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NOV. 1896 to APRIL 1897 


* c t L 




ALL Rh'.ll IS Rl i: n 





Alma-Taiiema. I. u'liExrr. 
Spielmann . 

R A. : a Sketch. By M. II. 

Anatomy in Art. By Dr. William Anderson . 
Ancient Fike Temple at Sukakhani. mar Baku, The. 

By W. Simpson, R I.. M.R.A s . F.R.G s .. etc. . 
Applied ind Decokative Art in Germany. By P. 


Art and Electricity. By Roberl J ipe-Slade . 
Art at Nancy: Emile Galle. Bj Henri Prantz . 
Art in Scotland: — 

Glasgow Royal Institute, The 

Royal Scottish Academy, The . 
Art in the Ballet ........ 

Art Movement : — 

Applied asm Decokative Art in Germany. By P. 
Schultze-Naumburg ....... 

Art in the Ballet 

Arts and Crafts Exhibition, The 

Belgium. By Emile Veihaeren 

< I !■ ii v M. Lumen Falize and Colli igi es, A. By 
Henri Frantz ....... 

Decoration mi St. James's Episcopal Church, Edix- 

ri r(,h. By W. M. Gilbert 

D : Furniture (Paris). By Henri Frantz 

Embroideries and Damask Silks. By Aymer Vallance 

Germany, Applied and Decorative Art in. By P. 

Schultze-Naumburg ...... 

Hospital Decoration, A 

Mr. Graham Robertson's New Dressing op "As 

You Like It.'" By A. L Baldry 
New Decorative Material, A. By Aymer Vallance 
New Sum illings ....... 

Novelty in Decohation at the Trocadero rv Mk, 
G E. Moiua ami Mr. F. Lynn Jenkins. 

Opaline Glass 

l'i n i eii Work. By Hi mi Frantz . . . . 
Scotland, Art in: Tin: Royai Glasgov [nstituti 

l\n Km u Si "lll-ll ACAD] in . 

Sculpture, New . 

Stained Glass Paris). By Henri Prantz. 

Stenci Stupps. Bj I.. « i- F Day 

Wood-Carvings at the Carpenters' Hall 
Arts ivn Crafts Exhibition, Tin. Bj Lewis 1' Daj 

Ariz. Anoi rm . Bj Richard I teath 

"As Voi I.iki It," New Dressin i.v Mi: Graham 

lluli! RTSON ......... 

At the Sign oi nn Dial: Mr. Charles Ricketts is \ 
Book-Builder. By Gleeson White. 



32 1 


2, 63 



2 Hi 


2 1 J 


3 ; ; 


!, 63 


Am:. 'I'm River Bj W. Matthews Gilbert . 

Bi irdsi.ey, Aubrey, and the. Dei idbnts. Bj Mi 

Armour ......... 

Belgium: The Art Movement. Bj Emile Verhaeren 

Chronicle of Art, The . . . 54, 1 OS, 172 

I'rp nv M. Lucien Falize and Colleagues, A. Bj Henri 

Frantz ......... 

Decoration oe the Printed Book, The .... 

Decorative Material, A New. By Aymer Vallance 
"Df.lla Robbia" Pottery Industry, The 
Door Fuhnituri Paris). By Henri Frantz 
Drawn with the Mouth : Mr. Bartram 
Embroideries and Damask Silks. By Aymer Valiance 
Fashion in Art. By Fernand KhnopS .... 

Galle Emile. By Henri Frantz 

Gardner, Mr. Starkie, ind Hi- Work. By Walt, i Shaw 

Sparrow ......... 

I Ii ISGOW I;,,, vi [nsti mm. 'I'm: 

Germany, Applied and Decorative Art in. By I'. 


Goldsmith ery. By Alex. Fisher 

i lui dsmiths' I xstiti n . Tin. ... . . 

Hadrian's Villa: Note on nn Picture rv Richard 

Wilson, R.A. ........ 

II u in. Mk. George. By M. II Spielmann 

Hermitage, The ...... Bartram: Drawn with the Mouth 

Hospit U, Ml ' ORATION, A . . . .... 

Illustrated Volumes .... 102, 158,221,261, 
" .lnii\ La Farge" 

' org] W I'". -I - eii \n lerson 
" King In xe's Hum umi\ " Cabini t. By John P 

Leighton's Sk -. Lord I'". Mired I \ - Ii ildry 

•■ I ,M i imi l / 1 1 1 i: - :.: John Constable, I; \ . I'm. " 

Lithography, 'I'm I,'; yiva I i [sal. By M II 

Spielmann ; 

Introduction: its Rise ami Fihsi Decline 

The Ki a ival on the Continent 

Tin: Pill -i ST In \ n ll in ENGLAND .... 

F ens : Deceased Engi isii M 

Tin: I ! v ' I 

Bj I i. -I. ,.!, .,.- 

Mil,,', Is' In 

si III II ....... 


Bj ilfiod Prnga, Vici Pri idi nt of I 


By I lr. Lumsden Proper! 


2 1 :; 


21 • 


32 1 


2 I 'J 


I 11 





Modern English Masters, in tut Collection oi W. C 

Q :, ,,,:. Ml' B) I G. Sli phcns . . 121, 177. 
• Morris, William: Noti on mi: Life ami V, '• in oi 

By Walter Crane 

N m v, Aui it. By Henri l-'i intz 

Notes am. Qi i ri] - . 51, 105, 169, 224, 279, 

NHvim is Decouation m rni- Trocadero by Mk. 

G. E Mom v imi Mil V Lynn Jenkins 
i Ipaline Glass 
mm: Risino Artists: Mi: Geokgi Harcourt. By M. H 

Sj.i. imann 

•• Persimmon " : Xi.te on inn Plate . 

Pewter Wouk. By Henri Frantz 

Poynter, Sai E. J., P.R.A. By the Editor . 
Quilteu, W. Cuthhert, Ml'.. Tin. Collection op. By 

1. G. Sh ph ii- 
The Modern English Masters . . . 121,177. 


Painters ......... 

Rembrandt in mi: Berlin Gallery .... 

Renaissance op Miniature Painting, The: — 

By Alfred Praga, Vice-President of the Societj oi 
Miniaturists ........ 

By I Ir. Lumsden Propi r; 

Revival of Lithography, The. By M. H. Spielmann: — 
1m i:.. in i thin : It- Rise and First Decline 



By Gle 

i tlUGINAL Ln iimi.kai'HY : 

The Revival on the Continent 

'I'm Pri seni Revivai is Engi ind . 
Ricketts, Mr. Charles, as a Book-Builder. 


River Ayr. The. By W. Matthews Gilbert 

Royal Academy Elections, The 

Royal Glasgow Institute .... 

Royal School oi Aim Needlework, The. By Aymer 

Variance ....... 

Royal Scottish Ai idemy, The .... 

Sculpture, New ....... 

Segantini, Giovanni. By Helen Zimmern 
Shannon. J. J., Painter. By Alfred Lys Baldry 
Stained Glass (Paris). By Henri Frantz 
Stench. l.i.i Stuffs. By Lewis V. Daj' 

Stench lings, New 

St. James's Episcopal Church, Edinburgh : Decoration 

of. By W. M. Gilbert 

Street Arcades in North Italy. By H. E. Tidmarsh 
' Stick, Franz. By Paul Sehultze-Xaumburg- . 

Wallace Collection. I.— The Objects of Art. By tin 


Wanderings oe the Tamar, The. By Annie Groser Kurd 
Wai is Mr. George Frederic k, I!. A. By M. II. Spielmann 
Wood-Carvings at the Carpenters' Hall 







List of Plates. 

In aIy Studio . 

Study of a Head . 
Joan of Arc 

I .' 1 ...i [81 l IONISTS 

The Loy k Token . 
Hadrian's Villa . 


The Hau\ EST Moon 

By L. Alma-Tadema, R.A 

By Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Hart. 

By George W. Joy . 

By A. C. Gow, II. A. 

Drawn and Engraved by W 

By E. Cipolla . 

By [lichard Wilson, I:. A. 

By J. F. Lewis, R.A. 

Bj i leorge Clausen, A. It. A 

Photogravure by Berlin Photo. Company. pace 
/■< oiitispit ct 

To face 50 

Rembrandt Engraving Company . 
Rembrandt Engraving Company . 

Photogravure by Berlin Photo- Company 

Three-Colour Plate 

Rembrandt Engraving Company . 
Original Lithograph 


{Drawl} by r'roj 


Ancient Fire Temple at Surakhani, The (by William 
Simpson, I! I.. M.E A s , F.R.G.S.):— 

Fire Temple at Surakhani, The 196 

Inscription on Wall of Temple 196 

Sketch Plan of the Temple 197 

Small Altar. The 200 

Capital of the Ancient Ciborium 161 

Front Elevation of New National Art Gallery. Sydney, N.S.W. 17'-' 
House of L. Alma-Tadema, R.A. (by Heer Waail): 

Entrance to the House from the Garden .... 43 

In the Hall .... 40 

Mr. Alma Tadema's Studio io 

Mrs. Alma-Tadema's Studio 49 

Singing Gallery in the Studio 47 

The Colonnade 44 

Interior of the New Exeter Art Gallery 173 

"Modern Opera-Houses and Theatres":— 

Details of Lounge and Foyer, Court Theatre, Vienna . 2G3 

Municipal Theatre, Amsterdam 261 

Proscenium Boxes, Court Theatre, Vienna . . . .261 

staircase, Court Opera-House, Stockholm .... 262 

Peterborough Cathedral 28S 

St. Ambo. Fragment of the 161 

Street Arcades in North Italy (by H. E. Tidmarsh) :— 

Arcade in Piazza Caricamento, Genoa Ill 

Arcade of the Doge'a Palace, Venice 21 

A Street in Lugano 20 

Palladio's Arcade at Vicenza 23 

Piazza Pontida, Bergamo 20 

On the Road from the Rialto to the Station. Venice . . 24 

The Piazza delle Erhe, Verona 22 

The Tower Gate, Leones3a 24 

Via del Borgo, Pisa 22 

Victoria Institute, Worcester 175 


Applieal ion of the Lily of the Valley in Ornament . . 222 
Apse of the Lady Chapel, St. Agatha's, Portsmouth, Design 

for Decoration of (by Heywood Sumxer) .... 36 

Architectural Decoration Design (by \V. Amou Fen n ) . 194 

Book-Cover Designs (by Fritz Ekler) 327,328 

Book-Cover Design (by Julia Eustace) 193 

Book-Cover of Chaucer (by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson) . . 35 

Book'PIate Designs (by C. Naish) 225,226 

Cameo Vase, Black and Grey Agate Crystal, Design lor (by 

Emile Gai.le) ... . . ... 253 

Coinage, Designs for (by Sir E. J. Poynteu, P.R.A.) . . 120 

Cover-of Burns Exhibition Catalogue (by J. Hassall) . .">"> 
Design for Decoration of a Public Building (by Busk 

Livesay) 228 

Designs hv Bartram Hiles:— 

Door-Plate ID 

Frieze 112 

Headpieces 111. 113 

Tailpiece 113 

Wall-Paper 112 

Designs bv C. Ricketts :— 

Initials 304,309 

, Designs by Walter Crane:— 

Cover of "Arts and Crafts" Catalogue .... 63 

Mr. George Allen's Imprint 171 

Designs for Embroider} (by Hermann Obrist) . 324,326 

Electric Light Wall-Bracket Design (by W. A. Baskerville) . 195 

Floral Trellis Paper (by Heywood Sumner) .... 31 
" Harrogate " and " Ray nsford " Stencil Designs, The . .11 

DESIGN (continued):- paoe 

" J ugend" (designed by Otto Erkmann) . 32;, 

Needlework Design (by Hilda M. Pemberton) . . . 194 

Playing Cards, Design for (by R. Anning Bell) ... 35 
1 'osters :— 

Poster (by Max Langer) 324 

Poster Design (by Louis J. Rhead) 176 

Prize Poster Designs 310 

Promenade Concert Poster, Design for a (by Fred 

Taylor) 193 

Sw miming Club Poster, Design for a (by FRED 'I' kYLOR) . 193 

Venice International Exhibition Poster (by A. SEZANN1 313 

Programme for " Elijah " (designed by Fred Taylor) . . 192 

Punch-Bowl, Modelled Design for (by Eleanor Mercer) . 39 

Rose water Dish, Design for a (by Fred Taylor) . . . 192 

School Board Certificate (by R. Annixg Bell) . . . . 36 
Stencil Designs for Wall Decoration: The "Calavas' and 

"Fisken" Patterns 271 

Tablecloth, Design for a (by Katherine Smith) . . . HO 

Tailpiece (by Emily' It. Reader) 195 

Vase (by Dalpayret) . . .... .284 

Vasi's (designed and executed by M \.\ Laxgi r) 325, 327, • ''-■* 

Wall-Paper Design (by Carrie Thornhill) . . 191 
Winter, Design for Decoration of a Public Building (by ROSB 

Livesay) -"-'s 

Wood-Carving Design (unfinished) (by Maud R Coogin) . 195 


Beardsley, A ubrey 

Cover for " Le Morte d Arthur " 

Headpiece from " Le Morte d'Arthur" 

Initial-Piece from " Le Morte d'Arthu 

" Le Morte d'Arthur. " From 

"Mrs. Patrick Campbell" 

Portrait of the Artist .... 
Brock, if. M.—" Dear Jack" . 
• BurneJones, Sir E., Bart.— 

t 'artoon for Window of Union Church. Ashton under 


- Crane, Walter "The House of Pride "... 
Cruileshanlc, Georgt Portrait of the Artist 

Valpayrat, A.— Sketch of a Vase 

I hi Maurier, a " In the A.telier Glej re 
Houghton, A. //.—"Torn. Tom, the Piper'sSon" 
Joy, George II'.— 

Portrait of the A Hist 

Sketch for " The Firsl Union Jack" 

Khnopff, Fernand "Danaides" 

Lehmann, Rudolph " AdolphMenzel" 
Leighton, Thi lati Lord 

A Study ...... 

chalk Drawing 

Early Pencil Sketch .... 

First Sketch for " Flaming Ju 

Penoil Drawings (Rome, i~-'i> . 

Pencil St inly ... . . 

Projei i - tor Elijah " . 

Studj for " \u'i the bc i gave up the 
in it" 

Studj ei Drapei pfoi 
May, Phil 

Merson, l.u Oh Del 

PoynttT, Sir /■:. ./.. /'./,' I. " a Studj ' 
liailton, Hi rh, rl 

Greal Banqui tit Ho f h 

(with eking Her Father' 



Ricketts, C. - 

From ' Dapnnis and ' Ihloe" 

From " Nimphidiu . . • 

From " The Sphinx " 


Initial?, Tailpieces, C'uls de-Lampe, etc. 

"Primrose Day (an Allegorical Cartoon) 

Spence, It. Pen 1 Hawing 

Troubetzkou, Prina " J. J. Shannon" 
Wilson, Patten— Pen Drawing 


( U< i, I Lithograph, " La Plume 

Daumier, H.— Lithograph, " United Germany " . 
Dicksee, H.— Lithograph, "Tiger". . 
Dillon, H. P.— Lithograph, " The Gateway ' 
Fantin-Latour— Lithograph, " Manfred 

Gavarni— Lithograph, Study 

Oravesande, Storm van— 

Lithograph, " Entrance to Flushing Harbour" . 

Lithograph, "The Harbour, Flushing" . 
Haghe, Louis Lithograph, " Belgium and Holland " 
Harding, J. V.- Lithograph, a Study .... 
Herkomer, Professor, R.A.— Lithograph, " Love Song" 
Legros, Alphonse -Etching of " E. J. Poynter, P.R.A." 
Luce— Lithograph, "Woman Recumbent" . 
Lunois, A.— Lithograph, "A Dutchwoman" 
Prout, S.— Lithograph, " Venice : The Grand Canal 
Raffet, C— Lithograph, "Infanterie Polonaise marc 

a I'Ennemie" 

Raven Hill, L— Study of a Child 

Redon, Odilon— Lithograph, " Brunnhilde ". 
Rcedcl Lithograph, "Girl's Head" .... 
Rothenstein, W — Lithograph, "Lord St. Gyres" 
Sainton, ( '. - Lithograph, " The Water Sprite " . 
Shannon, C— Lithograph, "The Sisters" • 
.S/» inli it -Lithograph, " In Aid of the Creche" . 
Thomson. George— Lithograph, " Under Kew Bridge" 
Way, T. R.-Lithograph, "Back Court, St. Bartholome 
II irk, mien, R. J.— Lithograph. " La Here Pannecaye " 





Burse, Embroidered (by Annie Walker) 218 

-Cabinet (by J. 1". Seddon, Decorated by D. G. Rossetti and 

Ford Madox Brown) 323 

Cabinet, Inlaid (by Smile Gallej 250 

Carpet (by C. F. A. VoYSEY) . . 66 

Clock (by C. F. A. Yoysey) . 39 

1 ration oi' Furniture (by Emile Galle) :— 

Chair 251 

Detail of a Marquetry Cabinet : " Perfumes of Other Das s " '-'51 

Inlaid Cabinet: "Fruits of the Spirit" 250 

Mosaic in Wood: "The Flora of Lorraine" . • ■ • 251 
ii.. Holy Grail": Blood-Ked Jasper Crystal, with 

Censer and Bronze Mountings 250 

fining Table (by W. Reynolds-Stephens) .... 38 
Embroideries (designed by HERMANN Obrist) 321, 326. 327, 328 
Enamelled and Ivury-and-Enarnel Caskets (by Alex. 

Fisher) 35.39 

Needlework (Half finished) (designed by II. M. Pemberton). 194 
Panel, Embroidered (by Trixie G. Symington). . . . Jis 

Panel, Lily (by Emily C. Gibbons] 219 

Quilt, Panel for (designed by C. F. A. Voysey) . ... 38 
Roy u. si iiocil of Art Needlework:— 

Altar Cloth, Embroidered in Silk. Crewels, and Gold, on 

White Cloth Ground (design by SELWYN Image) . . 215 
l!<> ik Cover, Gold Outline and Darned Ground in Silk on 

Linen (designed by N. Which elo) 245 

Embroideries, in Silk and Gold on Silk (design by 

M. F. W.) 217 

Horizontal Border, Embroidered in Silk on Silk (design 

by F B. Wade) 24S 

Horizontal Border, Groups of Flowers Embroidered in 

i Irewel and Silk on Linen (design by LESLIE) . . 243 
Horizontal Holder, Laid Silk Embroidery on Velvet 

ancient design ' 213 

Panels of Screen (by N. Whicbelo) 214 

Perpendicular Border (by F. B. Wade) 216 

een (by G. Frampton, A.R.A.) 32 

Stole, Embroidered (by S. R. YarnallI 2is 

Virginal, Flemish 227 


Wallace Collection, The:— 

Gabinet, .Mahogany with Gi.t Ornament (French, Eigh- 
teenth Century 

Candelabra, Gilt Melal (by Gouthiere), ami Angle Cup- 
board (Encoignure) of Amboyna Wood ornamented 
in Gilt Metal (by RlESENER and GOUTHIERE) (from 
Old Palace of Trianon, Versailles- French, Eighteenth 

Chairs, Carved and Gilt Wood, Covered in Beauvais 
Tapestry (French, Eighteenth Century) .... 

Clock and Barometer, in Ebony and Gilt Metal I bj Fer- 


Clo.k and Pedestal, Boulle and Gilt Metal (formerly in 
the Town Hall, Yverdon, Switzerland) (French, 
Eighteenth Century) 

Enamel Casket (by J. PENICAUD) (irom M. Lievre's 
"Musee Graphique") 

Table Carved with Gilt Metal and Slab of Green 
Porphyry (French, Eighteenth Century) 



Alms Dish (by A. G. Walker) 102 

Art and Electricity : - 

Electric Garland 18 

Electrolier 16 

Lamps, Three (designed by W. Starkie Gardner) . . 17 

Lightning (designed by Maillard). . . 14 

Louis XVI. Lamp .15 

Morning (designed by Alfred E. Lewis) ... 13 

Naiad Vase ... 18 

Pendant in Wrought Iron (designed by W. Si'akkie 

Gardner) 1 ' 

Pendent Lamp from Brescia (attributed to Ghiberti) . 15 

Table Lamp (designed by Bertram Malkennal) . . 15 

Cap in Beaten Copper, with Lid in Cloisonne Enamel (by 

Nelson and Edith Dawson) 38 

Door Plates (by Erikson and Gusi'ave Charpentier) . 288, 269 

Enamelled and Gold-aud-Enamclled Pendants (by F. S. 

Robinson) 32 

Gold Cup (by LUCIEN Falize Ie5. 167 


A Gold Chalice 1SS 

Gold and Enamel Brooch 186 

Gold Celtic Brooch 187 

Gold Chalice and Paten 185 

Gold Chatelaine 186 

Gold Clasp 181 

Gold Cup 187 

Gold Earrings 187 

Gold Grseco-Bactrian Armlet 187 

Pendant in Go'.d and Enamel, with Pearls . . . .186 

Tabernacle : Door in Gold Repousse, other Paris in Silver 185 
Heraldic Device in Beaten Steel and Champleve Enamel (by 

N. and E. Dawson) __ 66 

Keyhole Ornaments (by EMILE Galle) -52 

Lectern in Iron, Copper, and Brass (by W. Ba(NURIDGe 

Reynolds) 34 

Metal Work, Case of (by C. R. Ashdee) 67 

Metal Work Recently Acquired by the City Ari 
Gallery, Birmingham:— 

Chiselled Iron Knockers (German) 287 

Gold and Enamel Pendants 2S6 

Wiought-lron Btacket (German, Seventeenth Century) . 286 
Mr. Starkie Gardner and His Work:— 

Black Iron and Ivory Lamp 132 

Design for a Balustrade 133 

Design for a Pewter Electric Lamp 131 

Design for a Side Light .132 

Design for Hanging Electric Lamp 130 

Designs for Electric Light Fittings 130 

Fire Dog at Shiplake Court 129 

Gatesal North Mymms, Herts. 131 

Iron Balustrade at the Conservative Club, Glasgow . 129 

Lamp at the Leather-Sellers' Hall 132 

Pewter Work :— 

Pewter Bowl and Pew tor Vase (by M. CARRIERS) 98, 99 

" The Prey " (by M. Ledru) 99 

" The Sedge Nymph" (by P. H. B, Rocssel) . . -100 

"The Wave" (byM Ledru) 98 

Plaque (by Jules Cheret) 270 

steel Casket, with Enamels and Gold Setting (by 

Fisher 65 

Steel Fender (by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson) .... 63 
1 'rowel in Wrought Steel, Silver, and Copper, with Enamels 

(by Nelson and E. Dawson) 61 

INDEX to illustrations 

METALWORK («m(i tier!) :- 

Wallace Collection, The:— 

Morion (Italian, sixteenth Century) (from M. Lievn 

" Musee ( Irnphique ) 

" Mortier " — Perfume Burner (French, Eighteenth 

Century) (from M. Lievre's " Musi eG 
Wheel-Lock Arquebuse (Late Sixteenth Ci al irj i (from 
M. Lievre's " Musee Graphique ") ... 
VVrought-Iron Fire-Dog (by W. Bainbridge Reynolds) 65 

Wrought-Iron Gates (by Reginald Blomfield) i;i 


"As You Like It": New Dressing i;\ Mb, Graham 
Robi btson : 

Audrey . . 272 

Celia ■>-■■, 

Cupids in Masque of Hymen ... .273 

Hymen 273 

Orlando . 272 

Shepherd and Shepherdess in Masque of Hymen. . . 27.'S 

Sketehfor' Fori byH.R.HALL). . . 27:5 

1 1 \ ases (by F.mii.k Galle) 

Ceiling Patterns in Asbestos: "Elizabethan," "Henri II.." 

" Italian Renaissance ' 220 

1 himneypiece in Marble and Onyx (by W. R. Lethaby) 63 

' "-11 me-Designing for the Ballet of "MosteCristo 
(by C. Wilhelm):— 

A Grisette (Scene 1) [02 

Auguste 1 1. .1-1 Si ene) . . \,\ ; 

Fernand (Scene 1) 11;:; 

Guests (Last Scene) li;:i 

Haidee li;i 

Incroyable (Last Scene) 161 

Madame Danglars (Last Scene). . . . . 101 

Mercedes (Scene 1) (Last Scene) 163 

Pearl (Scene II 161 

In 111 Robbia" Pottery Industry:— 

Frieze (by Edmund Rathbone) 8 

" Guardian Angel " Panel (by Miss Ropes) . ... 8 

Lunette iby Conrad Dressler) 6 

Panel, A 6 

Pilasters 6 

Piping Boy Panel (by Miss Ropes) 7 

Square Lily Tile (by Conrad Dressler) .... 7 

Vases, Plaque, and Inkstand 6 

Water- Aven Tile (by Conrad Dressler) .... 7 

Fragments of Fifteenth Century Carved Oak Work. . 33 

Fresco at St. James's Episcopal Church, Edinburgh (by 

W. Hole, R.S A.) 217 

Frieze Patterns in Asbestos : " Floral 220," " Old Florentine . 220 

Illustrations from Books of the German School (Sixteenth 
Century) 277. 279 

Illustrations from Books of the Italian School (Fifteenth 

Century) 275 

"Lady in White, A," Photograph (by J. Craig Annan) . . 109 

"Lo, tin re the Hermit of the Water.' Photograph (by J. 

Hi SIIBY) , 109 

" Marguerite de France," Enamel by Jehan de Cot : 

teenth ( eni urj 1 (from M. Lievre's " Musee Graphique") . 297 

Novelty in Decoration at the Troi idero bv G. E, 
Moira and 1". Lynn Jenkins:— 

" Enid Bringing Up Wine " 94 

" Enid Crossing the Drawbridge " 111 

" Elaine ' 95 

"Hawking" 92 

" Hoisting King Arthur's Standard " 97 

"Hunting the Wild Boar" 95 

" Sir Kay the Seneschal " 96 

The Coming of < Camelot" . . . . 93 


1 i" Round Table " 93 

Opaline Glass Windows at Wickhambn (03 Baro 

Rosenkrantz) 335 

Plate-Maio uza (Italian, Sixteenth Centurj 

M.Li6vre's"M 1 le ' Wallace Collection) . Moil 

Sagittarius from Norman Doorway of Lullington Church, 

Somerset 170 

Scenefrom \lontt Cristo (by J. Harker) 163 

Scene from T/ie Daughters 0} Babylon (by W. Telbi.n) . 

Stained-Glass Windows executed by L. C. Tiff vny, designed 

bj Mi isrs. Bonnard, Ibels, ind Ranson). . 70 H 
I leoi ge and I hi I Iragon Mosaic in thi Ho 

; . J. Pol • n B, P.R.A.) in 

Tile ■ (by Lew is F. Day) G 

" Venetian Gothic' Filling 221 

Wood-Carvings it Carpenters Hall: 

('areed and [nlo id Foi over (b I 1 . IG8 

I Clock Case (bj Make Rogi rs, Jun) 168 



P1IENS) . 


Fragn ury work . 

.1,7:. Adolphi 

"On theDu 

' Past and Future" 

" The Orphanage at Katwyk ... 
' The Pet Lamb" .... 

"The Poo ii, 1 Katwyk" 

"The Propos il" 

"Women in a Potato Field' 

I'h,- St. Mori 

"The Young Foscari" 

'■•■it. D. Y. " Daisy ' . . . 

( onstable, J.— "Study of an 1 1 
Cotman, J.—-' Town in Holland' .... 
( 'ox, 1'u fit! 

" Beckenham Church "... 

"The Skirts of the Foresl ". 
David—" Napoleon I." . ... 

Davidson, A. D.—" Adam and Eve Driven oul of the< 

of Eden 

Eland, J S. -•' Head from Life" 

Engl heart, J. 1>. " Richard 1 

Goya, P.— "Dona Isabel Cobosde Porcel 

Gordon, A lex.—" The Blacksmith's Shop" . 

Guthrie, J Wat-tin ' 

Hull, if. P.- Sketch for Forest Scene . 

Hals, Franz-" Peter Tiarck" .... 

Har ourt, (?< orgi 

"Mrs, Fairfax-Lucj and Her Son '. 

" Portrait, A". . . 

Psyche: Fa revt ell" 

"The Li per - \\ ife 


Hi (•/ 11 r, Profi ssor Hub, rt, R.A. 

" The Duke of I tevonshire" ... 

' I he Last Muster" 

Holbein, Hans -Two Portraits 

Hunt, William—' Devotion 

Haul. W. Holman—" The Scapegoat " . 
Inchbold, J. IV,—" The Moorland (Dewi 
Joy, George II". — 

" A Baby Bedouin" 

"Christ and the Little Child" (unfinished) . 
lodamia ' 

" Lear and Cordelia " 

" The Bayswatcr Bus' 

"The King's drum shall m 1 1 


1 ■ Duck" 

Landseer, Sir /.'.. /.' .1. "Titaniaand Bottom 
Lawrence, Sir Thomas, I'. I!. A "Mrs. Siddi 
/;. ll\. A.R.A. " Departing Da] 
on. Lord, P.R.A. "Cymon and Iphigcnia" ■ 
I. huh,'!. ./. "(in Summer Eve by Haunted Stream" 

"Sj n ntation of the Ci in iflxion 

Portrait .... 

" The Spy " 

. Mil/,,,,. Sir J. /■:.. Bart, P.R.A.- 

" Joan of Arc" 

■ Jo ii ighl " 


I I," " A I 1 1 iC, N OUtll ' . ... 

Mill t, F. ■" B 1 CwoFi 

1 ir. ./. " Dredging on the Mcdway" 
A" 11 »".■■■■ 

■■ Angels oi the Night 

" I 'cacock - • 

The Blind II ... 

Phillip, John 

Poyntcr, Sir /•:. J., P 


'■ Idle \\-iu~ " . 




PAINTINC; 1 . pace 

Foynter, Sir /•: ./.. r.ll A. (amtinuei):- 

■ The We of March" 114 

" When the World was Young " 117 

Praga, Vfrcd " A Miniature in Three Stages 87,88 

/ rout, S. "Nuremberg ' . ■ 31G 

Robertson, W. Graham— "A Hospital Decoration". 333 

Roche, A.. J. U.S.A. -"Lady Reid" 

Prouvi, Victor " iGalhi ...... 249 

Raphael •" Sistine Madonna ' 106 

Riviere, Briton, R.A. " The Magician's Doorwaj . - 125 

etti, it. a. "La Bella Mano" 123 

' . '.. /,■ I. "G "i re i\ when Prince of V\ ales ' . 189 

Sambcruer, Leo " Professor Franz Stuck " . . . 153 

Schiavoni indrea—" Jupiter and Seni :le' ... 110 
Segantini, Giovanni 

•(in the Balcony" 31 

"Ploughing in the Engadine" 27 

P ii of the Artisl 25 

Tlie Upine Shepherds" 29 

i i Inge] of Life" 26 

Pin Retribution of Unnatural Mothers" .... 28 

"The Shcepfold " 2S 

Seitei, Watanabe " A Branch of Persimmon Fruit " ■ 173 
Shantwn, .'. J.— 

" .Ins f 1 1 r ■ Unroll " 5 

" Sir Henry Irving as Louis XI." 2 

"Spol Rod " 3 

"TheDoll" 1 

"The Squirrel" 3 

Smart J., U.S.A. "Strathearn" . 331 

Stiiclc, Professor Fran 

Love" . . .156 

'Samson 158 

Sin ' 157 

"ThcSphinx" 151 

"War" 155 

Turner, J M. W., U.A.- 

" The Approach to Venice " 285 

" Venus and Adonis," or " Departure for the Chase" . 319 

Vincent, George •" Greenwich Hospital " 317 

Walker, Fred, A.R.A.—" The Bathers" . . . . 128 

Watteau.A. " The Music Lesson " 296 

Watts, G /•'. R.A.- 

" Bianca" 207 

"Diana and Endymion" 201 

"Hon. Mrs. Percy Wyndham" 201 

'Hope 208 

" Life, Death, and Judgment " 206 

" Lord Tennyson 205 

" Love and Death " 204 

" Orpheus and Eurydice " 203 

" Paola and Francesca ' 2(12 

"Peace and Goodwill" 210 

"The Habil does nol make the Monk " 209 

Wells, E. F. "A Farm ' 230 


Alma-Tadema, L., R.A. . ... 

i : .ii nard, The late Fred 

Beard lej Soibrej (bj Himself) .... 

Boyce, The laic. G. P., R.W.S 

Bright, John (by Sir J. E. MtlXAis, Barl . P R.A.) 
Campbell, .Mrs. Patrick (by Aubrey Bbardsley) 

Cruikshank, G. (by Himself) 

De Porcel, Dona Isabel Cobos (by F. Goya) . 
Ii. I'onshire, Duke ol (bj II. Herkomer, R.A.) . 

Du Maurier, The late George 

i ialli i mile (by Victor Prouvf.) ■ 

IV. when Prince or VVales(by J. Russell R.A.) 
Harcourt, George (by Himself) .... 

Hiles, Bartram (bj Himself) 

Hoffman, Joseph (by J. J. Sh vnnon, A.R.A.) . 

Irving, Sir Henry, as I is XI. (by J. J. Shannon A R.A 

■larks,, ii. T. G., H.A. • • ... 

Jenkins, F. Lynn (by Lawrence Koe) . 

. I Himself) .... 

Meissonier, J. L. E. (bj Himself) .... 


Menzel, Adolph (by Rudolph Lehmanx) .... 

Moira, Gerald E. (by Laurence Koe) 

- Morris, The late William 

Napoleon I. (by David) 

Parsons, Alfred, A.R.A 

Poynter, Sir E. .1 , I'll. A. (Etching by Alpiionse Li gros 
(by Himself) .... 

Reinhardt, ('. S., The late 

Reid, Lady (by A. Roche, A.R S.A.) 

Rossetti, Mrs. W. M . and Daughter (by !•'. Madox Brown 

Segantini, Giovanni (by Himself) 

Shannon, J. J.. A.R.A. (by Prince Troubetzkoy) . 
Sheridan, Richard Brinslej (bj J. D. I toleheart). 
Siddons, Mm. (by sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A.) . 

St. Cyres, Lord(by W. Rothenstein) 

Snick, Professor Franz (by Leo Samberger) . 

Thompson, The late J. Pyke 

Tennyson, Lord (by G. F. Watts, R.A. 

Wan,. G. F., R.A 

Wilhelm, C 

Wyndham, Hon. Mrs. 1'. (by G. I 1 '. Watts. I:, a.) . 



Charpentier, Gustave— Door-Plates 268, 269 

Cheret, Jules Decorative Plaque 270 

Colton. W — Fountain 10 

Delia Querela, Jacopo - 

Panel, "Adam and Eve after the Expulsion from Eden ' 52 

Dupri, G.—" Orestes " 232 

Evelyn, E.- Holl Memorial, St. Paul's 288 

hi, mil, inn. (.'.. A.R.A. -The Keene Memorial, Shepherd's 

Bush 342 

Gauquie, Henri The Watteau Memorial 220 

Leiois, Alfred E.-" Morning" 13 

Mackennal, Bertram— Table Lamp 15 

Mercer, SZeanor -Modelled Design for Punch-Bowl . . 39 

Mhatre, G. K. "To the Temple' 313 

Min,,,. Georges "Penance'" 216 

Pomeroy, F. W.— 

Bronze Panel for Gates of Baptistery, Welbcck . . . 33 

Burns Statue ^H 

Overdoor (Coloured Plaster) 33 

Reynolds-Stephens, II". Letter-Plate 33 

Rollins. Wenlock-Groxiv for New General Hospital, Bir- 
mingham . 102 

Sagittarius from Norman Doorway, Lullington Church, 

Somerset 170 

Stap, < 11, 1 'harh s van der— 

" For auld lang syne " ■ .213 

" The Chimtera and the Maiden " 214 

" The Chimaera and the Mother " 214 

" The Chimaera and the Youth " . . 211 
Walker, A. <?.- 

Alms Dish 102 

Bull and Lion for Tower Finials 101 

Buttresses lor the Church of the Society of the Agapemone l»l 
Eagle anil Angel for Tower Finials of Church of Hie 

Agapemone I'd 

Willianison, F. J.— "The Duke of Cambridge" . 110 


Tin, River Ayr (by S. Reid):— 

Ayr Mouth 

The Ayr above Muirkirk 

The Ayr, Auchincruive 

The Ayr. Ballochmylc 

The Ayr, Barskimming 

The Ayr, Sorn 

Tin- Ayr : The I lam 

Tin-. Wanderings of the T'AMAR(by John Fit.i.w 

Cargreen, from Clamoak 


Morwell Hocks 

New Bridge on the Tamar 

The Ilanniaze, from Saltash ... 

Weir Quay .... 


The Magazine of Art, 



THE argument which at the present time we hear 
so frequently advanced, that a conspicuous 
degree of technical facility is not within the reach of 
any artist who lias nol undergone a course of train- 
ing in a Continental studio, is curiously disproved 

appreciation of the exact value of each one, and 
with an extremely intelligent judgment of the 
manner in which they aid him to realise his Eesthetic 
intention. He is, in fact, a manipulator with excep- 
tional sense of technical fitness, a worker whose 

(Drawn by Prince T, 

by the history of Mr. J. •'. Shannon's career. 
Among all our younger artists there is scared} one 
whose mastery over materials and grasp of execu- 
tive difficulties can be said to equal his. He paints 
with astonishing ease and certainty, with the most 
straightforward recognition of what is necessary 

technical skill curries him very far indeed in the 

directii f success, and gives him pictorial results 

of a quite memorable kind. 

\, i this skill is in no sense the product of 
foreign training. The onlj teai hing thai Mr. 
Shannon has had was obtained in this i ountry, and 

in the way of bnishwork to express the subject even that was neithei exhaustive nor prolonged. 

on which he may be engaged; and he nsi - the de He came here, when he was sixteen yi 

vices of the painter's practice with a distinctly rare America of which country he is a native, foi he was 



born at Auburn, in the Stair of New York, in L862. models, and of a valuable collection of art-examples 

His original intention was to study in London for a from which he could derive much of the information 

couple of years only, and then In return; but cir- in search of which he came. So for three years 

cumstanees led him to modify his plans; and the he worked there steadily and consistently. Not 

rapid growth of his reputation directly bis scl 1- many months after his first appearance in the school 

days were over induced him to take up permanently he was admitted into the life-r i I" paint from the 

his abode among us. What earlier artistic experi- nude: and so excellent was the progress he made in 

,,,„.,. |„, | i;i ,i stored up during his boyh I was ac- Ibis most important branch of study that he took 

quired by copying whatever pictures came within during his second year a gold medal for a painting 
his reach, ft chanced 

that there were in the 
town in which be lived 

Copies ef seme of I.lllld- 
seer's works and a cer- 
tain number of accessible 
originals by other artists 
of less note : and these 
canvases he was con- 
st si tidying and 
striving to reproduce. 
This was at best, a de- 
sultory suit ef educa- 
tion, and as there was 
nil other member of bis 
family to whom he could 
turn For assistance or 
guidance in his artistic 
endeavour, it is quite in- 
telligible thai he .should 
have recognised very 
promptly that some more 
systematic and thorough 
foundation for future 
proficiency was neces- 
sary. 'I'o eel the facili- 
ties I hat were not open 
to him at home lie came 
across the Atlantic, but he 
knew In-fore he started 
what were the oppor- 
tunities that, hi' was in 

{A Sh,:tch by J. J. Shannon.) 

f the figure, and a few 
months later was suffi- 
cielltly Well advanced to 
iicccpt and successfully 
perforin a commission to 
paint a. portrait of the 
Hon. Horatia Stopford, 
one of the Maids of 
Honour. This picture 
was, by command of the 
Queen, exhibited al the 
Academy in 1.881. 

From this date on- 
wards, Mr. Shannon has 
continued to show in all 
the chief galleries a 
quite remarkable array 
of canvases. He began 
independent work in a 
studio of bis own directly 
his three years' si inly at 
South Kensington was 
over, and bad to wait 
but a very short time 
before the unusual ex- 
tent of bis capacities 
began to be generally re- 
cognised. His first suc- 
cesses were made with 
portraits of ladies, but 
the picture which placed 
him at unci' in the front 

search of. and how he intended to turn to account rank of the younger painters was .his admirable 

the materia] that he proposed to collect. full-length of "Henry Vigne, Esq.," painted in 

It was, perhaps, curious that he should have 1887. This was a. piece of work which would 

chosen the Smith Kensington School, with iis un- have done credit to an artist whose knowledge 

inspired system and incomplete methods of leach- and executive capacity bad been matured by a 

ing, as the place in which to work out his idea, of lifetime of strenuous effort; as the production of 

an art-education; but his decision is not so sur- a youth who was barely twenty-five, it was quite 

prising if we remember that what he desired was not extraordinary. There was no sign about if of 

so much a, seh ..I in which he would be subject to juvenile suggestion that the artist 

frequent supervision, as a practising place in which responsible for it had left scl 1 little more than 

he could put to the test definite convictions already live years before. In sense of design, in appre- 

well I'm d in his mind without being unduly in- ciation of character, in its easy draughtsmanship 

terleieil with by professors with strong and firmly and masterly execution, and above all in the ex- 
fixed opinions of their own. At South Kensington ceptional judgment of pictorial essentials which it 
sure of a good selection of casts, of living revealed, it was worthy to rank among the greater 


portraits of this century. It secui 
Shannon, as, indeed, is not at all su 
immediate access of commissions; a 

id to Mi 
prising, ai 

(From the Painting bg J. J. Shannon.) 






gained for him many foreign distinction 
the chief were three First Class Medals i 
Exhibition, and at Berlin and Vienna 
portrait, a full-length of "Mis. Charleswi 
brought him a. medal at the Chicago Exhibition 
he was awarded two years ago at Munich an 
medal I'm' a group "I' contributions. 

He has with these exceptions exhibited little 
abroad. Last year I'm- tin' first time lie sent to the 
Champ de Mais Salon some examples "I' his work, 
all portraits, " Josef Hoffman," " Mrs. J. .1. Shannon," 
"Mrs. Magniac," and "(i. Hitchcock, Esq.;" but 
these practically complete, up to the presenl . i he li i 
of his efforts to gain For his British reputation a 
foreign endorsement. On the other hand, he lias 
kept well in touch with all the art-movements in 

this country. He was one of th.- original members 
of the New English Art Club and he was an active 
supporter of the Societ} of British Artists dm 
brief period of enlightenment under Mr. Whistler's 
presidency. To the New Gallery, the Grafton 
(lallery.and the Institute of Painters in Oil-Colours, 
"I' which society he is a member, In has been a con- 
stant contributor : and though he has generallj 

represented in the various exhibitions bj | ail 

he has on occasions not abstained from digressions 
into subject-painting. 

In the recently shown selection from Ins pictures 
which occupied during part of June and Jul] one 

of the in- of the Fine An Society, both sides of 

his capacity were sufficiently well illustrated. The 
opportunity of seeing once again his portraits of 
Mi-. Vigne, Herr Poznansld, and the Marchioness 
of Granby was very welcome; and Ids "Josef Hofl 
man," with its excellent deftness of handling and 


Painting by J. J. Shannon.) 


effective breadth of light and shade, made an accept- 
able reappearance : but to most people there was 
more satisfaction in having presented to them such 
comparatively uovel evidence of Ins versatility as 

any sense a copyist of any other painter. He is 
clearly in sympathy with the men who. like 
Velasquez in the past and Mr. Whistler ami Mr. 
Sargent in the present, have found tin- surest road to 

was afforded by the quaint treatment: of his " Babes 
in the Wood," two little Dutch children set against 
a background of slender tree-trunks, or by tin- grace 
of pose ami delicacy of colour which distinguished 
his "Spot Red." " The Squirrel," too. was a fascinat- 
ing study of child-life, charming in its gesture, very 
easy and spontaneous in its lines, and in colouring 
delightfully subtle and harmonious. "The Doll" 
was another happy record of infancy treated with 
something of the refinement of colour scheme which 
gave pari of their charm to the canvases on which 
Velasquez depicted his dainty Infantas. The 
arrangement of the faded pinks, the silvery greys, 
and ashy blacks of Mr. Shannon's picture was 
certainly reminiseenl of the great Spanish artist's 
met hod. 

Yet Mi. Shannon cannot be pronounced to be in 

technical success in the use of absolute straight- 
forwardness of manipulative statement', but he has 
his own way of looking at nature, and a thoroughly 
individual manner of expressing what he sees. 
There is no affectation of extraordinary cleverness, 
nor any striving unnecessarily after demonstrative 
modes of handling, in his productions. He has never 
fallen into the vicious habit of preferring mere 
executive animation to sound and intelligible paint- 
ing. If his subject is one that calls for vivacity he 
treats it with freedom and readiness of touch : if one 
that needs sobriety he is quieter and more restrained. 
In all cases there is well-preserved congruity between 
the matter and the manner of his pictures. The 
chief merit of his style is its directness, its frank 
attention to what is requisite for the proper repre- 
sentation of nature's fads, and its discreet avoidance 


of what is only superfluous and ornamental. At the 
same time it does not err in the direction of rugged- 
ness or want of refinement, for one of its main 
characteristics is a certain scholarly completeness, 
which without approaching pedantic elaboration 
satisfies every uecessity of real finish. As he has 
a< Idi :d to his experience and widened the area of his 
practice he has increased his power of making plain 
his meaning without excess of Labour, and has 
developed a method of brushwork that is exception- 
ally free from either affectation or uncertainty. In 
"Josef Hoffman" and "The Doll," his ability to gain 
fulness of form and a sufficiency of detail by simple 
technical means is very adequately illustrated ; while 
his rapid character sketch of "Sir Henry Irving as 
Louis XI." shows with what expressiveness of hand- 
ling he can state a few salient points that do not de- 
pend for their meaning upon adjuncts and aeeessoi ies. 
As a colourist he is full of variety. He ranges 
over a considerably wide area, and dues not limit 
himself to conventional combinations such as satisfy 

I ften even the most celebrated portrait-painters. 

Perhaps his chief preference is for comparatively 
low tones, but it is a preference that is distinctly 

open to frequent modification. The contrast, for 
instance, between his "Spot Bed," with its gentle 
gradation of warm greys and browns, and the vigor- 
ously effective prismatic colouring of " In the Sp 
time," wherein he has given at its full force the 
chromatic violence of sunlight shining on masses of 
fruit-blossoms, is as definite as it could well be made; 
and there is something of the same diffi 
between the sobriety of the "Josef Hoffman," and 
the bizarre juxtaposition of strange hues which is 
characteristic of the " Sir Henrj [rving 'sketch. In 
colour, as in handling, he has the discretion to 
adapt himself to circumstances, and he avoids by 
what seems to be unerring instinct any lapse into 
those commonplaces which are so many pitfalls 
in the way of the heedless painter. He is, in fact, 
the happv possessor of qualities which set him 
markedly apart, an artist who has at the same time 
originality, power of expression, and judgment in 
selection. He has already learned the facts of art, 
and the fancies are coming to him more and more 

plentifully as years g so we may fairly expect 

from him many fresh developments. There are few 
men among us from whom so much seems possible. 

{From tin- Painting by J. J. Shannon.) 

(Designed by Conrad Dressier.) 


ANEW industry has been established at Birken- or accents of rich colour which would still with- 
head of so distinctly artistic a nature that stand the effects of the English climate in 
it is with pleasure we call attention to it. The _^ external as well as in- 

i object its |>i ters, Mr. Harold Rathl HPWVNHPB l ' 01 " :l1 namentation 

and Mr. Conrad Dressier, was the revival of a KsKJ^EiS^B would he of supreme 
modelled "lazed or enamelled earthenware with K^[^Vf^fcM V;lIlR ' '" li - llU ' nil1 - "l 1 

coloured grounds for purposes of architectural deeo- ^^B t ' K ' rat '"' r s »hYn and 

smoky buildings of our 
great cities. It has 
already been proved to 
some extent what a 
telling effect the tiling 
to window garden 
boxes imparts to many 

of the large mansions 
which otherwise possess 

such an extraordinary 
similarity, and this 
practice might be very 
considerably developed 
with a constant variety 

Of design and colour 

which would be a. 
source of pleasure to 
the passers-by and those 
who inhabit the neigh- 
bourhood, friezes with 
figure or floral design, 
ration after the manner of the faienct of the great or panels in Low relief 
Italian family of Delia Robbias, who nourished in let into the ordinary 
Florence at the time of the Renaissance. The white tiling with simple 
introduction into architectural schemes of bands hands of green or red 




colour, might be made 
considerable use of. 
Fountains in this 
material might also be 
introduced into some 
of the new restaurants 
or large hotels, and add 
a character of charm 
and entertainment like 
one is aware of in the 
foreign cities. This use 
of enamelled earthen- 
ware is certainly more 
suitable than the struc- 
tural use, as surface 
that is glassy is apt to give one a certain 
confidence as to its service of strength 
manence. The setting-in of tiling, say. 


the standard of design- 
ing as high as possible, 
but more often in- 
vented by the pupils, 
whom ii is the i 
nf the working mana- 
ger tn see Iiii\\ far he 
can Let alone — in order 
in bring out —the full 
fancy and originality of 
each individual worker; 
though every care is 
taken that the best 
principles oi design are 
want of preserved as well as may be. It was the object thus 
and per- to make the articles in everyday use comely and 
blue and entertaining in shape, design, and colour treatment, 



white, into the woodwork of an 
introduction of tall panel- in 
form other legitimate uses of 
would supply a valuable note of 
the same scheme of 
decoration in the dra- 
peries and wall hang- 
ings, or Mime treatment 
which would equally 
well harmonise with 
the blue and white. 
Together with the ar- 
chitectural works has 
been carried on a pot- 
tery for the produc- 
tion of line shapes and 
colours with a good 

deal of work ill tin' 

sgraffito treatment on 

Ike 'model of the old 

Italian workers — w ith 
design s occasionally 
taken from the old 

overmantel, or the 
the side pilasters, 
this material, and 
colour to continue 

so that thus tl 
comparative air 

dishes thai one 

by Sandro Botti 


e ordinary meal would have the 
if a banquet like those beautiful 
sees in the pictures of banquets 
vlli and others, where, a- in the 
feast "f Peleus 
own Sir Edward 
Bume-Jones, the .-. nse 
of beauty is app 
to, and oni 
aware how lovely is 

the fruit itself. Mar- 
malade pels (with a 

hole for the S] n) 

and porridge plates, 
and muffin 
dishes, and mill. 

imt to mention the rose 
and inkstands 

doir. Nothing could lie 

n a desseit 



servii e in i Ms sgraffito 
i real ment, and it is a 
source of grief to the 
manager thai the ware 
is used so much more 
freely for merely de- 
corative purposes than 
for absolute daily use. 
( >ne of the last letters 
written by Lord Leigh- 
ton, P. I! A., was in 
reference to the 1 >ella 
Robbia pol I ery, and 
dwelt very much on 
this principle. He 
wrote : — "I h av e 
learned with greal 
satisfaction that you 

do < fine yourself 

to the production of 
pieces destined wholly 
for decoration, but have 

grasped the vital principle that the chief object of a 
manufacture of this kind must be, if it is to thrive, 
the application of artistic qualities to objects of 
ordinary domestic use. It was this principle which 
gave to the work of the Greeks in ancient days, and 
to that df other European nations in the Middle Ages, 
that distinction and beauty which are our envy and 
admiration to this day." 

Employment is found at the Birkenhead Pot- 
teries fur many young people of both sexes who 
show artistic taste, and, in curious contradistinction 
tn Mr. Heikomer's statement at the Eistedfodd last 
summer, it is found that those with the most highly 
gifted colour sense are of Celtic origin from the 
north of "Wales. The best of their colourists is 
Miss Hannah Jones, who has undoubtedly influenced 
the wiiil; of the other girls at the Pottery. There 
is, too, a Welsh boy employed who never had a 
drawing lesson in his life, hut who took the gold 

(Designed by Miss Ropes.) 

cross fur originality of 
design in pottery at 
the Home Arts and 
Industries Exhibition 
last year. This lad is 
also clever at throw- 
ing, ha n dl i hl;', a nd 
modelling; and is at 
present employed dip- 
ping the red clay ves- 
sels into the white slip. 
Another designer of 
striking originality is 
Miss A. Pierce, whose 
sister.Miss Lena Pierce, 
produced some beauti- 
ful and romantic de- 
signs before her early 

There is reproduced 
on this page a design 
of a "Guardian Angel," 
by .Miss Hopes, of London, wdiose work is found to 
lie peculiarly adaptable to Delia Robbia methods. 
Mr. Annine Bell and Mr. Charles Allen, at the 
Liverpool College, are producing pupils whose work 
promises well for future use. It is hoped to ex- 
tend the work for architectural purposes. At 
present two panels have been placed mi a private 
house in Liverpool, representing a sower and a 
reaper: and an angel — which is. reproduced — for a 
lunette at the house of -Mr. Walter Holland. In 
the Town Hall at Liverpool, on one of the mantel- 
pieces, is a large vase, designed by Mr. Harold Rath- 
bone, Hanked by a pair of vases modelled on the 
lines of the old Pilgrim vases at South Kensington 
Beside these an ingle-nook has been executed for 
Lord Radnor's house at Folkestone. 

The "mark" of the pottery is a ship with 
'D. R." mi either side, signifying that the work is 
produced at a seaport town. 

r*<r 1 faMyapwi<»«qff~*T' n»««"i i 

- - - 


■j Edmund Ratbbone.) 


{Drawn by Aubrey Beardsley.) 


TIIK patient public is always 
thing offered it to live up t< 
was the blue tea-pot : to-day it 
Book and The Savoy. The majority 
ou their stolid way, uncon- 
cerned with the baubles of 
art, but there arc always 
some for whom its esoteric 
mysteries have a charm, and 
who would rather die than 
lag in an up-to-date move- 
ment. These are at present 
agog over the Decadents, 
whose dazzling travesties, in 
Mink and white, of "the 
human face divine" are 
art s latest sensation. 

The hlue tea-put was a 
mild diet for the soul. It 
did not nourish, but it did 
net harm. The Decadents 

supply stronger f 1, but 

they mix it with a poison 
that makes it perilous to 
swallow. This I shall try 
to prove by an analysis of 
the wares of the chief pur- 
veyor, Air. Aubrey Beards- 
ley, ami a glance at the 
genera] characteristics of 

the school. 

Mr. Beardsley might 
adapt the mot of Louis 
XIV., and say, almosl without am 
decadent, e'est moi." In his work 
most complete expression of what is 
movement — disdain of classical trai 
and of (dean traditions in ethic : 1 1 
outlook on the husk of life, and brilliant dexterity tl 


having some- i„ portraying if; also, perhaps, a liner feelina for 
Yesterday it the tools of art than for its materials. 

is The Fellow Mr. BialFHsTey's career has been me ic in 

of course, plod brilliance, yet at present he has all the appearance 

Of a fixed star. He 
oi those in whom genius is 
no smouldering ember, but 

a many-tong I flame. 

While still in an em- 
bryo, he caught and pleased 

the eve of |' ln j s ,|,, (•],.,. 

valines and Si , Edward 
Burne-Jones. It said much 
for his ta lent | hat such 
diverse men combined to 
praise ii. The qualitii 
id led in the 1' 13 were no 
doubt those whii h II 
ton, iii his critical note in 
Vol. II. of Th, Yelloir I: 
eulogises in the man ; 

l reiiie e in\ of means 

. . . the pel feci ion of dis- 
cipline, of self-control, and 
of thoughtful deliberation 
at the \ei\ moment >>i in- 

Beardsley's first big 
woik was 1 he dei oration 
and ilhist ration of \|,, 
Morte d \i 1 Inn." foi 
and 1 In this his hold 

use of Mack and white, 
skilfully rad 

Ti lie. some mai Led ai lii ■. line- 

vas to be looked foi a a result of the 


igance, " L'Arl 
we have the 
typii al of the 

lilions in art, 

|e fll\ c7e sir, I, 

with its 
pable hit 

growing facilities 1 of line work 

I lie oppoi but thai I 

his feal 1 1 all, 



;tn eye bo perceive the obvious. The volume Salome 
left his hands next, and shortly after, in The Yelloio 
Book, he made his bow independently to the public. 
At present he continues to charm by his work in 
Tin Savoy and Pope's Rape of the Lock. 

The more we ponder these works, the more we 
see the justice of Hamerton's criticism. Every- 
where there is the prolific, yet thoughtful and 

iDeslgiiecl bij Aubrey Beardsley.) 

deliberate, invention, and that '"'economy of means" 
which is Mr. Beardsley's great distinction. The 
cover and frontispiece of Vol. I. of the "Morte 
d'Arthur " — his high-water mark, to my thinking, 
— are specially rich in these qualities, and one 
cannot but note, too, the seren e surety of the 
drawing end the superb sense of style. Mr. 
Beardsley's technique is masterly ; it is from the 
spirit of his work that the ureal black, damning 
shadow falls that, to many eyes, is total eclipse. 
A certain grossness, which revolts one even in his 

treat nl of inanimate things, gets free rein in 

his men and women, notably in those of The Yellow 
Book period; of late, in The Savoy and Rape of the 
Lonk, we have joyfully hailed an improvement. 
With regard to the former, lei Hamerton again 
lead off'. His critical note i,, The Yelloio Book, 
which 1 partly quoted, continues thus: "There 

seems to be a peculiar tendency in Mr. Beardsley's 
mind to the representation of types without in- 
tellect and without morals. Some of the most 
dreadfid faces in all art arc to be found in the 
illustrations of the play Salome. We have two 
unpleasant ones here ( Yellow Book, Vol. I.) in 
L'Education Sentimentale. There is distinctly a 
sort of corruption in Mr. Beardsley's art so far 
as its human element is con- 
cerned." This is much from a 
man of Hamerton's moderation, 
and it might be more. There 
is hardly an adjective in the 
dictionary too ugly to sling at 
the hectic vice, the slimy Hasti- 
ness of those faces. And they 
can be pure and glad — some of 
them are— but Beardsley is a 
Decadent, and must do as the 
Decadents do: he must gloat 
upon ugliness and add to it ; 
and when it is not there, he 
must create it. Compare his 
impression of a familiar object — 
Mrs. Patrick Campbell, for in- 
stance — with our own; the 
Beardsley trail is on her face, 
and it is curious to think what 
the Duchess of Devonshire 
would have been in his hands 
instead of Gainsborough's. But 
this fact, while it exasperates, 
has its own comfort for those 
who would see the world fair; 
for if we find an artist be-l 
.smirching his model when we 
can test results by our own ex-j 
perienee, the chances are he is 
always at it, and the ugliness he dresses out for us 
is in his own eye. 

To be a. devout Decadent, too, you must not ^' 
only be wicked; you must be worse — as Pttiicli 
would say — you must be vulgar. Mr. Beardsley 
has a trick" of superimposing one style on another 
— lapancse on mediaeval, mediaeval on Celtic. That 
does not- matter so long as he has the genius to 
unify; but what docs matter is that the ground- 
work of them all should be Cockney, and the 
coster be so prominent in the motifs. "The 
Slippers of Cinderella,'' in Vol. II. of The Yellow 
Book, is Arriet on Ampstead 'Eath done into a 
• lapancse patch, down — or rather up — to the very 
feather on the "donah's" bonnet. In fact. The 
Yellow Him/,' was just a glorified Pick Me Up, and 
both are utterances of the Cockney soul. 

There is nothing easier than to prove a kinship 



between the two. The Yellow Book may be con- 
sidered as a younger brother who, through superior 
educational advantages, has forced himself into good 

society where the family taint, V 



(Drawn by Aubrey Beardsley.) 

liijwn as vulgarity 
at a penny, 
becomes deca- 
dence at five 
shillings. Yet 
the poor rela- 
tion is perhaps 
the better man 
of the two ; 
In' lias pleas- 
ant Cockney 
traits that the 
parvenu lacks, 
a certain sunny 
joie ill' vivre, 
ami a kindly 
humour. In 
London's light- 
er follies, made 
a speciality of 
by such men as 
1 hidley Hardy, 
P h 1 1 M a y , 
Raven Hill, 
this sunny vein 
is to the fore. 
women who trip 
weeklies.'' Such 

It is in most of their men ai 
and .swagger in the popular 
draughtsmen dance to the tune of the letterpress, 
which is seldom a stately measure. They have a 
wonderfully versatile brush, and with one sweep 
describe an are from Pick Mi' Up to Good Words. 
Their feud with the Philistine is no more: they and 
he kiss mutually over posters for soaps and tooth- 
pastes. ( hit' wonders if, on the whole, they do not 
gain by falling short of the dignity of decadence. 

This term, in itself, is rather damning. In- 
stead of an upward mounting to the zenith, it 
suggests tin- downward slope of things to nighl 
and death. The nations ripe and ripe, and when 
they rot and rot, decadence is the tale thai 
hangs thereby. There seems to be, in the story 
of every people, first the battle for life and the 
hardy growth; then tin' early spring voices of 
the poets, and the sound, sweet fruit of art. 
The bloom of the fruit coutinues, hut the plague- 
spol is at thr cure. This spreads till il poisons 
the eater, and the best I hal can befall is some 
si g wind uf change revolution or even ex- 
tinction—to shake it tn earth, that w Irous al- 
chemist who transmutes all decay into now life. 

If we aeeept this figure as illustrative of the 

Decadents, it saves us the difficulty uf a defi- 
nition, hut commits us to rather a sad vii 
our times. I think it is both pleasantei 
truer to see, in thr decadenl movement, ju 
inevitable swing of the pendulum. We have had 
as much corruption before, followed by tin- most 
austere purity. England ha. wonderful rei 
llv '' powers. She has been sick to .loath a dozen 
times, hut oevei dream oi dj ing. She ha 
"f asceticism and a day nf debauch. Con 
and Wycherly were the n n from Milton and 
the Roundheads; and Messrs. Beardsli • 
pany may quite well be the swing I a, k from the 
-mi. 'what emaciated purity nf the Pre-Raphaelites. 
Th.' spirit has had its innings— now I'm the flesh 
and the devil. And. after all, it is a very partial 

Bui there is a happier way still oul uf the 
difficulty. Why nut hoisl th.- Decadents altogether 
off mu shoulders and saddle them on to France ' 


{Drawn by 4ul 

She has a iii.m broad hark I'm- such things, and 

Mi. Beardsley won'l ho the 1 bj many. 

Lei us inig ourselves on our iron constitution, 

,nid the clean hill of In alth wo should have, hut 



for the tainted whiffs from across the Channel 
thai lodge the Gallic germs in our lungs. Our 
Beardsleys have identical symptoms with Verlaine, 
Degas, he Grand, Forain, and might <puite well be 
sick from infectioa II' we are to blame them at 
all, it is only, so to speak, for their trick of 
hanging round Dover, not to hear Matthew 

{Drawn by Aubrey Beardsley. By Permission of Messrs. Dent and Cc 

Arnold's "eternal note of sadness" — the sadness 
of the great soul's baffled longing, echoed by the 
melancholy, long, withdrawing mar of the sea, 
"retreating to the breath of the night-wind,"— but 
lo have news of the cafi-chantant. 

Ought public feeling, then, to run dead against 
the Decadents? — ami do the notice ami praise they 
have won point to a debased standard of criticism 
among us? This is just a paraphrase of the old 
problem, Does art, exist for ait's sake, or as the 
handmaiden of morals? Is beauty enough without 

g Iness? Here, as in everything else, ii is the 

perception of half-truths that halves the world for 
warfare I piti lies its opposing earn] is. If in unity 

we would dwell, we must work our way up earnestly 
from fractional to total surveys. Entire praise, and 
entire blame of men such as Mr. Beardsley, is each 
but a half-estimate. We must apply the half- 
estimates to the corresponding half-achievements, 
and join them by a hyphen before we get the final 
word of truth. Art-critics are apt to err in their 
partial definition of beauty. Ought not 
the term " beauty " to connote all that 
elicits the permanent joy and approval 
of mankind over the whole field of ex- 
perience, both sensuous and spiritual ' 
Each of us is but a unit in the sum 
of being, and can contribute but a 
mite to the sum of beauty. Some may 
try to do it ethically, by pure con- 
duct: some aesthetically, by pure line 
But, while none can be expected to 
emphasise more than one or two 
points in beauty's limitless tield, and 
the tendency George Meredith com- 
plains of in us, to judge works of arl 
by what they are imf, is absurd; still, 
in the emphasis of one point there 
must be no denial of another. Ail 
for art's sake is sound doctrine. The 
first concern of pictorial art is with 
line and colour. It has no more to 
do with preaching than a sunset. 
JVeM-moral it may be as much as it 
pleases, but immoral never. The mo- 
ment it becomes immoral it does con- 
cern itself with ethics, and denies the 
principle of beauty in its moral mani- 
h^JkVjl That art like I'.cardsley's, so exccl- 

^^P.f lenl in technique and so detestable 

Z-&JL pil'il wakes more repugnance than 

praise — proves us a nation stronger 
in ethics than in art. We are true to 
the Teutonic strain in us, and are nol 
Goths for nothing. But there is Latin blood in us 
as well — enough, let us hope, to temper harshness, 
and allow us to give the Decadents the honour 
which is their due. In the externals of art they are 
doing good work', and even their flippancy may 
have its uses, if it jeer us out of conceit with the 
bourgeois sentimentality of the average' painter. 

Hamerton closes his criticism of Mr. Beardsley 
with a kindly hope that he may yet "see a 
better side of human life." Twere a fair hope 
to have realised in us all. There may be a 
better side of life than any of us have yet be- 
held, reserved for the vision of the pure in 
heart, who in < rod's works see God. 



QOME little time since, when certain artists ami bearing the electric globes, and by artists of mark. 
kJ members of the Church foregathered in a small Success in this new branch of arl means understand- 

room to discuss matters concerning their mutual ing its exacting c litions. There an occasions, as 

advantage (but did not) the present writer had the will be shown, when an existing work of an may 

be adapted to ends of 
wli ich i here was no 
forethought. Bui the 
better work must lie 

pleasure of assisting at 
a passage of arms be- 
tween Mr. Holman 
Hunt and a, learned 
prelate who had once 
held a Slade Professor- 
ship. The latter, in a 
speech which was nihil 
ml rem, declared that 
the Cathedral of St. 
Mark was less a house 
of prayer than a mu- 
seum, tilled with the 
spoils of the foes of 
ancient Venice ; more- 
over, that the mosaic 
men had overlaid the 
deep-cut Gothic mould- 
ings of the original 
architects with their 
tessera'. Mr. Hunt with 
difficulty rest rained 
himself, and, speaking 
as an "ancient person," 
with fixed theories, 
traversed the statement. 
The mosaicists desired 
to keep St. Mark's cm 
all-fours with the spirit 
of tin- time. The 
Cut hie revival was an 
example of the nseless- 
ness of applying the 
art of the past to the 
needs of the present. 
Art mil. I adapt itself t 
advancing civilisation. 
The excuse fur this 

tin.' requiremen 

ing prelude is thai Ah 

(Designed by Alfred E. Lewis.) 

f ever I 

Eolman Hunt's remarks arc very pertinent to n 
subject. Electricity, at hast electric illumination, 
is in its infancy. It demands the assistance of 
art to add a beautiful setting to its utility. The 

begun with the id. a 
that its proportions w ill 

lint he perfect until 

the luminous globes are 
added. Electric lighl 
is pliant in the ai 
hands, in a fashion 

those wlin hav ily 

dealt with nil and wax 
cannot imagine. It can 
he manipulated in any 
position, vertical, hori- 
zontal, diagonal : il can 
be uprighl in the watch- 
man's lantern, drop as a 
stamen From the heart 
of a fuchsia, or fall 

parallel with the base 
from which its Liunci 
springs, as the yellow 
centre of a margin rite 

There are 01 i 

two elementary facts 
which must he ob- 
served. The firsl is the 

Of the hlass rilie 
which holds the globe, 
ill. ei.,, ml is it 
of the actual crystal 
containing tin light, 
which 1 1 1 . i \ I"' of any 
ransparent or even semi-transparent matei I 

" electrolier " may 1 F anj izi hul musl nol he 

too minute, oi you gel a gem of lighl in a hit 
,,l /„ ic-A-brac and not the luminoi 
ordinary lamp. 

There w ill he no gi le of 

which the streets are nol lighted bj electric light, 

opportunity for fine and novel work seems to have excepl London, which i- I I conservative, 

occurred to very few English i tellers. In Paris and has an unintelligent aversion to die acceptance 

ii is otherwise: exquisite figures and designs have of the changes effected by civilisation. She compares 

been obviously conceived with the intention of in enlightenmenl tno unfavi ibly with pi 




cities such as Liverpool, which great port, by reason 

of the va-et-vient of the oceanic service, is in inti- 
mate relation with the States, 
learning thereby all the latest 
inventions, many of them of 
much municipal utility. 

This new form of municipal 
illumination opens out indefin- 
able opportunities for the de- 
corative artist, if the eyes of 
the authorities can be opened 
to the hideousness of the pre- 
sent lamp-post. One seaside 
town to my knowledge has 
/m}k secured a handsome form of 

, f H electrolier; but, of course, it 

; ,v is of one type, and wherever 

it occurs is like a repeating 
decimal. In Utopia every 
lamp-post, to adhere to the 
two Saxon words, will be a 
work of art differing in de- 

It is across the Atlantic 
that we must look for the 
greatest and noblest electrolier, 
to Bartholdi's colossal figure 
of Liberty, designed to find 
completion of symmetry in the 
N great globe 
a of light it 
bears aloft, 
stan d i n g 

illuminating the sea-way for the 

come-and-go of the maritime 

commerce of all nations to the 

greatest port on earth ; the gift 

of the most important Republic 

in the Old World to the most 

important Republic in the New, 

in token of international amity. 
It is, however, with humbler 

and more everyday matters that 

this essay must concern itself. 

In many of the houses of the 

greal the chambers are lighted 

with the soft radiance of elec- 

tricity from sources unrevealed. 

It is so at Stafford House, the 

London home of the Duke and 

Duchess of Sutherland, one of the most splendid 

places in the kingdom, of which rumour has it Her 

Majesty, on coming from Buckingham Palace to visit 

the late Duchess, said, "I come from my house to 

your palace." And here the lambent globes are 

with difficulty discovered, hid by the golden cornice 
which runs round the dome-like ceiling. 

A still better method for the suffusion of a gentle 
but powerful light is the Cuthbert light, so called 
from the surname of its inventor. A bronze plate 
of classic form, with a straight rim ami concave 
centre, holds the invisible luminant. This plate is 
suspended by three chains. This new light was seen 
in the greatest possible perfection on the completion 
of its installation in the great hall of the Union 
Lank in the City. 

On this page is an example of a piece of work 
by Mr. Bertram Mackennal, wdiose two great works, 
" Circe " and last year's seated figure — which for 
brevity we may call a Rahab — drew wondering and 
admiring eyes. Mr. Mackennal has the prettiest 
and most charming fantasy in producing excellently- 
modelled liliputian figures. In the present case the 
figure is accroupie; the legs so drawn up that they 
are vertical from ankles to knees, which are clasped 
by the crossed hands of her extended arms. The 
back of the maid, which is beautiful in curve, is sup- 
ported by what may be the stem, which forms a 
handle, of the fiat leaf-like surface, whose three 
points, turned down, lift the whole from the ground. 
Between wings a bizarre imagination which is 
neither griffin nor snake, but something of both, 
bears on its head an electric globe. The design from 
which the illustration is taken is rather small, but it 



(Designed by Maillard. Fro. 

Bellman and luey.) 

d by Bertram Mackennal.) 

could be enlarged. It only remains to point out the 
distinction which marks the perfect setting on of the 
head and the felicitous handling of the hail'. 

Mr. Alfred E. Lewis is a direct disciple of Mr. Al- 
fred Gilbert, R.A. On many of the young the Gilbert 


signature is stamped; on none 
more so than on this young artist, 
who has designed some abso- 
lutely Gilbertian yacht-race 
cups. American sportsmen last 
year discovered his gift in this 
direction, and were his consider- 
able patrons. He also designs 
small figures, dragons, and ser- 
pents for door-knockers, and is 
master of all that appertains 
to the uses for which metal can 
be fitly made decorative for 
the home Mr. Alfred Lewis's 
" Morning " is the dainties!, 
electrolier we have ; the little 
figure is exquisite in uncon- 
scious grace of pose, modelled 
with a delicacy no English 
sculptor could surpass, and ab- 
solutely without sign of labour. 
One is convinced that there 


supports and harmonises with 
it in subtlety of feeling. So de- 
lightful is the perfection of the 
balance of the globes, and ad- 
mirable the way in which they 
are disposed, so very much 
pleasanter than the insul 
fashion of an arm always hold- 
ing up a tin, sufficienl weight, 
that we may resl assured it 
sprang entire as it is now into 
conception al the first. 

There i< just so much sus- 
picion of Allied Gilbert, as one 
mi-lit suppose that Mr. Lewis's 
art would have been some tin e 
reaching its present expression it 
thatgreat masterhadnevei lived. 
It is quite possible to believe 
that Mr. Allied Gilberl has ex- 
perimented with the new luillill- 

ant, but, he i\m^ uot \\ei k on 


(Tor Midd Hull, Ripley. 

By IV. Starkie-Gardne. 

(.From Perru and So.,s, ) 

were many experi- 
mental models before 
consummation of 
beauty was reached. 
The nymph grew 
swiftly into the per- 
fection of her charm 
and intensely feminine 
seductiveness, with 
just that touch which 
litis her out of the 
sphere of humanity. 
The refinement and 
culture which are suf- 
fused Over the entire 
dell: I -rush S) mmetll 

cal figure culminate in 
a note of the highest 
distinction. The de- 
coral ive arrangement 
against which she is 
seated expresses the 
last word of elegant 
simplicity spontane- 
onsness, liveliness of 

thOUght ; While ll ;n 

rests noattent ion from 
thefigure,i( completely 

chance, and is tully 
employed on commis- 
sions of clients whose 
copyrights he respects 
too much for publica- 
tion, even if there were 
no other reason. His 
artist-rel icenee is 
doubtless to his 

With Mr. J. M. 
Swan, A.E.A., tin' un- 
expected has occurred: 
he has modelled one 
of t hose exquisit e 

little Willises with 

which his painting- 
room abounds, and 
mounted her on a 
miniature earth of red 
crystal, an inversion 
which is delightful and 
bizarre. The original 
was designed For Mr. 
Stuart Samuel, For his 
dining room table. 

In ic\ iew ing some 
sculpture galleries and 


(Attributed to Ohibirti. Ptrry and Som. ) 



places where electroliers are sold, there is one 
important note— almost all the work is French; 
but some is English, and extremely good in its 
way. The one quality English work never possesses 
is that untranslatable roguish little attribute, chic,or 
at least cachet. However commonplace the design 
—mid some oi them are that — there is always this 
unconscious quantity to redeem French statuettes. 



(from Killer and Co.) 

At Bellman, Ivey, and Carter's, always in the 
van of art, is the draped figure of a graceful 
maiden, standing delightfully at ease, with a figure 
which expresses the plump and perfectly wholesome 
robust vigour of a slow and gentle adolescence. 
The sparseness and novelty of the charming exotic 
plant gives a corresponding simplicity and unity, 
with its admirably disposed and weighted globes 
to contain the light. So popular is tins figure, 
we find it in every gallery. 

Perhaps the most vivacious, and fullest of life and 

of the quick movement of advance, is the statuette of 

" La. Foudie," by Maillard (see p. 14). The figure is 

sufficiently garbed, with drapery which crosses the 

lower part of the body, and passing up the back 

appeals by her side under the uplifted arm. volant 

in a graceful curve. A little above her head in her 

left hand she carries the light, while in her right 

hand, which hangs alertly at her side, she holds a 

conventional zigzag of forked lightning: 

part of her holt has already struck the 

earth, which smokes in reply. " La 

Foudre " is a flesh Alfred de Musset 

ideal jiitni de velours, muscles d'acier. 

Many beautiful schemes for electric 
illumination at Messrs. Benson's are 
palpitatingly modern. The designs are 
their own. They are all purely deco- 
rative in the simple elements: a few 
flowers are introduced, hut most of 
them are expressed in brilliant, novelty 
of line and grace of curve: the spiral 
is again and again used with the hap- 
piest effect. It is impossible to credit 
the flamboyance of result produced by 
their simple methods, or the piquancy 
of acute multiplication of sharp angles 
and zigzags which are as artistic as 
bizarre. There are globes which swing 
with more than the grace of the fuchsia, 
by slender hut beautifully wrought 
chains, as strong as they are dainty, 
quite superfluously charming in effect. 
Double curves that turn upwards are 
capable of captivating handling. In a 
word, they are quaint, striking, indi- 
vidual; akin to the work of the new 
r - ' English Art Club, unlike anything seen 

outside the gallery, the poetry of the 
mathematical line, evasive of description, 
and exhausting the beautiful metals in 
variety of tone. It is delightful so 
entirely to escape from the French. 

At Faraday's there is much sump- 
tuous work. One of the most beautiful 
things here, and of the newest design, 
is a trio of rains' heads connected by loops or 
curves of chain of graduated spheric oval heads. 
At Verity's, electroliers are almost entirely from 
Paris; and here we find the figure, both draped 
and undraped, which Bellman, Carter, and Ivey 
have found SO popular. 

At Ferry and Sons' mi boite de surprises 
awaited US, < 'arriere - Belleuse has a. large and 
fully-fleshed Eros, modelled, with unctuous ampli- 
tude, of a bronze with a sheen ami bloom on its sur- 
face I'm I he figure should have been Hercules, the 



column, with a twining 
spray of roses and an 
heraldic wreath at the 
base, all in ormolu. 

gulden brazier with the is a seated figure of a child-angel in bronze the 
twelve electric lights is floriated and graceful curved support is held by the 
so ponderous for the figure in its arms, and would cany three beautiful 
little god to cany. 1 1 light supports. 

stands Dii a, Corinthian Decoration in the best sense is shown at Miller 

ami Sons'. In the electrolier which is reproduced, 
with seven flowers holding lights which spring vigor- 
ously from the fine mass of graceful curves, the stem 
is spiral with large outstanding studs, with roses foi 
heads, and terminating in what may 
be < ailed a little dome, with spand- 
rels in repoussi. It is wrought in 
lacquered and polished bras.-. The 
greatness and picturesqueness of 
ilie design dominate the art. At 
this gallery are splendid figures: 
due is probably Athena herself, by 
the dignity of the figure, and the 
queenly folds which fall straight 
so as to just reveal the toes of 
firmly planted feet. The vessel 
which holds the light is held on 

A candelabrum of great splendour 
by Benvenuto Cellini, which need 
not be reproduced, although it 
makes a magnificent electrolier. 

What is startling is the adapta- 
tion of Cinquecentist and Empire 
designs, from the primitive wax 

light to the ultra-modern electric: 

° T ■ c , • .,, , CF« « " " 

a Louis Seize veuleuse in ormolu, w. sta 

delightful in design, a sort of 
banging basket wrought in a fretwork of metal, 
decorated with roses and Cupids, perfectly adapted 
to carry the electric light cither pendent or hidden. 
A Renaissance lampada based on a design by 
Ghiberti, it has the power and simplicity of the 
best Italian wmk: the three chains by which it 
hangs are composed of links with crosses in them 
and on the lamp itself arc three figures draped, 
their bands holding the chains. Three heads in 
high relief are on the lamp itself, which is de- 
cidedly oriental. One of the most graceful designs 
is Florentine, the original now at Versailles; it 

high by 

st roic''. 

the bare, 

arms. This crowns 
a noble work. 
( lloisonne" and Min- 

Inii, Japanese, 
( 'hinese, and man) 
Other wares, and 
all i he lals, have 

also been p] 

into service for i he 
new illuminant. 

(For Mourt 



which ! 

quisite an 
ml illusti 

1 novelly-designed electroliers, 
ations are given, are the work 

(From Eastlakes, Limited.) 

Mr. Starkie Gardner. Of a delightful filigree, which 

strikes one as oriental in feeling, is the lamp first 
on page 17 : the panes, if I may call them so, are of 
horn, a substance of great charm and just sufficient 
transparency to give a soft and sufficient light. 
This material has been sadly forgotten by artistic 
workers in metal. It is in the possession of the 
Hon. A. P. Allsopp. Quite different in design is the 
central lamp on the page : graceful curves climb 
the crimson rope of twisted silk which secretes the 
electric wire. A trellis-work of gold is diamond 
shaped, the scroll-work about it is of an elegant 
simplicity. Two minute griffin heads, bent outwards, 
break the sense of all line. The light itself is heart- 
shape, two shields of mother-of-pearl hiding it; they 
are connected in the centre by a small rosette. 
Amongst the many refined, graceful, and original 
works by Mr. Gardner is a somewhat weighty lamp, 
made of black iron and ivory. 1 1. goes to a house in 
Berkeley Square, as does another beautiful concep- 
tion it is formed chiefly of an eleganl scroll-work: 
hut i In- great number of perforations give this large 
piece an air of Lightness. At the Junior Constitu- 

tional (.'luh hangs an extremely facile design of con- 
siderable grace : it is a novelty because it is made in 
pewter, an excellent metal for such a purpose. It is 
the work of Colonel E. W. Edis, of the Artists' Corps, 
who is the architect of the Club. 

"Wandering through the galleries one often tires 
of the eternal Eros and Aphrodite, the occasional 
Hermes, Herakles and Phoebus, wondering that there 
are no Cceur de Lion, no Saladin, watchmen, me- 
diaeval dames and damozels, fayre and debonnaire, 
Jeanne D'Arc, Fausts, Marguerites, Vulcan glowing 
at the forge, Eastern figures of women at the well, 
carrying jars on their heads, or stopping to pick 
shining globes ; knights of the Middle Ages armed 
cap-A-pie, with electricity forming part, say, of a 
horse's crest. The whole host of legend, tradition, 
history, fantasy, faery, purely imaginative or elfin 
lore are available; the draped, the undraped, the 


grotesque, the quaint and the Uzm-re are all ac- 
cessible. But the whole range of existing electric 
statuary and decorative globe-bearing design may be 
summed up as consummate in execution, strangely 
wanting in invention and imagination. 




THEIIK is nothing distinctly peculiar to Italy in 
the arched and covered ways which we call 
arcades. Yet somehow there is that variety, beauty, 
and individuality in the arcades of Italy which 
make us associate the two, and almost forget that 

all civilisation lias had such covered walks. Iml 1, 

where men have found the discomfort of walking in 
the summer sun, the autumn rain, and the winter 
snow they have, if their health prompted them to 
l>c outdoors, ami their wealth allowed them to he 
extravagant, made some kind of shelter in which to 
walk ami .In their business. 

Tlir Forum of classic 'lays was surrounded by 
colonnades, and the chief streets lined with them; 
ami. as far as we can learn, the best streets "i 
mediaeval towus were lined with covered walk., 
built over the vaulted stone cellars of the merchants' 
houses; and where these ilal not exist the over- 
hanging of the upper storeys offered a. useful ami 
grateful shade to the passer-by. Bui in these 
northern lands, when brick ami stone supplanted 

w 1, this overhanging ami arcading was 'I i away 

with, ami the new builder seldom put a covered walk 

in the ground floor of his new house. Some of the 
shew- streets in modern cities have such arcades, 
and the Hue de Puvoli in Paris, St. Mark's Piazza 
in Venice, even the Pantiles in Tunbridge Well 
are instances where the architect has successfully 
attracted people bo the shelter of his building, and 
the shopkeeper has found ii profitable to settle there. 
Another phase of the same thing, but quite a m 
development, is the glass-covered walk with sho] 
mi either side, new so common in all towns Bui 
lington Arcade is one instance at Inane, and the 
splendid Galleria Vittorio Einanuele, in Milan, one 
of the besl know n to travellei abroad. In Southern 

gardens it is com to build a double row of stone 

piers, across which sticks are laid ami vines ami 

creepers tn id over them to 1 i walk 

called a /" rgola. But it is i 

The temporary sheltei •■■ lii h epers 

make in some Europi 

from the shop-blinds down to the kerb, thus f iiig 

a .miii mii'iii - co\ ered way pasl lio] in the heat 

of the da principle a- the stone 



arcade, aud may I"' een 
well developed in the Via 
de Condotti, in Rome, 
so well known to the 

This, in comparison 
In tin.' solid work of our 
ancestors, is perhaps but 
typical nf how we work 
for an age or a day, not 
for eternity . 

One cannot enter the 
gloom nf the stone arch 
of these streets, es- 
pecially when the sun 
has just left it and the 
evening is coming on 
apace, without wonder- 
ing almost unconsciously 
whether this part of 
modern architecture is 
but after all a survival 
nf the primitive cave 
dwelling. Is it, possible 
that the cave man in 
us still loves in make 
a stony hole where he 

may hide from the glare and shelter from the 
.it be despoiled of all his natural tastes 



advantages by glazed windows and carpets ' 


It is a source of some wonder that these healthy 
and pleasant promenades should now be so little 
used : but maybe they are too much a shelter to 
the bad as well as to the good. Evelyn in his diary, 
indeed, criticises them unfavourably in connection 
with the common people; ami at night time they are 
certainly suggestive nf cloaked figures ami daggers. 
It is alsn a complaint of the shopkeepers that so 

little light en- 
ters under these 
a re a iles — fur 
which reason the 
colonnading was 
removed from 
Regent's Quad- 
rant in 1 848. 

Some of the 
North European 
towns still have 
their old arcades, 
and tin- Rows at 
Chester are but 
a strangely de- 
veloped type of 
the same thing. 
But Winchester, 
Can t e rbu ry , 
York, etc., are pe- 
culiarly deficient 



the single occasional exception 
places undei the Market-houses 

poor in 

in such featuri 

being the cover 


North Italian cities have by far the 

number of street arcades. Rome is very 

them. Florence no less so, though one must not 

forget the Loggia di Lanzi. They probably trusted 

to the narrowness of their streets and overhan^inc* 

eaves for shelter. But it 

was possibly a matter 

and accident of fashion 

and time, for while 

Bologna and Padua were 

being rebuilt Florence 

was largely complete, 

and Rome hardly rising 

from her lung sleep. 
At the entrance to 

Italy by Lugano there is 
a beautiful instance of 
arcading which compen- 
sates for the otherwise 
great plainness of the 
houses. Any possible 
monotony of so many 
arches is broken by the 
irregularity with which 
every shopkeeper hangs 
out his own form of blind 
when the sun is in his 
direct ion, sometimes 
quite covering that side 
of the street with stripes 
of colour. The approach 
to Italy by Genoa also 
exhibits a very interest- 
ing and unusual form of 
arcade. The great ancient 
houses along the quay 
have a very sombre and 
irregular covered way in 
their base. The arches 
are mostly tilled up with 
little shops, or stairs to 
the rooms above, and the 
light has to peep in 
over the top: and the 
smell from the cookshops 
to timl its way over 

these. A ceaseless crowd 

of all sorts ami condi- 
tions is for ever up ami 
down this walk, seafaring 
and dockmen being the 
most numerous. Without, 
is the great, wide dirty 

qua;) the Piazza » 'arieamento, with its great \\ 
and trains, ami ships ami old buildings and old 
piers and the warm sunshine and all the things 
of an Italian seaport. Within, there is cool shade 
and the flavour of Limehouse of the East India 
Dock Road, with a thousand things to interest one. 

Bologna stands ahead of all i ities for arcades, 
and is not without reason called "the city of 



mixed up with iron tie-iods. 
The sun only peeps into 
these cool walks for an hour 
or two in the whole day ; 
and the rain, of which Pisa 
gets so much, may be quite 
ignored in these streets. 

Amongst the smaller 
towns, the arcading in Bres- 
cia has a charming old- 
world look. It is wonderful 
that after years of neglect 
and use these columns 
should show so little sign 
of damage. Every shop- 
keeper or stall-holder drives 
nails or hooks into them on 
which to hang coat or blind, 
and yet in this charming 
country they are sound and 
handsome hundreds of years 
after their builders left them 
to rot forgotten in the dis- 
tant Campo Santo. 

Cafes are constantly 
found in these covered 
ways. Some of the most 
famous of them of the 
South have taken up their 
abode in these arcaded 
buildings, as in Nice and 
Venice, and a bit of such 


columns." Padua ranks next 
in the number of its arcaded 
streets ; but these are fast dis- 
appearing under the modern 
restorer's hands. 

Of the same type, and per- 
haps better known to tourists, 
are, those at Pisa, which is 
probably more \ isited for its 
famous church, tower, and 
( lampo Santo than any other 
second-rate city in Italy. The 
-i reets are wonderfully clean 
and neat, and the sombre old 
columns, with their variously 
carved capitals, support a 
succession of arches which 
sustain the houses above by 
rig, which is generally 





shelter is seized upon anywhere for the purpose. A 
pretty instance of this is in the great market-place, 
the Piazza delle Erbe, at Verona. Here the builders 

When he surrounded the old Gothic hall in the 

Market Square (the Piazza de Signori) with his 

beautiful and ornate design he produced a splendid 

upper and Lower walk where the citizens 

could do business or take the air in any 

weather outdoors. 

But there is no possible doubt that 
the best known street or piazza arcade 
is under the Ducal Palace at Venice. 
Constructed in the fifteenth century, 
beautifully built and carefully preserved, 
it is one of the most famous bits of the 
most famous corner of that most famous 
city. The beauty and cleanness of the 
marble of which it is built is no less 
attractive than the beauty of the design, 
and the contrast with the more common- 
place and extensive eolonnading on the 
fe other three sides of the piazza is greatly 

in its favour. There one looks out for 


of the east side of the square put up some old 
columns and built out the first floor upon them, 
forming not an arcade, which requires arches, 
but a little colonnade, in which are several cafes 
and other shops. Here the citizen may sip and 
chat and look out on the great forest of um- 
brellas and sea of people, with the background 
of the Palazzo Mallei and the lion-mounted 

Another instance of such a bit of shelter, 
quite different in character to any of the others, 
is the little covered way one passes through in 
going to the railway station in Venice. 

In the mountain towns they have the same 
cloistered ways, though here the arches are 
seldom supported on graceful columns, but on 
square piers of stone. In the little Abruzzi (own 
of Leonessa such an arched footway (here shown) 
runs from the gateway up the chief street, if 
SUCh a shopleSS, CartleSS, horseless place can be 
said to ha\ e a ■ ! reet. 

To the progressive architect the must notable 
arcading is that famous work of Palladio at Vicenza. 


the shops and coffee and people and pigeons: here 
for the beauty of the building itself. 




HOSE who read 
llie accounts of 
exhibitions and 
watch with in- 
teresl the new 
names and new 
p rod u c t ions 
that constantly 
appear in the 
world of art 
cannot fail to 
have noticed 
with ever in- 
creasing fre- 
quency the recurrence of the name of Giovanni 
Segantini. This Italian artist, who is beginning to 
make a great name for himself outside the limits of 
his native land, is one 
of the most robust and 
original personalities 
among modern paint- 
ers. So far is he from 
seeking after mere 
praise, from desiring 
to be the talk of the 
town or a more or less 
passing fashion, that 
he lives as far remote 
from the world as pos- 
sihle. pitching his tent 
in a high and distant 
corner of the Alps, 
\\ hence lie but seldom 
descends to visit 
Milan, and then only 
for short periods. Of 
him as of few other 
painters it can be 
affirmed that he is 
equally interesting as 
a man and as an artist. 
Segantini stands in 
the front rank of 
modern Italian paint- Giovanni 

ers : indeed, in some (b 9 i 

respects he stands at 

the very head of them — that is to say, in the treat- 
ment of the subjects he has made his own particular 
province. What Millet did for France, Giovanni 
Segantini has dune for [tabj that is, he has d 
his art to the cause of the poor and lowly, and 
has faithfully depicted the life of the peasants, not 


dressed in their best with conventional, smiling 
faces, obviously sitting for theii portraits 
tableau* vivants, but peasants in their daily exist- 
ence, in work ami sorrow and joy, with the unheeded 
tragedy and unconscious poetrj of the simple peasant 
life. And he dees not paint, moreover, as one who 
has studied his subject from outside, for a time, but 
he lived amongst the poor, as one of them, from his 
childhood, the poor of the city and the village; and 
when he became a man with means to do as hi' 
pleased lie chose to make his home amongst tin- 
isolated dwellers in the Alpine hamlets, where life 
is rude and hard, and where man has not yel 
succeeded in enslaving and vilifying nature. 

Segantini was born at Arco, in the Trentino, in 
1858. His mother, who died when he was five 
years old, belonged to one of those ancient families 
of the mountain dis- 
tricts from which in 
former times sprang 
t he siddiei s of for- 
tune, ami now the 
best agriculturists : his 
fal her was a plain man 
of the people. B 
left a widower, the 
father moved to Milan, 
where lived a son and 
daughter of his first 
marriage. Affairs were 
not flourishing, and 

the father and elder 

son soon departed to 

seek t heir fort lilies 
elsewhere, leavii 

little Giovanni in the 

of his hall 
Tin V lived ill t W o 
allies, and the 
w.aii to work early in 
the mornin 
the child to his own 
devices, something to 
eat within reai h, and 
forbidding him 

],io\ ide anything in the wa\ 

hands or mind. What won baby 

got into one 51 rape nfti 

ance a ith bi 'loins. Tl !\ the 

implements of white\ titers, 




certainly, but they formed an epoch in his childish 
history : and when the interest in the actual process 
had waned, he found an enthralling' fascination in 
the .lamp patches on the half-dry wall; for in these 
marks his fancy saw the outlines of men and scenes 
and animals— even the semblance of the father he 
still waited and longed for, but who never returned 

{From the Painting by Oiouanni Segantini.) 

from his fortune-seeking travels. At last a change 
came. • Ine day the child overheard two women talk- 
ing of a youth who had journeyed into France on 
fool and there had made his fortune; the thought 
struck him that if that boy had found it possible to 
leave Milan, why should not he? So he watched 
his opportunity one tine morning, and slipping out 
of the house he set off on his way to Fiance, having 
for sole provision a piece of bread he had obtained 
from the baker's on credit. He tramped on till dusk 
and weariness and a storm of lain overcame his 
childish courage, and lying down beneath a tree he 
remembered nothing more until he was awakened 
by two men who, passing w ith their cart, had noticed 

the drenched and sleeping boy, and these friends in 
need took him home to their cottage, where he was 
dried and fed and told his little story. On hearing 
he was an orphan, these poor but kindly peasants 
determined to keep him with them, on condition, 
however, that he made himself useful: and so, when 
barely seven years old. Giovanni Segantini began to 
earn his own living in the respon- 
sible position of a swineherd. 

But the long hours of idleness 
were not wasted; he took note of his 
new surroundings, and instinctively 
tried to reproduce them, scrawling 
his pictures on walls and stones, like 
a new Giotto. At last his occupa- 
tion was noticed, it came even to 
the ears of the syndic, and the little 
swineherd was straightway looked 
on as an infant prodigy, and was 
sent back to Milan to have his talent 
taught and fostered. But he could 
not adapt himself to the restrictions 
of domestic life: his boyish pride 
was wounded, there was a scene, and 
once more he bloke away, tins time 
for good. He began to lead a rest- 
loss, roving existence, finding tem- 
porary employment and hospitality 
wherever he could, till at last he 
reached his native Arco, where he 
met his half-brother, who offered 
him the post of cashier in his bacon 
shop. Giovanni only stayed here 
till he had saved a small sum of 
money, with which he resolved to 
try his fortune once again. But the 
money was stolen on the road by a 
perfidious friend, and Segantini re- 
turned to his brother in despair. 
Touched, however, by his grief and 
his earnestness, the brother pro- 
vided him witli the means of going 
to Milan to follow his bent, and the hoy departed 
only too gladly. In Milan he attended the art 
classes at the Brera, living meanwhile in an attic, 
and eking out his scanty means by giving lessons, 
drawing portraits, painting window blinds, church 
banners, etc., and helping a friend who was house- 
painter by day and clown by night. In spite of 
unkindness and frequent injustice he worked on 
courageously and cheerfully: he felt his own power 
and knew he must conquer in the end. "Whilst 
studying at the Brera he was painting his first pic- 
ture, which not only won for him the admiration 
and respect of his colleagues, but procured him the 
means of leaving the Academy and obtaining wider 



teaching and experience. This picture was the 
"Core, di Sant' Antonio;" it represented part of 
the interior of a church, the light from a large win- 
dow illuminating the stalls and falling upon an old 
picture, bringing into prominence its tailed figures, 
while a little choir boy gives life to the scene. It 
was a strong and remarkable work for a beginner, 
and the vigour here displayed was to prove the per- 
manent distinguishing mark of Segantini's art. He 
was so poor that he was compelled to use as canvas 
the back of an old fire-screen, whilst his colours were 
obtained from a friendly grocer in return for painting 

made hiin long to be alone. He hail taken a studio 
for himself, where he painted , amongsl other things, 
"La Falconiera " and " Prode," but he did not 
there very long; he left Milan and settled in the 
Brianza, that beautiful piece of country between 
Milan and Lake Com o. Here it was that he began 
to study country and peasant life, and in pursuil of 
his studies he roamed on foot all over these lovely 
semi-Alpine regions. The pictures he produced \\ ere 
not wholly landscapes, in spite of the absolutely rural 
life he led: he looked at a landscape merely as the 
back-round and setting for his figures, the surround- 

(From the Pointing 

a shop sign with a sugarloaf and other emblems of 
the trade. A critic of that time wrote that " Segan- 
tini's art is full of attractive elements and of defects, 
of deficiencies and exuberances — in. short, it is the sum 
total of a talent that has all the expansiveness and 
all the audacity of careless and robust, youth, of a 
genius that has developed out of its own strength, 

unhampered by scholastic principles which I ften 

modify the originality of inspiration, and at times 
even suffocate it." The words hold true to this 
day. He now began to shake oil' the conventionality 
of the Brera school, and after the success of his first 
picture he exhibited others, Mich as "Galloping 
Consumption " and "11 Naviglio," which drew down 
on him the scorn of the conventional art ci itii - 
I '.ut Segantini did not care ; he was painting according 
to his own ideas and theories, and his one desire was 
to get away from Milan tu some quiet place where 
he could work in his own way. The city seemed to 
stifle him, and, moreover, his constitutional shyness 

by Oiommni Segantim. I 

ings for the soul of his pictures. To this period 
belong— to mention only the most notable — " Ave 
Maria," which gained the -old medal at the Amster 
dam Exhibition in 1883, representing a boatload of 
sheep being ferried across the placid, shining water, 
whilst amongst the animals sits a woman, with benl 
head, clasping her child in her arms: mi the shore 
beyond is the village with its church spire, and 
behind everything the sun is setting in fierj 
"The Mothers," a tired woman and tired sheep, each 
with their offspring : " After a Storm on the Alp 
showing sheep and shepherd huddled to 
neath the mingled brightness and blackness of the 
stormy sky, the angry gleam louds 

reflected in the | Is of 1:1m amidst the gra \ 

Kiss" and "A Moonlight Effect," all introducing 
sheep and figun and while 

in a different stj le was Earlj Via the solitary 
figure of a pri I slowlj mounting a wide stone 
stairway, booli in hand • I lie iir.-i sen ice. 




Segautini's most important work painted at Brianza 
was "Alia Stanga," a wide evening landscape with 
cattle brought from pasture to the milking place. 
Although all these subjects might be termed every- 
day and even commonplace, they are treated with an 
ideality that lifts them far above the usual rank ; 
for, as Segantini himself says, "Art without ideals 
is like nature without life." 

It so happened that about this time Segantini 
made his first acquaintance with the works of Millet: 

they were only the reproductions in a French 
magazine, but they made a deep impression on him; 
for here was an artist who had reached the aim he 
was striving after, who, like him, had lived with 
the peasants, and had immortalised their joys and 
sorrows in his art. But so afraid was Segantini of 
having his own individuality influenced that he did 
not keep the magazine long in his possession : the 
impression could not be effaced, nevertheless, and 
had its (.•fleet on Segantini's subsequent work. After 

(From the Painting by Giovanni Seganti 



this even Brianza seemed too much in the world to 

suit him, and he removed with his wife find children 
to Savognino in the Grisons, after a time going ye! 
further into the Alpine heights ami setting up his 
ahode ami studio at Maloja. 

With all these actual changes there came a 
change, too, in his style of work. Like the youth 
who gradually grows to manhood, much of the 
delicate grace of his art gave place to mure strongly 
marked and powerful productions, as though he 
would make nature his own by sheer force. 
Amongst the best of the pictures he produced during 
this period are "The Drinking Trough," which 
obtained a gold medal in Paris: "In the Sheep- 
fold," "Tin- Shepherd's Income," "Al the Spinning 
Wheel," and " Ploughing in the Engadine," which 
won a gold medal at the Turin exhibition of 1S9± 
Hr also continued his studies of the effects of light, 
and in " Midday on the Alps " and " Winter at 
Savognino" gave a tine contrast, the latter painting 
being remarkable for the management of the different 
shades and gradations of white. To the finest of 
his works must also be reckoned "The Return to the 

the Painting bt) Giovanni Scgantir, 

Sheepfold " and "The Return to His Native Village." 
The latter illustrates a custom which prevails in 
Sei atiui's first Alpine home. When one of the 
mountaineers has been forced bj povertj toemigrate 
and dies in a foreign land, his pi ople fetch hi 
home tn sleep it- long sleep in his native soil. In 
tin- picture we are shown such a mournful ,. 
The , offin is placed mi a cai i. beside it sits the weep- 
ing widow with her child upon her knee, ami at the 
horse's head walks a bearded mountaineer, his head 
bowed in grief, his form wrapped m the long cloak 
w hich, according to immemorial custom, is only worn 
on solemn days of mourning, and is handed clown 
from generation to generation. 

In all these representations of simple pastoral life 
Seganl mi ha- shown himself thoroughly in sym] 

with his subject, and the note he has thus introd 

intn Italian art is one quite foreign to it. < if late, 
however, he has taken a new departure, and has 

several times adopted a symbolical style, suppress- 
ing details and embodying ideas. Of these we may 
mention "The Punishment of Luxury" (sometimes 
called "Nirvana") ami "The Retribution of Un- 
natural Mothers" (see p. 28), both themes inspired 
by an Indian poem. < if the gentler kind of themi 
two lovely examples are "The Angel of Life," a 
poetic composition clearly inspired by the influence 
of Botticelli (see p. 26), and The Fruit of Love," 
which may almost he described as a less ethereal 
and less melancholy version of The Angel of Life," 
delicate and suggestive as it is. 

It may be said thai Giovanni Segantini has 
never been untrue in himself, never allowed the 
spirit of gain t" overcome hi- artistic conscience. 
His smallest pictures are carefully studied, and his 
constant advance in the mailer of coloui shows thai 
he is aware of his limitations and tries to ovi 
them. He is not always complete master of technical 
difficulties; thespiril of his picture sometimes i 
him neglect the details of form ; In- painting i- un- 
equal, being at nine- even a little heavy, and his 
colouring, like that of Millel and the Milanese artist 
Cremona, whom he admired, is sombre; but a I 
have -aid, this is always advancing and clarifying 
itself a- he works in the i lear light of the Alps and 
seeks to reproduce tin i , clear, mountain 

effects of air which cause all objects t" stand nut 
in sharp contour. 

Si gantini adds one more I i the niiuil 
win i have risen by their own strength ; who, knowing 

thi urn in tl in which have 

dared to break their ch i " own 

path in life. 5 - sin h i hai 

IuU s( of ii h, hut wiili them ii is 

the |, i : 





IT was fully expect- 
ed that, during 
the three years that 
have elapsed since 
the last exhibition of 
this Society was held, 
an advance had been 
made at least pro- 
portionate with the 
progress achieved in 
other ways in the 
artistic development 
of the nation, and 
that the present dis- 
play would represent 
the high-water-mark 
reached in the prac- 
tice of the applied 
arts by our sturdy 
revivalists. That 
expectation lias not 
been disappointed. 
The exhibition is not 
only better artistic- 
ally, it is siiiic]' 
aesthetically than any 

taste of the true lover 
ill than we have 
litherto been able 
to concede. 

We have been re- 
oached civ now I'm 
liking too optim- 
istic a. note when 
dealing with the pre- 
sent-day art of this 
country. In reply 
we have pointed to 
the appreciation and 
commendation of our 
art by other nations, 
and have declared 
that, whether in 
painting or in the 
applied arts, a great 
revival had had its 
h in Britain, 
which, in spite of 
certain youthful 
effervescence, was 
destined to bring this 
country to the front 



that have gone before, and— not through concessions rank, if not at the head of all other nations what- 
butbyhi st development— the workers' productions soever. The new exhibition to a considerable ex- 
are more closely in harmony with the cultivated tent justifies our contention. There is much in it, 



"" doubt, that is the outcome of mere juvenile tects, who had just pel im his firsl visil to 

enthusiasm, of the passion for the originality-at-any- London, aud was full of his impressions. Hi liad 

(By F. W. Pomeroy ) 

price which is willing deliberately to sacrifice all seen everything; had recognised thai the Engli h 
claim to beauty and revel in absolute ugliness, if were greal architects in the boldness, fitness, and 
novelty can by thai means be obtained. In defence simplicity of their designs— bu I they were no de- 
of such misdirected effort there is not much to be corators. Yet even in the badness of the da oration 
said, except this — that the habit of independent he detected an originality which promised well for 
thought, of strenuous striving to leave the rut of when their eyes were opened. "So much did I feel 

convention, in 

whatever branch 

of the art manu- 
factures, sows a 

precious seed in 

the mind that 

conceives it. 

Ugliness, whe- 
ther of subject, 

form, or colour, 

so soon as its 

novelty wears off, 

ceases to please, 

and a return to 

the acknow- 
ledged canons of 

beauty, accom- 
panied by the 

newly -wiiu in- 

il i v i (I u alii y, 

achieves a \ ic- 

! ory in i he fruits 

of which we all 

inusi share. The 

present write] 1 

u.i ,i -hurt t inn- 

since in Paris in 
the company of 
one of the mosl 
letter-plate. distinguished ol bronze panel for gates of baptistery, 

(By W. Reynolds-Step/teni I I'Yl.'llcIl illclli- (By F. W. Pvmw 



this," he 

went on, " that when I came hack to our 
boulevards and saw our exquisite ornament] 


(By Heywood Sumner.) 

executed in the best tradition, that I found them 
after all — well — articles de Pans! — even to our well- 
designed lamp-posts." He was not aware that the 
standard design of Parisian lamp-posts was the work 
of a Londoner, a student of Smith Kensington Schools. 
Apart from originality of design, the greatest 
lesson taught by the Ails and Crafts Society is the 
dignity of labour — the propriety of any artist, how- 
ever distinguished, to devote his hands to any form 
of design, however trifling; and the superiority of the 
work of those hands over the work of machines. It 
is too late in the day to need to insist on either of 
these fundamental theses: and there will probably 
be few visitors to the gallery who will not prefer 
Mr. Ashbee's silver plates, for all that their circles 
are not mathematically true, to the machine-turned 
plates of commerce. Men have now come to see 
that mechanical accuracy is in itself by no means 
a delight, but that, on the contrary, as evidence of 
the exclusion of craftsman's skill, is rather matter 
for continual regret. Another lesson, to be learned 
by craftsmen and patron alike, is that no man — if 
he is to keep his talent fresh and free, and his 
artistic conscience clean — should ever repeat him- 

self. That the great artists, at least among the 
painters, would sometimes repeat themselves, even 
ad nauseam, is evidence only of the triumph of com- 
mercial over artistic considerations. The doctrine 
of nun-repetition is less a dogma than an instinct 
in a true craftsman who loves his work and respects 
himself. We but lately heard of the death of an 
old cabinet-maker who lived and died in his native 
village in the Ardennes, and whose proud boast it 
was that he had never made two pieces of furni- 
ture alike: and whose epitaph, devised by himself, 

may now be read on his headstone, " Here lies , 

Workman. He died an Artist." This is the true 
spirit of the art-craftsman, which it must be the 
aim of the Society to foster and develop. 

The improved excellence of the new exhibition is 
to be recognised in many ways: in a greater re- 
ticence than was formerly the case, greater manual 

(By W. Bainbridge Reynolds.) 

skill, mure highly-developed fancy and imagination, 
and a more defined unity of idea and intention. 
There are still examples of that form of originality 
that rather hinder than help the movement in the 



favour of the public, and rather hinder than help 
the public itself in its understanding of what fine 
applied art is, and of the depth of the enjoyment to 
be found in it. The trail of Mr. Aubrey Beardsley— 


(By H. Aiming Bell.) 

who may be termed the Hyde to Sir Edward Furne- 
Jones's Jekyll — is still over some able designers, for 
cleverness, even foul genius, always attracts disciples, 
even when sound excellence fails to do so. Then there 
is what is colloquially termed the "Spooky School," 
whose "spookiness" reveals itself alike in form, de- 
sign, and colour. But the greal facl remains that 
a distinct school of decorative design is evolving 

(By Alex. Fislier.) 

resull is an exhibiti i great interest by men of 

power, by artists of taste. It is not too much to saj 
that some of these men even now— in spite of 
tain narrowness in the Society which one may vet 
detect— could unite to raise such .1 Hou 
lias not yet been seen, beside the interest of which 
the formal glories of London's expensive palaces 
would pale into gaudiness or emptiness— into mere 
articles de Paris. 

In selecting illustrations from this exhibition we 
have not sought to place the most charming, the 
most captivating, examples before the reader. We 
have father aimed at presenting the stroi 
flavoured specimens of work of the better-known 
men, the more truly to illustrate the tendency thai 

{By f. Coliden Sanderson ) 

may be given to the domestic arts of the ueai future. 
This direction maj uol be exactlj that w Inch was 
intended bj William Morris -dead, just as the doors 
of the exhibition were being thrown open. It is wider, 
more fantastic, less "organic," than his own I 
demanded. But it is, for the most part, sincere, 
and reveals a power which in a modified form will 
assuredly tell <>n the ait of the future. Furniture, 
needlework, metal-work, jewellery, printing, binding, 

tapestry, wall paper, carpet, 1 k-illustration, mosaic, 

sculpture, gesso decoration, stained glass, cartoons, 

itself out of the chaos which attended us birth a enamels, goldsmithery, design pottery, till 
chaos the very existence of which itself bore witness what not all ented. Thej inaj make- 

to the extent and scope of the renascence; and the little effect on th s, whose hidi 



Unions accord scant welcome to a system wherein are the fire-dogs, to be reproduce,! m *»**£* * e 
individua] power and intelligence and art-feeling next month. Mr. Haywood Sumner whose n 
is a main dLgreeable factor- a factor calculated to thusiasm has done so much in recent years to carrj 


(By Heywood Sumner.) 

disturb the dead level in which all schemes for the 
equalisation of wages must lie based. Their ap- 
peal is to the man of taste and judgment — to the 
man who can appreciate originality and reward it. 

It may perhaps be objected that 
the craftsmen themselves are a little 
too unconventional in their work, 
too stiff in their opinions. It needs 
such men to effect a great revolu- 
tion. It was ever the function of 
extremists to direct a middle course ; 
and if these men have so far sacri- 
ficed themselves as to turn their 
backs "ii what is easy and banale 
and popular, it is not less the duty 
of the rich to do their part, and 
accord them such support as cir- 
cumstances will permit. 

In church decoration the exhi- 
bition is rich. The imposing lectern 
by Mr. \V. Bainbridge Reynolds, 
wrought in iron, with brass and cop- 
pei enrichments, is a work of striking 
originality throughout, thought out 
in every detail, even down to the 
nails which, while protecting the 
steps, tell the story of the little 
monument. In itself it is enough 
to render the collection remarkable, and will attract 
ved attention to this clever architect turned 
metal-worker. Hardly less remarkable in their way 

ecorative art along 
the right lines, con- 
tributes a noble and 
expressive design in 
his great cartoon for 
the embellishment 
in sgraffito of the 
Lady ( 'Impel of St. 
Agatha's, Ports- 
mouth. The subject 
is the " star of Beth- 
lehem," and cm- 
bines effectiveness 
and simplicity with 
charm of design and 
sentiment. This 
agreeable quality 
runs through all this 
artist's work, and 
may be detected 
hardly less in his 
wall -paper (for 
Jeffrey and Co.) called "A Floral Trellis-paper" 
(which, by the way, requires a somewhat large sur- 
face for the proper display and significance of the 
repeat), than in the Fitzroy school picture entitled 


(Designed by R. Anning Btll.) 

