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This opulent and expansive volume, published in 
conjunction with the Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art's monumental exhibition Made in California: Art, 
Image, and Identity, 1900-2000, charts the dynamic 
relationship between the arts and popular conceptions 
of California in the twentieth century. Displaying a 
dazzling array of fine art and ephemera, Made in 
California challenges us to reexamine the ways in which 
the state has been envisioned and portrayed. Unusually 
inclusive, visually intriguing, and beautifully produced. 
Made in California will appeal to anyone who has lived 
in, visited, or imagined California. 

Drawn from the exhibition, which encompasses 
more than 1,200 examples of art and ephemera from 
many public and private collections, Made in California 
is an image-driven look at the past century featuring 
more than 400 reproductions of works in a range of 
media, from painting, sculpture, prints, drawings, and 
photographs to furniture, fashion, and film. The book 
also includes images of more than 150 cultural artifacts 
such as tourist brochures, posters, labor pamphlets, and 
periodicals that convey the richness and complexity of 
twentieth-century California. Arranged provocatively 
by theme, these works of art and ephemera take us on a 
visual tour of a state promoted, among myriad other 
ways, as a bountiful paradise by boosters early in the 
century, as a glamour capital by Hollywood in the 1920s 
and 1930s, as a suburban Utopia in the late 1940s and 
1950s, as a haven for counterculture in the 1960s and 
1970s, and as a new multicultural frontier in the 1980s 
and 1990s. 

The book's exploration of how these themes were 
reflected and contested in California's visual culture 
deepens our understanding of the state's artistic tradi- 
tions as well as its fascinating history. As co-curator 
Stephanie Barron notes in her introduction: "From vast, 
sweeping poppy fields to crowded suburban beaches, 
from Hollywood to Yosemite Valley, from beatnik San 
Francisco to a disaster-prone Los Angeles, the twentieth- 
century imagination was infused with popular iconog- 
raphy derived from California. Yet there was never a 
single, prevailing image of the state. There are and have 
been, in fact, many Californias, multiple perceptions 
of the region shaped not only by predictable forces such 
as the tourist or real estate industries but also by artists 
who at times reinforced prevailing views and at others 
complicated, subverted, or refuted them." 

continued on back flap 

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Stephanie Barron 

with essays by 

Sheri Bernstein 
Ilene Susan Fort 

Stephanie Barron 
Sheri Bernstein 
Michael Dear 

Howard N. Fox 

Richard Rodriguez 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

University of California Press Berkeley • los angeles • london 

This book was published in conjunction with 
the exhibition Made in California: Art, Image, 
and Identity, 1900-2000, organized by the 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The exhibi- 
tion was made possible by a major grant from 
the S. Mark Toper Foundation, founded in 
1989, Q private family foundation dedicated 
to enhancing the quality of people's lives. 
Additional support was provided by the Donald 
Bren Foundation, the Notional Endowment for 
the Arts, Bonk of America, Helen and Peter Bing, 
Peter Norton Family Foundation, See's Candies, 
the Brotman Foundation of California, and 
Formers Insurance. Primary in-kind support 
for the exhibition was provided by FromeStore. 
Additional in-kind support was provided by 
KLON 88.1 FM, Gardner Lithograph, and 
Appleton Coated LLC. 

Exhibition Schedule 

Section 1: 

October 22, 2000-March 18, 2001 

Sections 2, 3, and 4: 

October 22, 2000-February 25, 2001 

Section 5: 

November 12, 2000-February 25, 2001 

Copublished by the Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, 5905 Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, 
California, 90036, and University of California 
Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London. 

® 2000 by Museum Associates, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art and the Regents of the 
University of California. All rights reserved. 
No part of the contents of this book may be 
reproduced without the written permission of 
the publisher. 

Library of Congress 
Cotaloging-m-Publicotion Data: 

Barron, Stephanie, 1950- 

Made in California : art, image, and identity, 
1900-2000 / Stephanie Barron, Sheri Bernstein, 
llene Susan Fort ; with essays by Stephanie 
Barron ... [etol.]. 
p. cm. 

Published in conjunction with on exhibition 
held at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 
Los Angeles, Calif., Oct. 22, 2000-Feb. 25, 2001. 

Includes bilbiogrophicol references and index. 

ISBN 0-520-22764-6 (cloth : alk. paper) - 
ISBN 0-520-22765-4 (pbk. : alk paper) 

1. Arts, American— California— Exhibitions. 
2. Arts, Modern— 20th century— California- 
Exhibitions. 3. California— In art— Exhibitions, 
I. Bernstein, Sheri, 1966- II. Fort, llene Susan. 
III. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. IV. Title. 

NX510.C2B37 2000 

Director of Publications: Garrett White 

Editors: Nolo Butler and Thomas Frick 

Designer: Scott Taylor 

Production coordinators: Rachel Ware Zooi 

and Chris Coniglio 

Supervising photographer: Peter Brenner 

Rights and Reproductions coordinator: 

Cheryle T. Robertson 

Printed by Gardner Lithograph, Bueno Park, 
California, on Appleton Utopia Two Matte Text 

Most photographs are reproduced courtesy 
of the creators and lenders of the material 
depicted. For certain artwork and documentary 
photographs we hove been unable to trace 
copyright holders. We would appreciate notifi- 
cation of additional credits for acknowledg- 
ment in future editions. 

The typefaces used in this catalogue. Minion 
(Adobe), Tarzono and Emperor (Emigre), and 
Chicago (Apple), were designed in California. 
The title font, based on the letterforms on a 
1940 California license plate, was created for 
the exhibition. 

Front cover 


Granville Redmond, California Poppy Field 

(detail), n.d., oil on canvas 

Circular details, from left to right, top to bottom: 

Julius Shulman, Cose Study House "22. 1958, 
gelatm-silver print 

nes Weeks, Two Musicians, 

I on canvas 

Jose Moya del Pino, Chinese Mother and Child, 
1933, oil on canvas 

John Divolo, Zuma No. 21, 1977, from the port- 
folio Zuma One, 1978, dye-imbibition print 

Roger Minick, VJoman with Scarf at Inspiration 
Point, yosemite National Park, 1980, 
dye-coupler print 

Carlos Almaraz, Suburban Nightmare, 1983, 
oil on canvas 

Will Connell, Make-Up, from the publication 
In Pictures, c. 1937, gelotin-silver print 

Chris Burden, Trans-Fixed, 1974, photo 
documentation of performance 

California for the Settler, brochure produced 
by the Southern Pacific Railroad, 1911 

Maurice Braun, Moonrise over San Diego Bay, 
1915, oil on canvas 


Maurice Broun, Moonrise over San Diego Bay, 

1915, oil on canvas 

Circular details, from left to right, top to bottom: 

David Hockney, The Splash, 1966, acrylic on 

Willie Robert Middlebrook, In His "Own" Image, 
from the series Portraits of My People, 1992, 
sixteen gelatm-silver prints 

Elmer Bischoff, Two Figures at the Seashore, 
1957, oil on canvas 

Catherine Opie, Self-Portrait, 1993, 
chromogenic development (Ektocolor) print 

Alfredo Ramos Martinez, Woman with Fruit, 
1933, charcoal and tempera on newsprint 

Official program for the Son Francisco— Oakland 
Bay Bridge celebration, 1936 

Ruben Ortiz-Torres, California Taco, Santa 
Barbara, California, 1995, silver dye-bleach 
(Cibachrome) print 

Dorothea Lange, Pledge of Allegiance, at 
Raphael Elementary School, a Few Weeks before 
Svacuation/One Nation Indivisible, April 20, 
1942, 1942, gelotin-silver print 

Millard Sheets, Angel's Flight, 1931, oil on 

Lorry Sliver, Contestants, Muscle Beach, 
California, 1954, gelatm-silver print 

California: America's Vacation Land, poster 
produced by New York Central Lines, with 
illustration by Jon 0. Brubcker, c. 1930 

Pages 2-18 

p. 2: California: America's Vacation Land 
(detail), poster produced by New /ork Central 
Lines, with illustration by Jon 0. Bruboker, 

p. 3: Joel Sternfeld, After a Flash Flood, Rancho 
Mirage, California (detail), 1979, chromogenic 

pp. 4-5, top: Dana and Towers Photography 
Studio, '121. Looking East on Market Street 
(detail), 1906, gelatm-silver print 

pp. 4-5, bottom: Dennis Hopper, Double 
Standard (detail), 1961, printed later, gelatm- 
silver print 

p. 6: Maurice Braun, Moonrise over San Diego 
Bay (detail), 1915, oil on canvas 

p. 7: John Divola, Zuma No. 21 (detail), 1977, 
from the portfolio Zuma One, 1978, dye- 
imbibition print 

p. 8: Dorothea Lange, Untitled [End of Shift, 
3:30, Richmond, California, September 1942], 
1942, gelatm-silver print 

p. 10: Edward S. Curtis, Mitat-Wailaki, from 
The North American Indian, vol. 14 (1924), 
pi. 472, photogravure 

p. 11: George Hurrell, Joan Crawford (detail), 
1932, gelatm-silver print 

p. 12: Phil Dike, Surfer (detail), c. 1931, oil on 

p. 13: Eviction of the Arechigo family from 
Chavez Ravine, May 8, 1959 

p. 14: Sid Avery, Dwight D. Eisenhower in 

La Quinta, California, 1961, gelatm-silver print 

p. 15: Pirklejones, Window of the Black Panther 
Party National Headquarters (detail), 1968, 
gelotm-silver print 

p. 16: Catherine Opie, Self-Portrait, 1993, 
chromogenic development (Ektocolor) print 

p. 17: Roger Minick, Woman with Scarf at 
Inspiration Point, Yosemite National Park 
(detail), 1980, dye-coupler print 

p. 18: Robbert Flick, Pico B (detail), 1998-99, 
silver dye-bleach (Cibachrome) print 


Foreword 22 

Andrea L Rich 

Sponsor's Statement 24 

Janice Taper Lazarof 


Introduction: 27 
The Making of Made in California 

Stephanie Barron 

Peopling California 49 

Michael Dear 

Selling California, 1900-1920 65 

Sheri Bernstein 

Contested Eden, 1920-1940 103 

Sheri Bernstein 

The California Home Front, 1940-1960 147 

Sheri Bernstein 

Tremors in Paradise, 1960-1980 

Howard N. Fox 

Many Californias, 1980-2000 

Howard N. Fox 



Checklist of the Exhibition 281 


Lenders to the Exhibition 325 

Acknowledgments 328 

Selected Bibliography 335 

Illustration Credits 344 

Index 346 

Where the Poppies Grow 273 

Richard Rodriguez 


The Los Angeles County Museum of Art has a long history of originating innovative exhibitions that 
seek to place art and artists within a particular historical, political, social, and economic context. Made in 
California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000 continues that tradition. In this exhibition, lacma has 
undertaken the ambitious task of focusing attention on the art created about California in the twentieth 
century. It is fitting that an exhibition of such far-reaching scope should be organized here, not simply 
because lacma is the only encyclopedic museum in the western United States with a comprehensive 
collection of twentieth-century art, but more importantly because Made in California extends the 
museum's commitment to groundbreaking thematic exhibitions with relevance to contemporary life. 
From its founding early in the twentieth century, the Los Angeles Museum of History, Science, and Art 
supported California art through the presentation of annual exhibitions devoted to painting, sculpture, 
and the graphic arts. The museum also hosted the annual exhibitions of the California Watercolor 
Society from the 1920s through the 1940s. 

The international regard enjoyed by visual artists active in California today attests to the richness 
and vitality of the work produced here. California no longer generates only the booster images popular 
at the beginning of the twentieth century, it is also at the center of national debates on a wide range 
of issues, from agriculture, technology, and entertainment to affirmative action and immigration. The 
state is the focus of Utopian as well as dystopic views of contemporary society. With that background in 
mind, Made in California was not intended as an art historical survey or a selection of a pantheon of 
artists. We hope, rather, to encourage new ways of thinking about many familiar ideas and objects and 
to inspire our audience to discover unfamiliar work. The exhibition will provoke some, surprise others, 
and challenge many. 

Any exhibition claiming to address the image of California and how it has been championed, 
contested, and disseminated by artists and through popular culture must consider the questions of which 
and whose California is being traced. The exhibition was conceived by an interdisciplinary team that 
created a thematic show in which paintings, sculptures, graphic and decorative art, costumes, and 
photography are seen in new and sometimes surprising juxtapositions in the same rooms with related 
examples of newspapers, pamphlets, posters, and advertisements — what we refer to here and elsewhere 
as "material culture." In this way, the exhibition attempts to situate art within a broader social context. 

Made in California has been an extraordinary undertaking for lacma, particularly considering 
its complex subject and the collaborative approach employed to produce it. Encompassing more than 
50,000 square feet in six separate exhibition spaces, and on view for more than five months, the exhibi- 
tion has called for remarkable cooperation among several curatorial departments, as well as early and 
consistent participation from the museum's education, exhibitions, design, and publications departments. 
The exhibition effort was adepdy led by Stephanie Barron, Senior Curator of Modern and Contemporary 
Art and Vice President of Education and Public Programs, who worked closely with Curator of American 
Art Ilene Susan Fort and Exhibition Associate Sheri Bernstein. They have coordinated the hard work of 
their colleagues in conceiving and producing this show for our audiences. The content of the exhibition 
has also been continually enriched through close involvement with a group of outside advisors from 
many fields. Their names are listed on page 334; their counsel and commitment to the project have con- 
tributed immeasurably to its success. 


Made in Calif ortiici draws on the depth of lac: ma's collections in that approximately 20 percent 
of the art in the show comes from our holdings in many departments. To the hundreds of lenders, 
institutional and private, who have truly made this undertaking possible, we extend our deepest thanks. 

Presenting an exhibition this ambitious is a costly undertaking, and we are tremendously grateful 
to the S. Mark Taper Foundation for its early commitment to Made in California and for a major grant 
that made this exhibition possible. Given the S. Mark Taper Foundation's extraordinary commitment to 
enhancing the quality of people's lives in California, it was an ideal partner in this project. 

Additionally, we are delighted to acknowledge the Donald Bren Foundation, the National 
Endowment for the Arts, Helen and Peter Bing, Peter and Eileen Norton, See's Candies, the Brotman 
Foundation of California, and Farmers Insurance for their sponsorship. In-kind support was provided by 
FrameStore, klon 88.1 fm, Gardner Lithograph, and Appleton Coated llc. 

lacma's departments of film, music, and education, the lacma Institute for Art and Cultures, 
and LACMALab have all planned innovative programming for adults, students, families, and children 
during the extensive run of Made in California. We are also gratified that a number of fellow visual and 
performing arts and other institutions have joined with us in focusing their programming on aspects 
of the arts and California, lacma is pleased to have worked with colleagues from a number of these 
institutions, including the Automobile Club of Southern California, the Autry Museum of Western 
Heritage, the Japanese American National Museum, the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, the Los Angeles 
Conservancy, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Los Angeles Public Library, the mak Center for Art 
and Architecture, the Mark Taper Forum, the Museum of Television and Radio, the Pacific Asia Museum, 
the Petersen Automotive Museum, the Santa Barbara Contemporary Arts Forum, the Santa Monica 
Museum of Art, the Skirball Cultural Center, the Society of Architectural Historians, the use Fisher 
Gallery, and the use Schools of Fine Arts, Theatre, Architecture, and Music. Together these programs 
offer our region's visitors a tremendously diverse array of programs and events. 

Andrea L. Rich 

President and Director 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 


The S. Mark Taper Foundation takes great pride in partnering with the Los Angeles County Museum of 
Art as primary sponsor of Made in California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000. Sharing this millennial 
exhibition with the residents of California and visitors to our state represents a profound fulfillment of 
the Foundation's mission to enhance the quality of people's lives. 

The broad scope of this exhibition, the largest in lacma's history, illuminates California's evolving 
popular image and its rich and varied contributions to the arts throughout the past one hundred years. 
The California image as depicted in an enormous range of art and cultural documentation — from paint- 
ings, prints, literature, architectural drawings, photography, decorative arts, film, and music to fashion, 
posters, magazines, and tourist brochures — has influenced and inspired people worldwide. Made in 
California brings together this astonishing wealth of images in a coherent context for the enlightenment 
of museum visitors. 

The works that have been selected all relate directly to the central theme of the exhibition: how the 
arts have shaped, promoted, complicated, and challenged popular conceptions of California over the 
course of the twentieth century. A team of more than a dozen lac ma curators and educators has worked 
together for more than six years to create the exhibition, and they deserve our warmest congratulations 
for this unprecedented effort and the exceptional result. 

The start of a new century is an appropriate time to pay tribute to the culture of our great state. 
Because my father was, since the 1950s, one of the most significant developers of the state of California, 
I feel it most fitting that his foundation should collaborate with lacma on this extraordinary exhibition. 
The S. Mark Taper Foundation, a private family foundation founded in 1989, is pleased to join the 
museum in making Made in California possible. In keeping with the Foundation's traditions, we chose 
Made in California as a project worthy of our support. 

All of us at the S. Mark Taper Foundation look forward to sharing these myriad artworks as well 
as lacma's incisive scholarship with museum visitors from across the state and around the world. 
I hope that you find Made in California both enjoyable and thought provoking. 

Janice Taper Lazarof 


S. Mark Taper Foundation 



Note to the reader 

Lenders of posters, brochures, and other 
ephemeral material in the exhibition are 
noted in the illustration captions. 

Lenders of artworks in the exhibition 
are listed in the checklist (pp. 281-324). 

Artworks not in the exhibition are indi- 
cated by a bullet (•). 

Alexis Smith 

Sea of Tranquility, 1982, 
mixed-media collage 



Stephanie Barron 

In 1994 a group of curators at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art came together to discuss an 
exhibition that would explore the great richness and diversity of California art in the twentieth 
century. Conceived collaboratively by members of nine different LACMA departments,' the exhibition 
that developed over the next several years, Made in California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000, 
would not be a traditional art historical survey, nor would it attempt to establish a new canon or 
identify certain types of artistic production as distinctively "Californian." Rother, it would investigate 
the relationship of art to the image of California and to the region's social and political history. 

Our goal was to avoid the boosterism that has often characterized surveys of California art, which have 

tended to emphasize Utopian or dystopic extremes, and to illuminate, against the backdrop of historical 

events that have impacted artistic production, the competing interests and ideologies that informed the 

arts and shaped popular conceptions of the state in the twentieth century. 

Made in California is the largest and most complex exhibition ever mounted at lacma, comprising 

more than 1,200 artworks, ephemera, and other cultural artifacts that reflect the increasingly disparate 

images of the state produced and circulated from 1900 to 2000. From vast, sweeping poppy fields to 

crowded suburban beaches, from Hollywood to Yosemite Valley, from beatnik San Francisco to a disaster- 
prone Los Angeles, the twentieth-century imagination was infused with popular iconography derived 

from California. Yet there was never a single, prevailing image of the state. There are and have been, in 

fact, many Californias, multiple perceptions of the region shaped not only by predictable forces such as 

the tourist or real estate industries but also by artists who at times reinforced prevailing views and at 

others complicated, subverted, or refuted them. The title of the exhibition and accompanying catalogue 

thus refers not simply to art produced in California but to work that bears the imprint of or projects 

one of the many images of the state. 

In view of the diversity — whether hidden or acknowledged — that has always defined the 

California experience, questions about the exhibition's audience and voice surfaced at an early stage. 

In the census of 1870, half of the population of San Francisco was shown to be foreign born. Today both 

San Francisco and Los Angeles — a city more than 75 percent Anglo just twenty-five years ago — are more 

than 50 percent non-Anglo. Now the major nonwhite urban center in the United States, Los Angeles 

represents a new type of city, what Charles Jencks refers to as a "heteropolis" and Edward Soja calls a 

contemporary cosmopolis.^ Some ninety languages are spoken within its more than 400-square-mile city 

limits. Immigrants to California from around the world have created a more diverse population than 

ever before. And as groups that were previously in the minority have grown, the state's identity has been 

profoundly altered. This ethnic and cultural diversity is key to any effort to review artistic production 

in California. 

Stephanie Barron iNTRODUCTiOh 

With such diversity in mind, what can it mean to try to capture a history of the image of 
Cahfornia during the past one hundred years? Consider these two observations: "Every museum exhibi- 
tion, whatever its overt subject, inevitably draws on the curatorial assumptions and resources of the peo- 
ple who make it." And: "Visitors can deduce from their experience what we, the producers of exhibitions, 
think and feel about them — even if we have not fully articulated those thoughts to ourselves."' Both 
statements underscore the obligation of exhibition organizers to reflect carefully on the message they 
wish to convey and its intended audience. In the last two decades, with the spectacular growth of muse- 
ums and museum attendance, scholars have sought to examine more thoroughly the role of museums 
in our society. Even at the most basic level of the selection, arrangement, and juxtaposition of objects, 
the strategies adopted by museum curators directly affect an audience's interpretation of the material on 
display. Curators have a responsibility, then, to convey a clearly articulated point of view. As Carol 
Duncan has noted, exhibitions allow communities to examine old truths and search for new ones. They 
become the center of a process in which past and future intersect." Our initial question therefore implies 
a number of others: Whose California? What image? Which history? 

Since their advent in the late eighteenth century, museums have been treasured as harbors of a sense of 
time and space that sets them apart from the bustle of the outside world. They have been revered, in fact, 
as places similar to churches, with the power to transform, cure, or uplift the soul.^ Museums at the 
beginning of the twenty-first century, however, are at an unusual crossroads. Never before has there been 
such interest in visiting them. Newspapers routinely report that more people visit special exhibitions 
than go to sporting events. Surveys show furthermore that those who visit museums come in search 
of connections between the art on display and their own lives.' And yet most museums still present art 
in hushed, elegant galleries, contemplative spaces that are often disconnected from everyday experience 
and may even appear elitist or intimidating. 

In the late 1970s, beginning with the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, with its transparent 
facade, large urban square, and popular five-story escalators leading to spectacular views of the city, 
museum architecture began to be employed to break down the rarefied image of traditional art museums. 
Yet while museum architecture has certainly been transformed in the past twenty-five years, accounting 
for some of the most exciting buildings of our time, what lies inside and how it is presented have 
changed little in the last century. Within art museums, as debate continues about the appropriate balance 
between education and entertainment, museum directors, curators, and educators are searching for 
strategies of presentation — encompassing thematic as well as chronological organizational modes — that 
will engage new audiences. "Compelling stories and opportunities that manage to engage all the senses 
are the experiences that succeed in attracting new and returning visitors," a recent study claims.' 

Academic discourse on installations of museum permanent collections and special or temporary 
exhibitions has called into question presentation strategies and focused discussion on issues of curatorial 
voice and intended audience, particularly in relation to class, gender, and race.* Author Alan Wallach 
claims, however, that the revisionism that has transformed much of art history in the universities in the 
past generation has had little impact on art museums and their audiences. Despite the difficulty of rais- 
ing funds for shows that confront or question accepted canons, Wallach argues for the need to mount 
revisionist exhibitions. By exposing museum-going audiences to exhibitions that present art in relation 

Anne W. Brigman 

The Lone Pine, cA% 
gelatin-silver print 

Richard Diebenkorn 

free\Nay and Aqueduct, 
1957, oil on canvas 

Stephanie Barron 

to its social, political, and historical context, the public will grow to value artworks as more than timeless, 
transcendent, or universal objects of beauty that speak for themselves.' Often such shows inspire fierce 
critical and public debate. In 1991 the National Museum of American Art mounted The West as America,^' 
a critical historical approach to representations of nineteenth-century America. Rather than merely 
celebrating its subject, the exhibition explored, according to museum director Elizabeth Broun, the 
intentions of artists and their patrons in the context of the history of westward expansion, unearthing 
a deeper, more troubling story that poses questions for American society today." 

The West as America generated a firestorm of criticism for daring to subject cherished myths to 
critical scrutiny, and it was attacked for what was seen by some as an aggressive lack of objectivity. Yet 
after nearly a decade of reflection, we can see that the exhibition was important for at least two reasons: 
By critically examining images long familiar to generations of Americans, it effectively countered the per- 
ception of museums as nothing more than places of inspiration or repositories of beauty isolated from 
the everyday world; and it ushered in a decade of debate on the meaning and interpretation of western 
American art. In its examination of image and identity and its reassessment of traditional perspectives. 
Made in California draws upon the example set by The West as America, especially with regard to lessons 
learned about how best to frame questions and raise interpretative issues for a broad public.'^ 

Despite the reaction caused by such exhibitions, museums have shown a growing interest in 
new strategies of interpretation. Exhibitions have begun to appear that locate works of art in relation to 
social and historical conditions; explore issues of audience and reception; consider the roles of the art 
market, curatorial taste, and collecting practices; invite artists to interpret or curate works by other 
artists; examine the intersection of art, politics, and national identity; and present permanent collections 
through thematic lenses.'^ 

These are some of the approaches that informed the conceptualization of Made in CaUfornia. 
From our earliest discussions of the project, a fundamental decision was made that the exhibition should 
not be a succession of "greatest hits" of California art. In general, questions of cultural or historical 
relevance took precedence over issues of aesthetic innovation, a strategy that necessarily resulted in the 
exclusion of certain artists or works by which a given artist is usually known. The exhibition is divided 
into five sections, each covering twenty years and organized thematically rather than according to formal 
categories. Each section freely mixes paintings, prints, sculpture, decorative art, costumes, and photog- 
raphy, along with examples of material culture — tourist brochures, labor pamphlets, rock posters, and 
periodicals. Additionally, twenty-four media stations were commissioned, providing visitors with 
archival film footage, poetry recordings, examples of popular music, and clips from Hollywood films. 
Three of the sections contain lifestyle environments, joining together examples of furniture, design, and 
architecture. The overriding aim of Made in California is to situate art making within the broader con- 
text of image making and, more specifically, the creation of California's image in the twentieth century. 
Many familiar images — a glamorous Hollywood, a beachfront or agricultural paradise, a suburban 
Utopia — have prevailed in the popular imagination not only in the United States but around the world. 
(Indeed, California, especially as the home of a global film industry, may arguably be the site in the 
twentieth century in which image permanently detached itself from reality.) Made in California examines 
the significant role of the arts in generating, shaping, and disseminating such popular images while 
presenting works that corroborate, challenge, complicate, or refute them. Conflicting images have 

Stephanie Barron 

always been present; our aim has been to widen the estabhshed discourse to include them. In so doing, 
Made in California questions the canon of images and ideas long associated with the art of California 
and encourages a critical examination of recent history. 

A similar approach has governed the organization of the main body of the catalogue: The first 
three sections, written by Exhibition Associate Sheri Bernstein, cover the years 1900 to i960. Sections 4 
and 5 were written by Howard Fox, Curator of Modern and Contemporary Art, and cover the years i960 
to 2000. To set the stage for the catalogue sections, geographer Michael Dear has provided a synoptic 
social history that charts the confluences and conflicts of the varied peoples whose destinies have contin- 
ually forged and reconfigured the California Dream. Closing the volume, noted essayist Richard Rodriguez 
has contributed a uniquely personal vision of the paradoxical state of mind we know as California. 

Made in California differs methodologically from most previous exhibitions that have attempted 
to address California art, but it has benefited from the scholarship that preceded it. There are, for 
example, a number of key books that have laid the art historical groundwork for our project in terms 
of California art scholarship. Although controversial upon publication in 1974, Peter Plagens's Sunshine 
Muse: Contemporary Art on the West Coast was the first attempt at a history of modern art in the region.'" 
In 1985 Thomas Albright published his comprehensive study Art in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1945-1980, 
which followed the unique development of Bay Area figuration. Pop, Funk, Conceptualism, realism, 
and other movements. Richard Candida Smith's Utopia and Dissent: Art, Poetry, and Politics in California 
(1995) charted a history of ideas spawned by California's art and poetry movements from 1925 to the 
mid-1970s and explored their embodiment in mainstream American culture. For his 1996 publication 
On the Edge of America: California Modernist Art, 1900-1950, Paul Karlstrom assembled essays by several 
authors who collectively sought to challenge the familiar association of California with popular culture 
and Hollywood, tracing a history of regional California art in a variety of media in the context of a larger 
modernist framework. 

Most exhibitions that have dealt with California art of the last century have been organized 
according to geography (California, Los Angeles, the Bay Area); art historical movements (California 
Impressionism, Bay Area Conceptualism, Bay Area figuration); medium (assemblage, ceramics, print- 
making); or subject (landscape, the Gold Rush, women painters). Most were boosterist, and nearly all 
were devoted solely to examples of fine art. By the middle of the twentieth century, with pride in 
American as opposed to European art, exhibition organizers began to identify aspects of California art 
that set it apart from that of New York. Exhibitions mounted for export often focused on geography; 
those intended for a regional audience could perhaps rely more frequently on individual artists. In either 
case, however, organizers typically selected works of art according to formal or geographic principles, 
paying scant attention to artists working with political or socially conscious themes. Beginning in the 
1960s, museums outside California began to host exhibitions of work by emerging West Coast artists, 
including, for example, Fifty California Artists (1962), organized by the San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art (sfmoma) and shown at the Whitney Museum of American Art,'^ and Ten from Los Angeles 
(1966), organized for the Seattle Art Museum by John Coplans, then director of the art gallery at the 
University of California, Irvine. The latter featured artists who shared an affinity for shiny, elegant sur- 
faces, including Billy Al Bengston, Tony DeLap, Craig Kauffman, and others, many of whom showed at 
the Ferus Gallery. In 1971 London's Hayward Gallery hosted 11 Los Angeles Artists, organized by Maurice 

Los Angeles souvenir, 
1957. LentbyJimHeiman 



California: America's 
Vacation Land, poster 
produced by New /ork 
Central Lines, with 
illustration by Jon 0. 
Brubaker, c. 1930. Lent by 
Steve Turner Gallery, 
Beverly Hills 

Tuchman and Jane Livingston. Within the state, exhibition activity increased significantly in the 1970s. 
The Oakland Museum of California has organized a number of formative exhibitions on California art in 
a broad range of media." In the 1980s and 1990s, the Laguna Art Museum organized and hosted some 
two dozen exhibitions devoted to either individual California artists or particular aspects of artistic activ- 
ity in California. These and other exhibitions in the past twenty-five years have greatly increased our 
knowledge of artists in California. And yet it may be argued that because much of this scholarship focused 
on the project of validation, it lagged significantly in efforts to incorporate a multidisciplinary approach 
that would include, for example, political and social history, gender studies, and cultural studies. 

More recently, a tendency has emerged to present West Coast art as a contrast in stark opposites: 
blight and bounty, abundance and drought, the golden and the noir.'^ A duality has been established 
(admittedly with precedents earlier in the century in popular literature and film) that may reflect, as 
Norman Klein suggests, nothing more than equally mythical counterparts promoted by the white middle- 
class for its own consumption.'* In the past twenty years, this Edenic/dystopic dualism has been elevated 
to heroic proportions in literature, film, and art. Images from Ridley Scott's Blade Runner (1982), for 
example, became a widely accepted stylistic shorthand for envisioning the future of cities among urban- 
ists and art and architecture critics. A decade later, curator Paul Schimmel presented Helter Skelter (1992) 
at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, calling out a group of artists, including Chris Burden, 
Victor Estrada, Llyn Foulkes, Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Manuel Ocampo, Raymond Pettibon, Lari 
Pittman, Charles Ray, and Nancy Rubins, whose provocative styles became emblematic of Los Angeles in 
the 1990s. Presented in opposition to the often bright, beautiful, hedonistic Los Angeles art characterized 
by Plagens in Sunshine Muse, the show offered another construct in its place that was largely accusatory 
and dark. The 1998 traveling exhibition Sunshine and Noir: Art in L.A., 1960-1997, organized by Lars 
Nittve and Helle Crenzien at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Humlebaek, Denmark, explicitly 
followed this dualistic approach. 

A number of other important exhibitions have been devoted to tracing movements and "isms" 
in California art history. As noted above, these often focused on differences between California artists 
and their East Coast or European confreres. Beginning in the mid-1970s, Henry Hopkins, then director 
of SFMOMA, presided over several exhibitions devoted to aspects of California art, including his major 
survey show. Painting and Sculpture in California: The Modern Era (1977),'' which was organized stylisti- 
cally and included 200 artists and 340 works of art. Although the exhibition was ambitious in scope, 
covering seventy-five years of California art history, there was a noted lack of feminist, Chicano, and 
African American artists in the show, and of the 200 artists included, 182 were men. In 1981 Suzanne 
Foley's Space, Time, Sound: Conceptual Art in the San Francisco Bay Area: The 1970s for sfmoma identi- 
fied Bay Area Conceptualism as based more on personal experience than its New York counterpart. 
Foley also focused on centers of production: alternative spaces, university galleries, periodicals, and 
theaters. Two exhibitions. Bay Area Figurative Art (1989), organized by Caroline Jones for sfmoma, and 
The San Francisco School of Abstract Expressionism (1996), organized by Susan Landauer for the Laguna 
Art Museum, featured major and less well-known figures, grouped stylistically, and touched on the 
role of art schools in their work and their relationships to politics and social history.^" Paul Karlstrom 
and Susan Ehrlich's Turning the Tide: Early Los Angeles Modernists, 1920-1956 for the Santa Barbara Art 
Museum (1990) and Ehrlich's Pacific Dreams: Currents of Surrealism and Fantasy in California Art, 

Stephanie Barron 

1934-1957 for the Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center at ucla (1995) sought to exam- 
ine what sets California modernism and California Surrealism apart from European models. Together 
these exhibitions did much to legitimize specific art movements within California for a national and 
international audience. 

Museum exhibitions organized around a particular medium have tended to emphasize fields in 
which California artists have been leaders, especially ceramics, photography, printmaking, and the assem- 
blage tradition. Led by Peter Voulkos in Los Angeles in the 1950s, and Robert Arneson and others in the 
Bay Area in the 1960s, ceramists transformed their art by creating massive sculptural vessels using fired 
clay.^' Their work made ceramics a defining medium in postwar California art and was included in 
numerous exhibitions in the 1960s, among them solo shows at lacma featuring Voulkos (1965) and 
John Mason (1966)." Printmaking workshops in California, including Tamarind, Gemini G.E.L., Cirrus 
Editions, Crown Point Press, and Self-Help Graphics, have pioneered the medium in the postwar era. 
Cirrus alone among them has concentrated on the work of California artists; in 1995 this work was sur- 
veyed for LACMA by curator Bruce Davis." Proof: Los Angeles Art and Photography, 1960-1980, organized 
by Charles Desmarais for the Laguna Art Museum in 1992, presented a group of artists whose influential 
work blurred the boundaries between photography and other media. In 1994, the J. Paul Getty Museum 
and the Huntington Library and Art Collections jointly mounted PictoriaUsm in California: 1900-1940, 
organized by Michael G. Wilson, which explored the unique contributions of California photographers 
working in the Pictorialist idiom. Additionally, California assemblage artists, whose work is strongly 
Hnked to the Dada tradition, have been the subject of a number of exhibitions.^" Exhibitions of artwork 
in these and other media served to acquaint a larger audience with a number of aesthetic innovations 
specific to California. 

Like Made in California, the most recent exhibitions have tended to be organized around particu- 
lar themes. They have embraced a wide range of artists, and sought to find an appropriate context for 
their work. The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco's exhibition Facing Eden: 100 Years of Landscape Art 
in the Bay Area (1995), organized by Steven Nash, was a multidisciplinary show that included painters, 
sculptors, photographers, landscape architects, and environmental artists. Issues of gender grounded 
Patricia Trenton's Independent Spirits: Women Painters of the American West, 1890-1945 (1995). In 1999, 
at the Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Center at Stanford University, Pacific Arcadia: Images of California, 
1600-1915 charted an image of a California in which economic bliss could be achieved in a spectacular 
natural setting. In the catalogue to the exhibition, Claire Perry investigated how and why the familiar 
vision of California as a land of promise was developed and marketed to tourists and residents. She 
introduced paintings, drawings, and photographs alongside popular Currier and Ives lithographs, maps, 
printed ephemera, and book and newspaper illustrations. As part of an investigation into how the can- 
vases and photographs of Carleton E. Watkins, Arnold Genthe, Albert Bierstadt, William Hahn, and 
James Walker functioned within a network of promotional material, Pacific Arcadia included guidebooks, 
railroad brochures, travel posters, sermons, and songs. This sensitive presentation of fine art and material 
culture anticipates the current exhibition. 

Edward Ruscha 

Burning Gas Station, 
1965-66, oil on canvas 

Art historical debate has increasingly centered on the idea of a body of art generally recognized as "the 
canon" and those who have been excluded from it through political and social domination. Edward Said, 
Homi Bhabha, James Clifford, and others working in the discipline of cultural studies have raised ques- 
tions on topics such as power, class, ethnicity, and identity and their impact on the creation and reception 
of works of art. The exploration and depiction of the western landscape and its relationship to American 
history have been the subject of a number of provocative studies in the past decade. Anne Hyde, for 
example, has argued that such images played an instrumental role in the building of American nationalism, 

fueling railroad expansion and westward tourism." 
If here the canon represents traditional images of 
California, our goal is not to remove it but rather to 
question it by presenting multiple points of view. 
While tracing mainstream images of the state. Made 
in California considers alternative conceptions, often 
produced by minorities, that challenge the popular 
ones. In this effort to uncover the disparate ways in 
which artists have produced and responded to popular 
images of California in the twentieth century — and 
the ways in which these images have been used by 
others — the exhibition weaves together examples of 
fine art (works intended primarily for museum and 
gallery presentation) and images that appeared in 
advertisements and promotional material, newspapers, 
magazine articles, posters, films, postcards, popular 
music, and documentary photographs. This contextual 
approach will, we hope, diminish or destabilize the 
conventional hierarchies, thereby expanding the dia- 
logue about California and the art it has produced. 
While each of the five main sections of Made 
in California contains topics related to a given twenty-year period — Hollywood glamour, spirituality, 
subcultures and countercultures, beach and car culture, to name a few — two overriding themes prevail 
throughout: the landscape, including both the natural and the built environment, and the complex 
relationship California continues to have with the cultures of its two neighbors, Latin America and Asia. 

Section i, 1900-1920, examines how paintings, prints, and photographs, as well as images circu- 
lated on postcards, travel brochures, periodicals, orange-crate labels, and in promotional films, created 
a vision of a largely Edenic, abundant California, encouraging migration and tourism, much of it from 
the white middle-class Midwest. The myth of the virgin land, unspoiled by modern life, was for the 
most part the prevailing image. Early landscapes, whether inland or coastal scenes, rarely included 
human figures; as such they are unspoiled by economic considerations, either of labor or of ownership. 
This homogeneous image of the California landscape was shared by boosters of tourism, developers, and 
artists, many of whom were themselves new arrivals hired by the tourist industry (railroads, hotels, 
chambers of commerce) to promote California. 

David Hockney 

Mulholland Drive, The 
Road to the Studio, 
1980, acrylic on canvas. 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art 

Stephanie Barron 

In the early years of the century, images of Cahfornia frequently exploited a widespread but care- 
fully sanitized interest in Native American and immigrant cultures. A dominant theme was the state's 
Spanish mission past, romanticized in art, literature, theater, architecture, furniture, clothing design, and 
popular songs. Tonalist painters and Pictorialist photographers, for example, represented the missions 
in wistful scenes that gave no hint of the devastating treatment of Native Americans by Spaniards and 
Anglos. The Chinatowns of San Francisco, Los Angeles, and smaller cities also became the subject of an 
Anglo fascination that frequently characterized the Chinese as exotic and old-fashioned. At the same 
time, in the era of the Asiatic Exclusion League, the Chinese Exclusionary Act, and aggression on the 
part of the American Federation of Labor, Chinese populations were subject to attacks by xenophobic 
Americans. Rarely did artists show Anglos and Chinese interacting or depict the Chinese engaged in 
modern, productive activities. 

Section 2, 1920-1940, reveals pronounced shifts in popular conceptions of the state. The 1920s 
are characterized by increased tourism, migration, and expansion brought about by a boom economy. 
With the rapid rise of the automobile, tourists were able to travel to the newly promoted California 
desert, captured by photographers who aestheticized its desolate beauty. Images of rural life were sold 
to art collectors, and idyllic farms were depicted in agribusiness publications. The virgin landscapes of 
earlier decades gave way to agrarian scenes in which laborers — the migrants who tilled the land and 
picked the crops — at times appeared in the work of painters and photographers. Such cultivated land- 
scapes were still picturesque and often showed no signs of burgeoning agribusiness and farming con- 
glomerates. At the same time, a new type of image began to emerge in which California was represented 
as a land of newly constructed bridges, dams, and oil rigs. A number of artists also began to depict a 
thriving aviation industry. 

In the 1920s and 1930s, the earlier cohesive image of California was shaken by unrest that often 
focused on Latin and Asian immigrants, many of whom were migrant laborers working in agriculture. 
Artists, writers, and musicians aligned themselves with the migrant laborers and sympathetically docu- 
mented their working conditions. Fueled by Roosevelt's Pan-Americanism, Californians responded with 
initial enthusiasm, and commissions were given to the Mexican muralists who had temporarily migrated 
northward, including Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros. There was a general vogue for Latin 
American themes throughout the arts, from painting and ceramics to Mayan Revival architecture. 

During the Depression in the 1930s, California struggled with the rest of the nation against 
unemployment, farm foreclosures, massive debt, and a rising distrust of foreigners. While promotion of 
an Edenic California persisted, new images celebrated growth and modernism but also suggested the rise 
of urban problems. If, as W. J. T. Mitchell suggests,^' we think of attitudes toward landscape as part of a 
process by which social and subjective identities are formed, images of California can be seen here to 
alternate between capitalist boosterism and socialist criticism. More often than not, idyllic images were 
challenged by the realities of newspaper headlines. 

With the Depression, a new kind of migration swelled California's population, as refugees from 
the Dust Bowl sought relief in the Golden State. Haunting portrayals of migrants in visual and literary 
works would come to stand for an indelible chapter in American history. Radical artists emerged as a 
significant social presence, and sympathetic portrayals of urban poverty and labor strikes appeared with 
increasing frequency. During this time of widespread deprivation, California's newest industry, motion 

Robert Frank 

Covered Car, Long Beach, 
California, 1956, gelatin- 
silver print 

pictures, consolidated its national and international audience, feeding an insatiable hunger for the imag- 
ined lifestyles, sophistication, sensuality, fashion, and glamour of Hollywood and its stars. 

California's role as a national force grew significantly from 1940 to i960, the period covered in 
Section 3 of the exhibition. The state led the nation in the wartime production of aircraft and ships, built 
in large part by a labor pool that migrated from other states. The need to feed a nation at war led to 
increased demands on agricultural production, which were satisfied with the temporary importation of 
Mexican farmworkers. An increase in racism and the widespread xenophobia sparked by the war led to 
local as well as national attacks on various ethnic groups. Thousands of Japanese nationals and Japanese 
Americans were interned as a result of Executive Order 9066. The effect of this mood on artistic produc- 
tion was swift. Collectors, museums, and galleries were rarely interested in supporting Mexican or Asian 
artists in California during this period. 

In the years immediately following the war, California's image as a natural paradise and recre- 
ational destination was once again promoted by the mass media, the tourist industry, and a number of 
artists. Photographer Ansel Adams's inspiring images of Yosemite, for example, were sold in galleries 
and published in Life magazine; at the same time, he produced commercial work for corporations such 
as Kodak. Other artists relied upon the landscape to create a new image of California, in keeping with 
a trend toward abstract art. Less naturalistic landscapes, such as those painted by Helen Lundeberg, 
evoke the cool minimalism of the period; others, such as the "flux" paintings of Knud Merrild, prefigure 
the gestural paintings of the New York School. 

Low-cost housing led to the rapid growth of suburban communities, which in turn fostered an 
increased reliance upon an ambitious system of freeways that forever changed California's landscape. 
Booster images of the built and natural environment now coexisted more precariously with images of 
the darker side of expansion. Although the population swelled with an ethnically heterogeneous work- 
force, the dominant promotional image was still of a homogeneous, white, middle-class population. 
Nevertheless, with the emergence of the anticommunist fervor of the 1950s, the Golden State began to 
be associated as well with unconventional and subversive political activities. Beat artists, writers, and 
musicians routinely challenged white middle-class values, traditional gender roles, and suburban 
consumer culture. A number of counterculture artists brought aspects of alternative philosophies and 
religions into their work, and they were attracted in particular to the spiritual beliefs of Zen Buddhists 
and Native Americans. 

California's popular image entered the mainstream of American culture during the 1960s and 
1970s, which form Section 4 of the exhibition. By the end of the sixties, beach and car culture as well 
as the counterculture had been absorbed and commodified by the fashion, tourist, advertising, music, 
television, and film industries. To some extent, of course, these industries actually helped to create 
aspects of these cultures, at least as they now existed in the national psyche. 

Landscape and nature-oriented traditions continued, reflecting personal artistic concerns and 
styles. Increasingly artists ricocheted between boosterist idealism and social criticism. Although the Edenic 
image of California continued to be celebrated, even in artists' depictions of freeways and swimming 
pools, landscape increasingly came to signify a contested territory in which pollution, environmental 
disasters, and monotonous urban sprawl prevailed. In the shadow of a vast system of freeways and a 
relatively modest mass transit system, car ownership became virtually synonymous with mobility and 

Frank Gehry 

Model of the Walt Disney 
Concert Hall, Los Angeles, 
1998, mixed media 

Frank Gehry 

Drawing of the Walt Disney 
Concert Hall, Los Angeles, 
1991, ink on paper 

Stephanie Barron 

individual identity. Cars were popularly fetishized and adorned with exuberant decorations, often 
serving as symbols of power and machismo. A number of artists shared this passion and took pride in 
their motorcycles, race cars, and pickup trucks, later applying to their art the seamless paint finishes 
employed by the automotive industry. New materials developed in the aerospace industry, such as resin, 
plastic, Rhoplex, vacuum-coated glass, Plexiglas, and fiberglass, were used to make slick-looking paint- 
ings and sculptures. Other artists made use of these same new materials to explore the immateriality of 
objects, seeking connections to science and philosophy through issues of space, light, and perception. 

In the 1960s, art and politics converged, as artists engaged the civil rights movement in their 
work and turned to repressed or ignored African American, Chicano, and feminist histories for inspira- 
tion. California gave birth to the Chicano art movement, in which artistic, cultural, and political issues 
coalesced. Through posters, performances, and political action, migrant labor in California also gained 
a voice. The movement quickly spread to other parts of the country, as oppressed migrant farmworkers 
sought to unionize. Many Chicano artists felt compelled to use their cultural and ethnic identity as the 
basis for their work, taking part in actions against the political and cultural system. Although these artists 
remained marginalized by the mainstream art establishment during the 1960s and into the 1970s, the 
issues they raised concerning identity and their relationship to the dominant culture would dramatically 
alter art making in the ensuing decades. The national emergence of art based on personal and political 
identity, frequently in nontraditional media such as installation, film, video, and performance, took 
many of its cues from California artists. 

During the period covered by Section 5, 1980-2000, California became the subject of international 
attention, not as an idyllic destination but as the site of unpredictable calamities such as earthquakes, 
floods, forest fires, aberrant weather patterns, urban riots, police brutality, racial unrest, freeway shoot- 
ings, gang violence, and cult killings. In Southern California, a wave of dystopic images was captured 
by artists in the early nineties, fueled by natural and man-made disasters that seemed to occur with 
frightening regularity. Mike Davis's City of Quartz (1992) and Ecology of Fear (1998), along with the Helter 
SAieter exhibition at moca (1992), did much to replace earlier beatific views of Southern California with 
a dark, cynical, and apocalyptic image of Los Angeles as overdeveloped, dysfunctional, environmentally 
precarious, and filled with racial and cultural distrust. Hollywood obliged with a spate of violent disaster 
films set in Los Angeles. 

Following a healthy economic recovery after the recession of the early nineties, California again appears 
to be viewed as the land of the future. Gradually, despite the vast problems that remain, the state has 
come to represent diversity and multiple perspectives, and cultural and identity issues have increasingly 
preoccupied California artists. Characteristic of national and international trends, globalization (the 
breaking down of borders) and particularization (the attention to specific communities and the bound- 
aries that divide them) are now key elements of artistic production. Artists routinely work in a variety of 
media, in which the traditional divisions between art and material culture have become difficuh to dis- 
cern. Indeed, in the arts and the culture at large, a profusion of multiple, competing images of California 
has finally replaced the unified, idyllic vision that predominated early in the century. 

Billboard poste 


Sutro Baths, c. 


Lent by Marilyn 



Michael C. McMillen 

Central Meridian, The 
Garage, 1981, mixed media 

Stephanie Barron INTRDDUCTIQ^ 

1 The nine departments included American 
art, costume and textiles, decorative arts, 
education, film, modern and contemporary 
art, music, photography, and prints and 

2 See Paul Ong and Evelyn Blumberg, 
"Income and Racial Inequality in Los Angeles," 
in Allen I. Scott and Edward W. Soja, The 
City: Los Angeles and Urban Theory at the 
End of the Twentieth Century (Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1997)1 323-241 and, in the same volume, 
Edward Soja, "Los Angeles, 1965-1992," 

3 In Ivan Karp and Steven D. Lavine, eds., 
Exhibiting Cultures: The Poetics and Politics 
of Museum Display (Washington, D.C.: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 1; and 
Elaine Heumann Gurian, "Noodling around 
with Exhibitions," in Karp and Lavine, 176. 

4 Carol Duncan, Civilizing Rituals: Inside 
Public Art Museums (London: Routledge, 
1995). 133-34- 

5 See, for example, discussions of Goethe, 
Niels von Hoist, and William Hazlitt in 
Duncan, Civilizing Rituals, 14-15. 

6 Marcia Tucker, "Museums Experiment 
with New Exhibition Strategies," New York 
Times, Jan. 10, 1999, sec. 2. 

7 Bonnie Pitman, "Muses, Museums, and 
Memories," in the special "America's Museums" 
issue of Daedalus (summer 1999), 15. 

8 See, for example, Karp and Lavine, 
Exhibiting Cultures; Marcia Pointon, Art 
Apart: Art Institutions and Ideology across 
England and North America (Manchester: 
Manchester University Press, 1994); Daniel J. 
Sherman and Irit Rogoff, eds., Museum 
Culture: Histories, Discourses, Spectacles 
(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 
1994); Lynne Cooke and Peter Wollen, eds.. 
Visual Display: Culture beyond Appearances 
(New York: New Press, 1995); Duncan, 
Civilizing Rituals; Reesa Greenberg, Bruce 
W. Ferguson, Sandy Nairne, eds.. Thinking 
about Exhibitions (London: Routledge, 1996); 
Mary Anne Staniszewski, The Power of 
Display: A History of Exhibition Installations 
at the Museum of Modern Art (Cambridge: 
MIT Press, 1998); and Alan Wallach, 
Exhibiting Contradictions: Essays on the Art 
Museum in the United States (Amherst: 
University of Massachusetts Press, 1998). 

9 Wallach, Exhibitirtg Contradictions, 6. 

10 See William H. Truettner, ed., The West 
as America: Reinterpreting Images of the 
Frontier, 1820-1920, exh. cat. (Washington, 
D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991). 

11 Truettner, The West as America, vii. 

12 See "The Battle over 'The West as 
America,'" in Wallach, Exhibiting Contradic- 
tions, 105-17; and Steven C. Dubin, Displays of 
Power, Memory, and Amnesia in the American 
Museum (New York: New York University 
Press, 1999), 153-273. 

13 See Pierre Bourdieu's The Field of Cultural 
Production: Essays on Art and Literature, 
Randal Johnson, ed. (New York: Columbia 
University Press, 1993), 29-73, in which 
Bourdieu describes "fields of cultural pro- 
duction," which include the creation of art 
and the strategies and goals of artists and 
the world of collectors, publishers, galleries, 
museums, academies, critics, etc. Recent 
catalogues for exhibitions that reflect these 
new approaches include Johann Georg Prinz 
von Hohenzollern and Peter-Klaus Schuster, 
eds., Hugo von Tschudi and der Kampfdic 
Moderne (Munich: Prestel, 1996); Stephanie 
Barron et al.. Exiles and Emigres: The Flight 
of European Artists from Hitler (Los Angeles: 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1997); 
Norman Kleeblatt and Kenneth E. Silver, 
Expressionist in Paris: The Paintings of Chaim 
Soutine (New York: Jewish Museum, 1998); 
Kynaston McShine, The Museum as Muse 
(New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1999). In 
addition, a thematic approach was also taken 
in the recent series of exhibitions moma 2000, 
organized by the Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, and the presentation of the per- 
manent collection of Tate Modern, 2000. 

14 This book has been reprinted as Sunshine 
Muse: Art on the West Coast, 1945-1970 
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of 
California Press, 1999). 

15 In 1962, Artforum magazine was established 
in San Francisco, giving California artists a 
national platform for exposure in their own 
state; the magazine moved to L.A. in 1965 and 
then decamped for New York in 1967. 

16 For example, The Potter's Art in California, 
1885 to 1955 (1980), 100 Years of California 
Sculpture: The Oakland Museum, Oakland 
(1982), Twilight and Reverie: California 
Tonalist Painting, 1890-1930 (1995), and Art 
of the Gold Rush (1998). 

17 "Chinatown, Part Two?" in David Read, 
ed.. Sex, Death, and God m L.A. (New York: 
Random House, 1992). 

18 See Norman M. Klein, The History of 
Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of 
Memory (New York: Verso, 1997), 73-93. 

19 The show traveled to the National Museum 
of American Art in Washington, D.C. 

20 See also Thomas Albright, Art in the 
San Francisco Bay Area, 1945-1980 (Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press, 1985). For a discussion of the role of 
California's art schools in the state's art, 
see Paul J. Karlstrom, "Art School Sketches: 
Notes on the Central Role of Schools in 
California Art and Culture," in Reading 
California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000 
(Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art in association with University of 
California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 

21 For example. The Potter's Art in California, 
1885-1955 (1980) at the Oakland Museum, 

and West Coast Ceramics (1979) at the 
Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. 

22 Other important exhibitions include 
Abstract Expressionist Ceramics, organized by 
lohn Coplans for the Art Gallery, University 
of California, Irvine (1966); Peter Selz's 
Funk at the University Art Museum, Berkeley 
(1967); A Century of Ceramics, curated by 
Garth Clark and Margie Hughto for the 
Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse, New York 
(1979); and, most recently. Color and Fire: 
Defining Moments in Studio Ceramics, 1950- 
2000, curated by Jo Lauria at the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art. 

23 Made in L.A.: The Prints of Cirrus Editions 
presented the work of a generation of 

24 For example, the exhibitions Assemblage 
in California: Works from the Late '50s and 
Early '60s at the University of California, 
Irvine (1968), Lost and Found in California: 
Four Decades of California Assemblage (1988) 
at the James Corcoran Gallery, Santa Monica, 
and Forty Years of California Assemblage at 
the Wight Art Gallery, ucla (1989). 

25 Anne Hyde, An American Vision: Far 
Western Landscape and National Culture, 
1820-1920 (New York: New York University 
Press, 1990). See also Patricia Nelson Limerick, 
The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of 
the American West (New York: W. W. Norton, 
1987) and Something in the Soil Legacies 

and Reckonings in the New West (New York: 
W. W. Norton, 2000), and Richard White, 
"It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": 
A History of the American Wesf (Norman: 
University of Oklahoma Press, 1991). 

26 See W. J. T. Mitchell, ed.. Landscape and 
Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 


I want to thank Sabine Eckmann for her 

assistance in shaping this essay. Additional 

thanks are due to Garrett White, Sheri 

Bernstein, and Ilene Susan Fort for cogent 


Aeqiitaocn^ial Lipe 




Michael Dear 

Know that to the tight hand of the Indies was an island called California, 
very near to the region of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was populated 
by black women, without there being any men among them, that almost 
like the Amazons was their style of living . . . There ruled on that island, 
called California, a queen great of body, very beautiful for her race, 
at a flourishing age, desirous in her thoughts of achieving great things, 
valiant in strength, cunning in her brave heart, more than any other 
who had ruled that kingdom before her. . . Queen Calafia. 

GARCI ORDONEZ DE MONTALVO from Las sergas del muy esfouado caballero Ssplandtan, htjo del excelente rey 
Amadis de Gaula, a novel published in Spain about 1500. 

Map of North America showing 
California as on island, 
William Grent, 1625 

Ceremonial headdresses of 
the Costanoon Indians of 
California, Louis Choris, 1822 

Humans have lived on the land called California 

for more than 10,000 years. By the time of European 
contact, CaHfornia, a land of unsurpassed natural 
bounty, was probably the most densely settled area 
north of Mexico, occupied by diverse groups of 
migrants and settlers later referred to as "Indians." 
The discovery of the New World by Columbus inspired 
a fantastic mythology about untold riches, earthly 
paradise, and great peoples. But California remained 
isolated from Europe and Asia until the early sixteenth 
century, when Spain sent a war expedition to Mexico 
under the leadership of Hernan Cortes, who conquered 
and plundered the Aztec empire, including its capital 
Tenochitlan (today's Mexico City) in 1521. A 1542 expe- 
dition on behalf of the Spanish crown allowed Juan 
Rodriguez Cabrillo to gaze on Alta California (roughly 
the present-day state of California). England's Francis 
Drake anchored off San Francisco Bay in 1579. And in 
1602, Spain sent Sebastian Vizcaino to explore the 
California coastline for safe anchorages for its merchant 
fleets. He issued a hugely exaggerated report on 
California's attractions but failed to notice San Francisco 
Bay, like many before him.' 

There then followed almost two centuries of 
colonial indifference, until Spain began to take a new 
interest in Alta California late in the eighteenth century. 
This was because the British and French had grabbed 
parts of Canada and Louisiana, and Russians were mak- 
ing incursions along the west coast of North America. 
So the Spanish crown decided to use Alta California 
as a buffer state to protect its holdings in New Spain. 

Lacking the resources to conquer California in 
a single offensive, Spain adopted its tried-and-tested 
method of sending soldiers and missionaries to co-opt 
the indigenous populations and establish a colonial 
order. (Land grants could be used later to entice civilian 

Ferdinand Deppe 

Mission San Gabriel, 1832 

James Walker 

Vaquero, c. 1830s 

settlers.) The first major push began in 1769, under 
the joint stewardship of Captain Caspar de Portola and 
the Franciscan Father Junipero Serra. Over the next 
fifty years, the Spaniards estabHshed twenty-one mis- 
sion settlements in Alta California, as well as a number 
of pueblos and presidios hugging the coast from 
San Diego to Sonoma.^ 

The task of settling a relatively sparsely popu- 
lated, semiarid region far from the Spanish homeland 
proved difficult. Half a century later, the region 
remained relatively underdeveloped, small in popula- 
tion and military power. One factor that hampered 
Spanish ambitions was the continuous resistance by 
native Californians. Despite the myths of harmonious 
mission life, the colony was violent and unruly. 
Missionary efforts displaced Indian communities from 
their villages, disrupted family and tribal life, meted 
out severe punishments, and introduced often-lethal 
new diseases. Between 1769 and 1846, the number of 
California Indians declined to about 100,000, or one- 
third of earlier totals. Some groups fomented open 
rebellion; others escaped to the interior, far from the 
reach of both priest and pestilence. Those who stayed 
frequently offered passive resistance. Yet it was they 

who provided the primary agricultural and artisanal 
labor force for Spanish California, without whom the 
colony may not have endured.' 

When the state of Mexico was cut loose from 
Spain in 1821, the mission system faced determined 
opposition from Alta California's new government. 
Under Mexican secularization acts, mission lands were 
seized, intended for redistribution among Indian resi- 
dents of the mission. In practice, however, they were 
usually sold into private hands, thus further excluding 
Indians from their homelands. 

The people from colonial Mexico who setded 
on the California frontier during this time of transition 
from Spanish to Mexican rule came to be called 
"Californios." Proud of their links to Spain (via the 
Franciscans), Californios were a ranching elite (based 
on a cattle economy, including the production of hides 
and tallow) who referred to themselves as getite de razon, 
or people of reason. Many of the great families claimed 
they carried in their veins the sangre aziil (blue blood) 
of Spain. The Indians, somewhat predictably, were 
regarded as gente sin razon, people without reason. Such 
terminology reflected an ancient theological divide 
between civilization and savagery but was also strongly 
imbued with racial overtones." Required to work on the 
remaining undistributed mission properties to maintain 
the Mexican territorial government, many Indians 
found themselves under a regime that was barely distin- 
guishable from Spanish rule. Miguel Leon-Portilla uses 
the Nahuatl term nepantla to describe indigenous 
people's experience of "cultural woundedness," brought 
about because the colonizers usurped the ethical and 
spiritual foundations of their world.^ 

During the late 1820s, more Anglo Americans 
started arriving in California.' Some married into 
Spanish-speaking Californio families and thus gained 
access to land, power, and status. Others converted to 

Michael Dear peopling californi 

Catholicism, became Mexican citizens, and adopted 
Mexican customs. However, many Anglos were con- 
temptuous of the way in which both Spain and Mexico 
seemed unable to realize California's promise. Richard 
Henry Dana's Two Years before the Mast (1840) was 
perhaps the most prominent popular narrative that 
denigrated Indian, Californio, and Mexican alike. 
Dana's patronizing lament — "In the hands of an 
enterprising people, what a country this might be!" — 
was fatefully echoed in the rising sentiment favoring 
the Manifest Destiny of the United States: the extension 
of its territorial reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean.' 
This belief was to provide a powerful impetus in the 
Mexican War of 1846-48, as a result of which Mexico 
lost a third of its territory to the United States, includ- 
ing the land known as Alta California. 

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 ended 
hostilities between the United States and Mexico.' 
In less than eighty years, the land tended by Indians 
for millennia had passed from Spanish to Mexican to 
United States control. In law, the treaty protected the 
civil and property rights of Mexican citizens in 
California. But all Mexican holdings were formally 
called into question by the California Land Act of 1851, 
which required proof of clear title to land. The enor- 
mous expense this effort entailed was one reason for 
the swift sale and subdivision of the ranchos in the 
early 1860s.' The Californios soon became relegated to 
second-class citizenship. In addition, the United States 
federal government rarely recognized the Mexican 
land grants of the very few Indians who held them. 
Bumped down in the pecking order by Anglo Americans 
and Californios, indigenous Indians became third- 
class citizens. Their continuing resistance and efforts 
to gain legal title to their lands were instrumental in 
producing the first Indian reservations in Southern 
CaUfornia in 1865.'° 

On the morning of January 24, 1848, at Coloma, on the 
South Fork of the American River near Sutter's Fort, 
James Marshall discovered gold. A small, back-page 
article in The Californian of March 15, 1848, announced 
curtly: "Gold Mine Found." Suddenly, California became 
the target of one of the largest, swiftest migrations in 

human history. "More newcomers now arrived each 
day in California than had formerly come in a decade," 
was how historian Leonard Pitt summed up the begin- 
nings of the world-famous Gold Rush." 

Before news of the gold strike spread, California's 
non- Indian population was put at 14,000. By the end 
of 1849, on the eve of statehood, it had risen to almost 
100,000; by 1852, it would exceed 200,000 people. A few 
short years of gold fever accomplished what a century 
of deliberate colonial efforts had failed to achieve: 
growth. California's economic boom pushed the Golden 
State early into integration with the United States. Its 
admission as a free state in 1850 was not without rancor, 
but as one journalist-historian put it: "The Union is an 
exclusive body, but when a millionaire knocks at the 
door, you don't keep him waiting too long, you let 
him in."'^ As competition for gold escalated, Anglo 
Americans moved covetously to protect the claims for 
themselves. The Foreign Miners' Tax of 1850 effectively 
barred Chinese, Mexicans, Europeans, and even 
Californios from an equal chance at the riches. Yet 
despite these constraints, the California Dream was 
firmly established in minds across the nation and the 
world. California was where ordinary folk went to 
become fabulously rich! 

San Francisco (renamed from Yerba Buena in 
1847) was ground zero for urban growth during the 
Gold Rush. Sacramento also acted as a supply center, as 
did Stockton, and Southern California's cow counties 
even got caught up in the demands of their northern 
neighbors. But everything that came into and out of the 
Mother Lode country had to pass through San Francisco. 
By i860, the city had a population of 57,000, making it 
America's fifteenth-most-populous urban center, the 
largest city west of the Mississippi River." 

Known for its volatile politics, mob justice, and 
loose social climate, San Francisco witnessed the rapid 
development of business institutions, churches, news- 
papers, and elite neighborhoods. The city became 
California's first great manufacturing center, based on 
machinery and metalworking connected to resource- 
extractive industries. By the late nineteenth century, it 
had 80 percent of the state's manufacturing capacity,'" 
earning its machine shops the title of "graduate school 

Michael Dear peopl 

of mechanics."'^ Approximately half the city's popula- 
tion was foreign-born during most of the second half 
of the century. Many of the Gold Rush migrants came 
from New England and the Pacific Northwest, but 
they were joined by a large contingent of Chinese and 
Mexican people, plus a couple of thousand free African 
Americans and a handful of runaway slaves. Already, 
San Francisco was the capital of California's nineteenth 

Carey McWilliams portrayed the breakneck 
speed of California's entry into the modern world in 
these words: 

Elsewhere the tempo of development was slow at first, 
and gradually accelerated as energy accumulated. 
But in California the lights went on all at once, in a 
blaze, and they have never been dimmed}' 


AU^ A^i 

.■■='—- -9^-:-^ 

It was during the latter 
half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, under the stark illumi- 
nation of the world's gaze, 
that California became 
(according to Mark Twain) 
a mecca for "astounding 
enterprises."" Silver miners, 
agriculturalists, railroad mag- 
nates, bankers, and others 
rushed in to seize the 

moment. The spirit of the times, as expressed by 
historian J. S. Holliday, was "stand back, make way for 
the hydraulickers, wheat ranchers, railroad builders, 
stockbrokers, and tycoons of commerce."" 

As if gold were not enough, silver was discovered 
in i860 in an indecently rich vein known as the 
Comstock Lode, on the eastern slopes of the Sierra 
Nevada. From deep mines, wage-earning miners hoisted 
to the surface between i860 and 1880 ore worth $300 
million. And as before, everything that went into and 
came out of the instant town of Virginia City had to 
pass through San Francisco. To shore up these mines, 
unimaginable quantities of timber were cut. As one con- 
temporary observed: "The Comstock Lode may truth- 
fully be said to be the tomb of the forests of the Sierra."" 
In addition, wildlife was decimated for food, and river 
valleys were destroyed by the new hydraulic-power hoses 
used in gold mining. The whole California economy, it 
seemed, was instantly and insistently (in geographer 
Richard Walker's memorable phrasing): "digging up, 
grinding down, and spitting out the gifts of the earth."^° 

The gold miners' seemingly untouchable aristoc- 
racy was challenged by a persistent group of farmers 
downstream in the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
valleys. By the early 1880s, the value of California's 
agricultural production exceeded that of mining. 
This bolstered the farmers' case against the miners, 
whose upstream operations were periodically flooding 

William Rich Hutton 

San Francisco, 1847 

William Hahn 

Harvest Time, 1875 

and burying the agriculturalists' crops and towns. 
Ultimately, after a long legal struggle, hydraulic mining 
techniques were banned in California in January 1884, 
thereby ushering in the end of the Gold Rush era/' 

The agricultural enterprise that sprang out of 
the plethora of unsettled land titles in the Central 
Valley was large in scale and operation. The valley's 
unmatched ecologies, based upon wetlands (cienegas), 
riparian woodlands, lakes, and rivers, were systemati- 
cally drained and plowed under for agricultural 
production. Historian William Fulton described the 
consequent agribusiness as "capital-intensive, highly 
mechanized, concentrated in its land ownership pat- 
terns, and oriented toward export markets."" By the 
1870s, more than half the land in California was owned 
by .2 percent of the state's population." The initial 
boom crop, the "grower's gold," was wheat.^" In 1881, 
4 million acres of wheat fields, stretching throughout 
the Central Valley and covering two-thirds of all culti- 
vated land in the state, yielded $34 million on the world 
market — almost twice the value of the gold produced 
that year." But just as the demise of gold mining was 
swift and stark, so the end of wheat's hegemony was 
surprising and speedy. Competition from home and 
abroad, rapid soil depletion, and a market slump 
effectively eliminated California wheat production by 
the early 1890s. 

On its completion in 1856, Theodore Judah had 
won fame as the engineer who surveyed and promoted 
California's first railroad — twenty-two miles of track 
between Sacramento and the foothill town of Folsom, 
supply center for the mining camps along the American 
River. Judah optimistically approached San Francisco 
investors with a plan for a transcontinental railroad, 
which they huffily rejected, viewing such a pipe dream 
(quite correctly, it turns out) as a threat to their ocean- 
oriented transportation monopoly. 

So Judah went to Sacramento. There he met 
four merchants — Collis Huntington, Mark Hopkins, 
Charles Crocker, and Leland Stanford. The Big Four, 
as they came to be called, were risk takers and skillful 
entrepreneurs. They brought the Central Pacific 
Railroad (cprr) from Sacramento to meet the westward- 
moving Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, Utah. 

The last spike in this celebrated connection between 
east and west was struck on May 10, 1869, changing 
California and the nation forever. Despite their success, 
the avaricious, monopolistic barons of the newly 
formed Southern Pacific Railroad (sp), which absorbed 
the CPRR, inspired Californians' contempt on more 
than one occasion, and played a pivotal role in state 
politics in the ensuing five decades. For instance, 
Charles Crocker's decision to import 12,000 Chinese 
laborers to complete the most difficult and dangerous 
work on the railroad had serious repercussions. 
Unhappy with this competition, the state's white work- 
ing class developed strong anti-Chinese sentiments. 
California workers led the charge for a complete federal 
ban on Chinese immigrants in 1885, an exclusionary 
outlook on race that persists today in various incarna- 
tions. Residents also rebelled against the sp juggernaut 
itself, directing their resentment toward the monopoly's 
apparent greed and corruption. The attempt to derail 
"the Octopus" (so known for its propensity to extend its 
tentacles to control every aspect of the state) defined 
California politics into the Progressive Era." 

In the 1870s, the cprr and its subsidiaries con- 
structed rail track along the entire length of the Central 
Valley, thus releasing the fullest development of the 
valley's agricultural potential." The sp conglomerate 
helped transform the landscape by bankrolling start-up 
farms, researching railcar refrigeration, and nurturing 
experimentation with new crops.^" Another distinctive 
feature of California's agricultural boom was the 
growers' exchange, which encouraged farmers to pool 
resources and work together to develop export markets. 
But the availability of cheap agricultural labor was the 
most critical human factor in the state's burgeoning 
agribusiness. Recounting California's almost unbeliev- 
able dependence on ethnic migrant farmworkers, Walter 
Stein wrote: "Chinese in the 1870s; Japanese in the 

Carleton 8. Watkins 
Transcontinental Rail 
Terminal, 1876 

1890s; East Indians after the turn of the century; 
Mexicans and FiHpinos during and after World War I; 
Okies during the 1930s; southern blacks along with 
Filipinos and Mexicans again during the 1940s."" The 
most critical natural factor in California agriculture was 
water.^° One of the nineteenth century's least noticed 
but most fundamental innovations was the 1887 
Irrigation District Act, which allowed farmers to coop- 
eratively build and operate watering systems." By the 
mid-i920S, innovative farming and intensive irrigation 
had allowed California to become the nation's leading 
agricultural state. 

The railroad also changed the way California 
built cities. By September 1876, the sp arrived in 
Southern California from the north. In 1885, it opened 
a direct line to the east. But, most importantly, in 1887 
the first Santa Fe Railroad train snaked through the 
San Bernardino Mountains into Los Angeles, thus 
breaking the sp monopoly. The ensuing rate war (a 
one-way ticket from Kansas City to L.A. fell from $125 
to $1!) inaugurated Southern California's first major 
land boom. It also, in Leonard Pitt's words, "sealed the 
coffin of the old California culture."" 

Turn-of-the-century Los Angeles offered itself as 
paradise for land and property speculators, sunseekers 
and tourists, homesteaders and health fanatics. As early 
as 1886, local wags claimed it had more real estate 
agents per acre than any other city in the world." City 
boosters were, however, anxious to nourish a more 
conventional industrial base. The discovery of oil 
helped somewhat (Edward L. Doheny had sunk the 
first well in 1892), but it required impressive invest- 
ments in urban infrastructure — rail, water, power, and 
port — to properly realize L.A.'s potential. For instance, 
San Pedro harbor (opened in 1899 and annexed to the 
City of Los Angeles in 1906) very quickly became the 
state's first-ranked port. And in 1913, the amazing 
Owens Valley Aqueduct reached L.A., enabling engineer 
William Mulholland to boldly declare, "There it is. 
Take it!," as the first waters gushed over the aqueduct's 
sluiceway. The date was November 5, 1913. It was the 
earliest indication that Los Angeles was to become 
the capital of California's twentieth century. 

Still, San Francisco continued to view its southern 
neighbors with complacency. It sought to confirm its 
arrival on the world scene early in the twentieth 
century by hiring the eminent Chicago architect Daniel 
Burnham to prepare a city plan. In addition, an exposi- 
tion was scheduled to celebrate the much-anticipated 
1915 opening of the Panama Canal. But in 1906 an 
earthquake ignited a huge fire that devastated the 
metropolis. Neighboring towns anticipated that "the 
City" would never recover, but recover it did. In 1915, 
San Francisco opened a new civic center and hosted 
the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Their 
architectural designs conjured up visions of a cosmo- 
politan, classical. Beaux- Arts City by the Bay. 

That same year in San Diego, quite a different 
exposition was mounted. The Panama-California 
Exposition was determinedly Southern Californian in 
outlook. As social historian Phoebe Kropp makes 
clear, both the Panama-Pacific in the north and the 
Panama-California in the south were self-promotional 
sorties in the wars between cities." Against San 
Francisco's studied cosmopolitanism, San Diego adver- 
tised agricultural and commercial possibilities, plus a 
distinctly Spanish Colonial sensibility and heritage. 
While San Francisco aspired to worldly sophistication, 
Southern California had found a regional identity and 
had begun to compete for national attention. By 1920, 
California was the eighth most populous state in the 
Union, and the growth momentum had shifted south, 
to Los Angeles. 

Since the turn of the century, the local chamber 
of commerce had hyped Los Angeles into becoming 
one of the best-publicized places in the United States. 
Tourists and prosperous Midwesterners were particu- 
larly targeted, and these efforts ignited successive 
rushes of untrammeled urban growth. In 1918, 6,000 
building permits were issued in Los Angeles; by 1923 
(the peak of the boom), this number had climbed to 
more than 62,000, with a total value of $200 million. 
By 1925, L.A. had no fewer than 600,000 subdivided lots 
standing vacant. The city had already parceled out 
enough land to accommodate 7 million people, fifty 
years before the reality of population growth would 
catch up with the speculators' appetites! 

Very early during these boom years, the traditions 
of immigration to Southern California from northern 
and western Europe were displaced. Southern and 
eastern Europeans took their place, joined by peoples 
of Mexican, lapanese, and African American origin. 
By 1930, Mexicans were by far the largest minority 
group in Los Angeles, which already had a racial/ethnic 
diversity unmatched anywhere along the West Coast. 

Not everyone regarded the California develop- 
ment juggernaut with equanimity. One prominent critic 
was John Muir, who anticipated present-day 
environmentalism by insisting on the ecological bond 
between people and nature. In 1892, Muir founded the 
Sierra Club, an influential conservationist group as well 
as a social club for wilderness outings. Muir and the 
Sierra Club won federal jurisdiction for Yosemite Valley 
in 1906 but lost battles over the Hetch Hetchy Valley 
and the Owens River, when San Francisco and 
Los Angeles tapped Sierra rivers during this period." 

The taint of conspiracy, collusion, and corrup- 
tion surrounding so many urban water projects gave 
impetus to California Progressivism during the early 
twentieth century. Another favorite target was the 
Octopus. One quintessential Progressive organization 
was the California Lincoln-Roosevelt League, initiated 
in 1907 by reform-minded Republicans. The league 
set out to free its party from railroad domination but 
also furthered Progressive goals such as the initiative, 
referendum, and recall statutes; public regulation of 
utilities and railroads; and the direct primary election. 
The league endorsed women's voting rights, providing 
the impulse for equal suffrage in California (the sixth 
state in the union to establish this, in 1911), as well 
as other Progressive issues, including minimum-wage 
laws, control of child labor, and the deterrence of 
alcoholism, gambling, and vice. 

Yet for all the efforts to extend democracy, the 
Progressive Era in California was tainted by campaigns 
of racial exclusion (as were earlier, presumably less- 
progressive times). Labor leaders and Progressive 

reformers together instituted the Asiatic Exclusion 
League in 1905, advocating such measures as school 
segregation and immigration restrictions. Resentment of 
the success of Japanese farmers led to the Alien Land 
Law Act of 1913, which forbade noncitizens from owning 
real property in the state. The California Dream and 
United States citizenship remained determinedly white. 
And while unions were strong in the Bay Area, fear of 
labor radicalism (especially following the 1910 bombing 
of the Los Angeles r;>?!ei- building) fostered an antiunion, 
"open-shop" attitude in L.A. that persists to this day." 

Throughout the booming 1920s, the difficult 
1930s, and the coming of war, California continued to 
attract people. In the decade of the 1920s, 2 million 
Americans became Californians, most of them settling 
in the Southland, and most of them from white 
Midwestern states. It was the greatest relative popula- 
tion increase of any decade in the state's history, and 
the most homogeneous in terms of origins. 

The motion picture industry — Hollywood! — 
did much to broadcast California's appeal." Begun in 
New York and San Francisco, production companies 
soon recognized that Southern California's landscapes 
and climate were ideal for moviemaking. No less than 
70 picture studios had established themselves in and 

"Ramona"-style pageant, 
San Gabriel Mission, early 
twentieth century 

Arnold Genthe 

Chinatown, San Francisco, 
1898, gelatin-silver print 

Pickford/Fairbanks Studios, 
Santa Monica Boulevard, 
Los Angeles, c. 1926 

Dorothea Longe 

Resettled, El Monte, 
California, 1936, gelatin- 
silver print 

around Hollywood by 1914. By the late 1920s, industry 
integration had given birth to the studio system, domi- 
nated by Paramount, Fox, mgm, Universal, Warner 
Brothers, and rko. For locals as well as tourists, it 
became increasingly difficult to see where movie fantasy 
stopped and the real world began." Certainly, the 
movies advertised a seductive lifestyle that became part 
of the mythos of California. Moviemaking occupied the 
streets and vacant lots of Los Angeles, even after pro- 
duction was consolidated in large studio-run facilities. 
The Industry also attracted filmmakers from Europe, 
who were often fleeing the rise of fascism, and spawned 
a tradition of artist-in-exile that was to indelibly stamp 
Southern California cultural life for the rest of the 
century." Immigrants typically wanted a single-family 
home in the suburbs, but decidedly not the urbanism 
that characterized the eastern and Midwestern cities 
from whence they came, and the homebuilding indus- 
try was determined to satisfy those needs. By 1930, 
Los Angeles housed 94 percent of its residents in single- 
family homes (the highest percentage in the nation)."" 
Another significant sponsor of suburbanization 
was the automobile, which simply accelerated the 
process already begun by suburban railways. The Auto- 
mobile Club of Southern California and the California 
State Automobile Association were both founded in 
1900. With the introduction of the relatively affordable 
Ford Model T, car ownership rose rapidly, but nowhere 
faster than in Los Angeles. By 1925, Los Angeles had 
one auto for every three people, more than twice the 
national average."' The automobile irrevocably altered 
the landscapes of California, not only with the hundreds 
of miles of paved roads and highways it demanded 
but also with the new social forms it inspired — the 

supermarket, drive-in theater, and flamboyant roadside 

Literally fueling this mass motorization were the 
region's abundant oil supplies. Oil had been found in 
Los Angeles in the early 1890s, provoking the steady 
development of exploration, refinery construction, and 
conversion from coal usage. But a series of exceptionally 
productive discoveries in the 1920s, accompanied by 
increasing demand, conspired to make California the 
nation's largest oil-producing state through the 1930s 
(including output from the legendary Signal Hill and 
the Tulare Basin in the south Central Valley). The state 
produced oil worth more than $2.5 billion during that 
decade, a half billion dollars more than all the gold ever 
mined in the state. Prospectors and property specula- 
tors tripped over each other in many L.A. subdivisions; 
suburbanites dug deep for oil in their own backyards. 
Yet by decade's end, the oil industry had faded in 
Southern California, and elsewhere in the state it had 
become consolidated into a few corporate entities."' 

The Great Depression brought about acute personal 
hardship, bitter labor struggles, and heightened racial 
antagonisms. San Francisco staggered under a 25 per- 
cent unemployment rate; Los Angeles's rate was 20 
percent. The 1934 General Strike in San Francisco, called 
in retaliation against the National Guard's violent sup- 
pression of the earlier International Longshoremen 

I ::t^A' , y\ -' 

Association's strike, was less than a success. In L.A., city 
officials and Anglo workers blamed Mexican workers 
for their troubles. In 1930, a "repatriation" effort was 
begun, which ultimately returned to Mexico one-third 
of the city's Mexican and Mexican American popula- 
tions (approximately 35,000 people). It was also during 
this time that 300,000 poverty-stricken Midwestern 
farmers arrived in California and transformed the 
state's farm labor force. They came from the Dust Bowl 
regions, largely between 1935 and 1939, and quickly 
acquired the generic name "Okies." They came at a time 
when growers faced the possibility of rising wages for 
the first time in many years, and their willingness to 
accept low pay kept farm wages down, undercut union 
efforts, and displaced Mexican farm laborers for years 
to come." 

Ultimately, it was federal money invested in 
New Deal projects that began to pull the state out of 
depression. The Civilian Conservation Corps, the 
Works Progress Administration, and many other public- 
works projects created a state infrastructure that has 
endured as both the material and mental underpin- 
nings of the California Dream. Along with such familiar 
monuments as the Golden Gate and San Francisco- 
Oakland Bay bridges, federal agencies oversaw construc- 
tion of the Colorado River project (including the 
Hoover Dam), which brought water to sustain Southern 
California's urban growth." Then World War 11 erupted 
in Europe. 

California was well positioned to supply the 
nation for war. In 1919, the U.S. Navy had divided its 
newly modernized and enlarged fleet, sending half to 
the West Coast and thereby triggering a nervous 
struggle among West Coast ports as to who would get 
what. San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Vallejo, 
and Seattle battled furiously for naval bases, but also 
for the potential of revitalized merchant marine and 
shipbuilding industries. This particular conflation of 
national politics (Senator James D. Phelan led the 
charge in Washington, D.C., to ensure that the West 
Coast got its share of the Navy spoils), unstoppable 
urban growth, and city-father hucksterism ultimately 
created what historian Roger Lotchin called "Fortress 


Planning Your Victory Vacation in Southern Californit 

More than $35 billion in public monies were sunk 
into California industries during World War II, roughly 
10 percent of all government funds. Fueled by fear of a 
Japanese invasion following the attack on Pearl Harbor, 
this investment sparked not only strong economic 
recovery in California, but also a tremendous expansion 
in scientific and technological enterprises. Some 
referred to it as the "Second Gold Rush."" In Northern 
California, shipbuilding was dominant; the Kaiser ship- 
yards in the East Bay suburb of Richmond employed 
tens of thousands of workers constructing warships in 
record time. In the south, the aircraft industry 
employed more than half the aircraft workers in the 
nation. These wartime industries drew large numbers 
of women into the labor force for the first time and 
intensified migration by African Americans." In 1940, 
African Americans composed only 1.8 percent of the 
state's population; by 1950, this proportion had risen to 
4.3 percent. 

The rapid pace of in-migration plus war-initiated 
shortages created social problems and exacerbated 
racial antagonisms. A dearth of affordable housing, 
aggravated by discrimination in housing markets. 

How a Playground Goes to 
Mar!, brochure, 1943. Lent by 

Michael Dear 

Participants in the Bracero 
program awaiting final roll 
call and distribution of 
identification papers, Mexico, 

solidified the tendency toward racially segregated 
communities throughout California."' During the 1943 
Zoot Suit riots in Los Angeles, hundreds of white ser- 
vicemen attacked flamboyantly dressed Mexican youths 
because the Anglos interpreted their garb as disloyal. 
Police arrested the zoot-suiters for disturbing the 
peace." Long-standing racial prejudice and wartime 
fears for national security led also to the internment of 
more than 100,000 people of Japanese descent, two- 
thirds of whom were American citizens. For the dura- 
tion of the war, many Japanese Californians found 
themselves in isolated camps set in some of the more 
desolate parts of the Mojave Desert, the eastern Sierras, 
and elsewhere.^' 

After 1945, a long period of economic prosperity 
settled upon California. The Cold War and the conflicts 
in Korea and Vietnam prompted continuing high levels 
of defense-related expenditures. By i960, aerospace 
industries employed 70 percent of San Diego's and 60 
percent of Los Angeles's manufacturing workers. Such 
growth, together with further diversification in employ- 
ment patterns, pushed population to new heights. 
California became the 
nation's most populous state 
in 1962, passing New York, 
having grown from 6.9 
million in 1940 to 15.7 mil- 
T- - lion in two short decades. 

Prosperity fueled social 
experimentation. The Beat 
writers congregated in 
San Francisco during the 
1950s, establishing an intel- 
lectual counterculture based 
on pacifism, radicalism, 
and experimentalism that 
fundamentally informed the student movements of the 
following decade. Republican governor Earl Warren 
(and his Democratic successor, Edmund G. Brown) 
used much of the state's postwar budget surplus to 
create a model higher-education system in California. 

Needless to say, the postwar boom did not 
benefit everyone equally. Under the provisions of the 
wartime Emergency Farm Labor Program, an agreement 

negotiated with the Mexican government often known 
as the Bracero program, Mexican workers were to be 
offered contracts with guaranteed wages, housing, and 
health care. Kept in operation until 1964, the bracero 
effort never lived up to its ideals, in part because it was 
constantly undermined by the continuing high demand 
for labor, which encouraged unofficial immigration 
from Mexico. When in 1952 the U.S. government 
sponsored "Operation Wetback" to stall unauthorized 
crossings from south of the border, California encoun- 
tered an ironic situation whereby one government 
agency was recruiting foreign workers while another 
was turning them away. 

The decade of the 1960s became the contradic- 
tory apex of prosperity and protest in California." 
The Free Speech Movement at Berkeley adopted tactics 
of the civil rights movement to provoke confrontations 
on academic freedom and students' rights. Intensified 
by opposition to the Vietnam War, the movement's 
tactics escalated toward more violent expressions of 
civil disobedience. At the same time, however, a more 
pacifist hippie counterculture carried on the Beat 
traditions, and experimentation with psychedelic drugs 
became a rite of passage for California youth (and 
copycats the world over). But students and young 
people were not the only ones who took to the streets in 
the 1960s. Cesar Chavez led one of the most successful 
attempts to organize California farmworkers. Gaining 
the support of an ethnically diverse pool of workers, 
Chavez combined the traditional goals of higher wages, 
better living conditions, and improved benefits with 
innovative techniques of coalition building and organ- 
ized boycotts. In his most famous and ingenious 
campaign, Chavez expanded the Delano grape strike in 
1965 by calling for a nationwide boycott of table grapes. 
This strategy not only netted national publicity for 
La Causa but also pressured growers to accede to union 

The most telling indicator that all was not well 
with the good ship California was the Watts riots of 
1965." Proposition 14 had been approved by a margin 
of two to one by predominantly Anglo voters in 1964. 
This revoked the Rumford Act of 1963, which banned 
racial discrimination in housing, and would have 


" I 

curtailed desegregation efforts had it not been declared 
unconstitutional in later years. For African Americans in 
South Central Los Angeles, the passage of Proposition 
14 was the last straw in an ongoing legacy of discrimina- 
tion. Between 1940 and 1964, L.A.'s African American 
population had grown from 40,000 to nearly 650,000. 
At the same time, residential opportunities had not 
expanded far beyond the crowded streets of South 
Central. Following arrests and persistent rumors of 
police brutality, violent clashes broke out between 
police and African Americans, leaving $40 million in 
property damage and thirty-four people dead, all but 
three black. Before the six days of rioting were over, a 
National Guard force of 13,900 had been deployed to 
restore order. In the aftermath of Watts, a more militant 
black power movement emerged, most notably with the 
establishment of the Black Panther party in Oakland. 
Founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale, the 
Panthers couched black power in a rhetoric of socialism 
and armed resistance. 

Another reaction to student activism was a wave 
of political conservatism. In this atmosphere, former 
actor Ronald Reagan emerged as standard-bearer for 
the Republican Party. Serving as California governor 
between 1967 and 1974, Reagan began to implement 
widely promised campaign goals to cut taxes and roll 
back government. At the time of his election, the 
Los Angeles-San Diego corridor was home to 41 percent 
of the state's population, as against the Bay Area's 15 
percent. And more than 90 percent of the state's resi- 
dents lived in metropolitan areas (increasingly the sub- 
urban counties), making California the nation's most 
urbanized as well as its most populous state. 

The passage of Proposition 13 in 1978 marked a water- 
shed in post-World War II California politics. In 
journalist Peter Schrag's words, it separated "that 
period of postwar optimism, with its huge investment 
in public infrastructure and its strong commitment 
to the development of quality education systems and 

other public services, and a generation of declining 
confidence and shrinking public services."" Since 1978, 
he asserts, Californians have been involved in a "nearly 
constant revolt against representative government."" 

The initiative, referendum, and recall mecha- 
nisms that enabled Proposition 13 had been in place 
since 1911, when Progressive Era reformers were looking 
for ways to curtail the excesses of a state government 
dominated by a handful of powerful interests, especially 
the Southern Pacific Railroad. For most of the twentieth 
century these checks were used sparingly, until 1978, 
when Proposition 13 (sponsored by Howard Jarvis and 
Paul Gann) initiated a tax revolt that changed the prac- 
tice of California politics to this day 

Proposition 13 was basically designed to cut state 
and local property taxes. In this it was successful; in just 
four years the state and local tax burden was lowered 
by more than 25 percent." Local officials sought to 
replace lost revenues with new fees and service charges. 
California's public schools began a path of decline from 
which they have yet to recover. Ironically, about one 

Restricted housing tract, 
Los Angeles, c. 1950 

National Guardsmen during 
the Watts riots, 1965 


Common Threads Artists 

"Guess Who Pockets the 
Difference?" poster, 1995 

quarter of the $50 billion that Californians "saved" 
during the first five years of Proposition 13 was returned 
to the federal government through personal and corpo- 
rate income taxes. 

The Proposition 13-induced squeeze on tax 
revenues and public services began to bite just when 
the state was undergoing a demographic transition of 
major proportions and entering a period of economic 
uncertainty that would culminate in the recession of 
the early 1990s. No one yet understands the precise 
interconnections among these three events, but their 
combined impacts on California have been breath- 
taking. By 1962, 110 years after statehood, California 
had become the nation's most populous state, with 17.5 
million inhabitants. It took only thirty-five more years 
to double that figure. A large proportion of this enor- 
mous expansion was fueled by international migration. 
Changes in immigration quotas, culminating in the 


who pockets 

the difference? 

1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, allowed 
2.5 million illegal entrants to become legal citizens; 
it also radically altered the complexion of new immi- 
grants. After 1970, the white share of the state's popula- 
tion dropped precipitously (from three-quarters to 
one-half); people of Latino and Asian origins tripled 
their share; and the African American population 
remained at about 7 percent. During these decades, 
nonwhites began to play an increasingly active role in 
state and local politics. 

Simultaneously, the California economy under- 
went a series of wrenching changes that became very 
visible during the 1980s and 1990s, even though the seeds 
of change had taken root in earlier decades. The dein- 
dustrialization phenomenon closed manufacturing 

plants across the nation, most affecting car manufacture, 
steel production, and other heavy industries. California's 
adjustment trauma was exacerbated by a decline in 
defense-related expenditures that severely depleted 
employment opportunities in aircraft manufacture, ship- 
building, and ancillary industries. Between 1991 and 1994 
(when economic recovery began) California experienced 
a net domestic out-migration of over 600,000 people, 
unprecedented in its history. 

In place of manufacturing, service industries 
sprouted overnight all over the state, including retailing, 
information and financial services, and similar activities 
that some view as characteristic of a "postindustrial" 
society. The most fabled success story of this economic 
restructuring was, of course, Silicon Valley.^' But many 
other places, especially in Southern California (the 
"Silicon Coast"), enjoyed the benefits of the computer 
revolution." However, California boosters often over- 
look the darker side of this high-tech boom. Many 
high-skill, high-wage jobs were being created, but there 
was an even larger explosion of low-wage, low-skill 
jobs. For example, apparel manufacturing (often involv- 
ing sweatshop conditions) employs twice as many 
people as computer manufacturing; and agriculture 
and canning engage 400,000 workers, more than all the 
high-tech manufacturers combined.'" As a result, the 
"new" California economy is increasingly polarized 
between rich and poor. The rising tide of homelessness, 
first noticed in the early 1980s, is a direct result of this 
recession and restructuring." In addition, the federal 
government's radical undoing of the nation's welfare 
programs during the 1990s hit California's major cities 
especially hard. 

Many dark clouds conspired to hide the warm 
glow brought about by the state's much-vaunted 
economic recovery. A persistent mean-spiritedness was 
evident in the parade of ballot initiatives that infested 
the political process since the 1978 tax revolt. In 1990, 
Proposition 140's tight legislative term limits inspired a 
game of "musical seats" among state and local politi- 
cians. Proposition 187 (1994) brought back echoes of a 
century-long xenophobia, with its denial of schooling to 
children of undocumented immigrants and their exclu- 
sion from virtually all other public services. Proposition 

209 (the confusingly titled 1996 "California Civil Rights 
Initiative") prohibited affirmative action in public edu- 
cation, contracting, and employment. While many of 
the propositions' specifics remain subject to challenge 
in the courts, government by initiative is now firmly 
ensconced as part of the political artillery of advocates 
of all political persuasions in California." 

According to Peter Schrag, California shifted 
from being "a national model of high civic investment 
and engagement" in the 1950s and 1960s, to become 
"a lodestar of tax reduction and disinvestment" in the 
1980s and 1990s." The single most important dynamic 
in this transition was Proposition 13, and perhaps its 
most emblematic moment occurred when Orange 
County declared bankruptcy on December 6, 1994. Local 
voters adamantly refused to approve even a modest tax 
increase to bail themselves out.'" 

Since 1769, California's history has been an ongoing 
narrative about conquest and immigration, about 
resources and development. Grabbed by the United 
States in search of its Manifest Destiny, the state of 
California was, quite literally, bulldozed by its long 
twentieth century. At breath-snatching speed, in a spec- 
tacular succession of material and metaphysical revolu- 
tions, the Golden State was transformed first by gold, 
then by green gold (agriculture), black gold (oil), gun- 
metal gold (defense contracts), and now e-gold (high 
technology). With hindsight, we can recognize that a 
new kind of society was in the making at the continent's 
isolated edge, brought about by a resdess collision 

between peoples and place. As the twenty-first century 
dawns, the rules are changing again. The state's multiple 
charismas of nature, wealth, diversity, and countercul- 
ture fold into one another to create an incandescent 
galaxy of inventiveness and experimentation. At the 
same time, however, one cannot escape Joan Didion's 
prescient and oft-quoted reminder about California: 

The mind is troubled by some buried but ineradicable 
suspicion that things had better work here, because 
here, beneath that immense bleached sky, is where we 
run out of continent.^^ 

California has been a remarkably lucky island. 
Throughout its American century, the state has avoided 
the principal depredations of the past one hundred 
years — that "most murderous" of centuries with its 
dour record of war, famine, and genocide." Now, as 
the global geopolitical balance shifts starkly from the 
Adantic to the Pacific Ocean, California is poised to 
become the capital of America's Pacific Rim. 

It goes almost without saying that California is 
a test bed for a new kind of American society. Even as a 
Proposition 13 mentality persists, the state remains at 
the forefront of the nation's environmental conscious- 
ness, its voters elected two women to the United States 
Senate, and a revitalized labor movement looks to 
California for its lead. The precise architecture of the 
twenty-first century's social contract remains to be 
uncovered, but one of its principal determinants is 
already abundantly clear: the Latinization of the state, 
most evident in many Southern California cities 

Los Angeles Fine Arts Squad 

(Victor Henderson and 
Terry Schoonhoven) 
Isle of California, 1973, 
pencil and acrylic on 

(including Los Angeles) where Latinos are now the 
majority ethnic group." This demographic shift 
perhaps represents the ultimate legacy of the Treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo — a peaceful reconquest of Alta 

The search for California's twenty-first century 
commenced with the 1992 civil unrest in Los Angeles 
that followed the announcement of the Rodney King 
verdicts." Much has been written about these events, 
the worst urban violence in an American city during the 
twentieth century. Some have interpreted the clashes 
as a continuation of leftover business from the 1965 
Watts riots, and certainly racism, poverty, and discrimi- 
nation played their parts. Others have regarded 1992 
not as a "riot" but as an "uprising" by a constellation of 
marginalized minorities, prefiguring an emergent, 
reconstituted social order. The truth is most probably 
somewhere between; the events of 1992 were both a 
residual bitterness and a novel political hybrid. The cry 
of "No justice, no peace" that greeted the King verdicts 
was an expression of rage at a manifest injustice. But 
the multiculturalism of those who participated in the 
unrest plus the reconstructive efforts that followed are 
indicative of something different, something positive. 

Californians remain alert to Wallace Stegner's 
challenge to create a civilization worthy of its setting, 
but time and space are running out. The Southern 
California megalopolis, extending from Santa Barbara 
across the international border into Baja and landward 
to the Inland Empire, is already a single urban system. 
It is an ecosocial hybrid based on no single heritage; 
it can be defined only on its own terms; and it is the 
city of the future." And our Golden State is no longer 
an isolated margin but, instead, the geographical pivot 
of America's Pacific century. No longer an exception 
to the rules governing urban development, it is instead 
the prototype of a burgeoning multicultural, urban 
America. Watch California. Ready or not, it is the shape 
of things to come. 

1 See Joshua Paddison, ed., A World 
Transformed: Firsthand Accounti of California 
before the Gold Rush (Berkeley: Heyday 
Books, 1999), intro. The Uterature on 
California's history is large and increasingly 
rich. Kevin Starr's five volumes are indispen- 
sable: Americans and the California Dream, 
1850-1915 (1973); Inventing the Dream: 
California through the Progressive Era (1985); 
Material Dreams: Southern California through 
the J9J0S (1990); Endangered Dreams: Tlie 
Great Pi-prcffion in I ,i///,>M//,i ( 1996); and The 
Drciiii I iiilurcy ( nUfouiui I iih-n. ihc 1940s 
(1997) (New York; Oxford University Press). 

