance of its primary, within 
which distance the repellent force would be superior to the 
attractive. 

The same idea is involved in the theory (before propounded) 
of the process by which secondary bodies were formed from 
primaries and which supposes that the secondaries are com- 
posed of an equal quantity of attracted and emanated particles. 



' THE COSMICAL STRUCTURE. 125 

As each individual of these, acted upon by centrifugal force, 
finds its equilibrium at the particular point where, by the union 
of all, the secondary body is formed, sO the united mass of par- 
ticles in the body thus formed, has no more tendency to draw 
nearer to the primary than it has to emanate further from it. 

Suppose, then, any particular secondary body should be 
violently arrested in its orbit : it would evidently sink into 
the ethereal atmosphere of its^ primary a distance measured 
by its previous centrifugal displacement, which, in most cases, 
would be considerable ; but at some point between its former 
orbit and the primary, it would attain to an exact equilibrium 
between the attractive and emanative or repellent influences, 
and there its inward motion would stop. If held there by 
violence, and prevented from partaking of the general vortical 
motion of the system, it would be to the cosmical system what 
a mass of displaced particles, or a splinter of foreign matter, 
would be to the human system ; and the effect would be, an 
inflammation, suppuration, and dissolution, of the part. For, 
it is evident that in such a case the body would accumulate 
heat and other repellent elements from the primary, more 
rapidly than it could relieve itself of them, and sooner or later 
these accumulations would be beyond its powers of endurance. 
The particles in that case would separate in detail, and would 
either be digested and assimilated with the general mass of 
the primary and its atmosphere, or, assuming the general revo- 
lutionary motion of the system, would be again thrown out- 
ward by the resultant centrifugal force, and would reaggregate 
themselves at their original distance, and the planet would be 
formed anew. 

For an explanation of the principles on which all rotatory 
and orbitual motion may originate, the reader is referred to an 
earlier stage of this treatise, in which we spoke of the first 



126 GENERAL ECONOMY OF 

assumption of rotatory motion in the universal mass : and, by- 
considering the universe still as one general Body, interiorly 
gravitating and emanating as in the beginning, he may conceive 
how these motions, not only of the great general Body, but 
of all its included and correspondent sw&-bodies, is perpetually 
sustained by a constant supply of the same forces which ope- 
rated in the beginning, and which constantly inflow from the 
inexhaustible sources of Divine Spiritual Heat and Light, 
which mean Love and Wisdom, and which constituted the 
Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the 
ending of this grand creative operation ! What can be a more 
natural thought than that the universe is constructed, and that 
all its functional operations are carried on, according to the 
foregoing principles! and what hypothesis relating to this 
grand subject is so free from difficulties ! 

If the universe is actually constructed on these principles, 
it manifestly possesses (under the operations of its pervading 
Divine Life) a self-regulating power which must necessarily 
give it the utmost conceivable stability the stability of an 
almost infinite living Organism, exempted from all external 
causes of death ! Let planets be crowded out of their orbits, 
if such a thing were possible (which it is not), and they will 
either spontaneously return again, or new arrangements will be 
assumed among their associate bodies, which will be according 
to the law of equilibrium, and equally harmonious with the 
previous condition. Let planets, or even whole systems, by 
any imaginable means, be stricken out of existence: there 
would be an immediate supplying of the vacuum a healing 
up of the part and scarcely a cicatrice would remain. In short, 
let the system, by some imagined foreign force, be wounded 
and deranged in almost any conceivable way : it would still 
contain an internal power of recuperation. But as a Divinely 



THE COSMICAL STRUCTURE. 127 

constituted Fabric, destined to unspeakably noble and glori- 
ous ends, it is entirely free from all causes of material dis- 
turbance, and will live on until its highest purposes are fully 
attained, when, as one Grand Man, it will change its whole 
mode of being for one which is more spiritual, more Divine, 
and inconceivably more glorious ! 



CHAPTEK XI. 

PARTICULAR CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE GENESIS AND 
MODUS OPERANDI OP THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 

LITTLE more needs to be said, by way of applying the fore- 
going principles to the genesis and modus operandi of our own 
Solar System. It has been before intimated that the identical 
principles are involved here that were concerned in the origin 
and government of the universe, as a whole, with some 
modifications in the form of their results, as owing to differ- 
ences of conditions, and that the seven-fold series is observed 
in the laws, operations, and successive stages of unfolding, in 
both instances. In both instances there are the successive and 
ascending degrees of Chaos, Nucleation, Spheroidation, Circu- 
lar Agregation, Segregation, Secondary Spheroidation, and the 
complete and ultimate cosmical unfolding. In both cases the 
dynamic agents of Heat, Light, and Electricity, with their 
corresponding triad of odic elements are involved, to which, 
in both cases, is superadded the all-pervading and controlling 
Divine Life Principle. 

The chief differences in the specific forms of developments 
in the two cases, lies between their fourth, fifth, sixth, and 
seventh degrees. In the series of developments through which 
we have supposed the universe, as one whole Body, to have 
passed, we have supposed the fourth development to be that 
of nebulous rings, surrounding the primary spheroid or, at 
least, segments of rings so large, and of such various parts, as 



THE SOLAK SYSTEM. 129 

to preclude the possibility of an aggregation of the materials 
of either ring or segment, into one spheroidal body ; while, in 
the Solar System, the size and other conditions of each of these 
cycloidal nebulae were, with apparently one exception, such as 
to admit of an aggregation into one spheroidal body. The 
exception here referred to relates to the mass of materials 
from which originated the asteroids. The fifth or segregative 
process in the universal development, consists, according to 
our hypothesis, of the division of each nebulous ring or seg- 
ment, into a multitude of angular and indefinitely formed 
masses ; whereas the fifth and corresponding development in 
the Solar System, consisted (in every case except that of the 
asteroids, as before mentioned) simply of the breaking up of 
the nebulous ring, and the assemblage of its parts into one 
body. The processes of the sixth development, both of the 
Universe and of the Solar System, were perfectly identical, 
except that in the former case solar spheres, and in the latter, 
the gaseous and incandescent spheres of nascent planets, were 
the result. The seventh development of the universe con- 
sisted of the unfolding of the identical forms which were the 
product of the sixth development of the solar system, viz., 
the forms of nascent planets, as aforesaid ; whereas the seventh 
development of the solar system, consisted of the superficial 
solidification of those bodies, and such other changes in them 
as prepared them for the introduction of the first and lowest 
of the organic forms, by which they were subsequently 
tenanted. 

But although the Universal System and the Solar System 
thus each consists of a complete octave of developments, each 
octave has its own particular key-note, which differs from that 
of the other. That is to say, they do not begin at the same 
place iu the staff, nor does one begin where the other ends. 



130 . ORIGIN OF COMETS. 

This, however, does not in any respect destroy the corre- 
spondence of the principles which both involve. 

After the sun and planets were thus formed by agglomer- 
ations and condensations of the originally diffused mass of 
chaotic materials, there would naturally still remain in dif- 
fusion through the general sphere of the system, a quantity 
of mundane matter, so great as to be liable, under the further 
action of the law of condensation, to ultimately assume forms 
more or less distinctly visible. This consideration hints at 
the origin and character of those erratic, and in some cases 
apparently almost lawless bodies, called comets. These are 
mere excrescences upon, the system incidents of previous 
developments ; and their anomalas of constitution and motions 
are probably the results of their borderings upon the extreme 
confines of the forces and laws provided for the government 
of the system. Aside from some illustrations of cosmical 
laws which they afford, they probably subserve no purpose 
which is much more important than that of the amusement 
of astronomers. 

This idea of residual nebular matter also accounts for that 
singular nebulous and oblately spheroidal envelope of the sun, 
which is called the " Zodiacal Light." Probably neither the for- 
mation of this nor of the comets, was specifically contemplated 
in the original plan of the Creator, but the development of 
each was incidental to the uniform operations of established 
laws. 

As originated our own solar system, so we may suppose 
originated all other solar systems in space, with differences in 
the forms of the operations and results of identical principles, 
according to differences in material conditions and local 
circumstances. 



CHAPTEK XII. 



SYNTHETICAL VIEW OP THE OBIGIN OF THE EARTH, 
AND ITS GEOLOGICAL FOEMATIONS. 

THE last developed forms of the universal cosmical struc- 
ture, viz., the distinctly segregated masses of planetary matter 
before described, may be viewed in the light of Seed of the 
great Tree of previous Being, and Germs of a future and cor- 
responding creation. By means of a generative influence 
constantly descending from the Divine Spirit, as the Source 
of all subordinate existences, a corresponding octave of unfold- 
ings now ensue, which may be called the geognostic unfold- 
ings. The successive stages of these, which, like other systems 
of creation, form a seven-fold scries, seem, both in the light of 
principles and facts, to observe the following order and 
relations : 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 
1. Chaotic or unformed fiery 
vapor. 



2. Spheroidal nucleus (liquid 
and gaseous). 



3. Granito-aqueous, or, super- 
ficially solidified and oceanic. 



SECONDARY TRINITY. 

4. The "Transition Period ."cha- 

racterized mainly by aerial 
developments and changes. 

5. The " Secondary Period," cha- 

racterized by distinctions of 
climates and seasons, and 
their corresponding sediment- 
ary deposits. 

6. The. "Tertiary," or, the vol- 

canic, lacustrine, fluvatile, 
and abrasive Period. 

ULTIMATE. 
7. Recent or Alluvial Period. 



132 ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 

In our descending or analytical view of creation, we spoke 
briefly of some of the more superficial characteristics of these 
terrestrial developments ; but we will now glance at the as- 
pects in which they will appear in the light of the a priori and 
a posteriori processes of reasoning combined. 

1. THE CHAOTIC STAGE. In our analytical and analogical 
view of the terrestrial system, we found abundant reason to 
believe that our earth was formed from a mass of primeval 
fiery vapor, as expressing material conditions antecedent to the 
fiery liquid mass, of which, facts prove that our globe once 
consisted. Following the further and obvious teachings of 
analogy, as well as the intimations of certain celestial phe- 
nomena, we were led to the conclusion that this mass must 
have been a result of a previous aggregation and segregation 
of the materials of the solar atmosphere, of which an explana- 
tion is involved in the now apparently well-established theory 
of the formation of the nebulous rings, and their subsequent 
changes. 

It seems to be a well-founded opinion of believers in the 
nebular theory, that the gaseous cycloid, whose condensation 
resulted in the formation of the earth, must have originally 
been nearly of the same shape and circumference with the 
present orbit of the earth. Now, the earth's orbit is not an 
exact circle, but an ellipse, with the sun in one of its foci. 
Consequently, at the separation of the materials of this ring 
or cycloid at one part of its rim, and their aggregation at the 
opposite part, whether this occurred at the perihelion or 
aphelion point the common mass thus formed must have 
taken the elongated or ellipsoidal shape, and preserved super- 
ficially all the general geometrical properties of the previous 
circumsolar zone, on a reduced scale. 

The first distinct form assumed by the materials of our 



AND MOON. 133 

nascent planet, therefore, must have been that of an ellipsoid, 
or, perhaps, more properly speaking, that of an egg somewhat 
flattened in the direction of its shorter diameter. The two 
ends of this ellipsoidal body, preserving, respectively, the 
general qualities of what were its aphelion and perihelion 
points when, during its previous and higher state of diffusion, 
it encircled the sun, must now sustain toward each other the 
relations of positive and negative.* The atoms having the 
strongest affinity for the positive influence, therefore, would 
naturally flow toward the positive end ; and those having the 
strongest affinity for the negative influence would flow toward 
the negative end. There would, therefore, be a tendency of 
the particles to agglomerate and condense in the form of a 
separate nucleus near either end of the general body, or, more 
accurately speaking, probably in either focus of the ellipse. If 
the particles are sufficiently diverse from each other as to their 
extreme degrees of positiveness or negativeness, and other 
circumstances are favorable, the tendencies to agglomeration 
and condensation at these two points, may result in the forma- 
tion of a primary planet and a satellite; or, if there are 
several degrees of matter widely distinguished by their rela- 
tively positive and negative qualities, a correspondingly com- 
plicated operation of the same principles and forces, may re- 
sult in the formation of several satellites. 

The idea of a tendency to, and condensation in, the foci of 
the egg-shaped nebulous mass, thus forming a primary and a 
satellite, and that this tendency indicates a laiv, is in precise 

* In employing the terms " positive" and " negative," as above, it is not intended to 
restrict the idea of the polar relations which they express, to a connection with elec- 
tricity or magnetism. These relations may be supposed, in some sense, to subsist be- 
tween the two extremes in the development of each of the imponderables. Keichen- 
bach, as we have seen, found unmistakable indications of these polar relations existing 
in the " odio" element, with its different varieties, by him discovered. 

12 



134: OEIGIN OF THE EARTH. 

accordance with, and explains, the fact, universal in the solar 
system, and doubtless in other departments of the cosmical 
creation, that when bodies (whether planets or satellites) re- 
volve in elliptical orbits,, their primaries, or centers of gravity, 
are invariably situated in one of the foci of the ellipse, pre- 
cisely where, according to our theory, such bodies must, in all 
probability, have been originally formed. It may be added 
that, of the fact of this focality in the situation of primaries 
with reference to the elliptic orbits of their secondaries, no 
other hypothesis than the general one now under consideration 
affords the slightest explanation. 

Considering the earth and the moon as having, in this way, 
been formed respectively by condensations in the foci of the 
same original nebulous mass, their origin and relations may 
be considered as hinting at, if not exactly representing, the 
origin and relations of the two bodies of what are called 
double stars, or binary systems. The diversity of colors gene- 
rally observed as characterizing the two constituents of such 
systems the larger body being, in most cases, relatively red, 
and the smaller relatively blue, as though they had divided 
the prismatic colors between them strongly intimates, of it- 
self, something like a polar opposition in the materials of which 
they are respectively -composed, and gives additional weight 
to the hypothesis of their original and nebulous connection. 

The hypothesis of an original union in one nebulous body 
of the materials of the earth and moon, seems, indeed, to bo 
necessary, if there is admitted to be any truth in the nebular 
theory. But, if this hypothesis is true, it suggests a connec- 
tion of a nature heretofore little suspected, as even now sub- 
sisting between the earth and moon. Taken in connection 
with our doctrine of constant emanation, as well as constant 
gravitation, of particles governed by the laws of assimilation, 



ETHEREAL ENVELOPE. 135 

elimination, and polarization, it encourages, if possible, even 
more than a suspicion, that the earth and moon are but con- 
densed and oppositely polarized points in one common mass 
of ethereal, magnetoid, or " odic" substance. Such an ethereal 
mass, considered ,as the common calorific, photic, electric, odic, 
nervoid, and vital sphere or atmosphere of the earth and moon, 
would seem to be a necessary existence, according to princi- 
ples involved in the discoveries of Reichenbach ; while, on the 
other hand, and in a still more emphatic sense, the earth and 
moon in their present state, may be supposed to consist of 
precipitated particles originally held in solution in their now 
enveloping ethereal and imponderable menstruum.* 

This field or realm of segregated ether supporting these 
now condensed points, may, in its present state, be considered 
as an ultimate refinement of the primeval nebulous mass from 
which our world and its satellite had their common origin. 
Though its ultimate attenuations, intercommingling with those 
of kindred bodies (yet still preserving their identity) may be 
supposed to extend indefinitely into space, the relatively dense, 



* It is well known that particular positions of the moon in respect to the earth, are 
accompanied with marked effects upon somnambulists, cataleptics, and persons dis- 
posed to insanity ; and it has from time immemorial been 'bdieced that certain lunar 
positions have also a decided influence upon the vegetable and animal kingdoms. 
During eclipses of the sun, when the moon has been directly between that luminary 
and the earth, hungry animals have been observed to suddenly cease eating, and become 
apparently sad and dejected ; and when eclipses have been total, birds have sometimes 
been known to fall dead from their perches. Now, neither of these effects can be sup- 
posed to result from any modification of the force of gravitation as owing to the rela- 
tive positions in such cases, of the earth, moon, and sun. But if we suppose, as is sup- 
posed above, that the earth and moon are enveloped in a common " odic" sphere of a 
nervoid and semi-vital character, and that this changes in its polar relations and con- 
sequent qualities of influence upon living organisms, with every change of relative 
position of the earth, moon, and sun, we have an easy solution of the phenomena in 
question. The supposition of such a change of influence would seem to be counte- 
nanced by the results of Reichenbach's experiment with the revolving magnet, before 
Bpoken of. 



136 OKI GIN OF THE EAETII. 

or the rationally more obvious, portion of the body, still re- 
tains, in all probability, the general shape and size of the 
original nebula. If we suppose this spheroid of imponderable 
matter to be rotating on its own proper axis once in twenty- 
seven days, seven hours, and forty-three minutes, carrying the 
earth and moon with it as its condensed foci, we have, in such 
supposition, an explanation of the motion of the moon round 
the earth as it appears to us, and of the motion of the earth 
around the moon as it would be mathematically evident to an 
inhabitant of the latter body. If this supposition is correct, 
then neither body ought to move round the other as an abso- 
lutely fixed point in the system, but both ought to revolve 
around a common center the axis of their common ethereal 
and enveloping mass. But, considering the superior attractive 
force of the earth over the moon, together with the superior 
density of that whole end of the ethereal mass in which the 
earth is situated, to that of the end in which the moon is 
situated, this center of common revolution can probably vary 
at most but a few hundred miles from the center of the earth, 
and may be very nearly coincident with it. 

I believe that astronomers are now pretty generally con- 
vinced that in binary stellar systems, one body not only 
revolves around the other, but that the two bodies revolve 
round a common center, situated somewhere between the 
centers of the two, and nearest to the center of the larger one ; 
and to these motions, those of the binary system of the earth 
and moon would, according to the foregoing hypothesis, pre- 
sent an exact analogy. 

The earth, being the major or positive focal condensation of 
the general ethereal and enveloping spheroid, has asumed 
sufficient independence to admit of a diurnal revolution on its 
own proper axes ; but the moon, being the minor and nega- 



HINT CONCERNING TIDES. 137 

tive focus, still continues in subjection t6 the force of the 
general ethereal mass which is positive over it ; and therefore, 
keeping the same side always to the earth, it rotates only with 
the rotation of the general mass. 

If our hypothesis is correct, then not only ought the sides 
of the moon turned to and from the earth, to be in opposite 
polar relations, but there should be a slight elongation of the 
moon in the same direction, presenting, in fact, the dwindled 
and miniature form of the original nebulous or present 
ethereal spheroid. On the same principle there must, have 
been a tendency to elongation in the form of the earth, while 
the particles which compose it were in process of aggregation. 
This tendency, however, so far as the solid, or less mobile ma- 
terials of the earth are concerned, was corrected by its ro- 
tation on its axis, by the perpetual action of which, during 
the period in which the earth passed from a fluid to a super- 
ficially solid state, the surface of the earth was rolled into 
general rotundity. But the mobility of the watery portions 
of the earth's surface, was such as to preserve, in a degree, 
their freedom to observe the original tendency to ellipticity, 
which tendency is now manifested in the form of tides. For 
tides are only elongations of the mobile portions of the earth's 
substance, in what we have supposed to be the direction of 
the longer axis of the ethereal spheroid, which axis would 
necessarily be in the direction of the earth and moon, admit- 
ting these bodies, as points of condensation in the general 
body, to occupy generally the two foci of the latter. There 
are, doubtless, for the same reasons, atmospheric tides which 
are greater than the oceanic tides in proportion to the greater 
mobility of the atmospheric particles ; and had not the earth 
assumed a rotatory motion (from causes identical with those 
which produced a similar motion in other bodies, and which 



138 ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 

have been before explained), it would doubtless have con- 
densed (as we have supposed the moon to have done), in a 
permanently oval form, whose opposite ends would, if the 
expression may be allowed, have represented solidified 
tides.* 

With the evolutions and condensations above supposed, or, 
at least, with something not essentially differing from them, 
the materials of which our earth is composed, may be sup- 
posed to have passed out of their first or chaotic state. 

2. The SECOND stage of the earth's developments, as ob- 
viously the next orderly stage of progression from the first, 
was that of a spheroidal igneous nucleus. This stage, indeed, 
commenced the moment the nucleus began to appear; for 
then the general body, by the distinction developed in its 
parts, began to pass out of the state of absolute chaos. It 
may be considered that this development closed when the 
outer limits of this igneous nucleus became distinctly defined, 
and when its merely molten and fluid substance became fully 
distinguished from its gaseous envelope.f 

3. The THIRD stage may be denominated the granite-aqueous, 
it being the stage characterized by the formation of the first 
granite crust, and by the development of the oceans by which 
the latter was generally covered. This, completing as it did 
the first Trinity of terrestrial developments, brought the earth 
from a previously elastic and yielding, to a solid and perma- 

* These suggestions, tending, as they do, to an essential modification of the New- 
tonian theory of tides, might be greatly fortified by additional considerations ; but to 
present these in their proper force, discussions would be required which would be too 
occult for a popular treatise. 

t The foregoing considerations in respect to the first and second stages of the earth's 
formation, are admitted to be mainly a priori, but to those who can perceive effects 
as involved in their causes, they will not be without weight In respect to the remain- 
ing stages of development, we will not only have the evidence of copses, but of their 
fjfects, as still observable in the earth's crust. 



EAKLY ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS. 139 



nent state, and thus completed its constitution merely as a 
planetary body. 

4. The FOURTH stage was characterized mainly by aerial de- 
velopments and changes. It embraces that vast period during 
which the rocks of the Cambrian, Silurian, Old Red Sandstone, 
and Carboniferous systems were formed. At the commence- 
ment of this period, the atmosphere must of necessity have 
been in an exceedingly crude and impure state. Besides other 
gross and noxious elements, it must have borne in its bosom 
all, or nearly all, of the carbonic acid gas which subsequently 
became condensed in the mountain limestone and various 
other limestone deposits, and the carbon of which, parting with 
its oxygen, became embodied in the immense beds of mineral 
coal, found, more or less, in almost every quarter of the earth. 
An atmosphere thus surcharged with this noxious vapor, must 
have been incompatible with the existence of any forms of 
organic life, except those of a low order; and accordingly we 
find that the plants and animals of this vast period were, as 
shown by their fossil remains, exclusively such as inhabited 
the ocean and the marshy and frequently submerged places in 
its vicinity situations intermediate between the properly 
marine and the properly terrestrial. 

It was, doubtless, owing mainly, if not wholly, to atmos- 
pheric causes that the solar rays during this period had but 
little influence upon the surface of the earth, and that a nearly 
uniform temperature prevailed at all latitudes and at all sea- 
sons. Geologists have usually attempted to account for the 
high degree and general uniformity of this temperature, as 
indicated by the universally tropical nature of the plants and 
animals of this period, by referring it to a radiation of the 
internal heat of the earth, which it is supposed must, at that 
early period, have been much more intense than in subsequent 



14:0 ORIGIN OF THE EARTH. 

times. But the mystery seems to be quite as well, if not bet- 
ter, accounted for in the consideration that while the atmos- 
phere was so excessively dense as it must have been while 
loaded with so much carbon and carbonic acid, its pressure 
must have been correspondingly great ; and it is well known 
that every increase of atmospheric pressure is attended with an 
increase of heat. It is not improbable, however, that both 
of these causes had something to do in the production of the 
superior heat of these times. 

The scene which would have been presented to a human 
spectator, could such an one have been placed upon the sur- 
face of the earth at this time, would have been gloomy and 
cheerless in the extreme. He would probably at no time have 
beheld either clouds or decided sunshine, but a dim and unde- 
fined luminescence, caused by the sunbeams in passing athwart 
the thick and stagnant atmosphere. No star-beam could have 
penetrated the dense aerial envelope to relieve the gloom of 
night ; and, for the same reason, the range of horizontal vision, 
even at noonday, must have been confined within narrow 
limits. All diversity of landscape must, in the earlier part 
of this period, have been merged in one wide waste of waters. 
This, however, was, in later times, partially relieved by exten- 
sive districts of low, marshy land, on which the soft and suc- 
culent vegetation grew with the rankest luxuriance. No bird 
yet winged the air, or gladdened the forest with its song ; no 
beast prowled through the thick jungles of fern and sigillaria, 
and no herds lowed upon the fields of moss and equiseta; and, 
except the rolling of the ocean waves, the plashing of the finny 
tribe, and the occasional rumblings of subterranean fires, the 
most profound and gloomy silence reigned over the face of the 
globe ! 

If, therefore, in the first stage of the first Trinity of devel- 



NEW KED SANDSTONE. 

opments, the whole mass of terrestrial materials was in a state 
that may be designated as chaotic, we find here, in the first 
stage of the second Trinity, a corresponding condition as re- 
lating to the whole mass of atmospheric materials, and of its 
accompanying developments as the initial steps of terrestrial 
organic creation. Taken as a whole, however, the changes of 
this period brought conditions on the earth's surface into 
something like a systematic, or what may be called rudiment- 
ally organized, form. 