"Play." The cartoons of Sir Edward Burne-Jones 
and of Mi. Walter Crane till the section of stained- 
glass windows, hut it is much to be regretted that 





no stained glass is shown, espe- 
cially none of that lovely work 
which John la Farge invented, 
ami which the Baron Rosen- 
crantz has with so much suc- 
cess just introduced for the first 
time into this country, in Wick- 
ham Church, near Canterbury. 
Finally, besides Mr. Pomeroy's 
tine lectern, there is the portion of 

(S 9 W. Reynolds-Stephens.) 

chancel stalls, the least, mainly because, in the latter case, in its present 
exhibit of Mr. II. light it can with difficulty be seen. 
Wilson, the chief The section of enamels is well filled. Placed 
merit of which upon jewellery, as in Mr. F. 8. Robinson's original 
lies in the success works (see p. .">2), coloured enamel threatens, if not 
with which, both skilfully used, to become a little crude; but whether 
in the design and adi ipted practically in place of gems, as in the exquisite 
in the carving, five-sided ivory casket by Mr. Fisher, representing 
the feeling of the "The Story of Cupid and Psyche," or in broader 
wood lias been fashion, as in the Queen's cup, by Mr. Nelson Dawson, 
retained. "and Edith his wife" (as the cup itself proclaims). 
Close by is the it is a joy for ever. The beautiful blues and greens, 
beautiful screen the perfect sense of grace of composition, the trans- 
of Mr. George lueency and the delicacy of Mr. Fisher's work are 
Frampton.A.RA., captivating; and the question may even be asked 
"precious" in the if he does not cany his art to too consummate a 
best sense, and finish. Mr. Nelson Dawson aims rather at breadth 
with its decora- of effect, and whether he gives us his cloisonne 
tion of ivory, with simple tones of blue, yellow, and green, re- 
mother-of-pearl, lieved by touches of red, or combines his enamel 
gold. and enamels, with beautiful metal-work — as in his triptych, his 
with its dainty beaten silver dish, or his steel and copper trowel— 


{Designed by C. F. A. Voysey. Executed by 

Mrs. Reynolds-Stephens.) 

figures of St. Elizabeth and St. Doro- 
thea, and with the still more exquisite 
panels of rose and apple-trees, as 
original and as graceful a work of its 
kind as we have ever seen. It is in- 
teresting to observe with how much 
success the cove which surmounts it 
suggests, but not insists upon, an 
architectural character. A variety of 
other work comes from Mr. Frampton, 
of which the coloured plaster panel 
of "Music" is the most successful, 
and the elaborate carving on Mr. C. 
11. Townsend's great mantelpiece the 



(By Eleanor Mercer.) 

he shows a masterful command of his material and 
of himself. 

( hie phase of the independence of not a few among 
the workers is the remarkable versatility that re- 
sults from it. Thus from that admirable artist, Mr. 
Reynolds-Stephens, we have a dining-room table on a 
new plan (see p. 38), whereby there is no longer a 
head and a foot, for upright stands for fruit and 
flowers occupy the ends; and a model for a letter- 
box lid, so dainty and charming in design, and so 
beautiful in patina, that standing before a door em- 
bellished with it would almost become a form of 
artistic entertainment. Mr. Aiming Bell, again, ex- 
hibits a variety of qualities and characteristics in his 
designs for court playing cards: a sense of dignified 


that are out of all proportion, and look ra 
like gigantic crackers. Nor is Mr. ! 
Day less prolific; for, besides the excellent 
biles, which will be illustrated in our nexl 
Number, his numerous designs for embroid- 
eries, carvings, and the like, help to maintain 
his own reputation and the interesl of the 
exhibition. Even Mr. Cobden Sanderson, who 
has lavished all his delicate fancy on his bind- 
ing for the Kelmscott " < lhaucer " a work of 
very singular grace and beauty (see p. 35)— 


fitness in his School Board Certificate, I" be prin 
in i luce colours; and a frieze, which, by the way, i 
detracted from by festooned roses in the backgrouni 

has also turned his attention bo the fashioning of 
a semicircular sbeel fender, bo which we shall make 
more special reference in our nexl Number. 

Mr. Walter Crane's inexhaustible fancy and inven- 
tion have perhaps never risen to a gn ' at oi 
done work more thoroughly worthy of his genius 
than the exceedingly important series of ill 
tions and Jit, .rations bo Spenser' I ■" 1 1" Queeue," 

which Mr. < I ge Allen is aboul bo publish. I li 

of these " The House of Pi ide we ire enabled bo 
reproduce in reduced size. [I show how i harming 
is bhe arbisb's work, how rich in design, and happj 

in bordei de igning. We would have bo re] lui e 

obhi i in h as bhe • furthei bo 



wl,;,t appears to us Mr. Crane's improvement in the 
greater vitality displayed in this series, wherein vitality 
seems to be added to beauty, and a sense of humanity 
to conventional design. With a brief reference 1" 
Mr. Pomeroy's beautiful coloured gesso 
signed and executed in alabaster for the justice-room 
oftheSheffieldTownHall; toMrs. Reynolds-Stephens' 
intelligent embroidery of Mr. Voysey's dove-billing 
quilt (it is not everyone, as Mrs. Horner's carefully- 
worked imitative panel of Sir Edward Burne-Jones's 
" Love" clearly proves, who so thoroughly understands 

the function and the limitation of the needle); to 
Miss Moncr's most graceful cup— the chief fault of 
which appears to be the heavy shadow east by the 
overhanging lip; and to Mr. Colton's bronze model 
of a fountain, now erected in .stone in Hyde Park, 
and we have for the present a collection of works 
which is destined to exercise as real an influence 
on the public of taste as on the artists themselves. 

[We are requested to state that the copyrights ot all objects 
and designs included in this article are specially reserved l.y the 
artists or owners.] 



TT is not many years ago .since stencilling was were paid for it, much of that subtle variety of 

1 a despised art deservedly so. It had fallen colour which is the boast of the stenciller. Many 

into the hands of the most mechanical of workmen, of those who vaunt the charm of effects winch 

It ceased as practised to be an art or even a. seem to them peculiar to stencilling are presumably 

craft Only here and there an artist turned it to ignorant of what the block-printer can do, and did 

artistic account. ^ars **<>• b ? means of "Patching," "blending," 

Owine- mainly to Japanese influence (to the and other devices familiar to the "paper-stainer, 

interest That is to say, excited by the importa- It is probable, however, that the public will 

tion of Japanese stencil-plates into this country- never he disposed to pay for "mere wall-paper a 

marvels of careful and cunning contrivance) a price equal to that they are prepared to give for 

red, on in favour of this neglected process of stencilling, m itself an equally mechanical process; 

work set in a reaction which has developed into a and so, for the moment, stencilling is all the rage, 

fever just now at its height, when clever young One great advantage of stencilling is that the work 

students are trying to do 
in stencilling what they 
had far bed for do with 
a free brush, and even 
manufacturers are going 
back to the use of the 
stencil-plate in hopes that 
it will give them results 
not to he obtained by 
means of the. printing- 
block which superseded it. 
It is more than pos- 
sible that the value of 
stencilling as a reproduc- 
tive process is, for the time 
being, overrated. Certain- 
ly, claims are made on its 
behalf which cannot well 
be supported. Granted 
that by means id' it effects 

can 1 btained which are 

not produced in printing, 
this is rather because, 
printing being the cheaper 
method, cheapness is more 
and more demanded id' 
the printer, than because 
he could not, get, if he 





(Bj, W. Co/ton. Erected in Hyde Park ) 

can be done on the wall, 
which, in a way, compels 
due consideration of the 
relation of the pattern, 
both in scale and colour, 
to the place it is to till. 
Most of us would cer- 
tainly prefer decoration 
thus executed in situ to 
the mere covering of walls 
with so many yards of 
patterned material turned 
out of the workshop by 
the piece ; and stencillers 
seem to cut the only 
really firm ground from 
under their own feet, when 
they take to the mere 
making of stencilled goods, 
which can, in the nature 
of things, never compete 
in price with printed 
work. For the moment 
they produce, it is true, 
something not quite in the 
ordinary way of printing; 
hut it will not he long 
before printers, who have 



been, as ii were, fcakeu by surprise, carry back the 
war into their domain; and then — there is no 
room for doubt with whom the victory will rest. 
The extinction of the mediaeval practice of 

stenci lling 
m cloths for 
,j ^ *,^ wall-hauK- 


lather ama- 
teurish way 
of decorating 
stuffs. Woven, 

prin I ell, i r 
dyed, and, ap- 
Ive has 

stencilled, we want our textiles 
pareutly, the first to stencil stuffs in 
been Mr. Aldam Heaton — with whom is now a — 
eiated Mr. J. Croft-Smith — whose long familiarity 
with the textile industries should be sufficient 
guarantee that his hangings are stencilled not in 
pigments but in veritable dyes. They have cei 
tainly all the appearance, and especially the 
transparency, of dye, and he claims thai they are 
fast. The hangings lately exhibited by him in 
his show-rooms at Bloomsbury Street are chiefly 
woollen materials, "mohair," "moreen," and "balk 
cloth" — all fabrics which fall in soft folds, and 
which give singularly lustrous colour. Indeed, in 
the ease of eurtaiiis stencilled in blended shades 
of ruby red. the effeel reminds one inevitably of 
similar effects produced in earthenware. Sc; 
less suggestive of "silver lustre" are the hangings 
stencilled in yellows, merging on the one hand 

into greenish, on il ther inl ange, tones. 

Many of Mr. Heaton's designs, and the happiest 
of them, consist of big, bold scrolls : and ad- 
is taken of the [jrocess (stencil-plates beiny easih 
cut) tn avoid repetition in the pattern, which 

winds its way unrestrained throughout the entire 
length of the curtain. Ii is repeated only laterally; 
but as the rep i e five fei i wide, that 

si an ely counts. There is al once greater breadth of 
effeel and more individuality of design aboul these 
handsome arabesques than in tin 
after the manner of the " verdure " of old tap< 
taken, indeed, in seme cases from familiar examples 
at South Kensington. 

.Mr. lleatmi thoroughly understands and ap- 
preciates the limitations of stencilling. His di 
are planned fur the process employed; In- neither 
disguises the "ties" necessary tn the construction 
et a stencil-plate, nor emphasises them in an un- 
necessary and aggravating manner: he simply 
accepts them as part of his design. Nor is In- 
misled by Japanese precedent into a minuteness 
and elaboration of detail, well enough in it- p 
hut destructive of broad and simple decorative effect. 

It seems as if Mr. Heaton had perfect* 
system of textile-stencilling which gives adm 
decorative results at the same time that ii provides 
employment fur women. The prices al which he 
produce- his stencilled fabrics compete rather with 


woven than printed -mids: but their si Id be de- 
mand enough for indh idual work of u Kind which 
mi, ,,' into competition 
with uianufai tine. I lial i ■■ ill} 




WHAT Hie Berlin Photographic Company did 
for the Reinbrandts at Cassel and Berlin it 
has more recently done for Mr. Alma-Tadema, in a 
volume containing a score and more of photogravures 
with a sketch of the 
artist's life by Mr. 
V. (',. Stephens — an 
album which for 
taste in production 
and for quality of its 
plates lias rarely 
I Hen equalled : a trib- 
ute that is an honour 
a! once to the painter 
and to the publish- 
ers.* That it is as 
tine — viewed as a 
collects I- example of 
the process of photo- 
gra vure — as the 
Rembrandt achieve- 
ments can hardly he 
asserted. The differ- 
ence, however, is due 
rather to the differ- 
ence in tin' styles 
ami colouring of the 
old master and the 

i Inn, than to any 

inherent defect in the 
plates themselves. 
How fine these are 
may lie seen more 
particularly from that 
w Inch reproduces one 
of the most admir- 
able of all tin' 
artist's pictures, " In 
My St uilio "— t he 

picture he presented to Lord Leighton in exchange 
for the "Bath of Psyche," which the President 
wrought for Mr. Tadema's ante-hall. The work to 
which I refer is prefaced by Mr. Stephens' essay 
on Mr. Tadeiiia and his art. against which the chief 
complaint is that it tells us too little of the artist's 
lilf. For this reason. I propose to give the story 
in my own way, based on words from the master's 
lips, fallen during several conversations. 

Alma-Tadema's position in the World of Ait is 

l ici Mm. i- l.i'l. ma, B. \. A Sketch -I Hi- Life an. I 

(London: Berlin Photographic Company i 

Illustrations by N. WAAIL. 

one apart. Others who have worshipped at the 
shrine of " Classicism," as it may comprehensively 
be termed, have, with more or less success, repre- 
sented ancient life as it may have been; Alma- 
Tadema convinces us. 
often in spite of our- 
selves, that he shows 
US the life as if was. 

The George Ebers of 
the brush — that and 
a good deal more — 
he stands proudly on 
the pedestal he has 
erected for himself : 
proudly, yet simply, 
too — easily and with 
unaffected bonhomie 
— fully conscious of 
his just worth, hut 
entertaining no exag- 
gerated sense either 
of his own powers or 
of the public estima- 
tion or appreciation. 
Yet there is hardly 
a painter in Europe 
more widely popular 
than he, whether as 
an artist or a man. 
Cosmopolitan in his 
acquaintance as he 
has been in his 
lioines, he is essen- 
tially a man of many 
friends : picturesque 
in gesture and expres- 
sion, more given to 
laugh than to frown 
— yet by no means 
averse to the latter when he deems there is occasion 
for it — he possesses little of the phlegmatic calm 
characteristic of the Dutch. As a matter of fact, he 
is less a Hollander than a. Frieslander, a Parisian, or a 
Londoner, and his vivacity will be readily understood 
by the student of the races of the Low Countries. 
Original in most things and energetic in all.public- 
and private-spirited alike, he is direct, bright, and 
witty in conversation, as becomes one blessed with 
a sunn)' nature: and when he talks in his musical 
English — in demisemiquavers, as one might say, 
freelj punctuated with minims and crotchets — he 





startles his hearer continually with refreshing ob- 
servation, emphasis of opinion, vivid expression, and 
happy turn of thought. Add to that a familiar know- 
ledge of the world, an intense and absorbing passion 
for his art, and, in common with so many of the 
Old Masters, a keen business capacity, set off by a 
genial courtesy, and the spiritual man is before you. 
Surely the house which such a man. successful as 
he has been, would 
erec) to himself 
may be imagined 
with some degree of 
Logical certaintj : a 
dwelling-place like 
no other on this 
earth.* An original 
ground-plan, a novel 
elevation, unheard- 
of arrangements, 
ornamentation and 
decoration unprece- 
dented in modern 
building in point of 
boldness and chaste- 
ness of design and 
execution, are all 
combined in this 
wonderful dwelling. 
After passing under 
the colonnade, the 
visitor may enter 
by the conservatory, 
arriving in the ante- 
hall, where each of 
the two-score up- 
right panels of the 
great screen running 
round it is painted 
by a different artist 
of eminence (most 
wonderful and beau- 
tiful of autograph- 
albums), and where 
upon the high mantel 
border are inscribed 
the hospitable lines : 

"] count nn self in nothing 

■ '!-'• »<> happy, 
As in a soul rememb'ring 
my good friends " 

* The illustrations 
here given of Mr. Alma- 
Tadema's house, il should 
be explained, are nol boi - 

rowed from the voh ■ 

to which 1 have referred ; 
thej have been drawn l>y 
Heer Waail. 

1 ,r he may straightway ascend the brazen sta 
and entei the 5tu i quallj snip 

ami pleasing. The walls of this vast marble-lined 

chamber, pien i d w ith d - and openin 

corated with infinite refinement. The sui Face of the 
greal apse is covered with silvei i i that 

the studio maj be floodi d with pure light, so 
the painter's palette may be maintained al pah 





pitch; and at niglit the illuniinants are reflected 
from it with brilliant splendour of effect. The 
celebrated piano in oak, mother-of-pearl, ivory, and 
I know not what, besides, is raised in well-merited 
Honour in a. niche that is lighted by day through 
windows of onyx. And, greatest marvel of all in 
a studio, tlie orthodox, inevitable top-light is for 
once heterodox, evitable, and absent. The inscrip- 
tions about the house, too, are. a feature eloquent 
of the hospitality they proclaim. From the hearty 
"Salve" above the house-door to the graceful salu- 
tation in the ante-hall, from those about the studio 
to the rest, about the house, they breathe a love 
of art and a. cordial welcome to the visitor. Out- 
side the bed-chamber is a Ood-keep-you, infinitely 
comforting, doubtless, to i he devout mind : and facing, 
so that, it- may meet the eye .if the occupant on his 
quitting the room in the morning, is a cheery good- 

i row thai should pul him in excellent humour 

f or the day. And the point of it all is that some 
of the letters are painted in scarlet, which, reckon- 
ing Roman fashion, amount to numbers that mark, 
literally, red-letter dates in the Alma-Tadema family. 
In Dronrijp, near Leeuwarden, in Friesland, 
Laurence Tadema was born on the 8th January, L836, 

the smi of a notary in 
the village. Precocity, 
the clarion of the great, 
marked out his future 
career. At the age of 
four, so promising was 
his talent for art, that 
he received drawing- 
lessons : at five, he 
corrected his draw ing- 
master's work — that is 
to say, he pointed out 
faults which his as- 
tonished preceptor was 
forced, with some little 
mortification, perhaps, 
to admit. The circum- 
stance was of good 
omen, for had not 
Michelangelo as a child 
corrected the finished 
drawing of Domenico 
(Ihirlandajo anil re- 
duced it, as Vasari says, 
to a " perfect form " '. 
In due time, however, 
young Tadema was 

sel to follow his father's 
profession of the law; 
hut. he had chanced 
upon Leonardo da 

treatise in the village Shop, and then upon 

a hook mi perspective, and he read them again and 
again until he knew most, of them by heart. So 
as he grew up, he formed the determination to 
become an artist — a resolution which his prudent 
mother, now at this time widowed, soughl in vain 
to shake, and to which she only yielded when 
the doctors warned her that her delicate son was 
fretting himself to death by her opposition to his 
wishes. With art as the now recognised goal he 
soon mended, and he applied himself with energy 
to study, turning his attention principally to the 
classics. Hut, as he himself has fold me, while 
hating Latin and Creek for themselves, he loved 
them for their mythology and archeology, and fa- 
miliarised himself with their subjects chiefly through 
the medium of the fancy sketches of gods and god- 
desses and their attributes with which he Freely 

decorated the margins of his school-hooks. lie once 
told me, too, how during a -rand school examination, 
when all the masters sat round in solemn array, just 
as he was in the middle of a Latin speech, the sun 
broke in, lighting up the professors' bald heads with 
Liquid gold and touching with fiery light the green 
curtains that hung 1 ieyond. In a moment, all thought 



of masters, onlookers, and examination vanished — he 
was stricken dumb with the fine effect of light and 
shade, until a reproachful prompting voice brought 
him back unwillingly to earth. Who', I wonder,among 
all that school assembly suspected the real secret of 
the boy's astonished silence, or guessed how deep 
the sunlight ray had struck into his little soul ' 

Tadema now soon left his native village, and 
in 1852 became a student under Wappers, " David's 
antidote." He was a hard-working, rollicking student, 
always painting throughout the day, never reaching 
his ideal of good wank, ami as constantly destroy- 
ing his pictures, never discouraged, always trying, 
usually improving. Indeed, with the sole exception 
of " The ( trade," all his earl)- works have been burnt 
by his own hand. Another act, based on sense ami 
expediency not less sound, was the assumption of the 
" Alma-" which is prefixed to his name ; ii added grace 
and euphony to the name, lmt, what was to better 
and mure practical purpose far, it lifted him in the 
exhibition catalogues nut of the T's and deposited 
him in the As, near the beginning : an arrange- 

ment nl' especial advantage in the case of Foreign 
catalogues of exhibitions. A typical example, tins, 
nf the discernment an. I agai itj thai 
him as a. shrewd man of the world. 

The discover} of some Merovingian antiquities 
near the village "I' Dronrijp emphasised and 
veloped young Tadema's taste I'm' mediaeval and 
classic themes. This pronounced inclination de- 
lighted Professor Detaye, the Professor of History 
of tin' Antwerp Academy, who, warmed into en- 
thusiasm by so apt a pupil, crammed his young In ad 
with archreology of all periods. The youthful painter 
obtained possession of Gregory nl' Tours' "Historia 
Francorum," ami forthwith mi suggestions derived 
from its pages he painted his two principal Mero- 
vingian creations— " Clotilde at the T b nf Her 

Grandchildren" ami ''The Education nl' the Children 
nf Clovis." The last-named was his first great suc- 
cess, I'm' it was bought by the King nf the Belgians 
fur the sum nf £ti4, and now hangs in his palace at 
Brussels. Tadema was by this time in the studio 
of Baron Leys, after passing under the tutelage <>f 




Dyekmans and De Keyser, and was working on 
some of the master's pictures when he began to 
turn Lis attention to Ancient Egypt and to lay 
the foundation of his reputation as the great apostle 
of pictorial archaeology of our clay throughout the 
length and breadth of the world of art. 

But Alma-Tadema was not content merely to 
skirt his subject. He entered thoroughly into 
Ancient Egyptian life, because he knew that upon 
it was founded all more recent civilisation. At 
least, it is that which forms a point d'appiti for the 
student of customs; and. as the painter himself 
lows to express it. " Egypt is the portal to the road 
which leads through antiquity." Of this course of 
study the first important result was "An Egyptian 
Festival Three Thousand Years Ago," for which the 
then Prince Napoleon bid three thousand francs — 
"a franc per ' year ago '; " but, as four thousand was 
the artist's price, the offer was declined. In 1862 


Mr. Alma-Tadema gained the gold medal at the 
Antwerp Academy, and in the following year he 

made his first visit to Italy— an expedition, be it. 
observed, not undertaken till the young painter had 
firmly marked out the artistic path he determined 
to follow and had trodden it far enough to know 
the ground and the direction whither it pointed. I 
was once talking over this very question of travel 
with Mr. Alma-Tadema and its proper relative 
educational value, when he expressed himself em- 
phatically and to the point. 

"What is the use," he cried, "of trying to graft 
a, fruit-bearing branch on to a sapling if the sap- 
ling has no trunk to -peak of to graft it on? 
Rubens followed the right principle, ami, after 
deriving full benefit from his sojourn abroad, re- 
mained Ruhens still. But what would he have 
been if he had undertaken the journey prematurely 
— before the artist in him was formed?" 

Now, at that time 
Mr. Gambart was the 
great picture-dealer of 
the day (il principe 
Gavibarti, as he is still 
sometimes called in 
Nice), and he ruled the 
picture-market in 
Western Europe bene- 
ficently, no doubt, and, 
not less certainly, with 
the utmost advantage 
to himself. When the 
report circulated in any 
town which if was his 
custom lo visit on his 
professional rounds 
that " Gambart is com- 
ing ! " plots were forth- 
with formed by the ris- 
ing young painters of 
the community to lure 
him into their studios 
to view their works ; 
and bitter was the dis- 
appointment when the 
grea i ma n depart ed 
straightway after \ isit- 
ing the one or two 
art ists of repute whom 
be had come to see, and 
ignored the blandish- 
ments that were laid 
out to ensnare him. 

Young Alma- 
Tadema, who now had 
a studio of his own, 


had tasted of the dis- 
appointment too : lull. 
through a kindly sub- 
terfuge of Leys, who 
purposely misdirected 
( Sambart's cab-driver 
to his pupil's studio 
instead of to an- 
other's, he received the 
yearned-for visitor. 
When Gambart dis- 
covered where he had 
been deposited, and 
saw the jolly, smiling 
young artist at the 
door, lie could not 
find it in his heart 
to drive away : so he 

"Do you mean to 
say," he demanded 
brusquely, " that yon 
painted that picture ' " 
And he pointed, with 
obvious surprise, to 
the "Coming out of 
Church," which stood 
upon the easel. Mr. 
Tadeina bowed assent 

" Well, then,'' he 
added, after a few 
winds as to price, "let 
me have twenty-four 
of the sort, at progres- 
sive prices for each 

Here was a stroke 
of unheard -df luck ! 
And. to make matters 

better, Gambart agreed, after much pleading, thai 
the painter might go back to antkpiity instead of 
tn tin- .Mi. Idle Ages. Thus it came about thai some 
of the artist's most famous works were included 
among the pictures which had been ordered, like 
gloves, al so much per dozen. There was the "Three 
Thousand Years Ago," already referred in; then 
came "The Egyptian Chess-Players," with its fund 
of quiet humour : then " The Pyrrhic I lance," a 
tine work, in which the attitudes of the chief actors 


in search of a dead ral , " but, although lie added 

that '■ it is I he lasl COl nipt i"U ni the R ai 

and its Bacchanalian phrenzy which Mr. Alnm- 

Tadema seems to hold it his heavenly mission t" 

pourl r:i\ he hastened to bea 

mendous ability by declaring thai "he differs from 

all the artists I ! i . i \ e e\ i r know n, excepl rolm 

Lev* is, in the gradual im n ase of technii 

which attends and enhances together tin 

range oi his dramatic invention ; w hili 

were suggested by the figures on an antique vase, he display 

It created an extraordinary sensation when ii was minute draughtsman : i] 

exhibited at the Royal Academy Of this picture bectural detail, wherein 

Mr. Ruskin— a sincere admirer an fond of Mr. a specialty, I ue\ ' i! 

Tadema's work- told the Oxford undergraduati from him." 
mice thai " the general effei I \- exai i ly like a n So h 

scopic view of a small detachment of blackbeetle nrnj quut< 



of a distinguished Academician, who told me that 
all the difficult silver-work, marble, and tnother-of- 
peaii, with all their complexity of reflected lights 
and cross-colourings, in a portion of "The Roses oi 
Heliogabalus," were painted in on Varnishing Day 
at the Royal Academy while the picture was hang- 
ing mi the wall, and the artist, pipe in mouth, 
and without model or study of any kind, was keep- 
ing np a lively conversation with a little ring of 
men around him. When I asked him afterwards 
if this were true, he raised his eyebrows in quiet 
surprise as he replied, "Why not ( It was all thought 
out before." 

"Phidias in the Parthenon" and "Claudius"- 
the latter so splendidly etched by Rajon — are 
two more of the pictures painted for Mr. Gam- 
hart : and when, after four years of diligent work 
(that is to say. in 1869), they were all completed, 
the dealer called again. "I want yen to paint me 
twenty-four more," he said, naming juices, on the 
same progressive principle, but at a much higher 
rale. The ail ist agreed, ami the first picture de- 
livered was the celebrated "Vintage Festival." But, 
as this was so much more important than any that 
had gone before, the dealer insisted en paying for 
it at once at the highest rate. lie was a liberal, 
straightforward man; and the artist tells with 
generous pleasure how, when at last the second 
consignment of pictures was finished, Mr. Gambart 
gave a dinner to the artist-colony of Brussels, Mr. 
Tadema found himself the honoured guest, and, in 
front el' his cover, a silver jug hearing a Haltering 
inscription, while his napkin concealed a substantial 
cheque, all over and above the bargain. 

It was in this same year of 1869 thai Mr. Ahna- 
Tadema came to London and paid this country the 
greatest compliment in his power by applying for 
Letters of Denization from the Queen. That pro- 
ceeding, however, might be called a matter of mere 
convenience, for not less than a Dutchman or an 
Englishman, is he an Ancient Greek in spirit — a 
Conscript Father — a priest of Memphis — just as 
he pleases. Nor will those who saw him at the 
" Painters' Masque," as I did. a dozen years or more 
ago, readily forget how, attired in classic garb, he 
appeared thoroughly to the manner horn: nor re- 
press a smile in recalling how, when flic summer 
dawn was breaking, he threw himself into a hansoin- 
cali, pince-nez on nose, cigar in mouth, and his rich 
hut limp and fading flower-wreath drooping at each 
ear: while the startled market-gardener, wakened 
on his caii. stared speechless at the strange ap- 
parition, and pursued his journey with mouth wide 
open and bewildered eyes. 

His first exhibit on arriving in this country 
lie pictures lie called " I'n Amateur Romain " 

and "I'n Jongleur," and, partly through their novelty, 
a remarkable sensation they made. Then followed 
"The Emperor Hadrian Visiting a Romano-British 
Pottery"— a marvel of knowledge, but lacking in 
•4iacc through the treatment of the figures in the 
foreground and the strange cutting-off of the labourer's 
body. This picture the painter ultimately cut up, 
himself dissatisfied with the general effect, so that 
the whole picture now makes three, of which the 
semi-nude slave is the most valuable as a piece of 
brilliant flesh-painting. In 1S7.""> appeared "The 
Sculpture Gallery," which was really painted— as 
Gainsborough's "Blue Boy" was — to combat an 
idea. It had been said, and steadfastly held, that 
the satisfactory rendering of sculpture in a picture 
was impossible. Alma-Tadema set himself to prove 
the contrary in this work, and succeeded. Buskin 
.judged of the flesh-painting in it with some severity, 
foi', said he, if belonged to the foreign school by 
which the shadows were of charcoal and the lights 
of cream-soap : but while silent on the central pur- 
pose of the picture, he admitted it to be the principal 
historical piece of the year. The large picture was 
in the collection of the late Mr. Vanderbilt, of New 
York, and a. small replica of the work, I may add, 
was painted for Mr. Gambart and is now at Nice. 

When .Mr. Tadema. was painting "The Picture 
Gallery" archaeological accuracy was hardly of less 
importance with him than a religion; indeed, the cor- 
rectness of the accessories in this remarkable work 
(which, by the way, was painted in response to a chal- 
lenge) came to tell against the artist, for, as be has 
himself reminded me, picture-buyers are frequently 
not picture-lovers, and still less of ten, antiquity-lovers. 
Furthermore, Mr. Gambart discovered that an in- 
tending- purchaser finally refused the picture as 
"there was so much in it for a fellow to remember, 
and he did not want to look a fool over it." And 
again, it is often impossible to be correct on points 
on which Antiquity is silent : il is so fatally easy to 
trip. In one of his Eastern pictures, for instance, 
he introduced a sunflower, in the belief that, as it 
belonged to the "Jerusalem artichoke" family, it 
was sure to be right, and he only ascertained loo 
late that the sunflower, whether Jerusalem (girasole) 
or otherwise, is a comparatively modern importation 
from South America. Then somebody discovered 
that the shape of the seat in " Sappho " dated from 
two hundred years antecedent to Pericles, and 
another objected that certain Greek lettering on 

a pedestal ought to have been something else — 

although the artist had the British .Museum at Ins 
back as his authority. Ami, finally, he was cruelly 
tripped by the discovery that, in one of his Roman 
flower-pictures he had introduced the clematis Jack- 
manni the creal E Mr. Jackman of a very 



recent date. So Tadema came fco the final and ob- 
viously correct conclusion that archaeology need be 
absolutely accurate only in so far as it is pictural 
and not scientific, and that if it be not expressive 
or necessary it need not be insisted on. 

But Mr. Alma-Tadema's skilful realism lias not 
had the unattainable 
fortune of convincing 
every critic, among 
them Professor Ruskin, 
who, in his Notes on 
the Eoyal Academy 
for 1875, inveighed 
against the " gossip 
of the past," which is 
probably agreeable to 
a supremely ignorant 
populace. "The actual 
farts which Shake- 
speare knew about 
Koine," he said, " were, 
in number and ac- 
curacy, compared to 
those which Mr.Alma- 
Tadema knows, as the 
pictures of a child's 
first story-book, com- 
pared to Smith's Dic- 
tionary of Antiquities. 
But when Shakespeare 
wrote — 

' The noble sister of Pub- 

The Moon of Rome; 

chaste as the icicle 
That's curdled by the 

frost from purest snow, 
And hangs on Dian's 


he knew Rome herself MRS . alma-ta 

tn the heart ; and Mr. 

Tadema, after reading his Smith's Dictionary from 
A to Z, knows nothing of her but her shadow : and 
that, cast at sunset." A judgment, this, like so 
many of Ruslrin's, spoilt by exaggeration : yet en- 
closing a truth that the more sensitive searchers 
after vibrating life in Mr. Tadema's pictures will 
assuredly in some measure respond to. 

It is not easy to speak of Mr. Tadema's method 
of work or favourite processes of technique, as hi' 
is for ever changing — always trying something else, 
ever striving to do better. One of the problems he 
once set himself to solve, ami has intermittently 
returned to, is the relation of tin- architectural 
column to the human figure ami the juxtaposition 
of both in a picture without apparent disproportion 
of size, yet with complete illusion. The leader will 

have little difficulty in recalling a dozen pictures in 
which the artist has cunningly endeavoured, with a 
greater or less measure of success, to ..rive an ap- 
pearance of truth to the relative size ,,f the column 
which in reality doe- not (and within the compass of 
the canvas could not) be! AConno 

is on,, of the many 
insta nces .f this. 
■■ The i lonvalesi ent," 
too, ami "After the 
Audience "— a picture 
which was painted 
for a collector who 
wanted another " Au- 
dience at Agrippa's." 
Then i lien- i- " Fish- 
ing" and many more, 
all with the same 
motive the last of 
them the 

■■ Spi ing," exhibited in 
I ! ■ and now in the 
possession of lieu 
Robert von Mendels 


A curious custom. 
though logical is 
this habit of Alma- 
Tadema's of painting 

in "classes." Thus 

there are the ' 
pictures" — of which 
I me. I mention only 
■■ ( latullus at I., si 
"Antony ami Cleo- 
pal a," ami " I lilt, i- 
gabalus" for the 
painting of which lat- 

IEMAS STUDIO tr| W01 "kj ''> '' ' 

the artist usi '1 to re- 
ceive two boxes of roses a week throughout the 
winter, each flow | tinted from a dil 

model. Then we have the " poppy pi. tun 
which of ci i [uinius Superbus," "AH 

Welcome," and " The Idyll, or \ 
are among the chief; the "oleander pictures:" and 
the "circular-scat pictures," with "Sappho," "The 
Impr.A isatore," " An < lid Storj " and " Tl e 
ing from Hi heir head. I mi 

that the great work last named (which bei : n 

picture at the hand of some lunatic- 
vandal at the exhibition) was painted in the six 

preceding the A. adi i I 

the picture it replaced oi ailed 

" plat.. " did not satisfy the artist after he had 
led eight months of hard work upon it : the 



same amount of time required for the " Helioga- 
balus" itself. This canvas was mi an easel in Mr. 
Tadema's studio the last time I was there, its face 
turned sorrowfully to the wall, awaiting the fate 
the painter may ultimately mete nut to it. Again, 
there are the "bridge pictures," the most im- 
portant of them "By the Bridge," a sort of elabor- 
ation of "The Flower-Girl ; " and, finally, there are 
the three versions of " Claudius," of which " Ave 
Casar! 16 Saturnalia:" (the property of Mrs. 
renins) is the eompletest and the finest. Like 
Sir John Millais, Mr. Alma-Tadema has on only 
one occasion painted a full-length nude female figure. 
This picture was executed as an object-lesson to 
his pupil, the Ih.n. John Collier (its present owner) 
— the only condition on which he would accept him 
as a learner. So the youth's father gave the com- 
mission, and the son watched the painting, whereby 
it, was hoped that he would acquire the difficult 
ait of painting flesh; and the position since taken 
by .Mr. Collier is an interesting commentary on Mr. 
Alma-Tadema's very practical mode of instruction. 
For this picture, "The Sculptor's Model," the inspira- 
tion was drawn from the "Esquiline Venus" then 
recently discovered : and the aim of the painter was 
to realise, as far as possible, the conditions under 
which the masterpiece was wrought. 

I suppose that the leading characteristic of Mr. 
Alma-Tadema's artistic mind is his conscientiousness. 
His brilliant " Spring " was scraped out more than 
onC e_with its multitude of exquisitely-painted de- 
tails and lovely heads and figures— as it- did not seem 
to him to "come well" as a whole; so that in its 
final form il represents the labour of two or three 
pictures, and comes as near to the intention of its 
painter as well could lie. No part of a canvas is 
ever scamped or " faked," and Mr. Tadema has told 
me that the little glimpse of sunny sea and sky in the 
top corner of many of his pictures often gives him as 
much trouble as all the rest of the picture. For this 
conscientiousness and self-application hostile critics 
in the Press and in his own profession fall foul of 
him — for where lives an artist who lias no such 
critic among his fellow-workers? " C" sue!" they 
exclaim, in the elegant slang of the studio, ignoring 
the fact that it was by honest sweat that Ter Borch, 
Gerard Dow, Metsu, De Hoogh, Van Mieris, even 
Meissonier in our own day, reached the heights of 
their achievements, and that it is by the same 
infinite care that Alma-Tadema has risen to his 
place. Without it, for example, he would never have 
rivalled and excelled Solomon Etuysdael in his ren- 
dering of marble; without it — for he keeps his 
sudden impulses for his personal intercourse — he 
would have been nothing. He Eormed his style with 
deliberation and care. When he found that be was 

painting too dark, he re-formed that style as dili- 
gently and carefully, hiding no fault to himself 
nor compounding in anywise with his aesthetic 

" As the sun colours flowers, so art colours life," 
runs the motto in his studio; and with the slow 
deliberation of Nature in her exquisite processes, he 
follows her and seeks to record her beauties: with 
so much love, with such keen and delicate appre- 
ciation, that those who carp and dub his pictures 
"pot-boilers" are fain to admit — for they have no 
other choice — that if so indeed, they are the very 
apotheoses of "pot-boiling." His originality, his easy 
confidence and knowledge of effect, the brilliancy of 
his colour, his juggling with the falsehoods of paint- 
ing so as to make them artistic truths, his scholarship 
which while always learned is never pedantic, his 
skill in imitation of textures, his daring which some- 
times almost amounts to audacity, and Ids perfection 
of finish are a sufficient justification of the pinnacle 
on which he has been placed. He may not be a 
poet in the highest sense, but his imagination is 
at once picturesque and powerful. There may lie 
" more mechanical steadiness of practice than innate 
fineness of nerve," as Buskin said ; his style may to 
some extent be artificial; indeed, a certain artificiality 
is inseparable from his style of art. But compare it 
with the hardness and artificiality of M. Gerorne, 
and the advantage lying with Mr. Alma-Tadema will 
be clearly established. 

That such a master has attracted imitators in 
crowds is hardly to be wondered at. I do not mean 
accidental repeaters of subjects whose treatment is 
totally different — as when, for example, Mr. Tadema, 
with "An Earthly Paradise" himself followed Mr. 
Orchardsou's "Master Baby." I remember once 
calling the artist's attention to an unblushing piece 
of plagiarism, in which grouping, poses, draperies, 
and the very folds had all been imitated with slavish 
accuracy from a work of Ins own. But Mr. Tadema 
merely shrugged his shoulders philosophically as he 
quoted the artistic axiom that " those who follow 
will never see but the master's back." 

Of Mr. Tadema's honours it is almost un- 
necessary to speak in detail — for he must possess 
nearly all the more important that the luiropean 
Academies have to bestow, and he is, besides, 
Knight of some half-a-dozen Orders. Of greater 
value and more permanent delight to him is the 
knowledge that the character of Aisma, the hero 
in the art romance of the great Dutch writer 
Vosmaer, is drawn line for line from him; that a 
portion of Ebers' "Egyptian Princess" was suggested 
by his "Flower-Girl;" and that a whole prose idyll 
by the same author was inspired by his " Question," 
of which the title was retained. 



REGULATIONS.-^^ and Answers may be signed with the nam, of th, writ with a pseudonym- 

but the Jul! name and address must be enclosed for the information of th, Editor. 

Ko ''>"<>">■<■* of a commercial nature as t due or genuineness of pictures in the correspondent's possession or 

other matters more properly addressed to pictur, dealers, can be inserted. 

Illustrative matter may be included when helpful to th, lucidity or interest of Query or Answer and photoaraphs 
and drawings-m respect to which, however, no responsibility can be taken, although eve,-y effort wilt h 
made to return them, ,j prepaid, to their oumers—may I., sent for reproduction. 

No pictures print,, or art objects may b, sent to the (Mice of The Magazine of Art in res ! to this 

without th. previous consent of the Editor. 

Queries intended for insertion in any particular number of The Magazine of A.kt should car/, ,h. Ojice by the 
-■'"';" < h \ Previous month: for example, a Query intended for th, December Number, which ,< m 
<m the -i-uh oj November, should be forwarded by the sal, „f October. 

The Editor cannot guarantee insertion of Query or Answer in any special number of th Mae, ,„ 

however, will be made to publish them in the fart in cours, of preparation, and to accom, , < 

Answers compiled m the Editorial Office, or by experts connected with the Magadn, This will not vn 
vent subsequent additions by the whole bod,, of readers of the Magazine to the information alrea 
lo our readers, indeed, we look for the co-operation wind, is needful to render this secti, i 
terest and value and to ensure th, success anticipated for it. 

The Editor reserves th, right to refuse th, insertion of any Query or Answer should h for any reason think 
fit to do so. Although h, will exercise sue/, supervision as may be possibl, over th Ansieers ins, 
h, anno! hold himself responsible for the opinions or the facts of Correspondents. 

The Editor has been greatly encouraged bythz immediate espouse accorded to the announcement of this section in last 
mouth's Part and by th, readiness already evinced by readers to avail themselves of the opportunity offered. 

[1] wiLkie's village festival. — xV version of 
Wilkie's famous "Village Festival" is reported to 
have been sold at Christie's on duly 4th of this 
year. This appears to be the third or fourth 
painting by the same master of the same subject, 
one of which is in the National Gallery, and the 
other, I believe, in Windsor Castle. Can your 
readers tell me more precisely of the whereabouts 
of these pictures ? — L. Robinson (Reading). 

„% The picture referred to was in the col- 
lection of pictures of Mr. Arthur Seymour, and, 
curiously enough, was displayed at the same time 
and sold on the same day as those of the late 
Mr. Angerstein, for whose father Wilkie painted 
the original " Village Festival," now in the 
National Gallery. Mr. Seymour's picture, which 
was signed and dated 1810, measured 24x29.1 
inches; although on a large scale, it. did no! 
include the whole design as we see it in the 
finished work in the National Gallery. There 
is no version of this picture in the Royal Col- 
lections either at Windsor Castle, Buckingham 
Palace, or elsewhere: hut a beautiful little re 
plica is one of the gems of Sir Charles Ten- 
nant's superb collection of old English masters 
in Grosvenor Square. 

of your readers inform me of the whereabouts of any 

original water-colours and oil-paintings bj R 
Seymour, the first illustrator of " Pickwick \l. 

%* m Five original water-colours by Seymoui 
were sold at Sotheby's on March 7th, IS92. 
The purchasers were Messrs. Robsou, Howell, 
Stephen, and Sabin, from whom, doubtless 
ticulars of their whereabouts might he obtained. 
— G. S. Layard (Malvern). 

CARTOON. — A drawing by sir Edward B 
Jones, representing Adam and Eve al work aftei 
their expulsion from the Garden ol Eden, ap] 
in the Daily Chronicle aboul a yeai ago. I have 
heard it staled since that the cartoon was not 
original: thai it was uoi drawn for the journal in 
question; and that ii was, in fact, executed hy Sir 
Edward Burne-Jones for another publication. As 
an enthusiastic studenl ol the art worl I houltl 
l.e glad to know if thes • statement i an ti tie, and 
if the drawing in question is o, i- nol mi [-nil]. A 


# * The cart awn for the 

Daily Chronicle, according to the aim 

made by that i ual. The motive itself had 

already been used by Sir Edward as a frontis- 
piece to a volume of poems by Mr. William 
.Morris ; but i he drawing was pei iaLVj n 
for the Daily Chronicle, and adapted to a , 



object at a special juncture ; and it has the 
further credit of being perhaps the first true 
work of art executed by an artist of world- 
wide reputation for a daily paper working in 
the service of the people. As to the matter of 
" originality," a further point must be dealt with. 
An artist of Sir Edward Burne-Joues' calibre, of 
his facile invention and splendid imagination, 

(Ornum by Sir 

produced by special perm 
Proprietors of the "Daily 

Jones, Bart. Re- 



in the Panel by Jacopo Delia Qu. 

at Bologna.) 

can hardly be said to be anything but original. 
At the same time, it is quite open to him con- 
sciously or unconsciously to derive inspiration 
from works that he has seen before, making 
them, by his handling and by bis individuality, 
works to all intents and purposes original. 
Such is the case of the Adam and Eve. By 
courteous permission of the Editor of the Daily 
Chronicle we reproduce in miniature the cartoon 
alluded to, together with the panel by Jacopo 
della Quercia, which is one of the ten that 
decorate the pilasters of the great western portal 
of San Petronio, in Bologna. Of this great 
architectural work a full-size plaster cast may 
be seen in South Kensington Museum. A re- 
production of this panel is here, given from a 
photograph taken from the sculpture itself, so 
that the Student may make his own comparison 
of the treatment of the subject by the two 
masters. The originality of Delia Quercia's 
conception need hardly be insisted upon, for 
hitherto Ghiberti, Uecello, Andrea Pisano, and 
others bad represented Eve only as the mother 
with a. mother's cares and joys. Delia Quercia 
shows her as sharing in the work to which Adam 
was condemned ; and the freshness and vividness 
of the conception doubtless struck the poetic 
mind of Sir E. Burne-Jones. It similarly struck 
Raphael, who, in his "Bible" in the Loggia of 
the Vatican, treated the subject somewhat simi- 
larly in "The Labours of our First Parents." 

[4] the appreciation of romney. — The esteem 
iii which Konmey is held as a painter at the present 
day is surely one of the most surprising circum- 
stances to lie found in the art-world within recent 
times, and I think that, without violating your 
rule as to " commercialism," I may fairly ask if 
this esteem, as exemplified in the prices given for 
Romney's works in the sale-room, is not rather 
overdone ( What, I should be glad to 
know, is the justification for such a price 
as £10,500, given recently for " Painting 
and Music " ( And may we not have a 
reproduction of the picture in The Maga- 
zine of Art ? — T. H. 

# % A reproduction of the picture 
in question — which, it may be stated, 
was sold for 10,500 guineas, not pounds, 
to Mr. (J. Wertheimer — appeared in the 
September number of the Magazine (p. 
460), under the title of " Beauty and 
the Arts." A writer in Temple Bur has 
recently drawn attention to the same 
subject, reminding the public that 
Eomney's pictures for years after his 
deatli never fetched more than an insig- 
nificant sum, and that the "St. Cecilia" (Mrs. 
Billington), which in 1890 brought 900 guineas, 
was once knocked down for eight and a hal f guineas. 
There can be little doubt that this rage for 
Romney will eventually withdraw to its proper 
limits; the probability is that, by the law of 
ironical fate, he will fall far beyond it, as we 
have seen in the case of Guido Reni, Carlo 
Dolci, Etty, Dyce, and a score of other painters. 
The fact is that Romney is ridiculously over- 
appraised. He had grace and beauty and fluency, 
a sense of style, and a courtly appreciation of 
dignity. For these qualities he is esteemed. But 
his breadth is usually emptiness, his colour often 
poor and generally hot and bricky, his line too 
obvious, his dexterity summary, and not to be 
compared for sheer skill with that of Mr. Sar- 
gent, He was a good deal of an artist, but not 
so much of a painter. Referring to Romney, 
Sir John Millais declared in a private letter 
written three years ago to the Editor of this 
Magazine: " Shoddy pictures of the last century 
are just now run up in price, and the times 
require a very strong pen to clear the air." 
There is little doubt that most of our accom- 
plished artists hold the same opinion. Lord 
Leighton certainly did, The contrary view is 
held chiefly by younger men, who are blinded to 
Romney 's faults by the brilliancy of his merits. 
Although we can never expect to see his " Mrs. 
Tickell," which sold for 1,150 guiueas in 1894, 



drop to the fotfr guineas it fetched in 1804, the 
present generation will probably see a very con- 
siderable reduction in the market value among 
connoisseurs of painting. As to connoisseurs 
of beauty, that is a different thing. 


— Sir John Tenniel has fur many years devoted 
his pencil to execution of political cartoons in the 
pages of Punch, but it is generally known that at 
the outset of his career, and later, he aimed at 
excellence if not in a. higher, at least in a graver, 
plane of art. Has he executed anything other 
than the fresco, now perished, in the Palace of 
Westminster? — T. Copeland (Peebles). 

*% It is a mistake to suppose that Sir 
John's Westminster fresco has "perished." It 
is tun- that it has been greatly injured by time 
and the climate, but as a matter of fact its 
condition is much better than that of any of 
its companion pictures in the Upper Waiting 
Eoom. Besides this work, it is hardly neces- 
sary to remind the reader, are Sir John's con- 
tributions in water-colours to the Royal Insti- 
tute, and more especially — in the way of public 
work — the important decorative figure of 'Leon- 
ardo da Vinci'' on the west wall of the South 
Court in the South Kensington Museum. This 
work' is carried out in mosaic. 

[Oj WHO WAS "E. I. F."? — I have in my possession 
a porcelain tile on which is painted a bouquet of 
flowers in strong but well-chosen hues. On the bach 
appears " E. I. F., 1772." I should like to know if 
the artist was a craftsman of importance." — C. L. F. 
# % The initials are clearly those of Em- 
manuel Jean Frutting, of Berne, in which town 
he established a factory for the production of 
porcelain stoves. M. Gamier, who refers to this 
craftsman in his "Dietionnaire de la Ceramique," 
states that a stove bearing these initials is to 
be found in the Gasnault collection in the 
Limoges Museum, but adds that many pieces 
with this signature are of doubtful origin. We 
should be glad to publish a reproduction of this 
apparently rare piece if the owner will permit. 


would be useful to me if your readers could tell 
me what were the chief works executed b\ Cat 
peaux in bronze. I know most of his marble statues, 
etc., but have been unable to ascertain the subjects 
of his principal works in the metal. — FONDEUR. 

# % When he was thirty-two (1859) Car- 
peaux exhibited in the Salon his bronze sialic 
of " Jeuue Pecheur." In L863 his " (Jgolin el ses 
Enfauts" was erected in the. Tuileries Gardens, a 

replica of it, also in bronze, being shown in the 
Salon of 1867. In the followii 
shown the statue of the Prince Imperial. The 
sketch lor the monument toWatteau wasai i 
by the town of Valenciennes, and was carried out 
in 1884— nine years after the painter's death. 
The great group for the Observatory fountain, 
representing the Four Quarters of the World, was 
cast by Matifat in 1*74. Besides these v. 
busts of Maltre Beauvois and one or two i 


just read with tin- greatest interest your excellent 
article on the great Sir John Millais, whose loss is 
irreparable. It is in no way a depreciation that I 
should like to relate to you a circumstance connected 
with "Autumn Leaves" that 1 heard years ago from 
Mr. Eden at Lytham, where he was living after 
having left the neighbourhood of Bolton, in which 
place he had been a successful bleacher. 

When the picture reached him he disliked it, and 
he asked the great painter to take it hack: but this 
AIis. Millais, his mother, said was impossible. He 
was then told to sit opposite to w when at dinner 
for some months, and he would learn to Like it. lie 
tried this, but, alas ! disliked it more and more. ( hie 
day a friend — I think Mr. Miller, of Preston — 
called, saw the picture, was enchanted, and said : 
"Eden, I will give you any three of my pictures for 
'Autumn Leaves.'" "As you are a great fi 
said Eden, " you shall have it;" and so the picture 
changed bands. This is what Mr. Eden told me 
and now it is on the way to be " among the world's 
besl masterpieces." Edw. Stuart Tayloe (Sutton 

S. Ann's Rectory, Loughl ugh) 

[We believe that it was to Mr. .1. Leathart, 

not to Mr. Miller, that the pii ture passed | 

sam bough and beverlev. — Reading the very 
interesting life of Sam Bough in The Magazine of 
Aim for September. I find a startling mention of my 
old friend George Augustus Sala, I was associated 
with Beverley from L844 to 1846. I well remember 
that Beverley went to Manehestei in the summer of 
1845 to paint the scenerj foi ■> revival of Acts and 
i;<i/,t/,,t, leaving me to look after his interests at 
the Princess's Theal n rd Street. I 
with George Gordon, who had been at work with 
Bough in the Manchester painting-room, from which 
I learned that it is t hat Bough 

i 8 pupil of Beverley, and I am quite certain that 
he would not a k Sala to wipe his paletl 
his I ts), which it is always the duly of the 

painiei '.■ lai ■ io do. Besides, Sala was not 

Hed with Mr. Beverley till after .111111'. L846. — 
W. -I. < 'ai.i.' "it (Savage Club). 



National mHE thirty-ninth annual report of the National 
Portrait L Portrait Gallery is without question the 
Gallery. ]1|ost satisfactory of all. It records a popularity 
which in respect to attendance has equalled in three 

P.R.A. Recently acquired b 
n the West Octagon Room.) 

the National Gallery. 

probably make some room in the National Gallery by 
reason of modern English pictures being removed to 
Millbank. A reference is made to the official catalogue, 
but no claim, of course, is made for the very high credit 
which should properly be accorded to it. We observe that 
a " special arrangement " has been made with Messrs. 
Walker and Boutall to photograph all the pictures in the 
gallery. We presume that this dues not mean a monopoly. 

The pleasure with which we welcome the 
PainUng 6 awakeni »g of tne miniature painters of England 

to a sense of their own dignity and that of their 
art is somewhat dashed by the knowledge of a curious 
rivalry, not, we hope, of personal jealousy. We have often 
urged in these columns the desirableness of forming a 
Society of Miniature Painters, not with a view merely of 
securing the concrete advantages of a corporate establish- 
ment, but with the double object of reviving in the 
public mind an interest in one of the most exquisite and 
refined of all the methods of portraiture ; the self- 
education of the artists ; and assisting, by honourable 
competition, the bringing forth of that excellence which, 
from Cooper to Cosway, has always constituted a subject 
of national pride. We were hardly prepared, however, 
for the foundation of two societies almost at the same 
moment, both bodies declaring themselves ready for amal- 
gamation, yet neither, for the time at least, prepared to give 
way. This should not be; the art of miniature painting 
cannot support two societies, and for the sake of the art, 

months any previous year's numbers. It sets forth form- 
ally Mr. Watts's splendid gift of eighteen portraits, to- 
gether with twenty-seven other canvases of the highest 
interest, from King Edward IV. down to Lord Leighton 
and Robert Louis Stevenson. Seven have also been pur 
chased, including Westall's famous portrait of Lord 
Byron. Sixty pictures have been repaired, sixty-eight 
placed under glass, and so forth ; while 245 new bio- 
graphical tablets have been written and affixed to the 
portraits. We draw special attention to these details 
in order to show how much energy and activity are being 
displayed in the organisation of this admirably conducted 
institution, which contains as many as 905 pictures on 
the walls, 116 works in sculpture, and 29 miscellaneous 
portraits in cases. The grand total thus amounts to 1,050 
—a total which places the New Portrait Gallery, of course, 
among the largest galleries of its kind in the world. 
After an explanation, which, however, is not a satisfactory 
one, of the opening of the gallery without any sort of 
ceremonial, the director proclaims— what we set forth 
two years ago in this Magazine, but was at the time 
officially contradicted— that the gallery, newly opened as 
it is, has no more room for additions to the collection. 
In other words, the site first granted and the designs hist 
made were inadequate from the beginning. In the par- 
tition of the site now occupied by the barracks— which 
we have over and over again pointed out are a constant 
and imminent source of grievous danger to the National 
Gallery as well as the National Portrait Gallery— it is 
necessary that the latter should receive its due share, 
more especially as the opening of Mr. Tate's building will 

{By F. Goya. Recently acquired by the National -Gallery, Room XV., No. 1,473.) 

amalgamation should be arranged without delay. This 
should be the easier as no nutter of essential import- 
ance, no fundamental principle whatever, separates the two 
concerns. If matters proceed as they have begun, one of 


two tilings is sure to happen : either the 
collapse of both, or the absorption of one 
by the other after a damaging struggle. 
The two societies appear about equal in 
strength, numerical and artistic, and it will 
be to the benefit of neither if considera- 
tions which would do no credit to a vestry 
are permitted to sacrifice the art on an 
altar of egotism. 

The French axiom "il faut 
Current Art , , 

.. „. reculer pour mum sautei 

on the Stage. J , . . 

may be applied just now to 

Art in the Theatre, which has probably been 
holiday-making with the rest of the world 
— or, as the professional phrase has it, " rest- 
ing"— collecting all its energies to achieve 
a record-breaker later on in the long- 
expected Monte Cristo ballet at the Empire 
Theatre. At the Gaiety, however, Mr. 
Telbin contributes a conspicuous exception 
to this record of artistic inactivity, in a 
scene of peculiar charm and accomplish- 
ment— a view of Dartmouth Sound from 
the heights above — which graces the second 
act of J/.v Girl. Tn the crowd of yachts- 
women peopling the foreground of this 
picture, Mr. Wilhelm gives evidence of 
his versatility in an array of Jin-de-sieclt 
toilettes, steering a singularly felicitous 
course of ocean blues and sea-foam colour- 
ing between the Scylla of fashionable con- 
vention and the Charybdis of theatrical 













(DesijneJ by J. Hassall. j 

extravagance. The poetry that adorned 
the scenery by Beverly for Planquette's 
opera Rip Van Winkb. at the Comedy The- 
atre some years since, finds, unfortunately, 
little echo in that of the latest Alhambra 

{By F. W. Pomeroy. Recently unveiled at PaUley ) 

ballet on the same romantic theme. The one pictorial incident 
with artistic feeling is the brief moment of Rip's awakening in the rosy 
flush of dawn, but the actual scene on the mountain tempts one to ask 
why the unmistakable Matterhoni is all. >p the Kaatskills, and 

why the draperies of the phantom fays should be bordered with up-to date 
frills! The village tableaux are sadly lacking in atmosphere, 
costumes throughout claim no special recognition for colour oi 
To enhance the pictorial value of his i revival of Cj 

Sir Henry Irving has seemed thi cooperation of Mr. Alma-Tadema, 
R.A., whose reliable and populai ias been ably edited for the 

Lyceum stage by Mr. Harker. The Et< in particula 

beyond a doubt the source of their inspiration, and are in admirable 
■ mtra I to the comparative barbarism of the British interiors with their 

I eltic d rations and Druidic symbol- (a curiously effective 

corridor in "Cymbeline's Palace" is excellent in draughtsmanship), and 

to the landscape illustrations from the brush of Mr. Hawes Ckavkn, who 

warned against cultivating a monotonj of style and n 

ning -set " of the "i ddly "Japam 

sentiment, and his final pern t thi i: Kit 

draperies attached to a I lelj pi rforal d 

The "Field of Battle" with a d> ed of the toy-shop variety 

the i romlech o 5 ! for ,l "' 

""' 1 le 
ol the R Perhaps Mr. Craven's mosl noteworthy 

effort is in Act [V., " Before the Cave," i mposition Bug 

,,: the familiar methods ol Mi ' rt in his sunny gl< 

b and Welsh billsidi though here at one moment tl, 



(From a Photograph by 

irritated by a transparency in the back cloth showing 
a scarlet sun setting in a bright emerald light on the 
estuary below. The costumes are largely of the Lear and 
Macbeth order, and against these Cymbeline's royal raiment 
seems more characteristic of the 
Hebraic priesthood. Sir Henry's 
Iachimo suggests in the " make- 
up " rather the Renaissance than 
Ancient Rome, though his superb 
robe of lapis-lazuli blue, draped 
in the earlier scenes by a toga 
heavy with jewelled vine-em- 
broideries, is sufficiently typical 
of the luxurious decadence of 
art undc the later emperors. 
Imogen's first dress is almost 
startling in its bizarre assem- 
blage of hues— outrivalling 
Joseph's traditional " Coat of 
Many Colours "—but Miss Terry 
wears it with all possible dis- 
tinction and grace, and later on as "Fidele" is irresist- 
ibly charming in the subdued harmonies of the discreetly 
fashioned page's disguise. 

We call the attention of all aitists to the terms 
Miscellanea. of a competition w i,i cu W M be found in the 
advertisement pages of this Part. For designs for a poster, 
prizes to the value of £100 are offered by Messrs. Cassell 
aud Company, Limited. The judges will be Mr. John 
Sparkes, Principal of the Royal College of Art, Mr. Edwin 
Bale, K.I., and Mr. M. H. Spielmann. 

In connection with the Burns Centenary there is an 
exhibition at the Royal Glasgow Institute of the Fine Arts 
of everything that it has been possible to collect concerning 
Scotland's greatest poet. The Art section includes portraits 
of Burns, and of his friends and associates ; and pictures 
of the scenes among which he lived and about which he 
wrote. Then there are personal relics ; various editions of 
his works, and a collection of MSS. and books relating to 
Burns and his time. 
The catalogue is a 
bulky volume — we 
give a reduced repro- 
duction of the cover, 
designed by Mr. 
Hassall— for the 
compilation of which, 
with the exception of 
the book section, Mr. 
Robert Walker has 
been responsible. 

A statue of Burns 
has been unveiled by 
Lord Rosebery at 
Paisley to commemo- 
rate the Centenary of 
the poet's death. The 
commission was 
gained by Mr. F. W. 
POMEEOY in an open 
competition, and the 
cost has been defrayed 
by a series of Burns concerts. The statue is in bronze, and 
i- agraceful ami virile composition. Mr. Pomeroy found his 
inspiration In the opening lines of "The Brigs of Ayr": — 
"The simple bard, rough at his rustic plough, 
Learning his tuneful trade from every songster on the bough." 

(From a Photograph by Hollyer.) 

It is with deep regret that we notify here the sad 
Obituary. death of that hjghiy.talented humorous artist, 

Mr. Fred Barnard, in the 
month of September. In 
view of an article on his life 
and work, which we propose 
to include in an early Num- 
ber in the series of "Our 
Graphic Humourists," we 
withhold for the present a 
biographical notice. 

With sentiments not less 
sincere we record also the 
death of Mr. George du 
Maurier, the delightful 
artist, the genial satirist, 
the exquisite pourtrayer of 
beauty with pen and pencil, 
who lias taken so great a 
share in social art, and has 
helped to make Punch a 

delight for six-and-thirty years. We are pleased to think 
that it was in these pages that this artist made his literary 
debut some years ago, and that his pencil has embellished 
them. A careful estimate of his life's work was published 
in this Magazine on p. 229 of the volume for 1892. 

To the life and death of the great art-reformer, Wil- 
liam Morris, we propose also to make such fuller refer- 
ence as appears to be due, not only to his own great talent 
and brilliant work, but also to the powerful influence for 
good which he exerted on the art-views and the art-produc- 
tions of this country, of Europe, ami of America. 

A portrait is presented of the late Mr. C. S. Reinhardt, 
whose black-and-white work has embellished the best of 
the American books and magazines for some years past. 
He was a consummate master of the art of pen-drawing, 
and was among its most distinguished professors. 

Victor Lagye, the celebrated Flemish artist, has died 
at Antwerp at the age of seventy one. He was born in 
Ghent in 1825, and 
studied at the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts of 
that City. He went 
to Rome at the age of 
sixteen, fought under 
Garibaldi, and es- 
caped from a sentence 
of death when the 
city was captured by 
the French. He com- 
menced painting 
again at Brussels, but 
a little time after 
went to Antwerp to 
Baron Leys, with 
whom he stayed till 
he died. He painted 
the well-known series 
of panels in the 
Hotel de Ville at 
Antwerp, illustrating 
the marriage-customs 
at different epochs. 

"The Exposure of the South Kensington Museum." 
The writer of the anonymous letter addressed to the Editor 
on this subject is requested to communicate confidentially 
his name and address. 

root « Photograph by F. Gregory) 




millv early 
L gave thi 

t proi 

by amateurs. 

It w 

of Mr. George W. Joy merely 
rise which is frequently shown 
is marked by good drawing, by 

(From a Sketch by Himself.) 

conceptions savouring of youth, and by a smooth 
finish, but much that is desirable in colour was 
wanting. He first painted subject pictures. These 
were hard in outline and low in tone. Portrait paint- 
ing thru occupied a considerable period of his time, 
and here the severe lines gradually softened. Yearn- 
ing for some outlet to his imagination, he returned to 
subject pictures, most of them with a patriotic motive, 
and in Works of imagination. Within a dozen years, 
.Mi. Joy's wink has so changed, and has reached a 
level of merit so far above his early labours, that it 
is difficult to believe the present painter could have 
grown out of his former self. Withoul hesitation ii 
may be said that his art of the last few years is worth) 1 
of very serious consideration, for if nol in the estimate 
of the bulk of English critics, we find support at 
least in the best critics of France, and in many other 
Continental judges of art. Mr. Joy is not only in 
earnest and in love with his art, but he manifests an 

unusual energy and breadth. In th 
a singleness of purpose that charai 

|Ualities and 

ses him. lies 

the secret of his growth. His "Lear and Cordelia," 
now in the possession of the Leeds Municipal < lallery, 
"Christ ami the Little Child," now on his easel, 
"The King's Drum," and "The Danaids," reveal a 
painter possessing all the refinement and dignity of 
repose, thoroughly imbued with the spirit of an 
elevated art. It is not proposed to class Mr. Joy, 
for there is an element that is decidedly unique in 
his productions. This is probably what has, in a 
measure, barred him from the recognition he deserves 
in England, although it has served to enlarge his 
reputation in France — a country that has on several 
occasions recognised the merits of British painters 
before they were acknowledged at home. Mr. Her- 
komer, It. A., and in earlier times John Constable, 
an — inie a distinguished, the other an illustrious ex- 
ample. During the last six years .Air. Joy has been a 
contributor to the Salon, where he has been warmly 
received by both painters anil art critics. A nude 
subject, " The Danaids," was the first of his pictures 
exhibited there. It was originally a ball' length, 
and would never have been finished but for the 
encouragement of Mr. G. F. Watts, under whose 





is no shadow of falseh 1 on 

the noble features of the face. 
Truth is naked, but she fears 
no naze. All this, ;iihI all 
image of beauty, are recorded 
in Mr. Joy's picture. This 
painting and " Joan of Arc " 
surpass all his other works, 
ami may be considered as 
the fullest notes to which his 
art has yet given expression. 
The '"First Union Jack" 
painted in 1891, a sketch 
for which is here reproduced, 
is now in possession of the 
Fine Art Society. Il is one 
ill' the first successful ex- 
amples of Mr. Joy's painting 
in a higher key. In this 
picture, the soft silken folds 
of the first Union Jack lie 

counsel it was made a full length. "The Danaids ■" on the lap of a lovely girl, and are stretched along 

was followed by "Truth," which was received with the floor. The girl is daintily plying her needle. 

Midi enthusiasm in Paris that Mr. J03', out of A letter lies at her feet on which is sketched the 

gratitude, painted his "Joan of Arc" as a thank- design of the Hag she is making. The picture inspires 

offering to the French people for their hearty wel- in one a sense of patriotism, mingled with the charm 

come of the work of a comparative stranger. The of romance, and is pleasing in its humour, grace, 

French Government was quick to .see the merit of ami ease. Its must striking and important detail is 

the picture, and promptly bought it. In this man- a bold contrast in colour that cannot fail to challenge 

HL'i' one act of appreciation begot another, and that criticism, although it is one of the picture's claims to 

l "'.-" 1 ^ third. distinciii.ii. A lover of Wagnerian music would love 

Of ".loan of Arc" no comment need be made, the boldness that dales to dash the minor and the 

except as to colour. This 

is one of ils principal 

merits, and is a delight of 

lender contrasts. A litter of 

glistening yellow straw, steel 

armour, a red scabbard, the 

opalescent w ings of the 

angel, a silvery halo about 

the angel's head ; over all, 

the glow of lantern light, for 

the scene is night within a 

stable (sec Frontispiece). 
" Truth " scarcely speaks 

for itself in black and while 

as t he " .loan of Are " is seen 

to do. Apart from its colour, 

the feeling of " Truth " in 

the original is so faithful 

to nature that, nude as the 

figure is, it commands our 

re peel and reverence. The 

eye radiate- beams of truth : 
truth is written upon the 

, i i • , , , LEAR AND CORDELIA. 

broad white brow, and there (Fr0 „, the PtlMimj ,.„ „ K . Uitli Corpt>rat M ,,,,,_,, 



for all such admitted beauty 
as they may possess, the 
conventional objects of com- 
merce are notoriously lack- 
ing. Furniture and such- 
like arc to-day turned out 
by an impersonal firm for 
an impersonal public. I >e- 
signer and craftsman (that 
is to say, the artists), on the 
one hand, arc wholly out of 
touch with the purchaser, 
on the other; and the latter, 
brought up tn regard his 
acquisitions with as little 
real interest as he lavishes 
on the bricks and mortar 
lit the house he lives in, 
never knows the joy of sym- 
pathy bred of direct con- 
cern i'i the const i uction ami 
adaptation to his needs of 
the furniture el' his home. 

Doubtless, the newly- 
born passion for simplicity 
ami purity hi' design has led 
many members of i lie society 
into a seJf-conscious bald- 
ness that has resulted in 
what is dubbed the " rabbit- 
hutch school :" but affected 
simplicity is the natural 

IT must be borne antithesis to tiie unconscious and thoughtless elab- 

in mind by oration which has been fast leading us into a dis- 

thiise who visit torted version of redundancy of ornament, such 

this exhibition as we see in the Vie sse school. Rather, say our 

that there is nil purists, begin afresh ami return to archaism than 

pretence of offer- fall still further int.. the slough of false art. And 

ing a display of so there has arisen a school parallel, in some sense, 

exquisitely - made with the I're-Eaphaelite Brotherhood in another 

objects, whether 1. ranch of art, whose attitude is a practical protesl 

furniture or orna- ami whose influence is directed t<. awaken the dor- 

ment or decora- inant art-consciences of those win. have brains hut 

tion, mi the or- think not. Hot gospellers are apt to he extreme: 

dinavy lines. Its hut men of sens,, can male- allowances and be indul- 

maiu note is in- gent to those who, in their desire fur significant 

dividuality, ami expression, arc apt to fall into exaggeration ami 

its very existence carical ure. 

> s ;l plea in per- So much may account for what is extravagant at 

sons of taste to de- the New Gallery; hut, it should in justice he said, 

maud that human the extravagances, which at least haw the merit 

quality in which, of thought ami humour, are neither numerous nor 


STEEL FENDER, (fy ;, I Co.) 





(By Ale/so > an.i Edith Bauison.) 

unduly obtrusive. Last month we sug- 
gested that the entirely sane works 
were more than enough to monopolise 
our attention; even this second notice 
cannot exhaust the list, so that it is 
encouraging to think how much con- 
scientious effort has been put into the 
production of work intended not 
merely to meet the demands of a 
market, but to make direcl appeal to 
the better feeling of individual per- 
sons. Notable among these works 
are the admirable park gates by Mr. 
Reginald Blomfield : admirable, be- 
cause the) '1" not aim at displaying 
the gymnastic refinements of the 
smith so much as the qualil ies of the 
iron and the purposes they are intended 
i" serve. It is the modern fashion 
to demand from iron lightness and 
malleability alone, so that we have 
exquisite but radically incorrect ex- 
amples of the metal beaten into 
rose-leaves and twisted into tendrils 
— the malleability insisted on, but the 

strength and weight — two of its three inherent virtues 
— wholly forgotten. Mr. Blomfield, with his smith Mr. 
Elsley, has made no such mistake. His gates are reti- 
cent in design, noble and strong, admirably suite. 1 to 
the purpose of keeping intruders out, and free from all 
those fireworks of smithery which render a real sense 
of distinction impossible. Air. Lethaby's chimneypiece 
in marble and onyx, executed by Messrs. Farmer and 
Brindley, with a urate by the same designer and Air. J. 
Gardner, and a semicircular fender designed by Mr. 
Cobden-Sanderson and executed by Messrs. Longdeu and 
Co., compose together a pleasing if rather severe arrange- 
ment, in which the workmanship proclaims itself as ex- 
cellent as the design is thoughtful and harmonious. Air. 
Voysey's carpets, although always happy in colour, are 
not equally admirable in design. Nothing could be better 
in its way than the first here reproduced, which is not 
only excellent but inexpensive. In the "Bo-peep'" de- 
sign the ease is different : for the growing trees and 
grazing sheep (conventional to the furthermost point) 
which may be correct enough when viewed from one 

, Reginald Blomfield. Executed by Messrs. Elsley.) 



end of the room must necessarily be absurd when "water-colour print " by Mr. J. D. Batten, of "Eve 
viewed from the other and from the sides; while and the Serpent," executed by Mr. Morley FL 


(Bj ilex. Fisher.) 

three sides of the border must always be irritating there are the enamels on sil\ 

to see. This is a mistake common enough to de- there is the extremely forcei 

sign is of hang- n nwelcome 
ings. At the chimneypiece 
same time a word of Mr.G.Jack, 
of praise should ami his far 
be accorded in more pleas- 
t he excellen t ing carved 
workmanship of oak leg of a 
Messrs. Tomkin- settle. There 
son ami Adam, isMr.Christo- 
the weavers. Mr. pher Whall's 
Voysey's versa- c h a r m i n g 
tility must also swallow de- 
he recognised in coration for 
his fiuely-propor- I >onglas ( las- 
tioned model for tie : Mr. Xel- 
a lamp-post, his sou ami Miss 
quaint ami cha- Edith Daw- 
racteristic designs sou's trowel 
for clock- ami in wroughl 
barometer - eases, steel, sih er, 
and other objects, and copper, 
YV a n d e ring with enamels, 
through the gal- together with 
leries we find their beauti- 
many exhibits to ful heraldic. 
an est our atten- d e s i g n on 
tion ; fa r more beaten steel 
than our space with champ 
will permit us /,/-, enamel, 

even i sntion. and t h ei i 

Then- is thi' alms-dish in 

•r by 

Mr. W. R.C 

i in some lii 



Pilkwgton Tile Co.) 



beaten silver and enamel, representing, with wolves 
in disturbed tracery round the border and lilies and 
crown enamelled in the centre, "The Turmoil of 

the World and Inward Peace." There are Mr. Cat- 
terson Smith's hammered silver plaques after Sir 
Edward Burne-Jones's designs; there is Mr. Alexan- 
der Fisher's beautiful steel casket set with enamels; 
there is Mr. Onslow Whiting's clever design for a 
door-knocker; Mr. G Morris's music-cabinet; Miss 
Mercer's punch-howl; Mr. G. W. Rhead's design 
for stained glass on the subject of "Apollo and the 
Muses," in the manner of his master, Ford Madox 
Brown : Mr. Spooner's mahogany cabinet : Mr. Edgar 
Wood's bedstead ; Mr. Walter Crane's damask table- 
cloth, "The Five Senses;" Mr. W. F. A. Voysey's 
mantel and fireplace; Mr. Henry Arthur's sideboard : 


Miss Hay's doorplates and handles; Mr. Lewis Day's 
pure and graceful designs for panels intelligently 
embroidered by Miss Swindells; the Hon. Mabel 
de Grey's inlaid box and cupboard; Mr. Christie's 
iron four-post bedstead, cleverly executed by Messrs. 
Shirley and Co.; Mr. Alexander Fisher's copper 
bowl with enamel mi silver; the striking collection 

of 1 ks, 1 k-covers, illustrations, and typography, 

to which we hope to give special attention later on. 
Then there are the exhibits of domestic objects in 
metal, chiefly in brass and copper, by Mr. W. A. S. 
Benson; the glazed pottery of Mr. Rathhone's" Delia 
Robbia" Company, which Messrs. Liberty have in- 
troduced to London, and Mr. Lewis Day's tiles 
by the Pilkington Company; the charmingly deli- 
cate and dainty potiei) panel of " Le I'i intemps " by 



Mr. Leon Y. Solon — clever sou of a clever father; 
bhe novel pianoforte of Mr. H. B. Scott, exhibited 
by Messrs. Broadwood and 
Sons, and the other l>y Mr. 
Walter ( 'a ve, shown by Messrs. 
Maple ; Mr. Halsey Ricardo's 
beautiful fireplace - surround 
on the subject of "Camelot," 
exhibited by Messrs. De Mor- 
gan; Messrs.James Powell and 
Son's dainty and charmingly- 
wrought blown table "lass: 
1 1 riginal and extremely cha- 
racteristic smithery in beaten 
gold and silver by Mr. Ashbee, 
together with his ornaments; 
and the notable lectern in 
bronze by .Messrs. Wilson ami 
Pomeroy. When they are all 
examined, some estimate may Tll 

be formed of the great move- (D«, g „ fd „, L f. o ay 

went which is intended as an 

antidote to the degradation of latter-day taste, and 
which assuredly is feeling its way to the foundation 
of a notable and worthy school. 

The loan collection of the works of Ford Mado.x 
Brown has its proper place in this exhibition, not 

le bei ause lie was the direi I fo] beai so to a\ 
the present Society, but because his sense of 
decoration and the numerous 
works in which he gave it 
play offer even now examples 
enough, practical and sugges- 
tive. The faults of his style 
proclaim themselves, and need 
not be dwelt on lure, for so 
personal are they to the man 
that no follower, no disciple, 
is ever likely to fall into 

them heedlessly. But the 

merits of the style— the ele- 
vation of thought, the extra- 
ordinary power of invention 
(a quality he used so to 
admire in Dyce and Maelise), 
the fertility, and originality 
— are so many, thai only 

he Rilkmgtor, Tilt Co.) superficial observers will he 

turned from them by their 
ramped quaintuess and archaic idealism. 

The finished oil-paintings themselves, interest- 
ng as they are, are not here quite in place. They 
erve little purpose in showing the artist as a de- 
igner, and arc too few to show him adequately as 

ed by C. ft. Ashore Executed by the Guild of 



a picture painter. "The Summer Day," as it is now 
called — the old title of "The Pretty Baa Lambs" be- 
ing rejected as too "soft " for these less sentimental 
times — shows his greal power of technique, but is 
deficient in the light it professes to be a study of. 
Suggestions — cartoons, studies, 
and .so forth — are, it is true, 
given us of his greater works ; 
but a sense of fitness compels us 
to turn our chief attention to 
those of his designs exclusively 
executed for decorative pur- 
poses. Madox Brown excelled, 
we consider, in his designs for 
stained glass ; and of these we 
have a very considerable 
number — enough to appreciate 
bow great a man he was. He 
made no concessions to popular 
taste; he would sometimes even 
shock by the familiar touches 
he would introduce into his 
works — touches of an intime 
character which, while they oc- 
casionally would detract from 
the loftiness of dignity in the 
subject, would add to their 
humanity, to their universal 
sympathy. An example of 
what we mean may be seen 
in the design for the second 
mural painting of the Man- 
chester scries — " The Romans 
Building Manchester" — where- 
in, in the midst of this 
heroically imagined group, the 
general's little son is kicking 
viciously at his laughing black 
muse. Human nature, indeed, 
was at the bottom of Madox 
Brown's work, and he never 
hesitated to import it into any 
of his designs, not minding if 
the effect was sometimes incon- c«« si, e. 

.unions. He was influenced not 
a little by a contempt for that conventionality in 
design which in the 'Thirties and 'Forties so sapped 
English ait. and he carried his protest a little too 
far. His babies have been objected to because their 
infant bodies and habits were too truly character- 
istic, or over-characteristic, of babyhood. Bui in 
his designs for stained glass must of these objec- 
tions vanished : we no longer see men with extreme 
development of calf contrasted with extreme narrow- 
ness of ankle, nor with countenances distorted h\ 
grimace rather than with expression. Madox Btowd 


was a master of picture-lighting, and could put more 
luminosity into a canvas than perhaps any of bis 
contemporaries, in however high a pitch they might 
paint. His sense of colour was extraordinary, and 
bis power of harmony and bis delight in giving 
rein to that power were such 
that, in his later works at 
least, the glow was sometimes 
almost overwhelming especially 
when seen within the same 
hour as other pictures. Add 
to these qualities his splendid 
feeling for line, his merits as an 
ornamentist, together with his 
profound know ledge of costume 
and custom of many periods, 
and the secret of Madox 
Brown's success (d'estime, it is 
true) is evident. 

This very considerable col- 
lection at the Arts and < raits 
is representative of all Madox 
Brown's forms of designs, if 
not of bis technical processes. 
His book-illustration may be 
seen in the quaint "Brown < Iwl," 
and his oil-picture painting in 
" Oliver Cromwell on Ids Farm," 
"The Pretty Baa Lambs" afore- 
said, "William the Conqueror 
Finding the Body of Harold," 
" ( 'romwcll at St. Ives." " King 
Lear," as well as bis portrait of 
himself; while of the water- 
colours those of " The Entomb- 
ment of < 'brist " and " The 
lounger Foscari " are perhaps 
the most interesting. But the 
main portion of bis other work 
here shown is to be divided 
among bis cartoons for stained 
glass for Morris and Co., bis 
designs and sketches for his 
1 "'"-i mural paintings in the Man- 

chester Town Hall, and similar 
preliminaries for the important decorative work 
be executed in the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition 
— a series for which be has never received just 
credit, even in the excellent biography newly pub- 
lished of him by his grandson, Mr. Ford Madox 
Hueffer. There is a wealth of artistry and of 
suggestion in this collection for artists to observe 
and men of taste to study. 

[We .-ire requested to state that the copyrights of :ill objects 
and designs included in this article are specially reserved 
by the artists or owners.] 




THERE is with the general public no idea so 
absorbing as the desire to be admitted behind 
the scenes, to lie allowed in any art to study the pro- 
cesses by which the complete and perfected result 


is achieved. No matter whal may be the loss of 
illusion which must result from this satisfaction of 
curiosity, everyone is anxious to see in progress the 
building up of a greal work. In the case of an 

important picture \ pie are not satisfied merely 

to admire it when it is al lasl pul before them in 
the form which seems to the artisl must nearly to 
realise his intention; they want to penetrate into 
the studio itself, and to become acquainted with the 
methods by which he has acquired the knowledge of 
which the evidence appears throughout the canvas 
that he has completed. Therefore, the exhibition of 
the sketches and studies by Lord Leighton, which 
has been arranged by the Fine Arl Society, is certain 
of wide popularity, for it is designed expressly to 

present in as adequate a manner as possible a 
summary of the infinite labour which throughout 
his life he devoted to the building up ami perfecting 
of his pictorial productions. In such a shew he maj 
be seen for what he was — a man of extremely fas- 
tidious taste, a worker whose one idea was to satisfy 
in even the smallest and apparently the must trivial 
matters his intense anxiety to be exact. 

To the members of his own profession, and to 
everyone with a technical knowledge of art, these 
sketches have a far mure intimate interest Tin \ 
are in the highest degree instructive, because they 
prove with what constant attention ami never- 
ceasing self-examination he worked. His pictures 
weiv tn him matter for absorbing thought, for 
analysis ami comparison, which was often extended 
over a period of many years. He never did any- 
thing hurriedly, nor committed himself to technical 





IP* m 7 

the must perfect expression of his 
meaning. He was always in search 
of a better way of lining what he 
proposed to do than the one which 
first commended itself to him. A 
distrust of his own capacity to decide 
offhand what was most suitable for 
his purpose seems to have dominated 
him throughout his life. What were 
his final conclusions were the result 
of a very elaborate system, during the 
application of which, in their earliest 
stages, he was ready at any moment 
to abandon his previous conclusions 
and to occupy himself in new direc- 
tions. This habit of thought appears 
strongly in the custom which, as 
his sketches tell us, he possessed of 
walking round his subjects. He was 
not satistieil to proceed with the first 
aspect of his pictorial motive that 
presented itself to him : he must see 
it from various angles, and study its 


statements that he had not verified 
beforehand by every means in his power. 
A particular desire to reason out and to 
construct upon a basis of definite in- 
formation guided him in his practice. 
Nothing was left to fortunate accident, 
no moment of chance inspiration was 
allowed to divert him from his serious 
intention : unless the idea which bad 
formed in his mind was matured by the 
most careful process of cultivation, he 
hesitated to turn it to account. His 
instinct was that of a student learning 
by every access of knowledge the need 
for closer and more strenuous attention 
lo his subject. 

In nothing is this better seen than 
in the manner with which he repeated 
in his sketches the figures and groups 
that he proposed to include in his com- 
positions, lie would cover sheets of 
paper with tiny notes of the same figure, 
varying them apparently hardly at all, 
1 hi t seeking, nevertheless, to arrive at 




proportions and line arrangement from points other draperies whirl, he made from the model with the 

tlian lhat " n " l """ which at the outset he viewed intention of using them in specific compo 

it mentally. ]{<, feeling in this respect was thai he was obviously concerned from the first with con- 


I L L 


of a sculptor, the instinct to construct and to work siderations of the How and harmony ol his linear 

from something that had become at last almost arrangement. Unlike most other artists who make 

solid and tangible. a considerable amount of preliminary work a 

There is another characteristic of his art which sary part of their system, he ignored al si entirelj 

appears very strong!) in these sketches : his extreme the physical characteristics of his model and the 

appreciation of line. Both in his rough jottings of accidental peculiarities of the material of which the 

ideas for pictures and in the studies of figures and drapery wa compo id, and imposed upon both the 


living forms and their coverings the aspect companion and associate of civilisation ; but his cotistanl 
which I lis personal inclination led him to pre- life in a dream world, and his repugnance to observe 
fer. To interest himself in the Fads that were details which, if at times jarring and discordant are not 
before him, to make a portrait exact in detail 
as a literal basis upon which to build up after- 
wards the ideal convention which controlled 

him in his paintings, wen.' by no means ideas 
that occurred to him as important. From the 
fhst rough note what was in Ids mind was 
his picture, and its suave atmosphere affected 
sverything connected with it that he touched. 
In a sense this habit was prejudicial to him 
as an artist, for it. tended to lead him, as 
years went on, further and further away from 
nature, and to formulate a preconception which 
was in its origin based quite rightly upon a 
most judicious regard for the highest qualities 
of beaut}' and refinement. Without doubt his 
convention was a necessary outcome of his 
eclecticism, the protest of an extremely asthetic 
mind against the ugliness which is the dearest 


without importance in their effect upon the mind and 
and of the artist, certainly influenced in a very 
larked way the expression of his ideas. 

Yet there was scarcely anyone who used preliminary 


1854 1 


more extensively than he did, 



in nod 

it so 

exclusively in a definite dir 






important picture he ever painted he lias left semes earlier stages of his career, are intensely painstaking 
of detailed drawings. The total number amounts efforts to secure the sort of accuracy he desired most, 
to many hundreds, and their variety is astonishing. When collected they showwith curious vividness how 


Nome are the roughest notes in which are recorded little the unrest and the desire to range m new fields 

1 rms of ideas which he was afterwards to carry of practice, with which most artists are affected, 

to completion ; some are experiments, serious evidence existed in his nature Seemingly he made up his 

of self-examination in which he showed how unwill- mind in boyhood what course he wished to follow, and 

ing he was to accept as conclusive his first decision; during an active and extraordinarily industrious life 

and others, especially those which date from the deviated from it not an atom. 





A HUNDRED years have passed since Senefelder's means by which he might evolve his artistic dreams 

first happy introduction— half discovery, hull' or dash oil' his most vigorous thought, with the 

invention — of the art of Lithography. The hundred- certain knowledge that permanence ami easy 

and-first is witness of a revival full of promise and publicity were at his command. Thus would 

(from the Lithograph bij S. Prout.) 

already full of beauty: a revival possibly destined 
to rival the brilliant renascence of Etching which, 
realising how ii hail become the victim of its own 
foolish misconception of its functions and limitations, 
has but lately risen afresh from the degradation to 
which it had condemned itself. Ii was impossible 
that an art which consisted simply in the drawing 
with pencil, pen, or brush upon a stone, and rendered 
a ten-thousandfold harvest in the almost infinite 
number of its prints— or, rather, replicas — that might 
he multiplied from its surface, was one which could 
nut. willingly he allowed to die. It was not onl\ 
thai lithography was cheap and rapid and con- 
venient; it was rather that it was the 1 lium 

jinr excellence by which the line artist might re 
produce his freely-made sketches and designs :i 

Gavarni first scrawl over his stone uneasily and al 
random, seeking inspiration from the scribbles that 
he made; or with feverish hast.' would throw the 

idea, upon it alreadj E tulated in his brain. Ii 

is eleai enough, therefore, thai artists' lithograph} 
that is i" m\ . i iriginal Lithography, for I paj 

mi heed (ii the less spontaneous ai 1 of till reproducer 
— is not, ami could never be, the Lithography of the 
lithographer; and this is the saving facl on which 
we who love the art base our hopes and oui judg- 
ment of the immediate future. Hen in 
sanguine than .Mr. William Simpson, our gn 

surviving English lithographer of tl Id 

who wrote to me some I point : 

\i : ists seem always to etching, so thai 

hej neitln i leat n th i ipabilil ii ■ of Lithograph] 



nor acquire a knowledge of the process. I believe 
that if they did, and found what a beautiful means 
it is in the hands of an artist, they would prefer 
it. I have talked this matter over with Louis 
Haghe and with Robert Carrick, and both of these 
men — who were alike lithographers and water-colour 
painters of the highest repute — quite agreed with 

(From the Lithograph 

me on this point. But that is what there appears 
to be but small hopes of." 

The hopes, mi the contrary, are great. A power- 
ful movement lias been of recent years initiated, 
and exquisite work lias been produced. Before, 
however, I proceed to explain this movement and 
i" speak of the masterpieces of lithography lately 
produced, n is necessary that I should set forth 
briefly in (his paper an outline of the art's history 
antecedent to the decline which paved the way for 
its revival with all its beauties fresh upon it, and 
:| 11 the lumber of past prejudice and malpractice 
left behind. 

No soi r did Senefelder — the poor disappointed 

student of jurisprudence, the stage, and the drama 
— realise, as well as discover, the virtues of a cal- 
careous stone, which through the application of 
grease would accept printer's-ink and through that 
of water repel it, than he quickly appreciated the 
importance of the invention lie developed from it: 
and. more fortunate than most inventors, he drew 
lil.on himself the notice not only of the 
artists of his country, but of those, later 
on, of France, whither General Lejeune and 
the Count de Lasteyrie brought it back from 
.Munich: and, later still, of those of Eng- 

In Germany the new art, now duly re- 
cognised, was soberly taken up and widely 
practised, amusing the interest and com- 
manding the "patronage" of the Court; but 
few of the artists of that country, save Adolf 
Menzel and one or two associates, took it 
very seriously. In France it quickly became 
a vogue; and the vogue, the rage: it was 
practised by amateurs royal, ducal, and other 
who boasted any claim to dilettantism. By 
tlie artists its reception was enthusiastic. The 
uncertainty of aquatint, the tediousness and 
expense of line-engraving, the chemical draw- 
backs of etching, all combined to carry forward 
the claims of the new method which, whether 
for original sketching or for purposes of re- 
production, offered advantages belonging to 
no other process whatsoever. Goya, then an 
octogenarian and an exile at Bordeaux, ex- 
perimented with it and obtained extraordinary 
results, and his few productions, executed in 
or about 1825, of which I would specially 
mention "The Bullfight," gave birth to what 
may be called lithographic Romanticism : for 
Delacroix saw them and spread their fame, 
and so gave rise to the second of the four 
periods into which the life of the art should 
be divided. 

The first dates from its birth in 1830, 
during which interval the Baron Gros gave to 
the world his Mamelukes, Charles Vernet his 
Cossacks and his hunts (whose son Horace later 
delighted the world also with his studies of mili- 
tary life), Prud'hon his little comedies, Bonington 
his genre subjects, and Gericault his epics and 
then his horses. The second period extended from 
L830 to IS Jo, when tin' romantic and the coloiirist 

scl Is, headed by Delacroix and Isabey, reigned 

supreme, and Deveria put forth his portraits, 
and Henri Monnier bis scenes of Parisian life. 
From I sio to is;,;, or I860, the -lories of litho- 
graphy — then, perhaps, the triumphs of subject and 
utility rather than exclusively of art and handling — 



were sustained by Charlet, Daumier, Raffet, Diaz, 
and M. Ferdinand Rops, who in their various styles 
carried the popularity of the art higher than it had 
ever been before. For the artists, its popularity 
was based upon technical considerations, so deli- 
cately and accurately responsive was it to every 
shade of the draughtsman's mood, to every touch of 
his skilful hand. For that reason Gericault, who 
executed only one single serious etching, besides a 
few studies of animals, produced a hundred litho- 

powerful a one! — for such a purpose. By it the 

artistic sense of th masseurs was charmed and 

caressed; and with it the country was one moment 
set a-laughing, and the next inflamed by passion. 
With it, too, Daumier and Gavarni rivalled Balzac 
upon the stone, and Charlet and Raffet "disco\ 
the army, glorified Napoleon, and deified the Empire. 

These men underst I the true utility <>f the ait ; 

but others arose who, partly by carrying its 
technique to its extreme point (as the Amei 


: wt i 

(From the Lithograph by C. Raff' 


graphs: and Decamps seventy-three lithographs, 
and but a couple of etchings. Hippolyte Bellange, 
who etched not at all, so far as I am aware, 
put forth five hundred lithographs, and similarly, 
Delacroix, merely flirting with etching, in litho- 
graphy produced his "Hamlet" and his "Faust." 
Daumier confined his wonderful colour studies and 
records, satires, ami whatnot, to the stone in Mack 
and white, to the number of three thousand: and 
Gavarni, who detested the chemistry of etching, 
in his GomMie hwmaine alone executed as many. 
Indeed, the harvest of Daumier, Gavarni, and Raffet 
between them, amounts t<> seven thousand prints, 
all known. To these greal men lithography meant 
as much as etching did. nol t<> Rembrandl alone, 
hut also t" satirists like Gillray, Rowlandson, and 

Gruikshank, and as the \\ l-block meant to 


S " ial life, satire, political passion, and red hoi 
patriotism kept the jail. lie interest in lithography 
alive, for it was the unique instrument— and how 

carried wood-engraving), tired the public with it, 
and partly by using it fur subjects for the rendering 
of which newer methods were more appropriate, 
dragged it down: and the dates lsiiii and L880 
em lose its poind of debasement. Caricature, also, 
had become too violent, so that lithography turned 
rather t>> the represental ion of manners and customs. 
This duty was in time usurped by photography and 
"process;" artists were drawn aside by a rising 
popular interest, in etching; even architects in 
France al least abandoned it for the more flattering 
blandishmeuts of ; and the downfall of 

lithography «,i> complete. A few faithful souls still 
ised ii quiet h , all lost furtively ; and to their 

g I sense and bet ter instinct is due in no small 

measure the revival which is now reawakening the 
enthusiasm of the lover of ai i. 

The practice of the ait in Belgium, whither ii 
was carried bj Jobard, Ui^fd^ little notice, for il 
produi i 3l of cosmopolitan reputation 

Madou. Ii sent us, liowevei C uis Haghe i" second, 



and, after a time, to head, the efforts of Samuel 
Prout in this country. As early as 1816 Aeker- 
mann had published the first lithographs of Prout, 
who soon became famous for his views of Continental 
cities and his extraordinary feeling fur architecture. 
His market-places, so naturally peopled, are still 
a delight tn look at, ami make us feel, with Ruskin, 
that his are the only crowds the spectator feels 
inclined to get out of the way for. To their artistic 
beauties — one might almost say, to their perfection 
— Ruskin bears frequent witness, and when he de- 
claims in " Modern Painters" against " the wretched 
smoothness of recent lithography" as compared with 
the manly work of Trout's bold and sometimes 
hasty touch and his "scrawled middle-tint," the 
student of lithography will appreciate the justice 
of the criticism. 

Bu( tor all Trout's excellence — unrivalled ami 
unapproachable, as Ruskin declared it — Louis Haghe 
became the mure important figure in the. practice 
of the art. His main work consisted, it is true, 
in re-drawing on the stone other men's work' : but 
his own sketches in " Belgium and Holland " are 
altogether admirable, full of quiet power rather 
than of force. His architectural detail was a little 

more' made out than Prout's, and his light- 
ing was excellently managed. He used but- 
one tint at first, then two, and finally, 
before he gave up the stone altogether, 
three — black, blue, and ochre — yet the 
result was by no means what is now under- 
stood by chromo-lithography. I may here 
mention — what I have never seen printed 
— that Haghe's right hand was without 
fingers, a congenital defect, and that he 
did all his work with the one hand he was 
limited to; and, furthermore (although it 
comes not rightly within the scope of the 
present article), that his reproduction of 
David Roberts's "Fall of Jerusalem" was 
probably the finest piece of lithographic 
work ever executed in England, just as 
Robert Carrick's "Blue Lights,'' after Tur- 
ner, is to be considered for breadth and 
tenderness of effect the classic, as well as 
the first great, piece of chromo-lithography. 
J. D. Harding was an excellent artist 
whose touch with the lithographic chalk, 
especially when handling trees and foliage, 
is to all artists delightful: but neither his 
technical manipulation nor his gradual inn 
tints could be compared to Haghe's. He 
was very particular as to the white lights 
with which stone-artists made much effect 
-often, to my mind, illegitimate and 
illogical, even by the best of them; ami. 
although he was precise in teaching that they should 
"always be confined to objects which are in Nature 
positively white," he did not in practice, even in his 
finest work, which I take "Picturesque Selections'' 
to be, always cany out his principles. Indeed, the 
lights taken out were used without proper effect, so 
that, instead of helping the plate, they often made 
the artificiality of it- the more apparent. 

Then followed John Nash and Mr. William 
Simpson, the latter the better artist of the two' 
and far the more versatile: and in romantic and 
historic art, Cattermole and Corbould; in the 
rendering of cattle and animals, .lames Ward, K.A., 
Mr. Sidney Cooper, R.A., and Frederick Tayler; 
in portraiture, .1. H. Lynch and R. .1. Lane, 
A.R.A. On these men, reinforced occasionally by 
Alfred Stevens and others of less note, fell the 
burden of sustaining England's reputation in the 
section of lithography, and made her paramount in 
the departments of tint, transfer, and lithography 
in colour, just as Germany was paramount in the ex- 
quisite finish of the work, and France in the higher 
plane of artistic conception and brilliancy of exe- 
cution. Then, in due time, just as abroad the ait 
decayed, etching usurped its place in public ami 


ever sought to express such artistic passion 
as may move them. They have hitherto been 
precise, deliberate, almost emotionless, and 

with relatively but little ] i ic fi eling I a I 

nol fancy, has been their aim. Lithography, 
indeed, has hitherto been chiefly used as a 
means only to an end ; it will now be prac- 
tised a- its own end — for its own charm rather 
than I'm- the opportunity it offered to record 
tin' beauties of architecture or to produce well- 
drawn models for the art-schools. It is the 
same new spirit, which is animating the artists of 
France ami England both — a profound apprecia- 
tion of lithography's own exquisite qualities ami 
its capacity for rendering easily, beyond any 
other method, every gradation of tone, ami of 
permitting tin.- artist to attempt any problem 
he may choose. Power, force, tenderness — the' 
whole gamut from Mack to white — all arc within 
his reach, with a variety of technique offered by 
mi other process, except in a very limited sense 
by wood -engraving. How these remarkable 
qualities of lithography have recently been taken 
advantage of in the two countries, and what, the 
individual artists have a<hi:\.<l in his direc- 
tion, will be sel forth in my subsequent papers. 

ihogtaph b,, J. D. 

artistic taste: w l-engraving supplanted it for 

book-illustration, and photography annihilated 
it for portraiture, just as the new " three- 
colour process" will assuredly dispossess it in 
the field of chromo-lithography. 

Although Scotland had no printers like 
Day or Hullmandel, no Hanhart or Way to 
encourage her, she achieved at least one suc- 
cess in the art which must not be omitted. 
This was David Morrison, of Perth, who 
about 1830 illustrated with extreme taste 
an I skill the catalogues of the library and 
paintings belonging to Lord Gray in Kin- 
fauns Castle hook's to which Sir Walter 
Scott, refers in his notes to "The Fair Maid 
of Perth," but which I believe to be wholly 
forgotten by, or unknown to, lithographers 
in I his country. 

It will thus be seen that in this country 
at least the field of Original Lithography, as 
at present understood, is practically virgin 
soil and promises a rich harvest. With the 
grease-pencil or lithotint-brush our artists 
have never given rein to their fancy, nor 

the Lithograph by H. 



THE very opposite opinions which the Modern 
Dutch School has called forth are some proof of 
its power. Even its detractors admit that it contains 
men who arc real masters, and who possess original 
genius ; but they insist that the rest are but clever 
imitators, and that the whole school is wanting in 
imagination, and confines itself to a most limited 
horizon. Josef Israels may be a master of his craft, 
but both lie and all the other Dutch figure-painters, 
so they complain, simply give variations of one and 
the same set of subjects. 

On the other hand there are those who declare 
that these so-called defects are really virtues, and 

the Painting by Adolphc Artz, in the Possession of the Qn, 

that in limiting itself to what is simple, healthy, 
and natural, the Modern Dutch School shows that 
it is superior to the common practice of attracting 
notice by the choice of striking subjects, preferring 
to rely entirely on the artistic merits of its work. 
And the result, they say, is that wherever Dutch 
paintings are exhibited they are hailed as a relief 
after the crowd of repulsive and horrifying subjects 
with which sensational art deluges the Salon and 
other Continental galleries. 

Such are the opposing views held abroad. 
Amongst ourselves the sympathetic view seems 
in the ascendant, and the assertion has even been 
ventured that posterity, in estimating 
the art of our time, will give the 
foremost place to the Modern Dutch 

However, sympathetic or not, all 
agree that the horizon of Dutch paint- 
ing is singularly limited. To find out 
how this is would be a most interesting 
inquiry, fur certain it is that the Dutch 
painters waste no time in coursing the 
world fnr subjects, but are content to 
get at the secrets of their art by the 
faithful study of the scenes within a 
few miles of their studios. Adequately 
to explain the cause of this would lead 
us into the history of the formation of 
the Dutch national character, a subject 
beyond the scope and limitations of 
this article. We can only, therefore, 
state the fact and its more obvious 
causes and results. 

Having made a country out of the 
refuse of the Ehine. the Hollander is 
now showing the world how much 
beauty can be extracted from arid 
dunes, a formless coast, and from the 
simple lives of fisher- folk and labourers 
who have been formed in such un- 
promising surroundings. And, one 
might almost add, without the aid 
of what in London and Paris seems 
to lie considered needful to the suc- 
cessful practice of art. The studio of 
the leading master at the Hague is 
well-nigh bare of furniture ; just suffi- 
cient apparatus for work — that is all. 
And not very different is the little 
room where the first among Dutch 



landscapists completes the subjects 

he has taken direct from nature. 
But in a school distinguished 

for this same devotion to nature 

each painter will lie found in sur- 
roundings more or less in accord 

with his peculiar temperament; ami 

thus we explain the fact that in 

this particular the painter to whom 

this article is devoted did not follow 

the austerity of his lifelong friend 

ami early master. 

The studio in which Adolphe 

Art/ painted — lofty, well-lighted, 

shut out from every distraction, the 

former hall of the Art Club of the 

Hague, and still earlier of the 

governors of the Hofje van Xieuw- 

koop* — was for size quite a magnifi- 
cent chamber; and, adorned with 
old paintings ami tapestries, bronzes, 
ami Delft and Japanese ware, ap- 
peared as stately and serious-looking 
an atelier as any painter could de- 
sire. Here Artz worked in full 
enjoyment of his agreeable sur- 
roundings, a buoyant, jovial, broad- 
shouldered man, whose hearty laugh 
and amiable manner were infectious. 
His "home" was equally pleasant, 
with its choice pictures and studies, 
the works of Maris, of Israels, of 
Mauve, and of many others of his comrades in art, 
Few persons in the Hague were more popular than 
this indefatigable painter. Spectacles mi nose, cap mi 
head, palette ami mahl-stick in hand, he was always 
ready with his joke or humorous story — a man 
who could not deny himself the pleasure of pleasing 
others. Need it be said that his brother artists 
thought much of him, so that in 1881 they elected 
him President of the "Pulchri Studio,'' the Hague 
Art Chili already mentioned. In the same year he 

1 ame a governor of the Hague Academy of Arts, 

and in 1889 he represented Dutch ail as President 
hi' the Netherlands section of the Universal Exhibi- 
tion at Paris, and out of sixty members of the Jury 
des Recompenses, composed of all nationalities, he 
was chosen vice-president, Meissonier being president. 
This slight suggestion of his persmialil y, and the 
agreeable impression it made, will render it more 
clear thai his painting was truly original, the spon- 
taneous expression of the way he saw nature, and 
ill' the image its Faithful study made mi his own 
mind. This, of course, is line of all really good 
work, 1ml in Holland we are able to see it jusl now 
* An ancient hospital foi the aged and infirm. 



in rather a striking manner: for ils painters, in 
narrowing their horizon to that of their own little 
country, have, so to speak, absorbed into then souls 
the peculiar nature of its land, water, ami atmo- 
sphere, with that nf the people in closesl contact 
with that nature, ami almost forming part of it. 

And so it i 'i mies to paSS that, although these painters 

have a family likeness, each one of them ha- a very 
marked and distinct individuality. 

Thus Art/, though a devoted disciple of I raels, 
retaining something nf the touch of his early tetu In r 
tn the last, developed a style entirely his own. Not 

that he had 1 n exclusively a pupil of fo] 

he had passed several years at the Academj at 
Amsterdam. But he -emu-, to have had an ardent 
admiration for this distinguished leader in Dutch 
art, from which his sympathetic naturi would have 
found ii difficult tn free itself had he nol withdrawn 
from us influence and plunged for a i ime into the 
great art centre in Paris. When he left Holland, 
Israels gave him a letter I" Courbel and the latter 
evidently discerning what was best in he done, re- 
fused in receive him into hi- own atelier, and -idl 
more, advised him not to so into ain other, but to take 



one himself and to work out his own education alone. 
It was exactly in the spirit of Rembrandt's method, 
who compelled his pupils to work each in a compart- 
ment by himself and to find out for himself whatever 
he wanted to know as his powers developed. Artz 
acted on Courbet's advice, but not to such an extent 
as to neglect to profit from the instruction of the mas- 
ters in French art. 
At last, after 
eight years in 
Paris, he turned 
again to his native 
land, threw him- 
self into its art, 
specially devoting 
himself to the sub- 
ject art. But after 
eight years in 
Paris, in which he 
more or less fol- 
Lowed the fashions 
in art, painting 
various kinds of 
pictures, he seems 
to have found 
about 1874 light, 
peace.and satisfac- 
tion in returning 
to his first love, 
and in henceforth 
consecrating his 
powers to the work 
in which some of 
his compatriots 
were already en- 
gaged, that of 
evolving a real 
local art worthy of 
comparison with 

former efforts of the proposal 

the national 

genius. A recent Dutch writer, speaking of this 
change in the direction of the artistic life of Adolphe 
Artz, calls it "his way to Damascus"— a pregnant 
phrase which seems to suggest the secret of the 
power of the Modern Dutch School to produce 
painters. The land which formerly found in Indi- 
vidualism the mad to power in art is now one of the 
first to show that there is something more than the 
individual in Man, that communities of men have 

in c ection with the land they inhabit a common 

life which it is the work of the artist to interpret. 

Ami thus, when Ariz returned to Holland it 
was to interest himself in the life of its people as 
seen at Scheveningen and Katwyk, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Hague. Every year he spent the 

summer at Katwyk, where he had a cottage pic- 
turesquely situated on the dunes, and looking out 
over sea and shore. Living, so to speak, with the 
fisher-folk who all knew and loved him, he studied in 
conversation with them his types, and in the touching 
incidents of their life gathered materials for pictures. 
" Un Loup de Mer Debout dans Son Bateau," as 
a small picture to 
have been seen at 
the sale of his 
works at the Hague 
in January, 1891, 
was described, is 
an example of the 
successful way in 
which Artz por- 
trayed his types. 
It is the simple 
figure of a fisher- 
man at sea stand- 
ing erect against 
the mast of his 
little vessel, watch- 
ing with fixed gaze 
the sky, where un- 
erring signs fore- 
tell a squall. The 
uplifted eye, the 
indicative of the 
intense serious- 
ness of the Dutch 
fisherman's cha- 
racter, are all ex- 
pressed in a few 
masterly strokes. 
In his type- 
mother Artz has 
given the fitting 
partner of this 
strong-souled man. 
A short thick nose, full cheeks, a loving, meditative 
eye — then/ is something bovine in the face. Ever in 
the reflective mood, whether as girl or mother, she 
seems lo lie always pondering the mysteries of life. 

None can be surprised if even the most joyous 
of painters adopts the Lydian mode when treating 
the lives of fisher-folk, for he cannot forget how fre- 
quently and how suddenly they are brought face to 
face with the greatest catastrophes. Few of them 

but have seen the dripping corpse carrie* 
beach and laid on the best bed. " Past ami 
by the ominous sheet and the lighted candl 
side of the bed, with the 1 it t le or] .hall, her d 
arms, looking ruefully on, suggests such a calamity 
These touching pictures lead naturally to tin 

up the 

at the 

in her 




" Orphanage at Kafcwyk," the most famous of the all Artz's strong points — his gift of colour, his feeling 
works of Artz, a gem of perfect painting in which for light ami air. the directness of his touch are 




seen at their best. This picture by its very finish 
marks the artist, true in judgment ami sincerely re- 
sponsive tn nature. What restraint in colour! — no 
bright bit of red save the little needle-case on the 


table and in the armorial bearings in the window. 
In accordance with the genius of his surroundings 
Ail/, was moderate in sentiment, ami his own 
temperament led him In treat subjects from the 

\ side, and leave tin' shadows dreamily in the 

distance. His "Women in a Potato-field" is a 
sunlit scene, of which both forms ami composition 
,nc excellent : 1ml ii dues not appear thai Ail/ ever 
sympathised with the human elemenl in such a pic- 
ture as .Millet or .lilies Breton Would have ilulie. 

How little these Hollanders give way In the 

temptati I' sensationalism may he seen in Artz's 

picture of "The Poor-house at Katwyk." Poverty 
here appears neither charming nor disgusting, hut 
its varied character, resigned or moody, or making 

the best of its little drop of comfort, is depicted by 
one who looks at the scone as a faithful limner. 
Millet or De Groux would have brought out more 
powerfully its tragic melancholy; but they could 
hardly have been more faithful to their 
impressions than was Artz ; and these 
necessarily were the brightest and most 
cheerful the subject could afford. 

Ail/, was best ami strongest when 
he kept strictly to nature. His more 
romantic pictures — "A Shepherd Boy 
Playing on a Pipe: Effect of Sunset 
through the Woods;" "A Shepherd 
Girl Sleeping among her Sheep in the 
"Woods;" "The Pet Lamb," belonging 
to the Queen of Holland : ami, most 
imaginative of all, " Return of the 
Flock : A Shepherdess Leading her 
Sheep Home by Moonlight" — are not, 
however, really so interesting, and are 
certainly much less characteristic than 
bis more commonplace works. 

Nevertheless they indicate that 
Artz was a man of culture and taste. 
He was well read in the English, 
French, and German classics, took a 
lively interest in the drama, and, 
though no musician himself, by dint 
of constantly going to the best eon- 
certs both in Paris and at the Hague, 
he became quite a connoisseur. 

Nor did be limit himself to one 
form of painting, but gained quite a 
reputation in water-colour drawings, 
which he often executed on a large 
scale. Shortly before his death he 
exhibited at the Dutch Water-Colour 
Society in the Hague the head of a. 
Scheveningen woman, life-size, drawn 
with such power and yet with such a 
tender play of light over the brows 
that, it attracted universal admiration. 

Born at the Hague December 18th, 1837, David 
Adolphe Constant Art/, died there November 5th, 
1890. The esteem in which he was held by his coun- 
trymen was indicated by the numbers who, from all 
circles in the Hague, and from the various art centres 
of Holland, followed bis remains to the grave. He 

was a real loss to Dutch all, for lie was one of those 

painters who are not content with getting a name 
ami then resting mi their laurels, but who are ever 
striving after something better ami higher. Up to 
the last bis art: was growing in feeling and refine- 
ment, and in the Dutch art world there were few- 
even among the coming men about whose future, 
there was so much hope. 



By ALFRED PRAGA. Vice-President of the Society of Miniaturists. 

