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PREFACE. 



t'.'E are now enabled to speak of this Magazine with a confidence which, much nearer the commencement of its career, would have 
been presumptuous. A definite purpose is generally contemplated by every new periodical undertaking of a literary kind, which 
has nevertheless to be afterwards shaped and modified by events that were not anticipated, and by circumstances of an uncertain 
order. Like an idea of a bright or noble character, that ripens, and swells, and gains in excellence, as we proceed to develope its 
proportions in a written form, even a well-considered monthly magazine will after a time become, in some particulars, a more 
symmetrical object, if uniformly conducted with zeal, than was ever dreamt of by its projector, however deep or direct-sighted he 
may have been. New fields open up, the tide of knowledge sets difl^erently in, the taste of friends take a slight turn, so that 
altogether the offspring-shoot, though none of the original features be lost, assumes gradually an individual and peculiar direction 
and bearing, as much indebted to the style of its nurture as to its parentage. 

But, to put similitudes aside — we unhesitatingly assert, that whatever were our original views and desires in reference to 
the " Magazine of Botany and Gardening," none of them have been varied but as respects their progress to perfection, whilst some 
additional topics of a kindred nature have been introduced, tending greatly to enrich the work. Allusion is particularly made to 
many original talented papers, several of them agricultural, but all connected with rural economy, in a manner that cannot but 
be appreciated by practical people, and all such as are eager after useful knowledge — the great object of desire in these matter-of- 
fact-days. It will also be apparent to our readers, that there has been, especially towards the beginning of the volume, no lack 
of scientific information regarding every point connected with the philosophical character or history of the vegetable world. We 
may say, indeed, that the physiology of plants, their chemical properties and anatomical structures, have been treated and illus- 
trated in every manner, and by numerous hands. Our translations, our reviews, our original papers, have been largely devoted to 
these branches of inquiry. The gardening operations, strictly of a domestic character, and gardening e.\periments, have been most 
variously and abundantly introduced ; whilst the botanical descriptions of plants, both according to the artificial and natural 
systems, are numerous and interesting. Of the plates, and the coloured figures of plants represented by them, we know not what 
to say that can be half so proper as that which one glance, especially of our late numbers, will suggest. Sixteen different highly 
finished plates coloured from nature, and sixteen close-printed pages of valuable matter, for one shilling, presents certainly a 
novelty, even in this age of cheap publications, and, with confidence we utter it, not to be equalled in the whole history of embel- 
lished literature. 

Besides, our Magazine still maintains its distinctive character, as compared with all others of the class.' As we have stated 
on a former occasion, the periodicals that give coloured figures uniformly confine themselves to a peculiar class, some being re- 
stricted to new plants, some to florists' flowers, some to fruits, and the like ; ^'hereas every object in the vegetable creation is 
embraced in. our pages. We may, without the fear of contradiction and alone declare, that from the number of our pages, from 
the dense and varied matter which fills them, and from the labour bestowed on every portion, that no work in existence, of double 
the price, contains. either the amount of delight and instruction, or the number of embellishments and subjects that the " Magazine 
of Botany and Gardening" does. 

To any one a total stranger to our Periodical, and who has only been acquainted with our predecessors or rivals, the above 
itle may suggest a mere nomenclature or catalogue of plants, and a gardener's directory for the months as they come round. 
Let it be understood, nevertheless, that we embrace a far different field. We combine the names and knowledge of things together ; 
and whilst we chiefly strive after direct utility, we flatter ourselves that it is through a simple and intense perception of the 
beauties and the blessings of nature, as showered around us in the parts of creation more immediately contemplated by our work. 
We wish, as regards this enthusiasm, we could impart the taste to all. By far the cheapest and most lovely, the healthiest and 
most accessible studies, are to be found in the book of nature. It has been well said, that most studies abstract a man from the 
sky, the earth, and the sea ; from the world of wonders that is every where around and above us. But we would be xhildren still, 
plucking flowers, luxuriating in the fields, cultivating the friendship of every little monitor that grows there. In so far as our 
enthusiasm goes, it matters little whether it be the stately tree " that summers and winters with us," or the tinier and more 
uncertain visitants of the field or garden. They are each and all our companions, most of them our subjects. It is an affecting 
truth, that every plant cultivated by man assimilates itself in some measure to him, laying aside its natural habits and forms, and 
bending to his tutorage. But we are running wide of the limits and purpose of our Preface ; forgetting that the delights of fancy 
are not the only or chief object of our labours ; for, as rational and practical men, we pay the highest regard to the substantial 
and permanent good of the community. We endeavour to teach the blessings of rural life, domestic economy, and innocent 
pursuits. .4bove all, we love to trace the hand of a wise and benevolent Creator in every exhibition of nature that falls to be 
considered by us. 



ii PREFACE. 

These varioiis points and ends we shall continue to place prominently in our eye. Indeed, our arrangements and means 
will, in future, enable us to surpass anything we have yet done, as regards the beauty and value of our periodical. To begin 
with the figures of the plants — the artist^ hitherto employed have necessarily been acquiring greater dexterity and delicacy in 
copying the matchless forms and tints of nature ; and, with something not unlilse the ease and softness with which the sweet, the 
blushing, or the gorgeous flower Comes forth, can almost in an instant design, sketch, or colour, with extreme fidelity, the object 
required. It is on this account that, in the course of the present volume, we have been enabled to give precisely double the 
former number of coloured figures ; nor could any one otherwise understand, than as we have stated, how sixteen highly finished 
pictures should be furnished for anything like the price that the entire work, letter-press and all, amounts to. Of the late and 
future descriptions and selections of the plants, we need not say much. Botanists and students of nature must at once perceive 
and understand* the accuracy of the science therein displayed. We have only here to add, that if half a lifetime's devotion to any 
one branchof-kpo;jj|ledge be k guarantee of a man's superority in that branch, it has been unequivocally secured by us. 

Of tile more' miscellaneous_ ana by much the largest proportion of the literary part of the work, it becomes us to use a few 
words. " The whole of the letter-press amounts to sixteen double-columned pages quarto, closely and handsomely printed : in 
truth, every one of oftr shilling numbers contains as much matter as many small volumes do. In the course of this year it will 
be seen that we, by me&nSj^jf a smaller type, greatly enlarged the quantity of letter-press — a step naturally suggested by our 
greater fai^^iliarity with the various Subjects found to be in demand by the public. And we again intimate, that for the future, 
we shall stilji-farther increase the pagei so as to. be better suited to contain the additional information which we command, for every 
month ; ...and tfiis too ^without any alteration in price. Our increasing sale affords these advances. 

t, , fA&t^tfi&irrtcise subjects to be hereafter treated in our pages, it is impossible to speak very minutely. In what belongs ' 
properly to horticultute,it is not so miich our study to search for rasi novelties of persons of no note, as to collect the discoveries 
and experim'entsxif skilful and scientific "men. Utility is our great aim. Respecting the culture of all sorts of plants, our pages 
may be looked to for the most striking lessons. The monthly operations as a calander shall be continued, and during the dreary 
and gloomy winter season, we purpose to enliven our readers with accounts of some curious and lightsome methods by which 
certain garden articles may simply and ingeniously be forced, to delight the eye or gratify the palate, not generally practised or 
understood. Some examples may be found in the last number of this volume, shewing how the summer may be, to a certain 
extent, transplanted into winter. 

It will be observed that during the year, but more particularly towards the latter end of it, we have introduced a number of 
agricultural hints. Several papers have been devoted to that larger field of rural economy, which is, we think, a valuable feature 
in our work, inasmuch as it holds the place of an elder sister, and can never be entirely disjoined from practical gardening. We 
may especially allude, when on this point, to the articles under the names of individual counties, that treat of what is most pro- 
minent either in their excellence or their defects, as respects the agricultural art. These are to be regularly continued, pretty 
nearly in an alphabetical order ; by which, at the close of the whole, the cream, so to speak, will be gathered into a small compass, 
of all that is known in regard to husbandry. It has already been in our power to shew, that not merely the rearing of crops will 
thus be described according to the most advanced practice, but that dairy husbandry, which nearly concerns the prosperity of 
every gardener and every cottager, will be made plain and interesting. To be sure, we have not as yet reached any county where 
the highest grain culture could be explained ; but wait till Berwickshire appear ; and then it will be seen what may be expected 
of the Lothians, Norfolk, Suffolk, &c. 

The earlier numbers of this volume, as we have before mentioned, are full of scientific information regarding the vegetable 
kingdom ; and throughout, the physiology of plants, being one of the most beautiful and instructive branches of study, has largely 
occupied our pages. Science will ever be a principal object in our labours, both as illustrated in original articles and in the works 
selected for review. And one inducement for the introduction of such matter is, that to inquiring minds it opens paths and shews 
lights by which new researches will be set on foot, leading to new discoveries. This is one mighty advantage connected with scien- 
tific studies, that: they do not so much teach how the truth in question has been found out, or what may be its amount and value, 
as by what means and ways further research should be conducted. What can be more mischievous than to induce a feeling that 
nothing more is to be known, and that the wonders already found out are to be an impassable bar to the advancement of 
knowledge ? The region is illimitable which man may explore, and the example furnished by what has been done, should be a 
stimulus to new, bolder, and more brilliant enterprise and conquest. 

We have spoken of our reviews. In these our own remarks are studiously short : persuaded that an author, however defec- 
tive his work as a whole may be, must present choice portions, the result of well-balanced consideration, which are more worthy 
of being introduced than anything we can be supposed to have in our power to state on the topic. We give briefly and fairly an 
opinion of the work ; and then by the course taken, extract the riches of many an expensive, it may be ponderous tome, so as to 
present our readers with the wheat without the chaff, saving them, besides, a trouble that is not unfrequentiy of the most 
irksome kind. 

We now close these prefatory remarks, which, in the fulness of our hope and purpose, seemed to us suitable to the second 
volume of this Magazine. It is only our desire at present further to add, that with increased energy, with enlarged resource*, 
and with better prospects than ever, we enter upon a Third Volume, and a New Year. 





■^7 4 





Disposition of tke Scales iax tke Cones of Firs &■ Rues. 



22 



Zoftxicft. G-Mefi^tTson. l,(?lclB a/lev. 



THE 



MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



1. Chorizema naniim. 

2. Gentiana Caucasea. 

3. Babiana stricta. 

4. Laclienalia rubida. 



5. Melanthium viride. 
Hedysarum roseum. 



7. Cyclamen hederaefolium. 

8. Thea Chinensis. 



CHORIZEMA NANUM. 

Decandria Monogynia, Linn;eus; Leguminosse, JossiEu. 
Calyx tubulosus, 2-labiatus ; labium superius emarginatum : la- 
bium infeiiiis, 3-iidum laciniis acntis. Cor. papilionacea carina 
brevissima. Stylus recurvus. Legumen oblongum polyspermum. 

Chorizem'' nanuni; caule erecto flexuoso, foliis ovalibus obtusis 
spinoso-dentatis. 

Pultenaea nana. Bot. Repot, f. 434. 
A MINUTE shrub, with an upright wavy stem, hardly 
exceeding five or six inches in height. Leaves alter- 
nate, rigid, holly-like, eliptic, blunt, with undulated 
spinous margins. Leaf scales minute ; spines at the 
angles of the stem and the foot-stalk. Flowers pa- 
pilionaceous, distant, in longish flexuose clusters, 
growing upon the axils of the leaves. Pedicels very 
short, mostly recurved. Calyx tubular, two-lipped ; 
upper lip broad, notched ; lower lip shorter than the 
upper, three-toothed: teeth equal, acute. Standard 
large, notched, reflexed, yellow, with a red streaked 
star at the base ; wings as long as the standard, 
very narrow, pendulous, crimson coloured. Keel 
not half the length of the wings, white, with purple 
tips. Stamens ten, distinct; anthers globular, white. 
Seed organ ovate-acuminate, villous; style short, 
recurved; summit abrupt. 

M. Labillardiere, who went on the voyage to the 
south- sea in search of the unfortunate La Perouse, 
has given the first account of this genus in his rela- 
tion of that voyage. To the species which he found 
on the south-west of New Holland, he gave the ap- 
pellation of Chorizema ilicifolium, deriving its speci- 
fic name from the resemblance of its leaves to those 
of holly, and that of the genus, probably, from the 
inconvenience its spinous leaves must occasion to the 
naked-footed dancers of that country. 

VOL. II. NO. X. — JAN. 1834. 



Our plant is evidently not the same species as 
the one that is there described and figured, which is 
larger, and has narrower and more pointed leaves, 
but less, like those of holly. Specimens of both are 
preserved in the Banksian Herbarium; that of C. 
ilicifolium collected on the south-west coast of New 
Holland by Mr. Archibald Menzies, and that of C. 
nanum raised in the Kew garden (where it flowered 
in 1804), from seeds sent from the same by the late 
Mr. Peter Good. 

Propagated by seeds, which it produces with us. 
It requires a soil similar to that used for the cultiva- 
tion of heaths, and merely to be protected from the 
frost. 



GENTIANA CAUCASEA. 
Pentandria Digynia, Linnaeus; Gentianea;, JussiEu. 

Corolla 1-petala. Caps. 2-valvis, 1-locularis ; Receptaculis 2, 

longitudinalibus. 

Gentiana caucasea ; coroUis quinquefidis hypocraterifovmibus, 

i'auce barbatis, foliis ovatis acutis caiile tetragono ascendente; pe- 

dunculis axillaribus calyce longioribus. 

Root biennial, stem square, ascending. Leaves 
opposite, sessile, ovate-acuminate, three-nerved, 
smooth, quite entire. Flower stalks axillary, one- 
flowered, as long as the leaf, solitary; at the extre- 
mity of the main stem there are frequently four 
flowers growing together crosswise, so that the 
flower stalks issue singly from the axil of each 
leaf. Calyx tubular, five-cornered, splitting with 
age, five-toothed: teeth awl-shaped, the length of 
the tube of the corolla. Corolla tubular, saucer- 
shaped, tube longer than the limb, greenish : limb 
violet coloured, four-cleft, segments blunt, throat 
bearded. Stamens five, enclosed; filaments inserted 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



at the base of the tube; anthers white; seed organ 
linear; summits two, divaricate. Capsule nine-pin- 
shaped, clothed with the persistent calyx and co- 
rolla, one-celled. 

Mr. Loddiges raised it from seeds he received 
from Mount Caucasus. It flowers in July, and is 
propagated by seeds only. This is a hardy plant. 



BABIANA STRICTA, VAR. 7. 
Triandria Monogynia, Linn^us; IiideEe, JussiEU. 
Babiana stricta. 

Babiana purpurea. Curtis 119. pag. all. 
Ixia purpurea. Jocq. Ic. Rar. 2. t.286. Coll. 3, 26S. Willd. 

Sp. PI. 1. 198. 
Gladiolus strictus. Vahl. Enum. 2. 118. 
Gladiolus purpureus. Id. I. c. 2. 114. 
Ixia villosa. /3. Mart. Mill. Did. 

This was enumerated by Jacquin and Curtis as a 
distinct species ; but, upon comparing the living 
plants, no mark of specific difference appears, nor 
indeed any difference whatever, except colour and 
scent. It was imported by Messrs, Lee and Ken- 
nedy from the Cape of Good Hope. The specific 
character of Babiana stricta is, — flowers funnel- 
shaped and regular; the segments fiat, and scarcely 
longer than the tube. It is propagated by off-sets 
in sandy heat. 



LACHENALIA RUBIDA, VAR. «, 

Hexandria Monogynia, Linnaeus; Asphodeleae, Jussieh. 
Lachenalia rubida (floribus majoribus) foliis, lanceolatis pervaria 
macularum aspersione ; corolla pedicellis pluries longiore, pendulo- 
natante, trigono-cylindiica, subbilabicata, staminibus liuic sub- 
aqualibus imis tribus deflexo-convergentibus; stylo deflexo ex- 
serto; laciniis intimis subquarta parte longioribus, quarum infiraa 
e suis subbreviore subdiiformi ; extimarum suma suavum longiore, 

triuicato retusa. 
•Lachenalia rubida. Jacg. Ic. Rar. 2. t. 398. Coil. 5. 60. Willd. 

Sp. PI. r. 179. 
(/3.) Lachenalia tigrina. Jacq. I. c. t. 399. Coll. 5. 67. Willd. 

I. c. 180. 
(y.) Lachenalia punctata. Jacq. Let. 397. Col 2 323. Willd.l.c. 
Orchis hyacinthoides foliis caude et floribus maculatis. Buxb. 

bent. Plant. 3. p. 12. t. 20. Olim perpeTam a Linna:o in Mun- 

tissa Alteridi fVeltheiviiceJ capensi pro synonymo adscripta. 

Bulb truncated, oblong-ovate, about the size of a 
pigeon's egg, base umbilicated hollowed ; leaves two 
to four, lanceolate, varying much in the spotting, 
having however the stains always round, sometimes 
very strongly marked and thick set, at others thinly 
sprinkled and faded, sometimes appearing on one 
surface only, at others on both ; stem at first higher 
than the leaves, more or less coloured by close and 
confluent blood-red dots; cluster lax, few — many 
flowered; flower scales small ovate, acuminate, de- 
current, membraneous ; corolla an inch or more in 
length, trigonal-cylindric, subbilabiately patent pen- 
dulous, several times longer than the pedicles, re- 
ceiving a carmine hue from numerous thick-set dots 
of that colour, which are spread over a transpa- 
rently whitish ground; segments distinct quite to 
their base, outer a fourth shorter, appressedly in- 



cumbent on the inner, cuneate oblong, concave, 
thicker; subcalycinate, upper one the longest of the 
three truncately retuse and glandulary thickened at 
the top; inner ones obcuneate-oblong, patulous up- 
wards, convolutely concave downwards, lower one 
rather shorter and somewhat differently shaped; 
stamens fixed to the bottom of the corolla, to which 
they are about equal, compressed filiform, the three 
upper a little the longest, diverging, lower ones de- 
flex, converging, resting on the lowest segment ; 
anthers reddish, oblong-sagittate ; style slender, 
defies protruded considerably beyond the stamens, 
attenuated; summit indistinct when magnified, ap- 
pearing blunted triquetral, and glandularly pubes- 
cent; germen pale, ovate, trisulcate, three-lobed, 
trigonal, lobes pulvinate. 

A native of the Cape of Good Hope ; should be 
kept in the green-house with other bulbs from the 
same country, and planted in a small pot, with a 
mixture of three-fourths peat earth to one of loam ; 
blooms in the autumn. 



MELANTHIUM VIRIDE. 
Hexandria Trigynia, Linnjeus; Melanthacise, Jdssied. 

Bractea; nuUse. Corolla infera, sequalis, ex hexapetalo-partita 
varie patente ad hypocrateritbrmem, unguibus in angulorum 
coalitis, laminis stellatim aut rotatim solutis. Stam. aut immedi- 
ate hypogyna, aut adnata unguibus, aut per tubulum decurrentia. 
Style 3, sligmatosi, rostratim continui, persistenses, raro filiformes, 
decidui. Caps, coriacea, varie pulvinatim trigona. Sera, plurima, 

subglobosa vel-corapresso orbiculata. 
Radix bulbus solidus, ovato-pyraniidatus, hinc basi oblique de- 
pressus, membrana saepius Crustacea vel subputaminea tectus( a 
se ipso quotannis renascens frugifer, dum iile precedentis anni 
(functa modo vice raatricis, cseteroquin stevilescens) totus emar- 
cescit. Folia tria-plurima disticha canaliculata-lanceolata, vel 
angustiora convoluta-concava, rarius subfistulosa, deorsum vagi- 
nantia, conduplicantia. Scapus de subnullo bipedalem usque. 
Inflor. 1-multiflora, vel spicata, vel racemosa-paniculata pedun- 
culis magis minusve decurrenter adnatis, modo subcorymbosa. 
Stigmata parum manifesta ad lentem rimulae oblique dehiscentes. 
Filam. setaceo-subulata Quando laciniae ad infra usque germen 
sint distincta perstat corolla, dum vero coha-rescunt istae, ut quo- 
modocunque dictum cingant organum, per ejusdem incrementum 
tandem dejecitur. Genus Tulipae adeo propinquum ut vix detur 

unde distinguere. 
Melanthium viride foliis caniculato-lanceolatis; caule folioso pani- 
culato-racemoso, peduncuHs unifloris deorsum decurrenter-adna- 
tis ; corolla persistente, cernua, laciniis reflexis juxtura supra genu 
areola colorata cum disco scrobiculatim depresso notatis; stylis 

deciduis, filiforniibus, stamina e.xsuperantibus, divaricatis. 

MelanthiuiTi viride. Linn. Suppl.2l3. Hort. Kerv. 1.4SS. Tliunb. 

Prod. 67. Bot Rep. t. 233. Willd. Sp. PI. 2. 269. 

Ornithoglossum glaucum. Parad. Lond. t. 34. 

Bulb solid, about an inch and a half high, ovate- 
pyramidal, flatted obliquely on one side of the base, 
covered with a somewhat crustaceous membrane 
like that of a tulip root; leaves opposite, alternate, 
radical one close, largest, channelled-lanceolate, far- 
acuminate, recurved; stem leafy, angular, somewhat 
taller than root leaves, branched downwards, up'- 
wards paniculately racemose; peduncles divergent, 
numerous, one-flowered from the axils of the leaves 
(which become gradually smaller), more or less de- 
currently adnate to the stem, recurved, thickening 



THE CONES OP FIRS. 



at their top ; corolla cernuous, hexapetously di- 
vided persistent ; segments green, edged with pur- 
ple-broun, equal, subulate-lanceolate, reflex, con- 
volutely concave, shortly unguiculate, marked just 
above the bend vi-ith a roundish spot, the disk of 
-which is slightly hollowed; filaments exactly hypo- 
gynous, subulate-setiform, one-third shorter than 
segments, divergent, recurved; anthers small, sa- 
gittately ovate, brown; germen obconic-globular, 
rounded-trigonal; styles three, green, filiform, ex- 
tending by half their length beyond the stamens, 
urceolately divergent, not beakedly continuous with 
the germen, deciduous; stigmas inconspicuous, ob- 
liquely slit, hiant, brown. The whole plant scent- 
less. It should be kept in the green-house, and 
treated like other Cape bulbs. 



HEDYSARUM ROSEUM. 

Diadelphia Decandria, Linn^us; Leguminosce, JussiEU. 

Calyx 5-fidus ; Corolla carini transverse obtusA. Seg. articulia 

1-spermis compressis. 

Hedysarum roseutn ; caulescens, assurgens, foliis pinnatis sep- 

teivjugis; foliolis ellipticis, raceniis capitatis axillaribus pedun- 

culatis, vexillo striato emarginato carina longiore. 

This plant was drawn from a specimen raised by 
Mr. Loddiges, from Mount Caucasus. It is pro- 
bably biennial, as some of the plants, but not all, 
flowered the same year they were drawn. 



CYCLAMEN HEDERJEFOLIUM. 

Petandria Monogynia, LinNjEUS; Primulacea;, JossiEU. 
Corolla rotata, reflexa, tube brevissimo ; fauce prominente. Bacca 

tecta capsula. 
Cyclamen hederaefolium ; foliis cordatis angulatio denticulatis. 

Hort. Keio. \.p. 1%. mtld. Sp. PL 810. 
Cyclamen Europseum. Mill. Diet. 1. 
Cyclamen folio hederae et vernum. Lob. Icon. 605. 
Cyclamen romanum foliis hederse, flora carneo et flore purpureo. 

Swert. Florileg. I. 49. 
Cyclarainus orbicularis. Dod. Pempt 337. 
Cyclaminus vernotempore florens. Chis. Pan. 234- Uist. 265. 
Cyclamen hederajfolium. Bauh. Pin. 303. Ger. emac. 844. T.f.h. 

Rait Hist. 120fi. 
Cyclamen vernum flore purpureo. Park. Parad. 195. t. 197. f. 1. 

The ivy-leaved Cyclamen is said to be a native of 
Italy ; is a very valuable plant, on account of its 
early flowering, sweet scent, and beautiful foliage. 
It is not so hardy as C. Europseum, but can be cul- 
tivated in the open grovmd. May be propagated 
by cuttings of the root. It was cultivated by 
Gerard in 1596. 



THEA CHINENSIS, VAR. /S. 
Monodelphia Polyandria, Linn^os; Camelliese, Jussied. 

Calyx 5 — 6 partitus; corolla 5 — g. petula. Styli 3 coaliti. Caps. 

3-locularis. Sem. solitaria. 
Thea Chinensis ; floribus subhexapetalis axillaribus subsolitariis 

erectis, frnctibus nutantibus. 
a Thea viridis. Sp. PI. 7S5. Willd. 2. USO. Jteich. 2. 5S9. 

Hill. Exot. t. 22 GaiTt. Fruct. 2. p 83. t. 95. Letts. Monog. 

t. 1. n'oodv. Med. Bott. Suppl. 116, t. 256. 
Thea bohea b. stricta. Hort. Kew. vol. 2. p. 230? 
Thea sinensis. Blackw- t. 351. 
B. Thea bohea; Linn. Sp. PI. 734. Hort. Cliff. 204. Amcen. 

Acad.l.p.Ti'd t.i. Hill. Exot. t. 22. Blackw. t. S52. Thunb. 

Jap. 225. Willd. 2. 1180. Hort. Kew. v. 2 p. 230. var. a laxa. 

Mart. Mill. Diet. Lettsom. Man. ed. 2 p. 41. Ic. 
Thea cantoniensis Tnur. Cochin. 339. 
Thee. Kcempf. Amcen. 605, t 606. 
Theefrutex. 'Bartk.Acti.p. l.t.l. Bont.Jav.ST.t.SS. Barrel. 

Rar. 123. <. 904. 
Thee Sinensium. Breyn. Cent. Ill /. m pag. HI. Ic. 17. 2. 3. 

Boc. Mus. 114. i. 94. Rail Hist. 619. 
Chaa bauh. Pin. 147. Bauh. Hist. 3. I. 27. c. 1. p. 5. 
Euonymo affinis arbor orientalis nucifera, flore roseo, Pluk.Phyt. 

t.as. 

Camellia bohea. Ker. 

It is now nearly ascertained that all the different 
sorts of tea, prepared in China, are the produce of 
the same species ; and that the colour, form, and 
qualities, depend chiefly upon the climate, soil, age, 
modes of preparation, and various manipulations 
that the leaves are subjected to. The bohea variety 
appears, however, to be more tender than the green, 
and will not endure the severity of our winters, 
which the latter bears with impunity. 

According to Mr. Ker, Thea and Camellia cannot 
be kept apart, but must be united into one genus. 
The imbricated calyx of the latter may be thought 
to keep them distinct, though the former has like- 
wise a few scales at the base, which soon fall off. 
Most certainly, however, even in the Linneean sys- 
tem, Camellia and Thea ought not to have been 
placed in different classes, for the filaments and 
petals of the tea all coalesce at the base, and always 
fall off united in one piece, though, if examined 
when the flower first expands, the filaments will be 
seen firmly attached to the receptacle. 

The variety here figured, according to Loureira, 
grows in the province of Fo-kien, in China ; and 
occurs also, both indigenous and cultivated, in the 
province of Canton. 

It flowers with us in the autumn, and when 
planted in the open ground not at all, except in the 
most favourable seasons. It may be propagated by 
cuttings. 



ON THE DISPOSITION OF THE SCALES IN THE CONES OF FIRS.* 

BY A. BRAUN. 
See Plate 22. 



In 1829, Dr. C. Schimper explained to the Society 
of German Naturalists, assembled at Heidelberg, 
the notions he then had of the laws which reeulate 



the relative position of leaves. This gave M. Braun 
the idea of studying in detail the cones of the pines 
and firs, by which he expected to throw some li^ht 



• Nova Acta Phys Med. Acad. Caes. Leopold. Nat. Curios. Bonn. Tom. xv. p. 197. 



B 2 



4 



THE CONES OF FIRS. 



on tlii; disposition of the foliaceous organs in gene- 
ral. We will follow the author in the development 
of this idea. 

The scales of fruits in the Coniferae are, in fact, 
only leaves accompanying the pistil, that do not, 
like the floral envelopes of other plants, form a 
complete cavity surrounding on all sides the sexual 
organs, but which offers a slightly concave surface 
that protects them only on one side. This being 
n-ranted, if we consider attentively the cone of a 
pine (Pinus picea), or a fir (P. abies), we first ob- 
serve whether the scales are disposed in spirals or 
whirls. On breaking a cone of the P. picea (pi. 22, 
ficr. 4,) in the middle, three scales will be seen, 
which at first appear on the same plan, but on a 
more attentive examination it will be perceived, 
that the depth of their insertion are really different, 
and also that they are placed at unequal distances; 
so that tliey must not be considered as forming a 
whirl, but rather as making a part of a very close 
spiral. On examining the external surface of the 
entire cone, it will be found that the shells are dis- 
posed in oblique lines, which may be considered, 
first, with reward to their composition, or the num- 
ber of shells necessary to form a complete spire ; 
second, their inclination, or the angle more or less 
open or obtuse which they form with their axis ; 
third, of their total number, and their arrangement 
round the common axis, which constitutes their co- 
ordination. Lastly, we should endeavour to disco- 
ver whether the spires turn from the right to the 
left, or from the left to the right. 

The inclination of the spires on their axis is of 
little importance ; it varies according to the length 
and the age of the fruit. The question as to whe- 
ther the spires turn from left to right or from right 
to left is equally unimportant. Nevertheless, in 
order to avoid confusion, it must be remarked, that 
the spectator ought to consider himself as forming 
the axis of the spire, so that his left hand is changed 
to the right, and vice versa, exactly as if he beheld 
himself in a glass. 

If we consider attentively the spiral lines formed 
by the scales of the P. abies (pi. 22, fig. 1), we shall 
at first see that the most prominent turn from left 
to right, and that they are of the number of five 
parallels between them. The first of these spirals 
is denoted by ciphers 1, 6, 11, 16,. . . .-IG, 51,56, 

61, 66, 96, 101, lOG, 111, 116, &c. ; the second 

4, 9, 14, 19, 24, 54, 59, 64, 69,74,79, 109, 

114, &c. 

After some researches, we shall find a second 
kind of spirals turning the contrary way, and de- 
noted by the ciphers 1, 9, 17, 25, 33, &c. ; this 
spiral has eight parallels. All the kinds of spires, 
however, are not yet exhausted; they become less 
evident, because the scales which constitute them 
are more distant, but they may still be traced by an 
effort of attention, and it will be remarked that they 



becc.\e more and more vertical. Thus it will 
quickly be discovered that parallel spires still exist 
(fig. 1), one of which answers to the numbers I, 14, 
27, 40, &c., which are to the number 13 ; and, finally, 
we shall arrive at a last series of scales which is 
only a straight line entirely vertical. One of these 
vertical lines is denoted by the ciphers 1, 22, 43, 64, 
85, 106. These lines are of the number 21, and 
they are named ranks (^Zeilen) in opposition to the 
true spires (Wendeln). 

We here make a remark entirely incidental, which 
will be found applicable hereafter. Ifwe place in 
succession the numbers 

21, 13,8,5, 
which expresses the number of parallel spirals of 
each kind, we shall see that each of these numbers 
is the difference of the two that precede it, or the 
sum of the two that follow it. Thus 8zi21, — 13, 
and 13=8 + 5. Not being able to continue the se- 
ries beyond 21, which expresses the parallel vertical 
ranks, evidently the most numerous, let us continue 
it in another sense, by subtracting each number from 
that which precedes it : 

21, 13, 8, 5, 3,2, 1, 1,0. 

Neither of the spires which vpe have hitherto found 
is the true one, the generative spire, since each 
(abstracting its parallels) comprehends only the 5th, 
the 8th, or the 13th part of the total number of the 
scales ; but with patience we shall at length find 
spires which have only three parallels (fig. 1.) 1, 
4. . . ., 16, 19, 22, 25, &c., others which have only 

2: 1,3 ,9,11, 17, 19,..., &c. The figure 

2 represents all those spires denoted by different 
colours. The ranks (Zeikn) to 21 parallels are 
marked by the black lines, those to 13 by black dots, 
those to 8 in blue, those to 5 in red, those to 3 in 
yellow. 

By the method of exclusion, we shall at length 
arrive at a single spire without parallel. We con- 
firm this result by marking all the scales which we 
rank according to this spire, with a particular sign, 
and recollecting that to the last all the scales of the 
cone are marked with the sign which we have 
adopted. The spire found is then the fundamental 
or generative spire ; all the others previously ex- 
amined are only false appearances, fictitious series, 
a secondary result of the primitive disposition of the 
scales ; this is demonstrated by the figures 3 and 4, 
where the ciphers indicate the order of succession 
of the bracteas. 

Let us now count the number of scales which form 
this fundamental spire, or, in other terms, let us 
ascertain after how many scales we meet with one 
placed vertically over the first ; so that we may con- 
sider the round of the spire as commencing again. 
We shall find that it is the 22d leaf (fig. 3.) which 
corresponds with the first, and that the spire is con- 
sequently composed of 21 scales. We shall, more- 



THE CONES OF FIRS. 



over, observe, that it is after eight turns that the 
22d leaf is found placed above the first ; conse- 
quently, when we would give an idea of a position 
of leaves, it is not sufBcient to say that the 22d is 
found beneath the first ; we must add after how 
many turns this coincidence occurs. If we now 

place (fig. 4.) the ciphers 1, 2, 3, 4 , 21 at the 

extremity of the rays which traverse the summit 
and the base of the scales to indicate their order of 
succession, each of these ciphers will not be placed 
on a ray contiguous to the ray of the following 
cipher, but, on the contrary, it will be separated by 
7 intermediate rays from the cipher that imme- 
diately succeeds it. We explain this by saying that 
the divergence is marked by the number 8 ; and the 
spire will be noted by means of the fraction ^V; 'he 
numerator indicating the number of turns on the di- 
vergence, the denominator that of the scales. In 
representing on a plan (fig. S.) the projection of a 
cone, in such a manner that its axis reduced to 
may be the centre, we may indicate, with different 
colours, the different spires according to which the 
bracteas are disposed, and we shall clearly see that 
the generative spire expressed by the fraction -jV is 
the only one that comprehends all the scales of the 
cone. We may also conceive that amongst these 
diverse spires will exist arithmetical relations, which 
will express the various combinations of a certain 
number of elements disposed in a regular manner. 
Thus we shall find that a spire which has 5 parallels 
will always pass by the 5th leaf, the leaves being 
numbered according to the fundamental spire, that 
is to say, it will pass by the ciphers 1, 6, 11, 16, 21, 
26, 31, &c., or 5, 10, 15, 20, &c. ; tlie series to three 
parallels will pass by the numbers 1, 4, 7, 10, &c. 
With the aid of this table, it is easy to enumerate 
the bracteas of a cone. Beginning from a scale 
taken at random, we mark a spire to S parallels ; for 
example, the ciphers 1, 9, 17, 25, &e., of which the 
difference is always S. Commencing from the same 
bractea, we describe one of the spires to 13 parallels 
by 1, 14, 27, 40, &c. ; that to 5 parallels by the 
ciphers 1, 6, 11, 16, &c. We may then with these 
three kinds of spires, by additions and subtractions, 
proceeding by S, by 13, and by 5, mark all the scales 
of the cone ; the sjsirals to 2 and 3 parallels are not 
sufficiently evident to be used without fear of error. 
When the whole cone is enumerated, the series of 
ciphers 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. permits us to follow that of 
the scales in the generative spire which before was 
not visible. 

When we have denoted by -jV the divergence of 
the leaves in the fundamental spire, we have not 
satisfied ourselves on the divergence of the spirals 
deducted from the generative spire. But if the di- 
vergence in the latter (fig. 4.) is ,V between the first 
and the second scale, it will be ^-f between the first 
and the third, moving from right to left like the ge- 
nerative spire ; but on turning the contrary way, its 



divergence will be only ,V« Oi^. the spiral that con- 
tains the bracteas 1, 3, 5, &c, is that of two parallels : 
its divergence then will be /^. At the same time, 
we observe that this spire turns contrary to the 
generative spire, since in that direction we find the 
least divergence. The fourth leaf of the funda- 
mental spire will again fall beyond the first; or, the 
spiral which goes successively from the first to the 
fourth, and to the seventh bractea, is the spire of 
three parallels ; its smallest divergence will be iV) 
and the spire will turn in the same direction with the 
fundamental. These arguments apply to all the 
other spirals, and we can establish the series 

13 8 5 3 2 1 1 
21' ^l' Fl' 21' 21' 21' 21' 21* 

Since /, expresses the divergence of a spiral going 
in a contrary direction to /y, it follows that i^ will 
also be contrary to the generative, while -^V, ttj iti 
will be in the same direction. We also see that in 
order to find the divergence of any line whatever, 
or, in other terms, the expression of that spiral itself, 
it is sufficient to subtract each numerator from that 
which precedes it. 

M. Braun afterwards investigated the height whieh 
separates the first scale of a spire from the last ; 
wliich is termed the distance. It will be easily con- 
ceived that the question respects only the relative 
distance or the number of scales interposed, for the 
absolute distance will vary not only with each cone, 
but also according to the age of each fruit taken 
singly. It is evident that the generative spire ^\, 
which takes in all the scales, is that which moves 
the most horizontally. We will therefore express 
the distance in height, which separates the two scales 
numbered 1 and 22, by the expression :5^V> 'he spire 
of tvs'o parallels by jV, in such a manner as we shall 
find for the vertical series which rise parallel to the 
length of the cone, or where the divergence is 0, 
1} which agrees with the experiment, since they are 
composed of 21 scales, and the last separated from 
the first by the same number. 

If then we take the series of divergences, and 
place beneath them that of the distances, we shall 
have the two series contrary. 

.2113 85 32 11 

21' 21' 21' 21' 21' n' 21' 2l' 21' 
„ 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 

2"l' 21' 2*1' 21' 21' 2"T' 2T' 21' 21* 

The numerator of each fraction of the series A, 
will show us the number of turns in each spire, and 
that of the corresponding fraction in B, the number 
of parallel spires of each order. Thus the spire 2^4- 
accomplished its revolution in 5 turns, but it has but 
one parallel, or, in other words, there are but two 
spires of this order in the whole cone, as indicated 
by the fraction ^\ placed beneath. The common 
denominator marks the number of elements which 
compose each of these spires. Second inference : 



THE CONES OF FIKS. 



the expression ^V denotes in the series of distances 
B the generative spire, and we see that, being twice 
found, it corresponds in that of the divergences to 
the two fractions ^-f and ^\, which is explained by 

putting -J-, — ) the sign V indicating that the two 

spires correspond to the same generative, but that 
one goes from right to left, and the other from left 
to right. 

The whole question then of the spires is reduced 
to the knowledge of the divergence and of the num- 
ber of scales forming the generative spire, since, 
these two being ascertained, we may easily conclude 
on the number of the turns and the distance in height 
of all the others. 

The determination of the inclination of the spires 
is still inferred from the relation found between the 
divergences and the distances ; it is equal to the 
divergence divided by the distance, and gives the fol- 
lowing series of quotients : 

"> TT> ■B'J T> ■'l 2> °> '^•-'o- 

And we obtain two series, one descending to 0, 
which is the case of the horizontality, the other as- 
cending to infinity, which explains the vertical posi- 
tion. 

It was not until after long trials that the author 
succeeded in finding the condition indispensable to 
the determination of a spire, that is, the divergence 
of the elements which constitute it. We must pur- 
sue a more expeditious method in order to discover 
it in a plant or a cone. In the Isatis tinctoria, it is 
not difficult ; the generative spire, like the cones of 
the Firs, is expressed by ^\, and it is at the same 
time tiie most apparent. But it is not always so, 
more frequently the fundamental spire is the least 
striking of all. If we had the divergences of two 
kinds of spires expressed by the fractions which fol- 
low each other in the series A, it would be easy, by 
subtracting them from each other, to obtain the com- 
plete series ; but it often happens, as in the invo- 
lucres of the Cinara and the Corymbeferae, that 
the cone is not terminated, and the turns of the 
spires, which recur only at a great distance in height, 
remain incomplete, because the axis is too short. 
Nevertheless, we can always determine the number 
of the parallels of two or several spirals. Let us 
suppose that, in the case of one cone, we have found 
that it had spirals of 5 parallels, others of 8 : we 
should have established by addition and subtraction 
the following series : 

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5,8, 13, 21, 34, 55 

On one hand, the series has no limits vmtil we have 
found the number of the vertical ranks (21 in the 
cone of the fir) ; but it is often difficult to recognize 
these lines. We must therefore seek by another 
process; this process will consist in counting the 
number of spirals, including the perpendicular series 
{Zeilen), which approach nearer to the vertical than 
those which we have noted. Having found the spires 



5 and 8, there are still two which are less inclined, 
one 5 +8 = 13, the other 13 + 8=21, the last num- 
ber that explains the vertical ranks ; the series 
ought therefore to stop at 21. We have seen that 
the numerator of the fraction of the distances marked 
the number of the spires of each order in a given 
cone ; we have also seen that the series of distances 
is that of the divergences reversed (series A and B), 
and the common denominator, the number express- 
ing that of the vertical ranges. These two series 
being established, the generative spire will be that 
where the fraction of the distances will have 1 for 
its numerator, since that spire is always singular. 
The corresponding fraction in the series A will give 
the divergence of this same spire. 

Having established the means of determining the 
secondary and generative spires on a cone, we 
must now enquire whether the expression ^V found 
on some cones of pines is invariable if there are va- 
riations; and, lastly, if, amidst these variations, we 
can seize any fixed law. 

There exist two varieties of spires. At first sight 
it often happens, that after the spires to 5 and 13 
parallels, instead of finding the vertical rank (21) 
which terminate the series, we still find 13 + 21 =:34, 
and 21 + 34=55, which express the number of the 
parallel ranks, and if we establish the two series of 
the divergences and the distances, we shall have : 
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55. 
55, 34, 21. 13, 8. 5, 3, 2, 1, 1, 0. 
55 
This gives ^ Vt ' for the expression of the genera- 
tive spire, and experience proves, that in these 
cones the twenty-second leaf is not found placed 
vertically over the first, but the fifty-fifth. A slight 
twist of the axis is sufficient to produce this result, 
but it is not purely accidental ; the effect of growth 
for example, as it is found in very young cones. 
All this does not weaken the general law. In fact, 
these irregular cones are only regularly twisted, so 
to speak, on themselves and in which the last cipher 
of the series expressing that of the vertical ranks is 
greater; but such a cone contains not less, as a ge- 
nerative element, than that of the regular cone. 

The regular generative spires of the cones of all 
the species of pines, analyzed by M. Braun, give 
the following series: 

1 1 2 3 .5 8 13 21 34 55 

T' "2' 3"' 5' 8' lli' 2"!' si' Sb' 89' 144' 

The following has regard to the species, with 
their fundamental regular spire. 

l-j- Pinas pinaster. -j^J P. sylvestris, P. •pumU'io, 
P.montana. P.resinosa, P.halepensis. i\ P.picea, 
P. cemhra, P. larix, P. jiendula. -^-3- P. strobus, P. 
canadc sis. f on a single cone of P. canadensis. I P. 
microcarpa. The divergences J, | and also -J, vvhich 
denote a rank of bracteas placed one over the other, 
are not met with in the cones of the pines. 

It would now be interesting to investigate if a 



M. BIOT ON THE SAP OP PLANTS. 



common tie re-unites these different series of brac- 
teas, whether they can all be traced to a common 
origin. The number of turns, that of the scales of 
each spire, the angles of divergence give nothing 
with certainty. 

It is not under one particular point of view, but 
the whole of the elements, considered collectively, 
that we find fixed and invariable relations. Thus, 
in the preceding series, each fraction is the sum of 
the fractions that precede it, which gives a certain 
proportion between the number of turns in a spire, 
and that of the scales which constitute it. Example : 
1+ J=:|. ; therefore each fraction is a proportionate 
arithmetical medium between the two fractions 
which precede it, and we establish the following 
equation : 

5 3+2 2+2+1 

13^ 8 + 5^5 + 5 + 3 
That is to say, one spire is equivalent to the reunion 
of several others, whose sum is equal to the fraction 
which represents it. This the author proves by the 
figures. 

M. Braun infers from the series which we have 
established, a number of other conclusions which 
are only results of calculations, translated in vulgar 
language. We have reported enough to give an 
idea of his manner of proceeding, which in his de- 
ductions are entirely mathematical, verifying never- 
theless the justness of his calculations on nature. 



Does any relation whatever exist between the dis- 
position of the bracteas of a cone and that of the 
leaves on the branches of the same species of pine? 
Experiment proves that there does. Thus, on the 
P. abies and P. picea, the buds containing the clus- 
ters of leaves are disposed like the scales of the cone 
according to the series if, sometimes j-f, and, finally, 
sometimes, but very rarely, fi. P. Canadensis tt, 
also the P. sylvestris, P. Larix, P, Eiiropsa W; ex- 
pressions which are often identified with those which 
we have found for the cones of these different species. 
The examination of a catkins in the Amenlacece, 
and particularly in the section of the Beiitlinece, 
gives results analogous to those which we have ob- 
tained from the coniferous. The Betula alba and 
B , piibescens give ^V and ^^. The B.fruticosa ge- 
nerally TT- The Alnus glutinosa and A. incana .^-y, 
rarely t^. The small catkins of Coryliis often exhi- 
bit anomalies. The regular spire of the C. avellana 
is 2T-) that of the C. Americana and C. tubulosa ^\. 
The male flowers of the Quercus rohur, of the Popn- 
lus Nigra and P, tremula, are placed according to 
the divergence §. The male catkin of the Carpinus 
bettdus are disposed J. The leaves are ranked ac- 
cording to the more simple spires: | in the genus 
Fagus, Castanea, Carpinus, Corylus; § and f in the 
leaves of the willows fSalix cinerea, S. caprcea, S. 
fragilisj, and the poplars (Populus Ilalica, P. tre- 
mula J ; I- in the oaks. 



M. BIOT ON THE SAP OF PLANTS. 



In all my experiments the motion of the sap appears 
to me to proceed from the eminently hygroscopic 
quality of the vegetable tissue. The sap received 
at the roots evaporates by the leaves, whilst between 
these points the vegetable tissue acts precisely as a 
cylinder composed of animal charcoal, covered with 
an impenetrable envelope, and witli its lower part 
immersed in liquid. The column is thus supplied 
with all the liquid that it can contain ; the vegetable 
tissue becomes itself in the state of saturation that 
suits its mass under the existing temperature. This 
kind of equilibrium being established, should any 
cause — a sudden change of temperature for in- 
stance — increase the evaporation at the extremity 
of the branches, these will act by suction, draw 
more from the roots, and the equilibrium is still pre- 
served. Should, however, the roots come to furnish 
more, and the leaves evaporate less, then will ensue 
turgescence in the vegetable tissue ; and if a hole be 
made, the sap or liquid will overflow. 1 his is pre- 
cisely what is observed in the birch tree in spring, 
when its sap begins to rise, and before its leaves 
have come forth or are able to perform their task of 
evaporation. 

As another trait of resemblance, it may be re- 
marked, that the lateral action of heat on an hygro- 



scopic column, such as we have represented the 
vegetable tissue to be, would have the effect of 
rendering it capable of less saturation, and conse- 
quently, would oblige it to throw out a part of the 
liquid it contains, 'i'his is the effect which the sun 
produces upon the birch, and upon other trees, 
whose sap runs out at this peinod. When the leaves 
come, these phenomena cease ; the task of evapora- 
tion is performed, and the sap bursts neither from 
the bark, nor through an orifice, if made. 

Now, suppose we replace the impermeable or air- 
tight envelope by one, on the contrary, capable of 
absorption from within, and exhalation without, the 
state of things will be changed. The issue of the 
sap or liquid by the sides of the envelope, will be 
more frequent and facile. The diminution of the 
exhaling power by a sudden cold will favour it, and 
the sap will burst forth at once from all the pores of 
the tree equally, taking into account merely the 
different degrees of thickness in the bark. Such is 
an account of the emission of sap by the sides of the 
nut-tree and sycamore in spring. 

The influence of the leaves on the internal motions 
of the sap in trees being thus explained, let us ob- 
serve what will be the consequence if these leaves, or 
great evaporating organs, be enveloped with a colder 



8 



ON IVY. 



atmosphere. The sap conveyed to them being no 
longer evaporated, will rest and collect on their sur- 
face, and check all evaporation, especially at night. 
The upper parts of the vegetable tissue, or hygrosco- 
pic column, being thus overcharged, will let fall their 
superabundance upon the parts that are lower, which 
will produce a descent of the sap. Hence proceed 
the alternative ascent and descent of sap, such as 
have been noticed. Moreover, these effects will 
become continuous, if the evaporating property of 
the leaves should diminish before the supplying 
power of the roots ceases to throw up the sap; and 
this is precisely the case in September : the same 
trees that afforded me, but their ascending sap in 
the spring, in September afforded a continual sweat. 
The latter was no longer the same as the spring sap, 
for it contained no saccharine principle. 



M. Biot concludes, from his experiments, that the 
alimentation of the foliaceous organs is accomplished 
principally during the day ; whilst the alimentation 
of roots, and the formation of new layers of them, 
is effected during the night, when the diminution of 
evaporating power in the leaves precipitates the 
sap in a descending course towards the roots. 

That in deciduous trees, the annual increase of the 
trunk and branches taking place in summer, the in- 
crease of the roots takes place in winter. The 
ascending motion is thus suspended by the cold, and 
the absence of leaves allows the sap to accumulate 
in the roots, which experience little of the atmo- 
spheric variations, and which, in the first warmth of 
spring, send up their accumulated juices with force, 
through the uppermost parts of the tree. 



ON IVY. 



BY CHARLES A 

Thot3gh I am of opinion that the useful and enter- 
taining publication edited by you is neither perhaps 
so well calculated, or at all intended for the admis- 
sion of communications from occasional correspon- 
dents altogether unacquainted with the subjects of 
which it treats in a scientific view, yet as it strikes 
me that you may introduce into some of your own 
judicious observations or lucubrations a hint, either 
generally or particularly beneficial to society, I take 
the liberty of putting you in possession of the fol- 
lowing observations and suggestions, which I some 
time since made, and of which I was again reminded 
by reading in your fourth number Dr. Johnston's 
remarks on Ivy. 

It appears, at least in this country, to be a very 
generally received opinion, or rather let me call it 
prejudice, and one neither, as I think, supported by 
experience nor judicious and right reasoning, obser- 
vation of the laws of nature, and analogous results 
under similar circumstances, that permitting ivy ex- 
ternally to cover the walls of houses, occasions an 
internal damp, and is therefore injudicious and inju- 
rious ; whereas I am persuaded, both by experience 
and observation, that the very contrary is the fact, 
and that if it could be as promptly applied and made 
available, it would be a far more effectual preventive 
against damp walls than weather-slating, or any other 
at present in use. 

I was some time in the last summer, vvith a num- 
ber of others, inspecting the repairs of a public 
building in this town, from the western gable of 
which (by the way, the part most exposed in our 
climate to rain and storm) a complete covering of 
ivy, of several years' growth, had been unnecessarily 
just cut and torn down, when I observed that this 
was a most unwise and uncalled for proceeding. At 



BREW, ESQ.* 

my opinion respecting it, the gentlemen present ex- 
pressed surprise, saying that it must occasion internal 
damp ; all, with the exception of one, who agreeing 
in opinion with me, said, that the driest part of his 
house was that which was many years covered with 
ivy, and that it was evident this must be the case, as 
the inside part of the ivy by the wall was covered 
with cobwebs, and just as dry in the wettest weather 
as the back of a stove ; which, as I then and fre- 
quently before observed, was a natural consequence 
easily accounted for, from the self-evident facts, that 
the ivy-leaves, hanging one over another from the 
ground to its highest point of ascent, not only pre- 
vents the rain beating against the wall, but carries 
away the drip from it, and that the small clasping 
fibres which the ivy shoots into the crevices of the 
wall to support its ascent, acting like so many roots 
thirsting for the nourishment of moisture, must draw 
away any occasional damp which the walls might be 
naturally supposed to imbibe or attract from the 
earth or the atmosphere. 

In addition to the foregoing observations, I shall 
merely say, that the wall of the room in which 
I sleep, which is exposed to the north-west, and was 
some years since exceedingly damp, being neither 
externally plastered, rough-cast, nor weather-slated, 
is for the few last years, since nature has clothed it 
in a delightful evergreen covering coat of ivy, per- 
fectly dry : nay, even the glass and frame of the 
upper window-sash, which I suffered the ivy to 
cover for a year or two, I found, on removing it in 
the last summer, covered with dry dust and cob- 
webs, and without the smallest appearance of having 
ever been wet through their verdant cloak. 

Ennls, Oct. 22, 1833. 



Other communications from our intelligent Correspondent would be acceptable.— Editor. 



SCIENCE OF GARDENING. 



9 



THE EDITOR ON THE SCIENCE OF GARDENING.* 



The Hand Book of Gardening, formerly announced, 
is now published, and we think our readers may be 
pleased to see how one branch of the subject has 
been treated, namely, the Science of Gardening ; a 
department which has hitherto been sadly neglected, 
both in large and small works, and was certainly 
never before brout^ht at so small a charge within 
the means of purchase of the labouring classes, and 
never before brought so level to the comprehension 
of all. This is saying a great deal ; but not, we 
believe, an iota beyond the facts, as our readers 
may judge for themselves from the following ample 
specimen upon the Science of Gardening, which it 
may be remarked, begins at the beginning by ex- 
amining the organs tlirough which plants are nou- 
rished with appropriate food, as indispensable to 
their life as to the lives of animals. These feeding 
organs are in the Hand Book denominated 

" MOUTHS OF GARDEN PLANTS. 

" Unlike the mouths of animals, which are placed 
on the upper part of the body, the mouths of plants 
are placed at the lower part — in the root ; though 
not in the body, nor the crown of the root, but at 
the very tips of the root fibres. 

" At the tip of every root fibre, there is a little 
mouth, or rather a spongy sucker ; and though we 
cannot discover any opening there, we can always 
prove that water and other fluids are sucked up by 
these root tips, which are called spongelets, in the 
same way perhaps as ink is sucked up by a bit of 
bloating paper. 

" The largest spongelets I ever saw were in the 
root tips of a willow which had shot into a pond at 
Woolwich. They are also large in evergreens, in 
gooseberry trees, and in heaths. In the turnip they 
are to be sought for only in the small fibres at the 
tail ; and care must be taken not to confound the 
tips of the claspers in ivy with the spongelets, which 
are always under-ground, and never on the bark of 
trees, as is ignorantly supposed. Ivy therefore does 
not, as is supposed, injure trees by feeding on them. 

" The openings or pores of the spongelets are so 
very small that they will admit no liquid thicker 
than water, and no solid substance however fine. 

" It will be obvious from this that all manure 
must be not only rendered liquid, but also be as thin 
as water before it can be sucked up by the sponge- 
lets ; and hence even the drainings of stables and 
dunghills, which are very rich in nourishment for 



plants, are too rich, that is, too thick, to pass th^ 
small openings till they be largely mixed with water, 
without which they will choke the crops instead of 
feeding them. When the leaves become yellow from 
this cause, they are ignorantly said to be burnt by 
the heat of the manure. In the same way, the finest 
soot, or the finest powdered lime, bones, or shells, 
cannot, till dissolved in water, get tlirough the 
spongelets into any plant. 

" It is on this account, that in transplanting, the 
tips of the root fibres are pressed and obstructed by 
the earth of their new situation, and are therefore 
unable to feed till they can place themselves in simi- 
lar freedom in the earth as they had before trans- 
planting. When they are bent or obstructed in this 
way, their growth is also prevented, and new fibres 
spring from other parts of the root, out of the ma- 
terials which would otherwise have enlarged the 
old fibres, 

" Plants thus acquire a greater number of mouths, 
the oftener they are transplanted, a circumstance 
usually acted on by nurserymen, who shift their 
young trees and other plants for the purpose of 
multiplying their root fibres, and consequently of 
strengthening the plants, by giving them a greater 
facility of feeding. This is also important in cul- 
tivating cabbages and greens. 

" Every removal, however, must tend to obstruct 
or injure the root tips, and of course check growth 
by preventing them from feeding. But by lifting 
plants with balls of earth so as not to disturb the 
root fibres, or by taking great care not to injure 
these, and at the same time spreading them carefully 
out by hand in their new situation, Sir Henry 
Steuart, Bart., of Allanton, has introduced the novel 
and successful practice, founded on science, of 
transplanting even the largest trees. 

" THE SORTS OF FOOD TAKEN BY GARDEN PLANTS. 

" The tips of the root fibres, where the mouths 
of plants are situated, cannot travel artjout like ani- 
mals in search of food, and being fixed to one spot, 
can only take such food as they find there. 

" The indispensable ingredient in all plant-food is 
water, to dissolve the other ingredients, and enable 
them to pass into the root tips in the same way as 
the fluid in an animal's mouth is indispensable to 
mix with solid food when chewed for rendering it 
easy to swallow. But water alone will not nourish 
any plant well, as has been erroneously asserted. 



* The Hand Book of Gardening, in Principle and Practice, for the Use of Schools and Self-Instruction. Written at the request o^ 
J. S. Menteath, Esq., Close Burn Hall, Dumlriesshire. ISnio. Orr & Smith, London, 1S34. 

VOL. II. NO. X. — JAN. 1834. C 



10 



SCIENCE OF GARDENING. 



" Another indispensable ingredient in plant food 
is air — tlie common air, which when mixed with 
water, as it always more or less is, gives it that 
agreeable brisk taste tliat boiling destroys by driving 
off the air. 

*' It is on tliis account that the watering of a gar- 
den in dry weather by throwing over it buckets of 
water from a pump, as I have sometimes seen my 
neighbours in Kent do, is of far less use than if the 
pump-water was thrown through the fine rose of a 
watering-pot, so that each drop might mix with and 
carry down a portion of air. Rain, again, which falls 
from a considerable height, must carry down a great 
deal of air, and hence it is found to fertilize more 
than any sort of watering by hand. 

" When the water supplied to plants has its mo- 
tion stopped by any means, such as by a stiff clay 
soil on a dead level, it becomes unwholesome food 
for plants, chiefly from not having an opportunity to 
mix with air, which it can only do by moving or cir- 
culating freely. 

" Soils, where water does not circulate freely, are 
popularly termed cold and sour, though their chief 
defect is the want of a due supply of air. The water 
of such soils, indeed, tastes vapid, somewhat like 
water deprived of air by boiling. Too much water 
in a soil is certainly injurious; but even a rather wet 
soil will be greatly benefited if all its water be kept 
in free circulation by judicious draining, levelling, 
and sloping; or, in the case of stiff clays, by ma- 
nuring with coal ashes and the like, to open the 
texture of the soil. 

" Besides common air, the water or moisture in 
garden soils, is always more or less mixed with a 
substance termed by chemists humic acid, or humin, 
which is the chief nutritive ingredient in dung, stable 
drainings, rotted leaves, peat, turf, and dark coloured 
loam. Humic acid, however, when pure, will not 
mix with water, and plants cannot, of course, feed 
upon it till it be so mixed and thinned down, This 
is effected by combining humic acid with lime, 
potass, or ammonia, when it readily dissolves in 
water. 

" The utility of lime, in one point of view, may be 
thus seen, though it is seldom useful to put much 
lime on a garden. Hence also we may see the use 
of the ammonia (popularly called hartshorn), wliich, 
as the smell fully shews, is produced during the fer- 
mentation of urine and dung ; and when more of 
this is produced than the humic acid can combine 
with, it streams off in a pungent strong smelling 
vapour, supposed, but without good proof, to be a 
serious w-aste and loss as to quantity of plant-food in 
the fermenting manure. 

" All these ingredients in plant-food are com- 
posed of a few simple gases, as follow : 

" Water is composed of two parts of hydrogen and 
one part of oxygen. 



" Common air is composed of twfenty parts by 
bulk of oxygen and eighty parts of nitrogen. 

" Humic acid is composed of carbon and hy- 
drogen. 

" Ammonia is composed of three parts of hydro- 
gen and one part nitrogen. 

" Lime is composed of a metal called calcium and 
oxygen. 

" Potass is composed of a metal called potassium 
and oxygen. 

" Potass, lime, and ammonia, are often combined 
with carbonic acid gas, which is also contained in 
small quantities in common air. 

" Perhaps the most important of all these simple 
principles is carbon, the chief ingredient in humic 
acid, and which is nothing else than pure charcoal. 
It is this carbon that constitutes the greater portion 
of the solid substances in all plants, while water con- 
stitutes the chief fluid portion ; and hence hydrogen, 
which is contained in water, in humic acid, and in 
ammonia, is so important. 

" In order to understand these simple principles 
well, some knowledge of chemistry would be requi- 
site ; but to go minutely into the matter here would 
lead us away too far from our immediate purpose. 
What has been here said will suffice to show the na- 
ture and general ingredients of plant-food. Those 
who wish to learn more are referred to the Alphabet 
of Scientific Gardening, and Alphabet of Scientific 
Chemistry. 

" The mineral part of the soil, which, exclusive 
of lime, is composed of clay and flint earth, in the 
form of sand and gravel of various fineness, together 
with sometimes magnesia, iron, and a few other 
metals, contributes little or nothing to the food of 
plants. These portions of the soil appear to be 
chiefly useful in dividing and diffusing the nutritive 
parts arising from decayed plants in natural soils, 
and from various manures in artificial culture. 

" On these principles we can easily account for 
the barrenness of stiff" clays, dry sand, and more 
particularly soils chiefly consisting of granite sand, 
as in Arran and near Plymouth ; while in the in- 
stance of sand or clay from basalt or whinstone, as 
well as from limestone and chalk, the carbonic acid 
gas tends to greater fertility, as in the Lothians, 
Ayrshire, and Kent. No mixture then of clay and 
sand will be fertile without limestone, chalk, or ba- 
salt, that is, whinstone ; and more particularly with- 
out decayed plants or manures, containing a large 
proportion of humic acid, and other combination of 
carbon and hydrogen. 

" Somemineral substances are positively injurious, 
such as iron, and perhaps all the metals, when com- 
bined with oxygen or acids. JVlany good soils indeed 
contain iron, known by the reddish rust colour it 
imparts ; but in that case they would appear to be 
fertile in spite of (not on account of) the iron. 



SCIENCE OF GARDENING. 



11 



" Such is the sort of food which all plants feed 
upon|; and that they require a large quantity of this 
food, appears from the experiments of the Rev. Dr. 
Hales, who found that a hop-plant sucked up four 
ounces of water in twelve hours in a shady place, 
and eight ounces in a place more open ; while a plant 
of mint, whose roots were set in a tube containing 
water, made this water fall an inch and a half during 
the day, but only a quarter of an inch during the 
night. 

" It would appear, therefore, that plants feed most 
heartily in the day and in open places, being most 
probably influenced to this by the light. 

" Artificial watering may be supposed on this ac- 
count to be most beneficial early in the morning, 
just as the plants are commencing their breakfast. 

" CHANGES UNDEBGONE BY THE PLANT-FOOD. 

" As plants have no stomach like animals for the 
reception and digestion of food, and no moving in- 
testines for carrying through the body what has been 
digested, the necessary changes similar to digestion 
take place, first, in the soil without, before the food 
enters the root tips ; and secondly, within the plant, 
more particularly when the food has reached the 
leaves. 

" The changes which take place in the soil before 
the food enters the root tips, consist of the fermenta- 
tion of decaying leaves and other parts of plants, 
and the circulation of such portions of these through 
the ground as become mixed with the moisture 
derived from rains and dews. 

" Heat is indispensable for producing such changes, 
and hence in this climate they do not take place, or 
at least very slightly, in winter, and in the cold wea- 
ther of spring and autumn. This, however, is of 
less moment, as the plants are then torpid, like bats, 
bees, and squirrels, and take very little food. 

" It will follow from this, that when a soil is 
known to contain rotting weeds and other plants, or 
has rotted manure spread over its surface, it cannot 
be too well dug and raked, in order to mix the richer 
parts of these with the less rich clay and sand ; on 
the same principle that at dinner we mix in eating 
the richer beef or mutton with the less rich potatoes, 
cabbage, and bread. Both we and the garden plants 
must have a large portion of water to thin or dilute 
the food, otherwise health will suffer. The water 
which we drink in the form of tea, coffee, or beer, is 
similar in kind to the manured moisture sucked up 
by garden plants, which feed solely on liquid food. 

" THE SAP AND THE PULP. 

" When the water containing air, humic acid, and 
other nutritive materials, is sucked in by the root 
tips, and is carried up into a plant, it takes the name 
of Sap. This is in most, if not in all plants, a clear 



fluid, slightly sweet, the bulk of it being water, but 
becoming thicker as it rises, probably from mixing 
with what has been farther changed in the leaves. 
The milky matter in lettuce and dandelion is not 
the sap. 

" It is not yet known whether the sap rises through 
vessels similar to the blood vessels of animals, or 
whether it rises tlirough the tissue of the plant, as 
ink spreads through bloating paper, or water through 
lump sugar. The latter is the opinion of some of 
the highest living authorities. 

" It is not of any practical importance, so far as 
I know, which opinion in this matter is adopted. 

" The sap, in whatever manner it does rise through 
a plant, at length arrives at the leaves in a somewhat 
thickened state, and is spread out under the very 
thin skin of the upper side of the leaf, for the pur- 
pose of being exposed to the action of the air, in a 
similar way as the animal blood is spread out for the 
same purpose in the minute blood vessels of the 
lungs. 

" On the leaves are very numerous minute open- 
ings or pores, often smaller than pin-holes, which 
appear both to admit air and permit the escape of 
moisture, similar, probably, to the nostrils of animals, 
or rather to the breathing pores of insects. 

" These pores have raised lips, varying in form, 
which shut when they are wetted, and also in the 
dark ; but open in dry air, and when exposed to svin- 
light, 

" The pores of the leaf lead to small air-cells, 
which, when larger than usual, form the white or 
yellow spots on plants with variegated leaves. 

" Through these pores the sap gives off two-thirds 
of its superfluous water, in a similar way as the 
animal blood gives off its superfluous water by the 
breath and by perspiration. The third of the sap 
that remains will of course be much thickened by 
the loss of so much water. 

" This third I call the jiulp^ to distinguish it from 
the crude watery sap, with which in books it is very 
commonly confounded. The pulp is of similar use 
to plants in promoting their growth, as the blood is 
to animals. 

" The pulp, which is chiefly composed of the 
carbon, or charcoal, derived from the humic acid of 
the sap, is of a dark blue colour ; but the trans- 
parent tissue of the leaf in which it is enclosed 
being more or less yellow, the combination of the 
two colours forms a green. When no pulp is 
formed, the leaves accordingly become yellow. 

" Several important inferences arise from these 
facts. The change, for example, of sap into pulp 
cannot take place in the dark, sunlight being indis- 
pensable to open the pores ; and hence plants 
growing under thick trees, or any thing that ob- 
structs the sun's light, cannot well effect this im- 
portant change, and the pulp being in consequence 

c 2 



12 



SCIENCE OF GARDENING. 



only prepared in small quantity, they become slen- 
der, yellowish, and sickly, for want of due nourish- 
ment. It is ignorantly said that the trees draw 
them. 

" Plants in pots in an ill-lighted window suffer 
the same inconvenience, and bend their heads as 
much as possible towards the light, not that they 
have any knowledge of the use of it, no more than 
a hungry infant has of the use of the milk which it 
greedily sucks ; but because in the part most ex- 
posed to the light, a greater quantity of pulp is 
formed, which renders it firmer, heavier, and shorter 
than the part less exposed, whose laxness causes it 
to give way and lengthen, on the same principle 
that a piece of somewhat moist paper will bend 
when exposed to the heat of a fire, from the side 
nearest the fire losing its moisture and contracting. 
When the change of sap into pulp is in any way 
prevented, as by shade or by moisture, the leaves 
naturally become yellow, as when plants in pots 
have more water given them, in saucers or other- 
wise, than the sunlight can cause to pass off; or 
when they are root-bound, and the root tips have 
not room to feed. 

" By tying the leaves of lettuce near the top, the 
inmost leaves are kept from the light, and hence 
little or no pulp being formed there, they are ren- 
dered white, crisp, and tender; as cabbages and 
savoys grow of their own accord without tying, 
though tying will hasten the process. This is called 
blanching, which means ' whitening.' 

" In all cases, the more light plants are exposed 
to, the hardier they will be, provided they be not 
gorged with too watery food; and the less light 
they have, the more feeble, sickly, and yellow they 
will be. Light from above also is greatly better 
than side light. 

" The importance of wide planting in most cases 
will therefore be obvious ; for if potatoes, cabbages, 
or other plants are crowded together, they become, 
at least at their sides, nearly as much shaded from 
the light by each other as if growing under trees. 

" AIR. 

"The common air contained in the sap when it 
first arrives from below, is composed, as already 
shown, of twenty measures of oxygen and eighty 
measures of nitrogen. At the same time then that 
two-thirds of the water of the sap passes ofl' through 
the leaf-pores, a considerable portion of this oxygen 
is given ofit'; a process that tends to restore to the 
atmosphere the oxygen consumed by the breathing 
of animals and the burning of fires. This effect, 
however, only happens during daylight. 

" At night, plants, instead of giving off oxygen, 
take it up from the air, giving off carbonic acid gas ; 
and hence plants in pots must render bad the air of 



rooms where they are kept, except during daylight, 
when they improve the air where they grow. 

" From these facts, the importance of a free cir- 
culation of air to the healthy growth of plants must 
be obvious ; and hence a garden cooped up between 
high walls or bushes, even though it have plenty of 
sunlight, which is still more indispensable than free 
air, will never produce good crops. It has been 
supposed by some also, that plants require to be 
somewhat moved and shaken by the winds, as a 
sort of exercise for circulating the sap and the pulp, 
inasmuch as they cannot take walking exercise like 
animals. This, however, is only an ingenious fancy. 

" CAUSES OF THE GROWTH OF PLAKTS. 

" When the pulp has been formed from the sap 
by the loss of its water and some of its oxygen, it 
passes back from the leaf to the branch or the stem; 
though by what channels is no better understood 
than those by which it came from the root. ' No 
man,' says Solomon, ' can find out the work that 
God maketh from tlie beginnin<i to the end.' 

" As the blood of animals prepared in the lungs 
by losing water and carbonic acid gas, goes to form 
or increase the bones and the flesh all over the 
body ; so does the pulp of plants go to form new 
branches, leaves, and roots, and increase in size 
those already formed. 

" The great use of the leaves will now be under- 
stood, as being nearly as important to plants as the 
lungs are to animals. 

" When plants are accordingly stripped of their 
leaves by accident, such as by the ravages of cater- 
pillars or the browsing of cattle, they either die or 
become sickly, till new leaves (as will happen in 
vigorous plants) sprout again to prepare the neces- 
sary supplies of pulp. My neighbour's savoys this 
autumn (1833) were devoured by caterpillars down 
to the stumps ; but I advised him not to pull them 
up, and they formed very fine little heads in two 
months. It is therefore an error to pick off leaves, 
as is sometimes done, with the intention of exposing 
fruit, such as grapes, to the sun to hasten their 
ripening ; for a supply of pulp is still more import- 
ant to their ripening than such exposures, and 
without leaves no pulp can be formed. 

" REJECTIONS OF PLANTS AND ROTATION OF CROPS. 

" Plants, like animals, do not appropriate all the 
food which they take ; and having the means of 
separating what is useful, they reject what is useless 
and put it aside. Independent of the great quantity 
of water and gases, which plants throw off by their 
leaves, they also throw out from the roots a sort of 
excrementitious slime, different in different plants ; 
but poisonous or injurious to the same kinds of 
plants which throw it out. 



SCIENCE OF GARDENING. 



13 



" The fact has been long known to gardeners and 
farmers, that they could not get good crops of the 
same kinds from the same piece of ground season 
after season, though the cause of this has only been 
investigated of late years, and has been proved by 
experiments of Brugmans and Macaire, not to arise, 
as was formerly alleged, from the food in the soil 
being exhausted, since all plants feed nearly alike, 
but from the excrementitious slime, which acts upon 
the same sort of plants that produce it as a slow 
poison. Thus the slime from a crop of cabbages 
will greatly injure another crop of cabbages, though 
it will do little or no harm to potatoes or peas ; 
while the slime from peas will injure peas, though 
it would not injure cabbages or turnips.* 

" When this is known, it will prevent two succes- 
sive crops of the same kind from being tried, unless 
the ground be so trenched and dug as to bury the 
slime deeper than the roots can reach. In many 
parts of Ireland, and probably of Scotland, the slime 
from potatoes is so mixed with the soil, that a good 
crop of potatoes cannot be had. 

" HEAT, COLO, AND SHELTER. 

" Plants, though not so warm as animals, are in 
general some degrees warmer than the soil they 
grow upon, and in winter a little warmer than the 
air. As the heat in animals appears to be produced 
by the chemical changes which take place in breath- 
ing, t so the heat of plants is probably produced by 
the change of sap into pulp. 

" The external heat of the air is indispensable to 
the due flowing of the sap, and hence it flows very 
slowly in winter and in cold weather. The stop- 
page of the flow of sap at the beginning of winter 
is erroneously ascribed to its descent to the roots 
at that season. 

"As heat then is probably one of the chief causes 
of the flow of the sap, the artificial heat produced 
by hot-beds, and also by any sort of shelter, tends 
to forward the growth of plants. 

" Heat is very equally distributed among all 
things on the earth's surface, by a process some- 
what similar to that of water always coming to a 
level ; that is, heat will always pass from a hot sub- 
stance to one near it which is colder — from the 
warm ground, for instance, to the cold air, till the 
heat in the ground and in the air becomes equal. 

" Now this off-streaming of heat from a warm 
substance to a cold one, is as easily prevented as 
the passage of light by any thing non -transparent ; 
as we have only to interpose something that heat 
will not easily pass through, such as canvass, flan- 
nel, or straw ; on the same principle that we pre- 
vent the heat of our own bodies from streaming off 



into the air by means of dress, which will be more 
or less warm in proportion as it can prevent the 
escape of animal heat. 

" Upon these principles are founded the different 
modes of sheltering plants, or, in other words, of 
preventing them from being robbed of heat by the 
cold air. Shelter will be most wanted in gardens 
during clear, cloudless nights in spring and autumn; 
for when there are clouds, they prevent a great deal 
of heat from streaming off into the upper air, and 
hence no dew (which is always caused by the mois- 
ture or vapour in the air losing its heat) is ever 
formed on a cloudy night ; and the same holds, for 
the same reason, of hoar frost. As dew will form 
on the under side of leaves, it is an error to say it 
falls. Snow acts similarly to clouds in preventing 
the heat of the ground from streaming off. 

" Tender crops, such as lettuce, may be on these 
principles sheltered during continued frost by hoops 
bent over them, and covered with mats, straw, or 
fern leaves. They must, however, always be un- 
covered during the day in open weather, to admit 
light and air. 

" Rhubarb, and other plants and flowers whose 
stems die down, ought to have their roots covered 
over during the cold season with long dung, straw, 
or silver fir branches, removing these when the 
leaves shoot up in spring. 

" Plants in pots ought on the same principle to 
be well exposed to light (not side light if possible) 
and air in the day-time, at least when it does not 
freeze, but closely housed every night ; for the win- 
ter nio-hts, even in open weather, are too cold for 
geraniums, hydrangeas, and other favourite window 
plants. 

" All the preceding remarks apply exclusively 
to plants which are past their seed-leaf; but the 
principles applicable to seeds before and after sow- 
ing, till they get into their seed-leaf, are so totally 
different, that it will be necessary to point out the 
difference. 

" SEED SOWING. 

" Every seed has a shell, more or less hard, to 
protect it from external injury, and at its base what 
is called the seed-pore (popularly the eye), for the 
passage inwards of the nutrient pulp before it is 
ripe, and for the passage outwards of the young 
plant after sowing. 

" Within the shell is the kernel, consisting of the 
embryo plant, with its radicle or root, its gemlet or 
stem, and the neck between these, besides the seed 
lobe or lobes, containing materials for nourishing it 
in the first stage of growth. 

" In order to begin the growth of the embryo, 



• Seethe details of M. Macaire's Experiments, Field Nat. Magazine, Decemtier 1833. 
t See Alphabet »f Scientific Chemistry, p. 105 ; and Alphabet of Zoolngi/, p. 85. 



u 



SCIENCE OF GARDENING. 



four tilings are indispensable ; heat, water, air, and 
darkness. 

" The heat is required to soften the nutrient ma- 
terials in the lobes, but without water it would be 
more likely to harden these. Pure water is more 
advantageous than water containing humic acid or 
other rich materials, what is contained in the lobes 
being sufficiently rich. 

" Freely circulating air is indispensable for sup- 
plying oxygen and carrying off carbonic acid gas, a 
process the reverse of what takes place in leaves 
exposed to sunhght. For the same reason, light is 
injurious, by carrying off the oxygen requisite in 
this stage of growth. 

" In sowing any sort of seed, these four circum- 
stances must be carefully attended to. For want of 
heat, accordingly, seeds will not come up during 
frost ; for want of water, they will not come up 
when sown in dry sand ; for want of air, they will 
not come up if too deep in the ground ; and if not 
duly covered, they will not come up from having 
too much light. 

" Most seeds are benefited by steeping them for 
an hour or two in pure water, which in the cold 
weather of spring may be made milk-wann. Pickles, 
train-oil, urine, and other steeps, must in most cases 
be injurious, and will never, as is ignorantly pre- 
tended, kill the eggs of insects, even if such be 
among the seed, of which I know not a single in- 
stance. 

" Too much water, however, will be certain to 
injure the seeds, by gorging them and rendering 
them dropsical and liable to rot. Hence the well- 
known benefit from sowing in dry weather, to 
insure only moderate moisture. 

" The seed-lobes, when in part exhausted of their 
nutrient naatter, are changed into seed-leaves, and 
go on to prepare pulp from the sap now taken up 
by the young root. 

" The seed-leaves are now therefore so important 
to the very existence of the plants, that when they 
are eaten off by insects, as is done to seedling tur- 
nips, radishes, and cabbage, by the turnip-fly, the 
crop perishes. 

" METHODS OF MULTIPLYING PLANTS NOT }3Y SEED. 

" The most common way of procuring a great 
nimnber of plants of one kind is by sowing seed ; 
but some plants, as the foreign geraniums and 
most double flowers do not ripen seed ; others, 
as the rose, the seeds take as long as two years to 
come up, and several years after to blow ; and in 
others, the plants from seed are very different from 
the parent plants. These circumstances have led 
to other methods of multiplying particular kinds, 
as follow : 



" DIVIDING THE EOOTS. 

" Every root has what is called the crown or 
neck, and in some roots, as the potatoe, a similar 
part is called the eye, attached to which is the body 
of the root, with the fibres and their feeding tips 
or mouths. 

" The crown, neck, or eye, is in most roots the 
only part of a root that can send up a stem. The 
exceptions to this are the roots of mint, horse- 
radish, iris, Jerusalem artichoke, and a troublesome 
weed in gardens called ash- weed, from the leaf 
resembling that of the ash, the least bit of all which 
roots will grow ; because they seem to be rather 
under-ground stems than real roots. 

" It will follow, that with these and a few other 
similar exceptions, roots will only be capable of 
being divided, when they have more crowns or eyes 
than one, as in the small bulbs that grow at the base 
of the larger bulbs in lilies, daffodils, tulips, and 
snow-drops; the eyes in potatoes, rhubarb, dahlias, 
and peonies ; the crowns in primroses, auriculas, 
sea pinks or thrift, and double rockets ; and the 
side branches in border-box and carnations. 

" The crown or eye ought to be cut with a sharp 
knife, so as not to tear or bruise the parts ; and 
should if possible have both a piece of the body of 
the root, and also some fibres with their tips unin- 
jured. This, however, is not indispensable, for the 
crown or eye alone will often grow ^vithout any 
fibres at first, as in auriculas ; though the fibres will 
in no case grow without any part of the body 
attached to them. 

" SEPARATING OFFSETS, LAYERS, AND SUCKERS. 

" Many plants, instead of having a number of 
crowns or eyes, have only one, and send off short 
stems, like the daisy and houseleek, or larger run- 
ners, like the sweet violet, ground ivy, and the 
strawberry, with young plants at the end, which 
readily take root, and may either be allowed to root 
after cutting the runner, or, if it is required to make 
them rather stronger, before the separation. 

" The time for doing this must be in some mea- 
sure regvdated by the growth of the ofl'sets, and by 
the season of the year ; for it will in all such cases 
be important to have the young plants well rooted 
a month or so before the setting in of frosty morn- 
ings in the autumn. 

" When the offsets are not naturally fitted to take 
root of themselves, as in the carnation, an operation 
called layering is performed, which consists in inter- 
rupting the passage of the pulp downwards by 
making an upward slit with a penknife half through 
the stem, and by several other methods ; then fixing 
the cut part a little under-ground «ith a hooked 
peg, when root fibres will form, and the rooted 



ON RUST IN CORN. 



15 



layer may of course be removed and planted else- 
where. 

" Many other plants, such as double wallflowers, 
lilacs, honeysuckles, roses, sweetbriar, laurels, and 
most evergreens, may be layered in a similar man- 
ner, it being a very certain as well as an easy mode 
of getting a number of plants. 

" The young plants called suckers, which spring 
up from the deeper roots of some shrubs and trees 
at a distance from their trunks, as in the currant, 
gooseberry, rose, lilac, and plum-tree, may be taken 
up with a bit of root (with root fibi-es and their tips 
if possible) attached to them. These however will 
take nearly as long to come into bloom and bearing 
as plants raised from seed, and in this respect are 
inferior to layers from the older branches, which 
usually blow soon. 

" In the monthly rose, suckers make the best 
plants, as they do also in the sweetbriar ; but this 
does not produce many. Such suckers, when long 
and easily bent, may also be treated as layers ; and 
as many ne^v plants may be obtained as there are 
buds on the sucker, by making a ring-cut through 
the bark below each bud, and laying over the whole 
sucker when pegged down a shallow covering of 
rather dry earth, when a stem will rise from each 
bud, and roots grow from each ring of bark that 
has been cut : a good mode of multiplying rose- 
trees. 

" STItlKING OF SLIPS OR CUTTINGS. 

" The younger twigs of some plants and shrubs, 
and even large trunks of such trees as willow and 
elder, when planted in the ground, will continue to 
live almost as well as a layer attached to the parent 
plant, till they acquire root fibres ; and in this way 
many plants are multiplied. 

" The success of this process depends on the end 
of the slip or cutting not being too young and soft, 



otherwise it will become gorged with moisture and 
rot ; in its not being too old and hard, otherwise it 
will not take up moisture enough to keep it alive ; 
and hence, when possible, the end should be cut 
with a slope, so as to have one side rather soft, and 
the other rather hard, taking care not to bruise 
the bark nor leave it ragged. For the same rea- 
sons, both a very moist and a very dry soil will 
not answer, though the last, and even pure sand, is 
preferable for delicate plants, with frequent gentle 
waterings, so as not to gorge and rot them. 