5. The FIFTH development was characterized by distinction 
of climates as prevailing in different latitudes, and by warm 
and cold seasons, as owing to the revolution of our planet 
around the sun ; hence, also, by new kinds of geological de- 
posits, and higher degrees of organic life. This development 
was comprised in the period commencing with the New Red 
Sandstone, and ending with the close of the Chalk formation. 

The records of the general conditions of this period are very 
distinctly preserved upon the leaves of the rocky book. On 
the lamina) of the New Red Sandstone rocks in various 
localities (and especially in the valley of the Connecticut 
River), are found the distinct footprints of birds of various 
species. These appear to have been impressed upon the sandy 
and clayey margin of an ocean at low tide, and to have been 
covered up by successive thin layers of sand and clay drifted 
in by the swelling tide. On the same rocks occur marks whose 
angles and other characteristics clearly prove them to have 
been made by frost. They are in form exactly identical with 
those which are now produced by frost in the mud upon the 
borders of a stream. These appear to have been covered over 
and preserved, in like manner with the tracks, by the detritus 
swept in by the returning tide. But it is noteworthy that, 
although these tracks and frost marks occur in abundance 



14:2 ORIGIX OF THE E A II Til . 

above and below each other in the same system of rocks, the 
two are never found upon the same laminar as though the 
birds, during the frosty season, were entirely absent, having 
migrated to a warmer climate, to return again with the return 
of summer. 

On the same strata are also sometimes found impressions 
which could only have been made by the pattering of rain- 
drops during the passage of a small shower-cloud ; and the 
forms of these sometimes even infallibly indicate the course 
in which the wind was blowing at the time ! 

Here, then, is the earliest distinct indication of the preva- 
lence of atmospheric conditions somewhat similar ito tliose 
which now obtain upon the earth's surface. We find, here, 
unmistakable evidences of summer and winter, warm and cold 
latitudes, rain, winds, clouds, and sunshine conditions which 
clearly could not have existed to any great extent, during any 
previous period. 

Concerning the relics of the olden time, from which these 
atmospheric and terrestrial conditions are inferred, Professor 
Hitchcock (to whom the scientific world is much indebted for 
bringing them to light) remarks : " It is a most interesting 
thought, that while millions of men, who have striven hard to 
transmit some trace of their existence to future generations, 
have sunk into utter oblivion, the simple footsteps of animals 
that existed thousands, nay, tens of thousands, of years ago, 
should remain as fresh and distinct as if yesterday impressed, 
even though nearly every other vestige of their existence has 
vanished. Nay, still more strange is it, that even the patter- 
ing of a shower at that distant period, should have left marks 
equally distinct, and registered with infallible certainty the 
direction of the wind."* 

* Hitchcock's Geology, p. 155. 



FIEST MAMMALIA. 143 

The terrestrial animals of this period were almost exclu- 
sively oviparous, partaking largely of the sauroidal, or lizard- 
like type, which latter remark- is even applicable to the birds. 
Toward the close of the period, however, an animal appeared 
which may be regarded as a transition link between the 
oviparous and viviparous. It was an animal of the class Mar- 
supialia; in other words, an animal with a pouch, like that of 
the opossum, or kangaroo, in which it sheltered and nour- 
ished its young for a season after their birth, the same 
being yet too feeble and imperfectly developed to endure 
exposure to the outer elements. It has hence been remarked 
that, " though the young of this animal were born alive, they 
were only half born, as it were," and needed a kind of sup- 
plementary gestation to fit them for- life in the external 
world. 

Like the fifth development or member of every other seven- 
fold series, therefore, this is characterized by the assumption of 
distinctness, or partition, in forms and gradations of forms, 
from a state of previous and comparative indistinctness. The 
principle of segregation is here distinctly observed, the same 
as it was in the fifth stage of the universal creation. Each 
one of these forms, being yet transitional and incomplete, is, 
as it were, a nucleated point in the previously chaotic materials 
and their involved principles ; and therefore the whole devel- 
opment, being the second of the Secondary Trinity, has a cer- 
tain correspondence to the second of the Primary Trinity, 
which was characterized by a nucleation of the materials of 
the earth as a whole. 

6. The SIXTH stage of the earth's formation was comprised 
in the whole period commonly termed the Tertiary and Dilu- 
vial periods. It commenced immediately after that remark- 
able marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric change which must 



144 ORIGIN OF THE EAKTH. 

necessarily have accompanied the great Chalk formation, and 
closed immediately prior to the commencement of the present 
or Alluvial period. It was distinguished from the previous 
stage of terrestrial developments, mainly by its lacustrine, 
volcanic, and fluvatile conditions, and by the erosive, leveling, 
and harmonizing operations which, especially near the close of 
the period, occurred on the earth's surface. These conditions 
were evidently an improvement upon previous ones. The 
earth became more extensively diversified by mountains and 
valleys, forests, fields, and running streams. The quantity of 
upland and fertile soil was greatly increased ; the atmosphere 
was freed from previous pestilential vapors ; the climates were 
rendered more salubrious, and all things were more compat- 
ible with the existence of higher species in the organic king- 
doms. Accordingly, even in the lower strata of this formation, 
there are found the remains of animals of decidedly mam- 
miferous species. These are of the order Pachydermata 
(thick-skinned), and of comparatively low organization. But as 
conditions advanced and new strata were deposited, higher 
species successively made their appearance, organic life all the 
while assuming more analogy to existing types, until, toward 
the close of the period, there was, in many instances, an actual 
shading off into species which now inhabit the earth. This 
latter remark is equally applicable to the vegetable, as it is to 
the animal, kingdom. 

About the close of this period, there appears to have been 
a remarkable fall of atmospheric temperature, accompanied 
by a submergence of the greater portion of land in the 
northern and temperate regions, in seas filled with floating 
icebergs. These icebergs, frequently reaching to the bottom 
of the ocean, have scraped along over the earth's surface, 
clashed violently against its prominences, torn fragments of 



DILUVIAL AGENCY. 145 

rock from their original beds, pushed them along before them, 
the friction rounding off their angles, and reducing many of 
them to sand and pebbles. Sometimes large masses of rock 
would get wedged in between, or thrown upon the tops of, 
blocks or projections of ice, and would be floated to great dis- 
tances and scattered over the country. Boulder rocks which 
must have been transported in some such way, have been 
identified with rocks "in place"' to which they must have orig- 
inally belonged, from a few hundred yards to several hundred 
miles to the north of where they were found. Sometimes 
boulders of great magnitude have been carried over steep and 
high mountains, and are not unfrequently found lodged upon 
their summits and scattered over their southern declivities ; 
and the long-continued passage of rocky fragments and detri- 
tus transported in this way, has worn scratches, and sometimes 
deep groves in the mountain rock, all of which have the same 
general direction, which is nearly north and south proving 
that such was the general direction of the current. By this 
operation, which was evidently long-continued, rugged mount- 
ain escarpments were reduced; deep hollows were filled up, 
and the face of Nature was made to assume fairer proportions. 
In short, the terrestrial structure being generally completed, 
this final operation (to illustrate a great thing .by a diminutive 
comparison) seems to have been the smoothing and sand- 
papering process to which it was subjected, before being 
applied to its ultimate and principal use as the habitation of 
its future tenant, MAN. 

This superficial smootning and rounding of the earth, and 
its completion as a habitable globe, being the third member of 
the Secondary Trinity of terrestrial developments, manifestly 
bears a certain correspondence to the third member of the 
Primary Trinity, or the granito-aqueous development, which 

13 



14:6 OKI GIN OF THE EAKTH. 

brought the earth to completeness, considered merely as a 
planetary sphere. 

7. The SEVENTH terrestrial development, which now ensues, 
is that which is going on at the present time. It is character- 
ized by sedimentary deposits from existing waters, and by 
the oceanic, terrestrial, and atmospheric changes which are now 
imperceptibly going on ; and its ushering in was accompanied 
by the introduction of MAN, together with most of the animals 
and plants of existing species. This, therefore, is the grand 
culminating point of all terrestrial creations, and brings the 
seven-fold progressive series to a completion. It is the grand 
point that was aimed at in the beginning of beginnings, and 
the great object the accomplishment of which each inter 
mediate movement was intended to subserve ; and now that 
it is attained, the previous conflicts of elements the clashings 
of an impetuous nature, as if reaching forward and striving 
impatiently for the attainment. of its final destiny, are lulled 
into repose. The heavings of the earthquake and the spout- 
ings of subterranean fire through the broken strata which were 
so devastating in previous ages, have now in a great measure 
subsided, or occur only in limited districts and at long inter- 
vals. Mountain and plain, forest and field, ocean and atmos- 
phere now testify their common satisfaction with the end 
which has been gloriously achieved; and man, undisturbed, 
proceeds to beautify and adorn the earth, and, with no other 
interruptions than such, as are due to his own folly, pursues his 
rounds of progress toward a destiny still more glorious and 
sublime ! 

Of course the foregoing remarks in reference to the genesis 
of the earth, are to be considered only in the light of a 
general survey of the subject to which they relate, and as 
being intended merely to establish general principles and 



OUE METHOD AND CONCLUSIONS. 147 

analogies to be used as aids in discovering or confirming ul- 
terior and corresponding truths. Such being our main object, 
\ve have abstained from descriptions of non-essential minutiae 
which may be found in the geological books. We have, how- 
ever, recognized all facts which have any essential bearing on 
the subject of our speculations, and by the aid of these facts, 
and of the general laws of causation and analogy which govern 
them, and necessarily connect them with corresponding ante- 
cedents and sequences, we have inferred the 'general nature of 
those necessary links of the system which are lost to sensuous 
perception. Hence we have commenced with descriptions of 
conditions far more primitive than those from which geological 
writers in general have started, and by the aid of the corre- 
spondences existing between one system of developments and 
.another, as exhibited in the law of the seven-fold series, ~we 
have endeavored to exhibit the roots of the tree of Geology 
as growing upon the soil of Astronomy. 

If the whole subject, as thus unfolded^ exhibits a self-sup- 
porting and self-proving consistency, it in no small degree 
tends to establish the correctness and importance of the method 
of reasoning from which it receives its support. 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

THE GEOLOGICAL AND MOSAIC EEVELATIONS. 

ONE of the first thoughts which strikes the mind as it con- 
templates the foregoing view of the natural history of our 
planet is, that the developments spoken of could have been 
accomplished only in periods too vast for human conception. 
Admitting that the process of unfolding which finally resulted 
in bringing our globe to its present habitable and mature 
state, commenced when its materials were all in a state of dif- 
fused igneous gas, it is utterly beyond the power of man to 
conceive the period which must thence have elapsed before 
these materials were so far contracted as to admit of the first 
superficial granitic incrustation. But after these untold 
myriads of ages had quietly rolled into the depths of the past, 
sedimentary materials, which, according to statements of Dr. 
John Pye Smith, as the results of careful measurements, must 
have had an aggregate thickness of not less than twenty miles, 
took place, for the most part quietly, at the bottom of the 
ocean. These materials, including the remains of plants and 
animals of now extinct species, and whole races of which were 
successively brought into being and swept away, were after- 
ward slowly consolidated into the form of the existing fossillif- 
erous rocks. 

As to the number of years or centuries which must have 
elapsed during this mighty operation, we have the means of 



ANTIQUITY OF OUR GLOBE. 149 

making, in our calculations, only a remote and indefinite ap- 
proximation. During comparatively short periods of violent 
physical revolution, conglomerates and other coarse and indis- 
tinctly stratified rocks may, in some instances, have been de- 
posited with comparative rapidity. Older rocks were prob- 
ably disintegrated by the combined agency of heat and water, 
and ground to fragments by volcanic and marine agitation ; 
and, by violent currents, probably thus generated, they may 
have been carried to lower levels, and sometimes formed thick 
deposits in comparatively short periods. But these instances 
are only exceptions to the general rule, while far the greater 
proportion of the stratified rocks present unmistakable evi- 
dence of having been deposited in quiet waters. And these 
deposits could not, in general, have accumulated much more 
rapidly than similar ones which are going on at the present 
time. Now, it is said that the lakes of Scotland shoal, by 
sedimentary depositions, only at the rate of about six inches 
in a century.* Making all reasonable allowance for the su- 
perior activity of early disintegrating and depositing forces, 
the period which must have been consumed during the depo- 
sition of materials which have formed rocks of twenty miles 
in perpendicular thickness, can be estimated only by millions 
of years, especially when we take into account the long 
periods of super-marine elevation and repose which sometimes 
must have intervened between the close of one formation and 
the commencement of the succeeding one. 

Our conception of the immensity of the periods of these de- 
posits is augmented when we consider that beds of rocks 
of great thickness, and sometimes whole mountains, many 
thousand feet high, are made up almost entirely of sea-shells 
and other organic matter these mountains having originally 

* Hitchcock's Geology, p. 163. 



150 GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

constituted the sea-beds, from which position they were sub 
sequently elevated by subterranean forces. The animals and 
plants, whose remains are thus preserved, " must have lived 
and died " (says Professor Hitchcock) " on or near the spot 
where they are found ; while it was cmly now and then that 
there was current enough to drift them any considerable 
distance, or break them into fragments ; * * * and frequently 
all the shells found in a layer of rock, lie in the same position 
which similar shells now assume upon the bottom of ponds, 
lakes, and the ocean ; that is, with a particular part of the 
shell uppermost."* 

Nor will we be astonished at these evidences of the high 
antiquity of our globe, when we consider the immense periods 
which seem to be consumed in its appointed movements in 
space. For if there is any dependence to be placed upon the 
observations and mathematical reasonings of Maedler and 
others, the whole solar system is rapidly moving around a re- 
mote center, in an orbit so vast, that a single revolution can 
not be accomplished in less than eighteen millions of years ! 
Considering this period as the annus magnus, or great year of 
our planet and the family of orbs to which it belongs, it may 
have accomplished several of these grand revolutions since it 
assumed an individual existence, and still be only in the first 
years of its existence an existence which may continue 
through as many such revolutions as there are days or hours 
'in the ordinary life of man! In fact, in the development of 
the plans of an infinite God, who has a whole eternity as his 
working period, it may emphatically be said, that " a thousand 
years are but as one day." 

But these wonderful deductions from scientific facts have 

* Hitchcock's Geology, p. 88, 90 ; also, Silliman's Appendix to Bakewell's Geology, 
p.5i4. 



T BUT IIS MUST II A E M O BT I Z E . 151 

given alarm to many theologians, who have considered them 
as conflicting with the Mosaic account of creation, as recorded 
in the first chapter of Genesis. This account has by them 
been considered as circumscribing the period of creation to six 
literal days, during which it is supposed, that not only the 
earth and all it contains, but the sun and planets, if not even 
the fixed stars, were brought into being. They have hence 
looked upon the statements and speculations of geologists 
with disfavor, supposing that their tendency was to under- 
mine the authority of the Bible. The present treatise, there- 
fore, would be incomplete were I pass over entirely unnoticed 
the question pending between geologists and theologians. 
This question, however, I can now only consider in brief, ex- 
hibiting merely the general aspects of the controversy as they 
appear to me. 

But before entering directly into the merits of the question, 
I would premise that all truths must be consistent with each 
other, whether found in the Bible or in Nature. If, therefore, 
there is any conflict unmistakably manifest between the teach- 
ings of these two authorities, it inevitably follows that one or 
the other must be untrue ; and the untruth is most rationally 
predicable of that which is most liable to be tinctured by 
human invention. 

Now, the system of creation, though subjective and phe- 
nomenal when considered in relation to God, is positive and 
independent when considered in relation to man. The pages 
of the rocky book were inscribed by no human amanuensis, 
and contain none of the whims and errors of perverted human 
thought. When correctly interpreted, therefore, they are to 
be relied on as infallible, and no theological teachings which 
contradict them can be considered as the teachings of the 
same God who wrote those imperishable pages with his own 



152 GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

hand. This consideration forces the conclusion, however re- 
luctant we may be to admit it, that that system of theology 
which can be thrown into a trepidation by the unfolding of a 
fact in nature, and which, in any case, treats with hostility, or 
even with disrespect, the positive deductions of science, can 
not, thus far, have any counterpart in the mind of that Being 
who is the Author alike of nature and of heaven, and of the 
one harmonious system of truth which, in various and cor- 
responding degrees, pervades and constitutes the life and 
law of all things. 

True theology, therefore, has no more favors to ask of true 
science, than the latter has to ask of the former. Neither one 
of these, in any case, is alarmed by, but always rejoices in, 
any additional development in the other, because the two are 
brothers in affectionate unity, and each one contributes to the 
other of its own riches and strength, and neither can languish 
without weakening the other in a corresponding degree. 

Some theologians, desirous of maintaining their preconceiv- 
ed interpretations of the first chapter in Genesis, have argued, 
that since it is possible for God to do all things, it was 
possible for him, with a single stroke of his omnipotent 
power, to create the myriads of sea-shells, the impressions of 
plants, and the skeletons of the higher animals, in their pro- 
gressive order of superposition, in the rocks, just as we now 
find them ! This might be admitted, if it could first be con- 
ceived as possible for God to have had a previous will and 
purpose in the generation of forms which, in such a case, 
would have been, to human conceptions, so evidently useless ; 
and so, with the same qualification, it may be admitted 
that God might have created Herculaneum under the beds of 
lava, and the Egyptian mummies in their tombs, just as we 
now find them : but to consider it in the least degree probable 



PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETATION. 153 

that God actually did do either of these things, would be to 
set all analogy at defiance, and to take an everlasting leave 
of those guides to truth to which the human mind is largely 
indebted for all of its substantial progress. If, however, we 
abstain from such a violation of the God-established laws of 
our rational nature, we must admit in their full force the 
manifest indications of fossilology and lithology, in reference 
to the immense periods which must have elapsed during the 
genesis of our globe, and of the various and successive races 
of living organisms by which it" was tenanted prior to the 
introduction of man. 

Having the utmost confidence in the inherent strength and 
invulnerability of true theology, therefore, we affirm, without 
any delicacy or evasion, that if the six days of creation, 
spoken of by Moses, mean only six times twenty-four hours 
of our time, then the chronology of the stages of creation, as 
given by him, is manifestly untrue. But with a perfect 
willingness to find the account, true or untrue, as the case 
may be, let us examine the account fearlessly and without 
reserve, and endeavor to discover its real import. 

In order to do justice in our interpretation of any writer's 
language, we must, of course, have a due regard to the mean- 
ing which context, the nature of the subject, the circumstances, 
objects, and personal condition, of the writer, and the modes 
of speech prevalent among the class of writers to which he 
belongs, conspire to fix upon his language. This rule is so 
obviously true, that no candid mind will fail to recognize its 
propriety at once. Now, the book of Genesis (as is the case 
with other books of the Bible) was written in an age and a 
country in which symbolical language was much in vogue. It 
also claims, like other sacred books, to have been written by 
a spiritually illuminated person, and for spiritual purposes ; 



154: GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 



and, admitting these claims, its peculiar forms of thought and 
expression must be admitted to have been governed, to some 
extent, by spiritual laws ; and according to these same laws, 
therefore, they must be interpreted. Now, one way, and, in 
some instances, the only feasible way, of conveying in human 
language a deep interior idea is, by presenting it in the verbal 
imagery of some familiar exterior fact, which embraces within 
itself the identical principle which is involved in such interior 
idea. That this rule was observed in all the parabolic, and 
much of the prophetic and descriptive language of the Bible, 
no one who is familiar with the contents of that book can 
deny. 

Now, let it be observed, that if Moses himself, through 
spiritual or Divine impressions, or any other means, had pos- 
sessed any adequate idea of the immense periods which Ge 
ology proves to have elapsed between the commencement of 
the creation of our globe and the introduction of man upon its 
surface, it would have been impossible for him to have con- 
veyed to the unenlightened minds of the semi-barbarians of his 
age and nation any adequate idea of the actual truth of the 
case ; and any attempt to do this, would only have been pro- 
ductive of misapprehension, and would probably have gene- 
rated some of the wildest forms of superstition. The probability 
is, however, that Moses himself had no adequate conception 
of the immensity of the actual periods of creation ; and con- 
sidering him, according to his claims, as a revelator merely 
of what was revealed to. him, this admission may be made 
without affecting the truthfulness of the representations which 
were by him recorded as he himself received them. 

These considerations strongly favor the belief, even a priori, 
that any truthful record of the natural history of creation 
made in those days, and especially for spiritual purposes, and 



155 



by a spiritual teacher, would have been couched in correspon- 
dential and spiritual language, by which the. principles and 
spirit of the immense truths more interiorly involved, were 
brought into a diminished form of embodiment, and thus 
adapted to the rudimentary intellects to which they were ad- 
dressed. Now, a "day" involves the principle of, and hence 
spiritually means, one complete revolution. But as each com- 
plete revolution, whether requiring a long or short period, only 
involves the same principle or spirit, why may not the grea-t 
revolutions or cycles of operation which comprise the different 
periods in our earth's physical history be, in spiritual language, 
called so many days 1 

That the word " day" is, in the first chapter of Genesis, used 
in this spiritual sense, without necessarily signifying any thing 
but the principle or spirit of a day (or a complete revolution 
of indefinite duration), is further evident from the manner in 
which the word is used in many other passages, not only by 
Moses, but by other sacred writers. Thus we read in Genesis 
ii. 4, 5, " These are the generations of the heavens and the 
earth when they were created, in THE DAY that the Lord God 
made the earth and the heavens, and every plant of the field," 
etc. Here the six minor revolutions .or days are comprised in 
one grand revolution or day, in the same way as several small 
circles or periods may be comprehended in one large one. 
The occurrence of the word " day" in this enlarged sense here, 
effectually precludes the right of every one to circumscribe its 
meaning necessarily to a period of twenty-four hours, as it oc- 
curs in the previous chapter in reference to the same subject. 

Among the numerous other examples of a similar usage of 
the term " day," which may be found in other portions of the 
sacred writings, let the following suffice for our present pur- 
pose : " And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse which 



156 GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

P 

shall stand as an ensign of the people ; to it shall the Gentiles 
seek : and his rest shall be glorious. And it shall come to 
pass in that DAY, that the Lord shall set His hand again a 
second time to recover the remnant of His people." (Isa. xl. 
10, 11.) "And it shall come to pass in that DAY, that the 
mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow 
with milk." (Joel iii. 18.) And Jesus says, "Abraham re- 
joiced to see my DAY ; and he saw it, and was glad." (John 
viii. 56.) In neither of these passages is it possible to restrict 
the meaning of the word " day" to the period of the diurnal 
revolution of the earth. In candor, therefore, it must be 
acknowledged to be at least extremely probable that the word 
" day" is used in an equally enlarged and spiritual sense in the 
equally spiritual language of the first chapter of Genesis 
especially as there are so many other facts and circumstances 
to corroborate such an interpretation. 

Considering the six days of creation, then, as expressing six 
periods of very long duration, let us inquire whether the inci- 
dents and characteristics of these periods as described by Moses, 
bear any similarity to the incidents in the physical history of 
our globe, as revealed by geological science ; and whether the 
Mosaic classification of periods and operations possesses that 
evidence of truthfulness which consists in a conformity to the 
law of the three-fold and seven-fold correspondential series. 

In a previous general survey, ranging from the origin to the 
full maturity of our globe, we have seen that there were seven 
grand periods or stages in its development, as there are seven 
stages in the development and compartments in the constitu- 
tion of all perfect systems. These periods, however, are not 
throughout exactly coincident with the periods described by 
Moses, inasmuch as the two descriptions embrace subjects 
somewhat different. In our general geological survey we have 



WOKK OF FIRST DAT. 157 

endeavored to unfold the history of the developments of the 
earth as such, speaking of the vegetable and animal creations 
only incidentally ; while the object of Moses appears to have 
been to speak of the successive organization of those outer 
forms and conditions with which man is immediately, either 
sensibly or spiritually, connected. Hence, Moses passes over 
the first two stages of creation, or the chaotic-gaseous and the 
nucleated stages, mentioned in our generalization, with the 
simple and comprehensive remark, that " In the beginning God 
created the heaven and the earth," and commences his main 
description at an epoch when the earth was probably in a 
state of imperfect superficial consolidation, and when much of 
the water of the ocean was still diffused, as vapor, in the thick 
and turbid atmosphere. The earth is hence described as at 
that period " without form and void" that is, without arrange- 
ment, and vacant " and darkness was upon the face of the 
deep." This " darkness" may be conceived to have been a 
natural consequence of the state of the atmosphere, which was 
probably still so thick as not to be easily distinguishable from 
the fluid portions of the earth, and from the water which rested 
upon its surface, in which condition it would, of course, have 
been completely impervious to the solar rays. The first Di- 
vine operation naturally required, therefore, was to produce 
changes in, and precipitations from, the aqueous portions of 
the atmosphere, such as would admit of the descent of some 
degree of solar light to the earth's surface. This operation 
is described by Moses, in saying, " The Spirit of God moved 
upon the face of the waters : and God said, Let there be light : 
and there was light." This, according to the account, consti- 
tuted the work of the first day. And here it may be remarked, 
once for all, that the phrase, " the evening and the morning," 
which is used as the standing synonym of the different 

14 



158 GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

" days" in this account, seems to stand simply for the begin- 
ning and close of the different periods a use of language 
similar to that employed by us when we speak of the " eve" or 
" morn" of a " new era." 