WHEX Hamlet, incensed at the sycophancy of 
his uncle's courtiers, exclaims that "those 
that would make mouths at him while my father 
lived, now give twenty, forty, fifty, an hundred 
ducats apiece for his picture in little," he is refer- 
ring, without doubt, to a miniature portrait of the 
usurper of Denmark's throne. What the miniature 
portrait was at the time Shakespeare wrote, with 

in a very able and comprehensive preface to the 
catalogue of the Exhibition of Portrail Miniatures, 
held by the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1889* 
tells us that " the word miniature, as applied to small 
portraits, is of comparatively recent introduction. 
Derived from the Latin word minium, signifying 
red-lead, in which material all the headings, capital 
letters, etc., of the most ancient MSS. were drawn. 

little essential difference, so it is, or so it should be, 
at the present day. It is the multum in parvo of 
portrait painting — an abridgment of the beautiful : 
in its relation to greater work, what the sonnet is 
to tin- epic. In short, it should be, as Hamlet 
designates it. "a picture in little.'' 

But this beautiful art has fallen into sad straits. 
like a timid nymph chased and affrighted by the 
demon Daguerre and his descendants. Our quarrel, 
however, is neither with photography nor its ex- 
ponents; it is rather with those who. professing to 
he painters in miniature, have unintelligently mis- 
used the great and useful science that has d and 

may still do, great service to art. 

This brief paper is, of course, nol in any sense 
intended as a guide to miniature painting, hut at the 
present juncture, when this neglected an isat length 
receiving a justly-merited meed of attention, it may 
ii*ii i„. out of place to give some details concerning 
its practice. 

Dr. Lumsden Propert, an esteemed and learned 
authority on miniatures and all appertaining to them. 

the term came gradually t" mean the 'miniatura,' 
or picture painted by tic great artists— pari of the 
illuminated hook." And again: — 

"Few if any miniature portraits are known to 
us prior lo the time of Holbein. The death of 
Cosway in 1821 marks the end of the line of the greal 
artists who, for nearly three < entui ii - had i on- 
trihuted to this charming branch of pictorial 
and though a few men continued to gain an exist- 
eni - by its practice, the cheap mechanical p 
of photography completely took its place. 

Tic same author also tells us that " miniature 
portraits, when painted in water-colour, were done 
,,u card or vellum, those in oil on panel, silver, 
copper, and slate ; hut thai about the end of the 

seventeenth century, ivory was first used as .1 ba 
the painting. When once ivory b& nerally 

ac< 1 pted basis for water-colour miniature, transparent 
colours wen • Ly used than when card or 

vellum was in fashion." l"p to » comparatively 
• Sec also Dr. Propert's ' • 

• I il ! HE SlAI I 1. 1891. 


>!' the so-called guides 

recent date the miniature painter had perforce to 
exercise greater care in his selection of ivory for his 
work, and instead of obtaining it in sheets, as at the 
present day with a surface ready prepared, he had to 
go through the tedious process of bleaching it to a 
proper whiteness, scraping to remove all scratches, 
and rubbing with pumice powder and sandpaper 
until it assumed a satisfactory and equal surface for 
receiving the colour. 

It is a little odd that some 
In miniature painting sold 
by artists'-colourmen at the 
present day, commence by 
giving directions such us 
I have mentioned for the 
preparation of the ivory. 
This .-done is somewhat sig- 
nificant of the neglect into 
which the art has fallen. 

The first thing to be 
considered in the painting 
of a miniature is the selec- 
tion of the ivory slip. The 
striations present in all 
ivory have to be taken into 
account, and those only 
should be used where these 
natural markings are so 
disposed as not to appear 
through the head or other 
principal part of the pic- 
ture where extra delicacy 
or transparency of colour 
might allow them to be 

Amongst the majority 
of miniature painters it has 
become almost a convention 

to work up the picture to so great a degree of 
finish, that any trace of the means employed or the 
manipulation is impossible of detection. This in a 
measure, perhaps, should be so, although there are 
many choice and valued examples in which this 
mechanical and often spiritless ultra-finish, that 
seems in leave a something wanting, is exchanged 
for a. freer and more personal, and to many minds 
a. more artistic, technique. 

lint this must not be construed into any advocacy 
ol' slovenliness on my part. The thing most to he 
avoided in miniature work is an appearance of want 
ol' care. Here there is little or no scope I'm- acci- 
dental effects, no nicks of technique, no slap-dash 
"I' style, nor the vagaries of pseudo-impressionism. 

Yet withal, between the poles, so to speak, of the 

slavish, machine-like method, admitting of no in- 
dividuality in treatment, and the predetermined 

loose style that may often be successfully affected in 
other branches of painting, there is a juste milieu, 
the attaining of which is the aim of the most en- 
lightened exponents of the art of miniature painting. 
The accompanying illustrations represent the 
principal stages through which a. miniature passes 
from commencement to finish. In all, I had six 
sittings of about two hours each, but the three illus- 
trations will he sufficient I'm- the present purpose. 
They are reproductions of the appearance of the 
ivory after the first, third, 
and sixth sittings respec- 
tively. The intermediate 
stages of the work would 

fnot show any conspicuous 
difference in reproduction. 

It must not he assumed 
that six sittings, averaging 
in all about twelve hours, 
is a sufficient amount of 
time in which to complete 
a miniature portrait. In 
most cases, t he greater 
number of sittings that can 
lie had, the better. In ad- 
dition to the sittings there 
is a great amount of labour 
necessary to bring the 
whole picture info harmony 
by hatching or stippling; 
and the minute particles of 
grit that, in spite of the 
greatest care, will present 
themselves on the surface, 
have to be removed from 
time to time with a needle- 
point or scraper. This is 
generally done between the 
various sittings, hut should he restricted only to 
the background or accessories, as it is hardly ever 
safe to touch the head when the sitter is not present. 
Fig. 1 represents the first sitting of about two 
hours, and is sketched in almost entirely with a 
neutral tint composed of cobalt and light red. 
This is an excellent combination, as it admits of 
almost every variety of warm or cold grey, according 
to the preponderance of one or other of the colours. 
Many of the older miniaturists substituted for them 
Indian ink with lake or Indian red. The first 
sitting is taken up with blocking out the general 
forms, attending chiefly to the dark masses, and 
keeping the whole rather faint ami of one tone. 
This is generally carried into the second sitting, only 
here more attention must he paid to getting a like- 
ness i if t he sil ter. 

In Fig. 2 the third stage has been reached, and 




the tender shadows and tints of the flesh have been 
worked into the preceding tones, care having been 
taken to preserve and strengthen the forms, few 
and simple as possible, as these, to a greal degree, 
constitute the likeness. Now the delicate tints of 
the nVsh. which have all a precise form, and which 
are indistinguishable to the common eye, have to 
be searched and drawn with as much decision and 
squareness as possible. 

The likeness should now conic on rapidly, and 
the background having received sonic amount of 
attention, there should be apparent in the picture 
a balance and unity, and the whole should have 
assumed a tolerably even state. 

Up to now no gum lias been used with the water, 
indeed, I find thai the best results are obtained by 
the non-use of gum. At all times it should be used 
sparingly, and then only in finishing, where sharp, 
dark", and decisive touches are required. 

In the succeeding stages of the work', the mode 
of procedure would be similar were a dozen or more 
sittings requisitioned. This consists of finish — a 
word that to the painter in miniature means the 
closest application and the truthful imitation of 
the subtlest gradations of tone and colour, adding 
a richness here, and rendering more delicate there, 
but always aiming at largeness and breadth of effect, 
despite the limits under which he is bound to work. 

Fig. 3 shows the completed miniature. The 
ivory has now been cut to the oval which was 

drawn around the portrait al the firsl sitting. This 
cutting of the ivory is a matter requiring the ex- 
tremist care. Unless it is properly done, it is easy 
to split up the whole work. A pair of curved 
scissors should be used, and the cutting musl be 
commenced from the centre of the side of the oval, 
working around to the top. This should be done 
separately on either side. Passing the scissors com- 
pletely around the ivory should nol be attempted. It 
has now to lie mounted on white paper, and attached 
to the glass around the edges, with gold-beater's skin, 
which will effectually keep oul the dusl of ages, and, 
finally, to be fixed into the frame or locket. 

In the course of his preface Dr. Propert expressed 
an opinion that has peculiar interest just now lie 

■• Miniature painting is still in abeyance, the title still i I 
but ran ii be always thus 1 With the increased art-culture and 
apprecia! ion of the beautiful and true, which is happily permeat- 
ing the intelligent classes of the presenl day, il is impossible I" 
believe that the faulty results of a mechanical proci -- 
thine tn satisfy the art aspirations of the future. Xhe sons and 
daughter- of men are as noble and fair now as when Cooper 
painted the strong men of the seventeenth or Coswa\ the beau- 
tiful women of the eighteenth centuries. With materials so 
worthy of the limner's skill it can but be a question of time 

when the fascinating art of miniature shall agi 

awaking from its slumber, refreshed and relieved, striving 
always onward to greater and greater perfi 

This was written as recently as 1889. Was it 
prophetic of what has come to pass within seven 
years from then '. 1 think il was. 



WE have lost not only a great artist and crafts- The personal force with which he was wont to 

man, poet and social reconstructor, but also a maintain his views of art had all the emphasis and 
great personality by the death of William Morris, effect of passionate personal conviction, and when he 
Indeed, his influence in the arts of design might upheld his opinion against that of others it was 
almosl be said to have been stronger through the rather in the spirit of one inspired by a vivid and 
weight and vigour of his personal character than il profound faith which could uol brook any laxity, 
was, and is, by reason of his actual autograph work 
in that branch. 

The success or far-reaching influem E his work- 
in so many fields of design was perhaps as much due 
to his power of initiation and permeation as to 
original creative invention. The thoroughly pracr 
tical workmanlike spirit in which he took up the 
forms of handicraft, upon which he has lefl his 
mark", mastering the methods, details, and eon- 
litions of each in turn firsl himself, enabled him to 

vacillation, or vagueness, and which was too ardent 
to be tolerant, at least in the heal of disi ussion 

At such moments his friends had glimpses of 
the iierv energy which lay behind the exl raord 
creative power of his nature lie- force which fed 
thai perennial stream of poetic ami artistic inven- 
tion; albeil flowing smoothly through the woods 
and flowery meads of romance, and giving life con- 
tinually to forms of wonderful richness and beauty. 

Thai stream flowed serenelj enough dike his 

impress his feeling upon and to guide his helpers beloved Thames) through the dream jvorld which tin 

and assistants with the authority whicl ly comes poel wove around his life, like to his own irra 

of practical knowledge, distinct artistic aim, and tapestry, with il wealth of fruitful trees and 

definite principles. enwroughl ground peopled with the figures ol 



and romance. With his lifelong friend and fellow- 
artist, Edward Burne-Jones, he dwelt in that pleasant 
land, ever discovering new treasure in it, ever building 
new houses for delight, with fair gardens of flowers, 
or gathering new wonder and romance from the deep 
umbrage of its mysterious woods. 

How eagerly has a world-worn and jaded genera- 
tion sought the key to that earthly paradise. How far 
removed if seems from the commercial and industrial 
bustle and battle of the nineteenth century, the 
sordid life of modern cities, the seething stress and 
stir, the cry of poverty, the glitter of wealth, the ebb 
and How of human life : 

••Forget six centuries o'erhung with smoke, 
Forget the snorting steam and piston stroke, 
Forget tlir spreading of the hideous town; 
Think rather of the paokhorse on the Down, 
And dream of London, small find white and clean, 
The clear Thames bordered by its gardens green." 
That was Morris's world. These were the things 
in winch his heart delighted ; and one can constantly 
trace the craftsman's pleasure throughout his poetry, 
dwelling lovingly upon the beauty of the ministrants 
and accessories of his stories; the colour anil sur- 
face of marble, the carved work, the painted storied 
chamber, or the hangings of arras, the gleam of gold 
and silver vessels, and the fine cloth and embroidery. 
Thus the craftsman and the artist were always one 
with the poet, and ricr versd. While with his pen 
he created this fair dream-world, or painted vivid 
pictures of the primitive, ancient, or mediaeval world, 
he strove to re-create, or to recall, something of lost 
beauty and romance in the accessories of everyday 
life, to give character and meaning again to table 
and chair, to hanging and cupboard, to settle and 
fireplace, to lamp and pitcher. 

The means by which he sought to bring this 
about were a, return to simpler and sounder methods 
of construction in furniture; to let the constructive 
principle be obvious, as in trestle table and rush- 
bottomed chair: and, if richness and variety be 
sought, not to let it take the form of tortured ingenuity 
in the turning and curling of legs meant for support, 
hut rather in enriching those parts not already 
burdened with organic purpose, as, for instance, the 
panels of a sideboard, a cabinet, or settle with figure- 
painting of pattern-work. 

Where cushions were needed, as for a couch or 
chair, to let them be loose and apart from the struc- 
ture, and not (as in the course of a long evolution of 
upholstery and doubf ful comfort ) inseparable from the 
plethoric constitution of the whilom bourgeois arm- 
chair, protuberant with fallacious springs and padding. 
By a return to sincerity, too, as to materials in 
all the belongings of a home, and truth to method 
of work, be lifted decoration and furniture on to 
another plane, so that nothing should pretend to be 

what it was not ; plain painting, for instance, should 
be plain painting, and not, try to look like marble or 
precious woods of curious grain : wall-paper should 
be wall-paper, and not imitation textiles; while the 
virtue of wool or silk should appear in the fabric and 
pattern most characteristic of, because best adapted 
to the conditions of each in the loom. 

Now this movement of sincerity was really the 
extension of the principle which animated that 
remarkable group of painters, known as the Pre- 
Raphaelite Brotherhood, to the larger domain of con- 
structive-design and decoration generally. As a. 
matter of fact, certain leading members were origin- 
ally the colleagues of William Morris in his work, 
when (lie committee or firm of artists and craftsmen 
was first formed, who carried on the famous work- 
shops of Queen Square — notably I>. <i. Rossetti, 
Ford Madox Brown, and Edward Burne-Jones. Mr. 
Arthur Hughes was also a member at the first. We 
thus see the direct influence of the Pre-Raphaelite 
painters, especially perhaps of the first-named, who, 
influenced by, and in turn influencing, perhaps, both 
bis masters Madox Brown and Mr. Holman Hunt, 
gave, in conjunction with William Morris, a marked 
bias to the work of the firm. 

The fact that Morris had a certain architectural 
training in the office of Mr. (1. Street must have been 
of enormous advantage to him as a designer in de- 
coration, and it probably bad its effect, in addition 
to other advantages, in enabling him to finally take 
the leadership as a designer in the decorative arts. 
His knowledge and grasp of Gothic architecture was 
very extensive, and he was able to bring it to bear 
very forcibly in another important work of his life, 
too little recognised — I mean bis work on the com- 
mittee of the Society for the Protection of Ancient 
Buildings, where, with his friend and colleague Mr. 
Philip Webb, the distinguished architect and designer, 
he has carried on quietly a most useful ami much 
needed work. When the historic documents of our 
country, in the shape of ancient buildings, are in con- 
stant danger, either from neglect and ignorance or 
from commercial enterprise or the zeal of the modern 
restorer, this society raises its emphatic and informed 
protest. These protests were frequently voiced or 
penned by William Morris himself, who probably 
possessed as extensive knowledge of the lncdiaval 
buildings of England as any man. 

While in tin/ region of poetic art William 
Morris's ideal seems to have been, as he himself 
wrote in the introduction to "The Earthly Paradise," 

to — " strive to build a shadowy isle of bliss 

Midmost the beating of the steely sea," 

he was fully prepared to lake his share in the move- 
ments of his time and it was only pail of the 
sincerity of his nature to do so. His practical 




endeavours fco add to the beauty of Life brought him 
close tn the economic question, which he approached 
both from the point of view of employer and worker. 
He always described himself as an artist working 
with assistants, but no doubt in the course of bis 
multifarious kinds of work, having dealings with 
manufacturers and workmen in many different in- 
dustries, the trend of the general conditions of our 
times, the evolution of the industrial system, the 
effect nf the machine and the fierce commercial com- 
petition prevailing must have quite naturally led his 
thoughts to those great questions which touch the 
very foundations of the modern system of production. 

His niiiml changed from " The Earthly Paradise," 
though even there, in the opening verses, the very 
fact that he seemed conscious of the turmoil and 
trouble of the world outside would indicate what 
afterwards happened — that he would finally be com- 
pelled to listen to it, to form an opinion, and take 
his part in the great industrial battle. That he did 
not hesitate on which side, or with whom, to east 
his lot, is not to be wondered at when one considers 
the thoroughness of his nature. 

Xu doubt, too, among the influences at work a 
very potent one must not be forgotten in John 
Ruskin, whose views upon modern methods and 
their results in art, architecture, and social life he 
thoroughly endorsed. I have heard Morris speak 
with the highest regard of Ruskin and his work. 
Ruskin, though hitter against the modern system. 
tool* no part or lot with revolutionists. While theo- 
retically and m his writings in revolt against the 
tendencies of his age, he remained practically a con- 
servative. With Morris, on the other hand, protest 
became active and constant as soon as he became 
convinced that the economic basis was wrong; ami 
when he discovered the new socialist party — men for 
the most part of very different natures, ami who had 
reached the same standpoint by very different mads 
— he joined, and worked heartily fur the cause, in the 
light of the new hope. It is a great mistake to 
suppose that William Morris's socialist views were 
an accident, or merely the result of sentiment. He 
started with a definite ideal in art, ami he practic- 
ally realised it as far as his own wort was concerned, 
but when he desired to gi i further and realise it in 
life, it was a very differenl thing, but he faced the 
facts. He went down to the ground in the matter 
with characteristic thoroughness, ami worked at 

ecoi ms, ami debated the question until he was 

master nf it, ami threw himself into the movement 
which he was convinced was really the hope of the 
world, morally ami socially, ami which involved "i' 
necessity tin' prospects nf art and labour with it. 

( 'in resp. miling with Ins change, or rather develop- 
ment, nf his view nf life, he turned his attention in 

and developed a new ait. or perhaps revived an old 
one — the art of printing. While his verse power- 
fully voiced the claims <<( labour and humanity, he 
finally put into the form of a romance his vision 
of the future constitution of society in " News from 
Nowhere," which is remarkable — while containing 
passages of romantic beauty ami vivid description as 
(me as anything he wrote — for its modern touches, 
ami the powerful contrast drawn between the vision 
and the actualities of present-day London life. A 
beautiful edition, with a frontispiece by Mr. CM. 
• one, a drawing of Morris's favourite retreat, Kelms- 
cott Manor, has been printed at the Kelmscott Press. 

In the works which William Morris has issued 
from his press we see much the same qualities as a 
designer as are shown in his work in other provinces 
of design, allowing tor the differences of method and 
material. The ornamental feeling is rich, full, and 
efflorescent. The well-filled borders of arabesque 
upon black grounds occasionally recall in motive some 
of his well-known printed textile designs. The Eorm 
of the type, whether Roman or Gothic, is tasteful. 
and always in accord with the ornament of the page, 
and, with the rich initial letters, forms agreeabL 
quantities in pattern upon the carefully proportioned 
recto and verso pages. Perhaps the most remark- 
able designs are the title pages, which show much 
resource in the values ami quantities in the com- 
bination of black ami white, ami the use of lettering 
as parts of the decoration. 

The monumental work of the Kelmscott Press 
is the Chaucer, with its nohle borders and figure 
designs after Sir Edward Burne-Jones. In some 
instances the wealth ami richness of the borders 
seem to rather overpower the figure subjects, which 
are drawn with considerable reserve and even re- 
straint : but it is rarely that two designers so much 
in sympathy collaborate upon a work. 

But the pitcher is broken at the fountain: the 
press IS stopped ; the loom is silent : we are left gaz- 
ing ai the rich record nf the st renuous ai tistic life 
that has -one from us— a record w lerfully com- 
plete and full, and of extraordinary width of range. 
We feel the spirit of the craftsman in the poet, and 
the spirit of the poet in the works of the craftsman, 
playing through the mazes of the floral arabesque 

u] our walls, mingling with the rich dyes and 

patterns of tin- h rid . arpets, fused in the 

glowing glass, or making beautiful rhyme and romance 
upon the printer-poet's own page. Finally we see 
him as a man, pleading the cause "f the labourer, 
a- John Ball ami Sir Thomas More bad done before 
him. Surely the record of such a life forms a a 
1,. li,. red chapter in the history of the art and life 
,,f England in this last half of the industrial com- 
mercial nineteenth century ! 



THERE was a time when the celebrated epicurean 
who reversed the common order, and "lived to 
eat," used to swear that, if he wanted to dine well, 
he was obliged to cross the Channel to Paris, where, 
at the must, intimate of all French cafes and the 
costliest restaurant, one might breakfast out-of- 
doors. But this was very greatly altered fur a 
brief spell by the founding of a club of exceed- 
ingly heavy subscription ami entrance fees — the 
Amphitryon, in Albemarle Street. Here the glut- 
tonous refinement of Rome in its decadence was 
repeated; but the smash, when it came, was heavy 
enough punishment. The Trocadero, after passing 
through many vicissitudes, has become a palatial 

Tapestries, friezes, electric light, brocades, velvets 
of many hues are combined in an effective ensemble. 
The must lovely chamber by far is the entrance-hall, 
with its golden balustrade, its pillars of exquisitely- 
veined Devonshire marbles from the quarries of 
Oddicombe. It is must, brilliant and unprecedented, 
the unique and extremely charming feature being 


the frieze by two young artists who have passed 
through the Royal Academy Schools, already suc- 
cessful in the paths of sculpture and painting. 
Here the two arts are joined together, the pictures 
being modelled in low relief and enriched with 
metals and every shade of colour, the buffs being 
in by far the greatest diversity; lemon, pale blue, 
scarlet, grey, green, black ami white, amber and 
brown, all come together in perfect harmony. 
These two young men have made a new departure 
in the art of decoration, and evolved a splendid 
success, which will no doubt he universally copied 
fur internal mural decoration. From the original 
small coloured sketches Mr. Moira made full-size 
cartoons on brown paper — drawn with exceeding 
boldness and verve, in charcoal and white chalk. 
Mi. F. Lynn Jenkins from these cartoons modelled 
the panels in low relief, the greatest relief being 
one inch. They were then cast, in fibrous plaster, 
ami coated with a special medium which renders 
the material non-absorbative and at the same time 
attained a very enduring and hardened surface. 





Metiils— gold, silver, and platinum 
—in the leaf were then applied to 
the pails required, and the whole 
decoratively enriched with colour 
by Mr. Moira. Owing to the 
peculiar strength of fibrous plas- 
ter the panels were casf exci ed- 
ingly thin and are very light in 

These pictures, which run round 
the entire entrance-hall, and mea- 
sure over ninety feet long with a 
depth lit' nearly six feet, are from 
the " d' Arthur," as nar- 
rated in Tennyson's " Idylls of 
the King," and are too various 
to describe in detail. Two of 
the largest, which face each other, 
give "The Round Table" and 
"The Coming of Guinevere to 
Camelot." In the former, which 



glows with rich colour— but 
the mass of white drapery 
and vestments lowers the 
colour scheme somewhat, and 
sobers it— King Arthur, Mer- 
lin, the seer and philosopher, 
a grave, Gothic figure of 
sacerdotal aspect, with a black 
cap on his head, surrounded 
by the drinking knights, 
Percival, < reraint, < raret h 
of the kitchen, and the rest. 
Some are seated, some stand : 
all the altitudes are graceful 
and manly ; by the side are 
hanners, which flourish wide 
in multitudinous and intricate 
folds: to the lel'l is a haulier 
of crowns and swans. " The 
Coming of Guinevere to 
Camelot " contains the greater 

number of figures, both mounted 
and unmounted : the horses are 
armoured with gold and silver; 
blue and scarlet make their 
trappings; the knights all wear 
helms, and carry their shields 
bright with bearings. Launcelot, 
tall and commanding, dominates 
the picture, and the queen, with 
her imperially-moulded figure, 
shares in its governance. A 
page kneels before her, offering 
wine on a golden salver. Serving- 
men in gorgeous costumes, their 
jerkins decorated with the three 
crowns imperial, their legs en- 
cased with cloth swathings, hear 
alofl the luscious fruits of the 
earth : while behind them come 
others with drinking-horns, and 
feminine figures are in the back- 




ground. The stori 
by Tennyson thus 

>f Guinevere's coming is tol 

I bent speai 
of them, tl 

i, hav 
e hor 

"Then Arthur charged his warrior 
whom he loved 

And honoured most, Sir Lancelot, 

to ride forth 
And bring the Queen; — and 

watch'd li i in from the gates: 
And Lancelot passed away among 

the flowers 
(For then was latter April) and 

Among the flowers, in May, with 


CJ'hr Coming of Arthur.) 

There are two sporting 
incidents — " A Hawking 
Party : " ( tuinevere, robed in 
white, flies the bird from 
her hand with graceful ges- 
ture : a highly-conventional- 
ised tree : the stein, perpen- 
dicular walls of < 'amelot ; the 
hawker, with his frame of 
birds, kneels to give one of 
his captives flight. The 
quarry is a heron going at 

great sp 1, all legs and 

wines; an argent stream in 
the left corner passes swiftly. 
" Hunting the Wild Boar," 

IV its position, enjoys a 

great advantage of light : it 
is undoubtedly the finest of 
the set. Though low in tones, 
it: is manly, strenuous, brawny, 
and noble. The great massive 
horses seem to i hunder along 
in their speed and heavy 
stride. Their riders, with 

'■ their boar immediately in front 
rent beast galloping as fasl as his 
short legs w ill let him. The 
background, which is a land- 
scape, the scurrying clouds, 
and the masses of distant 
heavy foliage, all have their 
powerful expression. The 
little bough of chestnut in 
the corner is Japanese in 

feeling. An gst the panels 

to which we would draw 
attention is " The Queen 
of the Tourney " — a very 
queen, seated on a dais : at 
her feet is a wreath held 
high on a lance, illustrating 
the lines : — 

"There all day long Sir Pelleas 

kept the fi< Id 
With honor ; so bj thai strong 

hand of las 
The sword and circle! were 

I hen rang i he shoul lii> lady 

loved : the heal 
Of pride and glorj fired l" 

her eye 
Sparkled ; she caughl I he 

from his lance 
And there before the 

crowned herself." 

In this figure, more I 

any oilier, we find i he st s 

Moira feeling, the sent inieut 
of ancient chivalry being ex- 
cellently expressed. lv|li;ill\ 

beautiful, but of a different 
plexi Enid la inging 



up Wine;" her figure, as she toils up the stairs, 
is sweetly pathetic. Again, "Enid Crossing the 
Drawbridge;" she descends, holding a basket on 
her arm, her gown of faint pink, with a dark 
border of fur, her neat little head outlined againsl 
the masonry of the building, while beyond, the 
water cascades in a silver sheet. The incidents 
are taken from "The Marriage of Geraint": — 

"So Enid his charger to the stall ; 
Ana after went her way across the bridge, 
Ami reached the town, and while the Prince and Earl 
Yet spoke together, came again with one, 
A youth, that following with a costrel, bore 

'Hie means of goodly welco flesh ami wine, 

And Enid brought sweet cakes to make them cheer. 
An I in her veil unfolded manchet bread" 

The panel illustrated mi this page represents 
the stem seneschal of King Arthur's Court, who 
takes so prominent a part in the poem " Gareth 
ami Lynnette." Standing in his own particular 
domain — the kitchen — Sir Kay here looks the em- 


(Painted by Laurence /foe.) 

bodimenl of the tyrant who "hustled 
ami harried " the kitchen knight, Gareth. 
The figure of the little maid, crouch- 
ing in lowly attitude at his feet, turn- 
ing the wheel of the spit, serves to 
emphasise the haughtiness of the sene- 
schal Sir Kay might be saying — 

" Bound upon a quesl 
With horse and arms — the King hath past 

his time. 
My scullion knave ! Thralls to your work again, 
For an your fire be low ye kindle mine! 
Will there be dawn in West and eve in East ? 
Begone ! My knave '. . . . 
Well— I will after my loud knave, and learn 
Whether lie know me I'm- his master yet. 
Out of the smoke he came, and so my lance 
Hold, by God"s grace, he shall into the mire- 
Thence, if the King awaken from his craze, 
Into the >in. ike again." 

Messrs. Moira ami Jenkins occupy 
two spacious studios in the neighbour- 
hood of Campion Hill, one above an- 
other. There is no knick-knackery, nor 
wild beasts' skins: they ate workshops, 
ami nothing else. Mr. Jenkins com- 
menced to study under Mr. Sparkes, that 
splendid teacher and author of so many 
nuns successes, where he won nearly till 
the sketching club prizes of that school, 
ami also a medal from the Academy 



influence to his arl : his father was the celebrated 
Portuguese miniature painter, who lived, worked and 
nourished in the latter decades of the present century. 
After studying in the British Museum, Mr. Gerald 
Moira entered the Academy Schools, where, after win- 
ning several medals and prizes, h ily missed the 

gold medal by half a length, Mr. Ralph Peacock being 
tin' lucky winner. As a portraitist, Mr. Moira has 
shown himself a deft and clever worker, a collection 
"l' lieads forming a small one-man show al the Fine 
An Society. We have treated the work of these two 

young men at s e length, but they have launched 

out in so novel ami individual a manner that — for 
lie' moment, at any rati — they air of paramount 
interest to the younger school of painters 

The accompanying sketch portraits are from the 
brush of Mr. Laurence Koe, "ho has achieved consider- 
able reputation as a portrait painter, ami who, with .Mr 
F. Ilavilaml, shares the studios at Bedford Gardens. 

{Painted b 3 Laurence Koe.) 

and the city of London Guilds medal. 
Entering the Academy Schools in 1893, 
the following year he was successful 
in winning the British Institution 
Scholarship of £100, open to com- 
petitors from all over the United King- 
dom. This young man, who is only 
twenty-six, is a native of Torquay; the 
profession followed by his father gave 
him an early insight into the use of 
the chisel. He is of opinion that plain 
sculpture reliefs are apt, from inade- 
quate lighting, to he cold; hut tins 
combination of metals, rich colouring, 
and sculpture opens up a scheme of 
decoration which will prove of benefit 
both to the artist, and the public. 

Mr. Gerald E. Moira is better 
known, being for the last few years a 
frequent exhibitor at the Royal Acad- 
emy. His picl in c-s are always interest- 
ing, very individual, but sometimes his 
ambitions o'erleap his power. In L894, 
a Eossettian theme; 1895, a portrait "i 
Mis. Cyril Plnmmer and Mis. Nares; 
this year 'The King's Daughter," and 
"Brenda, Daughter of Carl Svedburg, 
Esq." Mr. Moira brings the hereditary 


PEWTEE is one 
metals used in 
treme malleabil- 
ity and its purity 
of colour have 
allowed of its 
being wrought 
with the happiest 
andmosl interest- 
ing results. M. 
Bapst, in his in- 
teresting work 
called " L'Etain," 
has given a com- 
plete history of 
this branch of art, 
showing iis de- 
velopment among 
ili,. Greeks and 
Romans, then in 
tin' hands of the 
Germanic races, 
and finally in those 
know how fine aie 
jugs and pots, and w 


of the most valuable mixed m Corinthium, spoken of with admiration by Greel 

the decorative arts. Its ex- 

and Latin authors, was not simply our most ordinary 

pewter ? 

Be this as it 
may, after being 
neglected at the 
beginning of this 
century, the use 
of this material 
has lately been 
revived, and a 
long list might 
he made of artists 
who employ it 
with success. But 
foremost of all 
M. Jules Brateau 
deserves the first 
credit for having 
restored pewter 
to a place of 
honour, and as 

of the Medieval monks. We the leader of a movement which is now in full 
the shapes of the Leans XV. career. Of all our modern workers in pewter, he 
ho knows whether the famous is, in fact, the only artist who is above all else a 

(By Carrikre.) 

er Dish by HI. Ledru.) 



pewter-potter; a chaser who hi 
mastered the material on the ol 
lines, and who handles it in the old 

Pewter lias been adopted for the 
most various, ornamental purposes. 
M. Gustave Charpentier's candelabra 
show a choice adaptation of form : 
MM. Baffier and Desbois, and the 
sculptor Ernest Carriere, have made 
themselves really famous by this 
<lass of work; and not less M. 
Maurice Maignian, whose jardiniere, 
representing " The Day After a Vic- 
tory at the Alhambra," will not be 

Bui I wish here to dwell more 
particularly on the artistic work of 
M. Ledru, a pupil of M. Dumont, 
who won a medal at the Salon of 
1894, and who this year again has 
earned the same distinction. M. 
Ledru, in his vases ami dishes, never 
loses sight of the two sides of his 
art, the decorative treatment and 
the sculptural fitness; as a sculptor 
he often lets us see his admirable 
talent, but without any injury to the 

purpose of his work. Tims, in a vase he calls - The 
1Vv ." here represented by permission of Ah 
s,l ^ , ' Brothers, he shows us a woman lying rrone 
whom a monstrous cuttle-fish is aboul to 
M. Ledru very rightly feels that this is bul 
which cmghl not to divert attention from the vase, 
itself of an elegant classical form, or attracl tl 
too assertively, as is the case in some work by other 
artists. The same remark applies to a dish, "The 
Wave," modelled with wonderful delicacy. The 
art is admirable with which M. Ledru has, as it 
were, draped his Naiad in light caressing waves, 
and added such dainty details as the two fish swim- 
ming above her. 

M. I'. H. R. Eoussel (Grand Prix de Borne, 1895) 
is not as yet so skilful as M. Ledru, hut his vase, 
"The Sedge Nymph," with its double curve of ex- 
-~'site elegance and charm, gives promise of an artist 

the first rank with a great future before him. 

(Pewter Vase tj HI. Ledru. By Permission of Mes 



Still the criticism we must address to all these remaining faithful to the true tradition, which 
artists, however -real their merit, is that they treat nevertheless does not destroy the charm of the works 

(Pewter Vase by H. P. H. P. Pan 

the materia] as sculptors, as they would any other 
plasi ie material, nol in the manner of the old workers 
in pewter. Only M. .Jules Brateauhas succeeded in 

we have described. We must lie satisfied to regard 

these artists as independent of the time-honoured 
tradition of the pewterer's art. Henri Fraxtz. 



S< (ME symbolical sculp- 
ture of a rather un- 
usual type lias just been 
completed by Mr. A. ('<. 
Walker, of the Cedar 
studios, Chelsea, for the 
church which is now being 
built at Stamford Hill by 
the Society of the Aga- 
pemone. Four bronze 
fig i - each of which is 
about seven feet high, are 
used as tinials to the tower, 
and these figures represent 
the evangelistic symbols — 
the angel in human form, 
the lion, the ox, and the 
eagle. Each symbol per- 
sonifies a i ii lain virtue : 
the angel intelligence, the 
linn strength, the ox pa- 
tience, ami the eagle Far- 
sight : and they are used 
because they are held to 
be the four attributes of 


the Divinity. The same 
■ i in the four 
buttress groups which de- 
corate the west front of 
the church; but 1. 
symbols a re act iv< ly 
triumphing over t! 

posites. Intelligen ver- 

t oines Sorrow, Strength and 
Patience respectively 1 1 u- 
quer Death and Pain, and 
Far-sight defi ats Mental 
Blindness. Mr. Walker's 
manner of handling his 
- is marked by a 
judicious mixture of real- 
ism and decorative conven- 
tion ; he has sei i 1 reality 

enough to make the mean- 
ing of the symbols apparent, 
and at the same time he 
has gone sufficiently far 
towards pure decoration to 
prevent any lack of style 
in his designs or any want 



(Sj A. C. Walker.) 



of meaning in his manner of treatment. In the 
buttress groups, especially, there is shown a fine 
sense of line arrangement, and excellent judgment 
in massing and composition. As examples of what 
[ s after all the best way to employ sculpture— in 
conjunction with architecture — these productions 
of Mr. Walker's deserve very considerable praise. 

Sj A. G. Walker.) 

The other example of his work which we illus- 
trate — a silver alms dish for a church at Liverpool — 
claims attention, as it shows his i apacity to d< al with 
a different branch of sculpture. The work in this 
case i> done partly by easting and partly by chasing, 
and is in its resull eminently effective because it 
combines in a manner which is unusually well-con- 
sidered richness of design with a lowness of relief 
that suits well the purpose to which the dish is to 
be devoted. As a whole, this piece of metal work 
is acceptable as a sign that our younger sculptors 
are learning how to adapt their art to practical 
exigencies. There is certainly no need to disregard 
utility in the pursuit of aesthetics; and it can hardly 

be denied thai on of the highest merits in the 

application of design is the preservation of an exact 

balance between 

the decoration and 

the fitness for its 

ultimate use in the 

object decorated. 

Another im- 
portant group of 
sculpture intended 
as a prominent 
feature in an ar- 
chitectural design 
is that which Mr. 
of Glebe Plac ■ 
Chelsea, has exe- 
cuted for the new 
General Hospital, 
Birmingham. Two 
colossal figures, 
symbolising Phar- 
macy and Surgery, 
uphold a lamp, 
typifying Life : 
their arms are 
supported by Phil- 
anthropy, who 
tramples upon 
Disease in tin- form 
of a snake. The 
total height of 
the group is near- 
ly ten feet, and 
the figures sur- 
round the central pier of a triangular porch, which 
is a striking part of the design for the hospital 
building. The dignity of the composition and the 
severity of the lines of the drapery (save for the 
tortuous edges) give to the whole work a significance 
which is entirely appropriate to the purposes of 
the institution itself. For the same building Mr. 
Rollins is also busy with three other colossal 
statues representing " Light," " Air," and " Purity." 



(By J. Wenloch Rollins.) 


EVERY new volume put forth by Mr. Phil May 
idy confirms his position and establishes 
his genius— il enhances his reputation while his 
gallery of characters is steadily added to, and his 
is widened. The admirable series of half a 
hundred drawings included in the volume entitled 
h Gutter-Snipes," which has been put 

forth by the Leadenhall Press, shows us the stream 
of his humour as fresh as ever, observation as keen, 
truth as inexorable; while the freedom of touch and 
handling show unmistakable development. In look- 
ing over these pages the I. loner is startled with 

the verisimilitude of the scenes he has so often 
witnessed, hut so rarely seen adequately portrayed. 



From the first pages bbal present us with the game 
of cricket as played in the Seven Dials, and a lifelike 

portrait of Mr. Andrew Tuer, to the last admirable 
study of gutter gymnasts — a sketch which Leech 
would have liked to sign— we are presented with 

sketch them down, ami forget them again as rapidly 
— but they are permanent, abiding ideas. X 
sports nt' Nature, but her n© rnal cla — . 

We feel that we cannot pari with any of them, lest 
a link should be broken." As is the case with the 


_ v^ofcV^ 

{Reduced from "Phil May's Gutter-Snipes.") 

every variety of life that form the lights and shadows 
of general existence. We do not pretend that 
" Water-works," here reproduced, is quite the best 
of the series; yet the inimitable figure of the self- 
possessed young humorist offers worthy testimony 
to Mr. Phil .May's comic sense (if such were needed) 
and to his consummate power of placing it on paper. 
There is hardly a drawing in which are not pn 
several types of charactei searchingly true, and. 
withal, a sense of style which proclaims the artist 
not only a master of Ins craft, but a very master 
among artists. Of these studies we may say what 
Charles Lamb said of Hogarth's: they " have not a 
mere momentary interest, as in caricatures, or those 
grotesque physiognomies which we sometimes catch 
a glance of in the street, and. struck with their 
whimsicalities, wish for a pencil and the power to 

true humorist, the ten. lei' side of Mr. May's nature 
is very obvious. He revels in practical jokes, in low 

humour, and knockabout farce. He plays the | i 

Gutter-Snipes' games upon paper and shares in their 
squalid happiness. Not less dees he sym] 
in their wretchedness and misery, in their illness, 
poverty, and utter wretchedness. So profound is 
the humanity of his drawings that we are almost 
tempted to overlook the line composition of h 
tures, which is ine\ itably i ight, and the inst 
balance of his light remarkable 

is the truth with which he presents the spii 
the tow nscape w hich may happen to foi m the 

g ml of his | act in. s. We doubt if Charles Keene 

ever surpassed with so little effort the successful 
rendering of such a street-wil - n - see in 

the " Pegtop scene. In liorl Mr. May is seeu here 



at his best, for, sketchy as is his work, no artistic 
quality is on that account lost. The book is one to 
get and to treasure, for it takes ils place by right 
among the best productions of the country's humour. 


V) Mr. Laurence Housman we are indebted for 
admirable essay on the work of "Arthur 
Boyd Houghton" (Kegan Paul and Co.), a book which 
should be iii the hands of every lover of intellectual 
and technical art, as well as every lover of black- 
and-white illustration and of the art of the wood- 
cutter. The volume includes a number of facsimile 
reproductions of the drawings for the wood, as well 

as manly and convincing as Millais' ; and his 
methods as original as .anybody's. His character- 
isation is not less happy, as may be seen in the 
drawing, " The Indian prostrates himself before 
the King of Persia," wherein every face, black or 
brown, is well accustomed to the blinding sun, 
and every inch of the surface is eloquent of the 
Orient. In one point only do we disagree with the 
writer. He says that Houghton's work is curiously 
bound down to monochrome and rarely suggests 
colour — only tone. We consider, on the contrary, 
that his suggestive colour-sense was hardly less 
than Keene's. It is delightful in passing in review 

as a great number of impressions from the wood- 
blocks themselves, executed for the Dalziel's 
"Arabian Nights," "Don Quixote," and other works. 
It is a pity that the drawings executed for Messrs. 
Cassell and Co. were not also included, but the 
collection as it stands is sufficient to show the 
greatness of the artist. There has been a "boom" 

in Houghton latterly, but it is a 1 m fraught with 

good, for no attention which might be given to his 
work would be mis-spent by the student nor un- 
remunerative to the beholder. Mr. Housman does 
well in placing Houghton at the head of the Pre- 
Raphaelite Revivalists, so to say, for Houghton 
had much of the passion, the vigour, and the 
humanity of all the great illustrators included in 
the " P.-R. P..," and had, moreover, as much humour 
as all them put together. His black-and-white is 
i fine as Charles Keene's; his devotion as 
deep as Holman Hunt's; his vigorous realisation 

these interesting illustrations, to observe with how 
much intelligence Houghton — the one-eyed artist, 
whose health was shattered, it was said, by over- 
indulgence — knew how to profit with unerring 
instinct by the great improvement which Millais 
and his associates had forced upon the engravers 

on w 1. It is not less delightful to see bow 

completely, bow instinctively, he underst 1 light 

and shade. The perfection of many of his illustra- 
tions lies in the truly luminous character of his 
illustrations of his author's meaning, and not, merely 
a reproduction by the pencil of the author's ivords. 
Houghton, in truth, was a great imaginative artist, 
and we rejoice that so interesting a reprint has 
been placed in hands so capable as those of Mr. 
Housman lor introduction to the public. The 
unknown drawing which Mr. Housman refers to 
as ".lew- and Gentile" is, we believe, a fanciful 
illustration to the Merchant of Venice. 


[Fir "Regulations, 

of fresco painting in England is fairly well known, 
as well as Lord Leighton's share in its attempted 
revival. Can you inform me whether his work at 
Bowood is, as has been suggested, his first work in 
that method ?— G. A. P.. 

# *. s Tlie Bowood fresco was in no sense an 
experimental one. Long before Lord Lcighton 
returned to England, even while still at Frankfort 
as a pupil of Steinle, lie executed his first fresco 
painting. This was in the. courtyard (if the 
castle of Auerbach, in the Bergstrasse — where 
it may still In- seen. Ii is a fresco painted 
by Leighton ami his fellow-student, Gamba, in 
celebration of an artist's festivity, representing 
in a humorous spirit "Spring receiving the 
Arts." In this work — which is still described as 
"Leighton's First Fresco" — the portrait of both 
of its painters are introduced. 


drawing paper. — The question as to the quality of 
the paper, its properties of resistance to damp ami to 
the disintegration caused by hot climates, is of the 
greatest importance to us artists, for the permanence 
not only of our drawings, lmt of our reputation itself, 
depends on the material supplied to us. For that 
reason I, amongst others, welcomed with pleasure the 
issue by the Royal Water-Colour Society itself of a 
paper stamped with its own initials ("O.W.S.") as a 
guarantee of the excellence of the paper. I have 
since heard it stated that this paper, of which a 
vast amount, it is said, has been thrown upon the 
market, lias been too hastily fathered by the Society, 
and that it is even less to he trusted than old and 
reliable marks, such as Whatman. But there is 
difficult) in ascertaining facts. (. in you obtain for 
us any trustworthy information on this subject, as 
the matter is of vital importance, and cannot 
wait?— R. W. S. (St. John's Wood). 

x*% The matter is, we believe, a somewhal 
delicate one at the present time. We ourselves 
have heard grave criticism passed on the paper 
in question, for which charges of weakness, 
irresponsibility, and misguidance were for a time 
levelled against the Society : while it was alleged 
that the paper in question was of a quality greatly 
inferior to oilier standard papers, and that it was 
adopted by the Society without proper examina- 
tion or analysis. We understand, however, thai 
since that time an independent analyst ha 


The Magazine of Art for November, 

examined the paper and has reported upon it in 
highly favourable terms. At the same lime, we 
are bound to explain that, solicitous for the well- 
being of artists and their works, we took 
some years ago to have the matter of drawing- 
paper thoroughly dealt with by the highest 
authorities, and continued our efforts up to re- 
cently, when the article on "Mildew in Drawing 

Paper," by Dr. Russell, was tl utcome. To 

those remarks we would refer the reader (Jan., 
18%) It would, perhaps, he well if this im- 
portant, matter were publicly ventilated. 


— On my return from Dresden, where 1 have keen 
studying Raphael's masterpiece, I am confronted 
with the statement, in Truth and elsewhere, that 
the "Sistine Madonna" of the Dresden Gall 
hut a copy of the genuine picture, which is said to 
he in the possession of a hotel-keeper al St. Moritz. 
I do not suggest that too much credit should be 
accorded to such a claim ; but in view of the wealth of 
evidence adduced in favour of the contention, the 
elaborate pedigree, and the evident, sincerity of the 
claimant, it would, I think, lie well that the conten- 
tion should lie inquired into, to he established, so far 
as it may he, or else swept away. There seems to be 
more foundation than is usually the case in claims 
such as this, so that a service would he done to the 
art world at large were any reader of Tin: MAGA- 
ZINE of Art to bring the light of knowledge to it 
and settle it one waj or the other. S. i Na1 ional 
Liberal Club). 

# % As it happens, we can give a very de- 
finite reply upon this subject. We ma) say at 
once that in the slimmer of lasl yeai the 1 
of this Magazine was courteously presented by Mr. 
( laspar Badrutt, the proprietor of the En 
Kulm and owner of the picture hi question, with a 
copy of the beautifully-produced volume that sets 
forth his claim, and illustrates il with excellent 
photographs, etc A moment's examination was 

enough to convince hi f the groundlessness of 

Mr. Badi ult's belief, in spile of an) <\ idem i I lial 
might he adduced. Willi i he owner's consent, the 
Editor submitted the inal tei to I he judgnienl of 
the late Lord Leighton and to the Directoi of the 
National Gallery. Thegisl of tin Pn ten reply 
lay in his words,"Surely you do ui wish 

me to i xpn mj o] on on m h a point '" and 

the 1 'i or's reply was not I - uncompromising 



though it was more explicit. Other judges were 
as emphatic and unanimous in their opinion. One 
of the points on which Mr. Badrutt relies is the 
fact that the " Sistine Madonna" being offered, 
and accordingly presented, to Pope Paul III., 1 >y 
his host, the Duke Hercole II., was not really 

handling. Of the St. Moritz picture, the con- 
trary must in every ease lie said. Hut even were 
it the original — which on the evidence of the 
paint alone we cannot admit for a single minute 
— the value of it would he gone. It has been 
considerably added to at the top, bottom, and 


presented at all; but that a, duplicate, by 
Gerolamo da Carpi — that in the Dresden Gallery 
— was executed and palmed off on the connoisseur 
Pope (but inexplicably left at Piacenza), while 
tin' original found its way by easy stages, and at 
last in a. shocking condition, In the Engadiner- 
Kulin. The Dresden picture, says .Mr. Badrutt, 
is painted on coarse canvas with two transverse 
scams; while Raphael always painted on a. 
smooth damask linen, such as that on which the 
Si. Moritz picture is executed. But where, if he 
bolls to his argument, is the force of the reason- 
ing ' For surely, if the Duke wished to deceive 
so appreciative and perspicuous a connoisseur as 
i In' I'.ipi', In' would not have stultified himself by 
allowing " a coarse canvas with two cross seams " 
tu In' used iii place of Raphael's well-known 
damask linen ' Tin- whole of ibis argument is 

But, in point of fact, the picture is its own 
argument. The Dresden picture is sublime in 
expression, grand in its draperies, broad in its 


sides ; considerable spaces, formerly perished, have 
been painted in : and the whole appears so 
" tight," so poor relatively, so uninspired, thai we 
cannol understand anyone seriously supporting 
the theory of its genuineness as against the 
accepted work. The refusal of the Director of 
the Dresden Gallery to allow Mr. Badrutt's 
picture tn be placed in juxtaposition with the 
great work in the Gallery for more than one 
hour is apparently felt by the owner to be due 
tn either fear or jealousy. Our own belief is 
thai the concession is an unusually covnplaisanl 
one. If it were generally granted a dangerous 
sort of patronage of inferior copies, replicas, and 
forgeries would be the result, and no gallery 
would be free from the incursion of debased 
canvases striving for recognition. We have 
every respect for Mr. Badrutt's honesty of pur- 
pose, ami sympathy with what we regard as a 
pathetic struggle against unrecognised fact: but 
concerning his picture we can profess neither 
I be inie nor the other. 



QUIS of steyne." — Was it the 3rd or 4th Lord Hert- 
ford who was supposed to be the prototype of "Lord 
Steyne" in Vanity Fair.and what portraits (prints 
or paintings) of the Lord Hertford so made famous 
exist, ami where can the} be 3een '. Pendennis. 




to make a rejoinder to a paragraph which appeared 
in the number of Tut; Magazine of Art for Sep- 
tember dealing with the above subject. 

Mr. Archer says— "There is not the remotest 
reason for supposing that if scene-painting had been 
practised in his day, Shakespeare would not have 
availed himself of its aid." But the fact .remains, 
as his paragraph admits, that scene-painting was 
not practised in his day. Ii was not consciously 
rejected, but simply was not invented; so that, 

although he might "have been able, under th n- 

ditions ii (scene-painting) imposes, to express his 
genius to the utmost perfection," if is quite clear he 
did not actually do so. On the other hand, he lias 
most perfectly expressed his genius under the con- 
ditions imposed by the advanced platform of his day. 

The change from an advanced platform to an 
arched-in stage humus a change in the dramatist's 
art . and there older and later forms of art differ in 
much the same way as the arts of the sculptor and of 

the painter differ from one another. The intermediate 
examples of de\ elopnient, showing a painted scene on 
a back wall, an I a stage running far forward through 
the proscenium arch, seem to me highly un 
i'.m tor} as compared either with the old platform or 
the modern tableau. Bui even so, a play written for 
these intermediate arrangements would not, without 
trimming, adapt itself cither to the earlier or later 
stage. For instance, Tin School for Scandal would 

play best on just that sha] i tage md with just 

that kind of scenery which Sheridan had to reckon 
with when the play was originally rehearsed. There 
are gains and losses with each build of stage, and 
a dramatist- business is to make the most of bis 
opportunities. A playwright who understands the 
technique of his craft, adapts his work to current 
stage conditions, or, rather, uses tin/ opportunities 
given by those conditions to develop his design. 
Give him new opportunities after his death, and lie 
cannot avail himself of them; give him fewer op- 
portunities, and some part of his design has to be 
sacrificed. The same plot may be used for the older 
or nioie modern form of stage. In one case the 
scheme of scenes and elaboration of dialogue will lie 
quite different from the other. To suit the require- 
ments of the old method any number of scenes may 
he used, ami a full and literary book of words is 
demanded. Full " books " can be delivered without 
weariness to actor or audience from the plat form. 
In the other case, the playwright will seek to com- 
pass his story in a few long scenes, and will know 
that full literary development of dialogue will cer- 
tainly drag, as ii is most difficult to get its true 
effect through the proscenium arch and across the 
footlights. Therefore, although a play can be trans- 
ferred from one form of playing to the other, yet the 
transference involves such recasting of scenes and 
dialogue as can only be justified in the case of a 
greal master, if dune by the master himself. 

Mr. Archer's paragraph closes, to quote again 
" The upshot, then, is thai i he whole configuration of 
Shakespeare's stage rendered scenery impracti 
From ibis it follows, naturally, that Shakespeare, 
who could not possibly allow foi the possibili 
future inventions, wrote his plays in such a way 
as to be, as they stand, impracticable for scenery, 
and they can only be made practicable b\ p 
hi- supreme masterpieces at the mercy of such 
" ingenuity, taste, and discretion as we not Shake- 
spi are can command. It is this necessary al 
tion of the plays in fitting them to modem mount- 
ing, and no Love of antiquariauism for its own sake, 
which makes so many of US desil e works 

played upon such a stage as that for which they 
were designed— Arthur Dillon, Hon. Sec, The 
Elizabethan Stage Soi 



The Royal VYf E refer fully to the election of Mr. E. J. 
Academy. \\ Poynter to the Presidential chair in our 
special article on p. 111. We record with pleasure the 
elevation of Mr. T. G. Jackson to full membership ; and 
with great regret the resignation of Mr. G. F. Watts from 
active membership. He was elected Associate in 1867, and 
full Member a few months later. 

The fourteenth exhibition of the Institute of 
Exhibitions. p ainterg in Oil-Colours is chiefly notable from 
the fact that the Council has at last exercised the long- 
aeeded restraint in the number of pictures hung. By 
allowing a little space between the frames, and by hang- 
ing but two rows of works in the central gallery, the 

(From a Photograph by Hollyer.) 

numbers in the catalogue have been reduced to the ex- 
tent of nearly two hundred. The landscape painters are 
thebesl represented. Mr T. Hope McLachlan's " By Star- 
light;" Mr. F. G. Cotman's " Bichmond, Yorks. ; " Mr. 
Alfred East's "An Autumn Study ;" Mr. II. W. Allan's 
"Cromarty Frith;" Mr. J. Aumoniee's "Sunlight on the 
Downs;" and Mr. Aethub Severn's "After Sunset- 
West Coast of Scotland," are admirable and welcome 
amongst much that is commonplace. Messrs. Ai sten 
Brown, George Wetherbee, Leslie Thomson-, F. Wal- 
ton, and Julh s Olsson also contribute works of interest. 
Pictures of humorous and domestic genre are numerous. 
Messrs. Edgar Bundy, J. C. Dollman, G Sheridan 

KnOWLES, d. G. KlLBl RNE, and Joseph ClAEK con- 
tributing subjects in their own special manner. Mr. G. 
Percival Gaskell's "Die Katzenzauberin " is interest- 
ing; and Mr. W. A. Bbeakspeare's "Chez Romney," Mr. 
Matthew Hale's "Once upon a Time." Mr. T. B. Kin 
NINGTOn's charmingly conceived "Memories, and Mr. 
A. J. Mavsogordato's "Cadennabia" help to add dis- 

tinction to the exhibition ; but Mr. Chevallier Tayler's 
"Enoch Arden" is far from being successful. Mr. Arthur 
Hacker's "My Mother'' is the most striking among the 

At the Eoyal Society of British Artists Mr. F. Cayley 
Robinson is once again the most interesting contributor. 
"The Foundling" 
is a skilfully com- 
posed and ex- 
quisitely wrought 
piece of work, 
pleasant in line and 
colour. Mr. B. C. 
W. Bunny's "An- 
cilla Domini " is 
t _>o involved in 
sentiment to be 
easily understood, 
and his two other 
contributions, am- 
bitious as is their 
scheme and elevat- 
ed their poetry, arc 
not quite up to his 
usu il standard. 
Mr.( Iemmell Hut- 
chison's " Friend 
in Need : " Mr. \V. 
T. Warrener's 

"Torn Dress;" Mr. Tom Robertson's " Orchardneuk on 
the Tay ; " Mr. Arnesby Brown's "Fenland;" and Mr. 
Tatton Winter's "Chelsea," are among the most note- 
worthy works, in addition, of course, to Mr. Sime's flat por- 
trait of a gentleman, and Mr. J. W. T. Manuel's little jokes. 


Photograph by Elliott 


For charm of personality and dexterity of handling, Mr. 
.1. Mr Lure Hamilton's portraits of Mr. Gladstone, Mr. 
G. F. Watts, It. A., and Mr. Onslow Ford, B.A., would be 
difficult to equal. These, together with about forty other 



of his works, ate on view at the Goupil Gallery, and 
form a charming little exhibition. 

The two representative photographic exhibitions at the 
Royal Water-Colour Society's rooms ami the 1 )udley Gallery 

(F.oai the Photograph by John Busliby, in the Exhibition of the 
Royal Photographic Society.) 

were of great interest this year. At the former gallery the 
Royal Photographic Society had a collection of over three 
hundred prints most commendably hung, each picture being 
well within the line of sight, and allowed plenty of room 
for display. The level of excellence attained by the 
Society was well maintained, and in all branches of 
photography the results shown were for the most part all 
that could be desired. Mr. Roderick J. Fry's "East 
Anglian Landscape" was a beautiful transcript from nature, 
and Mr. John Bushby's picture of a silent backwater, in 
which a heron is standing, was a charming little plate. 
Dr. Macdonald's flower-piece, "Wild Flowers," was, to 
our mind, much preferable to Mrs. Cadby's spray of sorrel 
here, or to her "Design for a Frieze" at the Salon. It 
seems rather an affectation to designate half a dozen stems 
of daffodils arranged symmetrically in a row "a design.' 
In portraiture the Glasgow photographers are evidently 
influenced by the artists of their city. At Pall Mall Mr. 
Warneuke had a half length portrait of a veiled lady 
which was very effective, while at the Dudley Gallery Mr. 
J. Crak; Annan showed some portrait pictures which were 
delightful. We reproduce the best — "A Lady in White." 
Mr. Ralph \\ r . Robinson easily took the palm for land 
scape photography at the Salon with his "Landscape near 
the Coast," which was one of the finest bits of camera work 
we have seen. Mr. Hollyer's, Mr. Maskell's, and Mr. 
H. H. Cameron's portraits, it is hardly necessary to say, 
were excellent ; and Mr. DAVIDSON'S landscapes were of line 
quality, though the title given to a view of Charing Cross 
Bridge, "Rain, Steam, and Iron," suggested a comparison 

which was fatal to the photograph as "a work of art. In 
conclusion, we might ask, does the fact of making a photo- 
graphic print resemble as near as possible a chalk or pencil 
drawing help to raise photography to the dignity it claim.-, 
among the Fine Arts ? In spite of the " Fore-words " of 
the Salon catalogue, we cannot admit it. We much prefer 
the honesty of the photographic print, which is avowedly 
submitted as a photograph, and is only to be judged as 

The exhibition of prize-work of the Royal Female 
School of Art supplied striking evidence that the efficiencj 
of the school is well maintained. Flower-painting is tin- 
strongest point of the students, for a National Queen's 
Prize is gained by Miss Emily (!. Court, a Queen's Gold 
Medal by Mis-, Lilian Reynolds, and an Honourable 
Mention by Miss Hannah Hoyland fur this section of 
work. Miss Mary F. Bell (Queen's Scholar) gains a 
scholarship of £60, and her studies deserve special mention. 
As they proceed strictly upon South Kensington methods, 
originality of design is conspicuously absent from the 
students' work, but we reproduce a design for a damask 
tablecloth by Miss Katharine Smith, which is among 
the best. Miss H. N. Spanton's and Miss Mullins's 
designs for tiles were distinctly the best. 

In " Shakespeare's Townand Timesj'b) Mr.SNO'w 
den AVard and Mrs. Catherine Ward (] >awbarn 
and Ward), we have photography put to a noble use. The 
story of Shakespeare's life, simply and unaffectedly told, has 
been made the vehicle of a great number of views and illus- 



Photograph by J. Craig 
Salon ) 

the P/iotograplii 

nations, appropriate and in their way exhaustive thai isto 
ay, a de irablj i xhaustive and compli ti as I hi actuality 
of photograph] could permit. These photographs -or, as 



the authors would have us say, " photograms "— are for the 
most part excellent, and invarial ily well printed, and the text 
is not less carefully compiled or less successfully presented. 
The interest is at once pictorial, antiquarian, and historical. 
We have received from Messrs. Reeves & Son their 
new catalogue and juice list of artists' materials. It 
is a very fine catalogue, and no doubt Messrs. Reeves 
are able to supply artists with anything they may 
require of impeccable quality : but the feature in the 
catalogue which attracts our attention is the in- 
formation given to artists as to the nature of the pig- 
ments made by the firm. A table of some pages gives 
information as to the nature, manufacture, and per- 
manency of every pigment made, information which 
every painter should have at his fingers' ends. 

A happy idea has occurred to Messrs. G. Rowney it Co. 

in the way 
of sketch- 
books. These are 
what their pub- 
lishers call ring- 
bound — that is, 
the sheets of 
Whatman paper 
of which the 
sketch-books are 
composed, are 
bound together 
by rings, so that 
the artist has 
the advantage of 
turning the rest 
of the sheets 
back upon them 
selves and prac- 
tically working 
upon a block. We 
can strongly re- 
commend thein- 
novation, which 
sketchers will 
be sure to ap- 
Variety, ingenuity, and taste are the distinguish- j 
ing merits in Messrs. Marcus Ward's Christmas 
cards this year, the whole being remarkable for ex- 
cellence of execution. The humour is somewhat 
happier than usual ; the imitations of Mr. Aubrey 
Beardsley are especially clever, and not ill-natured. 
Most of the processes of reproduction have been suc- 
cessfully employed. We have also received from the 
same firm a copy of a photogravure entitled "The 
Spinning Wheel," from the picture by Mr. Frank 
Brindley. It should prove a popular publication. 
The platinotype and photogravure prints of pic- 
tures by well-known artists, issued by Messrs. < '. W. 
Fat/lkneb & Co., are tasteful enough, and in minia- 
ture size, with appropriate lettering, are a decided ad- 
vance upon the old-fashioned form of Christmas card. 
Viscount Knutsford, G.C.M.G.,has been 
Miscellanea. appointed Tru8tee ,,f ihe National Portrait Gal- 
lery in succession to the late Sir -1. E. Millais, Bart, P.R.A. 
We regret that by an oversight .Mr. II. W. Wilson's 
name, was not connected with the Raptistery Gates at Wel- 
beck, illustrated in our first article on the Arts and Crafts 
Exhibition. As a matter of fart, the gates were modelled 
from a cartoon supplied by Mr. Wilson. 

(By F. 

Williamson. Recently placed in the Guildhall.) 

Mr. H. E. Crockett, whose panels for mural decoration 
were referred to in the article, " What South Kensington is 
Doing," in our October issue, is a student of the Camden 
School of Art, not of the Hammersmith School. 

Owing to the confusion that might arise upon the 

(By Andrea Schii 

Recently acquired by the National Gallert 

almost simultaneous formation of two Societies of Minia- 
ture Painters, that of which Lord Ronald Gower is the 
President has adopted the title of "The Society of Minia- 
turists." Its first exhibition— an admirable one— is now 
being held in the Grafton Gallery. 

The Second International Art Exhibition at Venice is 
announced for next year, from April 22nd to October :?lst. 
Notification of intending contributions must be made by 
January 1st to Professor A. Fradeletto, the Secretary, at 

The establishment of a Central School of Arts and 
Crafts, under the directorship of Mr. G. Frampton, A.R.A., 
ami Mr. W. J!. Lethaby, by the Technical Education Board 
of the London County Council, marks an important stage 
in the advancement of art education in the Metropolis. It 
is the first attempt at a municipal art school in London, 
and of its success there is not much doubt. Centrally situ- 
ated in Regent Street, with a low scale of fees, an efficient 
staff of teachers and lecturers, well-equipped studios, and 
a good nucleus of an art museum for the use of students, 
there is everything to attract the craftsman anxious to 
become an efficient art-worker. The teachers include Mr. 
Halsey Ricardo (architecture), Mr. E. Roscoe Mtjixins 
(sculpture and ornament as applied to architecture), Mr. 

W. Margetson (design, colour, and decoration), Mr. Alex. 
Fisher (enamelling), Mr. Christopher Whall (stained 
-lass), ami Mr. W. Augustus Steward (silversmith's work). 
The well known water-colour painter, Mr. George 
Obituary. A p E1 p Pj has died at the advanced age of eighty- 
four. He had been a member of the Royal Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours for more than fifty years. 

ISRAEL IN EGYPT. (Royal Academy, 1867.) 

(From the Painting by E. J. Poynter, P.R.A.) 


BY the narrowness of the majority 1 
Mr. Poynter has been elected to the P 
of the Academy must not be assumed a 
fitness for the post. 
The circumstance was 
rather a testimony to 
talent for leadership 
imputed to Mr. Briton 
Riviere, than a r*e- 
flection on his own 
eminent qualifications. 
Air. Poy liter's long 
official experience, his 
well-proved capacity 
for administration, his 
striking ability in 
design, his profound 
scholarship as a 
painter, and his nota- 
ble achievements as 
lecturer and teacher, 
comprised a claim that 
could not but outclass 
his friendly rival Mr. 
Riviere. Sound com- 
mon-sense and busi- 
ness capability distin- 
guish I »'ili : but when 
the sums of achieve- 
ments of the two men 
come to be weighed 
against, each other, 
we cannot but endorse 

the Selection of the (From the Etching by Alplw 


ly which Academicians — a selection which vindicates the 
residency character of the institution for excellent good judg- 
doubtful ment when its vital interests are at stake. 

No fewer than 
thirty-six membei - 
took part in the elec- 
tion — Associates not 
being admitted to the 
privilege of choosing 
their Pre sidenl . 
although they have I he 
right to eleel Acade- 
micians. Mr. Watts 
for reasons of age, Air. 
I h< hardson t hrough 
the little love he beai 
to business routine 
and partly through 
motives of health, nar- 
rowed down the issue 
by practically with- 
drawing from the con 
test The details of 
the election itself are 
neither uninteresting 
nor uninstructive. At 
the firsl " scratching " 
all the Academicians 
exi epl Mr. Hoi l< \ 
received some rnea '■' 

ipport, however 
slight. Mr. Rn iei e 
obtained sixteen 
lies, Mr. I'm- 

Lcgros. Ry Pcrmissi 


A Co., Lit 



fifteen, and Mr. Frank Dicksee five in the second 
voting; and in the final ballot, Mr. Poynter received 
the suffrages of nineteen of his colleagues and Mr. 
Riviere seventeen. So little bitterness of feeling 
animated the voters that the result was cheerfully 
accepted by all the members without exception, and 
Mr. Poynter enters upon his office supported by the 

of his sympathies, and his versatility in the practice 
of his art. As an administrator he has proved his 
capacity at the National Gallery ; as a teacher, by 
his experience as Principal of the National Training 
School at South Kensington : as a connoisseur, by .his 
work as Director for Art at South Kensington and 
at Trafalgar Square ; as painter, by his numerous 

(from the Painting by E. J. Poynter, P R.A.) 

goodwill of the undivided Academy, pledged to assist 
him in his arduous task. He is a man without an 
enemy, who has long since possessed himself of the 
friendship of his colleagues, and has been fortunate 
in adding to that friendship a sense of confidence 
based upon the solid merit of his past career. 

It, is not only the position of Mr. Poynter as an 
exhibitor in the Royal Academy which has marked 
the artist out as the successor of Lord Leighton and 
Sir John Millais. It is ratlin the width of his range, 
the depth of his scholarship, the comprehensivenes 

exhibits in Burlington House ; as designer, whether 
in fresco, mosaic, glass, pottery, and tile-work, by his 
lahours in St. Stephen's, Dulwich, in the Palace of 
Westminster, and South Kensington Museum, and 
elsewhere, and in his noble design for the decoration 
of St. Paul's; as a lecturer, by his most admirable 
series of addresses delivered during his tenure of 
the Slade Professorship at the University College, 
London ; as a medallist, by the designs for our current 
coinage, of which the reverses show his accepted 
designs. Such are the more obvious claims of the 

E. J. POYNTER, P.R.A. (Royal Academy. 1888) 

(From the Portrait by Himself, in the Ujffizi Qaiivry, Florence.) 




(Mosaic in the House of Lords, by B. J. Poynter, PR. A.) 

New President to the honour that has 
been conferred upon him. But his merit 
lies deeper in the wide scholarship which 
has rewarded his intense industry and 
perseverance, and which, wedded to his 
latent ability and to his keen sense of ap- 
preciation, has produced in him an artistic 
catholicity not less generous for being 
strictly disciplined, not less refined fur 
being based upon a classic model. It need 
but be added that he is a lit representa- 
tive of I he Royal Academy in public and 
in Society, that he is sympathetic and 
kindly as he is earnest and energetic, and 
the propriety of the election will not be 
held in doubt. 

When, in L854, at Rome young Fre- 
derick Leighton meed Poynter, younger 
still, to study the figure rather than de- 
vote himself wholly to landscape, and set 
draperies fur his friend to study, he little 
imagined that their two selves would in 
due lime he called to the headship of 
English art. Yet it is clear enough that 
both men took the straighl path 
leads, opportunity permitting, to the Pre- 
sidential chair. Both, whether they knew 

ft or nut, were intensely academic in their aims — academic 
in the right and noble sense. Both sought out an ideal 
beauty, each in his own way. Both aimed at the perfec- 
tion of Greek art: the art of both was decorative rather 
than realistic: both were — and ever remained — intensely 
conscientious, industrious, and sincere, turned aside by no 
obstacles in their striving after mastery of technique, 
shirking no difficulty, no complexity of drawing, as so 
many moderns do, but meeting them honestly and sur- 
mounting them if they could. To both perfection of draw- 
ing was a goal -in -chief ; and although Leighton must 
worshipped Raphael of all the masters of the Renaissance, 
and Mr. Poynter bent the knee to Michelangelo, both 
painters were heart and soul fur classic beauty, ami built 
up their art on a profound study of the history of their 
subject, and used their knowledge as stepping-stones fur all 
the work of their hands. I do not think I overstate the 
obligation of Mr. Poynter to Leighton's early influence. It 
is true that the younger man might, by sheer force of 
character and direct intention, have found out by his own 
unaided instinct the road he was to travel. But although 
he had decided three years before to relinquish his father's 

THE IDES OF MARCH. (Royal Academy, 1883). 

(from the Painting by E. J. Poynter. PR. A. Emjraonl by H. $. Percy.) 

IDLE FEARS. (Royal Acadeh 

Die Painting bij E J. Pointer, P.P. A. By Pi; 

sion of Lord Hillingdon.) 



ON THE TERRACE. (Royal Academy, 1889.) 

(from the Painting by E. J. Paynter, P. P. A.) 

finished and carefully wrought — a relaxation of 
principle which he, above all others, should find it 
easy to condone. 

"A Visit to ^Eseulapius" (1880), which the ad- 
ministrators of the Chantrey Fund wisely acquired, 
may be taken as the fullest expression of Mr. Poynter, 

and the justification of his principles 
and methods. But other pictures 
have equally been painted by him 
with a purpose. The "Diadumenc" 
( 1 884 ) — obviously inspired by 
Polycletus' statue of a youth bind- 
ing his hair with a fillet — was a 
distinct and challenging attempt 
to proclaim in England the Creek 
aspect of the nude; but it suc- 
ceeded chiefly in challenging Mr. 
Horsley's foolish protestations and 
rousing the hostility of a public 
of unseemly prudes. Frankly, the 
picture is not so successful in 
point of grace as others of Mr. 
Poynter's figures, and, indeed, it 
no longer exists in its earlier con- 
dition ; but it is a statement of 
the painter's view of art — a cham- 
pionship of neo-elassicism in its 
highest form. " The Meeting of 
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba" 
was a return to his earlier dramatic 
spirit, signifying no change in 
artistic principle. 

It is hardly necessary to refer 
to Mr. Poynter's fine water-colour 
portraits and landscapes, or to his 
labours in other fields. They all 
hear witness to the downright 
honesty of the artist and the big- 
mindedness of the man. Mr. Poyn- 
ter has not yet proclaimed, as far 
as we are aware, that generous 
catholicity towards all forms of 
modern thought that animated 
Lord Leighton and Sir John Millais. It needs but 
this to bring around him not only the members 
of his own institution and the adherents of his 
artistic cause, but all the artists in the kingdom, 
who would see in him not only the nominal, but 
the actual head of British art. 








(By Lord Leighton, P.R.A. By Permission of the 




IN his London and country houses this most 
catholic of amateurs possesses a number of 
modern masterpieces the merits of which form 
a whole inferior to nunc in England. In addition, 
he owns a smaller gathering of ancient works, 
all of excellent quality, some of them being as rare 
as they are fine. So rich are these galleries that, 
within tin- space at my disposal, it is hardly pos- 
sible, even with the must brilliant and faithful illus- 
trations, to do anything like justice to any but the 
best members of a category every element of which 
is of the choices) kind. Thus an embarrassment of 
artistic riches stringently compels the critic to re- 
strain his hand. 

Truly it is an embarrassment, though not sur- 
plusage, of treasures which one has to deal with 
when there arc in question Leighton's "Cymon 
and [phigenia," Rossetti's " La Bella Mann," Mr. 
Herkomer's " Last Muster," Millais' " Murthly Moss," 
"Joan of Ave," and " John Bright," F. Walker's 
"Bathers," Mr. Briton Riviere's "Magician's Door- 
way," Laudseer's "Titauia and Bottom," !'. Lewis's 
•■ Liliiiin Auratum," Mr. Holmau Hunt's "Scape- 
goat," and Mr. Gow's " Eequisitionists." These are 
the leading English examples now installed at South 
Audley Street, and with them arc capital speci- 
mens of the powers of ( '. !•'. Daubigny, Corot, J. F. 

Millet, and Vail llaancn, and several oilier Con- 
tinental masters of the modem -train, besides a 

thoroughly characteristic Frank Hals, a Velazquez, 
and various old pictures. With the first group, 
confining these notes to some of the greater men 
of my own time, this paper will deal. 

The reader who is familiar with Academy ex- 
hibitions of the last generation will recognise in 
each of the pieces named above a powerful and repre- 
sentative specimen of its author. In short, it would 
he difficult to select, a group more til and exai 1 in 
that respect than this one: while on "The Last 
Muster," " The Bathers," and "The Itequisitionists," 
the reputations of their respective painters may he 
.■-aid to he worthily founded. As to the first of 
these, it is veritably Mr. Herkomer's chef-d'eeuvre, 
a word which — although the term- aie often used 
as if they were of equal value — docs not hy any 
means necessarily imply the same thing as a. 
masterpiece of art at large. Hut " The La I Muster" 
is, indeed, such a mastei piece, and a great w o 1. 
of that grave and intensely pathetic sort in 

v\ Inch | i ic minds delight, and which (in Knglan I 

especially ) can ic- all the world before it. Fn d 
Walker's picture is, apart from its energetic and 

virile conception and excellent de ign, f i lie 

best modern triumphs of that t'ai iful orl of realism 
w huh .inn- lo in i col in depicting human Hesli i 
skilled ei ities aj I lie cai nations, from " the lite." 

ling io Nature and in sunlight. In this respect 

n i lu 'i led better than the youl It I foi sin h 



was Walker when he painted "The Bathers ") who, 
with exquisite .skill ami delicacy of perception, and 
with indomitable patience to boot, put his nude models 
in the open-air when the atmosphere was surcharged 
with light, and, without sacrificing an iota of Nature's 

(B,j Sir J. E. Milieu's, P. ft. A.) 

harmony, painted what he saw. This was a task 
of such prodigious difficulty as few but technically 
trained observers can adequately appreciate. As a 
work ill' art per se, not any of the ablesl veterans might 
be ashamed to own "The Bathers" as a triumph 
of its kind. As a piece of realism, it is of the 
very highest rank, so that, while nothing could be 
broader, more in keeping with itself and its sub- 
ject, or purer, it is incomparably truer to Nature 
than the insolent vulgarities of certain French 
"Impressionists" of the modern school. That these 
worthies could not have seen such things as they 
were pleased to paint is manifest to all who know 
the most obvious laws of light and colour, ami can 
appreciate the classic forms and natural grace of 
Walker's naked boys. 

As to "The Requisitionists," the third of this 
triad of "foundation pictures," the reader will not 
fail to sec in it one of the ablesl and most successful 
outcomings of that brilliant school of which, in our 
country not less than in his own. Meissonier was the 
founder and greatest light. This work, of 
which a first-rate reproduction is before 
us, fairly established the reputation of the 
artist when (painted in the year before) it 
occupied a leading place in the gallery of 
the Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 
1879. Mr. (low, who began to exhibit in 
1S66, reached his present level with "A 
Requisition," as this relatively small ex- 
ample of his art was then called, which 
fully illustrates the best qualities of the 
school in question. This the reader will 
see for himself who tests the scrupulous 
care with which every detail in the work 
has been carried out, from the poising of 
the feathers in the soldiers' hats to the 
foreshortening of the boots of the old man 
in the foreground on our left, as well as 
the trappings of the horses throughout. 
The design is as clever as the execution is 
exact : nor is the former in the least degree 
deficient in spontaneity, although the most 
scrupulous thoughtfulness and a rarebj 
sympathetic vein of invention pervade the 
scene. The helplessness of the miller could 
hardly be better rendered than in his en- 
tire lack' of confidence in the value of the 
document presented to him in exchange 
for the Hour — his customers' flour, by the 
way — to carry off which his visitors have 
considerately provided the waggon we see 
in the rear of the party. The French 
school, in which Mr. Gow was trained, is 
extremely prolific of work of this sort, 
but, except by means of its first-hands, 
seldom justifies itself so well as in the present case. 
In England, and by English artists, military themes 
are mostly treated in a manner which affirms the 
astounding ineptitude and incapacity of the natives 
who attempt them: and, most of all, their insuffi- 
ciency, when that sardonic humour in which "A 
Requisition" excels is desirable. 

When we turn from Mr. Gow's capital piece 
to Rossetti's magnificent performance — the superbly 
painted and loftily inspired " La Bella Mano," of 
which a good engraving is before the reader — it is as 
if we passed into a new world of imagination, enjoyed 
a pure atmosphere of thought, reaped the fruits of 
centuries of culture, ami, so to say, became members 
of a. race which sets the highest value upon beauty 
of form, splendour of colour, and grace of movement, 

(St/ n. G. tuuttf. Engraved by J. HI. Mi 



and rejoices in thai spiritual ardour which knows no "The Beloved/' and its not distant competitor, the 
bonds of Heaven nor Earth, but, in its irresistible painted poem we all know as "Proserpina." The 

though indefinable charm, is — 

■■ Like an .Enlian harp that wakes 
No certain air, but overtakes 
Far thought with music that it makes." 

Of course the title of this picture of the Lady with 
the Beautiful Hand is a mere nominal convenience, 

model employed in this instance was Miss Alexa 
Wilding, whose head and stately presence surpass 
in the uobility of their charm, as well as in the 
amplitude of their absolute and classic beauty, the 
besl qualities of any of his numerous sitters, diversely 
lovely as must of them were She had sat to many 
artists before Rossetti monopolised her sumptuous 

such as every work— however soaring its motives charms and statuesque dignity, but none among 

(By VI. Q. Orchardcon, 

are— must needs be accompanied by. All it signifies these students were so fortunate as my old friend 

is, in fact, that the masterpiece is not an " illustra- proved himself to be .when " Mona Vanna," " Veronica 

tion," or, if possessed of a meaning such as anecdotic Veronese," " La Ghirlandata," "The Sea-Spell," and 

nil 'is wont to aim is such as the "spiritual other tine pieces, came from his hands. She sat 

ardour" of the painter desired sympathies for, but to him last as "The Roman Widow." an intensely 

,„, nauv eared to analyse or describe than he would sad and moving work, the morne pathos of winch 

attempt so to deal with the melody of the late was deepened by the evident decline of the once 

Laureate's .Kolian harp itself. Designed in 1875, magnificently beautiful model, 

and painted shortly after that date, "La Bella Mano" On the frame of the picture there is written 

belongs to the finest epoch of Rossetti's mystical or a sonnet composed by the painter himself, which 

imaginative m I. This is the period of the " Venus may be quoted here as a lit accompaniment to the 

Astarte," "The Sea-Spell," "The Blessed Damozel," engraving before us :— 
and the almost equally lovely " Veronica Veronese.'' 
All of these are, too, technically speaking, example 

of the artist's most mature and finished methods, 
and affirm the perfection of his pictorial craftsman- 
ship. Of " imagination all compact,' the jewel now 
before us rivals in thai respeel Rossetti's greatest 
efforts, which are, 1 think, that veritable chef-d'ccuvri 

lovely hand, that thy sweet self dost lave 

In that thy pure and proper element. 

Where erst the Lady of Love's high advent 
Was born, and endless tires sprang from the wave: — 
Even as her Loves to hei their offerings gave, 

For thee the jewelled gifts they near: while each 

Look.- to those lips, of music-measured speech 
The fount, and of more bliss than man may crave 




"In royal wise ring-girl and bracelet-spann'd, 

A flower "I Venus' own virginity, 
Go .shine among thy sisterly sweel band ; 

In maiden-minded converse delicately 

Evermore white and soft ; until thou be 
O hand ! heart-handsel'd in a lover's hand 

So i'.ii Etossetti's versed iUustration of his picture. 
As, when, iii L875, I wrote for the Athenceum (No. 
24,941) a long notice of this and other masterpieces 
of liis, tlir historical portions of 
which were verified by himself, it 
will be desirable to add from that 
criticism the fact that " La Bella 
Maim" is simply a painter's fancy, 
and almost entirely dependent on 
pictorial qualities. The lady is 
washing her hands at a cistern and 
basin of brass, where two white- 
robed ami red-winged Loves in,' in 
attendance, one holding the towel 
in readiness, the other having on a 
silver tray the adornments destined 
fur her " bella mano." The senti- 
ment of the design lies in her face, 
and is discoverable in the light of a 
woman's hope which (ills the eyes, 
lias given a warmer rose-tint to the 
full and slightly parted lips, that 
are red in their full vitality, ami. 
as the abundant noble bosom is, 
voluptuous, not. luscious. This pic- 
ture was at the Academy in the 
winter of 1883, just after l;..ssetti's 

If Professor Herkomer had 
painted nothing else than "The 
Last Muster'' his immortality as 
a designer of fresh ami profoundly 
pathetic subjects would he assured : 
such being the case, it i< not to be 
wondered at thai he has never con- 
ceived nor executed another picture 
which, in its inventive as well as its 
technical qualities, approaches that 
very noble example. The scene 

is the chapel of < helsea Hospital 

during divine service, where the 
inmates have assembled, and, with admirably di 
tied ami apt expressions ami characteristic atti 
listen tn the chaplain's discourse. They an- the sur- 
vivors "I' many a hardly fought til-Id. of many a 
year's faithful and valorous duty. One of them has 
answered the greal roll-call of another Service, and 
tin- comrade mi his right, observing tie' stillness of 
the frame from which the spirit had departed 
anxiously touches tie- cold and helpless wrist at 
his side. Tin- piece, lie- " first thought " of which 

appeared in 7'k, C i ewspaper, was at the 

Academy in 1875. 

One of the late Lord I eighton's Bnesl ami most 
representative pictures is "Cymon and lphigenia" 
' i: A. 1884), in which Leighton, with that nob! 
of voluptuousness in which his essential!) i 
highly cultured, and passionate art excelled, de- 
picted the "noblest nymph of all Diana's train" 

[By Hubert Herkomer, R.A.) 

sleeping amid her companions under a huge oak 
— tin outpost of the forest where they hunted 
from "twilight dawn tn twilight eve." The latest 
glow of a summer's night Hushes the loveliness of 
the damsel, reveals \i< \ statue-like form extended 
in amplest of marble-like di i lingers on 

her stately shape and face; the golden raysterj of 
the low large mo 

along the champaign and, contending with the 
sun. will soon prevail. Cymon, the swain who till 



this moment had contemned the power of Venus 
and avoided maids and nymphs alike, coming upon 
this bevy of fair huntresses, is, by Iphigenia's 
charms, compelled to resist no more. Here we 
have tlif ne plus ultra of Academicism, a crowning 
triumph of cultured art at its best, faultlessly and 
completely in harmony with itself— a really glorious 
piece, to refuse to admire which is to convict our- 
selves of ignorance and a barbarous sort of prejudice. 
In it everything that culture can do for painting 
Leighton bestowed— such is his prodigious achieve- 
ment of 1884. Only two other pictures of the 
late President's can hope to rival " Cymon and 

In "The Magician's 1 rway " we have Mr. 

Briton Riviere at his best. In this impressive 
Oriental romance— of which the architecture repre- 
sents the Indian version of what, for want of a 
Letter name, we are wont to call Gothic art-there 
are all the awe-inspiring elements of Eastern necro- 
mancy; the palace-like and magnificent structure 
of white stone has a portal carved with emblems 
of half-forgotten meanings: the long vista between 

columns of serpentine and porphyry opens its 

g] iy depths, baffles our view, and hints at 

silent and mysterious chambers far apart where 
a wizard of unknown name and temble power 
exercises his will, and, as he pleases, conceals or 
reveals the future— who ean tell ' The guardians 
of the doorway, which few approach, seem to be a 
pair of cheetahs, or Indian limiting leopards; but 
only the painter knows whether they are demons 
who, with soundless feet, pace the long dark corridor 
before us. or, sleepless, hut motionless, crouch on the 
sunlit, immemorial marble of the gate. 

Mr. Orchardson's capital picture called "The 
Challenge" tells its own tale with fortunate force 
and skill. Sir John Millais' " Portrait of Mr. John 
Bright" is one of the greatest pieces of portraiture 
..f one of the greatest artists of the age in this 
country. Neither Vandyck nor Velazquez produced 
a truer, more powerful, or more masculine example 
of its kind than this, and, perhaps, that which is un- 
surpassed by any of the late President's portraits, 
the veritable chef-d'ceuvre of his work, the surpassing 
" Mr. Hook, R.A." 

IBtj Fred Walker, A.F: A. Bij Permission of Me: 


(Dramn and Engrailed by W. It. P. NkMtcn. 




fpHERE is a very unusual diversity of interests usually marked by hard, unpliant mannerisms, 

-L in the daily life of Air. .1. Starkie Gardner. 
Here Commerce ami Archaeology are always the 
friendliest of near neighbours to each other: here 
Literature finds that practical affairs amuse her, 
ami that she cannot he discordant with Mechanics; 
and here, too, in spite of the cold influences of a 

formal-looking and mechanical. In no art is it 
easy to keep clear of mannered peculiarities of 
style, ami certainly there are not many men who 
often succeed in expressing strength without strain, 
and delicacy without insipidness. But the real 
point is that the difficulty of acquiring such 

materialist generation, Art ami Science go quite essential qualities increases in proportion as the 

lovingly hand in hand. Were it not for this artist's sphere of liberty diminishes; ami, there- 

really touching friendship between Science and fore, it is far easier to work well under the 

Art, one might think, without any meat extrava- guidance of one's own will and criticisms, than 

gance, that what is best in the South Kensington to rival Mr. Gardner in the daily task of recon- 

Museum had found it 
busy, versatile mind of 
Mr. Starkie Gardner. 

These interests are 
all noteworthy, but there 
are three which attract 
us specially at the pre- 
sent moment: those, 
namely, which centre 
about the artist's doings 
in the triple capacity of 
art writer, employer of 
the best skilled crafts- 
men, ami designer in iron, 
copper, tin, pewter, and 
brass. These industrial. 
arts are often seen in 
company with those other 
aristocratic ones which 
we denominate " fine." 
It is then we perceive 
clearly that, they arc 
mere drudges, slaves of 
our utilitarian needs. 
This is why they are 

s way, somehow, into th 

iling one's handiwork 


with a given style in 
architecture ami a given 
set of decorative require- 
ments and restra ints. 
This important truth 
may he expressed in 
another way. There i- 
in all tine architecture 
a very wise and logii a] 
orchestration of many 
independent arts acting 
ami re-acting on each 

ot her : hence Goel he 
likened such architei inn 
to instrumented mi 
a frozen form. The ar- 
chitect figures here. "II 
this reading, a- a kind 
of bandmaster, whose 
office it is never to allow 
his useful minor instru- 
ments to lie Ill' . 

sive. It is not his busi- 
ness to remember that 
i i i' Live talents seel< 

1 30 


liberty with as much naturalness as trees in a forest 
shoot up to meet the sunlight. He must be a dis- 
ciplinarian ; then all his instruments will answer 
readily to his will. As a 
result of this exasperating 
training, the best talents, as 
a rule, become Protean; and 
as soon as they have found 


several outlets 
shaping en- 
ergies the}' 
cease to vie 
lins in the 
" f r o z i' u 

The fore- 
going re- 
marks are 
all emphat- 
ically tine 
uer, whose 
art in iron 
is usually 
ised by a 
unity of 
effect and 
a vigour 
and variety 
dl' appeal 
which are 
never in the 
least Ham- 
b o y a n t . 
Also this 
certain per- 


art carries within it 
sonal impress, a token of the artist's 
personality that is seldom met with in 
modern ironwork. It was Professor 
A. H. Church who Hist called atten- 
tion to this quality. " It constitutes," 
said he, "the signature of the artist, 
not the trade-mark of the manufacturer ; it is the 
cachet of the studio rather than the label of the fac- 
tory." True : only one must add that it is the learned 
cachet of a studio in which the past greatness of the 
art nt Lron-smithery is reflected, is renewed, in a good 
many original designs. It is thus that Mr. Gardner 
touches us with a. sense nt' other times and their 
artistic wraith; and in doing so, he should remind 
us, I think', of Lowell's definition of artistic origin- 
ality. This kind of originality is neither clever- 
ness run wild, nor freakishness ; these are but its 


latter-day substitutes. It is a singular personal 
charm showing through and modifying the influence 
nl' culture, contemporary thought, and birthright 
traditions upon a poetic mind and a sensitive tem- 
perament. In our own day, this truth should never 
be forgotten, for the curse of England is that so 
many of her most gifted children work too much 
with their hands and too little with their heads. 
This is the case, above all, with the subaltern 
craftsmen ; and for this reason, and no 
other, Mr. Gardner, like Mr. Walter 
Crane, longs to bring about a revival 
of the Art-and-Craft Guilds. He 
sees plainly 
enough, of 
course, that 
such institu- 
tions have too 
many draw- 
backs to lead 
to one-half 
the advan- 
tages which 
their least 
They might 
easily become 
cord, trades- 
unions ; and 
already the 
wages earned 
1 >y some of 
our skilled 
workmen are 
so high, that 
it is cheaper 
to import 
marble man- 
than to have 
them made 
in this country. The simp- 
keeper in the English artis- 
tic temperament needs no 
encouragement of any kind : 
what he does need is train- 
ing, culture, and honesty of 
purpose ; and these things 
might In- gained in such 
guilds as would welcome 

tin' ait worker in all kinds, from the painter and the 
architect down to the least expert of Mr. Gardner's 




many assistants. To bring masters and men more 
sympathetically in touch with one another would 
be the sovereign aim and use of these idea] associa- 
tions; for nothing so much tends to ruin British 
industries, to turn the working masses into self- 
destroying striking classes, as the prevailing icrnor- 
ance of economic principles which sets the crafts- 
man at variance with his employer. The goose is 
killed by the acf of forcing her to supply so many 

nol only of the besl contemporary work, but also 
of fine old masterpi 

Perhaps none of us will live to see this dream 
of guilds realised in any country. In the mean- 
time, however, Mr. Gardner has set before himself 
the duty of bequeathing to his craft his present 
factory on the Albert Embankment, Lambeth, in 
order that it may serve in times to cane as a 
central-registry office, where men will seek work. 

GATES AT NORTH MYMMS, HERTS. (Ernest Geo^e, Architect.] 

ignorant egoists with too many golden eggs every 
week. This commonplace cannot be impressed often 
enough upon the national mind: and Mr. Gardner 
believes that those ideal guilds, those truly demo- 
cratic brotherhoods of art workers in all lines, would 
not fail to encourage such free discussions as would 
centre about the economic considerations by which 
the welfare of every industry is determined. Also 
their directors, for the purpose of stimulating interest 
in the various arts and crafts, might feel called upon 
to employ a certain number of travelling lecturers, 
selecting them by examination from among the mem- 
bers, and setting them to deal with each subject in 
its technical and utilitarian aspects, no less than from 
an historical point of view. Eere we have in some 
sort a liberal education; for a large boxful of 
magie-lantern slides would be a portable exhibition, 

read the papers, and consult an invaluable library 
of books dealing with the metallurgical arts. The 
library is, truly, an inexhaustible treasury of de- 
sign, and hence its value to the studenl is ines- 
timable. 1 have glanced through some of its great 
bulky tomes, with their curt, suggestive notes, 
their original drawings, their recent photographs, 
and time-worn prints and engravings, Each volume 
deal- with a particulai pi riod and style, and the 
whole collection strikes me as being the mosl in- 
n result of Mr. Gardner's unflagging industry 
and delight in research. 

Ill- Hue to -a\ . I think, that oui 
is a school. There, for instance, the apprentice and 
the smith nevei mechanical partly b 

Mr. Gardner nevei repeats himself in his desi 
partly because no machinery is used there, The 



quality by which Mr. Gardner putts the greatest 
store is that continued novelty, that infinite variety 
of character, which nature has given to the leaves 

of the same 
tree, and by 
which an 
artist. - hand 
i n v a r i a b 1 y 

tii ins of the 
scroll, or 

friend. Nevertheless his art is returning slowly 
into vogue, Mr. Gardner tells me. Professor Her- 
kotner, in some big doors at Bushey, as well as in 
other ways, lias made admirable use of pewter con- 
trasted with brass; and another artist has modelled 
the alloy into exquisitely delicate finger-bowls, in 
imitation of scallop-shells. That pewter would lie 
effective in a highly-wrought lamp, we may judge 

enriches all from Mr. Gardner's design (p. 134); and Mr. H.J. 

its repeti- L.J. Masse, Secretary <>f the Art Workers' Guild, 
has made a fender overlaid witli it. The effect is 
good, though perhaps the metal is too soft not to be 
injured by careless servants who will make the fire- 
in ms ring. It is a plain fender made of 
four-inch square yellow pine, halved and 


(for a House 

in Berkeley Squc 


leaf, in' piece of diapered tracery in 
ironwork. Then, again, there is an 
education of the progressive kind in 
all such fanciful work, when not inter- 
rupted by long periods of forced idle- 
ness owing to had trade; and it is Mr. Gardner's 
happy lot lo I" 1 "in full swing" all the year round. 
His present works were started in the year 1882; 
in 1886 they came under his sole management and 
direction ; and already many of his helpers have be- 
come his rivals, but without ceasing to be his friends. 
1 have already referred, in passing, to the in- 
terest taken by Mr. Gardner in the pewterer's craft. 
The pewterer was once a necessary servant of kings 
and popes, of princes and nobles; afterwards, as part. The 
soon as more precious metals came into fashion, we corners are 
behold him as "the potter of the community;" 
which lowly title he held with dignity till his clients 
began to forgel thai cheap crockery would ho dearer 
in the long-run than his unbreakable, silvery wares. 
In our own times tin publican is his only true 

bolted at. the 
corners, and 
covered with 
good pewter 
nailed on 
with round- 
headed cop- 
per nails set 
an inch a- 

mitred ( 

studded with 

a double row 

of nails. It were 

ments, but enough has been si 


easy ti 

ude to other experi- 
iid to show that Mr. 


1 33 

Gardner's lecture on the history and the uses of 
pewter, delivered two years ago before the Society 
of Arts, set a good many people thinking and experi- 
menting. Indeed, a handbook on the subject, com- 
missioned shortly afterwards, will soon go to press 
Science is usually supposed to be an enemy to 
the artistic part of a man's nature, but Mr. Gardner 
believes that his early studies as a geologist, and 
especially as an enthusiastic collector of fossil plants 

that he had always a kind of hereditary claim to 
rank as a collector of the first grade. His mother, 
for instaner, devoted her life to the gathering 
together of humming-birds and butterflies, and of 
so many corals thai they filled three bays at the 
Fisheries Exhibition; while his father spenl every 
leisure hum' in hunting after drawings and prints 
descriptive of Old London. Surely very few artists 
have been so fortunate in their early circumstances. 


and shells, taught him instantly to discern those 
innate characteristics by which very similar styles, 
like very similar shells, arc set apart from one 
another. The shells, moreover, with their delicate 
curves, their fanning and their spirals, not only 
charmed him by their diverse beauty, but stored his 
mind with a valuable stock of natural forms, replete 
with decorative suggestiveness. 

It is about fifteen years ago since Mr. Gardner 
drifted into his present career with its grave respon- 
sibilities, adding £1,000 to his capital by selling his 
line collection of fossil plants and shells In the 
British .Museum. But the old days of science, of 
rough wanderings in I he bleak Isle of .Mull, in the 
ninth nf Ireland, and elsewhere, searching for speci- 
mens, are still the happiest days of his laborious ami 
useful life. Ami one gathers from his conversation 

Probably none of Mr. Gardner's many doings has 
made his name so familiar as his success in winning 
fur good ironwork a place in the Smith Kensington 
Museum. The authorities, true in their own 
and temperaments, had given the hack to this old 
art, and 1 know nol how many \ huri h 

doors in the country, richly covered with ornamental 
hinges, were allowed to be villainously repaired and 
rained. Even a singularly beautiful screen al 
( Ihichester was palled dov\ n and broken into 
ments. One piece found its way in a neighbouring 
smithy, where M r. ( rardnei sketi In d il . \\ bile 
drawings of other parts are now published in 
America. Seven oi eighl yea) ago, the South Km- 
3ington Museum possessed only two examples of 
ancient English ironwork, and these we owed in 
part In Mr. < I irdncr, who hfl 



ductions of several other an- 
tique specimens ; also it was in 
his atelier that a duplicate of 
the famous Eleanor grille, in 
West minster Abbey, was made 
for the Science and Art De- 
partment. The cost of the 
replica was of a piece with the 
original cost, regard being paid 
to the relative value of money. 
The grill was made by Thomas 
de Leightone, in 1294, "at a 
cost of £13, a sum equalling 
£180 of our money:" and thus 
it is clear that the wages 
commanded by skilled labour 
do not improve by leaps and 
bounds. One more fact. The. 
present collection of ironwork 
at South Kensington was in 
greal incisure arranged under 
the superintendence of Mr. 
Starkie Gardner. 

There is no room here for 
many remarks on the artist's 
writings. The handbook on 
" Iron winl," published for the 
Committee of Council for Edu- 
cation, treats of the subject 
from the earliest times down 
to the end of the Middle Ages. 
It is a most interesting and 
important work, written in a 

vigorous style, simple, easy, unpretentious, and swift. 
Mr. ( Gardner has contrived to convey a great deal of 
knowledge in little space, and we never feel that he is 
labouring and ill at ease. There is a second volume in 
the press, dealing mainly with the Renaissance abroad, 
and a third volume will introduce us to the various 
English schools of iron-smitherv, both new and old. 


The distinguishing charac- 
teristics of Mr. Gardner's iron- 
work have already been pointed 
out; and I cannot think that 
any remarks of mine would 
either add to the beauty of the 
gates which are so well illus- 
trated in these pages, or make 
that beauty clear to anyone 
who cannot perceive it for 
himself. It were a pleasant 
task, no doubt, to describe the 
various interesting processes 
by which great masses of rough 
iron were transformed into a 
finished work of art. But 
such matter would be out of 
place in a biographical study: 
and so it is in another paper that 
one must treat of the history of 
the making of an iron gate. 

Sume of the other illus- 
trations will, it is to be hoped, 
serve the useful purpose of 
causing many to feel dissatis- 
fied with their own ungainly 
lamps, lanterns, and coronae 
for electric light. The lamps 
now in vogue in most homes 
in the country may well be 
hidden from view under shades 
so enormous that poor vagrant 
moths lose their way upon 
them, grow scared, and quite forget that their real 
adventure was to burn themselves to death. It is 
a pity this unnatural forgetfulness should be en- 
couraged. The lamp's the tiling, not the shade, and 
we may lie sure that a really beautiful lamp, which 
no one could screen from sight, would be as attractive 
to moths as to critics of art. 


Drawn and En 


THERE are many, doubtless, who will regard this 
study by Mr. W. N. P. Nicholson as a joke. 
As a matter of fact, it is intended as nothing of the 
kind. Its archaic simplicity is genuine and sincere, 
and to artists there is that in it which, for all its 
primitiveness of wood-cutting, will appeal us a 
genuine expression. Mr. Nicholson — one of the so- 
ealled " Beggarstaff Brothers," whose original and 
eccentric posters are so well known — one day deter- 
mined to draw the Print f Wales's celebrated horse 

ami to engrave the wood-block with his own band : 

his first attempt. The elementary character of the 
engraving, therefore, may be assumption, but it is 
certainly not affectation. It is needless to call 
attention to the fine drawing of the horse, nor to the 
quaiutness of the arrangement ; nor even to apologise 
for the presentation of this impression to the leaders 
of The Magazine of Art. It is included as one form 
of modern Decadence, highly relished and applauded 
in some quarters, which, immature though it may be, 
is interesting for its cleverness in some measure, but 
most of all as a sign of the times. 




AYRSHIRE is a county of renown in Scottish story. 
-L\- Its seaboard, laved by the waters of the Firth 
of Clyde, was the scene of fierce conflict between 
the early marauding Danes and its Celtic inhabit- 
ants ; it was associated with the War of Independ- 
ence in the fourteenth century, and gave to Scotland 
its meat liberator, Robert Bruce. Later, its mosses 
and moors were the arena of controversy and 
death between the Covenanters and the dragoons of 
Charles II., who sought to force Episcopacy upon a 
Presbyterian population at the sword's point; while 
to come down to our own time and to more prosaic 
affairs, it is the county whose farmers have brought 
dairy husbandry to its greatest perfection, and whose 
holms and straths pasture a breed of milch cows of 
world-wide fame. 

But, transcendent ly, Ayrshire is renowned as the 
Land of Burns. It was there, in the "auld clay 
biggin," near Alloway Kirk, that the great Scottish 
poet first saw the light; his youth and early man- 
hood were passed within its borders; it was at Moss- 
giel, near the winding Ayr, where the best of his 
poems and love-songs were written. A hundred 
years have passed since the death of the poet, and 
we have celebrated the centenary year of that tragic 
event. Despite many failings of the flesh due to 
an ill-balanced artistic temperament, Burns to-daj 
is accorded by his countrymen a heart-whole love 
which no other Scotsman has ever received. His 
name is intertwined with the national lift 

which few strangers can appreciate; and his early 
Immes and haunts have become as sacred shrines. 

The livers Ayr and Doon, which flow through 
the county, are in themselves objects of much 
natural beauty. From the hills to the sea they 
wind through diversified and picturesque scenery. 
They come from upland moors and solitudes, dis- 
turbed only by sheep or grouse; they rush their 
foaming torrents through deeply-wooded ravines 
and between tree-clad rocky heights; they water 
fertile meadows where the milch kine feci], and How 
gently to the sea, past smiling homesteads, and 
ancient castles, whose traditions are of fratricidal 

feuds between, branches of the powerful falnih of 

Kennedy, once supreme in the shire. Bui Burns 

by the witchery of his art, has cast over them a 
magic spell of a more euduring nature than those 
associated with the lore <<i the antiquary. 

In an address to a brother rhymester, William 
Simpson, schoolmaster at Ochiltree, Burns laments 
that while the Forth and the Tay, the Yarrow 
the Tweed, had been praised to many a tune, nobodj 

had sung the rivers of Ayrshire, and he Calls upon 

his poetic friend to help him to remedy this defecl 

" TIT Misus, Tiber, Thames an' Seine 

Glide sweet in nie r tunefu' line 

lint, Willie, set your lit to mine, 

An' cock your crest, 
We'll gar our streams and burnies shine 

Up wi' the best." 

i way And nobly Burns fulfilled his promise. Who has 




not heard of the "Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon"? 
and while its neighbour, the crystal Ayr — which 
nuiiir, by the way, "Are" or "Ayr," is Celtic for 
i leai as " Doon" or " Dhun" is " dark " — has nol 
been celebrated in any such quotable line, the poet 
Eound among its sylvan shades inspiration for some 
ill' his must charming lyrics, and interlaced its name 
with many a moving song of love and beauty which 
poured forth from his impressionable heart. 

The Ayr lakes its rise in the uplands of Muirkirk 
which march with the hill country of Lanarkshire; 
it runs through the broadest part of the county, 
cutting it into two nearly equal halves, and after 
a westerly course of thirty-three miles it mingles 
its waters with those of the Firth of Clyde at the 
town lit' Ayr. The scenery of the open moorland 
district through which the infant stream Hows is 
hare ami uninteresting. Forests once flourished 
there, but they have long sine disappeared, though 
vestiges of giant trees are yet found in the peat 

mosses by the cottar when lie digs 
his winter fuel. The whole district, 
however, abounds witli legends of the 
Covenanting times, ami by many 
Scottish Presbyterians these are still 
regarded as a precious heritage. 

Just over the border-line is the 
battle-field of Drumclog, wln-re 
Claverhouse and his dragoons were 
on a Sunday morning in June, 1G79, 
defeated by that determined band of 
Covenanters, who, with Bible in the 
one hand ami sword in the other, 
had met together to worship accord- 
ing to the traditions of their race. 
The encounter took place on the 
farm of Drumclog, through which a 
small stream of the same name Hows 
to the stately Avon. 

As it neara the village of Sorn 
the aspect of the Ayr entirely changes. 
The scenery becomes rich and varied 
in character. Now a considerable 
stream, the Ayr runs in sunshine and 
shade, in its limpid purity, past level 
holms or between steep and grandly 
wooded banks where the birds sing 
their chansonettes ami the Muses love 
to dwell. Sorn Castle rears its grej 
walls amid such romantic surround- 
ings. Dating from the fifteenth cen- 
tury, the castle is supposed to have 
been built by Andrew Hamilton, third 
son of Sir David Hamilton, of Cad- 
zow, the ancestor of the premier 
dukes of Scotland. It passed for a 
century and a half into the hands of the Earls of 
Loudon, ami after several changes has become the 
properly of Mr. Somervell, of Sorn, who represented 
the Ayr Burghs in the Parliament of L890-2. 

Approaching Barskirnming, the river enters classic 
ground. The lands and mansion house are roman- 
tically situated on the Ayr, between two villages 
well known to all readers of Burns — Mauchline 
and Tarbolton. The hanks of the stream are here 
charmingly wooded, and near the mansion house the 
Ayr has cut its way through the red sandstone rock, 
and runs at the bottom of a. deep ravine with bold 
and, in some places, almost perpendicular walls, over- 
hung with verdure. This river gorge, spanned by a 
bridge, and crowned by the mansion house of Bars- 
kirnming, recalls one of the classic visions of Poussin 
or Claude. At Barskirnming the Ayr is joined by 
the Lurgar, one of its most important tributaries, 
upon which is set, also amid a wealth of natural 
beauty, the mansion house and castle of Auchiideck, 



where James Boswell entertained I>r. Johnson on 
his return from the Western Islands in 1773. 

But more interesting still are the Braes of 
Ballochmyle, on the north side of the Ayr. The 
s > ii.'i v heir has a perennial charm. The river 
rushes over a gravelly, boulder-strewn bed, between 
the hold cliffs and tree-shaded hanks and braes 
which are the favourite resort of the pic-nickers of 
the town of Ayr. Bums has immortalised the place 
in his exquisite love lyric, "The Bonnie Lass of 
Ballochmyle." This young lady was Miss Wil- 
helmina Alexander, the sister of Mr. Claude Alex- 
ander, who had then recently come into the property. 
The poet, who was at that time farming at Mossgiel, 
had wandered out to the braes, to view, as he says, 
"Nature in all tin' gaiety of the vernal year." While 
musing on the fair scene he suddenly saw passing be- 
fore him the beautiful face and form of Miss Alexan- 
der. Her loveliness stirred his fancy, and during his 
homeward walk he composed the sung in which, with 
poetic licence, he so happily extols her charms : — ■ 

inspiring vision f feminine loveliness met the view 
of tin 1 singer of this sweet 

Still following the stream, we come to < 'oilfield, 
with which is associated Burns' " Highland Mary," 
there pursuing her humble calling as a dairy- 
maid. Mary Campbell inspired perhaps the purest 
passion that ever racked the breast of the poet. 
Amid classic or modern love lore, where will be 
found so touching a recital of the parting, which was 
to be for ever, of these two lovers, when. Handing 
one on eai h side of a small limpid stream thai flowed 
into the Ayr, they laved their hands in the water, 
and. holding a Bible between them, pronounced vows 
of eternal constancy? How exquisitely Burns relates 
the tender episode and describes the river scenery 
amid which it took place : — 

"That sacred hour can I forget? 

( 'an 1 Imi gel I he hallowed ; 
Where by t he winding A.\ r we mi I 

To live one day of parting love ! 
Eternity will not efface 

Those records dear of transports past. 

"'Twas even— the dewy fields were 
On every blade the pearls hang 
The zephyrs wantoned round the 
And bore its flagrant sweets 
alang ; 
In every glen the mavis sang, 
All Nature listening seemed the 
Except where greenwood echoes 
Among the braes o' Ballochmyle. 

"Wiih careless step I onward 
My heart rejoiced in Nature's 
When musing in a lovely glade 
A maiden fair I chance 1 i" 
S PJ : 
Her look was like the morning's 



liter air like Nature's 
Perfection whispered, passing by, 

Behold the lass o' Balloch- 
myle ! " 

And there are other three 
verses equally delightful. But, 
alas! for the sensitive poet, 
the " Bonnie Lass," to whom 
he sent a copy of his verses, 
took no notice of him. Burns 
was only then a country 
swain ; but reparation was 
done to the poet afterwards. 
and now a beautiful grotto 
marks the spot where this 






Thy image at our last embrace — 

Ah, little thought we 'twas our last ! 

"Ayr, gurgling kissed his pebbled shore 

O'erhung with wild woods thickening green ; 
The fragrant bireb ami hawthorn hoar 

Twined am'rous round the raptured scene; 
The flowers sprang want. in to be prest, 

Tin' birds sang love iverj spraj : 

Till, too, too soon, tin- glowing wesl 

Proclaimed the speed of winged day." 

As it Hows mi its way, the Ayr contributes to 
another scent' of enchanting loveliness as it ap- 
proaches Auchincruive, the seal of Mr. R A. Oswald. 
This spot, too lias been rendered interesting by the 
peii "l' Burns. Mr. Richard Alexander t tswald was the 
laird of Auchincruive in the end of the last century. 
He was married to Miss Lucy Johnstone, a noted 
beauty of her day, whose charms also set the heart 
of Burns in a poetic flame. A portrait by Raeburn 
shows that tliis lady was gifted with much grace and 
beauty, and in tier praise the poet laid at her feet 

a. charming poem "As the 
honest incense of genuine 

As it nears the town 
of Ayr, through which it 
flows, the river is for a 
time retarded by a mill 
weir, and, assuming a 
peaceful lake-like aspect, 
it composes itself to rest 
awhile before it loses it- 
self in the sea. This tree- 
fringed expanse of tran- 
quil water is known as 
the "Dam," which in 
winter, when frozen over, 
is a favourite resort of 
skaters and curlers. 

Ayr itself litis long 
been a royal burgh. Its 
charter dates from Wil- 
liam the Lion, and, as to 
its people, have we not 
the word of Burns that it 
surpasses all other towns 

" For honest men and bonnie 
lasses " ? 

The river is here span- 
ned by two bridges, within 
a hundred yards or so of 
each other, one of ancient 
date and the other a pro- 
duct of the end of the 
last century. They are 
the, " Twa Brigs " of Burns' 
famous poem, which humorously discourse with 
one another on the things that tiny have seen in 
their time. The "Auld Brig" especially con- 
gratulates itself that it has stood for so long 
the violent winter floods to which the river is 
subjected, when — 

■• From Glenbuck down t.. the Ratton Key 
Auld Ayr is just ■ lengthened, tumbling sea." 