" As the life of cuttings must be somewhat feeble 
till roots are formed, they ought not to have much 
light, and may be slightly darkened by a bell-glass, 
nor many leaves and no flower-bvids left on to ex- 
haust them ; and, as has been said of seed sowing, 
they ought not to be planted too shallow, for roots 
dislike light ; nor too deep, for roots cannot do 
without air. 

" The ease with which cuttings of currant, goose- 
berry, and monthly rose trees, southernwood, gera- 
niums, thyme, sage, and many other plants grow, is 
known to every body, and extensively practised at 
haphazard, without knowing the principles just 
stated ; and, consequently, when the same method 
is practised with the moss-rose, sweetbriar, myrtles, 
double yellow wallflowers, and other plants more 
difficult to strike, as it is termed, no reason can be 
given for disappointments. Perhaps, however, there 
are no plants that may not be successfully struck 
by cuttings, if care be taken to nurse their enfeebled 
life, by excluding bright light and preventing en- 
gorgement till they can form roots." 

These principles are in the succeeding parts of 
the book applied to the practical parts of kitchen, 
fruit, and flower gardening ; and the whole is con- 
cluded with a Calendar of garden work to be done 
in each month of the year. 



ON RUST IN CORN.* 

EY M. STANDINGER, FARMER AT FLOTBECK, NEAR HAMBURG. 



Cultivators, all over the world, attribute rust to 
the influence of a malignant dew, or to what is 
termed blighting weather. This opinion, however, 
is not less erroneous than that of those who attri- 
bute it to the vicinity of a barberry bush (Berberis 
vulgaris). Professor Hornemann, of Copenhagen, 
planted some corn in a garden, and surrounded it 
with barberry bushes ; this corn was not attacked 
by the rust; the experiment repeated several times 
always produced the same result. Since the pro- 
scription of the barberry, the rust appears not less 
frequently ; of this, the year 1830 is a proof. 



The author thinks that rust may be attributed to 
the re-union of many causes : such as the nature of 
the soil, too vigorous a vegetation, a sudden change 
of temperature, and continued drought or rains. 

The following are the facts which the author has 
cited in support of his opinion 

During fifteen or twenty years, the tillage of the 
environs of Altona has furnished a proof that an 
exuberant vegetation may become the cause of dis- 
ease. The lierring fishing produced so abundantly 
at the mouth of the Elbe, that the fishermen laden 
with these fish returned up the river and offered 



Oken's Isis, 3rd for 1832, p. 262. 



16 



ON GROWING EARLY POTATOES. 



them to the peasantry at so low a price, that the 
latter bought them for manure; some of them mixed 
it with a certain quantity of good earth, and ob- 
tained a fine harvest, especially on sandy soils : 
others covered their fields with these herrings, and 
were much astonished at finding the wheat and oats 
attacked by rust before the ears were formed. Cold 
lands produced only a moderate crop. Potatoes 
thus manured, at first grew very rapidly ; their 
leaves were of a blackish grey, and in November 
they were besprinkled with spots of rust ; the 
storks under-ground produced only small abortive 
tubercles, which were also covered with spots of 
rust. 

Those who had manured their meadows with a 
mixture of earth and herrings, gathered a good crop 
of hay, but the grass was invaded by the rust as 
soon as it reached a certain height. In 1830, the 
same phenomenon was observed on all sandy soils. 
Having been sufficiently watered, they were co- 
vered with magnificent corn which were soon de- 
voured by the disease, 

A previous observation serves to support this 
theory. In 1794, the author went on an agricul- 



tural journey through Holstein. The division of 
property had been lately adopted, the produce of 
agriculture was rising in value, and the cultivators 
loaded their land with manure, bestowing no other 
labour on it. It was then observed that the corn 
was pressed down, and rust became more frequent 
from year to year, while the luxuriance of vegeta- 
tion of the corn increased. The peasantry in the 
neighbourhood of Hamburg and Altona attributed 
the rust to the introduction of the potatoe. In this 
opinion they were both right and wrong, for this 
reason : the Dutch had formerly monopolized the 
sale of potatoes, and exclusively furnished the 
marshes of Hamburg with them ; but when they 
began to cultivate the blue flowered variety, called 
Dutch, they could no longer support the concur- 
rence, and the price of corn having at the same 
time considerably increased, the farmers began to 
manure their lands to excess with the mud of 
Altona and Hamburg, and thence the rust was 
introduced into their fields. Thus may be ex- 
plained the coincidence of the introduction of rust 
with the culture of potatoes, without any direct 
reference to cause and effect. 



A NEW WAY TO GROW EARLY POTATOES.* 



On walking out the other afternoon, in company 
with some friends, we were caught in a thunder- 
storm, and obliged to take shelter in a farm-house, 
the owner of which was known to one of the party. 
During the storm, tlie conversation turned upon 
gardening, and our host gave us a plan for raising 
new potatoes, which I send you. It may appear 
strange, but, as he says, he has tried it, and found it 
to answer very well. At all events, I think it wor- 
thy of consideration and a trial. I will give his own 
words, so far as my recollection serves. 

" I was getting up my potatoes one year, in that 
field below the house, when the thought struck me, 
that by planting the smallest of them again, imme- 
diately, they would grow, and I should have new 
potatoes very early. I resolved to try the scheme, 
I had no hot-house or green-house, and was there- 
fore obliged to hit on a plan for keeping off the frost, 
which I did as follows. I chose a part of the field 
in which I was working, and made trenches along 
the top and sides to keep it dry. I then covered it 
a few inches deep with litter, put on a few inches of 
soil, and planted the potatoes, covering them again 
with soil. In order to keep the earth from falling 
down and smothering them, when they began to 
shoot, I stuck sticks and brushwood over the last 
layer of soil, and put on a quantity of litter, covering 



the whole with soil. One of my neighbours, who 
saw me, was surprised, and said he was sure I should 
have nothing in the end ; but I told him to come 
again on new year's day, and we would see. We did 
so, and we opened the bed and found new potatoes 
about the size of a marble ; I then told him I would 
leave it until the 6th of March. I did so, and on 
opening it again, the new potatoes vi'ere as large as 
an egg, exceedingly well tasted, and quite mealy. 
I showed some to the gardeners in the neighbour- 
hood, who would scarcely believe me, when I told 
them how I had grown them." 

The situation in which they were grown, and 
which I myself saw, was on the north side of a hill, 
in the northern part of Lancashire, not the warmest 
situation in the world, as you may imagine. 

The idea of growing potatoes in the manner above 
stated is good, but my informant's mode is, I think, 
capable of improvement If, instead of the side of 
a field, an old hot-bed were used, and hoops placed 
so as to prevent the soil from falling down and 
pressing on the young shoots, which would not grow 
very high, as potatoes when deprived of light do not 
grow so much above-ground as they do naturally, 
I think early potatoes might be raised without any 
expense. I intend to try it, at all events, and hope 
I some of your readers will do so likewise. 



* From Hort, Register, 




Melanthiinn. viride 




L 



v^' 



Cvclamen NedecefoU'UBi 




Thea Chinensis 



DENDROLOGY. 



17 



MR. WALLIS'S DENDROLOGY.* 



This is a very singular book. It is the production, 
as we have been informed, of an old man who has 
been successively a common sawyer, a feller of tim- 
ber, a milkman, and a timber surveyor, who can, 
moreover, do little more in the way of letters than 
subscribe his own name to an accovmt for work 
done. He boasts in the preface (page vi.) of never 
having read any work on botany in his life (for 
the best of all possible reasons, we guess), for which, 
he says, he was praised by no less a person than 
Sir Joseph Banks ; it being hence obvious that the 
President of the Royal Society deemed botany use- 
less to a practical man like Mr. Wallis. 

The work is creditably written, notwithstanding 
the sine eruditione of the author, who scruples not 
to quote Latin ; but it contains such strange doc- 
trines, that our readers might suppose it more likely 
to be the production of a closet dendrologist, who 
had never seen a tree, than of a practical man. 
Such anomalies however now and then happen, the 
practical man stepping out of his beat to wander 
into the mazes of theory. We had in a former 
number a striking instance of this in Mr. Main, 
who fancies the life to be a particular member of a 
plant ; and here we have a still deeper plunge into 
theory, for Mr. Wallis maintains that the root is not 
essential to the nourishment of plants at all. It is 
very obvious he might as well maintain, that his ow n 
mouth is not essential to convey food to his stomach. 
Here are his conclusions from a few facts stated in 
the first twenty-two pages. 

" From the various specimens and experiments 
already laid before my readers, they will be able 
dearly to deduce, that trees possess the following 
properties : — 

" First, — That trees that have been felled in 
winter, can, nevertheless, produce leaves and shoots 
in spring, as if growing in their natural position in 
the earth. 

" Second, — That trees have their bark full of sap 
in activity in the spring, although felled in the win- 
ter of the preceding year. 

" Third, — That trees that have lost their bark 
from the trimks, can produce fine heads, and live 
many years, and even throw out shoots, — a circum- 
stance which has been more particularly observed 
in limes, elms, and thorns. 

" Fourth, — That trees that have been ringed, and 
have at tliat part had their liber scraped away, can 
still produce heads and leaves, and a greater in- 
crease in the portion of their trunks above the ring, 
than they would had they been left in a state of 
nature ; whereas, no increase or growth ever takes 



place in the trunk below the part ringed ; — on the 
contrary, it prematurely, though slowly, dies. 

" Fifth, — I'hat the branches of trees continue to 
live, to be supported, and grow, after both trunk 
and bark have become rotten. 

" Sixth,^ — That branches possess the property of 
forming bark, and bark the property of producing 
boughs and roots, some of which latter are often 
found projecting and hanging down from many feet 
above the earth, and even growing into the trunk 
again, — for each branch is perfect in itself, and 
independent of its trunk. 

" Seventh, — That decayed trunks grow heads as 
readily as sound trees ; and that so also does the 
mere shell of bark, which is well shown by some 
aged elms in Hyde Park at this time. 

" Eighth, — That bark from the branches grows 
downwards, covers and shields, or heals over, that 
part of the tree from which limbs have been lopped ; 
and that the upper portion of a trunk can re- produce 
bark, and project it downward, and recover parts 
stripped of their bark. 

" Ninth, — That the head of a tree can live, thrive, 
and produce, when suspended in the air, and even 
after its own trunk has entirely rotted away. 

" Tenth, — That a tree will even continue to live, 
to grow, and to produce leaves, buds, blossoms and 
fruit, for years after its trunk may have been di- 
vided, and all communication with the earth com- 
pletely cut off. 

" Eleventh, — That gooseberry and other trees 
will grow and produce roots when inverted, — their 
branches set in the earth, and their roots projecting 
up in the air; — and that the vine, the ivy, &c. will 
produce roots or shoots, at either end of their 
branches indifferently, or from any knot in their 
structure. 

" Twelfth, — That trees continue to live after their 
roots have rotted away ; and without branches when 
all of them have been cut away, — as in the instance 
of the withy. 

" Last, — That shells, with bark, can re-produce 
roots, woody fibre and heart, and, in fact, nearly 
constitute itself a new tree ; and so, inversely, can 
roots. 

" If, after the facts already related, and espe- 
cially after the ringing, and thereby the destroying 
of the vessels supposed to have the only power to 
convey the sap from the root to the extreme rami- 
fications,— I say, if the upper part do still continue 
to live, and to receive a due supply, nay, even to 
grow more luxuriantly, whilst all parts below the 
ring, and its bark and roots, die, — I say then, this 



• Dendrology, &c. by John Wallis, Timber Surveyor. 8vo. London, 1833. 
MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO. XI. — FEB. 1834. 



18 



DENDROLOGY. 



proves, beyond the possibility of a rational doubt, 
that the juices, or immediate causes of continuation 
of life and circulation, are conveyed through other 
channels than the roots, or upwards through the 
stem, — and which position is satisfactorily main- 
tained by the very extraordinary fact, that, with 
due precautions, you may cut through the trunk, or 
remove the bark, and yet that the portion of trunk 
and branches of the tree above the division will 
live, increase, and produce, for years after such dis- 
severance. The roots themselves may rot away, 
and yet the trvmk can live on and form new roots. 

" Now, as the trunk possesses the power to live 
without its roots, so ought the correspondent part, 
the plumula of the seed, to possess the same power ; 
and I have ascertained, by the following experi- 
ments and many others, that it does. 

" I removed the caudex from the plumula of a 
growing pea ; yet the plumula lived on, and grew 
to six times the size it had attained prior to the 
removal of its caudex ; and this happened in spite of 
the cold temperature of the pi-esent March, and the 
germination being caused to take place out of its 
natural season. 

" It therefore manifestly appears to me, that the 
opinion of the botanists,- — viz. that an acorn, (seed, 
or the like,) when germinating, must ' first strike 
down a root,' or radicle, for the support of the plu- 
mula, — is an alogy ! a perfect non-sequitur ! And 
in manifestation hereof, a pea (or other seed) put 
into water, germinates ; and by the time the peri- 
carpium bursts, the plumula is in existence, and a 
caudex, not furnished with radicula, is thrown out; 
and both the caudex and plumula are supported for 
days after this by the cotyledons of the seed alone, 
and not by the caudex : and nearly twelve days will 
elapse from the commencement of germination be- 
fore a single radicle is formed.* Now, very long 
before this period the plumula will have shot out, 
have erected itself, partly have expanded its leaves, 
and doubly outgrown the size of the very caudex 
itself, — v/nich by the botanists is said to be the 
means of support,— and at least one half of that 
caudex will generally by this period have withered, 
and its end be twisted upwards. 

" The radicles are now about formed, and sent 
out by the remaining portion of the caudex, or im- 
mediately beneath the base of the plumula, or by 
the plumula alone ; and then, indeed, when the cau- 
dex has been furnished with the remainder of its 
parts, i. e. tlie radicula, can we say the radix is 
complete, and not before. 

" The caudex is at times but partially, and at 
other times not at all, developed f during the pro- 



cess of germination ; and yet just as vigorous a 
plumula is formed, and as fine a plant is produced, 
as if the caudex had been first projected from the 
seed. 

" And hence I maintain that it is the corculum 
itself that has the power of propagation and sup- 
port before the radicle is in existence, and that this 
power in the corculum is first exerted to complete 
the plumula, and then the radix ; and that if it fails 
in this its primary object, the radicle will not be 
projected at all, nor will any plant be formed; but, 
on the contrary, the caudex may be pinched or cut 
off, J and yet the plumula may live on and produce 
the plant. 

" The former theory in explanation of tliis-sub- 
ject by the botanists, is looking to a secondary cause 
for a primary effect, which is alike contrary to fact 
and reason; and I ask. If the corculum and seed or 
pea, have the power to form, and give support for 
a time to both the plumula and the radicle, why 
should it be thought incapable of supporting for a 
time the plumula alone, which requires but a smaller 
portion of this acknowledged power ? 

" Having collected, brought forward, and related 
in the foregoing part of this work, reasons, experi- 
ments, and proofs which, I think, are more than 
sufficient to overturn the theories and the received 
opinions, that the roots are the way and means, or 
channel, or conduit of nutrition from the earth ; and 
that the radicle is the primary support of the plu- 
mula, — I shall proceed to describe a more simple 
theory, founded too on a more simple process, by 
which I think a tree really lives, and by which it 
carries on its circulation, and whereby I get rid of 
the difficulty of fluids rising against gravity : viz. 
by showing that the sap and juices descend, and 
therefore are generally assisted by that power ; and 
thus vvill the theory be simplified, and anomaly got 
over, and all be more in unison with the general law 
of Nature, — omnipotent, omniscient, all-marvellous 
as she is. 

" It is well known to the physiologist, that Nature 
ever adopts the simplest means to effect her pur- 
poses : and therefore it seems more than probable, 
where extravagantly complicated means appear to 
be employed in producing complicated effects, that 
we are totally in the dark as to the true modus 
operandi." 

On the subject of training we have the following 
remarks, which we leave our readers to appreciate 
for themselves. 

" As all trees receive, as I have proved, their only 
nutriment — the sap — directly through their top or 
head, it is evident that a tree, intended to grow fast 



* " Is not a sufficient example of the above fact exhibited, by a slip or cutting hanng the power to throw down a root ? for ' each 
branch is pel feet in itself,' as is truly set forth in the Scriptures. 

f " This latter circumstance occurred in two instances out of a few germinaling peas. 
X " This experiment was made several times, and with similar success. 



DENDROLOGY. 



19 



and produce good wood, should always have the 
largest possible quantity of head left for its sup- 
port ; never forgetting that it is the top and leaves 
alone that prepare and transmit the sap and nutri- 
ment. I can safely assert, that one half the timber 
grown in Great Britain is utterly spoiled by inatten- 
tion to those valuable rvdes, and whicli have been 
drawn from a thorough knowledge of the descent 
of the sap. 

" The gardener, alike uninformed on this practi- 
cal point, and acting upon the old received, but 
mistaken, belief, viz. that sap rises from the roots, 
is led to remove even the last year's shoots, and to 
cut away too largely from the heads of trees : and 
the reward of this false theory and practice is, that 
his constant care and labour will invariably lead to 
a very diminutive crop ; and the fruit so produced 
will alwaj's be found less in size than the same trees 
would have borne had they been properly pruned, 
or even left wild. 

" As a general ride, then, no fi'uit-tree should be 
cut or pruned, or leaves removed, except during 
the months of January, February, and March; and 
the common practice of cutting wood and removing 
leaves at Midsvunmer, when the tree most needs 
support, is highly improper and injvirious, and 
savours of ignorance. 

" I made the following experiment in exemplifi- 
cation of this point. The vine of a next-door neigh- 
bour grew up the back of the house. I begged 
leave to train over the party-wall some few of the 
branches. I carried them horizontally along my 
wall above a window, and the first year they bore 
little or no fruit. I let them grow on without cut- 
ting any part from them until the next winter ; then 
I cut off the wood 1 did not wish to train up. In 
tlie following year I found these branches grow 
luxuriantly, and throw out more fruit. I again let 
them go without pruning imtil the third winter. In 
the following season I had an immense number of 
bunches produced, considering the size of the 
branches. My neighbour, who pruned his part of 
the same tree at Midsummer, and who had almost 
the whole vine, and in the same aspect, had not six 
bunches of his grapes that weighed so much as some 
one of mine. I possessed many bunches (of these 
white cluster grapes) a pound and a half each in 
weight 

" But to conclude the subject of decay in timber, 
I may state, that when a large portion of bark is 
injured or bruised, it dies, and after a time falls off, 
and then the surface of the wood, called sap-wood, 
remains exposed. This part of the trunk is white, 
but has witliin it a deeper-coloured part, called the 
heart-wood, and this is most distinct and best seen 
in oaks and elms. The bark will cover over the 
surface of this defect ; but, nevertheless, the white 
wood, called sap-wood, is invariably found decayed 



when the tree is converted into use. Yet it should 
be observed, that underneath the bark that grew 
over the injury, new sap-wood will be produced the 
following year under the bark, and over the old de- 
cayed wood that had been exposed ; and even new 
heart- wood will in time be formed exterior to the 
old rotten portion of wood, which the year or two 
before, viz. at the time of the injury, was the outer 
portion of the ti-unk, but which has now become the 
inner portion of it. So complete in their formation 
are these new-deposited parts upon the old trunk, 
that no observer, after a time, is capable of seeing 
any defect in that portion of the tree from without. 
This fact is too well known, and to the cost of the 
timber-merchant, who frequently purchases such 
trees as sound, but on converting them into use, 
finds himself considerably out of pocket, in conse- 
quence of such portion of timber not being fit for 
the purposes to which he had designed it. 

" A similar defect is also produced when the bark 
is removed from the roots, and they themselves 
have become rotten This is the cause of hollow- 
ness towards the bottoms of trees ; and the roots 
first decay, and then are soaked by water abun- 
dantly, which gradually finds its way up the trunk. 
From this cause 1 have often observed trees to be- 
come rotten to the extent of twenty feet from their 
base. Such old shells will frequently be seen to 
put out new roots, and to re-]iroduce branches, 
which thrive and grow much quicker in proportion 
than those of young and sound trees, as there is no 
longer a trunk to be supported. 

" When roots decay without mouldering away, 
they, by conducting wet for many years, produce 
red or foxy timber, which is totally useless, for, 
although it looks sound when cut, on exposure to 
the atmosphere it soon completes this incipient de- 
cay, and moulders the timber into dust,— a circum^ 
stance by which ship-builders are much annoyed, 

" Decayed roots, above thus spoken of, are most 
frequently met with in those trees that have lived 
long enough to become feeble, and to have lost the 
power of sufficiently supplying their roots with sap, 
which is reason sufficient to account for such fre- 
quent decay of root and base in the same tree. We 
most frequently find this peculiar red timber in 
trees that have grown upon stubs, and on that side 
of the tree on which the roots have died, and also 
on that side of the tree on which no new roots have 
since formed from the bark. 

" The decaying portion of old root always leaves 
a vacancy, by which air and moisture enter the 
trunk and destroy it. If such trees be cut down 
soon enough, the timber is scarcely injured ; but if 
cut late, it is found to have become red ; and if al- 
lowed to stand still longer, perfect rottenness will 
invariably be found to have ensued. 

" I have now proved, to the satisfaction, I trust, 

D 2 



20 



ON EXCRETIONS FROM THE ROOTS OF PLANTS. 



of my unprejudiced readers, the various positions 
I advanced in the course of this work ; and I hope 
I have clearly shown that trees and vegetables do 
not receive their sap or nutriment from the earth, 
but that it only serves to prevent the evaporation 
from the roots, imparts warmth, and acts as a ful- 
crum ! 1 have shown in the second chapter that the 
leaves prepare the sap, and that the bark conveys 



and circulates it, and that its course is invariably 
from above downward, through the trunk, and so 
onward to the roots, when any exist : and I have 
set forth a rational method of pruning, founded on 
the above knowledge ; and I have shown how decay 
may be prevented, and a larger quantity of sound 
timber grown." 



ON EXCRETIONS FROM THE ROOTS OF PLANTS. 

BY MR. TOWERS.* 



I SHALL state the facts which led me to the opinion 
that I formed about four years since, and in which I 
have been confirmed by repeated subsequent obser- 
vations. It was notorious that many crops could not 
be made to succeed, if repeatedly placed in the same 
individual portions of ground. Manures were found 
ineffectual ; and, therefore, the deterioration of the 
crops coidd not proceed from a want of sufficient 
aliment. The necessity of a rotation was observ- 
able chiefly in the farm ; still, however, the garden 
afforded many instances confirmatory of the fact. 
As I was writing solely upon the produce of the 
garden, it occurred to me, when treating upon the 
singular and sudden deterioration of the raspberry, 
that to the same causes which produced the destruc- 
tion of a fruit-bearing shrub, might be ascribed 
the debility that ever followed the successive repe- 
tition of a corn-crop upon the farm. I had observed 
that the soil about the roots of the raspberries ac- 
quired a peculiar colour and texture ; it differed 
from that of any other soil of the garden : manure 
was freely applied, and still the plants became 
weaker, shorter in growth, and less fruitful. I did 
not know the age of my plants, because the bed had 
been formed before I came into possession of the 
ground ; but I really ascertained that plants of the 
white Antwerp variety, which I purchased and 
placed alongside of an outermost row of the bed, 
would not take to the soil ; and about the period 
that the whole had become almost worthless, I saw 
several remarkably fine plots of the shrub, and con- 
versed with the owners, from whom I learned a 
variety of facts, which, though detailed in the plain, 
imishilosophical manner of cottage gardeners, led 
me to conclude that the raspberry plant deposited 
feculent matter in the soil, which, after a certain 
period, rendered the soil vitterly unfit to support 
the shrub, and enable it to produce fine fruit. Re- 
flection and recollection, at the same time, informed 
me that a variety of vegetable crops imparted a 
manifest odour to the soil; so much so, that in dig- 
ging uj) a crop, the whole plot was perceived to be 



imbedded with a specific aroma. I confirmed these 
facts, and then wrote the passages that I have 
quoted in the early part of this article. Subse- 
quent observations, and much experience, have con- 
firmed the opinion that I then noted down ; so that 
the reader may rely upon the correctness of the 
following facts. When peas are sown in pots or 
boxes, with a view to future transplantation into 
rows or plots, the vessels become replete with 
matted roots. Upon removing the peas to their 
place in the garden, the soil they grow in is found 
to be completely saturated with odorous matter ; it 
emits a powerful peculiar smell, that cannot be mis- 
taken. Tlie kidney-bean (Phaseolus) produces a 
similar effect, but the odour differs from that of the 
pea : the same may be observed in plants of the le- 
guminous tribe in general ; and I have little doubt 
that this tribe will be found particularly to require 
a frequent change of situation. I have already re- 
ferred to a well-known effect produced by the pea 
upon the shallow, loamy soil, of that eastern part of 
Kent called the Isle of Thanet ; and the experiment 
of M. Macaire with the bean (Vicia Faba) is in ac- 
cordance with, or at least may be adduced in sup- 
port of, the facts named above. 

The Brassica tribe, cabbage, brocoli, &c. also 
impregnate the soil with a marked and peculiar 
odour. 

From whence do the gases which produce these 
effects proceed ? Many, perhaps, will be inclined 
to suppose that it is not tlie soil which gives forth 
the smell, but the root itself; but how can any plant 
retain within its substance an odour that is exter- 
nally sensible ? If a flower, a rose for instance, be 
held at some distance from the nose, the specific 
aroma of that delightful flower becomes manifest ; 
but could this be the case if the rose did not emit 
the gaseous vapours which disseminate the odour ? 
Whatever it be that yields odour or scent, whether 
that be agreeable or offensive, must be material, 
because it produces a positive effect upon one of the 
senses ; and, moreover, the odour of flowers is very 



* From the Quart. Journ. of Agvi;ulture. 



ON EXCRETIONS FROM THE ROOTS OF PLANTS. 



21 



frequently productive of faintness and debility ! 
If the roots of a plant radiate odour, the earth about 
them, being the medium in which they germinate, 
must receive the odorific matter ; and, in fact, a 
spade can scarcely be put into a plot of soil that has 
borne a crop of some vegetables, withovit liberating, 
as before stated, a volume of vapour sufficient to be 
discerned, at the distance of a foot or more, above 
the surface. 

Again, if soil be perfectly fresh, that is to say, 
raised from the depth of two or three feet below the 
surface, it will generally be found of a different 
colour from the old worked soil of the garden or 
field. A hazel-loam, which is a combination of 
sand, aluminous and chalky impalpable matter, co- 
loured by oxide of iron, is frequently found at the 
depth mentioned, and may be considered pure virgin 
earth. If such soil be planted with strawberries, 
or almost any vegetable crop, its colour will under- 
go a change, and become many shades darker. Is 
this change of tint effected by carbonaceous matter 
excreted from the roots, by the partial de-oxidation 
of the ferruginous constituent of the earth ? The 
latter may probably operate to a certain extent, but 
I hold it more philosophical to conclude that the 
cliange in colour is to be ascribed to hydrogen gas 
(holding, perhaps, carbon and other matters in solu- 
tion), emitted from the roots into the soil, and 
therein effecting chemical decompositions by specific 
elective, or rather electric attractions. 

This blackening of the soil may be suspected by 
some to proceed from the decomposition of carbo- 
naceous matters ; and it is highly probable that it 
does so proceed ; but even admitting that manures 
have been placed in the soil, their decomposition 
and absorption, according to the received opinion, 
by the roots of the crop, ought to abstract the car- 
bon from the soil, and not to deposit it therein ! 
But I am supposing a case wherein pure virgin sandy 
loam, without manure, is employed ; and, to simplify 
the experiment, I say — let a middle-sized garden- 
pot be filled with such soil, and in it let a single 
vigorous strawberry-plant be placed in the month 
of February, and be regularly watered ; by the end 
of August following, that is, about the period when 
the growing season is almost passed, the soil will be 
found of a deeper colour, by many shades, than it 
exhibited wlien placed in the pot. 

My experience has taught me this fact, and I as- 
cribe the effect to the matter emitted by the roots 
into the earth. Earth so coloured is not, I con- 
ceive, exhausted ; it is doubtless changed, and in 
time would be incapable of supporting the vegeta- 
tion of the plant which had deposited the colouring 
matter within it, but in respect of mere abstract 
quality, it is unquestionably richer than it primarily 
was, having received fnore than it gave out, and this, 
in fact, manure for another species of vegetable. 



This is in accordance with the very valuable ex- 
periment of M. Macaire, which indicates tliat yellow 
colouring matter was afforded by the bean to pure 
water ; which yellow matter was taken up by " plants 
of wheat," that " lived well," and afforded evidence 
of having " absorbed a portion of the matter dis- 
charged by the first" (the beans.) 

My own reflection, and the observation of facts, 
have satisfied me that certain plants do emit hydro- 
carbonous compounds into the soil, that poison it, 
inasiuuch as refers to themselves individually ; but 
such experiments, as those of M. Macaire, are in- 
valuable, and ought to be persisted in, in conjunction 
with daily observations of the soil of the field and 
garden, till the facts in all its bearings be esta- 
blished. I for one intend, if life be spared to the 
next spring, to follow the advice to " prosecute 
those interesting investigations" as far as the means 
within my command will permit, for they can scarcely 
fail to lead to important results. 

It remains to be observed, that the doctrine of 
the excretory powers of plants does not strictly 
apply to all vegetables ; at least, it is manifest tliat 
trees and many shrubs will live on, and improve in, 
the same piece of ground for an almost indefinite 
period. 

Many garden vegetables furnish also exceptions 
to the rule, and I particularly notice the potatoe. 
In fact, the experiment of M. Macaire seems to 
afford evidence that this vegetable does not secrete 
matter of any decisive character. I know those 
who have assured me, that potatoes have been set 
for ten or even twenty years on the same land, with 
little or no other manure than coal-ashes and the 
scrapings of road-sand. This sand was, in the 
county I allude to, obtained from the calcareous 
stone of the neighbourhood, and it proved a power- 
ful meliorating substance to the cold clayey soil of 
the district. 

I venture to suggest, that grain and other crops, 
which expend all their vegetative energy upon ihe 
production of seed-vessels, are less likely to pro- 
trude matter from their roots than other crops which 
abound with large bulky foliage ; they, therefore, 
cannot prove manure crops for their con years, al- 
though they may render the soil unhealthy to them- 
selves individually. With respect to the potatoe, 
I think it evident, that its foliage elaborates much 
vegetative matter, a large portion of which is ex- 
pended in the production and support of tubers 
under ground. These tubers are not the roots pro- 
per, but enlarged processes, the depositories of 
much nutritive matter. It is highly probable, that 
the plants which produce bulbs, tubers, or spindle- 
roots, whose foliage is abundant or very large, will 
in general be innoxious to themselves, at least com- 
paratively so, in consequence of the absorbent 
powers of their bidky root processes. They will 



22 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF MANGOLD WURTZEL. 



in proportion also be of little service to corn or otlier 
crops, unless much manure be previously applied. 
In a word, the vast foliage which they develope, 
must claim a great supply of raw sap from the soil. 
This, or the prepared portion of it, is returned with 
interest to the roots, but it is then diverted into 
peculiar channels, and is employed in the production 
of those processes tliat constitute so large a portion 
of the food of man and of cattle. The bulb or 
tuber-bearing plants are generally but indifferent 
preparers of the soil for other crops, for they must 
exhaust its decomposable materials ; but they may 
be grown (though not to full perfection perhaps) on 
the same ground without becoming diseased. Such, 



I think, will be found to be generally the fact ; and 
this, as far as the experiment goes, has been con- 
firmed by the observation of M. Maeaire. 

From all that has been said, it is, I think, fair to 
conclude, that, although plants decompose and take 
up nutritive matters of the soil, and render manuring 
indispensable, yet it is not by exhaustion that a soil 
is rendered unfit for a repetition of an individual 
crop. Facts in abundance might be multiplied, in 
order to prove that a rotation is called for, in conse- 
quence of the feculent matter previously deposited 
affecting the nutritive power of the soil in support- 
ing any individual crop. 



ON THE CULTIVATION OF MANGOLD WURTZEL. 

BY MR. RYAN, GARDENER AT KILLAKEE-HOUSE.* 



The cultivation of the mangold wurtzel appears to 
retro-^rade rather than advance in this country ; so 
that if our apathy to it continue much longer, the 
term under which it was originally introduced, " the 
root of scarcity," will be as applicable to it as ever. 
It has been cultivated in this country to my own 
knowledge for about twenty years, in which time it 
has been grown on every description of ground, from 
the deep black bog to the sand and gravelly hill, 
where the soil is not four inches deep. It however 
requires, in order to attain its greatest degree of 
perfection, a deep, fresh, friable loam, on a dry sub- 
stratum ; in such, when in good heart (and if it be 
not, it must be rendered so by manuring with rotted 
dung, such as what is called scavenger's dung, in 
Dublin, and may be had there in any quantity, at 
from six-pence to ten-pence per ton), I have seen it 
attain the enormous weight of twenty-six pounds. 
But on a large scale, when judiciously treated, I have 
known the roots to average five pounds. This, sup- 
posing the drills two feet apart, and the plants a foot 
from each other in the lines, will produce the asto- 
nishing weight of seventy-five tons per Irish acre. 
I am aware that such crops are seldom had ; but 
I may appeal to every grower of this root on good 
ground for the truth of the above statement. This, 
one would think, would be sufHcient inducement to 
extend its cultivation, particularly as we know there 
cannot be a more acceptable food for cattle, nor one 
on which they thrive better, nor give more milk. 

The cultivation of mangold wurtzel is extremely 
simple, and not liable to the casualties attending a 
turnip crop, tliere being no fly which appears to af- 
fect it. The ground should be deeply ploughed, 
and rendered as friable as possible with the brake 
harrow; it is then to be thrown into drills about two 



feet apart, in which rotted dung, in quantity accord- 
ing to the wants of the ground (the more dung the 
better), is to be placed and covered as for turnips ; 
a roller is then to be drawn over the ground, and 
the crown of the drill opened to receive the seed^ — - 
this I have usually performed with the corner of the 
common garden-hoe, but have latterly applied a 
little implement which I got at your brother's esta- 
blishment, and which I think he called a souflet, to 
that purpose, which I find it performs admirably. 
I have sketched it as if lying on the ground, and 
have shewn the opening into which a handle of about 
four feet in length is inserted. It was recommended 
to me for stirring the ground amongst vegetables, 
or else for drawing drills in a garden, which it also 
does very well. A man opens a drill with this al- 
most as fast as he can walk ; and the drill is effec- 
tually covered by drawing the same implement on 
its side along the top after the seed is sown. I 
choose dropping weather, if possible about the mid- 
dle of April, for sowing the seed; and always mix 
it with moist sand a few days previous to sowing, 
first being careful to float it, and skim off such seed 
as appears small and light. A few drills being 
drawn, I set two little boys or girls to drop the seed, 
which is now swollen and beginning to bud, deposit- 
ing a seed as nearly as possible every six inches ; a 
boy follows with the souflet on its side, and with 
this number of hands, viz. a man and three boys, I 
sow an acre a day. I am aware that machines have 
been invented for sowing the seed, but do not think 
they can perform as well as the machinery I have 
described, neither is the plan of dropping the seed 
in holes formed by the dibber, whether of one or 
many prongs, nearly so good a plan, for if wet wea- 
ther follow the sowing, and particularly if the ground 



* From the Irish Farmer's and Gardener's Magazine; a very excellent and spirited publication. 



ON THE CHANGES IN PLANTS. 



23 



be stiff, the hole becomes a reservoir of water, and 
the plant perishes or assumes an unhealthy appear- 
ance. About three pounds of seed is sufficient for 
an acre. 

If the weather is genial, the plants will make their 
appearance in about eight or ten days ; and as more 
than one plant will generally arise in each place, al- 
though but one seed (or rather capsule or seed- 
vessel, which it really is, each containing one, two, 
or three seeds) were sown, they must be thinned as 
soon as they arrive at tlie height of about two inches, 
the strongest of cou'.se being left with those that are 
pulled up : any misses that may be observed must 
be made up. This is the only case in which I re- 
commend transplanting mangold wurtzel, for it is 
impossible to take it out of the ground vi'ithout 
injuring the tap-root, and that once destroyed, the 
plant becomes forked, and seldom acquires a great 
size. The plants must be kept clear of weeds, and 
be alternately filled so as to stand one foot apart. 

The drill-han'ow, with the lower line on each side 
bent nearly at a right angle, is the proper imple- 
ment for keeping the ground clear between the drills ; 
and the garden-hoe will remove the weeds from be- 
tween the plants. It is usual after the drill-harrow 
to raise the loosened earth to the plants with the 
double-mould-board plough ; but this practice I con- 
sider erroneous. It has been recommended in some 
of the periodicals lately, not to earth up potatoes ; 
but the growth and nature of the two plants are very 
dissimilar ; the latter throws out runners, and forms 
tubers in the loosened earth ; whereas the object is 
to get the former to strike downwards. I was led 
to form this opinion by observing, that the best roots 
are always those that rise highest out of the ground, 
and are most exposed to the influence of the air ; 
and I became confirmed in it by the result of experi- 
ments, which I instituted for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the comparative value of each mode of 
treatment. 

Any plants which appear to be starting for seed, 
should be cut down nearly to the point from which 



the stalk originates, leaving however a few eyes. 
Should they make a second attempt, which many of 
them will, I repeat the heading down, and find that 
I thus force the plant to acquire a tolerable size. 
Cultivators of this root appear to be divided in opi- 
nion as to the propriety of taking off the leaves 
during the growth of the plant; some affirming that 
we lose as much or more in the weight of the roots, 
as we gain by using the leaves. On this subject I 
was desirous to obtain information ; and on observ- 
ing that the Agricultural Society of Doncaster had 
published a report on this subject, possessed myself 
of it ; but what was my surprise to find that this 
important part of the treatment of mangold wurtzel 
was not even alluded to — the only mention of the 
leaves being a recommendation to cut them together 
with the crown off at the time of taking up the roots, 
and carry them to the cow-house or feeding-yard ? — 
no, but to plough them down for manure. In want, 
then, of satisfactory information on this point, I ad- 
here to the plan I have so long pursued with such 
good effect, which is to take off the large flagging 
leaves which hang down on the ground, of which an 
acre will supply a great quantity of fodder. I have 
made experiments for the purpose of ascertaining 
this point ; but hitherto they are not conclusive. 
I shall repeat them ; and may on a future occasion 
make known through the " Farmer's and Gardener's 
Magazine." Towards the beginning of November 
these roots will have attained their full size ; and as 
they are very easily injured by frost, should be se- 
cured on being taken up. Some time previous to 
this I commence cutting off the tops, and carting 
them to the piggery, byer, and feeding-yard, by 
which means I never have a greater quantity than 
I can use whilst fresh ; the roots being taken up on 
a dry windy day, are pitted in a dry situation, or 
placed in a shed as convenient as possible to the 
place where they are to be consumed ; if in the open 
air, I place some straw over them, which I cover 
with earth at least a foot thick ; if in a shed, a little 
hay or straw will be sufficient covering. 



ON THE CHANGES PRODUCED IN PLANTS BY CULTIVATION. 

BY PROFESSOR LYELL, OF KING's COLLEGE, LONDON.* 



Common wheat was procured by Delille from closed 
vessels in the sepulchres of the [Egyptian] kings, 
tlie grains of which retained not only their form, but 
even their colour, so effectual has proved the pro- 
cess of embalming with bitumen in a dry and equable 
climate. No difference could be detected between 
this wheat and that which now grows in the East and 
elsewhere, and similar identifications were made in 
regard to all the other plants. 



And here we inay observe, that there is an obvious 
answer to Lamarck's objection, that the botanist can- 
not point out a place where the common wheat grows 
wild, unless in places where it may have been de- 
rived from neighbouring cultivation. All naturalists 
are well aware that the geographical distribution of 
a great number of species is extremely limited, and 
that it V7as to be expected that every useful plant 
should first be cultivated successfully in the country 



* From " Principles of Geology 



24 



ON THE CHANGES IN PLANTS. 



where it was indigenous, and that, probably, every 
station which it partially occupied when growing 
wild, would be selected by the agriculturist as best 
suited to it when artificially increased. Palestine 
has been conjectured, by a late writer on the Cerea- 
lia, to have been the original habitation of wheat and 
barley, a supposition which appears confirmed by 
Hebrew and Egyptian traditions, and by tracing the 
migrations of the worship of Ceres, as indicative of 
the migrations of the plant. 

If we are to infer that some one of the wild grasses 
has been transformed into the common wheat, and 
that some animal of the genus canis, still unre- 
claimed, has been metamorphosed into the dog, 
merely because we cannot find the domestic dog, or 
the cultivated wheat, in a state of nature, we may be 
next called upon to make similar admissions in re- 
gard to the camel ; for it seems very doubtful whether 
any trace of this species of quadruped is now wild. 

But if agriculture, it will be said, does not supply 
examples of extraordinary changes of form and or- 
ganization, the horticulturist can, at least, appeal to 
facts which may confound the preceding train of rea- 
soning. The crab has been transformed into the 
apple; the sloe into the plum; flowers have changed 
their colour and become double; and these new cha- 
racters can be perpetuated by seed ; — a bitter plant, 
with wavy sea-green leaves, has been taken from the 
sea-side, where it grew like wild charlock, has been 
transplanted into the garden, lost its saltness, and 
has been metamorphosed into two distinct vegetables, 
as unlike each other as each is to the parent plant — 
the red cabbage and the cauliflower. These, and a 
multitude of analogous facts, are undoubtedly among 
the wonders of nature, and attest more strongly, 
perhaps, the extent to which species may be modi- 
fied, tlian any examples derived from the animal 
kinxdom. But in these cases we find, that we soon 
reach certain limits, beyond which we are unable to 
cause the individuals, descending from the same 
stock, to vary ; while, on the other hand, it is easy 
tp shew that these extraordinary varieties could sel- 
dom arise, and could never be perpetuated in a wild 
state for many generations, under any imaginable 
combination of accidents. They may be regarded as 
extreme cases brought about by human mterference, 
and not as phenomena which indicate a capability of 
indefinite modifications in the natural world. 

The propagation of a plant by buds or grafts, and 
by cuttings, is obviously a mode which nature does 
not employ ; and this multiplication, as well as that 
produced by roots and layers, seems merely to ope- 
rate as an extension of the life of an individual, and 
not as a reproduction of the species, as happens by 
seed. All plants increased by the former means 
retain precisely the peculiar qualities of the indivi- 
dual, they have only a determinate existence ; in 
some cases longer, and in others shorter. It seems 



now admitted by horticulturists, that none of our 
garden varieties of fruit are entitled to be considered 
strictly permanent, but that they wear out after a 
time ; and we are thus compelled to resort again to 
seeds ; in which case, there is so decided a tendency 
in the seedlings to revert to the original type, that 
our utmost skill is sometimes baflfled in attempting 
to recover the desired variety. 

The different races of cabbages afford, as we have 
admitted, an astonishing example of deviation from 
a common type; but we can scarcely conceive them 
to have originated, much less to have lasted, for se- 
veral generations, without the intervention of man. 
It is only by strong manures that these varieties 
have been obtained, and in poorer soils they instantly 
degenerate. If, therefore, we suppose in a state of 
nature the seed of the wild Brassica oleracea to have 
been wafted from the sea-side to some spot enriched 
by the dung of animals, and to have there become 
a cauliflower, it would soon diffuse its seed to some 
comparatively steril soils around, and the offspring 
would relapse to the likeness of the parent stock, 
like some individuals which may now be seen grow- 
ing on the cornice of old London bridge. 

But if we go so far as to imagine the soil, in the 
spot first occupied, to be constantly manured by 
herds of wild animals, so as to continue as rich as 
that of a garden, still the variety could not be main- 
tained, because we know that each of these races is 
prone to fecundate, and gardeners are compelled to 
exert the utmost diligence to prevent cross-breeds. 
The intermixture of the pollen of varieties growing 
in the poorer soil around, would soon destroy the 
peculiar characters of the race which occupied the 
highly-manured tract ; for if these accidents so con- 
tinually happen, in spite of us, among the culinary 
varieties, it is easy to see how soon this cause might 
obliterate every marked singularity in a wild state. 

Besides, it is well known that although the pam- 
pered races which we rear in our gardens for use 
or ornament, may often be perpetuated by seed, yet 
they rarely produce seed in such abundance, or so 
prolific in quantity, as wild individuals ; so that if 
the care of man were withdrawn, the most fertile 
variety would always, in the end, prevail over the 
more steril. 

Similar remarks may be applied to the double 
flowers, which present such strange anomalies to the 
botanist. The ovarium, in such cases, is frequently 
abortive, and the seeds, when prolific, are generally 
much fewer than where the flowers are single. 

Some curious experiments recently made on the 
production of blue instead of red flowers in the Hy- 
drangea hortensis, illustrate the immediate effect of 
certain soils on the colours of the petals. In garden- 
mould or compost, the flowers are blue ; and the 
same change is always produced by a particular 
sort of yellow loam. 



LIST OF GRASSES AND OTHER PLANTS. 



25 



Linnseus was of opinion that the primrose, oxlip, 
cowslip, and pol3'anthus, were only varieties of the 
same species. The majority of modern botanists, 
on the contrary, consider them to be distinct, al- 
though some conceived that the oxlip might be a 
cross between the cowslip and the primrose. Mr. 
Herbert has lately recorded the following experi- 
ment : — " I raised from the natural seed of one umbel 
of a highly-manured red cowslip, a primrose, a cows- 
lip, oxlips of the usual and other colours, a black 
polyanthus, a nose-in-nose cowslip, and a natural 
primrose bearing its flower on a polyanthus stalk. 
From the seed of that very nose-in-nose cowslip I 
have since raised a nose-in-nose primrose. I there- 
fore consider all these to be only local varieties upon 
soil and situation." Professor Henslow, of Cam- 
bridge, has since confirmed this experiment of Mr. 
Herbert, so that we have an example, not only of 
the remarkable varieties which the florist can obtain 
from a common stock, but of the distinctness of an- 
alogous races found in a wild state. 



On what particular ingredient, or quality in the 
earth, these changes depend, has not yet been ascer- 
tained. But gardeners are well aware that particu- 
lar plants, when placed under the influence of certain 
circumstances, are changed in various ways accord- 
ing to the species : and then as often as the experi- 
ments are repeated, similar results are obtained. 
The nature of these results, however, depends upon 
the species, and they are, therefore, part of the spe- 
cific character ; they exhibit the same phenomena 
again and again, and indicate certain fixed and inva- 
riable relations between the physiological peculiari- 
ties of the plant, and the influence of certain external 
agents. They afford no ground for questioning the 
instability of species, but rather the contrary; they 
present us with a class of phenomena which, when 
they are more thoroughly understood, may afford 
some of the best tests for identifying species, and 
proving that the attributes originally conferred, en- 
dured so long as any issue of the original stock 
remains upon the earth. 



LIST OF GRASSES AND OTHER PLANTS COMMON IN THE PASTURES OF 

CARNARVON AND ANGLESEY. 

BY J. S. MENTEATH, ESQ., CLOSEBURN HALL.* 



Veronica officinalis. 

■ chamtedrys. 

agrostis. 

arvensis. 

Pinguicula vulgaris. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum. 
Valeriana locusta. 
Eleocharis palustris. 
Scirpus caespitosus. 
Eriopliorum polystachion. 

angustifolium. 

— vaginatum. 

Nardus stricta. 
Phalaris arundinacea. 
Alopecurus pratensis. 

■ geiiiculatus. 

Agrostis canina. 

' — \'ulgaria. 

• — alba. 

Aira cjespitosa. 

flexuosa. 

prsecox. 

caryoph3'llea. 

Holcus lanatus. 

mollis. 

avenaceus. 



Poa pratensis. 

annua. 

Triodia decumbens. 
Briza media. 
Dactylus gloraerata. 
Cynosurus cristatus. 
Festuca ovina. 



vivipara. 

dui'iuscula. 

bromoides. 

pratensis. 

Bromus mollis. 
Avena fatua. 

pubescens. 

flavescens. 

Lolium perenne. 
Triticum repens. 

caninum. 

Scabiosa succisa. 



■ arvensis. 



Sherardia arvensis. 
Galium saxatile. 



■ verum. 



Melica crerulea. 
Poa trivialis. 



Plantago major. 

lanceolata. 

maritima. 

coronopiis. 



Alchemilla arvensis. 

vulgaris. 

Myosotis scorpioides. 
Primula vxilgaris. 

veris. 

Anagallis arvensis. 
Campanula rotundifolia. 
Jasione montana. 
Viola canina. 
— — tricolor. 
Chenopodiiim album. 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris. 
Bunium flexuosum. 
Heracleum Sphondylium. 
Chserophyllum sylvestre. 
Nartliecium ossifragum. 
Junci, about 15 species. 
Erica iiilgaris. 
Stellaria media. 
holostea. 



■ grammea. 
Fragaria vesca. 

sterilis. 

Tormentilla officinalis. 
Caltba palustris. 
Ajuga reptans. 
Glechoma hederacea. 



Betonica officinalis. 

Thymus serpyllum. 
Prunella vulgaris. 
Rhinanthus Crista-Galli. 
Euphrasia officinalis. 
Radiola palustris. 
Cardamine hirsuta. 

pratensis. 

Polygala vulgaris. 
Ononis arvensis. 
Ulex Europaeus, 

nanus. 

Vicia sativa. 
Ornithopus perpusillus. 
Trifolium repens. 

pratense. 

procumbens. 

— minus. 

Lotus corniculatus. 
Medicago Lupulina. 
Leontodon Taraxacum. 
Hieraceum Pilosella. 
Tussilago Farfara. 
Senecio vulgaris. 
Bellis perennis. 
Achillsea Millefolium. 
Carex, about 30 species. 



* From a paper communicated by the author, printed in the Wevn. Trans. 
MAGAZINE OF BOTANiT AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO. XI, — FEB. 1834. 



26 



ON CLUBROOT, 



LIST OF SNOWDON PLANTS. 

BY WM. WILSON, OF WARRINGTON, ESQ. AUG. 1828, 



PLANTS FREQUENTIORES. 



Saxifraga nivalis, Wyddva 

summit, and near TwU 

Du. 
Cerastium latifolium, Clog- 

wyn y Garacold. 
Aspidium Lonchitis. 
Serratula alpina. 
Salix herbacea. 
Epipactis argifolia. 
Orchis albida, near Llan- 

berris, below Ffyanon 

Freeh. 



Juncus triglumis. 
Sedum Fosteranium. 
Saxifraga oppositifolia. 
Juniperus nanus, Glyder 

Fawr. 
Subularia aquatica, Lleyn 

Ogwen. 
Isoetes lacustris, Ffyanon 

Freeh. 
Chara gracilis, Lleyn Idwal. 
Alisma natans, between the 

lakes and Llanberris. 



FIiANT;E RARISSIM^. 



Anthericum seratinum, near 

Twll Du. 
Arabis hispida, Clogwyn 

Du'r Ardhu. 
Saxifraga csespitosa, near 

Twll Du. 
Woodsia ilvensis, 

near Llyny Cwn / 
W. hyperborea, > Ferns. 

Clogwyn y Gar- \ 

nedd 
Cyathea (now Cistea) regia, 

Clogwyn Du'r Ardhu. 



Lobelia Dortmanna, Llan- 
berris lakes, Lleyn Idwal. 

Potentilla a] pestris, Clogwyn 
y Garcold. 

Asplenium viride, near Twll 
Du. 

septentrionale. 

£pilobiumalsi!iifolium,Cwm 
Gaseg,belowGarned Llen- 
llyn, and by Aber Water- 
fall. 

Rubus saxatilis, near Twll 
Du, also at Fachmere. 



Papaver Cambricum, near 

Llanben-is. 
Thalictrum minus, Clogwyn 

Du'r Ardhu, and Twll Du. 
alpinum, do. and 



Carex rigida, Wyddfa sum- 
mit. 

atrata, below Ffynon 

Freeh. 

Draba incana, do. 

Galium boreale, do. andnear 
Twll Du. 

Arenaria venia, do. do. 

Rosa villosa, near Llanberris 

Hieracium alpinum, near 
Lleyn y Cwm. 



near Twll Du. 
Poa alpina, do. and Clogwyn 

y Garnedd. 

Glauca, near Twll Du. 

Epilobium angustifolium, by 

Lleyn y Cwm. 

Asplenium septentrionale, Hyperborea, and Hieracium 
alpinum, are so excessively scarce in Carnarvonshire, in- 
deed almost extinct, that there is little probability of 
obtaining them : they are more plentiful in Scotland. The 
first of these is found chiefly on Arthur's Seat. 

The following are common on the mountains : — 
Rhodiola rosea. Trollius Europseus. 

Saxifraga hirta, platypetala. Hieracium maculatum, near 



Twll Du. 
Lycopodium alpinum. 

■ selaginoides. 

selago. 

Hymenophyllum Tun- 

bridgense. 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea. 



Silene acaulis. 
Gnaphalium dioicum. 
Saxifraga stellaris. 
Asplenium trichomanes " 
Cistea fragilis ( 
Polypodium Dryopteris { 
Phegopteris - 

Rubus Chamsmorus is hardly to he found in Carnar- 
vonshire. It is said to be common on the Berwyn moun- 
tains, on the peaty bogs near the summits. 



ON CLUBROOT. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



Clubroot is a sort of galls produced by insects on 
the roots of cabbages, turnips, holyhocks, and other 
species of cultivated plants, sometimes called an- 
bury, and popularly, but mistakingly, supposed to 
arise from peculiarities of soil, or growing the same 
crop successively on the same field, or to variations 
of seasons. Nothing can be more simple than the 
disproof of all these theoretical notions : take some 
of the cabbages or turnips whose roots are infected 
with anbury, and keep them in garden-pots covered 
over with close gauze, and in a short time, if the 
plants be kept growing, the little weevils, evolved 
from the grubs in the interior of the roots, will make 
their appearance, ready to multiply their species, by 
depositing their eggs, as their parents had done, on 
the first turnip or cabbage they can find ; then is the 
critical time to destroy them, and prevent their in- 
crease. The weevil thus arising continues to be no 



less, often more, destructive than the grub had 
proved to be in feeding on the roots ; for it thrusts 
its beak [rostrum) into the seed-leaf of the turnip, 
and greatly injures the crop. Neither of these in- 
sects would ever be bred in dung. When the turnip 
is advanced to the rough-leaf, these insects either 
die, as most insects do when they have laid their 
eggs, or betake themselves to some other plant, such 
as clover, suited to their taste. 

It will be therefore evident that no peculiar rota- 
tion of crops, nor peculiar manure for dressing the 
soil, can be of any avail in preventing anbury, or in 
stopping its progress when the insects have obtained 
a lodgment within the roots. The destruction of 
the adult insects before they have laid their eggs is 
the only remedy, though in the case of so small a 
species it is peculiarly difficult to put in practice. 



REPORT OF A NURSERY OF HALF AN ACRE. 



27 _ 



IMPROVEMENTS IN AGRICULTURE AND GARDEN CULTURE. 

BY A CORRESPONDENT. 



It has ever been our opinion that if the intelligence 
of the country was properly brought into operation, 
that we might so improve the earth's surface as to 
make England independent of foreign corn. This 
has been proved by the experiments of Mr. Lance, 
and the reasonings which he has set forth in his 
Agricultviral Essays. We are satisfied that more 
than half the present seed-corn might be saved^ — 
that labour on the land might be beneficially in- 
creased — and the surface in tillage be made to pro- 
duce one-third or one-half more than it now does. 
But, then, scientific reason must guide our farmers, 
and not the rule of thumb alone. In addition to 
what has gone the round of the public journals, 
relative to Mr. Lance's great increase of corn pro- 
duce, by culture and careful seeding, as now ex- 
hibiting in London, we are favoured with the fol- 
lowing additional proofs of what a saving of corn 
will do. Mr. Yovuig, at Farnham Wharf, being the 
barren Bagshot sand district, set some peas at 
regular distances in properly prepared ground ; they 



tillered out prodigiously, some to three or four 
stems, and in one instance he counted one hundred 
and forty pods from one pea, and the produce was 
seven hundred and seventy peas ; these were the 
Marlborough grey. A new sort of pea has been 
grown by J. Langdon, Esq., Broomsgrove, Wor- 
cestershire, which produced ninety pods : they are 
exhibiting at the Museum of Arts, Leicester-square. 
Other persons, who sow in the usual old routine of 
seeding, get about six-fold for their labour, six times 
only what they put in the ground. The same Mr. 
Young above mentioned, has experimented on Mr. 
Lance's plans ; he, unlike other farmers, is not 
frightened at the word experiment, and does not 
consider it in the same light as speculation. He 
has obtained at the rate of eight quarters per acre of 
wheat, and in one particular experiment he obtained 
sixty-fold for the seed he put into the ground, on 
the hitherto despised sandy soil a few miles before 
you reach Farnham. 



REPORT OF A NURSERY OF HALF AN ACRE, AT MUCRUSS, COUNTY 

KERRY. 

BY THE REV. T. RADCLIFF. 



1801. Planted sixteen acres of Turk mountain, 
with 97,000 Scotch fir, oak, ash, and sycamore, and 
twenty-two pecks of acorns dibbled. Transplanted 
98,000 forest trees. 

1802. Planted nine acres of Turk mountain, and 
thirteen acres of Rusneagarry, with 131,000 trees of 
the above kinds. Transplanted 184,000, amongst 
them 70,000 larch from Scotland, all the rest reared 
at home. 

1803. Planted sixteen acres in various directions 
with 104',000 forest trees. Planted in the nursery 
131,000 seedlings, principally oak. 

1804. Planted sixteen acres in detached pieces 
with 114,000 forest trees. Planted in nurseries 
336,000, 300,000 of which were oak, reared at 
home. 

1805. Planted ten acres with oak, &c. so as to 
obtain a premium from the Dublin Society. Re- 
placed the wood of Tonris 1500 acres, by 49,000 
three year old oak. Planted 5,200 in the nursery. 

1806. Repaired the planting of the years 1801, 
1802, and 1803; also planted about three acres. 
Transplanted in nursery 68,000 forest trees. 



1807. Repaired the planting of former years, 
planted small pieces, and planted in the nursery 
68,000 forest trees. 

1808. Planted ten acres with 70,000 trees, chiefly 
oaks. Repaired the wood of Caiarnabawn. Planted 
the fall of the last year, with 16,000 oak of eight 
years old. Planted in nursery 76,000 forest trees. 
Sold 50,000 seedlings. 

1809. Planted the fall of the last year, with 
22,000 oak. Planted in nursery 40,000 seedlings. 
Sold 30,000 seedlings. 

1810. Planted the fall of the last year, with 
12,000 oak. Planted in nursery 32,000. Sold 
35,000. 

1811. Planted the fall of the last year, and a 
large tract coppiced in, with 40,000 oak and Scotch 
fir. Planted in nursery 32,000. Sold 35,000. 

1812. Headed down all the oaks in the planting 
of 1808, and planted amongst them 10,000 Scotch 
fir, as nurses. Finished planting bavina wood, of 
4,300 acres. Planted in nursery 30,000. Sold 
35,000. 

E 2 



28 



ON COTTAGERS GARDEN SOCIETIES. 



ON COTTAGERS' GARDEN SOCIETIES. 

BY JAMES STUART MENTEATH, ESQ.* 



Few employments are more useful, or more amusing 
than gardening; while it ornaments the country with 
a variety of beautiful plants, it may be made the 
means of contributing to the comfort and sustenance 
of numbers, by an abundant supply of vegetables. 

It is somewhat extraordinary that in Scotland, a 
country which supplies England witli some of her 
best gardeners, the labouring population should he 
so little acquainted with the culture of the garden. 
We need not be surprised at the disappointment 
which the English traveller feels, when passing 
through Scotland, in observing the garden ground 
attached to the cottage, neglected, ill cultivated, and 
for the most part overgrown with weeds and useless 
plants. We can hardly tell, from this neglected 
state of the cottage garden, how it should come that 
Scotch gardeners are so frequently found in tlie em- 
ployment of the richer classes in England. 

To remove all ground for such remarks on Scotch 
cottage gardening, and to spread among all the la- 
bouring people of Scotland an universal taste for 
this most useful art, the following hints are sug- 
gested. 

In almost all professions we observe, that the 
members of them, in order to advance their skill 
and acquaintance with the art they are pursuing, 
form themselves into a society. And to stimulate 
each other in their progress, rewards are fixed and 
distributed among the most deserving. 

Ploughing matches, and horticultural societies, as 
every one knows, have done much to improve the 
skill, dexterity, and intelligence of the ploughman, 
and the gardeners of the landed proprietors. 

With this view we propose that a Gardening So- 
ciety, solely confined to the labourers of one or more 
parishes^ of any district, should be formed. That 
rules and regulations be drawn out for regulating 
tlie concerns of such a society. That regular meet- 
ings at different periods of the year should be held, 
at each of which there should be exhibitions of the 
produce of the gardens of the different members. 
That prizes should be awarded to the exhibitors of 
the best fruits, herbs, roots, and vegetables, and 
perhaps of the more ordinary kinds of flowers. That 
a list of the competitors for the prizes should be 
published sometime before the meetings of the so- 
ciety : and, to afford general satisfaction, that the 
choice of the judges should be left to the competi- 
tors. That bee husbandry be encouraged, by re- 
warding those who raise the greatest quantity of 



honey. That prizes of the following articles be dis- 
tributed — money, packets of seeds, each packet con- 
taining an assortment of all the useful kitchen garden 
seeds, with a few flower seeds, garden tools, and a 
few useful short works on common kitchen garden- 
ing. That the smallest annual subscription from 
each member be received. That an account of each 
of the meetings be drawn out, with the list of the 
names of the successful parties, and be inserted in 
one of the county newspapers. 

That the society should annually purchase a quan- 
tity of the best kitchen garden vegetable seed, and 
re-sell it at a reduced rate to its members, in such 
proportions as each of their small gardens require. 

That landed proprietors in the neighbourhood 
should be solicited to aid the usefulness of the so- 
ciety, by sending for distribution among its members, 
hardy evergreens, cuttings, and seeds of useful and 
ornamental plants ; and in order particularly to en- 
courage the children of the members of the society 
in the same taste, that prizes should be given to such 
children as have produced, at the meetings, flowers 
cultivated by their own hands in their little gardens. 
I'he advantages of such a Cottage Garden Society 
must be so apparent to all as scarcely to demand 
enumeration. 

Among the chief advantages would be that of 
fostering a general spirit of gardening throughout 
the district. By giving prizes at the several meet- 
ings within the year, deserving and meritorious 
members' exertions would be publicly made known, 
and their praiseworthy industry be rewarded in the 
presence of their fellows. 

Many of the members — as several of the prizes 
would consist of packets of seeds, consisting of most 
of the most useful common kitchen vegetables, would 
have at command, for sowing their gardens, the pro- 
per seed ; and those who are not successful in ob- 
taining prizes, might, at a reduced price, purchase 
from the society such vegetable seeds as they 
wanted. 

The society, also, having at its disposal, by the 
liberality of the landed proprietors in the neighbour- 
hood, presenting them for distribution, hardy ever- 
greens, cuttings, and seeds of useful plants, would 
give these away among its members. 

Last, not least, of the benefits of such a society, 
would be the ample increased supply of wholesome 
garden vegetables, for the use of the cottager's fa- 
mily, of his pig, and of his cow. And in addition to 



* Circular communicated by the author. 



ON THE CULTURE OF HYACINTHS. 



29 



this, by the increasing interest the labourer would 
take in cultivating his garden, his health and com- 
fort would be vastly augmented. 

The skill and intelligence of all being thus pro- 
moted, the best method of raising the greatest pos- 
sible quantity of garden produce on a given piece 
of ground would be discovered. Many useful and 
valuable vegetables, unknown and uncultivated in a 
parish, would be introduced. Such a society would 
also be a little seminary, where many an intelligent 
young man, learning the rudiments of gardening, 
would be qualifying himself to manage the garden of 
a nurseryman or of some landed proprietor. 

The landed proprietor, while witnessing the in- 
creased zeal and laborious efforts of the cottagers to 
cultivate their gardens, to obtain the prizes offered 
at the different exhibitions, could not fail to view 
them with the liveliest interest. Kis support and 
kindness to them would be rewarded on their part 
by the most grateful feelings ; and thus the links of 
society, now too far apart, would be drawn closer 
and closer. 

In short, the success of such a parish Garden So- 
ciety as is just pointed out, would be a triumph of 

Closeburn Hall, Dumfries-shire. 



knowledge over ignorance ; of virtue over vice ; of 
happiness over misery. And instead of the cottager 
indulging himself in sloth and drunkenness, we 
should see his leisure hours spent in his garden: his 
pleasure would be in the society of his wife and 
children ; and his anxiety be, that they should share 
with him in all the domestic comforts that could be 
afforded by his garden. 

To shew more fully than any reasoning can do, 
the good effects of such an institution, it may be 
mentioned that a society, nearly of the same kind, 
has existed for several years in the Glenkens of 
Galloway, formed, we believe, under the direction 
of Mr. Grierson, of Garroch. The effects in that 
quarter have already been remarkable, in improving 
the appearance and comfort of the cottages, and in 
bettering the habits of the labouring classes. 

Were these Garden Societies once established in 
separate parishes, a number of them might be united 
in one district, into a larger Garden Society, as has 
been done in that of the Glenkens Society, to which 
allusion has already been made, and prizes of a 
larger amount to be distributed among the success- 
ful competitors belonging to it. 



ON THE CULTURE OF HYACINTHS. 

BY E. ESBURY.* 



I SEND you an abbreviation of a paper on this sub- 
ject, by, the Honourable and Reverend William 
Herbert, which contains an account of the Dutch 
method of management, and as the author is known 
to be a skilful cultivator of bulbous-rooted plants, 
may be considered fully sufficient for the successful 
cultivation of these beautiful flowers in England. 

The compost used at Haarlem (the centre of 
hyacinths in Holland), is rotten cow-dung, rotten 
leaves, and fine sea sand. In making this compost, 
the Dutch gardeners prefer the leaves of elm, lime, 
and birch, on account of their rotting more quickly 
than those of other trees. The cow-dung which 
they use is also of a peculiar quality, being collected 
without any mixture of straw or other litter, in the 
winter, when the cattle are fed upon dry food. The 
cow-dung and leaves must not be used till they are 
thoroughly decayed ; the compost should then be 
mixed in the following proportions, viz, one-sixth 
rotten leaves, two-sixths pure sand, and three-sixths 
rotten cow-dung ; and it should be allowed to be 
together some time, to ameliorate and incorporate, 
before it is used for the beds. This compost retains 
its qualities about six or seven years, but the Dutch 



avoid setting hyacinths in it two years successively ; 
nor do they set them in it the first season, as the 
fresh manure might be injurious to them. In the 
alternate years they plant tulips, narcissi, &c. The 
beds should be made about three feet in depth with 
the compost, and must not be trodden down hard, 
but, trenches being opened, the bulbs may be ar- 
ranged, and then carefully covered, from three to 
five inches deep. They should not be dibbled or 
pressed into the compost. A little pures and placed 
round the bottoms of young bidbs is believed to pre- 
vent them from cankering. The later sorts nearest 
the surface, to make them flower earlier. If the 
situation is wet in winter, the beds may be raised six 
inches, or even more, above the level of the soil, to 
prevent the injury which the bulbs might receive 
from moisture ; but if too much elevated they will 
suffer from drought. The Dutch cover their beds 
with dung in winter, to keep off the frost, but this 
appears unnecessary in our climate. When the 
leaves of hyacinths begin to wither, the bulbs should, 
if possible, be pulled out of the bed by the hand, to 
avoid the danger of cutting them with a spade ; the 
leaves should be cut off, and each bulb laid on its 



From Hort. Register. 



30 



DESCRIPTTON OF A GARDEN. 



side, covering it lightly with the compost about two 
inches thick ; — in this state they should be left about 
a month (but the tardy sorts are usually left longer, 
and more lightly covered), and then taken up in dry 
weather, and exposed to the open air for some hours, 
but not to a powerful sun, which would be very in- 
jurious to them. They should after this be carefully 
examined, and the decayed parts of any bulbs which 
may have cankered, must be removed with a knife ; 
for which purpose it will sometimes be necessary to 
cut deep, for if it is not done effectually, the whole 
bulb becomes diseased, and infects others which 



may be near it. The bulbs should be placed in an 
airy store-room about the end of June; they must 
not be suffered to touch each other, and must be 
frequently looked over, in order to remove those 
which may shew fresh symptoms of decay, until 
November, the time for replanting. Old tan, well 
decayed and pulverized, may be substituted in the 
compost above described if leaves cannot be ob- 
tained ; and when the compost has been in use for 
about six years, it will be necessary to renovate it 
by the addition of some fresh materials. 



DESCRIPTION OF A GARDEN. 

BY MATTHiEUS SYLVATICUS. 



Phcenicia's gardens have enough been sung. 
Enough the praise of proud Versailles has rung; 
Where stiff in rows the walks and groups are made. 
And Nature's corpse at Euclid's feet is laid. 
Rise, rustic Muse, and sing, in simple strain 

''s little garden, small in vain ; 
Where Art in Nature's wildest pathway treads, 
And boldly follows wheresoe'er she leads ; 
Where rivers flow, where rocks stupendous rise. 
And where th' expanded lake reflects the skies. 

First, from the house o'er level walks we pass, 
With flowers bordered, and with verdant grass ; 
Here roses and diosmas freely grow. 
Here heaths and beauteous myrtles deign to blow ; 
Here clove carnations catch the dazzled sight, 
And helianthus pours a blaze of light. 

A rural trelliage gate we now pass through. 
Shaded and arched o'erhead by lilac blue : 
The sumach with the dahlia here combines. 
And coreopsis, bright in beauty, joins. 
Thence to the left we turn, ascending high 
A rising hill salutes the gazing eye; 
Far on the right extends a verdant mead ; 
Rocks on the other side to rocks succeed ; 
Pomona's offerings overhang the road, 
Scarce can the branches bear the luscious load ; 
Geraniums smile beneath the solar ray. 
And antirrhinum courts the eye of day : 
Thine arms, convolvulus, each tree embrace, 
And gentianella beautifies the place. 
But soft — behold where yonder mountain's brow 
With lordly scorn surveys the vale below ; 
A nodding wood adorns its topmost height, 
O'ergrown with shrubs impervious to the sight ; 
And, where a torrent once its passage rent, 
A rough and dark defile affords descent : 



So in Breadalbane's wilds, 'mid forests green, 
The Trosach's glen contrasts the sylvan scene. 

The mountain pass'd, to strike our wondering eyes 
The lake's unnumber'd beauties next arise ; 
So clear the flood we see the spreading sands. 
The garden in the crystal mirror stands ; 
While China's glittering fish, securely gay, 
At ease within its bosom bask or play. 

A length of pleasant walk we now must tread, 
To reach a bridge across a river spread ; 
Here, pleased to rest, a rustic bower we view. 
Where our exhausted strength we can renew. 
Such varied charms this lovely seat can boast. 
We know not which to like or praise the most. 
Within, all neatness. Flora for her own 
Has fix'd this spot, and here has placed her throne ; 
Without, th' acacia waves her graceful head. 
The glo'.ving cistus all around is spread ; 
The holyoak its varied beauty shews. 
And ivy gives the scene its due repose. 

Recruited now, we leave the sylvan seat, 
And view the precincts of the sweet jetreat; 
Far on the left, old Bacchus' plant appears, 
Each lengthen'd branch the luscious fruitage bears ; 
No trees are near, and here, in pomp display'd. 
Are all those flowerets which avoid the shade. 

Another bridge we cross, again the lake 
Displays its charms, the woodland view to break : 
Unnumber'd sweets, around its borders shewn. 
Our every sense delight and make their own. 
A grateful coolness tempers here the heat, 
A mulberry grove affords a calm retreat. 

Border'd with grass the winding path proceeds, 
Thro' numerous groups of flowers it homeward leads; 
Again the flower garden paths we tread, 
And to the house by Friendship's hand are led. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



31 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



POINCIANA PULCHERRIMA. 

Decandria Monogynia, Linnaeus ; Cassiea, De Cond. 

Calyx 5-phyllus, inferiore majora. Petala 5, summum diiForme. 

Stam. longissima; omnia ftecunda, discreca. Legumen com- 

pressoplanum, bivalve, pluviloculare. Sem. unicum in singulis 

loculamentis. 

Poinciana pulcherrima ; aculeis geminis. Spec. PI. 554. Reich. 2. 

p. 258, Hort. Up.i. 101. Horc.Kew. 2. p. 54. Jacq. Amer. 122. 

Ld. Pict. 62. t. 120 
Poinciana. I'ourn. Just. 619. t. 391. Brown Jour. 225. Hughes 

Barbad.p. 201. 
Csesalpinia pulcherrima ; foliolis oblongo-ovalibus emarginatis 

calycibusque glabris, corymbes simplicibus petalis imbriatis, 

staminibus longissimus. Swartz. Obs. 166. IViUd. Sp. PL 2. 

531. 3Iart. Mill. Dirt, a 2 
Senna spuria arborea spinosa, &c. Sloave Jan. 2. p 49. 
Crista Pavonis flore elegantissimo variegato. Burn. Zeyl 79. 
Crista Pavonis frute.K pavonius. Breyn. Cent. 61. t, 22. Rail 

Hist. 981. 
Acacia oi-ientalis gloriosa, colutese foliis, ad genicula spinis ge- 

mellis aculeata. Piuk. Alur. 5. 
Flos Pavonis Mer Sur. 45. t. 49. 
Tsietti mandaru. Rheede Mai. 6. p. 1. f, 1. 

The name of Poinciana was given to this splendid 
shrub by Tournefort, in commemoration of M. de 
Poinci, governor of the Antilles. Its English appel- 
lation denotes the use to which it is frequently ap- 
plied in the West Indies, and Jacquin remarks that 
a hedge made of this plant, especially vshen mixed 
with Parkinsonia aculeata, forms the most beautiful 
fence imaginable ; indeed few flowers have been 
described in more enraptured language. Although 
long since widely diffused through the West India 
isles, and frequently found of spontaneous growth, 
it is doubtful whether it be originally indigenous 
there. Ligon says expressly that it was imported 
into Barbadoes from the Cape de Verd Islands. It 
is cultivated through all the tropical countries of the 
East, especially wherever any Chinese are settled, 
by whom it is called the Peacock's breast. It was 
introduced into Holland from Amboyna about the 
year 1670, and cultivated in Chelsea Garden, by Sir 
Hans Sloane, in 1691 ; but as it cannot be preserved 
out of the stove, nor propagated except by seeds, it 
must ever remain a rarity in northern climes. 

The flowers are said to be sweet-scented ; but the 
whole plant, when bruised, diffuses a disagreeable 
smell, very like that of Savin, which it appears to 
resemble in virtue, being considered, in the West 
Indies, as a powerful emmenagogue. 

Swartz has thought proper to unite Poinciana 
with Cassalpinia, in which he has been followed by 
Willdenow and Martyn ; but, that, according to 
Gaertner, the seed-j)od of Cassalpinia Sapan is one- 
celled, which in our plant is divided by a transverse 
septum between each seed; and in respect to the 
form of the flower, Poincinia seems to have a nearer 
resemblance to Parkinsonia, 



PELARGONIUM PULCHELLUM. 

Monadelphia Heptandria, Ll-jN/Eos; Geraniae, Jdssied. 
Sect. 11. Fructus rostro spirali intus barbate. 
Acantia : radice rassifornii ; filamentes 5 sterilibus. P. foliis pin- 
natifidis, laciniis 3-5-lobis : pedicellis brevissimis : calycibus ven- 
tricosulis, ^■iscid^lo-pubescentibus : petalis spatulatis, inferioribus 
angustis. Sponte nascentera in Promontorio Cap. 

The tuberous-rooted Pelargoniums from the Cape 
of Good Hope, are so numerous and distinct in their 
habit, that it is greatly to be wished some character 
could be found to separate them as a genus. In 
every flower of the specimen of that now figured 
which was examined, the anthers were persistent, 
not falling off soon after shedding their pollen, as in 
most other Pelargoniums : but whether this circum- 
stance is peculiar to the whole group, or even con- 
stant in this one species, has not been ascertained. 
It seems allied to Mr. Kennedy's Roseum, well 
figured in the Botanical Repository; and the calyx 
being constantly swelled at the base, may perhaps 
disting-uish it from that and some others. 



PHYLLODOCE TAXIFOLIA. 

Decandria Monogynia, LinNjEos; Erica;, Jdssied. 

Calyx pi'ofunde 5-fidus. Corolla 1-petala, decidua. Filamenta 10, 
toro inserta. Antberce juxta apicem foramine obovato dehiscentes. 
Pericarpium superum 5-loculare ; septis eniarginibus valvarura, 
ab axi debiscentibus. Semina elliptica scrobiculata. Fruticulus 
semper virens, Folia alterna, lateribus reduplicatis quasi subtus 
sulcata ut in Ericfi. Flores ex axillis 2-9 ultimis fasciculura 
mentientes, ramo nunc prolifero. Bracteae 2 ad basin pedunculi 
praeterfolium, persistentes. Nomen poeticum, exemplo immor- 
talis Linnaeus in Andromeda ad hoc genus selagi, quod toto anno 
etiam subnive foliis ornatur. Illi valde atfinis est Erica Daboecii 
Sp. PI- quam ob dehiscentiam fructusolim ad Menziesiam retuli 
uti nuper Jussieu, sed cum inflorescentiA longe diversa folio tan- 
tum absque bracteis pedunculo subjecta nee non receptaculo 
seminum abludat, potius erit sui generis. 

P. foliorum laminis linearibus, obtusis : corollae tubo urceolari. 

Erica cajrulea. If 'Hid. Sp. PI. v. 2 p. 303. 

Andromeda taxifolia. Pall. Fl. Ro.is. part 2. />. 54. t. 72. ,f. 2. 

Andromeda caerulea. FL Dan. t 57. 

Erica foliis acerosis de Gmel. Fl. Sib. v. 4. p 131. t. 57. y. 2. 

Andromeda caerulea Linn. Sp. PL ed 2. p. 563. 

Erica rarior Norwegica. Linn. Ama'n v 1. edLugce. Bat. p. 332. 

Andromeda foliis de Linn, FL Lapp. n. 164. t. \.f. 5. 

Sponte nascentem in Lapland abunde, legit C. Linne : in Labra- 
dor coUibus sicus, legit J. Banks, Baronettus ; in Kamschatka et 
America Borealis oris occidentalibus lat. 52. rupibus muscosis, 
legit G. W. Steller. 

The stems occasionally attain a foot in height when 
growing among rocks and mossy banks. The leaves 
are shining green, with a whitish line running through 
the middle of their under surface, obtuse, line-like, 
fringed with short gland- bearing hairs at the bend, 
which is not the true margin, as is sometimes sup- 
posed. Flowers on solitary long flower-stalks, issu- 
ing from two to nine of the uppermost axils of the 
leaves. Flower-scales two, at the base of each 



32 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



flower-stalk, besides the leaf which supplies the 
place of a third flower-scale ; and becomes gradually 
a little shorter and more like a flower-stalk in spe- 
cimens with many flowers, all persistent, and not 
caducous, as in Menziesia. The calyx is finely 
haired and viscid ; the corolla purple, varyins; to 
pale red and white, but never blue, for which reason 
Professor Pallas has very justly changed the name 
of ccerulea to taxifol'mm. The anthers are long, 
without nerves, and obtuse at the base. 



DIAPENSIA OBTUSIFOLIA. 

Pentandria Monogynia, Linn^us; Ericse, JussiEU. 

Calyx S-phyllus, peristens. Corolla 1-petala: Tubus calathi- 
fovmis: Linibus recurvulus, 5-partitus: decidua. Filamenta 5, 
lata, tubam inter lacinias terminantia. Anthers didymse, nunc 
basi rostratOE. Pericarpium fere totum superum, ovatum, 3-locu- 
lare 3-valve, medio loculorum dehiscens. Stylus crassus. Stigma 
3-lobani. Semina numerosa, colo retuso ad angulum internum 
sessilia, subovata. Fruticuli cajpitosi, sempervirentes, Calcilis, 
foliis, emarcidis vestitus. Folia alterna subopposita, in resus 
conferta. Flores albi, pedunculo subnuUo vel longiusculo 1-rii 
terminales, erecti. Bractese 3 juxtacalycem, praeter unam alter- 
amne infra sparsas. Genus in serie naturali forsan juxta Azaleum 
locandam cujus duse species innotuerunt. 

D. obtusifolia foliis spatulatis, glabris : antheris, obliquis, muticis. 

D. lapponica. Oed. in Ft. Dan. t, 47. bova. 

D. lapponica. Linn. Fl. Lapp. n. 88. t. \. f. 1. Sponte nascen- 
tem in Lapland, alpibus muscovestitis, legit. C. Linne : in 
Norway, horridis scopulis, legit. G. C. Oeder : in Ins. New- 
foundland, rupibus maritimis, legit. J. Banks, Baronettus : in 
New Hampshire, alpibus, legit. J. D. Peck: in Kamschatka, 
legit. J. Dixon. 

D. cuncifolia foliis lanceolato-cuneatis, inferne pubescentibus : 
antheris hoiizontalibus, basi rostratis. Pyxidanthera barbulati. 
Michaux. Fl. Boreali-Am. v. 1. p. 152. 1. 17. Sponte nascentem 
in North Carolina, montibus, legit. A. Michaux. 

Stems several, leafy, branching closely into little 
tufts or cushions, which Professor Peck says often 
become large and firm enough in the White moun- 
tains of New Hampshire to bear the weight of a man 
standing upon them. They are very slender, but 
woody, and covered with the decayed leaves for 
years. Leaves dark green, and more or less tinged 
with brown on their upper surface, yelloviish green 
on their under surface, from four to seven lines long, 
very closely imbricated, and sitting ; their lower 
part erect, dilated into a thin membranaceous mar- 
gin, and hollow ; from thence recurved, spatulate, 
very entire, blunt, quite smooth, slightly channelled 
with convex sides, flattish underneath, thick, and 
hard. Flowers solitary, and without smell. Flower- 
stalks terminating most of the principal branches, 
from six to ten lines long, nearly erect, cylindrical, 
smooth. Flower-scales three, imbricated near the 
calyx, erect, oval, persistent : besides these, one or 
two smaller are scattered lower down ; and they are 
all similar to the leaves in consistence. Calyx of 
five leaflets : these are somewhat imbricated, erect, 



oval, often slightly crenulated towards the top, which 
is rather tumid, quite smooth, nearly equal in size, 
persistent. Corolla white, full three lines in length : 
tube bowl-shaped : limb slightly recurved, divided 
to the base into five egg-oblong, very entire, blunt, 
flattish divisions : smooth on both surfaces, deciduous. 
Filaments five, white, terminating the tube between 
the divisions of the limb, broad, short, erect, some- 
what narrower towards the top, quite smooth, hol- 
lowish. Anthers yellow, confluent with the filaments, 
retuse, didymous: lobes oblique, elliptical, 1-locular, 
2-valved, splitting lengthwise, not much contracted 
after the pollen is discharged. Pollen yellow. Seed- 
vessel green while young, hollow within the sur- 
rounding torus, upon which the calyx and corolla 
are inserted so as not to be quite superior, almost 
globular, 3-celled : when fully grown, oval, splitting 
in the middle of the cells. The receptacles of the 
seeds are retuse. Style pale yellow, reaching to 
about the height of the anthers, columnar, round, 
smooth. Summit deep, somewhat egg-shaped, very 
finely scrobiculated. 