It is said, that " God called the light Day, and the darkness 
He called Night." In this passage, the words "day" and 
"night" are probably (though not necessarily) used in their 
ordinary acceptation, and point to a revolution of the earth on 
its axis, and a successive illumination of its sides by the sun. 
But owing to the thick atmospheric vapors which still con- 
tinued to prevail to a great extent, the sun would doubtless 
have still been invisible to a spectator, could such have been 
placed upon the earth's surface, and the amount of solar light 
that could have penetrated to the earth, was probably much 
less than is now received, even through the thickest and dark- 
est clouds. 

The next work seems to have consisted in producing further 
changes and regulations in the atmosphere, by which a more 
distinct line of demarcation was established between the waters 
intended to be suspended in the air, and those designed to 
preserve a more condensed form upon the earth's surface. 
Moses, being obliged to make the most of the few words which 
his primitive and meager language afforded, describes this 
work by saying, " And God said, Let there be a firmament in 
the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the 
waters." Hebraists tell us that the word "firmament" is a 
very improper rendering of the original word, which signifies 
simply an expanse or space; " Consequently," (says Dr. 
Clarke) " that circumbient space or expansion, separating the 
clouds, which are in the higher regions of it, from the seas, 
etc., which are below it." During the high temperature of 
the earth's surface, which Geology proves to have prevailed in 



SECOND AND THIRD DAYS. 159 

those early times, there was probably every intermediate gra- 
dation between the most dense fluid and the most expanded 
vapor, the fluid and aeriform substances having no very 
marked line of distinction. While such was the case, the " cir- 
cumambient space" supposed, could have had no distinct exist- 
ence. A physical change which established the water, at- 
mosphere, and aqueous vapor and clouds respectively as 
such, was of course the next necessary step in creation's pro- 
gress ; and this is all that appears to be alluded to in the passage 
before us as constituting the work of the second period or 
"day-" 

It was probably during the period comprised within this 
day, that the transition rocks beneath the coal measures were 
deposited. These contain the remains of animals and plants 
of low types, which are almost exclusively marine. But to 
the creation of these, Moses seems to make no allusion, which 
fact will not excite particular surprise, when we consider their 
comparative unimportance to the grand object which he had in 
view, which was simply to describe how the physical structure 
and conditions by which man is more obviously surrounded, 
came to exist. 

The next work consisted in the partition of land and water 
(or the elevation of the former), and the development of ter- 
restrial vegetation. " And God said, Let the waters under 
the heaven be gathered together, and let the dry land ap- 
pear : and it was so. ... And God said, Let the earth bring 
forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yield- 
ing fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth : 
and it was so." This was the work of the third great period 
or day, and manifests a surprising agreement with the events 
of the period of the great Coal Formation. The universal 
prevalence of almost exclusively marine, and the almost total 



160 GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

absence of terrestrial, fossils in the previously deposited rocks, 
proves that the ocean, up to this time, covered nearly the 
whole surface of the earth which is in exact agreement with 
the Mosaic record, which implies that the partition of land and 
water was not made until that period. But large areas of land 
being then slightly elevated above the level of the waters, 
these, as another strong corroboration of the record, were 
covered by a profuse vegetation, which subsequently became 
converted into the immense beds of mineral coal now found 
to be so essential to the physical comfort and social progress 
of the human race. 

The next work is spoken of by the sacred cosmogonist in 
the following terms : " And God said, Let there be lights in 
the firmament of heaven, to divide the day from the night ; 
and let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days an<i 
years. And let them be for lights in the firmament of the 
heaven to give light upon the earth : and it was so. And 
God made two great lights : the greater light to rule the day, 
and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars 
also." 

To superficial readers, this passage has seemed exceedingly 
paradoxical. The supposition that the sun, moon, and stars, 
had no existence until the comparative atom which forms this 
earth, had attained to the advanced stage of its development, 
previously described, is, with any interpretation of the word 
" day," so unphilosophical and unreasonable as to utterly 
defy intelligent belief. Criticism, however, has shown that 
the translation of the passage before us, does injustice to the 
original, which does not necessarily mean that the heavenly 
bodies were not created until the fourth day. Professor 
Hitchcock, who is a learned theologian as well as geologist, 
says, upon this point : " If it be objected that, according to 



WORK OF FOUETH DAY. 161 

Moses, the sun, moon, and stars were not created till the 
fourth day, it may be replied, that a more just interpretation 
of his language shows his meaning to be, not that the heavenly 
bodies were created on the fourth day, but that they were 
then first appointed to serve their present offices ; and that 
they might have been in existence through countless ages." 

Admitting such to be the true meaning of the passage, we 
find, again, that the record marvelously coincides with the 
indication of geological facts. In our previous survey of the 
natural history of the globe, we saw conclusive evidence that 
up to the close of the Coal Period, a nearly uniform tempera- 
ture prevailed upon the surface of the earth in all latitudes, 
and that there could have been no distinction of warm and 
cold seasons. This is evident from the fact, that the rocks 
of that period, in all latitudes, contain the fossils of plants and 
animals analogous only to those which now flourish between 
the tropics. It is manifest that such a state of climate could 
not have been governed, in any great degree, by the rays of 
the sun, which vary so much as to their intensity, in the dif- 
ferent latitudes ; and hence, as remarked in our previous 
generalization, the sun's rays, during the Coal and previous 
periods, could not yet have penetrated the atmosphere, thick 
and heavy as it probably was, in such a way as would have 
rendered that luminary visible to a human spectator, had such 
an one been then placed upon the earth's surface. For the 
same reason the moon and stars must also, during those 
periods, have been invisible. Up to that period, therefore, 
the heavenly bodies could not have ruled the seasons, 
either as to their temperature or their distinct periodical 
revolutions; and all the light which could have descended 
from them to the earth must have been but dim and in- 
distinct. 



162 GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

But in preceding pages it was shown, from the peculiar man- 
ner in which the impressions of frost-marks, the tracks cf 
migratory birds, etc., occurred," during the geological formation 
immediately succeeding the Carboniferous Period (viz., the 
New Red Sandstone formation), that distinctions of seasons 
and climates must then clearly have existed, and hence that 
the sun must then have exerted his direct power upon the earth, 
which then, as now, varied in its intensity with the different 
positions assumed by the earth during its orbitual revolution. 
An atmospheric condition which could thus have admitted of a 
direct descent of the solar rays, must also have rendered the 
moon and stars distinctly visible to such of the earth's tenants 
as had eyes to perceive them ; and in these facts we have an 
abundant verification of the Mosaic record, as to the work of 
the fourth day. It consisted simply in those atmospheric 
clarifications by which the sun, moon, and stars were appoint- 
ed, or allowed to exercise the office of, ruling the seasons, and 
dividing time into distinct periods. 

The direct rays of the sun being thus admitted to the 
earth's surface, the latter consequently became habitable to 
higher orders of living creatures. Accordingly, the next stage 
of creation's progress is thus described : " And God said, Let 
the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that 
hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open 
firmament of heaven. And God created great whales, and 
every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought 
forth after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind." 
Some of the " moving creatures " here spoken of as introduced 
into being, were probably wholly aquatic, and others were of 
the lower orders of air-breathing animals. It is remarkable 
that the remains of classes of animals here spoken of, first 
begin to appear in the New Red Sandstone strata, which is 



WORK OF FIFTII DAY. 163 

the formation next above the carboniferous system, and which 
must have been succeeded, and measurably accompanied by 
the clarification of the atmosphere, spoken of as the work of 
the previous day. For it is in the Red Sandstone stratifi- 
cation that we find the footprints of frogs, tortoises, and birds. 
The latter were mainly, as Professor Hitchcock intimates, of 
the Grallse family, or the family of waders, and were therefore, 
with the former, intimately connected with the water, as the 
Mosaic account implies. There can be but little doubt, there- 
fore, that these birds were the very " fowl " of which Moses 
speaks. 

The other part of the work of this period, according to the 
common translation, consisted in the creation of "great whales" 
etc. This, admitting our definition of the word " day," forms 
the only apparent discrepancy between geology and the 
sacred cosmogony ; for whales do not appear to have existed 
before a somewhat advanced stage of the so-called Tertiary 
Formation, and a very long period after this time. But 
criticism resolves even this apparent discrepancy into a sur- 
prising harmony. Dr. Adam Clarke, who wrote before 
geology was much cultivated, and hence without the slightest 
idea of making out a harmony between its teachings and the 
declarations of Moses, remarks upon the expression in the 
passage before us : " Though this is generally understood by 
the different versions as signifying whales, yet the original 
must be understood, rather as a general than a particular* 
term, comprising all great aquatic animals." Now the 
marine saurians were " great aquatic animals." These, with 
amphibious and terrestrial reptiles of enormous size, came in 
during the deposition of the New Red Sandstone, and ex- 
tensively characterized the whole so-called Secondary For- 
mation. Thus the Mosaic account of the work of the fifth 



164: GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

day, or grand period, is also admirably verified by geological 
facts. 

Animals of the classes just described, both according to 
Geology and Moses, preceded the more perfect land animals, 
the mammalia, upon the stage of existence. The creation of 
these latter is said to have constituted |he first part of the 
work of the following, being the sixth day, or period, which is 
thus spoken of: " And God said, Let the earth bring forth the 
living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and 
beast of the earth after his kind : and it was so. And God 
made the beast of the earth, and the cattle after their kind," 
etc. The proof of the truth of this portion of the account is 
found in the remains of the mammalial quadrupeds of the 
Tertiary Period, in the more recent portions of which we have 
shown that there was an actual shading off of the animated 
tribes into the existing species. Moreover, the work of this 
day, or period, both according to Geology and Moses, was 
completed by the introduction of Man into being, as the 
grand ultimatum of all the creative efforts. Thence, so far as 
that great series of unfoldings was concerned, ensued a period 
of rest, and the present is that sabattic period. 

The candid reader who has attentively followed me through 
this investigation, will bear witness that I have made no effort 
to explain away, or to change the true aspect of properly 
understood facts, in order to make out a correspondence 
between the teaching of science and those of Moses, but that 
I have labored to simply set forth the facts of the two reve- 
lations in their true aspect, leaving them to confirm or refute 
each other as they might. The coincidence between the two 
revelations, therefore, which, from generals to particulars, has 
here appeared so striking, is one for which no human collator 
is responsible, as it exists independently and unalterably in 



DIVINE ENLIGHTENMENT. 165 

the absolute facts of the case. All that is required to exhibit 
one revelation as a substantial transcript of the other, is an ad- 
mission that the word " day " is used by Moses in the sense 
of an indefinite period a sense in which it is used in scores 
of instances in the Bible, and a sense in which Moses unques- 
tionably used it in Gen. ii. 4, where, in a more summary 
allusion to these same works of creation, he speaks of " THE 
DAY that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens." 

As it is next to an impossibility to suppose that all these 
surprising coincidences could have been a mere work of 
chance, the conclusion is scarcely avoidable, that the account 
in the first chapter of Genesis, by whomsoever written, must 
have originated in a source of intelligence in which a general 
knowledge of the whole history of the creation was familiarly 
embraced. 

It is quite certain, however, that Moses Knew nothing, at 
least in an exterior way, about Geology ; for of this science 
the whole human race has been ignorant until within the last 
century. I apprehend that nothing short of an hypothesis of 
a spiritual or Divine enlightenment, will be found adequate to 
explain the origin of this biblical and wonderfully accurate 
account of creation. Concerning the laws of such enlighten- 
ment, some explanations may be submitted in a future work. 

I have deemed it useful to show, in this summary manner, 
the true bearings of geological science upon the initial revela- 
tion of the Bible, partly to correct a tendency which, strange 
to say, has been manifested in the modern spiritual mode of 
philosophizing, to treat lightly this and other revelations of 
the Bible, on account of the supposed " unprogressed " state of 
their writers ; partly for the purpose of further illustrating the 
fact, that all true theology and other species of doctrine, 
whether found in the Bible or elsewhere, must conform to the 



166 



GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 



unavoidable deductions of scientific facts ; and partly for the 
purpose of further unfolding that remarkable law of the three- 
fold and seven-fold correspondential series, which runs through 
all complete systems of truth, and of which the Mosaic gene- 
ralization, properly understood, affords a conspicuous example. 
That the seven-fold series of creative operations here spoken 
of by the sacred writer, exactly conforms to the natural and 
Divine law of sereal arrangement which we have heretofore 
unfolded, is obvious from the correspondences between the 
respective members of its Primary and Secondary Trinities, 
which will be perceived by an inspection of the following 
juxtaposed columns, and from the characteristics of the rela- 
tions which each member of the series, from first to last, ex- 
hibits toward the others, which will be found to be the same 
which the same members in other serieses respectively bear 
toward their associates. 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 
1st Day. Diffused and rudimental 
Light: ("God said, Let there 

be light.") 

2nd Day. Atmospneric and terres- 
trial distinctions, or more defin- 
ite line of demarcation between 
condensed and vapory water. 
(" Firmament.") 



3rd Day. Appearance of dry land 
terrestrial vegetation. 



SECONDARY TRINITY. 
4th Day. Definite solar Light (by 
the sun becoming visible.) 



5th Day. Higher and first impor- 
tant forms of oceanic, terres- 
trial, and atmospheric life. 
(" Great whales" or aquat- 
ic monsters saurians and 
fowls.") 

6th Day. Ultimate Tenants of 
dry land. (Mammalial quadru- 
peds and Man.) 

7th Day. REST, and Divine habitation in the Ultimate of the creative 

labor. 



Here the correspondence between the works of the first and 
fourth days, or periods, is perceptible at a glance, in that they 
consisted of different degrees of illumination of the earth's 



COKKESrONDENCES. 167 

surface. The correspondence between the works of the second 
and fifth days is obvious, but becomes still more marked by 
the addition of a few facts which Moses, in his brief survey, 
left out, but which are supplied by geological science. The 
second day, according to Moses, was characterized by the de- 
velopment of more marked distinctions between earth, water, 
and atmosphere, expressed by the creation of the " firma- 
ment," or the super-terrestrial expanse ; while geology shows 
that the fifth day was characterized by the development of a 
second degree of similar distinctions, whereby alternations of 
climates and seasons, cold and heat, rains, winds, etc., super- 
vened. Moreover, the fifth day, according to the biblical 
account, was characterized by the development of rudimental 
land and aerial animals ; while, according to geology, the 
second day, after the incipient creation of light, was further oc- 
cupied by the creation of the rudimental marine animals, or 
the radiata, articulata, mollusca, and fishes of the so-called 
Transition Formation. The creation of these, Moses passes 
over in silence, the reason of which may be conceived to con- 
sist in their comparative non-importance, and in the fact that 
in that unintellectual age, they were not, as facts in nature, 
sufficiently conspicuous to excite general inquiry as to their 
origin. 

Further correspondences are also developed, by the aid of 
geological science, between the third and sixth days, but Con- 
cerning these I need not particularize. 

If the reader will now take the trouble to compare the mem- 
bers of this series of creations as described by Moses, with the 
members of any seven-fold series of creations or operations 
which we have heretofore described, or which we may describe 
hereafter, he will find that each member is to its series what 
the same member of any other natural seven-fold series is to the 



168 GEOLOGY AND MOSES. 

other members with which it is associated, and that between this 
and all other serieses there is the same correspondence as there 
is between any two octaves in music. It is, be it remembered, 
upon the fact of this correspondence between the serieses, 
whether generally or minutely inspected, that we base bur 
conclusion as to the unity of plan which runs through nature, 
pointing to an origin in the seven-fold and corresponding 
harmonies of the one Infinite God, who, from His own Es- 
sence, has projected, from His own Life animates, and, from 
His own Wisdom, directs, all things. It is in perfect harmony 
with this supposition of a Divine originative and controlling 
Power, that Moses, in the simple and untechnical language of 
his times, refers the work of each of the successive periods of 
creation to a Divine agency, and not to any force of develop- 
ment inhering in nature as independent of God. 

I may add, that if there actually is a perfect conformity, 
from generals to particulars, between the principles involved 
in this seven-fold series of operations mentioned by Moses, 
and those involved in every other seven-fold natural or 
spiritual series, whether it be found in science or in the Bible, 
this fact must be considered as strongly confirming, not to 
say absolutely demonstrating, our conclusion that there is a 
mighty law here involved, and must go far to convince 
reasonable skeptics of the truth of, at least, those portions of 
the. Biblical revelation which are found to clearly recognize 
that law. Yet, from a close inspection of the sacred writings, 
it will be found that this law is not only expressly recognized 
in numerous instances, but that it runs through the whole 
Divine plans of operation, in reference to the human race, 
of which the Bible gives an historical and prophetic reflex. 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

THE MINERAL KINGDOM; OE, KINGDOM OF CHEMICAL 
FOEMS. 

FROM the terrestrial creation, as a whole, we proceed to a 
brief consideration of the general sub-creations which it 
"involves. The first of these is the MINERAL KINGDOM. 

The Mineral Kingdom, in its most enlarged sense, em- 
braces all physical or terrestrial substances, with their various 
forms and compounds. Being thus general in its range, it is 
hence a comparatively indefinite Kingdom ; and it is for this 
reason, I suppose, that I have experienced more embarrass- 
ment in reducing it to distinct classifications, than I have in 
respect to any other system of being or operation ; and, after 
all, I can only pretend to a comparatively close approximation 
to correctness in my conclusions. Such an approximation, 
embracing the most comprehensive serial arrangement of phy- 
sical substances, is that exhibited in the following table : 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 

1. Primeval gaseous or mundane 
chaos. 

2. Igneous liquid. 



3. Solidified amorphous. 



SECONDARY TRINITY. 

4. Secondary gaseous or terres- 
trial atmosphere. 

5. Segregated, embracing rudi- 
mental crystalline forms, both 
solid and atmospheric. 

6. Complete material arrange- 



ments and ultimate crystal- 
line forms. 
7. Governing imponderables. 
15 



170 THE MINERAL KINGDOM; OR, 

If the reader will carefully inspect this table, he will here 
find the same harmony of parts, the same correspondence be- 
tween Primary and Secondary Trinities, the same order of 
relations, and the same principles of serial association, which 
he will find in all other natural seven-fold serieses heretofore 
exhibited, or hereafter to be exhibited. 

But a still more specific classification of mineral or physical 
substances embraces all the simple elements, with their 
natural compound forms, as known to chemistry as will be 
seen by the following table : 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 

1. Alkalizable and oxidizable 
simples (such as Potassium, 
sodium, iron, lead, hydrogen, 
etc.) 

2. Acidizable simples (such as 
sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, 
etc.) 

3. Flagrators, or alkalizers, acid- 
ifiers, and oxidizers* (oxygen 



SECONDARY TRINITY 

4. Lowest combined forms (such 
as alkalies, acids, oxides, sul- 
phurets, carburets, etc.) 

5. Binary compounds (such as 
sulphates, carbonates, etc.) 

6. Higher and ultimate com- 
pounds. 



and chlorine). 

7. Pervading and enveloping electroid, or etheroid unit, as a homo- 
geneous involution and evolution of all forms. 

But the Mineral Kingdom, as commonly contemplated, is 
circumscribed to the realm of crystallized forms, and the 
amorphous substances from which these immediately proceed. 
A theory of a septinary arrangement of the Mineral King- 
dom, as viewed in this aspect, might be here submitted, but, 
from not having made crystalography a particular branch of 
study, I have not sufficient confidence in its conformity to 
nattire, and will therefore omit it. Enough, however, has 
been said to show that the Mineral Kingdom, in its more 
general aspect, conforms to the seven-fold serial and corre- 



KINGDOM OF CHEMICAL FORMS. 171 

spondential law seen to apply in other cases and nothing is 
here discovered to mar, but every thing illustrates, the har- 
mony and unity of the great plan of creation. With these 
remarks, then, we will proceed to consider the Kingdom of 
forms immediately succeeding the mineral, in the order of 
development. 



CHAPTEE XY. 

THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

THE seven-fold constitution of the Vegetable Kingdom as a 
whole, is illustrated by the seven progressive developments in 
the growth of a single perfect tree, which consist of 1. The 
root, or little appendages thrown out from the germ before the 
stem appears ; 2. The simple stem ; 3. The branches ; 4. The 
leaves ; 5. The flower-buds ; 6. The blossoms ; and 7. The 
fruit. The seven corresponding divisions of vegetable forms 
may be traced as follows : 

The first and lowest of these consists simply of confused 
radical fibers, which do not necessarily appear above the sur- 
face of the earth. In constitution, this degree of vegetation is 
but little superior to the finest forms of crystallization, from 
which it differs principally in respect to its soft and succulent 
nature, the frequent curvilinear directions of its fibers, and the 
circular forms of their transverse sections. Of this lowest 
kind of vegetation, we have examples in the slimy accretions 
which occur upon the surfaces of rocks, logs, etc., submerged 
in water ; and of which the fibrous underground mould which 
occurs in warm wet soil, impregnated with rapidly decompos- 
ing matter, constitutes the terrestrial representative. 

The second division of vegetable forms is represented by 
plants that have a simple stem or shoot projecting above the 
earth, but no branches nor leaves. Of these, some of the 
simplest species of sea- weeds afford examples. 



THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 173 

The third division consists of the branching forms of sea 
plants, of which the fucoides afford an example. 

The fourth division consists of terrestrial herbacea, which 
are characterized by fully developed leaves. But the lower 
forms of this general division also embrace lichens, mosses, 
fungi, etc. 

The fifth division consists of arborescent cryptogamia, or 
of those perennial plants in which the organs of fructification 
are concealed. 

The sixth division consists of the arborescent monocotyledon- 
ous, or of those flowering trees whose seed has but one lobe ; and 

The seventh division consists of the arborescent dicotyledo- 
nous, or of those flowering trees whose seeds have two lobes, 
and which are the most perfect forms of the vegetable king- 
dom. 

This comprehensive classification, though new, is in accord- 
ance with the general order of succession in vegetable crea- 
tions as indicated in fossilology, and is therefore natural. 
Each one of these divisions, of course, is subject to sub-classi- 
fications, which sometimes run parallel with each other ; but 
an herbaceous and arborescent plant which possess the same 
number of stamins, pistils, or cotyledons, evidently should not 
simply on that account, be placed in absolutely the same class 
or order. 

That it may the more clearly be perceived that this classifi- 
cation conforms to the serial and correspondential law hereto- 
fore unfolded, we will reduce it to the following form : 

PRIMARY TRINITY. SECONDARY TRINITY 



( Marine forms.) 



1. Radical fiber. 

2. Simple stem, 

3. Branching. 



( Terrestrial forms. ) 

4. Terrestrial herbacea (leafing.) 

5. Arborescent cryptogamia. 

6. Flowering monocotyledonous. 



7. Flowering dicotyledonous. 



174: THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

Here it is seen that the first member of the Primary Trin- 
ity, the radical fiber or the root principle, so to speak, of 
vegetation, has its counterpart and sub-correspondent in the 
first member of the Secondary Trinity, in the leafing plants 
leaves being merely aerial roots. The second member of the 
Primary Trinity, consisting of plants with a simple stem, has 
its counterpart and sub-correspondent in the second member 
of the Secondary Trinity the organs of fructification in the 
cryptogamous plants being connected with the leaves, and 
being mere shoots from them as from a root. Considering 
the cryptogamous plants in the Vegetable Kingdom as a whole, 
as corresponding to the flower-buds of a single tree, the third 
member of the Secondary Trinity, showing the branchings 
from the flower-buds, as from a stem, bears a certain corre- 
spondence to the third member of the Primary Trinity, em- 
bracing merely the branching forms of vegetation, The seventh 
member is not only of a more perfect organic structure, but 
it embraces all the more perfect fruit-bearing trees which afford 
nourishment to higher kingdoms, and therefore it may be con- 
sidered as the crown of the whole Vegetable Kingdom. It is 
thus seen that the grand and natural divisions of the Vegeta- 
ble World, conform to the septenary and ternary serial law ; 
and its complete series will be found, on comparison, to corre- 
spond generally and particularly with all other complete series. 



CHAPTEE XYI. 



THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

THE Animal Kingdom follows as next in the order of pro- 
gression, after the Vegetable Kingdom. Its divisions, in their 
regular order of ascension from lowest to highest, and also, 
generally speaking, in respect to their successive periods of 
development as shown by fossilology, are as follows : 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 

(Marine forms.} 

1. RADIATA (coral insects, crinoi- 
dians, star-fishes, medusise, 
etc.) 



2. ARTICULATA (sea-worrns, trilo- 
bites, crabs, lobsters, etc.) 

3. VEUTEBRATED FISHES. 



SECONDARY TRINITY. 
(Terrestrial forms.) 

4. REPTILES. (The lower forms 
of this division embrace also the 
terrestrial mollusca and articu- 
lata, such as snails, worms, in- 
sects, etc.) 

5. BIRDS. 

6. MAMMALIA. 



7. MAN as a terrestrial being. 

IN this table are represented three general divisions of ma- 
rine forms, and three general divisions of terrestrial forms. 
The first division of marine forms is to its sphere of existence 
and to the divisions of marine forms which follow it, what the 
first division of terrestrial forms is to its sphere of existence, 
and to the divisions which follow it ; and so also the one trine 
in its sphere corresponds to the other trine in its sphere, both 
in the complex and in the successive divisions of each. 

It may be objected to the foregoing classification, that it 



176 THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

leaves out one important division of the animal kingdom, viz., 
the Mollusca. To this it may be replied, that the Mollusca, 
especially in its lower forms, seem, to he but a higher branch 
of the Radiata. Some of the lower or univalve shell-fish 
grow in clusters, or united compartments, almost as one ani- 
mal, and in this essential characteristic are somewhat allied 
to the polipiaria, which comprises one class of the Radiata. 
This quality of growing in clusters, or connected compart- 
ments, is preserved even by some of the bivalves, such as 
muscles, oysters, etc. The detached bivalves, having locomo- 
tive powers, seem to be an ascension from these ; and the still 
higher orders of mollusca, viz., the gastropoda and cephalo- 
poda, seem to be but higher representations of the same sys- 
tem of creative design, which, as its lowest expression, evolved 
the polipiaria and crinoids. 

I have personally observed that the whilk, which is among 
the higher orders of shell-fish, propagates through the medium 
of a zoophitic, or vegetable-like, form, with an attached stem, 
and containing leaf-like appendages or pods, in which the 
young are brought to foetal maturity. The Radiata and Mol- 
lusca, therefore; may be considered as comprehended in one 
general division of the Animal Kingdom, which division, how- 
ever, should perhaps be designated by some term of more 
comprehensive significance. 

It is thus seen, that the Animal Kingdom conforms to the 
same serial and correspondential law which we have seen run- 
ning through all systems of creation previously contemplated, 
and which we will hereafter perceive runs equally through still 
higher developments. And with this, as the highest system 
of material creation, our more specific classifications of the 
grand departments of the universe without us, is completed. 



CHAPTEE XVII. 

THE WHOLE AND ITS PARTS. 

WE have thus ascended, through progressive stages of ob- 
servation and induction, from the basis to the apex of the 
grand pyramid of outer creation. From the commanding 
position to which we have attained, therefore, it is proper to 
take a general survey of the ground over which we have 
passed, and to observe any general or particular facts which 
may thence present themselves, as bearing, favorably or other- 
wise, upon the conclusions to which we have been led, or as 
reflecting light upon still ulterior truths. 

And first, a remark in reference to the method and order 
of our previous investigations : It will be remembered that 
we commenced with the observation of sensible facts, which 
lie upon the exteriors of Nature, and proceeded to trace them 
analytically to their elements and originative conditions, and 
those to theirs, until we arrived at the primeval and com- 
mon chaotic Germ from which all things, by different ramifi- 
cations, sprang. The nature and propriety of the reverse pro- 
cess which we thence pursued, with the naturalness of the 
order of successive results to which it led us, may be illustrated 
as follows : 

The astronomer discerns in the distant heavens a faint whitish 
spot, which he calls a nebula. To the naked eye, it appears 
dim, indistinct, and undefined. He applies a telescope of 
moderate power, and the outlines of the same object are a 



178 THE WHOLE AND ITS PAKTS. 

little more defined. With a still larger telescope, it appears 
still more definite ; and so he goes on increasing his optical 
power, until the same object is resolved into myriads of mi- 
nute stars, which appear like particles of diamond dust sprinkled 
upon the blue concave. By another increase of power, these 
stars are made to exhibit appearances of internal systematic 
arrangement. This is as far as the most powerful telescopes 
will go ; but suppose that he had the ability to augment his 
optical power indefinitely ; each of those stars, which at first 
appeared only as a shining point, may soon be made to glow 
as a resplendent sun, revealing a multitude of planets swim- 
ming in the sea of light by which it is surrounded. He now 
singles out one of those planetary globes as the special object 
of inspection ; and as, by our imagined possibilities, the visual 
power is enhanced through other successive degrees, the 
forests, the fields, the streams, the trees, the flowers, and even 
the insects, which may exist upon the surface of that planet, 
or the animalcules which sport in its stagnant waters, would 
successively come into view. Now, be it remarked, that all 
these successive particularizations, even down to ultimate mi- 
nutiae, are involved in that faint luminous spot, which, as a 
most comprehensive general, is first seen by the naked eye in 
the remote heavens. 

Our process of synthetical investigation has been similar to 
that just supposed, we having the advantage of the actual 
presence and personal inspection of the minutiae included in 
the general subject of our thoughts. With a mental telescope 
we have penetrated, not into the distance of space, but into 
the corresponding distance of time, and beheld the universe in 
the aspect of one common nebulous mass. By following the 
natural history of this one general mass through its suc- 
cessive approximations to our own period, we have seen it 



GENERALS INVOLVE PARTICULARS. 179 

successively unfolding solar systems, geological developments, 
mineral kingdoms, animal kingdoms, and human races, with 
all things which they respectively include. It is to be ob- 
served that each of these successive particularizations is based 
upon, and was included in, the next preceding general, as all 
are based upon, and included in, the all-comprehensive General. 

Moreover, that the order in which these particularizations, 
Kingdoms, or sub-creations have been brought under review, 
is not an order arbitrarily adopted for our own convenience, 
but clearly one observed by nature herself, is evident from 
the fact, that no two systems or Kingdoms, as arranged in our 
series of inquiries, can be transposed. This illustration of the 
relations of generals and particulars also clearly shows, that 
all truths are but involutions and evolutions of one funda- 
mental truth hence that all truths must bear certain relations 
and correspondences to each other, from their origins through- 
out their successive ramifications, even to their ultimates; 
and that no truth can be fully understood, except in the 
general and particular light of all others. 

Moreover, if the serial order in which the grand divisions 
of nature, as a whole, have been brought under review, is ac- 
cording to the order of progressive development observed by 
nature herself, the same is generally true of the serial order 
of the seven sub-divisions which have been applied to each of 
these grand divisions. By a particular review of either of 
these classified sub-divisions, the reader will find, for example, 
that the first member of the series is naturally germinal, and 
that the seventh is naturally ultimate, to all the others ; and 
that no two members of the series can be transposed without 
deranging the harmony of the whole series. And though we, 
of course, claim no absolute exemption from particular errors 
and imperfections in the classifications which have been sub- 



180 THE WHOLE AND ITS PAKTS. 

mitted, it is nevertheless claimed that their manifest general 
conformity to nature, together with their ternary relations 
and correspondences, involved, after identically the same 
general method, in each seven-fold series, clearly reveals the 
presence of a grand structural or associative LAW which, in a 
corresponding manner, and in different degrees of develop- 
ment, governs the numbers, relations, and succession of parts, 
in every complete system of natural unfolding. Of this law, 
as before repeatedly intimated, the diatonic scale in music, 
with its seven notes, is the natural and oral exponent. 

Having thus subjected the grand divisions of nature to re- 
view, and discovered the application of this principle of serial 
and correspondential classification to them all, let us now see 
whether the connected and successive creations thus brought 
under review, will naturally fall into the form of one grand 
System, in which our principles of serial arrangement will be 
exemplified. This may be best exhibited by the following 
table: 



PRIMARY TRINITY. 
(Structural.) 

1. Firmamental and sidereal uni- 
verse. 

2. Solar systems. 

3. Geological developments. 



SECONDARY TRINITY. 
(Organic.') 

4. System of chemical or com- 
prehensive mineralogical ar- 
rangements. 

5. Vegetable kingdoms 

6. Animal kingdoms. 



ULTIMATE. 

(Intellectual.) 

7. HUMAN RACES, as to their merely terrestrial constitutions, 
affections, and thoughts. 

Not only do we observe in this series a natural order of 
succession of parts, which will not admit of addition, retrench- 
ment, or transposition, but we also observe the same ternary 



PRISMATIC COLORS. 181 

relations and correspondences which we have seen are in- 
volved in all the series previously examined. Thus the first 
member of the series, which is rudimental-s^rwcftm*/, corre- 
sponds to the fourth member, which is rudimental-organic ;* 
the second member is the transition-structural, and corresponds 
to the fifth (the Vegetable Kingdom), which is the transitional- 
organic; the third member is the (physically) perfect-structural, 
and corresponds to the sixth, which is the perfect organic. 
And the seventh is ultimate, exhibiting the perfection and 
united sublimation of all in this respect corresponding to the 
seventh member of every other series, even as the first mem- 
ber in each series corresponds to the first member in all 
others ; the second to the second, etc. The same principles 
of serial, septenary, and correspondential classification, thus 
apply equally to the generals and the particulars of nature, at 
least so far as such particulars have been brought under 
review. 

But while the respective members of each seven-fold series, 
whether on a high or low scale, including the great series of 
all serieses, correspond to the same members, as numerically 
designated in all other serieses, these correspondences are of 
different degrees of directness and intimacy, according to 
numerical relations more complicated than those which have 
yet been brought into view. This, together with the manner 
in which general and particular serial correspondences are 
involved in one complete system, may be illustrated partially,' 
but sufficiently for our present purpose, by a reference to th0 
seven prismatic colors and their involved properties. It i% 
found that, by causing each of the seven colors of decomposed 

* A crystal possesses a 'kind of molecular life, and has different parts, angles, and 
poles, which perform different functions, as shown by Keichenbach ; it may therefore 
be considered as an wgamsm, though of the lowest kind. 

16 



182 THE WHOLE AND ITS PAKTS. 

light to pass separately through a second prism, they may be 
still further decomposed, and form a secondary iris, in which 
each of the seven colors will again be visible. Now the first 
or general iris represents the great System of systems, con- 
sidered as one, while each included iris represents one of the 
sub-systems involved in the latter, and which is also seven- 
fold. In other words, the grand seven-fold System of nature 
is composed of all its included and subordinate seven-fold 
systems, in the same way as the grand iris is composed of 
all the elements involved in its included irises, there being 
in either case a similar interdependence of parts ; and hence 
there is the same unity in the System as a whole, that there 
is in each one of its analogous and component sub-systems. 
The grand System of nature, and each one of its sub-systems, 
then, correspond to each other in the same way as the grand 
iris, and each of its included sub-irises correspond to each 
other, according to their similar numerical designations. But 
while this is the case with the iris and its included sub-irises, 
it is evident that one of these latter, based, for example, upon 
the general red ray, would bear a different degree of corre- 
spondence to other seven-fold divisions of color, from one 
that is based generally upon the yellow, blue, or any other 
ray ; and the same is true of the great System of nature and 
its sub-systems. 

It was before shown that each seven-fold system of nature 
is accompanied, in its development'and functional operations, 
by seven corresponding dynamic agents, and also seven 
corresponding laws. It may therefore be said that these 
dynamic agents and laws are also, either identically or by 
their natural representatives in different degrees of ascension, 
subject to the same comprehensive and involved classifications 
which we have just seen to apply to their corresponding 



AGENTS, LAWS, DEVELOPMENTS 



183 



outer developments, as presented in the universal Fabric of 
Being and its parts. It would, indeed, be difficult to get a 
set of terms sufficiently comprehensive, and yet sufficiently 
definite, to apply equally to all systems and sub-systems in- 
volved in a universal classification; but if the reader will 
consider the terms we may employ as being themselves 
correspondential, and as expressive merely of general prin- 
ciples, he may find the general and particular systems of 
nature, in their three-fold relations of Dynamic Agents, Laws, 
and Developments, represented, with approximate truthful- 
ness, in the following table : 



DYNAMIC AGENTS. 

1. Heat. 

2. Light. 

3. Electricity. 

4. Organic, or odic 

heat. 
6. Odic light. 

6. Odic aura. 

7. Vitality. 



LAWS. 


DEVELOPMENTS. 


Expansion. 


Chaos. 


Attraction. 


Nuclei. 


Circulation. 


Forms. 


Aggregation. 


Incipient organism 


Segregation.' 


Ascended organic 




forms. 


Sympathy. 


Universal association. 


Life. 


Unity of totality. 



Applying the fundamental principles of this classification, 
in different degrees, to the universal system, and to all its 
sub-systems, we have here a representation of the connection 
and harmonial relations of the Whole with the parts, and the 
parts with the Whole, of the Macrocosm or the universe 
without corresponding to the connections and relations of 
the parts and the whole, of the Microcosm, or the universe 
within. Here, then, is erected, "without the noise of the 
hammer," that universal Temple before spoken of, whose 



184. THE WHOLE AND ITS PABTS. 

timbers, hewn by God's own hand, consist of all those fads 
and principles which lie in the Realm of Being without us, 
and which mere analytical science -necessarily views in ever- 
lasting isolation and confusion. 



CIIAPTEE XYIII. 

DUALISM OF PRODUCTIVE FOEOES; OE, THE DIASTOLE 
AND SYSTOLE OF NATUEE. 

FOLLOWING link by link the descending chain of analogy, 
the conclusion was before arrived at, that in the beginning, 
the materials of the universe consisted of one diffuse, chaotic, 
or gaseous mass, without distinction of parts, or definite inter- 
nal motions. Reasons were also submitted for believing that 
these material conditions were not eternal, but that they 
originated as emanations or projections of the more exterior 
essences of the Divine Personal Constitution. It was shown 
that, inasmuch as this whole mass of physical substance thus 
originated from Divine spiritual substance, so physical Heat 
in this substance originated from Divine spiritual Heat, which 
is Love, and that physical Light originated from Divine 
spiritual Light, which is Wisdom. It was also shown that 
Heat is accompanied with a force or law of Expansion ; and 
that from Heat and Light combined, originated the force or 
law of Attraction or Contraction. As Divine Love and Wis- 
dom (forming a Duality, or productive unity, consisting of 
positive or negative, or male and female Principles) constitute 
the spiritual Alpha and Omega of all generative forces, so it 
is apprehended that their physical counterparts, consisting of 
the forces of Expansion and Attraction, may be found to main- 
tain an equally fundamental relation to all modifications of 
force, law, and operation, existing in the realm of created Being. 



186 DUALISM OF FORCES. 

If we again glance at the systems and sub-systems of ope- 
ration which nature presents, we will find abundant exemplifi- 
cations of this fact. Thus, as the forces of Expansion and 
Contraction proceeded in their operations in the primeval 
chaotic mass, the particles which were by nature fitted to re- 
main in an aeriform or ethereal state, and those which were 
naturally fitted for aggregation into dense forms, were sepa- 
rated. The latter class of particles, by a general assemblage, 
first formed the universal nucleus, and then, successively the 
nebulous rings, segregated masses, and stellar and planetary 
systems. The telescope now reveals these masses of conden- 
sible materials apparently in all stages of progress in the 
heavens, from the indefinitely formed and irresolvable nebula 
to the globular cluster of stars. This latter is the form pecu- 
liar to the highest possible degree of cosmical perfection, and, 
at the same time, the highest natural degree of cosmical conden- 
sation ; and it may hence be supposed to be accompanied with 
the highest naturally attainable degree of levity and purity in 
the circumambient ether. But these states are ultimate 
achievements of the joint and constant action of the fundamen- 
tal laws of EXPANSION and CONTRACTION. 

We will find, on due consideration, that these same princi- 
ples apply also to each creation included in the cosmical, 
whether it be organic or inorganic. Thus, in the Mineral 
World, the metallic ore that is now segregated into distinct 
veins, evidently must have originally existed in diffusion in 
the surrounding rock. The particles which originally occupied 
the present position of the mineral veins, must have been dis- 
persed by a force of expansion (virtually or actually) which was 
precisely equivalent to the force of mutual attraction which 
brought the metalline particles together in their place. The 
same tendency of kindred and originally diffused mineral par- 



EXPANSION AND ATTRACTION. 187 

tides to draw together into the form of dense masses, is, per- 
haps, still more forcibly illustrated by the flint nodules found 
in beds of chalk, and which are generally of a more or less 
rounded form, evidently indicating an original state of solution 
in the surrounding mass, from which they have become con- 
densed, as they are now found. 

The first forms assumed by the vegetable materials that exist 
in the world, were also diffuse and chaotic. Such were the 
marine accretions of germinal slime, with their radical fibers, 
and subsequent efflorescent, simple, and microscopic stems. 
Several gradations of plants as they rise above these, are still 
of imperfect exterior forms, of a loose and succulent nature, 
and of an internal structure entirely cellular indicating, as 
yet, but small progress in the condensive principle. In these, 
however, the whole Vegetable Kingdom as one creation, has 
its incipient and rudimental development. Further segrega- 
tions and condensations of the vegetative elements are decid- 
edly manifested in the subsequently formed terrestrial plants 
possessing a vascular tissue and ligneous fiber. But as crea- 
tion proceeds, still higher forms, possessing more marked and 
widely diversified characteristics, are gradually developed, 
until the flowering and dicotyledonous plants of the present 
era came into being ; and these show the closest possible con- 
nection of congenial, and the most perfect elimination of 
heterogeneal vegetable elements. Hence, they exhibit the 
ultimate degree of the Condensive and Expansive principle 
which can be naturally applied to the Vegetable Kingdom. 

In the Animal Kingdom, including the human, the same 
principles are distinctly operative ; and this, too, both with 
reference to the individual organism, and the whole collection 
of living beings. Professor Agassiz, who has investigated the 
subject of embryology perhaps more thoroughly than any 



188 DUALISM OF FORCES. 

other man, tells us, that after the fecundation of the ovum of 
any animal, and its division into cells and layers, the organ 
of circulation proceeds to its incipient development from the 
middle layer of the germ. " First," the blood appears by a 
simple process of liquefaction of the cells. It can be seen 
under the microscope how the particles, or the cells of that 
layer, begin to loose at the outer margin, and to move between 
themselves, and to run in particular directions, and to combine 
into currents, and those currents to assume particular direc- 
tions, before there is a heart, and before there are blood-vessels. It 
can be seen in every chicken under so low a magnifying power, 
that no one should lose the opportunity of seeing this wonder- 
ful sight. When blood corpuscules move from the center toward 
the margin of the germ [Expansion], the other cells, which be- 
come loose in the periphery of the germ, begin to move toward 
the center [Contraction]. In the beginning, there being no cur- 
rent circulating, the two collections of fluid meet, and finally 
become regular currents, by means of channels through which 
the blood runs for a regular circulation* 

These fundamental, expansive, contractive, and circulatory 
motions are subsidiary to the development of a fourth opera- 
tion, by which affinitized particles floating in the circulating 
menstruum are brought into conjunction, and deposited in the 
form of solid tissues. They are at first aggregated on all 
sides of the circulating channels, and form the blood-vessels, 
the ramifications of which (says Agassiz) are at first constantly 

* Agassiz'a Lectures on Comparative Embryology. Here we have, in the words of 
one who wrote without any view to the distinctive philosophy of the present treatise, an 
illustration of the successive origins of the laws of Expansion, Contraction, and Circu- 
lation. Considering these facts and principles as equally applicable, on a large acale, 
to the great fecundated germ or ovwn of the cosmical creation, it will illustrate per- 
fectly the incipient process by a prolongation of which the universe received its present 
mature form. 



PROGRESS OF ORGANIZATION. 189 

changing. But one portion of the central vessel soon "becomes 
enlarged, and assumes the form of a simple elongated sack. 
This, centralizing and expressing in itself the previously diffused 
expansive and contractile forces, performs a constant succession 
of diastolic and systolic motions, and constitutes the rudi- 
ment of the future heart. 

Other processions from the blood-vessels form, in like 
manner, the rudiments of the alimentary canal, the liver, the 
lungs, the brain, etc. These, by a constant rejection (through 
the expansive or emanative force) of particles foreign to their 
respective and appropriate composition, and as constant an 
attraction and appropriation of the particles which they need, 
finally arrive at the full maturity of their complex structures, 
and together, form the complete living organism. The complete 
organism, therefore, manifests the perfection of elimination of 
unsuitable substances from each particular organ (which sub- 
stances, therefore, go to form other organs to which they are 
suitable), and the perfection of condensation or aggregation in 
each organ of those substances which are suitable to its own 
composition. 

The same remarks are, in principle, applicable to the whole 
animated creation as to one grand Form. Its first and lowest 
development, as shown by fossilology, consisted of polypiaria 
and other radiated forms. Now, the polypi of a coral reef 
may almost be considered as one extended animal, with little 
distinction of parts. The substances and functions of heart, 
stomach, lungs, brain, etc., seem to be iuterdifiused and con- 
founded with each other in such a way that one portion of the 
structure is no more vital than another, and therefore, into 
however numerous or small fragments this animal substance 
may become divided or subdivided, each fragment, still chaot- 
ically embodying in itself all the principles of vitality and 



190 DUALISM OF FOECES. 

organization, continues to live and grow as a distinct animal. 
It, therefore, corresponds to the primitive cellular structure of 
the impregnated ova of the higher animals. In the higher 
forms of the Radiata, the organs, with their functional opera- 
tions, are perceptibly more distinct from each other. In the 
Articulata, there is still more definite association of the ele- 
ments of organs into their distinct and appropriate forms ; but 
this association is still so imperfect, that if the lobster or 
crab, for example, loses a claw, it eliminates from other por- 
tions of its system elements which form another claw thus 
showing that the claw-principle, so to speak, previously ex- 
isted undeveloped, in the other parts of the organism, by a 
draft upon which the recuperation is now produced. And so 
in each succeeding class in the ascending scale of animal crea- 
tions, heart becomes more distinctly heart, brain becomes 
more distinctly brain, and all the other organs become corre- 
spondingly more distinct and highly developed, and more free 
from those particles which properly belong to other organs, 
until the perfection of living organization is attained in the 
perfected human form, which may be considered as the whole 
Animal Kingdom in the aggregate, with something more be- 
sides. 

And so, reducing these specific subjects of contemplation to 
one comprehensive view, it may be said, that in the beginning 
the material elements of man, animal, vegetable, mineral, 
planet, sun, and firmament, existed in common interdiffusion 
in the great, universal, and undistinguishable mass of nebu- 
lous matter, in such a way that each part was lost in all other 
parts. The great mass, then, formed, as it were, one grand 
Polypus, or one grand ovum, corresponding to the ovum of an 
animal, and from it, after fecundation, and by means of a con- 
stant incubative and superior influence, the ultimate develop- 






SP II EKES AND SYMPATHY. 191 

ment of the complex system in its mature form, was to arise. 
Materials in the primitive and lowest degree of refinement, 
draw together according to rudimental affinities, at the same 
time evolving their uncondensible elements, and thus form 
vast and indefinite nebulous aggregation, with their circum- 
ambient ether. Further evolutions and condensations, and 
consequent refinements, form, successively, firmaments, suns, 
planets, mineral aggregations, plants, animals, and finally the 
bodies of human beings all of which, from first to last, have 
directly or indirectly collected and selected their materials 
from the great mass of all materials, even as the nodules of 
flint, before spoken of as embodied in the strata of chalk, have 
collected their component silicious particles from the mass of 
surrounding materials in which they must have been originally 
diffused ! 

The fact that, in the process of all formations, there is an 
expansion and evolution of uncondensible elements from the 
centers of their chaotic materials, as well as a clustering 
around central nuclei, of those particles capable of constitut- 
ing the tangible structure with its various parts, more fully 
illustrates the doctrine heretofore advanced, that all forms 
and organisms, from stellar assemblages, individual suns, and 
planets, to crystals, vegetables, animals, and human beings, 
are surrounded by an aromal counterpart or "sphere." It 
will be borne in mind, that it is by the inter-action of these 
aromal counter parts, or spheres of different forms and organ- 
isms (and which are always expressive of the specific interior 
qualities of the latter), that these forms and organisms are 
brought into what may be called " magnetic sympathy " with 
each other ; and it is by the combined aromal spheres of all 
organisms, forms, and systems, that the great inter-active 
nerve-aura of the universe, as ont Body, is made up. 