And to such spates the stream is still subject. 

The estuary of the Ayr forms the harbour at 
which a considerable traffic is maintained by pas- 
senger and other steamers ami sailing vessels. The 
breakwater is a delightful summer promenade, and 
the views seaward from it are of a charming de- 
scription. The coast-line is a crescent, with Ayr in 
the middle, and hold headlands with ancient castles 
perched upon them on each side. Westward, over 
the waters, is the Isle of Arran with its imposing 
mountain peaks, and beyond the foot of the island is 
seen the outline of the Mull of Kintyrc. Tin' eye, 




in sunshine or in storm, can never tire looking 
upon a scene so picturesque and so strangely en- 
chanting to the beholder — 

"When still and dim 
The beauty-breathing hues of eve expand ; 
When day's last roses fade on Ocean's brim, 
And Nature veils her brow, and chants her vesper hymn.' 




%17E would not feel justified in placing before om 
• » readers the accompanying designs for frieze, 
hammered metal, wall-paper, and head- and tail- 
pieces, as mere curiosities and nothing more — not 

/ ; ' 




even as examples of what may be dime in ait by 
pluck and perseverance, but there is in the majority 
of them an excellent sense of design, of balance, and 
composition, as well as firmness of drawing and 
precision of touch, which warrant their inclusion in 
these pages on their own merits as examples of 
book-embellishment and other of the decorative 
arts, quite apart from personal considerations. 

The artist, Mr. Bartram Biles, was born in 
Bristol. When he was eigh4 years old he was 
deprived of both his arms through a tramcar acci- 
dent. Before this terrible event — a catastrophe 

which would have overwhelmed most other persons 
— he had developed a strong passion for drawing: so 
strong, that the loss of arms in no way diminished 
his ambition to become an artist. At first the 
check to the gratification of his boyish tastes was 
to the child a cruel blow; but the idea soon 
occurred to him that the main difficulty would he 
overcome if he could 
educate his mouth 
as a holder fur his 
pencil — for brushes 
were not vet hoped 
fur. He accordingly 
set to work with 
courage and enthu- 
siasm, and in a short 
time, by dint of per- 
sistent practice and 
perseverance, he 
found that he could 
write legibly and 
draw with thinness of 
line. Not more than 
two years after his 
accident. Mr. Biles 
obtained a ''first- 
class excellent " in 
the second grade for 
freehand (! I drawing 

at the school la' was 

attending at Bristol. 
In line time he was 
sent to attend the 
art class, then re- 
cently funned, at the 
Merchant Venl iirei 
Technical ('"II' e 
Bristol. While thi n 
he made rapid pro- 
gress, successfully door plate. 
pa sing numerous (omigma &» taring ««#«.) 



art examinations, the subjects inchiding modelling, and the young artist's career was fairly begun. 
His next object was to study applied design with But it took him practically from five to six years 

DESIGN FOR FRIEZE. (By Bartram Mies.) 

a view to competing for a scholarship later on, and to obtain complete mastery over his mouth and 
concurrently he practised painting at the studio of the muscles of the neck ; yet time and practice 


a lady artist of local repute. At the age of sixteen made him ever more expert in freedom and touch. 
Mr. Hiles exhibited a study in water-colours at the Eventually he succeeded in winning a National 
Bristol Fine Art Academy; it found a purchaser, Art Scholarship at the National Art Training 



HEADPIECE. (Ora<™ by Bcriraw Hiles.) 

School, tenable for two years and valued at a 
hundred guineas. While attending these classes 
he was awarded in the National Competition one 
silver and two bronze medals, and a bonk prize 
for design as applied to the decorative industries, 
receiving also excellent reports from the examiners. 
At the expiration of the scholarship, Mr, Hiles 
found great benefit from a visit to Paris where he 
attended the museums and studios, and he then 
returned to London, on the receipt of a com- 
mission to paint pictures for an exhibition in 

Bristol. Settling down to work for his livelih I, 

he combined decorative art with pictorial, and 
worked the two side by side. The struggle was a 
hard one, and we are not sure that it is yet less 
arduous than it was: for the physical difficulties 
standing in the way are. not easily surmountable. 
Nevertheless, Mr. Hiles is an exhibitor at the 
Royal Society of British Artists, and a worker for 
prominent linns of decorators. The fame of the 
young artist's heroism has already spread; and 
the Queen and the Princess of Wales have been 
purchasers of his work. 

It is not to be pretended that Mr. Hiles is a 
unique instance of painting without hands. Only 
last year the Museum of Hyeres was enriched by a 
picture of singular beauty, entitled " Fleurs de Dunes 
dans les Marais de Saint Grieuse (Pas-de-Calais)," 
representing, in the foreground, flowers which are 
reflected in the marshy pools, towards which a flock 

of sea-gulls take their flight: while in the middle 
distance is a stretch of grass-covered land; beyond, 
the sands of the dune, and, finally, the sea. Below 
the picture is the painter's name — Francois de Men- 
tholon — and the statement that the artist, remark- 
able alike for his skill and his physical defect, was 
born without arms and with but one leg, and had 
gained the first Raigecourt-Goyon prize in the 
current Salon. Then Mdlle. AiimV Rapiu, also 
burn without arms, paints with her feet, and lately 
presented to the Duchess of York as a wedding gift 
a portrait in chalk of the Duchess herself— a work 
of distinct artistic merit. (.'lassie instances, of 
course, are those of M. Noel-Masson, of Paris, and 

Miss Biffin, (he latter of whom died at Liver] 1 

in 1850. But all of these, be it noted, bail come 
into tin' world without arms or hands; the)- had been 

educated to use their feet (or ill the ease of .Miss 

Biffin, their lips) from birth, ami (hey had never 
known the use of bauds, nor the terrible, Stunning 
loss of arms and fingers. For that reason Mr. 
Hiles's achievement appears to us to surpass in 
quiet earnestness and noble perseverance (he feats 
of any of his predecessors. He has known how to 
meet a cruel fate with ingenuity and courage, and to 
battle bravely against a lol overwhich few could have 
successfully triumphed. For thai reason, too, we are 
glad t.o bring his work forward in our pages, and to in- 
troduce ln's arl and his persistence to t \t<- approval ami, 
it is to be hoped,' to the encouragement of our readers. 





By m. h. spielmann. 

EVEN at the period of its greatest decadence, Fantin-Latour, Bracquemond, John Lewis Brown, 
when poor lithographs from bad pictures and Francais, the landscape painter, were quietly 
were discrediting the art as a reproductive pro- pursuing the practice of it, though the public taste 

had turned from the 
stone and was eagerly 
coquetting with the 
etched copper - plate. 
But it was impossible 
that a method offering 
such splendid range to 
the artist should be 
entirely neglected ; 
impossible that a pro- 
cess which ottered a 
technique more exten- 
sive than that of any 
other form of black 
and white art, should 
be willingly given up. 
Its infinite capability 
of varying the grain 
— which is to the 
lithographer what the 
lozenge is to the line- 
engraver, or what line 
ainl burr are to etcher 
and dry-pointer — was 
far too precious a pos- 
session to be lost. As 
flexible as etching, 
its ground could give 
nearly the whole range, 
from velvety black to 
dreamy gray, possessed 
by mezzotint ; it could 
be a chalk drawing, a 
wash drawing, a pen 
drawing.a stump draw- 
ing, an aquatint, what 
you please. The en- 
thusiastic lithographer 
boasted that there 
were ten ways of draw- 
ing on stone — three to 
draw with the pencil, 
cess in Germany as well as in England, in six to draw with ink, and one to engrave; and 
France such of it as was original was confined although every practitioner had his secret process 
chief!) to the production of song-wrappers, show- (or rather his methods and recipes), with which on 
cards, and posters, and such-like baser uses, lint no account whatever would he part ami which he 
there, at least, lithography was never really dead. usually preferred should die with him, the mere 

(Sj A. Lmois.) 


rfV* 2 -:-"-- 

(81/ Slorm van Gmucsaiulc.) 

(By Storm van Graucsandc.) 




variety which permitted of this artistic egotism was 
in itself an added fascination. It was autographic 

and suggestive of a. wonderful range of colour, and 
even the ordinary drawing with the pencil offered 
the greatest attraction to the true artist to whom 
the slightest sketch, if it be artistic, may be worth 
the biggest picture — and often a good deal more. 

has created, silhouettes, vague and indistinct, gradu- 
ally form themselves upon the surface: their relief 
is accentuated; light begins to vibrate here and 
there, and the subject at last emerges. 

Thus, although to the common lithographer tender 
tones and sense of harmony had been lost, a few 
artists cherished the art jealously, and by dint of 

(By Faiitin-Latour.) 

Not only does lithography charm the artist by 
reason of its purely aesthetic delights, but also for the 
particular advantages it offers when the work is in 
progress. For while it offers a more complete means 
than etching for recording the artist's ideas, contrary 
to etching or any other method it. allows the whole 
result to be seen as the work progresses: and, as Mr. 
Wickenden reminds me in a letter full of enthusiasm, 
the lone, like the line, is always under the artist's 
control, as it is under his eye. With his arm 
resting on a support, or suspended against the stone 
that may have been set up on an easel, an artist 
who works in the manner, say, of .Monsieur II. P. 
Dillon, can play aboul upon it with the crayon gras 
till the white or glossy surface of the stone gradually 
disappears Then from the fog and mist which he 

their disinterested love and persistence they gradually 
brought back the public to an appreciation of its 
beauties. For twenty years, etching had practically 
reigned supreme, but now once more the subtlety 
and richness of the stone, the splendour of its blacks, 
the harmonious depths and vibrating lights, brought 
back the fickle love of a fashion-governed public, and 
artist -lithographers — original draughtsmen — are 
again revelling in the suppleness and facility of a 
method which for its versatile capabilities is sur- 
passed by no other. It was in L877 that Mr. 
Whistler came to the aid of M. Fantin-Latour and 
the devoted little band; but only in 1844 was the 
fact of the revival officially proclaimed, so to speak, 
by the establishment in Paris of the " Societe des 
Artistes Francais." Then followed, in 



.- - V! 




(By H. P. Dillon.) 



1891, a more academic imprimatur, when an impor- 
timl exhibition was held at the Beaux Arts; and 
lastly, in 1S95, the centenary of the art's birth was 
celebrated by a great exhibition at the Palais de 
l'lndustrie. That this centenary was established a 
year too sunn docs not matter; we need take it but 
as a testimony of the ardent enthusiasm that it 
inspired, or of an over-zealous haste to be in time. 

So Fantin-Latour worked on, not troubling him- 
self to bring' about any particular revival, simply 
in the full glow of his love for lithography, by 
whose power he could record in black and white 
his dual love for art and music. He became, half 
unwittingly, perhaps, the main link of the old prac- 
tice with the new, and, caring nothing for the rival 
"schools" of the lithographers, he produced a series 
of " plates," inspirations, nearly all of them, from 
the works of the great musicians, from Rossini to 
Brahms, and from Schumann to Wagner and Berlioz. 
His romantic creations, female forms suggestive of 
those that Diaz drew, melting landscapes, vague 
moonlights, and subdued glow of the sun — these 
were the subjects which he executed in a method 
of technique of his own, at which professional 
lithographers laughed, perhaps, but which by artists 
were received with rapturous applause. So long 
as Fantin worked, lithography was kept in mind. 

It was mere commercialism which brought 
Cheret into the field. His lithographs were at first 
no original artistic expression, but wire intended to 
serve the purpose of the trader. Gradually (.'beret's 
genius elevated the thing itself, and apart from the 
posters to which his destiny mainly chained him, he 
produced many lithographs which were as dainty 
and as tender in their execution as the subjects 
themselves were gay and joyous. He was more 
perfect as a technician than Fantin, or perhaps I 
should say more orthodox, and doubtless attracted 
as many to the reconsideration of the art as Fantin 
had captured among the connoisseurs. His exqui- 
site touch in his smaller stones, and his intensely 
decorative feeling for all its chic composition, assure 
him his position as leader in the renaissance of litho- 
graphy. M. Grassel is a far greater minded artist, 
however, and infinitely more versatile, and his quaint- 
ness as original and as taking as Cheret's diablerie. 
Then followed a little army of young men whose 
object was rather to charm with the beauty of litho- 
graphy than by the subjects they drew with it — with 
whom the stone was to be not so much a means as an 
end. But all of them had something to say, and they 
have said it so freshly and often exquisitely, that the 
public delight in this new revival is not at all confined 
to the methods which the new school has developed. 

j : +m^ 

(Poster by Steinten.) 


{By Roedel.) 

Iii looking along the front rank of the new 
workers in lithography, we come across a number 
whose productions merit respectful preservation in 
the portfolios of the connoisseur, for the sake alike 
of subject, treatment, and technique ; and it is to be 
observed that there is hardly one amongst them but 
is unaffectedly original in bi.s style and method. 

At the head of these 1 should perhaps place M. 
Willette, although his must notable lithographic 
work has more in common with that of Raffet at 
his best and other giants of the earlier school. 

But Willette himself has a mind bey 1 nmst 

artist: : he is a Parisien of Montmartre with an 
appreciation of the graceful, the dainty, and deli- 
cate equal to thai of CheVet, but strongly modi- 
fied by his natural taste for the quarter in which 
lie live-. But he is also a thinker; an ardent 
politician of a pronounced socialistic turn : a patriot 
never so happy as when glorifying France or railing 
at her enemies; a philanthropist whose pity for 
the poor is emphasised by his hatred of the police; 
a pronounced sensualist, much of whose work not even 
Rowlandson would have cared to sign : a lover of the 
army like Vernet and Raffet; and the verj humble, 
obedient servant of Mile. Nmi the Grisette. With 

how much tenderness he plays upon the stone! 
Whether it is with an allegorical "Moonlight 
March," or with a poster of " L'Enfan! Prodigue," 
he plays upon our feelings as he dor- upon the slab, 
and moves us with his art as much with his tender 
feeling as with his silver grays. 

For a more modern, and therefore perhaps more 
interesting technique, we may turn to M. Dillon, one 
of the founders of " Les Peintres Lithographes,' and 
of "L'Estampe Originale," whose work is widely in 
request. As maj be seen in his "Fi ■ ircus," 

or in lii's " ( iateway" (" La Porl e Co In re ') lie loves 
black silhouettes sel against a graduating backgi 
with night effects or heavy rain: highly finished 
character studies sel into compositions, with evi i 
from deepesl Mark to dazzling white; with spla 
scrati hings and every trick know a to the draughtsman 
on stone, all concentrate! , design, \\ ith often 

enough a dramatic idea r ling through the whole. 

An artist who began a ^\<- ade eai liei i VI. 
Lunois, whose " I Dutchwoman of the 

use to which he puts lithography when producing 
his travelling notes. Since 1881, when he first began 
his art, he has been anion-' the most talented of the 
leaders, preferring the older method to wl 



(By Odilon Redon.) 

scoffingly called the nouveaujeu, but still employing 
the whole resources of his art, whether in black and 
white or colour, in illustration of the many countries 
through which he has passed, or in the many works 
he has executed for book illustration. 

The decorative muse of M. Rcedel appears 
graciously and sympathetically upon the stone, as 
in the charming figure of his " Woman at the Piano," 
which is almosl touching in its simplicity; or in 
tin' exquisite sentiment of his famous "Head.'' 
This face is far superior in its artistic appeal to 
the affected form el' decoration in which it, is set, 
as seen in the meaningless terminals of the stiffly 
arranged Egyptian coiffure — suggesting a possible 
origin of some of Mr. Aubrey Beardsley's lineal 
eccentricities. But the modelling, as frank and 
nearly as skilful too as Holbein's, is 30 sweet ami 
delicate thai you might almosl blow it from the 
paper. A similar sensitiveness I" delicate tones 
belongs to M. Odilon Redon; but he has command, 
or at least makes use, of a greater range of colour. 
He is besides so pronounced a "mystic'' that he 

often loses his ait in extravagant 
fancies. Less effective than Poe, he is 
Obviously less sincere than Blake, and 
whether or not he is, as some will 
have it, but a. practical joker after all, 
he certainly is always straining after 
an idea which he does not so often 
succeed in communicating, even if he 
realises it to himself. In his " Briinn- 
hilde (The Gods' Twilight,)'' we have 
at least a n tniniscence of Leonardo, 
excellent in sentiment, but a technique 
inadequate to the space covered. 

Beside these two, M. Luce is robust 
virility itself. He uses his greasy 
pencil as he would his chalk', and in a 
few lines expresses form and substance 
in a manner at once masterly and 
striking, A glance at his "Woman 
Eecumbent " is enough to show how 
admirable in its truth is the finely 
suggested form in this hasty record of 
a woman sleeping, who has thrown 
herself in utter lassitude upon the lied. 
It must, be admitted that in the reduc- 
tion a. g 1 deal of the effect is lost. 

Lastly, among the leaders must be 
accounted M. Toulouse-Lautrec. For 
him the stone does not count for very 
much, but with the pencil he wields 
with so much facility ami power of 
reproducing concentrated character he 
seeks to prove himself descendant of 
Gavarni and Launder. 
Besides these men, each with his own reputation 
as artist, satirist, or simple technician, others have 
been working, with every man his admirers, and 
every man, moreover, distinguished in other artistic 
labour as well— M. Lepere, ML Raffaelli, M. Robida, 
M. Ihels, M. Anquetiu, Norbert Gcenette, and M. 
Forain, the pitiless exponent of the cynical side of 
French life and wit, and of the' ungraceful side of 
French hearing; with M. Benjamin-Constant and M. 
Carriere among painters pure and simple — all these 
distinguished names do not, exhaust, the list, of those, 
dow or in the quite recent past, working in litho- 
graphy and increasing the popular appreciation. 

In countries other than France and England, the 
lithographic revival lias not yet given distinct evi- 
dence of serious movement; that, doubtless, is to 
come. Other countries, indeed, are represented, but 
for the mosl part by artists living and practising 
in France, and generally speaking in Paris. Thus 
Spain ami Italy are represented by the spirited and 
sensitive work of M. Checa (whose - Rotterdam" is 
sufficient to assure his place), and M. de la Gandara, 

(fiy /?. J. Wlohenden.) 



who, alter all, is practically a Parisian. In M. 
Steinlen, Switzerland lias produced at once an artist, 

(By Luce.) 

a poet, ami a satirist, whose talent wavers between are second 01 
i I'll of Cheret, Forain, and Willette, with an added achievements 
touch of dreamy, pastoral beauty that belongs to set forth. 
ii"i E these. Neither Austria nor Germany pre- 
sents to us a single lithographer of tin- front rank: 
and Belgium now but a single one, M. Lynen. 

In Holland, Heer Storm van Gravesande hi 
maintained worthily the repu ation of lithogra] 
There is no form of land or seascape which he has 
not attempted, using pencil and stump, pen and 
litho-tint, to produce his beautiful effects of light, 
and mist, and atmosphere, ami to present with a 
bold and certain hand the scenes typical of his 
country; always himself original and characteristic, 
he reminds one constantly of the most admirable 
artists who have restored the art of Holland 
tn its place: and withal he has employed, 
-imply and directly, all the tricks and dodges 
of scratching, scraping, rubbing, and what- 
not that endow lithography with its limitless 
resource and charm. 

The American in- 
is mainly sus- 
tained by .Mr. R. .1. 
Wickenden, for Mr. 
Whistler, in his litho- 
graphic work, has so 
completely identified 

himself with I he Klrj- 

lish share in the re- 
nascence that hi' is 
to lie considered 

away from it. Nor is it certain that Mr. "Wickenden 
should be classed, even by courtesy, with the Ameri- 
cans; for he was horn in 
England, and, although edu- 
cated in the States, since 18S3 
has made his home in France. 
There is no one more likely 
to achieve a great reputation 
through a line poetic manipu- 
lation of the stone than he, for 
there is no class of subject 
broadly considered that lie has 
not undertaken, and all of them 
he has adorned. 

How far the work of these 
men will set an example to 
the rest of Europe there is 
as yet no indication : hut the 
promise is great, for the new 
lithography now is almost a 
new method with a new ob- 
ject. Thus it is regarded in 
England, where the achieve- 
ments accomplished by its aid 
| those in France. What these 
1 propose in a final article to 


lv t. 


(A Magazine Cover by Cheret.) 




OF all the artists of the younger generation in and unheard-of, and thus become a leading spirit 
Germany, Franz Stuck is one of the greatest, in art and in art-rnanufacture. 
We have within the last ten years seen the rise of And this has not taken long to do; Stuck is hut 

(By Leo Samberger. By Permission of tile Photographic Union, Munich.) 

many highly original and individual talents, lint 
their tendency, for the most part, is to an ingenious 
elaboration of their ideas; and there is scarcely 
another who can compare with Stuck in power and 
monumental greatness. 

German art, as it now is, would he inconceivable 
without Franz Stuck: it was hi' who succeeded in 
taking the painting of a whole country out of a 
groove, and starting it in a new path : his influence 
is to he seen in each single ell'urt of ( Jernian art. 
Such a man needs no subtlety of gift, but, on the 
contrary, the strength of a giant who will unflinch- 
ingly oppose all that is familiar with something new 

three-and-thiriy, and already he is recognised as a 
leader iii Germany, li is, in fact, impossible to resist 
the fascinating influence of this self-made man. who 

SO early in life has won the minims of lame. 

Siuek is the son of peasant parents, and was born 
in 1863 at Tettenweis, in Lowei Bavaria. His school- 
ing over, lie went to .Munich, where he studied first 
at the School for Industrial Ait, and then at the 
Academj He wa not, howi i if I lie regular 

students there; end it is not the A.cademj that has 
made him what he is. Being obliged at an earlj age 
to work for his living, he first earned it by illustrations 
by which he laid the foundations of liis lame. I lis 



firs! works appeared in two books on industrial art — 
"Allegories and Emblems," to which lie contributed 
largely : and " Prints and Vignettes," entirely by 
his hand (Gerlaeh and Schenk, publishers, Vienna). 
He at once showed that he was a draughtsman of 
genius : and, young though he was, such a peculiar 
individuality and so strongly marked a character 
were conspicuously evident that the. success of these 
volumes was quite extraordinary. In a very short 
time his name was known throughout Germany ; 
every decorative draughtsman began to look on 
Stuck as more or less his ideal, and to express him- 
self in imitation of him. Before long every diploma- 
card or title-page betrayed Stuck's direct influence, 
and he was universally regarded as the coming man. 
And no wonder, heal talent had hitherto meddled 
but little in Germany with decorative design : and 
what had been done in that branch of art or taught in 
the schools consisted, for the most part, in clever or 
stupid imitation of old styles. And here, suddenly, 
a man of brilliant ability appeared in the field, who 
with unwonted daring displayed a new type of forms 
adapted to decorative purposes from an original 

Stuck. By Permh 

of F. Ilarj/staenol, Munich, 

study of nature, and who gave expression to his 
whimsicalities with such masterly draughtsmanship, 
that he conquered the world with one blow. These 
inventions were, indeed, novel and naif rather than 
elegant, rugged rather than refined ; but the great 
end was attained : they were new, original, and full 
of modern vitality, and already marked by so much 
sense of style that there was nothing at all like them 
to compare them with. The old time-worn patterns 
of the Renaissance, and the Boucher type of Cupids 
which hail long been a by-word, were gladly set 
aside in their favour. There is not space enough on 
these pages to reproduce any of these works. They 
were in style a good deal like the later work, " In 
Vino Veritas," though for the most part they were 
characterised by even greater boldness of treatment. 
In many, and more particularly in the purely orna- 
mental designs, Stuck betrays a certain leaning 
towards the baroque style of Munich ; but he has 
by degrees emancipated himself effectually from its 
trammels, and formed a style of his own. And now, 
in every corner, on every wall, in every catalogue and 
advertisement-sheet, we meet with saucy Cupids and 
vivacious female figures, such 
as Stuck was the first to draw, 
and their bold wit and type of 
beauty at once took the world 
by storm. In Fliegende Bldt- 
tcrn (the well-known illus- 
trated comic paper) and many 
other publications he has 
brought out a series of draw- 
ings and caricatures among 
which gems of beauty may lie 
found. Still, he did not come 
Jgjgtt forward as a painter till he 

.-•■ lat-.jfei ,li1, lusive proof 

that he could paint. 

It was in 1889, at the first 
exhibition in the Crystal Palace 
at Munich, that the name of 
Stuck, no longer unknown, was 
appended to three pictures. 
This was his debut as a painter, 
and decisively stamped his 
transition from a designer to 
a painter. 

The reader must try to 
imagine what a picture-show 
looked like at that time in 
Germany. It was a period 
when unqualified naturalism 
had just claimed strict obedi- 
ence to its edicts, when Fancy 
and the representations of all 
o». n er 0/ tire Copyright.) that is fair in life was banned, 



By Permission of F. Hanfstaengl, Munich, the Owner of the Copyright.) 

in favour of a renewed devotion to nature and an 
avoidance of all affectation. Beauty was no longer 
to be looked for in the treasury of classical art, but 
in life itself, even in its simplest expression; and 
thus, from the very beginning, artists gave them- 
selves up to intense and exclusive study in the open 
air, determined to form for themselves a store of 
pictorial power which they could feel was their own 
and prove to be original. But in these strenuous 
efforts they overstepped their aim. A reaction was 
inevitable, and Stuck was one of those who contri 
buted to it, who was and remains wholly modem, 
and yet succeeded in uniting the new modes of ex- 
pression and feeling with a sense of beauty, prov- 
ing in his work that modern art can be applied to 
deeply conceived symbolism. Side by side with 
numberless pictures of I Hitch washerwomen, of 

humble rooms full of daylight, with paved 11 s and 

straw chairs, hung the child of Stuck'- imagination, 

"The Guard of Paradise," the angel of the flaming 
sword driving the sinful pair from the gate of Eden. 
In it he had applied all that work in the open air 
had taught him, but it was subordinate to higher 
aims. The second, " Innocentia," was a symphony in 
white, an exquisite poem of pure girlhood ; the third 
was a baroque invention of " Fighting fauns." Their 
success was immediate. The young painter's works 
won the gold medal, and were the talk of the day. 
From this time his triumphant career knew no check. 
Each year he surprised the public with work 
gave fresh hopes for the future. The countei pari 
Angel of Paradise was the " Lucifer," whose fiei 
comes from green deeps pierced bj a raj from heaven 
above It was not an ordinary personification of the 

fallen angel, recogni table Ivj monplace attribute 

it was the incorporate ide i of Evil such as only a 
powei ful imaginal ion could conceive of. In these 
jrears,too he | luceda 1 bnumber ol mailer works, 



of which the subjects are for the most part inspired domain. He, like many others, felt that a man by 
by the fables of antiquity — fauns, centaurs, nymphs, persistently working only in the open-air might 
and nude figures of the Golden Age — in which he assume a sort of straight waistcoat ; that these high 

embodied, in a wild and often coarsely striking way, 
a poem of over-exuberant joy in life. The wonderful 
effects of light he contrived under a green roof of 
trees afforded him the scene in which he made his 
idyllic figures lead their Arcadian life ; still, he never 
made a servile copy of nature, nor painted beings 
elaborated in the brain : he created a new world in 
which mythical creatures looked possible and actual. 
Or he would take for his subjects the first personages 
of the Bible-narrative — Adam and Eve — and how 
through the woman sin tirst came into the world, or 
how the man and woman wandered on the earth 
when driven from Paradise. Several variations 
occur: we may mention the figure of "Sin" which 
has become famous — Eve, with her while body 
clasped in the folds of an enormous serpent; and 
others. They all showed a great advance from the 
mere transcript of nature based on photography, to 
the free interpretation which simplifies nature, and 
is the artist's manuscript. 

This was more manifest in every work he pro- 
duced till be had achieved his present line style 
based on the very essence of tilings. Whereas he 
had hitherto relied on unfamiliar aspects of open day- 
light, he now strove more and more to extend his 

notes formed but a small part of the scale of tone 
which an artist has at his command as a mode of 
expression : he perceived that the final aim of a 
painting must, depend rather on the harmonious use 
of colour than on an illusory plastic solidity ; and he 
began, accordingly, to revel in deep heavy tones, but 
without falling into the murky, brown keys of colour 
affected by Old Masters. 

The Exhibition of 1892 brought to the front 
one of the most impressive works that the younger 
German school has produced — the "Crucifixion," by 
Stuck. Though the careful avoidance of all re- 
semblance to the traditional Church-treatment of 
the subject makes his picture very startling, or 
even repellent, it must nevertheless be conceded 
that its stupendous power and passion at once call 
up the sense of an event of supreme and universal 
interest. In this picture, was revealed for the first 
time all the gigantic power peculiar to Stuck's work, 
which makes him the most famous of our historical 
painters. The imperfections and ruggedness that 
mar the wmk cannot, blind us to that. Few men 
could have sketched these figures in such a powerful 
mould, or have given them such wonderful symbolic 



Still, I could not at the time wholly enjoy the 
work. It had a magical attraction, and yet a vein of 
coarseness repelled me. Rut it remained so indelibly 
stamped on my memory that it followed tne every- 
where, and I was only conscious of the deep impres- 
sion it had made when I found that 1 could not 
forget it. 

Since that time Stuck has produced the various 
works on a large scale, which have made his name 
famous. The great picture called "War" won him 
at last the encouragement of the State. It is here 
reproduced. This was purchased in 1894 for the 
Pinacothek at Munich, and Stink was appointed 
Professor there. We should seek in vain through the 
whole range of modern 
German art for an ex- 
ample of pictorial means 
carried to such absolute 
mastery as in this pic- 
ture. The livid bodies 
on the earth are drawn 
with a simplicity and 
breadth worthy of an 
Old Master, the awful 
Horseman rides across 
the night-sky in symbolic 
hues, and a lurid glow 
flames on the horizon. 

In the following year 
Stuck did not, as might 
have been expected, 
pause fur rest ; bul he 
exhibited a somewhat 
smaller work, which, 
however, again showed 
marked progress — " The 
Sphinx." Though c> im- 
pressed on to a small 
canvas, it has a stamp 
of force that seems as if 
it might burst the frame ! 
Stuck's power of expres- 
sion is greater than ever; 

and this is no less trt f 

his last picture, the " Evil 
Conscience," which was 
exhibited in 1896 in the 
Salon of the Secession at 

The \\«nks here en- 
umerated are, of course, 
far from being all that 
Stuck has dune; lie is 

enormously industrious, never dull, never meretri- 
cious. Deep artistic purpose is the essence ,,i his 
being; he never trifles with a task, but always tries 

to produce a real work of art. And it is this high 
artistic earnestness which lifts him so far above 
many others. He does not wastefully consume the 
store of imagination bestowed on him al birth; bul 
nature is to him always the purest somcc of revela- 
tion, though he never gives a direct transcript from 
nature in any portion of his work. His studies, 
particularly his drawing of figures and Ins charming 
chalk heads, are greatly esteemed in Germany foi 
their masterly draughtsmanship, firmness, and ele- 
gance; he is rapidly advancing to true greatness. 

Stuck is a quiet, reserved man, who knows exai tly 
what lie aims at, and goes Straight to that aim 
with iron determination and incredible powers of 
work. We have only to 
look at his drawings, ol 
which the chalk head 
here reproduced may be 
taken as a typical ex- 
ample. There is not n 
line too many and not a 
stroke too little; every 
touch is in its right place, 
and yet looks as if it 
had been put in with 
such playful ease that 
the unpleasant after-taste 
left by laboured accuracy 
in a work of art is en- 
tirely absent. 

His feeling for coloui 
is not less developed than 
his sense of form : what 
In' can draw ami model. 
he can also paint. Then- 
is hanlly any branch of 
technique thai he has nol 
mastered ; and whether 

he wields the pen, tile 

pencil, or the etching- 
needle, he is not less ex- 
pert than w ith the brush 
in tempera, water-coloui . 
or oils, or with chalks : 

lie klloWs el gh of thrill 

all t cupy an artist's 

whole life. All this 
talent is enhanced by 

highly cultivated 

Though he is model 11 

through thick and thin.he 

industriously studies tin- 
ant ique, and has leai nl of 
the t Hi I Masters, training his taste, which in Munich 
has become paramount in e\ ery deparl tnent. 

All this is known and acknowledged throushoul 

iss/on of F. H 

/ tltv Copyright.) 



Germany; the only blame attaching to Stuck is, still, 
that in all his work there is a taint of harshness, a 
revelling in coarseness. I do not deny the impeach- 
ment ; still, I may say that in such an individuality 
as we see in Stuck this is not such a very great 
defect. His is a powerful nature, so strong that 
many men cannot bear with him ; but it was this 
very exuberance, this healthy flesMiness which ap- 
peared like a remedy to the over-refined, nervous, 
sentimental art of our day. It may be that we can 
imagine this strength as even more spiritualised; still 

we may be glad that art was bestowed on such a 
man as Stuck, who must always be placed in the 
front rank of born artists, and of whom it is hard 
indeed to say what development he yet may reach. 
Fur he does not seem to be one of those who 
begin with great promise and do fine work till, in 
later life, they are exhausted ; on the contrary, if 
we are not greatly deceived, we may look to see 
him long maintain the leadership which he has 
achieved so early, and to write his name with those 
that are greatest in the history of German art. 

Ironing by Franz Stuck ) 


FEW artists of the present century have better 
deserved a tribute such as that which Mr. 
Hueffer has paid in his well-informed and brightly- 
written biography of his grandfather.* In spite of 
faults, patent to all and undoubtedly great, Ford 
Madox Brown remains one of the geniuses of his 
day, great in achievement as in mind and soul; yet 
to many his work was utterly unknown — chiefly, no 
doubt, through his feud with the Royal Academy, to 
whose exhibitions he never contributed, nor sought to 
contribute, since his youth. Moreover, in consequence 
of bis very obvious defects, he was unappreciated at 

* "Find Madox Brown: a Record of his Life and Work." 
By Ford M. Hueffer. With numerous Reproductions. (Long- 
mans, Green and Co. 1896, 

his just worth by most of those to whom his work 
was accessible ; and it is said that many citizens of 
Manchester speak apologetically of his mural paint- 
ings in their Town Hall, in ignorance of the fact 
that these constitute one of the city's principal 
claims to honour by all lovers of art. 

The career of Ford Madox Brown has already 
been set fully and clearly before the readers of this 
Magazine by his daughter, the late Mrs. Lucy Madox 
Hossetti, so that little need be said of the story of 
his life. But witness must be borne to the excellent 
critical judgment and pleasant humour (Jf the artist's 
authorised biographer. In this admirable volume the 
literaryand artistic sections are well balanced; andeach 
in its own way could hardly be bettered. The picture 



drawn of Madox Brown himself, whether as a man 
or as an artist, is all but complete, and it is difficult 
to choose which portrait is the more delightful. Mr. 
Hueffer tells all that need be known either about his 
grandsire's life, his character, and his art — the last 
named section being, as it should be, the fullest and 
most detailed. The public will at last be able to 
judge how noble and versatile a designer was Madox 
Brown, how original — whether in respect to artistic 
view, method of treatment, or ingenuity and dignity 
of design; how his poetic sense, invention, and pas- 
sionate love of colour influenced Dante Eossetti, 
and constituted himself in some respects the step- 
father, at least, of the movement that became the 
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. The claim of Madox 
Brown to exalted rank among the artists of the 
nineteenth century is established with commendable 
moderation in Mr. Huefter's book, which becomes as 
much a treasure to the art-student as it is a pleasure 
to the ordinary reader and a commendable memorial 
to a distinguished man. 

THE new edition of Thackeray's "Ballads and 
Poems," issued by Messrs. Cassell and Co., 

From "Thackeray's Ballads.") 

(From the Pastel by Ford Madox Drown From "f 

rd Madox Brown : a Record of his Life and Worl 

daintily and sometimes even ex- 
quisitely illustrated by Mr. H. M. 
Brock, is one of that series of 
beautiful little books which have 
worthily followed in the wake of 
Caldeeott's and Mr. Hugh Thom- 
son's graceful appreciation of our 
English (lassies. The merit of this 
delightful little book lies not only in 
the keen intelligence with which Mi 
Brock has illuminated Thackeray's 
delightful humour and pathos, it 
lies also in his sense of decoration 
and in the charming fancy which 
he lias lavished on his head- and 
tail-pieces. The further credit too 
belongs to him of being original 
where so many have worked before. 

HAMPTON COURT has so re- 
cently been made the subject 
of exhaustive treatment by Mr. 
Ernest Law that we were hardly 
prepared for another work on the 
same subject— certainly not one on 
which care ami loving pains hardly 
less earnest have been lavished. 
The new volume which, under the 
simple title of ■" Hampton Court." 

has Keen issued hy Mr..lohu Xuillllo, 

is from the pen of the Rev. William 
Button, who writes with all the 
sympathy though with less historic 
aim and far less fulness than that 



which characterised Mr. Law's admirable work. He 
saunters through the Palace with less serious puipi >se, 
missing, however, little of historical interest, and 
nothing of the picturesque side, and with Mr. Herbert 
Railton at his elbow notes down all that he finds most 

THE title of this work * might have been " The 
Influence of Byzantine Art in North Italy and 
Rome," for that is really the main burden of the 
profound and erudite researches of the late Professor 
Cattaneo. Two-thirds of the book are devoted to a 

SteJ fiauquctiut'Ilsil./ 
'dlcnry' VIII . . 

charming and most quaint. The chapter on the art 
collections is carefully done, for the author has had 
the courage of the convictions of Mr. Claude Phillips 
— who bids fair to become our English Morrelli — and 
of " Mary Logan." Mr. Railton's drawings, we need 
not say, arc picturesque and intensely appreciative, 
but their pleasant mannerism sometimes detracts 
from the truth of the scene and from the relative im- 
portance of the architectural "bits" he has delineated 
with so much skill and such obvious pleasure. 

catalogue. raisownA of the artistic treasures of the 
dark ages as found in out-of-the-way churches and 
in the lapidary museum. It is followed by a long 
dissertation on St. Ambrogio at Milan, which Pro- 
fessor Cattaneo proves conclusively to be a work- 
ed' the eleventh and twelfth centuries instead of 
the ninth century as contended by de Dartein ; and 

* " Architecture in Italy from the Sixth to the Eleventh 
Century." By Kaffaelle Cattaneo, translated by the Contessa 
Curtis-Chorneley in Bernano. (Fisher Unwin. 1896.) 



concludes with an elaborate description, well illus- 
trated, of the Italo-Byzantine treasures of Venice and 
Torcello. The translation is put forth in a sumptuous 
volume, with clear type and illustrations from the 

{From "Architecture in Italy.") 

original blocks. Unfortunately the translator lias 
not taken the precaution of submitting the proofs 
to an expert in English architectural terms. The 
result is that without the Italian text to refer to 
the translation is here and there quite unintelligible. 


(From "Architecture in Italy.") 

THE natural beauties of the late .Miss Manning's 
work are receiving full justice from the manner 
in which they are being republished by Mr. John 
Nimino. The delightful " Household of Sir Tho. 
More," of last year, is followed by "Cherry and 
Violet: A Tale of the Greal Plague," with an 

appreciative introduction by the Rev. W. II. 
Hutton, the writer of " Hampton Court." With 
such a work of fiction before her as Defoe's 
"Journal of the Plague," Miss Manning showed not 
only extraordinary courage, but even a tom h of 
genius, in approaching a similar theme and dealing 
with it charmingly and successfully. No doubt sin- 
has helped herself from Pepys for the background 
of her picture; but it is her own grace and charm 

Mm .■:■; 

(By Herbert ftailtan and J. Jellicoe. From "Cherry L 

which have rendered this bunk worth preserving, lii 
to place with others of oui foremost women writers. 
The dramatic power and the deep sense of religion 
expressed iii its pages have been lefl by the illustra- 
tors, Mr. Herberl Railton 1 Mr. John Jellicoe, to 

make their own impression. Ii is rather the pic 
turesque \ iews of London and its suburbs which have 
been deall withbj the former.and the less ambitious 
sceni s which have beeu selected by the latter. 

(By J. Marker.) 



Illustrated from the Original Designs by C. WILHELM. 



WE new ballet 
Monte Cristo 
fully maintains the 
high level of accom- 
plishment that dis- 
tinguished its note- 
worthy predecessor, 
Faust, by the same 
artists — whether as 
regards felicitous 
design, grace, ami 
originality. Mr. 
Wilhelm has bestow- 
ed extraordinary 
care on the illustra- 
tion of the romance, 
and has contrived 
sundry effects of 
mise-en-sc&ne as well 

as of costume that should add substantially to his 
reputation as a colourist. Loyal assistance has been 
rendered by Mr. Harker, whose versatile and skilful 
brush has been happily employed in giving full value 
t" .Air. Wilhelm's schemes of stage decoration. The 
opening picture of Marseilles is delightful from any 
point of view, and the panoramic tableaux of the 
Chateau d'lf are admirably devised and contrasted. 
A well-observed effect of moonlight breaking througli 
storm-clouds over the sea is followed by a scene on 
the coast of the Isle of Monte Cristo, a tangled 
growth of aloes and oleanders obscuring the sun- 
scorched cliffs that guard the secret of the cave. 
The " show-scene " of the Vision of Treasure is re- 
markable for the resource displayed in exploiting a 
hackneyed theme. Masses of rock-quartz with veins 
of ruddy gold meandering through its whiteness to 
develop into fantastic trophies of wealth, crowned 
by guardian sylphs, melt imperceptibly into a vista 



of sapphire that accentuates 
the gleam of jewelled lamps 
hanging from the vaulted 

Telbin's final "set" of the 
grounds of Monte Cristo's 
mansion, near Paris, is a 


t vrS)_ ^" 

roof. These lamps, 
a guest (last scene). which serve for a 

thoroughly legiti- 
mate and effective use of the electric light, Hash 
into answering fire as the successive groups of gems 
crowd the stage. The cluster of living pearls de- 
serves all the applause it receives, and amethysts 
and turquoises prove delightful associates in colour. 
Quaint conceits abound in the dresses of this 

scene, and they 
are so Oriental 
in spirit as to 
cause regret that 

stately composi- 
tion, marred by a merceoes (last scene) 
certain timidity 

and dustiness of colour, which is in turn enhanced 
by the lavish addition of artificial flowering shrubs. 
The material in the scene might certainly be more 
effectively lighted and displayed. Dainty beyond 
description are the costumes in this picture, ob- 
viously suggestive of early summer and the time 
of rhododendrons 
a n d chest n u t 
bloom. Mr. Wil- 
helm is always 


the actual dances and musical 
measures fail to rise to the ideal 
they might well have inspired. Mr. 

AUGUSTE (last Scene) 

A GUEST (last Sceni> 

happy in dealing with subtle 
harmonies of i olour, and In re 
the peach and pansy -purples, 



cinnamon and heliotrope, lilac and 
lavender and cyclamen tunes combine 
bo produce an ensemble of singular 

Dantes deserve more than a pass- 
ing glance at their pretty nautilus- 
shell lace caps, and costumes of 

mere mention of other feature 
mendation, but we may cite the 
one in biscuit colour, steel- 
grey, and nut-brown with lily 
embroideries; and another 
symbolising the myrtle blos- 
som, in which she is sur- 
rounded by a bevy of rose 
maidens who supply a charm- 
ing colour-chord of white flushed 
with faint pink, deepening into 
apricot and emerging through 
Gloire de Dijon tones into deli- 
cate primrose and ivory. In 
the grisettes and poissardes of 
old Marseilles periwinkle-blue 
predominates with black and 
white, relieved against cigar 
brown, maize colour, and pale 
sea green. The bridesmaids, 
too, in the wedding cortege of 

charm and muted tricolour, 

refinement, emphasised 

Space does again in their 

not permit bouquets of corn- .ncroyable (last smneX 

more than a flowers, daisies, 
s for special com- and poppies, florally reproducing the national cock- 
dresses of Haidee: ade. Picturesque to a degree are the Catalan fisher 

folk, and the ingenious trans- 
position of the colours — black 
and orange, vivid green and 
pale straw — appearing in all 
their dresses, but variously con- 
trasted and arranged, has a 
capital effect. The piqiianie 
personality of the Mercedes, 
the jealous gloom of Fernand, 
the buoyancy and despair of 
Dantes are with ecpial in- 
genuity suggested in the 
characteristic sketches for their 
apparel — as may lie judged 
from the accompanying repro- 
ductions of a few of the ori- 
ginals. These, it will be seen, 
rise considerably above the 
level of mere dress-diagrams. 




LIKE the greatest artists of the Italian Renais- 
sance — Benvennto Cellini, Francia of Bologna, 
Ghirlandajo, Verrocchio, and Ghiberti — M. Lucien 
Falize seems long since to have understood not 
merely how important a place goldsmith's work 
holds among the decorative arts, but what oppor- 
tunities it 
can otter to a 
sculptor of 
his scope and 
talent. M. 

of the highest— and it may be added the most 
successful— efforts, is the Gold Cup acquired from 
the recent Salon by the Musee des Arts Deroratifs, 
in Paris, and here represented. 

To begin with, in order to appreciate more fully 
the craftsman's idea, we must say a few words as to 
the origin and 
history of this 
fine piece of 
w o r k . 1 n 
1889 M. Falize 


{Designed by Lu 

nion Central pour I'Encouragement des Arts Dtcoratifs.) 

Falize has from this point of view achieved some 
work of exceptional interest, both as to purpose 
and form. Not content with displaying remark- 
able technical skill with the tool, he has in Ins 
jewellery, his vases, cups, and crystals, designed 
forms of faultless purity, lightness, and grace: nay, 
lie lias done more; he has apprehended with intelli- 
gent subtlety the symbolical side of his art. In him 
the artist is seconded by a deeply thoughtful mind, 
conscientiously learned in the works of his fore- 
runners, and imbued with all their traditions and 
ideas. It is this element of deep erudition which 
gives his work that solidity of purpose which we 
cannot but admire. 

Of all M. Falize's achievements up to the present 
date, that in which these qualities are most clearly 
manifested, and which has been to him the outcome 

was commissioned by the Central Union for the 
Encouragement of the Decorative Arts of Paris to 
produce a piece of goldsmith's work ornamented 
with enamels on intaglio. He proposed to make a 
gold cup, out of which the Presidenl of the Society 
should drink on great occasions, thus reviving an 
old custom of the .Middle Ages. It is curious to 
read the ideas on this subject expressed by M. 
Falize in a report presented to the Union. 

"A cup," says he, "isuotacomi iplace object 

of uniform type ; il is susceptible of infinite variety. 

. . . It has its place in everj ci nstance and 

;ii every age of life, from the caudle-cup of infancj 
and the baptismal cup on which the child's name is 
engraved, from the school-boy's silver mug, to the 
magnificent cup to be presented on a silvei wedding- 
day or that made of gold for the fiftieth anniversary. 



There is the cup sacred to the master of the 
family — a custom surviving in some provinces ; he 
alone drinks from it ; and there is the priest's chalice, 
the prince's gold tankard, the covered cup presented 
to a conqueror ; there are crystal goblets engraved, 
mounted in gold and enamel, and studded with gems, 
of which examples are to be seen in the Louvre, each 
and all an excuse for fine chasing, proud devices, and 
ingenious ornamentation." 

Having decided on the shape of his cup — and 

period in which so many and various elements were 
combined. Thence we pass to the Mediaeval vine, 
with the sincere study and conscientious imitation 
of nature that we see in our Gothic monuments ; 
followed by the vine of the Renaissance, full of the 
spirit of the great Italians with their passionate 
worship of truth and beauty. The vine of the Louis 
XIV. period is the last of the series; it firings us 
back to the natural form. All this golden vegetation 
<'rows over a dark red enamel background, which 

by Luc Olivier Merson for the Cup by Lit 

observe that the form is at once simple and elegant 
— he took two leading motives for its decoration: 
the history of the vine, and the occupations of the 
several trades which are represented on the surround- 
ing fillet. The vine, represented under various as- 
pects, grows from the bottom upwards. First we 
have l be natural vine, its rather heavy mots and 
gnarled branches forming the starting point, of the 
scheme of decoration. Then the cycle begins with 
the Assyrian vine, its thick leaves and graceless form 
betraying its archaic origin ; next we sec the Greek 
vine in its purity of line and pliant grace, a freer 
growth of leaf and stem. The third in the series is 
the Roman vine — less graceful than the last, but linn 
and simple. Iii the Byzantine vine we come to a 
more complex treatment and all the eccentricity of a 

contributes greatly to throw up the elegant forms of 
the plant. 

The groups representing the trade corporations 
that have worked on matter are figured on a circular 
band of gold fifty-five millimetres (2| inches) wide, 
and are eight in number: workers in stone, earth, 
glass, metal, wood, textiles, paper, and leather; all 
drawn by M. Luc Olivier Merson. Two masons are 
carving the stone for a cathedral, while behind them 
stands the mediaeval architect in a gown of moreen, 
holding a mass of rolls and the plan of the edifice. 
Next come potters, one" throwing" a clay vase; belli ml 
him, another holds up a finished piece to examine. 
Then we see the workshop of a. stained-glass maker 
with bis glowing forge : on an easel is a window begun, 
representing an artist dressed — as all these figures 



are — in the handsome and graceful .style of the the badge of the Society, and inside there is a medal 
Renaissance. Next to these comes the smith, bent 
over the anvil and wearing a thick leathern apron ; 
by his side is a man-at-arms, 
leaning on his stout long- sword. 
Working in wood is represented 
by the carpenter and cabinet 
maker; and next comes a group 
of women spinning and working, 
into which the artist has infused 
a pleasing domestic feeling. The 
border ends witha printer.a com- 
positor, and a binder pressing his 
tool on the side of a hook. On 
the bottom of the cup is another 
incised border with translucent 
enamelling. This, also designed 
by M. Olivier Merson, repre- detail of the e 

sents M. Falize himself dressed 

in a full robe of green, wearing a cap. and by his 
side Pye, the engraver, to whom he is giving instruc- 
tions. On his knees lies an open book, and the 
assistant, in working dress, leans over him to listen. 
On the gold background we read these words: — ■ 




The knob of the cover is formed of a 


of oak, 

with the effigy of M. George Berger, the President, 

nd the names of his predecessors in office, MM. 
Guichard and Antonin Proust 
Though here again the gold- 
smith's work is admirable, it 
seems a pity that name- so 
little famous should be per- 
petuated in such a permanent 
work: but this was a necessity, 
since otherwise M. Falize would 
have missed the definite and 
express intention of the design 
Inside the bowl M. Falize 
has engraved with great deli- 
cacy and lightness some plants 
rising from the centre; a lotus, 
rr... „= t UC mm a palm, and a lily symbolise the 

lOMOFTHtCUP. r 1/ t/ 

Art of Egypt. Of ( il'eeee, and of 

France, while three Alphas at the bottom, enclosed 
in triangles, stand as emblematic of all beginnings. 
We may note the close affinity of this gold 
tankard with the cup of Saint Agnes, that marvel- 
lous relic of the fourteenth century, purchased of a 
Spanish priest by Baron 1'ichon, and now to be seen 
in the British Museum ; at the same time the com- 
parison casts no reflection on the originality of this 
work, which displays in all the vigour of energy and 
art the noble gifts of Lucien Falize. H. FRANTZ. 


IT lias been remarked 
by competent judges 

that the art of w 1- 

earving at the present 
day is below tin' stand- 
ard of many other arts 
amongst us. With a 
view of remedying this 
deficiency the Worship- 
ful < lompanies of < !ar- 
penters and of Joiners 
have organised period- 
ical exhibit ions of 
wood-carving as well 
as of wood-construction. 
At the exhibition which 
opened al the ( larpen- 
ters' Hall in the last 
week of < (ctober, to eon 
tinue until the middle 
of November, it was 
intended to make a 


(By *.» Amjus.) 

prominent feature ol 
the competition for a 
font-cover. < lonsider- 
ing that the subji 1 1 
was set and a spei ial 
prize of £l'II offered 
four years ago, it must 
be owned that the re- 
sult is disappointing. 
( inly five exhibit! 1- 
competed. Workman- 
like, though not that 
which won the highest 

place, was the solid 

eu p ola - shaped and 
carved font -cover bj 
Miss M. Cummings. 
The work of Mr. JanieE 
Smith was far more 
ambit ious, containing, 
in fact, little shml of 
I 2,000 pie< es. The 



minute inlay work of this example unquestion- 
ably showed great technical skill in execution, 
which, had it only been joined to an equal capacity 
of design, might have secured the palm among 
hundreds. The central statuette, with all its faults, 
had a quaint and archaic character well worthy of 
notice. Beyond the figures by Mr. J. Smith, there 
were few serious attempts at introducing the human 
figure in composition, and such as there were lacked 
the vigour and crispness of old work ; as anyone 
who eared to examine the two or three examples 
of mediaeval figures among the loan collection on 
view in the same room could not fail to perceive. 
By comparison, even Mr. Osmund's seated statues 
were merely neat, spiritless objects ; while Mr. 
Williamson's figures were faulty in drawing. The 
best were those by Mr. Mark Rogers, whose large 
carved clock-case won a gold medal— the highest 
award attainable. In this case, however, a sur- 
rounding inscription in Lombardic characters was 
out of keeping with the late Renaissance details of 
the rest, while some draperies, hanging below the 
dial in a sort of bag containing what looked like a 
half-concealed skull, could not be said to have a 
pleasing effect. For severity and restraint in design 
we preferred a humbler work— viz. a carved oak 
mirror-frame of early Renaissance character, which 
gained the second prize. It is impossible to com- 
mend certain strained attempts to represent, Swiss- 
like, realistic groups of dead birds or bunches of 
flowers in a manner to counterfeit nature. That 
which viewed from one aspect may seem an as- 
tounding tour de force, is from another and the more 

serious point of view a melancholy 
exhibition of wasted energy and 
misapplied ingenuity — than which, 
after all, can anything be more 
pathetic ? An unanswerable testi- 
mony — which infallibly rules out of 
court all compositions of the sort — 
is their entire want of conformity 
with architectural surroundings. 
But apart from the question whether 
or not productions of this class are 
legitimate if judged by the canons 
of art, they are open to the practical 
objection of being both fragile and 
perishable ; their untidy appearance, 
once they be broken or chipped, 
causing them to become nothing less 
than an eyesore. Neither, again, 
could anything more satisfactory be 
expected where one of the subjects 
for competition was " a panel carved 
with a trophy symbolical of sculp- 
ture." Such a theme inevitably 




results in the display, 
more or less complete, 
of the contents of a 
carver's workshop. But 
this kind of thing em- 
phatically neither does 
nor can constitute orna- 
ment. Among the loan 
objects, besides an ad- 
mirable collection of 
examples of wood- 
carving of the fifteenth 
century and succeeding 
periods, were to be 
noted r carved frame of 
< 'hinese workmanship, 
characteristic boxes 
from Xew Zealand and 
Iceland, md a fragment 
of Persi.m wall panel- 
ling. Mi Harry Hems, 
the well-kuown sculptor 
of Exeter lent a large 
frame filled with a 

choice selection of fragments of fifteenth century 
wood-carvings, gathered mainly from churches in 
the county of Devon. Valuable as such a collection 
undoubtedly is, one cannot avoid being tilled with 
regret that gems so precious should have been turn 
from their original settings, from the places they 
were fashioned ami always meant to adorn, only to 

(By Charles 

become, .1- ii were, the 
labelled exhibits in a 
museum. There was 
also a pair of bellows 
(said to have been exe- 
cuted b.r Marie Antoin- 
ette) carved to imitate 
a lyre ' and a Louis 

XVI jewel casket of 
elaborate design, with 
panels of carved pear- 
wood, Worked Up to 
such a. pitch of over- 
refinement that tile} bail 
lost all the character of 
wood, and might have 
been mistaken for em- 
bossed leather. But 
surely it is of paramount 
importance that all work 
of this craft should bear 
unequivocal e\ idem e 
both of its material and 
of its process. In a word, 
11 ought to seem to be just what it is — neither more 
nor less than carved wood. This sounds, perhaps, like 
a truism, but it is one. nevertheless, on which, jm 
from the quality of thegreatei part of the work shown 
— and that, too, in spite of the valuable object-lesson 
of many excellent specimens of old work — we esteem 
it far from superfluous to insist. 



[For "Regulations," see The M 

QUIS OF STEYNE." — 111 reply to ' IVlidoimis's " 

question, it was the fourth, not the third, Marquis of 
Hertford who was supposed to be the prototype of 
Thackeray's "Marquis of Steyue" — and of Disraeli's 
"Marquis of Monmouth" too. He was the Most 
Noble Richard Seymour Conway who was born 
1800 and died 1870; I may add. speaking with 
knowledge, that no portraits -pictures or print 1 ' - 
of him exist: at least within the ken of his 
descendants. — NAMPORT KEY. 


gallery. — Some years ago I visited the National 
Gallery expressly to see Haydon's "Raising of 
Lazarus" (as I was then reading the life of the 
painter), but was informed by the attendant that 
the picture had been " lent into the provinces." < hi 
my last visit to the Gallery, two or three months 
back, the picture bad not been returned. This was 
surely not intended by the National Gallery Loan 

igazine of A_rt for November.] 
Act of 1883 ? I believe that the above is the 
only picture by Haydon in the Gallery, and what- 
ever may be lo- defects as a painter, no man had 
a greater enthusiasm for Art, oi endeavoured to do 
more for its advancement than Haydon, and he is 
surely entitled to have one at least of his works 
in the National Gallery. Again, Benjamin W< 
pit lure of "Christ Healing the Sick has been 
absent from the Gallery for more than ten 
and 1 cannot find in the catalogue ( L8S6) that 
is any picture of this painter's on the walls. In the 
South Kensington collection there is a small study 
in oil For the centre group in the above pi 
labelled " Raising of Lazarus." It is the fash 
the day to dei ry West as an artist, bul the painter 
of " The Death of Wolfe." and President of the 
Royal Ai adeuvj , ought place in our 

national collection, which, in my view, ought to be 
representative of all our English painters. West, 
as an American bom. is highly thought of by our 




American cousins, but they look in vain for Ins 
works in our National Gallery. Will you Favour 
me with your opinion (in the forthcoming Notes and 
Queries) as to this practice of the Gallery authori- 
ties ?— " A Provincial Amatei r." 

*% We doubt if there is much likelihood of 
the two pictures named being seen again in the 
National Gallery. Conformably with the National 
Gallery Loans Act, "The liaising of Lazarus," 
by Haydon, has been fitly lent to Plymouth 
— the artist's birthplace— and West's picture of 
" i Ihrist Healing the Sid; " to Nottingham. The 
pictures, interesting and representative though 
they are, ran hardly 1"' said to be masterpieces 
on equality with the rest in the National Gallery. 
They would, in the opinion of many, be eligible 
for admission to the National Gallery of British 
Art on historical as well as on artistic -round-: 
but we think that the National Gallery authori- 
ties arc faithful to their trust in maintaining a 
very high standard in their noble institution. 
[13] SAGITTARIUS. — Is tin- statement I have occa- 
sionally seen made without authorities quoted an es- 
tablished fact, that Sagittarius, a centaur with bow and 
arrow, was the arms or badge of King Stephen : and 
if so, does it prove that old churches in England, in 
which a carving of it 
occurs, were founded 
or rebuilt during 
his reign '. On 
Plate 12, Vol. V, of 
" The Architectural 
Antiquities of ( treat 
Britain," by John 
Britten, F.S.A., arc 
engravings of two 
capitals from the 
Norman church at 
lillcv, Oxfordshire, 
one adorned with 
two centaurs fight- 
ing, and the other, 
holding a bov> in his right hand, galloping over a 
tailless lion. The capital of a column supporting 
the round, beak-headed arch of the northern porch 
of Lullington Church, Somersetshire, is sculptured 
wiili a centaur shooting with bow and arrow. In 
the laic Byzantine cathedral of Si. Martin a) Mainz, 
near the left entrance at the cast end, on the column 
of an archway leading to the vaults, is a capital 
carved with a large clumsy Sagitti ri is. This seems 
to point to the probability thai it was merely an 
adornment common to the different branches of 
Romanesque architecture, and hence of no value in 
helping to ascertain the dates of ecclesiastical build- 
ings in England -L. Beatrice Thompson. 


i% Miss Thompson is quite correct in stating 
that I he figure of Sagittarius is considered as the 
badge of Stephen. There is, however, no evidence 
even for this statement that will bear investiga- 
tion, but tradition asserts that the badges used by 
Stephen on his armour were a star-shaped flower 
of seven points and a golden sagittary on a red 
ground. The tradition must not, however, be 
taken as a guide in determining the age of build- 
ings. As such it is of no value. Neither of the 
badges mentioned even appears on Stephen's coins 
nor on bis great seal nor in contemporary manu- 
scripts, save in the border of one missal. The 
figure of the sagittary is of frequent occurrence 
in architecture. Miss Thompson will find it in 
buildings differing widely from one another. She 
will see it on Notre Lame, on Si. Troplunie, 
Aries, on Maria Miracoli, Venice, on the quaint 
tower of Albi Cathedral at Amicus, Laon, 
Alencon, Chartres, and Seville. 

[Id] A PICTURE BY A. CHALON, E.A. — Could }*0U 

tell me anything about a picture in my possession '( 
It is a portrait of a. lady in early Victorian style, 
wearing blue bonnet,a white dress with low neck and 
short sleeves, black mittens, pale blue scarf gracefully 
encircling the waist and arm, and a handsome pearl 
necklace. She has a bouquet of Mowers, and her 
right hand rests on a low bank. A sylvan scene is 
depicted, with a stream and castle in the distance- 
The figure is that of a brunette with a profusion of 
curls: she has a very languishing air, the bead re- 
clining to the right shoulder. The picture is signed 
•A. Chalon, is:;.",." Its size is :!1 inches by _■"', 
upright. — 1. W. W. (Burtou-on-Trent). 

# % In the year 1835, A. Chalon, R.A., 

exhibited in the Royal Academy the following 

portraits of ladies, any one of whom this picture 

might represent: — Mrs. (raw find, Saint Hill 

(440): Lady Agnes Byng (561); and Lady 

Augusta Paring. In the following year there 

were Lady Louisa Cavendish (466); Mis. Henry 

Pearse (475); Miss Fitz-Clarence (598); and 

Mis. Smith (836). "Without seeing the picture 

it is impossible to say of whom it may be, but 

the owner may perhaps more easily establish the 

identity of the portrait by finding out — no very 

difficult matter — the name of the castle in the 


[15] copyright law: REGISTRATION. — Referring 

to copyright law, may I ask if I am right in my 

belief thai unless a picture is registered on or before 

its first transfer all copyright is lost in that picture, 

even supposing an agreement be made between artisl 

and purchaser; and also that it cannot afterwards 

be registered by any further owner? — ( '. W. Carey 

(Curator, Loyal Hollowaj College, Eghaui). 



-s** No— in such a ease the copyright is nol 
lost. Kegistration is necessary to obtain the benefit 
of i he Act : such " benefit " being not the copyright, 
but the right to sue. According to Wmslow, the 
proprietor, before he has registered, is subject only 
to this disadvantage, that he cannot, until he has 
done so, become entitled to the benefit of the 
statute; but lie is capable of trail sferrino- his 
copyright as lie can transfer any other property 
(Tuck v. Priester, 10 Q.B. Div. 636). Accord- 
ingly, if the last assignment of copyright has 
been duly registered, the assignee may sue for in- 
fringement, although the original proprietor was 
never on the register, and prior assignments have 
not been registered. In Messrs. Graves' case 
(LI!. 4 Q.B. 715, 724; 39 L.J. Q.B 31 >, the copy- 
rights of Millais' "My First Sermon" and "My 
Second Sermon " were assigned by the painter 
to Messrs. Agnew and Folds, and by them to 
Messrs. Moore, MacQueen and Co.. by whom they 
were assigned i<> Messrs. Graves. The assignment 
oj Messrs. Moore had not been registered, but 
Messrs. < Graves fulfilled the requirement as regards 
themselves. In another ease the copyright of a 
picture by Landseer had been assigned to Elatow 
and by that dealer to Messrs. Graves, who alone 
duly registered. It was held by the Court that 
it was unnecessary that <dl the prior assignments 
should he registered, "the object of registration 
being- to enable anyone to trace the proprietorship 
of the copyright, which was sufficiently done by 
the registration of the last assignment." 
[16] book-plates. — Lady Albemarle would be 
obliged to anyone who would tell her the best place 
to have a fancy book-plate cut — not like a copper- 
plate, but more like a wood-engraving of Albert 
Diirer. — Giudenham, Attleborough. 

¥ % If Lady Albemarle wishes a design al- 
ready existing to be cut upon wood in the Diirer 
manner, there are several pupils of the Birming- 
ham School of Art who might 1"' trusted to pro- 
duce a satisfactory block. But if she requiresa 
design prepared in the " wood-cut " fashion, there 
are plenty of artists who would be able to execute 
it. In Mr. Egerton Castle's - English Book- 
plates" and Miss Labouehere's "Ladies' Book- 
plates" (both published by Messrs. Bell, 5, York- 
Street, ( 'ovent Garden), specimens are to be found 

of almost every] lorn designer of ex libris. A 

letter addressed by Lady Albemarle to the Editor 
of these volumes at the publisher's address, oi to 
the Editor of this Magazine, would put Lady 
Albemarle into communication with the artist 
whose style pleases her most. A design would 

cost from three to five guineas, oi i :, according 

to the standing of the artist. 

[L] PICTURE LOST OR STOLEN.— The original 

drawing of " Primrose-Day, by Mr. C. liii ketts, of 
which we give a small reproduction herewith, has 
mysteriously disappeared from the owner's pos 
The Editor of The Magazine of Art would be glad 
to bear from anybody who knows of its whereabouts. 


" Beaconsfield Borne Upon the Ship of State.) 


sam bough, Beverley, and SALA.— With refer- 
ence to Mr. W. J. Callcott's note in our November 
issue, we have received the following interesting 
communication from Mr. W. J. Lawrence: — "I find 
from my note-books that Beverley was engaged as 
principal scenic artist by Knowles, of the Theatre 
Royal, Manchester, in December, 1842, and his name 
crops up occasionally in connection with the more 
elaborate productions there until -111111.', 1846, when 
he provided the magnificent scenery for the revival 
of the opera of Acis "„,l Galatea. But even if he 
was nominally principal scene-painter at Mam hester 

all that time, I doubt if he Was in continual residence 

there, and must assume, upon other evidence, that 
during the later years- he only worked on the moo 
important productions. Early in 1846 (before June) 
he was principal artist under Haddon at the Prin 
cess's Theatre, London. 1 fancy he had little to do 
with Manchester in 1845, for I find that tin- principal 
artists at the Theatre lioyal in that city then were 
Channing, Bough, and Anderson Tin ;e would prob- 
ably be the resident painters, with Beverlej as special 
art ist for spectacular prodm 1 ions. His connection 
with Manchester is accounted for by the fact thai 
1,'oln 1! Roxby, his brother, w,i- ptage-inanager there. 
As for Mr. Sala, he was a-sislaul -not " labou 
io Beverlej in 1 850 and described his master and 
his method of working in lie papi 1 < 
a Pantomime, which was reprinted in Gaslight 
uml Daylight. The pantomime deall with was the 
( Ihristmas annual produced at the Piinci 1 
on Boxing N"ight, 1851, entitled Harlequin Billy 
Taylor ; 01 fi 1 0/ the 

Island oj Raritango, written I". Sala himself. 



Art in Sydney, IN spite of friendly attempts on the part 
N.S.W. 1 of the two Art Societies of Sydney to 

amalgamate, they remain separated, owing to a division of 
opinion as to the question whether artists shall be judged 
by artists or by laymen. Hence the young Society — the 
Society of Artists— opened its second annual exhibition in 
September, and the parent Society a month later. List 
year the new Society's exhibition was marked by great 
virility, and this year that quality is even more in evidence, 
for the Committee has enlarged its boundaries by inviting 
exhibitors from all the other Australian colonies. The 
Hanging Committee was inexorable in maintaining a 
certain standard. Portraiture is largely represented ; of 
figure-paintings and allegorical subjects there is little or 
none. Still-life is hardly in evidence. But there is much 
in land and seascape illustrative of the life of Australia. 
Altogether the exhibition is distinctly good, and may lie 
regarded as marking a mile-stone in the progress of inter- 
colonial art. Mr. J. Long- 
staff, the first Victorian 
artist to benefit by the Tra- 
velling Scholarship open to 
Victorian artists, has won 
the coveted distinction of 
sending in the picture of the 
year. A "Lady in Black" 
is a fine, life-like, full-length 
study, the speaking face and 
nervous hands being paint- 
ed with masterly strength. 
( 'lose by hangs a portrait of 
the Jate Edward Ogilvie by 
Mr. Tom Roberts, which is 
a worthy rival, and quite 
the best thing this artist 
has ever done. As this ex- 
hibition is essentially repre- 
.,eiitati\e ,,l young and rising 
artists, special mention musl 
be made of Mr. F. M< ( Iub- 
i:in, Miss I'. A. Fuller, 
and Miss ALICE Mcskett, 
all of whom have sent con- 
tributions ill oils or pastels ( I Qhuar.m Mansueti. 
from Pai IS, « here I hey are 

studying. The trustees of 

the Xati d Gallery have purchased six pictures 

Iu.iNowoKTifs " Bust of an Abori ;ina] female, 

exhibiti at a total cost of a little over E230, 

Mr. Longst w i 's " Lady in Black," Mr. I >. 
"A Summer Evening,'' Mr. SlD Long's " Midda; 
Lambert's "Bush Idyll," Mr. B. E, Minns's "Studj of 









' M 

■. (1 

an Aboriginal Female," and Mr. ARTurr, Streeton's "Sur- 
veyor's Camp" — the two last being water-colours. The Art 
Society's exhibition lacks any one picture of transcendent 
merit or interest. At the same time it might also be called, 
the Piguenit exhibition, so much does this artist dominate 
the whole with his half-dozen pictures, on account of their 
great merit and exquisite finish. Having no connection 
with the Impressionist school, he paints our atmosphere 
by land and sea to the entire satisfaction of all beholders. 
Next in order come Mr. W. Lister Lister, who has painted 
sea pieces and one landscape, and Mr. Gordon Coutts, who 
is as exclusively a portrait-painter. It says much for the 
freedom of artistic culture that the lesser artists, who are 
more or less pupils of these men, have been able to think 
and paint for themselves bits of the everyday life of Aus- 
tralia. The trustees of the National Gallery were some 
time in making their decision, for while there is no picture 
which stands out as the picture of the year, there are many 
of a high average merit. 
The choice at last fell on 
Mr. Piguenit's "Southern 
Headland," Mr. Gordon 
CoUTTs's "Waiting," Mr. 
Albert J. Hanson's water- 
colour, "The Close of Day," 
"Maiden Meditation Fancy 
Free;" Miss Mary Stod- 
Dard's " Queenie," a mag- 
nificent tigress treated with 
a fidelity to animal life that 
is remarkable in a girl not 
yet out of her teens ; and 
Mi. .1. Wolinski's clever 
charcoal studies. Sculpture 
is not strong, though Signor 
Simonettj has a speaking 
likeness of A. P>. Paterson 
("The Man from Snowy 
River") : Miss Theo. Cowan, 
a tine veiled bust of an 
imaginative subject, "The 
Ve I id Moon like 1 >iau's 
Kiss," which attains its 
-i b-j the N,,tm„ r ,i cilery, No. 1,178, end without trickery ; M IS. 
Moore -Jones, a bronze 
head of Sir Frederick 
Darley, which is too severely judicial tor the genial Chief 
Justice, and might pass for a Roman Dictator. Our 
illustration represents the front elevation of the proposed 
new National ( lallerv for Sydney, which is to be laiill during 
the next three years,, I a cosl of 612,000. The building is 
designed by .Mr. Vernon, the Government architect. 



The first Report of the Trustees of the 

reached us. It shows that the collection 
of works under their control now consists of twenty-four 

chbold. Bequeathed to the Nai 

Reynolds, Bart. No. 7,477, Room XX ) 

! STONE ! 

/ Gallery bj Sir John Russell 

pictures— mostly works in black and white— one marble 
bust, twenty-seven pieces of Doulton ware, and numerous 
engravings and volumes, the property of the gallery. Be- 
sides these they have on loan a goodly number of pictures 
and engravings. The sum of £-500 has been placed at the 
disposal of the trustees for the purchase of works of art, 
£400 of which was sent to London for acquiring pictures 
by European artists. It is an 
encouraging fact that 20,000 per- 
sons have visited the gallery in 
Brisbane since its formation in 
March, 1895. 

_....,. The Corporation 
Exhibitions. . , -A , -i ... 

Autumn Exhibition 

at Liverpool enters on its second 
quarter-century this year under 
changed conditions. Alderman 
I lath bone is dead, and is suc- 
ceeded by Councillor John Lea 
as chairman of the Arts Sub- 
committee of the Council. This 
year has not been fertile in great 
pictures, and it would scarcely 
have been to Mr. Lea's discredit 
if the exhibition had been below 
average : he has scored a triumph 
by getting together a collection 
which is generally allowed to be 
one of the best ever seen in the 
Walker Art Gallery. The pro- 
fessional hangers were Mr. W. L. 
Wyllie, A.B.A., Mr. J, J. Shannon, 
and Mr. A. E. Brockbank, of the 
Liverpool Academy. Their woi k 
has been very well done, and by 
boldly abolishing the top row 
and substituting a frieze "I dra 
pery, Mr. Lea has secured a mosl 
pleasant general effect. About 
2,800 works of arl were senl in, ol 
which only 1,238 an- exhibited. 
These include about 500 watei 

colours and 77 pieces of sculpture and pottery. The late 

President's "The Empty Cage" has a place "t honour. 

The water-colour collection is a very strong one, and the 

sculpture includes such works as Mr. Thoenyi roft's "Joy 

of Lite," and M. Khnopff's "Vivien." Mr. Chas. .1. 

Allen contributes a successful posthumous bust of the 

late Mr. Rathbone. 

The autumn exhibition of the Nottingham Art Mu- 
seum takes the form of a special loan collection. Mr. G. 
Harry Wallis, F.S.A., has been successful in obtaining 
many important works by contemporary English paint rs. 
In conjunction with this exhibition Sir Charles Sei le) 
Bart., has placed at the disposal of the Art Museum 
Committee an important collection of draw i i , u ~ in water- 
colours, including a large number of beautiful drawings 
of Venice by Mr. Birket Foster, R.W.S. To tie I !or- 
poration of Birmingham the Committee is indebted for 
the loan o( the whole of the collection of water-colour 
paintings ami important works in oils from the City 
Arl Gallery. 

In the Victoria Institute, Worcester now possesses a 

Corporation Art Gallery, and its first exhibition was 

recently opened. Over two hundred works have been 

brought together, among the most noteworthy of which 

are "Jessica," by Mr. Luke Fildes, R.A. ; " Fifty Years 

After "and " Autumn," by Mr. Frank Bramley, A.R.A. ; 

''Season of Mist and Fruitfulness," by Mr. David Murray, 

A. R.A. ; and "Ramilies," by Mr. Ernest Crofts, R.A. 

A view is given on page 175 of the facade of the admirable 

new building, of which Messrs. J. W. Simpson and E.J. 

Milner-Ali.en are the architects. 

Exeter, to.., has a new Art Gallery, iii which is housed 




the collection of pictures belonging to the Corporation. 
Among the most noteworthy of these is a portrait of 
Napoleon, l>y David, which we reproduce, and a portrait 
of "William Warmond, Burgomaster of Leyden," rather 
doubtfully attributed to Franz Hals. Most of the other 
works are by the late William Widgery, an artist of 


local repute, but it is hoped that these will serve as a 
nucleus for a collection of representative works by modern 
artists, as the trustees have a fund the interest of which is 
to be devoted every third year to the purchase of a work of 
art. One of Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie's pictures, " Moor- 
land and Meadow,'' was bought last year. 

The Oxford Art Society's annual exhibition is well up to 
its average, Prof. Herkomer, B.A., being the most notable 
contributor : lie has, however, only sent one small picture. 
"The Home Decorator." Mr. George Carline exhibits 
several of his charming wildflower pieces : and among 
numerous other contributors are Mr. Carleton Grant, 
R.B.A., Mr. Reginald Carter, Mr. E. Gould Smith, 
R.B.A., and .Mr. Walter S. S. Tyrkwhitt. 

At the ('ity Ail Gallery, Leeds, a large collection of 
engravings of Tdrner's work, with some of his original 
drawings and pictures, arc mi view. The former section 
exhaustively represents the subject, and altogether it lias 
proved an interesting and successful exhibition. 

English humorous art is agaii exhibition — this time 

at the Fine Art Society's. Commencing with examples by 
Hogartfi, tin- drawings are arranged chronologically, end- 
ing with work by Mi- M \x Beerbohm, the series including 
pecimens of work by nearly all the best humorous artists 
"I tli'' intervening years. A large number of drawings by 
the late Fred Barnard share a room with a collection of 
charming lithographs of the Alhambra by Mr. Joseph 

Pennell. In the third room Mr. A. E. Emslie, A.K.W.S., 
has eighty pretty water-colour drawings of rustic scenes, 
catalogued under the title "From Youth to Age." 

At the Japanese Gallery there is an exhibition of 
works by Watanabe Seitei and Kwason. This is the 
second appearance of the former artist here with his 
beautiful water-colour drawings of birds, 
fishes, and flowers. Characteristically de- 
corative in treatment, they are delightful 
in colour and execution. The "Branch of 
Persimmon Fruit,'' which we reproduce, 
is one of the best of them, both for colour- 
ing and decorative arrangement. Kwa- 
son's work is equally interesting, except 
in nne or two drawings in which he 
has attempted realistic representations of 
animals. There are also in the gallery 
several cases of Chinese ceramic and 
enamel work. 

It should afford considerable 
gratification to Professor Buskin 
to contemplate every new edition of his 
works that is given forth, in unbroken 
sequence, from the press. The significance 
of this sign of the artistic times can hardly 
be over- rated. It means that the crusade 
that has so long been waged against the 
great writer, mainly by Mr. Whistler and 
his disciples, has had little weight with 
the general public, who care for art as the 
expression of something more than plea- 
sure sensuous to the eye; it means that 
the "teaching" of the Master has sunk 
too deep into the hearts of the people to 
be easily eradicated by the counter-cry of 
Art for Art. In the famous series of "Fors 
Clavigi ra," of which we have received the 
first two volumes of the excellent reprint, 
we have Buskin at his best and in his 
most characteristic mood. We have him, 
primarily, as the art-critic ; we have him as the moralist, 
as the political economist, and as most things besides ; 
and we have him, too, as the humorist— in which character 
he has, perhaps, acquired more disciples than through any 
other of his gifts ; so true is it, as Carlyle showed, that no 
great writer ever swayed men's thoughts— Schiller alone ex- 
cepted — without the saving virtue of humour. Few topics 
"(' Luskin. ; teachings, Cw of his more cardinal opinions, 
but are touched on in these 
delightful pages. Refreshing, 
too, and at all times suggestive, 
and in all respects worthy of the 
enthusiastic criticism passed on 
them by the Sage of Chelsea 
himself, whose approval was 
not often to be obtained of any 
contemporary philosopher what- 
soever. It is little that need 
here be said in praise of these 
extraordinary volumes, which 
now, for the first time, are placed 
in a collected form within the 
reach of the general reader. That this re-issue will be 
properly appreciated as it deserves it is impossible to 
doubt. The volumes are worthily produced, and tlievaiied 
illustrations are adequate, and Mr. COLLINGWOOD may be 
congratulated on the result of his editorial labours. \\ s 

lf>. sig / by Mr. Waller Crane 



have pleasure in reproducing the imprint of the publisher, 
Mr. George Allen, for the Mike of its beauty. It repre- 
sents St. George, England's patron saint, and Mr. Ruskin's, 
and was designed by Mr. Walter Crane. 

Perhaps few men know more about making drawings 
for " Tlu Illustration of 
Books " f Fisher Unwin) 
than Mr. I'knnell. and 
if he could have re- 
stricted himself to talk- 
in- to the students of 
the Slade School about 
the things he has ex- 
perience of, the book 
containing those talks 
would have been much 
more useful than it is 
likely to be. When Mr. 
Pennell deals with the 
practical work of the 
making of illustrations 
he gives his students 

many good useful hint-. 

He is not always ac- A branch of p 

CUrate in his statement-, (From .< Water-Colmir Dm 

as we shall presently 

show, and some of the despised publishers or their editors 
could tell Mr. Pennell a thing or two which he does not 
yet know, because they have a much larger experience of 
the reproduction of drawings than he. But apart from this 

it is very much to 
be regretted that 
have published a 
book so much of 
which is foolish 
and offensive and 
in the very worst 
taste. Mr. Pennell 
gives his students 
to understand that 
the illustrator is a 
kind of Christian 
martyr living and 
working in the 
midst of enemies. 
The publisher, the 
ait-editor, the en- 
graver, the pro 
cess-block maker, 
the printer, are all 
combined to rob 
him. to insult him, 
to crush out of 
him all his genius 
if he lias any, to 
force out of him 
bad «oik for little 

pay, and to ruin 

even that in its 
reproduction, and 

FLIGHT OF A DUCK. tllL'H to tllli Oil 

(From a Wat„-Colour Drawing l> 9 » his pool' head the 

responsibilitj for 
all their failures. And tin- general impression produced 
on the reader by the repetition of Till— kind of talk is 
that in Mr. Pennell's judgmenl proprietor ami editor are 

ignorant and grasping sweaters, that engravers and process 
block makers are ignorant and indolent men, neithei 
understanding their business nor taking interest in their 
work, and who are only concerned in having drawings 
made in a manner that gives them least tr< uble to repro 
duce. At the same time 
it i- r\ idi iii from othi r 
passages in the 1" ok 
that Mr. Pennell know- 
that not only do they 
understand and take 
great interest in theii 
work, luit that generallj 
they are men oi 
ability who are ready 
and desirous to make 
the best oi every man's 
wink. A reference to 
one or two details is 

necessary. Mr. Pennell, 

in referring to the gela 
tine process for repro- 
ducing line drawings, 

RSIMMON FRUIT. saVS (] I. 74 ) I " TllC pl'O- 

mg by Watanube Seitei > re.-.- IS only Used, I be 

lieve, by one firm. The 

result- arc good, but no better than the others." Now this 

process is twice as costlj at least as the ordinary line 
process, and yet for certain work publishers these sweal 
ing, grasping creatures who only think of cheapness— will 


have their drawings re] luced bj thi swelled gelatine 

I :ess and pay for it. Can it be that it is " no bettei than 

the other ' Mr. Pennell may think it is ig 

that leads them to throw awnj their money, bul if he will 



take the trouble to < 
than he has yet done 
be done well by J law 

(From a Photograph by A. 


mi \ his uivesl igations a little fur) lier 

he will find that certain thing i can 

mi's swelled gelatine process that the 

other processes 

will (In but badly 

or not at all. Mr. 
Pennell state- in 
his preface that 
these lectures are 
.1 serious essay to- 
wards a certain 
end. There are 
people both in his 
own country and 
here who think 
that it is a mis- 
take ever to take 
Mr. Pennell quite 
seriously, and il is 
a little difficult to 
understand how a 
serious man, ad- 
dressing students 
who have to make 
their living in 
conjunction with 
publishers and editors and engravers, should think it a 
desirable equipment for them to start on their course with 
such foolish notions of them as lie here sets forth. It 
may be that Mr. Pennell did not intend all lie has said to 
be taken seriously, in which case lie would have been wiser 
to have confined it to the familiarity of the class-room 
and not to have reproduced it in permanent form. 

The "Index to tlw Periodicals of 1895" is worthy of its 
predecessors. To the merits of this cyclopaedia of period- 
ical literature we have before borne cordial witness, so that 
we have but little to add in praise of this indispens- 
able publication. Never has the art of the indexer 
been more exhaustively or more intelligently exer- 
cised. Every section appears to be the work of an 
expert ; complete yet not overloaded ; as necessary 
to writers and leaders as any standard work you 
may choose to name. The subject of art occupies 
seven columns, carefully subdivided and cross- 
indexed, and references made, for example, to not 
fewer than to some -Jiln articles on artists alone, 
without any detectable error. It is an admirable 
compilation, which should be accorded the support 
of tic public, not only by reason of its intrinsic 
merit-, but because the expense it entails on its 
publishers renders its issue commercially unprofit- 
able. The discontinuation of such a work we 
should regard as a catastrophe. 

One of the best of the Christmas books is a 
delightfully written fairy story by Miss Siikila E. 
Hi; mm:, entitled " To Tell the King the Sky is 
Falling" (Blackie and Sons, Limited, London). 
Miss Axice Woodward has supplied a large num- 
ber of clever illustrations which give an additional 
charm to the volume and should ensure for it a 
gri .'i ind well-deserved success. 

Such details of art life in Paris as may be neces- 
sary to the intending student or to others curious in such 
matters are presented in the 1896-7 edition of the "Anglo 
American Annual." Art-student life in Paris, the principal 
-tui la i and academies receiving pupils, a list of the English 

speaking artists and ait students in the city, are given at 
some length. We constantly receive inquiries from corre- 
spondents desirous for information on these points ; we can- 
not do better than to refer them generally to this useful 

We have received from the Great Eastern Railway 
Companya copy of their " Tourists' Guidi in tin Continent," 
by .Mr. Percy Lindlev, a little book likely to be useful to 
intending holiday-takers. Its illustrations are temptingly 
suggestive to the lover of tin- picturesque. 

Mr. Walter Crane has issued through the Twentieth 
Century Press a small collection of his Socialist cartoons 
which have been made at intervals during the past ten 
years. They vary very much in quality, the best of them 
without doubt being "The Triumph of Labour," which 
was designed to commemorate the International Labour 
Day, May 1st, 1891. 

In connection with our notice of the new 
ballet on p. Hi:i we publish a portrait of the 
designer, Mr. C. Wii.hklm. 

Through a slip of the pen we referred to William 
Morris's "Dream of John Pall" as a "poetical" work. 
We thank our correspondents who have called attention 
to the matter. 

The Bohemian artist M. Vaclav Bkozik has been 
elected foreign member of the Societe di s Artistes Fiancais 
in succession to the late Sir John E. Millais. 

Mr. F. W. W. Topham lias been elected a member of the 
Royal Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, and Professor 
Hans Vox Bartels an honorary member. The following 
have been elected members of the Royal Society of British 


Fp.ank Dickson, J. Fitz-Maeshall, Hain-Friswell, 
Trk.vor Haddon, Philip H. Newman, Tom Robertson, 
and T. P. M. Sheaed. 

Mr. Beams, B.W.S., has died at the age of seventy-two. 


{Designed by Louis J. Rhead.) 

Born at Exeter, he studied at the Academy Schools and 
became a contributor to the Academy exhibitions. He had 
several drawings at the Old Water Colour Society's winter 
exhibition last ye ir. 



opyright 1893 by Photograph i sc 


. mission of t h . lographic C?J 




IF anything were needed to prove the catholicity 
of Mr. Cuthbert Quilter's taste in art, and 
illustrate the comprehensiveness of his sympathies 
with painters' aims, the reproductions, for liberty to 
include which in these notes all readers are bound 
to join their thanks with mine, and the multiform 
charms of the pictures in question here, are more 
than sufficient for both these purposes. The six 
examples before us include three world-renowned 
masterpieces, as well as Mr. Leader's brilliant and 
populai chef-d'ceuvn ; one of the most distinguished 
of John Linnell's masculine and original poems in 
English landscape, a really noble piece, and such as 
the most vigorous old masters might be proud of; 
tnd, lastly, a large and highly characteristic quasi- 

work in his truest aspect, and in technical matters 
more like Ins illustrious forerunner than the radical 
differences of their times si nurd to allow possible. 
In whatever way the pathetic, devout, and passionate 
turn of each artist's mind manifested itself, the 
likeness between them is strikingly close. This 
similarity is obvious when we recognise in the 
modern master's piece the intense realism of Diirer, 
his indomitable industry, his achievement of the 
effect of light in the open, the glowing and some- 
what isolated local colours of Ins pictures, as, for 
example, the stupendous "Adoration of the Trinity," 
wliicli is among the wonders of Vienna, an 

treating that glorj of light which was I Albert's 

greatest subjects — quite incomparable. The English- 

Spanish figure picture by John Phillip, the latest of man's turn for allegorising, using the most obvious 

all his more ambitious productions. of types, is more strongly mailed in "The Scape- 

[f one of the masterpieces thus referred I" is goat " than in anj othei of his works, and while 

more important, fresh, and virile than its com- Durer's genius penetrated much cl per into sym- 

panions, that is undoubtedly "The Scapegoat of bolical mysteries than Mr. Hunt (his"Melem 

.Air. Holman Hunt. a. work which I am fai from and'Teast of the Rose Garland to wit), there is 

al in accepting as not onlj a. leading member of not a little that i I lil li the inspiration as 

i lie epoch-marking class of paintings this century 
is likely to boast of, 1ml in some respects the best 
of the artist's output. The Albert Diirer of out age, 
Mr. Hunt, appeared by means of this extraordinary 


well as 111 the !' chnique of .Mr. Quilter's picture, 

which I do not In hink worth half-a-dozen 
- Lights of the World" 

•■ The Si .ij" goat ■.. 1 « hole, 1 he 



legitimate and complete outcome of these rather 
stringent and self-compelling principles which in- 
duced the artist to "realise" (there is no better 
term) one of the symbolic sacrifices of the < >ld 

illustrations, fanciful and graceful exceedingly. The 
stupidity of Bottom is unexceptionable; the robust 
elves, Moth and Mustard Seed, the fluffy-furred hares 
as white as snow with rubies for eyes — nay, the 

the Painting by Sir 

wdseer, R.A. By Permission of Me: 

Testament. Nothing was to be left to the imagi- 
nation of the spectators of a picture by Mr. Hunt, 
who, with all his allegorising, is the most exacting 
of realisers. The more ancient and gross antetype 
lit' the Great Sacrifice must needs he painted not 
only "to a hair,'' but in the very uttermost of 
those desert regions to which the goat of actuality 
might have wandered when "driven forth into the 
wilderness," a red fillet being twined with his horns, 
whirl i, should the poor brute be afterwards discovered, 
and the fillet found to be bleached white, was con- 
sidered as a sign that the vicarious atonement was 
accepted. The landscape, with the mountains of 
Edom glowing in the sunset's rose and purple, the 
Dead Sea at Oosdom and its pallid water, were 
painted on the spot; at Jerusalem, the goat himself 
was finished from sketches made mi the salt-in- 
crusted margin of the lake. Painted in 1854, and 
brought tu England in 1855, "The Scapegoat" was 
.sold to the late Mr. Windus, of Tottenham, for 
£420, and exhibited at the Academy in 1856, 
N... 398. 

■ Titania and Bottom," popularly known as 
"Mid mi, iin i Night's Dream," one of Landseer's 
charming pictures, is in some respects among 
the most beautiful ami modern of Shakespearean 

fantastically tail' Ariel, an- all we could desire ; exqui- 
site is the painting of Titania's semi-diaphanous robe 
starred with gold ; in her face, however, there is no 
passion Oberon need have troubled himself about. 
All the world was young when, in 1850, Sir Edwin 
painted this work for Sir Isambard Brunei's Shake- 
speare Gallery; it was at the Academy in 1851, very 
admirably engraved by S. Cousins, and at the Brunei 
sale in 1860 was sold I'm- £2,940 (an enormous price 
for those days) to Earl Brownlow, in whose possessioir 
it remained at Ashridge Park till Mr. Agnew bought 
it : from him it passed to Mr. Quilter. Unlike " Bolton 
Abbey" and some other Landseers, "Titania and 
Bottom" is in excellent condition.* 

The third of our masterpieces is Millais' 
"Murthly Moss," one of the capital landscapes of 
that most capable of landscape painters. Worthy to 
be ranked with his " < >vcr the Hills and Far Away,'' 
in' "Chill October," it represents Carnleeth Moss, 
Birnam, late in a September afternoon, when pale 
and declining daylight struggles to penetrate the 
thin grey clouds which almost completely mask the 
sky: tins light is reflected by the pools of the 

■ Additional interest belongs i" lliis work by ilie fact that 
it was while painting it that the balance el' the great painter's 
mind, at that time in jeopardy, was restored.— Ed. 



foreground, and they are so calm that the images 
of the rushes and flags do not move .'it all. A tract 
of meadow marks the mid-distance, and is shut in by 
a dark belt of pines, some of whose stems are touched 
by a pallid golden gleam, the only one in the 
picture; beyond the pines the grey sides of a range 
of hills are indistinctly seen in that wannish lkdit, 
the poetry of which no one appreciated more truly 
or painted more tenderly than Millais. Il may be 
railed a picture of silence and silvery, almost shadow- 
less, light, Tainted in 1887, " Murthly .Moss" was 
No. 292 at the Academy in tin' next year, h is 
one of the most, powerful, soft, ami harmonious of 
modern landscapes: as a Millais quite a masterpiece. 
Inspired by imagination of a very noble strain, rest- 
ful, solemn, and serene, the pathos of this example 
is of the first order, and grows upon us while we 
look, so that thus profoundly touched, the spectator 
almost forgets to marvel at the completeness of its 
every detail, its innumerable minuthe, and their 
perfect unison. Nor is the coloration of "Murthly 
Moss" less a work of art than its painting per se ; 

With the utmost virility, rusticity, and veracity 
Linnell painted "On Summer Eve by Haunted 
Stream," in a mood which never tails to remind me 
of Samuel Palmer's inspire. I ail. It is very happy 
indeed in that way, and yet it is as true a Linnell as 
it can be, and tit to hold its own with any modern 
landscape where the poetry of nature is represented 
in art and by means of art, and does not appeal to 
letters— i.e., to a totally different order of culture — 
for its honours, still less for its interpretation. In 
an age of scholasticism such as ours, it has almost 
gone out of mind that art, as a means of culture 
and power in dealing with beauty, is not less potent 
than literature, is not a plaything, nor the hand- 
maiden of letters, but exists in its own right. In 
such pictures as "Murthly Moss." and that which 
is now before us, we find no "illustrations" of 
thoughts which could equally well express them- 
selves by literary means. What, we find is some- 
thing more subtle, searching, serious, and true, than 
letters can attain. Of course, literature is a mode 
of culture, but. it is not the only one; at least the 

its simple yet majestic composition conforms to the Greeks, whose pedagogues in thought 

intense tranquillity of the scene, and the painter's so. The autumnal fervours of a Kentish laid i tpi 

impressive mood is immortalised in the manner suited the taste of Linnell in his Claude-like i d, 

before us. which is much the same i thai of Samuel Palmer; 



accordingly, he depicted with unusual force of tunc 
and wealth of colour the vista of a devious stream 
in its rocky lied, as it. is seen between densely- 
wooded banks, and from the road which is flanked 
l>\ groups of oaks anil ash-trees. A noble harmony 
obtains between tin- motives of the picture, its 
sentiment of strength seeking repose after the 
efforts, splendours, and triumphs of the fervid day, 
and the scene itself, as well as the artistic treat- 
ment, ami style of the painting. 

the levelling nature of engraving, ampler justice 
is done here in tin- less noble picture, than to the 
masterpieces, it is nut difficult to allow for the dis- 
advantages of the latter two, which, when the 
originals are studied, stand apart. "Departing Day" 
represents, I believe, a very charming reach of the 
Severn. It is a luminous and effective work, the 
character of which adapts it. fur translation into 
black and white. 

The last of the illustrations now in view repre- 



The extreme obviousness of every element con- 
stituting Mr. Leader's attractive and ambitious 
landscape of "Departing Day" qualify tint by no 
means unjustly admired work fur its important func- 
tion; that, is, as I take it, these easily lead features 
arc fitted to evoke fur nature and the higher ait 
(which after all is a sort of nature worship) certain 
emotions and thoughts in usually insusceptible 
minds, and tn make the dull obseryant, susceptible, 
and sympathetic, and thus lead them, so to say, 
I the levels of Millais and Linnell. It is nut 
an ignoble function which accomplishes <>r should 
accompli h so much as this. Although, owing to 

sents John Phillip's thoroughly characteristic and 
large painting of "Eelic Sellers," a scene at the 
door of the Cathedral of Seville. It is the latest 
of the works of that artist — one, indeed, which 
he left partly unfinished (like that at the Scottish 
National Gallery), although it is among those to 
which he devoted much study since 1861, when 
he began it at Seville. It comprises some of his 
astonishing!) facile workmanship; thus the figure of 
the Mind beggar's dog, conspicuous in the foreground 
of the illustration, is as expressive, faithful, and 
energetic as Landseer himself could have made a 
dues portrait to he, and yet it is the outcome of a 


1 83 

few forthright and swifl touches with a sweeping 
brush, and was not worked out when fate stayed for 
ever the accomplished hand to whose skill we owe 
the picture before us, "La Gloria," "A Chat round 
the Brasero," and a dozen excellenl pieces of diverse 
aims and sympathies. Dying February 27, L867, 
the artist left a name which no one would willingly 
let die, and, as an eminent Academician, his career 

mantle is looking at so intently. Mr. Cuthbert 
Quilter exhibited " Eelic Sellers" as No. I in the 
Academy in the winter of 1895. The picture is full 
of power, and is paiuted with a firmer and 
massive touch than is usual with Phillip; his inven- 
tion was nevi i stronger, nor his insight into character 
more keen ami sympathetic, than when he I 
this large picture more than thirty years ago. 

(From the Painting luj John Phillip, R.A.) 

ended very differently from that of liis beginning 
as a house-painter's apprentice ami colour-grinder 
of Aberdeen, who, in 1834, failing other means of 
reaching London, became a stowaway on board '/'. ■ 
Manly, a trading brig, and, in peril of the rope's end, 
was sel to re-paint the vessel's figure-head. Aitei 
which, when in the Thames, the lad was kepi two 
whole days at the occupation of ballast-lifting, 

ere the skipper would allow him to go ash 

The influence of Velazquez, with a dash of Titian, 
manifesting itself in painting from such models as 
Murillo loved, is distinct in "Eelic Sellers." The 
theme of this work reminds us of a tradition to the 
effect that the last-named Sevillian master himself 
was wont to make for sale to the peasants who 
thronged to the city's markets \«'ti\< i pictures such 
as the stalwart herdsman before us in the striped 

Having already discussed !•'. Walker's capital 
achievement, " The Bathers," if is right I" mention 
in this place that Mr. Cuthberl Quilter has a small 
sketch or version of this artist's less happj i 
called •■ Wayfan ■ i ing a road 

by the side of a thicket. I >n a similar ace,, nut. 
having put before the reader some notes on Mr. 
Briton Riviere's very fine and telling, romantic and 

The Magician's I rway," I ought 

to add thai among om !i quisi- 
tions is a cartoon of the design of "Actreon and 
his Dogs" by the same painter. With the last- 
named scholarly and is Sir 
Edward Poynter's small, solid, and classical pic- 
ture, the colorati I' which n ise in rose 

and white. Si i Wall," wliicli was before 

the public a fev ] 



By ALEX. FISHER. Illustrated 


Ob' the aiicienl history of the goldsmith's art, 
from Bezaleel and Aholiab who made the 
golden vessels of the Tabernacle under the Divine 
direction of Moses, the ark', the mercy-seat, the 
ahai of incense, and the seven-branched candlestick ; 
of the goldsmiths who worked for Solomon in all 
his glory, and of the fabulous amount of gold at 
his or their disposal; of the Egyptian workers in 
the precious metal : how these were conversant 
with almosl every method known to the modern 

ami as everyone knows this is the reason that 
it is used so largely to protect other metals, such 
as silver and copper, from oxidation. Again, it 
is extremely malleable and ductile, so that it can 
be hammered or rolled to an incredible degree of 
thinness — it being possible to reduce it to the 

LM ,,,' ,th part of an inch, or beaten into any 

shape. It may be drawn into wire as fine as a 
hair. It may be soldered, as witness the marvellous 
productions by the (heck and Etruscan workman, 

7* t 


goldsmith; how with far surpassing skill the Greeks 
still remain the besl goldsmiths in many respects 
that have ever lived: how they, in the very 
highest period of Grecian art, with Phidias at 
its head, could with the greatest beauty of design 
and perfect manipulation produce works worthy 
of such an age as the few small pieces that re- 
main to us testify — of all this has not much been 
well and worthily written \ But rather let us 
study for a few moments what is to be done, and 
what can be done, in the most beautiful metal 
that is found in the world. 

To do this we must first consider the properties 
of gold ami its fitness as a metal to be used in art. 
Above all other qualities it possesses is its colour. 
The i is of all time have sung its praises, re- 
ferring to the light of the morning and evening 
as golden. Angels in pictorial art have nimbi of 
The very word "gold" at once suggests the 
most gorgeous thine- in nature, and by analogy the 
happiest period of man's existence is spoken of as 
ti age." The next high quality it possesses 
ii it tarnish in either air or wate] : 

who could cover a surface with such minute 
grains of gold as to be almost beyond the power 
of ordinary vision. It may be cast and riveted 
and any kind of surface, from the rough to 
highest possible polish, given to it. It can also be 
hardened and toughened by alloys: and although 
it loses somewhat its absolutely supreme colour, 
yet in such slight degree, where little alloy is 
used, that what it gains in hardness and therefore 
in utility both to the goldsmith and the wearer 
more than compensates for this very slight loss. 
Then last, hut not least by any means, it is the 
besl of all metals upon which to enamel — of which 
I shall have somewhat to say on a future occasion 
in this Magazine. So that here we have a metal 
which, with a knowledge and practice necessary to 
use it, lends itself in the hands of an artist to 
the expression of all the beauty he may desire. 

Goldsmithery is, above all, the art which should 
have its own design. And yet a great number of 
pieces of goldsmith's work in the Renaissance — 
French and German — and this century particu- 
larly, are nothing more than minute reproductions 



of architecture and woodwork. The moulding 
columns, pilasters, the tracery, and carvings wen 
originally either designed for stone or u I am 


probably the designer was either a person who 
knew nothing about the material, or a gold- 
smith who knew nothing about design. The 
real goldsmith, to my mind, is an artist who 
is most intimately acquainted with the methods 
of working gold, so that the properties of the 
metal may govern as well as help his design. 
For ii is not a matter whether a design can 

or cannot I xecuted in gold, but whether 

it is mosl suitable to its manipulation, and 
shall be the one which will display the mate- 
rial in all its loveliness. In return il is bound 
In show the design al its best. And line, 
before I go further, perhaps ii would be of 
interesl to the general reader and of some 
use to the student, were I to describe some 
nf the processes which air employed in the 
making nf gold objects. 

Pure gold, or, as it is termed amongst gold- 
smiths, "fine gold," is tun -nit I'm general use, 
and therefore an addition of copper or silver 
or lmtli — which is called alloy when used For 
tin's purpose — is made to strengthen it. The 
amount of alloy employed lias given rise in 
tin- practice of stamping all gold artii les 
with tin' number of the carat. Tim caral 


means the twenty-fourth part of a unit, whethei 
tin' unit consisl i I an ounce, pound, or any ol In i 
weight, so that when we say twenty-two caral we 
mean twenty-two parts of tin.' gold and two parts 
ul' alloy. Tin' alloy "!' copper makes gold redder, 
and that of silver yellower. The difference i- very 
obvious between our coinage and that nf Australia. 
At one time the gold coinage nf tins country — in the 
reign nf Henry III. — was nf fine gold. In Hem-) 
VIII. s time it was made twenty-two. There have 
been several changes in the proportions since that 
time, hut we have come hark In that standard: 
and all English gold ruins are twenty-two carat. 
"When they leave the mint they are intrinsically 
worth the exact, sum they represent, and air 
frequently melted down fur use in goldsmithery. 
Gold-beating and rolling are dune in the following 
manner. The -old and alloy are melted in a 
crucible, and cast into small ingots weighing about 
'2 oz., which are rolled between sled rollers, anneal- 
ing repeatedly, in order to keep it soft, and reducing 
it in thickness very gradually, until it is about \ , p 1 1 1 
part nf an inch. This is thru cul into squares, 
which are rolled again and beaten, cut and beaten 




again until of the requisite thinness. In 
way we obtain gold of any degree oE thicknes: 
thinness, from the gold leaf which is used for 

is termed "binding wire," or in larger pieces by 
clamps. The solder is then put along the line where 
the parts touch in small pieces called " paillons," 


picture frames to that size which 
beating a vase or cup into shap 

Wire-drawing is done by pass- 
ing square strips between steel 
rollers which have a groove in 
the upper and lower rollers. 
When these become very hard 
they are annealed. When line 
enough, I he \\ ire is pointed and 
drawn through a steel draw plate, 
which is about 10 inches long 
and if, broad and half an inch 
thielc, which has holes of different 
sizes diminishing very gradually. 
The wire having been drawn 
through, it is annealed again and 
again whenever the metal be- 
comes too haul to work. All 
kinds of sections of wire can be 
drawn in this way. The ancients 
knew nothing whatever about 
this method, their wire being 
made by the hammer and anvil, 
which must, have been a great 
labour. The manner of hammer- 
ing a. Bhape up from a flat piece 
of metal must be seen, so too 
the casting, to be understood. 
Soldering is done by placing the 
parts together, after very careful 
cleaning and exact fitting, and 
then bound by iron wire which 

d for 

which ha\ 

from the flat, borax, and 



• been dipped into a saturated solution of 
the flame from the blow-pipe is directed 
along these, which quickly melt 
and run swiftly alone- the joint. 
Gold-plating is done in much the 
same way. The two metals, gold 
and copper, or more properly 
speaking, gilding metal, are taken 
and made flat, which are (leaned 
and tiled on the two surfaces 
which are to come into contact, 
and these are rubbed over with 
borax : they are then firmly 
bound together, and the paillons 
of solder placed along the edges 
at the junction of the metals, 
after which they are placed in a 
muffle made red-hot, where they 
become thoroughly amalgamated, 
and they are then withdrawn. 

The process of chasing and 
engraving cannot be sufficiently 
described : they must, be demon- 
strated. Indeed, they are gener- 
ally well understood, being exactly 
the same as in any other metal. 
There is one great limitation of 
the use of gold, which is its costli- 
ness. And except in the some- 
what rare cases of pieces for 
some national or civic ceremony, 
or obi'ects devoted to the service 



of religion (to which sacred cause have more 
larger pieces been made than to any othei 
being the best that man could offer in wor- 
ship and praise to his Maker), or again, 
in ohjects made for occa- 
sion of royal ceremony, 
ail icles for personal 
adornment, jewellery, and 
minor pieces for decora- 
tion and use at table have 
almost monopolised the 
use of gold in art. The 
Egyptian bracelet, the 
Greek earrings and pen- 
dants in the British 
Museum, the Etruscan 
armlet ami bowl and neck- 
laces at the South Kensington 


attempt at what is termed - finish to-day, ami 
which generally means .1- truction of all feeling) 
the earrings bracelets, rings pendant 
linn's heads, serpents, fishe leopards, birds, 
swans, owls, hawks, dovi 
are examples of this, ami 
were forms cout inually 

used. Th. -re have I a 

of late years very care- 
ful ami exact copies of 
many pieces of this jewel- 
lery. Ami here let me 
say that although these 
are most interesting as 
(•"pies, ami most useful to 
tli'' student, they do not 
represent the feeling, the 
ispirations, or joys, or sorrows, in 

gold earring. Museu i ii , a ii. 1 t lie ( 'elt ic 1 >r< i. .dies fact the Ih'e of to-day, and that 

in the Dublin Museum are all they should never be repeated 
beautiful examples of work of 
this kind. The character of 
the design in the Celtic work is 
well worthy of close attention 
ami study, ami is chiefly re- 
markable for the extreme 
simplicity of the shapes with 
intricate and elaborate inter- 
lacing i.f wire soldered to the 
ground, or patterns cut out of 
the solid, or beaten up from 
the hack in finely traced lines. 
The accuracy of the drawing, 
the powerful character of the 
line, and the excellent work- 
manship make this period one 
of the finest. The strength and simplicity of tl 

design were further enhanced by si >s being fixi 

in circular raised settings, which helped to pn 
beet the line delicate work 



save as copies, therefore should 
be studied only in order bo as- 
sist in the expression of our 
own feeling and individuality. 
Sum,- of the larger pieces 
that have hccn made, ami which 
are well worthy of our careful 
attention, are the altai froill 
now in the Musee de Cluny, 
originally from Basle, which is 
of Byzantine character; the 
high altar at the cathedral of 
Genoa, in Spain, \\ ith plates oi 
mild ami figures in relief fixed 
on to alabaster; the Spanish 
crosses of the eleventh cen- 
r relics : the sin ine al I 
ngs : the \ ol ive crow n of King 

from wear and accident. It 
differs in a very marked de- 
gree from Greek and Etrus- 
can w.nk in .me respect, 
although in many others 
singularly alike in treatment, 
ami that is in the almost 
total absence of the human 
figure, which, if used, was 
made severely ornamental, 
ami which in Greek ait is 
the chief beauty. The little 
pendants with the winged 
Hermes, or Aphrodite (the 
figures being east or stamped 
quite simplv without any 

tury, ami caskets 
of the three wise 

Swinthila; the gold cup called the St. Agnes cup 
a i the Briti sli M useu m , 
which everyone ought to see 
for himself; the beautiful 
ci osses, i ups, nefs, dishes of 
the Italian, French, < !erman, 
and English I.'.nai 
eai h having a very marked 
and definite charactci oi tl 
own. < if these there arc spe- 
cimens in our museums. 

iiiimarise briefly, 
there was one period of \ ery 
pei Fei i work, thai of the 
Greek and Etruscan, after 
thai of the la - 
chioiis ami ignoble Roman. 

GOLD CR/ECO-2ACTRIAN ARMLET. This rlhk.l III the .1:11 



d by (.lie struggle 

into which all society was plung 

of cr I and race. The 

first awakening From the 
long nighl w hicli followed 
commenced feebly and in 
;i grotesque and rude re- 
membrance of Grecian 
art, and generally as 
men's minds became less 
troubled the arl grew 
until it flourished in all 
ils splendour during the 
Renaissance, yet still in- 
spired by the art of that 
golden age long past in 
( ireece. Then again it 
sank slowly ilowii till il 
was revivified by t Vllini, 
a vastly overrated arl ist, 
yet marvellous crafts- 
man, who was in a large 
measure responsible for 
of the worst develop- 
ments of the art. Yet 
technically speaking he 
was one of the must ex- 
traordinary workers in 
gold that have ever lived. 
And this leads one to 
make the observation that when men were not 

clever with their hands they thought moi 
something to si 


■hance excellim 

and had 
5ay, and the 
feeling and expression 
were everything But 
when men became adepts, 
the execution almost en- 
tirely engrossed their 
efforts. Witness the in- 
ane Louis Quinze period, 
compared with the earlier 
work of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, very 
often full of profound 
and beautiful feeling, al- 
though of grotesque and 
awkward workmanship. 

And now that many 
artists have turned their 
serious attention to vari- 
ous crafts, and painting, 
modelling, and architec- 
ture are recognised as 
being not the only means 
of expression for them, 
the goldsmith's craft 
may once more flourish 
and become precious, 
having a character of its 
own, rivalling and per- 
lllght that has hitherto been done. 