2 J. S. HoUiday, Rush for Riches: Gold Fever 
and the Making of California (Berkeley: 
Oakland Museum of California and 
University of California Press, 1999), chap. 1. 

3 A careful accounting of the impact of 
colonization on the indigenous populations 
of Alta California is to be found in Robert H. 
Jackson and Edward Castillo, Indians, 
Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization: The 
Impact of the Mission System on California 
Indians (Albuquerque: University of 

New Mexico Press, 1995). See also Lillian 
McCawley, Tlie First Angelenos: The Gabrielino 
Indians of Los Angeles (Banning: Malki 
Museum Press and Ballena Press, 1996). 

4 See Lisbeth Haas, Conquest and Historical 
Identities in California, 1769-1936 (Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press, 1955), 2-3,30-32, 37. 

5 Ibid., 26-28, 43. 

6 The significance of immigration on 
Californian identity is discussed by Doyce B. 
Nunis Jr., "Alta California's Trojan Horse: 
Foreign Immigration," in Ramon A. Gutierrez 
and Richard J. Orsi, eds.. Contested Eden: 
California before the Gold Rush (Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1998), chap. 11. 

7 Richard Henry Dana Jr., Two Years before 
the Mast {New York: Penguin Books, 1981), 
quoted and discussed in Paddison, A World 
Transformed, 202. 

8 The treaty and its legacy are well docu- 
mented in Richard Griswold del Castillo, 
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: A Legacy of 
Conflict (Norman: University of Oklahoma 
Press, 1990). 

9 Haas, Conquest and Historical Identities, 63, 
67. 77- 

10 Ibid., 57-61- 

u Leonard Pitt, The Decline of the 
Californios: A Social History of the Spanish- 
Speaking Californians, 1846-1890 (1966; 
reprint, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University 
of California Press, 1998), 52-53- 

12 Quoted in Holliday, Rush for Riches, 171. 

13 A thorough history of the transformation 
of Y'erba Buena is Roger W. Lotchin, 

San Francisco, 1846-1856: From Hamlet to 
City (1974; reprint, Urbana: University of 
Illinois Press, 1998). 

14 Mel Scott, The San Francisco Bay Area: 
A Metropolis in Perspective ( Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1985). 73- 

15 Richard A. Walker, "California's Golden 
Road to Riches: Natural Resources and 
Regional Capitalism, 1848-1940," Annals of 
the American Association of Geographers 
(in press). 

U Carey McWilliams, Califonmi: The 
Great Exception (1949; reprint, Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1999). 25- See also his classic account Si'iilhcni 
California: An Island on the Land ( 1946; 
reprint. Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith 
Books, 1973). 

17 Quoted in Holliday, Rmh for Riches, 29. 

18 Ibid. 

19 Ibid., 227. 

20 Walker, "California's tioldon Road to 
Riches," 25. 

21 Holliday, Rush for Riches, chap. 7. 

22 William Fulton, California: Land and 
Legacy (Englewood, Colo.: Westcliffe 
Publishers, 1998), 44. 

23 Stephen lohnson, Cerald Haslam, and 
Robert Dawson, The Great Central Valley: 
California's Heartland (Berkeley and 

Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1993). 41- 

24 Holliday, Rush for Riches, ijy. 

25 Ibid. 

26 For a brief history of the railroad in 
Northern California, see Holliday, Rush for 
Riches, 229-43; for California as a whole 
the standard account is William Deverell, 
Railroad Crossing: Californians and the 
Railroad, 1850-1910 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1994). The 
anti-Chinese movement is recounted in 
Alexander Saxton, The Indispensable Enemy: 
Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in 
California (1971; reprint, Berkeley and 

Los Angeles: University of California Press, 

27 Johnson, Haslam, and Dawson, The Great 
Central Valley, 41. 

28 Fulton, California, 46. 

29 Quoted in Johnson, Haslam, and Dawson, 
The Great Central Valley, 47. 

30 For a classic account of water in the 
American West, consult Marc Reisner, 
Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its 
Disappearing Water, rev. ed. (New York: 
Penguin Books, 1993). See also Donald 
Worster, Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and 
the Growth of the American West (New York: 
Pantheon Books, 1985). 

31 Johnson, Haslam, and Dawson, The Great 
Central Valley, 45. 

32 Pitt, The Decline of the Calfornios, 249. 

33 Edward W. Soja and Allen J. Scott, 
"Introduction to Los Angeles: City and 
Region," in Allen J. Scott and Edward W. Soja, 
eds., The City: Los Angeles and Urban Theory 
at the End of the Twentieth Century {Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press, 1996), chap. 1. 

34 Phoebe S. Kropp, "'There is a little 
sermon in that': Constructing the Native 
Southwest at the San Diego Panama- 
California Exposition of 1915," in Marta 
Weigle and Barbara A. Babcock, eds.. The 
Great Southwest of the Fred Harvey Company 
and the Santa Fe Railway (Phoenix: Heard 
Museum, 1996), 36-46. 

35 For a sweeping perspective on land devel- 
opment in California during the twentieth 
century, see Stephanie S. Pincetl, 
Transforming California: A Political History 
of Land Use and Dcve/opm(?«f (Bahimore: 
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999). 

The case of Southern California in the late 

twentieth century is dramatically invoked 
by Mike Davis, Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles 
and the Imagination of Disaster (New York: 
Metropolitan Books, 1998). 

36 ("alifornia's Progressive Era is reviewed in 
William Deverell and Tom Sitton, eds., 
California Progressivism Revisited (ViCxV.c\cy 
and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press, 1994); for the case of Southern 
California the authoritative account is Mike 
Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future of 
Los Angeles (New York: Verso Books, 1990). 

37 A good overview of the culture and 
history of Hollywood is provided by Richard 
Maltby, Hollywood Cinema (Oxford: 
Blackwell Publishers, 1995). 

38 For one quirky account of Hollywood 
urbanism, see Creg Williams, The Story of 
Hollywoodland {Los, Angeles: Papavasilopoulos 
Press, 1992). 

39 See, for instance, Stephanie Barron, et al.. 
Exiles and Emigres: The Flight of European 
Artists from Hitler {Los Angeles: Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 1997). 

40 The classic narratives of the birth of 
Los Angeles urbanism in the early twentieth 
century are Robert M. Fogelson, The 
Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850-1930 
(1967; reprint, Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1993); and 
Greg Hise, Magnetic Los Angeles: Planning the 
Twentieth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 
University Press, 1997). An excellent account 
of San Francisco's urban history is by Gray 
Brechin, Imperial San Francisco: Urban Power, 
Earthly Ruin (Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1999). See 
also Philip J. Ethington, The Public City: The 
Political Construction of Urban Life in San 
Francisco, 1850-1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, 1994). 

41 Scott Bottles, Los Angeles and the 
Automobile: The Making of the Modern City 
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of 
California Press, 1987). 

42 Two excellent accounts of the architectural 
consequences of automobilization are those 
by Richard Longstreth, City Center to 
Regional Mall: Architecture, the Automobile, 
and Retaihng in Los Angeles, 1920-1950 
(Cambridge: mit Press, 1997); and The Drive- 
in, the Supermarket, and the Transformation 
of Commercial Space in Los Angeles, 1914-1941 
(Cambridge: mix Press, 1999). 

43 A colorful history of the oil era in 
Southern California is by Jules Tygiel, 
The Great Los Angeles Swindle: Oil, Stocks, 
and Scandal during the Roaring Twenties 
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1994). 

44 On Mexican repatriation and the Okies, 
I recommend the following: Francisco E. 
Balderrama and Raymond Rodriguez, 
Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation 
in the 1930s (Albuquerque: University of 
New Mexico Press, 1995); and James Gregory, 
American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration 
and Okie Culture in California (New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1989). 

45 The progress and legacy of the New Deal 
in Southern California's landscapes is 
reported in Starr, Endangered Dreams, chaps. 

46 See Roger W. Lotchin, Fortress California, 
1910-1961: From Warfare to Welfare (New York: 

Oxford University Press, 1992). 

47 Marilynn S. lohnson. The Second Gold 
Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World 
War // (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University 
of California Press, 1993). 

48 For a brief account of the Bay Area's war 
industries, see Scott, The San Francisco Bay 
Area, chap. 15; also Johnson, The Second 
Gold Rush. 

49 A beautifully illustrated and wide-ranging 
account of the impact of wartime on the 
built environment of California is the collec- 
tion of essays in Donald Albrecht, ed.. 
World War II and the American Dream: 
How Wartime Building Changed a Nation 
(Washington, D.C.: National Building 
Museum and mit Press, 1995). 

50 The standard account of the Mexican 
experience in Southern California is George J. 
Sanchez, Becoming Mexican American: 
Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano 
Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (New York: Oxford 
University Press, 1993). 

51 See Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a 
Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans 
(New York: Penguin Books, 1989), chap. 10. 

52 A brief account of the Bay Area in the 
1960s is Charles Wollenberg, Golden Gate 
Metropolis: Perspectives on Bay Area History 

{ Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies, 
1985), chap. 19. A provocative and engaging 
reappraisal of the legacy of this era is con- 
tained in James Brook, Chris Carlsson, 
and Nancy J. Peters, eds.. Reclaiming 
San Francisco: History, Politics, and Culture 
(San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1998). 

53 See Pincetl, Transforming California, 
chaps. 4-5. 

54 An interesting perspective on this well- 
documented event is by David Wyatt, Five 
Fires: Race, Catastrophe, and the Shaping of 
California (New York: Oxford University 
Press, 1997), chap. 8. 

55 Peter Schrag, Paradise Lost: California's 
Experience, America's Future (New York: 
New Press, 1998), 10. Schrag's is the most pen- 
etrating account of this period in California 

56 Ibid. 

57 A comprehensive balance sheet of 
Proposition 13's first five years is drawn up by 
Terry Schwadron and Paul Richter, California 
and the American Tax Revolt: Proposition 13 
Five Years Laftr (Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1984). 

58 The best scholarly account of what went 
into producing Silicon Valley is by AnnaLee 
Saxenian, Regional Advantage: Culture and 
Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994). 

59 An influential analysis of Southern 
California's "technopoles" is by Allen J. Scott, 
Technopolis: High-Technology Industry and 
Regional Development in Southern California 
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of 
California Press, 1993). 

60 Schrag, Paradise Lost, 113. 

61 The connection between global forces and 
local outcomes in the case of homelessness 
in Los Angeles is explored by Jennifer Wolch 
and Michael Dear, Malign Neglect: Homeless- 
ness in an American City (San Francisco: 
lossey-Bass, 1993). 

62 Once again, let me recommend Schrag's 

Paradise Lost as the best overview of "propo- 
sition politics" in late-twentieth-century 

63 Ibid., 275. 

64 A useful retelling of the Orange County 
bankruptcy is Mark Baldassare, When 
Government Fails: The Orange County 
Bankruptcy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1998). 

65 Joan Didion, Slouching toward Bethlehem 
(New York: Noonday Press, 1990), 172. 

66 The phrase is from Eric Hobsbawm, 
The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 
1914-1991 (New York: Vintage Books, 1994), 
one of the most insightful (if somewhat pes- 
simLstic) histories of the twentieth century 
yet to appear. 

67 The Latinization of Los Angeles is dis- 
cussed in Gustavo Leclerc, Raiil Villa, and 
Michael Dear, eds.. Urban Latino Cultures: 
La vida latina en L.A. (Thousand Oaks: Sage 
Publications, 1999). 

68 For a detailed appraisal of the genesis 
and impact of the Rodney King beating, 
trials, and aftermath see Lou Cannon, 
Official Negligence: How Rodney King and 
the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the lapd 
(New York: Times Books, 1997). 

69 There is much debate about California's 
urban future. See, for example, Michael Dear, 
The Postmodern Urban Condition (Oxford: 
Blackwell Publishers, 2000), as well as the 
collections of essays in Scott and Soja, The 
City, and Michael Dear, H. Eric Schockman, 
and Greg Hise, eds.. Rethinking Los Angeles 
(Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1996). 


I am grateful to friends at lacma for inviting 
me to become engaged in this project, espe- 
cially Stephanie Barron, Paul Holdengraber, 
and Sheri Bernstein. Thomas Frick, Nola 
Butler, and Garrett White provided useful 
guidance that assisted me in the preparation 
of this essay. I am especially indebted to 
Phoebe Kropp, who prepared many docu- 
ments and materials that both informed and 
challenged my understanding. Thanks also 
to Greg Hise, Selma Holo, Gustavo Leclerc, 
Aandrea Stang, Kevin Starr, Dick Walker, and 
Jennifer Wolch, whose advice and comments 
transformed my understanding of our 
Golden State, and this essay. Dallas Dishman 
assisted in preparing images; I am grateful 
to all those who granted permission for us to 
use them. None of the individuals mentioned 
in this note is responsible for any errors or 
interpretive aberrations that may adorn 
this essay. 






Sheri Bernstein 

Crate label for £1 Capitan 
brand oranges, San Dimas 
Orange Growers Associotior 
n.d. Lent by the McClelland 

California officially became the Golden State in the 1960s, but its image in 
the popular imagination was never more singularly golden than during the 
first two decades of the twentieth century. Nor did the arts ever play a 
more pivotal role in the gilding of California. With remarkably few excep- 
tions, artists and writers from the turn of the 
century through the 1910s, along with California's 
promoters in industry, regional government, and 
the press, embraced a vision of the state as the 
quintessential Garden of America, an unspoiled 
and bountiful paradise. This powerful Edenic 
vision has proven even more enduring than the 
notion of the Wild West associated with the Gold 
Rush period. It lies at the heart of myriad booster 
images — used here to mean propagandistically 
positive conceptions, often serving the interests 
of the white mainstream — that to varying 
degrees have persisted in shaping popular visions 
of the state and in influencing artistic production 
to the present day. 

On first consideration it might seem 
curious that an expressly premodern, Edenic 
conception of California was so pervasive from 
1900 through the 1910s, given that significant 
portions of the state, like other areas in the coun- 
try, had already experienced or were then in the 
throes of urbanization and industrial develop- 
ment. San Francisco was already a considerable 
metropolis of 343,000 at the turn of the century, 
growing to 500,000 by 1920; Los Angeles's popu- 
lation mushroomed from 102,000 in 1900 to 
over 550,000 in 1920, with a 100 percent increase 
in manufacturing registered between 1900 and 
1910 alone.' 

The droves of white middle-class tourists 
and new residents then descending on California — 
many of whom were Midwesterners leaving their 
farms to resettle in cities^ — had a psychological 
need to see the region as free of the complexities 
and ills of modern life. Newcomers were often of 
retirement age and sought to enjoy their final days 
leisurely in a private bungalow in the sun. Many 

of the region's copious tourists — the word tourist 
was probably coined in Southern California 
during the nineteenth century' — were looking 
for a healthful respite from the frantic pace and 
ubiquitous grime of everyday urban living. It is 
understandable, then, that the state's transporta- 
tion, tourist, and agricultural industries, its 
chambers of commerce, and its powerful individ- 
ual boosters exerted enormous effort to present 
white Midwestern audiences with precisely the 
idyllic images of California they craved, even 
amid the massive development of the region. 
Promises of personal well-being and financial 
prosperity were among the most popular and 
effective selling strategies. "Oranges for Health — 
California for Wealth," the slogan for a 1907 pro- 
motional campaign organized by the California 
Fruit Growers Exchange and financed by the 
Southern Pacific Railroad to attract lowans, is 
a typical example." 

At times the sunny, boosterist conceptions 
of California had explicitly racist overtones. 
One of the region's unwavering proponents, 
Massachusetts-born newspaperman and 
Southwest Museum founder Charles Fletcher 
Lummis, championed Southern California in his 
widely read magazine. Land of Sunshine (later 
renamed Out West), as "the new Eden of the 
Saxon home-seeker." Further, he boasted of 
Los Angeles in 1895 that "the ignorant, hopelessly 
un-American type of foreigner which infests and 
largely controls Eastern cities is almost unknown 
here."^ Indeed, for many of the new Anglo 
arrivals, the image of California as unaffected by 
the massive immigration from southern and 
eastern Europe then changing the complexion of 
the country's major East Coast and Midwestern 
urban centers was a strong attraction. While it 
is true that California was home to few European 
immigrants during these years, its urban popula- 
tion was in fact quite heterogeneous ethnically. 

1 9 B > The Automobile Club of Southern California is formed. > Suspicions of an outbreak of bubonic plague in San Francisco's Chinatown lead health officials to quarantine all Chinese living in a seven-bli 

California for the Settler, 
brochure produced by the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, 
1911. Lent bytheSeaver 
Center for Western History 

©(Q)ig<3?2!I^1^SI IPMJ^'S.WE'm 

with sizable numbers of Mexicans, Japanese, 
and African Americans in Los Angeles and a 
large community of Chinese in San Francisco.' 
Generally, however, the California image pro- 
mulgated by boosters was ostensibly more 
benign than Lummis's, aimed at enticing the 
broadest possible spectrum of the populace. 

To a considerable degree, as Susan 
Landauer has persuasively argued with respect 
to plein air landscape painting in Southern 
California, artists of the period participated 
either consciously or unconsciously in this 
discourse of California boosterism.' Reasons 
for this are easy to come by. First, many of the 
artists were themselves newcomers to the 
state — most of the plein air painters, for exam- 
ple, were recent arrivals from the Midwest and 
the East — and were undoubtedly swayed in 
their perceptions of the region by the same 
promotional strategies that had attracted others. 
Second, from a more practical standpoint, 
there was a staggering market for such images, 
both regionally and nationally One of the most 
insightful and prescient commentators on the 
state, journalist and lawyer Carey McWilliams, 
remarked that "many of [the Southern 
California painters] saw the region through 
glasses colored by subsidies."* The Southern 
Pacific and Santa Fe railroads sponsored trips 
for numerous artists in exchange for scenic 
paintings and photographs of the California 

landscape that could be exhibited in railway 
stations across the country. Moreover, the state's 
two most important promotional magazines — 
Sunset, founded in San Francisco in 1898 by the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, and Lummis's Land of 
Sunshine, financed by the Los Angeles Chamber 
of Commerce — often featured work by artists 
and writers that glorified the California land- 
scape. In addition, many of the newly con- 
structed tourist hotels, including the Hotel 
Del Coronado in San Diego, the Hotel Del Monte 
in Monterey, and the Mission Inn in Riverside, 
boasted their own art galleries and regularly 
held exhibitions seen by tourists and locals that 
featured landscape paintings. Without question, 
then, there was a healthy demand for scenic, 
picturesque views of California. 

Conversely, no real market existed for 
images that pictured the state in urban terms, 
which might have paralleled work then being 
produced on the East Coast, such as the Ashcan 
School's gritty scenes of New York City life. The 
comparatively few urban images of California 
produced during these years were principally 
photographs, often depicting the devastation 
wreaked by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. 
Even William Coulter's highly anomalous paint- 
ing of the fire that accompanied the earthquake 
and consumed the city is ultimately a coastal 
scene rather than an urban one. Moreover, 
although this depiction initially appears apoca- 
lyptic, with smoke dramatically billowing from 
the shore and blackening the sky. Coulter's 
intention was to put a positive spin on the 
catastrophe. His subject is San Francisco's suc- 
cessful maritime rescue of more than 30,000 
of its residents from the flaming city.' 

The Chinese Merchants' Association reassures frightened tourists. > California Camera Club begins publication of Camera Craft. > Katherine Tingley, known as the Purple Mother, moves headquarters of the 

Dana and Towers William A. Coulter 

Photography Studio San Francisco Burning, 

"121 Looking East on Market April 18, 1906, 1907, oil 

Street, 1906, gelatm-silver canvas 

Theosophical Society to Point Loma, on San Diego Bay. > 19 1 > Henr;/ Huntington organizes Pacific Electric Railway Company, a new interurban transit system. In Los flngeles the trains are called Red Cars. 

John O'Sheo 

The Madrone, 1921, oil on 

Guy Rose 

The Old Oak Tree, 
oil on canvas 

Marion (Kavonoufh) Wochtel 

Sunset Clouds "5, 1904, 
wotercolor on paper 

Oscar Maurer 

Eucalyptus Grove Silhouetted 
against a Cloudy Sky, Golden 
Gate Park, San Francisco, 
c. 1915, gelatin-silver print 

Gustave Boumann 

VJindswept Sucalpytu 
C.1929, color woodci 

In addition to perpetuating an escapist, 
premodern vision of California that eschewed 
regional realities as well as monumental interna- 
tional events such as World War I, scenic 
California images of this period share other 
traits. Compared with nineteenth-century 
California landscapes, generally grand panoramic 
vistas intended to communicate nature's sublim- 
ity, early-twentieth-century variants tend to be 
smaller in size and narrower in visual scope, 
focusing on a small expanse of terrain or a single 
tree, as in John O'Shea's The Madrone. They 
aim less at elevating nature than at conveying a 
readily accessible, consumable vision of it. In 
part, these differences bespeak a shift in the 
country at large toward a more bourgeois — or 
touristic, consumer-oriented — sensibility among 
patrons and producers of the arts. Yet California 
landscapes do stand apart from other scenic 
American paintings of the period, specifically in 
the frequency with which they present a "virgin 
land," untouched by modern life.'" 

onal Reclamation Act passes, funding irrigation projects. East Coast manufacturers tiope that an expanded agrarian West will create new markets for their goods. > In California, the turn of the century it 



■' %>^^^y%^: 

eB*'ids:r j*s 

rked by tremendous industrial innovation, particularly in mining, shipping, logging, and farming. > San Francisco waterfront workers strike on July 30, imrnobilijing maritime trade for three months. > South 

Frances Hommel Gearhort 

William Wendt 

Califorrtia: The Campers' 

John Marshall Gamble 

Leopold Hugo 

On the Salinas River, 1920s, 

Where Nature's God Hath 

Paradise, brochure produced 

Breaking Fog, Hope Ranch, 

Untitled, c. 1920 

color woodcut 

Wrought, 1925, oil on canvas 

by the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, 1909. Lent by the 
Cahfornia State Railroad 

Santa Barbara, c. 1908, 
oil on canvas 

bichromate print 

The motif of the virgin land is common 
to an otherwise diverse array of images of 
Cahfornia produced at the time, including Guy 
Rose's Impressionist rendering of a Southern 
California oak tree in dappled light; Frances 
Gearhart's highly decorative, Japanese-inspired 
color wood-block print of the Salinas River; and 
Oscar Maurer's moody Pictorialist photograph 
of a eucalyptus grove in Golden Gate Park. Only 
a tiny farmhouse dots the landscape in William 
Wendt's exalted view of a California mountain- 
side, hi the words of the Bavarian-born Wendt, 
who had lived in Chicago before coming to 
California as a tourist in the 1890s, "Here, away 
from conflicting creeds and sects, away from the 
soul-destroying hurly-burly of life, it feels that 

the world is beautiful; that man is his brother; 
that God is good."" Despite its spiritual inspira- 
tion, Wendt's painting echoes images featured 
in promotional materials, such as the Southern 
Pacific Railroad brochure California: The 
Campers' Paradise, in its boldly composed, 
celebratory vision of the California landscape. 

Railroad converts from coal to fuel oil, the beginning of a new market for the burgeoning oil industry. > 1902 > California Society of Artists is founded in San Francisco. > Charles Fletcher Lummis become 


chairman of the Sequoya League, a philanthropic organization providing aid to Native flmerlcans. > 190 3 > Greek Theater Is dedicated at Berkeley, > Carmel-by-the-Sea Is established as an arts colon 

9 04 > Developer flbbot Kinney completes Venice, California, a resort with canals and gondolas in imitation of its Italian namesake > San Diego Art fissociation is founded 

William Dassonville Underwood and Underwood 

Half Dome and Clouds, Publishers 

Merced River, Yosemite Valley, /osemite Valley, 1902, 

c. 1905, platinum print stereograph 

One of the premier tourist destinations 
for Americans by the turn of the century was 
Yosemite, billed as "Our National Playground" 
after its establishment as a national park in 1890. 
The creation of the park transpired through the 
efforts of two unlikely allies — the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, which featured Yosemite in the 
first issue of Sunset, and the Sierra Club, 
cofounded by renowned naturalist John Muir 
in 1892. Indeed, the principal contention over 
the fate of the parklands was not between the 
naturalists and the railroads. Rather, it was 
between the naturalists and those who viewed 
the region as an answer to San Francisco's need 
for water, a need that continued to plague the 
entire state over the course of the century. At 
stake in particular was the proposed use of the 
Hetch Hetchy Valley, adjacent to Yosemite Valley, 
as a reservoir site. Muir and his allies vehemently 
opposed the idea, and in 1907 Muir urged the 
public to send letters of protest to the federal 
government.'^ The proposal's advocates dissemi- 
nated literature supporting their position — for 
example, a brochure illustrated with altered pho- 
tographs approximating what the valley would 
look like submerged under water — and claimed 
that the reservoir would only enhance the park's 
scenic appeal." After a protracted and bitter 
debate, the Hetch Hetchy proposal passed in 1913. 

While Albert Bierstadt and others had 
painted spectacular majestic views of Yosemite 

Valley in the nineteenth century, it was predomi- 
nantly among photographers that Yosemite 
remained a popular artistic subject in the early 
1900S. Following in the footsteps of Carleton 
Watkins, photographers such as William 
Dassonville created images of the park that were 
exhibited and published as fine art while also 
promoting Yosemite to high-end audiences as a 
place to visit. Disseminated to a broader public, 
stereographic images produced by the company 
of Underwood and Underwood also appeared on 
postcards and other souvenir materials. Unlike 
nineteenth-century variants, these photographs 
often contain one or two figures dramatically 
posed at a scenic vista^for example, at the 
edge of Yosemite's famed Overhanging Rock — 
through whom the viewer vicariously experi- 
ences the scene. The fact that both popular and 
fine-art images promoted Yosemite to actual 
and potential visitors — paving the way for the 
subsequent work of Ansel Adams — reveals that 
the arts and California's booster industries 
functioned in tandem in fostering tourism and 
outdoor recreation in the state.'" 

19 5 > California legislature passes an anti-Japanese resolution ttiat calls upon Congress to limit Japanese immigration. 

906 > Five hundred are dead or missing in San Francis 

Selden Conner Gile 

Boat and Yellow Hills, 

William Keith 

Looking across the Golden 
Gate from Mount Tamalpan 
c. 1895, oil on canvas 

Maurice Braun 

Moonrise over San Diego I 
1915, oil on canvas 

Haruyo Matsui, Coronado as 
Seen through Japanese Eyes, 
booklet, c. 1910. Lent by 
the Southwest Museum, 
Los Angeles 

Vacation Land, brochure 
produced by the Santa Fe 
Railroad, 1915. Lent by the 
Seaver Center for Western 
History Research 

Even more frequently than inland locales, 
the celebrated California coastline was presented 
in the arts as an utterly vacant and untouched 
paradise, despite the explosion of seaside leisure 
and real estate development by the early 1900s. 
Here, too, although artists adopted a wide range 
of stylistic approaches — from William Keith's 
misty view of San Francisco's Golden Gate 
painted in the Barbizon tradition to the lumi- 
nous rendering of San Diego's shoreline by 
plein air painter Maurice Braun — they almost 
always eliminated signs of a human presence. 
In contrast, human figures did appear in materi- 
als promoting coastal tourism, where — as in 
William H. Bull's poster for Monterey's Hotel 
Del Monte — they were generally engaged in such 
elite leisure pursuits as golf or polo. 

The absence of such references to human 
activity in California plein air painting, as 
Landauer has noted, is one of the important 
factors that distinguishes it from the frequently 
leisure-filled scenes by the Impressionists work- 
ing in Europe and on the East Coast.''^ By creat- 
ing images of a pristine, uninhabited coastline, 
California artists enabled viewers to imagine 
themselves according to their own desires, 
unencumbered by such contemporary realities as 
tourists, hotels, residences, and local industry. 
When these artists did include signs of humanity 
in their works — and this was the case even 
with modernists such as Selden Conner Gile, a 
member of the Northern California-based 
Society of Six — they generally depicted quaint 
villages or seaports rather than scenes of indus- 
trialized, modern life. This choice bespeaks a 
pervasive nostalgia for an earlier halcyon period 
among the region's artists, an impulse not as 
evident among European and East Coast 
Impressionists, who generally sought to record 
the contemporary world." 

;quent fire fin area of four square miles is destroyed, including 30,000 buildings. Damage is estimated at ?500 million. > Fourteen thousand Japanese laborers are employed as section hands on western railroads, 

One of the key coastal spots for creative 
figures as well as tourists and new residents was 
the Monterey Peninsula, and particularly the 
quaint town of Carmel-by-the-Sea. Founded in 
1903 by real estate developers who promoted it 
as an artist colony, Carmel became a particularly 
attractive refuge for Bay Area artists and literati 
following the earthquake and fires that ravaged 
San Francisco in 1906. In 1910 a Los Angeles 
Times headline facetiously characterized Carmel 
as the "Hotbed of Soulful Culture, Vortex of 
Erotic Erudition . . . Where Author and Artist 
Folk Are Establishing the Most Amazin 
Colony on Earth."" 

and 38,000 workers are ,n the fields at the peak of harvest season, mostly in California. > 19 7 > California progressive Republicans form the Lincoln-Roosevelt League, whose main platform and eve, 

Carmel by the Sea, brochure 
produced by the Carmel 
Realty Co., c. 1905. Lent by 
Victoria Dailey 

William H. Bull, Po/o at De/ Bertha Lum 

Monte, poster, 1917. Lent by Point Lobos, 1921, color 

Steve Turner Gallery, Beverly woodcut 




Begins March 3P' 
Ends April 15 ^•^ 

vement Is to break the grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on state po 

> California School of Arts and Crafts is established in Berkeley, > California Fruit Growers Exchange, a cooperative of citrus 

Williom Wendt Guy Rose 

Malibu Coast [Paradise Cove] . Carmet Dunes, c. 1918-20, 

c. 1897, oil on canvas oil on canvas 

Yet artists were not the only people to 
partake of this region. After the construction of 
a railroad line from San Francisco in the late 
nineteenth century, the Monterey Peninsula 
gained popularity as a convenient getaway for 
wealthy locals." Whereas its central creative 
figures, writers George Sterling and Mary Austin, 
romanticized Carmel as a Bohemian enclave 
isolated in the wilderness, California historian 
Kevin Starr has characterized it as "an early 
example of the leisure community," imbued with 
artistic charm, available at reasonable prices." 
Emphasizing the artiness of this area, the Carmel 
Realty Company included a painter's palette on 
the back cover of its brochure Carmel by the Sea. 
Without doubt, Carmel was a place where the 
interests of boosters and the creative community 
often overlapped. 

As for the numerous artists who flocked to 
Carmel during these years, they unquestionably 
were affected by the commercial development 
of the region. As Ilene Fort has speculated with 

regard to Guy Rose, who made a series of paint- 
ings of the Carmel coastline in the 1910s, many 
artists probably chose to paint vistas that they 
had read about previously in guidebooks, and 
their works were influenced by those written 
descriptions." Rose and others exhibited their 
scenic, unpopulated seascapes at the Hotel 
Del Monte, an exclusive resort hotel opened in 
Monterey in 1880 by the real estate arm of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, where they were 
accessible to wealthy collectors from across the 
country.^' Thus, informed by their creators' 
touristic experiences, these works in turn became 
visual souvenirs of California for affluent 
visitors and "advertisements" of the state for 
friends at home. 

concerns better known by its label, Sunkist, markets oranges 

ogans sucti as "Oranges for Health— California for V/ealth." > Southwest Museum, the first museum in los flngeles, is founded by 

In addition to its purportedly unspoiled 
natural beauty, a salient aspect of the state's 
image as the Garden of America was its promi- 
nence in horticulture, especially citrus and 
grapes. Indeed, California, which between 1880 
and 1920 became an industrialized agricultural 
empire," was promoted by agribusiness and 
other booster industries as a veritable cornu- 
copia, where everything from indigenous fruits 
and flowers to imported palms flourished in 
gargantuan proportions. Even international 
tourists sent this image of bounty home, as indi- 
cated by a postcard titled A Carload of Mammoth 
Strawberries, which bears a message in Japanese 
on the back. This conception of profuse natural 
abundance had a profound impact on the com- 
mercial arts in California. For example, it infused 
visual images that adorned orange crates, which 
played an enormous role in shaping popular 
conceptions of the state. It also affected the fine 
arts, where it fueled the market for certain types 
of work. Artist Granville Redmond complained 
that although he preferred other subjects to 
California's state flower, poppies were what peo- 
ple wanted to buy. He could scarcely paint them 
quickly enough to satisfy the demand." The 
flower paintings of Paul de Longpre were also 
tremendously popular. He was lauded as "Le Roi 
des Fleurs" (The King of the Flowers), and the 


Cher Lummis and members of the Southwest Society, a branch of the Archaeological Institute of America. > 19 8 8 > "Gentleman's Agreement" between Japan and the United States is signed, Japanese 

h Carload of Mammoth 
Strawberries, postcard, 191 
Lent by the McClelland 

Crate label for Rose brand 
oranges, Redlands Orange 
Growers' Association, c. 1910. 
Lent by the McClelland 

From Bischoff 

California Poppies Vase, 

Granville Redmond 

California Poppy Field, 
oil on canvas 

^- \A 

^''^^:^^^Mkt:T^^:i^i^'M'Ki^^,t-t Vv^tV 

immigration is limited to the wealthy, but not closed off completely due to fears of Japanese retaliation. > Los flngeles City Council's Housing Commission reports on the living conditions of Mexican railroad I 



found filth and squalor on every hand,' 

19 9 > State legislature authorizes the sale of bonds to begin California's first integrated network of paved roads. > On June 13 the Los fingeles Times 

Postcard showing the garden 
at Paul de Longpre's home in 
Hollywood, 1905. Lent by 
Victoria Dailey 

Paul de Longpre 

Roses La France and Jack 
Noses with Clematis on a 
Lattice Work, No. 56 
watercoior on paper 


Anne M. Bremer 

An Old Fashioned Garden, 
n.d., oil on canvas 

Mathews Furniture Shop 

Rectangular Box with Lid, 
1929, painted wood 

Ira Brown Cross, untitled 
photograph of agricultural 
workers, 1908. Courtesy of 
the Bancroft Library, 
University of California, 


Randal W. Borough, poster 
for the Portola Festival, 
San Francisco, 1909. Lent 
by Steve Turner Gallery, 
Beverly Hills 



,1 -'•^l-- 



spectacular garden at his Hollywood home was 
a popular tourist attraction during this period. 
Collectors also loved the delicately painted floral 
porcelains of Franz Bischoff/' Already accom- 
plished in this medium before moving west from 
Detroit, Bischoff chose to settle and cultivate his 
private gardens in Pasadena, a city made famous 
as a horticultural mecca by the Tournament of 
Roses parade held there since 1890. 

In popular imagery, views of neatly 
planted orange groves adjacent to cozy bunga- 
lows — California's answer to the American 
yearning for private, healthful, and affordable 
living — fostered a distinctly domestic conception 
of the state. This vision sharply contrasted with 
the nineteenth-century image of an uncivilized 
frontier associated with the Gold Rush. Yet idyllic 
images of California's domesticated landscape 
rarely so much as hinted at the human effort 
expended — largely by Mexican, Japanese, Italian, 
and other immigrant laborers — to cultivate the 
natural terrain. Subjects of this sort only 
appeared in rare documentary images of the 
period, such as a 1908 photograph by economics 
professor Ira Brown Cross. Nor did booster 
images ever allude to the instances of unrest 
among migratory farmworkers — for example, 
the violent Wheatland hop-pickers strike of 1913, 
which was organized by the radical labor organi- 
zation the Industrial Workers of the World 
(iww)." Rather, the standard booster conception 
of the cultivated landscape, serving the interests 
of agribusiness and largely promoted by the 
arts, was that of a serene, verdant place that 
miraculously eschewed the need for human toil, 
effectively obscuring the harsh realities of the 
agricultural labor system in California. 

publishes Its first story about filmmaking in the city. > Women Painters of California is founded. > 1910 > Mexican Revolution sparks 

Mexican immigration to the United States, which g 

In addition to producing fantasy images 
of the physical environment, California's booster 
industries and individuals presented the cultural 
landscape to Anglo audiences through a variety 
of mythologizing and exoticizing lenses. Often 
references to disparate cultures were mixed and 
overlaid, fostering a sort of pan-exoticism in 
California, whereby Mexico was crossed with the 
Middle East or Asia with classical Greece. At times, 
however, attention w'as focused on specific ethnic 
or cultural groups — either their contemporaneous 
manifestation or their historical past. In most 
cases, the groups in question were inaccurately 
envisioned by Anglo culture as indelibly ancient 
peoples, whose age-old customs needed to be 
documented before they vanished. While such 
identities were ascribed in the guise of celebrating 
or aiding these peoples, in fact they enabled an 
Anglo assertion of cuhural dominance and superi- 
ority over the state's nonwhite populations. 

Another such means of asserting cultural 
superiority, especially popular within literary 
and artistic circles and among wealthy Bay Area 
collectors, entailed ignoring California's non- 
white populations altogether and mythologizing 
the state as a Mediterranean haven along the 
lines of ancient Athens or Rome. Influenced by 
the American Renaissance style's Italianizing 
impulse, which permeated cultural production 
nationwide," artists visually echoed the senti- 
ments of popular writers. Charles Dudley 
Warner, author of Our Italy (1891), for example, 
asserted that the Mediterranean sensibility was 
perfectly matched with California's indigenous 
climate and terrain. Venerated Bay Area artist 
and teacher Arthur Mathews frequently invoked 
classical Mediterranean culture in the publication 
he edited, Philopolis. He asserted that contem- 
porary (Anglo) Californians should adopt the 
more balanced lifestyle of the ancient Greeks 
and Romans. 

rcent between 1910 and 1930, The development of the Mexican railroad facilitates the trasportation of political and economic refugees to the United States 

Juring a violent ironworkers' strike, tii' 

Arthur Frank Mathews 

Mathews Furniture Shop 

Gottardo Piaizoni 

Arthur Bowen Davies 

Anne W. Brigman 

California, 1905, oil on 

Desk, c. 1910-15, carved ond 

Untitled Triptych, n,d,, oil on 

Pacific Parnassus, Mount 

/nf/nrtude, C.19G5, g 


painted maple [?], oak, 
tooled leather, and replaced 


Tamalpais, c. 1905, oil on 

silver print 

This enthusiasm for the classical past 
infused the work of Mathews and his wife, 
furniture designer Lucia Mathews. Both were 
major figures in the Arts and Crafts movement, 
an artistic reaction against industrialization 
that called for a return to handcraftsmanship and 
a life led in harmony with nature. Although it 
began in England, the movement found its ideal 
home in California. The handsome, highly deco- 
rative objects produced by the couple's furniture 

shop were commonly adorned with colorful 
arcadian scenes of classicized figures com- 
muning with nature. In addition to other Arts 
and Crafts artists. Bay Area figures who shared 
the Mathewses' penchant for the ancients 
included painters Gottardo Piazzoni and Xavier 
Martinez. Piazzoni, for example, used classical 
columns to divide the three sections of his 
moody Untitled Triptych. 

Los Rngeles Times building is blown up on October 1, killing 20 and injuring 17. > San Diego Academy of Art is founded by painter Maurice Braun. > The socialist Industrial V/orkers of the V/orld tlWW) m 

Many of the writers and artists who 
invoked these classical associations, including 
Martinez and Piazzoni, were members of the 
Bohemian Club of San Francisco. Founded in 
1872, this exclusive confederation of prominent 
businessmen, journalists, writers, and artists — 
a major cultural force in the region at this time — 
regularly congregated outdoors. One writer 
mused in the Bohemian Club publication The 
Lark that immersing himself in the woods of 
Northern California invariably transported him 
to an ancient Arcadia: "We had a camp there 
which was an Arden in an Arcady. We were all 
young, happy, and sane beneath those boughs, 
and there came to us there a revelation of simple 
living, and clean-minded pastimes."" These 
associations served to strengthen a white, anti- 
urban conception of California. Moreover, they 
attempted to legitimize the region's cultural 
heritage by linking California to the ancient 
nucleus of Western civilization. 

In Southern California, particularly with 
the impact of early Hollywood on Pictorialist 
photographers (including award-winning cine- 
matographer Karl Struss and Arthur Kales, who 
often used actresses and dancers as models), the 
Mediterranean metaphor took on a decidedly 
theatrical bent. This taste for theater also infused 
real estate developer Abbot Kinney's grand 
conceptualization of Venice, Cahfornia (begun 
in 1892; finished in 1904), as a replica of its 
European namesake, complete with canals, 
gondolas, and a doge's palace. 

In Hollywood, and further south in the 
San Diego area, the classicizing impulse also 
manifested itself in the spiritual enclaves of 
Krotona, founded by Albert P. Warrington, and 
Katherine Tingley's Lomaland. These communi- 
ties drew the spiritually hungry and the curious 
from all over the world to California. And 
Lomaland, the international headquarters for 

,000 migratory farm laborers to a dozen California locals, > Los Angeles's Old Ctiinatown is in its heyday. The area encompasses 15 streets and contains a Chinese opera theater, three temples, and a 

Karl Struss 

Monterey Coast, 1910-15, 
gelatin-silver print 

Arthur Kales 

The Sun Dance, c.1920 
gelatin-silver print 

Edouard A. Vysekal 

Springtime, 1913, oil 
paper, mounted 

Rex Siinkard 

Infinite, c, 1915-16, oil on 


newspaper. Its restaurants, gift shops, and "exotic" qualities make it a popular 

jst attraction. > fingel Island, in San Francisco Bay, opens 

ing center for Chinese immigrants, v/hi 

Souvenir album of Lomolond, 

Diotima, Myrto, and 

Reginald Machell 


Point Loma, 1913. Lent by 

Aspasia, frontispiece from 

Kathertne Tingley's Chair, 


the Theoscphicat Society 

The Theosophical Path 

The Theosophical Society, 


(November 1911). Lent by 

Point Loma, c. 1905-10, 


the Theosophical Society 

carved and painted wood 



I |fI5£RnA5IOnAL5B£OSOPfolC/\L RCACC Q)fl<iR€S5 1 

4 1 M M 

the Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical 
Society, attracted a considerable number of 
artists. In their designs for Theosophical publica- 
tions and in individual works of art, many of 
these figures fostered Lomaland's aesthetic, which 
incorporated elements of classical, medieval, and 
Near Eastern sources, among others. Reginald 
Machell, the principal designer of Lomaland's 
ceremonial rooms, carved an elaborately filigreed 
screen and the principal ceremonial chair used 
by Tingley. Machell's screen is pictured in a 
photograph of three Theosophical devotees — 
described only as "Diotima, Myrto, and 
Aspasia" — at Lomaland's Greek Theater. Such 
figures and the enclaves where they congregated 
supported a premodern vision of California as 
safely (if eccentrically) locked in a spiritually 
nourishing, ancient past. 

Classical antiquity was but one cultural 
lens through which California was viewed. 
Perhaps the most pervasive cultural mythology 
of the period, which continues to have an impact 
on conceptions of California today, involved the 
romanticization of the state's Spanish mission 
history. The impetus for this mythology was the 
publication of Helen Hunt Jackson's immensely 
popular Ramona (1884), a sentimental tale of 

etimes detained for months while being interrogated and checked for disease, > 1911 > California becomes the sixth state to grant woman suffrage > United States Supreme Court orders the 

Frederick J. Schwonkovsky 

Woman at the Piano, 
c. 1925, oil on canvas 

Robert Wilson Hyde 

A House Book, 1906, suede 
and brass cover, suede 
flyleaves, parchment, wove 
rag paper, and ink 


Arts and Crafts 

At the turn of the nineteenth century, 
travelers to California sought a para- 
dise that promised renewal, a healthy 
lifestyle, and a connection to nature. 
This spirit informed the Arts and 
Crafts movement, which flourished 
in California from the 1880s to the 
1920s. This social reform movement 
was originally driven by the philoso- 
phies of Englishmen John Ruskin 
and William Morris, whose tenets of 
simplicity and usefulness had direct 
application to architecture and 
decorative arts. Ruskin and Morris 
protested the quality of the products 
of the Industrial Revolution, and 
they rejected mechanization in favor 
of handcrafting, rustic simplicity, 
indigenous materials, and motifs 
inspired by nature. Arts and Crafts 
reformers advocated a harmonious 
integration of elements to create 
a comfortable and healthy environ- 
ment. They believed that homes 
designed accordingto such principles 

Company of California broken up umjei antitrust laws. > The first municipal arts commission in the United States is formed in Los flngeles. It Is devoted to urban aesthetics, such as stree 

background a 

Greene and Greene California Faience 

Robert R. Blacker House, Vase, c. 1920, earthenware 

Pasadena, South Elevation, 
Drawing's, 1907, black ink 
on linen 

promoted physical and spiritual 
well-being, both assuring a healthful 

The classic Arts and Crafts home 
was the low-profile, horizontal 
wooden bungalow. Among the most 
celebrated designers in this style 
were the architects Bernard Maybeck 
and Charles Keeler of Northern 
California and the brothers Charles 
Sumner and Henry Mather Greene, 
founders of the Pasadena architec- 
tural firm Greene and Greene in 
Southern California. Bungalows were 
originally intended to be economical 
and of simple design. Maybeck and 
Keeler adhered to these paradigms, 
whereas Greene and Greene's four 
California bungalow commissions 
were lavish, monumental structures 
with elegant custom furnishings and 
were therefore christened "ultimate 

The Arts and Crafts period envi- 
ronment in the Made in California 
exhibition featured original Greene 

and Greene furniture from the Robert 
R. Blacker and William R. Thorsen 
house commissions, art pottery, 
metal accessories, a hand-carved 
fireplace screen, and California 
Indian baskets. The mahogany furni- 
ture with ebony joinery is inlaid with 
metal and shell in a naturalistic 
Japanese motif that fuses Asian and 
Western design and honors nature as 
the wellspring of inspiration. 

In the ideal Arts and Crafts 
home, light fixtures were intended to 
softly illuminate the interior, windows 
framed outdoor vistas, the fireplace 
served as a welcoming beacon, and 
pottery and baskets celebrated 
handcrafting: This was the ambience 
of warmth, comfort, harmony, and 
inspired aesthetic living that defined 
the Arts and Crafts lifestyle. 


i think C. Sumner Greene's work beautiful . . . Like [Frank] Lloyd Wright the spell of Japan is on him, he feels the beauty 
and makes magic out of the horizontal line, c r ashbee, 1909 

ding design, and purchasing public art. > 1912 > Mack Sennett moves his film studio from New York to Los flngeies and begins making Keystone Cops movies. > T/ie W/ss/on Way, by John McGroarty, 

staged near the San Gabriel mission. During a 17-year run. 

;n by nnore than 2,5 mill 

> First gas station in Southern California opens 

19 13 > Cecil B. DeMille begins filming The $qi. 

Helen MacGregor 

Reclining Woman with Guitar, 
c. 1921, gelotm-silver print 

Souvenir book for John Steven 
McGroarty's The Mission Play, 
1928. Lentbyjim Heimann 

Cover illustration for a 
brochure published by the 
Los Angeles Chamber of 
Commerce promoting 
Los Angeles County, 1930s. 
Lent byjim Heimann 

Alvin Langdon Coburn 

Giant Palm Trees, Califo 
Mission, 1911, platinum 

ill-fated love between an Indian man and Ramona, 
a so-called half-breed. Set in enchanting Old 
California, Jackson's novel precipitated a veritable 
tourist craze, inspiring pilgrimages to the sites 
where Ramona's tragic drama unfolded. By means 
of the Mission Myth, the region's boosters recast 
California's mission history in glorifying terms 
and whitewashed the Spaniards' gross mistreatment 
and colonization of Native Americans, thereby 
supplying tourists and displaced newcomers with 
a comforting, shared vision of a golden regional 
past. As Carey Mc Williams has dryly characterized 
it, the Mission Myth reenvisioned the missions as 
"havens of happiness and contentment" for the 
local Indians and sentimentalized Californios (the 
descendants of the Spanish colonists) of the sub- 
sequent rancho era as "members of one big happy 
guitar-twanging family, [who] danced the fan- 
dango and lived out days of beautiful indolence."^* 

I, the story of an aristocrat forced to leave England who marries a Native American. This silent film is the first feature-length movie made in Hollywood. > Hiram Johnson, Progressive governor of California, signs 

Charles Rollo Peters 

Adobe House on the Lagoon, 
n.d., oil on canvas 

Manuel Valencia 

Santa Barbara Mission at 
Night, n.d., oil on canvas 

California's twenty-one missions symbol- 
ized a romantic, bygone era. In addition to 
spawning the antimodernist Mission Revival 
style in architecture — epitomized by Frank 
Miller's famous Mission Inn in Riverside — 
the missions were the focus of concerted preser- 
vationist efforts, bespeaking the idealism of the 
Progressive Era. The Landmarks Club was 
founded to this preservationist end in 1894 by 
Charles Fletcher Lummis, whose enthusiasm for 
Alta California inspired him to dress in Old 
Spanish attire and to go by "Don Carlos." (The 
appellation "Don" associated Lummis with the 
Spanish landlords of Indian land and labor 
grants.) Advocates such as Lummis sought not 
to restore the missions but to preserve them in all 
of their picturesque, crumbling beauty." Not 
surprisingly, the numerous artists who depicted 
this subject matter for eager audiences — among 
them many Pictorialist photographers and 
Tonalist painters, such as Charles Rollo Peters — 
tended toward moody, often nocturnal scenes 
that nostalgically invoked the image of a beauti- 
ful, waning civilization. 

An emblem of progressivism, Jackson's 
Ramona was intended to foreground the plight 
of contemporary Indians. It did give rise to the 
Sequoya League, which aided 300 displaced 
Native Americans, albeit with the patronizing 
aim "To Make Better Indians."" Yet the propo- 
nents of the Mission Myth conceived of Native 
Americans in primitivizing terms, as an abject, 
disappearing race rather than as a vital contem- 
porary presence. In addition to eccentric 
ethnographer and collector George Wharton 
James, others who promoted a conception of 
California's Indians as noble yet impotent 
vestiges of an ancient culture included photogra- 
phers Edward Curtis and Adam Clark Vroman. 
Their images, populated by women and the 
elderly, presented Native American culture as 

law limiting the lease and prohibiting the purchase of agricultural land by Japanese aliens. > The IWV/'s campaign to organize migratory laborers reaches a violent culmination in the V/heatland riot on a farm I 

Channel P. Townsley 

Mission San Juan Capistrano, 
1916, oil on canvas 

W. Edwin Gledhill 

Santa Barbara Mission, 
c. 1920, gelatin-silver print 

posing no threat to contemporary Anglo society, 
in contrast to pervasive earlier depictions of 
Indians as a savage race of brutal warriors. They 
fueled the widespread notion that California's 
Native Americans were an especially pitiable 
subgroup from the bottom of the evolutionary 
chain. As an 1897 New York Herald article 
reported, "It seems to have been the consensus 
of opinion of all ethnologic students that 
California gave birth to nearly the lowest type 
of human creatures who have inhabited the 
earth. It is the belief of . . . [a] noted ethnologist 
that the Pacific coast tribes, all in all, are the 
most primitive and least physically and mentally 
developed of any of the tribes of North 
America."" Demeaning images such as The 
Belles of San Luis Key Mission, which was printed 
on postcards and published in an 1894 issue 
of Land of Sunshine that accompanied a nostalgic 
article on Alta California, reinforced this 

Unable to escape being labeled as Other 
by the dominant culture, the living members 
of these objectified cultures at times utilized the 
stereotypes to their own ends. For example, 
California's Native Americans used the percep- 
tion of their cuhure as pitiful to garner support 
from Anglos in protecting their lands from 
encroachment by ranchers and others. And 
though in part fulfilling Anglo expectations of 
what constituted Native American culture, 
California Indians responded to the vogue for 
woven baskets and rugs among tourists and 
local collectors by fashioning fiinctional objects 
into decorative consumer goods. These objects — 
for example, a finely woven trinket basket 
probably made expressly for sale by Elizabeth 
Hickox of the Northern California Karok tribe — 
were more elaborate than traditional utilitarian 
objects, such as a gathering basket in openwork 
style eventually acquired by George Wharton 

ramento Valley. > The Owens Valley Aqueduct is completed, making possible Los Angeles's spectacular growth in the twentieth century. Upon its opening, engineer William Mulholland says, "There it is— take it!" > 

Edward S. Curtis 

/I Desert Cahuilla Woman fr( 
The North American Indian, 
vol. 15 (1924), pi. 522, 

Adam Clark Vroman 

San Gabriel Mission, c.191 
gelatm-silver print 

The Belles of San Luis Rey 
Mission, postcard, 1903, Lent 
by the McClelland Collection 


Edward S. Curtis 

Mitat—I^ailaki from 

The Native North An 

Indian, M0\. 14 (1924), pi. 472, 


Los fingeles Museum of History, Science, and flrl holds its first exhibition in its new building in Exposition Park. > 19 14 > San Francisco acquires control of the Hetch Hefchy watershed near Yosernite, viJ 

Elizabeth Hickox 

Lidded Trinket Basket with 
Design, 1900-1930, twined 
maidenhair fern and myrtle 

Unknown artist 

Basket, c. 1900,juncus 

Unknown artist Jolin William Joseph Winkler 

Cahuilla Basket with Design of Oriental Alley, 1920, etching 

Abstract Flowers, 1890-1920, 

Keep California White, 
pohticol pamphlet, c. 1920. 
Lent by the Japanese 
American National Museum 

Arnold Genthe 

The Opium Fiend, 1905, 
gelatin-silver print 



'. ';i'!i^'i?t*^jWjjMlffil 

^S.i^^m_^ ^^^1 


^^M^^^^i^^ . ^miH 

%'^ ''iit*^<il^SlaKSSOWSftllf^ 


- '' '^ ^fa™fHwBffl 





lames, the California booster and enthusiast of 
Native American cuhure. 

The Mission Myth was also fostered by 
Californios such as Manuel Valencia, a descendant 
of one of the first Spanish families in California, 
who painted romantic, nocturnal scenes of 
missions. The same is true of Don Antonio de 
Coronel, mayor of Los Angeles in the 1850s, who 
effectively marketed himself as an old-world 
Spaniard, serving as an advisor to Helen Hunt 
Jackson and others." As these men undoubtedly 
recognized, the romanticized image of the dons 
of Alta California was far preferable to the 
derogatory view of contemporary Mexicans that 
prevailed within the dominant culture. By and 
large, proponents of the mission mythology 
remained unsympathetic to descendants of the 
cultures they sentimentalized, preferring instead 
to hold Spanish fiestas, study traditional Native 
American basket-weaving techniques, and 
wistfully laud the waning cultures of yore. 

ately supplies 240,000,000 gallons of water daily > Inauguration of the Panama Canal opens California's ports and markets to the East Coast and Europe 

1915 > San Diego hosts the Panama-California 

One contemporary ethnic group — those of 
Chinese descent who inhabited the Chinatowns 
of San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, and 
smaller California locales — was a visible subject 
of fascination and contention within the domi- 
nant culture. On the one hand, Chinatowns 
were popularized as exotic destinations for Anglo 
tourists and locals and were a great source of 
intrigue for aesthetes in the Bay Area, including 
members of the Bohemian Club. On the other, 
Chinese immigrants were attacked by a number 
of forces — among them, the Asiatic Exclusion 
League, the American Federation of Labor, and 
even California senator (and former San 
Francisco mayor) lames Phelan — as vice- and 
disease-ridden detriments to society who threat- 
ened the American labor system by depressing 
wages." These detractors sought to uphold the 
Chinese Exclusionary Acts, which had barred 
fiarther Chinese immigration to the United States 
as of 1882, and a host of subsequent anti-Asian 
laws. That Phelan, one of the most vehement 
proponents of these laws and author of the 
publication Keep California White, was a presi- 
dent of the Bohemian Club demonstrates that 
sometimes these attacks came from the same 
camps in which Asian culture was celebrated on 
an aesthetic level. Notable among the voices that 
rose to counter these anti-Asian sentiments was 
that of Chinese consul Ho Yow. In a 1901 article 
in Overland Monthly, the consul characterized 
his fellow countrymen in terms intended to 
appease — as "a sober, temperate, and industrious 
class . . . intelligent and easy to control." He prom- 
ised that "by employing Chinese labor you get 
your money's worth of faithful, steady toil."" 

Except for portraits of residents by local 
Chinese photographers, virtually all of the 
extant visual images of California's Chinatowns 
from before 1920 were produced by and for 
whites. Those created by artists, including 

Exposition in Balboa Parl<, > San Francisco hosts the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. > The state legislature passes the Home Teacher Act, intended to "Americanize" Mexican immigrants and Mexican flmer 

1916 > Oakland flrt Association is founded. > California School of fine Arts is founded in San Francisco. > fl bomb blast during a parade In San Francisco, while a longshoremen's strike is on, kills 10 and 

Henry Nappenbach Hermon Oliver Albrecht 

Chinese New Year Celebration, Three if^omen in White, 

San Francisco, 1904, oil on c. 1910, gelotm-silver pri 

Helen Hyde 

Imps of Chinatown, 1910 
etching with hand color 

Robert Hen 

Tarn Can, 1' 

Arthur Burnside Dodge 

Taken by Surprise, n.d,, 
wotercolor on paper 

German emigre Arnold Genthe's photographs, 
strongly resemble the images that appeared on 
postcards and other mass-market tourist sou- 
venirs. In fact, Genthe's initial intention in taking 
photographs of Chinatown was to capture what 
he saw as the exotic flavor of the place for his 
family in Germany." 

Many of the Chinatown images created 
by artists were meant to be positive in that they 
presented their subjects as visually appealing, 
nonthreatening, and generally sympathetic. 
Thus it is not surprising that photographs by 
Genthe were used to illustrate Consul Ho Yow's 
article in defense of his immigrant countrymen 
(although Genthe was a faithful member of the 

Bohemian Club, which had elected Asian xeno- 
phobe Phelan as its president). Yet Genthe and 
the majority of white artists picturing Chinatown 
objectified and exoticized their subjects, revealing 
the voyeuristic sensibility of a distanced, invisible 
observer. By far the subjects of choice were 
passive women, children, and elderly people, as 
well as opium dens and late-night celebrations, 
as opposed to intact nuclear families or men 
engaged in daily labor. The most popular images 
nostalgically featured San Francisco's Old 
Chinatown before the enclave had been devas- 
tated by the 1906 earthquake and rebuilt as a 
more tourist-oriented space, as evidenced by the 
success of Genthe's widely circulated Pictures of 
Old Chinatown (1908). These images depicted 
Chinese subjects exclusively in traditional dress, 
thereby effacing any evidence of cultural assimi- 
lation or modernization. 

Among the few artists to diverge somewhat 
from this characterization was Arthur Burnside 
Dodge. Although Dodge persisted in portraying 
Chinese subjects in traditional attire, he depicted 
less conventional views of Los Angeles's 
Chinatown. These include a group of men read- 
ing want ads and an encounter between tourists 
and local residents that acknowledges the pres- 
ence of whites as visual and financial consumers 
of Chinatown. In general, however, California's 
artists accorded with its tourist industries in 
promoting notions of the Chinese as an effete 
and enigmatic people and of the state's 
Chinatowns as authentic, hermetically sealed, 
and expressly premodern spaces on the verge of 
vanishing. Ironically, the romantic vision of 
Chinese culture as being on the brink of extinc- 
tion proved sadly accurate: anti-immigration 
laws were in fact successfully shrinking the state's 
Chinese population. 

serlsusiy wounds 40 others. 

J 9 1 7 > U.S. entry into V.'orld War i boosts California's economy, especially in the areas of food processing and cotton production for soldiers' uniforms 

91 8 

Official program, Panama 
Pacific International 
Exposition, San Francisco 
1915. LentbytheCaliforn 
Historical Society, North 
Baker Research Library, 
Ephemera Collection 

Postcard from the Panama- 
Pacific International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 
featuring the Tower of Jewels 
and James Eorle Eraser's 
statue The End of the Trail, 
1915. Lent by the McClelland 

Souvenir stamps, Panama- 
Pacific International 
Exposition, San Francisco, 
1915. LentbytheCalifornit 
Historical Society, North 
Baker Research Library, 
Ephemera Collection 



All of the prevailing mythologies of 
California, involving both the regional culture 
and the natural environment, were promoted 
forcefully at the expositions of art and culture 
that featured or were hosted by California during 
these years. Among the most notable examples 
are the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition 
of 1893, the first international fair to have a sepa- 
rate building devoted solely to California, and 
the two expositions held in San Francisco and 
San Diego in 1915. The latter were, respectively, 
the Panama-Pacific International Exposition 
(ppie), which celebrated the opening of the 
Panama Canal; and the Panama-California 
Exposition (pce), intended to rival the ppie 
once San Francisco had been declared the site 
of the official international exposition. Like 
other expositions held in the United States 
during this period, these three were federally 
subsidized and organized by prominent members 
of the local business community intent on 
expanding regional commerce and celebrating 
America as an imperial power. According to 
Robert Rydell, expositions of this period fostered 
a sense of unity among whites of disparate 
classes by promoting a Darwinian conception 
of racial progress that culminated in the ascen- 
sion of the Anglo race." The message communi- 
cated at the two 1915 California expositions was 
that the American West was the final frontier 
where this history of racial ascendancy played 
itself out: first, with the Spanish subjugation 
of the Indians, then with the Anglo conquest of 
Alta California.'" 

At the 1893 Chicago exposition, many of 
the mythologies of California that would become 
central to its early-twentieth-century image — 
notably, its physical beauty, its fecundity, and its 
romantic mission past — were encapsulated and 
intermingled in the fair's displays and in promo- 
tional materials devoted to the state. In honor of 

founded in Los fingele 

19 19 > Construction begins on the Hollywood Bowl, a venture financed almost entirely by the public. > California passes the Criminal Syndicalism fict, an antilabor 


Harry Ellington Brook's 
Southern California: The Land 
of Sunshine, booklet spon- 
sored by the Los Angeles 
Chamber of Commerce for the 
Chicago World's Columbian 
Exposition, 1893 

Official guidebook, Panama- 
California Exposition, 
San Diego, 1915. Lent by the 
Sierra Madre Public Library 


Brochure promoting the 
Panama-California Exposition 
produced by the U. S. Grant 
Hotel, San Diego, 1915. Lent 
by Victoria Daiiey 

this sense of regional identity was communicated 
at the San Francisco exposition through the use 
of Mission Style architecture in the California 
Building (most of the fair's other buildings were 
rendered in a Beaux- Arts style), it was stressed 
even more forcefully at the San Diego pce. 
There, the entire complex was designed by archi- 
tect Bertram Goodhue in an ornate Spanish 
Colonial-Baroque style that resuscitated the 
Spanish imperial past in unequivocally glowing 
terms. As one reporter marveled, "It is as 
though one stood on a magic carpet, wished 
himself on the shores of Spain three centuries 
ago and found the wish fulfilled." Embracing 
the idealized conception of Spanish culture that 
was being served up to visitors, another enrap- 
tured writer dubbed the exposition grounds 
"a sweet and restful land where 'castles in Spain' 
seem realities; a land in which you loaf and 
invite your soul.""" 

the exposition, the Los Angeles Chamber 
of Commerce issued the publication Southern 
California: The Land of Sunshine^ Published in 
conjunction with the opening of the California 
Building, it features on its cover a classicized alle- 
gorical figure of California. The burgeoning 
orange bough clasped near her womb conveys 
the fertility of the region. Behind her lies a thriv- 
ing cultivated landscape with palm trees and, 
beyond that, a classic picturesque mission. This 
idyllic conception, fervently marketed to the mil- 
lions of visitors who attended the fair, reappeared 
on a grander scale at the two major California 
expositions of 1915. 

Heavily supported by the railroads and 
other booster industries, the San Francisco and 
San Diego expositions perpetuated visions of 
California as a scenic, bountiful paradise with a 
distinct regional history and ethnic flavor. While 





1 Zl v^^-u^^^:^- 



and dnfi-Comniunist measure that allows for the arrest and imprisonment of persons accused of threatening the government, > Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery is founded in San Marino > 

Postcard showing the Chinese 
Pavilion, Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition, 
San Francisco, 1915. Lent by 
UCLA Library, Department of 
Special Collections 

Postcard showing a Navaho 
blanket weaver in the Painted 
Desert exhibit, Panama- 
California Exposition, 
San Diego, 1915. Lent by the 
San Diego Historical Society 
Research Archives 

While ethnicity was addressed in anthropo- 
logical exhibits on the main exposition grounds 
at both of the 1915 fairs, California's nonwhite 
ethnic groups were largely ghettoized in adjacent 
entertainment-oriented midways, intended as 
counterbalances to the "serious" exhibitions of art, 
anthropology, and technology. For example, both 
the p pie's Joy Zone and the pce's Isthmus, as 
these midways were respectively called, featured a 
little Chinatown, where Chinese culture was pre- 
sented as exotic, illicit, and sinister. In the San 
Diego version, a journalist reported on "an under- 
ground opium den where effigies in wax depicted 
the horrors of addiction.""' The similarly deni- 
grating Underground Chinatown at the p p i e was 
closed after protest by San Francisco's Chinese 
business community — the closure marked an 
effort by white local business to foster economic 
relations with China — only to be replaced by a 
virtually identical concession called Underground 
Slumming."^ Another ppie Joy Zone attraction 
was a fantasy reconstruction of a Mexican village. 
While outfitted for modern commerce with a 
restaurant and theater, it was staffed by "primi- 
tive" Mexicans working at what was described as 
"characteristic handicrafts."" The term was clearly 
meant to distinguish the objects they were pro- 
ducing from contemporary "fine" art. 

One of the most popular concessions at 
the PCE was the Painted Desert. A ten-acre 
exhibit, it featured pueblos re-created on the site 
and a group of present-day Native Americans 
actually engaging in the traditional practices of 
basket, pottery, and rug making for the viewing 
and buying pleasure of exposition-goers." 
Tellingly, it was placed opposite a display celebrat- 
ing California's modern technological advances in 
agriculture, reinforcing the contrast between the 
"primitive" past and the vital present."^ Although 
dubbed a "living exhibit," the Painted Desert 
proved quite the opposite, sounding a death knell 
on Native American culture by presenting Indians 
as ancient artifacts. It is hardly surprising that 
the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad 
sponsored this display, for this decision made 
good business sense. Such presentations of the 
region's non-Anglo cultures as disappearing were 
tremendously appealing and comforting to white 
visitors, effectively drawing great numbers of 
them to the expositions and, more generally, to 

For this brief period early in the century, 
booster images of California as a premodern, 
Edenic paradise dominated cultural production 
in the state. Yet California was far from the 
homogeneous haven for Anglo culture that it was 
purported to be. Although largely suppressed 
during these years, views of California that 
diverged from the white booster image did exist 
and would soon gain greater visibility. Indeed, 
this was the last period in which a glowing con- 
ception of the state prevailed, or in fact when 
any cohesive image could be said to dominate. 
After this point, California would become a 
contested Eden. 

'ews Clark Jr. founds the Philharmonic Orchestra of Los flngeles. 

1 For migration statistics, see Robert M. 
Fogelson, The Fragmented Metropolis: 
Los Angeles, 2850-1930 (Berkeley and Los 
Angeles: University of California Press, 1967), 
78. On manufacture increase, see Carey 
McWilliams, Southern California: An Island 
on the Land (1946; reprint, Salt Lake City: 
Peregrine Smith, 1990), 130. 

2 On the migrant population in Los Angeles, 
as distinct from San Francisco as well as other 
American cities at the turn of the century, 
see Fogelson, Fragmented Metropolis, 68-81. 

3 Ibid., 143. 

4 On the role of the railroads in promoting 
California and other western states, see 
Alfred Runte, "Promoting the Golden West; 
Advertising and the Railroad," California 
History 70 (1991): 62-65. 

5 Kevin Starr, Inventing the Dream: California 
through the Progressive Era (New York: 
O.xford University Press, 1985), 89. 

i Ibid., 76-77, 82-83. 

7 Susan Landauer, "Impressionism's Indian 
Summer: The Culture and Consumption of 
California 'Plein-Air' Painting," in California 
Impressionists, exh. cat. (Athens, Ga.: Georgia 
Museum of Art, University of Georgia, and 
the Irvine Museum, in association with 
University of California Press, Berkeley and 
Los Angeles, 1996), 11-49. 

8 McWilliams, Southern California, 149. 

» For further discussion of this painting and 
other images of the San Francisco earthquake 
and fire, see Claire Perry, Pacific Arcadia: Images 
of California, 1600-191$, exh. cat. (New York: 
Oxford University Press, 1999), 187-92. 

10 Henry Nash Smith uses the term "virgin 
land" to characterize mythic conceptions of 
the West in the nineteenth-century popular 
imagination that culminated in Frederick 
lackson Turner's frontier hypothesis. Smith is 
referring to an essentially agrarian Utopia, as 
opposed to a land completely devoid of habi- 
tation. See Smith's Virgin Land: The American 
West as Symbol and Myth (New York: Vintage 
Books, 1950). East Coast Impressionists also 
painted nostalgic visions of the premodern 
natural landscape. See H. Barbara Weinberg, 
Doreen Bolger, and David Park Curry, 
American Impressionism and Realism: The 
Painting of Modern Life, 1885-1915, exh. cat. 
(New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
1994), 67-77. 

11 Quoted in Landauer, "Impressionism's 
Indian Summer," 21. 

12 The protest letter, signed by lohn Muir 
et al., Nov. 1, 1907, stated, "As a lover of the 
Yosemite National Park, 1 most devoutly 
protest against the use of one of its most 
important and beautiful features, the 

Hctch Hetchy, as a reservoir. An abundance 
of water can be had elsewhere to supply 
San Francisco." William Bad^ Papers, Hetch 
Hetchy folder, Bancroft Library, University 
of California, Berkeley. On the Hetch Hetchy 
controversy, see Gray Brechin, Imperial 
San Francisco: Urban Power, Earthly Rum 
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of 
California Press, 1999), 101, 102, 108-10. 
13 lohn R. Freeman, On the Proposed Use of 
a Portion of the Hctch-Hetchy, Eleanor and 
Cherry Valleys (San Francisco: Rincon, 1912). 
u Similarly, in Southern California the arts 
contributed to the promotion of such tourist 
destinations as Mt. Lowe in the San Gabriel 

15 Landauer, "Impressionism's Indian 
Summer," 22. 

16 Ibid., 40. 

17 Willard Huntington Wright, "Hotbed of 
Soulful Culture, Vortex of Erotic Erudition," 
Los Angeles Times, May 22, 1910. 

18 Earl Pomeroy, In Search of the Golden 
West: The Tourist in Western America 
(New York: Knopf, 1957), 23. 

19 Kevin Starr, Americans and the California 
Dream: 1850-1915 (New York: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1973), 268. On the art community 
at Carmel, see also Michael Orth, "Ideality to 
Reality: The Founding of Carmel," California 
Historical Society Quarterly 4S (1959): 195-210. 

20 Ilene Susan Fort, "The Cosmopolitan Guy 
Rose," in Patricia Trenton and William H. 
Gerdts, California Light 1900-1950, exh. cat. 
(Laguna Beach: Laguna Art Museum, 1990), 111. 

21 On tourism and the Hotel Del Monte, see 
Pomeroy, In Search of the Golden West, 19-20. 

22 On California's agricultural history told 
from the perspective of labor, see Cletus E. 
Daniel, Bitter Harvest: A History of California 
Farmworkers, 1870-1941 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell 
University Press, 1981). 

23 A Time and Place: From the Ries Collection 
of California Painting, exh. cat. (Oakland: 
Oakland Museum Art Department, 1990), 34. 

24 Reflections of California: The Athalie 
Richardson Irvine Clarke Memorial Exhibition, 
exh. cat. (Irvine: Irvine Museum, 1992), 158. 

25 On Wheatland and the involvement of 
the iww in organizing migratory laborers 
through World War I, see Daniel, Bitter 
Harvest, 86-98. 

26 See Starr, Inventing the Dream, 77. 

27 Bayside Bohemia: Fin de Siecle San Francisco 
and Its Little Magazines (San Francisco, 1954), 
20-21, quoted in Starr, Americans and the 
California Dream, 259. 

28 McWilliams, Southern California, 22. 

29 lohn Ott, "Missionary Work: Labor, 
Nostalgia, Philanthropy, and the California 

Mission Revival, 1883-1920," paper delivered 
at American Studies A.ssociation conference, 
Seattle, Nov. 1998. 

30 "To Make Better Indians" was the motto 
of the Sequoya League. See their second bul- 
letin. The Relief of Campo [c. 1905]. Archives 
of the Southwest Museum, Sequoya League, 
Bulletins folder. 

31 "Pictures of Misery: California's Mission 
Indians, the Most Pitiable Band on the 
American Continent. What They Really 
Need," New York Herald, Mar. 21, 1897. Topical 
California Collection, Mission Indians Box, 
Huntington Library, Prints and Drawings 
Department, San Marino, California. 

32 Harry Ellington Brook, "Olden Times in 
Southern California," Land of Sunshine, 
July 1894, 29-31. 

33 Starr, Inventing the Dream, 56-57. 

34 K. Scott Wong, "Cultural Defenders and 
Brokers: Chinese Responses to the Anti- 
Chinese Movement," in Claiming America: 
Constructing Chitiese American Identities 
during the Exclusion Era, ed. K. Scott Wong 
and Sucheng Chan (Philadelphia: Temple 
University Press, 1998), 5. 

35 "The Chinese Question," Overland 
Monthly 5%, no. 4 (Oct. 1901): 257, 256. 

36 Keith E Davis, An American Century of 
Photography: From Dry-Plate to Digital, 
The Hallmark Photographic Collection, 2nd 
ed. (Kansas City, Mo.: Hallmark Cards in 
association with Harry N. Abrams, New York, 
1995). 32-33- 

37 Robert W. Rydell, All the World's a Fair: 
Visions of Empire at American International 
Expositions, 1879-1916 (Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1984), 235-37. 

38 Ibid., 209, 211. 

39 Harry Ellington Brook, Southern California: 
The Land of Sunshine, An Authentic Description 
of Its Natural Features, Resources, and Prospects 
(Los Angeles: World's Fair Association and 
Bureau of Information, 1893). 

40 Both are quoted in Phoebe S. Kropp, 
"'There is a little sermon in that': Construct- 
ing the Native Southwest at the San Diego 
Panama-California E.xposition of 1915," in 
The Great Southwest of the Fred Harvey 
Company and the Santa Fe Railway, ed. 
Marta Weigle and Barbara A. Babcock, exh. 
cat. (Phoenix: Heard Museum, 1996), 43. 

41 Ibid. 

42 Rydell, All the World's a Fair, 229. 

43 Ibid., 228. 

44 For the best analysis of the Painted Desert, 
see Kropp, "'There is a little sermon in that,'" 

45 Ibid., ^6,44. 


Sheri Bernstein 

Diego Rivera 

Allegory of California 
(detail), 1931, mural, Stock 
Exchange Building (now City 
Club of San Francisco) 
(scale reconstruction m 

Throughout the first twenty years of this century, on idyllic and remark- 
ably cohesive picture of California dominated the popular imagination as 
well as cultural production. This was far from the case, however, in the 
subsequent decades between the two world wars, during which the coun- 
try experienced profound shifts of dramatic proportions. The boom of the 
1920s, which historian William E. Leuchtenberg 
has characterized as a decade of "piping prosper- 
ity,"' gave way to blight in the 1930s, as the entire 
nation struggled through the Great Depression. 
Whereas California was lauded as being at the epi- 
center of the boom — celebrated for the first time 
as much for its modern sophistication as for its 
beauty and bounty — its glowing booster image 
was powerfully contested during the Depression 
years. At that time, critical visions of the state 
often put forward by and on behalf of the working 
class circulated widely. Yet along with these more 
sobering views, a fairy-tale image of Hollywood 
permeated the national consciousness, providing a 
much-needed antidote to the troubles of the day. 
Complicating the state's image even further was 
the fact that a considerable range of perspectives 
on California's ethnic character — including those 
of non-Anglos — were promulgated throughout 
this twenty-year span, informed by the nation's 
struggle to define its complex relationship to Latin 
America and Asia. For these reasons, as well as 
because of the incessant migration of an unprece- 
dented number and diversity of newcomers, mul- 
tiplicity and inconstancy aptly characterize the 
image of California during the 1920s and 1930s. 

A salient new aspect of California's image 
was its urban character, which had been largely 
eclipsed until the 1920s by Edenic visions of the 
state as a premodern paradise. The proliferation 
of urban views of California spoke to the massive 
urban growth then occurring in the Bay Area 
and, to an even greater extent, in Southern 
California. The vast majority of the 1.5 million 
people who flooded into the Southland between 
1920 and 1930 settled in urban areas, sparking a 

major surge in real estate development and the 
creation of eight new cities in Los Angeles 
County alone. By 1920 Los Angeles had surpassed 
San Francisco as the largest city in California; 
and by the end of that decade, in the wake of the 
oil boom, it had emerged as the fourth-largest 
urban center in America. Not surprisingly, 
Los Angeles had begun to develop the problems 
of a modern city. With two automobiles for every 
three people in Los Angeles by 1929, traffic became 
a constant, defining feature. San Francisco, too, 
although it had fewer people and cars than 
Los Angeles, was a sizable metropolis of 630,000 
residents by 1930, with a thriving corporate and 
commercial sector and an identity as the West 
Coast hub for maritime trade. 

With big business striving to attract 
and provide for increasing numbers of tourists 
and new residents, boosterism in California 
reached an all-time high during the 1920s. 
The Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and its 
institutional counterparts in other CaUfornia 
cities expanded their ongoing efforts, and new 
organizations sprang up, such as the All-Year 
Club of Southern California, which was founded 
in 1921 by Los Angeles Times publisher Harry 
Chandler to promote summer tourism in the 
region. In addition, the Automobile Club of 
Southern California significantly expanded its 
publication Touring Topics (renamed Westways in 
1934) under the editorship of Phil Townsend 
Hanna. Far more than a travel magazine, Touring 
Topics became a central cultural voice in the area, 
employing numerous artists and writers, fi-om 
the conventional to the modernist. This publica- 
tion's existence, like that of Land of Sunshine 
during the previous two decades, attests to the 
faithful marriage of boosterism and the arts that 
existed in Southern California, a marriage then 
flourishing to varying degrees in different 
regions nationwide. 

19 2 8 > Alien land Law is passed by a 3-to-l majority, prohibiting Japanese ownership of or investment in California land. This is designed to block the loopholes in a si 

passed in 1913 > S< 

Miki HayakowQ 

Millard Sheets 

Barse Miller 

Charles Payzant 

Frederic Penney 

Telegraph Hill, n.d., oil on 

Angel's Flight, 1931, oil on 

Apparition over 

Los Angeles, 

l^ilshire Boulevard. cA<)lO, 

Madonna of Chavez Ravine, 



1932, oil on can 


watercolor on paper 

c. 1932, watercolor on pope 

Particularly by the late 1920s, a considerable 
number of artists began to celebrate California's 
urban landscape. Some stressed the picturesque 
quality of the state's burgeoning cities, which 
necessitated altering the less scenic realities of 
urban life. Miki Hayakawa, for example, chose 
to efface any trace of the bustling, bohemian 
community of Telegraph Hill in San Francisco, 
producing a distinctly Cezannesque rendering 
of buildings peacefully nestled on the hillside. 
A similarly picturesque though more humanistic 
perspective was offered by American Scene 
painter Millard Sheets, who pictured the every- 
day life of Bunker Hill, a working-class residen- 
tial neighborhood in downtown Los Angeles. 
The title. Angel's Flight, refers to the funicular 
that transported residents up and down Bunker 
Hill's steeply graded incline, but Sheets opted not 
to depict this mechanical convenience. Instead he 
concentrated on two flights of stairs that led up 
the hill and falsely portrayed their ascent as cir- 
cuitous rather than straight so as to enhance the 
charm of the scene. Once a haven for the city's 
elite. Bunker Hill had a sizable poor immigrant 
population by the 1920s. Yet Sheets's painting 
includes only white subjects; in fact, he used his 
own wife as a model for the two main figures. 
Many other white artists also shied away from 

lol of the Arts Is founded > Hollywood Art Association Is founded. > Ttie oil boom of ttie 1920s begins with the Standard Oil strike at Huntington Beach, followed by the Shell Oil strike at Signal Hill 

depicting the ethnic minorities who were rele- 
gated to particular urban neighborhoods by 
restrictive real estate covenants and unregulated 
racist practices throughout the state. As one 
realtor in Whittier boasted, "Race segregation is 
not a serious problem with us. Our realtors do 
not sell [to] Mexicans and Japanese outside cer- 
tain sections where it is agreed by community 
custom they shall reside."^ Booster organizations 
such as the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce 
similarly avoided depicting nonwhite ethnic 
communities in their countless photographs of 
city life. On the rare occasions when such com- 
munities were represented, either in promotional 
literature or in a fine-art context, they appeared 
as if eternally frozen in a romantic and spiritual 
past. This is the case, for example, in Madonna 
of Chavez Ravine by Frederic Penney. While the 
artist clearly intended to honor the Mexican 
people of Chavez Ravine by portraying them as 
saints, he effectively denied their existence as 
contemporary, ordinary individuals. In contrast 
to the proponents of the picturesque urban land- 
scape, other artists heralded the modern aspects 
of California's cities. Many focused, for example, 
on industrial subjects or public works, including 
the recently erected dams that collected water 
from the Colorado River (Southern California's 

the following year, fl third major strike Is made by George Franklin Getty at Telegraph Hill, which produces 70 million barrels a year by 1923. Prosperity due to the oil boom attracts migrants from the South 

Childe Hassam 

California Oil Fields, 1927, 

California Highways and 
Public Marks magazine, 
January 1940. Lent by the 
Caltrans Transportation 

Shinsaku Izumi 

Tunnel of Night, c. 1931 
gelatm-silver print 

Peter Stackpole 

The Lone Riveter 
gelatin-siluer pr 

Official program for the 
San Francisco-Ookland Boy 
Bridge celebration, 1936, 
Lentbyjim Heimann 

Carquinez Bridge, 1933, 
gelatin-silver print 




new major water source as of 1928) or on the 
bridges that numbered among the significant 
public-works projects of the mid-i930S. Some 
naturalized these subjects. Childe Hassam's oil 
derricks — veritable icons of the Southern 
California landscape in the early 1920s, most 
notably in Signal Hill, Huntington Beach, and 
Long Beach — suggest a forest of trees. Others 
humanized their modern scenes by adding 
figures. Peter Stackpole's breathtaking views of 
the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge under 
construction, which appeared in Life magazine, 
celebrate the technological and psychological 
feats of erecting this structure. 

Still other creative figures, predominantly 
photographers and designers rather than 
painters, employed a visual language of sleek 
forms and smooth textures, closely in keeping 
with industrialization, in addressing the 
California landscape. Photographer Alma 
Lavenson, for example, rejected the filmy 
aesthetic of Pictorialism in favor of the cleaner 
look of "straight" photography associated with 

fornia's African flmerican population doubles in the early 1920s. However, restrictive covenants and segregation keep blacks out of better neighbortioods > Automobile ownership accelerates in Californr 

forever changing the landscape. Roadside amenities and attractions are created, such as Knott's Berry Farm. > V/ilshire Boulevard, In Los flngeles, is partially paved. Between La Brea flvenue and Be 

Maynard Dixon 

Airplane, c. 1930, gouache 

Brochure produced by the Los 

Angeles Department 

of Water and Power, 1928. 

Lent by use. Regional History 

Center, Department of Special 


Edward Biberman 

Sepulveda Dam, n.c 

the California-based Group f/64. In their cool 
exactness and industrial subject matter, her 
works were also in sympathy with the paintings 
of contemporaneous East Coast-based 
Precisionists. Among the California designers 
most directly inspired by the new technology was 
Kem Weber; a clean, minimal aesthetic is visible 
in the streamlined form of his Airline Armchair 
of 1934-35- 

Weber's enthusiasm for the airplane was 
shared by many. Indeed, excitement over the 
thriving aviation industry pervaded Southern 
California cuhure in the 1920s and 1930s. Boosters 
seized every opportunity to bill the region as the 
aviation capital of the world, heavily publicizing 
such events as Charles Lindbergh's triumphal 
return to Los Angeles after completing a trans- 
Atlantic flight from New York to Paris in 1927.^ 
Public interest in aviation not only infiased the 
work of designers such as Weber but also fueled 
production in the visual arts, thereby providing 
another point of confluence between boosterism 
and artistic production. Touring Topics, for exam- 
ple, featured a painting of an airplane by 
Maynard Dixon on its December 1930 cover; this 
was the culminating work in a twelve-part series 
on the history of transportation that Dixon exe- 
cuted for the magazine. Helen Lundeberg also cel- 
ebrated air flight as the pinnacle of transportation 
history in her eight-panel mural for Centinela 
Park in Inglewood. Publications that promoted 
industry, such as Southern California Business, 
devoured these images, vastly preferring them to 
picturesque visions of urban life. Yet chamber of 
commerce and Ail-Year Club publications fea- 
tured both types of urban views — the forward 
looking and the nostalgic — often within a single 
issue or brochure, since both highlighted mar- 
ketable aspects of California's appeal to tourists 
and newcomers. 

a dirt road surrounded by barley fields, oil wells, and empty acreage. 

1 92 

> Los Rngeles Times publ 

Harry Chandler, along with businessmen and real estate boosters, founds 

Helen Lundeberg 

The History of Transportation 
in California (Panel 8), study 
for mural in Centinela Park, 
Inglewood, 1940, gouache on 

Kern Weber 

Airline Armchair, c. 1934-35, 
hickory, alder, maple, metal, 
and leather 

Julius Shulman 

Lovell "Health" House, 1950, 
gelatm-silver print 

Early Modernism 

Many architects and designers who 
emigrated from Europe to the United 
States were drawn to Los Angeles, 
where they created innovative build- 
ings, interiors, and furniture. They 
brought with them the principles of 

modernism, which found beauty in 
the useful and strove for originality. 
Modernism sought to join purity 
of design and utility, and those 
influenced by it championed new 
technologies, mass production, and 
the use of geometric shapes and 
spare lines. The aggressive and 
experimental approach of trans- 
planted Europeans led to the synthe- 
sis of the California Modern style. 
Two important immigrants were 
Viennese architects Rudolph Schindler 
and Richard Neutra. Schindler 
designed his own residence, the 
radical Studio House on Kings Road, 

J^ of Southern California to promote tourisr 

sninq this year are the San Francisco Mi. 

and the San Diego Academy of Fine Rrts 

of concrete and redwood, with an 
open plan and sliding porch doors 
that dissolved boundaries between 
indoors and outdoors. Neutro created 
the Lovell "Health" House, the first 
U.S. structure with a steel frame. 
Its expanses of glass united the inte- 
rior with the hillside surroundings, 
creating an environnnent for the 
signature California lifestyle. 

The Made in California period 
environment featured furniture 
designed by Schindler in the 1930s 
for the Shep Residence, a commission 
that was never realized. Schindler 
called these pieces "unit furniture." 
Not just knock-down or sectional, 
they are composed of parts that can 
be assembled in various combina- 
tions. These austere and tasteful 
pieces are all low, wide, and horizon- 
tal, echoing the low horizon of the 
Southern California landscape. 
The living room included a modular 
sofa, an armchair, on ottoman, an 
end table, and a stackoble storage 
chest, all of which reflect the 
architect's interest in economy of 
space and multiple use. The dining 

Rudolph Schindler 

Milton Shep Residence 
[Project], Los Angeles, 
Perspective Elevation, 
1934-35, colored pencil on 

Porter Blanchard Rudolph Schindler 

Coffee Set and Tray, 1930-50, Armchair and Ottoman, 

pewter and hardwood 1936-38, gumwood and 


Mario Kipp 

Textile Length for Drapery, 
c. 1938, mohair, Lurex, and 

area showcased an expandable table 
with alternating chairs and stools. 
Schindler created an aesthetically 
integrated modernist interior by 
using versatile suite of movable 
components — the furniture — and by 
carefully selecting the appropriate 
backdrops in the draperies and 
carpets. In this way he was able to 
unite all elements into an elegant, 
clean-lined, and efficient interior 
space expressive of the new modern 
style in California, jo lauria 

The garden will become an integral part of the house. The distinction between 
indoors and outdoors will disappear, rudolph schindler 

•rcolor Society founded In Los fingeles, > Sabato (Simon) Rodia begins work on the Watts Towers in Los ftnqeles > 192 2 > Throughout the 1910s and 1320s, specially decorated trains and colorful 

Glen Lukens 

Gray Bowl, c. 1940, 

Rudolph Schlndter 

Bedroom Dresser with Hinged 
Half-Round Mirror, 1936-38, 
gumwood and mirror 

crate, labels market California oranges nationwide. Chambers of commerce, the flII-Year Club, and other organizations Join the advertising campaigns. > 19 2 3 > Under California's Crimina 

Fletcher Martin 

Herman Volz 

Lee Everett Blair 

Behind the Materfront, 

Trouble in Frisco, c 


San Francisco Materfront 

Dissenting Factions, 1940, 

designed and illustrated by 


Strike, 1934, lithograph 

watercolor on paper 

Giocomo Patn, c. 1940. Lent 
by San Francisco State 
University, Labor Archives and 
Research Center 

author Upton Sinclair Is arrested for reading tfie U.S. Constitution In public during an Industrial Workers of ttie World strike in San Pedro. > Painters' and Sculptors' Club of Los fingeles is founded > More 

Bernard Zakheim 

Library, 1934, mural, 
Coit Tower, Pioneer Par 
San Francisco 
(scale reconstruction i 

Not all of the urban images generated by 
artists during this period, however, supported 
boosterism. While criticisms of California had 
been issued earlier in the century, mainly by radi- 
cal voices such as the Industrial Workers of the 
World, in the 1930s they began to permeate the 
visual arts. This coincided, of course, with the 
onset of the Depression and the growing visibil- 
ity of the political Left. The latter was plainly evi- 
denced by the capture of the Democratic 
gubernatorial nomination in 1934 by writer and 
left-wing populist Upton Sinclair, who authored 
the End Poverty in California (epic) program. 
As never before in the state, radical artists 
became a strong and vocal presence. This mir- 
rored a trend in the country at large, which had 
been prefigured by a strong tradition of political 
activism among New York artists and intellectu- 
als since the turn of the century. Within 
California, radicalism could be felt most force- 
fully in San Francisco. There, creative figures on 
the far Left — including many Jewish and other 
European immigrants — formed an alliance 
known as the Artists' and Writers' Union, loosely 
affiliated with the then ethnically diverse and aes- 
thetically open-minded local branch of the 
Communist Party." Predictably, the works of 
these and other leftists in California were princi- 
pally concerned with the state's organized labor: 
its inherent dignity and its exploitation. 

One much-treated subject by radical 
artists — most notoriously by Anton Refregier in 
his controversial Rincon Annex murals of the 
1940s — was the General Strike of 1934, in which 
more than 34,000 San Francisco waterfront and 
maritime workers walked off their jobs, virtually 
paralyzing the city.^ This uprising occurred under 
the forceful leadership of Australian-born labor 
activist Harry Bridges, who became a cult hero 
for the Left. Herman Volz was among the artists 
to depict the grave events of July 5, known as the 

strike's Bloody Thursday, when police action 
resulted in the deaths of two longshoremen. 
Italian immigrant Giacomo Patri was another 
figure sympathetic to labor. He illustrated publi- 
cations for the waterfront union and the local 
branch of the Communist Party and authored 
the powerful White Collar: A Novel in Linocuts 
(1940), which documented the mobilization of 
workers in support of the labor movement. 
A contemporaneous instance in which 
radicalism came to the fore was the mural project 
for San Francisco's Coit Tower, a structure built 
from 1932 to 1933 to eulogize prominent Bay Area 
benefactor Lillie Hitchcock Coit. Conservative 
responses to several of the twenty-seven murals 
produced for the tower's interior — all of which 
related to the theme "Aspects of California Life, 
1934" — were exacerbated by the events of the 
1934 waterfront strike. Federally funded through 
the short-lived Public Works of Art Project 
(PWAP), which preceded the Work Projects 

Administration (wpa), the Coit Tower murals 
were masterminded by one of San Francisco's 
old-guard patrons, Herbert Fleishhacker. 
Fleishhacker appears to have conceived of the 
murals as a means of curbing budding militant 
radicalism in the area by appeasing leftist artists 
such as Bernard Zakheim and Victor Arnautoff, 
whom he named the project's idea man and its 
supervisor, respectively.' 

Yet under the leadership of Zakheim and 
Arnautoff, who had both worked with Mexican 
muralist Diego Rivera and were members of the 
Artists' and Writers' Union, the project in fact 
yielded a handful of highly charged murals on 
labor-related subjects. Several of these inspired 
accusations in the mainstream press of 
Communist propagandizing. Zakheim's depic- 
tion of a library scene, for example, was deemed 
"red propaganda" in the San Francisco Chronicle, 
because it included such details as a newspaper 
headline that obliquely referenced Harry Bridges 

than 20,000 actors and actresses are working in Hollywood, their weekly Incomes totaling over a million dollars. > 19 24 > Increased use of cars spawns new publications like the fiutomobile C 



hern California's Touring Topics, which advertises such California sites as Death Valley and Yosemite. > The National Origins Act is passed, limiting the number of Immigrants admitted annually to 

Booklet produced by the 

John Gutmann 

John Langley Howard 

Otto Hogel 

Dorothea Lange 

Southern California 

The Cry, 1939, gelatin- 

The Unemployed, 1937, oil on 

Untitled [Maritime Workers 

A Sign of the Times- 

Proletarian Culture League, 

silver print 


Looking for Work], c. 1935, 

Depression— Mended 

cover by yotokuMiyagi, 1931. 

gelatm-silver print 

Stockings— Stenographer, 

Lent by UCLA Library, 

San Francisco, c.mA, 

Department of Special 

gelatin-silver print 


as well as an image of artist John Langley 
Howard reaching for a copy of Karl Marx's Das 
KapitaU Eventually, the pwap elected to white- 
wash part of one mural by Clifford Wight that 
contained a hammer and sickle. In addition, 
Coit Tower was closed to the public for several 
months after the waterfront strike in an effort to 
avoid further galvanizing leftists within the city. 
Less militant and more sentimental than 
the subject of a united working class was that 
of urban poverty and unemployment, which 
garnered the interest of New Deal centrists and 
a spectrum of leftists during the Depression 
years. John Langley Howard, who painted one 
of the Coit Tower murals, was the brother-in-law 
of a waterfront worker who participated in the 
strike. Howard bemoaned the plight of California's 
unemployed by means of a critical realist style 
popular among artists of the far Left. Some 
images of poverty and joblessness in California 
circulated more widely in mainstream magazines 

such as Life, as well as in leftist publications such 
as Survey Graphic. Photographs by Dorothea 
Lange and Otto Hagel, for example, humanized 
their subjects for broad audiences. Those who 
took a more elliptical approach included German 
Jewish emigre John Gutmann, whose photo- 
graphs of San Francisco's urban poor, such as 
The Cry, were informed by Surrealism and 
offered the more distanced perspective of a 
European observer. 

While urban views of California prolifer- 
ated during these years, the natural landscape 
remained an enduring motif. Its identity became 
increasingly contested, however, as images of 
cultivated landscapes came to rival those of 
untouched terrain, which had dominated cultural 
production before 1920. Evidence of human 
labor — either the actual presence of workers or 
their implied presence in the form of farmhouses 
and tilled fields — especially characterized the cul- 
tivated landscape. The preponderance of signifiers 
of labor in images of California from the 1920s 
and 1930s attests to the increased attention given 
to workers in American society during these years. 

The disparate approaches to California's 
agrarian landscape taken by artists of the period 
speak directly to competing perspectives on the 
then highly charged subject of agricultural labor. 
As Carey McWilliams powerfully recounts in 
Factories in the Field (1939), by the 1920s California's 
agricultural economy had become heavily indus- 
trialized and consolidated. It was no longer 
controlled by individual farmers and ranchers 
but by "absentee landlords" — large and imper- 
sonal corporations or wealthy businessmen — 
who hired itinerant laborers to work for meager 
wages and under substandard conditions.' 

This shift in California away from the 
Jeffersonian ideal of small-scale farming toward 
an agribusiness economy elicited feelings of nos- 
talgia among the very people who had benefited 

2 percent of the foreign-born individuals of each nationality living in the United States In 1890. The act favors immigration from northwestern Europe, The annual quota for Japan is 40 people. > Los fin 

Edward Weston 

Tomato Field, 1937, 
gelatin-silver print 

Millard Sheets 

California, c. 1935, 

Phil Paradise 

Ranch near San Luis Obispo, 
Evening Light, c. 1935, 

Selden Conner Gile 

The Soil, 1927, oil on 

from the transition. The heads of agribusiness — 
many of whom were patrons of important 
cultural institutions, such as San Francisco's 
Bohemian Club and the California School of Fine 
Arts — gravitated toward picturesque images of 
the agrarian landscape that naturalized or effaced 
the presence of big business.' San Francisco artist 
Rinaldo Cuneo's highly decorative painted 
screen, California Landscape, offers a bountiful 
expanse of neatly ordered lettuce rows set against 
the Northern California hills. It echoes the visual 
language used in such agribusiness booster 
publications as The Land of Oranges (1930), a 
children's book published by the California Fruit 
Growers Exchange. Cuneo himself romanticized 
and aestheticized agricultural production, com- 
paring the process of cultivating the landscape 
to that of composing a painting.'" Other pictur- 
esque agrarian visions include scenes of small 
farms or ranches executed in a range of styles — 
from the modernism of Selden Conner Gile, 
whose palette was inspired by the French Fauve 
painters, to the down-home regionalism of 
Phil Paradise. Many of these booster images of 
California are devoid of laborers or, in fact, of 
any sign of utilitarian purpose. Yet the farms 
and ranches pictured appear thriving and well 

Rinaldo Cuneo 

California Landscape, 1928, 
oil on canvas set in three-part 

The Land of Oranges, a 
coloring book for children 
produced by the California 
Fruit Growers Exchange, 1930. 
Lent by the McClelland 

Ises San Francisco's In total annual tonnage, making it the biggest port on the Pacific coast > Pasadena firt Institute opens. > California Palace of the Legion of Honor opens as a museum of fine art In 



San Francisco, > 19 2 5 > flimee Sempie McPherson, radio evangelist and founder of tlie International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, based in Los flngeles, is reprimanded by Secretary of Cornrn 

maintained, invoking the fantasy of land that 
works itself with remarkably little effort. 