192 DUALISM OF FORCES. 

The expansions and emanations from centers perpetually 
prevalent throughout the whole domain of forms and organ- 
isms, may b'e considered as one general diastole ; while the 
contractions and precipitations upon centers, likewise univer- 
sally prevalent, may be considered as one general systole ; 
and these motions, in their more progressed and periodically 
alternating forms, are expressed in the secular expansions and 
contractions of planetary orbits ; in the oscillations of hea- 
venly bodies between their aphelion and perihelion points ; in 
the ebbing and flowing of tides ; in the inspirations and ex- 
pirations of plants ; in the dilations and contractions of the 
human heart; and in the breathings and 'pulsations of 
microscopic forms of life, which spoit in a single drop of 
water. 

In attributing thus much to the laws of Expansion and 
Contraction (or Attraction), it is not by any means intended 
to supersede the septinary divisions of laws, as presented in 
preceding pages. Our object has rather been to show that 
these two fundamental laws, being, as it were, male and fe- 
male in conjugal unity, are the parents and grandparents of 
all other laws. Thus it is from a combination of Expansive 
and Contractive movements that the law of Circulation im- 
mediately ensues in every portion of the creation, even as the 
same ensues in the animal and human systems, from the ex- 
pansive and contractile motions of the heart : and as particles 
are thus made to flow throughout each system, and are placed 
in general intercommunication with other particles, there is 
occasion given to the operation of the fourth law, by which 
mutually affinitized particles, whether in organic or inorganic 
creations, unite together and form the tissues of the perma- 
nent physical structure. Thence, after performing their ap- 
propriate offices, and undergoing specific refinements, they are 



DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. 193 

taken up and re-deposited in higher and more complex masses 
or tissues, or excreted entirely from the system, according to 
the fifth law the law of segregation the same being also ap- 
plicable, in different degrees, to each creation ; then by mu- 
tual impartations of essences and forces between these masses 
or tissues, as necessary parts or organs of the system, a sixth 
law is developed the law of universal sympathy and har- 
monial reciprocation. Finally, all these laws and operations, 
harmoniously combined, give occasion to the normal manifes- 
tation of the seventh and highest law the law governing the 
functions of the complex unity, and in which the principles of 
Love and Wisdom, Heat and Light, Expansion and Attrac- 
tion, with all their modifications and subordinates, are em- 
braced in unitary form. 

As these Expansive and Attractive operations are de- 
pendent upon physical Heat and Light, and these are ulti- 
mately dependent for their generation upon spiritual Heat 
and Light, which are conditions of Divine Love and Wisdom, 
so it follows that Divine Love and Wisdom pervade nature 
co-extensively with Expansive and Attractive forces, and are 
the fundamental and essential constituents of the life-principle 
which inheres in every form of being. Things live, therefore, 
only in proportion to the degree in which they are recipients 
of the essences and forms of Divine Love and Wisdom ; and 
without these, all things would be dead. 

17 



CHAPTER XIX. 

CIECLES. 

IT was before shown that the constant Expansive and 
Contractive forces, particularly illustrated in the previous 
chapter, call into requisition the law of Circulation, which 
gives form to the motion of particles impelled by the 
previous forces. By circulation is meant a proceeding from 
a given point or condition, and finally returning to the same, 
whether the line of progression described by the movement 
is mathematically that of an exact circle or not ; as is illus- 
trated by the flowing of blood from the heart, through various 
channels back again to the heart. 

But it is here to be particularly observed that the blood, in 
passing from the heart, through various parts of the system 
back again to the heart, deposits certain portions of its ele- 
ments in various fleshy and osseous tissues along its path. 
This example, taken from the functional operations of the 
Microcosm, or little universe, serves as a sure index of similar 
operations which occur in the various departments of the 
Macrocosm, or great universe, and leads to the remark, 
that all regularly circulating materials, whether in the human, 
the animal, the vegetable, the mineral, the geognostic, or the 
astronomical department of creation, impart certain of their 
elements to the ambient spaces through which they pass. It 
is by the aggregation of such imparted elements that all 
regularly developed forms in nature have their being ; and as 



CIRCLES. 195 

f 

it was heretofore shown that all natural movements and de- 
velopments observe a regular serial order of successive gra- 
dations, it follows, from the law of Circulation, that this serial 
order, as applicable to each system or degree of nature, must 
exemplify the circle. This idea of the universality of the cir- 
cular constitution and movements of things, shall now be 
more particularly illustrated by facts. 

Extending our observations to the heavenly bodies, we 
see circular motion everywhere prevailing. Satellites move 
around planets, planets around suns, suns around still greater 
suns, and an extension of the analogical chain renders it, as 
before shown, extremely probable, not to say certain, that 
all secondary bodies in universal space, revolve in common, 
around one grand primitive Center and Source of attraction. 
If this be the case, then, whatever particular movements the 
secondary bodies may have assumed from the development 
of forms of internal forces peculiar to themselves, these move- 
ments are subordinate to the great material Source of move- 
ment, and the forces by which they occur are only repro- 
ductions or ascensions, in specific and modified forms, of the 
forces which primarily appertain to it. 

But as the forces producing these primitive rotatory and 
orbitual motions in the universe, are the final source of all 
those diversified ramifications of circular movement, which 
are manifested by subordinate systems, suns, and planets, so 
the orbitual and rotatory motions of planets are the more im- 
mediate parents and dependencies of still more diversified and 
minute systems of circular development. From the orbitual 
motion of the earth, for instance (and the fact also applies to 
other planets), results a continually repeated circle of thermal 
changes, which mark the various seasons of the year. These 
give rise to the various annual series of vegetable and other 



196 



CIRCLE S. 



developments. In the genial heat of spring, the seed that has 
sunk into the moist vegetable mould, expands and puts forth 
successively the stem, the branches, the leaves, the flower- 
buds, the flowers, and the fruit containing seed of the same 
species of that from which the plant sprang. Then, as the 
frosts of winter begin again to prevail, the life of the plant 
becomes extinct; its ripened seeds are scattered upon the 
ground, to become the progenitors of other plants of the same 
kind, and the materials of the plant also sink to the earth to 
replenish the vegetable mould from which they sprang. Thus 
the same general condition is again brought about with that 
from which the first plant sprang; and the germination, 
growth, maturity, and decay of the plant, with the scattering 
of its seed upon the earth, exemplifies a complete circle. So 
with the putting forth of the foliage, the development of the 
blossoms and fruit, and the final hibernation of arborescent 
vegetation. 

Coincident, also, with the changes of the seasons, are the 
periodical awakenings of certain animal instincts, and also the 
occurrence of certain conditions in the human, physical, and 
mental economy. These changes, occurring, as they do, in 
regular serial succession, and always returning to the point 
from which they started, exemplify, also, the Circle. 

And so, from the alternations of day and night, which, with 
their successive hours and moments, mark a diurnal circle of 
physical changes, still more minute circles of change ensue, 
in the economy of organic beings. Such are the circles of 
wakefulness and sleep ; of activity and repose ; of organic 
waste and recuperation, with all their intermediate and 
transitional stages, whether we apply the remark to the 
vegetable, the animal, or the human creation. And it may 
even be said that every passage, from one degree or stage to 



CIRCLES. . 197 

another, in the progress of any complete circle of unfoldings, 
involves a circle or system of a minuter kind, until we get 
down to the physiological functions of the organism of an 
ephemeron, to the circuit of blood and organic deposits in 
the system of an anamalcule, or to the orbitual and axial 
revolutions of an atom. 

It may also be said that the progression from the origin to 
the dissolution of any system, or to its passage into another 
form, involves the circle; and this is equally true of the 
universe as a whole, of its included stellar and solar systems 
and individual worlds, and of the further ramifications of crea- 
tion, constituting the mineral, vegetable, animal, and human 
kingdoms, together with their various genera, species, and in- 
dividual forms, respectively. 

The minutest of these circles of movement and develop- 
ment, are included in, and are, in some sense, dependent 
upon, the greater, and those are in like manner included in 
and dependent upon, still greater (which, therefore, form 
circles of circles), and all are included in the great Circle 
which comprehends all movements and developments in the 
universe, from its periphery to its center, from the whole 
unimaginable vortex of being to a single atom of matter, 
and from the very origin to the very end of all material 
things. 

The close of each comprehensive circle of operations marks 
an era, not only in its own history, but also in the history of 
its included circles, which are, to some extent, dependent upon 
its state for their own specific states. For illustration, the 
earth, during a single orbitual revolution, makes, to sense, 
three hundred and sixty-five revolutions on its own axis, occa- 
sioning the same number of repetitions of the phenomena of 
day and night. But these days and nights, or circles of diur- 



198 CIECLES. 

nal change, vary as to their length, temperature, etc., with the 
different stages of progress which are attained in the annual 
circle of revolution. But, if the reasonings of Maedler and 
others are to be relied upon, the whole Solar System, includ- 
ing the earth, is sweeping round a grand common center, which 
is so distant, that a single orbitual revolution can not proba- 
bly be accomplished in a less period than eighteen millions 
of years. As such a revolution will constitute the great year 
of the solar system, it is extremely probable that the progress 
of this revolution will be marked with changes in ethereal 
elements which affect climate and the various circles of organic 
creation upon our globe, in a manner analogous to the influ- 
ence of the orbitual revolution of the earth, upon the length 
and other characteristics of the days and nights, and thence, 
also, upon the annual developments in the vegetable and ani- 
mal kingdoms. This gradual alteration of the position of the 
Solar System in the sidereal spaces, and the elemental changes 
consequent thereupon, may of itself be sufficient in the course 
of time to work an entire change in the character of organic 
life upon our globe ; and still mightier changes in still mightier 
periods of time, may be wrought in the whole aspect of crea- 
tion, physical and moral, by those inconceivably more stu- 
pendous revolutions to which all of these are subordinate.* It 
is by the combined influences of all other circles of movement 
and creation, that each particular circle is precisely what it is; 
and whenever there is any change in the functional operations 
of any portion of the grand system of Being, or of any of its 
sub-systems, physical, mental, or moral, there is, according to 

* Professor Nichol has suggested the idea that the marked changes of climate, and 
hence of the organic and other productions of the earth, which occurred during tho 
geological periods, may not have been entirely disconnected with the movements of 
the solar system through the stellar spaces. (See Nichol's " Architecture of the 
Heavens.") 



CIECLES. 199 

the law of sympathy, necessarily some co-related change in all 
circles of operation included in this, however inappreciable to 
human conceptions that change may be. 

Thus do we see that the great system of universal Nature, 
from its most comprehensive outlines as a whole, down to its 
infinitessimal parts, is one compact system of co-related 
" wheels within wheels," which play harmoniously together, as 
the various and mutually dependent parts of a most sublime 
and magnificent Machine ! It is a machine, however, which, 
notwithstanding its perfection as a machine, is neither abso- 
lutely self-propelling, nor can it evolve its appropriate fabrics, 
and thus fulfill the designs of its Maker, without the constant 
and intelligent superintendence of a superior Power even the 
Power from which it received its origin as has before been 
intimated, and will be more particularly illustrated hereafter. 

The general and particular numbers of progressive grada- 
tions which extend from beginnings to endings, and thus con- 
stitute each known circle of developments, or each known 
form of a perfect series, that is inwoven with all others in the 
texture of nature, have heretofore been maintained to be 
THREE and SEVEN. The reasons for considering these as the 
numbers of perfection applicable to every complete system of 
being, have been extensively illustrated in foregoing pages, and 
need not be repeated in this place. 



CHAPTEE XX. 

THE DOCTEINE OF DEGBEES. 

THE exposition of the serial and circular order of nature's 
operations and constituent parts, as given in the foregoing 
chapter, prepares us for the more full comprehension of another 
doctrine, which is of no less importance than the previous one. 
I refer to the truth that each complete system of creation and 
operation, from greatest to smallest, together with the whole 
realm of being as one System, is resolvable into distinct Degrees, 
associated with each other according to a certain definite order 
and that each complete System as one comprehensive De- 
gree, is connected, after the same general order, with the one 
immediately beneath, and that immediately above it, in the 
general scale. This doctrine of Degrees has been constantly 
intimated in foregoing discussions ; but its importance as a 
general guide to truth, demands for it a more direct and par- 
ticular illustration, which shall now be given. 

The writer's theory of Degrees was formed mainly from a 
direct study of nature, and with but little immediate aid from 
human suggestions beyond what was contained in the mere 
word " Degrees," as applied to nature's unfoldings ; but when 
on the point of placing the present work, containing a chapter 
on this subject, in the hands of the printers, my attention was 
called by a friend to the teachings of EMANUEL SWEDENBORG 
on the same subject. So far as I understand what that cele- 
brated philosopher has written upon this theme, I am delighted 



THE DOCTRINE OF DEGREES. 201 

in being able to recognize it not only as entirely true, but highly 
interesting and important ; at the same time that I find in it a 
confirmation of the principles involved in my previous thoughts 
upon the same subject. This, however, is said without the 
intention to intimate any opinion as to the truthfulness or un- 
truthfulness of the general writings of Swedenborg, concerning 
which, indeed, I know comparatively little. 

The doctrine of Swedenborg concerning Degrees, is essen- 
tially similar to that which I had conceived, the main differ- 
ence, aside from his peculiar terminology, consisting in his 
exclusive use of the ternary division, whereas I, as a general 
rule, use the septinary, as involving the ternary. In Sweden- 
borg's writings, however^ I find many features and applications 
of this doctrine of which I had not before conceived ; while, 
in my own previously embodied thoughts upon this subject, 
there were ideas which I have not yet found in Swedenborg. I 
am, therefore, induced to so far modify the chapter I had 
written on this subject, as to give a general reflex of what is 
essential and fundamental in both forms of the conception, in 
doing which I shall so far change my own previously adopted 
terminology, as to avoid a>confounding of ideas essentially 
different, as originating with the Swedish philosopher and my- 
self. 

Swedenborg makes Degrees of two kinds, viz., continuous 
Degrees, or Degrees of latitude, and discreet Degrees, or De 
grees of altitude. Continuous Degrees, or Degrees of latitude, 
are described as being " like degrees from light to shade, from, 
heat to cold, from hard to soft, from gross to subtle, etc." 
But Discreet Degrees are described as " entirely different" 
from these, in that " they are in the relation of prior, posterior, 
and postreme, or of end, cause, and effect. They are called 
Discreet Degrees," continues the writer, " because the prior is 



202 THE DOCTEINE OF DEGREES. 

by itself, the posterior by itself, and the postreme by itself; 
but still, taken together, they make a one." 

Further illustrations of the same subject are given as fol- 
lows: "It is well known by ocular experience, that each 
muscle in the human body consists of very minute fibers, and 
that these fasciculated, constitute those larger ones, called mov- 
ing fibers, and that bundles of these produce the compound 
which is called a muscle. It is the same with the nerves : very 
small nervous fibers are put together into larger ones, which 
appear like filaments, and by a collection of such filaments the 
nerve is produced. It is also the same in the other compagi- 
nations, confasciculations, and collections of which the organs 
and viscera consist; for these are compounds of fibers and 
vessels, variously fashioned by similar degrees. The case is 
the same also with all and every thing of the Vegetable King- 
dom, and with all and every thing of the Mineral Kingdom ; 
in wood there is a compagination of filaments in three-fold 
order ; in metals and stones there is a conglobation of parts 
also in three- fold order. These considerations show the nature 
of Discreet Degrees, namely, that one is formed from another, 
and by means of the second, a third, or composite ; and that 
each Degree is discreet from another." 

Inasmuch as the second Degree in any trhie, proceeds from 
the first, and the third from the second, it was also taught by 
Swedenborg, that " the first Degree is all in all in the subse- 
quent degrees ;" and that " the ultimate Degree is the complex, 
continent, and basis, of the prior Degrees ;" by which latter 
phrase I understand to be meant, that in the ultimate Degree, 
all the Degrees receive permanent, potential, and utilized em- 
bodiment. 

This doctrine of Degrees is extended by Swedenborg to 
every department of existence, whether in the physical, moral, 



THE DOCTRINE OF DEGREES. 203 

civil, psychological or spiritual worlds, and even to the infinite 
Divine Constitution itself, of which they are the outbirths and 
correspondences. He, indeed, maintains that all and every 
thing in each form of being, from greatest to smallest, of 
which triunity may be predicated, contains Degrees both con- 
tinuous and discreet. He maintains that the knowledge of 
Discreet Degrees is of the greatest philosophical importance, 
and that one who adequately possesses it, will thereby be 
enabled to see causes without the previous indications of their 
effects, and may even form accurate conclusions respecting 
things invisible, to which the same doctrine of, degrees must 
necessarily apply.* 

Such, then, is the doctrine of Degrees as taught by 
Swedenborg. But, though it is true, so far as it goes, I am 
not aware that it even claims to be perfect in such a sense 
as not to admit into its composition some additional con- 
siderations. I do not suppose that Swedenborg himself 
meant to convey the idea that each one of his Discreet De- 
grees was itself an absolutely simple unity ; and it is highly 
probable that if he had been questioned directly on the sub- 
ject, he would have admitted that each one of these was 
itself of a three-fold constitution, especially as he has ap- 
parently carried, the doctrine of the trine down even to in- 
finitesimals. 

Let Swedenborg's first Discreet Degree, then, stand for 
what, in the septinary classifications given in the preceding 
pages, has been called the " Primary Trinity ;" let his second 
Degree stand for our " Secondary Trinity ;" and let his third, 
or ultimate Degree, which he says is the " complex, continent, 
and basis of the prior degrees," stand for our seventh division, 

* See Swedenborg's " Divine Love and Divine Wisdom," from No. 1T9 to 241. 



204 THE DOCTRINE OF DEGREES. 

which we have constantly, though in other terms, represented 
as the complex, continent, and basis of all previous divisions 
and this view without the slightest violence to any essential 
doctrine of Swedenborg, will bring the theory of Degrees pre- 
cisely into the form in which I had conceived it. I believe 
that while Swedenborg himself maintained that triunity was 
predicable of all completeness, he also distinctly taught that 
the number seven was the common number of completeness. 
Consistently with this, then, it would seem that he could 
not avoid admitting that the septinity in some way in- 
volved the trine of the truth of which idea a very small 
portion of the existing evidence is spread through the fore- 
going pages. 

The doctrine of Degrees of altitude, then, in the light of 
principles heretofore established, and which doubtless Sweden- 
borg himself would have admitted, may be presented in the 
following modified form : 

Let each component gradation in the seven-fold series be 
called an Elemental Degree. 

Let each Trinity of Elemental Degrees (the Primary and 
Secondary Trinities, as distinguished in foregoing pages) be 
called a Discreet Degree ; and 

Let each seven-fold series, as a whole, be called a Complete 
Degree. We have thus Elemental Degrees, Discreet De- 
grees, and Complete Degrees. 

For example, let the Mineral Kingdom be considered as 
one Complete Degree, the Vegetable Kingdom as another, 
and the Animal Kingdom as another ; while each Trinity of 
developments in each of those Kingdoms, as before repre- 
sented, is considered as a Discreet Degree, and each member 
of each of those Trinities is considered as an Elemental De- 
gree; and the whole theory of Degrees of altitude will 



THE DOCTKINE OF DEGREES. 205 

appear iii a general and particular form of embodiment that 
will be intelligible to most minds. 

Each Complete Degree, viewed in this light, will appear 
connected with the contiguous Complete Degree, in the same 
way as each Discreet Degree is connected with its contiguous 
Discreet Degree, and as each Elemental Degree is connected 
with its contiguous Elemental Degree ; so that Nature, as a 
whole, will exhibit the same ascending order of Complete De- 
grees (or systems) that is exhibited by the Elemental Degrees 
composing any seven-fold series. I can not avoid the thought 
that this classification of Degrees, duly understood, would 
present a new and important aid to a proper comprehension 
of the ensemble, as well as the particulars of nature, with 
her forces, modes of operation, and mutual relations of 
parts. 

In view of the circular constitution and order of procession 
of each system of being, as illustrated in the chapter im- 
mediately preceding this, we are prepared to further remark, 
that Degrees of altitude of each of these kinds, result from a 
spiral uprising, so to speak, of the circle of development, by 
which the first Elemental Degree ascends to the altitude of the 
second, the second to the third, and so on ; or by which the first 
Discreet Degree progressively rises to the altitude of the 
second, and the second to the third, and by which one whole 
circle of "developments, in being completed, thus forming a 
Complete Degree, passes out into another and higher circle or 
Complete Degree. For example, one octave in music, which 
may be considered as a series of Elemental Degrees of sound, 
forms one Complete Degree of sound, and each other octave 
forms another Complete Degree, superior or inferior to it, ac- 
cording as it is above or below it ; and a similar remark is 
applicable to the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, 

18 



206 THE DOCTRINE OF DEGREES. 

before referred to as contiguous and Complete Degrees of 
creation, the higher of which arise, in some sense of the term 
" progression," out of the lower. 

Of these latter Kingdoms it may be said, that they are all 
in accord with each other, as different octaves in music having 
the same key-note. In other words, each Complete Degree, 
Circle, or Kingdom, seems to be, member by member, an ex- 
act counterpart of the others, on a higher or lower scale ; and 
this may be said of many other Complete Degrees. A Com- 
plete Degree, however, may take its rise any where along the 
circle of an antecedent Degree, in the same way as any note 
in an octave may be taken as the initial note of another and 
independent octave. For example, it was shown in pre- 
ceding pages, that the seven-fold series of outer terrestrial 
developments, as mentioned by Moses, commenced upon the 
basis of the third development in the comprehensive geognos- 
tic series, which had been before described; and many 
more examples of a similar kind might be given were it 
necessary. But however the key-notes of different octaves 
(or Complete Degrees) of natural developments may differ, 
the octaves themselves all contain the same number of parts, 
which have similar relations to each other, and occur in the 
same order of succession ; and therefore all are governed by 
the same serial and gradational law. 

The doctrine of Degrees might receive a much more ex- 
tended illustration and application than is exhibited above, 
but as our object should first be to establish general prin- 
ciples, the foregoing must suffice for the present. Owing to 
its novelty and somewhat abstruse nature, this doctrine 
may, to the ordinary reader, be at first somewhat difficult 
of full comprehension; but I can confidently assure him, 
that if, by the little perseverance of mental effort that will 



THE DOCTRINE OF DEGREES. 207 

be required, he succeeds in mastering it, he will find that 
it will greatly simplify and facilitate investigation in every 
other department of thought, whether in physics, psychology, 
theology, or as relating to any of their numerous cognate 
subjects. 



CHAPTEE XXI. 

THE DOCTRINE OF CORRESPONDENCES. 

As a natural sequence of the doctrines of Serial Circles, and 
of Degrees, as presented in the foregoing pages, arises that 
doctrine of CORRESPONDENCES which has been the guide to so 
many important conclusions set forth in this work. All per- 
fect Series, Circles, or complete Degrees involved in the sys- 
tem of creation, must, of course, proceed from the same final 
Cause ; and as they must thus correspond to the common final 
Cause, they must hence, in some way, correspond to each 
other. Moreover, every complete Degree in the character of 
a Circle, necessarily involves the same principles of constitu- 
tion with all other Circles, and therefore must, in the general 
sense, correspond to all others, whether they be on a higher or 
lower scale. And as each circle consists of the same number 
of parts, which occur in the same order of sequence and rela- 
tions, so each part of any circle corresponds, in the general 
sense, to the similarly disposed parts of all other circles. 
Thus it is, that if we acquaint ourselves thoroughly with the 
characteristics and interior principles of any complete circle 
or Degree in nature, we may, in a general way, make it the 
exponent of all other circles or complete Degrees. But in 
order to pursue this correspond ential method of investigation 
to the best advantage, and with the most accurate results in 
the way of eliciting truth, we must, of course, have a due re- 
gard to the relative positions in the whole grand scale or 



CORRESPONDENCES. 209 

Circle of creation, occupied by the two circles which are the 
special terms of comparison, and to the peculiarities of quality 
and development incident to their respective positions. 

The comparison exhibited in foregoing pages, between Pri- 
mary and Secondary Trinities, or Discreet Degrees, as they 
were subsequently called, shows that there exists also a gene- 
ral and particular correspondence between them ; but this cor- 
respondence is not so perfect as that which exists, generally 
and particularly, between the Complete Degrees or Octaves of 
natural unfolding. 

It may, moreover, be said that any two creations, forms, or 
developments, which involve the same principles of constitu- 
tion and operation, correspond to each other, however various 
may be the specific departments of existence in which they 
may be found. An identity of principles, indeed, is the essen- 
tial basis of correspondence between higher and lower, or be- 
tween ulterior and prior developments ; and in the light of this 
fact, all forms and developments in the material and exterior 
world may be seen to correspond even to things of a spiritual 
nature ; and things of a spiritual nature may, on the other 
hand, be seen to correspond to them. Indeed, if the science 
of Correspondences were duly developed, nature would ap- 
pear as if invested with ten thousand tongues, which would 
continually be vocal with instruction. Every kingdom and 
form ; every shrub and tree ; every leaf and flower ; every 
insect, beast, and bird ; nay, every point of compass and angle 
of direction from any given point, and every curve, circle, 
spiral, or other mathematical figure, would speak a distinct 
language, and discourse of a separate truth ; and the whole 
grand system of Nature as One, would continually discourse 
of its Infinite Divine Author, of whose creative Wisdom and 
Love it is but an outer expression and correspondent ! 