This curious little shrub is from Labrador: in 
that dreary country, as well as others near the Arctic 
circle, it grows plentifully upon the most barren 
maritime rocks, insinuating its slender roots into 
crevices, where there is a little soil. 



VACCINIUM BUXIFOLIUM. 

Octandria Monogynia, LiNNiEOS; Ericae, JossiEO. 

Pericarpium inferum 4-5-loculare succulentum, clausum, deci- 
duum. Semina, 10-30 in singulis loculis. Corolla monopetala 
limbo luevi, 4-5-fido; decidua. Antherje 8-10, valvis apice ob- 
lique forarainosis. Frutices quidam humillimi, gemmiferi. Folia 
alterna, in plerisque dentata, autumno decidua, vel semper- 
virentia. Flores solitarii fasciculati spicative, ssepius axillaries. 
Folia sempervirentia. 

V. foliis obovatis, dentatis, glabris, subtus aquatis : spicis e supe- 
rioribus axillis, dense multifloris : stigmatibus hemisphasricis. 

V. brachycerum. Michaux Ft. Boreali-Amer. v. I. p. 254. Sponte 
nascentem circa Winchester in Virginia, legit A. Michaux. 

The stems creep a little under the ground, and are 
covered with a short rough down. Leaves some- 
times oval, without any callous dots on the under 
surface: midrib hairy on its upper surface. Flowers 
bluish coloured. Common flower-stalk very short. 
Calyx and corolla generally five-cleft. Filaments 
ten, attached at the very base to the corolla, but in- 
serted like it, in the receptacle which surrounds the 
top of the fruit, having anthers shorter than in many 
others, and without a spur. 

A beautiful dwarf species, resembling V. Vitis 
Idsea, from which however it may always be distin- 
guished by the knobbed summit. 

It thrives best in light sandy vegetable mould, 
among rock, and other shrubs. 




2G 



CULTURE OF THE PRICKLY COMFREY. 



33 



ON THE CULTURE OF THE PRICKLY COMFREY.* 

BY J. T. 



In the autumn of 1830, I was induced by the re- 
commendation of a neighbour, and the highly 
laudatory accounts in some of the public prints, to 
purchase fifty plants of tlie Symphytum asperrimum 
I received them in November ; they were very 
small, somewhat resembling young primrose plants. 
They were immediately placed in a bed of rather 
strong, but sandy loam, aboimding with chalky 
particles, three feet asimder, in rows four feet 
apart. In spring I perceived that several had 
perished, in consequence of a large quantity of 
snow that had accumulated, and lain about that 
particular piece of ground for a considerable time. 
The lost plants were replaced by others, procured 
in the beginning of April, 1831. In common with 
many other herbaceous plants, the Symphytum will 
remove with the greatest safety and success, just at 
that period, when, after the recession of the winter 
frosts, the ground is in a meliorated and readily 
pulverable state, and the herb in an excitable state, 
and just beginning to push. If transplanted in the 
autumn, when dormant and unexcitable, the accu- 
mulated prepared juices, that are deposited by the 
leaves before their final decay, frequently become 
decomposed by frosts, damp, and particularly by a 
mass of snow, and decay takes place. This seldom, 
however, occurs when the plant has remained un- 
disturbed ; because the vessels are not lacerated, 
and, therefore, the connection between the root, or 
hybernaculum, and the soil continues uninterrupted. 
My plants, from the period referred to, grew 
rapidly, and spread extensively ; they fully occu- 
pied the space allotted to them, and notwithstanding 
the memorable and extensively destructive frost of 
the 7th of May, I could not perceive that a leaf 
was injured. 

I had occasion to remove nearly the whole of my 
plants, and at the latter end of February, 1832, 
transferred them to a broad border of an orchard 
with a north-east aspect. 

The greater part of the roots were found to be 
from ten inches to a foot and a half long, readily 
divisible ; they were very succulent, mucilaginous 
and tender ; their internal substance was of a dirty 
white, but the cuticle of a dark brown colour. 
These plants stocked the border, the length of 
which is twenty-six yards, and the breadth about 
six yards. They were in number, about one hun- 
dred and fifteen, and were set in holes, distant three 
feet by four from each other ; and by the end of 



the month of June, the leaves met, and covered 
the surface. 

After these general facts, I proceed more parti- 
cularly to notice the soil in which it grows. Mr. 
Grant, in his circular, says, " It will grow in all 
soils and situations, superior to any other plant ; it 
may be planted by the sides of ditches, in any 
waste corner of fields, orchards, gardens, &c. where 
useless rubbish grows." I have tried my plants in 
every species of soil I possess, from that of the 
unprepared, untilled land of a field, where the roots 
of an adjoining plantation of elms had taken undis- 
turbed possession for years, to the richest manured 
plot of a kitchen garden. The spot where the bulk 
now stands, was a soil degraded by rubbish of 
every kind ; it was artificial, and a set of sheds and 
out offices of a farm yard had been erected on it ; 
brick-bats, lumps of chalk, fragments of glass- 
bottles abounded ; and what with these, and the 
roots of elm trees, the work of trenching was ef- 
fected with much labour and difficulty. If the 
plants have thriven better in one soil than in another, 
it is perhaps in a sort of stiff" but pale sandy loam, 
which, by analysis, I have found to contain in two- 
hundred parts, when dry, one hundred and fifty 
parts of silicious sand, of chalk, fifteen parts, alu- 
minous impalpable matter, twelve parts, oxide of 
iron, six parts, and of vegetable fibre or water, not 
separated by the previous process of drying, the re- 
maining seventeen parts. 

In regard to their propagation, the plants may be 
raised from seeds, subject to the difficulty already 
alluded to ; but they may be multiplied to any ex- 
tent by separation of the roots. These may be 
torn asunder, chopped lengthways with a spade, or 
more cautiously divided by the knife or bill-hook, 
during any period of the growing season ; but de^ 
cidedly by preference just before the central shoot 
has pushed above ground. They succeed under 
all these modes of separation, and make fine large 
plants in a few months. Upon this subject, how- 
ever, in the very early progress of my experience, 
I wrote to Mr Grant, and received a reply of date 
May, 1831, wherein he stated, that the roots " may 
be planted at any time when you may wish to in- 
crease your stock, care being taken to have a part 
of the crown with each cutting. It increases 
freely. I made it from two plants to forty thousand 
in five years," 

The very young plants make rather slow advances 



* From the Quart. Journ. of Agriculture. 
MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND OAKDENIN6, VOL, II. NO, XII. MARCH, 1834. 



34 



CULTURE OF THE PRICKLY COMFREY. 



after removal in the spring, for a month ; but if 
rains fall, and genial temperature supervenes to- 
ward the middle of May, they set off rapidly, and 
extend in every direction ; the flower stem is soon 
developed, and will be perfected in July. But 
plants made by separation of the larger plants, I 
have found to grow and expand with amazing ra- 
pidity ; they resemble in this respect the gigantic 
rhubarb, (Rheumhybridum,var.)which I have always 
observed to be accelerated by removal in sjiring. 

" I went down to Lewisham last week," says 
Mr. W. W. Fames, in the Farmer's Journal of 14th 
June, 1830, on the growth of the Symphytum," and 
can assure you I was very much pleased, I may say 
astonished, at the produce ; it was beautifully in 
bloom, and some of it near seven feet high. 

" All that Grant has said of the produce and 
quality seems to be correct ; from the taste of it, 
1 think there can be no doubt but it contains a great 
deal of nutritious matter. I saw one plant which, 
I was informed, had been planted three years, con- 
taining thirty-two stalks, none of them less than 
six feet high, and from one and a half, to four 
inches in circumference. The plant was cut and 
weighed this day in the presence of Mr. W. C. 
Selby, of the Bridge-house Farm, Lewisham, and 
weighed fifty-six pounds." 

I never saw the flower stems of my plants above 
five feet high, but then, till the present season, 
none of them have been at rest ; they have not 
been in undisturbed possession of the soil, and 
have been cut over so repeatedly, as to prevent the 
roots deriving all the vigour and energy which 
would have been afforded" by the foliage, had the 
stalks been sufl^ered to grow uncut or unpulled 
during one entire summer. 

The experiments that have come under my notice 
have been made in latitudes coinciding with that 
of London ; but I have observed no diiference in 
the strength and verdure of the leaves, be the as- 
pect what it might. A large part of my stock of 
plants is shaded by a south-west fence ; and al- 
though hoar-frost and general cold temperature 
have prevailed throughout March, and the three 
first weeks of April, I have already drawn off 
the leaves in succession, from above one half of 
the plants ; and so rapid is the growth, that by the 
time the whole shall have been pulled, the opera- 
tion may be recommenced. A bushel basket nearly 
of the leaves is collected daily, and given to a cow ; 
and this in a season when the grass in the same or- 
chard is just assuming a full green tint, and begin- 
ning to lengthen ; and on an adjoining patch of last 
year's lucerne, is only protruding its first shoots 
above the surface of the soil. 

Mr. Grant observes that he once " cut and 
weighed one square rod ; the average was seven- 
teen tons, three hundred per acre." He says it rises 



to more than seven feet in height, and so thickly, 
as completely to cover the ground on which it 
stands ; that by the first of April, (1830,) " it is 
now fit for cutting." I have not as yet observed it 
to attain so great a height, but I have often taken a 
cutting from the crown, placed it in the border or 
shrubbery, and have seen the herb spread during 
the same summer to the breadth of nine or ten in- 
ches, the flower stem to rise to the height of four 
or five feet, and the root to penetrate the ground 
far beyond the depth of a spade, and to an extent 
that would have furnished three or more fine large 
plants. Mr. Grant represents the leaves to be 
eagerly eaten by horses, and this I, as well as a 
highly respectable neighbour, have proved to be 
the fact. " Cows do not take it in the first instance 
so freely as the horse, but they all soon take to it, 
and then they are quite as eager for it." The fact 
is, if they are offered to a cow when the flower 
stem is grown up, the whole stalk and its foliage 
are so very prickly and rough, that the animal 
seems to shun it. During the summer of 1832, I 
greatly feared that the attempt to feed cows with 
Symphytum would end in complete failure. In that 
season we invariably cut it over with a reaping 
hook ; the leaves were frequently eaten, but the 
stems were left. The present year, however, I 
determined should witness another mode of proce- 
dure, and as soon as the first leaves were fully ex- 
panded, I directed them to be drawn up, and not 
cut off, and every leaf is now greedily devoured. 
Dr. Withering says of the common comfrey (Sym- 
phytum officinale), cows and sheep eat it ; horses, 
goats, and swine refuse it. The roots are gluti- 
nous and mucilaginous." The roots of the S. as- 
perrimum are the same, and I find that cows will 
eat them freely. The plant also will etiolate, or 
blanch to perfection, as I discovered by finding one 
in a bed of damp leaves ; it was eight inches high, 
and as white and crisp as a plant of celery. " Sheep 
and lambs will take it freely. Lambs will all feed 
on it before they are a month old, and as it is such 
a very early plant, it will immediately follow the 
turnips." I cannot from my own experience deter- 
mine the correctness of this observation. Mr. Grant 
finally observes, it is very useful to pigs ; that he 
" kept a sow with twelve pigs chiefly on it ; she 
brought them up well ; they all fed on it before 
they were three weeks old." 

Geese do well with it, the young ones will feed 
on it as soon as hatched ; I have invariably found 
that pigs will eat the Symphytum leaves freely, and 
the stalks also to a considerable extent ; but as to 
geese, my experience by no means justifies Mr. 
Grant's assertion. I have left leaves all night about 
the farm yard, when the geese could get at no 
other food, and could never perceive that one had 
disappeared. The goslings also refused them at 



ON FARM ORCHARDS 



83 



any age, even when shopped up. I had, however, 
the experiment repeated yesterday, that I might, 
before closing this paper, either confirm my past 
observations, or obtain an exception in favour of 
those of Mr. Grant, and the result is doubtful. 
The goslings, it is true, had grass at command, and 
some young sprouting clover. They would not eat 
the cut leaves at the time, but they have disap- 
peared during the night. I conclude, therefore, 
that where grass is of ready access, the geese 
greatly prefer it. Upon the whole, then consider- 
ing the precocity of the crop, the plant fairly 
rising early in April, if the weather be at all genial, 
and extending with great rapidity ; the frequent 
recurrence of the gatherings ; the great abundance 
of green food yielded, and that for a period of 
seven months ; the quality of that fodder, which 
appears to be nutritive, and of a mild bland fla- 
vour ; I arrive at the conclusion that Symphytum 
asperrimum ought to be considered a valuable ad- 
junct to the byre and farm yard ; that it ought to 
be tried by every impartial experimenter without 
hesitation, and if the success be equal to what 
has attended my trial, I have little hesitation in be- 
lieving, that a piece of comparatively useless 
ground may be profitably set apart for the culture 
of so productive a vegetable. 

As a caution, and in order to secure the perma- 
nency of the plantation, I vcould enforce the prac- 
tice of pulling up the leaves, instead of cutting the 
whole plant over. Grant observes, that he " can- 
not pretend to say what effect continual cutting 
may have on a plant, or on the land for many years 
together ; but that he had never known one to die ; 
though some have stood more than twenty years, 
and in as full vigour as the first," It may be pulled 
three or four times at the least, that is the full 
grown leaves may be taken from around the stems ; 
the stems as they advance to a foot high may be 
broken off to within three inches of the soil, and 
thus the plant may be always kept down by de- 
forming or mangling it, and some foliage will at all 
times remain to be acted upon and stimulated by 
solar light. 



With respect to tillage, I should recommend 
that, after the final gathering, the spaces between 
the plants (which should be at the least three feet,) 
be roughly dug or ploughed, and left neat for the 
winter ; that during the first dry and favourable 
interval, about the middle or close of February, 
another deep moving of the soil be given, and a 
little of the mould brought round the plants ; and 
that during the growing season, the ground be kept 
clean and neat as time will permit. If at any time 
the surface become hard-bound by treading over, 
great benefit will be deiived from a second stirring 
of the soil, but that not to such extent as to injure 
the roots. Manuring may, in some soils, be of use, 
but I have not observed that it has produced any 
great advantage ; my plants appearing to be as 
strong on those spots where none has been applied, 
as on others where a dunghill had previously stood. 
I hope the foregoing remarks will stimulate many 
liberal minded cultivators to introduce this plant. 
It is not required to substitute it for grass or other 
well tried staple produce ; but as of late it has been 
the earnest endeavours of the philosophic writers of 
the day, to bring into notice any productive vegeta- 
ble that may advance the comforts of domestic 
economy, particularly in the homesteads of those 
who possess but a small portion of land, and very 
limited means of support, it surely is desirable that 
Symphytum asperrimum should be permitted to 
take its chance with hemerocalis, cichorium, Italian 
rye grass, or gama grass. The wise man economises 
in every thing, and though it is to be lamented that 
the price of the first parcel of Symphytum must be 
considerable, (that is, presuming it is still rated at 
20s. per hundred plants,) yet fifty of these would, 
as I have found, suffice to stock a large piece of 
ground in little more than six months. I believe 
that, by suffering one or two plants to ripen, and 
detach the seeds, and by a careful attention to the 
young seedlings, in connection with a proper divi- 
sion of the roots in the second of March, after 
planting, an acre of ground might be sufficiently 
cropped with this prolific herb. 



ON FARM ORCFIARDS. 

BY MR. MAIN OF CHELSEA.* 



It is expedient that every farm should have some 
portion of orchard ground attached to it. Every 
landlord should encourage and assist his tenants to 
plant them, where there is yet nothing of the kind. 
It is an improvement which bestows benefits on 



both landlord and tenant. To those who may have 
such improvement in contemplation, the following 
observations may be of service. 

The most convenient and guarded place for a 
farm orchard, is immediately behind the house, so 



* From the Quart. Jouin. of Agriculture. 



F 2 



36 



ON FARM ORCHARDS. 



that the back kitchen door may open into it. It 
matters not whether it be on the north or any other 
side of the buildings. Many think that an orchard 
should be in a low sheltered spot, but this is a se- 
rious mistake. Fruit trees do best on a moderately 
high and open situation. Shelter from wind is cer- 
tainly necessary, but this protection must be ob- 
tained, otherwise than by planting in a dell. 

A deep mellow loam is most suitable for an or- 
chard. It does not require to be richly manured, 
provided it is fresh, unexhausted, and sufficiently 
dry. Whether the sub-soil be gravel or stone, so 
as such beds lie not too near the surface, it will be 
no detriment to the trees ; but if of a tenacious 
clay, which is retentive of moisture, then draining 
must be resorted to, to free the soil from superflu- 
ous moisture. This must be done effectually, 
otherwise the defect will ever after be regretted by 
the planter. A sloping surface is better for all 
plants, than a dead level ; not because a heavy or 
long-continued rain, or melted snow runs the sooner 
off such a position, but because that portion of it 
which sinks into the ground gradually passes down- 
ward in an under current, leaving no portion of it 
to stagnate in any one place, so as to be prejudi- 
cial to the roots. 

There are different kinds of orchards, most gene- 
rally of apples, as being on the whole, the most 
valuable of British fruits. Sometimes there is a 
mixture of pears, rarely all of pears, except in 
those places where perry is the common drink of 
the farmer and his labourers. Sometimes we meet 
with orchards of heart cherries only, which, when 
near towns, pay well. In some counties there are 
extensive orchards of Kentish cherries, the soil 
being a light, sandy, and dry loam, particularly 
suitable to this variety of fruit. In other places we 
find the common black or caroun kinds preferred to* 
all others, as being not only richer in quality, but 
the most certain bearers, and consequently most 
profitable to the farmer ; considerable quantities of 
them (or their juice) being annually exported to 
Spain and Portugal, for the purpose, it is said, of 
colouring wine. This sort of cherry-tree grows to 
a stately size, and yields valuable timber. Some 
orchards of this kind, of five or six acres, pay an 
annual profit of £100, the fruit being gathered and 
sent to market at the expense of the purchaser, 
independently of the ground as a pasture. 

But the most profitable kind of orchard is that 
which contains all kinds of hardy fruit-trees and 
bushes, and where the land is solely appropriated 
to that purpose. This kind resembles gardening 
more than farming, and is therefore unsuitable to 
large farms, but quite applicable to small ones, to 
which an acre of orchard, requiring no horse la- 
bour, would be of essential benefit. In such, half 
standard apple-trees are planted in rows eighteen 



feet from each other, the trees being twelve feet 
apart. In the same line with the apple-trees are 
planted either gooseberry or currant bushes, or, 
what pays equally well, filberts. The latter are not 
allowed to rise higher than about four feet, and 
kept spurred in exactly like the white currant. 
Gooseberries gathered green for tarts, pay the far- 
mer better than when ripe, and are not nearly so 
troublesome in the carriage to market. As such 
an orchard is not to be grazed, two feet of the soil 
on each side of the rows of trees is kept bare, and 
always free from weeds. On this a mulching of 
rotten dung may be laid every winter, and raked 
off in the spring, upon the intermediate strips of 
ground to be planted with potatoes, or some with 
onions, turnips, scarlet runners, or any other crop 
which the cultivator can most advantageously dis- 
pose of in his neighbourhood. 

For such an orchard, the earliest and surest bear- 
ing apples shovdd be preferred. The greatest ma- 
jority should consist of the hawthornden, the rest 
of the French-crab, and scarlet nonpareil. A few 
of the earliest pears may be intermixed, as the pe- 
tit muscat, a kind which fetches a good price on 
its first appearance in the market. The most hardy 
and profitable kind of plum for a farai orchard is 
the common damson, it being always in request for 
baking, preserving, or for wine making. 

In preparing the ground for an orchard, different 
methods are followed. When the spot is fixed on, 
the fence (if it requires one,) shovdd be first exe- 
cuted. This is best done by a well planted white 
thorn hedge and ditch. The latter should be on the 
outside, and not less than three or four feet deep, 
to allow a bank of corresponding heiglit. Young 
plants of the English elm should be planted with 
the thorns for a hedge row screen to shelter the 
fruit trees, except towards the southern exposure. 
The elms may be put in at six or eight feet dis- 
tances, and as they bear lopping, they may be kept 
triaimed up to form, together with the hedge, a 
lofty narrow protection against wind. 

The next thing to be considered, is, whether the 
ground is sufficiently dry. If not, rubble drains 
should be made across the slope, (if there be any 
declivity) into the lowest outside ditch. 

The ground may be prepared for receiving the 
trees, either by trenching it wholly with the spade, 
fifteen inches deep, or with the trenching plough. 
This trenching is particularly necessary when the 
orchard is not intended to be a meadow or pasture. 
If the soil be thin, it may be ploughed into ridges 
six yards wide, twice gcithered, which will give a 
sufficient depth of mould on the ridges to receive 
the trees. Another way is to trench beds eight feet 
wide for the trees, and prepare the rest of the 
ground with the plough and harrows, to be sown 
down with grass seeds and a single cast of a dwarf 



BEDEGUAR OF THE ROSE. 



37 



growing oat, in the month of March after the trees 
are planted. There is still a cheaper way of plant- 
ing an orchard on land which is already in turf, viz. 
digging or trenching pits six feet square for the 
trees. This is done by first taking off the turf, to 
be relaid when the tree is planted, stirring the soil 
in the pits eighteen inches deep, and adding, if 
necessary, a barrowful or two of maiden earth, 
mixed with a little rotten dung, to place the tree 
in. This plan may be pursued when the soil is of 
sufficient depth on a gravelly subsoil ; but if on a 
clay subsoil, it is the worst way possible ; because 
these pits become receptacles of stagnant water in 
wet seasons, and are of course injurious to the roots 
of the trees. 

Whichever mode of planting is determined on, 
the openings should, in the first place, be made 
ready for the trees, which should be had from the 
nearest nurseryman, carefully taken up, and as 
carefully planted. If the roots are broken, or 
bruised, they should be smoothly cut back, and the 
shoots of the head pruned into about one tliird of 
their length, in the month of April, after the trees 
are planted. 

For a farmer's orchard, which is also intended 
for a penn or pasture, the trees must be all stand- 
ards, with stems six feet high. This precaution is 
absolutely necessary where cattle are permitted to 



range. They should be grafted on free stocks and 
true of their kinds. The sorts of apples before 
mentioned may be chosen; of cherries the caroun,' 
of plums the damson, should be the principal. 
Any favourite sort of pear, or other fruit, may be 
added for the sake of variety. But there is a safe 
rule for the choice of fruit trees, viz. to prefer 
the kinds that succeed best in the neighbourhood ; 
for it is certainly true that some sorts of fruits are 
affected by one description of soil, and local cli- 
mate, more than others. This circumstance de- 
serves attention. 

Trees planted in rows at twelve feet apart from 
each other, and eighteen feet intervals between the 
rows, may be supposed to stand too thick ; but as 
they will bear a good deal of fruit before they in- 
terfere injuriously, the underlings may be pruned 
away without regret when this takes place. The 
whole should be placed in quincunx order, as the 
one affording most air and light to each individual. 
It is almost unnecessary to add that every tree 
should be securely staked up, to keep them steady 
against wind, and be carefully cradled, or bushed 
before any kind of cattle are admitted into the or- 
chard. An acre of orchard planted at the above 
mentioned distances, would require above two hun- 
dred trees. 



BEDEGUAR OF THE ROSE. 

BY MR. JESSE. 



I HAVE often admired a small, round, mossy sub- 
stance attached to a branch of the dog-rose growing 
in our hedges, and which I was imable to account 
for until the following circumstance was related to 
me by an ingenious florist and nurseryman in the 
King's Road. Mr. Knight, who informed me, 
that, having been requested by one of his custo- 
mers to endeavour to preserve a favourite mulberry 
tree, which for many years had flourished on her 
lawn, but which, with the exception of one very 
large branch, was either dead or decaying, he 
waited till the sap had ascended, and then barked 
the branch completely round near its junction with 
the trunk of the tree. Having filled three sacks 
with mould, he tied them round that part of the 
branch which had been barked, and by means of 
one or two old watering-pots, which were kept 
filled with water, and placed over the sacks, from 
which the water gradually distilled, the mould in 
the sacks was sufficiently moistened for his purpose. 



Towards the end of the year he examined the sacks, 
and f Hind them filled with numerous small fibrous 
roots, which the sap, having no longer the bark for 
its conductor into the main roots of the tree, had 
thus expended itself in throwing out. A hole 
having been prepared near the spot, the branch was 
sawn off below the sacks, and planted with them, 
the branch being propped securely. The next sum- 
mer it flourished and bore fruit, and is still in a 
thriving state. 

Having heard this fact, I examined the massy 
substance on the dog-rose, and found that, in con- 
sequence of the bark on the branch on which it was 
found having been removed by some insect, the sap 
in receding had thrown out roots, wliich, from the 
exposure of the air, produced the mossy ball in 
question, and which was probably made the nest 
or hybernaculum of some insect. If this mossy 
substance be examined, the larvae of an insect will 
be found belonging to the genus cynips. 



38 



PLANTS INDICATING THE QUALITY OF SOILS. 



ON SANDY AND GRAVELLY SOILS. 

BY COUNT GYLLENBORG. 



Sand and gravel, which consist of a stony powder, 
or exceeding small stones, have no cohesion of their 
parts, whether wet or dry. 

There is a kind of gravel which the country peo- 
ple make use of as mortar; but on trial, this appears 
to have in it a mixture of clay, which may be washed 
away ; of calcareous particles, as appears by its ef- 
fervescence with acids ; and of chalybeate particles, 
which aqua regia extracts ; whence it appears, that 
this gravel is a natural mortar. 

As sand and gravel are vitriable, they give way to 
no menstruum. Neither water nor the most corro- 
sive menstruums can separate any thing from them. 
Some kinds of gravel become adhesive, on the 
addition of water, owing to a mixture of clay, as 
already observed ; and on drying them they become 
very hard : which circumstances can be applied only 
to the above mortar. 

Sand and gravel do not conti-ibute at all to vege- 
tation; neithev materially, as nourishment, nor in- 
strumentally, unless by accident, by the mixture of 
other earths. They indeed, render strong earths 
more porous and loose. 

They render spongy turf more solid ; and hence 
it is, that we find that the slime left in low places, 
becomes stronger by the mixture of sand, the sand 
and slime uniting into a more solid earth. 

They admit the air to the roots of plants ; and 
they facilitate the culture of the land. 

Some think that flints and stones render the 
earth more fruitful, from a salt contained in them ; 
but they are much mistaken. Flints and pieces of 
stone may become useful, from the shade they 
yield ; especially if, by rising above the surface, 



they protect the plants from the heat of the sun ; 
or, as water cannot enter tliem, all the rain that 
falls upon them goes to the plants and their roots ; 
and hence it is, that grass looks so thriving around 
stones, provided there is a sufficiency of earth. 

Gravel and sand become rather hurtful, by heat- 
ing too much ; for stones being denser than the 
earth, retain the heat longer, and are sometimes 
slower in admitting the cold. They render the soil 
too loose ; whence water and the richness of the 
earth are soon lost, either by soaking through, or 
by being evaporated : and hence they easily admit 
cold to the roots of plants. Because of their hard- 
ness, they attract little or no moisture, or other 
matter from the atmosphere ; so that neither medi- 
ately nor immediately, can they in any way contri- 
bute to the nourishment of plants. 

What has been above said, shows, and experi- 
ence proves, that sand is usefid in wet and cold 
soils ; and hence it may be concluded, that such 
soils may be usefully laid on sand. 

In judging of land, particular regard must be 
had to the strata or layers underneath. The upper 
layer is sometimes poor when there is a richer soil 
beneath it ; and at other times the upper surface is 
more friendly to the growth of plants, than what is 
met with lower down. What has been here said of 
the use, or of the advantages and disadvantages of 
the several soils, must be understood only of the 
upper layer considered by itself ; knowing, at the 
same time, that the upper layer may be rendered 
better or worse by a mixture with the lower, ac- 
cording to the different qualities of each. 



PLANTS INDICATING THE QUALITY OF SOILS. 

BY MR. NEVIN, GARDENER TO THE CHIEF SECRETARY FOR IRELAND. 



[The following paper upon a subject of great in- 
terest, we extract from the Irish " Farmer's and 
Gardener's Magazine," a spirited periodical, just 
commenced in Dublin, under the superintendence of 
two able editors, Martin Doyle and Edmund Mur- 
phy, to whose practical and praiseworthy under- 
taking we wish every success. — Editor.] 

That a pretty correct estimate may be formed of 
the quality of a soil from the plants growing spon- 
taneously thereon, every experienced agriculturist is 
ready to admit. It appears therefore a subject not 
of the least importance to ascertain whether some 
arrangement might not be adopted, whereby to de- 
termine the proper qualities of soils, simply from 



such indications. If this can be accomplished, we 
have undoubtedly an additional argument for recom- 
mending the study of plants botanically to the stu- 
dent of agriculture. In all such cases, a scienlijic 
knowledge should exist, not merely as regards the 
plants used in agriculture, but also with respect to 
those indigenous to the country. 

Numerous indeed are the productions of the ve- 
getable kingdom, and very different are the soils 
and situations where they are found ; and althougli 
many of the same species grow in soils of the most 
opposite character, yet the qualities of soils may be 
very accurately ascertained by the plants that more 
especially predominate on them. An all-wise pro- 
vidence has, as well in the vegetable as in the animal 



PLANTS INDICATING THE QUALITY OF SOILS. 



39 



world, taught plants to seek the food best adapted 
for their nourishment. For example — as well might 
we expect the animals of the land to live in the sea, 
and, vice versa, as the plants of the mountain to exist 
where the floating aquatic flourishes in all the luxu- 
riance of its native element. 

Valuable and interesting as Sir Humphry Davy's 
Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry unquestionably 
are, yet wlien the ]iractical farmer reads the follow- 
ing (which it may not be improper to extract), he 
must feel it more a matter of fine philosophy, than 
capable of being easily applied in his practice. In 
describing the necessary apparatus for analyzing a 
soil. Sir Humphry says, " The instruments for the 
analyzing of soils, are few, and but little expensive. 
They are, a balance capable of containing a quarter 
of a pound of common soil, and capable of turning | 



when loaded with a grain ; a set of weights from a 
quarter of a pound troy to a grain; a wire sieve suf- 
ficiently coarse to admit a mustard seed through its 
apertures ; an Argand lamp and stand ; some glass 
bottles, Hessian crucibles, porcelain, or queen's ware 
evaporating basins; a wedgwood pestle and mortar; 
some filtres made of half a sheet of blotting paper, 
folded, so as to contain a pint of liquid, and greased 
at the edges ; a bone knife ; and an ap-paratns for 
collecting and measuring aeriform fluids," &c. &c. 
This is all very well for the philosopher or chemist, 
but for every day use it appears anything but suited 
for the practical improver. 

The present subject is one on which for several 
years I have bestowed some attention. The follow- 
ing Table is therefore submitted as the result of 
these observations. 



INDICATORS OF QUALITY OF SOIL. 



BOTANICAL NAME. 



Tussilago Farfara, 
Stachys palustris, 
Holcus mollis. 



Ranunculus repens, 
Cnicus arvensis, 
Senecio Jacobea, 
Chrysanth. Leucantliemum, 
Plantago lanceolata, 
Bromus mollis. 



ENGLISH NAME. 



Colt's-foot, 
Clown's All-heal, 
Soft Grass. 



Crow-foot, 
Field Thistle, 
Ragwort, 
Ox-eye Daisy, 
Rib Grass, 
Brown Grass, 



Spergula arvensis, 
Pteris aquilina, 
Lolium perenne, 
Triticum repens, 
Viola tricolor, 
Mentha arvensis, 



Hippuris vulgaris. 
Iris pseud-acorus, 
Pinguicula vulgaris, 
Juiicus efRisis, 
Cardamine arvensis, 
Orchis latifolius, 



Spurry, 
Brake, 
Rye Grass, 
Couch Grass, 
Heart's Ease, 
Wild Mint, 



Eriopliorum angustifola, 
Myrica gale. 
Sphagnum palustre, 
Comarum palustre, 
Equisetum palustre, 



Erica vulgaris. 
Erica carnea, &c. 
Vaccinum Myrtillus, 
Empetrum nigrum, 



Mare's Tail, 
Yellow Iris, 
Butterwort, 
Soft Rush, 
Lady's smock. 
Orchis, 



Cotton Grass, 
Sweet Gale, 
Bog Moss, 
Cinquefoil, 
Horsetail, 



Common Heath, 

Purple ditto, 

Blackberry, 

Crowberry, 



Clayey. 



Loamy. 



Sandy. 



Marshy. 



Boggy. 



Sandy Peat. 



Retentive. 



Gravelly. 



Gravel and Sand. 



Clayey, or Clay 
and Gravel. 



Loam, Clay, or 
Gravel, or decom- 
posed Gravel, fre- 
quently at great 
depth. 



Sand, or Free- 
stone Rock. 



40 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND REPRODUCTION OF PLANTS. 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND REPRODUCTION OF PLANTS. 

BY W. RHIND, ESQ. SURGEON.* 



Vegetables are, as it were, the clothing of the 
earth, without which, it would be bare, rugged, 
and unseemly ; flowers, and shrubs, and trees, the 
ornamental embellishments which add beauty and 
splendour to the face of nature. There is a softness 
and appropriateness in the subdued tinge of green 
too, which is with very few exceptions the prevail- 
ing colour of the vegetable kingdom, something 
which is pleasing and refreshing for the eye to look 
upon, without being too glaring or dazzling. 

Vegetables, though not possessing the structure 
and sensations of living animals, yet have a species 
of vitality of which inert matter is altogether des- 
titute ; they form a link, and a most important one, 
between dead or unorganized substances, as rocks, 
stones, &c. and animated beings. 

Vegetables may be said to be almost the sole 
medium by which nourishment is first extracted 
from the earth, and water, and air, and so assimi- 
lated, as to form the food of animals and man ; for 
we believe that the great mass of living creatures, 
either directly or indirectly, live on vegetable matter. 
Numerous quadrupeds derive their sole support 
from grasses, and many species of birds from grain 
and seeds ; these become the prey of carnivorous 
animals, and afford them their whole means of sub- 
sistence. Fishes prey upon flies and insects, which, 
either directly or indirectly derive their subsistence 
from the vegetable kingdom ; and man as well as 
some other animals, lives indiscriminately both on 
animal and vegetable matter. 

It is an important office of vegetables, therefore, 
that, by their peculiar structure and functions, they 
decompose the air, the water, and, in all probabi- 
lity, the several salts of the earth, and recombine 
these again into new substances fit for the suste- 
nance of the animated kingdom. 

It is to the operation of vegetation, too, that we 
owe a considerable proportion of the soil which 
covers the earth. A seed of a moss plant cast on 
a barren rock will chng to it, and attracting mois- 
ture from the atmosphere, will spring out a living 
plant, produce seed, and then moulder into dust. 
Others, of the same kind, spring up from its ruins, 
and, feeding on the moisture and air, and the 
mouldering rocks beneath, in time accumulate a cer- 
tain depth of soil, which still goes on increasing, 
till at last it becomes a deep bed, fit for receiving 
and nourishing other species of plants, that may 
be driven towards it by the agency of the winds, of 



birds, or other means which nature employs for the 
propagation of vegetables. In this manner, by the 
accumulation of decayed plants, mingled also with 
the dust of rocks and minerals, acted upon by the 
sun and air, have our deepest and most fertile soils 
derived their origin. We find also in peat-bogs an 
accumulation of decayed moss plants, extending 
sometimes to the depth of twenty or thirty feet. 

Vegetables are organized substances, consisting 
of a complicated structure of tubes, and air cells, 
and various organs, all performing functions tend- 
ing to the increase, preservation, and multiplication 
of the several species. They may, therefore, be 
looked upon as possessing a living principle ; and 
though they have not sensations like animals, yet 
have what has been called irritability, which in 
many instances, presents phenomena very similar to 
those in the animal kingdom, as is exemplified in 
the shrinking of the sensitive plant when touched by 
the hand, the moving of the tendrils of plants to- 
wards the light and air, and the twining of many 
plants round other neighbouring substances for sup- 
port. 

Plants consist of a stem, with roots passing into 
the earth, of leaves, and of blossoms, or flowers, 
for the production of seeds. Throughout the stem 
and roots there is in most plants a series of tubes 
and air vessels, by which the sap passes from the 
soil up through the plant, and, combining with the 
vital air of the atmosphere, through the medium of 
the leaves, is elaborated into nourishment for the 
growth and development of its several parts. The 
outer bark of the plant consists of a thin membrane, 
somewhat like the skin of animals, and serves a 
similar purpose, to protect the parts beneath from 
the air and all external injury, serving also for the 
exhalation and absorption of moisture. Immedi- 
ately under this skin is a soft pulpy structure, con- 
sisting of innumerable cells, being of a green colour 
in almost all vegetables. Of this kind of structure 
too, the leaves of plants are composed. Under this 
cellular substance we find in woody plants the true 
bark, or liber, composed of numerous fibres run- 
ning in a longitudinal direction, and having the 
appearance when slightly macerated, of a fine net 
work. In this portion of the bark the peculiar vir- 
tues of plants principally are found ; such as those 
characterising gums, resins, cinnamon, essential oils, 
the astringent matter of the oak, &c. The wood 
is found immediately under this, in circle within 



From " Studies in Nutaral History." 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND REPRODUCTION OF PLANTS. 



41 



circle, extending to the heart or pith, which is 
situated in the centre. The outer circle of wood 
next the bark is softer and whiter than those in the 
centre ; and as a circle is formed each year, the 
number in a tranverse section near the root denotes 
the age of the tree. 

Throughout the woody fibres, but especially the 
outer circles, there are numerous sap vessels, ex- 
tending in a longitudinal direction, and mixed with 
these many cells, generally of a hexagonal shape. 

The pith is situated in the centre ; and in young 
growing plants is large and juicy ; but in older ones 
it becomes small, and light and cellular. 

Its proper use is not exactly ascertained. Some 
are of opinion that it is essential to the plant, in or- 
der that it may throw offshoots and branches; others, 
for supplying moisture to the leaves, when there 
is an excess of perspiration. In few herbaceous plants 
is there any pith ; the proportion of cellular substance 
in these stems is greater than in those of woody plants; 
and there is rarely any appearance of concentric 
circles in a transverse section. 

The leaves of plants are most important appen- 
dages and may be compared in some degree to the 
lungs of animals. Plants will not thrive if deprived 
entirely of their leaves, or if these have not free ac- 
cess to the air. The juices of plants, while circu- 
lating through the minute vessels of the leaves, un- 
dergo a change very important in their own economy, 
and by which the purity of the atmosphere is most 
materially affected. The leaves also absorb and 
give out moisture, as the economy of the plant re- 
quires. In spring, when after a season of torpidity, 
the regulating powers of vegetables are called into 
activity, the sap, extracted from the soil by the fi- 
brous roots, mounts up through the vessels of the 
plant with surprising force and impetus. After 
undergoing a change in the leaves, it descends 
through the plant, and gives out to the various 
parts, the peculiar substances which enter into their 
formation, and which form the distinctive qualities 
of the particular plant. During the day, and in the 
sunshine, plants absorb the carbon and azote of the 
atmosphere, and give out or set at liberty, the 
oxygen or vital principle ; but it is found that dur- 
ing the night this process is reversed, carbonic acid 
being given out, and oxygen absorbed. 

Light, as well as air, is essential to the proper 
growth of vegetables ; for almost all plants growing 
in the dark are of a pale sickly aspect, altogether 
devoid of colour, which may be seen every day in 
potatoes vegetating in dark cellars ; it is singular, 
also, that if the least ray of light streams in through 
a small aperture, the shoots of these potatoes will 
be found directed to it, and spreading out to meet 
the light, as it were by a sort of instinctive impulse. 

The roots of many plants consist of a covering 
of bark and a fibrous structure, similar, in a great 



measure, to the stems. The office of the roots is to 
absorb the juices from the soil. That water forms 
a considerable part of the food of plants is extremely 
probable ; but that other ingredients of the soil, 
such as the saline parts, extractive matter, &c. en- 
ters into their composition, is also pretty evident. 
Some botanists have doubted whether plants derive 
any part of their nourishment from the earth, main- 
taining that they grow by the decomposition of air 
and water alone ; but, besides many proofs by direct 
experiment to the contrary, we think it is evident 
that they do derive much of their substance from 
earth, from the circumstance that many animals 
purely graminivorous, not even requirin-r water, as 
rabbits, sheep, &c. have phosphate and carbonate 
of lime in the composition of their bones, which, as 
far as we know, could only be afforded by vege- 
tables assimilating such matters from the soil. 

It is found, however, that pure earths alone will 
not answer the purposes of vegetation, the various 
salts and extractive vegetable matter beino- useful 
either as stimulants, or as entering directly into their 
formation. This is the reason that manure is so 
essential for the ground, and that its annual renewal 
is necessary, if full and luxuriant vegetation is ex- 
pected. When one kind of vegetable is planted 
successively on the same soil too, it exhausts it by 
extracting the particular substances which enter 
most abundantly into its composition ; and hence the 
annual change of crops, which farmers know so well 
to be necessary. 

Nothing more beautifidly demonstrates that na- 
ture, through all her works, proceeds on a imi- 
formity of plan and design, than the fact, that plants 
as well as animals are possessed of organs necessary 
to accomplish the great end of nature, — the re-pro- 
duction and continuation of their species. The pistil 
which occupies the centre of the flower, is designed to 
produce the seeds ; while the stamens of the plant con- 
tain a peculiar substance necessary for fertilizing 
them, without which substance coming in contact 
with the pistil, the seeds are incapable of re-pro- 
ducing the plant. 

Although Linnseus did not make this discovery, 
it is to him we owe its complete elucidation. 

From remote antiquity, the importance of these 
organs, in perfecting the seed, has been known ; but 
it was not untill 730 that Linnseus established a fact 
so long in dispute, and proved the stamens and pis- 
tils to be essential to every plant. 

A plant may want its leaves, and blossom : but 
these organs must be present. An example of this 
is found in the common mare's tail of our ditches. 
Here a stamen and pistil present themselves, but 
no corolla, and scarcely any vestiges of calyx or 
flower-cup. In most animals these organs are se- 
])arate, there being a distinct male and female crea- 
ture ; while in the majority of the more highly or- 



MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II, NO. XII. — MARCH, 1834. 



42 



MANAGEMENT OF CUCUMBERS. 



ganized vegetables they arc united in one flower, 
altliougii numerous examples are not wanting of a 
different arrangement, as the hazel, oak, Ijireli, &c. 
We find some flowers having stamens, and others 
pistils ; while, in another division, the stamens and 
pistils are on different individuals. Of this the wil- 



low is a familiar example. The date- tree fur- 
nishes another : and at a very early period the 
Greeks discovered that, in order to have abundant 
fruit, it was necessary to plant male and female trees 
together. 



MANAGEMENT OF CUCUMBERS.* 



The cultivation of the cucumber, at an early period 
of the year, is attended with considerable risk and 
difficulty, especially when grown on dung beds, as 
the steam and moisture, arising from the dung, are 
very liable to damp and injure the plants ; parti- 
cularly when the weather continues, for any length 
of time, in such an unfavourable state as to prevent 
a free circulation of air being admitted into the 
frame. 

Wiien this fruit is wanted at an early period, the 
seed should be sown the latter end of November, 
or beginning of December. Previous to sowing it, 
there should be a one or two-light box or pit i)re- 
pared, in thickness of not less than four to five feet, 
of well concocted dung, or leaves and dung well 
mixed ; these ingredients should be two or three 
times turned together previous to using, and allowed 
to ferment for al)out three weeks before it is made 
up into a bed, wiiich will then become sweetened, 
and will retain the heat much longer than if made 
up in a recent state. When the bed is composed to 
the de])th above specified, the lights should be kept 
close siuit up two or three days, to assist in draw- 
ing up the heat, which will soon arise, when plenty 
of air nuist be admitted, to allow the rank effluvia 
from the bed to pass away. As soon as the violent 
heat has subsided, the bed may be moidded over to 
the depth of three or four inches, and the seed sown 
in pots from four to five inches diameter, and 
plunged in the moidd half way to the rims. 

In the course of a few days after the seeds are 
sown, the cotyledons of the plants will begin to 
make their appearance ; and wlien these are fully 
expanded, and the plants about two inches high, it 
will be time to remove them into other pots ; by 
placing three plants in each, and giving a gentle 
watering, with water of the temperature of the bed, 
to settle the soil about the roots. 

Much care and attention are required at this cri- 
tical season, to prevent the plants from damping off; 
and tiie linings round the beds will require frequent 
turnings, and additions of fresh dung, to prevent the 
heat from declining, whicli would otherwise soon 
become not of a sullicient warmth for the plants. 

The fruiting bed should also be got in readiness, 
and made according to the directions above-men- 
tioned, at this wintry period of the year. 

It is very desirable to have a strong body of the 
fermenting materials together, for the purpose of 



kee])ing up a good heat throughout the severest 
months ; but as the season gets advanced, the beds 
may be prepared of less thickness than that speci- 
fied. When the first or second rougli leaf makes 
its appearance on the seedling plant, it will be time 
to begin to pre])are and mould the beds upon which 
they are destined to produce their fruit. The soil 
should be collected under each light to the depth 
of twelve inches, and formed into round hills ; the 
top of which should be kept, at the first formation, 
pretty near the glass, as they will be sure to sub- 
side. The mould in which the cucumber will grow 
freely and produce fruit, is one half of maiden loam, 
one fourth leaf mould, and one fourth of decom- 
posed good stable dung ; which ingredients should 
be well incorporated together previous to using, and 
spread over the surface of the bed for a few days, 
before gathered into hills for the reception of the 
plants. As soon as the mould is in a warm and 
congenial state, the plants may be removed from 
the seed-Dcd and committed to their final situation, 
placing three plants in each hill ; they should like- 
wise have a little water to settle the soil about their 
tender fibres, which should be given of the same 
temperature as the atmosphere of the frame, as 
water, at this season, without the cold air being 
taken off, would chill and injure the plants. 
During the winter months, the cucumber requires 
a higher temperature for its preservation, than even 
the pine apple ; consequently the atmosphere in 
the cucumber frames should not be allowed to fall 
under seventy degrees, and should be permitted to 
get as high as eighty or eighty-five degrees l)y sun- 
heat. The external dung linings will require to be 
frequently turned, and fresh dung added to renew 
the heat. 

Air should likewise be admitted at all favourable 
opportunities; in short, even in the most severe 
weather, a little ought to be given daily, which will 
encrease the vigour and health of the plants, as no- 
thing is more pernicious to their growth, than being 
shut up for any contimu'd time without it. When 
the dung that is applied to the exterior of the pits 
is in a rank state, it will sometimes apjjcar neces- 
sary to leave the lights a little tilted behind during 
the night, so as to allow the steam that may collect 
in the frame to pass away. The ends of the mats 
must, however, be lapped over the apertures thus 
left, otherwise the frosty winds will be liable to in- 



•Fvom " Foi-bes'a Ilovuis Grnmineus Woburnensis." The Editor takes this opportunity also of mentioning that he was wrong in 
attributing the Salictum Wobuni. to Mr. Sinclair, it being the work of Mr. Forbes. 



ON APPROACH IN LANDSCAPE GARDENING. 



43 



jure the plants. When the weather is very severe, 
the beds, or pits should be covered early in the 
afternoon, with two or three tiers of mats, and not 
uncovered before nine o'clock in the morning. 
When the fruit blossoms begin to make their ap- 
pearance, it will be necessary to assist nature at an 
early period of the year, by taking off the male 
flower, and inserting its anthers into the fertile 
blossoms when it is fidly expanded, as the limited 
admission of air that is given, in the winter season, 
is not sufficient for the dispersion of the pollen for 
impregnation, without which the fruit will not 
swell ; but at a more advanced period of the year, 
the current of air, and the bees that generally 
frequent the cucumber and melon bed, are the best 
and most natural sources of fertilization. As the 
plants advance in.growtli, they should be regularly 
pegged down to the surface of the bed ; also gra- 
dually adding mould to their hills, until the entire 
bed is covered over to the depth of a foot or four- 
teen inches. Occasional waterings will be re- 
quired ; but care must be taken not to give them in 
such quantities as will sour and saturate the soil. 

The dung linings which surround the bed, will 
also require to be frequently attended to, and re- 
newed, in order to keep up the requisite degree of 
heat amongst the plants. 

Should there have been a favourable portion of 
sun throughout the month of February, the plants 
will then be shewing fruit, and will be fit for cut- 
ting by the beginning or middle of the ensuing 
month. When a large supply of this fruit is want- 
ed, a succession of crops will require to be kept up, 
by ridging out young plants every month or six 
weeks, till June, when the plants put out on the 
ridges, for prickly cucumbers, will keep up a sup- 
ply till they are destroyed by the frost. 

The plants in the frames will require to be looked 
often over in the course of the season, and thinned 
out by removing such superfluous and decayed 
shoots as may appear ; they will also require large 
supplies of water throughout the summer months ; 
by all which processes they may be kept in a 



productive state for eight or nine months in the 
year. 

Cucumbers may be also successfully grown and 
brought to perfection in the winter months, on the 
back flue or front cm'b of a pine stove, or in any other 
compartments in which the temperature is kept 
from sixty-eight to seventy, or seventy-five de- 
grees ; and when the plants can be placed so as to 
receive the full benefit of the sun and light in the 
gloomy months. The most successful cultivator 
of this fruit, at an early period, that I have yet seen, 
is Mr, Forrest, at Sion Gardens, who grows it in 
great perfection in the winter season, and who has 
got a particular sort of cucumber, that he calls the 
iSion Free Bearer, which is well adapted for winter 
culture, and produces fruit in great abundance in 
the pine stoves, from November until the other 
sorts come in, in the regular frames. The seeds of 
this kind are sown in August, and nursed in small 
pots until fit for planting out ; wlien the plants are 
placed in boxes about two-feet long, and which 
are made so as to stand on the top of the back flue 
of the pine stove, where they are placed. There is 
also a trellising for training them, formed over the 
back part of the pine-house, where the plants are 
exposed to the greatest degree of heat and light in 
the house. 

This method appears to be most simple and ef- 
fectual for procuring a crop of cucumbers in the 
winter season, that I have ever seen. It is a plan 
that has been long pursued by Mr. Alton, in the 
Royal Gardens, although not perhaps with the 
same degree of success ; the stove in these gardens 
being not so well adapted for the culture of this 
plant, as those at Sion, which have also the ad- 
vantage of a steam boiler, whereby the house can 
be at pleasure filled with vapour, which is known 
to be most conducive to the health and vigour of 
the cucumber plants. 

CUCUMBEKS CULTIVATED, 



Lancashire Prize Fights, 
White Turkey, 
Green Turkey, 



Superlative, 

Early Short Prickly, 

Sion Free Bearer, 



ON APPROACH IN LANDSCAPE GARDENING. 



Architecture requires symmetry ; the objects of 
nature, freedom ; and the properties of the one, can- 
not, with justice, be transferred to the other. 
Choice, arrangement, composition, improvement, 
and preservation, are so many symptoms of art, 
which may occasionally appear in several parts of 
a garden, but ought to be displayed, without re- 
serve, near the house ; nothing there should seem 
neglected ; it is a scene of the most cultivated na- 
ture ; it ought to be enriched ; it ought to be 
adorned ; and design may be avowed in tlie plan, 
and expence in the execution. 



Even regularity is not excluded : so capital a 
structure may extend its influence beyond its walls; 
but this power should be exercised only over its im- 
mediate appendages ; the platform upon which the 
house stands, is generally continued to a certain 
breadth on every side ; and whether it be pavement 
or gravel, may undoubtedly coincide with the shape 
of the building. The road which leads up to the 
door may go off from it in an equal angle, so that 
the two sides shall exactly correspond ; and certain 
ornaments, though detached, are yet rather within 
the province of architecture, than of gardening ; 

G 2 



44 



ON THE HEAT OF VEGETABLES. 



works of sculpture are not, like buildings, objects 
familiar in scenes of cultivated nature ; but vases, 
statues, and termini, are usual appendages to a con- 
siderable edifice ; as such they may attend the man- 
sion and trespass a little upon the garden, provided 
they are not carried so far into it as to lose their 
connection with the structure. The platform and 
the road are also appertenances to the house ; all 
these may, therefore, be adapted to its form ; and 
the environs will thereby acquire a degree of regu- 
larity ; but to give it to the object of nature, only 
on account of their proximity to others which are 
calculated to receive it, is, at the best, a refinement. 
Upon the same jirinciples, regularity has been re- 
quired in the approach ; and an additional reason 
has been assigned for it, that the idea of a seat is 
thereby extended to a distance ; but that may be 
done by other means than by an avenue ; a private 
road easily known ; if carried through grounds, or 
a park, it is conunonly very apparent ; even in a 
lane, here and there a bench, a pointed gate, a small 
plantation, or any other little ornament, will suffi- 
ciently denote it ; if the entrance only be marked, 
simple preservation will retain the impression along 



the whole progress ; or the road may wind through 
several scenes distinguished by objects, or by an ex- 
traordinary degree of cultivation ; and then the 
length of the way, and the variety of improvements 
through which it is conducted, may extend the ap- 
pearance of domain, and the idea of a seat, beyond 
the reach of any direct avenue. 

An avenue being confined to one termination, and 
excluding every view on the sides, has a tedious 
sameness throughout ; to be great, it must be dull ; 
and the object to which it is appropriated, is, after 
all, seldom shewn to advantage. Buildings, in gene- 
ral, do not appear so large, and are not so beauti- 
ful, when looked at in front, as when they are seen 
from an angular station, which commands two sides 
at once, and throws them both into perspective : but 
a winding lateral approach is free from these objec- 
tions ; it may besides be brought up to the house 
without disturbing any of the views from it ; but an 
avenue cuts the scenery directly in two, and reduces 
all the prospect to a narrow vista. A mere line of 
perspective, be the extent what it may, will seldom 
compensate for the loss of that space which it 
divides, and of the parts which it conceals. 



ON THE HEAT OF VEGETABLES. 

BY SIR HENRY STEUART, BART. LL.D. F.R.S., 



&C. 



It has been doubted by some phytologists, whether 
trees generate heat. I believe it is certain, that frosts 
of very extraordinary severity will destroy trees. 
The nonconducting property of wood, may, in some 
measure, protect the juices ; but their chemical 
composition is such, that they do not congeal, unless 
the cold be of the severest sort and many points be- 
low the freezing point of water. In weather so 
hard as to occasion the juices to freeze, the wood, 
in the act of congelation, is violently rent asunder. 
But in the more common destruction of woody 
plants, it is not so much the degree of cold that kills 
them, as the too sudden reapplication of heat. 

The ingenious Hassenfrats, to whom the chemi- 
cal world is under some obligations, held, that 
vegetables are not fed by carbonic acid. In a me- 
moir on the nourishment of vegetables, read in 1792 
to the Royal Academy of Paris, having shown, as 
he conceived, that water and air are insufficient for 
all the purposes of vegetation, he attempted in a 
second ingenious paper to prove, that carbonic acid 
gas is not decomposed and digested in the organs 
of growing vegetables, and that they cannot be fed 
by it ; because oxygen, escaping from combination 
in the decomposition of carbonic acid, and water 
escaping in vapour in the state of gas, would absorb 
caloric, and produce cold ; whereas by the experi- 
ments of the late John Hunterjliving vegetables con- 
tain a degree of heat greater than that of the sur- 
rounding atmosphere. The reason of this differ- 



ence in opinion between these two accurate en- 
quirers may possibly be, that Hunter's experiments 
were made only in the autumn, the winter, and early 
in the spring, when the activity of vegetation was 
suspended, which does not seem to have been the 
case respecting those of Hassenfrats. 

It appears, however, that both Riichert and Se- 
nebier ascertained, that vegetables do decompose 
carbonic acid, retaining the carbon, and emitting the 
oxygen. Dr. Woodward made many experiments 
with plants of mint growing in water ; and found 
that a plant, in water from the Thames, which must 
certainly have contained a large share of carbonic 
acid, encreased considerably more in weight, than a 
plant growing in pure water. Schoppet, who ex- 
amined the temperature of growing trees in New 
York, found, that from November to April, when 
the bulb of a thermometer was put into a hole made 
in a tree, the mercury rose higher than in the open 
air. And Ingenhoutz found, that a piece of green 
paper hung on a tree, in a warm summer's day, felt 
sensibly warmer than the leaves. Hunter, likewise, 
who was fond of trees, used to keep thermometers 
in them for months together, and obtained similar 
results. The subject is curious, and is the more de- 
serving of the planter's investigation, that the state 
of the bark, and its power, when thick and indu- 
rated, to protect the sap-vessels, are so intimately 
connected with all facts, that tend to illustrate the 
subject. 



ON THE STING OF THE NETTLE. 



45 



ON THE EVAPORATION OF PLANTS. 



BY KURT SPRENGEL, OF BERLIN. 



In the parched deserts of Africa, where the quan- 
tity of rain in a century rises scarcely to the height 
of an inch, the most juicy plants are often found to 
grow to an astonishing height. They can only be 
nourished by means of their surfaces. In hot- 
houses, too, we never attain a brisk growth so much 
by watering the roots of the plants, as by an artifi- 
cial wetting and sprinkling of the plants from above. 
Evident as all this is, it is still a difficult matter to ex- 
plain this absorption, upon common principles, 
through the closed sides of the cells. We might 
indeed ascribe this effect to the under surface of the 
leaves, on which principally the slits are seen ; but 
as dew and rain much more frequently fall than as- 
cend, we cannot avoid confining this absorption of 
the vapours and fluid drops, to tlie upper surface, 
on which supposition, we are again forced to betake 
ourselves to an organic perspiration. 

The evaporation of leaves, is one of the most ob- 
vious and important of their functions. No person 
can deny it, who has noticed the dropsof clear mois- 
ture on the points of leaves even in hot-houses, 
where they cannot be affected by the dew ; or who 
has traced the movement of a mist in a still even- 
ing, as it raises itself from fields planted with vege- 
tables ; or who has seen the rising of clouds from 
forests, and the ascent of vapoury colunms from the 
same places before the formation of a storm. In 
fact, plants lose, by evaporation from their leaves, 
the greatest part of the moisture which they take in by 
their roots. The proportion of the water absorbed, to 
that lost by evaporation, is as fifteen to thirteen, 
seldom as four to one. It is hence that a branch 
without leaves, when it has been placed in water, 
becomes heavier than one in a state of frondescense, 
because it wants the organs through which it may 
rid itself of its superfluous nourishment. The 
organs which are chiefly employed in evaporation. 



are the slits, and also the hairs, which latter organs 
are, therefore, more abundant in young shoots, and 
in those parts whose evaporation is most active. 

Evaporation has an essential influence on the 
economy of the plants themselves, and on the whole 
economy of nature. The activity by which the 
plant empties itself of its superfluous matters, 
operates as an incitement to the other functions, 
and a plant is, in truth, the more healthy, the more 
freely it evaporates. Yet there may be an excess 
in this also, especially, when not only unformed 
juice, but the prepared and proper s'ap is given off. 

The evaporation of leaves has a great influence 
on the general economy of nature. As in the tran- 
sition from the form of drops to that of vapour, a 
greater portion of heat is consumed, the quicker 
this transition takes place ; we find, in this fact, a 
principal cause of the low temperature which the 
juice of living plants exhibits, even during the great- 
est summer heat. Nay, the shade of a leafy tree 
will always afford a greater coolness to sentient ani- 
mals, than the shade of lifeless objects. 

The influence which the evaporation of leaves 
has upon the whole atmosphere, as well as upon the 
earth and its waters, produces very extensive effects. 
Forest regions are not only cooler, but also more 
productive of rain, than steppes and sandy deserts, 
where vegetation is entirely wanting. All the 
streams of the world have their sources in mountain 
chains covered with woods ; and although the melted 
snow is their immediate cause, they would neither 
continue to be poured along, nor grow to a river, 
unless forests and woods, by their evaporation, in- 
cessantly afforded the necessary stores of water. 
The largest rivers in the world flow in South 
America, in Upper India, and in Northern Asia, 
through forests of immeasurable extent. 



STING OF THE NETTLE, 

BY PROFESSOR DRUMMOND, OF BELFAST, f 



Three species of nettle are natives of Great 
Britain ; the Roman nettle, the common nettle, and 
the small. The first is limited to certain situations, 
but the other two are found almost everywhere. 
The common or large nettle is known by grievous 
experience to every one, though perhaps you have 



never yet enquired whence the pain arises from touch- 
ing it. You have often been pricked with a pin or 
needle ; but you \vi\l recollect that the pain suc- 
ceeding that injury is very different from what fol- 
lows the stinging of a nettle. Now, the wound 
made by either of these, is, perhaps, twenty times 



* From the German. 



f From his " Letters." 



46 



HARMONIES OF COLOUR AND FORM IN PLANTS. 



larger than that made by the sting , so that in the 
operation of the latter there must be something 
more than the mere extent of the wound to account 
for the greater pain which is produced. In fact, 
it is a process altogether analogous to the stinging 
of a bee, or the bite of a venomous serpent. The 
sting is not like a pin or needle, solid throughout, 
but is hollow in the centre, and perforated at the 
point ; and when touched, it is not only sharp 
enough to pierce the skin, but also is so constructed 
as to inject a particle of poisonous fluid into the 
wound it makes, and that is the source of the pain 
which follows. The wound itself is so minute, it 
would scarcely be felt, but the poison irritates, in- 
flames, and causes the well-known pain alluded to. 

The poison fang of the serpent is, in some re- 
spects, difl^erent from the sling of the nettle. 
There is a gland on the cheek which secrets or 
forms the poison, and this is conveyed by a duct, 
and discharged into a bag, which serves as a reser- 
voir. With this reservoir the base of the fang is 
connected in such a way, that, when the point of 
the fang presses against an object, the resistance 
pushes its root into the poisonous fluid, and this, of 
course, passes into the cavity of the fang, and is 
ejected from its aperture, which is a slit at some 
distance liehind the point. 

Were it not for this poison, the bite of a serpent 
would only cause a simple punctured wound ; but 
by the contrivance mentioned, it produces death in 
a very little time, even in the largest animal which 



the serpent will attack. Let us not pass over this 
subject without a little reflection. It offers us a 
striking example how the Almighty can turn sim- 
plest circumstances into the most important. Only 
a small number of the serpent tribe are armed with 
the poison apparatus ; the rest have simple teeth, 
and take their prey by suddenly twisting round its 
throat and strangling it. The poisonous serpent, 
on the other hand, merely gives its bite, and then 
watches the animal bitten, till it falls dead. 

We have the dreadful venom of the serpent ela- 
borated from its blood by a small gland placed upon 
the cheek, and to analogous process we are to refer 
the poison which produces the stinging pain of the 
nettle. Heat plant, the small species of which 
(Artica lireas) stings the most severely, is covered 
all over with hairs ; but by using a microscope, or 
a magnifying glass, you may perceive that these are 
not all of one kind ; some being perforated, which 
are the stings, while others are not. Each sting 
stands upon a pedestal, and this pedestal performs 
the office both of gland and poison bag. It is cel- 
lular and spongy within ; the sting is placed on its 
top, and may be moved by a slight pressure to 
either side, or round in a circle ; it seems to stand, 
as it were, on a universal joint. When a body 
touches its point, the base is pressed down into the 
spongy pedestal, and the poisonous fluid rushes up 
through the tubes of the sting, and flows out of the 
terminal apertures. 



HARMONIES OF COLOUR AND FORM IN PLANTS, 



BY T. CASTLES, M.D., F.L.S.* 



Nature, in the creation of the universe, has very 
beautifully moderated the influence of colour. To 
the firmament, she has given a beautiful azure tint; 
to the earth itself, a variety of shades, all more or 
less harmonizing with the blue on high, and the 
agreeable green of plants. If she had given to 
plants a yellowish hue, they would have been con- 
founded with the soil; and if she had dyed them 
blue, they would have been confounded with the 
sky and waters. In the first case, all would have 
appeared earth, in the second, all would have been 
sea ; but their verdure forms the most delightful 
contrast between them and the grounds of the 
grand picture, as well as consonances highly agree- 
able with the yellow colour of the earth, and with 
the azure of the heavens. 

In giving to vegetable productions a green shade, 
though only one single colour is employed, there 
are certain tints which appear to be given accord- 
ing to the situation or circumstances under which a 



plant may grow. Those that are destined to grow 
immediately on the earth, on strands, or on dusky 
rocks, are entirely green, leaves and stem : as the 
greater part of reeds, grasses, mosses, taper-trees, 
and aloes ; such, on the contrary, as are intended 
to issue from amidst herbage, have stems of a 
brownish hue, like the trunks of most trees and 
shrubs. The elder, for example, which thrives in 
the midst of green turf, has the stem of an ash- 
grey ; but the dwarf elder, which otherwise resem- 
bles it in every respect, and grows immediately on 
the ground, has the stem quite green. 

Not only the green of the plant is given to har- 
monize with other objects, but even the flower and 
fruit have their shades apparently proportioned ac- 
cordingly. 

It seems correct that the blue colour is not to be 
found in the flowers or in the fruits of lofty trees, 
for, in that case, they would assimilate with the 
sky ; but is very common on the ground in the 



» From his Introduction. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



47 



flowers of herbs: as in the corn-bottle, the icabiosa, 
the violet, the liver-wort, and others. On the con- 
trary, the colour of the earth is very common in 
the fruits of lofty trees: as in those of the walnut, 
the cocoa, the pine, and so on. 

In the form of flowers, the most perfect speci- 
mens of harmony might be selected, which would 
faithfully shew, that even in pleasing the sight, the 
greater object of utility is combined, if not in- 
creased. 

This is very sweetly shown in the structure of 
compound flowers, particularly such as the sun- 
flower and daisy. What would these flowers be in 
appearance, without their radii? Yet are the radi- 
ated petals of the circumference, not only given to 
complete a pleasing harmony of sight to the tubu- 
lar florets of the centre, but they answer as impor- 
tant purpose of moderating the influence of heat, 
&c. thus is the double object of utility and beauty 
combined. 

Another point productive of some very pleasing 



deductions, is founded on the harmonies from con- 
trast. Plants opposite in nature, are almost always 
associated. 

'J luis round the faded trunks of trees, twines the 
creeping ivy, or the great convolvulus, compensa- 
ting the apparent want of blossom. The fir rises 
in the forests of the north, like a lofty pyramid, of a 
dark green colour, and with motionless attitude. 
Near this tree, you almost always find the birch, 
which grows to the same height in the form of an 
inverted pyramid, of a lively green, and whose 
moveable foliage is incessantly playing with every 
breath of wind. The reed, on the banks of rivers, 
raises erect into the air its radiated leaves, and its 
embroidered stems, while the nymptasa spreads at 
its feet its broad heart-shaped leaves, and its gold 
coloured flower ; the dark blue violet is contrasted 
in the spring with the yellow tints of the cowslip 
and the primrose. On the herbaged angles of the 
rock, the fungus, white and round, rises from 
amidst beds of moss of the most beautiful green. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



TRYPETHELIUM SPRENGELII, ACH. 

T. Sprengelii, Ach. Liin- J^Ieth. Lick. p. 18. t. iv /. 8,9.— Fee, 
Meth. JLich., p. 24, t. 1, f. IS. Ejmd. Essai Cryp ccore exot. 
qffic , p. 6b. tab. xix.f. 1 — Spreng., Sgst. Vegetab., iv, 1, p. 
348. 

T. Eleutherise, Spreng., Anlist A nlest zu kent. dev Gervasch., 
etc. 3, th., p. 350, t. x./. 95. 

Thallo (crusta) fulvo-flavescente, effuso, Isevi. 

Apotheciis (verrucis) tierinsphsericis, glabris, subnitentibus 
I'usco-ferrugeneis ; Thalamcis (E 16) suiiglobosis ; Perithecro 
crasso, ater-rimo, nuclee albido ; Sarcothecio fulvo. 

Habitat in America ad corticem Crotonis CascarillEe, nee non in 
Peruvia ad corticera BonplandiEe trinoliatfe, /co77. tab. xx.Jig. 
1, A, magnitudine natural! ; B, fragmentum auctiim : C, apo- 
therium liorizontaliter sectum ; D, theca ; E, gongylus. 

This plant abounds on the bark of several trees in 
Peru, St. Domingo, and Guadaloupe, and pro- 
ably in many other localities. 



PHLOMIS LYCHNITIS. 

Didynamia Gymnospermia, Linn. ; Labiatoe, JussiEU. 

Calyx angulatuz ; corollse labium superius incumbens, compres- 
sum, villosum. 

Phlomis Lychnitis, foliis lanceolatis tomentosis, floralibus ovatis, 
involucris Setaceis lunatis. 

Sp. PI. 819 Reich. 3 p. 70. MUl. Ic. 204. Mart. Mill. Diet. n. 
f>. Unit. Kew, 2. p. 308. 

Phlomis Lychnitis. Clu. Hisp. 379. Hist. 2. 27. Tourn. Inst 
178. Pena in Hist. Lvgd.. K03. Ed. Gallic. 2. p. Wi. 
Ti'Assa. Arrag. n. 536. Gh. Prov. 264 2, Villars Dauph. 2 
p. 393. QjieT. Flor. Espan. v. 6. p. 95. Allioni Ft. Ped. 12l' 
IVilld. Sp. PL 3. p 119. Brot. Flor. Luset. v. J. p. 166. 

P'.ilomis foliis legalatis utrinque tomentosis, radiis involucri 
setaceis villosis. Suav. Mosp. 143. 



Verbascum angustis Salviae foliis. Baugh Pin. 240. Ger. emac. 

767. Rail Hist. 511. 
Verbascum sylvestre foliis salvias tenuifolise. Lob. Ic. 558.y. 1. 

et 2. advers. p. 241. 
Verbascum sylvestre monspeliense, flore luteo triante. J. Baugh. 

Hist 3. p. 307, quoad descriptionem. 
Stadrys prselongo angustoque folio, flore luteo. Barrel, Ic. 1321. 
Salvia fruticosa lutea angustifolia. Park. Theat. 51. y. 10. 

Among the figures above quoted, those of Clusius 
and Pena, Barrelier and Philip Miller, are the only 
original ones. Of these, that of Pena expresses 
the habit of the plant the best, but was taken after 
the flowers had dropped off"; in which state the spe- 
cimens in herbariums are often found. Perhaps it 
was this circumstance that misled Linnaeus when 
he describes the corolla " as scarcely larger than 
the calyx." 

It is a native of the south parts of France, Spain, 
and Portugal ; growing chiefly on dry gravelly hills ; 
is said to be particularly abundant about Mont- 
pelier, and in similar soils in other parts of Lan- 
guedoc. 

It owes its specific title of Lychnitis, as well as 
its Spanish name Candelero, to the use to which 
the long slender radical leaves are apjjlied, as wicks 
for lamps ; which purpose they are said to answer 
very well, even in their recent state. 

It was cultivated by Miller, in the Physic Gar- 
den at Chelsea, in 1731, but may be considered 
with us as a very rare plant. It is generally treated 
as a green-house shrub ; but in a sheltered situation 
and dry gravelly soil, it would probably do much 
better in the open air. It flowers in July. 



48 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



IRIS LURIDA. 
Triandiia Monogynia, Linn ; Iridea;, JussiEU. 

Calyx, sheaths bivalve, separating the flowers, permanent. 

Corolla six parted. Petals oblong, blunt; the three exterior 
ones reflexed; the three interior upright and sharper; all con- 
nected at tlie claws into a tube of different lengths in the dif- 
ferent species. Stamens, Filaments three, awl-shaped, incum- 
bent on the reflex petals. Anthers oblong, straight, depressed 

Pistils with the seed organ, inferior, oblong, style simple, very 
short ; summits three, petal form, oblong, reeled within, fur- 
rowed without ; incumbent on the stamens, two lipped. Outer 
lip smaller, and notched ; inner larger, forked and sabinflected. 

Capsule oblong, cornered, three-celled, three-yalved. 

Seeds several large. 

The nectary in some (1. 9.) is a longitudinal villose line, engraven 
on the base of the reflex petals ; but in others it consists of 
three melliferous pores at the base of the flower. The cap- 
sule in some is trigonal, in others hexagonal. 

ItIs lurida. 

Ait. Hort. Keto 1, 68. 

Bearded, stem higher than the leaves, and many 
flowered, outer petals ri volute, inner from erect 
bent in, somewhat waved and slightly eniarginate. 



ALOE LINGUA VAR. A 

Hexandria Monogynia. LiNN; Hemerocallidiae, JussiEU. 

Alee lingua ; acanlis, curviflora, foliis distochis, base imbricate, 
conduplicantibus, lingua; formibus, punctnlis instar aranefe 
cuticuire pnimatis, variegatis, corolla subampallacea, laciniis 
breviter coalitis. 

Aloe Africana flore rubro, folio maculisub utraque parte notato. 
Knorr. Thes. Rhei. Herb. v. 3 A. t. 14. Camm. Hort Amst. 2. 
15. <.8. 

Aloe Africana raaculata flore rubro, secund species. IVernm. 
Phys. Icorit. 57 

Aloe africana foliis linguam vitulinam exprimentibus. Sabbat. 
Hort. Rom. 6 t. 71. 

(Aloe a hngua di vitello). (E) foliis latioribus obscurius varie- 
gatis. G. 

Aloe obliqua. Jucq. Hort. Schcenb. 4. t. 

Aloe nigricans. Haworth. Linn. Trans. 7. 13. 

This plant grows with its leaves, near the ground. 
These are about six inches in length. The flowers 
are in slender and loose spikes, each hanging down- 
wards, of a red colour at bottom and green at top. 



BIGNONIA VENUSTA. 

Didynamia Angiosiiermia, Linn ; Bignoniae, JussiEU. 

Calyx 5-fidus, cyaithforniis ; corolla, fauce campanulata, 5-fida, 
sobtus ventricosa ; Siliqua 2-)ocularis ; semina, membranaceo- 
alata. 

Bignonia yenusta scandens ; foliis glabris, infesiorbus ternatis 
ecirrhosis, superioribus conjugatis cirrhosis, foliolis oblongo- 
ovatis acuminatis basi inoequilateri-oblignis, petiolis intri 
villosis ; calyce brevi cylin drico-rotato sequaH denticnlis 5- 
teretibus villosis invincem distantibus, pedimentis corymboso 
— pluri-floris. 

This splendid plant was received about fifteen or 
twenty years ago from the Brazils, by Lady Liver- 
pool, and flowered first in this country in 1818, in 
the hot-house at Coombe Wood. The figure in our 
plate was drawn and engraved from a specimen sent 
us by Mr. Forbes of Woburn Abbey, accompanied 
with the following letter : 



"Woburn Abbey, Jan, 21st, 1834. 
" Sir, — I herewith send you a specimen of the 
Bignonia Venusla, which is at present in flower, in 
the Garden of R. Trevor, Esq., Tingrith, who very 
kindly sent this specimen over to me this morning, 
to forward to you, should you consider it worth a 
place in your Magazine. I believe it is very rare 
to see this species of Bignonia in flower. This 
plant is growing in a corner of the pine stove at 
'J'ingrith, and the roots are nourished by the tan- 
bed, and frequent waterings with liquid manure, 
which induces it to grow luxuriently every year ; 
and has produced this, and last year, an incon- 
ceivable multitude of blossoms. The shoots are 
trained along the back of the pine stove, as well as 
down every rafter ; and when in flower, they have 
really a magnificent appearance. 

" I understand that Mr. Phillips, Mr. Trevor's 
gardener, has sent specimens of it to Mr. Loudon, 
lately, with the particulars, relative to his manage- 
ment of it; which he informs me, is to appear in 
the next Magazine. If you should notice it in your 
Magazine, you will of course mention the garden 
where it has been brought to such high perfec- 
tion in. 

" I remain, Sir, your very obedient servant, 

"J. Forbes." 

The following is the article by Mr. Phillips, above 
alluded to: — B. Venusta appears to like free scope 
for its roots. We have here two flowering plants, 
which are planted in the back corners of the bark- 
bed, in boxes one-foot square and five-feet deep, 
formed of perforated boards, and filled with a mix- 
ture of sandy loam and leaf mould. The roots have 
passed out of the boxes into the decayed bark of 
the bark bed, in which there is always a gentle heat, 
and in which they grow and spread very freely. 
We water liberally with the drainings from the 
hot beds and rain water. The plants are trained 
perpendicular, with a single stem, now three-inches 
in girth, to the points where they touch the rafter ; 
and to this point the branches, when they have 
done flowering, are always cut back, while at the 
same time the bark-bed is renovated, and the roots 
reduced. When the grape-vines are taken out, we 
lead the shoots of the bignonia along two wires close 
under the rafters over the path a foot from the 
grass. When the grape vines are taken out, we lead 
the shoots of the bignonia down the rafters, and, in 
its flowering season, it maybe said to cover the whole 
house ; and it has a most splendid appearance. 

In 1831-2, the B. Venusta began flowering on Oc- 
tober 3 ; in 1833, two or three weeks later. It con- 
tinues blossoming between three and four months, 
and some of the finest specimens have upwards of 
seventy flowers in a corymb. A branch introduced 
into the greenhouse has flowered sparingly. Cut- 
tings of the young shoots, when about 9 inches long, 
will strike root freely in a hot-bed. 




f ' ' If 1 llC rajttltiL.^ liycmi :i li.-: . 



49 



MR. WILLIAM GRIFFIN'S MODE OF CULTIVATING THE PINE-APPLE. 



With respect to the most appropriate soil, Mr. Grif- 
fin, very justly it would appear, laughs at those 
who prescribe many different strange ingredients for 
compost ; adding, that after numerous experiments 
made with mixtures of deers'.sheeps', pigeons', hens', 
and rotten stable-dung, with soot, and other manures, 
various proportions and combinations, with fresh 
soil of different qualities from pastures and waste 
lands, I can venture with confidence to recommend 
the following : — Procure from a pasture, or waste 
land, a quantity of brown, rich, loamy earth, if of a 
reddish colour the better, but of a fattish mouldy 
temperature ; that by squeezing a handful of it toge- 
ther, and opening your hand, it will readily fall 
apart again : be cautious not to go deeper than you 
find it of that pliable texture ; likewise procure, if 
possible, a quantity of deers' dung : if none can be 
conveniently got, sheeps' dung will do, and a quan- 
tity of swines' dung. Let the above three sorts be 
brought to some convenient place, and laid up in 
three different heaps ridgeways, for at least six 
months ; and then mix them in the following man- 
ner, covering the dung with a little soil before it is 
mixed ; four wheel-barrows of the above earth; one 
barrow of sheeps' dung, and two barrows of swines' 
dung. This composition, he adds, if carefully and 
properly prepared, will answer every purpose for 
the growth of pine plants of every age and kind. 
It is necessary that it should remain a year before 
applied to use, that it may receive the advantages of 
the summer's sun and winter's frost; and it need 
not be screened or sifted before using ; but only 
well broken with the hands and spade, as, when 
finely sifted, it becomes too compact for the roots of 
the plants." 

In rearing the young plants, he generally plants 
the crowns in the bark till they have struck root ; 
but the suckers he pots at once, unless they are small 
and green at bottom, when he treats them like the 
crowns. The pots he uses for both crowns and 
suckers are five inches diameter, and four inches 
deep, unless the suckers are very strong, when he 
puts them in pots seven and a half inches deep. The 
plants are shifted in the March following into pots 
nine inches in diameter, by eight inches deep, turn- 
ing each singly out of its present pot, with a ball of 
earth around its roots, unless any appear unhealthy 
or any ways defective, when it is eligible to shake 
the earth from the roots, and trim off all the parts 
that appear not alive. He plunges them in the bark 
(refreshed as at each shifting) eighteen inches from 
plant to plant in the row, and twenty inches distant 
row from row. 

Mr. Griffin shifts for the last time in the October 



of the year preceding them in which the fruit is 
expected ; the pots he uses are twelve inches in 
diameter, and ten inches deep. He plunges them 
in the bark-bed, about twenty inches plant from 
plant, and two feet distance from row to row. He 
says, " place the first row eighteen inches from the 
kirb, angling them in the rows as you go on." 

It is of some consequence to remark, that Griffin's 
practice in not divesting the plants at any one shift- 
ing of their balls of earth, differs from that of Speech- 
ly, Nicol, and most other practitioners, excepting 
Baldwin. It appears highly probable, that by not 
disturbing the balls of healthy plants, they will pro- 
duce their fruit both earlier and of a larger size ; for 
the cutting off the roots must produce a check in 
the growth of the plant, and their renewal must 
occupy its chief energies for some time, and thus 
lessen the vigour of the leaves ; since the leaves and 
roots of all plants assist each other alternately as 
occasion requires. 

Those who advocate the practice of shaking off 
the balls of earth, and cutting off the roots of pines 
in the second year's spring shifting, say, that though, 
at first sight, it has an unnatural appearance, yet, on 
more minute inquiry, it will be found congenial to 
nature. In the first place, they say that they only 
cut aAvay the lower decaying roots, and preserveall 
the others, unless they are bruised by the shaking 
off the ball ; or injured by disease or otherwise. In 
the next place, they state, that on attentively examin- 
ing the pine-plant, it will be found, that, in its mode 
of rooting, it may be classed with the strawberry, 
vine, and crowfoot, which throw out fresh roots 
every year, in part among, but chiefly above, the old 
ones. This done, the old ones become torpid and 
decay, and to cut them clear away, if it could be 
done in all plants of this habit, would, it is said, be 
assisting nature, and contribute to the growth of the 
new roots, though it will ultimately increase the 
vigour of the herb and fruit, will retard their pro- 
gress to maturity. 

Speechly has the following jiidicious observations 
in allusion to those who recommend always shifting 
with the balls entire. 

" It is observable, that the pine-plant begins to 
make its roots at the very bottom of the stem, and as 
the plant increases in size, fresh roots are produced 
from the stem, still higher and higher; and the 
bottom roots die in proportion : so that, if a plant in 
the greatest vigour be turned out of its pot as soon 
as the fruit is cut, there will be found at the bottom 
a part of the stem, several inches in length, naked, 
destitute of roots, and smooth : now, according to 
the above method, the whole of the roots decay and 



MAG.4ZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO XIJI. APRIL, 1834. 



50 



ON LANDSCAPE GARDENING; 



turn mouldy, to the great detriment of those after- 
wards produced." 

The first ball, which remains with the plant full 
two years, by length will become hard, cloddy, and 
exh,iusted of its nourishment, and must, therefore, 
prevent the roots afterwards produced from growing 
with that freedom and vigour which they would do 
in fresher and better mould. 

The old ball continually remaining after the fre- 
quent shiftings, it will be too large when put into 
the fruiting pot to admit of a sufficient quantity of 
fresh mould to support the plant till its fruit becomes 
ripe, which is generally a whole year from the last 
time of shifting. 

