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Ij. A, '1 10 


'J 'A- H 



of the World 

=^ A systematic description = 
of the known Macrolepidoptera 

edited with the collaboration of well-known specialists 


Prof. Dr. Adalbert Seitz. 

• ^-^ T-j^;^:^- .^ ^ 


Verlag des Seitz'schen Werkes (Alfred Kernen) 
'^1912^ / 11(0 

Druck vou H, Ij a u i' i> jr in TUbingon. 



The Macrolepidoptera 

of the 

Palaearctic Reo^ion 

IV. Volume : The Palaearctic 



L. B. Prout. 

I -^;^z:^:^ =J 


The Geometridae are one of the largest of the families of Lepidoptera, and are distributed throughout 
the entire world so far as vegetation extends, a few species being found even in the extreme polar regions. It 
is impossible to estimate at present, even approximately, the probable number of the species. Many new 
species are found in every extensive collection that is brought fi-om New Guinea, Central Africa, South Ame- 
rica, etc., and the better-known faimae are constantly being enriched by the discovery of new forms or especially 
the differentiation of close allies which had previously been confused together. Ten years ago Staudinger- 
Rbbel enumerated over 1230 Palearctic species, although excluding much of the south-eastern part of the 
fauna; and at about the same time Dyar knew over 800 species as North American. For some other regions, 
including the enormously rich countries of equatorial South America, no list at all exists, and if such were 
issued today it would be foimd exceedingly incomplete tomorrow. There are, however, certain districts in 
both hemispheres, including, for instance, much of the Argentine Republic, where Geometridae are comparative- 
ly scarce, or appear to be far outnumbered by representatives of some other families, such as the Pyralidae. 

The family is on the whole a very natural one, and except possibly in Australia — where the most an- 
cestral tj^es occur — quite sharply differentiated from all other families. The Epiplemidae, the Polyplocidae 
or Cymatophoridae, the Notodontidae — all of which have been more or less associated with them by one or 
another systematist — have no really near relation with them. They may be regarded as philogenetically of 
rather recent origin, the larvae in particular having reached a very advanced specialization; and like other 
recent, plastic groups they show a strong tendency to split up into a very large number of closely-alUed 
species (for instance, in the genus Eupithecia), some of which are possibly still ,,in the making", e. g. Eupithecia 
innotata, fraxinata and tamarisciata, E. denotata and jasioneata, Ectropis bistortata and crepuscularia, some of 
the South American Nephodia (Nipteria), etc. Of fossil forms, scarcely half a dozen are known (see Hand- 
lirsch. Die Fossilen Insekten), and these are of quite doubtful affinities. 

The Geometridae are generally recognizable by their build and aspect, apart from any structural dis- 
tinctions. The comparatively slender body and ample wings, the latter in repose usually partially or almost 
wholly extended and pressed out flat against the object on which they rest, give them a very distinctive appear- 
ance, although occasionally the inexperienced collector mistakes for them certain slenderly-built Polyplo- 
cidae, Drepanidae or the Epiplemidae, which share with them the general proportions. The Pyralidae are 
less often (though still occasionally) confused with them ; the very general pearly gloss, differently folded hind- 
wings and long legs of the last-named family are usually sufficient safequard against the danger of mistake. 
Some Geometridae sit either habitually or occasionally with the wings erected over the back, after the manner 
of a butterfly — a very rare attitude among the moths in general, except when drying their wings on emergence 
from the pupa. The genus Selenia and several Larentiidae {Hydriomena, Ceratodalia, Euchoeca and others) 
may be cited as examples. Very few indeed close the wings tightly around twigs {Brephos, Alsophila, Chesias, 
etc.) or round the body after the manner of a Noctuid {Salpis, etc.); scarcely any, so far as is known, adopt 
any very eccentric protective posture (Zamacra). 

In the struggle for existence the Geometridae rely very largely, both in the larval and imaginal stages, 
on the simpler devices of protective resemblance, which are in most cases (especially as regards the larvae) 
very beautifully perfected; that is to say, they generally assimilate very exactly, when at rest, to their natural 
inanimate environment, and very seldom resort to warning coloration or to mimicry of nauseous or dangerous 
insects or other living creatures. 


The larva is almost invariably specialized by the loss of the three anterior pairs of ventral claspers, only 
those on the sixth abdominal segment and the anal pair persisting. It has been suggested that by this form 
(which is nearly ahvaj's accompanied by a great elongation of the middle segments) the creature acquires a 
longer reach among its foodplant, whether for obtaining more food with an econonomy of movement, or for passing 
from twig to twig, or from branch to branch, in its arboreal habitation ; it is significant in this connection that 
a very large percentage of the species in this family, as compared with most of the others, inhabits trees or 
shrubs rather than low growths. It has also been suggested that the peculiar ,, looping" gait which results, and 
which has gained for the larvae the popular EngUsh name of ,,loopers", and for the family that of Geometers 
(ground-measurers) is favourable to rapidity of locomotion. Be this as it may, it is certain that many of the lar- 
vae have been enabled to assume a most wonderful likeness to twigs. The food-plant is grasped firmly with the 
prolegs, the body rigidly extended at an angle, the true legs and head closely tucked together, while there are 
sometimes also characteristic sharp bends in the body. In addition, to enhance the resemblance, there are often 
small humps suggesting nodules, leaf-buds or other excrescences of the twig. In such a posture the larva will 
remain absolutely motionless for many hours, and it is often extremely difficult for even the practised eye to dis- 
cover it. The absence of the middle legs, however, is by no means restricted to the twig-like larvae, but is vir- 
tually, as has been indicated above, a family character. Many are leaf-green in colour, and rest along the midrib 
of a leaf. Some (notably Eu-pithecia) are flower-feeders, and show a marvellous adjustment to the coloration 
of the flowers which they inhabit. In the case of the polyphagous ones there is consequently a wide range of co- 
lour variability; and it is certainly possible in some cases (I have mj'self tested it by transferring Eu-pithecia 
absinthiata from Eupatorium to Senecio) to bring about complete colour changes within the life of a single larva. 
Similarly with, the simply dimorphic larvae (which have a green and brown form to assimilate to different twigs) 
PoTJLTON and others have demonstrated that a change of colour can often be brought about by a change of en- 
vironment. Nor must mention be omitted of the fact that some larvae in the ordinary course of their life-his- 
tory undergo a change to correspond with that in their food plant ; Hipparchus papilionaria is' a well-known 
example. In some larvae, again (as Cleowdes licJienaria or the Australian genus Dedana), the resemblance is 
to lichens, and some of the twig-like larvae (as Gonodontis bidentata) produce, under favourable environment, per- 
fectly lichen-coloured aberrations. 

Very few kno^vn Geometrid larvae are protected by passing their lives in literal concealment, scarcely 
any, apparently, hiding below ground or feeding in roots, like many Noctuids. A Californian species, Meso- 
leuca implicaia, is said to have quite the same habit as the Palearctic Agrotis ripae, burying itself in the sand 
beneath its food-plant, Abromia latifolia. A few Eupithecia, Perizoma, etc., live concealed in the seed-vessels 
on which they feed, or commence life thus (or burrowing into buds) and only assume the external habit at a 
later stage. Other Larentiids (as Hydriomena, Eulype, Operophtera) spin together leaves, residing in the do- 
micile so formed. Certain Hemitheinae {Evchloris, Synchlora, the large genus Comihaena, etc.) clothe them- 
selves with fragments of leaves or flowers, without, however, making actual cases as do the Psychidae and others. 

In more aggressively defensive arrangements, such as poison-glands or urticating hairs, or e^en terrifying 
markings or attitudes, the Geometrid larvae are generally altogether deficient. Most are, hoAvever, provided 
with a fluid secretion, usually of a dark green colour, which they discharge from the mouth when attacked 
and which, although perfectly innocuous to man, is no doubt of some service against certain of their enemies. 
Some species, such as the common Eurojjean Lithina petraria, when touched drop to the ground and throw 
themselves about with the most violent contortions. 

The coloration of the moths is also as a rule closely adapted to the surroundings among which they rest 
by day. Many sit with wings outspread on tree-trunks, fences or rocks, and are of sombre brown or grey tints 
or coloured like the lichens. It is noticeable that those which, while frequenting such situations, are least per- 
fectly concealed (chiefly iarejiiMwae) are extremely wary, flying off briskly on the approach of danger, and 
these possibly owe their safety quite as largely to this cause as to the other (assuming that their enemies are 
things that creep rather than things that fly); but there is no doubt that even in these cases a general adap- 
tation to the environment gives them a good deal of security at rest, and saves them from the constant ne- 
cessity of fleeing from place to place. Many examples among the Palearctic species of Larentia (sens, lat.) 
will occur to the field-naturalist, of species wliich, although fairly consjDicuous when actually looked at upon 
the trees, yet on account of the broken outlines created by their markings harmonize quite sufficiently well with 
their surroundings to be really inconspicuous to the casual passer-by; such are picata, truncafa, hlomeri and 
many others. The moths which sit among leaves are often of a beautiful green (the subfamily Hemitheinae, 
with only a few exceptions) or of rich golden brown hues assimilating to the withered leaves ; but often the white 
ones (such as the Deilinia group, some Acidalia, etc.) are almost as well protected in such situations on account 
of the suggestion of bird-droppings, or occasionally of white flowers. But indeed the subject of these cryptic adjust- 
ments is a limitless one, and almost every separate species is worthy of separate study in relation to its environment. 

Many species of Geometridae, however, are true day-fliers, and many others are so easily disturbed by 
day as almost to give the impression that this is their natural time of flight. In the alternations of bright light 
and shadow caused by the sunshine among trees or undergrowth, black moths like Odezia atrata or black- 


and-white or latticed ones like Eulype hastata or C'hiasmia dathrata are, according to experience, very difficult 
to see, and thus, no doubt, sufficiently escape danger without the aid of a powerful flight, which is possessed by 
very few indeed of the family. Some gorgeously-coloured exotic genera which certainly fly by day, such as 
Milionia, Dysphania, etc. are probably more or less distasteful, but we know of no sufficient observations or 
experiments on this question. The flaunting, crudely-marked ,,Abmxinae" of Japan and Ghma {Obeidia, etc.) 
are certainly so, and no doubt advertise themselves by their conspicuousness. Concerning Milionia its flight is quite 
unlike that of an ordinary Geometrid; it shoots away very quickly when disturbed and does not settle at once. 

There are few true Geometridae which enter into mimetic associations. The Dioptidae, which have some- 
times been placed among Geometridae, are proved both by the larvae and some structural characters in the 
imago to be entirely distinct from them. The African group of Aletis, however, certainly enters into the Miil- 
lerian mimetic group of Danaida chrysippus, etc., and there are other scattered instances of the phenomenon 
in the faunae of New Guinea, tropical America, etc., which will be noticed in their places. 

Owing to the arboreal habits of so many of the larvae — which enable them to be beaten from the bran- 
ches even when they are too well protected, to render searching profitable — and. to the fact that captured females 
will as a rule deposit their eggs much more freely than those of many other families, the early stages of a very 
large proportion of the Palearctic species are already well knoAvn, and even in the other regions a good beginning 
has been made, although unfortunately m too many cases no descriptions whatever have yet been published. 
Apart altogether from the biological value of this method of work, breeding is one of the best methods — proba- 
bly the very best — of obtaining material in this family. So many of the species are fragile and easily rub- 
bed that it is very difficult to procure captured series in good condition. The eggs are often laid quite readily on 
the sides of the box in which the $ is confined, but in many cases the insertion of a sprig of the foodplant is 
a great incentive; in others a preference is shown for very fine rootlets, or shreds of frayed string. 

The larvae for the most part feed on fresh leaves, but the species of Acidalia and some of their allies 
prefer withered or even mouldy food; one species, Ptychopoda ptelearia, sometimes does considerable mischief 
in herbalists' shops or in herbaria. As a rule, Geometrid larvae are not at all difficult to rear ; and the frequent 
wide range of variability of the moths, especially in the temperate and sub-arctic regions, renders them pecu- 
liarly fitting subjects for various kinds of scientific investigation, whether into the working of the laws of here- 
dity, the influence of temperature in the production or modification of variation, or the possibilities of hybri- 
disation between more or less closely allied species. Already in Europe good work has been done in all these 
directions, and its further pursuit both here and in other parts of the world is highly to be recommended. Men- 
del's Law of Heredity has been partially tested, with varying results, in Gonodontis hidentata, Abraxas grossu- 
lariata, Amphidasis betularia, Xanthorhoe ferrugata, Ptychopoda virgularia and others. Mereifield and others 
have carried out valuable temperature experiments with Selenia, Cosymbia, etc. Hybridisation has also proved 
in part possible in the two last-named genera and especially among the Biston group. 

As regards the range of imaginal variation it is impossible to summarize it within a limited space. Generally 
speaking, it reaches its maximum towards the confines of geographical distribution. In Iceland, New Zealand and 
Chili, for instance, the Geometridae (in common with other families of the Lepidoptera) vary enormously, while in 
tropical countries it is comparatively exceptional to find a species very variable. The phenomenon of Melanism 
seems to be there practically non-existent, whereas in some parts of the north of Europe it is exceedingly prevalent. 

Sexual dimorphism is moderately frequent, but seldom reaches any startling manifestation; and much 
oftener than not, the two sexes are virtually alike in colour and markings, being only distinguishable by structu- 
ral characters, or by size and perhaps slight differences of shape. The absence of extremes is no doubt due 
to the general similarity of habits in the sexes and the rarity of true mimicry. Probably the most remarkable 
examples of this kind of dimorphism are found in the genus Anisozyga, which chiefly inhabits New Guinea and 
North Australia ; no theory appears to have been as yet offered to explain its occurrence in this genus, and even 
here it is confined to some only of the species. The South American genus Pero and others and the cosmopolitan 
Orthonama obstipata (= fluviata) may also be cited as furnishing some moderately striking examples of this 
phenomenon. Another phase of sexual dimorphism, in which the 9 is apterous or semi-apterous, occurs here 
and there among the Palearctic and Nearctic Geometridae, in the Australian Zermizinga and one or two South 
African species referred by Warren to Haggardia. Probably other examples will be discovered amongst species 
of which hitherto the $ remains unknown; Warren suggests it as likely in the case of his Scoria infumata from 
Peru. In the majority of instances [Erannis, Alsophila, Operophtera, the Biston group and others) this apterous 
condition is correlated with the appearance of the moths in the leafless winter season, and various theories 
have been advanced, with greater or less plausibility, to account for this correlation ; such as that the large wing- 
expanse necessary to carry the heavy-bodied $ in the stormy winter weather would be a disadvantage to her 
in the struggle for existence, as rendering her difficult of concealment in the leafless condition of the trees. 

Seasonal dimorphism seems to be strangely rare in the tropics ; yet it is still possible that some sensatio- 
nal discoveries await us regarding the identity of species hitherto considered distinct, such as have from time 
to time been made among the butterflies of Africa, for instance, through the careful breeding experiments of 


a few naturalists there. From Peru and other parts of tropical South America very extensive collections have 
of recent years been received in Europe, provided with accurate data as to the season of capture, and yet they 
reveal scarcely a trace of seasonal variation. In Europe, seasonal dimorphism is well known in the genera 
Cosymhia, Lythria, Eilicrinia and Selenia ; but even in this region it cannot be regarded as a very general occurrence. 

The habits of the Geometridae are about as varied as would be expected amongst so large a family. In- 
formation is, however, regrettably deficient as regards the habits of most of the exotic "species. Some points 
have been discussed above, in connection with protective resemblance. As there indicated, the usual time 
of flight is in the evening or later at night, although during the day they can, for the most part, be rather easily 
disturbed from their resting-places in the trees, bushes or herbage. In Britain, of which I can speak from per- 
sonal experience, the favourite time of flight is about sunset or in the early dusk, although a few species {Abraxas 
grossulariata, CromMis elinguaria, Cidaria pyraliata, etc.) do not usually become active until towards midnight. 
The flight is usually rather gentle and not extremely long-sustained; but Ourapteryx and a few others dash about 
more wildly and irregularly. The great majority are provided with tongues and feed more or less at various 
flowers, flowering rushes or other natural sweets, but are on the whole much less greedy feeders than the Noc- 
tuidae, and although a long list might be made of the species which have occasionally been attracted by ,, su- 
gar", yet they visit it only in quite small numbers, and on many nights do not seem to be attracted to it 
at all. On the other hand most, if not indeed all, of the species may be attracted by light, and they are usually 
easily captured in this way. Eupithecia and many others do not, as a rule, continue to flutter round long when 
under the influence of this attraction, but settle down quietly with the wings pressed flat against the glass, or 
sometimes on some object near by — especially if there be a white wall or ceiling within the radius of the light. 

The localities most favoured are the edges of woods or bushy places, or rough broken ground with a 
wealth of vegetation. Open grass-land is apparently much less productive. A fair number of species, 
however, reach high altitudes in the mountains and high latitudes in the Arctic Region. Generally speaking, 
the species which reach the extreme limits seem able — perhaps on account of the comparative absence of com- 
petition — to propagate themselves in great abundance, and there are several records of the appearance of a 
particular species in Arctic Norway or Iceland m prodigious numbers, the air being sometimes filled with them 
as though there were a snow-storm. The subfamily which thrives best under rigorous climatic conditions is the 
Larentiinae, and it is probable that a previous (even where there is not a present) circumpolar distribution ac- 
counts for the fact that the great majority of the species common to the Palearctic and Nearctic Regions belong 
to this subfamily. It is interesting that a good proportion of the Geometrid fauna of the inhospitable Magellan 
and Tierra del Fuego district and almost all the Geometridae we have yet seen from the Falkland Islands belong 
also to the Larentiinae. The Hemitheinae and Acidaliinae, by contrast, are very poorly, when at all, represented 
in the extremes of northern and southern latitude. 

On account of their comparatively weak flight, there are very few migrants among the Geometridae. 
Orthonama ohstipata and Rhodometra sacraria are the chief examples, and little, if anything, is known as to the 
means of their dispersal. Occasionally, however, and apparently under the same meteorological influences which 
prompt the migratory birds, certain common sedentary species migrate in enormous swarms. Thus on 
Heligoland, in three or four different years, such companies of Erannis defoliaria, and aurantiaria have been 
observed, always travelling westward; and on at least one occasion thousands of Ennomos quercinaria. 

The Geometridae are of no ascertained value to economic entomology. On the other hand one species in 
particular, and several others to a lesser degree have to be reckoned among the prominently injurious insects. 
The outstanding example is Operophtera hrumata, Avhose ravages among fruit-trees, and the best means for its 
destruction, have been discussed in every European work on economic entomology since the Swedish Academy 
invited essays on the subject in the days of Linnaeus. Fortunately as its $ is apterous, the warfare against this 
pest is waged under somewhat more advantageous conditions than would otherwise be the case, it being possible 
to destroy immense numbers on the tree-trunks before they reach the branches. Incredible as it may appear, 
it is now, however, definitely stated by several independent and trustworthy witnesses, that the ^ is sometimes 
capable of carrying the $ in copula, although one may still venture to doubt whether this is more than a flutter 
which could scarcely lift her in an u^Dward direction. The larvae of some other species multiply in certain sea- 
sons so as to be scarcely less destructive, either to orchards or to forest trees, as the case may be, but it is not 
necessary to particularize these in this place. 

The Geometridae are small or moderate-sized (rarely large) moths, usually of slender build. Palpus 
rarely very strong, third joint scarcely ever with remarkable modifications of shape or scaling. Antenna very 
variable in form. Thorax rarely strongly crested. Abdomen with basal cavity beneath the pleura of the (much 
swollen) second segment. Legs seldom very hairy, but ^J hindtibia often furnished with strong hair-pencil. Fore- 
wing usually with four or five subcostal veins, the fourth and fifth (and nearly always the third) stalked to- 
gether; various forms of anastomosis frequent. Second radial from centre of discocellulars, or above, scarcely 
ever connate with third radial. First submedian wanting. Hindwing with costal vein making a bend into humeral 
angle, never connected or anastomosing with subcostal beyond end of cell, second radial never connate with 
third, often absent, first submedian wanting. Egg flat. Larva a looper, usually with only two pairs of claspers. 


Six subfamilies may be distinguished : 

1. Brephinae. Eye small and oval. Larva 16-legged. 

2. — 6. Eye spherical, nearly always large. Larva almost invariably with less than 10 legs, extremely 
rarely with more than 10. 

2. Oenochrominae. Hindwing with all veins, the costal free or connected with cell by bar near base ; 
second radial usually normal. Colour never bright green. 

3. Hemitheinae. As the preceding, but with second radial ^arising above middle of cell. Colour usually 
bright green. 

4. Acidaliina^. Hindwing with all veins, the costal anastomosing with cell at a point near base. 

5. Larentiinae. Hindwing with all veins, the costal anastomosing strongly with cell, or rarely in rj 
connected with it by a bar beyond middle. 

6. Geometrinae (= Boarrniinae auctt.). Hindwing Avith second radial wanting or vestigial. 

Puh.. 17. VI. W13. BREPHOS. By L. B. Protjt. 

1. Subfamily: Brephinae. 

A very small, somewhat isolated subfamily occurring only in the Palearctic and Nearctic Regions, its 
nearest relative probably the Australian genus Dirce, belonging to the Oenochrominae. Head, thorax, abdomen 
and legs strongly hairy. Eye small, oval. Eorewing with third and fourth subcostals coincident, or only sepa- 
rating near apex. Hindwing with second radial weak or obsolescent. 

Only two genera are known, both represented in the Palearctic Region. 

1. Genus: Brepliois Zinch. 

Characters of the subfamily, as given above. Antenna in (J either bipectinate with short olavate bran- 
ches or nearly simple, ciliated. Hindwing with second subcostal usually stalked, first median connate or just 
separate. — Larva 16-legged, but with the anterior pairs of prolegs weak, a half -looping gait maintained 
throughout life. Pupates in moss or bark, or in soft wood, in captivity is very willing to burrow into cork. The 
pupa sometimes lies over two winters. The moths fly in the sunshine in early Spring, and love to keep .high 
about the tops of the trees, though occasionally descending, especially in the later part of the day, to feed at 
sallow catkins. At rest they clasp the branches closely, and are hard to see, presenting the appearance of 
knots or buds; but they may sometimes be dislodged by shaking the tree. 

B. parthenias L. (1 a). Forewing brown, powdered with shining grey. A grey oval cell-spot, dark-sur- parthenias. 
rounded, reminding of the Noctuidae, some costal white marks varying in width and intensity, the proximal 
often continued nearly across the wing. Hindwing orange, with large discal spot, the distal margin and most 
of the inner-marginal half blackish. Underside of both wings orange, the markings variable. $ above with the 
white markings generally broader and clearer than in the c?- — In the ab. obscuraaS. nov., the forewing is obseura. 
darkened, almost unicolorous. This form has been figured, but not described or named, by Havbrkampe'. — 
The ab. nigra Tutt is a still more extreme form than the preceding, both wings being entirely black, nigra. 
■ — ab. nigrobasalis Spuler is characterized by having the entire basal part of the hindwing black. — In nigrohasa- 
ab. passetii Th.-Mieg the hindwing is infuscated. — In the var. sajana form. nov. from Sajan, Siberia (the ^^^- __ 
name adopted from the trade lists of Statjdinger), the tone is somewhat fuller and redder, on the whole weakly sajana. ' 
marked, the pale patch proximally to the cell-spot on the forewing broad but short, the spot itself uniformly 
dark (not paler-centred as in the type), the cell-spot of hindwing rather small, the wings perhaps slightly shorter 
and broader than in the typical form. A single specimen described from Kamtchatka by Alpheeaky would 
appear to be similar to this, but may prove, when material is available for study, to belong to another race, or to 
the North American representative species infans Moschl. The larvae is green with three darker, finely yellow- 
edged dorsal lines, lateral line yellow, spiracles black, tubercles yellow, setae small, black. It feeds on birch in May, 
perhaps in some localities also on beech. The pupa is rather smooth, cylindrical, tapering rapidly at anus, cre- 
master shorter than broad, not tapering, flat at extremity, the two spines projecting laterally, opposite to one 
another; colour shining red-brown, spiracular spots darker. The species is widely distributed in Central and 
Northern Europe and in Siberia, where it reaches eastward to Kamtchatka and Amurland. It is not afraid of 
the rigour of the Ear North, occurring even in Lapland. 

B. notha Hbn. (= vidua F. nee Poda) (1 a). Similar to the preceding, rather smaller, (J without dis- nothat 
tinct white patch proximally to the cell-spot, $ with a pale band near base of forewing. Structurally distinct 
in the pectinated (J antenna (which is simple in parthenias) and in the much shorter stalking of the second sub- 
costal vein of hindwing. Variation quite inconsiderable; in Central France, on the banks of the Cher, occurs 
a small form, touranginii Berce, with the forewing slaty grey, its postmedian line little bent, the white patch touranginii, 
following it distinct, the larva said to live exclusively on Salix monandra. Larva similar to that of parthenias, 
but characterized by two irregular black streaks or blotches on the face, prothorax more or less marked with 

IV 1 


black dorsally; in the early stages an almost entirely black larva. On aspen, more rarely on sallow. Pupa quite 
similar to that of parthenias. Europe, Central Asia, Algeria. 

puella. B. puella Esp. (= caelebs Hbn. = spuria Hbn.) (1 a). Forewing greyer than in the two preceding, 

in cJ usually nearly unicolorous, in $ with the central area often broadly pale. Hindwing duller, less reddish, 
ireilschkei. usually considerably paler, the dark parts somewhat extended. Structure nearly as in notha. — Inab. treitschkei 
ab. nov. (^) the forewing is very dark brown-grey, with no distinct markings, the hindwing and underside milk- 
white in those parts which are yellow in the typical form. Recently described, without name, by Aigner- 
Abafi, from coll. Tbeitschke. — Larva on aspen, violet-reddish with four white longitudinal lines. Range some- 
what restricted, Central Europe to South Russia. 

2. Genus: Lieiicobreplios Grote. 

Somewhat more robust than Brephos, and even more shaggy. Antenna in (J more strongly bipectinate. 
Tibial spurs minute. Cells very long, yet with the first median vein of hindwing long-stalked. Early stages unknown. 
The only two known species of the genus are very closely allied, if not indeed forms of a single species. They 
are scarce in collections, and seem to be almost confined to high latitudes in Siberia and North America, though 
the American species, brephoides apparently reaches further southwards in the Rocky Mountains. 
midden- L. middendorfii Men. (1 a). Only known to me from Menetries' description and figure (here copied). 

dorfii. jg possibly not specifically distinct from brephoides. Forewing blackish grey, the lines black, the proximal 
outcurved behind cell, the distal outcurved in middle, then incurved, followed by a white band. Hindwing 
white, with a narrower dark border than brephoides. Underside with more white. N. E. Siberia. 

2. Subfamily: Oenochrominae. 

A rather unsatisfactory subfamily, created by Meyrick to contain the various genera — not all 
closely related — which have maintained the most nearly the primitive Geometrid venation, all the veins 
of the hindwing being present but without the specializations characteristic of the Hemitheinae, Acidaliinae 
or Larentiinae. In Australia, where it is most strongly represented, it is perhaps a comparatively natural 
subfamily, but it is doubtful whether the few isolated Palearctic genera which are necessarily — • in the 
present state of Geometrid classification — referred to it have any really close affinity with the Australian, 
or with one another. Excepting the venational character, there is little by which the subfamily as a whole 
can be characterized. Very frequently the ^ antenna is unipectinate, but this does not occur in any of 
the Palearctic forms. The Orthostixinae, recognized by Meyrick and Hampson as a separate subfamily, 
distinguishable by the presence of a bar between the costal and subcostal veins of the hindwing, near the 
base, has not proved tenable; even in the genus Orthostixis itself, this may be either present or absent. Se- 
veral of the species fly by day, but the habits are almost as diversified as the structure. A few of the lar- 
vae have more than the normal number of prolegs, but none are at present known which possess the full 
complement like the Brephinae. Scattered representatives of the subfamily (as at present constituted) are 
distributed nearly throughout the world. 

1. Genus: Alsopliila Hbn. 

Palpus very short. Antenna in ^ with long fasciculate ciliation. Hindtibia with all spurs. Wings 
of (J thinly and smoothly scaled, ample, but at rest closely folded. Second subcostal vein of forewing usu- 
ally free. Hindwing with cell long, costal vein anastomosing strongly with subcostal, second radial variable 
in position, sometimes arising remarkably near third, third submedian unusually long, running to anal angle. 
? apterous, with strong anal tuft. — The eggs are laid in batches, firmly cemented, often encircling a twig 
after the maimer of Malacosoma neustria, and are covered with hairscales from the maternal anal tuft. The 
larva is slender, smooth, cylindrical, with a pair of rudimentary prolegs on the fifth abdominal segment 
which, according to Breyer, are tactile, not prehensile. The pupa is plump, with eyecases prominent, ab- 
domen tapering rapidly, anal extremity armed with two short, divergent spines ; enclosed in a moderately 
compact earthen cocoon. The genus is chiefly Palearctic, one species, however, being North American. 

PHTHORARCHA. By L. B. Protjt. 3 

They appear in the late autumn or early spring and are often very abundant. The larvae are tree-feeders, 
and the American species is reckoned among the injurious insects. The genus is very generally called by 
the younger name of Anisopteryx Steph. 

A. aescularia Schiff. (1 a). Forewing pale brownish grey, darker dusted, with two dentate dark aescularia. 
lines, the first bounded proximally and the second distally by ill-defined pale bands. Hindwing paler, with 
prominent discal spot and weak dentate line. Under surface similar, rather paler. Usually very constant 
in colour and markings, thoug occasionally unimportant darker aberrations are met with. — • In Japan and 
S. E. Siberia represented by japonensis Warr. (la) which is somewhat ampler-winged, duller and less sharply japonensis. 
marked, and differs structurally in having the discocellulars of the hindwing simple, with the second radial 
from near the centre, whereas in aescularia they are biangulate, with second radial from near third. — urz- urzhumaria. 
humaria Krulilc. from E. Russia is founded on a large, greyer specimen, with rather well-marked transverse 
bands, and may perhaps prove to be a local race of either aescularia or japonensis. Larva pale green, 
with faintly darker dorsal lines, yellowish subdorsal and spiracular lines and black spiracles. Recalls that 
of Operophtera brumata, but is somewhat more slender, and easily known by the minute prolegs (or 
processes) on the fifth abdominal segment. Feeds on most trees, with perhaps a preference for the common 
elm. The (J sits by day on fences or tree-trunks or among dead leaves, the hindwings closely folded and the 
forewings placed one over the other in a position almost unique among the Geometridae. It flies along hedges at 
dusk and is strongly attracted by light. The typical form occurs chiefly in Central Europe, but extends to 
Castile in the south-west, Scotland and southern Scandinavia in the north and Russian Transcaucasia in the 

A. quadripunctaria Esp. (= aoeraria Schiff. nee Hufn., mellearia Scharfenh.) (lb) is of a browner colour quadn- 
than the preceding species, the lines more indistinct, not white-margined, the hindwing whiter with the vundarut. 
line obsolete. Larva greenish, with greenish-white dorsal and yellow lateral lines, feeds on various trees. The 
imago occurs in the late autumn, and has a similar range to the preceding, but is wanting in Britain 
and has no Oriental representative. The species has long been known as aceraria, but this is a homonym 
and therefore untenable. 

A- tenuis Btlr. (3 a) Forewing of (J much stumpier than in the preceding species, and with some tenuis. 
slight differences in neuration which would possibly justify the retention of the generic name Inurois, under 
which Butler described it. Colour brownish- or purplish-grey, thinly scaled, the scheme of markings nearly 
as in the two preceding, the postmedian line not, or not appreciably bent near costa. Discal dots somewhat 
variable, usually very small, never very large or black. $ unknown. The species is only known as yet from 
Japan, and its exact range there is not ascertained. The only specimens before me with precise data are from 

A. membranaria Christ. (3 a) is closely related to the preceding, but the (J is on an average larger, memhra- 
is considerably paler and has extremely prominent black discal spots on both wings, that on the forewing naria. 
being very large. The $ possibly lacks the anal tuft of true Alsophila, but I have only seen one worn speci- 
men. Occurs with the preceding species at Yokohama, but also in S. E. Siberia. 

2. Genus: !Plithorarclia Meyr. 

Nearly related to the preceding genus, distinguished by the narrower wings, the longer stalking 
of the second subcostal of the hindwing, and especially the absence of median spurs. — Of the life-history 
and habits nothing is as yet known. The single species has a limited range in Turkestan. 

Ph. primigena Stgr. (lb). ^■. forewing pale brownish grey, with two very faint dentate lines, the distal pHmigena. 
incised near costa; cell-spot very weak, elongate; a brown streak from apex. Hindwing whitish, with obsolescent 
cell-mark. Underside of forewing paler, costal end of distal line present. 5 apterous, with strong anal tuft. 
Zerafshan to perhaps the Transcaspian region. Has been erroneously recorded by Leech from Japan, his 
specimens having been really Alsophila japonensis. 

EGEA; MYINODES. By L. B. Protjt. 

3. Genus: !Egea Dwp. 

Small moths with the wings (especially the hindwing) rather elongate, in the $ narrow and, iU-developed, 
scaling nearly as in the two preceding genera. Palpus short. Antenna in ^ bipectinate, typically with long 
branches. Hindtibia with all spurs well developed. Forewing with cell long, second subcostal absent. Hind- 
wing with R " weak, thus somewhat transitional towards the subfamily Geometi-inae. — Early stages apparently 
unknown. The species are distributed in the eastern half of the southern Palearctic Region. 

culminaria, E. culminaria Eversm. (= desertaria Frr.) (lb), the name-type of the genus, has a light grey-brown 

ground-colour, much mixed with white, the usual lines on the forewing represented by strong dark spots 
or dashes on the veins, the distal area white, interrupted with brown on the veins. The hindwing is weakly 
marked, with an ill-defined white median band. Underside similar, but rather paler. Early stages apparently 
unknown. The moth was originally discovered flying in May at high altitudes in the Ural district, but 
extends to Western Turkestan. 

ieneraria. E. teneraria Stgr. (= coelestinaria Alph.) (1 b) has the grey-brown ground-colour much less mixed 

with white than in culminaria and lacks the dark spots or dashes on the veins. The most conspicuous white 
band of the forewing is beyond the middle, projecting strong teeth proximally; the distal white spots are re- 
duced, the brown band preceding them broader. Antennal pectinations much shorter than in czdminaria. 
Only known from a few locahties in Eastern Turkestan. 

pcllucida. E, pellucida Stgr. is distinguished from the other species by its somewhat broader, more 

transparent, very weakly-marked wings. The ground-colour is smoky grey or smoky brown, with a nearly 
obsolete narrow dark band running from the costa of the forewing at three-fourths and very faintly continued 
on the costal part of the hindwing. Antennal pectinations strong. Discovered by Elwes in the south- 
eastern Altai. 

cacumi- E. cacuminaria Rainh. (1 b) differs from culminaria in its larger size, much darker forewing with 

yiana. siig]^t2y rounder costa and reduced distal white spots, distinct discal spot on hindwing (not sho\vn in the 
figure), shghtly less long antennal pectinations in the cj and longer stalking of second subcostal vein of 
hindwing. Andalusia to Aragon. 

argetiiaria. E. argentaria Bang-Haas is described as agreeing with cacuminaria except in the silvergrey ground- 

colour, sprinkled with brownish, the pure white-grey distal area, the terminal line consisting of long black 
streaks instead of dots, the hind^^dng without discal spot, marginal dots or distinct band. Tunis: Foum- 
Tatahouine. Unknown to me in nature. 

planaria. E. planaria Chret. Also described as near cacmninaria, and also unknown to me. Possibly a form 

of the preceding, but distinctly stated to possess a well-marked dark discal spot and terminal blackish line 
to the hindwing, Avhich is grey with a whitish postmedian band. Said to differ chiefly from cacuminaria 
in havmg no discal spot on the forewing, a distinct median shade on the costa and the median and sub- 
median veins white. Timis: Gafsa. 

4. Genus: Myinodes Meyr. 

Palpus moderate or rather long. Antenna in (J with fascicles of even cilia. Legs rather slender, hind- 
tibia with four rather long spurs. Abdomen slender. Wmgs glossy, smooth-scaled, in $ rather narrower 
than in (J. Forewing with first subcostal anastomosing with costal vein, second subcostal anastomosing with 
first and with third and fourth. Hindwing with second subcostal stalked. — Early stages unknown. The single 
species is almost confined to the Mediterranean httoral. Statjdinger calls the genus Eusarca Her.-Sch., a preoc- 
cupied name. 

inler- M. itlterputictaria H.-Sch. (lb). Forewing pale grey-brown, sparsely dark-sprinkled, veins very 

punciaria. finely whitish, broader longitudinal stripes between the veins, the dark lines indicated by teeth on the veins, 

cell-spot and small dots on distal margin black. Hindwing whitish, postmedian hne indicated by spots on the 


veins. Underside of hindwing less white, more concolorous with forewing, more strongly marked than above. 
Murcia, Tunis, Sicily, SjTia, N. Mesopotamia. 

5. Genus: Uliolepij'i Warr. 

Face and palpus hairy. Tongue wanting. Antenna in $ bipectinate (^ unknown). Thorax densely 
hairy. Abdomen robust. Cells long, discocellulars biangulate, second radial arising from posterior angle, there- 
fore near third. — Early stages unknown. Belongs to quite a different section from the preceding genera, and 
would possibly be better associated with the Biston group in the Geometrinae, but the second radial of the 
hindwing is well developed. 

U. pilosa Warr. Forewing ochreous grey, dusted with blackish. Lines blackish, excurved anteriorly, pilosa. 
incurved posteriorly, consisting of a basal, an antemedian and a postmedian, besides a median shade. Discal 
mark large, diffuse, grey. Hindwing paler, without markings, except an indistinct curved submarginal shade. 
Under surface much paler, unmarked. Wing-expanse 34 mm. The unique type, a $ from Sefir Kuh (Sefid 
Kuh ?), Afghanistan, in coll. Rothschild, is unfortunately in very bad condition, and it has not been possible 
to figure it. 

6. Genus: JSarcinocles Guen. 

This genus, very distinct from all the Palearctic Oenochrominae, belongs essentially to the Indo-Australian 
fauna, and will be described in Vol. 12, and figured there on PI. 1 of that Volume, but is mentioned here because 
two of the species have straggled as far as the confines on the Palearctic Region. It may be distinguished 
by its large size, powerful build, unipectinate (J antenna and by having the second radial of the hindwing 
connate or even very shortly stalked with the first. 

S. restitutaria Walk. Ochreous reddish with purple reflections, especially in distal area of forewing restitutaria. 
and median of hindwing (occasionally more purplish all over). A nearly straight, double olive-fuscous line 
from close to apex of forewing to middle of inner margin of hindwing, enclosing a fine pale line. Underside 
paler, more pinkish, with a dark line much nearer base, and a line of dots beyond. Borneo to India, Omei-Shan. 

S. aequilinearia Walk. Lilacine, usually much shaded with reddish. Forewing with three, hindwing aequili- 
with two nearly straight, oblique, equidistant darker reddish lines, the distal one shaded with yellow proxi- ''^^"■i"''"'- 
mally. Costal edge and fringe also dark reddish. Under surface with distal half much more variegated with 
yellow and reddish-orange, only the median line present, shortly followed by an irregular line of dark vein-dots. 
N. India, Omei-Shan. 

7. Genus: Epirraiitliis^6re. 

Face smooth, palpus short. Antenna in both sexes slender, nearly simple. Thorax moderately hairy. 
Hindtibia with all spurs. Wings ample, thickly scaled. Forewing with distal margin bent in middle, first 
subcostal anastomosing with costal vein, second subcostal with first and then with third to fourth. Hind- 
wing with second subcostal arising from cell. A quite isolated genus in Europe, its nearest relatives — 
so near, indeed, that Meyeick has referred them to the same genus — being the New Zealand genera Xyri- 
dacma and Xynonia. 

E. diversata Schiff. (= pulverata Thnb., aurantiata F.) (1 b). Forewing light red-brown, dark Mversata. 
dusted, lines weak, chiefly indicated by black spots on the veins, and by a paler (at costa broad and ochre- 
ous-whitish, afterwards narrow and glaucous) shading which accompanies the first line proximally and the 
second distally; the second oblique in anterior half of wing. Hindwing orange, coarsely dusted with fuscous. 
Both wuigs with very large blackish discal spot. Under surface of forewing orange, of hindwing paler, both 
wings strongly sprinkled and marked with fuscous, the discal spots as above. Local in Europe, excepting the 
west and south. — The var. (ab. 1) pallidaria Wendlandt, described from four ,^^ from Wiesbaden, is much palUdaria. 
paler, less dusted, the hnes obsolescent. — The egg has been described byV. Richter and is ellipsoid, dark orange 
to flesh-colour, the micropylar pole flattened, pattern hexagonal, a micropylar rosette of 6 to 10 cells. Larva 
slender, cylindrical, eighth abdominal segment with a transverse protuberance; colour grey, with two lighter 
dorsal lines and dark grey dorsal spots, the tubercles large, black. Feeds on aspen in May and June. Pupa 
rather slender, cylindrical, cremaster short, terminating in two crossed spines and on either side two or three 
booklets. The moth appears in March and April, flying about the tops of trees in the sunshine in company 


with. Btephos, to which its general similarity in colouring must be due more to convergence than to near rela- 

8. Genus : Aplasta Sbn. 

Palpus moderate, rather rough-scaled. Antenna rather thick, tapering, in both sexes nearly simple. 
Hindtibia with all spurs. Wings broad, rather thickly scaled; frenulum wanting. Forewing with first subcostal 
anastomosing with costal, second wanting. Hindwing with cell rather short, second subcostal stalked, second 
radial arising above the middle of the discocellulars, as in the Hemitheinae (to which at one time Meyrick refer- 
red the genus). Tliis is another isolated genus, consistmg of a single species of which no near relatives are 

ojionaria. A. ononaria i^M&ss. (= rubellata Vill., rubicapraria Hhn.) (Ic) is a variable species in colour and in the 

distinctness of the markings, which are never sharp and consist merely of a somewhat darkened line or shade 
on both wings beyond middle, a very faint pale submarginal line, occasionally faint traces of an antemedian 
hne on forewing only, and occasionally very faint traces of a cell-spot on both wings. The imder surface is 
more heavily dusted, the markings more distinct. In the tj^ical from (1 c) the ground-colour is yellowish brown, 
ruhraria. moderately irrorated with reddish. — rubraria, ab. nov. (1 c) is darker and redder, the irroration in part fuscous, 
especially on hindwmg and underside. Specimens have been circulated under this name by the firm of 

sudaiaria. Staudtsg'er. — ab. sudataria .ff6?i. is an unimportant aberration of smaller size and rather strongly marked. 

faecahma. — faecaturia Hbn. (1 c) is a summer form recorded chiefly (through not exclusively) from the eastern part of 
the range of the species and characterized by smaller size, paler ground-colour and more noticeable red markings. 

berytaria. — berytaria Hbn. (1 c) is an almost unicolorous greenish-grey aberration or variety from SjTia and the southern 
Taurus. — - The larva feeds on Ononis in the spring and again about July, and assimilates beautifully to its food- 
plant. It is rather short and stout, fusiform, with small conical head, the body green, a lateral Ime yellow, the 
tubercles small, but dark, the covering of hairs unusually conspicuous for a Geometrid larva. The pupa is 
moderately stout, greenish, vestigial tubercles distinct, nearly black, bearing rather stiff setae, cremaster strong, 
with eight well-developed hooks; enclosed in a slight cocoon. The imago is double brooded, appearing normally 
in June and August. It occurs commonly in places, but is local, in southern and central Europe and eastward 
to Armenia. 

9. Genus: Heliothca Bdv. 

Palpus moderate or rather short, mth long rough hairs. Tongue weak. Antenna rather short, in (J 
with rather long to moderate, in $ with very short pectinations. Legs rather short. Hindtibia without median 
spurs. Frenulum wanting. Wings rather strong, well scaled. Forewing with first two subcostals long-stalked, 
connected very shortly with costal. Hmdwing with second subcostal short-stalked, second radial arising above 
the middle of discocellulars. Like the preceding genus, the present one shows some affinity to the Hemitheinae, 
but the two have evolved along rather widely different paths. The larva of the type species has been made 
known by Milliere, and is briefly described below. The genus apparently consists of only two species, the eastern 
one somewhat variable, or mchned to form local races. 

dhcniclaria. H. discoidaria Bdv. (1 c). Head and body with antenna, etc. almost entirely black. Tegulae and wings 

bright golden yellow, the wings blackish at margins and each with a large, round, black discal spot. Larva 
nearly cyhndi'ical, without protuberances, shghtly attenuated at the extremities, head small, spherical, coralU- 
form, distinct from prothorax, tubercles small, setae minute, ground-colour gi-eyish or bluish green, dorsally 
washed with orange. Head pink. Feeds on Santolina. Hibernates as larva, spending about 10 months in the 
larval stage. Pupa cylmdrico-conical, smooth, anal extremity obtuse, with several small hooks; in a sUght 
cocoon. The moth fhes in the sunshine and is very local, and known only fi'om some parts of Spain. It emerges 
towards the end of May or in June. 

H. iliensis is very distinct from the preceding in its much paler colour, with usually duller forewing, and 

in the absence of black margins and large discal spots. Structurally, too, the relationship is not very close, the 

present species having broader forewing, shorter antennal pectinations, more oblique discocellulars, with second 

radial rising further above the middle. It suggests in some respects an intergrade towards the African genus 

iliensis. Petovia. In iliensis Alph. (1 c), the first described form, which is distributed in Turkestan, the forewing is pale 


clay-colour, the hind, wing yellow. — In the form alpherakii Stgr., which occurs in the Zerafshan and Fergana alphcmkU. 
districts, both wings are yellow, the forewings with costa, fringes and a discal spot grey, thus more nearly approx- 
imating to discoidaria. — herzi Stgr., from one or two localities in Zerafshan, is smaller, the forewing wholly herzi. 
grey, the hindwing orange with a grey border. — christophi Alph., described from a single ^, and unknown to chrisiophi. 
me in nature, is said by Staudinger to be probably an abnormal aberration of iliensis. The forewing above 
and hindwing beneath are whitish-ashy, the hindwing above and forewing beneath grey. Near Kuldja. 

10. Genus: 0<1ezia Bdv. 

Face with projecting scales. Palpus moderate, rough-scaled. Antenna rather short, in ^ shortly and 
evenly ciliated. Hindtibia with all spurs. Forewing with first and second subcostals stalked, second often anasto- 
mosing with third to fourth. Hindwing with cell short, costal vein closely appressed to the cell to nearly its 
end, second subcostal stalked. This is again an isolated genus. The older systematists classed it with the Laren- 
tiinae, and it certainly seems to show some signs of affinity therewith, but not sufficient to allow of its being 
classified among them. Its supposed close relationship to Baptria tibiale is almost entirely fictitious. The single 
species has a wide range in the Palearctic Region. 

1. 0. atrata L. (= chaerophyllata L.) (1 c). Almost entirely black, the extreme apex and apical atrata. 
fringe of the forewing white. — In pyrenaica Gumpp. (= costal Calh.), from the Pyrenees and Central ■pyrenaica. 
Italy, the wings, but especially the forewing, are more or less strongly dusted with brownish-yellow. — In ab. 
nigerrima Th.-Mieg, described from a single $ without exact locality, the white apex and apical fringe are absent, nigerrima. 
— The life history has been fully worked out by Chapman. The egg is unlike any other yet described in the 
possession of two remarkable sulci, one on each side, running nearly from end to end and giving the aspect, when 
only a single face is considered, of agrain of wheat. It is laid in the summer and does not hatch until the follow- 
ing spring. The larva feeds on Conopodium denudatum (Bunium flexuosum), perhaps occasionally on other 
allied plants. It is long and slender, nearly cylindrical, without protuberances, green in the first and second 
instars, either green or brown in the third and fourth. The markings are longitudinal, and show considerable 
variability; there are usually a dark dorsal line and dark subdorsal band and a pale lateral band; some- 
times the dorsal area has diamond-shaped markings as in many Eupithecia. Pupation takes place in a slight 
cocoon. The pupa is light brown, of about the ordinary form, wing-veins very prominent, cover of prothoracic 
spiracle a raised dark button, anal armature consisting of two sharp spines. The moth appears in the summer, 
the exact date varying with the locality. It flies in the sunshine about the bracken or other plants among which 
its foodplant grows. It is common and widely distributed in the Palearctic Region, though absent from the 
extreme north, and apparently confined in the south to high altitudes. 

11. Genus: Palaeomystiis Warr. 

Palpus short. Antenna in both sexes nearly simple, rather short. Hindtibia with all spurs. Wings 
smoothly and rather thinly scaled. Forewing slightly produced at apex, first and second subcostals stalked, 
the second anastomosing with the third and fourth. Hindwing sharply produced at the end of the second sub- 
costal, cell rather short, in ^ with a much produced posterior arm, second subcostal arising from cell, radials 
normal in $, the second in the ^ from lower arm of cell, thus much nearer to the third than to the first, ab- 
dominal margin in ^ somewhat cut away. Early stages imknown. The genus, easily recognized by the 
shape and texture of the wings, consists of only two species, both occuring just within the Palearctic 
Region but probably Indo-Australian rather than Palearctic in their origin. The other genera with which 
they appear to have most in common — Abraxaphantes, Doratoptera, Loxorhombia and Heteralex — ■ are 
entirely Indo-Australian. 

P. falcataria Moore (Id). Bluish or greenish white with a silky gloss. Both wings with ioxn falcataria. 
grey transverse lines, somewhat variable in distinctness and thickness, the second and third on both 
wings meeting at inner margin, the third on hindwing nearly always angled or strongly bent in middle. 
Discal marks weak or wanting. Under surface with the third line distinct, often thickened, the others 
usually weak or wanting; occasionally a well-marked discal spot on forewing. N. India to W. China and Tibet. 

P. mabillaria Pouj. (1 c). Much smaller than the preceding, with less lines and these very ill-defined, maUUaria. 
a postmedian on forewing manifesting itselv chiefly by strong dark spots on second radial and at inner margin. 


The fringe, which in falcataria is unmarked, is in mahillaria strongly spotted with fuscous at the vein-ends. 
Under surface similar. W. China: Mou-pin, Wa-Shan and H^iang-Mu-Chang. 

12. Genus: Oypsochroa Hb 


Palpus rather short and slender. Antenna rather long, in both sexes finely ciliated. Legs long and 
slender, hindtibia without median spurs, the terminal ones very short. Abdomen slender. Wings rather narrow, 
with smooth, glossy scaling. Forewing with cell rather long, second subcostal wanting, first subcostal anasto- 
mosing twice. Hindwing with costal closely approximated to cell to one-half, second subcostal not stalked. Only 
one species known. Possibly related to Orthostixis, although the ^J genitalia do not show any sign of affinity. 

renilidaia. G. renitidata Hb7i. (1 c). Wings as well as face, antenna, etc., uniformly white, only the underside of 

forewing slightly smoky. Early stages apparently unknown. The moth is local, occuring from S. E. Russia 
to Asia Minor, and little seems to be recorded as to its habits. It has been taken locally also in Ardeche, 
South-east France. The life-history has recently been made known by Chretibk. The eggs are laid in rows 
of 2 — 6 on the leaves of Linaria striata, and are yellowish white, with rows of small oval depressions. The 
larva hatches in 10 — 12 days. It is sub-cylindrical, the segmental incisions deep, the colour bluish white with 
brown latero-dorsal band, tubercles and setae small ; but is chiefly remarkable for the possession of two addi- 
tional pairs of rudimentary prolegs on the 4. and 5. abdominal segments, which, however, become still more 
minute in the adult larva. Pupa slender, whitish, with darker head, brown dorsal line and yellowish wing- 
cases, the extremities of which are free, reaching as far as the 7. or 8. abdominal segment; in a cocoon on 
the foodplant, resembling in texture that of Nola. That of the summer generation produces the imago in 
about a fortnight but the autumn pupae hibernate. The moth appears in May and June and again in July 
to August, and rests among the Linaria, folding the wings closely around the twigs. 

13. Genus: Orthostixis Hbn. 

Characters somewhat as in the preceding genus, but antenna and legs shorter, wings much broader, fore- 
wing with all veins present, first subcostal arising from costal, second to third stalked, their stalk anastomosing 
with first and usually with fourth, hindwing with costal further from subcostal, in cribraria connected with it 
by a bar near the base. Geographical range somewhat limited, the only two known species being almost confined 
to the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. The larva of one of the species has been made known 
within the present century, and is briefly described below. 

cribraria. 0. cribraria Hbn. (= laetata F.) (Id). White, the forewing with two, the hindwing with one row of 

black dots on the veins representing the lines. Both wings with black cell-spot and series of intraneural dots 
on the distal margin. Underside similar, the proximal series of dots obsolete. — Larva dorsally dirty green, 
marked with yellow subdorsal line, yellow lateral protuberances, ventral surface mainly yellow; tubercles black, 
distinct, bearing long whitish bristly hairs. Pupa at the head light broAvnish, otherwise bone-white with black 
markings and some yellow spots. The moth is double-brooded (May and August) and occurs from S. E. Europe 
to Armenia. 

cakidnria. 0. calcularia Led. (Id). Similar to the preceding, somewhat larger, but at once distinguished by the 

more oblique course of the proximal series of black spots and by the dark smoky underside of the forewing. 
The spots, moreover, show a tendency to be enlarged into dashes, and structurally the present species differs 
in the obsolescence or entire absence of the bar between costal and subcostal of hindwing. Known only from 
northern Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. 

14. Genus: Centrouaxa Prout. 

Nearly related to Orthostixis, but with the palpus more minute, the antenna bipectinate in both sexes, 
the branches moderate or long in the ^, shorter in the $, wings more thinly scaled, less pure white, radials 
of forewing strongly curved, hindwing with costal more nearly approximated to cell near base, second discocellu- 
lar rather oblique, third nearly vertical, the bend at origin of second radial being therefore distad instead of 
proximad. The early stages are still unknown. The name-tj^e of the genus, orthostigialis Warr., inhabits 
North India, but the others all belong to central and western China. All are closely related. 

PuU. 17. VI. 1913. NAXA; ASPILONAXA. By L. B. Prout. 9 

C. margaritaria Leech (1 d) shows the general scheme of markings that is common to the group, the margariia- 
submarginal series of black spots (as is usual in this and the following genus) placed nearer to the distal margin ^'■"'■ 
than in Orthostixis. Antemedian line of forewing consisting of elongate dashes on the costal, subcostal and 
median veins and inner margin and a spot on the submedian. Both wings with a spot on middle of inner margin 
(which is wanting in Orthostixis and Naxa). Only known from Chang-yang, central China, taken in July. 

C. contf ar ia Leech (Id) is exceedingly like the preceding, but larger, rather less transparent, contraria. 
the spots larger, those of the antemedian series relatively shorter and thicker. The (J antennal pectinations 
are longer. Central China : Chang-yang and Ichang, in July. 

C. montanaria Leech (1 e) is still larger, the anal angle of hindwing more prominent. The spots are montanaria. 
even smaller than in margaritaria, the antemedian series not, or scarcely, prolonged into dashes. Western China: 
Omei-shan and Wa-shan, in June. 

15. Genus : ^iTaxa Walh. 

Very similar to the two preceding genera, especially to Centronaxa, but differing from both in the entire 
absence of spurs on the hindtibia and usually of the frenulum; from Orthostixis further in the minute palpus, 
more rounded forewing and less simple antenna; from Centronaxa in the more normal discocellulars. I hitherto 
overlooked the presence of the frenulum in a single species, angustaria. This is the more inexcusable as it is 
mentioned by Leech. The species ought, on this character, to form a separate genus. For the present I merely 
recognize three subgenera: 

I. Antenna bipectinate with moderate branches. Frenulum absent Naxa Walk. 

II. Antenna biserrate. Frenulum absent Psilonaxa Warr. 

III. Antenna very shortly bipectinate. Frenulum present Desmonaxa, suhgen. nov. 

The distinctions apply to both sexes, and could easily be treated as generic. The facies of all the spe- 
cies is remarkably uniform. The larvae have not been described, but according to Pryek are hairy, gregarious, 
living in a web, that of seriaria on privet. I have received a series of angustaria from Chungking, bred by 
Barry from collected cocoons, and gather that this species also is gregarious and the pupa not subterranean, 
but I have no further information at present. 

N. textilis Walk. (= cypraria Guen., hiigeli Feld.) (Id) is usually distinguishable, apart from its textilis. 
more strongly pectinate antenna, by its ocellated discal spots, which, moreover, are of a less deep black than 
in seriaria and angustaria. This ocellation of the discal spots is, indeed, somewhat inconstant, but seems especially 
prevalent in the more northern forms of the species. According to Swinhoe, the antennal pectinations of the 
form hiigeli are much longer than those of textilis. If this were the case, it would naturally have to rank as a 
distinct species, but we suspect that he confounded cJc? with $$, or else mistook some other species for textilis. 
textilis is widely distributed throughout India. 

N. seriaria Motsch. (= laetata Brem., nee F., taicoumaria De I'Orza, bremeraria Stgr.) (Id). Wliite, seriaria. 
the black markings placed as in all the genus, namely: three large black vein-spots on forewing at about one- 
third from base, placed in a slight curve, a large cell-spot on each wing, a submarginal series of large spots on the 
veins and a marginal series of smaller ones between the veins. Underside the same, but with the antemedian 
spots weak. Distributed, and apparently in many places common, from West China to Amur and Japan. Be- 
longs to the subgenus Psilonaxa. 

N. angustaria Leech is distinguishable from seriaria, apart from the structural characters, by angustaria. 
the smaller discal spot of the hindwing. In addition, the submarginal spots are rather closer to the marginal, 
and are generally characterized, on both wings, by having the costal one larger and more conspicuous than the 
rest. Central and western China, June and July. Forms the type (and only yet known species) of the subgenus 
Desmonaxa, which — as indicated above — will probably require to be raised to generic rank. 

16. Gelius: AspUouaxa Warr. 

Palpus moderate. Antenna about two-thirds the length of wing, nearly simple in both sexes. Hindtibia with 
a pair of minute spurs, in (J broadened and flattened and with strong hair-pencil. Forewing with first three subcostals 
stalked, their stalk anastomosing with costal, third subcostal later anastomosing with fourth. Only one species 
known, which differs from Naxa in longer palpus and antenna, different neuration, and different wing-pattern. 

IV 2 

10 OZOLA; ARCH^OBALBIS. By L. B. Protjt. 

obliquaria. A. obliquaria Leech (= lineata Warr.) (1 e). White with a peculiar brownish smoky gloss. Forewing 

with first line curved, very faint, only indicated by some slight pale shading which accompanies it proximally; 
second line angled, then rather oblique, becoming median or almost antemedian on hindwing, indicated by a slight 
darkening of the ground-colour and accompanied distally by a pale band. Both wings with a large roundish discal 
patch and an apical patch pale bluish grey. Marginal spots black, distinct. Under surface white, with the discal 
and apical patches black, marginal spots as above. Western China: Omei-Shan in July, Chow-pin-sa in June. 

17. Genus: Ozola Walk. 

An Indo-Australian genus, of which a single species reaches the southern part of Palearctic Japan. 
The full description of the genus can be reserved for a later volume. The species is quite unmistakable by its 
contour, and structurally by the very wide separation of the costal vein of the hindwing from the cell, with 
which it is connected by a distinct bar. Practically nothing is known of the habits and life-history. 

japonica. 0. japotiica Proiit (1 f). I erected this as a subspecies of impedita Walk., with which it agrees in struc- 

ture. But superficially it is nearer, especially in the less whitened ground-colour, the complete line and small 
discal spot of the hindwing, and perhaps one or two other characters, to sinuicosta Prout. From both it differs 
in the less angulated proximal line of the forewing and the stronger submarginal series of spots on both wings. 
It will probably prove a perfectly distinct species. Kiushiu: Nagasaki, Jmie, 1886. Described from specimens 
in the British Museum. I have since seen it in coll. Wileman. 

3. Subfamily: Hemitheinae. 

A very interesting subfamily, of tolerably uniform structure, especially in the constancy ^vith which 
the second radial vein of the hindwing (and frequently also of the forewing) arises near the anterior angle of the 
cell. The prevalence of bright green colouring of the wdngs is also veiy noteworthy, and has gained for the sub- 
family in England the popular name of the ,, Emeralds", in America of the ,, Greens". The principal structural 
characters are as follows. Face nearly always smooth. Antenna very generally bipectinate in the ^, and often 
even in the $ (never unipectinate). Hindleg in ,^ rarely aborted, spurs variable according to the genus. Abdomen 
often with dorsal crests. Forewing almost invariably with all veins present, the second to fifth sub- 
costal almost invariably stalked. Hindwing with costal vein variable, second radial arising anteriorly to 
middle of discocellulars. Larva usually with head bifid, prothorax elevated, usually with double point 
anteriorly, body strongly granulated. Feed chiefly (so far as known) on trees and shrubs, and are usually 
rigid, wonderfully assimilated to small tAvigs. A few show still more specialized protective adaptations, 
those of one group (that of Comibaena) clothing themselves with fragments of leaf, which are attached to 
special tubercles by means of silken threads. Pupa usually green or rather light-coloured, often strongly 
marked with blackish, spun by a few threads among leaves. The moths of the more ancestral genera rest 
on tree-trunks or fences, and are of prevaihngly grey or lichen-Hke colouring. The more speciaUzed rest 
among green fohage, and are, on account of their green coloration, well protected. They are often very 
sluggish by day, and when disturbed prefer to flutter lazily to the ground, like faUing leaves, rather than 
to escape the threatened danger by fhght. The normal time of fhght is the evening or night, and they may 
be attracted by light; but both in North America and in Austraha the species seem hitherto, for the most 
part, to have been taken in comparatively small numbers. The Palearctic Region is not remarkably rich 
in species, but several of them are extremely common locally. The subfamily does not generally ascend to 
high latitudes or altitudes, and is wanting also in New Zealand, Hawaii, most of Chih and Patagonia. Other- 
wise its distribution is wide. 

1. Genus: Aj*cbaeobalbis Prout. 
It is by no means certain that this genus extends into the Palearctic Region, as the two species 

PINGASA. By L. B. Prout. 11 

which appear likely, from the figures, to belong to it are unknown to me in nature. I have erected it for 
a few species of similar structure to Actenochroma and Herochroma but with the second subcostal vein of 
the forewing arising from the cell — an ancestral character which in this subfamily is otherwise only re- 
tained in four primitive Australian genera. The species are chiefly Indiaii. The colour of the upperside 
is usually moss-green, mixed with reddish or purple. In some species the hindwing is greatly elongate and 
dentate, and these usually have the under surface variegated, a broad dark band traversing both wings 
before the distal margin. A few species have more normally shaped hindwing, and sober grey underside. 

A. sinapiaria Pouj. (3c), is described as of a pale mustard green finely sprinkled with brownish, distal sinapiaria. 
margin (especially of hindwing) dentate, with dark lunules between the teeth, postmedian line acutely den- 
tate on the veins, sinuate between the third radial and the medians, followed by slight blackish shading, 
and this again by a submarginal series of greenish brown spots; forewing also with a strongly dentate ante- 
median line. Under surface yellowish white with some broad blackish shades in distal part. A single fe- 
male from Mou-pin. 

A. crassipunctata Alph. (Ig), described as a Gnophos, would seem from the figures to be a near crassi- 
relative of usneata Feld., hypoglauca Hmpsn. and farinosa Warr. — the group of Archaeobalbis with less v^nctata. 
elongate hindwing and nearly uniform underside. It is described as cinereous brownish, the hindwing, espe- 
cially at base, strigulated with grey, a waved brownish postmedian line, dotted with fuscous on the veins, 
and an interrupted dark marginal Une. Underside yellowish- white, sparsely irrorated with grey, and with 
a very large black discal spot on each wing. The figure shows further on the upper surface a series of 
reddish intraneural blotches on both wings, distally to the postmedian line, and a much smaller, more lu- 
nular submarginal series. Turkestan: Aksai. 

2. Genus: Piiigasa Moore. 

Palpus with third joint in $ long. Antenna rather long, in ^ bipectinate, but with a long apical 
portion simple. Abdomen with paired crests. Hindwing elongate, especially in $, crenulate but without 
any strongly projecting teeth. Forewing with first subcostal vein usually free; hindwing with costal ap- 
proximated to cell near base, then diverging very sharply, second subcostal arising from cell, some tufts of 
raised scales on upperside on and behind the discocellulars. A very natural genus, widely distributed in the 
Indo-Austrahan and Aethiopian Regions, but scarcely spreading into the Palearctic. The facies is very uni- 
form, the general coloration whitish or grey (very rarely green) the distal area, at least on the under surface, 
more or less strongly darkened. The larva seems to be allied to Pseudoterpna. 

P. pseudoterpnaria Guen. (= pryeri Butl.) (If). Smaller and greyer (tinged with brown) than most pseudo^crp- 
of its allies, the distal area not appreciably darker on the upperside than the rest of the wing. Under sur- waria. 
face white, the proximal part (at least on forewing) more or less dusted with grey, both wings with large 
cell-mark and rather- broad submarginal band, which on the forewing generally spreads to the margin in the 
middle of the wing and sometimes posteriorly, but always leaves a clear, white apical patch. Japan to western 
China, apparently in two generations. Scarcely distinguishable above from the Indian tephrosiaria, which 
is Ukely a local race of it, but which has the base of the underside clearer white and the submarginal band 
often narrower. 

P. alba Swinh. (1 e). Variable in colour, from clear white to a brown-grey like that of the prece- alba. 
ding, but very distinct in its thick deep-black postmedian line, not dentate, but sending out short rays 
distad along the veins. Under surface without distinct white apical patch. Japan, N. China and Assam. A 
rather large and very handsome species. The Japanese form seems to be usually, though not invariably, greyer 
than the Indian. 

P. lahayei Ob. (1 g) somewhat suggests on the upperside a miniature grey specimen of alba but lahayei. 
with a less regular postmedian Une ; beneath, the distal area of the forewing shows a blackish patch at 
the costa, that of the hindwing small patches about the second radial and second median veins. Only known 
from North Africa. 


3. Genus: Metallolophia Warr. 

Palpus moderate, third joint in ? moderate or longish. Antenna rather long, lamellate or nearly 
simple. Abdomen crested, in the nametype (vitticosta) with the crests metalhcally glossy. ForeAving in ^ 
more or less elongate, the distal margin being very oblique, first subcostal vein free; hindwing with neuration 
nearly as in preceding genus. Excepting arenaria, only a few Indo-Malayan species are known. The genus 
is closely related to Terpna. 

armaria. M. arenaria Leech (1 e). Whitish, with shght ohve-brown clouding and with coarse purple-brown 

irroration in places. The Hnes and a very large oval discal mark on forewing oMve-brown, the discal mark 
surrounted, and the postmedian line in part overlaid with dark purple; postmedian hne irregular, much 
excurved anteriorly, but without sharp angles as in opalina Warr. Hindwing weakly marked (probably 
somewhat faded). Under surface of both wings with some blotches near base, large oval discal mark and 
thick, curved postdiscal line or shade. Central China: Kiiikiang. Only Leech's type ($) yet known. 

4. Genus : Terpna H.-Sch. 

Not very sharply differentiable from the preceding genus, which could almost be treated as a sub- 
genus of it. Frons strongly protuberant, antemia in (J nearly always, and in $ sometimes bipectinate, tho- 
rax densely hairy beneath, metathorax sometimes crested, abdominal crests never metalhc. Forewing broad, 
with distal margin not extremely obhque. 

A genus of ample-winged, robustly built moths of rather wide distribution in the south-eastern 
Palearctic and the Indo-AustraUan Regions! They show a good deal of diversity in structure, and I have 
elsewhere divided the genus into 8 subgenera according to the antennal structure, shape of wings, length of 
cells and other characters. For the half-dozen Palearctic species this subdivision may be set aside. 

decorafa. T. decorata Warr. (= dorsocristata Pouj.) (3c). Antenna simple. Distal margins of wings not crenu- 

late. White, finely dusted with ohve browii, both wings \vith a curved or angulated dark cell-mark and a 
much interrupted postmedian hne, the latter followed distally by some reddish blotches, that nearest apex 
of forewing large, fuscous-mixed, tridentate. Fore%ving also with large antemedian spot on costa. Underside 
with the markings ampler, more fuscous, the ceU-spots very large. Bhotan, Mou-pin and Chang- Yang. 

a'mpHficata. T. amplificata Walk. (le). Antenna in (J pectinate. Abdominal crests not strong. Wings with cells 

very short. White, laeavily blotched with brownish grey, and more or less strongly clouded with yellow dis- 
tally, especially at anal angle of both wdngs, fore^vang with a small yellow patch at base. Under surface 
similarly marked, but without the yellow distal shading, the proximal on the other hand somewhat exten- 
ded and common to both wings. Distributed across China at about 30 " N. Lat. Variable in the strength 
and extent of the yellow shading. 

leucomela- T. leucomelanaria Poiij. (le). Nearly related to amplificata, but more darkly and heavily marked 

nana. -^{^^ grey, which here becomes nearly or quite black. The distribution of the dark colour is also different, 
especially on the forewing, where it almost covers the distal third of the wing, widens still further in apical 
area, and extends more narrowly and somewhat interrupted along costa. Only known from Mou-pin. 

superans. T. superans Btlr. (Ig). Antenna rather short, in ^ with moderate, in $ with short pectinations. 

Build very robust, especially in $. Cells not very short. Very pale brownish, the entire wing, or at least 
a band distally to the postmedian line, dusted with grey or olive-grey. Postmedian line dentate, weak ex- 
cept from costa to first radial and on the other veins; forewing also with a weak antemedian hne. Under- 
side with cell-marks and postmedian clouding very large and heavy, two dark streaks on grey clouding at 
base. $ usually much larger than ^. Japan. 

leopardi- T. leopardinata ilfoore (1 g). Antenna moderately long, in cj shortly, in $ not bipectinate. Metathorax 

naia. moderately, abdomen strongly crested. Forewing yellowish green, thickly sprinkled with fuscous, suffused 

with reddish in central area and distally to the postmedian hne. Lines dark, diffuse, overlaid with shining 


bluish scales, the postmedian repandate at third radial. Hindwing bright orange-yellow, the base and most 
of inner margin fuscous, some fuscous speckling at distal margin, an unusually large blotch at end of cell, 
a broad, shghtly interrupted band before distal margin. Under surface of both wings yellow, nearly white 
at distal margin, large dark cell-patches and very broad submarginal bands (on forewing touching the margin 
in places), besides some grey speckling and an obscure grey cloud occupying most of posterior (inner) margin. 
Originally described from Bengal, occurs also at Yatung, Tibet. 

T. davidaria Pouj. (3 c). which I have not seen, is possibly a form — certainly a very close relative — of ckividaria. 
the preceding, closely approaching the form molleri Warr. from Sikkim, but with the black markings of 
hindwing and underside still further reduced, in particular almost wanting at the margins. Mou-pin. 

5. Genus : Diiitlica Moore. 

Related to Terpna through such species as leopardinata, but at once distinguishable by having a dense 
tuft of projecting scales from the frons, an enormously developed metathoracic tuft, and the crest on the fourth 
abdominal segment unusually strong. As with all the preceding genera of the subfamily, the true home of 
the present genus is India. The single Palearctic species shows the special generic characters somewhat less 
highly developed than in its relatives, but its systematic position is not open to doubt. 

D. virescens Btlr. (= koreana Alph.) (1 g). Forewing olive-brown, slightly of strongly and coarsely virescens. 
speckled with fuscous and with a faint reddish suffusion about the discal spot; antemedian hne very oblique 
and deeply dentate, postmedian obhque from costa to near distal margin on radials, thence strongly retrac- 
ted; antemedian hne accompanied proximally and postmedian distally by reddish clouding. Hindwing paler, 
with broad dark marginal band. Underside of both wings nearly as hindwing above, forewing with large 
cell-spot. Japan and Korea, occiirring from July to September. 

6. Genus: !Sp]iag^no<lela Warr. 

Palpus with third joint small. Antenna in cJ Avith rather short, clavate pectinations. Metathorax 
shghtly crested. Abdomen crested. Forewing with first subcostal anastomosing with costal. Hindwing 
with costal approximated to subcostal as far at least as to middle of cell, second subcostal usually short- 
stalked with first radial. 

The genus contains only a single species, which has a somewhat restricted range in North India and 

S. lucida Warr. Forewing yellow-green (probably richer moss-green when absolutely fresh) coar- lueida. 
sely speckled with fuscous. Lines thick, lunulate-dentate, the postmedian repandate at third radial. Some 
whitish submarginal spots between the veins, accompanied irregularly by larger fuscous spots. Hindwing 
much paler, only the distal margin concolorous with forewing. Underside of hindwing nearly as upper, of fore- 
wing clouded nearly throughout with dark greyish. Sikkim to Tibet. 

7. Genus: Pseudoterpua Hbn. 

Palpus with third joint short. Antenna in c? shortly pectinate. Abdomen crested. Forewing with 
first subcostal vein usually free. Hindwing with costal approximated to subcostal to nearly one-half the 
length of the cell. Base of costa of hindwing very slightly expanded, frenulum in $ consisting of only a few, 
long hairs. Larvae moderately stout, rigid, nearly cylindrical, with shght lateral flange, skin-surface strongly 
shagreened, tubercles and setae very small. Feed on species of Genista and allied Papilionaceae. — Pseudo- 
terpna is the first essentially Palearctic genus of the subfamily, occurring from Europe to Armenia and 
N. W. China. It is probably descended from Pingasa, but lacks the raised scales on the wings, has quite 
different palpus, different course of costal vein of hiiadwing, and especially shows the commencement of the 
basal costal expansion and weakening of frenulum which are characteristic of so many of the succeeding ge- 
nera of the Hemitheinae. 

P. pruinata Hufn. (= prasinaria Fab. = cythisaria Schiff. = genistaria Vill) (1 f). Green, sometimes pminaia. 
more, sometimes less bluish, mixed with whitish, the forewing with two, the hindwing with one dark green 
transverse hne, varying in intensity and in exact position; submarginal hne thick, whitish. — ab. agrestaria agrestaria. 
Dwp. is nearly unicolorous, the dark hnes being entirely effaced. It possibly tends to form a local race in 


virellata. some places (as southern Prance) 'but certainly occurs in others together with the type. - — virellata Krul., 
from East Russia, perhaps truly a local race, would appear, from its author's description, to be closely 

fasciaia. similar to the last-named form, but larger and probably darker, less mixed with white. — As fasciata ab. nov. 
may be described a handsome form of occasional occurrence (at least in Britain) with the hnes of forewing 
somewhat approximated and the area between them considerably darker than the ground colour. The 
larva of pruinata is stout, tapering anteriorly; head deeply bifid, the divisions pointed; prothorax pro- 
duced to two points anteriorly, body nearly cyMndrical, with slight lateral flange, surface strongly granula- 
ted with whitish; green with white subdorsal hnes, pink lateral hne and usually tipped with pink on the 
points of head and prothorax and at anus; tubercles and setae dark, but minute. Hibernates small, and 
feeds up rapidly in the spring. It may easily be found (by the practised eye) resting rigid and motionless 
on the foodplants (especially Genista anghca), to the colour of which it is beautifully assimilated. Pupa of 
moderate width, tapering anteriorly; hght brown or clay-coloured or greenish, irregulary dark-spotted, supra- 
anal plate long. Rests in a very shght cocoon formed of a few threads among leaves. The moth appears in 
the summer months and frequents heaths or moors, or open places in woods. It is easily disturbed by day, 
but its flight-time is the night, when it is a frequent visitor to hght. It occurs throughout central and 
south-eastern Europe and in Asia Minor. 

coronillaria. P. coroiiillaria Hhn. (1 f) supplants pruinata in south-western Europe and in Syria, and as the two 

seldom occur side by side the suggestion has occasionally been put forth that they are local races of a single 

species. The genitaha, however, present tangible differences, the ,,gnathos" (lower arm of the mandibulate 

uncus) being provided with much larger teeth in coronillaria, and it is therefore preferable to regard the 

last-named as distinct. The grey instead of green colour at once distinguishes coronillaria. The larvae are 

extremely similar, although pruinata, so far as I have observed, is somewhat the more brightly coloured 

larva, the tubercles somewhat less minute and darker coloured, spiracles somewhat more conspicuous. — ab. 

armora- armoraciaria Ob. (1 f) is a unicolorous dark aberration from S. W. France and Spain. — ab. axillaria Guen., 

ciaria. from Syria, also has the dark transverse hnes almost obsolete, but agrees in colour with the type. — cor- 

corsicaria. sicaria Bbr. (1 f) represents coronillaria in Corsica and Sardinia, and has usually been considered a separate 

species. It is said to differ from coronillaria in having longer antemial pectinations, a less black face, but 

darker fillet between the antennae and rather stronger abdominal crests. Larva with triangular white dorsal 

ornamentation, feeds exclusively on Genista cor sicaria, and in two generations. 

simplex. P. sXm^Xtx Alph. (3 a) from Central Asia has been regarded as a variety of p?"Mi?iato, but according to 

PtJNGELER (in htt.) is really a distinct species. It is of a uniform whitish green colour, and especially differs 
from all the forms of pruinata in having the frons Avhite, only quite weakly tinged with brownish, whereas 
in pruinata, as weU as in coronillaria, it is black. The size is perhaps on an average larger than that of 

8. Genus: Oiioplioseiiia Front. 

Palpus rather short, second joint densely scaled beneath. Tongue wanting. Antenna in S pectinate. 
Hindtibia with terminal spm's only. Abdomen not appreciably crested. Wings shaped as in Pseudoterpna, 
forcAving with second subcostal arising beyond fifth, hindwing with second subcostal short-stalked. Early 
stages uiiknown. This genus is required for a single species, which was first described as a Gnophos, trans- 
ferred to Boarmia by Hampson, but which, notwithstanding its colouring, certainly belongs to the present 
subfamily. Unfortimately I have only seen two specimens, both $, and neither quite perfect. 

isometra. G. isoitietra Warr. Reddish-grey, irrorated with fuscous, both wings with a distinct cell-spot, 

that of the forewing large, sometimes ocellated, an indistinct denticulated postmedian hne and an inter- 
rupted marginal line, foremng also with a dark spot on inner margin indicating the end of an obsolete 
antemedian hne. Underside (especially of hindwing) paler, A\dthout markings. The first knowoi specimen was 
from Akhor ( ? Akora), near Campbellpur. There is also an example from Kashmir in coll. Brit. Mus. Ap- 

-r parently fhes in April and May. 

9. Genus : Ag'atliia Guen. 
We here commence a group of genera which are probably collaterally related to some of the earlier 

ARACIMA. By L. B. Protjt. 15 

ones, agreeing with them in the full development of the frenulum, but having taken an independent path 
of evolution in some respects. The colouring is generally green, at least in great part, sometimes with an 
admixture of rich brown resembhng withered leaves, and not infrequently with a more or less jagged wing- 
outline. In Agathia the face is rounded-prominent, palpus in $ with third joint long, antenna in both 
sexes nearly simple, hindtibia in cJ strongly dilated, with hair-pencil and usually a short, broad terminal 
process, abdomen often crested, forewing with first subcostal nearly always free, hindwing strongly tailed at 
third radial and shghtly or rather strongly at first radial, second subcostal not stalked. Early stages im- 
perfectly known. The genus is a large and very natural one, spread over the entire Indo-Austrahan Region, 
with a few stragglers in the Palearctic and Aethiopian. 

A. lycaenaria KoU. (= albiangularia H.-Sch.) (Ih) is a rather common and widely-distributed Indian lycaenaria. 
species, but was originally described from Kashmir, and has also reached the outskirts of the Palearctic Re- 
gion in Western China. Bright green with the costal edge of the forewing red-brown. Markings purple-brown 
(cj) or red-brown ($), sometimes edged, with yellow. Forewing with a basal patch, a shghtly bent antemedian 
band, thickening at the margins and in middle, in cJ often reduced to a mere thread between, an irregular band 
near distal margin, forming a broad blotch in middle and. smaller blotches or spots at margins, more or less 
interrupted between, a marginal hne thickened into dark spots at apex and about the third radial. Hindwing 
with smaller basal patch and a submarginal band starting from a blotch near apex and running to a larger 
blojbch in middle, which extends on to the tail of the wing, enclosing a large white spot ; an isolated spot on inner 
margin marks the end of this band. Underside very much paler, with similar markings. The $, as is usual 
in the genus, has the markings all much more extended than in the ^. The larva, according to a drawing 
by Moore in coll. Brit. Mus., is brown, marked with white on face, with bluish white dorsal pattern and lateral 
spots. Pupa moderately slender, tapering anteriorly, brown, dorsally dark-speckled and with very large dark 
spiracular spots, anal armature consisting of 8 booklets. 

A. carissima Btlr. (= lacunaria Hed., 1 zonaria Don.) (1 h). Coloration similar to that of the prece- carissima. 
ding species, but the sexes less dissimilar. Line and band more continuous and uniform in width, inner Hne 
obliquely curved, reaching inner margin much further distally, submarginal band of forewing nearly smooth- 
edged proximally, in both wings reaching the distal margin in posterior half of wing, enclosing an ovate green 
patch in anterior half. Apparently common in Japan, and distributed from Korea to West China, representing 
in the Palearctic Region the Indian hilarata Guen. Both sexes vary somewhat in the width of the submarginal 
band, which, when broad, usually encloses on forewing one or two small green spots posteriorly to the constant 
large one. The specimen figured by Donovan, as long ago as 1799, under the name of zonaria, and said to come 
from China, looks more like a small aberration of the Indo-Malayan laetata, but even if it belongs here the 
name cannot be resuscitated, being a homonym. 

10. Genus: Aracima Btlr. 

Palpus in both sexes short, antenna short, in (J with short, subclavate pectinations, hindtibia in (J 
somewhat dilated, with small hair-pencil, abdomen scarcely crested, both wings with distal margin crenulate 
and a more noticeable excision between first and third radials, forewing with first subcostal anastomosing 
with costal and with second subcostal, hindwing with second subcostal arising from cell or from a point with 
first radial. The name-type of the genus is Palearctic ; a second species, apparently referable to it, has recently 
been described from Formosa. 

A. muscosa Btlr. (= vestita Hed.) (1 h). Ground colour dull yellowish green, easily fading to a dirty muscosa. 
yellowish (perhaps bred specimens would be brighter), the markings dark purple-brown. Both wings with a 
discal spot, that of forewing always and that of hindwing sometimes large and oval ; on forewing followed poste- 
riorly by a blotch of variable size, which sometimes reaches the inner margin, on hindwing usually accom- 
panied anteriorly by a small blotch, placed shghtly distally. A moderately broad marginal band, complete 
on hindwing, on forewing running from inner margin to third or second radial, indented at its extremity by 
the ground colour. The usual hues very faint or quite obsolete, the origin of the postmedian on forewing some- 
times marked by a dark costal spot. Japan and Amurland, May to July. Very variable in the size of the mark- 
ings, but always easily recognizable. 


11. Genus: liimbatocltlam^s Rothsch. 

Palpus moderate, with third joint in ^ small ($ unknown). Antenna bipectinate with extremely short 
branches. Hindtibia not djlated, aU spurs well developed. Abdomen not crested. Forewing somewhat falcate, 
first subcostal anastomosing or connected with costal, hindwing with second subcostal arising from cell. Another 
very distinct genus in fades, erected by Rothschild for a single Chinese species, which has remained rare. 

rosfhorni. L. rosthortii Rothsch. (2 a). Forewing oUve brown, the costal edge very pale brown, partly tinged 

with reddish and sparsely dotted with black, a black hne (less distinct distally) separating this area from the 
ground colour; a postmedian Hne consisting of a row of dark dots on the veins. Hindwing paler, its ante- 
rior half concolorous with costa of forewing; a large lunular discal mark and a thick, dentate postmedian Hne. 
Under surface more reddish brown, speckled with black, forewing with a small discal spot and a straight thick 
postmedian Hne not reaching the margins. Central and western China, in July. 

12. Genus : Tauaorliiuus Btlr. 

Palpus moderate to long, tliird joint in $ usually very long. Antenna in $ bipectinate. Hindtibia in 
(J dilated, with hair-pencil. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with apex falcate, first subcostal free. Hind- 
wing with anal angle pronounced, sometimes produced into a small lobe. Early stages unknown. The genus 
belongs chiefly to the Indo-AustraUan Region. Except in the falcate forewing it differs Httle from Hipparchus, 
to which it would be possible to sink it as a subgenus. 

conficckiria. T. confuciaria Walk. (2 a) is the representative in Japan and eastern to central China of the Indian 

reciprocata Walk., from which it is scarcely distinguishable except in sHghtly robuster build, sHghtly less falcate 
apex, stronger pale markings, the postmedian more strongly dentate. Both species (or forms) are characterized 
by the broad, dentate white lines and especially by a plain green underside Avith brown discal spot and post- 
median Hne, and rarely, on the hindwing, a series of roundish submarginal spots. The rest of the species 
have generally more variegated undersides, with less (or no) green colouring. 

vittata. T. vittata Moore (2 a) belongs, with argentifusa, alternata and an undescribed species fi-om New Guinea, 

to a second section of the genus, less robust in build, more glossy, with the postmedian line straight, not den- 
tate, and with a few minor differences in structure, to which Warren formerly gave a separate generic name, 
Mixochlora. vittata is the most common and widely distributed species, ranging from Japan to Omei-shan and 
prasinus. throughout North India, if not also to the Malay Archipelago. — prasinus Btb\, the Japanese form, differs 
sHghtly from the name-type in usually having the two central bands more closely approaching one another at 
inner margin, sometimes almost in V-form. Like all the group, its markings consist of an alternation of glossy 
green and silvery. Under surface mostly yellow, with tliick grejash postmedian and subterminal Hnes. The 
moth appears in June and July, and again in the autumn. 

13. Genus : Hippareliiis Leach. 

This genus, which is usually known by the name of Geometra Treits. (a historically incorrect appH- 
cation of the name Geometra L.) is also the Terpne of Hubner (nom. nud.), Holothalassis of Hubner, Lep- 
tornis of Billberg (nom. nud.), but the name of HipparcJms Leach must be restored to it. The genus belongs 
chiefly to the Eastern Palearctic Region and Northern India, but has as its name-type the well-kiiown papi- 
lionaria, the finest of the Hemitheinae of Europe. 

Palpus moderate to long, antenna in (^ bepectinate, liindtibia in ^ usually with hair-pencil, always 
with all spurs, abdomen not crested, wings ample, forewing with apex usually acute, first subcostal free or 
anastomosing with costal, hindwing usually with a bend or small tail at the end of third radial, sometimes 
crenulate throughout, second subcostal arising near end of cell. Some sHght variations in wing-shape and 
structure have given rise to the erection of some imnecessary genera — Megalochlora, Loxochila, CMoroglyphica, 
Hydrochroa — which are here merged in Hipparchus. 

The early stages of papilionaria are well known, and are briefly described below, but information is 
stiU wanting as to those of most of the species. 

l-Hhl. -M. I. l'Jl.7. HIPPAROHUS. By L. B. Prout. 17 

H. papilionaria L. (li). Bright green, the forewing usually with two lunulate-dentate white hnes, papilio- 
the liindwing with one, the lunules in the submedian area of forewing the thickest ; both wings usually in addition "«"«• 
with a faintly darker green cell-mark and some indistinct white intraneural spots distally to the postmedian 
line. Under surface similarly but more weakly marked, with no antemedian line. — ab. herbacearia Men. is herhaccaria. 
a form iii which both the lines are obsolete. It was originally described, from Amurland, and as a separate spe- 
cies, and perhaps on this account has been quite umiecessarily treated as problematical. Even Staudingek 
has only cited it to papiliona7-ia with a query. Yet the aberration appears occasionally in other locahties 
together with the commoner forms, and Ktjsnezov writes me that the type specimen confirms the identification. 

— ab. cuneata Burr, is characterized by a large wedge-shaped white spot adjoining the discal mark proximally, cuneaia. 

in addition to the usual markings. — ab. subcaerulescens Burr, is of a bluer green ground-colour than the suhcaerules- 
normal, but is probably scarcely worth naming. — ab. deleta Burr, is another unimportant aberration, in which ^'!®' 
the distal series of white spots is entirely obsolete. — in ab. subobsoleta B^irr. the antemedian line of the fore- subdb'soleta. 
wing is hkewise obsolete. — ab. alba Gillm. is entirely white, above and beneath., slightly tinged with yellowish, atba. 

— The egg of papilionaria is approximately oval, broader at one end and here flattened; it is strong and heavy- 
looking, the surface sculptured, with strongly marked cells, the micropyle shown by a shallow, circular rayed 
pit. The larva feeds on birch and alder, and has been closely studied for its beautiful protective adaptations. 
It is rather stout, rugose, the surface shagreened, the head slightly notched, the setae mostly with enlarged 
summits. The larva hibernates small, and is at this time brown in colour, protectively assimilated to the tiny 
twigs. In the spring many become green, and they are wonderfully hke the birch catkins among which they 
feed, various small protuberances and projecting edges of segments enhancing the resemblance. The pupa is 
cylindrical, tapering regularly from the fourth abdominal segment to the anal extremity; spiracles and tubercles 
distinct, the latter dark-coloured, bearing s.hort curved setae; anal armature consisting of 8 hooks; the general 
colour is pale green, the wing-cases tinged with brown. The moth is on the wing in July and early August, and 
fhes at late dusk, or more freely towards midnight. It is strongly attracted by hght, around which it fhes 
very wildly, and it will often visit ,, sugar". By day it is very sluggish, and even when resting fully expanded 
on leaves it is very inconspicuous. Its range is wide in Central and North Europe, northern Asia Minor and 
across Siberia to Japan. 

H. pratti Prout (= flavifrontaria Leech, nee Guen.). Expanse of wings 59 mm. Very similar to flavi- yrutti. 
frontaria Guen., build somewhat more robust, palpus somewhat longer, colour brighter green, postmedian 
white hne of forewing broader, somewhat oblique. Ichang, June, 1888, one $ in coll. Brit. Mus. 

H. sponsaria Brem. (1 h). Colour of papilionaria, but structurally distinct in having the apex of the spomaria. 
antenna simple, whereas in papilionaria the pectinations continue, and in having a strong anal tuft, and super- 
ficially differing in shape (distal margin of forewing irregular, bent in middle, of hindwing tailed) and in having 
the white hnes fine, not dentate, that of hindwing straight; a very faint, fine lunulate hne in place of the distal 
white spots. E. Siberia and Japan, from the end of June until August. 

H. dieckmanni Graes. (1 h). Similar to sponsaria, but with distal margin of forewing scarcely bent, dieckmamii. 
of hindwing scarcely tailed, the white lines of forewing expanding into conspicuous spots on costa, hindtibia 
with a terminal process which is wanting in sponsaria. Our figures unfortunately do not bring out the 
distinctions. Larva green, each segment bearing a dentate prominence, tipped with red-brown. On Quercus 
mongolica. South-east Siberia, Korea, Japan, larva full-fed in early June, imago found in July. 

H. glaucaria Brem. (= usitata Btlr.) (Ih). Colour more bluish green than the three preceding. Shape glaucaria. 
nearest to that of dieckmanni, but with the distal margin of forewing even smoother. White hnes thicker than 
in dieckmanni, those of forewing similarly expanding on costa, but that of hindwing running to near anal angle 
instead of to inner margin at before two-thirds. Under surface with posterior part of forewing and a great 
part of hindwing whitened. Larva on Quercus mongolica. Amurland to Japan, appearing in June. 

H. albovenaria 5rem.) (li) is a very beautiful species, with the ground-colour somewhat similar to that albovmaria. 
of the precechng, but with the costa of forewing and the veins of both wings broadly white. Lines broad, nearly 
straight, excepting the slender submarginal one; antemedian dark-shaded distally, postmedian proximally. 
Under surface similar. Shape of hindwing nearly as in papilionaria, of forewing less regular than 'in that species, 
already approaching sponsaria. Distributed in Palearctic Eastern Asia. 

IV 3 ""' 


ma7idari- H. mandarinaria Leech (1 i) is related to albovenaria, the margins of the ■wings not crenulate, the veins 

nana, j^q^- marked by white. Antemedian Une shghtly curved, postmedian broad, rather straight, shghtly obHque; an 

elongate whitish cell-mark which is not present in any other species of Hipparchus. Under surface of forewing 

partly, of hindwing largely whitish. West China : Chow-pin-sa. One ^, taken in June, in coll. Brit. Mus. Recently 

also recorded from Hondo and Yezo (Japan) in April and July by Wilbman. 

valida. H. valida Feld. (= dioptasaria Christ.) (li). A very large species, shaped somewhat as albovenaria 

but Avith the irregularities in the wing-margins exaggerated, the markings also nearly as in albovenaria but 
more slender, the veins not broadly white. Under surface similar to upper. Amurland to Korea and Japan, 
appearing about midsummer. 

vallata. H. \ aWaia Btlr. {Ih). Considerably smaller than the other species, and at once distinguished by a dark 

spot in the fringe at the end of the third radial of hindwing. Probably nearest to glaucaria, which it resembles 
in the white-banded underside; forewing with distal margin less oblique, hindwing longer, with rather more 
marked tail, lines on forewing straighter, parallel, costa of forewing dark-speckled. Common in Japan from 
June to August; also known from Sikkim. 

14. Genus: lotaphora Warr. 

Palpus moderate, with third joint small. Antenna in ^ bipectinate. Hindtibia in ^ dilated, with hair- 
pencil. Abdomen not crested. Wings smooth-scaled, iridescent. Forewing with first subcostal free. Hindwing 
with second subcostal from near end of cell. Only two species are known, so nearly related that they have some- 
times been taken to be forms of a single species. The name-type of the genus, iridicolor Btlr., belongs to North 
India, the second species, which is here figured, represents it in the Palearctic region. The moths are very dis- 
tinct in facies from any others known, but in structure they present b\it few differences from Hipparchus, 
to which, moreover, Grab see compares the larva of admirabilis. 

adimrabilis. I. adtiiirabilis Ob. (li). Differs from iridicolor in having stronger and sharper markings, with the 

distal area more differentiated in colour from the rest of the wing, cell-mark of forewing rather shorter, post- 
median hne of hindwing straighter. The larva feeds on Juglans mandchurica, on which it was discovered by 
Grabsbr, who describes it as light green, deceptively like a young, half-expanded leaf of the foodplant; head 
produced into two points, body contracted; rests rigidly attached by the prolegs to a twig. Pupates in a loose 
cocoon among diy leaves, and the imago appears in the second half of July, and in August, frequenting damp, 
densely wooded places, from western China to Amurland. 

15. Gemis : C^liloroiuacliia Warr. 

An Indo-Austrahan genus of only two or three species, luitil recently entirely unknown from the Pa- 
learctic Region. The species which Wilbman has just described from Japan is, however, quite closely related 
to the widely-distributed divapala, fully agreeing in structure. The genus is characterized by long third joint 
of palpus in the $, ciliate antenna of both sexes, densely hairy pectus, short cells (especially of hindwing) and 
stalking of first median of hindwing. From Ochrognesia, which it somewhat resembles in facies, it may be readily 
distinguished by the non-pectinate antenna of the ^ and the long palpus of the $. 

infracia. C. infracta Wilem. Bright green, costa of foreA\ang fleshy ochreous speckled with brown. Forewing 

with the lines fine, white, indistinct anteriorly, a moderate-sized white spot at middle of distal margin. Hind- 
wing with postmedian white line strongly outcurved between third radial and second median, the area distally 
to it mostly occupied with flesh-coloured blotching, speckled with brown in places. Under surface whitish, 
forewing green in costal half and with a rather large dark cellspot, hindwing with a dark apical blotch. Re- 
calls the female of divapala, but has only a very minute instead of a large blotch at anal angle of forewing ; 
moreover divapala-'^ lacks the white marginal spot. Of the new species only the ^ is known. Collected in August 
1900 and 1901 near Kobe and at other localities in the island of Hondo by Wilbman. 

16. Genus: Ovlii'og'iiesia Warr. 

Palpus with second joint rather long, rough-haired above and beneath, third joint small. Antenna in 
(J shortly pectinate. Legs short, hindtibia in ^ dilated, with hair-pencil and terminal process. Abdomen not 
crested. Forewing with first siibcostal free. Hindwing elbowed at end of third radial, cell short, second subcostal 


and first median both stalked. Closely related to Comibaena, but with the hindwing elbowed, not rounded, 
the (^ antennal pectinations mucli shorter, the $ palpus shorter and the $ frenulum stronger. Only one species 
in known. 

0. difficta Walk. (= gratiosaria Brem.) (2 b). Bright green, both wings broadly but irregularly bordered difficta. 
with whitish (usually strongly mixed with reddish brown), the bordering occupying about half of the hindwing, with 
the ground colour encroaching more or less deeply between third radial and second median ; on the forewing 
the bordering occupies a large area at anal angle, a patch in middle of distal margin and a blotch distally 
to a zigzag white hne. Underside mostly whitish, with a few brown spots. Central China to Amurland. 

17. Genus; Spaiiioceiitra Prout. 

Superficially similar to Comibaena, distinguished by the less fully rounded hindwing, which is slightly 
emarginate between the first and third radial veins, and especially by one or two important structural charac- 
ters. Palpus with secont joind smooth-scaled. Hindtibia with only one pair of spurs. Forewing with the second 
subcostal vein arising after the fifth; both wings with the discocellulars separately curved, resulting in an 
angle at the point of origin of the second radial. 

A small Indo-Malayan genus, scarcely entering the Palearotio Region. 

C. pannosa Moore (= lyra Swinh.) (2 b). Bright green with purple-brown marginal line and lighter panmsa. 
purple-brown fringes. Costal edge of forewing narrowly white, then again narrowly purple-brown. Trans- 
verse lines broken into irregular series of dots. Forewing with a large purple-brown, white-centred blotch at 
anal angle, hindwing with a much smaller blotch at apex. Under surface whitish blue-green, with the blotches 
present but much duller in colour; no other markings. Distributed throughout India and to Burma. The fi- 
gured specimen is from northern Nepal, in coll. Seitz. — incomptaria Leech, from Wa-shan, West-China, is incomp- 
apparently a weekly marked variety or aberration, but as only Leech's type specimen is yet known, and this ^""'*- 
is not in perfect condition, it is possible that it may prove to be purely a synonym. The species is in any case 
somewhat variable in the size of the blotches. 

18. Genus : Comibaena Hbn. 

Palpus with second joint long, rough-haired above and beneath, third joint in $ moderate to long. An- 
tenna in c? strongly pectinate, in $ somewhat variable, very rarely pectinate. Hindtibia nearly always with 
hairpencil and terminal process, the latter often fully half as long as tarsus. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum 
in $ rudimentary or wanting. Forewing with subcostals variable, first radial usually stalked, first median 
occasionally stalked. Hindwiiig with distal margin smooth or nearly so, usually well rounded, second subcostal 
stalked, first median extremely variable in position. — Larva very rugose, a strong lateral flange, special hooked 
processes to which are attached fragments of leaf, almost entirely concealing the larva. Feed on various trees 
or bushes. The genus is a large and evidently natural one, notwithstanding a good deal of variability in 
neuration. The palpus is always characteristic, the hindleg structure nearly always, and even the shape and 
coloration are generally very recognizable. The species are generally of a very beautiful bright green (though 
liable to fade), more or less adorned with blotches of reddish, or at the least with red marginal line ; the under 
surface usually shaded with whitish and more delicate green. The eastern Palearctic and the Indo-Austra- 
lian Regions are the richest in species, but western Europe produces one species and Africa a few. 

C. pu\chrsi Stgr. (3 a) is smaller than most of its group, and very distinct in the extended brownish-white pulchra. 
marginal patches of both wings, which are broadest in the middle of the wing. The lines on forewing are indi- 
cated chiefly by spots at the margins, the hindwing (as in the allied species) is without hnes. The under surface 
also shows the pale marginal patches, and on each wing a dark discal dot as distinct as above. Palestine. 

C. pustulata Hufn. (= bajularia Schiff. = ditaria Fab. = glauca Geoff.) (2 b). Bright green very finely pustulaia. 
and inconspicuously strigulated with white. The lines fine, white, present on forewing only ; antemedian becom- 
ing thicker and dentate towards inner margin, postmedian running into a reddish-brown, partly white-mar- 
gined blotch at anal angle. Hindwing with an irregular distal bordering of white spots or small patches, marked 
with red-brown, that at anal angle the largest; marginal hne red-brown. Under surface paler, almost unmarked, 
a somewhat paler anal blotch on forewing. The larva feeds on oak, hibernates small, and may be beaten 
from the higher branches in the spring, but is easily overlooked on account of its covering, which makes it 
look exactty like a tiny bunch of dead leafage. So long ago as 1797 one of the authors of the,, Vienna Catalogue" 
(Denis) gives us an interesting paragraph on the protection of this larva, and asks: ,,Has Dame Nature by 

20 COMIB^NA. By L. B. Protjt. 

special favour given this species a disguise in order the better to secure it in the larval stage against the birds 
and ichneumons ?" The pupa is brown, the surface dull and rugose, the dorsal area of the posterior abdominal 
segments bearing numerous flattened, spines, pointing backwards; spiracles large and dark; anal armature con- 
sisting of four strong, scythe-shaped, spirally curved hooks. The moth appears in June and July, and fhes 
at about sunset on the edges or along the glades of woods, usually at a considerable height above the ground. 
The range of variation is not great, but the markings vary in extent. Central and Southern Europe, Asia Minor. 

neriaria. C. neriaria H.-Sch. (2 b) differs from pustulata in the longer palpus, the very short stalking of the second 

subcostal of hindwing and some other details of structure ; also in the presence of a white, red-margined dorsal 
spot on second abdominal segment, the reduction of the marginal blotches and the angulation of the postmedian 
line. Underside rather variable, that of hindwing often nearly white. Occurs from Greece to Armenia. Is very 
inexcusably treated by Staudingbe as a variety of pustulata. 

procumbaria. C. procumbaria Fryer (= vaga Btlr.) (2 b). Similar to neriaria, but with the hnes almost obliterated, 

the spot at anal angle of forewing rather larger, enclosing one white spot (not, as in neriaria, two), hindwing 
with a rather large apical blotch, its white centre intersected by red on the veins. Shanghai and Japan, also 
once taken at Omei-Shan. Appears in June. 

tenuisaria. C. tenuisaria Gh-aes. (3 c). Nearly related to the two preceding, especially to procumbaria, with which 

it nearly accords in the blotches. Lines present, formed about as in neriaria, abdomen with dorsal spot as in 
that species, followedby a smaller white one on the third segment. Crown ofhead green, not white as in neriaria. 
The larva feeds on Quercus mongolica in June, but has not been described. The moth flies in July, and in- 
habits South-east Siberia. 

anwenaria. C. atnoenaria Ob. (2 c) is again similar, but has the postmedian line more oblique, running nearer to 

the anal angle, and the marginal blotches reduced to a pair of small reddish spots at the anal angle of the fore- 
wing and a similar pair at the apex of the hindwing. The species was first taken on the Isle of Askold, and 
occurs in the same district as tenuisaria, and also in Japan. It fhes in July. 

tancrei. C. taticrei Graes. (3 a). A very distinct species, although structurally quite closely related to the prece- 

ding group. It is at once distinguished from all the other species by the course of the white hnes, the ante- 
median being broad and oblique outwards, the postmedian curved so as to approach the antemedian on the 
posterior (inner) margin, where the two are connected by a white line. This species is confined, so far as is at 
present known, to the Amur and Ussuri districts. 

obsoletaria. C. obsoletaria Leech (2 a). Distinct from all the preceding in that there are no marginal blotches, the 

pale fringe being merely preceded by a red-brown marginal hne. The postmedian line is bent near the costa 
but less angularly than in neriaria. Eaushiu in June. 

striataria. C. striataria Leech (2 c) is more thinly scaled and is conspicuously striated with silvery white. Other- 

wise without markings. Under surface whiter. Che-tou, West China. 

delineata. C. delineata Warr., in which likewise the wings are strigulated with silvery, has the hnes present on the 

forewing, usually yellowish, in part edged with reddish, the postmedian I'etracted along second median vein, 
but is further characterized by having a pale pink blotch and some black dots at anal angle of hindwing. Ori- 
ginally described from Sikkim, but occurs also in Tibet. 


apicipicta. C. apicipicta Prout (3e). Wings of the same green as in delineata, and similarly strigulated with silvery; 

wholly without hnes. Forewing with minute black discal dot and dull reddish marginal line, fringe yellowish 
green. Hindwing with the discal dot sometimes larger, marginal hne becoming black apically (interrupted at 
vein-ends) and accompanied proximally, between second subcostal and first radial, by a small, bright pink 
blotch. Under surface much whiter, without the pink blotch. Yatung, Tibet. Type and two others (all (JcJ) 
in coll. Brit. Mus. Certainly a near relative of delineata. 

argeniaiarin. C. argetltataria Leech (2 b). Bright green, forewing with two silvery white hnes, the antemedian bi- 

curved, the postmedian irregular, expanding into a broad dentate mark at inner margin, followed by a red-brown 
blotch at anal angle, a dark discal dot ringed with white. Hindwing with discal mark elongate, a white sub- 
marginal line of irregular course, followed, especially towards apex, by red-brown blotching; cell-mark large, 
elongate. Underside of forewing without antemedian line; of hind wing silvery white, wit li a red-brown patch at apex 

OULPIOTA. By L. B. Protjt. 21 

a dark discal dot and a wavy green postmedian line. Hondo, Kiushiu, Korea and Central China, apparently 
throughout the summer. 

C. nigromacularia Leech (= delicatior Warr.) (3 c). Cell-spots rather large, postmedian white line of nigrdma-- 
forewing rather thick, well removed from distal margin, followed by a white cloud running to the margin between «"'"'■»''■ 
the second and third radials, a reddish cloud on inner margin and. a somewhat interrupted white submarginal 
line. Hindwing with a large reddish or dark purple-brown patch, at apex, continued more narrowly along distal 
margin to middle of wing. Underside nearly white, except costal half of forewing; cell-spots large, apical markings 
of hindwing fuscous, divided into three or four small blotches, separated by the veins. West China, S. E. Siberia 
and Japan, occurring continuously from June to October. Varies a little in the exact form and extent of the 

C. ornataria Leech (2 c). Green strigulated with white. Lines placed nearly as in delineata, but slender, ornaiariu. 
white, the postmedian scarcely traceable beyond the bend at second median vein, being followed by a red, 
paler-centred pyramidal marking on inner margin. Hindwing with the fringes largely purple-red and small 
paler-centred blotches of this colour at apex and anal angle. Hindwing beneath whitish, marked with green, 
both wings with thick purple-red streak from inner margin close to anal angle. Only known from Pu-tsu-fong, 
Western China. 

C. diluta Warr. ( = ? ingrata Wileni. ) (3 b). A rather obscure species, of which I have seen no certain example dUuta. 
excepting Wareen's somewhat faded type, although. I believe an Ussuri ^ in coll. Ptjngeler may safely be 
referred to it, probably also Wileman's (damaged) type of ingrata. The green ground colour is not noticeably 
strigulated with white, the white lines are present, though very indistinct, the postmedian quite near the distal 
margin, cell-spot small, no terminal red line. Under surface whitish green, with only the cell-spots present. 
Kiushiu, ? Nikko, ? Ussuri. We here figure Herr PtJNGELBRS specimen. 

C. quadrinotata Bflr. (5 a) in common with a few Indo-Australian species differs from the ^preceding <iiuidrinota/a. 
group in neuration, the fifth subcostal vein arising before the second. These species constitute, approximately, 
the genus Proholosceles of Warren, but as procumbaria varies in the relative position of these two veins, the 
genus is untenable, quadrinotata is smaller and of a rather more dehcate build than the pustulata.-grouj), to 
which otherwise it bears a good deal of resemblance; colour somewhat less bright, the white lines indistinct, 
placed somewhat as in neriaria, the postmedian waved; blotches fuscous, not red-brown, enclosing no white 
scales, consisting of one at anal angle of forewing, one at apex of hindwing and a small dorsal one on abdomen. 
Dharmala and Kashmir. The species from Talaut, recorded by Meyrick as quadrinotata, is distinct though 

19. Genus : Culpiiiia Prout. 

Face smooth. Palpus shortish or moderate. Antenna in cJ bipectinate, in $ subserrate. Hindtibia 
in ^ with small hair-pencil and only two spurs, in $ 'vvdth four spurs, the proximal pair often weak, sometimes 
almost vestigial. Abdomen not crested. Frenulum in ^ rather weak, in $ wanting *). Forewing with distal 
margin straight or even slightly incurved anteriorly, strongly oblique posteriorly, third discocellular deeply 
incurved, becoming very obhque, first subcostal free or anastomosing with costal, first median connate or short- 
stalked. Hindwing with distal margin toothed at first radial, and more strongly at third, excised between, cell 
short, costal anastomosing with subcostal at a point near base, second subcostal short-stalked, first median 
connate, or oftener stalked. Differs in several characters from Thalera, with which, on account of its super- 
ficial appearance, it has hitherto been confused. Only one species is known. 

C. diffusa Walk. (= crenulata Btlr. = rufolimbaria Hed.) (2 c). Green with an indistinct fine waved diffusa. 
whitish postmedian line, forewing also with faint traces of an antemedian. A red line on distal margin, the 
fringes white, chequered with red. Underside similar. The species bears much superficial resemblance to a mi- 
niature Thalera fimhrialis. Its range extends from Japan to western China. There are evidently two broods, 
May to June and August to September. 