Yet a great number of laborers were, in 
fact, working the land in California, with heavy 
concentrations of activity in the Sacramento, 
Santa Clara, San Joaquin, and Imperial valleys. 
In the 1920s the labor force was dominated by 
Mexican and Filipino immigrants, the former 
comprising more than 30 percent of California's 
total agricultural workforce by the early 1930s, 
and the latter representing 90 percent of the 
labor pool in Northern California by 1938." 
In the Imperial Valley alone, there were 20,000 
Mexican laborers by the late 1920s. Extremely 
poor conditions gave rise to union organizing, 
particularly among Mexican workers, and a 
number of uprisings occurred, including the 
San Joaquin Valley cotton strike of 1933 and the 
Imperial Valley lettuce strike of 1934. Mexican 
unionizing and strikes met with "vigilante 
terrorism . . . repressive activities of large growers 
. . . use of arrest, intimidation, etc.," as John 
Steinbeck noted in Their Blood Is Strong, a collec- 
tion of reports from the field originally published 
in the San Francisco News. He added, "As with 
the Chinese and Japanese, [the Mexicans] have 

committed the one crime that will not be per- 
mitted by the large growers. They have attempted 
to organize for their own protection."'^ 

Steinbeck's sympathetic perspective was 
one of myriad views voiced at that time on immi- 
grant agricultural labor in California. Closely 
aligned with him was Dorothea Lange, whose 
photographs illustrated Their Blood Is Strong. 
Yet the tone of Lange's images — particularly those 
approved for circulation by Roy Stryker, director 
of the federally funded Farm Security Admini- 
stration (fsa), which employed Lange during the 
Depression — is generally more appeasing than 
inflammatory. Her Filipinos Cutting Lettuce, 
Salinas Valley, California, which recalls Francois 
Millet's ennobling yet depersonalized nineteenth- 
century images of workers, presents her subjects 
in universalizing, nonconfrontational terms. 
It can be contrasted with an unattributed fsa 
photograph of Mexican picketers from the 1930s. 
Since Lange was the principal fsa photographer 
working in California, it is quite possible that 
she took the latter picture as well, but this image 
of blatant protest probably would not have met 
the objectives of the fsa. 

;rt Hoover for illegally broadcasting off her assigned wavelength. Sister flinnee cables Hoover in response: "Please order your minions of Satan to leave my station alone . . You cannot expect the fllmighty to abide 

Diego Rivera 

Stilt Life and Blossoming 
Almond Trees, 1931, fresco, 
University of California, 

Their Blood Is Strong: A 
Factual Story of the Migratory 
Agricultural Markers of 
California by John Steinbeck, 
photographs by Dorothea 
Lange, 1938. Lent by 
San Francisco State 
University, Labor Archives 
and Research Center 

Stanton MocDonaid-Wright 

Revolt, 1936, lithograph 

Dorothea Lange 

Filipinos Cutting Lettuce, 
Salinas Valley, California, 
c. 1935, gelotin-silver print 

Mexican women bound for a 
picket line. Farm Security 
Administration photograph, 
1933. Powell Studio 
Collection, Bancroft Library, 
University of California, 
Berkeley, courtesy of the 
Library of Congress 

In its celebration of labor, Lange 's Filipinos 
Cutting Lettuce is compatible with Rivera's mural 
Still Life and Blossoming Almond Trees, commis- 
sioned by Mr. and Mrs. Sigmund Stern for their 
private residence in the Bay Area (now in Stern 
Hall at the University of California, Berkeley). 
One of three murals executed by Rivera during a 
yearlong stay in California from 1930 to 1931 and 
initially orchestrated as part of a United States 
cultural rapprochement with Mexico, Still Life 
depicts a happy, productive, and integrated work- 
force. Surprisingly mild in its message consider- 
ing Rivera's leftist political sympathies, this work 
provides a sharp contrast to David Alfaro 
Siqueiros's Los Angeles mural Tropical America, a 
scathing critique of North America's exploitation 
of Mexican labor (see p. 139). 



by your wavelength nonsense." > San Francisco Society of Wor 

Elite firtland Club is founded in Los fingeles, dedicated to building a "temple of art. 


Most Depression-era images of agricul- 
tural labor in California reflect the pronounced 
changes that occurred in the composition of the 
state's workforce during the 1930s. By 1937 nearly 
150,000 Mexican laborers had been deported 
to Mexico from the United States,^' replaced by 
a flood of white migrants from the blight- 
stricken Dust Bowl of America — predominantly 
Oklahoma but also Texas, Arkansas, Kansas, and 
Missouri. The popular conception of California 
through most of the 1930s was of a promised 
land for migrants in search of work, but as 
John Steinbeck described in his monumental 
novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939), these newcom- 
ers were hardly welcomed by California's booster 
industries. All-Year Club guides of the 1930s, 
for example, bore the following admonition: 

WARNING! While attractions for tourists are 
unlimited, please advise anyone seeking employ- 
ment not to come to Southern California, as 
natural attractions have already drawn so many 
capable, experienced people that the present 
demand is more than satisfied." 

Whereas the interests of the newly unem- 
ployed migrants conflicted with those of the 
region's boosters, national publications like 
Fortune magazine could afford greater empathy 
for them. Fortune published two articles in its 
April 1939 issue sympathetic to the plight of 
California's new migrants, distinguishing these 
"native whites" from "foreigners: Chinese, Japs, 
Hindus, Filipinos, Mexicans" who had previously 
constituted the labor force.'^ Illustrated with 
watercolors by Millard Sheets and photographs 
by Dorothea Lange and fellow documentary 
photographer Horace Bristol, the articles empha- 
sized the industriousness of the migrants and 
their families. 

>ry opens In Balboa Park It later becomes the San Diego Museum of Art. > Hollywood Art Center School is founded > Modern Art Gallery in San Francisco Is founded as California's first cooperative art 

Millard Sheets Dorothea Lange 

Migratory Camp near Nipomo, Migrant Mother, Nipomo, 

1936, watercolor on paper California, 1936, printed 

later, gelatin-silver print 

Horace Bristol 

Joad Family Applying for 
Relief, 1938, printed 1970, 
gelatin-silver print 

Paul Sample 

Celebration, 1933, 

Barse Miller 

Migrant America, 1939, 

3ce. > George Sterling, famed poet and resident of Carmel arts colony, kills himself with cyanide in San Francisco's Bohemian Club. > 1927 > r/?e Jazz J/nger, starring flIJolson, 

Charles Reiffel Paul Landacre 

Late Afternoon Glow, c. 1925, Desert Wall, 1931, wood 

oil on canvas engraving 

Kirby Kean 

Night Scene near Victorville, 
c. 1937, gelQtin-silver print 

Agnes Pelton 

Sandstorm, 1932, 

Imogen Cunningham 

Aloe Bud, 1930, gelatin- 

Helen Forbes 

Manley's Beacon, Death 
Valley, c. 1930, oil on 

Even during the Depression years, pictur- 
esque images of the California landscape contin- 
ued to appear widely in both popular culture and 
the fine arts, perpetuating the escapist image put 
forth earlier in the century. Insofar as these 
visions changed after 1920, a principal cause v^^as 
the massive growth of the automobile industry 
and car culture. By the 1920s many vacationers 
and new residents toured California by car rather 
than by train. Among the effects of this shift was 
the new accessibility of desert locales such as 
Death Valley, one of the hottest and driest places 
on earth, which was made a national monument 
in 1933 and became a tourist destination. Visual 
artists were among those who now flocked to 
California deserts. While few works of art actu- 
ally pictured the intrusion of cars into the land- 
scape — Kirby Kean's Night Scene near Victorville 
is a rare exception — this intrusion did give rise to 
a plethora of new imagery, from Charles Reiffel's 
plein air vistas filled with desert flora to Agnes 
Pelton's ethereal abstracted scenes. 

>r Brothers. It is Hollywood's first talking movie, > San Diego Society of firts and Crafts is established. > 19 28 > St. Francis Dam, considered the "safest ever built," breaks less than two 

years after it opened and a few hours after Wil 

Iholland inspects it. > Pacific Electric Railway offers a Sunday pass on its Red Cars, "fl Day for a Dollar." > Academy of Modern ftrt e: 

Edward Weston 

Twenty Mule Team Canyon, 
Death Valley, 1938, gelatir 

Touring Topics magazine, 
December 1929, cover 
pamting by Henrietta Sho 
Lent by Victoria Dailey 

Album of California desert 
flower postcards, c. 1930s. 
Lent by USC, Regional History 
Center, Department of Special 

As it had earlier in the century, the 
CaUfornia landscape served as a point of intersec- 
tion between boosterism and the fine arts during 
these years. Desert landscapes frequently appeared, 
for example, in publications of the Auto Club, 
then feverishly promoting desert travel in Touring 
Topics with dramatically titled articles such as 
'"In the Beginning, God Created Desolation' — 
Death Valley."" Edward Weston, cofounder of 
Group f/64 and one of the key modernist figures 
in American photography, was among the 
favorites of the Auto Club. In addition to featuring 
his desert imagery in multiple issues of Touring 
Topics, the club published a handsome book of 
Weston's photographs called Seeing California 
with Edward Weston (1939). While never venturing 
beyond a rather mild modernism in the paintings 
they published, Touring Topics and other booster 
publications like the Standard Oil Bulletin did 
feature works by Henrietta Shore, Maynard Dixon, 
and other painters. Such works lent an air of 




19 2 9 > Approximately 30,000 Filipinos are working in California, fl mix of racial fears and labor struggles provokes four anti-Filipino riots in the following decade. 

1930 > Art Center 

Henrietta Shore Kaye Shimojima 

Untitled (Cypress Trees, Point Edge of the Pond, c. 1928, 

Lobos), c. 1930, oil on canvas gelatm-silver print 


Julius Cindrich 

Evening, Green Bay, c, 1925, 
gelatin-silver bromide print 

respectability and sophistication to the region's 
booster industries.'' 

While paradisal images of California's 
coastal and inland locales remained popular 
among tourist industries and artists alike, there 
was a greater stylistic range of images generated 
and disseminated during this period. In photog- 
raphy, figures such as Julius Cindrich continued to 
create misty Pictorialist images of the shoreline — 
welcomed in Touring Topics along with the works 
of Weston and Shore — while Kentaro Nakamura 
and others created more stylized, abstracted views. 
What most united the formally disparate body 
of art from these years and linked it to earlier 
picturesque scenes was a pronounced absence of 
people, despite their actual presence in increasing 
numbers. For this reason, Phil Dike's scenes of a 
bustling coasdine, such as Surfer and California 
Holiday, were unusual for the period. 

School opens in Los ftngeles; it later moves to Pasadena. > 19 3 1 > Herbert Hoover's secretary of labor, William H, Doak, announces his plan to deport illegal immigrants. Mexicans living in Califr 

Anne M. Bremer 

Clayton S. Price 

The Sentinels, c. 1918, oil on 

Coastline, c 1924, oil on 



ie Southwest are hardest hit by the drive. > 19 32 > Los flnqeles hosts the 10th Olympic Games. Competition takes place in Exposition Park's Coliseum. > 19 33 > Hitler assumes power 

Phil Dike 

Surfer, c. 1931, oil on canvas 

Kentaro Nakamura 

Evening Nave. c. 1926, 
gelotin-silver bromide print 

Poster designed by Mauric( 
Logon, produced by the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, 
1923. Lent by Steve Turner 
Gallery, Beverly Hills 


Germany, giving rise fo the emigration of European intellectuals, many to Southern California. > Los flngeles County charters 15 special trains to send more than 12,000 Mexicans on relief rolls ba 

Christine Fletcher 

Fog from the Pacific (No. 4), 
c. 1931, gelatin-silver print 

Motoring thru the Yosemite, Chiura Obata 

written by H. B. MacGill, 1926. New Moon, Eagle Peak, 1927, 

Lent by The Huntington sumi and watercolor on pape 
Library, San Marino 

Ansel Adams 

Monolith, the Face of Half 
Dome, /osemite National 
Park, 1927, printed 1980, 
geiatin-silver print 

Frank Morley Fletcher 

California 2. Mt. Shasta. 
c. 1930, color woodcut 

r ^!'i)mmsmlm€^'siiJVi 

Artists persisted in aestheticizing the land- 
scape, even into the 1930s. Chiura Obata — who 
produced Hmpid watercolors of Yosemite in the 
manner of traditional Japanese ink painting 
(sumi-e) before being deported to an internment 
camp in the early 1940s — expressed the belief 
that "Nature knows no Depression."" Obata's 
perspective approached that of Weston, who 
defended himself against accusations of escapism 
during the Depression with the contention that 
"there is just as much 'social significance in a 
rock' as in a 'line of unemployed.'"" That a 
sizable number of California artists persisted 
in generating idyllic landscapes during the 
Depression years owes much to the aesthetic and 
political leanings of these individual figures, as 
well as to the ongoing valorization of touristic 
perspectives by the state's booster industries. 

> President Franklin Delano Roosevelt announces the New Deal, a sweeping reform program to assist the nation's recovery from the Great Depression The Public Works of Art Project employs thousands 

:rea1e murals, a program with special resonance in California. 

The Long 

larch 10 kills 120, with schools suffering the worst damage. The damage leads to new bui 

George Hurrell 

Norma Shearer, 1929, 

George Hurrell 

Ramon Navarro, 1930, 
gelatm-silver print 

George Hurrell 

Joar} Crawford, 1932, 

Gilbert Adrian 

Costume for Joan Crawford, 
created far "Letty Lyntan," 
MGM, 1932, sill< crepe and 

The most powerful California export to 
rival the boosterist Edenic landscape in the first 
quarter of the century was the dazzling image 
of Hollywood, which emerged with the rapid 
ascendance of the film industry in Southern 
California in the 1910s and 1920s. While sharing 
certain traits with the pastoral vision of 
California — an obsession with visual beauty 
and abundance, and an aversion to signs of 
labor or hardship — the image of newly born 
Hollywood nevertheless marked a clear depar- 
ture. None of the nostalgic associations with 
Old California that had appealed primarily to 
Anglo Midwesterners were at play; rather, 
Hollywood evoked sophistication, sensuality, 
modernity, and, above all else, glamour. 

Not only did this new image reach a 
wider audience — upwardly mobile whites of dif- 
ferent ethnic backgrounds and financial means— 
but it was also promoted by a thoroughly 
different cadre of boosters than the Protestant 
elite who had monopolized California's image 
until this time. In large part, these new boosters 

s outlining special requirements for public buildings, > 19 34 > National Industrial Recovery Act guarantees the right of American workers to organize unions, fl wave of strikes hits the v/aterfronts 

were Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe, 
men who had arrived in CaHfornia by way of 
New York in search of financial opportunity, and 
who had founded the Big Eight film studios that 
dominated the industry by the mid-i920s/° 
As Lary May has noted, it is not surprising that 
many of these early Hollywood moguls, includ- 
ing studio founders Samuel Goldwyn, Jesse 
Lasky, and Adolph Zukor, had previously worked 
in the garment industry, where image-brokering 
was also central to business success.^' Once in 
California, they fashioned an image of Hollywood 
that sold tremendously well to American and 
international audiences of the day and that 
continues to powerfully influence popular per- 
ceptions of the state. 

The Hollywood motion picture industry 
was already launched by the mid-i9ios, with 
the production of such monumental films as 
D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation (1915). 
Yet it was not until after the advent of the "talkie" 
in the late 1920s that it truly burgeoned and the 
Hollywood star system was born." At that time, 
silent film star Mary Pickford, known for her 
demure and understated persona, was superseded 
as the quintessential Hollywood starlet by such 
sultry figures as Jean Harlow, Marlene Dietrich, 
and Joan Crawford, each a carefully crafted 
embodiment of the Hollywood "siren." An entire 
industry developed around the production of 
these stars — promoting their glamorous and 
eternally youthful appearances and their 
opulent lifestyles — and it lured creative talent 
to Hollywood from across the United States 
and abroad. 

Nothing shaped or conveyed the image of 
Hollywood more effectively than celebrity pho- 
tography. Among the top industry photographers 
of the period were Clarence Sinclair Bull and 
George Hurrell, both of whom had aspired ini- 
tially to be painters before pursuing careers in 

Hollywood. Bull was Greta Garbo's exclusive 
photographer throughout the 1930s, powerfully 
fueling her mystique with his intense, dramati- 
cally lit portraits, while Hurrell was the photog- 
rapher of choice for Crawford and Norma 
Shearer. Hurrell's first Hollywood job had been 
to transform the boyish Ramon Novarro into an 
emblem of virility, and the photographer was 
known thereafter for his ability to tastefully 
enhance the sexual allure of his sitters. Similarly, 
in his initial photo session with Shearer in 1929, 
he was charged with spicing up her screen image: 
"The idea was to get her looking real wicked 
and siren-like, which wasn't the image she had at 
the time ... I suppose nobody thought she could 
get away with it."" Indeed, stylized, highly the- 
atrical portraits by celebrity photographers trans- 
formed ordinary people into stars. Their work 
defined Hollywood for generations of viewers, 
encouraging popular perceptions of Southern 
California as home to the most beautiful and 
alluring people in the world. 

Costume designers also began to assume 
tremendous importance in producing the 
much-coveted and highly cultivated Hollywood 
look — conveying glamour, sensuality, and sophis- 
tication — from the mid-i920s onward, when 

of the Pacific Coast. > On July 5— "Bloody Thursday"— ttiere is an especially violent episode in the San Francisco maritime workers' strike: two union picketers are killed by police, and over 10rj worl 

director Cecil B. DeMille began importing major 
figures in the fashion world to work on his films. 
Adrian, who designed for DeMille and served as 
head of fashion at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer from 
the early 1930s through 1942, powerfully shaped 
the look through his elaborate costumes. The 
sleek sequined gown he created for Crawford to 
wear in Letty lynton (1932), for example, was 
designed expressly to show off her famous 
shoulders. In response to being dubbed "The 
Most Copied Girl in the World" in 1937 by Motion 
Pictures Magazine, Crawford herself attributed 
her remarkable popularity to Adrian's flattering 
costumes. Travis Banton, head of fashion at 
Paramount Pictures during the 1930s, designed 
softer, more lushly elegant gowns for Marlene 
Dietrich, in contrast to the graphic, dramatic 
quality of Adrian's designs for Crawford. Lavish 
creations such as these embodied the qualities of 
opulence and excess intrinsic to the carefully 
crafted image of Hollywood glamour. 

During these years, critiques of Hollywood 
came almost exclusively from writers, rather 
than from visual artists, perhaps because of the 
latter's greater dependence on patrons. Before the 
advent of film noir in the 1940s, its counterpart 
in 1930s literature — exemplified by the novels of 
James M. Cain, Raymond Chandler, and Dashiell 
Hammett — counted among its central themes 
the seamy underside of the Hollywood dream. 
One artist who offered a satirical perspective on 
Hollywood, if not a full-blown critique of it, was 
Will Connell. A successful fine-art photographer 
who also did commercial work for Hollywood 
and local booster organizations, Connell pro- 
duced a witty expose entitled In Pictures (c. 1937), 
which dismantled the flawless fa9ade the 
Hollywood industry sold to the public. His 
photograph Make-Up, for example, spoke 
directly to the mass marketing of such beauty 
aids as Max Factor's "Cinema Sable" lip brush. 

Dllce are wounded. > Writer Upton Sinclair runs for governor on tiis End Poverty in California (EPIC) platform. Building on the state's history of barter and cooperative movements, Sinclair easily wins the 

Travis Banton 

Costume for Marlene Dietrich 
created for "Desire," 
Paramount, 1935, sill< chiffon, 
silk crepe, and fox fur 

Gilbert Adrian 

Costume for Greta Garbo 
created for "lnspiratior\" 
MGM, 1930, silk crepe, paste 
stones, and rhmestones 

Will Connell 

Make-Up, from the publn 
tion/n Pictures, c, 1937, 
gelatin-silver print 

Ernest Bachrach 

Dolores Del Rio. 1932, 
gelatin-silver print 

which promised women the abihty to "draw 
'real' cinema lips . . . with all the deftness of a 
Hollywood make-up man, so [they] . . . appear as 
perfect and beautiful as those you see on the 
screen."" It is not surprising that Connell's book, 
created during the Depression, never became 
widely popular. Among American audiences, 
there was no real market for such visual satires 
of Hollywood in the 1930s. 

In fact it was during this period, arguably 
the bleakest in the nation's history, that the 
Hollywood glamour image reached its apex. 
Films, celebrity magazines such as Photoplay, 
and other forms of mass media disseminated the 
notion of fantasy lifestyles to millions of finan- 
cially and emotionally downtrodden viewers 
from widely diverse walks of life. Yet despite the 
considerable scope of its appeal, the larger-than- 
life image of the movie star that Hollywood 
cultivated during these years proved to be a 
constricted and contricting one, particularly in 
terms of ethnic identity. 

primary but loses the governorship to Republican Franl< Merriam. > Tydings-McDuffie Act limits Filipino immigration to 50 people per year for the entire United States, Significant immigration does not resi 

Roberto Montenegro 

Margo, 1937, oil on cqt 

C. S. Bull 

Anna May Mong, 1927, 
gelatin-silver print 

Adele Elizabeth Balkan 

Sketch for Costume for 
Anna May Mong, created for 
"Daughter of the Dragon," 
Paramount, 1936, gouache 
on board 

Stanton MacDonald-Wright Bernard von Eichman 

Canon Synchromy (Orange), China Street Scene No- 1 , 

c. 1920, oil on canvas 1923, oil on cardboard 

Gladding McBean Pottery 

Sncanto Chinese Red Vase, 
c. 1930, ceramic 

While Hollywood fostered a controlled 
exoticism in the promotion of such stars as 
Anna May Wong and Dolores Del Rio, nonwhite 
actors who could not be made to fit ethnic 
stereotypes found less favor. The Mexican actress 
Margot Albert, known as Margo, was repeatedly 
passed over by Hollywood casting directors 
because she did not have the pale skin of a 
"Spanish seductress."" Nor did she conform to 
the accepted Anglo image of the Hollywood 
starlet. Mexican artist Roberto Montenegro 
makes this point in his portrait Margo, 
identifiable as a Hollywood portrait only by the 
inclusion of the word Hollywood in the lower 
right. His subject's heavy robe and brooch, her 
vacant expression, and her formal, somewhat 
stiff pose in three-quarter view liken her more 
to a Renaissance sitter than to a modern-day 
film icon. 

Latin American actresses such as Margo 
were generally given caricatural parts rather 
than glamour roles. As she commented, "Most 
of the time, we were viewed by the producers as 
'local color.'"" This attitude was even more 
common in the casting of African Americans, 
who were portrayed in strictly stereotypical 
terms in pre-World War II Hollywood films 
such as The Birth of a Nation. Posters and lobby 
cards for these films served to further reinforce 
what often proved to be racist constructions 
of black identity." 

> The Public Works of Art Project sponsors 27 murals in San Franc 

Colt Tower. Several are suspected of depicting Communist themes, and the tower is temporarily closed. 

Despite the stereotypically white 
Hollywood image, a key aspect of California's 
character in the popular consciousness continued 
to revolve around ethnic identity, with the keen- 
est focus on Latin American and Asian cultures. 
The period of the 1920s and 1930s witnessed 
both shifts and continuities in how and by whom 
nonwhite ethnic identity was defined. Anglo 
boosterist conceptions remained pervasive; there 
was an even greater interest than previously in 
Latin American and Asian aesthetics and pictur- 
esque or exotic subjects, fueled by United States 
Pan-Americanism and economic interests in 
Pacific Rim countries. In the fine arts this pen- 
chant informed, for instance, Mayan Revival 
paintings, furniture, and architecture as well as 
the Asian-inspired works of Los Angeles painter 
Stanton MacDonald-Wright. 

19 3 5 > S^n Francisco Museum of Art opens its doors. > Worlds Progress fldministration begins, providing government-sponsored employment for millions during the Great Depression. Under the W 

Dorr Bothwell 

Translation from the Maya, 

Donal Hord 

Mayan Mask, 1933, 
polychromed and gilded 

Toyo Miyatake 

Untitled, 1929, gela 

Bilingual brochure for the J.T. Sata 

Miyako Hotel, Los Angeles, Untitled (Portrait), 1928, 

c. 1920s. Lent by Jim Heimann gelatin -silver print 

A moderate increase in openness to Latin 
American and Asian voices within the dominant 
culture also occurred, coupled by a strengthening 
and diversification of Cahfornia's nonwhite 
ethnic subcultures. These subcultures ranged 
fi-om the centrist (for example, the Japanese 
Camera Pictorialists of California, vs^ho were 
based in Los Angeles and included such members 
as Kaye Shimojima and J. T. Sata) to the radical 
leftist (including the artists affiliated with the 
Communist newspaper Rodo Shinbun in San 
Francisco). Still, only the most benign forms of 
cultural production were sanctioned by Anglo 
culture, which ignored or silenced anything that 
threatened its hegemony. Moreover, the celebra- 
tion of what was envisioned as "Asia" and "Latin 
America" on an aesthetic level coincided with 
ongoing discriminatory policies and practices 
toward all but the most elite members of these 
cultures. Examples include the aggressive policing 

opment of the Central Valley and work on flood control and navigation are undertaken. California leads the nation in WPfl-funded public-art projects, > Terrible dust storms ravage the Midwest, the result 

of Chinatowns and the mass deportation of 
Mexicans, many of whom were American citizens, 
in the 1930s.'* 

With the implementation of Franklin 
Delano Roosevelt's Good Neighbor policy, there 
was a push for Pan-American unity nationwide 
during the 1930s. This fact, coupled with the 
increasingly repressive climate in Mexico for 
artists who diverged from the nationalist pro- 
gram, compelled a number of highly regarded 
Mexican painters to cross the border into 
California in the early 1930s. Among them were 
"Los Tres Grandes" — muralists Diego Rivera, 
David Alfaro Siqueiros, and Jose Clemente 
Orozco — as well as Alfredo Ramos Martinez, 
Frida Kahlo, and Jean Chariot. To the extent that 
their visions of California and Mexico coincided 
with or challenged dominant cultural views, 
they met with varying responses. 

Rivera, for example, who had been expelled 
from the Communist Party in 1929, came to 
San Francisco the following year to do a painting 
for the Stock Exchange building — arguably the 
epicenter of capitalism in California — at the 
urging of prominent businessman and collector 
Albert Bender and U.S. Ambassador to Mexico 
Dwight Morrow. Bitter over the awarding of this 

of overworked fatmlanct and several years of record-breaking droughts. The harsh conditions set off a huge migration of farming families to California. This has enormous social effects on California, as des 

Frida Kahio 

Frida and Diego Riv 
oil on canvas 

Diego Rivera 

1931, Allegory of California, study 

for mural m San Francisco 
Stock Exchange Building, 
1931, graphite on paper 

important commission to a foreigner, the local 
community of artists conjectured that Rivera 
would "not overlook a golden chance to exercise 
his communistic visions."" Yet Allegory of 
California, also known as Riches of California, 
celebrated the state's agricultural bounty and 
industrial fortitude and proved quite far removed 
from the politically radical murals he had exe- 
cuted in Detroit and New York. Although he was 
to characterize California four years later as "a 
rich land intimately bound up with the remains 
of its earlier Mexican character,"'" Allegory of 
California contains no evidence of these remains. 
References to Mexican identity that are evident 
in preliminary sketches for the mural, such as 
the facial features of the central allegorical figure, 
are absent in the final version (see p. 102). 
Among the most heavily patronized 
Mexican artists, especially among Hollywood's 
elite, was Ramos Martinez, formerly the head 
of the National School of Fine Arts in Mexico. 
Best known for picturesque images of Mexican 
women — depersonalized, clad in old-fashioned 
costumes, and surrounded by fruit and flowers — 
he executed one series of such works on 
Los Angeles Times newsprint. Although perceived 
at the time as motivated solely by aesthetic 
concerns, Ramos Martinez appears to have delib- 
erately chosen the background visible beneath 

Steinbeck's novel The Grapes ofWr^th > 19 3 6 > Los flngeles Police Chief James Davis, worried about the homeless transients from the Oust Bowl, sets up a "bum blockade" along the state' 

David Alfaro Siqueiros Alfredo Ramos Martinez 

The Warriors, study for Womart mth fruit, 1933, 

Tropical America mural, charcoal and tempera on 

Los Angeles, c, 1932, graphite newsprint 
and ink on paper 

David Alfaro Siqueiros 

Tropical America, mural 
photographed on its comple 


Postcard of Olvero Street, 

with Los Angeles City Hall 

visible in the distance, 

c. 1930s, Lent byjim Heiman 


fXo0 An 



these paintings. He repeatedly depicted primi- 
tivistic images of Mexican women on recent 
pages from the Times beauty section, thereby 
juxtaposing two culturally distinct notions of 
female attractiveness. He also placed Mexican 
field-workers on the employment pages, under- 
scoring the difficulties faced by immigrant 
laborers. The critical dimension of these works, 
however, went unnoticed by American patrons 
and the local popular press. In 1932, for example, 
the Times cheerily featured one such newsprint 
image of "pure native types" (Mexican field 
laborers) on the cover of its Sunday magazine, 
attributing the artist's use of newsprint solely to 
the fact that "he likes the tone and texture given 
by the 'want ad' section."" 

Another Mexican emigre, however, overtly 
exceeded the limits of acceptability in represent- 
ing "Latin America" to California audiences. 
David Alfaro Siqueiros's mural Tropical America 
defied the enduring, hallowed Mission Myth 
and offered an explicit critique of Mexican labor 
abuses in the United States. Tropical America 
was commissioned in 1932 to adorn a building on 
Los Angeles's Olvera Street, which served then, 
as it does today, as both a lively tourist spot and 
a site of Mexican commerce and community life. 
Siqueiros chose not to reinforce boosterist stereo- 
types by painting "a continent of happy men, 
surrounded by palms and parrots."" Rather, his 
mural shows a crucified Indian figure. A bald 

er Jurisdiction and national ridicule for 

sse his efforts after six weeks. > Twentieth Century Fox releases the fourth filr 

sion (the first with sound) of Ramond, 

eagle proudly perched on top of the cross lords 
over the contorted nude body while two armed 
Indians eye the eagle surreptitiously, evidently 
making plans to shoot it. 

Amazingly, the artistic community in 
Los Angeles initially either missed or ignored the 
mural's searing political content and focused 
instead on matters of aesthetics. Even the politi- 
cally conservative artist Lorser Feitelson praised 
the mural for its "tenebrism, illusionism, and 
also this architectonic quality; it had guts in it!"" 
Yet Siqueiros's indictment of North American 
imperialism ultimately did gain notice. His 
request to renew his six- month visa was denied, 
and Tropical America (currently being restored 
by the Getty Conservation Institute) was white- 
washed (partially in 1932, then entirely in 1938). 

Amid such silencing of critical perspectives 
on United States-Mexican relations, there was a 
"vogue [for] things Mexican" that pervaded many 
facets of cultural production in California." 
"Things Mexican" ranged from artwork by 
Maxine Albro, one of the many creative figures 
who traveled to Mexico and interacted with 
Mexican artists in California, to Bauer Pottery's 
El Chico and La Linda dishware lines. It is per- 
haps not surprising that commercial ceramists 
and textile designers served up easily digestible, 
stereotypical images of Old Mexico to modern 
consumers. Yet even political leftists such as 
Albro — for example, in Fiesta of the Flowers 
(1937) > painted for the Biltmore Hotel in 
Montecito — promoted romanticized, primitivis- 
tic conceptions. Mexican culture was seen as 
simple, exotic, colorful, spiritual, preindustrial, 
and feminine, i.e., as pointedly antithetical to 
contemporary white American culture. 

Similarly, dominant cultural perspectives 
on Asian identity in California during this period 
proved exoticizing and aestheticizing. It is fruitful 
to compare, for example, two works that depict 

Chinese subjects: Where Is My Mother by Yun 
Gee, and Chinese Mother and Child by Spanish- 
born Jose Moya del Pifio. Gee, head of the 
short-lived Chinese Revolutionary Artists' Club, 
offers a highly personal view. A male figure, 
most likely the artist, stands in the immediate 
foreground, serving as an intermediary or buffer 
between two other Chinese figures and the 
(presumably white) viewing audience, while the 
boats in the background suggest the artist's long- 
ing to return to China to see his mother again. 
This sense of displacement is echoed in Gee's 
1926 poem of the same title, in which he mourns, 
"That mother of mine, how it tore my heart / 



Jackson's popular novel about interracial niarnage and the conditions of mission Indian life In Southern California > 19 3 7 > Los flngeles Negro Art Association tiolds its first exhibition > 

Maxine Albro 

fiesta of the Flowers, mural 
created for Biltmore Hotel, 
Montecito, 1937, oil on canvas 

Tourist brochure promoting 
rail travel to Mexico, c. 1939. 
Lent by the California 
Historical Society, North 
Baker Research Library, 
Ephemera Collection 

Elia Sunderland Toyo Miyatake 

l^oman's Two-Piece Playsmt, Untitled, 1930, gelatii 

c. 1940, printed cotton silver print 

California Hand Prints 

Textile Length, c. 1941, 
printed cotton 

^ '^ 

m : V 1 «* 

1^^^^^^ '-' J&H^l 



Soldeo fiate Brii^ge opens in San Francisco on May 27: 200,000 people walk across the Bay. > 1938 > Governor Merriam dedicates Los flnqele 

• Chinatown at Hill and North Broadway. > Ten thou 

yun Gee jose Moya del Pino 

Where Is My Mother, 1926-27, Chinese Mother and Child, 

oil on canvas 1933, oil on canvas 

To leave her across the sea, / I who was part of 
her — / She became all of me."" In contrast, 
in Chinese Mother and Child del Pino objectifies 
and aestheticizes his subjects, placing a colorful 
potted plant in front of the mother on a low 
wall, thus distancing the figures from the viewer. 
For del Pino, the waterfront behind the figures — 
where, in fact, labor unrest was mounting — 
merely provides a pleasant, visually appealing 

A comparably aestheticized, depersonal- 
ized image of Chinese Americans was offered by 
Beniamino Bufano, whose portraits of inhabi- 
tants of San Francisco's Chinatown reenvisioned 
them in decorative terms, as if they were ancient 
Chinese statuary. The portrait bust entided 
Elizabeth Gee by Bufano's student Sargent 
Johnson — one of the first African American 
artists in California to gain widespread recogni- 
tion — offers a somewhat more individualized 
portrayal of a Chinese American subject. 
Johnson depicts his young sitter, who was his 
next-door neighbor, as a real girl with a first and 
last name (and a strand of hair out of place), 
rather than as an abstract type. Generally, how- 
ever, images by non-Asians who purported to 
honor their Asian subjects tended to be exoticiz- 
ing, in line with the long-standing Western 
tradition of Orientalism." 

California's aesthetic and economic inter- 
est in Asia and Latin America culminated in 
the Golden Gate International Exposition, held 
in 1939 and 1940 on artificially made Treasure 
Island in the San Francisco Bay. The exposition 
was organized to celebrate the completion of 
the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland 
Bay bridges and to lay the groundwork for a new 
airport (never built, because Treasure Island 
turned out to be too small). A central goal of its 
organizers, business leaders of the Bay Area, 
was to position California — and San Francisco, 

its per month arrive in California, attracted by popular myths and fruit-growers' advertisements promoting the state's bounty. Upon arrival they fmd that jobs are scarce: most are forced to squat in camps. > 

Beniamino B. Bufano 

Sargent Johnson 


Postcard showing a brass 

Chinese Man and Woman, 

Elizabeth Gee, 1925, 

Cup of Longevity, c, 1930, 

band at the opening of 

1921, stoneware, glazed 

stoneware, glazed 

watercolor on paper 

New Chinatown, Los Angeles 
[incorrectly dated 1935]. 
Lent by Jim Heimann 

19 3 9 > San Francisco hosts the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island, the largest ever held west of Chicago 

Diego Rivera and an 
assistant at work on Pan- 
American Unity, 1939. 
Courtesy of City College of 
San Francisco Rivera Archives 

Diego Rivera 

Pan-American Unity (detail), 
1939, mural, City College of 
San Francisco 

Brochure for the 
San Francisco World Fair of 
1940, with cover illustratior 
showing Ralph Stackpole's 
Pacifica. Lent by Jim Heima 

in particular — as the economic and cultural 
gateway to the Pacific. The Court of the Pacific, 
at the heart of the fair, was devoted to the pro- 
motion of Pacific Rim unity, with painted maps 
of Pacific cultures by Miguel Covarrubias, 
stained-glass windows showing the four Pacific 
Rim continents, and dioramas illustrating the 
unification of the region. The court's piece de 
resistance was Ralph Stackpole's imposing 
eighty-foot statue Pacifica, a pan-ethnic West 
Coast counterpart to the Statue of Liberty. 

To foster amicable relations with Latin 
America, as part of the Pacific Basin, Diego 
Rivera was invited back to California to paint a 
mural entitled Pan-American Unity heiore 

crowds of visitors in an abandoned airplane 
hangar on Treasure Island. The well-seasoned 
Rivera was undoubtedly a willing participant in 
this performance of sorts, and certainly many 
artists painted on display throughout the United 
States during this period. Yet Rivera appears to 
have been ambivalent about the task of celebrat- 
ing Pan-Americanism. The ten-panel mural, as 
Anthony Lee has noted, is replete with disjunc- 
tive imagery and subtle ironies about the power 
imbalance inherent in cross-cultural exchanges 





■ 1 P-i 


f^k E 



between California and Mexico. In one of the 
lower panels, for example, Rivera depicts native 
peoples laboriously fashioning trinkets and 
souvenirs of the sort sold at expositions. An 
anthropomorphized tree, to which one figure 
has attached her loom, is being strangled in the 
process. In the background is an image of the 
artist himself painting a mural honoring North 
American heroes, who appear rather stiff and 
unfeeling above the strangled tree. Rivera thus 
comments on the United States's exploitation of 
Mexico and its people, including himself, in the 
name of fostering cultural exchange. The imagery 
in these passages, although possible to miss in 
this densely composed mural, undermined the 
booster message Rivera was enlisted to convey." 
Rivera's Pan-American Unity mural asserts 
in a quiet way the limited and tenuous nature 
of California's "cultural openness" toward its geo- 
graphical neighbors during the 1920s and 1930s." 
In the following war-torn decade, latent racist atti- 
tudes were espoused widely and openly. Indeed, 
the Navy's destruction of the Pacifica statue during 
World War II, when more than 100,000 people 
of Japanese descent were interned in the western 
United States, confirmed the official sanctioning 
of xenophobia that took place in the 1940s. A 
resurgence of the conservative mainstream — 
mirrored in the country at large — occurred during 
the war years, followed by an effort to suppress 
the multiplicity of voices that had surfaced in the 
volatile and complex decades between the two 
world wars. 

1 William H. Lcuclitcnbcrg, The Perils of 
Prosperity, 1914-32 (Ciiicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1958), 1979. 

2 Quoted in William Dcvercll, introduction 
to "Los Angeles and the Mexican or What's 
Typical in Los Angeles History?" (paper deliv- 
ered during the 1996-97 series Perspectives 
on Los Angeles: Narratives, Images, History, 
at the Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, 
Feb. 1997), 27-28; see also Deverell, 
Whitewashed Adobe: Los Angeles and the 
Remaking of the Mexican Landscape (Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press, forthcoming). Deverell cites realtor 
reports from the Race Relations of the Pacific 
Coast collection. Hoover Institution Archives, 
Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and 
Peace, Stanford University. 

3 Tom Zimmerman, "Paradise Promoted: 
Boosterism and the Los Angeles Chamber 
of Commerce," California History 64 (winter 
1985): 31. 

4 For further discussion of the leftist com- 
munity of artists in San Francisco, particularly 
in relation to the presence of Diego Rivera in 
1930, see Anthony W. Lee, Painting on the Left: 
Diego Rivera, Radical Politics, and San 
Francisco's Public Murals (Berkeley and Los 
Angeles: University of California Press, 1999). 

5 Panel 26 of Refregier's mural — a chrono- 
logical history of San Francisco commis- 
sioned by the federal government in 1940 and 
completed in 1946 — portrayed the strike of 
1934. The panel was criticized by the Veterans 
of Foreign Wars (vfw) for its depiction of 
suspected Communist Harry Bridges point- 
ing a finger at the corruption of hiring bosses 
in the industry. After minor changes that did 
not appease the vfw, the House Committee 
on Public Works debated the murals' destruc- 
tion in 1953 but ultimately decided to leave 
them standing. See Gray Brechin, "Politics 
and Modernism: The Trial of the Rincon 
Annex Murals," in On the Edge of America: 
California Modernist Art, 1900-1950, ed. Paul 
Karlstrom (Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1996), 68-93. 

i Lee, Painting on the Left, 131-36. 

7 "Murals on Coit Shaft Hint Plot for Red 
Cause," San Francisco Chronicle, July 3, 1934. 
See also San Francisco Examiner, July 5 and 
July 9, 1934. For a more lengthy analysis of 
the tower's reception, with special attention 
to the Zakheim mural, see Lee, Painting on 
the Left, 143-59. For a history and iconogra- 
phy of the twenty-seven murals, see Masha 
Zakheim Jewett, Coit Tower, San Francisco: 
Its History and Art (San Francisco: Volcano 
Press, 1983). 

8 Carey McWilliams, Factories in the Field 
(Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1939), 

9 See Lee, Painting on the Left, 78. 

10 Patricia Junker, "Celebrating Possibilities 
and Controlling Limits: Painting of the 1930s 
and 1940s," in Steven A. Nash et al.. Facing 
Eden: 100 Years of Landscape Art in the Bay 
Area, exh. cat. (San Francisco: Fine Arts 
Museums of San Francisco, in association 
with University of California Press, Berkeley 
and Los Angeles, 1995). 

11 Kevin Starr, Endangered Dreams: The Great 
Depression in California (New York: Oxford 
University Press, 1996), 64-65. 

12 Their Blood Is Strong: A Tactual Story of 
the Migratory Agricultural Workers in 
California (San Francisco: Simon J. Lubin 
Society of California, 1938), 26-27. 

13 Between 1929 and 1934, 400,000 Mexicans 
were "repatriated" by the United States gov- 
ernment in order to reduce welfare payments 
during the Depression. See Chon Noriega, 
"Citizen Chicano: The Trials and Titillations 
of Ethnicity in the American Cinema, 
1935-1962," Social Research 58, no. 2 (summer 
1991): 415. 

14 Official Tourist Guide (Los Angeles: 
All-Year Club, 1935), quoted in Zimmerman, 
"Paradise Promoted," 33. 

15 "Along the Road: Extracts from a 
Reporter's Notebook," Fortune, April 1939, 96. 

16 Touring Topics, June 1922. 

17 See John Ott, "Landscapes of 
Consumption: Auto Tourism and Visual 
Culture in California, 1920-1940," in Reading 
California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000 
( Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art, in association with University of 
California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 

18 Obata made this statement to a critic in 
1931. Quoted in Nash et al., Facing Eden, 71. 

19 Quoted in James Enyeart, Edward Weston's 
California Landscapes {Boston: Little, Brown 
and Company, 1984), 11. Weston is quoting 
phrases that Adams had used previously. 

20 See Neal Gabler, An Empire of Their Own: 
How the Jews Invented Hollywood (New York: 
Crown Publishers, 1988). 

21 Lary May, Screening Out the Past: The 
Birth of Mass Culture and the Motion Picture 
Industry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 
1980), 170-71. 

22 In fact, capital investment in the film 
industry doubled between 1926 and 1933. 
See Carey McWilliams, Southern California: 
An Island on the Land (1946; reprint. Salt Lake 
City: Peregrine Smith, 1990), 347. 

23 Quoted in John Kobal, The Art of the Great 
Hollywood Portrait Photographers, 1925-1940 
(New York: Harrison House, 1987), 97. 

24 Quoted in Michael Regan, Hollywood 
Film Costume, exh. cat. (Manchester: 
Whitworth Art Gallery, University of 
Manchester, 1977), 17. 

25 George Hadley-Garcia, Hispanic 
Hollywood: The Latins in Motion Pictures 
(New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1990), 15. 

26 Ibid. 

27 See Gary Null, Black Hollywood: From 
1970 to Today (New York: Carol Publishing 
Group, 1993), 11-16. 

28 Other evidence of discrimination can be 
found in the burning of a Mexican neighbor- 
hood in Los Angeles, without compensation 
to its residents, in an effort to eradicate the 
bubonic plague. A precedent for this had 
been set in 1907 with the destruction of many 
homes in San Francisco's Chinatown after a 
plague outbreak. See Mike Davis, Ecology of 
Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of 
Disaster (New York: Henry Holt and 
Company, 1998), 252-60. 

29 "Artists Fight on Employing Mexican 
'Red,'" San Francisco Chronicle, September 24, 

30 Diego Rivera, Portrait of America 
(New York: Covici, Friede, 1934), 12. 

31 Los Angeles Tunes Sunday Magazine, 
August 21, 1932. Quotation appeared in an 
accompanying insert, "The Artist Who Drew 
This Week's Cover," by major Los Angeles art 
critic Arthur Millier, 18. 

32 David Alfaro Siqueiros, La historia de una 
insidia. Quiines son las triadores a la patria? 
Mi Respuesta (Mexico City: Ediciones de 
'Arte Piiblico,' i960), 32, quoted in Shifra M. 
(ioldman, "Siqueiros in Los Angeles," in 

Los murales de Siqueiros, ed. Raquel Tibol 
(Mexico City: Americo Arte Editores, S.A. de 
C.V. and Conaculta, Instituto Nacional de 
Bellas Artes, 1998). 

33 From Shifra Goldman's interview with 
Feitelson, "Siqueiros in Los Angeles" 
(July 1973), quoted in Shifra M. Goldman, 
"Siqueiros and Three Early Murals in 

Los Angeles," Art Journal a, no. 4 (summer 
1974): 325. 

34 See Helen Delpar, The Enormous Vogue of 
Things Mexican: Cultural Relations between 
the United States and Mexico, 1920-1935 
(Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama 
Press, 1992). 

35 Letter dated May 31, 1926. Collection of 
Yun Gee's daughter, Li-Ian. 

36 For the key text that initiated a discourse 
on Orientalism, see Edward Said, Orientalism 
(New York: Pantheon Books, 1978). 

37 For further analysis of the iconography 
and intent of Pan-American Unity, see Lee, 
Painting on the Left, 211-12. 

38 For further discussion of the motivations 
behind the Good Neighbor policy and its 
limitations in fostering understanding 
between people of the United States and 
Mexico, see Holly Barnet-Sanchez, "The 
Necessity of Pre-Columbian Art in the 
United States: Appropriations and 
Transformations of Heritage, 1933-1945," 

in Collecting the Pre-Columbian Past: A 
Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 6th and 
/th October 1990, ed. Elizabeth Hill Boon 
(Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks 
Research Library and Collection, 1993), 


m I 

Copr., 1944, by Cole of California, Inc., Los Anseles 1 


Sheri Bernstein 

Magazine advertisement 
for Cole of California's 
Swoon-Glo swimwear, 1945. 
Illustration by Ren Wicks 

Page from the model home 
brochure Lakewood: 
The Future City as New as 
Tomorrow, 1940s. Lent by 

In the years between America's entry into World War II in 1941 and the 
election of President John F. Kennedy in 1960, California's image in the 
notional psyche was shaped by a pervasive wartime mentality. When the 

battle against fascism ended, the Cold War 
against Communism replaced it. Even in the 
prosperous postwar years, defined by optimism 
in so many respects, the specter of a foreign 
threat, of impending disorder and catastrophe, 
remained ever present. And California, which 
during World War II was touted as the invulner- 
able gateway to the Pacific Theater, became a 
symbol of the good life in the postwar period, 
a haven for safe, comfortable, and affordable 
living in sunny surroundings. Although the 
golden image of California as a domesticated 
Eden was challenged by some who found it 
constricting, and rejected by others whom it 
excluded by virtue of ethnicity or class, this 
boosterist vision unquestionably held sway for 
nearly two decades. Indeed, the state's image as 
a bastion of homogeneous, white middle-class 
suburbia — despite the increase in its actual 
diversity due to wartime and postwar migra- 
tion — answered a deep-seated need among 
Americans for consensus and security. 

own a humi; in Lakewoo 

low monthly payments help to 

build up savings for tt 

With America's entry into World War II, 
California emerged at the forefront of wartime 
production and reaped major economic benefits. 
The Hollywood industry, for one, became inti- 
mately involved in the war effort, generating 
scores of propagandistic and jingoistic films. 
Other major California industries, bolstered by 
hefty federal funds, also significantly expanded 
their operations in response to wartime needs. 
In Los Angeles three major aircraft companies — 
Lockheed, Douglas, and Vultee — employed 
thousands of men and women, including many 
recent arrivals to the region. Shipbuilding bur- 
geoned as well in both Northern and Southern 
California, attracting tens of thousands of African 
Americans, mostly from the southern states. 
(While blacks had been leaving the South steadily 
since the turn of the century, it was not until this 
period that they came to California in sizable 
numbers.) By 1944 African Americans comprised 
15 percent of the 9,000-person workforce 
employed by Los Angeles's shipbuilding compa- 
nies (predominantly by the "Big Three" located 
on Terminal Island: the California Shipbuilding 
Company [Calship], Consolidated Steel, and 
Western Pipe and Steel Company).' 

Agriculture was another key aspect of 
California's wartime production, with the state 
supplying food to Americans at home and on the 
battlefront. In order to meet the nation's amplified 
food needs — in the midst of a labor shortage 
brought on by the draft and the relocation of the 
Japanese — the U.S. government instituted the 
Bracero program in 1942, which called for the 
temporary importation of Mexican workers 
into California to harvest crops. The federally 
sanctioned policy of bringing in braceros (strong- 
armed ones) according to the needs of agribusi- 
ness continued through 1964.^ Although braceros 
were denied the rights of American citizens and 
received neither decent wages nor the union 

1 94 > Richard and Maurice McDonald open d hamburcier drive-in In San Bernardino with no carhops and no options on the prewrapped burgers, > The Arroyo Seco Parkway opens, connecting Pas 



benefits they had been promised, many publicly 
expressed feelings of pride in their contribution to 
the war effort. 

Yet California was principally known 
during these years as a producer of instruments 
of war, not as a provider of crops. Indeed, the 
booster image of the state at this time became 
that of a highly productive war machine. Images 
of seemingly endless rows of perfectly crafted 
warheads replaced those of golden oranges, 
which had so forcefully shaped popular percep- 
tions of the state earlier in the century. What 
linked this wartime view of California to previ- 
ous boosterist visions, including the Hollywood 
glamour image of the 1920s and 1930s, was the 
concept of limitless bounty. California continued 
to stand for abundance and plenty in the war 
years, albeit an abundance of tools of combat, 
rather than of Hollywood beauties or fruits of 
the land. 

town Los flngeles. It is ttie first freeway in tlie American West. > 194 1 > Japanese pilots bomb Pearl Harbor, and the United States enters World War II. In California millions of jobs irt created in the 

Photograph documenting the 
record-setting construction 
Richmond, California, 1942, 
Lent by Mrs. Edmund L Dubois 

Pacific Factory magazine, 
April 1943. Lent by 
San Francisco State 
University, Labor Archives 
and Research Center 

"Douglas Defends the 
Democracies," magazme 
advertisement, 1942. Lent by 
Jim Heimonn 

Dorothea Lange 

Untitled [End of Shift, 5., 
Richmond, California, 
September 1942], 1942, 
gelatm-silver print 

Me Also Serve magazine, 
1944. Lent by San Francisco 
State University, Labor 
Archives and Research Center 

A'ht) S^^ 

airline and shipbuilding industries. > Santa Barbara Museum of Art opens. > 1942 > The Bracero program Is Initiated by the U.S. government to import cheap labor from Mexico into Californi. 



ctlon needs. The program's promises of good pay and union benefits were not fulfilled, flittiough the war ends in 1945, the Bracero program continues until well into the 1960s. > Under Executive Order 9066, 

Charles and Ray Eames 

Leg Splints, c. 1943, molded 

Art for Victory, brochure 
for on exhibition at the 
Pasadena Art Institute, 
Lent by the Southwest 
Museum, Los Angeles 

California Arts and 
Architecture magazme, May 
1943, cover design by Roy 
fames. Lent anonymously 

Richard Neutro 

Channel Heights Chair, 
1940-42, wood, metal, and 

Numerous institutions and individuals 
in the arts community supported California's 
booster image as a mainstay of the war effort. 
While museums and galleries generally showed 
their patriotism through the traditional avenue 
of exhibitions — the Pasadena Art Institute, 
for example, organized Art for Victory in 1944 — 
it was designers and architects with practical 
skills who became most directly involved in 
war production. Cole of California, for instance 
took up parachute manufacturing while 
continuing to produce women's apparel. Their 
popular Swoon Suit (see p. 146) — a lace-up 
two-piece bathing suit available in "parachute 

colors" — conformed to strict wartime restric- 
tions on the use of rubber for elastic' To high- 
light its wartime contributions. Cole published 
numerous advertisements, including one 
showing a woman in a Swoon Suit beside a 
paratrooper. The proud caption read, "They 
Wear the Same Label."" 

Two of the most important California 
designers to employ their skills in the service of 
the war were Charles and Ray Eames. The 
Los Angeles-based couple devised and manu- 
factured molded plywood leg splints as well as 
nose cones and other aircraft parts for local 
aviation companies and the federal government. 
Similarly, California architects William Wurster 
and Richard Neutra turned their skills to design- 
ing cost-efficient housing and furniture for war 
workers. Neutra's Channel Heights Chair, created 
from inexpensive everyday materials and usable 
both indoors and out, was a component of his 
acclaimed Channel Heights project of the early 
1940s, a public housing tract intended for ship- 
yard laborers in Los Angeles. The same principles 
of economy and fluidity of function that had 
been developed during the war years continued 
to inform the housing and furniture designs of 
Neutra, Wurster, the Barneses, and other creative 
figures in the postwar period. 

Although California was chiefly imaged 
at this time as an efficient war machine, other 
more disturbing ideas circulated as well. The 
mass media also promoted the wartime concep- 
tion of the state — and of the United States 
generally — as vulnerable to potential threats by 
"foreigners," who needed to be kept under strict 
control. Indeed, conceptions of Americanness 
became far more restrictive at this time, as 
widespread uneasiness over the displacement 
of the country's white male population height- 
ened xenophobia and racism. Among those 
frequently branded foreigners, in addition to 

Japanese ftmericans are sent to guarded internment camps, two of them in California, where they must remain until the end of the war. The last cente 

Tule Lake, California, did not close until 

a, b 

Pair of anti-Japanese 
propaganda posters 
produced by Fleet Service 
Schools, Visual Education 
Department, U.S. Destroyer 
Base, 1941. Lent by the 
Japanese American Notiona 
Museum, gift of Ben and 

Max /avno 

Street Talk, 1946, gela 
silver print 

Sleepy Lagoon Mystery, a play 
sympathetic to the defen- 
dants in the Sleepy Lagoon 
case, by Guy Endore, 1944. 
Lent by Son Francisco State 
University, Labor Archives and 
Research Center 



- LIKE this/ 

actual noncitizens, were Americans of non-Anglo 

One result of restrictive conceptions of 
Americanness in California was the targeting 
of young Mexican males — concentrated in the 
state's poorer urban centers — by white service- 
men, civilians, and the legal system. Identifiable 
by the wide-lapelled, full-cut "zoot suits" they 
and many black and Filipino youths sported — 
despite the War Production Board's rationing of 
cloth — these pachucos, as they were called, were 
stereotyped in the media as juvenile delinquents 
and were treated with hostility and suspicion by 
the majority of whites.* The very act of wearing 
a zoot suit was ruled a misdemeanor by the city 
of Los Angeles during the war. Animosity against 
this sector of California's residents exploded in 
the so-called Zoot Suit riots of 1943. The distur- 
bance started with an attack on a group of 
pachucos by an estimated 200 white servicemen, 

who had entered a Los Angeles barrio looking for 
a fight while on leave. After beating their victims, 
they stripped them of their zoot suits (sources 
of identity and pride) and shaved their heads, 
thereby asserting power over the youths in 
paramilitary fashion. Indicative of the racist 
climate is the fact that the police primarily 
arrested the Mexicans and blacks who were the 
objects of these hate crimes, rather than the 
white perpetrators. 

A well-known instance of the rampant 
racism against minorities during the war was 
the widely publicized Sleepy Lagoon case of the 
mid-i940s. This involved the arrest and conviction 
of twenty-two pachucos for criminal conspiracy, 
assault, and murder in the death of another 
Mexican American youth. Playing on widespread 
wartime animosity toward the Japanese, prose- 
cuting attorneys accused the Mexican youths 
of having an "Oriental . . . disregard for the value 
of life."' With the aid of the Sleepy Lagoon 
Defense Committee, headed by lawyer and jour- 
nalist Carey McWilliams and including such 
Hollywood figures as Orson Welles and Rita 
Hayworth, the convictions were later overturned. 
A wartime political cartoon in the Los Angeles 
Times depicting Japan's prime minister, Tojo, 
wearing a zoot suit, revealed a conflation of 
Mexicans and Asians as foreigners who allegedly 
could not be trusted.' These pervasive negative 
associations were also reinforced by disparaging 
portrayals of Mexican, Asian, and African 
Americans as unsavory characters in many noir 
films of the 1940s.' 

With respect to California's artistic com- 
munity, the impact of wartime racism against 
ethnic minorities manifested itself in two princi- 
pal ways. First, there was a marked decline in 
the attention white artists paid Latin American 
and Asian aesthetics and subjects compared to 
the previous two decades, during which these 

gust the body ofJose Diaz is found near an abandoned gravel pit near Slauson and Atlantic Boulevards in Los Angelas, an area named Sleepy Lagoon by a local newspaperman. Twelve Mexican American youths 

cultures had been widely celebrated as exotic or 
picturesque. Second, mainstream California 
institutions exhibited and collected far fewer 
works by non-Anglos at this time. In particular, 
there was notably diminished support for 
Mexican art, which had enjoyed a considerable 
popularity in the 1920s and 1930s among muse- 
ums, galleries, and private patrons. Los Angeles 
hosted only a single exhibition of Latin American 
art during the war years, and that was organized 
by an East Coast institution.' 

Another distressing manifestation of 
American wartime xenophobia that affected 
the arts in California was the internment of the 
Japanese (most of whom were United States 
citizens) by the federal government from 1942 
to 1945. Los Angeles had the highest Japanese 
population of any city in the United States before 
the war, and California had been home to a 
significant portion of the 110,000 Japanese 
Americans and Japanese nationals interned in 
concentration camps in seven western states. 

ire convicted of murder and five of assault. Eventually the convictions are overturned with the help of the Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee, but not before eight of those convicted have served tv/o 

Two of the concentration camps — Manzanar and 
Tule Lake — were located in California, as were a 
number of temporary detention centers that 
initially housed internees. Tule Lake was reserved 
for political "disloyals," who had given incom- 
plete or conditional responses on the poorly 
designed loyalty questionnaires administered to 
all internees." 

The considerable body of visual art 
produced by Japanese internees during the war 
conveys a wide range of perspectives on the 
experience. Like many of his fellow Issei (first- 
generation immigrants), Chiura Obata con- 
tinued to avoid critical or negative subjects, as 
he had during the Depression. For example, 
he painted a wistful image of San Francisco on 
the day he was interned. Although temporarily 
turning to genre scenes of daily life in the camps, 
he soon resumed painting his favorite subject, 
the natural landscape. Other internees — for 
example, Henry Sugimoto — treated more sensi- 
tive topics. In a dignified portrait of his mother, 
he suggested the painful irony of her internment 
by including a reference to the division of the 
442nd Regimental Combat Team of which 
Sugimoto's brother was then a member. This 
unit of the U.S. Army consisted entirely of Nisei 
(second-generation Japanese Americans). Yet 
internees, even Nisei, produced few strident 
visual protests." The anti-Japanese fervor of the 
day undoubtedly inspired fears of censorship 
and other forms of persecution. 

While racist perceptions of the Japanese 
predominated in California during the war — 
evidenced and perpetuated by venomous 
publications such as Once a Jap, Always a Jap, 
sponsored by the California Veterans of Foreign 
Wars of the United States — these were countered 
by a number of sympathetic voices, which at 
times emanated from the arts community." 
Institutions such as Mills College in Oakland and 

yentin prison > I 94 3 > Trouble breaks out in June between white sailors on leave and Mexican American youttis, or pachucos, known for wearing zoot suits, with long jackets, baggy pants, and 

Dorothea Longe 

Pledge of Allegiance, at 
Raphael Elementary School, 
a Few IfJeeks before 
Evacuation /One Nation 
Indivisible, April 20, 1942, 
1942, gelatm-silver print 

Once a Jap, Always a Jap, 
politicQl tract by T. S. 
VanVleet, 1942. Lent by 
UCLA Library, Department of 
Special Collections 

Chiura Obota 

Farewell Picture of the Bay 
Bridge, April 30. 1942, 1942, 
sumi on paper 

Hisoko Hibi 

We Had to Fetch Coal for the 
Pot -Belly Stove, Topaz, Utah 
1944, oil on canvas 

Henry Sugimoto 

Mother m Jerome Camp, 1943, 
oil on canvas 

the Pasadena Art Institute, for example, exhibited 
works by Japanese Americans interned in 
Tanforan Detention Camp near San Francisco, 
where Obata had rapidly established a sizable art 
school. Although employed by the government, 
photographer Dorothea Lange publicly voiced 
opposition to the internment. Ansel Adams's 
exhibition and subsequent book Born Free and 
Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese Americans 
sympathetically portrayed the internees at 
Manzanar in an effort to distinguish them from 
the "disloyal Japanese aliens" held in separate 
camps. Yet many of Adams's images effectively 
sanitized the experience of internment. In one 
example, an attractive, well-dressed young 
woman smiled for the camera while standing 
beneath a sign that read, "Relocation." This 
approach was probably intended to humanize 

pancake hats. Ciaiming to have been attacked by zoot-suiters, 200 sailors invade Eastside barrios, seriously beating four youths. On June 7 a mob of several thousand servicemen drag pachu 

Ansel Adams 

lAt. Milliamson, the Sierra 
Nevada, from Manzanar, 
Califorr^ia, 1944, printed 
1980, gelatin-silver print 

Title spread from Born free 
and Equal: The Story of Loyal 
Japanese Americans by 
Ansel Adams, 1944. Lent by 
Mrs. Edmund L. Dubois 

Toyo Miyatake 

Untitled, 1943, gelat 

Clinton Adams 

Barrmgton Street, 
tempera on paper 

William Garnett 

egg Lakewood Housing Project, 

1950, SIX gelatin-silver prin 

the internees and to emphasize their common- 
ahties with other Americans. For somewhat 
different reasons, including a desire to normahze 
the experience and render it less disconcerting 
to himself and his fellow internees, photographer 
Toyo Miyatake took a paradoxically positive 
approach to camp life in many of his images. 
Yet certain of his other photographs reveal a 
darker side of camp existence, whereas Adams's 
never do." 

Following the devastating bombing of 
Hiroshima in August 1945, which brought an 
end to the war in the Pacific, the United States 
entered an era of optimism fueled by extensive 
economic prosperity. The postwar Utopian 
vision of suburban domestic life centered on the 
nuclear family was promoted tirelessly by the 
mass media, which now included television." 
While the Bay Area experienced massive subur- 
ban growth during this period,'^ Southern 
California — where sunshine, jobs, and affordable 

;at them severely The cmly arrests made are of 44 Mexican Americans. > 1 94 5 > World War II ends, ushering in an era of enormous economic growth and social change, particularly in California. 

housing abounded — was lauded as the ideal. 
Magazine and newspaper articles with such 
titles as "Why People Leave Home to Live in the 
Southland" and "Westward Ho: California Home 
Styles Invade the Rest of the U.S." touted 
California's easygoing suburban lifestyle. The 
one-story ranch house with its "sliding glass 
walls" opening out onto private backyards with 
barbecues and swimming pools became a highly 
desired dwelling." 

Like the California bungalow associated 
with the first half of the century, the ranch 
house was promoted as affording an easy, health- 
ful lifestyle that involved direct contact with 
nature. In contrast to the boxlike bungalow, 
which had been designed in reaction against 
the perceived excesses of East Coast Victorian 
architecture, the sprawling ranch house was 
billed as commodious. It answered the pro- 
nounced yearning for comfort and ease of living 
that followed the arduous Depression and war 
years." With its self-contained, indoor-outdoor 
plan, the ranch house offered an appealingly 
fluid yet controlled environment: a site for 
recreation as well as habitation, which could be 
improved upon through the purchase of an 
endless array of consumer goods. Its principal 
designers — such as self-trained architect Cliff 
May, whose custom-made homes became 
prototypes for tract housing — set out to create 
efficient, tidy, and livable spaces rather than 
aesthetic masterpieces. 

In tandem with the promotion of the 
ranch house. Southern California in particular 
became the nation's hot spot for swimsuit 
and other sportswear designs that expressly fit 
the new indoor-outdoor suburban lifestyle.'* 
As in housing design, fluidity of function was 
a major selling point in fashion. A single outfit 
often had multiple components that could be 
worn or removed depending on the occasion. 




194 6 > film noir productions thrive in the postwar era. These cynical and gloomy crime films often show a seamy side of California life. Some examples from this year include The Big Sleep, The f 'j»- 

Sid Avery 

Dwight D. Eisenhower in 
LaQumta, California, 1961 
gelatm-silver print 

Margit Fellegi 

Woman's Bathing Suit and 
Skirt, c. 1944, glazed cotton 
chintz, cotton, and elastic 

Margit Fellegi, who designed for Cole of 
California, created bathing suits with matching 
skirts that enabled a smooth transition from 
poolside to dining room. Textile designs often 
bore the imprint of suburban leisure, such as 
the backyard barbecue motif used by designer 
DeDe Johnson in her classic Woman's Three-Piece 
Playsiiit of the late 1950s. 

Art photography also bolstered Southern 
California's suburban booster image. Sid 
Avery's portrait of a retired and jovial Dwight 
Eisenhower, barbecuing in his backyard in 
short sleeves, epitomizes the idyllic vision of 
the postwar years. Similarly, Max Yavno's 
ebullient image of a crowd-packed Muscle 
Beach in Venice encapsulates the optimism of 
this era and its emphasis on leisure." Previously 
a member of New York's leftist Photo League, 
which was dedicated to picturing social ills, 
Yavno shifted his focus after moving to 
California. His Muscle Beach photograph. 

Postman Always Rings Twice. > Proposition 1 

alidafion of the Alien Land Law barring Japanese ownership of land, is placed on the ballot but soundly rejected by voters. 

1 94 7 > Central 

Catalina Sportswear 

Moman's Two-Piece Batiiing 
Suit and Jacl<et, late 1940s, 
printed cotton 

DeDe Johnson 

Woman's Three-Piece Playsuit, 
late 1950s, printed cotton 

James Hansen 

Beach Scene at Santa Monica 
in 1949, 1949, watercolor on 

Max /avno 

Muscle Beach, 1947, gelatii 

Larry Silver 

Newsboy Holding Papers, 
1954, gelatin-silver print 

Phvsicrl SsRvidp 

niMUNC BAywcMG crwusncs mmo 

with its sea of white all-American bathin; 
suited bodies, uncritically conveys the ethnic 
and class homogeneity intrinsic to the booster 
vision of suburban Los Angeles. The celebra- 
tory nature of this image is underscored by a 
comparison with Larry Silver's photograph of 
a black youth selling newspapers on the same 
beach. Silver's image suggests that postwar 
suburban leisure was restricted to the dominant 

Yet the suburban dream of life in California 
did, in fact, reach a considerably broader range 
of Americans than either its boosters or its 
detractors tended to reveal. At the lower end 
economically, residential developments such as 

valley Project is completed, generating electric power by controlling the tl 

Lakewood, near Long Beach, in Los Angeles 
County, were publicly billed as solidly middle 
class while catering to blue-collar aerospace 
workers then flocking to Southern California. 
The homes built for the Case Study House 
Program initiated by John Entenza, editor of 
the avant-garde Los Angeles-based magazine 
Arts and Architecture, occupied the higher end. 
The project resulted in the construction of a 
series of homes designed by a coterie of 
California architects, including Neutra, the 
Eameses, Wurster, and Pierre Koenig. Although 
intended as prototypes for affordable postwar 
housing, these modernist constructions ulti- 
mately catered to an elite clientele. In addition 
to being relatively expensive, they were too 
austere to satisfy the taste for cozier dwellings 

shared by most of the Middle Americans then 
pouring into the Southland. Nevertheless, 
the Case Study homes did kick off a trend in 
domestic architecture that gradually took hold 

In addition to economic differences, 
there was also a greater degree of ethnic diversity 
in California's suburbs than generally assumed. 
Catholics and Jews were sometimes excluded 
as residents, and there continued to be extensive 
housing restrictions against African Americans, 
Asians, and Mexicans. However, some black 
suburbs did exist, for example in Marin City 
and east Palo Alto in Northern California. As in 
mainstream white publications, comparable 
black magazines also championed a boosterist 
conception of California suburban living — "the 

: public over control of water and power > House Un-flmerlcan Activities Committee investigates Communist activity in \he federal government, organized labor, and Hollywood The Hollywood Ten, a group 

Julius Shulman 

Case Study House "8, by 
Charles and Ray Eames, 1 
gelatin-silver print 

Julius Shulman 

Case Study House "22, by 
Pierre Koenig, 1958, gelatin- 
silver print 

sports shirt and the convertible, the barbecue 
pit out back and the swimming pool."^' Ebony 
featured a prominent black judge who lived in 
Westwood, indicating that at least a few black 
families had entered even the richest Los Angeles 
suburbs by the late 1950s." 

Integration, however, was not generally 
fostered by California housing developers in 
the postwar period. Joseph L. Eichler in the 
Bay Area was one of the few who attempted to 
produce racially integrated suburban neighbor- 
hoods. Although California's suburbs were 
springing up at an astounding rate, minority 
communities tended to remain localized in the 
state's poorer urban centers. Twenty-eight 
percent of Los Angeles's black population, for 
example, reportedly resided in "slums" in 1949." 
Similarly, Mexican Americans living in the Bay 
Area's Santa Clara Valley were concentrated in 
the east San Jose barrio in the 1950s. The suburbs 
were expressly promoted as safe havens from 
these urban minority populations, which contin- 
ued to be associated with crime and disorder 



Our Morld magazine, October 
1952, Lent by UCLA Library, 
Department af Special 

Charles and Ray Eames 

ETR (elliptical Table, Rod 
Base), 1951, plywood, plastic 
laminate, and wire base 

Midcentury Modern 

The story of twentieth-century 
design is one of innovation, factory 
production, new materials, and the 
rise of designers trained in architec- 
ture, industrial design, or fine art. 
Designers began to use man-made 
materials as well as processes such 

as machine molding in plastics, fiber- 
glass, metaf, glass, and plywood. 
Conforming to the modernist credo 
established in California through the 
work of Schindler and Neutra more 
than a decade earlier— that good 
design be functional, affordable, 
efficient, and durable— midcentury 
furniture designers emphasized 
versatility, adoptability for indoor 
and outdoor use, unadorned struc- 
ture, and a unified overall design. 

The California move to postwar 
modernism was led by the adven- 
turesome and innovative husbond- 
and-wife team of Charles and Roy 
fames, whose designs— distributed 



of screenwriters and directors who refuse to testify, cire barred from worl<ing in Hcllywood, Hundreds in Hollywood are unemployed or work under pseudonyms for little pay during this period. > Mode 

Gregory Ain 

(Ain, Johnson, and Day) 
Mar Vista Houses for 
Adi/cr^ced Developrrtent 
Company, Venice, California, 
Aerial Perspective, 1946-48 

Jerome Ackerman 

Ceramic Pieces, 1953-60 
stoneware, glazed 

Charfes and Ray Eames 

£SU (£ames Storage Unit), 
1951-52, plywood, metal, a 

Elsie Crawford 

Zipper Light II, 1965 (thi: 
example, 1997), acrylic 

nationally— exemplified the unfet- 
tered L.A. lifestyle. In their production 
studio in Venice, California, they 
created a design legacy that included 
explorations in ergonomics, experi- 
mentation with new materials, and 
multimedia productions. The resi- 
dence that they built for themselves, 
the landmark Cose Study House *8, 
provided on ideal aesthetic environ- 
ment for their modern furniture 
designs. They believed that living in 
a well-designed space with finely 
crafted furnishings made for a 
healthier, happier individual and 
that good design in the service of 
progressive modernization could 
effect positive social change. 

When war was declared in 
1941, the Eameses were awarded a 
Navy contract for molded plywood 
aircraft parts, leg splints, and 
litters, a project that influenced 
subsequent furniture designs. Their 
molding of plywood into supportive 
ergonomic shapes resulted in some 
of the best-known chairs of the twen- 
tieth century. Later furniture used 
materials from the defense and 
aerospace industries: cast aluminum, 
wire mesh, and fiberglass-reinforced 
plastic. Eames chairs were designed 
for a variety of contexts, from air- 
ports to office towers, and remain 
among the most familiar forms of 
residential, commercial, and public 

The period environment created 
for the Made in California exhibition 
featured seating, a table, a storage 
unit, and a folding screen designed 

Hendrick Van Keppel and 
Taylor Green 

Small Chaise and Ottoman, 
1939 (this example, 1959), 
enamel-baked steel and 
cotton cord 

Charles and Roy Eames 

Wire Mesh Chair with Low Wir 
Base, 1951-53, wire 

by the Eameses, complemented by 
elegant indoor-outdoor furniture 
by Hendrick Van Keppel and Taylor 
Green, Los Angeles designers known 
for inventive, versatile pieces suited 
to the casual California lifestyle. 
The outdoor aspect of the environ- 
ment was further defined by Lagardo 
Tackett's modular, geometric glazed 
pottery planters and freestanding 
sculptures. Home accessories were 
distinguished by biomorphic shapes, 
geometric decorative elements, and 
other organic and space-age motifs 
popular during the period. 


Design should bring the most of the best to the greatest number of people for the least. 


founded by Vincent Price and Sam J.affe. opens in Beverly Hills > ft huge construction boom gets under v/ay in California Temporary wartime facilities are replaced, and houses and schools are built. 


Lagordo Tacl<ett 

Untitled, c. 1960, ceramic 

inaugurating the suburban way of life for returning GIs and ttieir families. > Supreme Court rules that school systems receiving federal funds must give special attention to students unable to speak 

in the local and national press, as they had been 
during the war. 

The 1940s and 1950s witnessed many 
widely publicized urban renewal and urban 
development projects — including the expansion 
of California's infrastructure — which were vari- 
ously backed and opposed by divergent political 
factions. The construction of new freeways, for 
example, spurred by the passage of the $100 
billion Interstate Highway Act of 1956, was vigor- 
ously promoted by the state's boosters. Yet, as 
socially minded critics noted, since many new 

freeway routes cut directly through these urban 
communities, they had the deleterious effect of 
increasing white flight to the suburbs and 
contributing to the decline of nonwhite urban 
neighborhoods. Another major cause supported 
by business leaders after the war was the conver- 
sion of "blighted" residential areas, such as 
Bunker Hill in Los Angeles, into profitable new 
commercial and civic districts. These develop- 
ments were contested by local liberals and by 
the neighborhood inhabitants, who fought — 
ultimately unsuccessfully in the case of Bunker 
Hill — to refurbish the existing residential 
communities instead.^" 

Certain artists offered an unreservedly 
positive view of the processes of urban develop- 
ment in California. Emil Kosa, in his watercolor 
entitled Freeway Beginning, depicts a new freeway 
artery under construction. It spills out welcom- 
ingly into the viewer's space and completely 
elides the downtown area, which appears only 
as a benign, picturesque backdrop. Other artists 
who addressed these developments from an 
uncritical perspective made use of a sleek, 
hard-edged visual vocabulary reflective of their 
modern subjects. Los Angeles realist painter 
Roger Kuntz depicts a quintessential Southern 
California subject in Santa Ana Arrows, a work 
aesthetically ahead of its time. East Coast 
Precisionist Charles Sheeler, whose views of 
Northern and Southern California were based 
on three visits he made after the war, presents a 

i nia legislature passes the Collier-Burns Act, committing gasoline taxes and motor registration fees to highway construction. > The gruesome murder of aspiring actress Elizabeth Short, known as "The 

Chorles Sheeler 

Edward Biberman 

Roger Kuntz 

Max yavno 

EmilJ. Kosajr. 

California Industrial, 1957, 

The Hollywood Palladium, 

Santa Ana Arrows, c. 


Night View from Coit Tower, 

Freeway Beginning, c 


oil on canvas 

C.1955, oilonCelotexon 

oil on canvas 

1947, gelatm-silver print 

watercolor on paper 

anta Ana 


--^'*"ii;" ••* 

.■' _ •. II 


'■ (.0 

celebratory vision of the state's new industrial 
landscape. In his painting California Industrial, 
the heroically rectilinear built environment easily 
subsumes the curving natural terrain. 

Apart from big business and other propo- 
nents of urban development, so-called progres- 
sive forces — some carried over from the New 
Deal era — proved more mindful of the plight 
of California's urban underclass. Despite appar- 
ently good intentions, however, these advocates 
did not always effectively serve the interests of 
the communities they targeted. The Housing 
Authority of the City of Los Angeles, originally 
established during World War II to provide 
public housing for war workers and their 
families, offers an apt example. Its publication 
A Decent Home: An American Right featured on 

BUick Dahli.3" murder, causes a scandal in Los Rngeles, More than 50 people confess to the killing, but despite a half century of professional and amateur sleuthing, the ca 

open > 1 94 8 

Illustration from the 
Los Angeles Housing 
Authority's booklet k Decent 
Home: An American Right, 
showing the alleged effects 
of substandard housing, 
1945-49. Lent by the Southern 
California Library for Social 
Studies and Research 

Don Normark 

Untitled, from Lo Lomo series, 
1949, gelotm-silver print 

Lou Stoumen 

Tenements of Bunker Hill, 
1948, gelatin-silver print 

Eviction of the Arechiga 
family from Chavez Ravins 
May 8, 1959. Lent by USC, 
Regional History Center, 
Department of Special 

its cover an ethnically diverse group of service- 
men returning to California after the war. While 
the Housing Authority ostensibly represented 
the interests of the working class, its mission to 
clean up indigent urban neighborhoods was, in 
fact, informed by a moralistic desire to eradicate 
"sub-standard behavior patterns," which it 
attributed to "sub-standard living conditions."" 
In A Decent Home, maps and charts addressing 
"bad housing areas" equated urban social 
problems such as juvenile delinquency with 
contagious diseases, viruslike ills that needed to 
be controlled and eradicated before they spread 
to "healthy" communities. 

The efforts of such city agencies resulted 
in the proposed development in the early 1950s 
of several low-income urban housing projects, 
which at times engaged the energies of socially 
conscious modernist architects, including leftist 
Gregory Ain and more moderate liberal Richard 
Neutra. One such project, Elysian Park Heights, 
codesigned by Neutra and Robert Alexander, 
was intended to improve a "depressed" residential 
area in Los Angeles's Chavez Ravine. The early 
implementation of plans for this development 
in 1949 resulted in the temporary, and eventually 
permanent, displacement of the area's long- 
standing community of 1,000 Mexican American 
families. (In fact, most of these residents could 
not have afforded the proposed housing had it 
been completed.) The project was red-baited — 
which is ironic given its impact on the poor 
local community — and declared evidence of 
"creeping Socialism" by the Los Angeles Times 
and the city's business leaders, who put a stop 
to it by 1953." In a controversial decision backed 
by the mayor, the land "once cluttered with 
shacks" was given to the newly transplanted 
Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team for the con- 
struction of their new stadium." 

In the visual arts some well-intentioned 
liberals departed from a boosterist perspective to 
consider the ills that befell ethnic immigrants 
and other impoverished city dwellers. 
Photographer Lou Stoumen created a dramatic 
image of a man (the artist himself) gazing out at 
a scene of urban blight from a tenement balcony 
in Tenements of Bunker Hill. Stoumen's portrayal 
of Bunker Hill marks a departure fi-om Millard 
Sheets's Angel's Flight (see p. 104), an earlier sani- 
tized version of the same neighborhood. Yet there 
was a strong dose of romanticism in this highly 
theatrical and obviously staged self-portrait: 
Stoumen was not a resident of Bunker Hill. 


]ai2 scene In Los flngeles is in its heyday. Wartinne industries attracted ttiousands of African Americans to Soutt>ern California, and the area bustles with activity. Some of the most famous musicians 

A romanticizing spirit also infused the photo- 
graphs of La Loma, a neighborhood in Chavez 
Ravine. These were taken by Don Normark in 
1949, the same year that Neutra and Alexander 
received their ill-fated Elysian Park Heights 
commission. These images of the community 
that Normark had stumbled upon as a young 
photographer portray the local residents and 
their modest surroundings as picturesque. 
Normark later recalled that he felt he had discov- 
ered "a poor man's Shangri-la."^' An unidentified 
photojournalist working in 1959 captured in a 
series of searing images what was then a major 
media event: the eviction of the last residents 
of Chavez Ravine, the Arechiga family, who had 
resisted the city's buyout and lost their home 
of thirty-six years. 

Few images of California generated by 
members of its working class were widely publi- 
cized. Watts Towers, originally titled Nuestra 
Pueblo (Our Town) by their creator, Italian 
immigrant Sabato (Simon) Rodia, are a notable 
exception. Depicted under construction by Dada 
artist Man Ray — whose sense of alienation as a 
wartime transplant from Paris to Los Angeles 

to play on Central fivenue Include Nat King Cole, Charlie Parker, Dijzy Gillespie, Buddy Collette, and Johnny Otis. > Supreme Court rules that enforcement of covenants against sellmg real estate to African Hrun 

Man Roy 

Notts Towers, Los Angele 
1940s, gelatm-silver prir 

may account for his attraction to this work by a 
cultural outsider — the Watts Towers were Rodia's 
personalized vision of a fantasy community. 
Created over a thirty-year period, they were com- 
pleted in 1954 at the pinnacle of the Southern 
California suburban housing boom. The towers 
offered a distinctly urban counterpoint to the 
new suburbs, albeit an equally Utopian one." 
Although Rodia intended the work as a celebra- 
tion rather than as a critical statement, this fanci- 
ful grouping of swirling steel structures covered 
in a colorful mosaic of discarded glass and 
ceramic fragments effectively flouted the qualities 
of newness, cleanliness, and homogeneity cham- 
pioned within mainstream suburbia. 

From their inception, the Watts Towers 
served as an icon for the ethnically diverse, 
working-class residential community of Watts. 
Not surprisingly, then, the towers were quickly 
perceived as a threat by the forces that sought 

to contain and control this community in the 
name of urban improvement. Central among 
these was the Los Angeles Building and Safety 
Committee, which deemed the towers a public 
safety hazard and called for their destruction 
in 1959. Those who fought successfully to keep the 
towers standing included members of the local 
arts community, some of whom were producing 
assemblage works sympathetic to Rodia's junk 
aesthetic." In subsequent decades, the Watts 
Towers became an integral aspect of the state's 
image and were even included on the cover of 
a 1969 issue of Time magazine devoted to 
California (see p. 193). 

In tandem with the dissemination of 
suburban and urban images of California, the 
state's natural landscape once again became a 
common subject, following something of a hiatus 
during the war. Yet it proved to be a highly 
contested one during the Cold War years, partic- 
ularly within the arts. While picturesque scenes 
of nature were still commonly exhibited by 
the region's major art institutions, works that 
portrayed the landscape in expressionistic or 
abstracted terms were rarely shown in public 
spaces. When they did appear, such images met 
with active hostility from the white establish- 
ment. This was the case when several modernist 
landscapes received prizes at one of Los Angeles's 
uniquely all-inclusive outdoor art festivals, 
organized by a liberal-minded director of the 
Municipal Art Department and held in Griffith 
Park. In response, the conservative City Council's 
Building and Safety Committee — spurred on 
by disgruntled landscape painters who had not 
won awards at the festival — led a public investi- 
gation of the festival proceedings, arguing that 
there had been "a heavy Communist infiltration 
at this exhibit."^' 

Among the unconventional landscapists 
castigated as leftist radicals regardless ot their 

Diation of the 14th flmendment and the civil Rights Act of 1866. > Hell's flngels motorcycle club forms In Fontana > 194 9 > Professors on University of California campuses who refuse to sign a 

Richard Diebenkorn 

Berkeley '32, 1955, oil 


Flux Bouquet, 1947, 

Helen Lundeberg 

The Shadow on the Road to 
the Sea, I960, oil on canvas 

actual political views were Helen Lundeberg 
(ironically, a fervent isolationist before and 
during the war), Knud Merrild, and Rex Brandt. 
Brandt was falsely accused by the City Council 
of hiding a hammer and sickle insignia in one 
of his expressionistic seascapes." In this climate 
of right-wing paranoia, Lundeberg and Merrild 
were held under suspicion for their modernist 
aesthetics, which yielded — in addition to entirely 
abstract works — unconventional depictions 
of the California landscape. Lundeberg's cool, 
minimalist visions such as The Shadow on the 
Road to the Sea verge on total abstraction. 
Merrild, who had invented a drip technique 
called "flux" that predated Jackson Pollock's, 
rendered the natural world as an inchoate, 
untamed entity in works such as Flux Bouquet. 

'test oatti" declaring ttiat they are not Communists are fired by university regents. > 1 9 5 1 > In lakewood, California, the nation's biggest single-ov/ner real estate development, 17,000 houses are offe 

Neither these artists nor any of the other so-called 
subversives of the period supported a pictur- 
esque or otherwise reassuringly familiar vision 
of the landscape. 

In contrast, the California painters who 
were widely esteemed generally upheld a scenic 
vision of the state, which boosters were once again 
heavily promoting after the war. The tourist 
industries and the mass media expended tremen- 
dous energy on presenting postwar California as 
a prime site for recreational activity and visual 
consumption. A number of artists contributed 
to this conception. Perhaps most influential in 
this regard was Ansel Adams, whose inspiring 
photographs of nature were exhibited and well 
received in art circles but also held currency at 
the time with a broader public. In 1951 Adams's 
work graced the pages of Time magazine, accom- 
panied by the caption, "No artist has pictured 
the magnificence of the western states more 
eloquently." His arrestingly beautiful images of 
Yosemite attracted droves of new visitors to this 
already heavily trafficked national park." 

Adams complemented his fine-art projects 
during the postwar years with straight commer- 
cial work for Eastman Kodak and other companies. 

In various advertisements for Kodak, he pre- 
sented the infiltration of the natural landscape 
by tourists in uncritical terms. One such ad 
contained a classic, pristine view of the Yosemite 
Valley juxtaposed to two images of vacationers 
pointing cameras at the park's Vernal Falls. 
Adams's grand yet comfortingly picturesque 
images numbered among the depictions of the 
California landscape most welcomed by regional 
and national business. His photographs appeared 
in the 1954 annual reports of Bank of America, 
Pacific Gas and Electric, and the Polaroid 
Corporation, as well as the Curry Company, 
which ran Yosemite's concessions.^' 

The many nature-oriented theme parks 
that sprang up in California during the 1950s— 
Pacific Ocean Park, Mission Bay Aquatic Park, 
and Marineland, to name a few — reveal the pop- 
ularity of the domesticated or tamed landscape 
as a site for postwar recreation. Like Disneyland, 
which quickly became synonymous with 
Southern California after its opening in 1955, 
these parks offered highly mediated experiences 
of the physical world, which approximated 

:3le, > 1952 > McCarran-Walter Act allows federal authorities to question the loyalty of minority residents and fo force potential citizens to name suspected Communist sympathizers > Richard Nixon 

Brett Weston 

Garapata Beach, 1954, 
gelatin-silver print 

Marguerite Wildenhaii 

Squared Vase. c. 1947, 
stoneware, glazed 

California Holiday in Color, 
souvenir book, 1950s. 
Lent by the San Diego 
Historical Society Research 

Ansel Adams 

Half Dome and Moon, 
yosemite Valley, Califon 
c, 1950, gelatm-silverp 

runs for vice president and campaigns vigorously in his home state, California. > Rose Bowl stadium is the site of the first nat 

elecast of a college football ga 

19 5 3 > Chavez Ravii 

Brochures for Marineland, 
Mission Bay Aquatic Park, and 
Pacific Ocean Park, 1950s. 
LentbyJimHeimann, the 
San Diego Historical Society 
Research Archives, and 
Charles Phoenix, respectively 

b, c 

Disneyland admission tickets 
and envelope, and map from 
official guide, 1957. Lent by 
Jim Heimonn 

The original Barbie doll 
Collection of Mattel, Ir 

1959. Larry Silver 

Contestants, Muscle Beach, 
California, 1954, gelatin- 

Our World magazine, 
September 1949. Lent by 
UCLA Library, Department of 
Special Collections 


suburban life in their emphasis on homogeneity 
and control. Excluding ethnic difference and 
other forms of diversity, Disneyland went fur- 
thest of all in mirroring Southern California 
suburbia as portrayed by Hollywood and the 
popular media." 

Another California landscape of sorts 
colonized and marketed by boosters after the 
war was the human body. From he-men to 
Barbie, Southern California personae in particu- 
lar were celebrated for their physiques, which 
were well Icnown to vast audiences through 
Hollywood films, television, and other mass 
media. Sid Avery's fan magazine photograph of 
a strapping Rock Hudson draped in a bath towel 
effectively promoted this boosterist conception 
of physique. The ideal postwar California body 
exuded youth, good health, and fitness. This is 
reflected in a 1954 photograph of robust figures 
on Muscle Beach by newly arrived New Yorker 
Larry Silver, who in the same series approached 
this subject from a very different perspective 
(see p. 159). The body was often visually linked 
with the local physical environment. Indeed, 
what most clearly distinguished popular photo- 
graphic images of California beauties from those 
of models taken elsewhere was that the former 
were shot out-of-doors rather than in a studio. 
Like the indigenous natural landscape, the 
homegrown California body was associated with 
abundance, which in concert with 1950s ideals 
of attractiveness meant ample muscles for men 
and large breasts for women. 

Less-mainstream visions of the California 
body also circulated during these years, albeit 
within more Hmited communities. These 
included images associated with gay male 
culture, still predominantly underground during 
this period (although a homophile group 
called the Mattachine Society was founded in 
Los Angeles in 1950 by Harry Hay and fashion 

mostly working-class and poor Mexican Americans, is labeled a slum, and 7,500 of its residents are removed despite tremendous resistance. > 19 54 > Supreme Court rules, in Brown v Bodrd of 

Education of Topeka, that racial segregation is unconstitutional. This dec 

crucial in spurrin 

rights movement, which finds strong support in California. > Sabato (Simon) Rodia aba 






Sid Avery 

Robert Mizer 

Physique Pictorial magazine, 

Paul Wonner 

Rex Brandt 

Rock Hudson, Out of the 

Qmnn Sondergaard, Athletic 

fall 1954. Collection of John 

Untitled [Two Men at the 

Surfnders, 1959 

Shower at His Hollywood Hills 

Model Guild, c. 1954, gelatin- 


Shore;, c. 1960, oil and 


Home, 1952, gelatm-silver 

silver print 

charcoal on canvas 



Elmer Bischoff 

Two Figures at the Seashon 
1957, oil on canvas 

designer Rudi Gernreich). Homoerotic maga- 
zines, posing under the guise of health and 
fitness publications, disseminated such images 
regionally, nationally, and internationally to 
powerful effect. Indeed, British transplant David 
Hockney has said that the beautiful male bodies 
pictured in magazines such as Physique Pictorial 
were what first lured him to Los Angeles." 
Physique Pictorial was produced in Los Angeles 
by Robert Mizer, whose beefcake shots of 
scantily clad muscle men along with those of 
Bruce of L.A. subverted narrow 1950s definitions 
of masculinity by exaggerating them to the 
point of camp. 

Other midcentury California artists who 
made the body — often the male body — a primary 
subject of their work were several members of 
the Bay Area Figurative school, which rejected 
the Abstract Expressionist idiom then being 
championed by the New York School in favor of 
a representational style." These artists, including 
David Park, Paul Wonner, Elmer Bischoff, and 
Theophilus Brown, offered a less fetishistic 
conception of the body than either Mizer or 
Bruce of L.A. Theophilus Brown went so far as 


tts Towers in Los fingeles and moves to Northern California, > Operation Wetback conducts widely publicized sweeps of suspected Illegal aliens, particularly in California and tf)e Southwest. By Septembe 

more than 1 million Mexicans are allegedly expelled. 

controversy breaks out over Bernard Rosenthal's moderni: 

of a "faceless family," which was commissioned for the new los finge 


to consult contemporary nudist magazines in his 
quest for nontraditional ways of rendering tine 
male body in his paintings.'' Similarly, Joan Brown 
departed from the conventional aestheticizing of 
the female body in aggressively expressionistic and 
intensely hued works such as Girl in Chair. 

Fashion designer Rudi Gernreich, who in 
the early 1950s eliminated the constricting 
boned and padded interior construction com- 
mon in women's bathing suits of the period — 
see, for example. Christian Dior's 1956 design — 
also challenged the conventional image of the 
California physique. His unconstructed, form- 
fitting knitted swimsuits were created for less 
curvaceous figures than those of the voluptuous, 

ding, > 19 5 5 > African Americans boycott buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest a law requiring them to ride in the back. Mobilizing thousands and beginning the civil rights movement, the boycott 

Joan Brown 

Magazine advertisement for 

Rudi Gernreich 

George Hurrell 

How to Sin in Hollywood, 

Philippe Holsman 

Girl in Chair. 1962, oil on 

swimwearby Dior for Cole of 

i^oman's BathirtgSui 

, 1952, 

Jane Russell, 1946, gelatin- 

booklet, 1940. Lent by 

Dorothy Dandndge, 1955 


California, 1956 

wool knit 

silver print 


gelatin-silver print 

hypersexualized starlets who graced the 1940s 
and 1950s Hollywood screen. Gernreich's designs 
were instrumental precursors to the widespread 
liberation of the female body during the 1960s. 

Although still a touchstone for societal 
definitions of beauty, Hollywood became during 
the postwar period one of the main fronts on 
which California was associated with unconven- 
tional or subversive activities. The aura of 
glamour and sophistication that had enveloped 
the industry and its stars in the prewar and 
war years was replaced after 1945, in large part, 
by a cloud of ambiguity." While movie stars 
were still objects of fascination, they were not 
emulated to the same degree after the war."" 
This era's steamy starlets were more overtly sexu- 
alized than prewar sirens. Accordingly, they were 
more likely to be regarded as "unwholesome" 
by mainstream America, particularly given the 

brings national attention to Martin Luther King Jr. This social and political struggle would later influence activism in California, from the Free Speech Movement in Berkeley to Brov/n Power, the Black Pant 

Virgil Apger 

Carmen Miranda, Publicity 
Photo for "A Date with Judy,' 
1948, carbro print 

Robert Frank 

Television Studio, Burbank, 
California, 1956, gelatin- 
silver print 

Ely de Vescovl 

Hollywood. 1941 

Edward Biberman 

Conspiracy, c. 1955, oil on 

Hans Burkhardt 

Reagan— Blood Money, 1945, 
oil on canvas 

erican Indian movement, and the United Farm Workers. > James Dean stars in Rebel without a Cause, signifying Hollywood's recognition of a new teen culture and market > The state spends >! million per 

conservative climate of the day. In addition, 
the industry itself was threatened by strikes, 
competition from television and foreign films, 
and, most notably, the events surrounding the 
House Un-American Activities Committee inves- 
tigation that began in 1947. The blacklisting of 
the Hollywood Ten — a group of screenwriters 
and directors — following their refusal to testify 
before Congress divided the Hollywood commu- 
nity and cast a Communist shadow on the indus- 
try for years to come. Artists Hans Burkhardt 
and Edward Biberman, both of whom had 
worked at movie studios, offered dark perspec- 
tives on the Hollywood witch-hunt. In Reagan — 
Blood Money, Burkhardt specifically indicts 
Ronald Reagan, then head of the Screen Actors 
Guild, for his zealous efforts to purge the studios 
of all suspected Communists. 

The creative voices in California who 
offered possibly the most critical perspective on 
postwar consensus culture — and who, in turn, 
garnered profound reproach from it — belonged 
to the bohemian community of writers and artists 
known as the Beats. In the visual arts, figures 
such as Bruce Conner, Wallace Berman, and 
Jess addressed subjects regarded by the cultural 
mainstream as uninteresting, distasteful, or 
strictly taboo. Their materials were often the 
castoffs and detritus of suburban consumer 

orking day on new freeways and highways. > Disneyland, the world's first theme park, opens in Anaheim, promising "the happiest place on earth." > Syndell Studio presents fiction I, the first rm 

On the Road by Jack Kerouac, "Squaresville U.S.A. vs. 

first paperback edition, 1958. Beatsville," ti/e magazine, 

Lent by Sarah Schrank September 1959 







bibloofth. '/T'l\\ 

ete and Unabridr^ej y 

©I ^ 



Tricky Cad: Case I/, 1958, 
colored newspaper, clear 
plastic wrap, and black tape 
on paperboard 

culture reconfigured into two-dimensional col- 
lages or three-dimensional assemblages. These 
artists embraced the messy and the combinative, 
in defiance of the clean, streamlined aesthetic 
of the day. 

While originating in New York, Beat 
culture soon migrated westward — its pilgrimage 
mythically recounted by Jack Kerouac in the Beat 
classic On the Road (1957) — and took root in 
California. It blossomed most notably in the 
communities of North Beach in San Francisco, 
and Venice, Topanga, and Hermosa Beach in 
Southern California. Media coverage such as 
Life magazine's article "Squaresville U.S.A. vs. 
Beatsville" reinforced the connection between 
California and the Beats."' This piece compared 
the life of a middle-American family in 
Hutchinson, Kansas, to that of a Beat family 
in Venice, California. Here, and in numerous 
other examples in the popular media, the Beats 
were recast as "beatniks," with the Russian 
suffix adding Soviet Communist associations. 
Whereas the Beats espoused serious counter- 
cultural convictions that were potentially 
threatening, the media's "beatniks" were vacuous, 
comical posers and could therefore be more 

easily dismissed. They were disparaged as ne'er- 
do-wells lazing around in squalid apartments, 
antithetical to upstanding Americans who 
maintained cleanliness and order in their new 
appliance- and gadget-filled ranch houses. 
Emphasizing this point of difference, one 
caption in "Squaresville U.S.A. vs. Beatsville" 
described a typical Beat scene as follows: "A 
seedy-looking fellow is sitting in an old bathtub 
reading poetry while an artist squats nearby 
painting garbage cans."" 