In giving air and water, Mr. Griffin differs 
nothing from Nicol ; he waters moderately in win- 
ter, and more liberally in the growing seasons, from 
March till October ; want of water to keep the plants 
moist, he considers one of the reasons of their show- 
ing fruit prematurely. He never waters over the 
leaves in any stage, nor gives much at the roots in 
damp weather. 

With respect to temperature, this author differs 
from most others who have written on the pine, but 
not from many very successful practitioners. He 
recommends 60 degrees as the heat proper for the 
pine in every stsge, not exceeding five or six de- 
grees over or under. The bottom heat, which he 
considers proper, is from 90 to 100 degrees. 

After many trials and experiments, he found the 
following the most effectual wash for destroying 
insects on pines. 



To one gallon of soft rain water, add eight ounces 
of soft green soap, one ounce of tobacco, and three 
table spoonfuls of turpentine ; stir and mix them 
well together in a watering pot, and let them stand 
for a day or two. Wlien you are going to use this 
mixture, stir and mix it well again, then strain it 
through a thin cloth. If the fruit only is infected, 
dash the mixture over the crown and fruit, with a 
squirt, untill all is fairly wet ; and what runs do^^'n 
the stem of the fruit will kill all the insects that are 
amongst the bottom of the leaves. When young 
plants are infested, take them out of their pots, and 
shaking all the earth from their roots, (tying the 
leaves of the largest plants together,) and plunge 
them into the above mixture, keeping every part 
covered for the space of five minutes ; then take 
them out, and set them down in a clean place, with 
their tops declining downwards, for the mixture to 
drain out of their centre. When the plants are dry, 
put them into smaller pots than before, and plunge 
them into the bark bed. 

Mr. Griffin's object seems to have been to pro- 
duce large fruit in the proper season. \^'Tien gar- 
dener to J. C. Gerardot, Esq.,at Kelham, near Not- 
tingham, he cut twenty green pines, which weighed 
together, 87 pounds seven oimces. In July, one of 
the New Providence kind, weighing seven pounds 
two ounces. In August, one of the same kind, 
weighing nine pounds three ounces. And at ano- 
ther time he cut 22 green pines, which weighed 
together, 118 pounds three ounces. 



ON ENGLISH LANDSCAPE GARDENING. 



BY WASHINGTON IRVING, ESQ. 



The taste of the English in the cultivation of land, 
and in what is called landscape gardening is un- 
rivalled. They have studied nature intently, and 
discover an exquisite sense of her beautiful forms 
and harmonious combinations. Those charms, 
which in other countries she lavishes in wild soli- 
tudes, are here assembled round the haunts of domes- 
tic life. They seem to have caught her coy and 
furtive graces, and spread them, like witchery, 
about their rural abodes, 

Nothing can be more imposing than the magni- 
ficence of English park scenery: vast lawns that 
extend like shofets of vivid green, with here and 
there clumps of gigantic trees, heaping up rich piles 
of foliage. The solemn pomp of groves and wood- 
land glades, with the deer trooping in silent herds 
across them ; the hare, bounding away to the covert ; 
or the pheasant, suddenly bursting upon the wing. 
The brook, taught to wind in the most natural 
meanderings, or expand into a glassy lake — the se- 
questered pool, reflecting the quivering trees, with 
the yellow leaf sleeping on its bosom, and the trout 



roaming fearlessly about its limpid waters : while 
some rustic temple, or sylvan statue, grown green 
and dank with age, gives an air of classic sanctij;y to 
the seclusion. 

These are but a few of the featu^res of park 
scenery ; but what most delights me, is the creative 
talent with which the English decorate the unosten- 
tatious abodes of middle life. The rudest habitation, 
the most unpromising and scanty portion of land, in 
the hands of an Englishman of taste, becomes a 
little paradise. With a nicely discriminating eye, 
he seizes at once upon its capabilities, and pictxires 
in his mind the future landscape. The sterile spot 
grows into loveliness under his hand, and yet the 
operations of art which produce the effect are 
scarcely to be perceived. The cherishing and train- 
ing of some trees ; the cautious pruning of others ; 
the nice distribution of flowers and plants of tender 
and graceful foliage ; the introduction of a green 
slope of velvet turf; the partial opening to a peep of 
blue distance, or silver gleam of water ; — all these 
are managed with a delicate tact, a pervading, yet 



ON ROTTED DUNG. 



51 



quiet assiduity, like the magic touchiiigs with which 
a painter finishes up a favoui'ite picture. 

The residence of people of fortune and refine- 
meiit in the country has diffused a degree of taste 
and elegance in rural economy that descends to the 
lowest class. The very labourer, with his thatched 
cottage and narrow slip of ground, attends to their 
embellishment. The trim liedge, the grass plat 
before the door, the little flower bed, bordered with 
snug box, the woodbines trained up against the wall, 



and hanging its blossoms about the lattice ; the pot 
of flowers in the window, the holly providently 
planted about the house, to cheat winter of its 
dreariness, and throw in a semblance of green sum- 
mer to cheer the fire-side. All these bespeak the 
influence of taste, flowing down from high sources, 
and pervading the lowest levels of the public mind. 
If ever love, as poet sings, delights to visit a cottage, 
it must be the cottage of an English peasant. 



ON ROTTED DUNG AS A MANURE* 



It is certainly an erroneous assumption to say, the 
first stage of fermentation in dung, must necessarily 
throw off' its valuable parts. Every dung-hill of 
fresh dung throws off a gaseous exhalation, a very 
short time after it is put together, and the quantity 
thus thrown oft', is regulated by the state of the 
atmosphere. But this exhalation does not consist of 
the valuable gases ; it is a mere evaporation of the 
water contained in the dung. The same hot haze 
may be seen flickering over a fallow field on a svmny 
day in summer. Nobody could with truth assert, 
that this haze arises from the disengagement of the 
gases in the dung, which had previously been inser- 
ted into the soil, when it is clearly nothing more 
than the evaporation of the moisture in the soil. 
In Saxony, hay is made by heaping together the cut 
grass, fermenting it for a short time, and afterwards 
drying it in the sun : but in this process, nobody 
would say that the nutritious portions of the grass 
are dissipated, when it is only the superabundant 
aqueous portions of the grass which are driven off' by 
heat. To say, therefore, the first stage of decompo- 
sition in a dung-hill throws of " the most valuable, 
and the most efficient " parts of the dung, is just to 
say the vapour of water is the most valuable part of 
dung. 

It is true, were the fermentation continued after all 
the water in the dung was evaporated, a considerable 
increase of temperature would ensue ; and when the 
texture of the fibrous portions of the manure began 
to decompose, there would be an evolution of 
valuable gases. Direct experiment has proved the 
escape of gases from a heap of dung which has been 
long fermenting. But what harm accrues to the 
dung as a manure, from the escape of these gases ? 
None whatever. We are told these gases constitute 
the food of plants, and if they are permitted to be 
dissipated by decomposition, the quantity of nourish- 
ment in the heap of manure, will of course, be so 
much diminished ; that if the bulk of the dung-heap 
be diminished one half, or one third, by excessive 
fermentation, the quantity of nourishment to the 
crops will be diminished in a greater ratio. These 
cautions have long been whispered to the ears of 



practical men, but they have listened to the advice 
with a provoking indift'erence. Like ducklings, 
when tliey first take the water, they have continued 
to disregard every remonstrance of their foster 
brethren against injurious practices, raising and 
devouring their food, and enjoying themselves with 
the greatest complacency in their vocation. It is 
true, and we must admit it, that some of the gases 
constitute tlie food of plants, but it does not follow 
that plants would receive them as food, directly as 
they are disengaged from a fermenting and heated 
mass ; nay, it is probable they would rather reject the 
food that would injure them. But, as plants are not 
endowed with locomotive powers, they cannot avoid 
the food wliich is directly presented to them ; they 
will therefore be obliged to partake of it even in an 
injurious state, and in thus taking it they die. Ac- 
cordingly, we invariably find that plants suffer from 
the contact of fermenting dung, and it is this well- 
known fact, more than from any other circum- 
stance, which deters farmers from applying d\mg in 
an unprepared state. It is sometimes applied to the 
soil, it is true, in an unprepared state, but long before 
the crop is brought into contact with it, and after it 
has undergone fermentation in the soil. Though 
this application of dung is recommended by men of 
science, it is performed from the very opposite prin- 
ciple which they recommend. They recommend it, 
because the gases arising while the dung is ferment- 
ing, are absorbed by the soil, and are then given out 
for the use of plants ; on the other hand farmers per- 
form it, because the fermentation will have ceased 
before the crop is inserted into the ground. Wliich 
of these is the more rational reason ? 'i he practical 
one undoubtedly ; for it is surely impossible that the 
slight covering of earth upon the dung can prevent 
the escape of the elastic gas, however it may retard 
fermentation. 

We may conclude from analogy, that plants like 
animals, have a mode of consuming their food pecu- 
liar to themselves. They may not necessarily con- 
sume the food in the state we choose to prepare it for 
them. All they require is, that the material which 
supply their food shall be placed in the soil in the 



* Quarterly Journal of Agriculture. 



H 2 



52 



ON ROTTED DUNG. 



state least injurious to them, and within their reach, 
and will feed themselves. Now, what is the least 
injurious state in which dung can be presented to 
any crop ? Experience has always said in a " soft 
cohesive mass." Recent discoveries show that 
practice has always spoken in accordance with 
science. Consequently, this concurrence cf science 
is a tardy justification of practice. 

The history of the recent discoveries alluded to, 
which shew the scientific accuracy of practice in 
applying dung in a rotten state is this. In 1802, the 
celebrated chemist and analyst, Klaproth, received 
from Palermo, a substance which exuded sponta- 
neously from the bark of a species of elm. To this 
substance, Dr. Thomson gave the temporary name of 
ulmin. It dissolves speedily in a small quantity of 
water, in which respect it is like a gum : but, when 
the solution is very much concentrated by evapo- 
ration, it is not the least mucilaginous or ropy, nor 
does it answer as a paste. In this respect, uhnin differs 
very essentially from gum. When a few drops of 
nitric or oxymuriatic acid are added to the solution, it 
becomes gelatinous, which, when slowly evaporated 
to dryness, and treated with alcohol, and again eva- 
porated, leaves a light brown, bitter and sharp resi- 
nous substance. Thus, it appears that ulmin, by the 
addition of a little oxygen, is converted into a resi- 
nous substance. In this new state, it is insoluble in 
water. This property is very singular : that a sub- 
stance soluble in water should assume the resinous 
form with such facility is very remarkable. Bei'- 
zelius has found this curious substance in all barks ; 
Bruconnot, in saw dust, starch, and sugar. But, 
what is more to our present purpose, Sprengal and 
Polydone Boullay have found it to constitute a 
leading principle in all soils and manures. Sprengel 
appropriately calls it Humin, {rom its existence in all 
soils : ulmin being given to it by Dr. Thomson 
several years ago as a temporary name. 

Such is the histoiy of this remarkable substance, 
which performs so important a function in the ac- 
tion of putrescent manures, and which is found in 
abundance in " the soft cohesive mass" of rotten 
dung. Let us see how it operates in manures. 

The chief food of plants consists of the carbonic 
acid gas and humic acid mixed with water. Every 
manure is therefore only valuable which contains 
these substances in the greatest degree, and in such 
a state as they are most easily available to plants. 
Now, practice recommends the rotting of every 
kind of dung, whether simple or compounded, and 
the reducing it into a uniform dark brown " soft co- 
hesive mass," similar in consistence to fresh peat, so 
that it may be cut with the spade, because it main- 
tains that dung in this state is much more valuable 
to crops than fresh dung or mere litter, whatever 
may have been the quantity of carbonic acid gas 
which had evolved during its fermentation. Recent 
discoveries have proved the wisdom of this recom- 



mendation of practice, because they have proved 
that rotted dung contains much more carbonic acid 
gas and humic acid, weight for weight, than fresh 
dung. There is, it is true, a loss of bulk in rotting 
fresh dung, and of an evolution of carbonic acid gas 
during its fermentation ; but the question is not 
what the volume of carbonic acid gas alone is in 
dung, but what is the most available state in which 
the carbonic acid gas in the dung can be presented 
to plants ; and this is the rotted state, because in that 
state alone, it contains the humic acid in quantity. 
All the black carbonaceous matter in dung-hills is 
the humin ready to be converted into humic acid, 
which is in fact the cooked state of the food of 
plants. Moreover, practice finds that fresh dung Ls 
injurious to vegetation, and recent discoveries now 
inform us that this arises from the acridity of the 
ammonia, which is always present in unfermented 
dung. Fermentation drives off the acrid ammonia. 
Fresh dung is found to injure plants by burning 
them, which is a very appropriate term to describe 
the action of ammonia. In like manner, stale liquid 
is not so good a top-dressing to grass as fresh, or 
when it is largely mixed with water; because 
science now informs us, that ammonia becomes con- 
centrated in stale liquid manure, and is, therefore, in 
an injurious state from plants, and that it is neces- 
sary to mix liquid manure largely with water, in 
order to dilute the ammonia, and allow the proper 
action of the humid acid, which exist in large 
quantity in them. Again, it is not an uncommon 
practice to cover a dung-hill with earth in hot wea- 
ther, and this is now explained, not as it hitherto has 
been, that the earth absorbs and prevents the escape 
of the carbonic acid gas, which it could no more do 
than a balloon made of gauze could prevent the es- 
cape of hydrcgen gas ; but that a violent fermenta- 
tion in the dung is checked by the earth partly ex- 
cluding the atmospheric air and rain water, the oxy- 
gen in either of which is indispensable to continue 
the process, it being this oxygen which forms the 
carbonic acid gas by uniting with the carbon of the 
dung. The necessity of checking a violent fermenta- 
tion in a dung-hill which contains a large portion of 
horse dung, is to prevent it being what is technically 
called "fi/refanget," a state of dung which is 
useless. 

In regard to composts, it is found that to mix 
lime with fresh or rotten dung is to waste it, because, 
as is now explained, the lime takes up and renders 
useless the carbonic acid gas which they contain. In 
like manner, a compost of fresh dung and weeds, 
green leaves, grass, turf, and green vegetables, 
without lime, is valuable, because all these sub- 
stances supply abundance of humin. On the other 
hand, lime promotes the fermentation of peat earth, 
dry leaves, and every thing which contains hard 
woody fibre, and supplies humin in quantity. 

It is requisite to attend to the seasons of manuring. 



ON KITCHEN GARDENING. 



53 



Dung, in any state, is never applied to the land in 
winter ; it is best applied in spring : it is injudicious 
to expose it to a hot sun in heaps ; and it is impro- 
per to allow it to remain a length of time in heaps 
on the field. These practices are now easily ex- 
plained, and are quite in accordance with science. 
In winter there are no crops in the field to which 
tlie dung can be applied : in spring, on the otlier 
hand, plants and seeds are ready to shoot forth into 
life ; their roots are then most active to devour the 
nourishment which may be placed within their 
reach. To spread out rotted dung in hot weather 
and let it lie, must be to suliject its component parts 
to the highest degree of evaporation, and to allow it 
to remain in large heaps for a time on the ground, is 
to give the portions of the ground which are covered 
by the heaps an undue advantage. 

We thus see that science now agrees with that 
practice which has been pursued for years with un- 
exampled success. It is consolatory to practitioners 
to think that their experience, though unknowingly 
to them, has guided them to success on really scien- 
tific principles. This agreement of experience and 
science should teach every one that science and ex- 
perience, and not science alone, ought to be made 
the tests to try the accuracy of opinions. Unfortu- 
nately for the credit of science, the test of accuracy 
hitherto, in the application of putrescent manure, 
has not been submitted to practice. It is always for 
the interest of practice, however, to listen attentively 
to the suggestions of science. One of these sugges- 
tions as a rule to try the value of all sorts of manures, 
is, that they shall be judged by the proportion of car- 
bonic acid gas and humic acid they contain or may 
evolve after they have been applied, and also by the 
quantity of water "which they are able to take up 
and retain. The rule, when confined to carbonic 
acid gas and water, was supposed to lead to a cor- 



rect view of the subject, independently of ascertain- 
ing the proportion of humic acid. But when the 
rule was confined to these substances before the dis- 
covery of the importance of the humic acid, we see 
the errors which even men of science fell into. 
Knowing now the effects of the important principle 
of humic acid, it ought to be strictly retained as a 
term in the rule ; because, were the ability to retain 
water alone taken as a test, bog earth, the most 
sterile substance in an undecomposed state, might 
be decided to be the best of all manures ; and were 
the evolution of carbonic acid gas alone taken as a 
test, chalk should be an excellent man\ire, and so it 
would always be, could it be brought to take up and 
retain enough of water to dissolve a portion of it, 
which it can do by means of the humic acid. Now, 
let us apply these texts to rotten dung. There can 
be no question that rotten dung is very much supe- 
rior in imbibing and retaining water, to what is 
fresh, unfermented, or beginning to ferment. A 
simple experiment can easily prove this to those 
who doubt the fact. " With respect to carbonic 
acid gas, humic acid, and the minor materials of the 
food of plants," says a recent author, " there can be 
as little doubt of the superiority of rotten dung, 
which is, in fact, in a state very nearly approaching 
to the best leaf mould or virgin loam, and though a 
weighed quantity of fresh dung certainly will yield 
more carbonic acid gas than when this same quan- 
tity is allowed to ferment and rot, in consequence 
of much of it being given off during these pro- 
cesses, yet the weighed quantity of fresh dung will 
bear no comparison in this respect with rotted dung. 
The quantity of humic acid is very considerably 
greater in rotted dung. Hence, in treating in future 
of all putrescent manures, the very important effects 
of the humic acid must never be overlooked." 



ON CONVERTING A LEY FIELD INTO A KITCHEN GARDEN. 



BY MARTIN DOYLE, OF BALLYORLEY.* 



In the late editions of my " Hints to Small Farmers" 
there is a brief detail of the Rev. Richard Radcliff's 
modes of sod banking, which, as it may be new to 
many readers of this Magazine, I shall now beg 
leave to restate : 

" We lightly ploughed half anacreof old grassland, 
and employed boys and girls to collect the sods into 
banks, twenty yards asunder, by which the expense 
of car work was saved When this was done, the 
spaces between those banks >vere ploughed, and 
drills being formed, he gave the usual allowance of 
manure, and planted potatoes in them ; then that 
the banks (which were twelve feet in breadth, 
and two feet and a half in depth) might not 
be unproductive, he had them also planted with 
potatoes in the Munster f shion, taking care to 



cover them sufficiently from furrows at each side of 
the bank." — " The general advantages to be ob- 
tained from this plan, Mr. Radcliff states to be (and, 
in his opinion, he is strongly supported by the flatter- 
ing approbation of the veteran agriculturist. Sir John 
Sinclair) the collecting on the spot a great quantity 
of the choicest manure, producing valuable crops ; 
while it is rotting, the clearing of the land from 
weeds, the saving of a ploughing to one sixth part 
of itself, and the bringing into action a body of fresh 
earth, enriched by manures washed into it during the 
preceding years." 

The following circumstances have subsequently 
led me to perceive the particular excellence of this 
process, as applied to a garden : 

One of my daughters, about two years and a half 



* From the Irish Farmer's and Gardener's Mag. 



54 



ON KITCHEN GARDENING. 



ago, married a person of my own line of life, but 
more of a grazier than a general agriculturist, such 
as I am pretty well known to be. On going to 
the house of her husl;and, she found that he, like 
many men of his cl ss, neither knew nor cared much 
about a garden. His small patch of parsnips and 
cabbages — the only vegetables which he cultivated — 
were usually sown and planted in the corner of his 
haggard, or in the headland of a potatoe field. 
Kitty (mydaughter) was exceedingly disgruntled at 
this obvious deficiency ; and having inherited from. 
Mrs. Doyle and me, a fondness for the pleasures and 
comforts of a garden, determined with her husband's 
acquiescence, to form one, and I was, as a matter of 
course, consulted. 

Their house stands at one end of a well enclosed 
field, about an acre in extent — at that lime (March 
1831) covered with a rank grassy sod. Mr. Kelly, 
my son-in-law, proposed the immediate breaking up 
of this luxuriant ley for lazy bed potatoes, as a good 
preparation for a kitchen garden ; but his plan neces- 
s.rily required twelve months for actual effect; and, 
therefore, was uncalculated to satisfy Kitty's im- 
patience. My advice to proceed immediately on 
Mj-. Radcliff's plan, as given in my " Hints," was 
received, and instantly acted on. The various pnd 
successive operations of ploughing, gathering, and 
banking, were soon executed ; and never, I believe, 
with better result. I shall state the minute par- 
ticulars. After the abstraction of the vegetable sur- 
face, the soil proved to be, in many places, especially 
near the house, fourteen inches in depth, and not 
less than nine inches, except in one portion about 
half a rood) where the extreme shallowness of earth 
made me regret the spoliation of its upper covering. 
The banks (powdered lime having been scattered 
through them in the course of their formation) 
were well planted with potatoes, put in, according 
to the Munster fashion, with the back of the spade, 
and the intervals well manured and well dug, occu- 
pied with cabbages, cavdiflowers, parsnips, carrots, 
artichokes, lettuces, &c. &c., which succeeded per- 
fectly, affording much more than an adequate sup- 
ply for the master and mistress. As may be sup- 
posed, the potatoes in the banks were most luxuri nt, 
probably at the rate of two hundred barrels per 
acre. 

But it was in the succeeding year that the supe- 
riority of this mode of management became remark- 
al)le. The banks after two or three perfect diggings, 
and exposure to the winter's frost, became, with an 
application of a moderate quantity of rotten dung, 
-critically suited to the asparagus and sea kale plants, 



which soon took root and flourished. Portions of 
the banks were thus appropriated, and the remaining 
parts of them, under similar treatment, were occu- 
pied by carrots, parsnips, mangel wurzel, white 
beet, and magnificent celery. The intervals, as in the 
former years, were filled with cabbages, cauliflowers, 
turnips, brocoli, and artichokes. In short, a greater 
proportion of vegetables (exceptin the particular spot 
already noticed for its shallowness of earth) never 
grew on the same space of ground, and there the 
crops were imdoubtedly bad. But a whim of 
Kitty's led to the remedy of this deficiency; she 
took it into her head (and very properly) to have an 
Italianated grass garden, on a small scale, for flower- 
ing shrubs and showy flowers, and this ornamental 
ground she desired to have near the parlour windows 
in the said field, and on the very spot where her 
husband's calves used to caper, and his dirty noisy 
geese used to waddle. To gratify her longings, my 
son-in-law fist rolled aM'ay (I mean by deputy) in 
wheelbarrows, from each of the four parallel banks, 
(which met the house at right angles) about twenty 
yards of their component matter, leaving at the 
bottom of each merely enough of stuff to form half a 
dozen fancifully shaped beds, for the reception of 
shrub.s, so arranged as to conceal, in a very few 
years, the kitchen garden beyond. The rich com- 
post of rotten sods removed to the poor patcli, was 
laid on veiy thickly, at least six inches in depth, and 
has, consequently, rendered that spot most produc- 
tive. 

A neighbouring market will always afford a ready 
and profitable channel for the sale of the vegetables, 
which this family cannot consume. 

The portions of the banks which are not per 
manently devoted to the production of asparagus 
and sea kale will be gradually transferred, as occa- 
sion may require, to the intervals, rendering them 
also extremely rich, and productive of the more 
valuable kinds of kitchen vegetables, onions, cauli- 
flowers, &c., with appropriate diversions for fruit 
trees. The soil in the parts of the ornamental patch, 
which has been covered with thin mountain turf, 
was previously shovelled off evenly, and added to 
the earth whicli forms the beds for the flowers and 
shrubs, so there is no particles wasted. 

I cannot imagine a better mode of forming a new 
garden, under similar circumstances, and I strongly 
recommend its adoption, especially in the neighbour- 
hood of cities, where seedsmen and gardners have 
frequently occasion to transmute turf (ley) into gar- 
den and nursery soil. 



55 



CATECHISM OF GARDENING. 



BY MR. MAIN. 



In the Biltish Farmer's Magazine, Mr. Main, of 
Chelsea, well known to our readers as a practical 
man of extensive and soimd experience, has com- 
menced to give in detached portions a catechism 
of gardening, which we are given to understand is 
to be published separately, as soon as completed. If 
this intention is carried out, we hope for the sake 
both of the author and of the public, that all the 
questions will be cancelled ; for amongst all the cate- 
chisms which we have ever seen constructed for the 
avowed purpose of simplification, this is decidedly 
the greatest failure. It does not simplify one jot, 
while the questions lumber the page, increase the 
expense of printing, and, worse than all, they ever 
and anon break up the continuity of the author's 
excellent practical statements as much as Uncle To- 
by's Lillcbidlero would do an anthem of Handel's, 
and as offensively to our taste as a drain from a 
dunghill would be if carried right through a parterre 
of flowers. We therefore advise the author, if he 
have any wish for the success of his little work 
when published separately, to recast the whole, and 
leave out every one of the bungling questions, when 
it will, from its high practical character, be quite 
certain to sell largely. That our readers may see 
we have given a just opinion of the merits of the 
production, every way creditable to Mr. Main, ex- 
cept in the stumbling blocks above said, we shall 
give his fourth chapter entire. 

On " The Cultivation of Leaves and Leafstalks." 

Q. You have now to enumerate and describe the 
leaves and leaf-stalks used as food : what are they ? 

A. All the cabbage tribe, lettuce, endive, spinach, 
white-beet, celery, cardoon, rhubarb, lambs lettuce, 
sorrel, parsley, mustard, cress, and watercress. 

Q. What concerning the cabbage ? 

A. The principal and most useful varieties are, 
the early York and early dwarf, for first crops ; Bat- 
tersea and sugarloaf for latter supplies ; the small 
red for pickling ; and the drumhead and large red 
for field culture. The early Battersea is_an excellent 
sort for cottagers. 

Q. At what seasons should cabbage be sowed ? 

A. For the principal spring crop the seed should 
be sowed sometime between the 25th of July and 8th 
of August. If sowed before that time, many of the 
plants run to seed without heading ; and if later, 
they do not come in soon enough for the table. 

Q. Is not cabbage seed sowed at other times ? 

A. Yes ; as a succession should be constantly 
coming in all the summer, another seed-bed is sowed 
in September, and again in April and June, from 



which sowings young plants may be had to keep a 
supply the year round. 

Q. How are the seed beds made ? 

A. An open spot or border is chosen, well ma- 
nured and digged ; the seed is scattered regularly, 
firmly trodden in and raked smooth. As the seed- 
lings rise they must be guarded from birds, and 
kept free from weeds. 

Q. Is it necessary to transplant the seedlings to 
a nursery bed ? 

A. As it is an advantage to have plants of what 
is called a stocky, i. e. a stout, low habit, it is good 
management to prick out all the strongest into a 
fresh ijed, not only that they may have ample room 
to spread their leaves, but because the underlings in 
the seed bed will be greatly benefited by their re- 
moval. 

Q. How is this part of the business done ? 

A. There are two modes practised. The first is- 
to prepare a bed thiice the size of the seed-bed ; on 
this the largest of the seedjings are carefully dibbed, 
four or five inches apart ; here they stand to gain 
strength till they are finally planted out in October. 

Q. What is the other method ? 

A. The ground (or part of it) intended for the 
principal crop of cabbage is got ready soon as the 
seedlings are fit to prick out. Here they are placed 
in rows twice as thick as they should ultimately 
stand — say in rows ten inches asunder, and the 
plants seven inches apart in the rows. About the 
,5th of October, all the ground being prepared for 
the reception of the supernumeraries, each interme- 
diate row, and each intermediate plant in the stand- 
ing rows, are transferred to their proper places on 
the vacant ground, to complete the plantation. 

Q. Is there any other way of raising cabbage ? 

A. Yes. Some curious persons sow the seed 
thinly in drills, and, when the plants are fairly up, 
thin them to five inch distances ; by which treat- 
ment they grow strongly, and are in excellent con- 
dition to be finally set out in October ; but this is a 
refinement in the cultivation which is not absolutely 
necessary. 

Q. What is the general management and its 
effects on a plantation of cabbage ? 

A. The bulk, as well as the quality of the crop 
varies with the character of the soil. In light, 
sandy, and moderately rich ground, cabbage are 
earlier, and sweeter in flavour, though yielding 
smaller heads; of course, in very rich land (and 
all the tribe require rich land) the crop is somewhat 
later and correspondingly larger. But in any ground, 
in good heart, if well digged and prepared, a crop sel- 



56 



CATECHISM OF GARDENING. 



dom fails if the plants are hoed among and properly 
earthed up. 

Q. What are the usual distances at which cab- 
bage are planted ? 

A. The smaller early sorts may be planted in 
rows eighteen inches asunder, and twelve inches 
apart in the row ; the larger sorts should have two 
feet intervals between the rows, and eighteen inches 
distances from plant to plant. The planting may 
be done as the digging proceeds, which saves break- 
ing the ground ; or first digged and planted after- 
wards. 

Q. What precautions are necessary in transplant- 
ing cabbages? 

A. That the plants may be carefully taken up ; 
long straggling roots may be shortened ; and should 
the maggot have seized the root or stem, the tu- 
bercles must be paired off. In dibbing or planting 
with the trowel, the plants should be let in up to 
their lower leaves, and made perfectly firm in their 
new place. If the ground or weather be dry, give 
each a little water. 

Q. What is the maggot you mention ? 

A. It is a fly, or beetle, which deposits her eggs 
within the cuticle of the lower part of the stem, 
causing deformities called " clubbing" by garden- 
ers, and " fingers and toes" by farmers. 

Q. Is there any preventive against this insect? 

A. It is found tliat soap-boilers waste is useful ; 
and probably, were the seed beds occasionally 
watered with soap-suds, the parent fly might be 
deterred laying her eggs on the plants. Some gar- 
deners make a puddle of earth, soot, and lime, with 
which the roots are smeared before planting, but 
this not always effectual. 

Q. Wien are the autumn planted cabbages fit 
for use ? 

A. Generally about the beginning of May fol- 
lowing. The forwardest are tied up like lettuce, 
which serves to whiten the heart. If the plants be 
true in kind, and have had equal treatment, many 
come in together; in which case, a good plan in 
using them is not to cut one here and there, but to 
begin at one side, taking row after row, till the 
whole is used. The advantage of this, in a little 
garden, is, that as soon as one row is cleared, the 
ground may be immediately re-cropped. 

Q. And how is the summer supply continued ? 

A. By a succession crop from the seed bed sowed 
in September, and again from those sowed in April ; 
from the last of which plants may be had to serve 
till winter. 

Q. Are any later sowings made ? 

A. Yes. A seed bed is sowed in June, to raise 
what are called coleworts, or open cabbage, during 
autumn and winter. 

Q. Are red cibbages sowed and cultivated in the 
same way ? 

A. Yes: nearly so. Sow in August for the sum- 



mer supply : and again at the end of March for 
winter service. Red cabbage require more room than 
other sorts, and do best in single rows ; as in the 
alleys of other low crops. Though seldom used in 
cottages, the cottager should always have a few, as 
they meet ready sale in market towns. 

Q. WTiat are those greens, of which so many are 
sold in the London market, called plants ? 

A. Young cabbage, or coleworts, sowed and 
planted out at any time of the year, and pulled for 
sale just before or after they begin to form heads. 
If quickly growed, they are preferred to headed cab- 
bage, being more mild in flavour. 

Q. Which is the next variety of this tribe deserv- 
ing notice ? 

A. The savoy : as being hardy and useful, parti- 
cularly in winter ; indeed, it is said they are im- 
proved by frost. For a principal crop, the seed 
should be sowed about the middle of April. Defend 
the seedlings from birds ; and prick them out into 
nursery beds, if there be time and opportunity. At 
the beginning" of July they may be transplanted out 
for good, on well digged or trenched rich ground, in 
rows two feet apart, the plants being dibbed at six- 
teen-inch distances in the row. 

Q. Are there different varieties of the savoy ? 

A. There are three — the green, the dwarf, and 
the large yellow ; the first is the most delicate, but 
the last is preferred for the main crop. 

Q. What is borecole ? 

A. A svilwariety of the cabbage, commonly called 
Scotch kail, of which there are several kinds, as the 
tall and dwarf green, the brown, the Jerusalem, the 
Buda, &c. All are hardy, and well worth a place in 
every garden ; not so much for the principal heads as 
for the great number of sprouts which rise in succes- 
sion from the stem. Woburn kail is a distinct 
variety, being a perennial, and propagated by cut- 
tings from the old stool planted in spring. 

Q. What are Brussel sprouts ? 

A. A sub-variety of the Savoy; the head is incon- 
siderable ; but from the stem come forth a vast num- 
ber of little compact heads of excellent quality, and 
for which the plant is chiefly cultivated. This, and 
all the sorts of kail are raised from seed, sowed about 
the 20th of April, and transplanted into good rich 
soil, and afterwards managed like cabbage. 

Q. What have you to state relative to lettuce ? 

A. It is one of our principal sallad herbs : pleasant, 
sanative, and easy of culture. As lettuce soon runs 
to seed ; it requires to be frequently sowed in the 
summer months. For the earliest spring supply, 
seed beds are sowed in August ; whence a part of 
the plants may be removed in October into frames, 
or to some warm dry situation, where they may be 
sheltered from the north and east winds, and be 
occasionally covered with mats, dry fern, or branches 
of evergreen trees during severe frost. 

Q. Do you call these the principal crop ? 



CATECHISM OF GARDENING. 



57 



A. No. The principal crop for summer use, is 
sowed as early in the year as the weather will per- 
mit, or in frames under glass, from whence they are 
planted out for good, when the leaves are about 
three inches long, and the mild spring weather 
allows the tender plants to be set abroad. The rows 
should be twelve inches asunder, and the plants 
about nine inches apart in the rows. 

Q. What is further to be observed in growing 
lettuce ? 

A. That they are planted on very rich ground, 
which should be frequently hoed, and when the 
plants have nearly attained full size, the forwardest 
should be tied up to assist the whitening the heart. 
Sometimes this crop is sowed thinly in shallow drills ; 
the supernumeraries are drawn for transplanting, 
which prolongs the supply from one sowing. 

Q. Is it not usual to sow lettuce with other 
crops ? 

A. Yes ; both the coss and cabbage are sowed 
with spinach, in August, and the former among 
onions in March. Those sowed among spinach are 
intended for transplantation if they survive the 
winter, and those raised among onions, are drawn 
for use as soon as fit, or when they damage the 
onions. 

Q. How many sorts of lettuce are cultivated ? 

A. About twenty varieties ; but the hardy white, 
hardy green, green and Egyptian coss kinds, are the 
best for connnon use. The brown Dutch, common 
white, and grand admirable cabbage sorts, are pre- 
ferred for kitchen use. All are used as salad herbs 
in every stage of their growth ; but the larger and 
whiter hearted the coss varieties are, the more they 
are prized. 

Q. Is not endive allied to lettuce ? 

A. No ; notwithstanding their properties and uses 
are alike. Endive is less crisp, and more bitter than 
lettuce ; but it is capable of being beautifully 
blanched, and thereby becomes palatable; it is also 
more hardy than lettuce, and therefore, is chiefly 
vised in the winter months. 

Q. When shovild endive be sowed ? 

A. If sowed early in the year, the plants soon run 
to seed. The middle of the months of June, July, 
August, and Septeinber, are the proper seasons for 
sowing, in order to have a full supply through the 



autumn, winter, and spring. Whether the plants 
remain in the seed bed, or are transplanted in rows 
into fresh beds, they req\iire at least, twelve-inch 
spaces, as the leaves spread widely and close to the 
ground. 

Q. How is it blanched ? 

A. By tying the leaves together like lettuce, or by 
earthing up the full grown plants with dry soil, or by 
placing them during the month of October in raised 
beds of dry sand, the leaves gathered up and laid 
close together, to be guarded against rain and frost 
by mats or frames, or they may be stored in sheds. 
As sallad herbs form no part of the cottager's fare 
during winter, endive is of little value in his gar- 
den. There are four varieties of this plant ; the 
white curled and the white Batavian being the most 
desirable. 

Q. Mliat is the use and culture of spinach ? 

A. The leaves are a delicate green, and much 
used in superior cookery. Where a constant supply 
is wanted, the round-leaved variety is sowed on 
large beds broad cast or in drills, monthly from 
January until August. The seed is well trodden 
before the ground is raked. When the seedlings 
are an inch or two high, they should be hoed to five 
inch distances, and kept always free from weeds. 

Q. Is there not another variety ? 

A. Yes, the prickly seeded of which the prin- 
cipal and largest sowing is made about the 10th of 
August. This yields the winter and spring supply, 
the leaves being repeatedly picked or cut from the 
plants. Even to the cottager, a bed of spinach may 
be profitable, as it is a pleasant addition to the rasher 
when turnip-tops are scarce, or before the cabbage 
comes in. 

Q. Are there any other spinacious plants ? 

A. Yes, there are two ; viz., the New Zealand 
spinach and the white beet. The first is only culti- 
vated in gentlemen's gardens, and managed much 
as ridged cucumbers are ; though if sowed in May, 
in the open ground, and allowed to ripen and shed 
its seed, which it will do in autumn, plants will come 
up plentifully in the following summer. The second 
is a substitute for spinach when nothing better can 
be had. Ten or twelve good seeds of the white 
beet, dropped in a drill, on well manured ground, 
are sufficient for a small garden. 



ON NEW ZEALAND FLAX.* 



This highly useful plant is one of the many im- 
portant discoveries for which we are indebted to the 
late Sir Joseph Banks, who says, in Cook's First 
Voyage, when speaking of the productions of New 
Zealand, 

" But among all the trees, shrubs, and plants of this 



country, there is not one that produces fruit except 
a berry which has neither sweetness or flavour, and 
which none but the boys took pains to gather, should 
be honoured with that appellation. There is, how- 
ever a plant, that serves the inhabitants instead of 
hemp and flax, which excels all that are put to the 



* From Ciu-tis's Botanical Magazine. 
MAGAZINE or BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL II. NO. XIII. APRIL, 1834 



58 



ON NEW ZEALAND FLAX. 



same purpose in other countries. Of this plant there 
are two sorts ; the leaves resemble those of flags, 
but the flowers are smaller, and their clusters more 
numerous ; in one kind they ate yellow, and in the 
other, a deep red. From the leaves of these plants, 
with very little preparation, the natives make all 
their common apparel, and they also manufacture 
their strings, lines, and cordage for every purpose, 
which are so much stronger than any thing we can 
make with hemp, that they will not bear a compa- 
rison. From the same jjlant, by another process, 
they draw long slender fibres, which shine like silk, 
and are as white as snow : of these, which are also 
suprisingly strong, the finest cloths are composed ; 
while of the leaves, without any other preparation 
than splitting them into proper breadths and tying 
the strips together, they make their fishing nets, 
some of which are of an enormous size. A plant, 
which, with such advantages might be applied to so 
many useful and important purposes, would certainly 
be a great acquisition to England, where it would 
probably thrive with very little trouble, as it seerrs 
to be hardy, and to aff'ect no particular soil, being 
found equally in hill and valley, in the driest mould 
and in the deepest bogs. The bog, however it seems 
rather to prefer, as near such places we found it to 
be larger than elsewhere." 

The seeds brought home by Sir Joseph Banks in 
1771 did not succeed, but the New Zealand flax was 
introduced to the royal gardens at Kew, through the 
medium of the same enlightened individual, in 
1789, and thence has been liberally distributed to 
collections in our own country and upon the Con- 
tinent. By Mr. Actors it was sent to the gardens 
of the Museum of Natural History of Paris in 
1800; and in that country it has, as might be ex- 
pected from the nature of the climate in many of 
the districts, been cultivated in the open air, and for 
the first time, it produced flowers in the department 
of Drome, in 1812, but it bore no fruit. Messrs. 
Labillardiere, Faujas de St. Fond, Desfontaines, 
and Freyconet have devoted mvich attention to the 
cultivation and to the manufacture of this plant. It 
has even withstood the severe winters of Paris ; but 
in the south of France it has been propagated with 
considerable success, and survived the winters 
without the smallest protection. In the department 
of the west, particularly in the environs of Cher- 
bourg, it has perfectly succeeded and yielded ripe 
fruit. It is readily increased too, by dividing the 
roots. M. Faujas de St. Fond, gives the following 
mode of dividing the fibre. He dissolves three 
pounds of soap in a sufficient quantity of water, toge- 
ther with twenty-five pounds weight of the split 
leaves of the Phormium tied up in bundles ; all are 
then boiled during the space of five hours, until the 
leaves are deprived of a tenacious gluten, and of the 
gum resin, but which is not removed by the ordinary 
process employed in the preparation of hemp : after 



which they are carefully washed in nmning water. 

From the experiments of M. Labillardiere, the 
strength of the fibre of this plant, as compared with 
that of the Agave Americana, flax, hemp, and silk 
is as follows : the fibre of the agave breaks under a 
weight of 7 ; flax, of 11 1 ; hemp, of 1 6| ; phormium, 
23-7-1 Iths ; and silk of 24. Thus it appears, that of 
all vegetable fibre, that of phormium is the strongest. 
It possesses, too, this further advantage over hemp 
and flax, according to the French authors, that it is 
of a brilliant vs^hiteness, which gives it a satiny ap- 
pearance, so that the cloths made of it do not need 
to be bleached by a tedious process, or through those 
other means, by which the quality of hemp and flax 
is much injured. 

There scarcely can be a question, seeing that 
the phormium tenax has succeeded remarkably 
well in the open air of Invernesshire, Scotland, 
(apparently in the neighbourhood of the sea,) 
without any shelter in the winter, and without 
even the protection of a wall, that the opinion ex- 
pressed by Sir Joseph Banks, of the suitableness of 
the English climate to it, is well founded. Indeed, 

we know that the late Yates, Esq. of Salcombe, 

Devonshire did cultivate this plant upon a rather 
extensive scale, and made preparations for con- 
verting it into thread, which his sudden death pre- 
vented him from carrying into effect. The south of 
Ireland would in all probability be found to be well 
suited to its growth and increase. 

The phormium tenax is indigenous to the islands 
of New Zealand. On the northernmost of the islands, 
which has been traversed almost in every direction 
by Europeans, it is found in greater or less abund- 
ance, as well as on the immediate coasts in low 
situations, subject to be overflowed by the tide, as in 
the inland county, generally in grounds more or less 
swampy. 

Extensively diffused as this valuable plant is over 
the surface of the island, it is along the western 
coast, to the southward of the parallel of 35 degrees, 
and in Cook's Strait, the greatest quantities have 
been found, where it is said to grow in fields of in- 
exhaustible extent. The indigenous growth of the 
phormium is not limited simply to New Zealand, 
for it was long ago discovered in a wild state at 
Norfolk Island, where it forms long tufts along the 
cliffs, within the influence of the salt spray rising 
from the heavy surfs, which ever and anon lash the 
iron-bound shores of that small but truly beautiful 
spot of the Pacific. 

The preparation of the flax for their own use, or 
for exchange with Europeans, is effected by the na- 
tive women, and their method of separating the 
silky fibre from the long flag-like leaf of the plant, 
of which it forms the under surface, appears simple 
enough. Holding the apex of a recently cut leaf 
between their toes they make a transverse section 
through the succulent matter at the end with a shell 



ON NEW ZEALAND FLAX. 



&9 



(which they still employ though they possess every 
species of iron-edged tool), and inserting the shell, 
(said to be of the genus Ostrea) between that sub- 
stance and the fibre, readily effect its separation, by 
drawing the shell through the whole length of the 
leaf. It is to be observed, that the separation is 
always performed by those people when the vegeta- 
ble is freshly cut: nor has the attempts of Euro- 
peans to extract the filaments from the leaf by ma- 
ceration, been at all successful : the experiments 
that have been made at Sidney, showing that ' the 
large proportion of succulent matters (for so the 
failure was accounted for) rendered it impossible to 
effect the separation by decomposition in water, 
without materially injuring the strength of the fibre.' 

Simple as this mode appears of separating the 
flax from the leaf by a shell in the hands of those 
savages, still the European has not succeeded in his 
endeavours to prepare the fibre for himself, either 
by that, or any other means that have been tried ; 
nor has any insti-ument or piece of machinery yet been 
invented to enable him to strip off, and prepare this 
valuable filament for the English market. The Port 
Jackson traders must still be dependent on the na- 
tive women and their shells for the cargoes they 
obtain. 

The flax thus obtained from the natives by the 
merchants of Sidney, undergoes no heckling, clean- 
ing, or other preparation, previous to its being 
shipped for the English market : but is merely made 
into bales, by being put into a press and screwed 
down. It is manufactured into eveiy species of 
cordage, except cables, and Mr. Bigge, the Commis- 
sioner of Enquiry to New South Wales, observes in 
his report, pp. 52, 53, that its superiority of strength 
to the hemp of the Baltic, has been attested, both by 
experiments made at Sidney, and by one that was 
effected under his own observation in the King's 
Yard at Deptford" 

I have not heard that canvas has been made of it, 
but my correspondent (a merchant from Sidney, 
now in London) informs me, that a person has been 
trying it in table-cloths, napkins, &c. but with what 
success he was not aware. 

For many years past, has some communications 
been kept up by individuals residing at Port Jack- 
son, with the natives of New Zealand ; but it is only 
of late that the trade in flax has been found to be a 
profitable speculation. Of this, the merchants of 
Hobart's Town and Launceston, in Van Dieman's 
Land, are now fully aware ; and having had their 
attention turned to its advantages, they are begin- 
ning to prosecute it with ardour. 

I may here remark, that at the period (years ago) 
when the trade with this noble race of savages was 
first opened by persons of courage and enterprise at 
Port Jackson, axes, knives, and other edged tools, 
together with beads and similar ornaments, were 
received by them with avidity ; but now they will 



hardly take any thing in exchange but arms and 
amunition. With these last named articles the peo- 
ple are not all likely to be satiated : there is no 
danger of there being a glut of muskets and gun- 
powder, to stop the trade in flax or Cawdie timber ; 
but the arms must be of a superior, or, at least, of a 
good quality : for, as Mr. Bushby, in his paper on 
New Zealand just published, with other authentic 
information relative to New South Wales, justly 
observes, (p. 61) ' Houghi, the late chief of the Bay 
of Islands' tribe, could bring into field five hundred 
warriors, all of the aristocratic or free class, armed 
with muskets ; and so well are they now acquainted 
with the qualities of the latter, that a vessel which 
lately took down two hundred could not dispose of 
them on any terms, because the locks were only 
single bridled. The same vessel sold a ton and a 
half of gunpowder, in exchange for flax, in a few 
days, and would have had as little difiiculty in dis- 
posing of the muskets had they been of a better de- 
scription. Although most of the chiefs can now 
muster a large force armed with muskets, their 
avidity to add to their armoury has undergone no 
diminution ; and, with the exception of blankets, 
red woollen shirts, and other warm clothing, to- 
bacco, and sugar, scarcely any other article of English 
manufacture or merchandise has, as yet, any attrac- 
tion for them. 

To what extent the trade in flax has increased 
with these islanders of late, (say, since 1828,) some 
idea may be formed from the following facts. Ac- 
cording to the statistical return of New South Wales, 
for the year 1828, New Zealand flax to the extent of 
sixty tons, and valued at 2,600/. was exported from 
Sidney to England, during that year; whilst, during 
1830, (according to the returns taken from the Cus- 
tom-House books,) the quantities stated as the im- 
ports of it into Sidney for the English market, were 
eight hundred and forty one tons ; and in 1831, one 
thousand and sixty-two tons. Its present price in 
London, my correspondent informs me, may be 
stated from 15/. to 25/. per ton, much depending on 
its quality, and the clean manner in which it is 
brought into market. Some doubts have been en- 
tertained by merchants of this kind of trade with 
the New Zealanders being likely to continue. In 
reply to this doubt, my friend observes, that he, 
among others, considers it doubtful at present : for 
as the demand for the raw commodity as introduced 
into the London market, is not considerable, and at 
the public sales of it there is but little competition ; 
few houses having commenced to manufacture it, it 
may hardly fetch a remunerating price. But when 
its character has become more generally known, 
than it at present is, and its superiority to Baltic 
hemp more fully ascertained by rope manufacturers 
in England, the demand for it will increase, and the 
price improving, will induce Sidney merchants, to 
hold out to the New Zealand chiefs such novel and 

i2 



60 



ADAM, THE GARDENER. 



costly temptations, in the way of trade, as would 
ensure the continuance of their exertions in prepar- 
ing the flax for them, in which it has been said they 
have rather relaxed of late, because they are deter- 
mined to see what new articles of use or ornament 
we could offer them, that would be worthy of their 
acceptance, other than muskets and gunpowder. 

I will close my remarks on the sulaject of phor- 
mium, and the communication which it, and other 
indigenous productions of the soil of New Zealand, 
have brought about, between its half civilized in- 
habitant and the European, in the words of Mr. 
Busby, in the page just referred to. " This inter- 
course (with commercial men) claims the attention 
of his Majesty's Ministers, from the advantage which 



could not fail to result from fostering and protecting 
a trade, that is calculated to open a very considerable 
demand for British manufactures ; and to yield, in 
return, an article of raw produce, not only valuable 
to England as a manufacturing country, but indis- 
pensal)le to her greatness as a maritime power, and 
which the superiority of that power will always 
enable her to command, independently of foreign 
countries. And, apart from all luotives of interest, 
it is deserving of attention from the opportunities it 
affords of ciA'ilizing and converting to Christianity, 
one of the most interesting races of people, which 
British enterprise has yet discovered in any quarter 
of the globe ! 



ADAM, THE GARDENER. 

BY C. C. CLARKE, 

Author of " Tales in Prose, from Chaucer."* 



An elegant little work, full of pretty writing and in- 
teresting information to young gardeners and young 
botanists, conveyed in the form of narrative and 
conversation, and arranged under each month of 
the year, beginning with January. It opens thus 

JANUARY. 

" Dread Winter spreads his latest glooms, 
And reigns tremendous o'er the conquer'd year. 
How dead the vegetable kingdom lies! 
How dumb the tuneful!" 

Thomson. 

Adam Stock was the eldest son of a gentleman, 
who, having retired from London to the southern 
coast of our island, had there purchased an estate, 
consisting of a house, a large garden, a field, and a 
poultry yard. He knew the value of industry, and 
that, to an independent and contented mind, few 
things are }-eally necessary for our comfort ; he, 
there, determined to cultivate his own ground ; rnd 
as nearly as he could, to do every thing for himself. 
This is the true meaning of being independent. He 
bought a cow, and some pigs, chickens, ducks, and 
geese. Mr. Stock understood the principles of gar- 
dening, and possessed great taste and knowledge in 
the cultivation of flowers, his garden was, therefore, 
always beautiful to look at, and the more so, because 
you knew that it was the work of his own hands, 
and that all you saw, was done with pleasure. This 
is the reason why a cottagers 's garden is a more plea- 
sant sight than a rich man's : for though the rich 
man's garden may be larger and much more hand- 
some, yet we do not know that he is pleased with it ; 
because it is only his money which makes it look 
beautiful. But when we see a neat and pretty gar- 



den belonging to a poor man, we may be sure that 
that man is contented and happy ; and a happy poor 
man is one of the most charming sights in the 
world. 

" Little Adam loved his father very much, and 
was fond of being near him whenever he was at 
work. He had heard his father say, that on the fol- 
lowing morning he should rise early to brew some 
beer for the family : and Adam dressed himself be- 
fore it was light, and came to call his father, which 
pleased him veiy much. So he was allowed to help 
in the brewing ; and, as a reward for his diligence, 
his father permitted him to stay up all night till the 
whole process was finished. '\\'Tien Mr. Stock was 
employed in the garden, little Adam would always 
be at his side, asking him the names of the different 
flowers that were in blossom, together with many 
questions about the way of cultivating them. He 
showed such delight in the amusement, that his 
father told him one day, that if he would be a good 
and obedient boy, he would teach him to be a com- 
plete gardener, so that by the time he grew up to be 
a man, he should be able to do every thing for him- 
self, and know how to direct others. Adam was 
delighted. ' "Well then,' said his father, ' this is 
now the first month in the year, and to-morrow we 
will begin. There is at present no snow upon the 
ground, and the frost has given way. I will buy 
you to-day a spade, and a rake, and a hoe ; and I 
think you will be set up. One thing only you must 
promise me ; — that you will attend to what I tell 
you ; and endeavour to do every thing in the best 
way you possibly can.' This you may be sure he 
promised to do." 

Such is the opening, and we shall now dip into 



* 12mo. E. Wilson. 1834. 



ADAM, THE GARDENEE. 



61 



what immediately claims attention in this " merry 
month of May," whose beauties are thus touched 
upon by Mr. C. C. Clarke. 

" By four o'clock Mr. Stock had roused all the 
sleepers in his house, singing to them in the words 
of the motto in this chapter, " Now the bright morn- 
ing star," &c. " Up ! up !" said he, " you slug- 
abeds ! the lark is awake, and the bee is stirring ; 
all but you are preparing to meet the rising sun. 
The flowers are getting ready to open their dewy 
buds, and the morning air is blowing softly upon them. 
Here is May-day come in after the old fasion, cheer- 
fully and bright : so we will keep it after the old 
fashion. Come ! up with you ! make haste — we 
shall not begin it properly, if we do not see the sun 
rise. Get up, you lazy dog ! Adam — let me catch 
you in bed in five minutes time, and I will give you 
such a cold pig as shall make you remember May 
morning for some time to come." Who could sleep 
after being called in this manner ? I know but of 
one ; but he has reformed ; and, therefore, shall be 
nameless. In about a quarter of an hour the whole 
family were dressed, and hatted, and bonnetted, and 
had started off, 

" Bnishing with hasty steps the dew away, 
To meet the sua upon the upland lawn." 

All noticed how very grave every thing appeared ; 
there was such a stillness, as if all the birds and 
beasts were waiting in fear, lest the sun should not 
rise again. Indeed, I have often thought that the 
first breaking of the dawn was vei-y awful : the deep 
stillness — the solemn colour — and the cautious un- 
folding of the light, is as if something veiy great 
and good was about to be done in Heaven — and so 
there is ; for we are to the blessed sun. There is no 
solemnity like the first dawning of mom :- — 

" That vast dumbness nature keeps 
Throughout her starry deeps, 
Most old and mild, and a^vful, and unbroken, 
Which tells a tale of peace beyond whate'er was spoken. 

Leigh Hunt. 
When they had arrived at the highest part of a rising 
ground behind their house, they looked over a tract 
of country, and the sea beyond it, and saw the great 
sun slowly moving up, while all the clouds around 
were drawn up from it like long handfuls of wool 
dyed rose colour, and the edges of them dipped in 
gold ; the wide sea was gold, and all the sky was 
gold. " We cannot wonder," said Mr. Stock, "that 
some people should worship the sun as their God, 
when we behold what a grand object it is, in its 
rising, and when it is at the height of noon, and in 
its setting. When we also consider that there is not 
a single comfort we possess, but we have it by the 



means of the sun. If the sun were to rise no more, 
everything in the world that grows, and has life, 
would die ; and ive should die. There would be no- 
thing in all the world but the ground ; for, without 
the light and heat of the sun, everything would rot 
and become dust. Therefore we cannot wonder, I 
say, that some people think that the sun is their 07ily 
God and preserver. But then," continued the 
father, " I wonder they never thought that, since 
no one, and no thing that we know of, ever made 
itself, so the sun did not make itself; and that who- 
ever made the sun, he was God." 

They now continued their walk into some pretty 
close, and winding lanes ; and now and then passed 
some little cottages, the children of which were all 
up, and had been out Maying. Some were making 
their garlands, and some had finished them, hanging 
them across the lane before the door. Adam and 
his sisters said they should like to make a garland 
too. " Then pray do," said their father, " but I 
fear you will not find any white thorn blown ; it is 
as yet only in the bud ; yoii must be contented with 
what field flowers you can pick up; unless. Indeed, 
you meet with some black thorn ; which, you know, 
comes into bloom before the other, but it is not so 
pretty, for the leaves come after the blossoms have 
gone off." So they hunted about, and plucked all 
the little flowers they could find, and put them into 
their handkerchiefs, because the heat of their hands 
would have soon killed them. While they were busy, 
little Tom was endeavouring to get some primroses 
that were on the top of a high bank : finding them, 
however, rather out of his reach, he asked Adam to 
pick them for him, who refused ; telling him to try 
and get them for himself. The father heard this, 
and rebuked Adam very sharply for being a selfish 
and unkind boy ; and desired him to gather them for 
his little brother directly ; which he did, though not 
very willingly. For some time after this, he seemed 
as if he had been thinking with himself; at last he 
said " I thought you told us, papa, that we were to 
try and do eveiything we could for ourselves ; and 
that that was independent." — "Ay! ay!" said his 
father, ' but I did not tell you to be unkind and dis- 
obliging. You are to endeavour to do all you can 
for yourself, but at the same time to be always ready 
to help every one that wants your assistance. If you 
were a man, and could divine very well, would you 
not try to save a fellow creature, who could not 
swim, and was drowning ? Would you tell him 
that he ought to help himself, or else he would not 
be " independent ?" 

Such is the manner in which useful and pleasing 
information is conveyed in " Adam, the Gardener." 



62 



ON BOTANICAL THEORIES AND DR. PROFESSOR LINDLEY. 

BY THE EDITOR. 



The term theory is very commonly used to bemask 
some wild fancy with the semblance of science ; and 
I could not bring a stronger example of this than 
what has been termed the metamorphosis of plants, 
as must appear at a glance to every reader endowed 
with common sense. 

The doctrine in question is alleged to have ori- 
ginated with Linnaeus, in 1759 — 60, but the distin- 
guished German poet, Goethe thinks very lightly of 
the fancies which Linnaeus termed anticipation, 
while he claims the honour of discovering (invent- 
ing, I should say) the doctrine of Metamorphosis in 
1790, a doctrine of which De CandoUe is the most 
distinguished disciple. 

The doctrine bears that every part of a plant 
consists of " disguised leaves," and hence part of 
the stem, the flower-cup, the blossom, the stamens, 
and pistils, with the seed vessels, and even fruits 
themselves, are nothing but leaves in a state of dis- 
guise or metamorphosis. " These are all the same," 
says Von Martius, " in their essence, and only 
differ according to the intensity of their metamor- 
phosis. 

Von Martius further instructs us, that evei-y plant 
possesses two living forces, one vertical, the other 
spiral, by the action of which forces the plant is 
formed. By the action of the vertical force the root 
goes down and the stem rises up ; and, by the spiral 
force, the leaves, both in their natural state and in 
their disguised forms of flowers and fruit, are wound 
about their stem in spiral whirls. As soon, then, 
as a plant begins to grow, a series of leaves winds 
upwards around the stem in a spiral direction, and 
hence a whole plant is considered to consist of no- 
thing more than a vertical axis and a spiral of 
leaves. 

In the more recondite parts of the theory, we are 
told that a stamen is only a leaf, the filament being 
the leaf-stalk and the anther the leaf-plate, while the 
furrow between its two lobes is the mid rib, and the 
pollen the leaf pulp ; that a disk is only the base of 
the foot-stalks of abortive leaves ; and that the pistil 
with its summit, is only a mid-rib denuded of its 
rind at the tip, while the seed organ is the expanded 
leaf-plate of the leaf folded, with its upper surface 
winding round the axis, and having its edges united 
and adhering. 

A leaf thus folded up into a seed-organ, is termed 
a carpel, the adherin gedges forming the verge, and 
buds upon these two edges form two rows of nascent 
seeds. In some plants, several leaves are said to be 
thus folded into a carpel, and hence the number of 



verges will correspond to those of the folded leaf 
edges. 

The cause assigned by De CandoUe for this meta- 
morphosis of leaves into flowers and fruit, is de- 
generacy, or, as Dr. Professor Lindley terms it, 
stunting, the parts of a flower being therefore abor- 
tive leaves. " A flower," says Dr. Professor Lind- 
ley, " is, in reality, a stunted branch, that is, one 
the growth of which is checked and its power of 
elongation destroyed." " The fruit is, in common 
language, the flower, or some part of it, arrived at 
its most complete state of existence; and, conse- 
quently, is itself a portion of stunted branch." 

It would be, I conceive, an unprofitable waste of 
time, to expose the absurdities of these fancies, 
which have been generated by the erroneous logic 
of raising analogies into realities. The analogical 
resemblances are tolerably made out ; but we would 
not surely conclude, that a butterfly is a bird, or a 
bat, or a flying fish, because the wings are analo- 
gous, no more than we can agree with the theorists 
in calling a rose or a peach a bundle of abortive leaves. 

It seems indispensable for every theory to have a 
loop-hole through which to escape in case of diffi- 
culties ; and in the present instance, the escape is 
made by maintaining nat\ire to be wrong when op- 
posed to the theory. " All dissepiments" (parti- 
tions), says Dr. Professor Lindley, " whose position 
is at variance with the foregoing laws are spurious." 
It is needless to remark that this mode of decision 
at once quashes all objection, and puts an end to 
every appeal to fact. Well might M. Le Vaillant 
say, that " the present state of natural history often 
exhibits nature making sport of our systems." M. 
Le Vaillant elsewhere says, that " one fact is enough 
to demolish a theory ; " but here we have a theory 
demolishing the facts, and calling them spurious. 

It is in consequence of such exposures as the pre- 
ceding, that Dr. Professor Lindley has thought fit to 
set himself against the Editor in private and in public, 
both in acknowledged wincings and (if we are 
rightly informed) in anonymous ejections. Let him: 
he can never get over the sheer nonsense he has 
published, nor the Editor's exposure of the same, 
not even with the aid of the Bayswater book manu- 
factory, nor of his friend Dilke to boot. He must 
wince on, let him do what he may to escape through 
loop holes, unless he come forward in a manly man- 
ner, and acknowledge the fatuity of his blunders. Then 
his love of truth might be admitted ; now he stands 
ashamed of his errors, and tries, though unsuccessfuly , 
to undermine the exposer thereof with the public. 



63 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



FRAGARIA MONOPHYLLA. 

ONE-LEAVED STRAWBERRY, OR STRAWBERRY OF 
VERSAILLES. 

Class and Order. 

Isocaudi'ia Poylgynia. 

Generic Character. 

Cahjx 10 — fidus. Petala 5 — Receptaculum seminum ovatum 

baccatum deciduum. 

Specific Character and Synonyms. 
Fragaria monophylla foliis simpUcibus. Lin. Si/st. Veg. p. 476. 
Le Fraisier de Versailles. Duschesne Hist. nal. des Frais. 
p. 124. 

The first mention made of this strawberry we 
find in the Histoire Naturelle des Fraisiers, where we 
have its complete history, and from which we learn 
that it was originally raised at Versailles, in the year 
1761, from seeds of the wood strawberry. 

From France this plant has been conveyed to 
most parts of Europe, how it has happened we know 
not, liut it is certainly very little known in this 
country: in the 14th edit, of the Syst. Veg. of Lin- 
ruevs, it appears as a species under the name of mo- 
nophtjlla, originally imposed on it by Duchesne; 
Linnaeus, however, has his doubts as to its being a 
species distinct from the vesca, and, in our opi- 
nion, not without reason; for it can certainly be 
regarded as a very singular variety, only its origin 
is indeed a proof of this ; in addition to which we 
may observe, that plants raised from the runners 
will sometimes, though very rarely indeed, have three 
leaves instead of one : and it is observed by the 
very intelligent author of the Hist. Nat. above men- 
tioned, that seedling plants sometimes produced 
leaves with three divisions like those of the wood 
strawberry. Besides the remarkable difference in 
the number of leaves of this plant, tlie leaves them- 
selves are observed to be much smaller in the winter 
season, and their ribs less branched; the runners 
pIso are slenderer and more productive, and the 
fruit in general more oblong or pyramidal. As an 
object of curiosity, this plant is deserving a place in 
eveiy garden of any extent: nor is its singularity 
any recommendation, its fruit being equal to the 
finest wood strawberry, with which it agrees in its 
time of flowering, fruiting, and mode of treatment. 

FRANKLIN'S TARTAR. 

A SCARLET BIZARRE CARNATION. 

The carnation here exhibited is a seedling raised 
lay an ingenious cultivator of these flowers. We 
have not figured it as the most perfect flower of the 
kind, either in form or size, but as being a very fine 
specimen of the sort, and one whose form and colours 
if is in the power of the artist pretty nearly to 
imitate. 

The Dianthus Caryophyllus or wildclove, is generally 
considered as the parent of the carnation, and may 
be found, if not in its wild state, at least single, on 
the walls of Rochester Castle, where it ha.s been 



long known to flourish, and where it produces two 
varieties in point of colour, the pale and deep red. 

Flowers which are cultivated from age to age are 
continually producing new varieties, hence there is 
no standard as to name, beauty, or perfection amongst 
them, but what is perpetually fluctuating ; thus the 
red Halo, blue Halo, the greatest Granado, with se- 
veral others celebrated in the time of Parkinson, 
have long since been consigned to oblivion ; and it 
is probable, that the variety now exhibited may, in 
a few years, share a similar fate, for it would be 
vanity in us to suppose, that the carnation, by assi- 
duous culture may, in the eye of the florist, be yet 
considerably improved. 

To succeed in the culture of the carnation we 
must advert to the situation in which it is found 
wild, and this is oliscrved to be dry and elevated ; 
hence excessive moisture is found to be one of the' 
greatest enemies this plant has to encounter ; and 
on this account it is found to succeed better when 
planted in a pot, than in the open border ; because 
in the former, any superfluous moisture readily 
drains oif ; but in guarding against too much wet, 
we must be careful to avoid the opposite extreme. 

To keep any plant in a state of great luxuriance, 
it is necessary that the soil in which it grows be 
rich, hence a mixture of light loam, and perfectly 
rotten horse or cow dung in equal proportions, is 
found to be a proper compost for the carnation. 
Care should be taken that no vporms, grubs, or other 
insects be introduced with the dung, to prevent this, 
the dung when sifted fine, should be exposed to the 
rays of the sun, on a hot summer's day till perfectly 
dry, and then put by in a box for use, still more to 
increase the luxuriance of the plants, water them 
in the spring and summer, with an infusion of sheep's 
dung in the water. 

The Carnation is propagated by seeds, layers, and 
pipings; new varieties can only be raised from 
seed, which however is sparingly produced from 
good flowers, because the petals are so multiplied as 
nearly to exclude the parts of the fructification 
essential to their production. 

The seed must be sown in April, put in boxes, 
very thin, and placed upon an East border. 

In July transplant them upon a bed, in an open 
situation, at about four inches asunder; at the end 
of August transplant them again upon another bed, 
at about ten inches asunder, and there let them re- 
main until they flower ; shade them until they have 
taken root; and in very severe weather in winter 
cover the bed with mats, over some hoops. 

The following summer they will flower, when 
you must mark such as you like, make layers, frame 
and pot them. 

The means of increasing these plants by layers 
and pipings are known to every gardener, Such 
as wish for more minute information, may consult 
the new Editon of Miller's Gardener's Dictionary. 



64 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



PRIMULA A'lLLOSA, MOUNTAIN PRIMULA. 
PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 
Inrolucrum umbellul. Corolla tubus cylindricus: ore pa- 
tulo. 

Primula villosa foliis obovatis dentatis villosis, scapo bre\is- 
simo multifloro. 

Primula villosa, Jacquiii Fl. Austr. app, b. v. 

The plant here figured has heen introduced pretty 
generally into the nursery gardens in the neighbour- 
hood of London witliin these few years, and has for 
many years been cultivated in a garden in York- 
shire. 

It is not noticed by Linnaeus : Professor Jacquin, 
in his Flora Austriaca, has figured and described a 
primula, which, though not agreeing so minutely as 
could be wished with the one we have figured, is 
nevertheless considered by some of the first 1 otanists 
in this country as the same species ; he gives it the 
name of villosa which we adopt, though with us it is 
so slightly villous, as scarcely to deserve that epithet. 

It varies in the brilliancy of its colours, flowers in 
April, and will succeed with the method of culture 
recommended for the round-leaved Cyclamen. 



ERANTHUS HYEMALIS. WINTER HELLEBORE OR 
ACONITE. 

Polyandiia Polygnia. 

Petala 5 fine plura. Nectaria bilabiata, tubulata. 

Capsulse polyspermEe rectiuscul^. 

Hellebonis hi/emalis flore folio iusidente. Linn. Syst. Vegetal. 
p. 431, Sp. PL p. 7S3. 

Aconitum unifolium bulbosum. Bauh. Pin. 183. 

The Winter's Wolfesbane. Park Purad. p. 214. 

Grows wild in Lombardy, Italy, and Austria, 
affects mountainous situations, flowers with us in 
Februaiy, and hence is liable to be cut off in severe 
frosts. " It is propagated by offsets which the roots 
send out in sbundance. These roots may be taken 
up and transplanted at any time after their leaves 
decay, which is generally by the beginning of June 
till October, when they will begin to put out new 
fibres, but as the roots are small, and nearly the co- 
lour of the ground, if care is not taken to search for 
them, many of them will be left in the ground. 
These roots should be planted in small clusters, 
otherwise they will not make a good appearance, 
for single flowers of these small kinds so scattered 
about the borders ; nd scarcely seen at a distance, 
but when these and the snow drops are alternately 
planted in bunches they have a good effect, as they 
flov>-cr at the same time and are nearly of a size." 



SCHIZANTHUS RETUSUS. 

SCHIZANTHUS. 

Diandria, Monootnia : Linn. Scrophularinese, Jissiec. 
Calyx, five-parted somewliat unequal. CoroUa, limb in four 
parts, lobed, irregular, plaited while expanding ; tube narrow 
and short. Stamina four, two upper ones barren, filaments 
aU adaate. Anthers inserted below in tno places, confluent 
at the top. Ovarium of two locaments placed on a smooth 
fleshy disk. Stigma compressed, obtuse, of two united lobes. 
Capsula of two places, containing many seeds ; valves 



divided. Dissepiments parallel. Placenta two, spongV; 
Seeds simple, shell-like, having a hai'd wripgled integument; 
albumen fleshy. Embryo arched ; the rostel roundly obtuse 
and twice as long as the seed leaves. 

This flower is an annual plant of great beauty, of 
tolerable easy culture, growing from seeds which 
ripen freely, if the plants be kept in an airy situa- 
tion at the time of flowering. 

Those intended for the principal flowering should 
be sown the previous summer, or early in the 
autumn ; and in Februaiy and March two more 
sowings should be made to succeed each other. The 
autumn sowing, or rather these of the previous sum- 
mer, should be made in the middle of July and 
beginning of August. Light rich mould is the 
most suitable fur the purpose. 



GREWIA ELASTICA. 

The description of this flower must be deferred till 
next month. 

MECONOPSIS aculeata. 

Meconopsis aculeata, caule erecto siUcato ut plantfe omni 
parte aculeato, foliis longe petiolatis oblongis decurrentibus 
subpinnatisectis sinubus obtusis, floribus auxUlaribus solita- 
riis terminalihusve paniculatis, capsulis oblongis, utrinque 
acutis dense aculeatis. 

Stem ascending, erect, from one to two feet in 
height, leavy, furrowed, and like every part of the 
plant, except the petals and stamens densely aculeate. 
The leaves long-petioled, oblong, subpinnatifid, 
■with irregvdar and obtuse sinuses, frequently decur- 
rent on the petioles, upper ones sessile. Petioles 
broad and sheathing at the base. Flowers axillary 
and terminal, often in the axillae of all the leaves, 
long peduncled. Calyx 2-sepaled; sepals roundish, 
oval, caducous, aculeate. Petals 4, obovate roundish, 
red. Stamens very numerous : filaments capillary ; 
anthers cblong, inserted by the base ; ovary ovates 
pointed, aculeate. Style half the length of the 
ovary; after the flower has fallen, it becomes elon- 
g; ted and twisted. Stigm. s 4, cblong, united into 
a capitate head. Capsides oblong, tapering towards 
both ends, 1-celled. Verges ribbed intervalvular; 
valves 4 to 5, separating from the pkcentse at the 
apex of the capsule for the escape of the seeds. 
Seeds numerous, minute. 

CORYDALUS GOVANIANA. 
C. Govaniana; Wall.) foliis petiolatis oblongis bipinnatisectis, 
segmentis cuneatis profunde pir-natilobatis, lobis lineari- 
obiongis obtusis cum cuspidula integris vel bilobis, racerais 
secundis, bracteis foliaceis cuneifcrmibus inciso-lobatis pedun- 
culos superantibus, supremis l.Tnceolatis integris, calcare 
pedicello suba^quali, siliquis pendulis oblongis urtinque acutis 
apice stylo locgo acuminatis. 

This plant was first described ly Dr. Wallich, in 
his Tent. Fl. Nep. p. 55, and there is little to be 
added to his description. It was supplied to him 1 y 
Dr. Govan from Gurhwal. It is extremely com- 
mon in the Himalayan mountains, particularly on 
the Choor, above 8,000 feet of elevation. It varies^ 
from a few inches to nearly a foot in height. 




X 



ON THE EFFECTS OF REMOVING POTATOE BLOSSOMS. 



65 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECTS OF REMOVING POTATOE BLOSSOMS* 



BY MK. JAMES MURRAY, OF ABERDEEN. 



The experiment was made according to the plan 
laid down by the Highland Society in their list of 
premiums for 1833. 

The quality of the soil was not the best adapted 
for a very successful potatoe crop, but as I did not 
think of making the experiment until after the 
ground had been sown, I had no alternative left me. 
At the same time, I believe, that an experiment of 
this nature, although made upon a crop raised in 
soil not peculiarly well adapted for its culture, will 
be quite as satisfactory in determining the advan- 
tages or disadvantages of it, as one made upon a 
more congenial soil. The soil consisted, throvighout 
the two acres upon which the potatoes had been 
sown, of a very shallow loam, upon a bed of what is 
generally called till. The field had been well drained, 
but like every other field of the same nature of soil, 
(unless where Mr. Smith, of Deanston's, trenching 
plough may have been used,) continues in what 
may be called a cold damp state, and therefore an 
enemy to the potatoe. 

The variety of the potatoe sown, was one which 
had been brought from Ireland some years ago, by a 
gentleman of this neighbourhood, and is called the 
red potatoe in this neighbourhood. 

I divided the whole field into parts of three drills 
each, and having explained what I wished to be 
done, to a few children of from nine to twelve years 
old, previous to the appearance of any blossoms, 
they never allowed a day to elapse without looking 
after their charge, and no sooner had a blossom be- 
gun to appear, (or in bud,) upon No. 1. of each 
part, than it was certain to be immediately plucked 
off. The other two drills of each part remained un- 
touched until the blossoms upon No. 2, seemed to 
be fully expanded, when they were also plucked off, 
while No. 3, was allowed to ripen its fruit. By ar- 
ranging the drills in this manner, I could depend on 
being more correct in having the soil of each of the 
drills of each part exactly similar than I could have 
been, had I divided the field in the manner proposed 
by the society. 

The preceding part of the experiment was (as it 
must appear to be) very simple indeed, and attended 
with no expense whatever ; for there are always 



children in the neighbourhood of a farm, who will 
do the work for a few pence a day. 

The most difficult part of the experiment to ar- 
range, was the taking up of the crop, so that there 
might be no interference between the different 
drills. To obtain this, I took three carts, one of 
which was appropriated entirely by No. I, of each 
part, another by No. 2, and the remaining one by 
No. 3. In this manner I prevented the very slight- 
est mingling of the potatoes. 

The quantity of potatoes which each cart held, 
was exactly ascertained, and the management of 
this part of the experiment being given to one 
person, it was his business to mark down how many 
loads each cart took to the potatoe pit. 

After the whole crop had been taken off the field, 
and the overseer's note book examined, the follow- 
ing was the result : - 

Drills, No. 1, being those from which the blos- 
soms were plucked in the bud, contained 30 bolls, 2 
bushels. 

Drills, No. 2, being those from which the blos- 
soms were plucked when in full flower, contained 27 
bolls, 3 bushels. 

Drills, No. 3, being those upon which the fruit 
was allowed to ripen, contained 26 bolls. The su- 
periority, therefore, of No. 1, over No. 2, was 2 
IjoUs, five bushels ; over No. 3, was 4 bolls, 3 bushels; 
and of No. 2, over No. 3, was 1 boll, 3 bushels. 

From the above experiment it would appear, that 
the potatoe crop had been improved by having the 
blossoms plvicked off, and that according to the pe- 
riod at which it had been done. At the same time, 
the difference is perhaps not much more than would 
be counterbalanced by the additional trouble given 
in taking up the crops ; for although regulated as 
well as possibly could be done, still it could not be 
taken up in nearly the time in which it would have 
been done, had the drills been resorted to indiscri- 
minately. 

The quality of the potatoe is remarkably good : it 
is of a mealy nature, and an uncommonly good 
keeper. We were using them last year here, in pre- 
ference to early potatoes. 



* From the Trans, of the Royal Highland Society. 



MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. 11. NO. XIV. MAY, 1834. 



66 



ON TRANSPLANTING LARGE TREES * 



BY E. MURPHY. 



A GREAT book, the adage says, is a great evil — an 
expensive book is also an evil, and the more so, if it 
treat on subjects which ought to be familiar to per- 
sons whose means do not admit of purchasing ex- 
pensive works. Both these objections apply with 
peculiar force to a work pviblished a few years ago 
on this subject. That Sir Henry Steuart's book 
possesses an uncommon degree of merit, both as 
regards the subject, and the manner in which that 
subject is treated, I would be the last to deny. In 
arrangement, elegance of style, and many other at- 
tributes, it is such as was to have been expected 
from Sir Henry's classic pen ; its almost only fault, 
in ray opinion, is the length to which a subject, 
capable of having ample justice done to it in a few 
pages, has been extended. But my object in what 
follows is not to review " The Planter's Guide," 
which I earnestly recommend to every person in- 
terested in ornamental planting, and who can afford 
to possess it, promising him great pleasure and much 
information in the perusal of it — it is to lay down a 
few rules, the result of observation and experience, 
by which any ordinary planter may effect what, by 
the learned manner in which Sir Henry Steuart 
has treated it, many suppose to be attended with 
almost insurmountable difficulty. With this view 
it may be necessary to say a few words on the sub- 
ject of the nature of trees in general. 

Every one knows, that when the seed of a tree, 
or of almost any other plant, is committed to the 
earth imder favourable circumstances, it vegetates 
and produces a plant, that this plant also, under fa- 
vourable circumstances, increases, until at length it 
becomes a perfect specimen of its particular kind. 
These favourable circumstances are, in the former 
case, a certain degree of air, moisture, warmth, and, 
I may add, exclusion from light — and in the second, 
soil, situation and shelter, necessary to its perfect 
development. But how vegetation in the former, 
and increase in the latter, is effected, has baffled 
the ingenuity of the most acute physiologists to 
determine. They siippose that moisture causes the 
juices in the seed to undergo a kind of ferment- 
ation, by which sugar is produced, which serves to 
nourish the plant until it is provided with roots ; 
that the roots being formed, ramify and suck up 
from the earth, by their fibres, water, either pure or 
having dissolved in its animal and vegetable sub- 
stance, salts, &c. ; that this sap having ascended to 
the leaves, is spread out, and parts with a portion of 
its watery particles, which are exhaled by the sun ; 
that the now inspissated or thickened juice, returns 



by ducts (veins) in the back of the leaves, and in 
its progress back to the roots, not only supplies 
nourishment to the different parts, but deposits an 
annual layer of wood beneath the bark. 

Taking for granted that this theory is correct, it 
follows, with respect to trees, that they will thrive 
best in a deep, friable (^loose^ soil, in which their 
roots can easily spread in search of nourishment; 
one capable of retaining the proper degree of mois- 
ture, in which the roots will neither be saturated in 
winter nor parched in summer, and which possesses 
a quantity of decaying vegetable or animal matter ; 
and this we find in practice is the fact, provided, 
which is generally the case, that such soil is suffi- 
ciently sheltered. It also follows, that the fibres of 
the roots, and the leaves of the tree, being the im- 
portant agents in vegetation, the more of each the 
tree possesses, the more rapid will be its increase in 
stature. 

Bearing in mind the above principle, we may 
proceed to the subject of removal, which, for con- 
venience, may be treated under the heads — selec- 
tion — preparation of the soil — removal — after treat- 
ment — expense. 

First — Selection. Trees which grow in situations 
fully exposed to the wind, and which stand at such 
a distance from each other as not to afford mutual 
shelter, are found to possess the following proper- 
ties: abundance of branches, robust trunks, thick 
bark, firmly rooted in the ground, and roots corre- 
sponding in quantity and in extent to the branches — 
whilst those which grow in masses, so as to shelter 
each, and, to use a practical term, draw each other 
up, have long trunks, with few branches, and these 
only at the extremity, a thin bark, and few roots, 
running near the surface of the ground. The for- 
mer are only fit for removal into open situations, the 
latter, particularly if under twenty years growth, 
may be removed with safety, provided they be re- 
planted in large masses and sheltered situations. 
This adaptation to particular situations has been in- 
sisted on at a great length by Sir Henry Steuart, yet 
it is almost never sufficiently attended to by those 
who remove large trees, as the failures and unhealthy 
appearance of those that survive, in most places, suf- 
ficiently indicate : indeed, it is not a little extraordi- 
nary that the very persons sent by Sir Henry Steuart 
to this country for the purpose of transplanting large 
trees, either through ignorance (which is hardly to 
be supposed) or a want of proper subjects, made 
use in some places, (as at Woodstock, these at of 
Lord R. Tottenham, in the county of Wicklow,) of 



* From the "Irish Farmer's and Gardener's Magazine." 



ON TRANSPLANTING LARGE TREES. 



67 



those quite unfit for the purpose, and the failures 
have been proportionate to the want of judgment 
displayed in the selection. 

It frequently happens that trees possessing the re- 
quisite qualities for removal into open situations, do 
not occur on the estate where they are required, in 
which case handsome trees should be selected in 
situations where they can be spared, and all others 
in their immediate vicinity should be removed, not 
at once, for then they would receive a check from 
which they would slowly, if ever perhaps, recover, 
but gradually ; and a trench should be opened round 
about, and at, perhaps, three yards distance from the 
trunk of a tree (suppose it to be of about thirty 
years standing) ; the trench shoiild be about eighteen 
inches wide, and at least two feet deep, and should 
be filled with some good earth or compost, for the 
purpose of causing the roots which have been cut 
in opening" the trench, to push out a quantity of 
fibres ; this should be done at least two years before 
the tree is to be removed — if but one, as is very 
often the case, the fibres will be so tender as to be 
liable to be destroyed in the operation. In opening 
the trench. Sir Heniy Steuart recommends that the 
very strong roots which may be met with, be not 
cut or injured, but left at length to serve as stays 
for holding the tree steady after it has been shifted. 
This artificial method of multiplying the fibres was 
in use not only as a preparation for removing fruit 
trees, but even for forest trees — those which have 
grown in exposed situations do not require it. But 
the best method of preparing trees for removal, is 
that long since practised, and recommended by 
Boucher in his excellent work on nursery business — 
namely, to remove trees intended for final trans- 
plantation, at a large size, repeatedly — say once in 
three or four years, until they are twenty years old. 
Were nursery men, who have a large sufficiency of 
land in the vicinity of large cities, to apply a portion 
of it to this branch, there is little doubt they would 
be remunerated, sogreatan object is it to afford the 
person of taste a means of at once beautifying his 
lawn and pleasure ground. 