*) From here onward to the end of this subfamily, according to the classification which I have adopted, the 
? frenuluna is wanting, and that of the (J more or less short and weak, arising from before a marked basal expansion 
of the hindwing. The structure will therefore not be again mentioned, except under the first genus (Euchloris) in which 
the (S also ha,s entirely lost the frenulum. 


20. Genixs : <jrelasnia Warr. 

Palpus moderate, tliird joint in ? sometimes long. Antenna in cJ pectinate, in 9 nearly simple. Hind- 
tibia ill (^ dilated, with hair-pencil. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with first subcostal usually free, first 
median not stalked. Hindwing elbowed or usually tailed (sometimes strongly) at end of third radial, second 
subcostal stalked, first median shortly stalked. Of the early stages we have as yet no information. The genus 
is chiefly Indo-Australian, and does not reach Europe. 

glaucaria. G. glaucaria Walk. (2 c). Grey-green, rather thinly scaled, the colour composed of dense irroration 

of greyish ohve on a whitish ground. An irregularly bent, elongate cell-spot on each wing, two hnes on forewing 
and one on hindwing, all produced by a thickening of the darker scales ; the postmedian line accompanied distally 
by a vague pale line. Underside almost white, somewhat opalescent. Northern India and Tibet. 

flagellaria. G. flagellaria Poll). (= flagellata Pouj. i. tab. = albistrigata Warr.) (3 a). is slightly greener than the 

preceding, both on the upperside and on the forewing beneath, the markings on an average even weaker, 
the cell-mark less bent. Otherwise the two are extremely similar. Central and western China. 

ambigua. G. ambigua Btlr. (2 c) is still somewhat more green in colour, the darker markings consequently ob- 

literated. The white postmedian line on both wings is finer, and more strongly dentate. In addition the hind- 
wing is somewhat more elongate, and the (J antennal pectinations are longer. Japan, in July. 

Ulituratu. G. illiturata Walk. (2 d) and the species which follow may be distinguished from the preceding ones 

by the longer, sharper tail of the hindwing, and have, on that account, sometimes been treated as forming a 
separate genus, Thalerura. The present species is of a dull green, about as ambigua, both wings with a very 
slightly darker cell-mark and a strongly dentate postmedian wliite hne, no dark marginal line. Under surface 
whitish, unmarked. Perhaps a form of the Indian dissinmlata. Described from Shanghai, also occurs in Japan 
(common at Yoshino, end of Jvme and early July) and Korea. 

protrusa. G. protrusa Btlr. (2d) is perhaps of a sHghtly brighter green colour than the preceding, of wliich, how- 

ever, I have seen no really fresh specimens. Its size is somewhat smaller than that of illiturata, its imder sur- 
face more tinged with green (particularly on the forewing), but it is best distinguished by having a blackish 
marginal line, interrupted at the ends of the veins. Distributed in Japan, and occurs also in Amurland. 

f/randi- G. grandificaria Graes. (= colataria Leech) (2 d) is again similar to the two preceding species, especially 

fi/;uriri. ^^ protrusa, which it resembles in having the dark marginal line. Leech separated it from the last-named by 
its chequered fringes, and these are very noticeable, but as those of pi'otrusa are also very faintly chequered this 
is not the best distinctive character, protrusa, besides being generally smaller, has in the (J shorter antennal 
pectinations and in both sexes longer palpi, grandificaria is found in Amurland and Japan and is distributed 
right across China from Ningpo to Mou-pin. As I have not seen Amvirland specimens, it is just possible that 
I am uniting two different species, but Graeser's excellent description quite agrees •ndth colataria. The Japanese 
specimens which I have seen were taken in June and August. 

.suhynacu- G. submacularia Leech. Shape about as in protrusa, the distal margin of the forewing being straight. 

tana. Larger than that species, colour a very dull grey-green, dark marginal line more continuous, under surface 
marked with a large dark patch at anal angle of forewing and another at apex of hindwing. Antennal pecti- 
nations in the i^ much shorter than in protrusa. West China: Mou-iDin and Omei-shan, in June. 

21. Genus : CCiiospila Stoinh. 

A small Indo-Australian genus, distinct from Gelasma chiefly in the hindtibia of the 3*, which is greatly 
thickened and lacks the terminal spurs, the proximal pair being very unequal. The coloration is bright green, 
very distinct from the dull gi'eyish or glaucous shades of Gelasma. 

strix. (E. strix Btlr. (2 c). Bright green with the costal edge of the forewing snow-white, the hnes indicated 

by reddish dots or dashes on the veins, a row of reddish spots at base of fringe and on the hindwing a rather 
large blackish blotch on the inner margin, which distinguishes it from flavifusata Walk., the type of the genus. 
Hindwing elbowed at the end of third radial. Underside very pale green, unmarked, fringe as above. First 
described from Dharmsala. Just enters the Palearctic Region in Kashmir. Occurs also in Assam. 

HEMrrHEA; DIPLODESMA. By L. B. Protjt. 23 

22. Genus: Heiiiitliea Dup. 

. Palpus with third joint in $ elongate. Antenna in both sexes cihated. Hindtibia in ,^ long, with a sheath 
enclosing a hair pencil and with only one pair of spurs, in $ with all spurs, hindtarsus in (J abbreviated. Ab- 
domen crested. Forewing with first subcostal usually free, first median occasionally stalked. Hindwing bent 
or shortly tailed at end of third radial, costal anastomosing at a point with subcostal, second subcostal and 
first median both stalked. — The egg is a flattened disc, with the usual hexagonal pattern. The larva is slender, 
very firm and twig-like, the head and prothorax deeply bifid, the body rough, with white spicules, but without 
marked protuberances, a lateral flange well developed. Although it does not possess the special tubercles or 
clothing of Comibaena, it is said to have a habit, in early life, of covering itself with threads, to which particles 
of dust and dirt adhere. — The genus is Palearctic and Indo-Austrahan. 

H. aestivaria Hbn. (= strigata Mull, nee Scof. = thymiaria Schiff. nee Linn.) (2 d). Green, the costa aesHvaria. 
of the forewing speckled with brown, both wings with a subdentate whitish postmedian line which is slightly 
dark-shaded proximally, forewing also with an antemedian line, fringes dark-spotted. Under surface whitish 
green, unmarked. The egg has not been fully described. It is shaped as indicated above, in our generic diagnosis. 
The larva is very variable in colour, green, brown or purplish, with a dark dorsal line mdening into dorsal triangles 
which are in part margined with white. It is polyphagous, though with a preference for trees or bushes, oak, 
hawthorn and sallow being a few of its favourites. It hibernates small, and is full fed about the beginning of 
June. The pupa is slender, hght-brown, with a dark dorsal line, and rests in a slight cocoon among leaves. The 
moth flies in July and early August, and is locally common in a gi'eat part of the Palearctic Region from North- 
east Spain to Japan, though avoiding the high latitudes. It prefers wooded country or thick hedges, and is easily 
disturbed by day from its resting-places among the foliage. In the evening it fhes vigorously, and is sometimes 
attracted to flowers or artificial sweets. It varies much in size, the Japanese specimens in particular being 
much larger than the Western ones, but it is otherwise very constant. — alboundulata Hed., described from a albounda- 
single example from Amurland, is somewhat problematical, but almost certainly a rare casual aberration of this "*"• 
species, with the lines unusually approximated. 

H. ussuriaria Brem. (2 d). Light green, with the usual white lines waved, but not dentate, the aiite- ussuriariu. 
median indistinct; the antemedian is accompanied distally, and the postmedian on both wings proximally 
by a dark green hne. Under surface paler. Occurs from the middle of June to the beginning of August in Amur- 
land and north-eastern China. 

H. nigropunctata Warr. (2d) was described from northern IncUa, but specimens in coll. PuNGELERfrom nlgro- 
Nikko, Japan (formerly identified as amphitritaria) agree so accurately with it that I have little hesitation in ^^^'"'^ " "' 
adding it to the Palearctic fauna. It is of a rather brighter, less opaque green than aestivaria, with less pronounced 
tail to the hindwing, and with a conspicuous black discal spot on each wing; fringes unspotted; abdomen dor- 
sally darker, more variegated (red and fuscous). We have copied Warren's figure, but the costal margin should 
be speckled with black. 

H. distinctaria Walk. (2 d). Bluer green than either of the preceding, shape about as in nigropunctata. distinciaria. 
Readily distinguished by the postmedian hne, which is fine, clear, on the forewing straight and not waved or 
dentate (parallel with chstal margin), on the hindwing only very slightly bent opposite to the angle in the distal 
margin. Abdomen dorsally marked with fuscous, the crests small, fuscous. Described from Sikkim, where 
it appears to be common, but extends also into Tibet. 

H. confusaria Stgr. (5 a) from Amurland, was described by comparison with pretiosaria (Ghlorissa), oonfusaria. 
from which the much longer and stronger antennal cilia of the ^ separate it. But according to a cotype kindly 
lent us for figuring, it is certainly a Hemithea, with strong abdominal crests and closely related to distinctaria. 
Abdomen dorsally pale reddish brown, not fuscous. Postmedian line denticulate, less straight. 

H. marina Btlr. is a smaller, more delicate species, reminding of an lodis. Abdominal crests marina. 
weak, but present. The white lines are present but rather faint, their course nearly as in aestivaria, from wliich 
marina differs in its smaller size and unspotted fringes. I have not seen any perfect specimens, and cannot 
say positively that it may not prove to be a form of ussuriaria. Japan and perhaps Korea. 

23. Genus: Diploflesma Warr. 

Characters of Hemithea, but abdomen not crested, first subcostal arising from the stalk of the others, 
beyond first radial, usually running into costal. In the name-type of the genus, celataria Walk., the second 

24 CHLOKISSA. By L. B. Pkout. 

subcostal also runs into the costal, but tliis vein is very variable in the genus, and sometimes wanting. The 
species are of small size, broad-winged, with very glossy scaling, sometimes tliinly scaled and more or less 
translucent. The typical species are all Indo-Austrahan, and the only two Palearctic species which are best 
referred here (on account of the stalking of the first subcostal) are somewhat anomalous, having more the shape 
and facies of a Hemithea or Chlorissa. They might possibly be treated as aberrant, tailed Ghlorissa. 

mmidaria. D. ttiundaria Leech (2 e). Pale yellowish green (perhaps faded), the lines rather straight, whitish, the 

first dark-edged distally, the second proximally; the second is as usual continued on the hindwing. Hind- 
wing with an elongate darker green discal mark. Under surface greenish white, without markings. West- 
China: Ta-Ohien-Lu in June. 

elata. D. eluta Wilem. Smaller and with broader forewing than nnindaria, more nearly approximating to 

some of the typical Diplodesma, such as obnujita. Slightly darker than mundaria, the lines somewhat more 
distinct, that of hindwing less straight. The less straight lines will also distinguish it from obnwpta. Distributed 
in Japan, occurring from June to September. Also in Korea. 

24. Genus: dilorissa Steyli. 

Perhaps scarcely more than a subgenus of Hemithea, being somewhat connected by intergrades. The 
abdomen is usually not crested, and never has more than two small crests. The distal margin of the hindwing 
is either entirely rounded or at most quite weakly elbowed. Most of the other distinctions which separate the 
tj^ical members of the two genera prove quite inconstant when wide material is investigated. The early stages 
of Chlorissa are similar to those of Hemithea. The geographical distribution is very wide, representatives occur- 
ring throughout the Palearctic Region, India, East and South Africa and North America. The genus is generally 
called Nemoria, a name that rightly belongs to the North American bistriaria Hbn., wliich has no connection 
with the present group. 

viridata. C. viridata L. (= prasinata Wrnbg.) (2e). Wings green, forewing with the costal edge yellowish and 

with two whitish transverse lines. Hindwing weakly angled at end of third radial, the margin straight, or even 

very shghtly excised, from here to first radial, colour as in forewing, with a single, Uttle bent transverse line. 

caerulesnens. Under surface somewhat paler, with the postmedian Une only, sometimes almost unmarked. — ab. caerules- 

conea- ceils Burr, is of a bluer green colour. — ab. concavilinea Burr., which is probably scarcely worth distinguishing, 

vihnen. has the postmedian line on hindwing incurved. — ab. olivaceo-marginata Burr, has all the fringes dark olive- 

marginata. g^een. — ab. rufotincta Burr, has a delicate red flush on the centre of the forewing. — ab. mathewi Bankes 

rufotincta. has both wings dusted with orange scales. — ab. rosearia Culot, which probably differs Kttle from the preceding, 

mathewi. jg (described as having the wings pale rosy throughout. The last thi"ee aberrations, though founded on fresh 

(in part even on bred) specimens, are probably due to some subtile chemical action on the fugitive green colour. 

melinarici. — melinaria H.-Sch., described from a single example from the Ural, is a somewhat enigmatical form, but 
seems best referred as an aberration to viridata, which in any case occurs about Orenburg, in a form which 
I cannot differentiate from that of western Europe, melinaria is smaller than the type form, more bluish, with 
the hues more nearly approximated. There is in the British Museum a specimen bred by Zellbr, and labelled 
by him as melinaria, agreeing with the above description, but unfortunately without locahty. It is very doubt- 
ful whether some other specimens which have at times been identified under this name really belong to it. — 

imignata. insignata Stgr. (5 a) from Turkestan, is distinguished by the scarcely elbowed distal margin of the hindwing 
and the almost obsolete white lines. The egg of viridata is similar to that of Hemithea. Larva also similar to 
aestivaria but of simpler structure, lateral flange less developed; green, with reddish dorsal line or diamond- 
shaped spots, partly edged with white. Feeds on hawthorn, sallow, heath, Potentilla and various other plants. 
Pupa pale brown, with blackish dorsal line and spiracular spots, hibernating in a sHght cocoon among fallen 
leaves. The moth appears in May and June, and is locally common, resting by day among low plants or 
bushes, and becoming more active in the afternoon. Its range, so far as is ascertained, embraces most of 
temperate Europe, Asia Minor, Armenia, etc., and perhaps some locahties in Central Asia; but it has been 
much confused with some of its nearest relatives. 

doraria. C. cloraria Hbn. (= porrinata Z.) (2e). Very closely related to the preceding, being scarcely distinguish- 

able except in having the costa and front leg more or less thickly spotted with fuscous. The ground colour 
is perhaps on an average shghtly more bluish, and the postmedian line more curved. Structurally also, Btje- 
Rows (in htt.) tells me that the cj genitaha differ in that the „socii" (two organs which lie alongside the uncus) 

PuU. 25. 11. 1913. OHLORISSA. By L. B. Prout. 25 

appear in cloraria much narrower and the , .vinculum" (,,saccus") less wide, the central portion less extended 
anally. The figure of cloraria given by Hubnbr is unsatisfactory, and has given rise to many uncertainties, 
but its dark costa and the curve of the postmedian line (though exaggerated) show that it is intended for the 
present species. This was pointed out long ago by Zbllbr, and the name ought to be restored. — ab. rosea rosea. 
Gumpp. is a form with the ground colour more or less changed to rosy, as in some of the viridata-torms described 
above, and no doubt attributable to a like cause. — The larva of cloraria is said to be reddish, not green, and 
to feed on various plants in June and September, the moth occurring in two generations, May and July to 
August. The geographical range of the species is not precisely ascertained, but it is certainly common in some 
parts of Southern and Southern Central Europe, and perhaps also reaches Armenia. 

C. obliterata Walk. (2 e) very closely approaches the two preceding, and is probably the species recorded obliterata. 
by Staudinger and others from the eastern Palearctic Region as viridata. The colour is slightly more yellowish, 
the scaling perhaps somewhat smoother, the postmedian line of the forewing somewhat differently formed, 
and the abdomen has two or three anterior segments dorsally coloured red. Shanghai to Japan and Ussuri. 
The obliterata of Leech is probably amphitritaria, certainly not the present species. 

C. pulmentaria Guen. (= cloraria Dup., nee Hhn.) (2 e) has sometimes been confused with the preceding pulmentaria. 
group, but is very distinct in the rounded hindwing, longer palpus, wings finely strigulated with whitish, and 
other characters. The white lines are seldom sharply expressed ; that of the hindwing is bent. — palaestinensis palaestinen- 
Fuchs, from Syria, is smaller, the white lines obsolete or extremely faint. According to Pungeler (in litt.) "*• 
Ftjchs' actual tj^es belonged not to pulmentaria but to faustinata, but as I possess a long series from Syria 
agreeing entirely with his description and referable, in my opinion, to pulmentaria, I hesitate to transfer the name 
at present. If they are really referable to faustinata they represent a very different form from the Spanish, 
there being no trace of dark lines, though some specimens show a very faintly darkened cell-spot. — The larva of 
pulmentaria is even more slender than those of its allies, green and yellow or whitish (adaptive to the colour 
of its food-plant) with a broad, dull carmine dorsal line. It feeds on various Umbelliferae, but will also accept 
plants belonging to other orders, and is easy to rear, feeding up very rapidly in the summer. Pupa slender, 
greenish-grey; wing-cases dark- veined; dorsal line and spiraoular spots blaok. The moth is double-brooded, 
and is locally common from southern Europe to Central Asia. 

C. faustinata Mill. ( ? = palaestinensis Fuchs) (2 e). Nearly related to pulmentaria, but with the lines faustinata. 
indicated (usually rather obscurely) by a darker green shade than the ground-colour, a very faint darker green 
discal spot usually present on each wing. Egg, according to Millierb, azure blue. Larva slender, cylindrical, 
dull bluish green, with a more or less vinous, interrupted dorsal line, partly divided into white-encircled spots. 
Feeds on Rosmarinus officinalis in a succession of broods. Pupa greenish, dark-spotted, the wing-veins dark. 
Occurs in Spain and Syria, and is perhaps not specifically distinct from the widely-distributed African stibo- 
lepida Btlr. 

C. amphitritaria Ob. (2 e) has the hindwing somewhat angled, approaching the normal Hemithea form amphitri- 
the second to fourth abdominal segments red dorsally. Distinguished by its delicate, translucent sea-green '^"""■ 
colour, the costa of the forewing pale yellow, both wings with dark green cell-spot, the antemedian white line 
weak, the postmedian sinuous, parallel with distal margin. Occurs on Askold in June and July, also in the 
Ussuri district and Japan. 

C. pretiosaria Stgr. (= gelida Btlr.) (2 c). Rather recalls Hemithea distinctaria except in the absence pretiosaria. 
of dorsal pattern or crests, but is of more slender build, lighter, less bluish green, the postmedian line on the 
forewing usually obsolescent towards the costal margin, on the hindwing even straighter than in distinctaria. 
The tjrpical form is relatively small, with the antemedian line usually absent. — gigantaria Stgr. (= anomala gigantaria. 
Warr.) is a much larger form, with the antemedian line present. It seems to be a local race, but its distribution 
is so mixed up with that of the type, that until more precise information is available as to altitudes or other 

IV 4 



local conditions it is difficult to disentangle it. The tj'^jical form has a Mide range from Transcaucasia to North- 
Avest India, and Wilemax has recorded a single specimen fromYoshino, Yamato, Japan. The form gigantaria 
occurs in a part of Ferghana, in Kulu, Goorais Valley, Scind Valley, about Dalhousie, and I have seen one 
example from Huang-mu-chang. 

plana. C. plana Wilem., of which only a single $ is known, and which is somewhat doubtfully referable to this 

genus, is of about the size and shape of viridata, of a rather opaque, uniform green, without a trace of lines. 
Fringes pale. Underside similar. Antenna thick and serrate, palpus probably too short for a Chlorissa. Japan: 
Odai-San, Yamato, July, 1894. 

25. Genus : X eromia Stgr. 

Palpus A^ith third joint short, nearly alike in both sexes. Antenna evenly ciliated. Hindtibia with 
only one pair of spurs, tarsus not abbreviated. Abdomen not crested. Hindwing Avith distal margin rounded. 
Neuration as in Hemithea and Chlorissa. Evidentty related to the genera just named, but differing in the palpus 
(at least of the 2) and in the leg structure. Only the type species, pulvereisparsa, clearly belongs to the genus, 
but one Indian and a few African species with stiU shorter palpus can be provisionally referred to it. 

pulverei- N. pulvereisparsa fl^mpsn. (= iodisata (Sig'r.). (3 a) Light ochreous grey or greyish ochreous, more or less 

»parsa. fiei^gely dark-dusted. Lines lunulate-dentate, whitish, quite weak or almost obsolete, sometimes made more 
prominent hj a shght darkening of the central area of the wing. Discal marks feebly incUcated. Under 
surface paler, unmarked. Aden and Palestine. Hasipson's type, from the former locahty, is much darker- 
dusted than the Palestine specimens (iodisata) which I have seen, and the specific identity not quite cer- 
tain,^ aU being in bad "condition. 

camifrons. N. carnifrons Btlr. (= indecretata Hmpsn. nee Walk.) (2i). Palpus minute, o antenna dentate, -snth 

fascicles of ciha. Wings somewhat ampler than in ■pulvereisparsa. DeKcate sea-green, costal edge yellowish 
white, both wings with a nearly straight, moderately thick white postmedian Une. Underside shghtly paler, 
otherAvise quite similar. Distributed through India from the Nilgiris to the Himalayas. The specimen figured, 
redilinearia. hom Kulu, is in the Bastelbeeger collection. — rectilinearia Leech, from Huang-mu-chang, scarcely differs, 
but has a weak, curved antemedian hne on forewing of wliich there is not or hardly a trace in carnifrons. 



26. Genus : Mlcroloxia Warr. 

Palpus moderate to long, third jomt in 5 elongate. Antenna in ^ pectinate. Hindleg in both sexes 
with onlj' one pair of spurs. Abdomen not crested. ForcAring Avith first subcostal anastomosing with, or 
running into costal, second subcostal sometimes running into costal, sometimes anastomosing Avith first sub- 
costal, first median sometimes stalked. HindA\'ing with'^distal margin rounded, second subcostal and first 
median both stalked. Larva more or less slender, tapering anteriorly, head small, the lobes produced to points, 
body rugose, granulated, lateral flange developed. 

A small genus inhabiting southern Europe, India and Africa. Perhaps it Avill need further subdivision. 
The species are not all uniform in shape and facies, AA'hile CA^en in stnicture there are some shght variations. 
The species of the tj'pical section are of very small size, but relatively strongly built. 

M. herbaria Hhn. (= graminaria Z. = bniandaria Mill.) (2 e) is the name-t3rpe of the genus, and the 
best-knoAvn species. The green ground-colour is never very bright, and easily fades to a dirty ohvaceous shade. 
The hnes are slender, rather straight, almost Avanting on the underside. The fringes are long, distally pale. 
— In the form advolata Ev. (2 e), Avhich seems inclined in some locahties to form a local race, but in others 
is a mere aberration, the hnes are broader and clearer, hence much more conspicuous, and are perceptible 
also beneath. — The larva is pale green, sometimes AA-ith an ohve-green or red-broAA^n dorsal hne. Feeds on 
Teucrium and produces tAAO or more generations in the year. The species occurs in southern Europe, Syria 
and Asia Minor and eastAvards to Turkestan. 

halimaria. M. halimaria Chref. (2 e) apparently replaces herbaria in Algeria. It is very closely related to that 

species, but bluer green, the lines very fine, indistinct, shaded AA'ith dark green, sometimes almost obsolete. 
Egg greenish AA'liite, an irregular ellipsoid, truncate at one end, a large central depression, reticulation po- 
lygonal. Larva more robust than herbaria, granulation more regular, ground-colour more AA'hitish, dorsal 
pattern different. On Atriplex halimus, in a succession of broods. 


M. menadiara Th.-Mieg is described as of robust build, the (J antenna somewhat as in Ochrognesia mmadiara. 
difficta, face greenish, space between antennae white, wings yellow green, forewing with costa somewhat rosy, 
the lines consisting only of small white dots on the veins, the postmedian 2 or 3 mm from the distal mar- 
gin, cell-spots slightly darker green, scarcely noticeable, under surface greenish white, costal edge rosy, pal- 
pus and legs rosy white. The type, which was from Bona (Algeria) in coll. Vallantin, is unfortunately 
lost, but its author possesses a drawing of it and there is a $ from Philippeville in coll. Ptjngelbr which 
may probably belong to it. If so, the $ antenna is pectinate, the tongue weak, the first subcostal of fore- 
wing free. The species is very much larger than herbaria, no doubt related to saturata. 

M. saturata Bang-Haas (2 f). Antennal shaft red, pectinations in ^ of quite moderate length, tongue saturata. 
rudimentary or wanting, forewing with first median arising from cell. Wings rich dark yellow-green, a post- 
median white line, continuous except at costa, slightly curved, costal edge of forewing yellowish white. Under 
surface somewhat paler and yellower, without the line. The palpus (^) probably too small for a true Micro- 
loxia. First discovered in Algeria. One in coll. Pungeler was taken in Murcia together with herbaria. 

27. Genus: Bieroclithoiiia Prout. 

Palpus minute. Tongue wanting. Antenna in cJ bipectinate to apex, with rather long branches; 
in $ shortly pectinate (except in jpetitaria). Hindtibia with a single pair of spurs. Abdomen not crested. 
Forewing with first subcostal arising from cell, anastomosing with or running into costal, first median arising 
close to end of cell. Hindwing with distal margin rounded, cell not short, costal anastomosing (in alexandraria 
approximated) to near end of cell, second subcostal stalked, second radial from scarcely above middle of 
cell, first median stalked or separate. Related to Microloxia, but differing in the minute palpus, strong anasto- 
mosis of costal vein of hindwing, etc. Only three species are known, all eastern Palearctic ; and one of these, 
alexandraria, is not strictly congeneric, but must ultimately be removed, on account of the position of the 
costal vein of hindwing. 

H. pulverata Warr. (= semitaria Pitti^.) (2f, 2i). Superficially exceedingly like Xe?iocAtoro(Zes feerz/fena, pidverata. 
with which it is often confused; but differing structurally in the absence of tongue and presence of ^J fre- 
nulum, pectination of ^ antenna, and in the somewhat longer wings. Only known from Syria. 

H. petitaria Christ. (2 f ) is larger, longer-winged, of a less bright, more yellowish green, entirely with- petitaria. 
out the white postmedian hne. Described from Askhabad, and since found in a few other localities of 
Transcaspia and Ferghana, but still very rare in collections. 

H. alexandraria Prout (3 b). Very similar in aspect to petitaria, forewing somewhat narrower, costa some- alexan- 
what straighter, $ antenna pectinate, wings less yellow green, unicolorous, forewing with first subcostal anasto- '^raria. 
mosing at a point with costal, hindwing with costal merely approximated to cell, not anastomosing. Alexan- 
der Mountains, Central Asia. Type ($) in coll. PtJNGELBB. 

28. Genus: Eucliloris Hbn. 

Palpus strong, second joint long, rough-haired above and beneath. Tongue short and slender. Hind- 
tibia with all spurs. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with first subcostal sometimes anastomosing with costal. 
Hindwing with second subcostal arising from a point with first radial, or shortly stalked. In this and all 
succeeding genera of the subfamily, the frenulum is wanting in both sexes. Egg of a short, broad oval 
shape, much flattened at each side, the surface covered by a fine hexagonal reticulation. Larva moderately 
stout, rugose, with marked lateral flange, and with special tubercles bearing, in early life, hairs with crescent- 
shaped tops, in later life, stout conical spines and horny hooks, to which, by means of silken threads, par- 
ticles of the food plant are attached to form a covering for the larva, much as in Gomibaena; spiracles large, 
with raised chitinous walls. Pupa rugose, shagreened, spiracles very large and prominent, anal segment pro- 
longed dorsally above the anus, bearing a small group of longish spines, ending in spirally curved hooks. 
The genus is chiefly Palearctic, though containing also one Indian species. 

E. smaragdaria Fab. (2 f ). Bright green, costal edge of forewing yellow, lines whitish, the antemedianswfl?«(jr(7(() 
bicurved, rather incomplete, postmedian wavy, nearly parallel with distal margin; a round white discal spot. 


Hindwing without lines, the green ground-colour shading off to whitish towards costal margin and base. — 

obsoleta. In ab. obsoleta Burr, the discal spot is wanting. — In ab. alinea Burr. ( ? = immaculata Thunb.) the white 

ahnea. li^eg are entirely absent. — ab. unilinea Burr, possesses the postmedian line only. — ab. caeruleo-viridis Burr. 

caeruleo- is of a decided blue-green ground-colour. — ab. viridis Burr, is of an unusually vivid green. — gigantea Mill. 

mridis. (= castiliaria Stgr.) is a very large form from Castile and Aragon with the lines indistinct or wanting. — 

In Britain the larva feeds only on Artemisia maritima, and is confined to salt marshes; on the continent its 

habits and foodplants are more varied. It has a wide range in Europe and perhaps in Asia, but the Asiatic 

material which I have seen is referable to prasinaria. 


prasinaria. E. prasinaria Ev. (= volgaria Ghien.) (2f) is very usually regarded as a form of the preceding, but 

I incline to the opinion of Millie re and a few others, that it is a distinct species. It is generally smaller, re- 
latively longer-winged, the transverse lines very broad and very white, the postmedian markedly serrate, the 
hindwing often more whitish both above and beneath, the distal half remaining greenish, traversed by a 
distinct white line. It inhabits South-east Russia and has in Asia a tolerably wide range, from Trans- 
mongolica. caucasia through North Persia and as far eastward as the Uliassutai district. — mongolica Stgr. is said 
to be darker green, the white lines almost twice as broad, the white Unes and spot on the underside of both 
wings also larger and broader. It is only recorded from the Uliassutai district in northern Mongolia, but I 
have a specimen of prasinaria from Amurland agreeing with the description. 

chloro- E. chlorophyllariai7e(^. (3 b) is of nearly the same colour a,s smaragdaria and prasinaria,h\it vevy distinct 

phyllana. jj^ having the lines straight, not lunulate or denticulate, and in lacking entirely the white discal spot. Oc- 
curs in S. E. Siberia, N. China and the Amdo district (S. E. of Koko Nor). 

janlcoivs- E. jankowsklaria Mill. (2 f ) is extremely near the preceding, to which it has been sunk by Leech. It 

kiana. jg j^q^^ ^q entirely grass-green, being more mixed with white scales and having a white patch at the base of the 

hindwing. According to Millie re the lines are still straighter than in chlorophyllaria. His figure looks 

smarag- slightly shorter-winged. Known only from S. E. Siberia. — smaragdularia Stgr. from southern Ferghana is 

dulana. possibly a form of jankoivskiaria, but seems to have longer distal margin and some other slight differences. 

The antemedian line is usually very weak, sometimes wanting, the discal spot of smaragdaria is occasionally 

viridifrons. traceable, the postmedian line is slightly outcurved. — viridifrons Warr., erected on a single specimen from 

near Dinau (Amu Daria) is probably a strongly-marked form of smaragdularia, with the antemedian line 

and cell-spot distinct. 

alboeostaria. E. albocostaria Brem. (2 h) is a very distinct species, easily recognized by the very large, reddish- 

centred (and often reddish-edged) discal spots or patches, red marginal line and red-spotted white fringes, 
recalling certain species of Comibaena. Common in Japan, occurs also in South-east Siberia. Probably double- 

serraria. E. serraria Stgr., founded on a single example (9) from Transalai, and originally suggested as pos- 

sibly a variety of smaragdaria but more likely a separate species, was later considered by its author to be 
perhaps a variety or aberration of plusiaria. The postmedian line is very strongly dentate, and there is 
a white submarginal line present which, on the underside of the hindwing, becomes strongly dentate. 

plusiaria. E. plusiaria Bdv. (2 f) bears superficially far more resemblance to an Aglossochloris than to smaragdaria, 

the hindwing being in great part white above, while the forewing above and both wings beneath have much 
broadened, more zigzag white lines and a series of large white submarginal wedge-spots, connected into a 
zigzag line on the under surface. The species is very local, and confined to Spain and North Africa. 

29. Genus : Aglossochloris Prout. 

Closely related to the preceding genus, differing chiefly in the absence of the tongue and in the hind- 
tibial armature. This is very remarkable, the $ (at least in all the specimens which I have been able to 
examine, or concerning which I have obtained information) wanting the proximal pair of spurs, while in the 
cj the armature is variable, these spurs being present, but aborted, in fulminaria, but absent in the other 
species. The larval habits are identical with those of Euchloris. The genus may be treated as entirely Pa- 
learctic, for even the single Indian species inhabits Kulu and other northern localities in that country. 


A. fulminaria Led. the name-type of the genus, and the longest-known of the species with the fulminaria. 
exception of the Indian radiata, inhabits North Persia, Ferghana and a part of Turkestan. It is a handsome 
species, somewhat larger than its relatives, the strongly zigzag postmedian line very striking. Distal half of 
hindwing more or less marked with green. 

A. correspondens Alph. (2 g), besides being appreciably smaller, is readily distinguished by its broader comnpon- 
white markings, the dentition of the postmedian less extreme, by its thicker submarginal interneural wedge- ''^"*- 
marks and by its mostly white hindwing, which has the second subcostal stalked, whereas in fulminaria it 
is separate. Local in south-western Siberia, about from Samarkand to Kuldja. 

A. crucigerata Christ. (2g) is of about the same size as correspondens, distal margins somewhat more cntdyeraUi. 
convex the lines similarly formed but the postmedian less broad; the veins are broadly marked with white 
in the central as well as in the basal area, the median vein broadly so, thus producing, with the discal spot, 
the characteristic white cross which has given to the species its name ; terminal wedge-marks nearly as in 
fulminaria. Palpus (both sexes) considerably shorter than in fulminaria and correspondens. Transcaspia and 
North Persia. 

A. mabillei Th.-Mieg is also similar. Size of the two preceding, lines nearly as in fulminaria, veins maUUei. 
white, more as in crucigerata, submarginal wedge-marks of forewing rather short, but connected by a thick 
white marginal line. Hindwing weakly marked, with an irregular white submarginal and a white marginal 
line; second subcostal short-stalked, as in correspondens. Central Asia, according to the labels on the type 
and co-type; the published locality ,,bords de I'Amour", is an error. 

A. radiata Walk, has the antemedian line outangled on the median vein, then oblique basewards radiata. 
without further bend, the postmedian straight or slightly curved in anterior half, then twice inangled. The 
hindwing is usually similar to that of correspondens, sometimes, however, the white part is more greenish. 
Walker's tjrpe was merely recorded as from ,, North Hindostan". The species has since been taken in Kulu, 
the Scind Valley and at Huang-mu-chang. 

29. Genus: Holoterpna Piing. 

Palpus rather short to moderate. Tongue rudimentary or wanting. Antenna in $ bipectinate, with 
very short branches. Hindtibia in both sexes with a single pair of spurs. Abdomen robust, not crested. Fore- 
wing triangular, distal margin very oblique, first subcostal free. Hindwing with inner margin moderately to 
very long, costal approximated to cell for a moderate distance, second subcostal very shortly stalked. Only 
two species known, both Asiatic, differing a good deal in shape of hindwing and slightly in several other characters. 

H. diagrapharia Piing. (3 b) is distinguished by its larger size, shorter inner margin of hindwing, diagra- 
less blue-green forewing, with traces of pale postmedian line, whiter hindwing, etc. In coloration it more ap- ^""'*"- 
proaches Dyschloropsis. Transcaspia. 

H. pfuinosata Stgr. (2 g) may be recognized immediately by its peculiarly-shaped hindwing and its pruinosata. 
uniform, pale bluish green colouring, which is only slightly paler beneath. Palestine. 

30. Genus: Dyscliloropsis Warr. 

Closely related to the preceding genus, from which it differs little except in the shorter palpus, longer 
antennal pectinations, more slender abdomen, less pointed forewing (distal margin less strongly oblique) and 
differently shaped hindwing, with longer costal margin and with distal margin incurved between first and third 
radial. Only one species. 

D. impararia Guen. (2 g). Forewing yellow green, with a faintly indicated pale postmedian line. Hind- impararia. 
wing whitish green (almost white). Underside of both wings uniform pale yellow-green. A scarce and local 
species first described from the Ural, but since met with in the vicinity of Lake Zaisan, the Ala Tau Mountains 
and the Uliassutai district. 



31. Genus: Thalera Hhn. 

Palpus in both sexes quite small. Antenna in both sexes bipectinate, the branches in the $ very short. 
Hindtibia with one pair of spurs. Hindwing and sometimes forewing Avith the distal margin crenulate and 
more or less deeply excised from the first to the third radial. Forewing with first subcostal anastomosing with 
costal, usually also with second subcostal. Hindwing with costal anastomosing with cell at a point, or shortly, 
near base, second subcostal shortly stalked. — The larva is slender, resembling a small twig or stalk, the head 
bifid, prothorax with two anterior points, anal extremity with two points. The genus apparently contains 
only two or three species, although it has in the past been made to include a number of heterogeneous forms. 
Even lacerataria is not very closely allied to fimbrialis, the name-type of the genus. 



T. fimbrialis Scop. (= thymiaria L. = bupleuraria Schiff.) (2 g). Green, the forewing with two curved 
and usually a little denticulate white lines, the hindwing with one, both wings with the fringes spotted with 
bright brown-red. Varies somewhat in the denticulation of the lines, and in the distance which separates those 
of the forewing, but is on the whole a rather constant species. — ab. albaria ^sp. is very much paler, the lines 
not visible. I have not seen it in nature, and suspect it may be due to fading. — var. chlorosaria Graes., from 
)S. E. Siberia and Korea, is of a paler colour than the type, with the white lines broader. — The larva feeds 
on various low plants in May and June, and is yellowish green with a red dorsal line, which is sometimes broken 
up into spots, and with head, prothorax and anal extremity tipped with red. The pupa is yellowish white, dorsally 
red, with a darker medio-dorsal line and dark dots and streaks, wing-cases dark-veined. The moth appears 
in July and August and is distributed thi-ough Central Europe and Central Asia, the tjrpical form reaching 
as far as Dauria, beyond which it gives place to the var. chlorosaria. 

lacerataria. T. lacerataria Graes. (= suavis Swinh.) is readily distinguished by its having the distal margin of the 

fore as well as of the hindwing excised, the ground-colour light olive-green, the lines darker green, not white 
and each wing with a large red-brown discalspot. The anterior and distal margins are narrowly brown. Ussuri, 
Korea, Japan, W. China. 

32. Genus: Hemistola Warr. 

Palpus usually short. Antenna in (J and usually in $ bipectinate. Hindtibia with all spurs. Forewing 
smooth-margined, hindwing usually with a small tail or slight elbow at the end of third radial, occasionally 
fully rounded. Forewing with first subcostal free or briefly anastomosing with costal. Hindwing with costal 
approximated to cell for short or moderate distance, second subcostal stalked, first median connate, separate 
or short-stalked. The larva is only known in the case of one of the species, chrysoprasaria; it is of moderate pro- 
portions, tapering anteriorly, the characteristic projecting points of head and prothorax very strongly developed, 
body shagreened with white granules, lateral flange developed. Pupa rather slender, tapering, the shell rather 
thin, cremaster strong and conical, terminating in several hooked bristles. The genus inhabits Europe and 
Asia, and a few African species are provisionally placed in it. 


H. chrysoprasaria jEsp. (= vernaria fl^Sw. nee L. = lucidata Z)ore.) (2 g). Green with the usual white 
lines, the antemedian of forewing strongly curved and usually with two small, slight teeth directed distad, the 
postmedian nearly parallel with distal margin, not dentate. Hindwing bluntly elbowed. Varies considerably 
dentigera. in the distance which separates the two lines on forewing. — dentigera ab. nov. has the postmedian line of fore- 
lissas. wing dentate, nearly as in zimmermanni. — lissas Prout replaces chrysoprasaria in Central Asia, scarcely 
differing except in the shape of the hindwing, which is rounded instead of elbowed. The eggs of chryso23rasaria 
are very flat and are laid in piles of 10 — 14, and being green in colour resemble collectively a tendril of the food- 
plant, the common clematis. The larva is very sluggish, very rigid and twig-like, and when beaten from its 
food-plant falls stiff and immobile; it is brown during the winter, but becomes green when the plant puts on 
its spring foliage. It is full fed about the beginning of June and changes, in a slight web, into a pale greenish 
pupa. The moth appears in July, and sits by day among clematis, and even when resting on the outside of the 
bushes is not at all conspicuous, resembling a leaf. Like the larva it is very sluggish by day, and when at leiagth 
it allows itself to be disturbed it often drops instead of flying. Its time of flight is late in the evening. Distri- 
buted through central and southern Europe, except the Iberian peninsula, through Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, 
etc., and in the form lissas as far as the Thian Shan district. I have not seen examples from the Kentei Moun- 
tains, where it is said also to occur. In Amurland and the Ussuri district nearly typical chrysoprasaria 
reappears, the specimens often large and with the lines rather widely separated. 

HEMLSTOLA. By L. B. Prout. 31 

H. zimmermanni Hed. (3 a) is very similar to chrysoprasaria, but with tlie elbf)w at end of third radial zimmer- 
of hindwing enlarged into a more definite tooth, the lines dentate, that of hindwing making a distad bend at '"«»"»• 
inner margin, and with longer pectinations and palpus, at least in the $. Inhabits Amurland and Ussuri at the 
end of June and in July. Staxjdinger states that he has received from the former territory examples with 
the lines so weakly dentate that he suspects they may be hybrids between the present species and chrysopra- 
saria, or even that we are dealing with a mere aberration. The latter supposition is precluded by the palpal 
and antennal differences. 

H. dijuncta Walk. Of this species I have only seen faded specimens. It seems to be very closely allied dijuncla. 
to veneta, perhaps of a rather lighter, bluer green, the hindwing more rounded apically, with slightly sharper 
tail and with the postmedian line placed more proximally. It cannot be a mere form of that species however, 
for the palpus is short. Hindwing with first median separate (in veneta stalked, or at least connate). Shanghai, 
Yokohama, Nikko, etc. May, June and August. It is not impossible this may be the species which Staxjdinger 
records from Japan as ,,var. ? an sp. div. ?" to chrysoprasaria. 

H. veneta Btlr. (2 h). Palpus of moderate length, third joint in $ rather long. Colour bright green, reneta. 
the white lines slender, placed somewhat as in chryso'prasaria, the antemedian of forewing less strongly curved, 
postmedian usually well removed from it, the line on the hindwing forming a continuation to this line, not 
placed further distally as in chrywprasaria. Angle of hindwing slightly stronger, more as in zimmermanni. But 
differs above all in having a very fine olive brown marginal line and whitish fringes spotted with red brown. 
Under surface paler, the lines almost or altogether obsolete. Japan: Tokio, Oiwake, etc., in July, August and 
September. Also from Gensan, Korea. Varies considerably in size, but scarcely otherwise. 

H. insolitaria Leech (2 h) only known to me in a single example, and that not in quite perfect condition, InsolUaria. 
is exceedingly like veneta, and may prove to be an aberration of it. The angle in the hindwing seems some- 
what stronger, the colour of both wings slightly fuller and darker, the antemedian line weak (rather too distinct 
in our figure), postmedian not even faintly denticulate, spots on the fringe perhaps brighter red. Satsuma, 
Japan, captured in May. Type {^) in coll. Brit. Mus. The specimen from Chang Yang which Leech referred 
to this species as its $, is a Hemithea allied to unilinearia. 

H. parallelaria Leech (2 h) bears a remarkable superficial resemblance to HipparcMis vallata, the distal parallelaria. 
margin of the forewing being straighter and the tail of the hindwing stronger than in the preceding species, 
while the red-brown spots in the fringe are restricted to a large one at this tail and a small one at the 
end of the first median of hindwing almost exactly as in vallata. The structure, however, is that of Hemistola 
and the underside, as is usual in this genus, is simply a paler, weaker reproduction of the upper, not white- 
banded as in vallata. Western China: Mou-pin and Ni-tou. 

H. nemoriata Stgr., which is quite unknown to me, may possibly (according to the characters given) ncmoriata. 
belong to this genus. It was founded on a single worn ^ from south-eastern Siberia, and is described as verdi- 
gris green with a fine, weakly dentate white postmedian line and a dark marginal line, forewing in addition 
with a faint, almost invisible antemedian line. Shape somewhat as in Nemoria, antennal pectinations as long 
as in smaragdaria, palpus even thinner and shorter than in Thalera, hindtibia with two pairs of spurs. 

H. detracta Walk. (= unduligera Btlr. = vestigiata Sivinh. = annuligera Warr.) (2 h) is not unlike detracta. 
chrysoprasaria in shape, the elbow in hindwing generally weak, sometimes wanting (as in lissas); very different 
in its much smaller size, duller blue-green colour, strongly dentate lines and the presence in the centre of each 
wing of a large white ring. Costal edge ochreous. Underside paler, unmarked. Widely distributed in north- 
west India, including Kulu and Kashmir. Our figure of the <J is copied from Butler's very bad figure; the 
$ is from nature. 

H. dispartita Walk. (2 h) differs from all the preceding Hemistola-ST^ecies in having non-pectinate $ di!<partita. 
antenna, and forms, together with a few North Indian species, a separate section of the genus. Colour near 
that of chrysoprasaria, slightly more yellowish green, postmedian line denticulate, on hindwing out-bent in the 
middle ; both wings with a rather large white cell-spot. North-west India, including Kashmir, where it occurs 
towards the end of June. 

Note. — The species from Korea described and figured byALPHERAKY as Thalera tenuilinea is also 
likely to be a Hemistola, unless it form a new genus. It is unfortunately entirely unknown to me, and its author 
gives practically no information about the structure, but it would be somewhat aberrant in possessing ,,four 
small white crests on the abdomen" — although there is just a suspicion of cresting in riibrimargo and perhaps 
one or two other species of the genus. In size and shape and in the bright colouring tenuilinea would seem to 

32 lODIS; COMOSTOLA. By L. B. Peotjt. 

come near veneta or insolitaria, and it shares with them the presence of brown spots (though weak) on the 
pale fringes. But the hues are markedly dentate and each wing bears a white discal ring, somewhat as in 
detracta. The costal edge of the forewing is ochreous, the lines are yellow-whitish, the underside much paler 
than the upper, almost unmarked. 

33. Genus: loclis Hhn. 

Palpus moderate or rather long, third joint in both sexes distinct, smooth, in $ elongate. Antenna in 
(J bipectinate. Hindtibia in ^ with hair-pencil, in both sexes with all spurs. Forewing with first subcostal 
stalked, usually anastomosing with costal and occasionally with second subcostal, first median usually connate 
or short-stalked. Hindwing rather long, with distal margin nearly always bent or angled at third radial, second 
subcostal stalked, first median usually stalked. Scaling smooth, often more or less iridescent. Larva long and 
slender, head deeply bifid, flattened anteriorly, prothorax with the usual points anteriorly, skin-surface rugose, 
anal flap produced prominently behind. Pupa very slender, tapering, wing-cases rather long, distinctly veined, 
cremaster long, slender, taperiiig, bearing some hooked bristles. The species are nearly all of small size. They 
belong chiefly to India, but a few species have reached Europe, Japan, Formosa, etc. 

lactearia. 1. I. lactearia L. (= vernaria L. = aeruginaria Hhn.) (2 h). When preshly emerged from the pupa 

the ground-colour is of a beautiful delicate light green, but this colour is extraordinarily fugitive, and most 
specimens which are met with, as well as all which have stood in a collection a few years, are almost or quite 
white. The white postmedian line is on both wings almost entirely parallel to the distal margin, and not dentate. 
The larva feeds on oak, birch and various other trees, and even lower growths, in August and September. The 
pupa hibernates in a very slight cocoon among dead leaves, and the moth appears in June. It frequents chiefly 
wooded country, and flies in the clearings or on the borders of the woods rather early in the evening, its 
whitish colouring rendering it very conspicuous. When disturbed from its hiding-places by day its flight is 
weak and vacillating, and never very long-sustained. Widely distributed in Europe and Palearctic Asia, 
norbeHaria. reaching to Japan. — norbertaria Bossl. said to form a local race at Bilbao, is more thickly scaled and more 
deeply coloured. 
putata. I. putata L. {= putatoria L. = micantaria Esp. = alliata Hofn.) (2 h). Similar to lactearia but with 

the postmedian line dentate, and not parallel with distal margin. Moreover the forewing is slightly less elongate. 
Foodplants, times of appearance and habits are nearly the same as in lactearia, but putata is a more local spe- 
cies, being chiefly confined to central and northern Europe (excluding Britain), Armenia and Japan. Has been 
recorded also for Korea and Amurland. According to Leech the Japanese specimens are rather darker than 
the European. Unfortunately I have not access to any fresh specimens, and it is impossible to found a local 
race on those which may have become discoloured through accident. 

praerupta. I. praerupta Btlr. (= steroparia Piing.) (2i) is similar to putata, but of a somewhat fuller, less eva- 

nescent green colour, the teeth in the white lines stronger, the postmedian of forewing broad at inner mar- 
gin, the discal marks consisting of white rings. ^ antennal pectinations perhaps somewhat shorter than in 
putata, palpus in both sexes shorter. Japan and Amurland. 

dentifascia. I. dentifascia Warr. (2i) is also similar to putata, but much larger and darker, being of a dull bluish 

green. It usually shows traces of a large darker cell-spot, at least on the hindwing. Japan and Korea. Flies 
in June and July. 

sinuosaria. I. sinuosaria ieecA (2i). Pale green, the dentate postmedian expanding in the middle of forewing 

and near the inner margin of both wings, the antemedian followed and the postmedian preceded by a darker 
green shade or line. Discal spots white, dark-margined. Under surface whitish, the forewing tinged with 
green. Probably a form of the Indian species argutaria, but distinguishable by the mentioned expansions 
of the postmedian, the large white spot between the second median and second submedian veins of fore- 
wing especially conspicuous. Japan and W. China. 

34. Genus : Comostola Meyr. 

Differs from lodis more in shape and facies than in structure, the distal margin of the hindwing 
being only very slightly bent at the end of the third radial, or strongly rounded, and the colour being bright 
green, not translucent, usually with some red markings. The neuration is, however, characteristic in one 
respect, the second discocellular of both wings curving outwards more or less strongly, so that the third arises 
further, sometimes even much further from the base of the wing, the anterior half of the cell being there- 
fore materially shorter than the posterior. The costal vein of the hindwing is formed almost as in the Aci- 
daliinae, touching or anastomosing with the subcostal at a point only and then very strongly diverging, 
whereas in lodis it seldom touches the subcostal, but usually remains approximated for a longer period, 
though still not far. The genus is chiefly Indo-Australian, but a few species reach the outskirts of the Pa- 
learctic Region. 


C. subtiliaria Brem. (2 i) belongs to a group of very similar species or forms which includes the name- suUiliaria. 
type of the genus and will probably require careful anatomical investigation before the specific right or 
otherwise of its various constituents can be satisfactorily determined. The degree of irregularity in the 
form of the discocellulars, as described above, sometimes affords useful clues, but cannot always be relied 
upon. I have not seen specimens from Amurland and the Ussuri, from which Bremer described his species, 
but according to his figure, and a communication from Pungeler, it is the same blue-green form which rea- 
ches to Wa-ssu-kow and Che-tou in western China, and differs little from the Indian macukda. — nympha nympha. 
Btlr. from Japan is smaller, apple-green, with sharper red marginal markings. In addition to Japan, 
it occurs at Shanghai. There must be two broods in the year, as it is found in May and June, August and 

C. ovifera Warr. is a less ornamental-looking species than the subtiliaria-gion-p, the white spots odfera. 
being entirely unadorned with red rings or dots and often (except the discal spot) obsolescent, the red mar- 
ginal line likewise wanting. Underside pale green, a great part of the forewing clouded with grey. The spe- 
cies was first discovered by Elwes in July at Tonglo, Sikkim, at an elevation of 3000 m, but has since been 
taken at Yatung, Tibet. Perhaps not Palearctic. 

C. inops Prout (5 a) is similar to the preceding, somewhat intermediate towards maculata Moore in inops. 
that the postmedian series of white spots is strong on both wings. The colour is yellow-green, that of ovifera 
bluer green. Liddon Valley, Kashmir. 

35. Genus: Pyrrhorachis Warr. 

A small Indo- Australian genus which will be discussed elsewhere, differing from Gomostola in the 
simple discocellulars, from lodis in the strongly rounded hindwing. It is only introduced here because a 
single Japanese species, of which only two specimens are known, seems to fit into it better than into any 
other known genus. But it is not typical and its location here is probably only temporary. 

P. rubripunctata Warr. Pale yellowish green, each wing with a red cell-spot. Otherwise unmar- rubri- 
ked. Underside paler, unmarked. Pace and palpus brownish red. Kagoshima, Japan, collected by Jonas P^'nctata. 
in July, 1900 and by Wilbman in July, 1898. 

36. Genus: Eucrostes Hbn. 

Palpus moderate, with third joint in cJ minute, in $ moderate to long. Antenna short, in ^ with 
long, in $ with short pectinations. Hindtibia in both sexes with a single pair of spurs. Wings ample (except 
msimonyi, which should probably form a separate genus), distal margin and fringe usually red. Forewing 
with first subcostal arising from cell, running into costal, or at the least anastomosing strongly, first median 
usually stalked. Hindwing usually long, distal margin strongly rounded, neuration as in Gomostola. Differs 
essentially from the two preceding genera in the absence of the proximal pair of spurs of the hindtibia. The 
larva is is of medium proportions, the head relatively small and — unlike those of most of the subfamily — 
not bifid, somewhat flattened in front, prothorax higher, dorsally with four points, segment-incisions deep, 
the first to fifth and the eighth abdominal each with a dorsal point, spiracles small. Pupa rather obtuse, 
smooth, resting in a slight cocoon among the foodplant. Hibernates as larva. Avery beautiful and, with the 
exception of one or two species, a very natural genus. Its home is in Africa, but one or two species occur 
in each of the other continents. 

E. indigenata Vill. (= fimbriolaria Hbn.) (2i) is the name-type of the genus, and thoroughly repre- indigenata. 
sentative of its normal coloration and marking. The bright green ground-colour shows only the faintest 
trace of pale postmedian line, the red cell-spots are of moderate size, the red margin is preceded by a slight 
yellow shade, and broadens close to the anal angle of both wings. Underside similar, somewhat paler, costal 
margin reddish. — nudilimbaria Mob., from Corsica, lacks the yellow line before the red margin, and some- nudilim- 
times has the discal spots indistinct. I have seen an aberration from Gibraltar which seems referable to it, ™"'''- 
and a transitional form is said to occur also in Dalmatia. — The larva is bright green, tinged with red an- 
teriorly and posteriorly, segment-incisions yellowish, dorsal points reddish. It lives on species of Euphorbia, 
particularly E. spinosa, and is very sluggish. There are two, often even three broods in the year. According 
to Millie RE the nutriment is obtained in large measure by sucking the juices of the plant. The pupa is of 
nearly the same green as the larva. The moth flies in southern 'Europe, N. Africa, Asia Minor and Sjn^ia. 

IV 5 

34 XENOCHLORODES. By L. B. Peotjt. 

simonyi. E. simonyi Ebl. (= divincta Holt-White = pallida Warr.) (3c) has the wings long and narrow, 

recalling the genus Ehadinomphax of South Africa. The forewing is pale green, without markings; the fringe 
and the entire hindwing greenish white. Under surface similar. Besides the great difference in shape and co- 
loration, this species differs from true Eucrostes in the $ antenna, which is merely serrate-dentate, not pecti- 
nate. Canaries. Mrs. Holt-White records the capture of a i^ on Teneriffe in April, iljing at dusk among 
cactus plants at about 150 m. The only two specimens which I have before me are a cJ and a $ likewise 
from Teneriffe, the former bred by Lord Walsingham from an undescribed larva found on Frankenia eri- 
cifolia on 16 March, the moth emerging on 15 April. 

37. Genus: Xeiioclilorocles Warr. 

Palpus minute. Antenna in c? pectinate, in $ serrate (in nubigena simple). Hindtibia with a single 
pair of spurs. First subcostal stalked or connate with the other subcostals, running into costal or at least 
anastomosing, first median stalked, rarely only connate. Hindwing with costal anastomosing with subcostal 
for the greater part of the length of cell, second subcostal and first median both stalked, second radial from 
scarcely above middle of discocellulars. Differs essentially from Eucrostes in the strong anastomosis of the 
costal vein of the hindwing. Consists of only three species, all Palearctic. 

nubigena. X. nubigena Woll. (3 c) differs from the other species in fades, and in some slight details of struc- 

ture, but is certainly congeneric. DeUcate green, with the costal edge narrowly crimson (broadly in basal 
half beneath), both wings with a curved white postmedian line, usually thick, subdentate, sometimes broken 
up into spots, a little recalling Comostola ovifera or inojjs. Occm-s only in Madeira, in May and June, fre- 
quenting the heath-woods of the loftiest elevations, and is strongly attracted by light. 

olympiaria. X. olympiaria H.-Sch. Pale delicate green with an indistinct pale postmedian line and occasionally 

traces of an antemedian. Costal edge yellowish white. Distal part of fringe white. Face reddish. Neigh- 

cremonaria. bourhood of Brusa and some parts of Syria. — cremonaria Stgr. ( = pallida Warr.) is much paler, often nearly 
white, although showing, when quite fresh, a delicate greenish shade. In such condition the lines are still 
traceable, but faded specimens appear entirely unicolorous. Syria: about Beyrout and probably elsewhere. 

Uryllaria. X. beryllaria TIfawre (= aureliaria ilfi^Z.) (2e, c?; 2i, $). Nearly related to the preceding and of 

closely similar structure, but at once distinguishable by its beautiful bright emerald-green colour. It is also 
on an average larger, and has the first subcostal of forewing longer-stalked. Postmedian line removed 
further from the distal margin, sometimes forming more distinct spots on the veins. Distributed locally in 
southern Europe, North Africa, Syria and the Taurus Mountains. 

4. Subfamily: Acidaliinae. 

Mostly small, slenderly-built moths, commonly of white, light brownish, ochreous or similar colo- 
ration, the markings consistmg principally of darker transverse lines. Face nearly always smooth-scaled, usually 
flat. Palpus usually short (long in some of the Anisodes-gvow^), Antenna in the ^ not infrequently bipec- 
tinate, but by no means so generally as in the Hemitheinae; in the $ nearly always simple. Hindleg very 
variable; in the ^ often aborted and without spurs; the number of spurs, if present, varying in the (J from 
1 to 4, in the $ from 2 to 4, $ often with more spurs than cj. Abdomen not crested, rather slenderly attached 
to thorax. Forewing usually smooth-margined, all the veins almost invariably present, subcostals usually 
anastomosing so as to form one or two accessory cells (often called "areoles"), the second subcostal inva- 
riably anastomosing with or arising ont of the third. Frenulum well developed. Hindwing varied in shape 
and structure, sometimes more or less contorted in the ^J, costal vein anastomosuag with subcostal at a point 
near base, then usually diverging rapidly, second radial usually arising from the middle of the discocellulars. 

The eggs are of approximately the ordmary Geometrid form, the length greater than the breadth, 
the breadth than the height, and usually with one end broader and higher than the other. Some are more regularly 
ovate, others more nearly cylindrical, others again so much flattened that they have been described as "discs". 
They are usually attached by one side, but not infrequently a. little tilted, in Acidalia even often attached by the 
end opposite the micropyle, becoming in position "upright eggs", though still maintaining the shape and 
proportions of the "flat egg" of Chapman. A very frequent colour-scheme — apparently almost invariable 
in the typical genus — consists in the presence of irregular spots or blotches of some shade of red. The great 
majority of the known larvae, excepting yiose of Gosymhia and a few of its allies, feed on low plants, and 
hibernate in the larval stage. They are comparatively seldom found free, and our knowledge of very many 

KHODOSTROPHIA. By L. B. Prout. 35 

species has been gained solely by obtaining eggs in captivity. The $9 deposit their eggs very readily, and many 
of the species are quite easy to rear, the commonest weeds, such es knotgrass and da.ndelion, being willingly 
accepted by most of them. They show a marked predilection for withering leaves, and some, indeed, thrive 
well on food which is actually mouldy. In some cases there are two or more broods during the summer, but 
many of the larvae grow very slowly, and produce only a single brood of imagines. The pupa is rarely, if ever, 
truly subterranean, although many species, if provided with earth, will use it in the constructions of their 
slight cocoons. The usual habit, however, is to spin up loosely among dead leaves or other refuse on the sur- 
face of the ground. The remarkably different habit of the Cosymbia-group has been mentioned in our Intro- 
duction. The colour is usually light brown, scarcely ever that reddish brown which is general among the 
subterranean pupae. The surface is usually pretty smooth and almost, or altogether, without markings, but 
some species of Ptychopoda are somewhat rougher, with the dorsal surface spotted and the wing-vems 
strongly marked. The dui'ation of the pupal stage, except in hibernating Cosymbia, is generally short. The 
method of dehiscence is characteristic, the anterior part of the pupa-case being much broken and the entire 
thorax strongly cleft dorsally, the edges at the point of cleavage bending markedly inwards. 

The moths as a rule fly gently at dusk or later and are usually found in la.rge numbers where they 
occur, although many are excessively local ; several species will occasionally visit flowers or the sugar spread 
for Noctuids, or may be attracted by a strong light. During the day they rest among bushes or herbage, a 
few species, such as Acidalia mar^inepunctata, Ptychopoda eburnata etc., on rocks or stone wells. The majority 
can easily be disturbed, and do not fly fast or far, so that their capture presents no difficulty. Sometimes 
in their resting-places they are not even conceaied; thus Acidalia floslactata and Ptychopoda rusticata often sit 
on the upper side of leaves, the latter species (and perhaps also the former) being sufficiently protected by a 
resemblance to the excrement of birds. 

The Acidaliinae may be divided into 3 principal groups, one of which, the Cyllopoda-gnowji, belongs 
to the Central and South American Region. The other two groups of almost world-wide occurrence, al- 
though very weakly represented in the Arctic regions and wanting in New Zealand and Hawaii, with the excep- 
tion of a single (probably introduced) species in the former country. The typical or Acidalia-gxo\x]i has the 
pupa normal, the imago with the first subcostal vein occasionally free, but if stalked or anastomosing with the 
other subcostals, then separating early — usually weU before the fifth subcostal, the areole usually large, 
not infrequently double, the palpus rarely long, the ^ a^ntenna mostly ciliate, the ^ hindleg very commonly 
aborted, the ^ genitalia with the valve simple in form, only a long unarmed flap or a simple valve ending in 
a curved head. Tlie Cosym&w-group has the pupa attached to a leaf by its tail and a silken girth, resem 
bling that of many butterflies, the imago with the first subcostal vein stalked to (usually) well beyond the fifth 
the areole usually very small or wanting, never double, the palpus often long, the ^ antenna strongly bipecti 
natj, the ^ hindleg usually not aborted, the ^ genitalia with the valve of a much more complex structure 
than in the Acidalia-gvowp . The larvae vill also probably present reliable distinctions; at present we merely 
call attention to the less cylindrical form and strong rugosity of many of the larvae of the Acidalia group 
and their attachment to low plants and larval hibernation, while those of the Cosj/mfeia-group affect trees 
and hibernate as pupae. The preseijce of rounded white discal spots on one or both wings is also generally 
indicative of a species of the C'os^/m^ia-group, but cannot be always relied upon. 

Neither the Acidalia- not the Cosymbia-gvouT^ can be regarded as arising at ail directly frjm the other; 
each is the more specialized in certain respects, and they must have sprung collaterally from the primitive 
Acidaliid stirps. It is also noteworthy that the genera with double areole (which, according to the usual con- 
ception of phylogeny, should be older than those with single areole or with all the subcostals stalked) furnish 
scarcely any exemples of unmodified hindleg structure; most of the genera in which both sexes retain all the 
spurs are found among the groups with single areole or even (Chrysocraspeda) without areole. 

On account of the large number and general similarity of the species I have given somewhat fuller 
descriptions, differentiations and synonymy here than in the other subfamilies. 

The Acidalia-group. 

Areole double (*) Genera 1 — 6. 

Areole single (**) Genera 7—23. 

1. Genus: Bhodostropliia Hbn. 

Palpus rather short or moderate. Antenna in (J moderately long, bipectinate, with slender branches, 
two pairs on each segment. Hindtibia in ^ slender, with or without hair-pencil, with a pair of terminal 

*) The outer areole open at its distal end in Apostates. 

**) Occasionally open at its distal extremity, the first subcostal merely approaching instead of anastom.osing with 
the others; see Ptychopoda and Cleta. 

36 RHODOSTROPHIA. By L. B. Prottt. 

spurs and a single median spur or a pair; in $ with all spurs. Hindtarsus not abbreviated. Forewing with 
areole double, the second subcostal vein arising either from the cell or from the stalk of the 3. — 5. subcostals. 
Hindwing with the second subcostal stalked with the first median. 

Very few of the larvae are known. They are extremely long and slender, tapering a little anteriorly, 
the face and sides of the head flattened; they feed on low plants and hibernate. Pupa also slender, broadening 
markedly anteriorly ; two strong spines at anal extremity, small knobs at their base, two pairs of hooka before them. 

The genus, with the exception of one or two species, has a distinctive aspect and, notwithstandmg 
the structural variation in one or two details noted above, is m general easy to recognize. Meyeick considers 
that "it must certainly closely approach the primitive type" of the subfamily. Its geographical distribution 
is peculiar, as it appears to be confined to the Palearctic Region, North India and Chili. Its head-quarters 
are undoubtedly in Central Asia, and the boundaries of the Palearctic and Indo-Australian Regions furnish 
many species, but we regard it as belonging essentially to the former. 

The commonest and at the same time most distinctive type of coloration is that seen in the best- 
known European species — a yellowish ground-colour mth bright rose-coloured lines or bands. Variation 
consists chiefly in the degree of development of the bands, both as regards depth of colour and extent, and 
many species produce occasionally a unicolorous form, the ground-colour being evenly dusted over throughout. 

For convenience of determination the genus can be subdivided according to the hindtibial armature 
of the (J and the point of origin of the second subcostal vein of the forewing; but it seems quite certain 
that neither of these characters (so often of value generically) is in the present genus of high taxonomic impor 
tance. Thus the spurring would place quadricalcarata in a different section from its Sicilian representative 
sicanaria, while the venation, though constant in most species, sometimes varies in fhilolaches and vinacearia, 
and occasional variability may be expected in some other species. The species -ndth 4-spurred ^, which must 
be considered the more ancestral, all inhabit the southern Palearctic Region. 

A. Section Rhodostrophia. Second subcostal of forewing arising from cell. 


cJ hindtibia with 4 spurs. Distal margm of hindwing usually pretty straight from anal angle to first 
radial. The markmgs rarely rose-coloured. 

R. jacularia is a conspicuous species, easily recognized by the strongly darkened markings on a light 

ground-colour, the outer band of the forewing strongly sinuous, followed by a white line. The hindwing above 

is paler than the forewing. Under surface of both \\dngs pale, almost entirely unmarked. — The type-form, 

jacularia. jacularia Hbn. (3 e) with yellow-brown ground-colour and with a distinct line on the hindwing, ranges from 

carnosaria. South-East Russia to the Changai Mountains in Western Mongolia. — The ab. carnosaria Stgr. is, according 

to its author, a form with the forewing and distal border of hindwing more reddish, the line on the hindwmg 

obsolete. It is reported from the Eastern Thian-Shan and the Changai Mountains, possibly forming a local 

minor, race in the former district. — minor Alph. is a very small form from the Ordos district, Mongolia (about 

25 mm expanse) with almost unmarked hindwing. 

vastaria. R. vastaria CAj\ is ill Some respects intermediate between ^'acwlarm and &arfiana, the absence of a middle 

line and the frequent presence of rather strong dark shading proximally to the outer somewhat recalling the 
former species, while the less bright, more dark-dusted ground-colour, with the hindwing not or scarcely whiter 
than the forewing, the less oblique inner line and some other characters seem to place it nearer to badiaria. 
The inner line is at least as far from the base on the posterior margin as on the costa, is more or less interrupted 
by the veins and thickened distally between them. Tlie outer is sinuate and somewhat dentate, and projects 
rather strongly near its posterior end, thus reaching the margin very near the posterior angle. The under 
surface is almost unmarked. The $ is paler than the (J. Described from Krasnovodsk, Transcaspia, where 
it flies on the sandy steppes in May; also occurs in the Thian-shan district. 

.-hadiaria. R. badiaria -P'rr. (= emucidaria Ev. = telaria H.-Sch. = praecanaria Ev.) (3d, as praecisaria). Light 

• brownish grey, finely dusted with darker scales, again more weakly marked than the preceding species, but 
with a median line present on both wmgs, placed about half-way between the discal spot and the outer line, 
the latter not accompanied proximally by a dark band. Hindwing slightly paler. Under surface almost without 
markings. Distributed throughout Asiatic Turkey, extending in one direction into Southern Russia and in 
another into Persia. The example which served as model for our figure came from Armenia. The names of this 
species and praecisaria are unfortunately transposed on the plate. Of the habits of this species we have at 
present but little knowledge, but it is said to frequent dry fields and hills in the months of May and June. 

RHODOSTKOPHIA. By L. B. Prout. 37 

R. terrestraria Led. (3 d) is of similar colour to the preceding (only somewhat browner in tone) but lerrenlrariu. 
very differently marked. Forewing with an indistmct, rather oblique, slightly curved inner line, a small, not 
very strongly expressed discal spot, a nearly straight dark outer line parallel witli the distal inargin, and a very 
faint pale straight line or shade midway between this line and the margin. Hindwing paler, only a not very 
broad distal border nearly concolorous with the forewing; lines and discal spot wanting. Under surface pale, 
without markings. Only recorded from Persia. — pellonaria Chr., which represents terrestraria in Transcaspia, pellonaria. 
differs chiefly in the rather brighter colouring, but weaker markings, and in having the hindwing yellowish or 
ochraceous. Christoph figures pellonaria with both wings coloured almost as in the calabra group, but the 
specimens before me suggest that this is exaggerated. Flies in weedy places where there are patches of; 
June, the $ appearing when the ^ is getting worn. 

R. dispar Stgr. (3 d, ^) exhibits more pronounced sexual dimorphism than most of the genus. The J dispar. 
somewhat recalls terrestraria pellonaria, or still more the unicolorous forms in the calabra group ; bands wanting, dis- 
cal spots present above and beneath ; imderside mostly yellow, forewing with a slight smoky suffusion costally 
and again between the median and submedian folds from the base to about two-thirds of the wing. The $, 
besides having the wings (especially the hindwing) rather narrower, differs in being somewhat paler and having 
two nearly straight dark transverse lines, the proximal placed about as in badiaria, the distal parallel with 
and rather near the margin, only at its anterior extremity a little curved proximad; this latter line is sometimes 
preceded by a band-hke dark shade. Only known from Samarkand and one or two other places in Western 
Turkestan. Flies in May. Staudinger mentions one abnormality in which one of the middle spurs is shortened 
on one leg and wanting on the other, thus bringing it near to the species of the following group. 


(J hindtibia mtli 3 spurs (except in certain forms of sicanaria). Distal margin of hindwing usually roun- 
ded. The markings very frequently rose-coloured. 

R. calabra is a very beautiful species, and very interesting on account of the branches into which it has 
split up and which have given so much trouble to systematists. Those which differ the most definitely in struc- 
ture are here considered distinct species, although they show extraordinarily little deviation except in a single 
character, the hindleg of the ^. Zellbr considered that tabidaria, as well as sicanaria, differed sufficiently 
from calabra to be regarded as a species, and it is quite possible he will be proved correct ; but inasmuch as I 
have found (in common withLEDERBR, FtrcHS and Staudingbr) that there is some degree of variation m the 
length of the hair-pencil and of the median spur, and our measurements do not altogether agree with Zellbr's, 
I feel compelled at present to treat tabidaria as only a local race, while sicanaria on the contrary (together with 
its subspecies quadricalcarata) can mth confidence be called an mdependent species, calabra and its immediate 
alhes are easily recognizable by the rosy postmedian band and rosy distal margin of both wings, on a rather 
bright yellowish (sometimes more olive-tinted) ground-colour. The other European species, vibicaria, has the 
ground-colour much less yellow and has nearly always three distinct pmk transverse lines, which remain trace- 
able even when the space between the second and third is more or less filled up into a band. The true calabra 
can further be readily distinguished by the pecuKar long, thick, club-shaped median spur of the ^ hindtibia, 
which is placed rather near the terminal spurs ; hindtibia also with a long hair-pencil. The species is distributed 
and often common in Southern Europe and Asiatic Turkey, and extends into some localities in Southern Central 
Europe, but apparently only in the warmer valleys; it occurs from May to July, in Andalusia already in April. 
The flight, as with most Acidaliids, is not long-sustained, the moth soon dropping to the groimd and concea- 
ling itself in the grass or under thick bushes. The life-history has been described by Fuchs and others. The 
eggs are firmly attached, are elongate, with lateral depressions, in colour bluish at first, changing to reddish. 
The larva feeds on Sarothamnus scoparius and probably other allied species. It hibernates when it has reached 
a length of about 18 — 20 mm. The full-fed larva is yellow-brown or grey, dorsaUy darkened on the middle 
segments, the dark area containing some light spots; tubercles whitish, setae short, black. It spins a rather 
large cocoon in moss or on the surface of the earth, changing into a long, slender pupa of about 14 mm 
length and of a hght yellow-brown colour, with dark dorsal line and honey-yellow wing-cases. — calabra Pet. calabra. 
(= trifasciata Cyr.) (2 k) is the oldest name for the ordinary form, and must be accepted, as was long ago 
done by Lbderbr. Zbller, Statjdinger and others have called it by the Hiibnerian name of calabraria, which, 
however, is merely Petagna's name with an altered ending, so that the two would stand or fall together. As 
the original specimen was figured from Calabria, Zellbr thought it was possible that it really belonged to the 
allied sicanaria, but the hindwing as figured is that of a typical calabraria Zell., so that we see no reason 
whatever for disturbing the synonymy. The form has the yellow ground-colour of both fore- and hindwing 
usually tinged with olive, the rosy bands usually sharply expressed, the inner band (or line) rarely accompanied 
by rosy suffusion basewards ; discal spots wanting, or a very small one present on forewing only. , Southern 



iaeniaria. and Southern Central Europe and Syria ; ? Armenia. • — ab. taeniaria Frr., originally described from a $ 
from Ragusa ( ? Dalmatia), is a pale yellow form -with the markings grey instead of rosy. If it came from 
Ragusa m Sicily, the name will have to be transferred to sicanaria; the specimen was furnished by a Laibach 

separata, entomologist. — ab. separata Th.-Mieg is a not very important aberration, of rather frequent occurrence 
(at least in France and Spain), in which the postmedian band is broken up into two lines, the iiaterspace remain- 

unilinea. ing of the gromid -colour. ■ — ab. unilinea ab. nov., is a further and much rarer development in which the 

outer line of ab. separata is obsolete, OT)ly a few rosy scales being discernible beyond the middle line; antemedian 

line of forewuig also faint, distal margms and frmges scarcely rosy. Casayo and Canales, Spain, in coll. L. B. 

sanguinea. Peotjt. — In ab. sangulnea Th.-Mieg, on the other hand, the rosy colouring suffuses the whole of the wings, 

sometimes so completely as almost entirely to obliterate the markings. Eastern Pyrenees, M-ith the type-form. 

muscosa. — muscosa Bastelb., founded on 3 (J and 1 $ from Kreuznach, and considered by its author to be a distinct 
local race, is apparently similar to ab. taeniaria Frr., but is described as yellowish grey tinged with moss-green, 
the markings and fringes dirty moss-green, the outer band rather narrower than usual, a small discal spot 
present on forewing. Some Andalusian specimens before me approach this form, but are less extreme and in- 
cline, in the formation of the outer band, to ab. sefarata. It may be here remarked that the Spanish forms 
are very often somewhat duller, and mth larger discal spot, than those from more easterly localities, but they 
vary greatly, without producing any local race; I even have one specimen from Bejar, and Staudikgee, Ribbe 
and Cheistoph record others from Northern and Southern Spain and Transcaucasia respectively, which, in the 
presence of a conspicuous discal spot on the hmdMoirg, would be referable to the next-mentioned form. — 
tabidarki. tabidaria Zell. (2 k). We have already stated that this form may possibly be entitled to specific rank. If so, the 
aberration occmTing among the type form in Spam and m Transcaucasia will no doubt prove to owe its likeness 
to tabidaria merely to convergence. The true tabidaria, in addition to having a large discal spot present on 
each whig, has the band usually a httle broader than in calabra calabra, its edges often more denticidate, and the 
basal area of the forewmg more suffused with rosy. Perhaps the distal area of both wmgs is also on the average 
more broadly suffused, but both forms are variable m this respect. According to Zellee the hair-pencil ui 
tabidaria is a little shorter than in the name-type, as is also the median spur. I have only in part verified 
these observations, while Guenee's statement that the $ lacks one of the median sjjurs is certamly erroneoiis. 
The form occurs m Southern Hungary, the Balkan Penmsula, Asia llinor, Cyprus and Syria. The only speci- 
mens which I have seen from Crete seem to indicate a subordmate race, rather smaller, the band even broader 
and separated into two distinct lines, as in calabra ab. separata; they bear a curious resemblance to inconspicua 
Butl., though much larger. As, however, they are not in quite perfect condition, and I have not the (J, I 
forbear to name the form. 


R. sicanaria is confusmgly similar to the lighter forms of the preceding species, without discal spots, 
but can be easily separated hy the hindtibia of the q. This is slender, -without hair-pencil, the median spur 
not club-shaped and not abnormally approximated to the termmal spurs, the second median spur also some- 
times present. In general the yellow ground-colour is less olivaceous than in calabra, the hindwmg in particular 
of a clearer or brighter yellow, the transverse band of this whig seldom, if ever, complete, usually only conspicuous 
in (approximately) the inuer-margmal half. — sicanaria Zell. (2 k). The form origmally described by Zeller, 
with only three spurs on the huidtibia, occurs in Sicily, and has the forewing, as a rule, as strongly and brightly 
marked as that of calabra. I have, however, seen one ^ from S_>Tacuse resembling the form quadricalcarata in 
colour, while Staudinger records one sport with a fourth spur present on the left huidtibia and Guenee's 
sole Palermo ^ had also both the median spurs — whether on both hindlegs is not stated. Thus the races of 
this species have apparently not yet become quite sharply differentiated, though tending in that direction and 
probably even towards species-formation. '. I have unfortimately not seen the North African form which 
Staudinger refers here, but Herr PIIngeler writes me that his 3 Algerian ^^ have both median spurs, thus 

perezaria. referable to quadricalcarata. — perezaria Ob. was founded on a smgle aberrant $ from Carthagena and has 
been determined by Staudinger as an aberration of sicanaria. As we have no proof that he is incorrect, I am 
placing it here provisionally; but the locality raises a suspicion that it should rather belong to quadricalcarata, 
or else to calabra. The forewing is uniformly dusted with rosy above, obliteratmg the markings, as in extreme 
forms of calabra ab. sanguinea; the hmdwing above is yellow, ^vithout the band, the anal area broadly dusted. 
Beneath the conditions are nearly reversed, the forewuig being yellow, only dusted at the costal and distal 
margins and in the apical area, the hindwrng dusted all over except a narrow inner-marghial area. The size 
is rather small for calabra, and this circumstance, together with the unmarked yellow hindwing above and fore- 

qxuiilricui- wing beneath, brings it rather near one or two of the examples of undoubted quadricalcarata. — quadricalcarata 
carala. subsp. 1WV. (5 c). Scarcely distmguishable from certain aberrations of sicanaria sicanaria except in the presence 
of both the median spurs on the hindtibia of the ^. The rose-coloured markings rather weak, the antemedian 
line not distinctly defined, accompanied by rosy suffusion reaching to the base, the postmedian band not 
perceptibly curved, not narrowing at the inner margin of hindwing. Hindwing lighter yellowish than in typical 
sicanaria. ' Underside of forewing with postmedian line greyish, only markedly rosy from costal margin to first 

RHODOSTROPHIA. By L. B. Prout. 39 

radial; of hindwing with this band terminating at the second median or only just beyond, whereas in cnlabra 
and usually in sicanaria sicanaria it reaches at least to the first submedian, oftener still further or even to the 
inner margin. Gibraltar, type (3*) in coll. L. B. Prout ; Algeria, 3 (J(J in coll. Pungele r; also general in Southern 
Spain, where it has been recorded as sicanaria. Thus Dr. Rebel, in his edition of Berge's „Schmetterlingsbuch", 
indicates sicaiuiria as having all the spurs present, although in his diagnosis of the genus he makes one or 
both of the median spurs always absent in the ^ — the latter an error. Staudinger records one Andalusian 
sport with only three spurs, and justifies, by the occasional irregularities, the union of the two races. 

R. sieversi Ghr. (2 k) is superficially very like a large calabra tabidaria, to which, indeed, Staudinger sievrrsL 
at one time by a strange oversight sank it. The structure of the (J hindtibia, however, is nearly that of sicanaria, 
only with the median spur slightly more slender still. The wuigs, too, are of the lighter, clearer yellow of 
sicanaria. Basal area of forewing suffused with rosy, as in the two forms named; outer band placed rather 
nearer to the distal margin, with its edges more deeply indented, sometimes indeed in part broken into separate 
segments by the veins remaining of the ground-colour. Under surface of the forewing with the discal spot 
blackish, not rosy as in the allies; but particularly characterized by a very strong dark smoke-coloured suffu- 
sion extending from close to the posterior margin to the median fold or beyond and from the base about to 
the outer band. This shade, though often famtly suggested, is never nearly so intense in the allied species. 
Armenia: Erivan and Urdabad; N. W. Persia: Urumiah. Range therefore apparently very restricted. 

R. vibicaria is the best-known species of the genus and the most northerly in its geographical range. 
It differs from calabra in its less yellow ground-colour, more sharply-marked rose-coloured lines, with wider 
space between the rnedian and postmedian, but especially in the shape of the distal margin of the hindwing, 
which is bent or bluntly angled at the third radial vein, whereas in calabra it is almost regularly rounded, but a 
little straighter from the first to the third radial than anteriorly and posteriorly. The species is very variable 
in coloration, but only slightly in the position and course of the lines. It was well known to many of the old 
entomologists and was figured, with its early stages, by Reaumur, Esper, Schwarz and others. The egg is 
oval, slightly irregular, flattened at both ends and mth a strong depression in the middle ; about 1 6 longitudinal 
ribs, which are transversely grooved; light yellow, changing in 2 or 3 days to bright, light red. The larva is 
yellowish grey, dorsally brown, occasionally more tinged with ochreous or red, or even with greenish; a light, 
darker-edged medio-dorsal line; ventral area whitish. The skin is somewhat rugose, the segment-incisions 
not deep, the subsegments very numerous; tubercles black, bearing single setae. Feeds on Sarothamnus and 
many other plants. The hibernating stage must be variable. De Graaf, who gives the best life-history, found 
it hibernated as a larva. Brahm definitely says as a pupa, this period lasting about 7 months. Ruhl obtained 
eggs from the second brood which did not hatch till the following spring. Rebel says the young larvae often 
hibernate. Pupa yellowish brown. The moth is double-brooded in many parts of its range, but single-brooded 
northwards (June-July, Central France, Holland, etc.). It hides by day in the grass, but, like most Geo- 
metridae, can readily be induced to fly. — vibicaria CI. (= cruentata Scop. = artriosa Geoff.) (2 k) is the form vibicaria. 
in which a rather narrow rosy band follows the middle line, filling in part of the space between this and the 
outer line. It inhabits most of Europe, the north of Asia Minor, Armenia and Siberia. — ab. roseata Ersch. roseaia. 
has the rose-coloured shading occupying the basal area of the forewing and extended diffusely from the median 
line to the distal margin of both wings, thus covering the greater part of the wings. A $ in the collection 
of J. W. LoDEESEN is figured by Sepp (Ned. Ins. (2) vol. 4, pi. 36, fig. 18). — In ab. intermedia Kempny the intermedia. 
rosy suffusion is more extended than in the type, but less than in ab. roseata, the basal area of the forewing 
remaining of the normal ground-colour. — In ab. rubrofasciata Hufn. (= rubrociliata Goeze = fasciata Ebl.) rubrof as- 
only the space between the median and postmedian lines is rosy. — strigata Stgr. (2 k, (J$) forms a local race '^'^"■f"- 
in the most southerly localities where the species occurs, as in Lambessa (a large form, not variable, represented 
by our $ figure), Spain (excepting the north), Sicily, Persia and the AlaTau Mountains; but occasionally appe- 
ars in other localities as an aberration. It differs in the complete absence of the pink bands, only the lines 
and discal spot remaining; even the fringe is less brightly rosy than in the tjrpe. — unicolorata /Sig'r. is a race, unicoloraia. 
or perhaps a closely allied species, in which the lines are also obsolete, both wings being of an almost uniform 
yellowish, with the fringes tinged with rose-colour. It is recorded from the Altai, S. E. Siberia and the Alal Tau. 

R. auctata Stgr. (2 k) rather resembles vibicaria strigata in coloration, but differs markedly in shape, auctata. 
as well as in the position and course of the lines, etc. The forewing is rather longer and narrower, the distal 
margin being more oblique; the hindwing is shaped almost as in the badiaria group, with the distal margin 
nearly straight from the anal angle to towards the first radial. The median line is a little thickened, placed 
slightly nearer to the postmedian than in vibicaria, and makes a faint proximad curve in its posterior half. Both 
wings become slightly flushed with pink distally, the fringes brighter pink. Discal spot present on both wings, 
but small. Both wings beneath are slightly more yellowish, the discal spots weak, median and postmedian lines 
present, the forewing mostly suffused with dark grey from the base to the median line; the fringes pmk. Asia 
Minor to Armenia, local. 



adauctaia. R. adauctata Stgr. (3d). Related to the preceding, but differing as follows: discal spots very weak 

or wanting; the space between the median and outer lines usually forming a reddish band; under surface of 
both wings quite different, that of the forewing pale, scarcely yellowish, and without the dark grey patch, 
on the other hand usually more or less suffused with reddish, that of the hindwing strongly suffused with reddish. 
In auctata at most the costal and distal borders of the hmdwmg are I'eddish. Apparently common in parts of 
Central Asia (Zerafshan to the Hi district) at the end of June and begmning of July, probably in the mountams. 

praeaisaria. R. praecisaria Stgr. (3d, as badiaria) is extremely similar to hadiaria except in shape, and in the absence 

of one of the median spurs in the (J. The forewing is produced to a more acute apex, the hindwing has the 
distal margin rounded. Usually also the ground-colour, both above and beneath, is somewhat more reddish 
than in hadiaria, but both species vary m this respect. The markings are usually a little stronger, and the central 
Ime rather straighter. This species was treated as a form of hadiaria by Christoph (Rom. Mem. sur Lep. vol. 
2, p. 126) and by Staudinger. It inhabits Central Asia (Transcaspia to Issyk-Kul). 


R. meonaria (rwew. (= pelloniaria /7m ^sm.) (7 a). The species which, according to Guenbe's description, 
I identify as meonaria, has nearly the coloration of adauctata (the ground-colour slightly paler above, in dark 
specimens more olivaceous, rather redder beneath) but is smaller, the wings are still narrower, the forewing 
almost subfalcate, the distal margin bemg ui general faintly concave, and further differs in having the median 
Ime removed nearer to the distal margm (close, indeed, to the outer line, which, however, is usually very weak 
or wanting), its course slightly oblique and as a rule very gently mcurved, nearly straight. On the forewuig this 
median line is often of a very bright deep red colour, on the hindwing it is often indistinct, especially towards 
the costa.^The forewing lacks the inner line and the discal spot is extremely indistmct or more generally 
wanting, on the hmdwing always wanting. Costal edge of forewing and fringe of both wmgs more or less tinged 
with red. This species belongs chiefly to N. W. India and perhaps scarcely enters the Palearctic Region. I 
have specimens before me from Kashmir, from Western China (Pu-tsu-fong, Chow-pin-sa), etc. I have noticed 
one aberration in which the 2. subcostal is stalked with the 3. — 5. mstead of arising from the cell. It is possible 
that the species belongs in the immediate vicinity of vinacearia, in which that character is also sometimes 


R. cinerascens Moore (=subflavida Warr.)J^5d). Wmgs shaped about as m terrestraria. Forewing 
glossy grey, weakly marked ; distal area usually somewhat darker, a nearly straight, darkened postmedian band 
parallel with the distal border, separated from the distal area by a thick pale line or narrow space. Hindwing 
whitish, tinged with ochreous, toAvards the anal angle with grey; sometimes unmarked, usually with weak 
median and postmedian lines, fading out before the costal margm. Underside with the costal and distal 
areas of the forewing and the whole of the hmdwuag more or less strongly suffused with yellowish (occasionally 
more reddish). $ smaller and narrower-wmged. Apparently common in parts of Kashmir and Afghanistan, 

rufilinea. June to September. — In ab. rufilinea ah. nov. the groimd-colour is rather browner, the markings somewhat 
more distinct, in particular the Ime which bounds the postmedian band proximally is of a reddish colour, 

borealis. as are also one or two Imes on the hindwmg beneath (almost or entirely obsolete m the type-form). — borealis 
Swinh., from Kulu, is probably a further form of cinerascens, differing chiefly from ab. rufilinea in the somewhat 
fuller colourmg and stronger markmgs, especially the presence of an mner Ime on the forewing and conspicuous 
dark discal dot on both -wings (both the line and the dot, at least on the forewing, are however sometimes 
faintly indicated m ab. rufilinea). The postmedian luae on the hindwing is bent between the first radial and se- 
cond subcostal veins and is contmued to the costal margin; but this too, is traceable in a few extra strongly 
marked cinerascens. I am unable to point ont any further differences. 

R. bicolor is apparently an exceediiigly variable species, perhaps nothing more than a further series 
of forms of cinerascens, while it is possible, on the contrary, that we are dealmg under this name with two or 
three closely allied species. In general bicolor differs from cinerascens in having a rather more sinuous and thicker 
median line on the forewing, m the bright rosy colour of this line and nearly always in the presence of additional 
bright rosy colouring, particularly in the frmges and on the under surface. From all forms of cinerascens 
excepting borealis, it also differs in the presence of a distinct, usually strong discal spot in each wing. It 
occurs in various parts of Kashmir and Chitral, the diverse forms (in respect of coloration and the strength of 
bicolor. the lines) being perhaps partly racial, partly aberrational. — bicolor Warr. is a glossy form with the costal 
margin of the forewing as a rule rather strongly rounded near the apex, the three lines always well developed, 
except m the ab. suffusa. Ground-colour of forewmg dull olivaceous grey, middle line thick and always rosy, 
the other Imes (especially the outer) occasionally almost plam dark grey, or only weakly shaded with rosy; fringe 
of the ground-colour or somewhat suffused with rosy — more strongly in Warren's original than in any other 
which I have seen. Hindwing with the lines not closely approximated, the outer usually stronger and more com- 
plete than the inner. Underside %vith only the outer line of both wings distmct, thick, rosy; proximal half of 

Puhl. 20. in. 1913. RHODOSTEOPHIA. By L. B. Prout. 41 

fringes grey, distal half grey slightly or moderately tinged with rosy. Kukli (N. W. India), August, 1891; also 
a series collected by Thompson in the Palearctic Himalayas (without exact locality) in the Leech collection. 

— ab. suffusa a6. wow. has the rosy suffusion spread over the entire forewing. Warren's original $ belonged to .sM//i<.9a. 
this form, and he supposed the difference to be sexual; but both forms occur in both sexes in the same locality. 

— rhoA&subsp.nov. {7 a.) is slightly narrower- winged, less glossy, the forewing with the costal margin narrowly or rhoda. 
broadly rosy, the fringes of both wings nearly always strongly rosy above and beneath. Ground-colour rather 
variable, either like that of vibicaria or darker, olivaceous grey. The red median line as bright as in meonaria; 

in itself thinner than in typical bicolor, biit usually extended, especially in the $, into a red band; the inner and 
outer lines suppressed in the (^, more or less developed in the $. Hindwing with the lines near together, the 
inner often tinged with rosy, in any case better developed than the outer. Underside of hindwing with both lines 
equally developed, rosy, not very thick, in the ^ weak, in the $ stronger. Chitral, Kokser, Goorais Valley, 
July-September, a short series in the British Museum collection. Except for the shape and the still brighter 
markings this form (or species) would come quite near to adauctata Stgr. 

R. poliaria/?m295w( la), differs from the more strongly marked forms of ciwerascews in having the edges of poiiaria. 
the outer band sinuous and dentate. Ground-colour grey to yellow-grey, inner line of forewing well developed, 
dentate outwards on the veins, outer band of forewing distinct, grey-brown. Hindwing similar but more weakly 
marked, without the yellow tone of that of bicolor. Discal spot on both wings very distinct. Underside with 
both the outer lines present, or with the distal one only, the ground-colour rather darker and greyer proximally 
to the latter, lighter and browner distally. — ab. roseata ab. nov. has the lines, band, fringes, costal edge roscata. 
of forewing and entire under surface strongly flushed with rose-colour. Both the type form and the aberration 
were taken by Leech in the Goorais Valley in June and September. 

R. inconspicua differs from all the preceding in its reddish brown ground-colour, which approaches that 
of staudingeri (3 d). It is smaller and rather broader-winged than the cinerascens group. The inner line of the 
forewing is gently curved anteriorly, then straighter than in staudingeri, the other two lines on both wings rather 
nearer together than in that species, on the forewing almost straight, on both wings about parallel with the 
distal margin. Both wings have a distinct dark discal spot. The under surface is similar or rather more 
brightly coloured, both wings with a dark discal spot and reddish brown postmedian line. — inconspicua wconspicua. 
Btlr., which I have seen from Murree, Dharmsala, Kalapani and Thundiani, has the lines on the upper surface 
very weak, the space between the second and third not appreciably darker than the rest of the wing. — sub- subcon- 
conspicua form, nov., probably a distinct race, is rather more brightly coloured, has the lines more distinct, ^P**^**- 
especially the median, and has, as in staudingeri, a distinctly darkened band between the second and third. 
Afghanistan, Chitral and Goorais Valley, in the British Museum collection. Nearly the same form, only slightly 
less extreme, occurs occasionally at Murree as an aberration. 

R. staudingeri ^ZpA. (3 d). Quite distinct from all the other species hitherto known. From inconspicua, staudingeri. 
with which alone it can be compared in colour, it differs in its larger size, fainter discal spots, broader and more 
sinuous-edged band, scarcely bounded by darker lines, and its almost unmarked under surface. Ferghana 
to the Hi district. Alpheraky's specimen was taken on 15 May, at an elevation of 3500 m. 

R. glaucofusa Hmpsn. (5 d). Of this very distinct species, described by Hampson as a Dysethia, only glaucofusa. 
a single example, a 0, is at present known, and as this was taken near Quetta (May, 1904) it falls, strictly 
speaking, just outside the limits of the Palearctic Region. But I suspect, from its faoies, that it will prove to 
be a straggler from that region, and desire to call attention to it here, while dealing with most of the genus. 
It is probably related to cinerascens, but with whiter ground-colour, uniform on both wings, and with stronger, 
more greenish markings; the green-grey longitudinal patches, leaving broad pale costal area and pale patch 
behind the median vein as far as second median branch, are characteristic. Underside paler, with discal spots 
and weak postmedian line. 

R. grumaria Alph. is another rather aberrant species. The narrow wings, especially in the 9, place grumana. 
it in the same group with poiiaria, etc., but it does not seem to be extremely close to any known species. Antennal 
pectinations in the ^ rather shorter than in most species of the genus. Forewing very pale brownish grey, 
somewhat darker-dusted in basal and distal areas and along costa; inner line sharply outangled on the folds, 
inangled on median vein; discal spot black; outer line rather oblique and sinuous, commencing at costa at 
about 3 mm from apex, accompanied distally by a narrow dark band and this again by an indistinct pale 
line. Hindwing still whiter, with a single line midway between the small discal dot and the distal margin. 
Under surface more tinged with reddish, especially the hindwing; cell-spots and traces of outer line present. $ 
very narrow- winged, apex of forewing acutely pointed, of hindwing produced but rounded, distal margin of forewing 

IV 6 

42 EHODOSTROPHIA. By L. B. Pkout. 

strongly oblique, of both wings faintly concave. Only known from the North-East comer of Tibet (Koko-Nor 
and the Amdo district). 

cuprinaria. R. cuprinaria C/if. (= phoeniceariafi'mpsra.) (la) is another very distinct species, recognizable at once by 

its more rounded apex, the nearly uniform purplish-coppery hue of both wings and yellowish under-side with 
a distal border of purplish-coppery on both wings. The lines on the forewing are placed widely apart and scarcely 
discernible except by fine yellow luies which bound the inner line proximally and the outer distally; for the 
rest, the position and course of the lines are most nearly as in vastaria, the inner rather strongly dentate. 
Discal spot present on both wings, but indistinct. Occurs in S. E. Armenia, Persia, Transcaspia and Afghanistan. 
Christoph's original figure and description are so extremely bad that it is difficult to behove that they represent 
the same species which he afterwards figured mider the same name, and which is now called cwp-wana. Incase 
it should prove that he confused two different species, the earlier one (perhaps of the badiaria group) must, 
on its rediscovery, bear his name, and the present one must be called pJioenicearia Hmpsn. (erroneously de- 
scribed as an Acidalia). 

B. Section Delocharis. Second subcostal of forewing stalked. 


(J hindtibia with 4 spurs. Only the smgle species yet known. 

R. acidaria is apparently a locally variable species, three different races having been made kiaown 
by Staudinger. The shape of the wings and their colour recall badiaria and terrestraria, or rather (the apex 
of the forewing being rather acute, the distal margiia of the hindwmg well rounded) praecisaria, and there is 
probably a really near relationship m this direction, notwithstanding the difference in neuration. The fine 
and rather straight central luie, placed about midway between the others, will distinguish it from all the species of 
similar size excepting vt&tcarja; from m6icana it differs abundantly in shape, in the smuous outer line and in the 
acidaria. entire lack of rosy colouring. The under surf ace is extremely weakly marked. — In acidaria (Sif/;-. (3d) the ground- 
colour is pale yellowish grey, the markuags moderately well expressed, the additional hne which accompanies the 
median line distally sometimes much fainter than in the example figured. Ferghana, Thian-Shan, Issyk-Kul. — 
grisearia. grisearia Stgr. (3 d) from further south-west (Transalai) is darker in colour and at the same time more strongly 
alexandm- marked. — alexandraria Stgr. from south-west of Issyk-Kul, is unknown to me, but is described as bemg of a 
)-uf. uiore reddish-yellow ground-colour and more weakly marked than acidaria acidaria, the inner line being entu'ely 
absent, the outer only occasionally present; the under surface is much more reddish. According to Staudinger, 
the species appears to be very common throughout central Asia. 


cJ hindtibia with 3 spurs. 

herhicolens. R. herbicolcns Btlr., on which Butler founded his genus Delocharis, is closely similar to acidaria in 

colour and markings, both above and beneath, but is considerably smaller (size of vinacearia), the costal margin 
of the hindwing relatively longer, the dark shading which follows the median line on both wings usually stronger 
and broader, forming more or less of a band, and the distal area often more noticeably dark-shaded. North- 
muricolor. West India. — ab. muricolor Warr., though described from Simla, will probably occur also in Palearctic 
localities. It has the forewing of a greyish mouse-colour, the markings obliterated excepting a slight black 
cell-spot; hindwing paler, hence retaming traces of the two transverse lines. 

tristrigalis. R. tristrigalis Btlr. (3 e) is another of the smaller species, probably related to vinacearia. The ground- 

colour is dull reddish ochreous, the markings darker. Math a more or less strong rosy tinge. The middle line, 
as in acidaria and herbicolens, is double, usually more or less united by dark shadmg into a narrow band. This 
character, together with the less sinuous outer line and the minute or obsolescent cell-spots will at once 
distinguish it from vinacearia. The name of tristrigalis was not happily chosen, as it is the one species of the 
genus which can be said to have four Imes on each wing. Under surface brighter red-ochreous, about as in 
inconspicua, the markings nearly as above, but weaker, the mner Ime of both wmgs wanting. Dharmsala and 

rara. R. rara Btlr. (3 e) differs from tristrigalis and vinacearia in its brighter ochreous ground-colour (our 

figure of vinacearia ab. stigniatiui is too yellow), absence of inner liiae, at least on the hmd^ving, and more denti- 

APOSTATES. By L. B. Protjt. 43 

culate, usually more interrupted outer line of both wings. Moreover the apex of the forewing, particularly in 
the ?, though acute m all the three allies, is the most prominently so in rara. The underside of the forewing 
is suffused with grey or red-grey basally, the rest of the markings nearly as above. Dharmsala. A separate 
race which occurs in Sikkim (olivacea Warr.) will be discussed in Vol. 12. olivaem. 

R. vitiacearia Moore evidently belongs to this section of the genus, aiid most specimens conform to our vinarearia. 
characterization in respect of the point of origin of the second subcostal ; but occasionally this vein arises from 
the cell, though close to the point of origin of the 3. — 5. subcostal, and forms herein a troublesome irre- 
gularity in the application of our scheme. Concerning the name-type of this species, described from Bengal and 
therefore not coming within the Palearctic fauna, it is necessary to say a few words here because the law of priority 
necessitates its acceptonce. Unfortunately it represents a very rare form of the species with the ground-colour 
darkened (reddish ochreous) and the lines weak, so that at first glance it looks almost unicolorous. It may re- 
present a local race, but more probably a mere aberration. — ab. stigmatica Btlr. (3 e) seems therefore the cor- siigmafica. 
rect designation of the common form, in which the ground-colour is clear light greyish ochreous, not or scarcely 
darkened with reddish, and with the red lines, costal margin of forewing and fringes standing out distinctly. 
The position of the markings is sufficiently shown in our figure, but a basal line is usually present on the hind- 
wing also. The simple median line of the forewing and the sinuous outer line of both wings distinguish it 
from the two preceding; on the hindwing the median line is occasionally double, but its outer part scarcely 
ever so strong as in our figure. The under surface, like that of rara, has some dark clouding in the basal 
area of the forewing. Dharmsala, Sultanpur and no doubt other localities in the same district. — curvata cunmfa. 
Warr., described from Bhotan, seems to differ very little, and will probably be found as an aberration in Palearc- 
tic localities. It is described as dull ochreous cinereous, the costa hardly darker, the cell-spot small. — sinensis sinensis, 
subsp. nov. More tinged with dull rufous than the other forms, the fringes concolorous, not rosy, the lines reddish- 
brown, not rose-colour; middle line. even straighter than is usual in vinacearia, outer Ime more deeply sinuate, 
discal dots smaller; a faint oblique dark shade from distal margin close to apex; under surface without the dark 
clouding at base of forewing. In addition, forewing appears slightly broader, its distal margin is slightly less 
straight (more convex) and that of the hindwing is less regularly rounded, being a^ppreciably, though extremely 
slightly, bent at the third radial. Very distinct in aspect, superficially suggesting a light Tanaotrichia fraso- 
naria SivinJi. more than a Rhodostrophia. Perhaps a distinct species. Moupin, July, 1890, the type (J and a 
quite similar $; Chang Yang, June, 1888, a very worn (J and $; all from the Leech collection, now in that 
of the British Museum. 

R. philolaches is a rather broad-winged species which cannot possibly be confused with any other of 
the genus. Almost the only other plain grey species, cinerascens, has much narrower wings and of a more 
glossy texture ; and even badiaria. and one or two others which in their greyest forms might approach the ground- 
colour of philolaches have not its well-rounded hindwing. The strongly zigzag inner and outer lines also separate 
philolaches from all its allies, and a more detailed description is unnecessary. Flies in June and July. — 
philolaches Ob. is the form from South- West China (Ta-chien-lu, Moupin, Ni-tou) and is distinguished by the philolarliefi. 
plain grey colour, with scarcely any tinge of yellowish. — tibetaria Stgr. (= farinosa Warr.) (3 e), from Koko- tibetaria. 
Nor and Amdo, differs very little, but is, at least generally, of a mors yellowish tone. The difference, however, 
is not striking, and Warren, who described the (J of his farinosa from Koko-Nor and the $ from Ta-chien-lu, 
did not even remark on any sexual dimorphism. I have compared his $ with Oberthijr's figure. Of 8 exam- 
ples of this species before me, one has the second subcostal of the forewing arising from the cell, though 
quite near to the point of origin of the third to fifth. 

R. bisinuata Warr. is unknown to me, the type specimen having been mislaid. It may possibly be a bisinvata. 
Tanaotrichia, and on account of the uncertainty! have left it to the end of the genus; but it is very likely 
that its true position is next to vinacearia, and it may even be a form of that species or of sinensis, if the latter 
be specifically distinct. The description is not very full, but the shape would apparently be that of vinacearia, 
or even oirara. "Dull ochreous cinereous, very much like R. curvata Warr. (= vinacearia Moore, fide Hampson), 
but the forewings more pointed and the submarginal line twice sinuate, not simply curved, as in the Indian 
species just mentioned, nor with a single sinus as in trilineata Warr. (= Tanaotrichia prasonaria Swinh.). One 
$ from Japan, the same size as curvata Warr.". 

2. Genus: Apoistates Warr. 

Characters of Rhodostrophia, but with the distal wall of outer areole (the base of the stalk of the 
and 4:. subcostal veins) obsolete, resultiiig in a very abnormal phenomenon which has otherwise only been 


observed ill a few Larentiinae: the complete separation of the 5. subcostal from the others. Thus the genus, 
though evidently an offshoot of Bhodostrophia (Section A), has actually only a single areole, formed by the 
anastomosis of the 1. subcostal with the 2. Created for the reception of a single species, of which I have 
only seen two examples, so that I cannot say quite positively whether the peculiar neuration is constant; 
if not, the genus must sink to the preceding. Christoph, who placed his species with a query in Fidonia, 
did not notice any abnormahty; thenumber of hindtibial spurs m the ^ is not known to me, as Christoph's 
and Warren's specimens and one in the British Museum are all $. 

solitaria. A. solitaria Chr. (= albiclathrata Wmr.) (7a). Brown, with the costal margin of forewing broadly pale 

ochreous, the veins also pale ; forewuig with three pale transverse lines, the middle one broadened into a band 
anteriorly and containmg the dark, elongate cell-mark, the outer sinuous, running to the anal angle, distal 
margin pale; hindwing ochreous, dusted with brownish posteriorly, median line faint, submarginal and marginal, 
as well as the cell-spot, as in forewing. Transcaspia and Hi district, apparently scarce and local. 

3. Genus: Tauaotricliia Warr. 

Nearly related to Rhodostrophia, the forewing rather broader than in most Rhodostrophia-fovms, about 
as in vinacearia sinensis and philolaches. Hmdwing with distal margin rounded. Palpus rather short, upcurved. 
Hindleg in (J without median spurs and with only a single well-developed terminal, the other greatly abbrevia- 
ted, perhaps sometimes wanting; a strong hair pencil from femoro-tibial joint and some short, compact tufts 
arising near the spurs, looking, without close examination, like two additional spurs . $ with 4 spurs. Second 
subcostal of forewing arising from the cell, though sometimes at the same point with the stalk of the 3. — 5. 

The type of the genus, prasonaria Sivinh., does not occur in the Palearctic Region. The species thus 
identified by Leech is new, and is described below. 

orientis. T. orietitis sp. nov. (= trilineata Leec/t, nec Warr.) (la). Smaller than prasonaria, apex rather less acute, 

ground-colour light yellowish bro-mi entirely without red admixture, on the other hand fmely and minutely 
dusted with fuscous. Lines fuscous; the first further from the base than in prasonaria, excurved not straight; 
the second followed by distinct fuscous shading; the third more gently and regularly bisinuate, without the 
strong, smgle posterior curve of prasonaria; distal area of forewing except at apex shaded with fuscous; 
discal spots wanting. Underside mth the lines fine, forewing from base to beyond middle, except at margins, 
clouded with fuscous. Che-tou, W. China, 3360 m, July or August, 1890. May possibly prove a form of the 
doubtful "Rhodostrophia" hisiniiata Warr., mentioned above. 

4. Genus: Soiuatiiia Guen. 

Palpus m both sexes short or quite moderate, the terminal joint not elongate. Antenna in ^ usually 
with fascicles of cilia, which only exceptionally arise from (short) pectinations. Hmdtibia in ($ without spurs, 
usually shortened and thickened and with strong hair-pencil; in $ with 4 spurs. Forewing with areole double, 
the 2. subcostal stalked with the 3. — 5. Hmchving with the 2. subcostal and 1. radial separate or very 
shortly stalked, 2. radial sometimes arising rather near the anterior angle of cell, as in the Hemitheinae. 

Early stages apparently unknown. 