The Beats were also criticized for challeng- 
ing traditional gender roles, then being anxiously 
reasserted in American culture following their 
destabilization on the home front during the 
war. Another Life article disdainfully relayed 
"a North Beach maxim, . . . the mature bohemian 
is one whose woman works full time," adding 
that "the 'chicks' who are willing to support a 
whiskery male are often middle-aged and fat."" 
Playboy magazine also criticized Beat males for 
not being "real men" (in other words, capable of 
making money and of keeping their women in 
line), even while praising them on another level 
as fellow social rebels." 

California Abstract Expressionism, at the Santa Monica Pier merry-go-round. This show marl<s the emergence of a bohemian arts community in Los flngeles. The artists Wallace Berman, Edward Kienholz, and 

Wallace Berman being 
arrested at Ferus Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1957, Lent by 
Charles Bnttm and Craig Krul 
Gallery, Santa Monica 

Jay DeFeo 

Thejewel. 1959, 

There was, however, an element of 
attraction in the country's seemingly negative 
preoccupation with beatniks. Tour buses brought 
curious visitors to North Beach and Venice, 
affording them the opportunity to observe beat- 
niks in their "natural habitat." Artists were sub- 
jects of particular interest. Female Beat painters 
Jay DeFeo and Joan Brown, who were profiled 
in women's magazines such as Cosmopolitan and 
Glamour, received sympathetic treatment in the 
press, while male artists often were given less 
flattering coverage. A 1958 Look magazine article 
entitled "The Bored, the Bearded, and the Beat" 
reduced Wallace Berman — an artistic linchpin 
of the California Beat community — to a carica- 
ture, misquoting his philosophy "Art is Love is 
God" as "Man, art is cool, and cool is every- 
thing."" Still, as artist Wally Hedrick has recalled, 
the mystique that surrounded Beat artists could 
draw considerable interest from onlookers. 
He remembers one bar in North Beach that 
hired a painter to make art on the premises to 
the sound of jazz music: "That was his job . . . 
The guy would make four or five paintings in 
an evening.'"" 

While Beat artists fostered and cashed in 
on this mystique at times — Hedrick admits that 
he, too, was briefly employed making abstract 
art in a coffee-shop window"' — many created 
works that offered pointed statements protesting 
society's perceived ills, including sexual repres- 
siveness, empty consumerism, and an ethos of 
conformity. The assemblages of Bruce Conner — 
for example, his abstract portrait of Beat poet 
Allen Ginsberg — and the collages of Jess were 
some of the many Beat works created from 
mainstream society's soiled, discarded goods, 
combined and reconstituted in a spirit that 
recalled Rodia's eclectic Watts Towers. 

illy HI Bengston, among others, often worked with found objects and the materials of the postwar era, including plastics and car paint. > 19 5 6 > The Federal Interstate Highway fict encourages suburbaniza 

Walloce Berman 

Semina. 1955-64, 
hand-printed magazine 

Wallace Berman 

Untitled (Jazz Drawing of 
SlimGaillard), c. 1940, pencil 

Palmer Schoppe 

Drum, Trombone, and Bass, 
1942, gouache and pencil on 


Souvenir photos and 
souvenir photo folios from 
Los Angeles-area jazz clubs, 
c. 1940s, LentbyJimHeiman 
and John Tolbert 




The art ofWallace Berman also embodies 
the Beat aesthetic of heterogeneity and impurity. 
Berman's work on exhibition at Ferus Gallery 
in Los Angeles in 1957 was deemed offensive 
enough to warrant his arrest and conviction on 
an obscenity charge, compelling him to leave 
Los Angeles for the Bay Area. His publication, 
Semina, which included poetry, prose, drawings, 
and photographs printed on nonuniform, 
unbound sheets of paper, directly communicated 
this nonconformist sensibility. The first of its 
nine issues was published in 1955, the same year 
that Disneyland opened to the public, and 
Semina offered a powerful counterstatement 
indeed to this icon of California mainstream cul- 
ture. Yet whereas Disneyland reached millions, 
Berman's dissenting voice spoke only to a small 
underground community of creative figures 
who congregated in alternative spaces in North 
Beach such as King Ubu Gallery (later the 6 
Gallery, where Ginsberg first recited Howl) and 
City Lights bookstore. 

One of the primary means by which the 
Beats and other cultural dissidents in California 
asserted their opposition to the dominant 
mainstream was by valorizing aspects of society 
that commonly had been denigrated or margin- 
alized, such as black jazz culture. This subculture 
had existed in Los Angeles and the Bay Area 
since the 1920s, but it burgeoned during and after 
the war as the state's African American commu- 
nities mushroomed. Berman was one of the 
most avid devotees among the Beats. Sporting 
a zoot suit and forming friendships with local 
jazz luminaries, Berman, in his youth, had been a 
fixture in the many jazz clubs then thriving along 
Central Avenue in South Central Los Angeles. 
Some of his first works were surrealistic drawings 
of jazz figures (one of which became the cover 
design for a bebop album )."' 

lile increasing segregation, due to white flight from the center of U.S. cities. This act has a profound Impact on California's cities, particularly Los flngeles. > Los fingeles repeals Its 140-foot buildlng-helght 


' ' J'KTaR.i. 

f -7i^^ 


















nit: immediately skyscrapers begin to go up. > 19 5 7 > Poet flllen Ginsberg and publisher Lawrence Ferllnghetti achieve prominence after Ginsberg's Howl and Other Poems is seized by San Francisco po 

thorities. The obscenity trial that follows brings widespread support to the Beats. > Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first orbiting space satellite, prompting Cold War fears that fuel the arms race By 1958 a 

James Weeks 

Two Musicians, 1960, oil 

David Park 

Rehearsal, c. 1949-50, oil on 

William Claxton 

Stan Getz, Hollywood, 1954, 
gelatin-silver print 

Peter Voulkos 

Camelback Mountain, 1959, 
stoneware with slip, glazed 
and gas fired 

Other Beats also embraced black jazz 
culture, as much for its outsider status as for its 
ethos of coolness and spontaneity. This allegiance 
was not lost on the mainstream media, which 
associated the Beats derisively with various facets 
of black culture. In an illustration for another 
Life magazine article bashing the Beats, a pros- 
trate, "shabby" beatnik and his female compan- 
ion are surrounded by posters from jazz concerts, 
a Miles Davis album, and a set of bongo drums." 
For the mainstream press, linking the Beats with 
black culture demonstrated the alarming extent 
to which the Beat community had strayed from 
(white) middle-class norms. 

Aside from the Beats, there were other 
postwar artists with an avid interest in jazz. 
Among them were the Abstract Expressionist 
sculptors clustered around master ceramist Peter 
Voulkos, who taught first at the Los Angeles 
County Art Institute (now Otis College of Art and 
Design) from 1954 to 1959, then at the University 
of California, Berkeley, until 1985. These creators 
of unconventional, free-form sculptures in 
ceramic shared many countercultural interests 
with the Beats, including a predilection for the 
syncopated and improvisational nature of jazz. 
Several of the Bay Area Figurative painters were 
also jazz enthusiasts. In Rehearsal, David Park 
portrays the California School of Fine Arts all- 
white Studio 13 Jazz Band, in which he played 
piano and the school's director, Douglas MacAgy, 
occasionally played drums. James Weeks turned 
instead to black jazz, depicting the Bay Area's 
"kings of bebop" in his vibrant portrait Two 
Musicians.^" Stressing the coolness and virility of 
his subjects while blocking out individualizing 
facial features. Weeks universalized these musi- 
cians in paying homage to them. 

A number of creative figures in California, 
including many of those aligned with the coun- 
terculture, explored aspects of spirituality during 

ng of six Hercules underground missile sites guards Los flngeles. > Los Angeles bans the use of residential backyard incinerators due to the growing smog problem. > Jack Kerouac publishes On the Rosd, 

these years. While Los Angeles painter Rico 
Lebrun turned to the New Testament in darkly 
expressionistic works inspired by the atrocities 
of the war, a far greater number of postwar 
figures took an avid interest in non-Western 
religions. This trend was fueled by a growing 
popular fascination in the United States with 
Zen Buddhism, as distilled by such proponents 
in the West as Alan Watts, a fixture in the 
San Francisco Beat community. The minimalistic 
abstractions of John McLaughlin were strongly 
informed by Zen precepts as interpreted in 
Southern California. An Asian-art dealer who 
had spent two years in Japan in the 1930s before 
becoming an artist, McLaughlin sought a balance 
in his paintings that would evoke a meditative 
calm in the viewer. 

fthe cornerstones of the Beat arts and literature movement. > In San Francisco Helen ftdams founds the Maidens, a Beat poetry and performance group that includes artists such as Jess and Robert Duncan 

Rico Lebrun 

The Magdalene, 1950, 
tempera on Masonite 

John Mason 

Sculpture [Desert Cross], 
1963, stoneware, glazed 

Matsumi Konemitsu 

Zen Blue, 1961, lithograph 

John McLaughlin 

Untitled, 1952, oil and 
on fiberboard 

Minor White 

Sun in Rock (San Mateo 
County, California), 1947, 
gelatm-silver print 

Ferus Gallery opens In Los flngeles in March. Wallace Berman is arrested there in June at his first public show for allegedly exhibiting pornography. > 19 5 8 > Hula hoops go on sale for three dollars each in South 

Wolfgang Paalen 

Messengers from the Three 
Poles, 1949, oil on canvas 

19 5 9 > fl former Beat hangout, the Gas House in Venice Beach, becomes the center of controversy when the owner applies for a cafe license, and older Beats are pitted against beatniks ar 

Gordon Onslow Ford 

Fragment of an Endless (II), 
1962, casein on wrinkled 

Lee Mulllcon 

Space, 1951, oil on canvas 

A number of creative figures were more 
eclectic or generalized in their spiritual affinities. 
The artists who constituted the Bay Area-based 
group Dynaton (derived from the Greek word 
dyn, which they translated as "the possible") — 
Gordon Onslow Ford, Wolfgang Paalen, and 
Lee Mullican — incorporated aspects of myriad 
religions and philosophies in their work. Wh 
Onslow Ford's foremost interest was in Zen and 
Paalen's was in Native American spiritualism, 
all three sought to visualize an inclusive cosmic 
reality by means of spiritual abstract paintin 
Another abstractionist of the period with an 
interest in spirituality was avant-garde filmmaker 
and painter Oskar Fischinger. A German emigre 
who had initially come to Hollywood in 1936 to 
work for Paramount Pictures, Fischinger quickly 
discovered that his spiritual and aesthetic orien- 
tation rendered him ill suited to the industry. 
In such experimental films as Radio Dynamics 
(regarded as his most significant work), 
Fischinger implicitly decried commercial imagery 
in favor of abstract forms that attempted to 
visually approximate music. 

For some artists in California, alternative 
spiritual traditions that existed apart from 

tourists. > The Barbie doll is introduced by Mattel of El Segundo, California. > The movie Cidget, starring Sandra Dee, popularizes the California beach/surfer image. 

Oskar FIschinger 

Radio Dynamics, 1943, stills 
from 16 mm film 

organized Western religion offered a means of 
countering the perceived soullessness of centrist 
middle-class culture. California, viewed as a 
haven for spiritual exploration since the nine- 
teenth century, was an apt place to make such 
nonconformist assertions, even while the state 
embodied for so many the very values being 
challenged. By i960 these previously marginal- 
ized interests began to permeate the mainstream, 
voiced in large part by the diverse body of men 
and women afforded educational opportunities 
by the 1944 GI Bill of Rights.^' Accordingly in 
the turbulent years that followed, an image of 
unconventionality and dissent superseded the far 
more placid, conformist vision of postwar subur- 
ban life that, for a time, had defined California 
for the nation and the world. 

1 Josh Sides, "Battle on the Home Front: 
African American Shipyard Worl<.ers in WWII 
Los Angeles," California History yi (fall 1996): 
3. 251-63- 

2 In the 1950s the Bracero program over- 
lapped with Operation Wetback, the repatria- 
tion of undocumented workers. 

J This federal regulation, officially titled 
General Limitation Order L-85, went into 
effect in 1942 and significantly limited the 
amount and type of materials available to 
civilian designers. 

4 This advertisement appeared in the 
New Yorker, October 1943, 13. 

5 The term pachuco originated with a group 
of Mexican American youths called Chuco 
in El Paso, Texas. Pachuco referred to both 
the youths and the argot they spoke. 

See Dan Luckenbill, The Pachuco Era, e.\h. 
cat.. University of California, Los Angeles, 
University Research Library, Department 
of Special Collections (Los Angeles: Regents 
of the University of California, 1990), 3. 
For a key social critique of the pachuco from 
a Mexican perspective, see "The Pachuco 
and Other Extremes," in Octavio Paz, 
The Labyrinth of Solitude (\9^v, reprint. 
New York: Grove Press, 1985), 9-28. 

6 Eric Lott, "The Whiteness of Film Noir," 
American Literary History g, no. 3 (fall 1997): 

7 Ibid. 

8 Ibid., 545. Lott references, for example, "the 
black, Asian, and Mexican urbanscapes and 
underworlds of [Edward] Dmytryk's Murder, 
My Sweet, The Lady from Shanghai, The 
Reckless Moment, Rudolph Mate's D.O.A. 
(1950), [and Orson] Welles's Touch of Evil 
(1958) . . . the self-conscious endpoint of noir 
and its racial tropes." 

» The single exhibition was called The 
Indefinite Period (1942), a traveling show 
organized by the Institute of Modern Art in 
Boston. Los Angeles did not host another 
exhibition on this subject until 1953. On 
the presentation and collecting of Mexican 
art in Los Angeles in the 1920s and 1930s, 
see Margarita Nieto, "Mexican Art and 
Los Angeles, 1920-1940," in On the Edge of 
America: California Modernist Art, 1900-1950, 
ed. Paul Karlstrom (Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1996), 134. 
For an analysis of wartime anti-Mexican 
sentiment in light of the interest in Latin 
American art before the war, see Holly Barnet- 
Sanchez, "The Necessity of Pre-Columbian 
Art in the United States: Appropriations 
and Transformations of Heritage, 1933-1945," 
in Collecting the Pre-Columbian Past: A 
Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 6th and jth 
October 1990, ed. Elizabeth Hill Boon 
(Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks 
Research Library and Collection, 1993), 

10 Brian Niiya, "Internment Chronology," in 
The View from Within: Japanese American Art 
from the Internment Camps, 1942-1945, 

exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Japanese American 
National Museum, ucla Wight Art Gallery, 
and UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 
1992), 61. 

11 Karin M. Higa, "The View from Within," 
in The View from Within, 39. 

12 The title of this booklet echoes a racist 
statement made by U.S. Gen. John DeWitt, 
commander of the Western Defense 

Command: "A Jap's a Jap." See Karin Higa 
and Tim B. Wride, "Manzanar Inside and 
Out: Photo Documentation of the Japanese 
Wartime Incarceration," in Reading 
California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900- 
2000, ed. Stephanie Barron, Sheri Bernstein, 
and Ilene Susan Fort (Los Angeles: 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 
association with University of California 
Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2000). 

13 Ibid. 

14 See Lynn Spigel, Make Room for TV: 
Television and the Family Ideal in Postwar 
America (Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1992). 

15 Among the areas affected were Santa Clara 
County, Marin County, Sonoma County, 
and Walnut Creek. The population of Santa 
Clara Valley, once a .strictly agricultural area, 
nearly tripled between 1940 and 1970, whereas 
the populations of the major Bay Area cities, 
San Francisco and Oakland, declined. See 
Charles Wollenberg, Golden Gate Metropolis: 
Perspectives on Bay Area History (Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press, 1985), 258. 

li L.A. Examiner, January 2, 1957; Life, March 
17, 1952. 

17 See Clifford E. Clark Jr., "Ranch-House 
Suburbia: Ideals and Realities," in Recasting 
America: Culture and Politics in the Age of the 
Cold War, ed. Lary May (Chicago: University 
of Chicago Press, 1989), 177. 

18 For connections between postwar fashion 
and architecture, see "California's Bold Look: 
It Is New, Bright and Bound to Be Seen All 
over the U.S.," Life^ June 14, 1954. The article 
is illustrated by a photograph of a California 
sportswear model standing in front of Case 
Study House #8, the Fames House. 

l» This image appeared in The San Francisco 
Book, photographs by Max Yavno, text by 
Herb Caen (Boston: Houghton Mifflin 
with the Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1948). 
Yavno published an accompanying book, 
The Los Angeles Book, text by Lee Shippey 
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin with the Riverside 
Press, Cambridge, 1950). 

20 See Kevin Starr, "The Case Study House 
Program and the Impending Future: Some 
Regional Considerations," in Blueprints for 
Modern Living: History and Legacy of the Case 
Study Houses, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Museum 
of Contemporary Art in association with 
MIT Press, Cambridge, 1989), 131-43. 

21 "Los Angeles: The Promised Land," Sepia, 
August 1959, 16. 

22 "Casual Elegance in California," Ebony, 
Dec. 1957. 

23 See the New York-based African American 
publication Our World. "Hurray for 

Los Angeles," Our World, September 1949. 

24 See Don Parson, "'This Modern Marvel': 
Bunker Hill, Chavez Ravine, and the Politics 
of Modernism in Los Angeles," Southern 
California Quarterly 7^, no. 34 (fall/winter 

25 A Decent Home: An American Right, 
5th, 6th, and yth Consolidated Report 

( Los Angeles: Housing Authority of the City 
of Los Angeles, n.d. [1945-49]), 16. 

26 See Thomas S. Hines, "The Battle of 
Chavez Ravine; Field of Dreams," Los Angeles 
Times, April 20, 1997. 

27 Charles Champlin, "Los Angeles in a New 
Image: Remodeled Landscape, Redesigned 

Skyline," Life, June 20, i960, 79. 

28 Don Normark, Chdvez Ravine, 1949: A 
Los Angeles Story (San Francisco: Chronicle 
Books, 1999), 11. 

29 See Sarah Schrank, "Picturing Watts 
Towers," in Reading California. See also 
Bud Goldstone and Arloa Paquin Goldstone, 
The Los Angeles Watts Towers (Los Angeles: 
Getty Conservation In.stitute and J. Paul 
Getty Museum, 1997), and Richard Candida 
Smith, "The Elusive Quest of the Moderns," 
in Karlstrom, On the Edge of America, 21-38. 

30 On Watts Towers in the context of the 
California assemblage movement, see 
Thomas Crow, The Rise of the Sixties: 
American and European Art in the Era of 
Dissent (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997), 
24-25, 27. 

31 See Sarah Schrank, "Envisioning 

Los Angeles: Civic Culture, Public Art, and 
the All-City Outdoor Art Festivals" (paper 
delivered at American Studies Association 
conference, Seattle, Washington, November 
20, 1998), 7, originally quoted in Arthur 
MilHer, "Reaction and Censorship in 
Los Angeles," Art Digest, November 15, 1951, 9. 
Schrank's insights into the political under- 
pinnings of debates involving the landscape 
in postwar Los Angeles were formative in 
the writing of this essay. 

32 Peter Plagens, Sunshine Muse: Art on the 
West Coast (1974; reprint, Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1999). 23- 

33 "Realism with Reverence," Time, June 4, 

34 See Jonathan Spaulding, "Yosemite and 
Ansel Adams: Art, Commerce, and Western 
Tourism," Pacific Historical Review 65, no. 4 
(November 1996): 615-40. 

35 On Disneyland, see John M. Findlay, 
Magic Lands: Western Cityscapes and 
American Culture after 1940 (Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1992). See also Karal Ann Marling, ed.. 
Designing Disney's Theme Parks: The 
Architecture of Reassurance (Montreal: 
Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997; dis- 
tributed in U.S. by Flammarion, New York). 

36 Jonathan Fineberg, Art since 1940: 
Strategies of Being (New York: Harry N. 
Abrams, 1995), 242. Quoting the artist in 
David Hockney by David Hockney (New York: 
Harry N. Abrams, 1977), 93. 

37 On the aesthetic achievements and evolu- 
tion of Bay Area Figurative art, see Caroline 
A. Jones, Bay Area Figurative Art: 1950-1965, 
exh. cat. (San Francisco: San Francisco 
Museum of Modern Art in association with 
University of California Press, Berkeley and 
Los Angeles, 1990). 

38 David McCarthy, "Social Nudism, 
Masculinity, and the Male Nude in the Work 
of William Theo Brown and Wynn 
Chamberlain in the 1960s," Archives of 
American Arf 38, nos. 1/2 (1998): 28. 

39 Susan Ohmer, "Female Spectatorship and 
Women's Magazines: Hollywood, Good 
Housekeeping, and World War II," The Velvet 
Light Trap 25 (spring 1990): 62. 

40 Ibid. 

41 Life, September 21, 1959, 31-37. 

42 Ibid. 

43 Paul O'Neil, "The Only Rebellion Around: 
But the Shabby Beats Bungle the Job in 
Arguing, Sulking, and Bad Poetry," Life, Nov. 

30, 1959, 114. For further discussion of the 
Beats in the context of the crisis of masculin 
ity in the United States in the 1950s, see 
Barbara Ehrenreich, The Hearts of Men: 
American Dreams and the Flight from 
Commitment (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor 
Press/Doubleday, 1983), 53-54- 

44 See Hugh Hefner, "The Playboy 
Philosophy," Playboy, January 1963, 41. 

45 George Leonard, "The Bored, the Bearded 
and the Beat," Look, August 19, 1958. 

46 Wally Hedrick interview no. 1, Archives 
of American Art, quoted in Richard Candida 
Smith, Utopia and Dissent: Art, Poetry, 

and Politics in California (Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1995). 168. There was a widespread Beat prac- 
tice of painting and reading poetry to jazz. 

47 Ibid. 

48 Rebecca Solnit, "Heretical Constellations: 
Notes on California, 1946-1961," in Lisa 
Phillips, Beat Culture and the New America: 
1950-1965, exh. cat. (New York: Whitney 
Museum of American Art in association with 
Flammarion, Paris, 1996), 71. 

49 O'Neil, "The Only Rebellion Around." 

50 Jones, Bay Area Figurative Art, 67. 

51 On the impact of the GI Bill on the arts 
in California, see Candida Smith, Utopia 
and Dissent, 67-89. 





.A M 


m^ J9 


Howard N. Fox 

Mike Mandel and 
Larry Sultan 

Set-up for Oranges on Fire, 
1975, printed 1999, 
chromogenic development 

Time magazine, November 7, 
1969, foldout cover illustra- 
tion by Milton Closer 

During the 1960s and 1970s, the mythology of California shifted like a 
tectonic plate, nudging popular conceptions out of place and occasionally 
thrusting new ones suddenly and violently into national awareness. 

The commonplace notion of Southern Cahfornia 
in the 1950s, for example, relied upon images of 
Tinseltown, freeways, and a sprawling, homoge- 
nous suburbia, but by 1965 the Watts rebellion 
reminded the country that the region's capital, 
Los Angeles, suffered the very real urban ills of 
other American cities. Similarly, the Bay Area 
had been nationally profiled as a bastion of old 
money and high culture leavened with an arty 
Beat scene. However, events such as the founding 
of the Free Speech Movement on the campus of 
the University of California, Berkeley, in 1964; 
the coalescing of so-called hippie culture around 
the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco in 
about 1965; and the formation of the revolution- 
ary Black Panther party in Oakland in 1966 
revealed an epicenter of potent new social forces 
that ultimately catalyzed profound changes in 
the nation and the world. Of course, the revolu- 
tionary new spirit — which animated the youth 

counterculture, inspired liberationist causes 
ranging from Chicanismo and Black Pride to 
feminism, and affected world events and history 
through the civil rights struggles and the anti- 
Vietnam War movement — was not unique to 
California. Much of its drive, however, originated 
in California and found its most articulate 
expression there. 

On November 7, 1969, Time magazine 
ran a cover story that reiterated the familiar 
litany of Californiana — enumerating its distinc- 
tive clothing, architecture and arts, business 
ventures, table wines, leisure styles, cults, think 
tanks, parklands, and Disneyland — opining 
that "California people have created their own 
atmosphere, like astronauts." Yet Time concluded 
that California "is not really so different from 
the rest of the U.S. as it seems: that it is, in fact, 
a microcosm of modern American life, with 
all its problems and promises — only vastly 
exaggerated." Clearly, the mythic exoticism of 
California had not worn off in the popular 
imagination, but it was now complicated and 
enriched with a certain realism. In Time's ring- 
ing prophecy, California emerged as "the mirror 
of America as it will become, or at least as the 
hothouse for its most rousing fads, fashions, 
trends and ideas."' 

Not surprisingly, the art that engaged 
these concerns throughout the period reflected 
the full range and complexity of life in 
California. The landscape and nature-oriented 
tradition continued with some vitality, but 
much of the work reveals that the status of 
the Edenic myth was shifting along a cultural 
fault line, redefining the relationship between 
people and nature. 

Landscape artists worked in an array of 
styles that ranged from Llyn Foulkes's Death 
Valley, U.S.A., which combines aspects of Pop art 
and Surrealism, to Richard Diebenkorn's highly 

19 6 > House Un-fimerican ftctivities Committee holds hearings In the Bay Hrea to investigate Communist activities, fl thousand UC Berl^eley students protest at San Francisco's city hall. The first day oft 


abstracted landscapes, such as Ocean Park Series 
#49. The purple mountains' majesty revered by 
plein air painters in previous decades could still 
be found in nature but, by the 1960s, was not 
much found on canvas. 

Such depictions as there were of wild 
California were apt to be about the encroachment 
of people into the wilderness. Roger Minick's 
photograph Woman with Scarf at Inspiration 
Point, Yosemite National Park, foregrounds the 
magnificent vista with an intervening close view 
of a tourist seen from the back. With only her 
flimsy souvenir scarf to protect her from the 
ravages of the untamed elements, she seems an 
interloper. Robert Dawson's Untitled #1, from his 
Mono Lake series, resembles an eerie Martian 
landscape in a science fiction movie. The view is 
somewhat unnatural, considering that Mono 
Lake, in Northern California, was drained to 
irrigate the deserts of Southern California, and 
the strange rock formations are the visible end 
result of human intervention. 

The 1960s saw the advent of what have 
come to be called earthworks or land projects — 
artworks created by digging into the land, 
sculpting it with bulldozers, placing something 
on it, or otherwise engaging the features and 
properties of a specific site. A fundamental 
unnaturalness, however, is implicit in the very 
vocabulary of such projects. One of the most 
beautiful land projects, Running Fence, was 
conceived and organized by the New York-based 
collaborative team of Christo and his wife, 
Jeanne-Claude. Running Fence was a 24-niile- 
long, 18-foot-high swath of nylon suspended 
along a system of steel cables like an immense 
curtain. It zigzagged across rolling pastures from 
Meacham Hill, near Petaluma, westward to 
Bodega Bay, where it dipped into the surf The 
project was visited by thousands and was copi- 
ously documented in film, video, photography. 

imonstration is peaceful On the second day, police appear with billy clubs and turn fire hoses on the students. This event marks the beginning of political activism for many participants. > The execution of Caryl 

Llyn Foulkes 

Death Valley, U.S.A., 1963, 

I on canvas 

Richard Diebenkorn 

Ocean Park Series "49, 1972, 
oil on canvas 

Roger Minick 

Moman with Scarf at 
Inspiratior) Point, Yosemite 
National Park, 1980, 
dye-coupler print 

Jack Welpott 

The journey— Pescadero 
Creek, 1966, gelatin-silver 

Robert Dawson 

Untitled 'I, 1979, fron 
Mono Lake series, gelo 
silver print 

;hessman, who claimed his confession to rape and robbery was coerced by police, outrages foes of capital punishment and inspires artworks such as Ed Kienholz's The Psycho-Vendettd Cdse. > 19 61 

Christo and Jeanne-Claude 

Running Fence, Sonoma and 
Marin Counties, California, 
1972-76, 1976, photo 
documentation of installation 

Ben Sakoguchi 

Capitalist Art Brand. 1975-81 
acrylic on canvas 

Ansel Adams 

Yosemite Valley, from 
Inspiration Point, Yosemite 
National Park, 1969, 
photo-offset print on metal 

;.i ^(^7f Fff^H W^^^ffl 








and books. (The elaborate marketing of fence- 
related products to offset the project's $3 million 
budget, which was funded by the artists, was 
satirized in a parodic orange-crate label. 
Capitalist Art Brand, painted by Ben Sakoguchi.) 
In a poignant way, Running Fence, as with most 
of the Christos' projects, underscores the incom- 
patibility of art and nature. This spectacular 
project was after all a colossal intervention into 
nature and was respectfully withdrawn, as 
planned, two weeks after its completion. 

From the 1960s on, few artists involved 
with depicting or even directly engaging the 
landscape could draw upon the romantic inspira- 
tion behind, say, Ansel Adams's quasi-mythic 
paeans that celebrated the pristine, untouched 
land, isolated from humanity. Adams wryly sati- 
rized his own romantic idealism by reproducing 
the photographic image of majestic snowcapped 
mountains on, of all things, a coffee can in 
Yosemite Valley, from Inspiration Point, Yosemite 
National Park. The aesthetics of the sublime 
simply did not comport with younger artists' 
more contemporary experience and understand- 
ing of nature in California, which was shaped 
by living with chronic smog; the "water wars" 
between Northern and Southern California; the 
depletion of natural habitats and many species 

Angeles's Red Car transit system, which made Henry Huntington's personal fortune, Is permanently dismantled. > 19 6 2 > In June the Beach Boys have their first Top 40 hit with the single "Surfin' Safari, 

Helen Mayer Harrison ond 
Newton Harrison 

Meditation I from Meditations 
on the Condition of the 
Sacramento River, the Delta, 
and the Bays of San Francisco, 
1977, satellite photographic 
map and handwritten text 

of wildlife; and such disasters as a 4 million 
gallon oil spill in the Santa Barbara Channel in 
1969 that helped catalyze environmental activism 
in the state.^ It v^'as inevitable that so much of 
the art that looked at the natural landscape 
would explore a troubled relationship between 
humankind and nature. 

Some artists, such as the husband-and- 
wife collaborators Newton Harrison and Helen 
Mayer Harrison, hoped to improve this situation. 
Conceptual artists by profession, the Harrisons 
were also environmental activists. In about 1970 
they began importing their environmental 
concerns into their art, a practice they continue 
to the present. Their rambling installation 
concerning the Sacramento River comprises a 
panorama of maps, posters, and aerial photo- 
graphs, all annotated with texts in the form of 

Ester Hernandez 

Sun Mad, 1982, screenprint 

John Divola 

lumaNo. ?l, 1977, from tl 
portfolio ^uma One, 1978, 
dye-imbibition print 

"meditations" on the unhealthy state of the 
river and what might be done to restore the bal- 
anced ecology of the region. Significantly, the 
Harrisons' remedy is not stricdy scientific, nor 
even practicable: Their meditations recognize 
that human behaviors, perceptions, values, and 
institutions must change before pragmatic steps 
can be taken toward changing the ecology. 

Concerned with the ecology of farming, 
Ester Hernandez contested the traditional notion 
of California as an agricultural Eden with her 
silkscreen print Sun Mad, replacing the familiar 
and cheerful trademark image of the Sun Maid 
with a starding skeleton. Sun Mad promotes 
raisins "unnaturally grown with insecticides, 
miticides, herbicides, fungicides," substances that 
pose a health threat to consumers and field- 
workers, as well as to the environment. 

followed in October by an album of the same name. > 19 6 3 > Sea Ranch, a real estate development in Sonoma County, makes headlines as an upscale, "back to the earth" community that tries to bli 

Lee Friedlander Wayne Thiebaud John Baldessari 

Los Angeles, California, 1965, Damn Mariposa, 1979, from Looking East on 4th and C, 

gelatin-silver print the portfolio Recent Etchings I, 1967-68, acrylic and photo 

pi. 3, etching emulsion on canvas 

Lewis Baltz 

West Mall, Unoccupied 
Industrial Building, 20 Airway 
Drive, Costa Mesa, from the 
series The New Industrial 
Parks near Irvine, California, 
1974, gelatin-silver print 


lan-made structures with trie natural landscape. > 19 64 > Proposition 14, an anti-fair housing amendment to the state constitution, passes overwhelmingly. > SeaWorld, developed by four UCLfl fraternity 

Curiously, although the ubiquitous freeway 
and automobile now made California's deserts, 
mountains, and valleys more accessible, most 
artists who pictured the landscape tended to 
stay closer to home. They were drawn to the 
domesticated milieu of California's cities, indus- 
trial parks, strip malls, and suburban neighbor- 
hoods, where the uneasy relationship between 
people and their surroundings was also played 
out. Lee Friedlander's Los Angeles, California, 
captures the reflection of a splendid California 
sunset above a strip-mall parking lot in a store 
window, where it vies for attention with an 
advertisement showing a smiling couple. Lewis 
Baltz brings a bleaker outlook to his series of 
black-and-white photographs The New Industrial 
Parks near Irvine, California. His recurring 
subject is an assortment of modular prefabri- 
cated warehouses and small factories that 
brood glumly upon the vestiges of a receding 
natural landscape. 

Numerous artists cataloged the unique 
sprawl of Southern California. In a formal 
exercise to avoid making pleasing and composi- 
tionally "correct" photographic images, John 
Baldessari set about taking pictures of the 
nondescript sights in and around his hometown 
of National City, a suburb of San Diego. The 
monotony of suburbia became his inadvertent 
subject. Looking East on 4th and C records the 
dull sense of vacancy that pervades the small 
town. Similarly, Ed Ruscha made a series of 
photographs called Every Building on the Sunset 
Strip; and photographers Joe Ray, Bill Owens, 
and Camilo Jose Vergara were among those 
who recorded daily life in the cities and suburbs, 
sometimes posing proud families in front of 
their homesteads — bungalows and cottages 
typical of neighborhoods throughout Southern 


brothers, opens. > Free Speech Movement starts at the University of California in Berkeley, led by student Mario Savio among others. > 1965 > The Watts riots result In the deaths of 34 people and ?4Ci rnlllit 

Very few Edenic visions survived into the 
1960s and 1970s. The witty images of Hfe in the 
hills above Los Angeles by British-born expatri- 
ate David Hockney — who often shows well- 
manicured lawns and backyard swimming pools, 
as in The Splash — are the surprising legacy of 
California plein air painting. Hockney has a 
somewhat cooler tonality, more restrained play 
of light, and definitely "cooler" attitude than that 
of artistic forebears such as Granville Redmond 
and Guy Rose, though his work shares the out- 
lander's fascination with the region's quality of 
light, lush natural settings, and ineluctable 
sense of place — of "Californianess." While their 
California was a vast, untamed Eden, however, 
Hockney 's is pervasively domesticated, reflecting 
his time. 

property damage. After the arrest of motorist Marquette Frye in South Central Los fingeles, a scuffle breaks out between onlookers and police officers. Violence, looting, and arson erupt as African Americans, frustrated 

Joe Ray 

Untitled (detail), 1970-72, 
thirty-one gelatin-silver 

Bill Owens 

Our house is built with the 
living room in the back . . . , 
1970-71, printed 1982, 
gelatin-silver print 

Beach and car culture, inflected by new 
technologies and materials that brought ever- 
racier surfaces to surfboards and automobiles, 
also figure prominently in California art and 
the American psyche during the 1960s. The 
California coast, with its rugged northern wilder- 
ness and its more tamed southern recreational 
beaches, remains a rich subliminal image of 
American destiny in the national subconscious. 
California was not just a geographic land's end 
but the culmination of a preordained history. 
In the previous century this concept, Manifest 
Destiny, was considered the national birthright, 
justifying the expansion of the United States and 
its political, social, and economic dominance 
across the North American continent to the 
Pacific shore. According to this boosterist image, 
the California coast was nature's final gift to 
Americans, albeit to non-Native Americans. 

In the 1960s car ownership was a nearly 
universal aspiration, and the automobile figures 
prominently in representations of California life 
in that era. Indeed, by the mid-1960s, California 
had more drivers and cars — nearly 10 million 
of each- — and consumed more gasoline than 
any other state in the nation.' The automobile 

with poverty and a lack of social services, unleash their anger in the streets. > Los flngeles County Museum of Art, previously combined with a natural history museum, opens on V/ilshire Boulevard as a sepa 

represented an implicit belief in Yankee ingenuity 
working for the egalitarian benefit of all (who 
could afford it) and in the individual's freedom 
to pursue life, liberty, and happiness at whatever 
cost to the environment. If the automobile began 
its life as a convenience, it grew to maturity as 
an extension of the American values of social 
mobility, independence, and control over one's 
own destiny. 

Only Southern California could have 
produced such a seamless yoking of two such 
essentially antithetical mythologies as those of 
nature and the automobile; but throughout the 
1960s, in daily life and in the arts, they did 
indeed come together. Movies, television. Top 40 
music, and fashion magazines promoted the free 
and easy California lifestyle, a notion of ample 
time and space, in which casually clad folks go 
about their business at a leisurely pace and live 
in houses where indoor and outdoor spaces 
comfortably communicate in an always agreeable 
climate. Sunny, mellow California was reflected 
in bands such as the Beach Boys and surfer girl 
Gidget movies. An edgier cruiser California came 
across in flashy custom-decorated autos and, 
especially among Latinos, in lowriders — cars 
oufitted with hydraulics that could bounce a 
chassis up and down in acrobatic display. 

Cars and the beach were a heady draw for 
many artists in California. An artist colony grew 
up in ramshackle Venice Beach, the seaside patch 
of Los Angeles originally developed in 1904 
around a network of narrow artificial waterways 
meant to evoke Venice, Italy. Peter Alexander, 
Billy Al Bengston (a surfer whose lingo and 
wise-guy demeanor are said to be the basis of the 
character Moondoggie in the Gidget movies)," 
Ron Davis, Joe Goode, Craig Kauffman, Ken 
Price, Ed Ruscha, DeWain Valentine, and many 
other artists gravitated to the district for its low- 
brow, laid-back lifestyle; its hokey, dilapidated 

exoticism; and, of course, its glorious beach. 
In the 1960s no self-respecting artist living in 
New York, where the buzzwords for the aesthetics 
of good Minimalist and Conceptual art were 
"serious" and "tough," would wish to be 
identified with anything so frivolous as beaches 
and cars, but many of their Southern California 
contemporaries flaunted those associations. 
Ceramist Ken Price chose a photograph of him- 
self riding a wave as the announcement for a 1961 
exhibition at the now-legendary Ferus Gallery, 
which played a major historical role in establish- 
ing the new generation of West Coast artists. 
Painter Bengston, who not only surfed but also 
raced motorcycles professionally, and twelve 
other Los Angeles artists went so far as to be 
photographed in their cars and pickup trucks for 
a calendar produced by Joe Goode, under the 
name of Jose Bueno. 

Several of the Ferus Gallery artists were 
particularly drawn to the sleek finish and irides- 
cent luster of auto bodies. Bengston's abstract 
compositions of the time, such as his jazzy oil spill 
of a painting Lady for a Night, were typically made 
of automobile lacquer dripped or spray-painted- 

itity. > Filipino workers in the San Joaquin Valley announce a work stoppage when growers lower their wages. Cesar Chavez declares "Huelga!" (strike), and a national boycott of grapes begins. The United Farm 

Ken Price exhibition Edward Ruscha 

announcement, Ferus Gallery, Standard Station, 1966, 

1961, Lent by Ken Price Studio screenprint 

Anthony Friedkin 

Surfboard in the Setting Sun, 
Santa Monica, California, 
1977, from the Surfing Essay, 
gelatin-silver print 

Workers numbers only 1,200, but Chavez invites clergy, ttie Congress of Racial Equality, and student activists from San Francisco State, Berkeley, and Stanford to help organize the boycott > In December 


ychedelic rock band the Warlocks plays In San francisco under its new name, ttie Grateful Dead. > 19 6 6 > The Board of Supervisors ot Los Hnqeies county unsuccessfully tries to shut down an Edward KienhoU 

Billy Al Bengston 

Lady for a Night. 1970, 
lacquer on aluminum 

Billy Al Bengston exhibition Judy Chicago 

announcement, Ferus Gallery, Car Hood, 1964, sprayed 

1961, Lent by Billy Al Bengston acryliclacquer on 1964 

Corvair hood 

Calendar of Los Angeles 
artists in their cars produced 
by Jose Bueno [Joe Goode], 
1970. Lent by Joe Goode 

Larry Fuente 

Derby Racer, 1975, mixed 
media in epoxy on fiberglass 
Berl<eley (car model c. 1962) 

directly onto sheet metal. Judy Gerowitz, who 
changed her name to Judy Chicago and became 
famous in the 1970s as one of the foremost femi- 
nist artists, was an acolyte of the Ferus "Studs" 
(as the core group of John Altoon, Robert Irwin, 
Craig Kauffman, Edward Kienholz, Allen Lynch, 
Ed Moses, and Bengston semiofficially called 
themselves). She had enjoyed special status as the 
only woman allowed to hang out with the Studs 
at motorcycle races and at their favorite watering 
hole, Barney's Beanery, where she often smoked 
cigars.^ A student of Bengston, she shared his 
buoyant sense of abstraction, which is clearly 
evident in the bold mandala and flanking 
"embroidery" of the decorative lacquer-painted 
arcs of Car Hood. In her bravado identification 
with L.A. beach and car culture, Chicago goes 
Bengston one better by painting directly on the 
hood of an automobile. 

The automobile became a significant sub- 
ject at this time. Artists like Larry Fuente from 
Mendocino in the north and Gilbert Lujan from 
Los Angeles in the south followed the lead of 
"Kustom Kar Kulture" enthusiasts such as Ed "Big 
Daddy" Roth by fetishizing their automobiles, 
adorning them with copious, elaborate, and out- 
landish designs, and later exhibiting their art by 
participating in derbies or driving through the 
city in motorcades. San Francisco-based Robert 
Bechtle, an early photorealist, often painted pic- 
tures of cars in the parking lots of diners and 

neighborhood businesses. His '67 Chrysler shows 
a brand-new coupe sitting in front of a generic 
stucco house in the early morning sun. He pre- 
sents the ensemble as an iconic image, abstracted 
from the reality of daily life. The tableau is curi- 
ously lifeless, as if Bechtle were hinting at some 
dim ineffable wrongness in all of the cheeriness 
of car culture. 

exhibition at the Los flngeles County Museum of Art, deeming the room-size installation of a couple having sex in the back seat of a car too risque. The objectionable piece attracts the largest public attendance of , 

Robert A. Bechtle 

'67 Chrysler, 1967, oil on 

Dennis Hopper 

Double Standard, 1961, 
printed later, gelatin-silver 

Edward Kienholz 

Back Seat Dodge '38, 
mixed media 

Chris Burden 

Trans-Fixed, 1974, 
photo documentati 

If SO, Bechtle was not alone. The actor 
and photographer Dennis Hopper often imaged 
seedy aspects of urban Los Angeles. His Double 
Standard strikes a smart visual pun, catching a 
glimpse of two Standard Oil signs photographed 
through the windshield of a car. Meanwhile 
another view is reflected in the rearview mirror. 
Formally, the image toys with the conventions 
of the picture plane, but a more generalized 
significance is related to the sense of dislocation 
and fragmentation people commonly experience 
while navigating the city in their automobiles. 

Edward Kienholz's Back Seat Dodge '38 has 
become an icon of what is thought to be a quin- 
tessentially American adolescent experience — 
sex in the backseat of a car. In the mid-1960s 

show at the museum and today is in the permanent collection. > Huey Newton and Bobby Seale found the Black Panther party In Oakland. > 196 7 > In January Ronald Reagan becomes governor of Callforni. 

Kienholz's artwork was audacious and, to some, 
indecent.' His intent in presenting this greasy- 
spoon image of patently illicit sex is ambiguous. 
But it is clear that he conceives the role of the 
car as conferring unlegislated freedom for people 
to do as they wish, even to use the backseat of a 
car as a mobile motel. 

Whether car culture could impinge on 
the very sense of freedom and independence that 
it seems to engender was a question posed in 
an event staged by Chris Burden in a nondescript 
garage one evening in Venice. In Trans-Fixed, 
Burden directed an assistant to drive nails through 
his palms, attaching him to a Volkswagen Beetle 
in the manner of a crucifixion. Burden and the 
car were wheeled out into an alley to be wit- 
nessed by a small crowd. The engine was run on 
high for two minutes, then the car was pushed 
back inside, and the garage doors were closed. 
Burden's scenario is open to many interpreta- 
tions — perhaps America has surrendered its 
soul to car culture, or the individual has been 
sacrificed to mass production, or there is 
redemption and freedom in transcending the 
automobile — but the fact that Burden had 
himself nailed to a car, rather than to a tree or 
a cross, surely suggests an ambivalence about 
car culture. 

David Sanchez of East Los flngeles forms the Brown Berets to address community needs such as housing and employment. > After consulting an astrologer, the Diggers, an anarchist street-theater group. 

Craig Kauffman 

Untitled ^t/all Relief , 1967, 
acrylic lacquer on vacuum- 
formed Plexiglas 

Road Agenf"^ , custom car 
created by Ed "Big Daddy" 
Roth, 1963. Lent by Mark 

Peter Alexander 

Cloud Box. 1966, ( 
polyester resin 

Ken Price 

Gold, 1968, ceramic, glazed 
and painted with acrylic 

Marvin Lipofsky 

California Loop Senes, 1970 
glass, paint, and rayon 

Yet automobile and beach culture pre- 
vailed over subliminal doubts, and even the sexy 
new materials of cars and surfboards — fiberglass, 
resins, tinted glass, and a host of other high-tech 
products developed by the massive aerospace 
industry based in Southern California — had a 
pronounced influence on the art world. The 
run-down stucco surroundings of Venice were 
the perfect foil for this sleek, industry-inspired 
art, sometimes called Finish Fetish, or as the 
artist and critic Peter Plagens more loosely 
described it, the L.A. Look: 

The patented "look" was elegance and simplicity, 
and the mythical material was plastic, including 
polyester resin, which has several attractions: 
permanence (indoors), an aura of difficulty and 
technical expertise, and a preciousness (when 
polished) rivaling bronze or marble. It has, in short, 
the aroma of Los Angeles in the sixties— newness, 
postcard sunset color, and intimations of 
aerospace profundity^ 

Craig Kauffman's Untitled Wall Relief, a 
new art form straddling painting and sculpture, 
is a sleek-surfaced, vacuum-formed capsule 
shape that appears to glow from within. It could 
be a blown-up detail of some favored zone of 
a voluptuous automobile. In fact, it evokes 
Daddy" Roth's custom-made Road Agent. 

nuary 14 appropriate for a Human Be-ln at San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. > Gray Line bus company promotes a "Hippie Hop Tour" througf* San Francisco's Haight-flshbury district > Monterey Pop, the first 

Automobile lacquers are the improbable, 
but brilliantly successful, intensely colored glazes 
on many of Ken Price's exquisite ovoid and pod- 
shaped ceramics. In other works, such as Gold, 
Price achieves a similar effect v\fith acrylic paint. 

Significantly, despite their industrial- 
strength materiality, many of the technologically 
inspired artworks retained unmistakable refer- 
ences to nature. In an enchanting technical tour 
de force, Peter Alexander's Cloud Box, made of 
cast resins, simulates the startling visual paradox 
of a cloud caught inside a box. Likewise, in Roto, 
Ron Davis uses acrylic colors, resins, and fiber- 
glass to construct sprawling, irregular polygonal 
shapes that suggest illusionistic space. 

In marked contrast to their Manhattan 
contemporaries like Carl Andre, Robert Morris, 
and Richard Serra, who used products of heavy 
industry such as copper plates, galvanized mesh, 
and Cor-Ten steel to fabricate severe, hard-edge 
geometrical forms, the boys of Venice were 
drawn to high-tech materials more for their abil- 
ity to allude to natural, often organic forms and 
to suggest light and space. The same materials 
that the Finish Fetish artists used to celebrate car 
and beach cuhure also lent themselves to expres- 
sions of a more ethereal, even spiritual, nature. 

major rock music festival of the 1960s, features Otis Redding, Ravi Shankar, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, the Mamas and the Papas, Janis Joplin, and Jimi Hendrix, among others. > California has m 

Ron Davis 

Roto, 1968, polyester resir 
and fiberglass 

Robert Irwin 

Untitled, 1968, acryln 

Larry Bell Lla Cool* 

Cube, 1966, vacuum-coated Emergence, 1979, rayon and 

glass polyurethane foam 

These evocations of light (often without an obvi- 
ous source) and indefinite space formed a unique 
strain of MinimaHst art that critic Rosahnd 
Krauss has called "the California Sublime."' Larry 
Bell, Robert Irwin, and James Turrell were inter- 
ested in new materials, especially in ones so sheer 
that they bordered on appearing immaterial. 
Bell's Cube employed the technology of dichroic 
vacuum coating, a method used in the aerospace 
industry and in optics to apply a tinted film of 
chemicals to a glass surface. Bell applied these iri- 
descent films, with their luminous colors fading 
off to invisibility, to the inside surfaces of a glass 
box to evoke its visual dematerialization. For his 
part, Irwin made a series of lightly tinted cast- 
acrylic resin disks that appear as a glow of pure 
color that spreads out into white nothingness. 
Irwin's disks, which are extremely difficult to 
photograph convincingly, are also evocative of 
immaterial phenomena. 

Bell and Irwin used the latest materials 
to achieve their ethereal effects, whereas James 
Turrell turned to the most immaterial medium 
of all: pure light. The work Afriim Proto (1966) 
presents a darkened space in which the uncanny 
vision of an intensely glowing three-dimensional 
cube floats in blackness, as if defying gravity. As 
the viewer approaches the "structure," its crisply 
defined edges dissolve, and the form disappears 
altogether. The dramatic illusion is created by a 
light projector and a perforated filter. It is noth- 
ing more than the very worldly consequence of 
light projected through an opening; but what it 
evokes is nothing less than sublime.' 

Zen Buddhism, with its basis in meditation 
and the attainment of personal enlightenment as 
well as its unified conception of simultaneous 
being and nonbeing, had already proved influen- 
tial on American artists as early as the 1940s and 
1950s, and it enjoyed a renaissance during the 

; than any other state, los flngeles County alone has 4.5 million vehicles. > 19 6 8 > On March 3, students at Lincoln High School in East los flngeles declare a "Blow OutI" to protest poor educational facilities 

and institutional racism. > Robert Kennedy assassinated on June 4 at the Ambassador Hotel In Los flngeles after winning the nomination for president in the California primary. > Congr 

joe Goode 

Untitled (Torn Sky), 1971-76, 

Ed Moses 

Untitled, 1972, Rhoplex and 
acrylic on laminated tissue 

Sam Francis 

SFP68'29, 1968, acr 

jcation Act authorizing federal funds to subsidize the teaching of basic subjects In Spanish as well as English. > Students at UC Berkeley found the Asian American Political Alliance, one of the first organizations 

1970s and 1980s in reductive painting. Joe Goode 
made a series of "torn sky" paintings, depicting 
airy scatterings of clouds, diaphanous wisps 
floating vaporously in an expanse of celestial 
blue. These aeroreveries are alarmingly inter- 
rupted by large fissures torn in the canvas. 
Goode's works appear to straddle some middle 
realm between the ethereal and the material. 
Similarly, in Ed Moses's Untitled (1972), an 
abstract composition painted on tissue paper 
with Rhoplex, the brushstrokes of the synthetic 
medium have dried and formed a delicate 
gossamer. Sam Francis's SFP68-29 is a field of 
bright white animated only at the extreme left 
and right edges by dancing rivulets of spectral 
color that seem to aspire upward. The almost 
entirely void canvas suggests the elusive concept 
of the absentness of the present. 

Other artists were creating spiritually 
inflected art that was less informed by natural 
phenomena or reductivist aesthetics than by 
other cultural and social concerns. Wallace 
Herman had established himself in the icono- 
clasm of Beat culture, yet he was also an ardent 
student of the Jewish mystical tradition of 
Kabbalah. In these teachings. Scripture is inter- 
preted not only through study of its text and 
individual words but also through the relation- 
ship of its letters and numbers to one another. 
Herman's Topanga Seed, a large rock that he found 
in Topanga Canyon near Malibu, is inscribed 
with Hebraic texts. Just as it is unnecessary to 
understand the inscriptions on the Rosetta stone 
to experience its spiritual quality, Herman's rock 
possesses a mysterious presence that transcends 
literal meaning. 

to bring together Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino American activists. > Californian Richard Nixon is elected president. > Old Town San Diego, settled in 1769, is established as a state historic park. Original . 

George Herms 

everything Is O.K., 1966, 
wood, metal, plaster, and 

Wallace Berman 

TopangaSeed, 1969-70, 
dolomite rock and transfer 

Edmund Teske 

Untitled. 1962, ge 

John Outterbrldge 

Together Let Us Break I 
1968, assemblage 

Stephen De Staebler 

Seated Kangaroo IVoma 
1978, clay, fired 

A less mystical artist but one consistently 
concerned with spirituality and the life of the 
soul is John Outterbridge, who migrated from 
Greenville, North Carolina, and settled in 
Los Angeles in 1963. As artist, activist, and 
director of the Watts Towers Art Center, he was 
mentor to several generations of diverse commu- 
nity artists. His altarlike assemblage Together 
Let Us Break Bread was created in the aftermath 
of the Watts uprisings as a sacramental gesture 
toward healing racial tension and fostering 
racial harmony. 


Thus the spiritual and landscape tradi- 
tions in California art of the 1960s and 1970s 
were rooted in larger cultural and social issues. 
Unquestionably, the single most commanding 
influence on culture in California during this 
period was the advent of counterculture, which 
embraced a spectrum of causes ranging from 
"flower power" and hippie culture to radical 
political organizations, the anti-Vietnam War 
movement, feminism, and gay liberation. 

Counterculture quickly developed nation- 
ally and internationally, but many of its mani- 
festations began in California. The urban yet 
freewheeling San Francisco neighborhood known 
as Haight-Ashbury attracted successors to the 
Beat generation — young freethinkers, lifestyle 
experimenters, and dropouts of every kind. 
Across the Bay, the more political Free Speech 
Movement coalesced on the Berkeley campus 
of the University of California, while in Oakland 
the Black Panther party was founded in 1966 
by Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton. The 
Chicano movement took root in the agricultural 
fields of the Salinas Valley and spread to the 
Southland barrios, where it quickly inspired a 
vaster constituency. Women's centers up and 
down the state, such as the Woman's Building 
in Los Angeles, were the birthplaces of the 
women's art movement, an important aspect of 
feminism. These political movements all had a 
palpable impact on the cultural life of California 
and the nation. 

The second- and third-generation Beats, 
the so-called flower children, and the other free 
spirits of the mid-1960s who congregated around 
Haight-Ashbury would later come to be called 
hippies and were certainly the most picturesque 
people within the new youth movement.'" 
Timothy Leary, a Harvard University professor of 
psychology from i960 to 1963 who became a drug 

jstored to re-create California life of the Mexican and early American periods. > The American Indian Movement Is formed by Chippewas George Mitchell and Dennis Banks > Whole lirth CiWog offers 


"access to tools" to individuals attempting to live "outside the system." > 19 6 9 > fit the height of the Vietnam War, 70Z of San Diego's workforce is engaged in work for the military. 

group of young Indi-. 

Psychedelic posters by Stanley 
Mouse and Alton Kelley, 1966; 
Jim Blashfield, photograph by 
Herb Green, 1967; and Victor 
Moscoso, 1967, respectively. 
Lent by Jim Heimann 

The Hippie Scene, postcar 
late 1960s. Lent by 
Jim Heimann 

Ruth-Marlon Baruch 

Shakespeare Couple, Haight- 
Ashbury, 1967, gelatin-silver 

Gage Taylor 

Mescahne Woods, 

Tales from the Tube, no. 1, 
1973, underground comic by 
Rick Griffin. Lent by the 
McClelland Collection 

Richard Marquis and 
Nirmal Kaur 

Americar) Acid Capsule with 
Cloth Container, 1969-70, 
solid-worked gloss and cloth 

advocate and guru of the counterculture, called 
upon young people to "turn on, tune in, and 
drop out," and many in Haight-Ashbury heeded 
his mantra. The hippies were ubiquitous in the 
media, and unlike the Beats before them, they 
proved galvanic in the popular American psyche, 
which imagined that all hippies engaged in free 
love and used marijuana and hallucinogenics 
such as LSD and mescaline. Hippies were por- 
trayed, as in Ruth-Marion Baruch's photograph 
Shakespeare Couple, Haight-Ashbury, as colorful 
and folksy longhaired youths, many of whom 
wore beat-up Levi's, tie-dyed T-shirts, macrame 
headbands and belts, and necklaces symbolizing 
love and peace called "love beads." 

By 1967 the Gray Line bus company added 
a two-hour San Francisco Haight-Ashbury 
district "Hippie Hop Tour" to its schedule, pro- 
moting it as "the only foreign tour within the 
continental United States."" Tour participants 

were exposed to head shops selling all manner 
of drug paraphernalia, countless secondhand 
clothing stores, bookstores, and record shops, 
and were driven by the Fillmore Auditorium, the 
Carnegie Hall of counterculture music. 

With respect to painting and sculpture, 
however, hippie culture did not produce much. 
Gage Taylor's psychedelia-inspired landscapes, 
like Mescaline Woods, are a conspicuous excep- 
tion. In contrast, comic books, psychedelic 
posters, and other examples of graphic design 
celebrating the hippie lifestyle or advertising 
concerts and outdoor gatherings called "be-ins" 
or "love-ins" proliferated. 

Ironically, society at large readily imitated 
and co-opted the hippie image, particularly in 
fashion design. Billy Shire's Untitled Denim 
jacket, with its encrustation of metallic studs and 
paste stones, and Fred E. Kling's Wedding Dress, 
with its floral and magical rainbow motifs, were 
unique creations intended for the few who could 
afford them. Mass-produced clothing — off-the- 
rack apparel such as bell-bottom jeans, body 
shirts, and leather boots — and the commodifi- 
cation of the hippie lifestyle in such publications 
as The Whole Earth Cflffl/o^ enabled millions of 
people who were not hippies to participate safely 
and vicariously in the countercultural revolution 
and to develop a tolerance for ideas and modes 
of behavior that probably merely fascinated 
them from afar. 

ccupies the deserted federal penitentiary on flicatraz Island in San Francisco Bay, demanding federal funds for a cultural center and a university. > Ttie first message on the flRPflNtT, a precursor to the Internet, 

sent from UCLft fo the Stanford Research Institute. > People's Park in Berkeley— a plot of land the size of a football field— becomes the site of a battle between the University of California and students, hippies. 

FredE. Kling 

Billy Shire 

Rudi Gernreich 

Rudi Gernreich 

Crawford Barton 

Tom of Finland 

Meddmg Dress, 1973, 

Untitled Denim Jacket, 

Unisex Caftan, 1970, pri 


"Topless" Bathing Suit 

, 1964, 

L/ntif/ed,c. 1975, gelatin- 

Untitled, 1962, graphite 

hond-pamted cotton 

1973, denim, metallic studs, 
paste stones, and attached 
metallic objects 


wool knit 

silver print 





A popular by-product of hippie culture, 
with its lionization of long hair and its casual 
views of sexuality, was the unisex fashion fad of 
the 1960s and 1970s. Quickly appropriated by the 
dominant culture, the unisex craze lent itself to 
witty ready-to-wear and haute couture, such as 
Rudi Gernreich's Unisex Caftan. Outright sexual 
display was not ruled out either, as revealed in 
Gernreich's "Topless" Bathing Suit, which let it all 
hang out. Beyond unisex, even overt homosexu- 
ality began to lose some of its taboo through the 
counterculture. The campy beefcake drawings by 
Tom of Finland that had previously circulated 
discreetly in the gay underground now began to 
come out of the closet. 

community activists. > Charles Hanson's Family commits the grisly Tate-La Bianca murders in Us flngeles, leaving 7 dead, including film director Roman Polanski's pregnant wife, actress Sharon Tafe. > Pasadena 

ftrt Museum, formerly the Pasadena flrf Institute, opens In a new building and gains renown for its radical and often controversial eKhibitions. > fin oil spill from a Unocal Corporation well in the Santa Barbara Chanr 

Hippie culture allowed for change; the 
larger counterculture demanded it. The demands 
for civil rights, equal opportunity, decent wages, 
health care, union representation, and an end 
to the Vietnam War were shared by many seg- 
ments of society — including African Americans, 
Chicanos, Native Americans, migrant workers, 
students, women of all backgrounds, homo- 
sexuals — who wanted to change the way the 
country conducted itself. The 1960s and 1970s 
formed an era of civil protest and calls for 
empowerment, of which quite a few were gradu- 
ally fulfilled. 

Amid the temper of political struggle, the 
distinction between photojournalists and fine- 
art photographers began to blur. Some photogra- 
phers envisioned their work as an evocation of 
the spirit of struggle. Pictures such as Harry 
Adams's Funeral of Ronald Stokes, 29, Secretary 
of Mosque #27, Los Angeles, Mays, 1962, or 
Charles Brittin's Arrest (Legs) Downtown Federal 
Building, Los Angeles, California, did not merely 
document episodes of tragedy and turmoil in 
the history of blacks in Los Angeles during the 
1960s. They are also iconic, almost archetypal, 
images of the battle of an entire people for rights 
and dignity in a society bound by law and princi- 
ple to honor those rights. Pirkle Jones's Window 
of the Black Panther Party National Headquarters 
shows an image of political posters, including 
the now-famous image of Panther cofounder 
Huey P. Newton in a wicker peacock chair holding 

spreads into an 800-square-mile slick, killing wildlife and causing large-scale environmental damage. Modern environmental activism is born. > 19 7 8 > On August <!3 the National Chicano Moratorium gathers 

Harry Adams Charles Brittin 

Funeral of Ronald Stokes, 29, Arrest (Legs) Downtown 

Secretary of Mosque "27, Los Federal Building, Los Angele 

Angeles, May 5, 1962, 1962, California, c. 1965, gelatin- 

gelatin-silver print silver print 

Cleaver for President, poster, 
1968. Lent by the Center 
for the Study of Political 
Graphics, Los Angeles, 

Pirkle Jones 

Window of the Black 
Panther Party National 
Headquarters, 1968, 
gelatin-silver print 

: Angeles's Uquna Park to protest the disproportionately higf) number of Mexican American men killed in Vietnam. Ttie gathering is broken up by riot police, who injure 70 and kill 2, including Rub* 

Betye Soar 

The Liberation of Aunt 
Jemima, 1972, mixed-medi( 

Noah Purifoy 

Sif Watfs //, 1996 (replication 
of lost original, Sir Notts, 
1966), mixed media 

David Hammons 

Injustice Case. 1970, body 
print (margarine and 
powdered pigments) and 
American flag 





a spear in one hand and a rifle in the other, 
behind glass that has been shattered by bullets. 
Newton's pose is echoed in Betye Saar's The 
Liberation of Aunt jemima, which incorporates 
a mammy figurine wielding a broom in one 
hand and a rifle in the other. 

David Hammons, living in Los Angeles 
in the 1960s, created another widely known icon 
of artistic protest, Injustice Case. The image is 
a unique "body print" — a direct transfer image 
made by pressing paper against a graphite- 
covered body — that shows a gagged man tied to 
a chair. The high-relief border that frames the 
work, visually imprisoning it, is made with an 
actual American flag. Injustice Case assails the 
treatment of Black Panther cofounder Bobby 
Seale. In 1969 Scale was a codefendant in the 
trial of the Chicago 8, who were charged with 
inciting civil unrest at the Democratic National 
Convention the year before. During the trial, 
he was ordered bound and gagged by Judge 
Julius Hoffman. 

spoken supporter of Chicano rights and a columnist for the Los ftngeles Times. > 19 7 1 > After the longest trial in the state's history, Charles Manson and three associates are convicted ui the iS*6a 

Tate-la Bianca murders. > 1972 > The de Young Memorial Museum and the California Palace of the legion of Honor merge to form the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. > Pong, the first 

coin-operated • 

The Chicano art movement emerged in 
California as a remarkable confluence of politi- 
cal, labor, and cultural causes motivated by the 
discontent and the aspirations of the Mexican 
and Mexican American population. Once articu- 
lated, La Causa quickly inspired similar move- 
ments in Texas and other parts of the Southwest 
and Midwest from the mid-1960s into the 1970s. 
The actor, playwright, and director Luis Valdez is 
widely credited with beginning the movement 
when he founded El Teatro Campesino, or Farm 
Workers' Theater, which staged improvised per- 
formances in the fields and on the roadsides of 

the Salinas Valley to support the nascent labor 
movement being organized by Cesar Chavez and 
the National Farm Workers Association (later the 
United Farm Workers). It is probable that this 
unique coalition of artists and political organiz- 
ers could only have come together with such a 
successful program in California. The state had 
the critical mass of Latino artists necessary to 
spawn a political and cultural movement, and 
scarcely any concerted attention from the gallery, 
museum, and critical establishment to support, 
or rather to divert, the artists in more customary 
art world activities. 

Teatro Campesino's example inspired 
many writers, performing artists, and visual artists 
to take up the cause. Salvador Roberto Torres 's 
oil painting Viva La Raza is a heraldic image of 
the symbol of the United Farm Workers. The 
Aztec eagle is shown with its wings outspread 
and its body and tail resembling an inverted 
Aztec pyramid. La raza means "the race" or, more 
accurately, "the people," and, indeed, the Chicano 
movement was about a people, a culture, an 

is introduced at flndy Capp's tavern in Sunnyvale, California. > Ttie first : 

jgment of San Francisco's Bay firea Rapid Transit system opens to the publi( 

1973 > Energy crisis set off by Arab oil 

£1 Teatro Campesmo, poster 
by Andrew Zermeno, c 1967, 
Lent by UCLA Library, 
Department of Special 

Emmon Clarke 

Untitled, 1960s, gelatii 

La Ra^a, vol. I, no. 7, 1969. 
Lent by the UCLA Chicano 
Studies Research Center 


Salvador Roberto Torres 

Viva La Raza, 1969, oil on 

identity. Many Chicano artists aspired to assert 
their cultural and ethnic identity in the face of 
neglect, indifference, and denigration. Some 
even sought, perhaps somewhat romantically, to 
reclaim the culture's roots in Aztlan — the Aztec 
homeland, which some Chicanos believe is found 
in the annexed Mexican territories of the south- 
western United States, and which became the 
name of the movement's new Chicano nation." 
Numerous Chicano arts organizations emerged 
during this period: Plaza de la Raza, a community- 
based gallery and art center opened in Los Angeles 
in 1969; La Raza Graphic Center, a workshop for 
graphic artists, opened in San Francisco in 1971; 
and Self-Help Graphics and Art, a similar work- 
shop and training ground for young artists, 
opened in Los Angeles in 1972. 

In 1974 in Venice, Judith Baca founded the 
Social and Public Art Resource Center (sparc), 
whose mission was to produce and preserve 
murals by Chicano artists throughout Southern 
California. Baca, a muralist herself, directed the 
monumental mural project The Great Wall of 
Los Angeles, painted on some 400 feet of concrete 
retaining wall along the Tujunga Wash Drainage 
Canal in the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles 
County. The Great Wall historicizes an eclectic 
panoply of Los Angeles events and peoples, 
including many marginalized groups. 

Another major mural project resulted 
from community opposition in "Barrio Logan," 
a once-Anglo suburb of San Diego officially called 
Logan Heights. In the mid-1960s freeway con- 
struction cut through the center of the predomi- 
nantly Chicano neighborhood. When plans were 
announced in April 1970 to build a Highway 
Patrol headquarters beneath a massive interchange, 
residents occupied the site in protest for twelve 
days, cleaning it up and planting trees. Ultimately 
the city abandoned its proposal, and Chicano Park 
was created instead. By 1973 community action 

embargo has enormous Impact in California, where more | 

than in any other state. > In the Imperial Valley, Sacramento, and V/ashlngton, D. C. , the United Farm Workers union launches an antipestii 

Victor Ochoa et al. 

Photo documentation of 
Chicano Park murals, 
Son Diego, 1973-present 
(scale reconstruction in 

Judith Baca/Social and 
Public Art Resource Center 

The Great Wall of Los Angeles 
(detail), 1976-83, mural, 
Tujunga Wash, San Fernando 

groups had organized a program, later supervised 
by the Chicano Park Steering Committee, in 
which both well-known and lesser-established 
artists throughout California were invited to paint 
murals on the concrete pilings of the interchange. 
The project is ongoing. The murals depict reli- 
gious subjects such as Our Lady of Guadalupe, 
episodes of Chicano social and political history, 
themes of community identity, and Aztec-inspired 
images.^^ Both the Sparc and Chicano Park 
murals position themselves in the populist tradi- 
tion of the monumental, polemical muralism of 
Jose Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera, and David 
Alfaro Siqueiros, whose legacy of visiting and 
working in California proffered spiritual mentor- 
ship to a new generation of Chicano muralists. 

Chicano artist collectives developed as well. 
In Los Angeles, Los Four was a loose confederation 
of Carlos Almaraz, Roberto (Beto) de la Rocha, 

Frank Romero, and Gilbert Sanchez Lujan, who 
were unified in their energetic gestural painting, 
their bold palette, and most of all in their focus 
on the sights, rhythms, and pace of Chicano 
Los Angeles. They showed together off and on as 
a group over a ten-year period, but they are best 
remembered for an exhibition titled Los Four 
(1973-74) that was organized at the University of 
California, Irvine, and subsequently seen at the 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art (lacma), 
where it became known as the first exhibition 
of Chicano artists at a major museum. 

At least officially. Two years earlier, in 
December of 1972, Asco, another loosely formed 
L.A. artists' group, spray-painted the names of 
three of its members on the entrances to lacma, 
protesting a principal curator's stated lack of 
interest in Chicano art. Though the museum 
painted over the graffiti the same day, Asco envi- 
sioned their action as a performance/guerrilla 
theater/conceptual activity and thus cheekily 

iampaiqn > 19 74 > J. Paul Gefty Museum, in Malibu, opens to the publi 

19 75 > Norton Simon Museum, formerly the Pasadena firt Museum, opens. > fit age 36, Jerry Brown becomes governor of 

Los Four: Almaraz/de la 
Rocha / Lujan / Romero , 
exhibition catalogue, 
UC Irvine and LACMA, 1973-74, 
design by Frank Romero 

Asco (Harry Gamboajr., 
Gronk, Willie Herron, and 
Patssi Valdez) 

Instant Mural. 1974, stills 
from videotape of Super 8 film 
of performance 

Asco (Harry Gamboa Jr. , 
Gronk, Willie Herron, and 
Patssi Valdez) 

Spray Paint iACMA, 1972, 
photo documentation of 
guerrilla art action 

laid claim to the first Chicano art exhibition at 
the museum. Asco operated more or less within 
the Chicano movement, but as the enfant terrible 
of the family. The four members of Asco — 
writer Harry Gamboa Jr., painters Patssi Valdez 
and Gronk, and muralist Willie Herron, all of 
whom also did performance art (occasionally 
joined by Humberto Sandoval and others who 
drifted in and out of Asco's activities) — in many 
ways stood against traditionalism and conformity 
to the received culture of Chicanismo." They 
satirized Chicano muralism, for example, with 
Instant Mural, in which Gronk used tape to 
attach Valdez and Sandoval to a wall in East 
Los Angeles. Not surprisingly, Asco (which means 
nausea in Spanish) was regarded ambivalently 
by the Chicano community. 

California. The son of former governor Edmund Ij. "Pat" Brown, he proves to be a champion of women's rights. Brown appoints more than 1,600 women to state office, including Chief Justice Rose Bird, the first worri 

Three issues of El Malcriado, 
the journal of the United Farm 
Workers union, 1966-68. 
Lent by Shifra M. Goldman 

Two issues of The Black 
Panther, the newspaper of 
the Black Panther party, fron 
1969 and 1972. Lent by the 
Southern California Library fc 
Social Studies and Research 

Illustration from the flyer 
Rally against Racism, Mar, 
Repression, San Jose, 1972. 
Lent by the Southern 
California Library for Social 
Studies and Research 

Save Our Sister, 1972, 
poster by Rupert Gorcia. 
Lent by the Center for the 
Study of Political Graphics, 
Los Angeles, California 

Judy Dater 

Ltbby, 1971, gelotin-silver 


a, El Mokriodo (w<) ' -^j'- ■; ;■ 






W V . 

Among the various factions that made 
up the countercultural revolution, many groups 
acknowledged solidarity and worked in sym- 
pathy with one another. The Black Panther, the 
newspaper of the Black Panther party, ran 
cover stories proclaiming solidarity with Native 
Americans and with the United Farm Workers. 
In San Jose in 1972, a rally protesting racism, 
war, and repression was sponsored by a broad 
coalition of twenty-two organizations devoted 
to civil rights, antiwar, and civil liberties issues. 
The flyer announcing the rally featured multiple 
emblems and slogans composed in a single 
drawing. One group, however, literally cut across 
the borders of all revolutionary factions and 
included members of all groups: the women's 

be named to that position. > 1976 > Apple Computers is founded by Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak in Mountain View, California, > 1978 > The Bakke v. University of California decision sets new 

Like the Chicano Causa, the women's art 
movement was as poHtical as it was artistic, and it 
likewise flourished outside of the interests of the 
established art world. Inspired by the civil rights 
movement, the women's movement was partly 
focused on achieving equal opportunity and equal 
representation, in the political arena and the 
annals of history. Feminism also proposed a new 
way of conceiving art and the role of the artist. 
Judy Chicago, former cohort of the Ferus Gallery 
Studs, began the Feminist Art Program, the first 
of its kind in the nation, at Fresno State College 
(now California State University, Fresno) in 1970. 
Her curriculum stressed innovative art forms 
rooted in modes of performance and installation; 
new content expressing feelings, concepts, and 
issues that related particularly to women; and 
appreciation of the forgotten, repressed, or ignored 
history of women in the visual arts. Faith Wilding, 
a student in the program, recounts how Chicago, 
instructing her class to make an art project 

dealing with sexual harassment, provoked a new 
vision of being an artist: 

Never in our previous art educatior) had we been 
asked to make work out of a real life experience, 
much less one so emotionally loaded. With license 
to use any media or form we wanted, we came back 
the next week with poems, scripts, drawings, photos 
and performance ideas . . . By fortuitous accident, 
it seemed, we had stumbled on a way of working: 
using consciousness-raising to elicit content, we 
then worked in any medium or mixture of media- 
including performance, role-playing, conceptual- 
and text-based art, and other nontraditional 
tools— to reveal our hidden histories.'^ 

It would be difficult to imagine a practice of art 
making more contrary in intent to the strict 
formalism and brute materialism of Minimalist 
art then dominant in New York. Once again, 
California's critical mass of art activity coupled 
with its remove from the principal art center in 
the nation facilitated a new direction in art. 

In 1971 Paul Brach, dean of the art school 
at California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) in 
Valencia, hired Chicago to establish and codirect, 
with Miriam Schapiro, another feminist art 

program." The CalArts program, which contin- 
ued through 1975, was largely modeled after 
Fresno's but also included a significant, now- 
legendary public venue. Womanhouse was a 
collaborative, temporary "art environment" 
created by Chicago, Schapiro, and twenty-one of 
their students in a condemned but still imposing 
Hollywood mansion, which was loaned to 
the group by the city of Los Angeles. The project 
took six weeks to create and was open to the 
public from January 30 through February 28, 
1972, garnering considerable national attention. 
Each room of the mansion was the setting for 
an exploration of the cultural identity of 
women — the presumptions, perceptions, and 
expectations that the culture assigns to women. 
Today Womanhouse is deemed more important 
for the example it set than for the specific 
works created there. As feminist art historian 
Arlene Raven points out, "Because the West 
Coast became a model and leader for feminist 
production nationally and internationally, the 
influence of the transitory collaboration at 
Womanhouse has been pervasive and lasting."" 

limits on affirmative action programs. Bakke, a white male who 

sought admission to the medical school of the University of California, Davis, claimed he was passed o^ 

er in favor of minority and women applicar 

b c d 


Judy Chicago 

Judy Chicago Miriam Schapiro Marika Contompasis 

Claire Campbell Park 

Georgia O'Keeffe, Plate "1, 

Menstruation Bathroom Night Shade, 1986, acrylic and Trout MagnoUa Kimono, 1977, 

Cycle, 1977, coiled raffia 

1979, whiteware with china 

fromWomanhouse, a fabric collage on canvas wool yarn, loom knitted 


Collaborative Site-Specific 
Installation, 1972, photo 
documentation of installation 

By the mid-1970s Judy Chicago had 
become a leading advocate in the women's art 
movement. In 1979 Chicago, aided by some 400 
volunteers, exhibited The Dinner Party, a vast 
triangular dining table with thirty-nine place 
settings, each consisting of a unique, highly 
sculptural ceramic plate, a ceramic goblet, and 
an embroidered place mat. Each honored a 
woman in the arts, from Artemisia Gentileschi 
to Georgia O'Keeffe, from Sappho to Virginia 
Woolf Controversial since its debut, championed 
by many but criticized by antifeminists and 
feminists alike on the basis of who was or was 
not included and for its pervasive genital 
imagery, it remains Chicago's magnum opus. 

The paintings of Miriam Schapiro evolved 
during the 1970s from works inspired by some of 
the earliest computer-generated imagery, reflect- 
ing her early interest in technology, to forms and 
materials historically associated with women. 
Schapiro became interested in pattern and purely 

he state supreme 

court upholds Bakke's claim to equal opportunity > Proposition 13 passes in California, rolling back property taxes and thereby defunding governn, 

19 7 9 > Harvey Milk, 

decorative elements in painting at a time when 
such concerns were truly heretical to the prevail- 
ing formalism of the New York art world. Her 
elaborate patterning and sumptuous decoration 
had a superficial formalism about it, but she 
stressed its affinity to "feminine" artistic pursuits, 
such as quilting, embroidery, basketry, pottery, 
fabric painting, and other decorative arts (all tra- 
ditionally ranked "minor" in a hierarchy crowned 
by painting and sculpture). Thus, a work like 
Night Shade, despite its lack of discernible 
"subject matter," has an implicit and pointedly 
feminist content. 

In 1977 Suzanne Lacy and Leslie Labowitz, 
collaborating with dozens of other women, 
staged a multifaceted media event deliberately 
calculated to bring out the television news crews 
and newspaper reporters, which it succeeded in 
doing. Three Weeks in May was a form of street 
theater that utilized performance as "a vehicle 
for establishing an empowering network" and 
brought public attention to violence against 
women.'" A crusade of sorts, it included public 
demonstrations and art performances through- 
out Los Angeles, as well as a large map pinpoint- 
ing the location of all the reported rapes during 
the period, which was displayed at City Hall. 

There was also another, more introspective 
wing of the women's art movement, not inimical 
to the pragmatic political outlook of such exem- 
plars as Chicago, Schapiro, Lacy, and Labowitz 
but complementary to it. Eleanor Antin was a 
New Yorker who relocated to Solana Beach in 
north San Diego County in 1968. Surrounded by 
a beach culture and new individuals and 
lifestyles, she began to consider the interplay 
between self-identity, the immediate world, and 
the larger culture. She came to perceive that 
self-realization is a construct, not unlike a work 
of art, and that she could, to a certain extent, 
re-create her "self" 

an openly gay member of San Francisco's board of supervisors, and Mayor George Moscone are shot to death in City Hall. The assailant, a former police officer, was convicted of murder but sentenced to only 5 ye 

Eleanor Antin 

The King of Solana Beach with 
young Subjects, from The King 
of Solana Beach, 1974-75, 
gelatin-silver print mounted 
on board 

Lynn Hershman 

Roberta Breitmore's 
Construction Chart, 1973, 
chromogenic development 

Antin's first effort at performing another 
identity was to envision her ideal male self — 
a benevolent patriarch, a king. Donning a beard, a 
cape, a pair of leather boots, and a grand chapeau, 
Antin became the King of Solana Beach. In unan- 
nounced performances, Antin walked among her 
subjects (accompanied by documenting photogra- 
pher Phel Steinmetz), bestowing greetings, advice, 
and good wishes. Over the next decade, she 
developed several personae — all idealized represen- 
tations of her imagined selves — whose fictitious 
personal histories became the subject of her art. 

Other women artists also explored the pos- 
sibilities of self-realization through their art. In 
1975 Bay Area conceptual artist Lynn Hershman, 
whose previous work took many forms but had 
usually revolved around concepts of portraiture, 
began a three-year project in which she acted 
out the life of an invented persona." Roberta 
Breitmore was a character "so fully realized that 
we could inspect her resume, bank statements, 
and other personal data, as well as the room she 
lived in."^° The irony of the photographic "map" 
titled Roberta Breitmore's Construction Chart is 
that it suggests that Breitmore is not, after all, 
an idee fixe with a prescribed identity. Rather, 
like all human beings, she is a living personaHty 
whose amorphous identity merits exploration. 

In 1976 Nancy Angelo and Candace 
Compton created a video performance titled 
Nun and Deviant at the Woman's Building in 
Los Angeles. Early in the piece, Angelo declares, 

/ am an artist. . . I am changing, and my work 
is about transformation . . ■ My work is about me 
being whatever I want to be. It is having permission 
to say what I want to say. To be heard, to be 
seen, to be loud. My work is moving away from 
self-obsession, blindness, dumbness, towards self- 
definition, new direction, creation of fresh order. 
[My art] is about expectation and redefinition.'^ 

ter his lawyers successfully argued that his mental capacity was diminished by his junk-food diet (the so-called Twinkle Defense). 

The words are simple, the statement clear 
and direct, yet the ideas reflect a major revolu- 
tion in the ideology of empowerment. Angelo's 
statement reflects the optimistic belief that one 
can and should change, as long as one has the 
insightfulness to do so, and the expectation that 
change is for the better. The work of Antin, 
Hershman, Angelo, Compton, and many others 
embodied the more introspective side of feminist 
practice, getting right down to issues of identity, 
gender, individual potential, and self-realization. 

The drive toward liberation from social 
constraints and empowerment so vibrant in 
California in the 1960s and 1970s catalyzed pro- 
found social and cultural change within and 
beyond the art world. In the face of formidable 
conservative opposition, issues of identity, 
belonging, and full enfranchisement in a free 
society were articulated and proclaimed for an 
entire generation. In the ensuing twenty years, 
much of that ideology would evolve into very 
different cultural concerns and new perceptions 
of American values. The California image 
would continue to influence the national and 
international consciousness of contemporary 
life, and artists would again play a dynamic role 
in that process. 

1 "California: A State of Excitement," riiiic, 
Nov. 7, 1969, 60. 

2 John V\I. Caughey, California: History of n 
Remarkable State, 4th ed. (Englewood (Cliffs, 
N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982), 417. 

3 Andrew Rolle, California: A History, 4th cd. 
(Arlington Heights, 111.: Harlan Davidson, 
1987), 506-7. 

4 See Alaric Valentin, "Billy Al Bengston," 
Long Board magazine, July 1997, 51-58. 

s Laura Meyer, "From Finish Fetish to 
Feminism: Judy Chicago's Dinner Party in 
California Art History," in Sexual Politics: 
Judy Chicago's "Dinner Party" in Feminist 
Art History, ed. Amelia Jones, exh. cat. 
(Los Angeles: ucla at the Armand Hammer 
Museum and Cultural Center in association 
with the University of California Press, 
Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996), 52. 

6 VvTien Back Seat Dodge 38 was exhibited 
at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
in 1966, the County Board of Supervisors 
threatened to close down the museum if the 
work were not removed from the exhibition. 
A compromise was reached allowing gallery 
attendants to open the car door upon 
request, but only when minors were not 

7 Peter Plagens, Sunshine Muse: Art on the 
West Coast, 1945-1970 (1974; reprint, Berkeley 
and Los Angeles: University of California 
Press, 1999), 120. 

8 Rosalind Krauss, "Overcoming the Limits 
of Matter: On Revising Minimalism," in 
Studies in Modern Art, no. 1 (New York: 
Museum of Modern Art, 1991 ), 133. 

9 Turrell's light installations require more 
space than was available to represent him 
properly in this exhibition. It was essential, 
however, to acknowledge his achievement 
in this discussion. 

10 The word hippie had been in use since 
the early 1950s as a synonym for hipster or 
beatnik. During the mid-1960s it took on new 
countercultural connotations. 

11 The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and 
Museum, / Wiint to Take You Higher: The 
Psyclicdclit Em, 1965-1969 (San Francisco: 
Chronicle Books, 1997), 82. 

12 "Chicane Glossary of Terms," in Chicano 
Art: Resistance and Affirmation , 1965-1985, ed. 
Richard Griswold del Castillo, Teresa McKenna, 
and Yvonne Yarbro-Bejarano, exh. cat. 

(Los Angeles: Wight Art Gallery, University 
of California, Los Angeles, 1994), 361. 

13 See Larry R. Ford and Ernst Griffin, 
"Chicano Park: Personalizing an Institutional 
Landscape," Landscape 25, no. 2 (1981): 42-48- 

14 For an excellent discussion of the history 
of Asco, see Harry Gamboa Jr., "In the City 

of Angels, (Chameleons, and Phantoms: 
Asco, a Case Study of Chicano Art in Urban 
Tones (or A.sco Was a Four-Member Word)," 
in Chicano Art: Resistance and Affirmation, 
ed. del Castillo, McKenna, and Yarbro- 
Bejarano, 121-30. 

15 Faith Wilding, "The Feminist Art 
Programs at Fresno and CalArts, 1970-1975," 
in The Power of Feminist Art: The American 
Movement of the 1970s, History and Impact, 
ed. Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard 
(New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994), 34. 

16 California Institute of the Arts was created 
in 1961 through the incorporation of the 

Los Angeles Conservatory of Music (est. 1883) 
and Chouinard Art Institute. Chouinard 
was founded in Los Angeles in 1921 and later 
funded in part by Walt Disney to train 
students in filmmaking and related arts. 

17 Arlene Raven, "Womanhouse," in The 
Power of Feminist Art, ed. Broude and 
Garrard, 50. 

18 Josephine Withers, "Feminist Performance 
Art: Performing, Discovering, Transforming 
Ourselves," in The Power of Feminist Art, ed. 
Broude and Garrard, 171. 

19 Moira Roth, "Toward a History of 
California Performance: Part One," Arts 
Magazine 52 (Feb. 1978): 101. 

20 Withers, "Feminist Performance Art," in 
The Power of Feminist Art, ed. Broude and 
Garrard, 167. 

21 Transcribed by the author from the 









Howard N. Fox 

The countercultural revolutions of the 1960s and 1970s propelled a growing 
national fascination with California. By the 1980s and 1990s, as California's 
social and cultural mix grew ever more diverse, multiple views of the 
state began to emerge. Many of these new images were unlike either the 
white-bread boosterism of Cahfornia's promoters 
or the revolutionary idealism of its youth move- 
ments, and they complicated and unsettled many 
long-standing notions about the Golden State. 
Some of what percolated through the popular 
consciousness indeed perpetuated the idea of 
California as a land of the new and the exotic: 
The advent of the personal computer and its ever 
more breathtaking technologies was centered in 
"Silicon Valley" (in the northwest quarter of 
Santa Clara County, south of San Francisco Bay); 
the Internet was developed in part at ucla and 

other universities in California; "fusion cooking," 
which might cross, say. Thai cuisine with Central 
American ingredients or traditional Japanese 
fare with nouvelle French techniques, began in 
California and quickly became an international 

Even as California's eclecticism and com- 
plexities received greater exposure, however, one 
vision of the state dominated: an almost morbid 
fixation with California's considerable ills and 
woes. By the 1980s tabloid-style television news 
coverage provided round-the-clock sensational- 
ism and had effectively reimaged California. 
Minutes after the Loma Prieta earthquake struck 
on October 17, 1989, the shocking images of 
motorists being rescued from a car teetering on 

David Hockney 

The Merced River, /osemite 
Valley, California, Septembe 
1982, 1982, photo collage 

The original Apple Macintosh 
personal computer, 1984 

Keith Cottingham 

Triplets, from the Fictitious 
Portraits series, 1993, 
dye-coupler print from a 
digitized source 

B 8 > Ronald Reagan is elected president. The former actor has previously served two terms as governor of California and made two prior bids for the Republican presidential nomination. > Silicon Valle' 


M ^^ 

the edge of a collapsed section of the Bay Bridge 
were telecast live by news helicopters over 
San Francisco Bay. Horrific visions of mayhem and 
a city afire were broadcast live from Los Angeles 
via satellite worldwide for several days in April 
1992, when communities throughout the city 
combusted in racial outrage following not-guilty 
verdicts in the criminal case against four white 
policemen accused of beating a black man, 

Rodney King. The astonishing prime-time 
spectacle on June 17, 1994, of police pursuing 
murder suspect O. J. Simpson's white Bronco 
from Orange County to the Simpson estate in 
the Brentwood section of Los Angeles quickly 
spawned a daily TV diet of aerial images of 
high-speed freeway chases, which virtually 
became a local spectator sport. The tabloidized 
California image saturated the national airwaves, 
with pictures of gun-toting schoolboys and 
infant victims of stray bullets in gang-related 
drive-bys and shoot-outs; of El Nino water walls, 
landslides, drought, and catastrophic forest fires, 
some set by arsonists, from Malibu to Monterey, 
of preschool teachers charged with multiple 
child molestation; and of mass suicides in bizarre 
religious cults. The visions of California that the 
world has come to know and believe are all but 
apocalyptic and routinely have made the state 
the butt of late-night TV talk show jokesters. 

Time magazine — not an arbiter in the 
matter but certainly a longtime observer of the 
scene — may serve as a reliable index of the 
changing conception of California in American 
popular culture. In its November 7, 1969, cover 
story, Time colorfully labeled California the 
"state of excitement"; twenty-two years later, on 
its cover of November 18, 1991, it ominously 
brooded about California's "endangered dream"; 
and on April 19, 1993, a year after the cataclysmic 
civil unrest of the Rodney King affair. Time 
gravely asked, "Is the City of Angels Going 
to Hell?" 

Following the riots, "much of what seemed 
modern and alluring about Los Angeles," Time 
opined, "now seems terribly shortsighted and 
ugly . . . Increasingly, the rest of America hopes 
the latest in L.A. trends will stay right where they 
started."' Indeed, the idea of California conjured 
up by the image of Los Angeles had become so 
suspect — so reviled — that Pacific Northwesterners 

by-10-mile strip of land in Northern California, has the greatest concentration of wealth in the United States. This area In Santa Clara County is home to some 1.700 high-tech f.rms engaged ,n mformation technology 

Son Francisco-Oa(<lQnd B( 
Bridge damaged by the 
Loma Pneta earthquake, 
San Francisco, 1989 

Shop owners at the site of a 
building leveled during the 
1992 Los Angeles riots 

The low-speed police pursuit 
of 0. J. Simpson on a Southerr 
ColiforniQ freeway, 1994 

Anthony Hernandez 

'2A, 1989, from the series 
Landscapes for the Homeless, 
silver dye-bleach 
(Cibachrome) print 

John Gilbert Luebtow 

April 29, 1992, 1992, 
glass and steel cable 

Willie Robert Middlebrook 

In His "Own" Image, from th( 
series Portraits of My People, 
1992, sixteen gelatin-silver 

Right does not win out over wrong; God did create man in iiis own image, as long asyou're not Black. 
I came to this conclusion from the first time I heard the verdicts that were handed down in the 
King Case and from watching and listening to how the media covered the aftermath of the verdicts. 


Mediterranean fruif fly— Medfly— infestations are found on crops in Los flngeles and Santa Clara counties. Ground-based programs of fruit stripping and sterile fly release are instituted. > Robert Schuller's Cr/i 

Sharon Lockhart 

Untitled [Ocean], 1996, 
chromogenic development 

Intoe Kim 

Death Valley, Sunrise, Sand 
Dune, 1989, printed 1994, 
geiatm-siiver print 

Margaret Honda 

Perennial, 1996, fresh 
chrysanthemums, stainless 

had taken to actively shunning the influx of 
Californians seeking weekend and vacation 
homesteads. A popular bumper sticker summed 
up the Oregonian attitude toward a botched 
California that they, and many other Americans, 
feared: Don't Californicate Oregon. 

Clearly, mythologies were changing and 
dropping away, and the original myth of 
California as a natural paradise was among the 
first to fall. Many of the state's grand expanses 
of pristine wilderness became casualties of their 
own allure, and the national parks were trans- 
formed into denaturalized theme parks. There 
was so much contention about the invasion of 
automobiles, recreational vehicles, motorcycles, 
motorboats, and even airplanes into the wilds 
that conservationist groups like the Sierra Club 
lobbied — often successfully, as in the case of sev- 
eral national parks — to limit visitors to relatively 
small tourist zones, while true wilderness areas 
were virtually sealed off to all but the most 
intrepid backpackers. Such measures segregated 
humans from the wilds and limited access to 
the selfsame locales where previously people had 
been encouraged to commingle with nature. 
In a stunning reversal of fortune over the cen- 
tury, the California landscape now had to be 
isolated in truly remote areas to save it. 

The displacement of nature had repercus- 
sions in the visual arts. Fewer artists than ever 
before trained their primary attention on the 
natural world. Those who did, generally operated 

hedral, entirely sheathed in mirrored glass, opens in Garden Grove. > 1 9 8 1 > San Diego Trolley opens the first light rail line to the U.S. -Mexico border, making casual trips to Mexico more convenient. 

Kris Dey 


Sam Maloof 

Ancho II. 1991 

, pair 


Evening, 1995, London plone 

Rocking Chair, 1997, cherry 

cotton strips 

tree, doweled 

wood and ebony 

apart from of nature, as does Los Angeles-based 
Margaret Honda, who has sequestered a bit of 
nature inside her studio. A main focus of Honda's 
ongoing project is the study of the life cycles of a 
box tortoise inside an elaborate terrarium that 
she constructed. Related to this project is her 
ironically titled installation Perennial, in which 
hundreds of freshly cut chrysanthemums gradu- 
ally decay in a shallow container of water that 
resembles a giant petri dish. A faint sadness under- 
lies Honda's contemplative art, which preserves 
life while accepting mortality. Nature also comes 
indoors in Gyongy Laky's Evening, a construction 
of slender tree branches that resembles an open- 
worked vessel, and in Sam Maloof 's cherry wood 
Rocking Chair. But artists who represent nature 
in such benign ways are in the minority. 

Even David Hockney (hardly a pessimist, 
rather more of a booster) often depicts the 
California landscape as distorted and fragmented. 
His Merced River, Yosemite Valley, California, 
September 1982, is composed of multiple photo- 
graphs pieced together to form a single view. 
Whether photographing the sprawl of Los Angeles, 
the scruffiness of the Mojave Desert, or the 

19 8 2 > Following the success of her aerobics studio in Beverly Hills, actress and activist Jane Fonda releases a popular exercise video that moves the new fitness movement into the mainstream > 

splendors of the Yosemite Valley, he seems to 
treat the California landscape as if it had been 
shattered and needed to be put back together. 

In most artistic representations of the last 
twenty years, humans and nature appear roiled 
in a stormy divorce. Throughout the 1980s and 
1990s, as commercial development displaced 
natural habitats and pushed the wilderness ever 
farther away; as environmental mismanagement 
was more apparent; and as California's man- 
made and natural disasters became the televised 
erotica of popular culture, the relationship of 
man to nature grew increasingly inimical if not 
outright adversarial. With a few notable excep- 
tions (such as the 1980 volcanic explosion of 
Mount St. Helens in Washington State and the 
ravaging of Florida and Louisiana by Hurricane 
Andrew in 1992) there was no finer theater of 
cruelty between man and nature than California. 
Like the media and its audience, artists were 
transfixed by the forces that traumatized humans 
and their habitats up and down the state. 

Los flngeles has lost 75^ of Its automobile, tire, steel, and civilian aircraft Industries In the previous five years. > 19 84 > The summer games of the K«lii Olympiad are held In Los Rngeles 

Joel Sternfeld 

After a Flash Flood, Rancho 
Mirage, California. 1979, 
chromogenic development 

Richard Misrach 

T. V. Antenna, Saltan Sea, 
California, 1985, printed 1996, 
dye-coupler print 

Poster for the film Volcano, 

Joe Deal 

Colton, California, from tl 
portfolio The fault Zone, 
1981, gelatin-silver print 

Exemplary of that ghoulish fascination 
is Joel Sternfeld s photograph After a Flash 
Flood, Rancho Mirage, California. It presents the 
grisly image of a massive heap of compostlike 
debris vomited up into an idyllic suburban 
backyard. The even more stealthy menace of 
seismic upheaval lurks underground in vast 
regions of California, atop which lie some of 
the most densely populated areas of the nation. 
Joe Deal's Colton, California (from the portfolio 
The Fault Zone), depicts an especially rugged 
landscape. Giant boulders loom high above the 
piteously vulnerable houses below. To any sea- 
soned observer the situation portends inevitable, 
if not imminent, disaster. 

Hollywood films followed the news media 
in playing up the theme of nature's vengeance 
against Californians' monumental hubris. 
Volcano {1997) is an update of sensational disas- 
ter films of the 1970s such as Earthquake (1974) 
but with a twist: The La Brea Tar Pits become 

the escape valve for a massive underground 
ocean of boiling magma that erupts, taking with 
it the adjacent Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art and the nearby Beverly Center, an upscale 
shopping mall. In the nature-as-monster films 
Tremors (1990) and its sequel Tremors 2: 
Aftershocks (1996), prehistoric killer worms, 
which are endowed with razor-sharp teeth and 
have been trapped underground for eons, are 
disinterred in an earthquake and go on a feeding 
frenzy for their favorite food, human flesh. 

19 8 5 > Richard Ramirez, a serial rapist and murderer known as the Night Staike 

ifies Southern California. By the time he is captured 13 people are dead. Upon receiving a death sentence Ramirez says. 