210 CORRESPONDENCES. 

The doctrines of Series, Circles, Degrees, and correspond- 
ences, therefore, if properly developed and understood, would 
be the most efficient of all possible aids to the discovery of 
that grand system of general truth whose millions of parts are 
all harmonious, mutually explanatory, and corroborative, of 
each other. Let the leading minds of the age, then, bestow 
due attention upon the development of these principles of in- 
vestigation ; and in proportion as they are comprehended and 
applied in the world, the conflicts of the various parties in 
philosophy, theology, and even politics, will be swallowed up 
in one grand and harmonious system of thought, the creden- 
tials of whose truthfulness will be borne upon its very face, to 
be seen and read of all men. With the aid of such a system, 
properly unfolded, even the child might set out on its course 
of progression, with the unadulterated truth, and even the 
whole truth which, though at first in a diminished form of 
representation, and involved in comprehensive generals, would, 
as the mind expanded, gradually magnify, and regularly and 
harmoniously unfold into particulars, for ever and ever. The 
harmony of thoughts thus brought about in the world, w r ould, 
in proportion to its degree, be necessarily accompanied with a 
more intimate and spiritual conjunction with the Divine 
Source of all harmony, from the perpetual inflowings of whose 
Love and Wisdom, all the movements of human society, in 
common with the movements of those planetary and celestial 
spheres which now, without reservation, own the Divine sway, 
would proceed without a jar, or a single note of discord. This 
would be the long-looked fbr, and long-prayed for, reign of 
God upon earth ! 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE DOCTEINE OF PEOGBESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

ONE important object of this treatise, as doubtless has been 
observed, is to exhibit the connection of nature with her in- 
terior, producing Cause, and pervading Life-force. The reader 
who has attentively followed us in the previous discussions 
having a bearing upon this subject, has observed that our 
philosophy has uniformly tended to the idea of an intelligent, 
voluntative DIVINE AGENCY, as concerned in the origin and 
government of the outer system of things. But as our object 
should be to discover truth for the sake of truth, irrespective 
of its character or consequences, it would be manifestly in- 
consistent to ignore any facts or manifest principles of nature 
which have been thought by any party in philosophy to 
militate against conclusions such as those exhibited in our 
previous reasonings. As the next natural step t beyond the 
foregoing investigations, therefore, we proceed to briefly 
notice the merits of a pending controversy, embracing, sub- 
stantially, the questions, whether the system of nature is the 
result of the operation of an inherent force or law of progressive 
development ? or whether it is the result of a series of special 
and independent exertions of Divine Power, with little or nn 
regard to law ? Though these questions suggest two opposite 
views, neither of which we are able to adopt without some 
important qualifications, it is proper that they should here be 
exhibited, together with the main features of the discussions 



212 PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

f 

they have engendered, in the form in which they have ex- 
tensively occupied the minds of philosophers and theo- 
logians of late years; and it may be, that in the light 
developed by their conflicting affirmative and negative 
arguments, a true modi/led theory will be brought into 
view. 

A few years ago there was published an anonymous work, 
entitled, " VESTIGES OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OP CREATION," 
in which the idea that creation is the natural result of the 
operation of certain fixed laws, is ingeniously maintained. 
Though the author of that work does not reject the idea of a 
remote, he rejects that of an immediate, Divine Agency, as 
concerned in the generation and government of the outer 
forms of nature; and as his positions, viewed in one light, 
present, unintentionally, perhaps, on his part, a condensed 
synopsis of the whole groundwork of the pantheistic and 
materialistic philosophy, it is proper that they should here 
be summarily exhibited. 

Assuming the correctness of the nebular theory of cosmical 
creations (after epitomizing, in a cogent and felicitous manner, 
the prominent points of evidence on which this theory is 
based), the author urges this theory as exhibiting a succession 
of law-governed changes, by which primordial matter was 
resolved into stellar systems, solar systems, and planets, with 
all their present general and particular movements in space. 
The facts in Chemistry and Geology are then considered, as 
showing that the present structure and physical arrangements 
of our globe (together with all similar globes in space) 
originated, probably, from laws governing solid, fluid, and 
vaporiform substances. 

The progressive and law-determined development, also, of 
organic beings, both in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, 



VESTIGES OF CREATION. 213 

with man at their head, is then maintained by arguments, 
of the more important of which, the following is a brief 
synopsis. 

1. "We have seen powerful evidence," says the author, 
" that the construction of this globe and its associates, and 
inferentially that of all the other globes of space, was the 
result, not of any immediate or personal exertion on the part 
of the Deity, but of natural laws, which are the expressions 
of his will. What is to hinder our supposing that the organic 
creation is also the result of natural laws, which are in like 
manner an expression of his will 1 More than this, the fact 
of cosmical arrangements being the effect of natural law, is a 
powerful argument for the organic arrangements being so like- 
wise; for how can we suppose that the august Being who 
brought all these countless worlds into form by the simple 
establishment of a natural principle, flowing from his mind, 
was to interfere personally and specially on every occasion 
when a new shell-fish or reptile was to be introduced into 
existence on one of these worlds'?" The writer further argues 
that, " to a reasonable mind, the Divine attributes must ap- 
pear, not diminished or reduced in any way, but infinitely 
exalted, by supposing a creation by law." 

2. The writer submits that the progressive succession of 
organic beings, as revealed in fossilology, by which the lower 
and moret simple forms, as a general rule, precede the higher 
and more complex, is in perfect harmony with the hypothesis 
of development by law; whereas, on the supposition of 
special Divine exertions, it might be supposed that there 
would have been many specialities of Divine creation, as 
essentially modifying the existing order of things. 

3. Particular facts and analogies, as connected with the or- 
ganic kingdoms, seem to hint that forces are lodged in nature 



214: PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

from which the simpler species in the vegetable and animal 
world may, under certain circumstances, derive their origin. 
Reference is made to the vegetable-like forms of frost on the 
window, and to the shrub-like form of crystallization known 
to chemistry as the Arbor Diance also to the vegetable-like 
forms of some of the ordinary appearances of the electric 
fluid ; and from these phenomena the writer argues the prob- 
ability that electricity is largely concerned in the origination 
and growth, not only of crystals, but of plants, which assume 
forms according to specific generative and other conditions. 
Moreover, the growth of certain plants for which no seeds 
were sown, and in situations where it is next to impossible 
that such seeds could have existed, is thought to add proba- 
bility to the theory of a possible spontaneous germination of 
vegetable forms without the ordinary seminal mode of origi- 
nation pfovided such changes are suddenly made in the in- 
gredients and conditions of a soil as are favorable to the 
development of organic from inorganic forms. The author 
also mentions the singular facts that oats cropped down so as 
to prolong the period of their growth, have been known to 
progress, by regular transmutation, into the form of rye ; and 
that the cabbage is known to be, in its native state, a trailing 
sea-side plant, totally different from the plant in its cultivated 
form. These latter facts, with others, are thought to strongly 
support the theory of a transmutation of species from lower 
to higher forms. 

4. The formation of entozoa, *or animals within animals, 
where their eggs could not possibly have been deposited, is 
thought to argue powerfully for the independent generation of 
the lower animal forms, when certain conditions obtain that are 
favorable. This argument is thought to be strengthened by 
the fact that insects of a low species (the acarus) were repeat- 



RUDIMENTARY ORGANS. 215 

edly produced in abundance, apparently solely by galvanic 
processes instituted by Messrs. Crosse and Weekes ; and in 
one instance, a growth of fungi of a beautiful and previously 
unknown species, was produced by the last named gentleman, 
by the same process.* 

5. Particular features of animal organization, which are ap- 
parently useless and incidental, are also adduced in support 
of the same theory of law-development. Thus female animals 
of many species have certain organs which are necessary to 
their sex ; while the same organs exist rudimentally in the 
males, to whom they are not necessary. " For example," says 
the writer, " the mammae of the human female, by whom 
these organs are obviously required, also exist in the male, 
who has no occasion for them. It might be supposed that in 
this case there was a regard to uniformity for mere appear- 
ance sake ; but that no such principle is concerned, appears 
from a much more remarkable instance connected with the 
marsupial animals. The female of that tribe has a process of 
bone advancing from the pubes, for the support of her pouch ; 
and this also appears in the male marsupial, who has no pouch, 
and requires none." Other animals, and especially among 
those which form links between lower and higher orders in the 
scale of development, have the rudiments of organs, to them 
unnecessary, but which were necessary to animals beneath 
them in the v scale ; but of facts of this kind I need not give 
further details. These abortive and rudimentary organs, ex- 



* These alleged results of the experiments of Messrs. Crosse and Weekes, were at first 
almost universally scouted as absurd and impossible ; but subsequent repeated experi- 
ments, performed during several years, seem to leave no doubt of their reality. I 
perceive by a late communication, published in the newspapers, from Mr. F. F. Ogden, 
United States Consul at Liverpool, that that gentleman has recently visited the labora- 
tory of Mr. Crosse, and became entirely convinced of the truth of the wonderful repre- 
sentations concerning this newly produced insect. 



216 PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

isting where they are not necessary, must, it is thought, be 
regarded as blemishes and blunders, on the supposition that 
the beings who possess them were created independently and 
by special exertion ; but they are considered as precisely what 
might have been expected on the supposition that creation has 
proceeded through her various ramifications and transitional 
stages, according to the energizing and directing influence of a 
uniform law of development. 

In further illustration and support of the theory of progres- 
sive development, the writer quotes the following startling 
passage from Fletcher's Rudiments of Physiology, in which it 
is shown that the general forms, and the order of succession, 
of the developments in the animal kingdom, are represented 
by the general forms, and the order of succession, of the de- 
velopments of the human foetus. "It is a fact" (says Dr. 
Fletcher), " of the highest interest and moment that, as the 
brain of every tribe of animals appears to pass, during its de- 
velopment, in succession through the types of all those below 
it, so the brain of man passes through the types of those of 
every tribe in the creation. It represents, accordingly, before 
the second month of uterogestation, that of an avertebrated 
animal ; at the second month, that of an osseous fish ; at the 
third, that of a turtle ; at the fourth, that of a bird ; at the 
fifth, that of one of the rodentia ; at the sixth, that of one of 
the ruminantia ; at the seventh, that of one of the digitagrada ; 
at the eighth, that of one of the quadrumana ; till, at length, at 
the ninth, it compasses the brain of man. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say," continues the writer, " that all this is only an 
approximation to the truth ; since neither is the brain of all 
osseous fishes, of all turtles, of all birds, nor of all the species 
of any of the above order of mammals, by any means precisely 
the same ; nor does the brain of the human foetus at any time 



THEOKY OF ORGANIC ASCENSION. 217 

precisely resemble, perhaps, that of any individual whatever 
among the lower animals. Nevertheless, it may be said to 
represent, at each of the above-mentioned periods, the aggre- 
gate, as it were, of the brains of each of the tribes stated." 

Although these facts were stated by Dr. Fletcher without 
any view to the support of the development-hypothesis now 
under consideration, it is remarkable that the series of animal 
forms which he here traces as representing the series of suc- 
cessive human fo3tal developments, is the very series which, in 
the same order of succession, made their appearance on the 
globe during the depositions of the fossiliferous rocks from the 
earliest to the latest. 

The foregoing are the principal arguments, fortified by many 
minor facts and considerations, from which the author of the 
" Vestiges" concludes that the whole system of creation, with 
all its diversified forms, inanimate and animate, from its first 
to its last stage of unfolding, was brought forth under the 
operation of one grand law of progressive development, by 
which " the simplest and most primitive type gave birth to the 
type next above it," by which " this, again, produced the next 
higher, and so on to the very highest, the stages of advance 
being in all cases very small namely, from one species only 
to another, so that the phenomenon has always been of a 
simple and modest character." He considers that after the 
production of the first and lowest animal form, the higher 
type was, in all cases, produced from the lower, according to 
the ordinary process of generation, and that its superiority to 
its parent was, in each instance, owing to a prolongation of 
the process of utero-gestation, aided by new and favorable 
circumstances, by which the form next superior to the parent, 
in the pre-ordained animal scale, was attained. A similar 
principle of transmutation was applied also to the Vegetable 

19 



218 PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

Kingdom, by which it was thought that higher forms ascended 
from lower, until the highest were attained. 

A theory so novel and startling as the foregoing, did not, of 
course, escape the most vigorous opposition from adherents 
of prevailing theories in philosophy and theology. This oppo- 
sition was specially inspirited by the alarm which was taken 
by the dominant theology, which considered the theory in 
question as a bold invasion of her assumed prerogative as 
a generally unquestionable guide in matters of religious faith. 
The main features of this opposition (which, we think, was 
partly just and partly unjust) require here to be briefly repre- 
sented, together with the essential points of argument in the 
rejoinder which the opposition called forth from the author 
of the " Vestiges." 

The book in question was charged with a " direct tendency 
to expel the Almighty from the universe which He has made 
to degrade the god-like race to whom He has intrusted the 
development and appreciation of His power, and to render the 
revelation of His will an incredible superstition ;" and, prob- 
ably with quite as strong a desire to neutralize this alleged 
tendency considered in the abstract, as to develop truth 
regardless of its consequences, its essential idea was pro- 
nounced " an opinion which has not a single fact in its favor 
which stands in direct opposition to all the analogies of nature 
which is repugnant to the best feelings of mankind, and 
subversive of all our most cherished convictions a fraud com- 
mitted upon the reason, and an insult cast upon the dignity of 
our species."* 

The zeal of the prominent opposers of this work, and their 

* North British Keview for July, 1845. 



NEBULAE THEORY OPPOSED. 219 

devotion to the one grand object of putting it down, as indi- 
cated in these and similar denunciatory expressions, may, in 
some instances, have caused them to unconsciously magnify 
the seeming evidences against the theory it propounded, and 
as unconsciously to underrate any real evidence which may 
exist in its favor. Candor requires, therefore, that we should 
look at the merits of this, as well as of all controversies of a 
similar nature, aside from all mere denunciation such as novel 
theories, true or false, are ever apt to provoke and in the 
light of the plain facts and arguments which bear upon the 
case, by whichsoever party these may be urged. 

The nebular hypothesis of cosmical creations urged by the 
author of the " Vestiges," as the initial portion of the univer- 
sal system of creation supposed by him to be unfolded by 
law, was objected to mainly on the ground that the Earl of 
Rosse's telescope had succeeded in resolving into stars certain 
nebula which were before considered irresolvable, and in con- 
siderably changing the apparent form and outlines of others, 
which had previously appeared such as to countenance the idea 
of agglomerating and rotating masses. In view of such 
" unequivocal facts," one principal reviewer regards it as a 
" most unwarrantable assumption to suppose that there are in 
the heavenly spaces any masses of matter different from solid 
bodies composing planetary systems." To this our author 
replies that the resolution of a great quantity of previously 
unresolved nebulae, by Lord Rosse's telescope, " was, of course, 
to be expected, and it is a fact, though in itself interesting, of 
no consequence to the nebular hypothesis." There are still 
many nebula which even the stupendous powers of Lord 
Rosse's instrument do not sensibly affect, and which probably 
no increase of optical power ever to be attained by human 
science or art, would be adequate to resolve. But the present 



220 PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

position of the nebular theory in respect to its philosophical 
credibility, is more fully represented in a previous portion of 
this work. 

The theory of progressive succession in the organic king- 
doms, as advocated by the " Vestiges," is disputed mainly on 
the following grounds : First, that fishes of a high organization 
occur (as it is said) in the oldest of the fossiliferous rocks ; 
secondly, that in several instances the passage from a lower to 
a higher system of rocks, is accompanied by an abrupt and 
entire transition in the organic kingdoms, exhibiting none of 
the links of progressive gradation which the theory of the 
" Vestiges" supposes to exist ; and thirdly, that in some in- 
stances several widely different and previously unknown 
species seem to have been introduced at about the same epoch, 
with apparently no links of connection between them. 

To the allegation that fishes of a high organization occur in 
the oldest of the fossiliferous rocks, the author of the " Ves- 
tiges," in his sequel to that work, replies by quotations from 
geologists, showing a discrepancy in their statements upon this 
point, which, however, he shows may be explained by the fact, 
that since the statements of some of them were put forth, " the 
lower fossiliferous rocks have been divided into several dis- 
tinct formations, in the lowest of which it is fully admitted 
there are no vertebrata. He, moreover, argues that the 
cephalopoda and gasteropoda, mollusks of a high organization, 
whose remains are found in the oldest series of fossiliferous 
rocks, might, as transmuted species, have come in soon after 
the commencement of the formation of those rocks, as owing 
to a " rapidity of generation " and " rush of life," which is 
sometimes characteristic of certain of the lower orders of 
animals. 

In answer to the argument which negatives the idea of 



OBSERVATIONS GENERALIZED. 221 

4 

connecting links between lower and higher species, and be- 
tween widely dissimilar species existing in the same system 
of deposits, he generalizes the field of geological observation, 
and finds particular systems, both of rocks and their con- 
tained fossils, more fully and particularly represented in some 
localities than others. By the facts which he develops in this 
branch of the discussion, he succeeds in materially weakening, 
though perhaps not entirely disproving, the assumptions of his 
opponents, that the character of organic life has been subject 
to frequent abrupt and entire changes. He considers it prob- 
able, moreover, that " development has not proceeded, as 
usually assumed, upon a single line, which would require all 
the animals to be placed one after another, but in a plurality 
of lines, in which the orders, and even minuter subdivisions 
of each class are ranged side by side ;" and he argues that 
" the development of these various lines has proceeded inde- 
pendently in various regions of the earth, so as to lead to 
forms not everywhere so like as to fall within our ideas 
of specific character, but generally, or in some more vague 
degree, alike." 

Upon the whole,. the author reasserts his main position with 
so much force and ingenuity, and brings to it such an accession 
of evidence from the testimonies of geologists and naturalists, 
as apparently to render the general onslaught of his opponents, 
for the most part, a failure; and perhaps it would not be 
unfair to consider their subsequent silence as, in some degree, 
a tacit admission of this fact. 

Though the author of the " Vestiges" acknowledges that 
God is, in some sense, ever present with his creation, and 
supports and rules it by his Providence, he admits this merely 
as the intimation of an internal sense or feeling, for which he 
does not pretend to have any philosophy. But in the absence 



222 PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT. 

of such a philosophy, those who have not this internal feeling 
of the presence and overruling Providence of God (as many 
have not), very naturally employ the whole force of facts and 
arguments, such as^have a very thorough development in the 
book referred to, in support of the idea that nature develops 
all her forms and phenomena, by an inherent force of her own, 
independent of any superior influence, as received from a 
Source without herself. Such theories can, of course, be suc- 
cessfully met only by the weapons of a cogent and well- 
grounded philosophy, as relating to the matters in dispute ; 
but as such a philosophy does not yet prevail, to any extent, 
in the world, it hence follows, as a fact much to be lamented, 
that faith in God and his overruling and universal Providences, 
is, to a large extent, at the mercy of pantheistic and material- 
istic philosophies. Such philosophies are hence continually 
growing more rife and rampant ; and when those who know 
for themselves, from intuition, that there is a God ever present 
with, and ever ruling, the affairs of creation, find themselves in- 
competent to meet the arguments for the opposing views, they 
are apt to grow impatient, and to descend to mere ridicule 
and denunciation, and sometimes even to misrepresentation 
a mode of treatment which seldom fails to excite the con- 
tempt of those toward whom it is aimed, and even to confirm 
them in their anti-religious theories. 

Common sense should teach every one that it is worse than 
useless nay, perverse and wicked to close his eyes to plain 
facts in nature, whatever may be their apparent theological or 
philosophical bearings ; and whoever would do such an act, is 
plainly not so much devoted to the furtherance of truth as he 
is to the maintenance of his own opinions. Looking fully in 
the face, therefore, as in duty bound to do, all the clearly 
established facts exhibited by. the "Vestiges of Creation," as 



DISCREPANCIES TO BE HARMONIZED. 223 

well as every other species of fact, let us see whether the 
general philosophy of this work will afford any light by which 
outer appearances, reflecting a natural law or force of develop- 
ment, and the interior sense of the human soul, respecting the 
constant presence of God, and the exertion of his upholding 
and directing power, may be rationally harmonized. By way 
of attempting the solution of all apparent discrepancies, as 
involved in these subjects, we will, in the following pages, 
endeavor to unfold the true theory of law agency and Divine 
agency, as it appears to us. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

FUKTHEK VIEW OP THE SYSTEM OF LIVING FOEMS, AS SUG- 
GESTING ITS MODE OF DEVELOPMENT 

'HAD the author of the "Vestiges of Creation" and his 
opponents both understood the doctrine of Series, Degrees, 
and Correspondences, as unfolded in the preceding pages of 
this work, and had they duly observed the indications of these 
doctrines in regard to the origin, constitution, and laws of 
nature, the relations of visible effects to invisible and spiritual 
causes, and the relations of the universe and all its sub-serial 
and corresponding parts, to the Infinite Divine Spirit, as the 
Projector, Originator, and Vitalizer of all, they might, by a 
mutual, and in that case obviously required, modification of 
their views, have come to a perfect agreement on all essential 
points, without compromising any true principle of theological 
faith, or disregarding any real fact in science or true principle 
in philosophy. The view which, as it appears to me, recon- 
ciles all real scientific facts, ancl all true philosophical and 
theological principles, I will now proceed to briefly unfold. 

I will premise by saying that the idea of progression, as a 
general fact connected with the origin and movements of 
creation, as a whole, and with the origin and movements of 
each of its sub-serial and correspondent parts, seems to be 
necessarily involved in the idea of successive movements or 
unfoldings, from beginnings toward predetermined ends. 
Every successive movement or effort is a closer approximation 



PROGRESSION AND RETROGRESSION. 225 

to the proposed end of the whole series of movements, and is 
therefore a decided progress from a previous and more rudi- 
mental state or position. Accordingly all philosophy and all 
revelation concur in the acknowledgment that creation, from 
its incipient to its present stage of development, has passed 
through a regular series of progressive unfoldings ; and this 
fact is recognized as applying equally to the cosmical universe, 
to the geological formations, and to the various systems of 
organic forms, beginning with the lowest and ending with the 
highest, whose remains have been successively entombed in 
the rocks. 

It is true there are occasional and apparent exceptions to 
this rule occasional instances of particular retrogression on 
the one hand, and irregular and abnormal advances on the 
other ; but these are owing to local circumstances and isolated 
influences, and when properly understood, they prove, rather 
than disprove, the general rule. The idea may be illustrated 
by the following simile : Let a number of vessels, of different 
classes, be supposed to sail from the same port, at the same 
time, and bound to the same place of destination. Wafted by 
the same breezes, and floated by the same tides, they, for a 
time, make nearly equal progress, sail in nearly parallel paths, 
and generally keep each others company. But owing to 
slight diversities in their sailing qualities, and incidental dif- 
ferences in their modes of manoeuvring, their courses grad- 
ually diverge from each other, and they get into different 
currents of ocean and of atmosphere, some of which are pro- 
pitious and some the reverse. They are then farther dispersed 
by hurricanes; some of them, by violent gales occurring 
only in their own localities, may be driven hundreds of miles 
out of their course, or in a retrograde direction ; a few of 
them may be driven upon rocks or quicksands, and lost out 



226 SYSTEM OF LIVING FOKMS. 

right ; while others may be driven forward with equal vio- 
lence, and reach their destined haven in an apparently irreg- 
ularly short period of time. Of course no one would con- 
sider the diversities in the fates and successes of these different 
vessels, or the fact that some were for a time driven back- 
ward, that some were lost outright, and that others were 
driven forward with a velocity which seemed to set all idea 
of a regularly graduated motion at defiance, as any proof 
against a general law of progression, as applied to the sailing 
of ships from port to port, but the proof would, upon the 
whole, be the reverse. 

Allow these ships, then, to represent an equal number of 
Divine archetypes, or pre-existing ideal * forms of creation, so 
to speak, which set out, at one and the same time, upon 
the voyage of progressive development, all being bound to 
one haven, viz.. the realization of the clothing of an exterior 
form ; the diversities in their movements, presented in the 
retardations and temporary retrogressions of some, and the 
fi-tful and apparently preternatural accelerations of others, as 
owing to the various currents and counter-currents of outer 
influences, no more disprove the law of general progression, 
with reference to them, than similar diversities of movement 
prove the same thing with reference to the ships. When we, 
therefore, find a few local examples of vertebral fishes among 
some of the strata of the first series of fossiliferous rocks, or 
when we find, in one or two instances, the remains t)f a 
diminutive air-breathing reptile, in an upper member of the 
Old Red Sandstone series, where, as it is stated, such have 
recently been found;* or when, in human history, we find 
examples of whole nations and races remaining apparently 
stationary for thousands of years, while others have, at early 
* See Edinburgh Philosophical Journal for April, 1852, pp. 853-4. 