Concerning the geographical range of this genus I am unable to give exact information at present, 
as I cannot delay the present work until I have comjDleted my survey of the allied forms of the other con- 
tinents. All the four great regions produce forms with the same essential structure as regards palpi, spurs 
and the double areole, but there is a good deal of divergence in the antennae and some details of leg struc- 
ture and of neuration, which may or may not prove to be of generic value. I have in the mean time gi- 
ven to Guenee's wellknoAvn genus a rather wide extent, including in it several species which Hampson 
would have called Erythrolophus. He overlooked in his "Moths of India" that the type species of the 
genus Erythrolophus has a long terminal joint of the palpus, especially in the 9 ; while his other distinction, 
the point of origin of the second radial of the hmdwmg, only applies to a few Somatitm species and would, 
indeed, have excluded the type of the genus! At least it can be stated that the most typical species of the 
genus are Indo-Australian, that it is wantmg in Europe, but that a few aberrant stragglers extend into Pale- 
arctic Asia. Dithalama Meyr. may be a synonym, and has been so regarded by Turner; but in its type-species 
the 2. subcostal of the forewing arises from the cell, and there are other slight differences. I mention the name 
because Meyrick and others have applied it to indicataria Walk., m which the 2. — 5. subcostals are stalked. 

indicaiaria. S. indicataria Walk. (5 a). White, marked with grey and on the forewing with a thick brown median 

line curving round the elongate, thick black cell-mark, but not or scarcely reaching the costal margin; inner 

CRASPEDIOPSIS. By L. B. Prottt. 45 

line weak, rather far from the base; distal area with pairs of rather large, proximally confluent spots between 
the radials and near the posterior angle, pairs of smaller spots in the other cellules nearer to the distal margin, 
and a chain or band of still smaller spots at the margin itself. Hindwing with a thick median line which 
makes a deep curve round the proximal side of the black cell-spot; some dark clouding basally hereto; a den- 
tate postmedian line followed by a series of large oval blotches; a margmal chain of spots larger than those 
of the forewing. Under surface quite weakly marked except for the discal spots and median lines. Eastern 
Siberia, Korea, Japan and West China; April, May and again m August. A very distinct species; the shape 
and facies suggest that possibly a form akin to this was the parent of the genus Problepsis. 

S. mendicaria Leech (5 f). Leaden grey, with darker, wavy transverse liaes and dark discal spot, and mendicaria. 
with a paler submarginal line. Underside paler, with a weak outer line present. Vertex of head white. In the 
(J antenna the fascicles of cilia are placed on short pectinations; the hindleg, though without spurs, is not 
aborted. In shape and facies the species slightly recalls Dithecodes idaea Sivinh., but is larger and differently 
coloured, besides some structural distinctions. Leech described this and the following as Acidalia, over- 
looking the neuration. Chang Yang and Moupin. July. 

S. centrofasciaria Leech (5f). Brownish ochreous. Forewing with dentate dark antemedian line; both cenirojas- 
wings with thick purple-brown median line or shade, a finer, weaker, lunulate-dentate outer line and a blackish ciaria. 
discal spot, that of the hindwing placed on the median shade. Under surface paler, with the markings faint; 
base of forewing tinged with purplish grey costally. The type $, taken at Chang Yang in June, remains unique, 
but there can be little doubt as to the systematic position of the species. The shape, the palpus and the neu- 
ration all indicate its affinity with the preceding. 

5. Genus: Craspecliopisis Wan. 

A small genus, created by Warren for a few Indian species, differing from Somatina in the strongly 
pectinate (J antenna and in haviiig the hindwing slightly angled at the 3. radial instead of rounded, but ap- 
parently agreeing in the rest of the structural characters. In coloration and markings, however, the species 
strongly resemble Acidalia, except in their large size. The point of origin of the 2. subcostal of the forewing 
is variable. In the type species, which is Indian, it is stalked, as in Somatina, but in the three Palearctic 
species it arises from the cell, or in persimilis sometimes from the same point as the 3. to 5. The genus is 
only known as yet from Northern India and Western, to Central China. 

C. persimilis Moore (la). Size of sinuosaria or larger, the tail at the third radial of the hindwing rather persimilis. 
slight, but the whole distal margin of this wing crenulate. Pale brownish grey, irrorated with fuscous. First 
(on forewing only) and second lines marked by dark spots on the veins, the second line sinuate inwards between 
the radials and near posterior margin, accompanied by some slight dark shading distally. A dark discal spot, 
rather large but indistinct on the forewing, followed on both wings by an ill-defined, subdentate median 
shade, which is angled outwards at the first radial and incurved behind the cell. Distal margin more or less 
distinctly black-marked between the veins ; fringes with distal black dots opposite the veins. Beneath the hind- 
wing is paler than the forewing, the first line is wanting, the other markings distinct, the outer line on both 
wings not broken up into spots. Dharmsala, Sultanpur and other localities in N. W. India. 

C. acutaria Leech (5 e). Whitish brown with the markings fuscous. Forewing with indistinct inner line, acuiarii. 
marked with black dots on the veins; oblique central line, incurved behind median vein; outer line angled 
on subcostal, marked with black vein-dots and followed by a dark blotch at posterior margin; base of fringe 
with black dots opposite the veins. Hindwing without the first line and posterior blotch. Both wings with black 
discal spot. Under surface without the inner line, forewing instead shaded with fuscous in basal half. Mar- 
kedly smaller than the other species, the tail at the 3. radial of the hindwing more pronounced. Chang Yang, 
Ichang, Kwei-chow and Omei-Shan. Flies in June. 

C. sinuosaria Leech (5 d). This interesting species, doubtfully described by Leech as a Bhodosfrophia, sinuosaria. 
has the hindwing scarcely elbowed at third radial, the ground colour similar to that of the preceding, but, 
apart from its larger size, is altogether differently marked, and indeed cannot be confused with any known 
species. The triangular discal spot and the sinuous, dark-bordered outer line ae distinctive ; the latter spotted 
with black on the veins. On the under surface the markings are less distinct, but the basal half of the forewing 
is suffused with fuscous. Pu-tsu-fong, W. China, taken in June. The $ is unknown. 


6. Genus: Ditliecodes Wmt. 

Palpus short. Antenna in ^ ciliated. Hindtibia in both sexes with a single pair of spurs. Forewing 
with areola double, the 2. subcostal arising from the cell or stalked. Hindwing with distal margin slightly 
elbowed in middle, or rounded, the 2. subcostal connate or very shortly stalked with the 1. radial. 

Notwithstandmg the slight structural variations noted above, this in evidently a natural genus, agreeing 
not only in the double areole and tibial armature, but even in the prevalence of dull greenish colouring, white 
discal mark on hindwing and approximate size and shape of the species. The genus received two, or probably 
three names m the course of the same year (1900), but the. one here adopted was published earliest. Mnesi- 
thetis Swinh. is certainly a synonym, or at most a subgenus of it; Neosterrha Warr. probably a subgenus, with 
very long fascicles of cilia on the (J antenna, but I have unfortunately not seen a $. The last-named section 
is Neotropical, the other species belong to the Indo-Australian and African Regions, excepting the one or two 
Japanese here given. 

D. erasa Warr. Both Warren's type ($) and a second $ which seems to agree with it are in wretched 
condition, and it is impossible to give a perfect description, or to say definitely whether the species really 
differs from the follomng; I am inclmed to suspect that they will prove to be forms of one and the same. 
Wmgs dull pale greenish (fading to yellow), apparently without markings. Under surface paler. Face and upper 
side of palpus blackish. Wing-expanse 30 mm; wmgs moderately broad, hindwing bluntly elbowed at 2. radial. 
The type-specimen, m the Tring Museum, is from Japan, Avithout more exact locality; the second example, 
at the British Museum, from Tokio. 

D. vacua Stvinh. Of this species, described by its author as a Hemithta, I have also only seen two or 
three poor specimens, though not so deplorably bad as the preceding. Except that they have a large white 
discal spot en each wing and faint traces of a curved postmedian darker Ime, the former less promment beneath on 
account of the paler ground-colour, I can see no difference. The types in the British Museum are merely 
labelled Japan; but a $ specimen ua my collection, for which I have to thank the generosity of Dr. E. A. 
Cockayne, was taken at Nikko on 4 September, 1910, and Wileman has recorded one from Oyama, Sagami, 
June. 1896. 

7. Genus: Aiiiscpliyra Warr. 

Face often protuberant. Palpus rather stout and rough-scaled, terminal joint short. Antenna in (J 
rather strongly bipectinate, with apex simple. Hindtibia in both sexes with all spurs. Forewing with areole 
simple, usually not very long, the first subcostal arising beyond the apex of the areole, often much beyond, 
not infrequently opposite the fifth subcostal. Hindwing not tailed or sharply angled at extremity of second 
radial, though sometimes very slightly bent; costal vein anastomosing with cell for a point or more, rather 
gradually diverging, second subcostal from apex of cell or short-stalked, first median separate at its origin 
from third radial. 

An mteresting little genus as probably standing somewhere near the phylogenetic base of the Cosymhia 
section. The tendency to reduction in the length of the areole and longer anastomosis of the first subcostal 
with the others as well as the scheme of markings (often with large or ocellated discal spots) are indications of 
affinity with that section, and it is not impossible that the discovery of the early stages will necessitate its 
removal thereto. On the other hand, in spite of its different habitus, its organic characters do not seem 
greatly different from those of the two following genera. The stouter palpus and some slight neurational 
characters are perhaps the chief distinctions. The few known species belong to the Indo-Australian Region, 
and even the one here introduced only reaches the borders of the Palearctic. 

hrunnearia. A. brunnearia Leech (5f). Light brown, with a slight fleshy tinge. Forewing with small black dots 

on the veins indicatmg the position of the first line. Both wings with median shade and black-dotted postmedian 
line ; the former on forewing weakly curved in S-shape, placed well beyond the cell, on hindwing crossmg the cell- 
spot; the latter outcurved or outangled in middle. Dark discal spots, that of hindwing somewhat enlarged, 
containing a pure white pupil. Under surface similarly marked, both the discal spots sometimes light-pupilled, 
but neither distinctly so. Hiiidwing distinctly elbowed in middle, costal vein anastomosing at a point, then 
rapidly diverging, first median close to third radial at origin; thus not a typical Anisephyra. Western China 
in June. 


8. Genus: Ptocliopliyle Warr. 

Face smooth. Palpus short, smooth-scaled. Antenna in ^ bipectinate with very long branches, the 
apical extremity simple; in $ variable (pectinate or subpectinate only in the subgenus Heteroctenis Meyr. 
from Borneo). Hindtibia in both sexes with all spurs. Both wings with distal margin usually more or less bent 
in middle, hind wing sometimes crenulate and with small tail at end of third radial. Areole simple, the first 
subcostal anastomosing at a point or more strongly with the stalk of the others. Hindwing with cell short 
(about two-fifths), costal normal, second subcostal and first median either from the angles of the cell or shortly 

The genus consists of a number of Indo-Australian species, for the most part small and brightly 
coloured, and divided by Warren into two genera, Ptochophyle and Ghrysolene. They were first united by 
SwiNHOE in 1902, and this course appears correct. One or two species straggle into Africa, and a single one, 
miniosa, is said to occur in North China, though this seems open to some doubt. On the assumption that the 
locality is correct, it is described and figured here. 

Ft. miniosa Warr. (5 d). Bright red, slightly mixed with yellow; antemedian and postmedian lines miniosa. 
yellow, ill-defined and interrupted, on hindwing not or scarcely discernible; discal spot of forewing dark, dull 
red, that of hindwing yellow, elongate; distal margm yellow, the red ground-colour encroaching somewhat in 
the middle; fringe yellow. Under surface unmixed with yellow, weakly marked; fringe yellow. Warren's 
type specimen came from Penang and the species is chiefly Indo-Australian, but an old example stands in the 
British Museum collection with the label "North China", which there usually indicates the neighbourhood of 
Shanghai. Although there is some possibility of a mistake m labelling, a few Indo-Australian species undoub- 
tedly do reach Shanghai, at least as stragglers. 

9. Genus: Tiniaiidra Dwp. 

Palpus rather short, smooth-scaled, terminal joint distinct, relatively not very short. Antenna in (J 
strongly bipectinate, apical end simple. Hindtibia in both sexes with all spurs. Forewing with apex acute, usually 
somewhat falcate, distal margm not or scarcely convex, areole simple, the first subcostal occasionally anasto- 
mosing briefly with the stalk of the others, but rarely, the distal wall of the areole being much more usually 
formed by the second subcostal. Hindwing with apex pronounced, distal margin produced to a tail at end 
of third radial, cell one-half or slightly less, second subcostal from apex of cell or extremely short-stalked with 
first radial, first median from close to third radial. 

Egg rather regularly oval covered with small oval pitting; yellow at first, becoming red. Larva rather 
rugose and unequally thickened, head and first two thoracic segments rather small, metathorax widening, 
first abdominal much swollen and laterally dilated, the remaming segments slightly swollen at sides. Feeds on 
dock and other low plants, passing the winter in the larval state. Pupa slender, much angulated, recalling 
those of some butterflies; acutely pointed anteriorly, the covers of the tongue and legs very long, abdominal 
segments long, anal extremity with two hooks. In a slight cocoon. 

The genus is a very natural one, the species being nearly all exceedingly similar, both in structure and in 
markings. They inhabit chiefly Asia, one species extending also commonly into Europe; a single species is 
North American. The name of Timandra has been very generally used for this genus, and seems correct. I for- 
merly followed Packard, Rogenhofer and Meyrick in substituting Calothysanis Hbn., which is older. But I 
find that Butler m 1881 chose Acidalia imitaria as the type of Calothysanis, and already Guenee had applied 
the name similarly. The selection, though bad, must be accepted. 

T. amata is the best known and by far the most widely distributed species, its range extending nearly 
throughout Europe (excepting the most northerly localities) and the greater part of Palearctic Asia, where 
it is still quite common as far eastward as Japan. It varies considerably, but is generally one of the most 
beautiful species of the genus, on account of the bright pink colour of the fringes, which also extends at times on 
to the distal margins of the wings. The ground-colour is pale yellowish brown, often dusted with grey; forewing 
sometimes with, sometimes without a weak, curved brown-grey inner line, both wings with grey distal line, 
making a gentle (sometimes rather stronger) outward curve in the middle ; a thick grey line, more or less strongly 
overlaid with rose pink, running obliquely from apex of forewing to middle of inner margin of hindwmg ; a small 
discal spot (often very indistinct) on forewing. Under surface more thickly dark-speckled, the inner line of 
forewing wanting, the oblique line not overlaid with pink, often weakly expressed. Face dark reddish. The early 
stages have already been partly described under the genus, as it is safe to assume that the form will characte- 
rize the whole of the species. The larva of amata is brown, marked with paler and darker, the dorsal line pale. 

48 TIMANDRA. By L. B. Protjt. 

narrowly dark-centred, dorsal patches on the first to fifth abdominal segments, each pointed at its anterior end 
and truncate at its posterior. I have found it feeding among the seeds of dock, and it is easily obtained by 
rearing from the egg. Pupa light brown, dark spotted, the wing-veins dark. There are, at least m favourable 
seasons and locahties, two broods of the moth, the hibernated larvae producing the imagines about June, while 
a part of the offspring of these feeds up quickly, moths appearing again in August-September. In the height 
of summer the egg has been known to hatch very quickly, only 4 or 5 days after beiiag laid. The moth frequents 
rank, weedy places at the edges of fields or the borders of woods, or hides by day in hedges. It is easily disturbed, 
but in cool weather drops to the ground instead of f lyuig, and in any case it does not fly far. The natural time 
of flight is at or after dusk, when it may be captured with the net, usually flymg rather near the ground. — ■ 
amata. amata L. (= amataria L. = vibicaria Hufn., nee CI. = angulata Geoff.) (5f) is the common European form 
with the speckling usually comparatively slight, the pink of the oblique line rather bright but not extended. 
Second-brood specimens are smaller and still freer from dark dusting, approaching the extreme forms described 

effusaria. under comptaria. — ab. effusaria Klem. is strongly dusted with grey, the pink of the oblique line very broadly 
diffused distally, the outer line very distinct. Sepp has figured an extreme example, with the entire hind- 
roseata. wing suffused with rosy. — • ab. roseata Hirschke is of a uniform reddish-grey tone, with the oblique line 
deleta. obsolete. — ab. deleta J?&L, perhaps not really separable from the preceding, is described as almost without mar- 
kings, the fringes red. It is founded on a figure by Geyer in Hubner's weIl-kno^vn work, which is not of an 
nigra, unusually reddish tone of colour. — ab. nigra JRbl., founded on a specimen in the Capper collection, is uniform 
smoky brown, with only the tips of the fringes pmkish. Barrett's figure of the specimen seems a little too dark, 
and this has misled Rebel into describing it as black; but in any case it is a very remarkable form. In "The 
suffumala. Entomologist", vol. 26, p. 65, it was described as "luiicolorous soft olive-green". — ab. suffumata ab. nov., 
described by Barrett from the collection of the Rev. J. Greene, is of a uniform pale smoky grey, but with 

bipariita. the oblique hne present. — ab. bipartita ab. nov. is normally coloured proximally to the oblique hue, but the 
entire area beyond it is smoke-coloured on both wmgs, only becoming paler again just before the pink fruiges. 
Figured by Mobius in "Iris", vol. 18, pi. 2, fig. 5, a similar example described by Aigner-Abafi, Ann. 

grisearia. Mus. Nat. Hung. vol. 4, p. 527. — grisearia Petersen, rather large, strongly dusted, Imes reddish grey, not 
comptaria. pink, is said to form a local race in the Baltic Provmces, but occurs as an aberration elsewhere. — comptaria 
Walk, is a dwarf race from China and Japan. Walker's tjY»s is moderately dark-speckled, but a rather larger 
percentage of the specimens are free from specklmg, the pink line and margins bright and often extended. April 
onwards, thus not merely a second-brood form. A larger, heavily speckled form from Japan still needs closer 
investigation ( ? = grisearia Petersen). The species would perhaps be a suitable one for temparature experiments. 

conveciaria T. convectaria Walk. ( 1 a) differs from amata in the following characters : antennal shaft and basal half 

(or more) of costa of forewhig fuscous; wings more tmged with ochreous or reddish, the oblique line with ru- 
fous, not pink; fringes darkened; forewing with distinct dark dots on the 4. and 5. subcostals close to apex; 
hindwing with rather sharper tail. Widely distributed ua India, not hitherto recorded as Palearctic. I have, 
however, received a ^ from Chungking, taken at the end of May, 1910. 

correspon- T. correspofldens Hmpsn. ( 1 a) is nearly related to the preceding, agreeing with it in shape and in the darkened 

*"*■ costal margin. The ground-colour, however, is that of amata, the oblique line and frmges ferrugmous, the ante- 
median line of forewmg well-defined, quite straight, the postmedian with the outward curve very weak, that 
of the hmdwmg still less curved, often quite straight. Discal spot nearly V-shaped. Under surface nearly like 
upper. Apparently not variable. Described from Dharmsala, occurs also in Sikkim and Assam. The only 
dated specimen which I have seen was captured at the end of June. 

exiremaria. T. extremaria Walk. (= sordidaria Walk.) (5 f) differs from amata in the shorter palpus, more blackish 

face, the apex of the forewing somewhat more falcate, of the hmdwmg somewhat more square; the oblique 
line is rather thick, dark grey overlaid with dull reddish, the other lines very weak, reduced to mere dots on 
the veins; fringes concolorous -with wings and without a dark line at their base. Under surface similar, more 
strongly speckled, the oblique line not tuaged with reddish, a dark distal margmal Ihie. Distributed across 
China from Omei-Shan and Chungking to Nmgpo, occurring from June to September. Also in Formosa. 

T. rectistrigaria, though otherwise normal in structure, is the most aberrant species of the genus in shape, 
the forewing stumpier, with distal margin less oblique and more convex, the hindwing with the tail at the 
3. radial very slight, a famt concavity from here to the 2. subcostal, hence a bend at this latter vein also. Ground- 
colour dull white, profusely and coarsely spotted all over with grey-brown, sometimes almost without markings, 
at other times with the oblique line and outer line present, though never extremely sharply expressed; the 
former, wher traceable throughout, is seen to start from the costa slightly before the apex, and reaches the 
inner margin of the hmdwing further from the base, nearly meetmg the outer line; the latter, when present, 

PuU. 20. III. 1913. PROBLEPSIS. By L. B. Prout. 49 

is formed nearly as in amata; cell-spot weak, elongate. Underside similar, the oblique line still weaker, the 
cell-spot stronger. I am acquainted with too little material to say whether the variation is in large measure 
sexual or geographical; it is certainly not entirely sexual, as is suggested by Hedemann and by Staudinger's 
citations. — rectistrigaria Ev. (= puziloi Ersch.) is the form with the transverse markings present, and is ap- recUsiri- 
parently the commoner, at least in the provinces of Irkutsk, Transbaikal, etc. According to Alpheraky, all the .9«»Ha. 
specimens collected by Herz at Witim belong to this form. On the other hand a (J from Amurland figured 
by Hedemann belongs to the following form. It will probably prove that the $$ are on an average the 
more strongly marked. — ■ obsoleta form. nov. (5 g). I propose this name for the form with all the markings dbsoUta. 
obsolete, which is the only one yet known from Kamtschatka, and which Alpheraky suspected would prove 
to be a local race is that country. But, as shown above, it also occurs as a (J aberration in Amurland, while 
on the other hand it is possible that some $9 from Kamtschatka will prove to show at least traces of 
the markings. 

10. Genus: ProMepsis Led. 

Palpus iisually rather slender, with appressed scales; terminal jomt distinct, in ^ very small, in $ 
somewhat longer. Antenna in cj pectinate or dentate, the teeth ending in fascicles of cilia ; in $ shortly or mi- 
nutely ciliated. Pectus more or less hairy. Femora sometimes hairy. Hindtibia in ,^ much dilated, with 
strong hair-pencil, spurs wanting; in $ with all spurs. Hindtarsus in ^ abbreviated. Wings always bearing 
some metallic, silvery scales. Forewing with areole simple, first subcostal arising at or just before its apex; 
third discocellular incurved; first median arising from cell. Hindwing with costal anastomosing with cell at 
a point or rather more, then rapidly diverging; second subcostal arising from cell; discocellulars straight; 
first median arising from cell. 

An exceedingly natural genus, showing very little stuctural variation except in the ^ antenna and the 
degree of hairiness of the pectus. Fortunately those species which would be the most difficult to differentiate 
from Acidalia by the antennal structure are just those which have the pectus most densely hairy. But in any 
case the stronger build, the wing-pattern and especially the metallic scales would distinguish all the species from 
Acidalia. The genus is a direct derivative of Somatina, the only essential difference being that the areole is 

The species are scattered in the Palearctic (except westward), the Indo-Australian and the Aethiopian 
regions, but are not very numerous. Information is wanting regarding their habits and life-history. 

A. (J antenna bipectinate. 

P. ocellata Friv. (= ommatophoraria Ghien.) (5 a). In this species, the type of the genus and a very ocellata. 
good representative of its usual type of markings, the ground-colour is of a less clear white than in most of the 
others, being somewhat tinged with brown. The forewing bears a rather ill-defined mner line, strongly bent 
or angled behind cell; a very large roundish-oval central ocellus, reaching from the subcostal vein to the 
submedian fold and about one-third as wide as the length of the wing, its outside ring dark brown and re- 
gular, its colour within light brown but containing two whitish anterior and two black posterior wedge-shaped 
spots, a ring of metallic, partly black-edged spots witliin the dark-brown ring and a few minute metallic spots 
on the black wedges ; a small dark patch between the ocellus and the posterior margin ; a strongly curved fuscous 
brown line near the distal margin, followed by a row of interneural spots and these again by smaller spots. Hind- 
wing without proximal line, the ocellus drawn out so as to reach the inner margin, some of the metallic 
spots enlarged, but the black ones wanting; postmedian line parallel with the distal margin, followed as in 
forewing. Under surface with the principal markings showmg through very fauatly from above. Vertex of head 
fuscous. Very local, froin Greece and Crete to the Taurus and Syria. — • The form cinerea Btlr., from Camp- cinerea. 
bellpur, perhaps scarcely constitutes even a local race. It is slightly more brownish in tone and has the ocelli 
broadened, especially on the hindwing. 

P. deliaria. Ground-colour pure white, inner line entirely wanting, ocellus nearly always narrower 
than in ocellata and more irregularly shaped, the ring surrounding it much lighter brown; outer line also lighter 
brown, usually thickened, the spots beyond it larger but lighter; posterior margin of forewing in basal half 
more or less strongly marked with silvery scales. On the hindwing the ocellus is still further narrowed, and 
scarcely deserves that name ; often the brown shading which characterizes it in most of the species here becomes 
very weak, and the most prominent markings are the silvery rings (the larger one, much elongate, reaching 
to just beyond the second median vein, and a second, small one at the abdominal margin, but both generally 

IV 7 

50 PROBLEPSIS. By L, B. Peotjt. 

more or less imperfect). Under surface with the ocelli showing through, but not very distinct. Vertex of head 

deliaria. fuscous. Antennal pectmations in the ^ of medium length, apical one-third not pectinate. — deliaria Gtien. 

(5 a) is the normal Indian form, as described above, the ocellus of the forewing apparently always elongate, 

the markings usually distinct; the average size of the form is not very much larger than that of ocellata. I 

have no Palearctic examples before me, and am not quite certain, though I think it probable, that it reaches 

albidior. this Region. Leech gives several localities, but his specimens belong to other, closely allied forms. — albidior 

Warr. is perhaps a distinct subspecies, possibly a mere aberration, differing chiefly in the broader, more rounded 

ocellus of the forewing. The size is, on an average, somewhat larger, the markmgs often weaker. Kulu, Ichang, 

? Satsuma. 

vulgaris. P. vulgnus Btlr. (7 b), which reaches the confines of the Palearctic Region atKangra, and perhaps else- 

where, but which extends southwards through India to Ceylon, is closely related to deliaria, agreeing in structure 
and general facies, but differing as follows: rather smaller, the median markings darker, the spot on posterior 
margin of forewing prominent, usually almost or altogether united with the ocellus to form a band, at least as 
narrow as in the narrowest-marked deliaria, the ocellated part with its proximal edge usually somewhat con- 
cave and always bordered by a thick black mark which is entirely wanting m deliaria. 

eucircofa. P. eucircota sp. nov. (7 b). Antenna in the ^ with the pectinations very short, scarcely as long as the widest 

diameter of the shaft, thus transitional towards group B, in wliich they are reduced to mere teeth; those of the 
$ with longer, more bristly pairs of cilia than in the other species. Forewing Avith the ocellus nearly round, 
without a dark outer ring and not marguied by a black mark proximally ; containing, near its outer edge, a 
complete silvery ring, within which there are two black, wedge-shaped markings placed as in ocellata and usually 
some silvery scales longitudinally at the second and third radials, only a very small spot m the centre whitish ; 
outer line rather thick, the spots distally to it unequal in size, only the pairs between the radials and at the hinder 
angle being large, usually confluent; inner margm with the customary brown spot moderately dark, bearing 
a few silvery scales. Hindwing with the ocellated mark similar to that of ocellata, slightly broader and darker. 
Under surface sometimes weakly marked, but usually with the ocelli and outer line conspicuous and the costal 
area of the forewing somewhat infuscated. Vertex of head black, antennal shaft blackish basally. Shanghai 
(2 (J, 2 ?, September, 1892), Ningpo (2 ^, July, 1886), Chia-tmg-fu (cj, July, 1889) all in the British Museum. 
A form from Chang Yang differs only in the nearly simple $ antenna, but may possibly be a small race of 
albidior Warr., in which case, according to the ^ antenna, that is a quite different species from deliaria and 
from some of the forms which I have identified as albidior. The present species closely resembles delphiaria 
Guen., from India, in size, stnicture and m the under surface, but the much more rounded ocellus, not reaching 
the margins, the lack of silvery scales behind the median vein near the base of forewmg and other slighter 
differences distinguish it. 

maxima. P. maxima Th.-Mieg. Unknown to me in nature, but if it is really, as indicated, a $ with pectinate 

antenna, it is certainly a distinct species. If on the other hand there is a misprint, and $ should be read 
as (J (although as the sex is given twice in the description this is scarcely liltely), or if the author only under- 
stands as "pectinations" the ciliated lamellae which characterize the $ antenna of the preceding species, it 
is just possible that maxima represents an extremely large form of the same. In any case it is desirable to intro- 
duce it here, for the sake of completeness. The description runs: "$ 47 mm, antennae shortly pectinate. Wings 
white, forewing with a large round brown ocellus, 7 mm broad, its centre paler with a white lunule closing 
the cell. A little before, the ocellus bears a black mark, and there is another at the base of the 3. radial and 
1. median. Some metallic scales in the middle of the ocellus. A pale yellow-brown spot at the middle of the 
inner margin and two internervular series at the distal margin, especially at the hinder angle. Hindwing 
with a yellow-brown cellular spot preceded by a lunule surrounded by metallic scales,, its extremities directed 
towards the outer margin. Four pale yellowish brown lines or bands, more or less obsolete, formed partly 
of spots, partly of dots. The first traverses the cellular patch, the third is formed of internervular spots, the 
fourth is merely a fme line along the distal margin. Forewmg beneath white, with the costa grey-brown, the 
central ocellus and two outer lines of the same colour. Hindwing beneath white, the lines not apparent. 
Face brown, vertex black, thorax and abdomen white, but the second half of the abdomen above, nearly to 
the anus, is dark grey. Japan, 1 $". 

B. (^ antenna dentate-ciliate (Problepsiodes Warr.). 

superane. P. superans Btlr. {■= discophora Fixs.) (5 a). The ocellated spot fully as round as in ocellata or even 

rounder, m some respects similar to that of ocellata, but without distinct dark outer ring and without the two 


white wedge-spots between the radials, the white ground-colour only appearing as a narrow, elongate distal 
edging to the discocellulars. Differs further from ocellata and eucircota in the (J antenna, stouter palpus, more 
hairy pectus, white vertex of head and in the postmedian line having larger spots beyond it. Varies greatly in 
size. The summer brood (June — July) is usually very much larger than ocellata, but there is a small second 
brood in September only measuring on an average the same size as that species. Eastern Siberia, Korea and 

P. phoebearia Ersch. (= plagiata Btl. = deliaria Brem. nee Guen.) (5 a) is very closely related to the phoehearia. 
preceding species, but has the brown median blotches much extended, the central one on the forewing joining 
the hindmargin and produced so far distally as to touch the weak postmedian line ; the black transverse mark which 
is usually present in superans near the distal end of blotch is represented in phoebearia by a thick longitudinal 
mark on and behind the second radial; subterminal spots also enlarged, touching a smoky terminal suffusion. 
Abdomen dorsally darker. Amurland to Korea, also, though rare, in Japan. 

11. Genus: Autilycauges gen. 


Face smooth. Palpus longish, rather stout, rough-scaled. Tongue developed. Antenna in (J with mo- 
derately long, shortly ciliated pectinations; in $ simple. Femora glabrous. Hindtibia in ^ with one pair of 
spurs, in $ with two pairs. Forewing narrow, with costal and distal margins almost straight, the latter 
oblique; cell long, areole simple, large, subcostals normal. Hindwing rather narrow, costal margin rather long, 
distal margin rounded, cell more than one-half the length of wing, costal vein anastomosing with subcostal 
at a point or more, then gradually divergmg, second subcostal rather shortly stalked with first radial. 

Early stages unknown. The single species, pinguis Swinh., erroneously described as an Emmiltis, 
appears very distinct from any known species, and requires a separate genus. It may perhaps be related 
to the impersonata group of Acidalia, but the pectinate ^ antenna, long cells, still stronger, rougher palpus, 
exceptional course of the costal vein of hindwing (though this latter is shared by the Zacfecs-group) amply 
distinguish it. The stalking of the second subcostal of the hindwing is also extremely rare m Acidalia. Inhab- 
its Eastern and Southern China and Formosa. 

A. pinguis Swinh. (5 b). Dull brown-grey, irrorated with fuscous, with a paler, less irrorated band pinguis. 
proximally to the outer line ; first line rather remote from base, somewhat sinuous, broadened into a narrow band, 
outer line rather thick, strongly sinuous, especially on forewing; a pale subterminal line, dark-shaded on 
both sides, but especially proximally; forewing with a black discal dot. Under surface almost without 
markings. Widely distributed throughout Eastern China; Tientsin, Shanghai and theChusan Islands can be 
mentioned as Palearctic localities. June, July and September. 

12. Genus: Acidalia Tr. 

Palpus short, or very occasionally of moderate length, never long; clothed v/ith appressed or moder- 
ately appressed scales. Antenna in (J ciliated, the cilia very occasionally arising from short pectinations. Hind- 
tibia in ^ without spurs or rarely with a single pair; in $ with 4 spurs. Forewing with areole simple. Hmd- 
wing variable in shape, the costal vein normal or diverging rather gradually, second subcostal not or (very 
rarely) very shortly stalked with first radial. ^ genitalia: the two true genitalic segments (9. and 10. abdo- 
minal) enormously reduced, the pregenitahc (8. abdominal) bearing a pair of special organs, named "cerata" 
by Burrows and Pierce; these are prongs, frequent asymmetrical, arising laterally from a transverse band 
which bears the "mappa", a kind of apron which, in life, turns over and covers the base of the cerata. This 
structure, so far as yet tested, is very constant, and separates the genus sharply from Ptychopoda. 

The eggs are oval, sometimes longer, sometimes shorter, longitudinally ridged and usually flattened 
more or less at one end or at both. They are very frequently laid, unhke the majority of Geometrids, in a nearly 
upright position. Notwithstanding some slight differences in colouring, they become, with remar- 
kable uniformity, spotted or blotched with some shade of red a few days after oviposition. The larvae are ex- 
ceedingly long and slender, and roll themselves into remarkable coils when disturbed. They are nearly cylindrical, 
without special protuberances, and much less strongly rugose than those of Ptychopoda, but usually with a 
somewhat rugose lateral ridge. In the temperate regions of both hemispheres they pass the winter in this 
stage, but several species are at least partially double-brooded, or perhaps even under favourable conditions triple- 
brooded. The pupa has the surface rather smooth and polished, of some shade of light brown; the cremaster. 

52 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Protjt. 

in all the species which I can examine, is furnished with a pair of curved, diverging, moderately strong 
spines, a marked contrast to the 6 nearly equal, very fine and threadlike, hooked-tipped bristles of that of 

The genus is an extremely extensive and extremely natural one, being found wherever the subfamily 
is represented, with the exception apparently of Chili, and showing exceedingly little structural variation, the 
chief differences being in the nature of the antennal ciliation and m the formation of the ^ hindleg; the 
latter may be moderately long and comparatively slender, though even then extremely rarely provided with 
spurs and never with the middle spurs, or the tibia may be very much thickened, and in the latter case the 
tarsus may vary from nearly normal length to almost complete abortion. Even in colour and pattern the majo- 
rity of the species show great uniformity and their discrimination is often a matter of no small difficulty. 

The genus has been known by a number of different names — Acidalia, Lepto7neris, Craspedia, 
Emmiltis, Dosithea and others. There can be hardly any doubt that Sch rank's Scapula, which would be the 
oldest name, was really founded upon ornata Scop, and ought never to have been used m any other sense ; but 
as in the present case historical usage has overridden strict logic, I have not thought it necessary to displace 
Acidalia, which is older than the various Hiibnerian names sometimes substituted for it. Moreover, the 
ofwftto-group might possibly be constituted a separate geniis according to the shape of the wing and a few 
other small characters, and if that view were taken the great residue would still stand as Acidalia. A few syste- 
matists have separated the species with a pair of spurs present on the ^ liindtibia as a geniis {Pylarge 
H.-Sch.). It is greatly to be wished that this were biologically tenable, as it is such a useful character; but it se- 
parates off from the rest a few species of such different facies that we are forced to the conclusion that the 
retention of the spurs m the evolutionary history of this genus has been casual only. Still, as it is so convenient 
taxonomically, I have retained Pylarge in a subgeneric or sectional sense. For the rest I have retained as 
nearly as possible the order of Staudinger's Catalog, which is in the hands of nearly every Palearctic Lepidop- 
terist and which shows, on the whole, a very natural seqiience. It has, however, been necessary to remove a 
few species of different structure {Glossotrophia) and to introduce oc/woZewcato H.-Sch., remotata Guen. and aequi- 
fasciata Chr., which were entirely misplaced by Staudinger. 

A. Section Pylarge*). (J hindtibia with terminal spurs present. 

As already stated, this section is m a sense arbitrary, merely indicating the least specialized forms in 
the genus. It embraces probably seven groups, if not more; teriiata. Schr., the type of Pylarge, being nearest 
the pomt of origm of such normal species of Acidalia as the floslactata-groujt; ansula.ta Led. and its allies 
more specialized in shape ; a small group with stronger palpus, typified by impersonataWalJc. ; the narrow- winged . 
species which have hitherto been called Lycaxiges Bull. ; one or two species which are so similar in facies to 
the marginepunctata-gvowp of Acidalia that they are evidently in almost the direct line of ancestry to them; 
two or three exceedingly smooth-scaled, glossy species typified by gastonaria Obth. ; and a single, aberrant- 
looking species, steganioides Btlr., with better developed antennal pectinations and short cell of the forewing, 
which may prove to form a separate genus. Perhaps the simplest structural analysis reduces these groups to 
four, and this latter arrangement is here adopted. 


(J antenna Avith long, fasciculate ciliation; palpus stout and extending beyond frons; hindwing not 
greatly narrowed, second subcostal sometimes stalked. 

cineraria. A. cineraria Leech (3 k). Pale cinereous, irrorated with brown, and marked with brown lines. Except 

that the postmedian and subterminal lines should be somewhat more sinuous, incurved between the radials 
and the former here rather markedly dentate, our figure gives a very perfect idea of this neat little species. 
Some specimens are more weakly marked, the lines indistinct and the dark shade distally to the postmedian 
almost entirely absent, the discal spots are also occasionally reduced in size ; but the variation is never so great 
as to render it difficult to recognize. On the underside the forewing is more brownish, the hindwing more 
whitish, both wings very weakly marked, the postmedian line the most noticeable. From the following species 
cineraria differs in the more arched costal margin of the forewing, rather larger size, less brownish ground- 
colour and less straight postmedian and subterminal lines. Onlj^ known from Korea and Japan, occurring 
in May and June. 

A. impersonata is a rather variable species in colour, and very variable in the strength of the markings, 
and has received several names. I have so httle material available for study that I am unable to decide how 

*) See also subtilaia Chr., which should be transferred here. 

ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 53 

far the variation is geographical, how far seasonal and how far individual. A short series which I possess 
from Siccawei, near Shanghai, seems to point to its being in part seasonal, yet includes nothing so dark as the 
form accurataria. It is not impossible that the forms represent more than a single species, but I see no reason 
for thinking this probable, as they agree in all essential characters. All that is yet possible is to indicate the 
essential structure, and then to describe the named -forms, leaving their exact status to be fixed hereafter. To 
the characters given above it need only be added that the wings are but little narrower than in the ternata-giow^, 
the distal margm of the forewing gently rounded, not very strongly oblique, that of the hindwing'rounded, 
the costal margin slightly longer than the inner margin, but not nearly so strongly elongate as in 
the lactea-gxow^. The second subcostal of the hindwmg is decidedly variable, even in forms from a single 
locality; it may be either separate from the first radial, or rising from a common point or even longer-stalked 
than is found elsewhere m the genus. The ground-colour of both wings is usually bone-colour, sometimes more, 
sometimes less tinged with greyish, but with the colour variation produced chiefly by the degree of irroration 
with fuscous atoms, which may be very slight or extremely strong. The dark lines and black cell-spots are also 
very variable in the intensity of their expression; postmedian line usually more distinct than antemedian, 
nearly parallel with the distal margin but with slight or very slight curves inwards in the radial and submedian 
areas and usually accentuated by darker dots on the veins which, being placed rather at the distal side of 
the line, somewhat suggest minute teeth in it; antemedian, when distinctly traceable, is seen to be bent or an- 
gled in the cell, and is also sometimes marked with dark vem-dots, but is always wanting on the hindwing ; median 
line or shade rather diffuse, almost straight, touching or nearly touching the cell-spot; distal area usually 
somewhat darkened, the pale subterminal line then distinct, very slightly sinuous, not dentate. Under surface 
■ndth postmedian and subterminal markings and cell-spots mostly expressed, the basal area, especially of fore- 
wing, more suffused and without definite markings. — impersonata Walk. (3 k) is the lightest form, the ground- w^jperaoxato. 
colour not tinged with grey, the fuscous irroration slight and not very dark, the transverse lines moderately 
distinct. Walker's types were from China (Fu-chau, according to the register at the British Museum) and are 
in bad condition, but do not appear to differ appreciably from the forms occurring inChekiang and in the 
neighbourhood of Shanghai and of Ichang, thus Palearctic. On the other hand two poor specimens from Ting-hai 
(Fokien) and Formosa appear to have been of a rather darker, more ochreous shade. On an average these 
light forms are rather small, and the dates, so far as available (Ichang, August ; Shanghai district, September), 
suggest a second brood, especially as Dr. Culpin took a larger, darker form at Shanghai at the end of April. 
Some of the localities given by Leech are erroneous, being due to mistaken identification. I have, however, 
seen one Japanese example (Suma, 21 August, in coll. Wileman) referable here rather than to the form maces- 
cens. — muscularia Stgr. is a very similar but light grey form, founded on a single (^ from Amurland. muscularia. 
It is unknown to me, but is said to have the apex of forewing rather more acute than accurataria. Perhaps 
really a synonym of impersonata. A pair from Gensan, Korea, July, rather lighter than macescens, may possibly 
belong to it. — macescens Butl. (3 k) is of a medium, brownish grey, on an average larger than imfcr sonata, macescens. 
the markings variable in distinctness. Japan, widely distributed. May to September; Shanghai in April; Chang 
Yang in June; Tientsin. — accurataria Chr. (3k) is still darker, distinctly marked, the distal area particu- accurataria. 
larly darkened, leaving a clearer space between median and postmedian lines. $ apparently smaller. Amurland, 
July and August. 

A. gastonaria Oh. is very distinct m the very smooth, glossy scaling and pure white colouring, at least gastonaria. 
in a distal band. Moreover, if my candicans is really a form of this species, the structural characters are not 
quite identical; the palpus, though rather stronger and rougher-scaled than in typical AcidaMa, seems somewhat 
intermediate and the tongue is long. I have not seen OberthOr's form, from Oran. It is variable in colour, 
reddish brown or brownish, sometimes pale grey, the darker brown postmedian band as in our figured candicans, 
followed by a narrow white band (or thick line), the extreme distal edge also white, forewing with a row of minute 
dark dots between the veins. Abundant at Macta in April, hiding among scabious on the coast, in tolerably 
sheltered places. — candicans subsp. nov. (5 b) from Algiers and its immediate vicinity seems to be a good local candicans. 
race, or possibly a closely related species. All the examples which I have seen (both sexes) are rather smaller 
than typical gastonaria with both wings pure white from the base to the brown band and the grey shade between 
the two white distal liaes much weaker; the fringes in the ^ remain miore or less brownish; discal dots per- 
haps less minute. Forewing beneath infuscated, except the white line beyond the band. The $ is still purer 
white, but has the band slightly darker, though a little narrowed, discal dots minute, underside scarcely so 
strongly infuscated. The neuration varies a little; the 1. subcostal of forewing does not always anastomose; 
the 2. subcostal of hmdwing is sometimes very shortly stalked, sometimes separate. 


(J antenna with long fasciculate ciliation, sometimes arising from short pectinations; palpus short; 
hindwing greatly narrowed, second subcostal separate {Lycauges Btlr.). 

54 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 

lactea. A. lactea Btlr. (3g, (J$). Whitish ochreous, sometimes more tinged with fleshcolour; a more or less 

strong dusting of fine fuscous atoms. The ^, as the figures show, is slightly less narrow- winged than the $ 
and more weakly marked, a reddish-brown or fuscous common oblique band which is present in the latter, 
and often very strongly expressed, being weak or almost entirely wanting in the former. In both sexes the discal 
dots are very distinct and black and there is an outer series of black dots, sometimes connected by a very 
fine line, its course slightly oblique and curved on the forewing, parallel with the distal margin on hindwing. 
In addition, the forewing often bears an indistinct inner line and the hindwing a second series of dots, or a 
dark shade, indicating the proximal shading of an obsolescent pale subterminal line. Under surface more 
weakly marked, the cell-spots remaining distinct. Common in Japan and some localities in N. E. China, and 
possibly has a much wider range, as it is by no means certain that it is any thing more than a form of the 
Indian defamataria Walk., which, however, seems to have the distal margin of the forewing slightly more 
oblique and that of the hindwing even straighter. Hampson has sunk lactea to emissaria Walk., which was des- 
cribed from a tinr $ from Moulmein and may possibly be a dwarfed form of the same species. This can only 
be decided when further material from Burma is available for study. There is probably a succession of broods 
throughout the summer; Leech obtained it at Fu-chau and Ningpo in April, Wileman in Japan in August 
and again at the end of September. My friend Dr. M. Culpin took it in the neighbourhood of Shanghai on 
the 13 August and agam commonly frcm the 20 September. He obtained eggs on the last-mentioned date, 
and reared moths indoors about the middle of November. The larva, like those of most Acidalia, is extremely 
long and thin, not or scarcely rugose, the subsegmentation conspicuous, the subsegments very numerous; colour 
brownish, with darker dorsal band, spiracles dark and conspicuous. The moth h attracted by light. 

dotiovani. A. donovatii Dist. (= extraordinaria Stgr. = extremata Wair.) (3 g, as extraordinaria) is also possibly 

nothing more than a very much larger form of defamataria Walk. Like typical defamataria from Ceylon, the wings 
are of a slightly more extreme shape than in lactea, and have a rather more strongly dark-dusted under surface. 
The sexes are apparently nearly alike, but I can only judge from two males; for some unexplained reason, the 
$ is the more generally taken. South Africa, Cameroons, Nigeria, Syria; may be expected also from some in- 
tervening localities. The dated specimens known to me were taken in August, November and December (S. 
Africa) and 27 April (S. Nigeria). I can find no appreciable difference between the African examples and the 
Syrian. On the latter Staudinger, apparently unacquainted with Butler's Lycauges, founded a new genus 
Longula. His publication of genus and species dates from the end of June 1892, Distant's description under 
the name of donovani from April of the same year. 

andresi. A. andresi Draudt, only recently described, is at present luiknown to me, but the description is good 

and leaves no doubt that the species is referable to this section. The arrangement of the markings is compared 
with the ochroleucata-growp , but the wings are much narrower with sharper apex. 16 — 17 mm. Hindwing 
not angled. Scaling dense and smooth. Yellow-grey, strongly dusted wdth black scales, towards the distal 
margin (especially on the hindwing) with a violet-reddish hue. Discal dot distinct on both wings. Forewing 
with three moderately oblique, distinctly dentate lines, which are slaty black in the 5, more purplish or reddish 
in (^. The dark shading of the subterminal is distinct, running to the apex, between the 3. radial and 2. me- 
dian forming distally projecting spots, on the 2. submedian thickened into a large, conspicuous spot. Distal 
marginal line black, interrupted at the veins, here accompanied on each side (i. e. on the wing and the fringe) 
by black spots. Hindwing with the inner line wanting, otherwise similar. (^ antenna with the joints project- 
ing very strongly and with long, strong tufts of ciUa. The types, a (J and a $, are in the collection of Herr 
Andres, Bacos, and were bred on the 14 October and 19 October from larvae fomid on Conyza at Cherbine, 
Lower Egypt. I know of no other examples. Larva not described. 


Palpus short, smooth. (J antenna with slender, strongly ciliated pectinations. Cells rather short. Hind- 
wing with second t-ubcostal shortly stalked or nearly connate with first radial (gen. div. ?). 

steganioides. A. stegatlioides Btlr. (4 m). Reddish grey, paler and less red from the base to the median line and in 

apical half of distal area. Forewing with costal edge narrowly darkened ; first line angled outwards on the folds ; 
median line almost straight, from middle of costal margin to middle of posterior margin, preceded by dark 
discal spot and followed by a slight dark shade; outer line sinuous and dentate, rather near the margin, es- 
pecially between the third radial and second median, where it is followed by some dark suffusion ; a dark termi- 
nal line; fringe long, its proximal half dark, enclosing pale spots opposite the veins. Hind\ving without inner 
line and discal spot, the outer line indistinct, further from distal margin than on forewing. Underside paler, 
not or scarcely reddish, the markings weak, but both wings with distinct dark discal spot. Common in Japan, 

AOIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 55 

also occurring in Korea; April and again in July. — ab. unicolor ab. nov. lacks the median line and is reddish unicolor, 
throughout, the discal spots and distal line not prominent. 



Palpus short. (J antenna with short or quite moderate ciliation. Hindwing with second subcostal not 

A. ternata Schrank (= ? graminaria Fisch.-Rossl. = fumata Steph. = commutata Frr. = saltuata ternata. 
Spy. = nitidaria Bdv. = gypsaria Bdv.) (4i). Whitish grey with a slight tinge of yellowish or brownish and 
with dense biit fme blackish irroration. The transverse Imes (on forewing 3, on hindwing 2) usually only 
slightly darker than the ground-colour, sometimes browner, sometimes greyer, the outer sometimes a little 
less indistinct than the others, occasionally even quite prominent. Hindwing with distal margin almost regu- 
larly rounded, only very slightly bent at the end of the third radial. Under surface of forewing more or less 
infuscated, of hindwing whiter. The $ is smaller than the S, usually rather more yellowish and better 
marked. — In ab. simplaria Frr. the lines are more distinct, being darker while the ground-colour is as a rule simplaria. 
less densely irrorated. Beneath the forewing is little or not infuscated. — perfumata Renter is the name which perfumata. 
has been given to the darker, fuscous-grey specimens which inhabit parts of North Finland and Sweden, but 
in other circumpolar localities the form differs little from that of Cexitral Europe and it is perhaps not truly a 
local race. — The species inhabits chiefly mountains or high-lying heathland and is one of the very few 
Acidaliids which extend into the Arctic regions. In Northern Europe it is of general distribution, in Central 
Europe more local; its most southerly locality is the Western Pyrenees, further eastward the Alps and Carpa- 
thians, then the Ural and Altai. It is said to occur also in Amurland and possibly Japan, but the specimens 
which I have seen from those countries are not true ternata. The egg is nearly cylindrical, both ends being 
somewhat flattened. It is usually laid on one end, with the micropyle at its apex. Finely ribbed longitudinally, 
with 17 or 18 ribs, the deep furrows crossed by 14 to 18 very much slighter ribs; the flattened micropylar 
end strongly pitted. When first laid it is of a pearly-yellow colour, but after a few days it becomes irregu- 
larly spotted or blotched with crimson. The larva is very slender and elongate, nearly cylindrical, with a di- 
lated lateral skinfold, the segment-incisions not deep, but the subsegmentation well-marked, about 14 — 16 
subsegments to a segment. The colour is light brown, with a dark dorsal stripe; spiracles black. It feeds on 
bilberry and probably on Calluna, Erica, etc., and hibernates nearly full grown or (according to Milliere) 
small. Milliere has figured but not described the pupa. The moth flies in June and July and is easily started 
up by day, but flies chiefly at dusk. It is usually plentiful where it occurs. 

A. praecanata Stgr. (3 1) has the forewing rather more pointed than ternata, in this respect, as well as in praecanatai 
its colder grey colour, rather recalling A. incanata L. Further differs from ternata in the longer cilia of the 
(J antenna. The dark transverse lines are rather straight, the inner and median weak or wanting, the pale sub- 
terminal distinct. Underside of forewing infuscated, of hindwing whitish grey with blackish irroration; the 
postmedian line the most distinct. The $ is unknown to me. The species was discovered by Rijckbeil in 
the Koko Nor district in 1892—93. 

A. ansulata differs from ternata in shape and markings, though agreeing pretty closely in structure. 
The forewmg is narrower, its distal margin being more oblique and less convex; the hindwing is more irregularly 
shaped, the bend at the end of the third radial more pronounced, preceded by an excision (though sometimes 
in the ^ very slight) between the first and the third radial. The lines are finer, well-defined and less regular, 
and discal spots are present on both wings, that of the forewing enlarged into a ring. — ■ ansulata Led. from ansulata. 
Persia has the ground-colour rather strongly dusted with brown, the lines of the forewing all bent or angled 
near the costa, a brown shade midway between the outer line and the distal margin, the ringspot on the 
forewing large. Under surface of forewing more strongly mixed with brown, of hindwing whiter, the forewing 
without the first line and with the cell-mark reduced to a normal dark spot. — adulteraria Ersch. (41) differs adulteraria. 
not only ia being of an ochraceous or rosy colour and less dusted, but also in the absence of the submargnial 
band and in having the middle and outer lines of the forewing not or scarcely bent near the costa and the 
ring-spot much reduced in size. It may well be a separate species, but I have too Kttle material before 
me on which to bass an opinion, as ansulata is said to vary somewhat in the lines and spots. Western Tur- 
kestan from the Caspian Sea to Ferghana. — characteristica Alph. was regarded by Christoph as a synonym characieris- 
of adulteraria, and agrees with it except in the ground-colour, which is pale like that of ansulata, only without ^'"'"■ 
the brown dusting. In some localities it flies with adulteraria, and might be regarded as an aberration, but in 
other places, accordmg to Staudinger, it seems to form a local race. Zerafshan to the Hi district. 

56 ■ ACIDALIA. By L. B. Protjt. 

annubiata. A. annubiata Stgr. (41) is another very close ally of ansulata. The tail of the hind wing may perhaps 

be slightly weaker. The ground-colour is of a warm ochreous tone, the cell-spot of the forewmg, both above 
and beneath, is weak or obsolescent, that of the hindwing sometimes wanting. The lines are nearly as in 
adulteraria, but there is no distinct black marginal line, such as occurs in the last-named form. Staudinger 
says that the colour is quite different, but both vary somewhat in this respect. The under surface lacks the 
inner line of the forewing, which even above is only weakly expressed, annubiata was described from Samarkand, 
where it was taken in June and July. Staudinger records that characteristica was found together with it. 
Occurs also in Transcaspia and elsewhere in Southern Siberia. 

rubellata.' A. rubellata Rbr. (31; 4h, as beckeraria). This name, difficult to determine from Rambur's poor fi- 

gure, was previously cited with a query to consanguinaria Led. (Ptychopoda), but 5 or 6 years ago Homberg 
examined the type specimen and reported that it certainly belonged to beckeraria Led. By this we must of course 
miderstand the Iberian representative of beckeraria, which really differs structurally from it; and the further 
correction has been made by Pungeler. It rather closely resembles the Eastern species with which it has been 
confused. I have but few examples before me, and if it varies much it may be that the differences here noticed 
do not always hold. My specimens are of a rather more strongly ochreous tone, the lines less black, inclined 
to be thicker, only rarely marked with dark (scarcely black) dots on the veins; the discal dots also stand out 
rather less sharply; the pale subterminal line is rather well defined; the under surface without markings. The 
distal margin of the hindwing, at least in some specimens, appears rather less strongly convex than in beckeraria, 
but the difference is only slight. The egg is long-oval with strong longitudinal and weaker transverse ribs, 
whitish yellow at first, becoming blotched with pink. Larva tapering a little anteriorly, fmely wrinkled, spiracles 
black ; ventrally very faint uniform greenish, dorsally yellowish, especially the thoracic segments, with an irre- 
gular, ill-defined dark dorsal Une and on the four central segments often some indistinct paired black marks. 
Spain and Portugal, two or three broods in the summer. 

cumulata. A. cumulata Alph. (= cretaria Stgr.) (4h) has also, though with still less justification, been regarded 

as a form of beckeraria. It is considerably larger than that species and rubellata, the wmgs more elongate, the 
(^ hindtibia more slender, the spurs much longer than in rubellata; hmdtarsus long. Vertex of head white, 
collar darker than in the allies. The ground-colour is nearly the same as in beckeraria, varying, like that spe- 
cies, in the degree of the ochreous tinge; but in effect it is always greyer, on account of a denser dusting of 
grey scales. The antemedian and postmedian Imes are more irregular in their course, the median shade very 
variable — strong, weak or absent. Between the postmedian and subtermmal lines there is usually a band of 
strong grey shading and the subterminal shows the same expansions as in marginepunctata. Cell-spots rather 
large and black. The underside is weakly marked but usually shows the cell-spots and traces of the postmedian 
hne, the distal grey shadmg and the pale subtermmal. Inhabits Central Asia, from Transcaspia to the 
Ili district. 

decolor. A. decolor Stgr. (described as Acidalina, gen. nov.) is only knowai in the unique ^ type, which I have 

not been able to examine ; and as even the neuration is not indicated the generic position is somewhat doubt- 
ful. It appears to me not unlikely that its affinities may be with A. flaccata Stgr., but as it has a pair of 
spurs on the hindtibia it must be placed provisionally in the Section Pylarge. It is described as broad- winged, 
the distal margin of forewing nearly straight, that of hindwing with a slight bend in the middle ; the antenna {^) 
weakly serrate with rather long and strong pencils of cilia, the hmdtibia somewhat longer than the femur 
and almost as long as the tarsus. The body and wings are of a uniform, washed-out bone-yellow, the fringes 
and the apical part of the forewing beneath more clay-yellow. Chellala, Algeria. 

B. Section Acidalia. (^^ hindtibia with terminal spurs absent (in flaccata some- 
times with a single spur present). 

immorata. A. immorata L. (= contaminata Scop. = graminata Hufn. = fuscata F.) (4g). This species and the 

following are so distinct m aspect from all others, that some of the older entomologists removed them widely 
from Acidalia, associating them with Chiasmia (= Strenia) clathrata L., which does not even belong to the same 
subfamily. The thick dark scaling, thickened and very irregular dark lines (the postmedian rather remote 
from the distal margm) and broadly darkened borders, contaming the clear white, very u'regular subterminal 
line, usually in part broken up into wedge-shaped spots, give them a very characteristic facies which to some 
extent justified the mistake. The structure and the early stages are nevertheless typically those of Acidalia, 
and the only irregularity other than that of the scheme of markmgs is found in the (J genitalia, which do not 
seem strictly homogeneous with those of the other species, immorata is so well known and so easily recognized 
that a detailed description is unnecessary. It occurs throughout a great part of Europe, though more local in 

Publ. 20. III. 1913. ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 57 

the West, and extends to Asia Minor, Siberia, etc. It frequents heaths and fields from May to August, in some 
localities partially double brooded, and is often found in company with the abundant Ematurga atomaria L., 
amongst which it might easily be overlooked. If not actually a day-flier, as some have asserted, it is at least 
so easily disturbed by day as to give the impression of being such. The egg has the form and sculpturing which 
is normal in the genus; shape somewhat irregular, nearly cylindrical or thickening at one end, very distinctly 
ribbed longitudinally, the ribs numbering about 20, and with about 20 finer transverse ribs. It is of a pale 
green colour when first laid, soon changing to straw-colour, the crimson blotches appearing in about 2 days. The 
larva is of the usual form, the elongate abdominal segments divided into about 20 subsegments; setae extremely 
minute; colour light yellowish brown or greyish brown, with fine, double, dark dorsal line, dark subdorsal 
line, each abdominal segment with a thickening of the dark marking anteriorly, a slender blackish supra- 
spiracular line. Feeds on Erica, Calluna and various other low plants. The pupa has the wing-cases and anterior 
part of dorsal surface much darkened, in this differing from the other species of the genus which I have exa- 
mined. The moth varies moderately, but seldom produces really striking aberrations. The $ is smaller than 
the (J and perhaps on an average less tinged with brown and more strongly marked. Both sexes, however, 
may be either browner or greyer, while the dark lines may be well expressed or almost entirely obsolete. Ac- 
cording to HoRMUZAKi the variation is in part seasonal, spring specimens being on an average more strongly 
and broadly white banded than those of the later brood. Occasionally the first two lines of the forewing coalesce 
into a single very thick line or narrow band and when this is also more darkened than usual a rather striking 
appearance results. — ab. serenata Trti. is an unimportant aberration with all the pale parts of the wings serenata. 
broadened, the dark lines therefore narrowed; the third (postmedian) line is the darkest and thickest; subter- 
minal line and pale parts of fringe rather conspicuously whitish. — ab. albomarginata Habich (3 k) is more albomargi- 
striMng, the white of the subterminal line being extended on both wings above and beneath to the distal margin, "' 
only intersected by dark Imes along the veins. — porosa Krulik. is a small, dark second-brood form occurring porosa. 
in Eastern Russia, the whitish markings largely suppressed. 

A. tessellaria Bdv. (4g) is closely related to the preceding species, and is often erroneously regsirded tessdlaria. 
as a variety thereof. Speyer very accurately pointed out the distinctions more than 40 years ago, and recently 
some other writers (as Tura,ti, Schawerda) have protested against the union of the two. The distal margin 
of the hindwing is in tessellaria appreciably more crenulate, with a more noticeable excision (though still slight) 
between the radials. The nervures are all strongly dark-marked, the white parts of the wing almost entirely 
free from dark dusting, the dark lines usually more slender, more strongly dentate, the fringes more sharply 
chequered. As a rule also the white subterminal line is broader and still more irregularly broken, the spots 
between the radials in particular forming large, well separated wedges. The black discal spot of the hindwing 
is nearly always longer. On an average the size of tessellaria somewhat exceeds that of immorata. Local in 
Central and Southern Europe, Central Asia and Northern Amurland, flying in June and July. I have not seen 
the specimens from the Ala Tau Mountains which Staudinger gives as transitional. — ab. meissli Schawerda, meissli. 
from Herzegovina, is a handsome form of a uniform black colour except some small white submarginal spots, 
representing vestiges of the subterminal line. — tabianaria Trti. (3 k, misprinted tabiascaria) described as a tabianaria. 
separate species, is the Sicilian form, smaller and of a more yellowish tone than that of Eastern Europe and 
Asia Minor, with which its author compared it. The dark parts in particular are much less black, being rather 
of an olivaceous brown, and they are on an average narrower. As, however, a very similar form occurs also 
.in Erance and Germany, and Boisduval described the species from Northern Italy, it is doubtful whether the 
iomi' tabianaria can be regarded as constant. Perhaps, even, it should be regarded as synonymous with the 
name-type and a varietal name be given to the fine, large, black-marked Eastern form, which I have before 
me from Croatia and Orenburg. At the same time it m.ust be mentioned that Boisd uval called his type "nigro- 
fusca". Larva probably on Medicago sativa. 

A. anaitaria Herz is unknown to me in nature, and as the essential points of structure are not given, anaitaria. 
and moreover it was founded on 3 $$ only, it is possible that it does not even belong to this genus. The 
photographic figure, however, makes it appear that the second subcostal vein of the hindwing arises from the 
apex of the cell. The wings are said to be shaped nearly as in the genus Anaitis, but still more pointed, 
the costal margin of forewing strongly arched. White-grey with numerous scattered blackish scales and black 
central dots. Forewing with 4, hindwing with 3 brown-yellow transverse bands, of which the first two are 
the most strongly defined and broadest. A fine black marginal line. Under surface altogether similar, only 
the forewing without the fijst line. The markings somewhat recall those of the two preceding species. Wing- 
expahse 20 mm. Herr Pungele r (in litt.) has suggested that this is possibly the $ to the broad-winged cajanderi 
Herz which is described below. Mouth of the Viliui River, Lena district, Siberia, July.. 

IV • .8 

58 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 

A. rubiginata. Variable in colour, but easily distinguished, in all its known forms, from the species 
which most nearly resemble it in size, markmgs and structure on account of the bright, deep rufous or ochreous 
shades which always characterize it both above and beneath, and which are always wanting in the other allies. 
The antennal joints are not strongly thickened and the fascicles of cilia in the (J are slender and but little 
longer than the diameter of the shaft. The (J hindtibia is moderately thickened, with a hair-pencil, and with 
a fringe of hair-scales on the outer side, the tarsus not materially abbreviated, its length beuag almost or about 
equal to that of the tibia. The first Ime (present, as usual, on the f orewing only) is strongly curved ; the second 
is more gently curved near the costa of the forewing, is variable both in strength, thickness and degree of undu- 
lation, but usually distinct; the third is nearly parallel with the distal margin and is not or only very feebly 
denticulate; the space between these two lines is nearly always a little lighter or clearer than the rest of the 
wing; the distal "area is usually more or less darkened, at least sufficiently to render the pale subterminal 
]uie well visible; the discal spots are minute, that of the forewing usually obsolete. Under surface similar, the 
forewing without first liiae, but with a more distinct discal dot. The eggs are usually laid in heaps and in an 
upright position and are somewhat cylindrical, but broader at the micropylar end ; they are very distinctly ribbed 
longitudinally, the ribs numbering about 1 6, and much more finely ribbed transversely ; the micropylar end is strong- 
ly rounded, the micropyle very distinctly stellate in form. When first laid the egg is bright green, but in a few 
hours it changes to greenish-yellow with purple longitudinal lines. The larva is slender, slightly thicker 
posteriorly and tapering regularly, the head notched, the skin rough; the colour is some shade of grey, with a 
fine dark dorsal line of somewhat variable thickness, at times wideniiig ont m the middles of the middle seg- 
ments. It has been found on thyme, heath and other plants, but is more often obtained by breeding from the 
egg. The moth is double brooded, appearing in May and June and again in August or even September. It 
usually frequents dry rough fields or heaths, hidmg durmg the herbage by day, but often becoming more active 
ruHf/inato. in the afternoon. At night it is strongly attracted by light. — rubiginata Hufn. (= TuhTica.ta. Schiff. = vittata 
Thnh. = domialla Geoff. = variata Vill.) (4h) is the ordinary European form, characterized by the purple- 
red or red-brown colouring, which is generally very bright in freshly bred specimens, but is liable to fade. The 
variation, apart from the shade of colour, consists chiefly in the strength and sometimes the position of the 
median line; this is usually nearer to the outer line than to the inner, but sometimes central. Sometimes the 
entire wmgs, exceptmg the space between the median and postmedian lines, are strongly irrorated with dark 
scales. Second-brood specimens seem to be on the whole smaller and darker. Europe (except the Arctic 
ochraceata. Region) to Armenia, also in the Altai, Tarbagatai and Ala Tau Mountains. — ochraceata Stgr. is an ochreous, 
not reddish form which prevails in S.E. Russia, Transcaucasia and the Taurus, but occasionally appears also 
haliinodren- with the type form as a more aberration, halimodrendrata Ersch. (= halimodendronata Fuchs) (4 h), which is 
era a. ^^^so more ochreous than the type form, is distinguished further by its somewhat larger size and by havmg a 
tinge of reddish; in Erschoff's figure, the first line on the hindwing precedes the discal spot. Represents 
rubiginata in Western Turkestan, from the Caspian Sea to Issyk-Kul. 

lurhidarin. A. turbidaria Hbn. (= macraria Guen. = lutosata Ebr.) (4 h) is closely related to rnhiginata but differs 

in its duller colour (pale greyish ochreous, more or less densely dusted with fuscous), in having the black discal 
spots more sharply expressed and in other slight characters. The nature of the antennal ciliations shows no 
tangible differences and the structure of the hindleg is similar m the two species. Hubner's figure, the type 
of the name, is scarcely recognizable, and either represents a rare aberration or possibly a distinct species. 
But until specimens are met with similar to this figure, Herrich-Schaffer's determination should be accept- 
ed, and it is neither necessary nor desirable to provide even^a varietal name for the ordinary form. Distributed 
in Southern Europe and from Asia Minor to Persia. My specimens, from Turkey, are all very heavily dusted 
with fuscous, forming a striking contrast to the follo\\ang race. Should it prove that this dark form also is 
turhulen- localized, it will require a distmctive name. — turbulentaria 8tgr. (= coUata Warr.) is a much lighter form, 
iaria. (.jjg fuscous dusting so greatly reduced that the colour closely resembles that of the two following. Usually, 
however, some of the dark dusting remams m the distal area, particularly between the postmedian line and 
the pale subterminal, which latter is thereby rendered distinct. The forewing beneath also generally remains 
more or less infuscated. Recorded from most parts of Europe which lie south of about 40" N. lat. and also 
habenata. from Sj^ria. According to Staudinger it possibly represents a summer form of turbidaria. — ab. habenata 
Warr. is simply an extreme development in which the dark dusting whicli usually remaiias in turbulentaria 
has almost entirely disappeared. 

manifesta. A. matiifesta Prout (5g). Similar to turbidaria turbulentaria but recognizable at once by the much 

larger, very striking black discal dots, as well as by the more oblique central band. Rather clear pale 
straw-colour, with slight, sparse, minute dark speckles only visible with the lens. Markings grey, variable in 
distinctness, but usually rather weak. First line of forewing about as in the two preceding species. Median 
shade rather thick, but sometimes faint ; rather obliquely placed, on the forewing usually passuig close to or touching 
the central spot distally, on the hindwing proximal to it, sometimes touching, sometimes further removed. 

,, ^^ ACIDALIA. By L. B. Pkout. 59 

Outer line nearly as in the preceding species, not (as is usually but not invariably the case in that) incurved 
between the radials; the succeeding dark band rather irregular, often almost interrupted between the radials, 
sometimes obsolescent throughout. The under surface is weakly marked, the forewing, or at least its basal 
part, generally somewhat infuscated. Tientsin, June and again in August-September. I see no indication 
at all of seasonal variation. The ^ hindtibia possesses the usual rather strong hair-pencil; the tarsus is two- 
thirds as long as the tibia, thus much less abbreviated than in corrivalaria, with which species I origmally 
compared it. By the leg structure, rounded hindwing, etc., the present is its more correct position. 

A. ochroleucata H.-Sch. ( ? = colonaria H.-Sch.) (5g) is a very inconspicuous species, and as it is also ochroieu- 
tolerably variable and closely resembles some others, its determination is occasionally a matter of some diffi- '''''''■ 
culty and uncertainty. Indeed it is not yet positively known whether it may not be the same species as mino- 
rata Bdv. from South and East Africa or remotata Guen., which again may be a sjmonym of minorata. In 
any case the species which we figure and which, though formerly considered rare, has now found its way into 
most of the larger collections, is certainly the true ochroleucata H.-Sch. Pale straw-colour, finely and rather 
sparsely dusted with fuscous, the dusting sometimes (as He rrich-Schaffe r gives it) more copious on the fringes. 
The lines are lighter fuscous, varying in distinctness, the first on the forewing usually rather weak, more or 
less obsolescent costally ; when distinctly enough expressed this line is seen to be rectangularly bent in the 
cell. The median line is not as a rule thickened; it runs on the forewing nearly parallel with the distal 
margin, or more commonly is incurved somewhat in its posterior half, on the hindwing passing just proximally 
to the cell-spot, usually making a curve round it. The postmedian line is dentate and is somewhat incurved 
between the radials and in the submedian area. The pale subterminal line is usually indistinct, being margined 
by very little dark shading. Cell-spots black, that of the hindwing generally somewhat the larger. Underside 
more whitish, especially the hindwing and posterior part of forewing; cell-spots and postmedian line usually 
distinct, the other markings weak or wanting. Differs from both the preceding species in the strongly dentate 
postmedian line, and usually in its somewhat smaller size and the absence of a noticeable dark shade or band 
distally to this; from turhidaria and (though much more slightly) from manifesta, it also differs in the structure 
of the (J hindleg, the tarsus being about three-fifths as long as the tibia. The antenna in the ^ bears rather 
long fascicles of cilia; He rrich-Schaffe r describes than as "very long" in erecting his colonaria, which is pro- 
bably a synonym, or more greyish aberration, of this species. His otherwise rather superficial description com- 
pares it with humiliata Hufn. and straminata Tr., which both belong to Ptychopoda. ochroleucata inhabits 
Southern Europe from Spain to Crete, also Cyprus and Egypt. I have seen it from several localities not enu- 
merateel by Statjdinger (Calabria, Capri, Corfu, Crete) and suspect it is a good deal overlooked. — corcularia Ebl. corcularia. 
from the Canaries is only a slightly smaller and darker form of ochroleucata and is treated by Staudinger 
as quite synonymous with the type. This may probably prove to be correct, as Bohatsch has recorded the 
same form as occurring among the type not uncommonly in Murcia. I have seen insufficient material to 
justify a definite opinion, ochroleucata seems to be double-brooded if not triple-brooded; it appears in April- 
May, July-August and even in Ssptember and October. The variation in size and markings does not seem to be 
seasonal or sexual. 

A. inustata H.-Sch. is unknown to me. Its author hesitated as to whether it might not prove to be itmstaia. 
a form of ochroleucata. Bohatsch regarded it as such. Staudinger, however, says that it is certainly not a 
variety of ochroleucata. It was founded on a single $ in bad condition, of a reddish straw-colour, somewhat 
narrower-winged than the preceding species, the dark dusting denser, particularly in the apical part of the 
costal margin of the forewing and on the fringes. Bohatsch asserts that the blackened apex is not natural, 
but due to the action of mercury, which was formerly used as a preservative against insects and other pests. 
Recorded from Central Italy. He rrich-Schaffe r adds that "Herr Mann took the species at Baden near 
Vienna", but this is probably an error. 

A. remotata Guen. I have not been able to identify this species certainly from Guenee's description, remotata. 
but recent investigations have led me to doubt whether the species which we have figured under this name 
(4e, probably a form of ignobilis) can be the true remotata. Orerthur identifies Guenee's type (supposed to 
come from N. India) with"an Algerian form which I have unfortunately not seen, and at the same time with 
a Natal species, which would undoubtedly be the widely-distributed African minorata Bdv. As Staudinger 
regards remotata as probably a Darwinian form of ochroleucata, andOsERTHUR mentions no difference except 
that the common transverse line beneath (postmedian) runs more parallel to the distal margin, the identifi- 
cation with minorata seems probable enough, for the latter is so close to ochroleucata that I have hitherto 
discovered no constant distinction, though its colour seems less yellowish. It is strange, however, that I have 
not seen this species from India. Hampson and Leech confused various forms and allies, chiefly larger, under 
the name of n^motata,. Itg nearest Indiar; representative, go far as I know, is really actuaria Walfc., recently 

60 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 

sunk by Fletcher to minorata, but with shorter hindtarsus. G ue nee describes rer?iototo as expanding 18 mm, 
1 mm less than ochroleucata, rather more greyish, the postmedian line little sinuate, wavy, remote from the 
inner line and even from the median, which on the forewing passes much above (i. e., proximally to) the discal 
spot without curving. ^J hindtarsus "nearly as long" as tibia, but this is said also of ochroleucata. 

personata. A.persotiatasp.nov. (= impersonata Pri/er nee Walk.) (7a). Bone-colour, sparsely dusted with blackish 

atoms. Forewing with 3, hindwing with 2 fine browner (sometimes greyish) lines and sometimes some weak 
distal dusting defining on both sides a vague, wavy subterminal line, which is otherwise invisible; discal 
and marginal dots sharp, black. Forewing with first line oblique outwards from costal margin, strongly bent 
in cell, thence parallel with distal margin, rarely distinct; median shade somewhat thicker, distal to cell- 
dot, undulate or subdentate, incurved in submedian area, somewhat weak; postmedian fine, distinct, denticu- 
late, almost parallel with distal margin or very slightly incurved between the radials. Hindwing with the 
median shade proximal to the cell-dot, mcurved in cell and m submedian area, post-median more sinuous 
than on forewing, showing the two inward curves. Under surface of hindwuig and of posterior part of forewing 
white, almost unmarked, the hindwmg usually showdng a very faint postmedian Ime; forewing anteriorly, 
on the other hand, rather darker than above, postmedian line distinct; both wings with sharp cell-dot and 
marginal dots. ^ antennal ciliation considerably longer than the width of the shaft, apparently nearly twice 
as long; hindtibia not greatly thickened, fringed with hair-scales above, tarsus almost as long as tibia. Des- 
cribed from 9 ^^, 8 being in the British Museum. Type from Satsuma, May 1886 (Leech collection); 2 from 
Gensan, July and August 1887, 1 Nikko 1887, 1 Nagasaki, May 1886 (all Leech collection); Japan, probably 
Yokohama (H. Pryer; misidentified as impersonata. Walk.); Yokohama (2 worn examples from the Jonas 
collection); Kobe, Japan, May 1910 (in my collection, presented by Dr. M. Culpin). The last-named example 
is rather strongly grey-dusted, rather weakly marked, especially as regards the discal dot of the forewing, 
but in general personata varies little except m size (18 — 21 mm, English measuring). Extremely like certain 
forms of ochroleucata H.-Sch. and actuaria Walk., scarcely distinguishable except m the longer hind-tarsus 
and perhaps slightly longer antennal ciliation. May be regarded as the Eastern representative of the group. 
In comparison, ochroleucata shows a slightly more fleshy tmge, slightly more incurved postmedian line, stronger 
subterminal shades and better marked underside. The resemblance to pale impersonata is more superficial. 
Some worn examples from Ichang are probably small personata. 

adelpharia. A. adelpharia Pilng. (3 k, as adelphata) differs from ochroleitcata in its rather brighter colour, sparser 

and minuter dustbag and darker ochreous (not fuscous or grej') lines. Median line curved costally, closely follow- 
ing or even touching the discal dot; postmedian excurved near costal margin, very gently incurved between 
radials and then still more sinuous to the posterior margin, not at all denticulate; the pale postmedian is 
discernible between two faint dark shades. Discal spots black, but minute; marginal dots very minute, 
in part obsolescent. Under surface altogether without markings except for very minute and not very strong 
discal spot on each wmg. The underside affords a very ready distinction from ordinary ochroleucata, but Bo- 
hat sen records pale aberrations of that species with unmarked underside. Finally, the hindtarsus of adelpharia 
is relatively shorter, being less than one-half the length of the tibia. The (^ antennal ciliation is short, scarcely 
half as long as in turbidaria. Jericho and Lower Egypt. The type specimens, from Jericho, were bred on 20 June 
and 2 July 1892 from ova laid by a $ which was captured on 23 March. The larva when full grown measured 
about 20 mm, slender in proportion, nearly cylindrical posteriorly very little thicker, the head slightly notched. 
The dorsal area is pale yellowish brown, somewhat mixed with green, the ventral light grey. Similar to the 
larva of A. ruhiginata, but somewhat more compact, the spiracles less prominent. The pupa is light brown 
with darker stigmata, otherwise markingless. The further locality, Lower Egypt, was communicated by 
Herr Pungeler (in litt.), who has recently received it from thence for determmation. 

sybillaria. A. sybillaria Sivinh. (7 b) is of about the size and colour of ochroleucata, very finely but moderately strongly 

sprmkled with blackish. Lines rather weak, the median on forewmg somewhat thickened, more strongly in- 
curved behind the cell and somewhat dentate distally, the postmedian further from the distal margin, more si- 
nuous, angled on the first radial, then markedly incurved; distal area appreciably darkened, containing a di- 
stiiact rather broad pale subterminal line, formed much as in Ptychopoda hiselata, to weakly marked forms of 
which the species bears some superficial resemblance, except in its rather smaller size. Each wing with a 
black discal dot and black interneural dots or very short streaks at the distal margin. Beneath the hindwing 
is whiter; both wings bear the cell-spots, postmedian Ime and the markmgs distally thereto. Ichang, taken 
in August by Mr. Pratt. The leg and antemial structure are nearly as m ochroleucata. 

ignoUHs. A. ignobilis Warr. (4 m, fig. 5; 5 b) is considerably larger, exceeding in average size the well-known 

immutata. Colour again similar to that of the preceding group, rather clear, the black dusting being as sparse 

ACIDALIA. By L. B. Proitt. 61 

as in corrivalaria, from which its coloration does not materially differ. Discal spots black, lines brownish 
ochreous, first bent in cell, middle line or shade rather thick, curved well beyond discal spot, then somewhat 
oblique inwards, that of hindwing passing just proximally to the discal spot, usually a little bent round the 
spot as inocAfo?eMcato,postmedianlijielunulate-dentate, with slight sinus inwards between the radials and again 
in submedian area; distal shading and subterminal line very weak, distal margin with black dots between 
the veins, though sometimes very minute. Under surface somewhat paler, especially of hindwing; discal 
and usually also marginal dots present, forewing with median shade and both wings with postmedian line. 
Antennal ciliation in the (J about equal to width of shaft, hindtibia strongly thickened, with strong hair- 
tuft, rather pure white, tarsus scarcely half the length of the tibia. Distributed in Japan, June and July. $$ 
from Ichang, Chang Yang, and Chia-ting-fu also probably belong to this species as slightly different forms, 
but in this difficult group I do not venture to decide definitely without the c?. The distal margin of the 
hindwing is just appreciably bent at the third radial, and one or two specimens apparently referable here 
have this character a little exaggerated, thus forming rather perplexing transitions towards the eastern forms 
of nigropunctata. — humilis subsp. nov. looks slightly more slenderly built and smoother-scaled, the distal humilis. 
margin of forewing slightly straighter, of hindwing more rounded, the median and postmedian lines rather more 
sharply dentate, the former sometimes little thickened. Under surface of both wings whitish, only the forewing 
weakly suffused with reddish grey from the base to the median line and from the costal margin to behind 
the cell; the postmedian line weak or almost absent on the hindwing. The (J hindtarsus appears to be shorter 
in proportion than in ignohilis and it is by no means unlikely we are dealing with a separate species. Dharmsala, 
a short series of both sexes in the British Museum collection, erroneously recorded by Butler as Idaea stri- 
gilata Schiff. and one of them, a worn $, as Anisodes similar ia Walk. A pair from Sultanpur, Kulu, seem to 
be only a slight subvariety or aberration of humilis. 

A. delitata sp. nov. (7 b) Similar to ignohilis, but almost entirely without any yellowish tinge, the colour delitata. 
being pale, glossy, whitish grey, the markings very weak. In these respects and in having the forewing slightly 
narrower and the hindwing inappreciably bent at the third radial, bears a slight superficial resemblance 
to the pale forms of Ptychopoda inornata Haw. The lines follow approximately the same course as in ignohilis, 
but the postmedian is less dentate and less bent. The discal spots are very small but black, the black marginal 
dots minute. Fringes slightly more inclining towards yellowish, only their basal part dusted with grey. Fore- 
wing beneath suffused with shining reddish grey, lines and cell-spot weak, the median line appearing somewhat 
straighter than in ignohilis. Hindwing beneath whitish, the discal dot distinct, postmedian line very faint or 
almost obsolete. Antennal joints a little projecting, the fascicles of cilia rather stronger than in ignohilis. 
Hindtarsus about half the length of tibia. Face and vertex respectively black and white, as in the allied forms, 
but the latter bounded posteriorly by a rather broader black line or bar than usual; collar brown. Chow- 
pin-sa, Western China, occurring in May — June. Described from 3 ^^, all formerly in the Leech collection, 
the type and another now in the British Museum, the third in the Pungeler collection. Possibly really nearer 
to hifalsaria, which has nearly the same size, shape and colour, but is very slightly broader-winged, slightly 
greyer, the discal spot of the forewing not black, a band distally to the postmedian and several other slight 
differences, and the hindtarsus of the ^ rather more than half the length of the tibia. 

A. butyrosa PFajT. (7 b) may be easily recognized by its bright shining straw-yellow colour, with the mar- butyrosa, 
kings only slightly darker. Forewing with first line weakly curved, cell-spot rather large, but indistinct, median 
line excurved beyond cell, gently incurved posteriorly, postmedian sinuous and somewhat dentate, the pale 
subterminal scarcely defined. Hindwing similar, without first line; cell-spot small. Underside of forewing 
duller, of hindwing paler, both very weakly marked, the hindwing sometimes without markings. Hindtibia 
of (J strongly thickened, tarsus short. Discovered at Sikkim, but reaches Dharmsala. 

, A. arenosaria Stgr. (3 k). This and the three following species are also yellow, but of an entirely different arenosaria. 
shade from that of butyrosa, less glossy and inclining more to light sulphur-yellow. The distal margin of the 
hindwing is also less strongly convex than in butyrosa and the species which precede it; indeed it is in general 
rather straight from the anal angle to the middle or beyond, arenosaria is distinguished by the whitish, 
unmarked hindwing, while the forewing also is pale and weakly marked, the only conspicuous marking being 
the moderately thick ochreous-brown line beyond the middle, though a minute cell-spot and a pair of fine sub- 
marginal lines are also traceable. Forewing beneath nearly as white as hindwing and almost without markings. 
(J antennal ciliation moderate, hindtibia rather short, tarsus about equal in length to tibia. Only known from S. 
E. Russia. 

A. albiceraria is closely related to the preceding species, perhaps slightly narrower-winged; in the only 
specimen which I have been able to examine the first subcostal vein of the forewing arises before the end of 

62 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 

the areole, but it is doubtful whether this would preve constant. Forewing usually with all 5 lines present, 

somewhat ferruginous-tijited, the first sharply angled m the cell, the second (corresponding to the principal 

line of arenosaria) somewhat the strongest and well beyond the middle, the last three (post median and two 

subterminals) near together; cell-spot present. Hindwing paler and more weakly marked, but not devoid of 

markings like arenosaria. Margin of both wings with dark dashes between the veins. Under surface of both 

albiceraria. wings very pale yellowish, with median and postmedian lines present. — albiceraria H.-Sch. (= sulphuraria 

infuscata. Frr.) is the smaller and less distinctly marked form and inhabits S. E. Russia and Transcaucasia. — ab. in- 

fuscata I will take drawing from H.-Sch. ab. nov. (= ochroleucaria H.-Sch. fig. 469, 470, nom. praeocc.) 

vitellinaria. (7 a) is a form with almost the whole of the forewing much darker, suffused with fuscous. — vitellinaria Ev. 

represents albiceraria in Persia and Siberia, extending in the latter country from the Altai to the extreme 

east (Amurland, etc.). It is larger and more sharply marked, the discal spots of both wings strongand black. 

iimnistaria. A. imtnistaria H.-Sch. (4 h) is somewhat ampler- winged than the two preceding and of a lighter sul- 

phur-yellow (our figure does not represent one of the brightest forms). It is at once distinguished from them 
by the two fine, ivavy brown lines, darker punctuated on the veins. Discal and terminal spots black, not ex- 
tended into dashes. Subterminal shades faintly indicated. Under surf ace with thick postmedian line, the base 
of the forewing suffused more or less with brown. The $ antenna is furnished with moderately strong fascicles 
of cilia, the hindtarsus at least as long as the tibia. Taurus to Transcaucasia and Persia. 

latelineata. A. latelineata Graes. (=divisariaCAj\) (7b) is another conspicuous species. Larger than arewosana, which 

it nearly resembles in the markings of the forewing. Ground-colour of forewing rather deeper and more ochreous, 
the brown postmedian line thick and strong, the outer of the two subterminals stronger than the inner. Hind- 
wing paler, but with the markings of the forewing reproduced. Cell-spot almost or entirely wanting on both 
wings. Under surface similarly marked, the basal area, at least of forewing, usually with some brown suffusion. 
The 9 is rather smaller than the 3*, and with slightly nari'ower wings, but otherwise similar. Apparently 
local, recorded from the Southern Ural, West of Issyk-Kul and from the Hi district. A specimen before me is 
from the Alexander Mountains. 

ieckemria. A. beckeraria Led. (7 b) Pale grejdsh ochreous with sparse grey dusting, the lines grey, little darker than the 

ground-colour, but the antemedian and postmedian marked with black spots on the veins; antemedian bent 
in cell, wanting on hindwing ; median shade sinuous, not very thick, on forewing following, on hindwing prece- 
ding the sharply black discal dot; postmedian lunulate-dentate, the teeth accentuated by the black vein-dots, 
somewhat oblique outwards from costal margin of forewmg, a little incurved between the radials; dark distal 
shading and pale subterminal line very weak; distal margin with black dots or short dashes between the veins. 
Underside paler, weakly marked. Vertex of head also paler, collar brown, cj antennal ciliation regular, not very 
long. The specimens which I have seen, from Sarepta in some numbers and one or two from Syria and from 
Quetta, show comparatively little variation and Herr Pungeler writes me that the form which has recently 
been taken in numbers in Central Italy also only differs m being of a rather more whitish tone. When Stau- 
DiNGER (Iris, vol. 5, p. 154) speaks of it as a strongly variable species, I suspect that this is chiefly due to his 
having confounded several species under the one name. That this is at least partly the case, has been 
shown above, under rubellata and cumulata. The range of variation in true beckeraria is chiefly in the strength of 
the markings, both on the upper and under surfaces; in particular the central shade, which is usually rather 
indistinct, sometimes forms on both wings above a quite strong dark central band, the dark shading proxi- 
mally to the pale subterminal line also being subject to some intensification. It may be that in some of the 
Asiatic localities from which I have seen no material, more striking aberrations or local races do really occur. 
Alpheraky records two handsome greyish, strongly marked specimens from Kuldja, where, however, most 
of the examples are quite typical. A pair from Quetta (a hitherto unrecorded locality) collected by Nurse in 
June 1902 and 1903 and now in the British Museum, are also normal in all respects. The species has a wide 
area of distribution, extending locally from Italy through Southern Europe, Asia Minor and Syria to Central 
Asia and N. W. India, and including S. E. Russia, the locality from which it was first known. Also once in Shan- 
Si, Central China. It is said to occur in June and July, but at least in the Kuldja district there are two gene- 
assimilaria. rations, April and August. — assimilaria Stgr., likely a distinct species, is said to differ in possessing only the 
two lines, placed at equal distances from the central spot, the outer not sharply dentate, and in the distal 
area a strong, complete dark band, much further from the outer line than in the allied forms; on the hind- 
wing the central spot is placed proximally instead of distally to the inner line. Described from a single $ 
from Ferghana. 

rebeli. A. rebel! nom. nov. (= agraria Rbl. nee Joan.) is extremely like a small, whitish form of beckeraria, 

to which, indeed, it was referred by Staudinger, but is distinguished by having the vertex snow-white and the 

AOIDALIA. By L. B. Peout. 63 

palpus in both sexes shorter. The inner line is obsolete, the outer present but weak, especially in the $. 
The collar is brown, as in beckeraria, not blackish as in marginepunctata. Under surface whitish, unmarked, 
only the forewing towards the distal margin tinged with brownish. The $ is smaller and broader-winged 
than the cj. Istria and Dalmatia. But for the assertion of so eminent a lepidopterist as Dr. Eebel regard- 
ing the palpus, I should have supposed that this species (which I have not seen) was a form of beckeraria ; 
in the. palest Sarepta beckeraria the vertex is almost white, though not snow-white. 

A. guancharia Alph. (4 h) is easily distinguished from all the similarly marked species by its peculiar guancharia. 
coloration. The ground-colour, though slightly variable, is always of a dull grey or reddish grey, strongly 
and coarsely dusted with fuscous. The distal margin of the hindwing is more crenulate than in the related 
species. The (J has the antennal fascicles of cilia long, the hindleg rather long and slender, though spurless. 
The markings are sufficiently shown by our figure. The pale subterminal line of the forewing varies in di- 
stinctness, but usually shows something of the thickening between the radials which is characteristic of, though 
not entirely confined to, the marginepunctata-grou.]). Only known from the Canary Islands, where it occurs 
in March and April and again in July and August. The earlier stages are not known. 

A. marginepunctata Goeze (= conjugata Bkh. = immutaria Hbn. = incanata Hmv. = contiguata margine- 
Haw. = ? aniculosata Rbr. = puellaria Bdv. = promutata Guen.) (4 h). Whitish grey with a slight or rather punctata. 
stronger tinge of ochreous, and usually with numerous scattered dark atoms over the entire surface. The lines 
nearly always commencing from dark costal spots and usually strengthened with spots on the veins; all are 
bent near the costal margin and incurved behind the cell, the postmedian dentate, the teeth accentuated by 
the dark vein-spots, which are often prolonged into very short dashes; the postmedian is also moderately 
incurved between the radials. Cell-spots and terminal dots always strongly black. Under surface more glossy, 
much more weakly marked, often almost without markings; the forewing greyish or brownish, the hindwing 
whiter. Exceedingly variable ; a few of the extreme aberrations deserve separate names. Our figure represents a 
normal form, with the median shade well developed and some dark shading distally to the postmedian. The 
collar is always black, the abdomen more or less banded with darker and lighter. Hindtibia only moderately 
thickened, tarsus little shorter than tibia. The egg is laid flat or nearly upright, long oval, flattened at micro- 
pylar end; strongly ribbed, the longitudinal ribs the stronger, both equal on the flat end; pale straw-colour 
when first laid, afterwards to the naked eye red, formed by large dense blotches on a pale ground. Larva very 
long and slender, nearly cylindrical, scarcely tapering anteriorly, segmentation well marked. Pale slaty grey, 
with a dull olive mediodorsal stripe divided by a very fine pale central line ; spiracles black. Feeds on narrow- 
leaved plantain, Achillea, Caryophyllaceae and other plants. Pupa smooth and polished, pale brown, the head 
and anal extremity darker, the wing-cases tinged with green. The moth is double brooded and rests by day 
on rocks and walls, flying at dusk or later and sometimes visiting flowers or artificial sweets. The colouring 
certainly varies according to that of the rocks, but not so definitely as to form very well-marked local races. 
Central and Southern Europe to Central Asia, often common. Very small forms are frequent in S. Europe and 
Transcaucasia. — ab. pastoraria Joan. (= madoniafca F. Fuchs), described from Caesarea, is a small whitish pastoraria. 
form of rather general occurrence in most Southern localities (perhaps even forming a local race in some places), 
the usual markings all present, but the lines and submarginal shades rather ill defined. Fuchs regards it 
as a local race in Sicily. All the four specimens which I have seen from Lagodechi, Transcaucasia (June, July, 
August) belong here. — ab. mundata ab. nov. is a very pretty form occurring occasionally on the chalk downs mundala. 
of Southern England and corresponding to the ab. mundata of Hyposcotis obscurata Schiff., entirely without 
dark speckling, only the dark lines remaining and therefore standing out very clearly. — ab. orphnaeata orphmteata. 
F. Fuchs represents the opposite extreme of variation, the wings being blackish all over, though with the black 
lines and pale subterminal still traceable. Described from the Taunus district. A very extreme example from 
North Cornwall was figured by me in "The Entomologist", vol 42, p. 1. As in most melanic forms of whitish 
species, the fringes remain pale. 

A. permutata Stgr. (3 1) is similar to the preceding, but easily distinguished by its ochreous brown permutata. 
ground-colour, by having the postmedian line of both wings more deeply inbent between the radials and again 
posteriorly, and followed by a more distinct dark grey band, occupying most of the space between the post- 
median and the strongly lunulate subterminal, though sometimes weakened between the radials. Collar black. 
The broad dark belts of the abdomen blacker than in any but the melanic forms of marginepunctata. Only 
known from the Uliassutai district. — • gnophosaria Leech (5d) of which the type (^ from How-Kow, Tibet, gnophosaria. 
remains unique, will almost certainly prove to be a much larger, darker form of permutata. Unless the wings 
be relatively slightly more elongate, I can find no differences but those of size and coloration. The forewing 
is of a slightly duller brown, its entire distal area and the whole of the hindwing rather strongly infuscated. 
Taken at an elevation of 3000 m in July or August. From cumulataAlph., which gnophosaria also somewhat 


AOIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 

recalls in size and shape, the characters here given will also differentiate it, not to mention the structure of the 
(J hindtibia. 



A. luridata Z. (= coenosaria Led.) (4 e). By some very unfortunate confusion, the correct identification 
of the name of luridata was lost almost immediately after its erection, and in 1855 Lederer renamed the same 
species coenosaria, by which name it has since been known. And to make matters worse, the name of luridata 
Z. has been assumed to apply to a species belonging ia our genus Glossotrophia and closely alhed to confi- 
naria H.-Sch. Zeller's type of luridata, a unique $ from Rhodes, is still extant in the British Museum collec- 
tion, and is quite certainly a form of coenosaria, only with the dusting and markings all fuscous instead of 
reddish, giving it a rougher aspect. Apart from all other proofs of the identity, the presence of 4 spurs 
on the hindtibia and the normal tongue prove that it is not a Glossotrophia. Two examples before me from 
Cyprus form transitions between this specimen and the common, lighter form. The name of luridata has 8 
years priority and must of course be restored. On account of the misidentification. Rebel has accused Herrich- 
Schaffer's figure, which was copied from the type, of being "misslungen" ; it is really fairly good, luridata 
differs from marginepunctata in its more sandy, ochreous or reddish colouring, in having the vertex concolorous, 
not whitish, the collar not darkened, the discal dots less black and the middle line more zigzag; the costal 
spot from which the latter commences is in marginepunctata almost always placed well beyond (distally to) 
the discal spot, while in luridata it is almost vertical to it, the line, in spite of its strong outward bend, 
passing close to the spot or even touching it. There are many other less constant differences, but these will 
suffice, and most of them also serve to distinguish luridata from the more similarly coloured permutata. Its 
average size is rather smaller than either. The under surface is glossy and devoid of markings. Whether the 
dark-marked name-type represents a local race can only be decided when further material is available from 
Rhodes or the adjacent country. I suspect that it does not; in any case quite light forms occur in Cyprus. 
— ab. coenosaria Led. therefore appears to be the correct name for the ordinary forms. Ground-colour paler, 
sometimes even whitish, the markings pale reddish ochi-eous or reddish grey, varying somewhat in intensity 
but usually rather weak. Greece to Persia, Zerafshan and Ferghana, also common in Syria and' Northern Egypt. 
It first appears on the wmg in March and April and there are two or probably three broods during the summer. 
PiJNGELER bred it at the end of June from April eggs, and in September — ^October from those of the June 
brood. The larva is similar to that of inarginepunctata but more shaded with brownish, very slender and without 
protuberances, slightly ridged laterally. Until after the last moult it is almost without markings; in the final 
stadium sometimes with sharp or weaker dark dorsal markmgs, somewhat in the form of broken crosses. Pupa 
also similar to that of marginepunctata, slender, amber yellow, the cremaster normal. 

Buhmuiata. A. submutata Tr. (= contiguaria Dup. nee Hbn.) (4 c, as consolidata; 4 i) is again similar, particu- 

larly in certain of its forms, to marginepunctata, and on account of the strong variability of both species 
it is not easy to point to distinctive characters which are absolutely reliable in all cases, except that the distal 
margin of the hindwing is more crenulafce. The ground-colour is whiter, without the ochreous tinge which is 
so usual in marginepunctata; when it is darkened at all (as in our figure 4 i, which unfortunately is a little exag- 
gerated) it is rather of a bluish grey than at all brownish. The distal grey shading, which in this species is 
never absent, though variable in extent, is appreciably tinged with bluish. The distal marginal black spots 
are enlarged into dashes, indeed in the most typical forms almost or quite united into one continuous line; 
this line on the fore wing is continued round the apex and for some distance along the costal margin. 
The last is perhaps the most reliable character of all. The postmedian line is usually as irregular as in permutata 
and has on the forewing, with few exceptions, a sharper and blacker tooth on the first radial vein than on the 
fifth subcostal, whereas in marginepunctata these teeth are about equal. The under surface is very weakly 
marked or entirely without markmgs, the forewing suffused with grey, the hindwing somewhat paler, or in the 
palest forms clear white. Vertex and collar as m marginepunctata. Egg elongate, ribbed, coral red. Larva 
very elongate, scarcely attenuated anteriorly, only feebly carinated laterally ; green with a broad white lateral 
stripe. Feeds chiefly on thyme. Pupa very like that of marginepunctata. The imago is double-brooded. May 
to June and August to September. Distributed through Southern and parts of Central Europe and Asia Minor. • — • 

marginata. ab. marginata ab. nov. has almost the entire area of both wings between the postmedian line and the distal 
margin filled up with dark grey, leaving only a small costal spot, the zigzag subterminal line and some 

gianellaria. narrow marks at the distal margin white. I have a fine example from Bejar, Spam. — gianellaria Trti. 
(= vigilata Mann MS., in coll. Zeller) is a dwarfed form which shows some tendency to establish a local 
race in Sicily and Capri. It is usually of a clean white ground-colour, rather sharply marked, the dark mark- 
submutuiata.ings in the distal area rather strong between the radials and towards the posterior angle. — • submutulata 
Bbl. is a similarly dwarfed form from the Morea, but differing from gianellaria in being more weakly, not more 
strongly marked, the ground-colour equally pure white. 


A. farinaria Leech is bluish white-grey finely powdered with brownish, similar in colour to the greyest 

PuU. 25. III. 1913. ACIDALIA. By L. B. Protjt. 65 

submutata. It is rather similar to certain weakly-marked forms of that species (and especially of Glossotrophia 
confinaria) which lack the distinct dark discal spots, but the marginal line is quite different, being broken 
into spots and not continued round the apex. Under surface rather well marked, that of the forewing smoky, 
of the hindwing whiter. Only a single specimen is as yet known, a $ taken at Chia-ting-fu, W. China, in July. 
The locality is scarcely within the Palearctic Region. 

A. incanata iy. ( = variegata ySco^J. = mutata Tr.) (4i). Although the early entomologists seem frequently incanaia. 
to have confused this species with marginepunctata, there is really little excuse for so doing. The whitish 
grey or cinereous ground-colour is always distmctive, the average size is considerably larger, the lines never 
arise from dark costal spots and although their course is variable they are generally more regular ; in particular, 
the postmedian line of the forewing does not bend markedly outward near the costal margin, but is either 
approximately parallel to the distal margin throughout or merely makes a shallow curve proximad between 
the radials. The subterminal line is of more uniform thickness throughout, sometimes nearly straight, at 
other times more or less lunulate-dentate, but seldom, if ever, so deeply and irregularly as in marginepunctata; 
the dark shading proximally to this line, whether weak or strong, is uniform throughout, while in margine- 
punctata it oftener forms pairs of conspicuous spots. Forewing beneath grey, hindwing whitish; the latter, 
generally better marked than in marginepunctata, the discal dot nearly always remaining sharply black, the 
postmedian line generally distinct. — adjunctaria Bdv., described as a separate species from the mountains adjundaria. 
of Lombardy and since recorded by Millie re from the Maritime Alps, is a darker grey form but apparently 
not otherwise differing materially; Staudinger and Rebel doubt whether it is more than an aberration. There 
is in most localities some variation between whiter and greyer forms and either may be more strongly or more 
weakly marked. — The egg of incanata is laid upright and the upper (micropylar) end is a good deal broader 
than that by which it is attached; the sculpturing consists of about 18 longitudinal ribs, converging in the 
deep micropylar depression, and there are also finer and slighter transverse ribs. The colour is yellow at first, 
becoming spotted with red. The larva is very slender, nearly cylindrical, whitish grey or yellowish grey ; first 
5 abdominal segments with narrow elongate-oval dorsal markings, pointed at their extremities, bisected by 
the dorsal line; dorsal stripe especially distinct on the posterior segments; each segment with a pair of dark 
dots anteriorly and a pair in the middle at the anterior end of each oval. Feeds on thyme, Caryophyllaceae, 
etc. The pupa is brown-yellow, the blunt cremaster bearing the usual armature. The moth appears in June 
to July, or in its more southern stations in May with a second brood in August, and inhabits chiefly mountain 
districts. It is distributed through the greater part of Europ3 (excepting the North-west and extreme North), 
Asia Minor, Transcaucasia and Altai. 

■ A. grisescens 8tgr. (4 i) is closely related to incanata, with which it agrees in shape and markings. It is grisescens. 

considerably darker, of an almost uniform dark grey, the only distinct marking being the pale subterminal 
line, though the lines and cell-spots are not absolutely obliterated. The forewing beneath is as above, the 
hindwing paler with a moderately distinct postmedian line and cell-spot. The cj hindtibia is little thicken- 
ed (less so than in incanata), the tarsus fully as long as the tibia. Local in Western Turkestan. 

A. bifalsaria nom. nov. (= falsaria Leech, nee H.-Sch.) (3 1, 5 e). Whitish grey with the lines tending to bifalsaria. 
form, or to be accompanied by, darker bands, particularly the postmedian, which is followed by a character- 
istic brownish-tinged band reaching to the pale subterminal line. The first line or band does not reach the 
costa, and is wanting on the hindwing; the second (the median shade) is bent near the costa of the forewing, 
then fairly direct, crossing the cell-spot on the hindwing. Both wings with black discal dot and distal mar- 
ginal line. Hindwing beneath paler, both wings with indistinct discal dot and postmedian line. Hindtibia 
in (J thickened. The antennal ciliation in the (J is longer than in the two preceding species, the forewing slightly 
less pointed, the hindwing with distal margin slightly bent in the middle. A more brownish admixture further 
distinguishes it from similarly marked forms of incanxita. Inhabits several localities in Western China, occurring 
in June and July. 

A. frigidaria Moschl. (= impauperata Walk. = defixaria Walk. = okakaria Pack.) (5 b). Recognizable frigidaria. 
by its rather broad, relatively short wings, their glossy texture, strong dark powdering and weak markings. 
From the dark forms of ternata Schr., to which otherwise it would most nearly approximate, it differs in the 
structure of the hindleg of the (J, the tibia being entirely without spurs, although the tarsus is not shortened. 
Antennal ciliation in the cJ of medium length. Forewing with inner line rarely discernible. Both wings with 
median shade rather thick, little darker than the ground-colour; outer line usually more distinct, nearly paral- 
lel with the distal margin. Underside less densely dusted, especially on hindwing. Originally described from 
Labrador. I have seen no Palearctic examples, but it is said to occur in Kamtschatka, in a form still more 

IV 9 

66 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Peotjt. 

strongly approaching A. ternata perfuTuata. Packard, who has by an error (corrected in his text) figured the 
Labrador form as spuraria (nee spuriaria Chr.), commits a second error in regarding it as a variety of the 
schoyeni. North American inductata Guen. — schoyeni Sp.-Sckneid., which also is unknown to me in nature, is said to 
be a little smaller than typical frigidaria, but to show no important differences. It inhabits Arctic Norway 
and Arctic Finland. 

cajanderi. A. cajanderi Herz, only known to me from the description, seems to be nearly related to the prece- 

ding, possibly even another form of it. It is described as varying from dark grey to reddish brown, thickly 
dusted with black scales, glossy; discal spot present or absent; forewing with 2 — 4, hindwing with 2 — 3 
indistinct dark transverse lines and with a distinct black distal marginal line; the middle line the strongest 
on both wings; under surface a little lighter. Somewhat broader than frigidaria, distal margin of forewing 
more convex. Antenna in (^ serrate, shortly ciliated. A series of 11 specimens was taken at the junction of 
the Vilui with the Lsna River, Siberia, 22. to 24. July, and a worn example was also met with at Verkhoiansk. 
I possess an undetermined (J from Barracouta Bay, 28. July, which may possibly belong here, altough the 
fauna of the Lena District is more nearly of a circumpolar character. The specimen in question is likely to 
be of the species which Staudinger identifies as f^imata (= ternata) from Amurland; but if so, he must have 
neglected to examine the structure, for the hindleg is without spurs and the hindwing has the second sub- 
costal vein shortly stalked. Otherwise it is remarkably like some Arctic forms of ternata. The figure of cajan- 
deri does not show whether the second subcostal vein of the hindwing arises from the apex of the cell or is 
very shortly stalked. 

marcidaria. A. marcidaria Leech (3 1). Whitish suffused with yellowish, especially m basal part of forewing and on 

the veins. Lines darker yellowish, rather diffuse and ill-defined. Inner line of forewing usually lost in the basal 
suffusion; median line rather thick and oblique, closely following the cell-spot on the forewing, passing proximally 
to it (sometimes touching it) on the hindwing; po?tmedian line somewhat dentate, usually a little incurved 
between the radials and in submedian area; two thick outer lines enclosing the whitish subtermiI^al, commonly 
meeting on the veins so as to break up the subterminal into spots; cell-spot minute but black. Hindwing 
slightly angled at extremity of third radial. Underside less yellowish, forewing slightly suffused with grey, 
hindwing more white, both wings with the cell-spot and the lines distally to it well expressed; distal margin 
with brown line and dots. Face concolorous with wmgs. Antennal ciliation in o long, hindtarsus considerably 

intaminata. shorter than tibia. Western China: Wa-Shan, Chia-ting-fu and Ta-chien-lu, June and July. — ab. intami- 
nata ab. nov. has the lines finer, of a rather brighter yellow, the basal suffusion of the forewing confined to a 
streak along the anterior edge of the cell. Wa-Shan in June, one ^ (type) from the Leech collection, now at 
the British Museum. 

lutearia. A. lutearia Leech (31) resembles marcidaria in general aspect, but is more strongly and uniformly yel- 

lowish or ochreous in tone, lacks the black discal dots and in particular has the margin of the hindwing scarcely 
appreciably bent. The median line is still thicker, and the shading on either side of the subterminal occupies 
nearly the whole of the distal area, only separated from the postmedian by a narrow pale line. Similarly 
the under surface of the forewing is more strongly suffused with yellowish brown. Face blackish. (J antennal 
ciliation shorter, hindtibia strongly thickened, tarsus much abbreviated. Ichang and Chang Yang, June and July. 

floslaciala. A. floslactata Haw. (= remutata Schiff. nee L. = ? fulvostriata Goeze = ? brunneata Goeze = ? fulvi- 

cans Geoff. = 1 strigata Geoff. = ? cariata Schr. = lactata Haw. = spataceata Wrnbg. nee Scop.) (4i). Yellow- 
ish white, sometimes slightly more tinged with greyish, with scattered black atoms. The lines light yellowish 
brown, sometimes a little greyer; first line of forewing weak, sometimes absent, usually placed rather far 
from the base, thus near the middle line, with which it is sometimes more or less connected by dark shading 
in the middle of the wing; middle line sinuous; postmedian usually more sharply expressed, dentate outwards 
and with moderately strong curve mwards between the radials and usually in submedian area; subterminal 
dark lines never strong, sometimes wanting or the proximal alone present; forewing very rarely with a small 
and weak dark cell-dot, hindwing usually, but not invariably, with a small black one; distal margin often 
without black dots, sometimes with some very minute ones in anterior half, very occasionally continued further 
posteriorly. Under surface of forewing, especially in the cJ, slightly clouded with smoky brownish from base 
to median line and from costal margin to somewhat behind the cell ; median and postmedian lines rather more 
smoky in colour; cell-dot often present. Hindwing beneath whitish, usually with distinct cell-dot and post- 
median line, often also with the proximal of the subterminal lines present, though less prominent. Antennal 
ciliation m the ^ little longer than the diameter of the shaft, hindtibia thickened but not shortened, tarsus 
scarcely one-fourth of its length. Moderately variable, chiefly in the distinctness of the lines and the strength 
of the teeth and curves in the postmedian line, but also to some extent in the ground-colour, which is at times 

AOIDALTA. By L. B. Prout. ' 67 

somewhat suffused with smoky throughout or in the basal area of the forewing, and even somewhat in shape, 
as the distal margin of the hind wing is occasionally almost rounded but usually appreciably bent at the third 
radial. — ab. conjunctiva ab. nov. is a not very rare form in which the first and median lines of the forewing conjunctiva. 
are entirely united into a narrow brown band, the space between the median and the postmedian consequently 
widened. — ab. sublactata Haw. is a rather rare aberration with only the two principal lines present, but sublactata. 
these rather strongly expressed. Possibly brunneata Goeze (= strigata Geoff.) was founded on a less strongly 
marked example of this same aberration, in which case Goeze's name would have priority, not only for the form 
but for the species. Werneburg determined it for nemoraria Hbn., which does not occur near Paris (Geoff- 
roy's locality) and is not, on the underside, "sans points". It may be here remarked that the synonymy of 
the present species is in a more unsatisfactory condition than that of any other, probably, of the Acidaliids. 
It is quite generally known that the name of remutata Schiff. (= remutaria Hbn.) was founded only on a misi- 
dentification, but only Wallengreen had the courage to correct it and he used floslactata Haw., which I have 
followed. It is much to be regretted that Werneburg's determination of spataceata Scop, is untenable, for 
the discovery of a really early name would conduce to stability. In the mean time, quite a number of old 
names exist which have sometimes been referred here, but mostly (concatenata Hfn., trilineata Hfn., centrata F., 
dentilinearia Bkh.,inspersataSchr.) in move or less manifest error, lactata Haw. is well known to be synonymous 
with floslactata and had "page-priority", but both were published together and I therefore follow Wallen- 
gren's choice, without commending it. — ab. exstirpata F. Fuchs is a still rarer aberration with all the lines 
obliterated, no dark marking except the speckles remaining. — The egg is laid upright, and is a long oval, 
with truncate apex; the sculpturing consists of about 18 strong longitudinal ribs, the furrows crossed by about 
25 — 27 much slighter transverse ribs; the colour is at first pale yellow, but becomes so strongly blotched with 
crimson that to the naked eye it appears wholly of that colour. The larva is slender, rather uniformly cylin- 
drical, the skin rather rough, the segmental divisions not very conspicuous; the colour varies from pale grey 
to dark reddish-brown or olive-brown, the medio-dorsal line is slender and greyish and there are usually some 
pale lateral marks. It hibernates almost full-fed, and seems more difficult to bring safely through the winter 
than most of its congeners. The moth appears at the end of May and in June and is often abundant. It 
usually rests among bushes by day and may often be observed sitting on the upperside of a leaf, not or scarcely 
at all concealed. It flies lazily at dusk and is then very conspicuous. It occurs chiefly in woods and inhabits 
Central and Northern Europe (except the Arctic Region), N. Italy and the Ural. — • claudata subsp. nov. claudala. 
differs in having the lines thicker, in general slightly more ochreous, but not strongly expressed, the median 
further removed from the inner line, being either placed midway between this and the outer line or even rather 
nearer to the latter. The hindwing has its distal margin nearly rounded. Japan, without exact locality; type 
in cell. L. B. Prout. Herr Pungeler has a pair from Yokohama, Mr. Wileman a $ from Oyama (Sagami), 
19 May, and the British Museum a $ example from Oiwake. The aspect is decidedly different from that 
of European floslactata and it may be a separate species, though it is probably the species recorded for Japan 
under the name of remutaria. I can find no essential difference in structure. The S antennal ciliation 
may be very slightly longer or the <$ hindtarsus slightly shorter in claudata, but neither is at all obvious. 
I have not chosen the name to distinguish it from floslactata but from its other Japanese allies, one, at least, 
of which (superciliata) is confusingly similar until the structure is taken into account. The discal dot of the 
hindwing, as in the European floslactata, may be either present or absent. 