Mike Davis's Ecology of Fear: 

Faith Ringgold 

William Leavitt 

Los Angeles and the 

Double Dutch on the Golden 

Untitled, 1990, 

Imagination of Disaster, 

Gate Bridge, 1988, acrylic on 


1998. cover illustrotion by 

canvas, printed, dyed, and 

James Doolin 

pieced fabric 

Mark Klett Sandow Birk 

San Francisco Panorama after Bombardment of Fort Point 

Muybridge (detail), 1990, 1996, oil and acrylic on 

thirteen gelatin-silver prints canvas 


Catherine Wagner 

Arch Construction IV, George 
Moscone Site, San Francisco, 
California, 1981, gelatin- 





It was not only artists and popular culture 
that reimaged California. In his book Ecology 
of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of 
Disaster (1998), historian Mike Davis debunks 
the abundance myth of Southern California as a 
land of sunshine and oranges with a backyard 
for all. Davis replaces that fancy with his vision 
of a land — largely defined as the Los Angeles 
megalopolis — of pervasive natural perils and 
apocalyptic natural disasters, criminally negligent 
overdevelopment, and sociocuhural dysfunction 
rooted in pandemic racism and ethnic mistrust 
of the Other. Whither went Gidget? On the 
same turf where bands like the Beach Boys 
sunnily rhapsodized about an endless summer, 
Davis pronounces that "no other city seems to 
excite such dark rapture."^ 

Examining the urban disaster genre in a 
century's worth of popular literature and enter- 
tainment, Davis asserts that the destruction 
of London (fictionally the most persecuted city 
from 1885 to 1940, after which it was supplanted 
in literature and film by Los Angeles) was imag- 
ined as "equivalent to the death of Western 
civilization itself," whereas "the obliteration of 
Los Angeles, by contrast, is often depicted as, 
or at least secretly experienced as, a victory for 

civilization."' By way of evidence Davis observes 
that in the movie Independence Day (1996), the 
"devastation wreaked by aliens is represented 
first as tragedy (New York) and then as farce 
(Los Angeles) . . . [with] a comic undertone of 
'good riddance.'"" The "aliens" Davis refers to 
here are from outer space, but in his analysis, 
the "abiding hysteria of the Los Angeles disaster 
fiction ... is rooted in racial anxiety," and the 
"secret meaning" of the invasion of space aliens 
is a barely concealed "racial hysteria . . . typically 
expressed as fear of invading hordes (variously 
yellow, brown, black, red, or their extra-terrestrial 

No less remarkable than the role reversal 
ascribed to nature was a dramatically revised 
perception of human habitats. California's cities, 
which earlier in the century had been touted 
nationally to prospective residents as nestled in 
the bosom of an easy and nurturing Mother 
Nature, might now be accused of attempted 
matricide. In San Francisco Panorama, for 
example, photographer Mark Klett takes a 
second look at the city as depicted by Eadweard 
Muybridge in a famous panoramic photograph 
of 1878 by setting up his own camera in the same 
spot atop Nob Hill in 1990. Where Muybridge 
captured the image of a bustling city still in the 
process of taking root in a majestic natural 
setting, Klett records a metropolis covered by 
mile after mile of urban clutter and masses of 
nondescript high-rise buildings, all vying to 
block out whatever remains of the natural vistas. 

In California's sprawling urban centers, 
especially those in the south, where most people 
live, the demographic patterns suggest less a 
place of domesticity than something closer to 
nomadism. Boosters of Los Angeles today 
proudly proclaim its "multiculturalism": In 1998, 
for example, the Los Angeles Convention and 
Visitors Bureau distributed a glossy booklet 

featuring a series of "cultural itineraries" focusing 
on African American, gay/lesbian, Jewish, Latino, 
and Asian cultures and neighborhoods.' For all 
its diversity and long history of ethnic and 
cultural overlap, however, Los Angeles is one 
of the most segregated cities in the world. No 
melting pot, greater Los Angeles is regularly 
balkanized and rebalkanized into a myriad of 
shifting enclaves based on race, nationality, and 
ethnic identity. Population groups pull up roots 
and seemingly go out of their way to avoid one 
another throughout the Southland. 

1 Disneyland." > 19 8 6 > The Immigration Reform and Control Act passes despite prominent opposition. The act brings sanctions against employers who knowingly hire undocumented Mexican workers > 

The pornography industry, based in the suburban San Fernando Valley, comes under scrutiny when it is reported that Traci lords, one of the main stars, has made most of her films while a minor. > Museum 

Judy Fiskin 

Ron Corbin 

Manuel Ocampo 

Chris Burden 

Untitled '195, 1982, 

from the 

Untitled. 1990, printed 1994, 

Untitled (Ethnic Map of 

L.A.P.D. Uniform, 1993, 

Dingbat series, gelat 


gelatin-silver print 

Los Angeles), 1987, acrylic on 

thirty uniforms and thirty 



Beretta handguns, wools 
wood, and metal 



tgaiKi.. i^*^ ^ ^ ^ 

'" •^- --' ',,,'- III- iirraiiir ^ 

Watts, for example, home to an almost 
entirely black populace in the 1960s, became by 
the mid-1990s predominantly Mexican American. 
Little Tokyo, which sits just south of City Hall in 
downtown Los Angeles, is currently home to an 
elderly and dwindling population of Japanese 
Americans who have little engagement with the 
nearby "colonies" of artists who began reclaiming 
and inhabiting factory and loft buildings in the 
1970s. Since the early 1980s a huge population 
of Taiwanese and mainland Chinese has gathered 
in Monterey Park and Alhambra, suburbs that 
when heavily developed in the 1940s and the 
postwar period were largely Anglo. In 1984 the 
community of West Hollywood incorporated as a 
separate city, nearly one-third of whose citizens 
were gay men. Beginning in the mid-1980s a 
major influx of relatively affluent South Koreans 
settled in the Mid-Wilshire district, establishing a 
thriving middle-class economy. One result has 
been the displacement of a sizable community 
of Central Americans, many of whom have 
moved to the eastern fringe of Hollywood, where 
the great majority of the resident Armenian 
community made room for them by relocating 
to suburban Glendale. 

Although such demographic shifts cannot 
always be predicted, the familiar pattern of 
whole neighborhoods moving on as people of 
other backgrounds replace them is a historical 
commonplace in many American cities. "White 
flight" from city to suburb goes back at least to 
the 1950s all over the country, but it is played 
out in epic proportion in Southern California, 
where the flight is not just "white." As if to 
prove Mike Davis's theory of racial hysteria, 
everybody seems to want to move away from 
everybody else. 

This behavior and all its concomitant ten- 
sions, animosities, and suspicions is addressed 
head-on by Philippine-born California artist 

ontemporary Art opens on Bunker Hill, ,n downtown Los flngeles; MOCfl's Temporary Contemporary space had been inaugurated in little Tokyo in late 1983. LflCMfl opens Robert Hnderson building for modern and 


Manuel Ocampo in his Untitled (Ethnic Map of 
Los Angeles). A sardonic parody of a page from 
the Thomas Guide — the spiral-bound street atlas 
that can be found in practically every operable 
car in Southern California — the painting resem- 
bles a crude map of a war zone, carving the 
city into occupied sectors. Ocampo labels the 
territories and ironically casts shameful epithets 
on all the wrangling factions: "dykes " "kikes," 
"niggers," "beaners," "fags," "chinks," "nips," and 
so on. Equally disconcerting, though oddly 
more lighthearted in its cartoonlike style, is 
Frank Romero's Freeway Wars, which depicts 
the occupants of two automobiles careening 
down a freeway engaged in a gunfight. One won- 
ders what kind of peacekeeping force would be 
needed in such a beleaguered city. Perhaps it is 
represented by Chris Burden's L.A.P.D. Uniform, 
a vast installation that confronts the viewer 
with an intimidating gauntlet of thirty police 
uniforms, each a grotesquely authoritarian 


jontemporary art. > 1988 > flutry Museum of Western Heritage and Museum of Jurassic Technology open in Los flngeles, > San Diego County razes a Mexican migrant workers camp called Green Valif 

'igil is held to dramatize ttie plight of homeless Mexican migrants. > 19 8 9 > B^ywatch first airs on NBC. its combination of lifeguards, beautiful women, and drama on the beact) eventually re«ct)e$ 

Cliaz Bojorquez 

Los Avenues, 1987, serigraph 

Graffiti, East Los Angeles, 

Homies action figures, 
created by David Gonzales 

Carlox Almaraz 

Suburban Nightmare, 1983, 
oil on canvas 

seven and a half feet tall, complete with a Beretta 
handgun and a badge giving license to use it. 

Actually labeling, or tagging, entire regions 
of Los Angeles as war zones, graffiti scrawled 
by gang youths became as much a part of the 
cityscape as the buildings it was written on. 
Although it was mosdy Puerto Rican taggers in 
New York City who, to much fame and infamy, 
turned subway cars into the venue of choice 
during the 1970s, it has been documented that 
the graffiti tradition in the United States took 
root decades earlier in the Mexican American 
neighborhoods of Los Angeles.' Chaz Bojorquez, 
a Los Angeles-based artist and former tagger, 
uses the brush-painted calligraphic rhythms and 
terse gestures of old-time graffiti (from the days 
before quick spray-painting) as a basic element in 
his art. His serigraph Los Avenues, in which a 
death's-head cockily sports a fedora and floats on 
a sea of graffiti, captures the vital energy and 
deadly force that looms in the avenues and alleys 
of the barrios. 

This is not to say that the portrayal of 
gang life was entirely bleak: a wise, winking 
humor brought California and the nation 
"Homies" (home boys — neighborhood boys or, 
more specifically, gang members). These tiny 
action figures, clad head to toe in the regalia of 
knitted caps, bandanas, T-shirts, and baggy 
pants, were sold in gumball machines. Their 
creator, David Gonzales, maintains that Homies 
are simply caricatures of real people from the 
barrios, such as the one where he grew up near 
San Jose.' Los Angeles police detectives, however, 
tried to dissuade vendors from selling the 
figurines, claiming that they glamorized violent 
gang culture, and some members of the Latino 
community agreed that the dolls perpetuated 
negative stereotypes.' 

Not only cities seemed unsettled in 
California. The tidy ideals of the middle-class 

white suburb — homogeneity, quiescence, pros- 
perity — were challenged too. There is a long 
tradition of satirizing American suburbia.'" 
In California, however, shifts in demographics 
actually altered the complexion and the concord 
of daily life in the suburbs and led to a changed 
image. This new conception was reflected in 
artistic representations of the suburban dream. 
This is nowhere more hauntingly repre- 
sented than in Suburban Nightmarehy Carlos 
Almaraz, a member of Los Four in the 1970s. The 
painting depicts a row of three identical tract 
houses, each with an identical car parked in front. 
The middle house is being consumed by a fire, 
its flames lighting up the sky in a cataclysmic 
rage of color. Although it is possible to interpret 
the painting at face value, as a captivating picture 
of a burning house, it can also be thought of 

an audience of 1 billion in over 140 countries. > The 6.9 magnitude Loma Prieta earthquake hits Santa Cruz and reverberates outward. San Francisco's Bay Bridge is damaged and the Nirnitz freeway collapses 

Todd Gray Enrique Chagoya Tseng Kwong Chi 

Goofy (Body) '6, 1993, hand- Mhen Paradise Arrived, 1988, Disneyland, California, 1979, 

varnished gelatin-silver print, charcoal and pastel on paper gelatin-silver print 
installed with metal bands 

metaphorically, as the destruction of the (white) 
American Dream by forces beyond control. 
Almaraz's painting does not represent a changed 
neighborhood so much as the vulnerability of a 
treasured cultural icon. 

In California's climate of social and 
cultural contentiousness, even Disneyland and 
Disney cartoon characters, once emblems of 
innocence, could take on sinister new overtones. 
In Goofy (Body) #6, a black-and-white photo- 
graphic manipulation by Todd Gray, Disney's 
lovable hound is transformed into a looming 
human-size phantom, immediately familiar but 
eerily estranged. In a comparably large drawing, 
Enrique Chagoya depicts a young Latina about 
to be flicked off the face of the earth (or at least 
out of the picture plane) by a giant gloved hand 
instantly recognizable as that of Mickey Mouse. 
The wry title. When Paradise Arrived, alludes to 
the imperiousness of corporate American culture 
and its alleged disregard for minorities and 
indigenous peoples. 

For that matter, indigenous cultures have 
not eluded ironic role reversals either. Native 
American tribes, for example, have established 
Las Vegas-style gambling casinos on reservations, 
land set aside for the preservation of tribal cul- 
tures. As essayist Richard Rodriguez has noted, 
"The part of me that I will always name Western 
first thrilled at the West in Vista Vision at the 
Alhambra Theater in Sacramento, in those last 
years before the Alhambra was torn down for a 
Safeway. In the kool summer dark, I took the 
cowboy's side. The odds have shifted. All over the 
West today Indians have opened casinos where 
the white man might test the odds."" While 
Indian gaming provides considerable revenue for 
reservations and arguably may result in tribal 
self-sufficiency and cultural stability, modern 
casinos are surely not authentic to traditional 
tribal cultures or identity. If the example of 

people are killed and property damage surpasses ?6,4 billion, making this the costliest earthquake in U.S. history and one of the country's worst natural disasters. > 1990 > In this year, almost half of all 

California's indigenous tribes adopting the style 
of Las Vegas is any indication, it appears that the 
proud celebrations of racial, ethnic, and cultural 
identity that once so deeply motivated a spectrum 
of countercultural revolutionary ideals in the 
1960s and 1970s no longer inspire such unalloyed 
identification with the happenstance of race, 
ancestry, place of origin, or received traditions. 
Following the empowerment struggles of 
the 1960s and 1970s, a wholesale reexamination 
of the determinants of individual identity — an 
array of issues often called "identity politics" — 
became a compelling topic of national discussion 
in cultural and political life in the United States 
in the 1980s and 1990s. In its early phases at 
least, much of this discourse was scripted within 
the University of California system. Countless 
young Americans were asking what it meant to 
be a woman, a Latino, an African American, a 
Native American, a Jew, a homosexual. The explo- 
rations that emerged are hardly unique to art in 
California, but once again, the state's artists were 
in the forefront of defining the issues and chart- 
ing the trajectory of a national and international 
direction in visual art. 

immigrants to the United States name California as their intended residence > Hundreds of protesters in San Ysidro "Light Up the Be 

' with car headlights to decry the US. government's inability to stop ill ,1 

David Levinthal 

Untitled "3, from the Barbie 
series, 1997-98, dye-diffusion 
transfer (Polaroid) print 

John Humble 

Selma Avenue at Vine Street, 
Hollywood, January 25, 1991, 
1991, printed 1995, 
chromogenic development 

Tim Hawkinson and 
Issey Miyake 

jumpsuit, from Pleats Please 
Guest Artist Series No. 3, 
1998, polyester 

Playboy magazine, June 
Baywatch special issue 

Robert Williams 

California Girl, 1985, 
on imitation brick 

Identity starts with the body: Nothing 
could be more universal or personal. Any discus- 
sion of the determinants of self-identity must 
necessarily address the body, and a correlative of 
identity politics was the emergence of corporeal- 
ity as a central issue in the arts in the 1980s and 
1990s. In addition to the philosophical basis of 
that inquiry, the aids crisis (which dispropor- 
tionately affected the art world) came to the 
fore in the 1980s and further fostered the frank 
investigation of the body as subject. 

California was fertile territory for the 
theme of the body in the visual arts. Hollywood 
and the fashion industry had long promulgated 
popular ideals of the human form, particularly 
the female physique, as a matter of worldwide 
commerce. Body type is equivalent to currency in 

ligration from Mexico. Counterprofesters hold up mirrors, turning the headlight glare back onto the organizers. > Pete Wilson, the first Republican governor from San Diego, is elected. > flrmand Hammer Museum 





these industries, and certain parts of Los Angeles — 
Hollywood, the Sunset Strip, West Hollywood — 
are wallpapered with fashion billboards showing 
scantily clad youthful models. The situation is 
so extreme that it is nearly self-parodying. 
While not fashion advertisements, a series of 
billboards featuring the curvaceous Angelyne, a 
"professional celebrity" who hires herself out to 
attend swank Tinseltown parties, was ubiquitous 
throughout Los Angeles in the 1980s and 1990s. 
One of these ads appears in John Humble's 
photograph Selma Avenue at Vine Street, 
Hollywood, January 23, 1991. Angelyne is not a 
performer, rather she is a "presence," which 
she advertises by cruising the Sunset Strip in a 
pink Corvette and by renting billboards bearing 
her voluptuous image. Like Mae West in the 
1930s, sexpot Angelyne is virtually a female 
impersonator and functions as a sort of inverted 
cultural icon. 

The conventionally idealized California 
body — healthy, suntanned, and gorgeous — had 
long been a worldwide export through Hollywood 
films and television and may have attained its 
apotheosis in the television series Baywatch. 
Beginning in 1989, Baywatch related the heroic 
exploits and romantic escapades of a squad of 
lifeguards on the beach in Southern California 
(transplanted ten years later to Hawaii). It is 
widely acknowledged that the show appealed 
less for its formulaic story lines than for the 
bevy of almost perfectly formed, mostly Anglo, 

California girls and guys who appeared in highly 
revealing beachwear cavorting through their 
weekly adventures. But at the same time that 
Baywatch prevailed as the most popular television 
series ever (with 1 billion viewers and distribu- 
tion in 140 countries), many artists in California 
(and around the world) were deahng with more 
normal bodies — bodies that didn't conform to 
the California ideal: Bodies that are, for example, 
differently colored or proportioned; that might 
be "imperfect" or abnormal to begin with; that 
are subject to psychological insult and physical 
injury; that grow old; that become diseased; 
that die. 

Laura Aguilar's Nature #7 Self-Portrait 
shows the artist from the back sitting nude on 
the desert floor. Her rounded, hulking form is 
visually echoed in the shape of the rocks that 
surround her. One of the few artists of the period 
to assert an identity in tune with nature, she 
presents herself as a kind of timeless earth 
mother. Aguilar intended this work as an homage 

opens in Wesfwood. > Numerous demonstrations and public disruptions mark the Sixth International AIDS Conference in San Franc 

as the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (flCT-UP) gains visibility, > 

Laura Aguilar Robin Lasser and 

Nature "7 Self-Portrait, 1996, Kathryn Silva 

gelatin-silver print Extra Lean, 1998, ii 

Enrique Martinez Celaya 

Catherine Opie 

Georganne Deen 

Liz young 

Map, 1998, oil on fabric over 

Setf-Portrait, 1993, 

Mary's Lane: Family Room, 

The Birth/Death Chair with 


chromogenic development 

1993, oil on linen 

Rawhide Shoes, Bones, and 

(Ektacolor) print 

Organs, 1993, choir, rawhid 
shoes, and cast iron, bronze 
and lead 

to Northern California portrait photographer 
Judy Dater, whose sitters express a diversity of 
sexual orientations and lifestyles. Catherine Opie 
likewise explores the body and aspects of sexual 
identity. To create her arresting and wrenching 
photograph Self-Portrait, Opie had a friend carve 
an image into her (Opie's) back with a scalpel. 
The resulting picture (which resembles a child's 
drawing, except that the medium is blood 
seeping from Opie's cut skin) depicts two girls 
standing in front of a house. The photograph 
of this act of scarification documents a physical 
injury and evokes a deep psychological pain. Opie, 
a lesbian who was practicing sadomasochism 
during the time the photograph was made, 
recently commented that making the work was 
partly a private gesture of reconciliation with 
herself and partly a public gesture toward social 

The body is a frequently recurring theme 
in the work of performance artist and sculptor 
Liz Young. In The Birth/Death Chair with 
Rawhide Shoes, Bones, and Organs, Young's chair 
looks like a traditional birthing chair, yet its 
straps and braces also suggest an instrument of 
confinement in which one might be tortured, 
or worse. On the floor near the chair are metal 
castings shaped like kidneys, lungs, spleen, liver, 
and heart, an ensemble of human viscera linked 
along a spine of heavy chain. A pair of rough 
leather shoes at the foot of the chair evokes the 
presence of an invisible sitter. It is not necessary 
to know a central fact of the artist's life — that she 
has been wheelchair-bound since the age of 
eighteen, when she was paralyzed from the waist 
down in an automobile accident — to perceive the 
suggestion of a body constrained by circum- 
stance and fate. 

malls, two-story L-shaped corner buildings, reacti 2000 in number. These mini-malls, widely popular in Los flngeles, are known for their extraordinary cultural diversity and serve as business and community centers. > 

19 91 > Boy! N the Hood, the first film by African American director John Singleton, is widely praised for its honest look at violence and gang life as facts of growing up in South Central Los Angeles. > 

Rachel Lachowicz 

Sarah '3, 1994, lipstick and 

Alexis Smith 

Madame X, 1982, 

Super Sister, 1999, polyeste 
resin and glass beads 

Gaza Bowen 

The American Dream, 1990, 
neoprene, sponge, clothespins, 
found objects, plywood, press- 
board, and kidskin 

Amelia Mesa-Bains 

Venus Envy: Chapter One 
(or The First Holy Communion 
Moments before the End), 
1993, vanity table, chair, 
mirror, and mixed media 


Erika Rothenberg 

America's Joyous Future, 1990, 
Plexiglas and aluminum 
display case with plastic 

s fires kill 25 people and gut 1,800 homes In one of the worst urban firestorms of the century. > 19 9 2 > Riots erupt in Los flngeles on April 29, after the acquittal of four police officers accused of brutally 

beating motorist Rodney King, leaving 51 dead, 2,116 injured, 6,345 arrested, and 3,767 structures burned. 

and Diane Feinstein are elected U.S. 

the first time two women repress 

Closely related to art dealing with the body 
is art dealing with aids. Lari Pittman is one of 
the foremost American painters to explore issues 
relating to a gay lifestyle and sexual identity. His 
Spiritual and Needy is from a series that reflects 
his discontent with gay promiscuity, with straight 
responses to the aids crisis, and with what he 
views as a general profligacy and excessiveness in 
aspects of American life. The dominant image is 
an outrageously and exquisitely decorative ren- 
dering of an inflamed anus awaiting lubrication 
from a pitcher of oil. The dominant motif is fever: 
a thermometer glows ruby red; a fire roars in a 
fireplace; flames and heat radiate everywhere. The 
work is suffused with too much passion, too much 
anger, too much need, too much of "too much." 
For his part, Masami Teraoka brought some levity 
to his commentary on the aids crisis in Geisha 
and AIDS Nightmare, but his cross-cultural art 
(combining contemporary content with tradi- 
tional Japanese style) serves as a reminder that 
aids is not restricted to persons of one particular 
sexual orientation, race, or nationality — a lesson 
well learned by California and the nation when 
Los Angeles Lakers basketball hero Earvin "Magic" 



> Japanese flmehcan National Museum opens In Little Tokyo, Los flngeles. > 199 3 > Museum of Tolerance opens in Los flngeles at the Simon WIesentttal Center for Holocaust Studies 

Masoml Teraoka 

Albert J. Winn 

AIDS awareness mar 

Geisha and AIDS Nightmare, 

Akedah, 1995, gelatm-silver 

San Francisco, 1987 

1990, WQtercolor on paper 


Lari Pittman John Sonsini 

Spiritual and Needy, 1991-92, Mad Dog "Andreas" Maines, 

acrylic and enamel on wood 1995, oil on canvas 

Mike Kelley 

Frankenstein, 1989, found 
stuffed animals and basket 

Johnson announced that he was infected with 
the HIV virus. 

MortaHty as the final consequence of being 
born and Hving a Hfetime in one's body is an 
idea that pervades the work of Mike Kelley. 
His Frankenstein, an assemblage made of thrift 
store plush toys, expresses the artist's occasional 
preoccupation with corporeality as well as an 
attitude (true to his Catholic background) 
implicit in much of his work from the period 
that humans are born imperfect, as if fallen from 
an ideal. For Kelley, the body is the basis of iden- 
tity. Like Frankenstein's creation, all humans are 
botched from the outset, at once laughable and 
pitiable, even monstrous. 

studios opens CityWalk, a retail promenade designed by Jon Jerde. > 19 94 > fl 6.8 magnitude earthquake centered in Northrldge kills 57 and causes over ?10 billion In property damage. > Nicole Brown : 

Robert Arneson 

California Artist, 1982, 
stoneware, glazed 

Viola Frey 

He Man, 1983, 

Issues of identity, then, are indivisible 
from the body, a circumstance that readily fosters 
stereotyping. The word stereotype is defined as 
"a simplified and standardized conception or 
image invested with special meaning and held in 
common by members of a group."" The concept 
is clear, but the notion of "special meaning" is 
fraught with ambiguity. To whom is the meaning 
special? To the observer or to the observed? 
Who is defining whose identity and through 
what insight? That gray zone has been the locus 
of numerous artistic explorations — some playful, 
others full of misgiving — into identity issues in 

A prevalent stereotype in American 
culture is the fearless and stalwart masculine 
breadwinner, a notion that suffered a serious 
blow in the wake of feminism. Robert Arneson, 
a pioneer in Pop art ceramics, lampooned his 
own cultivated persona as a scampy Bay Area 
bohemian, a counterculture carryover, in 
California Artist. The sculpture is a life-size 
self-portrait in which the figure's hairy potbelly 
protrudes from his denim jacket and inelegantly 
rests on a crumbling pedestal. At the base a beer 
bottle and a marijuana plant attest to an "arty" 
lifestyle, while holes in the eyeglasses satirically 
hint at the artist's airheadedness. Viola Frey, 
another ceramist with Pop art affinities, looked 
to the other end of the social scale in her corpo- 
rate suit-and-tie businessman, the nine-foot-tall 
He Man, a cartoonish giant to be scoffed at. 
More anxious and less parodic is Jonathan 
Borofsky's Flying Man with Briefcase, at No. 
2816932, in which a silhouetted figure — another 
anonymous urban type in standardized business 
attire — floats as if he were the disembodied or 
estranged ghost of a "real" self 

Ronald L. Goldman are found stabbed to death outside her Los flngeles home. 0. J. Simpson, famed football star and Nicole Simpson's ex-husband, is the prime suspect. In the ensuing trial, Simpson is acquitted of 

Charles Ray 

Male Mannequin, 1990, 
fiberglass mannequin 

Jonathan Borofshy 

Flying Man with Briefcase, 
at No. 2816932, 1983-86, 
multiple sculpture, painted 

Christina /. Smith 

The Commitment, 1997, 
sterling silver 

murder. > California voters pass Proposition 187, denying undocumented workers access to social services. > Orange County declares the biggest municipal bankruptcy filing in U.S. history. > 19 

Candace Kling 

Enchanted Forest, 1989, 
buckram, Varaform, cording, 
Polyfil, satin, braze rods, 
and epoxy 

Ina Koiel Ana Lisa Hedstrom 

Our Lady of Rather Deep Video Meave Kimono, 1982, 

Maters, 1985, urethone foam silk crepe de chme, resist 

and hand-pamted silk dyed 

Not all of the interest in identity, types, 
and cultural idioms was satiric or ironic; indeed, 
some artists dynamically engaged the artistic 
traditions and symbols of cultures outside their 
own in a quest for new sources of inspiration. 
Along with the emergence of the counterculture 
in the 1960s, there came a revival — which 
persists in American cuhure — of the handcraft 
tradition. Led largely by middle-class, college- 
educated whites, the revival initially stressed 
traditional forms, back-to-basics techniques, and 
natural materials. In the 1980s and 1990s, how- 
ever, as ethnic assertions became more integral in 
American social life, a sizable constituency of the 
American craft movement integrated the styles, 
techniques, and motifs of many different cultures 
into their work. Ana Lisa Hedstrom's Video 
Weave Kimono combines timeless Japanese 
hand dyeing with a postindustrial sensibility, 
while Jean Williams Cacicedo's Tee Pee: An Indian 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art celebrates its 60th anniversary with the grand opening of a new building. > Smoking ban goes Into effect In most Indoor workplaces In California, Including the nonbar areas of 

K. Lee Manuel 

Maat's \Nmg °J, 1994, pan 

Jean Williams Cacicedo Janet Lipkin 

lee Pee. An Indian Dedication, Santa Fe Cape "2, 1987, wool 

1988, wool, felted, hand dyed, knit, hand dyed 
reverse appliqued 

Dedication includes references to early Native 
American life. These are examples of artists of 
one culture adopting and reinterpreting the 
markers of other cultures with respectful appre- 
ciation. Similar tendencies are apparent in the 
use of ancient Egyptian motifs in K. Lee 
Manuel's Maat's Wing #3, and in the confluence 
of imagery of the American Southwest with 
geometrical designs evocative of African textiles 
in Janet Lipkin's Santa Fe Cape #2. Such open- 
armed receptivity to various visual vocabularies 
was relatively free of ironic positioning, and it 
enriched and complicated the handcraft revival 
on the West Coast with pronounced interna- 
tional influences. 

Respectful adaptations notwithstanding, 
concepts and the markers of identity became 
prickly issues. As the image of California — and 
especially Southern California — continued to shift 
from that of a bastion of white middle-class citi- 
zenry to a contested and culturally diverse society, 

sstaurants. > Labor officials raid a garment manufacturer in El Monte, where 72 Thai immigrants are kept behind barbed ' 


California voters pass Proposition 209, barring the use 

Bruce and Norman yonemoto • Travis Somerville 

Golden, 1993, gold leaf on Untitled (Dixie), 1998, oil and 

projection screen collage on ledger paper 

Ruben Ortiz-Torres 

California Taco, Santa 
Barbara, California, 1995, 
silver dye-bleach 
(Cibachrome) print 

Guillermo Gomez-Peiia 

Border Brujo, 1990, 
photo documentation of 

Einar and Jamex de la Torre 

Martey Venus, 1997, glass 
and mixed media 


the act of asserting and advocating gender, race, 
ethnicity, or national origin as the fundamental 
basis of identity began to seem uncomfortably 
close to advocating (gender, racial, ethnic, or 
national) stereotyping itself. Many younger artists 
came to understand American society and their 
identity within it as more complex and hybrid 
than an essentialist interpretation could sustain. 

Bruce and Norman Yonemoto, video 
artists and filmmakers from Los Angeles, have 
long explored their Japanese and American 
backgrounds in works such as their mock soap 
operas and gay pornographic films. Golden 
consists of a portable film projection screen, like 
the kind used in grade school classrooms. The 
Yonemotos have covered their screen in gold 
leaf, punning verbally on the Hollywood "silver 
screen" of their American upbringing and visu- 
ally on the gilded screens of their Asian heritage. 

Born in Mexico, Los Angeles artist Ruben 
Ortiz-Torres is similarly interested in his dual 

orqenderas a criterion for university admission or state employment. Minority enrollment plummets at University of California campuses. > Sklrball Cultural Center opens in Los flngeles as an expansion of the 

background and, more generally, in the cultural 
ambiguities of life in Southern California. His 
photograph California Taco, Santa Barbara, 
California, documents the incongruity of a blond 
girl in traditional Mexican dress riding in a 
parade float shaped like a giant taco. Although 
the float may be thought of by an outsider as an 
innocuous icon, using a taco to represent 
Mexican culture is akin to representing African 
American culture with a watermelon, and smacks 
of insensitive stereotyping. Rather than assailing 
the stereotype, however, the photograph reveals 
the artist's ironic bemusement. 

Ortiz-Torres's Alien Toy (1997) similarly 
focuses on a stereotype of Chicano culture — the 
lowrider. This plaything for "aliens," a life-size car 
painted in typical lowrider fashion, mimics the 
classic hydraulic lifts and spins of tricked-out 
lowriders but with highly exaggerated results. 
The custom-made contraption bounces, gyrates, 
and whirls around, flinging itself into pieces that 
must be put back together to perform its wildly 
comic dance anew. The absurdity of this piece 
implies that taking the "special meaning" of any 
stereotype too seriously, or of treating a cultural 
icon too sanctimoniously, is itself absurd. 

Skirball Museum, founded in 1972. > 1997 > The bodies of 39 Heaven's Gate cult members are found in an upscale San I 

Jburb after a gr 

The nev/ 940,000-square-foot Getty Ce , 

Alison Soar 

Topsy Turvy, 1999, wood, tai 
plaster, fabric, and ceiling t 

Mildred Howard 

Black Don't Crack. 1997, 
mixed-media assemblage 

Alison Saar is of mixed African, Irish, and 
Native American heritage but is often "classified" 
as African American. Her enigmatic Topsy Turvy 
incorporates, among other elements, a life-size 
effigy of a pickaninny. The title suggests that the 
figure may represent the character Topsy from 
Harriet Beecher Stowe's abolitionist novel, 
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). The child hangs upside 
down above the viewer, her feet nailed into the 
ceiling and her dress hanging down over her 
torso. The tableau evokes an act of violence, 
something like a lynching, in which Saar's pick- 
aninny is suspended in a kind of limbo, displaced 
and alien, as are all stereotyped individuals. 

In another startling displacement based 
on stereotyping, James Luna, a Native American 
of the Luiseno/Diegueiio people, presented The 
Artifact Piece (1987). The project appeared within 
an anthropological exhibit of American Indian 
culture at San Diego's Museum of Man. After 
viewing dioramas, which "miniaturize good 
Indians, going about their benign ways, as seen 
through the museum haze that forgets colonial 
disruption and destruction,"" visitors happened 
upon Luna, supine on a display table with only 
his loins covered. The impact of the piece derived 
from viewers' sudden, shocked realization that 
they were staring at a live human being. Luna's 
presentation of himself as if he were an object 
ironically recalls the Painted Desert exhibit at 
the 1915 Panama-California Exposition (also 
held in San Diego), in which Native Americans 
were put on display going about "typical" 
domestic chores in "typical" domestic settings. 
Luna's performance demonstrates that Native 
Americans, as well as other ethnic groups, are 
similarly depersonalized and objectified in 
contemporary California. 

Perhaps nowhere else in the LJnited States 
have the issues of race, ethnicity, and national 
origin and identity come together more potently 

igned by Richard Meier, opens in Los flngeles, > Julia Butterfly Hill climbs 180 feet up an ancient redwood tree in Northern California to protest logging of old-growth forests. > 1998 > The Sierra Club votes to 

David Avalos and 
Deborah Small 

Mis-ce-ge-NATION. 1991, 
mixed-media installation 

James Luna 

The Artifact Piece, 1987, 
documentation of 

Linda Nishio 

Kikoemasu ka? (Can /ou Hear 
Me?), 1980, twelve gelatin- 
silver prints 

than in the matter of immigration in California 
in the 1980s and 1990s. California was not alone 
in receiving an influx of foreigners during this 
period: Houston, Miami, Chicago, and New York 
were also magnets for various groups from 
regions around the world. Yet California was 
perceived nationally as ground zero, the locus of 
a profound demographic shift in the national 
makeup (in much the same way that New York 
City was viewed in the late nineteenth and early 
twentieth centuries, when it was the site of mas- 
sive waves of immigration from Ireland, 
Germany, Italy, eastern Europe, and Russia). 
California, and especially Los Angeles, 
became the golden gate of entry for huge 
numbers of Koreans, Taiwanese, Japanese, 
Vietnamese, Cambodians, Laotians, Burmese, 
and Filipinos, all of whom now represent major 
population groups in Southern California. The 
region also became a gathering point for many 

ii A 

^ 1^ 


advocate limits on births and immigration as a means to stabilize the U.S. population. This is perhaps the most divisive decision in the century-old California environmental group's history. > 19 9 9 > The ?400 i 

Peter Coin 

Impenetrable Border, 1987, 
gelatin-silver print 

Insurgent Squeegee 

Stop the Fence— Open the 
Border, 1979, screenprmt 
poster by Lincoln Cashing in 
collaboration with Groundwork 
Books, San Diego 

Malaquias Montoya 

,SiSePuede<, 1988-89, 

Armando Roscon 

Border Metamorphosis: 
The Binational Mural Project 
c. 1998, documentation of 
art project 

(post-revolution) Iranian emigres, as well as 
Israelis, Russians, Armenians, and Africans of 
many nationalities. California represented a land 
of opportunity for people from every region 
of Central America. But it was undocumented 
Mexicans who generated the most notice and 
notoriety, engendering impassioned responses in 
the United States and in Mexico. The border with 
Mexico is one of the most salient aspects of life 
in Southern California, and the issues that 
emanate from it encompass the relation of peo- 
ple to the California landscape and a whole 
gamut of questions concerning identity in a cos- 
mopolitan society. The border has also become a 
quintessential element in the national perception 
of California, especially with regard to what the 
state's experience portends for the nation. 
With respect to modern California's 
relationship to the historical region, Richard 
Rodriguez recounts that as a boy he had read 
Richard Henry Dana's Two Years before the Mast 
(1840) and was struck by the romanticism of 
the book: 

Twenty- five years ago [in the early 1970s] in L.A., 
one could sense anxiety over some coming 
"change" of liistory. Rereading Dana, I am struck 
by the obvious. Dana saw California as an extension 
of Latin America. Santa Barbara, Monterey, 
San Francisco — these were Mexican ports of call. 
Dana would not be surprised, I think, to find 
Los Angeles today a Third World capital teeming 
with Aztecs and Mayans. He would not be surprised 
to see that California has become what it already 
was in the 1850s.^^ 

Maybe Dana would not have been sur- 
prised, but many modern Californians were, 
and they feared the economic impact of newly 
arrived Mexicans on the job market, housing, 
schools, public health services — in every conceiv- 
able aspect of civic life. Many Californians fought 

the immigration. In November 1989 a quasi- 
vigilante group calling itself Light Up the Border 
began a series of monthly demonstrations at a 
site in San Diego County that was well known as 
a porous entry zone for undocumented Mexicans 
and Central Americans. The demonstrators, con- 
gregating at dusk in their cars and vans, trained 
their headlights along the international bound- 
ary, illuminating groups of Latin Americans 
waiting for dark to cross illegally into the United 
States. The loose coalition demanded that U.S. 
authorities increase surveillance and control of 
the border. By the spring of 1990 the monthly 
border lightings were drawing hundreds of 

i$ Center opens in downtown Los flngeles. Ttie arena, built i 

ttian two years, is fiome to the Lakers, the Clippers, and the Kings. > The Walt Disney Concert Hall breaks ground In downtown Los flngeles. 



The campaign also swiftly galvanized 
those who repudiated a demonstration that they 
could view only as anti-immigration and racist. 
Chanting "jNo mas racismo!" (No more racism!), 
the counterdemonstrators held up mirrors and 
other reflective materials, turning the harsh glare 
of the headlights back into the eyes and hearts of 
the campaign sponsors. For one of the monthly 
events, counterdemonstrators rented an airplane 
trailing a banner that read, "One Thousand 
Points of Fear ... A New Berlin Wall." This mes- 
sage was a sharply ironic reference to statements 
by then-president George Bush that had called 
for "a kinder, gentler America" symbolized by 
"a thousand points of light" and "a new world 
order" heralded by the tearing down of the 
Berlin Wall." 

The United States built its own wall in 
California along the border with Mexico, and an 
artistic response to it was organized by Armando 
Rascon. Begun in 1998, Border Metamorphosis: 
The Binational Mural Project is still a work in 
progress as of this writing. In an action that 
recalls the appropriation of the Berlin Wall by 

countless artists who used it to express their refusal 
to accept the moral legitimacy of the regime that 
built it, Rascon and numerous collaborators in the 
United States and Mexico painted elaborate 
abstract murals with Olmec-inspired designs on 
both sides of a 2.5 mile stretch of metal wall sepa- 
rating the towns of Calexico (in the United States) 
and Mexicali (in Mexico). It is an attempt to 
reclaim and transcend the wall by transforming it 
into a work of art. 

The Chicano art movement began in the 
1960s as an attempt by people of Mexican heritage 
living in the United States to recover and reassert 
their historical roots in a Mexican culture that 
extends back to the era before the Spanish 
Conquest. In the rethinking of identity issues dur- 
ing the 1980s and 1990s, aspects of that aspiration 
came to be perceived by some as ironic and, in 



J * 

. ,/■' 


>^ 11 



The structure, designed by Frank Gehry, will be the home of the Los fingeles Philharmonic. 


California's urban housing costs surpass the national average. The San Francisco Bay Area is the na i's 
— k 

David Avalos, Louis Hock, 
and Elizabeth Sisco 

Arte Reembolso/Art Rebate, 
1993, documentation of 

-Proposition 187 political Ricardo Duffy 

)on by Lalo Alcaroz, 1994 The New Order, 

Jason Rhoodes and 
Jorge Pardo 

'1 NAFTA Bench, 1996, marble, 
plywood, plastic buckets and 
lids, fabric pillow, vinyl- 
covered cushion, PVC plastic 
pipes, clamps, and battery- 
operated vibrator 

effect, as promulgating a sort of colony of cul- 
tural exiles. Today, activity in the Chicano move- 
ment has become more cosmopolitan and more 
oriented toward a future free of borders and 
exiles. As cultural historian Jose David Saldivar 
maintains in his study of the cultural, political, 
and social implications of what he calls "border 

Cultural forms can no longer be exclusively 
located within the border-patrolled boundaries of 
the nation-state. Chicano/a America therefore 
defines itself as a central part of an extended 
frontera. Its cultures are revitalized through a 
"re-Hispanicization" of migratory populations 
from Mexico and Central America. . . [The] cultures 
and politics, Central and North American, of the 
extended borderlands have become the very 
material for hybrid imaginative processes that are 
redefining what it means to be a Chicano/a and 
U.S. Latino/a." 

Historically, the assimilation of diverse 
newcomers has been the American Way, and 
it has led to an accommodation of hybridized 
concepts of cultural, ethnic, and national 
identity. Yet Mexican nationals — especially 
undocumented ones — are patently and routinely 
regarded by many U.S. citizens as "alien" and 
Other. During the mid-1980s and well into the 
1990s throughout California, private citizens and 
coalitions called for an end to the use of public 
funds to pay for the essential services — medical 
care, welfare, education — associated with absorb- 
ing the immigration of "illegals." To dramatize 
the plight of impoverished immigrants (and also 
to encourage national debate over the likewise 
culturally charged issue of government support 
for the arts), San Diego artists David Avalos, 
Louis Hock, and Elizabeth Sisco organized a 
project in 1993 titled Arte Reembolso/Art Rebate. 
The artists converted a grant of $5,000 received 

from the National Endowment for the Arts into 
$10 bills, then distributed the money to day 
laborers and migrant workers, who were free to 
spend it, thus circulating the money back into 
the community. The artists' action was intended 
to stir up controversy, and it succeeded. 

The adversarial climate continued to heat 
up with respect to border issues, culminating 
in the passage of Proposition 187 in 1994. 
Proposition 187, which California voters passed 
by a 59 percent majority, forbade the use of state 
and local funds for public social services for ille- 
gal aliens. The manner in which the proposition 
was drafted and put on the ballot raised serious 
questions about governance in California. Peter 
Schrag, writing in Paradise Lost: California's 
Experience, America's Future, persuasively con- 
tends that Californians have forsaken the princi- 
ple of representative government, supplanting 
the legislative process with sweeping ballot initia- 
tives, many of which have been put forth by 
special interest groups." Schrag argues that the 
effect is not only the enactment of measures that 


t expensive place to buy a home. > Los Tigres del Norte, a popular and long-lived norfeno band, establlsfies a foundation at UCLfl to promote the preservation of Spanish-language folk music. > Times 


may have disastrous side effects but also the 
diminishment of — and, in the long run, the 
erosion of faith in — democratic institutions. In 
California, he concludes, we behold the corrosion 
of American democratic principles; and, what is 
worse, California's experience may foreshadow 
America's future. 

A federal court found most of Proposition 
187 unconstitutional shortly after it was passed, 
and a final ruling in 1999 effectively killed it. 
The fact that it had been a voter initiative to 
begin with, however, indicates that political, 
social, and artistic border matters, which signify 
the interpenetration of cultures across impedi- 
ments and boundaries of all kinds, thrive in 
California, probably more than anywhere else 
in the United States. Such border matters also 

agrees to a merger with Chicago-based Tribune Company, ending over a century of local ownership of the Los Rngeles Times. > The 17 4-mi 

Ingeles Red Line subway system is completed with the d[ 

Languages and cultures 
intermixing on the streets of 
Los Angeles 

Robbert Flick 

PicoB, 1998-99, silver 
dye-bleach (Cibachrome) 

























have begun to define the world's future. In an 
age of instantaneous international communica- 
tion, when television, cellular telephones, fax 
machines, and the Internet have made possible 
the global dissemination of information of every 
sort (at least to those who have access to such 
means, which is a considerable qualifier), the 
efficacy of geographical borders and physical 
boundaries has diminished. 

Increasingly, cultures may indeed be 
defined less by race, ethnicity, and national bor- 
ders than by voluntary participation in a field 
of more or less fixed values and experiences. 
California functions today as a vast webwork of 
discordant but relatively peaceable diverse popu- 
lations living together, more or less, in the same 
indefinable space, perpetuating what they wish 
and adapting as they will. Almost every culture 
and every individual in California today has been 
imported from somewhere else. The civilization 
of California, now and in the future, is a clam- 
orous gathering of peoples in diaspora. 

For all its problems, the chaotic multi- 
culturality of California stands against a global 
backdrop that includes such banes as a belliger- 
ent fundamentalism that besets various religious 
factions in the Middle East; xenophobia and 
nationalism astir in pockets of Western Europe; 
tribal warfare that recurrently combusts in several 
African nations; the malignancy of ethnic cleans- 
ing and genocide in Eastern Europe; and race- 
and class-based culture wars that are never won 
or otherwise resolved here in the United States. 
California — especially the inchoate megalopolis 
of Southern California, with its ever-mutating 
mosaic of territories and neighborhoods and its 
polyglot cultural matrix — may be, for better or 
for worse, a model of the world to come. 

California remains one of the most imag- 
ined places in the American psyche. Although 
situated on the western edge of the national 

map, California is central to the mythology of 
America. Its history over the past century, 
embodied in the legacy of its arts, narrates a psy- 
chodrama of national dreams and nightmares. 
The Golden State is no longer the epitome of 
the regional and parochial fantasy that it once 
seemed. Earlier envisioned as a Garden of Eden, 
California has been portrayed more recently 
in both popular and critical forums as a Tower 
of Babel. As life in California — increasingly 
presumed to mirror the nation's character and 
to presage the world's destiny — continues to 
evolve in its fitful and unfathomable manner, its 
extraordinary accommodation of all that is new 
and beyond traditional cultures may prove to be 
its greatest strength. And the arts will doubtless 
continue to offer keen insights into the 
significance of "real" and imagined California. 

e North Hollywood station. 

The timeline was based on information compiled by Sarah Schrank. 

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1 Richard Lacayo, "Unhealed Wounds," Time, 
April 19, 1993, 28. 

2 Mike Davis, Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and 
the Imagination of Disaster (New York: 
Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and 
Company, 1998), 277. 

3 Ibid. 

4 Ibid. 

5 Ibid., 281-82. 

6 See Frances Anderton, "Selling Ethnic L.A.," 
The Big Issue, no. 5, 1998, 6-8. 

7 Susan A. Phillips, Wallbangin': Graffiti and 
Gangs in LA. (Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1999), 15, 74. 

8 Evelyn Larrubia, "'Homies' Toys Anger 
Anti-Gang Forces," Los Angeles Times, May 
24, 1999, A-i, A-19. 

» Ibid., A-19. 

10 As far back as the 1950s there has been a 
literary and artistic tradition of holding up 
the WASP American suburb as typically 
dysfunctional and dystopic. Novels such as 
John Cheever's The Wapshot Chronicle (1957), 
plays such as Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of 
Virginia Woolf(v)62), and films like Mike 
Nichols's The Graduate (1967) all 
satirized white middle-class America and its 
values, stereotypically defined in popular 
culture by television series like Ozzie and 
Harriet and The Dick Van Dyke Show. 

11 Richard Rodriguez, "True West: Relocating 

the Horizon of the American Frontier," 
Harper's, September 1996, 41. 

12 In conversation with the author, May 4, 

13 The Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 
2nd ed. 

14 Andrea Liss, "The Art of James Luna: 
Postmodernism with Pathos," in James Luna: 
Actions and Reactions: An Eleven-Year Survey 
of Installation/Performance Work, 1981-1992 
(Santa Cruz: Mary Porter Sesnon Art Gallery, 
University of California, Santa Cruz, 1992), 9. 

15 Rodriguez, "True West," 43. 

l« Patrick McDonnell, "Counter-Protesters 
Greet 'Light Up the Border' Group," 
Los Angeles Times (San Diego ed.), April 28, 
1990, b8. 

17 Jose David Saldivar, Border Matters: 
Remapping American Cultural Studies 
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of 
California Press, 1997), 128-29. 

18 Other nationally noted California ballot 
initiatives, in addition to Proposition 187, 
include Proposition 13 (1978), which severely 
limited property taxes that paid for public 
education, and Proposition 209 (1996), which 
outlawed affirmative action programs in the 
public sector. See Peter Schrag, Paradise Lost: 
California's Experience, America's Future 
(New York: New Press, 1998). 


Richard Rodriguez 

The world met itself in California. Karl Marx, that cast-iron oracle of the nineteenth century, 
saw the California Gold Rush as an event unprecedented in history. In 1849, Chilean and Scot 
and Chinese and Aussie and Mexican and Yankee— people of every age and tongue and disused 
occupation— waded knee-deep through the mud of Amador County. 

All my life I have lived within the irony created by the many Californians. Though, finally, there 
are only two: I mean those who came here from elsewhere and the native born. 

The first California natives, a laid-back tribe, watched the approach, in the distance, of Junipero 
Serra — "the father of California" — paternity thus stalking them with a limping gait. I am so thoroughly 
Californian as to imagine the genesis cinematically; the camera shuttling back and forth between distance 
and foreground — rather, between foreground and foreground (two cameras, that's the point) — obliterat- 
ing distance, bisecting narrative, eventually making one of twain. 

My own domestic comedy reflected that first splice: My parents from Mexico; their children born 
at the destination. My Mexican parents' ambition was California. Mine was to join the greater world. 

I didn't get far. I live today in a San Francisco Victorian subdivided by memory. Upstairs, Arizona. 
Across the hall, Tennessee. Downstairs, Alabama — the sweetest landlord in the world, Alabama. My 
neighbors seem at home in this city; it is theirs. I am the uneasy tenant, for I was born at St. Joseph's 
Hospital, less than a mile from where I write these words. St. Joseph's Hospital no longer exists. 

A common, early theme of America was the theme of leaving home; almost an imperative for 
writers and other misfits. The subordinate theme was the impossibility of return — you can't go home 
again. I always read the theme primarily as East Coastal or Midwestern; I construed from it the gravity of 
tall cities rather than the constriction of towns. There is a newer American refrain, a western refrain: 
What happens when home leaves you? I hear it now in places like Houston, where natives say they rarely 
meet one another because their city has filled, so quickly, with people from elsewhere. Or from 
Coloradans who remark that everyone they know seems to have arrived last year from California. 

California's nativist chagrin is older and louder because California has, for so long, played 
America's America. The end of the road. Or a second shot at the future. California has served also as 
Asia's principal port of entry. Now, too, the busiest border crossing from Latin America. 

California's native-born children — whatever our color or tongue — realize very early that 
California takes every impression. Our parents, on the other hand, are often surprised by how many 
Californias they find when they get here. Nothing at all like they expected. Nothing like the movie. 

My early intuition as a native son was that California was dreamed into being elsewhere. I noticed 
that paradigmatic Californians weren't so by birth. Richard Diebenkorn came from Oregon. Cesar 
Chavez was born in Yuma. Willie Mays, Louis B. Mayer, Jack Kerouac, Richard Neutra, Lucy and Desi, 
Edward Teller — all of them from far away. All of them living forever in California on the same street. 

Richard Rodriguez WHERE the poppies 

Mickey Mouse was conceived aboard the Santa Fe, westward bound. Minnie was drawn from his 
rib, born here. As was John Steinbeck, born in SaHnas; his house still stands. Steinbeck's generosity was to 
invent the Joad family's first view of orange groves, to believe that Oklahoma Joads were more important 
to the myth of California than their native-born grandchildren who live in suburban Bakersfield and 
complain about "the changes." 

When I was a kid, the nationally advertised version of California was the GI version. Early in the 
forties, thousands of young men had seen California light from train windows — light receding as they 
shipped out toward tragedy. And in the midst of tragedy, they remembered, perhaps, some bong in the 
air that promised to redeem them. 

After the war, the survivors returned with narrowed eyes, with the GI Bill, with fha loans, to 
build a pacific ever-after. They buried the shudder of death beneath hard sentimental weight; beneath 
lawns, green lawns, all-electric kitchens, three bedrooms, two kids, a boy and a girl, and an orderly 
succession of Christmas lights, tacked up with much goddammit. 

Many of these veterans were middle-aged by the time I was their newspaper boy. Many had jobs 
in the defense industry, because they would forbid tragedy. Each afternoon, I folded and lobbed the 
world onto their porches. But I was otherwise complicitous in their cover-up. I willingly played the inno- 
cent — the native — as did their two towheaded children, a boy and a girl, whooping through the bushes 
with pheasant feathers tied onto our heads. 

I played another role. I played the son of the Old Country, the tragedian. For I lived in "el norte," 
a memory of dread, which I took from my parents' eyes. I also put on Bombay eyes — my uncle came 
from India. My Mexican parents and my Indian uncle saw California as a refuge from chaos, but they 
understood that tragedy was preeminently natural. 

My California was also imagined in the Azores, the wraith of some Atlantic storm. I grew up 
among Portuguese, Irish. My Catholic nuns came from Ireland and brought with them — as if it were 
ground into the glass of the spectacles they wore — a tragic vision. This despite the luxurious light of 
California opening over all. Can it have been a coincidence that my first allegiance to a writer was to 
William Saroyan, who had grown up in Fresno, under a cloudless sky, listening to Armenian grand- 
mothers' tales of genocide? 

Eureka! (I have found it.) California's official motto should be mistranslated: / have brought it. 
I folded California into my portmanteau and carried it over the sea, then across the Sierra. Or I invented 
California in my Kwangtung village, from the gaunt letters Fiong-on Sam sent his long-dead wife. 
I sketched California on the steps of my parents' brownstone in Brooklyn, listening to my grandfather's 
stories of castles in Poland. What did he know from castles? We were peasants. Very few people do know 
castles. I'll prove it. What did I do when I got to Hollywood? I put his damn palaces into my movies 
and now the whole world takes my grandfather's version of how Greta Garbo should behave in a palace. 
All a barnyard dream. 

I grew up in Sacramento, in a Prairie house decorated with Mexican statues with imprecisely 
painted sclera and stigmata. Outside my window were camellias, every winter, red and white globes. 

Any sense I have of California is beholden to the importations of Iowa and Spain and New 
England and Oklahoma and the Philippines. Without the prompting of Midwestern artisans, I would 
never have noticed the austerity, the utility, the beauty of California Indian baskets. Without the cues of 

newcomers, I would not have noticed the austerity, the beauty of Cahfornia: Nancy, describing in letters 
from Ohio — this was years after she had left Stanford — her yearning for the scent of eucalyptus and the 
smell of salt; her longing for brown hills and the chemical distance of the Santa Clara Valley, an ostensi- 
ble autumn haze — L'Amertume (a poem she wrote, she admitted, having just learned the word). 

My own naive first impression of Stanford was to wonder why no one watered it. Old brown hills. 
For my sense of pre-California, as of pre-Californians, was one of parchment, of absence — nakedness, 
leisure, freedom, pacificism. 

Gertrude Stein's famous skepticism concerning Oakland sounds native to me, though she wasn't. 
No "there" there. Why not extend that koan to the entire state? If you list California's famous exports 
to the world, you come up with a volley of blanks. I mean spiceless tacos, accentless newscasters, birth 
control pills, strip malls, tract homes, hula hoops, cyberspace, Marilyn Monroe. 

And yet, as a Californian, having taken so many impressions, I feel at home any place in the world. 

And yet, California has invented so much of the postmodern world that most places in the 
world are packing away their idiosyncrasies in order to more closely resemble California. 

Louis Kahn, the Philadelphia architect, gave California one of our best modernist buildings, the 
Salk Institute (named for Jonas Salk, a native New Yorker). Kahn's method, before starting any construc- 
tion, was to brood over the landscape in several lights, several weathers. What does this space want to 
become? One imagines the soil of Bangladesh or Fort Worth responding more forthrightly to Kahn's 
question than the cloudless idiot, California. 

California is never more recognizable than when it supports a completely incongruous construc- 
tion. A giant orange or a giant donut or a statue of John Wayne. The landscape otherwise seems without 
an idea of itself. 

I went to a party in a house by the sea. The house, a famous California house, was imagined into being 
by Midwesterners. The principal architect, Charles Greene (of the brothers Greene and Greene, Ohio- 
born), had been commissioned by a client from Kansas City. The house successfully reconciles England 
with Spain, Protestantism with Catholicism, Robert Louis Stevenson with Alfred Hitchcock, the nine- 
teenth with the twentieth century, and, what's more, Northern with Southern California. The front yard 
is the Pacific Ocean — sometimes undulant, the color of antifreeze; sometimes monotonous, gray. 

The house was left to the son after his parents died. But then (decades later; a decade ago) the 
son died; the house passed to the son's children. (Here the plot shifts from Midwestern immigrant to 
California native.) Such a burden the house had become in recent years — too big and too drafty, too 
leaky, too weathered, too expensive to maintain. (The daughters knew what very few know: life in a cas- 
tle.) The daughters decided to sell. They located a buyer besotted by California, a Chicago businessman. 
The new owner has restored the house to its pristine austerity. 

So there we were on a colorless Saturday, summer fog gathering as we gathered about a wood- 
burning brazier in the courtyard. On trestle tables were the latest- fangled California salads. The correct 
Cabernets. With the other guests, I wandered through rooms that had already passed into someone else's 
privacy. I noticed the swift and silent appraisals of the new owner's paintings and books, some still 
bearing the auction-house tags. 

Richard Rodriguez where the poppies grou 

All afternoon, I had the sense of the two Californias. On the one hand, glamorous Midwestern 
California. (Upon the mantels and atop the piano, the founding family's photographs and mementos had 
been returned for the occasion. We saw the parents' lives — they were theatricals — the beauty of their 
youths, their famous friendships; the books they had written, including the book for a Broadway musical 
about the Midwest.) On the other, the leisured puritanism of the native Californians. leans and faded 
shirts, no makeup, sun-bleached hair, sensible hors d'oeuvres. 

There was something British about the afternoon — not American and certainly not Kansan. 
The native daughters were consigned by history the role of docents within their grandparents' house. 

I am thinking now of those women, the first American generation of native-born Californians, 
born in the gold country. They came of age in the i86os, naming themselves "Native Daughters of the 
Golden West" — California's first historical society. They organized their "parlor" in a foothill town and 
recruited others like themselves to the observances of memory. The sole requirement for membership in 
the Native Daughters was California nativity. The pioneers the sorority honored, however, were people 
who were born elsewhere. 

What the Daughters knew, a generation after their parents' ambition had spent itself in the gold 
fields, was that the audacity of their parents would be forgotten as soon as the cabins and schools and 
churches they built fell to ruin. The Daughters preserved things in order to remember lives. But the task 
of preserving the past is a thankless one, even comic, in a state given to futurism — like trying to preserve 
a fifties moderne bowling alley. The heedless vulgarity of the bowling alley is distorted the moment it 
becomes (from our postmodern vantage point) worthy of preservation. 

loan Didion discloses in her 1965 essay "Notes from a Native Daughter" that she comes "from a 
family, or a congeries of families, that has always been in the Sacramento Valley." Californians immedi- 
ately note the ironic weight of "always" in her native syntax. Though some families may still have 
Spanish land grants tucked away (one notices occasionally in obituaries), one need not live very long in 
California to qualify as "old family." Didion describes Sacramento in the late fifties (the Valley town 
becoming the city I came to know) as "a place in which a boom mentality and a sense of Chekhovian 
loss meet in uneasy suspension." 

As I recall, my own Russian summer ended each year with a blast of heat, the threat of school, 
the smell of unbroken denim. Summer's last stand was the California State Fair on Stockton Boulevard. 
I loved especially the domed Victorian-style pavilion, with booths of arranged fruits and vegetables from 
every county and climate. Inevitably, my Victorian fair was replaced by something ugly and new across 
town. "Cal Expo" was built on an amusement-park model and boasted third-rate lounge acts and 
destruction derbies. This was the first time I remember having to come to terms with my meaning in 

I decided it was OK for them, but I didn't go. I was an old-timer at the age of twelve. 

One needle-sharp morning in 1968, I was walking up Madison Avenue, where I happened upon the 
funeral of lohn Steinbeck. I paused at the edge of the crowd of celebrities. I saw Steinbeck's casket — 
an expensive affair covered with boughs of evergreen — carried down the steps of St. James Episcopal. 
This I approved — approved the approbation of the East Coast — as a native Californian would. 

Hard for anyone not born at the destination to understand my preoccupation with originals, 
with provenance. I grew up in Cahfornia dreaming of elsewhere — as did Saroyan, as did Didion, as did 
Steinbeck. I wondered about those places of which California had always seemed the mirage. Jalisco. 
Minnesota. Bombay. And New York, especially New York — which had concocted ideas of "the Coast" as 
its Hegelian opposite. 

At my present age, I have forsaken the study of contributing strains, original forms, for a pleasure 
in the hybrid itself. Indeed, I impatiently listen when native Californians, far afield, tell me they have 
abandoned the crowds and cost of California for a simpler grid. The native daughter, for example, (still 
restless, I notice) sits beside a pool in Phoenix and deplores the traffic in Los Angeles. Having departed 
California, where she was forever bemoaning the loss of the department stores of her youth, she becomes 
a tiresome seer in Arizona. Nothing does she see more clearly than the coming of California. California 
coming to Austin and Portland. In Boulder, she is dismayed by tract houses along the front range that 
remind her of Anaheim a generation ago. She can't wait to say, "I told you so." 

In our parents' generation, too, there had been talk of divorce — a legal separation of North from 
South. All to do with water rights and political incompatibilities. The North represented agriculture, 
abstemiousness; a liberal coast. The South was heedless, sprawling, splashy, wasteful; a conservative coast. 
In the fifties, I remember, too, an ethical resentment. The Central Valley resented the playful urbanity of 
the coast. 

The boldness of the fifties, however, was that Californians came up with ideas of the state larger 
than their differences. By mid-century, when California became the most populous state in the union, 
our parents felt themselves resistant enough to tragedy to celebrate. California constructed eight-lane 
freeways to join city and country; built a sub-urban architecture with two-car garages and sliding glass 
walls to allow each Californian simultaneity — inside and outside at once. 

California's most flamboyant reconciliation was the horizontal city, in distinction to the verticality 
of the East Coast. Separate freeway exits, even separate climates, distinct neighborhoods, faiths, lan- 
guages — all were annexed to one another, stood united beneath a catholic abstraction called "San Jose" or 
"Sacramento" or — the greatest horizontal abstraction in the world — "L.A." The horizontal city not only 
tolerated incoherence and disharmony, it found its meaning in the juxtaposition of a chic restaurant, a 
Jesus Saves storefront, a taco stand. The horizontal city was crisscrossed by freeways that promised escape 
from complicity while also forcing complexity. The surfer, who grew up on the premises in loco parentis, 
grew up knowing (without having to learn exactly) nakedness, leisure, ft-eedom, pacificism, also chop- 
sticks and Spanish. 

Didn't Walt Disney tantalize California with the idea of floating over street-level congestion on a 
monorail? In the fifties, Disney purchased some flower farms from Japanese families in Orange County 
and plowed them under. Then he plowed under someone else's citrus grove. Walt Disney's new crop 
was to be innocence. Disney had come from Chicago, so immediately he got the point of California. He 
constructed very different magic kingdoms, side by side. In that first summer after Disneyland opened, 
I happily made my way through the chambers of Walt Disney's rather interesting imagination. 

Only in one respect did Disney seem at odds with his adopted state. Prudishly, he insisted upon 
a discretion among the several kingdoms analogous to the nonpermeable black lines that surround car- 
toon characters. Main Street must never betray a knowledge of Tomorrowland. Costumed employees 

Richard Rodriguez WHERE 

were required to travel through underground tunnels, before and after their shifts, thus maintaining 
strict narrative borders, thus precluding surrealism. Cinderella vs'ill never meet Davy Crockett in the 
Magic Kingdom. 

Whereas within the horizontal city, California's children grew up accustomed to disjunction. In 
the light of day, and at street level, all over California, Fantasyland is right next door to Frontierland. And 
the adolescents of alternate fantasies began to blend and marry one another. Which is why California is 
famous today for the tofu burrito and the highest rate of miscegenation in the mainland U.S. 

Disneyland was so httle rooted in California, it flourished here. Disneyland was so little rooted in 
California that the Disney corporation could pack it up and ship it entire to Florida and Tokyo and 
France, where it flourished as emblematic of California. 

A few years ago, I spent o day with a friend who worked in the art department of the Warner Brothers 
studio in Burbank. My perception of Warner Brothers had always been of a purveyor of secular cartoons, 
as opposed to the Disney insistence upon a spiritual dimension to their product. Disney cartoons were 
not funny. Warner Brothers cartoons were not charming. The Warner Brothers lot was clearly an indus- 
trial park. We toured the studio in a golf cart. There was no discretion between miracles at Warner 
Brothers — between Batman's Gotham and the parting of the Red Sea. We had lunch at the commissary. 

In late afternoon, my friend left me for a time, and I wandered alone through a wooden ware- 
house — the costume department — a temporary structure surviving from the forties. One side of the 
building was open to the spring air. A door, like the sliding door of a freight car, had been rolled aside. 
There was no one about. 

I began to smell what I can only describe as California. I remember the moment most clearly as 
a scent — of optimism, or perhaps its residue — not some quail-colored, reedy smell of country but the 
smell of my family's kitchen, now long gone: An overheated electrical cord, scorched fabric, steam, starch, 
a spring day. The joined smells of imagination and making do; smells of dream and industry. Here was 
room after room of costumes and all the appliances of fantasy — scepters, masks, tiaras, gloves, window 
dressings from stricken sets. Yards and yards of every imaginable silk and tartan and shape and period- 
dance. So many dreams, folded into boxes or hanging in rows; a confusion of narratives unaccountably 
readied for a return to the potent light of day. This gladdened me. 

Out of sorts. I should think you would be, too, if you had been sweating blood on the Santa Monica 
Freeway for an hour — even though she waited till well after the rush, it took that long. Let them honk! 
Go on. Go on. Over an hour from Santa Monica and she found the lots filled. What? This lot is full, 
ma'am. You have to go around that way. That way. What? And so on. 

And now the museum is crowded with schoolchildren — rolling thunder, static electricity, indeci- 
pherable bird calls — her hearing aid takes its adjectives from vast storm-laden canvases surrounding her 
in the atrium. She decides to do the exhibition in reverse — "flee the children's hour." Work back to the 
beginning in peace and quiet. And see without precedent, as if such a thing were possible. 

But in no gallery is she free of racket, the crude translations of the serpentlike coil in her ear, 
which is the knowledge that she is getting too old for this. This being everything. The supermarket. The 
drugstore. What? Christmas. An atrium full of schoolchildren. 

She is not one of those old women who is afraid of children. She had been a grammar-school 
teacher before the war, and just after. She cannot imagine being afraid of a child. She reads in the paper 
of fearful teachers and she cannot imagine it. The business of the child is to push at the perimeters. The 
business of the teacher is to push back. Her own grandchildren don't interest her very much, in truth. 
They don't push at all. Since they turned fourteen, they know everything there is to know. They smile, 
and school's fine, thank you, and may I be excused as soon as possible? There, there, mother. Well, they're 
so jaded. They don't take delight in anything. Nothing is wonderful to them, is it? Except loud. They 
seem to like loud. 

She deposits her gloves in her purse. Fishes for her glasses case. What would she tell them, the 
children in the atrium, about California? About anything? Don't get old in the first place, gmzzzz, sneers 
the hearing aid. Oh, do shut up! She fiddles with the little wheel behind her ear, turns it the wrong way 
till it shrieks with pain. She reverses the wheel, shhhhhh. 

Imported to California, in the second place, she silently corrects the banner over the exit sign: 
MADE IN CALIFORNIA. She is reminded of how many versions of California .. . 

You will notice, boys and girls, how many artists in this exhibit came from elsewhere.. . 

A lucky place. They were lucky to live here. Felt themselves lucky. She had known one or two 
of these painters, before the war. He was a bit of an old goat, as she recalls. But that's just it, she can't 
recall. The half-life of emotions! The impression more lasting than the incident; color more lasting than 
fugitive form. 

You should memorize the things that please you; then when you re old and sitting by yourself, you II 
have something .. . 

Silently instructing the children, as if they were her boys and girls of yore, even though she had 
left the children behind in the first room, left all consideration of children behind in a life she couldn't 
completely recollect. But were they lucky to live here? She didn't know anymore. 

Her own parents from Wisconsin: Her father a gentle architect of bungalows. Of the hundreds 
of bungalows her father built — well, she doesn't know; they were all over the place — but of the ones in 
Santa Monica only seven remain, mainly in the blocks off Montana. They weren't brilliant houses, no. 
They were meant to be comfortable and solid, to withstand the wear and tear of ordinary lives. Solid 
floors. Solid cupboards. Knock-knock. Good plumbing. Good light. The light was the thing. Good 
porches, rooms of good size, and good light. 

The light remains. You have to go away to see it again. Then come back, and there it is. Different 
from anyplace else. California light. 

She raised her own three children — she tried to raise her children with a sense of place and his- 
tory. All have moved away; seem to feel nothing for California. Well, maybe they do. They wanted the 
paintings. {Knock-knock.) But they always expect her to visit them. Boston. Phoenix. Denver. Whereas she 
was always haunted by the California that had been bequeathed to her . . . Now why is it, she irritably 
addresses the hearing aid, why is it someone is always stacking cartons in my left ear? Knock-knock, says 
the hearing aid. What? Oh, very well, who's there? It's your own footsteps, stupid old woman. She looks 
down. Takes a step. So it is — it's this parquet. 

After the children went away to school, she had formed many a committee in Santa Monica. To 
save things. But not for the sake of her children, as she would once have said. Or for any children. Just 

for the sake of the things themselves. Like a scholar's lonely knowledge. Intrinsic value. A few old places 
out on the pier. Houses in Venice. An old hotel on Ocean Avenue. "Madame Full Charge," Jack used to 
call her. "Scourge of City Hall." Well, and they did groan when they saw me coming with my straw basket 
full of mimeographs. 

She is becalmed now by a roomful of pastoral paintings from the twenties. Her hearing aid, 
dozing off, broadcasts only a neutral plane of sound, like the air in jet cabins. 

/ know which one I should buy.. . 

She is inevitably reminded of her mother's voice whenever she enters a gallery. Her mother was 
"artistic," a sobriquet ready at hand for a woman who kept a kiln in her back shed; a leitmotif, no 
more — as others in her mother's circle might be "musical" or "well read" or "devout Catholics" or "sharp 
as tacks." Native sarcasm waited to harvest any ambition that grew higher than a hollyhock. But Mother 
was a painter, truly, quite a good painter. Mother's "masterpiece," as the family always referred to the 
oil above the mantel (in that same vein of California sarcasm) — Capitola, 1911 — would not suffer in 
comparison with this one. She puts on her glasses to read the legend; removes them to regard Prussian 
blue and blue violet, zinc . . . 

Her reverie is interrupted by a clap of thunder, several claps, then a deluge — the arrival of the 
schoolchildren at the 1920s. Look at them all! Those tennis shoes. Like puppies not yet grown into their 
feet. Lately California had become such a mystery to her. Everything starting to melt. To slide. To quicken 
and to rust. What is the point? Boys and girls, indeed! Look at them, only interested in that earphone 
tour thing. 

Click. Click. 

Still, the faces interest her; those boys over there with their pants falling down interest her. 
Black parents, obviously. But something else, too. Mexican, I suppose. How do they keep their pants on? 
A question for her grandchildren. 

Then, beyond the nervous boys, she notices the girl in a pale green dress. Not much of a dress, 
but it is properly ironed. Vietnamese? Homely, solitary — as she was, too, at that age. Probably bright, and 
their parents make them work. There is a serenity about the child for which the hearing aid can gather 
no simile. The girl's lips part slightly. Then the girl moves one hand to shade her eyes, as if she is search- 
ing the distance of the landscape before her. Good girl. Good girl. She has clearly entered the landscape. 
And welcome: Granville Redmond, California Poppy Field, c. 1926. 

The girl's classmates have tumbled off together, clicking their gizmos, rubber soles screeching like 
violins into the next gallery. 

The girl stays. 

Granville Redmond. The Vietnamese teenager. The Native Daughter of the Golden West. Each is 
united to the others in thinking he sees the same thing. 

A field of flowers, a painting of a field of flowers, a Vietnamese girl considering a painting of a 
field of flowers. 

California, c. 2000. 


The checklist is complete as of luly 31, 2000. 

Entries are listed alphabetically by artist. 
Multiple works under one artist are 

Dates of individual works within a series 
are given when they differ from the 
series date. Undated series are ongoing 
in most cases. 

Life dates are furnished whenever available. 

Height precedes width. Depth, when 
given, follows height and width. 

cb: center back 
d: diameter 
h: height 
l: length 

Kim Abeles 

United States, b. 1952 

Forty Days and Forty Nights of Smog, 1991 
Particulate matter (smog) on Plexiglas, auto 
mufflers, detritus, chiffon, and wood 
30 X 38 X 56 in. (76.2 X 96.5 X 142.2 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Jerome Ackerman 

United States, b. 1920 

Bowl with Black and White Matte Glazes; 
Covered Jar with Black and White Matte Glazes; 
Fruit Bowl with Black Matte Glaze; Tall Bottle 
with Blue and Black Glazes; Tall Vase with 
White Matte Glaze; Wine Decanter and Four 
Cups with White Matte Glaze, 1953-60 
Stoneware, glazed 

h: 2% in. (6 cm), d: 6'/2 in. (16.5 cm); h: 7% in. 
(20 cm), d: 4y8 in. (11.8 cm); 4% x i4'/4 in. 
(12.1 X 36.2 cm); h: 14% in. (37.5 cm), d: zV^ in. 
(7 cm); h: i4-y4 in. (37.5 cm), d: 1V4 in. (7 cm); 
h: 16 in. (40.6 cm), d: 1V2 in. (6.4 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 162 

Orange and Ochre Wall Sconce, 1956 
Porcelain enamel on steel 
4 X 14% X 6 in. (10.2 X 37.5 X 15.2 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Ansel Adams 

United States, 1902-1984 

Monolith, the Face of Half Dome, Yosemite 

National Park, 1927, printed 1980 

Gelatin-silver print 

19V4 X 14% in. (48.9 X 36.8 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the artist in memory 

of Robin Cranston 

p. 129 

Mt. Williamson, the Sierra Nevada, from 

Manzanar, California, 1944, printed 1978 

Gelatin-silver print 

15 '/2 X 18% in. (39.4 X 47.6 cm) 

Anne and Arnold Porath 

p. 156 

Half Dome and Moon, Yosemite Valley, 

California, c. 1950 

Gelatin-silver print 

211/2 X 30 in. {54.6 X 76.2 cm) 

LACMA, gift in memory of Helen Green Cross 


Yosemite Valley, from Inspiration Point, 
Yosemite National Park, 1969 
Photo-offset print on metal container 
h: 7 in. (17.8 cm); d: 6'/4 in. (15.9 cm) 
Courtesy George Eastman 
p. 196 

Clinton Adams 

United States, b. 1918 

Barrington Street, 1951 
Egg tempera on paper 
13V2 X 20 in. (34.3 X 50.8 cm) 
Mel and Sharlene Leventhal 

Harry Adams 

United States, 1918-1988 

Funeral of Ronald Stokes, 29, Secretary of 

Mosque #27, Los Angeles, May s, 1962, 1962 

Gelatin-silver print 

11x14 in. (27.9x35.6 cm) 

Center for Photojournalism and Visual History, 

California State University, Northridge 

p. 220 

Allan Adier 

United States, b. 1916 

Flatware Place Setting for Six, "Roundend," 1944 
Sterling silver 
Varied dimensions 
Lent by the artist 

Centerpiece with Firepots, c. 1950 
Sterling silver and glass 
h: 6 in. (15.2 cm); d: 24 in. (61 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Amy AdIer 

United States, b. 1966 

Ace, 1997 

Silver dye-bleach (cibachrome) print 
50 X 34 in. (127 x 86.4 cm) 
Collection of Barry Sloane 

Gilbert Adrian 

United States, 1903-1959 

Costume for Greta Garbo, created for 

"Inspiration," mgm, 1930 

Silk crepe, paste stones, and rhinestones 

CB (with train): 75 '/2 in. (191.8 cm); Sleeve l: 

20 in. (50.8 cm) 

Museum Collection, The Fashion Institute of 

Design & Merchandising, from the Department 

of Recreation and Parks, City of Los Angeles 

p. 132 

Costume for Joan Crawford, created for 
"Letty Lynton," mgm, 1932 
Silk crepe and sequins 
cb: 54 in. (137.2 cm) 

Museum Collection, The Fashion Institute of 
Design & Merchandising, from the Department 
of Recreation and Parks, City of Los Angeles 
p. 131 

Two-Piece Dress and Cape, "Shades 

of Picasso," 1944 

Rayon crepe 

Top cb: 27 in. (68.6 cm); Skirt cb: 41 in. 

(104 cm); Cape cb: 56 in. (142.2 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the artist 

Laura Aguilar 

United States, b. 1959 

Nature #7 Self-Portrait, 1996 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 252 

Gregory Ain 

United States, 1908-1988 

Anselem A. Ernst Residence, Los Angeles, 

Perspective Elevation, 1937 

Graphite on paper 

20 X 30 in. (50.8 X 76.2 cm) 

Architecture and Design Collection, 

University Art Museum, ucsb 

John Alberts 

United States, 1886-1931 

Windswept Trees, 1916 


8'/2 X 12% in. (21.6 X 32.4 cm) 

Victoria Dailey 

Herman Oliver Albrecht 

Germany, active United States, 1876-1944 

Three Women in White, c. 1910 

Gelatin-silver print 

95/8 X 5 1/4 in. (24.5 X 13.3 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

p. 96 

Maxine Albro 

United States, 1903-1966 

Fiesta of the Flowers, 1937 

Oil on canvas 

108 X 104 in. (274.3 X 264.2 cm) 

Robert Bijou Fine Arts 

p. 140 

Lynn Aldrich 

United States, b. 1944 

Breaker, 1999 

Steel, wood, fiberglass, and garden hoses 
36 X 32 X 50 in. (91.4 X 81.3 X 127 cm) 
LACMA, Modern and Contemporary Art 
Council, 2000 Art Here and Now purchase 

Anders Aldrin 

Sweden, active United States, 1889-1970 

Zabriskie Point, Death Valley, 1932 
Color woodcut 
12V8 X 15 in. (30.8 X 38.1 cm) 
The Annex Galleries 

Peter Alexander 

United States, b. 1939 

Cloud Box, 1966 

Cast polyester resin 

10 X 10 x 10 in. (25.4 X 25.4 X 25.4 cm) 

Private collection, Los Angeles 

p. 209 


Czechoslovakia, active United States, b. 1938 

Untitled #216, 1981 
Hand-painted plaited paper 
48 X 48 in. (121.9 X 121.9 cm) 
Collection of Lydia and Chuck Levy 

Carlos Almaraz 

Mexico, active United States, 1941-1989 

Suburban Nightmare, 1983 

Oil on canvas 

37x45 in. (94 x114.3 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 


City Bridge, 1989 
Lift-ground aquatint 
3o'/2 X 24 in. (77.5 X 61 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Elsa Flores Almaraz 
and Maya Almaraz 

D. L. Alvarez 

United States, b. 1962 

Redwood (pbn#i8), 1996 
Blue pencil on paper 
31 X26 in. (78.8x66 cm) 
Collection of John Bransten 

Mabel Alvarez 

United States, 1891-1985 

Dream of Youth, 1925 

Oil on canvas 

58 X 50 '/4 in. (147.3 X 127.6 cm) 

Collection of Jeri L. Waxenberg 

Laura Andreson 

United States, 1902-1999 

Teapot, 1944 

Earthenware, glazed 

5 X 6V2 X 9V2 in. (12.7 X 16.5 X 24.1 cm) 

Scripps College, Claremont, California, 

Marer Collection 

Bowl, c. 1955 


h: 7yi6 in. (17.8 cm); d: jVh in. (18.1 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Bernard Kester 

Lawrence Andrews 

United States, b. 1964 

And They Came Riding into Town on Black 

and Silver Horses, 1992 

Videotape (color, with sound, thirty minutes) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Gallery 

Paule Anglim 

Nancy Angelo 

United States 
Candace Compton 

United States 

Nun and Deviant, 1976 

Videotape (black and white, with sound, 

twenty minutes) 

Lent by Video Data Bank 

Ant Farm 

Chip Lord (United States, b. 1944), Doug 
Michaels (United States, b. 1944), and Curtis 
Schreier (United States, b. 1944) 

Media Burn, 1975 

Videotape (color, with sound, twenty-three 
minutes) of media event in Oakland, California 
Lent by Video Data Bank 

Eleanor Antin 

United States, b. 1935 

The King ofSolana Beach, 1974-75 

Eleven gelatin-silver prints mounted on board; 

one text panel 

Each: 6 x 9 in. (15.2 x 22.9 cm) 

Collection of Gary and Tracy Mezzatesta 

p. 232 

Virgil Apger 

United States, 1903-1994 

Carmen Miranda, Publicity Photo for 

"A Date with Judy," mgm, 1948 

Carbro print 

9% X 8 in. (24.8 X 20.3 cm) 

Sid Avery/Motion Picture and Television 

Photo Archive 

p. 178 

Robert Arneson 

United States, 1930-1992 

John with Art, 1964 

Ceramic, glazed with polychrome epoxy 

341/2 X 18 in. (87.6 x 45.7 cm) 

Collection of the Seattle Art Museum, gift 

of Manuel Neri 

California Artist, 1982 

Stoneware, glazed 

68 '4 X 27 Vi in. (173.36 x 69.85 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Art, gift of the 

Modern Art Council 

p. 258 

Skip Arnold 

United States, b. 1957 

Hood Ornament, 1992 

Videotape (black and white, without 

sound, ninety seconds) of a public activity 

in Sun Valley, California 

Lent by the artist 

John Arvanites 

United States, b. 1943 

The Theo Tapes, 1986 

Videotape (color, with sound, twenty- five 


Lent by the artist 

Kyoko Asano 

Japan, active United States, b. 1933 

Sea, 1987 


30 X 29'yi6 in. (76.2 X 76 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by the Graphic Arts Council, gift of Cirrus 


Ruth Asawa 

United States, b. 1926 

Untitled, 1959 
Monel in tubular knit 
84 X 24 in. (213.4 X 61 cm) 
Lent by the artist 


Harry Gamboa Jr. (United States, b. 1951), 
Gronk (United States, b. 1954). Willie Herron 
(United States, b. i95i)> and Patssi Valdez 
(United States, b. 1951) 

Spray Paint lacma, 1972 

Photo documentation of guerrilla art action 

by Harry Gamboa Jr., transferred to videotape 

for this exhibition 

Lent by Harry Gamboa Jr. 

p. 227 

Instant Mural, 1974 

Super 8 film of performance (color, without 

sound, ninety seconds), transferred to 


Lent by Harry Gamboa Jr. 

p. 227 

David Avalos 

United States, b. 1947 
Louis Hock 
United States, b. 1948 
Elizabeth Sisco 

United States, b. 1954 

Arte Reembolso/Art Rebate, 1993 
Excerpts from videotape documentation 
(news coverage; color, with sound, fourteen 
minutes) of event in San Diego, California 
Lent by Louis Hock 
p. 268 

David Avalos 

United States, b. 1947 
Deborah Small 

United States, b. 1948 

Mis'ce'ge'NATiON, 1991 

Photo documentation of installation at 

Colorado University Art Gallery, University 

of Colorado, Boulder, transferred to videotape 

for this exhibition 

Lent by the artists 

p. 265 

Ramona: Birth of a Mis'ce'ge'NATioN, 2000 

Coproduced with William Franco (United 

States, b. 1957) and Miki Seifert (United States, 

b. 1958) 

Excerpts from videotape (color, with sound, 

twenty-five minutes), used in original 


Lent by David Avalos and Deborah Small 

Sid Avery 

United States, b. 1918 

Rock Hudson, Out of the Shower at His 

Hollywood Hills Home, 1952 

Gelatin-silver print 

11x14 in. (27.9x35.6 cm) 

Sid Avery/Motion Picture and Television 

Photo Archive 


Dwight D. Eisenhower in La Quinta, 

California, 1961 

Gelatin-silver print 

n X 14 in. (27.9 X 35.6 cm) 

Sid Avery/Motion Picture and Television 

Photo Archive 

p. 158 

Glenna Boltuch Avila 

United States, b. 1953 

Untitled, 1986 


25 X 38^/4 in. (63.5 X 97.2 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by the Art Museum Council 

Anthony Aziz 

United States, b. 1961 
Sammy Cucher 

Venezuela, active United States, b. 1958 

Plasmorphica #8 

From the series Plasmorphica, 1996 

Chromogenic development (Ektacolor) print 

40 1/8 X 30 in. (101.9 X 76.2 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

Ernest Bachrach 

United States, 1899-1973 

Dolores Del Rio, 1932 

Gelatin-silver print 

10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 

Sid Avery/Motion Picture and Television 

Photo Archive 

p. 133 

John Baldessari 

United States, b. 1931 

Looking East on 4th and C, 1967-68 
Acrylic and photo emulsion on canvas 
59x45 in. (149.9x114.3 cm) 
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 
Accessions Committee Fund: gift of Evelyn and 
Walter Haas, Mr. and Mrs. Donald G. Fisher, 
Modern Art Council, and Norman C. Stone 
p. 199 

California Map Project, Part I: California, 1969 
Assisted by George and Judy Nicolaidis 
Eleven chromogenic development prints and 
typewritten text on paper, mounted on board 
Each print: 8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm); Text: 
81/2 X 11 in. (21.6 X 27.9 cm) 
Private collection, Munich 

Adele Elizabeth Balkan 

United States, 1907-1999 

Sketch for Costume for Anna May Wong, created 

for "Daughter of the Dragon," Paramount, 1936 

Gouache on board 

loVi X 15 in. (51.4x38.1 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Adele Elizabeth Balkan 

P- 134 

Lewis Baltz 

United States, b. 1945 

East Wall, Nees Turf Supply Company, 38T 

Pullman, Costa Mesa 

From the series The New Industrial Parks 

near Irvine, California, 1974 

Gelatin-silver print 

6x9 in. (15.2 X 22.9 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

West Wall, Unoccupied Industrial Building, 

20 Airway Drive, Costa Mesa 

From the series The New Industrial Parks 

near Irvine, California, 1974 

Gelatin-silver print 

6x9 in. (15.2x22.9 cm) 

LACMA, promised gift of an anonymous donor, 

Los Angeles 

p. 199 

11777 Foothill Boulevard, Los Angeles, 

California, 1991, printed 1992 

Silver dye-bleach (Cibachrome) print, 

edition 1/3 

48 x 96 in. (129.6 X 243.8 cm) 

LACMA, commissioned with funds provided by 

Michael R. Kaplan, M.D., Gary B. Sokol, and 

the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation 

Travis Banton 

United States, 1894-1958 

Costume for Marlene Dietrich, created 

for "Desire," Paramount, 1935 

Silk chiffon, silk crepe, and fox fur 

Dress cb: 50V2 in. (128.3 cm); Jacket cb: 29 in. 

(73.7 cm) 

Museum Collection, The Fashion Institute of 

Design & Merchandising, from the Department 

of Recreation and Parks, City of Los Angeles 

p. 132 

Uta Barth 

Germany, active United States, b. 1958 

Field #3, 1995 

Chromogenic development (Ektacolor) 

print on wood panel 

23 X 28% in. ( 58.4 X 73 cm) 

Collection of Merle and Gerald Measer 

Crawford Barton 

United States, 1943-1993 

Untitled, c. 1975 

Gelatin-silver print 

14 X 8 in. (35.6 X 20.3 cm) 

CiLBT Historical Society of Northern California 

p. 219 

Loren Barton 

United States, 1893-1975 

Sunny Day at Balboa, c. 1945 

Watercolor and graphite on paper 

241/8 X 30'/4 in. (61.3 X 76.9 cm) 

LACMA, the California Water Color Society 

Collection of Water Color Paintings 

Ruth-Marion Baruch 

United States, 1922-199H 

Shakespeare Couple, Haight-Aihhury, 1967 
Gelatin-silver print 
7x10 in. (17.8x25.4 cm) 
Estate of Ruth-Marion Baruch 
p. 217 

Black Panther Guard, 1968 
Gelatin-silver print 
10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 
Estate of Ruth-Marion Baruch 

Ernest Allan Batchelder 

United States, 1875-1957 

Batchelder Tile Company, United States, 


Five Tiles with Mayan Motifs, 1912-32 


4: 4 X 4 in. (10.2 X 10.2 cm); 1:4x5 in. 

(10.2 X 12.7 cm) 

Collection of Norman Karlson 

Tile with the Santa Barbara Mission, 1912-32 


8 X 8 in. (20.3 X 20.3 cm) 

Collection of Norman Karlson 

Tile Panel, c. 1915-20 


24 V2 X 241/2 in. (62.2 X 62.2 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Theodore C. Coleman 

Tile, c. 1925 


8y4 X 8% in. (22.2 X 22.2 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by Mrs. Logan Henshaw, Caroline Blanchard 

Brownstein, and Mrs. Edwin Greble 

Bauer Pottery 

United States, 1885-1962 

One Orange and One Yellow Garden 

Oil Jar, c. 1920 


Each: 16 x 12 x 12 in. (40.6 x 30.5 x 30.5 cm) 

Ron and Susan Vander Molen 

Mllo Baughman 

United States 

For Glenn of California, United States, 

c. 1952-c. 1979 

Desk, c. 1975 


29% X 57% in. {75.6 X 146.7 cm) 

Courtesy Susan and Michael Rich 

Gustave Baumann 

Germany, active United States, 1881-1971 

Sequoia Forest, 1928 

Color woodcut 

I2y8 x 12% in. (32.8 x 32.4 cm) 

Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of 

New Mexico, purchased with funds raised 

by the School of American Research 

Wirjdswept Eucalyptus, c. 1929 

Color woodcut 

95/8 x ii'/2 in. (24.4 x 29.2 cm) 

Lent by Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of 

New Mexico, purchased with funds raised 

by the School of American Research 

p. 69 

Robert A. Bechtle 

United States, b. 1932 

'67 Chrysler, 1967 

Oil on canvas 

36 X 40 in. (91.4 X 101.6 cm) 

Lent by Ruth and Alfred Heller, courtesy 

Gallery Paule Anglim, San Francisco 

p. 206 

Larry Bell 

United States, b. 1939 

Cube, 1966 

Vacuum-coated glass 

12 X 12 X 12 in. (30.5 X 30.5 X 30.5 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Frederick Weisman Company 

p. 211 

Jordan Belson 

United States, b. 1926 

Allures, i960 

16 mm film (color, with sound, seven minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Billy Al Bengston 

United States, b. 1934 

Lady for a Night, 1970 
Lacquer on aluminum 
36 X 34 in. (91.4 X 86.4 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 204 

Mark Bennett 

United States, b. 1956 

Home of Mike & Carol Brady, 1986-95 
Ink and pencil on graph vellum paper 
24 '/4 X 36 '4 in. {61.5 X 92.1 cm) 
Collection of Suzanne and Howard Feldman 

Home of Francis "Gidget" Lawrence, 1995 

Ink and pencil on graph vellum paper 

24 '/2 X 36 W in. (62.2 X 92.1 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Mark Moore 


Fletcher Benton 

United States, b. 1931 

Synchronetic c-4400-s Series, 1966 
Aluminum and motorized Plexiglas panels 
70 X 60 x 9 in. (177.8 X 152.4 x 22.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Peter and Cynthia Williams, 
Livermore, California 

David Berg 

United States, b. 1956 

Negative Painting No. 6, 1997 

Gelatin-silver print; oil on Mylar 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm); 2'/2 x 2V2 in. 

(6.4 X 6.4 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

Tony Berlant 

United States, b. 1941 

Venus, 1966 

Photomechanical reproduction on sheet 

metal, nailed to painted wood construction 

and ceramic 

15 X 10 X 14 in. (38.1 X 25.4 X 35.6 cm) 

Collection of Helen and Tony Berlant 

Wallace Berman 

United States, 1926-1976 

Untitled (Jazz Drawing of Slim Gaillard), 

c. 1940 

Pencil on paper 

12% X ioiyi6 in. (32 X 25 cm) 

Collection of the Estate of Wallace Berman 

p. 182 

Semina, 1955-64 

Hand-printed magazines (nine issues) 

Varied dimensions; minimum: 5'/2 x 3V8 in. 

(14 X 7.9 cm); maximum: 11 x 9 in. 

(27.9 x 22.9 cm) 

Private collection, courtesy L.A. Louver Gallery 

p. 182 

Topanga Seed, 1969-70 

Dolomite rock and transfer letters 

38 X 47 x 46 in. (96.5 X 119.4 X 116.8 cm) 

The Grinstein Family 

p. 214 

Cindy Bernard 

United States, b. 1959 

Topography: Dry Head Agate #9 (Detail 1), 1995 

Chromogenic development (Ektacolor) print, 

edition 2/3 

30 X 40 in. (76.2 X 101.6 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 


Edward Biberman 

United States, 1904-1986 

Mandalay Beach, 1937 

Oil on canvas 

30 X 20 in. (76.2 X 50.8 cm) 

Collection of Suzanne W. and Tibor Zada 

Conspiracy, c. 1955 

Oil on board 

261/2 X41V2 in. (67.3 X 105.4 cm) 

Courtesy Suzanne W. Zada of Gallery "Z" 

p. 179 

The Hollywood Palladium, c. 1955 
Oil on Celotex on board 
36 X 48 in. ( 91.4 X 121.9 cm) 
Irell & Manella, llp 
p. 164 

Sepulveda Dam, n.d. 

Oil on canvas 

20 X35 in. {50.8 X 88.9 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift of 

the Estate of Marjorie Eaton by exchange 

p. 108 

Sandow Birk 

United States, b. 1964 

Bombardment of Fort Point, 1996 
00 and acrylic on canvas 

54 X 43 in. (137.2 X 109.2 cm) 
Peter and Isabel Blumberg 

Elmer Bischoff 

United States, 1916-1991 

Blues Singer, 1954 
Oil on canvas 

55 X 72 in. (139.7 X 182.9 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 
of Bruce and Betty Friedman in memory 
of Frederic P. Snowden 

Two Figures at the Seashore, 1957 

Oil on canvas 

56% X 56% in. (144.5 X 144-5 cm) 

Collection of the Orange County Museum of 

Art, museum purchase with additional funds 

provided by the National Endowment for the 

Arts, a federal agency 


Franz Bischoff 

Austria, active United States, 1864-1929 

Vase with Roses, c. 1908 


h: 14'/4 in. (34.9 cm) 

The Irvine Museum, Irvine, California 

California Poppies Vase, n.d. 


h: 13 -'4 in. (33.21 cm) 

The Irvine Museum, Irvine, California 

p. 78 

Ginny Bishton 

United States, b. 1967 

Walking 1, 1998 

Photo collage on paper 

17 X 18V2 in. (43.2 X 47 cm) 

LACMA, Modern and Contemporary Art 

Council, 1998 Art Here and Now purchase 

Lee Everett Blair 

United States, 1911-1993 

Dissenting Factions, 1940 
Watercolor on paper 
15 X 28 '/i in. (38.1 X 72.4 cm) 
Collection of Nancy and lohn Weare 
p. 112 

Nayland Blake 

United States, b. i960 

Hans Bellmer as Monsieur Dolmance, 1991-93 
Wood, cloth, and metal 
73 X 14 X 12 in. (185.4 X 35.6 X 30.5 cm) 
Courtesy Matthew Marks Gallery, New York 

Porter Blanchard 

United States, 1886-1973 

Coffee Set and Tray, 1930-50 

Pewter and hardwood 

Tray d: i8'/2 in. (47 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Jo Ann and Julian Ganz Jr. 

p. no 

Anton Blazek 

Czechoslovakia, active United States, 1902-1974 

Chartreuse Bottle-Vase; Red and White Ridged 

Pitcher; Striated Orange Bottle, 1945-55 

Slip cast, glazed 

h: 15% in. (39.7 cm), d: 2 in. (5.1 cm); h: u'/s 

in. (28.3 cm), d: 2 in. (5.1 cm); h: 17% (45.4 

cm), d: 2 in. (5.1 cm) 

Private collection 

Chaz Bojorquez 

United States, b. 1949 

Los Avenues, 1987 


51 X 39 in. (129.5 X 99.1 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 246 

Jonathan Borofsky 

United States, b. 1942 

Flying Man with Briefcase, 

fltNo. 28:6932,1983-86 

Multiple sculpture, painted Gatorfoam 

941/2 X 24 '/2 X 1 in. (240 X 62.2 X 2.5 cm) 

Collection of Joanna Giallelis 


Dorr Bothwell 

United States, b. 1902 

Hollywood Success, 1940 

Oil on canvas 

36 X 30 Vs in. ( 91.4 X 76.5 cm ) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Museum Collection 

Translation from the Maya, 1940 

Oil on Celotex 

23 X 19 in. (58.4 X 48.3 cm) 

Collection of the Orange County Museum of Art 

p. 136 

Cornells Botke 

Holland, active United States, 1887-1954 

Foam and Cypress, Point Lobos, 1928 


11 '/2 X 10% in. (29.2 X 27.3 cm) 

Mr. and Mrs. William A. Botke 

Gaza Bowen 

United States, b. 1944 

The American Dream, 1990 

Neoprene, sponge, clothespins, found objects, 

plywood, pressboard, and kidskin 

17 X 15 X 15 in. (43.2 X 38.1 X 38.1 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Museum 

Purchase, gift of the Textile Arts Council 

P- 255 

Robert Brady 

United States, b. 1946 

Innocence: An Open Book, 1997-98 
Mixed media 

23^/2 x 24 in. ( 59.7 x 61 cm) 
Courtesy Braunstein/Quay Gallery 

Rex Brandt 

United States, b. 1914 

Surfriders, 1959 

Oil on canvas 

26 X 36 in. (66 x 91.4 cm) 

The E. Gene Grain Collection 


Maurice Braun 

Hungary, active Unilcd States, 1877-1941 

Bay and City of San Diego [also known 
as San Diego from Point Loma], 1910 
Oil on canvas and board 
}oVs X 34'/8 in. (76.5 x 86.7 cm) 
Mr. and Mrs. William R. Uick Jr. 