EMBRYONIC FOKMS. 227 

periods, come to a high state of advancement in art, govern- 
ment, and social refinement, which were again succeeded by 
universal ignorance and barbarism we are not to consider 
these examples as contradicting the doctrine of progression, 
as a general principle, but as only the particular and local ex- 
ceptions to the direct development of that piinciple in outer 
forms. 

Keeping in view, then, the doctrine of general Progression 
as an undeniable principle applicable to the universal series 
of creation as a whole, and to all its included and correspond- 
ing sub- series, we are prepared for further inquiries respecting 
the order and method of progression, and the mutual relations 
of the different parts or degrees of each series of creation to 
which this principle applies. In making these inquiries, our 
attention will be confined for the present to the Animal King- 
dom, which will serve as a representative of all other serial 
creations. 

The fact alluded to by the author of the " Vestiges of Crea- 
tion," that in the reproduction of the higher animals and of 
man, the embryo passes through successive stages of develop- 
ment, in which the types of all the lower animals, beginning 
with the fish (or, as some say, with the annalid or worm), are 
represented in succession, until its own proper type is attained, 
is certainly of great significance, as it bears upon the subject 
under consideration. But Professor Agassiz has made some 
further discoveries in the department of embryology, which 
would perhaps go to emphasize the conclusions to which this 
fact would seem naturally to point. I would refer now par- 
ticularly to the discovery that the embryos of animals of cer- 
tain existing families bear, at a certain stage of their foetal 
progress, a distinct resemblance to the perfected individuals 
of now extinct species of the same families, which existed in 



228 SYSTEM OF LIVING FORMS. 

early geological periods. From his remark's on this subject, 
I submit the following quotations : 

" Embryology," says he, " by the metamorphoses which 
take place in animals, assigns now a value to external forms, 
and not only assigns them a value, but a chronological value, 
by which it is possible to consider as lower those animals 
which agree with the earlier forms of the germs." . . ... . 

" The class of fishes which I have studied more particularly, 
has shown me that the first types appeared under forms, and 
with an organization, peculiar to embryos of that very class in 
the present epoch, proving thereby, with perfect evidence, the 
inferiority of the first created types, as well in their peculiar 
class as in their department. But though of a lower order, 
these types of ancient ages bore in themselves, from the be- 
ginning, the impression of the plan that was to be successively 
developed in the different epochs which have preceded the 
order of things existing at present, and by whose 'realization 
have been brought about those numerous families of Fishes, 
Eeptiles, Birds, and Mammalia, which now live upon the sur- 
face of the earth." Again : " All the information about the 
fossils all the information of former ages, will have to be 
compared with those embryonic forms, in order to understand 
more fully the analogy which exists between these earlier 
types, and the successive changes which those of our day un- 
dergo to assume their final form. If I am not mistaken, we 
shall obtain from sketches of those embryonic forms, more 
correct figures of fossil animals than have been acquired by 
actual restoration."* 

These extracts from one who is an advocate of the idea of 
creations de novo at different geological epochs, certainly argue 

* Agassi's " Lectures on Comparative Embryology," delivered before the Lowell In- 
stitute. Boston. Lee. xii. 



FACTS IN EMBEYOLOGY. 229 

much for a connection of some kind between the lower and 
higher, or extinct and living, species of animals of the same 
families, and pretty clearly show that the higher and existing 
species are, in many instances, the result of an extension of the 
identical gestative process which, in its lower stages, was exem- 
plified in the ancient species. Such being the existing evidence 
of a connection between ancient and modern species of the 
same families and genera, and that the modern species exist, 
at least as a progressed sequence of the principles involved in 
the ancient, we will now quote from the same author some 
further illustrations of the analogies and connections existing 
between the different and successively created divisions of the 
Animal Kingdom as a whole, with man at its head : 

* The unity of structure in vertebrated animals," says he, 
" has been understood, and well understood, long before Em- 
bryology had added any thing to show how deep this unity of 
plan was impressed on that type. By the investigations of 
Comparative Anatomy, it had been ascertained that the external 
differences which characterize the class of Fishes, that of Rep- 
tiles, that of Birds, and that of Mammalia, were only modifi 
cations of one and the same structure that the head of Fishes, 
for example, though apparently so different from that of Man, 
was made up of the same bones, arranged in the same man- 
ner, only sub-divided into more distinct points of ossifica- 
tion, with modified proportions, most of them remaining 
movable for life, but, after all, arranged upon the same uniform 
plan." 

In a previous paragraph, the same author says : " It was in 
Physiology, a great discovery, when it was ascertained that 
all Vertebrata, that Fishes, as well as Reptiles, as well * as 
Birds, as well as Mammalia, arose from eggs, which have one 
and the same uniform structure in the beginning, and proceed 

20 



230 SYSTEM OF LIVING FORMS. 

to produce animals as widely different as they are in the full- 
grown state, simply by successive, gradual metamorphoses ; 
and these metamorphoses upon one and the same plan, accord- 
ing to one and the same general progress." Again : " It may 
therefore be said, with perfect propriety, that the higher Ver- 
tebrates undergo changes, through which, in different periods 
of their life, they resemble the lower ones ; that there is a 
period when the young bird has not only the form, but the 
structure, and even the fins, which characterize the Fish. And 
of the young Mammals the same may be said. There is a 
period in the structure of the young Rabbit (in which the in- 
vestigations have been traced more extensively than in other 
species), when the young Rabbit resembles so closely the 
Fish, that it even has gills, living in a sac full of water, breath- 
ing as Fishes da So that the resemblance is as complete as 
it can be, though each of these types grows to a complication 
of structure, by which the young Mammal, for instance, leav- 
ing behind this low organization of the lower types, rises to a 
complication of structure, to higher and higher degrees, and to 
that eminence even which characterizes mankind."* 

These facts certainly show a unity of plan and a progressive 
succession, of, in some sense, mutually dependent forms, in the 
system of animated nature, which countenances the idea that 
the whole creation of lower animals is, as it were, the foetus 
of the whole human creation, and that the latter was thus de- 
veloped by a process somewhat resembling that which the 
author of the " Vestiges of Creation" supposed to have taken 
place, and which he calls " the universal gestation of Nature ;" 
yet we shall soon see that, so far from this theory dispensing 
with the agency of a God, this universal gestative process 
could not have proceeded even through its first stages, without 
* Lectures on Comparative Embryology, Lee. xiL 



THE GREAT TREE. 231 

the constant influx of a vitalizing and energizing Influence 
from above all nature, and hence from a source absolutely 
Divine. 

It may here be remarked that these facts, developed by the 
researches of palaeontologists, embryologists, and physiolo- 
gists, concerning the relations and order of succession of the 
different divisions of the animated tribes, are in perfect agree- 
ment with the general mode of philosophizing presented in this 
work, by which all general facts in each system of creation, 
and all systems of creation as grand facts, are arranged in a 
harmonious serial order of progression, in such a way as to 
show a thread of unity and correspondence running through all 
systems, and through the grand system of systems, from the 
very origin to the very ultimates of all things. 

This scheme of creation brings the Animal Kingdom, as well 
as the Vegetable, and all other complete systems of creation, 
together with the grand System of all systems, under the 
analogy of a TREE, with its seven serial and progressive parts, 
consisting of Roots, Trunk, Branches ; Leaves, Flower-buds, 
Blossoms, and FRUIT. It is thus strongly hinted that the 
whole universal System of creation, with all its corresponding" 
sub-systems, including the Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, 
while under the constant vitalizing and voluntative influx of 
Divine Love and Wisdom, which are spiritual Heat and Light, 
grew up, as it were, from Germ to ultimates, in the same pro- 
gressive and sequential order in which the tree grows from 
root to fruit, under the constant influx of solar heat and light, 
which are the natural correspondents of Divine Love and Wis- 
dom. 

But if this view is admitted, it will not of itself necessarily 
decide the question as to whether each higher creation was in 
all cases developed from the parentage of the one immedi- 



232 SYSTEM OF LIVING FOBMS. 

ately below it in the series to which it belongs. There is, ap- 
parently, one exception to this order of parental extraction in 
the developed parts of the superiorly organized tree : The 
flower-buds, though they are the next superior development 
to the leaves, are not an outgrowth from the leaves, but, in 
common with these, they are the next superior outgrowth from 
the branches ; and 'the leaves, after performing their specific 
functions, die and drop off, without giving rise to any succeed- 
ing and superior form of developments. The flower-buds are 
undoubtedly an ascension of the same essences and principles 
which, stopping one step short of them, produce the leaves, 
and which, in each case, ascend from all the preceding devel- 
opments of the tree as represented in roots, trunk, and 
branches. 

It should be remarked, however, that in a less perfect class 
of vegetable forms the cryptogamia the organs of fructifi- 
cation, involving, of course, the principles of the bud, are de- 
veloped upon the leaves, which, in this instance, shows the 
relations of parent and offspring between the two develop- 
ments, and preserves the succession between them un- 
broken. 

Concerning the genesis of the Animal Kingdom, then, as 
well as that of all other Series and Degrees of creation, it 
may, so far as the known analogies of nature are concerned, 
and without in either case affecting our views of the Divine 
agency, be consistently believed, either that the higher tribes 
in the Animal Kingdom (as well as in the Vegetable and 
other Degrees of Creation), at certain periods, and under cer- 
tain revolutionary conditions or Divine impulsions hereafter 
to be explained proceeded by orderly descent, from the tribes 
next below them, as their natural parents or that they pro- 
ceeded, at the same periods and under the same conditions, 



GENESIS OF ANIMAL KINGDOM. 233 

from the aggregate of all preceding developments of nature, as 
constituting their general material germ, while they had no 
special lineal connection with the forms next below them in 
the series. Either of these suppositions would sufficiently 
comport with the unity of the general plan which we have 
before observed to pervade the works of creation. The 
probability is, however, that both of these modes of pro- 
duction were, to some extent, observed in the origination of 
the ensemble of the Animal and other Kingdoms; but in 
neither case is it probable that any form or creation was un- 
folded, except upon the basis of a suitable preceding develop- 
ment, which, in some sense, served as its material germ, or 
predisposing condition of development. 

Unless we adopt some such theory as here propounded, 
many natural facts facts which the cause of true theology 
and religion can never be subserved by denying will remain 
entirely inexplicable. 



CHAPTER XXIY. 

LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

IN the light of the foregoing remarks respecting the order, 
successive developments, and relations of the organic tribes, 
let us now press to a final and more specific decision, the 
question, whether the system of Creation, as it now stands, 
came to exist, in any sense, through the operations of Law 1 
and if so, in what sense, and with what accompanying con- 
clusions relative to the doctrine of Providences, or of Divine 
interpositions ? 

But that we may pursue this inquiry intelligibly, we must 
obviously first define precisely what we mean by the term 
" Law." Law, as it is jinderstood by the best authorities, 
means simply a rule of action, or a definite mode or method 
in which force and motion proceed toward the accomplish- 
ment of an end. It is not, therefore, of itself, either force or 
motion, but only the rule of action which these, in their 
operations, are made to observe. 

Now it may be safely asserted that there is no force or 
motion, either in the universe of matter or the universe of 
mind, which, in its operations, does not observe some rule, 
some method, and hence some law. If, indeed, there could be 
any action or motion without method or law, that action or 
motion would necessarily be chaotic, and would tend directly 
to the total subversion of all law and order, and thus to reduce 
all things to chaos. It is impossible for a man to conceive a 



UNIVERSALITY OF LAW. 235 

thought, except in accordance with some law of thought. 
Nay, it is self-evidently impossible even for the Infinite Mind 
to conceive a thought, or put forth an action, except in con- 
nection with some definite mode or form, and hence law, of 
procedure which that thought or action spontaneously assumes. 
In the Infinite Mind, therefore, Law, in its spiritual sense, is 
self-existent and eternal. Thence it proceeds, by volition, in 
outer creations, and assumes the forms of what are termed the 
"laws of nature." These, as modes, or rules of material 
motion, commence at the lowest and most chaotic germs of 
the physical universe, and (being constantly supplied by 
voluntative and higher inflowings from their Infinite Spiritual 
Source) proceed in regular order of ascending development, 
through all subsequent motions and creations, until, in the 
heights of the celestial universe, creation again merges itself 
in that Infinite Divine Essence from which it originally 
sprang. And as all motions are in accordance with some de- 
finite rule, method, or law, hence all forms, creations, and con- 
ditions, from lowest material to the highest spiritual and 
celestial, which, in regular serial orders, are developed by 
means of those motions, are necessarily law-developed and 
law-governed. If this were not so, then creation, indeed, 
would not exhibit any system or method in its arrangements, 
such as is now apparent throughout its whole domains, but 
the various forms of which it is composed, would necessarily 
be totally disconnected and confused. 

It is worthy of remark, that the idea of law as governing 
the processes of creation obtains predominance in proportion 
to the development of the human mind. Thus the child con- 
ceives that the grass is made to grow by an abstract interpo- 
sition of the power of God, with which he is unable to connect 
any idea of law. But as his mind unfolds, and the field of 



236 LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

his observation extends, he discovers that grass grows, in all 
cases, under certain given conditions, and hence grows accord- 
ing to a fixed rule. He still, perhaps, believes that God, by a 
direct and isolated fiat of His will, causes the rain to fall, the 
thunder to peal, and the lightning to flash ; but a further de- 
velopment of his mind corrects this impression, and shows 
him that the rains, the thunders, and the lightnings, are de- 
pendent upon a more general administration of the Divine 
Power through atmospheric and electric media and conditions. 
He still, perhaps, imagines that the sun, moon, and planets 
are made to pursue their courses in the heavens by the direct 
volitionary effort of God concentrated specifically and ab- 
stractly upon them ; but when his mind is introduced to the 
series of demonstrations presented in the science of Astrono- 
my, he perceives that all these phenomena are in accordance 
with a general method in which all aggregations of matter in 
free space act. He still probably believes (according to a 
common, and, as we have before shown, an erroneous inter- 
pretation of Sacred Scripture) that the earth on which he 
dwells was directly spoken into existence by God, in the space 
of six .literal days, about six thousand years ago ; but w T hen 
he attains a more enlarged understanding of the mechanical 
and chemical forces which God has incorporated in the system 
of nature, and reads the physical history of our planet as 
written upon the .rocks, he perceives that our globe has been 
brought from a primeval chaotic, to its present perfected state, 
by means of fixed methods of operation of matter, expressed 
by the terms, " condensation," " abrasion," " deposition," " se- 
gregation," etc. And if the hypothesis (seemingly supported 
by all analogy) that vegetable, animal, and even human or- 
ganisms, came to exist through the instrumentality of equally 
fixed and unvarying laws, is now met by storms of opposi- 



LAW AND FOKCE. 237 

tion and ridicule, it should be remembered that precisely 
similar opposition, based upon precisely the same grounds, 
attended a similar announcement when first made, with refer- 
ence to the origin and modus operandi of many forms and de- 
partments of nature concerning which the announcement is 
now fully admitted to have been true; and the final triumphs 
of Astronomy and Geology over the dragon of unscriptural, 
as well as unphilosophical, opposition, which stood before their 
parents to devour them as soon as they were born, should 
stand as a warning against a too hasty decision unfavorable to 
law-developments, as applied to all other departments, organic 
and even spiritual, as well as inorganic and material. 

Yet, when it is asserted that all things, as to their creation 
and functional operations, are within the governing influences 
of law, the sense in which we have defined the term " law," 
should be distinctly borne in mind ; and for the sake of more 
explicitness on this point, as well as to show that our position 
involves no objectionable theological corrolaries, we will here 
submit a few more considerations respecting it. 

I have said that Law is not of itself/orce or motion hence, 
that it can create nothing or do nothing of itself; but that it 
is simply the mode or rule by which force and motion act. 
Hence, when we speak of the " law of Expansion," for instance, 
we refer only to a mode of operation among particles or 
substances, which is expressed by the term " Expansion ;" 
when we speak of the " law of Gravitation," we only refer to 
that particular mode of action among materials which the term 
" gravitation" defines. And we have a similar meaning when 
we speak of any other law. But the Force by which the ac- 
tion-, proceeding according to these various laws, is generated, 
remains yet to be accounted for ; and this we will now attempt 
to do, at the same time that we attempt to illustrate how 



238 LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

modes or laws of action came to be such as we see them. The 
remarks now to be offered will, at the same time, illustrate 
the direct agency which God has in the process of creation, and 
furnish the foundation of a true understanding of the doctrine 
of Providence. 

One feature of the present subject has already been pre- 
sented, under an illustration which may again be called up, and 
carried out into further particulars. A builder, before pro- 
ceeding to the outer construction of an edifice, first conceives 
the general plan, and ideally perceives the general appearance 
of that edifice in his own mind. This conception is the arche- 
type or pattern according to which the edifice, as an outer ob- 
ject, is to be erected ; and its erection is a mere clothing of the 
archetype or pattern, with outer material investiture. But this 
clothing of the archetype can not be accomplished except by 
the voluntative and energizing influence of the soul, spirit, or 
mind of the builder acting among the materials to be wrought 
into the physical structure, which action may be either through 
the medium of the builder's own muscles, through the minds 
and muscles of others, to whom his commands may be given, 
or through a suitable machine which he has previously de- 
signed and prepared. And when the building is thus erected, 
it stands as an exact correspondent and embodiment of that 
particular form and degree of intelligence and volition, which 
were requisite to the conception of its plan, and the con- 
joining of its materials. After the building is finished, 
however, the builder withdraws all further action and influ- 
ence from it, and it is left as a mass of perfectly dead and 
motionless materials ; but could he permanently infix in 
it such portions or degrees of his own energizing spiritual 
essence as would be requisite to keep it in repair, and to con- 
stantly refine and improve it, and to develop its ultimate 



CLOTHING OF ARCHETYPES. 239 



purposes, the building would in that case be a living crea- 
tion. 

Now it was logically proved, in another part of this work, 
that the Universe, or the whole great Kingdom of materiality 
which it comprises, is not self-existent and eternal, but that it 
as necessarily had a beginning as any human or other physical 
organism had that it is therefore necessarily dependent upon 
an antecedent and correspondent existence as its Cause, which 
must have been, not inferior, but superior, to itself, even as 
the natural sun is superior to the plant which its beams cause 
to grow. Being thus superior to, and the cause of, the whole 
of material existence, we were forced to conceive of it as a 
tf/^ir-material, swper-universal, and hence spiritual Existence, 
of which intelligence, personality, and hence Divinity, are 
predicable. 

This spiritual, intelligent, personal Divinity, whom we call 
God, then, being antecedent to, and the Cause of, the univer- 
sal system of creation, and sustaining toward it the same re- 
lation which an earthly builder sustains toward a house pro- 
posed to be erected, must, in like manner, with the latter, 
have conceived in his own mind the archetypes or patterns 
of the universal structure, with all its included kingdoms, 
systems, series, degrees, species, .and essential forms, from 
lowest to highest, before proceeding to clothe these with outer 
investiture. And as in the mind of the human builder, the 
archetypes of the proposed house are, as it were, the spiritual 
nuclei around which, by his own volitionary effort, the ma- 
terials are made to cluster, and thus finally establish the 
structure as an outer creation, so in the mind of the Deity, 
the archetypes of the Universal Structure, of Solar Systems, 
of Geological Developments, of Mineral Kingdoms, Vegetable 
Kingdoms, Animal Kingdoms, and the universal Human 



240 LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

creation,with all the specific and essential forms which these 
respectively include, were the spiritual nuclei, and pre- 
existent, interior realities, around which, by the force of con- 
stant Divine volition, the requisite particles and essences are 
made to cluster, by way of establishing them in outer and 
tangible forms. 

Now, both with the human builder and his house, and the 
Divine Builder a^d the system of the universe, the arche- 
types conceived in the mind, constituted the laws or rules by 
which outer materials acted in their aggregations into outer 
forms ; while, in both cases, the force by which those ma- 
terials were impelled to act at all, originated in the volition 
of the Builder. Here is the difference between Law and 
Force. Law of itself could not create any thing, though all 
things were created according to Law. Force of itself could 
not create any thing, though all things are created by the 
application of Force. It is by means of Force, as an im- 
pulsive principle, and Law, as a director of its impulsions, that 
all things have sprung into being. 

The idea may perhaps be rendered still more clear to some 
minds, by considering the whole united system of archetypes 
as one grand Mould, fashioned in the wisdom of the Builder, 
into which, by the direct voluntative effort of the Builder, 
materials are poured, by way of forming the outer structure. 
But without the extra proceedings of pouring the materials 
into it, the mould might exist for ever without giving rise to 
the casting, while, on the other hand, all the efforts imagin- 
able could not give rise to the casting, did not the mould 
exist to receive it. 

We have seen that if the human builder, in clothing his 
mental archetypes of a proposed structure, could permanently 
infix in that structure that portion or degree of the energizing 



HUMAN AND DIVINE BUILDEE. 

influence of his own spirit, which would be requisite, by a 
spontaneous internal action, to keep the structure in repair, 
and at the same time to refine and perfect it, the structure 
would be, in some sense, a living creation. But although this 
is not the case with the human builder and his work, it is 
precisely the case with the Divine Builder and the universal 
Edifice which he has established. Not only doe's the system 
of creation as a Whole, but each of its included and corre- 
sponding sub-systems, contain a power of internal motion and 
sustentation, infused by the Creator at its origin, and which is 
now perpetually sustained by influx from Him, and is ever 
acting in parallelism with the original archetype, which consti- 
tutes its law. It was in view of this fact that it was argued, 
in another part of this work, in opposition to the received 
philosophy, that if the cosmical system could, by any foreign 
agency, become deranged or thrown out of equilibrium in any 
way. instead of the derangement progressing, and ultimating 
in a total wreck of the system, the internal forces of recuper- 
ation would be such as to soon restore the wonted equilibrium, 
and all things would go on as before. But on the other hand, 
were the Creator to withold the influx of, and withdraw, his 
vital energy from the universe, as soon as the momenta of ex- 
isting forces and motions became exhausted, all things would 
necessarily come to an eternal stagnation and death ! 

I have said that the archetypes or pre-existent ideal patterns 
of each creation, are the spiritual nuclei of the outer forms of 
which that creation consists, and hence that they constitute 
the laws by which Force acts in the aggregation of substances 
for the development of their outer forms. Now, as it was 
before shown that each creation, both as to its exterior and 
its interior and vitalizing constitution, is seven-fold, so each 
creation, with its spiritual nuclei, life, and laws, is, in some 

21 



242 LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCT. 

sense, a correspondent and representative of the seven-fold 
constitution of the Deity, or the "seven spirits 'of God" 
spoken of in Revelation. Each seven-fold creation, therefore, 
is the same with all others as to correspondence, but is differ- 
ent from all others as to degree ; and each one contains within 
itself, as its vitalizing and energizing soul, a, corresponding de- 
gree of the seven-fold harmonies of Divine Love and Wisdom. 

Let this latter point be distinctly understood ; God exists 
in the universal cosmical system as its soul, but does not ex- 
ist there as God, but only in the quality and capacity of those 
vitalizing and operative forces and principles of form, which 
were necessary to the creation, and are now necessary to the 
subsistence, internal motions, and constant improvement of 
the general creation, as such; in Solar Systems, God exists in 
the degree of those vital and motive forces which are necessary 
to them, as such; in planets God exis-ts, also, in his seven- 
fold harmonies, but only in a degree necessary to constitute 
the vitality, and to originate the internal motions and other 
functional operations, of planets, as such ; in the Mineral King- 
dom God exists as mineral and chemical Life ; in the Veget- 
able Kingdom, as the principle of vegetable Life; in the 
Animal Kingdom, as the principle of animal, instinctive, and 
semi-intellectual Life, but not yet as God ; in the Human 
World he exists as the principle of human Life ; but only in 
a perfectly integral, pure, innocent, and harmoniously consti- 
tuted Man, does He exist in his focalized and quantitatively 
diminished, but qualitatively 'perfected Selfhood, as God. 
But in a discreet degree above the whole universe of outer 
creations, He exists in his August, Infinite, and Ineffable Self- 
hood, as the Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last, the 
Beginning and End of all things \ 

Though these investigations have been pursued, and these 



DIVINE DWELLING-PLACES. 243 

conclusions have been drawn, independently of the revelations 
of the Scriptures, I can not abstain from marking their perfect 
parallelism with the language of Paul in the following pas- 
sages : " One God, who is ABOVE all, and THROUGH all, and 
IN YOU all." Eph. iv. 6. " And he is BEFORE all things, and 
by him all things CONSIST." Col. i. 17. "For OF him, and 
THROUGH him, and TO him are ALL THINGS ; to whom be glory 
for ever." Rom. xi. 36. Representing the Divine vitalizing 
principle flowing into, and pervading man, as taking the char- 
acter of man, the same as when flowing into, and vitalizing 
animals, vegetables, minerals, worlds, it always takes the 
specific character of its receptacle David, addressing the 
Deity, says, " With the merciful thou wilt show thyself mer- 
ciful, and with the upright man thou wilt show thyself up- 
right : with the pure thou wilt show thyself m pure, and with 
the fro ward thou wilt show thyself fro ward." Ps. xviii. 
25, 26. This can not mean that God, in his true personal 
character, is any other than merciful, upright, and pure, but 
that his vitalizing and energizing inflowings into man (without 
which man would be dead, body and soul) can excite the 
qualities of mercy, uprightness, purity, etc., only as these 
comport with the character of the receptacle. It is said, more- 
over, that God dwells " with him who is of an humble and 
contrite spirit ;" that is, dwells, not as a mere generator of 
material force and action, as he dwells in the lower creations, 
but dwells as God in his interior soul, as in a temple; while 
the " fullness of the Godhead" dwelt " bodily" only in that 
ever-to-be-admired personage, who was absolutely without sin, 
who expressly declared that he was in unity with the Father 
that he was in the Father, and the Father in him, and in 
whose celestial purity, disinterested and unbounded love, and 
life-long labors and sacrifices for the good of humanity, we 



244 LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

have the only full and true manifestation of the moral attri- 
butes of the Deity. 