A. superciliata sp. nov. (4n, fig. 3) bears a very close superficial resemblance to floslactata claudata superciliata. 
Prout, but differs materially in the <^ structure, which suggests that it is intermediate between floslactata and 
immutata. The antennal ciliation is longer than in the preceding species and the hindtarsus is at least one- 
half as long as the tibia. The ground-colour is slightly lighter or cleaner than in claudata, though still with 
a tinge of yellowish, the lines on the whole not quite so thick, the forewing beneath more strongly suffused with 
smoky, with conspicuous dark postmedian line and broad pale subterminal, much like that of marcidaria, 
which differs essentially in its pale face. In the type form both wings have a small but conspicuous black 
discal dot above, but this is very faint in a Yokohama ^ and may prove to be wanting in some $$. 
The $ is not yet certainly known. If examples from Chang Yang (unfortunately without corresponding ^) 
belong here, it seems to lack the discal dots and (like nearly all the group) to have the forewing beneath less 
darkened than in the ^. Japan, type and a cotype in my collection ; Yokohama, in that of the British Museum ; 
? Chang Yang. 

A. confusa Btl. (3 m, 4 n) is considerably smaller than superciliata, the distal margin of hindwing confusa. 
slightly more irregular, the ground-colour whiter, the yellowish markings still stronger, postmedian line even 
more bent, darker-margined distally at the bends, both wings with much larger black discal spot. The ^ 
hindtarsus is longer, at least two-thirds as long as tibia. A very easily recognized little, species. Distributed 
in Japan, May to July and in September; also at Gensan, Korea. 


ACIDALIA. By L. B. Protjt. 

disdusaria. A. disclusaria Chr. is unknown to me, but is stated by Staudinger to belong in the vicinity of flos- 

lactata and pudicaria, and certainly his figure suggests a near relative of pudicaria. Ground-colour nearly as in 
immistaria, light straw-yellow or somewhat sulphur-yellow, lines and discal dots very distinct, distal marginal 
dots present but varying in distinctness; postmedian line sinuous and twice incurved, about as in floslactata, 
although possibly (according to the figure) rather less distinctly dentate, subterminal line indistinct. Hind- 
wing weakly bent at extremity of third radial. Under surface whitish yellow, the costal margin of forewing 
and the fringes coloured as above; discal dots and the lines beyond them sharply expressed. Amurland: 
Vladivostok and Sutschan, end of June and beginning of July. 

pudicaria. A. pudicaria Motsch. (4i). Oil account of the defectiveness of the original description and the exist- 

ence of several closely related species m the Eastern Palearctic Region, we cannot be absolutely certain 
regarding the identification of this species. Staudinger's determination, which should be accepted, rests 
on two cJcJ in the Lederer collection which were so named and which (like the original) came from Japan. 
A good deal like the more weakly marked forms of floslactata, in which the minute black discal dot of the 
hindwing is wanting above, but with both discal dots present on the under surface. Colour on an 
average less yellowish. Hindwing above with the postmedian Ime further from the distal margin, this line obsolete 
beneath; on the contrary the underside shows a distinct outer line representing the proximal edge of the 
subterminal. In floslactata and superciliata beneath these lines are often both present, the inner (the true 
postmedian) the stronger, or if only one is developed this seems to be always the true postmedian. ^ antennal 
ciliation longer than in floslactata, liindleg similarly formed. The $ is generally whiter than the cj, both 
above and on the forewing beneath, but ^^ do occur with the forewing white beneath, only with some dark 
speckling in the region of the subcostal vein. Japan, Amurland, Korea, Chang Yang, occurring from the 
nupta. latter part of May to July. — nupta Btlr. (31, 4 m fig. 6) appears to me undoubtedly only the second-brood 
form of pudicaria, although experimental evidence has not hitherto been obtained. Excepting its smaller 
size, I can find absolutely no constant difference, and it is significant that all the dated specimens which I 
have seen (in the Wileman collection) were taken at the end of August. On an average this small form is weakly 
marked, sometimes of a nearly pure white, the hindwing beneath with the characteristic Ime sometimes 
nearly obsolete, as also the discal dots of both wings. More strongly marked specimens, however, also occur, 
and I have seen a few in which a minute black discal dot is present on the forewing above, such as I 
have not yet observed in first-brood pudicaria. I have only seen the form nupta from Japan and Korea 
(Tokio, Yamato, Kiushiu, Fusan, etc.). 

nivearia. A. Iiivearia Leech (4 m). Very small, white. The lines pale ochreous grey, not very sharply defined, 

in the type $ almost obsolete; mner line of forewing very faint; median and postmedian approximated, 
parallel with distal margin, little waved, not dentate; sometimes a weak line beyond postmedian, indicating 
the proximal boundary of the subterminal. Both wings with some minute dark speckling at distal margin; 
hindwing with distinct black discal dot. The under surface rather recalls that of pudicaria, the lines being 
brown, rather well expressed, at least costally; forewing in <^ with some fuscous suffusion in anterior half 
of basal area. Face blackish. Antennal cilia in (J little longer than the diameter of the shaft, hindtarsus 
one-half as long as tibia. Japan, without exact locality; apparently rare. Easily distinguishable from even 
the tiniest specimens of pudicaria {nupta) by the straighter Imes, the longer (J hindtarsus and other characters. 
Its relation to caricaria and possible occurrence in Amurland are discussed under that species. 

nemoraria. A. nemoraria Hbn. (= aliata Heinem.) (4 k). Larger than superior, the wmgs relatively broader, other- 

wise resemblmg a very weakly marked form of that species. The lines are thin, never strong, usually only 
two present on each wing, or the forewing in addition with an indistinct inner line. Cell-spots absent above, 
present below. Black marginal dots mmute, usually restricted to a few at the anterior part of each wing. 
Very easily recognized by the unusually broad wings and white face, and little variable. Local in Germany, 
Switzerland, Hungary, Livonia, the Ural and Altai Mountains, occurring from the end of May to July. Other 
localities (W. China, Amur and Ussuri) are given by Staudinger and may be correct; but it is possible that they 
refer to superior. I formerly thought that the last-named might be a smaller, narrower-winged variety of 
nemoraria, but the genitalia confirm the validity of the other differences. The early stages are apparently 
still undescribed. My friend Mr. E. M. Dadd tells me that the egg is at first pale yellow, afterwards pink. 
Larva when first hatched rather long and slender, pale yellowish brown, with the lateral ridge defined. They 
were fond of curling up into half rings. Later they became relatively shorter and stouter, more recalling Pty- 
chopoda pallidata. 3 only out of several hundred larvae produced a second generation. 

superior. A. superior Btlr. (4 m) is another clear white species with light ochreous-brown or ochreous-greyish 

markings, and as these are arranged nearly as in pudicaria and nupta a confusion with the latter might some- 

AOIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 69 

times be possible but for one simple and convenient distinction; the face is white, as in nemoraria, while 
in the other allied species it is black or deep fuscous. Usually also each wing bears a deep black discal dot, 
both above and beneath, but this is occasionally, though rarely, obsolete, at least in the forewing. Distal 
margin with minute black dots, at least in' the anterior half of the forewing. Lines thicker than in nemoraria, 
subterminals very rarely wanting. Forewing beneath often more or less suffused or dusted with fuscous in its 
anterior part, variably in degree and not confined to one sex ; a dusky postmedian line or thicker shade and 
usually two weaker, sometimes incomplete lines beyond it. Hindwing beneath white, with a single line. ^ antennal 
ciliation not long, hindtibia greatly dilated, with thick hair-pencil, tarsus very short. Variable in size and in 
strength of markings. — ab. saticta Btlr. is an extreme form, weakly marked and with the black terminal sancta. 
dots entirely obsolete, the discal spots indistinct. — Japan, Korea and Palearctic China, extending westward 
to Omei-Shan, locally common. There is probably a succession of broods, certainly two. April specimens are 
generally larger; from July onwards smaller specimens occur. 

A. leuraria sp. nov. (3 m as sedataria). Excessively like the largest, whitest forms of superior, but with leuraria. 
a black face. Beyond this I can point to no absolutely certain distinctions. The lines are not quite 
so strongly dentate, but on the other hand appear more strongly angled near the costal margin of the forewing ; 
when perfect specimens of both species are compared side by side, the colour of the lines is seen to be some- 
what brighter ochreous in superior, but the difference is exceedingly slight ; the outer subterminal line is obsolete 
in the type specimen (which we figure), but when present it is more continuous and more even than in 
superior, where it tends to break up into a series of separate spots. On the underside the postmedian line is 
not so strongly expressed as is usual in superior. The structure of the two species is quite similar and both 
show the same range of variation in respect of the discal and marginal black dots, but their good develop- 
ment seems to be the rule in superior, the exception in leuraria. The postmedian line is very variable in posi- 
tion; in the tj^pe it is very near the inner subterminal, in the Gensan cotype near the median, in the third 
example more intermediate. A very smooth, glossy species, but not quite so pure white as subpunctaria, smaller 
and rather narrower- winged ; our figure, however, exaggerates the narrowness, as the posterior margins in the 
original are somewhat folded over. Gensan, June 1887, J. H. Leech, type (cj) in coll. Pungeler, cotype (?) 
in British Museum; Ichang, June 1888 ($) in British Museum. 

A. subpunctaria H.-Sch. (= punctata Scop, nee CI., = cerusaria Lah. = depunctata Gn. = nemoraria svbimnc- 
Frr., neGHbn.) (4k). White with very fine and sparse black atoms, the lines light greyish ochreous, varying '*''^«' 
somewhat in number and direction. Usually the three principal lines of the forewing and two of the hind- 
wing are present, the median and postmedian both bent near costal margin of forewing, the former usually 
more oblique than the latter, thus separating further from it towards the posterior margin. Often the proximal 
of the outer lines is likewise present, and very occasionally the distal also. Cell-spots small and black, 
rarely obsolete, sometimes slightly enlarged on under surface. Terminal black dots variable, strong, weak or 
absent. Under surface of forewing in (J with strong or weaker dark dusting costally and distally, the curved 
median and dentate postmedian lines usually present; in $ whiter, the dusting almost entirely wanting or 
confined to the region of the subcostal vein, the median line obsolete. Hindwing in both sexes white beneath, 
with an outer line as in pudicaria Motsch. Purer white than pudicaria, slightly broader-winged, antennal ciliation 
in S short; hindtarsus, as in most of the group, only about one-fourth as long as tibia. Except in rare aber- 
rations the strong black discal (and sometimes also terminal) dots further give subpunctaria a distinctive aspect. 
— ab. exstirpata ab. nov. is entirely without markings both above and beneath, excepting the discal dots, exstirpaia. 
which are extremely reduced in size. — • The egg is oval, with the usual transverse ribbing, yellow when 
first laid, becoming red; probably a more exact study will show that this red colour is distributed in blotches. 
The larva is very slender, pretty uniformly cylindrical, the head small, somewhat flattened. The dorsal line 
is finely white on the thorax and first abdominal segment, interrupted on the next two segments, thence 
broader, distinct, dark grey. A dark subdorsal is present on the first few and sometimes the last few segments ; 
between it is broken up into spots which sometimes form with the dorsal a cross-shaped pattern. The lateral 
ridge is sharp and white. The pupa is light brown or greenish brown, the wing-cases yellower. The perfect 
insect appears in June and July and is very local, occurring at Bilbao, some localities of S. W. France, N. Italy, 
the Alps, Lower Austria, the Ural and Armenia and again in Eastern Asia from Amurland to Korea. There 
may be some degree of local variation, and I believe one or two distinct, but closely related species are still 
confused with it in the Amur region, but these must await good material for their elucidation. Specimens 
from the Ural seem to be on an average smaller, but otherwise quite similar. 

A. dignata 6uen. is closely related to the preceding species and has been regarded as a variety of it. dignata. 
But according to a specimen which has been kindly lent to me by Herr Pungeler, and which agrees perfectly 
with Guenee's description, it is certainly a good species. Size and shape of subpunctaria, antennal ciliation 

70 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Peout. 

in ^ rather longer, hindtarsus more than half as long as tibia; discal spots enlarged, terminal dots in part 
enlarged into very short streaks or dashes; forewing beneath rather more uniformly or smoothly infus- 
cated, without the coarse dark basal and costal dusting ; the course of the postmedian line beneath is slightly 
different; the collar is white, whereas in subjnmctaria it is tinged with pale yellow-brown. Only known 
from the Altai and Amtirland. July. According to von Hedemann variable in the position of the lines, but 
constant in the large cell-spots. 

axiata. A. axiata Pilng. (3 m) has been confused with dignata, but may be distinguished at'once by its yellow 

ground-colour. The transverse lines are extremely weak, being only of a slightly darker, more brownish 
yellow than the ground-colour; distal margin without black dots. Cell-spots on both wings large, both above 
and beneath. Under surface otherwise without markings. Hindleg structure in (J nearly as in dignata. Only 
certainly known from Central Amurland. Probably of a different tone of yellow from that of disclusaria, 
which is described as sulphur-yellow; in any case differing in the weaker markmgs and stronger cell-spot, 
as well as in the more rounded distal margin of the hindwing. 

caricaria. A. caricaria Beutti (S.k). Forewing broad but with the apex rather acute; white, with the markmgs 

greyish ochreous. First line almost or entirely obsolete, the others arranged nearly as in subjmnctaria and sub- 
ject to similar but less extreme variability; the fourth line (proximal shade of subterminal) nearly always 
well developed, little sinuous, often rather thick; black discal spot present or more usually absent; distal 
marginal line very fine and grey or wanting, never broken into dots. Hindwing rounded, the three lines usually 
distinct, sometimes also a fourth, forming the distal shading of the pale subterminal; black cell-spot nearly 
always well developed. Under surface in both sexes nearly as in subpunctaria, or the o forewing more strongly 
smoky; no distal marginal dots. The egg is oval with the micropylar end broader and more flattened, and 
is either laid on its side or on its narrow end ; it is shiny, longitudinally ribbed and with finer, more numerous 
transverse ribs, the micropyle very finely reticulated. Green when first laid, changing in two or three days 
to straw-colour speckled with bright red. The larva is long and slender, clay-coloured, with a whitish lateral 
line, broad but not well defined; dorsal dark line opening out into small rings at the extremities of the abdo- 
minal segments; the lateral carination is slight, the transverse folds distmct. The pupa is pale yellow, washed 
with greenish, the anal extremity brown. The moth flies in May and June and again in the end of July and 
August and is local in Southern and Central Europe, frequenting damp meadows. Staudinger adds Amurland 
and N. China as further localities ; as the Amurland specimens are said to be small with the lines weaker, they 
may possibly be referable to nivearia. Distinguished from small examples of immutata by its purer white colour 
and less dentate postmedian line, placed further from the distal margin. The rather straight Imes somewhat 
recall nivearia Leech, which is smaller, with different underside and rather longer ^ hindtarsus. In caricaria 
(^ the antennal ciliations are rather long, the hindtarsus less than half the length of the tibia. 

apicipunc- A. apiciputictata Chr. (= arenaria Leech) (5 b) has rather narrower wings than the few preceding species 

tata. and of a less pure white, more tinged with brownish. The lines are usually rather indistinct, angled near 
costa of forewing, the median more oblique than the others, the postmedian incurved between the radials; 
subterminal white line broad, following a similar course to the postmedian but more dentate, sometimes 
scarcely indicated, sometimes brought out more strongly by thick dark shading proximally and distally. Fore- 
wing with no distinct cell-spot, but with a vague brownish-grey mark, somewhat in the from of a small 
ring, occupying its position. Hindwing with a very minute, not very black cell-dot. Forewing with a strong 
black dot on the distal margin between the 4. and 5. subcostals, from which the spscies receives its name ; 
in strongly marked specimens this is followed posteriorly by one or two others, but always more minute; in 
less marked specimens it stands alone. Under surface of forewing slightly smoky, of hindwing whiter ; both 
wings with an outer line. Amurland, Central and Northern China and Japan, April to the beginning of Septem- 
ber, evidently double-brooded. 

immutata. A. immutata L. (= pallidata Bkh. = sylvestrai'ia Hbn. part.) (4 k). Larger than caricaria but smaller 

than floslactata. Forewing rather broad, especially in the $, hindwing with the distal margin well rounded 
and with only a very inconspicuous bend at the extremity of the third radial. The colour varies sexually and 
to a less extent uadividually ; in the $ often nearly wliite, in the S much more tinged with ochreous brown. 
The black discal dot of the hindwing is always distmct, often rather large ; that of the forewing usually smaller, 
sometimes indistinct or altogether absent. All the lines are usually present above, the first line of fore- 
wing bent in the cell, the second curved, usually rather near it; postmedian line dentate, often stronger than 
the others; the dark proximal and distal shading of the subterminal sometimes strong, oftener more or 
less indistinct; terminal black spots oftenest absent, occasionally well developed. On the hindwing the first 
line (contuiuing the median of the forewing) usually passes close jiroximally to or even across the cell-spot. 

AOIDALIA. By L. B. Peout. 71 

Forewing beneath in ^ rather darker, more or less strongly sprinkled with fuscous atoms ; both wings beneath 
with the cell-spot and outer line placed about as in pudicaria, the (J also with the subterminal markings of 
forewing more or less developed. {^ antenna with longish ciliation; hindtarsus fully one-half as long as tibia. 
Egg almost perfectly cylindrical, the ends only slightly rounded; about 15 powerful longitudinal ribs, the 
transverse ribs exceedingly fine, about 15 — -18 in number; delicate greenish-yellow, becoming after 2 days 
pale pink with scattered crimson spots. Larva rather slender, nearly cylindrical, tapering towards the head, 
the subsegmentation distinct; grey-brown with fine pale medio-dorsal line, its fine dark edges thickened 
into black dashes at the ends of the segments; an ill-defined dark supra-spiracular line and a rather pale 
lateral stripe containing the black spiracles. On Valeriana officinalis, Spirasa ulmaria and other plants. Pupa 
pale brown with the wing-cases more greenish. The moth appears in July, frequenting marshy places, damp mea- 
dows or daTip places in woods. It sits by day among rank grass and is easily disturbed. Widely distributed in Cen- 
tral andNorthern Europe, N. Spain, Italy (except the south), Croatia, S. W. Russia and Armenia ; also reported from 
Amurland. — ab. myrtillata Dadd is a somewhat whiter form, nearly as clear as caricaria, the dark shading myrtillata. 
on each side of the subterminal almost entirely wanting, the entire area distally to the postmedian line being 
therefore virtually without markings, at least on the forewing. As the original specimens on which the name 
was founded (taken in the Berlin district) appeared rather broad-winged, with distal margin straighter 
than usual, the apex therefore appearing more pointed, and showed a few other slight differences, and were 
taken among bilberry apart from immutata, they were at first believed to represent a separate species. Sub- 
sequent experience, however, has not confirmed this and I regard the type-spscimens, which were very 
kindly sent me by Mr. Dadd for examination, as representing quite clearly an aberration of immutata. I have 
taken the same form in Essex in company with typical specimens and far away from bilberry. — syriacata syriacata. 
Neuburger, described as a variety of immutata, is unknown to me. It is said to be smaller, brownish (light 
fawn-colour), the lines well expressed, particularly the two which border the subterminal. Underside somewhat 
glossy, more uniform than in the type, the forewing not darkened. Taken in the Lebanon. 

A. corrivalaria Kretschmar (= sylvestraria var. H.-Sch.) (4 k). Forewmg shaped about as that oi corrivalaria. 
immutata or with the apex slightly more prominent, hindwing more bent in the middle (not shown in our 
figure). The average size is smaller than that of irnmutata, the colour more brownish than in even the ^(^ 
of that species, the lines, discal and terminal dots similarly arranged, the discal dot of forewing nearly 
always well developed. Forewing beneath with the median line or shade usually well develloped ; hindwing 
beneath with the true postmedian line present (as in floslactata), the line beyond it usually less strong, 
or obsolescent. (J antenna somewhat thicker, the joints a little swollen, the ciliation longish. ^ hindtarsus 
relatively a little shorter than in immutata. The egg is pale yellow when first laid, becoming rose-red in two 
days; I known of no more detailed description, but it will doubtless prove that the red colouring is arranged 
in blotches, as in nearly all the species. The larva is very slender with the head rather small, the lateral 
ridge rather strongly developed, the spiracles black ; the ground-colour is light grey mixed with yellow, with a 
double dark dorsal line and fine light lateral line, the ventral area blackish with light longitudinal line. The 
moth flies in June and July and inhabits damp meadows. It sits by day deep down among long grasses, 
resting with outspread wings on the upperside of leaves of Caltha, Ranunculus, Lythrum, etc., and the $ 
is not readily disturbed. The flight is slower and less long-sustained than that of immutata. corrivalaria 
is an extremely local species. In Europe it seems to be restricted to Holland (Limburg), N. Germany and 
the St. Petersburg district. According to Staudinger it reappears in Eastern Siberia and Korea and is per- 
haps represented by a local race in Japan. I have not seen examples from any of these latter localities. The 
range of variation is very slight. Snellen says that his Dutch examples are darker than the N. German 
which were sent him by Zeller. 

'■ < A. pallida Warr. (= peralba Sivinh.), erroneously recorded by Butler in the "Illustrations of Hetero- pallida. 
cera in the British Museum" as sylvestraria Hbn., has the wings, especially the forewing, considerably narrower 
and rather more glossy than in immutata L., its weakest-marked forms recalling on the upperside PtycJio- 
poda subsericeata Haw. almost more than any Palearctic Acidalia with which I can compare it, though it is 
larger than the species mentioned, the forewing with distal margin more oblique, apex more acute, the markings 
stronger, black discal dots present, etc. The neuration is quite normal. The ground-colour of the wings 
is approximately the same as in the $ of immutata, sometimes even purer white or with a faint suggestion 
of a bluish rather than a yellowish tinge. The lines are slightly more greyish than in immutata, the median 
shade oblique, on the hindwing usually placed much proximally to the discal spot, the white subterminal 
line rather broader and more nearly straight. Discal dots on an average smaller. Under surface much 
more strongly glossy than in immutata, the forewing suffused (not speckled) with more reddish brown, paler 
between the median line (which is ill defined) and the postmedian, darker distally, the broad white subterminal 
therefore conspicuous. Hindwing beneath more nearly as in immutata but without the sparse dark speckling. 
Structure not essentially different from that of immutata, the (J hindtarsus longer in proportion, not much 

72 ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prottt. 

shorter than the tibia, peralba comes from the Shan States, but the species is widely distributed in the moun- 
tains of Kulu, Dharmsala, etc. There seems to be little, if any geographical or sexual variation. 

coniaria. A. cotliaria nom. nov. (= pulveraria Leech, nee Snell.) (3 m, as pulveraria) is white-grey, slightly bluish 

tinged, finely but rather copiously powdered with brown-grey. Body rather robust, forewing rather broader 
and less pointed than in pallida, but less broad than in the preceding group. The lines brown-grey, occa- 
sionally clearer grey, arranged nearly as in pallida, the oblique median shade nearly touching the discal spot 
of the hindwing. Discal spots sometimes exceedingly minute, or even absent; never large. Distal area 
occasionally more strongly dusted than the rest of the wing, the subterminal line then rather distinct, less 
wide than in pallida. Under surface of forewing more or less suffused with brownish smoky except the 
posterior margin and the subterminal line; hindwing beneath often with indistinct median shade or post- 
median line in addition to the outer line. (J antennal ciliation rather short, hindtarsus rather less than one- 
half as long as tibia. Japan : Satsuma and Kiushiu, May and June. 

virgulata. A. virgulata Schiff. (= strigaria Hhn. = sulcaria Hbn.) (4 k). Easily recognized by its nearly straight 

and not dentate lines. The pale ground-colour is densely and rather uniformly powdered over with dark 
scales, perhaps nearest in aspect to rather worn specimens of turbidaria. But in virgulata the lines are less dark, 
therefore more weakly expressed except in the least dark-powdered specimens, the median line of the hind- 
wing usually far distally to the discal spot (though extremely variable), scarcely ever forming a direct con- 
tinuation of that of the forewing; moreover the average size of strigaria is larger and it has an appreciable 
bend in the distal margin of the hindwing. In any case the straight postmedian line should suffice to pre- 
vent the possibility of confusion. From frigidaria Moschl., the only other dark-dusted species with which 
it seems even necessary to compare it, it also differs in some of the above-quoted characters, further in its 
rather less broad wing, browner colouring both above and beneath, the hindwing beneath not whitish as in 
frigidaria. The pale subterminal line is seldom at all strongly defined. Small dark discal dots are generally 
present on both wings, often fairly strong on the hindwing but weaker on the forewing. The distal margin 
is without dots, but often shows a fine dark line. Under surface usually brighter and more distinctly marked, 
both wings with dark discal dot and two more or less sharply expressed, finely dentate lines distally thereto, 
sometimes also the subterminal shades. Variable in the degree of the dark dusting, the strength and posi- 
tion of the lines and even their course, yet producing ne really striking aberrations as regards their general 
effect. The $ is smaller than the (J, with more pointed forewing. The (J antennal ciliation is rather long, 
the hindtarsus scarcely shorter than the tibia, which is somewhat thickened and flattened. Egg ovate, with 
the longitudinal ribs strong, about 20 in number, not anastomosing, 15 or 16 very slight transverse ribs, 
the points where they intersect the primary ribs marked by distinct knobs; colour orange, with red spots. 
Larva moderately slender, rather flattened dorsally and ventrally, the head small; ground-colour whitish grey 
slightly mixed with yellow, medio-dorsal pale line very fine and indistinct, bounded by a broad blackish 
dorsal line, both these lines becoming strongest at the divisions of the segments; the lateral ridge is of the 
ground-colour; ventral area bluish grey, with a weak and interrupted whitish line in the middle. The imago 
appears to be partially double brooded and may be met with from May to August. It is widely distributed 
in Central and S. E. Europe and reaches its most northern limit in Finland; m Asia it occurs in the Kentei 
Mountains and Urga (Mongolia) and is represented further eastward by a paler race. I have not seen Kentei 
■parallelaria. and Urga specimens and it is possible that they also belong to the last-named. — parallelaria Warr. seems 
to be the correct name for the race which inhabits China, Korea and S. E. Siberia, but as Warren describes 
it (from W. China, without more exact locality) without reference to virgulata and I have not been able 
to compare his tjrpe with the eastern specimens, it is possible that the former may need to be sunk to virgu- 
lata and the latter renamed. This race is decidedly lighter than that of Europe, with very little tint of och- 
reous, the postmedian line on the hindwing appreciably denticulate, the forewing beneath somewhat in- 
fuscated, the hindwing beneath whitish. I have several specimens before me from Gensan, Korea, taken 
albicans, in June and July. — ab. albicans ab. 7iov. Under this name I designate a very pretty form from Oiwake, 
represented by a ^J and $ from the Pryer collection. The ground-colour is quite white, the dusting com- 
paratively slight, the lines conspicuous, especially the postmedian; under surface nearly the same, only with 
the forewing somewhat smoky, particularly in the ^. As these are the only Japanese specimens of virgulata 
which I have seen, it is quite likely that they represent a local race rather than a mere aberration. The 
"strigaria" of the Wileman collection do not belong to this species but to ignobilis Warr. 

substrigaria. A. substrigaria Stgr. (= strigaria Herz) (3 m) appears to me doubtfully distinct from the preceding 

species, but I have only seen one specimen and defer to Staudinger's opinion. He thinks that the (J an- 
tennal ciliation is even somewhat longer than in virgulata, but I cannot see that this is appreciably the case 

Pvbl. 25. III. 1913. ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prottt. 73 

in the specimen before me. In any case, however, it will represent a good local race. It is of a dark mousegrey 
colour, almost entirely without the ochreous shade of typical virgulata, while the strong dusting and extreme 
weakness of the markings would separate it from subsp. parallelaria. Perhaps the most striking characteristic 
of suhstrigaria is the absence of the discal dots, both above and beneath ; even on the hindwing only the 
very faintest suggestion of it is discoverable. N. E. Siberia to the Southern Altai. Herz's Witim specimens 
were captured in July. 

A. plumbearia Leech (5 f) is very distinct in appearance from all the other Palearctic species, though plumbearia. 
very closely related to the Indian mecysma Swinh. The glossy, dark brown-grey ground-colour and the po- 
sition and course of the markings show a remarkably close resemblance to Somatina mendicaria Leech, from 
which it differs essentially in structure, the ^ antenna being moderately ciliated, without pectinations, the 
$ hindtibia more thickened, with the tarsus shortened (perhaps about one-haLf as long as tibia) and both 
ssxes easily distinguishable by the neuration. Under surface rather paler, the median and postmedian lines 
present, the latter the better developed. Only the original pair from Kiushiu are yet known to me. The 
(J was taken at Satsuma in May, the $ at Nagasaki in June. The sexes appear to be quite alike. 

A. umbelaria Hhn. (= sylvestrata Bhh. nee Hhn. = compararia H.-Sch.) (4 k). White or whitish umbelaria. 
sparsely sprinkled with blackish; the lines brown, the postmedian sometimes more dusted with blackish. Fore- 
wing with first line angled in cell, thence oblique, placed rather near the median shade, seldom very 
sharply expressed, occasionally wanting; median line curved near costa of forewing then nearly parallel 
with distal margin or very slightly oblique inwards, sometimes rather thick; on hindwing usually crossing 
the cell-spot or bending round its proximal side; postmedian line parallel with distal margin or very slightly 
sinuous ; proximal shading of subterminal usually, and distal shading sometimes well developed ; distal margin 
often with very small black dots or dashes between the veins; base of fringe with small black dots, of varying 
intensity, opposite the veins. Discal dot nearly always present on the hindwing, though usually minute; 
often wanting on the forewing, very rarely conspicuous. Except that the (J is a little more strongly dusted, 
the sexes do not differ above. Beneath the ^ forewing is more or less infuscated, the markings usually well 
expressed, excepting the inner line, the hindwing nearly as above; the entire under surface of the $, on 
the contrary, is rather pale, the markings always weak, sometimes nearly obsolete. The distal margin of the 
hindwing is weakly angled in the middle, but occasionally so weakly as to be scarcely noticeable. (^ antenna 
with the ciliation of moderate length; hindtibia rather short and thick, tarsus more than one-half as long as 
tibia. The species is generally recognizable by its large size. Larva very elongate, fawn-colour, with dark 
dorsal stripe und usually some dark dots beside it. Pupa yellow-brown with rounded dark cremaster. Cen- 
tral Europe, S. W. France, S. E. Roumania, Tarbagatai and Altai Mountains and S. E. Siberia, flying in 
June. — szechuanensis subsp. nov. is smaller, especially the $, the hindwing with the distal margin only szechuanen- 
very slightly bent (in one or two specimens scarcely appreciably) the ^ antennal ciliation slightly stronger, *^" 
the hindtarsus perhaps relatively a little longer, the discal spots extremely minute or wanting, no terminal 
dark dots, or at most only one or two extremely small and uadistinct ones anteriorly (a more noticeable series 
on hindwing beneath) ; .lines mostly indistinct, the postmedian the best defined, placed rather further from the 
distal margin, showing more tendency to become dentate and sinuous than in typical umbelaria, but rather 
variable; under surface of (J forewing more strongly and uniformly darkened, the lines therefore less distinct; 
that of the hindwing usually with inner subterminal line defined. Ta-chien-lu and Chow-pin-sa (5 ^), Moupin 
(2 $), all from the Leech collection; recorded as umbelaria, without mention of the differences, which may 
well be of specific value. A form recorded (but not described) from Chan-Si by Alpheraky may prove to be 
the same. — majoraria Leech (4n, 5 c) is a large race from Japan coloured more like the t3rpe-form, but with majorariai 
the lines on an average thicker and more ochraceous; terminal dots wanting, discal dots wanting or a very 
minute one present on hindwing only. Under surface very weakly marked in both sexes. May to the beginning 
of July. Two very strongly marked $$ show an ochreous-brown spot on the discocellulars. 

A. fumosaria (Bang-Haas in litt.) sp. nov. (3 m) is similar to umbelaria szechuanensis, but has shorter, fumosaria. 
broader wings, the hindwing with distal margin quite rounded, and is of a slightly less yellowish white, 
the lines more greyish brown. Thus to some extent intermediate between umbelaria and the purer white 
group {subpunctaria, etc.). Except in its much whiter colour rather recalls certain forms of ternata Schr., 
the dusting and the darkening of the extreme costal edge of the forewing about as in that species. Inner line 
of forewing weak, median line very weak, the three outer lines better expressed, continued on the hindwing. 
Under surface, at least of the forewing and the costal region of hindwing, even more strongly dusted with 
smoke-colour than in ternata or in szechuanensis both wings beneath with distinct black discal spot, that 
of the forewing slightly elongate, that of the hindwing narrowly pale-ringed; postmedian and subterminal 
dark lines moderately distinct on forewing, the subterminals on hiiadwing also. Antennal shaft moderately 

IV 10 


ACIDALIA. By L. B. Peout. 

thick, the cilia little longer than its diameter. Hindtibia strongly thickened, tarsus only about one-fourth 
of its length. Baikal, S. Siberia; described from a single cJ in coll. Pungeler. 



A. nigropunctata Hufn. (= nemorata BhTi. = strigilaria Hhn. — exemptaria Hbn. = prataria Bdv. 
= incanata Z.) (4k). Closely related to umbelaria but smaller, less whitish, the ground-colour being appre- 
ciably more testaceous and on an average more strongly dusted. The forewing looks slightly shorter and broader, 
its distal margin being more strongly curved or bent in the middle so that its anterior part becomes less 
oblique; the black discal spot nearly always distinct, often large; the median shade, which in the typical 
form is strong and dark, and the postmedian line are both angled near the costa of the forewing, and the for- 
mer runs rather more obliquely than in umbelaria ; the hindwing has the angle in the middle rather stronger 
on the average, though very variable; both wings have usually a dark terminal line, interrupted at the 
vein-ends and often thickened between; the black dots in the fringe are very slight or are wanting. Both 
sexes are sharply marked beneath and differ very little; the basal half, or more, of the forewing is more 
or less suffused with fuscous, especially on the veins, the inner line wanting; the hindwing has a zigzag 
outer line. The hindleg in the ^ more resembles that of floslactata, the tarsus being very short. The egg 
has the normal longitudinal and finer transverse ribbing. The larva is very slender, tapering slightly anteriorly 
the head rounded, skin transversely ribbed, the spiracles very small, brown; the general colour is greenish 
grey with a narrow, distinct dull green dorsal line; on the extreme anterior edge of each of the middle seg- 
ments there is a square black spot, divided down its centre by the dorsal line. It feeds on various low plants. 
The pupa has s i x minute hooks on the cremaster in addition to the strong pair of central spines. The moth 
appears in June and July, or into the beginning of August, and is normally only single-brooded, though 
larvae will sometimes feed up more rapidly and produce a partial second generation. Central and parts of 
Southern Europe and through Asiatic Turkey to Persia. The European forms, though somewhat variable 
in shape and in the strength of the markings, are well understood, and I suspect that those from the other 
countries named agree with them, though I have no material before me. — In China and Japan, however, 
with Korea and probably S. E. Siberia, occur a succession of more puzzling forms, extremely variable in size 
and shape, in ground-colour and in distinctness of markings, which I can only deal with collectively as 
subsp. subcandidata Walk. (= imbella Warr.) and which will still need much study. It is greatly to be desired 
that resident entomologists would investigate them in a state of nature and especially work out the life 
history. The $ genitalia of the only examined specimen agree in every detail with typical nigropunctata. 
In general these subcandidata forms differ from the European in having the discal dots considerably reduced 
in size, occasionally obsolete; the central shade less strong, sometimes somewhat less oblique; the under 
surface of both wings much more weakly marked. Typical subcandidata from Shanghai, is very little dusted 
with dark and has the angle in the hindwing rather slight. Some of the specimens are as white as umbelaria, 
and some very small ones (about the size of emutaria) occurring in September doubtless represent a second 
generation. Some Japanese examples agree closely with these forms while others have as sharp an angle 
in the hindwing as in any European example and sometimes as strong (perhaps even stronger) dark dusting, 
but still differing in their weak markings. Sometimes the distal margin of the forewing is more oblique, produ- 
cing a somewhat different impression. Possibly there are two or three very similar and variable species 
mixed up. I think the ^ hindtarsus is a little less shortened in the true subcandidata than in the other forms, 
but the difference in any case is light. Warren's imbella was a rather small, worn $ from Japan. Occasio- 
nal more ochreous-tinted specimens become, when the angle in the hindwing is weak, confusingly similar to 
ignobilis Warr., although the (J hindtarsus of that species is rather longer. 

mbdicaria. A. modicaHa Leech (5 e) closely resembles nigropunctata in shape, colour and arrangement of mar- 

kings, both above and beneath, and might almost have been taken for a small variety of that species but for 
a few details in the markings and especially the fact that the <^ hindtarsus is fully half as long as the tibia. 
The forewing has no black discal dot, but bears in its place a less small, rather ill-defined brown spot. The 
postmedian line of the forewing is less dentate than in some nigropu7ictata, but rather more incurved between 
the radials; that of the hindwing, though variable, is usually rather straighter than in nigropunctata. The 
distal area of both wings is slightly darker-shaded, containing a very distinct pale subterminal, more irregular 
than that of nigropunctata. In size, and in having the forewing rather broad and the hindwing only quite 
weakly angled, modicaria may best be compared with the small (second brood ?) examples of the subspecies 
subcandidata; but it has been taken in April and again in June, July and August, and shows neither seasonal 
nor sexual variation. Omei-Shan, Chung-King, Kweichow and Fu-chau. 

polystig- A. polystigtnaria Hmpsn. (5 d) differs from the small forms of nigropunctata in having the hindwing 

viana. more quadrate, almost smooth on each side of the angle, whereas in nigropunctata it is appreciably crenulate. 

The ground-colour is much more yellowish and with much sparser dark dusting. Postmedian line of forewing 

ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 75 

faint, nearer the distal margin and more regular, followed by a series of blackish fuscous spots, somewhat 
variable in development, but those on each side of the second submedian vein comparatively large, nearly 
or quite comfluent, those on each side of the first median also well developed, but well separate. Discal 
spot well developed and black. Hindwing similarly marked, the discal spot a little larger than on forewing. 
Under surface considerably paler, quite weakly marked, but with small cell-spots and some traces of the 
dark distal markings remainmg. Antennal ciliation in the cj moderately long, hindtibia not extremely thicken- 
ed, tarsus not much shortened. — elyra Swinh., of which I have only seen a single specimen, is without elyra. 
doubt merely an aberration, differing solely in having a much deeper ochreous ground-colour. Discovered 
at Rajaori (Kashmir) by Leech in September; all the known specimens are from Kashmir, May and Sep- 
tember, at 2000 m elevation and upward. 

A. sedatariaLeecA (7c). Systematic position somewhat uncertain, perhaps nearer to the subpunctaria- sedaiaria. 
group, notwithstanding that the hindwing has the distal margin elbowed in the middle and that both wings 
are narrower than is characteristic of that group. In any case a very distinct species; its very glossy, pure 
white wings distinguish it abundantly from all the rest of the angle-winged species. The lines are brownish 
grey, not very strong (sometimes quite faint), bent near costa, then rather straight or a little sinuous (in the 
only $ known to me more irregular); usually only 3 are present on the forewing and two on the hind- 
wing. Cell-spots wanting. Forewing beneath infuscated except m distal area; hindwing beneath white, with a 
single (outer) line. (J antenna with long fascicles of cilia, hindtibia rather short and thickened, the tarsus 
nearly as long as the tibia. Western China: Ta-chien-lu, Chia-ting-fu and Pu-tsu-fong, occurring in June. 

A. emtna sp. nov. Very similar to A. hanna Butl. in colour and markings, differing as follows: Rather emma. 
larger, hindwing only very slightly (in the <^ almost inappreciably) bent at the extremity of the third radial; 
postmedian line of forewing slightly further from distal margin and with teeth (produced by blackish 
spots at its distal edge) slightly stronger ; this line on both wings markedly incurved between the radials ; under- 
side of forewing with postmedian line bending proximad at its costal end; underside of hindwing with the 
true postmedian line obsolete, a distinct fine outer line occup3dng the position of the proximal dark shading 
of the subterminal line of the upper surface; ^ hindtibia more strongly thickened, tarsus scarcely one-third 
of its length. Chungking, Szechuan, 18 September 1909 (type, ^) and 22 June 1909 ($), Barry. A ^ 
specimen of hanna was taken by Mr. Barry on the some day as the latter. 

A. hanna Btlr. (3 m). Ground-colour about as in the paler forms of the wellknown A. imitaria, hanna. 
varying between pale reddish ochreous and more whitish; the markings, on the other hand, more nearly 
as in emutaria. Forewing with first line very faint or obsolete, bent near costal margin, thence running 
nearly parallel with median shade; median shade rather broad, rather oblique, but reaching the costal 
margin proximally to the postmedian line or becoming obsolete without touching that line; postmedian 
very slender, rather weakly expressed, but punctuated with black dots on the veins, its course very slightly 
oblique and consisting of a series of very feeble proximal curves between the veins; subterminal pale shade 
marked by weak or very weak dark shading proximally and distally; cell-spot small but black; distal margin 
with a very fine line interrupted at the vein-ends and often thickened into dots midway between. Hind- 
wing with the median shade passing close on the proximal side of the cell-spot, postmedian line slightly 
outcurved, but not sufficiently to run parallel to the distal margin, which is distinctly angled in the middle. 
Under surface similarly marked, but the entire basal part of the forewing more or less suffused with greyish, 
the hindwing whiter than above, with the postmedian line and sometimes the median well expressed. Our 
figure is not very characteristic, in that it lacks the black discal dot of the forewing and the angle in the 
margin of the hindwing. The average size is rather smaller than in that example. ^ antennal ciliation 
of only moderate length, hindtibia not extremely thickened, the tarsus about one-half its length. Japan: Yoko- 
hama, etc.; Korea: Fusan; Szechuan: Chungking in June. 

A. emutaria Hbn. {= subroseata Haw.) (41). Easy to distinguish by its whitish ground-colour, with emutaria. 
slight or rather strong pink flush. First line of forewing faint, placed nearly as in the preceding species, but 
almost always bearing conspicuous blacker spots on the median and submedian veins. Postmedian line of 
both wings bent near the costa, otherwise remarkably straight; that of the forewing usually and that of the 
hindwing often marked only by the conspicuous black vein-dots. Distal marginal line grey, very faint, more 
or less interrupted, the dots midway between the veins extremely minute. The median shade of the fore- 
wing follows a different course from that of the preceding species, being more oblique, meeting the postmedian 
hne at about the first radial and here disappearing. Forewing beneath somewhat suffused with grey, both 
wings with cellspot and postmedian vein-dots present, the latter usually becoming nearly obsolete towards 
the abdominal margin of the hindwing. cJ antenna with strong fascicles of cilia, hindtibia rather short, tarsus 

76 ACID ALIA. By L. B. Pbout. 

nearly as long as tibia. A. emutaria cannot be considered a variable species, although some specimens are 
much whiter, others much pinker. The egg is nearly always laid upright. It is elongate-ovate, the ends diffe- 
ring less in breadth than in some species, both a little flattened; the longitudinal ribs are distinct, converging 
into the micropylar depression, the transverse ribbing weaker; pale green, changing in two or three days 
to pink, formed of a pale ground-colour blotched and ringed with crimson. Larva slender and elongate, 
moderately smooth, with the usual lateral ridge; head rounded; ground-colour pale ochreous or greyish 
ochreous, darker ventrally and with a dark dorsal stripe enclosing a pale spot on each segment; spiracles 
black, conspicuous; on each abdominal segment from the first to the fifth a black dot is placed obliquely 
beneath them. It feeds on Statice limonium and other plants. The pupa is light brown, abdominally darker- 
ringed, the anal end dark, a little broadened and then tapering very abruptly to the eremastral plate. The 
moth appears in June and July and there is sometimes a partial second brood at the end of August or in 
September. It is very local, and as it hides low down among the herbage by day and is less easily disturb- 
ed than most Acidalia it is perhaps often overlooked. It inhabits marshy places, especially salt marshes, 
and may be found flying in plenty at dusk. It occurs chiefly in Southern Europe and North Africa, but is 
also found in the South of England and in some localities in Austria-Hungary. 

flaccidaria. A. flaccidada Z. (41) is closely related to emutaria, and is regarded by Staudinger as a Darwinian 

form of it. The angle in the margin of the hindwing is strong (our figure therefore incorrect in this particular), 
the median shade thinner and much weaker, placed further from the postmedian, the distal marginal line 
or series of spots on the average rather better developed, both above and beneath, the discal spots larger. 
The ground-colour is typically somewhat more yellowish or less pink. Two extreme colour forms have 
albidarm. received separate names. — ab. albidaria Stgr. (= albicans Bhtsch. nom. nud.) is whitish without any ad- 
mixture of yellowish or rosy. As it is recorded almost exclusively from localities in Central Asia, it may pos- 
sibly prove to be a local race. Or again, as Staudinger suggests, it may represent the second generation 
in certain places. But as it seems only to be parallel to the whitest forms of emutaria, and Bohatsch ( Jahresb. 
Wien. Ent. Ver. vol. 2, p. 46) has recorded it from Slavonia among second-brood specimens, I incline for the 
roseata. present to regard it as an aberration only. — ab. roseata Aigner (= rosea Bbl.) is suffused throughout with 
bright rose-red, the markings deeper rose-red. The under surface, though strongly marked, is not abnormally 
coloured. — The early stages of flaccidaria have been made known by Caradja. The egg is elongate- 
ovate, laid upright, the micropylar end somewhat flattened; whitish yellow, becoming orange within 4 days. 
The larva is said to resemble closely that of nigropunctata Hufn.\ probably Caradja did not possess that of 
emuta.ria for comparison. Very slender, gradually tapering towards the head; mostly grey -brown or yellowish 
brown, with a double dark dorsal stripe (in youth also with the ventral area dark); the abdominal segments 
with pairs of blackish longitudinal streaks before and behind each incision, representing the vestiges of a sub- 
dorsal line. Not known from Western Europe, its range only overlapping with that of emutaria in Austria- 
Hungary and S. E. Europe; but extending through Asia Minor, N. Persia and Turkestan, as far as to the 
Ili district. It is partially double-brooded. 

flaccaia. A. flaccata Stgr. (4 1) rather nearly resembles flaccidaria is colour and to some extent in markings, 

but is at once distinguished by the shape of the hindwing, which is only very slightly angled, sometimes scarcely 
at all. The black discal spot is distinct on both wings, but the lines are usually very weak or almost obsolete ; 
the median, which is sometimes better developed, is not oblique on the forewing as in flaccidaria, but vertical, 
merely somewhat curved round the cell-spot ; the postmedian is irregular and dentate and is not marked with 
black dots on the veins. The distal margin usually shows some minute black dots, but these are sometimes 
wanting. The under surface is whitish, somewhat more tinged with yellow towards the margins; the discal 
spots are reduced in size and the lines are absent ; sometimes, however, there are traces of a dentate subterminal 
line on one wing or on both. The (J antenna is provided ^vith moderately strong fascicles of cilia; the hind- 
tibia is not very strongly thickened and bears a single, short terminal .spur, which according to Staudinger 
is sometimes wanting. In some specimens the ground-colour is more reddish. A. flaccata inhabits Palestine, 
north and east of the Dead Sea, and has been taken in March and May. — The form from Biskra, which I name 
languidata. languidata subsp. nov. is larger, rather narrow-winged, apparently always of the pale, weakly-marked form, the 
hindwing whitish with minute cell-dot, forewing without cell-dot, underside unmarked. February to April. 

imitaria. A. imitada Hbyi. (41) is a very distinct species, bearing some resemblance to the genus Timandra. 

This is due partly to the shape, the apex of the forewing being pointed, the distal margin sinuous,, often ap- 
preciably angled, and the hindwing having the same shape as in that genus; but still more to the markings, 
the median line, though not so oblique as in Timandra, being equally sharply defined and usually followed 
by some grey or reddish shading, the postmedian line of both wings is sinuous, as in T. amata. Ground-colour 
beneath paler (particularly on the hindwing), but the forewing bears some greyish suffusion, at least in its 

ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 77 

basal half. A. imitaria is a decidedly variable species, but the aberrations pass into one another by such gra- 
dual transitions and are for the most part so little striking that it does not seem expedient to provide them 
with names. The ground-colour is sometimes very pale, sometimes strongly reddish or again more ochreous; 
the lines usually well expressed, sometimes quite weak, the median shade now reddish, now grey or even 
blackish. The discal spot of the hindwing is very rarely obsolescent, but that of the forewing is not in- 
frequently faint and may even vanish entirely. — ab. kesslitzi Hirschke is perhaps the most striking form, kessliizi. 
In this the median line, which generally gives to the species its characteristic appearance, is entirely ab- 
sent. — The egg is elongate-ovate, strongly flattened at its broader end, with the longitudinal ribbing strong, 
its coloration as in the allied species. The larva is extremely long and slender, the skin transversely and very 
irregularly wrinkled; head small, rounded; body pale ochreous with a distinct brown dorsal line, often 
partly broken up into spots anteriorly, but becoming darker and more continuous posteriorly; ventral surface 
mixed with fuscous ; spiracles black. Varieties occur in which the ground-colour is more grey, or more tinged 
with greenish or with red-brown, but it is always of some pale shade. The pupa in golden brown, with och- 
reous yellow wing-cases. The imago appears in June and July, and there is often a partial second brood later. 
It hides by day in bushes or among rank grass or other plants, flies at dusk and is strongly attracted 
by light. Widely distributed in Southern and Central Europe, becoming more local eastwards. Also inhabits 
N". Africa and Asia Minor to Armenia 

A. rivularia Leech (3 e, 5 e). Pale ochreous brown sprinkled with blackish, the markings fuscous. Hvularia. 
Forewing with first line bent in cell, then oblique and dentate; median shade rather thick, dentate, twice 
incurved ; postmedian bent outwards near costa, somewhat incurved between the radials and again posteriorly, 
also dentate; followed by a fuscous shade; discal mark usually annular, distal margin dotted with black 
between the veins. Hindwing with distal margin sharply angled at third radial; the markings, excepting the 
first line, nearly as on forewing, the median shade bending round the black cell-spot on its proximal side. Un- 
der surface paler, wanting the inner line of forewing and with the other lines less well developed than above. 
(J antennal ciliation short, hindtarsus about one half as long as tibia. Chang Yang and Moupin in June and 
July. A large and conspicuous species. 

A. bimacularia Leech (5 e) is smaller than rivularia, the markings more ferruginous and much less zig- bimacularia. 
zag ; the first and median lines of the forewing finer and less strongly developed, the median of the hindwing 
on the other hand broadly diffused so as to enclose the black-cell-spot ; the brown cell-spot of the forewing, 
though larger than a mere dot, is not annular; the brown shade distally to the postmedian is in general weaker, 
but contains on the forewing conspicuous ferruginous or blackish blotches at the posterior margin and between 
the radials, as in the ornata-groxip, the postmedian line itself here black. Underside of forewing suffused, of 
hindwing whitish, the postmedian line of the former less decidedly, of the latter scarcely at all followed 
by dark shading, the ornata-like blotches wanting. (J antenna subdentate, with rather long fascicles of cilia; 
hindtibia strongly thickened, tarsus about one-half its length. Chow-pin-sa and Pu-tsu-fong, W. China, June 
and July. 

A. extitnaria Walk. (= stigmata Moore) from N. W. India is very similar to bimacularia, but differs extimaria. 
in having the hindwing only very weakly angled, the ^ hindtibial hair-pencil black, hindtarsus shorter, the 
cell-spot of the forewing smaller and darker, the abdomen with some dark dorsal markings and the ground- 
colour in general slightly more tinged with reddish. 

A. moorei Cotes & Swinh. (= similaria Moore nee Walk.) is of a more reddish shade than either of moorei. 
the preceding, with finer but more copious dark dusting, giving it a rougher aspect. The angle in the 
margin of the hindwing, as in extimaria, is very slight. The position of the markings is almost exactly as in 
bimacularia, but the inner line and cell-spot of the forewing and the median shade of both wings are still 
weaker, sometimes almost entirely lost in the uniform dark dusting. The ferruginous blotches distally to the 
postmedian line are also less well developed than in bimacularia, but the blackening of the postmedian itself 
in these places remains. In the antennal and leg structure I find no appreciable difference. The tjrpe form 
occurs in N. W. India, though originally described from Bengal. — rtlfigrisea subsp. nov. (= walk'='.ri Leech, nee rufigrisea. 
Btl.) (3 m as walkeri) differs markedly in tone of colour, being of a pinkish grey instead of ochreous-rufous. 
In consequence of this difference of colour, the ferruginous spots distally to the postmedian line usually stand 
out better contrasted than in moorei moorei, though still not so sharply as in bimacularia. In one or two spe- 
cimens before me the angle in the distal margin of the hindwing is rather stronger, forming a transition 
towards bimacularia. Central and Western China from Chang Yang and Ichang to Moupin, showing no va- 
riation in tone of colour and very little in the strength of the markings. Flies in June and July. 

78 ACID ALIA. By L. B. Pkotjt. 

proximaria. A. proximaria Leech (5f) is agam considerably smaller than bimacularia and moorei, having only 

about the size of the largest ornata or subtilata. Hindwing shaped as in most moorei. Colour slightly more 
reddish than in bimacularia, less dark-dusted than in moorei. Markings above as in moorei, only the postmedian 
line of both wings more strongly incurved between the radials. Under surface more strongly marked than in 
moorei, a distinct median line present on both wings in addition to the postmedian, usually also some dark 
shading distally to the postmedian. It is not absolutely certain that this may not prove to be a small 
eastern form of moorei, but the cj antennal fasciculation seems to be rather less thick. Central China : Ichang, 
June and July. 

propin- A. propinquaria Leech (3 1, 5 f). Smaller than proximaria, the distal margin of the hindwing somewhat 

quana. crenulate, the tooth at the end of the third radial scarcely more pronounced than the others. Ground- 
colour white, only slightly more brownish than in ornata. First and median lines light brown, indistinct, 
angled near costal margin of forewing and more or less sinuous throughout; postmedian line light brown, 
marked with fuscous spots at costal and posterior margins and with smaller dark dots on its teeth; distal 
area of both wings mostly brown, traversed by a lunulate-dentate white subterminal line, which is strongly 
widened proximally between the radials and on the submedian fold, usually forming triangular patches, 
but occasionally so extended as to break the brown band into three separate patches; discal and terminal 
dots black. Under surface with the postmedian line and the proximal half of the distal dark band present, 
forewing dark suffused, sometimes showing the median line. ^J antenna with moderate ciliation; hindtarsus 
about two-thirds as long as tibia. Appears to be distributed throughout China and in Korea. In the Pale- 
arctic Region it flies in June and July, but at Hong-Kong it emerges as early as'the end of March. 

aequifas- A. aequifasciata Chr. (3 i) has the ground-colour clearer white than profinquaria, only a little less 

data. gQ t;iian ornata; the hindwing is a little narrower than that of the preceding species and is distinctly though 
bluntly angled. The proximal and median lines of the forewing are in general even fainter, the postmedian, 
which in propinquaria makes a proximal bend at the costal margin, is here parallel with the distal margin, 
or even slightly bent distad in aequifasciata; the dark shading distally to the postmedian is more restricted 
and more interrupted than is usual in proximaria, the distal margin itself (that is, beyond the white sub- 
marginal line) mostly white. The hindwing differs still more materially from proximaria, the lines being 
very weak and the distal dark shading obsolete. Under surface weakly marked, the postmedian line of the 
forewing the most distinct, cj antenna with longish fascicles of cilia, hindtibia strongly dilated, tarsus perhaps 
two-thirds of its length. I have ziot seen the $, but have no doubt that Staudinger has erred in placing 
the species among Ptychopoda — perhaps on account of a superficial resemblance to Pt. trigeminata Haw., 
with which Christoph compares it. The neuration is absolutely that of Acidalia. Only known from Amurland. 

satsumaria. A. satsuiTiaria Leech (5 e) is distinguished by its very small size, rather brownish wliite tone, strongly 

angulated postmedian line of the forewing, while that of the hindwing is comparatively regular, and by having 
the posterior dark blotch in the distal area of the forewing more strongly developed than that between the radials. 
The inner line of forewing and median line "of both wings are present, fine and brown, both are outcurved 
anteriorly and incurved posteriorly on the forewing. Postmedian line of fore%ving angled distally on the 
first radial, then running almost straight basewards, right-angled about the second radial, again bent (though 
not quite so sharply) at the first median. The area distally to the postmedian irregularly suffused with brown, 
the strongest brown blotch being between the radials and containing a few fuscous scales, while a blotch 
near the hinder angle is almost wholly fuscous. Subterminal line similar to that of propinquaria, its ex- 
pansions less extreme. Postmedian line of hindwing a little sinuous and subdentate, nearly parallel with 
distal margin, followed distally by a rather thicker but rather paler brown line. Both wings with black 
discal dot. Under surface extremely weakly marked, forewing slightly more brownish than hindwing. The 
distal margin of the hindwing is very weakly angled in the middle. <$ antennal cilia rather long; tarsus about 
two-thirds the length of tibia. Satsuma, May, only Leech's three specimens known to me. 

butleri. A. butleri nom. nov. (= insolata Btlr. nee Feld.) (7c), from Dharmsala, is closely related to the preceding, 

but I do not think it can be conspecific. The ground-colour is of a rather cleaner white, the markings 
a rather greyer brown ; the postmedian line of the forewing reaches the posterior margin rather nearer to the 
hind angle, that of the hindwing is placed rather nearer to the distal margin and the line which follows it is 
better developed. Distal margin and fringe more distinctly marked with blackish than in satsumaria. The 
forewing beneath shows a more distinct dark costal spot, marking the commencement of the postmedian 
line. A. pedilata Feld., from Ceylon, to which Hampson has sunk insolata, is another allied, but distinct spe- 

ACIDALIA. By L. B. Prout. 79 

A. concinnaria Dup. (41). Rather larger than most of the group, slightly less pure white than or- concinnaria. 
nata. Easily recognized by the entire absence of markings on both wings excepting the very small blackish 
discal dot and the distal bordering; the latter consists of the fine blackish lunulate-dentate postmedian 
.line, which is placed rather nearer to the distal margin than in the allied species and is less strongly sinuous, 
and the blue-grey shading beyond, which is traversed by the white subterminal line and is largely mixed 
with brown in its proximal half. Beneath the wings are very weakly marked, the forewing a little infuscated. 
Distal margin of hindwing crenulate and excised between the radials, but not so deeply as in ornata. ^ antenna 
with slender fascicles of cilia of moderate length; hindtibia thickened and flattened, tarsus a little shorter 
than tibia. Only known from Spain (Granada, Castile and Aragon); June and July. — hesperidata Rbr. is hesperidaia. 
possibly an aberration, though treated by Staudinger as a sjrnonym. Von Gumppenberg regards it as a va- 
riety or perhaps a distinct species, but probably only knows it from the figure, which seems to me to depict 
merely an exceptionally strongly marked specimen; both wings with a fine, tortuous brown median line, fore- 
wing also with three black vein-dots indicating the inner line. Our figured example shows the latter and faint 
traces of the former. Andalusia. 

A. ornata Scop. (= paludata L. = instilata Hufn. = nivearia F. = interrupta Goeze = intersecta ornata. 
Geoff.) (41) was the first known species of the group and may be regarded as its most typical representative. 
It formed the type of the generic names Craspedia Hbn. and Dosithea Dup. and should also rightly have been 
made the tj^e of Scopula Schr. Pure shining white. Forewing with first line very weak and slender, but not 
infrequently marked with distinct dark dots on the veins; median shade of both wings pale brownish, undu- 
late, often obsolete, on the forewing usually marked by a distinct brown costal spot, though seldom so 
conspicuous as that of decorata; postmedian line blackish, strongly bent outwards near the costa and between 
the third radial and second median; distal area mostly bluish grey, with a white spot at apex and wavy 
white subterminal line, and containing two brown patches which fill up the inward curves of the postmedian 
line. Cell-spot of forewing often absent, that of hindwing always present, though variable in size. Underside 
of forewing usually infuscated in basal half, cell-spot distinct; both wings with median and postmedian lines 
present, the distal shading browner and more uniform than above; specimens with paler, weakly marked 
underside also occur. The distal marginal line, both above and especially beneath, is generally almost con- 
tinuous, or only narrowly interrupted at the vein-ends ; in its anterior part, particularly on the forewing, it is 
usually more or less enlarged into, or accompanied by, interneural black spots. The fringes are dark- 
marked, that of the hindwing usually with distinct blackish dots oppos te the vein-ends. The distal margin of 
the hindwing is markedly crenulate, with a slightly stronger tooth at the third radial and a well-marked 
excision between this and the first radial. (^ antenna with rather long fascicles of cilia; hindtibia thickened, 
tarsus a little abbreviated. The egg is somewhat sugar-loaf shaped, laid upright on its narrower end, the 
upper (micropylar) end truncate; ribbed longitudinally and more slenderly transversely. The larva is slender, 
though less extremely than most of the genus, the skin rugose; dorsal line fine and interrupted, white, dark 
edged, dorsal area otherwise reddish brown or ochreous brown, with dark subdorsal line; first to fifth abdo- 
minal segments with pairs of V-shaped dark dorsal markings, their points directed to each extremity of the 
segment, or sometimes merely each with 5 dark dots on each side. Feeds on thyme, but will — at least in 
captivity — accept also other Labiatae. The pupa is brown with green wing-cases. There are two broods 
of the moth, one in May and June, the second about August. It frequents dry, chalky hill-sides, usually settling 
on the ground, and does not fly far when disturbed. In some districts, however (e. g. Bucovina) it is recorded 
from damp places with Juncus, etc. Widely distributed, though not extending very far north; Europe, N. Africa, 
Asia Minor, Central Asia and Amurland. — subornata subsp. nov. differs in having the mner and median lines subornaia. 
better developed, the latter rather thick, and in the more uniform distal area of both wings, which is almost 
equally tinged with brownish smoky throughout, excepting the white subterminal line, and lacks the charac- 
teristic brown blotches. The postmedian line also is more uniforrn in colour; in ornata it is alternately black 
and brown. Japan: Oiwake, Yokohama. 

A. kashmirensis Moore. Similar to ornata, but the distal margin of the hindwing is scarcely excised kashmiren- 
between the radials. The inner and median lines are well developed, as in subornata, the postmedian is rather ^^• 
strongly dentate, with a well-marked bidentate distal projection near the costal margin, but scarcely pro- 
jecting distally between the third radial and second median. The distal shading, as in subornata, is rather 
uniform in tone, the subterminal line broad, sometimes only very weakly lunulate. Fringes weakly marked. 
Distributed in N. W. India. 

A. congruata Z. (3 m) is still more nearly like ornata in the weakness of the inner and median lines, congrualn. 
and has quite the pure shining white ground-colour of that species. The shape of the hindwing, however, 
is that of kashmirensis, while the scheme of markings is rather that of decorata. The (J antennal ciliation, 

8(3 AGIDALIA. By L. B. pROtrT. 

too, though apparently not quite so short as in decorata, is distinctly shorter and less dense than in ornata. 
The cj hindtarsus in not abbreviated. The blue-grey, wedge-shaped spots at the costal end of the distal 
band distinguish it at once from ornata. The postmedian line of the hindwing is as a rule less strongly bent 
than in either ornata or decorata; the strength of the dark markings distally to it is very variable, but almost 
always less than in any decorata ; the subterminal line of both wings is rather broad ; fringes not strongly dark 
marked. Under surface of forewing with a rather noticeable dark band proximally to the pale subterminal, 
which is not distinctly bounded distally. Only known from Sicily. There are two, or perhaps three broods 
during the summer, the first-brood specimens being the largest and most strongly marked. It flies among 
thyme and its habits are similar to those of ornata and decorata. 

A. decorata is in its tjrpical forms a very pretty species and easily distinguished from the three preceding 
by its more yellowish-white ground colour (becoming still yellower in the Corsican race) and by the intensity 
of its dark markings. It is, however, subject to a wide range of variation, both geographical and individual, 
and its whitest forms are exceedingly similar to ornata and congruata, especially the latter, which may even 
be, as Zeller suggested, an extreme development of it (certainly not of ornata, which Staudinger suggests 
as an alternative possibility). decorata agrees in shape with ornata. It is best distinguished by the shorter, 
less fasciculate ciliations of the c? antenna, the somewhat longer hindtarsus, distinct costal spots on the 
forewing at the origin of the three lines, the more strongly dentate postmedian line and the presence (even in the 
light specimens) of some darker shading between the postmedian and subterminal lines of the forewing, espe- 
cially the blue-grey marks hear the costal margin, referred to under congruata. In addition there is usually 
a distinct dark cell-dot present in the fore- as well as on the hindwing, although as it is commonly placed 
on the median line it is not so conspicuous as would otherwise be the case. The inner line of the forewing is 
usually distinct in its posterior part, sharply angled on the 2. submedian. The fringes, except in the very 
. light forms, are rather strongly darkened; the dark dots at the vein-ends, when conspicuous at all, are more 
prolonged into streaks, and less black, than those of ornata. As with congruata, the dark distal colouring of 
the hindwing is rather uniform, either strong throughout or weak throughout, not so much broken into 
blotches as is frequently the case in ornata and suhtilata. The suffusion on the under surface is slightly browner 
in decorata, greyer m ornata. The egg is laid upright and is tall, conical, the surface shiny, the longitudinal 
ribs well developed, the transverse ones faint and numerous; when first laid it is of a pale green colour. The 
larva is elongate cylindrical, yellow, dorsally reddish, with a double black dorsal line and a very broad 
blackish subdorsal line, laterally not carinated, a broad white lateral stripe. It feeds on thyme. The pupa 
has the wing-cases apple green, the abdominal segments reddish. The moth appears in about 18 — 20 days. 
It is double-brooded, probably in the south triple-brooded. It frequents dry places where thyme is growing. 
decorata. — decorata Schiff. (= cinerata F. = ornataria part. Esp.) (4 m) is the most widely distributed European 
form. The ground-colour is yellowish white, or sometimes purer white, the distal band strongly dark, 
at least on the forewing, but not very broad, its colour bluish grey. The whiter, more ornata-like forms seem 
to be commonest in Spain and perhaps constitute a local race there. Staudinger indicates a very extensive 
range for typical decorata, embracing Central and Southern Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, Zerafshan to 
aequata. the Hi district and Northern Mongolia. — ab. aequata Stgr. is described as having the entire row of dark 
markings on both wings distally to the postmedian line uniformly dark brown (blackish) instead of mainly 

. (on the hindwmg entirely) blue-grey as in the type. It is reported from Spain, N. Germany, Asia Minor and 

magna, the Kentei Mountains. — ab. magna ab. nov. Under the designation of "decorata var. magna'' I have received 
a very large (J from Konia, Syria, and there are two quite similar (^^ in the British Museum collection 
(S. Prance and Sarcpta). It is of the purest white form, the dark spots on the costal margin not more strongly 
expressed than in the best-marked ornata, the bluish-grey distal costal spot also wanting, the next spot 
in the series almost as weak as in ornata, but more blue-grey (less brown). The cell-spot is present on the 
forewing and a series of blue-grey spots between the subterminal line and the distal margin of both wings 
violata. is quite characteri.stic of decorata. — violata Thnb. (= caerulata Gmel.) is the form which occurs in Sweden 
and European Russia, but also occasionally as an aberration elsewhere. It is said to have the distal area 
more broadly and more darkly banded Avith blue-grey. I have seen no examples, but some from other parts 

honestata. of Europe approach it. — honestata Mab. (3 m) from Corsica and Sardinia is an interesting form of a more 
strongly yellowish tone. In the few specimens which I have seen the black discal spots of both wings are 
enlarged, the inner line of the forewing is well developed, rather thickened, especially at the costal and poste- 
rior margins, and the postmedian line of both wings is more deeply inbent between the radials than is usual 
in the typical form, although individual specimens of the latter have this same form of postmedian. Distributed 
in the mountains, June and July. 

subtilata. A. subtilata Chr. (4 m). Variable in size, but perhaps larger on an average than ornata and decorata, 

though not so large as ab. magna. Forewing with costal margin rather straighter; hindwing with distal mar- 
gin crenulate, the tail at the third radial noticeable, but the excision between the radials very shallow. Colour 

Publ. 30. III. I'JU. ACIDALIA. By L. B. Proiit. XI 

and markings nearly as in decorata, but the median line thicker, at least at the margins, forming on the costal 
margin of the forewing a broad fuscous blotch, which touches or absorbs the discal spot. Subterminal white 
line broad, the band which precedes it darker than in ornata, but more variegated than in most decorata, the 
spots between the third radial and second median being rather pale and blue-greyish (and rather markedly 
displaced distally, on account of the strong projection of the postmedian line), while the other spots are darker 
and browner. Hindwing more weakly marked, though not always quite so weakly as in the figured example. 
The (^ hindtibia is not thickened and the tarsus not shortened ; I find, too late to rearrange my manuscript, 
that the former is provided with a pair of spurs, so that the species should rightly have been placed in the sec- 
tion Pylarge — a further indication of the artificiality of that division, subtilata occurs in South Russia 
(Sarepta) and Transcaucasia and is double brooded, flying in May — June and August — September. The larva 
is apparently unknown. Von Gumppenberg ignorantly refers subtilata as a "var." to decorata and following 
it immediately by a description of the larva of the latter has misled Hofmann into quoting that description 
under subtilata. 

A. arcuaria Hbn., figured without description (Geom. fig. 137), has remained a puzzle to systematists, arcuaria. 
and I am inclined to suspect it is an exotic species — perhaps a large aberration or close ally of the North 
American lautaria Hbn. — introduced as European by mistake. According to a manuscript note of Don- 
zel's, however (quoted by Milliere), it came from Italy, and it is therefore desirable to mention it here, as 
it should belong (except for its narrower wings) to the orwato-group, possibly an aberration of congruata Z. 
Guenee thought it might belong to decorata Schiff., but the figure shows the distal margin of the hindwing 
entire, not excised. The antemedian and postmedian brown lines are well developed, the latter on the forewing 
strongly incurved posteriorly, but not dentate, the median is entirely wanting. The dark distal shading is re- 
stricted on both wings; that of the forewing all blue-grey, consisting of a pair of spots between the radials 
and a small blotch near the posterior margin, both followed distally by a transverse streak; that of the hind- 
wing consisting of radial and inner-marginal blue-grey streaks followed distally by brown ones. The size is 
about that of satsumaria or small congruata. I find that Hubner himself, in erecting his lautaria in 1825, says 
that it is "nearest to arcuaria". In any case a suggestion of Herrich-Schaffer's, that it may be compared, 
except in size, with favillacearia Hbn. {fagaria Thnb. var.) may be set aside as entirely misleading. 

A. irrorata Baker (5d). Following Staudinger's arrangement I leave this species at the end of the irrorata. 
genus, but it has no connection with the orwato-group. Probably he was unacquainted with this and t-wo 
other Madeiran species (a Ptychopoda and a Cosymbia) which he places here. I have not, however, been 
able to satisfy myself as to its nearest affinities, unless possibly it is related to guancharia Alph. I know only 
the cj, but the neuration shows that it cannot be a Ptychopoda, with which otherwise the wing-form might 
associate it. Narrower-winged than most Acidalia, the hindwing with distal margin waved, very weakly 
angled at the third radial. Ochreous or rufous-ochreous, the ground-colour about as in Ptychopoda rufaria, 
but looking rougher-scaled on account of a dense though fine irroration of reddish brown scales. The lines 
exceedingly weak, approximately parallel with the distal margin or slightly more oblique; median shade a 
little thickened, slightly incurved in posterior part; postmedian line rather near the distal margin, appearing 
somewhat dentate; subterminal very faintly indicated by some macular shading proximally and distally to 
it. Forewing with a very small black discal dot, hindwing with a rather larger and stronger one. Forewing 
beneath without first line, the postmedian rather better expressed than above, markedly dentate; hindwing 
almost without markings, the discal spot reduced. ^J antenna with strong fascicles of very long cilia. Hind- 
tibia not dilated, tarsus as long as tibia. Madeira. Two specimens before me are smaller and more brightly 
coloured than the figured type. 

The following species is unknown to me and will possibly prove to be a Ptychopoda. Guenbe, to 
whom it was also unknown in nature, suggested that it might possibly be related to Ptychopoda seriata Schr. 
(= incanaria Hbn.) or that it might, on the other hand, be an exotic species, perhaps near Pt. ossularia Hbn. 
{= temnaria Gn. = terraria Gn., in err.). It seems to me scarcely possible that it can represent any form of 
ochroleucata H.-Sch., as suggested with a query by Staudinger. 

A. accessaria H.-Sch. (= recessaria Gn.). "Reddish grey about as rufularia, with very sharply poin- acccssaria. 
ted forewings. All the wings from the base to the straight, finely dentate median shade darker, though to- 
wards the base less strongly so, without trace of the first line, the hindwings with black central dot; the 
postmedian line likewise almost parallel to the distal margin, finely and sharply dentate, thick; the light 
subterminal fine and sharp, dark-shaded on both sides. The terminal line thick and black, finely interrupted 
at the veins, the fringes unmarked. Each joint of the antenna on each side with two pencils of different 

IV 11 

82 ■ GLOSSOTROPHIA. By L. B. Prout. 

lengths. A cJ from Herr Kaden without locality". The figure shows the median shade, especially on the 
forewing, thick and dark. 

13. Genus: CJlossotropIiia ge,n. nov. 

Face smooth, broad. Palpus in both sexes short, terminal joint distinct. Tongue long, in most species 
extraordinarily elongate. Antenna in (^ with rather long fascicles of cilia. Hindtibia of ^ not thickened, 
typically with a single spur (in diffinaria without spurs, in /wcoia and ewrato with two), in $ with two spurs; 
hindtarsus in both sexes long. Neuration as in Acidalia. 

Type of the genus: confinaria H.-Scli. {Acidalia). 

The early stages, so far as is known, are similar to those of Acidalia. But the pupa, in all the spe- 
cies with the extraordinarily long tongue, shows a remarkable adaptation to accommodate this organ. The 
tongue-case stands out free and after extending some distance beyond the anal extremity of the pupa curves 
in a wide sweep dorsad and extends over the back of the pupa nearly as far as to the thorax. The larvae 
are for the most part attached to Caryophyllaceae (Dianthus, Silene, etc.) and the moths, like those of the 
Noctuid genus Dianthoecia, are no doubt adapted for fertilizmg these flowers. 

Apart from the abnormal tongue-structure, which is not absolutely invariable, the erection of this 
genus is necessitated by the absence of the middle pair of spurs in the $. A study of Acidalia from all 
parts of the world has shown that the spurs of the $ can be relied upon. From Ptychopoda, which also possess 
2-spurred $$, GlossotropMa is abundantly distinct in the elongate larvae, the neuration of the hindwing 
(the second subcostal not being stalked) and many other characters. It is evidently derived from Acidalia, 
and indeed from forms such as coenosaria or submutata ; like the latter, it has a fine black line extending round 
the apex of the forewing. 

The geographical range of GlossotropMa is apparently restricted to the southern part of the Western 
Palearctic Region and N. W. India. 

confinaria. G. confinaria H.-Sch. (4 i, ^ as confinaria, $ as coenosaria). Very variable in colour, according to the 

nature of the rocks on which it rests. The typical form is cinereous, usually with a famt tinge of yellowish. 
The lines are rather thick, especially the median, but are not usually very intense; they arise from three 
(usually equidistant) dark costal spots. As usual, only two of these lines are present on the hindwing; but 
these appear as continuations of the first and second, not (as in the similar species of Acidalia) of the second 
and third. Dark discal spots are jjrcsent, but not very intense. The pale subterminal line is formed nearly 
as in A. marginepuncUita, being strongly swollen between the radials and near the posterior margin and lunulate 
between. Distal marginal line black, very slender and interrupted, anteriorly somewhat thickened be- 
tween the veins, but never forming definite black dots. Under surface very glossy, without markings or 
with a very faint postmedian line present on the forewing or on both wings; the forewing usually also with 
faint traces of the second and third dark costal spots of the upperside ; hindwing more whitish than forewing. 
Tongue extremely long. -(^ antennal shaft thick, the ends of the joints somewhat projecting, the fascicles of 
falsaria. cilia very strong; hindtibia with a snigle sjDur. — ab. falsaria H.-Sch. (= luridata Rbl. nee Z.) (4 h) is a very, 
much darker form, of a deep brown-grey colour, occurring with the tjrpe-form in some localities but replacing 
it in others. Our figure is not dark enough. Pungeler has pointed out that it is not quite certain that fa.l- 
saria is the correct name for the form which is ordinarily so designated; for Herrich-Schaffer figured a 
specimen from the Caucasus and it is not yet proved that the well-known form of Central Europe occurs 
arenacea. there. — ab. arenacea ab. nov. represents the other principal phase of colour variation, in which the yellower 
extemiaia. scales predominate, giving to the insect a strongly sandy tone. — ab. extenuata ah. nov. is a very small, 
grey, weakly-marked form which may occur sometimes with the type but which deserves attention on account 
sacraria. of its tending to form a local race on the Island of Capri, whence I have seen it in numbers. — sacraria 
Bang-Haas (3 1, as confinaria) is an interesting local race or closely allied species from Uralsk, distinguishable 
at once by the white ground-colour, absence of the dark median shade of the forewing and reduction or absence 
of the cell-spots. The structure appears to agree entii'ely with that of confinaria unless possibly the antennal 
joints in the ^ are slightly less swollen. — The larva of confinaria is long and slender, without sharp lateral 
carination; the dorsal line is very fine and pale, a little more distinct on the thoracic segments and the 
last three abdominals; there is a rather intricate dark dorsal pattern, The ground-colour is in general lighter 
or darker grey. It feeds on Silene inflata. It has been correctly described by Rebel; Milliere's figures 
and description can scarcely belong to this species. The moth appears in June, July and August and is 
widely distributed in Southern and Southern Central Europe. It is said to occur also in Transcaucasia and 
a variety in the Brussa district. The small form extenuata, Herr Pungeler informs me, occurs in Central 
Italy together with romanaria Mill, which is similar in size but always reddish and distinguishable by the 
less long tongue. 

GLOSSOTROPHIA. By L. B. Prout. 83 

G. diffinaria nom. nov. (= luridata Stgr. nee Z.) (4 h, as luridata) represents confiriaria in Asia Minor, diffinaria. 
and also, according to Staudinger, in Syria. Prom certain grey forms of confinaria with a little admixture of 
yellowish, it appears to be superficially indistinguishable; indeed the resemblance is so exact that Staudinger 
records diffinaria as occurring among confinaria ab. falsaria in the Tyrol, which is not really the case. The 
essential distinction of diffinaria lies in the absence of the (J hindtibial spur. Except in size, there does 
not seem to be much variation; our figure is rather more strongly marked than is usual. I have already, in 
dealing with the true luridata, explained the necessity for renaming this species. 

G. eurata sf. nov. is very similar to the light sandy forms of confinaria, but differs in the structure eurata. 
of the (J. The hindtibia in both sexes bears a pair of spurs. The cJ antennal structure is very similar to that 
of confinaria, although the joints appear to be slightly more angularly projecting and the ciliation perhaps 
slightly stronger. Whitish sand-colour, the darker dusting fine, but moderately strong. The lines of the 
forewing start from fuscous or blackish costal spots; the apex of the forewing shows a tendency to become 
pale, as is more characteristic of rufomixtata and romanaria than of confinaria. The second line of the hind- 
wing is removed further from the discal spot than in confinaria, arising between the end of the median and 
the postmedian of the forewing. The latter on the forewing is rather more conspicuously dark-spotted on 
the veins. The discal spots are more prominent than is usual in confinaria. Described from a ^ and $ in 
the PiJNGELER collection, the former (the type of the species) from Arwas, near Askhabad, 12 May 1900, 
the latter from Schahkuh, Persia. The ^ is of about the size and shape of fucata, from which it is easily 
distinguished by its coloration, scaling and antennal structure. The $ is much larger, about as the larger 
forms of confinaria, and the forewing appears somewhat broader, but there seems no reason to doubt the spe- 
cific identity. Similarly coloured examples of romanaria Mill, are easily distinguished by the scaling, as well 
as the structure. 

G. rufomixtata Rhr. (7 c) was formerly regarded as another variety of diffinaria and confinaria, with rufomix- 
which it agrees in the extremely long tongue; but apart from differences in the coloration, which is usually ^"'"• 
strongly mixed with reddish or bright ochreous, the ground-colour remaining at the same time white or bluish 
white, very strongly powdered with dark grey, it shows a very distinctive character in the nature of the scaling, 
as has been pointed out by PiJNGELER. The scales in the dark spots which accompany the sub terminal line are 
arranged in very fine transverse rows, so that when examined with a lens the spots appear iluted; in confinaria, 
diffinaria and eurata the dark scales are evenly distributed. The forewing shows a more conspicuous pale, 
usually subquadrate apical spot than in those species. The ^ hindtibia, as in confinaria is furnished with 
a single spur. The larva was discovered by Graslin, feeding on Dianthus pungens. It is very similar to that 
of confinaria but with a darker and narrower dorsal band. Graslin was ths first to obs3rve the remarkable 
conformation of the pupal tongue, described in our generic diagnosis, rufomixtata is distributed in Spain, 
Portugal, Southern Prance and perhaps N. Africa, and is also recorded from Teneriffe. — ab. dentatolineata dentato- 
Bbr. is a less variegated, less heavily blackish-dusted form, with the dark lines in consequence standing out more ^ineata. 
distinctly and showing up their dentate character more prominently, although their course is not in reality 
essentially different from that shown in the t5rpe form. The ground colour in Ramrur's figure is light brown. 
Figured without description from Andalusia. Referred to the present species by Staudinger and probably 
correctly, although the inadequate and even inaccurate way in which he has dealt with this group of species 
prevents our giving any weight to his decisions. The only specimen which I have seen agreeing with the 
figure is a $ from the mountains of Cyprus, which I suppose really belongs to rufomixtata although its 
appearance would suggest yet another species, nearest to romanaria semitata, but rather darker and with the 
extremely long tongue, the scaling as in rufomixtata. 

G. rufotinctata sp- 'f^''^- Similarly coloured to the reddish forms of rufomixtata, but more uniformly, rufotinctata. 
no part of the ground-colour (or only the extreme base of the hindwing) remaining white, while the dark 
dusting is less intense and more reddish. The face appears rather browner (less blackish). The wings are 
rather longer and narrower, but the shape is somewhat variable, one example more nearly approaching 
rufomixtata than the other. The first line projects less behind the cell than in rufomixtata. The postmedian 
line of the forewing, which in all the rufomixtata that I have seen forms a marked proximally-directed tooth 
on the fourth subcostal, runs in rufotinctata straight until the bend at the first radial. The apex of the fore- 
wing is less distinctly light than in rufomixtata. The discal spot of the hindwing is small (in rufomixtata larger). 
The under surface is entirely without markings and shows a tinge of flesh-colour, becoming whiter posteriorly 
on both wings. But the chief difference is in the structure of the cj antenna; the joints have not the projec- 
ting edges which are so marked in the preceding species. The tongue is perhaps a little less extremely long, 
but I have been unable to make any exact measurements. It is certainly elongate. Hindleg and subterminal 
scaling about as in rufomixtata. Aksu, E. Turkestan, 2 i^(^ in the Pungeler collection. 

84 GLOSSOTROPHIA. By L. B. Prottt. 

romanaria. G. romanaria Mill. (3 1) is apparently a variable species, and has been much confused with the allied 

species, in particular rufomixtata. The scaling of the dark patches is arranged as in that species, but the fluted 
appearance even more pronounced. That it cannot, however, be a form of rufomixtata is proved by the 
tongue and by the early stages, as has been pointed ont by Rebel. The tongue, although long, has not nearly 
the abnormal length which it attains in that species. I have had no material in undoubted romanaria for mea- 
suring, and it is impossible to estimate the length when it is rolled up; but in an example of the Syrian sub- 
species (or close ally) semitata of which I relaxed and extended the tongue I found it 11 — 12 mm long. It 
looks less in the type-form, and indeed must be so if Milliere's figure of the pupa is correct; for that 
figure shows no elongate tongue-sheath. The tongue of confinaria, it may be added, measures about 18 mm, 
but freshly killed examples are needed for accurate work at this question. G. romanaria is generally of small 
size, in its typical forms rather glossy, the dark dusting not being strong enough to give the wings a more rough- 
ened appearance. The shades of colour are soft and delicate but sometimes rather bright, as there is often 
a strong tinge of pinkish or light red; the costal spots and the lines are brown, sometimes with a decided 
olivaceous tinge ; the shades before the subterminal line greyer. The pale apical patch of the forewing is usually 
rather conspicuous, except in the lighest forms. The postmedian Ime is not appreciably toothed near the 
costal margin. Underside almost entirely without markings. In the <$ antenna and hindleg I find nothing 
distinctive from confinaria or rufomixtata. The larva feeds on the leaves of Linaria and Antirrhinum. It 
resembles that of Acidalia marginepunctata. Elongate, cylindrical, without lateral flange. Head small. Body 
fleshy grey, sometimes more clay-coloured, ventrally whitish; dorsal line fine, double, brown; tubercles and 
stigmata black. The moth is double-brooded, appearing in the sprmg and in July. True romanaria (which 
according to Milliere varies Kttle) occurs in Central and Southern Italy, Sicily and Tunis; probably also in 
Spain and Algeria, but there is still much work to be done in arranging and classifying the closely allied 
pMlipparia. forms. I only indicate one or two which I have been able to examine. — philipparia suh.s-p. nov. is a much 
darker form from Philippe ville, Algeria. Reddish brown, about as in our figure of falsaria (4 h) the lines and 
subterminal shades darker brown, all showing very strongly, with the lens, the fine transverse striation. The 
pale apical spot on forewing and a pale line at base of fruage on both mngs, though not really lighter than 
in typical romanaria, are more conspicuous on account of the darkening of the ground-colour. (5^? in the 
PiJNGELER collection, bred ab ovo by K. Andreas in September, 1910. The larvae fed on Caryophyllaceae. 
I have a larger and lighter 9 (the dark lines and cell-spots consequently showing up more distinctly) from the 
same locality, taken m May 1909, which is still a good deal darker than typical romanaria. It is however, pos- 
sible that larger material will show philipparia to be merely an extreme aberration. It is perhaps the N. Afri- 
can form indicated bySTAUDiNGER under rufomixtata as a transitional form to diffinwia; but it has not the 
semHafa. coarse dark speckling of the former, and differs from both in the shorter tongue. — semitata subsp. nov. 
represents romanaria in Syria. It was formerly recorded by Pungeler as a small light form of rufomixtata, 
but he now determines it (in litt.) as "romanariaV\ I suspect it will prove to be a species distinct from 
both, and indeed intermediate. The tongue seems to be longer than in typical romanaria. The antennal cilia- 
tion appears appreciably shorter, though similarly arranged. The ground-colour is of a very pale sandy hue, 
slightly tinged with reddish, very similar in colouring to coenosaria from the same locaUty; in some specimens 
the coloiiring is a little deeper, in others a little paler, but it does not seem very variable. It looks less glossy 
than typical romanaria, the wings being more strongly dusted with dark scales; but these are reddish brown, 
not so blackish nor so coarse as in rufomixtata. The costal spots of the forewing are as a rule strongly developed, 
that at the origin of the postmedian line black, or almost black. The average size is at least as small as in 
romanaria, perhaps slightly smaller. The type specimen, from Baalbek, is in my collection, and was taken by 
Mr. P. P. Graves at light in May 1905. I have also a second ^ with the same data, and a series of both 
sexes from "Syria" without moi'e exact locality, Herr Pungeler has others and there is one in the British 
Museum from the Leech collection. 

isabdlaria. G. isabellaria if '/7/. (7 c) is not certainly known to me, but I have no doubt it belongs in the immediate 

vicinity of romanaria. To judge from some specimens similar in coloration to Milliere's figures I should 
be inclined to suppose that it was only a richly-coloured Spanish form of that species. But it must not 
be forgotten that Milliere, who knew the larvae, regarded the two as distinct species and it is possible that 
isabellaria is a scarce species awaiting rediscovery. The form from Spam and Portugal which I provisionally 
refer here shows one slight structural difference which should be at least subspecific; the (J antennal joints 
seem to project still more strongly. The ground-colour is reddish, the markings brown with a rather strong 
shade of olive, the dark dusting stronger than in romanaria but scarcely so strong as in rufomixtata; the striated 
scaling of the dark outer shade as in those species. The pale subterminal liiae is conspicuous and thickens 
considerably between the radials and near the anal angle, about as in Acidalia marginepunctata; the distal 
shading beyond the subterminal line is so slight that the subterminal itself almost appears to be extended 
as far as to the black terminal marks. The dark lines are rather thick and not very sharply exjsressed. 
The wings seem sometimes rather broader. Milliere in erecting his isabellaria speaks of the "feebly pectinate 

HOLARGTIAS. By B. L. Prottt. 85 

antenna", but this can scarcely refer to anything more than the strongly projecting joints or sgrrations, and would 
help to strengther our identification. The larva, as described and figured by the same author, would appear 
to be very similar to that of romanaria but with the dorsal area more tinged with vinous, the ventral with 
bluish, the brown dorsal line ill-defined except on the last three segments. It was fed, in captivity, on various 
plants, of which it seemed to prefer the flowers of Alyssum maritimum. Described from Western Spain. 
The specimens before me are from Portugal and Southern Spain. Should it prove necessary to unite this species 
with romanaria, isdbellaria will be its oldest name. 

G. fucata Pilng. (3 1) differs from nearly all the other forms of Glossotrophia in the more pointed forewing, fucata. 
its distal margin being decidedly more oblique, and in the presence of a pair of strong spurs on the (J hind- 
tibia. In these respects it agrees only with the much paler, greyer eurata Prout; see above for the differentia- 
tion. G. fucata shows the smooth appearance of romanaria, not being strongly dark dusted. Its coloration is 
also similar to that of the rather reddish forms of romanaria. The first line, which in romanaria and rufomix- 
tata generally shows a marked projection behind the cell, is in fucata gently incurved in its posterior part. 
The postmedian line is rather further from the distal margin, the grey band between it and the (strongly 
dentate) subterminal line therefore broader; it is also in the type specimen stronger, but this may prove variable. 
The arrangement of the dark scales on this band is scarcely so definite as in rufomixtata, certainly not so marked 
as in romanaria. The interrupted black marginal line is immediately preceded by a very fine white line, 
while in romanaria (see the subspecies philipparia) the pale line folloios the black marginal line. (J antennal 
ciliation moderately strong, but the joints of the antenna not appreciably projecting. Described from a single 
(^ from the Alexander Mountains, Central Asia. The author writes me that he has since seen a $ in the Hom- 
BERG collection, larger but otherwise entirely agreeing. 

14. Genus: Holarctias gen. nov. 

Face flat. Eye small. Palpus moderately long, with fine, long projecting hairs below, terminal joint 
pointed. Tongue developed. Antenna in cj with fascicles of moderately long cilia; in $ simple. Pectus and 
femora hairy. Hindtibia in 3* with two, in 5 with four spurs. Neuration as in Acidalia. 

Unless it has any further representatives among the North American species which I have not yet 
studied, this genus contains only a single species. It has been referred to Acidalia, but the head and leg struc- 
ture differentiate it very strongly even from the section Pylarge, with which it agrees in the number of hind- 
tibial spurs. This and the two genera which follow are perhaps really more ancestral than Acidalia, but they 
seem to fall appropriately enough between that genus and Emmiltis. 

Holarctias, with its hairy clothing, is well protected against the Arctic cold and reaches high latitudes 
and altitudes. Like some other inhabitants of the far North, it is common to the Palearctic and Nearctic 

Tjqje of the genus: sentinaria, Hbn.-Geyer (Haematopis). 

H. sentinaria Hbn.-Geyer (= spuriaria Chr. — gracilior Btl.) (4i, erroneously called frigidaria). Bright, sMthmria. 
deep reddish fulvous, more or less strongly suffused with dark fuscous, at least in the basal area of the hind- 
wing; most commonly the distal half of the forewing and to a less degree of the hindwing remains nearly 
free from suffusion, but sometimes the clear coloration is restricted to a narrow area between the median 
and postmedian lines. Lines dark fuscous; first line of forewing bent near the costal margin, approaching the 
median line posteriorly, very frequently altogether lost in the dark suffusion ; median line rather thick ; postme- 
dian only slightly sinuous. Cell-spots usually obsolescent. Fringes flushed with vinous. Under surface clearer 
fulvous, usually without dark suffusion, the darkest specimens, however, suffused from the base to the 
median line; median and postmedian lines, and usually the discal spots, shai-ply defined; sometimes there are 
traces of the first line in the posterior part of the forewing. A very easily recognized species, in spite of its 
variability in coloration. The type form, so far as I know, does not occur in the Palearctic Region, but inhabits 
Labrador and the Rocky Mountains of Canada and Colorado. As it was the only form available for figuring, 
and Staudinger has reckoned Labrador to the Palearctic Region we represent it here. — rufociliaria Brem. ru/ocUiaria. 
(= rufularia Ev. nee H.-Sch. = rufinaria Stgr.) is on an average decidedly larger, the colour is brighter (al- 
most as in Ptychopoda serpentata Hufn.), the lines and discal spots of the upper surface more distinct, as there 
is either no dark suffusion or at most some suffusion (not very intense) in the basal part of the wings. Distri- 
buted in Siberia. I have seen specimens from Amurland and the Kentei Mountains. According to Stau- 
dinger the examples from N. E. Siberia are smaller, in this respect approaching the American type. — rufi- mjinnlarm. 
nularia Stgr. from the highest altitudes in the Sajan district, is unknown to me in nature. It is also smaller 


OAR; STIGMA. By L. B. Protjt. 

than normal rufociliaria but is more reddish and characterized particularly by the blackish veins, which, 
together with the strongly expressed blackish lines, give it an almost latticed appearance. 

15. Genus : Oar gen. nov. 

Face rough-scaled. Eye small. Palpus moderate, with long hairs projecting forwards and downwards. 
Tongue rudimentary. Antenna in (J with slender, strongly ciliated pectinations; in $ simple. Femora somewhat 
hairy or in $ nearly glabrous. Hindtibia in ^ with two, in $ with four spurs. Forewing rather short and 
broad, neuration nearly as in Acidalia. Hindwing with second subcostal arising from apex of cell or shortly 

This genus, which was merged by Staudinger in Fidonia (!) has much affinity with Emmiltis. Met- 
RiCK, indeed, did not distinguish it therefrom, having evidently only the cj before him. The $ oi Emmiltis has 
only two spurs on the hindtibia. The other differences are for the most part less essential. In order to dif- 
ferentiate the c?, however, it is only iiecessary to point out that the palpus of Emmiltis is much less abnor- 
mal and that in it the ^ antennal pectinations do not, as is the case in Oar, terminate in strong, spreading 
cilia. From Holarctias the present genus differs in the pectinate cj antenna, rudimentary tongue, less hairy 
legs and different wing-form and markings. 

Type of the genus: pratana F. (Phalaena). 

The geographical range is restricted to Southern Spain, N. Africa, Palestine and the shores of the 
Red Sea. All the known forms seem to me to be probably referable to a single variable species. 


0. pratana F. (=pratanaria TMrton = reaumuraria Jf«7Z. = megearia Ob. = ectypatalfa6.) (7c) was 
first described from N. Africa as long ago as 1794. Whitish, more or less suffused with light ochreous brown, 
and with some scattered dark speckling. Lines dark brown or blackish. First line of forewing twice dentate 
outwards, rather thick, especially at the teeth, sometimes almost interrupted between them. Postmedian line 
somewhat dentate, incurved between the radials and again posteriorly, followed by a white line. At about 
1 mm proximally to the postmedian a line following the same course, the space between them sometimes 
darkened. Subterminal line whitish, placed near the distal margin, following a similar course to the postmedian, 
accompanied proximally by some dark shading, which is usually broadest and strongest anteriorly; the space 
between this line and the margin also as a rule more or less darkened. Cell-spot present, either well with- 
in the central area or touching the proximal po.stmedian line; in the latter case scarcely noticeable. Fringes 
chequered. Hindwing without the first line; the proximal po.stmedian line often and the distal sometimes 
weak. Under surface more weakly marked, the postmedian line, the white line which follows it and the white 
subterminal usually fairly distinct. Andalusia, Murcia and Algeria, end of January to April and again in 
June. The darkest Algerian specimen which I have seen is indistinguishable from some forms from the Red 

obscuraria. Sea; the lightest is a $, white with only a very slight ochreous tinge. — obscuraria Baker (= nigres- 
cens Hmpsn.) is decidedly darker, sometimes blackish, and is the prevailing form in Egypt, the Sudan and at 
Aden, December to March. Examples occur m these localities, however, which are as brownish and almost 
as light as the name-type, while on the other hand this dark form, according to Staudinger, occurs as an 

mortaaria. aberration in Murcia. — mortuaria Stgr. represents the species in Palestine and is on the whole slightly less 
dark than the form obscuraria, while it differs from the type in lacking the ochreous tone. The prevailing shade 
is greyish or cinereous. Staudinger says it is also smaller than the other forms, but the few examples which I 
have seen do not bear this out. — Egg an irregular ellipsoid, the surface covered with polygonal reticulation 
arranged in longitudinal lines so as to form channels with prominent edges; yellowish green. Larva elongate, 
subcyhndrical, the last 3 segments strongly thickened, tapering a little anteriorly; segment-incisions not distuact; 
green with yellow dorsal and lateral stripes; a smgle more or less rounded dark brown spot on the side of 
the 6. abdominal above the spiracle (rare aberrations have similar spots also on the first five abdominals); 
tubercles indistinct. Apparently not yet observed at large; in captivity, among many plants which were 
offered, the larvae chose Suaeda vermiculata, a plant which at Biskra is as abundant as the moth. Pupa short, 
much attenuated j)osteriorly, somewhat granulated dorsally, the wings smooth; yellowish brown, the spiracles 
small, not very distinct; cremaster bearing two erect bristles, their extremity forming a small hook. From eggs 
laid 10 May the larvae pupated in the middle of June. There seems to be a succession of broods at least until 
June, perhaps later. 

16. Genus: ^tig'ma Alph. 
Pace smooth. Palpus moderate, with strong projecting hairs. Tongue short and slender. Antenna in ^ 


with very short pectinations, bearing fascicles of cilia. Hindtibia in ^ with two spurs. Abdomen in cJ rather 
long and pointed. Forewing with costal margin arched, distal margin very little oblique, neuration about as 
in Acidalia. Hindwing relatively rather large, costal vein anastomosing as usual near base, but thence only 
gradually or quite moderately diverging ; second subcostal from angle of cell or very shortly stalked. 

Probably nearest to Oar, notwithstanding the difference in shape and markings. The $ is exces.sively 
scarce, and imperfectly known. The only two of which I have any knowledge are in the Pungeler collec- 
tion and very unfortunately both have the hindlegs lost or damaged. I conjecture that she will have four 
spurs. But even in that case the less abnormal palpus will help to distinguish the genus from Oar. The $ is 
smaller than the (J, with narrower, more pointed wings and probably flies but little. 

Of this genus also only a single variable species is known. It inhabits the mountains of Central 
Asia. A species from Panama, described by Thierry-Mieg as Stigma isthmensis, is unknown to me, but will 
without doubt prove to belong to some other genus. 

S. kuldschaensis Alph. (5 g) cannot possibly be mistaken for any other known species. The wings kuldscluien- 
both above and below are brownish black with a moderate-sized yellow discal spot. In the $ this spot is ***■ 
smaller. Discovered in the neighbourhood of Kuldja and apparently common in the Western Thian-Shan. 
Flies freely by day, from the end of May onwards. — negrita Th.-Mieg (= atraria Bang-Haas) is evidently negrila. 
only a variety, or possibly aberration of kuldschaensis and was described as such by Thierry-Mieg from Issyk- 
Kul, while Bang-Haas, who re-described it a year later, regarded it as a species. It is of a deeper black and 
lacks the yellow central spot. My single specimen is also a little larger than the type-form, and this is also 
mentioned in the original description. The only known $ has very small yellow spots persisting, so that the 
distinction seems only to apply absolutely to the ,^(^. The localities known to me are Issyk-Kul and the Alex- 
ander Mountains, thus a little further west than the headquarters of the tyjie form. 

17. Genus: Knmiiltl.s Hbn. 

Face smooth. Eye small. Palpus rather short, with projecting hairs beneath but these very much 
more shortly than in Oar. Tongue slender. Antenna in (J pectinate. Hindtibia in both sexes with a single 
pair of spurs. Neuration of forewing as in Acidalia. Hindwing with second subcostal stalked. 

This and the succeding genera, like the three which precede, are small Palearctic offshoots of the 
main Acidaliid stock; but they show a higher grade of specialization in the loss of the middle spurs of the 
$. Emmiltis may be derived from Oar, which it somewhat resembles in shape and pattern, though much inferior 
in size. The North American species which is referred here by Hulst, sparsaria Walk., is not congeneric. 
It is necessary to add that of recent yeai's Hubner's name Emmiltis has been mis-applied by some systematists, 
being used in place of Acidalia Tr. The type of the genus Emmiltis is pygmaearia Hbn., Herrich-Schaffer 
having long ago restricted it to that species. 

E. pygmaearia Hbn. (= parvularia Hbn.) (4 a). Brownish grey, sometimes tinged with olivsLceons, pyontaearm. 
sometimes more ochreous, the $ nearly always less bright than the ^. Forewing with an undulate white inner 
line, usually followed in the (J by a narrow dark band or thick line; the distal part of this band represents 
the median shade and is closely followed by the black discal dot; to this follows a less undulate, sometimes 
nearly straight, fine dark postmedian line, edged distally by a thicker pale line; the pale sub terminal line 
is placed and shaped nearly as in pratana, the area between this and the pale postmedian line is moderately 
dark; the fringe is long, and is traversed by a thick dark line, which is sometimes expanded int}0 spots opposite 
the ends of the veins. Hindwing similar, without the inner line. Under surface similar. Moderately variable 
but always unmistakable. The line or band proximally to the postmedian line is always rather pale, sometimes 
as pale as the line distally to it ; in this case the wings present the appearance of being traversed by a modera- 
tely broad pale postmedian band, bisected by the fine dark postmedian line. The geographical range of 
E. pygmaearia apparently only extends from Southern Switzerland southwards to Central Italy and south- 
east to Dalmatia. It is on the wing from the end of May into July. The egg is- yellowish, spherical, apparently 
not fully described. The larva is quite similar to those of Ptychopoda, of medium thickness, tapermg anteriorly, 
strongly carinated laterally, the head small, flattened. Blackish, tinged with green; dorsal line fine, pale, 
not interrupted, edged with brown; subdorsal brown, interrupted; spiracles large and black. Polyphagous, 
preferring dry leaves. 

18. Genus: Anthoiiietra Bdv. 
Agrees closely in structure with Emmiltis, to which Meyrick has sunk it. But even if there were 

88 CLETA. By L. B. Pkodt. 

no other difference, the entirely different shape of the wings would raise a doubt as to the desirability of uni- 
ting them. In addition the tongue is stouter, the (J antennal pectinations much longer, the costal vein of the 
hindwing after touching or anastomosing with the subcostal diverges more gradually. The second subcostal 
of the hindwing is usually long-stalked with the first radial. Both Avings are long and narrow, densely scaled. 
The $, as in many Ptychopoda, is smaller and narrower-winged than the (J, which is by no means the case 
in Emmiltis. 

Only a single species is known, and this has a very restricted range, being confined to the Pyrenees, 
Spain and Portugal. 

Although Mabille pointed out the correct systematic position in 1866, all authors excepting Mey- 
RiCK have continued to misplace the genus, perhaps on account of its strongly pectinate, almost plumose, ^ 

plumularia. A. plumularia Bdv. (= concoloraria Led. = psychinaria Rosenh.). Variable in colour from reddish 

ochreous to reddish cinnamon-brown, sometimes very dark. Both wings with dark median and postmedian lines, 
often weak, sometimes almost obsolete, the postmedian followed by a vague pale line. Underside similar. Py- 
renees to Portugal, June and July. The ^ is active on the wing in sunshine, the $ much more sluggish. Flies 
in bushy places in the mountain valleys and ascends to a height of about 1500 m. It is said to frequent 
a species of Genista. 