Moonrise over San Diego Bay, 1915 

Oil on canvas 

22 X 28 in. (55.9 X 71.1 cm) 

Collection of loseph Ambrose and Michael 



California Valley Farm, c. 1920 
Oil on canvas 
40 X 50 in. (101.6 X 127 cm) 
Collection of Joseph L. Moure 

Brayton Laguna Pottery 

United States, 1927-68 

Two Tiles with Sleeping Mexican Motifs, 


Earthenware, glazed 

7 X 7 in. (17.8 X 17.8 cm); 6 x 6 in. 

(15.2 X 15.2 cm) 

Collection of Norman Karlson 

Anne M. Bremer 

United States, 1868-1923 

The Sentinels, c. 1918 

Oil on canvas 

44 '/2 X 49V2 in. (113 X 125.7 cm) 

Mills College Art Museum, Oakland, California 

p. 126 

An Old Fashioned Garden, n.d. 

Oil on canvas 

20 X 24 in. (50.8 X 61 cm) 

Mills College Art Museum, Oakland, California 

p. 80 

Anne W. Brigman 

United States, 1869-1950 

Infinitude, c. 1905 

Gelatin-silver print 

5%6 X 9'/i6 in. (13.9 X 24.4 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

p. 83 

The Lone Pine, c. 1908 
Gelatin-silver print 
9'/i6 X 7 'Via in. (24.3 X 19.6 cm) 
The Wilson Center for Photography 
p. 29 

The Strength of Loneliness, 1914 

Gelatin-silver print 

9'/i6 X 7 1/2 in. (24.3 X 19.1 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

Horace Bristol 

United Slates, 1908-1998 

Demonstrations Were Almost a Daily 

Occurrence in San Francisco during the 

Depression, 1935 

Gelatin-silver print 

6 X 9 in. (15.2 X 22.9 cm) 

Estate of Horace Bristol 

Trimming the Bark of a Redwood Log, 1937 
Gelatin-silver print 

9'/2 X 10 '/2 in. (24.1 X 26.7 cm) 
Estate of Horace Bristol 

Joad Family Applying for Relief 1938 

Gelatin-silver print 

i2"/i6 X 9"/i6 in. (32.2 X 24.6 cm) 

Estate of Horace Bristol 

p. 121 

Migrant Worker under Culvert, 1938 
Gelatin-silver print 
7'/2 X 9'/2 in. (19.1 X 24.1 cm) 
Estate of Horace Bristol 

Charles Brittin 

United States, b. 1928 

Arrest (Legs) Downton/n Federal Building, 

Los Angeles, California, c. 1965 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig KruU Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

p. 220 

Jessica Bronson 

United States, b. 1963 

Lost Horizon, 1998 

CAv laser disc, white television, laser disc 

player, wall-mounted monitor shelf, and cables, 

edition 1/3 

22 X 18 X 18 in. (55.9 X 45.7 X 45.7 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Jeff Brouws 

United States, b. 1955 

Interstate 40, Needles, California, 1995 

Chromogenic development print 

18 X 18 in. (45.7 X 45.7 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig Krull Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

Joan Brown 

United States, 1938-1990 

Girl in Chair, 1962 

Oil on canvas 

60 X 48 in. (152.4 X 121.9 cm) 

LACM A, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Ginter 

p. 176 

[William] Theophilus Brown 

United States, b. 1919 

Muscatine Diver, 1962-63 

Oil on canvas 

60 X 40 in. (152.4 X 101.6 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of the artist 

Bruce of L.A. [Bruce Bellas] 

United States, 1907-1974 

Untitled (Gene Hilbert), 1951 
Gelatin -silver print 
10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 
Private collection, Santa Monica 

Untitled (Dick Pardee), i960 
Gelatin-silver print 
10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 
Collection of John Sonsini 

Nancy Buchanan 

United States, b. 1946 

California Stories, 1983 

Videotape (color, with sound, ten minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Nancy Buchanan 

United States, b. 1946 
Barbara Smith 

United States, b. 1931 

With Love from A to B, 1977 

Videotape (color, with sound, nine minutes) 

Lent by the artists 

Beniamino B. Bufano 

Italy, active United States, ( 


Chinese Man and Woman, 1921 

Stoneware, glazed 

3i'/2 X 12V2 X 7'/2 in. (80 X 31.8 x 19.1 cm) 

Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 

gift of George Blumenthal, 1924 


C. S. [Clarence Sinclair] Bull 

United States, 1895-1979 

Anna May Wong, 1927 

Gelatin-silver print 

11% X 9 in. (29.8 X 22.9 cm) 

Collection of Louis E D'Elia 


Wynn Bullock 

United States, 1902-1975 

The Limpet, 1969 
Gelatin-silver print 

5'/i6 X 12 '/16 in. (12.9 X 30.7 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the Wynn and Edna 
Bullock Trust 

Chris Burden 

United States, b. 1946 

Trans-Fixed, 1974 

Photo documentation of performance 

Lent by the artist 

p. 207 

Relic from "Trans-Fixed" 1974 

Two nails 

L (of each nail): 1% in. (4.5 cm); d (of each 

nail head): V2 in. (1.27 cm) 

Collection of Jasper Johns 

L.A.P.D. Uniform, 1993 

Thirty uniforms and thirty Beretta handguns, 

wool serge, wood, and metal 

Each uniform: 88 x 72 x 6 in. (223.5 x 182.9 x 

15.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist (nos. 1-12, 14-16), the Fabric 

Workshop (nos. 23, 28, 30), Stephen Oakes 

and Olivia Georgia (no. 13), Gilbert and Lila 

Silverman (no. 29), Marion Boulton Stroud 

(nos. 20-22, 24-27), and Dr. Lothar Tirala 

(nos. 17-19) 

p. 245 

Hans Burkhardt 

Switzerland, active United States, 1904-1994 

Reagan — Blood Money, 1945 

Oil on canvas 

29x22 in. (73.7x55.9 cm) 

Hans G. and Thordis W. Burkhardt 

Foundation, courtesy Jack Rutberg Gallery, 

Los Angeles 

P- 179 

Andrew Bush 

United States, b. 1956 

Man travelling southeast on the 101 Freeway 
at approximately 71 mph somewhere around 
Camarillo, California, on a summer evening 
in 1995 

From the Freeway series, 1995 
Chromogenic development print 
30 x 40 in. (76.2 x 101.6 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Jean Williams Cacicedo 

United States, b. 1948 

Tee Pee: An Indian Dedication, 1988 

Wool, felted, hand dyed, reverse appiiqued 

51 X 60 in. (129.5 x 152.4 cm) 

Collection of Julie Schafler Dale, courtesy of 

Julie: Artisans' Gallery, New York 

p. 261 

John Cage 

United States, 1912-1992 

Seven Day Diary/Not Knowing, 1978 

Seven prints using etching, drypoint, and 

aquatint on Rives papers 

Each sheet: 12 x 17 in. (30.7 x 43 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Crown 

Point Press Archive, Gift of Kathan Brown 

Jerome Caja 

United States, 1958-1995 

Virgin at the Hamper, 1989 

Nail polish 

9 x7'/4 in. (22.9 x 18.4 cm) 

Collection of Anna van der Meulen 

Bloody Marys from Heaven, 1994 
Nail polish, enamel, and white-out 
13 '/2 x 13 1/2 in. (34.3 x 34.3 cm) 
Collection of Anna van der Meulen 

Head of John the Baptist, n.d. 

Charles Sexton's ashes and nail polish on resin 

d: 11 in. (27.9 cm) 

Collection of Anna van der Meulen 

Toasted White Bread (Having a Nice Day), n.d. 
Nail polish, enamel, and white-out on paper 
121/2 X 9V4 in. (31.8 x 24.8 cm) 
Collection of Anna van der Meulen 

California China Products Company 

United States, 1911-17 

San Diego Backcountry, 1911-13 
Kaospar clay, glazed 
6 X 48 in. (15.2 X 121.9 cm) 
Lent by Estelle and Jim Milch 

California Clay Products Company (CALCO) 

United States, 1918-33 

Three Tiles with Mayan Motifs, 1923-33 


6 X 6 in. (15.2 X 15.2 cm); 8 x 7 in. (20.3 x 

17.8 cm); 8x8 (20.3 x 20.3 cm) 

Collection of Norman Karlson 

Tile with Parrots, 1923-33 


i6yi6 x ^Vs in. (41.6 x 14.3 cm) 

Collection of Norman Karlson 

Two Tiles with Peacock Motifs, 1923-33 


ii'/4 x 5'/2 in. (28.6 x 14 cm); 11 x 5 in. 

(27.9 X 12.7 cm) 

Collection of Norman Karlson 

California Faience 

United States, 1915-30 

Bowl, c. 1920 


h: 2 in. (5.1 cm); d: 5=78 in. (14.3 cm) 

LACMA, Art Museum Council Fund 

Vase, c. 1920 

h: jVs in. (18.1 cm); d: 4 in. (10.2 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

Vase, c. 1920 

h: 6% in. (16.2 cm); d: 4'/a in. (10.5 cm) 
LACMA, purchased with funds provided by 
the William Randolph Hearst Collection 

Vase, c. 1920 


h: 6 in. (15.2 cm); d: 3'/2 in. (8.9 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by Arthur Hornblow Jr. 

p. 88 

Vase, c. 1920 

h: 5 in. (12.7 cm); d: 5% in. (14.9 cm) 
LACMA, purchased with funds provided by 
Mrs. Leonard Martin, the Los Angeles County, 
Mrs. Charles Otis, Emma Gillman in memory 
of Edith O. Bechtel, Mrs. Edwin Greble, and 
Edwin C. Vogel 

Vase, c. 1920 


h: eVs in. (16.2 cm); d: 4'/8 in. (10.5 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

p. 88 

Vase, c. 1925 


h: toys in. (26.4 cm); d: 8'/4 in. (21 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

California Hand Prints 

United States, founded c. 1940 

Textile Length, c. 1941 

Printed cotton 

61V4 X 48 in. (155.6 X 121.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Esther Ginsberg and Harry Eden 

in honor of Bob and Rhonda Heintz 

p. 141 

California Porcelain 

United States, c. 1925 

Vase, c. 1925 


h: 12 in. (30.5 cm); d: 8 in. (20.3 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 


Garry Carthew 

United States 

For Peter Pepper Pr 

s, United States 

Viking Clock, 1957 

Painted wood and clocisworks 

15 X 2 in. (38.1 X 5.1 cm) 

LACMA, gift of lerome and Kveiyn Ackerman 

Catalina Sportswear 

United States, founded 1907 

Womaris Two-Piece Bathing Suit and Jacket, 
late 1940s 
Printed cotton 

Jacket cb: 28 in. (71.1 cm); Top l: 42 in. 
{106.7 cm); Shorts cb: 17 in. (43.2 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Harry Eden and Esther 
Ginsberg in honor of Michael, Linda, 
and Alice Eisenberg 
p. 158 

Enrique Martinez Celaya 

Cuba, active United States, b. 1964 

Map, 1998 

Oil on fabric over canvas 

48 X 48 X 21/2 in. (121.9 X 121.9 X 6.4 cm) 

Collection of Stephen Cohen, Los Angeles 

P- 253 

Vija Celmins 

Latvia, active United States, b. 1938 

Untitled (Ocean), 1968 
Graphite on acrylic ground on paper 
13% X i8'/2 in. (34.9 X 47 cm) 
Collection of Helen and Tony Berlant 

Enrique Chagoya 

Mexico, active United States, b. 1953 

When Paradise Arrived, 1988 
Charcoal and pastel on paper 
80 X 80 in. (203.2 X 203.2 cm) 
di Rosa Preserve, Napa, California 
p. 249 

Wah Ming Chang 

United States, b. 1917 

Chinatown, c. 1927 
Woodblock on paper 
10 '/4 X 8'/4 in. (26 X 21 cm) 
The Michael D. Brown Collection 

Jean Chariot 

France, active United States and Mexico, 

Idol, 1933 

Color lithograph 

ii'/4 X 8'yi6 in. (28.6 X 21.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Marie and lack Lord 

Woman Standing, Child on Back, 1933 
Color lithograph 

I4'yi6 X 10 ^6 in. (37.6 X 25.9 cm) 
lac;ma, gift of Marie and jack Lord 

Woman Washing, 1933 

Color lithograph 

11V4 X 8'/i6 in. (28.6 X 21.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Marie and Jack Lord 

Judy Chicago 

United States, b. 1939 

Ciir Hood, 1964 

Sprayed acrylic lacquer on 1964 Corvair hood 

48 X 48 X 5 in. (121.9 X 121.9 X 12.7 cm) 

The Sutnar Foundation 

p. 204 

Menstruation Bathroom from Womanhonse, 
a Collaborative Site-Specific Installation, 1972 
Excerpt from Womanhouse by Johanna 
Demetrakas, 16 mm film documentation (color, 
with sound, forty-three minutes) of installation, 
transferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artist and Johanna Demetrakas 
p. 230 

Georgia O'Keeffe Plate #1, 1979 

Whiteware with china paint 

H'/s X 14% in. (37.8 X 37.2 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

gift of Mary Ross Taylor 

p. 230 

The Dinner Party, 1979 

Excerpt from Right Out of History: The Making 
of Judy Chicago's "Dinner Party" by Johanna 
Demetrakas, 16 mm film documentation (color, 
with sound, seventy-six minutes) of installation, 
transferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artist and Johanna Demetrakas 

Christo [Christo Javacheff] 

Bulgaria, active United States, b. 1935 

Running Fence, Project for Sonoma and Marin 

Counties, California. Collage 1975, 1975 

Pencil, fabric, charcoal, crayon, technical data, 

ballpoint pen, and tape 

22x28 in. (56x71 cm) 

Collection of Christo and Jeanne-Claude 

Christo [Christo Javacheff] 

Bulgaria, active United States, b. 1935 
Jeanne-Claude [Jeanne-Claude de Guillebon] 

Morocco, active United States, b. 1935 

Running Fence, Sonoma and Marin Counties, 

California, 1972-76, 1976 

Photo documentation of installation 

Lent by the artists 

p. 196 

David P. Chun 

United States, 1899-1989 

To the Coit Tower, 1934-35 

Color lithograph 

Sheet: 15 '/2 x 15^/8 (39.4 x 39.7 cm) 

United States Government Treasury 

Department, Public Works of Art Project, 

Washington, D.C., on permanent loan to 


Unemployed, n.d. 


7y4 X loVa in. (19.69 X 27 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Albert 

M. Bender Collection, gift of Albert M. Bender 

Julius Cindrich 

United States, 1890-1981 

Evening, Green Bay, c. 1925 
Gelatin-silver bromide print 
io"/i6 X i3"/i6 in. (27.2 X 34.7 cm) 
Dennis and Amy Reed Collection 
p. 125 

Robin Charles Clark 

United States, b. 1956 

My Favorite Flagpole, 1995 
Oil on currency mounted on redwood 
11 X 8'/2 X i'/2 in. (27.9 X 21.6 X 3.7 cm) 
Collection of Bill Rush 

Emmon Clarke 

United States, b. 1933 

Untitled, 1960s 

Gelatin-silver print 

11 X 14 in. (27.9 X35.6 cm) 

Center for Photojournalism and Visual History, 

California State University, Northridge 

p. 224 

William Claxton 

United States, b. 1927 

Stan Getz, Hollywood, 1954, printed 1999 

Gelatin-silver print, edition 5/25 

23% X 18^16 in. (59.4 X 46.5 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Fahey/ Klein Gallery, 

Los Angeles 

p. 184 

Marian Clayden 

England, active United States, b. 1937 

Rainforest Coat, 1987 

Silk, permanently pleated, discharge 

and clamp resist dyed 

Coat cb: 60 in. (152.4 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Stiles Clements 

United Slates, 1883-1966 

Morgan, Walls, and Clements, United States, 


The Mayan Theater, Los Angeles, Hill Street 

Fafade, 1926-27 

Graphite on tracing paper 

34 X 52 in. (86.4 X 132.1 cm) 

Courtesy The Huntington Library, San Marino, 


Alvin Langdon Coburn 

United States, 1882-1966 

Giant Palm Trees, California Mission, 1911 

Platinum print 

15% X i2'/4 in. (40.4 X 31.1 cm) 

Courtesy George Eastman House, gift 

of Alvin Langdon Coburn 

p. 90 

Robert Colescott 

United States, b. 1925 

I Gets a Thrill Too When I Sees De Koo, 1978 

Acrylic on canvas 

84 X 66 in. (213.4 X 167.6 cm) 

Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, 

Waltham, Massachusetts. Gift of Senator 

and Mrs. William Bradley, 1978 

Will Connell 

United States, 1898-1961 

Southern California Edison Plant 
at Long Beach, 1932 
Gelatin-silver print 
16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 
Collection of Michael Dawson 

Make -Up 

From the publication In Pictures, c. 1937 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 '^16 X 13% in. (42.7 X 35 cm) 

Photographic History Collection, National 

Museum of American History, Smithsonian 



Bruce Conner 

United States, b. 1933 


Wood, fabric, feathers, wax, tin can, metal, 
string, and spray paint 
20 x 11 '/4 X 21 ys in. ( 50.8 X 28.6 X 54.3 cm) 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 
purchased with funds from the Contemporary 
Painting and Sculpture Committee 

Marika Contompasis 

United States, b. 1948 

Trout Magnolia Kimono, 1977 

Wool yarn, loom knitted 

56 X 56 in. (142.2 X 142.2 cm) 

Collection of Julie Schafler Dale, courtesy of 

Julie: Artisans' Gallery, New York 


Lia Cook 

United States, b. 1942 

Emergence, 1979 

Rayon and polyurethane foam 

69 X 58% X 3 in. (175.3 X 148.3 X 7.6 cm) 

Collection American Craft Museum, New York. 

Gift of Dr. Richard Gonzalez in memory 

of Lorraine Gonzalez, 1981. Donated to the 

American Craft Museum by the American 

Craft Council, 1990 

p. 211 

Presence/Absence: Legs and Knees, 1997 
Cotton and rayon, handwoven jacquard 
58 X 40 in. (147-3 x 101.6 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Miles Coolidge 

United States, b. 1963 

Near Tulare Lake 

From the Central Valley series, 1998 

Chromogenic development print 

io'/4 X i32'/2 in. (26 X 336.6 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy acme, Los Angeles 

Ron Corbin 

United States, b. 1943 

Untitled, 1990, printed 1994 
Gelatin-silver print 
9^/8 X 9-y8 in. (24.4 X 24.4 cm) 
LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 
p. 244 

Untitled, 1990, printed 1994 
Gelatin-silver print 
9"/i6 X 9% in. (24.6 X 24.4 cm) 
LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

Keith Cottingham 

United States, b. 1965 


From the Fictitious Portraits series, 1993 

Dye-coupler print from a digitized source, 

edition 3/15 

22 X 18 '/2 in. (55.9 X 47 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 


Craig Cowan 

United States, 1947-1993 

Untitled: Nude, 1992 

Hand-toned internal dye-diffusion transfer 

(Polaroid) print 

4'/2 X 3'/2 in. (11.4 X 8.9 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by Dr. Eugene Rogolsky, M.D. 

Elsie Crawford 

United States, 1913-1999 

Zipper Light I and II, designed 1965, fabricated 



(I) h: 18 in. (45.7 cm); d: 26 in. (66 cm); 

(II) h: 26 '/2 in. (67.3 cm); d: 12 in. (30.5 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the artist 

p. 163 

Russell Crotty 

United States, b. 1956 

Letter from South Lagoon, 1989 
Black ink on paper 
72 X 48 in. (182.9 X 121.9 cm) 
Collection of Barry Sloane 

Rinaldo Cuneo 

United States, 1877-1939 

California Landscape, 1928 

Oil on canvas set in three-part screen 

Overall: 66 x 66 in. (167.6 x 167.6 cm) 

Private collection 

p. 117 

Imogen Cunningham 

United States, 1883-1976 

Aloe Bud, 1930 

Gelatin-silver print 

i2'/2 x 9'/4 in. (31.8 x 23.5 cm) 

LACMA, Los Angeles County Fund 

p. 123 

Darryl Curran 

United States, b. 1935 

777, 1968 

Gelatin-silver print, high-contrast lithographic 

film, wood, metal, and glass 

14 X 11 '/2 X 2 in. (35.6 X 29.2 x 5.1 cm) 

Lent by Darryl and Doris Curran 

Edward S. Curtis 

United States, 1868-1952 

The Burden Basket — Coast Porno 

From The North Atncrican Indian, vol. 14 

(1924), pi. 472 

Gelatin-silver print 

10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 

Canoe of Tules — Powo 

From The North Amcrictiii huluiii. vol. 14 

(1924), pi. 489 


ii'.i X 15V3 in. (29.2 X 39.4 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, I.os Angeles 

A Desert Cahuilla Woiikiii 

From The North Amerkiui Indian, vol. 15 

(1924), pi. 522 


15 '/2 X 11 '/2 in. (39.4 X 29.2 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 

p. 93 

Mitat — WaUaki 

From The North American Indian, vol. 14 

(1924), pi. 472 


i5'/2 X ii'/2 in. (39.4 X29.2 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 


"Porno," a Cherokee Ww Migrated 

to California, 1924 

Gelatin-silver print 

9'/2 X 8 in. (24.1 X 20.3 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 

Dana and Towers Photography Studio 

United States, c. 1906 

#115. Looking South from Stockton 
and Sutter, 1906 
Gelatin-silver print 
3'/2 X 11% in. (8.9 X 29.8 cm) 
Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 

#121. Looking East on Market Street, 1906 
Gelatin-silver print 
3'/2 X 11 Vs in. (8.9 X 28.3 cm) 
Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 
pp. 66-67 

Lowell Darling 

United States, b. 1942 
Dana Atchley 

United States, b. 1941 

Campaign Tapes, 1980 

Videotape documentation (color, with sound, 

six minutes) by Atchley of Darling's campaign 

for governor of California 

Lent by Dana Atchley 

William Dassonville 

United States, 1879-1957 

Half Dome and Clouds, Merced River, 

Yosemite Valley, c. 1905 

Platinum print 

jVn X 9'/8 in. (18.7 X 23.2 cm) 

Courtesy Paul Hertzmann, Susan Herzig, and 

Paul M. Hertzmann, Inc., San Francisco 

PP- 72-73 

Grasses, c. 1920 

Gelatin-silver print 

10x8 in. (25.5 X 20.4 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

Untitled, Oil Refinery, Richmond, 

California, c. 1920 

Gelatin-silver print 

8 X 10 in. {20.5 X 25.5 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

Judy Dater 

United States, b. 1941 

Libby, 1971 
Gelatin-silver print 
14 X 11 in. (35.6 X 27.9 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 229 

Nehemiah, 1975, printed 1981 
Gelatin-silver print 
loys X i3'/2 in. (26.4 X 34.3 cm) 
Santa Barbara Museum of Art, gift 
of Arthur and Yolanda Steinman 

Arthur Bowen Davies 

United States, 1862-1928 

Pacific Parnassus, Mount Tamalpais, c. 1905 

Oil on canvas 

26 '4 X 40 '/4 in. (66.7 X 102.2 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Museum 

Purchase, gift of The Museum Society Auxiliary 

p. 83 

Ron Davis 

United States, b. 1937 

Roto, 1968 

Polyester resin and fiberglass 

62 x 136 in. (157.5 X 345-4 cm) 

LACMA, Contemporary Art Council Fund 

p. 210 

Robert Dawson 

United States, b. 1950 

Untitled #1, 1979 

From the Mono Lake series 

Gelatin-silver print 

7'/8 x 12 in. (18.1 X30.5 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Sue and Albert Dorskind 


Polluted New River, Mexican/American Border, 

Calexico, California, 1989 

From the project Farewell, Promised Land 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 x 20 in. (40.6 x 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Richard Day 

Canada, active Unii 

d States, 1896-1972 

California Boom, before 1932 


9x14 in. (22.9 X 35.5 cm) 

Victoria Dailey 

Joe Deal 

United States, b. 1947 

Colton, California, 1978 

From the portfolio The Fault Zone, 1981 

Gelatin-silver print 

8 X 10 in. (20.3 X 25.4 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Lewis Baltz 

p. 241 

Georganne Deen 

United States, b. 1951 

Mary's Lane: Family Room, 1993 

Oil on linen 

58 X 48 in. (147.3 X 121.9 cm) 

left Kerns, Los Angeles 

P- 253 

Jay DeFeo 

United States, 1929-1989 

The Jewel, 1959 

Oil on canvas 

120 X 55 in. (304.8 X 139.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the 1998 Collectors Committee 

p. 181 

Stephen De Hospodar 

Hungary, active United States, 1902-1959 

Rhythm, c. 1930 


9i/4X5'/2 in. (23.5 xi4cm) 

Victoria Dailey 

Einar de la Torre 

Mexico, active United States, b. 1963 
Jamex de la Torre 

Mexico, active United States, b. i960 

Marte y Venus, 1997 

Glass and mixed media 

62 X 25 in. (157.5 X 63.5 cm) 

Lent by the artists, courtesy Daniel Saxon 


p. 263 

Pedro de Lemos 

United States, 1882-1954 

Path to the Sea, c. 1920 
Color woodcut 
19 X 14% in. (48.3 X 37.5 cm) 
Victoria Dailey 


Paul de Longpre 

France, active United States, 1855-1911 

Roses La France and Jack Noses with Clematis 

on a Lattice Work, No. 36, 1900 

Watercolor on paper 

27 V4 X 14% in. (69.2 X 37.5 cm) 

lam/ocma Art Collection Trust, 

gift of Nancy Dustin Wall Moure 

p. 80 

Neil M. Denari 

Uniteci States, b. 1957 

Westcoast Gateway, wgu: View from 

Helicopter, 1989 

Ink on Mylar 

18 X 24 in. (45.7 X 61 cm) 

Lent by the architect, Neil M. Denari Architects 

Lewis deSoto 

United States, b. 1954 

Tideline, 1981-82 

Photo documentation of sitework at Leucadia, 

California, transferred to videotape for this 


Lent by the artist 

Ellipse Tide, 1982 

Photo documentation of sitework, transferred 

to videotape for this exhibition 

Lent by the artist 

Plans for Wave System, 1983 
Photo documentation of Diazo print drawing 
for sitework at San Marcos State Beach, trans- 
ferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artist 

Wave System, 1983 

Photo documentation of sitework at 
San Marcos State Beach, transferred to video- 
tape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artist 

Plans for Tideline 2, 1984 

Photo documentation of Diazo print drawing 

for sitework at Leucadia, California, transferred 

to videotape for this exhibition 

The Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego 

Tideline 2, 1984 

Photo documentation of sitework at Leucadia, 

California, transferred to videotape for this 


The Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego 

Stephen De Staebler 

United States, b. 1933 

Seated Kangaroo Woman, 1978 

Clay, fired 

74 x 19 in. (188 X 48.3 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 215 

Mary Ann DeWeese 

United States, b. circa 1914 

For Catalina Sportswear, founded 1907 

Woman's Bathing Suit, mid-i940S 

Hand-printed Lastex 

cb: 16 in. (40.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of The Fashion Group, Inc., 

of Los Angeles 

Kris Dey 

United States, b. 1949 

Ancho U, 1991 

Painted cotton strips 

72 x 96 X 1 in. (182.9 X 243.8 X 2.5 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

P- 239 

Richard Diebenkorn 

United States, 1922-1993 

Berkeley #32, 1955 
Oil on canvas 

59 X 57 in. (149.9 X 144.8 cm) 
Richard E. Sherwood Family Collection 
p. 169 

Freeway and Aqueduct, 1957 

Oil on canvas 

23 '4 X 28 in. ( 59.1 X 71.1 cm) 

LACMA, gift of William and Regina Fadiman 

p. 30 

Ocean Park Series #49, 1972 

Oil on canvas 

93 X 81 in. (236.2 X 205.7 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by Paul Rosenberg & Co., Lita A. Hazen, and 

the David E. Bright Bequest 

p. 194 

Phil Dike 

United States, 1906-1990 

Surfer, c. 1931 

Oil on canvas 

32x29 in. (81.3x73.7 cm) 

Collection of A. Lawrence and Anne 

Spooner Crowe 

p. 127 

Dominic Di Mare 

United States, b. 1932 

Damns #8/Where the River Meets the Sea, 1984 
Horsehair, gold leaf, wood, and photograph 

60 X 23 in. (152.4 X 58.4 cm) 
American Craft Museum, New York 

Kim Dingle 

United States, b. 1951 

Two Girls, One with Head in Heaven, 1992 
Oil on linen 

72 X 60 in. (182.9 x 152-4 cm) 
Collection of Kimberly Light 

Christian Dior 

France, 1905-1957 

For Cole of California, United States, 

founded 1923 

Woman's Bathing Suit, 1956 

Laton taffeta 

cb: 19 in. (48.3 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Fred Cole of Cole of California 

John Divola 

United States, b. 1949 

Zuma No. 21, 1977 

From the portfolio Zuma One, 1978 

Dye-imbibition print, edition 7/30 

i4'/2 X 18 in. (36.8 X 45.7 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 


Boats at Sea #1 

Isolated Houses #3 

Occupied Landscapes #3 

Stray Dogs #2 

From the portfolio Four Landscapes, 1993 

Gelatin-silver prints 

Each print: 17% x 17% in. (45.4 x 45.4 cm) 

LACMA, promised gift of leffrey Leifer 

Maynard Dixon 

United States, 1875-1946 

Airplane, c. 1930 

Gouache on paper 

19 X 17 '/2 in. (48.3 x 44.5 cm) 

Automobile Club of Southern California 

p. 108 

Arthur Burnside Dodge 

United States, 1865-1952 

Taking in the News, 1891 

Watercolor on paper 

i4xi6'/2 in. (35.6 X41.9 cm) 

Collection of Dr. Oscar and Trudy Lemer 

Taken by Surprise, n.d. 

Watercolor on paper 

14% X 15 in. (37.1 X 38.1 cm) 

Collection of Dr. Oscar and Trudy Lemer 


Alex Donis 

United States, b. 1964 

Rio. por no Ilorar, 19H8 


39 X 26 in. (99.1 X 66 cm) 

LACMA, purchased witii funds provided by the 

Art Museum Council 

Harold Lukens Doolittle 

United States, 1883-1974 

Plaque, c. 1915 

Brass and glass 

11 X 8 in. (27.9 X 20.3 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided by the 

Art Museum Council 

Ricardo Duffy 

United States, b. 1951 

The New Order, 1996 


20 X 26 in. (50.8 X 66 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided by the 

Art Museum Council 

p. 269 

Raymond Duncan 

United States, 1874-1966 

Scarf, c. 1920 

Wool crepe, block printed and brush dyed 

57 X 25 in. (144.8 X 63.5 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, the Estate 

of Phoebe H. Brown 

Tony Duquette 

United States, 1914-1999 

Console Table and Mirror, c. i960 
Cast resin, gold leaf, and mirror 
Table: 96 x 24 in. (243.8 x 61 cm); 
Mirror: 39 x 27 in. (99.1 x 68.6 cm) 
Courtesy Hutton Wilkinson 

Eliot Duval 

United States, 1909-1990 

Third Street Traffic, Bunker Hill, 1932 

Watercolor on paper 

9 x 11% in. (22.9 x 29.8 cm) 

Duval Estate, George Stern Fine Arts, 

Los Angeles 

Mexican Town, Chavez Ravine, c. 1939 
Watercolor on paper 
i4'/4 X 21 in. (36.2 X 53.3 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Tamara Eliot 

Fannie Duvall 

United Slates, 1861-1934 

luan Capislrano, ili')7 

Confirnuilion (.'.la 


Oil on canvas 

20 X 30 in. {50.8 X 76.2 cm) 

Lent by the Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, 

Santa Ana, gift of Miss Vesta A. Olmstead 

and Miss Frances Campbell 

Charles Eames 

United States, 1907-1978 
Ray Eames 

United States, 1912-1988 

Plywood Stretcher, 1943 
Molded plywood 
72 '/2 X 45 in. (184.2 X 114.3 cm) 
Lucia Eames 

Leg Splint, c. 1943 
Molded plywood 
42 X 6 in. (106.7 X 15.2 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Don Menveg 

Leg Splints and Packaging Box, c. 1943 
Molded plywood and cardboard box 
Each splint: 42 x 6 in. (106.7 x 15.2 cm) 
Courtesy Andrew H. and Lydia Sussman 
p. 150 

fsw (Folding Screen Wood), 1946 
Wood and canvas 

Screen open: 67 '/z x 60 in. (171.5 x 152.4 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the Employees of Herman 
Miller, Inc. 

icw (Low Chair Wood), c. 1946 
Molded ash plywood, metal, and rubber 
shock mounts 

26 Vi X 21 y4 in. (67.3 X 55.2 cm) 
Anonymous lender 

Three Plastic Armchairs, 1950-53 

Plastic, steel base (two examples), wood base 

(one example), and rubber shock mounts 

Each: 36 x 24 in. (91.4 x 61 cm) 

Courtesy Andrew H. and Lydia Sussman 

ETR (Elliptical Table, Rod Base), 1951 
Plywood, plastic laminate, and wire base 
10 x 89 '4 in. (25.4 X 226.7 cm) 
Mrs. A. Quincy Jones 
p. 161 

Esu (Eames Storage Unit), 1951-52 

Plywood, metal, and particleboard 

30 '/4 X 77% in. (76.8 X 197.5 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Sid Avery and James Corcoran 

p. 163 

Wire Mesh Chair with Low Wire Base, 1951-53 


24 X 18 in. (61 X 45.7 cm) 

Courtesy Andrew H. and Lydia Sussman 

p. 163 

La Fonda Chair, c. 1963 

Aluminum, plastic, vinyl, and fiberglass 

24'/2 X 22 in. (62.2 X 55.9 cm) 

lac:ma, gift of the Employees of 1 lerman 

Miller, Inc. 

Ray Eames 

United States, 1912-1988 

Sea Things, 1945 

From the Stimulus Collection, produced 

by Schiffer Prints, division of Mil-Art 

Company, Inc., 1949 

Cotton, screenprinted and hand printed 

53x49 in. (134.6 X 124.5 cm) 

LACMA, Curatorial Special Purpose Fund 

John Paul Edwards 

United States, 1884-1968 

William Ritschel Painting by the Ocean, c. 1920 

Bromoil print 

iiVs X 9 in. (28.3 X 22.9 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Mrs. John Paul Edwards 

Craig Ellwood 

United States, 1922-1992 

Art Center College of Design, Pasadena, 

Rendered Perspective, 1974 

Drawing by Carlos Diniz 

Ink on paper 

24 '/2 X 72 in. (62.6 X 182.9 cm) 

Collection of Carlos Diniz 

Charles A. Elsenius 

United States, 1883-1963 

Woolenius Tile Company (later Elsenius 

Tile and Mantel Company), United States, 


Tiles with Mayan Motifs, 1927-39 


5 X 9 in. (12.7 X 22.9 cm); 8 x 8 in. 

(20.3 X 20.3 cm) 

Collection of Norman Karlson 

Jules Engel 

Hungary, active United States, b. 1915 

Brilliant Moves, 1946 

Gouache on paper 

19 X 25 in. (48.3 X63.5 cm) 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Kallis, Los Angeles 

MacDuff Everton 

United States, b. 1937 

Golden Gate Bridge from Fort Point, c. 1990 
Chromogenic development print 
96 X 48 in. (243.8 X 121.9 cm) 
LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

Manny Farber 

United States, b. 1917 

Roads and Trach, 1981 

Oil on board 

89 X 57 in. (226.1 X 144.8 cm) 

Courtesy Quint Contemporary Art 

Sohela Farokhi 

Iran, active United States, b. 1956 
Lars Lerup 

Sweden, active United States, b. 1940 

House of Flats, Proposed Site in San Francisco, 

Working Drawing #2, 1989 

Mixed media on Bristol paper 

30^16 X 22% in. (76.7 X 57.5 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

Visionary San Francisco Commission 

Fred Fehlau 

United States, b. 1958 

Between a Rock and a Hard Place 

(Inside/Outside), 1991 


isVs X 151/8 in. (38.4 X 38.4 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Eileen and Peter Norton 

Lorser Feitelson 

United States, 1898-1978 

Magical Space Forms, No. 12, 1951 
Oil on Masonite 
30 X 40 in. (76.2 X 101.6 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Mrs. June Wayne 

Margit Fellegi 

Hungary, active United States, c. 1908-1975 
For Cole of California, United States, 
founded 1923 

Woman's Two-Piece Bathing Sidt, 

"Swoon Suit," 1942 

Acetate satin 

Top l: 42 in. (106.7 cm); Shorts cb: 131/2 in. 

(34-3 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the artist 

Woman's Bathing Suit and Skirt, c. 1944 

Glazed cotton chintz, cotton, and elastic 


Bathing suit cb: i5'/2 in. (39.4 cm); 

Skirt cb: 43 in. (109.2 cm) 

LACMA, gift of The Fashion Group, Inc., 

of Los Angeles 

p. 158 

Woman's Bathing Suit Dress, 1946 
Velvet and elastic (Matletex) 
cb: 48 in. (121.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the artist 

Arline Fisch 

United States, b. 1931 

Halter and Skirt, 1968 
Sterling silver and printed velvet 
Halter: 22 x 11 in. (55.9 x 27.9 cm); 
Skirt: 46 x 24 in. (116.8 x 61 cm) 
American Craft Museum, New York 

Hal Fischer 

United States, b. 1950 

Signifiers for a Male Response 

From the series Gay Semiotics, 1977 

Gelatin-silver print 

iSVi x I2yi6 in. (47 X 31.8 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

gift of Richard Lorenz 

Oskar Fischinger 

Germany, active United States, 1900-1967 

Abstraction, 1943 

Oil on panel 

18x22 in. (45.7x55.9 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided by the 

Austin and Irene Young Trust by exchange 

Radio Dynamics, 1943 

16 mm film (color, with sound, twelve minutes) 

Lent by Fischinger Archive 

p. 190 

Frederick Fisher 

United States, b. 1949 

Jorgensen House (Conceptual Sketch), 

Los Angeles, 1980 

Graphite, metallic powder, and oil pastel on 


31 X 23'/2 in. (78.7 X 59.7 cm) 

Lent by Frederick Fisher 

George Fiske 

United States, 1835-1918 

Dancing on the Overhanging Rock at Glacier 

Point, 5,200 ft., c. 1895-1905 

Albumen print 

4'/2 X 7'/2 in. (11.4 X 19.1 cm) 

Yosemitc Museum, National Park Service 

Judy Fiskin 

United States, b. 1945 

Untitled #195, 1982 

From the Dingbat series, 1981-83 

Gelatin-silver print 

2% X2y4 in. (7 X 7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of John Rollins 

p. 244 

Untitled #163, 1983 

From the Dingbat series, 1981-83 

Gelatin-silver print 

2% X2% in. (7 x7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Dr. and Mrs. Merle S. Click 

Untitled #199, 1983 

From the Dingbat series, 1981-83 

Gelatin-silver print 

23/4 X2y4 in. (7 x7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Patricia Faure 

Bob Flanagan 

United States, 1952-1996 
Sheree Rose 

United States, b. 1945 

Leather from Home, 1983 

Videotape (color, with sound, eight minutes) 

Lent by Sheree Rose 

Bob Flanagan 

United States, 1952-1996 
Mike Kelley 
United States, b. 1954 
Sheree Rose 

United States, b. 1945 

100 Reasons, 1991 

Text by Mike Kelley, concept by Bob Flanagan 

and Sheree Rose 

Videotape (color, with sound, six minutes) 

Lent by Sheree Rose 

Louis Fleckenstein 

United States, 1866-1942 

Rose Dance of the South, c. 1916 
Gelatin-silver bromide print 
9V16X 6 V16 in. (23.1 X 15.5 cm) 
Dennis and Amy Reed Collection 

Christine Fletcher 

United States, 1872-1961 

Fog from the Pacific (No. 4), c. 1931 

Gelatin-silver print 

131/2 X loVs in. (34.3 X 25.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Susan and G. Ray Hawkins 

p. 128 

Frank Morley Fletcher 

England, active United States, 1866-1949 

California 2. Mt. Shasta, c. 1930 

Color woodcut 

11% X 15% in. (29.6 X 40.3 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

Museum Purchase 

p. 129 

Robbert Flick 

1 lolland, active United State 

b. 1939 

Along Pico Looking North, from Appinn Way, 

Santa Monica, to Central Avenue, l.os Angeles 

(Pico H), 1998-99 

Silver dye-bleach (Cibachrome) print 

38 X 48 in. (96.5 X 121.9 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

p. 271 

Peter Forakis 

United States, active 1950s 

Poster for the 6 Gallery, Poetry Reading, 

October 7, jg^), 1955 

Color screenprint 

21 '/i(. X I2'yi6 in. (53.5 X 32.5 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, Gift 

of Jose Ramon Lerma in memory of Ruth Wall 

Helen Forbes 

United States, 1891-1945 

Manley's Beacon, Death Valley, c. 1930 

Oil on canvas 

24 X 40 in. (61 X 101.6 cm) 

The National Museum of Women in the Arts, 

gift of Richard York 

P- 123 

Myoshi, c. 1935 

Oil on canvas 

26 X 22 in. (66 X55.9 cm) 

LACMA, promised gift of Nancy Dustin 

Wall Moure 

Robert F. Foss 

United States 

F. H. Lemon Residence, Pasadena, East Front 

Elevation, 1912 

Ink on linen 

16 'yi6 X 23^16 in. (42.7 X 58.5 cm) 

Courtesy The Huntington Library, San Marino, 


Llyn Foulkes 

United States, b. 1934 

Death Valley, U.S.A., 1963 

Oil on canvas 

65 '/2 X 64% in. (166.4 X 164.5 cm) 

Betty and Monte Factor Collection, 

Santa Monica, California 

Sam Francis 

United States, 1923-1994 

SFP68-29, 1968 

Acrylic on canvas 

101 X 86 in. (256.5 X 218.4 cm) 

lonathan Novak, Los Angeles 

p. 213 

Robert Frank 

Svvit/erland, active United States, b. 1924 

Covered Car, Long Beach, California, 1956 

Gelatin-silver print 

11 X 13% in. (27.9 X 35.2 cm) 

The Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Los Angeles, The Ralph M. Parsons 

Foundation Photography Collection 

p. 41 

Movie Premiere, Hollywood, 1956 

Gelatin-silver print 

13% X 11 in. (35.2 X 27.9 cm) 

The Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Los Angeles, The Ralph M. Parsons 

Foundation Photography Collection 

Television Studio, Burbank, California, 195( 

Gelatin-silver print 

II X 13% in. (27.9 X 35.2 cm) 

The Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Los Angeles, The Ralph M. Parsons 

Foundation Photography Collection 

p. 178 

Viola Frey 

United States, b. 1933 

Lie Man, 1983 

Ceramic, glazed 

109 X 37 in. (276.8 X 94 cm) 

Frederick R. Weisman Art Foundation, 

Los Angeles 

p. 258 

Anthony Friedkin 

United States, b. 1949 

Surfboard in the Setting Sun, Santa Mortice 

California, 1977 

From the Surfing Essay 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 203 

Clockwork, Malibu, 1978 
From the Surfing Essay 
Gelatin-silver print 
16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Lee Friedlander 

United States, b. 1934 

Los Angeles, California, 1965 

Gelatin-silver print 

11 X 14 in. (27.9 X 35.6 cm) 

The Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Los Angeles, The Ralph M. Parsons 

Foundation Photography Collection 

p. 198 

Larry Fuente 

United States, b. 1947 

Derby Racer (completed for the San Francisco 

Museum of Modern Art's "Artist Soap Box 

Derby" event), 1975 

Mixed media in epoxy on fiberglass Berkeley 

(car model c. 1962) 

43x151 in. (109.2x377.5 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 205 

Kip Fulbeck 

United States, b. 1965 

Banana Split, 1991 
Videotape (color, with sound, 
thirty-eight minutes) 
Lent by Video Data Bank 

Coco Fusco 

United States, b. i960 
Paula Heredia 

El Salvador, active United States, b. 1957 

The Couple in the Cage: Guatianaui 

Odyssey, 1993 

Videotape (color, with sound, thirty-one 


Lent by Video Data Bank 

James Galanos 

United States, b. 1924 

Woman's Coat, 1970 

Denim and sable fur 

Coat cb: 51 in. (129.5 cm); Belt l: 38'/2 in. 

(97.8 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the artist 

John Marshall Gamble 

United States, 1863-1957 

Breaking Fog, Hope Ranch, 

Santa Barbara, c. 1908 

Oil on canvas 

24 X 34 in. (61 X 86.4 cm) 

The Fieldstone Collection 


Harry Gamboa Jr. 

United States, b. 1951 

The Great V/all (of East LA.), 1978, 

printed 1999 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Patssi Valdez, 1980, 1980, printed 1999 

Gelatin-silver print 

20 X 16 in. ( 50.8 X 40.6 cm) 

Lent by the artist 


Rupert Garcia 

United States, b. 1941 

Ruben Salazar Memorial Group Show, 1970 

Color screenprint 

26 X 20 in. (66 X 50.8 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Marcus 

U.S. Out Now!, 1972 

Screenprint on orange paper 

23 V4 X 17% in. (54.1 X 45.1 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Marcus 

William Garnett 

United States, b. 1916 

Lakewood Housing Project, 1950 

Six gelatin-silver prints 

Each: 8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm) 

Collection of Kathy and Ron Perisho 


Frances Hammel Gearhart 

United States, 1869-1958 

Low Tide, c. 1910s 

Color woodcut 

10 '/16 X 11 '/16 in. (25.6 X 28 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

California State Library Long-Term Loan 

Autumn Brocade (Big Bear Lake), c. 1920 

Color woodcut 

12 X 9^16 in. (30.5 X 23.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Ellen and Max Palevsky 

Sinererias, c. 1920 

Color woodcut 

10 '/2 X 11% in. (26.7 X 29.9 cm) 

Victoria Dailey 

On the Salinas River, 1920s 

Color woodcut 

9V4 X 6% in. (23.5 X 16.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the Associate Members 

of the Printmakers Society of California 

p. 70 

May Gearhart 

United States, 1872-1951 

The Rim of the World, c. 1910s 

Color woodcut 

7'/i6 X 4'yi6 in. (18 X 12.5 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

California State Library Long-Term Loan 

/un Gee 

China, active United States, 1906-1963 

Where Is My Mother, 1926-27 

Oil on canvas 

20 '/s X 16 in. (51.1 X 40.6 cm) 

Collection of Li-lan 

p. 142 

Chinese Musicians, c. 1927 

Oil on paperboard 

19% X 15 in. (50.2 X 38.1 cm) 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 

Smithsonian Institution, gift of Joseph H. 

Hirshhorn Purchase Fund, 1972 

Frank Gehry 

Canada, active United States, b. 1929 

The Bubbles Lounge Chair, 1987 

Corrugated cardboard, birch, and metal 

interior supports 

30 X 81 in. (76.2 X 205.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Robert H. Halff 

Drawings of the Walt Disney Concert Hall, 
Los Angeles, 1991 
Ink on paper 

9 X 12 in. (22.7 X 30.5 cm) 
Frank O. Gehry & Associates 
p. 42 

Arnold Genthe 

Germany, active United States, 1869-1942 

Chinese Family, 1897 
Gelatin-silver print 
9 '4 X 12 in. (23.5 X 30.5 cm) 
Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 

Chinatown, San Francisco [Corner of DuPont 

and Jackson] , 1898 

Gelatin-silver print 

9'/2 X 13 "/le in. (24.1 X 35.1 cm) 

Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 


On DuPont Street, 1898 
Gelatin-silver print 
8% X 12% in. (22.5 X 32.7 cm) 
Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 

The Opium Fiend, 1905 
Gelatin-silver print 

10 X i2V'8 in. (25.4 X 30.8 cm) 

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles 

Rudi Gernreich 

Austria, active United States, 1922-1985 

Woman's Bathing Suit, 1952 
Wool knit 
cb: 23 in. (58.4 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Walter Bass 
p. 176 

"Topless" Bathing Suit, 1964 
Wool knit 
cb: 15 in. (38 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the artist 
p. 219 

Bathing Suit and Hip Boots, Matchmg Belt, 

and Sun Visor, 1965 

Hip boots by Capezio 

Sun visor (reproduction) by Layne Nielson 

(United States, b. 1938) 

Wool knit bathing suit, vinyl belt, and 

vinyl boots 

cb: 7'/4 in. (18.4 cm); Belt: 37 x % in. 

(94 X 2.2 cm); Boots: 32 x io'/4 x 3 in. 

(81.3 X 26x7.6 cm) 

Gift of Rudi Gernreich, Museum Collection, 

The Fashion Institute of Design & 


Unisex Caftan, 1970 

Printed silk 

cb: 711/2 in. (181.6 cm) 

Gift of Rudi Gernreich, Museum Collection, 

The Fashion Institute of Design & 


p. 219 

Selden Conner Gile 

United States, 1877-1947 

The Soil, 1927 

Oil on canvas 

30 X 36 in. (76.2 X 91.4 cm) 

Private collection 

p. 117 

Boat and Yellow Hills, n.d. 

Oil on canvas 

301/2 X 36 in. (77.5 X 91.4 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Dr. and Mrs. Frederick Novy Ir. 

p. 74 

IrvingJ. Gill 

United States, 1870-1936 

Nelson E. Barker Residence, San Diego, 

Perspective Elevation, 1911-12 

Graphite, colored pencil, and gouache on paper 

12 X 18 in. (30.5 X 45.7 cm) 

Architecture and Design Collection, University 

Art Museum, ucsb 

Gladding McBean Pottery 

United States, 1923-79 

Encanto Chinese Red Vase, c. 1930 


h: 7% in. (19.7 cm); d: 5 in. (12.7 cm) 

Ron and Susan Vander Molen 


Pair of Matching Garden Vases in Blue 

Crystalline Glaze, c. 1930 


Each: h: 26 in. (66 cm); d: 14 in. (35.6 cm) 

Ron and Susan Vander Moien 

W. Edwin Gledhill 

Canada, active United States, 1888-1976 

Santa Barbara Mission, c. 1920 

Gelatin-silver print 

ii'/4 X 8'/2 in. (28.6 X 21.6 cm) 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, gift 

of Keith Gledhill 

p. 92 

Peter Coin 

United States, b. 1951 

Impenetrable Border, 1987 

Gelatin-silver print 

11 X14 in. (27.9 X35.6 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, The 

Shirley Burden Fund for Photography 

p. 266 

Jim Goldberg 

United States, b. 1953 

Russian Roulette, Breeze, Stratford Hotel, 

S.F., 1987 

From the series Raised by Wolves, 1985-95 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Hollywood Blvd., 3 a.m., 1988 

From the series Raised by Wolves, 1985-95 

Gelatin-silver print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Ken Gonzales-Day 

United States, b. 1964 

Untitled #63, 1998 

From the series The Bone-Grass Boy: Secret 

Banks of the Conejos River, 1995-99 

Chromogenic development (Ektacolor) print 

8 X 10 in. (20.3 X 25.4 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Michael Gonzalez 

United States, b. 1953 

Comp. w/Y, B, and R #1^, 1994 
Plastic bags, acrylic, and fasteners 

17 X 14 X i'/2 in. (43.2 X 35.6 X 3.8 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Eileen and Peter Norton, 
Santa Monica 

Joe Goode 

United States, b. 1937 

House Drawing (aHOUSEdi), 1963 

Pencil on tracing paper 

26 X 21 ¥4 in. (66 X 55.3 cm) 

The Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Los Angeles, purchased with funds provided 

by Ruth and Murray Gribin 

Untitled (Torn Sky), 1971-76 
Oil on canvas 

60 X 6o'/2 in. (152.4 X 153.7 cm) 
Collection of Hiromi Katayama 
p. 212 

Robert Groham 

United States, b. 1938 

Use I, 1977 


h: 28 in. (71.1 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with matching funds 

provided by the National Endowment for the 

Arts and Mr. and Mrs. Morley Benjamin 

Grand Feu Art Pottery 

United States, c. 1913-16 

Vase, c. 1913-16 


h: loVs in. (27 cm); d: 4^/8 in. (11.7 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided by 

the William Randolph Hearst Collection and 

the Los Angeles County 

Vase, c. 1913-16 


h: iiVs in. (28.3 cm); d: 4V'8 in. (10.5 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

Vase, c. 1913-16 


h: lo'/s in. (25.7 cm); d: 8Vs in. (20.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

Todd Gray 

United States, b. 1954 

Goofy (Body) #6, 1993 

Hand-varnished gelatin-silver print, installed 

with metal bands, edition 3 /4 

81 X 50 in. (205.7 X 127 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Richard and Diane Dunn 

p. 248 

Phyllis Green 

United States, b. 1950 

Spark: Green Stockings, 1994 
Mixed media 

19 '/2 X 9 in. (49.5 X 22.9 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Charles Sumner Greene 

United States, 1868-1957 
Henry Mather Greene 

United States, 1870-1954 

Greene and Greene, United States, 1893-1922 

Lantern from the Henry M. Robinson House, 

Pasadena, 1906 

Steel and slag glass 

24 '/4 X 3244 in. (61.5 X 83.2 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

Robert R. Blacker House, Pasadena, South 

Elevation, Drawing #6, 1907 

Black ink on linen 

141/8 X 36 in. (35.9 X 91.4 cm) 

Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, 

Columbia University, New York 

pp. 88-89 

Bedroom Cabinet from the Robert R. Blacker 

House, Pasadena, 1907 

Mahogany, ebony, oak, boxwood, copper, 

silver-plated steel, and abalone 

24 X 20 in. (61 X 50.8 cm) 

LACMA, Museum Acquisition Fund 

p. 89 

Bedroom Rocking Chair from the Robert R. 
Blacker House, Pasadena, 1907 
Mahogany, ebony, oak, boxwood, copper, silver- 
plated steel, abalone, and cotton upholstery 
37% X 25% in. (95.6 X 65.7 cm) 
LACMA, Museum Acquisition Fund 
p. 89 

Living Room Ceiling Fixture from the Freeman 
A. Ford House, Pasadena, 1907 
Mahogany, ebony, leaded glass, and iron 
12 X 45'/4 in. (30.5 X 114.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

Dining Table from the WiUiam R. Thorsen 

House, Berkeley, 1908-9 

Honduran mahogany and ebony with 

fruitwood, oak, and abalone inlays 

Without leaves: 29% x 67'/4 in. (74.3 x 170.2 cm) 

The Gamble House, use, anonymous bequest 

Sideboard from the WilUam R. Thorsen House, 

Berkeley, 1908-9 

Honduran mahogany and ebony with 

fruitwood, oak, and abalone inlays 

36 '/2 X 79 1/4 in. (92.7X 201.3 cm) 

The Gamble House, use, anonymous bequest 

Two Host Chairs and Two Side Chairs from the 
William R. Thorsen House, Berkeley, 1908-9 
Honduran mahogany and ebony with fruit- 
wood, oak, and abalone inlays; leather seats; 
and brass pins 

Host: 43 X 25 in. (109.2 x 63.5 cm); Side: 42 '4 x 
21 in. (107.3x53.3 cm) 
The Gamble House, use, anonymous bequest 

Bookcase from the Cordelia A. Culbertson 

House, Pasadena, c. 1911 

Mahogany, ebony, and glass 

82 X 54 in. {208.3 X 137.2 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Linda and James Ries in 

memory of Dorothy and Harold Shrier 

Greta Grossman 

Sweden, active United States, c. 1920S-1999 

Black Gooseneck Desk Lamp, c. 1950 

Painted metal and plated steel 

Lamp h: 13 in. (33 cm); Shade d: 11 in. 

(27.9 cm) 

Courtesy Fat Chance, Los Angeles, California 

Raul Guerrero 

United States, b. 1945 

Untitled, 1974 


21 "/16 X 21% in. (55.1 X 54.9 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided by 

the Director's Roundtable, and gift of Cirrus 


John Gutmann 

Germany, active United States, 1905-1998 

The Cry, 1939 

Gelatin-silver print 

9% X jVi in. (24.8 X 19.7 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

p. 114 

Otto Hagel 

Germany, active United States, 1909-1973 

Labor Workers, c. 1935 
Gelatin-silver print 
14 X 11 in. (35.6 X 27.9 cm) 
Collection of Stephen White II 

Untitled [Maritime Workers Looking for Work], 

c. 1935 

Gelatin-silver print 

14 X 11 in. (35.6 X 27.9 cm) 

Collection of Stephen White II 

p. 115 

John Charles Haley 

United States, 1905-1991 

Berkeley Street Scene, c. 1931 
Gouache on paper 
9 X 12 in. (22.9 X30.5 cm) 
The E. Gene Grain Collection 

Doug Hall 

United States, b. 1944 

Storm and Stress, 1986 

Videotape (color, with sound, forty-eight 


Lent by Video Data Bank 

Philippe Halsman 

United States, 1906-1979 

Dorothy Dandridge, 1953 
Gelatin-silver print 
io'/4 X 7V4 in. (26 X 18.4 cm) 
Collection of Louis R D'Elia 
P- 177 

David Hammons 

United States, b. 1943 

Injustice Case, 1970 

Body print (margarine and powdered 

pigments) and American flag 

63 X 40'/! in. (160 X 102.9 cm) 

LACMA, Museum Acquisition Fund 

p. 223 

James Hansen 

United States, 1917-1993 

Beach Scene at Santa Monica in 1949, 1949 
Watercolor on paper 
i8'/4 X 13 in. (46.4 X 33 cm) 
Automobile Club of Southern California 
p. 158 

Harwell H. Harris 

United States, 1903-1990 

Grandview Gardens, Chinatown, 

Los Angeles, 1940 

Colored pencU on paper 

I3y4 X 2iy4 in. (34.9 X 55.2 cm) 

The Harwell Hamilton Harris Papers, The 

Alexander Architectural Archive, The General 

Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin 

Weston tiavens House, Berkeley, Exterior 

Perspective, 1940 

Colored pencil on paper 

8 x ii'/2 in. (20.3 X 29.2 cm) 

The Harwell Hamilton Harris Papers, The 

Alexander Architectural Archive, The General 

Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin 

Helen Mayer Harrison 

United States, b. 1929 
Newton Harrison 

United States, b. 1932 

Meditation I from Meditations on the Condition 

of the Sacramento River, the Delta, and the Bays 

of San Francisco, 1977 

Satellite photographic map with oil paint and 

handwritten text mounted on canvas with ten 

accompanying posters, ink on paper 

Map: 90 x 76 in. (228.6 x 193 cm); Each 

poster: 17 x 11 in. (43.2 x 27.9 cm) 

Lent by the artists 


Robert Harshe 

United States, 1879-1938 

Sunrise over Skyline (Near Portola), 1910 

Oil on canvas 

Each one of three sections: i4'/4 x 2o'/4 in. 

(36.2 X 51.4 cm) 

The Oakmont Corporation 

Ernest Haskell 

United States, 1876-1925 

Fallen Centuries, c. 1920 


io'/4 X i5'/4 in. (26.1 X 38.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Hildegard Heartt Haskell, 

oldest daughter of Ernest Haskell 

Childe Hassam 

United States, 1859-1935 

California Oil Fields, 1927 


8% X 13% in. (22.5 X 35.2 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

gift of Mrs. Childe Hassam 

p. 106 

Tim Hawkinson 

United States, b. 1961 
Issey Miyake 

Japan, b. 1938 


From Pleats Please, Guest Artist Series 

No. 3, 1998 


cb: 52'/2 in. (133.4 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Dale Carolyn Gluckman 


From Pleats Please, Guest Artist Series 

No. 3, 1998 


cb: 57 in. (144-8 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Dale Carolyn Gluckman 

p. 251 

Miki Hayakawa 

lapan, active United States, 1904-1953 

Telegraph Hill, n.d. 

Oil on canvas 

29 X 34 in. ( 73.7 X 86.4 cm) 

Perlmutter Fine Arts, San Francisco 

p. 104 

Edith Heath 

United States, b. 1911 

Heath Ceramics, United States, founded c 

Pitcher, c. 1948, manufactured 1950s 
Stoneware, glazed 
h: 8 in. (20.3 cm); d: 6 in. (15.2 cm) 
Collection of Cathy Callahan 

Set of Tumblers, c. 1948, manufactured 1950s 
Stoneware, glazed 

Each: h: 2% in. (7.3 cm); d: 3% in. (9.5 cm) 
Collection of Cathy Callahan 

Ana Lisa Hedstrom 

United States, b. 1943 

Video Weave Kimono, 1982 
Silk crepe de chine, resist dyed 
cb: 511/2 in. (130.8 cm) 
Collection of Laura Fisher 
p. 260 

Robert Heinecken 

United States, b. 1931 

T.V. Dinner/After, \97i 

Emulsion on formed canvas, chalk, and resin, 

edition 8/11 

12 X 15 X 1 in. (30.5 X 38.1 X 2.5 cm) 

Collection of Joyce Neimanas 

Robert Henri 

United States, 1865-1929 

Tam Can, 1914 

Oil on canvas 

24 X 20 in. (61 X 50.8 cm) 

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, 

Sarah A. Getes Fund, 1915 

p. 96 

George Herms 

United States, b. 1935 

Everything Is O.K., 1966 

Wood, metal, plaster, and Plexiglas 

h: 4 in. (10.2 cm); d: 1344 in. (34.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Drs. Katherina and 

Judd Marmor 

p. 214 

Bomb Scare Box, 1970 
Wood, paper, found objects, and paint 
6'yi6 X 31 '5/16 X 3V8 in. (17.7 X 81.2 X 7.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Barry Lowen 

Anthony Hernandez 

United States, b. 1947 

#24, 1989 

From the series Landscapes for the Fiomeless, 


Silver dye-bleach (Cibachrome) print 

48 X 58 in. (121.9 X 147.3 cm) 

Collection of Creative Artists Agency 

p. 236 

#18, 1990 

From the series Landscapes for the Homeless, 


Silver dye-bleach (Cibachrome) print 

34 X 65 in. (86.4 X 165.1 cm) 

Collection of Jeffrey Leifer 

Ester Hernandez 

L'nited States, b. 1944 

Sun Mad, 1982 

22 X 17 in. (55.9 X 43.2 cm) 
Lent by the artist 


Lynn Hershman 

United States, b. 1941 

Roberta Breitmore's Construction Chart, 1973 
Chromogenic development print 
30 X 40 in. (76.2 X 101.6 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 232 

Hisako Hibi 

Japan, active United States, 1907-1991 

We Had to Fetch Coal for the Pot-Belly Stove, 

Topaz, Utah, 1944 

Oil on canvas 

20 X 24 in. ( 50.8 X 61 cm. ) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

gift of Ibuki Hibi Lee 


Matsusaburo (George) Hibi 

lapan, active United States, 1886-1947 

Block #9, Topaz, 1945 
Oil on canvas 

23 X 26 in. (58.4 X 66 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 
gift of Ibuki Hibi Lee 

Elizabeth Hickox 

United States, 1873-1947 

Lidded Trinket Basket with Design, 1900-1930 

Twined maidenhair fern and myrtle shoots 

11 '/2 X 8'/2 in. (29.2 X 21.6 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Mrs. Caroline Boeing Poole 

p. 94 

Charles Christopher Hill 

United States, b. 1948 

Cuando vayas a cagar. . . , 1974 


23% X 30 '/4 in. (60.6 X 76.8 cm) 

LACMA, Cirrus Editions Archive, purchased 

with funds provided by the Ducommun and 

Gross Endowment Income Fund, and gift 

of Cirrus Editions 

Louis Hock 

United States, b. 194H 

The Mexican Tapes: A Chronicle of Life Outside 
the Law, 1986 

Videotape series (color, with sound, four sixty- 
minute programs) 
Lent by the artist 

David Hockney 

England, active United States, b. 1937 

The Splash, 1966 

Acrylic on canvas 

72x72 in. (183 x 183 cm) 

Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Norman Pattiz 

p. 201 

The Merced River, Yosemite Valley, California, 

September 1982, 1982 

PhotocoUage (chromogenic development prints) 

52 x 61 in. (132.1 X 154.9 cm) 

Collection of Pico Holdings, Inc. 


Margaret Honda 

United States, b. 1961 

Perennial, 1996 

Fresh chrysanthemums, stainless steel, 

and water 

h: % in. (2.22 cm); d: 42 in. (106.7 cm) 

Courtesy the artist and Shoshana Wayne 


p. 238 

Dennis Hopper 

United States, b. 1936 

Double Standard, 1961, printed later 
Gelatin-silver print, edition 13/15 
16x24 in. (40.6 X 61 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Bob Crewe 
p. 206 

Donal Hord 

United States, 1902-1966 

Mayan Mask, 1933 
Polychromed and gilded mahogany 
141/4 X 10 X 8'/2 in. (36.2 X 25.4 X 21.6 cm) 
Steve Turner Gallery, Beverly Hills 
p. 136 

George Hoshida 

Japan, active United States, 1907-1985 

Two Drawings from "American World War II 
Concentration Camp Sketches," 1942-42, 
Ink and watercolor on paper 
Each: 9'/2 x 6 in. (24.1 x 15.2 cm) 
Japanese American National Museum, gift 
of June Hoshida Honma, Sandra Hoshida, 
and Carole Hoshida Kanada 

John Langley Howard 

United States, b. 1902 

The Unemployed, 1937 

Oil on cardboard 

24 X 30 Vi in. (61 X 76.8 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, 

gift of Anne and Stephen Walrod 

p. 114 

Mildred Howard 

United States, b. 1945 

Black Don't Crack, 1997 

Mixed-media assemblage 

18 X 23 X 10 in. (45.7 X 58.4 X 25.4 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Gallery 

Paule Anglim 

p. 264 

Robert Hudson 

United States, b. 1938 

Running through the Woods, 1975 

Stuffed deer, wood, rock, globe, metal, string, 

feathers, found objects, and acrylic 

77 X 62 X 50% in. (195.6 X 157.5 X 128.9 cm) 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. C. David Robinson, 

Sausalito, California 

Leopold Hugo 

United States, 1863-1933 

Untitled, c. 1920 

Gum bichromate print 

13% X 10% in. (35.3 X 27.8 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

p. 71 

John Humble 

United States, b. 1944 

Selma Avenue at Vine Street, Hollywood, 
January 23, 1991, 1991, printed 1995 
Chromogenic development print, edition 1/15 
38'/2 X 30 in. (97.8 X 76.2 cm) 
LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 
p. 250 

George Hurrell 

United States, 1904-1992 

Norma Shearer, 1929 
Gelatin-silver print 
13 xio in. (33 X 25.4 cm) 
Collection of Louis F. D'Elia 
p. 130 

Ramon Novarro, 1930 
Gelatin-silver print 
ii'4 x7'/4 in. (28.6 X 18.4 cm) 
Collection of Louis F. D'Elia 
p. 130 

William Haines, 1930 
Gelatin-silver print 
i3'/4 X 7'/4 in. (33.7 X 18.4 cm) 
Collection of Louis R D'Elia 

Joan Crawford, 1932 
Gelatin-silver print 
i2'/4 X 7'/4 in. (31.1 X 18.4 cm) 
Collection of Louis R D'Elia 
p. 131 

Jean Harlow, 1933 
Gelatin-silver print 
12 '/4 X 7'/4 in. (31.1 X 18.4 cm) 
Collection of Louis R D'Elia 

Ann Sheridan, c. 1945 
Gelatin-silver print 
13 '/2 X 10 '/4 in. (34.4 X 26 cm) 
Collection of Louis F. D'Elia 

Jane Russell, 1946 

From the portfolio Hurrell H, 1980-81 

Gelatin-silver print, edition 95/250 

15 X 19^16 in. (38.1 X 49 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the Hollywood Photographers 


p- 177 

Randy Hussong 

United States, b. 1955 

It's My Party, 1993 

Vinyl on metal 

47 X 25 X 4 in. (119.4 X 63.5 X 10.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Gallery Paule 


Helen Hyde 

United States, 1868-1919 

Imps of Chinatown, 1910s 

Etching with hand coloring 

7%6 X 6 in. (19 X 15.2 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

Museum Collection 

p. 96 

Robert Wilson Hyde 

United States, 1875-1951 

A House Book, 1906 
Suede and brass cover, suede flyleaves, 
parchment, wove rag paper, and ink 
ii'/2 X 8% X I'/s in. (29.2 X 22.2 X 3.5 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky in honor 
of the museum's twenty-fifth anniversary 
p. 87 

Alex Ignatieff 

Active United States, 1932 

Angel's Flight, c. 1932 
Watercolor on paper 
21 x27'/2 in. (53.3 X 69.9 cm) 
The Fieldstone Collection 

George Inness 

United States, 1825-1894 

California, 1891, later dated 1894 

Oil on canvas 

60 X 48 in. (152.4 X 121.9 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift of 

the estate of Helen Hathaway White and the 

Women's Board of the Oakland Museum 


David Ireland 

United States, b. 1930 

500 Capp Street, 1975-2000 

Videotape documentation (color, with sound, 

six minutes) of the ongoing installation work, 

which is the artist's home 

Lent by the artist 

Robert Irwin 

United States, b. 1928 

Untitled, 1968 


d: 60 in. (152.4 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the Kleiner Foundation 

p. 211 

Frank Israel 

United States, 1945-1996 

Drager Residence, Berkeley, Roof Plan, 1993 
Conte crayon on tracing paper 
40 X 27V2 in. (101.6 X 69.9 cm) 
Dr. Sharon B. Drager 

Shinsaku Izumi 

Japan, active United States, 1880-1941 

Tunnel of Night, c. 1931 
Gelatin-silver print 
135/16 X 10% in. (33.8 X 27 cm) 
LACMA, Los Angeles County Fund 
p. 106 

Everett Gee Jackson 

United States, 1900-1995 

Tehuantepec Women, 1927 

Oil on canvas 

32 X 32 in. (81.3 X 81.3 cm) 

Steve Turner and Victoria Dailey 

Feme Jacobs 

United States, b. 1942 

Container for a Wind, 1974-75 

Coiled and waxed linen 

44 X 11 X 4 in. (111.8 X 27.9 X 10.2 cm) 

Palm Beach histitute of Contemporary Art 

Veil, 1996 

Coiled and twined waxed linen 

87y4 X 7 X 4 in. (222.9 X 17.8 x 10.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Jon Adams Jerde 

United States, b. 1940 

UiiivciMl CityWalk, Universal Cily, 1993 
Mixed media on paper 

12 X 68 in. (30.5 X 172.7 cm) 

The Jerde Partnership International 

Jess [Burgess Collins] 

United States, b. 1923 

Robert Duncan, Poet, c. 1952 

Black chalk on paper 

io'yi6 X 8V2 in. (27.8 X 21.5 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

gift of Julian Silva 

Tricky Cad: Case V, [1958I 
Colored newspaper, clear plastic wrap, 
and black tape on paperboard 
13V4 X 24 '5/16 in. (33.7 X 63.4 cm) 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 
Smithsonian Institution, Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
Purchase Fund, 1989 
p. 180 

DeDe Johnson 

United States, b. circa 1914 

Woman's Three-Piece Playsiiit, late 1950s 

Printed cotton 

Blouse cb: 16 1/2 in. (41.9 cm); Skirt cb: 31 V2 in. 

(80 cm); Shorts cb: 16 in. (40.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Esther Ginsberg and James 

Morris in memory of Don Morris 

p. 158 

Sargent Johnson 

United States, 1888-1967 

Elizabeth Gee, 1925 

Stoneware, glazed 

i3'/8 X ioy4 X 7'/2 in. (33.3 x 27.3 x 19.1 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Albert 

M. Bender Collection, gift of Albert M. Bender 

p. 143 

A. Quincy Jones 

United States, 1913-1979 

Smalley Residence, Los Angeles, Perspective, 

Looking North, 1970 

Drawing by Donald C. Picken 

Ink on Mylar 

30 x 42 in. (76.2 X 106.7 cm) 

Courtesy A. Quincy Jones Architecture Archive 

Pirkle Jones 

United States, b. 1914 

Grape Picker, Berryessa Valley, California, 1956 
Gelatin-silver print 

13 X 10 V2 in. (33 X 26.3 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Mark Story 

Window of the Black Panther Party National 

Headquarters, 1968 

Gelatin-silver print 

14 X 11 in. (35.6 X 27.9 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 221 

Frida Kahio 

Mexico, active United States and Mexico, 

Frida and Diego Rivera, 1931 

Oil on canvas 

39% X 31 in. (100 x 78.7 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Albert 

M. Bender Collection, gift of Albert M. Bender 

p. 138 

Arthur Kales 

United States, 1882-1936 

The Sun Dance, c. 1920 

Gelatin-silver print 

10 '/2 X 13 Vs in. (26.7 X 34 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

p. 84 

The White Peacock, Gloria Swanson, c. 1920 

Gelatin-silver print 

loVs X I3y8 in. (26.5 X 34 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

Matsumi Kanemitsu 

Japan, active United States, 1922-1992 

Zen Blue, 1961 


30x22 in. (76.2x55.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the Michael and Dorothy 

Blankfort Tamarind Collection through 

the Contemporary Art Council 

p. 186 

Ray Kappe 

United States, b. 1927 

Kappe Residence, Pacific Palisades, Section 

Perspective, 1965 

Graphite on paper 

30 X 42 in. (76.2 X 106.7 cm) 

Kappe Architects/ Planners 

Allan Kaprow 

United States, b. 1927 

Fluids, 1967 

Photo documentation of event in Los Angeles, 
California, photographs by Dennis Hopper, 
transferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by Dennis Hopper 

Taizo Koto 

Japan, active United States, 1888-1924 

Untitled jNature Studyj, c. 1923 
Gum bichromate print 

4'/2 x 6'/i in. (11.4 X 16.5 cm) 
Collectu)n of Stephen White II 

Craig Kauffman 

United States, b. 1932 

Untitled Wall Relief 1967 
Acrylic lacquer on vacuum-formed Plexiglas 
52'/2 X 78 '/4 X 12 in. (133.4 X 198.8 x 30.5 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the Kleiner Foundation 
p. 208 

Hiija Keading 

United States, b. i960 

Oh Happy Day, 1996 

Videotape (color, with sound, four minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Kirby Kean 

United States, 1908-1999 

Night Scene near Victorville, c. 1937 

Gelatin-silver print 

13^16 X 10^16 in. (33.5 x 25.9 cm) 

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles 

p. 122 

William Keith 

Scotland, active United States, 1838-1911 

Looking across the Golden Gate from 

Mount Tamalpais, c. 1895 

Oil on canvas 

40 X 50^/8 in. (101.6 X 128.6 cm) 

Private collection 


Mike Kelley 

United States, b. 1954 

Frankenstein, 1989 

Found stuffed animals and basket 

12V2 X 78 X 28 in. (31.8 X 198.1 X 71.1 cm) 

Judy and Stuart Spence 


Rockwell Kent 

United States, 1882-1971 

Coffeepot from "Our America," 1939 

Manufactured by Vernon Kilns (United States, 



h: 8 in. (20.3 cm); d: 8^/2 in. (21.6 cm) 

Museum of California Design, Bill Stern 


Martin Kersels 

United States, b. i960 

MacArthur Park, 1996 

Painted wood, speaker, cd player, stereo 

receiver, and cd 

At rest: 62 x 32 x 24 in. (157.5 x 81.3 x 61 cm) 

Collection of Dean Valentine and Amy 

Adelson, Los Angeles 

Sant Khalsa 

United States, b. 1953 

Seven Oaks Dam Site, 1992 

From Crossroads: The Santa Ana River 


Gelatin-silver print 

13V2 X 8V2 in. (34.3 X 21.6 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Edward Kienholz 

United States, 1927-1994 

Illegal Operation, 1962 

Mixed media 

59 X 48 X 54 in. (149-9 x 121.9 x 137.2 cm) 

Betty and Monte Factor Collection, 

Santa Monica, California 

Back Seat Dodge '38, 1964 

Mixed media 

66 X 120 x 156 in. (167.6 x 304.8 x 396.2 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by the Art Museum Council 

p. 207 

Intae Kim 

Korea, active United States, b. 1947 

Death Valley, Sunrise, Sand Dune, 1989, 

printed 1994 

Gelatin-silver print, edition 5/50 

15% X 19 y4 in. (40 x 50.2 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

p. 238 

Dong Kingman 

United States, 1911-2000 

Jack Thrasher Welds for America, c. 1942 
Watercolor on paper 
20 V2 X 151/2 in. (52.1 X 39.4 cm) 
Collection of Jonathan Quincy Weare 

Maria Kipp 

Austria, active United States, 1900-1988 

Textile Length for Drapery, c. 1938 
Mohair, Lurex, and chenille 
113 X 45 in. (287 X 114.3 cm) 
LACMA, Costume Council Fund 
p. Ill 

Hiromu Kira 

Japan, active United States, 1898-1991 

Study — Paper Work, 1927 
Gelatin-silver bromide print 
i2'/8 X gVs in. (30.8 x 24.4 cm) 
LACMA, Los Angeles County Fund 

Mark Klett 

United States, b. 1952 

San Francisco Panorama after Muybridge, 1990 
Thirteen gelatin-silver prints 
Each: 20 x 16 in. (50.8 x 40.6 cm) 
LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 
pp. 242-43 

Candace Kling 

United States, b. 1948 

Enchanted Forest, 1989 

Buckram, Varaform, cording, Polyfil, satin, 

braze rods, and epoxy 

19 X i3'/2 x 231/2 in. (48.3 x 34.3 x 59.7 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 260 

Fred £. Kling 

United States, b. 1944 

Wedding Dress, 1973 
Hand-painted cotton 
cb: 47 in. (119.3 cm) 
Marna Clark 
p. 218 

Cindy Kolodziejski 

United States, b. 1962 

Pajama Party, 1997 


h: 15% in. (40 cm); d: 5 in. (12.7 cm) 

Lent by Anne and Marvin H. Cohen 

Paul Kos 

United States, b. 1942 
Marlene Kos 

United States 

Riley, Roily River, 1975 

Videotape (black and white, with sound, 

one minute) 

Lent by Video Data Bank 

Lightning, 1976 

Videotape (black and white, with sound, 

two minutes) 

Lent by Video Data Bank 

Emil J. Kosajr. 

France, active United States, 1903-1968 

Freeway Beginning, c. 1948 

Watercolor on paper 

22 X 3oy8 in. (55.9 X 77.2 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

p. 165 

Hirokazu Kosaka 

Japan, active United States, b. 1948 

Amerika Maru, 1990 

Excerpts of videotape (color, with sound, 

nine minutes) of performance at Japan 

America Center, Los Angeles 

Lent by the artist 

Ina Kozel 

Lithuania, active United States, b. 1944 

Our Lady of Rather Deep Waters, 1985 

Urethane foam and hand-painted silk 

CB (with train): 80 in. (203.2 cm); h: 72 in. 

(182.9 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 260 

Roger Kuntz 

United States, 1926-1975 

Santa Ana Arrows, c. 1950s 

Oil on canvas 

50 x 60 in. (127 X 152.4 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

p. 165 

Rachel Lachowicz 

United States, b. 1964 

Sarah #3, 1994 

Lipstick and wax 

40 X 24 X 24 in. (101.6 X 61 X 61 cm) 

Collection of Shoshana and Wayne Blank 

p. 254 

Suzanne Lacy 

United States 
Leslie Labowitz 

United States 

Three Weeks in May, 1977 
Photo documentation of performance/media 
event at Los Angeles City Hall, May 1977, 
transferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artists 

Gyongy Laky 

United States, b. 1944 

Evening, 1995 

London plane tree, doweled 
21 X24 in. (53.3 X 61 cm) 
Philadelphia Museum of Art, gift 
of the Women's Committee 
p. 239 

Paul Landacre 

United States, 1893-1963 

Desert Wall, 1931 
Wood engraving 

5V2 X 7 in. (14 X 17.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Joseph M. Landacre and Barbara 


p. 122 

Breaking Ground, 1933-34 

Wood engraving 

15% X toys in. (39.1 X 27 cm) 

United States Government Treasury 

Department, Public Works of Art Project, 

Washington, D.C., on permanent loan 

Dorothea Lange 

United States, 1895-1965 

Five Workers against a Concrete Wall, 

Industrial District, San Francisco, 1933 

Gelatin-silver print 

9'/2 X 9% in. (24.1 X 24.5 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

Accessions Committee Fund 

A Sign of the Times — Depression — Mended 

Stockings — Stenographer, San Francisco, c. 1934 

Gelatin-silver print 

11 '/2 X 8V2 in. (29.2 X 21.6 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift of 

Paul S. Taylor. Copyright the Dorothea Lange 


p. 115 

Filipinos Cutting Lettuce, Salinas Valley, 

California, c. 1935 

Gelatin-silver print 

8446 X yVa in. (20.8 x 19.4 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Paul S. Taylor. Copyright the Dorothea 

Lange Collection 

p. 119 

Drought Refugees from Oklahoma, Blythe, 

California, 1936 

Gelatin-silver print 

14 X 11 in. (35.6 X 27.9 cm) 

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles 

Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, 

printed later 

Gelatin-silver print 

13% X io'yi6 in. (35.2 X 27.7 cm) 

LACMA, promised gift of Barbara and 

Buzz McCoy 

Resettled, El Monte, California, 1936 

Gelatin-silver print 

8 X 10 '/16 in. (20.3 X 25.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Susan Ehrens 


Jobless on the Edge of a Pea Field, 

Imperial Valley, California, 1937 

Gelatin-silver print 

8x10 in. (20.3 X 25.4 cm) 

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles 

Pledge of Allegiance, at Raphael Elementary 

School, a Few Weeks before Evacuation/One 

Nation Indivisible, April 20, 1942, 1942 

Gelatin-silver print 

10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Paul S. Taylor. Copyright the Dorothea 

Lange Collection 

P- 154 

Untitled [End of Shift, 3:30, Richmond, 

California, September 1942], 1942 

Gelatin-silver print 

13 V2 X 10 V2 in. (34.3 X 26.7 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Paul S. Taylor. Copyright the Dorothea 

Lange Collection 

p. 149 

Robin Lasser 

United States, b. 1956 
Kathryn Sylva 

United States, b. 1947 

Extra Lean, 1998 

Iris print 

42 X 28 in. (106.7 X 71.1 cm) 

Lent by the artists 

p. 252 

Alma Lavenson 

United States, 1897-1989 

Carquinez Bridge, 1933 

Gelatin-silver print 

7 X 9'/2 in. (18 X 24 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

p. 107 

Dinh Q. Le 

Vietnam, active United States, b. 1968 

The Buddha of Compassion, 1997 
Chromogenic development prints and 
linen tape 

44 '/2 X 30 in. (113 X 76.2 cm) 
Collection of Eileen and Peter Norton, 
Santa Monica 

William Leavitt 

United States, b. 1941 

Untitled, 1990 

Pastel on paper 

15 X 44 in. (38.1 X 111.8 cm) 

Joel Marshall 

p. 243 

Untitled, 1991 

Pastel on paper 

15 X 44 in. (38.1 X 111.8 cm) 

Margo Leavin Gallery 

Rico Lebrun 

Italy, active United States, 1900-1964 

The Yellow Plow, 1949 

Oil on Upson board 

80 X 36 in. (203 X 91.4 cm) 

Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute Museum 

of Art, Utica, New York, 50.16 

The Magdalene, 1950 

Tempera on Masonite 

63 X 48 in. (160 X 121.9 cm) 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, gift of 

Wright F. Ludington 

p. 186 

Betty Lee 

United States, b. 1949 

Documented Memory #1 

From the Livelihood series, 1995 

Gelatin-silver print 

40 X 50 in. (101.6 X 127 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

David Levinthal 

United States, b. 1949 

Untitled #3 

From the Barbie series, 1997-98 

Dye-diffusion transfer (Polaroid) print 

40 X 3o'/4 in. (101.6 X 76.8 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

p. 250 

Joe Lewis 

United States, b. 1953 

Watts Riots 2010, 1999 
Gelatin-silver print 
20 X 24 in. (50.8 X 61 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Janet Lipkin 

United States, b. 1948 

Santa Fe Cape #2, 1987 
Wool knit, hand dyed 
cb: 52 in. (132.1 cm) 
Eileen R. Solomon 
p. 261 

Marvin Lipofsky 

United States, b. 1938 

California Loop Series, 1970 
Glass, paint, and rayon flocking 
10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 209 


Sharon Lockhart 

United States, b. 1964 

Untitled [Ocean], 1996 

Chromogenic development print, edition of 6 

49 X 6i'/8 in. (124.5 X 155.3 cm) 

Collection of Gary and Tracy Mezzatesta 

p. 238 

John Lofaso 

United States, b. 1961 

Black and White Cow #6, 1991 

Gelatin-silver print 

12 X 20 in. (30.5 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig KruU Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

yolanda M. Lopez 

United States, b. 1942 

Portrait of the Artiit as the Virgin 
of Guadalupe, 1978 
Oil and pastel on paper 
32 X 24 in. (81.3 X 61 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Erie Loran 

United States, b. 1905 

San Francisco Bay, 1940 


91/4 X 12 in. (23.5 X30.5 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Albert 

M. Bender Collection, gift of Albert M. Bender 

Chip Lord 

United States, b. 1944 

Awakening from the 20th Century, 1999 

Videotape (color, with sound, thirty-five 


Lent by Video Data Bank 

Los Angeles Fine Arts Squad 

Victor Henderson (United States, b. 1939) and 
Terry Schoonhoven (United States, b. 1945) 

Isle of California, 1973 

Pencil and acrylic on photograph 

29 '/2 X 39 '/2 in. (74.9 X 100.3 cm) 

LACMA, the Michael and Dorothy Blankfort 


p. 61 

Liza Lou 

United States, b. 1969 

Super Sister, 1999 

Polyester resin and glass beads 

98 X 36 X 34 in. (248.9 X 91.4 X 86.4 cm) 

Collection of Vicki and Kent Logan, 

San Francisco 

p. 254 

Homette, 1999-2000 

Trailer, mixed media with beads 

144 X 96 X 420 in. (365.8 X 243.8 X 1066.8 cm) 

Courtesy Deitch Projects 

John Gilbert Luebtow 

United States, b. 1944 

April 29, 1992, 1992 

Glass and steel cable 

108 X 18 in. (274.3 X 45.7 cm) 

Lent by the artist 


Gilbert (Magu) Sanchez Lujdn 

United States, b. 1940 

Fragment from "Tribute to Mesoamerica," 

1974, replicated 2000 

Found objects and mixed media 

Approximately 71 x 108 x 48 in. (180.3 x 

274.3 X 121.9 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Glen Lukens 

United States, 1887-1967 

Gray Bowl, c. 1940 


h: 3'/8 in. (7.9 cm); d: ii'/4 in. (28.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Howard and Gwen Laurie 

Smits in honor of the museum's twenty-fifth 


p. Ill 

Bertha Lum 

United States, 1879-1954 

Point Lobos, 1921 

Color woodcut 

16 -'74 x lo'Vie in. (42.6 X 27.8 cm) 

Roger Epperson and Carol Alderdice 

p. 76 

James Luna 

United States, b. 1950 

The Artifact Piece, 1987 

Photo documentation of performance 

Lent by the artist 

p. 265 

The History of the Luiseno People: La Jolla 

Reservation — Christmas 1990, 1993 

Videotape (color, with sound, twenty-seven 


Lent by Video Data Bank 

Helen Lundeberg 

United States, 1908-1999 

The History of Transportation in California 

(Panel 1), study for mural in Centinela Park, 

Inglewood, 1940 

Gouache on paper 

7 X 34 in. (17.9 X 86.4 cm) 

Tobey C. Moss Gallery 

The History of Transportation in California 

(Panel 8), study for mural in Centinela Park, 

Inglewood, 1940 

Gouache on paper 

7 X 26 in. (17.9 X 66 cm) 

Tobey C. Moss Gallery 

p. 109 

The Shadow on the Road to the Sea, i960 
Oil on canvas 
40 X 50 in. (101.6 X 127 cm) 
Perlmutter Fine Arts, San Francisco 
p. 169 

Fernand Lungren 

United States, 1859-1932 

Wall Street Canyon, n.d. 
Oil on canvas 
36 X 27 in. (91.4 X 68.6 cm) 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Veloz 

Stanton MacDonald-Wright 

United States, 1890-1973 

Cation Synchromy (Orange), c. 1920 

Oil on canvas 

24 Vs X 24'/8 in. (61.3 X 61.3 cm) 

Lent by the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, 

University of Minnesota, gift of lone and 

Hudson Walker 

P- 135 

Santa Monica, 1933 

Pencil on paper 

21V2 X 27'/2 in. (54.6 X 69.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Merle Armitage 

Revoh, 1936 


18 X 12V2 in. (45.7x31.8 cm) 

Sragow Gallery, New York 

p. 119 

Helen MacGregor 

England, active United States, 1876-c. 1954 

Reclining Woman with Guitar, c. 1921 

Gelatin-silver print 

18 X 14 in. (45.7x35.6 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

p. 90 

Reginald Machell 

England, active United States, 1854-1927 

Katherine Tingley's Chair, The Iheosophiial 

Society, Point Loma, c. 1905-10 

Carved and painted wood 

■J1V2 X 19V2 X 25 in. (133.4 X 74-9 x 63.5 cm) 

The Theosophical Society (Pasadena) 

p. 86 

Mark Mack 

Austria, active United States, b. 1949 

Baum Residence, Berkeley, Oblique Plan and 

Elevations, 1987 

Inlc on board 

40 X 30 in. (101.6 X 76.2 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

gift of the artist 

Meg Mack 

United States, b. 1962 

Superfreak, 1996 

Wood and spray paint 

90 X 24 X 10 in. (228.6 X 61 X 25.4 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

gift of Robert Harshorn Shimslial< and 

Marion Brenner 

Malibu Potteries 

United States, 1926-1932 

Tile with Mayan Image, 1926-32 

10 X 10 in. (25.4 X 25.4 cm) 
Collection of Norman Karlson 

Arturo Mallmann 

Uruguay, active United States, b. 1953 

The New L.A. #40, 1994 
Acrylic on Masonite 
30 X 36 in. (76.2 X 91.4 cm) 
Iturralde Gallery Collection 

Sam Maloof 

United States, b. 1916 

Rocking Chair, 1997 

Cherry wood and ebony 

26 X32 in. (66 X81.3 cm) 

LACMA, funds provided by the Decorative 

Arts Council Acquisition Fund 

P- 239 

Man Ray [Emmanuel Radnitsky] 

United States, 1890-1976 

Watts Towers, Los Angeles, 1940s 
Gelatin-silver print 

11 Vs X 9V2 in. (29.5 X 24.1 cm) 
Sandor Family Collection 

p. 168 

Mike Mandel 

United Stales, b. 1950 
Larry Sultan 

United States, b. 1946 

Set-up for Oranges on Fire, 1975, printed 1999 

Chromogenic development print 

20 X 24 in. ( 50.8 X 61 cm) 

Lent by Larry Sultan, courtesy the artists 

p. 192 

K. Lee Manuel 

United States, b. 1936 

Maat's Wing #3, 1994 

Painted feathers 

d: 23 '/2 in. (59.7 cm) 

Collection of lulie Schatler Dale, courtesy of 

lulie: Artisans' Gallery, New York 

p. 261 

Tom Marioni 

United States, b. 1937 

Cafe Society, 1979 

Excerpts from the videotape San Francisco, 

1984 (color and black and white, with sound, 

ten minutes) of artists gathering at Breen's 

Cafe in San Francisco 

Lent by the artist 

Richard Marquis 

United States, b. 1945 

Hexagonal Star Bottle and Stars and Stripes 

Bottle, 1969 

Blown glass, murrine &nd a ranne techniques 

4V4 x 3 in. (10.8 X 7.6 cm); 2% x 2V2 in. 

(7 x6.4 cm) 

Courtesy Elliott Brown Gallery, Seatde 

Hexagonal Bottles with "Fuck" Text, 1969-70 

Blown glass, filigrana and murrine techniques 

4V4 X 2% in. (10.8 X 7 cm); 2% x 2'/2 in. 