IT is a trite reman* that the world knows little 
of its greatest men, but it is remarkably ex- 
emplified by the great Flemish painter and etcher. 
His paintings and etchings have come down to us, 
and the two rent uries and a half since he produced 
them have served to increase his fame, but have dis- 
closed not overmuch of his history. Of his daily 
life we know little, and his reputation, which is so 
great to-day, rests for the most part upon the works 
which are in existence in the various galleries in 
Europe. These works lend themselves in a remark- 
able way to reproduction in Mack and white. A 
year or two ago a folio of the works of Rembrandt 
in the Cassel Gallery was issued by the Berlin Photo- 
graphic Company in photogravure. They were quite 
the best mechanical reproductions of the kind which 
had up to that time been published, but the English 
edition vvas dressed in English garb and issued by an 
English publisher, and the reviewers for the most 
part ignored the fact thai it was the Berlin house 

to whom the credit of the production was due. The 
same house has recently issued under its own name a 
similar folio of reproductions of the work's of Rem- 
brandt in the gallery at Berlin, and it would be diffi- 
cult to speak too highly of its qualities. Mr. Ruskin 
once said of Rembrandt that " he painted all the foul 
things he could see, by rushlight," the elegance of 
the Italians, doubtless, blinding him to the artistic 
beauties of the painter of Flemish life. It is this 
very "rushlight" mode of lighting — intense gloom 
lit up here and there by a strong illumination con- 
centrating itself on one point or passage of the picture 
— which gives the works their chief charm. This 
folio consists of eighteen reproductions, of which two 
or three arc portraits of the painter's self, and one of 
his first wife. Scriptural subjects, of course, prepon- 
derate; but whatever they may be, the prints are very 
even in quality and very rich in their tones of deep 
velvety black, and delicate and beautiful in their 
representati f Rembrandt's golden lights. E. B. 




AX article by Mr. Alfred Praga under the above 
II title appeared in the December number (page 
87) of The Magazine of Art, in which he alluded 
to what 1 have written at various times on the sub- 
ject of Miniature Art, 
and he ended the article 
by a quotation from 
the preface which I 
wrote to the I latulogue 
of Portrait Miniatures 
exhibited at the Bur- 
lington Fine Arts < Hub 
in L889, and which be 
thinks was in some 
way prophetic of the 
present revival of in- 
terest in this lovely art. 
Had he not thus 
pointedly alluded to 
me, I should not have 
ventured to intrude 
upon your readers with 
any remarks upon ; 
subject with which 1 
have no " practical " 
acquaintance, for 1 
think, as a rule, that no 
one should attempt to 
speak dogmatically on 
any art topic unless lie 
lias himself, as it were, 
been through the mill, 
and has experienced 
the difficulties and ob- 
stacles which surround 
the- path to success. 

But there is an old saying that oftentimes the 'in- 
sider sees most of the game; and during the long 
years I have studied the art of portrait rain 
1 suppose I bave seen more specimens of all ages 
and artists— good, bad, and indifferent — than it falls 
to tli" lot of mosl men to see, and. in consequence, 
1 have formed opinions as to methods and styles, 
and as to what a miniature should or should not 
be, which 1 trust may have some influence on the 
present revival. Quite surely, if the miniature 
painters of the present day have the slightesl hope 
that their work will live and at some future time 
be regarded with the same affection as is felt for 
the masters of n bygone period, they will have to 
cut. themselves adrift from their present a 


Unfinished Miniature by J. 

and take to heart a little more the li ssons ol the 
past % 

Undoubtedly, somewhere aboul the 'Forties the 
advent of photography gave the death-blow to the 
port rait, miniature, 
I bough for some years 
previously the day of 
tin- giants was over. 1 
used t" think that Ross 
might bave done well 
had he lived at the 
time "i costume and 
coiffure, which enabled 
ly and the res! 
to give a- such dreams 
of beautj : hut the more 
I - i of his work the 
I think that, after 
all, the feu siu ■ was 
not in him. He was 
a correct draughtsman 
and vigorous colourist, 
but I fear he inn 
regarded as the first 
monarch of that ter- 
rible realm of conven- 
tionalism which, from 
his day to the present, 
en and still is the 
curse of miniature art. 
Supposing that all 
our friends and ac- 
quaintances wmte in 
preciselj the same 
hand da' sort of ma- 
chine stuff that adorns 
the envelope of a Christmas hill or a lawyer's letter 
- how horribly monotonous and uninteresting would 
be the pile of letters on our breakfast table ! win 
now. as we turn them over one by our. the sight of 
the varied handwritings, as we recognise instinctively 
whence they come, evokes in us all sorts of feelings 
connected with the win I Uy fail to under- 

ivhy all this individuality and personal charac- 
ter is utterly to disappear bi writes with 
a paint-brush on ivorj insti .id of with a pen on 
paper. Faki an instam e the ai tisl who wrote 

article, .Mr. Praga his haudwritiii 
plenty of i haracter, ami 1 have seen some small 
by him which, for breadth of touch and 
refreshing individuality, are quite admirable. i'el 





when he touches ivory, he, like others, seems afraid 
to let himself go. The handwriting disappears, the 
style becomes cramped, and in the result he dues 
nol do himself justice. It is a pity, for I think he 
has the necessary quality in him, if he will only allow 
it fair play. 1 asked him why he could not impart 
to his ivory miniatures some of the life and vigour 
he showed in his drawings on paper— put into them, 
in fact, some of his own handwriting. His reply 
was terribly suggestive of the art ideas still prevalent 
in the great nation of sitters. He said that, though 
he longed to do so, tyrannical sitters would have 
none of it. They seem to love the pretty, finikin, 
characterless inanities which now pass current as 
miniatures, conventional as the Egyptian hieroglyph 
or Byzantine saint. And yet there is plenty of 
technical excellence in the market just now in the 
way of miniature painting, though, alas! employed 
for a fraudulent purpose. Naturally, the moment 
an object of art rises in value, the forger at once 
steps in. 1 have known forgeries ever since I knew 
miniatures, but as a rule the cloven foot was clearly 
discernible; but lately I have seen copies of old 
work so abominably successful as to make the 
possessors of the genuine thing very uncomfortable, 
[f only the individual would turn his talent to a 
legitimate purpose, even though he might not 
succeed with a likeness ad vivum, we should at 
least get work at once fresh and characteristic, 
and in good drawing. Why is it^ that so many 
people will attempt to paint miniatures without the 
slightest knowledge of drawing, as though they had 
only to get a slip of ivory ami a paint-brush before 
them, and airily conclude that the necessary know- 
ledge of what the human face is like will come to 
them by inspiration ? or do they imagine that, on so 
small a scale, had drawing will not be detected 1 
And yet, probably, the exact reverse is the fact, 
for surely when the whole face can be taken in at 
the lirst coup d'ceil a faulty relation of parts will 
be more apparent than in a larger portrait where 
each feature is examined separately. 

1 am not sure that the introduction of ivory was 
an unmixed blessing. A few great artists of the last 
century successfully overcame its deficiencies, but 
the fatal facility of producing effects, beautiful up 
ton certain point, by i he use of transparent colour, 
has certainly led to a deterioration of power and 
intensity of expression, as compared with the vellum 
or card of the sixteenth or seventeenth century; 
and when the strong man of the nineteenth century 
really does arise, he may lie advised to make a trial 
of vellum or line card. It is perfectly well known 
xx was the exact nature of the Vellum used, 
for instance, by Cooper, and, if the demand for it 

arose il could lie as easily procured now as in the 

seventeenth century. Its use would perhaps entail 
more knowledge of painting and conscientious 
labour, but that very fact would he a gain, for it 
would weed out the weaklings of miniature art, and 
tin' sooner they disappear the better. 

At present, artists appear to me to allow ivory 
to dictate to them, instead of forcing (as good work- 
men should) the material to lend itself to the free 
expression of their thoughts. Hence the timid, 
half-hearted appearance of these watery productions. 
I have selected two specimens to illustrate what 
noble, grand work has been done on ivory. One 
is the sketch by Russell I mention further on, 
the other is a portrait of Sheridan, by J. D Engle- 
heari, from my own collection ; so that if present- 
day artists fail to reach this standard, the fault is 
not in the material hut in the painter. Still I wish 
sonic really good man would try his hand on vellum. 

If ever socialism or collectivism becomes an 
accepted part of political economy, and we poor 
units are reduced by law to the one dead level of 
mediocrity, life will lie terribly uninteresting. If 
it is uninviting in the body politic, surely in art it 
will he still more' deplorable; and yet just this 
socialistic dead level of mediocrity is the one real 
danger of modern miniature work. Being as 1 am 
much interested in the subject, I generally manage 
to see the specimens exhibited at the Royal Academy 
and elsewhere. Now suppose a work by any of 
these artists were placed haphazard in the hands of 
an expert, could he honestly say he could at once 
ascribe it to A., !'>., C, or I)., as he would with one 
of the old masters'? I doubt it — at least, I am quite 
sure I should fail: indeed, there is only one artist 
whose work " in little " I could recognise anywhere. 
And he is not a miniaturist ; yet he contrives to put 
into a tiny head on ivory the same handwriting, the 
same strength and individuality, as characterise his 
larger canvases, and what he can do, surely others 
could do also. Even in the small loan collection 
recently in the Grafton Galleries there were plenty 
of lessons to he learned by those who will lay them 
to heart. No. 158, George IV., an unfinished work 
by John Russell, R.A., ought to be an object lesson 
for all miniature painters. It is really a magnificent 
performance, strength anil handwriting enough for a 
life-size portrait. Take that from the case ami place 
it beside the specimens of modern work, as I have! 
Oh, ye gods ! if the shades of the great men of the 
pasl can lake cognisance of what is now supposed to 
he a continuance or renaissance of their work, they 
must have indeed many a mauvais quart d'heurc. I 
only regret- that the lime limit of that exhibition 
excluded the work' of Samuel Cooper, without 
doubt the lir.est miniature painter of all time, 
for nowhere as in his portraits can the building 



up of Llie human face be so profitably studied. The 
careful bul fearless modelling, the bold lines, the 
dei ided touches, each exactly where it should be, and 
lefl to tell its own tale, neither whittled down nor 
covered up with senseless stippling past recognition, 
as though it had been ashamed to find itself there; 
the masses of hair floated on to the vellum, in mys- 
terious suggestiveness, the portrait filling the whole 
space of the vellum, the 
background merely serv- 
ing as a setting to the 
face, not as too often seen 
now, one-quarter of the 
ivory occupied by the 
head, and three-quarters 
by the background. But 
perhaps it is waste of 
time tn suggest the les- 
sons taught by Samuel 
Cooper, for the reason 
mentioned, though I 
hope some future ex- 
hibition may pay special 
attention to his portraits, 
for certainly they are the 
grandest that human hand 
has ever traced. It. has 
often struck me that one 
of the very best trainings 
for intending miniature 
painters would be to take 
one of Rembrandt's 
etched portraits, and en- 
deavour to build up and 
reproduce on ivory.lineby 
line and touch by touch 
his method of shading and 
giving roundness to the 

features. It would not be difficult, substituting 
the fine paint-brush for the etching -needle, and 
once mastered, the student would never again fail 
to substitute life, roundness, and reality for the flat, 
stale, and unprofitable prettiness of the modern 
miniature. As photography killed the miniature 
portrait in the past, so its baneful influence still 
seems to clog the steps of tins attempted renais- 
sance, and unless the professors of miniature art 
can speedily free themselves from its deadening 
shackles, small progress will be made. 

I fear I have wail ten strongly, and perhaps little 
to the taste of those who whisper to themselves 
and to each other that all is well, but if it be true 
that just now there is an increased demand for this 
charming art, it is perhaps kinder to utter a word of 

(From the Miniature by J. D. Engteheart.) 

warning ere it be too late. The Soi ietj of Minia- 
ini ists was instituted, I believe, to raise the standard 
to a higher level of excellence than, alas! it now 
attains, and I can only trust the artist- concerned 
will take in good part what I have felt it my duty 
to point out. 

I am often asked by friends something of this 
-<c i , "So-and-so is very anxious to learn miniature 
painting. Whom would 
you recommend to teach 
them ' " I reply, " So- 
and-so, I suppose, has 
studied painting, and 
especially port ra it ure." 
The response always 
comes in the same jaunty 
words, "Oh, no; bul 
they would soon learn ! " 
Si ii in learn, indeed: as 
though the human face 
were a lay figure ! They 
do not know, these 
would-be dabblers, thai 
that same human face, 
the most subtle and per- 
fect piece of mei liam-ni 
thai lias passed from the 
hands of the Creator, is 
not thus lightly to be 
dealt with. If they must 
paint, let them paint 
stocks and stones, km 
leave portraiture alone 
until, by patient study 
and persevering labour, 

they have attai 1 to 

some conception of ike 

difficulties of the tasl< ion! 

the nobility of the subject, and not degrade that 

which has been iast in form divine, down in the 

level of their present ignorance. 

In the t hirteenl k cent ury ( limabue deli\ ercd us 
once and for all from the thraldom of Byzantium, 
and will not some great soul now ride forth 
new- St. George, and rid us for ever of this ■' 
of conventionality ? A little courage, and the fight 

would soon be over, It is a verj | tame dragon, 

and w ill soon succumb. A few well-directed si 
from a paint-brush will suffii e, ami \\ ken il - w retched 
bodj no longei taints the atmospl i but nol 

until then, maj we hope that the renaiss :e of 

miniature painting ma] work worth) to 

live by the side of the gem i of the pa i. and 
public taste to an apprei ial f their b 




ONE of tin' most extraordinary developments of 
recent years consequent upon the popularisation 
of education is the demand which has been made for 

(Bj Fred Tauhr.) 

increased facilities for the study of art: nol so 
much for the Fine Arts— in which the last genera- 
tion loved to dabble and never excelled — but for all 
that pertains to the crafts for the beautifying of ob- 
jects of domestic and everyday existence. This 
demand is an eloquent testimony to the life-work of 
the late William Morris, and constitutes the must 
material and lasting evidence of the wide-spreading 
influence of his teaching and example. The demand 
has been met in a manner equally democratic. 
Upon the same principle as the Regent Streel 
Polytechnic there have been established in varion 
pari of London similar institutions which, as 
Mr. Augustine Birrell recently said, can only be 
compared to concentrated popular universities, in 
which every possible subject is taught for the lowest 
possible Ices. Of all the subjects none has proved 
more popular than that of applied art. The classes 
are always filled up, and the high character of the 
work accomplished testifies to the earnestness and 
enl husiasm of t la' students. 

Founded about six years ago by the City 
Company whose name it bears, the Technical Insti- 
tute at New Ci'oss has proved itself both useful and 
u< i < in!, e pecially a.- to its arl cla es. Fully 

equipped with well-arranged studios and class-rooms, 
it ell'ers every facility I'm' Hie study of art in all 
its branches. The principal object of the teaching 
is, of course, to fester and encourage the applica- 
tion of art to the. crafts: and although the great 
hope of the founders of the institute — the estab- 
lishment of a large class for silversmiths and gold- 
smiths — has nut been realised, the general scheme 
has been well supported and efficiently carried 
uut. Design and applied ornament are presented 
in an attractive manner to the students almost 
as soon as these have mastered the rudiments 
of drawing; interest being roused by demonstra- 
tions by the master and fostered by easy exercises. 
Under the direction of the Head Master, Mr. F. 
Marriott, assisted by Mr. W. Amor Fenn (in the 
designing classes), Mr. S. G. Enderby, Mr. Alfred 
Drury (in the modelling classes), Miss F. I. Morley 
(art needlework), and Miss H. M. Pemberton, the 


cn°iR rcsTr 

A/lRCn 21 st 

nDcccxcvi : 



pupils are taken through their studies in a manner 

desig 1 to give them a thorough knowledge 

of their art. They are offered every inducement 



to study the arts and artistic crafts which are 
closely allied to their principal subject. Wood- 
carvers arc thus encouraged to study modelling 
and design; 
modelling and 
life -drawing, 
repoussd and 
carving, so 
that they may 
obtain a know- 
ledge of their 
material, with 
its advantages 
and limita- 
tions, in which 
their designs 
are to lie exe- 
cuted. Still 
further to en- 
force this up- 
on their minds, 

periodic visits are arranged to leading manufac- 
tories, so that designers may know exactly how their 
designs are carried out practically, what should be 
avoided and what insisted upon to ensure success- 
ful repr6duction of their work. 

The life-classes are a. special feature of the 

school, and the students work alternately at drawing 
from the antique— all overwrought, stippling, and 
stump-work being discountenanced, and insistence 

being made 
upon a work- 
manlike basis 
of construc- 
tion rather 
than upon 
high academic 
finish. Book 
illustra t ion 
and black-and- 
white work 
for the press 
receive their 
proper share 
of attention. 
Students in 
these (kisses 
are induced 
to draw 
from the life in pen-and-ink, and the success of the 
result is estimated by the considerable amount of 
work by Goldsmith students accepted for publication. 
By the bounty of the Company the repoussi 
idasses are supplied with tools and material gra- 
tuitously, in order that craftsmen in metal-work 


(Sj Julia fus(..c«.) 


(Designed iii'd executed by Hilda M. Pembertttn.) 

may be attracted. Art-needlework has here, as 
elsewhere, been a source of anxiety to the authorities. 
For some time the students merely worked over 
stamped designs supplied by the ordinary Berlin- 
wool shops. In order to put an end to such an 
anomaly the governors transferred the class to the 
Art section. This had the effect of reducing the 
attendance to a minimum : but the remaining 
students were put through a course of design and 
shown the advisahleness of each making her own 
working drawings, laying them down and executing 
them in manner and material suitable to the design. 
It was slow and arduous work, but the action is 
being justified by results of a more genuinely 
satisfactory nature to students and teachers alike. 
We reproduce a, piece of work executed under 
these conditions by Miss Hilda M. Pemberton, 
which, though not wholly successful from the point 

of view of design, is a distinct, 
advance upon the ordinary "art 
needlework" of the average lady 

We reproduce also several 
examples of work of a. varied 
nature by the most promising of 
the Goldsmith pupils, Mr. Fred 
Tayler. The versatility of his 
talent is well exhibited in each, 
and weiv his record of achieve- 
ments at South Kensington a safe 
criterion, it is easy to prophesy 

mm? V>V:.; .; 30& 

IB,j W. Amor Fem.) 

(Sj Canie Thcrnhill.) 

for him a career of unusual 
success. This year, indeed, he 
was awarded the bronze medal 
for applied design ; an "advanced 
excellent certificate " for design 
(being placed first in this stage in 
the United Kingdom); the Queen's 
prize for design: an "excellent 
certificate" for advanced model- 
ling design; a book prize for 
drapery study, and two book 
prizes for applied design. Mr. 
Tayler lias been attending the 
classes for two years only, being 
up to that time entirely self- 
taught. Always fond of sketch- 
ing, he was especially attracted 
by the sight of crowds, and Hyde 
Park with its motley assemblages 



was the favourite exercise gri mud for 
his pencil. Coining under the notice 
of Mr. Redniayne, the secretary of 
the Goldsmiths' [nstitute, he was 
encouraged to enter the arl classes. 
At that time he was employed in 
an office in work of an entirely 
uncongenial nature, and when after 
a shorl course of study he suc- 
ceeded in winning in open compe- 
tition a County Council scholarship 



(6;, iV. A. BaskerfielJ.) 

he ahandoned his commer- 
cial pursuit. He afterwards 
gained a • loldsmiths' scholar- 
ship, and is now a student in 
all the arl classes ; he designs 
all the posters for the In- 
stitute, and exhibits special 
aptitude for dealing with 
designs of this character. 
Those which we repi'oduce 
show a facility of drawing 
and an appreciation of 
colour that are extra- 
ordinary in one so young, 
while his design for n m-r 
water dish, his first effort 

{Drawn by Emily K. Reader) 

in this direction, exhibits equal promise. We have had the opportunity 
of examining a hoy number of sketches and studies by Mr. Tayler, 
which conclusively prove that his talent is of no superficial 
ter, hut grounded deeply upon a broad and enthusiastic love of art. 
The design by Miss Coggin for a carved panel, unconventional 
and unfinished as it is, shows undoubted skill. It may lie observed 
in connection with this design that Mis-, Coggin was engaged in 
modelling it for a wall-paper— her speciality— when Mr. George Framp- 
ton, A.E.A., passing through the room, suggested it would come well 
as a wood-carving. The idea was acted upon, and the work when 
finished is to be acquired by the County Council. Wall-paper 
designing receives special attention, and the specimens of such work 
given here are evidence of the capability of both teachers and students. 
Altogether the work accomplished at this school may be commended. 
Not only does the institution take the highest number of award.-, next 
to the Royal College of Art. of the ait schools of the metropolis in 
tlr- National Competitions, but general results attest that the tuition 
is based upon sound and efficient principles. A. F. 


*- V 


{By Mau.k- K. Coggin.) 




Illustrated by the AUTHOR. 

THE town of Baku is situated on the western 
coast of the Caspian. The former importance 
of this place is indicated by the extent of its walls 


and the solidity of their construction ; the character 
of the mosques, which have disappeared, can be 
estimated now only by their minarets yel standing, 
which are of stone, decorated with sculptured orna : 
ment and Kulic inscriptions of great beauty. Beside 
the palace of the Khans, who were the Persian 
irnors, there yel stands our building, probably 
a tomb, which, for beauty of its lines and the per- 
fection of its rich ornament, it would be difficult 
to find equalled ou1 of India, and even in that 
countrj bul lew of its monuments could pretend 
to rank with the one at Baku. The Bay of Baku 

is said to he almost the only good harbour in 
the Caspian Sea. This may account for its wealth 
— which is always a condition necessary to pro- 
duce good architecture and art — and may 
also explain the former greatness of the. 
place. It must have been at one time the 
Tyre or the Sidon of the Caspian Sea; 
and this will account for such remains of 
art and architecture as are to be seen, 
which, I must confess, gave me a most 
agreeable surprise. 

How far the supply of naphtha in the 
neighbourhood of Baku may have in the past 
added to the prosperity of the town cannot 
be estimated ; we know that centuries ago 
it was collected and sent to Persia and some 
of the regions round about; but the cost 
of transport must have been great, and 
the trade therefore limited, for it is only 
comparatively within recent years that, by 
the aid of steamboats and railways, there 
has been a great extension of it through the 
whole of Eussia. Resulting from this ex- 
tension there has been a. rapid increase in 
the size of Baku. 

El Mas'udi, a celebrated Arabic author 
of the tenth century, is perhaps the earliest 
authority who mentions Baku and its naph- 
tha. His work is called "Mines of Gold and 
Meadows of Gems," and is intended to give 
an account of all the known countries of the 
world. In one place he calls the town " Babi- 
kah," "on the coast of the naphtha country." 
Again he refers to it as Bakah, and says that 
it "yields white and other naphtha. While 
naphtha is found nowhere on earth but there. 
Baku lies on the south of the kingdom of 
Sharwaa In this naphtha, country is a crater 
(chimney) from which tire issues, perpetually 
throwing up a high flame. Opposite this coast are 
several islands; one of them is three days distant, in 
which there is a -leal volcano, which often throws 
out fire at all seasons of the year. The tire rises like 
a high mountain in the air, and its light spreads 
over the greater part .it' the sea, so that it is seen at- 
a distance of one hundred earsangs." (Sprenger's 
translation.) The island with the volcano is. in all 
probability, Cheleken, or Naphtha Island, which is on 
the eastern coast of the Caspian, not far distant 
from Krasnovodsk ; the crater, or chimney, might 
refer to the Temple at Surakhani, for the gas from 



the oil conies up through the ground at that place, 
and the temple was constructed over a spot where 
it issued. On my visit to it I had to pass through 
Messrs. Karkaroffs petroleum works alongside, and 
saw a pipe projecting from the ground, and at its 
upper end there was a large flame which was fed 
hy the subterranean gas. The petroleum works 
were erected there in order to utilise the gas 
coining up to the surface, in the process of purifying. 
This statement will convey some idea of the ample 
supply of it there must have been at all times for 
the Sacred Eire of the Temple. 

Marco Polo calls the Caspian the " Sea of 
Abaku," thus indicating the importance of the town 
in his time. He mentions the naphtha supply, and 
says : — " To the north lies Zorzania — ' Georgia ' — 
near the confines of winch there is a fountain of oil, 
which discharges so great a quantity as to furnish 
loading for many camels. The use of it is not for 
the purpose of food, but as an unguent for the cure 
of cutaneous distempers in men and cattle, as well 
as other complaints; it is also used for burning. In 
the neighbouring country no other is used in the 
lamps, and people come from distant parts to pro- 
cure it." (Chapter IV.) 

There are numerous references to Baku and its 
oil wells to be found in later writers, beginning with 
Jonas Hanway, in the middle of last century, but 
it .is not necessary here to quote from these, as 
hardly any of them give original information re- 
garding the temple. In the absence of knowledge, 
some have accepted a date for Zoroaster and then 
assumed that the worship of the Sacred Eire would 
begin at that time. This is of course only theoretical, 
still it is probable enough. It is also within the 
limits of what we know of primitive times, when 
all peculiar phenomena were looked upon as being 
somehow connected with the Deity, that such a 
wonderful appearance of flame coming spontaneously 
into existence would have attracted worshippers 
before the time of Zoroaster. 

The earliest allusion I have as yet been able to 
find dales from the seventh century, and this, il 
must lie confessed, is not quite certain. I luring 
the war against Persia the Emperor Heraclius 
wintered his army on the shores of the Caspian. 
The place is described as the Plains of Mogan, 
between the Eivers Cyrus (now the Kura) and the 
Araxes, called to-day the Arras. This was only a 
short distance from the present Baku, and according 
to Gibbon, at the command of the Emperor, "the 
soldiers extinguished the fire, and destroyed the 
temples of the Mayi." Although the certainty is 
not complete, yet it may be taken for granted thai 
the Eire Shrine of Surakhani is that which is 
principally referred to. 

This may lie said to exhaust the ancient history 
of the spot so far as it is as yet known. It mm be 
that other references exist, and now that an interest 
has been excited regarding this remarkable place of 
worship, they will no doubt be noted and brought 
forward, and any light which can be found bearing 
on it in the past will be of very great value. 

On the north of Baku the Apsheron peninsula 


projects into the Caspian, and on this arc the oil 
wells at Balakhaui and Surakhani, where the temple 
stands about three or four miles to the east, and 
about, eight miles from Baku. The naphtha or 
petroleum is found in various places round the 
Caspian, and the supply seems to be great. This 

may be understood when it is stated thai oi E the 

wells at Balakhani sent up as much oil in one day 
as all the wells in America could do in the same 
space of time. At Surakhani there arc wells, but 
where the temple stands it is only gas which 
comes up from the oil, which is supposed bo he 
somew here underneath. 

The deserted temple, I understood, is the property 
of Messrs. Karkaroll'. whose refinery is now on one 
side of il. Those wishing to visit the place have 
to pass through (he works, and permission of the 
manager has in lie procured. 

For a long time it was believed thai this temple 
belonged to the Cud. re-, who are well known to he 
lire worshippers; pilgrims, it was known came to 



the shrine all the way from India, but it was sup- 
posed that they were Parsees, the name by which 
the followers of Zoroaster are ho well known in that 
country. This turns out to have been altogether a 
mistaken view of the case. For at least a century 
or two back the Guebres have had nothing to do 
with tin' worship of this igneous shrine: the origin 
of the culte may have been due to the Zoroastriaus ; 
but we now know that the temple has been for a 
long period of time a Hindu one; that the priests 
who officiated were Hindus from India, and that the 
pilgrims were votaries of the same faith, who risked 
all the difficulties and dangers of a long journey to 
perform puja before "Jowalla Jee," which was the 
name they gave, to the Sacred Fire at Surakhani. 
One is familiar with the devotion to pilgrimages 
which the Hindus manifest within the limits of 
their own country and the great distances they 
travel over to visit the many shrines of sanctified 
repute within the limits of Hindostan, but it excites 
a feeling of wonder to find them crossing the 
supposed forbidden boundary of the Indus, and 
passing through such wild and unsettled regions as 
Afghanistan and Khorassan to reach the western 
shore of the Caspian Sea, The mediaeval pilgrimages 
to the Holy Sepulchre, difficult and dangerous as 
they were, could not compare to this. It will give a 
good notion of the distance if it is stated that a man 
starting from Paris to Baku, and another starting 
from Calcutta, would each have very nearly the 
same amount of space to get over. 

I have to acknowledge my indebtedness for the 
first reliable details regarding the Temple of Surak- 
hani and the Indus to Colonel C. E. Stewart, C.B., 
one of the Afghan Boundary Commissioners. He 
very kindly gave me some notes on the subject, 
which 1 here insert, as they have a great value from 
the length of time he has known the place, and his 
experiences during many visits. Colonel Stewart 
writes:— "The Hindu Fire Temple at Baku was 
first visited by me in duly, 18UG. I then found 
there a Hindu priest, who was a native of Delhi, in 
India, and who had previously been a priest at the 
celebrated Hindu Fire Temple known as Jowalla 
Mukhi, in the Punjab. He told me that the temple 
had, until a lew years previously, been served by a 
number of Hindu priests from India, but that by 
death and other causes the number had been reduced 
to three. One of these, the chief priest, having 
amassed considerable wealth, the temple was 
attacked by a party of Tartars, the chief priest was 
murdered, and his money carried of!'. One of the 
renin mill-' priest-, was so frightened that he tied, and 
my informant was tie' sole remaining priest. The 
same day that 1 visited the temple a rich Hindu 
Buniah from Hyderabad, in Scinde, visited it; and 

Hindu pilgrims did occasionally come from India, 
and made presents to the shrine. I have visited 
the temple many times since my first visit, nineteen 
years ago. On my second visit, in 1881, 1 found 
the temple deserted, and was told by the servants of 
Messrs. Karkaroff, who have a petroleum refinery 
there, that my friend the old priest had died, and 
had been succeeded by a young priest, who had left 
in 1880. In 1883 I met, in Persia, two Hindu 
pilgrims from the Punjab, on their way from the 
Fire Temple at Jowalla Mukhi, in the Punjab, to 
the greater Jowalla Jee, as they call this temple at 
Baku. I gave them a letter to the British Consul 
at Asterabad, but I heard they never reached Baku, 
having been frightened, and turned back. Over each 
cell door in the temple there is a small inscription, 
in a character which is either Sanscrit or some 
nearly allied character. There is nothing 1'arsi or 
Zoroastrian about the temple, which is, I believe, not 
very ancient. It is an ordinary Hindu temple, of a 
slightly Buddhist form, such as we see in Kashmir. 
I was informed that there was another Hindu Fire 
Temple in the Bokhara country, making, with the 
better known Hindu Temple at Jowalla Mukhi, 
three Hindu Fire Temples. In the Baku Temple, on 
my last visit, I found a small copper slab, with a 
picture of a Hiudu goddess, probably Bosvani, or 
Parbutti, inscribed on it, Hindus worship all natural 
phenomena, so it is not extraordinary they should 
worship this natural fire. The natural gas which 
used to keep up the flame is now used in Messrs. 
Karkaroff s factory. If there ever was a Zoroastrian 
temple here there are at present no signs of it. 
Indian Buniahs in Persia whom I have met have 
begged to be permitted to accompany me to the 
Hindu Fire Temple at Baku, it being well known 
to them as a place of Hindu pilgrimage, but they 
were afraid to visit now, in consequence, probably, 
of the killing of the chief priest." 

I visited the temple in April, 1885, and I found 
ample confirmation of what Colonel Stewart has 
written. Having had some experience of temples in 
India, I noticed some peculiar evidences of Hindu 
faith which < lolonel Stewart has not alluded to. The 
most prominent of these was a trisala, or trident of 
iron, projecting from the sikiv, or steeple of the 
temple. This symbol is to be found on almost eve] ) 
temple of Siva in India, and it may be taken as 
showing that the shrine was dedicated to that god. 
This goes far to confirm Colonel Stewart's suggestion 
that the figure on the plate of copper was that of 
l'arliutty, the wife of Siva. In one of the cells which 
form the enclosure there is a small tile altar, and 
hanging from the roof in front of it there is a bell. 
This is an arrangement so peculiar and common in 
Hindu temples that even if I had had no previous 



information it would haw suggested to my mind some 
link of connection with India. Equally significant 
was another feature which caught my eye as I first 
walked round the place. On the eastern side of the 
temple there is an inscription, surmounted by some 
objects rudely sculptured; what these represented 
I could not tell, with the except; in of one symbol, 
which is a swastika. This had the four dots, one 
between each limb, which is, I believe, peculiar to 
the Indian swastika. 

The Hindu character of the temple, it will be 
seen from tin- evidence given, is not a 
matter of theory; the proof is complete 
in every way. The question at once 
presents itself, how long has it been so? 
To tins may be added the further inquiry 
as tn what circumstances led the Hindus 
to make this a place of pilgrimage, so 
very far away from their own country '. 

Colonel Stewart told me of the in- 
scriptions, and I hoped to bring home 
squeezes of them, but the day of my visit 
turned out to be windy. That, with other 
circumstances, prevented the results from 
being a success, and they cannot be pro- 
perly deciphered, a failure which I very 
much regret. It may be mentioned, as 
some excuse, that they are very rudely 
cut, and from the action of time the cha- 
racters are not free from encrustation. 
Professor Max Muller has seen the squeezes, also Dr. 
Post and Dr. Burgess. These high authorities ail 
agreed that they are in the Devanagari character, and 
they were able to make out some of the words, such 
as "Sri Gauassaya namah," "Sri Ramaji..." Dr. Post 
was inclined In date the form of the letters to the 
fourteenth or fifteenth century. Dr. Burgess, whose 
experience in India gives his judgment a claim to 
our trust, thought the forms of the characters would 
point to a date of about two centuries back. It 
should be here stated I brought home only about 
half-a-dozen of these rude squeezes, and there are, 
perhaps, about a, dozen more; the probability is 
that they are net all of the same date, so until all 
these inscriptions have been studied the furthe I 
back date which they can supply will remain an 
open question. Still, in spite of failure, something 
has been done; fur even if we (inly lake the date 
suggested by Dr. Burgess, which is the mos! modern, 
the temple has been Hindu for at leasl two cen- 
turies. Jonas Hanway, who visited Baku about 
130 years ago, says: — " Amongsl others is a little 
temple, at which the Indians now worship. Here 
are generally forty or fifty of these poor creatures, 
who come on a pilgrimage from their own country." 
That is all 1 chance to know that can be said as to 

date. Here it may be worth recalling the fact that 
there are Buddhists to the north of Baku, on the 
s '""" side of the Caspian. They are ,,,, bhe low 
ground north of the Caucasus." This is rather 
singular, but they are Tartars, Kalmucks of the 
Don. Being nomadic, they probably moved to this 
pari from some more eastern region of Central 
Asia, and brought their religion along with them. 

As to what brought the Hindus to Baku at 
first very little can be said. On the journey to and 
from the Afghan frontier we saw large and well- 



built caravanserais in ruins, ami what had been 
substantial bridges crumbling to decay. These were 
in regions which are now depopulated — devastated 
by the Turkoman raids. They are monuments of 
the commerce of the past. The people of India 
have always shown great commercial enterprise, 
and this no doubt brought many of them to Cen- 
tral Asia and the Caspian. In addition to these 
means of knowledge and connection, 1 maj hen 
repeat what Colonel Yule told me in relation to 
this subject, that there were in Marco Polo's time 
Kashmir fakirs about some of the Mongol I 
In the ninth chapter of Marco Polo it is stated I lial 
Tauris (now Tabriz), iii Aderbijan, was a " noble 
city." with a lame commerce, which brought mer- 
chants from distant places, and among those men- 
tioned is India. We have thus a I as to 
bow the Hindus may have be ome acquainted with 
the Sailed Fire al Baku. Still, this leavi 
in the dark as to how i hej mana ed to di pku e the 
( ruebres, who are general!) supposed to I 
the original possessors of the temple. 

It seems to me that the Ti mple of Jowalla 
Mukhi, in t he Kangra Valley, which is a sacred plai e 
of pilgrimage to the Hindus, must have had some- 
thin- to do \\ ith the o if the Surakhani 



Temple. When the Hindus learned that there was 
a temple of the same kind, although far away, 
they would look upon it as being identical with the 
one they knew. Colonel Stewart mentions that the 
priest he saw had been a priest at Jowalla Mukhi, 
and the Hindus applied the same name to both, 
only that they looked upon the Surakhani Temple 


as being the greater, which they expressed by 
calling it, " Jowalla. Jee." 

The temple at Baku is square in form, and open 
<>ii each side. In this it is unlike the usual Hindu 
temple, which is a cell, with an opening only on one 
of its sides. The openings were evidently intended 
for the purpose of letting the lire be seen all round. 
These openings are arched, and the whole is sur- 
mounted by what may be described as a slightly 
pointed square dome. This is the only feature 

which has any resemblance to Hindu architecture 
in the structure; the object in this case having 
been to reproduce the form of a sikret, or square 
steeple of the Hindu temple, but it is so low that 
it fails in its suggestion, and it is more like a dome 
than a. spire. The workmen of the locality must 
have been employed, and they have constructed 
the arch as well as the other details, with the 
exception of the dome, as they were in the 
custom of doing. It is a very rude, plain 
building, with no architectural pretensions. 
There is over the arch, on the eastern side, 
one stone with an inscription of about ten 
lines. This is surmounted by some rude figures, 
among which is the swastika, already men- 
tioned. What some of these objects are I 
could not determine; one may perhaps be 
a bell. The central object, over the swastika, 
1 I (ink at first to be a representation of the 
sun, but having procured a ladder to make a 
close inspection, I have doubts on this head. It- 
might be a vine leaf ; tint the sun is a more 
likely symbol to find on Hindu sculptures. 
Among the figures are some flowers, evidently 
given by way of ornament. On the floor of 
the temple is a square depression, and by 
means of a pipe in the centre the gas was led 
to the surface. In each of the four corners 
of the temple there is a small chimney; pipes 
conveyed the gas up to them, and when they 
were lighted along with the principal jet in 
the centre, the whole would produce the 
" I'aiieh-Agni," or Five Fires, an arrangement 
which the Hindus are familiar with. 

The temple is within an enclosure, formed 
of small cells, of which there are twenty-two: 
these were for the accommodation of the 
pilgrims. Over the doors of these are the 
Devanagari inscriptions, already referred to. In 
one ease there is a Persian inscription under the 
Devanagari one, and it occurred to me it might be 
a translation of the other. The. principal entrance 
through the enclosure was from the east. There 
is a kind of tower over the gate, with a room in 
it, and there are four chimneys on the top, simi- 
lar to those on the temple, which were probably 
lighted mi grand occasions. The whole structure 
has equal interest for artist and archaeologist. 



By m. h. SPIELMANN. 

I WAS a constant visitor at the Grosvenor Gallery 
when, in 1882, the first collected exhibition of 
Mr. G. F. Watts's works was held. Three years 
later, al the Birmingham Museum,! saw the pictures 
all — or many of them — once more, as well as packed 
crowds would permit. In the artist's own gallery I 
have studied them again and again, and have tnel 
many of them in local exhibitions, and examined 
them in reproduction limes out of number. I 
have often talked of them and of art with the 
master, and have watched him paint, and have, I 
believe, for some years past seen the majority of 
his pictures in progress of execution. 1 have read 
nearly all that has been said of them, critical, 
rhapsodical, and descriptive, and have mysell often 
contributed to the public consideration of them and 
of the artist. And yet, I confess, not until I walked 
through the rooms of the New Gallery and stood 


before this noble selection of the painter's work, 
did I quite realise, for all my previous knowledge, 
how great a man is this noble artist, how superb 
a painter: how lofty his sense of style, and how 
majestic, in many instances, his conception. Of the 
greatness of his art there can be no doubt, nor of 

ln's true position; nor to any of his generati 

it likelier that posterity will pronoum e the p ord 
reserved only for the worl hj : " I i and go up 

It. is not on tin 1 works of his later day that, 
his reputation as a painter, pure and simple, v\ ill 
rest. For during his second period lie] 

laid aside that form of technical i 

dazzles and delights in the gui e of ' de> teritj 
and adopted a broader manner, in which handling 
and manipulal ton — ii > > the mani- 

festal i i i be > on ciou lj Idlful craftsman an 



subordinated to the subject on which the artist 
would insist. Mr. Watts, indeed, stands alone in 
aeration. Nature intended him intellectually 
for a poet, as well as artistically as a painter, whose 
bard-like utterances are sometimes perhaps fitter for 
words than for pigment. But this development had 
not reached its irresistible point before the master 
had produced such canvases that, like it or not, have 

(from a Photograph by F. Holtyer.) 

sel up his name among the highest, and placed him 
beside the great masters of execution and colour. In 
this respect he is not to be judged by those works 
of thought and ethical aim by which he is, perhaps, 
best known to the present generation, who, for 
many years, have watched his artistico-intellectual 
pictures as they issued from his hand in which the 

painter-like quality in its appearance of re high 

finish is sacrificed to the main intention of the 

picture. Mr. Walls's view is obvious — he regards 

ot as an end but a moans: "the language 

of all the world," no doubt, but a language, when 

acquired, to he used for the expression of the 
conceptions which arise in the thinking painter, 
as well as in the thinking writer, whether poet or 
philosopher. For that reason, then— in the convic- 
tion (hat painting may he used for the satisfaction 
of cravings higher than the merely sensuous— he 
determined In eschew that accomplishment which, 
whether the manifestation of real talent, and even 
genius of a kind, or else of 
unfeigned vanity, attracts over- 
much the admiration of the 
public, and diverts attention 
From the more elevated intellec- 
tual qualities of the work. 

But when we regard the 
productions of his brush which 
were executed before the full 
have of his mature convictions 
moved him, not only as artist 
hut as a citizen, to the noble 
line to which he has so valiantly 
and so generously adhered, we 
are struck with astonishment 
that no greater recognition has 
been accorded to his purely tech- 
nical triumphs. Mr. Watts may 
regard these achievements with 
equanimity, and with but modi- 
tied satisfaction if he will: but 
technical accomplishment in the 
world of art will always maintain 
its ]. lender place when the rank 
of a painter is to he accorded. 
In some of these compositions, 
hung in the West Gallery, the 
artist, has touched, perhaps, the 
highest point of technical accom- 
plishment, and has triumphed 
in the painting of flesh — as in 
the Leicester " Fata Morgana," 
and in " Life's Illusions" — as no 
other English painter 1 know 
of, save Reynolds and, in small 
works, Etty, has triumphed be- 
fore. In addition, we have in these canvases that 
cjrandt allure, that sense of style, colour, composi- 
tion, ami line, that go to make a masterpiece; and 
to each of these, moreover, there is added that 
definite purpose of subject— that spiritual quality 
— on which the painter already insisted half a 
century ago, at the time he painted them. The 
first-named hears finishing touches that were ap- 
plied as late as 1888, and the latter, belonging to 
1849, is threatened with destruction, in conse- 
quence, perhaps, of the Italian ground on which it 
was painted, and perhaps not a little to subsequent 

(Engraved b'j 0. lacottr.) 



clamp. These two works, as showing Mr. Watts's 
supremacy in flesh-painting, deserve a pilgrimage 


and must be seen by those whi 

iiiini in ci' what lias been dime n 

all In themselves, 
would form a jusl 
English art. 

It must not be supposed, however, that they 
comprise all or even the highest qualities of this 
painter's art. For even greater subtlety in the 
flesh-tones we may look to " Bianca " — a picture which 
was painted from Rossetti's model, and which from 
the collection of the late Mr. C. H. Rickards passed 
into that of .Mr. Ruston. This brilliant bust, only 
less lovely than " ( Ihoosing " (which, curiously enough, 
is nut included in this exhibition), was painted in 
but for excellence of painting we may even go 
bark a quarter of a century earlier — to the artist's 
work \\ hen he was yet a youth. 

Indeed, in the South Gallery we find several 

i xecuted before " The Wounded Heron," 

the picture with which Mr. Watts made bis dibut 

at the A-cademj in L83 1 ? — not less than sixty years 

ago! — and which may here be found and admired 

for its modest conscientiousness, absence of display or 
sensational handling, and excellent tone. There is 
a little portrait of Mr. James Weale (1835) and 
another of a child ("Little Miss Hopkins," 1836), 
which, but for a certain lack of confidence, 
might fur masterly handling and purity of colour 
be compared with some of the smaller portraits 
by Hogarth. Between these small examples of 
boyish genius and the unfinished symbolic pic- 
ture of "Peace and Goodwill" of the present year, 
an extraordinary panorama of the artist's mani- 
pulative skill and imaginative power is presented 
to the eye. It cannot be doubted that the highest 
attainment of the painter's band — that band which, 


not even in bis most pi 
his earliest efforts to 

ecise an 
the pi 

d daintiest 
esent time 

work, from 
when his 


(Engrausd by W. Biscombo-Gardncr.') 



eightieth year is past, never condescended to the help 
of°a maulstick— is to he found in the West Gallery; 
hut the South Room contains not a few of his 
liotahle triumphs. Besides the Hawking pictures 
there, and the quaint portraits of " Lady Holland" 
(1843) and .Miss Cassavetti, the superbly dignified 
"Gladstone" (1865), which 1 believe I am right in 
saying was the earliest executed portrait of first- 
class importance of that statesman, there are the 


magnificent early "Tennyson" (1859) and the later 

executed in 1890 in the broader manner of 

rei eni years. There are i lie " Millais " (1871) 
and the opulent, though not quite so successful, 
" Leighton " ( 1890), the brilliant "Joachim," executed 
.it a time when the violinist wore no beard, now 
thirty years ago, and the "Marquis of Salisbury" 
of l s). We have the beautifully-drawn and ex- 
hj fell nicl ure of " Prayer " ( L87S) now the 
rty of Manchester; and the imaginative and 
romantic "Ophelia." This has been worked upon 
since it was first exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery 
in LS78, the year it was painted. Besides these 

there is the superb "Una and the Red Cross 
Knight" (1869) — a work to me as touching, for all 
its reticence, as Millais' "Yale of Rest" — and the 
sad and reproachful picture of London misery called 
"Under a Dry Arch." Of far later date is the 
beautiful half-length nude of "Uldra" (1884), one 
of the artist's most brilliant exercises in prismatic 
colour, for which the Scandinavian waterfall sprite 
gives him the motive. The sketch and the finished 
picture of "The Rider on the White 
Horse'" may profitably be studied to- 
gether; the impressive vigour and mas- 
siveness of the large work with its 
masterly drawing and brilliant hand- 
ling, and the smaller one superior in the 
purity of its colour and in the rarer 
poetic expression on the " Rider's" face. 
With the mention of the " View of the 
Carrara Mountains from Pisa" (1881), 
which displays not less knowledge of 
rock formation than of atmospheric 
effect and exquisite variety of colour, 
we may pass to the West Gallery, pre- 
pared for a still liner presentment of 
the painter's art — an expectation which 
will not be disappointed. 

Occupying the centre of the great 
wall, the celebrated picture of " 1'aola 
and Francesca" asserts itself magnifi- 
cently. It is a splendid specimen of 
Mr. Watts's art of fifty year- ago, per- 
haps even finer now than when it was 
painted, gaining nothing in its rare ini- 
pressiveness and dignity from the help 
of time. The subject has been handled 
many a time before, from Delaroche and 
Scheffer to Dore, but not one treatment 
of it that 1 have seen comes within 
measurable distance of this great work, 
cither for imagination, pathos, or poetry, 
composition, or even technique. Its 
destination, the reader will be -lad to 
learn, is the National Gallery, to which 
the present owner purposes to bequeath it. It may 
not combine in itself all of its painter's highest 
qualities, but there can be no doubt that it will 
maintain its position as one of the finest and most 
elevated works of the English school. Hard by 
hangs " Britomarl and her Nurse before the Magic 
Mirror" (187S), interesting as proving the artist's 
independence and originality, for, although he has 

executed SOllie liolf-i b i/i-ll pictures ilispiled by puds' 

works, he has never, excepl perhaps in the case of the 
•■ l'aola and Francesca," sought merely to illustrate 
poets' words In this instance, indeed, the picture is 
in reality a continuation, or, so to speak, a collateral 


MKe '™- 3 "" — - .i.-,!..,i. M :,; , ;,r:,: > '!:: ;::; , 1 : II :: i ;:::;;;„;;i 


(/» Me Collection of Joseph Raston, fjg, / 

./mho rrf.) 

Fata Morgana. Both Mr. V7atts's versions of Bo- canvases. Then the silenl peat of Mounl 

jardos creation .„ "Orlando [nnamorato" are here, (1885), rising in solemn dignity againsl th< 

""'. '"'■""•'■"' the two, in my op -that which the an Eastern night, while , U ah the 

artist presented to the town of Leicester beinginall solitude, reveals his deep , of the 

respects the finer composition and the finer painting, majesty of nature, while h wholly 

ihe two pictures ot "Orpheus and Eurydice" are dissimilar, though much more fanciful, is to be seen 



in his "Neptune's Horses" — an upright picture of 
the deep blue sea flecked with the foam of the 
breaking waves, which need but a moment's con- 
templation to realise iii them the forms of prancing 
horses: an idea which has since been carried out 

by Mr. Waller Crane and certain painters abroad, 
though it is no disparagement for them to say, 
ueither with the same subtle beaut)' nor with equal 

I tic touch, Opposite hangs the "Diana and En- 

dymion," in whose sleep the hunter-goddess — other- 
wise Selene, tbe Moon — deseeuded to embrace him, 

a [position which for grace of line, classic beauty 

of form, and charm of mystery, Mr. Walts has 

surpassed. Beside il is the fine "Venetian 

Nobleman." who is, in truth, none other than Mr. 

Watts himself. In this room, too, are some of the 

artist's finest representations of the nude — not only 
those to which reference has already been made, but 
also "The Three Goddesses" (of which the sculp- 
turesque treatment, the supreme representation of 
the ideal nude, and exquisite quality are beyond 
praise), and the more human 
figures of "Daphne'' ( 1 S 7 2 ) and 
"Psyche" (1880); and it is in- 
teresting to observe the emphasis 
with which Mr. Watts seems to 
have differentiated the human 
figure in the two classes of picture 
— the symbolic and the typical. 
With these the "Ariadne," a 
modern "old master," may profit- 
ably be compared. 

Among the works of graceful 
fancy is the daintily-conceived 
picture entitled "Good Luck to 
Your Fishing" (1889) — inspired, 
probably, by the little rogue in 
" Arion " (No. 117). The merry 
little sprite hovering blithely over 
the waves into which he has cast 
his line reminds the spectator 
of the amorini of Rubens or of 
Titian, and, painted in a rich and 
robust scheme of colour, possesses 
an interest of surface more often 
avoided by other painters than 

The portraiture in the same 
room is (in a level with the sub- 
jects. The full-length of " Lord 
Campbell" in his chancellor's 
robes and full-bottomed wig is 
a work to be remembered, a 
complete picture of senility with 
its air of ancient dignity and 
diminishing intellectual force 
than any 1 could quote : nearest 
to it is Houd on's "Voltaire" at 
the Comedie Francaise, yet not 
so subtle in character as this 
interesting work. Not less cha- 
racter and more "actuality" are to be found in 
"Sir William Bowman" (1865); and in "The Rt. 
Hon. Russell Gurney, Q.C.," we see the transition 
to the artist's later practice in portrait-painting. 
The portraits of Sir Edward Burne-Jones (1870), 
Mr. Swinburne, .Mr. Calderon (1872), Mr. Walter 
Crane, and Lady Garvagh and Lady Somers, and 
other portraits of ladies —whom none in England 
in this latter century has painted with so much 
grace anil beauty — are too well known to need 
further reference. Bui the attention of the visitor 

{Engraved by Jonnard.) 



may be called bo the portrait of the late Earl oi 
Aii lie, and, fur the purpose of comparison, to the 
exquisite "Ganymede," which hangs in the South 
Gallery, and which was employed, as may here be 
seen, for the fare of the boy in "The Childhood 
of Jupiter," or, as it was first named, "The Infant 
Hercules tended by Nymphs." Reference should 
also be made to the por- 
traits of Mi. Coustautine 
[onides, of his wife and his 
two daughters, if only to 
mention a circumstance the 
like of which must be rare 
enough in the annals of art: 
Mr. Watts has painted no 
fewer than five generations 
el the [onides family. 

In the North Gallery 
are gathered together the 
seventeen canvases which 
it is the intention of the 
artist to present to the 
Nation — pictures of thought 
and ethics, and, so to speak, 
of elementary metaphysics. 
These nobly-designed pic- 
i ures include those in which 
he lias striven, to use bis 
own wands, " to divest the 
inevitable of its terrors," 
and in show the Great 
Power " rather as a friend 
than as an enemy." These 
are the " Court of Death," 
with the attendant minis- 
ters, "Silence and Mystery;" 
"The Messenger," who 
summons the- aged to their 
rest; "Death Crowning 
[nnocence : " " Time, Death, 
and Judgment;" the well- 
known and of t-repeated (but 
always with variations) 
" Love and Death," and its 
tendei companion " Love 
and Life." Then "Faith"— the militant Faith of 
the Church, awakening to the folly of the perse- 
cution she has practised; "Peace and Goodwill," 
"For lie had Great Possessions," ■■The Dweller in 
the Innermost" — otherwise Conscience, or rather 
Geist — "The Spirit of Christianity," a somewhat ai 

imentary on schismati discord : " Jonah " 

hing ruin to the ungodly; "The Minotaur," 
the sensualist, and "Mammon," the god of vulgar 
avarice and insolent cruelly : " Hopi the anguine 

dweller in perpetual dawn: "Sic Transit," the 
end of human life, considered apart from the im- 
mortality life may make for itself; and the tine 
"Chaos," a picture which exhibits, perhaps better 
than any other, the monumental character of the 
artist's conception, while the forms obviously re- 
call his study of the Elgin marbles. 

All these pictures, 
painted with a view not 
purely artistic, are re- 
inforced by many others 
which show the artist in 
his strength — "The Rev. 
James Martineau," one of 
the finest of his portraits 
executed during the 'seven- 
ties ; " Sir Richard Burton," 
a most valuable sketch; 
"Love Triumphant," notable 
for its beauty of line as 
well as of thought : " Sun- 
set in the Alps," a fine 
example of colour, painted, 
if I mistake not, on a 
ground of gold; "After the 
Deluge," a brilliant study 
of colour and light ; and 
the trilogy of "Eve": her 
creation and nobility, her 
temptation and frailty, her 
fall and repentance. 

The direction of modern 
art criticism would leave 
few painters unscathed, 
either from the philoso- 
phical or technical points 
of view ; and the works 
of Mr. Watts, as here 
shown, present many op- 
portunities, not of carping 
but of conscientious dis- 
agreement here and there. 
But a collection such as 
this silences ordinary 
criticism, not only in ad- 
miration of the master, but from the sympathy 
he evokes. The man who produced these works 
is a king among painters: and if he has deliber- 
ately used his art for the expression of didactic 
ideas it is ungrateful, and foolish, moreover, to 
shut our eyes to the genius that would paint 
virtues as well as trees and dissections, and would 
rather delight our intellects and stir our con- 
sciences than confine bis message to sensuous en- 

Photograph by F. Hollyer.) 





TWO important works upon artistic anatomy 
have appeared almost simultaneously — one by 
Professor Arthur Thomson* of Oxford, the lecturer 
upon Art Anatomy at Smith Kensington; the other 
by an American artist, Mr. Ernest E. Thompson.f 
Professor Thomson, a master of science, has brought 
to bear upon his subject artistic instincts and 
accomplishments of a high order, and Mr. Thomp- 
son, primarily an artist, has subordinated his art 
to an eminently scientific spirit, preparing his own 
dissections and executing his drawings with a care 
that will give his win]-: a value beyond the circle for 
which it is especially designed. 

Until now the English or American art student 
who wished to attack human anatomy seriously 
was almost compelled to seek his guidance in French 
or German honks. The labours of Gerdy,} the 
father of what we may call the Science of Surface 
Anatomy, and those of Richer, the author of the 
most complete treatise upon Artistic Anatomy in its 
wider sense, § have left little for their followers to 
do. The admirable lithographic plates by Leveille* 
illustrating Fau's anatomyll have never been equalled, 
and are scarcely to he excelled, in their combination 
of accuracy and pictorial beauty: and in Germany 
the writings of Froriep,^] Harless,** and 
as well as the valuable essay of BriickejJ on the 
beauties and defects of the human form, serve as an 
admirable basis for study. In England, on the 
other hand, save for the learned handbook of Pro- 
fessor Marshall,§§ we have hitherto had little that 
could help the painter or sculptor. Professor 
Thomson, however, now gives us a volume that, for 
the English reading student, will take the place held 
by that of Professor Richer in France, hike Richer 
he has grasped tin' importance of explaining each 
characteristic feature on the surface contours of the 
body by its relation to the structures beneath, and 
to make the lessons more clear he has illustrated his 
description by a series of photographs from well- 

* "Anatomy for Artists," by Arthur Thomson. Oxford 

f ''Art Anatomy of Animals," bj Ernest E. Thompson. 
Macmillan and Co. 

I Gerdy, "Anatomiedes Formes Extdrieures." 1829. 

§ Richer, "Anatomie Artistique," with illustrations bj the 
author. L890. 

Fan, "Anatomiedes Formes Exterieures du Corps Huinain," 
with alius of plates drawn from nature by J. B. Leveille. 

^j Froriep, "Anatomie fiir Kiinstler." 1880. 
■ Harless, " Plastiche Anatomie." 2nd edition. L87G. 

ff Kollmann, " Plastiche Anatomie." 1886. 

J J Briicke,"Sch6nheit und Fehlerder menschelichen Gestalt.' 
Vienna ; 1891. English translation published bj Grcvel, I don 

^ Marshall, "Anatomy for Artists," with wood-cut illustra- 
tions after .1. S. Cuthbert. 1883. 

selected living models, showing the trunks and 
limbs in all their principal motions, each picture 
being analysed in an adjoining diagram which 
displays in outline the muscular anatomy of the 
part, lie has not gone quite so far as Richer, who 
attaches also a drawing of the skeleton form to each 
representation of the muscles and surface markings, 
but the result is little inferior. The descriptive text 
is admirably lucid, and especially adapted for the 
artistic reader by the careful avoidance of all un- 
necessary technicalities. The arrangement of the 
facts conveyed is simple and practical; the different 
portions of the frame are discussed regionally, the 
superficial appearances of each part are described 
and explained, the movements are figured, and their 
limits indicated by photographs and diagrams, and 
short essays are appended upon facial expression 
and proportion. The artist who seeks further detail 
may, of course, refer to purely scientific treatises, 
but he has here all that is essential for him to know. 
With such a guide the unsavoury work of dis- 
section is a superfluous part of the artist's training: 
indeed, a clear description, aided by an atlas such 
as that of Leveille or Richer, will teach the forms 
of muscle and tendon far more clearly than any 
Ordinary dissection of an average "subject" if the 
learner will take the trouble bo study at the same 
time his own surface forms or those of a suitable 
living model. He may then, in fact, comprehend 
the meaning of surface anatomy far better than he 
would be likely to acquire it from the long course 
of practical training of anatomical exercise which 
forms a large par! of the medical curriculum. 

Mr. Ernest Thompson's book is one of a different 
character. 1 1- is essentially an atlas of plates, 
drawn with a fidelity of detail thai will gladden 
the heart of 'I he anafoinisl pure and simple. 
The first sketch, a vigorous and original deline- 
ation of the arrangement of the fur on the 
wolf, is of especial interest, and ibis is followed 
by some other drawings of like object. The 
skeleton and muscular forms of the greyhound 
are next shown in various positions, then the 
muscles of the cat, the proportions and skeleton of 

the lion, the bones and muscles of the horse, wilh an 
excellent smies of sections of trunk and limbs to 
show the relation of the deeper structures to the 
surface; the muscles of the ox, the proportions of 
the sheep and camel, and finally a series of illustra- 
tions of the anatomy and plan age of birds, i en 
eluding wiih a wondei Eul geometrical plan ol I he 
expanded tail of the peacock. I! should be particu- 
larly noted thai the indications to the complex- 



muscular forms represented are printed upon the 

plate itself, a c session for whicli the hard-worked 

student will be especially grateful, and thai the 
anatomical nomenclature is made to coincide as far 
as possible with that adopted in the leading text- 
books of human anatomy. Thanks to the latter 
precaution, the learner who has acquired some know- 
ledge of the skeleton and myology of man will find 
but few difficulties in mastering the closely analogous 
arrangement of structures in the lower animals. 

The text is rich in material valuable to the 
artist, and especially to the sculptor, such as tallies 
of size and proportion, careful admeasurements of 
distance from one salient point on the surface to 
another, and a descriptive account of the principal 
muscular attachments in the animal selected as a 
type. It concludes with a bibliography of the 
subjects treated and a good index. 

The book is essentially original, although its 

plan was to some extent anticipated in the scarce 
and uncompleted work of Goiffon and Vincent 
("Memoire Artificielle des principes relatifs a la tidelle 
representation des Animaux, taut, en peinture qu'en 
sculpture." Alfort, 1779). Its plates are excellent, 
but their artistic value is injured to some extent by 
a process of reproduction which destroys the sharp- 
ness and decision of the fine lines of the original 
drawing. In a subsequent edition the author may 
be persuaded to include a few more skeleton forms 
and to add some outline plates showing the areas of 
attachments of the principal muscles upon the hones 
of the horse and the dog. 

The artistic student- may be congratulated upon 
the appearance of these two works, for they have 
made it possible for him to acquire in a few months 
more of the essential facts of surface anatomy than 
his predecessors in the Medicean age could gather 
in years of original research. 



IX the accompanying reproduction of a small bul 
well-known picture by Richard Wilson in the 
National Gallery, the readers of The Magazine OF 
Art have the opportunity of seeing the results 
obtainable by a new and most interesting process of 
reproduction in colour. It is a process that has for 
some time occupied the attention of scientific and 
artistic minds, but it must be called new, for it 
is still in the experimental stage, although most 
extraordinary results have been and are being 
obtained in Germany, America, and in this country. 
In the limited space at our disposal it is impossible 
to go into the history of the process, but some little 
account of the method of it is necessary to the 
understanding of its interest and value. It is the 
nearest approach to photography in colours that, has 
yet been obtained. 

Simply stated, the method is this. The picture 
— or it may be any coloured object or scene — is ex- 
posed to the camera and three negatives are taken, 
oiii- records the yellow, one the red, and one the 
blue lays reflected by the picture or object. This 
i paration of the values of the three primary colours 
is effected by the interposition of colour screens 
which prevent the passage to the recording negative 
of any but. the one colour. From these negatives 
blocks are made, one for each primary colour, ami by 
printing these blocks one over the other the three 
primary colours, which were separated by the process 
of photography, are brought together again and the 
final effect produced. 

Reproductions of works of ail by chromo-litho- 


graphy, good as the best may have been, have 
always been open to the objection that they lose 
the artist's drawing and colour, and fail to render 
the quality of the original work. The large num- 
ber of printings necessary, sometimes more than 
twenty, tend to overload the subject with ink, 
ami give to reproductions even of a water-colour 
drawing an over-coloured, heavy appearance, as of 
a thickly painted oil picture. By this new photo- 
graphic method the character of every work is 
retained. A water-colour looks like a water-colour, 
while, as may be seen in this reproduction of 
Wilson's picture, the fat oily nature of the painting 
is well suggested, while even such detail as the 
cracks in the surface are faithfully rendered, and the 
well-known grey-green tones of the painter will be 
easily recognised by everybody who is acquainted 
with his work. In justice to .Messrs. Andre and 
Sleigh, who produced and printed the blocks for 
this picture, it should be stated that the blocks 
were made under exceptional difficulties. The pic- 
ture had to be photographed at the National 
Gallery where they could not have the assistance 
of the electric light, and of Course they could not 

have if away from the gallery for purposes of com- 
parison. In spite of these and other difficulties, if 
will be seen that a very near approach has been 
made to a facsimile reproduction not only of the 
drawing, but of the colour and the quality of the 
picture, even to the discoloration in tin- sky. 

We shall show on a future occasion what, is 
possible in reproducing an object direct, from nature. 

(From the Painting by William de Gouve rfe Nuneques ) 


THE usual annual Exhibition of 
September was not held last y< 
former years been "held in turn at <i 
and Antwerp, and it 
was called the Trien- 
nial Exhibition in 
each of these cities. 
Last spring a Salon of 
Sculpture and Painting 
was opened at Liege, 
which iu future will 
lie the fourth of the 
Belgian centres that 
have the honour of 
giving a home to the 

newer WOrks of the 

Flemish masters. The 
exhibition henceforth 
will he quadrennial, 
since every four years 
one of these towns w ill 
boasl nf being the 
metropolis <>f Belgian 
ai t. This change was 
mil effected without 
some difficulty. There 
was some talk of strik- 
ing Brussels off the 
list, ami holding these 
official shows only in 
the provinces, since 
the capital is crowded (/w , for 

during the winter w ith 
l hr el ul i ami society exhibitions which 
a focus of sestheticism. Bui this sugg 
eagerly discussed, came !<• nothing, 
system survives, with the added stre 


Fine Arts in be afforded by the admission of Liege to the roll of 
ir. it has in towns entitled to hold Government exhibitions of art. 
hent, Brussels, At the present moment, Brussels is very busy 

about the Universal 
Exhibit ion of Fine 
Arts In In- hell there 
this year. The da ora- 
tion of the town i~. 
under consideration, 
ami the artists com- 
missioned In i u 
out are already on 
their mettle. Ii is 
proposed to adorn the 
Botanical Garden, 
which skirts one of 
the boulevards, with 
aboul fifty statues en- 
trusted tO a seole of 
sculptors all working 
in a definite scheme. 

Then i he decoral i< f 

the 1'ail (du Cinquan- 
tenaire) where the ex- 
hibition is to lie held 
will include the con- 
struction of a monu- 
mental fountain in its 
midst, an importanl 
work placed in the 
hands of the sculptor, 
M. Charles van der 
Stappen. The scheme 
, dull I have seen the modi I .1 a pei soual Favour 
promises grandly. The artisl represents what 
iu,i\ be called the History of Human Clmmeras. It, 
consists of five groups. In each is seen an ei lous 


1 1 1 , 1 1 . B r 11 1 ■ I 
»esl ion, though 

and the old 
ngth thai will 

der Stopper}.) 



( Ihimrsra rearing, as 
it svere, its fronl t'cel 
in the air; its neck 
proudly stretched, 
and its head raised ; 
its wings spread 
boldly to the sky. 
From each month 
rushes h torrent of 

By the side of 
the first < Ihimsera a 
child is sleeping; by 
the second dreams 
a maiden : sheltered 
by the third we see 
ii mother with an 
infant on her knees : 
the fourth protects 
mi did man lying 
near it. These four 
groups stand round 
the fifth, which oc- 
cupies the centre — 
a young man in the 
strength and prime 
of life is holding in 
the Chimsera, his hands clutching its wings, one arm 
round its neck, in the attitude and act of victoriously 

straining it. I 
oup and those 


(By Charles 

the mother and of 
the dreaming girl 

are especially strik- 
ing for the noble 
sense of the sculp- 
tor's art. The foun- 
tain is to be raised 
on a base of rocks, 
with no architec- 
tural ornamenta- 
tion. The mass will, 
however, be sym- 
metrical, the angles 
and arches of rough 
stone composing 
with the sculpture, 
in lines radiating 
from the cent ral 
group to the four 
others at their ex- 
tremities. The re- 
productions given 
with this article are 
from sketches. By 
the same artist we 
have also a bas-relief for the Art Union of Glas- 
gow, on the subject of " For Auld Lang Syne." 

lan der Stappm.) 





In the new Central Posl Office two frescoes by to the interests of the Worshipful Compui 
the painter Van den Bussche have been unveiled. Postmen and Telegraph boys. Ii would have been 
Our represents the reception given al Antwerp to better to have had the walls bare. 

(From the Painting by William de Gouue de Nuneques.) 

Major Dhanis on his return from the Congo; the The Club known as •■ I., SUlon" has been holding 
other is an allegory symbolising Posts and Trie- an exhibition of its members' work. This society 
graphs. There is absolutely no sense of decorative consists of a group of young painters, the besl 


fitness in these two works; one looks like an illus- 
tration borrowed from some magazine, the other 
like an ornate heading for a weekly paper devoted 

of \vl show their ndhesi >ur mil ive ma 

by the brilliancy and hannonj "i then colouring. 
One name i woi i of remark : ihn of Monsieur 



A. Bastien. We look for good work from him, 
and he certainly deserves mention in a foreign 
ir\ iew. 

Among the new men who during the last few 
years have attracted the attention of art-critics 
in Belgium, two may be named as noteworthy: 
Georges Minne, a sculptor, and William de Gouve 
de Nuueques, a painter. These two artists are 

disciples of our Gothic school. The sculptor's 
work is full of emotion, of deep, human sentiment, 
and sympathy. The painter chooses sometimes 
domestic and sometimes ideal subjects. As yet 
they both remain unknown outside the limits of 
their own country; but there is some talk of 
exhibiting the works of Minne and of de Gouve 
together in Paris. Emile Verhaerejj. 


SOME interesting mural decoration lias recently 
been done in Edinburgh— in the Song School 
of St. Mary's Cathedral; in the Catholic Apostolic 
Church; and, on a large scale, in the MacEwan 
University Hall. The latest scheme is that for the 
decoration of the chancel of St. James's Episcopal 
Church by Mr. W. Hole, U.S.A., whose fame as an 
etcher, and especially as an interpreter of Constable, 

its execution is that of a master, and, with his heart 
in his work, Mr. Hole has imbued it with a tine 
devotional feeling. The architecture of the chancel 
determined the leading lines of the composition, 
which shows on the upper portion of the wall the 
points "f two Gothic arches with tracery. Winged 
figures of dignified aspect at the junctions of the 
arches represent the four great archangels — Gabriel 

Millet, and Velasquez, has extended beyond the of the Annunciation, the Angel of the Agony bearing 
X, nt hern half of the kingdom. Asked to advise the a chalice, the Resurrection Angel with a trumpet, 

and the Angel of Heath. 

whose sickle has gathered 

managers of the church, of 
which he is a member. 
concerning the adornment 
of the chancel, he gener- 
ously offered t" undertake 
this work himself : and 
for three years the time 
that would otherwise have 
been employed in reading 
and recreation has been 
devotedly given to this 
labour of love. The part 
now completed is the north 
wall of the chancel and 
the spaces over the chancel 
arch and east, window. 
The subject of the paint- 
ing, the " Te Deuui," is 
executed in the process 
know u as ■■ spirit, fresco," 

and, to my mind, ! iv 

beautiful and joyous exam- 
ple of modern ecclesiastical 
decoration it would be dif- 
ficull to find in any church 
in I he land. Like the best 
of the old Italian work, 
this of Mr. Hole's is a 
ol Sal decoration. 
The design is admirable, 
the ability displayed in 

the Statue by Georges Minn 

not only the " bearded 
grain " but the flowerets 
of youth. < )n each side of 
the points of the arches 
are praising Seraphim, 
those above the organ 
chamber having musical 
instruments. The motto 
over this arch is, " To Thee 
all Angels cry aloud.'' In 
the circular tracery arc 
heads of Cherubim, 
suggestive of the contem- 
plative side of Christian 
worship; while in the 
lunettes below are repre- 
sentations ol' the ( rates of 
the New Jerusalem in the 
four orders of Christian 
architecture. Below the 
spring of the arches is a 
spacious oblong panel, ex- 
tending the whole length 
of the wall, in which an 
important part of the 
composition has been exe- 
cuted. In it pictorial em- 
bodiment has been given 
to " The glorious company 

ai;t movement. 






(89 IV. tfofe, ff.S.4 ) 

of the Apostles," "The noble army of martyrs," and 
"The Holy Church throughoul all the world," which, 
in the words of the hymn, praise and acknowledge 
the Triune God. Of these figures, all over life-size, 
there are between thirty and forty with their faces 
se) towards the altar. They are notable foi graceful 
draughtsmanship and individuality of expression. 
The Apostles are recognisable by their emblems ; the 
group of martyrs, headed by two of the Holy Inno- 
cents, contains several notable personages : while the 
"Holy Church" is represented by bishops, deacons, 
and other orders of the Eastern, Western, and 
African Churches, to symbolise its catholicity. The 
heads of several of the ecclesiastics are those of 
contemporary Edinburgh clergymen. The dado has 
a line design of vines and peacocks, which in paint- 
ings in thecatac bs symbolised immortality. Over 

the chancel arch appear an open tomb and figures 

illustrative of the verse, "When Thou hadsl over- 
come the sharpness of death Thou didsl open the 
Kingdom of Heaven to all believers." The colour 
scheme is harmonious and beautiful, and a telling 
effect has been sei ured by the lavish but skilful 
use of gold, so thai when the full light is on the 
picture il presents the appearance of a lovelj 
piece of mosaic. In the gilding the artisl acknow- 
ledges the assists he has received from the 

verger, Mr. Dall, a house painter, who asked I" 
the honour of being associated, in however 
humble a capacity, with a work designed to "make 
glorious" the sanctuary of this church. On the 
south wall of the chancel the "Te Deum" will 
he still further il u for this 

pari will include figures of the Evangelists, one 
of whom, St. James, is the patron saint of the 
church. W. M. Gil 




INHERE has recently been opened a competitive 
. exhibition of embroidery for ecclesiastical and 

(By Annie Walker. I 

domestic uses. The exhibition is held under the 
auspices of the English Silk Weaving Company and 

(By Trixit 0. Symington.) 

the Spitalfields silk Association, tin' main objects 
being to show the excellence in qualit') of pure, 

unweighted silks of home manufacture and their 
suitability as grounds fur all kinds of embroidery. 
The competition was divided into four classes ami 
judged by Mr. Lewis Day, who determined the 
awards and embodied his criticisms in a short 
report prefixed to the catalogue. In Class A. for 
design and weak, with the only restriction thai both 
must be by the competitor, Mr. I lay did not feel 
justified in granting the first prize. Nevertheless 
a panel by Miss Gibbons, showing most artistic treat- 
ment of what, strange 
to say, in the experience 
(if practical designers is 
found tn be an exceed- 
ingly difficult flower t" 
render decoratively in 
ornament, the lily. 
seems worthy <>f re- 
cognition as an 
achievement. Another 
panel contains by far 
(he must satisfactory 
treatment of thehuman 
figure in the exhibition. 
Fur the most part the 
figures are stiff and 
commonplace, withoul 
having any of the con- 
ven tional charac t e r 
thai should belong to 
them. Miss Syming- 
ton's Mermaid has 
decided style — the 
face surrounded by 
and silhouetted againsl 
lurks uf ruddy hail 
in a striking man- 
ner. A n un ti n ished 
specimen of work by 
Miss Spenser with a 
teazle, presages well, 
lor the colour is deli- 
cate ami harmonious; but the shield of pale rose, 
charged with a spread-eagle of gold and while 
plumage, draws t"it much upon heraldry. 

Class H. "for ecclesiastical embroidery," contains 
the greatest number of entries, stoles being the ob- 
jects chiefly chosen. Miss < hearing's stole, which won 
the first honourable mention, contains a well-designed 
shield with monogram, but. for the rest is some- 
v, hiii thin in design, notwithstanding that the effeel 
is heightened by plentiful use of seed pearls. Miss 
Studley gains the firsl prize with a stole the exei n- 
tion of which deserves a better design. The groups 

(By S. K. Yarnall.) 



nf figures at either end 
drawing. For decoration 
should have preferred 
Mrs. Yarnall's far less 
ambitious stole on 
dark-blue ground, with 
t hist Irs, t horns, a nd 
other symbolical orna- 
ments. Mis- A.Walker's 
burse in pale rose-colour 
and gold on a white 
ground is a harmonious 
and pleasing specimen 
of design and workman- 
ship. Another burse, 
with veil, on red, by 
Miss < !opp, shows con- 
siderable dignity and 
reserve in its simple 
yet bold and powerful 
design, with a large gold 
cross dividing it into 
four spaces and gold 
lays converging from 
the outer coiners. A 
chalice veil by Miss 
M. Villiers is excel- 
lent both in design 
and execution. Miss Alio 
seetine eold circles is can 

istinctly weak 


from orangi 

at ll 

and simple 


light yellow 

al tin 

■ Cur 
ied o 



(Bj Emil s 

C. Gibbo* 


s St 


of inter- 







plan, the quatrefoils within the circles erailatiug 

ii mities of the stole to 
k of the neck. 

In ( llass < '. a damask 
silk panel was pro- 
vided, to be worked as 
■ i ti si for excellence in 
e in In oidery. The in- 
genuity displayed by 
some workers in twisl ing 
incongruous forms into 
the beautiful damask 
outline is perhaps 
worthy of a better cause. 
The class for em- 
broidery by girls under 
the age of seventeen is 
certainly interest ing as 
showing promise, in 
some eases, not only of 
execution, but of design 
as well. Ainniie the 
objects not sent in for 
competition a set of vest- 
ments onEnglish damask 

silk, by Sister ( tra f 

Mah ei n. displays a par- 
> fcicularly original and 

decorative treatmenl of 
rphrey in plush applique. Altogether the loan 
■tiiin of ancienl and modern examples of embroid- 
ery forms a valuable supplement to the exhibition. 

A. Y. 



HE fire-resisting nature of the salamander is one "United Asbestos Company" will have rendered 
of the commonplaces of mythological zoology; signal service in introducing them to the public. 


an ,1 if the embossed wall- and ceiling-decorations As the "Salamander material is composed of the 
called after it be indeed true in the name, then the mineral fibre of asbestos, its in dm that 



ii is sanitary and at the same time absolutely proof apart from the printed description of advertisements, 
against fire. So far so good. But the quality of un- if his endeavour be to make them present to I he eye 
distinguishableness in appearance from perishablt the semblance of an inferior article, and if he suffers 



^ ^ - ^- . 




plaster moulding is less likely to commend it. one the virtues of his material to li<- unrecognised until 
would suppose, to common-sense. Doubtless the the melancholy event of a fire shall chance to reveal 
manufacturer knows his own business better than the them ? Granted that asbestos is not wanting in the 




artist can pretend to know it ; but the latter is not capability of being employed to artistic purpose, 

for ever dreaming, and in his matter-of-fact mood he surely the object of the manufacturer should be to 

i" inquire how the manufacturer ex- discover what the artistic properties are that belong 

o make known his ,vares in everyday practice, peculiarly to his material, and, having discovered, 



tn develop those 
properties in such 
a way as tn pre- 
serve its unique 
character. Lei the 
material not only 
be, but look, dis- 
tinct from every 
other, and so add 
the comfortable as- 
surance of security 
from fire to the 
sense of outward 
beauty. The de- 
signs are said to 
be the productions 
of leading artists. 
but (In not, how- 
ever, afford evi- 
dence of anything 
beyond average 
origin. They consist, for the most part, of combina- 
tions of well-worn details of Renaissance and later 


ornament. Among 
i hf ceiling-pat- 
terns those entitled 
" Elizabethan " ami 
" Strapwoi I- 
tin' inns! effective 
ami architectural 
in character; \\ hile 
i In- i'i iezes" Floral" 
ami " Old Floren- 
tine," the latter a 
graceful treatment 
nf natural forms, 
are desen ing of 
men tion. Th e 
wall-filling " Vene- 
tian Gothic " — 
though, by tin- 
way, it i- ueithei 
Y I- neti a n n o r 
< tothie, but rather 
riginal nineteenth century work— may 
A. V. 

bold and 

be singled out for commendation. 


THE most striking feature of modern art is its 
attempt to rid itself of old forms and tradil ions 
and to get at new sources of inspiration. In one 
thing the painter lias found freedom. He has dis- 
covered the plein air method of lighting his picture 
which is the great invention of modern art, and was 
never dreamed of by the medievalists, who always 
used a studio light for outdoor as for indoor subjects. 
It is but a few years since the classic statues of 
Greek and Rome were still the ne plus ultra of the 
i in M li 'i 11 sculptor, lie admires them to-day, but no 
longer makes them his ideal. He seeks his inspira- 
tion direct from nature instead of from the antique. 
In the same way the decorator has found that in 

natural forms he has a mil f suggestiveness full 

of freshness, of novelty, and beauty, and he no longer 
falls hack upon the antique items of decoration, 
the classic fret, the scroll, the anthemion. The 
" Grammar of Ornament " to-day has another basis 
than even in the recent time of Owen Jones. Not 
that the principles of ilecniai ii hi have changed; 
they are unchangeable. Temporary moods of taste 
and fashion may obscure them, but they cannot 
change them. 

Good decoration must always add to the bald 
constructive form the interest of beautiful lines, 
forms, ami colours, and of the individuality of the 

decorator. The mere application of natural forms as 
a photographer would give them decs not produce 
decoration. Natural forms must be adapted to the 
purpose I'm which they are intended by an artist who 
feels their harmonies, who realises how certain lines 
and forms and colours can be applied to certain sur- 
faces without interfering with, while enhancing, 
the beauty of the original construction. The gift of 
seizing the spirit of natural form and adapting it i" 
a given end is the genius of the decorator. It is the 
mind of the artist that constructs the decoration. 

The decorator must, therefore, be able to make 
good, spirited drawings direel fn mi nature, and in put 

them tu a g I use w hen he has made i hem. The 

laitcr task is by far the more difficult of the I wo. 

Hundreds of students can make a v I drawin 

nature U>v one who can use the drawing \\ hen i 

.Messrs. Chapman and Hall are in the course of 
a serial publication of a work, " Plants and then- 
Application I" < hnameiii," i dited bj M.I 
( rrasset, which has for its objei : the bricl 
this difficulty. M. Grassel is a desigi 
reputation, who has h id yeai of experience in 

teaching his subject. His I k, which is a verj 

admirable consists of reprodm I ion oi draw- 
ings from nature of plant forms, whii 
companied by designs made by his students showing 



tin- application of these natural forms 1" decora- 
tion of various kinds. We had occasion to notice 
last yeai a rerj good handbook on the same suhjecf 

(F<om "Plants ami Their Application to 0"- 

by Messrs. Lilley ami Midgley, issued bj tin- 3ame 
publisher ; but the present work is of a sumptuous 
character in folio form ami printed in colours 
throughout. Many of the designs are very beauti- 
ful, but their use to the student is in seeing the 
material from which the designs have been evolved. 
It is a work that should be in every an school, ami 
its drawings from nature, apart from the designs, 
I) of m eat sei \ ice to even decorator. E. 1'.. 

THE chief matter for marvel on examination of 
the splendid memorial to Meissonier * issued 
by Mr. Heinemann is the good fortune and good 
management whereby he has 
been enabled to bring together 
reproductions of so many of 
the painter's principal works 
ami most notable studies — in 
these days of jealously guarded 
copyright a feat of which any 
publisher may justifiably be 
proud. These reproductions, 
moreover, whether in photo- 
gravure, in colour (by tone 
process), or by the ordinary 
half-tone blocks, whether re- 
presenting original pictures, 
sketches, or studies — for 
composition, figure, horse, or 
accessories— constitute as an < n- 
senible one of the most success- 
ful collections of any master's 
works brought together within 
recent years. No one can read 
this book and study its prints 
without forming a very fairly 
accurate idea of the painter's 
character, and of the scope, 
the merits, and the limitations 
of his art. For all that the 
volume is a portly and a noble 
one, the text cannot claim 
equal importance with the 
illustrations. M. Vallery 
Greard's essays and reminis- 
cences are excellent so far as 
they go, eulogistic and appro- 
ciat ive. Perhaps they area little 
too appreciative — just as the 
younger Alexandre I luraas and 
other friends of the decease, I 
painter were influenced by 
their admiration of the man. 
and perhaps a little blinded by 
the very familiarity with him 
which they enjoyed. What 

we miss in the 1 k is that 

fact and detail of the artist's life 

biography can give the reader 

M. Greard, through his 

hi. ii -hallim 

without which in 

all he wants t,, know. 

clever translators, succeeds nevertheless in drawing 

tm us an accurate enough portrait of him who 

was for many years the official head of art in 

' ■■ Meissonier : His Life and HisArt,"byVallery CO. Greard. 
Wuli extracts from 1 1 i- note-books, etc. Willi ::s plates and 
23G text illustrations. (London: Heinemann, 18970 


France. Hi.s weakness and his foibles notwith 
standing that the author seems not to realise them — 
become in a meat measure apparent to the reader: the 
inatter-of-factness of his 
art, the pathetic yearning 
after that creative im- 
agination which he never 
quite succeeded in evolv- 
ing, the simple philosophy 
he thought so profound, 
the genre painting he mis- 
tools for " history," the 
vanity that was to him 
bul self-appreciation, and 
the amazing universal 
popularity he translated 
into the acclaim of real 

We d I intend to 

underrate Meissonier, al- 
i hough we are convinced 
that his true place in 
art is far below the 
estimation which has 
hitherto been formed of 
him. < in the contrary, 
we are si rongly of opinion 
that lie is and ever will 
be a great figure in the 

world of ai t, a w holi iome 
influence especially in these 
daj s of i ransition, expi i 
men!, ami love of novelty. 
For such a reason this 
volume lias a value so much 
greater than the vast ma- 
jority of I ks published 

upon art that it should be 
placed within reach of 
every student and every 
man of taste, for il is a 
life's protest against that 
neglect of drawing which is 
thecurseofinodei a prai i ii e 
To the minor errors oi 
the book we need not refer. 
Although the list of en- 
gravings from Meissonier's 
works is singula] ly incom- 
plete and in some i 
incorrect, the elaborate clas- 
sified list of his picl tires, 
water-colours, dra w i ugs, 
etchings, and book illustra- 
tions is by itself a notable 
and valuable achievement, and the volume is well 
worthy of a success commensurate with the great 
care which has been taken in its production. 




[For "Regulations," see The Magazine of Art /or November.] 

[IN] zingg's "port of Naples." — I have an en- 
graving of the " Port of Naples." I am nol sure 
whether it is from a painting, but it is signed 
Mettay — and A. Zingg. I should be greatly obliged 
it' you could give information about it. — James 

Mai ADAM. 

i* m The print in question is one of a pair, 
of which the "Gulf of Naples" is the other. 
They were executed after the pictures of Pierre 
Mettaye, who, born in Normandy, became the 

pupil nt' Puncher in Palis, lie fore lie proceeded to 
Rome. From tin' latter city Mettaye returned 
io Paris, where he became a member of the 
Academy. He was an extremely versatile artist, 
gaining special favour by liis sea-views, executed 
in the style of Vernet. He died in L750. A. 
Zingg was born at St. Gall in 1734, and was 
pupil of Johann Rudolf Holzbach, in Zurich, 
and of Aherli in Paris, and for seven years 
of Wille. The Elector of Saxony railed him 
to Dresden, where he was created Engraver to 
the Court. He died as late as 1816. 


inform me (1) How does Paul Potter sign his pic- 
tures ' (2) Did he paint a landscape with cows called 
" Farm— Antwerp " ? (3) How does Salvator Rosa 
sign his pictures? (4) If behind a picture is found 
in paint " Farm — Antwerp 

P. Potter 1671" what may we con- 
clude '. (■">> What is the value of a moonlight by 
Pether ? (0) Did Volaire paint an "Eruption of 
Etna " 1 .1. WALMSLEY. 

3*3 (1) Potter usually sinned — "Paulus Potter 
f. 1652" — or whatever the date of picture might 
be. Less often " 1'. Potter." 

(2) He painted several pictures which might 
fairly be fitted with Mr.Walinsley's suggested title. 
(.'!) Salvator Rosa's monogram was an R wiih 
an S across it: but the S was not written hack- 
wards as our correspondent suggests in the 
monogram he sends. 

i 1) With such an inscription we should cer- 
tainly conclude that the picture is a forgery : for 
Pottei died in L654 

(5) It is against our rule to give information as 
to the present value of pictures, hut we may say 
that, moonlight pictures by Pether (who was 
famous foi 1 his renderings of this particular sub- 
jecl ) were knocked down in 1802 for two guineas 
aid seven guineas, and in 1819 for eleven guineas. 

(6) We arc not aware that Volaire ever 

painted an "Eruption of Etna." On the other 
hand, his " Eruptions of Vesuvius "are fairly com- 
mon; one of them may he seen in Vienna in the 
rather strange collection known as the " K. K. 
Akademie der bildenden Kiinste." It represented 
the eruption of the 14th May, 1771. The two 
Volaires, father and son, rejoiced in painting 
conflagrations of all sorts. 

[20] A PICTURE OF ALBERT MOORE. — 1 should be 

glad to know if Albert Moore's water-colour at South 
Kensington Museum, entitled "An Open Book," has 
been reproduced either in a magazine, a hook, or by 
photography. Any other information in respect to 
it would he welcome. — A French Artist, Paris. 

# * # The drawing in question — "The Open 
Book" — is reproduced as a full-page in Mi". 
A. L. Baldry's "Albert Moore: His Life ami 
Work" ((i. Bell and Sons), [t was exhibited at 
the Royal Water-Colour Society's Gallery in 
1884, and measures 11| inches by 9} inches. 
This beautiful drawing will lie recognised as a 
repetition of, or study for, the leaning figure on 
the right in the well-known picture "Reading 
Aloud," shown at the Royal Academy in the 
same year. There are considerable differences 
in details of colour and pattern. 


Mr. Waller Sard would lie very much obliged if he 
could he informed where he can obtain an engraving 
or full-length print of Sarasate from the painting by 
Mr. Whistler. 

£*„ The portrait, we believe, has never been 

engraved for separate publication, 1ml a w 1 

engraving was issued in The Magazine of Art 
for L885 (p. 460). 

"VENUS ATTIRED BY THE GRACES." — Can any of your 
contributors inform me what has become of two 
pictures by Guido, formerly in the National Gallery, 
entitled "Perseus and Andromeda" ami "Venus 
attired by the Graces"? They were presented 
io the Gallery in 1836 by King William IV. The 
dimensions of each, according to a catalogue in my 
possession, were 9 feet 3 inches by 6 feel inches. 
The "Venus" was engraved by Sir P. Strange. — J. 
Crispin, 12, Celia Road, Tufnell Park. 

*% These two pictures have been on dan 
for many years past since 1862 in fact — to 
the National Gallery of Ireland and National 
i ..illei \ i.f Scotland respectively. 




mansueti? — The new picture by Giovanni Mansuefci 
— ;i " Symbolic Representation of the Crucifixion " — 
has beeu hung in the Octagon Hall of the National 
Gallery, and is inscribed " B. 14 . . ? D. 15..?" 
Are this painter's dates so much a matter of con- 
jecture that the authorities can give no information 
mure precise ? — ,1. HORSACK. 

*** The details of Mansueti's life are little 
known. The dates 1450-1500 are usually 
accepted as the approximate years of the 
painter's birth and death. His pupilage, his 
principal work, and similar facts are duly to be 
found recorded: but so much uncertainty exists 
that the National Gallery authorities are very 
properly unwilling to commit themselves to 
anything move precise than the vague label 
referred to. 

any of your readers inform me who now possesses 
the picture named "The Judgment of Solomon," 
painted by Benjamin Robert Haydon, and 1 believe 

made a present of to Sir Edwin Landseer ? — IJ. E. L. 


[IB] Sagittarius.- -The reply to Miss Beatrice 
Thompson's question dues not appear quite complete. 
It certainly settles the question of the archer beinc 
King Stephen's badge — by proving it undetermin- 
able; and it gives us information as to other examples 
than those she quotes. But it appears to me that 
the main point has been missed — that is, the reason 
for the carving of the Sagittarius upon ecclesiastical 
buildings. This is simply that the archer is sym- 
bolical in Christian art of Divine vengeance — of pun- 
ishment belated perhaps, but certain in its advent 
and sudden in its effect. For that reason it was 
placed never near the ground, but high up where the 

ranging eyes of the worshippers might see it such 

as on the capitals of columns, or in the keystone of 
arches. Indeed, it is to be noted that the keystone 
of an arch has, in architecture, borne the name of 
"sagitta;" but I am not prepared to affirm that 

there is necessarily any absolute c ection in the 

circumstance besides coincidence. - X. K. 



e point. to 



■ Query and Answer [Hi] 
follow ing note : Since bhe 
time of the earlier William Sharp, the English 

school has produced many able ex] enls of the 

art of Line Engraving upon copper-plate. The 
work of such men as <;. T. Doo, Vernon, Graves, 

and Lumb Stocks, has never been equalled for 
vigour and solidity by that of any Continental 
school. Although the burial service has been read 
over this ait by a prominent journal quite rei i mi\ 
the function was premature. The art has mi I manj 
competitors of late, but signs are not wanting thai it 
will survive the contest. The virile sweep of the 
-lave,- line— with its sparkling lights in the midsl of 
shatlows — appeals too strongly to the refined sense 

"I' tli" aiiisi in allow of us extinction. The two 

book-plates reproduced in eon bion with these notes 

are designed and engraved bj Mr < lharles Naish 

and are earnesl attempts to carrj il ng the g I 

traditions of English line engraving. The di 

bavin- upon a ribbon the legend, " Ai - ai ■ est," etc., 

is the book-plate of bhe artist, and i- already engi 

The other reproduction the' I k-plate of the artist's 

brother - is copied from the design, i he cop] ei plate 
ol which is now in progress. Both plates consisl 
of suggestions of phases and incidents m the lives 
of the owners, and, although ii is uol needful thai 
we should supply the key, we take bhe opportunity 



of commending this motive in the designing of 
book-plates. The pictorial symbols of college days, 

f/i s/gni I and Engraved bu ' Naieli. ) 

\-q] of favourite recreations, authors, artists 

iincl composers, are as fragrantly reminiscent as the 

- of spring flowers. The artist, taken thus far 

into tli'' confidence of his client, needs not t" cudgel 

his brains for a leading motive, nor— what is far 
WO rse— to hunt through a heap of "specimens" in 
order to Hud the materials 
ha- a second -hand design : 
fur, by virtue of his ar- 
tistic sense, there, arises 
before his mental vision a 
suggestion which his special 
training and accumulated 
studies enable him to em- 
body in the form of a fit- 
Ling and harmonious design. 
All the details contained in 
the two designs immediately 
before us are taken from pen- 
and-ink studies from nature 
ami still-life. So long as our 
designers work in so con- 
scientious a spirit, and due 
appreciation is accorded, the 
future of the art is assured. 

■ A Bradford Art Student," 
referring to the article in 
our < Ictober number, ! What 
South Kensington is Doing 
and remarking on the fact 
that nine of the twelve gold 
medals awarded were given 
for modelling, writes : — 
'Hundreds of art students 
must feel that this is un- 
fair, lor there are many who 
never touch a piece of model- 
ling clay, merely because they 

wish to speeialise some other 

branch of art. If the depart- 
ment examiners are going to 
award nine of a maximum 
twelve gold medal- for model- 
ling, our art must develop a 
very one sided aspect. The 
reason for this preponderance 
of awards for one subjeel is 
doubtless from a desire to en- 
courage what is considered a 
neglected branch of art, and 
also to influence the metal 
workers. But should it not. 
be home in mind, by those 
who make the awards, that 
all branches of art should he considered equally '. 
It seem- to me that the giving of the lion's share of 
the highest awards to one subject must necessarily 
work to the detriment of ether important studies." 



The Royal "IT is long since the Creswick competition 
Academy A nas produced so high an average of work ; 

nze- lving. ^ faft^ we have never before seen such pro- 
mising effort in connection with this prize. Naturally, 
there was a great deal that was poor— some that appears 
almost hopeless — but at least three canvases displayed 

a skill and knowledge of picture-making beyond what 
experience led us to expect. Mr. Francis Wells's i n- 
dering of the subject, "A Farm," is just what such a 
school piece should be: frank, solidly painted, realistic, 
with no attempt at effect and no effort to do aught but 
to show the examiners how much he knows and what he 
can do. The sky is not only very tender : it is a truthful 
transcript nf nature and thoroughly in keeping Mr. J. Y. 
Hunter's "Painting of a Figure from the Life" easily won 
the medal, and Mr. Eland's painting of a head showed equal 
excellence in drawing and brush- 
work. Mr. A. D. Davidson won 
the Armitage prize and bronze 
medal with a very fair design, 
not without a genuine dramatic 
sense of the subject, "Adam and 
Eve driven out of Paradise;" 
but the competition was other- 
wise considerably below the 
average. Miss Rose Livesay's 
"Design for the Decoration of a 
Portion of a Public Building"— 
to wit, an unoccupied lunette in 
the refreshment -room of the 
Royal Academy— was by far the 
best in a rather poor yen-. The 
subject was "Winter," and was 
handled by Miss Livesay not only 
with intelligence but with dis- 
tincl originality ami ingenuity, 
though not with sufficient ability, 
apparently, to secure the com 
mission to carry it into execution. 
Mr. Charles Beacon's set of 

three models of a figure from the lifi were admirable, 

illy the draped female figure; ami ii is mattei for 

regret that the rules of tin- Aeademj prevent us from 

placing a reproduction of it before oui readei The arelvi 

tectural competitions seemed to awaken little enthusiasm 
among the students. The Landseer Scholarship in Paint- 
ing was won by Mr. Morris Bernstein. Sir Edward 
Poynter's address to the students — introductory of 
himself, laudatory of his immediate predeci oi 
generally exhortatory -was an admirable perform tnce, tut 1 

of spirit, good sen e, and i 1 feeling, ami 

the best impression. 

'I'm: following seven pictures have 
A irthe° nS been l"'^" 1 '-" 1 >" the ^tion by 
National Gallery. the Misses Lane : " Portrait ot Miss 
Gainsborough " (No. [,482 . "Two 
Dogs, Tristram ami Fox"(No. 1,483); " Studj oi an 
Old Horse"(Xo. 1,484); " Two Landscapes " (Nos. 
1,485 and 1,486), all by < rAINSBOROl on. I ..,■. 
been hung in Room XVI., forming a valuable 
addition to the works of the Early English School. 
A sketch in monochrome, also by Gainsborough, 
•' Rustics with Donkey," ha- been hung in the East 
Octagon Room (No. 1,485). The other picture in 
this important gift is a" Portrait of Gain 
In, Zoffan-j i No. I, is;. Room XVI.). Tu 
amples of the Venetian School— portraits o 
ators— have been hut by the South Ken 
authorities in exchange foi a collection ol n iti I 
drawings lent by the Gallery in L895. "A Winter Si 

by Hendrick Avercamp (No. I 179, R n XL), and "A 

Portrait of Gilbert Stuart," by himsell (No. 1,480, 
Room XIX., have Loth been purchased from the Lewis 
Fund. Mr. Martin Colnaghi has presented '-Tie Philo 
sopher," by Cornelius I'. Bega (No. 1,481, Room \l i 
"TheWind on the Wold, by George Mason, an. I i 
Last Day in the till Home," by Robert B. Martini w , 
have been accepted for the Tate Gallery. 


i/lim Mus, 

Tin principal recent acquisition to the 

collection ol \ tioi il P is Lonn 

I. s admi Sit Richard F. 

Km ton.' the ,yilt of the ail i I I 

The National 
Portrait Gallery. 



purchased the following portraits: "Dr. James Bradley, 
Astronomer-Royal," "David Cox" (pencil, dated 1855), 
"Sir Samuel Garth " (physician and poet), attributed to 
Kneller, and a large drawing of a group of eminent men 
of science in L807 8. The idea of this group originated 
with William Walker, the engraver, the arrangement 
of the figures was due to Sir John Gilbert, R.A., and the 
actual drawing was the work of .). F. Skill; the finishing 
touches were given by Walker and his wife, the latter of 
whom was a miniature painter. Other additions to the 
Gallery are a marble bust of "Sir Henry Holland, M J>," 
by VV. Theed; and portraits of "Chief Justice Sir John 
Bankes," "Sir Henry Halford, M.D.," by Sir William 
Bi ei hey, R.A. ; "John Curwen," by W. Gush; "Field- 
Marshal Sir William Maynard Gomm, G.C.B." as Con 

stable of the Tower, by James Bowles ; and a miniature 
of I lean Stanley. 

„„ „ „ . An important addition has been made to 
south Kensing- ., ., . , . . . 

ton Museum. collection of ancient musical instru- 

ments at South Kensington. The Flemish 
virginal, of which an illustration is given on p. 227, is 
regarded as the finest example of such instruments in 
existence. Hitherto it has been in the possession of M. 
Terme, the Director of the Lyons Museum. It is in ex- 
cellent condition for a delicate object more than three 

1 Lred years old— as shown by the date, L568, carved upon 

it. It is of finely grained walnut wood, beautifully carved 
011 the front with warriors, masks, and trophies of arms. 
The side., have cartouches, in the centre of which are hug, 
masks. At the buck or top of the cover is the shield of 
arms of William, Duke of Guelderland, Cleves, Berg, and 
Jiilick, and Count of Mercke and Ravensberg, with inter- 
lacing bands on either side. The interior is similarly 
carved with interlacing bands ami floral ornamentation"; 
there being a central raised boss carved with the subjeel oJ 

Orpheus charming the wild Leasts. This remarkable in- 
strument was exhibited at the Brussels Exhibition in 1880, 

" '' excited ureal interest, and was illustrated in 

"L \it Ancien a ['Exposition Nationale Beige." Qlustra- 

1 ' the instrument are all to l,e found in the <;,,., ti, 

d< Beaux-Arts, in the Rewu des Arts Decoratifs for 
I 83, and in Havard's " Dictionnaire de lAmeublement." 

It has been open to purchase for some time, and was < 

during the past ten years brought to the hammer, but the 
biddings did not reach the limit of the reserved price, which 
is believed to have been 30,000 francs, or £1,200 of our 
money. By judicious management, the South Kensington 
authorities have completed their purchase for 20,000 francs, 
or actually for a little under £800 ; and the interesting 
work is now to be seen prominently placed in the Museum 
collection ; and not far away from it is another handsome 
instrument, the virginal which was played upon by yueen 
Elizabeth, who is known to have been a skilful performer. 
National Gallery, The Re l 30rt of the Commissioners and 
etc., Scotland. Trustees of the Board of Manufacturers 
concerning the Institutions for which they 
are responsible does not contain very much of interest. 
The only addition to the National Gallery reported during 
1895 is the painting of 
" The Abbotsford 
Family," by Sir David 
Wilkie,B.A .purchased 
at the cost of £840. 
The number of visitors 
shows a considerable 
increase over the pre- 
vious year, the number 
recorded being 87,788. 
The National Portrait 
Gallery received under 
the will of its lately- 
deceased curator, Mr. 
J. M. Gray, the sum of 
£2,000, being the resi- 
due of his estate, the 
interest of which is to 
be applied for the pur- 
chase of portraits of 
eminent deceased men 
and women of Scottish 
birth. Curiously enough 
the curators of both 
galleries died during the year ; Mr. Gourlay Steell, 
U.S.A., of the former gallery, being replaced by Mr. Robert 
Gibb, R.S.A., and Mr. Gray by Mr. James L. Caw. For 
the Museum of Antiquities application was made to the 
Treasury for an annual grant for the purchase of objects, 
which was replied to by placing the sum of £200 in the 
Estimates for five years, commencing with 1S95-6. 

r . u-i- The exhibition of the collected works of Lord 

Exhibitions. T ,,,!,,., 

LiElGHTON at the Koyal Academy is as complete 

as need be, in order to judge of and appreciate the wonder- 
ful result of his life's work— wonderful alike in quantity, in 
quality, in elevation of aim, and in brilliancy of achievement. 
It must be said at once that from this trying ordeal— the most 
searching to which any artist can be subjected— Leighton 
emerges if not with triumph, certainly with honourable 
credit. So far from the parallel exhibition now being held at 
the New Gallery militating against him, as some men feared, 
it enables us the better to judge of him. It confirms the 
verdict that he was not so great an artist as Mr. Watts, nor 
imposes so great a personality upon the spectator. The 
pictures of Mr. Watts come nut to you and pervade the 
very atmosphere of the rooms they hang in. Such spirit as 
there is in Leigllton's works requires the spectator to go to 
them and seek it out. But in truth of spirit there is not 
very much ; the work is essentially decorative, and for that 

reas laintains its place upon the walls, as well as its rank 

in the art achievement of the country. Leighton, whose 
catholicity in art, like his sympathies and his knowledge, 

(Recently erected in the La 


emboarg Gardens, Paris. From a Photograph by Barrier, Pan 

See p. 232.) 



was extremely wide, set down for himself rules formulated 
by that very width of knowledge which became to him 
limits and restrictions. These were not so much bonds about 
his hands as laws cheerfully to be obeyed. He was probably 
then,,,,! learned painter this country has produced in the 
century, and his work became in one. sense rather a scien- 
tific display of art than art itself. This view must have 
been taken by the Germans when in their Universal Art 
Exhibition they awarded to Millais the gold medal for art, 
and to Heighten the gold medal for science; indeed, if we 
were to look for an analogy among men of letters, we might 
compare Millais to Hooker, and Leighton to Addison. As 
we walk round the galleries, therefore, we clearly see the 

restrictions of Leighton's art, but, it is to be observed, 
think none the less of the artist for having set up for him 
self these limitations. Here, indeed, is one source of his 
strength. Self-control, self-restraint, acquaintance with all 
the rules of the game, and working strictly in accordance 
with them ; reverence for tradition, with independence 
enough to allow himself just so much play as he considered 
strictly legitimate— these are qualities which proclaim 
themselves, and which must lie taken into full consideration 
in estimating the fruits of his career. If the spectator is 
surprised- as he assuredly will be— at the high average of 
Leighton's work, it is that within later years at least, a 
certain mannerism of waxy sweetness and grace, and at 
times a certain diminution of vigour and virility prepare 
him For an aggregation rather of the weaker than of the 
stronger pictures. But Leighton's highest note is so re- 
peatedly struck that the average elevation of excellence, 
coming ;i a surprise, will silence many of those critics who 
carped at him when he die, I. 

The Millais wall at the Portrait Painters' Show was 
unite enough to render a visit, to the Grafton Gallery im- 
perative, but beyond that and the Watts portrait there v ere 
many fine pictures well worth seeing. Mr. Guthrie's por- 
trait of "Alexander Sinclair, Esq.," is a noble, dignified 
picture, and there have been few sweeter groups exhibited 

lorn y years than Mr. Jacomb Hood's portrait of "Mrs. 

Fox and her Children." The lady's face is mosl beautifully 

[minted, and the whole compositi idmirably balanced and 

charmingly carried out. Mr. Symonds' "Stafford Allen "is 

a very plucky picture, the contrasts between the colour of 
the rabbit and the boy's dress and flesh being admirably 
rendered. Of the President's work we like best the lady 
with the china bowl. The lighting is remarkably good, 
quite an inspiration, and the absence of the usual deep 
shadow on the cheek a very happy result. Mr. John 
Collier's work is always conscientious, full of pains, and 
possesses a bold freshness all its own. Mr. Lorimer's 
portrait of Lord Lindsay is undoubtedly strong, and we 
were glad to renew our acquaintance with the rich 
colour-scheme in the portrait of the Bishop of London. 
Mr. Llewellyn's "Master Merton," Mrs. Waller's "Lady 
Marjorie," and Mr. Walton's "Master Mylne" are all ex- 
cellent pictures. The pastel portrait 
of M. Helleu helped to make the 
name of the exhibition. We all knew 
M. Helleu as an etcher, but many did 
not know that he understands all the 
value of paste], and appreciates its 
beauty and its limits. 

We congratulate the Society of 
Miniaturists on their pluck in con- 
trasting their own work with that of 
the great masters at the show at the 
Grafton. The old ones are superb, 
and as they represent not only the 
great masters but many of the lesser 
men, such as Wood, Sullivan. Collins, 
Spencer, Hare, Grimaldi, and Smart, 
there is ample scope for excellent 
teaching. Our modern miniaturists 
have one great lesson yet to learn, 
and that is how little to delineate and 
how much to suggest. They have, 
many of them, quite evidently been 
trained by colouring photographs, 
anil all the bad habits SO induced 
must be broken off. The exhibition 
is a creditable one but monotonous. Mr. Lloyd seems 
to us to produce the best work at present. He has evi- 
dently taken Engleheart as his model rather than Cosway, 
and two of his latest miniatures are really lovely. One or 
two of Mr. Praga's are excellent, specially that of Lady 
Glenesk, but he must learn not to over-elaborate. Miss 
Merrylees, Miss RoSENBURG, Mr. Sainton have, all of 
them, sound work. There is a lavender-coloured miniature 
in the corner, in a frame too large for it, by a Miss 
G. Burrell, that is pleasing and full of merit. One of 
Mr. Sargent's and two of Mr. Cary-Elwes' are worth 
notice. Many of the frames used by modern artists are 
vulgar and unpleasant, and yet there is an original one 
of Cosway 's to be seen in the room which is a model of 
good taste, and almost all the old miniatures, notably 
Lady Henester\ are appropriately framed. As an educa 
tional exhibition for artists in miniature nothing can exceed 
the value of the room. 

The exhibition of the "Old'' Water -Colour Society, 
though purposely not of equal importance with the sum- 
mer show, yet maintained its usual average of executive 
excellence, for but few of the members adhere to the 
notion that the winter display should be restricted to 
sketches and studies. It is unnecessary at this inevit- 
ably late date to enter into particulars of the exhibi- 
tion; but it may be said that the traditions of the ait as 

practised by tl Id masters of lie- craft are religiously 

carried on, as maybe seen in no other gallery in London, 
for, being a "close society," the admixture of the " newesl 




(Drawn by A. D. Davidson. Awarded First Armitage Prize ana 

Bronze Medal at Ro'jal Academy Schools. See p. 227.) 

methods and the levelling down by outsiders is little to lie 
appreciated here. The new school, however, was powerfully 
represented by Mr. Robert Allan and others, and fine 
exercises in colour as well as in manipulation were to be en 
joyed. That some works that were shown were better away 
is an inevitable consequence of the rights of membership. 
The seventeenth exhibition of the New English Ait 
Club does not present much that is violently opposed to 
the recognised canons of art ; indeed, some of the works are 
distinctly academic in character. The contributions of 
M. Alphonse Legros are naturally of great interest, a 
frame of eight drawings from his pencil exceptionally so. 
Mr. P. Wilson Steer contributes the sensational work 
of the exhibition, " A Nude " — the figure of a girl sitting on 
a bed is a remarkable piece of technique, but is utterly 
devoid of beauty. It is a mule figure, and simply that. 
The setting i- the best part of the picture, the dark green 
hangings of the bed serving as an admirable foil in the 
white figure of the girl. Mr. Anning Bell's portrait of 
"Mrs. Walter Raleigh" and " Battledore and Shuttlecock 
must be counted among the best of the work ; Mr. Will 
Rothenstein's portrait- are very clever as records of char- 
acter, with an added touch "I caricature. Bui why should 
Messrs. Fry and Wilson Steee endeavour to make their pic- 
tures like old masters, affecting even the tarnished frames 1 

And why should Mr. HARTWICK devote his talent to tie' 

delineation of a most brutal phase of a brutal prize fight? 
Mr. Sutton Palmer's water-colour drawings of "The 

Highlands and Lowlands" are in his well-known pains- 
taking style, hut we are glad tO Untie- thai h( at last 

recognises a variation in atmospheric and climatic effects. 
"The Falls of the Orchy 'and "The Summer Moon " are 
among the best of the drawings. 

Messrs. Shepherd Brothers have an interesting ex- 

fiibition of works of British artists early and modem. 
Anion-- the best are several Constables; "Ophelia,' bj 

Romney ; " Elaine,' by P. F. I' ,e, II. A. : and one or two 

typical examples by the late Henry Moore, B.A. At the 
French Gallery may be seen a most comprehensn 
bition of work of the modern Dutch school. The names 
include Israels, James and William Maris, II. Mesdag, 
A. Neuhuys, Anton Mauve, and Adolphe Artz. 

. For the benefit of photographers who, although 
accomplished in the manipulation of the camera, 
are not artists, .Mr. A. II. Wall has written a treatise on 
"Artistic Landsccip* Photography" (Percy I. mid and Co., 
Limited. Bradford). It is a useful book to all art-students, 
whether photographers or not, for the author, although one of 
our oldest writers on photography, i- more of an artist than 
a photographer. His statement of claim on behalf of the 
artistic possibilities of camera work is the most reasonable 
of all that have been published : and he does not hesitate 
to confess — although at the same time deprecating the 
habil that photographers themselves, when they see a 
specially good print, always ask first, "What lens did you 
use?" showing plainly that they themselves look to tin 
apparatus rather than to "artistic feeling" hn successful 
results. It would have been well to have put the titles 
and artists' names under the numerous engravings of pic- 
tures with which the book is illustrated. 

Mi; Phil M \v and Mr. Hi gh Thomson have 
anea. ^ een e ] ecref j Members of the Royal Institute 
of Painters in Water- Colours. 

We have been asked to announce that the Annual Con- 
versazione of the South Kensington students will take place 
at the Museum on February 17. 

In Mr. Crane's article on William Morris, in our 
December number, the opening line of the quotation from 
"The Earthly Paradise'' should have been printed : 
" Forget six counties overhung with smoke." 