19. Genus: Cleta Dup. 

Probably an offshoot of Emmiltis, differing in little except the absence of spurs on the ^ hindtibia, 
which is clothed with rather long soft hair, in the longer-haired palpus and usually in one peculiarity of neu- 
ration, which, though appearing occasionally as an aberration in Ptychopoda and perhaps one or two other 
genera, is here of such frequent occurrence thatMEYRicK has even employed it as the principal generic distinc- 
tion. I have, however, found it inconstant in ramosaria and filacearia. It consists in the loss of the areole 
in the forewing, the first subcostal vein, which arises from the cell, failing to touch, sometimes scarcely even 
approaching the stalk of the other four. Cleta is distributed in the southern Palearctic Region from Spain to 
Central Asia. T]je type of the genus is ramosaria Vill. 

ramosaria. C. ramosaria Vill. {= vittaria Hbn. nee Thnhg.). Paler or darker ochreous, the lines fuscous, foi-ewing 

with three, hindwing with two; base of both wings usually strongly shaded with fuscous; the area distally to 
the postmedian line of both wings also mostly fuscous, containing a broad, interrupted pale subterminal line, 
which is usually broken up into an anterior band and a posterior spot ; sometimes this pale shade is extended 
and occupies nearly the whole space between the normal position of the subterminal line and the distal 
margin. Spain and Morocco ; I also have one worn example before me from Biskra, captured with the following. 
Iramiens. — transiens form. nov. (4 a, as vittaria) is the prevailing form in Algeria and the only one which I have seen 
from Palestine. The ground-colour is generally brighter ochreous, the dark basal and distal shading very 
much weaker, often scarcely differentiated from the ground-colour. In addition I notice that the median line 
of the forewing in this form in generally midway between the others and is scarcely bent in the middle, while 
in true ramosaria it is generally nearer to the inner line, sinuous and showing a distinct distally-directed 
tooth in the middle, transiens stood is the British Museum collection as a separate, unnamed species and I 
have recently received it under the trade-name vittaria var. transiens. I should not be surprised if it proves 
specifically distinct. I am not acquainted with any account of the early stages of ramosaria. The geogra- 
phical range of the species is restricted, so far as I know, to the countries mentioned above and possibly 
Sardinia. Werneburg pointed out nearly 50 years ago that ramosaria Vill. was the correct name for this 
species, having priority over Hubner's name of vittaria. It was quite recognizably figured and described, al- 
though DE Villers did not express himself very clearly on the antennal structure. In any case vittaria was 
a preoccupied name, and if ramosaria were not accepted a new name would be necessary. 

pcrpusilta- C. perpusillaria Ev. (4 a) is on an average somewhat smaller than ramosaria, the forewing slightly nar- 

rta- rower. The ^, moreover, may be distinguished at once by the considerably shorter antennal pectinations. 
The ground-colour is generally paler than the transiens form, the brown markings Avell expressed. The median 
line, which in typical ramosaria is sinuous, is in perjmsillaria almost entirely straight. The dark distal bor- 
dering is intermediate between the two forms of ramosaria. Concerning the larva of this species, also, infor- 
mation is still wanting. It was discovered in the Sarepta district, but also occurs both east and west of the 
Caspian Sea and in the neighbourhood of Lake Zaizan. 

Publ. 15. XII. 1913. PTYOHOPODA. By L. B. Prottt. 89 

C. filacearia H.-Sch. ( = flaveolaria Tr. nee Hbn.) (7 d). Certainly less closely related to the two preceding filacearia. 
than they to one another, but the structural differences seem to me quite insufficient to justify the retention 
of the genus Chrysoctenis, which Meyrick proposed for it. He relied chiefly on the course of the first sub- 
costal vein of the forewing which, as pointed out above, is inconstant. It seems that the extremity of the 
areole is less frequently open in filacearia than in the other species, but this structure does occur. The palpus, 
leg, etc., are quite normal; the antennal pectinations shorter than in the other species. In size, shape and co- 
lour filacearia closely approaches Ptychopoda aureolaria, but the tone of colour is not quite so bright, the 
lines are more weakly expressed, the inner line of the forewing obsolescent, the postmedian of the hindwing 
on an average rather straighter, the fringe, though darkened, much less blackish and the underside duller. 
Larva stumpy, dorsally and ventrally flattened, with strong transverse folds, the surface granular, setae short. 
Head small, black-brown. Body with very pronounced lateral carination ; olive-brownish, becoming more vio- 
let brown in later stages; dorsal line and a shield-shaped spot on the fifth abdominal light reddish violet, 
the dark lateral ridge with a similarly coloured elongate spot on each segment, especially the 2. — 5. abdominal, 
anteriorly somewhat convergent; ventral surface dark violet brown. Very different in its dark colour and 
peculiar violet markuags from the larvae of the aureolaria-gvouj) of Ptychopoda. The moth flies from the 
end of May to July, and is local from Spain through Southern Europe and Central Asia to Issyk Kul. 

20. Genus: Ptychopoda Curt. 

Face smooth. Palpus not hairy. Antenna in (J ciliated (but see maderae). Hindtibia in (^ with a pair 
of spurs (section Sterrha) or without spurs (section Ptychopoda), in the latter case often shortened and thickened; 
tarsus often abbreviated; $ with a pair of spurs. Forewing very variable in width, on an average less broad 
than in Acidalia, sometimes quite narrow; its distal margin nearly always entire; neuration as in Acidalia or 
(very rarely) with the areole open at its end, the first subcostal failing to anastomose with the others. Hindwing 
very variable in width, its distal margin smooth or somewhat crenulate, sometimes with excisions, slight or 
deeper, between the radials and again towards the anal angle, but never with a single marked angle or tail 
at the third radial; second subcostal moderately to very long stalked with first radial. ^J genitalia less homo- 
geneous than those of Acidalia, commonly with the valves narrow, fused at the base, so that it is impossible 
to obtain a displayed view of them without rupturing their union. 

The early stages are also less homogeneous than those of Acidalia, and it is possible that the genus, 
which is at present a very extensive one, may later admit of subdivision on biological grounds. The egg is 
sometimes similar to that of Acidalia, at other times very different; thus some are less elongate, with strong 
hexagonal pattern or covered with a network of dark markings. The known eggs will be described in their 
places, but no systematisation of their forms seems at present possible. The larvae are strongly rugose, much 
less regularly cylmdrical than those of Acidalia, tapering strongly anteriorly, generally with strong lateral cari- 
nation, often quite short and stout, never so elongate as in Acidalia, but very variable in this respect. They 
show a much more marked predilection for dry or withered leaves than those of Acidalia. The pupa is some- 
times less polished than in Acidalia and has generally on the cremaster, so far as I have been able to observe, 
a group of 6 very fine and thread-like bristles with hooked tips. Some of the species produce a succession 
of generations during the warmer months, but others, even in warm climates, refuse to be hastened, the larva 
feeding very slowly for perhaps 1 1 months and a single brood of the perfect insect appearing about June or 
July. They are often exceedingly local, but generally plentiful where they occur, flying gently and seldom 
moving far from their chosen haunts. 

The geograpliical range of Ptychopoda is almost coextensive with that of Acidalia, but no Arctic 
species 'are known and indeed the very great majority of its Palearctic representatives belong exclusively 
to the southern part of the region. It has not reached New Zealand and there seem to be but few species 
in South America; several which were described from the Neotropical Region as Ptychopoda have proved, 
on examination, to have a double areole. 

Concerning the generic name, it is not quite certain that the one here used is older than those 
of HuBNER. It was first published by Curtis (from Stephens' manuscript) in September 1826 with specified 
tjrpe dilutata Hatv. (= biselata Hufn.). Our leading systematists regard Hxjbner's "Verzeichnis", or at least 
its latest sheets, as having been published about the end of 1826 or early in 1827, and unless an earlier date 
can be proved for it, it is clearly preferable to give priority to Curtis' name; especially as this section is very 
much more extensive than that to which the Hiibnerian name of Sterrha has hitherto been applied. Moreover 
it is convenient to be able to drop Sterrha and Eois, both of which have at times — the former incorrectly, 
the latter I believe correctly, been applied in a different sense from that of Mey rick's classification, 
namely to genera in the Larentiinae. 

For convenience of reference, I have arranged this genus, like Acidalia, in sections according to 

IV 12 

90 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 

the presence or absence of spurs on the (J hindtibia; but it is unfortunately quite certain, especially from the 
curious case of rusticata and vulpinaria, that this gives only an artificial classification ia some instances. 

A. Section Sterrha. ^ hindtibia with terminal spurs present. \ i 

aureolaria. Pt. aureolaria Schiff. (= trilineata Scop, nee Hufn. = bicincta Geoff.) (4 a). Bright golden yellow, 

the extreme costal edge of the forewing black. Forewing with three, hindwing with two sharply defiaed grey 
or blackish lines, all nearly straight, or the inner line of the forewing or the outer of the hindwing may be 
slightly more irregular. Distal marginal line black, basal part of fringes blackish, their extremities paler. 
Under surface similar, forewing without the first Ime but sometimes with a little blackish dusting in basal 
area, both wings with a small black discal spot close proximally to (often touching) the median line. Even 
in the most weakly marked specimens (generally 2$) the lines are more sharply defmed than in the similar 

mgrrocostofo. species. — ab. nigrocostata Hirschke has on the upper surface a broad black costal stripe on the forewing 
and black basal streak on the hindwing ; beneath the black costal area of the forewing is stUl further extended 
and both wmgs have the basal area blackened. Described from a single c? from Austria. — The larva is one 
of the more slender in the genus, the lateral ridge sharp; it is reddish grey, the fine white dorsal line edged 
with black, the subdorsal line almost obsolete, but expanding into a dark spot at each segment-incision. 
Tubercles very small, only more distinct on the thoracic segments. The pupa is yellowish, with the cremaster 
dark; according to Rogenhofer with four curved-tipped bristles, but probably two had become broken 
or were overlooked; Rebel says "five or six". Double brooded, occurring tlurough June and into July 
and again in August. It has a moderately extended range in Central and Southern Europe, especially in the 
more eastern parts, and reappears in Central A da along the mountain ranges from Armenia to Mongolia. 

luieolaria. Pt. luteolaria Const. (4 a). Less brightly coloured than the preceding. Usually reddish ochreous, 

very rarely yellow, and even then not so golden as aureolaria. The lines red-brown, hence much less prominent, 
only the postmedian sometimes more fuscous-mixed. A slight reddish shade usually follows the postmedian 
and to this succeeds an indistinctly pale subtermmal line. The fringes in strongly-marked examples are 
very varied, at their base reddish, then nearly black, then with a very fine whitish line and finally grey. On 
the under surface the median and postmedian lines are tliickened and blackened and the rufous shading which 
follows the latter is usually dusted with black. A very local species, inhabitmg the Pyrenees and the mountains 
of Spain. I have it from various Spanish localities, collected by Dr. Chapman in July. It first appears, 
however, in June or even in May and there is a partial second brood in the autumn. Larva rather short 
and thick, attenuated anteriorly, head small, brown ; body ochreous, browner at the incisions, with an X-sha- 
ped black dorsal pattern on the middle segments; the whitish lateral line fine and interrupted; spiracles mi- 
nute, not noticeable without a lens; no ventral line, but two small diagonal brown marks on each of the 
middle segments. Polyphagous but seems to show a preference for the petals of Geranium and other flowers. 

falckii. Pt. falckii Hedem. (= falcki Stgr.) from Amurland, is unknown to me. It is said to belong in the au- 

reolaria group, but the structure of the $ hindleg is not expressly mentioned. The ^ is red-brown, darker 
towards the distal margin, the $ very variable in colour, lighter reddish brown to clay-yellowish. The fore- 
wing has three, the hindwing two blackish brown transverse lines and a fine blackish distal marginal line. 
The fringes are broadly black-brown in the middle, basally and at their extremities grey, in the $ tinged 
with yellowish. The Imes are curved anteriorly, that of the hindwing more waved. Underside dusted with 
red-brown, especially in the distal area, the median and postmedian lines thicker than above, the first line 

ochrata. Pt. ochrata Scop. (= corrigata F. = pallidaria Hhn. = ochrearia Hhn. = perochraria Dhld., nee 

F. R.) (4 a). Reddish ochreous with the lines more reddish, seldom very sharply defined; the basal and me- 
dian usually rather thick, the postmedian finer. Fore\vtng with first line gently curved or strongly bent, often 
weak or obsolete; median line sometimes a little curved near costal margin; postmedian parallel with distal 
margin, very faintly wavy or denticulate; two moderately distinct lines or shades enclose the pale subter- 
minal. Frmge with dark dots opposite the veins, though very variable in intensity. Hindwing without the 
first line, the postmedian more sinuous. A minute dark discal dot is usually discernible on the hindwing 
and very occasionally on the forewing. On both wings the area between the median and postmedian lines is 
usually somewhat clearer than the rest. The under surface is more strongly dark dusted; as a rule only the 
subterminal line remains altogether free from the dusting; the lines and shades, except the first line of the 
forewing, are better expressed, in well marked specimens very dark. An abundant species in Central and 
Southern Europe and extending eastward as far as Transcaspia; June — August. It is very variable in size 

PTYGHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 91 

and colour, but the variation does not appear to be to any very marked degree local, and the three at- 
tempts which have been made to indicate local races have not been entirely successful, although they are of 
some service in showmg general tendencies. I quote them as "forms", a vague general term which can include 
both the conception of an aberration and that of a local race. • — ■ f. sicula Z. {= accretata Fuchs) is the sicula. 
large form which is prevalent in many southern localities and perhaps in some (as in Sicily, whence came 
Zeller's and Fuchs's tj^es) forms a moderately well-defined race. It is paler than the form which is 
regarded as the type, less mixed with reddish, but shows otherwise a similar range of variation. The distinc- 
tion in the course of the median line, founded by Fuchs on a single specimen, is quite unreliable. — f. al- albida. 
bida Ribbe is a very light form, said to be prevalent in Southern Spain but also to be met with occasio- 
nally in other localities. It is not well described, but is probably similar to an aberration which is rather 
frequent in Crete (among darker and brighter forms), the ground-colour very pale ochreous, between the me- 
dian and postmedian lines sometimes almost white, the reddish lines sometimes of almost the same colour 
as in the tjrpe-form, hence rather distinct, sometimes paler. It should be added that I have many examples 
from Northern and Central Spain and only very few of these are of the albida form; the majority agree with 
my material from Italy, Turkey, etc. — f. cantiata fo7-7n. nov. {= perochraria Chien. nee Fisch.-Ross.) is a cantiaia. 
small, rather dull form with but little red in its colouring. It is rather pale, but less so than albida. It forms 
a fixed local race in England, where it is almost confined to one locality on the coast of Kent; but similar 
specimens might be picked out occasionally from among continental material. Guenee was the first to call 
attention to this race, which he calls var. A, quoting the untenable name of perochraria Steph. — The egg 
of ochrata is oval, strongly ribbed and finely reticulated, its colour straAv -yellow, changing to brown just before 
hatching. The larva is moderately stout, tapering anteriorly; head rather flat and small; skin rugose, lateral 
ridge developed; yellowish grey, with fine double dorsal grey line obscurely indicated, subdorsal indicated 
by broken rows of grey dots. Polyphagous like most of the genus, but apparently preferring withered flowers. 
Buckler's statement that the anterior prolegs of this larva are placed on the seventh abdominal segment 
is erroneous. Pupa light, shining chestnut brown,^anal extremity darker brown. 

Pt. subochraria Stgr. is only known to me from the description. The hindtibial structure is not indi- subochraria. 
cated and as it is said to be intermediate between perochraria {serpentata) and numidaria it is possible that 
it should be placed with the former, in the spurless group. Ground-colour light ochreous with sharp black 
discal dot and usually four darker lines or narrow bands, which are slightly dentate or waved. Sometimes 
one of the lines is wanting. The colour is similar to that of light numidaria. The large black discal spot of 
both wings distinguishes it from both the species mentioned, but it differs chiefly in the (J antenna, which 
has longer and more widely separated teeth. On the underside only the two outer dark lines are distinct and 
these are less strong than in numidaria, the first of them nearer to the discal spot. JSTortli Ferghana (Namangan). 

Pt. numidaria Luc. (4 b). Related to ochrata, but of a yellower tone of colour, without the coarse numidaria. 
darker dusting of that species, the under surface consequently much lighter. The lines are more wavy, the 
fringes not concolorous but distally greyer, though less strongly in some specimens than in others, and not 
shown in our figure. Structurally numidaria agrees with ochrata, but the forewing appears slightly broader, 
the distal margin being somewhat less oblique. Algeria. 

Pt. rufariai76w. (4 b) superficially resembles a large, pale form of ochrata. The ground-colour is nearly TO/aria. 
the same, but in general slightly less ochreous, in the ^ paler, in the $ often rather more tinged with rufous, 
the lines on an average more brownish. They are similarly placed, but the median and postmedian of the hind- 
wing more often stand near together, rather recalling the position in macilentaria. The postmedian of the fore- 
wing is rather more sinuous and denticulate ; the shading on either side of the pale subterminal is on an ave- 
rage weaker. The fringes are not dark-dotted. The underside is less dusted. But the best distinction in the 
markings is in the presence on both wings of a conspicuous blackish discal dot, that of the forewing generally 
small, that of the hindwing larger. Structurally the (^^ are very easy to discriminate ; in rufaria the antennal 
ciliation is extremely short, much shorter than the diameter of the shaft ; in ochrata the joints project strongly 
and the ciliation is rather long, arranged in pairs of fascicles. • — ab. nigrocinctaria F. Fuchs is described as nigm- 
having three thick black transverse striae through both wings and occurs regularly among the type-form in the cincfaria. 
Bornich district. I have seen forms with one or two of the lines (especially the postmedian) strongly blackish, 
but nothing so extreme as this. There is, however, much variation in the tone of the ground-colour and the 
strength of the markings. A grey aberration (or local race?) with three dark transverse striae, the other 
lines obsolete, of which two examples from N. Caucasus (lelesnovodsk, July) are recorded by Alpheraky, 
may provisionally be regarded as a colour modification of this form. Larva of moderate proportions, not tapering 
very strongly anteriorly; yellowish grey, the pale mediodorsal line distinct, dark edged, accompanied by irre- 

92 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B Protjt. 

gular, trapezoidal dark marks and dots. Tubercles very small, the thoracic larger. Pupa yellow-brown. Central 
and Southern Europe to Central Asia, July — ^August. 

taurica. Pt. taurica Bang-Haas would seem to belong here, although its author does not mention its structure. 

Dr. Rebel, in determining the Herzegovina example, indicated its probable position, from the point of view 
of structure, as between filacearia and aureolaria, but gave no detail. It is described as light ochre-yellow, 
the basal area and inner margin of the forewing and the base of the hindwing somewhat paler. Forewing with 
costal margin sparsely dusted with brownish. The lines brownish, waved, similar to those of consanguinaria 
in their course but materially more distmct (thicker). Both wings with black discal dot. Black terminal 
dots at the vein-ends on both surfaces (this should probably read "on the base of the fringe opposite the vein- 
ends"). Under surface dirty yellowish, the transverse Imes in the distal area and the discal dots very weak. 
Forewing rather broader than in rufaria, hindwing with distal margin rounded. The size is that of a large 
rufaria. Described from the Taurus. A single specimen has since been taken in Herzegovina by Schawerda. 

consangui- Pt. cons^inguinaria Led. (= faillata Trti.) (4 b) closely resembles rufaria but is paler, more glossy, rather 

naria. weakly marked, the lines occasionally almost obsolete. The postmedian Ime and proximal shadiiig of the sub- 
terminal are on the forewing still more sinuous and terminate on the posterior margin with more of a distally 
directed curve. The discal dots are small, but black. There are usually some distinct black dots at the base 
of the fringes, opposite the veins; in. rufaria the fringe is mispotted. The under surface is very weakly marked, 
sometimes almost entirely without markings. (^ antennal cilia tion very minute. The larva, according to 
Hugo May sen., is elongate, narrowing towards the head, somewhat flattened, the lateral carination distinct; 
dorsal area light brownish or wood-colour, medio-dorsal line light, on the last 4 segments sharply margined 
with black; tubercles strong, black; an ill-defined black-grey subdorsal stripe, on the middle segments often 
spreading in some dark dusting so as to encroach on the ground-colour; spiracles black; ventral surface blackish. 
Pupa elongate, the cremaster umbilicated, the bristles short. Flies in July, in captivity a second brood may 
be obtained in October — ^November. Very local, occurring in Italy, S. E. Europe and Asia Minor; has been 
reported from Spain, but I have no certain knowledge of any Spanish examples. 

macUentaria. Pt. maciletitaria H.-Sch. (= antiquaria H.-Sch., sylvestraria Dup. part.) (4 b). Quite distinct 

from the ocArato-group in having the ground-colour dirty whitish, only suffused with dull ochreous in the costal 
part of the forewing, especially towards the base. The distal margin of the hindwing is appreciably concave, 
though only very slightly, between the radials; in none of the preceding species, except perhaps rufaria, can this 
be spoken of as appreciable, though the margin shows a tendency to be straighter or less convex. The lines 
on the forewing do not differ greatly in their course from those of ochrata ; on the hindwing the median and post- 
median are placed very near together and there is a rather broad, faint grey shade between the latter and the 
pale subterminal. Discal dots about as in ochrata. Fore-\ving beneath strongly and hindwing moderately dusted 
with coarse blackish-fuscous atoms, the median and postmedian lines very strong and dark, the latter placed 
nearer to the distal margin than on the upperside; subterminal line more distinct than above. ^ antennal 

pukhraria. structure similar to that of ochrata. — ab. pulchraria F. Fuchs is described as having a broad dark central 
shade on the forewing and a broad marginal Ime on both wuags. Described from a single example. — The 
larva resembles that of ochrata. It is of medium thickness, strongly tapering anteriorly, at the segment-in- 
cisions constricted, especially at the 5. abdominal ; greenish at first, becoming bone-coloured in its adult stage ; 
dorsal line light, brownish-edged, on the last three segments accompanied by brownish subdorsal line, which 
is otherwise obsolescent, though indicated by dark dots at the segment-mcisions ; head somewhat more reddish; 
ventral surface dark grey. The moth appears in June — July and frequents dry meadows. It is local in western 
Germany and Austria and in Switzerland, but seems commoner in France and Spam. 

determinata. Ft. determinata Stgr. (= geministrigata Fuchs) (3e). Ground-colour similar to that of the preceding, 

rather more glossy and without such marked ochreous costal suffusion. Really nearer to litigiosaria. Both 
differ from macUentaria in wanting the concavity of the margin of the hindwing, in having shorter and simpler 
antennal ciliation (minute in determinata, intermediate in litigiosaria), distinct black discal dots, more weakly 
marked underside, white vertex of head (in macUentaria brown), etc. determinata is easily distinguished from 
litigiosaria by the presence on both wings of a median line, Avhich is placed very near the postmedian. The lat- 
ter on both wings is more irregular in its course, being twice deeply incurved. The under surface of the fore- 
wing is dark-dusted as far as the postmedian line, distally similar to the upper surface; that of the hind- 
wing is paler and more weakly marked than above. Hitherto only known from Sicily, Calabria and the South- 
eastern Taurus. This summer, however, the Rev. F. E. Lowe has taken a few examples of both sexes at Sainte- 
Baume, on a high table-land N. E. of Marseilles, where they occurred at the end of June on very dry, open 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Proot. 93 

ground amid a growth of aromatic woody flowers, in company with macilentaria, litigiosaria and swarms of 
sericeata. In Sicily Staudinger captured determinata at light in September — October. In one or two of the 
Sainte-Baume examples the median line is so weak as to suggest a transition towards mutilata Stgr., which 
however I am not able to compare. 

Pt. fasciata Stgr. Unknown to me. Said to be nearest to determinata Stgr., though with a super- iasoiata. 
ficial resemblance to diffluata H.-Sch., which is structurally quite distinct. Size of determinata. Bone-colour, 
with black discal dots, closely followed by a moderately broad, sharply defined grey-black band which is irre- 
gularly dentate distally; foremng in addition with a sharp blackish inner line. The area between the band 
and the distal margin is largely occupied by two faint dark shades (narrow bands) which enclose the pale 
subterminal line. Fringes with black dots at base. On the under surface the inner line is wanting; the dark 
band, especially on the hindwing, is more broken up into the two lines (median and postmedian) from whose union 
it was composed. Even on the upper surface the band (which is about 2 mm in breadth) contains remnants 
of the light ground-colour, especially in one aberration on the hindwing. Only known from the eastern Tau- 
rus, where it was discovered in June. The possibility does not seem to me to be excluded that it may be 
an aberration of determinata, bearing to it the same relation as aversata L. to ab. remutata L. 

Pt. litigiosaria Bdv. (= morosaria H.-Sch., agraria Joan.) (4 b). Characterized by the entire ab- litigiosaria. 
sence of the median line, the forewing therefore having only two lines, the hindwing only one; the dark 
shading to the pale subterminal is weak. Discal dots black, distinct, variable in size; distinct black dots 
on the base of the fringe are often present, sometimes large, but are very inconstant. The under surface of the 
forewing is more or less strongly infuscated, leaving a pale line distally to the postmedian and a pale sub- 
terminal; that of the hindwing is pale and very weakly marked. Very variable in size and in the strength 
of the markings, even also in the degree of sinuosity of the postmedian line; sometimes the inner line of the 
forewing is wanting. My only Algerian example is rather weakly marked and differs from my Spanish series 
in having the forewing scarcely at all infuscated beneath; but I do not think the name agraria (also founded 
on an Algerian example) can be maintained as representing a distinct race. — ab. dissidiata Guen. has both dissidiata. 
lines very distinct, blackish, the postmedian more strongly sinuous than in the type form, very pronouncedly 
incurved between the radials. The two specimens on which Guenee founded the name, one from Andalusia 
and one from the Basses-Alpes, were a little larger than normal litigiosaria, their ground-colour more unico- 
lorous, the discal dot of the hindwing almost smaller than that of the forewing, whereas in typical litigiosaria 
the reverse is more usually the case; and he regarded his dissidiata as "well distinct" specifically. Staudinger, 
however, on examination of the types, informs us that it is certainly a mere aberration, an opinion in which 
I heartily concur. Egg nearer spherical than ovate, its lower pole narrowed; surface very finely granulated, 
with small, slight, polygonal depressions. Larva similar in form to that of aversata, gradually tapering an- 
teriorly from the fifth abdominal, strongly carinated laterally, folded transversely, rugose, especially anteriorly 
and posteriorly; yellowish grey, paler laterally, much darker ventrally; a double dorsal brown line, 
usually interrupted, a subdorsal band also interrupted; variable. Pupa pale yellowish brown, anally 
blackish, the bristles rather long; spiracles large and prominent. The moth flies in June and July and is attrac- 
ted by light and by^artificial sweets. S. France, Spain, Italy, Corsica and N. Africa. 

Pt. mutilata Stgr. Unknown to me. From the description I should have supposed that it was another mutilata. 
form of litigiosaria, even more extreme than ab. dissidiata, or possibly an aberration of determinata (which 
was taken at the same time and place) with the median line wanting. Agrees with litigiosaria in structure, 
in size and in the under surface. Light grey with very slight yellowish tinge, especially in the $. Discal dots 
above at least as strong as in litigiosaria, beneath much weaker. First line distinctly present. Postmedian very 
strong, on both wings strongly and irregularly dentate. Black terminal dots or streaks strongly expressed. 
Sicily, taken at light in October. 

Pt. concordaria Piing., sp. nov. (= savdoniata, Homberg) {Si). For this new species, as well as Pt. rhodogram- concordaria. 
maria, ostrinaria ab. oenoparia, hispunaria and degeneraria ab. floridaria, manuscript descriptions have been furnis- 
hed by Herr Pungele r, in whose collection are the t3^es. He is therefore to be quoted as the author. I take this 
opportunity to express my warmest thanks to Herr PIjngele r for the extremely valuable aid which he has rendered 
in connection with this work. A large number of our figured specimens of the rarer species were lent by him 
for this purpose, and he has further most kindly lent me for study whatever material I required from his 
very rich collection, besides giving me much information and some critical expressions of opinion on difficult 
questions. "Expanse 23 mm. Near the somewhat larger litigiosaria Bdv., more pointed-winged, more smoothly 
scaled, colour more grey-yellowish, discal dots finer, median shade present, postmedian line less sharply 

94 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Peout. 

expressed. In shape, colour and markings also similar to small, weakly marked specimens of degeneraria 
Hhn. ab. depravata Stgr. and deversaria H.-8ch., differing in the spurred, not aborted ^ hindleg, the dark- 
spotted antenna and the dark underside of the forewing. S. Spain, Murcia, Sierra d'Espuha, 4 ^(^, 5 $$, 
M. KoRB, end of June, 1909; East Pyrenees, Sorede, 1 (J, J. R. Sprongerts." sardoniata Honiberg has been 
described under this name only abont a month after the publication of our plate. Occurs at Verne t-les- 
Bains (Pyrenees-Orient ales), St. -Guilhemle- Desert (Herault) and San-Ildefonso (Sierra de Guadarrama Spain). 

plumba ab. plumbaginata Homberg, from Veinet-lts-Bains, is darkened with brown scales, showing violet reflec- 

ginaia. tions, less nun erous at the costal margin, the lines partly obliterated, postmedian and subterminal more 
noticeable; fringe pale; under surface sn oky, but less strongly than upper. 

lambessaia. Pt. lambessata Ob. (= granadaria iSfgrr.) (4 b). Differs from litigiosaria in its more greyish, not yellow- 

ish-white colour (our figure is much too yellow), stronger silky gloss, extreme weakness of the Imes and obso- 
lescence of the black discal dots; the costal edge of the forewing and also the fringes are yellowish. Minute 
black dots are present on the base of the fringes. The forewing beneath is slightly smoky and the two pale 
lines indicated as in litigiosaria; the hindwing white, unmarked; the dots in the fringes at least as strong 
as above, or perhaps stronger. ^ antennal ciliation rather shorter than in litigiosaria. Oberthijr states that 
lambessata is rather larger than litigiosaria and this may be correct as a generalisation, but both are susceptible 
to considerable variation in size. Herr Pungeler has bred lambessata from the egg and informs me that the larva 
and pupa resemble those of litigiosaria. Inhabits Spain, Portugal and North Africa, end of May to July. 

consecrata. Pt. consccrata Stgr. (3 e) is very easily distinguished by the pink postmedian band or shade on both 

wings, which rather recalls Ehodostrophia. Our figure gives an accurate impression of the upper surface and a 
detailed description is unnecessary. The antemedian line is quite indistinct; distal boundary of the pink 
band ill-defined; dots at base of fringe minute, not very conspicuous. On the under surface the pink band is 
sometimes wanting; the basal part of the forewing, especially costally, is somewhat suffused; the only distinct 
marking is the pink band or the dark line which on the upper surface borders this proximally ;^the cell- 
spots also present. ^ antennal ciliation rather short. Only known from Palestine. 

lucellata. Pt. lucellata Pilng. (3 e). Colour of forewing somewhat as in rufaria, costally more suffused with 

reddish. Very distinct in the narrower, more elongate wings, the hindwing more whitish, not (as in nearly all 
the species of the genus) concolorous with the forewing. The fine reddish inner line of the forewing is bent 
near the costa, the outer parallel with the distal margin; median .'hade thicker, crossing the cell-spot. Subter- 
minal line scarcely indicated. Hindwing with inner line wanting, median shade placed just beyond the cell- 
spot. The position of the median line and the expression of the cell-spots are subject to considerable varia- 
tion; in the type $, which is smaller and narrower than the (J, the median line is placed much nearer to the 
postmedian and the discal spots are wanting; even in the ^ they are brown (not so black as in our figure) 
and are wanting beneath. Under surface with the wings concolorous, the forewing being paler, the hindwing 
less white than above: both, but especially the forewing, shaded with red costally; first line of forewing wan- 
ting. (J antennal ciliation not long. Togus-Torau, Central Asia, only a few ,^(^ and the single $ yet known. 

ossiculata. Pt. ossiculata Led. (4 b) is another rather narrow-winged species, in this differing from the similarly 

coloured species such' as litigiosaria or macilentaria. Whitish bone-colour, the lines rather thick and wavy 
but not very conspicuous, being only a little darker than the ground-colour. Antemedian line almost or entirely 
lost in a slight basal suffusion, which on both wings extends as far as the median line; the other lines tole- 
rably equal in expression, parallel with the distal margin. Cell-spots very small or obsolescent. Fringes with 
very small black dots opposite the veins. Distributed from Asia Minor and Syria to the Zaizan district. 

proclivata. Pt. proclivata Fuchs (3f). Very close to the preceding but considerably smaller. As I have only a 

single specimen before me I am unable to indicate what are the other most constant distinctions ; nor even to 
affirm positively that it might not be a second generation or local race of ossiculata. The specimen before 
me appears to have slightly less pointed forewing, is somewhat more suffused and weakly marked both above, 
and on the hindwing beneath, the costal edge of the forewing somewhat yellower; the black discal 
dots and those at the base of the fringe are wanting. According to Fuchs, however, 
a fine discal dot is sometimes present on the hindwing. Only known from Russian Armenia. 

mediaria. Pt. mediaria Hbn. (3 f). Quite distinct in markings from any other species possessing the same 

structure; rather recalling, except in shape and colour, certain species of Acidalia, e. g. emutaria Hbn., or rsitheT 
hanna Btl. Forewing somewhat pointed, though less elongate than in the preceding species; brownish white 
with_^scattered dark scales. Lines dark grey-brown, almost .blackish. Median shade on both wings particularly 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 95 

strongly developed, nearly straight, very slightly oblique, becoming faint or obsolete before costal margin 
of fore wing. Fringes with small dark dots at base. Under surface of f ore wing with dark suffusion ; of hindwing 
less dark-speckled than above, hence appearing whiter. The larva is rather short, attenuated anteriorly, the 
lateral carination slight, the transverse folds very strong; a broad brown dorsal stripe, the lateral area paler, 
without a strongly marked pale spiracular line; spiracles small, black, not visible to the naked eye; head 
small, perpendicularly marked with brown; meso- and metathorax each with a well-marked brown dot on 
the side. On Euphorbia spinosa, the leaves in preference to the flowers. Grows very slowly. Pupa brown 
anteriorly, abdominal segments reddish. Imago in July. Spain, S. France, N. Italy, Dalmatia and Bithynia. 

Pt. renataria Ob. (= mediaria? Ob. nee Hhn.) (4 b) resembles mediaria in the broad blackish median renataria. 
line, but differs in so many characters that confusion ought to be impossible. Larger, both wings narrower, 
more elongate, forewing rather more brownish, without distinct first line ; median shade more oblique, on hmd- 
wing much nearer to the base; postmedian line of forewing followed by a thick dark line, that of hind- 
wing by a shade as broad and conspicuous as the median shade. The underside is similar to the upper 
or only a little more suffused and less distinctly marked. (J antennal ciliation short. Out of three specimens 
examined, two show the first subcostal vein of the forewing free, as in Gleta; in one example this is the case, 
and very markedly, in both wings, while in the other the first subcostal on one wing touches (but scarcely 
anastomoses with) the stalk of the others. Algeria ; end of April. 

Pt. sericeata Hbn. (4b) is again very distinct and easily recognized, the only similar species being the sericeata. 
following. White, very glossy, the lines bright light brown, very variable in breadth but on the forewing commonly 
so broad as to reduce the ground-colour itself to a series of four wavy lines, or occasionally even only three, the 
second and third brown lines being sometimes fused into a band, containing only a few small white spots. 
Hindwing with only two lines (bands) and distal margin brown. Under surface similar, the brown coloration 
usually darker, the basal part of forewing more suffused, but remaining whitish towards posterior margm. ^ 
antenna very shortly ciliated. The $$ are smaller, rather narrower, on an average more sharply marked, with 
the brown lines or bands less broad. I have one or two pretty forms from Vigo in which the white colour 
largely preponderates over the brown, sericeata is locally abundant in warm meadows in Southern Europe 
and Asia Minor and is also recorded from Transcaucasia, the Hi and Issyk Kul. Egg ellipsoid, short, strongly 
compressed laterally, with large, very regular hexagonal depressions. Larva tapering anteriorly from the fifth 
abdominal, which is the broadest; laterally carinated; skin rugose, with distinct folds and small warts, par- 
ticularly in the anterior and posterior part; yellowish grey, with very slight tinge of green, finely spotted 
with brown, fifth abdominal ventrally pale, a double brown dorsal line, most distinct posteriorly; no sub- 
dorsal, merely some brownish spots ; some dark lateral spots opposite the spiracles. Pupa moderately elongate, 
dark reddish brown, anally blackish, wings lighter, with distinct veins. The moths flies in May — -June. 

Pt. allardiata Mab. (4 b) represents sericeata in Algeria and scarcely differs except in having the lines allardiata. 
straighter, the sscond and third narrower and nearer together (or, when they coalesce, forming a narrower 
band), the white band distally to them almost perfectly straight, not showing the definite outward bend in the 
middle which always occurs in sericeata. The average size is larger, but this can not be relied upon as a di- 
stinction. The brown parts are on the whole slightly lighter and less bright. Our figures scarcely show the 

Pt. merklaria Ob. (4 o) is a very distinct species, with the forewing rather narrow, its apex acute, merklaria. 
the distal margin slightly concave behind the apex, then straight, the hindwing also narrow. The ground- 
colour is variable, oftenest white or with a weak yellowish tinge, the basal part at least largely shaded 
with yellowish; the lines yellow-brown, parallel with the distal margin, usually accompanied, as in the figured 
example, by light yellowish bands which leave the white ground-colour in alternating bands, somewhat recal- 
ling the scheme of pattern in the two preceding species, or in circuitaria, with which Oberthur compares it. 
The under surface is similarly marked to the upper. The (J antennal ciliation is only of quite moderate length. 
Variation consists in the colour and strength of the suffusion, which may be darker or even slightly reddish, 
and in the strength of the lines. OsERTHtiR's figure shows a very white form, with the bands not strongly 
developed. — ■ ab. terentius Baker is a dark aberration, with the ground-colour ochreous brown and the terentius. 
lines more fuscous, but as it seems to be connected with the tjrpe-form by intermediates it is not susceptible 
of absolutely sharp differentiation, merklaria is only known from Algeria, where it occurs in March and April; 
the type specimen of ab. terentius is from Lambessa. 

Pt. fathmaria Oberih. (4d). Wings quite narrow, the distal margin of the hindwing without strong excision fathmaria. 

96 PTYOHOPODA. By L. B. pRotJT. 

between the radials and -with, only a very slight sinuosity towards the anal angle. Mouse-grey, not strongly 
brown-tinged, antemedian Ime angled, median and postmedian parallel with distal margin, dark proximal 
shading to subterminal and the subterminal itself weak or wanting. Hind wing without antemedian line. Both 
wings with dark cell-dot. Under surface paler grey, similarly marked. Egg ellipsoid, slightly flattened at 
the sides, surface presenting 10 — 12 rather broad channels formed by elliptical depressions; white, becoming 
somewhat rosy. Larva short, thick, attenuated anteriorly from the 3. abdominal and carinated laterally, 
segment-incisions not deep; skin transversely folded, rugose, granulated; greyish clay-colour, tinged with 
greenish, some lines and striation brown; dorsal fine, hardly distinct, subdorsal broken, forming vague 
lozenges and curved marks, lateral line formed of oblique striae; the lateral carina pale; ventral double, festoon- 
ed; tubercles small, not very distinct, setae very short, claviform; head flattened in. front. Feeds on low 
plants, accepting either fresh or withered leaves. Undergoes 3 moults. Pupa smooth, shining, reddish brown; 
wing-veins prominent; cremaster broad at its base, suddenly narrowing, ending in a pointed beak. A suc- 
cession of broods throughout the summer. Algeria. OberthiIr, on account of the shape, referred this species 
to Euacidalia, which has a double areole. 

volloni. Pt. volloni Luc. u. Joan. (= plumbearia Bang-Haas nee Leech) is very similar to the preceding spe- 

cies, but may be distinguished at once by the course of the postmedian line, which is angularly broken near the 
costal margin of the forewing, forming an acute angle inwards, then oblique outwards to another acute angle 
on the first radial; it is punctuated with blacker spots or dashes on the veins. The forewing is shiny yellowish 
grey, dusted with brown, no other lines (or only the median shade) distinct, fringes dark-spotted. Hindwmg 
paler, the postmedian line discernible but often weak. The discal dot is wanting on both wings. Nefta, 
Southern Tunis. Following OberthOr, the authors referred this species to Euacidalia. In the figure which 
they give of the neuration the first subcostal of the forewing is represented as free, as in Gleta. In a series 
of 8 larger examples from Hammam-es-Salahin, Algeria, bred by Lord Walsingham from Anabasis articulata 
in March 1904, which I believe to be the same species, this vein anastomoses or is connected by a short 
bar with the other subcostals. 

scabraria. Pt. scabraria Chret. Forewing elongate, distal margin strongly oblique; yellowish ochreous more or 

less strongly powdered with brown, the markings brown, more or less defined; shows the slight rosy reflection 
so general in the Lspidoptera of Biskra ; first line acutely angled, becoming nearly parallel with the distal 
margin; postmedian thick, ill-defmed, shadiiig off into the ground-colour, sinuous, subparallel with the distal 
margin; median shade hardly broader than postmedian, sinuous; pale subterminal line undulate; distal border 
uniformly pale yellowish ochreous; cell-spot more or less large and distinct, sometimes contiguous to the post- 
median, sometimes removed from it; fringe reddish grey, marked with brown. Hindwing rather short, round- 
ed at anal angle, very little emarginate between the radials, markings similar to those of forewmg. Forewing 
beneath variable in the strength of the markings, which are often obsolescent ; sometimes, especially in the $, 
the median and postmedian are more strongly expressed than above. ^ antenna described as "pectinate", 
probably dentate; hindtibia apparently with very slender spurs. Egg a short, broad ellipsoid with small 
oval depressions arranged in rows so as to form rather deep channels; colour whitish. Larva recalling in shape 
that of infirmaria; short, thick, attenuated anteriorly, carinated laterally, segmental incisions not deep; skin 
transversely folded, rugose and granulated ; dorsally greyish, laterally whitish with slight fleshy tint ; a double 
blackish dorsal line, distinct only on the last segments; subdorsal sinuous, approaching the dorsal at the 
incisions, forming a sort of lozenge-shaped pattern; a broad blackish brown dorsal spot in the middle of 
the 2., 3. and 4. abdominals. The moth is probably double-brooded and occurs at Biskra, Algeria. 

tineaia. Pt. tineata Th.-Mieg should perhaps be placed here, as it is said to have elongate wings and to resem- 

ble scabraria. It is also said to "recall somewhat asellaria and pecharia", but this probably refers only to the 
dusky colouring. "$ 12 to 17 mm. Rather dark grey, sprinkled with innumerable small black scales. These 
black scales are so arranged as to form, on the forewing, 6 transverse lines, a little undulate and very vague. 
On the hindwing are discernible, but with difficulty, 4 such lines, one a little before the discal dot and the 
other 3 between this latter and the distal margin. A small black discal dot on each wing. The costa of the 
forewing is a little shaded with blackish and 2 or 3 blackish spots are visible, indicating the commencement 
of the lines. Some small black vein-dots at the distal margin, fringe long, agreeing with the ground-colour. 
Under surface of the same shade as above, with the some lines, equally inconspicuous, and the dissal dots 
as above. Pace and palpus blackish grey, vertex white, thorax and abdomen grey dotted with black, legs 
grey, the hindleg with a sing e pair of spurs. Akbes (Syria), 5 $$." ' j 


Pt. attenuaria Rbr. (3 h). Somewhat resembles pale specimens of eriopodata in coloration, especially 

Publ. 30. III. 1913. PTYOHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 97 

in the dark distal border of the forewing, broken off obliquely towards the apex ; but is entirely different in shajje 
and in many other particulars. Wings long and narrow, hindwing with distal niargiia strongly sinuate between 
the radials and more gently from first median to anal angle. Forewing with the Imes and median shade commen- 
cing from enlarged dark spots on costal margin, sharply angled near costal margin; discal dot black, placed 
on median shade; a more or less strongly developed dark distal shade, traversed by a fine pale subterminal 
line; fringe obscurely dark-marked opposite the veins. Hindwing without the first line; dark distal shade 
less well defined. Under surface darkened with coarser blackish speckling, the basal part more suffused, both 
wings with cell-dot, median and postmedian lines. (J antenna with the joints thickened, subserrate, the cilia- 
tion very short. Concerning the early stages I have no information, attenuaria is a very local species, occur- 
ring in Corsica (where it was first discovered), Sardinia, Sicily and Algeria. On the first-named island, accor- 
ding to KoLLMORGEN, it is distributed in May and July up to elevations of 800 m. 

Pt. moniliata ScMff. (= ? pentalineata Vill. = omicata F.) (4 b) shows no close resemblance to any monUiata. 
other known species and can always be recognized at a glance by the series of large, more or less rounded white 
spots in the distal area of both wings, from which it received its name. Whitish straw-colour, the veins marked 
with brown; the lines fine, dark, the first two more or less strongly angled near the costal margin; the cell- 
marks somewhat elongate; both wings with an uninterrupted blackish distal-marginal line, a similar line near 
the extremities of the fringe and a series of large black dots on the intervening pale part of the fringe. The 
egg is ovate, somewhat flattened, leather-yellow. The larva is rugose, short, much attenuated anteriorly, yel- 
lowish brown with rows of fine brown or blackish raised warts, four white lozenge-shaped dorsal spots on the 
middle segments, dark-bordered and accompanied by smaller white spots; ventral area marked with white 
on each segment. Pupa slender, pale shining yellow, anteriorly greenish, anal end reddish. The moth appears 
in the latter part of June and in July, and is widely distributed in Central and Southern Europe and from 
Asia Mmor to Transcaspia. Staudinger does not specify the Iberian Peninsula in his list of localities, but 
this is no doubt merely an oversight, as it has there a wide range of distribution. 

I B. Section Ptychopoda. ^ hindtibia with terminal spurs absent (except in asellaria and usually in the 

■rusticata-groivp . ) 

Pt. nexata Hbn. (4 a). White, dusted with brown and with brown markings. Forewing somewhat nexata. 
suffused with brown in basal area, first and median lines usually approximated, the area between median and post- 
median nearly free from brown dusting but containing a black discal dot ; postmedian line somewhat sinuous ; 
distal area brown, containing a white, twice thickened subterminal line rather near the termen; fringe spotted 
with brown. Hindwing white, with only two brown lines and with less dense brown shading in distal area. Un- 
der surface similarly marked, forewing without first line. ^ antenna with fascicles of long cilia; hindleg 
short and slender. The $ is probably more sluggish; in a series of 20 before me there is not a single $; it 
is said to be stout-bodied, narrower-winged, the brown markings more argillaceous, nexata is very different 
structurally from ramosaria Vill. {Cleta), with which Lede re e associated it. Staudinger retains it at the commen- 
cement of his comprehensive genus Acidalia. Possibly it should be referred to the vicinity of exilaria 
and fatimata. Larva attenuated anteriorly, carinated laterally; yellowish green; dorsal line double, uninter- 
rupted, reddish brown; subdorsal wanting; lateral line broad, pale, flexuous; spiracles oval, brown, almost 
imperceptible; ventral area faint bluish green with a single, rather broad, continuous line weakly indicated 
in greyish ; head small, quadrate, reddish ; prothorax and legs also tinged with reddish. Apparently polyphagous ; 
Millie RE reared it from the egg on the flowers of Linaria organifolia. Pupa somewhat compact, yellow, washed 
with greenish, antennae and abdominal incisions more or less reddish, and extremity brown. There seems to be 
a succession of broods, the duration of the larval and pupal stages in the summer being short. Imago in the 
spring, at the end of June and in August and even in November — December. Best known from Andalusia, 
Portugal and Algeria, but Millie re took it in the Basses-Pyrenees. — cirtanaria Luc. is almost certainly a cirtanaria. 
mere aberration of ?iexato. It seems to be of a rather less pure white, the basal area of the forewing more strongly 
brown as far as the median shade, which is darkened, the antemedian apparently either wanting or fused 
with the median; distal brown band rather broad. Described from a single ^ taken near Constantine, 
Algeria, in May. Lucas and Guenee erroneously compare it with ramosaria and pyginaearia instead of with 
nexata. ; ' > 

Pt. serpentata Hufn. (= ? trifasciata Scop. = similata Thnh. = limitata Bkh. = ochrearia Dup. serpentaia. 
nee Hbn. = perochraria Fisch.- Rossi.) (4 a). Rather closely similar, especially in its paler forms or when 
worn, to ochrata Scop., with which it was often confused by the older entomologists, who did not study the 
structure. The (J hindtibia, though slender, lacks the spurs which are always developed in the preceding group ; 

IV .13 


PTYGHOPODA. By L. B. Proft. 


the antennal joints project even more strongly than in ochrata. Apart from these structural characters, serpen- 
tata may generally be recognized by its smaller size, rather brighter but at the same time less glossy tone, 
somewhat darkened frmges, especially beneath, thicker and less clearly defined postmedian line, position of the 
median line and several other characters. The median line nearly always passes on the proximal side of 
the minute black cell-spot of the hindwing, occasionally crosses it ; in ochrata it is beyond (placed distally 
to) the cell-spot, when such is present. A fine blackish distal marginal line is usually well developed, though 
more or less interrupted; dark spots in the fringe are usually wanting, never strong. On the under surface 
the lines, as in ochrata, are considerably darkened, but the ground-colour itself is generally much less suffused 
griseaia. than in that species. Rather variable in ground-colour and in the strength of the markings. — ■ ab. griseata 
F. Fuchs has the ground-colour uniformly grey, with the lines darker. Two examples were taken at Bornich, 
and by subjecting the larvae to moisture a further example was bred. I know of no others. — ab. fusco- 
mixtata ab. nov. is a very handsome form with the lines strongly blackish-fuscous, the terminal line quite 
black, underside (especially of the forewing) strongly dusted with fuscous, the lines thick^'and intense. The 
fringes (especially beneath) are also more strongly infuscated. Described from a (J in the collection of Rev. 
dohlmanni. P. E. LowE, taken in the marshes of St. Triphon, in the S. of Vaud, end of May, 1912. — dohlmanni Hed. 
is almost certainly nothing more than a local race of serpentata, perhaps scarely that. I have only seen one 
example from Central Amurland and this does not agree in quite all particulars with the description. More- 
over, I possess one 3* from Barracouta which differs from the type form m almost the opposite direction 
to dohlmanni, being of a duller, less reddish ochreous and weakly marked, more like the Esthonian specimens. 
dohlmanni is a brightly coloured form, with the median line more weakly expressed than the others, the post- 
median the strongest, on the hindwing more deeply bent proximad between the radials, hence appearing 
to project more between the third radial and second median. It is said to have the discal dot present on both 
wings, but in the example before me only the hindwing bears the dot, as usual. The fringe is well darkened. 
— The egg of serpentata is a very beautiful object under the microscope, the hexagonal depressions being very 
regular and very deep, their rims thus appearing to stand out very strongly; moreover they are marked with 
strong knots or buttons at the angles. Of the usual Geometrid shape, not very elongate; colour pale yel- 
lowish or greenish, the raised net-work dark grey to black. The larva is grey or wood-colour, sometimes almost 
without markings, sometimes with broken dorsal and subdorsal lines consisting of anteriorly pointed dashes 
on each segment ; in form it does not differ greatly from that of ochrata, being moderately long, gradually tape- 
ring anteriorly, the segment-incisions apparently distinct, but not deep. It feeds on low plants, and has 
been reared from the egg on lettuce. Of the pupa I can find no description. The moth seems to be partially 
double-brooded, at least in the more southerly localities, and may be met with from June to August. It 
is said to be a true day-flier, being active in the sunshine. According to von Nolcken the time of appearance 
in the Baltic Provinces is from about 20 June to 24 July and the (J appears about 8 days earlier than the 
9. Distributed almost throughout Europe except the polar region, Britain, Holland, Spain and Por- 
tugal; also in Asia Minor, Central Asia and Eastern Siberia. 

flaveolaria. Pt. flaveolaria Hbn. (= brunnearia F. nee Vill.) (4 a) is nearest in aspect to aureolaria Schiff. and 

has probably been associated with it in the minds of lepidopterists ever since Hubner discovered it and gave 
it a name of similar formation. The structural difference in the ^ hindtibia, however, necessitated their 
generic separation in Meyrick's system, and they here fall into different sections of our genus. Ground-colour 
generally of a slightly less clear yellow than in aureolaria, more inclining to ochreous; occasional aberrations 
occur, however, almost identical in coloration with that species. Fringes blacker. The lines on the upper 
surface are generally very much more weakly expressed, the first line of the forewing usually obsolete. Beneath, 
however, the postmedian and frequently also the median lines are as strong and blackish as in aureolaria, 
and the chief distinctions are the absence of the cell-spots and the presence, on the forewing at least, of more 
blackish dusting. Aberrations sometimes occur in which tlie^lines of the upper surface are entirely wan- 
ting, but these intergrade through all possible transitions to'' the normal specimens. On the other hand I 

nigroVmeata. have one really striking aberration — ab. nigrolineata ab. nov., which might easily be mistaken, on a ca- 
sual inspection, for aureohtria. Upper surface with the lines as sharply expressed as in that species, including 
a strong inner line on forewing. Under surface of both wings as far as the median line strongly black-dusted, 
some further dusting beyond the postmedian on forewing. Lines very black and thick. A ^ taken by Dr. 
Chapman in the Val d'Herens, Valais (elevation not recorded) and now, through his kindness, standing in 
my collection. — Egg laid on its side, oval, almost as wide as long, 'micropylar end rather wider than nadir; 
slightl}' depressed on greater part of upper surface; surface covered with very strongly-marked polygonal 
reticulation, which is regular and less coarse than in some allied species. Pearly grey, becoming darker, the reti- 
culation becoming blackish. Larva short, attenuated anteriorly, rugose, moderately carinated laterally, seg- 
mentation distinct; head small, brown; body dark clay-colour; dorsal line fine, pale, uninterrupted, edged 
with brown; subdorsal fine, brown, slightly flexuous; lateral line fine, pale, uninterrupted; spiracles whitish; 
not dark-ringed; below them, on the 2. — G.^abdominals^a large brown spot; ventral surface with a double 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 99 

pale line. A mountain species, inhabiting the southern Alps, Central Italy and N. Hungary in July and the 
beginning of August. 

Pt. tnuricata Hufn. (= auroralis Schiff. = variegata F. = sanguinaria Hbn. = auroraria Bkh.) muricata. 
(4 b). On account of the bright coloration, and its unusual arrangement, this species was separated by Ste- 
phens as a distinct genus, under the name of Hyria, and in this he was followed by some later systema- 
tists; but as the name oi Hyria was preoccupied, Anthyria Warr. has been substituted for it. I cannot, how- 
ever, find any structural characters on which to separate it, and am satisfied that it is a true Ptychopoda. 
In the typical form the bright yellow ground-colour is rather broadly obscured by purple or rose-colour along 
the costal margin of the forewing and over nearly the whole of the hindwing, leaving only on the latter a 
yellow central patch, and there is further a purple or rosy suffusion accompanying the postmedian line of 
the forewing; the fringe remains yellow on both wings. Forewing with a rosy or purplish antemedian line, 
both wings with a blue-blackish postmedian line parallel to the distal margin. Under surface similar but 
rather less bright and with a tendency to develop on the forewing a purplish basal suffusion, while on the hind- 
wing the yellow ground-colour is in general less suffused with purple than above. The form from E. China 
and Japan is smaller, and perhaps requires to be named as a separate local race ; but it shows otherwise no 
constant difference, though I have not seen quite the most extreme aberrations from those localities. Every- 
where variable in the extent of the purple markings, but only the two extreme forms require designation. 
— ab. lutescens ab. nov. has the purple or rosy colour restricted to a narrow costal border on the forewing hdescens. 
and narrow distal band of both wings. It was figured by Kuhn as long ago as 1774 ("Der Naturforscher", 
Stiick 3), but this figure was not, so far as I can find, provided with a name by Goeze. The form occurs 
sparingly in several localities. — ab. totarubra Lamhill., shows the opposite extreme, both wings being en- totarubra. 
tirely purplish, except that usually a small yellow spot remains in the centre of each wing. The fringes 
are also yellowish, though less bright than in the type. The form is interesting because it tends in one or 
two localities to become a local variety. In the bogs of the north of England, at least, it is the prevalent form, 
even the less extreme examples havmg more of the purple colour (and this colour rather duller) than the ty- 
pical, South British form. Pt. muricata is locally common in Europe, though not reaching the most northerly 
or most southerly parts; occurs also in Armenia, across China, and in Eastern Siberia, Korea and Japan. It 
inhabits marshy or damp places and, like many brightly-coloured species, is fond of flying in the sunshine, 
although the time of day seems to vary in different localities. It also flies at night, and may then be attrac- 
ted by a strong light. The larva is moderately slender, rather rugose, tapering anteriorly; head small; body 
brown or grey, anteriorly and posteriorly more ochreous; dorsal line double, blackish, very fine and faint 
anteriorly, thickening into a series of paired curved dashes on the 2. — 6. abdominal segments; spiracles 
black; ventral surface darker than dorsal, with a pale central line. Pupa slender, cylindrical, smooth; dull 
pale ochreous, the wing-cases outlined in black. Imago June — ^August. Probably earlier in the warmest lo- 
calities; I have a specimen from the Chusan Islands dated 29 May. ^ antennal joints thickened, with 
long ciliation; hindleg slender. 

Pt. dimidiata Hufn. (= scutulata Schiff. = scutata F. = lividata Haiv. nee CI.) (4 c). An easily dimidiata. 
recognized species, especially if the structural characters be taken into consideration. In general the series 
of dark spots (sometimes somewhat confluent) in the posterior half of the distal area of the forewing, but 
never extended to the anterior half, are quite distinctive, and even if occasional aberrations of other species 
should approach this pattern, dimidiata could still be separated by the shape of the hindwing, which has the 
distal margin somewhat concave between the radials and again between the second median and the anal angle ; 
in the cJ also by the antenna, which has the joints angularly projecting and the fascicles of cilia strong. Hind- 
tibia in cJ short, fringed with hair; tarsus over one-half its length. Only moderately variable, chiefly in size 
and in the degree of development of the distal blotches. The ground-colour, normally whitish ochreous, 
is occasionally almost white and occasionally somewhat tinged with reddish. — ab. delictata ab. nov. entirely delictata. 
lacks the characteristic dark distal blotches of the forewing, the distal area being uniform throughout, with 
the subterminal line scarcely indicated by faint shading on either side. Except in the shape of the hind- 
wing and in the dentate-fasciculate ^ antenna this form rather recalls a large extarsaria. A rather extreme 
example of it is figured by Barrett, from the Porritt collection, with the lines more broken up into dots. — 
roseata Trfo". is a rufescent or rosy form which has just been described from Sardinia; the black dots are roseata. 
minute but distinct; the blotch near the anal angle is suffused with violaceous. Aritzo in July and bred in 
September from ova. — • The egg of dimidiata is oval with minute depressions on its surface; it is whitish 
at first, changing to a reddish colouring later. The larva is slender, flattened, tapering anteriorly; skin rugose, 
transversely folded, lateral carination developed; pale ochreous with double dark dorsal line which is faint 
anteriorly (except on the head), strong posteriorly; subdorsal line brown, on middle segments indicated only 
by pairs of dots at the incisions; on the 1. to 5. abdominals pale oblique lines between the dorsal and sub- 



dorsal; lateral ridge whitish, spiracles black; ventral area suffused with blackish. Polyphagous and fond of 
withered or mouldy leaves. Pupa shining yellowish, anal extremity darker. The moth appears in June and 
July, a partial second brood later. Bred specimens of the second brood are more tinged with reddish. It hides 
among hedges, bushes or other herbage by day and is very easily disturbed, but is sluggish, refusing to fly far 
and sometimes prefers to drop or flutter to the ground. In the evening it is more active, and will occasionally 
visit the sugar which is spread for Noctuids. Distributed through the greater part or Europe, Asia Minor and 
Syria and eastward to Transcaspia. 

maderae. Pt. maderae Baker (5 b). Described from the $, the (J not quite certainly known. From the shape 

of the hindwing, however, and the slightly projecting joints of the $ antenna, I very strongly suspect that the 
(J (J described below belong to it. In that case it is evidently a very near relative of dimidiata; but whether 
or not, it cannot be referred to rufaria, as has been done by Staudinger and Warren. In the $ the fore- 
wing is shaped and coloured about as m rufaria, the first line obsolete, the median not very strong, placed 
further beyond the black discal dot; postmedian fine, placed nearer the distal margin than in rw/ana, strongly 
bisinuate, the proximad curves occupying the normal positions, some dark dots or dashes punctuating the line 
where it crosses the veins; fringe rather pale, with more or less distinct blackish dots opposite the veins. Hind- 
wing rather longer than in dimidiata, subcrenulate and with the same two concavities as in that species, though 
sometimes rather slight; all the markings as on the forewing, the median shade preceding the discal dot (in 
rufaria this line, not being oblique, is about equidistant beyond the dot on both wings). Under surface 
less ochreous, forewing more suffused as far as the median shade, paler beyond, hindwing paler; both wings 
with the postmedian line developed, the cell-dots larger than above. The ^^ which I incline to associate 
with these $$ are smaller and rather shorter-winged and lack the ochreous tone, in all these respects more 
nearly approaching dimidiata; I think they must be the insect referred to by Baker as Madeiran dimidiata, 
but if so this author must have overlooked the fact that the antennal joints are further extended into true 
(though quite short) pectinations, an extremely exceptional occurrence in this genus ; there are also several 
other differences. Hindleg similar, the tarsus perhaps slightly shorter. Postmedian line more strongly dark- 
spotted on the veins than in the $, a series of dark .spots proximally to the pale subtermiiial. Madeira. — 
unoslrigata. ab. unostrigata Baker (5 e) is, so far as at present known, a unique form, and it is not surprising that its 
author did not recognize its specific identity with maderae. The types of both, and of the other interesting 
Acidaliids in his collection, have been very kindly lent by then- author for figuring. The ab. unostrigata — a 
$, not a (5^ as accidentally stated in the published description — • has the ground-colour clearer ochreous 
than the types, not mixed with reddish; the postmedian and subterminal lines are obsolete, the cell-spots on 
the contrary somewhat enlarged and the median shade much stronger and thicker, dark fuscous, placed some- 
what nearer to the base on both wings than in the type, thus passing proximally to the cell-spot on the hind- 
wing. The clots on the fringe are strongly expressed, though not enlarged. Beneath similar, the forewing only 
slightly suffused, the hindwing whiter, both wings in addition with very faint indications of the postmedian 

zargi. Pt. zargi Baker (5 e). Only known in a single $ example, the exact position in the genus somewhat 

uncertain. Except iia its larger size, more weakly crenulate distal margin of the hindwing and apparently 
less projecting joints of the antenna it might be said to bear nearly the same relation to maderae as the 
ab. diffluata bears to deversaria H.-Sch. or hiselata ab. fimhriolata to ab. extincta. The underside and the 
position of the markings above are quite similar to maderae, but the basal area of the forewing above, with 
the entire distal area of both wings (excepting the subterminal line) is filled up with dark smoke-colour. The 
fringes are defective, but I camiot find any indication of the dark dots of maderae. The extremities of both 
antennae (which would have shown the subserration more distinctly) are broken off, and I am not absolutely 
certain that the part which remams differs essentially from the corresponding part in maderae. The possibility 
is therefore not at present altogether precluded tliat zargi may be another form of the very variable maderae. 

suhsaturata. Pt. subsaturata Guen. (= miserata Stgr. = subherbariata Rossi.) (4 c). Similar in shape and structure 

to dimidiata, but with both wings projecting somewhat more in the middle. Considerably smaller, more och- 
reous-brownish, median shade better developed, postmedian of hindwing more strongly excurved in the middle; 
the shading distally to the postmedian line quite different, nowhere very intense, but more uniform throughout, 
consisting of three pairs of spots, sometimes united into a band, bounded by a broad pale subterminal line 
which encroaches strongly between the radials ; the space between the subterminal line and the distal margin 
is often as pale as the liiie itself, resulting in the formation of a marginal pale band. Under surface similar, 
forewing more suffused basally, without first line. Egg ovoid, truncate at the ends, the surface regularly mark- 
ed with small longitudinal depressions ; yellowish at first, becoming redder. Larva elongate, tapering anteriorly 
from about the fifth abdominal, rugose and granulated, segmental incisions well marked, lateral ridge well deve- 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 101 

loped; head very small; colour variable, brownish or greenish; dorsal line blackish, double, accompanied by a 
triangular dorsal pattern; lateral ridge pale; setae thickened at their extremities. Pupa little elongate, green- 
ish brown, head darker, wings prominent, abdomen more reddish, spiracles dark brown. — ab. lecerfiata Horn- lecerfiata. 
herg (= brunneofasciata Andreas) (3f) has a slightly more reddish tone, the lines (especially the median) less 
strongly expressed, the dark shading in the distal area, on the other hand, very much intensified 
and showing again (though a little less strongly) distally to the subterminal line, which appears a little 
narrowed. The distal margin of the hindwing seems to project rather less strongly, and the postmedian" 
line similarly to be somewhat less excurved in the middle, and altogether the aspect is that of a separate 
species. Andreas and Homberg have proved, however, by breeding experiments, that this is not the case, 
and one is inclined to regard it as a Mendelian form, although a certain number of examples are more or less 
intermediate in aspect. Andreas obtained from eggs of the type form a brood consisting entirely of ab. lecer- 
fiata, while a pairing of this brood resulted in 65% of lecerfiata 14% of ordinary suhsaturata 12% with the band 
pale, 9% with the band developed but very narrow. If the latter be regarded as a modification of lecerfiata 
and the former of suhsaturata we get 74% : 26%, or very closely the Mendelian ratio, the aberration being, 
as is usual, the Mendelian "dominant", suhsaturata occurs at one locality in S. Prance (Cette) and is distri- 
buted in Spain and Algeria. The form lecerfiata is only yet known from Algeria. There are, at least in 
captivity, three broods in the summer. 

Pt. spissilimbaria Mah., briefly diagnosed on a single specimen from Algeria, without more exact spissilim- 
locality, is a problematical species, and it is doubtful whether it can be certainly identified from the published ^^ria. 
information. As Staudinger has altered the description of the colour, I suppose he has examined Mabille's 
type, and perhaps the fact that he places it next after suhsaturata indicates that he noticed a resemblance 
to that species; if so, it might even be an extreme development of the lecerfiata form, which was at that time 
unknown. In any case it is likely to represent an aberration or variety; apart from Staudinger's indication 
I should have thought it possible that it represented extarsaria eriopodata, earlier described by Mabille as 
atromarginata. spissilimbaria is described as whitish rufous (by Staudinger as dirty ochraceous) with the base 
a little darkened, an ill-developed angled median line and the distal area of both wings very broadly violaceous 
blackish, the proximal edge of this border bisinuate. Under surface whitish in basal half, blackish in distal. 

Pt. foedata Btlr. (= salutaria Chr.) (4 c). Coppery brown with almost straight median and strongly foedata. 
sinuate postmedian dark lines, the forewing in addition with a slightly curved antemedian line. Cell-spots 
blackish, that of the forewing nearly always placed on the median line, hence sometimes not very apparent; 
that of the hindwing on or a little distally to the median line. The area between the postmedian line and the 
distal margin almost always contains some dark shading, but this varies greatly in extent; sometimes it is 
confined on the forewing to a small blotch at the anal angle, more frequently it suffuses the entire posterior 
half and not rarely the whole of the distal area; the latter, according to the description, is Christoph's form; 
on the hindwing the dark shading is oftener weak, or confined to small patches near the angles. Distal margin 
with not very conspicuous dark dots. Underside rather paler, without the first line and the distal shading. (J 
antennal joints projecting, with rather long ciliation; hindtibia rather thick, tarsus as long as tibia. Bt7T- 
ler's type and another from Tokio are rather dark, but there is in general very little variation in the ground- 
colour. Widely distributed in Amurland, Korea, China and Japan and reaching Formosa. June to August. 

Pt. salubraria Stgr. is described as similar to foedata, and indeed its author thinks it is even possible salubraria. 
that it might represent the summer brood of that species; but as he states that the (^ antennal ciliation 
is "short, much shorter than in salutaria" I do not consider that the union is possible. Light clay-yellow 
with black discal dots, the forewing with 3, the hindwing with 2 reddish transverse lines, both wings with 
somewhat darker, violet-grey distal border. The ground-colour is sparsely irrorated with blackish. The lines, 
as in the previous species, variable in their form and position; the discal dot is placed shortly before the 
median line of the forewing, beyond it on the hindwing. The third (postmedian) line is darker posteriorly 
and the violet-grey distal area is here the most pronounced on the forewing ; on the hindwing it is well deve- 
loped throughout. The underside is glossy light-grey, the first line wanting, the median line of the hindwing 
faint. The legs and palpus seem to agree with those of foedata. Differs strikingly from that species in the 
much lighter, yellowish ground-colour and the reddish (not dark) lines. Sutschan district, Ussuri. 

Pt. proximaria ieecA, (7c) described as a CAft/socrasperfa, is distinct in aspect from all the Northern proicwnaHa. 
and Western Palearctic species, slightly recalling some species of the Neotropical genus Hamalia. Yellowish 
light brown, the costal margin of the forewing darker purplish brown, antemedian lines obsolete, postmedian 
sinuous, marked by blackish dots on the veins; distal margin narrowly dark purplish brown, fringe spotted 
with the same opposite the veins, both wings with black discal dot present, that of the forewing with some 

102 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Protjt. 

vague dark shading posteriorly to it. Hindwing slightly bent at 3. radial. Under surface slightly paler, the 
line better marked, the distal border narrower and paler. Moupin in July. Very similar to Chrysocraspeda 
marginata Stvinh., which however, although it will require generic separation from true Chrysocraspeda, differs 
from proximaria in the absence of the areole and is also smaller with less acute apex of forewing. ^ antenna 
with moderate ciliation; hindtibia dilated, with strong hair pencil; hindtarsus much broadened and flattened. 
$ unknown, so that the generic position is not quite certam, but an apparently very close relationship, both 
'superficially and structurally, to Ft. protensa Btl. and the Australian Pt. coercita. T. P. Luc. gives us full con- 
fidence in referring it here. 

■protensa. Pt. protensa 5iZf. (7 c) is much smaller than proxima»"ia, the fore whig more produced apically, the distal 

margin faintly concave in the anterior half. The antemedian Ime of the forewing is present, though fme, and 
both wings show a moderately thick median shade, that of the forewmg touching the cell-spot, that of the 
hindwmg considerable before (proximal to) it; the postmedian is slender, not broken up into dots, outcurved 
from costal margin to first radial, there angled and thence rather near the distal margin, sinuous; the dark 
distal-marginal line on the forewing is accompanied proximally by small irregular spots or suffusion. Beneath 
similar, with a slight dark suffusion in the basal part of the forewing. The vertex of the head is white, 
while in proximaria it is concolorous with the wings. Hmdtarsus abbreviated, its first joint broadened and 
flattened. The only specimens known to me are 2 ^(^ from Dharmsala (type and cotjrpe) and a '^ from 
Simla (taken in August,' at above 2000 m elevation). \ p|- 1 lii p? | , , , 

ampUpen- Pt. amplipeniiis 5^?r. (7 c) is similarly coloured and marked to p-o<e?isa, so similar, indeed, that Butler 

n'is. determined a rather worn $ as "protensa ?" The (^, however, is extraordinarily different in shape, the 
forewing having developed an enormous lobe on the posterior margin, which increases the width of the wing 
by nearly one-half. In both sexes the distal margin of the hindwing is less strongly convex than m protensa. 
The (J is of a brighter yellowish ochreous tone than the two preceding, especially on the forewing. Ante- 
median line weak, median shade wantmg, postmedian in the (J strongly waved, in both sexes forming a deep 
sinus proximad in the submedian area. The dark distal shading is more diffused throughout the distal area 
of the forewing (especially in the $) and the hindwing is also strongly dusted in its distal area. Dharmsala; 
I have seen only the type ^ and the single $ which is referred here by Hampson. 

'impe.ra. Pt. impexa B<?r. (7 c) is a small species, though normally a little larger thein fiielseni, with which it has 

something in common. Glossy light yellowish brown with a slight reddish tinge, the costal margin of the 
forewing reddish or purplish fuscous from the base to well beyond the middle, gradually becoming lighter. 
Discal dots present but very small, usually not very strongly darkened. Lines almost entirely obsolete on 
the upper surface, the commencement of median and postmedian often indicated by costal spots, the median 
occasionally f amtly traceable as a curved I'eddish or greyish line ; a reddish brown or dull purplish band of rather 
less than 1 mm breadth at the distal margin of both wings, touching the margin in the posterior half but re- 
ceding from it slightly in the anterior, so as to leave a narrow space of the ground-colour beyond it. Fringes 
light like the wings. Under surface rather paler, more strongly marked, the median shade and a fine, some- 
what sinuous postmedian line usually rather well developed. Varies slightly in the width of the margmal 
band, which occasionally widens anteriorly so as to obliterate the pale distal space, or curves somewhat so as 
to rejoin the distal margua at the apex, o antenna with long fascicles of cilia; hindleg rather long and slender 
but the tibia strongly clothed with hair. Smaller than jakirna, rather duller coloured, the distal band narrower 
and much more uniform. Japan: distributed, Yokohama to Satsuma, May to the beginning of July; Szechuan: 
Chungking, a small cJ 10 September, evidently of a second_brood. 

-jdkima. Pt. jakima Btlr. (5 b). Pale brownish ochreous, slightly dusted with pink scales, the costal margin 

of the forewing rather darker and more strongly mixed with pink; the inner and median lines pink, not very 
distinct, the former (confined to the forewing) rather strongly curved, the latter on the hindwing placed well 
proximally to the discal dot; postmedian line much darker, sinuate, placed rather near the distal margin 
and standing on the proximal edge of a purplish border ; this border on the forewing contains remnants of 
the ground-colour at the apex of the forewing and is mixed vfith. some olive-grey scales posteriorly, especially 
towards the hinder angle; both wings with small blackish cell-dot. Under surface similar but rather duller 
and more weakly marked, the pink and purplish replaced by greyish and including a suffusion in the basal 
oblUeraria. half of the forewing. — In ab. obliteraria Leech the lines are obsolete on the upper surface, the purplish 
distal border weaker and less definite. Described from a single $ taken on Satsuma in May. It has since been 
recorded from other locaUties by Staudinger. jakima is distributed in Japan, Korea, the Ussuri district and 
Central China, July to September. From the similarly (but rather more brightly) coloured ostrinaria Hbn. 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 103 

it differs essentially in the narrower distal area, especially in the anterior part of the forewing and on the hind- 
wing, where also it is more sharply defined. (^ antenna with fascicles of long cilia; hindtarsus not abbreviated. 

Pt. roseolimbata Pouj. (5 d). Pale straw-colour with the costal margin of the forewing (as far as the roseoUm- 
subcostal) and a broad distal border to both wings of a beautiful rose-pink, the former with some dark ^"'''• 
dusting, the latter traversed by a usually much interrupted subterminal line of the ground-colour and usually also 
more or lessmarkedwiththeground-colour at the distal margin. Lines wanting, or the postmedian very faintly 
indicated as a sinuous proximal edging to the pink border. Cell-dots blackish, quite small. Under surface 
duller, the bordering being grey with only a very slight admixture of pink, and the forewing being more or 
less suffused with the same grey basally; postmedian line better defined than above. Varies only in the extent 
of the straw-coloured markings in the pink borders, which may occupy nearly the whole of the space be- 
tween subterminal line and termen, or may be much more restricted. (J antenna with long fascicles of cilia; 
hindtibia short, tarsus not abbreviated. Apparently distributed in the mountains of W. China at elevations 
of 1500 to above 3000 m, occurring in June and July. A very beautiful and very distinct species, being 
larger than the allies and with broader, brighter margins. 

Pt. nielseni Hedem. (== latimarginata Warr.) (3 f) is smaller than the other rosy-margined species, the nielseni. 
borders, as in roseolimbata, broad, but their colour less bright, more as in jaJcima Btl. Ground-colour pale yellow- 
ish straw-colour, the costal margin of the forewing purplish pink. Both wings with dark purplish discal dot 
and dark bisinuate postmedian line to which follows the purplish pink border, which is partly interrupted 
with the ground-colour at the distal margin itself. Forewing in addition with a weak or obsolescent ante- 
median line. Underside similar, the costal margin and sometimes the entire cell of the forewing rather more 
suffused. cJ antennal ciliation moderately long; hindtarsus not abbreviated. Amurland, Central China and 
Japan, showing no geographical variation. Warren in renaming this easily-recognized little species must 
have overlooked von Hedemann's description. From roseolimbata, apart from its much smaller size and less 
bright colouring, nielseni differs in having the postmedian line better expressed, more deeply sinuate and 
feebly dentate. 

Pt. manicaria H.-Sch. (= volitaria Joan.) (4e) is at once distinguished from nielseni by its brown, manicaria. 
not purplish distal border, but also differs in other respects. The wings are not very broad, the apex of the 
forewing rather sharp, the distal margin slightly flexuous, being more convex in the middle than anteriorly. 
Ochreous light-brown, coarsely irrorated with reddish brown; lines reddish brown, the antemedian (present on 
forewing only) curved somewhat in S-shape, the postmedian slightly curved, followed by an ill-defined dark 
(red-brown) shade, which bounds the subterminal line proximally; cell-spots redbrown, rather variable in size; 
median line finer and weaker than the others, placed distally to the cell-spot on forewing and proximally on 
the hindwing. Under surface similarly marked. Local, Spain and N. Africa. I have only seen $$. 

Pt. fractilineata Zell. {— inclinata Led.) (4 c). Forewing whitish, strongly mixed with pale clay-co- fracti- 
lour which usually (as in the specimen figured) leaves only a narrow and ill-defined antemedian line, a broader ^^^^ "• 
postmedian, closely followed by a very fine, little noticeable line, and rather irregularly bent subterminal 
of the pale colour; cell-spot black; fringe with some obscure, sometimes nearly obsolete dark marks. Hind- 
wing shaped nearly as in dimidiata (the excisions not shown in our figure); usually more whitish and more 
weakly-marked than the forewing, at least in its proximal part; sometimes more nearly agreeing with it; cell- 
spot small and indistinct, occasionally wanting; a strongly bent subterminal line nearly always discernible. 
Under surface more weakly marked. Although I have before me for examination scarcely a dozen specimens 
of this species these are sufficient to indicate that it is subject to considerable variation in size, colour and 
markings. Some examples are much smaller than the one figured, the tone is sometimes greyer, while there is 
not infrequently a more or less distinct dark band (occasionally very strong) proximally to the subterminal 
line and some weaker dark shading distally to it. In the most strongly-marked specimens there is some coarse 
fuscous dusting in the basal area and distinct fuscous antemedian and postmedian line are present, the latter 
being an accentuation of the clay-coloured line which separates the whitish band from the whitish line that 
follows it. But notwithstanding this variability and the fact that it is a rather inconspicuous species, frac- 
tilineata is really not difficult to recognize if the shape of the hindwing, the structure, and the course of the sub- 
terminal line (which is strongly outcurved behind the middle) be taken into consideration. Zeller's type and 
a few other examples show all the lines present though without the fuscous shading, the postmedian of the 
hindwing almost right-angled on the 1. radial. (J antennal joints somewhat projecting, with slender fascicles of mo- 
derately long cilia; hindleg short and weak, tarsus abbreviated. S. Spain, Sicily, Algeria, Egypt to K. Syria. 
April-June, probably throughout the summer."^ — SUbrtlfaria Stgr. may probably be only a form of fractili- subnifaria. 


PTYOHOPODA. By L. B. Pkout. 

neata; at least I can find no valid difference in a pair from Tunis kindly sent me by Herr Pijngeler, 
who has bred it from the egg and who also considers it doubtfully distinct from fractilineata. According 
to Staudinger the lines of the forewing are usually present, but occasionally very weak, the band before the 
subterminal line nearly always developed, the hindwing also with the lines generally present, but not sharply 
expressed. He mentions the similarity of structure to fractilineata, but fails to give his usual valuable com- 
parative descriptions or differentiations, and the characters which he gives would be equally applicable to cer- 
tain fractilineata. I can therefore only apply the name to the strongly marked forms of that species occurring 
in Algeria and Tunis. 

lobaria. Pt. lobaria Chref. is described as being near fractilineata but with the (^ antenna "strongly pecti- 

nated". Authors do not all apply this term in precisely the same way, and from the detailed description 
I gather that Chretien only refers to projecting joints with strong fascicles of cilia. According to Chre- 
tien the forewing is a little prolonged apically, very pale clay-colour with sparse dark brown dusting, the lines 
weak, especially the inner, median shade vague, narrow, subterminal line whitish, more distinct than the other 
markmgs; hindwing with the excision between the radials very deep, leaving a broad lobe on either side, 
colour whitish at base, then pale clay-colour with whitish subterminal line. Underside similar, but Avith the 
lines and especially the discal dots much more distinct. Larva short and thick, carinated laterally, atte- 
nuated anteriorly, beginning from the fourth abdominal, and posteriorly, beginning from the sixth; segment- 
incisions rather pronounced; skin transversely folded, rugose, granulated; reddish ockreous, dorsal band 
reddish brown, becoming tliicker and blacker at the incisions, weaker between; subdorsal similar, but 
still more interrupted; lateral ridge pale yellowish, slightly rosy; tubercles and spiracles indistinct, setae very 
short. Feeds in July on fresh or withered leaves. Imago in May and June, probably again later. Algeria: 


Pt. subpurpurata Stgr. (3f). Another of the very small species, the only ^ known to me much 
smaller even than the figured ,^. Ground-colour deeper and brighter than in manicaria, but not quite so bright 
as in exilaria; both wings with the area distally to the postmedian line uniformly darker (more inclining to 
purplish) excepting a fine line immediately adjoining the postmedian and a less fine, undulate subterminal, 
which both remain of the ground-colour. The lines also purplish, the first (on forewing only) and median 
sinuous, sometimes near together, the median rather thick, the postmedian following a similar course to the 
median or rather more strongly outcurved in its anterior part; no distinct cell-spots; fringes unmarked. 
Under surface similar, forewing without first line. (^ antennal joints somewhat projecting, ciliation not very 
long; hindleg short, tarsus extremely abbreviated. Syria, Tarsus and Mesopotamia. Rather variable in the 
degree of development of the distal shading. Hindwing not at all concave between radials and posteriorly, 
merely straighter (less convex) than the intervening "part. 

sanciaria. Pt. satictaria (Sigr. (7 c) is only known to me from the figure and description, but should be quite easy 

to recognize, unless it is more variable than is yet known to be the case. Size of subpurpurata. Deep 
ochreous, with sharp black discal dots, before which are placed on the forewing two on the hindwing one 
black line, on the latter also some dark basal dusting; the distal of these two lines of the forewing and 
the single line of the hindwing (i. e. the median of both wings) are angled outwards about the third radial. 
A curved postmedian line commences at the costal margin of both wings shortly beyond the discal dot, but 
is incomplete. In the hindwing, the second subcostal vein is very long-stalked. Under surface uniform shiny 
clay-yellow with the costal margin of the forewing narrowly ochreous. Sometimes, at least in the cJ, the 
proximal black lines are more or less obscured by dark dusting. Valley of the Jordan, Palestine, in May. Com- 
pared with helianthemata Mill., but the cJ antennal structure as in subpurjjurata. 

exilaria. w \ Pt. exilaria Guen. (= transmutata Bbr. = esterelata Mill.) (4a, as filacearia; 4c) is usually of a 
rather bright reddish fulvous, the markings rather darker, more brownish or more purplish ; the most distinctive 
marking is the sinuous distal band, occupying on the forewing the space between the postmedian and sub- 
terminal lines and of equal width throughout, and on the hindwing more ill-defined. Well-marked specimens, 
such as the example we figure, represent Guenee's type and have the inner and median lines present, for- 
med nearly as in subpurpurata. ^ antenna with fascicles of long cilia; hindleg short and weak, tarsus greatly 
abbreviated. All the figures known to me show this form, the dark band either brownish fulvous or purplish 
to blackish. Guenee knew also the weakly marked form and seems to be 'approximately right in treating it 
gynochro- as characteristic of the $. — ab. gynochromaria Romberg is an extreme cJ aberration of yellower (less reddish) 
marm. colour with the markings obsolete both above and beneath. — Larva very distinct from most species, more 
cylindrical, of medium thickness, without lateral ridge, head large, dark, a dark prothoracic plate, body 

Puhl. 5. IV. 1913. PTYOHOl'ODA. By L. B. Prout. 105 

whitish, tubercles black, setae more conspicuous than usual. Polyphagous on flowers. Pupa amber yellow, 
not described. The moth is only partially double-brooded. S. France, Spain, N. Africa and .Syria. 

Pt. fatimata Stgr. (4 o). Shape and structure of the preceding, generally somewhat smaller and jjaler, jallnuda. 
but very variable, the distal band on the forewing straighter, on the hindwing more sharply defined, at least 
proximally, the post median line being well expressed and separated from the band by a fine pale line. Some- 
times the band is extended so as to occupy almost the whole distal area, but commonly it is narrow. In ge- 
neral the colouring somewhat recalls Emmiltis and Cleta. (^ antennal ciliation moderately long. Larva moderate- 
ly long, attenuated anteriorly, rugose, folded dorsally, shiny greenish or yellowish grey, tubercles small, 
black, setae longer than usual, no very distinct markings. S. Spain and Algeria in April and (at least in cap- 
tivity) a second brood in July. 

Pt. eburnata Wocke (= contiguaria Hb. nee Bkh.) (4 c). We here commence a new group, in which ebuniuiu. 
the species bear a more or less close superficial resemblance to the marginepunctata-gromp of Acidalia and 
the genus Glossotrophia; this resemblance is certainly in part brought about by the similarity of resting- 
habits, rocks, stones or walls being chosen in preference to the shelter of bushes. The usually whitish ground- 
colour, often with dense dark dusting, subterminal line twice broadening, accompanied proximally by pairs 
of dark spots or an interrupted band are characteristic. The very irregular course of the median shade is ge- 
nerally distinctive of eburnata. The under surface is more weakly marked, the first line of the forewing ab- 
sent, the hindwing whiter than the forewing. ^ antennal joints swollen, with rather long ciliation; hind- 
tibia not very strongly thickened, with a slender hair-pencil, the tarsus not much shorter than the tibia. Varies 
considerably; some aberrations, tending to develop into local races in particular localities, have been named. 
— • ab. obscura Fuchs differs from the type form in having almost the entire surface of both wings (except obscuru. 
the subterminal line) strongly dusted with dark scales, giving to the insect an appreciably darkened appea- 
rance. In the type form the dusting is rather sparse. This dark form is prevalent in the Rheingau and is also 
well known in North Wales. It seems to be topographical rather than geographical, being dependent on the 
colour of the rocks on which it rests. — ab. fuscalata Fuchs is the extreme melanotic development of ob- fusadata. 
scura, uniformly infuscated, the markings sometimes almost entirely obliterated. — ab. dirutaria Fuchs is dindaria. 
a weakly-marked yellowish form, the dark dusting very slight, the lines obsolescent, chiefly indicated by the 
dark costal spots from which they start, some dark dusting proximally to the subterminal. This aberration 
and the preceding were obtained chiefly by breeding and — like ab. obscura — Fuchs records them from his 
own district, the Rheingau. Staudinger writes of ab. fuscalata "forma domestica", but Fuchs points out 
(Stett. Ent. Zeit., vol. 62, p. 133) that this is not entirely correct, as he has occasionally, although rarely, 
taken it wild. The matter has been further discussed by F. Fuchs (Soc. Ent., vol. 19, p. 17). Also in Britain 
these extreme forms have occurred. — ab. pallidaria Fuchs is rather small and narrow-winged, paler, weakly pallidaria. 
dusted, the lines sharply expressed. Described from Spain, possibly a local race. — The egg is a flattened 
oval, the surface covered rather regularly with minute pitting; pale when first laid, it gradually assumes an 
orange colouring. The larva is rugose, moderately stout, gradually tapering anteriorly, the head small, the ven- 
tral surface somewhat flattened, the lateral swollen; dorsal area yellowish brown, the abdominal segments 
with a weak, double dorsal line, swelling out and blackening in the middle of the 1. — 5. abdominals; sub- 
dorsal line blackest on the thoracic segments; tubercles black. Various foodplants are mentioned by different 
writers, and in confinement it will, like most of the genus, accept various common weeds; a friend of my 
own has found the larvae in the wild state on Cotyledon, but it is oftenest obtained by rearing from the egg. 
In captivity a succession of broods may be obtained, but the natural period of flight is from about mid- 
summer and through July. Local in Central and Southern Europe, but not extending far eastward. The 
Chinese and Korean specimens recorded by Leech do not belong here; a 3* from Chow-pin-sa belongs to the 
genus, but has rather shorter antennal ciliation, rather shorter tarsus and very strong black spots on the fringe, 
but as the wings are a little rubbed I refrain from describing it. The two $$ (Chang Yang and Gensan) 
belong structurally to Acidalia, but are not in perfect condition and must await the discovery of their ^.. 
contiguaria is a sluggish insect and is found resting on rocks, chiefly in mountainous country. 

Pt. sabulosa sp. nov. (7d). Size of the senata-group (wing-expanse 19 — 21 mm, English system of mea- sahuhsa. 
surement), distal margin of forewing smooth, of hindwing almost fully rounded, only a little flattened between 
the radials and from the first median to anal angle. Face blackish, vertex dirty white, collar brown. (J anten- 
nal joints not projecting, the ciliation even, scarcely longer than the diameter of the shaft. ^J hindtibia consi- 
derably thickened, with strongly expansile hair-pencil, tarsus extremely short. Dirty whitish, densely dusted 
with coarse, dark greyish-sandy scales. Markings formed by an accumulation of these scales, perhaps accom- 
panied by a slight suffusion of the ground-colour. Forewing with extreme costal edge dark fuscous ; the lines 

IV 14 

106 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Pbout. 

commencing from stronger and usually slightly enlarged costal spots, the first slightly curved, sinuate inwards in 
posterior part, accentuated by darker marks on the veins, the postmedian formed about as in eburnata, or the teeth 
slightly less pronounced; median shade thick, distinct at posterior margin but almost or entirely dying out 
about the cell-spot; pale subterminal line strongly sinuous, moderately dark-shaded proximally and distally; 
cell-spot large, black; no marginal line; fringe with dark spots. Hindwing similar, first line wanting, cell-spot 
smaller. Under surface very glossy, without markings ; forewing more brownish, hindwing more whitish. Dras, 
Kashmir, 2 ^^, 3 ?$ collected in June 1887 by J. H. Leech. One (J is less strongly dark-dusted than the other 

humeraria. Ft. humeraria Walk. (= cerussina Btlr.) (7d). A pretty and very distinct species. Wings rattier narrow, 

whitish ashy (sometimes tinged with ochreous), dusted with fuscous scales, the median area of the forewing 
and basal half of hindwing, however, almost free from dark dusting; the markings fuscous, arranged nearly 
as in eburnata but with the median shade on both wings quite weak, ochreous, not fuscous; costal mar- 
gin of forewing from base to first line broadly blackis h-f u s c o u s. Under sur- 
face without markings, glossy, the forewing with smoky suffusion. Antennal ciliation in ^ moderate, even; 
hindtarsus not abbreviated. The shape recalls that of a rather narrow-winged seriata, to the average size 
of which it also approximates; distal margin of forewing strongly oblique, nearly straight; of hindwing very 
slightly excised between the radials. Dharmsala, Kulu, Simla, etc. 

consoUdata. Pt. consolidata-Lec?. (7 d) rather nearly resembles e6itrwato in colouring and markings and it is probably 

for this reason that Staudinger has placed it in this position. It does not approach it very closely in structure, 
the cJ antennal joints projecting less, with the ciliation shorter, the hindtarsus in the cJ greatly abbreviated. 
Further differs from eburnata in the less developed dark costal spots of the forewing, much weaker and less 
zigzag median shade (sometimes almost obsolete), position of the postmedian line somewhat further from 
the distal margin, large dark dots near the base of the pale fringes, weaker-marked underside and other 
characters. In any case the yellower and darker forms of eburnata could be at once distinguished by their 
colour, for consoUdata, so far as I know it, does not vary greatly but remains whitish. Larva rather thick, 
tapering somewhat anteriorly, transversely folded, lateral carination sharp; head dark brown, body greenish 
black-brown, 2. — 5. abdominal segments each anteriorly with a somewhat raised whitish yellow transverse 
dorsal protuberance ; the dorsal tubercles on the last few segments placed on yellowish elevations ; spiracles 
very small, brown, the tubercles in their vicinity black. Pupa comjiact, light brown, the cremaster dark with 
very short anal hooks. Imago in June — July and again in September. S. E. Europe, N. Syria, Asia Minor 
and Persia, local. Perhaps also in Sicily, and I have a single ^ from Moncayo (N. E. Spain) which seems 
clearly referable here but has become greasy and looks darker — rather recalling the description of joanmsialu. 

libycata. Pt. libycata Bartel (3f) represents consoUdata' in Algeria, and doubts have even been expressed 

whether it should be treated as a distinct species, neither the larva nor the perfect insect seeming to show 
any very important differences. As, however, the cJ antennal joints aj)pear to be appreciably more projec- 
ting, and the costal margin of the forewing more convex, so tiiat the wing appears broader, I prefer to keep 
it distinct. For the rest Ubycata differs chiefly in being on an average more strongly dark-dusted and better 
marked, sometimes with a more lirownish ground-colour, the antemedian and postmedian lines of the fore- 
wing tending to become more nearly approximated, especially at the costal margin. Larva thick, attenuated 
anteriorly, strongly carinated, segment-incisions deep; skin very rough and granulated, folded transversely; 
head blackish; a quadrate blackish dorsal spot on the metathorax extending to part of the 1. abdominal, 
the following segment-incisions with X-shaped dorsal markings; ventral area blackish grey, with a similar 
but weaker pattern. Double-brooded, or perhaps with a succession of broods. From eggs obtained late in May 
HoMBERG bred the moths in August. 

vesubiata. Pt. vesubiata Mill. (4 c) is another rather broad-winged species with, in some measure, the eburnata 

habitus. In the antennal and leg structure it nearly agrees with consoUdata, the ciliation perhaps even shorter. 
The much less distinct spots in the fringe, together with much thicker, stronger interneural dark marks on the 
distal margin itself will readily distinguish it from consoUdata. The median line of the hindwing follows nearly 
the same as in eburnata, but that of the forewing is in general much less incurved posteriorly, thus less 
approximated to the inner line. The dark costal spots at the origin of the lines are well expressed. The ground- 
colour is sometimes browner than in the specimen figured. Under surface with strong lines and discal dots, 
the forewing somewhat smoky, the hindwing whiter; first line of forewing wanting, the shading between post- 
median and subterminal weaker than above. By some error Millie re has figured the larva of asellaria as 
vesubiata. That of the true vesubiata is moderately slender, tapering little, somewhat flattened, the lateral ridge 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 107 

only weak; dorsal area usually of a dark, warm wood-brown, lighter spotted along the lateral ridge, the 
last segments somewhat lighter with dark middles; the 4 middle segments each with two fine white dots; 
ventral area darker. The pupa is similar to that of seriata but larger, more mixed with greenish, especially 
the head and wings. The egg is pale lilac or brownish. — vesubiafa is exceedingly local, being apparently 
confined to the district of the Maritime Alps, both in France and Italy. It is found sitting on rocks and 
occurs in June — July; in captivity, perhaps very occasionally in a state of nature, there is a partial second 

Pt. asellaria H.-Sch. (= typicata Guen. = reynaldiata Rouast) (4 c). The name which is in common aseUaria. 
use for this species may possibly be incorrect, as Herrich-Schaffer's figure is scarcely good enough to allow 
of certain identification and his type specimen was said to come from Corsica, which is not a positively known 
locality for our species. The name of reynaldiata quite certainly represents it, and according to Staudinger's 
examination of Guenee's type that of typicata (at one time erroneously supposed to be a form of eburnata, 
•with which Guenee compares it) is equally certain. Nearly always smaller than the four preceding species; 
only in breeding, as with some other Ptychojmda, giant specimens may occasionally be obtained. Distinguishable 
also by its nearly uniform grey dusting, even the pale subterminal line not being so largely free from dusting 
as in the allies, hence not so conspicuous. From the same cause the dark shading proximally to the subter- 
minal is not conspicuous. The postmedian line on both wings forms a sharper angle on the first radial than 
in the allies; only ^^6^/cato sometimes appears rather sharply angled here, but this is when the line is markedly 
incurved costally, which is not the case with aseUaria. The postmedian line of the hind wing is nearer to the 
discalspot, appearing as a continuation of the median of the forewing; only consolidata shows even an approach 
to this arrangement. The cell-spots are always large, especially that of the hindwing. The distal marginal 
line is broken up into small dashes, but these are not so strongly thickened as in vesubiata. The dots on the 
fringe are variable, but as a rule not nearly so strong as in consolidata and libycata. Under surface near 
that of vesubiata, the median line rather less strongly expressed. Before all, the (J hindleg has retained the 
terminal spurs, and the species should have been placed in the section Sterrha but for its extraordinary affinity 
with the spurless alyssumata. The (^ antennal ciliation is rather short. — hornigaria Stgr. is a much darker homigaria. 
form from the Tyrol (Bozen), described as of a dark violaceous grey, sometimes almost unicolorous. The 
few examples which I have seen are probably not among the most extreme which do occur, and although 
they are quite distinguishable from the normal form they can scarcely be considered very striking. — ab. 
ruminata Mill, seems to me (from the figure) still less striking, though its author calls it a "constant variety", ruminata. 
commoner some years than the type. The ground-colour is a little darkened, the lines strong and thick. — • 
Larva stumpy, attenuated anteriorly, dorsal surface flattened, lateral carination strong; head small; skin 
rugose and shagreened, the markings appearing to be formed by lighter and darker granulations; colour 
variable, lighter or darker grey or clay-colour; dorsal line fine and pale, obsolete on last few segments, on 
middle segments broadenest; lateral ridge with a row of large black spots; ventral area with weak, angled 
markings. Polyphagous, preferring withered leaves. Digne to the Southern Tyrol. 

Pt. alyssumata Mill. (3 f ). Scarcely distinguishable from the preceding except by the structure of alyssumata. 
the (J hindleg, which, though not aborted, always lacks the spurs. Otherwise the resemblance is so exact 
that it has been placed as a probable variety of asellaria. I think that on an average it is somewhat smaller, 
paler and more yellowish grey, as Staudinger indicates, but none of these differences is constant. As a rule, 
also, the course of the postmedian line is more irregular in alyssumata, but it varies appreciably in both spe- 
cies. The under surface of alyssumata is in general more weakly marked, with only the postmedian line 
present, and even this often faint; but I have before me a form of alyssumata from the Eastern Pyrenees 
with the lines extraordinarily strongly expressed above, and in this form the character is reproduced beneath. 
alyssumata seems much the more variable species ; from Barcelona I have seen a form in which the coloration 
is strongly suffused with bright reddish. The egg is rounded, dark fulvous, not fully described. The larva 
is short and thick, similar in form to that of asellaria; in coloration it seems to be much more variegated, 
the dorsal area vinous reddish, marbled with white, brown and yellowish, each segment with a pale dorsal 
patch, the 2. — 5. abdominals with distinct yellow (in Milliere's figure white), black-margined spots at the 
incisions ; ventral area uniform dark slate-colour. Supposed to feed on Centaurea aspera, but will accept various 
flowers and leaves. Spain and the Pyrenees, single-brooded, occurring in July — ^August. 

Pt. nocturna Stgr. (3f). Of this species I only known the single specimen {^) kindly lent by Herr nocturna. 
PiJNGELER. It is much darker than any form of asellaria or alyssumata and rather recalls Glossotrophia con- 
finaria ab. falsaria, from which of course the neuration of the hindwing would distinguish it even if the resem- 

108 PTYOHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 

blance were much closer. The ground-colour is pale greyish ochreous, but even in the meaian area, which is 
the palest, this is so strongly and coarsely dusted with dark chocolate that the latter may almost be considered 
the prevailing tone. In the basal area this is still more the case, while the broad distal area is almost entirely 
of the dark colour, though containing (especially on the hindwing) an indistinct sinuous subterminal line of 
the ground-colour. On the forewing 3, on the hindwing 2 indistinct dark lines, waved or almost angled, 
rather nearly approximated. Forewing with a rather strong cell-spot placed on the median line; hindwing 
with smaller, less strong spot. Under surface of a similar but more uniform chocolate tone, the markings 
obsolete. Antenna with fascicles of moderately long cilia; hindtarsus rather short, scarcely half as long as the 
tibia. Staudinger described this species from a single, somewhat damaged ^ from Namangan, N. Ferghana, 
which was perhaps even more uniformly dark than the specimen here described. 

strwJata. Pt. striolata Stgr. Dark (violet-)grey with black discal dots, an obscure dark median shade and a 

series of black postmedian dashes continued on the hindwing as a dentate line. Discal dot smaller on fore- 
wing than oil hindwing, closely followed (almost crossed) by the median shade, which on the hindwing is stron- 
ger and precedes the discal dot. On each vein of the forewing proximally to the median shade there are usually 
a small black dash and dot. Limbal line composed of black dashes; fringe lighter with thick black dots in 
basal half. Underside of forewing blackish grey, almost unicolorous or with discal dot and 2 indistinct 
dark outer lines. Hindwing sometimes with broad dark distal border ; beneath light grey with the lines distinct. 
Antennal ciliation in ,^ long, hindtarsus very short. Syria. Unknown to me. 

consncinia. Pt. consociata Stgr. Somewhat suggests a large consolidata, but is quite different in colour, being 

clay-yellow. Wings dusted with blackish and with black, rather elongate discal spots. Inner line very 
weak, median shade wanting, postmedian line better expressed, followed by an indistinct band of dark, 
more or less confluent spots; the figure shows that the postmedian follows a pretty normal course, being 
incurved in the usual positions. Under surface glossy clay-yellowish with only the discal marks and post- 
median line weakly present. Only the 5 is known, and I have never seen it. Mardin, Northern Mesopotamia. 

maurita- Pt. mauritanica Baker (5 d). Similar in shape and colour to cervantaria, but larger. Ground-colour 

nica. ochreous, inconspicuously dusted with fine darker scales. Forewing with antemedian and postmedian lines 
slightly greyish but extremely feeble, only a little more noticeable from costa to subcostal vein and thence 
as dark marks on the veins; antemedian oblique outwards to subcostal, then lunulate between the vein-dots; 
postmedian angularly broken distally between the subcostal and first radial, then formed somewhat like 
antemedian ; in certain lights a slight darkening midway between the lines indicates towards the posterior 
margin the position of the median shade; a slightly pale waved subterminal line is discernible, and there are 
rather distinct terminal dots and some not very distinct dark dots on the base of the fringe; the only 
prominent marking is the black discal spot. Hindwing slightly paler, at least in its proximal part; no ante- 
median line, the rest nearly as on forewing. Under surface rather paler, the discal dots obsolescent, the 
postmedian line on the contrary better expressed, slightly thickened, not stronger on the veins. ^J antennal 
joints projecting, with longish fascicles of cilia; hindleg short, the tibia not very strongly thickened, the tarsus 
less than one-half the length of tibia. Guelma, Algeria, June. I have only seen the type specimen. It may 
possibly be a large, extremely weakly marked form of cervantaria, but the subterminal line does not seem to 
follow the same course and perhaps a more strongly marked example would reveal other differences in the 
arrangement of the markings. 

metohiensis. Pt. metohieiisis Ebl. Also larger than cervantaria, but with the wings more elongate, the ground- 

colour pure white, not yellowish, the markings much finer, in particular with the lines less thickened at the 
costal margin of the forewing ; the central area is somewhat narrower and the dark marginal dashes between 
the veins are wanting. The mai'kings are brownish, the discal dots black, distinct. The median shade of the 
wing, which arises about the middle of the posterior margin, unites with the inner line before the middle 
of the wing. Gacko, Metohia (Herzegovina), re.sting on rocks in July. Only known to me from Rebel's descrip- 
tion, Structure as in cervantaria. 

okharia. Pt. okbarla Chret. Related to cervantaria, the collar (as in that species) not darkened, (J antenna 

with very long ciliation, hindtibia not thickened, tarsus long. Yellowish white, strongly dusted with brown. 
First line represented by a large costal, a small median and a posterior spot; postmedian sinuous and 
dentate, sometimes marked only by dots on the veins; pale subterminal bordered with brown spots, those 
on either side of the first median vein the largest, roundest and best defined; median shade very sinuous, fine, 

' ■ ■ PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Peoot. 109 

only strong at the costa, where it arises near the postmedian ; discal dot sharply expressed, black or blackish ; 
distal margin with an interrupted blackish line ; fringe dotted with black opposite the veins. Hindwing with- 
out the first line ; discal dot placed distally to the median. Fore wing beneath infuscated at the base ; the lines 
and discal dots sometimes distinct, especially in the $. The egg is ellipsoid, flattened at the sides, with 
a central depression; surface marked with small irregular shallow polygonal, rounded or oval depressions; 
white, changing to orange. Larva shaped about as that of cervantaria: moderately elongate, attenuated 
anteriorly from the fifth abdominal, carinated laterally, segment-incisions well marked, skin moderately folded; 
head small; body with dorsal area ochreous, ventral brown, lines hardly distinct: dorsal very fine, pale, 
bordered with brown, which widens so as to form dark marks at the incisions and a little beyond the middle 
of the middle segments; lateral yellowish white, especially distinct anteriorly; ventral fine, pale, edged with 
blackish brown near the incisions; tubercles not very distinct except the dorsal, which are dark brown; setae 
very short; spiracles brown-ringed. Feeds on dead leaves and detritus, but seems difficult to rear. Pupa unde- 
scribed. Imago double-brooded, appearing in May — June and August — September. Gafsa, Tunis. Only 
known to me from the description. 

Pt. cervantaria is a rather variable species, separable into two principal races according to the ground- 
colour. The form of the wings and the general arrangement of the markings associate it mth the preceding 
group of species, though the fore wing is perhaps a little narrower and more pointed than the average. The 
pale ground-colour is moderately dusted with dark atoms; the lines are present, starting from dark spots on . 
the costa, the pale subterminal is accompanied by some dark shading proximally; the first line is curved, 
blackest and thickest on the veins; the median inbent posteriorly; the postmedian marked with dark teeth 
on the veins; cell-spots distinct; distal margin with thick, elongate interneural marks. Under surface more 
glossy, quite weakly marked. (J antenna and hindleg about as in mauritanica. The larva is elongate, ta- 
pering anteriorly, the head small, the skin-folds marked, the lateral ridge developed; clay-colour, nearly without 
markings; dorsal band broad, pale ochreous yellow, sometimes darkened on the thoracic and first abdominal 
segments; lateral line fine and undulate, a little paler than the ground-colour; ventral area more or less 
strongly slate-grey, with a pale medio-ventral line which broadens on each segment to an elongate lozenge- 
shaped mark; spiracles small, whitish, encircled with brown. Feeds, at least in captivity, on Alyssum. Pupa 
moderately elongate, generally yellowish green, with the head, abdominal extremity and wing-veins marked 
in reddish brown. The moth is double-brooded. — cervantaria Mill. (3 f) is of an ochreous or yellowish cervantaria. 
tone and is found in S. France (Collioure) and Catalonia. — depressaria St^r. (3 f), which represents it in Sou- depressaria. 
thern Spain and North Africa and seems the much commoner form, is whitish grey with scarcely any tinge 
of yellow and thus presents a very different appearance, as is well shown in our figures. This pale form 
rather nearly resembles some forms of eburnata but has the lines weaker, the costal spots not so large and strong, 
the one at the commencement of the median shade placed rather further distad, the white blotches into 
which the subterminal line expands not quite so strong, and some other slight differences. 

Pt. incisaria Stgr. (3g, {J$). I have slightly altered the position of this species from that assigned incisaria. 
to it by Staudinger in order to bring it nearer to striata Schrank, to certain forms of which it bears an ex- 
ceedingly close resemblance. Coloration and general scheme of markings both above and beneath altogether 
as in that species. Shape of forewing also very similar, but with slightly sinuous distal margin, foreshadow- 
ing the form which becomes so distinctive on the hindwing. Hindwing with distal margin crenulate, strongly 
excised between the radials and more shallowly between the first median and the hinder angle, which latter 
sometimes appears slightly lobed. In the markings the most obvious distinction is the presence of a rather 
large dark costal spot at the point of origin of the median shade on the forewing. A close examination 
shows also several slight differences in the course of the lines, the pale subterminal of the hindwing in 
particular tending to follow the bends in the shape of the distal margin. The dark shading distally to the 
postmedian line is more bjoken up into spots. Collar not dark-coloured. ^ hindtarsus very short, much 
more so than in seriata. The (^ is usually similar to the figured $; the figured J", lent by Herr Pungeler 
(bred from Biskra), shows an unusually pale aberration. The characteristic incisions in the distal margin 
of the hindwing are not brought out in either figure. Egg ellipsoid, with regular, rather shallow poly- 
gonal depressions, not arranged in lines; whitish at first, becoming blotched with rose-colour. Larva tapering 
anteriorly, carinated laterally, segment-incisions rather deep, skin moderately folded, hardly rugose except 
the anterior and posterior segments; ochreous, more or less reddish, with vague brownish lines; dorsal divided 
by a fine pale line, little distinct even anteriorly; subdorsal better indicated on the first 4 or 5 segments; 
carina pale yellowish ochreous, followed by a blackish brown band; ventral surface paler clay-colour with 
a geminate median line forming some small lozenges; tubercles very small, brownish, not prominent, setae 
very short; head as wide as prothorax, concolorou*, but spotted with brown. Feeds on low plants, accepting 
fresh or withered leaves. Pupa rather short, yellowish grey with rows of dark brown dorsal spots and with 
dark wing-veins; cremastral bristles normal, incisaria was described from Southern Portugal but has since 

llO PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 


been taken in some numbers in Algeria, as at Biskra and Philippe ville. There is a succession of bio^d; — in 
captivity certainly three, May — June, July — August, October. 

marrolica. Pt. marcotica Drmidt (3g, as mareotensis) has the hindwing similarly shaped to that of the preceding 

species but with the crenulations rather more regular, the excision between the radials less deep, the projec- 
tion at the 3. radial and 1. median less prominent; anal angle produced as in incisaria. Wings slightly 
jiarrower, less strongly dusted, the costal spot at origin of median line weaker, occasionally even obsolete, 
the lines of the forewing angled on the 2. submedian, reaching the posterior margin very obliquely as in 
calu7ietaria, those of the hindwing much less sinuous than in incisaria. ^ antennal joints more projecting than 
in the allies. Hindtarsus of S longer than in incisaria, somewhat shorter than in albitorquata. The brownish- 
grey shade which follows the postmedian line is continuous, or in any case not broken up into spots; it is ge- 
nerally rather well developed, but mareotica is rather variable in this and other respects. Some specimens 
are darker and more strongly marked than the one figured, some paler and weaker-marked. The larva is rather 
compact, flattened, with prominent lateral carination; almost uniform yellow-grey ^with quite weak dorsal 
X-markings crossing the segment-incisions. Mariout Desert, Lower Egypt, probably in a succession of broods. 
I possess a worn (^ which was taken at light at Alexandria, 2 July 1904, by Mr. P. P. Graves. 

albUnrqttata. Pt. albitorquata Pwiig. (3 f). Hindwing still less irregularly shaped, more approaching that of seriata. 