(7 x6.4 cm) 

Courtesy Elliott Brown Gallery, Seattle 

Display Box of Lord's Prayer Murrine, 1972 

Glass murrine and specimen box 

2% X i'A in. (7 X 8.3 cm) 

Courtesy Elliott Brown Gallery, Seatde 

Richard Marquis 

United States, b. 1945 
Nirmal Kaur 

United States, b. circa 1948 

American Acid Capsule with Cloth Container, 


Solid-worked glass and cloth 

2X4in. (5.1 X 10.2 cm) 

Collection of Pam Biallas 

p. 217 

Fletcher Martin 

United States, 1904-1979 

Trouble in Frisco, c. 1935 


19 X I3'yi6 in. (48.3 X 35.4 cm) 

LACMA, gift of lean Martin Wexler 

Doniel J. Martinez 

United States, b. 1957 

Museum Tags: Second Movement (Overture); 

or, Ouverture con Claque (Overture with Hired 

Audience Members), 1993 

Thirty-six tags from performance at 1993 

Whitney Biennale 

Varied dimensions 

Collection Tom Patchett, Los Angeles 

Patricia Marx 

Australia, active United States 

Obniaru, 1952 

16 mm film (color, with sound, four minutes) 

Lent by Dr. William Moritz 

John Mason 

United States, b. 1927 

Sculpture [Desert Cross], 1963 

Stoneware, glazed 

42 X 13 X 11 in. (109.2 X 33 X 27.9 cm) 

Courtesy Sheppard Gallery, University 

of Nevada, Reno 

p. 186 

T. Kelly Mason 

United States, b. 1964 

Los Angeles from the Air, May 16, 1995 

From the project High Points Drifter, 1995 

Fifteen aerial photographs of Los Angeles 

and a topographical map 

Each photo: 16 x 20 "/16 in. (40.6 x 53 cm); 

map: 30 x 38 in. (76.2 x 96.5 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Arthur Frank Mathews 

United States, 1860-1945 

California, 1905 

Oil on canvas 

26 X 23 '/2 in. (66 X 59.7 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Concours d'Antiques, the Art Guild 

p. 82 

Arthur Frank Mathews 

United States, 1860-1945 
Lucia Kleinhans Mathews 

United States, 1870-1955 

Mathews Furniture Shop, United States, 


Desk, c. 1910 

Carved and painted maple [?], oak, tooled 

leather, and replaced hardware 

59 X 48 X 20 in. (149.9 X 121.9 X 50.8 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Mrs. Margaret R. Kleinhans 

p. 82 

Three-Panel Screen, c. 1913 

Wood, carved and painted 

36 X 65% in. (91.4 X 167 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift of the 

Estate of Marjorie Eaton 

Rectangular Box with Lid, 1929 

Painted wood 

5 X 16 in. (12.7 X 40.6 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of Concours d'Antiques, the Art Guild 

p. 80 

Oscar Maurer 

United States, 1871-1965 

Eucalyptus Grove Silhouetted against a Cloudy 

Sky, Golden Gate Park. San Francisco, c. 1915 

Gelatin-silver print 

9'/2x6'/2 in. (24.1 X 16.5 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of the artist 

p. 69 

Bernard Maybeck 

United States, 1862-1957 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, Berkeley, South 

Elevation, 1910 

Watercolor on paper 

27 X 41 in. (68.6 x 104.1 cm) 

First Church of Christ, Scientist 

Paul McCarthy 

United States, b. 1945 

Sauce, 1974 

Videotape (color, with sound, fifteen minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Pinocchio Plug, 1994 
Modeling clay, plaster, and broomstick 
42 X 18 X 17 in. (106.7 X 45.7 X 43.2 cm) 
LACMA, purchased with funds provided by 
the Modern and Contemporary Art Council 

Robert McChesney 

United States, b. 1913 

Bebop, c. 1944 

Watercolor on paper 

22V'2 X 14 V2 in. (57.2 X 36.8 cm) 

Collection of Nancy and John Weare 

John McCracken 

United States, b. 1934 

Don't Tell Me When to Stop, 1966-67 
Fiberglass and lacquer on plywood 
120 X 20 V2 X 3'/2 in. (304.8 X 52.1 X 8.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the Kleiner Foundation 

Harrison Mcintosh 

United States, b. 1914 

Lidded Jar, 1959 

Stoneware with sgraffito stripes 

h: 11 in. (27.9 cm); d; 9 in. (22.9 cm) 

Collection of Mr. and Mrs. George E. Brandow 

John McLaughlin 

United States, 1898-1976 

Untitled, 1952 

Oil and casein on fiberboard 

32 Vs X 48 '/8 in. (81.6 X 122.2 cm) 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 

Smithsonian Institution, Joseph H. Hirshhorn 

Purchase Fund, 1991 

p. 187 

Untitled, 1955 

Oil on Masonite 

48 X 32 in. (121.9 X 81.3 cm) 

Collection of Fannie and Alan Leslie 

Michael C. McMillen 

United States, b. 1946 

Niponw, 1980 

Mixed media 

74 X 11 X 11 in. (188 X 27.9 X 27.9 cm) 

LACMA, Mac L. Sherwood, M.D., Memorial 

Fund and the Modern and Contemporary Art 

Council, Young Talent Purchase Award 

Central Meridian, The Garage, 1981 

Mixed media 

Dimensions variable 

Long-term loan to lacma by the artist 

p. 46 

Rebecca Medel 

United States, b. 1947 

Labyrinth with White Window, 1996 
Linen; three squares of ikat, resist dyed; 
and square-knotted net, stiffened 
67y8 X 67 X 9 in. (171.1 X 170.1 x 22.9 cm) 
The Art Institute of Chicago, gift of Joan 
Cochran Rieveschl 

Richard Meier 

United States, b. 1934 

The Getty Center, Los Angeles, Museum 

Entrance Area, 1991 

Graphite on yellow tracing paper 

24 X 24 in. (61 X 61 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

Hansel Meith 

Germany, active United States, 1909-1998 

Untitled, c. 1935 
Gelatin-silver print 
14 X io'/2 in. (35.6 X 26.7 cm) 
Collection of Stephen White II 

James Melchert 

United States, b. 1930 

Leg Pot 1, 1962 

Stoneware, lead, and cloth 

11 X32 in. (27.9 X81.3 cm) 

American Craft Museum, New York, gift of the 

Johnson Wax Company, from Objects: usa, 

1977, donated to the American Craft Museum 

by the American Craft Council, 1990 

Knud Merrild 

Denmark, active United States, 1894-1954 

Exhilaration, 1935 

Mixed-media collage on wood-pulp board 

14% x 18% in. (37.8 X 47.6 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

Flux Lepidoptera, 1944 

Oil on Masonite 

18V2 X 14 in. (47 X 35.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Irving Stone 

Flux Bouquet, 1947 

OU on Masonite 

19 X 14 '/2 in. (48.3 X 36.8 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Dr. William R. Valentiner 

p. 169 

Amalia Mesa-Bains 

United States, b. 1943 

Venus Envy: Chapter One (or. The First Holy 

Communion Moments before the End), 1993 

Vanity table, chair, mirror, and mixed media 

60 X 48 X 36 in. (152.4 X 121.9 X 91.4 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Bernice Steinbaum 

Gallery, Miami, Florida 


Henry Meyers 

United Stales, 1867-1943 

Building for the Board of Home Missions and 

Church Extensions of the M. E. Church, Corner 

Washington and Stockton Streets, 1911 

Graphite and watercolor on paper 

171/2 X 20 in. (44.5 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the Documents Collection, College 

of Environmental Design, UC Berkeley 

Meyers Pottery Company 

United States, dates unknown 

"California Rainbow" Garden Vase, c. 1930 


h: 18 in. (45.7 cm); d: loVi in. (26.7 cm) 

Ron and Susan Vander Molen 

Willie Robert Middlebrook 

United States, b. 1957 

In His "Own" Image 

From the series Portraits of My People, 1992 

Sixteen gelatin-silver prints 

Each: 24 x 20 in. (61 x 50.8 cm); Overall: 

96 x 80 in. (243.8 X 203.2 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

p. 237 

Barse Miller 

United States, 1904-1973 

Apparition over Los Angeles, 1932 

Oil on canvas 

50 x 60 in. (127 X 152.4 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

p. 105 

Migrant America, 1939 

Oil on canvas 

30 X 40 in. (76.2 X 101.6 cm) 

Collection of the Orange County Museum 

of Art, Museum purchase with funds provided 

through prior gift of Lois Outerbridge 

Branda Miller 

United States, b. 1952 

L.A. Nickel, 1983 

Videotape (color, with sound, nine minutes) 

Lent by Video Data Bank 

Roger Minick 

United States, b. 1944 

Woman with Scarf at Inspiration Point, 

Yosernite National Park, 1980 

Dye-coupler print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Jan Kesner Gallery 


Richard Misrach 

United States, b. 1949 

TV. Antenna, Salton Sea, California, 1985, 

printed 1996 

Dye-coupler print, edition 5/7 

30 X 40 in. ( 76.2 X 101.6 cm ) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

p. 240 

Peter Mitchell-Dayton 

United States, b. 1962 

The Source, 1998-99 
Graphite on paper 
38 X 50 in. (96.5 x127 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Toyo Miyatake 

Japan, active United States, 1895-1979 

Untitled, 1929 

Gelatin-silver print 

I3y8 X loVs in. (34 x 26.6 cm) 

Archie Miyatake, Miyatake Collection 


Untitled, 1930 

Gelatin-silver print 

I3y8 X loys in. (34 X 26.6 cm) 

Archie Miyatake, Miyatake Collection 

p. 141 

Untitled, 1943 

Gelatin-silver print 

7^16 X 9'/2 in. (19.2 X 24.1 cm) 

Archie Miyatake, Miyatake Collection 

Untitled, 1943 

Gelatin-silver print 

10% X 131/4 in. (26.4 X 33.7 cm) 

Archie Miyatake, Miyatake Collection 

p. 156 

Untitled, 1943 

Gelatin-silver print 

7^16 X 9V2 in. (18.9 X 24.1 cm) 

Archie Miyatake, Miyatake Collection 

Robert Mizer 

United States, 1922-1992 

Don Silvis, Athletic Model Guild, c. 1947 
Gelatin-silver print 
4 X 3 in. (10.2 X 7.6 cm) 
Collection of John Sonsini 

Quinn Sondergaard, Athletic Model Guild, 

c. 1954 

Gelatin-silver print 

4x 5 in. (10.2 X 12.7 cm) 

Collection of John Sonsini 


Gerald Sullivan, Athletic Model Guild, c. 1957 
Gelatin-silver print 
4x5 in. (10.2 X 12.7 cm) 
Collection of John Sonsini 

Susan Mogul 

United States 

Take Off, 1974 

Videotape (black and white, with sound, 

ten minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Linda Montano 

United States 

Chicken Woman, 1972 
Photo documentation of performance, 
transferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artist 

Roberto Montenegro 

Mexico, active United States, 1885-1968 

Margo, 1937 

Oil on canvas 

25 X 19V2 in. (63.5 x 49.5 cm) 

LACMA, The Bernard and Edith Lewin 

Collection of Mexican Art 


Malaquias Montoya 

United States, b. 1938 

jSi Se Puede!, 1988-89 


32 X 23 in. (81.3 x 58.4 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by the Art Museum Council 

p. 267 

Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull, and Whitaker 

United States, 1962-70 

Charles W. Moore (United States, 1925-1993), 
Donlyn Lyndon (United States, b. 1936), 
William Turnbull (United States, b. 1935), and 
Richard R. Whitaker (United States, b. 1929) 

Sea Ranch Condominium 1, Perspective, 1963 

Graphite on tracing paper 

17 x 34 in. (43.2 X 86.4 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, gift 

of William Turnbull 

Julia Morgan 

United States, 1872-1957 

Hearst Castle, San Simeon. Elevation of Entry, 


Charcoal on paper 

14 X 24 in. (35.6 X 61 cm) 

Special Collections and University Archives, 

Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic 

University, San Luis Obispo 

Yasumasa Morimura 

Japan, active United States, b. 1951 

Self-Portrait (Actress) /After Black Marilyn 
From the Self-Portrait (Actress) series, 1996 
Silver dye-bleach (Ilfochrome) print 
49 X39 in. (124.5 X 99.1 cm) 
Collection of Eileen and Peter Norton, 
Santa Monica 

Rock 'n' Block, 1998 
Earthenware, overgiazed 
4 X 4% in. (10.2 X 11.7 cm) 
Courtesy Frank Lloyd Gallery 

Trick Tracy, 1998 

Earthenware, overgiazed 

4 X 5 in. (10.2 X 12.7 cm) 

Courtesy Michael and Patti Marcus 

Manuel Neri 

United States, b. 1930 

Hombre Colorado, c. 1957-58 

Plaster, oil-based enamel, wood, wire, 

and canvas 

69 X 16 X 20V4 in. (175.3 X 40.6 X 51.4 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Campbell Thiebaud 

Gallery, San Francisco 


United States, founded 1975 

Thom Mayne, United States, b. 1944 

Diamond Ranch High School, Pomona, Digital 

Model, Aerial View, 1997 

Digital print 

40 X 20 in. (101.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by Morphosis 

Ed Moses 

United States, b. 1926 

Untitled, 1972 

Rhoplex and acrylic on laminated tissue 

79 X 93 in. (200.7 X 236.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist 


Eric Moss 

United States, b. 1943 

Culver City Complex, 1988 
Ink on Mylar 

30 X36 in. (76.2 X 91.4 cm) 
Eric Ovven Moss Architects 

Jose Moya del Pino 

Spain, active United States, 1891-1969 

Chinese Mother and Child, 1933 

Oil on canvas 

40 X 30 in. (101.6 X 76.2 cm) 

Private collection 

p. 142 

Lee Mullican 

United States, 1919-1998 

Space, 1951 

Oil on canvas 

40 X 50 in. (101.6 X 127 cm) 

LACMA, partial and promised gift 

of Fannie and Alan Leslie 

p. 189 

Ron Nagle 

United States, b. 1939 

Blue Sahii Two, 1998 
Earthenware, overgiazed 
4x5 in. (10.2 X 12.7 cm) 
Collection of Wendy Barrie Brotman 

Kentaro Nakomura 

lapan, active United States, active 1920S-30S 

Evening Wave, c. 1926 
Gelatin-silver bromide print 
13%6 X io'/i6 in. (34.5 cm x 26.9 cm) 
Dennis and Amy Reed Collection 
p. 127 

Henry Nappenbach 

Germany, active United States, 1862-1931 

Chinese New Year Celebration, 

San Francisco, 1904 

Oil on canvas 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Collection of Dr. Oscar and Trudy Lemer 

p. 96 

San Francisco, Chinatown, 1906 

Oil on canvas 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Collection of Dr. Oscar and Trudy Lemer 

Gertrud Natzler 

Austria, active United States, 1908-1971 
Otto Natzler 

Austria, active United States, b. 1908 

Teapot, Creamer, Sugar Bowl, and Cups, 1943 
Earthenware, uranium glaze 
Approximate measurements: Teapot: 6 in. 
(15.2 cm); Creamer: 3 in. (7.6 cm); Sugar bowl: 
4 in. (10.2 cm); Cups: 3 in. (7.6 cm) 
Courtesy Susan and Michael Rich 

Bruce Nauman 

United States, b. 1941 

Black Balls, 1969 

Super 8 film (color, without sound, eight 

minutes), transferred to videotape for this 


Lent by Electronic Arts Intermix 

Charles P. Neilson 

Scotland, active United States, active 

In Fish Alley, Chinatown, San Francisco, 1897 

Watercolor on paper 

13x191/2 in. (33 x49.5 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

Richard Neutra 

Austria, active United States, 1892-1970 

Lovell Health House, Los Angeles, Elevations 

and Perspective, 1927 

Graphite on paper 

i2'/4 X i4'/2 in. (31.1 X 36.8 cm); 11 x i3'/2 in. 

(27.9 X34.3 cm) 

UCLA Library, Department of Special 


Cantilever Chair, 1929 

Redesigned by Dion Neutra, reissue manufac- 
tured by Prospettive, Italy, 1992 
Chrome-plated steel with upholstery 
24 '/4 X 26 in. (61.5 X 66 cm) 
LACMA, gift of ICF (International Contract 
Furnishing, Inc.) 

Channel Heights Chair, 1940-42 
Wood, metal, and plastic 
35 X 37 in. (88.9 X 94 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Dr. Thomas S. Hines 
p. 151 

Daniel Nicoletta 

United States, b. 1954 

MindKamp Kabaret, 1976 
Gelatin-silver print 
11 X14 in. (27.9 X35.6 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Suit, 1994 

Chromogenic development print 
16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Linda Nishio 

United States, b. 1952 

Kikoemasu ka? (Can You Hear Me?), 1980 
Twelve gelatin-silver prints 
Overall: 58 x 38 in. (147.3 x 96.5 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 265 

Don Normark 

United States, b. 1928 

La Loma, 1949 

Artists book with sbcty-three photographs, 

sixty-eight pages 

9 X SVa X 1 in. (22.9 x 21.3 x .16 cm) 

Lent by the artist 


iTom La l.dnia series, 1949 

Gelatin-silver print 

II X 14 in. (27.9 X 35.6 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 166 

Chiura Obata 

Japan, active United States, 1885-1975 

Untitled (Alniii, Santa Cruz Mountains.), 1922 
Sketchbook: sumi and silk mounted on board 
i4'/2 X i6'/2 in. (36.8 X 41.9 cm) 
Lent by the Obata Family 

New Moon, Eagle Peak, 1927 
Sumi and watercolor on paper 
15% X II in. (40 X 28 cm) 
Lent by the Obata Family 
p. 128 

El Capitan: Yosemite National Park, 

California, 1930 

Color woodcut 

15% xii in. (40 X28 cm) 

Lent by the Obata Family 

Farewell Picture of the Bay Bridge, 

April 30, 1942, 1942 

Sumi on paper 

15V8 X 20% in. (38.5 X 53 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

Gift of the Obata Family 

p. 155 

Manuel Ocampo 

Philippines, active United States, b. 1965 

Untitled (Ethnic Map of Los Angeles), 1987 

Acrylic on canvas 

66 '/2 X 59 in. (168.9 X 149.9 cm) 

Collection Tom Patchett, Los Angeles 


Victor Ochoa 

United States, b. 1948 

Border Bingo/Loteria Fronteriza, 1987 

Serigraph on paper 

36 '/2 X 26 in. (92.8 X 66 cm) 

lam/ocma Art Collection Trust, partial gift of 

Charlie Miller and partial museum purchase 

with funds provided by the National 

Endowment for the Arts, a federal agency 

Claes Oldenburg 

Sweden, active United States, b. 1929 

Profile Airflow, 1968-69 
Molded polyurethane over lithograph 
33 '/2 X 65 '/2 in. (85.1 X 166.4 cm) 
Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles, California 

Otis Oldfield 

Liiiitcd States, 1890-1969 

Telegraph Hill, c. 1927 

Oil on canvas 

40 X 33 14 in. (101.6 X 84.5 cm) 

The Delman Collection, San Francisco 

Bay Bridge Series, 1937 


19 X i4'/4 in. (48.3 X 36.2 cm) 

United States Government Treasury 

L^epartment, Public Works of Art Project, 

Washington, D.C., on permanent loan 


Gordon Onslow Ford 

England, active United States, b. 1912 

Fragment of an Endless (II), 1952 
Casein on wrinkled paper 
3i'/2 X 67 in. (80 X 170.2 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 189 

Catherine Opie 

United States, b. 1961 

Self-Portrait, 1993 

Chromogenic development (Ektacolor) print 

40 X 30 in. (101.6 X 76.2 cm) 

LACMA, Audrey and Sydney Irmas Collection 

P- 253 

Ted Orland 

United States, b. 1941 

Clearing Winter Storm, San Mateo Freeway, 

c. 1965 

Gelatin-silver print 

6% X 9V4 in. (17.1 X 23.5 cm) 

Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 


Australia, active United States, 1897-1964 

Costume for Dolores Del Rio, created 
for "In Caliente," Warner Bros., 1935 
Silk crepe and silk fringe 
cb: 54 in. (137.2 cm) 
Warner Bros. 

Ruben Ortiz-Torres 

Mexico, active LJnited States and Mexico, 
b. 1964 

California Taco, Santa Barbara, California, 1995 

Silver dye-bleach (Cibachrome) print, 

edition 4/20 

16 X 22 '/2 in. (40.6 X 57.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Jan Kesner Gallery 

p. 263 

Alien Toy, 1997 

Custom lowrider Nissan pickup truck with 

hydraulics and video 

Assembled: approximately 60 x 174 x 72 in. 

( 152.4 X 442 X 182.9 cm) 

Collection Tom Patchett, Los Angeles, courtesy 

Track 16 Gallery, Santa Monica 

Alien Toy, 1998 

Videotape (color, with sound, ten minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

John O'Shea 

Ireland, active United States, 1876-1956 

The Madrone, 1921 

Oil on canvas 

25 '/2 X 29 '4 in. (64.8 X 74.3 cm) 

Mills College Art Museum, Oakland, 

California, gift of Albert M. Bender 

p. 68 

John Outterbridge 

United States, b. 1933 

Together Let Us Break Bread, 1968 


76 X 64 X 16 in. (193 X 162.6 X 40.6 cm) 

Dr. and Mrs. Stanley C. Patterson 

p. 215 

Bill Owens 

United States, b. 1938 

Our house is built with the living room in the 

back, so in the evenings we sit out front of the 

garage and watch the traffic go by, 1970-71, 

printed 1982 

Gelatin-silver print 

8Vs X io'/2 in. (20.6 X 26.7 cm) 

LACMA, promised gift of anonymous donor, 

Los Angeles 

Wolfgang Paalen 

Austria, active Mexico and United States, 

Messengers from the Three Poles, 1949 

Oil on canvas 

91 X 83 in. (231.1 x 210.8 cm) 

Private collection 

p. 188 

Phil Paradise 

United States, 1905-1997 

Ranch near San Luis Obispo, 

Evening Light, c. 1935 

Oil on canvas 

28 X 34 in. (71.1 X 86.4 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

p. 116 

Claire Campbell Park 

United States, b. 1951 

Cycle, 1977 

Coiled raffia with wood base 

Sculpture and base: 6 x 42 x 15 in. 

(15.2x106.7x38.1 cm) 

Collection of Erin Younger and Ed Liebow 

p. 231 

David Park 

United States, 1911-1960 

Rehearsal, c. 1949-50 

Oil on canvas 

46 X 35% in. (116.8 x 90.8 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift of the 

Anonymous Donor Program of the American 

Federation of Arts 

p. 184 

Bather with Knee Up, 1957 

Oil on canvas 

56 X 50 in. (142.2 X 127 cm) 

Collection of the Orange County Museum 

of Art, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Roy Moore 

Patricia Patterson 

United States, b. 1941 

La Casita en La Colonia Altamira calk 

Rio de Janiero no. 6757, Tijuana, 1997 

Photo documentation of installation in Tijuana, 

transferred to videotape for this exhibition 

Lent by the artist 

Charles Payzant 

Canada, active United States, 1898-1980 

Wilshire Boulevard, c. 1930 
Watercolor on paper 
19 X 24 in. (48.3 X 61 cm) 
The McClelland Collection 
p. 105 

Agnes Pelton 

Germany, active United States, 1881-1961 

Sandstorm, 1932 

Oil on canvas 

3o'/4 X 22 in. (76.8 X 55.9 cm) 

Anonymous lender 

p. 123 

Alchemy, 1937-39 

Oil on canvas 

36 '4 X 26 in. (92.1 X 66 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

Irving Penn 

United States, b. 1917 

Hell's Angel (Doug), San Francisco, 1967 
Gelatin-silver print 
20x24 in. (50.8 X 61 cm) 
Collection of Stephen I. Reinstein 

Frederic Penney 

United States, 1900-1988 

Madonna of Chavez Ravine, c. 1932 

Watercolor on paper 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Collection of Edmund F. Penney and 

Mercedes A. Penney 

p. 105 

Charles Rollo Peters 

United States, 1862-1928 

Adobe House on the Lagoon, n.d. 
Oil on canvas 

16 X 24'/4 in. (40.6 X 61.5 cm) 
Collection of G. Breitweiser 
p. 91 

Raymond Pettibon 

United States, b. 1957 

Untitled [Don't you seej, 1985 

Pen and ink on paper 

11 X 8V2 in. (27.9 X 21.6 cm) 

Courtesy Regen Projects, Los Angeles 

Untitled [For truth, justice!, 1989 
Pen and ink on paper 
14x11 in. (35.6 X 27.9 cm) 
Courtesy Regen Projects, Los Angeles 

Untitled [Here and there it[, 1995 
Pen and ink on paper 

17 X 14 in. (43.2 X 35.6 cm) 
Courtesy Regen Projects, Los Angeles 

Untitled [My best side], 1996 
Pen and ink on paper 

18 X 12 '4 in. (45.7 X 31.1 cm) 
Courtesy Regen Projects, Los Angeles 

Timothy Pflueger 

United States, 1892-1946 

San Francisco Bay Bridge, Architectural 
Detail #4, c. 1936 
Graphite on tissue paper 
22% X 18 '/s in. (58.2 X 46 cm) 
Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 
Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, gift 
of Ronald E. Bornstein in memory of Anna 
Louise Wilson 

Gottordo Piazzoni 

Switzerland, active United States, 1872-1945 

Untitled Triptych, n.d. 

Oil on canvas 

Overall: 23'/2 x 49y4 in. (59.7 x 126.4 cm) 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills, California 

p. 83 

Lari Pittman 

United States, b. 1952 

Spiritual and Needy, 1991-92 
Acrylic and enamel on wood panel 
82 x 66 in. (208.3 X 167.6 cm) 
Alice and Marvin Kosmin 


Patti Podesta 

LInited States, b. 1959 

Ricochet, 1981 

Videotape (color, with sound, two minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Bruce Porter 

United States, 1865-1953 

Presidio Cliffs, 1908 
Oil on canvas 
27 x 32 in. (68.6 X 81.3 cm) 
Private collection 

Clayton S. Price 

United States, 1874-1950 

Coastline, c. 1924 

Oil on canvas 

40 Vs X 50 in. (101.9 X 127 cm) 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, 

Smithsonian Institution, gift of Joseph H. 

Hirshhorn Purchase Fund, 1966 

p. 126 

Ken Price 

United States, b. 1935 

Untitled, Mound, 1959 
Ceramic, glazed 
21 X 20 in. (53.3 X 50.8 cm) 
Collection of Billy Al Bengston 

S. D. Green, 1966 

Stoneware, with automotive lacquer and acrylic 

5 X9V2 in. (12.7 X 24.1 cm) 

Collection of Joan and Jack Quinn, 

Beverly Hills 

Cold, 1968 

Ceramic, glazed and painted with acrylic 

9 '4 X 8 in. (23.5 X 20.3 cm) 

Ken and Happy Price 

p. 209 

Antonio Prieto 

Spain, active United States, 1913-1967 

Bottle, 1959-60 

Stoneware, glazed 

h: 8V2 in. (21.6 cm); d: 8'4 in. (21 cm) 

Scripps College, Claremont, California, gift 

of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Marer 

J. John Priola 

Uniled States, b. i960 

Hole, 1993 

Gelatin-silver print 

23V4 X 20' 4 in. ( 59.1 X 51.4 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

Noah Purifoy 

United States, b. 1917 

Sir Watts II, 1996 (replication of lost original, 

Sir Watts, 1966) 

Mixed media 

34 X 30 in. (86.4 X 76.2 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift 

of the Collector's Gallery 

p. 222 

Marcos Ramirez £RRE 

Mexico, active United States, b. 1961 

Toy an Horse, 1997 

Photo documentation of public sculpture 
at United States-Tijuana border crossing, 
transferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artist 

Alfredo Ramos Martfnez 

Mexico, active United States and Mexico, 

Aztec Profile, 1932 

Conte crayon on newsprint 

20% X I5y8 in. (53 X 39.7 cm) 

Private collection, courtesy Louis Stern Gallery 

Woman with Fruit, 1933 
Charcoal and tempera on newsprint 
22% X leVs in. (57.5 X 42.2 cm) 
Mimi Rogers 
p. 139 

Susan Ronkaitis 

United States, b. 1949 


From the Ravine Series, 1981 

Gelatin-silver print, toned 

I3y4 X 11 in. (34.9 X 27.9 cm) 

LACMA, promised gift of an anonymous donor, 

Los Angeles 

Armando Rascon 

United States, b. 1956 

Border Metamorphosis: The Binational Mural 

Project, c. 1998 

Videotape documentation (color, with sound, 

fifteen minutes) of art project in Calexico, 

California, and Mexicali, Baja California 

Lent by the artist 

p. 267 

Alan Rath 

United States, b. 1959 

Watcher, 1998 

Cathode-ray tubes, aluminum, and electronics 

24 X 42 x 13 in. (61 x 106.7 X 33 cm) 

Private collection. La lolla 

Charles Ray 

United States, b. 1953 

Male Mannequin, 1990 

Fiberglass mannequin 

73 '/2 X 15 X 14 in. (186.7 X .^8.1 X 35.6 cm) 

The Broad Art Foundation, Santa Monica 

p. 259 

Joe Ray 

United States, b. 1944 

Untitled, 1970-72 
Thirty-one gelatin-silver prints 
Overall: 52 x 52 in. (132.1 x 132.1 cm) 
LACMA, Modern and Contemporary 
Art Council, Young Talent Award 
p. 200 

Granville Redmond 

United States, 1871-1935 

By the Sea, c. 1910 

Oil on canvas 

12 X 16 in. (30.5 X 40.6 cm) 

Collection of Joseph L. Moure 

California Poppy Field, n.d. 
Oil on canvas 

40 '/4 X 60 Vi in. (102.2 X 153 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Raymond Griffith 
pp. 78-79 

Charles Reiffel 

United States, 1862-1942 

Late Afternoon Glow, c. 1925 

Oil on canvas 

34 X 37 in. (86.4 X 94 cm) 

Masterpiece Gallery 

p. 122 

Frederick Hurten Rhead 

England, active United States, 1 


Footed Bowl, c. 1915 


h: 3% in. (9.5 cm); d: 10% in. (26.2 cm) 

LACMA, Art Museum Council Fund 

Jason Rhoades 

United States, b. 1965 
Jorge Pardo 

CAiba, active United States, b. 1963 

#1 NAFTA Bench, 1996 

Marble, plywood, three plastic buckets, eight 

plastic lids, fabric pillow, vinyl-covered cushion, 

pvc plastic pipes, clamps, and battery-operated 


Bench: 28 x 144 x 28 in. (71.1 x 365.8 x 71.1 cm); 

Horse leg d: 55 x 5 in. (139.7 x 12.7 cm) 

Collection of Rosa and Carlos de la Cruz 

p. 269 

William S. Rice 

United States, 1873-1963 

Chinatown — Monterey, 1903 

Watercolor on paper 

10 x 16 '/4 in. (25.4 x 41.3 cm) 

From the collection of Roberta Rice Treseder 

John Hubbard Rich 

United States, 1876-1954 

Madam Yup See, c. 1919 

Oil on canvas 

36 X28 in. (91.4 X 71.1 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Mrs. Ruth Rich and 

the Kenneth C. Rich Sr. Family 


Portugal, active United States, b. 1966 

One Tree, 1999 

Photo documentation, transferred to videotape 

for this exhibition 

Lent by the artist 

Faith Ringgold 

United States, b. 1930 

Double Dutch on the Golden Gate Bridge, 1988 

Acrylic on canvas and printed, dyed, and 

pieced fabric 

68 '/2 X 68'/2 in. (174 x 174 cm) 

Private collection 

p. 242 

Diego Rivera 

Mexico, active France, Mexico, and 
United States, 1886-1957 

Study for "Allegory of California" (also known as 

"Riches of California" j, mural in Stock Exchange 

Building, San Francisco, 1931 

Graphite on paper 

24% x 19 in. (62.9 x 48.3 cm) 

Collection of Lisa and Douglas Goldman 

p. 138 

A.J. Roberts 

Active United States, 1910S-1930 
For San Diego Decorating Company, 
United States, c. 1913 

Fanciful Interpretation of What the Panama- 
California Exposition Would Look Like, c. 1913 
Oil on board 

48 X 84 in. (121.9 X 213.3 cm) 
San Diego Historical Society, gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. John Cuchna, 1986 

Fred H. Robertson 

United States, 1868-1952 

Vase, c. 1915 


h: 6 "/16 in. (17.1 cm); d: }¥* in. ( 9.5 cm) 

LACMA, Art Museum Council Fund 

Frank Romero 

United States, b. 1941 

Freeway Wars, c. 1987 

Oil on canvas 

63 '/i X 75 in. (161.3 X 190.5 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Franci Seiniger 

Guy Rose 

United States, 1867-1925 

The Old Oak Tree, c. 1916 

Oil on canvas 

29% X 28 '4 in. (75.9 X 71.8 cm) 

Edenhurst Gallery 

p. 68 

Carrnel Dunes, c. 1918-20 

Oil on canvas 

24 '/16 X 29V16 in. (61.2 X 73.8 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Reese H. Taylor 


Martha Rosier 

United States 

Semiotics of the Kitchen, 1975 
Videotape (black and white, with sound, 
six minutes) 
Lent by Video Data Bank 

Ed Rossbach 

United States, b. 1914 

Constructed Color, 1965 

Synthetic raffia braiding 

57x71 in. (144.8x180.3 cm) 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 


Erika Rothenberg 

United States 

America's Joyous Future, 1990 

Plexiglas and aluminum display case with 

plastic letters 

36 x 24 X iVa in. ( 91.4 X 61 x 7 cm) 

Robert and Mary Looker 

p. 255 

Jerry Rothman 

United States, b. 1933 

Sky Pot, i960 


28 '/2 X 25 in. (72.4 X 63.5 cm) 

Scripps College, Claremont, California, 

gift of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Marer 

Michael Rotondi 

United States, b. 1949 
Clark Stevens 

United States, b. 1963 

RoTo Architects, Inc., United States, 

founded 1991 

Carlson-Reges House, Los Angeles, Composite, 


Mixed media on digital print 

60 X 36 in. (152.4 X 91.4 cm) 

Lent by RoTo Architects Inc. 

Ross Rude I 

United States, b. i960 

Untitled #128, 1993 

Stained wood 

h: 6 in. (15.2 cm); d: 17 in. (43.2 cm) 

Collection of Morris T. Grabie and Sherry 

Latt Lowy 

Allen Ruppersberg 

United States, b. 1944 

AVs Cafe, 1969 

Photo and audio documentation of installa- 
tion/performance in downtown Los Angeles, 
transferred to videotape for this exhibition 
Lent by the artist 

Edward Ruscha 

United States, b. 1937 

Joe, c. 1962 

Oil on paper 

12 X 12 in. (30.5 X 30.5 cm) 

Joe Goode 

Twenty-Six Gasoline Stations, 1962 

Artists book with photomechanical 


Book closed: 7 x 5'/2 in. (17.8 x 14 cm) 

LACMA, Balch Library Acquisition Fund 

Burning Gas Station, 1965-66 

Oil on canvas 

21% x 391/8 in. (55.2 X 99.4 cm) 

Collection of Vicki and Kent Logan, 

San Francisco 


Every Building on the Sunset Strip, 1966 
Artists book (accordion fold) with 
photomechanical reproductions 
Book closed: yVs x sVs in. (18.1 x 14.3 cm) 
LACMA, Balch Library, Special Collections 

Standard Station, 1966 


26 '/4 X 40 Vi in. (66.7 X 102.2 cm) 

LACMA, Museum Acquisition Fund 

p. 202 

Thirty-Two Parking Lots in Los Angeles, 1967 

Artists book with photomechanical 


Book closed: 10 x 8 in. (25.4 x 20.3 cm) 

LACMA, Balch Library Acquisition Fund 

Hollywood, 1968 

Color screenprint 

i7'/2 X 44 '/2 in. (44.5 x 113 cm) 

LACMA, Museum Acquisition Fund 

p. 201 

Edward Ruscha 

United States, b. 1937 
Mason Williams 
United States, b. 1938 
Patrick Blackwell 

United States, b. 1935 

Royal Road Test, 1966 

Artists book (spiral bound) with 

photomechanical reproductions 

Book closed: 9'/2 x 6 '4 in. (24.1 x 15.9 cm) 

LACMA, Library Acquisitions Fund 

Alison Soar 

United States, b. 1956 

Topsy Turvy, 1999 

Wood, tar, plaster, fabric, and ceiling tin 

43 X 14 X 9 in. (109.2 X 35.6 X 22.9 cm) 

Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, 

Massachusetts, purchased with the Janet 

Wright Ketcham, class of 1953, Fund and the 

Kathleen Compton Sherrerd, class of 1954, 

Fund for American Art 

p. 264 

Betye Saar 

United States, b. 1926 

The Liberation of Aunt Jetiiiiiia, 1972 

Mixed-media assemblage 

iiy4 X 8 X 2% in. (29.8 X 20.3 X 7 cm) 

UC Berkeley, Art Museum, purchased with the 

aid of funds from the National Endowment for 

the Arts 

p. 222 

Ben Sakoguchi 

United States, b. 1938 

Atomic Brand, 1975-81 

Acrylic on canvas 

10 X 11 in. (25.4 X 27.9 cm) 

Collection of Patricia S. Cornelius 

Capitalist Art Brand, 1975-81 
Acrylic on canvas 
10 X 11 in. (25.4 X 27.9 cm) 
Collection of Philip Cornelius 
p. 196 

Furs for M'Lady Brand, 1975-81 
Acrylic on canvas 
10 X 11 in. (25.4x27.9 cm) 
Collection of Michelle Montgomery 
and David Kent 

Paul Sample 

United States, 1896-1974 

Celebration, 1933 

Oil on canvas 

40 X 48 in. (101.6 X 121.9 cm) 

Paula and Irving Click 

p. 121 


United States, dates unknown 

Drop Leaf Desk, c. 1934-36 
Carved mahogany 
21x50 in. (53.3 X127 cm) 
Courtesy Robert Bijou Fine Arts 

J. T. Sata 

Japan, active United States, 1896-1975 

Untitled (Portrait), 1928 

Gelatin-silver print 

7x9 in. (17.8x22.9 cm) 

Collection of Frank T. Sata, Pasadena 


Adrian Saxe 

United States, b. 1943 

Elvis/Lives, 1990 

Porcelain, lusters, quartz crystals, wood, 

and silver leaf 

32 X 52 in. (81.3 X 132.1 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, gift of 

the William F. and Helen S. Reichel Trust 

Miriam Schapiro 

United States, b. 1923 

Night Shade, 1986 

Acrylic and fabric collage on canvas 

48 X 96 in. (129.9 X 243.8 cm) 

Collection of Frank Miceli 

p. 231 

Rudolph Schindler 

Austria, active United States, 1887-1953 

Lighting Fixture from the Wolfe Commission. 

Avalon, Catalina Island, 1928-29, reproduction 


Wood and glass, with electrical cord 

5 X 12 in. (12.7 X 30.5 cm) 

Modern ica 

Milton Shep Residence [Project], Los Angeles, 
Perspective Elevation, 1934-35 
Colored pencil on paper 
22% X 32% in. (57.5 X 83.2 cm) 
Architecture and Design Collection, 
University Art Museum, ucsb 
p. 110 

Armchair and Ottoman from the Shep 
Commission, Los Angeles, 1936-38 
Gumwood and wool upholstery (replaced) 
2574 X 33'/2 X 35V2 in. (65.4 X 85.1 x 90.2 cm); 
25 X 25 X i2'/2 in. (63.5 X 63.5 X 31.8 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Ruth Shep Polen 
p. Ill 

Bedroom Dresser with Hinged Half-Round 

Mirror and Stool from the Shep Commission, 

Los Angeles, 1936-38 

Gumwood, mirror, and wool upholstery 


Overall: 7oy4 x 105 in. (179.7 x 266.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Ruth Shep Polen 

p. Ill 

Dining Table with Folding Top from the Shep 

Commission, Los Angeles, 1936-38 

Gumwood and metal 

36 X 47'/2 in., opens to 36 x 89 in. 

(91.4 x 120.7 cm, opens to 91.4 x 226.1 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Ruth Shep Polen 

Large Storage Chest from the Shep Commission, 

Los Angeles, 1936-38 

Gumwood and glass top 

l: 105 in. (266.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Ruth Shep Polen 

Radio End Table from the Shep Commission, 

Los Angeles, 1936-38 

Gumwood, glass (two pieces), and radio inset 

22 x 26 in. (55.9 x66 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Ruth Shep Polen 

Three-Section Sofa from the Shep Commission, 
Los Angeles, 1936-38 

Gumwood and wool upholstery (replaced) 
Overall: 27 x 85 in. (68.6 x 215.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Ruth Shep Polen 

Pair of Dining Chairs with Backs from the Shep 
Commission, Los Angeles, 1936-38 
Gumwood and wool upholstery (replaced) 
Each: 29 x 18 in. (73.7 x 45.7 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Ruth Shep Polen 

Palmer Schoppe 

United States, b. 1912 

Drum, Trombone, and Bass, 1942 

Gouache and pencil on paper 

16 X 22 in. (40.7 X 55.9 cm) 

Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art, 

Purchase: The Charter Member Endowment 


p. 183 

Frederick J. Schwankovsky 

United States, 1885-1974 

Woman at the Piano, c. 1925 

Oil on canvas 

26 x 201/4 in. (66 x 51.4 cm) 

lam/ocma Art Collection Trust, 

gift of the artist 

p. 87 

Eduardo Scott 

United States, 1897-1925 

San Francisco Embarcadero, 1924 

Black crayon and graphite on wove paper 

21 '/16 X 26 y4 in. (53.5 X 68 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

Museum Purchase 

llene Segalove 

United States, b. 1950 

Why I Got into TV and Other Stories, 1983 
Videotape (color, with sound, ten minutes) 
Lent by the artist 

Kay Sekimachi 

United States, b. 1926 

Nagare (Flow) lU, 1968 

Nylon monofilament, four-layered weave 

and tubular weave 

87 X 15 in. (221 X 38.1 cm) 

American Craft Museum, New York. Gift of the 

Johnson Wax Company 

Allan Sekula 

United States, b. 1951 

Twentieth Century Fox Set for "Titanic" and 

Mussel Gatherers, Popotla, Baja California 


From Dead Letter Office, 1997 

Two silver dye-bleach (Ilfochrome) prints 

25 X 66 in. (63.5 X 167.6 cm) 

Courtesy Christopher Grimes Gallery, 

Santa Monica, California 

Jim Shaw 

United States, b. 1952 

Beach Boys Weekend, 1988 
Pencil on paper 
17x14 in. (43.2x35.6 cm) 
Collection Barry Sloane 

Charles Sheeler 

United States, 1883-1965 

California Industrial, 1957 
Oil on canvas 
25 X 33 in. (63.5 X 83.8 cm) 
Richard York Gallery, New York 
p. 164 

Millard Sheets 

United States, 1907-1989 

Angel's Flight, 1931 

Oil on canvas 

50'/4 X 40 in. (127.6 X 101.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Mrs. L. M. Maitland 

p. 104 

Old Mill, Big Sur, 1933 
Watercolor on paper 
22 X30 in. (55.9 X 76.2 cm) 
The E. Gene Grain Collection 

California, c. 1935 

Oil on canvas 

30 X 40 in. (76.2 X 101.6 cm) 

The Fieldstone Collection 

p. 116 

Migratory Camp near Nipomo, 1936 
Watercolor on paper 
16 '/2 X 23 in. (41.9 X 58.4 cm) 
The Michael Johnson Collection 
p. 120 

Readying Pan Am Clipper Flight, 1936 

Watercolor on paper 

15 X 22 in. (38.1 X 55.9 cm) 

The McClelland Collection 

Working Carrots, Imperial Valley, 1936 
Watercolor on paper 
131/2x21 in. (34.3x53.3 cm) 
The Michael lohnson Collection 

Bonnie Sherk 

United States 

Portable Park I-III, 1970 
Videotape excerpt (color, with sound, 
eight minutes) 
Lent by the artist 

Kaye Shimojima 

Japan, active United States, active 1920S-30S 

Edge of the Pond, c. 1928 
Gelatin-silver print 
13%6 X io'/2 in. (34.1 X 26.7 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Karl Struss 
p. 125 

Billy Shire 

United States, b. 1951 

Untitled Denim Jacket, 1973 
Denim, metallic studs, paste stones, 
and attached metallic objects 
cb: 26 '/2 in. (67.3 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 218 

Peter Shire 

United States, b. 1947 

Mexican Bauhaus (Teapot), 1980 
Ceramic, glazed 
81/2 X 15% in. (21.6 X 40.3 cm) 
Courtesy Frank Lloyd Gallery 

Henrietta Shore 

Canada, active United States, 1880-1963 

Women of Oaxaca, c. 1925-35 

Chalk on paper 

i9'/2 X 24'/8 in. (49.5 X 61.3 cm) 

The Mitchell Wolfson Jr. Collection, The 

Wolfsonian, Florida International University, 

Miami Beach, Florida 

Untitled (Cypress Trees, Point Lobos), c. 1930 

Oil on canvas 

30 '/4 X 26 '4 in. (76.8 X 66.7 cm) 

Private collection 

p. 125 

The Artichoke Pickers, 1936-37 

Oil on canvas 

29 X 74 in. (73.7 X 188 cm) 

State Museum Resource Center, California 

Department of Parks and Recreation 

Julius Shulman 

United States, b. 1910 

Case Study House #8, 1950 

Gelatin-silver print 

5 X 4 in. (12.7 X 10.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig Krull Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

Lovell "Health" House, 1950 

Gelatin-silver print 

4x5 in. (10.2 X 12.7 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig Krull Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

p. 109 

Case Study House #22, 1958 

Gelatin-silver print 

10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig Krull Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

Chuey House, 1958 
Gelatin-silver print 

10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig Krull Gallery, 
Santa Monica 

Case Study House #22, i960, printed later 

Gelatin-silver print 

14x11 in. (35.6 X27.9 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig Krull Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

p. 160 

Singleton House, i960 

Gelatin-silver print 

5 X 4 in. (12.7 X 10.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Craig Krull Gallery, 

Santa Monica 

Ernest Silva 

United States, b. 1948 

Deer on a Raft — Rough Water, 

Long journey, 1991 

Oil on canvas 

30 X 36 in. (76.2 X 91.4 cm) 

Dr. Charles C. and Sue K. Edwards 

Larry Silver 

United States, b. 1934 

Contestants, Muscle Beach, California, 1954 
Gelatin-silver print 

11 X14 in. (27.9 X35.6 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Bruce Silverstein 
P- 173 

Handstand, 1954 
Gelatin-silver print 
14 X 11 in. (35.6 X 27.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Bruce Silverstein 

Newsboy Holding Papers, 1954 

Gelatin-silver print 

11 X 14 in. (27.9 X 35.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Bruce Silverstein 


Burr Singer 

United States, 1912-1992 

Only on Thursday, 1940 

Watercolor on paper 

Framed: a4'/2 x i/'/i in. (36.9 x 44.5 cm) 

lohn Tolbert 

David Alfaro Siqueiros 

Mexico, active Mexico and United States, 

"The Warriors," study for "Tropical America" 

mural, Los Angeles, c. 1932 

Graphite and ink on paper 

18% x 22y4 in. (47.6 x 57.8 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Albert 

M. Bender Collection, gift of Albert M. Bender 


Rex Slinkard 

United States, 1887-1918 

Infinite, c. 1915-16 

Oil on canvas 

291/2 X 331/2 in. (74.9 x 85.1 cm) 

Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Center 

for Visual Arts at Stanford University, 

bequest of Florence Williams 

p. 85 

Alexis Smith 

United States, b. 1949 

Christmas Eve, 1943, #27, Coconut Grove, 1982 

Mixed-media collage 

21 '4 X 18 "/2 in. (54 X 47 cm) 

The Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Los Angeles, gift of Robert B. Egelston 

Madame X, 1982 

Mixed-media collage 

21 ys X 18 V2 in. (54.3 X 47 cm) 

Collection of Richard Rosenzweig 

and Judy Henning 

p. 254 

Sea of Tranquility, 1982 
Mixed-media collage 
20% x 17% x i'/2 in. (51.8 X 44.8 X 3.8 cm) 
LACMA, purchased vv'ith funds provided 
by James Burrows, Jerry and Joy Monkarsh, 
Stanley and Elyse Grinstein, Laura S. Maslon, 
and Terri and Michael Smooke 
p. 26 

Wild Life, 1985 

Mixed-media collage 

i8'/2 X i6y8 X 21/2 in. (47 X 41.6 x 6.4 cm) 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art, gift of 

Bruce Murkoff 

Barbara Smith 

United States, b. 1931 

Ritual Meal, 1969 

Excerpt from 16 mm film (black and white, 

with sound, twelve minutes) by William 

Ransom and Smith of performance event in 

Brentwood, California 

Lent by the artist 

Christina y. Smith 

United States, b. 1951 

The Commitment, 1997 

Sterling silver 

10 x 9 X 6 in. (25.4 X 22.9 X 15.2 cm) 

Collection of Mr. and Mrs. David Charak 

p. 259 

Sixteen Years, 1997 

Sterling silver 

10 X 7y4 in. (25.4 X 19.7 cm) 

Collection of Margery and Maurice Katz 

Elizabeth Paige Smith 

United States, b. 1968 

Curve Coffee Table, 1998 

Resin-coated balsa wood 

and powder-coated steel 

42 X 35 in. (106.7 X 88.9 cm) 

Jenny Armit Design and Decorative Art, Inc. 

Harry Smith 

United States, 1923-1991 

Film No. 7, 1952 

16 mm film (color, without sound, 

six minutes) 

Lent by Dr. William Moritz 

Paul Soldner 

United States, b. 1921 

Floor Pot, 1959 

Stoneware, glazed 

h: 55 in. (139.7 cm); d: 12 in. (30.5 cm) 

Collection of Doug and Joelle Lawrie 

Travis Somerville 

United States, b. 1963 

Untitled (Dixie), 1998 

Oil and collage on ledger paper 

60 X 41 in. (152.4 X 104.1 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 

Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, 

Museum Purchase, Wallace Anderson Gerbode 

Foundation Grant 

p. 262 

John Sonsini 

United States, b. 1950 

Mad Dog "Andreas" Maines, 1995 

Oil on canvas 

67 X 48 in. ( 170.2 X 121.9 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 257 

Peter Stackpole 

United States, 1913-1997 

The Lone Riveter, 1935 

Gelatin-silver print 

9y4 X 6'yi6 in. (24.8 X 15.75 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

Gift of Ursula Cropper 

p. 107 

Robert Stacy-Judd 

England, active United States, 1884-1975 

The Aztec Hotel, Monrovia, Front Elevation, 

Right Section, 1924-25 

Pastel on paper 

30 X 48 in. (76.2 X 121.9 cm) 

Architecture and Design Collection, 

University Art Museum, ucsb 

Frances Stark 

United States, b. 1967 

...a rainbow, 1997 

Carbon, water, oil crayon, and papers 

50 X 381/2 in. (127 X 97.8 cm) 

LACMA, Modern and Contemporary Art 

Council, 1997 Art Here and Now Purchase 

Linda Stark 

United States, b. 1956 

Be Mine, 1994-95 

Oil on canvas on panel 

131/2 X 13 1/2 in. (34.3 X 34.3 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided 

by the Marvin B. Meyer Family Endowment 

in memory of Nan Uhlmann Meyer 

Joel Sternfeld 

United States, b. 1944 

After a Flash Flood, Rancho Mirage, 

California, 1979 

Chromogenic development print 

24 X 20 in. (61 X 50.8 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the artist 

p. 240 

Lou Stoumen 

United States, 1917-1991 

Tenements of Bunker Hill, 1948 

Gelatin-silver print 

n X 14 in. (27.9 X35.6 cm) 

The Collection of the Law Firm of Latham 

and Watkins 

p. 167 

Karl Struss 

United States, 1886-1981 

Monterey Coast, 1910-15 

Gelatin-silver print 

4^16 X 3% in. (11.5 X 9.2 cm) 

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles 

p. 84 

John Sturgeon 

United States, b. 1946 

Spine/Time, 1982 

Videotape (color, with sound, twenty minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Henry Sugimoto 

lapan, active United States, 1900-1990 

Mother in Jerome Camp, 1943 

Oil on canvas 

22x18 in. (55.9 X 45.7 cm) 

Japanese American National Museum, gift 

of Madeleine Sugimoto and Naomi Tagawa 


Self-Portrait in Camp, 1943 

Oil on canvas 

23 X18 in. (58.4 X 45.7 cm) 

Japanese American National Museum, gift 

of Madeleine Sugimoto and Naomi Tagawa 

Elza Sunderland 

Hungary, active United States, b. 1903 

Woman's Two-Piece Playsuit, c. 1940 

Printed cotton 

Top l: 16 V2 in. (41.9 cm); Shorts cb: 18 in. 

(45-7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Jon Gluckman 

p. 141 

Untitled Textile Design, c. 1941 
Gouache on paper 
19 X i6'/2 in. (48.3 X 41.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the artist 

Textile Design, Loquats and Taro Vine, c. 1945 

Gouache on board 

18 X 22 in. (45.7 X 55.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of the artist 

Charles Surendorf 

United States, 1906-1979 

Chinatown Shineboys, c. 1939 

Wood engraving 

10 '/2 X jVfi in. (26.7 X 18.8 cm) 

United States Government Treasury 

Department, Public Works of Art Project, 

Washington, D.C., on permanent loan 


Mitchell Syrop 

United States, b. 1953 

Routine Reorganization, 1986 
Mounted photo-mural paper 
40 X 26 '/2 in. (101.6 X 67.3 cm) 
LACMA, anonymous gift 

Second Nature, 1986 
Mounted photo-mural paper 
40 X 26 '/2 in. (101.6 X 67.3 cm) 
LACMA, anonymous gift 

Lagardo Tackett 

United States 

For Architectural Pottery, United States, 


Untitled [Three Stacked Sculptures], c. i960 

Ceramic, glazed 

h: 66 in. (167.6 cm), d: 12 in. (30.5 cm); 

h: 99 in. (251.5 cm), d: 13 in. (33 cm); h: 52 in. 

(132.1 cm), d: 25 in. (63.5 cm) 

Collection of Max Lawrence, Los Angeles 

p. 163 

Hourglass Planter (Model T-120), n.d. 
Ceramic, matte white glaze 
h: 20 in. (50.8 cm); d: io'/2 in. (26.7 cm) 
Anonymous lender 

Planter (Model L-20), n.d. 

Ceramic, matte white glaze 

h: 20 in. (50.8 cm); d: i3'/2 in. (34.3 cm) 

Anonymous lender 

Henry Takemoto 

United States, b. 1930 

Flag, i960 

Stoneware, glazed 

36% X 26 in. (93.4 X 66 cm) 

Scripps College, Claremont, California, 

gift of Mr. and Mrs. Fred Marer 

Janice Tanaka 

United States 

Memories from the Department of Amnesia, 


Videotape (color, with sound, twelve minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Max Tatch 

United States, 1898-1963 

Los Angeles, 1937 
Gelatin-silver print 

11 xi4in. (27.9 X35.6 cm) 

Sid Avery/ Motion Picture and Television 

Photo Archive 

Gage Taylor 

United States, b. 1942 

Mescaline Woods, 1969 

Oil on canvas 

26'/4 x30'/2 in. (66.7 X 77.5 cm) 

The Haggin Museum, Stockton, California 

p. 217 

Harold A. Taylor 

United States, 1878-1960 

Going from Mass, San Juan Capistrano 

From the book For the Soul of Raphael, c. 1920 

Gelatin-silver print 

i2'/4 X 9% in. (31.1 X 25.1 cm) 

Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, 

Massachusetts, purchased with the Hillyer- 

Tryon-Mather Fund, with fiinds given in 

memory of Nancy Newhall (Nancy Parker, class 

of 1938) and in honor of Beaumont Newhall, 

and with funds given in honor of Ruth 

Wedgwood Kennedy 

Masami Teraoka 

Japan, active United States, b. 1936 

Geisha and aids Nightmare, 1990 

Watercolor on paper 

106 1/4 X74in. (269.9 X188 cm) 

Catharine Clark Gallery 

p. 256 

Edmund Teske 

United States, 1911-1996 

Untitled, 1962 

Gelatin-silver print with duotone solarization 

13% X 10^/4 in. (34.6 X 27.3 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

p. 215 

Robert Therrien 

United States, b. 1947 

No Title (Snowman), 1983-84 

Silver on cast bronze 

h: 36 in. (91.4 cm); d: 16 in. (40.6 cm) 

Collection Teresa Bjornson, Los Angeles 

Wayne Thiebaud 

United States, h. 1920 

Down Mariposa, 1979 

From the portfolio Recent Etchingi I, pi. 3 


16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Crown 

Point Press Archive, gift of Kathan Brown 

p. 198 

Dorothy Thorp 

United States 

Platter (from Tea Service), c. 1930 
Etched glass 

h: 2V2 in. (6.4 cm); d: 24 in. (61 cm) 
Courtesy Anne and Marvin H. Cohen 

Tom of Finland [Touko Laaksonen] 

Finland, active United States, 1920-1991 

Untitled, 1962 

Graphite on paper 

11% X 8'/4 in. (29.9 X 21 cm) 

Collection Tom of Finland Foundation, 

Los Angeles, 

p. 219 

Untitled, 1962 

Graphite on paper 

11% X 8V4 in. (29.9 X 21 cm) 

Collection Tom of Finland Foundation, 

Los Angeles 


United States, b. 1956 

Booth for Isolation or Romance, 1988-95 

Mixed wood, Plexiglas, Formica, metal, enamel, 

and sea grass 

85 x 37 X 38V2 in. (215.9 X 94 x 97.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Christopher 

Grimes Gallery 

Salvador Roberto Torres 

United States, b. 1936 

Viva La Raza, 1969 

Oil on canvas 

53 X 42 in. (134.6 X 106.7 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 225 

Channel P. Townsley 

United States, 1867-1921 

Mission San Juan Capistrano, 1916 

Oil on canvas 

32 X 40 in. (81.2 X 101.6 cm) 

Joan Irvine Smith Fine Arts, Inc., 

Laguna Beach, California 

p. 92 

Wesley H.Trlppett 

United States, 1H62-1913 

Bonbon Box, c. 1904-9 


h: 2 in. (5.1 cm); d: 3'/4 in. (8.3 cm) 

LACMA, Art Museum Council Fund 

Flower Bowl, c. 1904-9 


h: 3 in. (7.6 cm); d: ^Vz in. (8.9 cm) 

LACMA, Art Museum Council Fund 

Covered Bowl, c. 1910 


H (including cover): iVi in. (8.9 cm); 

d: 5% in. (8.9 cm) 

LACMA, Art Museum Council Fund 


China, active United States, 1902-1993 

Cup of Longevity, c. 1930 
Watercolor on paper 
i6'/2 X 13 in. (41.9 X 33 cm) 
The Michael D. Brown Collection 
p. 143 

Tseng Kwong Chi 

Hong Kong, active Canada and United States, 

Disneyland, California, 1979 
Gelatin-silver print 
7'/2 X 7% in. (19.1 X 18.7 cm) 
LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 
p. 249 

Paul Tuttle 

United States, b. 1918 

Pisces in, 1997 

Crafted by Bud Tullis 

Maple, ApplyPly, and glass 

Overall: i5'/2 x 60 '/2 in. (39.4 x 153.7 cm) 

Architecture and Design Collection, University 

Art Museum, ucsb, gift of Suzanne Duca 

Tokio Ueyama 

Japan, active United States, 1889-1954 

Cove, Monterey, 1924 

Oil on canvas 

32 x 40 in. (81.3 X 101.6 cm) 

The Michael D. Brown Collection 

Underwood and Underwood Publishers 

United States, active 1880S-1940S 

Yosemite Valley, 1902, printed c. 1905 

Twenty-three stereographic prints stored 

in custom case 

Each: 3^/2 x 7 in. (8.9 x 17.8 cm) 

Collection of David Knaus 


Unknown Artist 

I'Litle Unknown: City Hallf 1906 
Gelatin-silver print 
9% X 6V8 in. (24.4 X 15.6 cm) 
Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 

[Title Unknown: Fire Following the 
Earthquake I, 1906 
Gelatin-silver print 
7'/i6 X 9'/2 in. (19.3 X 24.1 cm) 
Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 

[Title Unknown: View from a Hill], 1906 
Gelatin-silver print 
5'/4 X gYs in. (13.3 x 23.8 cm) 
Collection of Mrs. Nancy Dubois 

Unknown Artists 

Cahuilla Basket with Design of Abstract 

Flowers, 1890-1920 

Coiled juncus 

2% X 14 in. (7 x35.6 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Miss Margaret A. Feeney 


Basket, c. 1900 


h: 5'/2 (14 cm); d: 10 in. (25.4 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Mr. George Wharton James 


Karok Basket with Design of Serrated Diamonds 

and Triangles, 1900-1930 

Twined willow root, maidenhair fern, and dyed 

porcupine quill 

4'/2 x 6V» in. (11.4 x 16 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Mrs. Caroline Boeing Poole 

Karok Food Serving Basket, 1900-1930 

Twined conifer root and bear grass 

3 '4 x7'/2 in. (9.5 X19.1 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Colonel John Hudson Poole and 

Mr. John Hudson Poole Jr. 

Pomo Basket with Design of Stepped Triangles, 


Coiled sedge root and bracken fern 

5V2 X 13 V2 in. (14 X 34.3 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Mrs. Caroline Boeing Poole 

Ponw Ceremonial Basket with Design of Bands 

of Triangles, 1900-1930 

Coiled winter redbud shoots and sedge roots 

9V4 X 16 '/2 in. (23.5 X 41.9 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Mrs. Caroline Boeing Poole 

Yakuts Basket with Design of Animals and 

Geometric Motifs, 1900-1930 

CoUed sedge root, redbud and bracken fern 

6% X 10 in. (17.2 X 25.4 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Mrs. Carohne Boeing Poole 

Porno Basket, c. 1930 

Coiled sedge root, feathers, clam shell beads, 

abalone, and cotton cord 

h: 2 in. (5.1 cm); d: eVi in. (15.9 cm) 

Lent by the Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, 

gift of Colonel John Hudson Poole and Mr. 

John Hudson Poole Jr. 

Patssi Valdez 

United States, b. 1951 

The Kitchen/La cocina, 1988 
Acrylic on canvas 
48 X 36 in. (121.9 X 91.4 cm) 
Collection ofCurtis M.Hill 

Manuel Valencia 

United States, 1856-1935 

Santa Barbara Mission at Night, n.d. 

Oil on canvas 

30 X 20 in. (76.2 X 50.8 cm) 

Courtesy DeRu's Fine Arts, Laguna Beach 

p. 91 

Jeffrey Val lance 

United States, b. 1955 

The Viewing Room: Blinky's Coffin 

and St. Francis Niche, c. 1989 

Coffin with plastic chicken replica, paper towel, 

ceramic, plaster, acrylic, enamel, candle, and 

flower vases 

Dimensions variable 

Collection of Barry Sloane 

Deborah Valoma 

United States, b. 1955 

Cunning Comes in Trouble, 1998 
Waxed linen, woven and stitched 
112 X 30 in. (284.5 X 76.2 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Willard Van Dyke 

United States, 1906-1986 

Death Valley Dunes, 1930 

Gelatin-silver print 

9V2 X7V2 in. (24.1 X 19.1 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

Dirk Van Erp Copper Shop 

United States, 1908-77 

Vase, 1911 


h: 15'/8 in. (38.4 cm); d: lo'/s in. (25.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

Table Lamp, c. 1915 

Copper and mica 

h: 26 in. (66.1 cm); d: 19% in. (49.9 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Max Palevsky 

p. 89 

Hendrick Van Keppel 

United States, 1914-1987 
Taylor Green 

United States, 1914-1991 

Small Chaise and Ottoman, 1939, 

manufactured 1959 

Enamel-baked steel and cotton cord (replaced) 

24V2 x 21 in. (62.2 x 53.3 cm); 12 x 21 in. 

(30.5 x 53.3 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Dan Steen in remembrance 

of Taylor Green 

p. 163 

Garden Table, c. 1950 
Metal with wooden slat top 
20 Vs X 18 in. (51.1 X 45.7 cm) 
LACMA, anonymous gift 

Six-Light Candelabra, c. 1950 


i2y4 X 22yi6 in. (32.4 X 56.8 cm) 

LACMA, anonymous gift 

Outdoor Candelabra, 1952-53 
Steel with glass 
40x24 in. (101.6 x6i cm) 
Collection of Max Lawrence 

Sofa, 1952-53 

Steel frame and vinyl upholstery 
63 X 30 in. (160 x 76.2 cm ) 
Collection of Max Lawrence 

Wicker Arm Chair, 1952-53 
Steel frame and wicker 
43 X 30 in. (109.2 x 76.2 cm) 
Collection of Max Lawrence 

Cabinet from Van Keppel's House, mid-1950s 
Tropical hardwoods, plywood, and vinyl 
301/4 x 77% in. (76.8 X 197.5 cm) 
LACMA, anonymous gift 

Dining Table from Van Keppel's House, 


Steel frame with cast-resin top 

25 X 42 in. (63.5 X 106.7 cm) 

LACMA, anonymous gift 

Six Dining Chairs from Van Keppel's House, 


Steel frame with vinyl-coated cord 

Each: 30 x 17 in. (76.2 x 43.2 cm) 

LACMA, anonymous gift 

Small Chaise, c. 1959 

Enamel-baked steel and cotton cord (replaced) 

24 '/2 X 21 in. (62.2 X 53.3 cm) 

Courtesy Bernard Kester 

Gustavo Vdzques 

Mexico, active United States, b. 1954 
Guillermo Gomez-Peria 

Mexico, active United States, b. 1955 

The Mojado Invasion (The Second U.S.- 
Mexican War), 1999 

Videotape (color, with sound, twenty-six 
Lent by Video Data Bank 

Camilo Jose Vergara 

Mexico, active United States and Mexico, 
b. 1944 

Couple on Their Way to Church, Watts, 

May 1980, 1980 

Silver dye-bleach (Cibachrome) print 

16 X 20 in. (40.6 X 50.8 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

p. 200 

Vernon Kilns 

United States, 1931-51 

Place Settings for Six, from "Imperial 

Vernonware," c. 1955-56 


Dinner plate d: 10 in. (25.4 cm); Salad plate 

d: 7'/2 in. (19.1 cm); Soup bowl d: e'/s in. 

(15.6 cm); Cup d: 4% in. (12.1 cm); Saucer 

d: 6'/8 in. (15.6 cm); Coffeepot with lid 

h: io'/2 in. (26.7 cm); Teapot with lid d: 9 in. 

(22.9 cm); Covered casserole d: 9^/4 in. 

(24.8 cm); Creamer h: 4y4 in. (12.1 cm); Sugar 

bowl with lid h: 4^/4 in. (12.1 cm) 

Private collection 

Ely de Vescovi 

Italy, active United States and Mexico, 

Hollywood, 1941 

Oil on canvas 

30 x 24 in. ( 76.2 X 61 cm ) 

Collection of Donald and DeAnne Todd 

p. 178 

Bill Viola 

United States, b. 1951 

Anthem, 1983 

Videotape (color, with sound, twelve minutes) 

Lent by the artist 

Herman Volz 

Switzerland, active United States, 1904-1990 

San Francisco Waterfront Strike, 1934 


11 "a X 16 "s in. (30.2 X 41 cm) 

Rob Roberts 

p. 112 

Bernard von Eichman 

United States, 1899-1970 

China Street Scene No. i, 1923 

Oil on cardboard 

19 V4 X 16 Vi in. (48.9 x 41.3 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, 

gift of Louis Siegriest 

p. 135 

Peter Voulkos 

United States, b. 1924 

Camelback Mountain, 1959 

Stoneware with slip, glazed and gas fired 

45V'2 X i9'/2 in. (115.6 x 49.5 cm) 

Collection of Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 

gift of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen D. Paine, 1978 

p. 185 

Adam Clark Vroman 

United States, 1856-1916 

San Gabriel Mission, c. 1910 

Gelatin-silver print 

6 V2 x 9'/2 in. (16.5 X 24.1 cm) 

Collection of Stephen White II 


Edouard A. Vysekal 

Czechoslovakia, active United States, 1890-1939 

Springtime, 1913 

Oil on paper, mounted 

30x57 in. (76.2x144.8 cm) 

Garzoli Gallery, San Rafael, California 

Marion (Kavanaugh) Wachtel 

United States, 1876-1954 

Sunset Clouds #5, 1904 
Watercolor on paper 
20 X 16 in. (50.8 X 40.6 cm) 
Robert and Ann Steiner 
p. 69 

Catherine Wagner 

United States, b. 1953 

Arch Construction III, George Moscone Site, 

San Francisco, California, 1981 

Gelatin-silver print 

14 X 18 in. ( 35.6 X 45.7 cm ) 

LACMA, gift of Hal Fischer 

Arch Construction IV, George Moscone Site, 

San Francisco, California, 1981 

Gelatin-silver print 

14 X 18 in. (35.6 X 45.7 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Hal Fischer 

p. 243 

Anne Walsh 

United States 

Two Men Making Gun Sounds, 1996 
Two-channel video installation 
Dimensions variable 
Lent by the artist, courtesy Banff Centre 
for the Arts 

June Wayne 

United States, b. 1918 

Silent Wind, 1975 
Lithograph on nacre paper 
25 X 371/a in. (63.5 X 94.4 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Kem Weber 

Germany, active United States, 1889-1963 

Airline Armchair, c. 1934-35 

Hickory, alder, maple, metal, and leather 

30 '/2 X 25 X 34 in. (77.5 X 63.5 X 86.3 cm) 

Architecture and Design Collection, University 

Art Museum, ucsb 

p. 109 

James Weeks 

United States, 1922-1998 

Two Musicians, i960 

Oil on canvas 

84 X 66 in. (213.4 X 167.6 cm) 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 

Thomas W. Weisel Fund purchase 

p. 184 

Thomas Weir 

United States, b. 1935 

Renee Oracle, 1968 

Gelatin-silver print 

d: 9Vs in. (24.8 cm) 

Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena, California, 

Museum Purchase, 1971 

Jack Welpott 

United States, b. 1923 

The Journey — Pescadero Creek, 1966 

Gelatin-silver print 

9'/2 X 7% in. (24.1 X 18.7 cm) 

The Oakland Museum of California, The 

Oakland Museum of California Founders Fund 

P- 195 

William Wendt 

Prussia, active United States, 1865-1946 

Malibu Coast [Paradise Cove], c. 1897 

Oil on canvas 

18x28 in. (45.7 X71.1 cm) 

Private collection 


The Silent Summer Sea, 1915 
Oil on canvas 
25 X 30 in. (63.5 X 76.2 cm) 
Private collection 

Where Nature's God Hath Wrought, 1925 

Oil on canvas 

50^16 X 60 '/16 in. (127.8 X 152.6 cm) 

LACMA, Mr. and Mrs. Allan C. Balch Collection 

p. 70 

Henry Wessel Jr. 

United States, b. 1942 

Southern California, 1985 
Gelatin-silver print 
lo'/s X i5"/i6 in. (26.4 X 39.8 cm) 
LACMA, gift of Lewis Baltz 

Brett Weston 

United States, 1911-1993 

Garapata Beach, 1954 

Gelatin-silver print 

11 X 14 in. (27.9 X 35.6 cm) 

Margaret W. Weston, Weston Gallery, Inc. 

p. 170 

Edward Weston 

United States, 1886-1958 

Eel River Ranch, 1937 
Gelatin-silver print 
9'/2 X 7'/2 in. (24.1 X 19.1 cm) 
LACMA, anonymous gift 

Tomato Field, 1937 

Gelatin-silver print 

8x 10 in. (20.3x25.4 cm) 

The Huntington Library, Art Collections 

and Botanical Gardens 

p. 116 

Twenty Mule Team Canyon, Death Valley, 1938 

Gelatin-silver print 

9'/2 x 7'/2 in. (24.1 x 19.1 cm) 

LACMA, anonymous gift 

p. 124 

Drift Stump, Crescent Beach, 1939 
Gelatin-silver print 
9V2 X 7V2 in. (24.1 X 19.1 cm) 
LACMA, anonymous gift 

Daniel Wheeler 

United States, b. 1961 

Untitled [Exam], 1993 

Wood, X-ray photograph, glass, and 

found objects 

28 ys X 18% X 16% in. (72.1 X 47.9 X 41.6 cm) 

Collection of Michael Simental and Phill Starr, 

Los Angeles, courtesy Newspace, Los Angeles 

Minor White 

United States, 1908-1976 

Song without Words, 1947 

Artists book with twenty-three 

gelatin-silver prints 

Book open: 12 x 20 in. (30.5 x 50.8 cm) 

LACMA, Ralph M. Parsons Fund 

Sun in Rock (San Mateo County, 

California), 1947 

Gelatin-silver print 

3'/2 X 4Vs in. (9 X 11.7 cm) 

The Minor White Archive, Princeton University 

p. 187 

Pae White 

United States, b. 1963 

Pantone 5115c Pony, 1997 

Pair of women's shoes (size 10), cowhide and 

frog skin 

Each: g'/i x 3'/2 x 6 in. (24.1 x 8.9 x 15.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist 

James Whitney 

United States, 1921-1982 

Yantra, 1955 

16 mm film (color, with sound, seven minutes) 

Lent by Dr. William Moritz 

Ren Wicl<s 

United States 

Untitled (Family Beach Scene), 1952 
Watercolor on paper 
28 X 25 '/2 in. (71.2 x 64.8 cm) 
Automobile Club of Southern California 

Marguerite Wildenhain 

France, active United States, 1896-1985 

Squared Vase, c. 1947 

Stoneware, glazed 

4^4 x 4 in. (12.1 X 10.2 cm) 

Lent by the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, 

University of Minnesota, Museum Purchase 

p. 170 

Vase, c. 1950 


S'A X 5 in. (14.6 X 12.7 cm) 

Lent by the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, 

University of Minnesota, gift of Warren and 

Nancy MacKenzie 

William T. Wiley 

United States, b. 1937 

Cage and Bait, 1976 

Watercolor on paper 

30 X 22 in. (76.2 X 55.9 cm) 

The Museum of Contemporary Art, 

Los Angeles, gift of the Melville J. KoUiner 

Family Trust in memory of Beatrice S. Kollin 

Robert Williams 

United States, b. 1943 

California Girl, 1985 
Acrylic on imitation brick 
60 X 48 in. (152.4 X 121.9 cm) 
Collection of Anthony Kiedis 
p. 251 

John William Joseph Winkler 

Austria, active United States, 1894-1979 

Oriental Alley, 1920 


7% X 5V8 in. (20 X 13 cm) 

The Annex Galleries 


Fruit Stall, n.d. 


5 x7'/i6 in. (12.7X 18.9 cm) 

The Annex Galleries 

Albert J. Winn 

United States, b. 1947 

Akedah, 1995 
Gelatin-silver print 
20 X24 in. (50.8 X 61 cm) 
Lent by the artist 
p. 256 

Paul Wonner 

United States, b. 1920 

Untitled [Two Men at the Shore], c. i960 

Oil and charcoal on canvas 

50 X 40 in. (127 X 101.6 cm) 

Bedford Family Collection 


Beatrice Wood 

United States, 1894-1998 

Tea Service with Cups, c. i960 

Earthenware, glazed 

Teapot d: 11 in. (27.9 cm); Creamer d: 5 in. 

(12.7 cm); Open sugar d: 4'/2 in. (11.4 cm); 

Four cups d: 41/4 in. (10.8 cm); Four saucers 

d: 6 in. (15.2 cm) 

Collection of Gloria and Sonny Kamm 

Willard Worden 

United States, 1868-1946 

Untitled [Sand Dunesj, c. 1915 

Gelatin-silver print 

I3yi6 X 10% in. (33.9 X 27 cm) 

The Wilson Center for Photography 

Max yavno 

United States, 1911-1985 

Street Talk, 1946 
Gelatin-silver print 
8'/2 X 7'/i6 in. (21.6 X 17.9 cm) 
LACMA, gift of the artist 
P- 153 

Muscle Beach, 1947 

Gelatin-silver print 

26 X 16 in. ( 50.8 X 40.6 cm ) 

Collection of Sue and Albert Dorskind 


Night View from Coit Tower, 1947 

Gelatin-silver print 

loVi X 13% in. {26.7 X 34.3 cm) 

The Marjorie and Leonard Vernon Collection 

p. 165 

The Leg, 1949 

Gelatin-silver print 

20 X 16 in. ( 50.8 X 40.6 cm ) 

Collection of Sue and Albert Dorskind 

Premiere at Carthay Circle, 1949 

Gelatin-silver print 

20 X 16 in. (50.8 X 40.6 cm) 

LACMA, gift of Sue and Albert Dorskind 

Bruce /onemoto 

United States, b. 1949 
Norman /onemoto 

United States, b. 1946 

Golden, 1993 

Gold leaf on projection screen 

59 X 42 1/2 X 24 in. (i49-9 X 108 x 61 cm) 

Collection of Eileen and Peter Norton, 

Santa Monica 

p. 262 

Liz /oung 

United States, b. 1958 

The Birth/Death Chair with Rawhide Shoes, 

Bones, and Organs, 1993 

Chair, rawhide shoes, and cast iron, bronze, 

and lead 

48 x 84 X 36 in. (121.9 X 213.4 X 91.4 cm) 

LACMA, purchased with funds provided by 

the Betty Asher Memorial Fund through the 

Modern and Contemporary Art Council 

P- 253 

Eva Zeisel 

Hungary, active Germany, Russia, 
and United States, b. 1906 

Riverside China: Water lug with Six Tumblers, 

Large Serving Bowl, c. 1946-47 

Porcelain, glazed 

Tumblers h: 4Vs in. (10.5 cm); lug h: 8V4 in. 

(24.1 cm); Bowl d: i4-'-4 in. (37.5 cm) 

Private collection 

Comnnssioned Artworks 

Jody Zellen 

United States, h. i' 

Untitled, 1998 
Iris print on Myla 
10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 1' 
Lent by the artist 

ith Plexiglas 

Untitled, 1998 

Iris print on Mylar with Plexiglas 
10 X 8 in. (25.4 X 20.3 cm) 
Lent by the artist 

Andrea Zittel 

United States, b. 1965 

A-Z Travel Trailer, 1995 

Unit customized by Miriam and Gordon Zittel 

Trailer: steel, wood, glass, carpet, aluminum, 

and found objects 

115 X 94 x 204 in. (292.1 X 238.8 X 518.2 cm) 

Lent by the artist, courtesy Andrea Rosen 

Gallery, New York 

Marguerite Zorach 

United States, 1887-1968 

Man among the Redwoods, 1912 
Oil on canvas 

25 y4 X 20 V4 in. (65.4 X 51.4 cm) 
Curtis Galleries, Minneapolis 

Linking the two centers of the museum, i.acma 
East and lacma West, most of the works listed 
below were intended to transform the entire 
campus into a site for art. Others reached 
beyond the museum's physical borders in an 
effort to engage the larger Los Angeles commu- 
nity. All were newly commissioned, except 
L'nf/f/t'rf (Nordman), first conceived 
and executed in 1973, refabricated in 1995, then 
refurbished in 2000 for this exhibition, and 
What you lookn at? (Williams), originally 
made in 1992, then refabricated in 2000 for 
this exhibition. 

David Avalos 

United States, b. 1947 
Louis Hock 
United States, b. 1948 
Scott Kessler 
United States, b. 1955 
Elizabeth Sisco 
United States, b. 1954 
Deborah Small 
United States, b. 1948 

Oracle@LaBrea, 2000 

Video slot machine, surveillance cameras, 

and text 

Robert O. Anderson Building, lacma East 

Robbie Conal 

United States, b. 1944 

Ghost in the Machine (The Fifties), 2000 
Billboard from original oil on photomontage 
LACMA-area street 

Eileen Cowin 

United States, b. 1947 

Yearning for Perfection II, 2000 
Original billboard installation 
LACMA-area street 

Jose Lopez 

United States, b, 1956 

Neighborhood Heart (Good Fences Make Good 
Neighbors), 2000 

Light projection on southern face of 
Ahmanson Building, lacma East 

Barry McGee 

United States, b. 1966 

Temporary wall painting (untitled at press 
time), 2000 

lacma parking garage, Ogden Street, between 
lacma East and lacma West 

Maria Nordman 

United States, b. 1943 

Untitled, 1973/1995 

Untitled, 1973, located since 1995 at the 
Alameda Street loading dock of the Museum 
of Contemporary Art's Geffen Contemporary, 
will be on view again from November 2000 
through February 2001 in conjunction with the 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art's exhibition 
Made in California. 

The collaboration between the two 
institutions and travel by museum visitors 
(and chance passers-by) through Los Angeles 
from LACMA to MOCA constitute elements of 
the work and make material the continuing 
question. Is the city a potential sculpture? 

Pat Ward Williams 

United States, b. 1948 

What you lookn at?, 1992/2000 
Billboard from dot-screen mural print and 
spray paint 
LACMA-area street 

Richard Jackson 

United States, b. 1939 

Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue, 2000 
Used car, acrylic paint, cement, and hardware 
LACMA West Green (Wilshire Boulevard) 

Margaret Kilgallen 

United States, b. 1967 

Temporary wall painting (untitled at press 
time), 2000 

LACMA parking garage, Ogden Street, between 
LACMA East and lacma West 

Made in Califo 

Commissioned Documentary Works 

Eleven participatory environments engaging 
children and their families were commissioned 
by LACMALab, a nev*' experimental research 
and development division within the museum. 
LACMALab's inaugural exhibition. Made in 
California: now, included three generations of 
California-based artists. 

Eleanor Antin 

United States, b. 1935 

The Freebooters, 2000 

Fiberglass, wood, yellow rubber boots, and 
miscellaneous found objects and materials 
Boone Children's Gallery, LACMAWest; 
LACMA West Green (Wilshire Boulevard); 
Ahmanson Building, permanent collection 
galleries, lacma East; Belzberg Atrium, 

Michael Asher 

United States, b. 1943 

A student reinstallation of the Leona Palmer 
Gallery, nineteenth-century European art, 
LACMA East; photo documentation of ongoing 
project, Boone Children's Gallery, LACMAWest 

Victor Estrada 

United States, b. 1956 

Reflections on Poetry, 2000 
Sand, wood, cardboard, paint, and miscella- 
neous drawings 
LACMAWest Green (Sixth Street) 

Jacob Hashimoto 

United States, b. 1973 

Watertable, 2000 

Fiberglass, wood, water, and miscellaneous 


Boone Children's Gallery, lacma West 

Jim Isermann 

United States, b. 1955 

UNTITLED (pLOCk) (lOOO) 2000, 2000 

Wood, drywall, metal, plaster, wall paint, vinyl 

decals, Naugahyde cushions 

Boone Children's Gallery, lacma West 

Allan Kaprow 

United States, b. 1927 
Bram Crane-Kaprow 

United States, b. 1989 

No Rules Except. . ., 2000 
Pillows, rope, wood, metal, punching bags, 
lighting, mirrors, amplifiers, and speakers 
Boone Children's Gallery, lacma West 

Martin Kersels 

United States, b. i960 

Musical Sound Garden, 2000 

Wood, miscellaneous hardware, steel drum, 


Boone Children's Gallery, LACMAWest 

Dave Muller/Three Day Weekend 

United States, b. 1964 

A series of Three Day Weekend participatory 
and collaborative events involving artists, 
musicians, and audience, 2000-2001 
Boone Children's Gallery, LACMAWest; and 
other locations 

John Outterbridge 

United States, b. 1933 

A Third Eye Dreaming, 2000 

Wood, sand, cloth, metal, rock, photographs, 

and miscellaneous objects 

Boone Children's Gallery, LACMAWest 

Erika Rothenberg 

United States 

Hey kid, wanna be famous? and The Garden of 
Fame, 2000 

Wood, video projection, steel tubing, concrete, 
microphones, speakers, paint, paper, crayons 
LACMAWest Green (Sixth Street) 

Jennifer Steinkamp 

United States, b. 1958 
Jimmy Johnson 

United States, b. 1969 

Anything You Can Do, 2000 
Computer-generated video and audio, steel, 
swings, rubber flooring 
Boone Children's Gallery, lacma West 

The following were commissioned by lacma 
for this exhibition: 


Diego Rivera's "Allegory of California" (also 
known as "Riches of California"), Stock Exchange 
Building, San Francisco (now Stock Exchange 
Tower, City Club of San Francisco), 1931 
Reconstruction by John Lodge, 2000 
Lacquer, acrylic paint, plywood, Plexiglas, 
photographic prints, and fabric 
72 X 36 X 30 in. (182.9 x 91.4 X 76.2 cm) 
Permission to reconstruct courtesy Stock 
Exchange Tower Associates 

Selected murals from Coit Tower, San Francisco, 


Reconstruction by John Lodge, 2000 

Lacquer, acrylic paint, plywood, Plexiglas, and 

photographic prints 

18 X 51 x 51 in. (45.7 x 129.5 X 129.5 cm) 

Included Victor Arnautoff, City Life; John 

Langley Howard, California Industrial Scenes; 

Suzanne Scheuer, Newsgathering; Ralph 

Stackpole, Industries of California; Frede Vidar, 

Department Store; and Bernard Zakheim, 


Selected murals from Chicano Park, San Diego, 


Reconstruction by John Lodge, 2000 

Latex paint, plywood, steel, and photographic 


Two rows of pilings: 168 x 48 x 48 in. (426.7 x 

121.9 X 121.9 cm); 144 X 48 X 48 in. (365.8 x 121.9 

x 121.9 crn) 

Included Felipe Adame, Aztec Warrior, 1978, 

and La Adelita, 1978; Felipe Adame, Socorro 

Gamba, and Roger Lucero, Serpiente, 1978-91; 

Felipe Adame, Octavio Gonzalez, and 

Guillermo Rosete, Chicano Park Takeover, 

1978-91; Vidal Aguirre, Archer, 1987; Tony de 

Vargas, Chicano Pinto Union, 1978; Raul 

Espinoza and Michael Schnorr, Huelga Eagle, 

1978-91; Rupert Garcia and Victor Ochoa, 

Los Grandes, 1978; Raul Jose Jacques, Alvaro 

MiUan, Victor Ochoa, and Armando 

Rodriguez, jVarrio Si, Yonkes No!, 1977; Victor 

Ochoa et al., Varrio Logan, 1978; Victor Ochoa, 

Che, c. 1978; Michael Schnorr and Susan 

Yamagata, Coatlicue, 1978, and Death of a 

Farmworker, 1979; Mario Torero, Virgen de 

Guadalupe, 1978 

California Murals, 1980-2000 

Created by lames Prigoff and Robin ). Dunitz, 


Photo documentation of seventy selected 

murals on loop, without sound, twelve minutes 

Representative images from California's 

"museum of the streets," demonstrating that 

the heart of the mural movement has been 

and continues to be imagery inspired by the 

political and social struggles that periodically 

challenge the country. 

History and Culture 

Selling Eden #1, 1898-1920 
Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Documentary short, without sound, three 

How early motion-picture photography pro- 
moted California's natural wonders to the 
world. Scenes of Yosemite, the Mojave Desert, 
and the Golden Gate were included. 

Selling Eden #2, 1903-28 
Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Documentary short, without sound, four 

Compilation of early travelogues that helped to 
construct a mythologized urban image of 
California, including footage documenting dis- 
asters such as the San Francisco earthquake of 
1906 as well as the city's reemergence with the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915. 

Mistaken Identities: Images of Latinos and 
Asians in California, 1897-1926 
Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Documentary short, without sound, six minutes 
This piece demonstrated how Californians 
employed movies to romanticize — and some- 
times demonize — the state's ethnic minorities 
for racial, political, and promotional ends. 
In particular, it explored the way in which the 
state's Latino and Chinese populations have 
long been caricatured in Hollywood and else- 
where as exotic and dangerous. 

Hollywood Glamour, 1918-39 
Created by David Haugland, 2000 
Documentary film, with sound, seven minutes 
With newsreel and behind-the-scenes live- 
action footage, this piece brought to life the 
inception and growth of Hollywood studios in 
the 1920s and 1930s as "glamour factories," 
where teams of moguls, designers, photogra- 
phers, craftspeople, and actors created and 
exported motion-picture images that embodied 
the American Dream. 

California in the Depression, 11930-41 
t'reated by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Selected documentary clips (approximately one 
minute each), with sound and a viewer-activated 
random-access system 

A selection of news, documentary, and propa- 
ganda footage demonstrated in stark terms the 
great challenges California went through in the 
1930s. The state's urbanized labor, spearheaded 
by figures such as Harry Bridges and Upton 
Sinclair, fought batdes for its future, while its 
agrarian poor struggled to survive. 

The Grapes of Wrath 

Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 

Compilation of film clips, with sound, four 


A selection of clips from the 1940 film The 

Grapes of Wrath, directed by lohn Ford. 

Courtesy Twentieth Century Fox 

California Goes to War, 1942-45 
Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Newsreel short, with sound, five minutes 
An examination of one of the most pivotal 
times in twentieth-century California history. 
Segments included newsreel footage of 
lapanese American relocations, women enter- 
ing the war industry, Hollywood's wartime 
efforts, and the Bracero program. 

Suburbia, 1943-60 

Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 

Montage of film clips, with sound, three minutes 

Selections from an array of home movies that 

revealed how Southern Californians lived in 

the prosperous wake of World War II. 

California Noir, 1944-38 
Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Compilation of film clips, with sound, nine 

A selection of clips from seven iconic noir 
films, including Double Indemnity (1944) and 
The Lady from Shanghai (1948), that exposed 
the underbelly of the California Dream. 

Naming Names, 1948-32 
Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Repeating one-minute loops, with sound, on 
five video monitors 

A video installation that presented friendly 
and unfriendly witnesses before the House 
Un-American Activities Committee, the gov- 
ernment's search for Communist infiltration of 
the film industry during the late 1940s and 
early 1950s. Filmed testimony gave voice to the 
perspectives of key figures. 

The Capital of the Teenage World, 1933-62 
Created by Morgan Neville, 2000 
Documentary short, with sound, six minutes 
A montage of two of California's most youth- 
centric cultures — the beach and the car — 
with photography, early surf films, magazines, 
and music. This short film explored how 
camp exaggerations of Hollywood's Gidget 
and hot-rod movies came to supplant those 
original cultures. 

California Counterculture — The Sixties 
Created by David Inocencio and Minette 
Siegel, 2000 

Multi-image presentation with slide projection, 
with sound, fifteen minutes 
An array of projected imagery that showcased 
the cultural and political revolutions of the 
1960s widely associated with California, includ- 
ing hippie culture in San Francisco and the 
Haight-Ashbury district's "Summer of Love"; 
the Free Speech Movement at the University of 
California, Berkeley; the Native American 
assertion of "Red Power" at Alcatraz; strikes by 
the United Farm Workers; and the Black 
Panther movement. 

Historical Timeline, 1900-2000 
Compiled by Sarah Schrank 
Designed by Louise Sandhaus, with Tim Durfee 
and Iris Regn 

Fabricated by Promotion Products, Inc., 
Portland, Oregon 

Each part: 60 x 96 x 20 in. (152.4 x 243.8 x 61 cm) 
A five-part educational timeline of facts, 
images, and objects pertaining to the art, popu- 
lar culture, and local histories of California. 

Music and Poetry 

California in Music, 1920-2000 
Created by George Lipsitz, 2000 
Musical selections, listener-activated random- 
access system 

A two-hour compact disc with selections of 
California music, from Kid Ory's "Creole 
Trombone" of the 1920s to Chicano punk and 
Rock en Espanol of the 1990s. 

Beat Poetry and the San Francisco Renaissance, 

Created by S. S. Kush and Steven Watson, 2000 
Audio selection of poetry, listener-activated 
random -access system 
Recordings of fifteen poets (including Allen 
Ginsberg, Kenneth Rexroth, Lawrence 
Ferlinghetti, and Gary Snyder) reading selec- 
tions from their works. 

Documentary Materials 

Made in California: Art, Image, and Identity, 
1900-2000, incorporated approximately 400 
ephemeral objects culled from some thirty insti- 
tutions and fifteen private collections. The exhi- 
bition highlighted material culture to suggest 
complex historical and cultural trends through 
visual means. Books, brochures, programs, flyers, 
magazines, newspapers, advertisements, calen- 
dars, album covers, posters, photo albums, 
documentary photographs, telegrams, letters, 
and state and government publications were 
included. Several three-dimensional objects also 
appeared in the thirty thematic cases: for exam- 
ple, pennants, buttons, a souvenir can of smog, 
and a Barbie doll. 

Some display cases focused on the point 
of view of a specific group: for instance, the 
tourist industry or political activists. Others 
presented a wide range of perspectives on one 
of the state's salient features, such as agricul- 
ture, the California body, or Beat culture. In 
addition, some of the ephemera related closely 
to the art exhibited, as in the case of Rudi 
Gernreich fashions of the 1960s, art produced by 
the Ferus Gallery group, or the early-twentieth- 
century taste for Native American baskets. 
Other cases presented concepts or issues more 
removed from art, such as the construction 
of the Los Angeles aqueduct, the Bracero pro- 
gram, and the Black Panther movement. 

The state's sizable tourist industry pro- 
duced much of the ephemera prior to World 
War II. Throughout the first half of the cen- 
tury, California's tourist literature celebrated 
not only its famous vacation spots in the 
wilderness and iconic urban destinations but 
also various loci of "heritage" tourism, such as 
Los Angeles's Olvera Street and San Francisco's 
Chinatown. The cases spotlighted the agencies 
most responsible for the rosy-hued images of 
California, directed at potential visitors and 
settlers alike. The local business community, 
including individual enterprises such as the 
Hotel Del Monte and corporate coalitions like 
the All-Year Club of Southern California, was 
the most prominent booster. Railroad compa- 
nies created enormous amounts of tourist 
propaganda well into the 1960s. In addition, the 
exhibition vitrines traced the unusually prolific 
tradition of ritualized tourist spaces and events, 
from world's fairs and the Tournament of Roses 
to Disneyland and Pacific Ocean Park. While 
tourism has largely been run by and targeted at 
the Anglo population, particularly in the first 
half of the century, an effort was made to doc- 
ument the state's wide diversity of participants. 

A second category of objects contained 
various political artifacts. In the early sections 
of the exhibition, aspects of California 
Progressivism were considered through docu- 
mentation of the Indian Reform movement, 
mission preservation societies, and the Sierra 

Club's opposition to the Hetch Hetchy dam. 
The dark side of California's Progressive con- 
sensus was revealed in campaign literature 
espousing virulent anti-Asian sentiment, already 
a long tradition by 1900. Later periods bore 
witness to the polarization of the state's politi- 
cal culture. On the political left, the explosive 
impact of the labor movement in both the cities 
and the fields during the 1930s is still felt today. 
Prewar material, such as an illustrated history 
of the International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union from the 1930s, was 
followed by the material culture of community- 
based political organizations, like the Black 
Panthers, the United Farm Workers labor 
movement, and the Chicano movement. Cases 
devoted to the political right documented the 
antilabor activities of agribusiness, attacks on 
art and culture by anticommunists, and the 
xenophobia of World War II, which ranged 
from the institutional racism of the Japanese 
internment camps to the interpersonal violence 
of the Zoot Suit riots. 

A third group of documents charted 
urban development and the growth of the 
state's infrastructure. The public works of the 
1930s, like the Golden Gate and San Francisco- 
Oakland Bay bridges, gave way to wartime pro- 
duction and later to the state's freeway system, 
athletic stadiums, and the explosive postwar 
housing boom. At times, urban development 
and "renewal" came at the expense of poor 
minority communities, like those of Chavez 
Ravine in Los Angeles and the Fillmore District 
in San Francisco. 

The remaining material generally fell into 
the broad category of cultural history. Within 
the purview of high culture, a number of 
pieces elucidated the emergence of assorted 
and often loose coalitions of artists and writers: 
from the Carmel artist colony to the Mexican 
muralists in California, from the Beats to 
Teatro Campesino and Womanhouse. A few 
items traced lacma's own institutional history, 
from its Pan-American exhibition of 1925 to 
the Los Four show of 1974. A larger array of 
documents represented many examples of pop- 
ular culture, from Hollywood, West Coast jazz, 
beach culture, the rock and hippie counter- 
cuhures to California's car culture, including 
lowriders and the artists of the Kustom Kar 
Kulture (such as Big Daddy Roth). Although 
the bulk of the exhibition ephemera was 
grouped into the categories outlined above, the 
individual objects reflected the wide range of 
voices that defined California throughout the 
last century and in this exhibition. 

Documentary materials were selected by Eulogio 
Guzman and John Ott, with the assistance of 
Carolyn Peter. 


This list is complcie as o( July , 

Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo 
American Craft Museum, New York 
Gallery Paule Anglim 
The Annex Galleries 

Jenny Armit Design and Decorative Art, Inc. 
The Art Institute of Chicago 
Automobile Club of Southern California 
Sid Avery/Motion Picture and Television 

Photo Archive 
Estate of Ruth-Marion Baruch 
Estate of Wallace Barman 
Robert Bijou Fine Arts 

The Bowers Museum of Cultural Art, Santa Ana 
Brandeis University, Rose Art Museum, Waltham, 

Estate of Horace Bristol 
The Broad Art Foundation, Santa Monica 
Burbank Public Library 

Hans G. and Thordis W. Burkhardt Foundation 
California Historical Society, North Baker Research 

Library, San Francisco 
California Polytechnic State University, Kennedy 

Library, Special Collections, University 

Archives, San Luis Obispo 
California State Railroad Museum, Sacramento 
California State University, Fullerton, Pollak 

California State University, Los Angeles, John F. 

Kennedy Memorial Library 
California State University, Northridge, Center for 

Photojournalism and Visual History 
California State University, Northridge, Special 

Collection Archives 
Caltrans Transportation Library 
Campbell Thiebaud Gallery, San Francisco 
Iris and B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at 

Stanford University 
Center for the Study of Political Graphics, 

Los Angeles 
Catharine Clark Gallery 
Columbia University, Avery Architectural and 

Fine Arts Library, New York 
Creative Artists Agency 
Curtis Galleries, Minneapolis 
Deitch Projects 
Neil M. Denari Architects 
DeRu's Fine Arts, Laguna Beach 
di Rosa Preserve, Napa 
Walt Disney Archives 

Duval Estate, George Stern Fine Arts, Los Angeles 
George Eastman House, International Museum of 

Photography, Rochester 
Edenhurst Gallery 
Electronic Arts Intermix 
The Fabric Workshop 
Fahey/ Klein Gallery, Los Angeles 
The Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising, 

Museum Collection, Los Angeles 

Fat Chance, Los Angeles 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Achenbach 

Foundation for Graphic Arts 
Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, M. H. 

de Young Memorial Museum 
Ron Finley's Midnight Matinee 
First Church of Christ, Scientist 
Fischinger Archive 
GLBT Historical Society of Northern California, 

San Francisco 
The Gamble House, Pasadena, University of 

Southern California 
Garzoli Gallery, San Rafael 
Frank O. Gehry & Associates 
Gemini G.E.L., Los Angeles 
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles 
The Haggin Museum, Stockton 
Paul Hertzmann, Susan Herzig, and Paul M. 

Hertzmann, Inc., San Francisco 
The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and 

Botanical Gardens, San Marino 
The iota Center 
Irell & Manella LLP 
The Irvine Museum 
Iturralde Gallery Collection 
Japanese American National Museum, Los Angeles 
The Jerde Partnership International 
A. Quincy Jones Architecture Archive 
Kappe Architects/Planners 
Jan Kesner Gallery 
Craig Krull Gallery, Santa Monica 
L.A. Louver Gallery 
lam/ocma Art Collection Trust 
Margo Leavin Gallery 
Frank Lloyd Gallery, Santa Monica 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Balch Library 
Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, 

Seaver Center for Western History Research 
Los Angeles Public Library, Rare Books 

Matthew Marks Gallery, New York 
Masterpiece Gallery 
Mattel, Inc. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 
Mills College Art Museum, Oakland 

Mark Moore Gallery, Santa Monica 

Eric Owen Moss Architects 
Tobey C. Moss Gallery 
Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Museum of 

Art, LItica, New York 
Museum of California Design, Los Angeles 
The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of New Mexico, 

Santa Fe 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York 

The Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego 

The National Museum of Women in the Arts, 

Washington, D.C. 
The Oakland Museum of California 
The Oakmont Corporation 
Orange County Museum of Art, Newport Beach 
El Pachuco Zoot Suits, Fullerton 
Palm Beach Institute of Contemporary Art 
Perlmutter Fine Arts, San Francisco 
Philadelphia Museum of Art 
Pico Holdings, Inc. 

Princeton University, The Minor White Archive 
Quint Contemporary Art 
Regen Projects, Los Angeles 
Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York 
RoTo Architects Incorporated 
San Diego Historical Society 
San Diego Historical Society, Research Archives 
San Diego State University, Library and 

Information Access 
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art 
San Francisco Public Library, San Francisco 

History Center 
San Francisco State University, Labor Archives and 

Research Center 
San Jose State University, Center for Steinbeck 

Sandroni Rey 

Santa Barbara Museum of Art 
Daniel Saxon Gallery 
Scripps College, Claremont 
Seattie Art Museum 
Sierra Madre Public Library 
Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena 
Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, 

Joan Irvine Smith Fine Arts, Laguna Beach 
Smithsonian Institution, Hirshhorn Museum and 

Sculpture Garden 
Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of 

American History 
Southern California Library for Social Studies and 

Research, Los Angeles 
The Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 
Sragow Gallery, New York 
State Museum Resource Center, California, 

Department of Parks and Recreation 
Bernice Steinbaum Gallery, Miami 
Sunset Magazine, Menio Park 
Tacoma Public Library 
The Theosophical Society, Pasadena 
Tom of Finland Foundation, Los Angeles 
Steve Turner Gallery, Beverly Hills 
LIniversity of California, Berkeley, Art Museum 
University of California, Berkeley, The Bancroft 


University of California, Berkeley, College of 

Environmental Design, Documents 

University of California, Davis, Shields Library 
University of California, Irvine, Libraries, Special 

University of California, Los Angeles, Chicane 

Studies Research Center Library 
University of California, Los Angeles, Library, 

Department of Special Collections 
University of California, Santa Barbara, University 

Art Museum, Architecture and Design 

University of Minnesota, Frederick R. Weisman 

Art Museum, Minneapolis 
University of Nevada, Sheppard Gallery, Reno 
University of Southern California, Doheny Library, 

Los Angeles 
University of Southern California, Regional 

History Center, Los Angeles 
The University of Texas at Austin, The General 

Libraries, The Alexander Architectural 

Utah State University, Nora Eccles Harrison 

Museum of Art, Logan 
Video Data Bank 
Warner Bros. 
Shoshana Wayne Gallery 

Frederick R. Weisman Art Foundation, Los Angeles 
Margaret W. Weston, Weston Gallery, Inc. 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York 
The Wolfsonian-Florida International University, 

The Mitchell Wolfson Jr. Collection, 

Miami Beach 
The Yosemite Museum, National Park Service 
Gallery "Z," Beverly Hills 

Kim Abeles 

Jerome Ackerman 

Allan Adier 

Laura Aguilar 

Terry Allen and Allen Ruppersberg 

Joseph Ambrose and Michael Feddersen 

Lawrence Andrews 

Skip Arnold 

John Arvanites 

Ruth Asawa 

Dana Atchley 

David Avalos 

Armando M. Avila and Family 

Bedford Family Collection 

Jordan Belson 

Billy Al Bengston 

Mark Bennett 

Helen and Tony Berlant, Santa Monica 

Pam Biallas 

Teresa Bjornson, Los Angeles 

Marilyn Blaisdell Collection 

Shoshana and Wayne Blank 

Peter and Isabel Blumberg 

Chaz Bojorquez 

Mr. and Mrs. William A. Botke 

John P. Bowles 

Matthew A. Boxt and Aida Mostkoff Linares, 

Culver City 
Robert Brady 

Mr. and Mrs. George E. Brandow 
John Bransten 
G. Breitweiser 
Charles Brittin 
Jessica Bronson 
Wendy Barrie Brotman 
Jeff Brouws 

The Michael D. Brown Collection 
Nancy Buchanan 

The Buck Collection, Laguna Hills 
Chris Burden 
Andrew Bush 
Cathy Callahan 
Mr. and Mrs. David Charak 
Judy Chicago 

Christo and Jeanne-Claude 
Mama Clark 
William Claxton 
Marian Clayden 
Anne and Marvin H. Cohen 
Stephen Cohen 
Bob Coleman 
Lia Cook 
Miles Coolidge 
Patricia S. Cornelius 
Philip Cornelius 
E. Gene Grain Collection 
A. Lawrence and Anne Spooner Crowe 
Larry Cuba 
Darryl and Doris Curran 

Victoria Dailey 

lulie Schafler Dale 

Judy Dater 

Michael Dawson 

Robert Dawson 

Rosa and Carlos de la Cruz 

Einar de la Torre and Jamex de la Torre 

Louis F. D'Elia 

The Delman Collection, San Francisco 

Johanna Demetrakas 

Lewis deSoto 

Stephen De Staebler 

Kris Dey 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Dick Jr. 

Carlos Diniz 

Sue and Albert Dorskind 

Sharon B. Drager 

Nancy Dubois 

Tony Duquette 

Lucia Fames 

Charles C. and Sue K. Edwards 

Roger Epperson and Carol Alderdice 

Betty and Monte Factor Collection, Santa Monica 

Suzanne and Howard Feldman 

The Fieldstone Collection 

Frederick Fisher 

Laura Fisher 

Robbert Flick 

William Franco 

Ron and Nancy Frank and Edward Frank 

Anthony Friedkin 

Larry Fuente 

Harry Gamboa Jr. 