Mr. E. A. Abbey, A.R.A., has been commissioned by 
the Merchant Taylors' and Skinners' Companies to paint 

'By j. s / 1 


i . Schools.) 



the panels which they have undertaken to contribute to the 
decoration of the Royal Exchange. 

We reproduce on this page a photograph of the medal- 
lion which carried off the Prix de Rome. The competitors 
in this section numbered barely half a dozen, and the 
successful work was incomparably the best. 

We have to note the retirement from the Headmaster- 
ship of the Liver] 1 School of Art of Mr. John Finnie, 

R.P.E., who has held that position for more than forty 
years. He is succeeded by Mr. Frederick V. Bueridue. 

The Leeds Art Gallery have acquired the series of panels 
executed for the judges' lodgings in that city by the late 
Sir J. E. Mii.lais, P.R.A. The paintings were done in the 

(By G. Oiiprt. GranJ Prix (le ffome Medallion, 1896. Photograph bij B« 

days "I the artist's apprenticeship. We hope .shortly to 
place reproductions of them before our readers. 

The monument to VVatteau, which is illustrated on 
p. 229, has recently been erected in the gardens of the 
Luxembourg, the cost being defrayed by public subscription. 
The bust of the artist is executed in pewter, and together 
with tin- figure of the woman in Louis XV. costume, is the 
work of M. Henri Gai QUIE\ As will be seen from the 
illustration, the pedestal takes the form of a painter's 
palette, appearing, on elevation, as a semicircle, to which 
Steps are attached. It is in white stone, and was designed 
ami carried out under the direction of M. Henri GuiL 
lai mi', architect. Jt is a beautiful addition to the 
decorative sculpture of Paris, already so abundant. 

Me i . Graves and Co. have introduced some daintily- 

de tgned I lea for prints anil water-colour drawings 

which should meet with great success. With a ground- 

"oil. ol oa me cases plain, and in others stained a 

rich olive green— the picture is surrounded with a narrow 

gilt moulding ornament based upon empire designs which 
bestow a pleasing effect without detracting from the charm 
of the picture. Another advantage possessed by these 
frames is that the mitring of the corners as in ordinary frames 
is skilfully avoided, and the joins in most cases are quite un- 
noticeable. Messrs. Graves and Go. are preparing a series 
of photogravures of the English cathedrals and abbeys, 
which they offer to frame in sets to suit any particular 
room that the subscribers may wish. 

Mr. W. B. Richmond's work in the choir of St. Paul's 
has been completed, and the whole scheme can now be 
realised. The effect is very rich and harmonious. The 
artist's attention will next be directed to the four quarter 
domes. The windows in the north and 
south transepts have been designed and 
are now being executed by Messrs. Powell, 
the cost being defrayed by tLe Duke of 
Westminster. They are to commemorate 
the conversion of England to Christianity, 
with figures representing the first bishop 
and the corresponding monarchs of each 
of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy. Mr. 
Richmond has also undertaken the de- 
signing of a sculptural monument to the 
memory of Lord Leighton, which is to be 
placed at the eastern end of the south side 
of the nave of the cathedral. We have 
made arrangements for a fully illustrated 
article on the mosaics and general decora- 
tions by Mr. Richmond. 

We regret to record the death of 
Obituary. Mj . El)WARD SaMUELSON, J.P., 
who was one of the founders of the Liver- 
pool Autumn Exhibition, and for many 
years as chairman of the Arts Committee 
took a leading part in its management. 
Mr. Samuelson was born in February, 1823, 
in Hamburg, was brought to England in 
1828, and in 1836 to Liverpool. His suc- 
cessful commercial career and mayoralty 
in 1872 did not prevent his taking a most 
active interest in the arts. He was a dis- 
tinguished musical executant and connois- 
seur, and, except his colleague and friend 
the late Alderman Rathbone, no amateur 
held so promiuent a position locally in con- 
fer, Pans.) nection with art matters. Mr. Samuelson 
was a collector of excellent judgment, and 
formed the charming gallery of pictures which was dis- 
persed a few years ago on his retirement and removal to 
Wales. There he interested himself with characteristic 
zeal in bardic matters, and directed his attention spe- 
cially to promoting the study of instrumental music by 
the Gyniry. 

The death has occurred of M. Emile Chatrousse, the 
French sculptor, at the age of eighty-seven. He was a 
pupil of Rudi's, but also studied painting under Pujol. In 
L863 he obtained a. medal for his " Vendangeuse," now in 
the museum at Grenoble ; a second-class medal in 1864 for 
the "Renaissance," now at Fontainebleau Palace ; a- 1 in 
1865 a medal for the " Madeleine Repentante," afterwards 
bought for the. Dunkirk Museum. Other works of note 
are the "Madame Roland"at the Hotel do Ville, " Liseuse" 
at the Luxembourg, and the "Jeanne d'Arc' in the Place 
of the same name in I'aris 

Mr. Luis Falero, the painter, recently died at Uni- 
versity College Hospital at the age of forty five. 






MR. GE< »EGE HAECOUET is a typical example 
of what good teacliing may effect. By good 
teaching I mean not the drilling which in past days 
was employed with a view of forming an acknow- 
ledged "school," by making each pupil an imitation 
of the master and by 
multiplying the num- 
ber <>i' persons using 
the same methods ; I 
mean tie' instruction 
by which each compe- 
tent student becomes 
a painter on his own 
account, his own indi- 
viduality respected 
fostered, and de- 
veloped, and his art 
free from the paster's 
impress ami sugges- 
tive of 11 e's work 

hut his own. This 
merit is the leading 
feature of the Herko- 
merSchoolsat Bushey, 
and it is the true 
secret of their sin i 
With a chief of such 
strong personality as 
Professor Herkomer, 
wi t li a met hod si 
marked, with sympa- 
thies so characterise ■ 
the schools, it might , Pc „ d , D 

well be supposed, 

might strike seme dominant note, might have estab- 
lished some sort of tradition, if not indeed convention 
— some common denominator so to say — that might 
be recognised in the work of every student. The 
absolute contrary i- the case. There are usually, I 
believe, some thn ■ -■ ore pi tures in every exhibition 
of the Royal Academy contributed by past or present 
pupils of the Bushey Schools ; but I would defy the 
visitor, the critic, or the connoisseur to point to 
than three or four as the obvious outcome of Bushey 


It was Mr. Haiv t's g I fortune to fall within 

the Bushey influence at the proper time. There his 
talent was nurtured while his individuality was 
respected ; and now. when he is advancing rapidly 
in public recognition, it is impossible to avi 

he is a Herkomer 
student or thai i here 
i- any resemblance 
between his method 
or east of 1 hought and 
those of any 
pupil from die same 

He was aln 

draughtsman and de- 
signer of some ability 
before lie went to 
Bushey. He had at- 
tended the evei 
classes of the school 

ol ,11 in In- i 

town of Dumbarton. 
and in 1889 1 d 
obtained a scholar- 
ship, with which he 
came up to town. ! [is 
ha nd and ey e had 
been well pracl ised in 
tin.' da oral ive work 
he had executed for 

Messrs. I \ B 

Unas, of 1 iiunbarton, 
„,„, H „. | the greal ship-build- 

oi -. for whom I 
li orated the first-class saloons of the Union Steam- 
ship < 'onipauy's New Zealand lima-. ,i- w< I 
Channel steamers. This work- -not altogetln 
similar from thai to which I 
Professor Herkomer, in the early days of his i 
was happy to execute <\ only of gi 

designing and architectural drawing, bu I glass paint- 
ing and panel-painting as well : an excellenl 1 1 
for a youl h w hose ideas ian , 
subject, and whose imagination was probably in need 

teaching — unless if were by virtue of careful draw- of the control and self-restraint imposed by the con- 
ing, dramatic composition, oi grai :ful Fancy. The ditions of naval decoration. Not that his wi 
fact is that imitation, however sincere the Hattery altogether confined to the embellishment of ships, 
nay be, is not permitted; every pupil must think neither. As early as L88S, when a student of bul 
and paint for himself, and the warmest praise is nineteen yens of age ailed u| on to 

reserved for the most Freshly independent and the design the medal for the athlel inpetil 

most unaffectedly original. ection with Glasgow Industrial Exhibition; and 




gave iviii to his fancy by the introduction as the 
motif the figures of Mercury and Hercules, personify- 
ing swiftness and strength. 

.Air. Harcourt wastweutj years old when, in L889, 
he entered the Herkoiner School and tool; advantage 
of the prevailing principle, already alluded to, by 

modern system is the more satisfactory, as well as 
the more logical; but I should hasten to add, that 
so strong is the individuality of Mr. Harcourt that 
I believe he would have survived the hardships and 
surmounted the difficulties of any method of train- 
ing. After three vears his course was done, and 

which each pupil is given margin in which to work since that time the young artist has remained an 

out his artistic salvation, ami is only cheeked when it 
is found that he is falling into mannerism. I am 
well aware that this system might he challenged, and 
that it might In- doubted whether tin- older plan 
is not the more merciful, whereby the majority fall 
victims to the atelier method, and only tin- very 
strong come unscathed from the ideal, and are no 
longer troubled by their weaker brethren who have 
fallen in the struggle: just as the ancients wore 
v. m to expose their babes to the rigours of the 
w fcher, so that the weaklings should die off and 
only the hardy survive. To the many, however, the 


ssistant teacher in the schools where he received 
his final education. 

Mr. Harcourt's first appearance in a London 
gallery 1 clearly remember. It took place at the 
Fine Ait Society's rooms, where a collection of the 
pictures of Professor Herkomer and of his pupils 
was In ought together — an exhibition of surprising 
interest. His chief contribution was a landscape, a 
large canvas called " Evening Time," painted close by 
Bushey, rhythmic with undulating land and varied 
with well-drawn trees: a few figures people the fore- 
ground, and boys round a lire are busy burning weeds. 
There was also a subject 
picture called "The Heir,'' 
a, motive more suggestive 
perhaps of the melodrama 
of Mr. Waller than of the 
transparent sincerity of the 
somewhat sentimental young 
Scotsman. But it is not so 
much the young man who 
returns to his old home and 
finds it deserted and over- 
grown with weeds, nor the 
children who have been 
gathering flowers and now 
watch the stranger with 
curiosity, that attract the 
spectator's attention ; it is 
rather the genuine feeling 
infused into the work. In- 
deed, the subject and its 
working out were " younger 
than the. spirit that in- 
spired it. 

In 1893 the artist was 
first seen iii the Royal 

Academy, when in 1! n A'. 

there hung a picture so 
original in thought and 
treatment, so free from ap- 
pearance of effort, and vet 
so innocent of all display of 
dexterity, that it. attracted 
wide attention ; and the fad 
thai the painter's name was 
unknown rather increased 
than lessened the interesi 
with which it was regarded. 


This picture, which was called "At the Window," 
was intended to illustrate — if such a word be nol 
misapplied to the unfettered character of the sub 
ject — Keats's "Ode to the Nightingale," beginning: 

"The voice I hear this passing night was heard 
In ancient days by emperor and clown ;" 

but it has since been more conveniently entitled " A 
Portrait." Thefigureof thegirl standing bythewindow 
in a lamp-lit room — with the reflection of her lair 
cast iijinii the pane — is relieved against the deep 
blue of the night ; ami foliage and distant land- 
scape are dimly seen beyond. She is clad in lettuce 
green silk covered with black lace, making it appear 
darker in colour, and the sash is black. A vase of 

pale (link anen js is mi the table near her, and 

sonic nf the flowers she wears in her dress. The 
arrangement was simple ami harmonious, and was 
well dominated by the strongly-lighted face. 

A more striking success attended the picture of 
the following year, 1894. This was the " Psyche^'a 
figure, 1 think -all technical merits apart — that so 
haunts the memory of all who saw it as it hung 
beside the doorway in Room X., that it may fairly 
lay claim to higher considerations than what may 
lie accorded to the mere craftsman's painting, and 
may assert itself as a work of real art. The pic- 
ture, eight, feet in height, is manifestly painted 
under the influence of .Mr. AVatls, inspired by an 
almost passionate desire to paint a nude figure, 
treated ideally, almost monumentally, but with such 
poetry as the artist might command. The figure 
was to be symbolic of some human emotion, and 
with it to combine a decorative aspect. From 
this aim arose "Psyche" — much less, it may he 
observed, like Mr. Watts's "Psyche" than like 
his "Creation of Eve." The (puliation thai accom 
panied it was from Morris's "Earthly Paradise": 

■■ Farewell, 
(i Fairesl lord; ami since I cannot dwell 
Willi thee in heaven, lei me now hide my head 
In whatsoever dark place dwell i lie deral 

The figure of the unhappy nymph is -ecu in the full 
sunlight against flowering meadows bounded by trees 
and blue hills beyond, and above, a blue sky flecked 
with rosy clouds, which are reflected in the water at 
her feet. The blaze of lighl and colour is startling 
at first, and the attempt to harmonise the rosy hues 
of the clouds with the red of the girl's hair justified 
in its daring only by its success. Bui the grace and 
elegance of the figure and the true sense of poetic 
passion expressed in (he face are raie achievements; 
and even though the expression is not of the most 
elevated kind of all — which is mr.s-;iiv for I he tri- 
umphant treatment of such a mythic theme the 
picture is a charming one, ami nol less charming Eoi 
the rather obvious lines of the decorative treatment. 


There are drawing, colour, and sentiment here in 
a, degree which, displayed by so young a painter, 
prophesy, as clear as paint can speak, a striking 
career in aehie\ ement and success. 

" Thoughl Reading," a picture of n verj different 
soil, was the exhibit of 1895. No emotion is 
attempted, and although a .-en-' of mystery and 
uncanniness pervades the canvas, it does so in virtue 
rather of the subject than of the treatment. The 
,iim has keen to give an aspect of modem life treated 

as a decora! tve col ■ scheme an aim not en 

new to the Royal Academj exhi dl em in i hese later 

days, even with the si daring introduc E the 

pi imarj colours. In tin- I. nee canvas some ten feci 
long, we have a drawing-room scene hi by diffu ed 
cross-lights from col mred lanterns. The women are 
dressed in deep-toned colour,- : the figure leaning over 
the piano and holding a flower is in deep yellow, while 

sh the right is in green. Tl intra! female 

figure who with - i much dignit) of pose is "willing" 

the medium is attired in red : in the pa E the 

French window are reflected the colours from the 
lanterns -'ad through tl glow the deep blue of the 
njsht. On the table in the Eon ground red flowers 



are in a vase of blue and white, which affords 
relief to the eye and keeps the other colours in 
place. The actuality of the subject may be unsym- 
pathetic to some, but the success of the scheme is 
nol less marked than that of the composition: in- 
deed ii struck the .jury of the Salon so, and they 
awarded to the picture a third-class medal on the 
merits in which I have drawn attention. 

and pity. She is draped in deep crimson and the 
man in low-toned grey. They arc lit by the warm 
light that suffuses the evening sky just after sundown, 
and rosy clouds in the background are seen shining 
through the trees. The main point of the .spiritual or 
intellectual element of the picture lies in the fact 
that here — as in the symbolic works of Mr. Watts — 
the group is symbolic and not individual. Human 


In "The Leper's Wife " Mr. Harcourt has reached 
the greatesl artistic height to which he has yet at- 
tained, for he has succeeded in bringing together in 
his canvas nobility of thought and expression and 
deep emotion, and in his realisation of true sentiment 
of an elevated kind has combined good drawing and 
line quality of colour with impressive composition. 
The idea is of course based on Tennyson's " Happy, 
or the Leper's Bride," the motive of which is 
quoted by the poel from B mcher .lames ; but the 
figures are not intended as Tennyson's individual 

nian and w an-— but, as may be seen from the large 

allegorical treatment ado], d-d by the artist — are in- 
tended rather as types of suffering and devotion: 
the unhappy outcast who i. M back in generous 

r uiiw illing to accept so great a sacrifice, into 

of the dark forest, ; and the wife, at whose 
Eeel bl lo ei pring, throws herself forward in the 
pure ; . I immolation upon the altar of love 

emotion is common to all time, and awakens the 
passion and emotion of the artist not less than other 
men's; and in the art which would seek to embody 
them in pigment upon canvas, date and surroundings 
and costume are of importance ' only according as 
they lend themselves I" the belter expression and 
interpretation of the idea. Mr. Harcourt has shown 
that he well understands this principle, and, moreover, 
that he is master of it ; and it is not surprising that 
in him Mr. Watts has seen the most notable of all 
the younger men who are not content with the 
narrow application of the motto of "Art for Art." 
Indeed, I do not hesitate to place Mr. Harcourt 
intellectually in the train of .Air. Watts, hike him 
he often finds it necessary to relieve his feelings on a 
large scale ; like him, he cares little whether a picture 
sells or not, so long as he can commit, to canvas the 
conceptions that lill his mind: like him, he is a 
stalwarl or is fast becoming so — with ideas which, 


{"The leprosi/ of the thirteenth and foiirit \th Mi 
follow their husbanas who had been leprous, or remain 
these unhappy beings this immense source of consolatic 
b-j their faithful wioes."— Boi i HI i .1 \ i i -. ' 

•ies was supposed to be 
the world and marry an 
Willi a loue stronger (, 

legacy of the I 

in. The Chw 
m this living ■■ 

. At first there was a doubt whfther whes should 

■■•■■ was indissoluble, and so bestowed on 

followed into banishment from the haunts of men 



while lending themselves to artistic treatment, are 
worth painting for themselves. Even in his land- 
scapes, such as "The Dun-lass, Cockburnspath," 
shown at the gallery of the Royal Society of British 
Artists, there is something more than the mere 
desire I" hold the mirror up to nature. Equally 
with the subject he studies the design; but while 
the former may be as passionate or as dramatic as he 
knows 1ih\\ I,, render it. he paints no picture for the 
mere sake of decoration mi the one hand, nor, on the 

artist seeks to combine strong decorative quality 
with a subject worthy of it. 

Ii is evident that what appeals most strongly to 
.Mr. Harcourt's imagination are the ideas that lend 
themselves to the fulness of colour and amplitude of 
line. Indeed, without injustice I may express my 
belief that where he fails to accept in the fullest sense 
the example of Mr. Walts is his preference for sil- 
houette over pure form and statuesqueness. For him 
painting is essentially a colour medium, the greatest 



Bf l,» a .??lBBMKMIWE« 

. 1m 

Br " ' . 

W h 


. . .. _. • ■''' J 


other, docs he allow the subject to dominate. With 
this young painter subjeel and painting arc com- 
bined, as thought and language must be, and thoughts 
may be expressed in paint as legitimately as things. 
In a master's hands the finest pictorial qualities can 
exist in a work that has subjeel — even in such that 

j telling, as fo example, in the " Bacchus and 
Ariadne of Titian. The same great quality of re- 
pose that is fell in the sculpture of the Parthenon is 
to be found in this great mastet piece; yel I he idea 
dominates the medium, and at the same time pos- 
■ i i or, remoteness — which 

the enduring quality to the work. So while 
liating the idea of painted anecdote, our young 

of all the charms of pictorial art. Therefore in all 
his pictures he insists upon colour combined with 
that tone — that subtle something— which is the 
binding quality in nature, without which colour is 
not colour, but mere pigment: not colour in the 
fullest sense, without that vibrating quality or 
"brokenness" — the brokenness and vibration that 
belong to light itself. 

This quality Mr. Harcourf has equally tried to 
import into his out-of-door portraits, of which one — 
that of " Mrs. Fairfax-Lucy and Son " — is here repro- 
duced. The design .is not, I am assured, suggested — as 
at first sight would appear likely— by "The Duche s 
of Devonshire and Daughter" of Sir Joshua Reynolds; 



it whs siinply an arrangement resulting from acci- 
dent of pose, and seized upon by the painter as a 
happy one. The same quality, too, may be seen in 

his water-colour of boys bathing, in which il legance 

of the principal disrobed figure has a good deal of 
what we admire in Fred Walker's "Bathers;" and 
similarly do we see it in the oil-sketch of " The 
Little Foster-Father" trudging along beneath the 
blossoming hedgerow; and even in some degree in 
the simple study from nature the artist calls 
"Head of a Rustic Girl" — different as this frank 
sketching is from the more set business of picture- 

As might lie imagined from his training under 
Professor Herkomer, .Mr. Earcourt is no adherent of 
the Academic school — the school of Lord Leighton 
and Sir Edward Poynter — which demands the making 
of many preparatory studies and sketches before the 
canvas itself is attacked. As a. matter of fact, he 

designs on the canvas, finding it easier to evolve his 
idea and give it shape, than by the more deliberate 
method. In this manner, like Air. Watts, he feels his 
way to his picture, and while observing no particular 
style of handling save .such as appears i<i grow out 
of the subject, he aims steadily at Titian's fulni 
colour. If methods arc to be adapted i" tempera- 
ments, and nut temperaments to methods, there can 
be no doubt that Mr. Harcourt has marked out his 
path straight towards his appointed goal, lie is 
no vacillator ; he measures his own powers with the 
same self-confidence as that which has evolved his 
view "f art. This vigour of character is too well 
marked in his pictures to he doubted; ami it is ;i 
quality which will carry him over many obstacles 
and will laud him, if fortune favour him. not onlj 
high in his profession, hut in tin- front rank- of his 
country's painters — and that in a future neithei 
doubtful nor remote. 


have always held Leslie's 
Life of Constable a. master- 
piece in its qua Lilt, old- 
fashioned way — as broad, 
simple, and refreshing as 
one of Constable's own 
landscapes; and the read- 
ing of it as pari of every 
artistic education. Its publishers, therefore, have 
conferred a boon upon the .student by issuing a 
new edition of this interesting work— an edition 
beautiful in itself — with its value further enhanced 
by the judicious yel sparing notes and comments 
provided by the editor, Mr. Robert C. Leslie. 

It is fifty-three years since Leslie's work was 
first put forth, and the skill with which, through 
the free use of Constable's correspondence, he made 
it ahnosl into an autobiography has been ever since 
admitted. Hamerton, it is true, objected that it 
remained for thai reason"in the raw state," merely 

a- mat -il. il foi a biographj , and i heref proi eeded 

tu tell the simple, pleasing story of Constable's life 
in his own way, for the benefit of the readers of his 
- Portfolio Papers." No doubl a few of the letters 
might have been better omitted and the whole more 

> ■■ Life and Letti rs of John I on table, R.A." By R. C. 
Leslie, I.' A With three portraits of Constable and foi 
illustrations. (Chapman and Hall, Ltd. 189G.) 

completely digested; bu) that is a view suggested 
only by the latter-day desire for conciseness. The 
correspondence serves more thoroughly to portray 
the character of the man — to accentuate his gentle- 
ness, his originality, and his lofty artistic spirit. We 
might have wished to find in this new edition some 
definite reply from Mr. Robert C. Leslie to John 
Linnell's charge, recently made public in the bio- 
graphy of that artist, thai it was owing to Con- 
stable's je dousj and influence thai he was nol elected 
into the Royal Academy. Perhaps it was considered 
not without reason, thai the b iok as it stands and 
the life it records are themselves sufficient answer 
in the statement. 

It is hardly necessary to criticise a work so long 
and so favourably known as one of the classics of 
artistic biography. This handsome volume, hand- 
some alike in paper and typography, is a g I 

substitute for that mi long out of print : 1ml we are 

bound to add thai the llliMial tOllS, Collotj pe [< i 

the most part from Lucas's mezzotints of Constable's 
principal pictures, are not of equal merit. Those 
from mlier works in the South Kensington VI 
and in private hands .nr of better quality. I In 

present, issue is apparently intern s of 

means: bul until the publishers place an edition 
within the reach of the arl -i ud ill thej « ill nol 
have i pleted i h ■ work tit ! ' well begun. 




jNPER the title of "Unprejudiced" 
that admirable artist Charles 
Keene once produced a drawing 
representing a "swell" at the 
Royal Academy Exhibition, his 
catalogue in one hand and his 
eyeglass in the other, savin-. 
" Haw! Ve ymi any ideaw what fellaw's pictchuars 
we've in admi-ar tin's ye-ar?" 

Berein we have the whole history of fashion — 
or rather of the fashions in ail. 

The superfluous and useless man of fashion who 
is dressed, shod, and shaved by the most eminent 
specialists, \\ ishes also In apply In a thorough connois- 
seur fni' In's artistic opinions. But it then inevitably 
happens that if a real amateur of art tells him his sin- 
cere opinion, the " swell," in trying to adopt it, makes 
it appear perfectly ridiculous to his unfortunate in- 
structor, who, to escape the nuisance, finds hut one 
alternative: that of changing his opinion each time 
they meet. The result is an interminable hide-and- 
seek of which the result will be the changes of 
fashion in the narrowesl and most superficial sense 
of the word. This is. no doubt, vexatious, but by 
way of consolation they both might remind themselves 
that, to put an end to it, they have only to wait and 
give themselves time to be sincere and just. Nothing 
more than that, if only that were possible! For 
as Eugene Delacroix wrote in his article entitled 
"Questions sur le Beau," published in the Revue 
des Deux Mondes in L854: "In the presence of a 
really beautiful object a secret instinct tells us of its 
merit, and compels us to admire it in spite of our 
prejudices and antipathies. This agreement between 
persons of honest purpose shows that while all men 
feel love, hatred, and the other passions in the same 
way, while tin -y are intoxicated by the same plea- 
sures and racked by the same pains, they arc moved in 
the same way in the presence of beauty, and offended 
by the sight of ugliness, thai is to say, imperfection." 
But he immediately adds, " It nevertheless happens 
thai when they have had time to reconsider and to 
get over the firsl emotion, by discussing it pen in 
hand, these admirers, for a moment so unanimous, 
no longer are of one mind, even on the chief points 
of their admiration. School tradition, educational 
or national prejudice, rise to the top, and then it 

"out! in thai the most c petent judges 

are i !i mtenl tous . For unpretentious folks 

asily impressed, or remain faithful 
to their first enl husia m." 

Under these different categories, Delacroix again 
says, we must not count what he calls the "cohort" 
of the envious, who are always in despair over the 
beautiful ; and he does not even mention that other 
"cohort'' who are never in despair over the beauti- 
ful, and among whom may be specially noted certain 
clitics whose whole effort has been an attempt to 
recognise the ideal of beauty, to pursue it every- 
where, to study it persistently, and to formulate it 
in such a way as to lender it transmissible from 
generation to generation like a volume of recipes. 

It would be easy to mention a gnat number of 
these indefatigable theorists; but the most perfect 
example of the species was, beyond doubt, a French 
diplomatist — a painter, too, and a writer — Roger 
de Tiles, who, in 1708, published an octavo volume 
under the title "A Course of Painting on Principles, 
with a. Dissertation on the Painters' Scale." By this 
"Scale'' he calculates with great gravity the various 
proportions of colour, of chiaroscuro, and of draughts- 
manship, of which the genius of each famous artist is 
compounded. Indeed, our diplomatist is very severe; 
for having taken twenty as a maximum, he decides 
that no one ever reached that pitch of perfection; 
Michelangelo, for instance, getting only nineteen 
good marks for drawing, and Raphael no more than 
eighteen. All this cyphering is most precise, all this 
chemistry very minute: and it is much to he re- 
gretted that after the amusing analysis, which weighs 
so scrupulously the gifts of genius, the critic cannot 
recompound them to his mind. Thus, if we could 
borrow from Michelangelo some of the draughts- 
manship of which he has a superabundance, to give 
it to Rubens, whose qualities as a colourist arc really 
in excess! Or Rembrandt again, often loo wholly 
devoted to problems of light and shade: if only 
his attention could have been directed to Raphael's 
purity of outline, for instance, and if he could have 
benefited by if! 

This. i'ii the whole, is the impression left by this 
elaborate work. The worthy Roger ^r Piles seems 
firmly convinced that with a little determination 
and serious endeavour, each of these great arlists 
would have succeeded in establishing an equilibrium 
of qualities all equally commendable, and by this 
means would certainly have attained more nearly 
what he regards as final and genuine beauty. 

But is not the idea of beauty itself liable to 
many transformations ? Have critics, or artists, ever 
agreed among themselves as to the essential char- 
acteristics which constitute it ? To go no further 



[Drawn by Fornand h 



back 1)1:111 ITi-M. in a discussion held at the Royal 
Academy of Painting in France, Coypel stated that 
within his own time lie had seen everything con- 
temned which was not Poussin : then the Bolognese 

school had supplanted Poussin in the estiinati E 

painters, Rubens had succeeded to the Bolognese, and 
Rembrandt, in his turn, after Rubens. 

Quite recently theGazette des Beaux-Arts published 
some notes of a tour in Italy by Montesquieu (the 
author of " L'Esprit ties Lois"). The notes were 
written day by day without any view to publication, 
and it is interesting to compare (hem with the 
letters written ten years later by another statesman 
on his travels, the President des Brasses, penned 
each evening on the corner of an inn-table, and 
seul to his friends at Dijon. 

We find in both certain ideas which to us seem 
strange enough. On the subject of Gothic architec- 
ture Montesquieu expresses himself as follows: "A 
Gothic building is a sort of riddle to the eye that 
beholds it; the soul is puzzled as when it is offered 
an obscure poem." The President des Brasses, on 
the other hand, writes : " I know not whether I am 
in ermr, but to say Gothic is almost infallibly to 
say bad work." They regard the Pre-Kaphaelite 
painters merely as relics, so to speak-, of no artistic 
value, but interesting from their antiquity alone. 
This simple and dignified art is to them a sealed 

1 k, those faces full of concentrated expression to 

them seem dead, and what they prefer above all else 
is " the tire of passion." 

So long live the Bolognese! "With what enthu- 
siasm do they expatiate on the huge canvases of the 
Carracci, of Guido, of Domenichino, of Guercino; they 
at any rale could feel and express the "tire of pas- 
sion." To des Brasses Bologna is the capital of art. 
He places it far above, Florence : and after a visit to 
the I'lli/.i Gallery, he tells his friends that they are 
"not. to In- misled by what. Yasari says in honour of 
his Florentine school, the least important of all — at 
any rale, to his taste." 

In the Campo Santo at Pisa, again, lie condemns 
e 1 rything without exception. "There," writes Mon- 
tesquieu, " we find a fine collection of ancienl paint- 
ings, because the walls of the galleries are painted 
in fresco, and we see fully displayed all the had 
taste of the time." 

But then the question occurs, "What is had 
taste ' " 

To this Flauberl replies: "Pad taste? It is in- 
variably the taste of the lasl past age. In Ronsard's 
time bad taste mean I Marot; in Boileau's it meant 
Ronsard ; in Voltaire's it was Corneille ; and it was 
Voltaire in Chateaubriand's day; while now (in 
L847) a good many people are beginning to think 
him rather pom. ( 1. men of taste of ages to come, 

I commend to you the men of taste of our time! 
You will laugh not a little at their jokes, at their 
lordly disdain, at their preference for veal and milk 
puddings, at the grimaces they make over under- 
done meat and over perfervid verse!" 

Can it be true, as sceptic's say, that in any work 
of art there is nothing but what we ourselves find 
in it; that we admire it, not for its intrinsic merit, 
hut because it answers to certain feelings of our own, 
and that we seek in it only a reflection of our soul ? 
After all it is quite possible. But this, at any rate, 
is certain: the study of masterpieces proves that 
the greatest artists of all ages have expressed them- 
selves simply, deriving inspiration from a deep feel- 
ing for all that surrounds them; this inspiration no 
erudition can ever counterfeit. 

Those who have survived took no thought of the 
taste of the day, of fashionable preferences in colour 
or drawing ; they never stopped to consider these 
vain distinctions. Colour and drawing were indis- 
pensable elements which they had to make use of; 
they made no effort to give prominence to either. 
It was their own natural bent which guided them 
inevitably, and prompted them to emphasize certain 
peculiar qualities. 

It would be impossible to find a masterpiece of 
painting which does not show in certain proportions 
a combination of the qualities proper to the art. 
Every great painter has adopted the colouring ami 
the style of drawing which belonged to his tempera- 
ment, ami by this means gave his work the supreme 
charm of which schools can tell us nothing, and 
which they can never teach — the poetry of form and 
of colour. On this common ground all great painters 
have met, in spite of systems, and from every school. 

In his notes of a journey in Scotland, Paul 
Bourget has complained more than ever of the odious 
presence of the swarms of tourists : the ugliness, the 
commonness of men and women, which struck him 
more forcibly against those horizons of tranquil 
waters and green woods: it was a painful effort to 
appreciate the exquisite beauty of the scenery beyond 
the travelling-caps, waterproofs, and knickerbockers 
of his travelling companions. Put in spite of all, 
the visible poetry of those mountains triumphed 
over tic exasperating sense of his immediate sur- 
roundings, and mind, as usual, rose superior to nerves. 
Though there, as everywhere, the tide of modern 
civilisation effaced almost all idse, the hare line of 
the glorious mountains will still survive and domi- 
nate over every civilisation presenl or to come. 

So we, too, may comfort ourselves by reflecting 
that beyond the, empty verbiage of certain too asser- 
tive critics, artistic and literary, and the repeated 
vagaries of too ignorant innovators, the inaccessible 
"absolute" of art will ever soar supreme. 

HORIZONTAL BORDER. Groups of Flowers Embroidere 

(Designed by Leslie ) 



IT is not proposed to recapitulate here the history 
of the Royal School of Art Needlework ; how, 
by whom, and for what objects it was founded in 
1872; how it moved, tsvo years later, from Sloane 
Streel to its present quarters in the Exhibition 
Eoad, and so on. These facts have ere now become 
matters of common knowledge, and the public 

scarce])' want reminding of what they have I n 

told over and over again. That which is really to 
the purpose at this juncture is to consider the 
present position of the school, and what arc its 
future prospects. The promoters of the Royal 
School of Art Needlework may with justice claim 
to have led the van of a much-needed and very 
admirable reformation, and that, too, by means of 
their unique organisation, in a systematic manner 
never before attempted. A certain sum was 

existence, circumstances have been undergoing .1 
complete change. On all sides there have arisen 
technical institutes, polytechnics, and class meetings 
There, practical instruction is being supplied in 
the same subjects, and that tun in numberless in- 
stances by the very persons who have qualified in 
the Royal School itself. Ii is estimated thai since 
its foundation upwards of twenty thousand lessens 
have been given In private individuals and In classes 
under its auspices ; and now it lias come to pass that 
many of these former pupils are entering into rivalry 
with it and imparting in Government-aided institu- 
tions the knowledge they themselves owe in the firsl 
instance to the School of Art Needlework. Herein 
lies a sufficiently grave disability — one that handi- 
caps heavily the unaided Royal School. Newer 
classes ma)' spring up, and by the nature of their 


Laid Silk Embroidery on Velvet. 

».n! Design.) 

advanced in start the and provide it with the 
necessary plant and material. Aparl from this it 
has no sort of endowment, nor has it ever bad any. 
It is in mi sense a Gover nl institution : it con- 
tinues self-supporting In this day. And ><■{ this 
very fact, which should redound greatly to its credil 
and honour, is also the cause of the detrimenl ii 

suiters. So long as the school held, SO In speak, 

a m >pnly, it. prospered. Bui during the five-and- 

twenty years that have passed since il began its 

constitution be en I itled in applj do in fai 1 . applj 

— for and obtain grant- f 1 the public funds to 

enable them in can)- <>n their work ; while the one 
school which has been the pioneer of the movement, 
at least as far as concerns the arl of needlework, is 

debarred 1' seeking the like assistance, because • >!' 

the mere facl 1 hal il d .no mm ; , busiw 

does offer its products for ale. Bui to w hal end are 
the receipts thus accruing employed ' Nbl for the 
lienelii of a commercial firm or capitalist partnership, 



Inn 111 support of the ladies who form the working 
body attached to the school, and who are enabled by 
this agency to turn their talents to account in earn- 
ing a livelihood. According to the letter of the 
rules and regulations applicable to .such cases it 
must be admitted frankly that the school has no 
right In expect pecuniary support from the official 
purse. But that such a restriction should exist 
seems in the highest degree anomalous. It is a hard 
ease if the popularity and wide-spread success of the 
methods of the school are to hinder it from reaping 

that the stains of the school was quite different 
from what it is : e.g., that ii had the use of its 
premises rent free, that il had immunity from 
financial responsibilities, or that in some other 
ways it enjoyed unfair advantages denied to other 
institutions. It would not be possible to make a 
greater mistake than to suppose any such thing. 
Generous commissions from high quarters have 
indeed been entrusted to and executed by the school 
from time to time; but this is very far from its 
being in a position to draw upon unlimited million- 

■'.... . 1 

PANELS OF SCREEN. Embroidered in Crewels on 

(Designed from Old Tapestry by N. Whidteh.) 

the Fruits of its labours; if, seeing that it was the 
body that initiated the reform and has provided the 
model for like institutions to imitate all the world 
over, and teachers moreover to put the system into 
practice, it is now to be supplanted. It is impossible 
to believe that the provisions of the law were meant 
to be enforced in a ease like this; that no exception 
can be made in acknowledgment of the great power 
iod thai the school has proved itself to be in 
the past. 

There is another circumstance which has without 

doubt placed the scl 1 at a certain disadvantage in 

the i yes of t he public, \ i/.. that because from the 
outset it has had an influential roll of names on its 

committee, and has 1 n favoured with yet more 

illustrious patronage (in token, whereof, ii has been 
permitted to prefix to its title the distinguishing 
note of " Royal "), it has been commonlj as urned 

aire resources for permanent support. As stated 
before, the school lives by its own earnings alone. 

Again, if perhaps it may have been the case that 
the novelty of its work at the beginning created an 
exceptional demand for its productions, or if people 
were induced to patronise the school because they 
imagined themselves to be thereby acquiring dupli- 
cates of embroideries fco be found in the Royal 
palaces, it is quite certain that such custom is no 
longer available in aid of the school. For it must 
be borne in mind that the days arc over — and none 
of us, ii is to be hoped, would wish them recalled — 
when the fact of any particular article having won 
the approbation of royalty weighed with the average 
purchaser as a more powerful incentive to buy than 
its own intrinsic merit could afford. On the con- 
trary, at the present time, so fast arc we moving in 
the other direction that it would seem almost as 



fchough we were inclined to 
criterion of inferiority. The 
fall into the habit of 
being influenced by this 
prejudice is not wholly, 
perhaps, an imaginary 
one after all. 

Again, exception has 
been taken to the so- 
called Wardour Street 
transactions of the 
school. Now this mat- 
ter is one which admits 
of the simplest explana- 
tion. This department 
formed certainly no 
part of the original pro- 
gramme, nor was its 
adoption brought about 
directly or indirectly at 
the instance of the com- 
mittee. But when the 
school came to establish 
itself in its present 
temporary premisi s, 
which occupy the site 
of the Australian an- 
nexe of the Exhibition 
of 1862, it was obliged 
to take over more 
buildings than were re- 
quired by it for immediate use 
Mr. Norman Shaw asked to 

make royal favour a 
dangei Lesl we should 


s a' i epted by the - hool. This was the 
After In- oci upancy terminated, certain 
other ti I ins. M< ssrs. 
Liberty , Messrs. t !oop< i . 
and others, offered ex- 
amples of their furniture 
as loan exhibits, until, 
in course of time, the 
gOI I i tiing I odj W( re led 
to ume this branch 
of business on their 
own account. The ad- 
vantages gained by their 
so doing are patent, 
and cannot he sel forth 
more concisely than in 

the Words of the latest 
annual report by the 
Executive » lommittee 
of the Associates' work. 
From this document we 
learn that the " sale of 
the furniture and brie- 
tk-brac enables the au- 
thorities to ollei the 

worlv of the members 

to the public at a much 
lower price than for- 
merly, as 1 he profit 

of the School ill that 

department pays the 

Consequently when rent, taxes, etc., instead of these item- being a 
be allowed to tit up charge on the work;" a charge which, in these 


ine and Darned Ground in Silk on Linen. 

signed by N WhicMo.) 


Emcroidered in 


ilk, Crewels and Gol 

ined by Seltoyn Image.) 

on White Cloth Ground. 

some of the vacant out-houses as show-rooms for a days of keen competition and of cheap machine- 
city firm who carried out his furniture designs, his made imitations, the hand-work of the school 



scarcely meet without raising its prices to a pro- laid work, crewel on linen, and lastly smocking 

hibitive tariff. The governing body lias wisely The second year comprises shading in crewels on 

declined to do this, preferring to supplement its linen, showing the blending of colours in carrying 

resources in the manner described. Few, under out four distinct types of Early English embroidery, 

the circumstances, will blame them for so doing; This kind of may be observed, is the same 

ii being always under- 
stood that this department 
forms 11 ' integral pa rt 
of the scheme, and is one 
that will lie abandoned as 
soon as the exigencies of the 
situation permit. But as I" 
closing its embroidery supply 
department, even the casual 
observer must he struck, on 
a moment's reflection, with 
the injustice of such a pro- 
ceeding. To demand this 
sacrifice as the price of ils 
obtaining a Government 
grant means nothing less 
than requiring it to cast 
adrift the numbers of ladies 
who, as qualified workers, are 
kept by the school in regular 
employment, and are de- 
pendent upon it for their 
very subsistence. Never- 
theless, considerations such 
as these ought on no account 
to be urged did the work 
turned out by the school fall 
short of the highest standard 
of excellence. Nowhere else, 
it is claimed, is the training 
required to be submitted to 
of so thorough and system- 
atic a character as at the 
Royal School of Ail Needle- 
work. There the whole 
grammar of embroidery is 
taught from the very rudi- 
ments upwards, as an in- 
spection of tin- syllabus, 
which shows the complete 

course of the two years' 

instruction necessary to ob- 

PERPENDICULAR BORDER Designed and Executed 
by Order of H.M. the Queen, for the Tapestry 
Room at Windsor Castle. 

[Designed by F. B. Wade.) 

which prevailed in our 
country t hi oug h various 

phases from the time of 
Queen Elizabeth well into 
the last century. One of 
these varieties, of which the 
school makes a speciality, is 
named Schneider, after the 
lady who first brought the 
work to the notice of the 
school. It differs from the 
other kinds in that it em- 
ploys blocking in separate 
shades in the working of 
leaves and other forms, as 
distinct from shading, where 
one colour or tone is made 
to gradate into the adjacent 
one. The Schneider embroi- 
dery also admits of a greater 
variety of stitches, the 
centres of flowers being 
sometimes stuffed and raised 
convexly, and the scheme of 
colour, to speak generally, 
presenting a more variegated 
effect than in other types of 
old English work. 

The second year's course 
continues with the embroi- 
dering a group of natural 
flowers in silk upon silk, 
and of ( i nventional de- 
sign in the same material, 
showing the forms of shading 
applicable to this class of 
design; drawn-work, silk on 
linen, to be worked in the 
frame ; applique, fine linen 
on velvet, showing various 
methods of fixing, with gold, 
and decorating with fancy 

tain the certificate of professional embroiderers, and stitches, an exceedingly beautiful and effective treat- 

of the further year to obtain the diploma of qualified ment : ecclesiastical embroidery; and lastly, tapestry 

Leai tier, should convince even the most sceptical. embroidery on canvas. Pupils are required to pro- 

The first year's training begins with stitches, duce samples of each of these kinds of work to 

crewel on linen, to lie worked in the hand: entitle them to the certificate. The additional year 

hading in the same materials, to he worked in for the teacher's diploma commences with a sampler 

the frame: drawn-work, linen on linen; applique in crewel on linen, to be designed and carried 

linen on linen, showing various methods of applying oul by the pupil alone, with a view of showing 

and fixing with couching, outlining with cord, etc. ; the result of the teaching in the first suhjeet 



in eacli of the foregoing years; and proceeds with 
conventional design in silk on silk, introducing fine 
shading and gold work, flat and raised; initials, 
monograms, and other devices, badges, etc., in white 
on white, and in coloured silks, raised and flal in 
both cases; applique, of an advanced standard with 
greater variations than in the preceding instances; 
ecclesiastical embroidery, methods of treating gold 
bullion and purl, together with figure work, drapery, 
faces, hands, etc.; and, in conclusion, conventional 
design on velvet, introducing raised embroidery in 
silk and raised gold work. This twofold course, as 
now systematised, forms the latest development of 
the operations of the school. The classes began on 
1st October, L895, and are carried on side by side 
with, and yet wholly apart from, the supply depart- 
ment, where designs and materials, prepared and 
finished work are to be obtained. They are, in fact, 

Imperial institute. Under the sain.' rdgimt 
announced to be given, once a week, lessons suited 

to every taste and requirement for scl 1 girls under 

the age of sixteen. The following subjects among 
others may there be learnt: plain work, beginning 
with hemming, patching, darning, button-hole mak- 
ing, plain marking, embroidering letters on hand- 
kerchiefs, cut ting out and marking garments, as well 
as the first course of embroidery in crewel, thread, 
and filoselle. In addition to the above it is pro- 
this year to star! popular evening classes al 
a nominal fee. In short, the idea is to establish a 
great training school of embroidery, upon a national 
basis. But if these projects are to be carried out a 
suitable building becomes of the first necessity. The 
site is already secured — a piece of land on which 

st I the French Court in the L862 Exhibition — 

the architect's design accepted, and it only remains 

(Designed by l« 

conducted under a different roof, rooms having been now to ereel the permanent building as headquarters 

secured lor the purpose, pending the school being of the scl 1, which will '»■ commenced as soon 

able to provide its own accommodation, in the as the requisite funds are forthcoming to justify the 



committee in taking the initial step, with the pros- 
peel also of having some endowment secured for the 
subsequent maintenance of the school. Yet another 
scheme, dependent of course on the providing of the 
afore-mentioned building, is the formation of a 
women's school of design where they shall be taught 
by practical teachers to design I'm' various branches 
of decorative art. It is planned that the course shall 
begin with good draughtsmanship, in which every 
student shall pass before proceeding to further 
studies, and shall include instruction in the various 
styles of historic ornament. It is intended ultimately 
to form the nucleus of a library and museum in con- 
nection with the school, although, with the South 
Kensington Museum so close at hand, with its mag- 
nificent collection of art objects ami its Art Library 
as well, this seems almost unnecessary. 

The School of Art Needlework must, he thanked 
t'nr two contributions to the literature of the ail of 
the needle. In 1880, by authority of the school, 
was published a " Handbook of Embroidery," by 
I.. Higgin, a work containing not only a summary of 
technical hints of the utmost value, but also some 
reproductions of designs of great beauty. Out of 
this book grew, some years after, the larger and more 
elaborate volume, " Needlework as Art," by Lady 

Marian Alford. The school, it should Lie remarked, 
has spared no expense to obtain a collection of ex- 
cellent examples of old work in addition to working 
designs by the best contemporary masters, including 
Sir Edward Burne-.Tones, Messrs. William Morris, 
Walter Crane, Selwyn Image, George Aitchison, 
Fairfax Wade, and other well-known artists. Of the 
materials used in the school it is enough to say that 
they are worthy of the designs in the execution of 
which they are used. In a word, that which the 
school proposed at the beginning to do, it has 
accomplished ; and more than that. At a time 
when the arts had barely begun to rise from the 
depths of degraded ugliness into which, soon after the 
opening of the present century, they had fallen — em- 
broidery with the rest — it was no light matter to set 
up and to persevere in maintaining a high standard of 
artistic merit in their work. And now the school is 
called upon to enter upon a .sphere of usefulness to 
an extent not dreamed of by its original promoters 
when they started it. But that it is in a position, 
both from its prestige, its long experience, and 
matured organisation, to fulfil all that may be 
demanded of it, if only the requisite funds be forth- 
coming, may be asserted with perfect confidence 
in view of its magnificent achievements in the past. 

(Designed bij F. B. Wade.) 





I AM hardly exaggerating when I say that Mon- 
sieur Emile Galle is at this moment, and by 
every right, the most conspicuous figure in the French 
world of art, for lie is unanimously recognised as a 
master, and he alone in our day 
can now claim the honour of 
having formed a school, of having 
influenced a whole generation of 
younger artists, and given rise to 
a genuine revival of industrial art. 
lint, strange to say, this artist, 
who has, it canimt be denied, 
trained many clever men, has 
voluntarily kept far from'Pari 
and spent his life at Nancy. This 
is partly the reason — added to his 
strong natural individuality — 
why he has remained untouched 
by influence, and has worked 
independently towards the ideal 
he lias himself set up. Monsieur 
Galle, alone perhaps among ac- 
knowledged artists in France, 
excels in various branches. We 
have seen him by turns a fashioner 
of furniture, a putter, and a glass- 
worker. To be thus a master in 
several lines, to stamp on each a 
distinct and vivid individuality, 
and thus to revive and reanimate 
several kinds of art, is not the lot 
of many artists : it has, however, 
been that of Monsieur Galle, so 
much so that he has come to be 
thought nf as the French William 
Morris, though his popularity has 
never equalled that of the great 
English craftsman. 

It is indeed a great revolution 
that Monsieur Emile Galle has 
achieved in the decoration of 
furniture, by reverting to the 
plain and simple forms of nature, 
and entirely discarding the taste 
of the past, 1 emphasise tin's lie- 
cause he here differs widely from 
many Parisian artists, who insen- 
sibly evolve new forms while still 
adhering to earlier i'ormuhe. He, 
like the great English innovators, 

threw them off with oneeffort. It was from Japanese 
art that he derived the general scheme, the funda- 
mental principle of his style; but we must not infer 
that he imitates it in any servile manner. Nothing 

EMILE gall£. 

re Portrait by Victor Proutlti.) 



can be more unlike Japanese art than Monsieur Galle's description is a sort of manifesto in defence of his 
work, though his critics often blame him on this style:— "It is unnecessary to tell you, my worthy 
• -r. mini. ( Inly the idea of the Japanese style is also correspondent, that the very simple form of this table 

was adapted to its purpose, which also suggested the 
decorative treatment borrowed from garden produce. 
Though, on the one hand, I intentionally abandoned 
every time-honoured style, on the other hand I make 
no claim to having discovered a new one. To me, 
ye dewy and marrowy cabbages! the temptation was 
too great to record some fine articulation or happy 
splash of colonr.your noble growth and characteristic 
expression; to borrow the essence of your unsuspected 
poetry, ye endive blossoms of heavenly blue! And 
was it not well, on the other hand, to shake off the 
bondage of realism as much as possible in drawing 
and in colour, so as to give an image, mure suggest- 
ive than any servile imitation, of vegetable types as 
phantoms floating in flat tints, undefined lines and 
dreamy, unreal shading' As much as possible! For 

THE HOLY GRAIL : Blood-red Jasper Crystal, with 
Cabinetwork Censer and Bronze Mountings. 

his; and given thai principle lie has worked it out by 
the light of bis own instinct, and taste He finds con- 
stant inspiration, nay, even collaboration, in nature. 
When Monsieur Emile Galle reproduces plant form 
lie extracts from it its decorative lines and colouring 
with the mosl artistic sense. He seems to condense 
the whole motive of a plant, to give it an attitude, a 
movement, to draw out its individuality in a very 
living way. and yet never to lose sight of the use and 
end of the object he is designing. If seems to the 
point here that I should give some extracts from 
a description written by Monsieur Funic Galle in the 
form of an open Letter to .Monsieur Lucien Falize, 
which was published in the Reviu desArts Decoratifs, 
June, L892. In speaking of a piece of furniture, 
"La table cmx herbes potagires" (a table decorated 
with edible vegetables), Monsieur Galle set forth 
his ideas and principles, and his characteristic 


' Fruits of the Spii 

the Use Ol won. 
vegetable life, V 

quality to inlaid 

[y mat 

ill alu 
W 1 I 


3, whi< 
give i 

h once 

lived the 
decoral ive 



"Do you think ii a fault in this green-w 1 

inlay that I have substituted a glimpse of thi ter 

air for the old sober ami monotonous tonus of ebonj 

and ivory ' 
Bui i- not the 
art of inlay an 
art i if colour, 
as m uch as 
in o saie o r 
painting? The 
natural colours 

of Win »1 all' 

more various 
than is gener- 
ally supposed. 
boldness of 
effect may be 
found in them. 
They lack, 
however, some 
of the sharp 
tones, the high 
chair. lights and bril- 

liancy which 

now fulfil the painter's dream. But how illogical it 

is to prohibit dyes to wood when they are used in 

thread, silk', worsted, and ivory ! 

"One of the most obvious difficulties in my 

attempt was that of producing in vegetable forms the 

tendrils of cucumber clinging in ii with thin, greedy 
clutch. But the real thin- in hit upon would be 

other Days." 

plastic types of greal simplicity ami rapid execution 
if we are not to defy every rational rule of economj 
•■'I'll turn tu the decorative use of drawing ami 
colour. The top of the table is made of the purple 
black wood known as labaka, inlaid with vegetable 

MOSAIC IN WOOD: "The Flora of Lorraine " 

lines of mouldings in cabinet work. Eere, as you emblems seen agaiusl the twilight background in 

see, we have a columnar fcreatmenl of the steins of alternate groups in which the rhythm "!' tin' plant 

the leguminous plants and the runners of the gourd faints ami sinks in the avenue of line ami colour, 

tribe— the natural creepers of the kitchen garden Parsley, with its jetty seeds ami livid lilac leaves 

twining ami overgrowing the rim of the table, tin' spreading into the suspicious looking foliage of tin- 




hemlock: panicles of the solauum tribe falling in 
natural and graceful bunches. . . . The idea of the 
purpose of the 
table reappears 
in vague sugges- 
tive shapes on a 
narrow border 
of grey bird's- 
eye maple from 
Swi tzerla nd, 
blossoming with 
nasturtiums and 

capers: among them little garden gold-beetles and the sible t( 
ichneumon fly that haunts 
the kitchen garden. In the 
centre, a dimly-tinted mosaic 
forms a waving phylactery 
lined with plain wood tinted 
heliotrope, harmonising with 
the colouring of the room. 
This lilac hue, shaded down 
to that of a purple stuck, is 
sprinkled with the corollas "I' 
crucil'ene. In places we have 
I lie fading tints of chervil in 
the Inter year. 

" I would 1 could have 
shown this dream of a kitchen 
garden through the misty veil 
of morning, with hills dimly 
seen ami a horizon of watery 
sheen, long streaks of haze 

made of veined \\ 1 defining 

or clouding the objects in th 
] .ni are. But you will find 

here the whole blue clan of 
winter cabbages, the plumy 

si ts of asparagus with its 

berries, the household party 
of the male ami female blos- 
soms of the pumpkin." 

In glass vessels especially 
Monsieur < lalle has made his 
mark. In that branch of ai t 
he has become a classic, a pride 
compare with 
the greal glass- 
blowers of old 
in Bohemia or 
Hungary. For 
o m e j ea rs 
( [alle's '_das> has 

held a place ill 

the collect ion ai 

e-ive to glass, 




wives his vases, amphorae, and driiiking-g' asses the 
most various and graceful forms, reminding us by 

turns of some 
plant, some 
flower-cup or 
leaf. He excels 
in producing 
colours of which 
none before him 
had the secret, 
and which it had 
seemed impos- 
From an oxide of cobalt he 
derives a moonlight sheen, 
imitating the effects of agates, 
of rust, and of the iridescent 
lights on water and mist 
alternately in the most mys- 
terious combinations. 

Monsieur Emile (lalle is 
not merely an artist, but a 
poet who aims at amalgamat- 
ing poetry and art in an 
intimate fusion, This was 
Baudelaire's idea, too, as to 
the mutual correlation of the 
aits, and I need not here 
discuss how far it is to be 
accepted or rejected. But I 
may lie allowed to say that 
in Monsieur Galle it gives 
rise to the most curious and 
subtle impressions, as in the 
line vase he made for Prin- 
cess Marguerite d'Orleans, a 
vase of virgin whiteness de- 
corated with daisies, and 
wreathed, as it were, with the 
lines of a poet in praise of 
the marguerite. 

Monsieur (lalle has, how- 
ever, amused himself by 
composing the mottoes and 
emblematic meaning of 
and often reveals himself as a 
c. i nuine poet, 
giving bis ideas 
some original 
turn or a quite 
individual wit. 
He usually works 
out the notion 
suggested by 
lines he quotes. 

'he Beauty of 
must Die" 

Sketch by E. Callr. 

le to our nation to several of his vases, 

bin Luxembourg, and with justice. The decorator's This is the case with one of the two vases in cameo 
i well as the chemist's science ; he glass, mounted by Falize, representing gold and silver 



lizards twining among creeping plants, of which 
Monsieur Galle has courteonsly given the first 
publication to The Magazine of Art. The leading 

idea was borrowed from a line of poetry by Emile 
Hinzelin : " Tlie beauty of things that must die," 
and these are the words in which he describes his 
development of this idea: ".Mists and dews halt 
shroud and half reveal the tine veining and splash- 
ing on a grey jade-crystal vase. A thick flushing of 
rose-tinted glass is carved into a chimera-like flower, 
half-inflorescent, half-smiling, half-weary, half- 
orchid half-pansy. A 1 tie drags its slow length 

over the rust of the lichens. Side by side with 
flesh tints and carnations we see bold touches of 
coral pink. A pale gleam steals through the dull 
maze of iridium. Vegetable shadows grin at us. 
Phantoms of bloom are dimly seen. A fossil shell 
engraved beneath tin- fragile work contains the 
glass-worker's signature, with the sad utterance of 
the Latin poet ' ffabitaculum vetus <i frctgih qitam 
fragilioris animula ' (The "Id mid frail abode of 
a yet more frail little soul). And melancholj . too 
in the shadow of the dream of dream-flowers, we 
read these lines by th.' poel of Lorraine — 
• 1 1 beautl des choses qui menrenl ! 

Les grandes ailes de la morl 
Qui, sans les blesser, les effleurenl 

Leur donnent un oharme plus fort.'" 

Other passages from Monsieur Galle's pen, such as 
his description of his "Wreck" — the ".Missive void 
of a message, lull of mystery, inflated with shadow 
and silence"— or those of the "Hazel" and the 
" Balm," are full of searching and subtle charm. 
The poet has also al various times published 
interest in- pamphlets on the secrets of the art 
of glass-making, and this is certainly a rare instance 
of devotion to art, since he thus of his own free 
will facilitates its ways to others. 

It is an exception indeed to see an innovator 
like Monsieur Galle" so readily recognised by the 
nation for his brilliant genius, as he has long been: 
and, judged by the throng round his glass work 
at the Luxembourg, he is popular too. He was 
awarded two gold medals at the Palais de L'Industrie 
— one for glass work and one for pottery; at the 
Exhibition of 1889 his glass took a tir-t prize and 
a medal. Since 1892 Monsieur (bilk'- has kept 
away from our annual exhibitions, for hi- greal 
ambition is to produce an impression .if unity, in 
show real progress in his art. We must liope, 


however, to see him again before long al the - 
Men of his i alibre are tree in our day. and it 
would not be fail tbii we should be deprived, 
excepl ai wide interval : 

(From the Painting by Dtwid Cox) 




BEFORE us, in a very clear and satisfactory en- 
graving, is a capital example of what composi- 
tion can (In in making a design acceptable, without 
being in the least able to conceal itself, as, in a 
masterpiece, it ought to do. This much is distinct 
in the late Mr. Pinwell's chef-d'oeuvre, " The Village 
Cross," every element of which is as manifestly 
"composed" with regard to its neighbours as any 
of the statues in a pediment. It is a charming pic- 
ture, quite a triumph of a soil, and lacks not the 
dignity ami harmonised masses of a sculptor's design. 
We see without difficulty thai the spindling tree on 
our right was put there to balance the shattered 
stem of the ancient memorial, and we must needs 
of i he same sort in the but too 
obvious balancing of the figures, aid even in the 
luction of the iron roil surmounting the shaft 
and cutting sharply against the glowing sky. Ii is 
easy to see, too, that the graceful and expressive 
: ii.ii value to this important 

example may have been, and probably was, suggested 
to the painter — bis artistic sense being stirred by the 
charm of the landscape and its accessories — by the 
sufficiently obvious facilities which the steps of the 
cross offered to him for posing the figures as we see 
them. It has always appeared to me that just what 
F. Walker owed to Millais, Pinwell was indebted for 
to Walker and Millais combined. Having already, 
ami at some length, commented on the technical 
qualities and choice art of Walker's " Bathers" as an 
epoch-marking picture in the career of that charming 
member of the English school, and having selected it 
as one of a triad of "foundation" pictures in Mr. 
Quilter's collection, 1 may now refer to the illustra- 
tion which distinguishes p. 12.S of this volume, and 
regret that Mack and white fail to render the fulness 
of tin' beauty of this delightful work's almost Titian- 
esque coloration ; to the justness of grading of water 
and air. A great artist of Venice might, so to say, 
have painted flesh better than that of this picture, 



but none of lier masters treated with more delicacy 
and subtlety the vanishing levels of the water or 
the light-saturated expanse of the atmosphere. This 
is, in my opinion, the truth, notwithstanding the 
fact that Titian was not only the greatest Venetian 
artist, but the first to paint a landscape in the 
modern manner. Besides " Bathers," Mr. Quilter 
possesses a small version of Walker's picture of 
" The Wayfarers." 

To no one of the modern school of landscape 
painters here referred to does the art of their order 
owe so much as to David Cox, who to greal 
brilliancy of colour and light added admirable 
draughtsmanship, a rare sense of the gradations of 
the atmosphere, consummate knowledge of the in- 
fluence of that atmosphere upon the tints and tones 
of nature, and almost incomparable power in dealing 
with the masses of his subjects. Accordingly — 
while they are perfectly composed — 
in none of his pictures thai I have 
seen is ii easy to detect those almost 
sculpturesque artifices too artificial to 
which the above paragraph refers in 
dealing with Pinwell's really excellent 
chef-d'oeuvre, the only work of his 
which seems to me to approach the 
standard of F. Walker at his best 
(which, by the way, Walker himself 
did not attain in "The Wayfarers"). 
To the last-named work I may refer 
with some regret, because to its rare 
merits and happy veracities — combined 
as are these fine qualities with con- 
siderable weaknesses and inanities such 
as Walker, till he painted it, had not 
committed himself — seem to be due 
the excessive flimsiness, feeble drawing, 
and want of solidity which degrade 
the more pretentious and "flashy" 
productions of some of those followers. 
Such they dare to call themselves, 
who seem bent on suicide in those 
deadly bathotic pools, where solid and 
learned art is unknown ; for their 
pictures are transparencies in com- 
parison with Cox's standard. 

David Cox < L783— 1859) himself, 
a masterpiece of whose making is 
before US in the extremely tine "Skills 

of the Forest," a renowned work of 
1840, was already nearly sixty years 
old when he painted this " English " 
and sincere example, lis brightness, 
sweetness, ami veracity surpass any- 
thing Hobbema, Ruysdael, Waterloo, 
or the Norwich Scl 1. John Cronie 

included, ever produced. It is one of Cox's best 
works, and. by artists, greatly preferred to the finest 
of his " blots," which picture-dealers greatly delight 
in. These so-called " Mots" are really productions of 
the age of the powerful, faithful, and nature-loving 
master, due. in fact, as it seems to me, to the partial 
failure of his sight, and the decreasing firmness of his 
original exquisitely firm touch. It is so hard to think 
that the sincere, wholesome, and stalwart artist of 
Birmingham cared much for the money the swifter 
"blot-painting" secured to him on comparatively 
easy terms, that I prefer to accept those late pieces 
as indications of decline, rather than as proofs of 
mastery and attainment which, according to the 
picture-doctrines, they are. In the composition 
of the work before us the finest art conceals its 
exquisite fulness of art, and nothing is more 
truly "rustic" and simple. In the picture the 





im Hunt) 



unengravable colour is of nature, natural, and in 
these respects it may be compared with Liimell's 
most poetic "Summer Eve by Haunted Stream," and 
Millais' most pathetic " Murthly Moss," which have 
been already noticed as in Mr. Quilter's gallery. 
But, as was mostly tin' case in Cox's work, it has 

(From the Painting bu H. Herkamer, IS. A.) 

bul little of the poetry or the pathos with which 

real gems of art enchant as. 

We (Line tn the figure pictures proper when 

Millais' "Joan of Arc" is, as is here shown, seen 

kneeling before tin' shrine at which she is said t < > 

have vowed herself t'> France, dad in armour, and in 

;i patriotic rapture looking up. The beautj of tin' 

of i ourse, disco'v erable in the painl ing of 

the Hesh, not in the expression of tin' face, and in 

tin' wonderfully happy ami powerful treatment of 

on rse the armour, as costume, 

■ hronism as tin- Face, which is of 

A.D. 1865, when the work was at the Academy with 
the future President's " Romans leaving Britain." 
We are not called on to inquire too closely as to the 
date of the costume of the figures whose passionate 
energy gives a potency to the design of Madox 
Brown's " Jaeopo Foscari visited by his Wife in the 
Dungeon of the Council of Ten," 
a work which owes its existence 
to a commission given in 1869 by 
Mr. Moxon to the artist to illus- 
trate a then contemplated edition 
of Byron's poems — an edition 
which, considering the genius of 
tin' men who were to have taken 
part in it, would have been most 
truly "adorned with cuts." The 
instance here in question, touch- 
ing ami sincere as it is, is a better 
example of Brown's power as a 
colourist than as a specimen of 
his prodigious merit as a designer 
of passionate and pathetic themes. 
Of these the best are "Romeo 
taking leave of Juliet in her Bal- 
cony." "The Last of England," 
which is at Birmingham, and 
••( 'hiisl washing Peter's Feet," now 
in the National Gallery. Brown 
had a way of telling his stories, 
that is of illustrating the motives 
of bis subjects, in a very direct 
ami positive manner, as is shown 
in thr design before us. Here the 
stalwart lady draws her somewhat 
less vigorous husband to her breast 
and kisses him with an energy 
which his reduced condition and 
enfeebled state more than justify. 
We notice, too, the spirited design 
of her moving draperies, without 
caving, as in Millais' case, to in- 
quire closely into (he chronology 
of tin' costumes of the figures. 
At the same time we are quite 
sure the dresses in Brown's picture approximate 
correctness, while we know Joan of Arc was dead 
long before the suit of Muted armour which en- 
closes her was "made in Germany." Good as is 
" The Young Foscari," it is, as a design, by no 
means the best of his works in that respect, and 
niii-t he ranked with such specimens of his art 
as a designer with "The Prisoner of chill. in," though 
much liner than the unlucky " Haidee and Don 
Juan," a large version of which, unfortunately 
for Brown's fame in France, has is said, 
a place in the Luxembourg of all galleries in 



the world, and where, his above-named master- 
pieces not being available, we should have been 
content to see, not this feeble thing, but his stu- 
pendous " Entombment of Christ," his masculine 
" Sardanapalus," or that transcendent " Elijah and 
the Widow's Sun" which is now at South Ken- 
sington. It' nut by these examples, Brown would 
he well seen in Paris by means of his "Death 
of Lear," his " King Rene's Honeymoon," our of 
the must delightful of love-making romances, or 
that noble cartoon of his (one of the few relies of 
the great gathering in Westminster Hall in 1844, 
and now in the South London Gallery, the gill of 
the painter's admirers, among whom Leighton, Mil- 
lais, and Armitage must he numbered), representing 
"The Body of Harold brought to the Conqueror." 
Tardy as are the honours 
that, after his death, have 
been paid to the genius, re- 
sources, and skill of this -leal. 
though unequal master, at 
least those honours are not 
unworthy of him which in- 
clude the admission of his 
productions to the National 
Gallery, the Luxembourg, 
Manchester where he paint- 
ed in the Town Hall, and where 
his most ambitious " Work " 
has found a home — South 
London, and Birmingham. 

Moi'e 1 1 idy representative 
of its author than "Jacopo 
Foscari " is " Devotion " (see 
p. 255) by that "great mas- 
ter in small, William Hunt," 
who has depicted a, comely 
country lad, one of those 
who passed their lives in the 
neighbourhood of Bramley, 
near Basingstoke — where the 
artist often sojourned at a 
Farmhouse, ami where, apart 
from Cassiobury anil Hast- 
ings, haunts of his earlier 
years, lie lived when " out of 
town." At one time Hunt 
painted many works of this 

class, single and 1 ■lv 

figures of old men, girls, hoys 
(such as this one), and 
negro-lads, such as we saw in 
Air. Humphrey Roberts's col- 
lection. No master deline- 
ated them with more tender- 
ness, humour, and veracity, 

nor with greater and more consummate skill, than 
Hum. John Varley's and Mulready's pupil, the little 
and sickly japanner's son, who was born in what 
is now Endell Street. Long A re By the same 
hand Mr. Quilter possesses an admirable and earlier 
example of what may he called still-life, the sofl and 
faithful drawing of "A I lead Snip.." Both lie-,' 
specimens are in water-colours, and both excel in 
the beauty, finish, and delicacy of their execution. 
Their technique is exactly what is now assoi iated 
with the works of such masters as Millais, who 
alone of modern artists combined the richness of 
tone, brilliance of lighting, and wealth of colour 
which charm us in pictures with themes s M humble 
and so entirely void of hysteria as are those of 
"Devotion" and "A Dead Snipe." As it is thej 


nttng by Sir J. £ t.hllais, PR. A.) 



are, liki trial to whicn we now come, anything but age when he produced it, and who was already in 
"impressions" in the current sense of that ridiculous declining health. Lewis died four years after lie 
term. Ii must not be supposed that Hunt, though astonished ami delighted the world by his achieve- 
he painted dead snipe, pigeons, and even a group of raent of 1ST-. As with regard to a very large 
mussel-shells, as well as. in please Mr. buskin, a proportion of Lewis's pictures in oil and drawings 
smoked herring, a Few mushrooms, and a pile of in water-colour, it illustrates no story and is pos- 
stones, was incapable of subjects such as Titian sessed of no passion; its subject is the beauty and 

brilliance of nature set forth by means of 
the most exquisite execution. Lewis, who 
lived in Cairo from 1S43 till 1851, already 
a consummate draughtsman ami painter, 
studied the Eastern character, costumes, and 
climate with all-powerful care, and gave 
us this nardon full of oriental Howers re- 
splendent in light. The lovely girl win: 
bears the vase, itself a rare piece of Persiai 
craftsmanship, is as distinctly of Circassian 
descent as her darker and very comely at- 
tendant is of Moorish blood. The elder 
damsel is moving gently to our loft ami 
carrying the vase of roses ami lilies on her 
way to the hareem if is intended to decor- 
ate. Nothing could be simpler (ban the 
incident, nothing more graceful ami un- 
demonstrative than the design of " Liliuin 
Auratum," and yet its charm is irresistible, 
so that (be art-lovei returns again and 
again to look- at it, and never lets it pass 
out of bis memory. To me at least, if not 
to others. " 1. ilium Auratum'' lias charms 
which may compete with those of Lewis's 
much lamer and more ambitious "Frank 
Encampment in the Desert," which all the 
world has acknowledged to be bis master- 
piece. Next to it come Mrs. Wbolner's 
" Interior of the Bezestein Bazaar, Cairo," 
and its rival, the "Interior of a Hareem." 
The "Bazaar" was painted in the same 
year as the work before us. 

The remaining English works I have 

to notice of the category now in question 

are Millais' admirable picture and perfect 

likeness of " .Mr. John Bright," of which the 

reproduction mi p. 122 shows bow simple 

might have essayed with joy. Hunt painted life- are the means of Millais' achievement, and how wise 

size ami full length a peacock in all the glory of be was iii refusing to make bis subject look like 

his plumage, and he did so in a Titianesque manner, a "hero," although be failed not in depicting all 

ami as splendid as Nature herself, bis sterling qualities. In the same group may be 

"Liliuin Auratum," one of the masterpieces of placed the capital portrait of our collector's father, 

John Frederick Lewis, a translation of which forms seated with a hook in bis lap. his cheek on one 

ntispiece to these notes, was painted in 1S71, hand, and in the aei of speaking. Mr. Herkomer's 

and, as No. 645, was exhibited at the Eoyal Academy portrait of Mr. Cuthbert Quilter is good, but hardly 

in L8T3, about which time it came into the possession " energised " and solid enough. The Duke of 1 levon- 

of Mr. Quilter's father. It is the latest of Lewis's shire was, as the illustration shows, more fortunate 

lb-' Hi i -In- and shows no sign of failure at Mr, Herkomer's bauds, ami yet the likeness is 

in the powers of a man who was >ixt\ -i\ years of not quite satisfactory. 

If. m the Painting by Ford Kadox Sro:;n.) 

Opsra-housea cuni Theatres."} 


MODERN Opera-houses and Theatres" is the 
title of a comprehensive work by Messrs. E. 
0. Sachs and E. A. E. Woodrow (published by Mr. 
Batsford) on play-houses recently erected in Europe, 
illustrated by plans, sections, elevations, and general 
views, accompanied by a descriptive texl on theatre 
planning and construction, and supplements on stage 
machinery, theatre (ires, and protective legislation. 
Only the first of the three folio volumes promised 
has appeared, illustrating splendidly the principal 
theatres and opera-houses in Austria and Hungary, 
Germany, England, Holland and Belgium, Norway 
and Sweden, and Russia. Those oi France, Italv. 
and Spain are reserved for the second volume; this 
i- unfortunate in one respect, because in any attempt 
to establish a parallel of the theatres of Europe, and 
to draw comparisons between them from the arl 
point of \ iew, it would have been of advantage to in 
elude, at all events, those of Paris which are the best 
known, and probablj the most remarkable examples 
Mr. Sachs in his introduction divides the theatres 
into five categories: court, national and government, 
municipal, subscription, and private theatres; and 
lays stress on the fact that the last of these, the 
"private theatre," though common to all countries, is 
primarily an English and American institution, and 
is built " to pay " only ; that is regarded 
as an investment, and is conducted purely as a busi- 
ness speculation. The other categories originate not 
with a c anal object, but for i he qualifical i f 

luxury and for educational purposes. Ii follows, 
therefore, that in the four first classes, and especially 
in the court theatre, there is virtual!} no restriction 
as regards cost, and its design is entrusted as a rule 
to the most capable architect the country can boast 
of. It is not only a theatre the architect is called 
upon to erect, but a national and historical monu- 
ment, a building which in future years may be Looked 
upon as a gauge of the artistic qualities of the nation 
at the particular time of its erection. In England, 
on the contrary, Mr. Sachs suggests that " it is of no 
importance that the architei I should have a true 
feeling for art if only he can s& Lire the latest trick 
of the plaster-manufacturer to catch the vulgar 
taste." Tin's statement is, however, qualified by another 
which states "the building of English theatres has 
hitherto been put into the hands of architects who 

are merely g I planners, g i constructor; 

g 1 business men," with the qualification of being 

able to provide foi a maximum audience at a mini- 
mum outlay. The In the speculat ion 
only, but the formei requisition probably meets 
that which, on the whole, i lie Engli bmau i ares most 
for. The good i onsti net ion assures him ot 

of the the g 1 planning enables him to 

see the stage propel 1\ \\ In i ei er he ma} be placed, 
and as this is not always the case even in eourl 
theatn it i pi the English tin 

inartistic though it max- lie. lias in the eye of the 
Englishman main greal advantages. This is looking 



on the worst side so far as the English theatre is 
concerned, but is it altogether borne out by the facts, 
and may there uot be some shortcomings in the 
court theatres of the < lontinent ' 

l.ri us take one example, the Court Theatre at 

most perfectly equipped building of its class ever 
seen in England, and in every way architecturally 
suited for its purposes." If, further, we take into 
account also the peculiar difficulties with which its 
architect, Mr. Collcutt, had to contend, a comparison 

Vienna, of which Mr. Sachs says, " as an example of of the two examples suggests that we have in the 
technical skill in theatre building brought to high 

perfection, it may serve as a model for future enter- 
prise of a similar nature, whilst from the artist's 
point of view it conclusively proves to what great 
excellence the much abused German and Austrian 
architecture ol the last decades can attain when full 
scope and ample time are allowed," and compare it 
with D'Oyley Carte's Opera-house in Shaftesbury 
Avenue which Mr. Sachs gives as the frontispiece to 
his first volume, and of which he says that "it is the 


v - rn Op, ,.,./:. ,,■„.. and Theatres ") 

liil lev a brilliant design full of character and display- 
ing a progress in style, qualities in which the former 
is quite devoid. The difficulties referred to in the 
D'Oyly (.'arte Opera-house were two-fold: first, that 
the arrangement and construction were entrusted to 
one whom Mr. Sachs describes as "a master-builder 
in theatre construction, and Mi'. Collcutt had to 
accept the block subject to certain constructional 
features in the disposal of which an artistic arrange- 
ment had never been thought of; and, secondly, the 
opera-house was greatly handicapped by 
the shape of the site on which it stands, 
no boundary being at right angles to 
any other. Except in the vestibule, the 
ceiling of which is deplorable owing to 
its shape and the unsightly irregularly- 
planned girders which cross it, and in 
the scheme for the structural design of 
the interior, in which there are no ap- 
parent supports either to the galleries or 
the ceiling, there can be no doubt that 
Mr. Collcutt's design is in its artistic 
conception far abend of any other theatre, 
either in England or the Continent. 

Returning to the Vienna Court The- 
atre, it is possible that, from its position 
and extent, the monumental character 
of the principal front, and the wealth in 
material and sculpture, it is an imposing 
building; but Mr. Sachs goes further 
than this in his description. He claims 
that the theatres published in the first 
volume (referring only probably to the 
Continental examples) " have been going 
through an evolutionary process," " until 
the lines of the Vienna. Court Theatre 
were reached;" in other words, that this 
structure shows the greatest perfection 
which has been attained in theatre de- 
sign. Let us analyse its composition. 
The centre portion of the main front 
forms a segment on plan, always a tine 
feature on account of the play of light 
mid shade it gives; instead, however, of 
accentuating this feature by wings, the 
arointed destroys it by affixing a frontis- 
piece in the centre. To the right and 
left of this centre are two enormous 
wings containing staircases. The prin- 
ciple beauty of a plan is its compactness, 



and however imposing these projecting wings may 
be in elevation when viewing the building al a dis- 
tance, in execution, and when seen en passant, they 
look like excrescences added afterwards. Perhaps, 
however, they may presenl some compensation in 
side. On the contrary, the view of the interior on 
page L3, apart from the richness of the decoration 
of painting and sculpture, is about as ugly as it is 
possible to conceive. Internally the ceiling of the 

and to produce a picturesque effect. The an hitects 
of the Vienna Court Theatre have elected to go back 
to the "]il stock-in-trade in the employment of 
pilasters, columns, and arcades. It cannot be said 
that they have improved in any way on the earlier 
examples of Palladio or Michelangelo. They have 

lost the simplicity of th ie, ami the vigorous 

though sometimes coarse detail of tin- other. Can this 
be railed progress: to return to the features oi a 

[Reduced from "Modern Opera-houses and Tin 

theatre is fine, but it lias no apparent support on 
the side of the proscenium or the gallery. The 
design of the gallery front is very commonplace, and 
the decoration of the balcony-front of the second 
and third tiers is in defiance "l the laws which should 
govern the treatment of curved surfaces. 

Coming nov\ to the decorative treatment of the 
exterior, the comparison which we have instituted 
between the Vienna Court Theatre and the D'Oyley 
Carte Opera-house comes to our aid in showing two 
principles of design absolutely divergent one from 
the other. The problem in both, however, is the 
same, viz., the decorative treatment in the breaking 
up of wall sin faces. Mr. Collcutt Hanks his main 
front with octagonal turrets, doubtless to mark the 
absence of right angles in the plan, ami he continues 
these features on the winding front facing Shaftes- 
bury Avenue. Smaller octagonal projecting turrets 
arc found mi both fronts, the primary object of these 
features being to break up the main lines of fronl 

bygone age, and attempt with new combination of 
large pilasters and small columns with arcades 
between — all features which have nothing to do 
with constructional requirements — t" evoke sorne- 
thing new? There is no doubt the architects were 
well equipped with all the paraphernalia of I 
architecture, here and there enhanced bj the intro- 
duction of some "f ih,' in. ire , [egant t'"i ins of the 
cinque-cento period, but seeing that, as Mr. Sachs 

says, "they had full SCOpe ami ample time," wa- 
il worth while trying to bring life again into a 
skeleton ' 

The worst features in the Vienna Court Theatre 
are the huge pilasters running th rough two floors and 
stilted on high pedestals; the intrusion of these 
features is much n 

square instead of circular, whilst they throw oul of 
scale the smallei orders of the ground and first floor. 
In this respect tli. i houses at Dresden, the 

Municipal Theatre at Odessa, and thepropo id ( lourt 


Ope use at St. Petersburg are all superior iu projection of the angle bays and the orders are 

ZZ and the rusticated ground floor of .1,- latter only employed as necessary features, and on a - 

i 11,,, ii„. nvnlc scale to eve a rich, decorative character in the 

enhances and gives scale and wduo to the diuuk scale, u g ^^ ^ .^^^ 

and column decoration 
of ihr first floor. In 
each of these cases tin' 
peculiar value of the 
curved ]>■ >ri i> >n of tin' 
front lias been destroyed 
by a central frontis- 
piece, but it is better 
supported by the wings 
than in ila' Vienna 
Theatre. In tin' Muni- 
cipal Theatre at Halle, 
the superposition "I' tin' 
I,, nir order on the first 
floor with columns half 
as high again as those 
nf the Doric order mi 
the ground floor is an 
anachronism iu Italian 
architecture which sug- 
gests thai its architect 
was mil acquainted with 
the elementary prin- 
ciples "f its design : a 
plain rusticated treat- 
ment "ii the ground 
storey would have given 

value In the order above. 

The vestibule and 

staircase of the Linden 

Variety Theatre in the 

Louis XIV. style is 

well designed, judged 

Vein the perspective 

sketel page 28, ami 

is the must picturesque 

example in the volume. 

There is mi at tempt at 

I. hitectural propriety 

either in (he Wagner 

( (pera - house at Bay- 

reiith in- i Im- People's 

Palace at Worms. The 

best feat are in I he 

Alhambra in Leicester 

Square is the satisfac- 
tory support of the ceil- 
on arcades carried 

by slender shafts to the 

floor of the hall. The Municipal Theatre at Am- 
sterdam i- designed mi the same principle as the 
rior of the in lyley Carte Opera-house. The 
Lip of the wall surface is obtained by the 


"Modern Opera-houses anil Theatres.") 

technical difficulty 

tunate that Mr. Sachs 
should have omitted in 
give plans ami eleva- 
tion of the New ( tpera- 
house at Vienna, de- 
signed by Siceartsburg 
ami comp Ieted about 
1866, this building par- 
taking somewhat of the 
same character as the 
two theatres just named, 
and .suggesting a. real 
progress in architectural 
design when compared 
with the Vicuna ( 'mn l 

R. I'iienk Spiers. 

MAXX'S happy 
passion for reproducing 

from life the features 
of all the most eminent 
men and women into 
contact with whom he 
has come, has resulted, 
after a long and fortu- 
nate career, in a collec- 
tion of pencil portraits 
which for extent ami 
general interest has 
been surpassed by few 
artists, if any, who ever 
lived. Church and State, 
Literature ami Drama, 
Science and Music, 
Tainting ami Sculpture, 
all have their repre- 
sentat i\ es here, and 
eminent ones, too — in 
the remarkable gallery 
which has been pub- 
lished, with biographical 
notes, by Messrs. George 
Bell.* In these four 
:nna seme portraits— repro- 
duced with remarkable 
success considering the 
f I he task — we have clever art 

* "Men and Women of the Century : " being a Collection of 
Portraits and Sketches by Mr. Rudolf Lehmann. Edited by 

II. c Marillier. (George Bell and Sons. Is'.k;.) 


(Omwi: by Rudolph Uhm,n,n. Frui,, 



allied to skilful portraiture. These are historical 
documents of real value, present and future, and 

tl gh ni times a little weak in touch, they hear 

their truth upon their face. In several cases, indeed, 
thej are the only portraits of the sitters we know 
of. mi Unit tlir volume makes direct appeal to the 
general reader, the historian, as well as to the 
studenl of physiognomy and the lover of art. Judged 
as tin' side occupation, so to say, of an active artistic 
life, tins volume must he pronounced as remarkable 
fur its enterprise as I'm' its interest ami success. 

one which 

is whii 
svery 1 

if M 

s. The book if 
urger will rejoice in. 

THE amiable weak- 
ness of < reorge 

( 'riiiksliank in intro- 
ducing his portrait, 
more or less furtively, 
into his etched and 
drawn work has sup- 
plied Mr. George S. 
I.avanl with the sub- 
ject for a delightful 
monograph, which he has 
treated with a vivacity 
and charm from which 
not even the enthusiasm 
of an expert can detract. 

H.\I> we not the assurance of Mr. Felix 
Moscheles that his subject nut only approved 
nf, but actually assisted in, the publication of this 
hunk we should have been inclined to deplore, I'm' 
the sake of the eminent draughtsman's reputation, 
the publication of the numerous sketches which 

illustrate " In Bohemia with du Maurier" (T. Fisher We think we may claim 
Unwin). Mr. Moscheles and du Maurier were familiarity with every 
chums and studio companions in Antwerp, and autograph portrait in 
continued their bachelor intimacy up to the time Cruikshank's published 
nf the artist's marriage. During that period du work; and we must ex- 
Maurier was a constant correspondent nf his friend, press our surprise that 
and made a host of sketches illustrative of incidents, Mr. Layard's knowledge 

not only in- 
cludes them 
all wit hunt 
omission, hut 
that he has also 
his readers hilh 



realm Fancied, in their student life. They are jovial, 
delightful, and as full nf spirits as Mr. Moscheles' 
text, and contain about an equal amount nf artistic 
excellence. Some very few- nf these recall the du 
Maurier we know nf Pimch and the Cornhill ; 1ml 
us au illustration nf artistic Bohemia tic book is 
rightly and charmingly irresponsible thai we 
look forward to the further series of Mr, Moscheles' 

n able to present to 
unknown remarque 
portraits on trial plates — afterwards 
cleaned off befoie printing the. issue — 
and many portraits besides not intended 
I'm' publication. The value and interest 
nf this beautifully produced little volume 
— "George Cruikshank's Portraits nf 
Himself" (W. T. Spencer) — is not In 
he gauged by the title. It is full nf 
information, of gossip and solider know- 
ledge, which together form a psycho- 
logical study nf nn mean order, and, 
enabling us to understand better the 
character, the work, and the associations 
nf the great caricaturist, constitute an 
important chapter in the artist's life 
as valuable as it is pleasing. The illustrative 
matter is in itself sufficient to show the extreme 
limitations nf the master — the highest point at 
which his draughtsmanship reached, and the most 
playful nf the liberties which he took with the 
human figure. The reproductions nf the portraits 
referred to — and all are here — could not he 



IN view of tin.- unusual importance of these elec- 
tions, we think it of some historic interest to 
place on record the principal details of the voting. 

Me. J. S. Sargent's Elei thin. First "Scratching." 
Mr.. Sargent, 10: Mr. Leader, L0; Mr. Gregory, 8 ; 
.Mr. Seymour Lucas, 6 ; Mr. Colin Hunter, 6; .Mr. 
Waterlow, 5; Mr. Storey, 3; Mr. Stanhope Forbes, 2. 

Second "Scratching." Mr. Sargent, 16 ; Mi'. Leader, 
14: Mr. Gregory, !> : Mr. Seymour I. mas, ij : Mr. 
Colin Hunter, 5 : Mr. Waterlow, 3. 

Final Ballot. Mr. Sargent, 32; Mr. Leader, 20. 

Mi:. Alfred Parson^' Election. First "Scratch- 
ing." Mr. Alfred East, 9; .Mr. H. If. La. Thangue, 8; 
Mr. Shannon, 7: Mr. Parsons, 5; Mr. A. S. Cope, 5. 
Mr. Belcher, .Mr. M. R. Corbet, Mr. Aston Webb, 
.Mr. Mark Fisher, Mr. T. C. Gotch, Mr. .1. H. Lorimer, 
.Mr. Napier Hemy, Mr. Lionel I'. Smythe, Mr. II. S. 
Tuke, Mr. Caton Woodville, Mr. Adrian Stokes, and 
Mr. E. U. Eddis also received support. 

Second "Scratching." Mr. Parsons, 14: Mr. La 
Thangue, 14: Mr. Shannon, 10: Mr. A. East, 10; 
Mr. Cope, 5. 

FinalBallot. Mr. Parsons, 29; .Mr. La Thangue, 25. 

Mr. J.J. Shannon's Election. First "Scratching." 
Mr. Shannon, 15; Mr. La Thangue, 13; Mr. East, 7 ; 
Mr. Corbet, 4. Mr. Cope, Mr. Belcher, Mr. Astou 
Webb, Mr, Joseph Farquharsou, Mr. Mark Fisher, 
Mr. Lorimer, Mr. II. S. Tuke, Mr. Caton Woodville, 
and Mr. Adrian Stokes also received support. 

Second "Scratching." Mr. Shannon, 20; Mr. La 
Thangue, 19; Mr. East, 10: Mr. Corbet, 5. 

Final Ballot. Mr. Shannon, 29; Mr. LaThangue,25. 

It is hardly necessary to dwell upon the achieve- 
ments of Mr. Sargent. The innovation, both in 
subject ami treatment, that first marked "Carnation, 
Lily, Lily, Rose," was quickly appreciated by the 
Academy, ami, under Lord Leighton's influence, tins 
manifesto, so to call it, of the Florentine-born, 
Paris-taughl young American was quickly acquired 
for the Chantrey Bequest collection. "La Car- 
nieneita," not less for its daring ami bravura than 
for its accomplished technique ami masterly hand- 
ling, proved that we had amongst us a craftsman of 
the highest rank, ami from thai time forward the 
brilliant series of female portraits presenting the 
very essence of life, and the forceful portraits of 
men— such as Mr. Coventry Patmore, Mr. Graham 
Robertson, ami Mi'. Chamberlain showed a con- 
tinuous increase of power and painter-like knowledge. 
So dexterous, so brilliant, so facile in effects, so 
genuinely " impressionist " in the higher sense of the 
word, were Ins pictures, that the work of all Out the 

very strongest paled near his. Nor will he stoop in 
flattery either of man or woman: his likenesses are 
remorselessly true, ami all that he adds of grace is of 
his own painter's self. Of sentiment there is not 
much; of outside thought, less ; his art is painter's 
craftsmanship, ami the highest of 0- kind. In hi- 
decoration, however, he has lei us see that he ha- a 
soul and an intellectual force of an elevated order. 
Beneath the splendid invention and gorgeous scheme 
of col. air and design in his decoration for the Boston 
Library, Mr. Sargent showed how loft} a conception 
he could take of human thought ami human aspira- 
tion. Hi- liisi exhibit was in the Academy of 1882, 
hut not for some years did he come to reside in 
London. He was elected an Associate of the Loyal 
Academy in 1894, and not more than three years 
were to pass before the Academy set the final seal of 
Us appreciation upon his genius. 

A year before Mr. Sargent introduced his work 
to the English public, Mr. .lames Jebusa Shannon sent 

his liist portrait to a I. Ion exhibition. Since that 

lime in the exhibitions of the Loyal Society of 
British Artists, of which he was once a member, 
and at the Institute of Painters in Oil-Colours, to 

which he still belongs, as well also as of the Society 

of Portrait Painters, Mr. Shannon ha- proved in a 
hundred canvases how excellent a painter of por- 
traits he is. He lacks in lire ami brilliancy, as well 
as in spontaneity, much of what uoes to make up the 
genius of Mr. Sargent : Out there is about his work 
a measure of reticence and grace, ami originality as 
well, that for a long while past have been carrying 
him steadily into the favour of the appreciative pub- 
lic. Mr. Shannon has a distinct sense of beauty, a 
daintiness of handling, a subtle charm of colour 
which are extremely agreeable in themselves to the 
spectator, and most of all, no doubt, to the sitter, 
while entirely in accordance with the precepts and 
traditions of -mind ail. Mr. Shannon, hardly less 
than his countryman, Mi. Sargent, is an acquisition 
of whom the Academy may well he proud. 

Mr. Alfred Parsons' green fields, (lowering gar- 
dens, bloss in- -I- Link undulating uplands, all 

brightness and sunshine, have had their admin 
many years past. A love) of robust colour, he is 
nevertheless supreme in pen-draughtsmanship of 
Bowers ami landscape a master of black ami-white, 
who is able to show tl 

plants, each in its u ol intensity, as none 

before in England has ever done. Mr. Parsons 

i ned In- distinction, and will doubtless justify 

still further the good opinii f Burlington Hon e 



. Executed by th 


TIM-; man who shall write the history of the arl 
of the latter part of this century, when thelapse 
of years en- 
ables him i" 
judge of men 
and i lungs at 
a distance 
whirli sets 
them in a 

true light, 

cannot fail to 

assign a place 

lit' honour to 

Monsieur S. 

B i n g, who 

has really 

been one of 

the pioneers of an important movement in art. M. 

Bing has brought together, in an exhibition called L'Art 

Nbuveau, works oi great variety in arts and crafts 

And by admitting contributions from English decora- 
tors and designers, lie affords young 
French artists a wide field for study and 
observation. He has at the same time 
invited the best known of the French 
craftsmen to exhibit, and we here see 
side by side frescoes by Besnard, glass 
vessels by Koepping, pictures by ( larriere, 
pottery by Bigot, earthenware by Dela- 
herche, glass by ( talle and Damn, bindings 
by Vallgren, and furniture by Serrurier. 
f|| M. Bing has lately added to his show 

lit another class of work which is interest- 

ing, and, above all, new In the French 
public. I speak iif fittings I'm' doors, 
must of them the wmk of M. Gustave 
< Iharpentier, the clever sculptor. To the 
praise of this young artist it must he 
said that, not satisfied with his early- 
won laurels, he perseveringly seeks new 
ornamental Forms with no less skill 
t han \ mile energy. His four locks are 
effective ami elegant, ami very boldly 
imagined. He has striven to represent 
Music, Poetry, Painting, ami Sculpture, 
and in the last he displays in tin- model- 
ling a touch of amazing lightness. His 
HJ finger-plates are also charming, though 
window less marked v\ it h his strong indiv iduality. 

FASTENING. \,. u (,, ] |is w ,„. ks ' |||||s| . ||s ,, ,'„. 

mentioned a pleasing medallion, ex- 

I D 

i reinely Parisian in style, by M. < Iheret. 


M. Erikson, a Danish sculptor, as 
known to the Parisian public, sends 

of innovation by trying to repla 
plaee handles, devoid of all style a 

yet but little 
some window- 
fittings Hi' a 
curious type. 
The style is 
so in e w hat 
more elabo- 
rate and less 
marked by 
decora t i ve 
quality than 
M. < 'harpen- 
tier's, lmt M. 
Erikson has, 
started in a 
happy vein 
■ the common- 
l individuality, 


IttJ Oustiwc Chan 



by an eleganl and appropriate pi ■ of orna- ages or by trying to follow oul a new road. How- 
mental design, novel alike in form and treatment, ever, a group of painters whose efforts deserve to be 

Tlit' art nf stained or painted glass lias for long noticed, thougb their results are not yet perfection, 
years ceased to be practised in France. While in arc endeavouring to reinstate the art of glass- 

ehanmtiu fin ! 

England, under the splendid stimulus given by painting in its former dignity. The painted J 
William Morris, this art has gone through a triune of M. [bels, M. Bonnard, M. Roussel, and M. Ranson 

pliant renascence, here no one thoughl of rescuing it shows verj marked advance both in scheme and in 
from oblivion, either by imitating the work of past drawing. With regard to the execution, these artists 



(Designed by Jules Cheret.) 

found themselves in serious 
difficulties, for it would 
have been almost impos- 
sible in France to realise 
their conceptions with any 
approach to perfection. 

Here it is that M. Bing 
lias been so great a help to 
these artists. Ha\ mg been 
commissioned by the I Erec- 
tor of the " Beaux Arts" in 
reporl on the position of art 
in America, M. Bing was 
enabled to appreciate the 
pel Eection attained by cer- 
tain American craftsmen in 
the making of glass, and 
it occurred to liim to have 
recourse to them to lend 
their aid to the inexperi- 
ence of French painters 
such as MM. Bonnard and 
Ibels. The first point was 
to shake off the traditional 
but faulty style still 
adhered to bj some decor- 
ators, as, for instance, M. 
Gallaiid, whose windows 

shew small skill in the use 
"i the material, though the 
feelin omposition, 

and the inventive powers 
of the arti i ci- often cx- 
treim inl i ting. 

Thus M. Bing has been, in fact, a connect- 
ing link between French designers and American 
manufacturers, bringing them together to supple- 
ment each other. Fur, while MM. Bonnard, Ibels, 
and Bauson would not have had their works effi- 
ciently carried out in France, neither could Mr. 
Louis C. Tiffany, who has executed these fine 
windows, have dispensed with the individuality 
of style which characterises the young Frenchmen. 

It is interesting, in this connection, to make 
some allusion to this class of decorative work in 
America. John La Farge, after seeing in England 
certain painted windows from designs by Madox 
Brown, Etossetti, and Burne-Jones, was the first 
American to contemplate the possibility of restor- 
ing coloured glass to its ancient importance as an 
element in general decoration : and he perceived 
that in this direction a line of distinct advance 
lay open to him. 

Louis C. Tiffany, after him, went further on the 
scientific side, striving to discover the rich-hued 
glass of the Gothic period. But he was not content 

{Designed by Bonnaril, executed by 



to tread a beaten path. The first thing to be clone our forefathers. M. Hanson's glass window may be 

was to 1 i in! the secret of the sumptuous material, regarded as a typical instance. 

the whole diapason of lost harmonies, and the craft Ai the same time the glass-workers who exhibil 

at L'Art Nouveau are open t le critical remark, 

namely, thai they do not strictly confine themselves 
to the true character and aim of the material they 
work in. ( Mass-painting to us is an essentially sacred 
form of decoration, and it is a misapprehension — 
or, at least, a serious modification of its uses to alter 
its character to so great an extent. In the writer's 
opinion it can never have its full significance or 
produce its full effect elsewhere than in the solemn 
setting of a church or a cathedral. And certainly it 
is in no such selling that the painful designs of one 
young artist can find a place, for they are essentially 
secular in character. Hence we must pause before 
passing final judgment on the ultimate outcome of 
these efforts. We must here rest content with 
pointing out the glass-work at L'Art Nouveau as a 

(Designed by Ibets. Executed bij L. C. Tiffamj.) 

of pictorial simplicity, without the intervention of 
the painter. Time, again, has constantly added to 
the splendour of early coloured glass; those slow 
effects must be brought about by .some new pro- 

Thus Mr. Louis C. Tiffany's efforts had a double 
aim. he endeavoured both to produce glass of equal 
quality with the early manufacture, as we see it 
softened by time, and to discover new methods, and 
produce new results such as might satisfy modern 
requirements, while faithful still to the old strict 
simplicity of style. 

Later still he aimed at increasing the splendid 

e binations he hail hit upon. Not content with 

having invented the rarest colours in glass itself, he 
proceeded to introduce fragments of various natural 
materials, transparent slices of pebbles or precious 
crystals. These split, cut, and polished, give singular 
beauty to his work, with effects undreamed of by 


executed bn 


highly interesl ina. experiment, justi 

ing for yel bettei work from these young decorators. 




THEEE is t( 
much inclini 

tion just now 'in ilir 
part of most mana- 
gers ni' theatres to 
aim in their mount- 
ing of plays al' 
arresting the public 
attention by exl ra- 
vagance of outlay 
and excess of detail 
rather than by 
judicious attention 
to sound artistic 
principles. The 
charm of well-de- 
signed and properly 
balanced effect is, 
more often than not, 
orlando. entirely lost in a 

mistaken effort to 
gain attractiveness by mere glitter and spectacular 
display. Everything rise is usually sacrificed to 
the desire to satisfy the uneducated craving for 
profusion and elaboration without regard for the 
more valuable qualities which come from careful 
reticence and intelligent use of material. Mr. 
Alexander's production of 
As You Like /> al the 
end iif last year deserves, 
i hcrefore, to be recorded, 
and is entitled to sincere 
praise, because in it the 
manager steered an ex- 
cellent in iddle course 
between concession to 
popular lack of taste, 
and regard for those 

extreme deVeh iplllellt s of 

artistic expression which 
appeal to the expert few. 
In the mounting of the 
play he had left undone 
nothing which would give 
boil a real atmosphere of 
aesthetic intention, lie 
had made il elaborate 
withoul profusion, cum- audrey 

plete without over- 
insistence upon detail; and he bad succeeded through- 
out in impressing upon il the stamp of consideration 
on to a dominating scheme of arrangement. 
This is to bi n J oned no small achievement, for it 

implies that Mr. Alexander's design was to depend 
in the production upon something of higher value 
than the mere convention which habitually influ- 
ences most of his fellow-managers. He deserves 
credit for having departed so intelligently from a 
theatrical tradition which is none the less vicious 
because it is in most quarters accepted. 

Not a little of the credit must, however, be given to 
Mr. Graham Robertson, who, as designer of the costumes, 


and generally as the artistic adviser throughout the 
whole production, was able to impart to the mount- 
ing of the play the right touch of pictorial effect. 
His influence made itself felt in the manner in 
which every opportunity of emphasising the pictur- 
esqueness of the scenes and the optical attractiveness 
of the groups and situations was turned to account. 
By careful attention to juxtapositions of colour, by 
judgment in lighting, and by correct observation of 
the connection between dramatic action and artistic 
suggestion, he secured that general consistency 
without, which any scheme of treatment would be 
impossible of realisation. His colour motives nearly 
all through were expressed undemonstratively, and 
withoul the use of vivid combinations. Hepreferred 
to use arrangements which were gentle and persuasive 
rather than loudly insistent : and to gain his effects 
by quiet harmonies in preference to animated con- 
trasts. With a commendable sense of pictorial 
climax he reserved his fuller tones for the moment 
in the play when the clearing away of the complica- 
tions by which the characters are affected makes 
possible the happy ending. In the opening scenes 
there was a well-judged distinction preserved 
between the glitter of the court and the quieter 
dress of Rosalind, the daughter of the banished duke. 


In the forest, where gay trappings and gorgeous Fortunately the period to which, historically, 

accessories would be incongruous, the exiled lords As Ton Like It belongs is one which admits of 
wore garments that assorted with their surroundings ; picturesque treatment, and therefore observance of 

• TV 

and Rosalind herself, in her boyish disguise of green 
and brown, was appropriately in keeping with the 
Landscape in which she takes her place as a fascin- 
ating foreground figure. But, at the end, the nuptial 
festivities which mark the rounding off of the story 
gave occasion for much mure display. Hymen and 
lier train took part in a masque, a pretty piece of 
symbolism of which the meauing was made no! less 
clear by the colour progression than by the stages 
of the action. The country youths and maidens in 
greys and browns, the bridal nymphs in white dra- 
peries, the ipniint woodland sprites dressed in skins 
and wreathed with 
greenery, served as 
a foil to the impos- 
ing figure of Hymen 
herself in robes of 

white and orange, 
and surrounded by 

a 1 1 enda nt eupids, 

(lower-crowned, and 

gorgeous in tunics of 

laight rosy red. The 

whole scene served 

as an excellenl 

finish to the play, an 

ending as happy in 

ils appeal to the 

eye as dramatically 

it was satisfactory sketch for 

to the emotions. (s * "■ 

Shepherd and Shepherdess in Masque of Hymen. 

archaeological exactness did not obviously limit the 

artistic intention in the St. James's production. The 
correctness of the costumes was complete enoi gh to 
satisfy the student of history, and yel the designer 
was ii"t denied latitude sufficient to enable him to 
please the eyes of the average inexpert lover of 
pretty effects. Tin' scenery of the play is subject 
to even less limitations, for. with the exception of 
the palace court-yard in the first act, it need only 
express that air of nature which is not affei ted by any 
of the dictates of fashion. Mr. II. 1'. Hall and Mi. \V. 
Hann, who were responsible for the forest seem had 
only to paint atti 
tive backgi minds, 
and did so with ex- 
cellenl d iscret ion, 
suggesting agn 
t ho niysl ( iv and 

variety of the » I- 

land subjects. Mr. 
i itetl t he 
tural setting 
of the palace scene 
without i 
tion. and avoided 

the far t 'omuion 

ci i take of over- 


which should be 

FOREST SCENE. k'pt '" proper '"' | - 

p. Hdi.) istic subjection, 




WE referred al sum.' length in our November 
issue to Messrs. Aldam Heaton's sten- 
cilled stuffs for wall decoration; we now draw 
attention to two 
special designs which 
have been executed 
and applied to the 
adornment of two 
houses in Collingham 
Gardens. Excellent 
in design and rich in 
colour, the effect is far 
in advance of any- 
thing that can be ob- 
tained from ordinary 

The " Fisken " 
stencil is used mi the 
staircase wall, and is 
designed on the model 
of an old English tapes- 
try. By a method of 
underprinting an en- 
tirely different degree 
of absorption is im- 
parted to the rest of 
the ground, with the 
result that all that is 
printed on it becomes 
light and dark with a 
considerable tendency 
to variations, lending special charm of colour. 

The " < 'alavas " pattern is based upon the design 
<if an old Venetian damask, the stencilling being in oil 
upon a lacquered and metal ground. Owing to the 

moderate gradation of colour it has the rich and 
sober effect pertaining to an antique velvet on 
similar woven fabrics, rendering it specially suit- 



able for the purpose to which it has hern adapted in 
this case — the decoration of a dining-room. Both 
designs are on a good scale, being 4 ft. G in. or more 
in length, and of proportionate width. 


To tin- many-sided genius of "John La Farge" 
(Seelej and Co.) Mrs. Cecilia Waern has de- 
voted an excellent, number of the Portfolio. Few 
artists arc more interesting than Mr. La Farge, 
justly celebrated in America as painter and wood- 
draughtsman, as decorator and religious designer, as 
modeller am! writer and, above all, to our mind, as 
de igne] in glass. There is not only originality in 
whatevei branch of work he undertakes, but beauty 
and passion, too. As we have said, it is especially as 
;i designer in glas that lie rises to his fullest height. 
In this realm he is a creator with a high sense 
eoration ami. perhaps, a slill higher sense .if 
litly preferring the inherent beauties of 

glass itself to mere surface-paintings and pattern: 
drawn upon its surface. "Stained glass" to him 
means something more than pictures of saints and 
heroes. Flowers, or even mere spots of colour, are 
sufficienl motives for him to build up an exquisite 
pattern more beautiful to look upon than most of 
the glass-pictures in our churches and cathedrals. 
How he obtains his beautiful effects with glass- 
moulding and "plating," and, indeed, how he has 
risen in the eminence which undoubtedly is his, 
should be learnt from this most, interesting volume. 
It is rare to find an artist gifted at once with so 
poetic a spirit allied to the mure vigorous and 
original power of design. 

(.By R. Spence.) 



THERE would seem to be two notable periods 
in the history of almost every one of the 
applied arts: the one when the new method is 
exploited for the first time and its limitations have 
not been overcome : 
the other when 
craftsmen again re- 
cognise, and this 
time consciously, the 
importance of those 
limitations which it. 
had been the object 
of their immediate. 
predecessors to com- 
bat, The results of 
l ho first period show 
a. happy instinct due 
more to lack of tech- 
nique than to inten- 
tional simplicity; 
the second, when 
the danger of mere 
technical extrava- 
gance is felt, and 
when it is recognised 
that to surmount 
certain limitations 
defeats its own end. 
lias conscious sim- 
plicity renewed. 

ITALIAN SCHOOL (Fifteenth Century). 

" Tilt Or My oj <!>■ Indies" (Florence, 1493'j 

Of course such renaissance may, ami often does, 

occur more than once, with broad intervals of lime 

and locality separating each manifestation. But a 

certain aspect of unconscious rectitude or distinctly 

loyal obedience i" 

the conditions of 

the material mark 

all such periods. In 

stained-glass, mosaic, 

a nd ma u v oi her 
branches <■{ the arts 

this theory might be 

applied successfully, 
especially so to 
the art of ■■ book 

building"(as i lem 

,i i I .-la ne lias it ). 
For, as we all know, 
in the verj first days 
df the making of 

1 ks, in missals, 

and other illumin- 
ated manuscripts, 
the whole pai i 
a panel of consistent 

d .ii ion, i he li i 

ters playing a part 
no less important 
than ihede\ ices. So 
in tin' earlier printed 




frame Ibdbarti wdinfe 

("Pomerium tie Tempore" By Joliann Othmar. Augsburg, 1502.) 

books, the same principle was obeyed more or less. 
But from the end of the fifteenth century until the 
middle of tins there seems to have been no important 
attempl to construct books on these lines. We find, 
indeed, admirable type, with, at times, admirable 
decoration and often really fine pictures; but all 
apparently unrelated to each other, and the result of 
the page seems to be due to at least two — or possibly 
three persons,all holding distinctly divergent ideals. 

Ta te has 1 n bestowed plentifully enough; nor is 

it, l>y any means "mostly bad;" but. the art of pro- 
ducing a consistent entity is usually ignored. We 
find bound portfolios of engravings, interspersed with 
pagi of text, and still later pages of not particularly 
I type plastered with pictures, wherein by 
wood-engraving or process the aim has been to 
imitate a wash-drawing, bul a harmonious page 
rarelj . if ever, 

The decorative illustration of books has been 

the subjecl of many lectures and manj oca al 

articles, and in the history of early-printed bonks 

this aspect of the subject has naturally 
taken a prominent place. But a volume 
wholly devoted to it was not in existence 
until Mr. Walter Crane, an artist pecu- 
liarly fitted for the task, remodelled cer- 
tain "Cantm" lectures delivered before the 
Society of Arts, and extended them to in- 
clude the latest recruits to the new school 
of book-building. This volume in the 
familiar "Ex Libris" series " Of the Decora- 
tive Illustration of Books Old and Xew " 
(( ieorge Bell and Sons), is itself a fair speci- 
men of the ideal set forth in its argument. 
As every one of its hundred and fifty illus- 
trations has been reproduced, nearly always 
in its original size, the book cannot be re- 
garded as an ideally consistent attempt ; 
for it is of the first importance in a really 
beautiful volume, that every device, pic- 
ture, or other decoration should have been 
designed for its particular position, upon 
a scale planned with close attention to 
the " face " of the type employed. 

This may be regarded as the common- 
place of the subject — a statement that 
the youngest student of Birmingham, or 
the oldest disciple of Mr. William Morris, 
has at his fingers' end. But so far, if you 
wanted to refer to the argument, no con- 
venient book was at hand ; and Mr. Crane 
has done much more than reiterate the 
bald statement here set down. He has 
shown his sympathy with very different 
ideals — with the purely Gothic style of 
the Kelmseott Press, naturally, but with- 
out prejudice to the movement based on the English 
Renaissance which " the Century Guild " revived, or 
to the ideal based more directly on the Florentine 
Renaissance which the Vale Press has re-instituted. 
Even Mr. Beardsley, of the Morte d'Arthur period, 
and Mr. W. H. Bradley, the young American, both 
receive appreciation. It is also interesting to note 
certain early pictures by Charles Keene, Rossetti, 
Sandys, and Lawless, which deliberately renewed 
the manner of Diirer or Burgmair. One or two 
unfamiliar names occur, Calvert and Bateman for 
instance, which prove that Mr. Crane has not 
skimmed his subject, but explored it thoroughly. 
Even Mr. Howard Pyle in America, and certain 
younger Frenchmen and Belgians, receive a due 
share of his notice and their rightful appreciation. 
But perhaps the most valuable of the illustrations 
he has included arc those which arc taken from the 
late William Morris's unique collection of early 
printed books and MSS. Many of these have not 
been reproduced before; and although we may not 


discover anything surpassingly above woodcuts of the 
same period which are familiar enough, yet because 
they are new they impress one more keenly, and en- 
force more directly the lesson Mr. Crane has set 
himself I" teach. But it is folly to expect that an 
ideal which belongs to the far past can ever supply 
the average wants of the average reader to-day. 
We do not expect or wish to see every volume 
that leaves the press made into a work of decorative 
art. As good furniture or fabrics may exist without 
ornament, and become beautiful by the simplicity 
with which the usefulness of the object is achieved, 
so all we can ask of modern fact or fiction is that it 
shall not be meanly printed or made hideous by 
superfluous decoration. Books of real beauty can 
be found at all periods, which do not contain an 
atom of decoration. Some may not agree with Mr. 
Walter ('lane's standard in a single particular: but 
on the other hand every style is liable to be made 
unattractive by lack of care. For a book is a 
product of so many hands; the responsi- 
bility for its production is, as a rule, 
divided between three people at least — 
author, printer, and publisher — and in 
days when few volumes are not illus- 
trated we must add artist and engraver 
to the essential trio. Nor does this ex- 
haust the total of those in whose hand- 
the book is shaped. Printers' readers 
have their ideas of dividing words and 
breaking up paragraphs. The title page 
may or may not be left to a compositor 
of florid taste, whose effort is to include 
as many varieties of type as its lines 
permit. So, too, the binder with his 
"guillotine" may, and unluckily often 
does, "finish" a book with a vengeance. 
In fact, the perils which beset a volume 
from its MS. to the critic's table are 
more than an outsider dreams of, and the 
wonder is rather that any hooks approach 
an ideal standard of perfection, than that 
most fall short. 