From that species it differs in the whitish collar, the somewhat coarser (though not denser) dark atoms, more 
conspicuous black marks on the distal margin and also in the structure of the (J antenna and hindleg. cj an- 
tennal joints scarcely at all projecting; hindtibia more swollen, tarsus shorter, more approaching mareotica. 
Until quite recently this species was entirely overlooked, on account of its strong superficial resemblance to 
the whitish southern forms of the variable seriata or to sodaliara or camparia, all of which have the collar 
brown. It is on an average somewhat larger in size. Already known from Sicily, Greece, Asia Minor and 
Mesopotamia, thus has evidently a wide range. Herr Pungeler has reared it from the egg. As with seriata, 
nnpoleon. there is a succession of broods, the life cycle being completed in two or three months. — napoleon form. nov. 
(5 b) may possibly be a dark local form of albitorquata, but more probably a separate species. Unfortuna- 
tely only the $ is yet known, but this seems to have the antennal joints somewhat more prominently angled 
at their extremities than albitorquata. Smaller, the white ground-colour much more densely dusted with the 
large dark atoms, the dark markings also much more distinct, indeed more blackish than in the most strongly- 
marked examples of seriata known to me. Antemedian and postmedian lines formed similarly to those of se- 
riata but thicker, more contiiiuous, the teeth on the veins thicker and stronger; median shade faintly indi- 
cated in light brownish; a series of strong fuscous spots proximally to the subterminal line; distal marginal 
black strokes on an average even more strongly developed than in tyj^ical albitorquata. Under surface also 
more strongly marked than in seriata. Corsica : Bastelica, 30 July, 1 905 (t3rpe, in my collection) ; Ajaccio, 9 June, 
1899 (cotype, British Museum). Herr Pungeler informs me that he has also an example, without exact loca- 
lity. I further learn from him that a very similar form occurs in the mountains of Sardinia which except 
for the apparent (slight) antennal difference might be referred here and which he inclines to regard as a 
small dark mountain race of albitorquata. Further material is required for a full elucidation of these various 
closely-allied forms, but the Corsican nwpoleon is so distinct and easily separated from typical albitorquata 
obUipinrui. that I do not hesitate to call attention to it. — obliquaria Trti. After the above was written, and indeed 
just as we are going to press, the above-mentioned Sardinian form has been described as a new species by 
TuRATi; it will possibly, on side-by-side comparison, prove to supplant my 7iapoleon, notwithstanding the 
apparent difference in the antenna. "Form of virgularia. Hbn., but smaller than albitorquata Piing., between 
which species it seems to come. Forewing more elongate ; colour blackish grey. Transverse lines more oblique, 
very black, distinct, less dentate; bands (marginal and submarginal) somewhat similar to albitorquata, Piing.; 
but with the submarginal from the middle of the wing-margin to the posterior angle dark and broadly diffuse. 
Hindwing with the submarginal line also diffuse. Under surface smoky, with black lines formed of dashes 
on the veins. Thorax and abdomen concolorows, dark grey, head lighter, not sharply contrasted with the col- 
lar. 9 (^, 1 9 Monte Chiesa, collected in May and June, reared from ova in July and August". According to the 
discoverer, G. C. Kruger, the larva differs from that of albitorquata. 

joannisiala. Pt. joannisiata Homberg (= ? campata Pbr. nee H.-Sch.) is unknown to me except from Homberg's 

excellent description and the notes which accompany it. It was discovered in 1901 near Vernet-les-Bains 
(Eastern Pyrenees) but was at first misidentified as camparia. If it is really identical with the campata 
of Rambur it occurs also in Andalusia, but as the figure shows rather slighter angles in the lines and the me- 
dian shade removed a little further distad than in joannisiata the identity is not established; the Andalusian 
specimens which I have seen appear to be true camparia, but in any case are clearly not joannisiata. The 
latter is distinguished by its glossy pale bro\vnish grey colour, strongly different from the coarsely dusted, dirty 


white tone of camparia, by the position of the lines and espeeiully ijy the structure. ,^ antenna very shortly 
and finely ciliated, the ciliation not as long as the diametei' of the shaft; hindtibia strongly dilated, with long 
hair-pencil, tarsus extremely short. Wing-markings blackish brown, consisting of thick, nearly parallel lines, 
more strongly marked at the margins of the forewing; antemedian angulated, mediaji crossing the disoal dot 
of forewing or approximated to it distally; postmedian punctuated on the veins, forming a very small but 
sharp angle on the first radial; subterminal line indistinct, not accompanied by the strong spots of camparia; 
fringes intersected by brown marks opposite the veins. Under surface more glossy, forewing somewhat in- 
fuscated, hindwing whitish, both with the postmedian line distinct. 

Pt. camparia H.-Sch. (4e) is exceedingly like neriata and agrees with it in the dark collar. The c/nnparm. 
wings are slightly broader, strongly dusted and (at least usually) strongly marked. The lines of the forewing 
arise from well-marked costal spots and the postmedian follows a different course from that of seriaia, not 
being appreciably incurved between the radials; it is followed by a more distinct band or series of dark 
spots proximally to the subterminal and the distal side of the subterminal is also more or less darkened; 
the distal margin bears a series of conspicuous interneural black strokes, which seem to be always much finer 
and weaker in seriata; dots on the fringe nearly as in that species. ^ hindtarsus somewhat shorter than in 
striata. Larva elongate, tapering a little anteriorly and with lateral ridge ; head small, deeply bifid, wood-brown ; 
body reddish wood-colour with light dorsal and subdorsal line, beginning on the prothorax as sharply white 
lines, but only the dorsal continuing white ; subdorsal indicated in its further course by dark shading below it ; 
2. — -5. abdominal segments with thick dark spots bordering the dorsal ; ventral area darker brown with light mar- 
kings. Imago double brooded, appearing in June and August. Originally described from Smyrna, occurs in 
several localities in Asia Minor, Syria, Cyprus, the Balkan Peninsula, S. E. Hungary, Dalmatia and Andalusia; 
probably Sicily and N. Africa are to be added and perhaps some other localities. 

Pt. sodaliara H.-ScJi. (4 c) bears to the white forms of striata the same relationship which camparia sodaliara. 
bears to the more strongly dusted forms. White with the dusting fine and not strong, the lines, as in camparia, 
arising from well marked dark costal spots, the postmedian on the forewing not curved inwards between 
the radials, placed rather further from the distal margin than in seriata; the dots or dashes on the veins by 
which it is emphasized are sometimes rather long, giving to the line a dentate appearance. The dots at the 
base of the fringe are in general smaller and less prominent than in seriata, occasionally almost obsolete. The 
^ hindtibia, as in camjxiria, is perhaps somewhat more strongly dilated than in seriata and the tarsus is slightly 
shorter. I regret that I can point to no essential difference from camparia; with bred specimens of both 
before me, kindly lent by Herr Fritz Wagner of Vienna, I can only say that the dusting on camparia is 
thicker and coarser, the brown lines also more mixed with dark scales, the subterminal and terminal shading 
and fringe-dots in general stronger. But for the experience of the Vienna entomologists, who have bred 
both from the egg, I should not have considered them distinct species. The larva is slender, moderately flattened, 
anteriorly tapering, lateral ridge distinct ; head yellowish brown ; body reddish wood-colour dorsally, the middle 
segments mixed with blackish; thorax and first abdominal with a fine blackish subdorsal stripe; 2. — 5. 
abdominal each with a strong black spot; often a lozenge-shaped pattern is developed on the darkened seg- 
ments; anal segment with a light, distinctly black-edged dorsal line and very fine subdorsal; lateral ridge 
light brownish ; ventral area blackish brown. According to Rebel it differs chiefly from that of camparia in being 
darker ventrally and more indistinctly marked, the white lines on the prothorax weak or wanting. Pupa light 
brownish with regular rows of black spots ; cremaster dark, with the terminal bristles short. The moth is double- 
(in captivity triple-) brooded. May — June, July and end of September, each brood in Dalmatia appearing 
later than the corresponding one of seriata. S. E. Hungary, Carniola, Da'matia and the Balkan States; other 
records are quite doubtful. 

f Pt. textaria Led. (4 d) can scarcely be confused with any other known species. The pure shining white tcxtaria. 
ground-colour and the arrangement of the markings rather recall Acidalia ornata. The cj antennal struc- 
ture and the shape of the hindwing bring textaria rather near seriata; the cJ hindtarsus, however, is much shorter. 
Lines slender, the antemedian and median more or less obsolete, chiefly indicated by dots on the veins; all 
three commence obliquely on the costal margin and are angled subcostally; the postmedian is usually better 
developed (at least towards the inner margin), lunulate-dentate and twice incurved; distal area with two inter- 
rupted brownish bands or series of blotches, bounding the broad white subterminal line; cell-dots present; 
distal margin with thick black line strongly interrupted at the vein-ends (or series of thick black dashes). Me- 
dian shade better developed on the hindwing, strongly angled outwa,rds on the radial and median, so as to form 
a large lunule (almost a semicircle) round the cell-spot. Under surface feebly marked, the forewing with a 
slight^brownish basal and costal suffusion. Apparently common in Syria and distributed from the Taurus to 


PTYOHOPOBA. By L. B. Pkout. 

cossuraia. Pt. cossurata Mill. (3 g) has been united with the dark forms of seriata, but if Pitngeler has correctly 

identified it is certainly a good species. He writes me as follows concerning cossurata: "The single known 
specimen, a $, came from the small island of Pantellaria (off Sicily), which is of volcanic origin; the present 
specimens were taken on Mount Etna. Millie re, who considered the species a Eupithecia, has not described 
and figured it very well; worn specimens however, in which the markings become paler and more indistinct, 
agree quite well with the figure. I think the determination can be accepted without much hesitation". Struc- 
ture about as that of camparia and sodaliara; wings ample, distal margin of hindwing strongly convex, only 
very feebly excised (or merely flattened) between the radials and from first median to anal angle. Collar 
deep brown. The deep colouring of the wings on the whitish ground (well shown in our figure) gives it a very 
distinctive appearance, perhaps only, in this group, approached in albitorquata napoleon and obliquaria. The 
antemedian and median lines of the forewing arise from large blackish costal spots, the postmedian from a rather 
smaller one; the latter follows a course intermediate between camparia and libycata, being sometimes broken 
distad along the 1. radial vein. A strong dark band borders the subterminal proximally. A thick black ter- 
minal line is interrupted by white spots on the veins. Fore^ving beneath infuscated, hindwing paler, showing 
the lines and cell-spot. A succession of broods occurs. 

scriala. Pt. seriata Schrank {= incanata Schiff. nee L. = moniliata Bkh. nee Schiff. = virgularia Hhn. 

nee virgulata Schiff. = vicinata Wrnbg.) (id). An extremely variable species, ranging from almost pure 
white forms without markings or with well expressed lines to unicolorous black-grey forms. The vertex of the 
head remains whitish in all the forms, the collar dark. The lines, when present, do not arise from enlarged 
costal spots, though not infrequentlv the costal extremity of the lines is a little blacker than the rest. The 
first hne of the forewing is angled on the subcostal vein or at least strongly bent; it is thickened with dark 
marks on the veins. The median shade is thicker, not rarely rather strongly developed, often, on the con- 
trary, quite obsolete even in forms in which the lines are sharply marked; it usualty touches the cell-spot 
on the forewing and is always proximal to it on the hindwing. The postmedian is fine and grey, not itself 
conspicuous but marked with strong, coarse black spots on the veins; it stands rather near the distal mar- 
gin and is incurved between the radials, then outcurved ; the form of this line is best shown on the right fore- 
wing in our figure and may be compared to that which occurs in a higher degree of development in calu- 
netaria. The pale subterminal line is slightly more strongly bent (or angled) inwards between the radials; 
it is often almost indistinguishable an account of the lack of dark shading accompanying it, but the dark 
shading may also be moderately or even very strong, sometimes almost filling the distal area and forming 
a dark border to the wings; this dark shading scarcely ever shows a tendency to break up into spots, herein 
differing markedly from incisaria, catnparia, sodaliara, etc. ; distal marginal line consisting of a series of 
black dashes of variable thickness, sometimes almost obsolete ; fringe with more or less strong dark dots at base, 
opposite the vein-ends. Forewing beneath more or less suffused, often dark smoke-colour, the postmedian line 
and the cell-spot, however, usually well expressed; hindwing beneath white or whitish, marked (or unmarked) 
nearly according to the upper surface of the particular form. The typical seriata of Central and Northern 
Europe is more or less strongly dusted, thus appearing grey, but includes a wide range of subordinate variation, 
not only in the intensity of the dusting but also in the expression of the lines, the median shade or the dark 

ciibicularia. bordering, either singly or in combination. — ab. cubicularia Peyer (= bischoffaria Lah. nee Hb^i. = 1 afra 
Baker) is a unicolorous melanotic aberration, dark gi'ey or blackish with lighter fringes, the under surface, 
however, but little darker than in the type form. It seems (according to the published and still more extensive 
unpublished experiments of which I possess information) to be a Mendelian form, interbreeding with the 
type but with the offspring segregating, not producing intermediates. Best known from Germany and Austria- 
Hungary, but has occurred in N. Italy, N. England, etc. Last year (1911) two were taken in London. Habich 
bred from a $ ab. cubicularia a very perfect halved gynandromorph, the left side $ cubicularia, the right 
obscuru. side $ seriata. — ab. obscura Mill. (= grisescens Lah.) (4 d, as cubicularia) is suffused with smoke-colour 
but the markings remain. Rebel has certainly done rightly to separate this from the preceding. It is our 
auslrutis. common London form and in no degree Mendelian. — australis Zell. (= paleacata Guen. = canteneraria 
3IiU. nee Bdv. = ? calvaria Lah.) is the prevailing form in Italy and indeed in most southern localities. Clear 
yellowish white, with little or almost no dark dusting, the markings more or less well expressed. It varies 
greatly in size as well as in the extent and depth of the markings and Zeller further subdivided it. In any 
case Staudinger's indication of the form conteneraria as "much smaller" than australis is not entirely correct. 
Probably there are some localities in which australis occurs as an aberration among the tjrpe-form, but I am 
unable to say positively that this is so; certainly in Britain forms approaching it are entirely unknown. — ab. 
cfilcearia. calcearia Z. is an aberration of australis of small size, pure chalk-white ground-colour, the markings in general 

canleneraria.Ta,thev weak, thus approaching in some respects canteneraria and minusciilaria. — canteneraria Bdv. (= ? 
australis Z. var. b) is a development of australis, in Sicily apparently a mere aberration of it, but it con- 
stitutes a local race in the South of France. It also occurs in Dalmatia and no doubt in some other locali- 
ties. It is a small whitish form, very weakly marked, sometimes almost entirely without markings excep- 

Puhl. 10. IV. 1913. PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 113 

ting the discal dots and those on the fringe. — minuscularia (Stgr. i. I.) Ribbe, from Southern Spain and Al- minnscu- 
geria, is a still more extreme development, smaller, purer white (at least in the $), the discal dots minute, ^"-^'o,. 
sometimes scarcely noticeable, although I have not seen a specimen in which they are absolutely wanting. 
This recently differentiated form was apparently included under canteneraria in Staudinger's Catalog. — The 
egg is oval, the surface covered with irregular polygonal depvessions, the micropylar rosette with about 
8 cells ; grey-yellowish, changing in a few days to red. The larva is slender, tapering anteriorly, the head small, 
the body somewhat flattened dorsally, oarinated laterally, the skin transversely folded; very variable in co- 
lour, pale or dark grey or almost blackish, or light brown, the lateral ridge whitish ochreous, usually accom- 
panied beneath by a blackish band ; dorsal line pale ochreous, grey-edged on the last few segments and usually 
on the thorax, sometimes also at the beginning of each segment; in some forms a distinct diamond-shaped 
dorsal pattern is present, or at least the posterior half of it on each middle segment (V-shaped markings). 
Polyphagous, thriving well on withered leaves of dandelion etc. Pupa light brown, coarsely black-spotted 
dorsally, and more finely on the rest of its surface ; the dorsal spots arranged in four rows. The moth is gene- 
rally abundant, in a succession of broods, first appearing in May, or earlier in southern localities; it does not 
appear to show any appreciable seasonal dimorphism, unless it be in size. It is conspicuous by day sitting on 
the leaves of various plants or on fences or walls; on white walls it has been reputed to seek out grey patches 
which harmonize with its colour (Piepers, "Mimicry", p. 199). Flies gently at dusk, seldom at a great height 
from the ground. Europe, excepting a few western and extreme northern localities, and also in N. Africa; not 
known from Asia. 

Pf. saftharia(S<g^r. (3g) strongly resembles a weakly marked, dirty grey form of sen'ato, but is easily distin- sartharia. 
guished by the simply and shortly ciliated ^ antenna. According to Staudinger the structure of thecjhindleg 
"appears to be quite as in virgularia'' (seriata); of the only ^ before me one hindleg is lost and the other is 
in a position which prevents exact investigation, but it seems to me that the tarsus is more strongly abbre- 
viated; the tibia is certainly strongly tufted. Some specimens are altogether without markings, excepting the 
black discal dots; in others there is a very weak postmedian line, chiefly expressed by dark teeth on the 
veins, sometimes also (at least in the $) traces of inner line and median shade. Under surface similarly without 
or with only very weak markings, the hindwing paler than the forewing. Ferghana. — ■ ab. ( ?) sarthttlaria sarthularia. 
Stgr. from Northern Ferghana is much more strongly marked, the groundcolour lighter ; an obsolete median shade 
passes on the hindwing far proximally to the discal mark, which here forms a large lunule; the forewing 
lacks this median shade, but shows the weak postmedian line and beyond it a distinct, narrow dark band. 
The fringe shows thick black dots or dashes at its base ; in ty^jical sartharia these are weak or wanting. Only 
a single example (^J) is yet known. 

Pt. conioptera Hmpsn. (7 d) may best be compared with sarfAaria, but has the distal margin of the hindwing conioptera. 
rather more strongly excised, nearly as in incisaria. The coloration is appreciably darker, the wings being 
more densely dusted with fuscous atoms. Discal dot on both wings rather large and distinct. Postmedian 
line usually distinct, strongly dentate, in particular with a large acute tooth on the first radial of the hind- 
wing ; on both wings this line is placed somewhat nearer to the discal dot than in sartharia. Some of theother 
lines are as a rule faintly traceable; in the only known $ (which, more than in sartharia, is narrower- winged 
than the (J) two lines proximally to the postmedianjare fairly well expressed on the inner-marginal half 
of the hindwing. Dark spots on fringe somewhat sharper than in sartharia. Under surface similarly but still 
more weakly marked; hindwing slightly paler than forewing. ^ antennal ciliation as in sartharia; hindleg 
short and weak, tibia with hair-pencil, tarsus nearly one-half the length of tibia. Kujiar, Himalayas, at nearly 
2000 m elevation, 5 (^^, 1 $ in the British Museum collection, all taken in April 1889. 

Pt. descitaria Chr. (= velitschkovskyi Rbl.) (3 h) is very manifestly another relative of seriata. It descitaria. 
was quite erroneously sunk by Staudinge r to elongaria pecharia, which it resembles in colour. Brownish grey, very 
densely irrorated with dark scales ; the lines and median shade present, sometimes stronger, sometimes weaker. 
Forewing with antemedian strongly excurved, slightly dentate on the veins; cell-dot black, often large; median 
shade rather thick, closely following the cell-dot; postmedian dentate, rather markedly bent outwards at the 
3. radial and 1. median; subterminal line ill-defined, slender, often appearing somewhat interrupted; fringe 
with a slender pale line at extreme base, then a slender dark line on which stand rather thick, more or less 
elongate black dots opposite the veins. Hindwing with distal margin very weakly emarginate between the 
radials, scarcely more so than in seriata; median shade angled on the median vein, its anterior half sometimes 
strongly curved round the cell-dot ; cell-dot usually rather large ; postmedian line, except in rare aberrations, 
closely following the cell-dot, often appearing as a continuation of the median of the forewing, very rarely 
placed so far distally as the postmedian of the forewing ; fringe as on forewing. Underside of forewing similar, 

IV 15 

114 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Peout. 

without first line; of hindwing somewhat lighter, the median shade (when developed) crossing the cell-dot, 
the postmedian placed nearer the distal margin than on the upper surface. ^ antennal joints scarcely at all 
projecting, ciliation even, quite moderate; hindtibia shortened and thickened, with strong hair-tuft, tarsus 
extremely short. Larva similar to that of seriata, moderately elongate, tapering anteriorly, somewhat carinated 
laterally, skin transversely folded; head small; dorsal area reddish brown, indistinctly marked, at least in the 
single preserved larva before me; an ill-defmed slender double grey dorsal line, becoming darker and better 
defined posteriorly; faint indications, especially on the 3. — 5. abdominals, of oblique grey lines divarica- 
ting from the posterior margin of the segment; lateral ridge pale, followed below by a dark band; ventral 
area again reddish brown, paler in the middle, with indications of lozenge-shaped pattern; spiracles not very 
conspicuous. Pupa light brown, similar to that of seriata, but with the wing-veins strongly darkened. In 
captivity Herr Pungeler has obtained three generations in the year, the moths showing no appreciable seaso- 
nal dimorphism. Only hitherto known from S. Russia, S. W. Siberia and according to Christoph Kuldja. Dif- 
fers from conioptera in the less emarginate hindwing, the more broumish grey colour and usually in the closer 
approximation of the postmedian line of the liindwing to the discal dot. 

longaria. Pt. longaria H.-Sch. (= prolongata Ebr.) (4d) differs essentially from seriata in the long, narrow 

wings; in the $ the form is even more extreme than in the c?, and the ground-colour is usually whiter, indeed 
often quite white. The lines (usually broken into rows of dots) and the slender median shade are acutely angled 
near the costal margin and then run parallel with the very oblique distal margin ; on the hindwing they are 
generally not traceable as far as the costal margin; on both wings the postmedian is commonly followed 
by a narrow, vague, brownish band. Both wings with black cell-dot and black dots at base of fringe. The 
distal margin of the hindwing is sinuous, showing an appreciable but not deep concavity between the radials. 
Under surface more weakly marked, forewing somewhat suffused towards base; discal dots well expressed, 
sometimes also'^the median of forewing and postmedian of both wings. Spain and Portugal, Sicily, North 
Africa, Teneriffe, double brooded. The egg is spheroidal, with longitudinal sulci and each sulcus with polygonal 
depressions; whitish yellow at first, later intersected with ochreous reddish. Larva moderately slender, atten- 
uated anteriorly, lateral ridge undulate, the black-edged spiracles placed in the lower part of each curve ; head 
dirty white, body variable in colour, pale reddish, greenish or blackish grey, always darker speckled, ventrally 
more uniform; first two abdominal segments paler; last three with a broad dark dorsal line; tubercles black. 
Like most of the genus, it prefers dry leaves to fresh. Pupa yellowish, spotted with black, anal extremity 
brownish, wings green with black dots and lines. 

ailanticai Pt. atlatltica Sttn. (5 b) seems to me to be scarcely more than a dwarfed local form of the preceding, 

but as the excisions in the distal margin of the' hindwing are rather deeper and the'teeth at the first radial 
and the anal angle stronger, and as moreover I have been unable to examine the~(J structure in longaria, 
I leave it provisionally separate. Only the three original specimens~are before me, the (^ (type) in good con- 
dition but without abdomen, the two $$ slightly worn. As in longaria, the ^ is greyer, the $ whiter; in 
both sexes the area between the median and postmedian lines is almost entirely free from dark dusting, thus 
forming in the $ a clear white band, which is not manifest in my few examples of longaria. Otherwise I find 
no material differences in the markings, unless it be that in the ^ (and to some extent in one $) the lines 
and median shade of the forewing arise from thicker dark costal marks ; I have not seen any longaria in which 
the median line, in particular, is so strongly expressed on the costa. Forewing beneath somewhat more suffu- 
sed. cJ antenna with the joints somewhat projecting, ciliation moderate; hindleg short, tarsus strongly ab- 
breviated (about. 5 mm.). Only known from Madeira. 

sublongaria. Pt- sublongaria Stgr. (3 g) is nearly related to longaria but larger and much darker, more brownish, 

the lines better expressed, not broken up into dots, the pale subterminal well developed; postmedian line 
fine, slightly denticulate, the teeth somewhat blacker-marked on the veins; discal dots weak, especially on the 
under surface. The markings of the upper surface, except the first line of the forewing, are reproduced beneath, 
though rather less distinct. (^ antenna with fascicles of long cilia; according to Staudinger the ciliation is 
longer than in longaria. Palestine and Syria, in April. 

allongata. Pt. allongata Stgr. (3 g, ^J) is also closely related to longaria. The (^ is rather dark, the $ light grey- 

brownish, intermediate between longaria and siMongaria. The lines on the forewing are well developed, espe- 
cially in the $, and are all acutely angled near the costal margin ; the black discal dots and a series of large 
dots" at the base of the fringes also well developed. The median line is placed somewhat differently from 
that of the allies, being nearer to the postmedian ; on the hindwing it crosses the large black cell-dot or follows 
it, while in the other species it is proximal thereto, c? antenna with fascicles of long cilia. Mardin, N. Meso- 
potamia, also from Jerusalem and the Jordan Valley in coll. Pungeler. 

PTYOHOPODA. By L. B. Prottt. 115 

Pt. gracilipennis Warr. Described from a single ^ from Beyrout, in very bad condition. It will gracilipen- 
perhaps be identifiable by the structure, but hitherto I have not seen any other Palearctic examples which "'^• 
I can refer to it; it more recalls two or three South African species, such as minimaria Warr. and umbricosta 
Prout. Antenna evenly ciliated, the cilia little longer than the diameter of the shaft. Hindleg rather small, 
but with the tibia well thickened; tarsus extremely abbreviated, about one-fourth or one-fifth the length 
of the tibia. Wing-expanse about as in an average humiliata (19 mm, English system of measuring); wings 
very narrow, glossy, bone-colour, the markings entirely lost, the costal margin of forewing more reddish. Fore- 
wing beneath more mixed with reddish; costal margin of hindwing beneath also somewhat reddish. Face red- 
dish brown. 

Pt. pallidata Schiff. (= byssinata Tr.) (4 d, (J). Noteworthy for the usually strong sexual dimorphism pallidata. 
in the coloration, which misled Treitschke into describing the $ as a separate species, under the name of 
byssinata. ^ pale whitish-ochreous with broad darker wavy, parallel lines or bands, between which the ground- 
colour appears as pale, in part narrower lines. Forewing more or less suffused with ochreous basally; no cell- 
spot on either wing, nor dark distal-marginal markings. Fringe concolorous. Underside dull ochreous with some 
blackish dusting, especially on forewing ; a dark discal dot and postmedian line present, also the pale sub- 
terminal. $ somewhat smaller, white, with the ochreous lines fine and sometimes faint; the under surface, 
also white, shows corresponding markings to those of the (J, though rather weak. (J antenna with longish 
fascicles of cilia; hindleg short and weak, the tarsus very short. Egg rather a short oval, with depression 
on the upper side; yellowish green, the surface dull, the pattern consisting of rather irregular hexagonal 
pitting. Larva not very elongate, tapering anteriorly, rather flattened, laterally sharply carinated, skin trans- 
versely folded, segmentation well marked; grey-brown with fine double black dorsal line, strongest on the 
last 3 segments; subdorsal indistinct except on thorax and last few abdominal segments; 5 V-shaped dorsal 
marks, their points directed posteriorly; lateral ridge lighter, with black spirac es; ventral area mostly blackish, 
lighter in middle. Pupa yellow-brown with black incisions and dorsal line and black wing-veins. Imago in 
May and June. Distributed in Central and parts of North Europe, Central Asia and Siberia ; wanting in a great 
part of Western Europe. 

Pt. argilata Guen., described from a single $ from Lozere, is according to Staudinger a good argilata. 
species, and it is remarkable that it has never been rediscovered. GxJBNBE"describes it as near holosericata 
(dilutaria Hbn.) but larger, with much of the aspect also of deversaria, with which it agrees in size and nearly 
in shape ; distinguished from both by its very uniform pale greyish-ochreous tone, which is tinged with greenish. 
The lines are all uniform, slightly waved and parallel, occupying the entire surface as in holosericata; they 
are rather shades than lines, and only very slightly darker than the ground-colour. Both wings with a small 
but distinct discal dot. Under surface still more weakly marked. According to Bellier the forewing is more 
acute than in pallidata, the lines thicker and straighter, less distinct, the palpus ochraceous, not brown; but he 
only possessed one example of pallidata for comparison. 

Pt. nudaria Chr. (3 h). Uniform dull ochreous, glossy, with very faintly darker median and postmedian nudaria. 
lines, on forewing rather straight, on the hindwing (at least in the specimen before me) the postmedian incurved 
between the radials; forewing also with traces of an antemedian line.. Under surface paler, especially of hind- 
wing, the median and postmedian lines rather better expressed, the costal margin of the forewing a little more 
deeply coloured than the rest. ^ antenna rather stout, ciliation of medium length; hindtibia short, strongly 
thickened, tarsus quite short. Christoph, who indicates the presence of "two strong spurs", evidently mistook 
the middle for the hindleg. Differs somewhat from pallidata in shape, in the fuller ochreous tone, still weaker 
lines, lack of subterminal, the shorter antennal ciliation, etc. Amurland and Ussuri, originally discovered in 
the Chingan Mountains in July. — infuscaria Leech (3 h) from Japan and China is a darker, rather better- infuscarta. 
marked form in which a somewhat pale subterminal line is indicated. Occurs in June and July. The $ is lighter 
and more ochreous than the ^, but infuscaria is decidedly variable, and although the differences here in- 
dicated are applicable to all, it is quite possible that more extensive Siberian material will produce examples 
corresponding to it. 

Pt. obfuscaria Leech is another glossy-winged species, but is of a darker, more blackish brown colour obfuscaria. 
and even more weakly marked, the lines being indeed scarcely discernible. The fringes are rather lighter. The 
anal extremity and ventral surface of the abdomen are somewhat less dark, also the legs. The structure 
agrees with that of the preceding, and as the only two specimens yet known were taken at the same time and 
place as nudaria infuscaria it seems to me very probable that it may prove to be merely a very extreme aber- 
ration. Ningpo, 2 <J(J, June and July. 

116 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Protjt. 

uniformis. Pt. uniforiTlis Stgr. (3 h). Both wings above and beneath uniform pale yellowish sand-colour. The 

transverse lines (antemedian, postmedian and sometimes also a median) discernible in certain lights but 
excessively weak, only sometimes (except the median) slightly better indicated on the costal margin of the 
forewing, by slightly enlarged spots; on the underside entirely wanting. Discal dot sometimes present on 
forewing above, though not very darkly coloured; its position (much beyond the middle of the wing) draws 
attention to one of the chief peculiarities of the species, the elongate cells of both wings. Otherwise it presents 
few striking characters. In shape it is not greatly different from the two preceding species. The ^ antennal 
ciliation is moderately long; the hindleg short and weak, tarsus much abbreviated; tongue apparently wanting 
or rudimentary. The only $ which I have seen is very much larger than the figured (J, but this seems to be 
unusual; Staudingee gives 19 mm for a cJ, 17 mm for 2 $$. Palestine: Jordan Valley, end of May. 

squalidaria. Pt. squalidaria Stgr. (3 h) is another rather inconspicuous species, with glossy, very weakly-marked 

wings. It may best be compared with subsericeata, from which, however, it is easily distinguished by the straight 
distal margin of the forewing, which causes ihe wing to appear more pointed (rather recalling the shape of 
ossiculata) and by the more yellowish (or even brownish) white ground-colour. The S antenna is similar, 
though the ciliation appears slightly shorter \n squalidaria; the hindtibia is less thickened, the tarsus about 
equally short. Lines very weak in the ^, somewhat better expressed in the $, wavy or subdentate; cell-dots, 
marginal dots and the first line of forewing obsolete. The forewing beneath is slightly more tinged with brownish 
or smoky, the hindwing more white; the lines of the upper surface sometimes present, sometimes absent, 
the $ being here also the better marked. According to Statjdinger the $ sometimes shows 3 very minute 
marginal dots. Originally described from Panticosa (2200 m) on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, but Dr. 
Chapman has more recently discovered it at Gavarnie. Flies in July. 

subsericeata. Pt. subsericeata Haw. (= perfluaria Bdv. =■ pinguedinata 2eZZ. = oloraria Rossi.) (4d). White with 

strong silky gloss, the lines grey, seldom strongly expressed, on the other hand usuailly all present, thus num- 
bering 5 on the forewing and 4 on the hindwing; the outermost line (distal shading of subterminal) the 
oftenest absent; all except the median are parallel with the distal margin, but slightly wavy; the median on 
the forewing is usually somewhat oblique, but occasionally almost parallel with the others; that of the hind- 
wing runs straighter across the wing, instead of following the curve of the strongly convex distal margin. Cell- 
spots and terminal line wanting or rarely the former present, minute; fringe usually with a series of minute 
black dots at the base, which are sometimes in part, more rarely entirely obsolete. Forewing beneath often 
with a smoky suffusion, either basally or all over; median and postmedian lines present, often well develo- 
ped; a small discal dot present. Hindwing beneath white, with discal dot and postmedian line. $ antennal 
ciliation little longer than diameter of shaft; hindtarsus short. Not on the whole an extremely variable species, 
except in size; there is, however, a great deal of trivial variation, i. e. as regards the absolute or relative 
strength of the several lines, the close proximity of the inner subte minal to the postmedian or their wider 
separation, the degree of suffusion of the under surface, etc. Second-brood specimens, besides being smaller, 
obscura. seem to be on an average whiter beneath and are sometimes rounder- winged. — ab. obscura Bbl. s the only 
really striking aberrat on with which I am acquainted. The entire upper surface is uniformly suffused with 
dark grey, only the fringes remaining white. The grey lines are entirely obliterated, but the subterminal is 

wjancuniata. faintly discernible. Founded on a single example from N. Cornwall. — mancuniata Knaggs (= veterata 
Gregs.), from N. England (Lancashire and S. Yorkshire), which was considered (chiefly on some larval diffe- 
rences) a separate species, scarcely seems to be even a constant local race ; it was founded on bred specimens, 
of a somewhat more ochreous tone, with the minute marginal dots rather even, the forewing less pointed, 
asbestaria. thus in part corresponding to the second brood. — asbestaria Zell. is merely diagnosed by Statjdinger as a 
"larger form". Zeller, who erected it as a separate species (from pinguedinata), adds that the wings are a little 
broader, the forewing a little whiter, the dots on the fringe weaker, the palpus not brown at the tip. It was 
described from Tuscany. In the type specimens I can see but little difference from the other forms and it 

diaphanaria. must be borne in mind that Zeller's pinguedinata ((^ Messina, ? Cisterna) was somewhat dwarfed. — dia- 
phanaria Bang-Haas, also erected as a species, appears, according to a cotype in the PtJNGELEE collection, 
to be a rather large, rather clear white, weakly marked form (local race ?) of subsericeata, the median and 
postmedian lines rather widely separated, especially on the hindwing. Its structure agrees entirely, and very 
similar forms occur in Turkey, Algeria and probably elsewhere, diaphanaria was described from Ain Draham, 
Tunis. — Egg oval, laid flat, the upper side with a long central depression; the entire surface with regular, 
minute pitting ; colour very pale yellowish, changing to pale orange with red blotches. Larva slender, tapering 
considerably towards the head, skin rugose, strongly granulated; dull whitish grey, dorsal surface reddish, 
mediodorsal line black but very slender and inconspicuous, subdorsal also black, more distinct at anterior 
and posterior extremities, lateral line dull yellowish white, a dull yellow spot on the side of the sixth abdominal 
segment, ventral surface whit'sh in the middle, with black spots. The pupa is darker brown than that of 
any other Ptychopoda with which I am acquainted, indeed almost blackish, and with the wing- veins unusually 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 117 

strongly marked; the wing-cases are in the living pupa more greenish; the posterior part of the abdomen 
darker than the anterior; the cremas er is furnished with the usual 6 fine, hooked-tipped bristles, not with 
"two" only, as indicated by Barrett. Varying accounts have been given of the larvae, and to some extent of 
the pupae, of the forms mancuniata and asbestaria, but it was already long ago noticed by Rossler that this 
species is very variable in the larval stage, and it is not surprising if the variation is in part local. The moth 
appears in June and there is often a second brood in August. In captivity a third generation is not rarely 
obtainable in the late autumn, though of very small size, with rounded wings. Meldola has recorded observing 
a specimen flying among Asthena alhulata Hufn. (candidata Schiff.) and suspected a case of mimicry, suhseri- 
ceata is attracted by a strong light and occasionally visits "sugar". Central and South Europe, North Africa, 
Asia Minor to Transcaspia. , i 

Pt. sylvestraria Hbn. (= straminata Tr. = marginepunctata Steph.) (4d, as straminata). Ybtj sylvestraria. 
distinct from subsericeata in the much less white ground-colour, which is pale greyish ochreous with scattered 
black speckles, the much more conspicuous black dots at the base of the fringes, much more sinuous postme- 
dian line and other characters. Both wings have a conspicuous though small black discal dot. The postme- 
dian line is often rather well-developed, marked with darker dots on the veins, on the hindwing it is not only 
sinuate inwards between the radials and again posteriorly, but is also more or less strongly angled on the first 
radial; the two lines or shades which edge the subterminal are usually (especially the distal) very ill developed 
or wanting. On the hindwing the median shade crosses or follows the discal dot. On the under surface the 
forewing is a little darker, the hindwing a little whiter, the postmedian line and usually the median more 
strongly developed than above. (J antenna about as in subsericeata; hindtarsus slightly longer — - about 
half as long as tibia. — ab. graciliata Mann is a weakly-marked aberration, described from Bozen as a se- graciliata. 
parate species; only the costa of the forewing distinctly dusted, median and postmedian reduced to dots 
on the veins. — circellata Chien. ( = obsoletaria TFe-siw. nee Rbr. = folognearia Stgr.), likewise described as a circellata. 
separate species (indeed not even compared with sylvestrarial) is an interesting form on account of its tendency 
to constitute a local race in some places. Thus on the "mosses" of Lancashire and Cheshire it was formerly 
of regular occurrence, and the older British lepidopterists maintained its specific right with remarkable persist- 
ence, notwithstanding the occurrence of intermediate forms both there and elsewhere. Other localities where 
it tends to form a race are Belgium and S. W. France. It is in general of a slightly more smoky or oliva- 
ceous tone, the antemedian and postmedian lines of the forewing and the postmedian as well as often the 
median of the hindwing very strongly expressed; the dots on the postmedian are usually very prominent, gi- 
ving to this line a denticulate appearance. Sometimes the median line and the two subterminals are also 
moderately well developed. — The larva of sylvestraria is rather slender, tapering anteriorly, the head small 
and notched, the skin rugose and transversely folded ; grey, with a fine pale dorsal line, bordered on the middle 
of the central segments with distinct black streaks, otherwise only indistinctly dark-edged, subdorsal line 
very indistinct; lateral line whitish or obsolescent. Pupa reddish brown, abdomen darker-ringed cremaster 
black-brown; wings tinged with green, the veins conspicuous. The moth inhabits damp places on heaths 
or moors, resting by day among heather and apparently less readily disturbed than many of the species. It 
flies in June and July and is local in Northern and Central Europe, S. France, N. Spain, Dalmatia and Trans- 
caspia. I have not seen Asiatic examples. 

Pt. mancipiata Stgr. I have not seen the typical form, which was diagnosed as follows: "Form of mandpiata. 
and similar to straminata {sylvestraria), ^ antenna "with much longer ciliation, hindleg short, compressed, 
without spurs. Wings yellowish grey, with black central dot, darkened posteriorly, forewing with S^darker 
lines (the 1. obsolete, 2. broader, 3. distinct, dentate), hindwing with 2 (the 1. broad, proximal to the cen- 
tral dot, the outer dentate)". Granada, end of June to September. Since recorded also from Castile, Sarepta 
and S. Ferghana. — repagulata /oj'm. ?^ow. (7 d). In theZELLER collection stand l^, 2 $$ from Sarepta, under repagulata. 
the MS. name of repagulata Ghr., which I have no hesitation in determining as a local form of mancipiata. 
They agree fully with the diagnosis but are as .white and at least as strongly silky as subsericeata, the distal 
area little darkened. Discal dots very conspicuous. (J antenna with fascicles of cilia; hindtibia scarcely 
longer than femur, rather weak, but with hair-pencil, tarsus greatly abbreviated. 

Pt. tristriata Stgr. For a knowledge of this species and the following I am dependent solely on iristriata. 
Statjdinger's published descriptions. Forewing dirty clay-yellow with fine dark dusting and 3 (or 4) dark lines, 
hindwing dirty white-grey with 2 dark lines. Both wings with a dark central lunule, but crossed on the forewing 
by the second, on the hindwing by the first line and thus almost obliterated. In one specimen, where this line 
(really the median shade) is lighter, the spot is more distinct. Base of fringe (in forewing only) with dark dots. 
Underside dirty grey-yellow, the lunules weak, the median and postmedian lines more or less developed ; hind- 
wing whiter than forewing, its distal half more strongly dark dusted than the proximal. Face dirty chestnut- 

118 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Proot. 

colour, vertex pale whitish grey. <S antennal ciliation somewhat shorter than in seriata; hindleg moderately 
long and thin, more so than in the seriata-grou-p. A very distinct species, which might perhaps be placed 
near pallidata. Margelan, S. Ferghana, described from 2 (^^. 

deiriiaria. Pt. detritaria Stgr. ^ antenna with the ciliation short, though apparently somewhat longer than in 

laevigata; hindleg aborted. Hindwing not so regularly rounded as in laevigata, more flattened or subconcave 
between the radials and posteriorly, thus a little prominent in the middle. Ground-co'our about as in hi- 
selata, degeneraria, etc., moderately thickly sprinkled with dark scales. Forewing with 3 curved blackish-brown 
transverse lines, hindwing with 2, the median on both wings the thickest. Terminal line dark, sharply ex- 
pressed. Fringes indistinctly chequered. Under side somewhat lighter, still more strongly dusted with brown; 
first line of forewing wanting, a small dark cell-mark close before or on the median shade. Described from 6 
examples from Haifa, Syria. In the figure the entire basal half of the forewing is represented as somewhat 

laevigata. Pt. laevigata Sco]}. (= renularia Hbn. =? bellata Frr. = lividellaria Peyer) (4d). Eecognizable 

at once — unless possibly in a few very weakly marked specimens of the second generation — by the dark 
band on the posterior margin of the forewing which immediately follows the first line and extends about to 
the median vein, becoming very faint and shadowy or almost entirely obsolete anteriorly. Wings rather 
glossy reddish grey; forewing with first line distinct, especially on the veins, bent in the cell, postmedian 
strong at the costal and posterior margins, slender and sometimes weaker between, but accentuated on the 
veins; hindwing with a thick dark line or shade continuing the dark band of the forewing, a discal dot just 
beyond tliis, and again very shortly beyond the discal dot a slender postmedian line; fringes with large black- 
ish dots opposite the veins. Under surface very weakly marked, forewing usually with a distinct costal 
spot, indicating the commencement of postmedian line, and a moderately distinct cell-spot; hindwing a 
little more whitish, with distinct cell-spot, c? anteiuial joints thickened, the ciliation very short; hindtarsus 
short. Except that the second-brood specimens are smaller, with the median band narrower and less de- 
veloped, I have noticed little variation in the species. The larva is thick, strongly attenuated anteriorly, 
rugose, carinated laterally; general tone a vague glaucous greenish, with fine interrupted dorsal line and 
lozenge-shaped pattern marked in brown or blackish; subdorsal obsolete; lateral ridge pale, bounded by 
a darker stripe. According to JMilliere's figures and a description by Rossler the most distinct part of 
the dorsal pattern is usually a pair of blackish dashes anteriorly on each segment. Pupa rather slender, 
shining greenish yellow. Imago in June and July and again in September. Local in tSouthern and Central 
Europe, Syria, Transcaucasia and N. Persia. 

cxiarsaria. Pt. extarsaria H.-Sch. (= efflorata Zell.) (4d as eriopodata). Rather longer-winged than laevigata, 

slightly less glossy and of a more ochreous tone; a consi^icuous dark distal-marginal line, interrupted only 
at the vein-ends; the band which follows the first line entirely wanting; fringes without black spots, though 
intersected by an indistinct dark line. The cell-dot is present on both wings, though stronger on the hind- 
wing. The hindwing is somewhat dark-suffused basally. Underside more weakly marked, forewing more or less suf- 
fused, both wings with cell-dot and postmedian line, the latter less distinct than above, cj antennal ciliation very 
short; hindtibia with long hair-pencil, tarsus broadened and flattened, somewhat spatulate. The type form 

eriopodata. inhabits Central Italy and transitional forms are recorded from Sicily. — eriopodata Grasl. (= inesata Mill. 
= atromarginata Mob.) (4d as extarsaria) seems the more widely distributed form, often replacing the type 
but sometimes occurring with it as an aberration. It differs in having the distal area of both wings almost 
entirely filled up with reddish- or violet-grey, only a small apical patch usually remaining of the ground-colour. 
The basal area of both wings is also more or less suffused. The names of this and the ty^jc-form are by over- 
sight reversed on our plate. S. France, Corsica, Sicily, N. E. Spain, N. Africa. — Both the type-form and 
eriopodata are double-brooded, the specimens of the second brood smaller and sometimes paler. 

disjunciaria, Pt. disjunctaria Stgr., founded on a single (^ from Catalonia and apparently remaining unique, may 

possibly, according to its author, be an aberration of the preceding; but as the original account describes 
the hindleg as "fully developed" and does not mention the peculiar tarsal formation the union seems precarious. 
Dirty yellowish, broadly suffused with violet (reddish) distally. Forewing with basal line only represented 
by dark spots on the margins ; postmedian line, before the darker border, very indistinct, arising from a large 
dark spot or dash on the costal margin; pale subterminal indistinct, undulate or subdentate. Hindwing 
with these markings still weaker. A series of very large dark elongate spots at the base of the fringe, extending 
round the apex on to the distal end of the costal margin. Underside uniform shining grey, the fringe-spots 
much less distinct, but both wings with a small faint cell-dot and a fine dark terminal line. 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 119 

Pt. benesfrigata s^j. wow. (7d). Palpus quite short. Tongue long. Antennal joints not projecting. Fa,ce beneslrigata. 
white, tinged with sand-colour; vertex purer white; collar and front of thorax bright sand-colour. Abdomen 
robust. Wings rather long and narrow, shaped somewhat as in infirmaria (4 c), but with costa of forewing 
still straighter, distal margin more curved, that of hindwing rather more produced to the 3. radial but not at 
all emarginate between the radials. White, slightly dusted with sand-colour, not glossy; lines bright sand- 
colour. Forewing with antemedian line very thick, strongly outcurved anteriorly and angled outwards on 2. 
submedian; median line less thick, weakly sinuous, closely followed by thicker postmedian ; subterminal shades 
less strong, somewhat interrupted; no cell-spots; distal margin with a series of conspicuous black dots be- 
tween the veins; fringe white proximally, sandy distally. Hindwing without the first line. Underside mostly 
whitish, forewing with the costal edge sandy and a slight sandy tinge in the apical region; both wings with 
an incomplete, dull sandy band occupying the position of the proximal subterminal line. Afghanistan, without 
more exact locality; collected by Colonel Alexander Fortescue and presented to the British Museum by Lord 
Walsingham. a very distinct species, but in the absence of the ^ the subgeneric position cannot be ascer- 

Pt. infirmaria Rbr. (= nigrobarbata Stgr. = carnearia Mann = ledererata Guen.) (4e). Vertex mlinnaria. 
of head and base of antenna white. Wings rather narrow, pale grey with a more or less strong admixture of 
dark grey and red scales, costal edge of forewing usually very narrowly infuscated to beyond middle; the 
antemedian and postmedian lines usually and the median line (or shade) at times fairly well developed; ante- 
median line of forewing thickest at costal margin, rather strongly bent or angled subcostally, postmedian line 
more slightly curved subcostally, both marked with dark dots on the veins ; both wings with black cell-dot, that 
of the hindwing the larger ; median shade of hindwing placed well proximally to the cell-dot, usually appearing 
as a continuation of the first line of the forewing; fringes with dark spots opposite the veins. Under sur- 
face pale grey, coarsely dark-dusted; no red admixture; lines present or obsolete; cell-dots present, usually 
strong. Variable, but easily recognized by its shape and the mixture of grey and red scaling. ^ antenna rather 
thick, with the ciliation extremely short; hindleg short, the tarsus very greatly abbreviated. — aquitanaria 
Const, is darker and at the same time with a stronger admixture of red scales. It is said to form a local race 
in S. W. France (province of Landes) but in most localities it occurs merely as an aberration; in any case it is 
not a particularly striking form. — I have no information regarding the early stages of this species; Rebel 
in his recent edition of the "Schmetterlingsbuch" says that they are still unknown. It inhabits Corsica, Sar- 
dinia, Sicily, S. E. France, the Iberian peninsula, N. Africa and Dalmatia. When Statjdinger published the 
last edition of his Catalog, Andalusia was the only certainly known Iberian habitat, but Leon (Branuelas) and 
Portugal have since been added. Flies in June — July. 

Pt. rhodogrammaria Piing., sp. nov. (3h). "Expanse 15 — 18 mm. Near infirmaria, smaller, antenna '"'lof'o- 
with somewhat stronger shaft and longer ciliation, hindtarsus fully % the length of the tibia. Ground-colour srammana. 
yellowish, forewing with 5, hindwing with 4 rose-red lines, costal margin of forewing rose-red, finely edged 
with blackish, dots in fringe and the discal dots sharp, black, underside similar to that of infirmaria but 
lighter, the hindwing in particular whitish; S. Spain, Murcia, Sierra d'Espuiia, 3 ^^, M. Korb, beginning of 
July 1909 at light". 

Pt. obsoletaria Rhr. (= rufillaria H.-Sch. = rufularia H.-Sch.) (4e). A rather obscurely marked oftsoZctona. 
species of small size and moderately variable in colour, glossy greyish or light ochreous or even bright reddish 
ochreous. Often smaller than the specimen figured, but remaining larger and broader-winged than helianthe- 
mata Mill, with which perhaps it could most easily be confused. Vertex of head pure white (in helianthemata 
more tinged with ochreous); distal margin of hindwing rounded. The less elongate wings also distinguish it 
from infirmaria. A few writers have seen a resemblance also to Acidalia ocJiroleucata H.-Sch. ; to me this does 
not seem very obvious, but in any case the different neuration and other differences of structure will separate 
it. Lines wavy, only a little darker than the ground-colour, all generally about equally distinct (or rather, 
indistinct). Cell-dot on both wings minute but quite black, hence conspicuous. Fringes with minute, but nearly 
always conspicuous black dots at base opposite the veins ; in rare aberrations where these are obsolescent there 
is considerable resemblance to incarnaria, but really pink forms of obsoletaria seem to be unknown, nor is the 
costal margin of the forewing differentiated in colour from the rest of the wing. Under surface rather paler, 
equally weakly marked. ^ antennal ciliation rather short; hindleg short and weak, the tarsus greatly abbrevia- 
ted. The colour-aberrations intergrade and do not require separate designation. — Only ab. violacearia Stgr. 
has been founded on colour differences, ' and this deserves mention chiefly^ because its author suspects that it 
has developed into a local race in some places, at least on the Island of Majorca. The ground-colour is descri- 
bed as violaceous grey. I__^have not seen examples having this coloration.- It is"recorded also from Catalonia 
and Greece. — Concerning the early stages I can find but little information. Hofmann, misled by Millierb's 

120 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Pkout. 

earlier confusion of this species with one form of helianthemata, has referred his account of the latter to ob- 
soletaria. According to Rebel the larva is short, strongly folded transversely, greenish brown, variable, often 
only with a subdorsal broken up into black dots, sometimes with light, pearshaped dorsal spots, the lateral 
ridge spotted with black; head very small, black-brown, deeply bifid; very sluggish, living in June on low 
IDlants. Even this account may possibly be adapted from one of helianthemata; its source is not indicated. Single 
brooded, the moth appearing in July and August. Widely distributed through Southern Europe and eastward 
to Transcaspia and Persia. A local race, unknown to me, is said to occur in Northern Ferghana. 

algeriensis. Pt. algeriensis Baker (5 b) has been treated as a local race or aberration of the preceding, which it 

certainly resembles very closely; but I do not think they can be conspecific. Unfortunately the type speci- 
men ((J), which alone is known to me, has lost its hindlegs and one antenna, while the cilia of the other antenna 
are slightly damaged; otherwise the specimen is in very beautiful condition, algeriensis would be nearest to 
the greyer forms or — since it shows in certain lights slight violaceous reflection) to the form violacearia, but it 
is even more strongly glossy and the vertex of head and base of antennal shaft are not white but concolorous 
with the body and wings. The discal dots are unusually large — fully as large as in the most extreme spe-~ 
cimen of ohsoletaria which I have ever seen; the black dots in the fringe moderately well developed (not "sub; 
nullis", as in Statjdingee's diagnosis). The lines of the upper surface are weakly expressed, very slender 
(in ohsoletaria they are in general comparatively thick); on the under surface they are more prominent than 
is usual in ohsoletaria, the postmedian of both wings in particular well developed. The antennal ciliation, so far 
as can be made out, appears even shorter than in ohsoletaria. Sebdou, Algeria. 

froghdyta- ^J^l Pt. troglodytaria H.-Sch. has been doubtfully referred by STAtnoiNGER as a variety or aberration to 
'■'"• ohsoletaria, with the following localities assigned to it: Crete, Greece, the west of Asia Minor, Syria and perhaps 
the southern Ussuri district. Herr Ptjngeler, however, writes me that he posseses a very small Acidaliid from 
Syria which perhaps represents this species of Herrich-Schaffee's but is certainly distinct from ohsoletaria. 
It is therefore desirable that for the present troglodytaria should be kept separate, and I here give Herrich- 
Schaffer's brief characterization of it in full. "Probably the smallest Geometrid, habitus of aversata, silver 
grey inclining to bone-colour, glossy with scarcely a trace of the usual transverse lines and subterminal, but 
with distinct central dots and dots in the fringes at the ends of the veins. Face bro^vn; hindtibia with only 
the terminal spurs. One $ from Crete". Statjdinger says that the original is even smaller than the figure which 
Herrich-Schaffer gives of it and its colour not quite so white. The only extremely minute Ptychopoda known 
to me from Syria is elongaria ab. monadaria Guen. which is often quite as weakly marked, but would presumably 
differ in being whiter and less glossy, perhaps more strongly dark-dusted. 

incariiaria. Pt. incarnaria H.-Sch. (4 e) differs from ohsoletaria in its coloration and usually in its more weakly 

expressed lines, but with a marginal line present, at least beneath. Ofter larger than that species, forewing 
rather more elongate. In the type-form the wings are fleshpink or reddish, the costal margin of the forewing 
very pale yellowish; the front of the thorax is also pale, but the collar is darkened, reddish; vertex of head 
somewhat less pure wliite than in ohsoletaria. Both wings with a blackish discal dot. Fringe concolorous 
with wing, only minutely dotted with black. Under surface rather paler, especially of hindwing. The $ is 

rw/icosfafa. generally larger and darker than the cj. — ab. ruficostataZe^L (= grisea TA.-if«egr) differs in having the ground- 
colour violaceous grey and the costal margin reddish instead of yellowish. It is recorded from Central Italy, 
Greece, Syria, the Taurus and N. E. Africa, perhaps the prevailing form in the two last-named localities. I 
follow Stattdinger in sinking the name of grisea; TmERRY-MiEG merely says that it is pearl-grey instead of red, 
distinctaria. and does not mention the costal margin. His locaUty was the Eastern Pyrenees (two examples). — ab. di- 
stinctaria (Bdv.) Guen. is described as greyish white, glossy, with a slight violet or pearly tinge, the distal 
lines indicated, the cell-spots grey, very small, and some indistinct terminal dots. Costa of forewing narrowly 
ochreous beneath. Has been regarded as a weakly-marked form of ohsoletaria, but according to Homberg (i. 1.) 
the type specimen belongs to incarnaria. It came from Provence. — Egg oval, yellowish, marked with purple 
at one end. Larva rather slender, less tapering than many of the genus; head clay-coloured, body pale brown, 
ventrally dark fleshy; dorsal hne fine, whitish, not interrupted, lateral line fine, geminate, dark purple. Poly- 
phagous, feeding well on flowers. Pupa obtuse, shining yellowish, head and wings pale green. The moth is double- 
brooded, flymg in June and September, and is much more abundant some years than others. Distributed 
on the Mediterranean, excepting perhaps Spain. 

palmata. Pt. palmata Stgr. (= unostrigata Rbl. nee Baker) founded on a single $ from Palma, Canaries, is said 

to be similarly coloured to Acidalia corcularia {ochroleucata ab.) but larger, narrower- winged. Forewing with 
costal margin straight, apex very acute, distal margin strongly oblique. Expanse 19 mm; colour very pale 
dull reddish yellow with weak and sparse dark dusting ; blackish discal dot present on both wings ; the strongest 

Publ. 10. IV. 1913. PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 121 

marking is a nearly straight dark median shade, indistinct and immediately following the discal dot on 
the forewing, strongly blackish-dusted and considerably before the dot on the hindwing ; subterminal line very 
broad, only slightly waved, bordered on each side by a pale reddish line; distal marginal line fine, dark; fringes 
with blackish dots at the base. Underside very pale, forewing scarcely dusted with grey, a whitish stripe 
before the distal margin. Taken near Los Sauces, 25 August 1889, in a damp place among Mentha pulegium. 

Pt. eugeniata Mill. (= seeboldiata Rossi.) (4e). Nearest in colour to the less pinkish red forms of in- ougeniata. 
carnaria but on an average larger, rather brighter and readily distinguishable by the markings, which slightly 
recall, as Millieee says, those of the genus Gosymbia, a greyish median shade being present and the postme- 
dian line denticulate on the veins or almost broken up into conspicuous dark vein-dots. Antemedian line 
weak, curved, often obsolete; discal dots distinct; distal marginal line, as in incarnaria, best developed be- 
neath; fringes with conspicuous black dots at base; costal margin of forewing, both above and beneath, more 
yellowish, as in incarnaria. Under surface much less reddish, the hindwing pale, the forewing usually somewhat 
suffused with greyish; discal dots and median and postmedian lines usually well expressed. The structure 
shows no material difference from that of incarnaria and obsoletaria, the (J antennal ciliation being very 
short and the hindtarsus extremely abbreviated. I am not acquainted with any account of the early stages 
of this local species. It was discovered on uncultivated land near Marseilles, flying in July, and has since been 
found in Spain, particularly in the vicinity of Bilbao. I have recently seen some variable examples from 
Gibraltar, collected by Captain J. J. Jacobs. 

Pt. oranaria Bang-Haas from Southern Oran, is said by its author to be probably best placed in the oranaria. 
vicinity of eugeniata, from which however it differs essentially in the long ciliation of the ^ antenna. The leg 
structure is not described. Reddish grey-brown irrorated with blackish. First line (on forewing only) present 
but weak, emphasized by black dots, especially at the posterior margin. Postmedian line strongly developed 
on both wings, consisting of a series of very distinct black vein-dots in part connected by a fine line; its 
course almost exactly as in eugeniata. Both wings with distinct black discal dot. Fringes concolorous, with 
strong black dots at the ends of the veins. Hindwing regularly rounded. Underside dirty yellow-brown with 
weak blackish median -shade, distally to the discal dot, and very weak postmedian consisting of dots on the 
veins. The black dots on the fringe are also much weaker than above. Expanse 20^ — 22 mm (22 — 24 mm, English 
measuring). Only two specimens known, the cj more strongly marked than the $. 

Pt. heUanthemata Mill. (= obsoletaria part Mill, neo Rbr.) (7d) is in its t3rpical form a quite unmistakable helianihe- 
species, recognizable by its small size, reddish ochreous colouring and narrow blackish median b a n d on both ^"^ ' 
wings. The ground-colour is on an average rather lighter in the ^ than in the $, which latter is often almost 
more red than ochreous; according to Milliere very light naples yellow forms also occur in both sexes. The 
other lines vary in strength of expression but are seldom very strong; they are bent or curved near the costal 
margin of the forewing. ,The cell-spot of the forewing is concealed by the median band ; that of the hindwing 
is distinct, placed distally to the median band; the fringes bear strong black dots opposite the veins. The 
under surface is a little paler than the upper, with the markings rather more strongly fuscous. The wings 
are rather, but not extremely narrow, the hindwing with moderate or rather shallow excision between the radials. 
(? antennal ciliation short, hindleg short and weak, tarsus strongly abbreviated. According to Milliere extra- 
ordinarily variable, aberrations occurring, nearly as frequently as the t5rpe form, in which the median band is 
entirely wanting, producing a very different impression and resulting in some confusion with obsoletaria Rbr., 
but distinguishable by their smaller size and more pointed forewing. I would add that the hindwing of obso- 
letaria is not excised between the radials. Milliere himself first figured this aberration under the erroneous 
name of obsoletaria, where it is still quoted with a query in Staudinger's Catalog ; later he corrected his error 
and figured other examples of it under the correct name. It appears that they are also often of a lighter co- 
lour, like that of obsoletaria or sylvestraria. As I have not seen them in nature, and have only a pair of 
typical helianthemata before me, I abstain from naming the form; especially as I think it not unlikely that 
it may prove identical, except in size, with my new substraminata. Milliere says that the two forms fly 
together, throughout July, while obsoletaria is on the wing a fortnight later, and never in the same localities. 
He does not explicitly indicate whether he has ever bred his two forms from the same larvae. The larva is 
short, tapering anteriorly, carinated laterally; ochreous greyish, the markings ill-defined; dorsal line slender, 
brown, showing on the thorax and last few segments, broken into a sagittate pattern on the intermediate 
segments; subdorsal fine, brown; lateral pale, uninterrupted; head small, globular. Pol3rphagous, feeding 
on dry leaves or flowers; grows very slowly, spending at least 10 months in the larval stage, sometimes 12 months. 
Pupa of medium proportions; reddish yellow. The moth loves the sunny clearings in woods, and inhabits 
Southern France and Catalonia. 

IV 16 


PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Peout. 

suhstrami- P^- substfaitiinata sp. nov. (praec. subsp. ?) (7 d) is larger on an average than obsoletaria, the ground-colour 

nata. Jess bright, similar to that of sylvestraria (= straminata) or slightly paler, with similar scattered black atoms. 
Vertex of head white (in the only two heliantJiemata which I can examine it is strongly tinged with ochreous). 
The (S antennal ciliation agrees with that species, the hindtarsus appears even more strongly abbreviated. 
The position of the markings seems to agree essentially with that of helianthemata, including the placing 
of the discal dots; but the median shade is scarcely at all thickened and in most specimens no more conspi- 
cuous than the postmedian. The black dots on the fringe are usually smaller or weaker, in one or two aberrations 
nearly obsolete. Under surface towards base (especially of the forewing) rather more strongly dark-dusted; 
cell-spot and median and postmedian lines usually fairly distinct. The to me unknown mancipiata Stgr. can- 
not be identical with this species, on account of its long antennal ciliation. I have already expressed a doubt 
whether it may be a form of Milliere's helianthemaf a-SiberTSi,tion, but Herr PtJNGELBE has sent for my inspec- 
tion a pair from Cuenca, 25 June 1906 (M. Koeb) as a species for which he cannot find a name. My own 
specimens (type and coty^ies) are from La Granja, 1500 m, July 1904 (T. A. Chapman) and Tragacete, July 
1901 (T. A. Chapman). Thus it is evidently somewhat distributed in Spain. Rather variable; the type and a 
second La Granja ^ are rather pale and rather strongly marked, the Cuen9a pair also strongly marked but not 
quite so pale; the other two from La Granja ((J$) are pale but with the lines much weaker; the two from 
Tragacete ((J?) are more tinged with reddish ochreous, especially the $, the lines moderately developed. 

capnaria. Pt. capnaria Pilng. (= cineraria Bang-Haas, nee Leech) (3h). Ground-colour glossy pale brownish 

grey, so strongly and uniformly dusted with fuscous as to make this latter appear to be the prevailing tone. 
Costal edge of forewing basally darkened. Cell-dots present, at least on hindwing, but usually not conspi- 
cuous. Antemedian line weak or obsolete; postmedian strong, following nearly the same course as in ostrinaria. 
A very faint dark outer shade indicates the proximal boundary of the subterminal line. Under surface si- 
milar but lighter. Differs entirely in colour from ostrinaria; also structurally in having less extremely short 
antennal ciliation in the ^ and longer hindtarsus — in capnaria much more, in ostrinaria much less than 
half the length of the tibia. Only known from Beyrout. 

ostrinaria. Pt. ostrinaria Hhn. (4 e). A pretty and easily recognized species of a rather bright yellowish tone, 

dusted and suffused with red, especially at the costal margin of the forewing and over the whole hindwing; 
base of costa of forewing more purple. Fore\ying with a distinct, sinuous, purple postmedian line, nearer the 
distal margin at the costa than at the posterior margin, rather strongly inbent shortly before the latter; 
distal area in posterior half more or less strongly purple. The other lines on forewing and the lines on hindwing 
fine and weak. Discal dot present on forewing. Under surface pale straw-colour, hindwing unmarked, forewing 
darkened at base of costa, discal dot and postmedian line present, distal area with a duller, weaker purplish 

oenoparia. suffusion than above. (^ antennal ciliation extremely short; hindtarsus greatly abbreviated. — ab. oenoparia 
Pilng., ab. nov. (= purpuraria Trti) (3 h). Both wings entirely overspread with purple. S. Spain, Murcia, Sierra 
d'Espuna, 2 ??, M. Koeb, end of June 1909; S. Portugal, Algarve, 2 ^^, Dr. Joedan, 1910". Renamed 
purpuraria by Txjeati (on 3 $$ from Sardinia) after the appearance of our plate. — The egg is oval, apparently 
with the usual sculpturing ; whitish yellow at first, becoming flesh-coloured with a red spot at one end. The larva 
is short, tapering anteriorly, carinated laterally, strongly rugose; head small, retractile, body with fine, well 
developed hairs, which — at least towards the hibernating stage — are recurved at the tip so as to attach 
to themselves the pollen of the flowers in which the larva is feeding, forming a clothing which is quite ex- 
ceptional in this genus; reddish brown with rather pale lateral line; the middle segments with'^light, some- 
times white, heart-shaped dorsal spots; ventral surface concolorous, with pale lozenge-shaped markings. 
Lives on various low plants, feeding successively on the pollen, the stamens, the petals and the leaves. Imago 
in June, in all the Mediterranean countries. 


Pt. purpureomarginata Bhtsch. The unique type-specirnen of this species is unfortunately in a bad 
state of preservation, having apparently been injured in relaxing. It has recently passed into the Pungelee 
collection. Herr Pungelee considers it a good species, near ostrinaria (as also Bohatsch indicated); in any 
case it has nothing to do with exihiria Guen., to which Staudingee has referred it. Clay-yellow, duller than ostri- 
naria, vertex of head concolorous, not white as in ostrinaria; forewing with a distinct antemedian line present, 
a median line and discal dot indicated, the postmedian less incurved in its posterior part, running nearer to the 
distal margin, the purple costal margin somewhat more extended, the purple dusting of the distal area densest 
towards the margin, a slender, dentate subterminal line of the ground-colour indicated ; hindwing with the two lines 
(median and postmedian) distinctly visible, only the distal area strongly dusted with purple, containing a slender 
subterminal line. Under surface more tinged with red than in ostrinaria, redder distally, with postmedian 
line present, distal marginal line violet-black, fringes reddish at base. Structurally also purpureomarginata 
is differentiable, the wings being more elongate, the (J antenna more strongly ciliated and the hindtarsus 
decidedly shorter. Syria: Beyrout district. 

■~ PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 123 

Pt. circuitaria Hbn. (= chimaeraria Mill.) (4e). A very distinct species. May be known at once circuHaria. 
by the bright sand-coloured areas which alternate with narrow or broader whitish stripes. The lines are fine 
and somewhat sinuous, darker than the sandy areas which they bound; the median shade is wanting, or rather 
is represented by the broad central sandy band; the first line is also, as usual, wanting on the hindwing; 
subterminal line whitish, often broadened so as almost to reach the distal margin; cell-spots wanting. Under 
surface similar, forewing with the first line absent, both wings with the median shade a little darkened in pla- 
ces, with the suggestion of a dark discal lunule on both wings. ^J antennal ciliation short; hindleg short but 
not thickened, tarsus not greatly abbreviated, chimaeraria Mill, was named from specimens which were dwarfed 
through breeding, and therefore does not represent a genuine aberration. — ab. mimosaria H.-Sch. is a mimosaria. 
whiter form, the stripes or bands being broadened and of a pure white. It occurs with the type in several 
localities but is, according to Staudingee, the only form known from Northern Asia Minor. — The larva is 
slender, tapering somewhat anteriorly and carinated laterally, but is singular in the form of the head and 
prothorax which, as in so many Hetnitheinae, project in a double point above ; the colour is reddish brown, 
with a fine, geminate, uninterrupted brown dorsal line, a rather broad, much interrupted subdorsal and 
a fine, pale, interrupted lateral line; the spiracles are extremely minute, black, ringed with whitish. It 
appears to be poly3)hagous and shows a decided preference for decaying leaves. It is difficult to rear. The 
pupa is clay-yellowish, dorsally spotted with brown. The moth appears in June and July and is local and 
rarely abundant. It inhabits S. W. Europe, Sardinia, Corsica, Italy, Dalmatia, Syria and Northern Asia Minor. 
Also in dry mountains near Philippeville, Algeria (Dr. A. Seitz). 

Pt. effusaria Chr. (= obtectaria Leech) (3 i) may be regarded as having the same scheme of markings effusaria. 
as circuitaria, but less sharply defined, the ground-colour being pale ochreous or, at lightest, an impure, yellow- 
ish white and the rather darker areas somewhat shadowy; the postmedian line makes a very strong distal 
curve between the third radial and second median, otherwise it is placed rather far from the distal margin, 
especially on the hindwing. Under surface paler with the markings still weaker, c? antennal ciliation short ; 
midtibia fringed with long hairs ; hindtibia strongly hairy, hindtarsus aborted. Originally described from the Ussuri 
district. I have before me a single (^ from thence, perhaps a pale aberration but apparently slightly worn 
or faded. The Japanese examples are slightly larger and more ochreous, but as both Christoph and Leech 
indicate this as the ground-colour I do not feel justified, without further material, in separating the two 
races. In any case there is no doubt as to the specific identity. The original examples were taken in the se- 
confl half of July; in Japan it continues on the wing until mid August. 

Pt. auricruda jBifr. (= plumboscriptariaC/tr.) (3 i) is quite distinct from e//wsana in its darker colouring, auricruda. 
etc., although it still has, in common with that species, a rather strong gloss which prevents the markings 
from standing ont quite as sharply as in our figure. The ground-colour is of a more brownish ochreous than 
in effusaria, the bands (on forewing 4, on hindwing 3) of a peculiar, indefinite chocolate-brown tone, angled, 
varying in width, sometimes (as in our figure) fully as wide as the bands of the ground-colour, sometimes 
considerably narrower. Underside much paler, the markings more blurred. ^ antennal ciliation rather short, 
hindtibia short, strongly tufted with hair, tarsus about one-half as long as tibia. S. E. Siberia, Korea and 
Japan, end of June — July. — insuavis Btlr. (= remissa Wilem.) is in my opinion nothing more than an ex- insuavis. 
treme form of auricruda. It was described and figured from Dharmsala by Butler and seems to constitute 
a local race in N. India; but remissa Wileman is in all respects identical with it and at Yoshino in the pro- 
vince of Yamato this occurs together with typical auricruda. insuavis differs from the type form in being 
of a duller, more purplish-leaden tone, the pale ground-colour being reduced in width so that it ms.y rather 
be described as 3 (on the hindwing 2) broad sinuous lines on the otherwise uniformly dark wings. Mey- 
RICK and Turner record this species (under the name of plumboscriptaria) from N. Queensland; according to 
the very brief description given, it would appear to be a form slightly different from both those here described, 
or possibly a very close ally. 

Pt. herbariata F. (= pusillaria Hbn. nee pusillata Schiff. = microsaria Bdv.) (4e). As a thorough herbariaia. 
study of the literature has necessitated a few changes in well-known names among the Acidaliinae, it is so much 
the greater satisfaction to find that in the present species no alteration is necessary. Although Hubner's 
name of pusillaria is now almost certainly known to date from 1796, two years prior to herbariata, it was 
founded on a misidentifieation of Schiffermuller's pusillata and has therefore no standing according to 
the rules of nomenclature. It is, however, possibly the inquinata of Scopoli, as Wernebueg thinks. A small 
species, moderately variable, but not difficult to recognize. The wings are rather broad, apex of forewing 
not acute. Ground-colour whitish ochreous, rather strongly and coarsely dusted with fuscous. Forewing 
with both lines well developed, the antemedian curved, the postmedian angled near the costal margin, both 
with an inward bend near the posterior margin, the antemedian often thickened at the posterior margin ; me- 
dian shade much more variable, almost always dark and thick at the posterior margin, but seldom distinct 


PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 


throughout the wing; it is either placed very near the antemedian, in which case it is often united with it to 
form a very narrow band or bar, or the space between the two is sUghtly darkened, or it is on the posterior 
margin midway between the lines and becomes vague in the middle of the wing, sometimes more strongly 
expressed again as a costal spot ; the postmedian line, which is rather far from the distal margin, is followed 
by a very narrow pale space or line, then by broad fuscous shading disposed in three blotches (somewhat as 
in eburnata), the broad whitish subterminal line encroaching very deeply between them; the area beyond 
the subterminal less darkened, so that in some lights the wing almost appears to be divided into two areas, 
an extensive dark one ending in strong projections at the subterminal and a narrow paler one beyond; 
cell-spot distinct ; large roundish black dots at base of fringe. Hindwing with antemedian line wanting, 
postmedian more irregular, unusually close to the cell-spot, leaving about half the wing beyond it, on which 
the pattern is about as on the forewing. Under surface pale, almost without a trace of markings, the fore- 
wing, at least costally and distally, and the extreme distal margin of the hindwing a little darker than the 
rest, the subterminal line sometimes traceable in purer white. ^ antennal ciliation minute; hindtibia very 
aestiva. short, thickened, tarsus considerably less than one-half the length of tibia. — aestiva Fuchs is the second-brood 
form, smaller and more weakly marked, in particular with the distal dark markings less developed. I have 
some doubts, however, whether its differences from the first generation, except perhaps that of size, are suf- 
ficiently constant to afford a genuine example of season-dimorphism. — adherbariata Stgr. (= subherba- 
riata Stgr., nee Rossi.) is a still paler and more weakly marked form which Staxidinger thinks replaces the 
type in Palestine and Syria but occurs with it as an aberration in the Amasia district and Armenia. I have 
not seen it, and as Rebel has united it with the preceding as a mere aberration, it is possible that recent 
material has shown it to be inconstant everywhere. — The egg of herbariata is nearer round than oval, yel- 
lowish at first, changing after two days to salmon-colour. The larva is extremely variable in colour, and has 
been rather fully described in its different stages byHEYLAERTS. Its fourth and last moult takes place in the 
spring. In its last stadium it is thickened posteriorly, attenuated anteriorly, the head small, the body carina- 
ted laterally, strongly rugose and granulated; head yellowish or reddish (according to Fischer von Rossler- 
STAMM blackish brown), bordered with black; body brown, yellowish or greenish; prothorax with a blackish, 
or blackish-bordered dorsal plate; dorsal line double, most noticeable on the first 5 abdominal segments; 
subdorsal blackish, very variable in expression, on the 6. and 7. abdominals curved so as to form with the 
dorsal a lyre-shaped pattern; ventral area paler, marked with numerous short black longitudinal streaks. 
Appears to feed exclusively on dry plants in herbaria, in herbaUsts' stores, etc.; it is probably undiscriminating 
in its selection of these, Heylabrts found it feeding on Malva sylvestris, Sorhagen on Sanicula. It feeds 
during the winter, and is full-fed in April or May. Pupa shing light-brown with darker segmental incisions 
and head; cremaster dark brown with the usual hooked bristles. The moth appears at the end of May and 
in June — July and is usually only single-brooded, at least in its more northerly localities. It is found sitting 
on walls or fences, or especially in houses or warehouses. Central and Southern Europe, N. Africa, Asiatic 
Turkey and Transcaucasia. 

fimbriaia. Pt. fimbriata Bang-Haas should probably, to judge by the description, be placed here. It is of a weak 

brownish straw-colour, only very sparsely dusted with black scales. The lines have almost exactly the same 
course as in laevigata, the antemedian thickened into black spots at the costal and posterior margins, the 
postmedian somewhat more sharply bent on the 1. and 2. median veins than in that species; in places the lines 
are somewhat strengthened by dots on the veins. Subterminal line yellowish white, rather distinct, formed 
as in herbariata. Fringes with black dots at the vein-ends. The dark median shade is wanting on both wings. 
Discal dots strong and distinct. On the hindwing a weak postmedian line is placed as in herbariata, a still 
weaker, shadowy proximal line is visible posteriorly, but becomes almost obsolete at the costal margin; the outer 
half of the hindwing shows a weak, herbaria-like subterminal line. Under surface glossy white-grey, unmarked 
except for the weak discal dots. Antenna shortly ciliated. Described from 1 (J and 1 $ from Beyrout, Syria, 
the male rather yellower than the $. No critical differentiation from herbariata adherbariata is given, but I 
suppose the colour, the absence of median shade and perhaps larger discal spot would distinguish it. 

affinitata. Pt. affitlitata Bang-Haas (= semifuscaria Piing. i. 1.) (3 i) also probably belongs in the vicinity of 

herbariata, with which it closely agrees in structure, shape and coloration, though the wings appear rather 
less glossy; ^ hindtarsus rather longer. Bang-Haas says that it reminds somewhat of laevigata and that the 
wings are somewhat more pointed than in fimbriata. The discal dots are larger, the postmedian line on the 
hindwing not quite so close to the dot as is usual in herbariata, the characteristic shading proximally to the 
subterminal weak on both wings; but the essential characteristic of affinitata is the strong basal clouding 
of both wings which on the forewing reaches to just beyond the discal dot (though fading out costally) and 
renders the angled antemedian line very indistinct, while on the hindwing it is more restricted, ceasing before 
the discal dot. Forewing beneath more infuscated than in the two preceding species; both wings with the 
postmedian line indicated. Beyrout, Syria. 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 125 

Pt. holliata Homherg. I am unacquainted with this species, but it has been carefully described and com- holliata. 
pared with herbariata. Dirty white, glossy, washed with brownish, paler and less reddish than in herbariata. 
all the lines composed of blackish brown scales. Forewing slightly narrower and less rounded at apex than in 
that species; base irrorated with brown, especially costally; antemedian line more angled, more oblique at the 
costa, where it arises from a better defined brown mark, marked by a blackish brown spot on the median 
vein and rather sharply angled on the posterior fold; median shade distinct, oblique at the costa, rather 
sharply angled beyond the discal dot, round which it bends, and forming a small angle inwards on the fold; 
discal dot larger, more strongly expressed and rounder than in herbariata; postmedian more strongly marked 
at the costa than in that species, angled outwards on the 1. radial, slightly inbent on the fold and again with 
a small distad angle near the posterior margin; the space between this line and the distal margin much less 
broad than in herbariata, the subterminal spots smaller and less confluent; distal marginal line fine, interrup- 
ted at the veins; fringe with a series of brown dots at base. Hind wing similar; discal dot as strong as on 
the forewing; postmedian angled, better expressed than in herbariata. Under surface glossy, lighter than in 
herbariata, the postmedian line sharp on both wings; this character distinguishes it immediately from herbariata. 
Vertex, head and face brownish white. Antenna in ^ very shortly ciliated. Body brownish white, lighter 
and more yellowish beneath. Legs yellowish white; hindtarsus of ^ much less aborted than in herbariata, 
slightly longer, but less broad in the first two joints than in laevigata Scop. Described from several examples 
of both sexes from Akbes, Syria. In shape, in the large discal dots, the presence of postmedian line beneath, 
etc., it must resemble affinitata, but the paler colour and absence of the characteristic infuscation should de- 
note at least a local race. Hombbeg was perhaps not acquainted with affinitata; at any rate he makes no men- 
tion of it in his description. 

Pt. improbata Stgr. (3 i). Not a very striking species and unfortunately only known to me in the improbata. 
$. It was described from 3 ^$ and 2 of the same sex lie before from the Pungbler collection. Pale sand- 
colour, somewhat variable in intensity, the markings not very strong; discal dots present. Forewing with the 
lines following perhaps nearly the same course as in herbariata but much further apart, the postmedian being 
placed nearer to the distal margin; median shade obsolete or faintly indicated; beyond the postmedian a narrow 
band is sometimes, fairly well defined, sometimes more broken into three blotches or pairs of spots more as in 
trigeminata, sometimes obsolescent; dots at base of fringe small, hardly conspicuous. Hindwing very slightly 
suffused basally, the distal half marked as on forewing. Under surface with distinct or moderately distinct 
postmedian line and sometimes sufficient darkening in the distal area to render discernible the pale subter- 
minal. In some respects this species recalls very slightly a weakly marked form of biselata, though the colour 
is quite different. Palestine: Jordan Valley. 

Pt. calunetaria Stgr. (= dorycniata Bell. =■ callunata Rbr.) (4e). Rather longer-winged than most calunetaria. 
of the sen'ato-group, in this respect intermediata towards longaria. Should probably be placed nearer to seriata 
than in Stattdingbr's Catalog, but the (J antennal ciliation is minute and the hindtarsus extremely short. 
Whitish with coarse grey dusting, the discal dot black and the lines strongly expressed ; first line of forewing 
sharply angled near costa, becoming extremely oblique; postmedian with small dark teeth on the veins and 
with an unusually strong distad bend in the middle, so that in some specimens a letter M is suggested on the 
3. radial and 1. median; some dark shading follows the postmedian; distal margin with an interrupted dark line. 
Hindwing with much straighter median and postmedian lines. Pt. calunetaria was discovered in Andalusia, 
frequenting pinewoods where Calluna vulgaris was plentiful, and flying rapidly. It seems confined to Spain and 
S. France, local. — valesiaria Piing. (4 e) which represents calunetaria in Valais, and occasionally occurs as valesiaria. 
an aberration in other localities, is as a rule decidedly larger, the ground-colour a more brownish white, 
the dusting apparently rather less coarse, the lines less sharply expressed, but otherwise it agrees entirely with 
the type form. It is found resting on rocks on the warm slopes of the mountains. — The larva of calune- 
taria was first made known by Bellibr, described from larvae found feeding on Dorycnium; like most of the 
genus, however, it feeds readily on withered or dry leaves of various low plants. It is rather elongate, though 
not so slender as that of seriata, tapers anteriorly, is somewhat flattened dorsally and shows the usual lateral 
ridge; head small, bilobed; dorsal area reddish grey or darker earth-grey (in valesiaria described as wood-brown) 
usually indistinctly marked, occasionally, at least in the type-form, with a series of blackish sagittate spots; 
mediodorsal line fine, most distinct anteriorly, more or less dark-shaded posteriorly; subdorsal line wanting; 
lateral ridge lighter, dark-shaded below; ventral area rather dark grey. Pupa pale yellowish brown, with 4 
rows of dark spots; head and wings more greenish, the wing-veins distinct, being dark outlined. In Spain the 
moth flies in May, July — August and sometimes again in October. Also in Valais it seems to be at least double- 
brooded. The form valesiaria superficially resembles mareotica Draudt, which, however, may be known at 
once by the irregular margin of the hindwing and the less deep bend in the postmedian line of the forewing, 
besides the structural differences of the ^. 

126 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Peoxit. - . . 

elongafia. Pt. elongaria Rhr. (= aridata Zell. = infermata Rhr. = zephyrata Mill.) (4f) is another slightly 

long-winged species, though the name is scarcely happily chosen in a genus which contains much more extreme 
forms. Dirty whitish grey, with a tinge of bone-colour, sparsely sprinkled with rather strong black atoms; 
discal dot and dots in fringe black, distinct ; the dark lines and shades not very strong, the lines, however (espe- 
cially the postmedian), punctuated with black dots or dashes on the veins; first line of forewing angled near 
the costa and becoming oblique, though less extremely than in calunetaria; postmedian much more normally 
formed than in that species, namely with a proximal bend costally (where, however, it is often obsolescent) 
and gentle proximal curves between the radials and posteriorly; median often obsolescent, rather oblique, as a 
rule considerably proximal to the cell-spot on the hindwing; subterminal line somewhat lunulate-dentate, but 
seldom noticeable, the accompanying shades being as a rule extremely weak. Forewing smoky beneath, the 
postmedian line and pale subterminal usually rather distinct; hindwing nearly white, the postmedian usually 
present, sometimes also some rather smoky distal shading, in which case the pale subterminal becomes distinct. 
(J antennal ciliation minute; hindtibia thickened, hindtarsus abbreviated, scarcely one-third as long as tibia. 
monadaria. — ab. monadaria Guen. is a dwarf form with the median shade wantirig and also with a tendency — ^ if I am 
right in referring here an aberration of rather frequent occurrence in Syria — for the other lines to become 
weak or obsolete, recalling Heerich-Schaffer's figure and description of his troglodytaria. I do not know 
of any locality where this monadaria-ioTm. entirely replaces the type, and as I have no dated material I am 
pecliaria. not able to conjecture whether it may be seasonal. It was described from Tarsus. — pecharia Stg7'. is a very 
distinct local race from Hungary, S. E. Russia, Trancaspia and the Hi district, giving the impression of a 
quite distinct species but apparently in reality only differing in having both wings above and beneath en- 
tirely suffused with smoke-colour, the dark scales being so dense as to leave only very slight traces of the 
pale ground-colour, occasionally a slender pale line being noticeable as a distal edging to the postmedian; 
the dark lines and cell-spots arc discernible though not conspicuous ; the fringes less strongly darkened, the black 
dots there in consequently well visible. I have not seen specimens from Asia Minor, where a transitional 
form is said to occur; but even at Buda, a well-known locality for pecharia, an occasional specimen is much less 
extreme than the majority. • — - The egg of elongaria, according to a figure by Milliere, resembles those of 
Acidalia in having very strong longitudinal ribs and much slighter transverse ones. Larva moderately elongate, 
attenuated anteriorly, folded, appreciably carinated, head small, flattened in front; clay-colour, darkest on the 
anterior and posterior segments ; a broad pale mediodorsal line, no other dorsal markings ; lateral line equally 
pale and broad; metathorax and first two abdominals each with a large black spot placed above the spiracles; 
spiracles very small, black, invisible to the naked eye. Pupa light brown, dark-spotted dorsally, the wing- 
veins dark-outlined. Double-brooded, flying in June — July and again in August — September. Distributed 
throughout Southern Europe, N. Africa and from Asia Minor to N. Persia. 

effeminaia. Pt. effeminata Stgr. from Margelan, N. Ferghana, is described as being nearly the same size as elongaria, 

on an average slightly smaller, but easily to be distinguished by being altogether much less sharply marked, 
only the black discal dot being distinct ; the black dots on the base of the fringes are either altogether wanting 
or at best quite indistinct. The ground-colour is dirty white-grey, somewhat tinged with yellowish, quite 
similar to certain elongaria; the dark dusting is sparse and very fine, never so coarse and black as in elongaria; 
in some specimens a very weak median shade is pres3nt, passing just distally to the cell-spot on the forewing, 
proximally to it on the hindwing ; all show two weak dark lines towards the distal margin (postmedian and inner 
subterminal?); distal marginal line rudimentary. Under surface similarly coloured, only in a few specimens 
with the forewing slightly infuscated, the cell-spots present, the other markings almost or quite obsolete. ^ 
antennal ciliation quite short, as in elongaria; hindleg greatly aborted, shorter than in elongaria. 

biselaia. Pt. biselata Hufn. ( = ? fimbriata Schiff. = bisetata Eott. = dilutata Haw. nee dilutaria Hbn. = cinereata 

Stph. nee cinerata F. = reversaria Dup. nee reversata Tr. = scutularia Ver-Huell nee scutulata Schiff.) (4f). 
Pale straw-colour, sprinkled with fuscous scales. Forewing with first line fine, often not very distinct; median 
shade following (sometimes touching) the strong black discal dot ; postmedian denticulate, nearly parallel with 
termen; distal area more or less shaded with fuscous, a rather thick strongly waved subterminal consequently 
distinct; fringe with sharp black dots at base. Hindwing without first line, median somewhat undulate or 
more strongly irregular (with strong proximal curve in cell), always well proximal to the discal dot. Under 
surface similar, forewing slightly or strongly infuscated from base to median shade, first line wanting. ^ 
antennal joints slightly projecting, ciliation even, about (or scarcely) as long as diameter of shaft; hind femur 
hairy, tibia broadened and clothed on the outer side with long strong brushes of light hair, some of which 
reach at least to the end of the tarsus, and with a strong expansible tuft of fuscous hair on the inner side, 
arising from the femora-tibial joint, tarsus rough-scaled, perhaps somewhat hairy, scarcely half as long as 
tibia. Variable chief ly in the distal-marginal dark shading; this is occasionally (though rarely) almost confined 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Proft. ■ 127 

to the proximal side of the subterminal line, still more rarely broken up into spots, in which case it some- 
what recalls that of trigeminata, but is much more vague. The two extreme forms have received separate 
names. — ab. fimbriolata Steph. (= schaeffcraria F. Fuchs) is a pretty form in which the distal bordering is fimhriulata. 
intensified, being darker in colour and occupying, in equally strong expression, the entire distal area of both 
wings excepting a somewhat narrowed, or even interrupted, subterminal line. The basal area of the forewing 
above also shows a tendency in this form to become slightly infuscated. — ab. infuscata nom. nov. (= var. infitscaia. 
B. Guen.) has both wings uniformly powdered over with grey-black, obscuring the markings. I have seen a 
good example from the Leech collection and Barrett also mentions the form, but it is always rare. — 
extincta Stgr. (= ? crinitaria Stgr.) though likewise merely a chance aberration in Western Europe, seems to exUncla. 
be a constant race, or subspecies, in the East (Siberia, ? China, Korea, ? Japan) and even in Prussia and 
Russia is of perhaps more frequent occurrence than further west. In it the dark distal shading is entirely 
or almost entirely obsolete. It is curious that Staudinger in erecting his crinitaria (on a single worn 
specimen from the Sutschan district (southern Ussuri), did not even compare it with his hisetata var. extinacta, 
which was made known at the sam_e time. It may be that the inner tuft of dark hairs on the hindtibia, 
which is emphasized in the description, is even stronger and blacker or that the "weakly and bluntly angled 
hindwing" (not shown in the figure) points to a distinct species, but in any case it must come very close to 
hiselata, not to the aversata-gvo\xp. The figure recalls invalida Btlr. — The egg is obtusely oval, somewhat 
depressed, with fine shallow pitting; salmon-colour with large darker spots (probably pale yellowish when 
first laid). The larva is rather thick from the 3rd to 6th abdominal, with marked incisions, anteriorly tapering 
to the very small head; skin rugose; dull brown or yellowish brown, darker dorsally; dorsal dark line double, 
ill-defined; 1st — 5th abdominals usually with blackish V-shaped dorsal pattern, the arrrs of the V elirecteel 
caudad, the apex somewhat broken off , at the front of the segment ; setae small, knobbed at the tip. Rather 
strongly variable in colour and in the distinctness of the markings. Very sluggish and as a rule growing slowly, 
but sometimes producing a partial second brood; polyphagous on low plants. Pupa light brown, head and 
wing-cases greenish. A widely distributed and in many ple.ces common or even abundant species; easily dis- 
turbed from bushes by day and rather active on the wing from early dusk; sometimes attracted by light or 
sugar. Central Europe, Bithynia, Transcaucasia, E. Siberia ec. June — July. 

Pt. decidua Warr. {= holosericeata Btlr. nee holosericata Dup.) (7d) might have been regarded as a decidua. 
form of hiselata extincta, from which it sows very few elifferences, but for the fact that the tufts of hair on 
the (J hindtibia appear considerably less strongly developed and lighter in colour. Rather smaller and paler, 
rather weakly marked. Whitish ochreous, almost or entirely without dark dusting, the lines only marked in ■ 
somewhat darker ochreous, the subterminal shades, as in extincta, usually almost entirely obsolete; discal 
dots minute but distinct, dots on base of fringe very minute, sometimes obsolete. Hindfemur and hintibia 
of cJ tufted with whitish-ochreous hair, but not extremely heavily. Originally registered from Dharmsala, 
without description, under the erroneous name of "holosericeata Dup.'\ an error which remains uncorrected ~ 

in Hampson's "Moths of India". It seem widely distributed in the N. W. Himalayas in a succession of 
broods, April to September. — delicatula Warr., described from a single $ from Dalhousie, may very likely delieatula. 
represent a rather large, strongly marked aberration, with better developed subterminal shade; but as it 
is intermediate in some respects between decidua and hiselata, it can scarcely be referred decisively without 
the cJ. 

Pt. denudsina spec. nov. (= nudaria Piing. olim, nee Chr.) (7 a). Possibly the eastern representa,tive denudaria. 
of decidua but slightly narrower winged. Whitish ochreous, the ground-colour about as in the well-known 
fucovenosa (= inter jectaria) of Europe, but with weaker ochreous admixture, resulting in a paler and more 
uniform tone. Discal dots often obsolete; if present, then very minute, rarely at all distinct; dots at base 
of fringe minute and weak, or altogether absent; lines very faint, usually almost entirely obsolete, the entire / 

wing-surface being the almost unicolorous, with only the costal edge narrowly of a rather more decided 
ochreous. Under surface also quite weakly marked, on an average less suffused than in decidua. Hindleg 
formed about as in decidua, with moderate, whitish-ochreous hair-pencil from base of femoro-tibial joint, 
extending for about the length of the tibia, the hair on outer side of tibia also whitish-ochreous ; hindtarsus 
abbreviated. Mngpo, April 1886, ^ (type) and $ in the British Museum collection; Nikko, a very weakly 
marked (^ and $ in thePtJNGELER collection; a more strongly marked $ from Gensan, in the British Museum 
collection, probably also belongs here. 

Pt. invalida Btlr. (3 h; as invalidaria; ? i m, fig. 4). Nearly related to hiselata but apparently distinct, invalida. 
Ground-colour slightly darker (warmer or more brownish) the markings weak. (J hindtibia similarly formed 
but with the outer tufts of hair not quite so extremely developed, the inner tuft (pencil) longer but not so 
dark; the antennal ciliation may be very slightly longer, but shows no conspicuous difference. Hindwing 

128 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Pkout. 

perhaps slightly narrower, at least in the ^. Abdomen in cJ long, but this is almost equally the case in 
biselata. Vertex of head brownish, concolorous with wings, collar scarcely darker; in biselata the vertex is 
pale, the collar much darker. Both wings with discal dot well developed, first line and median shade weak 
or obsolete, postmedian sometimes better developed, on an average slightly more sinuous and dentate than 
in biselata; distal area not or inappreciably darkened; dots on fringe usually quite weak. Under surface 
also a little more brownish than in biselata, especially the hindwing; markings usually rather weak. Some 
of the distinctions given appear, however, to be somewhat inconstant, or at least somewhat intermediate 
forms seem to occur in Central China, so that it is not altogether impossible that future investigations will 
lauta. result in sinking invalida as another race of biselata. — ab. lauta Warr. is an unimportant aberration in 
which both lines are strongly marked with black dots on the veins, the marginal dots also stronger than in 
the type. — Pt. invalida is widely distributed in Japan May-early July and again in September, the second- 
brood specimens and some others (especially $$) very small; ? Central China, June — July. 

perpulverea. Pt. perpulverea i^mpsw. (7 b). Dull flesh-colour closely irrorated with olivaceous brown; the lines rather 

weak, formed by accumulation of the brown scales; first line (present on forewing) wavy or subdentate, a 
distinct distally-directed tooth observable on the second submedian; cell-spot of forewing large, elongate, 
slightly oblique; postmedian line fine, wavy, bent near costal margin, slightly incurved between the radials 
and more decidedly posteriorly; weak traces of a median shade between cell-spot and posterior margin; 
fringe dark-spotted at base. Hindwing with the discal spot smaller and less black. Under surface rather 
p?ier and more glossy, almost unmarked, forewing with a vague dark discal spot. Kashmir: Gooraise, the 
type $ (taken in June) from the Leech collection, at present unique. In the absence of the ^ and of very 
obvious affinity with any other known I am quite uncertain where to place this species, which is perhaps 
Indo-Australian rather than Palearctic. It bears some slight resemblance to some $$ of invalida, but is 
more Eupitheciid in aspect, on account of the rather thick scaling, somewhat elongate forewing and especially the 
large discal spot of the forewing; the tone of colour is not altogether dissimilar to that of Eupithecia expal- 
lidata Guen., though rather duller and less glossy. 

trlgeminafa. Pt. trigeminata Haw. (= scutularia part. Hbn. = reversata Tr. = bisetaria Dup. nee bisetata Rott). 

(4f). Somewhat similar to biselata, with which it wa.s sometimes confused by the early entomologists. Ground- 
colour in the fringes very weak; the dark distal markings on the contrary brighter and sharper, of a more 
chocolate-brown tone; costal margin dark from the base nearly to the first line; first and median lines weak 
or obsolescent, but starting (or at least the former) from dark costal spots; the dark proximal shading of the 
subterminal consists of paired spots, somewhat as in dimidiata but larger and sharper and with a strong 
confluent pair at the costal margin; distal dark shading of subterminal almost wanting. Hindwing with the 
paired spots smaller and weaker. It may also be remarked that the median shade of the forewing, when 
developed, is differently placed from that of biselata, being proximal to the cell-spot or occasionally crossing 
it. (J antennal ciliation as in biselata; hindleg similarly formed but with the tufts less extremely developed. 
Egg oval, with a large depression on the upper side; the entire surface with regular, somewhat hexagonal 
pitting; pearly white when first laid. Larva nearly cylindrical, but somewhat carinated laterally, tapering 
gradually from the 5th abdominal to the head; strongly rugose, segment-incisions deep; dull deep brown, 
dorsal line faintly paler, margined at the ends of the segments with thick black streaks; an ill-defined V- 
shaped dorsal pattern as far as the 5th abdominal much as in biselata, and an interrupted dark subdorsal; 
6th abdominal with a whitish dorsal blotch; lateral ridge pale, interrupted at the incisions; ventral surface 
dark brown; setae curved, of equal thickness thoughout, longer than in the allied species. The moth flies 
in May and June and there is sometimes a partial second brood, particularly in captivity; but I have found 
the larvae sometimes refuse to be accelerated in their growth even under the influence of increased 
temperatures. Locally common in Central and Southern Europe (except a considerable part of the Iberian 
Peninsula), Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. Its habits are similar to those of the preceding species. Not 
infrequently found by day resting on the upper surface of leaves like Pt. rusticata. 

hispanaria. Pt. hispanaria Piing. sp. nov. (3i). Expanse 22 mm. Near trigeminata Haw., larger, forewing more 

elongate, pale brick-reddish, markings similar, but much weaker, band of postmedian spots more or less 
obsolete, hindtibial hair-pencil not dark, hindtarsus longer. S. Spain, Murcia, Sierra d'Espuna, 4 (^^, 2 9?> 
M. KoRB, end of June 1909. Our figure gives a true impression of the cj of this quite distinct species; the 
only 9 before me is smaller. The colour is more reddish than in even the brightest invalida, which is 
otherwise the most highly coloured species in this immediate vicinity. 

rosea- Pt. roseofasciata Chr. I have not seen this species, but it should be easy to recognize by the colo- 

iasciaia. nation. According to its author it belongs in the neighbourhood of biselata, and the figure shows some 

resemblance in shape and in the general arrangement of the markings, at the same time the ^ hindtibia 

has not the hair-tuft of biselata but is appressed-iscaled. The $ antenna is described as "filiform", thus it 

Piibl. 1. V. 1913. PTYCHOPODA. l!y L. B. Puoijt. 129 

may be assumed thai the joints do not project and that the ciliaLion is short; Christoph usually describes 
the dentate-fasciculate antenna as "peclinale". Light straw-yellow, the middle abdominal segments much 
darkened with blackish scales. Costal margin of forewing rather broadly brown-red from base to first line, 
reddish to the median line, the origin of both these lines marked with darker costal spots; first line weak, 
bent; median only slightly curved, closely followed (as in trigeminata) by the blackish discal dot; postmedian 
weakly bisinuate, foUowetl immediately by a brown-red band which is constricted, but not inleiTupled, 
between the radials; subterminal not noticeable, the area from the band to the distal margin being of the 
ground-colour. Hindwing without first line; postmedian more deeply bisinuate. Underside similarly but 
somewhat more weakly marked, the band less conspicuous. Discovered at Ordubad in May in a rocky hollow. 
Inhabits Transcaucasia, the Central Taurus and Northern Mesopotamia. 

Pt. terpnaria nam. nov. (=amoenaria Stgr. nee Snell) (3i). Another easily recognized species, the terpnaria. 
band distally to the postmedian breaking off before the costal margin of the forewing. Probably related to . 
the preceding species. The words used by Staudinger in describing it would indicate nearly, though not 
quite, as bright colouring; but the specimen before me, as here figured, is coloured like trigeniinata, from 
which terpnaria differs in its considerably smaller size, narrower wings, with distal margin of hindwing less 
fully rounded, and in the arrangement of the distal markings. First line weak or obsolete; median sometimes 
indicated at the posterior margin; discal dot black; postmedian line strong, bisinuate, the following band not 
reaching the distal margin, though some suffusion is present between the pale subterminal and the margin. 
Hindwing sometimes somewhat suffused at the base. Under surface similar, the band tending to be reduced 
in width, cf antenna with rather short, even ciliation, hindtibia rather short and weak, not greatly dilated 
but fringed with hair above; hindtarsus shorter than tibia but not extremely aborted. Vladivostok, Askold, 
etc ; S^"* August is the only date known to me. 

Pt. belemiata Mill. (3i). Distal bands much more reduced, consisting merely of a few confluent helemiata. 
posterior spots, somewhat as in some forms of dimidiata, but equally developed on both wings. The ground- 
colour should be a little more yellowish (clay-coloured) than in our figure. The lines are fine, bent near the 
costa; median shade not very strong; discal dots and series of dots at base of fringe present. Underside 
paler and weaker-markedr cf antennal ciliation rather short; hindtibia short and weak, but with a hair- 
pencil; tarsus quite short. Egg roundish, wax-white. Larva similar in form to that of heliantheviata, rather 
short, tapering anteriorly and at the last few segments, head small, globular, dark brown; body flesh-coloured 
with fine dorsal and subdorsal lines and on the middle segments indistinct sagittate vinous markings; lateral 
line paler than the ground-colour. The moth is single-brooded, appearing in June and July, and is only 
known from Spain (Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia) and Portugal. 

Pt. politata Hbn. (4 f). In its typical form a quite unmistakable species, the entire distal area of both poUtata. 
wings being filled up with dark, glossy violet-grey. The costal margin of the forewing is also more or less 
darkened. The ground-colour is glossy pale yellowish straw-colour (not so white as in our figure), the 
antemedian line usually and the median sometimes obsolete, the postmedian well expressed, but in the more 
darkly bordered specimens little differentiated from the bordering. Cell-dots sharply black. Fringe concolorous 
with wing. Under surface similar, costal margin of forewing less darkened, but the entire basal part of the 
wing sometimes with some dark suffusion, cf antennal ciliation short; hindtibia scarcely thickened, tarsus as 
long as tibia. Varies chiefly in the marginal dark band. This is sometimes a good deal lighter than in 
the specimen figured, and then shows a more or less distinct subterminal line of the ground-colour. — 
ab. abmarginata Bhtsch. (4f) is an extreme form, of not infrequent occurrence, in which the dark border is «o"'«''fl'«- 
entirely wanting. In this form ])olitata can easily be distinguished from the similarly coloured biselata 
extincta by the curve of the postmedian line, the more glossy scaling, generally smaller size and by the 
structural characters. The weakness of the proximal lines, strength of discal dots, etc., should render confusion 
with fiiscovenosa or dilutaria quite impossible, politata is wanting in a great part of Spain, but otherwise is 
distributed though Southern Europe and from Asia Minor to Transcaspia and Persia; the form abmarginata 
is chiefly prevalent in Hungary and the Asiatic localities. Larva short and stout, strongly attenuated anteriorly, 
carinated laterally, the skin rugose, strongly folded; glaucous green, the 4"' and b^^ abdominal segments 
sometimes washed with fleshy, yellowish or bluish; dorsal line geminate, ill-developed; subdorsal wanting; 
lateral broad and paler than the ground-colour; a dark lozenge-shaped dorsal pattern on the S"'''— B"* abdominals; 
ventral area pale bluish. Pupa moderately elongate, reddish yellow, washed with brown at the head and 
anal point. Imago at the end of June and in July, single brooded. 

Pt. carpheraria Hmpsn. (==unipuncta Sivinli.). Larger than politata and of an entirely different earp^eram. 
colour, besides wanting the dark grey border. Yellow, deeper towards the margins, the lines above obsolete 
or extremely faintly indicated. Both wings with large conspicuous black discal dot. Forewing beneath with 
the pale part more smoky, a dark smoky postmedian line and broader subterminal shade, cf antenna with 

IV 17 

130 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 

joints slightly projecting, ciliation moderate; hindleg slender, tarsus fully developed. Kashmir (Chamba, etc.) 
and the Punjab ; thus perhaps belonging to the Indo-Australian fauna more than to Palearctie. Easily 
distinguished by the bright golden-yellow colouring, at least at the margins. 

filicata. Pt. filicata Hbn. (4f). Yellowish white, with purplish fuscous markings, Forewing with the median 

line preceding, or at most crossing the discal dot, becoming oblique inwards and with a rather marked 
indentation posteriorly; the entire area basally to this line more or less completely filled up with the dark 
colour, but usually with a pale line traceable proximally to the (scarcely visible) antemedian; postmedian 
usually obsolete, occasionally faintly discernible, but always marked by a conspicuous dart costal spot and 
often with another at the posterior margin; a cloudy, more or less interrupted dark shade proximally to the 
subterminal. Hindwing with the median line proximal (usually far proximal) to the discal dot, the space 
between this line and the base infuscated, but sometimes less strongly than on the forewing; postmedian line 
•usually present, at least as a series of dots on the veins, placed near the discal dot; subterminal line usually 
followed as well as preceded by dark shading, hence more conspicuous than on forewing, broad. Under 
surface similarly but less darkly marked, cf antennal joints slightly projecting, ciliation short; hindtibia broadened 
and flattened, tarsus strongly broadened and flattened. Areole occasionally open at its extremity as in Cleta, the first 
subcostal failing to anastomose with the others. Larva rather thick, tapering anteriorly, the skin with strong trans- 
verse folds, rugose and granulated, but not so strongly as in rusticata; head light brown; body dirty greenish with 
indistinct, interrupted brownish dorsal and subdorsal line; lateral line more distinct, yellowish, broadening 
somewhat in the middle of the last segments; ventral surface without markings. Raid to feed on flowers of 
Dianthus, Veronica and other low plants. The moth appears in June and again in September; it is distributed 
throughout the greater part of Southern Europe, Moravia, Hungary, Asia Minor and Syria. 

bucepha- p^_ bucephalaria Chret, described from a single cf, is said to resemble a small discoloured or aberrant 

filicata but to differ markedly, apart from other characters, in the large size of the head. Forewing narrow, 
prolonged at the apex, distal margin very oblique; yellowish white or very pale ochraceous, with scattered 
brown atoms, which only become condensed in the basal area; first line broad, sinuous and dentate, nearly 
direct, brown ; postmedian very fine, pmictiform, scarcely indicated, subparallel to the distal margin, discal 
mark small but strigiform, black, very near the postmedian, subterminal indistinct, fringes concolorous. 
Hindwing rounded, not emarginate ; concolorous with forewing, basal area entirely covered with brown scales ; 
discal dot very distinct. Under surface yellowish white, with the discal dots very small, black. Head large, 
blackish brown, vertex yellowish ochreous ; antenna yellowish brown; body and legs yellowish ochreous; 
hindtibia without spurs, not more exactly described. Algeria: Biskra, end of May. 

figuraria. Pt. figuraria Bang-Haas is another recently described species with which I am still unacquainted. 