Preparation for receiving the tree in its new situa- 
tion. — To determine the best possible site for the 
new tree is sometimes a matter of considerable dif- 
ficulty, in which case the judgment will be assisted 
by making use of a young tree of such a size as that a 
man can readily carry it — the lower part of the trunk 
of which being sharpened, may be inserted in a hole 
formed by a stake and mallet — the effect will by this 
means be anticipated. This matter being determined, 
an excavation in size, corresponding to the roots of 
the tree intended for it, which for a tree of from 
thirty to forty years old should seldom be less than 
eighteen feet in diameter, should be made at least 
two and one-half feet deep ; the good earth being 



laid at one side, and the bad at another, with a space 
of eight or ten feet, on which no earth is to be 
thrown : the bottom of the whole being loosened 
with a pick, so that water may not remain in it after 
the tree is planted, the sod, if suchthere was, is to be 
thrown in and chopped fine, after which, good earth 
formed by adding friable black moor, or what would 
be far better well rotted dung, to the earth, which 
was taken from the hole ; it is to be put into the hole 
so as to raise it to the required height — a sufficient 
quantity of the compost should also be ready for 
filling. The hole being thus prepared, the tree is to 
be raised, in doing which. Sir Henry Steuart re- 
commends that a trench, such as that described for 
preparing the tree, be formed around the tree, at a 
distance corresponding to the size of the tree, gene- 
rally almost as far from the trunk as the branches 
extend. Where a preparing trench was made, that 
now described must be formed immediately without 
it. This trench being about two feet deep, and of 
such width that a man can stand in it and use a 
shovel. A set of careful persons, six or eight in 
number, each having a light one pronged pick, com- 
mence at the inner margin of the trench, and with 
his head towards the trunk of the tree loosens the 
earth, letting it fall into the trench, from which it is 
removed by the man with a shovel. In this way 
much fewer roots are damaged than if spades were 
used. The roots, when exposed, are to be preserved 
from injury, by being tied in bundles with hay ropes, 
and some of the largest roots are to be pursued to 
their extremity, and taken up entire. The tree 
being thus disengaged, the timber carriage, which 
differs in no respect from the janker used in all sea- 
port towns for transplanting logs of timber, except 
that this is much lighter in construction, and has a 
platform or bolster above the axletree, is brought 
up to the tree, and the pole of it fastened to the 
trunk by a rope. The pole of the machine, with the 
tree attached, is then pulled down, by which the 
roots are raised, and the tree is now ready to be 
drawn to its destination — roots foremost, ^¥hen 
arrived there, any roots or branches which may have 
been broken by accident may be removed : but 
shoidd none be injured, none are to be taken off'. 
In planting, the side of the tree which in its original 
situation was presented to the storm, must now be 
turned from it, by which means the short branches 
will become long, and the long ones checked, so that 
the tree will recover a just balance. Sir Henry 
Steuart has the merit of this discovery as applied to 
trees — every gardener practises it with his green- 
house plants. The tree is now, we will suppose, 
seated in its new birth — to retain it firmly there. Sir 
Henry uses no other means than carefully ramming 
the earth around the small ball which always adheres 
to tlie tree, and disposing the roots, which are to be 

K 2 



68 



ON LEAVES OF PLANTS. 



spread out in their natural directions, tier above 
tier — filling every crevice, and firming the earth 
well down. But with larger trees than Sir Henry 
is in the habit of removing, and in more exposed 
situations, I am of opinion, that additional supports 
will be used with advantage. I have elsewhere 
described a method used by Mr. Paxton, at Chats- 
worth, the seat of the Duke of Devonshire, by 
which, in an exposed situation, he maintained in an 
erect position trees of an astonishing elevation. 
His method is — to drive three strong posts into the 
ground, so that their tops shall be level with the 
upper part of the strong roots of the tree ; on the 
tops of these three posts, rails pressing upon the 
roots are spiked ; and this being firmly done, the 
tree is immovable ; tlie earth is then filled in, and 
raised somewhat higher than the surrounding ground 
to admit of sinking ; a good watering is given, 
which must be repeated occasionally throughout the 
spring and summer ; and a coat of bog stuff, or, if it 
can be spared, rotted dimg, must be spread on the 
surface, to prevent evaporation. Sir Henry Steuart 
recommends shoves (the refuse procured in dressing 
flax) ; but the manufacture of flax being unfortu- 
nately no longer worth attending to in this country, 
shoves are not to be had. In this way every kind 
of tree may be removed ; but elms, limes, oaks, 
alders, and poplars, with least risk. Any open 



weather, from the fall of the leaf to the beginning 

of March, will answer for performing the operation; 
if the ground be liable to retain a superabundance 
of moisture, or be much exposed to storms, spring is 
the best season. Under other circumstances, autumn 
and the beginning of winter is decidedly preferable. 
With respect to expense, that will of course de- 
pend as well on the size of the tree, as on the dis- 
tance and nature of the ground over which it is 
necessary to transport it, rate of wages, &c. &c. As 
general approximate it maybe said, that trees of from 
ten to fifteen years growth, the roots of which do not 
extend beyond four feet from the trunk, may be 
taken up and replanted for one shilling each. I 
have had many scores of such removed from plan- 
tations where they were too close, and replanted at 
two pence eacli ; but then they were placed in 
sheltered places, and it was not necessary to be very 
solicitous about taking them up. A tree of about 
twelve or eighteen inches in circumference at the 
ground, as many feet high, and from twenty to thirty 
years growth may, imder ordinary circumstances, be 
removed and replanted for about eight shillings. For 
trees considerably beyond that size, the expense 
will be much greater than the proportionate size of 
the tree would lead a person inexperienced in the 
business to suppose. 



ON LEAVES OF PLANTS. 



BY J. S. DUNCAN, A.M. 



The curiously mechanised organs of the root and 
stem manifestly tend in the first place to the 
formation and evolution of leaves. " The leaf," 
says Thomson, Lect. ix. p. 478. " is a temporary 
organ of plants, which performs nearly the same 
functions in the economy of vegetable life which the 
lungs perform in that of animal life ; or, in fewer 
words, leaves are the respiratory organs of plants : 
in aphyllous (or leafless) plants, the surface of the 
stem performs the function of the leaves. But 
herbs, and the soft part of woody plants, absorb 
moisture from the atmosphere by the pores of their 
epidermis," That moisture is absorbed by the leaves, 
as well as by the root, appears manifest from the ex- 
periments of Du Hamel, Mariotte, and Bonnet, enu- 
merated by Keith, vol. ii. ch. iii. p. 92. The mois- 
ture, thus imbibed, is quickly decomposed in the leaf 
by & continual and rapid process of perspiration, 
which appears necessary to the decomposition, 
elaboration, and assimilation of the components of 
atmospheric air and of water, the elaboration of the 
sap, of carbonic acid, and of oxygen. 

" The principal part of the elaboration of the sap," 
vol. ii. ch.iii. p. 136, " is operated in the leaf: for the 
sap no sooner reaches the leaf, than part of it is car- 



ried off by means of perspiration, perceptible or 
imperceptible ; effecting a change in its component 
parts, and by consequence a change of its properties." 

" Bonnet has shewn, that most leaves absorb 
moisture better by one surface than another ; and it 
is known that some surfaces actually repel it, as 
drops of rain roll along the upper surface of the cab- 
bage leaf without wetting it," ch. iii. p. 97- 

Various experiments show that leaves vary in re- 
spect to this capacity, some absorbing lietter by the 
upper, some by the lower surface. The absorption 
was thus demonstrated ))y Mariotte. He cut a 
branch terminating in two twigs, one was suspended 
within, the other hung without a vessel filled with 
water : that whicli hung without preserved its ver- 
dure, while the other withered. 

Leaves, during the day, and particularly in the 
sun, inhale carbonic acid gas; " but the gas thus in- 
haled is not assimilated immediately, or at least not 
wholly, for it is known to be evolved when they ve- 
getate in the shade, and during the night." 

Ingenhouz observed, " that leaves placed in water 
and exposed to tlie sun's rays evolve oxygen gas :" 
Sennebier afterwards ascertained, " that this process 
only takes place when leaves are fresh, and the water 



ON LEAVES OF PLANTS. 



69 



impregnated with carbonic acid." Of the effect of 
light in promoting this process, there can be no 
doubt : how it operates is yet among the unexplored 
secrets of nature. The root, the wood, the petals, 
and leaves, that are faded, and have lost their health- 
ful colour, (which is commonly green, of various 
shades, but sometimes red and variegated,) are not 
found to exhale oxygen gas. The effect is operated 
chiefly by the parenchyma, or green portion of the 
plant. Keith, ch. iii. 

The parenchyma is fluid or granulated matter, 
found in minute cells of leaves and leaf-stalks. " In 
thin leaves, the cells near the inferior disk are more 
transparent than those near the vipper disk ; but in 
both we perceive a number of granules, which are 
more opaque and of a deeper green as the cells con- 
taining them approach the upper disk. In succulent 
leaves, and those which maintain a vertical position, 
the opacity and green colour of the granules are the 
same towards every face of the leaf; but they are 
generally colourless in the centre. In the cells of 
some leaves, regidar crystallized salts are found, in 
others the fluids are tinged of different hues, in 
which cases the leaves display the same hues on one 
or both surfaces." Thomson, Lect. x. p. 595. 

Mr. Keith, after noticing that oxygen gas, that 
constituent of atmospheric air which has been found 
to be indispensable to the life of animals, is no less 
so to the life of vegetables, yet nevertheless, that 
plants thrive better in common air than in pure 
oxygen gas, concludes excellently; " From whence 
it follows, that oxygen, though the principal agent 
in the process of vegetation, is yet not the only agent 
necessary to the health and growth of the plant, 
and that the proportion of the constituent parts of 
the atmospheric air is just what it ought to be, as 
well for the purposes of vegetable as of animal life, 
being at once an indication Ijoth of the wisdom and 
goodness of Him by whom it was established." Vol. 
ii. p. 175, 

" Among fallen leaves, which have been exposed 
to the action of the atmosphere in a damp place, we 
find some in which the cuticle and pulp are com- 
pletely destroyed ; whereas the ribs or veins, as they 
are erroneously termed, being less susceptible of de- 
composition, remain almost entire, and display a 
beautiful tissue of complicated net work. This is 
the vascular system, and the leaf in this state is 
termed a skeleton leaf. Artificial preparations of 
skeletons, by macerating skins in water, preserve 
the most minute cords of the vessels, and enable us 
to trace with the greatest readiness the divisions, 
sub-divisions, and various ramifications of the vas- 
cular fasciculi. In Phil. Trans. 1730, No. 414, p. 
371, Francis Nichols gives an account of the skel- 
eton of a pear leaf, the net-work of which he sjilit 
into two equal layers." Thomson, Lect. x. p. 549. 

" The fibres are not only subdivided into a variety 
of ramifications forming a fine net-work, but that 



net- work is double;, consisting of two layers, the one 
corresponding to the upper, the other to the under 
surface of the leaf. No language is able to convey 
an idea of the delicacy and intricacy of the web. 
Linnfeus discovered the points of union between the 
layers, and remarked that the net-work correspond- 
ing to the under surface was much less firm and 
compact in its texture than that corresponding to 
the upper surface." Keith, vol. i. sec. iv. p. 275. 

" Leaves," saj's Sir J. E. Smith's Grammar of Bo- 
tany, p. 9. " receive the sap from the wood by one 
set of vessels, and expose it to the action of the air, 
light and heat, by their upper surface, while what is 
superfluous passes off by the under. The sap thus 
changed, assumes peculiar flavours, odours, and 
other qualities, and is sent by another set of vessels 
into the bark, to which it adds a new layer every 
year internally, and another layer to the external 
part of the wood. Hence the concentric circles in 
trees; the number of which shows their age, and the 
breadth of each circle the abundance and vigour of 
the foliage which formed it." 

A volume, or rather many volumes, instead of a 
general indicative outline, or short essay, might be 
fully devoted to trace the analogy between the vas- 
cular system of animals and that of plants. That 
such analogy does exist to a certain extent, every 
reader of the works of Keith, Smith, and Thomson, 
must be readily convinced. Animals, as well as 
plants, derive nutrition and the maintenance of their 
subsistence from extraneous substances ; vessels are 
placed just where they are indispensably requisite, 
adapted to select the juices suited to such purpose in 
the forms of sap and chyle : other vessels are adapted 
to receive the first modified fluid, and to promote its 
necessary changes into proper juice, for the purpose 
of various assimilation into blood, and bile, and sa- 
liva, and synovia, &c. in animals, and into saccha- 
rine and other juices, oils, and resins, in plants. 
Leaves, like lungs, expose the involved fluids to the 
action of air which they decompose, and in that ac- 
tion undergo changes essential to vitality. Not to 
pursue the comparison further than this point for the 
present, it is scarce possible not to perceive, even in 
this cursory glance, that the wide difference between 
the locomotive animal, deriving nutrition only frojn 
the introsusception of previously organized sub- 
stances, and the permanently fixed vegetable, " ef- 
fecting the development of its parts by the introsus- 
ception and assimilation of unorganized substances, 
derived from the atmosphere and from the soil," 
(Keith, vol. ii. p. 471), cannot be the result of one 
uniformly acting undesigning principal, one blind 
impulse, attraction, or gravitation : that the adapt- 
ation of the nicely measured and suited parts and 
vessels to the successive purposes and the common 
obvious end, the continuance of vital subsistence, 
must be the result, in plants as well as in animals, of 
an operative power, which made long beforehand 



7<J 



ON LEAVES OF PLANTS. 



preparations for changes predestined to exist at a 
remote season ; changes necessary to the continual 
production and support of successive races of living 
beings, capable at least in part, if not in the whole, 
of moral, as well as of physical enjoyment, for a 
period distinctly limited, as to each individual of 
successively life-receiving and life-yielding beings, 
through a long succession of generations. 

But nothing can more simply, clearly, and obvi- 
ously display the unlimited extent of that mysteri- 
ously operating power or spirit, which has pervaded 
and modified, and still pervades and sustains every 
part of creation, from the bright centres of celestial 
systems, from the ellipses of the planets and the co- 
mets, to the nervous ganglion of a worm, or the ca- 
lyptra of a moss, than the infinite diversity of forms 
and modifications of the most familiar objects. It 
seems as if an angel's voice was heard from every 
leaf, exclaiming to the systematic caviller. Look at 
the leaves of one hundred thousand species ! In 
every species they are different ; among myriads of 
myriads of leaves no two exactly resemlile each 
other ! Of the varieties of forms, surfaces, attach- 
ments, directions, consistences, colours, pubescence, 
aggregation, &c. of gems, or buds, of footstalks, of 
leaves, and of their general appendages, thorns, ten- 
drils, glands, bladders, spathes, involucra, &c. seve- 
ral hundreds are enumerated in Thomson's " Me- 
thodical Index of Organs," In some plants, whose 
stems are very succulent, leaves are wholly wanting, 
such as salicornia, cuscuta, stapelia. What terms of 
language could so strongly express, what characters 
could so intelligibly designate, the eternally import- 
ant truth — The power that made this scene of won- 
der is a living law unto itself : it is without limit, 
capable of infinite diversity, controlling, not con- 
trolled by any properties, vital, mechanical, or che- 
mical ; the source of all the means of all diversified 
existence, of all relations throughout all extent and 
variety of being ? 

On the subject of vegetable vitality, Keith forci- 
bly observes, vol. ii. p. 438. " The best evidence of 
its presence is that of its rendering the subject in 
which it inheres capable of counteracting the laws 
of chemical affinity. This rule, which seems to 
have been first instituted (especially insisted on) by 
Humboldt, is obviously applicable to the case of ani- 
mals, as is proved by the process of the digestion of 
food, and its conversion into chyle and blood ; as 



well as from the various secretions and excretions 
effected by the several organs, and effecting the 
growth and development of the individual, in direct 
opposition to the acknowledged laws of chemical 
affinity ; which, as soon as the vital principal is ex- 
tinct, (j. e. withdrawn,) begin immediately to give 
indication of their action, in the incipient symptoms 
of the putrefaction of the dead body. But the rule 
is applicable to the case of vegetables, as is proved 
by the introsusception, digestion, and assimilation, 
of the food necessary to their development ; all in- 
dicating the agency of a principal capable of coun- 
teracting the laws of chemical affinity, which, at the 
period of what is usually called the death of the 
plant, begin also immediately to act, and to give evi- 
dence of their action, in the incipient symptoms of 
the putrefaction of the vegetable." 

It must be further observed, that the relations of 
leaves extend far beyond the mere nutrition of the 
plant, of which they form a part. They contribute, 
in their healthy state, to maintain the purity and sa- 
lubrity of the atmosphere during the action of light 
upon their surfaces, which surfaces, it is obvious, 
must far exceed in their aggregate of extent, that of 
the whole earth, perhaps of the whole terraqueous 
globe, They afford to the far greater number of 
animals the principal portion of their food. The 
teeth and stomachs of the larger grazing animals, 
the pachydermata, and ruminantia, and most of the 
rodentia, demonstrate their special destination and 
adaptation to this species of food. Is it possible to 
consider these extensive relations of one totally dis- 
tinct class of beings to another of a widely different 
nature, and conclude that such close and multitudi- 
nous connexions, of adaptations, ties, and mutual 
dependences, can be casual, or without an adapting, 
an arranging cause ? Is svich conclusion reason, or 
is it madness ? But leaves supply no small portion 
of the food of man: the varieties of cabbage, spinach, 
lettuce, celery, thyme, sage, sorrel, parsley, fennel, 
are too familiar for further enumeration. In Britain, 
as well as in China, tea has become almost a neces- 
sary part of food amongst all ranks ; and since the 
days of Raleigh, the luxury of tobacco has, with ra- 
pid and unexampled progress of proselytism, spread 
its influence, holding, like wine, a sort of middle 
rank between food and medicine, from the western 
coasts of America to the eastern extremity of Asia. 



71 



ON THE EXCRETORY POWERS OF PLANTS* 



BY S. W. 



I HAVE read with considerable interest the articles on 
the rotation of crops and the excretory powers of 
plants in the two last numbers of the journal, and 
do hope that some of your correspondents may soon, 
by further experiment, be enabled to give more in- 
formation on the subject. In the mean time, I 
would offer you a few remarks which have occurred 
to my mind. 

You inform us, that M. Macaire seems to have 
ascertained that plants which display their flowers, 
exude matter from their roots ; and I am inclined 
to think that it is only then, or when plants are 
forming and ripening their seeds, or dying, that 
exudation takes place to any extent, or such as to 
render the soil again unfit for carrying the same 
crop to advantage ; for we know that onions, and I 
believe, I may say, every garden vegetable, may be 
cultivated in the same plot of ground year after year, 
with the assistance of manure, to advantage, except 
pease and beans, which are permitted to form the 
seed. Your correspondent, Mr. Towers, also justly 
includes the rasp amongst the defilers of soil, which 
I would account for by its peculiar growth, namely, 
the wood dying every year, after having yielded the 
fruit. 

This new discovery (if I may so call it) explains 
the remark of that wonderful man. Lord Kames, in 
the " Gentleman Farmer," that plants exhaust or 
defile the soil chiefly whenforming and ripening their 
seed. " Culmiferous plants," says his lordship, 
" having small leaves, and few in number, depend 
mostly on the soil for nourishment, and little on the 
air. During the ripening of the seed, they draw 
probably, their whole nourishment from the soil, as 
the leaves by this time, being dry and withered, 
must have lost their power of drawing nourishment 
from the air. Now, as culmiferous plants are chiefly 
cultivated for seed, and are not cut down till the 
seed be fully ripe, they may be pronounced all of 
them robbers, some more and some less. But such 
plants, while young, are all leaves, and in that state 
draw most of their nourishment from the air. 
Hence it is, that when cut green for food to cattle, a 
culmiferous crop is far from being a robber." But 
to show that they defile it only, and do not exhaust 
it, — I tried an experiment about five years ago : 
Having often seen cresses growing in flannel 
moistened with water, I took that plant for my ex- 
periment, and sowed the seeds in a flower pot filled 
with stocking, well washed to take the oil out of it ; 



and the plants not only grew, but ripened their 
seeds, thus proving that plants do not require soil to 
bring them to maturity. 

The practice of General Beaston sowing wheat 
on the same land year after year, (not that I recom- 
mend it,) cannot, I think, be explamed on any other 
theory than that of destroying or decomposing the 
exudation of wheat by fire, that he was enabled to 
get such crops as he did. But I consider liming a 
better way of decomposing the exudation of plants ; 
and as grass, oats, and barley are all of the same fa- 
mily, I have no doubt that this is one reason why it 
answers so well to lime land when laying it down to 
grass, and sowing barley; namely, the lime decom- 
po.ses the exudation of the barley, and prevents its 
injuring the grass plants. Many old fashioned 
farmers are still fond of spreading lime on grass 
land before breaking it up for oats ; and I have no 
doubt, in the same way, the lime, by acting on the 
exudation of the grasses, prepares it as food for the 
oats, which it might otherwise injure. 

I therefore hope you will continue to encourage 
those who are enabled to make experiments on 
grasses, and particularly as to the time when the 
exudation from their roots takes place, as we would 
then be taught the proper time for cutting hay ; we 
would be taught if it was desirable to depasture our 
grasses so close as to prevent them seeding or 
flowering ; — we would be taught whether or not we 
ought on all occasions to be at the expense of peren- 
nial grass seeds, if, by the dying of the annual rye- 
grass, the land is rendered afterwards unfit for oats; 
— perhaps we would be taught not to take oats at all 
in breaking up from grass, which is almost the uni- 
versal practice at present, for we ought to remember 
that oats and grass are of the same family. I feel 
confident that in this particular, alteration may be 
made with advantage in the general rotation of the 
countiy ; and I have no doubt another crop may be 
had without any extra manure, which would be no 
small advantage to the farmer. I am not prepared 
to say what crop should be taken in breaking up 
from grass. That must depend much upon the soil 
and other circumstances ; but I have known beans 
taken with advantage, and it must be either beans, 
vetches, pease, or potatoes ; then oats, turnips, with 
dung, barley, grass, keeping the land in grass one, 
two, or three years, and giving lime with the barley 
every twelve or fourteen years. 



From the " Quarterly Journal of Agriculture." 



72 



ON THE GROWTH AND CULTURE OF TULIPS * 



By \V. B. p. OF HULL. 



The plan I have purs\ied for tlie last twenty years 
is simple, and one I have always found to answer my 
most sanguine expectations except through misfor- 
tune by frost, hail, &c. ; against such unforeseen cir- 
cumstances it is almost impossible to guard. I al- 
ways plant my tulips about the 8th to 12th of No- 
vember, 3i to 4 inches deep, on a bed raised by side 
boards about a foot from the surface ; which in our 
heavy cold soil gives room for the superfluous water 
to drain off. I always plant them in the soil taken 
from the ranimculus bed, which ranunculus bed I 
generally manure at the latter part of the year with 
cow dung, and throw the tulip bed on the ranunculus 
bed, which is manured again in the same manner, 
with an excejjtion in the year 1832; that season I 
manured my ranuncidusses with rape dust. I took 
of the soil as before, and I never remember having 
had so fine a bloom ; this at once proves the supe- 
riority of the manure. I generally take out a spade 
depth. Some florists will tell you manure will cause 
them to run in colours ; this I grant will be the 
case if due care be not taken to use the manure suf- 
ficiently old and well neutralized, and deprived of 
its poisonous qualities, as acids, salts of iron, and all 
metallic substances, by the action of sun and air ; 
with such care they will never run, as I have tried 
maiden soil, soil slightly manured, and the above 
soil from the ranunculus bed, manured with rape 
dust, and I never witnessed so strong and regular 
a bloom. I must also beg to differ from an old 
grower respecting the existence of those small worms 
which are not wire worms, but are generated in the 
bulb from disease or injury by frost or hail storms, 
and not from a disposition of adhering to good flow- 
ers more than bad, but owing to the finer sorts be- 



ing more tender and delicate, consequently more lia- 
ble to be attacked by disease, which may also be oc- 
casioned by a portion of fresh mjinure coming into 
immediate contact with the bulb ; yet I believe frost, 
in nine cases out of ten, is the prevailing cause of 
disease, as one season I had nearly the whole of my 
bed injured by it more or less, and the whole of the 
injured bulbs were attacked by those small worms, 
and it was two years before I could recover them ; 
many were completely destroyed in the ground, and 
others went oif after being taken up. I this season 
had a bed lying east and west, which were all more 
or less injured by a severe hail storm in the latter 
part of April ; whilst another north and south was 
not injured at all, though only a walk separated the 
two beds ; the former on being taken up, were many 
of them nearly wholly destroyed by hundreds of 
those marauders, and I have not the least shadow of 
a doubt of their being attacked in consequence of 
their getting diseased by one or both of tlie above 
causes ; and as a preventive I should recommend 
a net about half inch mash, to be thrown over the 
stage about the latter part of April, as we have for 
the last three years had severe storms of hail about 
this time, and suff'er it to remain until it is necessary 
to put on the main covering ; this will not injure the 
flowers or weaken them, but may prevent a severe 
loss. I should also recommend Tulipus to use a rich 
maiden loamy soil, the soil from his ranunculus bed, 
or if he does not grow them, to use the soil from his 
carnation pots. They may be grown in the loam 
one year, and the second year add one sixth dung 
from the cucumber bed, and one sixth coarse sand. 

Hull, June 13, 1833. 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF ORCHARDS IN LANARKSHIRE.! 



BY W. AITON, ESQ. 



The modes of planting and managing fruit trees, 
have been variously conducted and understood by 
gardeners and orchardists, and many plans have been 
suggested for promoting their growth, and render- 
ing them productive of fruit of an improved qua- 
lity ; but some of these plans have been found to be 
rather fanciful, and have been abandoned. Per- 
ceiving that all sorts of trees grow well in rich deep 
soil, some have not only heaped rich earth together, 
for fruit trees to grow on, but have laid flags, or 



formed causeways, under the trees, to prevent them 
extending their roots into the sub-soil. It has been 
stated in favour of these precautions, that, on dig- 
ging up an ancient garden at Deer, it was found 
that a bed of rich earth had been laid to a consider- 
able depth over the sub-soil, a causeway had been 
formed above that earth, a bed of sand, of a foot 
deep over the pavement, and into which the trees 
had been planted. This sort of preparation of the 
soil for fruit trees appears to have been done at a 



From " Florist's Magazine." 



t From " Quarterly Journal of Agriculture." 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF ORCHARDS. 



73 



vast expense, to little purpose. The two causeways 
could do no good, as the roots of the trees would 
easily penetrate both of them, and enter the sub- 
soil in spite of all that costly preparation. 

The intelligent orchardists in Lanarkshire, have 
acquired more correct knowledge in managing 
orchards, than the monks had prior to the reforma- 
tion, so that their horticultural practices have re- 
quired reformation, as well as their theological opi- 
nions. Some modern orchardists have indeed placed 
flat stones under fruit trees, to prevent as they con- 
ceived, the roots reaching the sub-soil ; but it has 
always been found that the trees extended their 
roots over, around, and under the stones into the 
sub-soil. Others have dug pits, several feet in 
width and depth, and filled them with rich mould ; 
But when such pits were dug in clay-land, they 
could not fail to be filled with water among the 
mould, and which the clay would retain, so as to 
injure the roots of the trees far more than if no such 
pits had been dug, and the trees had been allowed 
to follow their own course in extending their roots. 
It was on the same erroneous principle that mounds 
of rich earth were raised for fences, and the thorns 
planted upright, three or four feet above the surface 
of the ground, to preA'ent them striking root in the 
cold tilly sub-soil, which was imagined to be the 
cause of their becoming stunted in growth and 
covered with fog. The folly of attempting to prove 
either trees or thorns to grow secundum artem, is now 
seen in its proper point of view, and abandoned. 

Some have recommended to dig or trench the 
ground which the fruit trees are to occupy about 
eighteen inches deep ; but if the ground is nearly 
level, and the sub-soil retentive, the water in that 
case would remain about the roots of the trees and 
injure them. If trenching the ground be at all re- 
sorted to, it ought to be extended over the whole 
orchard ground. But if it is executed in a sterile 
clay-soil, resting on a tilly bottom, the better earth 
would be buried under a foot of barren sub-soil, 
which it would require much manure and labour to 
enrich ; while the former soil being buried, would 
soon become inert. In bare clay-land, like that of 
the Clydesdale orchards, it is probably the best 
course to dig up the soil with spades, about ten 
inches deep, preserve it from being buried under 
barren earth, and enrich it as much as possible with 
manure, and occasional exposure to sun and frost to 
render it friable. 

The orchardists in Lanarkshire have relinquished 
the practice of placing flags under the fruit trees, 
and they neither make pits, nor trench the ground 
eighteen inches deep, or more than ordinary delving 
with spades. They plant the trees only from six to 
eight inches deep, and raise the earth a foot or 18 
inches round them, a few inches above their roots, 
to enable them to withstand the blast. 

Considerable diversity of opinion prevails in La- 

MAGAZINE OF BOTANT AND GARDENING, VOL II. NO. XIV.- 



narkshire as to how far the fruit trees should stand 
from each other, and errors have been run into 
both in planting too near and too sparse. In the 
Dalziel orchards, and some others, the rows of trees 
are twenty-two feet apart, and eleven feet distance 
in the rows. The trees in the orchard at West 
Brownlee are closer. In the new orchard on the 
estate of Wishaw, the rows are at thirty feet dis- 
tance, and fifteen feet from each other in the rows. 
On the Coltness estate, the rows are twenty-seven 
feet, and the trees ten and a-half feet from one ano- 
ther in the rows. Some, however, are sparser, and 
in some of the oldest orchards the trees are irregu- 
larly planted. In general, however, they are 
planted closer than is usually done in the English 
orchards. It is a common practice in the Clydes- 
dale orchards to plant an early bearer, alternately 
with other trees in the rows ; and some plant goose- 
berry and currant bushes between the trees ; while 
others raise only potatoes, oats, &c. 

In all the Lanarkshire orchards, every spring or 
damp ground is carefully drained, with either open 
or covered drains. But in all clay-land, a covered 
furrow drain ought to be formed between each row 
of trees. The great advantage of furrow-draining, 
in all heavy soils, is now universally admitted : and 
it seems more necessary in orchard ground than in 
arable land, as the trees overshadowing the ground 
create more damp than when the grain crops are 
taken ; and as the roots of trees grow deeper into the 
earth than those of corn plants, draining in orchards 
is necessary to relieve the soil of all stagnant mois- 
ture. Young fruit trees require ropes of straw, or 
sprigs of broom, to be tied round them, to prevent 
their bark being eaten by hares. Either of these 
means are preferable to besmearing the trees with 
soot, or any other nasty substance. 

After trees have been planted for five or six 
years, they ought to be divested of such branches as 
seem to point too near to the ground, and that rub 
upon one another. Some orchardists liave at- 
tempted to train their fruit-trees, so as to send out 
branches in every direction, and to have the tree 
open in the middle. This method, however, is not 
in every case practicable with fruit-trees, and par- 
ticularly in regard to pear-trees, which frequently 
tower high up in the top. It is a better, and still 
more common practice, to allow trees to take every 
one its own shape, and merely to lop off', with due 
caution, such branches as hang too near the ground; 
and they are not so much shaken by the wind as 
branches that soar higher. Wherever blotches 
appear on trees, they ought to be cut off to prevent 
their forming ulcers. All sorts of moss ought to be 
removed from fruit-trees, and the fruit should never 
be pulled from the trees when it is damp. It is 
better to take the fruit off" with the hand than to 
shake the trees, which injures both them and the 
fruit. Those who purchase the fruit have the 
-MAY, 1834 ^ 



74 



ON THE MANAGEMENT OF OKCHARDS. 



trouble of taking it off the trees ; but they do not 
always exercise sufficient caution to save the trees 
from injury. 

The produce of the Clydesdale orchards, consisting 
of apples, pears, plums, and small fruit, has hitherto 
been disposed of as fruit for family use, or sold to 
retail dealers in Glasgow, Paisley, Hamilton, La- 
nark, &c. ; and part of it has often been disposed of 
in Edinburgh. But now that the prices of apples 
and pears have fallen to less than one third part of 
what they brought about twenty years ago, and from 
the great expense of carting fruit to market, the 
orchardist would do well to consider if it could not 
be manufactured into cider and perry. It is well 
known that apples raised from a clay-soil make the 
best cider, and from the best information I have 
been able to procure, from twenty-four to thirty 
bushels of apples yield a hogshead, or one hundred 
and ten gallons of cider, the price of which varies 
from 1/. 5s. to 21. 2s. per hogshead. In Hereford- 
shire, twenty hogsheads of cider have often been 
made from the apples grown upon an English acre 
of land, although no more than forty trees grow on 
an acre. If a part of the fruit in Lanarkshire were 
converted into cider and perry, when the crops are 
most abundant, and only the marketable part of the 
crop, or what is known in Glasgow by the name of 
" shop fruit," were sold, a considerable sum might 
be raised by beverages, whilst the value of the 
marketable fruit might be kept at a remunerating 
price. Should the return from cider and perry fall 
short of the price the fruit brought some time ago 
in the Glasgow market, the expense of the carriage 
of the fruit at all events would be saved. I under- 
stand that tlie whole apparatus and utensils for 
making cider may be fitted up for about 50/. ; and 
that two or three of these establishments would be 
sufficient to bruise one-half of the fruit that these 
orchards produce annually. 

From the vast quantity of gooseberries and cur- 
rants now raised in the Clydesdale orchards, and in 
every garden in that country, their prices have 



fallen to about one-half, or two-third parts of what 
they brought some years ago. But as immense 
quantities of them are now made into jam, jelly, and 
wine, as well as into tarts and other confectionary 
articles ; condiments so wholesome and palatable 
cannot fail to be in high request among all ranks of 
people. These fruits, in fact, occupy the same 
place in Scotland that the vines do in warmer coun- 
tries. Apples and pears are eaten in France and 
Belgium as food along with bread of rye ; and in 
Cornwall and some parts of England, the labouring 
people eat fruit instead of bread or potatoes, and 
prefer the fruit to either of them. 

Under crops of potatoes, oats, beans, barley, &c., 
are raised to a considerable extent among the fruit- 
trees in the Lanarkshire orchards, though not in 
that regular order as to be traced to any specific ro- 
tation of cropping. Potatoes with dung are gene- 
rally followed by oats, and next by clover and rye 
grass. Where the trees are planted near to each 
other, the orchard small, and the ground steep, the 
ground is dug with spades for the under cropping ; 
and even where the plough is used, three or four 
feet on each side of the trees are dug with the spade, 
to prevent the trapping of the horses injuring the 
trees. After the trees have grown twenty years, 
milch cows are sometimes allowed to browse in the 
orchards. But the ground requires to be broken 
up, manured, and cropped every few years, in order 
to enrich the soil, for the benefit of the fruit-trees, 
and to prevent their becoming stunted in growth 
and covered with moss. The tacksmen of the cot- 
tage orchards are bound in their leases to manure 
their orchards every four years. This is necessary 
in the sterile grounds on which many of these or- 
chards have been formed, and especially when the 
trees are young. Even in richer land, the health 
and fecundity of the trees are promoted by under 
digging, and the application of manure. The under 
crops themselves far more than repay the dung and 
labour bestowed on the land. 



ROYLE'S HIMALAYAN BOTANY.* 



This is a splendid and interesting work on the 
botany of a district rich in the productions of natural 
history. The opportunities which the author en- 
joyed as superintendent of the Company's garden 
at Saharunpore, he employed in forming an exten- 
sive herbarium, and procuring all possible informa- 
tion on the subjects of his peculiar pursuits. The 
results are to be published in the work before us, 
which, however, being in parts, we have as yet 



only a small portion of what is to come. He com- 
mences with an introduction embracing a few ne- 
cessary geographical details, among which our read- 
ers must be pleased with the following : — 

" The plants of Kunawur have generally a dry 
sombre aspect, few leaves, and those small, fre- 
quently inserted in a cluster round the root, from 
the centre of which rises the scape of generally 
large and showy flowers. The petioles not under- 



* " Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of 
Cashmere." By J. Forbes Royle, Esq., F.L.S. & G.S., M.R.A.S. Of the Honourable East India Company's Medical Esta- 
blishment ; Member of the Asiatic, Medical, Agricultural, and Horticvdtural Societies of Calcutta ; and Late Superintendent of 
the Honourable Company's Botanic Garden at Sahaninpore. 



ROYLE S HIMALAYAN BOTANY. 



75 



» 



going decomposition, from the dryness of the climate, 
remain attached round the plant, and as they be- 
come pushed outwards by the growth of internal 
parts, the cellular parts are destroyed, while the 
fibrous remain, and protect the root, as with a cover- 
ing of air, from the severity of the weather. One 
peculiarity is remarkable, and that is, the resem- 
blance externally between the plants and this cold 
region and those of the desert-like country near 
Delhi ; but this is observable only in the parts of 
vegetation, and not in those of fructification, for in 
the cold climate, the flowers are large and shoTi-y, 
and in the hot, small and inconspicuous : in both 
the shrubs are stunted, thorny, and frequently hairy; 
the wood scanty, hard, and compact ; while the sur- 
face of each is dry, and of an ash grey or pale green 
colour. The only similarity in climate is, that in 
each there is great dryness of the atmosphere ; the 
the resemblance therefore is probably dependent on 
peculiarity of the transpiratory surface. Capparis 
and Salsola are almost the only genera common to 
both situations ; the latter evidently owing to the 
soil of each being covered with saline efflorescence." 

We are much pleased with general remarks of 
this description, and wish we could more frequently 
see them introduced in works on botany, though it 
is not always to be expected that a mere collector 
of specimens or a Jussieuan botanist, eagerly dissect- 
ing fruit and flowers to detect fanciful analogies run- 
ning through what he terms families and orders, 
can either have leisure or tact for this purpose, 
warped, as all his thoughts must be, by the influ- 
ence of a theory. We are glad to give another 
specimen of the matter of which we cordially ap- 
prove, before we come to what is objectionable. 

" If," says Mr. Royle, " instead of keeping on 
mountain tops, we descend into the vallies on their 
northern face, we shall observe that, with many of 
the phenomena peculiar to such localities, there is 
considerable modification in the vegetation of each, 
according to elevation and latitude. The valley of 
Cashmere, situated between the thirty-fourth and 
tliirty-fifth parallels of latitude, in the most northern 
part of Himalaya, and to which we descend to 
the snow-clad summit of Peerpunjal, is described as 
being of an oval form, encircled by mountains clothed 
with vegetation, which are themselves girded by a 
higher range covered with snow. The level of the 
valley is of considerable extent, being about sixty 
miles in length, and about forty in breadth in the 
widest part ; its elevation is estimated by the late 
lamented traveller, M. Jacquemont, to be from 5,248 
5,576 ; he however states that the beauty of this 
valley has been much exaggerated, both by his coun- 
tryman Bernier and by Mr. Forster. But there is 
no doubt that, in consequence of its being copiously 
watered by numerous streams, lakes, and canals, 
there is considerable moisture both of soil and 
climate, and almost constant verdure ; while the 



numerous gardens, and the great variety of fruit- 
trees and of beautiful flowers, must always strike 
visitors from the arid plains of India, whether Eu- 
ropeans, as Bernier and Forster, or Asiatics, as 
Abul Fuzl. From the mixed nature of the culti- 
vation, the climate must evidently be mild and tem- 
perate, for even in the warmest months of summer 
the breezes which descend at night from tlie moun- 
tains are always cool and pleasant ; the periodical 
rains consist of gentle showers, and the snows 
which fall in winter cannot remain long upon the 
ground. Abul Fuzl says, that it rains and snows 
here at the same season, as in Tartary and Persia; 
and that during the periodical rains in Hindoostan 
light showers only fall here, though with great 
violence on the mountains which form the barrier 
to the south-east. 

" From the northern latitude and great elevation 
of the valley of Cashmere, we are not surprised at 
finding in its flora a great resemblance to that of 
European countries ; but the moisture of the climate, 
and its mild temperature in the season of vegeta- 
tion, causes so great an extension of the herbaceous 
parts, as well as of the flowers of plants, that many 
of them rival in luxuriance those of tropical coun- 
tries. The mildness and moisture of the climate is 
indicated by the extensive cultivation of rice, as 
well as by the successful cultivation of the Cticur- 
bitacea, as no where are there finer and larger 
melons, water-melons, gourds, and cucimibers. The 
kidney bean, though not common in the gardens of 
the north-western provinces, thrives remarkably well 
in Cashmere, as well as the egg-plant and the cap- 
sicum, The lakes abound with Trophis bispinosa, 
and species of Nymphtea Menyanthes. The existence 
of hemp and of species of balsam, of marsh-tree, 
and common mallow, all indicate a temperate cli- 
mate, as do the cultivation of wheat, barley, and 
saffron, together with the culture in their gardens 
of such European vegetables as turnip, radish, beet- 
root, and cabbage ; and the usage of clover as fodder 
for cattle ; all proving the approximation in vegeta 
tion to that of European countries, as has been 
already indicated with regard to the climate by the 
testimony of so many travellers. The other genera 
of which species have been brought down by the 
plant collectors are chiefly European, as Viola, Trol- 
lius, Dianthus, MatUola, Cheiranthus, Draba, Cap- 
sella, Hypericum, Lythrum, Spiraa, Rubus, Geum, 
Myricaria, Eryngium, Euphrasia, Salvia, Nepeta, 
Phlomis, Trifolium, Vicia. Orobus, Ononis, Medicago, 
Lactuca, Sonchus, Iris, Narcissus, and Crocus. The 
species which have been already identified with those 
of Europe are the following : Mentha viridis, Mentha 
arvensis, Mentha sylvestris. Hibiscus Trionum, Cen- 
taurea moschata, Hieracium sabaudum, Dianthus bar- 
batus. Lychnis coronaria, Myosotis palustris, Dactylis 
glomerata, Cucubalus baccifer." 

We now turn to the body of the work, which 



76» 



aOYLs's HIMALAYAN BOTANY. 



contains a detailed account of the Jussieuan family, 
Ranunculace*, which, though in some respects it is 
done in a masterly manner, contains a very erro- 
neous and withal a highly dangerous doctrine, 
namely, that the plants arranged in a family like the 
RanunculacetE possess " the same sensible properties 
and modes of action on the human frame" (page 
45), a doctrine which, as we shall presently see, is 
contradicted by the author's own details ; but before 
coming to these we shall stop for a moment to ex- 
amine what Dr. Professor Lindley says on the sub- 
ject — the doctor being esteemed among his clique the 
great oracle upon sucli absurd dreams and fancies. 
The doctor, when engaged for the Bayswater book 
manufactory, got up some sad contradictory stuff for 
the Encyclopiedia of Plants, of which, we doubt not, 
he has long been ashamed ; but there it is in good 
stereotype print. At page 1052 of this work. Dr. 
Professor Lindley tells us, that when the natural 
order of a plant is ascertained (we quote from the 
Editor's Alphabet of Botany) many of its most im- 
portant qualities, such as " medicinal properties," 
may be " safely" inferred. Now, if this were so, 
nobody, I think, would dispute the high value of this 
Natural system. Unfortunately, however, this prin- 
ciple is virtually contradicted by what follows. 
Thus, under Celltjlares, Order viii.. Dr. Professor 
Lindley gives us " Cetraria Islandica, &c., tonic and 
nutritive," along with " Evernia vulpina, poisonous." 
Under Vasculares, again. Order cxli., (to say no- 
thing as to size, form, and stnicture,) of " the fig, 
the mulberry, and the bread-fruit tree" being natu- 
rally (common sense wovdd say unnaturally) classed 
" among worthless weeds," such as " the common 
stinging nettle," " and shabby half herbaceous 
shrubs," such as " the hemp and the hop; " what are we 
to think of "safely" inferringfrom the fig, the bread- 
fruit tree, and the sago plant, the " medicinal pro- 
perties" of " the upas tree, now known to be the An- 
tiaris toxicaria," the inspissated juice of which, to use 
Dr. Professor Lindley's own words, " is a frightful 
jjoison" (p. 1083)? Were I the proprietor of this 
work, I would not hesitate an instant to break up the 
the stereotype plates, in order to expunge such glar- 
ing contradictions and highly dangerous errors. In 
his own work on the Natural System, Dr. Professor 
Lindley alludes to the discrepancy in these words : 
" The fig, the bread-fruit tree, the jack, and the 
mulberry, are all found here, and are a curious in- 
stance of wholesome or harmless plants in an order 
which contains the most deadly poison in the world, 
the Upas of Java ; the juice, however, of even those 
which have wholesome fiiiit, is acrid and suspicious, 
and in a species of fig, Ficus toxicaria, is absolutely 
venomous."* Now had the author not been blindly 
prejudiced in favour of the system, he must have 
Keen that instead of this being a " curious instance," 



authorising a theoretical suspicion of the mild fig, 
and nutritious bread fruit, is fatal to the whole 
doctrine of " safely" inferring medicinal properties. 
Dr. Lindley complains bitterly in his preface, that 
" the Natural System of Botany" lias to contend 
with a great deal of deeply rooted prejudice ;" but 
the wonder ought rather to be that such doctrines 
as those under notice ever found any person so fool- 
hardy as to promulgate and defend them. 

In the division just alluded to, which is the fif- 
teenth class of our Alphabet, in the second order, 
among those especially called the true nettles ('as if 
there could be in nature any false ones), we find the 
mulberry tree, side by side, with the stiff hemp and 
the light climbing hop. Now admitting that the 
seed and the flowers of all these agree in structure, 
as they nearly do, it must appear obvious that the 
plants are as incongruously and unnaturally grouped 
as possible, in reference to their general form and 
habits ; while, if we look to qualities, what can be 
more incongruous than to rank the poisonous upas 
of Java in the same order with the fig? In the 
seventh order of the eighth class, also, we find the 
wholesome potatoe and the mild shepherd's club 
ranking with henbane and the deadly night-shade. 
In the third order of the eleventh class, we find 
not only lofty trees ranked with dwarf shrubs, and 
tiny slender herbs, but we have the cotfee ranked 
with the well-known emetic, ipecacuanha, and this 
again with Peruvian bark. In the thirteenth class 
we have, so far as size and form are concerned, the 
low-growing pinks, violets, and buttercups, ranked 
not only with the tall sun-flower, but with the stately 
horse-chestnut, the lime-tree, and the maple ; and 
these again with the climbing vine, and the waving 
barberry shrub ; while we could not, I think, " safely" 
infer the " medicinal properties" of the poppy, from 
which opium and laudanum are procured, gamboge, 
which is violently purgative, and buttercup, which 
is an acrid pois(jn, from the mild cocoa and marsh- 
mallow, and the wholesome orange. This would 
indeed be altogether preposterous. The fourteenth 
class furnishes precisely similar discrepancies. In 
point of size and form, we find the spring chick- 
weed, one of our smallest British plants, ranked 
among apple-trees and holm oaks ; and these again 
with the light climbing passion flower and goose- 
berry bushes. The " medicinal properties," how- 
ever, of the poisonous elaterium, the acrid stone- 
crop, the emetic laburnum, and the purgative buck- 
thorn, could not be " safely" inferred from tie 
nutritive pea and bean, or the wholsome pear, apple, 
and gooseberry, — which are all in this class. 

I could readily fill a volume with the similar 
discrepancies of this so preposterously belauded Na- 
tural System, which, if it have not to answer for the 
loss of human lives by poisoning upon principle, it 



* P. 95. "Lindley's Natural System of Botany." 



ROTLB S HIMAXAYAN BOTANY. 



77 



is no fault of its promulgators. The fact is, that so 
far from being more natural than the Linnsean sys- 
tem, these instances now given, with many more, 
show it to be more palpably unnatural. But the day 
of philosophy has now, as I fondly hope, at last 
dawned, and rational and useful studies must ulti- 
mately banish mystery and nonsense, though these 
may, for a season, stalk about in the mask and under 
the assumed names of philosophy and science. 

So far from the Editor's Alphabet of Botany : let 
us now turn to Mr. Royle's book, in which, as we 
have seen, these highly pernicious doctrines are ad- 
vocated, though expressly contradicted by the state- 
ments which the author himself furnishes in their 
support. -•>;' -■ 

" The Ranunculacea form a very natural family, riot 
only with respect to structure and geographical dis- 
tribution, but also in possessing the same scTisible pro- 
perties and modes of action on the human frame. This 
is owing to their containing in all parts an acrid 
principle, which Krapf ascertained to be neither acid 
nor alkaline, but of so volatile a nature, that in most 
cases simple drying in the air, or infusion, or decoc- 
tion in water, is sufficient to destroy it; that its 
activity is increased by acids, sugar, honey, wine, 
and spirits, and is only effectually destroyed by 
water and vegetable acids. (^Fi-e, Covrs. d'Hist. 
Nat. Pharm. v. i. p. 373.) Two vegetable alkalies, 
Delpia and Aconitia, the latter little known, are pro- 
duced by the plants of this family ; if the acrid 
principle be always of the volatile nature that it is 
represented, the powerful effects attendant on the 
administration of the root of Aconitnm ferox even 
after it had been preserved ten years, must be as- 
cribed to the presence of some principle of a more 
permanent nature. According, apparently, to the 
proportion of the s.crid principle to the rest of the 
vegetable substance, or perhaps owing to the pecu- 
liar nature of the acrid principle in each species, it 
is found that they act either on the system gene- 
rally, or in different degrees on particular organs. 
Thus several species of Ranunculus are used as rube- 
facients and vesicatories ; while the roots of Zan- 
thorhiza, Coptis, and Hydrastis, as tonics ; and those 
of Thalictrum majus as a substitute for rhubarb. Hel- 
lebore has long been known as a powerful cathartic, 
and Aconite as a no less powerful narcotic and 
poison ; while some, from the destructibleness of 
their noxious property by water, have been used as 
food. The Mahomedan physicians in India having 
derived their knowledge of drugs chiefly from Ara- 
bian authors, who translated from the Greek, it is 
surprising to find such articles as Hellebore, Pwony, 
Lycoctonum, and Stavesacre, all of which, as well as 
others, might be grown in the Himalayas, prescribed 
in every part of India, though the druggists, calcu- 
lating upon the ignorance of both pri ctitioners and 
patients respecting the true drug, generally substi- 
tute some which they consider an equivalent. Yet 



it is interesting to observe, that independent obser- 
vation has introduced into Indian practice several 
drugs from this family, to which the same properties 
are ascribed as in Europe. Thus Ranunculus scele- 
ratus is used as a vesicatory. The roots of Thalic- 
trum foliolosum as a bitter in the cure of fevers— 
those of Aconitum heterophyllum as a tonic, and of 
Aconitum ferox, though a poison, as a narcotic in 
rheumatism. Nigella sativa is alone cultivated in 
India, as in most eastern countries, and continues in 
the present day, as in the most ancient times, to be 
used both as a condiment and a medicine." 

Now, how does it prove the doctrine of all these 
plants, huddled up by Jussieuan botanists, into what 
they call a family " possessing the same sensible pro- 
perties and modes of action on the human frame," 
to tell us that some of them are used to blister the 
skin, others as tonics; others as strongly purgative ; 
others as narcotic poisons ; others as bitters in the 
cure of fevers ; others as substitutes for rhubarb, a 
mild aperient ; others as condiments, &c. ? It is in- 
deed, nearly, though not quite so bad as the gross 
contradictions of Dr. Professor Lindley ; for here, as 
in his case, of the common and the poison fig, we 
have Mr. Royle telling us that one species (Aconitum 
heterophyllum) is " a tonic," and another species of 
the same genus (A. ferox), a " virulent poison," the 
terrible drug which the Hindoos call Bitch or Bish: 
This is, of course, a great deal worse, because of the 
dangers it may lead to, than that of classing the tall, 
climbing, graceful shrubs, in the genus Clematis, or 
Virgin's Bower, with such minute marsh plants as 
Ranunculus hederaceus, and these again with the 
gaudy peony and the plain meadow rue, calling the 
whole a " a very natural family." It would appear, 
from this latter phrase, that there are other families 
in the so called natural system, which are not so 
" very natural:" if they are more discrepant than 
this, they must be bad enough in all conscience. 

We shall, in order to give Mr. Royle all fair play in 
his " Illustrations of the Natural System," make one 
other extract from his account of what is certainly 
a more natural family, if for once we may borrow 
this highly objectionable phrase. Our extract shall 
be from the Cruciferse. 

" The Crucifera are, like the Ranunculacea, an [«] 
European family, of which few are found in the 
plains of India, but numerous species in the Hima- 
layan Mountains. These belong chiefly to genera 
which are common in Europe and the northern 
parts of Asia and America, and of which several 
new species have been described in the Floras of 
Siberia, Caucasus, and of the Altai Mountains. The 
species hitherto discovered are about 70 in number, 
belonging to the genera Nasturtium, Barbarea, Tur- 
ritis, Arabis, Cardamine, Dentaria, Draba, Thlaspi, 
Hesperis, Sisymbrium, Alliaria, Erysimum, Lepidium, 
Capsella, Sinapis ? The latter, mentioned with doubt, 
as the only species known, are those described in the 



78 



ROTLE S HIMALAYAN BOTANT. 



Flora Indica, obtained by Dr. Buchanan from Tibet. 
The genus Tauscheria, which, from its singular fruit, 
I had named Navicularia, is the only one of the pe- 
culiar Siberian genera which extends to Kunawur, 
where the arid and saline nature of the soil must be 
as favourable to its growth, as the deserts of the 
Kirghis, or the banks of the Irtisch. The Euro- 
pean species of the above genera, which have been 
found extending as far southward as the Himalayas, 
are, Turritis glabra, Thlaspi arvense, Capsella Bursa 
Pastoris, Alliaria officinalis, and Sisymbrium Sophia. 
Besides Tauscheria desertorum, Crambe cordifolia, is 
another plant belonging to the Flora of Siberia, as 
well as to that of Caucasus, which extends to Kuna- 
wur. Draba radicans of the present work, with its 
radicating stems and yellow flowers, is closely allied 
in general appearance to Draba repens, figured by 
Ledebour, 1. 145. The other species of the same 
genus are closely allied in habit to their European 
congeners, and equally inhabiting, like them, the 
cold and exposed summits of mountains. 

" In the gardens of Northern India, Mathiola in- 
cana and Cheiranthus cheiri are common ; and as I 
have received specimens of both plants from Cash- 
mere, there is no doubt that both have been intro- 
duced from that direction into India, being still 
much used in medicine, and known by the names 
of white, purple, and yellow khueree, or, as com- 
monly written, cheiri. In the plains of India, but 
few species of this family are met with. Nasturtium 
officinale, growing in the vicinity of water in most 
parts of the world, seems to be found in all parts of 
India, though the natives ascribe its introduction 
to the English. I have found it near Hurdwar; 
Dr. Wallich met with it in Rohilcund. Lepidium 
sativum belonging to a genus, of which species are 
found in Syria, Arabia, and Persia, has long been 
known and cultivated in India. From the medicinal 
and dietetic uses, as well as from the Arabic and 
Persian synonymes of this plant, it is probable that 
it was introduced into India from Caubul or Persia, 
where also we must look for the route by which the 
cabbage, radish, and turnip, have found their way 
into India, as all were known and cultivated there 
long before they could have been introduced by 
Europeans, I have received the seeds of all from 
Cashmere, and grown them in the Botanic Garden 
of Saharunpore. The turnips, moreover, in Kuna- 
wur, are described as being remarkably fine. Be- 
sides these, which are confined to gardens or the 
neighbourhood of villages, there are other species 
of this family, which form very extensive agricul- 
tural crops, Ijut, like the former, only during the 
cold weather months. The majority-of these have been 
referred to the genus Sinapis, and one species, which 
agrees very closely with Brassica ervcastrum to both 
Brassica and Eruca ; this is called tira : a variety ap- 
parently of the same is cultivated in the hills. The 
species or varieties referred to Sinapis still require 



careful revision. Sinapis ramosa of Dr. Roxburgh ap- 
pears tobe the species which is called r«ee, Indian mus- 
tard, and is much used as a condiment, S. glauca may 
be the toria,S .dichotoma the kalee-surson,dLnA S.juncea 
the bunga-surson ; the three latter, as well as tira and 
Sesamum orientate, being extensively cultivated for 
the oil which is afforded by their seeds, as the na- 
tives of the greater part of India depend upon them 
chiefly for oil for burning in lamps, as well as for 
that necessary for dietetical piurposes. Some other 
species are described as being indigenous to and 
growing wild in India ; but regarding all there is 
some uncertainty, and though there is no doubt that 
the cultivated species have been long acclimated, 
yet having only been met with in that state, their 
native country must still be considered undeter- 
mined. But though there is this uncertainty re- 
specting the cultivated Crucifcra, species of this fa- 
mily are no doubt found in the plains of India : of 
this a curious instance is the existence of a species 
of Farsetia, in the neighbourhood of Delhi and 
Agra, where it was first found by Dr. Hamilton, and 
subsequently by myself in the same locality. The 
existence of the species of this genus only in Syria, 
Egypt, and north of India, may be considered as 
confirmatory of the opinion stated, p. 7, that the 
Oriental or Persian, or better, as Professor Lindley 
calls it, the Syrian region, may be considered as ex- 
tending to the north of India. Another plant more 
singular was also first discovered by Dr. Hamilton, 
Cochlearia flava, and has been described by Roth 
under the name of Alyssum Cochlearioides which the 
celebrated De CandoUe has called Cochlearia ? Alys- 
soides, in his Prodromus, with a query, whether it 
be not a species of Vesicaria. In its accumbent coty- 
ledons, oval dissepiment and convex valves, it re- 
sembles Cochlearia, but it differs in habit, which, 
with the peculiar rounded form of its silicule, long 
funiculus, yellow flowers, and Indian locality, might 
entitle it to form a new genus. It is found all 
along the banks of the Ganges, in Northern India, 
as high as Hurdwar. 

" The Cruciferce, one of the most natural of families, 
presents also the most perfect analogies in respect 
to sensible and medical properties. Most of the 
species, though of course in different proportions, 
contain an acrid volatile oil, which renders the In- 
dian, as well as the European species, useful as sti- 
mulants and vesicatorics, a fixed oil in their seeds, 
for which many of them are cultivated, together 
with azote, fecula, mucilage, and saccharine matter. 
When the acrid principle is small, in proportion to 
the mucilaginous or saccharine matter, many of the 
Crucifera become, as is well known, useful articles 
of diet." 

We hope Mr. Royle will take our strictures in 
good part, and will take care, as he proceeds, to 
avoid contradictions. We shall probably return to 
the work in a future page. 



79 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



Convolvulus turpethum. 

Foliis cordatis angnlatis integrisque obtusiusculis mucronatis 
pubescentibus, pedunculis folio brevioribus, bracteis 2 mag- 
nis tubum corolla fere aequantibus, caule alato. 
Convolvulus Turpethum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 221. Willd. Sp. 
PI. V. 1. p. 859. Roxb. Fl. Ind. v. 2, p. 57. Spreny. St/sl. 
Veget. v. 1, p. 598. 
Shevttdia Kodie. 

Stems twining or procumbent, according to cir- 
cumstances, with three wings, smooth. Wings de- 
current from the petioles. Petioles flattened above, 
and slightly winged on the edges, pubescent, about 
li inches long. Leaves broadly sviborbicular, cord- 
ate, entire, obtuse, softly pubescent ; above a little 
harsh, from the hairs being shorter and stiff'er. Pe- 
duncles axillary, round, pubescent, varying in length, 
but usually longer than the petioles : at first two or 
three-flowered, but afterwards increasing in num- 
ber, owing to the lateral predicels becoming proli- 
ferous and giving off fresh ones. Bracteas large, 
membranaceous, deciduous. Cctlyx five-parted, outer 
segments much larger than the others, concave, en- 
tire, villous, mucronate, speckled within with nu- 
merous black spots. Corolla white : tube short, con- 
tracted at, and nearly closed by, the filaments, which 
are much enlarged and hairy. Filaments short : 
anthers oblong, spirally twisted after shedding their 
pollen. Style filiform, longer than the stamens. 
Stigma capitate, two-lobed. Capsules stipitate, two- 
celled, four-seeded, enclosed in the greatly enlarged, 
and now smooth greenish white calyx. In its junior 
state the apex is covered with a green scale, which 
drops as it approaches to maturity, leaving the cap- 
sule transparent in the place it occupied. 



OXALIS RUBELLA. 

Decandria Pentagynia, Linn; OxalideK, JussiEU. 

Co!. 5-pliyUus. Petala ungmibus connexa. Stam. Inaequalia, 

S-brevlora exteriora basi connata. Caps, angulse dehiscens, 

5-gona. 
Oxalis rubella; caule ramosa folioso erecto, pedunculo unifloro 

foliis multoties longiore foliis ternatis, subsessilibus linear! 

cvineiformibus, corollis campanulatis obtusis stylis stamini- 

bus intevioribus brediaribus. — Willd. Sp. PI. 2 p. 796. 
Oxalis rubella; corollis campanulatis, stylis intermediis, fila- 

mentis edentulis. — Jacq. Collect. 3 p. 232. Je. Rat: 3 t. 

471. 
Oxalis radia fibrosa, caulibus ramosis, foliis ternatis angustis, 

florum petiolis longissimis. — Burn. Afr. IX. t. 28./. 2. 

Oxalis hirta, 0. rosacea, and 0. re<Je/Za,are very much 
alike ; perhaps too mvich so to be properly considered 
as distinct species. If they are to be distinguished, 
tliis plant, having obtuse petals, must be referred to 
the last mentioned. It is a native of the Cape, and 
requires the shelter of a green-house, and is propa- 
gated by tubers. 



MOR^A COLLINA. 
Triandria Mouogynia, Linn. ; Liliaceae, JuSSiEC. 

Morcea collina {multifiora ; cor. miformis ; imberbis ;) foliis lin- 
earibus, convoluto-concavis, nudis ; coroUae laciniis subsequa- 
libus, sursum recurvo-patentibus, deorsum turbinatim conni- 
ventibus, elliptico oblongis subacutis, extimis basi scrobiculo 
meUifero notatis ; stigmatibus miminuto petaliformibus; 
filamento cylindraceo, colvunellari, pubescente. 

Morcea collina. Thunb. Diss. 11. n. 13. Prod. 9. Jacq. Je. 
Rar. 2. t. 220. Fragm. 14. n. 51. 

Morcea miniata. Bot. Repos. tab. 404. 

Sisi/rinchium colUnvm. Cavan. Diss. b. 346. Willd. Sp. PI. 3- 
578. 

(a) flore miniato, minore. — Bof. Repos. b. c. 

(4) flore subminiato, majore. 

(c) flore lutescente. — Jacq. I. c. 

Root, a roundish bulb-tuber, covered with fibrous 
coats ; leaves in the fertile plant generally cauline, 
2-3, in the sterile plant one, radical linear-lorate, 
narrow, far attenuated, caudate-cuspidate convolute- 
concave, naked lower on reaching far above the 
stem, upper shorter ; stem one or paniculately ma- 
ny fascicled ; fascicles 2-3 flowered, convolute lan- 
ceolate, awned-acuminate ; corolla ephemeral regu- 
lar, upwards uniformly, and recurvedly patent, 
downwards turbinately converging ; segments of the 
same length, exterior ones, elliptic oblong, interior 
oblong, narrower ; ungues broad, nearly the length 
of the laminae, outer having at the base a small ob- 
long melliferous indentation ; filament columnar cy- 
lindric, entire, pubescent, about the height of the 
ungues ; anthers linear-oblong, sessile, upright, ad- 
pressed to the stigmas, than which they are very lit- 
tle shorter; stigmas subpetaloid, bilabiate, barely 
higher than the ungues ; inner lip bifid, with subu- 
late segments, but just longer than the outer, which 
is the broadest, retusely truncate ciliate, fringed pu- 
bescent inward ; capsule membranous, columnar 
slender, indistinctly trigonal, about an inch long. 

A native of the Cape of Good Hope : it was im- 
ported by Messrs. Lee and Kennedy. It blooms in 
May, and is a green-house plant. 



RANUNCULUS POLYPETALUS. 
Polyandria Polygynia, Linn. ; Ranunculaceie, Jussieu. 
R. Polypetalus scapo unifloro, foUis reniformibus crenatis calyce- 
que glabris, petalis oblongis numerosis. Species distinctis- 
sima, ad Ficariam accidens. Berba perennis, csespitosa, ru- 
dimentis foliorum emarcidorum supra tecta. Radix fibrosa, 
fusca. Scapi erecti, fiUformes, glabri, uniflori, semi v. poUi- 
cares. Folia petiolata, reniformi-cordata, crenata, glabra, 
3 v. 4-lineas lata ; dentibus 7-10, magnis, obtusissimis. Pe- 
tioli glabri, semiunciales. Calycis foliola 5, elliptica, obtusa, 
subcoriacea, glabra, persistentia. Petala 10 v. 15, spathu- 
lato-oblonga, obtusa, flava, calyce longiora, 3 v. 5-nem?, ba- 
si angustata, poro tubuloso esquamato aucta. Stamina du- 
plici ordine uumerosa : filamenta dUatata : anthera subro- 
tundie. Torus sphfericus. Carpella compressa, glabra: 
rostro subulato, recto, elongate. 



80 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



This new and very distinct species has been found 
on the peak of Kedarkanta, in the East Indies, en- 
amelling the ground with its rich yellow flowers im- 
mediately on the melting of the snow. 

VIOLA KUNUWARENSIS. 
Pentandria Monogynia, LiNNiEUS ; Violaceae, JnssiEU. 
Calycis sepala insequalia : petala ina^qualia, restivatione con- 
voluta ; stamina nee coalita ; filamenta basi dilatata, an- 
theras demissins gerentia ; ovarium nunc superum, nunc 
semi-inferum ; valvulse capsulse elasticae. 

This is a very pretty, though not a very showy, 
species, the flowers being rather small and incon- 
spicuous, though their colour is clear and uniform. 
It has somewhat the habit of V. canina, though 
more leafy, the leaves being oblong, bluntly pointed, 
and slightly waved on the edges. The flower stalk 
has a pair of flower scales (bractea^ a little below 
tTie blossom. The five divisions of the corolla are 
more equal than in V. odorata, or V. tricolor. 

CORYDALIS CASHMERIANA. 
Diadelphia Hexandria, Linn. ; Fumariacese, Jussietj. 
C. Cashmericma ; caule simplicissimoerecto, foliiscaulinissubses- 
silibus pinnatisectis, segmentis lineari-lanceolatis integris 
rarisslme subdentatis, terminali cuneato trilcbato, racemo 
coarctato paucifloro,bracteis foliaceis, summis integris 3-den- 
tatis, ealcare pedicello hreviore obtuso incurvo. — Corollie pe- 
tala externa cajrulea, inferiora rotundato-ovata, ungnicvdata. 
Petala interiora unguibus flavis, limbis purpureis. 

This beautiful plant has been as yet only found in 
Cashmere. 

ANEMONE DISCOLOR. 
Polyandria Polygyaia, Linn. ; Ranunculaceje, Jussieu. 
A. Discolor ; scapo unifloro maculate foliis 3 v. 5-partitis sericeo- 
villosissimis, lobis obtuse inciso-serratis cuneato-ovatis, 
involucris triphyUis sessilibus, foliolis cuneatis lobatis den- 
tatis, sepalis 7 ovalibus extus pilosis, intus glabris, ovariis 
ovatis Mrsutis. 

The root is fusiform, and appears thicker than it 
actually is, in consequence of being surrounded by 
the sheatliing bases of the petioles of former years, 
which as happens in many other plants of the Hi- 
malayas and of Kunawur, remain undecomposed, and 
protect the root from the inclemencies of the sea- 
sons. The radical leaves form a spreading tuft 
the petioles are broad, sheathing, membranous at 
the base, and parallel- veined ; the leaf, auricula te, 
acuminate, 3 or 5-lobed, lobes frequently subtrifid 
oblong-cuneate, coarsely serrate, villose, soft and 
velvety. The involucrum composed of 3 sessile leaf- 
lets, which are entire and dentate, or 3-lobed, with 
the lobes oblong linear 3-dentate. The scape is erect 
or ascending, round, striated, frequently spotted, 
hairy. Pedicels either single or double, in the former 
case equal in length to the involucrum during aesti- 
vation, afterwards twice or thrice as long ; where 
there are two flowers, one is nearly sessile, the other 
long pedicelled, with frequently a two-leafed invo- 
lucel. The flowers are erect. The sepals, generally 
seven in number, imbricate, obovate, three times as 
long as the stamens, varying in colour from white 
on the upper, and blue on the lower surface, to 



entire blue, and even to a livid hue. The stamens, 
with broad filaments tapering towards the apex. 
The ovary ovate, oblong, and very hairy. 

This species of Anemone, is chiefly found on thfe 
tops of lofty mountains in the Himalaya. 

SCILLA AMvENA VAR. 0. 
Hexandria Monogynia, LiNN. ; Liliacese, JussiEU. 

Scilla amaana ; foliis pluribus, extirais oblongo-ligulatis, obtusis 
cum mucrone, medio nei'vosis ; scapis pluribus, varie com- 
pressis. nervoso striatis racemo distante ; bracteis minntis, 
solitariis corolla rotate ; filaraentis ea duplo brevioribus, sub- 
ulatis, planis, hypogynis, mis laciniis, et mutuo inter se co- 
haerentibus sequalibus ; germine oblongo ovato tritoroso, nee 
in stylmn rostratum abeunte. 

Scilla ameena. 

( a ) racemo 7 multi-floro ; (lore saturate cyaneo ; filamea- 
tis sursum coloratis ; antheris atro-cyaneis. 
( /3 ) racemo 1 — 4 floro ; coroUa carulea ; filamentis palle- 
scentibus ; antheris subteruginosis. 

Scilla sihirica. — Bot. Repns. tab. 365. 

Scilla prtvcox. — Donn. Cat. Hort. Cant ? Nee ea Willd. Sp. PI. 
2 28 ; quae, ipso monente, meraT«/oH« varietas. — Vid. Schro- 
der Journ.fur die Bot. 1799, vol. i. p. 287. 

Bulb tunic ite, about the size of the walnut ; leaves 
about four, ambient, convolutely conduplicate down- 
wards, from upright recurvedly recumbent, outer 
broadest, oblong ligulate, slightly concave, nerved 
obtuse, with a somewhat glandular point ; scapes 
within these, than which they are shorter, several, va- 
riously compressed, striated, far-attenviated, upright; 
floivers spikedly racemose, rather distant, nodding ; 
pedicles, shorter than these ; bractes minute, mem- 
branous, far shorter than pedicles ; corolla hexape- 
talously parted, campanulately rotate ; contracted at 
the base, segments oblong, pointed ; filaments about 
half their length, flat, subulately attenuated ; mem- 
branous, equal, divergent, cohering at their bases 
among themselves, and with their corolla ; anthers 
ovate, sagittate incumbent ; germen pale, ovate, tri- 
pulvinate, trisulcate, uneven; style, about the length 
of this, erect, filiform ; stigma a terminal point, in- 
conspicuous above the anthers. 

The plant blooms in March, and is hardy and 
scentless. 

GREWIA ELASTICA. 

(PI. 2S. Fig. 6.) 
Polyandria Monogynia, Linn. ; Tiliaceae, JussiEu. 
Calyx 5-sepalus coriaceus nitus coloratus. Pet. 5, basi intus 
glandulosa aut squamulosa, imo toro stipitiformi inserta. 
Stam. CO ex apics. tori orta, libera, antheris subrotundis. 
Stylus 1. Stigma 4-lobum. Drupa 4-loba, 4-pyrena aut 
abortu 2- — 3-pyr. Nuces biloculares, 2-sperma2, autabortes 
1-spermse. Embryo erectus. 

Blossom yellowish, with rather small petals, strap 
shaped and pointed ; buds, ash grey, as are the flow- 
er stalks; fruit two celled and purplish, crowned 
with the persistent pistil ; leaves alternate, dark 
green above, hoary underneath, saw toothed, on 
short foot stalks, with minute leaf scales at the base, 
somewhat egg-oblong, but terminating in an acu- 
minated point 



81 



MR. CONDUCTOR LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENERS. 



BY CHRISTOPHER NORTH ESQ., OP BTJCHANNAN LODGE.* 

We have often wondered that nobody has hitherto taken the trouble to unmask the shameless wholesale 
plagiarisms, tlie vulgar and filthy language, and the utter ignorance and presumption which issue from the 
book manufactory of Bayswater, and pollute the taste, and unhinge the principles, religious, moral and 
political of gardeners and others, who unthinkingly drink their poison. What other could be expected from 
an avowed subscriber to support Carlisle of Fleet-street ? We were ourselves preparing a list of Bayswater 
plagiarisms,but found that even amodicum thereof would occupy some thousand or so of our pages, when we 
had the pleasure to see the cudgel in far more stalwart hands than our own, and the redoubted demohsher ot 
of literary pretenders mauling the " clipper " about with his terrible crutch, till the very shears dmled in 
the clipper's hands, and the poor belaboured body would have been fain to clip out all he had ever cribbed, 
and leave nothing but the lank fleshless skeleton to escape from the deadly floorers that came rattling on 
his patchwork gaberdine as thick as hailstones, from that fearsomeand fearless castigator, Christopher IS orth. 
We should not be doing our duty to our readers did we overlook the wholesome and manly exposure ot 
the doings in king-making, match-making, and fiddler-making of Mr. Conductor Loudon. All readers ot 
course read Blackwood— the magazine of magazines, the touch-me-if-you-dare with its chevmx de frise 
of thistles, and all gardeners and botanists will read this paper which so nearly concerns them ; but lest any 
by any clnnce— the merest accident in the world, should not see the May Maga, we here place a part ot it— 
the drops before the shower— the cuflF preliminary— the smack initiative— the cut prefatorial--the hit intro- 
ductory—the gowf prelusive— the blype by way of beginning— the touch of the knout to tickle the creature 
into flagellatory trim— the taste indicative of the trouncing that is to follow— the fuge thump before the 
awful set-to— the slogan before the onslaught— the pawing play of the lion before the death-pounce— the 
hail-stone before the the thunderbolt— in the front of our number— the shower— the set-to— the onslaught— 
the death-pounce itself in our next— together with a little bit of a tail-piece to be entitled " Bayswater Libel 
on the Works of Creation," from the EncyclopEedia of Plants, supposed to be from the pen of Dr. I'rotessor 
Lindley. When time does not press, we may possibly glance at Mr. Conductor Loudon's doings in spoiling 
landscapes in Oxfordshire and elsewhere. It would be sacrilege to omit North's opening : Sit omnibus silen- 
titim ibi ! Cavele ct tacite, Denson et Lindley ! ! North himself, in all his glory, thus begins : 



We have all our lives envied Adam. Yet, would you believe 
it, not for his abode in Paradise. The soul cannot now con- 
ceive a perfectly sinless and perfectly happy state of being ; and 
a mere name, and no more, to our ear is the garden of Eden— 
ere was plucked 

" That forbidden fruit, whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world aud all our woe." 

Our first parents are not felt to be otir first parents till they 
are fallen ; then it is that we indeed love them ; our filial affec- 
tion is made tender by pity, and awful by fear, and we weep to 
think of them, as they, 

*' Hand in hand, and slow 

Through Eden took their solitary way." 

It was original sin that made this earth so beautiful — that 
gave it a beauty dashed and broken with tears. Look long at a 
rose bush covered with lapsing dew drops, and you grow sor- 
rowful — full of sorrow. If there were not the consciousness of 
some great loss, and the presage of some great restoration, a 
sight so simple in its purity coiild not so profoundly move the 
spirit, as that its confessions should be a prayer. Not surely 
in form aud colour alone lies the beauty of the rainbows 

We envy Adam because he was driven from our Paradise. 
For a while the earth for him and poor Eve brought forth but 
thorns, so is it writ. But as the wind blew from Paradise, it 
brought seeds that sowed themselves in the desert, till ere long 
the desert blossomed like the rose. Assisted by younger hands, 



Adam could afford to steal an hour or two as the sun was wes- 
tering, from the toil of field tillage, and through the twdight, 
and sometimes well on into the night, would he and Eve, not 
unregarded by the stars, work by their two selves, shaping 
bowers, and arbours, and glades, so as to form, by a model im- 
perishable in theirmemories another small new garden of Eden— 
not indeed so delightful, but dearer, far dearer to their souls 
because every leaf was tinted by grief. Melancholy names did 
they give then to the thoughtless plants and flowers, and they 
loved them the better, that henceforth they reminded them 
always, but not painfully of their transgression, now suffering a 
punishment so softened, that it sometimes was felt to be a chas- 
tened peace. Their hill side garden sloped to a stream that no 
doubt was a branch of the holy river, of which the blind seer 
sings, " southward through Eden went a river large. We see 
the vision now, hut we fear to paint it. Eve is still in her 
mortal shrine : and as for Adam, not Seth's seU' is comparable 
to his sire, though his parents were wont to say, that this !5eth 
had a face and a form that reminded them of one of the angels : 
that to be indeed an angel he wanted hut those wings that 
winnowed fragrance through the air as they descended on Para- 

'"' And thus it is that to us all gardens are beautiful, and all 
gardeners Adam's "favourite sons. An orchard ! ffmil.es of 
fnut trees " nigh planted by a river," and that river the Clyde 
Till we gazed on you we knew not how dazzling may be the 



* Blackwood's Magazine for May, 1834. Part I. 
MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO. XV. JUNE, 1834. 



82 



LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENERS. 



deUcatc spring, even more than the gorgeous autumn with all 
her purple and gold. No frost ean wither, no blast can scatter 
such a power of blossoming as there brightens the day with pro- 
mise that the gladdened heart may not for a moment doubt, 
will be fulfilled 1 and now we walk arm in arm with a venerable 
lady along a terrace hung high above a river, but between us 
and the brink of the precipice, a leafless lawn : not of grass, 
but of moss, whereon centuries seem softly embedded, and lo I 
we arc looking to the right down, down the glen, and to the 
left up, up the glen ; though to the left it takes a majestic bend, 
so that yonder castle seemingly almost in front of us, stands on 
one of its cliffs ; now we are looking over the top of holly hedges 
twenty feet high, and over the stately yew-pawns and peacocks ; 
but hark 1 the flesh and blood peacock shrieking from the pine 1 
An old English garden, such as Bacon, or Evelyn, or Cowley 
would have loved, felicitously placed, with all its solemn calm, 
above the reach of the roar of a Scottish flood 1 

But we shall not permit the visions of gardens thus to sttfidy 
themselves before our imagination ; and since come they will, 
away must they pass like magic shadows on a sheet. There 
you keep gliding in hundreds along with your old English halls, 
or rectories, or parsonages, some alas 1 looking dilapidated and 
forlorn, bnt few in ruins, and thank heaven, many of you in the 
decay of time renewed by love, and many more still fresh and 
and strong, though breathing of antiquity, as when there was 
not one leaf of all that mass of ivy in which the highest chim- 
neys are swathed, and buried all the gables. Oh I stay but for 
one moment longer thou garden of the cliffs ! Gone by, with 
all thine imagery — half garden and half forest — reflected in thine 
own turn, and with thee a glimmer of green mountains and of 
dusky woods. Sweet visionary shadow of the poor man's cot 
and garden I A blessing be upon thee almost on the edge of the 
bleak moon I But villages, and towns, and cities travel by mis- 
tily, carrying before our ken many a green series of little rural 
or suburban gardens, all cultivated by owners or tenant's hands, 
and beneath the blossomed fruit trees, the ground variegated 
with many a flush of flowers. What pinks ! Aye, we know 
them well, the beautiful garden plats on the banks and braes 
all round about our native town, pretty Paisley, and in among 
the very houses in nooks and corners, which the sunshine does 
not scorn to visit, and as the glamour goes by, sweet to our 
soul is the thought of KilVmrchan, the loveliest flower in heaven 
or on earth, for 'tis the piize-pink of our childhood, given us by 
our Father's hand, and we now see the spot where tlie fine 
grained glory grew. 

M'c hope our stomach is not out of order, and that these fan- 
cies are not the fumes of indigestion, as Cabanis and the mate- 
rialists say. No, our stomach was never out of order in its 
life, not even in "the Bayof Biscay O." At all events, that huge 
Eneyelopjcdia of Gardening, beneath which our table groans, is 
no spectral illusion; and might bjillast a balloon. It lies open at the 
one thousand three humlrcd anil thirty-second page, and we espy 
much matter on the Education of Gardeners, a pleasant prolific 
theme. In our walks over the world, we have looked in upon hun- 
dreds of gardeners in their own houses, and have always met with a 
kind welcome. No other class of men are so well off for wives. 
How lady-like many matrons who have received us with a curt- 
sey, a smile, and a hand, in tree-shaded dwellings not far apart 
from the hall or mansii>n house, nests in scehukd spots which 
you may seek for, without finding among the wide sweep of the 
demesne, that is, its elegant cultivation still retains something 
of the wild character of the forest. Honest men's daughters, 
not degraded surely, by having been in household service which 
they adorned, and now visited familiarly by the young ladies, 
who disdained not to wear the bridal favours on the marriage 
day, and have sent her baby-linen duly every year. Not all 
such ; for gardeners intermarry let us tell you, not unfrcquently 
with maidens of the middle ranks— the daughters of statesmen 
(cock lairds), tradesmen well to do, and clergymen. And we 
could mention instances of gentle blood blushing in the faces of 



the children of bold sons of the spade. What matters it whom 
they marry, if their bosom friends be chaste, modest, and good ? 
Many a pleasant evening have we passed id sijch domiciles, for 
wc are something of a botanist, though that not much ; a 
florist of the second rate in knowledge, and of the first in love ; 
and though no great linguist, we have studied all the tongues of 
trees, and not a language spoken in the forest of which we do 
not know all the roots, and most of the ramifications. Soon 
after sunrise, whatever might be the season, we always took 
our departure ; nor empty-handed were we allowed to go our 
ways, for all the gardeners who were friends of ours, enjoyed 
the privilege of giving presents of a dozen or two of green gages, 
a few pints of grozets — say the roaring lion ou the fiery dragon, 
and if still the vernal breezes were blowing in our breast, a 
a flower, composed of many flowers, as we crossed the moor- 
land wilderness, companioned us through the solitude, as if 
our attendant spirit were the sweet-sccuted spring. 

But our table groans again — and fain would wc relieve it from 
the burden ; but on attempting to lift up the Encydopsedia of 
Gardening, we find we are not the man we once were, and our 
back beseeches us to remember its lumbago. A ponderous 
tome I But is it not now republishing in numbers ? Tliat is 
merciful. Now for our review. 