The foregoing will probably serve to the reader as a suf- 
ficient illustration of the various degrees of the Divine Prin- 
ciple, as now embodied in the different and corresponding 
Series and Degrees of the creations he has formed. The 
method of the successive origination of these various Series 
arid Degrees of creation, has also been incidentally implied in 
what has been said ; but as this is a point which bears upon 
important speculations which are rife in these days, some 
further illustration upon the subject may be useful. 

The point to be illustrated and insisted upon is, that creation 
did not deyelop itself, either according to inherent forces of 
its own, nor are its development and its present internal oper- 
ations, owing simply to the momenta generated by the first 
impulses impressed upon matter by the Creator, while the 
Creator himself retired for eternity, as one would retire from 
a clock that was once wound up and set a-going. In^case of 
such retirement of the Deity, after the first impulse had been 
given to materials, those materials would have moved only in 
the direction of the impulse, and only until the momentum- 
generated became exhausted, and creation could not possibly 
have passed one Elemental Degree beyond a first develop- 
ment. Hence, each superior degree of creation must neces- 
sarily have been accomplished by the aid of forces outside of, 
superior to, and altogether independent of, itself, which gave 
the physical elements, involved in the previous development, 
an upward attraction, and a tendency to aggregate in the 
form of the next superior series of archetypes conceived in 
the Divine Mind. And this is true in respect to the develop- 
ment of creation, as one Grand Series, and also in respect to 
the development of each of its corresponding sub-series. 



LABYKINTII OF CREATION. 



245 



This whole subject, with other points in our general philosophy, 
may be illustrated by the accompanying diagram. 




Let the seven-fold triangular figure (one angle being within 
another) which descends from the upper part of the diagram, 
and whose most exterior angle comes to a point at the center 
of the diagram, represent a seven-fold Ray or Glory emanat- 
ing from the Divine Being. This we will suppose to represent 
the Complete Degree of the Divine Soul, and Spirit, and Per- 
son, which was to generate, and to b^e in some sense embodied 
in universal creation with Man at its head. Resolved into 
three Discreet Degrees, we will .suppose that this Ray or 
Glory consisted of Divine Spiritual Heat, which is Love, of 
Divine Spiritual Light, which is Wisdom, and of Divine Po- 



246 LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

tentializing Essence, which is the " complex, continent, and 
basis" of the preceding, and hence the medium of volitional 
operation. We will suppose, then (what can not be essentially 
' erroneous), that from the empyrean heights of infinite perfec- 
tion, where God, before creation began, had from eternity 
dwelt in inconceivable greatness and perfection, this seven-fold 
and three-fold Ray emanating from his own Person, descended 
by volition, and at its lowest extremity, resolved its most ex- 
terior essences (represented by the outer triangle) into atomic 
particles, which, in forms and constitutions, corresponded to 
archetypes previously existing in the Divine consciousness, 
and which were designed to be wrought into the structure of 
this universe and all it contains. Let the central point in the 
diagram, then, represent the atomic or lowest stage of creation, 
this being the physical Germ from which the great Tree of 
universal Being was to grow. From this central point, it will 
be observed, proceeds a spiral line, which, while constantly 
receding from the center, winds around through six radii, and 
completes the circuit of the diagram on the center of the de- 
scending Ray, on which it commenced. This spiral line, in 
passing around, represents the inception, progress, and comple- 
tion, of the first Circle, Series, or Complete Degree of Forms. 
From the center of the descending Ray, and the apex of a 
second and more interior triangle, the same spiral line thence 
continues, and, completing another circuit while perpetually 
receding from the center, represents the course of the next 
higher and corresponding Circle of creations. And so, com- 
mencing every time at the point representing the completion 
of the previous Circle (this, at the same time, being the focus 
of a more interior Degree of the Divine generative Principle), 
it continues its corresponding circuits around the diagram, all 
the while expanding from the center, and thus representing the 



TKEE OF CREATION. 24:7 

course of higher and still higher creations, until the last is at- 
tained, which is Man. 

Now the descending Divine creative Ray forms the seventh 
radius of the circle, which represents the beginning and ending * 
of each Series or complete Degree of creations. But the end 
of each is represented as higher than its beginning, and as in 
, conjunction with, and subject to the operative inflowings of, 
the next higher Degree of the Divine generative Principle, 
which is represented by the apex of the next more interior 
triangle. Each Circle of developments traced directly, or from 
beginning to end, may be called a " line of natural ascent :" 
each circle traced inversely, or from end to beginning, may be 
called a " line of spiritual descent" representing the descent 
or operative inflowings of the Divine vitalizing and formative 
Energy, by which material elements involved in inferior 
forms are refined, energized, and brought by an upward at- 
traction into next superior, and thence still superior, and finally 
into highest forms, according to the pre-existent archetypes of 
said forms, or their Divine spiritual patterns. Thus is the 
great Tree of universal creation brought through all its succes- 
sive stages of development unto perfection, by constantly de- 
scending influences from the Divine Spiritual Sun in the same 
way as the vegetable tree is made to grow from germ to ulti- 
mate, by the constantly descending influences of the natural 
Sun, which, however, is interiorly vitalized by the Spiritual. 
But we think it ought to be entirely obvious to every intelli- 
gent mind, that without these descending and vitalizing influ- 
ences, neither Tree could proceed a single step in its ascending 
development ; and, moreover, if at any time during the course 
of their development, this superior and independent influence 
should be withholden, the development would necessarily and 
immediately cease, and stagnation and decay would ensue. 



248 LAW AGENCY AND DIVINE AGENCY. 

If the tree can not grow without the sun, it may be consid- 
ered equally certain that nature as a whole, and hence, also, as 
to its component parts, from greatest to most minute, has no 
'power of development or motion in and of itself. Hence all 
power, as well as its directive influence, must be from above 
nature, and hence from God ; and hence all stellar systems, 
solar systems, worlds, minerals, vegetables, animals, and even 
animalcules, were created and are governed, not only by the 
remote and indirect, but by the immediate and direct, agency of 
God! 

These are among the considerations w r hich we think com- 
pletely overthrow the pantheistic speculations with which 
much of the philosophy of the day is more or less impreg- 
nated. 

The diagram, also, by presenting a succession of continually 
expanding circles, all having one center, and being constituted 
after one principle, presents a clear and concise illustration of 
the doctrines of Series, Degrees, and Correspondences, and will 
serve thus to fix permanently in the mind a true idea of the 
complexly-unitary constitution, and harmoniously interblend- 
ing movements of the universe, as expressive of the Love, 
Wisdom, and infinite internal harmonies of its DIVINE 
AUTHOR. 



CHAPTEE XXY. 

PEOVIDENCE. 

- . " : % '"'. 

THOUGH it is shown in the foregoing pages, that creation 
must have been developed, and must now be governed in 
its operations, according to directive Wisdom existing in 
the forms of fixed laws, there is nothing in the theory pre- 
sented which contradicts, but every thing which confirms, those 
deep intuitions of every well-regulated mind, respecting the con- 
stant Providence of God as concerned in the unfolding and gov- 
ernment of his creation. If, as we have seen, law of itself has 
no creative force, but is simply a mode of action prescribed and 
predetermined by the archetypes and intentions conceived in 
the Divine Mind ; and if to the realization of each succeeding 
stage of creation, however great o*r minute, an additional and 
voluntative influx of Divine formative Energy, was absolutely 
necessary ; and, moreover, if the same constant influx is ne- 
cessary to sustain the life and motions of the system after it 
is in being then it follows that every event, from the birth 
of a world to the falling of a sparrow, or the rustling of a leaf 
in the summer breeze, is, in some sense, a Providence that 
is, it was provided for in the pre-determined course of Divine 
intelligent volition and causation. But to prevent involving 
creation in inextricable confusion, and to establish and preserve 
an orderly relationship and affectionate interblending of all 
forms, and a just and harmonious reciprocation in all their 
offices and movements, God orders even his providences accord- 



250 PROVIDENCE. 

ing to laws, or, it may almost be said, he has made them 
synonymous ivith laws. 

It may safely be believed that the present order and plan 
of creation is the best that could have been devised by the 
Divine Mind ; for otherwise, the present plan would not have 
been adopted. But if it is the best, then it requires no funda- 
mental change, and not even any modifications, except such as 
may comport with a constant general progression on the basis 
of the original plan. But while all progression in each de- 
partment is dependent upon an influx or inhalation (hence 
free bestowment by the Divine Being), of additional degrees of 
that Divine vitalizing influence which is specifically suitable 
to itself, and while all progression is in this sense providential, 
God can not, either in causing a progressional or any other 
change, and without deranging the established, and hence best 
possible order of things, act providentially and directly upon 
any department of creation, except through the medium of 
that particular kind of force or vitality of which the thing acted 
upon is a suitable receptacle. 

Thus, considering the universe in its most general aspect as 
one grand Whole, God can not act directly upon it, or modify 
its existing activities and tendencies, except through the me- 
dium of those forces and laws of Expansion, Contraction, Cir- 
culation, Aggregation, etc., in the degree in which they apply 
to the universe as a whole. He can not act directly upon 
solar systems and worlds, except through the medium of the 
same laws and forces in their higher degrees of unfolding as 
applicable to solar systems and worlds ; God can not act 
directly upon MineraFcreations, except through the forces and 
laws of chemical affinities ; He can not act directly upon Vege- 
table. Kingdoms, except through the forces and laws of vegeta- 
ble life ; He can not act directly on the Animal Kingdom, or 



PROVIDENCE. 251 

any of its forms, except through the forces and laws of animal, 
sensational, and semi-intellectual life ; He can act directly on 
selfish and sinful human nature, only by those isolated and 
disjointed motive forces which are adapted to reach and affect 
the disjointed mental and moral constitutions of selfish and 
sinful human beings ; while God can act directly and fully as 
God, in all his affectional, intellectual, and moral nature, only 
upon a perfectly pure and sinless intelligence a being fitted 
for the harmonious influx of all the affectional, intellectual, and 
voluntative principles of the Divine Soul a being, hence, 
who stands in the perfect image of God, and who, in principle, 
is one with Him. Hence, when such a being acts (and there 
never was but one such a being), it may be said that God acts 
with him, in him, and through him, and that his every act is in 
the fullest and most Divine sense, a providence. 

But as the infinite Divine, personal, and volitional Intelli- 
gence is above all things, and over -all things, and is the inex- 
haustible Source of all streams of vitality and motive force 
which flow into the various departments of His creation, it may 
be rationally conceived, that by withholding his inflowings 
into the universal system as a whole, he could cause univer- 
sal stagnation and dissolution to ensue; or that by increasing 
those inflowings, he could stimulate all firmamental develop- 
ments and solar and planetary motions, to unwonted activity ; 
or that by diminishing his influence in one portion of space, 
and increasing it in another, He could cause the dissolution of 
some worlds, and the absorption of their materials by others ; 
or that by modifying his influences upon the electric, aerial, 
and subterranean forces of a particular planet (such as our 
own), he can cause floods to deluge the earth, or subterranean 
fires to overwhelm cities, and destroy such human beings as 
must otherwise stand as obstructions to true progress ; or that 



252 PKOVIDENCE. 

in a similar way, he might cause a rarefaction of the atmo- 
sphere in one locality, and a condensation in another, and thus 
cause a current of wind sufficiently violent to cleave the waters 
of a gulf, and afford a dry passage for a particular people 
through whom he designed to affect great purposes. 

It will doubtless still be argued that such occurrences, if 
they ever do take place, are results simply of the forces and 
laws of nature. In a qualified sense, this is granted, as we 
have shown before that all action, whether physical or 
spiritual, is according to some laws ; but we insist that it is 
an exceedingly superficial view of the laws of nature, which 
supposes that they are self-generative and self-active, or that 
they can exist for a moment as separate from that Divine 
vitalizing and spiritual Principle which, in an earlier stage 
of this work, we showed was necessarily self-existent and 
eternal. 

But if this self-existent, and all generative, and vitalizing 
Divine Principle may operate upon mundane forces and de- 
velopments in the way just described, he may, in a similar 
way, control, modify, and direct chemical and mineral, or 
vegetable, or animal, or spiritual forces and developments, by 
a voluntary graduation of those influences, proceeding from 
himself, as adapted to either of these departments of his 
creation. And all such operations would be instances of 
direct providences. 

But while it would be impossible for God, consistently 
with the fundamental, which we have presumed to be the 
best possible plan of creation, to act directly upon any one 
department of being, by forces specifically adapted only to 
another (as, for instance, to act directly upon mind, by that 
Degree of attractive force known as " gravitation," or to di- 
rectly control planets by the motive forces of moral and 



PROVIDENCE. 253 

rational convictions), it is none the less conceivable that each 
department of existence may be indirectly influenced through 
the medium of some other department, which is made the 
receptacle of direct influence. Thus it may be conceived as 
possible for God, by special and designed action upon a par- 
ticular planet, to change the orbit of such planet, and thus 
mediately change the orbits of all the planets with which it 
may be associated, and thus to change their seasons, and thus 
their inhabitants, if they have any, and thus even to produce 
an endless concatenation of spiritual changes ; or, that by 
action upon one particular department of the Mineral, Veget- 
able, or Animal Kingdom, He might change other depart- 
ments of the same Kingdom, and thus indefinitely change the 
relations existing between them all. 

Similar remarks are especially applicable to the Divine 
government of the Human world. Notwithstanding every 
human being, and the whole race, as one grand Man, was 
designed to reflect the image of the Creator, human nature, 
in its present state, is undeniably more or less depraved, 
selfish, and inharmonious, and hence is not receptive of the 
Divine influence, in its pure and harmonious state. The 
Divine spiritual influence, directly and immediately infused 
into the human world, therefore, and without the mediumship 
of a perfect human personage to harmoniously reflect, truly 
define, and correctly apply, its principles, would necessarily 
take a form of manifestation more or less characterized by the 
imperfections of degenerate humanity as its receptacle in the 
same way as the Divine operative influence, flowing into 
animal or still lower creations, takes a form of manifestation 
peculiar to- those creations. On this principle, and this prin- 
ciple alone, it is conceived, we may account for the imper- 
fection of the impressions which the Divine inspiration gave 

22 



254 PROVIDENCE. 

to Moses, and David, and the prophets, and the imperfections 
of the code of ethics, principles of government, and policy in 
respect to other nations, which grew out of these impressions ; 
for all these were evidently imperfect when judged by a 
Christian standard. Still, by means of such inflowings, as 
the psychical and mental constitutions of these mediums 
rendered possible, God, without immediately obliterating 
existing evils, pressed these evils into the service of ultimate 
good : and by arraying one nation against another, subjecting 
some to utter extermination, humbling others, by long dis- 
ciplinary chastisements, etc., so directed the general course of 
human events as provide for the influx of more and more 
light, and for the final coming of him who was emphatically 
" the Light of the world." And now that that Light has 
come, a similar course of indirect Divine providences is con- 
tinued with reference to nations and individuals, evidently 
with the view to the ultimate bringing of all under the full 
influence of its life-giving beams, and to the establishment 
of that Divine Kingdom in the world which shall "break 
to pieces and consume all other kingdoms, and stand for 
ever." 

But if in this disjointed and degenerate state of the human 
faculties, God can discharge the highest functions of his Di- 
vine government only by bringing the appropriate forces of 
one human faculty, one person, one society, or one nation, to 
bear upon another, it is equally true that in the perfect man, 
God rules directly, personally and absolutely as God, in all his 
harmoniously consociated affectional, moral, and intellectual 
attributes in the same way as he rules as mechanical, chemi- 
cal, or vegetative Force, in different departments of nature 
without. Nay, in such a being, as the ultimate and harmonious 
embodiment of all the principles of his Love and Wisdom, 



PJROVIDENOE. 255 

God absolutely dwells, in his integral and personal capacity, as 
in a temple; and therefore such a being is God in his focalized 
capacity as adapted to a direct conjunction with humanity. 
All that authentic history informs us of the character, actions, 
and teachings of Jesus goes to justify the belief that he was 
such a divinely human and humanly divine personage. 

It should be observed, that a perfectly pure and sinless in- 
telligence, such as is here conceived, must, as viewed in a 
human aspect, stand at the very apex of visible creation, or at 
that point in a grand seven- fold circle of existence at which 
endings merge into beginnings. Hence, the Divine Soul, 
focalizing in all its harmoniously combined principles, in such 
a being, would maintain the same relations to inferior physi- 
cal constitutions, and to all outer physical substances which 
lie within his sphere, as the Divine Being in his whole infini- 
tude, sustains to the physical universe as a whole. Hence the 
Divinity, in this focalized capacity, would maintain toward all 
things within his sphere, the relations of a New Beginning 
Principle ; and if God in his infinitude, as the Beginning Prin- 
ciple of the universe as a whole, could, from his free volition, 
make and unmake laws to govern the present system of things, 
then God, in the condescended form of his personal Being as 
manifested through a suitable human organism at the end of 
an old, and the beginning of a new creation, may, in equal 
consistency with the rules of Divine order, establish new laws, 
or rather ent immensely higher degrees of old ones, as 
relating to such existences within his sphere as need such in- 
terference. There is nothing irrational in the supposition, 
therefore, that the Divinely human, or humanly Divine Prin- 
ciple (which are one and the same), could, by volition through 
the outer organism which served as its medium, -concentrate 
its vital energies upon the diseased bodies of man, and even 



256 PROVIDE NCE. 

the inorganic elements of the outer world, and produce such 
effects as are commonly designated by the word " miraculous," 
and that, too, simply according to that higher degree of laws 
specifically adapted to such operations, and unfolded for such 
specific purposes. Such would be instances of the highest 
manifestations of indirect providences. 

But if God dwells and rules, with a perfect and harmonious 
display of all the principles of his nature as God, in a being 
such as we have supposed, then it follows that the more any 
man is like such a being, the more fully God " works within 
him to will and to do according to his own pleasure," the more 
he is under the direct operation of the highest order of Divine 
Providences, the more he is raised, as it were, above the 
sphere of mere material things and their laws, and the more 
he becomes a medium through which the Divine Being, in his 
affectional, intellectual, and volitional nature as such, acts upon 
beings and conditions below him, to bring them up to the true 
standard of heal thfuln ess, harmony, and perfection ! And 
when all human beings shall be fully united to God shall 
fully "dwell in him, and he in them," then all human beings, 
with their outer conditions, and even the whole physical world, 
divinely acted upon through their mediation, will undoubtedly 
be spiritualized, and elevated one Discreet Degree, and peace 
and plenty, and that universal harmony and love, which may 
be considered as uncontaminated and unperverted outflowings 
from the Divine Fountain of Infinite Harmony and Love, 
will take the place of the corroding selfishness, the distracting 
animosities, and the physical, as well as moral, diseases and 
sufferings which now roll their desolating waves over the 
earth. 

Let it be .distinctly understood that the foregoing theory of 
Divine Providences is presented simply as a rational deduc- 



PROVIDENCE. 257 

tion of philosophy, aside from the teachings of Scripture. 
The few scriptural phrases we have employed in this dis- 
quisition, have been employed incidentally, solely in consider- 
ation of their appositeness, as expressing certain ideas which 
have lain within the course of our reasonings. Being actu- 
ated by the sole desire of developing the teachings of phil- 
osophy, with reference to these questions of theology, it is not 
pretended that we have attained to a full unfolding of truth 
upon the subject discussed, or even to so clear a presentation 
of that measure of truth which has been found, as might have 
been attained if we had freely availed ourselves of scriptural 
aids. But while, by the course we have pursued, our con- 
clusions have been left unprejudiced in the view of such of 
our readers as may be disinclined to admit the authority of 
the Bible, we beg such readers, in candor, to observe, that so 
far as the teachings of nature and philosophy have, in these 
pages, been brought into view, there is not that hostility be- 
tween them and the teachings of the Bible, which unbelievers 
in the latter have generally supposed to exist. The object 
of all investigations should be, not to establish the au- 
thority of a Book, or of a philosophical creed, but to dis- 
cover Truth; and if some, of the most vitally important of 
all truths are recorded in the Bible, it must be acknow- 
ledged, even by all candid infidels, that while these are no 
more, they are no less sacred, and while they should be 
received with no more, they should be received with no 
less avidity, than if the same truths were found any where 
else. 

What has been said respecting Providences, will serve to 
give a general idea of a subject which is far from being 
exhausted in this discussion. Instances of apparently still 
more special providences, as affecting the specific con- 



258 CONCLUSION. 

ditions of individuals, can be intelligibly illustrated only 
in view of certain psychological and spiritual laws, which 
will form the themqs of appropriate remark when we w pro 
ceed to the consideration of the Microcosm, or the universe 
within. 

CONCLUSION OF THE VOLUME. 

We have thus endeavored to exhibit a general view of the 
various Series and Degrees of systematic creation which com- 
pose the aggregate of the outer realm of being both in their 
separate and united capacities, together with their relations to 
each other and to their common Divine Cause and Governor. 
We close this first part of our treatise with the following re- 
marks : 

1. If our Philosophy, as to its distinctive features, contains 
no truth, it can at least do no essential evil, as it must be that 
a system of unmitigated error, of so bold and conspicuous a 
kind, and put forth in this unguarded manner, would exhibit 
so many vulnerable points as to meet with its death wound 
the instant it is exposed to the shafts of criticism. If it should 
be entirely overthrown, however, there would still necessarily 
remain some possible mode of systematizing and harmonizing 
Nature and Truth in one general philosophic view, if it so be 
that Nature and Truth are intrinsically systematic and har- 
monious ; and the discovery of this mode is worthy of the 
highest efforts of philosophic minds. I would respectfully sub- 
mit, however, that promise of a discovery of this kind, can 
only be given by some such process of serial, gradational, and 
correspondential reasoning from interiors to exteriors, as has 
been pursued in the foregoing pages; and that so long as 
men confine themselves to the ordinary processes of reason- 
ing merely from effects to causes, so long their conclusions 



CONCLUSION. 259 

will, of necessity, be more or less divergent, and so long they 
will, at most, be able to attain only the body of truth, without 
its soul. 

2. If our Philosophy contains some truth and some error, 
then its truths, bearing as they do upon subjects of the most 
striking and important character, may, by exciting minds 
capable of elaborating and extending them, yet form the nu- 
cleus of a grand system of true thought, which may be pro- 
gressively brought to a state as near perfect as may comport 
with the finiteness of the human mind. 

3. If it contains a large preponderance of truth, and but 
little essential error, then considerable progress has already 
been made in developing the means of reconciling the jargon 
of conflicting thought upon all subjects natural and spiritual, 
and in demolishing the partition walls between the Jew of 
Theology on the one hand, and the Gentile of Philosophy on 
the other, and making of the twain one new man, thus making 
peace. 

We are next, therefore, in the light of facts, truths, princi- 
ples, laws, correspondences, etc., developed in the preceding 
pages, to proceed to consider a general theme of perhaps still 
more interest, viz., the MICROCOSM, or corresponding universe 
within. In the course of our investigations upon this subject, 
we shall probably speak of man physically, psychologically, 
individually, and socially, with a view of exhibiting his rela- 
tions to all other things, his susceptibility to their influence, 
and the conditions of his true progress and happiness. 

Should not unforeseen influences prevent, this second Trea- 
tise, or rather second part of the present one, will be ready' for 
publication in the course of a few months. 

END OF THE 



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