According to its author it has quite a distinct facies but is best referred to the filicata-rusticata group; the 
figure which he gives certainly suggests a near relative of these species. There are two colour-foi-ms, one 
brown mixed with reddish, the other light grey-brown; the median area of the forewing forms a dark band, 
at its edges black-brown, in the middle lighter, bounded proximally by a wavy antemedian line, distally by 
the median, which is very strongly outcurved in its anterior half, so that the band is much narrower 
posteriorly than anteriorly; discal dot large and black, placed in this median area; postmedian line dentate, 
followed, as in filicata, by dark, broken band; distal marginal line black, interrupted; fringe spotted in places 
with brown. Base of hindwing darkened as far as the discal dot; postmedian line well expressed, strongly 
dentate; distal area somewhat darkened, though not so strongly as the basal. Under surface similarly but 
more weakly marked. Described from 3 ?? from S. Oran. The shape will perhaps help to distinguish it from 
its allies; the apex of the forewing is i-ather sharp, the distal margin of both wings is said to be bent or 
slightly angled about the 3''<' radial and P' median, but the photographic figure does not show this appreciably 
on the fore -wing, and possibly Bang-Haas scarcely intends to indicate more than the weakly flexuous 
margins which are shown by rusticata. 

intermedia. Pt. intermedia Stgr. (3i) suggests a weakly marked filicata but is structurally like rusticata. Wings 

shaped almost as in the latter, the distal margin of the hindwing between the radials and of both wings 
(especially the hind) between the first median and the anal angle being perceptibly, though only very slightly 
emarginate. Ground-colour slightly less white (more brownish or yellowish). Forewing with the dark band 
terminating at, or almost before the discal dot; its proximal edge (the antemedian line) not very conspicuous, 
as there is some dark basal shading, though not on an average so strong as in completa; postmedian line 
faint, starting from a dark costal spot; dark clouding between this line and the subterminal almost entirely 
obsolete; some minute dark dots, as in rusticata, stand at the base of the fringe. On the hindwing the basal 
dark shading is strong, the postmedian line weak or obsolete, subterminal dark shading obsolete. Under 
surface more weakly marked than in filicata and rusticata, especially in the subterminal region, cf antennal 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 131 

ciliation short and even; hindtibia with a pair of well-developed spurs. Aroole, as in filicata, sometimes 
open at its extremity. Pt. intermedia was discovered in Asia Minor, the first specimens being taken at light 
at the end of June and beginning of July; its range also extends to Syria and Mesopotoraia. 

Pt. cotnpleta Stgr. is perhaps merely the N. African form of intermedia. At any rate Herr Pijngeler completa. 
has sent for my inspection a pair from Gafsa, Tunis, bred by Chretien in October 1909, under the name of 
"intermedia e Mauretania" and they show no very essential differences; the structure seems identical. The 
dark band is somewhat wider, the median line being placed distally to the discal spot; the colour of the 
band is also somewhat more reddish," as in brightly-coloured forms of rusticata, from which it still differs in 
the course of the median line; the discal dots are rather smaller, especially on hindwing; the distal margins 
also seem slightly more irregular, but the forewing is by no means narrow or pointed as in figuraria, neither 
has the band the characteristic form of that species. Staudinger indicates as a further distinction from 
intermedia, that the basal part of the forewing is almost as strongly darkened as the band itself; the difference, 
however, is not very marked in the specimens before me. The dark base of the hindwing characterizes botli. 
The egg is oval, truncate at the ends, with very irregular, angular longitudinal ribs, the depressions between 
them deep, crossed by smaller irregular ribs; greenish yellow. The larva, which Homberg reared from the 
egg on Polygonum aviculare, is short, thick, tapering in both directions from the G'*" abdominal, strongly 
carinated laterally, segmental incisions well marked; the head is small, reddish brown; the skin is very 
rugose and granulated, deeply folded transversely; ground-colour dirty grey, washed with greenish yellow, 
paler from the 6*'' abdominal; dorsal line httle paler, indistinct except at both ends, blackish edged, expanding 
into yellowish spots on the middle segments; some X-shaped markings at the incisions of the 2""^— 5"' 
abdominal; some elongate black lateral spots connected with the X-markings; lateral carina slightly pale; 
ventral region tinged with greenish, also rather paler, a medio-ventral line and on the P' — S"' abdominals 
some indistinct open lozenges. Pupa not elongate nor particularly glossy, greenish fulvous with abdomen 
reddish fulvous; cremaster with 8 hooks. Imago in June and September, Algeria and Tunis. According to 
Staudinger a form or closely allied species also occurs in Aragon and Andalusia. 

Pt. rusticata Schiff. (4f) differs from the allies in the position of the dark band, which is placed rusticata. 
more distally, so that the discal spot stands about in its centre ; the basal area is irregularly darkened, the 
dark colour being very obliquely edged, or almost confined to the costal half of the area ; there is no separate 
postmedian line, probably the distal edge of the band represents it; the clouding proximally to the sub- 
terminal line is very variable in intensity, occasionally quite obsolete, leaving the entire distal area uniformly 
whitish. Hindwing without appreciable dark band, though sometimes the (rather narrow) area between the 
median and postmedian lines is slightly darker than the rest of the wing. Under surface similarly though 
less distinctly marked, the forewing more or less uniformly infuscated from the band to the base, cf antennal 
ciliation short and even. A singular problem presents itself in regard to the cf tibial armature. There Qxist 
two separate structural forms, which would have equal right with asellaria and alyssumata to be regarded as 
distinct species, but for an observation made many years ago by Dr. Speyer, who was too careful a student 
of leg-structure to have been deceived in this matter. The form and length of the hindtibia is always the 
same, somewhat shorter than the femur, slightly thickening at its end and without hair-pencil; the difference 
consists in the presence or absence of the spurs. In general this is absotutely constant in particular localities, 
but Speyer found remarkable variation in a series from Mayence, in part bred ab ono ; of captured specimens 
2 had both spurs, 1 a single spur and 1 had none; of the bred, 2 had both spurs, 1 had none; the single 
spur in the 1-spurred example was shorter than the normal. The spurless form should be regarded as the 
type of rusticata, as this is the only form known from Vienna, whence the species was first described. 
Most of the specimens from Austria and Hungary and from some parts of Germany, so far as my information 
extends, belong here; so likewise one from Uralsk (coll. PiJNGELER) and the forms from Greece, Sicily and 
Spain. Those from Greece and Spain perhaps represent local races; according to Staudinger the former are 
of the reddish tone which he proposes, irrespective of spurring, to call var. vulpinaria. — mustelata Rhr. is mustelaia. 
an aberration occurring in Spain, with the central band considerably reduced, occupying only the costal half 
of the central area; but perhaps the name can be extended so as to embrace all the Sponish forms, as a 
tendency towards reduction of markings is in general observable in them, even when not so far developed 
as in Rambur's figure and a specimen before me from Cuenga. — vulpinaria H.-Sch. is the correct name for vulpinaria. 
the two-spurred form, altough it is oftener used (following Staudinger) for all the reddish examples. If it be 
really necessary to separate the reddish vulpinaria (as they occur commonly in Sardinia, Croatia and 
Dalmatia and in Asia Minor) from- the dark, a new name will be required for the latter. Dark vulpinaria 
occur in S. England (where the spurless rusticata is entirely unknown), France, Holland, Kreuznach and the 
Rheingau, Valais, the Tyrol, Trieste and occasionally with the redder examples in Dalmatia. Exact information 
is still wanting from many localities. According to Staudinger the species extends to N. Africa and through 
Central Asia as far as Lake Issyk Kul. The larvae of the different forms have not been separated. The 

132 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 

accounts which I have consulted (Milliere, Snellen, Rossler, Barrett) were probably all drawn up from the 
form vulpinaria. The egg is very small, oval, apparently not described in detail. The larva is very sluggish. 
It is rugose, granulated, transversely folded, the lateral carination not strong; rather short, strongly tapering 
anteriorly; head very small, dark brown or blackish; body dull greyish brown; markings variable, sometimes 
only a fine pale dorsal hne, sometimes also a more or less distinct lozenge-shaped dorsal pattern on the first 
5 abdominal segments or even throughout ; ventral area very pale greenish grey, with a whiter medioventral 
line and with subtriangular blackish markings on the 2"'* — S"" abdominals, their apices pointing forward. 
The pupa is of medium proportions, shining yellowish brown, becoming more reddish on the abdominal 
segments, especially towards the anus. The moth appears in .June and July and a very partial second brood 
(at least in captivity) about October. In my experience as well as that of Snellen, the larvae which feed 
up rapidly yield moths of about the normal size, but those which hibernate can, if well fed, be made to 
produce veritable giants the following June. Polyphagous on withered or mouldy leaves. 

rohiginata. Pt, robiginata Stgr. (^ rubiginaria Fuchs) (5b). In its strongly oehreous colouring, yet not quite so 

intense or so reddish as in most ochrata, this species differs from all otiiers with which I can compare it, 
unless possibly brightly coloured examples of manicaria or fatimata may be considered similar in ground- 
colour. The markings consist of a small dark discal dot on each wing and on the forewing 3, on the hind- 
wing 2 fine wavy dark lines, finer and much less straight than in anreolaria Hbn. On the forewing they 
are about equidistant, the median just proxiuial to the discal dot, on the hindwing the median is well 
proximal, the postmedian very strongly bent, being almost angled at the first radial and markedly inbent 
between this and the third radial. In addition to the lines both wings usually show some weak, interrupted 
grey shading proximally to the subterminal and there is always an interrupted dark terminal line. Fringes 
dark grey, with a line of the ground-colour at their base. Beneath the lines are rather thicker and stronger, 
except the first line of the forewing, which is wanting; base of forewing dusted with grey but not very 
strongly. Locally common in Spain, flying in June and July in bushy places in the evening. Has recently 
been recorded fi'om Belgium (Rochefort). The larva is thick, gradually tapering anteriorly, the lateral ridge 
very prominent, undulate and as it were festooned; head large, heart-shaped, rugose, blackish brown; body 
rugose, dark brown, the dorsal line paler, fine and coiUinous, subdorsal wanting, stigmatal line placed on the 
lateral ridge; a broad pale band traverses the ventral surface of the middle segments. Milliere says nothing 
as to the foodplants, but stales that it shares the habits of the allies; it eats little during the winter and in 
captivity pupates in April. 

lutulentaria . Pt. lutulentaria Stgr. (3i as lutulentata). Near /i/scovewosa in size, shape and markings, but unmistakable 

on account of its bright oehreous yellow ground-colour. Forewing with base of costa darkened as in 
fuscovenosa. Both wings with discal dot rather large and black. The lines are waved, the median of forewing 
preceding the discal dot, but not very strong. Distal margin and fringe unmarked. Under surface similarly 
but rather more weakly marked, basal area of forewing somewhat sull'used, without lirst line. The egg is 
spheroidal, with one axis a little longer than the other; the surface is covered with hexagonal pitting, 
including an occasional irregular polygon of 5 or 7 sides. The larva is strongly rugose and granulated, 
moderately thick, tapering anteriorly and a little on the last 3 segments; setae black, clubbed; the colour is 
variable; head pale chestnut with darker dots; body of a more or less pale chestnut, vaguely marked with 
black at the incisions, the last 3 segments with a black mcdiodorsal line. Mendes reared it on withered 
or mouldy leaves of Sarothamnus patenor. It eats lillle and grows very slowly. The pupa is uniform 
yellowish brown. The moth is single brooded, appearing in Jmie-July. Only known from some localities in 
Spain and Portugal. 

dilutaria. Pt. dilutaria Hbn. ( = stramenlata Eo.) (4f). Recognizable by its strongly silky gloss, the absence of 

the costal coloration which characterizes the precerling and the two following species (the costal margin has 
merely a sparse dusting of dark scales), the unmarked distal margin and fringe, etc. In the yellowish-tinted 
ground-colour, the minute size of the discal dots and the lack of terminal dots it is nearest to Immiliata, 
but the red costal margin of the latter forms a constant distinction. The course of the lines is also nearer 
to that of hmniliata, the pale subterminal not forming the projections which that of fuscovenosa shows. The 
lines are generally all of approximately equal expression, sometimes the postmedian a little stronger, sometimes 
the median of the forewing weak The underside is similar, the postmedian line often a little stronger, the 
antemedian and sometimes the median of the forewing obsolete, cf antennal ciliation short and even, hindtibia 
not much thickened, tarsus as long as tibia. In the name-typical form, which is rather scarce, minute discal 

praeustaria. dots are present and the distal margins are slightly dark-shaded. — ab. praeustaria Lah. dilfers little from 
the type form, but shows a much stronger and broader fuscous border. It occurs in Dalmatia and S.E. 

holosericata. Hungary and even shows some tendency to form a local race. — ab. holosericata Diip. is probably the 


PTYCHOPODA. By I.. B. Prout. 133 

commonest form and differs in wanting the discal dots and in being entirely without the darli marginal 
shading. Lilie ab. praeustaria it sometimes becomes a distinct race, as for instance in England. — ab. 
subfasciata ab. nov. has the median line on both wings approximated to the postmedian and the space between suhfasciatu. 
them occupied by a dark suffusion, forming a vague dark band. A bred example, in the Porritt collection, 
is figured by Barrett (Lep. Brit. pi. 333, fig. 1). — The egg, according to Tutt, forms a somewhat flattened 
disc, scarcely longer than wide, the surface covered with raised points; probably a stronger magnification 
would show a cell-pattern as in humiliata; pale yellow at first, changing to orange. Tlie larva is short and 
thick, tapering considerably anteriorly, carinated laterally, the skin exceedingly rugose, folded and granulated; 
segmental incisions strong; setae short and clubbed; head small and notched; the general coloration is flirty 
red-brown to blackish, the dorsal line paler, finely edged with black, especially on the posterior segments. 
It is extremely sluggish and usually grows slowly, feeding on withered or decaying leaves; it has even been 
observed to bite through the leaf-stalk as if to hasten the death of the leaf before eating it. It is said to be 
partial to Helianthemum, but is more or less polyphagous, like most of the genus. The moth flies in June and 
July; in captivity a second emergence can be obtained in September. Frequents grassy slopes and similar 
situations and is distributed in Southern and Southern Central Europe, Asia Minor and Armenia; Staudinger 
excepts Spain, but I have examples from Moncayo. 

Pt. fuscovenosa Goeze (=plebeia Geo;/! ^ osseata Haw. nee iJ&w. = interjectaria Bdv. ^= AWvxicivy^Led. fmcovenosa. 
nee Hbn.) (4f). Forewing slightly broader than in dilutaria, distal margin not quite so oblique. Ground-colour 
rather paler, at least in parts, not quite so uniform, basal part of costal margin more or less strongly 
infuscated; lines rather more irregular, especially the subterminal, which projects rather strongly basewards 
between radials and again near the posterior margin. Further distinguished by the comparatively large and 
sharply black discal dots and the presence of short black distal-marginal strokes and traces of dark dots on 
fringe. Egg oval, somewhat flattened at the ends, covered with a network of large regular cells; colour light 
red, becoming somewhat brighter after 2 days. Larva rather stout, gradually tapering anteriorly, segmental 
incisions not very deep, the usual lateral ridge present, the skin rugose and shagreened; setae very short, 
clubbed at the tip; groimd-colour dirty, dull smoky brown, more or less marbled with ochreous or yellowish, 
especially the posterior segments, markings variable, usually rather strong; dorsal line ochreous, blackish- 
edged, especially on the posteiior segments; three or four X-shaped dorsal markings on the junctions of the 
jst — 5th Qj. 2"'i — 5'h abdominals; ventral surface with a series of large ochreous crescentic marks. Feeds on 
low plants, especially or withered leaves, and grows slowly. Pope found that it would eat a moss, Hylocomium 
triquetrum, during the winter. Pupa light reddish brown, wing-cases greenish, incisions and cremaster dark. 
The moth hides by day in hedges or low bushes or grass and is of a quiet gentle flight. Locally abundant 
in June-July in Central and S. Europe, N. Africa, Asia Minor aind Armenia. Staudinger in error writes 
"except England"; in the South of this country it is generally extremely common, and the mistake probably 
arose from the erroneous use of the name osseata for it by Haworth. 

Pt. humiliata Hufn. (= osseata Schiff.) (4f) differs at once from all other known species in having humiliata. 
the costal margin of the forewing red throughout its entire length. This is not always equally bright, but it 
never fails; thus all but extremely worn specimens are quite readily distinguishable from dilutaria, which 
otherwise it rather closely resembles. The lines of the forQwing, both in this species and the preceding, are 
frequently darker or more distinct at the costal extremity than in the rest of their course, which is not 
appreciably the case in dilutaria. A black discal dot is always present on the hindwing and nearly always 
on the forewing, but is often minute, sometimes extremely minute. Some strongly marked specimens show 
(at least anteriorly) an interrupted brownish or grey terminal line, but never the sharp black marks of 
fuscovenosa. The structure presents nothing very distinctive. The ? is on an average smaller and narrower- 
winged than the cf, especially in the small British race; but this sexual distinction often in part characterizes 
the allies, and indeed a large proportion of the species of Ptychopoda. Except in size and in the brightness 
of the costal margin I have noticed little important variation; the under surface, especially of the forewing, 
is sometimes strongly powdered with dark scales, sometimes almost clear. All the lines seem to be always 
present, though in varying distinctness; the median of the forewing, which usually crosses or is closely 
approximated to the discal dot, is occasionally removed further basewards, approaching the first line; I have 
one example from the Val d'Herens in which they even coalesce thoughout tho greater part of their length, 
forming a single thick line with a small Y-shaped fork costally. Egg similar to that of fuscovenosa but with 
a slightly more greyish tint and the cells considerably smaller. Larva also similar to that species and with 
the same habits; Van I^eeuwen, in his excellent life-histories in Serf's "Nederlandsche Insecten", gives the 
following distinctions: head and legs black (in fuscovenosa brown); warts large (in fuscovenosa smaW), markings 
weak, pale-brown, not brown-black; 5"" abdominal little lighter than the rest of the dorsal area; the X-shaped 
markings wanting. Pupa less greenish than that of fuscovenosa and with a dark dorsal line. The imago 
appears in June, or even, in sheltered localities, at the end of May, thus earlier in the summer than its nearest 


PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 

relatives, and is fond of steep hill-sides; it neither reaches great altitudes, nor, so far as my information 
goes, the depths of the valleys. In suitable situations the most abundant of the group, but not extending 
far north ; otherwise almost throughout Central and Southern Europe ; N.W. Africa, Asia Minor and Transcaucasia 

niiidata. Pt. nitidata H.-Sch. (^teetaria Leech) (4f). Pale glossy straw-colour vnthout discal dots or dots in 

fringe and with no dark dusting except a sprinkling of slightly deeper straw-colour or yellowish light-brovsni. 
The lines yellowish light-brown, all present (on forewing 5, on hindwing 4) though often more or less vague; 
strongly undulate, about equidistant, the median and postmedian of hindwing apparently the most variable, 
sometimes approximated, sometimes rather widely separate. Under surface rather paler and weaker-marked, 
especially of hindwing. cf antenna shortly and closely ciliated ; hindtibia short, with rather strong hair- 
pencil, tarsus scarcely one-half as long as tibia. Differs from clihitaria in its much larger size, more uniform 
aspect (the lines generally yellower and weaker), lack of dark dusting at costal margin of forewing, etc. I 
can find not even the slightest varietal difference in tectaria Leech, from Chang Yang and Korea, to separate 
it from typical nitidata. It is observable that Staudinger also notes no difference for the Amurland and 

Ti)'' Otitic C1t~ • 

aria Ussuri specimens, which I have not seen. — promiscuana Leech, not recognizable from the description, is an 
aberration (? sport) with the ground-colour almost while, the usually yellowish dusting greyer, the yellowish 
lines weak, but the median of the forewing thickened about the discocellulars so as to give some slight 
impression of a large discal spot. Fusan, Korea, ?, taken in June. — The larva of nitidata is stout and 
compact, somewhat flattened, carinated laterally and tapering anteriorly, transversely folded; head small, bifid, 
red-brown; thoracic segments with ring-shaped protuberances, the first 5 abdominals with the segment- 
incisions deep, each broader anteriorly than posteriorly; ground-colour grey-brown, the middle segments 
with lozenge-shaped dorsal markings, divided by the black-edged dorsal line; dorsal line most distinct on the 
last few segments; before the lozenge-shaped marking stands on each segment two distinct black dots; 6"^ 
V^ and 8"' abdominals lighter and more yellowish than the rest of the surface ; lateral area also light; venter 
dark, with light longitudinal lines. Probably polyphagous on low plants; May reared it on lettuce. The 
moth appears in June and July and frequents warm sunny clearings in woods, resting among low bushes 
or grass; the ? is sluggish and less easily disturbed than the cf. Inhabits N. Italy, S.E. Europe and Eastern 
Asia; the only intermediate locality indicated by Staudinger, and this only doubtfully, is Russian Transcaucasia. 

hicerlaria. Pt. bicertaria Stgr. Only known from Staudinger's original description, founded on a single, somewhat 

defective ? from Tunis. Somewhat smaller than nitidata, light grey-yellow with sparse blackish dusting, both 
wings with sharp black discal dot and irregularly dentate dark postmedian line, forewing in addition with a 
weakly bent antemedian line ; the dark shades which bound the subterminal are very faint and narrow. Thus 
the markings slightly recall those of the circe/lafa-hTm of straminata, which is smaller and quite differently 
coloured. Under surface whitish grey with a little scattered dark dusting, the discal dots sharply black, the 
lines (except the antemedian) indicated but only extremely weakly. 

degeneraria Pt degeneraria Hhi. (4f). This species and those which follow (as far as aversata) form a very 

natural group, being closely allied in structure, shape, facies and in the larval stage; they are in general 
among the largest Ptychopoda species. The typical form of degeneraria, however, is very easily recognized 
by the reddish brown band which occupies the area between the antemedian ami the median line of the 
forewing and sometimes also extends as a more or less strong suffusion as far as the base. The hindwing 
also often shows a reddish suffusion from the- median line (here proximal to the cell-spot) to the base. The 
postmedian line of the forewing is as a rule rather strongly elbowed or angled on the first radial, but is 
somewhat variable, as also in most of the group. Distinct, but usually small, black discal dots are present 
on both wings throughout the group. Shading distally to the postmedian line weak; terminal line slight, 
occasionally altogether absent; no dots in fringe. Under surface scarcely marked except for the discal dots; 
postmedian line sometimes indicated, and sometimes an obscure greyish basal suffusion to the forewing. cf 
antennal ciliation very short; hindtibia shortened and thickened, with strong hair-pencil, tarsus extremely 
short. Variable in colour, the variations being in part local and in part seasonal, so that a series collected 
at one time and place would generally give the impression of a rather constant species. The name-type, 
strictly speaking, is somewhat intermediate between the two former differentiated by Milliere, for such an 
intermediate form was figured by Hubner. But as the French author was the first to call attention to the 
dimorphism, it is best to follow his nomenclature, including as typical degeneraria those that agree with 

meridiaria. Hubner's figure and the darker (redder-tinged), dark-banded forms. — meridiaria Mill, was expressly erected 
for a form which, according to its author, is constant in Provence, with more yellowish or olivaceous ground- 
colour and light, redder band. He says further that the larva is so differently coloured that one might 
almost think of a separate species. In general, however this light meridiaria form seems to be associated 
with the second brood and in any case it is not so constant as Milliere thought; it may be due to the 
action of increased temperature on the adult larva, but I do not think this has been experimentally tested. 
FucHs, in establishing the validity of his bilinearia, subjected some degenaria-la,rva.e to heat, and reports that 

PTYCHODOPA. By L. B. Prout. 135 

this produced no approach to hilinearia, but does not say whether any change at all resulted; however, the 

Bornich specimens which 1 have seen already approach meridiaria. — ab. depravata Stfjr. is more striking, depravuta. 

on account of the entire absence of the characteristic darl^ band; even the lines arc in general quite indistinct 

and the form almost unicolorous. It occurs in Southern Europe and Dalmatia. — ab. floridaria Piinf/. ab. floridaria. 

nov. (2,k, as floridata) "Ground-colour deep rose-red, somewrhat tinged with brown, darlc median band, as in 

depravata, almost wanting, in single specimens of the autumn generation as distinct as in degeneraria. Bred 

in numbers through several generations together with degeneraria Hbn. as autumn form and ab. depravata 

Stgr. as summer form, yet without transitions to either, from eggs of a ? caught at Bastia, Corsica, end of 

May 1911, by P. POngeler; also from Sardinia, Geo. C. Krijger 1911". POngeler (i. 1. 10**' February 1912) 

adds some interesting detail which suggests the possibility that there is in this species some form of Mendelian 

inheritance, perhaps complicated by seasonal variation. The original ? was red. The offspring (end of July 

to mid August 1911) about half red and half depravata, no banded forms in either section. From these red 

floridaria there were bred in October - November about 25% degeneraria and no depravata, 75% being 

floridaria, a few only of these latter dark-banded. Herr Pijngeler does not think it necessary to supply a 

separate name for the banded floridaria but proposes that in statistical work we should distinguish the two 

as degeneraria-floridaria and depravata-floridaria. I have an example of the former from Majorca, 1 June 1905. 

It should be added that typical depravata from Sicily, bred through several generations, has been known to 

remain true, like a Mendelian pure dominant or pure recessive, but a ? from the East Pyrenees produced a 

mixed brood of degeneraria and depravata. Larva moderately thick, gradually tapering anteriorly and with 

a rounded lateral ridge; skin rugose, strongly folded transversely; head small; body rather variable in colour, 

red-brown or blackish, the form meridiaria, according to Milliere, on an average lighter than the type; 

thoracic segments with red-brown dorsal spots; the first 4 or 5 abdominals with red-brown lozenge-shaped 

dorsal markings or at least with dark V-shaped marks indicating their posterior boundary; lateral line white, 

not sharply defined ; ventral surface blackish, with pale spots on the middle segments. Pupa short and rather 

thick, moderately glossy, chestnut-brown, the anal segment and cremaster much darker. The moth is generally 

double-brooded, appearing in April-May and again from the end of July, frequenting warm hedges, etc. 

It is local in England, France, Germany and Austria, but more general in Southern Europe, N. Africa and 

from Asia Minor to Central Asia. — erschoffi Chr. (3i, as erschoffiaria) is probably nothing more than an ersehoffi. 

Eastern local race of degeneraria. Except that the apex of the forewing is somewhat more acutely produced 

1 can find no essential difference, and Herr Pijngeler informs me that degeneraria from Transcaucasia and 

Central Asia in general incline in this direction. As an aberration, this wing-form may also be occasionally 

almost reproduced in Western specimens; thus I have one example from Philippeville, Algeria. Christoph's 

figure is redder, but this is not important. The only example before me, from Astrabad, is rather larger 

than average degeneraria, the discal dots rather large, almost as in ruhraria, the coloration and markings 

almost entirely as in normal degeneraria ; the first and median lines are a good deal darker and less reddish 

than the band which they enclose, and a dark shadowy band distally to postmedian line is rather better 

developed than in most degeneraria. The form erschoffi is recorded from Transcaucasia, Persia and Transcaspia. 

Pt. rubraria Stgr. (4g). Confusingly near the non-banded forms of degeneraria (depravata and ruhraria. 
floridaria). Both Staudinger and Fuchs originally regarded it as a mere form of that species, but Fuchs in 
1886 announced its specific distinctness and later, in a very long article (Jahrb. Nassau. Ver. Nat. vol. 42, 
p. 211 — 218), worked out the question more fully. In Staudinger's latest edition it is called a Darwinian 
species. On an average somewhat larger and more robust than degeneraria, without any tinge of greenish, 
the discal dots larger, the postmedian line finer and sharper, in general more acutely angled on the first 
radial and usually somewhat more incurved posteriorly, well developed also on the under surface ; the median 
shade is present on the upper surface, but never very strong, never widened into a band but consisting only 
of a vague thick line, which is placed on the forewing close distally to the discal dot and on the hindwing 
proximally to it. The d^ antennal joints project appreciably more than in degeneraria. In the name-type 
the groimd-colour is reddish all over, the median shade slightly darker. — ab. bilinenaria Fuchs is considerably hilinenaria. 
paler, ochreous with hardly any red tinge but with the median shade decidedly reddish. In the Rheingau, 
and perhaps in most localities, it is the common or form, the biological "type". Whether, as was at first 
conjectured, the form rubraria really occurs more frequently in the ? sex than in the cT now appears very 
doubtful. — f. therinaria F. Fuchs is a smaller, finely scaled, almost unmarked form, very rare in a state of therinaria. 
nature but frequently obtained by breeding, representing a second generation. — The larva looks at first 
glance quite different from that of degeneraria, but this is chiefly on account of a strong darkening of the 
ground-colour, or at least a strong dark admixture, in the anterior two- thirds, excepting the head. 
Body much flattened, thick in the middle, tapering anteriorly, lateral ridge strongly protuberant, constricted 
at the segment-incisions; venter more rounded; ground-colour grey or yellowish grey, anterior two-thirds 
dorsally darkened to brown or even black-brown; a double medio-dorsal line, scarcely discernible except on 
[he paler part, accompanied by indistinct oblique streaks running out anteriorly; ventral area brown, with 

136 PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 

large light Irapezoidal spots in the middle. Full-fed from the middle of June onwards. Pupa shaped like 
that of degeiieraria, bat more strongly built and sometimes more reddish. The moth, according to Fuchs, 
does not appear till July-August, thus much later than the first generation of degeiieraria, and is only single- 
brooded in a state of nature, at least in his district and in normal seasons. But in captivity, as with many 
species of Ptijcliopoda, an additional brood can be obtained about October. It is to be observed further that 
Rossler's account of the life-history of degeneraria refers not to that species but to rtibraria. It may also be 
mentioned that Wendlandt has recently disputed the identity of Ulinearia with ruhraria, but gives no grounds 
for his view; he records a strikingly 'small, absolutely fresh example captured on 28"^ August, which he 
regards as representing the otherwise unknown second brood in a state of nature. The geographical range 
of ruhraria embraces a part of Central Germany, Lower-Austria, the Southern Tyrol, Hungary, Capri, Sicily, 
Dalmatia and Greece. 

inornata. Pt. inornata Haw. ( := suffusata Tr) (4 g). This species and the following present another rather 

puzzling assemblage of very closely similar forms, some of which still need more exact investigation. True 
inornata, which is appropriately named, may best be recognized by its strongly glossy, quite weakly-marked 
wings, entirely without dots at base of fringe and often entirely without dark marginal line, which in any 
case is not very strong. The postmedian line of the forewing, which in most of the allies is angled or 
strongly bent on the first radial, here shows no appreciable bend, or at the utmost an extremely blunt one. 
This affords a convenient distinction from weakly-marked aversata ab. remutata and from degeneraria ab. 
dejjravata, but unfortunately not from the still more closely related deversaria. Underside somewhat paler, 
somewhat less glossy, occasionally with some minute scattered dark atoms; postmedian line and interrupted 
marginal line rather better expressed than above; forewing usually with a slight brownish suffusion in the 
cell and costally. So far as I can see the sexes do not differ materially; according to Guenee the ? has the 
interrupted terminal dark line on the forewing above belter developed than in the cf, and .1 think this is the 
general tendency, though neither very pronounced nor constant. Not a variable species on the whole, 
though there is some variation in the shade of the ground-colour and the position of the lines. Bred 
specimens show a slight olivaceous gloss, which is to a large extent lost after the species has been on the 

agrostem- ^^ing a short time. — ab agrostemmata Guen. founded on two bred specimens, was erected as a separate 
species, but is a quite unimportant aberration, its saiall size perhaps due to breeding. Apart from size, 
however, it dilfers in being still more weakly marked, the lines scarcely traceable. The larvae were found 

amoenata. in Central France, feeding in the capsules of Agrostemma dioica. — ab. amoenata Fuchs ( = suaveolaria 
Fuchs), described from Sicily, is distinguished by its more reddish tone, especially towards the distal margin 
and the fringes. I have not seen an extreme form, but some British examples approach it. — The egg of 
inornata has been described and figured by Peyron, and figured by South; it is oval, with the usual small 
concavities 5- to 7-sided; whitish yellow at first, becoming blotched with red. Laid, according to South, in 
strings of from 6 — 20. The larva is very similar to that of degeiieraria ; rather thick, tapering gradually 
anterioi'ly, carinated laterally, skin strongly rugose, subsegmentation well marked; head small, rough, horn- 
colour with two whitish posterior spots; body varied with different shades of grey and brown, or somewhat 
more reddish; P' — 5"' abdominals with dark dorsal V-marks, their apices at the posterior extremity of the 
segments; sometimes with pale spots on the dorsum of the 4"" and 5'*' abdominals. Polyphagous on low 
plants and rather easy to rear; a large percentage of the larvae can generally be induced to feed up rapidly 
and yield a second brood of moths about September. Pupa yellow-brown, darker at anal extremity; cremaster 
with the usual 6 curved spines. The imago flies in ]\Iay, Jmie and July and into the begimiing of August 
(in southern localities partly double-brooded) and inhabits heathy or bushy places or woodland, hiding in the 
herbage or resting with wings outspread on tree-trunks or fences. At night it may sometimes be attracted 
by "sugar". Widely distributed almost throughout Europe except the extreme north, generally common, though 
less abundant and more local than aversata; reported scarce in many parts of Eastern Europe and not yet 
known from Asia. 

deversaria. Pt. deversaria H.-Sch. ( = ? spataceata Scq/j. = subversaria Zo/«. = sufl'usala Guen. nee Tr.) (4g) has 

been regarded by some authors as a form of the preceding, but is now acknowledged to be distinct, or at 
the least a '"Darwinian species". Slightly less glossy, more yellowish, with no olivaceous tinge, the lines 
better expressed and sometimes thicker, the median shade usually distinct and thick, the shades on either 
side of the subterminal line generally better developed; marginal line sometimes better developed, a distinct 
series of small dots usually present at base of fringes. Under surface with median shade usually well 
developed, as well as postmedian line. The course of the postmedian line of the forewing is often not or 
scarcely distinguishable from that of inornata, but its tendency is to be intermediate towards that of dversata; 

maritimata. that is to say, it is often appreciably bent on the first radial, though not sharply angled. — ab. tnaritimata 

Guen., erected as a form of inornata, is distinguished, according to Rebel, by having the median shade more 

strongly developed than in typical deversaria. Guenee does not directly compare it with deversaria (his 

inornata var. suffusata) but emphasizes the strong expression of the median shade. W. coast of France. — 

diffliiata. In ab. diffluata IT.-Sch. (3k, 4g) the entire space between the postmedian and subterminal line on both 

Puhl.1. V.191S. PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 137 

wings is filled up with a dark band, or at most there is only a fine line of the groimd-colour between the 

postinedian line and the band. Distally to the subteruiinal there is also as a rule stronger dark shading than 

in the type form, but it is generally rather weak, seldom so strong as in the example figured on PI. 3 k. 

diffluata is the prevailing, though not the only form in S.E. Hungary and occurs also in Dahnatia, Bosnia, 

Asia Minor and perhaps Bohemia. The examples which I have seen from Asia Minor have also the basal 

area of the forewing darkened. A. Fuchs and F. Flichs both maintained that diffluata was a separate species, 

but seem to have studied very little material, and bring forward no better arguments that that it is brighter 

yellow, far less sprinkled with black but more strongly black-marked at the distal margins and fringes. Even 

at Herculesbad, one of the best-known localities for diffluata, non-banded deversaria still occurs together with 

the aberration. Regarding the name diffluata, which its author adopted from Mann's manuscript, it is not 

quite certain that it was originally intended to apply to this form; in the Zeller collection examples of 

nitidata are Labelled diffluata Mann, and as Herrtch-Schaffer figured from Mehadia and on the same plate 

both nitidata and the present form it is not impossible that by some error he misapplied Mann's name. — 

ab. laureata Fuchs (3 k), from the Rheingau, is very similar to diffluata, but easily distinguished by the laureata. 

alternate bands of light and dark colour in the distal area; that is to say, only the distal half of the space 

between the postmedian and the subterminal is darkened ; the area distally to the subterminal is (at least in 

my examples) fully as dark as the area proximally to it. Recorded also from S. Tyrol, Bohemia, etc. — ab. habicM. 

habichi Schaioerda is a melanotic form, strongly suffused with smoke-colour yet with the 3 black lines 

remaining distinct both above and beneath. Bosnia. -^ ab. hyalinata Chr., which possibly forms a local race hyalinafa. 

in Transcaucasia, scarcely differs from deversaria except in having the median shade (inner line) of the 

hindwing removed further proximally from the discal dot. Described from several examples taken at light 

in May and August. The larva agrees in form with those of the allied species and shows scarcely any 

constant difference from that of inornata. According to Fuchs, who bred the two side by side, it is on an 

average lighter, but is varies somewhat in colour and that of inornata varies considerably. The only constant 

difference which he could find consisted in the presence of a white dot in the apices of the V-shaped (at 

times Y-shaped) markings in inornata, which is nearly always wanting in deversaria. Pale grey-yellow, or 

more rarely yellow-brown, the dorsal pattern varying in distinctness. Pupa apparently not yet differentiated 

from that of inornata. The moth flies in June and July, appearing a week or two earlier than inornata. Its 

range is not so extended northward nor perhaps westward as that of the preceding species, though in many 

Central and S.E. European localities they occur together; deversaria, on the other hand, extends also to Asia 

Minor, Transcaucasia, Transcaspia and other localities in Western Asia. I consider it highly probable that 

this is the spataceata of Scopoli, described from Carniola; at least there seems to be no other species to 

which his description and (miserably bad) figure can be applied ; but as Werneburg determined it for remutaria 

Hbn. (floslactata Haw.) I have left the name in abeyance. 

Pt. aversata L. (= grisata F. = latifasciaria Hdnr.) (4g). Cannot possibly be confounded, in its avm-sata. 
typical form, with either of the allies, the dark band being here placed between the median and postmedian 
lines, while in degeneraria it is placed between the antemedian and median and is the aberrations of deversaria 
distally to the postmedian. In general, also, aversata is rather less glossy than the allies, more strongly 
dusted, the postmedian line rather sharply expressed, more strongly angled on the first radial of the forewing 
than in deversaria, the distal marginal line and dots at base of fringes always present, mostly very conspicuous; 
the area distally to the postmedian line is generally very weakly marked or quite without markings, but 
occasionally (especially in the banded forms) a moderately conspicuous dark shade is developed proximally 
to the subterminal. Only a few weakly-marked glossy aberrations, and particularly when the angle in the 
postmedian line happens to be less pronounced than usual, are confusingly like inornata. As these weakly- 
marked specimens have usually hardly any subterminal dark shading they are in general less likely to be 
mistaken for deversaria, but great care is needed in individual cases. Pt. aversata. shows a wide range of 
variation, and several of the forms have received separate names. Even Linne and Clerck knew no less than 
three, which they assumed to be separate species. This has resulted in some confusion in the synonymy, 
as later authors attempted to identify the second and third forms with other species of Ptychopoda, or even 
of Acidalia. The true aversata, as here figured, is by no means a rare form, but is not nearly so abundant 
as the ab. remutata. — ab. lividata CI. differs little from typical aversata and would scarcely need to be Uvidata. 
separately described but for the confusion which has prevailed regarding its identity. The median shade is 
placed rather further from the discal dot than in some forms, the dark space which extends from the median 
to the postmedian consequently a little narrowed; but on the other hand there is an additional pronounced 
dark shade proximally to the subterminal line and even a little (narrow) dark shading distally thereto. In 
most copies of Clerck's "Icones" the figure of lividata is very badly coloured and quite unrecognizable, in 
consequence of which those systematists who have seen only such copies have made very faulty attempts at 
its determination. Thus Laspeyres considered it to represent dimidiata and biselata (which he regarded as 
forms of a single species), Werneburg selected biselata and Zeller thought it nearer to deversaria than to 
anything else. On the other hand Illiger, Stephens and GuENfe, who presumably had access to better copies 

IV ■ 18 


PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. 

of the book, gave the right determination. In a beautiful copy in the Walsingham Museum (recently presented 
remutata. to the British Museum) it is absolutely unmistakable and is as here described. — ab. retnutata L. (= ? 
concatenata Hnfn. = trilineata Hufn. = murinata F. nee Scop. = aversata Guen. = spoliata Stgr., (4g): 
This very abundant form differs the type in the entire absence of the dark band between the median and 
postmedian lines. Guenei?; considers this form "naturally" the type of the species, ignoring Linn^'s description; 
at the same time, unlike most other observers, he finds the true aversata form (which he calls var. lividata) 
"as common' as this. Normally ab. remutata has the same, ground-colour as typical aversata, but sometimes, 
as in the example which we figure, it is more or less yellowish in tone, approaching the colour of ab. 
fuliginata. ciurata. — ab. fuliginata Haiv. may perhaps be, as Guenee indicates, a form with the ground-colour darkened, 
yet with the band still appreciably darker; but it is not well described and the type specimen appears to be 
lost, while a specimen labelled fulginata by Stephens in the British Museum collection dots not agree with 
effuscata. the description. — ab. effuscata Galvagni is a further development of ab. lividata, with the dark colour 
atrata. extended over the entire marginal area of- both wings. — ab. atrata F. Fuchs (= suffumata Lambifl.) is the 
most extreme development, the entire surface of both wings being covered with blackish atoms, the lines still 
darker. It was described by Fuchs from Lorch-am-Bhein, and by Lambillion from Dinant, but I have seen 
some fine examples in our London collections and there is some reason to believe that, like so many 
melanotic forms, it is here becoming commoner. In very extreme cases the melanism becomes perfect, the 
auraia. wings being of a uniform glossy blackish. — ab. aurata Fuchs has the ground-colour bright clay-yellow, 
usually (at least in the specimens which I have seen) with a slight reddish tinge. The Jiand is commonly 
present, but Fuchs also includes non-banded forms. None of the above-described aberrations shows any 
marked tendency to form a local race, and often three or four of them may be obtained in the offspring of 
a single ?. The early stages of aversata have long been well known, and were described in the works of 
ScHWARz, Sepp and other old authors. The egg is similar to that of inornata, the concavities not deep; pale 
reddish yellow, becoming darker and irregularly marked with red. Larva moderately stout, tapering anteriorly, 
somewhat flattened, with a projecting and puckered lateral ridge; head small (but, according to a side-by-side 
comparison by Heylaerts, less small than that of inornata), reddish brown thickly dusted with black; body 
rugose, skin transversely folded, dull brown, posterior four segments paler, tinged with ochreous; dorsal line 
whitish, indistinct, on the thorax and last four abdominals with a dark bordering, on the intermediate segments 
accompanied by brown V-shaped markings, the arms of the V more widely separated than in inornata; one 
or two white dorsal spots; subdorsal line indistinct; lateral line whitish ochreous; underside dark, with a 
blunt pale wedge-shaped blotch on each segment, containing two brown lines, and followed by a smaller one 
in which is a grey V. Polyphagous on low plants. During the winter it hibernates very completely, even 
when kept in a warm room; and it has been observed to maintain its vitality for some months when kept 
entirely without food. Pupa smooth but not glossy, rather blunt anteriorly; pale reddish brown, darker 
dorsally and at the segmental incisions, wings greenish, cremaster dark brown. The moth is found pretty 
continuously from June to September, having a rather protracted period of emergence, while a few larvae of 
the oITspring of the early moths feed up rapidly, preducing a partial second brood. Common almost throughout 
Europe with the exception of the extreme north and of some parts of Spain and Portugal ; also occurs in 
Asia Minor, Syria and Armenia. 

emarginaia. Pt. emarginata L. (= erosata Hufh. = demandata F. =^ margiriata F. = rumigerata Don. = quadri- 

punctala Don. = dimidiata Hatv.) (4g). A very distinct species in shape, forming in this respect a separate 
section of the genus; some systematists, indeed, have accorded to it generic rank under the name of Ania 
Steph. In all other respects, however, it seems to be a normal Ptychopoda. Fore wing with the distal margin 
somewhat excavated between the apex and the 3'''' radial, prominent at the 3'''' radial and P' median; hind- 
wing similar, the excavation being between the radials. Pale yellowish-brown or reddish-ochreous, variable 
in depth of colouring; the lines darker red-brown, the inner wanting on the hindwing; both wings usually 
also with a diffuse median shade, in the cf as a rule faint, in the ? strong and broad; both wings with 
distinct discal dot and dark marginal line. The ? further differs from the cf in being generally smaller- 
winged but with a much more robust body, and in having the wings still more strongly emarginate than the 

mosquensis. cf. — ab. mosquensis Hegne has both wings more strongly powdered with black scales, giving it a much 
darker appearance, the median band strong, dark grey or blackish ; fringes also darkened. Founded on 
several examples from Moscow. Unfortunately it is not stated whether it is confined to the ?, in which it 
would be scarcely striking. — The egg of emarginata is a somewhat irregular oval, the surface covered with 
a regular hexagonal reticulation; very pale reddish-brown, becoming darker in the centre and round the 
edge as its development proceeds. The larva is rather stout, gradually tapering anteriorly; rugose, transversely 
ribbed, the ribs less distinct on the anterior portions of the middle segments; head notched, dark brown; 
body somewhat variable in colour, dull ochreous to olive brown; a pale mediodorsal line, finely dark-edged 
especially on abdomen, where the edging thickens into broad dark marks, tending to become continuous on 
the last 4 segments; middle segments with dark V-shaped markings, their points directed caudad, sometimes 
also with V-shaped markings pointing cephalad, the resultant pattern being a series of X-marks at the 

PTYCHOPODA. By L. B. Prout. ' 139 

incisions; ventral surface almost uniform olive-brown. Feeds on various low plants, possibly with a preference 
for Convolvulus, to the curved withered stems of which it bears a close resemblance; fresh or withered 
leaves seem to be equally acceptable. Pupa smooth and shining, reddish yellow with greenish wings; the 
pupal stage is of short duration. On the wing in June, July and August, and in captivity a partial second 
brood may be obtained. Sluggish by day and not so easily disturbed as many of the species; flies at late 
dusk and after dark and is strongly attracted by light. Europe and the Altai, widely distributed but rarely 
very abundant, inhabiting chiefly damp places where there are hedges or bushes, the borders of damp woods, etc 

The following recently-described species are unknown to me and little or no 
clue is given as to their systematic position, but they will no doubt — with the pos- 
sible exception of the last — be found to belong to Ptychopoda. 

Pt. euphorbiata . 5a^es<re (as Acidalia) "Expanse about 20 mm. cf. Wings didl yellowish sprinkled eMpfeorfiiato. 
with some black atoms. Forewing traversed by two black lines: the extrabasal, more black at the costa, 
forms a rounded bend towards the discal dot, which is hardly marked; the postmedian, blacker at the costa 
and at the inner margin, forms an acute angle distally opposite the discal dot; subterminal hardly marked 
by a shght shade. Hindwing with two undulate lines continuing those of the forewing, the subterminal shade 
and a discal dot well marked. Fringe lighter, preceded by a series of small black dots. Under surface 
shining pale yellow, strongly irrorated with black atoms, with the postmedian line alone visible, better 
marked in black than above; discal dots hardly visible. ? similar. Near Nice: Mount Pacanaglia. Larva 
short, attenuated anteriorly, rugose, carinated, uniformly black. It lives on Euphorbia spinosa, hibernates, and 
pupates in IMay. Emerges in July". 

Pt. oberthuriata Balestre (as Acidalia). "Expanse about 10 mm. cf. Bone-colour speckled with hlsick oherthuriata. 
atoms. Forewing with the ordinary lines, rather well marked, and a thicker and darker median shade; all 
these lines formed by condensation of the black atoms. The extrabasal nearly vertical, forming a rounded 
bend at the costa. The postmedian makes a similar rounded bend opposite to the discal dot, which is 
hardly visible, sometimes wanting; median shade nearly straight. Hindwing with the same lines and a discal 
dot, always better marked than on the forewing. Fringe of both wings long, concolorous with the wings, 
preceded by a series of small black dots. ? similar, but with the wings always more copiously black- 
speckled. Near Nice: IVlount Pacanaglia. Larva short, folded, rugose, carinated, of a light burnt brown dotted 
with black. Head reddish with the hairs small and nearly colourless. Lateral line fine, dirty yellow, hardly 
visible. Dorsally three lunulate markings are observable, their points directed caudad. It lives in the detritus 
which is found under Euphorbia spinosa and eats the withered leaves of this plant. It hibernates, pupating in July. 
The perfect insect emerges in August. The smallest species of the genus, dedicated to M. Charles OBERXHiJR". 

Pt. couloniata Balestre (as Acidalia). "Expanse about 12 mm. cf. Wings vinous bone-yellow, glossy, coidoniata. 
Forewing traversed by two black lines, widely separated: the extrabasal, strongly marked at the costa, is 
slightly rounded; from the median vein to the inner margin, it is accompanied by a thick black mark, rect- 
angular in form, situate in the median area; postmedian arising from a strong black costal mark, of about 
1 mm, then forming a slight elbow distally, afterwards proceeding in an almost straight line to the inner 
margin; discal dot wanting. Hindwing with two lines continuing those of the forewing: the extrabasal thick, 
diffuse, formed of numerous blackish atoms; postmedian fine and slightly undulate; discal dot black, distinct. 
Fringes concolorous with wings, preceded by a series of small black dots. Under surface pale shining 
yellow, unmarked, the forewing having merely a black mark on the costa; discal dots very small, visible on 
both wings. ? similar, but with the markings less dark. Near Mentone: Annonciata Hill. Larva light earth- 
brown, rugose, folded transversely, carinated, with the small hairs light-coloured especially at their extremity. 
Head rather large, dirty yellow, speckled with brown. Dorsal line fine, very light duU yellow, hardly distinct, 
in some specimens very finely bordered with blackish, crossed by three rather distinct dirty yellow spots. 
On the S"" abdominal there is a black V-shaped mark, the point directed cephalad and followed by two black 
dots on each side of the dorsal line. It five's on cypress, hibernates, and pupates at the begimiing of June. 
The perfect insect emerges at the end of June. Dedicated to Dr. Coulon (of Monaco)". 

Pt. nigrolineata Chr4t. {as "^ Acidalia), "Expanse 10 mm. Forewing prolonged and rounded at the niffrolineata. 
apex; distal margin oblique, nearly straight; posterior angle a little prominent, sharp; yellowish white, slightly 
ochraceous, sprinkled with blackish brown scales; costa yellowish brown; lines rather thick, black: the first 
commencing at the costa at Ys) forming a pronounced angle in the disc, descending almost perpendicularly 
on the inner margin; the second, commencing a little beyond Vg, forms an acute angle at the 3'''^ radial and 
P' median, is retracted behind the median and descends almost perpendicularly on the inner margin, which 
it reaches at little beyond %; the median shade, arising from a large costal spot, nearly at mid costa, 
approaches the second line, joining it on the 2"^^ median; subterminal line light, between brown shades; 



discal dot hardly distinct in the median shade; distal marginal line fine, continuous, black, thickened at the 
posterior angle; fringe whitish, chequered with black. Hindwing similar, without first line; second line very 
oblique at first and fine as far as the 2°'' subcostal, on which it forms a very acute angle, then broad and 
thick; distal margin rather deeply sinuate, especially near the inner angle, which is acute and prominent; 
shape of the wing recalling that of intermedia Stgr. Under surface greyish at the base of the wings, paler 
towards the distal margin, with the median shade and second line of the upper surface rather distinct. 
Head and thorax concolorous with wings; vertex yellowish brown; antenna brown, finely cihated; palpus 
brown; abdomen yellowish, with black scales at the extremity of the segments; legs yellowish ochraceous, 
the posterior a little shorter. It does not appear certain that this very characteristic new species is a traie 
Acidalia, although it approaches that genus in having the 2°'' subcostal and 1^' radial of the hindwing stalked. 
The knowledge of both sexes will no doubt permit our being more definite. Flies in June, at Gafsa. The 
above description suggests a possible relative (or even a small light form) of figiu-aria Bang-Haas, which 
also I do not known in nature. Neither the sex nor the hindtibial armature is indicated. 

halestraria. Pt. balestraria D. Luc. (as Acidalia) "Forewing rather elongate, in both sexes yellowish* white above 

with a very distinct black discal dot; fringe slightly darkened; between the discal dot and the fringe, and 
nearer to the former, there is a very fine yellowish line, parallel with the distal margin, anteriorly with an 
obtuse angle, pointing distad; parallel to this, a sinuous line formed of brown patches of equal breadth; 
finally, touching the fringe, a rather distinct brown line, thickened at the apex; a line parallel to the distal 
margin passes close to the discal dot and forms at this point a right-angle; between the thorax and this line 
there is a very fine brown one, parallel to it; basal area slightly shaded with brown. Hindwing concolorous, 
with similar lines, continuing those of the forewing; those between the discal dot and the fringe sharply 
defined. Wings beneath lighter, markings a little less distinct. Thorax, head and abdomen yellowish white. 
Vertex white. Antenna fihform, yellowish. Legs of the same colour. Palpus very short. Tongue rather 
short, yellowish". Described from several of both sexes taken at Tozeur, Tunis, in June 1907. 

21. Genus: liimeria Stgr. 

Palpus very small. Tongue apparently wanting. Antenna in cf with fascicles of long ciha. Hindtibia 
in cf without spurs, in ? with slender, not very well developed terminal spurs; tarsus not aborted. Forewing 
in cf very narrow and pointed, in ? still narrower, almost lanceolate; cell long, neuration otherwise as in 
FtycJwpoda. Hindwing very narrow, the distal margin sinuate, about as in the narrowest-winged Ptychopoda; 
costal vein touching subcostal at a point near the base, continuing approximated for some distance; 2"'' sub- 
costal stalked with P' radial. 

An evident offshoot of Ptgchopoda, differing in scarcely anything except the extreme shape and the 
apparent absence of the tongue; it is strange that Staudinger entirely failed to recognize its very evident 
affinities and associated it with Egca and the genus which he calls Acalia (Ithysia Hbn.). I have only been 
able to examine a single pair, Zeller's originals mentioned by Staudinger. 

The sole known species inhabits a restricted area north of the Caspian Sea. 


L. macraria ^tgr. (3 b, cf). Greyish sand-colour, dusted with dark atoms, the hindwing rather paler. 
Forewing with blackish fliscal dot and dark postmedian line, the latter placed rather near the distal margin, 
running slightly obliquely from the posterior margin in the direction of the apex, but acutely angled after 
crossing the first radial; a rather more diffuse line usually follows the postmedian, from the posterior margin 
to the first radial, and the narrow area between the latter line and the distal margin is whitish. The hind- 
wing is similarly or more weakly marked. Under surface similar, slightly more brightly coloured and sharply 
marked, the hindwing not paler than the forewing. Sarepta and the Ural. 

The Cosymbia-group. 

22. Genus: Cinglis Guen. 

Palpus moderately long, rough-scaled beneath, cf antenna with long fascicles of cilia, arising from 
short pectinations. Hindtibia slender, in cf with 2, in ? with 4 spurs. Forewing with areole simple ; S"" sub- 
costal arising below (behind) its apex, P' to 4"' subcostals long-stalked. Hindwing with 2"'* subcostal and 
P' median very shortly stalked, perhaps sometimes arising from a point at apex of cell, discocellulars 
oblique, P' median arising separate from 3'''' radial. 

In aspect a somewhat isolated genus and consisting only of a single species, belonging chiefly to 
Southern Siberia; a few other species have been referred here by Hulst and Warren, but erroneously. 

COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 141 

Notwithstanding its very different appearance, it shows but little structural deviation from Cosymhia, the chief 
differences being in the cf antenna and in the somewhat stouter, more thickly-scaled palpus. Whether this 
close structural resemblance is entirely due to close affinity, or in part to convergence, can only be decided 
by the discovery of the early stages or of some important characters which have hitherto escaped the 
observation of systematists. 

C. humifusaria Ev. (4a). White, glossy, the veins broadly (the 2"'' radial more narrowly) marked a^^J-'j-^^ 
with brown; costal margin of forewing densely dusted with brown; lines brown, the postmedian somewhat 
the darkest; antemedian bent outwards on the median vein; median rather broader, somewhat curved, closely 
following the large, roundish cell-mark; postmedian outcurved between the 3'''' radia,l and the 2"'^ median 
closely followed by a brown band; distal area with the brown vein-markings still further thickened, sometimes 
leaving between them only quite narrow white wedge shaped markings; fringe chequered with brown and 
white. Hindwing without first line. Underside similar, less glossy, without first line. Occurs from SE. Russia 
and Transcaucasia to the Hi district, also in S. Spain and N. Africa. Said by Eversmann to fly by day, end 
of May and beginning of June; in Murcia Korb took it over Artemisia. Dr. Seitz denies the day flight; he 
tells me the species is not rare near Batna and sits among the bushes of Artemisia herba alba, flying off 
when disturbed, like other Geometridae. 

23. Genus: Co^yuibia Hhn. 

Palpus rather short to moderate, shortly rough-scaled, terminal joint distinct, slender, smooth, cf 
anienna bipectinate with moderately long branches, apical part simple. Hindtibia in cT with 2, in ? with 4 
spurs. Forewing with areole simple, P' subcostal separating from 2"'* to 4"' considerably after 5"^. Hindwing 
with 2°'^ subcostal connate or sometimes very shortly stalked with P' radial, discocellulars not oblique, 1=' 
median arising close to posterior angle of cell or not infrequently even very shortly stalked. 

Egg longish oval, the surface covered with an irregular network of raised ribs. Larva moderately 
elongate, nearly cylindrical, very slightly thickened posteriorly, head rather large, slightly bifid, body without 
marked protuberances; on various trees, not hibernating. Pupa exposed, attached to a leaf, with cremastral 
pad and central girth and showing several other remarkable resemblances to a Papilio pupa. 

An extremely natural genus in its structure and entire life-history. Even in shape the species agree 
well. They are partially double-brooded and several exhibit marked seasonal dimorphism; the winter is 
always passed in the pupal stage. The moths rest by day on tree-trunks, or more commonly among leaves 
and are in general easily obtained in the day-time by searching, or by beating the bushes or trees in which 
they hide. At dusk they are in general less observed than many other Geometrids, but later at night they 
may sometimes be captured at sugar or attracted to a strong light. By far the best way of securing a 
number, however, is by breeding. The ?? lay very willingly in captivity and the larvae are easy to feed up. 
Moreover on account of their tree-frequenting habit they are unlike those of the preceding genera quite easily 
oblained by beating. 

A very interesting and well established fact regarding the earlier stages is that the colour-dimorphism 
which nearly all the known species of the larvae exhibit (green or brown) is always carried through to the 
pupal stage. Not less interesting is the remarkable convergence, in the pupal structure and method of 
suspension, towards certain other exposed pupae particularly of butterflies and Elachistids. So far as I know 
this phenomenon has only been observed in two other cases among the rest of the Geometrid subfamilies — 
the North American Euphanessa Pack (subfam. Larentiinae) and the Australian Terpna percomptaria Guen. 
(subfam. Hemitheinae) — but in the Cosi/mhia-grow^ it seems pretty constant (Anisodes, Pleuroprucha, etc.). 
It is said, however, that annulata often pupates among moss. 

The perfect insects also invite careful study, not only on account of their beauty and general 
variability, but also on account of their adaptability to scientific investigations of the effects of temperature 
and in hybridization. The accounts of the separate species must be consulted for detailed information on 
these matters. 

The genus is not extensive, and is' almost, if not entirely, confined to the Palearctic Region (chiefly 
its western part), Africa (2 or 3 species) and America (a few species). In the great Indo-Australian Region 
and to a very large extent in South America it is supplanted by some specialized offshoots — Anisodes and 
its allies. "Ceylon", given by Walker as the locality for his vusannana, is evidently a mistake, as already 
pointed out by Hampson; his type-specimen is a typical pendularia CI. and this is, in its range, the most 
northern species of Cosymhia. The genus has been called by many names {Cyclophora, Codonia, Leucoph- 
thalmia, Ephyra, Zonosoma, etc.) but Cosymhia, as used by Warren, Dyar and Swinhoe, is clearly correct; 
this was erected by Htjbner for nolaria Hhn. (= pupillaria Hhn. ab.) 

The genitalia of the European species have been carefully investigated by Bastelberger and indicate two 
distinct groups: []) pendularia, orbicularia, alhiocellaria, annulata, puppillaria, qicercimontaria and ruficiliaria, with 
forceps wanting or rudimentary: {2)porata, punctaria, linearia and supjnmctaria, with forceps powerfully developed. 

142 COSYMBIA. B: L. B. Prout. 

pendularia. C. pendularia CI. (^ albipimctata Hufn. = suspensa Retz. = pupillaria Brahm = circularia F. = 

vusarmana Walk.) (4n). Whitish, dusted with grey atoms and usually with some slight reddish suffusion in 
the median area of the forewing, especially round the discal dot and on the median shade when the latter 
is present. Forewing with distal margin rather straight; the two lines represented chiefly by black dots or 
minute dashes on the veins, ' the antemedian usually preceded and the postmedian followed by a narrow 
pale space, or thick line; median shade thick, curved, sometimes strong, sometimes weak or wanting; a 
distinct white, dark-ringed discal ocellus; distal margin with black dots. Hindwing with the same markings, 
but with the reddish suffusion weaker, often absent. Under surface entirely without reddish suffusion, the 
forewing somewhat or considerably more strongly dusted with dark grey in basal half, both wings with first 
line wanting, ocelli wanting or quite weak, postmedian line well developed. A very variable species, which 
has received much attention from aberration-makers. English specimens are generally darker than conti- 
griseolata. nental, approaching ab. griseolata. — ab. griseolata Stgr. (4n) is one of the most important forms because 
it has assumed, more than most of the others, a decided tendency to form a local race. It is more strongly 
and uniformly dusted with grey than the type, the markings on the contrary less strongly expressed. It is 
said to be the prevailing form in Finland and Amurland, but occurs as an aberration elsewhere; probably 
it may be the form described from France by Fabricius as circularia, but I am not sufficiently certain to 
depulsa. feel justified in changing the name. — ab. depulsa Bastelb. (4 m) is a form in which the ocellated spots, at 
least on the hindwing, are reduced to small dark (or occasionally red) dots. In extreme cases, the ocellus 
of the forewing also gives place to a mere dot, but more often — as in the specimen figured from the 
BastelberctEr collection — a very small ocellus remains on this wing. Described from the Rheingau, an 
decoraria. example also recorded by von Nolcken from Esthonia. — ab. decoraria Newm. (^subroseata Woodforde ^= 
ianthinarium Stichel =^ janthinaria Rbl.) (5 c) is a very beautiful form with the dark dusting much more 
dense and the rosy suffusion intensified, especially in the entire median area of the forewing. In consequence 
of the darkened coloration, the pale lines which accompany the antemedian and postmedian stand out very 
distinctly; the ocelli also show up distinctly but their dark circumscription is almost or entirely obliterated 
by the general darkening of the ground-colour; the outer half of the distal area is usually pale between the 
veins. Extreme specimens are nearly black, but there is a good deal of variation. In North Staffordshire 
this aberration is the commonest form and even the more typical examples are rather grey (ab. griseolata). 
This is attributable to their protective value on the darkened tree-lrunks on which they rest in this district, 
so different from the almost white trunks to which the type is adapted. It will probably there supplant the 
type in the near future. Woodforde in naming the form overlooked decoraria Netvinan. This name was 
founded on a single specimen, without indication of locality, bred from a larva which was said (no doubt 
erroneously) to have been found feeding on the bedeguar or mossy gall of a rose in a garden; it passed 
into the hands of Bond and was figured (uncoloured and without mention of the name) in the "Entomologist" 
vol. 9, pi. 217 and again more recently (coloured) in Barrett's "Lepidoptera of the British Islands", vol. 7, 
pi. 328, fig. 2 d. On account of the existence of a confusingly similar aberration of ('. orhicularia (ab. namur- 
censis) I have examined the type specimen, which is now in the Sydney Webb collection, and find that Bond, 
Barrett and Woodforde are right in referring it to the present species; it is a rather extreme development, 
with the pale lines narrowed, of the form which has recently passed among British entomologists as sub- 
roseata. inanthinarium Stichel is a further synonym; its author erroneously confused it with orhicularia ab. 
namurcensis and this misled me into recording the occurrence of the last-named in England as "orhicularia 
ab. inanthinarium" (Ent. Rec. vol. 24, p. 25); but the specimen on which it was founded (beaten from birch 
at Arneburg, 11"' August 1897, by Thurau) has been examined by my friend Mr. E. M. Dadd and is pronounced 
by him to be certainly a slight modification of the pendularia-fovm usually known as suhroseata, the pale 
lines (as in the type decoraria) narrow, "but with the veins for about 2 mm from the distal margin streaked 
with pale cream-colour, giving it a very beautiful appearance". Rebel, indeed, has already (Berge's Schmet- 
terlingsbuch) transferred the name ianthinarium (emended to janthinaria) to the correct species; but, 
unacquainted with the existence of a parallel form of orhicularia, he has created new confusion by sinking 

subochreata. to it namurcensis Lambill. — ab. subochreata Woodforde is a rare modification of ab. decoraria in which the 
median area of the forewing is suffused with an ochreous colour instead of rosy; the ground-colour is dark 
grey, as in the least extremely dark decoraria, the blackish circumscription of the white discal spots dis- 
radiata. cernible. Woodforde bred a few examples from N. Staffordshire together with ab. decoraria. — ab. radiata 
Delahaye, founded on a single, very fresh cf, taken in May at Pignerolles, has black rays extending along 
the veins from the antemedian line to the base and from the postmedian to the distal margin, on both 

«i>-osfo-if/te. wings above and beneath. — ab. nigrostriata Lutzau is another rayed form, described as follows: yellowish 
grey, median shade blackish-grey, indistinct on fore, — distinct on hindwing; both lines of black dots distinct 
on fore — , obsolescent on hindwing; beyond the postmedian pale belt a broad blackish-grey marginal band, 
on which the veins are marked in black. One specimen, taken on 10 June at Wolmar, Livonia. The name 

obsoletaria. would be applicable to all aberrations showing the dark band and black veins distally. — ab. obsoletaria 
Lambill. has the antemedian line of both wings almost obsolete. This and the three following aberrations 
were noted in Fologne's catalogue as occurring in Belgium; Fologne's note was no doubt useful as indicating 

COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 143 

the general range of variation, but it is by no means so certain ttiat Lambillion has done equally good 
service in imposing separate names upon them, especially as they were not very fully characterized. It is, 
however, necessary to quote them, if only to prevent future writers from multiplying synonyms through 
ignorance of them. — ab. linearia Lambill. Median band strongly developed. This band is described as Imearia. 
"brown", which evidently refers to the blending of the dark-grey and red scales. I take the aberration 
figured by Barrett, pi. 328, fig. 2 c as a good illustration of this form. — ab. unicoloria Lambill. ''Macular band unicoloria. 
of distal margin obliterated". Probably Lambillion regarded as typical a rather common form with moderately 
strong subterminal shading (about as that of our figure of porata, 4o), and would regard our pendularia 
figure as intermediate between that type and true unicoloria; in that case the latter will only differ from ab. 
depulsa in having normally developed ocelli. — ab. brunnearia Lambill. "Wings strongly charged with brown brunnearia. 
atoms". Here again Lambillion is scarcely sufficiently explicit. In ab. griseolata the atoms could not be 
called brown, so 1 suppose the reference, as in ab. linearia, is to the blending of grey with reddish scales, 
and that we have to do with the form mentioned by Barrett as "suffused with reddish-grey". — A more 
striking form, figured by Schwarz ("Beitrage" vol. 2, pi. 3, fig. 1 — 2), has the ground-colour changed to a flavescens. 
decided yellow, ab. flavescens ab. nov.; Barrett mentions a similar example. — Hybr. pendulo-orbicula Tutt, pendulo- 
obtained by Head from the crossing of pendularia cf with orbicularia ¥, is described as intermediate in "' ^^ "' 
■ appearance between the parent forms but nearer to pendularia ; darker than normal pendularia, but not 
nearly so coarsely dusted as orbicularia, thus somewhat recalling ab. decoraria in its less extreme forms; the 
markings in general rather weak. Only a few examples were successfully bred, emerging as a second 
generation; they showed scarcely any variation. — Egg elongate-oval, the surface covered with a network 
of serpentine ridges, dividing it into very irregularly shaped cells; micropylar rosette with 8 rays; greenish 
white when first laid, changing gradually to yellowish grey blotched with red. Larva very variable, red- 
brown, purple or bright green, in the latter case with the head, legs and anal extremity some shade of red-brown ; 
dorsal and subdorsal lines pale, the dorsal area between the latter forming, in the brown varieties, a smoky band; 
these varieties show also conspicuous dark subdorsal marks on the first 5 abdominals. Feeds on birch, occasionally 
also, it is said, on alder or oak. Pupa rather slender, broadened and somewhat flattened, broadest at anterior 
extremity, tapering gradually; anterior extremity truncate, with a sharp point at each shoulder; cremaster 
with 6 rather strong, strongly curved hooks; yellowish brown or greenish, dorsal area with grey dots arranged 
in 4 irregular series; wing edged dorsally by a broad black line. Imago in May- June and again more 
sparingly July-September. Seasonal dimorphism rather slight, but the second brood shows a larger percentage 
of specimens with strong reddish suffusion, perhaps also more of the blotched specimens, parallel to second- 
brood punctaria. Inhabits North and Central Europe, Northern and Central Italy, S.E. Russia and S. Siberia; 
an unnamed local race, unknown to me, is said to occur in the Western Thian-Shan. 

C. orbicularia Hbn. (4n). Closely related to pendidaria, forewing with apex slightly more acute, or orbicularia. 
even minutely produced, distal margin appreciably more convex, hindwing with distal margin slightly more 
irregular, approaching the subcrenulate form and with an appreciable tooth at the 3^"* radial; wings much 
more strongly and coarsely dark-dusted, the course of the lines more irregular, the median shade (which is 
seldom wanting) strongly dentate, or jagged, the postmedian dots (or dashes) more out of ahgnment, indicating 
more definite curves of the line proximad between the radials and in the submedian area and distad at the 
3"* radial to P' median; discal spots oftener small, particularly that of the forewing (but variable in both 
species). Under surface similarly darker, the postmedian line on an average less well expressed. — ab. 
namurcensis Lambill. is uniformly blackish grey, tinged with reddish in the middle, almost exactly as in the namur- 
middle, almost exactly as in the most extreme form of pendularia ab decoraria, though considerably darker 
and less variegated than in average examples of that form. The two narrow pale bands usually remain 
conspicuous, but in one extreme specimen bred in England even these are almost obliterated and the only 
conspicuous pale marking remaining is the discal spot of the hindwing. In any case ab. namurcensis can be 
distinguished from ab. decoraria by the shape of the wings and nearly always by the course of the postmedian 
line; Snellen referred to these points in describing (without a name) the type-specimen of namurcensis, which 
moreover was bred from a larva found feeding on sallow, and Rebel must have overlooked this evidence 
when he referred it to the wrong species. Unfortunately the characteristic jagged median shade is lost in 
these melanotic forms. Lambillion's type was bred at Namur. No other examples were known until quite 
recently, when Mr. W. H. Harwood bred some, in England, also from sallow larvae and even blacker than 
the type, the thorax also darkened, which was scarcely the case in that. — hybr. orbiculo-pendula Tutt. orbiculo- 
In June 1902 H. W. Head obtained a pairing of orbicularia cf with pendularia ?, which resulted in a good 
batch of fertile ova. Four or five dozen moths emerged, all in July-August the same year. They were very 
similar to the cf parent, only slightly paler, less coarsely dusted, more uniform; the reduction of the reddish 
median band and in part the course of the lines gave them, however, some aspect of their relationship to 
pendularia. — hybr. brightoni Tutt. This hybrid was obtained as long ago as 1859, from a pairing of hrightoni. 
orbicularia cf with linearia ?, by H. Cooke of Brighton, and received from Tutt in 1905 the strangely- 

144 COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 

formed name of brightoni. 8 eggs were laid and all produced larvae; these varied very much, some being 
similar to each parent, others intermediate. Unfortunately only one was successfully reared and this is 
headi. described as much more like j^orata or pendularia than either of its parents. — hybr. headi Tutt. This 
cross (from the pairing of orbicularia cf with annulata ?) and the reciprocal one {annulata cf orUcularia ?) 
were also obtained by H. W. Head, but the only moth bred from the latter was a cripple and is not described. 
The few examples successfully reared of hybr. lieadi, from pairings in June 1902 and June 1903, emerged 
as second brood at the end of July. "White, tinged with ochreous and sprinkled with minute dark grey 
specks; there are 2 dark purplish-grey, transverse, zigzag lines, which more or less coalesce, the outer line 
being nearly black. The discoidal spots are clear and well defined; between the discoidal spot and the 
base of the wing there is also a third faint, dark grey line; a row of black dots op the outer margin of 
both the wings". — Egg similar to that of Ihe preceding species and undergoing about the same colour 
changes. The larva is as variable as that of pendularia; often bright green, with the lateral area either 
white throughout or marked with delicate pink or pale purple blotches; often pale brownish, sometimes even 
almost whitish, the dorsal area being comparatively weakly marked with greenish, grey or brown; according 
to a magnified drawing accompanying Heylaerts' account in Sepp's "Nederlandsche Tnsecten" it appears 
that this effect is produced by alternations of very fine coloured and white lines; dorsal line fine, yellowish, 
dark-bordered but not conspicuous; first five abdominal segments each with a thick, oblique smoky or 
blackish mark above the lateral area. Feeds chiefly on sallow, but is said to be found also on alder. Pupa 
similar to that of pendularia but with less conspicuous dark line edging the wing-case dorsally, but somewhat 
more dark dusting on the sides of the abdominal segments. Double-brooded, the imago appearing in May^ 
June and July-September, -according to the locality and the season ; in captivity a third, and even a partial 
fourth generation can be reared. Apart from the striking form described above, it is less variable that, the 
rest of the genus, though some specimens are more strongly dusted than others, with the markings conse- 
quently obscured, while some, on the other hand, show in addition to the lines some blotches in the distal 
area, especially towards the posterior angle of the forewing. Bred specimens almost always show a decided admixture in the median area, but it fades after the insect has been on the wing a few days. Very 
local in Central Europe, S. Sweden, S. Russia, S. France, Bilbao, N. Italy and S. Tyrol. 

albioceh C. albiocellaria Hbn. (^ ocellaria Hbn. := argusaria Bdi).) (4n). Bright ochreous, slightly clouded 

laria. -vv^ith reddish, the median shade strong, but ill-defmed, being more or less dilfused into thick black dusting, 
which broadens posteriorly, often occupying a great part of the posterior (inner) margin, especially on the 
hindwing; discal spots pure white, lai'ge, sometimes very large, black-ringed; lines strongly dentate, the 
postmedian of forewing sometimes only marked on the veins; a weak dark subterminal shade sometimes 
present; the area distally to this pale; pi'oximal half of fringe ferruginous brown. Under surface much paler 
therinata. and more feebly marked. — f. therinata Bastelb. (4n) is smaller, the black dusting much reduced in extent, 
the red shading, on the contrary, stronger; it is the summer form (second generation) of albiocellaria. — 
Larva green, greenish yellow or velvety brown, tinged with reddish anteriorly and posteriorly, dorsal line 
darker, strongest on the anal segment; middle segments usually each with an oblique dark dorsal line, but 
these are rather inconstant, only that on the 2"^ abdominal always present. Feeds on species of Acer, 
especially on hedge-maple. Pupa light yellowish, with double series of large black dorsal dots, blackish 
wing-margin and dark veins. The first brood emerges about the middle of April, the second in July. Central 
and Southern Europe, local and chiefly in the eastern parts, but occurring in Central France, Corsica and 
N. Italy; also in Asia Minor, N. Persia (Bienert) and, according to Staudinger, in a local form in Transcaspia. 
Bastelberger considers that the latter does not differ essentially from the European. 

lennigiaria. C, lennigiaria Fuchs (4n) is exceedingly like the preceding species, and some writers have denied 

that it is more than a local form of it. Darker (more leather-coloured) with more reddish admixture but less 
extended black, the ocellated spots smaller and less rounded (more oblong), distal area less noticeably pale, 
proximal half of fringe brighter ferruginous, under surface (of typical form) more grey-dusted. According to 
FucHs the markings more recall those of puppillaria ab. gijrata, and he has given a very detailed diiferen- 
tiation from that form, which seems to me quite superfluous. Bastelberger adds that in the aggregate the 
aestiva. hindwing of lennigiaria is rather more strongly angled than that of albiocellaria, but not strikingly. — f. aestiva 
Fuchs, the second-brood form, bears about the same relation to the type as does therinata to albiocellaria, 
being considerably smafler and lighter. — The larva seems to be confined to Acer monspessulanum and will 
not even accept other species of Acer in captivity. It is very variable; green, yellow-green, yellow, brown- 
yellow or even reddish, head brown-yellowish; P' — S'** abdominal segments in strongly marked specimens 
with the anterior half darkened dorsally; dorsal line blackish brown, double on the posterior segments, broad 
on the anus; short black-brown oblique lines border the dark portion of the middle segments; a fine dark 
lateral line. Occasional larvae are unicolorous, or intermediate between these extremes. Pupa green, straw- 

Publ. 16. VL 1913. COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 145 

colour or darker yellow, dark-dotted, the wing-cases somewhat darkened, the anal extremity reddish. Inhabits 
the Rheingau, the first brood from the middle of April to the beginning of May, the second from about the 
12"' July till near the end of August. 

C. annulata Schidze (= annularia F. = omicronaria Schiff. = cii'culifera Geof. = denticulata Thnh.) ammlata. 
(4o). Nearest to albiocellaria but very easily distinguished. Distal margin of forewing somewhat more 
regularly shaped (in the two preceding species more prominent about the 3'''^ radial), ground-colour lighter, 
without reddish admixture, median area (except in very rare aberrations) without black dusting, excepting 
between the median and postmedian lines, hence forming a more definite band; ocelli less pure white, almost 
concolorous with ground-colour, rather irregular in shape, occasionally obsolete; dark subterminal shade 
usually better developed; proximal half of fringes not darkened. In general not very variable, though in 
some examples the space between the median and postmedian lines is entirely filled up with blackish scales, 
forming an unbroken band, which is sometimes broadened, especially in Dover specimens; all transitions occurs 
between these and the form figured, in which the dusting is quite slight. The most noteworthy aberrations 
are two which have hitherto only been recorded from Devonshire, England; the former of them, at least, is 
recurrent, though not supplanting the type; the latter is a more extreme and very rare development from it 
It is interesting to observe that the disappearance of the ocelli in these forms follows the reverse order to 
that noticed above in connection with pendularia ab. depulsa, where it is that of the hind-wing which is 
first affected. — ab. obsoleta Biding lacks the ocellated spot of the forewing. In reality, it is only the black ohsohta. 
ring which is entirely obsolete and the position which it would have occupied is still indicated by a few 
pale scales, observable with a lens. — In ab. biobsoleta Riding the ocellus of the hindwing is also wanting, biobsoleta. 
although again some pale scales indicate its position. — aestiva form. nov. (gen. aest.) is smaller than the «^«^'^'«- 
type, of a deeper, more ochreous colour and with an increase of dark dusting over the entire surface, although 
as this is grey, not black, and is very minute it does not produce a very striking effect. — Larva usually 
green with clear yellow dorsal and subdorsal lines; ventral surface much paler green, black at the segmental 
incisions; head moderately large, often brown, even in this green form of the -larva. Dimorphic like its 
congeners but — at least in ray experience — the brown form is relatively much scarcer than in most of 
them. Feeds on maple and sycamore. Pupa very similar to that of pendularia, the dark dorsal line of the 
wings not quite so deeply coloured as in that species, yet very distinct; in the only empty pupa-case which 
I possess there is also a large conspicuous dark discal spot on the wing-case, which is lacking in all the 
other British species; I have no note whether this was equally conspicuous in the living pupa nor whether 
it is constant, but I suspect that this will prove to be so. Double-brooded; the moths of the first generation 
appear rather earlier in the spring than most of their congeners, and the second brood has been bred as 
early as 30"' June (Riding), 3"* July (!' Admiral), etc.; but the later part of July and the month of August 
are probably the normal times for the second brood. Hormuzaki records having captured a third-brood specimen 
at the end of October. Distributed through Central and parts of Southern Europe, also occurring in the Brussa 
district and Armenia. 

C. puppillaria Hhn. (= porata Wrnhg. nee L.) (4o). It is not impossible that HIjbner in naming puppillaria. 
this species was really misidentifying i]iQ pupillaria of Brahm {^pendularia); but as Brahm's work is good, 
it is not probable that such a mistake could have occurred and in any case Hijbner nowhere cites Brahm's 
name to the present species. I therefore regard it as an independent creation and as there is a slight 
difference in the spelling (though it was later changed to pupillaria) it escapes the operation of the laws 
which disallow homonymy. An exceedingly variable species, but nearly always easily recognized, even apart; 
from the structure, by the peculiar reddish or reddish-orange shades of colour. The red of porata (when 
strongly developed) and of quercimontaria is of a different shade and never forms the essential ground-colour. 
Palpus appreciably longer than in the rest of the genus. Forewing with apex acute and minutely produceds 
hindwing slightly variable in shape, distal margin often almost rounded, the elbow at the 3'''' radial alway, 
quite slight, on an average slighter than in the punctaria-gmnp. The type form is of the relatively pale 
colour shown in our figure, the discal spots rarely so strong, the lines (as there indicated) nearly obsolete, 
consisting of minute dark vein-dots; no median shade. — ab. badiaria Stgr. (4o) is of a much deeper brown- badiaria. 
red colour with the lines almost obliterated, the only distinct markings being the ocellated spots. Staudinger 
records it from Catalonia and Central Italy; my examples are from the Island of Capri. — ab. gyrata Hbn. gyrata. 
(4o) is a much more strongly marked form, sometimes, indeed, quite striking; unfortunately we had not one 
of the best-marked examples available for figuring. In this form the dark median shade is always present, 
and the lines of dots are usually enlarged. The ground-colour varies considerably in these strongly-marked 
forms and I have seen one or two in which it might be called orange rather than red. Abdomen often with 
distinct red dorsal spots. Appears chiefly characteristic of southern localities — S. France, Spain, Algeria, 
etc. — ab. nolaria Hbn. (4o) has also the two lines of dots strongly developed, but differs from ab. gyrata nolaria. 

IV 19 

146 " COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 

in the absence of the dark median shade. — These four names, if applied with a little latitude, cover 
sufficiently the general range of variation, and it is quite unnecessary to add to them. There are some 
intermediates both in colour and in strength of markings, the median shade, when present, varies in width 
and in distinctness, the ocelli vary much in size and are occasionally blind, being filled up with the same 
dark reddish shade which normally forms their circumscription; occasionally even (though very rarely) they 
are absent, such specimens being entirely unicolorous. The egg is elongate-oval, broader at the micropylar 
end than at its nadir; the sculpturing appears to be similar to that of the species already described, the 
ribbing perhaps strongest on the shoulder surrounding the micropyle; pale yellowish, changing in a few days 
to bright orange and a day or two later becoming strongly spotted with crimson. The larva feeds not only 
on trees but also on various shrubs and perhaps low plants; Milliere mentions oak, Cistus, Myrtus, Phillyrea 
and Arbutus as foodplants. Head as broad as prothorax, yellowish, on the vertex red, body usually green, 
but very variable (more yellowish, brown or reddish); lines yellow, according to Milliere only a narrow 
subdorsal developed, but his figure shows a broad yellow lateral stripe; incisions yellowish; legs and anal 
flap red. Pupa dark green with some light lines dorsally and on the wing-margin; anterior points and anal 
extremity slightly vinous; under a lens the surface appears pale green sprinkled with white or black. The 
first brood of the moth, in warm localities, appears as early as March, and it may be met with, according 
to locality, throughout the summer. It is distributed in S. Europe, N. Africa, Asia Minor, Syria and Armenia; 
also found in Switzerland and S. Tyrol and Baker records it from Madeira. 

calaritana. C. calaritana Trti. [lo], a recently described species from Sardinia, is unknown to me, but certainly closely 

related to the preceding. It must, however, be a valid species, for the cf antennal pectinations, according to 
its author, are twice as long. Larger than 2)uppi/lana, the ocelli conspicuously more broadly white, the 
ground-colour darker (chestnut or cinnamon red); otherwise quite similar and with similar range of variation. 
8 specimens collected by Krijger at the end of March, Bosco del 7 Fratelli, province of Cagliari. 

porata. C. porata L. (= punctaria Schiff. nee L. = ocellaria Haio. nee Hhn. =■ circularia Wrnbg. nee F.) 

(4 o). This well-known species was first described by Linne, but the description — if it is really referable 
to the porata of modern authors — is not so good as most of Linne's and has given rise to much uncertainty. 
Werneburg conjectured that it applied to piqjpiUariu, and even Zeller, Guenee and Staudinger, who continued 
to use the name for the present species, attributed it to Fabricius and others rather than to Linne. Guenee 
stated that the type was lost. Possibly it was never acquired by Linne; but there is in his collection a 
small, rather blotched specimen labelled poraia which I formerly supposed to be the type and Avhich certainly 
belongs here. As Linne calls his porata "'media'- not "minor", the authenticity of this example may need 
further investigation, though even as a "cotype" it would have some value in elucidating his conception. In 
any case Fabricius' determination was the oldest, and cannot at present be proved erroneous, porata is 
similar to punctaria and still more to the more strongly dark-dusted allies of punctaria — ruficiliaria and 
quercimontaria, but can be separated by the presence of a distinct white, dark-ringed ocellus on each 
wing, which is wanting or quite ill-developed in thai group. Pale greyish ochreous, coarsely dotted or 
strigulated with grey, a strong red suffusion in the middle or over the greater part of the wings ; lines formed 
by grey dots on the veins, or the antemedian sometimes continuous; median shade usually rather thick, not 
very sharply defined, less regularly curved than in the punctaria-gTon^) and often appearing more or less 
dentate on its distal edge; distal area of the forewing usually with some grey blotches, such as occur only 
in the second brood forms ol 2mnctaria, that is to say, not confined to the vicinity of the posterior angle; 
at the same time, the tendency for these blotches to extend in the second generation, and even to appear 
on the hindwing, so manifest in punctaria, is not wholly absent in porata. The red suffusion is generally 
stronger than in punctaria but less extended than in quercimontaria. ])orata is decidedly variable but (as in 
pendularia) the aberration's are not sharply defined. We quote all which have received names. — ab. 
visperaria. visperaria Fuchs (= aestiva Hormuz). Occurs among second-brood specimens which differ from the first 
generation only in size. Paler, with less of the dark dusting and less di.^^tinct lines, the underside whitish; 
rubearia. distal blotches often better developed. Bheingan, Bucovina, etc. — ab rubearia Lambill. is diagnosed simply as 
having the "disc of the forewing reddish" and is therefore in reality nearly synonymous with the typical 
forms, although probably intended to indicate a definite accentuation of the reddish colouring; as Barrett 
says, "Occasional specimens have the fore wings so much suffused with dull red as almost to obscure the 

pmwtularia. markings". — ab. punctularia Lambill. has a well developed series of brown (grey-brown) distal spots on 

both wings. Extreme specimens of this form, with these spots very large and reaching the distal margin, 

present a rather striking appearance; in the type form the spots are weak, small and subterminal. — ab. 

linearia. linearia Lambill. has the median shade unusually strongly developed, but is scarcely worth naming. — ab. 

marginaria. marginaria Lambill. is described as having a brown macular band at the distal margin of the hindwing and 
must be, if the description is accurate, a very unusual form. Normally the distal blotches are best developed 

COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 147 

on the forewing or, at most, equally developed on both. — Larva vsrith segments rather distinctly marked 
and subdivided; head rather broader than prolhorax, brown or reddish; body variable in colour and markings, 
bright fawrn-colour or green, P' — 6"' abdominal segments with oblique dark marks, broad at their anterior 
extremity, ventral area paler with dark markings, lateral ai'ea sometimes broadly white. A variety occurs 
which bears also blackish transverse dorsal markings. Feeds on oak and more rarely on birch; its reported 
occurrence on whitethorn lacks confirmation. Pupa more heavily dark-spotted dorsally than that oi pendiilaria, 
the spots of the two mid-dorsal rows large and conspicuous; wing- veins very strongly marked, appearing 
somewhat darkened, the dorsal line of the wing moderately strong. Imago in May-June and again about 
August, in captivity sometimes even a third generation can be reared. Inhabits chiefly woods, resting by 
day in the shelter of thick trees, apparently preferring the small scrub oak. At night it is attracted by light 
and sometimes by sugar. Central and Southern Europe, Denmark, JNorthern Asia Minor and Armenia. 

C. quercimontaria Bastelb. (4o). In a measure intermediate between porata and punciaria yet nearer 9««''C'- 
to the latter. Bastelberger in erecting the species calls attention to the following distinctions from panctariu. 
On an average smaller, forewing more rounded, the apex being less produced and the distal margin less 
convex in the middle; hindwing less strongly elbowed at 3'''' radial, white discal spots present (in ptmctaria 
very rarely indicated), red dusting very bright and very extended, on the forewing leaving free a narrow 
costal and anterior distal area, hindwing not lighter than forewing, only with less red dusting, median shade 
of both wings thicker and overlaid with bright red almost throughout, fringes not mixed with red. From 
porata it differs in the absence of black circumscription to the discal spots, lack of dark subterminal shading, 
indistinctness or obsolescence of the rows of dots which represent the lines, straighter median line, etc. 
Subsequent investigation of the genitalia proved that it not only differs from punctaria and porata but even 
belongs to the opposite group in the structure of these organs, i. e. the pendularia-gvoa^, in which the 
"forceps" are wanting or quite rudimentary. From riificiliaria H.-Sch., which also falls into this group and 
has in many respects even closer affinity with quercimontaria, the latter differs so mateiially in colour that 
confusion could seldom occur; riificiliaria is on an average larger, with darker ground-colour, grey (not red) 
dusting and median shade, and usually reddish fringes, not dark-dotted as is commonly the case with those 
of quercimontaria. The two broods scarcely differ except in size; indeed quercimontaria shows a marked 
contrast to its allies in its general constancy, though F. Fuchs records one aberration, in the summer brood, 
of a more intensive red and some other transitions, among 20 typical. The larva is brown (no green form 
is yet known),' with lozenge-shaped dorsal markings on the P' — 5"' abominals, somewhat like those of 
Eupithecia castigata, which at once distinguish it from other Cosymbla larvae; otherwise it is nearest to that 
of punctaria, but more slender and entirely without the rust-red lateral spots which are normally present in 
that species. Feeds on oak, but seems more delicate and therefore less easy to rear than its allies. The 
moth is found sitting on tree-trunks. The first brood appears somewhat later than that of punctaria, namely 
in early June, but the larvae feed up very quickly, so that the second generation occurs from about the 
20"' July. Hitherto only known from the Rheingau, Lower Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina but may probably 
have been overlooked in some places. Riesen has recorded 2 examples from Zoppot (Danzig), a rather 
surprishig locality. 

C. ruficiliaria H.-Sch. (= ? unilinearia Scharjenb. = gyraria Tr. nee Hbn. =^ ? hybridaria Seli/s ^= ricficiliaria. 
pupillaria Z. nee Hbn. =^ schaefferaria Lali.) (4o). Very variable, especially in the strength of the markings, 
so that the safest differentiation from the preceding and following species lies in the shape or in the ground- 
colour and dusting. In shape it is distinguishable from punctaria by its broader, comparatively more rounded 
wings, in this resembling quercimontaria, but on an average larger and more robust; the genitalia and the 
life-history also show it to be specifically distinct from that. Ground-colour somewhat darker and duller than 
either of its neighbours, more brownish (not so flesh-coloured as in suppunctaria nor so reddish as in 
puppillaria, with both of which species it has sometimes been confused); the reddish scales much less 
numerous, the grey ones darker (almost black), much sharper and more numerous. As in the allies, the 
postmedian line normally consists of a row of dots, but these are usually rather weak, sometimes scarcely 
discernible; when present, the antemedian generaUy forms a continuous, but very fine and not very con- 
spicuous, strongly curved grey line, whereas that of punctaria oftener consists of a series of large dots; 
median shade usually well developed, grey, not overlaid with reddish, occasionally obsolete; discal spots, as 
in quercimontaria, small and white, not dark-ringed; terminal dark dots on an average weaker than in 
punctaria, but inconstant; fringes usually tinged with red, both above and beneath, but rather variable. — ab. 
ruberrima Bastelb. is a rare aberration from Hungary with more reddish ground-colour and much stronger ruherrima. 
red dusting, thus still nearer to quercimontaria, in which, however, the ground-colour remains light. — 
ab. mattiacata Bastelb. (4o), occurring only in the first generation, is the largest, most strongly marked form, mattiacata. 
with rather thick, well-expressed median shade, strong &eries of dots (not well shown in our figure) etc. — 

148 COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 

privataria. ab. privataria Bastelh. (5c) only occurring in the second generation, is the direct antithesis to the preceding, 
being small, with weaker and sparser dusting, the median shade and the rows of dots almost or altogether 
'dataria wanting, even the white discal dots sometimes almost obsolete. — ab. circumdataria Bastelb. is another 
second-brood aberration, characterized by the large white discal dot of the hindwing (usually elongate), 
which is distinctly surrounded with a blackish-red ring. There seems no constant difference between the 
first and the second brood except in size, and Bastelberger therefore proposed to include under the name 
ruficiliaria all except the extreme aberrations here indicated. We figure a second-brood example with the 
median shade nearer to the base than usual. The larva, especially in its earlier stages, is very distinct from 
that of pundaria. It is at first light green with a dark green dorsal si ripe which, on strong magnification, 
is seen to consist of a series of spots, pointed anteriorly and posteriorly, while that of punctaria resolves 
itself into more brownish green forked marks. The full-grown larva is dimorphic, dark velvety green or 
violet-grey, not yellow-green or brown as in the two forms of punctaria. Head dirty straw-colour, streaked 
and dotted with sepia brown (in punctaria more red-brown); body more strongly shagreened than in pmictaria, 
with white, irregular granules; lateral stripe (best developed on the 2"'' — 5"" abdominals) intensive sulphur- 
yellow, without any admixture of red; ventral surface whitish green; anal claspers broadly margined 
with brown-red. Feeds on oak. The exact geographical range has scarcely been worked out, on, account of 
the earlier confusion with punctaria. Certainly occurs in Central and South France, Belgium, Germany, 
Switzerland, N. and Central Italy, Austria-Hungary, Crimea and Asia Minor (Brussa). Double-brooded, the 
first brood appearing in April-May, the second about July-August. 

punctaria. C. puiictaria L. {= teutonaria I/. ^ fultaria F«'W. = acutaria i?o(^««ei!fe) (4o). The principal distinctions 

between this well-known species and its relatives have been indicated in dealing with them, and our figure 
reproduces its markings so perfectly that no further description is needed. It is to be observed, however, 
that the typical form lacks the dark blotches in the distal area of the forevving, or has at most only a not 
very intense, reddish one at the posterior angle. The strongly blotched forms belong almost exclusively to 
the second generation and have been proved by the experiments of Merrifield to be directly connected with 
high temperatures. He found that in all the moths which he could force from the pupae as a (partial) 
second brood these blotches were present, but that by icing the pupae the moths could be changed to the 
non-blotched, spring form, even when they emerged before the winter. The reduced temperatures also tended 
to produce an increase of the dark dusting and of the dark median shade, thus showing some defmite analogy 
with the first-brood forms of alhiocellaria, etc. In general punctaria must be considered a variable species, 
although the really remarkable aberrations are of very rare occurrence. A number of the more striking 
forms have been named, as well as some which can scarcely be called striking, and it has not been easy to 
naevata. work out their synonymy satisfactorily. — ab. naevata Bastelb., proposed for those second-brood forms in 
which the distal blotches occupy the entire marginal area and are purplish, not grey, in colour, has given 
rise to some controversy, some lepidopterists having attempted to use the name comprehensively, for the 
entire second generation, while others have taken an entirely opposite view, regarding the name as untenable 
because the form is connected by all transitions with the type. Specimens with more than one reddish 
blotch do even occur, though very sparingly, among the spring brood, probably chiefiy in southern localities. 
I have never met with such in Britain, but Dadd records 2, from England, dated 25"' May and 3P' May. 
lu any case the extreme form, which Bastelberger expressly indicated, belongs only to the summer brood 
and the name, even though only as "ab.", is valuable. It cannot, however, be restricted as regards the 
foliata. coloration, as the blotches are occasionally grey. — ab. foliata Fuchs is a more extreme summer-brood 
development, both wings bearing a complete series of conlluent distal blotches. In the few examples which 
1 have seen, as is also given in Focus's description, these blotches are dark grey rather than purple, though 
marginata some have more of a purplish tinge than others. — ab. radiotnarginata Joannis is another development of 
this summer-brood form, intermediate between naevata and foliata; the grey colour in the distal area of the 
forewing is disposed in a uniform series of thick streaks along the veins which tend to become confluent 
proximally but are separated by narrow streaks of the ground-colour distally; in the hindwing the grey distal 
shading is, in the type-specimen, much slighter, but I have before me a fine specimen from the Zeller 
collection in which it is fully as strongly developed as on the forewing and in the same rayed form. 

angularia. Described from a single example, Morbihan. I have seen 2 or 3 others. — ab. subangularia Haiv., of which 
the type is lost, seems to have been an unimportant aberration with the wings rather more angular than 
usual, the median shade more bent, especially on the hindwing, where it became angled. England. ^ ab. 

infuscata. infuscata Renter shows an increase of the fuscous dusting both above and beneath and a strong smoky band 

arcufera. densely dark-dotted on each side. — • ab. arcufera Renter is a curious form in which the thick median shade 

of the forewing is very strongly bent basewards in the middle so that instead of running to the posterior 

margin it terminates in the cell towards the base. Barrett describes a second example of the same 

"^^sciata aberration. — ab. communifasciata Don. (^ unifasciata ■ Z>ow.) is almost without markings except a slender 
well-defined median shade. Donovan's figure shows a small, smooth-scaled form rather recalling the S 

COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout 149 

European siippimdaria but with the line (median shade) rather nearer to the base, strong black dots on the 
distal margin, no white discal dots. ■ — ab. cingulata Fuchs agrees with the preceding aberration in that the cingulata. 
median shade is the only strong marking, but differs in having this shade broad and coarse and accompanied j , . ■ 
on each side with some dark dusting. — ab. pulcherrimata Fuchs is a more brightly coloured form with the ^^atcu"^' 
same thick median shade as ab. cingulata bul in addition with strong rows of antemedian and postmedian 
dots and with the space between the median and postmedian almost entirely filled with dark dusting so as 
to form a band. Barrett figures an example (pi. 326, fig. 2b) closely approaching ab. pulcherrimata and I 
have seen a very extreme example from Colchester. — ab. detnptaria Fuchs is almost entirely without demptaria. 
markings, even the median shade disappearing. Though always rare, this aberration is recurrent and 
examples occur in several of the largest collections. — ab. venata ab. nov. (^ punctaria cf var. Barrett, venata. 
Lep. Brit. Isl. pi. 326 fig. 2e) is a remarkable aberration from the Woodforde collection, with dark lines on 
the veins extending completely from the antemedian to the postmedian on both wings, thus crossing the 
median shade, which is rather fine and weak. — ab. ochreifusa ab. nov. has the red suffusion replaced by a ochreifusn. 
yellowish or ochreous, thus affording a parallel variation to peiidularia ab. subochreata Woodforde as compared 
with decoraria Newm. There are two examples (British) in the Leech collection and Clerck in his "Icones" 
figured another under the name of punctaria (unless, indeed, his figure is incorrectly coloured, which unfortu- 
nately is sometimes the case.). — The egg is apparently quite similar to those of the other species of 
Cosymbia, oval with a network of ridges, upper side with a rather large depression. Pale yellow, becoming 
blotched with red. Larva dimorphic, bjight yellow-green or yellowish (or reddish) browTi; head moderately 
large; dorsal line black, conspicuous on thorax and anally and forming a triangular blotch on the anal segments; 
pt_gih abdominals with oblique dark subdorsal lines, broadly margined below with bright yellow, often 
including spots of rust-red. Feeds on oak and sometimes on birch. Pupa similar to that of pendularia, the 
dark dorsal dots larger and darker. The moth appears in April in warm localities, but May-June is the 
more usual time for the first brood; a partial second generation at end of July and in August. Hides by 
day among leaves or occasionally sits on tree-trunks. At night it sometimes visits sugar or heather-bloom. 
Inhabits Central and South Europe, parts of Scandinavia, and Asia Minor to N. Persia. 

C. suppunctaria Z. ( = subpunctaria H.-Sch.) (5 c). Of this obscure and very local species, of which !,'*^' , ^.^ 
the specific right was often doubted until Bastelberger settled the question by the study of the genitalia, I 
have before me Zeller's 4 originals. They are smaller than normal first-brood punctaria, but slightly larger 
than the average of the second brood. Easily distinguished by the much smoother, very uniform appearance 
of the ground-colour, due to the entire absence of the dark grey scales; a sparse sprinkling of red scales 
visible only with a lens, gives to the pale ochreous-brownish ground-colour a slight fleshy tinge. As in 
punctaria ab. communifasciata the only conspicuous marking is the fine dark reddish-grey median line, which 
on the forewing is slightly curved, on the hindwing almost straight; a fime curved antemedian (nearly as in 
ruficiliaria) is indicated but very rarely at all distinct, and the dark dots of the postmedian are not strong, 
a very weak terminal line consists of short strokes between the veins; according to Rebel there are usually 
white discal dots (not dark-ringed), but these are scarcely visible in Zeller's specimens. Underside paler, 
still more weakly marked. Perhaps nearest in aspect to certain examples of ruficiliaria ab. privataria or to 
weakly-marked linearia f. strabonaria ; distinguishable from the former by the less coarse dusting and smaller 
discal dots, from the latter by rather less reddish tone, less distinct antemedian and postmedian lines and 
smaller discal dots. The forewing is not quite so broad as in ruficiliaria, its distal margin not so sinuous as 
in punctaria; but its shape appears to vary somewhat. No striking varieties or aberrations are recorded; 
Zeller's "var. b", with the antemedian and postmedian lines rather better developed than in the type-form, 
does not deserve naming. Very local, only known from Italy and the southern parts of the Austro- 
Himgarian Empire. 

C. linearia Hbn. ( ^= trilinearia Bkh. nee Hbn. = ? luteolaria fill.) (5 c) cannot be confused with any, linearia. 
other species of the genus, on account of its brighter and deeper ochreous colouring. The postmedian series 
of dots is, with some exceptions, connected into a line and the- antemedian line also is not broken up into 
dots; the median shade is well developed, except in one or two very extraordinary aberrations, but it varies 
greatly in thickness and in position; most commonly it is somewhat nearer to the postmedian than to the 
antemedian; white discal dots are commonly present but not conspicuous, not black-ringed. — f. strabonaria strabonaria. 
Z. (5 c) is the second brood form and differs so constantly and so markedly that it was formerly beUeved to 
be a separate species. Besides being smaller, it is of a much more reddish tone, the lines sometimes more 
weakly expressed, sometimes more reddish, discal dots usually rather conspicuous, on hindwing often black- 
ringed. There can be no doubt that the change of colour is brought about by higher temperature and it 
may be conjectured that the (very rare) occurrence of ochreous forms in this second generation, which has . 
been recorded in England and perhaps elsewhere, is due to exceptional climatic conditions. — ab. nigrosparsaria snars'aria. 

150 COSYMBIA. By L. B. Prout. 

Fiichs has both wings finely and densely dusted with black as far as the median shade, more densely in the 
median area than in the basal, the white discal spot showing up distinctly. Described from Germany. 

. fasciaia. Barrett's pi. 327 fig. 1 c shows a close approach to this form. — ab. fasciata Prout has the dark dusting 

placed between the median shade and the postmedian, resulting in a striking banded form parallel to punctaria 

infuscata. ab. piilcherrimata. Described from England. — ab. infuscata ab. nov. is a still more remarkable form in the 

Sydney Webb collection at Dover, with the entire surface of both wings strongly infuscated, nearly obliterating 

the lines but rendering the white discal spots conspicuous. It is figured and described by Barrett (pi. 327, 

demptaria. fig. 1 e). — ab. demptaria ab. nov., named for the sake of uniformity with the parallel aberration oi punctaria 
is a nearly unicolorous ochreous form with all the lines entirely obsolete. This is also figured by Barrett 
approxi- ^\ 327^ fig. j a) and two British examples mentioned. — ab. approxima"ns ab. nov. (Barrett, pi. 327, fig. 1 d) 
is also remarkable, the median shade on both wings being placed close to the antemedian; in the specimen 
figured the postmedian is reduced to a series of dots. — Several other interesting but less striking aberrations 
■ are of occasional occurrence, as for instance examples parallel to punctaria ab. cingulata, but it does not 
seem necessary to designate them separately. Egg elongate-oval, with fine hexagonal or rather irregularly 
polygonal ribbing; pale yellow, becoming marked with red. Larva dimorphic, green or brown, the latter the 
commoner form; very similar to that oi punctaria, I have no opportunity of working out a differentiation. 
Feeds on beech and oak; Heinemann adds Vaccinium, for which I cannot trace the authority, while Vogel 
says "on Rhamnus frangula" (!). Pupa similar to that of pendularia, the dorsal dots perhaps larger, not 
extremely conspicuous, wing-veins distinct. Double brooded. Central Europe, Southern Scandinavia, N. Italy, 
S. Russia, Armenia. 

inaderemis. C. maderensis Baker (5 c). An exceedingly variable species, but easily distinguishable from all the 

preceding by its narrower wings, the forewing sharply pointed, with distal margin straight, rather strongly 
oblique. Ochreous, nearly always more or less dusted with purple scales, and with a very slight admixture 
of fuscous ones; discal dots white, variable in size, often minute, but always distinct, dark-ringed; antemedian 
and postmedian indicated by dots on the veins, which are sometimes connected into lines; median shade 
nearly always indicated but in varying breadth and intensity, crossing or placed distally to the discal dot on 
the hindwing; distal margin with black dots or short dashes between the veins. Under surface also variable, 
to some extent correlated with the upper, on an average rather lighter with sharply expressed median and 
postmedian lines; no antemedian; proximal part of forewing more or less sufl'used with greyish. Possibly the 
races from the three groups of Atlantic islands to which, so far as is known, the species is confined, will 
prove to be distinguishable in spite of the great variability of each. As the name indicates, it was originally 
described from Madeira. I have not seen many from the Canaries, where Rebel thinks it is somewhat less 
variable, more reddish, antemedian dots generally absent, etc., but the few before me do not confirm his 
opinion. On the other hand a series of 13 from the Azores suggests the possibility that here it is slightly 
smaller, slightly broader-winged, the rows of dots nearly always developed into lines. Baker's type (here 
figured) is the form in which the ochreous ground-colour is only quite moderately dusted with reddish purple, 
yet sufficiently to produce a deeper, more red-ochreous tone than in the ab. irrufata Wan: All the markings 
are present, but rather indistinct, especially the antemedian; both the lines marked only by dots. The name 
should be used to include all the forms with the markings thus indicated or the antemedian absent, even if 

wollastoni. moderately strongly dusted with purple. Only the extreme forms need special names. — ab. wollastoni Baker 
'(5f) was described from Madeira as a separate species and placed in the genus Acidalia; the antennae (except 
their extreme base) being broken olT and the leg structure and venation overlooked, Mr. Baicer failed to 
recognize his maderensis in this beautiful form, in which the purple scales have covered the entire surface of 
the wings and the dark lines are obsolete, as also the dark circumscription of the discal dots. In the type 
specimen the pale yellowish line which nearly always follows the postmedian (though in normal forms 
little noticeable) becomes distinct. But in a second cf, collected by Lord Walsinguam at Tacaronte, Tenerifle, 
3P' May 1907, this yellow line also has disappeared, though on the other htuid the lines and median shade 
are still very faintly discernible. It should be added that the names maderenm and wollastoni were published 
simultaneously, the latter one page earlier than the former. I have — with the consent of the author — 
claimed the right given to the first reviser by the International Rules of Nomenclature, to select either of the 
simultaneously-published names, and have naturally preferred the one which designates the more normal form. 
irrufata. The very rare ab. u-oUastoni is parallel to pendularia. ab. decoraria. — ab. irrufata Warr., also described from 
Madeira, denotes the opposite extreme, the ground-colour being clear ochreous, entirely without purple dusting. 
trilineata. — ab. trillneata ab. nov. has the dots connected into lines, the antemedian on the forewing acutely angled. 
Perhaps a local race in the Azores. Rebel describes an ochreous ? of it as an aberration from the Canaries, 
and Lord Walsingham has bred a beautiful purplish cf froui La Laguna, Tenerilfe, 6"' June 1907. — ab. 

latefasciata. latefasciata ab. nov. is another beautiful and striking foruL Clear ochreous, antemedian line very faint 
postmedian wanting, median shade purple, widened into a conspicuous band. Tacaronte, 3P' May 1907; 
(Walsingham). — Larva green with brightly variegated lateral patches. Wolla.ston found in on "Hudson's oak", 
Lord Walsingham (on Teneriffe) on Erica arborea. Imago May to August, no doubt double-brooded. 

COSYMBIA. Addenda. By L. B. Prout. 151 

C. sympathica Alph. (= albilineata Btgr.) (5 c). That these two names represent the same species is sympathica. 
quite certain from the entire descriptions, the locality, the figure of sympathica and the example of albilineata 
lent me by Herr Pungeler. The fact that ALPiuauKY placed it in Timandra and SxAunrNGER in Zonosonia ( = 
Oosymhia) is probably accountable for the duplication. Forewing not very broad, apex acute, distal margin 
appreciably bent in middle; reddish brown or ochreous, the veins sometimes darkened, the lines yellowish 
white, the first curved, the second on the forewing nearly straight, slightly oblique, on the hindwing more 
curved; discal dots white, scarcely dark-ringed; median shade entirely wanting. Under surface paler, weakly 
marked, first line wanting, discal dot expressed on the hindwing only; the forewing is somewhat darkened in 
the basal region. The type was taken in the Kuldja district on the G"" April, Staudinger described from 
3 cfcf 2 ?? from Margelan, one dated 25'^ August. The specimen before me is from Kuldja. Staudinger's 
Catalog only gives Ferghana and the Hi district as localies. Narrower-winged than the other species, except 
maderensis; the angle in the distal margin of the hindwing pronounced. I have not seen a d" hindleg and 
think it not impossible it may be 4-spurred, as Alpheraky implies; if so it would belong to the genus 
Traminda Saalm., which it closely resembles in shape and facies, but which is not otherwise known from the 
Palearctic Region. It is apparently somewhat variable in colouring. A light specimen before me shows 
rather strong dark shading distally to the first line and proximally to the second, and moderately strong dark 
circumscription to the discal dots. 