Mr. Loudon observes that the terms knowledge and igno- 
rance are entirely relative ; that the knowledge of a chemist's 
porter, would have subjected him to be hanged and burned in 
the dayscf the first Popes; and that any bricklayer's labourer 
who reads the London newspapers, has more correct ideas on 
the principles of political economy, than nine-tenths of the no- 
bility of Russia and;|Spain. Will he persist in saying so, with 
the i)roceeding3 of the Trades' Unions before his eyes ? In spite 
of the much vaunted march of intellect during the last dozen 
years, and all the efforts of the Educationists to enlighten the 
labouring classes, they seem stone blind to the jilainest and 
simplest truths, and hurrying headlong on the road to ruin. 
What does Mr. Loudon know of the Russian nobility ? Among 
them are many men of the highest mental cultivation ; and 
Nicholas, who may be autocrat, (how few who call him so know 
the meaning of the epithet !) happening to possess great talents, 
knows that the stability of his throne depends now on the in- 
tellect of that order. Political Economy — and good Political 
Economy too — Storch has a European reputation — is better 
stiulied in Russia than it is in Britain ; and Mr. Louilon himself, 
though he may have " as correct ideas on its principles" as any 
bricklayer's labourer, would soon be made to sing small on the 
question of Free Trade in an argument with any fur-clad Russ 
taken at random from ti.e nine-tenths of the nobility whom he 
ignorantly honours with his scorn. The Spanish are not what 
they once were ; but the Spanish bricklayers, meaning thereby 
the Spanish people we are sorry to say, may be safely backed at 
oilds against the British, in the practice of the "few plain 
niles" which suffice them whose lot it is to cam bread by sweat. 
We know the character of our countrymen, and we honour it; 
but they arc puffed up with foul wind blown into their minds by 
quacks, and if it be not beaten out of them they will burst. 
'ITicir knowledge of their own trades is admirable, and in strength 
and skill they excel all the nations : but their ignorance of the 
principles of Political Economy is night <lark, and they go reck- 
lessly groping through the gloom, stumbling over obstructions 
which they can no more remove or surmount than they can 
change the laws of nature. 

" It is impossible," quoth our sage, '"to set limits to the 
knowledge which may be obtained by those who are destined 
even to the most severe and constant labour." That sounds 
grandly, but it is mere nonsense. Limits are set to knowledge 
by severe and constant labour itself; yet are they not narrow 
limits, and within them may be found, within the four seas, 
myriads of men " their country's pride." Base would it he 
to seek to thwart the desire for instruction ; but foolish is it 
to direct it to unattainable objects ; or encourage it to go be- 



LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OP GARDENERS. 



83 



yond the sphere of those essential and vital duties of which the 
performance secures the corresponding rights. And no language 
can be conceived more foolish than this loose talk of Mr. Lou- 
doL's, to which the whole history of man in his best imaginable 
condition gives the lie. "If," says he, " every cook-maid, 
before she could obtain a first-rate situation, were required to 
be able to read Apicius Redivivus in the original tongue, there 
would be no want of learned cooks ; and if no gardener could 
obtain a first-rate situation who had not written a Thesis in 
Greek, or who had not made the tour of Europe, there woxdd be 
soon found abundance of gardeners so qualified." How wise and 
how witty ! 

Mr. Loudon holds, that every rational man may obtain every 
thing he desires, if he but desire it strongly and steadily, and 
carry his desire into continuous action. As he is not an in-a- 
tional man, and manifestly desires to write sense, how happens 
it then, that he has jotted down so much portentous nonsense } 
" Suppose," saith he, "a man desires to be aking; that is a 
desire sufficiently extraordinary; but if he will first make him- 
self acquainted witli the history of aU men who have raised 
themselves from nothing to be kings, and then consider in 
which part of the world he is most likely to succeed, he may very 
likely obtain his object.^' Suppose Mr. Loudon himself desires 
to be king of Dabomey.' He would find it no easy matter to 
kick all the native princes out of his way to the throne ; and we 
should not fear to lay a pine-apple to a crab that, long before 
his ambition was gratified by finding himself sitting in state, 
almost naked, with a gold-rimmed cocked hat on his regal 
head, he would have to act, not as king's chief drummer, but 
as chief drum, his skin haWng been skilfully made into that 
warlike instrument, wherewith the slave of the legitimate and 
reigning monarch "affrighted armies." Would he, as a sim- 
pler speculation, try to be king of Brentford } That monarchy, 
we believe, is elective; but what a crowd of competitors! 
How many were the chances even against Bamfylde Moore 
Carew himself, who, by a rare concurrence of circumstances, 
was chosen by acclamation king of the beggars ! 

Suppose again, " that a man desires to possess great 
wealth," — to be as rich as Croesus, while he chooses to con- 
tinue in that post of honour, a private station. He may at- 
tempt this, Mr. London tells us, in three ways ; and as he 
mentions but three, we may presume, that in his estimation 
there are but three, and that unless he follow one or other of 
them, a man may never rationally hope to be rich. "This he 
may attempt in three ways — by a saving of income and gain of 
time, that is by denying himself the usual gratifications of food, 
clothing, and rest, and laying out at compound interest what 
is gained by these deprivations ; by gambling speculations in 
property; and by marriage." Thank heaven, we have no de- 
sire " to possess great wealth." We sometimes dream of gold, 
yea,' much fine gold in mountains, Alp above Alp — aChim- 
borazo of bullion — gold-bars broader than the sunset clouds. 
Our imagination despises Mr. Canning's famous picture of a 
good currency — a mountain of paper irrigated by a river of 
gold. Wordsworth had us in his mind when he indited the 
pregnant line, " That poor old man is richer than he seems." 
But all the stories that make such a noise in the world, of our 
worldly wealth, are idle ; for we are a mere annuitant of a few 
thousand pounds, and, with the exception of Buchannan Lodge, 
(not fifty acres, policy and all) we are " lords of our preserve, 
and no land beside." Wbat then ? We are not the man " to 
desire to possess- great wealth, by denying ourselves the grati- 
fication? of food, clothing, and rest.". The gi'atifications of 
food are intense, incluiUng, of course, all eatables and drink- 
ables ; and rather than forego these, might we cease to be. 
Yet we eat rather with a steady than a voracious appetite, and 
pity 'tis that we flourished not during the Grecian mythology, 
that Bacchus and Adriadne might have taken a lesson from us 
how to turn up the little finger. Neither did we ever feel any 
inclination to deny ourselves the gratification of clothing, ex- 



cept when taking the plunge or shower bath in a pool, or be- 
neath a waterfall of the Tweed. Then the shepherdess on the 
liill beholds us through her hollow hand, animated image of 
the truth, lustrous amidst the vapours. And what would be 
human life without rest I O divine privilege of leisure I To 
us the land of Drowseyhead is the land of Faery ; and as we 
awaken at the touch of morn's rosy fingers, what an illustra- 
tion of the otium cum dignitate, in the person of one neverthe- 
less well-stricken in years I We scorn the assistance of red 
plush breeches, worn by a celebrated philosopher to prevent 
him sliddering down the inclined plane of his couch, — and 
though we lie in finest linen, trust fearlessly to the native 
tenacity of our limbs and frame, and to that noble organ of 
adhesiveness which phrenologists have come from afar to ad- 
mire. " Laying out at compound interest, what is gained by 
these deprivations of food, clothes, and restl" The idea of 
compound interest is to us so shocking, that while our meta- 
physical genius would fain analyze it, our conscience instinct- 
ively recoils from the horror, and leaves the monstrous mass 
in all the loathsomeness of its conglomeration. Sufficient for 
the day is the money thereof, enough and to spare. Nor, we 
hope, do all poor people go unrelieved from our hntel, though 
now and then an idler or a drunkard may with his heel indent 
a curse on the gravel walk, or, in sullen spite, uproot a flower 
from the borders, that, like two harmless and splendid snakes, 
sometimes shrub-concealed, glide towards our porch. Though 
silly ones seem to know it not, we have all our lives been 
lovers of simplicity ; so no wonder we delight in simple inter- 
est, and see a charm in two per cent, beyond the reaches of a 
miser's soul in his most avaricious dream. 

And what say we to Mr. Loudon's second way of getting 
possession of wealth — " gambling speculations in property?" 
We abhor all gambling, but all speculations in property are 
not gambling ; and hundreds and thousands of British mer- 
chants acquire " great wealth " by knowledge working, ac- 
cording to a rule of life drawn by honour and conscience, and 
rather than swerve from it, they would be poor. " The ac- 
complished men of the accounting are they ; ' ' through them 
has this empire waxed great, and may the seas be for ever 
whitened with their sails. Too many gamblers there are in 
trade, and they are seeking now to strangle their native soil, 
but the nobler terrce filii will not suffer them, and Ceres smiles 
to see a muzzle put on the mouth of the blatant beast that has 
been so fiercely growling for cheap bread, reckless all the while 
of that industry which has already filled our market-places with 
cheap corn, and will keep England, " meiTy England " still, if 
the plough be not palsied, nor the natural order of civilized 
society inverted, and " the smiling power of cultivation," which 
now lies on many a once unproductive hill, withered by insane 
legislation for false friends or true enemies, who hypocritically 
bless or sincerely curse us for our power and our dominion, 
from lands beyond the sea, whose slavery we yet may pity, and 
whose liberty we do not need to envy, so long as we till the 
glebe that, in spite of snows and hails, shows its rich harvests 
to the sun, ripening in frequent glooms, and sometimes reaped 
by a hardy race amidst the pauses of the tempest. 

But what think we of Mr. Loudon's third and last way of 
acquiring "great" wealth— by marriage ? Why, a beautiful 
young woman, with a sublime fortune, is not to be sneezed at 
in nuptial sheets, unless it be to give the dear creature an op- 
portunity of saying " God bless you I " An ugly old woman,' 
on the other hand, in the stocks, is to be scunnered at, in a 
similar predicament, were it but to induce her to allow you a 
separate maintenance, and all the privileges of a bachelor. 
The world knows we are engaged ; but were we offered our 
choice of two lovely beings, both beautiful, — but the one, sole 
child of an eminent banker, — and the other, the last of a second 
series of daughters raised, as the Americans say, not forced, 
from the time-honoured bed of a country gentleman impatient 
of widowhood, whose ancestors had killed their own mutton 



84 



LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENERS. 



from time immemorial — we should, unless her hail- were -very, 
■very reJ indeed, take unto our bosom the dowerless damsel, 
were it only for the pure delight of seeing her, at our own ex- 
pence, "taking off her marriage clothes," or, in other words, 
providing herself with a tasteful trovssemc. In short, we would 
take her with raptiu-e into our arms, though she had just a shift 
to her hack, and but one pair of elastic garters. Like the moon 
without a cloud, or like the moon veiled in clouds, her beauty 
would thus be ours too, inasmuch, as we should be the sun 
that illumined the lovely orb. Think but for a moment of your 
bride buying, out of her own dower, you being farthingless, 
and receiving discount for ready money, not only the four- 
posted bed, but all the rest of the furniture ; nay, the very 
house to which you bring her home, and of which, with a face 
of the most brazen assurance, you tell her to consider herself 
the mistress — she having considerately bought up the few duty, 
and introduced gas ! Then the degradation of never being 
permitted, while you breathe, to put on or take off your bree- 
ches, without the consciousness that she paid for them (and 
consequently is entitled to wear them ad libitum), whether vel- 
vet or fusHan, so inexorable is the law of the association of 
ideas. Far rather — so help us heaven — would we wear kilts 
till we dropped into the grave. 

But what thinks and says Mr. London ? Why, that of the 
three ways aforesaid, " the first is slow, but certain, — the se- 
cond is dangerous, — and the third doubtfut. From this, it is 
clear, that he recommends the first, and would have all prudent 
gardeners (for it is to them he is writing) " deny themselves 
the usual gratifications of food, clothing, and rest." The 
second — " gambling speculations in property," lie seldom in 
their way, and are dangerous ; and the third is so doubtful, 
that better far a son of the spade should go sans meat, sans 
drink, sans clothes, sans sleep, sans every thing, than look out 
for a lass with a tocher. But why call the third mode doubt- 
ful ? Assure yourself of the precise amount, at a fair valuation 
by an experienced appraiser, of the real and personal property 
of the favoured fair, and by marrying her instanter across the 
bonnet, you make yourslf uUimus et solus hieres, to speak clas- 
sically, of the great globe herself, and aU that she inherits. 
Nothing doubtful after that, but as sure as a gun are you an 
opulent gardener. Your search, by the premises, was not for 
heart's-ease or none-so-pretty ; you have got your dandelion, 
a flower which apprentices call by a grosser name, but what 
you wished for was gold ; and is she not as yellow in the face, 
and all over, as a gowden guinea ? 

Again — " Suppose," quoth our beadsman, " a man wishes to 
become an eminent poet, he may not become an eminent poet, 
he may not become such a poet as Burns or Lord Byron, be- 
cause the clay of which he is formed, may he originally of infe- 
rior qiiality to that of these men ; but if his natural faculties 
are of the average quality, he may become a poet of respectable 
rank." From Mr. Loudon's cautious use of the "may," he 
seems merely to think that the probabilities are against the 
generality of gardeners becoming absolute Burnses or Byrons ; 
the thing is not impossible, for though their " clay" may be of 
inferior quality, so may it be of equal, or haply, of superior ; 
and from soils of average quality, pretty heavy crops of poetry, 
which may be sold per sample, may be depended on with ordi- 
nary management. And how is the man, gardener or not, 
" wishing to become an eminent poet," to proceed ? " First, 
let him read all the poetry that has been written in such lan- 
guages as he understands ; next, let him, by the aid of books 
on rhetoric, and on the art of poetry and criticism, analyze all 
the best poems, and treasure up in his mind all the figures, 
metaphors, &c., that are made use of in them. Then let him, 
according to the line of poetry which he chooses to pursue, 
place himself in circumstances favorable to its study, and per- 
severe till he produces at least a new combination of former 
figures, joined, if possible, with some which, as Addison has 
expressed it, are both ' strange and new.' " And thus may he 
become an eminent poet of respectable rank. 



After these remarks on extravagant desires, that is to say, 
on desires derided as extravagant by thoughtless people, and on 
what Mr, Loudon chooses to call the possibility " of attaining 
ends generally considered as depending on fate, original genius, 
or predestination, it will not be necessary," he says, " to hint 
at the practicability of any man's attaining eminence as an 
artist of any description, as a literary character, natural or ex- 
perimental philosopher, mathematician, divine, lawyer, or phy- 
sician:" If all this be true and we should be sad and sorry , 
to deny it, we cannot help wondering at there being so many 
professional gardeners, so few kings, and fewer poets. But 
our enthusiastic friend drives his doctrine on desire still farther 
home, assuring us, " that no self-convicted sinner ever failed of 
being converted, nor any persevering lover of getting possession 
of his mistress." How does he account for remorse committing 
suicide ? And if a dozen persevering lovers are " a' wooin', 
puin' at her," will they all get possession of the same mistress ? 
Other faculties, however, are necessary to ensure success in 
horticulture, besides desire, and of these the chief are attention 
and memory. " Unless," says he, " we pay attention to what 
is addressed to us, whether by the ear or eye, it is impossible 
we can i-emember, because the sight or sound has made no im- 
pression on the memory, and without memory there can be no 
knowledge." Of the truth of this oi'iginal observation, he 
gives a very striking illustration. " It is a common thing for 
a person to walk out and return without being able to describe, 
or even mention, any one thing he has seen ; or to read a news- 
paper without being able to tell what he has read, further than 
to give some vague idea of the subject." But attention alone 
will not do ; and he instructs the young gardener how to cul- 
tivate memory on philosophical principles, after a fashion that 
makes small beer of Feinagle. The generic names of plants 
and animals are, he tells us, of three kinds (just as there was 
three ways of getting rich) ; " those composed of words indi- 
cating something of the nature or appearance, or uses of the 
plants, — those composed of the name of some eminent indivi- 
dual, — and those composed of native or local names. Do you 
wish to remember the name of some plant of the second or 
third class ? Then, 

" Thus, Gordon was a nurseryman at Mile End, a short, 
lame, sailor-looking man, who dressed in blue trousers, chewed 
tobacco, and was without offspring ; it is easy to imagine his 
wife reproaching him with the last circumstance, while he holds 
out to her a plant of Gordonia, as a substitute for a son and 
heir. Elettari being extensively cultivated as a spice by the 
natives of Coromandel, we may imagine a group of these In- 
dians arriving after death at the gates of Paradise, each with 
a bundle of the plant. The porter may be supposed, on first 
opening the gate, to be about to shut it in the faces of these 
poor black fellows, till they shout out, " Elettari." " What 
then," says the porter, "you are elect-are-ye ? " and lets them 
in. Elettari is the only native generic name in Monandria 
Monogynia ; the native specific names in the same class and 
order are Allughas, Zerumbet, Cusumunar, and Mioga, which 
may be easily likened in sound to Hallilujah,][strumpet, cheese- 
monger, and Maijocchi ? " 

All other names, whether of science, or those which occur 
in the common intercoui'se of life, as of persons and places, are 
to be recollected " on the same principle," " and the more 
ludicrous the association, the better will it be recollected." AU 
this may be extremely witty ; but then, Mr. Loudon should 
recollect that a sense of the ludicrous is not equally given to 
gardeners ; that in some it is fine, in others coarse ; in some 
quick, in others slow ; that in many it seems almost dead or 
dormant, and in most suppressed during the duties of daily life, 
by other senses of a higher kind. Be that as it may, it is in- 
sulting and injurious to vegetables to recollect their names by 
ludicrous associations alone, — and if such of the Monandria 
Monogynia as rejoice in their native specific names, could be 
informed of Mr. Loudon's new nomenclature, they would rise 
up to a plant, and push him from his stool in his pride of place 



LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENERS. 



85 



The coarse, vulgar wit of animal matter we can well believe 
very offensive to a sensitive vegetable ; and coarse viilgar wit 
as Mr. Loudon's here as ever set the smiddy in a roar. What 
decent gardener would call anything with buds or leaves — 
strumpet ? What gardener who had read his Bible, as a touch 
of the ludicrous, would change allughas into Hallelujah ? What 
a capon, who should chuckle to call, cusumunar, cheesemonger ? 
And as for remembering for ever Mioga, by pronouncing it 
Maijocchi, does Mr, Loudon imagine that the name of that un- 
grateful reprobate is familiar as a household word in English 
gardens ? He makes such free use of the scissors, that we do 
not always know when he is original and when he is indebted 
to wits no way inferior to himself in power of illustration. Is 
the following his own, or Feinagle's, or some other fools ? In 
spite of inverted commas, it must be a lump of Loudon. 

" If I am told that the Dutch merchant, Schimmelphenninck, 
was a very wealthy or religious man, that will not assist me in 
recollecting his long name ; but if I say to myself there is some 
resemblance between Schimmelphenninck and skim-milk-pen and 
inky the resemblance may enable me to do so ; or if I have re- 
course to a Dutch dictionary, and discover that, schimmel, is 
grey, phennick, a penny, I have grey penny, as a synonyme, 
which, with the operations the mind has undergone, is getting 
at it, will most probably impress the original name on the me- 
mory. If a highlander tells us his name is Macpherson, I im- 
mediately interpret it Mac-parson, — son of a parson — son of a 
Catholic priest and a Highland maid ; and I figure to myself 
his first parents of a former age, a Franciscan friar, ' an oily 
man of God,' and a bare-legged brawny wench. I see the 
monk receive her into his cell, take her confession, lead her 
from the confessional to his couch, there to kueel and join with 
him in prayer : the straying hands of the holy father surprise 
the penitent, but he consoles her : *' let us forget ourselves, 
daughter, all flesh is grass," but God is every thing, and every 
thing is permitted to his servant St. Francis, — let our bodies 
take their course !' Nine moons hence, and the sun rises on the 
plantlet of the tree ofMacphersou.*' 

Having thus strengthened his memory by the same means 
by which he has refined his taste, the gardener cannot fail in 
giving himself " an intellectual education, independently of ac- 
quiring his profession." Eight hours per day, we are told, is 
about the average of his labour throughout the year. It is 
not often severe ; so he has eight hours for '* rest, dressing 
and undressing ; eight for labour, and acquiring the practice of 
gardening, and eight hours for refreshment and study. On 
comparing this time for study with that which is usually de- 
voted to it by young men at college, not the generality of young 
men, but those even who attain to eminence, we will find the 
diflFerence very inconsiderable." The young man at college, Mr. 
Loudon reminds us, require the same time for rest as the gar- 
dener, and at least two hours more for dressing and undressing ; 
for breakfast he requires an hour, and for dinner and tea three 
hours. It is so long since we were a young man at college, 
that we cannot speak confidently as to all the items in Mr. 
Loudon's account. But never shall we believe that we required 
at least two hours for dressing and undressing — washing and 
shaving of course included in the bill of the day. For undress- 
ing we could not have required above a minute in the twenty- 
four hours then — on the supposition, a liberal one, of our hav- 
ing undressed twice — for we do not require for the same pur- 
pose, and on the same supposition, more than two minutes noiv. 
Five seconds for neckcloth, five for coat and waistcoat, cossacks 
five, drawers five (for if you hurry you tear), and stockings 
five each — on an average of a year^ — for occasionally we keep 
dancing about on one leg, with the silk fiiped over the instep of 
the other foot, and clinging to it with an obstinacy that would 
have decomposed the man of Uz, thougK not us- — and that 
makes one minute. No allowance is here made for shirt or 
flannel waistcoat — b\it these no true Scotchman changes above 
once a week ; that is a work for sabbath hours, and we have 



known it take double the time of all our other dis- apparelling. 
No young man at college will ever be in the first class, or senior 
wrangler, who cannot undress within the minute, and dress with- 
in the quarter of an hour — so, from Mr. Loudon's most extra- 
vanant and outrageous allowance of two hours, subtract one 
hour and twenty-eight minutes, which add either to sleep or 
study, or in equal proportions to both, for surely you would 
not add them to eating, which, according to Mr. Loiidon, al- 
ready engrosses four hours, withoxit including its consequences, 
which, however, perhaps fall under the head of relaxation. 
Who ever took an hour for breakfast ? Why we could make 
three breakfasts — and material breakfasts, too — in that long 
space of time, were it not for fear of a surfeit. Three hours, 
** at least," for dinner and tea, is likewise enormous ; and a 
poor creature indeed must he be, who takes tea at all when 
reading for honours. He makes his debut in the world in the 
shape of a wooden spoon. 

It finally appears, that your gardener, who works on a yearly 
average but eight hours per day, has more time for study than 
your Oxonian or Cantab. It is true, allows Mr. Loudon, that 
he is " subject to the time employed in eating, but that may 
well be considered as compensated by the knowledge of botany 
he acquires in the garden during his hours of labour." The 
great advantage, however, which your gardener possesses over 
your Oxonian and Cantab is, " that, unless his religion forbid, 
he may study at least twelve hours every Sunday." Mr. Loudon 
is the most liberal man in his religious opinions we ever heard 
of, as you will see by and by ; meanwhile, do you not admire 
the coolness with which he lets drop, " unless his religion for- 
bid," into the above passage? He recommends thatthe Sunday 
shall be employed thus : — Morning commenced as usual with a 
language; "the remaining part of the day we would dispose 
of in portions of one, two, or three hours, in bringing fonvard 
those evening studies which we had been least successful in 
during the week, or found ourselves most in want of for actual 
use. This day is also particiilarly adapted for drawing, which, 
though it ought not to be neglected with artificial light, yet goes 
on best with that of the sun." Arithmetic, mensuration, 
and land-surveying, mechanics and experimental philosophy, 
essay and letter writing, " both with a view to impi'ovement in 
the style and penmanship," and, if possible, miscellaneous 
reading from an Encyclopsedia — these are the studies on which 
the gardener, according to Mr. Loudon's scheme of education, 
is to be employed twelve hours every Sabbath or Lord's day. 

These are some '* of the branches which best deserve his at- 
tention." But this gardener's friend holds that " one branch 
of knowledge is as much as any person ever does or can excel in." 
A gardener, therefore, should not he thinks, " attempt to excel 
in any one branch of Knowledge besides that of gardening." 
Even in botany he cannot arive at great perfection, from not 
having an opportunity of consulting the herbariums and books, 
which are only to be found in the metropolis. Instead there- 
fore, of vainly attempting " to excel in any one branch except 
gardening, "he ought to follow another plan entirely, and a most 
plausible one it seems in Mr. Loudon's simple words. " He 
ought rather to make himself acquainted to the degree that cir- 
cumstances may permit, with the whole cycle of human know- 
ledge." But, even when he has done so, he must not think of 
everbeing able to become "expert at chemical analysis, dissection 
of animals, solving problems in any of the higher branches of 
mathematics, ortoexcelin painting, music, or poetry," 

Discouraging doctrine, and we hope, unsound: but how is the 
gardener to find means of making himself acquainted with the 
whole cycle of human knowledge ? " To the degree that cir- 
cumstances may permit," is a most indefinite degree ; and 
should it so happen that the gardener has found a place "among 
the farthest Hebrides," the degree to which he may have made 
himself acquainted with the whole cycle of human knowledge 
would be hardly, we should think, worth taking, except for the 
honour of the thing, and to be worn as a titular ornament. In 



86 



STRUCTURE OF THE RADISH ROOT. 



happier circumstances, the source from which he is to derive his 
general knowledge, " it may be easily conceived is chiefly from 
boolis." He is to derive aid from professional men, men of 
talents, and learning, wherever he has an opportunity of conver- 
sing with them, public lectures, artists, arti5ans, manufacturers 
of every description, manufactories, engines, mines, docls- 
yards, and aU other works displaying human skill. But the 
grand source is books, and the question is, says Mr. Loudon, 
how a journeyman gardener, whose wages are often less than 
those of a common labourer is to procure them .' 

Now it is well kno%^Ti to aU persons conversant with such 
matters, that there are, over and above the more rare and un- 
common one of purchase, three ways of procuring books, beg- 
ging, borrowing, and stealing, though by means of a fine but 
not difficult analysis, all the three nay all the four, may be re- 
duced to one — to wit, stealing, as a few words will shew. You 
pretend to purchase books, but you never pretend to pay for 
them ; and thus, '• to the degree that circumstances may per- 
mit, you become acquainted with the whole cycle of human 
knowledge." The distinction between begging and borrowing, 
is so slight, as to be at times almost imperceptible ; but beg- 
ging is morenearlyakin to purchase without payment ;.forinbot ! 
cases alike you make the book your own, with consent of the 
precious owner, and write your name on it, not only witliout 
compunction, but with a rejoicing conscience. Borrowing, you 
perceive at once, is stealing, with a gentler name, aggravated 
by audacity, for you do not for a long course of years deny the 
fact ; but on the contrary, apologize every time you meet the 
previous owner, which however, you take care shall be as sel- 
dom as possible, nay, promise to return it on Monday. Your 
friend cuts you, or goes abroad, or marries, and forgets his 
books in his children, or, best of all dies, and the book or books 
are yours for life. Mere simple stealing, that is shop-lifting — 
though common, is not correct ; but being committed probably 
on a sudden impulse, on the sly, and with shame, it is a venial 
offence in comparison with borrowing : though we believe that 
he who steals many books, one after the other, never gives over 



doing so, even after frequent detection and exposure, will be 
almost sure to take to borrowing at last. 

With such sentiments on stealing, we were startled by Mr. 
Loudon's answers to his own question, " How is a journeyman 
gardener, whose wages are less often than a common labourer 
to procure books ?" Our answer is borrow them, and make it 
a fixed rule to purchase no books excepting grammars, dictio- 
naries, and other elementary works, and of these, used and 
and cheap copies." And from whom is he to borrow ? Why 
from the head gardener to be sure. And how does he procure 
them ? Why, he borrows them of course, from " the patron 
under whom he serves." And how came they into disposses- 
sion ? Probably by purchase, without payment ; and tlms do 
the journeymen gardeners over all Britain " become acquainted 
as far as circumstances may permit, with tiie whole cycle of 
human knowledge," at the expense of John Murray, Longman, 
and Co., and William Blackwood! We pity the poor book- 
sellers. 

The sort of books, says Mr. Loudon, "desirable to borrow," 
independently of those connected with professional acquire- 
ments, are treatises on chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, and 
above all, a good Encyclopedia — one systematically, instead of 
alphabetically arranged would be the best ; but as most existing 
libraries, he says are now stocked with the Encyclopedia Brit- 
tannica, or Hees' Cyclopedia, " these must be taken, till a 
well executed one, on the plan of the Encyclopedia Metropo- 
litan, now publishing (but badly executed,) finds its way into 
general use." The Encyclopedia Metropolitana is not badly 
executed, as this conceited gentleman impertinently says in a 
parenthesis, any one number of it being worth all he has com- 
piled since he became a cHpper. Then there is the Edinburgh 
Encyclopedia, edited by Sir David Brewster, now complete, and 
the property of that enterprising bookseller, Mr. Tcgg, full of 
the most useful information of all kinds, as Mr. Loudon well 
knows, though he has kept his left hand thumb upon it, all the 
while brandishing in his right hand a formidable pair of shears, 
that might trim a privet hedge, or the mane of a bonassus. 



[So much for the First Fitte.] 



STRUCTURE OF THE RADISH ROOT. 



It is well known to most observers, that at tlie sum- 
mit of the root of the common radish, at the very 
base of the stem, or that place which the French call 
the collet — the English the neck, is £.n appendage, at 
first resembling a membranous sheath, enwrapping 
the young root, and subsequently as the root distends, 
becoming two loose straps hanging down on eachi 
side of the root. The nature of this appendage was 
unknown until the late ingenious L. C. Richard 
discovered the existence of two modes of germina- 
tion, called the exhorhizal and endorhizal, and 
suggested that the radish w. s an example of the 
latter mode, a notion which has been generally ad- 
mitted by recent writers, notwithstanding the cir- 
cumstance, that, if endorhizal, the radish would offer 
an exception to a very general law that endordizal 
germination goes along with endogenous growth. 



M. Turpin has lately demonstrated that the fleshy 
supposed root of the radish belongs to the ascending 
axis, not to the descending one, and that, conse- 
quently, it belongs to the system^ of the stem, and 
not to that of the root. In the next place, he asserts, 
that the tumour, which ultimately becomes the rad- 
dish, is in the beginning cylindrical, and that its 
cuticle loses at a very early period the power of 
distension ; in short, that it dies, and separates from 
the subjacent living matter, just as dead bark sepa- 
rates from liber and young wood in old stems. Now 
this premature death of the cuticle is connected with 
the rapid lateral distension of the tumour, the cause 
of the existence of the two appendages in question, 
which are nothing more than two straps of dead cuti- 
cle, rent asunder by the gradual but rapid distension 
of the part that they originally ensheathed. 



87 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE CULTIVATION OF TURNIPS. 

BY MR. HUGH MUNKO, ASSTNT BY EVANTON, ROSSHIRE.* 



1 HAD a field of nine acres which I wished returned 
into grass, and, from the little experience I have 
as a farmer of four years standing, I considered 
that grass after turnip eaten off by the sheep, would 
be better than after any other course. I at one 
time thought I should be obliged to purchase bone 
manurefor this field, not having any fold manure; but 
the expense of bones for nine acres, at twenty five 
bushels per acre, at 2s. lOd. (the price last season), 
would amount to 31. 10s. lOrf. or 31Z. 17s- 6rf. I have, 
however, heard that fourteen bushels of bones per 
acre have been applied to raise turnip with suc- 
cess, which makes 11. I9s. 8d. per acre, or lyZ. IJs. 
for nine acres. So I determined to try and find a 
substitute that would be cheaper and equally effec- 
tive, in which, I am happy to say, I have succeeded 
beyond my most sanguine expectations. I got some 
of the small tenantry to bring me a quantity of peat- 
moss, for which I paid 21. 10s. I then mixed all the 
chaff from the mill, the fire ashes from my own 
house, together with the sweepings and fire ashes, 
&c. &c. of my servants' houses, (for which I gave 
straw to bed their pigs,) the scrapings of roads and 
ditches, and then wetted the whole with the super- 
fluous urine from the fold, having added a little lime 
and house dung, and turned it frequently till it was 
well pulverised ; and in this way I prepared forty- 
five single cart-loads. During the winter, I drilled 
from the stubble the field intended for turnip, and 
let it be exposed to the weather in that state until 
the end of May, when I harrowed it smooth, and 
then drilled it again by splitting the former drills. 
I then put a light roller over the drills to make them 
smooth, and commenced laying down the turnip in 
the following manner. I had five men with large 
dibbles made of hard wood, with which they made 
holes eight inches apart on the top of the drills, press- 
ing down the dibble with the foot, each man having 
a single drill, followed by a woman with a basketful 
of prepared manure, and into each hole made by the 
dibble she placed a handful of manure. The ma- 
nure is taken to the field in carts from where it is 
made, and the driver fills each woman's basket as 
they may require it. After her, followed a girl with 
a little bag of turnip seed, putting from three to six 
or more grains on the top of the manure, with her 
fore finger and thumb, drawing a little earth over 
it, and in this manner I carried on five drills at a 
time with fifteen people ; viz. a man and two wo- 
men to each drill. I only expended two pounds of 
turnip seed for each acre. The whole went on like 
clock-work, and I finished the nine acres in four 
days, at an expense of about 51. including purchase 
of peat-moss. The turnips grew rapidly, and I had 
them cleaned in the usual manner, sometimes leav- 



ing two plants in one hole, which I found to answer 
well, especially when the plants happened to be a 
little distant from each other, say about two inches. 
I have thus raised an excellent crop of large turnips, 
by applying onhj five single cart-loads per acre of 
this prepared manure, and the expense of the whole 
dees not exceed 51. ; indeed, they are so good, that f 
am now stripping one half previous to putting on 
the sheep. Every one who has seen the turnip has 
been surprised, and several in my neighbourhood 
intend adopting the same plan next year. I shall 
now attempt to make some observations on this plan, 
which I have iidopted, and which I believe to have 
originated with myself ; at all events, I never heard 
or read of such a plan before ; and you will readily 
agree that the experiment was tried on an extensive 
scale. I will now observe that 

1st. Where the land is foul with weeds, the usual 
mode of cleaning should be adopted, and then drill- 
ing the land once. 

2nd. That the manure to be prepared, should be 
made as strong as possible, by the superfluous urine 
of the court-yard in winter ; and that the scrapings 
of roads and ditches, with rubbish of old houses, &c. 
would be preferable to peat-moss. A boll of lime 
should also be mixed with every ten cart-loads, and, 
when well attended to, less than five cart-loads per 
acre will be found sufficient. 

3rd, I observe that, although the season may be 
dry, and the sides of the hole liable to fall in, yet, 
by making the women with the manure follow the 
dibble quickly, this inconvenience) and I may say 
it is the only one) will be obviated in a great mea- 
sure ; and, where this was done, I found no differ- 
ence in the crop of turnips. 

4th. This plan can be followed in all kinds of 
weather, and better while raining, which is not the 
case n the usual method. 

5th. Where five or more grains of the seed come 
up together, (forced on by the strength of the ma- 
nure, over which the seed is immediately placed,) 
they will force themselves through, even shoidd the 
soil be barkened by rain, wind, and sunshine. And, 

6th. Shoidd dry weather be the character of the 
season while sowing the turnips, they will show a 
healthy braird, the manure, which is tlieir food, being 
close at hand, and they not being obliged to push 
their delicate roots through a quantity of earth in 
search of nourishment, as in the method now in use. 

I have now given a statement of my plan of culti- 
vating turnips, with the observations I made, as far 
as I have been able ; and I am certain, that whoever 
tries the above plan, will not be inclined again to 
purchase the bone manure, at its present price. 



* From Trans. Highland Society. 



88 



ON THE GENERATION OV PLANTS. 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE GENERATION OF PLANTS, PARTICULARLY PUMPKINS, 

HEMP, AND LYCHNIS DIOICA. 



BY CH. GIROU DE BUZAREINGUES, COKRESPONDENT OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 



In 1832, I so\\'ed in my garden three varieties of 
the pumpkin, the Barbarine, the Pastisson, and the 
Giraumon. 

I cannot conceive that any foreign pollen could be 
conveyed by the wind or by insects, as there were 
not for three leagues round, any pumpkins similar 
to my own, nor probably Qther piimpkins of any 
sort. ■ :.;■ •,: . ;:.,^,;: 

About the 27th of July, I took care to destroy all 
the male flowers before they were blown, as all the 
female flowers which had blown before this were 
abortive. The fruit became yellow, wlien about the 
size of a cherry. The number of abortive plants 
were fifteen barbarines, and two pastissons. 

After the 27th July, I began a series of different 
experiments, either by means of artificial fecunda- 
tion and without mixture, by hybridation, or by the 
destruction of the males : I in the end, left my pi ,nts 
to themselves. 

T proceeded with the artificial fecundation, 
without mixtiu'c and hybridation. 

il. In the humid way, by separating the stimens 
m'the calyx, and by diluting afterwards tlie paste 
with a considerable quantity of water to render it 
liquid, and touching the pistils with this liquor by 
the aid of a caincl hair pencil, or by turning in tlie 
bell-shaped corolla of the female flower. 

2. By insertion, placing one or more male flowers, 
deprived of the corolla, into the female flower, and 
enveloping them as it were in a jaurse, by the aid of 
a ligature around the side of its border. This expc 
dienf appeared proper, to disperse from the pistil all 
foreign influence which might have deranged my 
experiments, 

3. By simple insertion, that is to say, by placing 
many male flowers in a female flower without a liga- 
ture. In order that I may be certain of the hybri- 
d^itfon, I take the precaution the day before to des- 
titoy, previous to their exp nsion, the male flowers 
of the variety which I i)urpose to cross on the mor- 
row. If however, after this precLiution, it some- 
times happens, before the rising of tlie sun, and the 
awaking of the bees, male flowers have expanded, I 
destroy them instantly, and leave them to subsist 
wittout artificial fecundations, the females which 
were their neighbours, in order to prove if there 
was sufficient nearness to the male, under circum- 
stances little fayour,.ble to the dispersion of the pol- 
leji, to the females that were fecundated, and. to 
render useless my trials of Jiybridation. „,■ j,>j,.^;; 

If it hajjpened that the female flowers, .pfjiUe 
variety which I wished to cross, were near ex- 
panding, I took advantage of the others blpssomin.g. 



and even sometimes by an incision into the corolla, 
prevented the procedure of hybridation. 

I tried also the artificial fecundation with .ijiftles 
gathered the day before and withered. , i..;jjfi,f 

Although there had been dry weather for: t]ii;^e 
months, my experiments were attended with suc- 
cess, owing to the care I was at in waje^jiig, the 
pvunpkins abundantly every evening. ;;-,.-,/,!,. 

In fine, to avoid confusion, I marked all the female 
flowers, the object of one experiment, with long rods 
of wood, numbered and carefully registered, : 

I would however have been liable .to mista,kes, 
if I had not first destroyed the aborti\'e fruit, as soon 
as the abortion had taken place, taking up the cor- 
respondent rods, ;ind carefully registering this with 
the designation of the proper number. 

Here, I may recapitulate the regult§ of these expe- 
riments. 

In fourteen trials of artificial fecundation, with.out 
mixture by the humid way, one only was successful. 

Upon foiir female flowers, which had each a male 
flower of their own proper variety, three produced 
fruit, only one was abortive, and this abortion was 
owing a little to a blossom on the stem, which in the 
lower part nourished also a pumpkin well deve^ 
loped. ,,, :. J ,^, ,; , 1 

Upon five female fiowefs which had each inapy 
males of their own proper v..riety, not one was bar- 
ren, and the pericarps were filled with seeds pro- 
vided with kernels. 

Ujioii fifty-three feniale flowers of the barbarine 
wliicli had each received a male pastisson flower, 
twenty three were abortive, among which, tWiO,h3,d 
received two males gathered the day beforevr.ii v.'«.-l.' 

Among these which prospered, many of them had 
not blown when all the males of their variety were 
destroyed. , 

In three female flpwers of the pastisson, wihich 'had 
each received a iijiale h,a,ji!n3f iiie,i S^pyir^v,. jiog^ Qf^ 
proved abortivci. , ; . : ,, .. : '■■ . ■ , •, y , t n.; 

Upon nine female flowers of the barbarine, which 
had eacli a male of the Giraumon, tlu'ee only were 
quite abortive ; .one only was filled with seeds, and 
this one by exception had been fecundated by the 
males of its own variety, and it was demonstrated- 
to me, lJjat,it was so in..eifi'ect.;t. As. to, .^he., Either 

One, was of the diameter of two inches six lines; of 
a size above the medium of my barbarines, produced 
nothing but one seed provided with a kei'nel, and in 
the other four seeds, one of wliich was of more than 
ordinary bulk, and three very small, the whole were 
destitute of kernels, and presented only the episperm. 



1 



ON THE GENERATION OP PLANTS. 



89 



A second, of the diameter of twenty-two lines 
produced many seeds, one of which only was pro- 
vided with a kernel. 

A third, of the diameter of twenty-two lines, pro- 
duced only two grains destitute of kernel. 

A fourth of the diameter of eighteen lines, pro- 
duced nothing but two very small seeds destitute of 
kernel. 

The fifth, of the diameter of sixteen lines, pro- 
duced many seeds, of which one only was provided 
with a kernel. 

According to the small number and condition of 
their seeds, these five barbarines presented a striking 
contrast with all the others, in which were found a 
great number of seeds, sometimes more than a hun- 
dred, of which the greater part were provided with 
kernels. 

Of two female pastissons, each of which had re- 
ceived a male giraumon, neither prospered. 

One female giraumon, which had received a male 
pastisson, proved abortive. 

Upon seventeen female flowers expanded in the 
morning, when the precaution had not been taken 
to destroy the males, and leave them without arti- 
ficial fecundation, after the destruction of the ex- 
panded male flowers, seven produced fruit. 

Upon thirty-one females expanded in the morn- 
ing, after having taken the precaution the day 
before to destroy the males which could be dis- 
covered, and to suppress in the morning, previous to 
the rising of the sun and setting out of the bees, all 
those which having escaped the first investigation, 
and were expanded thirty were abortive. 

Upon sixty-two female plants which had flou- 
rished after the conclusion of these experiments, 
twenty-five proved abortive. 

The pastissons produced by these experiments, 
have been wholly without a crown ; yet I have taken 
seed from them in subjects richly provided with it ; 
they have been on the other hand, a little crumpled 
or warty : they had also the flat or discoid form, 
and the yellow colour of the variety from which 
they came. 

The first change of form induced me to suppose, 
that the seed whicli I sowed had suffered hybrida- 
tion by the assistance of the wind or insects. The 
possibility of hybridation had been many times 
proclaimed as deduced from various experiments ; 
it has been proved to me by the evolution of fruits 
coming from flowers in which I have tried it, and by 
the sterility of those placed in the same circum- 
stances, but by design deprived of the male flower. 
But I was permitted to observe a new proof, and I 
did not neglect it. 

I sowed in 1833, the seed arising from my mix- 
tures of the preceding year. 

Mark the result of this second part of the expe- 
riment. 

The seed furnished by the barbarines united with 



the pastissons, produced fruits which were, some the 
form and colour of the pastissons, others the colour 
of the pastissons with a spherical form. 

From the seed furnished by the pastissons united 
with the barbarines, were produced fruits which had 
completely the form and colour of the pastissons ; 
others which had the globular form of the barba- 
rines, and the colour of the pastissons; others in fine, 
which had the lengthened form of the cucumbers, 
and the colour of the pastissons. 

The seed produced from doubtful hybridation of a 
barbarine with a male giraumon, produced me 
fruits which changed these doubts into certainties ; 
for they were absolutely the form, the bulk, and 
colour of the barbarines. 

The grains, in small number, furnished by the 
barbarines allied with the giraumons, have pro- 
duced nothing, although cultivated with care. 

Observations on the Results of these Experiments. 

The females which flourished in the period when 
I had destroyed with care all the males, before their 
expansion, were all abortive. There is at the same 
time, first, an exception of one in twenty-nine of 
those which I wished to fecundate by the humid 
way ; second, an exception of one in tiiirty-one of 
those which I had left to grow without artificial 
fecundation, in the period when I attempted the day 
before, previous to their expansion, to destroy the 
males of the variety which I proposed to cross two 
days afterwards ; third, of those which I wished to 
fecundate with the pollen of the flowers gathered 
the day before. 

Hybridation with the giraumons, was only par- 
tially successful. 

The varieties then, of pumpkins employed in my 
experiments, cannot reproduce without the concur- 
rence of the male. 

This result is in perfect harmony with that whicii 
was obtained by M. Desfontaines in 1831. 

Among the other results of my experiments 1 
will remark the following : 

1. The defeat of fecundations by the humid way. 
This fact is in accordance with a general observa- 
tion that rain falling at blossoming time, occasions 
the falling off" or abortion of the fruits. Humidity 
co-operates in two ways to produce this last pheno- 
mena, as an obstacle to the opening of the cells of 
the anthers, and by the activity which it gives to the 
vegetation of the stem, which is hurtful to that of 
the fruit. 

2. Fecimdation cannot be certain, except a male 
flower be expanded for some time near to a female 
flo^ver also when this expansion only takes place 
before the rising of the sun and the awakening of the 
bees : it is necessary that there be a cause to set at 
liberty the pollen, and another which may transport 
it to the female flower. 



UAOAZINB OF BOTANT AND GARDENIXG, VOL. II. NO. XV. JUNE, 1834. 



m 



ON THE GEtJBRATION OF PLANTS. 



3. Fecundation is uncertain when the male 
flower is already becoming faded. 

4. The produce of fecundation is in proportion 
to the abundance of the pollen. 

5. The existence of a small number of sterile 
•seeds are sufficient for the development of the peri- 
carp. 

6. The possibility of hybridation is incontestible ; 
but it is more or less difficult according to the dis- 
tance or diiference among the varieties which we 
wish to mingle. 

7- Among plants as among animals, the influence 
of the male upon the forms and the colour of the 
produce, may be such as to render imperceptible 
that of the female. 

8. By hybridation, we can obtain anomalous 
farms, which may neither resemble, not even in a 
medium degree those of the father or mother. 

Though the presence of the male may be as neces- 
sary in androgynous or monoicous plants, as in 
hermaphrodite plants, to the fecundation of the 
female, we ought not to conclude that it is the same 
in dioicous plants. In these, the male is latent, and 
in the female plant it manifests itself at the same 
time, sometimes by its organs. 

To deprive this female of all commimication with 
males of its own species, it is not necessary to rob it 
of the unseizable masculine power which is in it : 
and althoiigh we may be ignorant by what means 
such a power can be supplied, it does not follow that 
there cannot be such a power. 

When an organ exists, the capacity which is re- 
presented, is contained in it : to suppress this is to 
destroy it. But because there is not an organ in a 
plant, or in an animal, by which it may concentrate 
itself, or by which a faculty is unveiled that accords 
with all other organized bodies, or is capable of be- 
coming so, we would not infer so much, if we were 
not authorized by constant observation to draw tliis 
conclusion of the total absence of this faculty. 
Where are the male organs of the polypus, of the 
female aphis, or of the Daphnia pulex, and the like? 

Where is the organ of vision in the medusa, or 
that of hearing in insects ?* 

I will not insist more upon these ideas which I 
have already presented and developed in my book 
on Generation ; I pass to the following facts. 

I repeated my experiments upon the hemp plant 
and upon the Lychnis dioica, with so much care as to 
authorise me to affirm that these plants reproduce 
themselves without the aid of the male organs. 

In 1832 and 1833, I attentively examined the 
flibwers of hemp which I had planted out for my ex- 
periment, after having destroyed all the males before 
blossoming time, in order that there might be no 
rudiments of the stamens in the envelope of the 
pistil. The observation was extended to seventy-six 



plants; my eyes were assisted with a good magnifying 
glass, but nothing could be discovered. I do not 
deny so far, that the stamens or rudiments of the 
stamens may light upon the females of the hemp. I 
have found it so myself in other circumstances : but 
this M'as not the case in my seventy-six subjects. 
How do you know ? tell me ; have you verified it in 
all the flowers ? No : but observation has taught 
me that it is in general sufficient to understand the 
sexual organization of one flower, to comprehend 
a little of that of all the flowers on the same plant ; 
and I have only occasion to study one flower on each 
plant : I verified also the more early. Again, can 
we reasonably suppose that the rudiments of the 
stamen, inclosed in the envelope of the seed organ, 
can be able to fecundate all the females of a neigh- 
bouring plant ? My observations upon the pump- 
kins is, that fecundation by the pollen, does not make 
sport of all these obstacles, and that it is more to 
hinder than to further it. 

My seventy-six plants of hemp were all blown, 
and abundantly ; the seed was well developed ; it 
was completely isolated ; there was no hemp field 
nearer than the distance of half a league, in a coun- 
try interrupted by hills and valleys, the vegetation 
was early, and a high wall acted as a safe shelter from 
the west wind, which can cany pollen a long dis- 
tance, if any exists, I will add that the flowering 
and fructification of my hemp have been general 
and of short duration. 

Upon Lychnis dioica, I commenced wholly (after a 
complete destruction of the males before blossoming 
time,) upon the female subjects, where were found 
the rudiments of stamens ; but as it is necessary to 
understand, with respect to this, the state of one 
flower to judge of all those of the same plant, it has 
been easy to suppress, before l)looming, all those 
plants where were found the rudiments of stamens ; 
the others ha \'ing produced seed in great abundance. 

I wished to be assured, among these, in the course 
of the blossoming, if the pistil had not received pol- 
len which could be carried to it by the wind or bv 
insects, also what was the indisputable cause of the 
precocity of my Lychnis ; and for this purpose, I exa- 
mined many of their pistils with a microscope, but 
could not discover any globule of the pollen. 

I continued, upon the Lychnis dioica, my obser- 
vations upon the aptitude of the seed to produce one 
sex rather than the other, following its situation 
upon the stem or upon the verge, (Jrophosperme). 

This plant is dichotomous by the abortion of the 
median stem, but this abortion is not constant, es- 
pecially among the females, and in this case, th^ 
m.edian stem is slender, and terminated by a flower. 

After the observations which I have already made 
and communicated to the academy, from which it 
results, tliat the aptitude of the seed to produce 



• See Alphabet of Insects, Second Edition, for different opinions on the Hearing of Insects. 



A 



DUTROCHET ON DIASTASE. 



9T 



females is much greater at the top than at the base 
of the stem, or of the spike, or of the verge, and 
also upon strong and more vigorous stems, than 
upon slender stems, I ought to infer that it will go 
on increasing from the lower to the higher bifur- 
cations, and that it will be less upon the direct con- 
tinuation of the stem than upon its branches. These 
results have not disappointed my attention. 

I divided my seed of the Lychnis into four parts : 
the first produced from the lower branches ; the 
second from the direct continuation of the stem ; the 
third from the second pair of branches in going from 
below to above ; and the fourth from the third pair. 

I diNaded the second part into two sections, of 
which one was taken from the base or lower half, 
the other from the summit or upper half of the 
verge. 

Here are the results : 

The first part gave me 268 males, 247 females : 
in the proportion of 1085 to 1000. 

The second part, first section, 186 males, 160 
females: in the proportion of 1162 to 1000. 

The same part of the second section, 200 males, 
182 females: in the proportion of 1099 to 1000. 

Total of the second part, 386 males, 342 females : 
in the proportion of 1129 to 1000. 

The third part, 217 males, 244 females : in the 
proportion of 889 to 1000. 

The fourth part, 201 males, 255 females : in the 
proportion of 788 to 1000- 

This experiment appears curious by the regula- 
rity of its results. 

New experiment on the Hemp. 

I supposed that seed of a high colour ought to be 



more especially formed under masculine influence 
than seed of a pale or ashy colour. I in consequence 
sowed separately, in 1832, from seed of a deep green 
and streaked with brown, and from seed whitish or 
greyish white. 

The first gave me 137 males, and 108 females : 
in the proportion of 1268 to 1000; and the second, 
59 males, and 68 females : in the proportion of 868 
to 1000. 

The experiment was repeated in 1833. 

The brown and streaked seed gave me 265 males, 
258 females : in the proportion of 1007 to 1000. 

The pale seed produced 153 males and 175 fe- 
male : in the proportion of 874 to 1000. 

If it was more marked the first year than the 
second, it is a little owing, either to the differences 
of the colour, or still more to the form, the brown 
seed being more flattened than the pale seed, which 
was more globular. 

I may remark that in 1832, brown seed had been 
sown in two different parts of my garden, and that 
in both places it produced a proportionally greater 
number of males, than the pale seed. 

As these results appear to me rational, I have no 
doubt they will be obtained by all those who wish to 
try the experiment. 

The advantage of this discovery may be to furnish 
cultivators with the means of knowing before-hand 
if the seed which they intend to sow ought to pro- 
duce a greater relative number, whether of males 
or females, a circumstance which is not altogether 
indifferent to them. 



ON DIASTASE* AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

BY M. DUTROCHET, MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE. 



The tegumentary envelope of the grains of fecula is 
burst, and the substance which contains these grains 
is set at liberty by the action of many agents. The 
inost generally employed of these agents is water 
heated to a boiling temperature. When the quantity 
of this liquid is considerably increased by the sub- 
stance which it dissolves, it cannot form a liquid 
paste, we see that when it is left to cool, it precipi- 
tates, not only the insoluble teguments of the fecula, 
but also a great quantity of the substance which has 
been dissolved by the heat. The quantity of this 
substance which rests dissolved in the cooled liquid, 
is so trifling that it can scarcely be perceived to aug- 
ment by its presence the density of the water. 

I have proved that this density of the cooled 
water, loaded with as much of the soluble substance 
of the fecula as it can contain, is only^ 1 .002, the 



density of water being 1. When the quantity of 
this substance dissolved in hot water is very conside- 
rable, it coagulates by cold. This coagulation is 
the result of a virtual precipitation of the soluble 
substance of the fecula, the substance which rests 
suspended in the liquid, ceasing to deserve that 
name ; and is that which is called the paste (colle) . 
The interior substance of the fecula also, indefinitely 
soluble in boiling water, is very little in cold water. 
We can reasonably conceive that the boiling 
water determines the bursting of the teguments of 
the grains of the fecula by softening them, and dila- 
ting by heat the substance which they contain. We 
ought to add to these causes of bursting, the endos- 
mose which cannot fail to be very energetic on ac- 
count of the great density of the liquified substance 
that encloses the grains of the fecula, bathed exte- 



* As chemists are not yet agreed upon the composition of fecula, and in consequence the number or names of substances in which 
it is contained, I abstain from adopting here any of these names. — Author. 



92 



DUTROCHET ON niASTASR. 



riorly by tTie ll'ot'\\^feT. '' 'The fendbsitiobfe introduces 
water into these small vesicles, which become also 
extremely turgid and which finish by bursting. 

The diastase, without being at all considered us'a' 
chemical menstruum, produces, notwithstanding, the 
dissolution of the fecula with great rapidity. TTie 
manner in which the diastase acts in performing this 
phenomenon, appears to me easy to be determined. 
The diastase cannot dissolve the teguments of the 
fecula. This fact is proved by experience ; for the 
prolonged action of the diastase upon the teguments 
of the fecula previously separated, do not cause them 
to lose any of their weight. It is not consequently, 
by attacking these teguments that it occasions their 
bursting. It appears then neces.sary to have recourse 
exclusively, to the action of the diastase upon the 
interior substance of the fecula. We have said 
above that this last is very little soluble in cold 
water. But, the accession of an excessive small 
quantity of diastase, 0.000.5 for exam])le, gives ra- 
pidly to this substance an extreme solubility in water. 
The mode of this chemical action is unknown ; but 
the fact that is thus unveiled to us, is one of great im- 
portance, not only in chemistry, but also in physio- 
logy. It is evident that it is to this augmentation 
of the solubility of the interior substance of the fecula, 
we must refer the bursting of the teguments which 
enclose it. By reason of its acquired solubility, this 
substance forms with the water a liquid very thick ; 
it exercises in consequence an endosmose very ener- 
getic, and for thi« reason it makes the delicate tegu- 
ments of the grains of the fecula swell rapidly. To 
verify this theory, I experimented comparatively 
upon the force of the endosmose of cold water, 
saturated as far as possible with the soluble substance 
of the fecula, by the previous action of boiling water, 
and upon the force of the endosmose of cold water, 
loaded with a quantity of this same substance, mo- 
dified and rendered soluble by diastase. The first 
of these liquids, the density of which was 1.002 did 
not produce the slightest endosmose ; the second, in 
which the water was loaded with the interior sub- 
stance of tlie fecula modified by diastase in the pro- 
portion of one-forty-eighth of its own weight, and 
in which the density was l.OOG, produced an endos- 
mose, which, compared with that of sugared water, 
{eau ma-ie) of the same density, it was found to bear 
to it the proportion of 7 to 9. In employing a so- 
lution of this same substance of which the density 
was 1.013, 1 obtained an endosmose which compared 
with tliat of the sugared water of the same density, 
was found to bear to it, the proportion of 5 to 6. 
Tliis difference in the two experiments arose pro- 
balily from this, that in the two solutions the action 
of the diastase had produced more sugar in the one, 
than in the other. It always results from these ex- 
periments, that the interior substance of the fecula, 
modified by diastase, possesses a power of endosmose, 
little inferior to that which the sugared water pos- 



sesses. But, I have shown, in another work,' that 
sugar is of all vegetable substances, that which pos- 
sesses the greatest power of endosmose. The interior 
substance of fecula, is modified by diastase, approaches 
to it under this point of view ; its power of endos- 
mose is very superior to that of gum, which after 
many experiments, I found to be nearly one half 
that of sugar. Thus, it cannot be doubted that 
the substance contained in the grains of fecula, 
does not possess an energetic endosmose when it is 
modified hj the action of diastase. When the tegu- 
ments of the grains of fecula, are very much dis- 
tended by the introduction of water, they terminate 
by bursting, n'his effect takes place in cold water, 
as well as in hot water of about 75 degrees, of the 
Centigrade thermometer, but considerably slower. 
We know that at a high temperature the diastase 
decomposes it. When the grains of the fecula have 
not undergone the action of diastase, the substance 
which they contain being either insoluble or to a 
very trifling degree soluble in cold water, there can- 
not be an endosmose of the product ; these grains, 
in consequence, cannot be forced to burst, but con- 
tinue to preserve their integrity. 

We see also that the separation of the interior 
substance of the fecula from the teguments under 
the influence of diastase, is the result of a succession 
of phenomena. The diastase acts upon this interior 
substance, as an agent of the modification of compo- 
sition which disposes it to liquefaction ; in virtue of 
this modification, this substance acquires a great 
power of endosmose. Tliis last physical action pro- 
duces the entrance of the water, into the tegumentary 
vesicle of the grain of the fecula, and renders it tur- 
gid, to such an excess that it bursts. This bursting 
having taken place, the separation of the interior 
substance of the teguments is worked upon only by 
the dissolving action of the water. Tlius, the dias- 
tase cannot act directly by separating the interior 
substance of the fecula from its envelopes, as the 
etjinology of its name indicates. It would be more 
eligible to give to this new chemical agent, a name 
of which the etymological signification might indi- 
cate that which changes the chemical nature of the 
insoluble substance upon which it acts, and which 
renders it soluble. At length, the name being im- 
posed ought to be preserved, but without any regard 
to its signification. Science presents many other 
examples of disagreement between objects, and their 
names, in relation to the etymological signification, 
which however are still preserved. The discovery of 
diastase will claim a high station in the science Hi 
physiology. It is a phenomena in organic chemistrj^, 
well worthy of serious investigation on account of 
the rapid change, of the nature and augmentation of 
solubility, whicli is produced in an organic substance, 
by the accession of some atoms of another organic 
substance, which is neither an acid nor an alkali. 
ITiis proves to us that when organic substances have 



M. MERAT OM BONNET STRAW. 



93 



undergone a dissolution, or rather a liquifaction, we 
ought not at all times to attribute this phenomena to 
the action of a chemical menstruum. It can be pro- 
duced by an agent, which we may term diastasier, 
that is to say at once a trausformer and liquifier, 
without being a menstruum. The phenomena of 
digestion has certainly received a new light, (which 
it did not previously possess), from the discovery of 
this new order of facts in organic chemistry. It is 
very probable, indeed, that the gastric juice is to the 
organic alimentary substances, a sort of diastase, 
which produces the transformation, and occasions the 
solution of organic alimentary substances, All these 
organic animal and vegetable substances are com- 
posed of agglomerated globules, and these globules 
which are vesicular like the grains of fecula, are re- 
quired to be crushed to carry to alimentation the 
substances which they enclose. There would thus 
be many gastric species of diastases, in proportion to 
the kind of alimentation of animals. 

The liquifaction of alimentary substances in the 
act of digestion offers phenomena which it is impos- 
sible to explain, by the action of a chemical men- 
struum. Thus, for example, we know with what 
facility bones either entire, or in large pieces, are 
liquified in the stomach of dogs. This liquifaction 
results from the solution of the gelatine, which re- 



unites the particles of calcareous phosphate. The 
bone is then converted into a jelly, better than it 
could be effected by Papin's digester. This surprising 
effect cannot evidently be attributed to the action of 
an acid, so weak as that which is found in the gas- 
tric juices. 

Let us admit, instead of that, the existence of a 
gastric diastase, the accession of which modifies the 
elementary composition of the gelatine, and gives to 
it a great solubility, and the phenomena of digestion 
will then become a question easily explained. The 
bone thrust into the stomach of the dog is quickly 
liquified, and the gelatine will transform itself into 
another organic liquid ; that will be the act of the 
stomachic digestion. :].'■ 

After these considerations, we are able to undei; 
stand in the action of transformation and liquifaction 
of the diastase, upon the fecula during vegetation, a 
sort of vegetable digestion, very analogous to animal 
digestion. 

I have been long persuaded, that in the study of 
vegetable physiology, there was to be found a solu- 
tion of many dark problems in the physiology of ani- 
mals. The discovery of diastase, and its action upon 
the fecula during fermentation, strengthens more and 
more my opinion in this respect. 



NOTE UPON THE PLANT WHICH PRODUCES THE STRAW OF THE LEGHORN 

AND TUSCAN BONNETS. 



FROM A i.B,XXER ,()? M., JIiB|RA,T,|M^D!, tIo^^'THK EDI'TOR Ot^THE ARCHIVES DE BOTANIQUE. 



PpffMiT me Sir, in reply to a note in the Archives 
of Botany, on the subject of the plant which furnishes 
the straw with which we fabricate in the environs of 
Florence, the bonnets called Leghorn and Tuscan 
bonnets, to forward to you the following observations, 
resulting from the statements furnished by M M. 
Bonafons, Berlese, the Count de Lasteyrie, &c. 

This gramineous plant is a genuine wheat, (Triti- 
cum) and not a rye (Secale) as M. Chaubard terms 
it;, it is a summer corn, a sort of spelt. It is sown 
in the spring in barren ground, in a dry soil, and cut 
do^yvTi before the expansion of the ear. The entire 
straw (Sommites) , after having been first bleached in 
the dew, and afterwards by a chemical process, is em- 
ployed. There are lands which produce superior 
straw to others, and of which the middle boles (Centre 
tuevds) are longer, a circumstance which is particu- 
larly desirable. The same seed fields in France do 
not produce such good straw, although the grain 
answers well. We cannot work this straw so well 
as tiUey do in Italy, for the, manufacturers of bonnets 



Jc'J-jd Oi'Jii) i« nyii *'; 



81.' '•! sovoTcj exd'i' 



in France, although they may have the straw direct 
from Florence, cannot produce equally advantageous 
results. It would appear desirable that this manu- 
facture should be tried on a new system, so that it 
might prove successful in France; we can bring over 
workmen from Florence to instruct ours in the cul- 
ture of the seed and the working of the straw ; this 
would be to introduce a useful branch of manufacture 
into our country, and which it does not seem impos- 
sible to naturalise. The benefit would be conside- 
rable, for the price of these bonnets is from 40 to 100 
francs, and we have known them cost three thousand 
francs. 

I talce this opportunity, Sit-r'ib assert that the 
bonnets of straw called de riz are hot manufactured 
from rice straw; we manufacture them with shavings 
made with the aid of appropriate instmments, fr6m 
the Poplar and from the Willow, but not from their 
bark.' , / ' ., ,, 

■ 'jAi ic. ■". 
•haa'lo 19'" 
■£oq lii':- 



94 



PESCKIPTION OV THE PLATES. 



EFFECTS OF MOUNTAIN HEIGHTS ON PLANTS. 



Ma. Gay, in his recent interesting' tour among the 
Cordilleras, discovered many beautiful and rare spe- 
cies of Baccharis, Loasea, Alstroemeria, and " above 
all " he says those " charming Mutisia which exhibit 
this singular phenomenon, the tendrils with which 
these plants are usually furnished, becoming useless 
in these cold regions, unprovided with shrubs or 
bushes, change into real leaves, organs of such great 
utility to alpine plants, I have also remarked that 
the plants which are herbaceous in the plains, become 
here entirely ligneous, and that several trees, espe- 
cially the Escaleonia, instead of assuming that forked 
appearance which characterizes it, becomes stinted, 
creeping along the rocks and thus offering less sur- 
face to the cold with which the wind is charged in 
passing over these numerous and immense glaciers. 
But another observation which I have also made 
among these cold regions is still more interesting ; 
it is the form of imbricated leaves which the greater 
portion of the vegetables assume, those genera even 
whose habitual form seems to be entirely contrary to 
this disposition. Thus the leaves of the Triptilions, 



which are so lax and small in the lower regions, 
become here extremely hard and tovigh, closely im- 
bricating the stalk and even the flowers of these 
beautiful plants. The Mutisia which is nearly 
devoid of leaves when at the side of the mountains, 
produces at their summit a considerable number. 
The violets here have not that elegant form which 
we observe in those lower down, but are found 
under a form altogether diferent ; they represent a 
rosette which may be compared to that of a Sedum, 
with this difference, that the leaves, instead of being 
almost vertical, are in these alpine violets entirely 
horizontal. These leaves, which are extremely 
hard and tough, are round, scabrous, strongly 

1 imbricated, and exhibit at the footstalks flowers 
which are sessile, and of a violet colour somewhat 

I approaching to red. Although very familiar with 

I the genera Triptilions, Escaleonia, Mutisia, Viola, 
the particular aspect of these alpine species caused 
me to mistake them entirely, and I did not discover 
to what genus they belonged until I studied them 

I after my return." 



MR. MAIN'S CATECHISM OF GARDENING. 



This deserving little work, which we noticed in a 
previous number, has at length been completed in 
the form of a neat little school book, and is published 
at Ridgways, the great depot for rural publications. 
As Mr. Main has had long and extensive practice, and 
is besides a good observer, and withal a good writer, 
those who patronize his book may recommend it with 



all confidence as to the soundness of the directions 
given. We wish it every success, and as we under- 
stand but a very small number of copies have been 
printed, those who are desirous of seeing it may be 
disappointed if they delay ordering it at their book; 
sellers, as we should think the demand may be con- 
siderable, from its being so cheap. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



RIBES SANGUINEUM. 



Pentandria Monogynia, Linn ; Grossulariacea, De Candohe. 

Calyx superior in five coloured divisions. Corolla petals, five 
inserted in the top of the calyx ; stamina five, inserted oppo- 
site to the petals ; anthers compressed, and inclining. Gcr- 
men, simple ; style one ; stigmas two ; herry round, umbili- 
cated, of one place, containing many seeds. 

Leaves heart-shaped of from three to five serrated lobes, linearly 
veined, rough, above hairy, downy white beneath ; branches 
flexible and nodding ; flowers aggregated ; petals oblong ; 
bractea ovally spatulate, somewhat longer than the foot- 
stalk ; ovarium covered with glandular hairs. 

The species of Ribes now figured, surpasses every 
other in beauty. It is a native of Nortli-west Ame- 
rica, and, according to Mr. Douglas, Archibald 
Mcnzies, Esq. discovered it near Nootka Sound 
in 1787» when on his first voyage round the 
world ; and on his second voyage with the cele- 



brated Vancouver, he found it again in various 
parts of North-west America. From the time of its 
first discovery until its introduction in 1826, com- 
paratively nothing was known of it in this country ; 
but in that year it was cultivated in the Horticul- 
tural Society's garden. , - < 

It is perfectly hardy, and nearly as easy of cul- 
ture as the common currant bush of our kitchen 
gardens; it requires to be planted in a dry situation 
and a light soil, when it produces abundance of 
beiutiful purplish-red flowers about the beginning of 
May, and continues flowering for two or three 
weeks successively. It is increased by cuttings,after 
the manner of the common currant, which should 
be planted in light sandy soil, either in Septem- 
ber (which is probably the best time) or in spring. 
The colours of this, as well as many other plants, are 
subject to considerable variation, some bearing 
flowers of a light rosy colour, others of a dark^car- 
mine, and others with deep purple tints.' " ■'"^' ' 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



95 



borOnia pinnata. 

Octandria Moiiogynia, Link. 
Calyx quadrupartitus. Petala 4. Antherse infra apicem fila- 

mentorum pedicellatse. Stylus ex apice germinis, brevis- 

simus. Stigma capitatum. Capsulse 4. coalit%. Semina 

arillata. 
Calyx in four divisions. Petals four. Anthers on footstalks, 

below the sxiramits of the filaments. Style from the top of 

the germen, very short. Stigma capitate. Capsules four, 

united, seeds tunicated. 
Foliis imparl pinnatis integerrimis, pedunculis axillaribus dicho- 

tomis, filamentis apice obtusis glandulosis. 

IiEAVES abruptly pinnate, flower stalks axillary, 
forked^ Summit of tlie filaments obtuse and glan- 
dular. 

A smooth shrub, near two feet high, with many 
wand-like, roundish, leafy branches. 

Leaves opposite, rarely three together, without 
stipulje, composed of from three to five pair of sitting, 
lance-shaped, pointed, entire, smooth, somewhat suc- 
culent leaflets, with a terminal one like the rest, 
though often rather smaller; the common leaf-stalk, 
is joined, channeled and winged. 

The elegant flowers arise from the bosoms of seve- 
ral of the uppermost leaves, in solitary corymbose 
forked clusters, and are of a rose colour, smelling 
like hawthorn blossoms. 

Stalks angular, with a pair of small pointed brac- 
teae at each divarication. 
Calyx small, reddish and smooth. 

Petals four times as long as the caljTc, spreading, 
darker on the outside, slightly acid. 

Filaments red, fringed with white hairs to the 
very top, -yvhich tenninates in a blunt glandular pro- 
tuberance, sometimes slightly hairy also, into the 
base of which on the inside is inserted a slender 
short smooth little footstalk, bearing the authera, 
which is oval, smooth, incumbent, bursting b}'' two 
longitudinal fissures on the other side. 

Germen small, smooth, four-lobed ; style short, 
liairy ; stigma bhmt, with four furrows. 

Capsules smooth. 

Seeds solitary, black, fenclos8^ in a white polished 
two valved elastic case. ' ' 

This species flowered fd* th6 first time' in Europe, 
.It Messrs. Lee and Kennedy's, in the spring of 
1795. If is tireated as a rather tender sreen-house 
plant. ^ 



BORONIA SERRULATA. 

Koliis trapeziformibus acutis antice Inseqnaliter serrulatis, pe- 
dunculis .aggregatis terrainalibus, filamentis apice cordatis 
hispidis., 

Leaves rhomboid, pointed; in the upper part mi- 
nutely and unequally serrated. Flower-stalks clus- 
tered terpainal. Summit of tlie filaments heart- 
shaped bristly. ,.,,,„„... ., ,,..■.-,-... ,, , 

This IS a very beautiful shrub, rising to the 
height of about four feet ; tlie stem variously 
branched and suTjdivided ; round, smooth, with a 



deciduous cuticle ; the younger branches clothed 
with leaves, and terminated by flowers. 

Leaves without stipulse, opposite, nearly sitting, 
but little spreading, somewhat oblique, rhomboid, 
pointed, entire towards the base, finely, sharjjly, and 
unequally saw-toothed towards the point, without 
vein or rib, punctuated with resinous dots, aromatic, 
with a smell approaching to that of turpentine. 
Their colour is a fine green, often with a purpleish 
tinge. 

Flowers in little terminal somewhat corymbose 
clusters, of a beautiful red, and with the scent of a 
rose, as we are informed by Mr. White, who men- 
tions this shrub as one of the most admired in New 
South Wales. They are a little larger than those of 
the Boronia pinnata. 

Bracteae opposite, lance-shaped, concave, pointed, 
often downy in the margin. 

Calyx red; its segments egg-oblong, pointed, 
slightly keeled and ribbed, permanent, the two oppo- 
site ones external, the margin of all slightly downy. 

Petals thrice as long as the calyx, spreading, egg- 
oblong, rose-coloured with darker stripes, acid. 

Filaments red, fringed with white hairs at the 
base, more naked above, but terminating in a glo- 
bular notched protuberance, (less conspicuous in 
the four shorter stamina) which is thickly covered 
with white projecting hairs or bristles, the an- 
thers being inserted on footstalks, just lelow it, and 
shaped as in the preceeding species. 

Germen small, four-lobed ; stigma nearly sitting, 
large, conical, blunt, smooth, slightly four-lobed. 

Capsules smooth, sprinkled with resinous dots^. 

Seeds two in each case, of a shining black. 

SPRENGELIA INCARNATA. 

Pentandria Monogynia, Linn. 
Calyx quinque-partitus, peristens. Petala quinque. Stamina 
receptaculo inserta. Antherae connatee" Capsula quinque- 
locularis, quinquevalvls ; disepimentis e medio valvularum. 
Calyx in five divisions, permanent. Petals five. Stamina in- 
serted into the receptacle. Anthers united. Capsule •with 
five cells, and five valves ; partitions from the middle of the 
valves. 
Calyx a part of the flower, in five deep divisions, 
so as to be almost composed of five leaves, chaflf'y, 
coloured, permanent, segments equal ; lance-shaped, 
pointed, concave ; after flowering, erect and closed 
together. 

Petals five, about as long as the calyx, lance- 
shaped, pointed, cohering a little way above the 
base, in the upper part spreading, and assuming the 
appearance of a wheel shaped corolla ; after flowering, 
erect and closed together, soon falling off^. 

Stamina five, the length of the petals ; filaments 
inserted into the receptacle, distinct, line-like, flat, 
equal, smooth ; anthers vertical, united into a tube, 
clothed externally with numerous yellow club-shaped 
hairs. -.iirj" ';u'..,'."; s li -P, OkM ;. o 

Pistil -, germen superior, roundish, depressed. 



96 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



with five furrows, smooth ; style simple, about equal 
to the top of the anthers ; stigma simple, blunt. 

Capsule somewhat cylindrical, blunt, with five 
furrows, separating in the uppej; into five valves ; par- 
titioTis longitudinal, arising from the middle of each 
valve; column a little rugged, shorter than the valves. 

Seeds numerous, roundish, minute. 

This is a shrub, about two feet high, much 
branched, rigid, very smooth, flowering copiously. 
Wood hard, white. Branches round, wavy, leafy, 
brown, cracked when old. 

Leaves alternate, sometimes tiled in three ranks, 
embracing the stem, spreading very much, lance- 
shaped, entire, concave, a little glaucous, without 
veins rigid and projecting, remaining (though faded) 
through the winter, and at length being loosened at 
the base, they may be tuftied round in any position. 

Stipulae none. 

Flowers terminal, clustered on flower-stalks, pale 
red. 

Flower-stalks clothed with tiled bracteae like the 
leaves, but smaller, and with a membranous and 
fringed margin, clustered under each flower. 

Calyx rose coloured, very rarely a little downy on 
the outside. 

Corolla, flesh-coloured. 



WESTRINGIA ROSMARINIFORMIS. 
Didynamia Gymnospermia, Linn ; Labiatae, JnssiEU. 

Calyx semiquinquefidus, pentagonous ; corolla resupinater ; 

limbo quadrifido ; lobo loogiori erecto, bipartite. 
Stamina distantia j duo breviora (inferiora) abortiva. 
Calyx five-cleft half way down, five-sided ; corolla reversed ; 

limb in four segments ; the longest erect, cloven. 
Stamina distant ; the two shorter or lowermost, abortive. 

A SHRUB very much branched ; the branches either 
opposite or four together, square, silky, leafy. 

Leaves in fours, on foot-stalks, spreading, line-like 
lance-shaped, entire, revolute, rather pointed ; of a 
bright shining green above, and almost naked ; 
clothed with white silky down beneath. 

Foot-stalks very short, silky. Stipulae none. 

Flowers from the upper part of the branches, 
axillary, solitary, on short flower-stalks. 

Bractese a pair at the base of the calyx, line-like, 
short, silky. 

Calyx silky, its segments naked, with revolute 
margins. 

Corolla white, with purple spots about the orifice. 

We are not informed of any particular qualities 
in this shrub. The leaves are slightly bitter, not 
aromatic : the flowers not inelegant, though without 
smell. 



This plant is a native of North America, and was 
introduced into this country in 1724. It is in 
height about ten feet, and flowers from June to 
August inclusive. 

It is a very beautiful climber, which, like its 
congener, Wistaria consequana, formerly Glycine 
Sinensis, spreads more slowly through English gar- 
dens, than in these days of botanical vigilance would 
be imagined. Their having been known as green 
house plants, seems to have formed a bar to the ex- 
tension of their acquaintance as hardy climbing 
shrubs. The Wistaria futescens is, however, per 
fectly so, and from its great beauty should have a 
place in every garden. It is more hardy than Wis- 
taria consequana, and its flowers being produced 
later in the season, they are less liable to injury from 
spring frosts. 

Planted in loam and peat, against a southerly 
wall, it will grow very freely, and the cultivator 
may expect to be highly gratified by its rich display 
of beautiful flowers. It is usually propagated by 
cuttings of the young wood, planted in sand, or 
very sandy compost, on a hot bed, under a hand- 
glass. 



GENTIANA CRUCIATA. 

Pcntandria, Digynia, Linn ; Gentianese, JussiEi'. 
This low free-growing herbaceous plant, is well 
adapted for ornamenting the fronts of borders and 
mounds; but it has not the advantage of some others 
of the same genus, in affording an evergreen embel- 
lishment of bright green leaves to enliven the little 
garden landscape of winter. 

It will grow in any common soil, and seems to 
prefer a rather cool and moist situation. It may be 
divided in spring or autumn. 



WISTARIA FRUTESCENS. 
Diadelphia Decandria, Linn ; Legnminos», JussiEU. 



GERANIUM LANCASTRIENSE. 
Monadelphia Decandria, LiNN ; GeraniaceiE, JussiEu. 

The genus Geranium, is now confined to such of 
the plants, originally so called, as possess ten per- 
fect stamens. By such division, all those beautiful 
subjects, generally known by this name, which have 
been cultivated in the green-house, or more inti- 
mately domesticated in the dwelling-house, form 
another genus, under the name of Pelargonium. 
These have but seven fertile stamens. 

Geranium Lancastriense has, by some authors, 
been considered a variety only of Geranium san- 
guineum. The union of it to that species would do 
no violence to botanical description, but its general 
habit, and permanence of character, under cultiva- 
tion, incline us to follow nature rather than science 
in the distinction. It is a very desirable little plant, 
always in flower during summer. 

It may be readily increased by cuttings, planted 
imder a hand-glass, on a shady border. 




,') , Jilllil UlLStlillJ 




(i .Ej^iJL(iI)iuiu Ly nmlojia'i 





.// 



89 



MARTIN DOYLE ON FLOWER GARDENING*. 



This popular and sensible author has a right feeling 
about him respecting the language of gardening, 
and uniformly advocates as we do, plain English in 
preference to the outlandish words which have lately- 
been so much forced into fashion, by illiterate pedan- 
try and cockscombry. The Editor of this Maga- 
zine has elsewhere remarked, that for practical gar- 
deners to affect hard words, appears exceedingly in- 
judicious, as it must prove extremely injurious to 
themselves by deadening, rather than exciting, in- 
terest about the garden. If you talk to a lady, for 
example, or even to most gentlemen, about Endoge- 
nous plants, it is most likely it would be placed to 
your ignorance of the proper pronunciation of the 
word indigenous, rather than obtain you credit for a 
knowledge of De CandoUe's system ; but, if you in- 
terlard your conversation with the terms Monocotyle- 
donous. Dicotyledonous, and the like ; though you 
might perhaps with a little management, make such 
useless outlandish terms as Arboriculture, Floricul- 
ture, and Gardenesque, pass muster, and might be 
allowed to call herbs, herbaceous plants, and flowers, 
floriferous plants ; yet you may be certain you will 
either be listened to with impatience, or, most pro- 
bably be laughed at for your affectation of unjDro- 
fitable learning, as we once saw happen to a prim 
barber at a fashionable watering pilace, who deemed 
it very fine to talk of an " elegant morning." 

Certain peculiarities of language readUy produce 
imitation, and are so very contagious, that we doubt 
not many have been led to frequent the society of 
gamblers and boxers mainly on this account; but 
such peculiarities are contagious, because they are 
easily learned. As prince Henry, in Shakspear says, 
" they call drinking deep dyeing scarlet ; and I am so 
good a proficient in half an hour, that I can drink 
with any tinker in his own language during my 
life." But so far from the terms used in modern 
gardening being thus easily learned, they are pecu- 
liarly difficult and calculated to disgust, rather than 
attract the interest of proprietors, and hence their 
attention to their gardens must be frequently diverted 
into other channels, and the gardener consequently 
deprived of their hearty support, because he talks 
unintelligibly, and therefore not contagiously. 

" The arts," says Sir John Herschel, " cannot be 
perfected till their whole processes are laid open, 
and their language simplified and rendered univer- 
sally intelligible. Art is the application of know- 
ledge to a practical end. If the knowledge be merely 
accumulated experience, the art is empirical ; but, if 
it be experience reasoned upon and brought under 
general principles, it assumes a higher character, and 



becomes a scientific art. In the progress of mankind 
from barbarism to civilised life, the arts necessarily 
precede science. Applications come later, the arts 
continue slowly progressive, but their realm remains 
separated from that of science by a wide gulf, which 
can only be passed by a powerful spring. They form 
their own language, and their own conventions, 
which none but artists can understand. The whole 
tendency of empirical art, is to bury itself in techni- 
calities, and to place its pride in particular short 
cuts and mysteries known only to adepts ; to surprise 
and astonish by results, but conceal processes. ' The 
character of science is the direct contrary. It de- 
lights to lay itself open to inquiry; and is not 
satisfied with its conclusions, till it can make the 
road to them broad and beaten ; and in its applica- 
tions, it preserves the same character ; its whole aim 
being to strip away all technical mystery, to iUumi- 
minate every dark recess, and to gain free access to 
all processes, with a view to improve them on rational 
principles. It would seem that a union of two qua- 
lities almost opposite to each other — a going forth 
of the thoughts in two directions, and a sudden 
transfer of ideas from a remote station in one, to an 
equally distant one in the other, are required to 
state the first idea of applying science." 

In all this Mr. Martin Doyle agrees with us to the 
letter, and even a Kttle beyond the letter, as SirVicary 
Gibbs was wont to do by the law, when he had things 
almost his own way. We have generally observed, 
that those who are the most ignorant of facts, are 
the fondest of long sounding pedantic words, and 
those also who know least of the pedantic words, 
are most apt to thrust them prominently forward, 
where they are least wanted. 