Frank O. Gehry 

Joanna Giallelis 

Paula and Irving Click 

Jim Goldberg 

Lisa and Douglas Goldman 

Shifra M. Goldman 

Ken Gonzales-Day 

Joe Goode 

Morris T. Grabie and Sherry Latt Lowry 

Phyllis Green 

Daniel Gregory 

The Grinstein Family 

Helen Mayer Harrison and Newton Harrison 

Jeff Haskin 

Jim Heimann 

Ruth and Alfred Heller 

Ester Hernandez 

Lynn Hershman 

Charles and Victoria Hill 

Curtis M. Hill 

Louis Hock 

Margaret Honda 

Dennis Hopper 

Mildred Howard 

Randy Hussong 

David Ireland 

Richard Jackson 

Feme )acobs 

lasper Johns 

The Michael Johnson Collection 

Elaine K. Sewell Jones 

Pirkle Jones 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Kallis, Los Angeles 

Gloria and Sonny Kamm 

Norman Karlson 

Hiromi Katayama 

Margery and Maurice Katz 

Hilja Reading 

Jeff Kerns, Los Angeles 

Bernard Kester 

Sant Khalsa 

Anthony Kiedis 

Candace Kling 

David Knaus 

Hirokazu Kosaka 

Alice and Marvin Kosmin 

Ina Kozel 

Leslie Labowitz 

Suzanne Lacy 

Robin Lasser 

Max Lawrence 

Doug and Joelle Lawrie 

Jeffrey Leifer 

Oscar and Trudy Lemer 

Fannie and Alan Leslie 

Mel and Sharlene Leventhal 

Lydia and Chuck Levy 

Joe Lewis 

Kimberly Light 


Marvin Lipofsky 

John Lofaso 

Vicki and Kent Logan, San Francisco 

Robert and Mary Looker 

Yolanda M. Lopez 

John Gilbert Luebtow 

Gilbert (Magu) Sanchez Lujan 

James Luna 

Mike Mandel 

Ray Manzarek 

Michael and Patti Marcus 

Tom Marioni 

Richard Marquis 

Joel Marshall 

T. Kelly Mason 

Paul McCarthy 

The McClelland Collection 

Barbara and Buzz McCoy 

Barry McGee 

Michael C. McMillen 

Merle and Gerald Measer 

Richard Meier 

Amalia Mesa-Bains 

Gary and Tracy Mezzatesta 

Frank Miceli 

Estelie and Jim Milch 

Roger Minick 

Peter Mitchell-Dayton 

Archie Miyatake, Miyatake Collection 

Susan Mogul 

Linda Montano 

Michelle Montgomery and David Kent 

Mark Moriarity 

William Moritz 

Ed Moses 

Joseph L. Moure 

Nancy Dustin Wall Moure 

Ron Nagle 

Joyce Neimanas 

Manuel Neri 

Daniel Nicoletta 

Linda Nishio 

Don Normark 

Eileen and Peter Norton, Santa Monica 

Jonathan Novak, Los Angeles 

Stephen Oakes and Olivia Georgia 

The Obata Family 

Gordon Onslow Ford 

Ruben Ortiz-Torres 

Tom Patchett, Los Angeles 

Patricia Patterson 

Dr. and Mrs. Stanley C. Patterson 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman Pattiz 

Edmund F. Penney and Mercedes A. Penney 

Kathy and Ron Perisho 

Carolyn Peter 

Charles Phoenix 

Patti Podesta 

Anne and Arnold Porath 

Ken and Happy Price 

Joan and Jack Quinn, Beverly Hills 

Marcos Ramirez ERRE 

Armando Rascon 

Dennis Reed and Amy Reed Collection 

Stephen I. Reinstein 

Susan and Michael Rich 


Rob Roberts 

Mr. and Mrs. C. David Robinson, Sausalito 

Steve Roden and Dan Goodsell 

Mimi Rogers 

Frank Romero 

Sheree Rose 

Richard Rosenzweig and Judy Henning 

Bill Rush 

Sandor Family Collection 

Frank T. Sata, Pasadena 

Sarah Schrank, San Diego 

Ilene Segalove 

Miki Seifert 

Allan Sekula 

Bonnie Sherk 

Richard E. Sherwood Family Collection 

Billy Shire 

Peter Shire 

Julius Shulman 

Gilbert and Lila Silv 

Michael Simental and Phill Starr 

Barry Sloane 

Deborah Small 

Barbara Smith 

Eileen R. Solomon 

John Sonsini 

Judy and Stuart Spence 

Stecyk Family 

Robert and Ann Steiner 

Daniel Strebin 

Marion Boulton Stroud 

John Sturgeon 

Larry Sultan 

Lydia and Andrew H. Sussman 

Sutnar Foundation 

Kathryn Sylva 

Janice Tanaka 

Selwyn Ting and Clover Lee 

Lothar Tirala 

Donald and DeAnne Todd 

John Tolbert 

Fred Tomaselli 

Salvador Roberto Torres 

Roberta Rice Treseder 

Peter Turman 

Steve Turner 

Dean Valentine and Amy Adelson, Los Angeles 

Deborah Valoma 

Anna van der Meulen 

Ron and Susan Vander Molen 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Veloz 

Camilo Jose Vergara 

The Marjorie and Leonard Vernon Collection 

Bill Viola 

Anne Walsh 

Jeri L. Waxenberg 

June Wayne 

Jonathan Quincy Weare 

Nancy and John Weare 

Roger Webster 

Pae White 

Stephen White II 

Hutton Wilkinson 

Wilson Center for Photography 

Albert J. Winn 

Erin Younger and Ed Leibow 

Suzanne W. and Tibor Zada 

Jody Zellen 

Andrea Zittel 

and anonymous lenders 


The development and production of on exhibition on the scale 
of Made in California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000 
would not have been possible without the cooperation of the 
many colleagues, artists, and lenders who contributed to the 
project over the past six years. The exhibition required an 
unusual level of collaboration among nine programmatic 
departments, as well as early and consistent participation from 
the exhibitions, publications, and graphic design departments at 
LACMA. In recognition of their efforts, these acknowledgments 
are written on behalf of the core team of lacma curators and 
educators who labored on this extraordinary exhibition. 

Made in California began with a desire to explore the 
rich subject of California art of the twentieth century from 
many points of view and in many mediums. Ilene Susan Fort, 
Curator of American Art, was an early enthusiastic collabora- 
tor. Together she and I led the team approach that made this 
exhibition possible. Her extensive knowledge of American and 
Californian art and well-honed research and curatorial skills 
helped to guide the exhibition and shape its two related publi- 
cations. Sheri Bernstein served as full-time Exhibition 
Associate for the project. Bernstein played a pivotal role in 
bringing us all together and in conceptualizing both the exhi- 
bition and its publications. She worked closely with many 
museum colleagues and helped to chart our course through- 
out many discussions about the nature and purpose of the 
exhibition. We have all benefited from her focus on the project 
and from her diplomatic skill. She has written extensively in 
the present catalogue, weaving together the themes of the 
exhibition. It would have been impossible to conceive and 
mount Made in California without her. 

The core group of curators who worked on the project 
came from the lacma departments of American art, costume 
and textiles, decorative arts, modern and contemporary art, 
photography, and prints and drawings. Early in the develop- 
ment of the exhibition, the curatorial team expanded to 
include the lacma departments of film, music, and education. 
One colleague in particular, the late Bruce S. Davis, Curator of 
Prints and Drawings, brought clarity, intelligence, and wit to 
the development process. His untimely death in 1997 cut short 
his involvement. We dedicate this volume to his memory. 

During the final two years of preparation, Eulogio 
Guzman joined the team as research assistant. Guzman assumed 
the primary role of locating, selecting, and coordinating loans 
of architectural drawings and ferreting out a wide variety of 

ephemeral material from 1940 to 2000. For his dedication and 
indefatigable effort on many aspects of the show's develop- 
ment, we are grateful. We were also significantly aided by 
research assistant John Ott, who not only selected documen- 
tary material covering the years from 1900 to 1940 for the 
exhibition but also wrote for the accompanying anthology 
and compiled the bibliography included in this volume. Our 
research team was assisted by Carolyn Peter in San Francisco. 
Peter worked tirelessly in the Bay Area, visiting archives, 
museums, collectors, dealers, and scholars on lacma's behalf. 
We are grateful for her collegial cooperation throughout the 
project. Guzman, Ott, and Peter contributed significantly to 
the conceptualization and realization of the project. 

The work of the lacma team was enriched by contribu- 
tions from numerous scholars working in fields outside our 
areas of specialization. While the programmatic expertise of 
the lacma team is extensive, we felt the need to expand our 
horizons by inviting scholars in other disciplines to discuss the 
project with us. In fall 1997, team member Paul Holdengraber, 
now Director of the lacma Institute for Art and Cultures, 
brought together colleagues from outside the museum for our 
first colloquium, a weekend of roundtable discussion. For that 
event, lacma's multidisciplinary team was joined by twenty- 
three writers, geographers, critics, filmmakers, film and art his- 
torians, educators, critical and cultural studies scholars, artists, 
and librarians who helped us enormously in refining our topic 
and approach. It was an exhilarating experience and moved the 
project forward immeasurably. The early and enthusiastic sup- 
port of State Librarian Kevin Starr, who embraced our project 
as the largest California-related presentation during the state's 
sesquicentennial, was particularly helpful. During the summer 
of 1998, in a series of five seminars, lacma team members had 
the opportunity to work closely with a new group of scholars, 
who came to the museum to review the exhibition outline and 
share with us yet another range of perspectives on the project. 
For their generous participation we thank all who attended 
these sessions; their engagement greatly influenced this project. 
Their names are listed on page 334. 

The following authors contributed to the anthology 
volume, Reading California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000, 
that accompanies this catalogue: Blake Allmendinger, John P. 
Bowles, Margaret Crawford, Ilene Susan Fort, Howard N. Fox, 
Karin Higa, Paul J. Karlstrom, Norman M. Klein, Anthony W 
Lee, George Lipsitz, Chon A. Noriega, John Ott, Carolyn Peter, 

Dana Polan, Sarah Schrank, Peter Selz, Kevin Starr, Sally Stein, 
Tim B. Wride, and Lynn Zelevanksy. We would also like to 
thank authors Sheri Bernstein, Michael Dear, Howard N. Fox, 
and Richard Rodriguez, whose thoughtful contributions 
enrich the present volume. 

Made in California was planned to occur on the cusp of 
a new century and to encompass the contributions of many 
departments. The decision was therefore made to give the 
show an unusual amount of space and to have it on view for 
an extended period. We are grateful for the enthusiastic and 
consistent support received from Andrea L. Rich, lacma 
President and Director, as well as from former lacma director 
Graham W J. Beal, and from the museum's Board of Trustees. 

The exhibition covered more than 45,000 square feet in 
two buildings on five floors. A related exhibition. Made in 
California: now, was mounted in the Boone Children's Gallery 
at LACMA West. The extensive physical space allocated to Made 
in California underscored important issues about the installation 
process and its impact on visitors. How would visitors follow the 
chronology, themes, and interpretations of more than 800 works 
of art and more than 400 documents and examples of material 
culture and absorb two dozen audio and video presentations, 
not to speak of text panels, timelines, and other didactic materi- 
als? It became apparent early on that designing the exhibition for 
maximum visitor understanding would be a challenge. For 
undertaking this responsibility we are enormously grateful to 
our design team, led by Tim Durfee and Louise Sandhaus, with 
Iris Regn, who in the past two years have been integral members 
of our team, attending countless meetings and engaging in many 
discussions related to content, approach, interpretation, and 
meaning. Their imaginative, innovative, and thoughtful design 
has responded to very complicated issues of intention, audience, 
and presentation. Designer Bernard Kester not only worked with 
Assistant Curator of Decorative Arts lo Lauria in conceptualizing 
and executing the three lifestyle environments, but also assisted 
in crucial ways with important design issues throughout the 
project. They have all worked closely with lacma Senior 
Designer Scott Taylor to present the rich installation that is so 
critical to the exhibition's point of view. Exhibition -related envi- 
ronmental design, particularly in the public spaces, was the 
result of their collaboration with Jim Drobka, head of graphic 
design at lacma, who supervised the entire design effort. We are 
grateful to all of our designers for their sensitive response to the 
challenges presented by the project. 

Such a complex and ambitious exhibition and its related 
publications are costly to plan and execute. Our deepest thanks 
go to the S. Mark Taper Foundation for providing early, sus- 
tained, and major funding for the exhibition. We are greatly 
indebted to President Janice Taper Lazarof, Executive Director 
Ray Reisler, and the foundation's board for their close cooper- 
ation with the lacma team. 

Grateful acknowledgment is also made to the Donald 
Bren Foundation, which underwrote a significant portion of 
the exhibition. The National Endowment for the Arts and 
Bank of America also supported the project, as did Helen and 
Peter Bing, who provided early research and planning support. 
Additional thanks go to the Peter Norton Family Foundation, 
See's Candies, the Brotman Foundation of California, and 
Farmers Insurance. The project received generous in-kind sup- 
port from FrameStore and klon 88.1 fm. Printing of both 
Made in California volumes in California was made possible 
by generous in-kind support from Gardner Lithograph in 
Buena Park and an in-kind donation of paper from Appleton 
Coated llc. Tom Jacobson, director of development at lacma, 
approached the task of funding this project with imagination 
and his customary professionalism. 

Aya Yoshida, lead curatorial administrator on the proj- 
ect, masterfully engineered extensive databases to manage the 
great amount of loan information and correspondence gener- 
ated by the project; we are deeply grateful for her tenacity and 
good cheer. Yoshida worked closely with curatorial administra- 
tors Maile Pingel, Eve Schillo, Danielle Sierra, Krishanti Wahla, 
and Margo Zelinka, who were resourceful and helpful at all 
stages. Carol Matthieu, curatorial administrator in the depart- 
ment of modern and contemporary art, assumed many addi- 
tional responsibilities in keeping team members informed and 
on track through scores of meetings and communications; her 
superior abilities are much appreciated. We are also grateful 
for the assistance of Jill Martinez, former curatorial assistant, 
modern and contemporary, as well as our invaluable volun- 
teers Beatrice Farber, Sharon Gillespie, Betty Helfen, Roz 
Leader, Lee Marcuse, Lois Sein, and Cambra Stern; department 
of costume and textiles interns Lopa Pal, Kentura Persellin, 
and Zoe Whitley; the exemplary research skills of our Ralph 
M. Parsons Intern in Photography, Karen Weldon Roswell, and 
former Richard E. Sherwood Memorial Intern P. Eric Perry. 
Exhibition assistant Shana Rosengart joined the team to assist 
with final exhibition details and education programs. Anne 


Diederick, librarian in the museum's Balch Research Library, 
responded with customary good grace to countless interlibrary 
loan requests. Virginia Fields, Curator of Pre-Columbian Art, 
assisted with the selection and installation of Native American 
basketware in the exhibition. 

Essential to the five exhibit sections, each of which cov- 
ers two decades of the twentieth century, are a series of media 
stations composed of rare footage and other archival materi- 
als. Commissioned from Morgan Neville, David Haugland, 
and the studio of David Inocencio and Minette Siegel, these 
contributions richly enhanced the exhibition and comple- 
mented the adjacent selections of art. Sections 3 through 5 of 
the exhibition, covering 1940 to the present, offered opportu- 
nities to present artist films and video, performance, and 
installation art. For his guidance in the history of film, video, 
and performance, we are grateful to Peter Kirby, who was an 
exceptionally generous colleague. In collaboration with lacma 
curators, Kirby played a significant role in choosing the works 
in those mediums included in the exhibition. Historian 
George Lipsitz chose selections of popular music relating to 
the twenty-year sections, and Steven Watson and S. S. Kush 
produced an audio anthology of Beat-generation poetry. 

To convey the importance of murals in California in the 
twentieth century, we turned to photographer and mural spe- 
cialist James Prigoff, who, assisted by Robin Dunitz, selected 
images of nearly seventy contemporary murals that could be 
viewed on one monitor. Architectural model maker John Lodge 
created three stations that provide views of murals in situ. 
Another key component of the exhibition was the timeline that 
introduced each section. For sensitively combining well-known 
historical events with facts specific to California history, tracing 
waves of migration and the growth of museums and schools, 
and weaving political and economic events into a fascinating 
and imaginative sequence illustrated with photographs and 
archival documents, we are grateful to historian Sarah Schrank. 

Victoria Clare, administrative assistant in the depart- 
ments of modern and contemporary art and education and 
public programs, deserves special acknowledgment for being 
such an able liaison with each of these outside specialists. Clare 
has worked closely with me during the development of the 
project and has been responsible for coordinating twenty-four 
commissioned productions and ensuring the smooth delivery 
of materials. She played a particularly helpful role in the con- 
ceptualization and production of the popular music stations. 

I am very grateful to her for this and for her excellent assistance 
during the past four years. General Counsel Deborah Kanter 
has been supportive throughout the project and has guided us 
through several potentially problematic situations; we are 
grateful for her creative and enthusiastic participation. 

Lenders to the exhibition, without whom it would have 
been impossible to realize this project, are listed on pages 
325-27. The Oakland Museum has been particularly supportive 
with extensive loans and general advice. We are grateful to 
Director Philip E. Linhares, Senior Curator Harvey L. Jones, 
and colleagues Suzanne Baizerma, Imogen Gieling, Drew 
Johnson, Karen Tsujimoto, and Joy Walker for their warm 
friendship during this project. Additionally, Director David A. 
Ross and colleagues Janet Bishop and Rose Candelaria of the 
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and Robert Flynn 
Johnson and Karin Breuer of the Achenbach Center for the 
Graphic Arts of the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco have 
made numerous artworks available to the exhibition. We are 
also especially grateful to Jerome and Evelyn Ackerman, Gerald 
and Bente Buck, Dr. Louis F. D'Elia, and Michael G. Wilson, 
who have all lent generously from their collections. 

The concept for Made in California relied heavily upon 
the contextualization of artworks from the last 100 years in 
relation to a rich assortment of documentary material such as 
travel brochures, posters, letters, telegrams, documentary pho- 
tographs, maps, books, magazines, and newspaper articles. We 
were very fortunate to be able to draw upon the remarkable 
reserves of dozens of special libraries, archives, and collections 
of books and ephemera throughout the state in building this 
major component of the exhibition. Recently the Getty 
Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities 
published Cultural Inheritance L.A.: A Directory of Less-Visible 
Archives and Collections in the Los Angeles Region (1999). Many 
of the Southern California archives we consulted are included 
in this remarkable volume. The following public and private 
archives have been particularly generous with loans, and we are 
grateful to their directors and staffs for research and loan assis- 
tance: Archives of American Art, West Coast Branch; Bancroft 
Library, University of California, Berkeley; California Historical 
Society; California State Railroad Museum; California State 
University, Northridge, Special Collections and Archives; 
Center for the Study of Political Graphics; James N. Gamble 
House; The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical 
Gardens; Museum of the Moving Image, Astoria, New York; 

National Resource Center, Japanese American National 
Museum; Seaver Center for Western History Research, Natural 
History Museum of Los Angeles County; San Diego Historical 
Society; San Francisco History Center at the San Francisco 
Public Library; Southwest Museum Library; Archive and 
Collections, Universal Studios, Los Angeles; University of 
California, Irvine, Special Collections and University Archives; 
University of California, Los Angeles, Special Collections; 
Regional History Center, Department of Special Collections, 
University of Southern California; and the Corporate Archive, 
Warner Brothers, Los Angeles. 

A number of private collectors of ephemeral materials 
have been remarkably helpful and generous with information 
and loans. We are particularly grateful to Victoria Dailey, Ron 
Finley, Shifra Goldman, Jim Heimann, Gordon McClelland, 
John Sonsini, Craig Stecyk, and Steve Turner for their passion 
and commitment to their subjects and for lending so unstint- 
ingly to the exhibition. 

During the planning of the project we were guided by 
advice and assistance offered by many generous individuals. In 
addition to those listed on page 334, catalogue and anthology 
authors, and others mentioned above, the lacma team would 
like to thank the following: Leith Adams, Jerome Adamson, 
Louise Barco Allrich, Susan Anderson, Paule Anglim, the Art 
Museum Council, James Bassler, Billy Al and Wendy Bengston, 
Thomas Benitez, John Berggruen, Bill Berkson, Dan Bernier, 
Maria Berns, Barbara Beroza, Janet Blake, Shoshana Blank, 
Irving Blum, Lois Boardman, Rena Bransten, Virginia Brier, 
Ruth Britton, Inez Brooks-Myers, John Gaboon, Anne Caiger, 
G. B. Carson, Roland Charles, Erin Chase, Cathy Cherbosque, 
Bill Clark, Catharine Clark, Stephen Cohen, Bolton Colburn, 
Anne Cole, Candace Crockett, Katherine Crum, Julie Shafler 
Dale, EHzabeth Daniels, Kimberly Davis, Michael Dawson, 
Kirk Delman, Fames Demetrios, Stephen De Staebler, Carlos 
Diniz, Alan Donant, Jackie M. Dooley, Lynn Downey, Dr. 
Sharon B. Drager, Janice Driesbach, Lucia Fames, Kate Flliot, 
John English, David Fahey, Patricia Faure, Rosamund Felsen, 
Marc Foxx, Ron and Nancy Frank, Mary Anne Friel, Whitney 
Ganz, Kathleen Garfield, Tony Gardner, Ed Gilbert, Esther 
Ginsberg, Ann Goldstein, Pat Gomez, Rita Gonzalez, Joe 
Goode, Joni Gordon, Peter Goulds, Christopher Grimes, Jeff 
Gunderson, Cheryl Haines, Nora Halpern, Gerald Haslam, 
Kurt Helfrich, Kimi Hill, Terry Hinte, Henry Hopkins, Jan- 
Christopher Horak, Joyce Hunsaker, Rupert Jenkins, Christy 

Johnson, Mark Johnson, Caroline Jones, Elaine K. Sewell 
Jones, Sam Jornlin, Patricia Juneker, Alan Jutzi, Cindy Keefer, 
Jeff Kelly, Kent Kirkton, Anne Kohs, Marti Koplin, Giles 
Kotcher, Craig Krull, Wayne Kuwada, Molly Lambert, Susan 
Landauer, Margo Leavin, Melissa Leventon, Leah Levy, Connie 
Lewellen, Mark Line, Frank Lloyd, Pamela Ludwig, Susan 
Martin, Anne Matranga, Signe Mayfield, Mathilda McQuaid, 
Susan Menconi, Sharon Merrow, Jean Milant, Eudora Moore, 
William Moritz, Chris Morris, Tobey Moss, Nancy D. W. 
Moure, Eugene Moy, Maggie Paxton Murray, James Nottage, 
Octavio Olvera, Gordon Onslow Ford, Daniel Ostroff, John 
Outterbridge, Patrick Painter, Jang Park, John Perrault, 
Jan Peter, Charles Phoenix, Bryn Potter, Ken Price, Rennie 
Pritiken, Jeff Rankin, Peter Rathbone, Ray Redfern, Shaun 
Caley Regen, Matthew W. Roth, Ramon Ruelas, Jack Rutberg, 
Kay Sakamachi, Barry Sanders, Richard Sandor, Lawrence 
Schaffer, Laura Schlesinger, Dennis Sharp, Susan and the late 
David Sheets, Steven Shortridge, Ann Sievers, Patterson Sims, 
Daniel J. Slive, Rochelle Slovin, Weldon Smith, Paul Soldner, 
Randy Sommer, Bill Stern, George Stern, Jean Stern, Louis 
Stern, Bob Stockdale, Robin Stropko, Bob Sweeney, Sharon 
Tate, Dace Taube, Richard Telles, Christa Mayer Thurman, 
Patricia Trenton, Mark Trieb, Cameron Trowbridge, Peter 
Turman, James Tyler, Anna van der Meulen, Peter Voulkos, 
Sarah Watson, Hannah Wear, Adam Weinberg, Katherine 
Westphal, Kathleen Whitaker, Donald Woodman, Eric Lloyd 
Wright, Matthew Yokobosky, Richard York, Masha Zakheim, 
Michael Zakian, and David Zeidberg. 

Bob Sain, director of a new research and development 
department at the museum called LACMALab, organized the 
Made in California: now exhibition in the Boone Children's 
Gallery in collaboration with Lynn Zelevansky, Curator of 
Modern and Contemporary Art. Eleven Los Angeles artists were 
commissioned to create works related to California's cultural, 
natural, and built landscape in the form of dynamic, interactive 
environments for children, families, and teachers. Artists were 
encouraged to use the museum's collection as a resource and 
to involve children as appropriate in the planning, fabrication, 
and testing of the installations. For their participation in Made 
in California: now we thank the artists, as well as LACMALab 
Coordinator Kelly Carney, Associate Museum Educator 
Elizabeth Caffry, and graphic designer Amy McFarland, as well 
as architects Elaine Rene-Weissman and Hsuan-ying Chou for 
their imaginative design of the exhibition. 


Our colleagues Ian Birnie, Head of Film Programs, and 
Dorrance Stalvey, Head of Music Programs, have each embraced 
the opportunity to plan innovative and extensive programs 
during the run of the exhibition. Both were integral members 
of the exhibition team. They were assisted by Tom Vick and 
Annissa Lui, respectively. Birnie organized nine thematic film 
series on aspects of California cinema, ft-om iconic crime films 
to a weekend of John Steinbeck. Stalvey planned four concerts, 
ranging from the works of emigres Arnold Schoenberg and Igor 
Stravinsky to the avant-garde composers of the 1960s. 

Although all major exhibitions rely on a significant team 
of museum professionals, a project of this magnitude neces- 
sarily tapped and challenged an extensive range of talents at 
LACMA. The audiovisual, conservation, operations, and art 
preparation and installation departments all merit special 
attention for their efforts, as does the registrar's office. The 
exhibition programs department, led by Assistant Director 
Irene Martin, expertly and gracefully oversaw all phases of the 
project. For their enthusiastic and hands-on assistance we are 
profoundly grateful to Coordinator Christine W. Lazzaretto, 
who kept us on track, and to Beverley Sabo, Financial Analyst, 
who kept us within budget. Assistant Director of Collections 
Management Renee Montgomery, Registrar Ted Greenberg, 
Assistant Registrar Christine Vigiletti, and the registrarial staff 
were key to the assembly of more than 1,000 objects from 
local, domestic, and foreign sources. For their expert handling 
of the deinstallation of the permanent collection and a com- 
plicated installation schedule, we are grateful to Manager of 
Art Preparation and Installation Lawrence Waung and his 
staff. Victoria Blyth Hill, Director of Conservation, and our 
capable team of conservators Don Menveg, furniture; Sabrina 
Carli, John Hirx, Vanessa Muros, and Maureen Russell, objects; 
Joe Fronek and Virginia Rasmussen, paintings; Margot Healey 
and Chail Norton, paper; and Catherine McLean and Susan 
Schmalz, textiles, readied numerous works for presentation 
and found imaginative solutions to display problems. 

The divisions of administration and external affairs, 
under the direction of Senior Vice President Melody Kanschat, 
responded sensitively to the challenges posed by the exhibition. 
Mark Mitchell, Budget and Financial Planning Officer, pro- 
vided critical budgetary guidance. Assistant Vice President of 
Protective Services Erroll Southers was effective at anticipating 
many situations involving our visitors. Art Owens, Assistant 
Vice President, Operations and Facility Planning, approached 

the responsibility of constructing a complex 45,000-square-foot 
installation, as well as the installation of Made in California: 
NOW, with his customary great skill. He was ably assisted by 
Bill Stahl, Manager of Construction, and his staff. In collabora- 
tion with Peter Kirby, Megan Mellbye, Ken Olsen, and Elvin 
Whitesides of the audiovisual department provided extensive 
technical assistance. Assistant Director of Communications and 
Marketing Keith McKeown and staff members Adam Coyne, 
Kirsten Schmidt, Mark Thie, and Janine Vigus oversaw Made in 
California press and marketing. 

The education and public programs division at lacma 
played a critical role in the development and interpretation of 
Made in California. The educational aspect of the exhibition 
was paramount from the beginning. We were committed to 
creating an exhibition that would work on a variety of levels 
and for a diverse audience. Our education team has been 
instrumental in achieving this goal. Jane Burrell, Chief, Art 
Museum Education, provided invaluable assistance throughout 
the project. Bridget Cooks, Assistant Museum Educator, Special 
Exhibitions, worked closely on the planning and implementa- 
tion of the exhibition's educational components. Cooks has 
been an integral member of the team from the outset, and her 
counsel and enthusiasm have been much appreciated by all. 
We are grateful to Paul Holdengraber of the lacma Institute 
for Art and Cultures and to Bob Sain of LACMALab, who 
planned a number of events related to Made in California. 
Writer Barbara Isenberg conducted a number of fascinating 
interviews with artists, excerpts from which were included in 
the exhibition and audio tour. 

Garrett White, Director of Publications, has ably over- 
seen development and production of this catalogue and the 
related anthology volume. I am indebted to him for his guid- 
ance throughout, lacma editors Nola Butler and Thomas Frick 
undertook the critical role of editing the two volumes. They 
sensitively shaped the texts of more than two dozen authors 
with skill and consummate professionalism. Additional editor- 
ial assistance was provided by lacma Associate Editor 
Margaret Gray, along with Michelle Ghaffari and Denise Pierre. 
Both publications relied upon new and existing photography. 
We thank Peter Brenner, Supervising Photographer, 
Photographic Services, and staff member Steve Oliver for over- 
seeing quality control of the images. Cheryle Robertson, 
Coordinator of Rights and Reproductions, assisted by Giselle 
Arteaga- Johnson, Shaula Coyl, and Joey Crawford, skillfully 

LACMA Made in California 
Programmatic 'leam 

oversaw the daunting task of securing licensing agreements for 
hundreds of images in the exhibition and related publications. 

The extraordinary design of the present catalogue is the 
work of Senior Designer Scott Taylor; assistance with the layout 
of the anthology volume was provided by Theresa Velazquez. 
Working closely with curators and editors, Taylor contributed 
immeasurably to the content of the volume, and his thoughtful 
treatment of text and images is a credit to the entire project. 
We are deeply indebted to him not only for his design of the 
publications but also for his supervision and execution of the 
exhibition design, accomplished in collaboration with designers 
Sandhaus, Durfee, and Regn. Rachel Ware Zooi oversaw the 
production of both volumes, assisted by Chris Coniglio and 
Karen Knapp. Additional assistance was provided by lacma 
graphic designers Katherine Go, Amy McFarland, Paul Wehby, 
and Daniel Young, along with outside designer Agnes Sexty. At 
UC Press, it was a pleasure to work with Director Jim Clark 
and Fine Arts Editor Deborah Kirshman and their staff. 

This undertaking began many years ago with the idea of 
exploring the richness and complexity of twentieth-century art 
in the state of California. Although not without challenges, the 
opportunity to bring together colleagues with different points 
of view and varying frames of reference has been thoroughly 
exciting, surprising, and above all rewarding. The success of 
Made in California is perhaps measured by the fact that it is 
ultimately far richer and more varied than any one of us could 
have achieved or for that matter even imagined alone. This 
team approach, favored at the moment by a number of fellow 
institutions in New York and Europe, may signal a new chapter 
in museum exhibitions and presentation strategies. We are 
profoundly grateful to all of the many colleagues whose con- 
tributions helped to create Made in California. 

Finally, as a native New Yorker but a resident of 
California since the mid-1970s, I have long been intrigued by 
the complexity of California's image and the role artists have 
played in the state's history. I would like to thank my son Max, 
a native Californian, who has helped his mother learn and 
understand so much about the richness and diversity of this 
remarkable state. 

Stephanie Barron 

Vice President of Education and Public Programs 
Senior Curator of Modern and Contemporary Art 

Stephanie Barron 

Senior Curator, Modern and 
Contemporary Art; Vice President, 
Education and Public Programs 

Sheri Bernstein 

Exhibition Associate 

Ian Birnie 

Head of Film Programs 

Victor Carlson 

Curator of Prints and Drawings 
(retired 2/00) 

Bridget Cooks 

Assistant Educator, Education 

Bruce S. Davis 

Curator of Prints and Drawings 

Carol S. Eliel 

Curator of Modern and 
Contemporary Art 

llene Susan Fort 

Curator of American Art 

1 N. Fox 

Curator of Modern and 
Contemporary Art 

Dale Gluckman 

Curator of Costume and Textiles 

Sharon I 

Curatorial Assistant, Prints and Drawings' 

Peter Kirby 

Curator of New Media (Adjunct) 

Jo Lauria 

Assistant Curator of Decorative Arts 

Kaye Spilker 

Assistant Curator of Costume and Textiles 

Dorrance Stalvey 

Head of Music Programs 

Sharon Takeda 

Curator of Costume and Textiles 

Tim B. Wride 

Associate Curator of Photography 

Lynn Zelevansky 

Curator of Modern and 
Contemporary Art 

Participants in Made in California 
Advisory Meetings, 1997-1998 

Rodolfo Acufia 

Professor of Chicano/a Studies, California 
State University, Northridge 

Ron Alcalay 

Film historian and author 

Blake Allmendinger 

Professor of English, University of 
California, Los Angeles 

David Avalos 

Professor of Visual and Performing Arts, 
California State University, San Marcos 

Anne Ay res 

Director of Exhibitions, Graduate Studies 
Faculty, Otis College of Art and Design, 
Los Angeles 

Aaron Betsky 

Curator of Architecture, Design, and 
Digital Projects, San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art 

John F. Bowles 

Ph.D. candidate, Art History, University 
of California, Los Angeles 

Leo Braudy 

Professor and Chair, Department of 
English, University of Southern California 

Richard Candida Smith 

Associate Professor of History, University 
of Michigan 

Bernard Cooper 

Author; Instructor of Creative Writing, 
Antioch University 

Margaret Crawford 

Professor of Urban Planning and Design 
Theory, Graduate School of Design, 
Harvard University 

Robert Dawidoff 

Professor of History, Claremont Graduate 

Michael Dear 

Professor of Geography and Director of 
Southern California Studies Center, 
University of Southern California 

Bram Dijkstra 

Cultural historian; Professor of American 
and Comparative Literature, University of 
California, San Diego 

John Espey 

Author; Emeritus Professor of English, 
University of California, Los Angeles 

Robbert Flick 

Photographer; Professor of Art, University 
of Southern California 

Michael Golino 

Director of Projects, InSITE 2000 

Merril Greene 

Author and film producer 

Lisbeth Haas 

Associate Professor of History, University 
of California, Santa Cruz 

Anthony Hernandez 


Karin Higa 

Director of Curatorial and Exhibitions 
Department, Senior Curator of Art, 
Japanese American National Museum, 
Los Angeles 

Thomas S. Hines 

Professor of History of Architecture and 
Urban Design, University of California, 

Los Angeles 

Gregory Hise 

Professor of Urban History and Planning, 
University of Southern California 

Paul Holdengrdber 

Director, lacma Institute for Art and 

Barbara Isenberg 


Steven Isoardi 

Researcher and interviewer. Central 
Avenue Sounds Series, University of 
California, Los Angeles, Oral History 

David James 

Professor of Critical Studies, School of 
Cinema-Television, University of Southern 

Paul J. Karlstrom 

Regional Director, Archives of American 
Art, Smithsonian Institution at The 
Huntington Library 

Elaine Kim 

Professor of Ethnic Studies, University of 
California, Berkeley 

Anthony Kirk 

American cultural and environmental 

Norman M. Klein 

Professor of Critical Studies, California 
Institute of the Arts, Valencia 

Christopher Knight 

Art critic, Los Angeles Times 

Steven D. Lavine 

President, California Institute of the Arts, 

George Lipsitz 

Professor of Ethnic Studies, University of 
California, San Diego 

Valerie Matsumoto 

Associate Professor of History, University 
of California, Los Angeles 

Rick Moss 

Program Manager and Curator of History, 
California African American Museum, 
Los Angeles 

Margarita Nieto 

Professor of Chicano/a Studies, California 
State University, Northridge 

Chon A. Noriega 

Associate Professor of Critical Studies, 
School of Theater, Film, and Television, 
University of California, Los Angeles 

Andrew Perchuck 

Ph.D. candidate. History of Art, Yale 

Susan Phillips 

Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, 
University of California, Los Angeles 

Dana Polan 

Chair, Division of Critical Studies, School 
of Cinema-Television, University of 
Southern California 

Ralph Rugoff 

Director, California College of Arts and 
Crafts Institute 

Carolyn See 

Author; Adjunct Professor of English, 
University of California, Los Angeles 

Rebecca Solnit 

Essayist and historian 

Lynn Spigel 

Professor of Critical Studies, School of 
Cinema-Television, University of Southern 

Kevin Starr 

State Librarian of California; University 
Professor, University of Southern 

Steve Wasserman 

Editor, Book Review, Los Angeles Times 

Cecile Whiting 

Professor of Art History, University of 
California, Los Angeles 

Robert Winter 

Professor of History, Emeritus, Occidental 

Charles Wollenberg 

Professor of History, Chair of Social 
Sciences, Vista Community CoOege 

Sally Woodbridge 

Architectural critic and historian 

Victor Zamudio-Taylor 

Curator of International Exhibitions, 
Institute of Visual Arts, University of 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Advisor, Televisa 
Cultural Foundation, Mexico City 


Compiled by )ohii l,)lt 

The works listed in this bibliography were 
either used in the conceptualization of the exhi- 
bition or are recommended for further reading. 
Selections were divided into two categories, 
"Visual Art" and "History and Culture," the 
latter of which includes fiction and literary 
nonfiction. An effort was made to cite works 
accessible to the general public (no disserta- 
tions, specialized journals, or archival materi- 
als). In addition, this bibliography focuses on 
the last fifteen years of scholarship, a period 
of genuine florescence for California studies. 
Readers curious about specific topics, person- 
alities, media, or communities may use the 
works enumerated as a springboard for further 
inquiry, since many include useful bibliogra- 
phies as well. 

Like the Made in California exhibition 
itself, the bibliography is necessarily selective. 
Relevant exhibition catalogues alone number in 
the hundreds; therefore, it would be impossible 
to provide here a truly comprehensive guide to 
writings on California art, culture, and history. 
Due to space limitations, it was necessary to 
omit monographs on individual artists. The 
bibliography at hand concentrates instead on 
examinations of broad trends. Similarly, this 
list includes studies of the culture and history 
of Hollywood rather than explications of indi- 
vidual films. Finally, this bibliography was not 
conceived as a literary "greatest hits" but is 
directed toward those works, fictional and 
nonfictional, that were informed by and in turn 
contributed to the image of California. 

Adams, Ansel, and Toyo Miyatake. Two Views of 
Manzanar: An Exhibition of Photographs. Exh. 
cat. Los Angeles: Wight Art Gallery, ucla, 1978. 

Albright, Thomas. Art in the San Francisco Bay 
Area, 1945-1980. Berkeley and Los Angeles: 
University of California Press, 1985. 

Amerika ni ikita Nikkeijin gakatachi: kibo to 
kuno no hanseiki, 1896-1945 (Japanese and 
Japanese American Painters in the United 
States: A Half Century of Hope and Suffering, 
1896-1945). Tokyo: Tokyo Metropolitan Teien 
Art Museum in association with Nihon Terebi 
Hosomo, 1995. 

Andersen, Timothy )., Eudorah M. Moore, and 
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of Mrs. Harold R. McKinnon and Mrs. 

Harry L. Brown, 1962.21 

top: The Huntington Library, Art 

Collections and Botanical Gardens, 

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bottom: Fine Arts Museums of 

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The Huntington Library, Art Collections 

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left: California Historical Society, 

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bottom: © The Dorothea Lange Collection, 

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bottom: Photograph by John Malmin; 

Los Angeles Times Syndicate 

Courtesy of Common Threads Artists 


© L.A. Fine Arts Squad 

Los Angeles County Museum of Natural 


Private collection; photograph courtesy of 

Maxwell Galleries, Ltd. 

Photograph by Paul M. Hertzmann 

Los Angeles County Museum of Natural 


Photograph by Philip Cohen 

Photograph © Stefan Kirkeby Photography 

background: Charles Sumner Greene and 

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© 2000 Reproduction authorized by the 

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© John Lodge 

© Estate of Millard Sheets 

© 1997 Peter Stackpole Estate; photograph 

by Ben Blackwell 

Photograph © Douglas M. Parker Studio. 

All rights reserved 

© Julius Shulman 

background: Architectural Drawing 

Collection, University Art Museum, 

University of California, Santa Barbara 

© 2000 Center for Creative Photography, 

The University of Arizona Foundation 

© The Dorothea Lange Collection, The 

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of UC Berkeley Art Museum; photograph 

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160a, b 

163b, e 



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© 2000 Reproduction authorized by 

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photograph by Ben Blackwell 

© Estate of David Alfaro Siqueiros/ 

SOMAAP, Me.xico/vAGA, New York; 

courtesy of El Pueblo de Los Angeles 

Historical Monument 

Photograph by Joseph McDonald 

Photograph © 1992 The Metropolitan 

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Photograph by Don Myer 

© 1935 Quiilen 

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Reproduced with permission of Authentic 

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Used with permission of Boeing 

Management Company 

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© Lucia Fames dba Fames Office 

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permission of the Norton Simon Museum 

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© 1998 Collection Center for Creative 

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background: Architectural Drawing 

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196c © 



Housing Authority of the City of 

Los Angeles 

© 1991 The Estate of Louis C. Stc 

Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego 

© 2000 Man Ray Trust/Artists Rights 

Society (ars), New York/ADAGP, Paris 

© Estate of Richard Diebenkorn; 

Photograph © Douglas M. Parker Studio. 

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© 2000 by the Trustees of the Ansel Adams 

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Marineland brochure reproduced with 

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BARBIE® doll © Mattel, Inc. Used with 


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Courtesy of the Athletic Model Guild 

Reproduced with permission of Authentic 

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Photograph © Tommy Mitchell Estate; 

model: Jimmy Mitchell 

© Estate of George Hurrell 

© 1940 Sin and Company, Hollywood 

© Estate of Philippe Halsman 

© 1978 Sid Avery/Motion Picture and 

Television Archive 

Photograph courtesy of Jack Rutberg Fine 

Arts, Los Angeles 

© '955. 1957 by Jack Kerouac/ Viking Press, 

Signet Books 

© 1959 Time Inc. Reprinted by permission 

Photograph by Lee Stalsworth 

Charles Brittin; photograph courtesy of 

Craig Krull Gallery, Santa Monica 

© Estate of Jay DeFeo/Artists Rights 

Society (ars), New York 

Photograph © William Claxton/opM 

Photograph courtesy of the artist 

Photograph by Scott McClaine 

Photograph by Dean Burton 

Photograph by Lee Stalsworth 

© Wolfgang Paalen Foundation 

© Richard Allen Photography 

© 1969 Time Inc. Reprinted by permission 

© Estate of Richard Diebenkorn 

© Roger Minick 

© 1976 Christo; photograph by 

Wolfgang Volz 

by the Trustees of the Ansel Adams 
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© Ester Hernandez 
© Wayne Thiebaud/vAGA, New York 
© John Baldessari; photograph by Philipp 
Scholz Rittermann 
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© Edward Ruscha 
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Photograph by Eva Heyd 


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216a, c 

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© BGP 1967 


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© 1973 Rick Griffin, Berkeley 



Photograph by R. Marquis 



Photograph © Hideki Fujii 



Photograph © William Claxton/oPM; 

model: Peggy Moffitt 



Courtesy of Craig Krull Gallery, 
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© Huey R Newton Foundation 



Photograph © 1990 Philipp Scholz 





Photograph © James Prigoff 



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f © 1974 Harry Gamboa Jr. 



© 1972 Harry Gamboa Jr. 



Reproduction by permission of United 
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Created by Peace Action Council, 
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© 2000 Rupert Garcia 


© Judy Chicago; photograph by Ian Reeves 


© Judy Chicago; photograph by Donald 


© Miriam Schapiro; photograph by 
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Photograph by Otto Stupakap 


Photograph by Keith Schreiber 


Photo documentation by Phel Steinmetz 


© David Hockney 


Photograph courtesy of Apple Computer, 




Photograph courtesy of U.S. Geological 

Survey, Earth Science Information Center 

© Rod Rolle 

Photograph courtesy AP/Wide World 

Photos/Joseph Villarin 

Photograph 1998 Lynn Rosenthal 

© Joel Sternfeld 

Poster reproduced courtesy of Twentieth 

Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved 

Published by Henry Holt and Company/ 

Metropolitan Books 

© 1988 Faith Ringgold 

Photograph © James Prigoff 

Courtesy of Victoria Clare; © Gonzales 


© Estate of Carlos Almaraz 

© Enrique Chagoya; photograph © Stefan 


© Muna Tseng Dance Projects, New York. 

All rights reserved 

The barbie* trademark and associated 

trademarks and copyrights are owned by 

Mattel, Inc. and used under license. David 

Levinthal is not affiliated with Mattel, Inc. 

Reproduced by Special Permission of 

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© Robert Williams 

Photograph courtesy Haines Gallery 

Photograph © George Hirosc 

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© Lari Pittman 

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Photograph © Becky Cohen 

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Courtesy of Lincoln Gushing 

© 1994 Lalo Alcaraz 

© Dennis Keeley 


Numbers in italic refer to pages 
with illustrations. 

Ackerman, Jerome: Ceramic Pieces, 162 

Adams, Ansel, 43, 73, 155, 170; Born Free and Equal, 

title spread from, 156; Half Dome and Moon, 

Yosemite Valley, 171; Monolith, 129; Mt. 

Williamson, 156; Yosemite Valley, 196 
Adams, Clinton: Harrington Street, 157 
Adams, Harry: Funeral of Ronald Stokes, 220 
Adrian, Gilbert: Costume for Greta Garbo, 132; 

Costume for Joan Crawford, 131 
aerospace materials used by artists, 44, 208, 210 
affirmative action, prohibited, 61 
African Americans: depicted, 159, 177, 182-84, 200, 

220-22, 228-29, 237, 254, 262, 264; magazines 

of, 160, 161, 173; runaway slaves, 52. See also 

Black Panther party; black power movement; 

civil rights movement; jazz culture; Watts 

riots. See also under Los Angeles 
Aguilar, Laura: Nature tt7 Self-Portrait, 251, 252 
AIDS, art dealing with, 256; awareness march, 256 
Ain, Gregory, 166; Mar Vista Houses Aerial 

Perspective, 162 
Albert, Margot, 134 
Albrecht, Herman Oliver: Three Women in White, 

Albright, Thomas, 32 
Albro, Maxine: Fiesta of the Flowers, 140 
Alcaraz, Lalo, political cartoon by, 269 
Alexander, Peter, 202; Cloud Box, 209 
Alexander, Robert, 166 
Alien Land Law Act, 55 

All-Year Club of Southern California, 103, 108, 120 
Almaraz, Carlos, 226; Suburban Nightmare, 247, 248 
Alta California, 49-51, 92, 98 
Altoon, John, 205 
American Federation of Labor, 95 
American Renaissance style, 82 
Andre, Carl, 209 
Angelo, Nancy, 232-33 
Angelyne, 251 

Anglos, 50-51, 65, 82, 98, 100, 135, 136 
Antin, Eleanor, 231-32, 233; The King ofSolana 

Beach, 232 
Apger, Virgil: Carmen Miranda, 178 
Apple Macintosh computer, 233 
Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural 

Center, 36 
Arnautoff, Victor, 113 
Arneson, Robert, 36; California Artist, 258 
Artforum magazine, 47n. 15 
Art for Victory brochure, 150 
Artists' and Writers' Union, 113 
Arts and Architecture magazine, 160 
Arts and Crafts movement, 83, 87-88 
Asco (Harry Gamboa Jr., Gronk, Willie Herron, 

and Patssi Valdez), 226, 227; Instant Mural, 

227; Spray Paint lacma, 227 
Asians: 43, 160; viewed as exotic, 135-36, 140, 142. 

See also Chinese; Japanese 
Asiatic Exclusion League, 55, 95 
assimilation, 268 
Austin, Mary, 77 
automobile: rise of, 40, 56, 201-2; as subjects for 

artists, 41, 204-8. See also car culture 
Automobile Club of Southern California, 56, 103, 

Avalos, David, Louis Hock, and Elizabeth Sisco: 

Arte Reemlwlso/Art Rebate, 26S 

Avalos, David, and Deborah Small, 

Mis'ce'ge-NATION, 265 
Avery, Sid, 172; Dwight D. Eisenhower, 138; Rock 

Hudson, 174 

Baca, Judith/Social and Public Art Resource Center 

(sPARc): The Great Wall of Los Angeles, 225, 

226 (detail) 
Bachrach, Ernest: Dolores Del Rio, 133 
Baldessari, John: Looking East on 4th and C, 199 
Balkan, Adele Elizabeth: Sketch for Costume for 

Anna May Wong, 134 
Baltz, Lewis: West Wall, 199 
Banton, Travis: Costume for Marlene Dietrich, 132 
Barbie doll, 172, 173 
Barton, Crawford; Untitled, 219 
Baruch, Ruth-Marion: Shakespeare Couple, 

Haight-Ashbury, 216, 217 
Bauer Pottery, 140 

Baumann, Gustave: Windswept Eucalyptus, 69 
Bay Area Figurative school, 174 
beach culture, 43, 158-59, 201-5, 208-9, 231 
Beat cuhure, 58, 179-82, 185, 186, 214, 216 
Bechtle, Robert A.: '67 Chrysler, 205, 206 
Behind the VVafer/ro/if publication, 112 
Bell, Larry: Cube, 210, 211 

Belles of San Luis Rey Mission, The, postcard, 92, 93 
Bender, Albert, 137 

Bengston, Billy Al, 32, 205; exhibition announce- 
ment, 204; Lady for a Night, 202, 204 
Berman, Wallace, 179, 180, 181; Semina, 182; 

Topanga Seed, 213, 214; Untitled, 182 
Bhabha, Homi, 39 
Biberman, Edward: Conspiracy, 179; The Hollywood 

Palladium, 164; Sepulveda Dam, 108 
Bierstadt, Albert, 36, 73 

Birk, Sandow: Bombardment of Fort Point, 243 
Bischoff, Elmer, 174; Two Figures at the Seashore, 175 
Bischoff, Franz: California Poppies Vase, 78, 81 
Blacker, Robert R., 88 
blacklist, 179 
Black Panther party, 59, 193, 214, 228; newspaper, 

228; Window of the Black Panther Party 

National Headquarters, 221 
black power movement, 59, 193 
Blair, Lee Everett: Dissenting Factions, 112 
Blanchard, Porter: Coffee Set and Tray, no 
Blashfield, Jim, poster by, 216 
Bohemian Club, 84, 95, 97, 116 
Bojorquez, Chaz: Los Avenues, 246, 247 
Borofsky, Jonathan: Flying Man with Briefcase, 

258, 259 
Borough, Randal W., Portola Festival poster by, 81 
Bothwell, Dorr: Translation from the Maya, 136 
Bourdieu, Pierre, 47n. 13 
Bowen, Gaza: The American Dream, 255 
Bracero program, 147, i9in. 2; participants, 58 
Brach, Paul, 229 
Brandt, Rex, 169; Surfriders, 175 
Braun, Maurice: Moonrise over San Diego Bay, 75 
Bremer, Anne M.: An Old Fashioned Garden, 80; 

The Sentinels, 126 
Bridges, Harry, 113, I45n. 5 

Brigman, Anne W.: Infinitude. 83; The Lone Pine, 29 
Bristol, Horace, 120; /our/ Family Applying for 

Relief, 121 

Brittiii, ('liarles: Arrest (Legs) Downtown Federal 

lUithiing, 220 
Brook, Harry Ellington, Southern California: 

The Land of Sunshine, booklet by, 99 
Broun, Elizabeth, 31 
Brown, Joan, 181; Girl in Chair, 176 
Brown, Theophilus, 174 
Brubaker, Jon O.: California: America's Vacation 

Land, poster with illustration by, _u 
Bruce of L.A., 174 
Bufano, Beniamino B., 142; Chinese Man and 

Woman, 143 
Bull, C. S., 131; Anna May Wong, i}4 
Bull, William H., Polo at Del Monte, poster by, 

74, 76 
bungalow, 81, 88, 157, 199 
Burden, Chris, 35; L.A.P.D. Uniform, 245; 

Trans-Fixed, 207 
Burkhardt, Hans: Reagan — Blood Money, 179 
Burnham, Daniel, 54 
Bush, George, 267 

Cabrillo, luan Rodriguez, 49 

Cacicedo, Jean Williams: Tee Pee: An Indian 

Dedication, 260, 261 
Cain, James M., 132 
California Arts and Architecture 

magazine, 150 
California Faience: Vase, 88 
California Fruit Growers Exchange, 65; coloring 

book, 116, 117 
California Hand Prints: Textile Length, 141 
California Highways and Public Works magazine, 

California Holiday in Color souvenir book, 170 
California Institute of the Arts, 229, 233n. 16 
California Lincoln-Roosevelt League, 55 
California School of Fine Arts, 116 
Californios, 50, 51, 90, 94 
Candida Smith, Richard, 32 
Cantor Center at Stanford University, 36 
car culture, 43, 44, 122, 201, 202, 204-7, 208. See also 

Carload of Mammoth Strawberries, A, 78 
Carmel-by-the-Sea, 75, 77; brochure, 76 
Case Study House Program: Case Study House #8, 

160, 162; Case Study House #22, 160 
Catalina Sportswear: Woman's Two-Piece Bathing 

Suit and Jacket, 158 
Causa, La, 58, 224, 229 
Celaya, Enrique Martinez: Map, 2_^_^ 
celebrity photography, i}o-}i, 133-34, 174< 177 
Centre Georges Pompidou, 28 
Chagoya, Enrique: When Paradise Arrived, 248, 249 
Chandler, Harry, 103 
Chandler, Raymond, 132 
Chariot, Jean, 137 
Chavez, Cesar, 58, 224, 273 
Chavez Ravine, 105, 166; eviction from, 167 
Chicago, Judy, 229, 231; Car Hood, 204, 205; 

Georgia O'Keeffe, Plate #1, 2}o; Menstruation 

Bathroom, 230 
Chicanismo, 193 
Chicano: art movement, 44, 224-26, 267-68; 

civil rights movement, 44, 214, 219, 224-25, 

267-68. See also Mexicans 

Chicano Park murals, 225-26; photo documenta- 
tion of, 226 

Chinatown, 95-97, 100, 137 

Chinese, 40, 51-53, 95, 97, 100; depicted, 55, 93-97, 
I34< t37< '42-43, 249, 262. See also under 
San Francisco; xenophobia 

Chinese Revolutionary Artists' Club, 140 

Choris, Louis, ceremonial headdresses of the 
Costanoan Indians by, 49 

Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Running Fence, 194, 196 

Cindrich, Julius: Evening, 125 

Cirrus Editions, 36 

Civilian Conservation Corps, 57 

civil rights movement, 44, 58, 193, 219, 228, 229 

Clarke, Emmon: Untitled, 224 

classicizing impulse, 82-84, 86 

Claxton, William; Stan Getz, 184 

Cleaver for President poster, 221 

Clifford, James, 39 

Coburn, Alvin Langdon: Giant Palm Trees, 90 

Cole of California, 151, 158; advertisements for, 
146, 176 

Common Threads Artists Group: Guess Who 
Pockets the Difference?, 60 

Communist Party, 113, 137; Rodo Shinbun newspa- 
per, 136; suspected members of, 179 

Compton, Candace, 232, 233 

Comstock Lode, 52 

Connell, Will: Make-Up, 132, 133 

Conner, Bruce, 179, 181 

Contompasis, Marika: Trout Magnolia Kimono, 231 

Cook, Lia: Emergence, 211 

Coplans, John, 32 

Corbin, Ron: Untitled, 244 

Coronel, Antonio de, 94 

Cortes, Hernan, 49 

Costanoan Indians ceremonial headdresses, 49 

Cottingham, Keith: Triplets, 235 

Coulter, William A., 66; San Francisco Burning, 67 

counterculture, 43, 214, 216, 228, 260. See also Beat 
culture; hippie culture; jazz cuhure 

Covarrubias, Miguel, 144 

Crawford, Elsie: Zipper Light 11, 163 

Crawford, Joan, 131, 132 

Crocker, Charles, 53 

Cross, Ira Brown, photograph of agricultural 
workers by, 81 

Crown Point Press, 36 

Cuneo, Rinaldo: California Landscape, 116, 117 

Cunningham, Imogen: Aloe Bud, 123 

Curtis, Edward S., 91; A Desert Cahuilla Woman, 
93; Mitat-Wailaki, 93 

Dana, Richard Henry, 51, 266 

Dana and Towers Photography Studio: #12;. 

Looking East on Market Street, 67 
Dandridge, Dorothy, 177 

Dassonville, William: Half Dome and Clouds, 72-73 
Dater, Judy, 252; Libby, 229 
Davies, Arthur Bowen: Pacific Parnassus, Mount 

Tamalpais, 83 
Davis, Bruce, 36 

Davis, Mike, 44, 244; Ecology of Fear, 242 
Davis, Ron, 202; Roto, log, 210 
Dawson, Robert: Untitled #\, 194, 193 
Deal, Joe: Colton, 241 
Deen, Georganne: Mary's Lane, 253 
DeFeo, Jay: The Jewel, 181 

DeMille, Cecil B., 132 

DeLap, Tony, 32 

de la Torre, Einar and Jamex: Marte y Venus, 263 

Del Rio, Dolores, 133, 134 

Deppe, Ferdinand: Mission San Gabriel, 30 

desegregation, 58-59 

Desmarais, Charles, 36 

De Staebler, Stephen: Seated Kangaroo Woman, 213 

Dey, Kris: Ancho II, 239 

Didion, Joan, 61, 276 

Diebenkorn, Richard, 193, 273; Berkeley #32, 169; 

Freeway and Aqueduct, 30; Ocean Park Series 

#49, 194 
Dietrich, Marlene, 131, costume for, 132 
Dike, Phil: Surfer, 125, 127 
Dior, Christian, swimwear by, 176 
Diotima, Myrto, and Aspasia, 86 
Dirk Van Erp Copper Shop: Table Lamp, 89 
Disneyland, 170, 182, 248, 277-78; admission tickets, 

envelope, map for, 172 
Divola, John: Zuma No. 21, 197 
Dixon, Maynard, 124; Airplane, 108 
Dodge, Arthur Burnside: Taken by Surprise, 97 
Doheny, Edward L., 54 
dons, 91, 94 

Doolin, James, cover illustration by, 242 
"Douglas Defends the Democracies" advertisement, 

Drake, Francis, 49 
Duffy, Ricardo: The New Order, 269 
Duncan, Carol, 28 
Dynaton, 189 

Fames, Charles and Ray: Case Study House #8, 
160, 162; Esu (Fames Storage Unit), 163; etr 
(Elliptical Table, Rod Base), 161; Leg Splints, 
130, 151; Wire Mesh Chair with Low Wire 
Base, 163 

Fames, Ray, cover design by, 130 

earthquake: Loma Prieta, 235, 236; 1906, 66, 75, 97 

earthworks, 194 

Ebony magazine, 161 

Eichler, Joseph L., j6i 

Eichman, Bernard von: China Street Scene No. 1, 133 

Eisenhower, Dwight D., 158 

Emergency Farm Labor Program, 58 

Endore, Guy, Sleepy Lagoon Mystery by, 133 

Entenza, John, 160 

Eriich, Susan, 35, 36 

Estrada, Victor, 35 

European: architects and designers, 109; film 
makers, 131; photographers, 97, 115 

Farm Security Administration, 118 

fashion industry, 216, 250; billboards, 251; costume 

design, 131-32, 134; swimwear, 14!, J46, 151, 

157, 158, J76, 218, 219; unisex fad, 218, 219 
Feitelson, Lorser, 140 

Fellegi, Margit: Woman's Bathing Suit and Skirt, 158 
feminism, 193, 214, 229. See also women's 

Ferus Gallery, 32, 180, 182, 205, 229; exhibition 

announcements, 202, 204 
Filipinos, 54, 152; depicted, 118, 119 
film noir, 132, 152 

Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 36 
Finish Fetish, 208, 209 

Fischinger, Oskar: Radio Dynamics, 189, 190 

Fiskin, Judy: Untitled #195, 244 

Fleishhacker, Herbert, 113 

Fletcher, Christine: Fog from the Pacific, 128 

Fletcher, Frank Morley: California, 129 

Flick, Robbert: Pico B, 271 

Foley, Suzanne, 35 

Forbes, Helen: Manley's Beacon, 123 

Foreign Miners' Tax, 51 

Fort, Ilene, 77 

Fortune magazine, 120 

Foulkes, Llyn, 35; Death Valley, 193, 194 

Francis, Sam: SFP68-29, 21^ 

Franciscans, 50 

Frank, Robert: Covered Car, 41; Television Studio, 

Free Speech Movement, 58, 193, 214 
Fresno State College, 229 
Frey, Viola: He Man, 258 

Friedkin, Anthony: Surfboard in the Setting Sun, 203 
Friedlander, Lee: Los Angeles, 198, 199 
Fuente, Larry: Derby Racer, 205 
Fulton, William, 53 
furniture design, 80, 82-83, 88-89, 109, 110-u, 151, 

161-63, 239 

Gaillard, Slim, 182 

Gamble, John Marshall: Breaking Fog, 71 

Gamboa, Harry, Jr., 226, 227 

gangs, 247 

Garbo, Greta, 131, 132 

Garcia, Rupert, poster by, 229 

Garnett, William: Lakewood Housing Project, 137 

Gearhart, Frances Hammel; On the Salinas River, 70 

Gee, Yun: Where Is My Mother, 140-41, 142 

Gehry, Frank: Drawing of Disney Hall, 42; Model of 

Disney Hall, 42 
Gemini G.E.L., 36 
Genthe, Arnold, 36, 97; Chinatown, San Francisco, 

55; The Opium Fiend, 95 
Gernreich, Rudi, 174-77; "Topless" Bathing Suit, 218, 

219; Unisex Caftan, 218, 219; Woman's Bathing 

Suit, 176 
GI Bill of Rights, 190 
GUe, Selden Conner, 116; Boat and Yellow Hills, 74; 

The Soil, 117 
Ginsberg, Allen, 181, 182 
Gladding McBean Pottery: Encanto Chinese Red 

Vase, 133 
Glaser, Milton, magazine cover by, 193 
Gledhill, W. Edwin: Santa Barbara Mission, 92 
Coin, Peter: Impenetrable Border, 266 
Golden Gate International Exposition, 142-43 
Gold Rush, 51-53, 65, 81, 273 
Goldvi^n, Samuel, 131 

Gomez-Peiia, Guillermo: Border Brujo, 263 
Gonzales, David, homies action figures created by, 

246, 247 
Goode, Joe, 202, 213; calendar by, 205; Untitled, 212 
Goodhue, Bertram, 99 
graffiti, 226, 246, 247 
Gray, Todd: Goofy, 248 
Green, Herb, poster photograph by, 216 
Greene, Charles Sumner, and Henry Mather 

Greene, 275; Bedroom Cabinet, 89; Bedroom 

Rocking Chair, 89; Robert R. Blacker House, 

South Elevation, 88-89 

Grent, William: map of North America shov^^ing 

California as an island, 48 
Griffin, Rick, Tales from the Tube comic by, 217 
Gronk, 227 
Group f/64, 108, 124 
Gutmann, John: The Cry, 114, 115 

Hagel, Otto: Untitled, 113 

Hahn, William, 36; Harvest Time, 52 

Halsman, Philippe: Dorothy Dandndge, 177 

Hammett, Dashiell, 132 

Hammons, David: Injustice Case, iii, 223 

handcraft tradition revival, 231, 260-61 

Hanna, Phil Tovi'nsend, 103 

Hansen, James: Beach Scene at Santa Monica in 

1949, 158 
Harlow, Jean, 131 
Harrison, Helen Mayer, and Newton Harrison: 

Meditation, 197 
Hassam, Childe: California Oil Fields, 106 
Hawkinson, Tim, and Issey Miyake: Jumpsuit, 231 
Hay, Harry, 172 

Hayakawa, Miki: Telegraph Hill, 104 
Hayward Gallery, 32 
Hedrick, Wally, 181 

Hedstrom, Ana Lisa: Video Weave Kimono, 260 
Henderson, Victor: Isle of California, 61 
Henri, Robert: Tarn Can, 96 
Herms, George: Everything Is O.K., 214 
Hernandez, Anthony: #24, 236 
Hernandez, Ester: Sun Mad, 197 
Herron, Willie, 226, 227 
Hershman, Lynn, 233; Roberta Breitmore's 

Construction Chart, 232 
Hatch Hetchy Valley, 55, 73, loin. 12 
Hibi, Hisako: We Had to Fetch Coal for the Pot-Belly 

Stove, 255 
Hickox, Elizabeth, 92; Lidded Trinket Basket, 94 
hippie culture, 58, 193, 214, 216-17, 21S, 220, 233n. 10 
Hockney, David, 174; Merced River, Yosemite Valley, 

234, 239-40; Mulholland Drive, 38-39; The 

Splash, 200, 201 
Holliday, J. S., 52 
Hollywood: classicizing impulse, 84; ideal images 

promoted by, 103, 130-35, 148, 172, 177, 178, 

250, 262. See also celebrity photography; 

motion picture industry 
homelessness, 60 
Homies action figures, 246, 247 
homoerotic magazines, 174 
homosexuals, 172, 218, 219, 220, 244, 249 
Honda, Margaret: Perennial, 238, 239 
Hopkins, Henry, 35 
Hopkins, Mark, 53 

Hopper, Dennis: Double Standard, 206 
Hord, Donal: Mayan Mask, 136 
House Un-American Activities Committee, 179 
housing discrimination, 57, 105, 160, 161; restricted 

housing tract, 59; Rumford Act, 58 
How a Playground Goes to War! brochure, 37 
Howard, John Langley, 115; The Unemployed, 114 
Howard, Mildred: Black Don't Crack, 264 
How to Sin in Hollywood booklet, 177 
Ho Yow, 95, 97 
Hudson, Rock, 174 
Hugo, Leopold: Untitled, 71 
Humble, John: Selma Avenue at Vine Street, 

Hollywood, 230, 251 

Huntington, CoUis, 53 

Huntington Library and Art Collections, 36 

Hurrell, George: Jane Russell, 177; Joan Crawford, 

131; Norma Shearer, 130; Ramon Novarro, 130 
Hutton, William Rich: San Francisco, 32 
Hyde, Anne, 39 

Hyde, Helen: Imps of Chinatown, 96 
Hyde, Robert Wilson: A House Book, 87 

identity: ethnic, 133-35, 260-65, 267; politics, 
249-50, 258; sexual, 231-32, 251, 256-57 

Industrial Workers of the World, 81, 113 

Insurgent Squeegee (Lincoln Gushing), poster 
by, 267 

Irwin, Robert, 205, 210; Untitled, 211 

Izumi, Shinsaku: Tunnel of Light, 106 

Jackson, Helen Hunt, 94; Ramona by, 55, 86-87, 9i 

James, George Wharton, 91, 92 

Japanese: depicted, 132, 134-56, 256, 263; intern- 
ment, 43, 58, 128, 144, 153-54, '55' '56; Rodo 
Shinbun newspaper, 136. See also under 
Los Angeles; xenophobia 

Japanese Camera Pictorialists of California, 136 

jazz culture, 182-85; jazz clubs, 183 

J. Paul Getty Museum, 36 

Jencks, Charles, 27 

less, 179, 181; Tricky Cad, 180 

Johnson, DeDe: Woman's Three-Piece Playsuit, 138 

Johnson, Sargent: Elizabeth Gee, 142, 143 

Jones, Caroline, 35 

Jones, Pirkle: Window of the Black Panther Party 
National Headquarters, 221 

Judah, Theodore, 53 

Kahlo, Frida, 137; Frida and Diego Rivera, 138 

Kahn, Louis, 275 

Kales, Arthur: The Sun Dance, 84 

Kanemitsu, Matsumi: Zen Blue, 186 

Karlstrom, Paul, 32, 35 

Kauffman, Craig, 32, 202, 205; Untitled Wall Relief, 

Kean, Kirby: Night Scene near Victorville, 122 
Keeler, Charles, 88 

Keith, William: Looking across the Golden Gate, 74 
Kelley, Mike, 35; Frankenstein, 237 
Kerouac, Jack, first paperback edition of On the 

Road by, 180 
Kienholz, Edward, 205; Back Seat Dodge '38, 206, 

207, 233 n. 6 
Kim, Intae: Death Valley, 238 
Kinney, Abbot, 84 

Kipp, Maria: Textile Length for Drapery, 111 
Klein, Norman, 35 
Klett, Mark: San Francisco Panorama after 

Muybridge, 242-43 (detail) 
Kling, Candace: Enchanted Forest, 260 
Kling, Fred E.: Wedding Dress, 216, 218 
Koenig, Pierre: Case Study House #22, 160 
Kosa, Jr., Emil J.: Freeway Beginning, 164, 165 
Kozel, Ina: Our Lady of Rather Deep Waters, 260 
Krauss, Rosalind, 210 
Kropp, Phoebe, 54 
Krotona, 84 
Kuntz, Roger: Santa Ana Arrows, 164, 165 

Labowitz, Leslie, 230 

Lachowicz, Rachel: Sarah #3, 254 

Lacy, Suzanne, 231 

L.A. Fine Arts Squad: hic of Ccilijorma, 6; 

Laguna Art Museum, 35, 36 

Lakewood residential development, 157, 160; 
brochure, 14-/ 

Laky, Gyongy: Evening, 239 

L.A. Look, 208 

Landacre, Paul: Desert Wall, 122 

Landauer, Susan, 35, 66, 74 

land grants, 49, 51 

Landmarks Club, 91 

Land of Sunshine magazine, 66, 92, 103 

landscape, 40, 193-97, 238-40; coastal, 74-77, 

125-27, 201, 238; desert, 122-24, 193. '94-95, 
238; Edenic, 36, 39, 65, 68-73, 78-84, 99, 115, 
116-18, 128-29, 170-71, 193, 200, 238; indus- 
trial, 106-9, 14S, 199; modernist, 168, 169; 
suburban, 200-201, 206, 240-41, 247; urban, 
66, 104-5, 112-15, 164-66, 169, 194, 198-201, 
206, 221, 236, 242-44, 250, 271; wilderness, 
194, 201, 234, 238, 240 

Lange, Dorothea, 155; Filipinos Cutting Lettuce, 118, 
119; Migrant Mother, 120; Pledge of Allegiance, 
154; Resettled, 56; A Sign of the Times, 115; 
Their Blood Is Strong, 118; Untitled, 149 

Lasky, Jesse, 131 

Lasser, Robin, and Kathryn Silva: Extra Lean, 252 

Latin American: culture, 135-36; stereotypes in 
films, 134, 178; themes, 40, 43 

Lavenson, Alma: Carquinez Bridge, 106, 107 

Leary, Timothy, 214 

Leavitt, William: Untitled, 243 

Lebrun, Rico: The Magdalene, 186 

Lee, Anthony, 144 

Leon-Portilla, Miguel, 50 

Leuchtenberg, William E., 103 

Levinthal, David: Untitled #3, 250 

Life magazine, 106, 115, 183; "Squaresville U.S.A. vs. 
Beatsville," 180 

Lindbergh, Charles, 108 

Lipkin, Janet: Santa Fe Cape #2, 261 

Lipofsky, Marvin: California Loop Series, 209 

Livingston, Jane, 35 

Lockhart, Sharon: Untitled, 238 

Logan, Maurice, poster design by, 127 

Lomaland, 84; souvenir album, 86 

Longpre, Paul de, 78; postcard shovi^ing garden at 
home of, 80, 81; Roses La France and Jack 
Noses, 80 

Look magazine, 181 

Los Angeles, 54-59, 103, 193; African Americans in, 
58-59, 66, 220, 244; balkanization of, 242, 
244, 245; can of smog, 33; Chavez Ravine, 105, 
166, 167; Chinatown, 97, 143; civil unrest, 62, 
220, 236; depicted, 38-39, 104-5, 139^ 164, 
165-67, 198, 201, 11^, 226, 236, 250; Japanese 
in, 66, 153, 244, 265; jazz clubs, 182, 185; 
Mexicans in, 54, 55, 56, 57, 66, 152, 226, 244; 
Olvera Street, 139; Pickford/ Fairbanks 
Studios, 56; Plaza de la Raza, 225; restricted 
housing tract, 59; Self-Help Graphics, 36, 225; 
street signs, 270; Watts Towers, 167, 168, 181. 
See also Hollywood; Sleepy Lagoon case; 
Venice Beach; Watts riots; Zoot Suit riots 

Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, 103, 105; 

publications, 90, 99 
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 226-27 
Los Angeles Department of Water and Power 

brochure, 108 
Los Angeles Housing Authority booklet, 165, 166 
Los Four, 226; exhibition catalogue, 227 
Lotchin, Roger, 57 
Lou, Liza: Super Sister, 254 
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, 35 
Luebtow, John Gilbert: April 29, 1992, 237 
Lujan, Gilbert Sanchez, 205, 226 
Lukens, Glen: Gray Bowl, 111 
Lum, Bertha: Point Lobos, 76 
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 65, 66, 91 
Luna, James: The Artifact Piece, 264, 265 
Lundeberg, Helen, 43; The History of Transportation 

in California, 108, 109; The Shadow on the 

Road to the Sea, 169 
Lynch, Allen, 205 

MacAgy, Douglas, 185 

MacDonald-Wright, Stanton: Revolt, 119; Canon 

Synchromy, 135 
MacGill, H. B., Motoring thru the Yosewiteby, 128 
MacGregor, Helen: Reclining Woman with Guitar, 

Machell, Reginald: Katherine Tingley's Chair, 86 
Malcriado, El, journal, 228 
Maloof, Sam: Rocking Chair, 239 
Mandel, Mike, and Larry Sultan: Set-up for Oranges 

on Fire, 192 
Manifest Destiny, 51, 61, 201 
Man Ray: Watts Towers, 167, 168 
Manuel, K. Lee: Maat's Wing #3, 261 
Manzanar, 154, 155 
maps: Disneyland, 172; North America showing 

California as an island (Grent), 48; Untitled 

{Ethnic Map of Los Angeles) (Ocampo), 245 
Marineland, 170; brochure, 172 
Marquis, Richard, and Nirmal Kaur: American Acid 

Capsule, 217 
Martin, Fletcher: Trouble in Frisco, 112 
Martinez, Xavier, 83, 84 
Mason, John, 36; Sculpture, 186 
Mathews, Arthur Frank, 83; California, 82 
Mathews, Lucia, 83 
Mathews Furniture Shop, 83; Desk, 82; Rectangular 

Box with Lid, 80 
Matsui, Haruyo, Coronado as Seen through Japanese 

Eyes, booklet by, 75 
Mattachine Society, 172 
Maurer, Oscar: Eucalyptus Grove Silhouetted against 

a Cloudy Sky, 69, 70 
May, Cliff, 157 
May, Lary, 131 
Mayan Revival, 40, 135 
Maybeck, Bernard, 88 
McCarthy, Paul, 35 
McGroarty, John Steven, souvenir book for The 

Mission Play by, 90 
McLaughlin, John, 186; Untitled, 187 
McMillen, Michael C: Central Meridian, 46 
McWilliams, Carey, 52, 66, 90, 115, 152 
Mediterranean sensibility, 82, 84 
Merrild, Knud, 43; Flux Bouquet, 169 
Mesa-Bains, Amalia: Venus Envy, 255 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 132 

Mexicans: viewed as exotic, 82, 140-41; depicted, 

118, IJ9, 134, 138-40, 144, 153, 224, 228, 246, 

249; deportation of, 57, 120, 137; displacement 

of, 166; stereotyping of, 100, 263; and suburbia, 

160, 161. See also Bracero program; Chicano; 

Zoot Suit riots. See also under Los Angeles; 

Mexico: border with, 266-69; painters from, 40, 

119, 137, 140, 144; Treaty of Guadalupe 

Hidalgo, 51, 62 
Middlebrook, Willie Robert: In His "Own" Image, 

Midwesterners, 54, 55, 57, 65, 130, 276 
Miller, Barse: Apparition over Los Angeles, 105; 

Migrant America, 121 
Miller, Frank, 91 
Millet, Frani;ois, 118 
Mills College, 154 
Minick, Roger: Woman with Scarf at Inspiration 

Point, Yosemite National Park, 194, 195 
Minimalist art, 210 
Miranda, Carmen, 178 

Misrach, Richard: TV. Antenna, Salton Sea, 241 
Mission Bay Aquatic Park, 170; brochure for, 172 
Mission Myth, 40, 86, 90, 91, 94, 99, 139 
missions, 91; depicted, 50, 55, 90-93 
Mitchell, W. J. T, 40 
Miyagi, Yotoku, cover by, 114 
Miyako Hotel brochure, 137 
Miyatake, Toyo: Untitled {1929), 137; Untitled 

(1930), 141; Untitled {1943), 156 
Mizer, Robert: Quinn Sondergaard, 174 
modernism, 109-11, 124, 161-63, 168-69 
Montecito: Biltmore Hotel, 140 
Montenegro, Roberto: Margo, 134 
Monterey Peninsula, 75; Hotel Del Monte, 66, 77; 

Polo at Del Monte, 74, 76 
Montoya, Malaquias: jSi Se Puede!, 267 
Morris, Robert, 209 
Morris, William, 87 
Morrow, Dwight, 137 
Moscoso, Victor, poster by, 216 
Moses, Ed, 205; Untitled, 213 
motion-picture industry, 40, 43, 55-56, 130-34, 

177-79; disaster movies, 241. See also 

Mouse, Stanley, and Alton Kelley, poster by, 216 
Moya del Pifio, Jose: Chinese Mother and Child, 

140-41, 142 
Muir, John, 55, 73, loin. 12 
Mulholland, William, 54 
Mullican, Lee: Space, 189 
murals by: Asco, 227; Baca/sPARC, 225, 226; 

Lundeberg, 109; Ochoa et al., 225, 226; 

Rascon, 267; Refregier, i45n. 5; Rivera, 702, 

119, 120, 138, 144; Siqueiros, 139; Zakheim, 113, 

Museum of Contemporary Art, 35, 44 
museums: exhibitions, 31-36, role of, 28, 31 
Muybridge, Eadweard, 242 

Nakamura, Kentaro, 125; Evening Wave, 127 
Nappenbach, Henry: Chinese New Year Celebration, 

San Francisco, 96 
Nash, Steven, 36 
National Museum of American Art, 31 

Native Americans, 40, 49-51, 90-92, 260-61; bas- 
ketry, 94; depicted, 49, 93, 100, 136, 265; spiri- 
tualism, 43, 189; stereotyping of, loo, 264-65 

Native Daughters of tlie Golden West, 276 

Neutra, Richard, 160, 161, 166, 273; Channel Heights 
Chair, 151; Lovell "Health" House, 109, 110 

New Deal projects, 57, 115 

Newton, Huey P., 59, 214, 221 

New York Central Lines poster, 34 

Nishio, Linda: Kikoemasu ka?, 265 

Nitrve, Lars, and Helle Crenzien, 35 

Norniark, Don, 167; Untitled, 166 

Novarro, Ramon, 130, 131 

Oakland Museum of California, 35 

Obata, Chiura, 154; Farewell Picture of the Bay 

Bridge, 155; New Moon, 128 
Ocampo, Manuel, 35; Untitled {Ethnic Map of 

Los Angeles), 245 
Ochoa, Victor, et al.: Chicano Park Murals, 226 
oil production, 54, 56, 103; California Oil Fields 

(Hassam), 106 
Onslow Ford, Gordon: Fragment of an Endless, 189 
Opie, Catherine: Self- Portrait, 252, 253 
orange-crate labels, 64, 78 
Ordofiez de Montalvo, Garci (Garci Rodriguez de 

Montalvo), 49 
Orozco, Jose Clemente, 137, 226 
Ortiz-Torres, Ruben, 262; California Taco, 263 
O'Shea, John: The Madrone, 68 
Our WbrW magazine, 161, 173 
Outterbridge, John: Together Let Us Break Bread, 

214, 215 
Owens, Bill, 199; Our house is built with the living 

room in the back, 200 

Paalen, Wolfgang, 189; Messengers from the Three 

Poles, 188 
pachucos, 152, I9in. 5 
Pacific Factory magazine, 148 
Pacific Ocean Park, 170; brochure for, 172 
Panama-California Exposition, 54, 98, 99, 264; 

brochure, 99; guidebook, 99; postcard, 100 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 98, 99; 

postcard, 98, 100; program, 98; souvenir 

stamps, 98 
Paradise, Phil: Ranch near San Luis Obispo, u6 
Paramount Pictures, 132, 189 
Park, Claire Campbell: Cycle, 231 
Park, David, 174; Rehearsal, 184, 185 
Pasadena, 81 
Pasadena Art Institute, 155; Art for Victory 

brochure, 150 
Patri, Giacomo, 113; illustration by, 112 
Payzant, Charles: Wilshire Boulevard, 105 
Pelton, Agnes, 122; Sandstorm, 123 
Penney, Frederic: Madonna of Chavez Ravine, 105 
Perry, Claire, 36 

Peters, Charles Rollo: Adobe House on the Lagoon, 91 
Pettibon, Raymond, 35 
Phelan, James D., 57, 95; Keep California White 

political pamphlet, 95 
Photo League, 158 
Physique Pictorial magazine, 174 
Piazzoni, Gottardo, 84; Untitled Triptych, 83 
Pickford, Mary, 131 
Pickford/ Fairbanks Studios, 56 

Pictorialist photographers, 84, 91, 106, 125 

Pitt, Leonard, 51, 54 

Pittman, Lari, 35; Spiritual and Needy, 256, 257 

Plagens, Peter, 32, 35, 208 

plague, i45n. 28 

Playboy magazine, 180, 25; 

Plaza de la Raza, 225 

plein air painting, 66, 74, 193, 200 

Portola, Caspar de, 50 

Precisionists, 108 

Price, Clayton S.: Coastline, 126 

Price, Ken, 202; exhibition announcement for, 202; 

Gold, 209 
printmaking workshops, 36 
propaganda posters, 1^2 

Proposition 187, 60, 268; political cartoon, anti-, 269 
Public Works of Art Project, 113, 114 
Purifoy, Noah: Sir Watts II, 222 

railroads, 39, 54, 99, 100; Transcontinental Rail 

Terminal, 33 
Rally against Racism, War, Repression, illustration 

from, 228 
Ramos Martinez, Alfredo, 137, 138-39; Woman 

with Fruit, 139 
ranch house, 157, 180 
rancho era, 90 
Rascon, Armando: Border Metamorphosis: The 

Binational Mural Project, 267 
Raven, Arlene, 229 

Ray, Charles, 35; Male Mannequin, 259 
Ray, Joe, 199; Untitled, 200 (detail) 
Raza, La, 224; publication, 224 
Raza Graphic Center, La, 225 
Reagan, Ronald, 59; Reagan — Blood Money 

(Burkhardt), 179 
real estate development, 74, 75, 103 
Redlands Orange Growers' Association crate label, 

Redmond, Granville, 78, 200; California Poppy 

Field, 78-79, 272 (detail), 280 
Refregier, Anton, 113, i45n. 5 
Reiffel, Charles: Late Afternoon Glow, 122 
Rhoades, Jason, and Jorge Pardo: #1 nafta Bench, 

Ringgold, Faith: Double Dutch on the Golden Gate 

Bridge, 242 
Rivera, Diego, 40, 113, 137-38, 144, 226; Allegory of 

California, 102, 138; Allegory of California, 

study, 138; Pan-American Unity, 144 (detail); 

Still Life and Blossoming Almond Trees, 118, 119 
Riverside: Mission Inn, 66, 91 
Rocha, Roberto de la, 226 

Rodia, Sabato (Simon): Watts Towers, 167, 168, 181 
Rodo Shinbun newspaper, 136 
Romero, Frank, 226, 245; exhibition catalogue 

design by, 227 
Roosevelt, Franklin D.: Good Neighbor policy, 137; 

Pan-Americanism, 40, 135, 137, 144 
Rose, Guy, 200; Carmel Dunes, 77; The Old Oak 

Tree, 68, 70 
Roth, Ed "Big Daddy," 205; custom car created by, 

Rothenberg, Erika: America's Joyous Future, 255 
Rubins, Nancy, 35 
Ruscha, Edward, 199; Burning Gas Station, 37; 

Hollywood, 201; Standard Station, 202 

Ruskin, John, 87 
Russell, Jane, 177 
Rydell, Robert, 98 

Saar, Alison; Topsy Turvy, 264 

Saar, Betye; The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, 222 

Said, Edward, 39 

Sakoguchi, Ben: Capitalist Art Brand, 196 

Saldivar, Jose David, 268 

Sample, Paul: Celebration, 121 

San Diego, 74, 84; Chicano Park murals, 225, 226; 
Coronado as Seen through Japanese Eyes, 
7$; Hotel Del Coronado, 66; Moonrise over 
San Diego Bay, 73; Panama-California 
Ex-position, 54, 98, 99-100, 264 

San Dimas Orange Growers Association crate 
label, 64 

San Francisco, 51-52, 54; Beats, 58, 180-81, 193; 
Chinatown, 33, 96, 97, 142, i45n. 28; Coit 
Tower murals, 113, 115; depicted, 32, 67, 74, 
104, 112, 135, 163, 242-43; Golden Gate 
International Exposition, 142-43; Haight- 
Ashbury, 193, 214, 217; Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition, 98, 99, 100; Portola 
Festival, 81; La Raza Graphic Center, 225 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 32, 35 

San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, 106, 107, 142, 

San Francisco World Fair brochure, 144 

Santa Barbara Art Museum, 35 

Santa Fe Railroad brochure, 73 

Saroyan, William, 274 

Sata, J. T, 136; Untitled, 137 

satire, 132, 133, 196, 260; parody, 245 

Save Our Sister poster, 229 

Schapiro, Miriam, 229, 230; Night Shade, 231 

Schimmel, Paul, 35 

Schindler, Rudolph, 109, 161; Armchair and 

Ottoman, nr. Bedroom Dresser, ur, Shep 
House Exterior Perspective, no 

Schoonhoven, Terry: Jsle of California, 61 

Schoppe, Palmer: Drum, Trombone, and Bass, 183 

Schrag, Peter, 59, 61, 268 

Schwankovsky, Frederick J.: Woman at the Piano, 87 

Scott, Ridley, 35 

Seale, Bobby, 59, 214, 222 

Seattle Art Museum, 32 

Self-Help Graphics, 36, 225 

Sequoya League, 91 

Serra, Junipero, 50, 273 

Serra, Richard, 209 

Shearer, Norma, 130, 131 

Sheeler, Charles: California Industrial, 164, 165 

Sheets, Millard, 120; Angel's Flight, 104, 166; 
California, 116; Migratory Camp near 
Nipomo, 120 

Shimojima, Kaye, 136; Edge of the Pond, 123 

Shire, Billy: Untitled Denim Jacket, 216, 218 

Shore, Henrietta, magazine cover by, 124; Untitled, 

Shulman, Julius: Case Study House #8, 160; Case 
Study House #22, 160; Lovell "Health" House, 
109, 110 

Sierra Club, 55, 73, 238 

Silver, Larry, 172; Contestants, Muscle Beach, 173; 
Newsboy Holding Papers, 159 

Simpson, O. J., pursuit of 2.56 

Sinclair, Upton, 113 

Siqueiros, David Alfaro, 40, 137, 226; Tropical 

America, 119, 139, 140; The Warriors, 139 
Sleepy Lagoon case, 152; Sleepy Lagoon Mystery, 153 
Slinkard, Rex: Infinite, 85 

Smith, Alexis: Madame X, 254; Sea of Tmn(piility, 26 
Smith, Christina Y.: The Commitment, 259 
Smith, Henry Nash, 10m. 10 
Social and Public Art Resource Center (sparc): 

The Great Wall of Los Angeles, 225, 226 

Society of Six, 74 
Soja, Edward, 27 

Somerville, Travis: Untitled (Dixie), 262 
Sonsini, John: Mad Dog "Andreas" Maines, 257 
Southern California Proletarian Culture League 

booklet, U4 
Southern Pacific Railroad, 53, 59, 65, 73, 77; 

brochures, 66, 70; poster, J27 
SPARC. See Social and Public Art Resource Center 
spiritualism, 43, 185-86, 189-90, 213-14; Kabbalah, 

213; Theosophy, 86; Zen Buddhism, 186, 

189, 210 
S.S. ]ohn Fitch, 148 

Stackpole, Peter: The Lone Riveter, 106, 107 
Stackpole, Ralph, 144 
Stanford, Leland, 53 
Starr, Kevin, 77 
Stegner, Wallace, 62 
Stein, Walter, 53 

Steinbeck, John, 118, 120, 274, 276 
Steinmetz, Phel, 232 
Sterling, George, 77 
Stern, Sigmund, Mr. and Mrs., 119 
Sternfeld, Joel: After a Flash Flood, 240, 241 
Stop the Fence — Open the Border poster, 267 
Stoumen, Lou: Tenements of Bunker Hilt, 166, 167 
"straight" photography, 106 
Struss, Karl, 84; Monterey Coast, 84 
Stryker, Roy, 118 
suburbia, 158-64, 168, 172, 27in. 10; depicted, 147, 

157, 160, 162, 200, 247 
Sugimoto, Henry, 154; Mother in Jerome Camp, 155 
sumi-e, 128 

Sunderland, Elza: Woman's Two-Piece Playsuit, 141 
Sunset magazine, 66, 73 
Surrealism, 115 
Sutro Baths poster, 45 

Tackett, Lagardo, 162; Untitled, 163 

Tamarind, 36 

Tanforan Detention Camp, 155 

Taylor, Gage: Mescaline Woods, 216, 217 

Teatro Campesino, El, poster, 224 

television, 156, 172, 179, 201, 235-36, 251; Tales from 

the Tube (Griffin), 217; Television Studio 

(Frank), 178 
Teraoka, Masami: Geisha and aids Nightmare, 256 
Teske, Edmund: Untitled, 215 
textile designs, 158; Textile Length for Drapery, 111 
Theosophical Society, 86 
Thiebaud, Wayne: Down Mariposa, 198 
Thorsen, William R., 88 
Time magazine, 168, 170, 236; cover, 193 
Tingley, Katherine, 84; chair of, 86 
Tom of Finland: Untitled, 219 
Torres, Salvador Roberto: Viva La Raza, 224, 225 
Touring Topics magazine, 103, 108, 124, 124-25 
tourists, 65, 73, 90, 103, 128, 170 

Townsley, Channel P.: Mission San Juan Capistrano, 

Trenton, Patricia: Independent Spirits, 36 
Tse, Wing-Kwong: Cup of Longevity, 143 
Tseng, Kwong Chi: Disneyland, 249 
Tuchman, Maurice, 35 
Tule Lake, 154 

Turner, Frederick Jackson, loin. 10 
Turrell, James, 210, 233n. 9 
Twain, Mark, 52 

Underwood and Underwood Publishers: Yosemite 

Valley, 73 
unisex fad, 218 

United Farm Workers, 224; journal of, 228 
unknown artists: Basket, 94; Cahuilla Basket, 94 
urban development projects, 164-66 

Valdez, Luis, 224 

Valdez, Patssi, 226, 227 

Valencia, Manuel, 94; Santa Barbara Mission at 

Night, 91 
Valentine, DeWain, 202 
Van Keppel, Hendrick, and Taylor Green: Small 

Chaise and Ottoman, 162, 163 
Van Vleet, T. S., Once a Jap, Always a Jap, political 

tract by, 152 
Venice Beach, 84, 158, 162, 180, 181, 202, 207, 208; 

artists of, 209, 225 
Vergara, Camilo Jose, 199; Couple on Their Way to 

Church, 200 
Vescovi, Ely de: Hollywood, 178 
Vizcaino, Sebastian, 49 
Volcano poster, 241 
Volz, Herman, 113; San Francisco Waterfront Strike, 

Voulkos, Peter, 36; Camelhack Mountain, 185 
Vroman, Adam Clark, 91; San Gabriel Mission, 93 
Vysekal, Edouard A.: Springtime, 85 

Wachtel, Marion (Kavanaugh): Sunset Clouds #5, 69 

Wagner, Catherine: Arch Construction IV, 243 

Walker, James, 36; Vaquero, 50 

Walker, Richard, 52 

Wallach, Alan, 28 

Warner Brothers Studios, 278 

Warner, Charles Dudley, 82 

Warren, Earl, 58 

Warrington, Albert P., 84 

Watkins, Carleton E., 36, 73; Transcontinental Rail 

Terminal, 53 
Watts, Alan, 186 
Watts riots, 58-59, 62, 193, 214; National Guardsmen 

during, 59 
We Also Serve magazine, 149 
Weber, Kem: Airline Armchair, 108, J09 
Weeks, James: Two Musicians, 184, 185 
Welpott, Jack: The Journey, 195 
Wendt, William: Malihu Coast, 77; Wliere Nature's 

God Hath Wrought, 70 
Weston, Brett: Garapata Beach, 170 
Weston, Edward, 125, 128; Tomato Field, 116; Twenty 

Mule Team Canyon, 124 
White, Minor: Stm m Rock, 187 
Wicks, Ren, illustration by, 146 
Wight, Clifford, 115 

Wildenhain, Marguerite: Squared Vase, 170 
Wilding, Faith, 229 

Williams, Robert: California Girl, 251 

Wilson, Michael G., 36 

Winkler, John William Joseph: Oriental Alley, 95 

Winn, Albert J.: Akedah, 256 

Womanhouse, 229; installation at, 230 

woman's suffrage, 55 

women's movement, 228-29. See also feminism 

Wong, Anna May, 134 

Wonner, Paul, 174; Untitled, 175 

Works Progress Administration, 57 

Works Projects Administration, 113 

World's Columbian Exposition, 98; booklet, 99 

Wurster, William, 151, 160 

xenophobia, 43, 60, 151; against Chinese, 40, 53, 97; 
against Japanese, 144, 152-53; against 
Mexicans, 152 

Yavno, Max: Muscle Beach, 158, 159; Night View 
from Coit Tower, 163; Street Talk, 133 

Yonemoto, Bruce and Norman: Golden, 262 

Yosemite Valley, 43, 55, loin. 12, 239, 240; depicted, 
64, 72-73, 128-29, 170-71, 194, 195-96, 234 

Young, Liz: The Birth/Death Chair with Rawhide 
Shoes, Bones, and Organs, 252, 253 

Zakheim, Bernard: Library, 113 
Zen Buddhism, 43, 186, 189, 210 
Zermeno, Andrew, poster by, 224 
Zoot Suit riots, 58, 152 
Zukor, Adolph, 131 

County of Los Angeles 
Board of Supervisors, 2000 

Gloria Molina 


Michael D. Antonovich 

Yvonne Brathwaite Burke 

Don Knabe 

Zev Yaroslavsky 

David E. Janssen 

Chief Administrative Officer 

Mrs. Dwight M. Kendall 

Mrs. Harry Lenart 

Robert Looker 

Ms. Monica C. Lozano 

Robert F. Maguire III 

Steve Martin 

Wendy Stark Morrissey 

Peter Norton 

Mrs. Stewart Resnick 

Mrs. Jacob Y. Terner 

Christopher V. Walker 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

Andrea L. Rich 
President and Director 

Senior Trustees 

Dr. George N. Boone 
Mrs. Willard Brown 
Robert H. Halff 
Mrs. William Pagen 

Board of Trustees, 
Fiscol year 2000-2001 

Walter L. Weisman 


William A. Mingst 

Chairman of the Executive Committee 

Michael G. Smooke 


William H. Ahmanson 

Frank E. Baxter 

Daniel N. Belin 

Mrs. Lionel Bell 

Frank J. Biondi Jr. 

Milce R. Bowlin 

Donald L. Bren 

Gerald Breslauer 

Eli Broad 

Ronald W. Burkle 

Iris Cantor 

Mrs. William M. Carpenter 

Mrs. Edward W. Carter 

Willard G. Clark 

Robert A. Day 

Jeremy G. Fair 

Michael R. Forman 

Mrs. Camilla Chandler Frost 

Julian Ganz Jr. 

Herbert M. Gelfand 

Stanley Grinstein 

Enrique Hernandez Jr. 

John F. Hotchkis 

Mrs. Judith Gaillard Jones 

Janet Karatz 

Life Trustees 

Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 

Robert H. Ahmanson 

Robert O. Anderson 

The Honorable Walter H. Annenberg 

Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 

Mrs. Freeman Gates 

Joseph B. Koepfli 

Bernard Lewin 

Eric Lidow 

Mrs. Lillian Apodaca Weiner 

Past Presidents 

Edward W Carter 


Sidney F. Brody 


Dr. Franklin D. Murphy 


Richard E. Sherwood 


Mrs. F. Daniel Frost 


Julian Ganz Jr. 


Daniel N. Belin 


Robert R Maguire III 


William A. Mingst 


continued from front flap 

Made in California is divided into five tv^enty-year 
sections, each including a narrative essay discussing the 
history of that era and highhghting topics relevant to 
its visual culture. Two overarching themes emerge that 
have been crucial for how we imagine and understand 
California: first, the landscape, including both the natu- 
ral and the built environment, and second, the state's 
cultural and ethnic character, particularly in relation to 
Latin America and Asia. Geographer Michael Dear has 
contributed a broad overview of the social history of 
California, examining the vibrant and sometimes turbu- 
lent conditions that gave rise to this art. Essayist Richard 
Rodriguez closes the volume with a uniquely personal 
meditation on the Golden State. 

Stephanie Barron is Senior Curator of Modern and 
Contemporary Art and Vice President of Education 
and Public Programs at the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art. Sheri Bernstein is Exhibition Associate 
at LACMA. Ilene Susan Fort is Curator of American 
Art at LACMA. Howard N. Fox is Curator of Modern and 
Contemporary Art at lacma. Michael Dear is Director 
of the University of Southern California's Southern 
California Studies Center and author most recently 
of The Postmodern Urban Condition (2000). Richard 
Rodriguez is author of Days of Obligation (1992), 
Hunger of Memory (1982), and is a frequent contributor 
to Harper's, The New York Times, and The News Hour 

564 illustrations, including 402 in full color 

Published by 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 

5905 Wilshire Boulevard 

Los Angeles, California 90036 

in association with 

University of California Press 

Berkeley, California 94720 

Printed in California