Note. Several new species which have been detected during the progress of this revision, and after 
the plates containing the Acidaliinae had been arranged, are necessarily left unfigured for the present. It is 
hoped, if space be available, to figure them later. 


to p. 63, A. margineptmetata: 

ab. argillacea ah. nov. Ground-colour strongly sandy-ochreous, about as in rubellata, the usual dark argillacea. 
markings well expressed. Six specimens bred by me from eggs laid by a ? taken at Constnntine, Algeria, 
all show the ochreous colour more pronounced than usual (thus either a hereditary tendency or an adaptation 
to some local environment), two being so very extreme that the form is clearly worthy of a name, the rest 

to p. 79, A. ornata: 

var. paucisignata Krausse is almost entirely white, only an indistinct dark blotch persisting in each paucisig- 
wing near the hinder angle and the hindwing with a distinct black discal dot. Occurs in the mountains of ""^*- 
Sardinia, at an elevation of about 700 m. 

to p. 91, Pt. rufaria: 

ab. abnobaria Reutti. The space between the 2"'* and 3^"^ lines occupied by a dark band as in aver- ahnoharia. 
sata L. A single example, from Herrenwies, August 1894. 

to p. 119: 

Pt. incalcarata Chrit. Under this name Chretien has just described (February 1913) a new species incalcarata. 
from Digne, very near to attenuaria Bbr. in appearance but without spurs on the cf hindtibia and thus be- 
longing structurally in the vicinity of infiriiiaria Rbr. It may further be distinguished from attenuaria by its 
relatively broader forewing, with costal margin a little more rounded towards apex, the apex less produced, 
distal margin less oblique; lines more sinuous, more scalloped, the subterminal less straight, more macular, 
the black border less continuous; antenna less thick. Egg ellipsoid, with about 14 furrows, their margins 
forming thick raised longitudinal ribs. The larva feeds on withered leaves and undergoes three moults at rather 
regular periods of 8 or 9 days, the final stadium lasting longer; shape "recalling especially that of aquitanaria" 
(which is therefore evidently known to the French entomologists, although I have found no published infor- 
mation), much attenuated anteriorly and thick behind, strongly carinated laterally and with the surface finely 
granulated, the granulations forming a series of lines, dark greenish grey, darker still at the incisions, 5'*' ab- 
dominal lighter, prothorax and mesothorax tinged with rosy; tubercles rather large, pale yellow, with a black 
point in the middle, which gives rise to a very short, clubbed hair. Pupa light yellowish brown, the wings a 
little darker, with the veins conspicuous. The moth is at least double brooded, occurring in May and August, 
but in captivity a further brood was reared in November, from August eggs. 

152 LARENTIINAE. By L. B. Prout. 

to p. 146, C. porata: 
venata. ab. venata ah. nov. Both wings, above and beneath, with long dark rays to beyond the middle. 

Described but not named by Gaul, who took an example on the Sabine Mountains, Italy. I have not seen it, 
but it is certainly parallel to punctaria ab. venata Prout. 

to p. 151 : 
perpulverea. Pt. perpulverea Hmpsn. for 7 b read 5e. 

5. Subfamily: Larentiinae. 

An extensive subfamily and distributed throughout tlie world, but generally less prevalent in tropical 
than in more temperate regions. Here belongs, indeed, a large proportion of the Alpine, Arctic and Antarctic 
species. It is also dominant in New Zealand. 

Small or moderate-sized moths, in the majority of genera very easy to recognize superficially by 
the character of the wing-markings, which consist of a very large number of wavy transverse lineS; those at 
the base often united by some dark shading (the "basal patch"), those in the median area often similarly uni- 
ted into a "median band" or at the least into two bars bounding the median area proximally and distally. 

Face sometimes smooth, but much more usually roughened, commonly with a projecting cone of stales. 
Palpus moderate or long, rarely short. Metathorax usually somewhat prominent, often strongly tufted; ab- 
domen often with small dorsal crests. Legs seldom aborted, with rare exceptions fully spurred. Frenulum 
generally well developed. Forewing almost always with single or double areole, in the former case formed 
by SC" arising from SC ' and anastomosing with SC ■*, in the latter case SC" almost always arising from 
the cell, usually quite well removed from its apex. Hindwing with C anastomosing strongly with SC, usually to 
near the end of the cell; in the cfcf of one specialized group {Lobophora, etc.) remarkable secondary 
sexual modifications result in the wide severance of C from SC, a cross-vein near the end of the cell, 
however, always remaining to indicate the lost connection, so that even in these cases the subfamily cannot 
be confused with those in which vein C of the hindwing is free, or connected near the base only. From the 
few, exceptional genera in those subfamilies in which the strong anastomosis occurs, the Larentiinae may at 
once be distinguished by the forewing neuration. 

The eggs are always laid flat, and are generally of very simple form, ovate with a more or less strongly 
marked depression on the upper side, and with the surface throughout quite shallowly pitted; at times one 
end is strongly truncate. The larvae also are, as a rule, of fairly simple form, more or less cylindrical, nearly 
smooth, without prominent humps or excrescences. They vary greatly in thickness, from extremely slender to 
very stout. Some feed on trees but the majority on low plants. The hibernating stage is variable, sometimes 
differing in the very closest allies, or even (as with Xanthorhoc fluduata) in a single species. Unlike the pre- 
vious subfamily, the great majority of species undergo their metamorphosis on or just beneath the surface of 
the ground, forming a more less compact earthen cocoon; only a few, in which the duration of the pupal 
stage is always short (such as Plemyria bicolorata) change among leaves, spinning a few threads. The habits 
of the tropical forms, however, are almost entirely unknown. The pupae are generally brown or red-brown, 
of moderate proportions or somewhat thick, in a few species (such as Cidaria siterata) with a beautiful purple 
bloom; the non-subterranean pupae lighter brown to whitish or occasionally green, not rarely with dark dorsal 
line and dark wing-veins, sometimes more elaborately spotted. 

Very few of. the moths fly by day and these are generally brightly coloured (as Lythria) or black and 
white (as Eulype). Possibly one or two of the latter, like Callahraxasf, in which there is some yellow 
admixture (at least on the body) enter into mimetic relations with the Abraxas group of the Geometrinae, 
which are exceedingly abundant in the Eastern Palearctie Region and certainly nauseous. The vast majority 
of the Palearctie species, however, hide by day among bushes or sit with wings outspread on tree-trunks or 
fences. In the latter situations they are generally very shy and wary and fly off immediately on the approach 
of the collector. This is especially the case with those in which the cryptic adaptation is not very perfect, 
as already mentioned in our introduction, and affords a marked contrast to the general sluggishness of the 
better-protected Noctuids, the Biston and Boannia groups, etc. under similar conditions. 

The general arrangement of the subfamily in Staudinger's Catalog, though containing much which 
can be unfavourably criticized, is sufficiently satisfactory on the whole to allow of our having followed it in 
the present work, except in the case of the large genus (or rather, assemblage of genera) there called Larentia, 

Pnhl. 3. II. 1914. OCHODONTIA; RHODOMETRA. By L. B. Prout. 153 

which it is necessary to break up on the lines of classification suggested by Meyrick, Hampson, Dr. Turner 
and other modern workers; and even there, Staudinger's sequence of species has been preserved except 
where this separated species which needed to be placed together as congeners. Some of the genera here 
recognized are perhaps not very sharply defined; but every biologist will recognize the absurdity of placing 
in a single genus such diverse elements as pyraliata Schiff., cambrica Curt., hastata L., ohliterata Hufn., etc. 
Some of these, indeed, are far easier to define generically than are some genera which Staudinger accepts, 
such as his Ortholitha. It may be mentioned in passing, that the name Larentia, which that author has sub- 
stituted for the Cidaria of his 1871 edition, is entirely misapplied, as it does not even include the type of 
the genus {davaria Haw. = cervinata Schiff.). 

1. Genus: Ochodontia Led. 

Face smooth, not protuberant. Palpus rather short. Antenna in cf bipectinate. Hindleg slender, with 
all spurs. Forewing with costal margin subconcave in middle, strongly convex near apex, distal margin with 
a rounded excavation between apex and 3'''^ radial, toothed at the latter; areole double, the proximal usually 
smaller; stalk of 3'''* to 5*'' subeostals arising at or near the apex of the cell. Hindwing strongly toothed at 
3^*^ radial, concave between this and the anal angle, costal anastomosing with subcostal to about the middle 
of the cell. 

A somewhat isolated genus, of which only a single species is known. On account, perhaps, of its 
shape, Lederer placed it near Timandra, in the Acidaliinae, overlooking that the hindwing structure absolutely 
contradicted his diagnosis of that group. 

0. adustaria Fisch.-Waldh. (= sareptanaria Frr) (7 b). Forewing light fleshy ochreous, sometimes adustaria. 
brighter pink, the costal area more or less broadly shaded with olivaceous, the lines fine, consisting of a 
single, straight antemedian and a pair of nearly straight postmedian, the first of them with some dark shading 
distally; very feeble indications of further lines in distal area are sometimes traceable. Hindwing at inner 
margin nearly concolorous with posterior part of forewing, the rest much lighter; antemedian line wanting, 
the postmedian pair more widely separated, one at least of the distal lines somewhat less shadowy than on 
forewing. Hindwing beneath more nearly concolorous with forewing above, the posterior part of forewing, 
on the contrary, paler than above. I know of no striking aberrations or varieties. Occurs from S. E. Russia 
and Transcaucasia to Eastern Turkestan. The larva, according to Hofmann, is remarkable for the thickening 
of its anterior segments, which increase in width from the prothorax to the first abdominal, is then consider- 
ably constricted and afterwards cylindrical, segment-incisions rather strong; head small; body red-brown with 
yellowish lines, the dorsal double, subdorsal fine, emitting an oblique mark on the 2""* abdominal, lateral line 
broken into oblique streaks from the 2"'' to the 6"' abdominal. Feeds on Euonymus europaeus. The moth is 
double brooded. 

2. Genus: Rhodometra Meyr. 

Face with rounded prominence, appressed scaled. Palpus moderate, rather stout, third joint small. 
Anteima in cf bipectinate. Legs normal. Forewing triangular, smoothly scaled; areole single. Hindwing 
somewhat amygdaloid, the angles being more or less rounded off, the distal margin pretty regularly convex; 
costal vein anastomosing with subcostal to about or beyond middle of cell, second subcostal arising from 
apex of cell or very shortly stalked with first radial. 

A small African genus, of which two species, one of migratory habits, extend into Europe and Asia, 
in the warmer parts no doubt permanently established, but further north only occurring as an accidental 
visitor. Its nearest relatives {Pseudosterrha Warr. and perhaps Anthemoctena Warr.) are also exotic. 

This genus was long called Sterrha Hbn., on account of a mistake of Herrich-Schaffer's, but not (as 
Meyrick supposed) of a confusion between the names sericeata (the type of Sterrha) and sacraria. In his early 
and immature work ("Deutschlands Insecten") p. 104, Herrich-Schaffer formed a very unnatural genus con- 
sisting of interpunctaria, jacidaria, sericeata, sacraria and rosearia (three non-Larentiid and two Larentiids) and 
to this he correctly apphed the name of Sterrha. Later he redistributed these among more natural genera 
but, forgetting which was the type of Sterrha, retained the name for the wrong section. Hampson and Swinhoe 
have united Rhodometra with Pseudosterrha Warr., which has not the protuberant face, has much narrower 
wings with longer cells and shows some other differences. 

R. sacraria L. (6 a). Forewing yellow, costal margin usually narrowly rosy at base, a bright rose-coloured sacraria. 
line or stripe from the apex to somewhat beyond middle of hindmargin ; usually also with a minute discal dot and 

IV '" 20 

154 RHODOMETRA. Ry L. R. Prout. 

occasionally with a rosy mark along the median vein from the 2°'' submedian to the end of the cell. Hindwing 
white, unmarked. The ?? are on an average rather less bright yellov^r, with the oblique stripe more brownish red, 
usually becoming fainter, or even obsolete, before the hindmargin. Roth sexes are very variable. Zeller ("Isis" 1847, 
p. 491) gave a good analysis of the seven principal forms, but it is not necessary to provide them all with 
labda. names, as some differ only in a small mark. — ab. labda Cram. (=; atrifasciaria Stefan. = sarothamnaria 
R. Brown = ochracearia Fuchs) (6 a) is a form of frequent occurrence in the ?, but rare in the cf. The 
yellow gromid-colour is changed to ochreous or buff and the stripe is brown or blackish, entirely without a 
. rosy tinge, and very rarely reaches the hindmargin; it is usually accompanied distally by a pale line. — ab. 
^"naria sanguioaria Esp. (= lividaria Costa = rosea 0&.) (6 a) has the forewing entirely or in great part suffused 
with rose-colour, the stripe usually but little darkened, but in the ? sometimes in part blackish; the hindwing 
is often smoky, not white. The ?? of this form are generally less completely red than the cfcf, some traces 
■ of the pale ground-colour remaining. Costa's figure shows a sub-aberration, with a conspicuous oblique 
yellow stripe on the rosy ground-colour, no doubt an extension of the pale line observable in ab. lahda. — 
excaecaria. ab. excaecaria Fuchs, founded on several examples from Jerusalem, is unicolorous yellow, without markings. 
minervae. I have never seen such specimens. — ab. minervae Gistl is very briefly described (as a separate species) as 
whitish with an oblique chestnut-coloured stripe from the apex both above and beneath and must be a pale 
form of sacraria — unless possibly it was founded on a faded specimen. It was taken in Greece. It should 
be added that philaearia Brabant, doubtfully cited by Staudixger to sacraria, is clearly, according to the 
description, identical with Pseudosterrha gayneri N. Rthschd., the African representative of the Indian Ps. 
paullula Swinh., which will be discussed in Vol. 12. The egg of sacraria is very distinct from those of all 
other known Larentiids, being remarkably elongate; it is covered with small round red spots, somewhat as 
in Acidalia or Cosymhia. Larva elongate, cylindrical, smooth; dark green, mixed with white dorsally, the 
ventral surface whitish, a fine browm dorsal line and a broad yellowish white lateral stripe. ■ Polyphagous on 
low plants, feeding up rapidly. Pupa elongate, yellowish, dotted with black, the wing-cases dark. The moth 
occurs throughout a great ]3art of the year, in a succession of broods. It is easily disturbed by day, but no 
doubt flies at night, and may be captured at light. The resting posture is somewhat like that of certain 
Pyralidae, the wings forming a steep triangular roof. Throughout S. Europe, S. W. Asia, India and Africa, common 
as far south as the Cape of Good Hope. In Central and Northern Europe it only appears as an occasional 
immigrant, being evidently unable to withstand the northern winter. Cramer's type of lahda was said to be 
from Surinam, but this must be an error, as the species does not occur at all in the New World. 

R. anthophilaria is an exceedingly variable species (or group of species) closely related to sacraria, 

but distinguishable by the position of the line and generally by the hindwing. The line of the forewing always 

reaches the posterior margin and anteriorly does not run into the apex but to the costal margin near the 

apex. The base of the costal margin is only extremely narrowly marked with rosy. The hindwing is usually 

dark grey, not white, and is marked with a white or very pale yellowish discal spot and postmedian line or 

band; in the (rarer) cases in which the hindwing is white it is generally less pure white than in sacraria and a 

a.ntho- grey line and grey distal border are nearly always discernible. — anthophilaria Hhn. (6 a) is the form which 

philaria. inhabits S. E. Russia and Transcaspia to Palestine and is said to occur with other forms in N. Africa. The 

forewing is coloured nearly as in typical sacraria, or slightly less bright; hindwing usually dark grey, in 

suhsacraria. the ? somewhat more whitish. — ab. subsacraria Stgr. (=: gegenaria Aljih) differs in having the line of the 

forewing fuscous, perhaps on an average narrower, the hindwing whitish, though usually with traces of dark 

line and border. It is, according to Staudinger, the sacraria of Eversmann and perhaps belongs entirely to 

the summer generation, as the early specimens (April) are said to be always small and dark, with rather 

uniformly dark hindwings, while the more extensive second brood (June-July) shows greater variation. Recorded 

from Sarepta and the 111 district. According to Christoph (Rom. M6m. L6p. vol. 3, p. 103) gegenaria is a 

variety of albidaria and certainly neither belongs to anthophilaria^ though he thinks they may be forms of 

subrosearia. sacraria. — ab. subrosearia Stgr. (6 a) is a not infrequent form in which the ground-colour of the forewing 

is rosy, only a discal spot and outer line remaining yellow; hindwing dark, sometimes blackish. Russia, 

albj- Balkan Peninsula, Palestine. — ab. albipunctaria Alph., described from the Kuldja district, is of a brownish 

punc ana. ^^^^ ^j^^ ^j^^ ^ more tinged with olivaceous), the whitish discal spot and outer line well expressed, the hindwing 

consecraria. nearly as white as in sacraria. Recorded also from Transcaspia and North Africa. — consecraria Rbr. is of 

a rather indefinite colour, the yellowish ground-colour of the forewing being more or less strongly dusted 

with rosy, leaving the basal part, the discal spot and outer line more or less clear. Hindwing pale, though 

with distinct traces of the grey markings. Andalusia, Corsica and a transitional form in North Africa. Also 

albidaria. as an aberration at Sarepta. — albidaria Ersch., from Turkestan, seems to differ very little from the preceding. 

It was described as red with yellow fascia, the hindwing white as in sacraria, and only distinguished from 

subrosearia Stgr. by the hindwing. It would thus appear to be more densely and uniformly irrorated with 

rosearia. rosy than consecraria. — rosearia Tr. (7 f) will very likely prove to be a distinct species, as the wings appear 

to be somewhat broader than in the other forms. It is extremely variable, and the reddest examples differ 

LYTHRIA. By L. B. Prout, 155 

little from subrosearia except in their larger average si^e. The yellow forms, on the other hand, show a 
characteristic broad rosy outer stripe and a rosy distal band, the fringes remaining clear yellow. In all the 
forms the hindwing is more or less dark, with pale spot and band. Treitschkk's type, from Corfu, was one 
of the intermediate forms, (he yellow ground-colour dusted with rosy. Only known from that island and from 
Greece, the Corfu forms particularly fine and large. We (Igure an example from Athens, from my collection. 
— elvira Th.-Mieg, said to be from Spain (probably Albarracin) is described as a variety of rosearia, forewing elvira. 
sulphur yellow with costal edge, postmedian band and terminal band carmine, the latter ending at about the 
second median vein, hindwing rather paler yellow, the bands blackish brown: forewing beneath infuscated, 
hindwing nearly as above but with the bands carmine. — The larva of the form anthophUaria is unknown; 
according to Pungeler (in litt.) they would not accept any plant which was offered them. That of rosearia 
was discovered by Erber on Corfu, feeding on Alisma sp. ?, and is slender, grey-green, dark-dusted; pupa 
light brown, in a slight cocoon on the earth, the moth emerging in 10 days. Erber found rosearia common 
in a few spots but exceedingly local; a few specimens, small and dark, were obtained in March, but the 
largest emergence was fi-om the middle of May to the middle of June. 

3. Genus: L^ythria Hhn. 

Face rough-scaled. Palpus long, with long projecting hair. Antenna short, in d' with long pectinations, 
in ? ciliated. Pectus and femora hairy. Hindtibia with all spurs. Forewing with single areole, the point of 
origin of the P' and 5"" subcostal nervules very variable, the P' commonly from the apex of the areole or 
even very shortly stalked with the others, as in the Acidahids; P' radial not stalked. Hindwing with 2"'' 
subcostal shortly stalked. — Egg oval, with the ends flattened. Larva very slender, smooth, cylindrical; feeds 
on Rumex and other low plants. The genus is a small and rather isolated one, confined to the Palearctic 
Region and indeed chiefly to Europe. Its nearest relatives are found in New Zealand and Meyrick considers 
it an ancestral form. 

L. plumularia J'Vr. (= rheticaria Lah) (5g) differs from the other species in the 3 broad bands of the plumularia. 
forewing (the middle one at times interrupted), the presence on the hindwing of a black discal dot and distinct 
postmedian line or band, and especially in the strong dark olivaceous or blackish suffusion at the base of 
both wings and often along the inner margin. Otherwise all the European species agree in having a bright 
ochre-yellow ground-colour and purple-red markings, though plumularia is rather less bright than the others. 
It varies a good deal in the width of the bands; the first two are not infrequently more or less confluent, 
the third almost invariably remains separate and is never very narrow, nor broken up into dots, as sometimes 
occurs in the other species. It is extremely unlikely that there is more than a single generation and as the 
aberrations intergrade it is unnecessary to give them names. The larva is said to live on Rumex acetosa, 
but is apparently undescribed. The moth flies by day and is extremely local, being confined to the high 
Alps of Switzerland (Orisons and Valais) and the Tyrol. It is met with in June and July and according to 
Favre at elevations of 2000 m and upwards. 

L. venustata Stgr. is unknown to me in nature. Structurally it is said to agree with plumularia, venustata. 
only the apex of the forewing and the inner angle of the hindwing appear somewhat sharper. Reddish leather- 
yellow or cream-yellow, traversed by three sharply defined, uninterrupted dark bands, more regularly parallel 
than in the other species, the first slightly convex, the third slightly bicurved, the second straight. The base 
of forewing and inner margin of hindwing are dark shaded. The under surface distinguishes venustata at 
once, showing no trace of a transverse band. Described on a o^ from Zaisan. 

L. purpuraria is more variable even than plumularia. It is distinguishable from that species by the 
characters indicated above and structurally by the somewhat less extremely long hairs of the palpus, femora, 
etc. It has only two bands on the forewing, not three. cT genitalia with valves large, subtriangular, bearing 
small, soft, hairy papillae at apex. — purpuraria L. (? = cruentaria Hufn.) (5g) is the ordinary summer-brood purpuraria. 
form, the forewing yellow, more or less tinged with olive, the two bands rosy, the proximal incomplete, the 
distal rather narrow. A short and interrupted median very occasionally present costally. Hindwing brighter 
orange-yellow, rather narrowly shaded in inner-marginal area with olive grey, fringe rosy; no other markings 
or merely a weak postmedian line. Both wings beneath show the outer line, on the hindwing usually complete, 
on the forewing commonly reduced to a costal mark. — ab. conjunctiva ah. nov. (= cruentaria Bkh. i\Qc conjunctiva, 
Hufn). The two bands of the forewing meet before the hindmargin (Hbn. fig. 199). — ab. tnevesi Lampa mevesi. 
seems to be merely an unimportant transition to the following form; described as "ochre yellow, the bands 
of the forewing indistinct". Staudinger adds that they are grey. — lutearia Vill. (5g) is almost unicolorous lutearia. 


LYTHRIA. By L. B. Prout. 

yellow, the bands nearly obsolete. Perhaps our figure, which is not very extreme, should rather be referred 
to ab. mevesi. The extreme forms belong chiefly, though not entirely, to S. Russia and Asia Minor. De Villers 
named this form in 1789; Staudinger in 1901 overlooked this, but fortunately chose the same very suitable 
name. Fuchs included this form in his abstinentaria, but that belongs properly to the spring generation. — 

rugmaria. ruginaria Costa is apparently a more reddish fulvous modification of lutearia, with no trace of bands. Described 
from Naples on several examples. Curo incUnes to unite it with sordidaria, but its large size and bright 

deceptoria. colour preclude this. — deceptoria Vill. (= abstinentaria Fuchs) with the forewing almost unicolorous fuscous 
(really "blackish olive-green", as Fuchs gives) belongs entirely or almost entirely to the spring brood and is 

sordidaria. usually much smaller than the summer form. — sordidaria Zett. (5g, as rotaria) represents the less extreme 
specimens of the first brood, the bands being present, though indistinct, dark and dull. In Lapland, where 
the species does not appear till late in June, it is the only known form. — The egg is laid singly and is 
rather elongate oval, almost twice as long as its greatest thickness, the polygonal reticulation irregular, enclosing 
sUght concavities which are covered with a uniform minute pitting; micropylar rosette 7 — 9 —rayed, often 
partly or entirely covered by dark shading. Larva reddish, with double dark dorsal line, light subdorsal 
(continued on the head) and light lateral line. It feeds chiefly on Rumex and Polygonum. The first brood 
of the moth appears in April, but is much scarcer than the second, which is very common in many places 
in July and August, flying in open fields and similar localities. Sintenis (S. B. Ges. Dorpat vol 3, p. 298) has 
recorded a halved gynandromorph, taken 27 June 1873, to which his attention was directed by its helplessness 
on the wing, purpuraria has certainly a wide range in Europe and probably Asia Minor, but some records 
may very likely belong to the following species. It is wanting in the Iberian Peninsula, in Britain and the 
Arctic Region. 







L. purpurata L. (= craentaria Guen. nee Bkh.) (5g, as cruentaria) has been much confused with 
purpuraria but is most certainly distinct, cf genitalia with valves small, quadrangular, with papillae at apex 
as long as the valve itself. The two species were correctly separated by Laspeyres, recognized as probably 
distinct species by Duponchel and recently (1905 and 1907) worked out very clearly by Demaison, though under 
GuEpflEE's erroneous nomenclature, purpurata is smaller, somewhat shorter-winged, generally much more 
brightly coloured, the first band (or half-band) nearer to the base, the 2"'' and 3"^ both present but very 
closely approximated, generally entirely confluent or forking only close to the costal margin, thus forming 
one conspicuous broad band. The purple-red on the underside of the hindwing is generally much extended. 
Groimd-colour of forewing in general somewhat more greenish, of purpuraria more yellowish, but both vary 
in this respect. — demaisoni form. nov. (gen. vern.) is parallel to the spring brood of purpuraria but rather 
smaller and the markings, when still present, show the same characteristics as the summer brood. Much 
scarcer. — rotaria F. is almost certainly an aberration of purpurata with the proximal band of the forewing 
apparently wanting, the yellow underside unmarked. Germany. How the name comes to have been applied to 
the spring brood of purpuraria I cannot understand. — aucta Krausse, from Sardinia, is evidently also an 
aberration of purpurata. The subbasal purple band is broader ant nearly reaches the hindmargin, the distal 
band very broad, hindwing with broad purple margin. Taken at light in Jmie. I have a similar example 
before me, without exact locality. — The early stages have not been separately worked out. Demaison a 
Rheims and Oberthur in the Pyrenees (f. sangiiinaria) have noticed that the summer brood appears some 
weeks earlier than that of purpuraria and both agree with Duponchel that it is not found (like its relative) 
frequenting cultivated fields. First brood in April (scarce), second in June and early July. Distribution not 
fully ascertained; certainly France, Germany, Holland, Norway, S. Italy. — sanguinaria Dup. (= numantiaria 
H.-tich.) (6b) represents purpurata in the Iberian Peninsula and a part Southern France; it agrees closely in 
the genitalia and in the habits, etc., and Demaison notes an intermediate form at Rheims. Larger, the 2°'' 
and 3'''' bands well separated, the S'" much narrowed, generally broken up into dots or nearly obsolete, very 
variable, — In ab. confluens Oh. the forewing is strongly suffused with rosy almost throughout, the first two 
bands broadly joined along the median vein. — vernalis Stgr. is the spring generation of sanguinaria, much 
smaller and darker, never sharply marked. — The larva of sanguinaria is very slender, recalling that of 
Acidalia ruhigiiiata ; blue-grey, with the dorsal surface red-brown; dorsal line line, sharply white; subdorsal 
brown; a broad white lateral stripe, slightly undulate; spiracles very small, black-ringed. Polyphagous on 
low plants, but partial to Rubia peregrina. The first brood of the moth appears in April-May and seems 
scarce; the second and principal emergence is in June and early July. — porphyraria Il.-Sch. seems to me 
to be certainly either a local form or an occidental aberration of purpurata, though its author maintained 
that it was certainly a distinct species. Forewing above uniformly rosy purple with only the hindmarginal 
area mixed with yellow in the proximal part; beneath yellow, with purple apex. Hindwing above normal, 
beneath almost uniformly purple. S. Russia. I have before me only one example, but have observed a quite 
similar underside in a specimen of ab. aucta. 


4. Genus: Kyi'tolitha Stc/r. 

Face nearly smooth. Palpus rather short, rough-scaled. Antenna in cf simple. Metathorax with small 
tuft. Abdomen not crested. Forewing with apex pointed, distal margin strongly oblique; areole double, first 
radial vein stalked. Hindwing with costal margin produced, running to a rounded point at the end of the 
2""^ subcostal, distal margin nearly straight; discocellulars biangulate. — Early stages unknown. 

Erected for a single Asiatic species. Distinguished by the shape of the hindwing. 

K, obstinata Stgr. (8 c). Forewing whitish grey with a tinge of brown, the markings brown-or but obstinaia. 
not very sharply defined. A dark bar bounding the basal patch and a narrow median band the most conspicuous; 
the latter is really postmedian, its proximal edge running from about or just beyond middle of costa to middle 
of hindmargin, with deep, angular indentations on 2"** radial, 2"'' median and 2""* submedian, its distal edge 
slightly indented on all the veins and the submedian fold and with a moderate projection between the 3'''* 
radial and P' median. Hindwing and underside almost unmarked, thus appearing whiter. Ferghana to the 
Tarbagatai Mountains. — cinerata Stffr. froni Kashgar ? (Issyk-Kul is given as the locality in the original dnerata. 
account) differs in being ash-grey without the brownish tone of the type-form. — roseata Th.-Mier/ from roseata. 
the Alexander Mountains has the forewing, excepting the median band, and the fringes of both wings strongly 
mixed with rosy scales. 

5. Genus: liarentia 2 


Characters of the following genus, but the palpus rather shorter, distal margin of both wings more 
crenulate, discocellulars of the hindwing biangulate. cf antenna bipectinate, with moderate (or rather short) 
branches. — Larva elongate, rugose laterally, the head rounded. Feeds on Malvaceae. 

This genus, which I formerly called Plerocijmia Rhn., is certainly the Larentia of Treitschke, as I have 
elsewhere shown (Trans. City Lond. Ent. Soc. vol. 17, p. 21); the type (Treitschke's first species) was selected 
by Curtis in 1830. So far as is yet known it contains only a single species, inhabiting the western 
Palearctic Region. 

L, clavaria Haw. (= cervinata Schiff. in err. = fasciaria Wrnbg. nee L) (6i). Forewings fawn-colour davaria. 
with browner basal patch, median band and distal shade, all finely and delicately white-edged distally, the 
median band also accompanied by a fine white line proximally, sharply indented on the submedian fold and 
more shallowly in the cell. Hindwing pale, becoming browner at the distal margin. The type form is 
generally known by SchiffermIjller's name of cervinata, which was applied under a misapprehension, being 
simply an emendation of cervinalis Scop., and must be abandoned. Retzius in 1783 called it Phalaena grisea 
fasciata, but this is not a binomial. Haworth's is thus the oldest valid name known. — pallidata Stgr. is pallidata. 
a pale race which occurs in Asiatic Turkey, Ferghana and about lake Zaisan. Forewing ochreous-brownish 
or brownish-grey. Unknown to me. — datinaria Oh. (6i), also unknown to nie, seems likely to be another datinaria. 
pale race of clavaria, or possibly a mere aberration. It was described from a single cf taken at Kef, Algeria, 
in November, and is said to be much greyer than typical clavaria (which also occurs in Algeria), with the 
course of the white lines which bound the central area somewhat different. — fumosata Trti., also from North fumosata. 
Africa (Frenda, Oran), is a much darker form, described as of a blackish brown or smoke-colour, the lines 
thicker and more sharply expressed than in typical clavaria. Two cfcf taken in February. Should datinaria 
prove to be, as Oberthijr believed, a separate species, fumosata may probably represent a dark form of it. 
— Tne egg of clavaria is said to be spherical with the surface smooth, the colour light yellow; laid in autumn, 
not hatching till April or May. The larva is green, more yellowish at the incisions, which are well marked: 
traces of darker longitudinal lines, sometimes a pink mediodorsal line; tubercles white; spiracles black. It 
feeds on Malva, Althaea and allied plants, resting generally on the underside of the leaves. It drops to the 
ground when the plant is touched, and rolling itself up bears a remarkable resemblance to the seeds of the 
maUow. It feeds up rapidly and often pupates at the beginning of June, though some larvae linger on into 
July. They are generally plentiful where they occur. The pupa is rather stout, red-brown, the cremaster 
with a pair of strong, projecting points and some very slender curved hooks; enclosed in a slight cocoon on 
the surface of the ground. The moth appears in September-November and is not often disturbed by day, but 
may be captured with the net in the evening and is strongly attracted to light. It is widely distributed in 
Europe except the extreme north and south and is also recorded from Asia Minor, Transcaucasia and the Altai. 


ORTHOLITHA. By L. B. Prout. 

6. Genus: Ortholitha Hhn. 

Face rough-scaled, with a small projecting cone. Palpus of moderate length, rough-scaled, the terminal 
joint small. Antenna in cf usually bipectinate. Hindtibia with all spurs. Metathorax scarcely crested. Abdomen 
not crested. Forewing moderately broad, apex usually pointed, areole double, P' radial arising from apex of 
cell or shortly stalked with 3'''' to 5"^ subcostals. Hindwing with costal margin long, cell rather short, 
discocellulars oblique, not biangulate, neuration normal. — Larva of moderate proportions or rather stout, 
nearly cylindrical or somewhat flattened, rugose laterally, tubercles and setae often strong. Feeds on low 
plants and hibernates. The moths are night-fliers, indeed some of the best-known species are active later at 
night than most of the Geometridae, but they are very easily disturbed by day, generally flying a short 
distance and settling again. 

Ortholitha is chiefly Palearctic and African, but is not a very sharply- defined genus, scarcely differing 
from Cidaiia except in the elongate costal margin of the hindwing. It is strange that Staudinger and Lederer 
separate them by a number of unrelated genera and that Guenee refers his Euholia ( = Ortholitha) to a separate 
subfamily, Eubolidae. Walther considers that the structure of the palpi is also distinctive in Ortholitha, but 
some of the other related genera seem to me to approach it quite closely. 

A. cf antenna bipectinate. 

coarctaria. 0. coarctaria Schiff. (6h). Grey, dusted with brown; the lines brown, rather straight, the postmedian 

without any distal projection in the middle; median area not darkened, except sometimes between the 2 (or 
3) lines which form its distal boundary (the postmedian lines). Cell-dot minute, often wanting. An apical 
oblique streak present, as in most species of the genus, but often weak. Hindwing very weakly marked. — 
mpuscata. ^- infuscata Stgr. is much darker, smoky brown but with some paler transverse stripes remaining, particularly 
in the distal area.- It seems to be the prevailing form about Hamburg, in Jutland and again in the St. 

lenebraria. Petersburg district. — ab. tenebraria liba. is a more extreme development, almost unicolorous smoke-brown 
or fuscous, with only the subterminal paler. It occurs occasionally with the preceding. — The life history 
has been well worked out by Brants. Egg oval, glossy, with very weak reticulation. Larva nearly cylindrical, 
slightly tapering anteriorly and posteriorly; head rather small, rounded, somewhat flattened in front; body 
yellowish grey with interrupted darker dorsal line, whitish lateral stripe and small dark spots behind the 
spiracles. Feeds on species of Genista, Sarothamnus and in captivity other Papilionaceous plants; undergoes 
4 moults and is full-fed in 2 — 3 months. Pupa blackish brown, with long conical cremasler. The moth flies 
in May and June, with a partial second generation in August and is local on chalk soil in Central Europe 
and Asia Minor. Its habits are similar to those of nmcronafa, but it flies more wildly. 


nnicronata. 0. mucronata 6'c. ( = plumbaria i^. = palumbaria Schiff. = turturia Tr.) (6i) is larger than coarctaria, 

with which it nearly agrees in the straight or only very slightly curved postmedian line; but this line is single 
(at most only accompanied by some vague shading proximally), the discal dot is distinct, often rather large, 
the distal area almost always weakly marked and the colouring somewhat different, the ground-colour usually 
with a tinge of violet, the lines bright rust-colour or yellowish. Exceedingly variable. — English specimens 
often show some dark shading proximally to the postmedian line, but Guenee was in error in regarding this 
form as a local race; I name the form, ab. umbrifera ah. nov. — ab. nigrescens Ckll. (= obscuraria Rothle 
= luridaria- Bkh., Guen., nee Brahm) has the ground-colour of the forewing uniformly blackish grey, only the 
luridata. subterminal line usually remaining pale; lines as in the type form. Hindwing also darkened. — ab. luridata 
Hufn. and Rott. (= duponti Th.-Mieg) is a less extreme aberration, only the area between the two lines being 
blackish grey, thus forming a distinct dark median band. As Brahm changed the name luridata to luridaria 
in 1791, I consider luridaria Bkh. (1794) a homonym and have replaced it by nigrescens Ckll.; Gillmer confused 
the two forms. — ab. extradentata ab. nov. has the ground-colour normal, but differs from the type in having 
a conspicuous dark, dentate line in the distal area of the forewing, preceding the pale subterminal. Described 
by Gauckler (Ent. Nachrichten vol. 26, p. 372) but not named. It occurs occasionally in many localities. — 

pallidaria. ab. pallidaria Lambill. is smaller, the ground-colour of both wings whitish grey, the antemedian and postmedian 
lines of forewing well marked. — ab. approximata ab. nov. has the median area of the forewing greatly 
narrowed, the lines being placed close together. I have seen very few examples. — The egg is a rather 
flattened oval, with large oval depression on the upper surface and with a hexagonal reticulation which 
becomes much finer around the micropyle; colour pale yellow. The larva feeds on Ulex, Cytisus and species 
of Genista; it is of moderate thickness, with conspicuous fold, and bears a few short stiff bristles ; the ground- 
colour varies, being sometimes almost uniform whitish grey, darkened sometimes with niimerous longitudinal 



ORTHOLITHA. By L. B. Prout. 159 

lines or stripes, the dorsal area often with a dark band. It is full-grown in .April or May, when it changes, 
in a slight cocoon, to a light brown pupa with dark wing-veins. The moth sits among grass or low plants 
and, although a true night-flier, is very easily disturbed by day. It is on the wing throughout the summer 
months and is common in the greater part of Europe except the most northerly and southerly parts; also 
recorded from Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. 

0. langi Chr. (11a). Nearest to the following species, but very distinct. Coloration lighter and less langi. 
varied, the markings of the proximal and distal areas consisting of wavy lines of about uniform intensity, 
without the dark basal patch and dark distal markings of chenopodiata, even, the oblique apical streak not very 
strong. The dark median is also less variegated in colour and the hindwing very weakly marked. The ?, 
which is here figured, is more yellowish than the cf. Larva unknown, suspected of feeding on Cephalaria 
procera, which was abundant where Christoph discovered the moth. Flies in July and August. Abundant 
at Kasikoperan, Transcaucasia. Occurs also in the extreme north-east of Asia Minor. 

0. chenopodiata L. {— limitata Scop. = mensuraria Schiff) (6i). Yellowish brown, with numerous chenu- 
dark vmdulate lines; forewing with central area darkened, comprising two distinct shades, the middle being -?"' ^"^ • 
greyer, the edges more ferruginous. In addition, the ?? are usually brighter yellowish than the cTcf, but both 
sexes vary in tint. — ab. monodii Th.-Mieg (= prieta Ribhe = ? fumata Nitsche) is a dark form with both monochi. 
wings smoky above and beneath, median band very dark. Perhaps forms a local race in the North of England; 
the synonyms perhaps represent less extreme forms and fumata (said to be small) is possibly nearer to the 
following. — grisescens Hormuz., from the alpine and subalpine regions of Bukovina, is probably similar to grisescens. 
monodii but is much smaller than the type, grey-brown, the postmedian line straighter than normal. — ab. 
unicolor Th.-Mieg has the forewing almost uniformly coffee-brown, with the median band not darker. Rather wiicolor. 
frequent in the south of France. — ab. defasciata Rhl, foimded on a unique aberration in the Capper collection, defasciata. 
has the antemedian line placed nearer the base than usual and the postmedian of both wings removed to less 
than 2 mm. from the distal margin. ■ The median area of the forewing is thus extraordinarily broad and 
• moreover it is of a uniform ground-colour, not darkened. Ribbe has recorded under this name 2 examples 
from Andalusia with no darkened central area, but these should probably be referred to unicolor. — ab. 
violacearia Lambill. is described as having the ground-colour of Ihe forewing pale yellow and the median violacearia. 
band violaceous yellow and is said to be very rare in Belgium. — ab. medioprieta Bihhe is described as having medioprieia. 
the basal area of the forewing above darkened as well as the median. If this refers to the entire area 
proximally to the median band, it must be a striking form. Founded on a single specimen taken in the 
Sierra de Alfacar. — sibirica B.-Haas is a local race from the Kentei Mountains, differing markedly in its siUrica. 
lighter, more yellow- brown colouring. I have not seen it, but it was founded on a large number of specimens. 
— The egg is nearly spherical, slightly glossy, the polygonal pattern usually weak and irregular, somewhat 
variable, in part marked by small knobs at the angles; whitish grey, changing in a few days to dark yellow. 
The larva is moderately thick, of similar form to that of mucronata and with similar stiff bristles, the tubercles 
black, rather conspicuous; ground-colour grey or slate-colour, usually with distinct bluish tinge, the ventral 
area somewhat paler and more yellowish; longitudinal lines dark. It feeds on various low plants, especially 
Papilionaceae, but is very retiring in its habits and — in contrast to the imago — rarely met with. It is 
full fed in June. The moth appears in July and August, is extremely abundant in rough grassy or weedy 
places in the greater part of Europe and extends across Asia to the Amur and Ussuri district. It flies freely 
about midnight and is strongly attracted to light; but it is very easily disturbed by day, when it flies about 
restlessly but not very rapidly and is, as Barrett says, very fastidious about choosing its next settling-place. 

0. feliciaria D. Luc. and Joannis is unknown to me but is said to be near the preceding, with the feliciaria. 
forewing elongate, falcate at the apex and with sharply-defined white lines bounding the basal and median 
areas, the postmedian especially conspicuous. The ground-colour is brown, the basal and median areas slightly 
darkened. Only known from Tarf, near Calle, Algeria. 

0. moeniata Scop. (6i) is a very easily-recognized species and in general not very variable. The tnoeniata. 
broad median band of the forewing, darkened in its distal half and with a strong, pointed distal projection 
in the middle is very characteristic; the proximal edge of the band, on the other hand, is nearly straight. 
Ground-colour pale violet-grey, narrowly shaded with rust-colour or yellowish on either side of the fine white 
Unes which bound the median area. — ab. diniensis Neuhurger, described from Digne, is lighter, more yellowish, dmiensis. 
the median band more fawn-coloured. — Egg very small, oval, almost spherical, orange-yellow, surface shiny. 
Larva ash-grey, sometimes darker, sometimes more reddish, the surface sprinkled with dark brown atoms 
which mediodorsally are condensed into a row of spots and on each side of this row form two longitudinal 
lines (dorsal and subdorsal); ventral surface light brown-grey with brown stripes and a reddish medic-ventral 


ORTHOLITHA. By L. B. Prout. 

line; spiracles finely black. Feeds on broom and Genista. Pupa dull red-brown, with lighter incisions, 
cremaster darker. ' Imago in July and August, occurring locally in wooded districts in Central Europe, N. 
Italy and Transcaucasia. 


0. obvallaria Mah. (6h) is only kno\vn from Corsica, where it occurs locally, and only in the mountains 
(1500 m) in July and August. It somewhat recalls moeniata in the strong distal projection of the median 
band, but this projection is in obvallaria distinctly bifid, and the proximal edge of the band contains two 
strong angles. Basal patch of forewing dark grey, bounded by a dentate black line. 


0. proximaria Rhr., also from Corsica, is apparently scarce and I have no material before me. The 
distal edge of the median band shows a smaller projection than in obvallaria, consisting of a square-cut or 
slightly bifid lobe between the 3''^ radial and 1 ** median, but posterioiiy to this it forms a deep inward curve. 
The proximal edge of the band (which in narrower than in the two preceding species) is neither straight (as 
in moeniata) nor biangulate (as in obvallaria) but sinuous. The hindwing shows a distinct median line, following 
a similar course to that of the postmedian of the forewing. The larva feeds on Genista Corsica and Ulex and 
was found by Rambur in March, but grows slowly, the moth not appearing till October. It resembles, according 
to MiLLiERE, the larva of peribolata, and is brown, with a blackish dorsal stripe, which narrows posteriorly on 
each segment and bears a series of whitish triangular spots (sometimes, however, indistinct) ; ventral surface 
with two blackish bands and a red-brown medioventral line. Pupa subterranean, dull red, little elongate, 
conical, pointed, finely wrinkled and dotted. 

peribolata. 0. peribolata Hhh (8a). Forewing light cinerous with the lines and bands fuscous; a thick line 

limiting the basal area is rather straight and oblique; the narrow proximal band of the median area somewhat 
variable, nearly straight or more sinuous, usually narrowing anteriorly, its broader distal band sometimes ill- 
defined proximally, distally with a rounded projection in the middle; a small but distinct black discal dot; 
the pale subterminal line straight, accompanied proximally by a dark shade, which widens anteriorly and joins 
the oblique dark apical streak. Hindwing shaded with fuscous, indistinctly marked, the postmedian line 
strongly outcurved in middle, a distinct, rather straight, pale subterminal line often present. Generally not 
very variable, though some examples show a brighter brownish tinge. Staudinger regards sororiata Dup. as 
an aberration of peribolata, which is certainly incorrect; Duponchel's figure is puzzling and has been regarded 
by GuENEE (probably correctly) as an aberrant Carsia paludata, by Milliere as very likely proximaria. — ab- 

coarctata. coarctata ab. nov. is a remarkable form with Avhite ground-colour and much narrowed median area, forming 
a single brown band 2 — 3 mm in breadth; basal patch weak, apical streak present, the other lines almost or 
magna, entirely obsolete. Taken by SxAUDrNCER in Andalusia, figured by Milliere (pi. 38, f 7). — magna form, nov., 
from Algeria, is larger than the type form and (judging by the only example before me) with the proximal 
edge of the median band more strongly curved (S-shaped), the ground-colour less pale and the subterminal 
line of the hindwing entirely suppressed. The larva is rather short, carinated laterally, the skin wrinkled, 
the segment incisions distinct; greyish yellow, sometimes tinged with green, with an interrupted black dorsal 
stripe, uninterrupted (but sometimes indistinct) subdorsal line and whitish lateral stripe. It feeds on Genista, 
Ulex and Calycotome spinosa and grows slowly, hatching in the autumn and reaching its full growth at the 
end of April or beginning of May. Pupa conico-cylindrical, elongate, reddish brown with the wing-cases tinged 
with green; said by Milliere to be remarkable for lacking the cremastral hooks which characterize the other 
Geometrid pupa. The moth appears in August and September and is common in parts of France (especially 
the south), occurring also in Spain and Guernsey and once in Valais. 

dupUcata. 0, duplicata TFrtrr. (12 a) is a very distinct species. Considerably larger than ^erifto^wto (size of Jj^Mwcfona, 

etc). Forewing whitish with dark lines, costal margin from base to postmedian fuscous; basal patch obliquely 
dark-edged; median band represented by two broad blackish bars from the hindmargin to the subcostal vein, 
narrowing anteriorly and directed somewhat obliquely distad; distal margin blackish, narrowing to a point at 
;ipex and enclosing, from 1^' radial to hinder angle, a straight white subterminal line. Hindwing whitish, 
with some slight dark markings towards the apex and anal angle. Under surface ochreous sufl'used with 
siniplificata. reddish, hindwing with a discal dot and postmedian line. — In ab. simplificata Th.-Mieg, described from 
How-kow, the two black band of the median area are almost entirely united into a single broad triangular 
band, the white interspace being almost entirely suppressed, duplicata is distributed in the mountains of 
Tibet and W. China. 

Publ. 3. 11. 1.914. ORTIIOLITHA. By L. 11 Proiit. 161 

0. nasifera Warr. (IJ a) somewlial resembles tlie most sharply-marked 'periholata, with the ground- nasifera. 
colour slightly more whitish, but differs at once in the much more sharply pointed distal projection of the 
median band. The basal line is also less straight, being strongly bent basewards at both ends, the antemedian 
line is somewhat angled basewards on the median vein, forming curves anteriorly and posteriorly to this, and 
the subterrainal line is not quite so straight. Moreover the discal dot is accompanied by a second fas in 
bipuncfaria, etc.), which is scarcely ever the case in periholata. Inhabits the NorLh-weslern Himalayas in June. 

0. coelinaria Grasl. (8 c). Considerably larger than periholata, basal line less oblique, often less strongly coelinaria. 
darkened, distal edge of median band rather strongly incurved between the radials, but with a much less pro- 
nounced, double distal projection between the 3^"^ radial and 2"'' median. The median band is in general more 
broadly darkened, leaving only a narrow pale shade in the centre, and even this is seldom extremely pale; 
discal dot usually double, as in hipunctaria, but both minute. A variable species in coloration, particularly as 
regards the colour of the area distally to the median band, which may be almost pure white or strongly mixed 
with brown or ferruginous. The typical form, as described and figured by Gbaslin, has this area whitish, with 
grey lines, only the first of them (nearest the median band) fulvous-brown; the median band itself very dark, 
nearly black. The specimen was bred from the south of the Departement of Pyrenees-Orientales and — according 
to its author and Monsieur Oberthur — has never occurred at Vernet-les-Bains, although the latter possesses 
2 cfd" agreeing with it from Spain (Escorial). It must, I think, be a rare form. — jugicola Stgr. (=: vernetaria jugicola. 
Ob.) is the common form of the species, with the median band lighter and the distal area (especially in the ??) 
more or less strongly shaded with brown or fulvous. This is not only found in Castile, as Staudinger gives 
in his Catalogue, but also prevails at Vernet-les-Bains, whence OBERXHiJR described and figured it. My own 
series, from various Spanish localities, shows a good deal of valuation, some examples approaching — though 
not reaching — the type form. — gerardini Ob. is a more melanotic form from the Basses Pyrenees with the gerardini. 
hindwing almost uniformly blackish brown, the paler parts of the forewing also darkened, giving to the entire 
wing a more uniform, more sombre appearance. In particular, the subbasal area is very little lighter than 
the median. Staudinger in 1870 described this form as jugicola var., but in his latest Catalogue he wrongly 
confounds it with typical coelinaria. — coelinaria is confined to the Pyrenees and Spain and flies in July; the 
race gerardini occurs at elevations of 1000 to 1300 m. 

0. kashghara Moore (6 h) is a narrow-winged species and more weakly marked than most of the genus, kashghara. 
the antemedian and postmedian lines being accompanied by very little dark shading in the central area; their 
form is shown in our figure. The very oblique basal line is rather indistinct except at the costal margin; 
the oblique apical streak is obsolete, but there is a dark mark at the costal extremity of the (almost obsolete) 
sub terminal line. Discovered at Chiklik, south of Yarkand, at 4310 m. elevation, on 3'''' June; apparently 
distributed in the Thian-shan range. 

0. similaria Leech (11a) from Western China (Ta-chien-lu, Wa-shan and Ni-tou), May — July, resembles similaria. 
a large periholata, but has the hindwing whitish, merely somewhat shaded with grey basally and towards inner 
margin, and shows, like coelinaria, a pronounced inward curve between the radials in the postmedian line of 
the forewing — somewhat deeper, indeed, than in that species. The pale band in the middle of the central 
area is rather sharply defined and nearly white and contains usually two very small discal dots. A whitish 
line, or narrow band, runs between the median band and the narrow whitish subterminal line. — erschoffi erschoffi. 
Alph. (8 c) is a somewhat more whitish, less dark-marked form from Koko-Nor and the Amdo district, with 
the hindwing still clearer whitish, the whitish band between the median band and subterminal of the forewing 
broader and more conspicuous and the discal dot single. I have seen very few, and am not sure whether 
the distinctions will prove constant. If not, Alpheraky's name (published June 1897) must sink to Leech's 
(May 1897). 

0. integraria Stgr. (II a). Forewing with distal margin more oblique, the apex thus appearing somewhat integraria. 
sharper. The three fuscous bands (bounding the basal and median areas) well-defined, the first bent outwards 
in the middle, the second and third formed somewhat as in periholata or simularia, but the third is of almost 
uniform breadth throughout; preceded and followed respectively by distinct fulvous-brown shades, which are 
characteristic of this species, especially of the cT. The central part of the median area is almost clear white 
and contains two large discal dots, which are almost or entirely confiuent. Hindwing dirty whitish. ? smaller 
and still narrower-winged. Samarkand in July, at about 3000 m. 

0. sartata Alph. (6 h) is very similar to integraria, which Alpheraky thought was merely an aberration sartata. 
of it, but the margins of the central area are more dentate, the dark bands which this area contains are less 
sharply defined inwards and the fulvous bands which bound the median area are entirely wanting. Hi district 
to Ferghana, flying in June in the mountains. 

IV 21 

162 ORTHOLITHA. By L. B. Prout. 

supproxi- 0. supproximaria Strp: f 1 1 b) is similarly coloured to i artata, but is very distinct in the form of the 

mmia. ^-^^q^^^^^ band of the forewing, which shows a single pointed projection distally, herein approaching sinensis. 
The subbasal and antemcdian lines are both rather strongly bent dislad, and with more or less pointed pro- 
jections on the two folds. Two very fine lines usually follow the postmedian, running parallel with it, but 
these are sometimes obsolete. Hindwing rather strongly marked, the postmedian line forming almost a right 
angle behind the S''^ radial and bending towards the anal angle from the 2"'' median to the margin. The 
underside also, which in the nearly allied species is almost markingless, is here well marked, being grey-dusted, 
especially in the basal half and before the subterminal line, and showing a distinct, bent postmedian line. 
Ferghana to Issyk Kul, about the end of June. — The striking aberration mentioned but not named by Stau- 
DiNGER, with almost the entire median area of the forewing dark, leaving only a small pale discal and a second 
fasciata. hindmarginal patch, may be designated ab. fasciata ah. nov. 

sinensis. 0. sinensis Alph. (6 h) is an elegant species, the dark markings standing out sharply on whitish-grey, 

.slightly brown-tinged ground-colour. The coui'se of the lines is somewhat as in supproximaria, but the out- 
ward bend of the subbasal and the pointed projection in the postmedian are both exaggerated, while the 
antemedian shows two strong curves on the folds, separated by a sharp angle pointing basewards on the 
median vein; double discal dot strong. The hindwing is weakly marked, except in the darkest examples. 
? smaller and narrower-winged than the cf, otherwise similar. Somewhat variable in depth of colouring, but 
I know of no striking aberrations. Inhabits the mountainous country of Central Asia (the Thian-shan range, 
the Kurla and Amdo districts), flying in June. 

appropin- 0. appropinquaria Stgr. (6h) was described as possibly a variety of sartata, from which it diffei's as 

quaria. follows: subbasal band narrower, mostly reduced to a mere line: antemedian straighter (less dentate or undulate), 
the band which follows it consequently more regular; discal dots united into a longer streak; postmedian less 
dentate, though otherwise similarly formed. The ground-colour is said to be darker grey, but I do not think 
this is constant. The hindwing in the ? shows a rather distinct, strongly curved postmedian line The fringes, 
which in sartata are somewhat chequered, are in appropinquaria more uniformly coloured. S. Ferghana and 
the Amdo district. 

suhvidnaria. 0. subvicinaria titgy., from the Caucasus, is unknown to me, except from the description and Lederer's 

figure. Similar to ticinaria, for which Lederer mistook it, the median band of the forewing somewhat darker 
brownish-grey, containing a lighter grey anterior patch; postmedian line quite differently formed, being waved 
or bluntly dentate, much as in jundata, its anterior part containing 3 short teeth, its projecting middle part 2 
larger ones, its posterior part 2 smaller; antemedian line also more dentate; first dark line of hindwing more 
angled (in vicinaria bicurved). 

0. vicinaria occurs in two or three local races, even if the following (burgaria) be not also, as has 
been suggested, a form of it. In coloration and general aspect it rather recalls a small bipunctavia, but differs 
markedly in the form of the postmedian line, in the well-developed, scarcely lunulate white subterminal line, 
the strong apical streak, spotted fringes and several othei' characters. The posterior discal dot of the forewing 
vicinaria. is often weakly expressed. — vicinaria Dup. (= zumsteinaria Lah.) (6h) is of a clear grey, or slightly bluish 
grey colour with only a very weak tinge of brown, which appears chiefly in the median band and the 
subterminal area. The median band is well developed, though enclosing a small pale patch anteriorly. 
Inliabits S. E. France and Switzerland from May to July, and is well assimilated to the rocks on which it rests. 
— A short series before me from Syria, from the Leech collection, shows a more brownish tone. The specimens 
are also on an average somewhat less sharply marked, with less pure white lines following the median band. 
This form was misidentified as ''proximaria Rhr.'' with which it has nothing to do. I propose for it the name 

brunnescens. of brunnescens subsp. nov. (lib). Whether vicinaria from other Asiatic localities also belongs to this form, I 
have no means of deciding; Staudinger records the species from the Taurus, N. E. Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, 
the Ala Tau, etc., but considered the last-named intermediate towards burgaria. Some examples of brunnescens 

hyreanaria. show some approach to the markings of subvicinaria. — hyrcanaria Stgr. is a lai'ge pale form hitherto recorded 
only from North Persia; distal area of forewing in particular always light, usually with very sharply dark 
lines following the band. 

burgaria. 0. burgaria Er. (^ bungaria H.-Sch.) (8a) closely approximates to vicinaria and subvicinaria. The edges 

of ttie central area are somewhat more dentate than in the former, but probably less so than in the latter. 
But burgaria is chiefly distinguished by its whiter colour, the median band of the forewing only darkened at 
its margins, the discal dots almost or altogether obsolete, the dark shading which in vicinaria accompanies 
the subterminal line very weak, in part obsolete ; the proximal edge of the median band forms a more regular 
curve, whereas in vicinaria it is angled in the cell and then almost straight, burgaria inhabits the Ural and 


ORTHOLITHA. By L. B. Prout. 163 

N. E. Caucasus in May. I have no information regarding Ihe variety or allied species which, according to 
Staudinger, occurs in the Changai Mounlain.s, Mongolia. 

0. iibanaria spec. nov. cf, 34 mm. Shape of vicinaria, markings more nearly as in bipauctaria, the Uhanaria. 
median band widening gradually but decidedly in its anterior part and forming a rather stronger tooth liehind the 
S"' radial. Forewing light sand-colour slighlly mixed with whitish, the lines darker sand-coloiir, in pan 
(especially the two whicli stand nearest to the cell-marl<) dusted with fuscous; cell-mark comma-shaped, strongly 
overlaid with fuscous; subterminal whitish line very faint, with scarcely any dark filling-in; dark apical streak 
moderately conspicuous. Hindwhig whilish, tinged with sand-colour, especially at dislal margin; fringes sand- 
colour, very weakly chequered. Under surface strongly and pretty uniformly irrorated with sand-colour. 
Rather broader-winged, less glossy and more sharply marked than nehidata B.-Haas. Lebanon (Mrs. Nicholl). 
Type in the British Museum. 

0. pinnaria Chr. is diagnosed as near junctata Stc/r., which it closely resembles in colour and pattern, pimmria. 
The proximal of the two lines nearly straight, gently crenulate, the distal acutely angled and dentate, the 
space between them more or less filled in with fuscous, subterminal line moderately distinct, dentate. Median 
line of hindwing angled, obscure, fuscescent. ? paler. Length of a forewing 13-16 mm. Taken above 
Kurusch (Transcaucasia) in moist mountain pastuies at the end of July and beginning of August. 

0. junctata Stgr. (7g) was considered by its author to be near bipundaria and vicinaria, but if the junctata. 
species which today passes under the name of junctata is correctly determined the resemblance is not at all 
close. It is narrower-winged, more glossy and appears rather more slenderly built, while the tone of colour 
is more brownish; the aspect, on this account and also because the edges (especially the distal edge) of the 
median band are very strongly and irregularly lunulate-dentate, is scarcely that of an Ortholitha. The median 
band is, as is usual in the genus, pale in its central part and contains a rather thick, elongate discal mark 
(thickest anteriorly) which according to Staudinger is never broken up into 2 dots; in the only ? before me 
however, this is distinctly the case, and they are much reduced in size. Hindwing and under surfac e weakly 
marked or without markings. The ? is smaller than the cf. Distributed in Central Asia, flying frojn the end 
of .lune to the end of July. — microgynaria Hmps., from the N. W. Himalayas, appears to me to be a still micro- 
narrower-winged, rather greyer form o\ junctata with the discal mark frequently (especially in the ?) much W«"*- 
reduced. The ?? in this form are still smaller than in typical junctata. June to September. 

0. perplexaria Stc/r. is unknown to me. According to Staudinger's description and figure it is noi perplexaria. 
a typical Orfholitha, inasmuch as the costal margin of the hindwing is scarcely produced. Forewing light, 
whitish grey, the edges of the dark median band formed nearly as in junctata, but the proximal edge with a 
strong indentation in the cell which is not shown in that species. Subterminal line white, undulate, proximally 
(especially in the anterior part) aci.ompanied by a dark shade. Hindwing whitish grey (lighter and more nearly 
markingless than in vicinaria and stibvicinaria), with faint darker and lighter transverse lines in the distal 
half. Forewing beneath somewhat brownish grey, with a narrow, very indistinct lighter band in its distal 
part, containing a weak darker line in its centre. Hindwing beneath with a dark discal lunule and obscure 
dark distal band. Only known from the South-western Caucasus, where it was discovered by Christoph in July. 

0. bipunctaria Schiff. (= undulata Sc. nee L.) (6h) is one of the commonest and best-known of the bipunctaria. 
European species, but is always interesting on account of its great variability. This is in large measure 
dependent on the nature of the rocks or soil on which it rests. The name-type, as described by Scopoli 
(bipunctaria was given as nom. nov., to avoid homonymy with undulata L.), is at the same time the commonest 
form, with the ground-colour cinereous, the median band mixed with fuscous, the discal dots seated on a pale 
central space. As there is no known species with which bipunctaria can be confused, a detailed description 
is unnecessary. The ?? are on an average paler than the d'cf, especially in the chalk-frequenting forms, in 
which no doubt the more perfect protective adaptation of the $ is an advantage to the species. In general 
these chalk forms can be distinguished by their whiter ground-colour, but I find no sufficiently sharp distinction 
to .justify a varietal name. — ab. fasciata ab. nov. may, however, be employed for a pretty and rare form in fasciata. 
which the ground-colour is almost pure white and the central band strongly darkened. The specimen figured 
as herberti (6i) — an unnecessary name — is intermediate towards ab. gachtaria. — In ab. obliterata ab. nov., ohliterata. 
on the contrary (see Barrett, Lep. Brit. Isl. vol. 9, pi. 379, f. 1 e) the oi'dinary markings are almost completely 
suppressed. — ab. reversa ah. nov. is a very extraordinary form in which the basal and median bands are reversa. 
grey or whitish while the rest of the forewing is almost iDlack. Barrett mentions one from Box Hill in coll. 
Adkin and I have seen a second example, also English. — ab. grisescens Neuburc/er, described from Digne, grisescens. 
is entirely without brown dusting in the median and distal areas, thus of a uniform clear grey tone. My 


ORTHOLITHA. By L. B. Proux. 

own specimens from Digne certainly suggest a local race in their peculiar sandy grey tone (scarcely "clear 

gachtaria. grey") and weakly expressed central band. — ab. gachtaria Frr. has the ground-colour darker grey and the 

maritima. markings correspondingly darkened. — maritima Seeh. is a much more extreme form, almost uniformly infuscated 

(blackish), or at least strongly infuscated and with the bands blackish. It forms a local race at Bilbao, but 

sandalica. occurs elsewhere as an aberration. — sandalica Schawerda is lighter, cleaner bluish-grey, not brownish nor 

darkened, the postmedian dark band more strongly and sharply dentate. Herzegovina. Possibly a form of 

the following species? — Larva rather stout, flattened, with the setae strongly developed; variable in colour, 

whitish-ochreous or slate-colour, etc., ventral surface conspicuously striped. On various Papilionaceae. Pupa 

elongate, smooth, dull red, in a slight cocoon on the surface of the ground. Imago in July and August, easily 

disturbed by day but flying at dusk or especially later in the night, when it freely visits flowers and 

occasionally "sugar''. 



0. octodurensis Favre. Closely similar to bipunctaria but larger and more robust, the median band 
somewhat differently formed, with stronger distal projections, the two dark discal dots not so sharply separated 
as in bipunctaria. The colouring of the upper surface varies between blue-grey (according to Favre ''violaceous 
brown") and bro^vn-grey. On the underside the costal margin and apical part of the forCAving are strongly 
shaded with yellowish. July — August. Described from Valais but POngeler — on whose authority octodurensis 
has been raised to the rank of a species — possesses a somewhat lighter form from Digne. Favre described 
it as a variety of hipumtaria though expressing the surmise that it might well be a species. "Wullschlegel 
suspects that the larva feeds on Ononis natrix. octodurensis is unknown to me in nature. 

alfacaria. 0, alfacaria Stgr. (= nevadaria Rbr.). In my opinion Bohatsch, Pungeler and Ribbe are right in 

referring this species to Ortholitha. <f antennal pectinations rather longer than in bipunctaria, to which it is 
perhaps related. Wings rather elongate. Forewing dark brown-grey, with paler and darker waved lines; 
median band little darkened, its central part remaining of the ground-colour; discal mark elongate. Hindwing 
markingless, excepting a discal dot, which is also present beneath. Flies in the Sierra Nevada in July — August. 
PiJNGELER (in litt.) says that he has a lighter from the Sierra Espuna. 

alpherakil 0. alpherakii Ersch. (I la) is recognizable by its very glossy wings and the weakness of its markings. 

It may perhaps best be compared with some weakly-marked aberrations of plumbaria, to which it shows some 
approach in its leaden-grey shade of colour. It is, however, slightly narrower-winged, more glossy, with a 
more elongate (or almost double) discal mark and has no real dark transverse lines, the somewhat greyer 
median area being merely separated from somewhat more ferruginous subbasal and submarginal bands by 
very fine, indistinct wavy whitish lines. Hindwing and under surface unmarked. Only known from the North- 
eastern Caucasus. Two examples from the Zeller collection bear the manuscript name of schisfaceata Z. 

nebulata. 0. nebulata B.-Haas, described from Aintab (Asia Minor), is said to be related to alpherakii but quite 

different in colour. Forewing pale yellowish brown with the median area somewhat lighter, mixed with grey, 
bounded by thick clay-yellow lines or stripes; discal dot also clay-yellow; basal and distal areas without 
markings. Hindwing markingless, somewhat paler than forewing. Underside also paler and markingless. 
Antennal pectinations of about the same length as in alpherakii. According to the figure slenderly built. Some 
glossy, rather narrow-winged examples before me labelled "Syria" may probably belong here. 

B. cf antenna simple. 

puichrata. 0. pulchrata Alph. (^ cometifera Wurr., described as Kuldscha) (8 'c). This species certainly has 

nothing to do with ticotosia, to which Alpheraky referred it, while the wingshape and the discocellulars of 
the hindwing separate it from Kuldscha. Except that the palpus is rather short, the ? agrees entirely with 
Ortholitha; the cT antenna is simple also in one or two African species which I have referred to Ortholitha 
(Onychia) and POngeler has proposed transferring here the three species described below, pulchrata is variable 
in colour, forewing lighter or darker brown, but is easy to recognize by the form of the markings, which are 
correctly shown in our figure; often the dark line distally to the central band is marked with strong black 
spots on the veins. Hindwing whitish or in darker specimens pale brown-grey with whitish postmedian line 
or band, whitish subterminal and small black discal dot. Distributed in the Thian-sha.n district. Warren's 
type was received from a dealer and the locality "Amur" doubtless erroneous. 

adornata. 0. adornata Stgr. is nnknown to me but is evidently near pulchrata with which, according to its author, 

it altogether agrees in form and structure and in colour. The scheme of markings is also similar but it can 
be distiguished at once by their being much straighter. The middle of the central area of the forewing forms 

KULUSCUA. By L. B. Pkout. 


a rather broad pale band, containing the discalraarlt; its narrow proximal and broader diatal parts according 
to tlie figure darker than in any pulchrata which I have seen. Hindwing as in pulchrata. Koko-Nor, Tibet. 

0. latifusata Walk. (= naemata Feld) and its close ally niphonica stand somewhat apart From all other lalifusata. 
known species, but I think PiJiNGELER has found the best position for them, at least provisionally. The shape, 
gloss and pattern of the forewing agree well with Ortholitha; the hindwing has the costal margin scarcely so 
elongate as in most of the species and latifusata is also aberrant in having the discocellulars more or less 
angulated, on account of an inward curve in the second discocelhilar. latifusata has the forewing proximally 
and especially medially of a duller, slightly darker, less purplish brown than the here figured ignoiata, the 
distal area in the cf nearly as dark as the median, in the ? largely whitish, at least proximally; the projection 
in the postmedian is perhaps on an average more strongly rounded. Hindwing grey with wavy white hnes 
beyond the middle. N. W. Himalayas and many localities in W. China. 

0. niphonica Btlr. (:= suavata Chr.) (7 e) has the discocellulars normal, obHque, the basal and median areas niphonica. 
of the forewing usually more reddish brown, the latter darkening distally, the distal area lighter yellowish 
brown, usually becoming paler distally. Hindwing rather darker than in latifusata, with a generally more 
conspicuous black discal dot and angulated postmedian line, the latter usually accompanied distally by a single 
fine whitish line. No marked sexual dimorphism. Japan, Amur and N. India. — ignotata Stgi\ {^= ignorata ignoiata. 
Stgr., nom. praeocc.) (8 i) from Koko-Nor probably belongs here, as the sexes are nearly alike; the curve in 
the postmedian is, however, broader and romider and Staudinger's type had the forewing dark grey-brown, 
distally light violet grey, hindwing grey, weakly marked. 

7. Genus: Miild^clia Alpli. 

Essential characters nearly as in Larentia, distinguished chiefly by the wing-shape, the hindwing in 
particular being more strongly produced at the apex, sometimes almost pointed, the distal margin not crenulate. 
From Kyrfolitha it differs in the pectinate (f antenna, from Ortholitha in the biangulate discocellulars of the 
hindwing. Only a few Asiatic species are yet known. 

K. staudingeri Alph. (7 e), the type of the genus and the most characteristic species, recalls Kijrtolitha staudingeri. 
ohstinata in the extremely irregularly-formed lines which limit the rather narrow central area of the forewing. 
The ground-colour is pale cinereous with a slight tinge of brown, the basal and median areas and some ill- 
defined shades proximally and distally to the median darker and browner; the zigzag lines which bound the 
basal and median areas are sharply defined, blackish. Hindwing whitish cinereous proximally, somewhat more 
brownish distally, with a black discal dot, a sinuous postmedian line and usually some more feebly expressed 
lines beyond. Fringes of both wings dark-chequered. Discovered in the forests of pine (Picea schrenckiana) 
along the Kungess in the first half of June, at elevations of 40UU — 7000 feet. Known only from the Western 
Thian-shan and Issyk-Kul districts. 

K. oberthuri Alph. (11 a) differs in being rather more uniform in colour, the margins of the central 
band much less irregular, the band itself rather broader, containing a conspicuous black discal dot and also 
a thick curved black mark on the 3'''' radial vein from the end of the cell to the postmedian line. The Amdo 
district (Myn-dyn-scha) is the only recorded locality, but the specimen which we figure (ex coll. Brit. Mus.) is 
labelled Koko-Nor and the British Museum also possesses a small worn S from Yatung (Tibet) which seems 
referable here 


K. lakearia 0&. (6 i) closely resembles oberthuri, which may possibly even be a form of it. lakearia, ukearia. 
however, seems to be rather smaller, rather darker, more strongly marked (especially on the hindwing) and 
with the postmedian line on both wings making a stronger projection behind the 3'''' radial vein. The median 
band is of a somewhat more reddish brown. In the cf of lakearia, moreower, the distal margin of the hindwing 
is rather more rounded than in that of oberthuri. Inhabits Western China (Ta-chien-lu, Pu-tsu-fong). 

K. productaria Leech (described as Oporabia) agrees entirely with Kuldscha in structure except thut productaria. 
the antennal pectinations are longer; all the margins of the forewiug are slightly more rounded and the distal 
margin of the hindwing is likewise more rounded in its anal half Altogether a duller insect, the wings being 

166 MESOTYPE; HASTINA. By L. B. Prout. 

more thinly scaled, the fuscous forewing much more weakly marked; basal area a little darkened, followed 
by a weakly bisected whitish band, which is marked with distinct dark dots on the median and submedian 
veins; median band rather broader than in staudingeri, somewhat darkened but very ill-defined, much less 
irregularly shaped than in that species, the pale areas which limit it chiefly marked costally and on the veins, 
where pairs of whitish dots enclose single dark dots; distal area also with the veins alternately light and 
dark-marked, an indistinct pale subterminal line present. Hindwing rather more whitish towards base than 
in normal staiidingeri, the discal dot and postmedian line fainter. Forewing beneath almost uniform fuscous, 
hindwing more whitish, with traces of darker postmedian line; both wings with distinct cell-spot. Ta-chien-lu, 
W. China, only the type (cT) known. 

8. Genus: Mesotype Hbn. 

Habitus and most characters as in Ortholitha, of which Guenee made it a section. Face less oblique, 
antenna in cf simply ciliated, not pectinated, forewing with the distal wall of the outer areole usually obsolete^ 
as in Catadysme, the S"" subcostal long-stalked with the 1 ^' radial and widely separated from the other 
subcostals. The only known species is of smaller size than the smallest Ortholitha. 

Widely distributed in the Palearctic Hegion. 

virgata. ^- virgata Hufn. (=lineolata Schiff.) (6 c). Light grey to whitish, more or less dusted with brownish, 

forewing with the lines dark brown; subbasal, antemedian and postmedian nearly straight, the latter followed 
by 2 or 3 shghtly less straight lines; antemedian accompanied proximally and postmedian distally by a whitish 
line; discal dot black; an oblique subapical streak present, as in OrtholitJta, the pale subterminal line nearly 
straight. Hindwing with 2 or 3 brownish lines. Variable in ground-colour and in the median area of the 
forewing, which is sometimes merely marked with a few fine straight lines, at other times strongly dark- 
shaded at each side, but almost always shows a slender pale line in the middle; really striking aberrations, 
imvunctata. however, are i-ather rare. The ? is rather smaller and narrower-winged than the &. — ab. impunctata 
Petersen lacks the black discal dot of the forewing. — Larva slender, somewhat flattened anteriorly and 
posteriorly; very variable in colour dorsally, dull pink, brown or olivaceous with dark brown or blackish- 
green mediodorsal line, thin, interrupted subdorsal line, two dark stripes (the lower almost black) between 
the subdorsal and the spiracles: ventral surface pale yellow. Feeds on Galium, especially- on sandhills. Pupa 
rather short and stout, thoracic part strongly rounded, glossy; dark red-brown, abdominal divisions bright 
light brown. The moth appears in a succession of broods and is widely distributed from Central Europe to 
Amur and locally abundant. 

9. Genus: Hastina Mo 


Face smooth, not protuberant. Palpus quite short, smooth-scaled. Antenna in <f' nearly simple, 
minutely ciliated. Leg-structure normal. Forewing with distal margin excised between the apex and 3"^ radial, 
often slightly also behind P' median, thus very prominent in the middle; areole single, | st_4th subcostal 
stalked from apex of areole, 5"" subcostal arising about from apex of areole. Hindwing with distal margin 
very strongly dentate at the vein-ends, with the longest teeth at the I ^' and 3'''* radials and the deepest excision 
between them: discoceilulars oblique, 2"'' radial arising above their middle. 

An- eccentric genus in shape, but otherwise closely allied to the Asthena group. I as not know on 
what grounds Stauuinger has placed it in the present position. The species are chiefly Indian. Dr. Seitz 
infoi-ms me that the resting posture resembles that ol the Epiplemids. 

subfalcaria. H. subfalcaria Chr. Dark brown, slightly mixed with yellowish. Both wings with 2 dentate bluish- 

white lines, the proximal beginning pretty exactly in the middle of the costa of the forewing, the distal at 
beyontl three-fourths, both becoming less distinct posteriorly; the median area, especially at the costa, some- 

MINOA; AMYGDALOPTERA. By I.. I!. Phout. 167 

what darkened, suggesting a central band; I'orewing coslally also with a bluish-white subleruiiiial line, whieli 

disappears about at the 3'''' radial. I have not seen the Palaearctic form, which was taken in Ainurland in 

July. The Indian I'epresentative is — caertileolineata Moore, possibly, as Staudinoer suggests, a separate taerw/eo- 

species, bat I hardly think so. Except that the distal margins seen moore deeply excised no difference is 

mentioned. The median band is not appreciably darkened. 1 introduce it here because Wilema.x lias recorded 

it from Japan, but I suspect his specimen will prove to be subfalcaria. 

H. azela Btlr. (Vol. 2, pi. 48 i). Rather larger than subfa/carin, the distal margin of the foi-ewing some- azcla. 
what less deeply excised. Entirely different in coloration, the dark brown ground-colour being less uniform 
and much more restricted, an extended apical area on the forewing and marginal band on the hindwing being 
white, while the posterior part of the median area of the forewing and nearly the proximal half of the hindwing 
are light buff-colour; the dark areas are traversed by some vague bluish-silvery lines and the forewing shows 
also 2 or 3 undultite rust-coloured lines; the white apical patch of the forewing is continued narrowly to the 
hinder angle, herein differing from the nearly allied Indian species gemmifera Moore. Only known from Japan. 

10. Genus: Miiioa Tr. 

Face smooth. Palpus short, lessely scaled. Antenna in cf shortly ciliated. Les-strueture normal. 
Wings glossy, smooth-margined. Forewing with areole double, P* subcostal arising from anterior margin of 
outer areole, or exceptionally from its apex Hindwing with discocellulars oblique, not biangulate. 

Only a single species is known. Like the preceding genus, it probably belongs in the vicinity of 
Asthena, to which Me^-rick sunk it. It differs in the point of origin of the 1^' subcostal vein of the forewing 
as well as in facies. 

M. tnurinata Sc. {■= sordiata L. = fuscata Hufn. = euphorbiata Schiff. =^ unicolorata Hbn) (6 c). Very murinata. 
variable in colour, in almost all the forms entirely without markings, but easily recognized by its shape and 
by the structural characters; in size it varies comparatively little. The typical form (at least in the cf ) is, as 
the name implies, mouse-coloured or inclining to fuscous; the ?, however, is almost always more yellowish- 
tinged than in the corresponding cf form. — ab. italicata Mill, is a rare aberration, of typical ? coloration, Ualicata. 
in which 2 or 3 faintly darker lines are visible in the distal half of the forewing or of both wings, faintly 
crenulate and parallel wilh the distal margin, slightly recalling certain Euchoeca ohliterata. Described from a 
single ? from Italy, but the only specimen before me is a cf from the Zeller collection, probably from Silesia. — 
amylaria Lah. (= cinerearia Stgr.) is a whitish-ashy form which occurs chiefly in mountain localities and may amylaria. 
be regarded as the prevailing race in some parts of the Alps. My own must extreme examples are from Fusio. 
Staudinger also records it from Saxony and the mountains of Central Italy. — cyparissaria Mann (6 c) is the cyparis- 
antithesis of the preceding, the colour being deep leaden grey, almost black. It occurs in several localities in '***' 
the Soulh of Europe and about Sarep la, sometimes as an aberration, sometimes as a local race; and the only 
two specimens which I have seen from Japan belong to this form. — monochroaria H.-Sch. is a bright ochreous monochro- 
form (sometimes, indeed, as brightly coloured as Cleogene lutearia, and feuds to replace the type in parts of *""• 
Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Central Asia and E. Siberia,. Perhaps chiefly a summer form. — The larva is 
short and thick, rugose dorsally, the head small; probably variable in colour and markings, as the accounts 
differ; according to Buckler red-brown dorsally, with oblique black bars running from a fine white mediodorsal 
line to a black spiracular one, beneath which runs a broad reddish-yellow stripe. Feeds exclusively on species 
of Euphorbia. The pupa is shoi't and thick, brown in colour, enclosed in a cocoon on the surface of the 
ground and hibernating. The moth appears in Viay and June and again — especially in southern localities — 
about August. It flies in the siuishine in wood-clearings often at a good height above the ground. 

11. Genus: Aiiiygdaloptera Gmphg. 

Face prominent, somewhat ronghened. Palpus moderate, rongh-scaled. Antenna in cf unipectinate. 
Leg-structure normal. Forewing amygdaloid; areole double. Hindwing with distal margin entire; costal vein 
not anastomosing with the cell, but connected by a bar near its apex; discocellulars oblique, not biangulate; 
inner-marginal area in the cf modified so as to form a small pocket on the under surface near the base. 

The sole .species is confined to North Africa. It differs from all other Palearctic Larentiids in the 
umiseriate pectinations of the & antenna, an extremely rare occurrence in this subfamily, though found also 
in a few American genera (Monotaxis, Nomenia, Cophocerotis). The structure of the hindwing associates Amyg- 
daloptera unmistakably with the Chesias group. 



testaria. A. testaria F. {== duponchellaria Luc.) (6 a). Forewing almost miiforiii testaceous brown, hindwing 

uniform fulvous. The sexes differ somewhat in size and shape, but I know of no other material variation in 
the species. It is apparently by no means rare in Algeria. 

12. Genus: Ntaiuiiocles Guen. 

Face smooth or nearly smooth, roimded, sometimes a little prominent. Palpes short or quite moderate, 
shortly scaled, cf antenna simple, flattened. Leg-structure normal. Forewing usually rather narrow, distal 
margin smooth; areole double. Hindwing rather elongate, distal margin smooth, rounded, inner- marginal area 
somewhat narrowed, with the submedian (vein 1 b) close to the margin, which is usually slightly folded, but 
not developing a distinct pocket; discocellulars biangulate. 

A not very extensive genus, inhabiting Palearctic Asia and America. Although presenting few salient 
characters it is generally easy to recognize by its facies. which is different from tliat of most Larentiids. The 
wings are of rather delicate texture, usually of a yellow colour and with more or less complete dark distal 
bordering which widens at the apex of the forewing. The other markings consist of dark spots or blotches, 
especially at the costal margin of the forewing. 

pauperaria. S. pauperaria Ev. (= passerinaria H.-Sch.) (6 a), the type of the genus, is of a light fulvous ochreous, 

paler towards the margins, especially the costal margin of the forewing. The markings are formed of massed 
fuscous atoms, which do not entirely obliterate the yellow of the ground-colour; the marginal band is complete, 
though very narrow, the apical patch moderately extended; costal margin with 3 further (rather vague) blotches, 
the first 2 only reaching the subcostal vein, the 3'''' narrowly and indefinitely extended as far as the 3'''' radial 
or P* median. Underside of forewing similar to upper, the fuscous dusting more extended in the basal area; 
hindwing beneath whitish, densely spotted and strigulated with fuscous throughout, with the exception of a 
divitiaria. curved central fascia. Widely distributed in Central Asia. — divitiaria Stgr. is a form with the anteapical 
patch (half-band) on the forewing and the entire under surface of the hindwing deeper fuscous. It is the 
principal, though not the only form in the Ala Tau and is also recorded from the Karategin district, Buchara. 

pamphilata. S. pamphilata Feld., from Koksar, Kulu, Dharmsala, etc., represents pauperaria in the N. W. Himalayas 

and might possibly be regarded as a form of it. The fuscous markings are darker, not or scarcely sprinkled 
with a dusting of the ground-colour, the third costal blotch of the forewing is much better defined and of 
more uniform width, only narrowing quite slightly posteriorly, and the base of the forewing to nearly one-half 
and of the hindwing to beyond one-half is suffused with fuscous. The under surface shows similar distinctions. 

danilovi. S. danilovi Ersch. ( = davidaria Oh) (6 a, b) is a very distinct species, with rather broader wings, 

of a brighter colour, the fuscous markings broken up into series of sharply-defined spots, the hindwing 
(especially beneath) copiously dark-spotted, the abdomen also dark-spotted. Distributed in Southern Siberia 
and Northern China. 

depeculata. S. depeculata Led. I do not know the name-type of this species, which occurs only in Transcaucasia. 

It is described as having the forewing dark grey with a narrow white band at about three-fourth, strongly 
excurved in the middle, and with two other bands more or less indicated, one from the costa at one-fourth, 
the other at one-half, sometimes joining in the middle of the wing (becoming obsolete in the figured specimen); 
fringe chequered. Hindwing white, finely dusted with grey, especially towards the distal margin; beneath very 
coarsely scaled with dark grey and dirty white ground (the figure shows a narrow white median band). — 

narxanica. narzanica Alph. (= tibetaria Oh.) (6 b) differs in having the ground-colour white, the dark parts of the forewing 
being restricted to some weak basal shading, two costal marks in the proximal half, an incomplete fascia 
running from the costa beyond the middle and a marginal band which widens at the apex, occasionally in 
part confluent with the submarginal ; hindwing also white excepting a narrow distal border, which is sometimes 
reduced to a mere marginal line. Said to occur as an aberration in Transcaucasia, but also inhabits the 
Northern Caucasus, the Koko-Nor district and W. China. 

13. Genus: Polytlirena Gutn. 

Face smooth, slightly rounded. Palpus rather short, somewhat rough-sealed. Antenna in cf nearly 
simple, minutely ciliated. Leg-structure normal. Wings rather narrow with the apices rounded and the 
distal margin smooth. Forewing with areole simple; cT with a pencil of long black hairs beneath, arising 
near the base of the posterior margin. Hindwing with the costal vein anastomosing with the cell, but more 
shortly than in most of the Larentiids:- discocellulars biangulate. 

A very natural genus, consisting of three closely allied speies which inhabit Siberia and Western China. 

I'uhl.n.n.Whl. TlilCHOBAPTRIA; TRTCHODEZIA. By L. B. Prout. 169 

P. coloraria If.-Sch. (= inelaiiicterata Led) (11 b). Brighl golden-yellow, wilh irregular, broad, aiio-ulaled coloraHa. 
black markings, which vary somewhat in extent, but of which the general form may be seen from our ligure. 
Median band on bolh wings not interrupted; apical band extending as far as the first median vein, though 
becoming very narrow; blotches at hinder angle rather large. Apparently a rare species, only known from 
the Altai and Eastern Siberia, flying by day at high altitudes. 

P. miegata Poii,j. (lib) differs from coloraria in having the median band more distally placed, inter- miegata. 
rupted in the middle, the marginal band broken into three parts instead of two, the apical part not reaching 
beyond the 3''^ radial, a second patch commencing between this vein and the 1 ^' median and extending to 
the 2°'' median, and a (usually rather small) third patch occupping the hinder angle of the wing. W. China 
(Mou-pin and Pu-tsu-fong) at elevations of over 3000 m, June and .July. 

P. angularia Leech (lib) resembles miegata (of which Poujade considered it a variety) in the inter- angularia. 
rupted median band, but differs essentially in the distal markings, which consist of a broader and more 
extended apical band and a much larger tornal blotch, sometimes (as in Leech's type cf, which we figure) 
narrowly connected along the distal margin. The markings in the basal part of the forewing and the inner- 
marginal part of the hindwing are also very different and the fringes are more chequered. Finally, the cT 
has a narrower hindwing, its distal margin being slightly concave from the anal angle to the middle. W. China, 
together with miegata and at Ta-chien-lu and Omei-shan. 

14. Genus: Tricli©l)ai)ti*ia 

gen. nov. 

Agrees with Pohjthrena in almost all characters, but the areole of the forewing is double. Super- 
ficially it also differs in the scheme of coloration, which agrees with that of the succeeding genera. The ? 
differs little from that of Baptria except in the narrower wings and the shorter anastomosis of the costal vein 
of the hindwing; the cf is further distinguished by the presence of the long black hair-pencil on the forewing 
beneath. The type of the genus and the only known species is exseciita, from Japan. 

T, exsecuta Feld. (6 c as kindermanni). Forewing black, with a very fine white antemedian line from exsecuta. 
the costa to the middle of the wing and a narrow oblique white band from just beyond the middle of the 
costa to the 1 ^' median vein or somewhat beyond ; often also there is a fine line, usually more or less 
interrupted, running fi'om the posterior part of this band to the hindmargin, parallel with the distal margin. 
Hindwing with a single white line or narrow band, continuing the last-mentioned line of the forewing; costal 
area in the cf white or whitish. Both wings with the fringe white at the apex and between the P' media,n 
vein and the submedian fold (variably in exact extent), otherwise black. Very variable in the width of the 
white bands ; the fine antemedian line of the forewing and even the median line of the hindwing are sometimes 
entirely obsolete, or represented only by one or two white spots. — ab latifasciaria Leech is on an nvevage latifasciaria. 
smaller, but is chiefly distinguished by having on both wings a broad white postmedian (median) band, that 
of the forewing rather longer than in the type-form (sometimes almost reaching the distal margin), that of 
the hindwing usually with an angular projection in its distal edge. — ab. obscurior Th-Mieg only differs from obscurior. 
the type in the absence of the white band on the forewing above. Described from Japan. — exsecuta is 
apparently common in Japan (as at Ohoyama, Nikko, Yezo, etc.) and is active on the wing by day, July- 
August. Leech also records having taken it at Gensan, but I have seen no Korean examples. 

15. Genus: Tl'icIlOClezia Warr. 

Closely related to the two preceding genera, agreeing with Polythrena in the neuration of the forewing, 
with Trichobaptria in coloration. From both it differs in the neuration of the hindwing; the discocellulars 
are simply oblique, not biangulate, and the costal vein anastomoses with the subcostal nearly to the end of 
the cell, which is very short. The hair-pencil on the hindwing beneath is not so long as in those genera; 
indeed in the North American albovittata Guen., which Warren selected as the type of the genus, it is 
comparatively ill-developed. 

The genus contains only a few Asiatic and North American species. 

IV 22 


BAPTRIA. By L. B, Prout. 

haberhaueri. T, haberhaueri Led. (7 f) is perhaps only a western form of the following species. Typical haberJiaueri 

differs markedly fi'om typical lindermamii in having the white markings more extended, especially on the 
hindwing; this wing in haberhaueri shows on the upper surface a small, white patch placed just outside the 
discal spot and a moderately broad, irregularly shaped postmedian band which becomes very narrow towards 
the inner margin ; and on the under surface an extended white basal area separated only from the postmedian 
band by a narrow dark stripe. Both species, however, show forms which are much more difficult to differentiate, 
though the postmedian band of the forewing in haberhaueri, besides two fine white lines nearer the base, seems 
to be more strongly bent outwards in the middle, oftener interrupted and altogether more irregular in its 
course; proximal margin of the postmedian band on both wings more dentate. From Trichobaptria exsecuta, 
apart from the structural characters, haberhaueri differs in the absence of the white costal margin of the cf 
hindwing and in its regularly black-and-white-chequered fringes, especially of the hindwing. Described from 
the mountains of Abbastuman, in the Imeritia district of Transcaucasia. The specimens before me are from 
ledereri. Achalzich fAkhaltsikh). — ledereri SUjr., from Borjom, is a much darker race with the white markings more 
slender, in part obsolete. I have not seen it, but it must be very similar to typical kindermanni. 

kinder- j kindermanni Brem. (7 b). Black, generally deeper and less brownish-tinged than in haberhaueri. 

Forewing with one or two fine white, slightly bent lines in the proximal half (which, however, are sometimes 
partly or entirely obsolete) and an oblique white band from the costa beyond the middle, varying in width 
and sometimes continued by a fine, slightly curved line to the posterior margin; often also one or two 
submarginal white dots in the posterior half of the wing. Hindwing usually with a slender white band or 
line from the inner margin, which rarely reaches as far as the costal margin, but sometimes widens in the 
leechi. middle of the wdng. Fringes as in haberhaueri. — ab. leechi Stc/r. (7 b) has the oblique white band of the 
forewing narrowed, not continued to the posterior margin, that of the hindwing reduced to a more thread, 
often interrupted or even entirely wanting; the proximal white lines and the submarginal white dots of the 
toi/asciaria. forewing usually altogether obsolete, the fringes more blackened. Only recorded from Japan. — ab. latifasciaria 
ab. tiov. shows the opposite extreme, the white markings being considerably extended Postmedian band of 
forewing as broad as in typical Baptria tibiale, both the antemedian lines distinct, submarginal dots somewhat 
enlarged : hindwing also with a broad white postmedian band, its proximal edge nearly straight, its distal 
very strongly projecting in the middle, where it becomes even wider than the corresponding band of exsecuta 
ab. latifasciaria. Hakodate, 3 examples in the Leech collection; a Yezo specimen mentioned by Leech, and 
perhaps still more extreme, is not traceable. A single example from Ta-chien-lu, W. China, with the hind- 
wing white from the postmedian band almost to the base (except a large black discal spot) perhaps represents 
a local race. — kindermanni inhabits Eastern Siberia and Japan and is on the wing in June and July. 

16. Genus: Baptria Hbn. 

Face appressed scaled. Palpus short. Antenna in cf slightly thickened, minutely ciliated. Leg- 
structure normal. Wings moderately broad, apices rounded, distal margin smooth. Forewing with areole 
double, no hair-pencil beneath. Hindwing with costal anastomosing with subcostal nearly to the end of the 
cell, discocellulars moderately (sometimes only weakly) biangulate, 2""^ radial arising scarcely below their middle. 

Only a single species is known, which is very local in Europe and Palearctic Asia. It does not 
differ very markedly in structure from the later Larentiid genera, but has evidently the closest affinity with 
Trichobaptria. The older systematists confused it, on account of its black colouring, with Odezia and Stau- 
DiNGER has allowed this error to remain uncorrected, although the two do not even belong to the same 
subfamily. Meyrtck refers tibiale to Eustroma, which is characterized by the presence of the hair-pencil on 
the forewing; it appears therefore that he must have had exsecuta before him and not the true tibiale. 

B. tibiale is on an average larger than the hitherto described black-and-white species and is nearly 

always further distinguishable at a glance by the uniformly white fringes. Three principal races are recorded, 

but there is so much individual variation in some localities that I am not sure whether they should not rather 

tibiale. j^g reduced to the rank of aberrations. — tibiale Esp. (= dimidiata Hbn., nee Hufn. = aethiopata Heinem., 

nee Scop) (6 c) has a moderately broad white band on the forewing but no band on the upperside of the 

hindwing. It occurs very locally in Central Europe (Piedmont to Galicia) and more commonly in Eastern 

aternma. Siberia, Korea and Japan. — ab. aterrima Btlr., from Japan, has the band considerably narrowed, though 

still retaining the leg-and-foot shape of that of the type. It forms a transition to the following race. — 

moeroraria. moeroraria Frr. (6c) has the band further reduced into a narrow streak, running to a point at the posterior 


end. It was discovered in damp places in the forests of the Ural and has since been recorded from the 
Altai and the Issyk-Kul district. — eversmannaria H.-Sch. has the band of the forewing widened and shows evers- 
also a narrow, or even rather wide, white band on the iipperside of the hindwing, whereas in typical tihiale mannaria. 
this latter is confined to the underside, and always quite narrow. Chiefly characteristic of more northerly 
localities, but also occurring in the South as an aberration; Scandinavia (very scarce and local), Sajan, 
Amurland (chiefly in the north), Japan etc. — ab. decisata Walk, is a slight modification of everfsmannaria, decisata. 
the band of the forewing remaining rather narrow while that of the hindwing is also present. The locality 
for Walker's type was unknown, but similar examples occur occasionally in Japan. — The egg is light green, 
somewhat oval, flattened. The larva is somewhat narrowed anteriorly, somewhat flattened, with prominent 
lateral folds; green with yellow incisions and broad brown-red dorsal line, in part interrupted, in part widened 
into roundish or heart-shaped markings. It feeds on Actaea spicata in August, in damp places in woods. 
The pupa is compact, brown, abdomen more yellowish, cremaster with two strongly divergent points; in an 
earthen cocoon. The moth appears in June and July; it is very shy and flies high. 

17. Genus: Scliistostege Hbn. 


Face rather prominent. Palpus moderate, rough-scaled. Antenna in cf ciliated. Foretibia without 
apical hook. Hindtibia with all spurs present. Forewing with areole double. Hindwing with costal margin 
very long, the wing being produced to a point at the end of the S""* subcostal vein; costal merely appressed 
closely to subcostal, not anastomosing, but connected with it by a bar near the end of the cell; cf with 
submedian vein wanting, the basal part of the inner-marginal area being folded so as to form a small pocket 
beneath, much as in the following genera though less highly developed. 

Only two species are known, both Palearctic. Easily distinguished 'from the following genera by the 
shape of the hindwing. 

S. decussata Schiff. (6d). White, more or less dusted with fuscous, all the veins fuscous; both wings decussata. 
near the distal margin with a clearer white narrow band, bordered on each side with fuscous, strongly 
outbent between the 2"'' radial and 2"'^ median; fringes chequered white and fuscous. Forewing beneath 
more infuscated than above. Local in Southeast Europe, said to fly by day in damp meadows. — ab. 
fortificata Tr. is a frequent form in Hungary and has entirely supplanted the type in the neighbourhood of fortificata 
Buda-Pesth. It is more or less uniformly suifused with lighter brownish. The white part of the fringes, 
however, and often the subterminal band also, remains free from the suffusion. — ab. infumata Th.-Mieg is infumata. 
the extreme development of the fortificata form, the wings being darker smoky and absolutely unicolorous. — 
The early stages have recently been described by Spitz, who found the larvae in May on a Euphorbia. Larva 
grass-green, tapering anteriorly, skin transversely folded, a strong lateral ridge, tubercles brownish, ringed 
with light yellow, setae fine; lateral stripe yellow;- venter with 3 fine, mostly light yellow stripes; head round, 
smaller than prothorax, face slightly flattened. Pupa rather glossy brown, wings somewhat lighter; leg- and 
tongue-case projecting; cremaster with 2 points. The moth appears after about 3 weeks. 

S. nubilaria Hb. (6 d). Paler than the preceding, the upper surface without the darkened veins and niiUlaria. 
borders to the subterminal band, the band itself less strongly outbent in the middle; fringes less strongly 
chequered. The ? is smaller and narrower-winged than the cf. — exalbata Hb. (6 d) is still paler, the upper exalhata. 
surface being of an almost unicolorous dirty white, the subterminal band (at least on the forewing) faintly 
indicated in purer white. Forms a local race about Sarepta, but occurs with the type in some other localities. — knupfferi. 
kniipfferi Huene from Krasnoufimsk, E. Bussia, is said to be darker, more reddish grey than the type and with 
the fringes more strongly chequered. — nubilaria inhabits Boumania, S. E. Russia and the mountains of Central 
Asia as far as Mongolia. Flies on the steppes in June. 

18. Genus: I^ithoistege Hbn. 

Face with obtuse prominence. Palpus moderate, rough-scaled. Antenna in cf somewhat thickened 
minutely ciliated. Forefemur much thickened; foretibia extraordinarily short, ending in a broad, horny plate, 
from which project a long, strong inner claw, a very short outer one and usually a point in the middle. 
Hindtibia with all spurs. Abdomen obtuse at extremity. Forewing with areole double. Hindwing narrow, 
its apex rounded, much less produced than in ScMstostecje ; costal vein occasionally as in Schistostege, but 
more commonly anastomosing either at a point near the end of ceil or more strongly, 3'''^ radial and P' median 


LITHOSTEGE. By L. B. Prout. 

usually arising well separate, occasionally {excelsata and staudingeri) stalked; cf with submedian wanting, 
2"'' median running to the middle of inner margin, a membranous pocket on underside of inner margin near 
base. The ? is in general smaller and narrower-winged than the cT. 

The earlier stages are only known in the case of two of the species and are described below in 
connection with them. The genus is not a very extensive one, but is widely distributed. Most of the species 
at present known inhabit Southern and Central Europe to Central Asia, but a few are found in South Africa 
and South America. The genera Ana'itis and Chesias are perhaps scarcely more than sections of the same genus. 

farinata. L. farinata Hufn. (= ? illibata Schiff. = nivearia Hhn) (6 d). White, entirely without markings, the 

forewing with a very slight tinge of brownish or bluish grey. Forewing beneath with slightly stronger suffusion 
in basal part. Somewhat variable in the tone of colour, which may be somewhat more brownish, but none 
of the forms deserve naming. The early stages were first made known in 1906 by Busse, who bred it from 
the egg. Egg elongate oval, with small pitting; colour whitish yellow. Larva dull green with 3 fine brown 
dorsal lines and 2 strong, undulate lateral lines; anal flap brown. Pupa brown, dorsally deeply punctured, 
cremaster with 2 diverging points. The larva accepted Sisymbrium officinale in captivity, but BiJRGER has 
since found it in a state of nature on Berteroa incana, eating the flowers. It is fall grown about the end of 
July. The moth appears in May and June and is very local in Central and Southern Europe, Tunis, Palestine, 
Asia Minor and Central Asia. 

cycnaria. L, cycnaria Guen. is unknown to me and is not quoted by Staudinger in his Catalogue; perhaps the 

type, which should be in the Paris Museum, is lost. Guenee's description runs: "It is very near niveata [farinata] 
of which it has the size and aspect. The wings are of the same white. The forewing has three lines formed 
of some blackish atoms: the first angled in the middle of the cell; the second somewhat arcuate, wavy or 
denticulate; the third straight, still more oblique, running from the apex to the inner angle. The hindwing 
is white, unspotted. The tibiae are as in niveata, but the femora are a little less thickened. I do not know 
the locahty." 

flavicornata. L, flavicornata Zell. (6 e). Almost unicolorous yellow-grey above and beneath, the hindwing very 

slightly paler than the forewing, the forewing beneath as a rule slightly infuscated except towards the margins. 
Very similar to the least white examples of farinata, but with narrower wings, the forewing more pointed, 
its distal margin less curved, very strongly oblique. The antennal shaft is also yellow-grey, in the palest 
examples yellowish white. Occurs in Asia Minor, Ferghana and the Hi district and perhaps in Ti-anscaspia. — 
odessaria. odessaria Bsd. is a darker variety or aberration from S. Russia (Odessa?) with all the wings ochreous grey. — 

suhfuscata. subfuscata Stgr., from Armenia, is a smaller race, also darkened, the forewing being fuscous grey but the 
hindwing paler. 

griseata. L. griseata Schiff. (= ? incanata Hufn. nee L. = asinata F. = infuscata Ev. = nivearia Staint. nee Hbn.) 

(6 d). Variable in colour, usually pale grey, beaming (with rare exceptions) an oblique darker mark from the 
apex of the forewing, though this also varies much in distinctness in different individuals; occasionally it is 
continued nearly across the wing with moderate distinctness, but usually it becomes faint or altogether obsolete 

duplicaria. beyond the first radial. Under surface without the dark mark. — ab. duplicaria Hbn. has the forewing more 

strongly marked, the distal line being distinct right across the wing and forked at costa, while a second dark 

abafii. line is present in the middle of the wing. — ab. abafii Uhryk is a rare melanotic form, the forewing blackish 

obscuraia. with whitish central spot and whitish subterminal line. — ab. obscurata Stgr. (= odessaria H.-Sck, nee Bsd.) 
is of a unicolorous dark grey, much darker than the type form. It is recorded from Southern Russia, Trans- 
caucasia, etc. — Larva rather slender, flattened beneath, of uniform thickness throughout; head large and 
rounded, ohve-green; ground-colour variable, olive-green, more yellowish green or greenish white, the spiracular 
region always pale (in the darker forms yellowish), marked with purplish dashes. Feeds on the seed-pods ot 
Sisymbrium sophia and Erysimum cheiranthoides in July and August. Pupa sculptured and punctured, dull 
pale brown, wings dull green, distinctly veined, cremaster with two points. One winter, or sometimes two 
or even three are passed in this stage. The moth appears in June, frequenting cornfields or rough fields. 
Local in Central and Southern Europe and from Asia Minor to Ferghana. 

fissurata. ^' ^iissurata Mab. (lib) is of about the colour of farinata, dirty white to very pale yellowish grey, 

with the fringes and sometimes the hindwing purer white, but is very distinct in its much narrower wings, 
fine dark terminal line and dark, oblique, slightly curved line from the apex of the forewing about to the 
2°'' radial. Only known from Algeria and Tunis, first discovered at Gabes. Flies in March. 

bifissana. L. bifissana Ebl., recently described from the Jordan Valley, resembles fissurata but is darker ash-grey 

and has the oblique subapical streak forked on entering the cell. Foretibial claw short, but distinct. Wing- 
expanse about 29 mm. 

LITHOSTEGE. By L. b. Pruut. 


L. coassata Bhn. (= duplicata Hhn. tig. 491 in err. = coassaria Bsd. ^= stepparia Bsd. = multiplieata coassata. 
Stgr.) (6 e, as duplicata) is easily distinguished from all the preceding species of Lithontege by the larger amount 
of markings on the forewing above. In addition to a dark oblique line from the apex to the posterior margin, 
placed nearly as in griseata, Uvo further lines are present, the first antemedian, bent in the cell, the second 
just beyond the middle, somewhat sinuous; a lunulate-dentate white subterminal line and a straighter, less 
distinct white proximal line accompany the outer oblique line. — ab. asinata Fri\ is a more weakly marked asinata. 
form, usually of smaller size. The dark lines are more or less obsolescent, but the white subterminal remains 
distinct. — ochraceata Stgr., from Amurland, is smaller than the type and strongly shaded with pale oclireous. — ochraceata. 
The type form ranges from S. Russia to the Hi district, but is local. Of its early stages we have no information. 

L. pallescens Stgr. is unknown to me. It is said to be nearest duplicata ochraceata, like that narrow- pallescens. 
winged, but rather smaller, much lighter, dirty white with the costal margin and the veins slightly darkened. 
Forewing with only an extremely weak, narrow, dull brownish submarginal band from the apex, weakest in 
its posterior half. Hindwing unmarked. Under surface clearer white, the band wanting. Taken on sandy 
ground, Tumartin-Gol, Uliassutai district. 

L. castiliaria Stgr. (^ duroata Th.-Mieg) (6e). Quite distinct from all the other species. Forewing castiltaria. 
brown with a curved pale yellowish submarginal band. Hindwing whitish grey. Under surface much paler, 
quite weakly marked. Only known from Castile. 

L witzenmanni Stndf. (\2a). Forewing whitish, shaded with brown, especially in the distal area; a small luitxen- 
but distinct black discal dot and numerous dark transverse lines; proximally to the discal dot these run very »««'"«'• 
obliquely from both margins and are very acutely angled in the cell; distally to the dot a group of 3 contiguous 
grey lines and then a group of 3 brown ones run nearly parallel with the distal margin ; a white subterminal 
line, not crenulate, interrupted anteriorly by an oblique dark line from apex; a further dark line exactly 
parallel with the distal margin and a fine dark terminal are separated by a second (narrow) white line; fringe 
white or whitish, with a fine dark intersecting line and some dark marks at tips. Hindwing dirty brovraish 
white, browner in distal part, with very faint indications of darker lines Forewing beneath somewhat infuscated 
the markings in part showing through from above. Described from some cfcf' from Mardin, Mesopotamia. 
The only specimen before me, a ? from Urumiah, N. W. Persia, is rather larger and whiter, possibly 
representing a local race. 

L. bosporaria H.-Sch. (12 a) is only known to me from the figure, which, however, is according to Standfuss bosporaria. 
very correct. It differs from ivitzemnanni in having the brown markings developed into definite bands; a basal 
patch and first band acutely angled in the cell; middle band parallel with distal margin, but sending out a 
branch proximad at costal margin, thus irregularly Y-shaped; third and fourth bands parallel with distal margin, 
the fourth close to it, not quite reaching the apex (which remains white), crenulate on its proximal edge. 
Hindwing pale brownish grey with two white bands, 'the distal one narrower than the median. A rather 
small (circ. 28 mm) species, somewhat recalling the South African Conchglia, the ground-colour of the forewing 
being snow-white. Herrich-Schaffer gave the locality as "the neighbourhood of Constantinople", but Guenee 
received it from "South Russia" and according to Staudinger it only occurs in Russian Transcaucasia. 

L, usgentaria Chr. (lib) has never been described, but is founded on a recognizable figure in Romanoff's usgentaria. 
"Memoires". The type form, from Transcaspia, measures about 28 mm. Wings rather narrow; forewing very 
pale grey, proximahy with a more brownish tone, distally more bluish; an obUque, slightly curved brown line 
runs from the posterior margin near the base about as far as to the middle of the cell; a narrow brown 
band parallel to and rather near the distal margin, edged with white proximally; a whitish subterminal line. 
Hindwing whitish brown-grey, with one or two whiter lines or bands. The only specimen before me is rather 
larger and more strongly marked than Christoph's figure, a distinct, though minute black discal dot is present 
on each wing and the inner line of forewing is acutely angled in the cell and continued (though exceedingly 
fine) to the costal margin, much as in witzenmanni. — ignorata Stgr. is nearly twice as large as the type, ignorata. 
much darker, the forewing more distinctly and darkly marked, the hindwing fuscous grey. Ferghana. 

L amoenata CAr. (12 a). 85 mm. Forewing bluish white-g