Mr. Waller Crane, starting with early 
MSS., traces the progress of the hook 
until its dec-line towards the close of the 
sixteenth century. Tins lie docs with 
much insight ami appreciation, and per- 
haps from a moie purely decorative stand- 
point than that which any of the many 
historians of the period have adopted. 
But it is possibly in the later chapters, 
where he formulates certain principles, 
and illustrates his meaning with examples 
freely borrowed From contemporai'y work, 

that lie will he found to he most III 

structive. For not merely the proportions of the 
page and its margin, the face of the type and the 
various matters which concern the designer and 
the printer, come under notice, hut othei items, such 
as title-pages, and head and tail pieces, ai 
freely. Even end papers do not escape notice. The 
examples he quotes ate not confined to British pro- 
duce, but range from Japan to San Francisco. In 
laying stress upon the importance of proportion ami 
upon orthodox well-planned lettering, he adva 
arguments which seem entirely unassailable, and 
should have effect upon the vast army of illus- 
trators, some of whom are peculiarly unmindful of 
these two most important factors. The following 
passage will show how lightly Mr. Crane has treated 
the subject, and yet how very seriously he has 

Studied his theme. It is the charm of the 1 k. 

that although didactic it never preaches, hut gives 
advice and hints of great practical value in a 
readable and non-controversial manner-. 



After discussing the importance of acknowledging 
frankly the necessarily rectangular character of the 
type-page, Mr. Crane goes on to say: — 

••But first, if one may, paradoxically, begin with 'end paper' 

as ii is curiously called, there is the lining of the 1 k. Here 

the problem is to rover two leaves entirely in a suggestive and 


(By Patte,, Wilson.) 

not obtrusive way. One way is to design a re- 
peating pattern ;h on the principle of a small printed textile, 

ature wall paper, in one or more colours. Something 

restive of the character and contents of the book 

is in place here, but nothing thai competes with the illustrations 

li m;i\ be considered as a kind of quadrangle, forecourt, 

irden oi grass plot before I lie door. 

■■Wi bended to lingei long here, but ought lo get 

some liinl o: encourag I to jo on into i be ' k. 'I be i s 

of the owner (ii he is fond of heraldry, and wants to remind the 

potential book borrower to piously return) may appear hereon — 
the book-plate. 

" If we are to be playful and lavish, if the book is for Christ- 
mastide or for children, we may catch a sort of fleeting butterfly 
idea on the fly-leaves before we are brought with becoming, 
though dignified curiosity to a short pause at the half-title. 
Having read this, we are supposed to pass on with somewhat 
bated breath until we come to the double doors, 
and the front and full title are disclosed in all 
their splendour. 

"Even here, though, the whole secret of the 
book should not be let out, but rather played 
with or suggested in a symbolic way, especially 
in any ornament on the title-page, in which the 
lettering should be the chief ornamental feature. 
A frontispiece may be more pictorial in treat- 
ment if desired, and it is reasonable to occupy 
the whole of the type page both for the lettering 
of title and the picture in the front ; then, if rich- 
ness of effect is desired, the margin may be covered 
also almost to the edge of the paper by inclosing 
borders, the width of these borders varying accord- 
ing to the varying width of the paper margin, and 
in the same proportions, recto and verso as the case 
may be, the broad side turning outwards to the 
edge of the book each way.'' 

It seemed best to quote a rather long 
passage in full, rather than to attempt 
to condense the argument of the whole 
book in a few paragraphs. 

For if Mr. Crane has no new secrets 
to divulge and hardly any novel truths 
to proclaim, lie has formulated the theory 
which both he and Mr. Morris have put 
in practice in a most intelligent fashion, 
and shows his loyalty by example and 
precept on every page of this comely book. 
The construction of a really perfect 
book is far more likely to be achieved 
by avoiding blemishes than by including 
merely decorative adjuncts. The creed of 
splendid simplicity is never a popular 
one, and in the days of cheap blocks 
and ambitious young designers, the danger 
of over-doing ornament is more than ever 
one which lurks close at hand. Bui if 
designers and publishers will study the 
sound principles here laid down, the re- 
sult cannot but be good, for herein no 
eccentricity, no wilful following of ex- 
ploded theories is advised. Common sense with 
good taste sums up nearly all that makes for art, in 
a book, or any other object of craftsmanship. It is 
this which the author of "Decorative Illustration" 
urges and insists upon, directly and indirectly: and 
because his reasoning is sound the principles he 
advances can be applied to books treated in quite 
another fashion than the one which he favours most 

E. B. S. 



[For "Regulations? see The .Magazine of Art for November. 

[25] PORTRAITS BY HOLBEIN. — Ainong the Holbein 
portraits in the Imperial Art Museum . 1 1 Vienna are 
those of Queen Jane Seymour and of John ( Ihambers, 
physician to Henry VIII., in his eighty-eighth year. 
These portraits were painted when Holbein was 
installed as painter to the Court. Besides these 
there are five other portraits by this master, painted 
when he was in England ; of these two are round 
canvases, eleven centimetres in diameter, representing 

monogram exactly similar was adopted by Hans 
Bol, who lived L534-83. I s it possible that Doyle 
deliberately copied this mark? — 1 ). 

*% It is not at all probable, inasnru 
' H3 " is in reality LD. twice repeated, one 
'"'Heath the other. As regards the question of 
originality, the matter would be a difficull one 
to set at rest, for many artists, painters, and 
engravers have used this sign-manual, eithei 


(By Holbem. In the Imperial Art Museum at 

a gentleman and a lady — probably his wife -that are 
evidently companion portraits. These portraits are 
anonymous, bul the initials of Henricus Rex, em- 
broidered upon the scarlet robes of the gentleman, 
indicate that he was also attached to the Court. The 
inscription upon the portrait of the gentleman is 
" EtatlS Sua 30, Anno 1 53 1 " and that upon the 
other canvas is " Etatis Su;e 28, Anno 1534." The 
query is, whom do these portraits represent? The 
valuable opportunity herewith generously afforded 
by The Magazine of Art inspires the hope that the 

accompanying re] luctions of photographs from 

the originals may iuteresl some of its leaders to 
institute such comparisons with other portraits of 
tli ■ -aiir- individuals, if now extant, as -ball lead to 
their identification.- -I. IF. I ). < Vienna). 

[26] JOHN DOYLE'S MONOGRAM. — I always un- 
derstood thai the familiar monogram "115'* was 
peculiarly thai of John Doyle, the draughtsman of 
the numerous political satires. I now find that n 

as ii stands, oi with some slight addition. 
Of these tnaj be mentioned — I. Behan, II. 
Bloeiuart, J. de Bry, Hans Baldung Griin, Jakob 
Binck, II. Van Balen, Horace Borgiam, Jan 
Bockhorst, Sigismund Holbein, .lau van Hugten- 
borg, Hans Brosamer, Isaac Brunii, and Leopold 
Hugo Biirckner. This li-t mighl possiblj be 
extended.— S. 


We know with fair accuracy t be age of i be eai best 
miniatures from those which down to us. 

But was any lilei.m notice given to the ail U 
contemporary writers ' What was the fh 
written upon the art ? J. Henry. 

£% If we exclude as uncertain ••The - 
of .Miniature,-.," published in London in 1733, 
and .-aid to I"' printed " from an old MS.," of 
which a copy is in i he Bril isli Museum, ami 
if, for lie ' -on. we al □ the 

• Escole de la Mignal i i which t be second 



edit inn was published at Lynns in 1679, the 
earliest treatise I know of is to be found in " The 
Excellency of the Ten and Pencil " [the latter 
word being used in the old sense of "brush "] by 
an anonymous author, and printed by Thomas 
Ratcliff and Thomas Daniel, and sold by them at 
the Chyrurgeons Arms and at the Golden Lyon. 
It is dated 1668. This book, which is based in 
part upon the writings of Dttrer and Holbein, is 
described as " A Work very useful fur all Gentle- 
men, and other Ingenious Spirits, either Artificers 
i <r others ; " and it is to be noted — a fact which 
will be appreciated by all bibliophiles — that it is 
entirely unknown to Lowndes. Eight pages are 
devoted to " Miniture," and how to finish a head 
in three sittings — the first, of two hours; the 
second, of four or five; and the last, of three 
hours. The directions are interesting for the 
indications both for each separate stage in the 
i xecution, and for the colours to be used: "lake 
and white mingled," red-lead for the face, "indico 
blew," umber, ivory-black, " Uhu/lish-oker" with 
cherry-stone, silver, and " bise." " Landskip " is 
also dealt with. It is interesting to observe how, 
while urging high finish, the author insists on the 
maintaining of breadth throughout the whole 
operation. — S. 

[28] MILLAIS' "EVE OF ST. AGNES."— "Will you ill 

form me if Sir John Millais ever executed another 
version of " The Eve of St. Agnes," now in the 
possession of Mr. Val Prinsep, R.A. '—at least, in 
black and white. — T. L. 

# * # Our correspondent evidently refers to the 
drawing on wood made by Millais in 1857 to 
illustrate Tennyson's poem, now the property of 
Messrs. Maeinillan. In this exquisite little work 
the heroine is standing by the turret window, 
candle in band, her breath showing in the cold 
air, as she looks out over the brilliant moonlit 
church buildings under snow. There is another 
version of the same idea — a wood-block, engraved 
from a pen-and-ink drawing made in 1854 (in 
I he possession of Messrs. Cramer), for Leslie's 
" Si. li-s for Little Folks," published by Messrs. 
Cassell and Co. In this block the position is 
reversed ; al least, it is more likely that it was 
the design in the first engraving that was neces- 
sarily reversed through being drawn direct on 
weed instead of being photographed on to it 
in a conl rary ense, so that it should print the 
right way. 


THE LAYARD COLLECTION.— In accordance with 
a suggestion received from a correspondent we 
publish herewith, by the courtesy of Lady Layard, 

a complete list of pictures at Ca' Capello, Venice, 
collected by the late Sir Henry Layard, which 
will in clue course become the property of the 

nation : — 

Montagna, "St. John Baptist 

anil Two Saints." 
]'.. Licinio, "Holy Family." 
Flemish School, "Christ Nailed 

to the Cross." 
Buonconsiglio or Montagna, 

"Head of St. John the 

Girolamo dai Libri (attributed 

to), "Ascension of the 

G. Bellini, " Virgin and Child." 
Palma Vecchio, "St. George." 
Vandyck, Portrait. 
Borgognone, "Two Saints." 
Sandro Botticelli, School of. 
Lorenzetti, A., "Two Heads" 

Bissolo, " Virgin and Child, 

Saints," etc. 
Sebastian del Piombo, " Dead 

< 'host." 
Bramantino, ' ' Adoration of 

Carpaccio, " Landing of St. 

Ursula. " 
Previtale, " Head of Christ." 
Jacopo de' Barbarj, "A Falcon." 
Memini (attributed to), Initial 

Buonsignori, " Virgin and Child 

and Four Saints." 
<i. Ferrari, "Annunciation." 
Savoldo, "St. Jerome." 
Komanino, "The Muses." 
Moretto, "Virgin and Child and 

Moretto, Portrait. 
Moroni, Portrait. 
Moroni, Portrait. 
Moroni, Portrait. 
Gianpedrino, "Christ Bearing 

the Cross." 
Gentile Bellini, "Adoration of 

the Magi." 

Gentile Bellini, " Portrait of 

Mohamet II." 
Filippino Lippi, I'm trait. 
Ercole Grande, " Virgin and 

Boccacino, "Virgin and Child 

and Angels." 
Lorenzo Costa, "Nativity." 
Bonifazio, Sketch for "Dives 

and Lazarus " in the Ac- 

Cima, "Virgin and Child and 

Bonifazio, "Solomon and the 

Queen of Sheba." 
Masolino, "Nativity." 
Patenier, "The Flight into 

Flemish School, "The Magda 

Cosimo Tura, "Spring." 
Garofalo, Two Portraits. 
Ercole Grande, Two Subjects 

from the History of Moses. 
Giulio Clovio, "The Tree of 

Moretto, " St. John the Baptist." 
Marco Zoppo, "Christ Bound." 
Garofalo, "St. Catherine." 
Antonello da Messina, Portrait. 
Paris Bordone, "Christ Baptis- 
ing St. John of Alexandria." 
Carpaccio, "Virgin appearing to 

a Devotee." 
Bonifazio, "A Battle." 
Morone, "Allegorical Figure of 

Chastity. " 
Bazzi or Sodoma, "Virgin m\t\ 

Titian (attributed to), A Por- 
Gentile Bellini, (attributed to), 

"Portrait of Doge Marcello." 
Rosalba, Portrait. 
Longhi, "Portrait of Rosalba." 

the millais panels at Leeds. — We have re- 
ceived the following interesting communication 
respecting the monochrome sketches by Millais, 
recently removed from the house now known as 
the Judges' Lodgings in Leeds to the City Art- 
Gallery there : — "As a son of Mr. Atkinson, solicitor, 
for whom they were originally painted, I am per- 
haps better acquainted with their history than 
anyone else. It was in 1847 that my father, having 
recently added a wing to the house, containing a 
circular ball and staircase, had the hall laid with a 
tessellated pavement designed by Owen Jones, who 
also supplied a design for the decoration id' the 
walls and dome, to harmonise in colour with the 
pavement. Over the doors opening on to the hall 
below, four in number, were lunettes which were 
loti blank for artistic decoration; and over two 
other doors on the binding above. Writing to his 
old friend Charles Cope, b'.A., my father asked if 

NuTKs and queries. 


with two other children, right 
and lefl plaj ing \\ itli lambs. 

2. ' \- .ut 1 1. A pair of 
lovers seated on a flowery 
bank, and two greyhounds in 

" 3. ' Manhood.' A wai rior, 
kneeling on one knee, is being 
armed for battle by threi 
who bear helmet . sword, pi ai 
etc. A lil Ihound lies al i 


"4. 'Age.' An old philo- 

CHILDHOOD. (.Panel ba Sir J. E. Millais, Burt., P.B.A. 18*7.) 

he could recommend to him 
a sl mil-Hi of the Academy who 
could design and paint groups 
of figures for these spaces. 
Accordingly young Millais, then 
eighteen years of age, was 
named and invited to stay at 
our house for a part of the 
long vacation — to the best of 
my belief in July and August, 
LS4T. Dining the five or six 
weeks he lived with us as one 

YOUTH. (Pimrl by Si, J. f Mtllaie, Bart., PR. A. 7847.) 

MANHOOD. (Panel b:j Sir J. £. Uilluis, Bart., P.B.A. 1847.) 

sopher instructing youth in 
the sciences. 

" Tin' two npsiaii r wen 

1 5. ' .Music' Three female 
figures, one of w horn is seated 
al an organ and at tended mi 
mil' side by a singer and mi 
il tlirr by an angel. 

" ii. ' A ii.' Also repre- 
sented by i hree Female figures 
— l'cielrv. L'ainting, and the 
I llama. 

" The umiueni e i>> \\ hi< h 

of the family. Tin' six sketches 
were executed in nils mi semi- 
circular canvases and affixed, 
without frames, to the plaster 
in the lniii-t tes. They are drawn 
i n se pia wi I h a M u e ba c k- 
ground, the tones harmonising 
with the walls and pavement. 
Tin- subjects nf the four pic- 
tures in tin' hall were tin' 
following: — 

" I. 'Childhood.' A female 
figure seated, holding an infant. 

AGE. (Panel 0,, Sir J. £. Uillals, Bart., P.B.A. 1847.) 



of detaching them from the 
plaster was a delicate and 
difficult one, it has beerj ef- 
fected with tolerable success. 
They have been remounted or 
backed, and are now tenta- 
tively placed in similar lunette- 
shaped panels in the Central 
Hall. — Edward Atkinson." 

[These reproductions are 
made by the courteous permis- 
sion of the committee of the 
City Ait Gallery, Leeds.— Ed.] 

Sir J. E. Millais eventually 
rose lias, iif course, greatly 
enhanced the interest in ami 
value I'!' this early and slight 
work of his, ami it was felt 
that- in their original position 

t he V Were' h idden frOIH all 

hut, the favoured few who 
had aeeess to the Judges' 

" It was resolved, therefore, 
to remove them to the Art 
Gallery; and though the work 


Art in the rPHE Drury Lane pantomime, "Aladdin" is a 
Theatre. 1 veritable edition d, luxe, published— to keep 
up the simile— by Mr. Oscar Baeeett, and illustrated by 
Mr. WlLHELM in a series of living pictures that display once 
again his remarkable resource in colour and design. The 
story unfortunately runs so much in the one groove of 
( !hinese convention throughout that it affords fewer legiti- 
mate chances for variety than many other subjects ; so much 
the more creditable is the pictorial success accomplished. 
Alter witnessing the Egyptian prologue, with its ingenious 
animated Sphinx properties, we come to a revel of charac- 
ter! in- colour — heliotrope and chocolate, vermilion, slate 
grey, indigo, sulphur, ami white— in the city of Por-se-lin, 
thi keynote of the scene being a bodyguard of state non- 
iii progressive tones of canary, amber, orange, 
carlet, crimson, and mulberry, treated in a hold original 
fashion that arrests attention. A dainty effect of willow 
pattern blue and white is cool ami restful in the laundry 
scene, and an interlude of Badroulbadour and her ladies in 
bio "in brocades brin ; u to perhaps the most charming 
n lie- pantomime. Aladdin, dreaming of his Princess 
inthegi >vi ol if- temple adjoining the royal palace, sen, 
her in the magic mirror in a vision of beauty (suggestive <>i 

the cloisonne' enamel colouring), mnded bj groups of 

• az robes are embroidered with purple 

iris, rose-tinted lotus, and silver cranes; the background a 

fantasy of bronze and turquoise framed in delicate gold 
tracery. The "cave" scene ends with a novel tableau — the 
Genii of the Sun and Moon— who, as embodied in the Lamp 
and the King of the story respectively, are happily made 
typical of the powers of Wealth and Love, and shower their 
gifts on Aladdin in place of the more hackneyed jewel 
ballet. Down a starry stairway conies a phalanx of priests, 
warriors, and dancers in a finely contrasted scheme of 
golden maize and silver grey— an instance of Mr. Wilhelm's 
success in restrained colour. An excellent idea may be 
traced in the scene, but the actual set of Mi'. Emden is 
conspicuously lacking in the true decorative instinct. An 
interval gives us welcome pause, and presently in the cele- 
bration of Aladdin's wedding we find an orange-flower 
retinue of green and wlrte and gold in various tones, with a 
ballet that admirably illustrates a quartette of precious 
white values — ivory, silver, crystal, and pearl. Groups of 
pages in costumes based on the Lilium nun/turn, of singers 
in robes all a-.vhimmer with meandering silver water lines 
and ruddy gold carp, and maids of honour in delightfully 
harmonised chrysanthemum raiment, call for special notice 
in this scene. Here again unfortunately the opportunities 
afforded to the scenic artist are frittered away, and ii ays 
much for the costumes that they emerge triumphant from 
the conflict with crudely illumined transparencies and an 
ill devised and unsympathetic environment. It is plea-ant 



i" 1"' able to add that with the magical disappearance of 
the Palacea backcloth of distant country shows Mr. Emden 
in a much more successful light, but on the whole his work 
claims notice rather by its quantity than its quality. He is 

seen to far greater advantage in landscape "cloth- (the 
backing of the laundry scene, and the river distance of the 
market-place, for example), which have a breadth and re- 
pose absent from his more ambitious sets already alluded to. 
Mr. Harker's scene of the vision in the Palace garden is ad- 
mirable in construction and design, but less happily handled 
than is his wont. Mr. Caney contributes a capital opening 
scene, and Mr. Telbin a refined transformation picture. 

Tor: town of Bury has been presented with 
Gift to Bury an ™Portant collection of works of art by 

Miss Wrigley and Messrs. Oswald and 
Frederic Wrigley. The following are the works com- 
prised in the gift : — 

Oil Paintings.— "The Infant Samuel" and "The Child Timothy," 
Mr. .T. Sunt. B.A.; " Snowballing," Edouard Frere ; "The Fall of 
Clarendon," E. M. Ward, R.A. ; "Listeners ne'er hear any good oi 
themselves," Mr. Thomas Faed, It. A. : "The Minnow Catchers" 
and "The Cherry Sellers," \V. Collins, R.A. : " Calais Sands," .1. M. 
W. Turner, R.A. ; "Sheep," Mr. T. Sidney Cooper, R.A. ; "The 
Old Mill at Bettws-y-Coed " and "A Breezy Day," David Cox; 
" The Novice," A. Elmore, R.A. : " Ringwood " and "Vicuna the 
Forth," Patrick Nasmyth; "Vi uusand ( !upid,"W.Hilton,R.A.; "The Market " and " Venice," W. Miiller, A.R A. ; "The Boj with 
many Friends," T.Webster, E.A.; "The Madrigal," Mr. J. C. Horsley, 
R.A. ; "The Happier Days of Charles I.." Mr. Frederick Goodall, 
R.A. ; "On the Coast of Brittany" and "On the River Texel," 
Clarkson Stansfield, B.A.; "Dante's Dream," Sir Noel Paton, K.S.A.: 
"The First Voyage," W. Mulready, R.A. ; "Drawing for the Mili- 
tia," John Phillip, R. A. ; "A Landscape," Old Ci . ' Coblent; 

and Ehrenbreitstein," J. B. Pyne j "St. Michael's Mount," Geo. 
Chambers ; " The Student," D. Maclise, R.A.; "Diana at the Chase," 
Sir A. W. Callcott, R.A. ; "Apollo," Mr. Briton Riviere, R \ 
"The Rising of the River " and "Crossing the Brook," John Lin- 
nell: "The Random Shot," Sir E. Landseer, R.A ; Goit 
the Spring" and "Crossing the Brook," P, F. Poole, R.A. ; "A 
Showery Day," Thomas Creswick, R.A. ; and "The Cruel Sister," 
John Faed, R S A. 

The W.vir.i; (.'oloues eousist of drawings l)j thi following irti I 

" IV1,] '"V George Barret, J. M. W.Turner, Madame Ron Ron- 
hour. S Prout, Sir I'.. Landseer, R.A.. Mr. T. S. Cooper, I;, \ Fred 
Tayler, W. Hunt, E. Duncan, George Cattennole, Sir John Gilbert, 
R.A.. D. Roberts, R.A., C. Stansfield, R.A.. 1'. do Wint, 
Fielding, and F. W. Topi, i,,, 

Statuary.— " Hagar and Ishmael," by Marii B . Egeria," 
by .T. H. Foley, R.A., and " Heb and B 

The works remain at present at Timberhurst, Bury, the 
residence of Miss Wrigley, and it is to be hoped thai an 
effort will be made to build a fitting gallerj foi theii 
permanent housing. An offer of 1,000 guineas has already 
been made by Mr. .1 uhes Kenyon towards this object. 

Acquisitions at ^- WhITWORTH WaLLIS b; tlj 

Birmingham. purchased m Berlin for the city of Bir- 
mingham Art Gallery some interesting 
specimens of old German ironwork and modem gold- 
smithery. We are enabled to publish reproductions of 
photographs of these. The wrought iron bracket on p. 286 
is nearly 7 ft. in length, and :? ft. 3 in. wide, and, what is 
rarely seen, is worked on both sides. It dates from tin be 
ginning of the seventeenth century, and formerly carried the 
sign of an inn in the Jacobstrasse, Augsburg. The knockers 
on p. is; are of chiselled iron, and date from the seven 
teenth century. There is. in addition, a small circular sign. 
painted ami partially gilt, also of South German origin: 
and a waterspout, made of bronze, which came from tie- 
Bishop's Palace at Augsburg, dating from the eighteenth 
century. The specimens of jewellery are the work of 
a Berlin goldsmith, and form beautiful examples of the 
combination of gold and enamel work. The most important 
id' these purchases is a necklace of gold and a pendant, the 
latter consisting ol an opal hear; surrounded with diamond . 
and surmounted by a ring, the whole being set in a floriated 
scroll border of translucent enamels. The chain is also do 
corated with enamels. The two pendants illustrated on p. 286 

are also beautiful specimens of work. ■ being set with dia- 

mondsand pearls, with a rose branch in enamel. The enamels 

are ol extraordinarj delicacy, ami the whole of the wo 

hibits the develo] ml of G I inithei j . and should 

i , i English craftsn 



More than a hundred drawings —most of them 
Exhibition?. ^ ff;l|el , ivl ] liu| , | lllt a f ew j n sep i a attest, at 

the Burlington Fine Arts Club, the range of Alfred 
Hi nt's subjects, and, it may be, the limitations of his 
method. Those who were familiar chiefly with his later 
work, or those who in considering his earlier had jumped 
to the conclusion that he was always painting Whitby when 
he was not painting Durham, had feared the result of 
assembling within the four walls of a single gallery the 

(From a S*e(e/l by the Artist.) 

adequate representation of his life-work— or all of his 
life-work that was not concerned with practice in oils. 
Their fears have not been justified, or, if justified at all, 
only by reason of the absence of large decorative effect on 
walls devoted necessarily to the exhibition of water-colours 
minutely wrought. Of course there are certain water- 
colours— water-colours of another school — which would 
have been far more decorative. Alfred 
Hunts work was not massive ; and gain- , — _ T - — 

ing a visible finish, not so much in 
fashion just now, it lost breadth and an 
obvious decisiveness. But how subtle 
it was, and how eminently studious, and 
how continuously refined ! Of pure 
sketching there is very little to be seen 
iu the gallery of the Burlington Club, 
whose Committee have obtained for ex- 
hibition, with wonderfully few exceptions, 
the things on which Alfred Hunt, in his 
modest and reticent way, would most 
have | mded himself. Even the sepias 
arc no exception whatever to the rule of 
finish. The interior of Durham is, in its 
illumination, almost as elaborate as a 
Turnerian water colour of the middle 
period ; and when we come to colour 
itself the elaboration shows itself not, 
fortunately indeed, in the merely patient 
Pre Raphaelite imitation of this or that 
mi ural object, but rather in the subtlety 
nd complexity of atmospheric effect — 
ili- thing to which, more than to prob- 
lems of colour or problems of draught - 
manship, Alfred Hunt devoted himself 
during arduous years. [f his success 

was not invariable, think of the diffi- 
culties of his attempts! Remember that from the range 
of his vision he deliberately banished the easy. It is 

rciilK 1 ause of tie- frequency of the concentration of 

his attention on atmospheric effect that we can suffer 
lelly in Vlfred Hunt— what we can suffer gladly also 

in Albert Goodwin— the repeated dealing with the same 
place. The same place is not always the same theme. The 
hour is a different one: the light has changed; another 
and ipiite different sky hangs over the town, the harbour, 
ami the hill side. The result, of course, is a different 
picture. Besides, Mr. Hunt looks at his Whitby, looks at 
his Windsor, looks at his Durham from every kind of point 
of view. What was background in one drawing has be- 
come foreground in another ; only the arch-Philistine could 
aver that the artist was painting the same scene. Alfred 
Hunt laboured for forty years, and the years cannot be 
divided into " periods." That is to say, his maturity knew 
no periods: of course, there was a time before he became 
a master of his method, and a time during which he, in 
consequence it may be of enfeebled health, worked not 
quite so successfully as of yore. In our own columns there 
is the less need to insist at greater length upon the char- 
acteristics of his refined and tender art, inasmuch as these 
have been discussed sympathetically by Mr. Wedmore in an 
article published in this .Magazine but a few years ago. 

Latterly, at the Petit Gallery, in Paris, an interesting 
exhibition of ceramic ware has been held by the sculptor 
M. Dalpayrat. The artist excels in his gres jlammes, in 
which he has succeeded in obtaining some very tine effects. 
The tonus of his vases are, perhaps, less perfect than the 
paste itself ; nor does the artist succeed in divesting himself 
altogether of the influence of Jean Carries, who was the 
master par excellence of this style of art. 

At the 25 Gallery, Soho Square, is to be seen a 
collection of original drawings, lithographs, aud etchings 
by representative artists of the advanced schools of 
England and the Continent. Among others there are 
works by Messrs. EDGAK WlLSON, PiAVEX-HlLL, A. S. 

(By F. D. Millet. See Notice of Royal Institute Art Union, p. 288.1 

Hartrick, MM. Willette, Rops, C, and 
Louis Legrand. 

To Mrs. Hkni:v Aon (whom many of our readers 
Reviews. ^-^ i ietter recosn i se under her name of "Julia 
Cartwright," a valuable contributor to these rages) we 



owe the important volume "Jean Francois Millet: His Life 
and Letters" (Swan Sonnenschein). For this book we have 
little but praise. Mrs. Ady in her devout admiration of 
the great peasant painter, moved by the knowledge that the 
numerous Fives and Memoirs hitherto published have been 
incomplete, though inter- complementary, took upon herself 
the task of bringing them all together, harmonising mis- 
statements, collating, arranging, and correcting, and in the 
result has set before us a biography which is in many re- 
spects an autobiography and a critical estimate which tell us 
all we need to know of Millet. It may be thought that the 
treatment of the book is a little emotional, and that Millet's 
disappointment at his non- 
appreciation a little exagger- 
ated. We do not think so. 
.Millet was a man himself so 
sensitive, and of an artistic 
temperament so nervous, 
that the picture strikes us 
as complete. Certainly the 
tone i if his character, as of 
his life and work, is skil- 
fully maintained throughout 
the book ; his letters have 
been well selected, and the 
whole well edited and com- 
piled. His career naturally 
fell into three parts— that 
spent at Greville from 181-1 
to 1837, that at Paris from 
L837 to 1849, and that at 
Barbizon from 1849 to 1«7">. 
Within these sectional divi- 
sions Mrs. Ady has dealt 
with the artist's life and 
work, and has added a post- 
scriptive criticism not only of 
the artist's work, but of the 
estimation, artistic and com- 
mercial, in which they have 

since been held. It constitutes a grave indictment against 
his countrymen, who could no more appreciate his greatne.-s 
than they could the greatness of more than one of their 
most masterly musicians, and who as a nation yet pose as 
the arbiter elegantiarum in matters of artistic merit. We 
are apt to deplore the non appreciation of our own Alfred 
Stevens, luit his fate was the happier of the two ; lor if, like 
Millet, he was to a great extent ignored, he was not attacked 
and even hounded as Millet was hy his critics and his 
countrymen. On a few minor points we may quarrel with 

the author. It is hardly possible that Rossetti ild come 

back fired with Millet's example in L863, and with it in 
flnence the Pre-Raphaelite school. We do not see why 
"La Nnee de Corbeaux" should be translated "The Flight 
of Birds;" nor is it correct to suggest that " M." [onides 
owns only two of Millet's oil-paintings ; as a matter of fact, 
he has four. These, however, are small points. Acknow 
ledgment should lie made of the excellent little photo 
gravures which illustrate the book ; we only regret that il 
has been found impossible to add a greater number and a 
greater variety of reproductions from the master's works. 

The volume issued by Messrs. Cassell of "77/. Works 
■ >t Charles Burton Barber," with an introduction by Mr. 
Ha i;i; v Furkiss, is intended as a tribute to tic- memory 
of a most sympathetic animal painter and an amiable 
man. Mr. Barber wa highly esteemed bj the Queen, for 
whom he executed numerous pictures of Her Majesty's 

pets, and a certain number as well of tic Sovereign 
herself and of her grandchildren. The animal pictures 
will doubtless be the most popular— not the portraits alone, 
but the canvases in which the subject or the story appeals 
to the public as unerringly as sir Edwin Landseer's or Mr. 
Briton Riviere's. Among the forty-one plates are several 
already in high favour with the public ; many other- in 
this admirably-printed book will be hardly less appreciated 
—especially those in which child-life is happily associated 
with animal drawing. How well Barber's animal ire 
drawn, and how justly observed, the peruser of this 
pleasing book will be quick to appreciate. 

Tn "Modern French Masters" (T. Fisher I'liwini Mr. 
John Van Dyke, the editor, has made a bold and successful 
experiment. Under the enterprise of the Century Maga t»< 
he has brought together a series of critical and biographical 
reviews of a score of the leading painters of France of 
the present and the immediate past, written bj the hand 
of American artists especially familiar wit! the masters 
with whom they deal. We find plenty of minor points on 
w Inch we might challenge the writers, such as the astonishing 
statement thai Bouguereau will be considered bj posterity 
one of the greatest factors in art which the nineteenth 
century has produced. Bttl of the intelligence, tl gin 

ality, anil freshness of these essay- there can he no doubt, 
and were the 1 1; uuillilstr itcd it would still he of iimii-ii.i1 

interest aid value. As a matter of fact, however, tl 

gravings take precedence in point ol importance. These 
are specimens equally divided between woo, I engraving ami 
half-tone " process," each tic fines! of its kind thai America 
can produce, tit the Mock- bj Mr. Timothy Cole, Mr. T. 
Johnson, ami one or two others, we can say no more in 
praise than we have already expressed on othei occasions 
The technical excellence oi the craftsman can hardly further 
go; luit when (as in the case of Mr. Elbridge King lej 
methods are adopted which, from the clas ic point ol view, 

.lie carcely legitimate and arc certainly tricky, anil when 

others become such laves ol tone a to el up the appear 
ani e of i photograph as tic cm I ami aim of wood engra; in 



we are bound to deplore the loss of art in the triumph "I 
skill. Anions the marvels of purely imitative engraving, 
thai by Mr. Wolf after "The Lovers" of Diaz stands among 
the first. It is not even surpassed by M. Haider's rendering 
of tin' "Study for the Love of Gold" by Couture, anil " On 
Cape Martin near 
Mentone" by Mon- 
net. The tone 
blocks arc just as 
surely master- 
pieces in their way 
of the modern art 
of retouching them 
so as to relieve 
them from what 
is often their un- 
interestingness of 
surface. We would 
point tothe"Fried- 
land— 1807" by 
Meissonier as be- 
ing .one of the 
most successful 
that have been 
executed. These 

pages are full of 

interest, and in- 
deed deserve 
longer notice at 
our hands ; but we haw aid 

book the attention it merits. 
One of the I est samples ol 

A\ to claim for the 


work ol Mr. Ai r.i:i i 
Beardsley which 
we have seen is to 
be found in " The 
Rapt of tin Lock," a 
new edition of Pope's 
poem (Leonard 
Sm it hers). There 
are traces, of coursej 
of the disease under 
which the imagina- 
tion of this artist 
labours, but they are 
less offensive. We 
have lived under the 
impression that em- 
broidery was needle- 
work. We ui: 1 ir- 

stand that a 1 k 

may be illustrated or 
decorated or embel- 
lished by drawings ; 
but this book is said 
t,, be " embroidered 
with nine dram ings " 
an affectation, if 
not an actual ab- 
surdity) but affecta 
tion is the keynote 
to Beardsleyism, and 

we are not for deny- 
ing that it may have 

The 1 1 is beautifully printed al the Chiswick 

d its v bole gel up verj tasteful. 

i| i; ibi i i Bi rns, which has been i eh ■ 
on i b: ue uem edil i"M of his poems, ha ■ 

Uy the City Art Qal, 
lham. See p. 283.) 

brought forth none more delightful than that edited by 
Mr. James A. Manson and published by Clement Wilson, 
with an excellent arrangement in the classification of the 
poems, with luminous mites, glossary, index, and biograph- 
ical sketch. To the scholarship of this edition we bear 

willing witness, 
nor do not think 
the editor's claim 
over-strong — that 
it is " produced in 
a style of supreme 
typographical ex- 
cellence," although 
published at a 
popular price. In- 
deed, we know of 
no edition more 
likely to please any 
true lover of Burns. 
A special word 
should be said for 
Mr. Manson's esti- 
mate and defence 
of the poet against 
hostile critics. 

W i t h t h e 
"Winter Book," the 
fourth number of 
" Tlo !■'.'• i gret n 
(T. Fisher Un win) completes its cycle of "seasonal" volumes, 
[n general aspect it resembles the other three ; there is a dis- 
tinct intention in the volume and not a little bold origin 
ality, especially 
in the text, but we 
are made to feel 
that this extremely 
black-and-white art 
is being somewhat 
overdone, , and that 
grace and elegance 
are too obtrusively 
flouted. Three ladie- 
are allowed to run 
riot in head and tail 
pieces of a more or 
less elemental cha- 
racter, and there i- 
hardly a picture 
among them which 
rises in dignity or 
artistic excellence 
to the level of some 
of the ai tides. 
Nevertheless, there 
is a certain clever 
power of suggestion 
here and there, as 
in the " ( lottage in 
a Wood" by Mr. 
many will be found 
who will appreciate 
the delicate feeling 

of Miss Catherine Tynan, the charming study by M. 
Elie Reclus, and "The Megalithie Builders" (of Edin- 
burgh) 1>\ Professor Patrh k Geddes. 

With ■'Tin Parade" (Henry and Co.), Mr. Gleeson 


".ently acquired by the City Art Gallery, 

See p. 283.) 



White, as editor, has aimed at producing an illustrated 
gift book for boys and girls out of the ordinary style. For 
persons like ourselves, interested in all modem develop- 
ments of art, the experiment is a successful one, but it is 

(Recently acquired by the City Art Gallery. Birmingham. Sec p. 283.) 

doubtful whether young people will fully appreciate the 
beauty of .Mr. Laurence Housnmn's Houghton-like "Noodle 
and Eire eaters or its more original companion ] i-tur< or 
will be more attracted by the severity of .Mi-. Alfred Junes 
than by the more realistic treatment to which he Las 
hitherto been accustomed. There is a good deal of artistic 
originality and interest about the work, and prettiness too in 
Mr. Yungman's touch and fancy. Mr. Housman alone ren- 
ders the hook worth keeping by grown-up persons, and Mr. 
Solon's decorations add to its interest. But why " Parade " .' 

The new number of "Phil May's Illustrated Winter 
Annual" (Neville Beeman) is a masterpiece of art. and 
hardly less of humour. The printing is not all that could 
be desired, but Mr. .May's work is so admirably adapted to the 
exigencies of ill-printing that it is pre-insured against failure 
on this account. The drawings are not all humorous ; not 
a few- are studies of very high achievement and interest. 

The mystery attaching to the "hinterland" of North 
Western Africa has been largely dispersed in the volume 
" Timbuctoo : the Mysterious," by Felix Dubois (William 
Heinemann), which has been translated into English by 
Mrs. Diana White. While M. Dubois' account of his 
journeyings through this portion of the Dark Continent 
annexed by the French, with glimpses into its wonderful 
history, is fascinating reading matter, tin- one hundred 
and fifty-three illustrations are sadly disappointing. Had 
the photographs been well reproduced just as tiny were 
taken they might have been successful as illustrations, but 
many have been indifferently drawn in pen ami ink, and 
nearly all are poorly reproduced. Many have been reduced 
by merely chopping away the edges without any effort 
being made to vignette them properly. The book should 

prove of interest to .,1] [overs of travels, and espe iallj to 
students of African geographj and mythology. 

The illustrated "Catalogs of tht Loan Collection oj 
Paintings by William J. Miiller" (W '. II. Ward and Co., 
London) reflects great credit on its compilers, Mr. \\ n 1 1 
worth Wallis and Mr. A. Cii wiberxain. The 
illustrations consist of twenty four reproductions of paint- 
ings and drawings, well executed. Being printed in the very 
best manner, the volume forms not only a beautiful record 
of the exhibition at the Birmingham Art Galleries, but a 

history, so far as it goes, , if the art of Miiller. Tin K 

matter of regret is that a complete list of the artist's works 

and their whereabouts was not added, thus making the I k 

an authoritative one on the subject. 

The intention of the convenient handbook called " F\ 
Drawing and Composition," by Richard G. H itton (Lon- 
don: Chapman and Hall, Limited), as declared in the 
prefatory chapter, is "to assist the student and designer 
in their study of the human figure." The author expressly 
disclaims any idea of offering a guide to figure drawing 
which might pretend to enable the student todispense with 
a proper course of drawing from the living model. Eisaim 
is rather to give in a systematic and comprehensible manner 
hints and suggestions that would incite tin- young beginner 
to observe closely and aid him to assimilate properly what- 
ever knowledge he might acquire by such observation. 
Judged from this standpoint, the book is undoubtedly a 
useful one, well arranged and intelligently treated. It 
contains an inde 
finite amount of 
important det iil of 
the type that every 
would-be artist must 
study. About two- 
thirds of its space 
is occupied with a 
descripti if the 

manner in which the 
various muscular 
anil bony forms in 
the human anatomy 
affect the surfaces 
of the body and the 
lines of the figure ; 
and the remainder 
deals with the draw- 
ing and casting of 
draperies, and w ith 
the rudiments ol 
figure composition, 
decorative and pie 
tonal. Many appro- 
priate illustrations 
emphasisethe points 
made in tin- text. 

A batch of books 
for young people 

conies from Messrs. 

Blackie and Son 
excellent in lone. 

exciting, instructive, 

and healthy in cha- 
racter, such as we 

are used to from Mr. Ilenly and others. The illustrators 
are among the best draughtsmen in black and white ,,\ the 
day, including Mr W. II. M irgi tson, Mr. Vn toe I 

ami Miss ( i. I MM \|\ II LHMOND, 



A beautiful photograph of the west front of Peter- 
borough Cathedral has just lieeu published by the Autotype 

Company, and in view of the discussion concerning the 
building should prove of great interest. We are enabled 

to give a small reproduction of the print, the size of 
whirl, is IT. 1 , by 14| in- The negative was taken by 
.Mr. R. (!. Sc-RIVEN, F.S.I. 

Mb. Holman Hint's well-known picture, 
Miscellanea. .. The Hire]ing Shepherd,' has been pur- 
chased for the Manchester City Art Gallery. 

A new society, of which the programme is not an- 
nounced, has been formed under the title of The 
Society of English Painters. 

The following have been elected Associates of the 
Royal Society of Painter-Etchers :— Messrs. C. Cope 
man, C E. Hayes, B. Schumacher, ami l>. Spence. 

Th.' Emperor of Kussia has conferred upon Anto- 

kolsky, the Jewish sculptor, the position of Councillor of 

Stair, which gives the right to the title of " Excellency." 

Mr. Walter Crane points out, in connection with 

the remarks in the on " Mr. ( !. E. Watts, R.A.," 

last ith, concerning the picture " Neptune's Horses, : ' 

that his version of the subject was exhibited at the 

Royal Water Colour Society's Winter Exhibiti 

1892 :',. It was therefore before the public some 
months earlier than Mr. Watty's picture. 

The memorial to Frank Boll, II. A., in the crypt 
of St. rani's, has bem in position for nunc little time, 
but having been unveiled without any public ceremony 

little attention has been attracted to it. Our illustra- 
tion of it may therefore prove of interest. 

The dispute between Prince Scian a and the Italian 
Government has now been settled. Qndei the agree 
nieiit the Prince presents certain of the principal paint- 
ings t" the nation, and is left free to dispose of the 
others as he pleases. 

\n anonymous donor has offered to the Ecoledes 
Beaux Aits, for the use of the three most deserving 

nis without private means, three rooms in a villa at 
Neuilfj The apaitments are suitably furnished, and the 

gift includes the services of an attendant. This curious 
form of prize should be most acceptable to its recipients. 

The scheme to purchase Holbein's picture of Henry 
VIII. presenting the Charter to the Barber-Surgeons' 
Companyfor the Guildhall has fallen through from lack 
of support. As we understand that an offer was made 
fi ir the picture by a foreign art gallery, the opportunity 
is now presented for accepting it. We hope it will be. 
In our advertisement pages will be found par- 
ticulars of an Art Union arranged by the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Water Colours, and we draw 
attention to it because of the unique value of the 
prizes These are to include three drawings bj Mr. 
Buskin; fifty by the great masters of the English 
school of water-colour painting, and many others by 
present members of the Royal Institute. Subscribers 
will be entitled to a choice of two presentation plates, 
of which small reproductions are on pp. -2*i and 285 ; 
"Between Two Fires," by Mr. F. D. Millet, is a 
photogravure of the picture in the Chantrey Bequest 
collection— the trustees having afforded facilities for 
its reproduction— and is 1-U by 18 in. Turner's 
"Approach to Venice" is a successful line engraving 
=, by Bobert Wallis (15i by 23 in.). A special feature 
of the Art Union is that the number of prizes w ill m »t 
be dependent upon the number of tickets sold, but 
all will be distributed under any circumstances. 

M. Paul de Katow, a water-colour painter 
Obituary. of soffle not ^ hag (|i( , (| . (t Asllitl . c . s (Seine). 

Born in Strasburg. in 1870 he served as war correspon- 
dent of the Gaulois. He studied art under Delacroix. 

permission of the Autotype Com, 

From Naples the ,1 
ALTAMI RA, a popular 

?ath is announced of Signor Saverio 
painter in Italy. 







By m. h. spielmann. 

"VTEARLY half a century went by before litho- 
.i_i graphy was to be regarded in England as 
an original and spontaneous method for recording 
artistic impression. Mr. Whistler began in 1877 
in work upon the 
stone, and joined his 
efforts to those of 
M. Fantin-Latour and 
others in Paris to use 
and awaken interest 
in lithography for the 
sake of its own in- 
herent qualities. His 
" Early Morning" ap- 
peared in Mr. Theo- 
dore Walls's paper, 
Piccadilly, in 1878, 
and other drawings 
such as the "Lime- 
house " a ml " Xoc- 
t nine " — exquisite 
studies in wasli grada- 
tion — which, though 
executed in 1877, were 
only issued nine years ,;'; 

later, in portfolio form. ^ESSSH 
Then came amongst j '. .,.; 
in a n v Hi hers ! lie ;£■- ' '" 

- Little Model Read- 
ing," and afterwards 
the " Brittany " and K*£'-: ; ' 
the Luxembourg series, 
in all of which the 
draughtsman's artistic 
(asle as well as his 
artistic v ie ws a re [ : 
daintily and firmly 
recorded. < renerally ,. Pnfesi 

speaking, Mr. Whistler 
prefers to use the chalk for line v 
wash for tint work, reserving the 
than stumping, for the covering of 
the modern dodges have, so far as 
been entirely neglected by him. It 

irk only, and 
latter, rather 

spaces : \\ hile 
I am aware, 

should be ob- 

served that all Mr. Whistler's earlier work was 
executed direct upon the stone, the rest for con- 
venience sake upon transfer-paper; and it may 
be added that he has attempted in a limited sense 
chromo-lithography by touches of colour here and 
there upon the design. Slight though these are 

they of course have necessitated a separate printing 

for each colour. 

In due time Mr. Way— who, with the Messrs. 

Hanhart, and Vincent Brooks, Day and Sons, had by 

his admirable print ing 

- r ... - , - ..... rendered artistic litho- 

* "■ .- graphy possible in this 

H| country persuaded a 

I ?. ' ; ? ; ?jis^ number of artists to 

■ ' ; ex perimen t in the 

method, believing that 

..; I an acquaintance with 

its qualities would not 

■ '• ■ '.•*-' ■ -■ only entitle i t - ado] P - 

.-m.„.j&*~. :' "'■' I Hill, hut Would in 

',. '•' ■ ; '' \ elop such ent husiasm 

as would ensure the 

." -.' I i iiiniph of t he ,n |. 

"a Several members of 

- *--*., ,;| I he I loo. i ill, I lnl, 

. : . willingly responded, 

alld ill." I llll Wele 

^^MkY^yB collectively issued. 

iOKSrai\| Among the chid' 

WBSmBM these admirable 

- '':,"■'■' ".'-*./ ;5i ll'jlll i l.\ ^' I .1. 

^HB^^yffi Linton: and Messrs. 

('. E. Hollow ;i v. E. 

I ;,'' ..■;' ' '. .1.(1 |e-o| \ . ( ill |e.- 

\ : . , -'l -. ( liven, Buxton Knight, 

' ; -v'i.-! , !fj Thome Waite, and 

&Ml Edwin Hayes, with a 

few more, were in- 
cluded in the band. 
<.;'., ; " The work was of 

niii-i experimental. 

consisting of one-hour 
sketches; and thej 
were executed at Mr. 
wn house: but although twenty years have 
passed, and though every draughtsman expo 

his pleasure in the work and | ■ noi f these 

artists save Mr. ETolloway can. I to pursue it. In 
1893 a similar effort was made bj the \n Winkers' 
Guild, when .Messrs. Frank short. Lethaby, II. Paget, 
A. Mackworth, J. Pennell, and I i. Mc< !ulloch met 
to produce twenty-minutes' drawings on the stone. 
The result was in this case more satisfactory, and 
must be counted in the develop- 

ment of the in w taste. Then other- continued the 



and dainty touch in these drawings upon the stone, 
he is one of the few, notwithstanding, who is not 
enamoured of the process. "However artistic," lie 
tells me, " however well done, there remains the cheap 
work." Not necessarily, I think: as the exquisite 
results produced by many men have proved — results 
which not only could not have been better obtained, 
but could not have been obtained at all, by any 
other method. 

The most prominent of the younger school of 
lithographers is unquestionably Mr. Charles Shannon. 
Since 1889 he has with admirable persistence pro- 
duced some two score lithographs, all, with scarce an 
exception, drawn direct upon the stone, and printed 
with his own hand and press. The charm of his 
work is distinctly that proper to lithography itself, 
with an added daintiness and delicacy of the artist's 
own temperament. He can, as the French say, " make 
the stone sing/' His work is not without faults, 
though tenderness is its chief note ; his compositions 
are sometimes detracted from through the propor- 
tions, occasionally peccable, of his figures. But 
with such drawings as his portrait of " Mr. Van 
Wisselingh," his " Linen Bleachers," "The Sisters," and 
" Sea and Breeze," he will always lie remembered for 



(Cj T. R. Way.) 

experiment ; Mr. Robert Macbeth on a large scale, 
and Mr. Mortimer Menpesand Mr. Aiming Bell more 
tentatively. But, for the most part, they have left 
the field free for men more constant and appreciative 
than themselves; and when considering those who 
an- really identified with the English school, we 
must eliminate the names of those who have merely 
coquel ted with t he art. 

Among the earlier men to whom lithography 

c: naturally is Professor Herkomer. "When the 

process was still spurned by those who did not un- 
derstand it, or whose judgment had been prejudiced 
by the miserable productions of commercial litho- 
graphers uttered and passed into currency for the 
most, pari from abroad — he produced many plates of 
Bavarian life, of which a few have been made known 
to the greater public as subjects of several of the 
most dramatic pictures of his earlier period. For 
minor purposes too, he mad" use alike of stone and 
mploj ing brush, stump, chalk, and 
Inn although, even in these later days, he has 
■ es of plates for his " Violin Pieces," 
s shown power and delicacy, and a sympathetic 

* \ ■ 


(By Will Rothenstein. By Permission of Mr. John Lane.) 



the exquisite and perfect quality of his work. The 
public, moreover, are beginning to find this out. I 
am informed that in 1891 the artist issued eight 
portfolios of his lithographs; of these not one was 
sold. But when a year later their merit was suddenly 
discovered, they were bought up within the space of 
two months. That the purchasers were for the 

especially in freedom; bill the) might well be 
studied in comparison with them. 

Like Mr. Shannon, .Mr. George Thomson is a 
lithographer inspired with sufficieul enthusiasm to 
have a press of his own and to take his own impn s- 
si °ns. Delicacj ami daintiness of touch an 
whether in head or figure drawing, or in representa- 

,. . ,■ . , tv ' "5«i' uiciwiui;, ui in iv morula- 

most part artists does not matter; or perhaps, tion of riverside landscape or Thames township. In 


i JRlSli 



(B» George Thomson ) 

indeed, it matters very much, fur it shows a pro- 
fessional appreciation of line workmanship, as in the 
plates already mentioned: or of fine design, as in 
the " Ministrants." 

Mr. T. I,'. Way himself has contributed net a 
little to the success el' his art, less in the direction of 
portrait ire. than in his townscapes drawn with pencil, 
stump, or brush. "Sea-gulls at Charing Cross" is 
not less interesting as an example of tint work than 
of the rare event ii records, and his " Disappearing 
London." of which "Hack Court, St. Bartholomew's," 
is an interesting specimen, shows him [ n the 
artistic character peculiarly his own— thai of the 
classicist. In conjunction with him Mr. < '. E. 
Holloway has worked. This draughtsman's contri- 
butions to the " Ten Auto-lithographs of the Lowei 

the " Strand on (,he < ireen," or in ■■ 1'nder Kew 
Bridge," texture of grain, silveriness of quality, and 
precision of touch are alike charming; and in his 
" Brentford Eyol " In- rendet - for us a n 

spheric effecl with a success m often sought by 

lithographers than obtained. 

The spiril of French litho the 

work of Mr. Will Rothenstein, whose work, essentially 
unacademic, successfully aims at being al 
tie in feeling and aimisant in design. His " Millu- 
uiaiii " isa skilful renderingof a seventeenth centun 
lady wii h powdered hair and 
of sir Henry Acland, Mr. Robinson Ellis, Visa 
Si. ( lyres, ami otli holars and athlel 

well as i hose of | ie ( loncom ; I 
E rendi i ter apart ft In ippre- 

Thames," drawn direct on the stone, for the most ciation of tin stom Mi Raven-Hill, like Mr. I'hil 
part in pure chalk, are achievements not perhaps May, on the othe ham pn ei to use the surface of 
the equals of those of M. Storm van Gravesande the transfei i rface foi 



ordinary drawing purposes 
studies of his infant dauu 

4 ,0'rm.. 

and the former, with the 
iter, and the latter with 

when it leaves the artist's hand, what he dues for the 
etcher's copper-plate. That is to say, by stumping 
and manipulation to smooth down in the proof what 
was left bald upon the stunt' — to impart the tone and 
quality demanded by the artist: to humour ami, in 
short, interpret. To those who applaud lithography 
as an absolutely autographic method, Mr. Gould- 
ing's innovation must appear to some degree revo- 
lutionary: but judged by results, the impressions 
when they leave his hands have qualities and beauties 
which we might look for in vain elsewhere. The pro- 
cess, indeed, enables even a beginner in lithography, 
through his printer's assistance, to produce work in 
which lack of experience is little evident, and for 
which effects, painter-like and pleasing, need not be 
wanting. What the result of experience on the part 
of both artist and printer cannot yet be foretold. 

Mr. Goulding has gone further. In the first 
place he has invented a new transfer-paper which 
possesses a surface free from the ordinary me- 
chanical grain hitherto identified with lithography. 
Whether or not this is an improvement as the new 


{By L. Raum-Hill.) 

" We're a rare old, fair old, ricketty, racketty crew," 
present us with lithographs which to all intents and 
purposes arc chalk drawings of well calculated, mas- 
terly touch — artists' sketches thrown rapidly hut 
with unerring effect upon the stone. Again, the 
portrait of Mr. Le Gallienne by Mr. Wilson Steer 
reveals the hand that may achieve sensitive and 
notable work in the process here used with some 

The latest movement in lithography — an original 
movement, too— belongs exclusively to England. If 

the adherents of il Ider classic method show some 

tendency to scoff at innovations of the more modern 
i li'H.l as nouveau jeu, not for a momenl to lie toler- 
ated or acknowledged, they combine at least in pro- 
testing against, or at least in criticising with some 
hostility, this heterodox departure, introduced by Mr. 
< roulding, the celebrated printer of etchings. 

This craftsman, hardlj less an artist than those 
to whose work's hi- ministers, has not lone since com- 
bined with his brother, Mr. Charles Goulding, to in- 
troduce a new method of printing lithographs which 
shall do for the lithographic stone or transfer-paper, 

(B s C. Sainton.) 




adherents declare, or .1 sai rilegious innovation rob- 
bing the stoi E its characteristic quality, as may 

be maintained by the rival school, I need not stop 
to discuss. Furthermore, Mr. Goulding obtains ex- 
traordinary painterlike effects by a first printing of a 
tint upon the paper, gradating it with the utmost 
care and feeling in relation to the subject to be 
super-printed upon it in black or coloured ink — all 
the while avoiding the unsympathetic flal tints" of 
the school of Haghe and Harding, in which the 

among the mosl charming wo pi inted from 

the stone. I may here rem; tween these 

works ami Mr. Watts's previous essay with litho- 
graphy, more than sixty years had elapsed; for as 
a boy, lie privately practised his hand and 
youthful attempts at composition by designing illus- 
trations on a stone of his own to one of the romances 
of Sir Walter Scott. 

So, bitten by Mr. Goulding's mezzotint-ground- 
transfer-paper and tempted by his delightful print- 

{By Herbert Die 

colours were cold and conventionally used, and the 
lights cut out with sudden and often with jarring effect 
— generally artificial and wholly out of tone. Not a 
few of our leading artists have tried the method : 
and to many of them it has so strongly appealed, 
that in the near future we may assuredly look 
forward to the execution by them of numerous 
works of the highest charm and of great artistic 

Among the first to try it was Lord Leigh ton, who, 
as late as August 14ih. 1895, wrote to me: "I have 
just lithographed for the forthcoming Centcnairc de 
In Lithographit to be held in Paris, a small female 
head, in order to show my interest in and to help the 
British section. It is the first time that I have 
touched lithographic chalk and paper." Aboul the 
same time, Mr. Watts executed Ins beautiful " Study 
of a Boy's Head," and followed it up with a similar 
work which, whether Mr. Goulding's method be 
heterodox or not, will certainly be remembered as 

ing, many of our most reputable artists have pro- 
duced plates, the beauty and charm of which arc 
indisputable. Those who form the list include 
Messrs. Frank Dicksee, Prank Short, J. W. North. 
Oliver Hall, A. Hartley, Herbert Dicksee, P. Strang, 
( '. .1. Watson, with sir .lames Linton, Mr. Alma- 
Tadema, Mr. E. A. Abbe} Mr. Herbert M irshall 
Mr. Corbet, Mr. Sargent, Mr. Alfred Parsons Mi 
Goscombe John, and Mr. Poottit. In the works of 
some of these, inexperience and tentativeness arc 
manifest enough to place them in a lower rank than 
the rest Bit taken as a whole, the collection of 
them, together with the more reci 
of Mr. George CI of Mr. 

Sainton, is to be 1 imple- 

ment to ih" vvoi k of arl 1 >l - ibroad and a very valu- 
ichievement in the field of English art. 
So valuable, so beautiful, and so interesting, in- 
deed, are tin re alts of the new- movement, that it is 
1 that the productions to which I 



have referred in these articles on the Revival of 
i triginal Lithography will leave the public cold. The 
merits of the art are not less, in their way, than 
those of etching; to the vast mass of etchings which 
for the last score of years have found their way upon 
the walls and into the portfolios of art-lovers and 
collectors, it is vastly superior. The public need but 
assure itself of the truth of this to come to look with 
unprejudiced and appreciative eye upon these works 
of the British and foreign schools, and to learn that 

taste and knowledge both require that they should 
support the new manifestation in the future as they 
supported etching and mezzotint in the past. They 
need but satisfy themselves that it has nought in 
common with the machine-printed work that helped 
so greatly to discredit the older lithography, to see in 
it the freshest expression of the artist's power — to 
feel in it the thrill of the painter's emotion — to hear 
in it the most candid and the sincerest tones of 
the master's voice. 

— •: -#jO*e > 




me's Engrauing of the Picture by Watteau.) 

rnHK announcement thai for the second time 
X the splendid patriotism of the late Sir Richard 
Wallace has enriched the great art treasure of 
London, has amused an enthusiasm commensurate 
with tin' importance of the gift. On the first oc- 
iii L871, Sir Richard Wallace presented to 
the National Gallery Terborch's masterpiece of the 
' : - i picture which had cost him 

hardly less than nine thousand pounds. The new 
gift, actually bequeathed by his wife in accordance 
with her husband's wish, includes a collection of 
pictures which in the year of the Commune num- 
bered no fewer than 736. These, indeed, are ail 
which were exhibited at Bethnal Given from L872 
onwards; hut, a quarter "I' a century has elapsed 
since then, during which Sir Richard did not cease 



from exercising his taste as a connoisseur. Indeed, 
iie brought al firsl as many of Iris treasures to 
London as were sufficient to stock his house, leaving 

go very fat back. It was formed by the late 
Marquess of Hertford enriched and completed by 
his presumed kinsman and life-long friend, Sir 
Richard Wallace. The former, who was a bachelor, 
resided for the mosl pari in Paris from 1842 
onwards, and lefl his collections as well as all his 
wealth to the latter, who had assisted him not a 
little with his taste and diplomacy. After the 
Franco-Prussian War, the new owner of the col- 
lection brought it to England for safety's sake, and 
for convenience lodged it in Bethnal Green Museum, 
pending the preparation of his house-museum in 
Manchester Square. Had his son lived, the country 

assuredly would to-day be vastly the ] t< 

the father had become reconciled, in spite of his 
refusal to marry — moved partly, perhaps, by a 
sense of loyalty. The collection had nol lou« been 


(£n<nne/ by Man lit Court. Fifteenth Century. From U. Liitm's 
' ' Musee Graphique . ") 

the rest in Paris; and 1 believe I am righl in say- 
ing that in a large room in the latter residence 
pictures were slacked together like packs of cards. 
reaching from the fireplace to the opposite door, 
and that along the top of the frames boards were 
placed to allow of another layer of pictures being 
similarly ranged. How rich is this superb col- 
lection the lines which follow are intended to 
show; and it may safely he asserted that this 
bequest is of unprecedented magnificence even in 

England, which has had the g I forti to possess 

a Carr, a Sheepshanks, a Wynn Ellis, a John Jones, 
and a Tate, and which will probably find no rival 
in any land until the Due d'Aumale fulfils his in- 
tention of acting the Wallace in his own country, 
and presents Chautilly with all it- treasnn 
the Institut de France. 

The genesis of the Wallace collection does not 



■tenth Centm 


i. From M. litere's "«>i* ' 

removed to Hertford House when sir Richard made 
overtures to the English government tor present- 
ing the collection to hi i it i ) n in the house 



which they now occupy; but he was received with 
the characteristically stupid objection that, inas- 



of Ymrdon, Switzerland. French, Fit 

and Gilt Metal (By Ferdin 
Q GILT METAL. (Formerly in 


much as his house had but a definite term to run, 
he had better amend and improve his offer in that 

direction, [t should be undersl 1 that Sir Eichard 

had ;i distinct motive in requesting that the Govern- 
ment should concern themselves with the casket 
for which he was providing the gems; inasmuch as 
that casket was specially and carefully devised to re- 
ceive the treasures. The public dues nol sufficiently 
reali ■ I hat e: cept in a purely industrial museum, 
the surroundings of works of art are of the first 
importance. Anyone can prove this for himself by 
walking along the gallen at South Kensington 

Museum Idled with the objects of the Jones Col- 
led ion. There we have a collection of a kindred 
nature to that of Sir Eichard Wallace. 
Cabinets, tables, escritoires, chairs, in 
glass cases or railed off, display, it is 
true, the beauty of the piece: but they 
lack much of the charm that would 
belong to them if they were placed 
in still more appropriate surroundings. 
Sir Eichard Wallace had in a great 
measure adapted his house to its con- 
tents. There was the gallery for the 
pictures, and there were the pictures 
for the rooms. French furniture was in 
rooms properly designed in the French 
style to show them off; and the armour, 
both Mediseval and Oriental, was dis- 
played in a manner best suited to its 
aesthetic needs. For this reason, Sir 
Eichard desired to stipulate that either 
his own house should be taken over or 
a similar one built for their reception. 
As lias been said, the Government 
treated Sir Eichard much as they after- 
wards treated Mr. Henry Tate, doubtless 
presuming upon that admirable sense of 
public spirit by which both men could 
rise above the niggardly trafficking of 
the Treasury. Although he would give 
no assurance and withdrew from further 
correspondence, Sir Richard Wallace 
patriotically decided not to visit the 
sins of the Treasury upon the heads of 
the people, but reserved them for ac- 
ceptation by a more sensible and more 
magnanimous Minister. He still hoped 
that the Government, if it would not 
secure the present Hertford House, 
would erect another on the same ideal 
plan — with a quadrangle, with rooms all 
round — and be availed himself of .Mr. 
J. H. Fitzhenry's taste and belli, and 

e Town Hall J l 

of M. I'iolaine's intelligence, as agent, 
to develop still further bis unique col- 
lection. In this condition it has come to us — in 
many respects the most remarkable incident of this 
annus miraiilis, 1897. 

Worthy of entering into rivalry with any gallery 
of pictures in the world, the Hertford Collection is 
not less remarkable for its furniture, its decorated 
anus, and other objects of art. Yet among its 
masters of painting are many not hitherto repre- 
sented in our National Gallery, by whom the nation 
is now to be enriched. Amongst these are Albano, 
Boursse, Brauwer, Cagnacci, Camphuyzen, Alonzo 
Cano, Everdineen, Jordaens, Mirevelt, Pynaeker 



(though South Kensington possesses aire example), of which an illustration is here given. These tri- 
Vanderwerff, Vanloo, De Voys, Peter Wouvennans, pods are raised upon sphinxes and cany a vase of 
and Zerman. In the great French art of the late lapis-lazuli, from which spring Bower -hranches to 

seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, from extreme 
and reproachful poverty England passes to enviable 
wraith. Here we have of Watteau (11 examples), 
Pater (15), Boucher (11), Oudry, Gudin, Charlet, 
Corot, Diaz, Delacroix, Delaroche (15 examples), 
Decamps (Hi oils ami 1.". water-colours), Eousseau, 
Troyon, Fragonard (5), Isabey (4), Greuze (22, of 
which the Pourtales"L :ence" alone cost the Mar- 

hold lights; between them is shown an encoignure, 
oi angle-cupboard, made of amboyna wood and orna- 
mented in -ilt metal, li i> the work of two of the 
greatest French masters of luxurious furniture 
Rieseuer and Gouthiere— and comes from the Palace 
of the Trianon at Versailles. The clocks an- not 
less abundant, nor are they less admirable in quality. 
I "ii the right which is here mown erected upon 

quess (it Hertford £4,000, and the Fesch "Nymph its pedestal is probably by Andre" Boulle himself, 
Sacrificing to Cupid," £1,355), Largilliere, Le Ducq, ami comes from the town hall of Yverdon, in 
Lemoine, Nattier (5), Roqueplan (12), Prud'hon, Switzerland (see p. 298 : its companion, nol less 
Raoux, Horace Vernet (41). Gerieault, ami Claude admirable of its kind, is of ebony ami gilt metal, 
Vernet, as well as Dupre, Couture, 
Gerome, Eosa Bouheur (.'I, includ- 
ing "The Waggon " and " Highland 
Sheep "), and Meissonier ( 15, whirl, 
include some of the master's most 
brilliant work, such as " The Sign 
Painter," "The Dreamer," and 
"The Print Collectors"). These 
are hut some numbers ■<( the 
French school, and vet they give 
little more than an idea of the 
richness of the collection in other 
schools; — Italian, Spanish, Flemish, 
Dutch, ami English. 

Leaving awhile the pictures, to 
which I propose to return, 1 de- 
sire to direct attention to the 
other works which hardly less 
than the paintings themselves she 1 
glory mi the collection. Of the 

tapestry I n 1 say little, partly 

because sir Richard Wallace -old 
a considerable portion, if not most _ 
of it some twenty yea) - ago, and 
parti} bei ause whal t here was 
did not belong to the besl pei tod 
of production. Bui of bric-a-brac, 
of decorative objects, bronzes and 
furniture of the very highest kind, 
there is so much that the mere 
catalogue of them would probably 

occupy a sci f pages of this 

magazine. In Boulle work hardly 
any collection, even in Paris or 
in Windsor t'astlc, is richer or 
finer, li is here in all its variety of 
fcortoiseshell ami metal. The work 
of Gouthiere may 1m- seen in the 
score of -in,, ill cabinets, and, ap- „ _..___.__ ( ,- i 

' . . ' CANDELABRA, Gilt Metal {by OoullMre) : and ANGLE CUPBOARD (" Encok IN 

plied to a style somewhat different, 0F AMBOYNA wood, ornamented in gilt metal 

may l»' seen in the candelabra «*• ran™ «/ Trtamn, v.,. < datura.) 



and is bhe work of Ferdinand Berthoud. The and fashion have imposed. There is marquetry by 
table carved and decorated with gilt metal, bear- David, there is Vermis Martin in quantity, there is 
ing a green porphyry slab (p. 301), and the 
mahogany cabinet with gilt ornament (p. 303) 
,ii perhaps not boast of a provenance so distin- 
gui hed as many other examples of fine French 
work; but they at least represent the perfection 
of taste and execution as well as of style which, 
if our officials of South Kensington had had their 
way, would have been excluded for ever from their 


From HI. Uiare's " Musee Graplii 

■a table (if various woods with a top of Rose dtt Bam 
(which perhaps ought rather to be called Rose du 
Pompadour), there is the musical clock by J >allie, 
there are bronzes after Girardon and Falconet., with 
splendid specimens of the finest Chinese work in 
bronze and cloisonne enamel, Italian Renaissance 


courts. In evidence, it is only necessary to recall the 
turdy opposition mid scornful criticism passed upon 
the Jones Bequest when that munificent gift was 
bestowed on the Museum, Beside these objects 
there may worthilj take their place the two chairs 
hero shown (p. 301): they are of carved and "ill 
wood, upholstered in tapestryof Beauvais. All these 

ii need hardly be said, are at g tin 1 finest 

nens of French eighteenth-century work. 

evet ) master of the meubles de style is 
n ted, and ever} excellence that luxury 


teatl, Ccn 



statuettes and groups, marble vases, English silver 
eighteenth-century ewers, and a vast number of other 
works of similar character and equal magnificence — 

(French. Eighteenth Century) 


•cmmii&n-^ r - .■■'■^ms'^ ^r 




many of them royal pieces, and not a few historical. 
To give a definite idea in a single magazine article 

nth Century. From M. Lieure's "Mush Qraphique.") 

of the quality and extent of this section of the col- 
li i i is impossible. 

N'ni less important is the collection of armour, 
which may be divided roughly into Mediaeval and 
( rriental. The fine pieces in both seel ions are of 
remarkable quality, and include, moreover, trappings, 
o) iddles, and the like; and il is interesting to 
note thai some of the finest examples in this col- 
lection are in be found drawn in the MS. book of 
Jacobi u luourei ' Queen Elizabeth of which the 

South Kensington Museum lately became possessed. 
As a specimen of decorated armour, we repro- 
duce from the illustrations in M. Edouard 
Lievre's "Musee Graphique" the six- 
teenth-century inlaid arquebuse and the 
superb morion helmet, embossed, of the 
same or a slightly earlier period, doubt- 
less of Ilalian design. From the same 
source we are enabled to reproduce an 
exquisite object in metal-work, a mortier 
(p. 297), tine alike in design and work- 
manship. Equally admirable is the 
enamel casket by J. Penicaud (p. 300): 
and the portrait enamel of Marguerite 
ilr France, by Jehan de Court (six- 
teenth century), is not more beautiful 
in quality than is the frame in design 
(p. 297). In addition to these there are 
among a notable profusion the two fine 
bronze groups of Jupiter triumphing 
over the Tritons, and of Juno supported 
by the winds — Tuno being the goddess 
of rain (French, seventeenth century). 
To the sixteenth century belongs the 
superb portrait bust of Charles IX. of 

Maiolica and other earthenware form 
a remarkable section by themselves, in- 
cluding nearly one hundred and fifty 
numbers; and among the examples of 
Limoges enamel is the great dish by 
Martial Courtois, representing Apollo and 
the Muses, with binder and back of arab- 
esques, which is worthy to be named along 
with the other masterpiece of the same 
artist, formerly in the Magniac Collection 
and now in that of Mr. Borradaile, of 
Brighton. It can hardly be pretended 
that the maiolica, magnificent as it is, 
includes examples of every factory : never- 
theless, it is extremely representative of 
the best. Of these we reproduce a rave 
piece of maiolica of Faenza with char- 
acteristic decoration (p. 300). Moorish 
lustred maiolica is well represented in 
the fifteenth -century dish which bears 
the shield of Castille and Leon in the centre, and in 
another which adds to those the shield of Arragon. 
Palissy ware is shown in a few admirable speci- 
mens, and della Robbia enamelled earthen ware in a 
characteristic group of the Virgin and child. 

The section of miniatures — to retain Sir liichard 
Wallace's own classification — includes some two 
hundred ami twenty examples, most of them very 
line in their way, but not all of them to lie 
identified with either sitter or painter. It is 


30 ■ 

sufficient to know, however, that there is amongst Eitz-Herbert, Miss Crofton, ana others; and Ozias 
them a portrait of Lord Conway of the period ol Humphrey, Bone, and other English miniaturists 
Charles I., by Samuel Cooper, and another of are also here. The French miniaturists, perhaps, 

nc/i, Eighteenth Century.) 

Oliver Cromwell by the same master, together 
with Lord Faulkland and an unknown male por- 
trait. The features of another unknown man of 

tlii- time of Elizabeth have 1 n immortalised 

by Nicholas Hilliard. Cosway is represented by 
miniatures of the Duchess of Devonshire and Lady 
Duncan non, of George Prince of Wales, of Mrs. 

(•annul show so many masters, but [sabey, Aubry, 
Guerin, and Nattier have given their exquisite art, 
the former i" notabilities of tin' Napoleonic 

and tin' last nat I i" Madame de Pompadour 

herself. It should be added that a miniature por- 
trait in nil. Jean de Thou, shows the early days of 
thr ait in tin- Eoui teenth century. 





by Charles ft.cfietts.) 

HE quality 
w li i c 1 1 has 
Mr. Ricketts's 
wink from 
the first is 
In Art, per- 
sonality is hut 
another name 
and, as in life, 
there are two 
sorts. The one fostered hy ignorance, whether of 
social amenities or precedent; the other restrained 
or fantastic, pedantically simple or complex and 
profound, is alike based upon sound knowledge, 
which is power, 

To-day a few designers, anxious for a short cut to 
success, appear to think that if they follow 
the track of a single predecessor they can 
slip through the thorn-brake with no per- 
sonal effort and succeed in awaking the sleep- 
ing beauty. But the path must be cleared 
anew for himself by every true artist, who 
disdains the solitary trail as much as the 
common highway : for by either mute a tra- 
veller will find when he reaches his goal that 
the prince has already carried off the prize. 
Mr. Ricketts is himself always. It, is 
open In dislike his aims: but common fair- 
ness musl admit that they arc his own, 
and owe little to any predecessor. < >f the 
school of Rossetti — does someone whisper? 

Yes, i c sense: but only in the sense 

that the younger Pre-Eaphaelite has learned 
from the sources whence the earlier drew 
his inspiration, and first gave expression 
I- a certain intensity new to English art. 
Besides, Rossetti — maker of poems and 
pictures — was not to anj extent a designer 
of books, and it, is in that aspect, we are 
considering Mr. Ricketts here. 

I ■ aspect of his art Mr. Ricketts 

appears distinctly akin to Rossetti, for he 
is dowered with the highly nervous tem- 
perament which feels the commonplace as 
positive pain. Most of us can hardly suffer 

gladly the reiterat i f a monotonous note 

11 or the foolish ineffectual whine of ;i 

chained puppy. The repeated sound provokes a dis- 
proportionate sense of irritation. It is told of Walter 
Savage Landor that he hated mixing indiscriminately 
with his fellows because the platitudes which they 
uttered inflicted actual torture. " Fancy," he said 
on one occasion, "if I chanced to he sitting by the 
sea, and a stout motherly female came ami .sat 
beside me, and, as a steamboat came in sight, said — 
"Lor, sir! what should we have thought of that 
when we were young?" The fatuous astonishment 
of the average person at, something that he recognises, 
but cannot understand, is as maddening to a thinking 
man, as the same person's self-satisfied familiarity 
with other wonders which are equally beyond his 

It is hard that no word exists to describe accu- 
rately the builder of beautiful hooks. "Editor" or 
"publisher" expresses too much. The architecture 
of book-building; is at once an art and a science, and 

(Ora«,» by Charlw Ricketts.) 



in many respects would show a near parallel to the 
third of tlic fine arte which is included in that 
trinity of which many believe thai the lasl is also 
greatest. But it is wiser to ai i epl them .1- 1 o-equal. 

Now mosl people still express surprise at the 
marvels of printing; and still show apparent 
faction with the meanest and ugliest examp 
that art, which, they recognise, lias done so much 
to change the life-history of the world. They will 
gaze in open-mouthed astonishment at so 
many thousand copies an hour being thrown 
off steam presses, and yet purr with - 
approval over the hideous volume which is 
the result of all this applied mechanism. 

The artist is always amazed, and is for 
ever appalled, by common accidents of light 
and movement which do not excite the- man 
in the street in the smalls: degree. The 
emotions which move an artisl to joy or grief 
seem the veriest trifles to the orthodox British 
citizen: while all the toys of the taxpayer — 
politics, religious factions, and other burning 
questions — interest the artist rarely, and 
seldom deeply. This may seem discursive; 
Imt unless you are willing to realise thai to 
an artist's eyes the production of a beautiful 
book is worthy of as much patient study as 
the result of an international cricket match, 
the passing of a Bill through Parliament, or 
the shibboleth of one sect as opposed to the 
shibboleth of another — until one is ready to 
allow that the subject which attracts him 
interests him as honestly and wholly as these 
other matters interest the larger number, it 
were foolish to consider seriously a few 
volumes issued under the direel control of a 
young artist. 

The art of producing a 1 k differs in 

infinitesimal degree only, whether it be a 
cheap and nasty edition or a masterpiei ■ ■ 
that satisfies the mosl exacting critic. The 
possible variations allowed in good lioman typ 
few and exquisitely slighl : the paper 1- necessarily 

paper, merely a 1 ■ quality for a had book and 

a tine quality for a good one. Every pa 
margins : those produced by artists of the pa 
or present — are finely proportioned; the n I an 
Left to chance. The ink is nominally black in 

each ease: in the fine 1 k ii is really black; in 

the badly -printed one sometimes black, sometimes 
a dull neutral colour. The ugly hook is usually, 
though not always, unreadahle in some degree; it- 
pages are often shiny and its type thin and 11 
But, after all, the po sihle difference betwei 11 a 

beautiful hook and a 1 k of no beauty at all is a 

mailer of surfaces, tones, and fractional variations 

of nea urement — all trifles of small importance to 
the pracl ical man of bu 

But we must remember that trifles rule the 
world; a fraction of difference in the curve of an 
1 outour of a nose, separates a 
Cleopatra ft lowdy. In An 

there is no such thin- as a trifle; every item of 
perfection must be perfect, and only those who 
know the thousand and one possible errors which 


{Drawn bij Cha 

would, an\ , l.<iii. mar a pei foci i k. can 

iate the result. The right thing often lool s 

the easiest : hill if it l>e the niOSl dircet way to 

lie result, a.- it often 1-, the natnra 
of animal ua are has to he fought in e.verj 
the thousai 

renovation of the 1 k from it - nor 1 ug 

to a isfactory in evi 1 must 

It must l|o| In 

founded with the pretl •■ ith a 

I !l,ll Mi! i I "111 

1 he mo point of \ iew " the hook 

dispense with thesi adjuncts, and become beautified 
by rea 1 decoi itions 

Th. re 1 ■ much decoi I ion al pre cut, good in 



ool< . in borders, for 
many young artists 
beautiful book are at 

that does not beautify llie I 
instance, you constantly find 
have uo( learned bow to turn < 

Logical efforts to produce a 
presenl the secrei of England. In France, Holland, 
and Belgium they know this well enough. This was 
apparent al i lie exhibi- 

1 1 i' /.• Livre Moderne 

in Paris; although the 
Kehuscott editions do 
not seem to have been 
treated there so seri- 
ously as their import- 
ance warrants, and Air. 
Ricketts's hooks were 
]n act ica 1 ly unrepre- 

As tlic Vale Press 
books owe everything 
except the actual press- 
work to Mr. Ricketts, 
who is responsible for 
the type, the build of 
the page, I he paper with 
its " Vale " watermark, 
the illustrations and 
decora t ions, a n d I he 
bindings, it will lie best 
to trace the evolution 
of these editions from 
earlier volumes which 
w ere only part hilly 
under his control. 

Of these, the [irst 

number of "The 1 lial ' 
is, I believe, the earliest; 
and the plan of this 
sum pt uously - printed 
quarto reveals attention 
l,o those details of book- 
building which later 
works develop more 
fully. The prospectus 
to announce " The 1 lial," 
No. 1, and thai to 
proclaim the advent i 

(B s Michael Dr.ijton. Vail Prill Edith 


are delightfully 

original; indeed, with all respect for Air. Ricketts's 
latei amis, one can hardly restrain a certain amount 
of regret that the invention displayed in arranging 
ordinary types in well-balanced masses has been set 
.i ide for a stricter adherence to the canons laid 
down by the early lialian ami other master book- 
builders of the past. "The Dial," No. |, appeared 
from tin- Vale, Chelsea." in 1889; No. '1 in Feh- 
ruary, L892 ; No. 3 in October, is 1 .):;; and No. 4, 
with the imprint " Hacan and Llicketts," in 1896. 

The earliest book produced under Mr. Ricketts's 
entire control is " Silver-Points " ( Lane, 1891 ) a tall 

tin itavo, which, in its dainty cover (designed by 

Air. Charles H. Shannon), is a treasure to collectors 
and a continual joy to the lover of fine hooks. 
Several points in it, then entirely fresh in modern 
book - making, deserve 
mention. The poems 
are all in italic, except 
the initial letter of each 
line, which is Roman : 
the titles are in Roman 
capitals : the dedication 
in smaller-sized capitals, 
thewhole packed tightly 
together, with margins 
that fulfil the estab- 
lished rule of the great 
pri a t ers — tha t is, 
narrowest on the inner 
side, the outer margin 
double the width of the 
inner, the top still more 
ample, and the lower 
wider still. Except 
that a simple decora- 
tion surrounds a few of 
the initials, there is not 
a spot of ornament in 
the whole hook-, which 
owes its beauty entirely 
to the arrangement of 
the type. In "A House 
of Pom eg ra ii iitrs" 
(Osgood, Mcllvaine, 
1891)— as the prospec- 
tus duly announced — 
" the design and decor- 
ation of the hook are 
byC. Rickettsand < '. II. 
Shannon." Here we find 
that the pictures are 
deliberately planned to 
decorate the page, and 
that certain roundel de- 
signs are dotted here and there on the margins for 
the same purpose, other hooks, notably "Grimm's 
Fairy Tales," with Air. Walter Crane's designs, had 
long before attempted to bring the illustration to 
accord with the type-page; but, this is nearer the 
ideal, for the massing of the type itself seems to 
have been more thoroughly supervised by the artist. 
' Lord Arthur Savile's Crime" (ditto) and "Tin' Bard 
of the Dimhovitza" (ditto) also show- strong trace 
of Mr. Ricketts's influence in their title-pages. 
Put these preliminary efforts must not, he dwelt 



A I.. 


upon. With " Daphnis and < !hloe," a quarto volume, 
we encounter what is said to be the first book pub- 
lished in recent times with woodcuts by the artist, 
in a page arranged by himself. It must not be 
forgotten that Mr. Bicketts is distinctly a revivalist 

of original engraving, never common at any period. 
Mr. W. J. Linton admits only two original wood- 
engravers in the sixteenth century. One of the 
blocks reproduced here will convey an idea of the 
"Daphnis and Chloe," which is modelled obviously 
on the " Hypnerotomachia " (Venice, 1499) and other 

1 ks of thai period. Not a few people have blamed 

.Air. Bicketts severely for his faithful adherence to 
the manner of the early Italians ; and a few of these 
have at the same time approved equally faithful 

imitations of 1 ks of another race and time. The 

question is purely a matter of taste : but in choosing 
the Italians as models to follow, Mr. Ricketts stands 
alone at present. Not a little decorative book- 
making inspired by Teutonic and other early 
fashions has been put forth of 
far my inquiries have discovei 
which has been directly inspire 

"Hero and Leander," issued in octavo, 
is conceived in a different manner, and cannot be 
traced to the direct influence of any predecessor. 
The type of beauty which Mr. Bicketts adopts in its 
illustrations is not one that appeals to the lovers ol 
the quaint or the pretty, who may be repelled by 
its severely archaic lines and the decorative in- 
tention which depicts a strangely fantastic ideal of 
humanity. To-day, when realism and imitation are 


ears: tint so 
I no modern book 
by the Florentine 

dominant, the deliberate intention of an artist to 
make his subject express the idea he wishes to 
convey within a rigid convention, without binding 
himself to the canons of academic draughtsman- 
ship, is apt tn be taken as treason. Bui those who 
are offended should remember thai a draughtsman 
of Ah' Bicketts's ability dues not err (if la- err at 

all) through ig ance or carelessness. Emotion", 

passion, and the decorative pattern of his ■ 
sway him most ; and to that end lie i 
types of humanity which are uol common, and 
proportions which do nol agree with the record ol 
the Kodak. 

In -The Sphinx " 1 1894) a delicately- wrought 
small-quarto, (dad in white and gold, and printed 
in red. green, and black — the illustration-, ale slid 
more severe, and are certainly entirely remote from 
the direct influence of any work- past or present. 
The artist, I believe, ranks this as one of hi- most 
satisfactory works; ami, caviare though it must 
needs he to the average taste, its singular beauty 
needs no praise here. The absence of sensuousness 
in designs that ate passionate in intention is pecu- 
liarly noticeable. Hut for the moment we may 
regard the illustrations of these three books as a 
side issue; except iii one very important factoi : 
the quality of their line, and the amount of white 
paper left untouched, which has been decided en- 

tirely with regard to position 

with the type. This is a point which Mr. Bicketts 
considers to be of the highe I importance. It is the 
build of the page, the relati f the "coloui 



th e engravings to the type, and the symmetry of 
the whole volume, which he insists upon; and 
in these respects any person who lias studied the 

beauty of a well-planned 1 k cannot fail to be 

interested, even if the resull is unlike his previously 
accepted ideal. 

But all these volumes air only steps in the 
history of the Vale Press, and do nut represent 


{Drawl: by CI ■ 

the ideal which .Mr. Ricketts wished in attain. In 
I 196 the results of long experiments wre made 
public, and the firm of Hacon ami Ricketts was 
established. At present its publications are con- 
fined t" books decorated, not illustrated; unless 
,ni occasional frontispiece entitles certain volumes 
to !«• so considered. 

For these Mr. Llicketts designed a special type, 
.nid carried out an idea he had projected for a 
long time. The type has already been the theme 
of dispute, and has betrayed many hasty critics 
into rash statements. 'I he possible innovations in 
a fount confessedly based on the precedent of the 
hesi Italian alphabets leave little room for violent 
novelty. One set of critics has objected to the 
st \ le as too invital ive ; other? liave found it too 

novel. But no critic so far seems to have been 
sufficiently impressed by its fundamental idea. Mr. 
Ricketts believes that the plan on which all letters 
should be based is that of the perfect circle or the 
perfect square; it matters not which geometrical 
form you choose, .since a certain number of letters 
— M, L, H, and the like — demand a parallelogram, 
and others — C, G, Q, — an ovate or circular plan. 
If to draw this distinction between types 
based mi the oval or the circle appear a 
mere quibble, we must remember that the 
difference between the Byzantine and Pointed 
style-, which divide architecture into two 
great sections, is one of similar limit. There 
is all the difference in the world, to a spe- 
cialist in types, between a small " 1>," " g," or 
"o" that follows the circle [O]. and one that 
is planned upon an oval [0]- 1 wish to 
emphasise this point, because I know that 
the designer regards it as vital : and I, for 
one, agree entirely with bis estimate of its 
importance. The question of "seril'ls" and 
the angles of certain strokes: whether a W 
consists of interlaced Y's, or of two con- 
nected only by the seriff; whether the serin's 
of a capital T are vertical, or slant divers 
ways, or parallel — all these aie secondary 
matters, but the plan of the letter is not 
seci 'Hilary. 

In the beautiful Kelmscott type, as in 
the famous Foulis founts and other notable 
instances, the () is ovate, and all other letters 
agree with it. In Mr. Ricketts's "Vale" 
type tin. square and the circle dominate every 
letter. If this distinction be passed over as 
unimportant, further contention is useless. 
lint on this point no compromise can be en- 
tertained. If it be unimportant whether the 
arch is a semicircle, or planned, like Euclid's 
first problem, upon the intersection "I circles, 
then it matters little. But so long as archi- 
tecture is separated by such a structural difference, 
it follows that an based on a circle, or an H 
based on a perfect square, must be entirely unrelated 
to the ovate or the oblong H. When taste is in 
question, one allows the adversary equal vantage; 
but when geometry comes in, axioms must be 
observed. Therefore the ill-founded assertion that 
Mr. Ricketts's type copies any modern fount cannot 
be allowed. You may dislike his symbol ha' the 
ordinary "A'," or dispute over the beauty of his 
seriffs and the oblique strokes of certain letters: 
hut if you maintain that a circle and an oval are 
practically alike, the question of these nicer points 
need not he raised. 

The Vale Press, with its own type, its own paper 



with its own watermark, has so far produced a experiments at early stages, I can unhesitatingly re- 
comparatively small number of books; but a few cord his fervid anxiety to leave nothing undone thai 


months could hardly be expected to yield a hundred 

volumes. The output before the autumn holidays 

of 1896 comprises "The Early Poems 

of Milton," "The Poems of Sir John 

Suckling," "The Nimphidia" by 

Michael Drayton, " Spiritual Poems" 

by John Gray — all with frontispieces, 

borders, and initial letters, designed 

and cut on the wood by Charles 

Ricketts; also "Epicurus, Leontine, 

and Ternissa," by W. S. Landor, with 

a border designed and cut by the 

same artist. 

It would be easy to draw up a 
plea for the appreciation of tins 
effort : but to do so, since a com- 
mercial enterprise is by the force of circumstances 
allied with an artistic experiment, would be to for- 
sake a platonic attitude of disinterested appreciation, 
and descend to the puff oblique. As one who has 
had the privilege of seeing many of Mr. Eicketts's 

shall perfect his books according to the ideal he has 
developed. The aspect in which they concern us is the 
aesthetic result. The t\ pe is legible, 
the printing by Messrs. Ballautyne 
as good as one could wish, the paper 
and all the details which complete a 
volume show the uttermost care. Of 
the bindings nothing has been said, nut 
only because Mr. Ricketts's designs for 
cloth covers deserve a papei i" them- 
selves, hut because they have been 

hitherto applied in 1 ks net entirely 

under his cont rol. The Vale editions 
(the Suckling excepted) are clad in 
seller paper boards, or white buckram, 
with simple labels. His effort deserves 
the sympathy of all interested in the applied arts: 
and if its ideal he net theirs, let them he quite sure 
first whether it is not even better; and if thej 
themselves it is net, then one might ask why 011I3 
one ideal of a beautiful hook is to be entertained. 

nq by Charles Ri\ 



$|:[EN Nature wants to mark 
off one county or one 
country from another she 
does her work thoroughly : 
she plants an ocean or so 
to denote that that land or 
continent has reached its 
limits, or sends a river roll- 
ing along to divide her shires. It was evidently her 
intention that Devon and Cornwall should only lie 
nodding acquaintances, fur straight down between 
them trickles and ripples aud mils the Tamar. The 
Tamar and the Torridge rise close together in a. 
bog, or rather they ooze through a bog so soon 
after thru birth in Wooley Moor, a desolate spot 
not five miles from the ocean that washes Devon's 
northern shores, that the hundred yards of rivulet 
between the six-foot pool — which in summer 
lies almost away— and the bog is hardly worth 
a mention. It is rumoured in the legends of the 

neighbour] 1 that the Torridge once had leanings 

towards flowing down between the two western- 
most counties, where was the wannest climate and 
tallest soil, and that their two genii, after a violent 
contention, fell asleep. Torridge, first awaking, ran 
slowly oil', and was well on his way before the 

Tamar awaked. He, however, being angry, posted 
after with all possible speed, but was much hindered 
by the stones that lay about. Notwithstanding 
these, he hurried so violently that he got the ad- 
vantage, and the poor slow-going Torridge, dis- 
covering that, it was of no use to strive any more, 
wheeled about and took a northern course. 

■■ Torridge stole away while Tamar sleeped : 
Tamar, he woke up and roared and weeped " 

is a local rhyme which sums up the encounter.* 

" The Tamar at first for haste," the legend con- 
cludes, "made few indents or wheelings, having an 
earnest desire to visit the warmer climate : bill 
having once obtained the goal disports himself 
wantonly." Ami wanton indeed is his course after 
he has run half the length of the counties, though 
not by any means half his own length. For in 
sinuous folds he wanders first east, then west, then 
north again, showing an indecision of character 
detrimental to his reputation, though highly en- 
livening to the scenery. 

Its upper reaches are not only inaccessible, hut 
comparatively uninteresting in a. district like the 
West Country, where each turn is supposed to show 
* Quoted by Mr. John LI. Paige. 



more fascinations than the last. But catch the 
Tamar at Greystone Bridge, which crosses it. near 
the old village of Duuterton, or even a few miles 
further down at that Eden in England, Eudsleigh 
Cottage, and you will not want to part companion- 
ship until the soft woods of Mount Edgcumbe on 
the one side, and the hard reality of Devil's Point 
on the other, warn you that its life i.s spent, and it 
has merged its own identity in the broad waters of 
Plymouth Sound. But at Eudsleigh the river is in 
all the glory of early youth. The so-called cottage, 
one of the homes of the Bedford family, is built 
high above the river in its Devon side, and in its 
sheltered grounds, sloping to the water, are gar- 
dens, walks, shrubberies, and avenues full of rich 
southern loveliness. 

Opposite are woods which, even in Devon, are 
famed for their unspoiled beauty. And coyly the 
river wanders on in districts rarely seen by the 
tourist, for they are the private property of the 
noble house of Russell. But to all appearances 
the river has no modern grudge against land-owners, 
for it meanders on, bubbling over stony shallows, 

few miles arc hardly to be equalled: gently-sloping 
hanks lined to the edge with woods rich with all 
the undergrowth of fern and moss or flower that 
Devon knows, or abruptly-rising scaurs of stern 
grey granite boulder to break the monotony of 

With a swift turn, after leaving the romantic 
woods, where the hand of man has left no trace, the 
river suddenly wakes to a sense of worldliness by 
coming on that mine which i.s one of the romances 
of mining, the Devon Great Consols. Ugly and 
disfiguring it is without doubt, with its wheels and 
refuse-heaps, scaffolding and tunnelling, but here, 
away in this far-off corner of the West, fortunes 
have been made and lost. In justice to the Devon 
Consols, it is only fair to say more were made than 
lost; for although the shares were not fully paid 
up, at one time the one-pound shares changed hands 
at the giddy price of £600, and in twenty-one years 
of working £40,000 was paid to the Duke of Bedford 
in clues alone, while the profits paid to shareholders 
amounted to £180,000. In its palmy days it had 
thirty or so miles of tunnelling, thirty-two water- 


stopping in dark hollows which anglers love, and wheels, nine miles of shafts and winzes, and a 
growing gradually deeper until it becomes of some reputation that sent the county mining-mail. Now 
ii e ,i ,i i,i igable stream. But for loveliness those the wheels move slowly, and in its very decrepil 



old age the ore has forsaken it, ami though it is 
worked fur arsenic, the return is nol great. 

But the river still rolls on as steadily as in the 
days of .".UNO per cent, and by the time il lias 
passed under the New Bridge it hasalraosl forgotten 
that there ever was ; , mine whose refuse once dis- 
coloured its waters. 

This New Bridge gives the lie to its name at first 
sight, for itisof old grey stone, half covered with ivy. 

far and no farther" has been writ across the weir. 
which marks, too, the limit of the tides. It is for- 
tunate for the tourist on one of these -i 

that the weir dors not a few miles further 

down. For between it and the village of Calstock, 
famed for its donkeys and it- strawberries, lies a 
stretch which is the loveliesl pari of the river — in 
ii- il i\ igable fracl ion at anj rate. < in the I >evon 
>ide rise steep crags, three hundred feet sheer from 


but it lias several distinctions. It is tin' key of 
Cornwall, or it was when armies marched through 
the country, and more than once it has seen, and 
felt, too, hard fighting between the Roundheads, who 
kept the bridge, and the Cavaliers, who forced it. 
Then it i< the last, or the first, bridge which crosses 
the Tamar. always excepting Brunei's great achieve- 
ment at Saltash. lint that is a railway bridge, and 
deprives one oi the childish excitement of standing 
with one fooi in each county, which the New Bridge 
affords. The Cornish side of the bridge hail to split 
the difference with the steep hill thai drops down 
from the quaint \ illage of ( runnislake, ami jump up 
to meel ii, Bui 1 >evon and ( lornwall are never 
expected to make things pleasant Eoi engineet . 

their r6U is to make picl s, and they do it. 

In the summer days a paddle-steamer indus- 
triously tramps up and down the twenty-five miles 
or so of water from the sea to the Weir Head 
Doubtless, it would go higher if it could, bul "Tims 

the i iver : in evei j nil he ■ 1 1 ound a 

home; the whole stands a great scene of grandeur, 
softened 1>\ green and brow n touches. 

There is a path to the top of these Morwell 
Rocks, and it were a crime to stop half-way, for 
from ii is a view which, even in Devon, is accounted 
line. The river winds and bends and twists for 
miles, and in the end has got about two nearer to 
the sea ; the Cornish hills stretch blue in the west, 
and behind are i lie tors of I (art n r. 

( lalstocli a mile or so fui t her on, would be a 
profoundly uninteresting riverside village, its cot- 
tages lazily scattered about the hill, wen' it not 
for se\ era! mund < rations; I he first : 

that it has been, from tin it of mind, pre-emi- 

mmth the ~p"t for tea. There is an old inn on 
the Devon side which is the joy of artists seeking 
i fore round and there is a sttpph of fi nil w hich 
is the joj of the thirsty sou] seeking refreshment, 
["hi quaint old Cornish women awaiting you on 


the quaj 


with their clean aprons and big sun- 

i its, and baskets filled with fruit from the 

irdens which cover the hill-sides for miles Eor 

Edgcumbe did in all historical probability escape 
the vengeance of the followers of Richard III., who 
regarded him as an enemy, by flinging his cap 


this is the centre of a strawberry- and cherry- 
growing district which exports tons a day to the 
London market in the season — are quite primitive 
enough to satisfy the seeker for the picturesque. 

Bui what Calstoek lacks in romance is abun- 
dantly made up for in Cotehele House, which is 
round the next bend of the river, though it must 
be taken on faith, fur it is out of sight. 

Every stone has its story; it contains rooms 
full of treasures collected by its present: owners — 
the Mount-Edgeumbe family — some of them relies 
of royal visitors who have made a sojourn there; 
and its battlemented walls have felt the assaults of 
the marauder. On the river, just beyond Cotehele 
Quay, is a little chapel built on a rockj bank, as the 
thank-offering of a Sir Richard Edgcumbe for his 
escape from his enemies. It. is particularly desired 
that no historian will attempt to deprive the Tamar 
oi i !)i tale, or of the tree on the banks lower down 
< hiiiies I. climbed and watched his pursuers 
pass underneath : as the unfortunate monarch seems 
to have some twenty-five lives up and down the 
sacred to his hiding, this one in the West 
areiy be left in peace. But Sir Richard 

full of stones into the river, and leading them to 
think him gone with it. He lived, however, to 
build this chapel, he knighted by Henry, and enjoy 
the estates of his pursuers, whieh were confiscated 
and given over to him. A combe above the chapel 
has also a ring of the past, for it is said t«i he the 
spot where the Danes landed in G77, and whence 
they inarched to the battle en the moorland above. 
Hence the name, Danescombe. 

More bends ami windings between low-lying 
meadow-land on the one hand and sloping woods 

on tl ther, ami the stream, grown muddy and 

blown ami big with its contact with the haunts of 
men. tlows past Pentillie Castle grounds, the home 
of a West-country family, the Corytons. The house 
itself owes its chief interest to its situation, crowning 
the hill, Rhine-like fashion, and peeping out from 

the luxuriant growth of the Maidens and w is 

which surround it. In coming iq> the river, there 
i- a curious effect with which the native loves to 
mystify the visitor. For when, two miles off by 
the river though only a third of a mile in a straight 
line — Pentillie comes in view, the unsophisticated 
stranger is ready to stake all bis possessions to hack 



his assertion that Pentillie is on the Devon bank. 
Bui thai is bei ause he lias uol yel leai tied ; he « iles 
of this snak; 1 1\ er, or discovered his way of doubling 
back upon himself. 

In its middle age the Tamar is at its worst and 
most uninteresting period. Fields and low-lying 
banks rob it of all romance. It is simply a stream 
not broad enough to be impressive, and not narrow 
enough to be romantic. Cargreen, a little village 
which clusters round its own quay, has been inf 
l'\ the i harai ter of ill'' river, and is prosaic enough 
to belong anywhere but where it is. It has a link 
with tin- past in its near neighbour, Llandulph, 
which has a church in which is a tomb which holds 
tla- bones of an emperor, "in- Theodore Paleologus, 
the last descendant of the Greek Emperors of Con- 
stantinople, who died in 1636 while on a- visit to the 
neighbourhood. It is when it gets on nearer the 
works of men that the river again lias any interest, 
and now of a different kind. It broadens out into 
what tn all appearances is ■■< lake, joins forces with 
the Tavy, and reaches that colossal piece of engineer- 
ing, the Saltash Bridge. Brunei is said to have 
ruined himself over the contract, being unable to find 
a bottom I'm the shafts, and to have been so nervous 

nt' wm k before his deal h. i ■ - the quaint 

town from which it springs, had a nana' and 
two members of Parliament lung before i; had 
a bridge, and it still has the name, though 
lost tin' members. 

Now it is a mo here the Tamar i • 

would end it- career with Saltash. others with 
the Devil's Point : but it seems a hard thing to rob 
its identity just where ii becomes a national 
institution, for its i i tilled the II 

ug-ground for old three-dei kers that 
have been put toother uses than sea-going, obsolete 
men-of-war used as store-houses, two training-ships; 
and as well it is the first element into whicl 

Devonport dockyards si t their new vessels. Here, 

active, sea-going war-vessels come and go, ami it forms 
: he safi si and mosl sei hided harbours in the 
world. Ii receives the Lynher, a Cornish river, and 
sends water up a shorl Mind alley called the Mill 
Creek; it sweeps pasl Mount Edgcumbe, with its 

lordlj v Is and watei girl loveliness, and finally 

-in cumbs in the sea nil' I >e\ il's Point, when-, saith 
the tradition, his Satanic Majesty turned back in 
despairing disgusl in his travels on hearing that the 
Methodists were in Cornwall. But the Tamar dues 


about the results that on tin- opening daj he not give itself up without at the 

went tn hed with orders that he was uol to 1- Point il enga es iu fight with the sea 

disturbed until the first tram had passed over, tl even m calm \ swirling 

Be that a- n may, In- never did another piece whirlpool to marl 





AS George Vincent (1796 — c. 1831) was nol only "Hastings," which is now at South Kensington, 
-la. one of ili- ablest and most original of the shared the revived honours of Vincent in 1862. 
pupils of John Crome, an English marine painter In the "Greenwich Hospital," which is before us, 


par excellence, who was born a century ago, it 
is pleasant to begin these notes with references 

l" his ham y of colour and tone. The beautiful 

"Greenwich Hospital," which, like a dark pearl, 
is almosl iridescent, excels in the super -delicate 
beauty of the water in front and the seemingly 
trenail ms expanse of the atmosphere. It embracesa 
scene which Vincent made the subject of his greatest 
work, the large and famous "Greenwich Hospital," 
which, when it was at the international Exhibi- 

t took the modem art world by storm. Until 

that time, although Vincent had 1 n dead only 

thirty years, and many who knew him were still 

living, this brilliant and powerful leader of the 

Norwich school was already almost forgotten -in 

re einbling his contemporary, John 

Hi, a landscape and coast painter of, 

he first water, who i ea < 1 to p lint in 

I oul E note nil Ins masculine 

the artist showed himself a master of composition; 
the masses of his grouped sailing craft are disposed, 
it is true, with skill of a somewhat conventional 
sort; while the row-boat and the buoy in front 
are as obviously intended to connect those masses 
in the fore-water as the curving lines of the land 
are designed to bring them together in the distance. 
Composition of this simple sort was always zealously 
aimed at by the Norwich school. In fact, a large 
pari of the charm we enjoy in the works of the 
men of that category is due to their success in this 
really difficult, though seemingly simple, element 
of design. The most successful of the Norwich 
composers — who were likewise line sea painters, 
like Vincent— was John Sell Cotman (1782- 1842), 
whose capital "Town in Holland" is before the 
reader in a good cut which amply justifies the 
reputation of this well-endowed artist. Any one of 
his drawings will serve to illustrate the principles 



of composition of a less obvious sort than obtains 
in the Vincent we have just examined. 

It is noteworthy that, while the Norwich school 
— which based its principles, and not a little of its 
practice, upon the Dutch land and marine paiuters 
of the seventeenth century and earlier half of the 
eighteenth century — was flourishing in East Anglia 
and London, another very brilliant group of artists 
was, under the auspices or the example of John 
Varley, rapidly cumin-' to the front in the metro- 
polis, in the Midlands, and in Wales. This group 
comprised realistic landscape painters of the calibre 
of Mulready, Linnell, Edridge, \V. Hum, and David 
Cox, of the last of whom I have previously spoken. 
At this point 1 may be allowed to say that in the 
lately deceased George P. Boyce we have lost the 
last of ('ox's eminent and original followers. Cox 
was born within a year after Cotinan ; but from 
the first he worked on different principles, and it 
may be said that this divergence illustrate- the 
characteristic independence and abundant origin- 
ality of the leading professors of English landscape. 
The one group looked at nature — if I may say so — 
through Dutch spectacles; the other group, who 

nature. This is manifesl in W. Hum- remark to 
lie'. I ne\ i i drev, even a pin w ithoul nature." 
These conscientious artist-, were not, however, the 
first confessors of the -aim- faith. Tin- fact is 
attested by the life and work of tin/ next p 
who enjoyed such length of days that, born twelve 
years before J'avid Cox and thirteen years 
Cotman, he survived them till 1859, when Cotnian 
had been dead seventeen years mid Cox about two 

This earlier confessor 'if nature's charms than 
Cox was James Ward (1769 L859), who founding 
himself as a painter on nature alone (he was trained 
as an engraver), shows, with a heavier touch than 
Cox's, tin- like Englishness and vigour in the tine 
and solid group of cattle mar a finger-post at 
roads, which is an ornament of this collection. Hut 
it has little of Cox's or Vincent's airiness and ex- 
pansiveness. None of these artists had the least 
taint of what may he called scholasticism; but the 
next English contemporary of theirs we come to here 
is Samuel Prout, whose' well-known "Nuremberg 
(which I think has been engraved in an "Annual") 
and the more admirable '.Milan Cathedral" (much 

(From the Painting by Qeorgt 

were, nevertheless, by no means indifferent to coin- rejoiced ii by Mi. Ruskin) nan each other. 

position, looked at nature direct — so much so, indeed, lb n 'hat quality. 1 delight in tl 

that some of them refused to do anything without teritj i i of Prout's "pencilling," but, pi 



because of those characteristics, 1 can never reuse 
wondering why Mr. Buskin — devout prophet of 
Turner. Cox, and William Hunt as he is — ex- 
perienced raptures over a Prout, the craftsmanship 

of which represents to me the ne plus ultra of 
drawing-mastership. Like a vast ivory shrine set 
in sunlight is the front of " Milan " here in question. 
To be adapted to quite another standard than that 
which befits the author of "Milan" is the grave, 
broad, and pathetic " < >ld Mill " hanging near it, and 
doing honour to the honourable name of De Wink 
Mr. Quilter's lather had several capital specimens by 
the same hand, its delightful "dewiness" and mas- 
sive style, [f I rememher aright, this is one of the 
best of them. With these may be grouped, besides, 
minor instances by (1) Collins see his verj charac- 
teristic " Cromer ; " (2) Constable the view of the 

i d I a h I, with a pool, boy, dog, and cattle, 

which happily reminds the student of a Waterloo, 

and, l'\ the s e, two earlier works, in one of which 

i t" be -ecu the house of Golding Constable, the 

R.A.'s father; and (3) Cotmau, whose "Town in 

iduced as a good specimen of 

kill of one of our English masters of com- 

position — which includes selecting the elements of 
pictures with an apparent artlessness that masks 
the rarest art. 

By way of disposing of the groups before me of 
English landscapes proper and landscapes 
with figures I shall here call attention to 
a famous example in which the influence 
of Venice is strongly shown — it is, perhaps, 
the best of all Tinner's paintings includ- 
ing nude, or nearly nude, figures — the re- 
nowned "Venus and Adonis," which, painted 
some years before, was an ornament of the 
Academy Exhibition of 1849. Here we 
have .i spirited design showing, with ex- 
ceptional vigour, the goddess supine upon 
the bed whose whiteness adds to the glow 
and rich colouring of her flesh; she is at- 
tempting to detain the eager huntsman, 
whose moie eager hounds chafe at his 
tardiness. As to the subject of this work 
Turner had Titian's example before him, 
not only in regard to the colour scheme 
of this the latest of all his finer pieces, 
but in the idea of placing the hovering 
group of amorini in the sky, impatiently 
making ready their mistress's chariot ; in 
the serenity of the deep blue and un- 
fathomable firmament and the shining 
white clouds which catch the lustre of 
the morning sun, the gold of the chariot, 
the languorous ardour of Venus, and the 
dark roses of her draperies. Turner, who 
defied Claude, here, with still more daring, 
ventured to measure himself with Titian! 
Another Titianesque and more original pic- 
ture in this collection is a delightful version 
of Sir E. Burne-Jones's choicest art, the lovely 
"Green Summer," in which a group of charming 
dames and damsels, diversely clad in green of various 
tints delightfully harmonised, sit on the sward of a 
glowing landscape consisting of a sunlit glade and 
background of dark trees. 

The most remarkable of Mr. Quilter's Low- 
Country pictures is the life-size bust, or half-length 
figure, seated nearly in front view, of a Dutch 
gentleman of distinction, one Heer Pieter Tiarck, 
who was fortunate enough to find a short and 
easy way to immortality by sitting to Frank Hals 
when that master — the first of all realistic portrait 
painters, not only of his own time, but of all time — 
was in possession of his highest powers. Horn in 
1584, Hals entered the world not fewer than twenty- 
two years before Rembrandt, to whom is generally 
awarded the honour of leading the way in that 
direction. The fact is, however, that it is Rubens 
who, born in L577, and a portrait painter of the 



first class, a stupendous master of the forth-righl 
touch, may justly claim to have initiated this very 
precious achievement. Hals, with a firmer touch 
than Rubens's, ami equally consummate accomplish- 
ments, carried portraiture nearer to nature than 
tin' great Sir Peter Paul himself. Rembrandt thus 
found doubly prepared for him the way for work- 
ing those wondrous charms of portraiture in regard 
tn which none have surpassed, ami very lew ap- 
proached, him. His debt to Hals was, undoubtedly, 
greater than to any other master, but we must re- 
member that, like every great painter, both Hals 
and Rembrandt, as well as Rubens and Van Dyck, 
attained freedom and mastery by means of strenuous 
and indomitable care carried to the utmost of what 
the bolder class of "modern" critics and our more 
audacious and ambitious practitioners call "niggling." 
That is, these incomparable masters of the brush, 
like Millais and "old William Hunt" in our own 
time, and Velazquez two cen- 
turies ago, began to draw as if 
for their lives, to paint without 
flinching, and, with the utmost 
research, to study from nature. 
It is owing t«i such studies as 
these that Hals contrived to 
depict Heer Pieter Tiarck (of 
Amsterdam, 1 believe he was) 
in the wonderful fashion our 
engraving accurately reproduces 
— just as, some two hundred 
and eighty-four years ago — say, 
in Hiits, Tiarck turned quickly 
in his chair (it was a way many 
of Hals' sitters had), and, still 
holding the full-blown rose he 
had been trifling with, lifted 
up his lace so that the shadow 
of his broad-rimmed black felt 
h.ii did not cover his eyes, 
looked at the painter. Being a 
staid and business-like worthy, 
whose time was worth money, 
he e\ idently set tied to his 
sit I ing \\ ith the sana 1 decision 
as lie Would have exercised ill 

any oilier occupation in \\ liich 
he took aii interest. Energetic 
and reserved, distinguished by 
his cautelous and self-contained 
air and expression, his feal ures 
and their aspect are, so to 
say, a biography which Hals 
thoroughly mastered and pre- 
served for a future as long as 
paint and canvas ran endure. 