" I must be permitted," says our author, " to ex- 
clude very harsh words — those among you, who most 
admire, and best understand the noble science of 
Botany, will, nevertheless, admit that a minute ap- 
plication of it in a compendious work of this nature, 
would be unsuitable and diffuse. Extensive cata- 
logues and botanical delineations might, indeed, be 
introduced ; but each additional page adds to the 
cost of publishing, and of course to the price of the 
book — this is to be of limited extent and price, and 
should be dedicated to practical matters, rather than 
to the Decandrias. 

" Few ladies understand Latin and Greek, — (and 
the fewer the better,) some may guess at the Latin 
from their knowledge of Italian, (which I have 
been told is very like it,) but when the Greek comes 
across them, they are fairlj' baffled, and might get 
into a similar scrape with my old friend Caukerosus 



* The Flower Garden ; or Monthly Calendar of Practical Directions for the Culture of Flowers. By Martin Doyle, I2mo. 

Dublin. 1834. 
MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO. XVI. JULT, 1834. O 



90 



MARTIN DOYLE ON GARDENING. 



in the preface to my former treatise. As for myself, 
I must confess my deficiency in the knowledge of any 
language except my own, and a smattering of Irish : 
nevertheless, I should be sorry to make my fair 
readers submit altogether to my ignorance, and where 
it may be necessary or useful to adopt scientific 
names, I shall not scruple, for their sakes, to call in 
the aid of an obliging friend, who is a great adept 
in those matters, and on whose taste I must depend 
for the arrangement of the nosegay which I am about 
to present. But, my dear ladies, let us be practical 
and plain, and leave all high-flown matter, however 
interesting in point of science." 

We by no means agree with him in the books 
which he recommends ; inasmuch as these are de- 
cidedly the very reverse of plain and intelligible ; 
while one of them is only half published, and likely, 
we hear, to stop altogether. But leaving this out of 
consideration, let us see in what manner Mr. Mar- 
tin Doyle treats the subject of his new volume, — if 
the neat brochure before us be entitled to that name. 
As we have formerly seen in the case of the kitchen 
garden, our author here follows the order of the 
calendar months, beginning with November as the 
most natural commencement of the gardener's year. 
We shall give the present month, July, as a speci- 
men of the book : — 

JULY. 



Work to he done in the Flower Garden. 
Take up those bulbous roots which have ceased 
flowering — Hyacinths, Tulips, Martagon Lilies, and 
such bulbous Irises as are out of flower. Ranunculus 
and Anemonie roots, which have now lost their foli- 
age, may also be taken up. 



Seedling Auriculas 
Which came up last spring, should now (if not be- 
fore done,) be potted, and placed in a shady situa- 
tion, watered moderately, and kept free from snails 
and slugs. 

Carnations and Pinks. 

This is stOl a good season for propagating these 
charming flowers, by either of the modes directed 
in June ; but this work should not be postponed to 
an advanced period of the month. As soon as the 
shoots are strong enough to layer down, let them 
be put out. 

The latter end of this month and beginning of 
August is the usual season for layering Carnations, 
which, however, may be done earlier, if the plants 
are sufficiently advanced in growth ; the new plants 



from those early layers wiU be more vigorous, and 
better able to endure the severity of winter, than 
those of a later season. In detaching them, it will 
be necessary to cut them close under the joint from 
which the roots have been produced, and from which 
the tongue had in the first instance been cut ; the 
young plants may now be potted, and with the 
shelter of a frame, will in a few days be sufficiently 
established to bear exposure in the open air. In 
the space of a few weeks it will be found that layers 
thus treated, wiU have formed a quantity of root 
from the other half of the joint, where they had been 
attached to the parent plant ; and they will not only 
be equally sound and healthy, but much more luxu- 
riant than plants produced by piping. 

The operation of layering is very simple, and 
is done by first stripping the leaves from the second 
or third joint of the intended layer, then introducing 
the blade of a very sharp penknife at about a 
quarter of an inch under the joint, and cutting half 
way through the layer up to the joint, but not into 
it ; the knife is to be then drawn out, and the tongue 
so produced, cut away neatly under the joint, but 
so as not to wound it, or the layer will not root. 
The future fibres or roots of the new plant pro- 
ceed from the joint itself, therefore any injury to 
it win prevent their formation. The old mode of 
cutting up through the joint is not only useless, 
but injurious, causing an unsoundness and canker*, 
which, although the layers may have rooted, will 
probably destroy them during the winter ; the layers 
are then to be pegged dovm (with care not to crack 
them at their junction with the mother plant) and 
thinly covered with light rich compost ; for if they 
are deeply buried, they root badly and with diffi- 
culty, the access of air being necessary to promote 
the free production of fibres : the points of the 
leaves of the layers must be presen'ed uninjured, 
and not cut off or shortened, as is the usual prac- 
tice, or you will deprive the plant of a necessary 
means of support, the leaves of plants being as 
essential to their vitality, as lungs are to animals. 
In five or six weeks from the formation of your 
layers, they will be rooted, and may be removed 
from their parent stems. 

The Carnation blossoms are now advancing fast 
to maturity ; those which are very double and in- 
clined to burst, should have the flower pods either 
tied neatly with bass mat, previously wetted, or sup- 
ported by circular cards, with holes punched in the J 
centres, to fit the pods ; and these should be cut M 
(with a very sharp penknife) through each of their 
divisions to the base, taking care not to injure the 
petals. This process permits the flowers to expand 
evenly, and the cards not only preserve the blossoms- 



* For this reason, plants produced by piping are preferred, being more healthy and sound. 



MARTIN DOYLE ON GARDENING. 



91 



in their natural form, but also aid materially in 
increasing the duration of the bloom. The Carna- 
tions, if in beds in the open ground, and unprotected 
by canvas or other substantial covering, should 
have their blossoms guarded from the sun and rain, 
by umbrella-shaped pasteboard shades, which may 
be attached to the stakes supporting the blossoms ; 
but if this cannot be conveniently done, they should 
be fixed to pieces of slit lath, placed in the ground 
in the most advantageous positions to afford shelter 
to the blossoms. 



Mignonette. 

If you desire to have Mignonette in blow at the 
latter part of the floral season, you ought to sow 
it now. 



Roses, Jasmines, 

The layering and budding of Roses and other 
shrubs may now be performed. Some species of 
the Rose do not freely yield suckers, and must 
therefore be propagated by layers. 

The stocks for budding may be taken from the 
suckers of the most common kinds. The common 
dog-briar, from its superior vigour, is the most 
desirable stock. Jasmines are principally propa- 
gated by budding, and the common white kind is 
the most usual stock. 



Propagation of Chrysanthemums. 

The suckers which at this season have attained 
the height of twelve or more inches, may be now 
parted and planted in separate pots, in a compost of 
equal parts of leaf mould, garden soil, and rotten 
dung; they will make fine blooming plants for 
November or December ; when they are strongly 
rooted, cut away the centre or leading shoot, to let 
the plants push out side shoots, and form a bushy 
and well-shaped head, while they at the same time 
preserve the dwarf size, which is desirable, if the 
plants are grown in pots. 

Cuttings rooted early in the month, with a little 
bottom heat, will also make pretty dwarf growing 
plants to flower in autumn. 



Treatment of Dahlias. 

These are now coming into flower, and will re- 
quire the support of hoops, or of the triangular sticks 
described in the preceding month. 

The general work of this month consists princi- 
pally in watering and tying up plants, and in 
weeding, 



Work to be done in the Green-house. 



Syringe and water Camellias and Oranges fre- 
quently, and shade them from hot sun. 

Plants potted in peat, (as are most of our Cape 
and Australian ones) should be carefully examined 
every day, lest they should become too dry ; for peat 
is so little retentive of moisture, that they will 
require frequent watering. 

Take cuttings of your green-house plants, if you 
have not taken a sufficient supply in June, and plant 
them in a bed, shaded during the day by the hoops 
and coverings already recommended. 

The very tender succulent ones should have a 
mild hot-bed, but all the Geraniums, Myrtles, Jaco- 
beas and Cape shi-ubs, will freely root themselves in 
a bed of rich earth in open air ; exposure to noctur- 
nal dews in either case is desirable. 

Remove insects from the leaves, which are now 
peculiarly liable to injury from them. 

Give abundant air to the green-house. 

Shift seedlings accordingly as their growth re- 
quires it, from smaller to larger pots ; water and 
shade them, until they have rooted. 



Exotic Seeds. 

Gather and save seeds as they become ripe, and 
spread them in dry places to harden ; afterwards 
preserve them in their pods. 



The most ornamental Herbaceous Plants in flower. 

Double Rose Campion, Hollyhocks, Spiderwort, 
Campanulas, Scarlet Chelone, Blue Catananche, 
Dragon Head, Rudbeckias, Coreopsis, Gentian, 
Erynga, Spiraea trefoliata. Perennial Sun- 
flower, Hemerocallis, Iris, Lilies (White, Orange, 
and Martagon), Lilium Japonicum, Verabrum, 
Phlox (of various sorts), Escholtzia, Cardinal 
Flower, Monkey Flower, iEnothera, Monarda, Po- 
tentilla or Cinque Foil, Penstemon, Feather Grass, 
Verbascum, German Catchfly, Scarlet Lychnis, 
Scarlet Geum, Perennial Larkspur, Blue Catanan- 
che, Dahlia, Menyanthes, Campanula Pyramidalis, 
Gladiolus Cardinalis, Nolana, Lupinus, Polyphyllus, 
Potentilla, Lathyrus grandiflorus. Sea Holly, Water 
Lily, Ixia, Stapelia, Gladiolus Psittacinus. 



Ornamental Green-house Plants in flower. 

Sensitive Plant, Nerium Splendens, Escholtzia 
Californica, many Ericas, Acacia, Wax Plant (Hoya 
Carnosa), Double Red and Double White Lily, 
African Lily, Agapanthus, Begonia, Evansiana, 
Commelina, Gardenia, Melaleuca, Neurumbergia 



92 



HUGO MDHL OK CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 



Phoenicia, Double Pomegranate, Psidium Catleya- 
num. Cape Trumpet Flower (Bignonia Capensis), 
Tuoma Capensis, Single Oleander, Double Red and 
White Oleander, Verbenum, Fuchsia, Calceolaria, 
Double Nasturtium, Metrosideros, Jasmine, Mela- 
leuca, Chironia, Agapanthus, Balsams, Ice Plant, 
and the whole tribe of tender Annuals. 



Shrubs. 
Roses*, Yellow Broom, Spanish Broom, Aristo- 
lochia (a beautiful Climber), Azilia, Rhododen- 



dron, American Canothus, Virginian Ilex, St. John's 
Wort, Cytisus Capitalis, Double Bramble (Wiite 
and red). Lupine tree, Menziesia, Buddlea, Myrtles, 
Jasmines, &c. 



Climbers. 

Japan and Chinese Honey-Suckles, Passion 
Flower, Clematis, Eccremorcarpus. 

We cau with confidence recommend the work to 
all those who amuse themselves, and improve their 
taste, by rearing flowers. 



ON THE FORMATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE SPORES IN CRYPTOGAMOUS 

PLANTS. 

BY M. HUGO MOHL, M.D. 



Authors have endeavoured to compare the spores 
of cryptogamous plants to the seeds of phaneroga- 
mous plants, attributing merely a more simple struc- 
ture to the former. One of the chief causes of the 
numerous errors committed in this view of the sub- 
ject arises from the spores not being examined at 
the first moment of their evolution. Recent expe- 
riments have taught us, that we cannot have a cor- 
rect knowledge of this structure, except by a minute 
investigation of the nascent seed (Ovulum). Now, 
M. Mohl has shewn that it is also necessary to 
follow this rule in cryptogamous plants ; but there 
is a great difficulty in this examination arising from 
the organs of fructification in these plants being so 
very small. 

The author has chosen, in commencing his ex- 
periments, a plant which presents these organs of a 
large dimension : it is the Riccia glauca. Its re- 
ceptacle {sporangium) is globular formed of longish 
cells, with thin coats full of the germs of chlorophyll; 
it is concealed in the leaf (frond) ; when it begins 
to develope itself, it is found fullof globular vesicles, 
formed of a thin and colourless membrane. These 
vesicles inclose a thick and granular liquor, that 
separates itself slowly into four parts, whence it 
covers itself with a very thin membrane. By the 
pressure that these four small parts exercise mu- 
tually the one upon the other, their forms become 
that of a pyramid, blunt and three angled ; the face 
turned against the sides of the vesicle becomes con- 
vex. The author imposes upon this the name of 
the tetrahedrous union (tetraedrische vereinigung). 
As the granules attain the size of the spores and 
come to maturity, the shells in which they are 
formed disappear entirely, at a point where we can 
discern no trace of them ; at the same time it pro- 
duces upon the exterior of the thin and uniform 
membrane which covers the spores, another mem- 



brane formed from the small cells, which takes at its 
maturity a dark brownish tint. The substance en- 
closed in the spores then becomes oilj''. 

The same phenomena are observed in the spores 
of Anthoceros. Among the mother cells is found a 
net of saw-toothed longish cells. These form, when 
they become shrivelled, after the disappearance of 
the mother cells, the bodies to which Hedwig gives 
the name of Elateres (spore-hairs). In the Antho- 
ceros, however, this organ does not present a point, 
as in the JungermminicB and the Marchantia, 
threads spirally twisted, which the author terms' 
mother cells (MiUter-Zellen). The examination 
of the large species of the genus Jungermanniee pre- 
sents a structure similar, in all respects, to that of 
Riccia. As the spores not evolved are found in 
the mother cells, the spore-hairs (elateres) are pre- 
sented under the form of spindle-shaped cells, of 
which the interior is filled with very small granules 
of starch ; these granules disappear about maturity , 
and the spore-hairs (elateres J are presented under 
the appearance of threads in a spiral form. This 
observation demonstrates the error of those who 
have believed that they have seen each spore at- 
tached to a spore-hair as in the funicle. In the 
Jungerviannice epiphylla, the spores united in four, 
differ from the ordinary form in that they are egg- 
oblong, and in that they do not touch except in one 
part of their surface. The granules enclosed in the 
spores, not yet mature, are of a green colour, as in 
the other species of the same genus. The figures 
which M. Corda has published in the Flora Ger- 
mania of Sturm, the Marcliantia, Grimaldia dicho- 
toma, Consinia, Targiona, Blasia, and the like 
prove the identity of the structure of these plants 
with those examined by Dr. Mohl. 

The Ferns are very similar to those plants which 
we have just had under consideration. The young 



Although the greater part of the Rose tribe flowers has passed away with the last month, there are many varieties of the 
Chinese, Bourbon, Musk, and Damask species, still in bloom. 



HUGO MOHL ON CRYPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 



93 



Capsule is, like that oi Riccia, entirely filled with 
round mother cells. Towards maturity, these mo- 
ther cells disappear, and the spores occupy the in- 
terior of the capsule, without being as yet fastened 
among them, and without presenting much of an 
enveloping membrane, which is found to cover 
verj' slowly a second. This new membrane, how- 
ever, does not in all the species present the same 
structure. In some, it is formed of very small dis- 
tinct cells ; in others, it presents an organization 
entirely homogeneous ; behind them is covered the 
granules in form of papillpe in the Pteris crispa, 
Davallia canariensis, Osmunda regalis, Polypo- 
dium vu/gare, P. aureum, P. calcareum, P. rhceti- 
cuin, and Cheilanthes odora. In other species, these 
granules are prolonged into small needle-formed 
bodies, as in Aspilnium Breynii, P olypodium Lon- 
chitis, P. aculealum, P. fragile. In others, in fine, 
they are fastened and extremely small : as in Stru- 
thiopteris, Doodia aspera, P olypodium fUix-fcemina, 
Pteris atropurpurea, Pt. longifolia, Pt. serrulata, 
Pt. cretica, and Aorosticlrum alcicorne. A great 
number of Ferns exhibit the spores in three angled 
pyramids rounded at their base ; in others, these 
present a different form somewhat oval, proceeding 
from their position in the mother cell. It is evi- 
dently the fact, that the form which the spores 
ordinarily assume, is owing to the pressure they 
exercise the one against the other. In Osmundacecs, 
the author has found the structure of the Polypo- 
diacea ; for example, in the Osmunda regalis, and 
O. speciosa Wall ; Mertensia gigarUea, Gleiohenia 
microphylla, Lygodiiim polymorphum, and Merten- 
sia pubescens. At the same time, four species of 
Anemia examined by M. Mohl, presented a struc- 
ture of the spores a little different. The examina- 
tion of the LycopodiacecE presented entirely similar 
results. In the Lycopodium Selago, the capsules 
ought to be examined two years before their ma- 
turity, while they are still imperceptible to the naked 
eye. The mother cells swim in a mucilaginous and 
granulous liquor, and resemble small vesicles. The 
following year, the mother cells have filled already 
the whole cavity of the capsule, and the surrounding 
liquor has disappeared. We can already perceive 
sometimes the four parts of the tetrahedrons union 
separated. The author notes, also the differences to 
be observed in the structure of the envelopes in the 
different species of Lycopodia. 

The reproductive organs of Marsilea and of 
Pilularia, are produced equally by four in the 
mother cells which disappear more slowly ; they are 
envelopes of two membranes, and are filled with an 
oily and grumous substance. Without venturing to 
decide upon tlieir true nature, the author is clearly 
of opinion that they cannot be considered as grains 
of the pollen, since at the perfect maturity of the 
spores they are still enclosed in cavities, which are 
termed anthers, and which do not present any change 



analogous to those which occur in the Phanero- 
gamia, at the epoch when their fecundating func- 
tions are terminated. 

The same uncertainty continues to govern the 
functions of the analogous granules of Isoetes. 
According to the observations of Wahlenberg, the 
two species of granules are developed by four in 
the mother cells. The Salvinia presents on analogy 
sufficiently far from the spores of Marsilea and of 
Pilularia. The Equisetacece show a still further 
removal. 

The spores of the Mosses grow in a similar man- 
ner with the cells of the Hepalicce and of the 
Ferns ; but to discover these we ought to proceed 
to an examination of the capsule in its early growth. 
The Splachnum gracile, for example, examined at 
the period when the capsule -bulge (apophysis^ 
commences only to inflate itself, presents the spores 
already disseminated between the pillar (^columella) 
and the interior membrane of the capsule. A very 
thick liquor shows the nascent state of diiferent parts 
shut up in the capsule ; the manner in which these 
are composed is described in detail. The author 
has been able to convince himself with certainty, 
that in this Moss the number of spores enclosed in 
one mother cell cannot be more than four. He 
has seen distinctly that which he calls the tetra- 
hedrons union in the Neckera viticulosa, Polytri- 
chum aloides, Orthotrichum crispum, and the like. 
The excessive smallness of the greater part of the 
spores of Mosses opposes a serious obstacle to a 
correct acquaintance with their structure. This 
inconvenience disappears especially in the Meesia 
uliginosa, where these present an outer coloured 
membrane, translucent, grumous, easily detaching 
itself ; the interior membrane being very thin and 
colourless. 

The spores of the Mosses are developed in a hol- 
low of the pillar {columella'). Here the author adds 
some observations upon this latter organ. Palisot 
de Beauvois has admitted that the spores of Mosses 
formed in the interior of the pillar {columella'), and 
that the granules placed between the pillar and the 
interior capsular membrane, ought to be considered 
as the pollen. 

M Mohl enters very minutely into the interior 
structure of the capsule ; he demonstrates the ho- 
mogeneity of the interior capsular membrane, and 
of the pillar. He admits besides of the resemblance 
between this membrane and the interior brim, 
{peristoma) of certain Mosses. 

The author still continues to speak of the forma- 
tion of the spores in the Lichens, with the intention 
in a second memoir to treat of the less perfect cryp- 
togamous plants. If in their organs of fructification 
the Lichens present that which the author calls 
mother cells, there however exists this difference, 
that in the shields {scutella) of the Lichens, these 
cells do not develope themselves, nor are they all 



94 



HUGO MOHI, ON CRTPTOGAMOUS PLANTS. 



ripe at the same time ; they are not effaced at the 
maturity of the spores ; they exist still after the 
entire evolution of these, and replace in some degree 
the receptacle (sporangium) which is wanting in 
the Lichens ; their walls besides are very thick. 
The mother cells are in the beginning full of a thick 
grumous mass, which undergoes a slow change 
into spores with a very thin membrane ; but the 
number four is no longer observable; they are 
much more numerous in each cell, ordinarily they 
are to the number of eight ; in the Usnea barbata, 
the cells are simple, they are composed of cells 
united in a straight line, and to the number of two 
in the Borrera ciliaris, of four in the Peltigera 
resupinata, and six in P. ?'M/eicew^, from twelve to 
sixteen in Arthonia mellosa, Eschweiler. It appears 
general, that in this family the number of cells 
which constitute one mother cell, are the multiples 
of four, namely: 8, 16,32 (64?), 96, 128. Ordi- 
narily the spores are so very small that we can 
make no correct examination of their structure. 
They appear formed of a thin interior membrane, 
colourless, and of another external, sometimes 
slightly granular. Frequently they enclose a drop 
of oil, which we find sometimes, (as in the Borrera 
ciliaris,^ across the membrane which covers it. 

At the conclusion of this exposition, the author 
traces a parallel between the spores of cryptoga- 
mous plants, and the nascent seeds (ovula) of 
phanerogamous plants, such as these observations 
have a tendency to explain. These are the more 
important results of this comparative examination ; 
if the nascent seed (^ovula) of phanorogamous plants 
is by reason of its verge (trophosperm) much more 
a scion than a real eg^, it is not the same case in 
the Cryptogamia ; their spores are developed in- 
dependently of the capsular wall, they swim in a 
liquor with which the cavity is found to be filled ; 
they do not show any organic structure, and they 
acquire but by slow degrees a distinct individuality. 

Their affinity with the animal egg is then very 
conspicuous. The intimate conformation of the 



spores does not present the less difference ; the 
membranes in which they are enveloped grow only 
after their contents ; this last, however, the deve- 
lopment of the membranes, lose all organic struc- 
ture and changes itself into an oily liquor, in which 
there cannot be discovered the slightest trace 
of future plants. We see then, that the spores 
do not lead by any means to the comparison, 
either with the entire seeds of phanerogamous 
plants, or with some one of their parts. The opinions 
of Treviranus, of Fischer, and Agardh on this 
subject, are refuted by M. Mohl. He equally rebuts 
in a lengthened detail, the theory of Turpin and 
Raspail on the development of vegetable matter. 
If we bring forward an organ of phanerogamous 
plants with which we can compare the spores of 
cryptogamous plants, we find that the development 
as such that the conformation of these last present 
a greater analogy with the organization of poUinic 
granules. The pollen, like the spores, developes 
itself in the interior of the cells which disappear at 
its maturity. We find the same numerical relations 
in them, the greater part of phanerogamous plants 
present the tetrahedrous union ; rarely their pollen 
is in a parallel position ; interior, tender, uniform ; 
the exterior of a large consistence, sometimes cellu- 
lar, sometimes granular, smooth, or well covered 
with needle-formed bodies. We know that M. M. ■ 
Turpin and Agardh have considered the spores as 
the grains of the pollen, and they attribute to them 
in a series of the vegetable creation of male func- 
tions, and in the other of female functions. M. Mohl 
combats these errors, and the contradictions that 
these explications present as to the morphological 
analogies proposed by Agardh in his Biology of 
plants ; and he terminates his important memoir in 
indicating the differential points depending in the 
germination of seeds, and development of spores. 
The two plates which accompany the memoir of 
M. Mohl, are very well executed, and greatly assist 
the understanding of the reader. 



SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF FALLOWING. 

Fro7>i the Editor'' s Hand Book of Allotment of Agriculture.-^ Just Published. 



Fallowing, is the ploughing or digging successively 
for six or nine months, without having any crop on 
the ground. The effects of fallowing, are founded 
on the same principles as that of the rotation of 
crops. The slimy excrementitious matter, left in 
the soil by previous crops, being exposed by turning 
it up to the sunlight, and the passing air becomes 
decomposed, or exhaled in the form of vapour. 

This simple explanation, gets rid at once of all the 
various conflicting opinions about the effects of 
fallows. The only plausible advantage of fallows, 
usually stated, is the getting clear of weeds ; but 



this is a very minor matter, compared with the ex- 
pulsion of the excrementitious slime. It wiU also, 
on the principles now I believe published for the 
first time, be evident, that what is termed a turnip 
fallow, is as absurd in principle, as it has been 
found to be bad in practice ; for no sort of crop 
which keeps sunlight from the ground, can ever 
answer the purpose, though it may help to clear 
away weeds ; and, for the same reason, one week 
of bright summer sunlight, is worth ten of winter 
exposure. 



95 



NEW RESEARCHES UPON THE STRUCTURE OF THE OUTER BARK (EPIDERMIS) 

OF PLANTS. 

By M. Adolphe Brongniart. 



The outer bark which covers the several organs of 
plants, and particularly the leaves, has already been 
the object of numerous observations, because this 
outer bark presents rather a complex structure, and 
because all those who study vegetable physiology 
have felt that the exact knowledge of this their 
outer bark, is very important in estimating the mode 
of action in the organs which it covers. 

In a former essay upon the anatomy of leaves, I 
quoted the principal opinions of botanists upon 
their structure, and advanced some new observa- 
tions in support of that which considers the outer 
bark (epidermis) as a simple layer of utricvda, dif- 
fering by their form from those which compose the 
subjacent parenchyma, without any mixture of ves- 
sels, and present from distance to distance the co- 
verings which form the stomata. 

I have lately observed, however, that by macera- 
tion we can separate from the surface of the leaves 
of the cabbage, a very fine pellicle, without any 
sign of cellular organization, and in which the 
stomata do not appear any thing more than as simple 
coverings in form of a button-hole. 

At this moment, not having leisure to repeat this 
observation on other leaves, and after a maceration 
more or less prolonged, I have hesitated to admit 
this pellicle as a component part of the outer bark 
of all plants ; but I have already remarked, as 
many of the figures which I have published , lead to the 
conclusion, that the utricula, which, disposed in a 
single layer, constitute ordinarily the outer bark, 
present a thicker coat on the external surface than 
on the other sides, such as may be conceived by 
their union with a simple pellicle, that would 
have covered them externally. 

Desiring to elucidate this question, I renewed 
these observations during the summer of 1832 ; I 
examined, by maceration, a great number of leaves 
of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, and 
I convinced myself, by this procedure, of the general 
existence of a very fine superficial pellicle, which 
covers the external surface of the cellular layer of 
the outer bark. 

It is sufficient to be convinced of the existence 
of this membrane and its independence of those 
utricula, which constitute the more internal layer of 
the outer bark, to macerate leaves in pure water for 
a longer or shorter time, according to the nature of 
the leaf and the state of the atmosphere. 

In examining from time to time the leaves in 
such a state of maceration, we can easily perceive 
that the parenchyma alters first, the outer bark is 



detached and is raised ; but at this epoch there is 
sometimes no sensible difference from that which 
takes place mechanically upon the fresh leaf ; but in 
general it becomes a little less transparent. In fine, 
sometimes in five or six days, but more frequently 
in ten or twelve days, we can easily, with a needle, 
derange, scatter, and completely raise the vitricula, 
which, by their drawing nearer, formed the very 
varied net-work of the outer bark. 

We know that, in general, these utricula form 
only a single layer ; but following the species, they 
are formed very different; in monocotyledonous 
plants, with parallel ribs, they are lengthened, and 
have parallel edges ; in dicotyledonous plants they 
are generally angular, and at the edge they become 
sinuous. When these utricula are thus detached by 
maceration, they still perfectly preserve their primi- 
tive form, only the angles are rather round, and the 
flat surfaces which terminate them when they have 
become intimately united among these, are found 
more or less convex. 

These utricula are for the most part completely 
transparent and without any trace of organized 
matter in their interior ; in other cases, we can dis- 
cover sometimes small irregular granules. 

The detachment of these utricula of the outer 
bark is effected with the same facility when this 
membrane is formed of many layers of cells. 

After having thus raised these utricula, we see 
that there remains a very small continuous mem- 
brane which forms the external surface of the outer 
bark. This membrane is sometimes perfectly trans- 
parent, colourless, or of a very pale greyish tint, we 
cannot discover any indication of organization, or 
only light traces of lines of junction of these utri- 
cula, forming a net-work scarcely distinct, and ge- 
nerally very transparent. 

These light traces also disappear when we pro- 
long the maceration a little longer. 

In other cases, this membrane puts on a granular 
texture very conspicuous, as we perceive in the 
outer bark of the carnation and of the Agapanthus. 
It may be, that this granulation results from the 
disjunction of the granules, of which we can sup- 
pose that this membrane is formed ; it may be, that 
these granules come before an interposed particular 
matter between the superficial pellicle and the sub- 
jacent cellular layer ; the opinion which seems to 
me most satisfactoiy is, that all the membranes of 
the outer bark do not present this granular aspect, 
as we observe in the lily, garlic, iris, day-hly, cab- 
bage, beet, and the like. In all the cases where I 



96 



NEW RESEARCHES UPON THE STRUCTURE OF THE OUTER BARK (ePIDERMIS) OF PLANTS. 



have found this membrane offer thus a gramilar 
aspect, these granules fail in the points which cor- 
respond to lines of junction of the utricula of the 
outer bark, in order that the superficial pellicle, 
detached from these utricula, may present still an 
analogous net- work to that produced by their lines 
of junction, but formed by these lines deprived of 
the granules, and more transparent, absolutely as if 
this granulation had been the adherence of these 
utricula to the superficial membrane. 

If the maceration has been prolonged for a con- 
siderable time, the utricula are detached of them- 
selves ; they are decomposed, or else float more or 
less altered in the liquid ; and the pellicle, in ge- 
neral, does not present any trace of net-work pro- 
duced by the cells, nor any kind of structure dis- 
coverable by a microscope. 

All the outer barks which I have thus treated by 
maceration, have presented me this organization, 
which I believe to be general ; but this pellicle under 
the outer bark, and of which I have just indicated 
the existence in all outer barks composed of leaves 
living in the air, appears to me to exist also in sub- 
merged aquatic leaves, which are destitute of the 
layer of colourless cells, which ordinarily constitute 
the outer bark. 

If we place in water the leaves of Potamogeton 
lucens, after a very long continued maceration (con- 
tinued for three months in my experiments), we 
perceived that there was separated from the surface 
of these leaves a pellicle almost colourless, trans- 
parent, not granular, presenting reticulated lines 
which correspond to those separations of the utri- 
cula of the green parenchyma, which are found im- 
mediately in contact with this pellicle. In the pre- 
paration of Potamogeton of which I have spolien, 
these utricula were full of green matter, more or 
less_ altered, being, in many points, still applied 
against the pellicle, but could easily be deranged or 
raised by very slight drawing, and we distinctly dis- 
cern their relation with the superficial net-work. 

_Mr. Henslow, of Cambridge, has recognized the 
existence of a similar membrane upon the outer bark 
of the corolla, of the filaments of the stamens, and 
of the pistil of the Digitalis. It was separated 
from these subjacent cells by maceration in nitric 
acid. 

I believe, in fine, that this is the same pellicle 
which covers certain stigmata, as I have indicated 
in those of Nymphcea and Ni/ctago, in my researches 
upon the generation of these plants. 

We find, then, that the existence of this simple 
pellicle, without appreciable organization, is a ge- 
neral fact ; that it covers all the organs, with the 
exception of the extremities of spongelets, of the 
root, and for the most part of the stigmata, organs 
in which the utricula, almost free from deep-seated 
tissue, come to project upon the external surface. 



This is, then, a general envelope, a continuance of 
the whole part, and extends almost over the whole 
surface of the plant. It is probably owing to this 
that the outer bark owes, in a great measure, its 
being so little altered by the action of external 
agents ; fur in these macerations, it resisted for a 
much longer time than the other parts, and often 
when the leaf was entirely reduced to a sort of un- 
formed and fetid pulp, we find still this pellicle 
formed at the largest laminse scarcely altered. 

This method of analyzing the outer bark in thus 
separating the different parts of which it is com- 
posed, may be also of some service in elucidating 
the structure of the stomata ; and all the observa- 
tions I have made upon this subject confirm the 
existence of a real longish opening in the middle of 
each of these organs. The superficial pellicle, se- 
parated from the cellular layer, presents these aper- 
tures perfectly transparent, well limited, and which 
offer no trace of a granular texture which we ob- 
serve in the pellicle itself; the membrane will then 
completely fail in this point. 

The two moon-shaped utricula which border the 
interior of the orifice of the stomata, are separated 
equally by maceration. We thus, also, isolate the 
different elements constituting the outer bark, and 
we can understand that it is formed in the four fol- 
lowing ways. 

1. Of a simple superficial pellicle, continuing with- 
out an appreciable textvire, or having a granular 
appearance, pierced with longish apertures, which 
correspond with the middle of the stomata. 

2. Of a layer or of many layers of utricula, of 
different forms, following the species which we 
study, disposed with regvilarity intimately united 
among them, and generally filled with a colourless 
liquid. 

3. Of longish utricula, arched in the form of a 
crescent, united two by two, between the concave 
sides of which is found a space corresponding to 
the aperture of the superficial pellicle, and consti- 
tuting the stomata. 

4. In fine, this superficial pellicle exists only and 
without an opening at the surface of aquatic leaves, 
in which it covers immediately the green paren- 
chyma. 

We find that these observations in a great mea- 
sure confirm the two opinions which we have gene- 
rally advanced upon the outer bark ; the one 
considering it as constituted of a simple pel- 
licle; the other admitting that it cannot be formed 
without a layer of utricula of a special form; at 
length the ordinary outer bark, on aerial leaves, is 
composed of a cellular layer and of a simple pellicle, 
which covers this cellular layer and is closely united 
with it, a pellicle which exists only on submerged 
leaves, and which I had at first thought to be desti- 
tute of this organ. 



97 
MR. CONDUCTOR LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENERS. 

BY CHRISTOPHER NORTH, ESQ. OF BUCHANAN LODGE. 



Fitte the Second. 



While the journeyman gardener is thus making himself ac- 
quainted, to the degree that circumstances may permit, " with 
the whole cycle of human knowledge," the indefatigable book- 
borrower has not been neglectful of personal accomplishments, 
which !Mr. Loudon classes under the following grand divisions 
— "Dancing, fencing, boxing, w'restling, the infantry manual 
exercise, whist, backgammon, and the fiddle." Of these, he 
considers, " dancing, boxing, and the fiddle, as the most essen- 
tial objects. In most country places, these and all the other 
acquirements may be learned from retired valets, old soldiers, 
or from some of the servants in a great family, <d an easy rate." 
They may be paid for in vegetables. 

Dancing, and the manual exercise, are particularly useful, 
Mr. Loudon thinks, as improving the gait of a gardener, " and 
habituating him to good postures, both in standing ajid sitting." 
He looks like an old soldier. We fear that retired valets are 
seldom good hands at the boxing-gloves, and seldomer with the 
naked mawlies ; and that a yokel in a turn-up at a fair has a 
better chance of flooring his man, by his own natural way of 
fighting, whatever that may be, than by the pseudo-science 
taught him by my Lord's gentleman. In the ring, " a little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing;" and there is nothing, with 
the uniniti.n.ted into the greater mysteries, like good round hit- 
ting, closing, and hugging, with an occasional, and perhaps acci- 
dental and unaccountable cress buttock. Let the gardener, say 
w^e, eschew fighting altogether ; if wantonly attacked, let him 
use the blackthorn, hitting fearlessly at the head ; and if his 
heart be in the right place, by using that simple recipe, he will 
down half-a-dozen gypsies. Against the fiddle we have nothing 
to say — except the Scotch one — and in lieu of it we beg to sub- 
stitute the bagpipe. We can say little or nothing in favour of 
cards. We hate the whole pack. Mr. Loudon, however, thinks 
whist "an essential accomplishment of every man who would 
find his way in society in England, where conversation is not 
nearly so well understood as on the Continent, and therefore, 
less relied on, for passing the time agreeably." 

An easy, graceful, and yet manly action is to be attained by 
the young gardener, as we have seen, by the practice of dancing 
and the manual exercise ; but these are insufficient to give him 
a good address. He is therefore " to read Lord Chesterfield, 
guarding against those slips of the pen where he seems to re- 
commend impurity and deception." And he can only acquire 
"a gracious and polite manner of speaking by much reading, 
and by attending to the language of ladies and gentlemen, fre- 
quenters of polished society." Much depends upon the proper 
management of the muscles of the face. A gai'dener must not 
be a gawky. Now our physiognomist has noticed, " that the 
features of the face may be set" to any emotion, so that "if the 
muscles of the face are put in training by a gardener at the 
commencement of his apprenticeship, almost any thing may be 
done with them, as in the case of comedians." Should he tire 
of his profession, he may go upon the stage, and a Matthews, 
a Yates, or a John Reeve, be found in every provincial theatre. 
Yet we find " that a gardener's object should be less the power 
of varying them than of giving a set expression of animation, 
joined to a degree of satisfaction ; this medium or central dispo- 
sition he can occasionally alter to that of pleasure on the one 
hand, or disapprobation on the other, as circumstances require." 
The art of conversation, so flourishing on the Continent, being 
little understood here, " consisting, in ordinary society, in tire- 
some relations as to the party or their affairs, attempts to ob- 
tain victory in argument, &c." Mr. Lotulon has devised a scheme 

M.\C-AZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO,. 



for the cultivation of conversation, as a delightful art, which we 
hope will not be confined to gardeners, but extended to all man- 
kind. "Three or four gardeners, all eager for improvement, 
might practise conversation on this principle, by assembling 
occasionally, and either conversing as equals, or, for the sake 
of variety, assuming characters. Two, for example, may take 
the part of the parents of a family, one or two as strangers on 
a visit to them, and the rest as children, and so on. The party 
might first produce that sort of family wrangling and snarling, 
which commonly occurs at firesides, as the conversation to be 
avoided ; and next a conversation as it ought to be, or as each 
gardener would desire to have it in his own family." In short, 
all having already put the muscles of their face in training, and 
being excellent comedians, they are to have private theatricals, 
at one another's houses, at which will be enacted extemporary 
domestic dramas, such as the Spoiled Child, the Brawling Bro- 
thers, the Scolding Wife, Who's Papa, and My Uncle. There 
are few stronger innate principles in human nature than "a 
pawpensity for the dwama;" and we have only to hope that uo 
beak will interfere with so moral and intellectual an entertain- 
ment, no money, we presume, being taken at the door, and the 
most delicate female parts being performed by stout yormg gar- 
deners. 

There are, Mr. Loudon tells us, two things in conduct which 
the gardener ought most particularly to avoid— familiarity and 
cupidity. Nothing more odious than familiarity, nor a more 
certain mark, he says, of low birth and breeding. Really, as to 
low birth, there is no need to sneer at it here, for few gardeners 
are what is called gentlemen born — though many of them are, 
in the best sense of the word, gentlemen. Low birth and low 
bi-eeding generally go together, such is the lot of man. And 
we must not be offended by the familiarity of the vulgar, but 
make allowances for the manners of well-meaning people, whom 
Providence has made delvers and ditchers. " A low ignorant 
man," quoth Mr. Loudon, " if he receive the slightest civilities 
from a superior, immediately conceives the latter has a particu- 
lar friendship for him, and even endeavours to turn this friend- 
ship to advantage, by asking to borrow money to forward him- 
self in business, or requesting a place under government, or a 
pension." And pray, why not try to borrow money as well as 
books? A place under government is a more serious affair, but 
as for a pension, if the man be an old soldier or sailor, and have 
a wooden leg, he enjoys one already ; and if he he sound, wind 
and limb, he is probably on the parish. You may, in most 
cases, put him off' with half-a-crown ; but it is not so easy to 
get rid of the fair sex. For Mr. Loudon assures us, that " if a 
gentleman, or indeed any man, notices a low familiar woman, 
the latter immediately concludes he is in love with her." Very 
likely, if the notice taken of her chance to be in a wood, and 
consist in chucking her under the chin. But then the famili- 
arity is first committed by the gentleman, or any otlier man, 
and he must abide the result. On the high-road, or m the har- 
vest-field, or in the churchyard, "on the skaleing o' the kirk," 
or at the cottage-door, surely you may " notice a low familiar 
woman," without inspiring her with a sudden belief that you 
are the victim of passion for her charms, and will never rest 
tm you have effected her ruin, or made her your wife. Few 
men of our years are more likely to kindle a flame in the sus- 
ceptible bosom than Christopher North ; few men of any years 
more suave to the sex. Yet we have noticed hundreds, aye, 
thousands, of maids, wives, and widows, of low birth and low 
breeding, who dropped us a curtsy, and asked us " to come ben 

XVI. — JULY, 1834. ^ 



98 



LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENEaS. 



the house and taste," without seeming, so far as was known to 
us, simple souls, to suspect us of being over head and ears in 
love with them, though we confess our crutch has occasionally 
heen spirited away in a most miraculous manner, found next 
morning by "the auld wife ayont the fire," behind a cabinet in 
the spence, and delivered to us, without explanation, embroid- 
ered with a spider's web, and in the web the spider. 

"A well informed and polite man," says our sage, "is not 
familiar with any one." What sayest thou to that doctrine, 
dear Charles Lamb? Where are gone " all the familiar faces !" 
The well-informed and polite man, Mr. Loudon tells us, is not 
familiar with any one, " because he knows that if he were to lay 
bare every thing respecting himself, he would lessen respect." 
There is no occasior; to lay bare every thing, not even when you 
bathe in loch or river ; but why sTich fear of lessening respect? 
We have some friends — three, or perhaps four — whom we love 
like uterine brothers — but, thank God, we know them too well, 
and they know us too well, to allow the possibility of muti'.;l 
respect. For half a century and upwards we have been as fami- 
liar as trees composing one clump on the hill-side — or as clouds 
brought into union by heaven's own breath " frae a' the airts 
the wind can blaw," and allowed to settle down on a bright 
blue spot of sky, for an hour of profound and perfect peace ! 
Respect! Away with it to hypocrites or self-deceivers. Bat ours 
be the bond and balm of life — the Christian virtue that is born 
in the freedom of the heart — fearing nothing, suspecting nothing; 
but, like a bird on the bough, or a flower on the brae, singing 
and smiling, for its own sweet sake, as if there were neither sin 
nor son-ow on all this earth — and that is Love — the same love 
that was in the heart of Cain before he came to envy Abel, and 
while yet he saw, without anger, the smoke of the sacrifice 
ascending from that iiiral altar, " and blessed the brotherwhom 
ere long he slew !" 

But what saith Mr. Loudon on cupidity? That is out of the 
<|Uestion with a well-informed and polite man. And why? Be- 
cause he knows mankind too well to suppose they will give him 
a valuable thing merely because he asks it ; but even if there 
were a chance of getting it in this way, still he would not ask, 
because he might be asked something more valuable in return." 
Hobbism is heard in all its hardness but from the jaws of a 
thorough-going Scotsman. No Englishman of the selfish school 
could have made such a barefaced avowal as this of the princi- 
ple of his moral creed. His own pride would have been offended 
by such a direct and explicit confession of his own meanness ; 
and were the words set down for him, we can fancy we see 
John Bull trampling upon and tossing them, with fire-eyed 
disdain, like his namesake, more wrathful than seems reason- 
able with the toggery of a tailor, who is taking a swim with his 
friends the frogs. 

Mr. Loudon, however, makes some amends for his enun- 
ciation of such despicable doctrine, by a good remark and 
pleasing illustration on the subject of "judicious restraint." 
" A man properly under its influence," he finely says, " may 
be compared to a well-trained tree ; and as this figaire is fami- 
liar to the young gardener, it may be well for him frequently 
to ask himself, whether, supposing he were a cherry-tree, he 
would be reckoned one finely spread against a wall, or an un- 
pruncd standard." Fairest and gentlest of readers, that ever 
dropped a tear on page of Maga, or illumined it with a smile, 
what sayest thou ? Wouldst thou, supposing thy sweet self to 
be a cherry-tree, be one finely spread against a wall, or an un- 
pruned standard ? Oh ! not for all the suns and systems in 
the universe would We see thee finely spread against a wall ! 
Thy tender trunk trained up from childhood in the way it 
should go, anil from which no liberty is left it to depart wlien 
it is old — thy delicate limbs, spread eaglewise, fastened with 
rusty nails and bits of musty fiannel to the unfeeling bricks 1 
All the rounded proportions of thy naturally graceful figure 
flattened into a pancake — or say, rather, a fan, unfolded for 
ever, yet flirted net at all ! What, though by this process 



thou art made to bear show-cherries like plums ? Alas ! alas ! 
love sickens and dies at sight of the long, lank, productive 
espalier ! But love springs again to life at the airy whisper of 
that exquisite unpruned standard, blushing yonder with blos- 
soms that look as if they were composed of snow and fire, 
blended in wondrous union by the cieative and reconciling 
spring. We clasp her stem that softens in our embrace, and 
thrills to our passion, while from each core expires a long- 
draAvn mutual sigh. We release her — oh ! sweet Helen tree— 
from our imaginary marriage, and retiring a few steps, that 
she may have room to display herself all abroad, on the green- 
sward of the sunny glade, an island in the wood, we gaze on 
the virgin glory till our soul assimilates itself to the sight, that 
fills it through a thousand eyes — and oh ! metamorphosis divine, 
transfig-ured are we into a stately young male cherry-tree, 
while all the birds of the morning break out into a nijptial 
song, and so closely intertwined are now our branches, that the 
sun himself knows not how to distinguish our blossoms, and is 
pleased to see the loving confusion every moment coloured 
brighter and brighter with beauty born of bliss ; nor can the 
clouds themselves, who come floating along from the orient to 
adore and worship, either abate or bedim the still unsubdiieti 
splendctir of that onc-in-two and two-in-one unpruned standaril 
Cherry-Tree. 

Supposing a young gardener to have obtained a tolerably 
good situation at home, and to have proved it for a year or 
two, Mr. Loudon says he should set about two things; " the 
first is saving money, and the second is entering into the mar- 
riage state." He treats us with two tables of calculations, 
showing how an industrious, suceessfnl, and money-loving 
gardener may, at fifty, purchase no trifling annuity for two 
lives — his own and his wife's — and thereby continue to jog on 
comfortably to the end. We have nothing to object to these 
tables, except that they leave us rather in the dark as to Mr. 
Loudon's opinions on marriage. He is manifestly a Malthu- 
sian, and speaks with fear and trembling, as well he may, of 
what he calls " thoughtless and unmeasured procreation." But 
here is the concluding paragraph of his treatise on the educa- 
tion of gardeners : — 

" The vulgar reason why a young man ought to save money 
is, that he may get together as much as may enable him to 
collect some furnittire and get married. This, however, may 
be called saving to produce want and tnisciTr. A young couple , 
eager to get the use of each other's persons, will not be veiy 
nice in the quantity or quality of their furniture. All they 
consider necessary is, accordingly, often got before either are 
twenty. Housekeeping and propagation are commenced ; and 
thus the foundation laid of a life of hard labour, scanty food, 
and their attendants, bad temper, and often disease. After 
twenty-flve years of bustle aud distraction, nine or ten children 
have been produced, and are most probably growing up in rags 
and ignorance ; and all that this couple can say is, that they 
have struggled hard to create nine times as much misery as 
that by which they arc oppressed. If the man had limited 
himself for twenty-five years to making the hesds of pins, he 
might have accumulated as much as would have made him iji- 
dependent and comfortable, and still had sufficient time berore 
him to marry, and enjoy the comfort and solace of a wife and 
children. But the use of a wife to a gardener, rndto every 
man who is not independent, ought to be chiefly as the operative 
partner in his domestic economy ; to prepare his food, and keep 
in order his lodging aud clothes. If, in addition to these duties, 
she has cultivated, or will cultivate her mind, so as to become 
interesting as a companion, so much the better ; and if the 
parties further think that they can attain their object of inde- 
pendence, and rear one or two ciiildren, let them do so. Uni- 
versal sources of happiness should never be rejected when tliey 
can be retained." 

Mr. Loudon seems to us to have here huddled together all 
the most loathsome language of the anti-propagationisti — and. 



LOUDON ON THE EDUCATION OF GARDENERS. 



99 



therefore, he must strip aad submit his back to the knout. 
He speaks like a vulgar fellow, when he speaks " of a youn^ 
couple eager to get the use of ea(;h other's persons." Were that 
ail they wore eager about, they would not " wait to collect some 
furniture." But eveu if it were, let uot this elderly man, by such 
coarse and hateful words, show himself no better than a monk. 
He should remember, that in the young, even aiiimal passion itself 
is commonly accompanied with feelings and fancies that are not 
auimal — and that t!ie most ignorant, coarse, and clownish lout 
of a clod-hopper, notwithstanding all his grinning, may be se- 
riously in love with a sweetheart whom it is hardly possible for 
us to look at without laughter, presenting, as she does, so rare 
an assemblage of all that is most ludicrous in nature and in art. 
Yet tUe poor creatures are Oiristiaus — they havo been married 
this very day in a church — and, after a supper provided for a few 
friends, of beans and bacon, and a gallon or two of cider, they 
will .CO to bed— now husband and wife — and rising thankfully, 
long before Mr, Loudon, go together to their work. They con- 
trive to continue in the same cottage, and have childi-en, some of 
whom die, and are biiried with some expense and some grief — 
others live, sometimes behaving well, and sometimes very ill 
indeed — and there is scolding, squalling, culhng, kicking, and 
frequent pulling of ears. Yet, on the \\hole, the family are 
hnppy — as happiness goes in this \Mjrld. And 'tis amusing 
to see how the parenlis have transmitted both their faces to 
their eldest daughter Dorothy, who is, notwithstanding, not 
oaly a good creature, but a Blue. Yes, she is the village poetess 
— and here is a little poem of hers on the Battle of Agincourt, 
which she hitely sent in a modest letter to IMaga. 

How sublime are Honour's deeds. 

Displaying rectitude ; 

In point of Glory there it lies, 

Prince Henry's Magnitude. 
Is not our slight sketch more true to nature than Mr. Loudon's 
finished picture ? "Housekeeping and propagation are com- 
menced" are ugly words, because spat in an ugly spirit; and 
the whole world, we feel assured, will be against Mr. Loudon 
in the preference he gives to the making of the heads of pins, 
through the long space of twenty -five revolving years, and with 
us in the preference we give, through the same protracted pe- 
riod, to the making of the heads and tails of children. From 
his pitiful prating about pins, it would appear that he thinks the 
proper age for a man marrying is about forty-five. But what 
young woman would marry such a foggy, if she could have a 
spruce lad of two or three-and-twenty ? Observe, that a man 
of five -and -forty, who has been married twenty years and up- 
wards, and can shew a comely wife, and a fine grown-up, or 
growing-up family of sons and daughters, is viitually a young 
man^ and in the prime of life ; but a barren bachelor of the 
same age has almost always such a suspicious look of longevity 
about him, that he is often accused, we confess unjustly, of 
being a Nestor aping a Neoptolemus. Mr. Loudon is as ob- 
scure an oracle on the proper age of our friend's wife. ' ' If tlie 
parties further think that they can attain their object of indepeud- 
ence — and rear one or (wo children — let tfietn do so.^^ A'ery 
laconic. They are to rear only one or two children — pray, arc 
they not to beget any more ? And if the answer be, — " No — 
not any more," — will Mr. Loudon have the goodness to point 
out — not for our sakes, we have no personal interest in the 
matter — but for our mari'ied brethren of niankind — how they 
are to prevent it? Better far, to our mind, a life of hard la- 
bour, scanty food, and their attendants, bad temper, and often 
disease, after twenty-five years of bustle and distraction, nine 
or ten children, growing up in rags and ignorance, and the 
hardest struggles to create nine times as much misery as 
that by. which the multiplying pair have been oppressed — better 
far, we say, the sum-total of tlie misery, with all its formidable 
items set down by the stet;l pen of a Loudon, than the incon- 
ceivable and unnatural suffering of that pair sternly resolved, 
at bidding of a Loudon's " let them do so," to confine the 



amount of their offspring within the dual number — conjugating 
and declining, after a dismalfashion, the verb and the noun love; 
so as to draw tears down Pluto'siron cheeks, and awakenuniversal 
sympathy for the infatuated sinners, even among the damned. 

" The use of a wife to a gardener, and to every man who is 
not iudependent," ought to be, quoth this liberal-minded man, 
" to prepare his food, and keep in order his lodging and 
clothes." Let him go into the poorest hut and tell the gude 
wife so, and she will bundle him out, not A^dthout a crack on 
the sconce from the mop-staft', while she will continue twirling 
the muff thereof with great animation, as she washes the 
threshold from the dust off his shoes ; and then with loud 
laughter, pursuing his flight, she flings herself back, on the 
gude man's elbow-chair, and eries to herself — " What a coof V 

The education of a gardener, or any other man, cannot be 
complete, we should think, wilhout religion ; and so thinks 
Mr. Loudon. We have seen that he counsels gardeners to 
bring up their weekly studies, during all the twelve hours of the 
Sabbath day. Are they never to go to church ? That is as it 
may happen — " as their religion may permit." The sage 
defines religion — '* our opinions as to the nature of things "— it 
being, he says, the same as devotion, devoted to, and in Latin 
religio. In certain periods of the progress of society, he tells ns, 
morality and religion are treated as depending on each other — 
"the latter is considered as the principal foundation of the former, 
and man is taught to be sober and honest, not only to escaj e 
the punishment awai-ded by the laws of his country, but to avoid 
still greater punishment in future. Fear is the motive to obe- 
dience in both eases, and while some defend the principle of 
employing the fear of hell along with that of the law, others 
argue that the principle ofutUity is alone a sufficient foundation 
for morals. Self-interest, and the dread of losing reputation, 
they say, is a foundation more to be depended on than a joint 
fear of the law and of hell, because if thu party changes his 
religion, the fear of hell or future punishment may be got rid 
of, and what remains of earthly fear may not be sufficient in the 
first instance to restrain from excess." 

Our modern Socrates, *' without defending either opinion," 
begs leave to make a few remarks on both. To rude and gro?s 
minds, he thinks '* that the fear of being hanged and eternally 
burned is more suitable than the more simple and refined 
motives of personal advantage and reputation." It seems to us, 
that to be hanged and eternally burnt, must be a great personal 
disadvantage to " any gardener, or any other man ;" that self- 
interest is not lost sight of in seeking to avoid them ; and that 
men may desire to have a fair reputation who believe in futiirc 
punishments. 

Our sage thinks, that as society improves, " man begins to 
have less extravagant notions of his own importance ; and from 
ranking himself among the immortal gods, at last finds himself 
but an animal among other animals, and a mere man. His 
extravagant hopes now vanish, and with these his superstitious 
fears. He finds nothing left but to make the most of life, by 
the exercise of his faculties in such a way as to keep up a lively 
consciousness of existence, and a feeling of enjoyment or hap- 
piness." This happens, he says, as *' society improves ;" and 
we take the liberty of telling him — that he lies. 

The truth is, that this man is a WTctched ignoramus on all 
subjects on which it behoveth a man humbly to seek light ; and 
we have been graciously told, that whosoever secketh in aright 
spirit shall find it. That he is a wretched ignoramus, we sha'l 
shew out of his owtt mouth. " There are a great many diffe- 
rent species (of religion) in the world, and those of the more 
civilized nations, as the European, Indian, Chinese, like plants 
which have been long in cultivation, are branched out into 
numerous varieties." 

That is, apiece of pompous pedantry, but let it pass. He 
continues thus : — *' It may well be asked, wdiieh is the true reli- 
gion, or that which a man had best adopt ?" A^Tiy, does not 
the blockhead know that the Christian religion is the true 
religion, and that which a man had best adopt ? He does not 



I'OO 



NOTES ON I'ALLOWING. 



know it, and therefore we call him agaiu a wretched i^o- 
ramus. Will the gardeners of Britain degrade themselves so 
far as to borrow a book blundered out of the blockhead of such 
a fool as he wlio spawned the following filth ? — "Trathis either 
absolute or relative. Absolute truth is that which is true in 
the nature of things, or capable of demonstration ; thus, in 
arithmetic, three and two are equal to five in every part of the 
world, and have been so, and will be so for ever. Relative 
truth is that which is believed to be true by any particuUir per- 
son, or among any particular people. Thus, if a man believe 
that Rome is paved with cinders, to him it is tnie ; and if a 
whole people believe, with Pythagoras, that the earth is an 
immense plain, to them that system is as true as the Copernican 
system is to us. The same thing holds as to religion, and each 
species or variety is true to those who believe in it. What 
may be absolutely true in this sentiment, can only be ascer- 
tained by finding out what is common to all religions. It would 
appear that all of them, of which any distinct accounts are 
obtained, profess two things ; first, to give an account of the 
origin of the world and of man, their history and destinies ; and, 
secondly, to prescribe some form of devotion. The intention of 
the first is to satisfy curiosity, and of the second to procure the 
favour of the Author of nature. As no two religions agree in 
their historical accounts, and^as no greater blessings are observ- 
ed to follow the devotions of one people more than those of 
another, all that can be said to be universally true in religion 
is, that it exists, and that it attempts to explain the nature of 
things, and prescribe homage to the Author of nature. In short, 
that it is a sort of speculation on the nature of things, — philo- 
sophy in a certain stage of its progress. According to this 
theory, there can be no person without religion ; — that is, there 
can he no person without ideas as to the nature of things ; and 
whatever any person may think or determine in his own mind 
on these subjects, these thoughts, and the actions which flow 
from them, constitute his religion ; thus, what arc called Deists, 
Atlieists, Sceptics, &c., can no more be said to be without reli- 
gion, than Christians, Mahommedans, or Cliinese. It is true, 
they are not of any particular religion at present avowed by 
whole nations, but they, have just as much religion as whole 
nations have ; that is, they have certain ideas on the subject, 
and they act in consequence of these ideas." So Mr. Loudon 
tells the gardeners of Great Britain, that it is all one whether 
they be atheists or Christians. For saying so we shall not call 
him fool, for we are told not to g-ive that name to a brother. 
Yet we are likewise told, that " the fool saith in his heart, thei-e 
is no God." He so saith in his heart, because his heart is des- 
perately wicked, and hard as a stone. But affliction comes like 
a great frost, and slits the stone into pieces, and then the wretch 
knows that there is a God, and a judgment. 

Mr. Loudon is, like ourselves, an editor. He has then a 



catapulta and a battering-ram to bring against us ; and, if our 
wall be weak, he may hope to breach it, to rush in and storm 
our citadel, and put our garrison to the sword. But we pro- 
mise, if he be rash enough to face such an encounter, to meet 
him, not in the breach, but outside the ramparts, and within 
his own lines, at the head of a victorious sally, and in our hand 
the Crutch. In hoc siyno vincimus — and our very name has long 
been atowerof strength, andasword of fire — Christopher North. 

Gardeners of Great Britain and of Ireland 1 for we love the 
Emerald of the Sea — ye will range yourselves, we know, under 
our banner. How often have our hearts been gladdened by the 
sight of that Annual Show, moving to music through the streets 
and squares of high Dunedin, a waving wood of beautiful green 
branches, fruit laden, and bright, too, with flowers, while under- 
neath, with measured tread, whose firm sound brings from the 
dust the pleasant sound of peace, marches a long line of 
thoughtful, biit cheerful faces, of figures, such as, if need were, 
would drive, with levelled bayonets, all invaders into the sea. 
Sons of Adam, and followers of his trade I we greet you well — 
one and all of you — at this hour pursuing your work, which is 
your pastime, on the bosom of the various spring. We are 
with you on Mayday. Saunders, give us a spade. 
" When Adam delved and Eve span, 
Who was then the gentleman ?" 
Why, Adam, to be sure, and Eve was the lady — and so is every 
Adam still — and so is every Eve — who delving, remembers that 
he too is but a worm ; who spinning, thinks sometimes of her 
own frail thread of life ! 

O, gardeners of Mid-Lothian ! we saw you — through a win- 
dow — we say not in what street — with our own old eyes, 
walking in that multitudinous procession on the day celebrative 

of Reform. What Pan, and Sylvanus, and Vcrtumnus, 

and Pomona, and Flora, thought and felt, we know not; per- 
haps even as Christopher North. May no frost kill the blos- 
soms of your hopes ! May the tree then planted be the best of 
bearers, and a very golden pippin in the flavour of its fruit ! 

As for you, ye Plumbers, " with leaden eyes that love the 
ground !" we noticed your banner, emblazoned with " Christo- 
pher under the Pump." It was a poor caricature — and the in- 
scription stolen from Maga. It had been well if all the mem- 
bers of your managing committee had confined themselves to 
such petty theft. But, on the very day before the procession, 
that very standai-d-bearer, availing himself of his office of 
Inspector of the Gutters, in which we had employed and paid 
him for a good many years, cut off some hundred pound weight 
of lead, and rolled it up like a few yards of carpeting, over his 
unseen shoulder with it, down stairs, out of the area-door, and, 
having deposited it in a place of safety, away to speak on 
Reform — the orator being at the same time a Thief and a 
Robber. 



NOTES ON FALLOWING. 



1st. Nature does not require any pause or rest, 
and the eartli was evidentlj' dtsigned to j-ield a re- 
gular uninterrupted produce. 

2ndly. As the productive quality of the earth 
never ceases, if corn is not sown, weed will be pro- 
duced ; therefore, it is our business to expel the un- 
productive plant, and to introduce others that are 
beneficial. 

3rdly. That the idea of leaving land at rest, is 
ridiculous ; for, by keeping it clean, and by a judici- 
ous intermixture of crops, it may be managed like a 
garden, and sown from one generation to another. 

_4thly. That the fallows in England, exhibits no, 
thing but a conflict betwixt the farmer and his 



weeds, in which the latter prevail ; for at best, they 
are only half-stifled, and never elFectuaJly killed. 

It is acknowledged, that it is only upon wet soils, 
or, in other words, on land unfit for the turnip hus- 
bandry, that a plain summer fallow is necessary, and 
this, we suppose, includes three-fourths of the Island. 
To speak of following nature in farming is ridicu- 
lous ; for, if we were to imitate nature, we would 
not cultivate land at all. 

Clay-soils, and every soil incumbent upon a wet 
bottom, cannot be kept clean without the assistance 
of this radical and ancient practice. 

The process of drilling cannot be executed upon 
clay-soils, with the slightest prospect of ad^-antage. 



101 



Bayswater libel on the works of creation. 



In that miraculous work, the Encyclopaedia of 
Plants, which was got up at the Bayswater Book 
Manufactory, as a p.irtial specimen of the universal 
language of hieroglyphics, wliich the conductor 
sanguinely prophesies will supersede all others 
throughout the world, when Egyptian darkness, as 
he hopes and trusts is to extinguish civilization : -we 
find the following notable attack on a group of plants, 
though not created plants we presume, but only the 
caput -rAortuum of the blind chemistry by which all 
animals and plants are alleged in such writings to 
have been produced. The plants of the genus 
Valaniia are certainly not so showy nor so useful to 
man as many others : but do they merit to be libel- 
led in the following terms ? 

" Miserable weeds, of no beauty, or [nor] use ; 
called by their present name by Linneeus, in refer- 
ence to Sebastian Vaillant, a learned and excellent 
French botanist, who died in 1722. The author of 
the name would have employed his time better in 
considering the botanical writings of Vaillant, than 
in identifying with the most worthless part of vege- 
tation an author's merits he was not able to under- 



stind. No man was more given to sneers of this 
kind than Linnseus: and yet his followers manifest 
a most extraordinary degree of sensitiveness when- 
ever he is retorted upon in a similar way, although 
few ever deserved criticism in some things inahigher 
degree than himself." — P. 862. 

That this balderdash is from the pen of Dr. Pro- 
fessor Liudley, who is employed in Loudon's Book 
manufactory, as an occasional jobbing hand, — we 
infer first, from the declaration in the preface, that 
this Lindley " either wrote or examined the notes,'* 
and secondly, from similar contemptible language, 
being used for other plants in a portion of the same 
work, expressly said to have been written by this 
Lindley at page 1083, where we have the Urlicece 
characterised as " worthless weeds and shabby lialf 
herbaceous shrubs." 

What daring presumption ! what libelling blas- 
phemy ! to say that any portion of the glorious gar- 
niture with which the Creater has vested the green 
earth, is worthless and shabby ! " Vain man," 
says Solomon, " would be wise, though he were born 
like a wild ass's colt." 



ON vegetable absorption of ALIMENT. 

BY PROFESSOR TIEDEMANN, OS HEIDELBERG. 



I 



All plants take their nourishment by absorption. 
The liquid alimentary matters are equally absorbed 
by the organs placed at the exterior of the body 
among the embryos of animals still enclosed in the 
egg ; but after they have broken the envelope of 
the egg, the animals receive their aliment by a par- 
ticular opening, the moutli, of which vegetables are 
'ieprived, and they pass through a canil equally 
particular, in form of a sac, — the intestinal canal, — 
where the liquid parts are already absorbed by 
themselves, or become such by the addition of 
moisture coming from the same body. AVe intend 
to treat here of absorption in jjlants only. 

The organs by means of which vegetables plunged 
and implanted in the aliments themselves, absorbs 
those matters which serve for their nourishment are 
well known. The roots of cellular plants, of many 
mosses, of some lichens and mushrooms, are filiform, 
prolongations or capillary, at times branchy, which, 
the same as the entire plant, are composed of a cel- 
lular, tissue containing often cavities in form of a 
sac, in which the absorbed liquid mounts. In the 
roots of vascular plants, particularly dicotyledonous 
plants, we can distinguish a body, with its ramifi- 
cations and appendages. Among the grasses, we 
perceive a knot where the radical fibres meet. The 



body of the root is composed of wood and bark. 
The first, which, among certain plants, mcloses the 
pith, results from an assemblage of cellular tissue 
and of vessels. Some anatomists, Duhamel (Pliy- 
siqne des Anbres), Camparetti, Bell (Mem. of the 
Manchester Society, Tab. 11. p 403), Link, and 
others say, that they have seen in the woody part, 
real spiral vessels, of which the existence is denied 
by others. The bark contains much of cellular 
tissue, as that of the nutrient vessels necessary to 
the growth of the roots. Those which are deprived 
of the outer bark {epidermis), properly so called, 
are as much in the Monocotyledons as in the Ut- 
coliiledons, after the researches of Kieser and of 
L C Treviranus (Ueber die Oberhaut der Ge- 
waechse: Vernmchte Schriften). The radical 
fibres are for the most part of a cylindrical form, 
having their ramifications more dehcately turmshei 
with appendages capiUary, or spongy, and which 
Treviranus has found only composed of cellular 
tissue Following the experimental facts of bene- 
bier, Caradoni, and DccandoUe {Mem. sur le Deve- 
hmpement des Bacines; dans Annal. de Sc. Nat. 
de Geneve 1826, jp. 1.) It is principally the extre- 
mities of these appendages which accomplish the 
act of absorption. We still cannot find orifices or 



102 



ex VEGKTABLE ABSORPTION OP ALIMENT. 



pores by which the liquid nourishment penetrates. 
If they do exist, they of necessity are infinitely small, 
since from the experiments of Sprengel and of Link 
{Grundlehren, &;c.,j). 72), the radical fibres suck 
ujj colouring matters minutely divided and dissolved 
in water without touching the cells of larger mole- 
cules. The latter are only absorbed when the roots 
are injured. 

It results from the experiments of Labaisse, 
(Diss, sur la Circulation de la Seve dans les 
Plantes,p. 33), Hales, Senebier, and others, that 
absorption by the roots takes place in a manner 
veiy active, especially in the spring. Some phy- 
siologists have attributed to these organs the faculty 
of making a choice in those liquid substances with 
which they come in contact, and to refuse those 
which were not most necessirv' for their nutrition. 
This is an error, which numerous recent experi- 
ments have sufficiently refuted. Th. de Saussure 
has found that plants absorb common salt, nitrate of 
lime, the sulphate of potass, sal ammoniac, sulphate 
ijf copper, sugar, gum arable, and the like. G. J. 
.Tseger (^Diss. de Effectis Arsenici in varios Orga- 
nismos, Tubinuue. 1808.) has verified the delete- 
rious action ot arsenic upon plants of which the 
roots plunged in water containing only a small 
quantity of this substance ; these -withered and pe- 
rished. C. J. F. Becker, Schreibers, and Goeppert 
have seen that hydrocyanic acid produced a similai 
eiFect. We are indebted to M. Marcet, junior, for 
numerous and interesting experiments, and of which 
the result wis, that plants having different mineral 
substances dissolved in water, as the arsenical acid, 
corrossive sublimate, salts of copper and of lead, 
also that of the extracts of opium, belladonna, nux 
vomica and of hemlock, hydrocyanic acid, alcohol, 
and the like, and that this absorption exercised a 
deleterious influence upon them. Similar experi- 
ments have been made t y Macaire Prinsep, also bv 
Schuebler and Zeller, with the same results. 

This absorbing faculty belongs also to the leaves. 
That which proves that plants absorb liquids by 
means of their leaves, of advantage to their nutri- 
tion, is the benign action which is exercised upon 
the rose by the rain and the sprinkling of the leaves 
with water, circumstances which all favour their 
growth. Many vegetables, of which the roots are 
reduced almost to nothing, but of which the leaves 
are thick and succulent, for example the Cactus, 
])reserves itself principally by absorption, which ac- 
ciimplishes tliese, and which preserves itself even 
■fresh, after having been for some time detached 
trcm the plant. Many cellular plants, sea-weeds, 
ConfervcE, mushrooms, lichens, and mosses espe- 
cially, absorb abundantly liquids by their entire sur- 
face, and seme even, as the greater part of the li- 
chens, which may be properly said to be destitute 
of roots, appear to nourish themselves by absorp- 
tion performed at the surface. Hales proved by 



experiments, that vegetables increase in weight in 
a moist atmosphere. Mariotte Duhamel, Merret, 
and especially Bonnet, have equally put out of 
doubt the absorption exercised by the leaves. The 
latter has remarked that leaves draw from water 
not only that which preserves themselves, but also 
tends to keep alive the branches and branchlets 
I which support them. Absorption of liquids ap- 
pears to take place on both surfaces of the leaves in 
herbs, and chiefly by the lower surface in trees and 
shrubs. It is probably their Icngish pores which 
carrA' on absorption, as is admitted by Humboldt, 
Kroker, Sprengel (^Biolugie, Tab. IV, p. 38), 
Schrank, G. R. Treviranus, and L. C. Treviranus. 
Among cellular plants, however, which have not 
any pores, it takes place without this. 

A problem is here presented to be resolved, 
namely, if the introduction of liquid alimentary 
matter into the interior of plants is a pure result of 
capillary action of a porous body, such ;;s occurs 
when a glass tube of veiy narrow calibre draws up 
the liquid in which it is plunged ; or if absorption 
be rather a peculiar vital phenomenon. Many phy- 
siologists, Malpighi, Grew, Bonelli, Delahire, Brad- 
ley, and others, have admitted the first hj-pothesis, 
and considered the rootlets as so many capillary 
tubes, whose office it is to pump up, and cause to 
ascend the nourishing liquids. It is possible, that 
this force in part, contributes to the production of the 
phenomena ; but it cannot be the sole cause, as the 
following considerations clearly prove. Absorption 
of nourishing liquid varies according to the state of 
plants, the periods of their development, and of their 
growth, and the epochs of the year during the period 
of the formation and the growth of leaves, absorption 
and progression of the sap goes on the more rapidly as 
the leafiag is more rapid. Also at the time of flowering 
and formation of the fruits and grains, the jilants are 
more nourished from the soU. We likewise know 
that absci-ption and the progression of absorb liquid 
depends upon the influence exercised on plants by 
heat and light ; that absorption indeed is more active 
in the spring than at any other period, that it 
diminishes in autumn, and is reduced almost to 
nothing, if it do not altogether cease in winter. All 
these phenomena cannot be considered as the pure 
effects of capillary action, this cannot be rr.odified by 
the seasons, nor bv the influence of heat. In fine, 
there is still this difference between capillury absorp- 
tion and that of plants, which is that, a capillary 
tube does not reject by its upper orifice the liquids 
which it pumps, while the liquid, absorbed by vege- 
tables, flows through the vessels, as we make an 
incision into them. These are sufficient motives to 
oblige us to follow the opinion of Senebrier, Saussure, 
Desfontaines, DecandoUe, and others, who regard 
the absorption of vegetables as an organic or vital 
phenomena. 



103 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



GONOLOBUS DIADEMATUS. 

Qorgeited Gonoluhus. 

Peatandiia Digynia. Lix. 

Gonolobus. Massje Pollinis Isves, 10, ti-aasversse. Cor. sub- 
rota. Sem. comosa. Brown in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 2. 82. 

Suffnitices vohibilcs. Fol. opposita, latiuscula. UmbellEe in- 
terpetiolares. Americse prtesertim inter tropicos indigenfe. 

An unrecorded species, which we have ranked in the 
present genus, chiefly from habit or general like- 
ness ; for it has not precisely the transverse anthers, 
which constitute a prominent feature of Gonolohus, 
as now defined. Mr. Brown, who has so advan- 
tageously remodelled the natural order to which 
this genus belongs, seems inclined to think that the 
character should be extended to admit the present 
species, along with some others which he has not 
had an opportunity of finally determining, rather 
than that a separate generic group should be 
founded on them. Besides the expressed difference, 
however, the anthers vary in form from those of all 
the described species of Gonolobus, and the stami- 
neous crown, instead of gi'owing distinctly upon the 
filaments, is grown to the bottom of the faux, while 
its connection with the filaments can only be traced 
by attentive dissection. 

A twining shrub, 15 feet high or higher: stem 
corky and furrowed at the lower part ; hrunclies 
round, with a tawny fur ; hairs articulated. Leaves 
distant, membranous, roughishly furred, elliptically 
oblong, lanceolately acuminate, contractedly cordate 
at the base, the lobes meeting together, from two to 
three inches long, and from an inch and a half to 
two inches broad, nettedly veined underneath: pe- 
tioles thickish, bent two or three times shorter than 
the blade; intci-petiolar fringe but slightly distin- 
guished from the general pubescence. Umbels in our 
specimen 3-5-tlowered, capitately contracted, with 
an involucre or ruffle of lanceolate leaflets : common 
peduncle thick, shorter than the petioles, pedicles 
about the length of the calyx, separated by narrow 
bractes. Flmcers greenish yellow, about an inch in 
diameter. Calyx equal to the faux, campanulate, 
villous, of live ovately lanceolate leaflets. Corolla 
coriaceous, urceo, lately rotate with darker veins, 
smooth, opaqiie on the inside, shining without ; limb 
flatly extended, five-parted to below the middle, seg- 
ments rounded : faux short, urceolately tubular : 
stamineous crown light purple, gj-own to the bottom 
of the faux, of five squarish scutiform contiguous 
laminsR which ascend without adhesion along the 
wall of the faux to a Httls above its orifice, and are 
repand at the upper margin, with a very faint triple 
indentation. Stamineovs column equ;nl to the crown. 
Slirjma depressed, whitish. 



CROTALARIA RETUSA. 

Weilcjcd-haved East India Crotalaria. 
Diadelphia Decandria. Linn. 
Leguminosce. JussiEU. 
Crotalaria. Supra toI. 2, fol. 128. 

C. retusa, foliis simplicibus oblongis cuneiformibus retusis, 
racemo terminali. Willd. sp. pi. 3. 976. 

Crotalaria retusa. Linn. sp. pi. 2. 1004. Mill. diet. ed. 8. a. 

7. Vahl symb. 1. 53. Hort. Kew. 3. IS. ed. 2. 4. 272. 

Gaertn. sem. 2. 316. t. 148. fig. 2. 
Tandale-cotti. Rheede mal. 9. 45. t. 25. 

An annual species, native of the East Indies. Cul- 
tivated at Chelsea by Miller, in 1731; the seeds 
were sent him from Holland by Boerhaave. 

DIGITALIS LUTEA. 

Small yelloio Fox-glove. 

Didynamia Angiospermia. Linn. 

ScrophularifT, JussiEU, 

D. lutea. foliolis calycinis lanceolatis, coroUis acutiusculis labio 
superiore bifido ; infcriore intus barbato, foliis glabris. 
Brown in Hort. Kew. ed. 2. 4. 29. 

Digitalis lutea. Linn. sp. pi. 2. 867. Mill. diet. ed. 8. n. 3. 

Hort. Kew. 2. 345. Jacq. bort. vindob. 2. 47. t. 105. 

Willd. sp. pi. 3. 285. Baumgartcn en. stirp. transylv. 2. 

212. 
Digitalis parvifiora. Allion. pedem. I. 70. n. 257. Lamarck 

and Decand. fl. fran^. 3. 597; (nee aliorum.) 
Digitalis foliis calycinis lanceolatis, galea bifida, floribus imma- 

culatis. Hall. helv. 332. 
Digitalis lutea, minore flore. Riv. Monop. t. 105. 
Digitalis lutea parva. Lob. ic. 573. f. 2. 
Digitalis minor lutea sive pallida. Part. par. 3S2. 7. 

A HARDY perennial plant, native of the South of 
France, Italy, and Transylvania, where it is found 
on stoney mountainous places, in the shade. Culti- 
vated in this country by Parkinson before 1629. In 
the Flore Francaise above cited, we find the name (jf 
lutea, by which the species has been generally known 
from the time of Linnteus till now, not only changed 
to one which is less pertinent, but to one by which 
another species of the same genus has been long 
since universally known. 

POLYGONUM FRUTESCENS. 
Shrubby Polygonum. 
OctanJria Trigynia. LiN.v. 
Polygoneic. JussiEU. 

P. frwtescens, caule frntieoso, foliis lanceolatis titrinquc atten- 
uatis, ochren lanccolata internodiis breviore, petalis binis 
e\terioribiis niinoribus refle.xis. Willd. sp. pi. 2. 440. 

Polygonum frutesccus. Linn. sp. pi. 1. 516. Hort. Kew. 2. 
29. ed. 2. 2. 416. Ga;rtn. sem. 2, 182. t. 119. f. 5. 

Polygonum frutieosum, floribus pentapetalis, octandris, trigynif , 
2 extcrnis petalis reflexis, ramis in extremo inermibns. 
Grael. sib. 3. 60. t. 12. fig. 2. 



104 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



Atraphaxis inermis foliis planis. Hort. cliff. 138. 
Lapatlium oiientale, fiutex humilis, floie pjilchro. Tournef. 

cor. 38. Amra. in comment, petropol. 14, 400. tab. 13. 
Lapathum dauricum montanum, fruticans, ramis, lat^ sparsis. 

Amm. rath. 227. 

The present is a hardy shrub, and belongs to a 
.species which forms one of a section of the genus 
that comprises the common Buckwheat. It is a 
native of Siberia, and, if Tournefort's plant is really 
the same, of the Levant. Introduced by Monsieur 
Richard, in 1770 ; but is not often met with in our 
collections, where it requires to be cultivated in the 
same soil and situation as Rhododendrons and Aza- 
leas. 



ERICA AUSTBALIS. 

Spanish Heath. 
Octandria. Monogynia. 

Ericese. Jussieu. 

This plant is in height about two feet, a native of 
Spain, and flowers general^ in April and May. It 
will always prove a particularly interresting append- 
age to the peat border, and should never be dis- 
pensed with. The hardy heaths form a little tribe 
of shrubs whose beauties we cannot class with the 
splendour of the Kalmias, the Azaleas, and the Rho- 
dodendrons, but they equally interest us though 
through a different medium. They introduce them- 
selves to our feelings, by their modesty and humilit)'; 
and we readUy admit the propriety of Dr. Watts's 
assertion — 

" Humility Is a^jlant of lovely growth." 

Still the humble growth of some of the tender species 
of Erica, whose flowers are occasionally very spe- 
cious, may further remind us of him who is humble 
only to embellish his grandeur. 

The Erica Australis should be planted in sandy 
peat ; or in a mixture of peat and fresh loam ; and like 
most other of the hardy heaths, though they make 
root but slowly, may be increased by layers. 

EPILOBIUM DODONjEI. 

Dododavs^s Epilobium. 

Octandria. Monogynia. Linn. 

Onagiarise. Jussieu. 

Epilobium is compounded of three Greek words, 
EPi LOBOU ION, a violet upon a pod ; or, more 
literally upon-a-pod-a-violet ; not that a violet re- 
sembles the blossom, but is intended to indicate a 
beautiful flower. Dodonsei from Dodonseus, an emi- 
nent physician and botanist of Friesland, who lived 
in the sixteenth century-, and published several bo- 
tanical works in Germany, illustrated by wood cuts 
similar to those of Gerard and Parkinson. 



It is the prettiest plant that we know of the tribe, 
and is never troublesome, by spreading at the root, 
as are some species of Epilobium. This species a 
perennial plant, and is a native of Switzerland ; it has 
been noticed, by some writers, as synonj'mous with 
Epilobium angustissimum. Ours is a plant with pro- 
cumbent stems, and otherwise differing: from anarus- 
tissimum. The height is nine inches, and it flowers 
in July and August. 

After it has done blossoming, the whole of the 
stems may be cut off, or they will continue to grow, 
and thus, soiretimes, lessen the vigour of the roots. 
It is easily increased by separating the young shoots 
in the spring, which will succeed, notwithstanding 
they may be^entirely 'dereMd of any fibrous append- 
age. 



LILIUM TIGRINUM. 

Tiger-spoUed Lily. 

Hexandria. Monogynia. Linn. 

Lilliagcae. Jussieu. 

This plant is a native of China, and in height about 
four feet, it is a perennial, and flowers in July and 
August, and was introduced into this country in 
1804. 

We know of very few plants that excited more 
general interest than did the Tiger Lily on its intro- 
duction into this country. Every one admired, and 
resolved on possessing, this Chinese beauty ; and in 
a very short time, from its facility of propagation, 
the cottager and nobleman boasted alike of its splen- 
dour in their gardens. 



TAGETES PATULA. 
French Man/gold. 
.Syngenesia. Polygamia Superflua. Linn. 
Corymbiferae. Jdssieu. 

This plant is a native of Mexico, and flowers in our 
gardens in August to October, its height is about 
three feet, and it is an annual, and was cultivated 
the first time in this country in 1596. 

The cultivation of this plant is so generally known, 
that nothing need be said respecting it ; except to 
warn our readers against a formidable enemy to the 
young plants. If they be much eaten, a single ex- 
amination, late at night, with the assistance of a 
light, will show the depredators to be young earwigs, 
(Forficula auriculara). Woollen cloth loosely folded ; 
hollow bean stalks ; or two small boards, placed 
upon each other, with one edge of the upper one 
raised sufficiently to admit their creeping between 
them, will form useful traps, and the insects may be 
destroyed every morning. 



I 



Sis.' 




ri-Iiiiii ;i *'inl;iri;i 




i Mrcjifaitf iit'rvi i tipit .» 



I 




-A 


1^ 






la^^ 







-^>*>'^)« 



5^ 




13. IJisL'utelUi liispitla. 



J IVriht-nvi Anlileliii 




In.OiuJuis liLiTina. 




16 . TuJip a s iLa\''i' oli- as . 



M 



105 



LADIES' BOTANY*. 