That endurance will, barring accidents, be long in- 
deed if the next i In- (in hi ies woi 1. no greatei 

changes in Tiarck's portrait than the past cen- 
turies have effected. The execution of this w ler 

is the delight and the de-pair of countless artists. 
There was no masterpiece to which, when Mr. 
Quilter lent it to the Academy as No. ill' in L891, 
Leighton, eclectic to the heart as he was, gave 
more attention than to the mosaic-like modelling 
of the features of this face. The handling of the 
falling lull' in its numerous plaits— every one of 
them being compact of study, and yet the whole 
as " broad " as the " broadest " Rubens i r Rembrandt 
ever painted — is a technical feal the achievemei 
which one requires to be a painter fully to appre- 
ciate. Nor is the execution of the hand less mar- 
vellous. It would seem that such merits as this 
picture possesses would from the lirsl have ensured 
I'm i he a 1 1 i-i a thorough welcome in our own veraeity- 




loving country. It was not so, however. So lately 
as 1830, John Smith, who compiled the famous 
"Catalogue Raisonne," did not include Hals among 
the Low Country masters whom he thought the 
artistic and amateur world cared most for. I am 
much in doubt if, before 1860, any Hals had, if at 
all, been engraved mi the master's account. The 
British Institution included in its more than sixty 
exhibitions only eighteen Halses, of which some 
were shown twice or thrice. In twenty years the 
Academy did not borrow more than twenty-eight 
Halses. Until 1872 no Hals was sold in England 
for so much as a hundred pounds;* from fifteen to 

* Note.— The Wallace "Laughing Cavalier" cost the late 
Marquess of Hertford £2,010 at the Pourtales sale. — Ed. 

twenty pounds was the normal price for such works. 
In lS7-">, while visiting a well-known private collec- 
tion of pictures in Yorkshire, I encountered a capital 
portrait by this master among numerous then more 
fashionable works. The fair and stately owner 
asked me which painting 1 liked best in her col- 
lection, and when the answer came, "I like best, 

Lady , that Hals which hangs between the 

windows," she evidently took me for a false prophet, 
and cried, "Why, my late husband bought it at 
Amsterdam for twenty pounds!" However this 
might be, I think it is within the mark to say that 
Mr. Quilter gave more than four thousand pounds 
for the portrait of Heer Pieter Tiarck which is 
before us now. 


SOME time in the year of our Lord 1743 the great 
ones who directed the affairs of the Empire of 
Russia, were casting about to find a bride for the 
young heir to the throne, a grandson of the great 
Peter. He was at this time only sixteen years old, 
"weak and sickly of body, restive, impetuous, and 
brutal iii temper; this lad even at that early age 
exhibited a pronounced passion for drink." But a 
Tsar must, have a wife, and the young German 
Princess Sophia of Anhalt was invited to St. Peters- 
burg "on approval." A chill of fourteen, she arrived 
early in the year 1744 with her mother, and found 
when she reached Russia that she had to play as 
difficult a part as ever fell to the lot of any young 
gii 1 or grown woman. She was alone and without a 
friend, but she had come to Russia to fulfil a greal 
destiny, and she was not to be deterred by difficul- 
ties that would have overwhelmed and disheartened 
l less strong and vigorous mind. She kept herself 
so well in hand, so lived down the misrepresenta- 
tions, that at, length she was officially betrothed to 
the young ( I rami Duke, and in 174.") they were 
married, withoul the existence of a spark of affec- 
tion on either side. 

On the death of the Empress the Emperor Peter 
III. was proclaimed in her stead. The first ads of 
his hie wen- all si i unpopular that the army turned 
againsl him. Amongst other things he publicly in- 
sulted his wife, issued an order fur her arrest, pro- 
posing In repudiate her ami marry his mistress. But 
he did not know his wife. Whilst he was with his 

' The Hermitage. Eighty-four photogravures directlj re- 
original paintings in the Imperial Gallery 
at si i :', authoi ity ol ll ' M, the Tsar, with an 

ii luction i,\ Sir Martin Conway. (London: The Berlin 

I o.) 

boon companions arranging for her arrest and pro- 
bable assassination, she, with her usual decision, drove 
to the capital and put herself in the hands of the 
army. They were filled with enthusiasm for this 
Empress, who, in the uniform of a colonel, at the head 
of fourteen thousand soldiers, inarched straight to 
the palace of the Emperor, who was forced to sign his 
abdication, conferring upon his wife all his rights and 
privileges. Three days after he died in his prison, 
and his wife, the great Catherine I., reigned in his 
stead. It was this Empress Catherine of Russia who 
founded the Hermitage, now one of the finest picture 
galleries in Europe. She did not, intend it, for a 
picture gallery only. She had literary as well as 
artistic tastes, and she had about her many who came 
to her gatherings at the Winter Palace, where she 
placed her books and her collection of pictures in a 
special pavilion erected for the purpose, named the 
Hermitage, because to it the Empress ret i red for seclu- 
sion in her leisure moments. Successive monarchs 
have added to the collection, until Nicholas I. built 
a new museum to lake the place of the old pavilion. 
There exist- in this museum about eighteen hun- 
dred works, and as it falls to the lot of lew people 
to go to St. Petersburg, we may he grateful to the 
Berlin Photographic Company for having obtained 
the sanction of the Tsar for the reproduction of the 
chief pictures to be found there. It is the intention 
to publish reproductions in photogravure of eighty- 
four of these canvases. The first part, containing 
eighteen, is in our hands, and we have no doubt that, 
not only from the interest, in the pictures them- 
selves, but also iai account of the admirable way 
they aiv reproduced, the collection of plates will find 
its way into every library where art has a place. 

(fit.* M. PaMing by Fran, Hah. I„ a, Ccllntlon of Mr. W. Cuil.b.rt QMitr. MP. E„ gmm , 6, M. ta*k) 




THE cabinet here illustrated was designed by painter, sculptor, and musician, though unfortunate 
myself in the year L861, and was exhibited in his political career, being driven out of Sicily and 
in the International Exhibition of 1862. h is Naples by Alfonsi of Aragon in L442, and << 

led by J. P. Seddon. 

rated by D. G. Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown ) 

• purple 



made of oak inlaid with 
coloured woods. 

The firm of Messrs. Morris, Marshall and Com- 
pany then recently established and associated with 
several artists since become famous, including Ford 
Madox Brown, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and Edward 
Burne-Jones, undertook the commission to paint for 
ii the four large panels of the lower part, to illus- 
trate "Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, and Music," 
ami the six small panels of the upper part, to repre- 
senl subsidiary arts and crafts. 

Ford .Madox Brown suggested For the purpose a 
series of imaginary incidents in the honeymoon of 
King lean', the titular Kingof Naples, Sicily, < lyprus, 
and Jerusalem, the father of Margaret, queen of 
Henry VI. of England. He was a man of wide 
and artistic cultivation, an amateur poet, architect, 

of Anjou by Louis XI. of France in 147-"': he then 
retired to Aix, where he died in 1480, still loved by 

his ] pie, who called him " Le Bon Roi Rene." 

In the subjects chosen for illustration ii is sup- 
posed thai after his marriage he would build a palace 
for himself and his spouse, and carve and decorate 
it himself; and finally, when complete, rejoice and 
make melody in it. Consequently, the figure of the 
king attended by his queen, appears in eai h of the 
large panels ; in the fii -i they are both seated on a 
bench « it h i plan of their palace spread al their 
feel : she is e\ identlj making some proposal in a 
coaxing manner, to which he is giving serious, perhaps 
puzzled, consideration. This picture, representing 
\, hitecture," is by Ford Madox Brown, and is a 
remarkablj beautiful and graceful composition. The 
i) the queen is white, embroidered with (lowers 



and edged with 'lark fur; that of the king is of a 
rich purplish red, lined with blue, and his shoes are 
scarlet. The two central panels are by Sir Edward 
Burne-Jones, and represent "Sculpture" and "Paint- 
ing In the former the king is standing and caxvmg 
a slat iir, with his queen behind in an admiring atti- 
tude. In tlic latter he is seated and drawing the 
figure of a woman, while his consort is looking on. 
There is great dignity combined with simplicity 
in these two designs. The fourth panel, depicting 
" Music," is the work of Dante Gabriel Rossetti: rich 
in colour and in treatment, thoroughly characterist i<- 
"I' that gifted artist. The queen is playing on a kind 
of regal, or chamber-organ, the bellows of which the 
king i> blowing, even while bending over the instru- 
ment to kiss her; her dress is green, ami a fur cloak 
lined with orange falls from her shoulders. 

The six smaller panels are occupied by three- 
quarter length figures of two men, one glass-blowing 

and the other hammering wrought ironwork, and 
df four uiiis embroidering, etc., but out — that 
which represents "Gardening" — is by Dante Gabriel 
Rossetti, and the rest are by Sir Edward Burne- 

The whole are remarkable not only as the works 
of artists of genius, hut as specimens of truedecora- 

tive art, so seldom underst 1 and realised in these 

days. The rich harmonious colour of the wood and 
metal-work' make a rich setting to the paintings and 
produce a splendid general effect, so that no small 
interest is attached to this unique cabinet both 
from an historical ami artistic point of view. 

[This interesting example of co-operative art lias lately been 
mi exhibition at the Grafton Gallery, properly (akin-- its place 
among the works .a' Ford Maclox Brown— a collection which, 
better than any that has hitherto been brought together or 
ever likely to be made again, displayed in a remarkable manner 
the master's noble mcriis ami his striking limitations. Ii was 
the final vindication of Madox Brown's genius. — Edituu.] 




IT must he difficult for English readers to form 
any act urate conception of the state of things 
from which the recent attempts at applied and 
decorative art in Germany have been developed- 
The conditions were so tinlike those prevailing in 
any other country that they can only be explained 
by a brief historical retrospect. 

Artistic vitality in Germany may lie divided 
into two main periods — the first, from the beginning 

victory over the French and the contemporaneous 
unification of Germany marked the beginning of 
an epoch in the artistic life of the nation. While 
in England, for instance, throughout this century, 
art has never lost its hold on taste so completely 
as in Germany; in France artistic crafts triumphed, 
especially under the Second Empire, when applied 
art was at its lowest ebb in (Germany. Not taste 
alone, but- technical skill too, had almost died out; 

Pianos, Harmonium 



L, vormals J 8. P Sc! 

" SOL 

V V[ 


of this century to t lie year L870 ; the othi 
I down in i Ii'' present time 



artists re; 
a helping 

arded it 

hand to 

beneath their dignity to lend 
he work of the artisan, ami. 



indeed, they lacked, for the most part, the necessary water" for ten years inundated the land, till here 
training. as in other countries, taste wenl through the wholi 

After the war of 1870 71, when the German gamut of styles — Baroque, Rococo, Empire, and all 

people re- 
covered their 
balance, they 
made a great 
il iscovery — 
namely, that 
they had a 
noble tradi- 
tion of ail is! ir 
h a u d i work. 
By studying 
the surviving 
of the Renais- 
sance, they 
discerned the 
of their own 
produel ions, 
ami now si rove 
with eager zeal to 
the masters befon 


It never oc 

curred to an) 

one to try to 
find genuine 
expression for 
i nd i v i (1 ii a 1 
ideas. The 
]i u r c hasing 
public was 
satisfied witli 

" a, 1' r a II g e 

ments " in the 
most dissimi- 
lar styles: 
room would lie 
"( >ld( rerman," 
the study 
" Baroque,"the 
lady's boudoir 
such works as those of " Rococo," and the reception-room "Empire;" and 
This they at first did everyone was pleased, especially when each style could 

VASES. (Designed and Executed by Max Longer.) 


cissi Du es noch. wit cmsi am fruhen Tag 
I Dlr rucrsi In gruncr Waldcspracht 
:n Wad gesreun? - Stark wic cln 

id doch so mild, hat Reiner Macbi 
cln lunges Hen an Dclne Huld gebanni 


Und leuchtend dog's 

i [)u 
s Haupi niLhi .ih^.Ji.Ji 

n Huslern durch den Buchenhat 
gnld'nem Nell rrau Minne e 
m Wald, der lauicn Well s-er- 


Vcrsehwicg'ncs GIGck zu hellcm Jubel 

Kaum war Ich frePnus Delncr Nilhe Bann 
So scblug mcln Her? schon bang und 

Nach Dclocm nachsien Ku.s. Dcm Augi 

Aus mclnen Bbcken Sinn 
Von Hir .erlassui, war mcln Mr nk< n krank 
Geoesung war und Lcbcn nui bel I 'i. * 
Da-, war em, da 

Wlr licblcn noch, die Hcrrcn brannlen lorr. 
Doch nicht so wild und nielli so rlcllos mchr 
Und bin und ««Jtr bel cm ubhes Wort' 
„\X'nbm, a/ohln?" Das klang so unhcll- 

W.r Rihlicn-s Hcidc, doss das Endc kani - 
Ls mu-.sie scin. sonsi siarbcn svlr darant 
O bbsc Siundc, da Ich Absehicd nahm - 
Wle klammcric an Dlch mcln Her: llch an! 
i ireu gcnicint! 

I aurs Knicc, da hai e 

ni;c ilchl In Dl ill i .' v. 

grabend - 

Die Monde roltlcn iragc ihrcn Laul. 

lis war vorbel und kciol I 

Mir rilcln tu Llcbe 

Doch venn slenledcrtank, so 

Dann kam dor I 

!,| wcisscn Kleld, dan Brauikrjnr auf dcri 

tt ic ruckle da mcln Her.- auf, Dlr so nab, 
n Glii I 


i Weme. 



by simply copying them. "Old German was the be said to !»■ strictlj "carried out an historical 
watchword, and this German " Renaissance and museum on a small scale. German craftsmen had 



indeed, never learnt in these various schools to do encouragement from the public, who were wholly 
anything but multiply the recognised patterns, re- ignorant of the principles of aesthetics. The crafts- 
peating them by hundreds, ami overlaying the 
typical forms with more or less tasteful ornament. 
The quantity of the ornamentation thus applied 
determined the price from the simplest to the most 

tmtlKUIUtKY DLSIUN. ( S „ Hermann Obrist.) 

costly. There was no sign of purity of style, natural 
harmony appropriateness, or logical fitness. 

Such methods naturally could not fail to incur 
tl»' contempt of all true artists, especially when 
they had become familiar with the work of Waller 
Crane ami other foreign designers; ami we began 
i" say thai this impossible slate of things was no 
longer to I"- endured. < llever men there were in 
plenty, who had ideas and invention for new and 
original work : but the execution was a matter of 
greater difficulty than in any other country. Artists 
brought up to be painters or sculptors had no 
comprehension of the technique of handicraft : they 

had mil the m y to devote to the purpose, and, 

In ) had doi i hey would have found no 

' / 

EMBROIDERY DESIGN. IB, Hermann Obrist.) 

men themselves showed no originality or initiative, 
the dealers met with no purchasers, and the artists 
lacked capital. Tims all the conditions were as 
unfavourable as possible, and it is a proof of great 
energy and determination on the part of the artist 
world that it should at last be beginning to conquer 
such difficulties. Though even now it seeks in vain 
freer conditions and better executants, more voiceaare 



■ heard every day asking for. such imp 

rovements ; 

if the well-to-do and wealthy ( lerman 

mblic were 

uy sufficient extent to patronise it, 

i new and 



spontaneous growth of art would flourish, as applied to produce original inventions in black and white, the 

manufacture, as it has done in England and America, natural medii E the draughtsman, reverting to 

The arts of drawing for reproduction and the the use of outline, nol competing with ordinal"} 

VASES. (Designed itn:l Executed bij Max Longer.) 


various branches of the engraver's art led the way reproductions by other processes, but giving full 

in Germany; their products are relatively inex- play to their own individuality, 

pensive, and the craftsman needs less capital for Self-evident as this may now he, it was a novelty, 

such work than for individual handiwork. Hitherto The illustrated papers, now so important a factor 

not many attempts had been made to bring the in the development of graphic art, did little to 


;wlc fit. 



BOOK COVER. (Designed <•., Fritz Erin ) 

special character of the reproductive arts into encourage the movement. The indirect result was 

prominence and general use. Most of the illus- the startin of periodicals that made the ne 

trations that bad appeared in books were reduced of art a conspicuous feature, especially the m 

from pictures, uncoloured. Then artists began to called Jut/end and the periodical, /'■ 



BOOK COVER. (Designed by Fritz Crier.) 

Other fields of applied and decorative arl were at first but 
little cultivated. Now and again, at exhibitions, designs were 
In be met with for textiles and ceramics which bore a striking 
stamp of originality and talent, but they were rarely seen 
carried into execution. Furniture of German workmanship, of 
which the details were wrought with artistic purpose, was 
occasionally brought into the markets side by side with English 
and American productions; but, as has been said, this met 
with nil encouragement. Still, in spite of this, there was every- 
where a sense as of a ferment working below the surface; 
and it is a mere question of time, for all these suppressed 
energies will sooner or later effect a revolution in this jiro- 
vinee ill' art. 

I am enabled t<> give here a few examples of what has 
been doing in Germany. These include some examples of de- 
corative work from Dr. lliilh's weekly magazine, Jugend. Hue 

of the most ingenious ami inde- 
pendent designers <it' ornamental 
subjects is Otto Erkmann, from 
whose pencil we have the four 
borders reproduced mi p. 325. 

Erkmann, born in Hamburg in 
1865, could not get the training he 
sought in the Academy at Munich, 
and found out for himself the line 
in which he might achieve distinc- 
tion, lie exhibited a number of 
oil-paintings which had a. marked 
success, hut he ultimately found his 
peculiar province to lie in design. 
For details he worked mure ami 
more closely from nature, and thus 

BOOK COVER 'Designed b,j Frit, Erhr.) 

EMBROIDERY DESIGN, (fi,, Hermann Obrist.) 

was instinctively led in ornamental 
inventions, for which he modified 
natural forms. As he worked on 
original drawings fur wood-blocks, 
i'ii-., he found himself simplifying 
all he did. and thenceforth en- 
deavoured to extend his efforts to 
every form of artistic craft. I hope, 
at seme future date, tn have an 
opportunity of introducing t" these 
pages examples of his designs fur 
pottery, furniture decoration, book- 
binding, metal-work, and textiles. 

In the course of this winter 
a collection was displayed in the 
Exhibition Gallery of Lilian of 



sonic highly characteristic and effectively treated 
vases by Heir Max Langer. This artist, a professor 
in the School of Decorative Art at Carlsruhe, was 

VASES. (Designed and Exec 

btj Max Langer.) 

originally an architect and then a painter, and 
finally was led to direct his gifts as an inventive 
designer to practical ends. [n the course of a 
residence for purposes of study in his native 
district, the Black Forest, he visited the potteries 
in that neighbourhood, and was struck by the 
fascinating material and fine, rich colours of which 
the workmen could malve no adequate use. He 
himself began modelling in one of these workshops, 
and turned the material to good account, with what 
success the reader may judge. The designs on these 
vases are worked out in strong but harmoniously 
combined and brilliant colours, by preference in 
vivid contrasts. The ornamentation is borrowed 
immediately from plant-forms, growing flowers and 
plants treated in a free and fanciful style. The 
"poster" on page -'!l!4 js also by Langer; it ob- 

VASES. (Designed and Executed by Maj I 

tained the first prize in a competition, and was 
printed and used. 

The book-bindings by Fritz Erler en pages 327 

and 328 were sent u> the Exhibitii f 1896 at 


Munich. The design is outlined and finished on 
white parchment with Indian ink; the effe 
both elegant and original. Heir Erler is by birth a 
native of Schleswig, and has studied as a painter 
principally in Paris. lb- was so fori unate, al an 
earlier time, when studying at Breslau under Bi 
a singular and hermit-like man, as to lie taughl in 
appreciate the marvellous beaut; of rial ural foi in .. 
and thai, in details where ii is often little observed, 
as in skeleton structures, in shells, in the sections of 
plants, and the like. Thus predisposed, Erler threw 
himself eagerly into tin' new movement towards 
applied art. He interests himself in pottery, bul 
more especially in all that concerns the beauti 

of I ks— bindings, ex libris, wrappers, and the like 

— and strives, with the aid of lithography . to give to 
each bunk the individuality of an early manusi ript. 

VASES. (Design. I and 

Herr Hermann Obrist, again, whose arti Lie 
needlework has lately attracted much attention, 
began, nol n a craftsman, bul as a sculptor, i ! oui h 
he always took the greatest interest in the minor 
arts. His youth was spent in Weimar, and he 
subsequent ly si udied mil ami science al I ' 
nil i he impulse waxed too strong in him to di 
himself to i he pursuit of art. \ ling a 

low \ ears to no greal purpose in the School of 
Decorative An al < 'at Isruhe, he began to work in 
the potteries of the hill-countrj of Thuringia, and 
there fit si found hi- ti m vocnli m. lie afterwards 
spenl a few \ ears in I'.n is, working al Jul 
studio, and w hen he ha ti factOl'J pi 

in sculpture the arl of hj choice he w 

Berlin and to Munich. Here, in < ollabora w nh 

Friiulein Rucliel w ho was a perfect inistri ol 

einbi lidery in bi 


Tli> I.I- of the representati 

oi' i he new Arl movemenl in Germany. B 
rjreatei futun lit 



nil longer exclusively devoted to painting, cease to 

swell the ranks of that overcrowded profession, and 

to apply themselves to the artistic treatment 

of objects of common use. This, indeed, is really 

needed, whereas, in the prevailing feeling of the 

public — and especially in comparison with the 

constant flow of their production — pictures can 
hardly be said to be a necessary in demand. 


milE exhibition of the Glasgow Institute of the 

J. Fin ■ Ails opened in the beginning of February, 
and the Royal Scottish Academy followed suit a 
fortnight later in Edinburgh. This year the [nsti- 
tute celebrated the addition to its title of the word 
Royal," the use of which her Majesty has been 
graciously pleased to sanction. Founded thirty-six 
years ago "to diffuse among all classes a taste for 
arl generally, and more especially of contemporary 
art," the Institute may claim to have succeeded in 
a remarkable manner in carrying out these laud- 
able objects. It' has been the fostering home of the 
young and vigorous ' Glasgow School," which has 
exercised con 
able influence upon 
landscape art at 

home and abroad : 
and it was in the 
Saucbiehall Street 
gallei ies whei - e the 
early exuberant 

and unrestrained 

fancies of the 

"school" were seen, 

when other exhibi- 
tions were closed 

againsl them. To 

the members of the 

Institute is also 

due a large share 

of the credit of 

li;i\ in- • educated" 

the Town < loum d 

of ( Uasgov into a 

bod) with as strong 
mpathies as 

were possessed by 

Venetian or I lutch 

coi porat ions of the 

feeling : ' mani- 
itself not 

only in the pur- 

the fainting by D. 

the Corporation galleries, but in their recently lay- 
ing upon the city the responsibility of building a 
magnificent new art gallery and museum, which is 
estimated to cost not far short of £200,000. An 
art society which can point to such results may 
fairly congratulate itself upon its past work and 
look forward to the future with increasing hope. 

This year the Institute exhibition is one of 
much merit. Several valuable pictures obtained 
on loan enhance the interest of the collection. 
( Ihief among these are M. Dagnan - Bouveret's 
" Dans la Foret," from the collection of Mr. 
George McCulloch, London: a lady's portrait by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds ('The Duchess of Ancaster"), 

and one by Sir 
Henry Raeburn 
(" .Miss ( lleghorn"); 
Mr. La Thangue's 
" Man with the 
Scythe," from the 
Chant i ey trust : 
Corot's " Cray- 
fishei ," now in the 
possession of Mr. 
James Jli nald : 
and characteristic 
works by James 
and Mathew Maris 
and Claude Monet. 
The President of 
the Royal Academy 
exhibits two small 
water-colour draw- 
ings — a sketch of a 
stieet in a Swiss 
village, chiefly of 
architectural inte- 
rest . and a head of a 
pretty girl he calls 

- Rose in Bl n : " 

and Mr. Whistler 
has contributed by 
sending a coast 
scene entitled 
" Sea and Rain," in 
a luminous grey 


33 J 

"Daisy" — a pretty little girl in white, who I inted with 

ranch distinction of style. Mr. Cameron made his early reputation 
by etching, but his later works show thai he has qoI only a Bne 
appreciation of form, but also of eleganl colour. Landscapes of 
note are contributed by Mr. A. K. Brown, Mr. Maeaulay Steven- 
son, Mr. R. M. <;. Coventry, Mr. II. W. Allan, and Mr. E. Sherwood 
Calvert; and genre pictures of interest by Messrs. Jami I 
Christie, George Henry, Tom McEwan, and John McGhee. The 
water-colour room is Fairly furnished, and of sculpture there is a 
small, attractive display. 

At the inauguration of the Royal Scottish Academy there was 
a pleasant exchange of compliments between the Academy officials 
ami the Corporation of Edinburgh, the Lord Provost, magistrates, 
ami Council as usual attending the private view in state. One 
thousand four hundred ami fifty pictures were submitted I" the 
jury, ami places were found for 727 — an increase of 71 over last 
year. Not for mam years has the exhibition presented so much 
variety ami interest. A splendid leading feature of it undoubtedly 
is the display of works, seven in number, by the late Sir John 
Millais, who was an honorary member of the Scottish Academy. 
These include the "Ophelia" of his Pre-Raphaelite period, ob- 
tained on loan from the Tate Collection; the charming "Rosalind 
and Celia," painted in 1868, which is now in the possession of 

(From the Picture by J. Guthrie.) 

scheme of tender quality. The Glasgow 
artists themselves maintain their reputation 
for fresh, vigorous, unconventional work. The 
early extravagances of the school, which have 
been already hinted at, are now not much 
in evidence. Conspicuous among such work 
are two canvases by Mr. Hornel, which 
provoke attention by their audacity. In 
tin'-.-, with a marvellous wealth of colour 
at his disposal, ami in a broad impressionist 
method, he has rendered two Scottish wood- 
land seines with children, with something of 
the flatness of a Japanese painting and the 
beauty of ■■■ rich mosaic. Mr. .lames Guthrie 
and Mr. John Lavery are well represented by 
examples of their graceful portrail art. Mi. 
Guthrie semis his "Mastei Ned Martin" 
(which we reproduce), and Mr. Lavery the 
full length "f "Miss Mary Burrell," in white 
satin ami Mack velvet tippet. These beautiful 
works were both exhibited Iasl May at the 
Salon Champ de Mais, and there received 
much attention from French artists and i I 
Another outstanding portrail which we re- 
produce) is that by Mr. D. Y. Cameron of 

(From the Painting t>» J. Sm I 



Mr. J. C, Bunten, of Duualistair, Perthshire : and 
the first and famous portrait of Mr. Gladstone, 
exhibited in 1879, which Sir Charles Tennanl lends. 
There are also portraits of Mr. Fleetwood P.Wilson 
(H ; | », Sir Robert Pullar, the Marchioness of 
Tweeddale, and a young son of Captain < 'rabbie of 
the Scuts Greys, The endeavour of the Council 


(from the Painting by Alexander Roche, A U.S.A.) 

of the Academy was to present to the public a view 
of the work of Sir John in his early, middle, and 
late periods, and in this they have been very suc- 
cessful. The last three mentioned portraits were 
all painted in the latter end of 1895 or early in 
L896; ami the "Marchioness of Tweeddale," il inaj 
be recalled, was in the Royal Academy last year. 
The boj ' porl rail « hicb was one of the last Sir 
John worked upon, has not been seen before in 
public. To it, therefore, attaches a melancholy 
interest, foi although il is Far from perfect, there 
>' mi iii ii a suggestion of the old charm with 
the late President painted pretty children. 
Othei Scottish Academicians whose pic- 

tures also appear upon the walls of the Academy 
for tlic last, time are Mr. Denovan Adam and Mr. 
Otto Leyde. 

One of the great portraits of the year is a three- 
quarter length by Mr. Orchardson of Mr. II. Balfour 
Fergusson, Dundee— peerless for style and suavity 
of colour; and the President of the Academy, Sir 
George Reid, has bad two interesting sitters 
— Emeritus Professor Masson, of the Edin- 
burgh University, and the Rev. Dr. Maclaren, 
of Union Chapel, Manchester. They present 
very marked contrasts of character, but 
both have been painted in that incisive, 
trenchant, and artistic style for which Sir 
George Reid is famous. Lady Reid, treated 
with considerable pictorial licence as re- 
gards costume and environment, has been 
painted with much accomplishment by Mr. 
A. Roche, one of the younger associates. 
A reproduction of this picture is given. 
Another social celebrity of whom a full- 
length poi! rail appears on the walls is Sir 
Charles Farquhar Shand, who has been 
treated in a dignified manner in his pic- 
turesque red robes as Chief Justice of 
Mauritius by Mr. Robert Gibb ; and in 
the same department of art Mr. .lames 
Guthrie and Mr. John Livery exhibit, very 
artistically handled ladies' portraits. A 
lady's portrait of much promise has been 
contributed by Miss M. Cameron, and works 
by several other lady artists of the city have 
commanded good places. Landscapes are, as 
usual, greatly in evidence at the Mound. 
One of the largest shown is an admirably 
composed and ably painted view of "Strath- 
earn," by Mr. John Smart, which is here 
reproduced. Mr. Lawton Wingate's cabinet 
works are notable for their keen sympathy 
with nature, poetic sentiment, and delight- 
ful colour. Mr. W. 1 ». M'Kay's contribu- 
tion is aii agreeable hay-making scene, with 

labourers enjoying the aften n rest: and pleasing 

examples of the river-scenery of Scotland are sent, 
by Mr. G. W. Johnstone and Mr. J. Morris Hender- 
son. These names, however, do lit it- exhaust the 

list, which would not be complete did it not include 
those of Mr. A. K. Brown and Mr. dames Paterson, 
whose landscapes never fail to attract notice on ac- 
count of their thoughtful and artistic character. To 
Mr. G. Ogilvy Reid the exhibition is indebted for a 
large historical picture, in which is depicted with 
considerable dramatic effect and with evident con- 
scientious care the death of Viscount Dundee aftei 
the Battle of Killiecrankie. Mr. Paton Real also 
shows pictures with costumed figures whose subjects 



are indicated by such titles as "Tin Courier" and 
"A Last Throw." Works with figure subjei 
figures in combination with landscape are also con- 
tributed l'\ Messrs. Hugh Cameron, George Haw 
Robert Macgregor, ( ;. Henry, W. E. Lockhart, W. S. 
MacGeorge, J. Lochhead, and Mr. Gemmell Hutchi- 
son. Mr. George Henry's "Symphony,' in rich 
brown tints, the subject of which is a girl playing 
the piano, is very happily rendered. Works with 
animal subjects which give variety to the walls 
are sent by Messrs. Robert Alexander, George Pirie, 
and George Smith. In the water-colom room the 
principal exhibitors are Messrs. R. B. Nisbet, Henry 
Kiir. Tom Scott, Skeoch dimming — who shows a 
representation of the Black Watch at Fontenoy 
which has cost him much research in connection 
with the costumes James < 'adenhead, -W. I i I on 
Brown, T. M. Hay, ami Miss Amy Stewart. It is 

I3 tn the credit of the Academj 
best of the year's pictures air the n 
own Members ami Associal Fli a men 

outside its pale exhibit nothing this year which 
betokens anj gn at advance on previous 1 
though not a few of them paint up to . 
standard and show much promise. A special room 
has tin- yeai 1 een sel aside for the architect nral 

drawings, 1 the sculpture I usual, been 

distributed with decora throughout the 
galleries. The sculpture is, for the most part, an 
exhibition of busts of no great interest. ' 
these desert ing of not ice for its stj le is tl 
Miss Maclaren, by Mr. Pittendreigh M 
who also exhibits several exci llent medallion heads. 
A sketch for a statue of George Buchanan, by Mr. 
John Hutchison, shows the old humanist and re- 
former in a meditative m I. \Y. M. G. 


BERTSON'S picture 
is desl ined to fill a particular 
wall-space in the Victoria 
Jubilee Hospital at Folke- 
stone, to which institution it. 
has been presented by Mr. J. 
s 1 1 1 es 1 he painting is 
both in character and treat- 
ment excellently adapted to 
as a mural decoration. 
In design and colour arrange- 
ment 11 combines agreeably 
the qualities of serious for- 
mality and judicious re ei \ e 
which are the source of all 
that is best in decorative 
prai 1 ice. 1 1 is free from any 

exaggeral i f gesl ure; and 

its sentiment, though appro- 
priate I" the posit ion and sur- 
rounding in which the pict ure 
is tu remain, is n iil her ob- 
truded umliiK nor allowed 
to degenerate into anything 
approaching sentimentality • 

What story the composition 
has in tell is hinted at 1 
than insisted upon, suggested 
i.\ delii ai ies of fai 
sinii and by appropriati 111 
grouping, not by melodramatic 
action and obvious contrasts. 
1 I 1 ,inc subtlety of sugges- 
tion is carried into the colour 
scheme. Pale tint 
white, light \ ellow . and grey 
predominate. The robes of 
the watching angels are \\ bite, 
the yellow is introduced in 
the aureoles and in <\r\ 
the dresses, and i he grey per- 
and finds 
in the irid- 
e of the wings. The 
w hole effect is luminous and 
quietly restful, and 
therefore well suited t" find 
a place in 
ii is important 1! 

d should be 1 ntle and 
withoi disi ordance. 

A. L B. 




ALTHOUGH this beautiful coloured -lass, which 
11 was discovered some twenty years ago, lias 
as yel received scarcely any practical recognition 
in this country, its great merits and unbounded 
possibilities are well known to artists and to all who 
have seen in the United States and at the Paris 
Exhibition, in L889, examples of the work of John 
La Farge. The erection of a church window in 
this material at Wickhambreaux seems to be an 
opportunity for describing what to many persons 
is little understood — namely, the manner in which 
opaline glass is made and how a window in this 
material is constructed. 

The history of stained glass dates back to the 
earhj days of Christianity, when Pope Leo III. 
adorned the Lateran church in the tenth century 
with coloured windows. Theophilus, in the same 

century, describes minutely in the second 1 k of 

his " Divprsarum Allium Schedula " the process 
of manufacturing stained glass, and the information 
which he gives is most interesting, as it, not only 
throws light on the art oi glass-painting during his 
time, hut throughout many subsequent centuries, 

when the process remai I practically the same. 

Undoubtedly the finest specimens of English 
stained -lass arc those of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries; of these, however, only few are left, for 
the great war of the Reformation passing over the 
country turned the peaceful workman into a fanatic 
savage whose reckless hand destroyed by thousands 
the many beautiful monuments which were the 
glories of the early Middle Ages. In the seven- 
teenth century the glazier's art began to decline, 
and subsequently in the eighteenth century became 
practically extinct, stained ulass being superseded 
by the use of enamel and paint. It is not. until 
the end of the nineteenth century that, we find a 
revival of the art, and in the present day many 
beautiful windows have been designed by such men 
as Sir Edward Burne-Joues, Ford Madox Brown, 
Mr. Henry Holiday, ami others, not to speak of the 
many imitations of old windows w hich are constantly 
being erected in the churches to till in the traceries 
robbed of their beautiful adornments during the 
time of the Reformation. Not only in England, 
hul, in many other European countries, the art, of 

I,' painl in- has been revived : but, we owe to an 

American artist, Mr. John Li Farge, the invention 

of the new material, which, il may well be said, 

rivals even the best glass of the thirteenth century. 

In L873 Mr. La Farge accidentally discovered 

he white sui i -i se of certain imitation china- 

ware, when insufficiently mixed with the clay and 
colouring matter, produced a curious opalescent 
quality, semi-transparent and of great beauty. He 
subsequently concluded that by perfecting and 
developing this translucency and opalescence he 
would ultimately produce a glass more harmonious 
and varied in colour than anything hitherto known. 
That his surmise was correct lias been abundantly 
proved by the success of bis work, and he is now 
at the head of an industry which is yearly in- 
creasing. The manufacture of this glass differs 
greatly from the way in which ordinary pot-metal 
is prepared. Besides having the addition of opal 
(white;, it is often made in sheets containing two 
or more colours imperfectly mixed. To obtain the 
desired effect, the different coloured glasses, when 
in a, molten state, are ladled from each pot on 
to an iron slab, where they intermingle under the 
pressure of a heavy roller. The sheets vary in 
thickness, the edges being usually thick and more 
or less opaque, the centre very thin and trans- 

Advantage is derived from tins peculiarity, as 
through it gradation of tone is given to each sheet. 
It would lie impossible to describe the infinite 
number of colours and tones of which this glass is 
capable. The mere fact that two pots of glass 
are never quite alike shows that the variety is 

Much abuse has crept, into the making of the 
glass owing to the lack of discrimination and taste 
mi the part of the manufacturers; artists cannot 
possibly attend to the making up of the pots, and 
have to accept what is turned out of the factories, 
relying upon their own judgment in selection of 
pieces. Another kind of glass, called Drapery glass, 
has been brought into the market by one of the 
leading firms. It derives ils name from the fact 
that it is actually crinkled into shapes like drapery 
folds, for which reason il is now much used, since 
it saves a great amount of leading in the delinea- 
tion of drapery, and so lessens the expense. 

The construct ion of an opalescent window differs 
somewhat from that of one in ordinary glass, so that, 
it may perhaps be interesting to follow the process. 

Having chosen a subject and made a small 
coloured sketch indicating the composition, colour- 
scheme, and tone, the artist prepares the carto r 

full-size drawing from which the window is con- 
structed. In ill-signing the cartoon particular atten- 
tion must, be paid to the lead-lines, as all lines in 
the composition will appear in the window as such, 



no painting or drawing being done upon the glass glass cut from templates, which in their turn are 

except where faces, hands, or feel are introduced. made from the tracings. The selection of glass now 

The cartoon is therefore practically a skeleton commences. Usually some important figure in the 

{Designed ami Dram b<j Baron Rcscnkrantl.) 

design of the lead-lines, and these must be so disposed design i fii I ;lazed 

as to represent the whole composition ami . I. •line from which little by little the work grows, until the 

each figure in the window. From the cartoon three whol red with irregular shaped 

;, ;Ml . made, two on papei and one on glass; piea - o various sizes fixed on the frame with wax. 

this latter is the so-called glass frame, which is set The nei i j of the coloui sketch is obviou 

up against the light to receive the coloured pieces of facilitate the selection ol pi 



The window is now taken down and Leaded 
h 'i o\ ei one of i he paper draw ings. As it 
is impossible to obtain the desired harmony of 
colour and depth of tone in one thickness, the 
window is unci' more placed against the light and 
plated —that is, backed by or covered with other 
thicknesses of glass. This plating largely contri- 
butes i" the beauty of opalescent windows. 

With regard to the semi-opacity of the -hiss, 
it may be said that the beauty of colour is enhanced 
thereby, since the opal, which gives it its opacity, 
may be said to resemble a t i 1 in of mother-of-pearl, 
suggesting complementary colours; it also gives it 

a certain solidity which makes ordinary modem 
stained gla =s seem thin beside it. 

Opaline glass is, perhaps, the most perfect colour 
material ever invented, and in the bands of a sound 
artist it becomes as precious jewels, beautified by 
the setting. It therefore lies with those who can 
and will personally undertake the construction of 
windows tu show the public its possibilities, and it 
may safely be asserted that if the use of opaline 

glass be adopted by our brother] 1 of artists we 

may look forward to seeing our cathedrals, our 
churches, and other buildings become shrines of 
beautiful and resplendent windows. 


[For "Regulations" 

The Magazine of Art for November, 1896.] 


have an oil-painting about 9 feet by 4 feet ti inches 
of the Queen, painted by Solomon Hart, RA. (Jan 

you tell me in what 1 k or otherwise I can 

obtain information as to this artist's works? — J. B. 
Sequeikay, Forest Row, Sussex. 

x*# We are sceptical as to the genuineness, 
or lather as to the ascription, of this picture, 
for we kimw of no such picture by the artist 

in question. A small 1 k was published in 

18S2 by Wyman and Sons for pi'ivate circulation, 
entitled 'The Reminiscences <>i' Solomon Alex. 
Hart. RA., edited by Alexander Brodie." The 
book is autobiographical, the contents having 
been dictated to Air. Brodie by the artist, but left 
incomplete through death. Il is an interesting 
literary work, full of information dealing not 
only with the painter's works, but also with 

the artistic community in which, by reas E 

his learning, he was a favourite. Hut in it 
he makes no reference to the painting of any 
portrait of the Queen. The most august person- 
age whom he painted was the Duke of Sussex. 


sketches by Lord Leighl n p. 74- (December, 

1896) of The Magazine of Art are described as 
b mi" for " Flaming June." Is not the upper one a, 
\icl stud) Eor the central figure in his picture"The 
Garden of rlespei ides " on p. 214 ( March, L896) '. 
above inference is cm reel , may he nol have 
gol hi- first idea lor "Flaming June" from the 
upper figure i Is sketching in the two lower 
ugle-figure picture ? < Iottonopolis. 

No. The -I n||,. [jke the picj lll'CS. a IV 

distinct. The central figure in "The 

i was the OUl ic of 

deliberate design by the artist. That in "Flam- 
ing June" was the adaptation of a chance pose 
assumed by the tired model during the period 
of a ''rest.' So the present writer was informed 
by the artist himself. Lord Leighton was 
charmed by the unusual attitude, expressing as 
it did the utter lassitude of an exceptionally 

supple figure. He at :e made a sketch of 

it and used it as decoration in the small bas- 
relief painted in the lower right-hand corner 
of the bath in " Summer Slumber." He stated 
at the time that he proposed enlarging the 
scheme into an important picture for the fol- 
lowing year. He kepi to bis intention, and 
"Flaming June" was the result. 


I acquired a proof of Bracquemond's etching after 
Meissonier's " La Rixe " on its publication, and 

hi-- rendering is the only one 1 see indexed in the 
catalogue of the master's works in M. Greard's great 
monograph. 1 now see a reference to another en- 
graving of the picture by one Chenay. Can this 
In- correct ' — Poissy. 

Quite coiivci. It -heiil, I he noted that 
the catalogue in question, at least as regards 
the reproductions of Meissonier's pictures, is 
extremely incomplete, not one half, probably, 
of the plates executed after Meissouier being 
included. "La Rixe"has been rendered not only 
by 1-'. Braequemond and Paul Chenay, but also 
by Henri Coppier and Ad. Lalauze. Similarly 
the picture known as "1814" has been repro- 
duced by Charles Courtry, Jules Jacquet, L. 
Unci, and A. Mignon. 


academy. -I should be glad if your readers could 



inforui me what are the "One Man Exhibitions" 
organised by the Royal Academy in their Old 
Masters exhibitions. I believe that several have 
been held. — II. NORTH. 

w % Our correspondent is right. In the 
first old Masters exhibition, held in 1870, a 
special collection was included of the works of 
C. R. Leslie, R.A., and Clarkson Stanfield, R.A. 
They filled Galleries V. and VI. In 1874 the 
winter exhibition consisted wholly of the works 
of Sir Edwin Landseer ; they included 532 items, 
and occupied Galleries I.. [I., III., IV., Y., and VI. 
Gallery X. was tilled with engravings touched 
by Landseer himself, together with a few others 
of well-known pictures not in the exhibition. 
In 1875 a special selection from the works of 
Sir W. Callcott, R.A., and D. Maclise, R.A., was 
added to the attractions of old Masters. In 
1878 the principal representatives of the Norwich 
school were especially honoured, old Crome, 
stark, Vincent, ( iotman, and Stannard comprising 
the quintet; and a collection of impressions 
by our great masters of engraving was another 
feature of the year. In 1879, 75 drawings by 
Raphael, 36 by Holbein, and 50 by Michael 
Angelo, amongst others, were brought togethei 
and 41 miniatures by Cosway and 37 by Samuel 
Cooper were shown. In 1880 the Old Masters 
included a special collection of the works of 
Holbein. In the following year Flaxman re- 
ceived special attention, when 1 s 1 of his draw- 
ings were exhibited, In 1883 the works of 
John Linnell and Dante Gabriel Rossetti were 
included. The works of the former filled Gal- 
leries I. and II., those of the latter, Galleries 
V. and VI. In the following year there was a 
special selection from the works of I". Falconer 
Toole, I!. A., filling Gallery No. V. In 1886 a 
portion of Gallery I. was devoted to the works 
of Joseph Wright (of Derby), A.RA., and the 
Water-colour Room was idled with 53 drawings 

by Turner. A further select) >f 72 of the 

latter artist's drawings occupied the Black-and- 
white and Water-colour Ri ; and yel a third 

collection in L889, 73 in number, filled the last- 
named gallery. On this occasion 54 pictures by 
frank lloll were bung in Galleries 1 V. and V. 
It is hardly necessary to bring the mailer to 
a later date, but it may be said thai up to 
and including the year L889 no fewer than 
540 of Landseer's works have appeared al the 
winter exhibitions of the Royal Academy: 212 
of Gainsborough's; :;:;:; of Reynolds'; 256 of 
Turner's; II'.) of Rubens'; and 111 of Romney's. 
[33] haverbergl. I should be very glad if 
any of your readers can give me any information 


respecting an artist named Haverbergl. lb is evi- 
dently a Dutchman, but I cannot find any mention 
of him in various bonks on Dutch artists or else 
where. I have in my possession a small oil j 
ing(?) "n panel 4', in. oval— a man's head with 

hair and ruffle in the style of ■ f the Gi 

It was pun based some forty or fifty > 
the firsl Manchester Fine Ait Exhibition, if I 
mistake not. The signature is indistinct, and was 
only discovered on a recent cleaning of the picture. 

**■* We have carefully examined the eata- 
logueof the Manchester Ait Treasures Exhibition 
to which our correspondent refers, and while, as 

we expected, we do nut find the l ie which 

be mentions, we suggest that the signature 
has been misread lor that of Liversedge, whose 
"Captain McHeath " was numbered 412 in 
Saloon I). If "Enquirer" will forward us a 
photograph of bis picture we will do our besl 
to settle the point. 

[34] MORE UNFAMILIAR ARTISTS. -Will you kindly 
throw some light on the painter of a picture which 
I have in my possession ' The latter is an ideal 
Italian landscape, and is a very fine work signed 
"Walsh." It is supposed to be by an Irish artist, 
but I cannot trace the name. Please also tell 
tell me who is the W. Pike, landscape-painter, the 
author of a work of a friend of mine.— JoUN Todd 

2*4 If the first-named painter to whom re- 
ference is made is Mr. Tudor E. G. Walsh, we 

may say that he has exhibited bill once in the 

Royal Academy up to the year 1893, accord- 
ing to Mr. Graves' Dictionary. That was in 
1885. If it is W. Walsh it is the contribute 
of 31 landscapes to the Royal Academy, British 
Institution, and Society of British Artists be- 
tween I.^L'-'i -and 1834; but both these artists 

gave their addresses from London. Tl thor 

artist mentioned is doubtless W. II. Pike, who 

from I.S7I onwards has been well known 
contributor of landscapes to Suffolk Street to 

the number of e than 60. He is also an 

artist in black-and-white very populai among 
the readers of the Daily Graphic, to which he 
contributes under a pseudonj tn whii h we , 
feel called upon to rev eal. 


In respeel t" Query X". 24 we have received 
the following interesting line from Mi. Krith, R.A. : 
■■ The lusl lime I saw Haydou's - Judgmenl ol 
S.T, in, ,n ' was ai Edw m Landseei 's, \ ears an, 
ago, when, if my rnerm rue, he told me 



he had boughl it for £150. I thought it a tre- 
mendously fine thing." If may be of interest to 
add thai this picture was exhibited at Spring 
Gardens in 1814, when the Directors of the British 
Institution voted the painter a prize of a hundred 
guineas, while the picture itself was sold for six 
hundred. He stated in 1827, "My 'Judgment of 
Solomon ' is rolled up in a warehouse in the Borough." 

carefully collected every scrap of old work that 
the apathy, greed, ignorance, fanaticism, or down- 
right wilful wickedness of those in charge have 
let slip. The result is that upon the walls of my 
studios — classified and well cared for — we have 
the finest collection of fifteenth-century Perpen- 
dicular carved oak work in the kingdom. It was 
from these that the samples of destroyed seieen 




ferring to our expression of regret that such choice 
fifteenth-century wood-carvings as Mr. Harry Hems, 
of Exeter, lent for this exhibition should have 
been torn from their original positions to become 
mere labelled exhibits in a museum, the well- 
known w l-carver in question writes: — 

'Tin' series (112 specimens) I 1ml in the 

Carpenters' Company were those I used illustrative 

"I' my paper upon Devonshire Rood Screens, read 

' fore 'li" So iety <>( Architects al St. James's Hall. 

Pi :adilly, in March last. In that paper 1 gave 

tbe names of no fewer than eighty Devonshire 

churches thai -mostly during the present century 

have los! their once chief glory, their carved 

oak fifteenth -century rood screens, and si. me 

thirty more in which only a few isolated remains 

of what were once grand old screens still exist. 

" I luring my sojourn in the capital of Devon's 

ti m more than thirty years— I have 

work were taken for the exhibition in question. 
The utter carelessness of the majority of residents 
in the 'West Countrie' as regards the preservation 
of old things is most deplorable. In this city old 
houses are constantly pulled down to make room 
for so-called improvements, and almost the first 
sight that met my eyes when I came here first in 
L866 was the deliberate destruction of the Norman 
tower of St. Mary Major's church directly oppo- 
site to the west front of Exeter Cathedral. I 
am "lad to say that the ancient fragments that 
I have so systematically got together, even in 
their mutilated state, are not entirely in vain. 
Although we do not copy them slavishly, they 
form, as it were unconsciously, the alphabet by 
which we labour; and many a creation from the 
chisels of my sons, or self, or pupils, now doing 

g llv duty in some distant, cathedral or historic 

church, had its motif in one or another of those 
mice despised, but to us highly-prized fragments, 
to which you have drawn attention.'' 

{Drau.n by W. Telbm.) 


The Poster rpHE result of the competition is as follows : 
Competition. 1 ut />,■/>(£:.,), "Sagittarius," Mr. Henry 

Holiday, Oak Tree House, Branch Hill, Hamp 

%nd Prize (£15), "Scottish Lion," Mr. Robert Hope, Hotel 

de la Haute Loire, 203, Boulevard Raspail, Paris. 
&rd Prizt (£10), " iEquo Animo," Mr. Henry Ryland, i. 

Pembroke Studios, South Kensington. 
These three designs are reproduced on tin- next page. Two 
hundred and thirty-four designs were sent in, and we pro- 
pose next month to publish a number of those which were 
highly commended by the adjudicatoi - 

Ir would be no easy matter to overprai i thi 
A rhe!Ttre fc beautiful scene painted by Mr. Telbin to illus- 
trate the first act of Mr. \\ elson Barrett's new 
Lyric Theatre play, " Z%< DaughU rs of Babylon." The clus- 
tered olive trees, entangled with vines, bordering a stretch 
of cornfields, and the picturesquely garbed Israelites, are 
elements in a picture perfect alike in composition, in colour, 
anil in its representation of the atmosphere "i an I 
afterglow. Mr. W. Hann is also to be comnn ndi d for his 

view of Babylon by night, as seen from the terraced I oi 

[shtar's palace, though the foreground rather lacks convii 
tion. A front cloth, "Hall in the House of Alorus," is well 
imagined, but other scenes are less happily inspired, Mr. 
Ryan's final landscape being awkward in arrangement and 
superficial in technique. Roses that are aggressively arti 
ficial ami gems of the gingerbread variety are too much in 
evidence in tli irmcii itai ol I iaa 1 , but other- 

wise the difficulties of Assyrian attire are succi 
mounted. At the Avenue Theatre the liberally displayed 
engravings after Romney's lovelj pictures of Lady Hamil- 
ton make it an ungrateful task for the lady who essays the 
title-role of " .V< (son's Enehantri In i audience. 

The gallant Admiral is himsell 'e fortunate in his 

impersonation by Mr. Forbes Robertson, who presents a 
" living image" ol the familiar portraits. Mr. Perki 
not quite grasped the possibilities of " Romney's Studio" in 
Act L, but it is i ' ir betti i stage picture than "The Ball- 
room of the English Embassy at Naples," by Mr. Harker, 
who must be cautioned against allowin rush to 

rate into slovenly execul ion and tawdrj i 

The follow ing works h 
Th allleV?. naI acquired :-" Portrait of a Lady," attributed 

to Allan Ramsay. From South Kensington 

Museum (No. 1,491, Room XIX.) ; " Christ and the \V an 

of Samaria," bj Gi orgi Ru hmon d, R.A I 

the I imily of the painter No. 1,492, Room XXL); 

scape « itb i Vie ■ I i Mountains," by Signor 

Giovanni ( losi \. Presented bj a bod) ol sul 

1,493, Room XXL); and " Thi *i eoman ol the ' luard," by 

Sir John M illais, Bart., P.R. \. l: 

Hodgkinson No. 1,494, Room \ X). 

\\ admirabl) com 

colour painters, from Turner and Bonninoi in to Mr 
MacWhirter ami Miss Gow, delighted the visitors to 

Mi i ut It 




is sm-li exhibitions as this 
which sustain the reputa- 
tion of British art and 
maintain the level of public 
taste. N'h connoisseur or 
collector should miss 
Messrs. Agnew'a exhibi- 

The collection of mili- 
tary pictures at the Han- 
over Gallery was good of 
its kind, French, English, 
and Dutch being nil repre 
sented. .Many masters of 
the art were included, but 
no opportunity was afforded 
of comparing the methods 
of ancient and modern. 
The names of Detaillk, 
Dupray, Caton Wood- 
ville, Mi:issiin[i;i:, Die 
Neuville, Beene-Belle- 
coue, Bead quesne, 


Bavakh, and Crofts, R.A., 
were among the names of 
the exhibitors. 

Mr. Wallace Riming- 
ton exhibited at the Fine 
Art Society the artistic 
harvest of a picturesque 
pilgrimage through Italy. 


[By Henry Holiday. London. See p. 339 ) 

His water-colours showed 
with power and vigour, as 
well as with taste and 
delicacy, how thoroughly 
the artist has appreciated 
the scenes through which 
he passed, and how inde- 
pendent lie is nC the con- 
vention which appears to 
taint the work of most 
painter - tourists through 
Italy. Not only are the 
drawings artistically good 
in point of execution and 
selection, but they presage 
a success far beyond what 
the artist has hitherto 

The late Mr. C. E. Hol- 
low a v's water- colours, 
oils, and pastels at the 
Goupil Gallery arc not 
merely unconventional : 
they fling defiance at all 
who prefer topographical 
fact and accuracy to indi- 
vidual "impression." In 
drawing the majority are 
wild enough, wilful, and 
even reckless. As sketches 
they are almost invariably 
charming, and subtle as 


/TR&TED ? 






' Hone, Pans. See p. 339 I 



(By Hen.y R/land, London. See p. 339.) 


colour, and poetic in sentiment. This is art for the few 
who can appreciate bold handling of brush and chalk, and 
who can feel a responsive sympathy to the sentimenl o 
the painter. Some, however, will regard Mr. Holloway as 
carrying Mr. Whistler's jokes a little too far. 

The series of water-colour drawings made by Mr. 
Aumonier, K.I . about the nooks and corners of the old 
Chaiu Tin- at Brighton, supplemented with a few admii 
able pictures in oil, painted in Lincolnshire ami Sussex, 
fill Messrs. DowdeswelTs gallery with distinction. Mr. 
Aumonier is individual in his own way, has a vivid sense 
of the picturesque, and a devout adoration of Nature. Like 
many of the great masters, he prefers the flat country, ami 
shows an appreciation of light and atmosphere, as well 
as colour, that raises him high in the opinion of his critics. 

The nineteenth spring exhibition at Southport, under 
the auspices of the Corporation, opened on the 22nd 
of February, contains 744 pictures, as compared with 
754 last year. It is a good and well-varied collec- 
tion, in which, however, the high average of quality 
does not entirel) compensate lor the scarcity of 
really notable works. Among those which will 
attract most notice are Mr. L. Alma-Tadema's 
"A Family Group;" Mr. E. A. Waterlow's "In 
the Mellow Autumn Light;" Mr. W. .). Laidlay's 
"Tantallon Castle;" Mr. Weguelin's " Cupid and 
the Nymphs;" Miss Jessie Macgregor's "News 
from Trafalgar;" "The Castaway," by Mr. <!. I'. 
Jacomb-Hood ; "Mists Lifting off Dartmoor," by 
Mr. E. M. Wimperis ; and "In Tow," by Mr. Aim in r 
Hopkins. The most noteworthy pictures by local 
artists are Mr. W. II. LoNGMAID's " Chloe," and 
"The Cloisters," by Mr. S. Lawson I Sooth. There 
is a very interesting collection of water colours. The 
pictures have been arranged to the best advantage 
by the curator, Mr. P. W. Teague, and his committee. 

. No one but an enthusiast, a collector, and 

an expert of his subject, such as Mr. 
Warwick Wroth, could have produced so com- 
plete a book as"Lnndon Pleasun Gardens of th 
Eighteenth Century" (Macmillan and Co.). The 
subject has often been dabbled with but has never ( s « ■ 
before been properly handled ; and that it is one 

of great possibilities, Mr. Wroth has seen and | ! 

The London pie 'sure grounds naturally include low- as 
well as high-class place- ol entertainment, many of 
classic fame. The number of them, together with the 
interest of their history, will probably be a revelation to 
the general reader. The fulness of the illustration, which 
comprises man) reproductions of rare plates, adds greatly 

to the value of the book and offers much useful material 

to the artist who concerns him-cli with the | I and 

subjeel covered by the work. Mr. Wroth's copious biblio- 
graphies, literary and illustrative, raise it almosf to the 
dignity of a cyclopaedia. 

The annual magazine, so to call it, published by Messrs. 
limy and Co. under the title of "The Pageant," is a 
genuine delighl to those who take a vivid interesl in the 
most modern manifestations of arl and literature. The 
editors, Mr. Gleeson Wmn; and Mr. Charles Shannon, 
have done good irvice by sampling for us in so satisfying 

a manner each his own section. Authors and artists of 

repute have combined to give of their best. In the section 
of art, which contains no) a lew works already known In! 
alwaj - "'''" with pleasure, the chat u teri I ii minot kej i 
struck and maintained, in harmonj with the eentimenl 
of poetic art from Rossetti and Bume-Jon< to Gustavi 

Moreau, Puvis de Chavannes, and G I'. Watts. Th 
on Moreau by Mr. Gleeson White is aval bution. 

Mr. Mc( toll's note on Cam ould h ive been still 

more interesting if, instead of confining himsell I 
artist's engravings; he had pursued his inquiry it 

I drawing, and -et forth the reason foi the tscription 
of some of his works to Titian. Anothi i tion ol 

premier importance is Mr. Ricketts' illustrated arl 
original w 1 engraving ; but hi a omis- 

sion, for Mr. Ricketts appi I nc his attt i I 

the original engraving of a decorative sort in which, as in 
Mr. Reginald Savage's admirable page, values are wholly 

■ Lcrificed I ntra I and dei orative efli 1 1 1 \n> ■ utimeni 

I well fell line are indeed a pure delighl ; but rei 

treatment and atmosphei ic effect have charms ol th< ii own, 
and cannot be ignored as - function ol the art. We may 


Natl i/ So 

say of this volu as of the last, that we know of do 

book giving better art and better literature at so small 
a cost, tt is fat above the i ■ 

The new " Illustrated English Library," issui 
Messrs. Service and Patot ha bi ur excellently well with 
Thackeray's "Esmond" Kjngsley's •■ // 
Lytton's ''Last of tin fiarons; the 6rsl named charm 
inglv illustrated by Mr. Chris Hammond, the second by 
Mi. Lani ii or Speed, and the last by Mr. Fred Pegram, 
all three artists employing pen and ink with great ability, 

but in totally diflerent i n The I ook are v< rj well 

printed on g 1 paper ; and the low price at win. 

are published is not i lie least i sue. 

A prai ewoi th) effort, i 

Quartu r Latin" compile* Paris, and 

publish* 'I bj Mi i tliffi and Son in London. It i 
extreme]) unconventional, yet sane withal, illustrated with 
the cli ks well for cert lin ol tl 

ii ibutors, I embellished in it with 

.-I ial Llocl printed in two col 

Will Bradley, tho Ii ■ ' 

.on item production by \ I remely 

promising and amusing, and de i 



as may be extended to it The portrait by Mr. Murphy, 
and tin- Rembrandtesque "Resurrection of Lazarus," by 
Mr. Tannke, display exceptional feeling. There are the 
brightness and earnestness in this little work distinc- 
tive of the Quartier Latin. 

The whole range of literature of the art of fence and 
of the duel has been rendered accessible through the 
extraordinary volume compiled by Captain Cael A. 
'I'n i mm under the title of ".I Complete Bibliography 
of Fencing and Duelling" (John Lane). This monu- 
mental work well deserves its title ; not only does it deal 
with every book and treatise issued upon this extremely 
opular subject in every country and in every language, but 
nil the articles of any value that have appeared in magazine 
or newspaper down to the present 
year of grace find lull record : 
while the elaborate classified index, 
duly arranged in chronological 
order according to language, com- 
pletes the value of the book. Never 
before has such a work been is- 
sued from the press. Mi-. Egerton 
Castle's "Schools ami Masters of 
Fence ' deserved all that was said 
or could be said in praise of it, 
but the field was much narrower 
than that so courageously covered 
by Captain Thimm. The use of 
such a cyclopaedia to all painters 
ol history, anecdote, and genre of 
a military or chevaleresque kind is 
too manifest to be insisted on. 

It was clear when Mr. ALFRED 
Lys BaldrY: published his finely 
illustrated biography of "Albert 
.]/<„,!■: " (George Bell and Sons) 
that a cheaper edition would soon 
lie called for. The position of few 
artists lias been better assured than 
that of Albert Moore, for all that 
he was denied admittance to the 
Royal Academy, ami the reputa- 
tion of none not even of William 
Linnell, I (ante Rossetti, Romney,or 

ELolman Hunt— is less likely to suffer than that of the man 
who returned scorn for neglect, and who, in spite of all, con- 
quered recognition as one of the most original, graceful, and 
elegant artists who wedded painting to decoration and prac- 
tised art for art's own sake. It is not necessary to repeat 
our former verdict as to the beauty of this volume— the 
mere lingering of which is a lecture upon art anil the most 
eloquent exposition of the painter's life and art theories 
that could be imagined or desired. Mr. Baldry's text is 
well informed ami will expressed, and indeed could hardly 
be bettered, were it not that he has taken a little too 
seriously academical lack of appreciation and critical ob- 
Ih eness. Mis attitude is defensible, Lut we doubt the 
advisablene: 1 of raking up newspaper criticism, long since 
Forgotten, which probably had no more influence in keep- 
ing Alberl Moore oul of Turlington House than had the 
articles in the Spectator, in this Magazine, and in one or 
two other quarters in carrying him in. Moore's pure and 
beautiful art has the merit that it can be enjoyed by 
all who can appreciate suave ami exquisite line anil line 

composition, as well as imagination in colour anil decora 

i i i lie highest order, ami a statuesque dignity that 

belongs only I" a master. Invention and originality were 

Frampton, A.R A 

his ; and to all these noble qualities, with the necessary 
exception only of colour, this charming volume does ample 

The devotion of Mr. Hugh Thomson fo our eighteenth 
century classics of humorous memory is not only touching, 
it is triumphant. The success of his illustrations to Jank 
Austen's "Emma " (Macmillan and Co.) is complete, with 
the daintiness of Mr. Abbey and the humour of Caldecott. 
With the grace of both and an individuality all his own, he 
has produced a series of drawings which, in their delicacy 
and charm, maintain him far ahead of all the imitators 
whom his success has brought forth. No others have quite 
his appreciation of humour or of character, nor is their hand- 
ling so ilclrate and pure. We suspect that the technical 
excellence of his blocks and the 
capital printing which they allow 
are due to the fact that he makes 
his drawings on a large scale with 
open line and allows for reduction. 
The highest compliment we can 
pay the artist is that his work 
adds greatly to the pleasure with 
which " Emma " will be read. 

The " Portfolio " monograph on 
"Richmond" (Seeley and Co.) 
could not have been put into 
better hands than those of Dr. 
Richard Garnett. Richmond, 
the historical, the artistic, the pic- 
turesque, is a subject full of possi- 
bilities for a writer so learned as 
Dr. Garnett ; and it is one of the 
charms of the book that to its 
merits, which will appeal alike to 
the student of history and of art, 
is to le added that of profound 
knowledge and strict accuracy. 
Richmond on the Thames has 
played almost as important a part 
in history as in art ; ami if the 
copious illustration does more jus- 
tice to the latter than to the 
former, it is because of the temp- 
tations that are offered by the 
works of Hollar. Reynolds, Turner, Peter de Wint, Sandby, 
Westall. Daniel], and others. We hardly agree, however, 
that Mr. Hi son's capital reproductions of old prints ami 
pictures should be spoken of as "engravings," as the word 
is unintentionally misleading. 

Designedly written as a popular book, "An Introduc- 
tion to the Study of the Old Italian Masters in the National 
Gallery" (A. S. Hewlett : Thomas Hibberd, Loudon) is, 
nevertheless, both useful and entertaining to the serious 
student. The author, though necessarily fettered by the 
s, ice it In:, disposal, shows i famili int\ with his sutjeel 
only to be obtained by wide reading and intimate ac- 
quaintance with the great Continental collections. It is 
a pity that the illustrations are so poor in quality ami so 
indifferently printed. 

A translation of Schiller's " Lay of the /A//," by A. 
( !. FosTER-BaRHAM, has been published by Mr. Fisher 
Unwin. The illustrations by Mr. W. Alison Phillips, 
while being well composed, are monotonously dull in tone. 
Executed in pen and ink, with a good sense of decorative 
effect, they tall short of success by their lack of strength 
of line. The result is an even greyness which seriously 
inteifsres with thiir artistic \ due. 







We liave to acknowledge the second edition of Mr. 
James Ward's "Principles of Ornament" (Chapman and 

Hall), which has been edited by Mr. Aitchisox, A.RA. 
We have nothing to detract from the approval with which 
we received the first edition, but to add a further word of 

commendation to the 
A]i]>endix by Mr. 
■Aitchison on the 
Orders of Architec- 
ture, a chapter which 
i.s effectively illus- 

Mr.AsHBY Sterry 
has long been a de- 
votee of the Thames. 
Aided by Mr. Bathe- 
rell he has produced 
in bis " 7'"/. of the 
Tli'iim % " a story both 
in subject and treat- 
ment worthy of the 
author of " The Lazy 

Messrs. Liberty 
and ( '". have recently 
produced two daintily 
attired pamphlets on 
"Cashmeres" and 
"Silks." Each con- 
tains a .short history 
of the development of 
the manufactures of 
tin- fabrics dealt with, 
accompanied by ex- 
cellent reproductions 
of this well known 
firm's di 

•' 'Hi: Rouse" is 
a new magazine de- 
signed to promote 
artistic influences in 
the home. We are 
glad that the pub- 
lishers of The Queen think there is mom lor such a 
periodical; the first number certainly ought to obtain for 
it the favour of the public to which it appeals. 

Mi:. William T. Dannat, the well known 

Miscellanea. Am erican ,„, inter, has been promoted to the 
rank of officer in the Legion of Honour. 

A lower room in the National Gallery is to be devoted 
to copies of pictures made in the gallery. These will be 
selected by a committee of artists and critics, and will, of 
course, be for sale. 

Mr. 1'. \V. AliAM has been elected a member of the Royal 

Scottish Academy in succession to the late Mr. J. Denovan 
\,| inl . sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A., and Dr. Row uid 
Ajsderson, architect, "ere elected honorary member.-.. 

In connection with the International Art Exhibition 
: ,t Venice the poster announcing which is reproduced on 

this page- three prizes, of the value of I >00, 1, id 

;,o(i lire respectively, are to be offered to arl critics lor the 

best notice, of the exhibition which are published i ig 

the first month of it- being open 

The prizes won by students of the Royal Female School 
of An ue,v pecentlj distributed by the Countess of [Ichester 
at the Mercers' Ball. The Queen has purchased three ol 
the successful works viz., " Bead from tbi Life, by Miss 

PATROCINIO : America : s.i*rf- 

Vn,:,7.:,' sIH V-'.M.HERIV '•", ..nhj.. '■', ■ ['.i^mt Ajn 
Hajncn- BtlC10 :ecijrtcni l -\jnd;rSijppcn- bAMMAPCA : 
Krovcr-EBANCIA: Cjrolus Bouverct- 

MlllaiS • Orchjrdson _ ITALIA : 

INORVECl^ : Petersen _OLANDA: Dc HaaS'IStacis* 
H.W.ML-sdJsi-PysSIA: Antocolsk, ■ Pcpm _sPACA_j, - 


PREMI 40,000 LIRE 

{Designed by A. Sezanne.) 

W. F. Bill (winner of the Queeu' Scholarship . "AGroup 
of Gueldei Roses, by Miss Lilian Reynolds (Q 
medallist); and ''A Group of Eucalyptns f rom Natui 

Miss 11. BOYLAND. 

A memorial to the late Charles Keene, the - 
several personal friends oi the deceasi 
placed in the entrance-hall of the Public Library, Shi | 
Bush. As may be seen from the illustration on p. 342, it 
consists principally of a portrait of Keene. This is i s 
in bronze, and is placed on a slab of Sienna marble. On 
the top are two admirable small figures, one ol which n 
presents Art mourning on it- knees over some dra 
and the other Humour, also mourning : the latter holds a 
-tall', on the top of wh : ch is the head of Punch. I 
memorial is the work of Mr. George Frampton, 
The Shepherd's Bush Library was dedicated by Mr. Pass 
more Edwards to Leigh Hunt and Charles K 

The exhibition at the Queen's Hall of 4,000 pictures and 
drawings, entered for a competition inaugurated bj Mi ssrs. 
Mellin. was both unique ami interesting. The clifl 
classes in the competition enabled unskilled children and 
accomplished artists to compete for prize, to the value "i 
£1,000. We reproduce on p. :?44 the water-colour drawing, 
"The Blacksmith's Shop, by Mr. Alei Gordon, which 
gained the first prize in its class. The work ol tl 
winners was of more than average merit. The proceeds 
accruing from the exhibition have all btei 
charitable purposes. 

The South Kensing- 
ton Museum has agreed, 
on Mr. Philip Burae- 
Jones's suggestion, to 
accept the engraved 
coppers of engravings, 
which otherwise, by 
the practice of mem- 
ber- of the I 'itiii sellers' 
Association, would be 

d ued to destruction 

as a sacrifice to the 
buying public. The 

arrangement is a 

one if only the plates 
themselves are worthy 
of preserva tion on 

-round- either of art- 
istic merit or oi tech 

uical value and instruc 

tion. A less admirable 

concession has been 

made bj the Print 

boom of the British 

Museum in .e ci 

rolls of " anii 

photogi iph "i 

I events U ap 

to it- thai He ' 

little in common with 

the purposes for which 

the 1'rint Room 

founded tnd ■ 

fitter place would be, 

say, the Ri ■ i 
' it i.-with pleasure that we publish the illustration on this 

. 3 h0W .he development Ol BClllptUnil Hit 1H llldl.,. 

,,. Temple is a lifi ""' is ,l "' xvo 

native Hindu, Mr. G K. Miiati 

(fld 0. " 



years of age, who is a student at the Bombay School of Art. 
This is quite a new departure from the usual grotesque and 
unidealised work of native sculptors, and bears high testi- 
mony to the influence and teaching of the school of which 
Mr. J. < IkiffitHS is the head master. The figure, which is 
;: yet only in plaster, the student hieing unable, on account 
of the expense, to translate it into marble, is in the Bombay 
School. As there is no interest or appreciation for this 
kind of art among the wealthy Hindus, we offer the 
suggestion to some of our patrons of ait to afford Mr. 
M hat re the necessary facilities to complete his work. 

The death of Mr. G. P. Boyce, at the age of 
uary ' seventy-one, removes one of our oldest water- 
colour painters. As he retired from active practice in 1893 
— when he resigned his membership of the Royal Water- 
Colour Society — his name and work have been overlooked 

ir-Colour Drawing by A. Gordon. See p. 3*3.) 

of late years, but nevertheless the beauty and daintiness of 
his drawings entitle him to a high position on the list of 
British water-colour painters. Born in 1826, he was 
educated as an architect, and was articled to Mr. Little. 
During his years of training he travelled largely on the 
Continent, and was a diligent sketcher of the various 
tyles of architecture, hut it was not until 1840 that his 
tn "' ™ad of life was found. In that year, when touring 
through the South of Wales, he met David Cox at Bettws-y- 
Coed, and that incident led to his taking up enthusiastically 
the study of landscape art. in which his natural talent 
soon enabled him to become a proficient exponent. It 
was nol until 1853, however, that he exhibited. He then 
sent two drawings to Suffolk Street, "Beeches" and "The 
Royal Oak, Bettws-y-Coed," and two to the Academy, 
"Timber i r ard, Chiddingstone," and " Hast End of Edward 
the Confessor's Chapel, Westminster." In 1864 he was 

cted ciatc of the old Society, but he had to wail 

until 1878 for his election to full membership. Be was 

11 !«lar c ti'ilnitor to the galleries in Pall Mall until 

'''" year he retired from active membership. Mr. Boyce 
was a founder-member of the original Eogarth Club, and 
;l ^ose friend of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, of whose work 
Ih ' n 'as an enthusiastic admirer. He was brother-in la» to 
''' K-T. Wells, R.A., and had a large and intimate circle 
of artistic friends, and to these, if not by the general public, 
his work always appealed by its delicacy and refined beauty. 

From a Photograph by No-man M<rj , 

The sudden death of Mr. J. Pyke Thompson, of Penarth, 
removes one of the most energetic and devoted workers in 
art matters in the provinces. For the past twenty years 
he was allied with every 
movement which had for 
its object the furtherance 
of art in Cardiff. To 
Penarth he presented a 
gallery and a fine collec- 
tion of works ; he was 
chairman of the Fine 
Arts Sub-Committee of 
the t lardiff Museum Com- 
mittee, to which gallery 
he had also given a col- 
lection of pictures, and 
he also loyally 
aided the South 
London Art Gal- 
lery. He was a 
pioneer of the 
Sunday ( Ipening 
1 1 f M u s e u m s 

movement, and from its establishment his gallery 
at Penarth has been opened on Sunday afternoons. 
Mr. Thompson was also the possessor of a repre- 
sentative collection of works by great artists. 

It is with great regret that we record the de- 
cease of Mr. C. E. Holloway, RI. In another 
column will be found a notice of an exhibition of his 
works which was being held at the time of his death. 
Belgian art has suffered a heavy loss by the 
death of M. GuSTAVE Dex Duyts, a landscape 
painter of great skill, whose work was recognised 
not only in his own country but in France, where 
it is represented at the Luxembourg. Rut it was as 
a designer 
of pageants 
that he was 
best known, 
and as such will be 
most missed. He 
had been entrusted 
to prepare them 
for the forthcoming 
International Exhi- 
bition at Brussels, 
and had actually 
prepared the draw- 
ings of the cars and 
group?, for the cor- 
tei/t ili x clocht s, 
which is to be one 
of the attractions 
of the exhibition. 

The deaths arc 
announced from 
Paris of M. Henri 
Pji.i.e, the well- 
known painter ; of 

M. Frederic Theodore Lix, at the age of sixty-seven ; of 
M. Leonce Lelarge, marine painter of llouen, at the age 
of seventy-six : of M. .1. SCOHY, formerly proftSSor at the 
Lyons Municipal School of Design; of Mdlle. Marguerite- 
'/'' ie Lberan, a painter of portraits and religious sub- 
jects, at the age of seventy-nine; ami of M. Haro, one of 
the best known connoisseurs and art experts in Paris. 

(from ci Photograph by 

Alloy in Gold. ISo 

Alma-Tadema, L., R.A., The Artist's House, 
13; Early Years, 41: Assumption of 

prefix "Alma.' Studies at Antwerp, 
" Clotilde at the Tomb ot her Grand- 
children," " The Education ot ths 
Children of Clovis," 45; "An Egyptian 
Festival Three Thousand Yearn Ago," 
Gold Medal at Antwerp. Fir it Visit to 
Italy, 46 ; Introduction to Gambart, 
"The Egyptian Chess-Players,' The 
Pyrrhic Dance," Criticism by J. Raskin, 
47 ; " The Roses ot Heliogabalu»," 
" Phidias in the Parthenon," "Claudius, ' 
"Vintage Festival." Comes to London, 
Letters of Denization. "L'n Amateur 
R ain." "{"» Jongleur" "The Em- 
peror Hadrian visiting a Romano- 
British Pottery." "The Sculpture 
Gallery," "The Picture Gallery." 48: 
"A Connoisseur," "The Convalescent,' 1 
"After the Audience.' "Audience at 
Agrippa's," " Fishing." " Spring," The 
" Rose Picture, "Catullnsal Lesbia's," 
" Antony and Cleopatra." " Helio- 

gabalus," The "Poppy Pictures, far- 

quinius Superbus," "A Hearty Wel- 
come, I'hc Idyll, or Young Affections," 

"Sappho," " The Imjirovisatore." "An 
Old Story," " The Reading from Homer," 
411 ; " By the Bridge," "Claudius," " Arc 

Ciesar!" "16 Saturnalia, I'll ■ 

s, tilptoi s Model," His conscientiousness, 
"An Earthly Paradise." Honours, 50 

Anlokolsky, Made Councillor of State by the 
Czar, 288 

Art on the Stage: My Girl at the Gaiety, 
Rip Van Winkh at the Alhambi-.i. 
Cymbeline at the Lyceum, 55; Monte 
Cristo, Hi-': As Yon tiki It, 272; Aladdin 
at Drury Lane, 232; The Daughters oj 
Babylon at the Lyric, Nelson's h'.;i 
chantreSS at the Aven 

Artz, Adolphe, Elected President of the 

Hague Art Club, a c. . . In 

Hague Academy of Arts, President of 
the Netherlands Section of tie I nivei 
sal Exhibition (Paris), Pupil of Israels, 
Studies in Paris, 81 ; " '"// Loup i/. Mer 
deboui dans s",i Bdteau," "Past and 
Future." 82; "Orphanage at Katwyk," 

83; 'Women in a Potato Field. I'hc 

Poor-House at Katwyk." " A 
Hoy Plaj ing on a Pipe," " Effecl oi Sun 
set through the Woods.' " A Shepherd 
Girl Sleeping among her Sheep in the 
Woods," " The Pel I im Return of 

the Flock." Head of a Schi 
Woman, Death *i 

'» ibe ■'- asa Decorative Material. _'l!) 
Aumonier, J.. R.I., "Sunlight on the 
Down- 103 

Barker, Wright, Elected .Member of 

R.S B.A., 176 
Beardsley, Aubrey, "The Morte d'Arthur, ' 

'J, HI; "The Savoy," "Rapeof the Lock.'' 

" The Yellow Book," 10, 11 
Bcechey. W., 1; A . " Chiet Justice Sir John 

Bankes," "Sir Henry Halford, M B. 228 
Bega, C. P., "The Philosopher 227 
Bell. R. Aiming, Designs for Court Playing 

Cards, School-Board Certificate, 39; 

"Mrs. Walter Raleigh," "l: 

and Shuttlecock,"' 231 
Birmingham Art Gallery. Acquisitions at. 


Book-Plates, 171, 22o 
Books Reviewed: - 

"Albert Moore, by A. L. Baldry, 342 

■" Anatomy for Artists," by Arthur Tl 

son, 211 

"■ Anglo-American Annual. 1715 

"Architecture in Italy from the Sixth to 
the Eleventh Century," by rlaffai 
Caltaneo, translated by the Contesso 
i "mi is-< Ihomelcy in Bernano, 160 

"Art Anatomy of Animals, by Erni 
Thompson, I'll 

"Arthur Boyd Houghton," by Laui 
Housman, mi 

•' Artistic I ... ography," by 

A II. Wall. I'll 

" Ballads an l Poems," by W. M. Thacke 

ray, 159 
■■ Barber, The Work of Churl B luction by Harrj Furni 
" Burns. Robert, Poems of," eJited bj 

.lames A. Manson, 280 

" i lashmeres ami Sil I "l Co . 

" i .ii. ile ;uc of the Lean Collection i 1 

Paintings bj William .1. M tiller," by 

Whit north w allls and A. Bonsley 

Chamberlain, 2-7 
"Cherry and Violol : a Tali cl 

Plague," bj Mi Manning with Intro 

duction by Rev. W. Uutton, lid 
" Emma, by Jane Austen, 342 
■■ Esmond," by W. M. Thacki ■ 
- fencing and Duelling, i Ion 

graph] of," bj I Thl 

"Figure Drawing and Composition,' by 

Richard (i Hatton, 287 
" Find Mad. ix I'.ri.wn : a 1: II 

i . . tid Work," by Fori M. II 

1> cs Reviewed loontinued): 

"Fors Clavigera," bv Professor Ruskin, 


Portraits of Him 
self." by ti. S. Layard, 2C6 
"Hampton Court," by Rev. William 
Hutton, 159 

■ I h i mi , . n iur Photo- 
gravures, with an Introduction bj Sir 
W. .Martin ( "on way. 320 

" Hypatia," by C. Kings 

" Illustration ot I li by Joseph 

Penned, 175 
"In Bohemia with du Maurler," by F. 

Moscheles, 266 
■ index io tin- Periodicals of 1895," 17H 
" In she a and Times." by 

Snowden Ward and Mis. c. w 

Jean Francois Millet : His 

Lctters, bj Mrs. Henry Ad 
"John l.a I are le Cecilia Waero, 274 
" Laurence Alma-Tadema, R.A. : A Sketch 

of His Life and Work." 12 

o( the Bell." 'Translation of 

Schilli ster Barham, 342 

"Life and Letters of John Constable, 


i Ion Pleasure Gardens of ihc 

Eighlcenth Century," by Warwick 

w roth, ail 

Vallery CO. Greard, 222 

"" Men and Women of the I 'enlii ry," being 
Portraits an I 
bj Mr. 1 in inn, edited by 

li. c. Marillier, 2C4 
• Modern French Masters," edited by 
John Van Dj 

■ Mo hi:, Opera-R 

by F. i ' E We allow. '.'til 

•in the Decorative Illustration of Bonks, 

(lid and New ," I" W ,.,;, I 

An Introduction to the Stud} 
,,f. by A. s Howh tl 

■ Hi White 
Shannon, all 

u While, 

■• Phil VI w Inter Vnnual, ' 

nieiit,' edited bj F. Grassct, 221 

" Principles of i irnami nt," 

ion, \.l: \.. 2nd edltiot 

"(in i 

" Rape : by A I'ope. new 



Books Reviewed (continued) : 

Reeves and Son, Messrs., New Cata- 
logue, 109 

" Rembrandt in the Berlin Gallery,'' 188 

"Richmond" [Portfolio), bj Dr. R. 
Garnett, 343 

Soci ill i Carl s, by Walter Crane, 176 

Tale of the Thames," by J Ashby Sterry, 

"The House," 343 

"Timbuctoo the Mys'eri uiV' by Felix 
Dubois, translated by Mrs. I) White, 387 

"To Tell (he Kins the Sky is Falling," by 
Sheila E Braine, 176 

"Tourist's Guide to the Continent," by 
Percj Lindley, 176 

" Winter Book, being the fourth number 
of "The Evergreen," 286 
Bough, Sam, ami Beverley, .">", 171 
Brantley, Frank, A.R.A.. "Fifty Yeirs 

After," " Autumn." 173 
Bratean, Jule3, Pewter Pottery, '.is. inn 
Brown, Ford Madox, Loan Collection at 
" Arts and Crafts ": " Tlic Summer Day," 
'The Romans Building Manchester," 
Book Illustration. " Brown Owl." 
"Oliver Cromwell on His Farm," 
"William the Conqueror Finding the 
Hi.ili of Harold." "Cromwell at St. 
Ins" "King Lear." Portrait of him- 
self, "The Entombment of Christ," 
"Tlio Young Foscari," Cartoons for 
Stained Glass, Designs and Sketches 
fur .'Mural Paintings at Manchester, 68 ■ 
"Thi' Young Foscari," 256; "King 
Rene's Honeymoon" Cabinet, 323 
Brozik, Vaslav, Elected Foreign Memberof 

Societe des Anites Frangais, 176 
Hume -Jones, sir Edward, Ht.. Cartoons for 
Stained Glass, 36; Daily Chronicle 
Cartoon, 51; "Green Summer," 318: 
" King Rene's Honeymoon" Cabinet.323 
Bury, (lifts to: Works of Art presented by 
Miss Wrigley and Messrs. O. and F. 
Wrigley, 283 

Calleott, Sir A. W., R.A., "Diana at the 

Chase.' 283 
Canova, " Hebe and Bacchante," 283 
'.ii in, ni\ .1 B., Bronze Works of, 53 
Caw, .1. L, Curator of National Portrait 

Gallery of Scotland, 228 
Central School of Arts ami Crafts. New. 

Professors, etc., 110 
chain n. A., R.A., A Picture by, 1711 
Chambers, George, "St Michael's Mount" 

( ha ling ami Engraving, 186 
' >hi rel Lithographs by, lis.- Medallion, 2,;s 
Collier, Hon. John, at the Grafton Gal'ery, 230 
Collins, VV . R.A., " The Minnow Catchers," 

" Tin- Cherry Sellers." 283 
Constable, .1.. R A.. 231 

' 'oopc i . T - .3 . K. \., " Sheep, ' 283 

iii Law : Registration, 170 
Cotman, !•'. G., " Richmond, Yorks," ins 
' lotman, John Sell, " Town in Holland," 316 
Cox. I'i o! th.' Purr:,!," 255 : 

"The (il. 1 .Mill at Bettws y-Coed," "A 

Bn ezj 1 * . i -. ." 283 

o ins for Stained Glass, 

3H: illustrations ami Decorations 

(!• Spenser's "Faerie Queem S; 

Design of 'I'hi- Five Senses" for 

Damask i lloth, 66; " Note mi w ml. .mil 

l.ii'' "I W. Morris," 89, HI : " The 

Triumph of Labour," 17(1 
' " wick, Thomas, P. A., "A Showerj 

Day, ' 

Ernesl I ; \ . . Ramilies," 173 
' '"Hi'-, .i , " A Landscapi 

I I "i i rail m Napoli on I.. i;i 

■■-■' I mi and E Lith, I !up in Hcatcn 

.ii- 38; Trowel m \\ roughl 

ml Heraldic Design, 65; Uma 

Pay, Lewis, 39; Designs for Panels and 

Tiles, 66 
" Delia Robbia," Potteries at Birkenhead, 0, 

" Devon Great Consols'' Mine, 312 
P.- Wint, P.. "Old Mill," 318 
I in.\ le's Monogram, John, 279 
Dresden "Sistine Madonna," Is it genuinel 


Past, Alfred, "An Autumn Study,'' 108 
Ecole des Beaux Aits. Gift, to. 288 
Electroliers, designed by B. Mackennal, A. 
E. Lewis, 14; J. M. Swan, A.P A , 
exhibited by Messrs. Bellman, Ivey and 
Carter. Benson, Faraday, Perry and 
Son,. Hi: Millerand Sons, Designs by W. 
Starkie Gardner. IS 
Exhibitions - 

Arts and Crafts Exhibition, The, 32, 63 

Aumonier, J., R.I., at Dowdeswell's, 341 

Burns Exhibition at the Royal Glasgow 
Institute of Pine Arts, 56 

Dalpayrat, M., at the "Petit Gallery," 
I 'aris, 2S4 

Early and Modern Briti-h Artists, Messrs. 
sin phi ril Brothers, 231 

English Humorous Art at the Pine Ail 
Society. 171 

English Silk Weaving Company and 
Spital fields Silk Association Exhibi- 
I mil. 21S 

English Water • Colour Painters at 
Agncw's, 33!) 

Exeter Art Gall rr, 173 

French Gallery, The, 231 

Hamilton, J. McLure, at the Goupil 
Gallery, 108 

Holloway, C. E., Water-Colours at Goupil 
Gallery, 310 

Hunt, Alfred, R.W.S., at the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club, 284 

Institute of Painters in Oil-Colours, 108 

"L'ArtNouveau "Exhibition, 268 

Leighton, Lord, P.R.A., at the Royal 
Academy, 228 

" Le Sillon " Club. Brussels, 215 

Liverpool Corporation Autumn Exhibi- 
tion, 173 

Miliiary Pictures at the Hanover Gallery, 

New English Art club, 231 

Nottingham Art Museum Autumn Exhibi- 
tion, 173 

Original Drawings, Lithographs, and 
Etchings, at. the 25 Gallery, Soho Square, 

Oxford Art, Society, 174 

Palmer. Sutton, "Highlands and Low- 
lands," 231 

Photographic Exhibition at the Poyal 

Water < 'nil. or Society, 109 

Photographic Exhibition at the Dudley 

Gallery, 109 
Prize Work at the Royal Female School 

..f Art, Kill 
Rimington, Wallace, at the Pine Art, 

Society's, 340 
Royal Glasgow Institute, 330 
Loyal Scottish Academy, 331 
Royal Society of British Artists. The. 108 
Royal Society of Painters in Water- 

Colouis, 230 
Society of Miniaturists at the Grafton 

Gallery, 110, 23') 
Society of Portrait-Painters, 230 
Southport, Spring Exhibition, 311 
Sydnej An society, 172 
Turner, .1. M. W., R.A., Original Draw- 
ings ami Pictures and Engravings from 

the Artist's Works at City An Gallery. 

Leeds, 171 
Victoria Institute, Worcester Corporation 

Art Gallery, 173 
Watauabe Seitei and Kwason at the 

Japanese Gallery. 171 
Wood car \ ings at Carpenters' Hall, 1C7 

Faed, John, U.S. A, " The Cruel Sister," 283 

Faed, Thomas, R.A., " Listeners ne'er hear 
any good of themselves. l's:i 

Falize, Lucien, Gold Cup, Extract from 
Peport to Central Union fcr Encourage- 
ment of Decorative Arts of Paris, 165; 
Detail of Cup, 167-S 

Fildcs, Luke. R.A., "Jessica." 173 

Foley, J. IL, R.A., "Egeria," 283 

Foster, Birket, R.W.S., Drawings of 
Venice, 173 

Frampton, George, A. R. A., Screen, "Music," 
Carving fur .Mantelpiece, 3s ; "Keene 
Memorial," 342 

Frere, Edouard, "Snowballing," 2S3 

Gainsborough, T., R.A., "Portrait of MPs 

Gainsborough," "Two Dogs, Tristram 
and Fox," "Study of an Old Horse." 
Two Landscapes, "Rustics with Don- 
key,' L'L'7 

Galle, Emile, Decoration of Furniture, 249; 
Extracts from Letter to M. L P.ili/.c, 
250; Glass Vessels, Cameo Vase, 252; 
Gold Medals at, the Palais dc 1 Industrie. 
1st Prize and Medal at Paris Exhibition 
of 1SS0, 253 

Gardner, starkie. Electroliers designed by, 
18; Factory at Lambeth, 131 : Design for 
a Lamp in Pewter, 132 ; as a Collector, 
Ironwork, 133; Replica of the Eleanor 
Grille, Handbook on "Ironwork," 131 

German Decorative and Industrial Art, 
324 ct seg. 

Gibb, R., R.S.A., Curator of National 
Gallery of Scotland, 228 

Gold Plating, 186 

Goldsmithery, English, 181 ; German, 283 

Goodall, V., I!. A.. "The Happier Days of 
Charles I.," 283 

Gow, Andrew C, R.A., "The Requisition- 
ists," 122 

Grasset, M., Lithographs by, 148 

Gravesande, Storm van. Lithographs by, 152 

Guido's "Perseus and Andromeda" and 
" Venus Attired by the Graces," 224 

Hacker. Arthur, A.R.A., "My Mother," 108 

Haghe, Louis, Lithographs by. "Belgium 
and Holland," " Fall of Jerusalem," 
after D. Roberts, 7S 

Hals. Franz, " William Warmond, Burgo- 
master of Leyden," 174 ; "Picter Tiarck," 
319, 321 

Hamilton, J. McLure, " W. E. Gladstone, 
M.P.," "G. P. Watts, R.A.," "Onslow 
Ford, R.A.," 108 

Harcourt, George, Studies at Bushey, Early 

Work, 233: "Evening Time. the 

Heir," 231: "At the Window" or "A 
Portrait," "Psyche." "Thought Read- 
ing," 235; 3rd class Medal at the 
Salon, " The Leper's Wife. " 230 ; " Dun- 
glass, Coekburnspath," "Mrs. Fairfax 
Lucy and Her Son," 23S ; "Boys 
Bathing," "The Little Foster Father, " 
"Head of a Rustic Girl." 23!) 

Harding, J. D.. Lithographs by, " Pictur- 
esque Selections," 78 

Haydon's " Judgment of Solomon," 225, 337 

Helleu, 1'.. Pastel Portrait, 230 

Herkomer, Professor, R.A., "The Last 
Muster," 121. 127; "The Home Decora- 
tor," 171: " W, Cuthbert Quilter, Esq.," 
"The Duke of Devonshire," 260 ; Litho- 
graphs by, 21)0 

Hermitage, Founding of the, by the 
Empress Catherine I.. 320 

Hiles, |ia .Irani, Early Studies at Bristol, 141; 
Exhibits Firsl Picture, Gains National 
An Scholarship, 142; Silver and Two 
Bronze Medals and Book Prize : studies 
in Paris ; Sillies in London. 113 

Hilton, W. R.A.. " Venus and Cupid," 283 

Holbein, H, " Henry VIII. Presenting the 
Charter to the Barber-Surgeons," 288; 
Unkt.own Portraits by, 279 



Hole, W., R.3.A., Mural Decoration at 
St. James's Episcopal Church, Edin- 
burgh, 218 

Holl. Frank. R.A., Memorial of, in St. Paul's, 

Hood, G. P. Jacomb, "Mrs. Fox and her 
Children." 230 

Hunt, W. Ho!nian. "The Scapegoat," 177; 
"The Hireling Shepherd Z8S 

Hunt, William, "Devotion," "The Dead 
Snipe,' 259 

Iron- Work, Modern English, 131; Old 
German, 283 

Jack, G., Chironeypiece and Carved Oak 
Leg for Settle, 6.5 

Jackson, T. G., R.A., 10S 

Jenkins, F. Lynn, New Decorative Art by. 
92; studies at Lambeth and I: \. 
Schools. Medal from It. A. and city of 
London Guilds, Gains British Institution 
Scholarship. 9ti, 97 

Joy, George W , " Lear and Cordelin," 
t Ihrist and the Little Child, ' " The 
King's Drum, "The Danaids," "'7: 
"Truth," "Joan of Arc' "First Union 
Jack," 58; "The Bayswater Bus," 
"Christ and the Little child. 59; 
"Nelson's First Farewell," "Welling- 
ton's First Encounter with the French," 
"The King's Drum shall never be 
beaten for Rebels," "Flora Macdonald's 
Farewell to Prince Charlie." " The Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports," Early 
Studies, Work in Paris. 60; Succi sses 
Accuracy in Detail, "Death of General 
Gordon 62 

"Jxigend, 327 

Keene, Charles, Memorial to. 343 

" King Rene a Honeymoon " i labinet, ::"." 

Khnopir, F., " Vivien.' 173: Fashion in Art, 

Kneller, sir ti.. "Sir Samuel Garth' 

(attributed to), 228 
Knutsford, Viscount, G.C.M.G., Appointed 

Trustee of National Portrait Gallery, 110 

La Farge, J., Stained Glass bj 270 271,331 

Landseer, Sir E., It. A., " Titania and 
Bottom," 178 ; " The Random Shot " 283 

Lane, Misses. Bequest to the National 
Gallery, 227 

Layard Collection, The, 280 

Leader, B. W. A. I; A "Departing Day." 

Leighton, The Late Lord, P.R.A., Extract 
from Letter. Eight Characti i 
the Artist's Sketches, 611-71 ; Firsl Fresco, 
10.5; "Cyniiin and Iphigenia." 127; "Sir 
Richard F. Burton." 227: Exhibition 
of Artist's Works at HA . 228 . on Litho 
graphy, 295; " Flaming June, 336 

Lewis, John F.. R.A., " Lilium Auralum." 

Linnell, J., R.A., "On Summer Eve, by 
Han. iied Stream," 179: "The Rising 
of the Stream," " Crossing tin' Brook," 
Lithography, Revival of, 75, ill. 289 
Lorimer, J. H.. "Lord Lindsay," "The 
Bishop of London, 230 

Mackennal, It.. Table Lamp, II 
Maclise, 1)., lt.-\.. " The Student, '233 
Manchester City Art Gallery \.cqul 

Mason, George, " The Wind he Wold 


Mansueti, Giovanni, What an thi correel 

dates! 225 
Marquis of Hertford and the "Marquis ol 

Stcyne.' The. 107. 1 >.". « 
May. Phil, Elected Member of R I 

Lithographs by. 2.12. (See ' 1; 

viewed 1 

McLachlan, T. Hope. " By Starlight," 108 

Meissonier's " La Rixe," 336 

Merson, Luc Olivier, Drawings Repn 

in- Trade 1 lorporations for Goli 

L. Fah 
Millais, Sir J. E. Bt .. P.R.A., Autumn 

Leaves,' 53; "John Bright, 1 128, 260; 

Murthlj Moss, 178; LI the Grafton 

Gallery, 230 : Panels for Judg 

ings, Leeds, 232, 280 ; " Joan of Arc," 256 : 

" Eve of St. Agnes," Panelsal I 

Loan Exhibition at Edinburgh, 331 
Miniature Painting, 51, 87 ; Earliest 

Treatises on, 279 
Miniatures in Wallace 1 
Moira, Gerald E., New Decorative Art by. 

'.12: "Mrs. Cyril Plummer," "Mrs. 

Nares," "The King's Daughter,' 

"lii-cmli. Daughter of C. Svedburg, 
-indies at R.A. Schools, At the 

Fine Ait Society. 97 
Moore Allien. A Picture by, 221 
Moore. Henry, R.A 231 
Morris, William, Note on, by W. Cram 

Committee of Artists an. 1 1 Iraftsmen, 90 : 

.The Kelmscott Press. 91 
Mnllcr, W., " Tie slave Market," " Venice," 

Mulready.W., LA. "Tin' Firsl Voyage," 

Murray, David, A.M. A.. "Season of Misl 

and Fruitfulni 

Nancy, Decorative Art at. 219 

N.i-niytli. Patrick, "Ringwood," " View on 

the Forth.' 283 
National 1 taller] w esl and Has don at, 169; 

Acquisitions at the. 227. 339; Room for 

Copies at. 313 
National Gallery of Queensland, Thi . 17:; 
National Gallery of Scotland, Acquisitions 

t... 228 
National Gallery of Sydney, Acqui 

National Gold Medals, 226 
National Portrait Gallery, Annual Report, 

51; New Trustee, 110; Recent Acquisi 

tions. 227 
National Portrait Gallery of Scotland, 

Bequesl by J. M. Gray, Esq., 228 
Newman. P. H, Elected -Member of 

It s.B. \ , 1:1; 
Nuneques, w. de Gouve de, 216 

1 11:11 r Miii - : 

Altamura, Saverio, 2ss 

Barnard, Fred, 56 

Beavis, G., R.W.S., 176 

Boyce,G. P., R.w .- 341 

Chatrous-e, Entile, 232 

Den Duyts, G, 311 

flu Maurier, Geot 

Falero, Luis, 232 

Fripp, George A . R.W S . 110 

Ilaro \l ::n 

Holloway, c. E., K I. .311 

Katow, Paul de, 288 

Lagye, Victor, 56 

Lccran. Mdlle. M /.. 311 

Lelargi 1 


Morris William. 56 

Pill... Henri 311 

Reinhardl C. S., 56 

Samuelson, Edward. J P., 232 

Scohy, J., in 1 

Thompson, J. 1 '■ 
1 ipaline Gla W indow in, al 

hambreau 331 
Orchardson, W '.'.- R.A " 1 he I ' 

n," 327 
Sir Noel. R.S 

Pennell, Joseph, Lithographs ol 

"i,i. 171 
Phillip, John, R.A., "P. -he Sellers,' 180; 

Pinwell, George, "The Village Cross," 251 
. !■'. VY\, Lectern, 38, 67 : Overdoor 
in Coloured Plaster, 10; Burns Statue, 56 
Pooli P 1 1. ■ '■. ' Elaine," 231 : "Going 
to 1 he Spring," " 1 rossing the Brook,"283 
Poster Competition P. - 

Sir E. J., P R.A . Elec lion as 
P P \ in-, in ; Versatilitj 
112 : Eat orative Work at 
Walthain Church. Carl,, 
Glass, Illustrations Dalziel B 
irsl Picture at R.A., M 
- G lorge," "Apelles," and "Phidias," 
115; Frcsi . al St Stephen's, Dulwich, 
".room al 
Kensington Muei 
I Pom.- ol St. Pauls. "Andromeda." 
" Israel in Egypt," "Thc'Catapult," 110; 
, usican ami Her 
Maidens Playing at Ball," "The Fes- 
tival, l'he Golden Age,' 118; "AVisil 

I culapius," " Ilia. '.inn. no.' "The 

Meeting and the Queen of 

Sheba," Work in Water-Colour. 120; 


front, Samuel. Lithographs bj .7-; "Nurem- 

Milan Cathedral, '317 
Pyne, J It "Coblentzand Ehrenbreitstein." 

Queen, Doubtful Portrait of II. M. thi 
Quilter, Mr. H Cuthberl M.P , The I 

n. ,11 of, 121 1; 

Rembrandt 1 of Artist's 

Works by Berlin Photograph! 

ihens, VV.,Dining-table 1 

Richmond, W. It. PA.. North and South 
Transept Window- for -1 Pan 
for Monument to late Lord I 
Ricketts, Charles, as a Boo 
•■ The Dial," "Si 

,11 p., 11, ran ites," 306; " Daphnis and 
Chloe," "Hero and Leander," "The 
Sphinx, 3l)7; Firm of Ha. on ami 
bli hi d, 308 : "TI 
Milton 1 

■ I hi \1111pl1i1lia." 
Ill 'in- I. routine, and Tri II 
Riviere, Briton, R.A . " The Ma 
Doorwaj ," 128 : " Acteeon and 1 1 
1 ; . ■ \i',. 0, '283 
1:0b in -01 1. f. Cayley, " The Foundling," 108 
Romm v,( helia, 2:11 

! he Appreciation of, 52 
Roa etti, D, G., " La Bella Mano, 122: 
in. Will, as a Lithographer, 291 

. ing, 227 : 1 In. Man I xhibitions 

, , 1 ite of p.iiin. 

1 olours, New Mcml 1 
Royal Institute 

ing, 216 : " Hand I 00k 

\ii. Examples, 
Mali-rials. 21s 
Royal ' my, Exhibition a', 

tj ,,f British Artists, Now 



scott "Chauo 


Sant, J..R.A., "The Infant Samuel," "The 

Child Timothy."283 
Schumacher, B., Elected A.R.E , 288 
Scott. II. B., Pi inoforte designed by, 07 
Seganlini Giovanni, Early Years, '-'.",: 
Studies .-n Milan, 26; "Coro di Sant' 
Amonio," " Galloping Consumption," 
"II Naviglio," "La Falconiera," 
"Prode," Settles at Brianza, "Ave 
Maria," Gold Medal at Amsterdam in 
>:;. "The Mothers,' "After a storm on 
the Alps.' "A Kiss," "A Moonlight 
Effect," "Early Mas?," 27; "Alia 
Stanga," Influence of Millet, 28; Re- 

yes to Malaga, "The Drinking 

Trough. " Gold Medal at Paris, "In the 
Sheepfold," "The Shepherd's Income," 
" At the Spinning Wheel," "Ploughing 
in tlic Engadine," Gold Medal at Turin, 
"Midday on the Alps." "Winter at 
Savognino," " The Retnrn to the Sheep- 
fold,'' "The Return to His Native 
Village. " The Punishment of Luxury," 
"The Retribution of Unnatural Mo- 
thers," "The Angel of Life," "The 
Fruit of Love," 31 
Severn, Arthur. " After Sunset— West 

( loasl i >f Scotland," 108 
Seymour, Robert, Paintings by, 51 
Shannon, J. .1.. Studies at South Kensing- 
ton, "Hon. Horalia Stopford, "Henry 
Vigne, Esq.." 2; First Class Medals at 
Paris, Berlin. Vienna, and Chicago, 
"Mrs. Charlcsworth," "Josef Hoff- 
mann," "Mrs. J. .1. Shannon,'' "Mrs. 
Magniac," '(■. Hitchcock, Esq.," Mem- 
berof N.E.A.C. and Institute of Painters 
in Oil-Colours, Exhibition of Works at 
Fine Art Society, " Heir Poznanski," 
" Marchioness of Granby," 3; "Babes 
in the Wocd," "Spot Red." "The 

Squirrel, I'he Doll." 4; "Sir Henry 

Irving.'' " In the Springtime," As a 
Colourist, 5; Hanger at Liverpool, 173; 
as a l.iihographer, 291 
Societe des Artistes Lithographies Franeais, 

Establishment of, llii 
Society of English Painters, The Newly 

formed, 288 

Solon,L.V.,Pi,tterj ■ Panel, "LesPrintemps, "66 

South Kensington Museum. Collection of 

Ancient Musical Instruments, 228 ; En- 

i I opperplates at, 348 

Stage Art in Shakespeare's Time, by Arthur 

Dillon, 107 
Stained Glass, Modern French, 269 
Stanfield, Clarkson, R.A., "On the Coast of 
Brittany," "On the River Texel," 283 

Stappen. Charles van der, " History of 
Hainan Cliiniaras," 213; "For Auld 
Lang Syne," 214 

Sleer, P. Wilson, "A Nude," 231 

Stiick, Franz, Studies at Munich. 153; Illus- 
trations for " Allegories and Emblems," 
and "Prints and Vignettes," "In Vino 
Veritas," Exhibits First Picture, 154 ; 
" The Guard of Paradise," " Innocentia," 
"Fighting Fawns," "Lucifer," 155; 
"Sin," "Crucifixion," 156: "War," 
" The Sphinx," "Evil t," 157 

Sumner, Heywood, Cartoon. " Star of Beth- 
lehem." "A Floral Trellis Paper," 36 

Swan. .1. M..A.R.A., " Venus," 15 

Tamar, The, 310 

Tate Gallery, Acquisitions for the. 227 
Taylor. Fred, Bronze Medal, Certificate for 
Design, Queen's Prize for Design, Certifi- 
cate for Advanced. Modelling, Prizes, etc., 
194 ; t ounty Council Scholarship, 195 
Technical Institute, New Cross, 192 
Tcnniel, Sir John, as a Decorative Artist. 53 
Thomson, George, as a Lithographer, 291 
Thomson, Hugh, Elected Member of 

R.I., 231 
Thornyeroft, Hanio, R.A., "Joy of Life." 

Tiffany. Louis C, Work in Stained Glass, 

Turner, J.M. W., R.A., " Calais Sands," 283 ; 
" Venus and Adonis," 318 

Vale Press, 306 

Van der Bussche, Frescoes at. Central Post 
Office. Brussels. 214 

Vincent, George, "Greenwich Hospital," 
" Hastings." 316 

Von Bartcls, Hans, Elected Hon. Member 
of R.I., 176 

Voysey, C. F. A., Design for a Quilt. Forty 
Designs for Bo-Pccp Carpet. 61 ; Lamp- 
post, Clock and Barometer I 'uses, 65 

Walker. A. (;.. Sculpture for Church of the 

Agapemone, Alms Dish, 101, 102 
Walker. Fred, A.R.A., "The Bathers," 121, 

254; "The Wayfarers,' 183, 255 
Wallace Collection : The Objects of Art. 296 
Ward, E. M.. "The Fall of Clarendon." 283 
Ward, James, as a Landscape Painter, 317 
Watts. G. F., R. A, Gift to National Portrait 
Gallery, 54 ; Becomes Hon. Retired R.A., 
103 ; " Fata Morgana," "Life's Illusions." 
203; "Bianca," "The Wounded Heron." 
" Mr. James Weale," " Little Miss Hop- 
kins." "Peace and Goodwill," 201: 

Hawking Pictures. "Lady Holland," 
"Miss Cassav, tii," " W. E. Gladstone," 
"Lord Tennyson." " S'r J. E. Milla's," 
" Lor J Leighton, P.R A.." "Joachim," 
"The Marquis of Salisbury,'' " Prayer," 
"Ophelia," "Una and tho Red Cro?s 
Knight," " Undera Dry Arch," " Uldra," 
"The Rider on the White Horse," 
" View of the Carrara Mountains from 
Pisa," "Paola and Francesca," "Brito- 
mirt and Her Nurse before the Magic 
Mirror." 206; "Orpheus and Eury- 
dice," " Mount Ararat." 207 ; " Neptune's 
Horses," "Diana and Endymion," 
"Venetian Nobleman," "The Three 
Goddesses," " Daphne," " Psyche." 
"Ariadne," "Good Luck to Your 
Fishing," "Arion," "Lord Campbell," 
"Sir William Bowman," "Right Hon. 
Russell Gurney, Q.C.," "Sir Edward 
Burne-Jones," "A. Swinburne," "P. 
Calderon, R A," "Walter Crane," 
"I. aily Garvagh," "Lady Somers,"20S; 
"Earl of Airlie," "Ganymede," "The 
Childhood of Jupiter," Portraits of the 
Ionides Family, "Court of Death," 
"Silence and Mystery," "The Messen- 
ger," "Death Crowning Innocence," 
"Time. Death, and Judgment," "Love 
and Death," "Love and Life," "Faith," 
"Peace and Goodwill," "For he had 
Great Possessions,' "The Dweller in the 
Innermost," "The Spirit of Christian- 
ity," "Jonah," "The Minotaur," "Mam- 
mon," " Hope," " Sic Transit," " Chaos," 
"The Rev. James Mnrtineau, 1 ' "Sir 
Richard Burton." "Love Triumphant," 
"Sunset in the Alps," "After the De- 
luge,'' " Eve," 210 ; as a Lithographer, 295 

Webster, T., R.A., " The Boy with Many 
Friends. " 283 

West and Haydon and the National Gal- 
lery, 169 

Whistler, J. M., Portrait of Sarasate by. 224 : 
Lithographs by. " Early Morning," 
"Lime'.ouse," "Nocturne," "Little 
Model Reading," " Brittany," Luxem- 
bourg Series. Method of Drawing, etc., 
289 ; " Sea and Rain," 330 

Wilkie. Sir David. R.A . "Village Festi- 
val." 51 ; "The Abbotsford Family." 22s 

Willette, A., ' Moonlight March," "L'En- 
rant Prodigue," 119 

Wire-drawing, Process of, 186 

Wood-Carvings at Carpenters' Hall, 167, 338 

Zingg's " Port of Naples," 224 

Zoffany, " Portrait of Gainsborough.'' 227 

{Drawn by Professor «. tuning 

111 iim j;s CASSELL .V COMPAMV, LIMITED, La BELLE S\i\.\i.j, Liimuin. K< '. 



N The Magazine of