BY JOHN LINDLET, PH. D.F.B. S., &C. &C. 



In the preface to this work, the author contends that 
the principles of the artiticial system of Linnceus, which 
were so important and useful at the time when they 
were first propounded, are now generally admitted to 
be altogether unsuited to the present state of science, 
and states that the author of the latest work published 
in this country upon that system, is obliged to rest his 
defence for still following it, upon " the facility with 
which it enables any one, hitherto unpractised in 
botany, to arrive at the knowledge of the genus and 
species of a plant." But, he observes, if a system of 
botany is only a contrivance to help those, who will not 
master the elements of the science, to determine the 
name of a plant ; and if it is really necessary to have a 
mental rail-road on which the student in botany may be 
iuipelled without any exertion of his own, then he 
thinks that the analytical tables of the French are much 
better contrivances than the sexual system ; because if 
well executed they meet every case, and lead with cer- 
tainty to positive results. He says he has always been 
at issue with the Linna'an school as to their system ac- 
complishing even the little it pretends ; and appeals to 
his own personal experience of the difficulties of a be- 
ginner, who is unassisted by a tnfor, to prove that it is 
totally opposed to such a conclusion. He began with 
the Linna?an system, which he had been taught to be- 
lieve little less than an inspired production. He had 
plenty of works, compiled according to tliat system, to 
consult ; and asserts that he was fairly driven to seek 
refuge in the natural system from the difficulties and in- 
consistencies of Linnccus. He considers that there is a 
confusion of ideas in what is urged in favour of the Lin- 
nccan system, and that its theoretical simplicity is mis- 
taken for practical facility of application. That the 
principles of this system are clear, and simple, and easy 
to be remembered, he cannot deny ; but are they, he 
asks, equally easy in their application ? When, for 
example, a specimen of a monopetalous plant has lost 
its corolla, or when the stamens or pistils are absent, 
either accidentally or constitutionally, as in Dia?cious 
plants, what Linna?an botanist can classify the subject 
of inquiry ? Or where a genus comprehends species 
varying in the number of their stamens, as the Poly- 
gonum, Salix, Stellaria, and hundreds of others, who is 
to say which of the species is to determine the classifi- 
cation of the rest? or when that point is settled, how is 
a student to know what passed in the mind of the botani- 
cal systematist ? The latter puts a genus into Octan- 
dria, because out often species, one has constantly, and 
two occasionally, eight stamens, and he includes in the 
same class and order all the other species of the genus, 
although they have five, six, or ten stamens. He sup- 
poses a student to meet with one of the last, and wishes 
to ascertain its name by the Linna^an system, he will 
look for it in Pentandria, or Hexandria, or Decandria, 
in none of which classes will he find it. After wasting 



his time, and exhausting his patience in a vain pursuit, 
he must abandon the search in utter hopelessness, for 
there is no other character he can make use of as a check 
upon the first. At length some one will tell him that 
his plant is a Polygonum; he turns to his book, wonder- 
ing how he could have overlooked it, and he finds Poly- 
gomun in Octandria, not because it is Octandrous, but 
because it is so very like other Polygonums that it can- 
not be separated from them, and they belong, in most 
cases, to Octandria. This he conceives to be the una- 
voidable answer ; and that it reaUy means, that it is not 
in consecpience of its accordance with the system that 
the student's Polygonum is to be discovered, but in con- 
sequence of its natural relation to other Polygonums ; 
so that it is necessary to understand the natural system 
to make use of the artificial one. He acknowledges 
that such inconvenience is guarded against in some 
books by special conti'ivances ; but those contrivances 
form no 'part of the system. But granting, he says, for 
argument sake, that these and other objections are over- 
stated, and that the Linuiean system does really facili- 
tate the discovery of the class and order to which a 
plant belongs, he next considers what advance towards 
the determination of the genus or species, or, in other 
words, the name of a plant, a student has really made, 
and in order, he asserts, that every advantage may be 
given to the friends of the Linncean system in this dis- 
cussion, he examines of what use it will be to him in re- 
gard to the few hundred plants which grow wild in Eng- 
land. For this purpose he takes the generic characters 
in Diaudria Monogynia, as stated in Dr. Hooker's British 
Flora, from which he concludes that, to determine to 
what genus a plant belongs, a great deal of inquiry be- 
yond the discovery that it has two stamens and one style 
is indispensably necessary. The student must first be 
acquainted with the meaning of many techninal terms, 
he must have the plant in different slates of growth, he 
must procure the fruit, must examine the interior of that 
part, in short must go through a long and careful ex- 
amination, which is entirely independent of the sexual 
system. In other and larger classes, such as Pentan- 
dria, Hexandria, Tetrandia, &c., the length and diffi- 
culty of such an examination is greatly increased. He 
distinctly asserts that there is no greater difficulty in 
determining the natural order of plants than in that of 
making out the genera in the Linna?an system ; in fact, 
he says it is the very same thing, only with a different 
result ; in the one case it leads to the mere discovery of 
a name, in the other, to the knowledge of a great num- 
ber of useful and interesting facts, independent of the 
name. And this he asserts is so strongly felt by all bo- 
tanists of any experience, that they never think of using 
the artificial system themselves, they only recommend it 
to others. 

The work is itself written in the form of letters, ad- 
dressed to a lady on the botanical education of her chil- 



* Ladies' Botany, or a Familiar Introduction to the Study of the Natural System of Botany. By John Lindley, Ph. D. F. R. S., 
&c. &c., Professor of Botany in the University of London. 1 vol. large 8vo., with plates. London ! James Ridgway and Sous. 
183-1. 

MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL.11. NO. XVII. — AUGUST, 1834. U 



106 



LADIES BOTANY. 



dren ; in the first of which he relates the following fable 
from a French author, in answer to a supposed question, 
whether the difficulties which are said to accompany 
the study of this branch of science carmot by some little 
contrivance be either entirely removed, or at least very 
much diminished : — 

A lady one day observing some ants travelling across 
a table, dropped a piece of sugar in the midst of them ; 
but to her astonishment, although these little insects 
are noted sugar eaters, they all retreated with terror 
from the spot, nor did they afterwards find sufficient 
courage to return to examine the object of their dread ; 
on the contrary, they carefully avoided that which would 
have proved a treasure, had they known its value. — 
Stnick by this circumstance, the lady placed the same 
piece of sugar on that part of the table near which the 
ants were in the habit of crossing, and when she saw 
one of them approaching it, she gently placed her fin- 
ger in his way, but in such a manner as not to alarm 
him, wliilst it obstructed his passage ; the ant paused, 
looked round him, and then took a new direction, not 
exactly towards the sugar, but near it ; the lady again 
opposed his passage gently, and at last, by making him 
take a sort of zigzag direction, tacking, as it were, at 
every few steps, the ant was unconsciously brought to 
the sugar without being frightened. Once there, he at- 
tentively examined the glittering rock, touched it with 
his antenna?, broke off a morsel, and hastened away 
with it to the ant-hill; thence he presently returned at 
the head of a host of his comrades, by whom the 
rest of the sugar was carried off". From this anecdote 
the author infers, that, if young persons are once alarmed 
at the aspect of a new pursuit, a knowledge of which 
they are endeavouring to obtain, it is almost impossible 
to restore their confidence ; but that there are few who, 
if led to it insensibly, will not persevere till they have 
made themselves masters of the subject. 

There is, he thinks, no mistake into which the public 
i'; apt to fall greater than the notion that botany is a 
science of easy acquirement. It is, by far, too compli- 
cated in its phenomena, like all other branches of na- 
tural h'story, and too diversified in form to be attainable 
as a science, without long and attentive study ; never- 
theless, he thinks that a certain portion of it may be 
acquired without any extraordinary application, and he 
hopes that the plan of his work will sufficiently explain 
in what manner this may be best done. The mode he 
recommends to be adopted is, to follow the order he has 
laid down, and to procure for examination the flowers 
that are named in it, as they are in most cases within 
the reach of those who live in the country. The speci- 
mens should be carefully compared with the descrip- 
tions and plates given of them, and when they are all 
remembered and understood, he thinks that the student 
will be a botanist ; not a very learned one, but acquainted 
with many of the fundamental facts of the science, and 



capable of prosecuting his inquiry to any further point, 
and of studying other and more scientific works with 
facility and advantage. The plan he lays down to 
be pursued by those who desire to push their inquiries 
beyond the information contained in the present work, 
is to read some inh'oduction to botany (his own of course), 
in which the modern views of structure and of vital ac- 
tion are well explained ; they should then make them- 
selves familiar with the technical terms, which he has 
carefully avoided in the work before us, but which can- 
not be dispensed with in works of a more exact and sci- 
entific character, and at the same time perfect them- 
selves in a knowledge of the natural orders, by gathering 
the wild plants which are within their reach, comparing 
them with one another, and with the characters assigned 
to them in systematic works. Being thus provided with 
a considerable amount of fundamental knowledge, they 
may then apply themselves to the study of the natural 
system in its great features, when, and not till then, 
they will be aljle to appreciate the various modifications 
of organization that connect one tribe of plants to an- 
other, and to understand the infinite wisdom and beauti- 
ful simplicity of design which is visible in the vegetable 
world, the just application of which, through the count- 
less gradations of form, structure, and modes of exist- 
ence, he considers, shotdd be the constant aim of the 
botanist to demonstrate. 

The most discouraging part of botany to a beginner, 
he conceives, to consist either in the nimierous new and 
strange names, the meaning of -which he has to learn, 
or in the minuteness of the parts by which plants are 
distinguished from each otlier, or in the great multitude 
of species of which the vegetable kingdom consists ; and 
he confesses that there is somethi)ig alarming in the 
mass of preliminary knowledge, which, it would appear, 
has to be acquired before any perceptible progress can 
be made. But when the suijject is examined more 
closely, we shall, he observes, find that only a small 
number of technical terms employed is really necessary 
in the beginning, that the minute parts are but little 
consulted in practice, however .much thej- may be in 
theory, and that the arrangements of botanists are so 
perfect, that no more difficulty is expei'ienced ft-om the 
number of species than in any other branch of natural 
history. There are certain terms, the exact meaning 
of which cannot be dispensed with, if the science is to 
be studied to any good purpose ; a certain habit of ob- 
servation must also be acquired, without which the dif- 
ferences between one plant and another cannot be ap- 
preciated or remembered ; but these may be gained 
imperceptibly, or without any exh-aordinary degree of 
exertion or industry. The student has only to com- 
mence at the beginning, and never to take one step till 
that which preceded it is secured ; he may then advance 
to whatever point he pleases ; and this, the author ob- 
serves, is the whole secret in teaching botanv. 



107 



ON LAYING DOWN ARABLE LAND INTO GRASS' 



r 



Agricultural seedsmen declare, that they have done 
more business in this, than in any other year, for a con- 
siderable time back. It may be worth while to inquire 
into the immediate cause of this exti-a demand for grass 
seeds ; and also to examine what the layers down of 
land expect to derive from such a measure. 

Those who are acquainted with the general state of 
farming in this country at the present moment, will be 
at no loss to account for the more than usual demand fur 
grass seeds. In the first place, corn is at a low, by far 
too low, a price, to encourage the cultivation of it ; 
while the produce from meadow and pasture ground, in 
other words, from live stock, fetches remunerating 
prices. Another thing, many farms are deserted by the 
tenants, and, of course, fallen into the landlord's hands. 
The latter takes the easiest way of making anything of 
his tenantless farms, by laying the whole down as a 
sheep-walk. This also creates an additional demand 
upon the seedsman, while it lessens the charges of 
labour, horses, &c. But there is a new idea, and which 
begins to be extensively entertained respecting old 
meadow and pasture land. From time immemorial 
grass land has been particulfirly valued, and specially 
protected by specific clauses in leases and agreements 
between landlords and tenants; because it was supposed 
that a meadow was good in proportion to its age ; and 
that, if once broken up, could not be renewed or got 
back to its former state under a long term of years. The 
validity of this old opinion and belief has been, of late 
years, attacked and overthrown by several eminent agri- 
cultiu'al writers, particularly W. Alton, Esq., of Hamil- 
ton, who has, by practical tests, proved that grass land, 
after a certain number of years, becomes mossy and 
worthless, and should then be broken up, to yield three 
or four crops of corn, and laid down again as soon as it 
can be got perfectly cleared from root weeds. By this 
management heavy crops of corn are obtained, and in 
such extra quantity as fully repays the expense of seeds 
to re-lay it doAvn again. And such is the facility with 
which arable land may be changed to pasture, that an 
excellent and productive sward will be formed in the 
second year after sowing a proper selection of perma- 
nent grasses, in due quantity, either with or without 
corn. The propriety and practicability of this new ex- 
pedient in the business of farming has attracted general 
notice ; and to it, together with the circumstances al- 
luded to before, may be ascribed the increased demand 
for grass seeds at the present time, for the purpose oi 
laying down new meadow and pasture to serve instead 
of those intended to be ploughed up. 

The introduction of this new branch of " convertible" 
husbandry is attended with the advantages of keeping 
more live stock, which is the soul of fanning ; because 
gi'eater quantities of manure will be made for the arable 
crops, as well as for the grass land ; thus keeping the 
whole in good heart, and always in condition, either for 
the production of hay, corn, or pasturage. 

The objections against taking meadow and pasture 
land into the general rotation of cropping a farm are 
these, viz. they generally lie close round the homestead, 



forming convenient outlets from the yards and cattle- 
sheds ; corn crops being at some distance, are less 
liable to injury from poultry and pigs ; every field is 
not supplyed with water, and therefore cannot be appro- 
priated as cattle pasture ; and as grass land is so pe- 
remptorily protected by existing leases and agreements, 
no tenant, so bound up, can avail himself of such conver- 
sion, however advantageous it might be to him. B\it all 
these objections may be met, and in many cases nullified 
by judicious exertion on the part of the tenant, by tem- 
porary fencing, well-digging, &c., and by permissive 
measures and assistance on the part of the landlord. 
And surely the present situation of farmers in general 
should prompt them to every means of improved cul- 
ture, however diflfering from the old or customary rou- 
tine ; and induce every landlord to take oif all restric- 
tions which cramp the exertions of the tenant, and com- 
pel him to take less from the land than, by improved 
management, it is calculated to produce. 

Old productive meadow land, on the banks of rivers, 
or in low situations, no one would think of distiirbing 
\rith the plough ; but there is much upland pasture 
which might be made doubly valuable by being put 
under a course of arable cultiu'e for a few years, and then 
returned to grass again. Many instances of such con- 
version might be appealed to as proofs, in difierent parts 
of the kingdom, and on dilTcrent descriptions of soil, as 
executed by the late Mr. George Sinclair, and by the 
old firm of Messrs. Thomas Gibbs and Co., Agricultmral 
Seedsmen, Half-moon-street, Piccadilly, London. Here- 
tofore, it was supposed, that seven, some say twenty 
years, were required to establish a good sound turfj now 
by the attention bestowed on this branch of rural eco- 
nomy, and by employing a mixture of the best perennial 
grass seeds, "a good and sweet bottom may be obtained, 
as before observed, in two years. 

Land that has been long, or for several years, in 
grass, is found greatly restored, as to fertility, by the 
accumulation of vegetable and animal substances there- 
in, and in fine condition for the growth of white crops, 
when properly treated. Some farmers prefer sowing 
peas on the first furrow, and which usually yield abun- 
dantiy ; others take a crop of some small kind of oats ; 
for ifPoland oats be sowed they fall a prey to the wire- 
worm, often prevalent in old turf Whichever crop be 
chosen, the ground is in fine order to be fallowed in the 
following year, to get rid of many root weeds which had 
flourished in the turf. If the fallow be got perfectly 
clean before the first of June, a crop of tankard turnips 
or mangold wurtzel may be put in, and eaten or drawn 
off time enough for sowing wheat ; but if not got clean 
enough for this intermediate crop, the fallowing must be 
continued to the wheat-sowing season, \\hich brings the 
field into the regular rotation of the farm. 

There are two wavs of laying down arable land into 
grass. The first is laying down witii a half-cast of barley 
or oats, which, if the summer be moist, is the most eco- 
nomical ; but if the summer prove dry it is not the best 
plan. The seedlings of many of the best grasses are, 
on their first appearance, so feeble and attenuated, that 



* From the British Farmer's Magazine. 



108 



ON GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 



one (lay's bright sunsliine withers them up ; and if the 
thin crop of corn or favouring season does not protect 
them, they are lost. A more certain way is to lay down 
after turnips, by giving up the barley crop, stirring the 
surface, during summer, till it is as fine as possible, by 
tlie action of tlie plough, harrow.s, and roller, and sow- 
ing the grass seeds upon a smooth surface about the 
10th of August, and covered in by a bush-harrow ; fin- 
ishing with the roller. At lliis season the sun's heat is 
less ardent, the nights are longer, and the plants, unhurt 
by drought, gain strenglh enough to resist the frosts of 
winter. Whether attempted to be laid down with a sin- 
gle cast of corn in the spring, or sowed in the auttnnn, 
if blanks appear in the following spring they are again 
sowed and raked in before rolling down. 

The treatment of young seeds, during the first year 
after sowing, is of consequence. They had better be 
skimmed over by the scythe, about the end of June, than 
grazed by cattle, which may poach, or by sheep, which 
bite too close. After tlie month of September, the new 
grass may receive any kind of stock ; being then out of 
danger, either from the teetli or feet of grazing animals, 
if the state of the weather or nature of the soil will 
allow. Every following year each individual plant in- 
creases in size and slrengtli, till the whole surface is 
plenished by the roots and side-shoots; from this time 
the plants become diminutive and cramped, for want of 



space ; the hardier and most worthless kinds extirpate 
the best; moss springs up and chokes what renuiins, 
and then is the time for breaking it up again, to undergo 
the course of cropping already described, and so stren- 
ously recommended by many of the first agriculturists of 
the kingdom. 

As the nature of soils, as to their tenaciousness or 
friability, are very diiTerent, so the labour required in 
breaking up old grass for the reception of a crop of corn 
is more or less easy. If the soil be tough and untracta- 
ble by the harrows, dibbing beans on tlie first furrow 
may be the best management ; but if it will harrow well 
(whether ploughed iit the autumn or spring) peas or 
oats may be sowed either broad-i;ast or drilled. . ,, , 

The expense of the seeds, however, is, in laying tlowii 
new grass, a serious matter to the ftirmer, wlio is noijr 
puzzled to "make botli ends meet." That the suxierior 
crops of corn from the freshly broken-up ground will 
more than cover the expense of seeds, may be relied on; 
but the expense of buying seeds must be incurred, before 
the remunerating crops are in the barn : because it would 
be very impolitic to break up old grass before the new 
was ready, or nearly ready, to take its place. The ex- 
pense, per acre, of the best selected permanent grass 
seeds, would amount to not much less than two poimds : 
and although common mixtures might be had for lesi, 
tlie dearest, in such cases, will be found the best. ■ ' 



ON GREENHOUSE PLANTS*. 



BY MR. TOWERS, AUTHOR OF THE DOMESTIC GARDENER S MANUAL. 



I WISH to combine the didce witli tlie ii/ile, to lead the reader 
on through pleasurable paths to tlie attainment of knowledge, 
and therefore I propose to familiarize, to the utmost, every 
beautiful object, to speak of it in the most simple terms possi- 
ble, to describe its habits, native country, and most approved 
modes of culture; and then, to close tlie account with the bo- 
tanical remarks which I conceive to he indispensably required, 
in order to put the reader in possession of those facts which no 
cultivator of plants ought to be ignorant of. I shall so far re- 
tain my original jdan, as to follow the ord.r of the LiunfEan 
classes; thus, we shall ',rocced methodically. I commence, 
then, with the first class. Without attempting to write a 
botanical treatise, I must introduce each of the classes with a 
few initiatory remarks, otherwise, I shall be doing little better 
than to speak "in an unknown tongue." In the study of 
botany on the Linna'iin system, there is fortunately no defi- 
ciency of elementary works. For young beginners, I am not 
aware that any better work can be found, nor one written in 
more familiar language, than the Letters upon Botany by the 
late Prisc'dla Wakefield, to which 1 may add the Grammar and 
the Inlruduclion to Botany, of that renowned botanist. Sir 
James Edward Smith, the late President of the Linna'an So- 
ciety. To attain an elementary knowledge of the Natural or 
Jiissieuun Si/stem, now becoming so fashionable, many more 
difficulties must be encountered. 

I shall now proceed to notice those individual plants which 
it is ray intention to select as fit objects for illustrative de- 
scription. 

The system of Linnxus contains twenty-four classes, ar- 
ranged in two grand divisions ; the first of which comprises all 



those plants whose flowers or fructiferous organs are conspicu- 
ous and determinable. The second dicisiun comprises all thoie 
plants whose flowers or organs of fruit are inconspicuous, or 
not clearly to be determined ; such are the ferns, mosses, sek- 
weeds, and the fungi, or mushroom tribe. The first fifteen of 
these classes are founded upon the number of the stamens or 
male organs of the flower. The remaining eight classes of the 
first division depend upon the position or arrangement of the 
fruitful organs. The twenty-fourtli class, Crypioffamia, con- 
tains, as its name implies, all the members of the second divi- 
sion ; that is, the plants whose reproductive organs are incon- 
spicuous and perhtp; doubtful. I shall not, in this paper, 
enlarge upon the structure of the natural arrangement, which 
is too complex to admit of any cursory description, but shall 
merely notice, in passing, the order therein, to which every in- 
dividual that I describe is to he referred, adding a slight men- 
tion of its characteristics. 

The first class contains many specimens of exceeding beauty ; 
but as they are, for the greater part, natives of tropical or 
warm climates, they cannot with safety be generally intro- 
duced into the greenhouse. The roots of many of the genera 
abound in aromatic qualities, as in the ginger, turmeric, zedoary, 
galingale, &c. ; others contain mucilage and nutritive matter 
in abundance. The native or indigenous genera are unattrac- 
tive. 

This class is named Mox.\ndria, beciuse it has but one 
stamen or male organ. It contains two orders, determinable 
by the number of the styles. The titles of the orders are 
A/onogi/nia and Dii/t/nia, the former from the Greek word, munos 
one, and gune or gi/ne female ; the latter, from dis two, and gyne. 



From the Q.i»arterly Jsursai -of Agriculture. 



ON GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 



109 



From this class I select but. two plants, as subjects suitable 
to ordinary culture in common greenhouses. 

The first plant is the Common huJian Shot, or Indian flower- 
ing reed, an old and very favourite tenant of the stove ; for, 
coming from India, it had, for a long period, been considered 
and treated as a very tender stove plant. E.xperience has, 
however, determined that it may, under propitious circum- 
stances, and in favourable situations, be preserved in the open 
yround, during our ordinary winters, and almost to a certainty, 
in a good glazed pit, without fire. 

There are two varieties of Indian shot, the one with red 
ilowers, and the other with red spotted or striped with yellow ; 
the former, in the opinion of many, is greatly to be preferred. 
In the cataiogties of London's EncyclopEedia of Plants and Hor- 
tus Britannicns, these two varieties are described as stove 
plants, growing to the height of two feet, in flower all the 
year, with red, and red and yellow flowers ; received from In- 
dia in 1750, propagated by division of the roots, and growing 
in rich mould. Upon these data, compared with my own ex- 
perience, I shall give the following directions for the treatment 
of these elegant plants : — 

It is scarcely possible to describe this plant (the flowers of 
which are of very pectiliar structure), so as to make the reader, 
who has not seen it, understand its general appearance. The 
roots are of a fleshy texture, somewhat resembling those of the 
common blue iris, but less bulky. In young seedling plants, 
the tnberous knobby processes of these roots send up but one 
stalk, if that may be called such, whose substance is little more 
tlian a leaf coiled into a tube, and enclosing another leaf, which 
protrudes from it in an opposite direction. One leaf proceeds 
from and within another, as the plant advances in growth, and 
these expand right and left. They are of a lively and most 
beautiful green, spear-shaped, smooth, and six or eight inches 
long. The veins are numerous, proceeding from a central mid- 
rib, in parallel wavy lines, not forming a network. The stem 
consists of little more than the footstalks of the leaves, each 
wrapping round the base of the leaf immediately above it, for 
the length of two or three inches, varying according to the na- 
ture or strength of the plant. When five or six are developed, 
the flower-stem protrudes from the centre of the upper leaf. 
The flowers are enclosed in a sheath, and expand in succession, 
to the number of perhaps from three to five or six. They are 
■ornamental, but fugacious, are divided into six segments, irre- 
gular in figure, and of a bright scarlet, or scarlet and yeUow, 
spotted also or veined with red. The blossom is succeeded by 
a roundish seed-vessel, supported upon a footstalk ; the ex- 
ternal covering of the seed-vessel is rough, and rather prickly ; 
this rough coating, as the seeds become mature, detaches itself, 
or may be readily rubbed ofl^ from the inner coat, which remains 
entire, and contains several globular seeds, somewhat resem- 
bling sweet peas, but larger, more polished, and of exceedingly 
hard texture, insomuch that it is said the natives of the countries 
where the plant is indigenous use them as shot, whence the 
familiar name. 

It is usual to raise the plants in the spring, by sowing the 
seeds in a pot, placed in a frame, over a gentle hot-bed. When 
the young plants have produced two or three leaves, they may 
be cautiously lifted by a smooth stick, with sonie of the mould 
adhering to the fibrous roots, and transferred into separate 
pots. These pots may either be large sixties, the internal 
diameter being about three inches, and the depth four inches ; 
and, in this case, when each plant shall have filled the pots 
with roots, it is to be removed, with its ball entire, into a pot 
of double the size ; or, the larger pots may be used in the first 
instance, to spare trouble. If the plants have been raised in a 
hot-bed, they should, after potting ofi', be replaced in the frame 
for a few days, and gently watered now and then with milk- 
warm water, till the roots have fuUy established themselves. 
The seeds will certainly vegetate most freely in heat ; but they 
Vuill succeed, as I have witnessed, in a parlour window, where 
the plant also will grow freely, and bring its fruit to perfection. 



As the summer advances, so many plants as are not wanted 
for the greenhouse or sitting-room may be placed in the open 
borders, where also they will flower freely, and produce ripe 
seeds. 

Many ofi'sets from the roots are sent up ; and these may be 
taken ofi", and the plants thus multiplied. The soil should be 
a rich mellow loam, made light with road-grit and decayed 
vegetable earth. When I say rich mould, I do not mean eurth, 
enriched hij duwj, but that fat unctious loam which contains all 
the staple mineral mutters, as siliceous sand, alumcn, or pure 
clay, chalk, and a certain portion of oxide of iron. The soil I 
made mention of in my first paper, obtained from decayed 
couch-roots, contains all these matters in excellent proportions. 
It is a remarkable fact, but not less wonderful than true, that 
decayed vegetables (and manures do the same eventually), fur- 
nish in decay all the staple matters of the finest native loams ; 
and couch-grass, though it may owe some of its earthy particles 
to the soil removed with its roots, wastes down to a perfect 
pale-brown earth, containing every requisite for promoting and 
sustaining vegetable growtli. This soil, with some decayed 
leaves, with road-sand in nearly equal parts, will be suitable to 
the plants in every stage of their growth. 

Soft pond or river water should be given pretty freely ; and 
some say that each plant, when flow'ering, ought to be kept in 
a pan always full of water. Those that have been retained in 
the house, in pots, may be kept throughout the winter perfectly 
safe, in a turf glazed pit ; but, in that case, little water should 
he given. In the greenhouse, more fluid may be allowed ; and 
in the eiove, where the temperature is maintained, during the 
night, to 50 or 55 deg., the plants will flower freely, and should 
be liberally supplied with water. 

Perhaps it is advisable to raise fresh plants from seeds every 
spring. I have, however, had one in the stove during winter, 
which has showed flower occasionally from December to the 
end of Februai7 ; and I have just removed it from its pot, and 
parted the roots with a knife. I think that these plants will 
furnish all I shall require throughout the season. 

The botanical characters of Indian reed or shot, are — 

Canna Indica. Class l. Order 1. Monandria Monogy- 
nia of Linneeus ; that is, with one stamen and one style. Calyx, 
or flower- cup, of three leaves. Corolla, or flower-proper, of one 
petal, divided into six segments. Anther simple, attached to 
the edge of the filament, which is flat, and resembles a petal, 
or segment of the flower. Seed-vessel, a rovmd, slightly angu- 
lar, germen, with a flat style, the upper part of which (stigma) 
is linear and obtuse. The germen becomes a roundish capsule, 
with three cells, containing globular seeds. 

In the natural system, Canna constitutes the type of the 
152nd order, termed Canneee, in the second great class of plants 
called the Monocotyledones, the seeds of which have generally 
but one cotyledon or seed lobe. The leaves do not usually ar- 
ticulate with the stems, and the veins run in parallel lines, 
without ramifying into a net-work. Plants of the order Can- 
nece differ from those of their near neighbours of the 151st 
order, in their roots being devoid of aromatic properties. 
Maranta arundinacea, or Indian arrow-]-oot, is one of the 
genera of this natural order. For farther and more minute 
particulars, the reader is referred to Dr. Lindley's " Principles 
of Botany, ^^ 

The name Canna is a latinized Greek word (Kayva), and sig- 
nifies a reed or cane. 

The only plant in this class w-hich remains to he noticed,' as 
likely to prove of any interest, or suitable to greenhouse cul- 
ture, is — 

LOPEZIA racemosa. Smooth (branching) Lnpezia. This is 
a pretty biennial, producing its clusters of red flowers from tile 
angles (axilhc) of tlie leaves. According to the Encyclopteilia 
of Plants, it was (with the other species of the- same genus) 
named in honour of the licentiate Thomas Lopez, a Spanish 
botanist, who paid particular attention to the natural history 
of the New World. It was introduced to England in 1792, 



no 



ON GREENHOiDSE PLANTS. 



and is a native of Mexico. Grows to the height of 18 inches , 
and flowers from August to October. Tiie plant is iigured and 
described in the Botanical Magazine of the late Mr. Curtis, 
No. 254. The stem of the plant is four-cornered and smooth, 
the leaves ovate or egg-shaped, and widest at the base. It 
may be propagated by suckers from the roots, and grown in 
common garden soil. 

The botanical character of the genus Lopezia may be thus 
stated : Class I . Order 1 . Monandria Monogynia. Calyax 
of four leaves. Corolla of four petals, irregular ; fiowcrs not 
contained in a sheath : hence termed naked. Filaments 2, one 
fertile, producing an anther ; the other barren, and resembling 
a petal. Germen below the flower (inferior), becoming a 
capsule with four valves, having four cells, containing many 
seeds. 

In the natural system it is placed in the 7Cth order, Onagra- 
rice, and is one of the members of the fifth tribe of that order , 
Circece. The plants, among other characteristic distinctions, 
have usually the seed-vessel below the flower (" inferior" ), which 
consists of a calyx of four leaves, a corolla of four petals, and a 
definite number of stamens. Among the plants of this order 
are the lovely /iicAsi'as, many of which will be hereafter de- 
scribed. 

The second Linnsean class will furnish several very beautiful 
tenants of the greenhouse. It is named Diandria, from the 
number {dis two) of its stamens ; and it contains three orders, 
Monogynia, Digynia, and Trigynia, having respectively, one, 
two, and three styles, or pistilla. 

In the first order, the interesting family of the olive trees 
(OUaJ contains several greenhouse species, but most of them 
are very tall growers, and attain to the inconvenient height of 
from 10 to 20 or more feet. I therefore select the fragrant 
olive (Oka fragransj , as the most suitable, and perhaps the 
most pleasing of the family. Of the various species may be 
named the following, as desirable greejihouse plants for large 
collections. 

Olea europaa, several varieties. — Common fruit-bearing 
olive, which produces the eatable fruit that is pickled and sold 
under the name " Olives." 

Oha capensis. Cape of Good Hope Olive, introduced in 
lt30. The former has been cultivated in England for above 
200 years. It is a " native of the south of Europe." 

Olea fragrans grows to a height of 3 or 4 feet ; produces 
yellow flowers in July and August, which are very odoriferous. 
The leaves are lance-shaped, approaching to oval, and are also 
fragrant. It has been cultivated here for about 63 years, as it 
was brought from China, its native country, in 1771. It may 
be considered as a rather tender evergreen, and unless it have 
the protection of a very good greenhouse, may be more secure 
in a sitting-room, where there is a fire, than in any common 
frame or glazed pit. Tender plants, kept in a room, should 
not stand, during the night, in the window ; they ought to be 
placed on the mantel-shelf or sideboard, where frosty air can- 
not reach them : in the day-time they might be brought to the 
light. The soil should be kept free from drought, but not by 
any means wet, in the dark months. Loam and peat {heath 
mouldj , form a suitable compost ; and in it the plant may be 
raised by layers, and perhaps by cuttings, with the assistance 
of a little silver sand. 

The botanical character of the genus Olea is the following. 
Class II. Order 1. Diandria Monogynia. It has two stamens 
and one style.— Calyx, or flower-cup, with four teeth. Corolla 
of one petal, rather funnel-shaped, in four divisions, and below 
the germen (inferior). Fruit a drupe, that is, a sort of berry, 
with a fleshy or pulpy substance, enclosing a hard nut. The 
fruit of the plum, apricot, peach, &c., is a drupe. 

In the natural system, Olea is the type of the order No. 124. 
Oleinm, derived from the Greek words EXaa or EAa;a (Elaa, 
ElaiaJ the olice-tree ; hence Olea, and Oleum oil (of the olive). 
The order includes, among other shrubs less known, the 
Privets, lilacs, phillyreas ; the flowers are monopetalous, with 



two stamens ; and the seed-vessels have two cells ; the leaves 
are simple, and opposite to one another. Some of the generci 
comprise evergreens ; others deciduous plants. 

The Jasmine. This is a beautiful family; there are about 
ten species which are considered greenhouse plants, and most 
of these may be raised by cuttings, placed in fine white sand ; 
and, when rooted, transferred to pots singly, containing good 
rich and open loam ; or a compost of loam, peat-earth or sand, 
and a small portion of perfectly reduced leaves or cow-dung. 

The species, out of which a selection may be made, accord- 
ing to the capacity of the house, &c., are the following, those 
marked thus *, being superior either for beauty or fragrance. 

Jasmine, glaucous or sea-green, from the Cape in 1774- 

slender, from Norfolk Island in 1791. 

cape, from Cape of Good Hope in 1816. 

twisted, do. in 1818. 



-great flowered, from East Indies in 1629. 

* sweet scented, from Madeira in 1656. 

The above produce white flowers ; the last 
named is a climber, attaining twelve or more 
feet in height. 

* azorean, from Madeira in 1724. 

* revolute flowered, from East Indies in 1812. 

The last is also a tall grower ; both have yellow flowers. 

The botanical characters of the genus are,. — 

Jasminum. Class II. Order 1. Diandria Monogynia. Two 
stamens ; one style. Flowers complete, comprising a calyx and 
corolla. Calyx of one leaf, but divided into five segments. 
Corolla inferior, of one petal, cut into five or more segments, 
tubulous below, limb or border spreading, but bent back 
(revoluti) in one or two species. Germen roundish, which 
becomes a lierry with two cells, containing as many seeds. 

In the natural system. The Jasmine is referred to Jasmineee: 
an order which contains but two genera, Jasminum and Nyc- 
ianthes. These are not far removed from the plants of the or- 
der Oleina, to which they were once united. It has been re- 
marked, that the olives will succeed by grafting upon each 
other, but not upon the jasmines ; but surely this difference is 
not alone to be decisive, for many plants which evince the 
nearest relationship will not unite by the graft. The manifest 
distinction between the entire system of foliage of the olives 
and jasmines would offer, I conceive, legitimate cause for the 
separation of the families. 

Schizanthus. The hlunt-petalled. A most beautiful spe- 
cies of recent introduction, figured in the Botanical Register, co- 
loured. I extract the following brief notice of the plant from 
the Botanical Register. " Schizanthus retusus. — Blunt-petal- 
led Schizanthus. A splendid annual. Flowers of a rich rose 
colour, blended with yellow. Native of the Andes of Mendosa, 
from whence specimens were received from Dr. Gillies. Culture : 
We are ignorant whether it is capable of bearing our summers 
so well as S. pinnatus : hitherto it has been cultivated in the 
greenhouse, where it flowers for four months successively. It 
is easily increased by cuttings." I may add, that there appears 
to be considerable difficulty in rearing this fine species. I pos- 
sessed but one plant, and wishing to increase it, took off the 
point of tbe shoot at the base of one of the leaves, in October. 
The young plant would not strike, and the parent sickened from 
the wound, and damped off during the winter. I lately saw a 
considerable collection at a celebrated nursery, and observed 
that the young plants were put in pots about three or four 
inches wide, containing a soil closely resembling black sandy 
heath mould. The nurseryman assured me that he could raise 
the plants easily, but found a difficidty of preserving them, just 
at the period when they showed blossom. Then, a plant would 
become sickly, mouldy, and die off without remedy : no cause 
could be assigned, nor conjectured. 

There are five or six, perhaps more, species of this family, 
namely. 



ON GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 



Ill 



S. pinnatus, wiag>leaved Scbizanthus, 
porrigens, spreading stalked — 
Hookeri, Hooker's (chile) — 

Grahami, Graham's (do.J — 



hardy, 
-do. 



The two last and the subject of this article were introduced 
in 1828, and it may be considered but semi-hardy ; at least, 
tliey appear to suifer from moisture. The term Schizunihiis is 
derived from two Greek words which indicate aflmoer, deeply 
cut and much divided, and such are all the members of the 
family. 

ScHiZANTHCS belongs to Diandria Monogynia, it has two 
stamina, effective; and the rudiments of two others, sterile. 
The fiower is inferior. The cahjx five-parted. Corolla of two 
lips, inverted, the upper segment (varying from the usual 
position) being in this instance the lower one. So sitiiated, a 
flower is termed resupinute. A leaf resupinate, has its faces 
reversed by a twist of the foot-stalk, which brings the lower 
surface in front ; the Alsfrosnomeria, a lovely family, afford strik- 
ing examples of this position of the leaves. The upper lip of 
Schizanthus is in five parts ; the lower one in three, narrow and 
smaller. Seed-vessel, a. capsule of tv.'0 cells : seerfs numerous. 

Naturally, this genus ranks in the order Scrophularinee, and 
in the second section, wherein two only of the stamens have 
anthers. Most of the subjects are purely herbaceous, though a 
few are shi-ubs. In this section are to be found the extensive 
family of Speedwell (Veronica), the beautiful slipper-worts 
(Galceoluria) , the hedge-hyssop (Gratiola), and several others 
less known. The order will be again referred to. 

JusTicEA. A family of plants named in honour of J. Jus- 
tice, a Scotch horticulturist and wi-iter of the last century, and 
who died about the year 1761 or 1762. 

It contains a great number of species, natives chiefly of the 
East and West Indies ; and consequently too tender for green- 
house culture. There is among them, however, one which is a 
plant of singular interest, and which, though it ranks as a stove 
plant, may, I think, be safely preserved in the dwelling or 
greenhouse; itisthe "yellow-tufted" Justicea, and one of the 
most curious flowerers that can well he found in any collection. 
In the Hortus Britannicus, it is stated to be an under sknib of 
the stove, growing two feet high with yelloio flowers, imported 
from Brazil in 1825. I received this plant from a friend last 
July; it was scarcely three inches high, but showed bloom. 
Owing to a long journey, and being merely wrapped up in moss, 
it had little vigour, and the flower failed. Shortly after, how- 
ever, fresh roots were formed, and it soon produced a flower- 
stem that increased and came to perfection. I noticed the 
following particulars at the time, December 7, 18.33; they 
will afford evidence of the nature and habits of the plant. Its 
flowers are produced in a close terminal spike, the whole of 
which is of a pale yellowish, slightly green tint. This, with the 
tufty form of the spike, gives the name to the species. The 
spike is formed of a series of spikelets, the one opposite to tlie 
other; and the pairs are in alternate order, at a right angle 
with those above and below. The leaves are also in pairs, and 
in the same cross or rectangular order with themselves, and 
with the flowers that terminate them. These leaves (in a very 
small plant which flowered in December last) assumed an 
appearance of singular interest. As the flower-spike advanced 
and became well developed from being flat, and extending 
horizontally, they gradually curled in a direction towards the 
stem, some of them bending almost spirally downwards. 

They are large, very handsome, ovate-cordate, highly glazed ; 
and somewhat resemble the leaves of the hornbeam, with the 
gloss of the beech. The plant is a ready flowerer ; mine was 
scarcely six inches high; I kept it in the pine-stove, wherein, 
throughout October and November, the heat during night 
ranged between 53 deg. and 62 deg. Late in November, I 
perceived that several unopened flowers fell oflr; I therefore 
removed the plant to a sitting room, some blossoms expanded 
in the course of a day ; and exposed as it was to the vicissitudes 



of temperature, open winjows in the morning, confined, close 
ail' in the evening, &c., it continued in health and bloom. Thus 
this stove plant appears to be semi-hardy ; it is of ready cul- 
ture, and grows well in a mixture of sandy loam, two parts, old 
decayed wood earth and leaf mould, each one part. 

I must add, that, on the 21st of March, 1834, the spike was 
still in a very ornamental state. In January all the first 
formed flowers had developed themselves and fallen off ; the 
plant was then removed to the stove. After a period of rest, 
the spike began to enlarge itself, and other flowers were formed. 
The old calyxes and tufts remained perfect in form and colour, 
and early in the present month a complete succession of blos- 
soms pushed from the spaces between them. The spike is now 
double its former size ; that is, about five inches long, and 
blossom after blossom has appeared. In a word, taking all 
things into consideration, though the colour of the flower is not 
vivid, the plant is a perfect gem, and highly deserving of ex- 
tended culture. 

In the Linnaean system Justicea belongs to Diandria Mo- 
nogynia. The flowers are inferior, monopetalous, and irregular. 
The calyx is five parted, tubulous, equal. Corolla ringent or 
gaping, divided into two nearly equal parts : the upper part or 
lip arched, often reflexed, (bent upwards and backwards) ; the 
lower divided into two or three equal parts, which are more or 
less reflexed. Anthers two-celled ; style long and protruding. 
Capsule oi two sells, elastic, with two seeds fixed by little hooks. 
One plant styled, 

Justicea flavicomu, or perhaps more correctly flavacoma. 
Justicia with a yellow lock, or yeUow tufted, presents all the 
above essential generic characters, with the specific peculiarity 
of having the divisions of the flower-cup (calyx) terminated by 
very long bristly points. 

This genus, or family, forms one of the members of the 
oriei Acanthacece, the 145th of the Hortus Britannicus, 

Acanthus is the type of the order, and the term is derived 
from a Greek word (akantha), which signifies a plant or shrub 
abounding with thorns, A fitter type for a tribe, many of 
whose members are wholly thornless, might surely have been 
chosen ; however, the plants agree generally in the peculiar 
elasticity of their seed-vessels, and the curiously hooked pro- 
cesses of the seeds. Their stems also are swollen just above the 
pairs of leaves, and that swelling gives them a characteristic 
appearance ; cuttings at these joints strike with facility, 

Slipperwort — better known by the classic term Calceolaria, a 
noble family, almost without exception, of recent introduction. 
There are four or more beautiful undershrubs in the genus, 
which, though introduced about the year 1 822, are familiarly 
known, and extensively cultivated ; there are many others of 
herbaceous characters which are perennial or biennial, and these 
sport into varieties and sub-varieties of surpassing beauty ; they 
are, many of them at least, prize plants, and are exhibited by 
florists and others at exhibitions, and are highly admired. 

The three undershrubs which may be considered sufficiently 
hardy for the parterre, are the 

1. Rugosa, or Wrinkled-leaved Calceolaria, with yellow 
flowers, produced in tufts of many pairs abundantly throughout 
the autumn. The leaves are ovate-lanceolate, very i-ugose or 
wrinkled, the under surface stained with a ferruginous brown. 

2. Integrifulia, not differing materially from the preceding, 
in the mode and duration of flowering. The leaves lance- 
shaped, less rough. 

3. Angustifolia, Narrow-leaved, perhaps merely a variety of 
the last, having acute nervous leaves, not smooth ; also yellow 
flowers. Others might be mentioned, equally adapted to the 
greenhouse and the frame during winter, and to the decoration 
of the garden after midsummer. They are indeed almost hardy 
plants, for cuttings taken in December last from plants that 
had stood out for two years have taken root in a cold frame, 
the cuttings being placed in sand, laid upon a substratum of 
mould in a pot. 

Bicolor, or diffusa — ^Two-coloured Calceolaria, is certainly 



112 



0}f GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 



mor^ tender ; its leaves are roughish ovate, or broader at the 
base, of a delicate pea-green, and downy. The flowers are pale 
sulphur-yellow ; the lower and larger lip tinged with white. 
The greenhouse is rather too much exposed for its winter 
abode, and it flourishes in rich verdure in the ^^nery ; but it 
will live in a well-covered pit. 

The soil for these shi-ubs may be wood-earth, or the siftings 
of an old wood pile one-half, heath mould one-quarter, and 
fine sandy loam one quarter, well blended, and kept in aheap 
for two or three months. This compost is for pot culture. In 
the open ground after May, I think that well-rooted plants 
turned out of pots into any rich, and not cloddy soil, will not 
fail to thrive. 

Of the herbaceons fancy varieties, it would be endless to 
write ; as their- tijpe, the 

C'o-n/7nbosa, or corymbose tufty-flowered, may suflSce for ge- 
neral notice. It is a beautiful plant ; its flowers are large and 
5 ellow ; the sfaineiis concealed and sensitive when touched. Its 
leaves are large, opposite, in pairs, rough, strongly veined ; and 
it throws up a tall branchy fiov;er-stem, the leaves upon which 
are rather heart-shaped, and their bases nearly meet round the 
stem. It requires a light soil, almost wholly consisting of the 
siftings of decayed stalks, and leaves of trees ; the rougher 
parts, to the depth of an inch, being placed as drainage at the 
bottom of the pot. This species, and hundreds of varieties, 
may be raised from seeds ; though perhaps cross impregnation 
is very frequently resorted to by the florists, The plant is 
tender, during winter. 

Calceolaria, botanically, is found in Diundriu Monogynia. 
Flowers irregular but complete. C'abja^ four-cleft. Corolla, 
ringent or gaping, inflated : the lower lip generally appearing 
like the fore part of a slipper. Capsule of two cells. The 
plants can be raised from seeds, which frequently ripen here, 
though they are natives of Chile, Peru, &c. 

In the natural system. Calceolaria is the first of the section, 
with tico stamens, of the order Scroplndarinre, an order which 
comprises many plants with irregular, gaping, and personate 
flowers — such as foxglove, toadfla.\, and the like ; and with op- 
posite leaves, of herbaceous habits. The few shrubby plants 
of the order are of fragile texture, and their foliage is injured 
and broken by the slightest violence ; this too is often seen in 
the shrubby Calceolaria. 

The Sage, or more correctly the Salvia family, is one of 
great interest ; it contains many plants that may suit the green- 
house, but they, almost without exception, appear to the great- 
est advantage in the flower-garden after midsummer. In co- 
lour, the flowers vary from v.hite to pale pink, scarlet, and the 
most splendid crimson ; blue is a very prevailing tint, and this 
passes through a variety of shades till it is lost in the full and 
deep purple. The salvias appear to me to be the connecting 
link between several members of the ringent or labiate families 
of this second Liunsean class, and others which are to be found 
in the fourteenth, where all the families have irregular and two- 
lipped flowers. 

The species of the family of Salvia are too numerous to be 
referred to ; I therefore shall select, for greenhouse treatment, 
those acknowledged beauties. 

'1 . The Splendid, S. splendent, a native of Mexico, introduced 
in 1822 — bright scarlet. 

2. The Fulgent, S.fulgeiis, also from Mexico, 1829 — superb 
crimson. 

3. The Involucrated, S. involucraia, from Mexico, 1824 — 
pink. 

The culture of these salvias is very easy : it may be effected 
by cuttings of the young side-shoots, or of the upper extre- 
mities of the shoots, always taken under a joint, or at the juuc- 
tioa with a stem. These cuttings, or even slips, the lower 
leaves being removed, are to be placed in white sand, over a 
rich sandy loam, both in a pot or deep pan. They are to be 



inserted just so deep as to allow the next joint above the cuts 
to rest upon the surface of the sand ; and then to be firmly fixed 
by pressing the sand about the stems, and giving them a gentle 
watering. The cuttings may stand very close in the pots, and 
fifty may be struck at once ; the pots, however, ought to have 
a hand-glass placed over them, and be kept shaded from the 
full sun. If sand alone be employed, the plants ought to be 
potted off singly, as soon as they have produced good roots, 
into small sixty-size pots, of rich mellow loam, (such as couch 
soil, and decayed vegetable earth, blended, and occasionally 
stirred during six months.) If a stratum of sand an inch deep 
be placed over good soil in a pot, the roots will be excited by 
the sand, and then will proceed into the soil and be safe. Sand 
is not absolutely required, but it is an exciting medium ; hence 
tTie nurserymen use much of it in propagating plants ; and it 
may always be removed and again employed, provided it be 
kept sepr.rate from the soil. Sandy earth will be sufficient, if 
pure sand cannot readily he obtained ; and a cold frame will 
affoi'd warmth and protection sufficient for the work after the 
end of March, when the stock for the borders and patches may 
be prepared. For the green-house stock, September is a suit- 
able month, and the young plants will be rooted for potting off 
in the winter. Salvia sjjlendens should be kept in a tempera- 
ture of 50 degrees, to insure a handsome foliage, and the pot- 
ting should be repeated as the roots fill their pots; the soil also 
ought to be kept moist. I have now by me seven or eight 
young plants which were potted off early in the year : they 
have been in a stove, and now show their fine stalked leaves of 
the richest deep verdure. These leaves, in a cold greenhouse, 
are deficient in number, become ragged, yellow, and sickly. 

The floweis appear at the extremities of the stems, and are 
scarlet in every part. In winter it frequently happens that the 
Corolla is not produced ; but the scarlet calyx, and the coloured 
bracteie or involucra, which partially enclose the flowers, are 
admirable substitutes for the absent corollas. The graceful 
bend of the flower spike, the gorgeous colour of the blossom, 
and the verdure of the broad sub-cordate (rather heart-shaped) 
pointed leaves, standing in opposite pairs, and each pair cross- 
ing the one immediately below it, render this plant one of the 
choicest of parlour ornaments in the early spring. In the 
autumn, \\hen turned out of the pots into the parterre, the plant 
forms a grand object. If the soil be rich and light, in great 
part composed of vegetable mould, the plant sometimes forms 
a complete bush, three feet high, extensively branchy, and 
covered with pendent spikes of flowers from August till the 
period of frost, a hint of which, however, is usually fatal to it. 

Salvia fulgens, and S. involucraia, on the contrary, are 
hardier, and have stood in the open ground all winter under 
shelter only of a flower pot and a few dry leaves. The mode 
of propagation described above will apply to these, and to most 
other species of the family. All may be potted and repotted 
till the size of the pots becomes inconvenient. The plants may 
then be transferred into the soil of the garden, to which they 
will gradually accommodate themselves, and become bej.utiful 
iu the autumn. S. fulgens has its two-lipped calices of a dark 
purplish green, its corollas of glowing crimson, covered, espe- 
cially the upper finely arched lip, with gorgeous velvet. The 
corolla is neither (as far as I have seen) absent nor defective ; 
the spike is erect, and the flowers most abundant, though 
more loose and scattered than in the splendid salvia. S. in- 
volucraia is pink, its floral leaves large, enclosing the flowers 
as in a round compact ball. The spike expands erectly, and 
developes beautiful reddish-lilac flowers ; but these are apt to 
be defective, or to open imperfectly. Were the flowers as free 
in expanding as they are individually beautiful, this species 
would be unrivalled. As it Is, the palm must be yielded to 
fulgens, which, under every consideration of beauty, hardihood, 
and certainty of flowering, for several months, is, I think, the 
best of the "whole genus, if not the finest autumnal herbaceous 
plant that we possess. 



NO PKUITS AND FRUIT TREES. 



113 



■ Of blue species we have 
Salvia mexicana, . Mexico, 1824. 

boosiana or amaena, Blue Pemvian, 1821. 

indica, . . India, 1731. 

angustifolia . Narrowleaved, from Mexico, 1806. 

Salvia ranks in Dinandria Monoyynia. Flowers complete, of 

one petal, irre^lar, or' inferior, or below the fruit, which con- 
sists of open or naked seeds, in the base of the calyx — not in a 
seed-vessel. Calyx, various in figure, in some species inflated, 
in some with three lobes, or three-toothed; and in others five- 
toothed : thus it is uncertain, as far as refers to the generic 
character, but is of great utility in arranging the species under 
different and distinctive heads. 

Corolla, ringent or gaping — the upper lip frequently being 
bold, arched, and prominent. 

Filaments of the stamens attached to the lower lip about mid- 
way by a slender process, on which they are fixed, and move as 
on a centre ; from this centre the upper half of each filament 
projects into and under the arch of the upper lip, and bears one 



of the two anthers ; while the lower half runs down the tube of 
the flower, becomes somewhat enlarged, and the two spurs 
or heels are sometimes partially united into one. The whole 
structure is admirable and distinctive, and evinces an approach 
to the staminous structure of the lobiate flowers of the 
14th class. 

Seeds frequently ripen and vegetate. 

Salnia is found in the natural order Liabata, aud in the 5th 
tribe Nepete<s. This order is not far removed from Cchrophu- 
larinea, and it contains many of the genera of Diandria, and 
all those of the first order of the 14th Linnaan class, which 
have four naked seeds seated at the base of the calyx. More 
will be said upon the labiate flowers, when the plants of that 
class shall come under consideration. Several greenhouse 
plants might be added to the list furnished by Diandria ; but 
as this paper has become extended, and the genera already 
noticed will yield an ample number of subjects to those who 
are inclined to look over the catalogues published, I shall here 
close my remarks upon the Second Class. 



ON FRUITS AND FRUIT TREES. 



BY MR. T. RIVERS, JUN.* 



I AM a' great lover of fruits, and a persevering cultivator ; that 
is, I spare no pains or application to arrive at correct nomen- 
clature ; but surely no one, but a man like Mr. Thompson of 
the London Horticultural Society, can form any idea of the 
extreme difficulty of attaining that object. Before the publica- 
tion of his catalogue it was all confusion. Some ten or fifteen 
years since, I used to order the same article of two or three 
respectable London nurserymen, and, if they all proved of 
similar habits, I hoped I had got the right ; but if, as it often 
happened, they were all different, I almost despaired of getting 
correctly the plant I wanted. There was no individual blame, 
for we nurserymen all thought we were right. Thanks to the 
London Horticultural Society, these times are passed, and we 
now know what to recommend. Mr. Thompson will, however, 
find the Catahijue even now to require revision and correction 
in the next edition : his ample notes taken in season, and his 
fine opportunities for taking them, \vill allow him to do this in 
the best possible manner. 

It is now some years since an account of my orchard in 
miniature was published: it is still in being, and annually 
exacts my admiration. Planted on untrenched gi'ound, the 
substratum strong clay, and the surface never dug, though kept 
quite clean with the hoe, the trees make short shoots, which 
are made still shorter by the knife in July : in consequence, 
every tree is a dense mass of blossom and fruit in its respective 
seasons, quite delightful to witness. None of the trees are 
larger than a full-sized gooseberry bush. 

The Flemish and other jiew Pears. — Every person with a 
garden of ten square yards, ought to plant an Easter beurr^, a 
Marie Louise, and a Hacon's incomparable pear : if they have 
a larger garden, let them add gloux morceau, beurr^ Diel, 
beurr^ ranee, and passe Colmar. These pear trees are all 
great bearers of fruit of excellent quality; and they seem to 
flourish in any soil. Confine their roots in a basin of stones, 
and you may have a pear orchard in miniature without quince 
stocks. I have a pyretum, in a row on each side of a walk, of 
nearly 200 varieties, in which is evei-y sort that I have ever 
heard of as worth notice ; besides this, in difi'erent parts of the 
ground, in detached rows, are upwards of 600 pear trees for 
bearing fruit, in various stages of growth, from 5 years to 50. 
Every tree planted by my ancestors (for we have been " located " 



here nearly a century), of a sort not exactly to my mind, I have 
had grafted with the new varieties ; and the effect is wonderful. 
I hope soon to be able to send all the valuable sorts to market 
in as great abundance as we have hitherto done those that are 
common and comparatively worthless. I have omitted to say 
that all nurserymen may grow specimens of their pears even in 
a confined space : every alternate year, let a man look over the 
trees in winter, and apply to the roots of all those beginning to 
shoot luxuriantly, a sharp spade with unsparing hand ; reduce 
the shoots a little at the same time, and there will soon be a 
regular crop of blossom buds. 

I have also formed a proof walk of Apples of 250 sorts. I do 
not allow myself to get beyond this uumber. As the seasons 
roll on, and defects appear, either in quality or growth, I give 
some their dismissal, some their introduction, and at last hope 
to be somewhat near perfection. The spade is applied to the 
roots of the apple trees in the same manner as to those of the 
pears, to check luxuriance ; they are also planted ifa untrenched 
ground, with a solid clayey substratum. 

Plums and cherries are not quite so tractable, being rather 
impatient of amputation, though I do not despair of keeping 
plums within "rules polite." 

An Orchard in Pots. Take some large pots, eights or twelves 
of the London potteries, some strong yellow loam mixed with 
one third of good rotten dung in lumps ; well drain the pots 
with large pieces of tiles or broken pots, and in this compost 
plant selected small dwarfs of Hawthornden, courtpendu plat, 
Kerry pippin, golden Harvey, Cole's golden drop, Keswick 
codlin, and scarlet nonpareil apples ; Passe Colmar, sickle, 
Beurre de Capiaumont, Marie Louise, and Easter beurr^ pears ; 
also two or three dwarf prolific nuts. Let the pots stand in the 
centre, if a confined garden ; and by all means keep on their 
surface, all summer, lumps of rotten manure. Thus treated, it 
is astonishing how they will flourish ; and, if well supplied with 
water (if manured water, the better), they will bear plentifully. 
In very severe winters, a little straw should be put over the 
pots, to prevent the roots being injured by the extreme frost. 
This may certainly be called a cockney orchard ; but I know 
that, if it is not profitable, it is very pretty. 

Grapes from Layers and from Eyes. I have never been able, 
after a year or two, to observe any difi'erence in their habits. 



* From the Gardener's Magazine. 
MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL.11. NO. XVII. AUGUST, 1834. 



114 



ON THE COTTON PLANT. 



A prejudice has sometimes arisen against layers, owing to their 
being planted with vigorous shoots, and not very vigorous roots ; 
that is, layers but one year in pots. We English nurserymen 
are apt to sell all our plants too young : in this trading country, 
every one wants a quick return, even nurserymen ! ! " Heaven 
save the mark ! !" why, we ought not to have a return, but 
once in ten yerrs. Grapes ought to be layed in 32-pots the 
first year ; removed from the stool, and put into larger pots the 
second year ; again removed into twelves the third or fourth 
year, and not sold till they bear fruit ; and then the gentleman 
who plants his vinery in January may have an abundant crop 
of grapes in September. Again, our trained apples, pears, 
plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, and apricots, should be 
trained two years to form the plants ; and then, instead of 
allowing them to get full of rampant and luxuriant wood, let 
them be removed cKery season, till all their shoots are fully 
furnished with blossom buds, and their roots are in a state to 
give those buds enough nourishment to bear fruit even the first 
season of removal. 



In doing all this, we should, perhaps, like many other great 
but unremunerated men, live before our times : our trees, that 
would save a man seven years of his life, would be wanted at 
the same price as an unprepared tree ; for; in writing, A. will 
oflfer a trained tree at 5s., B. will offer his at 7s. Bd., and in a 
note calls his prepared trees in a fruiting state ; nevertheless, 
A. will have the order, because he is cheaper, and B.'s recom- 
mendation will be thought the puff professional. This will 
take place in eight cases out of ten, for in such disproportion 
are intelligent amateurs of gardening ; so that poor B., like all 
clever fellows that march too fast, will find that his peep in 
futuro will give him but little profit. However, as the plan 
has not yet been tried to any extent, let us hope, in this ad- 
vancing age, that prepared fruit trees may, in a short time, be 
appreciated. I shall most certainly try it; and will, some 
distant day (life permitting), send you a trained Easter beurr^ 
pear, with a blossom bud at every joint, and see you pluck pears 
in October, from a tree planted the same year. 



ON THE COTTON PLANT.* 



Cotton is by far the most important product of the plants 
of the order Malvaceie ; it was known in very ancient times ; 
its consumption has increased in proportion to the progress of 
the arts and civilization. It appears to have been originally 
known only as a product of India, the country which at the 
present day is supposed by many incapable of producing any 
but the inferior kinds. As this is an opinion which appears to 
me to have been hastily formed from the results of experiments 
in a few situations, instead of after an investigation into the 
nature and variety of the soils and climates of the different 
provinces of this extensive country, it will not be perhaps irre- 
levant to enter into a few details on the sabject. 

That cotton was originally introduced from India into Egypt, 
seems probable from Herodotus not mentioning it among the 
products of the latter country, which he would hardly have 
failed doing had it been common or cultivated, as its novel and 
singular appearance must have struck a traveller from Europe; 
particularly as in his account of the Indians, he mentions that 
they possess a kind of plant, which, instead of fruit, produces 
wool of a finer and better quality than that of sheep : of this 
the natives make their clothes. In another place, he mentions 
that the Egyptians, as well as the priesthood, are so regardful 
of neatness, that they wear only linen clothing, and that always 
newly washed. Book 2. c. 37; and again at c. 71. "Their 
habit is made of linen ; over this they throw a kind of shawl 
made of white avooI, but in these vests of wool they are for- 
bidden by their religion either to be buried, or to enter any 
sacred edifice." By some authors it has been suggested that 
wo ought in some places to read cotton instead of linen ,■ but 
this seems to be taking for granted, that the former was as 
common in Egypt in ancient times, as it is at present; and it 
appears to me, that in other places we ought to read linen instead 
. cotton, as in the account of the Egyptian mode of embalming, 
the body is said to be wrapped up in bandages of cotton. 
That this was not the case, is proved by all the mummies which 
have been opened and the cloth carefully examined under the 
microscope, having been found to be swathed only in linen 
cloth ; which it is not likely would have been the case, if cotton 
had been as common an article of clothing in those, as it is in 
the present day, particidarly as some of that used for this pur- 
pose appears to have been previously worn, as it is repaired in 
some places. It is not improbable, however, that cotton fabrics 



were introduced into Egypt from India even at the earliest histo- 
rical periods, with cinnamon, cassia, and frankincense. Pliny, 
writing about 500 years subsecjuent to the time of Herodotus, 
mentions, lib. 19, c. 1, that the upper part of Egypt, verging 
towards Arabia, produces a small shrub, which some call (jossy- 
pion, others xylon, and from the latter the cloth made from it. 
xylinu, bearing a fruit like a nut, from the interior of which a 
kind of wOol is produced, from which cloths are manufactured 
inferior to none for whiteness and softness, and therefore much 
prized by the Egyptian priesthood. Dr. Harris, in his Natural 
History of the Bible, quotes several authors to show that 
cotton was known to the Hebrews, adding that the name liutz, 
by which it is distinguished, is not fonnd among the Jews till 
the time of their royalty, when by commerce they obtained 
articles of dress from other nations. The author of the Ruins 
of Palmyra has shown that the East-Indian trade by that city 
into Syria was as ancient as the days of Solomon ; and Heeren 
concludes, that cotton fabrics formed an article of the ancient 
commerce with India, as Ctesias mentions that the Indians 
possess an insect, which affords a red colour more brilliant than 
cinnabar, which they employ in dyeing their stuffs. Theo- 
phrastus, lib. 4, c. 9., and Pliny, lib. 12, c. 10, who follows 
him, mentions that the islands Tylos and Aradus, the modern 
Bahrein, in the Persian Gulf, produce abundance of cotton, 
which was manufactured into clothing. Heeren, Commerce of 
the Ancients, vol. ii., p. 278, Fr. ecL, concludes by saying, "II 
est fort probable que les plantations de Tylos furent le resultat 
du commerce avec I'Inde, veritable patrie du coton." 

It has sometimes been considered a subject of doubt, whether 
cotton was indigenous to America, as well as to Asia ; but 
without sufficient reason, as it is mentioned by very early 
voyagers, formed the only clothing of the natives of Mexico ; 
and as stated by Humboldt, is one of the plants of which the 
cultivation among the Aztec tribes was as ancient as that of the 
pili (AgaveJ, the maize and the quinoa (Chenopoiliumj . If 
more evidence be required it may be mentioned, that Mr. 
Brown has in his possession cotton not separated from the 
seeds, as well as cloth manufactured from it, brought by Mr. 
Gumming from the Peruvian tombs ; and it may be added, that 
the species now recognised as American, differ in character 
from all the known Indian species. 

In a cultivated state, cotton is now distributed over a very 



From Royle's Illustrations of Indian Botany. 



ON THE COTTCN PLANT. 



wide expanse of the globe on both sides of the Equator : on 
the north extending as far as the southern shores of Europe, 
and on the south to the Cape of Good Hope ; in the islands of 
the . Pacific Ocean, it if found both in the Friendly and the 
Society Islands. Nearly under the Line is is cultivated in the 
islands of Celebes, Java, Timor, and the Seychelles, as well as 
in Kutung, where the best is said to be grown, extending 
northwards up the Malayan Peninsula, along the coast of 
Tenasserim into the Burhmese territory, and from this west- 
ward into Siam and Cliina, whence there is a peculiar species. 
Cotton is common in every part of India; a wild species was 
found in Ceylon, and another in Silhet by Dr. Roxburgh. 
From India the cotton seems to have travelled by the way of 
the Persian Gulf into Arabia, as well as into Persia, and from 
thence to Syria and Asia Minor. From Arabia and from the 
ancient commerce by the Red Sea with India it was probably 
introduced into Egypt, whence it seems to have spread into the 
interior of Africa, and to both its western and northern coasts. 
The islands and shores of the Mediterranean long supplied 
Europe with all the cotton it required ; during the reign of 
Napoleon, he caused it to be introduced into Corsica, Italy, 
and the southern parts of France ; and Mr. Kirkpatrick culti- 
vated it in Spain, near Malaga. In America, cotton is exten- 
sively cultivated in the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and Eng- 
lisn settlements ; one species is peculiar to Pera ; others are 
cultivated in the West-India islands ; also in Mexico, and in 
tlie southern states, as Georgia and Carolina of the United 
States of North America. 

Knowing the countries through which cotton is already spread, 
the next interesting subject of inquiry is to ascertain the kind 
of climate it requires, as well as that of the countries where the 
best kinds are grown, and, if possible, to determine whether 
this superiority depends on the excellency of the seed, the good- 
ness of the climate, or care in the cidture ; and here the general 
results which have been deduced by the illustrious Humboldt 
render the most essential assistance. He remarks that Gossy- 
]num barhadense hirsutum, and relU/wsuin, have their favourite 
climate, from to 34 deg. of latitude, where the annual tempera- 
ture is from 82 68 deg., but that G. Herhacium is success- 
fully cultivated in the temperate zone, where, with a mean 
summer heat of 75.73 deg., that of winter is not less than 
46.48 deg. Cotton is, however, cultivated as high as 37 deg. 
of N. latitude in America ; beyond latitude 40 deg. in Europe, 
and even as far North as 46 deg. near Astrakan. 

As the British possessions in India extend from 8 to 31 deg. 
of N. latitude, the whole are included within the favourite 
tract of the cotton ; and as Mr. J. Prinsep has presented us 
with an epitome of the meteorological phenomena at five places 
from 12 to 30 deg., it will be seen that the mean temperature 
of the year, along the whole extent, is what is required for the 
cultivation of this plant. By all the observations to which 
Mr. Prinsep had access, the mean temperature of Madras is 
found to be 81.96 deg.; of Ava, 78.39 deg. ; of Calcutta, 
78.13 deg.; of Benares, 77. 81 deg. ; and of Saharunpore, 
73. 5 deg. : to these may be added that of Nagpore, about 
80 deg. ; Nusseerabad, 76 deg; Bancoorah, 74. 5deg. ; Delhi, 
about 75 deg. The mean temperatui-e of the winter months at 
Saharunpore, the most northern station, is moreover about 
55 deg., and though we are without any precise data respecting 
the nature of the climate of the Tinnevelly district, the most 
.southern portion, where, however, the best cotton is at pre- 
sent grown, we may safely assume that in point of temperature, 
and, I believe, in the course of the seasons, every part of the 
Indian territories is fitted for the cultivation of cotton. 

With respect to elevation, Humbodt mentions that in the 
aequinotical regions of America, cotton extends to nearly 9,000 
feet above the level of the sea, but in Mexico, in 1 9 deg. 22 min. 
of N. latitude, it reaches only to 5,500 feet. In the Hima- 
layas I have seen it above 4,0o0 feet in the tract between the 
Ganges and Jumma rivers ; Dr. Govan mentions it as extend- 



ing with the sugar-cane to about 4,200 feet between the Jumna 
and Sutlej rivers ; both situations are within 28 to 31^ deg. of 
N. lattitude ; but in neither is it cultivated to any extent, a 
few plants only are grown about the villages, of which the pro- 
duce is used by the females of the family. Mr. Trail mentions 
that the cotton of the Kemaon district is superior to that of 
the plains in softness of texture, gloss of colour, and length 
of fibre. 

In addition to the information which has 'dcen obtained re- 
garding the temperature required for the successful growth of 
cotton, and the notices we have from cultivators respecting the 
soil, it is desirable also to ascertain the degree of atmospheric 
dryness and moisture wMch is best suited to the formation of 
cotton-wool. Respecting this I have been unable to obtain any 
information, but there is no doubt that from the extent of their 
distribution, the several cultivated species must be subject to 
very different degrees of evaporation, and the production of 
cotton, both as regard quantity and quality, must, I conceive, 
be influenced by this as well as other causes, particularly as we 
know that the formation of flowers and fruit depends upon the 
nature and quality of the secretions which are formed by the 
leaves, and in the cotton, probably, by the leaflets of the in- 
volucel or exterior calyx. As the density of these secretions 
depends as much upon the rate of perspiration as upon the sup- 
ply of moisture by the roots, it follows that dilferent states of 
humidity in the atmosphere, checking or exciting perspiration, 
will influence the retention of the fluids in the state of sap, or 
their conversion into concentrated secretions ; and, as it is upon 
the latter that depend the formation of flowers and fruit, it 
follows that whatever favours the former will be useful to tlic 
latter ; or, as Professor Lindley has well and briefly expressed 
it, Transplantation, a dry and heated (and it may be added a 
rarified) atmostphere, a judicious pruning of the extremities of 
young growing branches, a great decomposition of carbonic 
acid by full exposure to light, or whatever interrupts the ra- 
pid flow of sap, favours its concentration and the diminution of 
excessive vegetative vigour, assists the formation of flower- 
buds, and consequently the production of flowers. But a moist 
or richly-manured soil, high temperature, with great atmos- 
pheric humidity, a free and uninterrupted circulation of sap, or 
a great accumulation of oxygen, in consequence of the imper- 
fect decomposition of carbonic acid, have all a tendency to di- 
lute the sap, promote the excessively rapid growth, the almost 
exclusive production of leaf-buds, and are therefore unfavour- 
able to the formation of flower-buds. v. Principles of Horli- 
cnltwe, p. 85, and p. 54. The same reasoning will apply to 
the production of fruit and the perfection of seed, as well as 
cotton, and any other accessaries or secretions. 

The degree of moisture and dryness which is best suited tn 
each species, and for the production of its several parts and 
products varies so much, that what is excessive for one 
plant, may be just the degree that is requisite for another. 
What this is, can only be known in general from experiment 
and observation ; and in the present case we only know what 
some cultivators have stated that, according to the moisture or 
dryness ofa climate, the cotton was long or short stapled, fine 
or coarse, early or late in flowering, as well as varying in the 
quantity it bore. There is no doubt considerable difterenccs 
must exist in this respect between the equability of insular cli- 
mates within the tropics, the moist climates of Bengal anil 
Guiana, and the moderation in temperature and evaporation 
of Georgia and Carolina, as well as of the south of Europe. 

It is generally admitted that the quality of cotton improves 
in proportion to its vicinity to the sea ; but the Pernambuco 
cotton is said to be injured by this proximity, and to improve 
in proportion as its cultivation advances into the interior (A'os- 
ter's Brazil). Wtih regard to latitude, the cotton of Java 
under the Line is almost the worst in the market, and that 
from Guiana and Brazil, within a few degrees of the Line, is 
the second in quality ; while that from Jamaica, in 20 deg. of 



116 



ON THE INCREASE OF THE ROOTS &C. IN THE SILVER FIR. 



N. latitude, more costly ia production, is 30 per cent, worse 
than that from Demerara, 14 deg. more to the southward; 
■while the cotton of Georgia and the Carolinas, nearly at the 
most northern limit of its extension, is the best that is pro- 
duced ; and the cotton of Egypt, of which the cultivation, with 
returning civilization, has returned to the country by which It 
was first made known in Europe, is of excellent quality. In 
India, though some fine cotton is produceed in the neighbour- 
hood of Dacca, and some other places, that of Bengal, accord- 
ing to Mr. Colebrook, is worse than that of the north-western 
provinces ; and the natural vegetation of these, as we have 
seen in so many instances, corresponds to that of the coast of 
Coromandel, where the cotton is grown, of which the Madras 
long-cloths are made. It would appear, therefore, that not 
only is temperature necessary to be considered, but also the 
due balance between the supply of moisture to the roots, and 
its escape by the perspiratory surface of the leaves, as well as 
aU the varied processes of a judicious culture, in addition to the 
choice of the species or variety to be • cultivated in any parti- 
cular locality. 

In the choice, however, of seeds, it does not follow that 
that which is best suited to one climate, is the kind most 



eligible for introduction into another, where the requisites of 
soil and climate may be neither identical nor analogous. Dr. 
Rohr and Bennet mention, that even in the same field some 
plants were ten times more productive than others, and that a 
variety which was sterile in one situation, became fertile when 
removed to another, which did noe appear more favourable ; 
while a kind that in one bore but little cotton, became most 
productive in a neighbouring farm. Much, therefore, may be 
done in improving the kinds which already exist in India, by 
ascertaining with precision the parts of the country where the 
best cotton is already produced, the peculiarities of soil, climate, 
and culture, selecting the most prolific plants, and extending 
their cultivation, to the exclusion of less fertile and inferior 
kinds ; exchanging the produce of one place with that of another, 
when others can be induced to take the same trouble in select- 
ing and preserving only the best kind of seed. Doing, in fact, 
what is every where done by all who are interested in the im- 
proved cultivation of grain, vegetables, fruit, or flowers ; though 
some varieties are difficult to propagate by seed, yet others 
may be continued sufficiently long to attain the permanency of 
species, instead of the liability to change of varieties. — To he 
concluded in our next. 



NEW METHOD OF CULTIVATING THE MUSHROOM. 



The author informs us that being a great lover of mushrooms, 
he was desirous of obtaining them more readily than they were 
to be had in his native city ; and, for this purpose he sought 
for information on the subject of their culture in books, by ob- 
servation, by travel, and by conversing with cultivators. He 
does not seem to have had recourse to any English works ; but 
an Englishman gave him directions how to make spawn. By 
observation he found that too much humidity and too much 
dryness alike destroyed the mushroom spawn, whether in pas- 
tures or in artificial beds. He found that, if much rain fell in 
May and June, there were very few mushrooms to be found in 
the September following. He also found that watering a 
mushroom bed immediately after it was made destroyed the 
spawn, as did exposing the bed to the full influence of the light 
and air. In the course of a tour of Germany he learned what 
he considers the best mode of producing spawn ; which is by the 
use of short horse dung with a little dry cow-dung ; these 
being mixed together, the mass is peirced with holes, into each 
of which a little bran of wheat and a pinch of sal ammoniac is 
put. He concludes his chapter ou making spawn by obsei-ving 
that, if the farmers and stable-keepers of Belgium knew how 
to cultivate mushrooms, they might soon become so abundant 
throughout the year, as to be within the reach of the poorest 
citizen. This is an excellent idea, and if acted upon would be 



not only profitable, but a means of occupying the hours he now 
spends in the tavern. 

Perhaps the only idea in the tract which is new to the En- 
glish gardener, is that of employing the dried powder of cow- 
dung as a surface dressing to mushroom beds, and, after it is 
laid on, watering it with water in which nitre has been dissol- 
ved, at the rate of two ounces of nitre to the water intended 
for four square feet of ground. The use of nitre, the author 
says, is an invention of his own ; and he thinks that it not only 
produces a more abundant crop, but eight or ten days earlier. 

He grows mushrooms in Ijoxes, drawers, and in all the cliiFe- 
rent modes now in use, and he goes even so far as to cultivate 
them on the shelves or presses, in stables or cow-houses, |in cel- 
lars, in garrets, in closets under stairs, in old chests of drawers, 
in bedrooms, and under stages of flowers even in drawing-rooms ; 
in short, wherever he can find room for a drawer or box 7 inches 
deep. 

To preserve mushrooms fresh for a few days after being ga- 
thered, he tells us to put them in a flower-pot among dry sand, 
and set the pot in a cool place. To preserve them for a few- 
months, he orders them to be dried a little, next to coat them 
with butter, and then immerse them in jelly in a gallipot, 
covering them with melted suet, and tying a piece of bladder 
to the mouth of the pot. 



ON THE INCREASE OF THE ROOTS AND THE STUMP IN THE SILVER FIR LONG AFTER IT HAS BEEN 

FELLED. 

By M. Ddtrochet, Member ot the Institute, Paris. 



When a tree has been felled, and when no shoots arise from 
this stump, as well as the roots which fix it in the ground, fail 
not iu a short time to die. The cause of this phenomenon is 
found in that well-known law of vegetation by which the leaves 
are produced from the efi^ect of the sap, the latter being essen- 
tial to the life and gi-owth of the tree, both in the branches and 
the root. When the stump reproduces stems after the tree has 
been felled, the roots may continue to flourish to an indefinite 
period. Thus, in coppice-woods, the roots of the same trees live 
to an indefinite number of centuries, and their existence may be 
prolonged to an indeterminate period. It is well known that 
the coniferous trees never reproduce stems when the tree has 
been felled ; and that the stump and roots which fix it in the 
earth usually die, and are quickly decomposed. 

There is, however, a very remarkable exception to this fact 



in the silver fir (Pimis picea, Lin., Abies pectina la, De Cand.) 
The stump and roots of this tree continue to live, and even 
grow, during a great number of years. This singular fact was 
pointed out to me by my brother, inspector of forests, one of the 
most intelligent men connected with the forest administration ; 
though I must confess I doubted the fact till I was enabled to 
verify it myself. 1 have seen old stumps of the sUver fir which 
according to certain marks, had been felled forty-five year, 
before, still full of life. The interior was entirely decayed, but 
the outer wood and the bark presented signs of life. These ob- 
servations were made in the spring ; the stump and the roots 
being full of sap, the bark, separated from the wood by the 
effusion of the pulp (cambium) was easily detached. This bark 
and the wood adjacent, had all the appearances which these 
present when in a flourishing state. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



117 



The existence of the pulp (camhium) indicated that the stump 
was increasing in diameter. This point I was also able to 
prove, which I did in the following manner. I perceived that 
a kind of enlargement was formed between the bark and the 
wood of the stump, and that this swelling, consisting of the 
wood and bark which hal been produced since the tree was 
felled, had again covered a portion of the transversal section of 
tlie stump, so that the section of the sap which limited the 
central system of the tree at the time of its being felled was 
in perfect preservation. The traces of the axe on this sap, 
transversely divided, removed all doubts on this point. I have 
also seen on all these stumps an increase in diameter from 
the production of new pulp, the thickness of which, in the 
old branches which I examined, was about two-fifths of an 
inch, so that these stumps, during the space of forty-five years, 
had acquired a total increase of four-fiths of an inch, or eight 
lines in diameter. — The phenomenon which the silver fir pre- 
sents in such circumstances, appears at first sight to invalidate 
the theory which supposes the sap furnishing the materials for 



growth to be derived from the leaves or the umbrageous parts 
of the vegetable. 

But the extreme scantiness of the increase in the diameter of 
the stump of the silver fir, on the contrary, confirms, this theory 
which continues to live during so great a number of years, (for 
the stump, increases thus slowly from the want of leaves, which 
arep eeidiarly the productive organs of the nutritive pulp. It ap- 
pears that the roots of this tree possesses the facultyof producing 
a small quantity of crude sap, and converting it into nutritive 
pulp, which preserves life in the roots and stump, and contri- 
butes to their scanty growth during a great number of years. 
This faculty is wanting in the Norway spruce and the Scotch 
fir, (Pynus silvesfris) , of which the stumps and roots die soon 
after the tree has been felled. Whence arises this diilerence ? 
This is a question not easy decided. However this may be, 
the fact is very remarkable, which proves that the roots of the 
trees, and the small portion of the stem which is left when they 
are felled, do, in certain eases, live a long time and increase, 
though not surmounted by any foliage. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



ARUM MACULATUM. 

Polyadelphia, Polyandria. Linn. 

Aroidese. Juss. 

Flowers arranged upon a spadix : sometimes separated, but 
most frequently naked. Stamens in the naked flowers aggre- 
gate : in the covered ones opposite to the lobes of the perianth, 
most frequently equal to them in number. Anthers turned 
outwards. Ovaries in the separated flowers, aggregate and 
occupying the lower portion of the spadix ; in the perfect ones 
solitary within the perianth, style more simple. Stigma, Peri- 
carp berried or nut-like. Seeds Albuminose, radical, obtuse, 
directed towards the hilum, or rarely opposite to. Herbaceous 
root frequently tuberous or thickened leaves, sheathing simple 
or compound, all of them radical. 

This plant possesses a highly acrid and poisonous juice, 
dissipated however by heat. Its medical properties are well 
known, and it is applied to many purposes in our pharmacopiae. 

PETUNIA VIOLACEA. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. Linn. 

Solaneaa. Jnss. 

Calgx, shortly tubular, leafy, leaflets lacinated. Corolla, 
tube cylindrical, bellying, limb plaited and divided into five 
unequal lobes. Stamina five unequal, inserted in the middle 
and within the tube of the corolla. Ovarium on a disk having 
one tooth on each side. Stigma capitate. Capsule with two 
valves. Seeds spherical and netted. 

Stems prostrate, clammy and hairy ; leaves oval, with siiort 
footstalks. Corolla bellying, lips cut into short divisions. 

There are few plants that surpass this in brilliancy of blos- 
soms and general beauty. It is a native of Buenos Ayres, 
from whence seeds wei'e sent to this country in 1830, by Mr. 
Tweedie. It succeeds extremely well in the open ground, 
during summer, but must be treated as a hardy green-house 
plant in winter ; the flowers wiU show to a great advantage if 
a whole bed be devoted to them, and where the branches are 
allowed to spread and become entangled with each other. 
Under these circumstances the flowers will be produced from 
July until the end of October, or, at least, as long as the 
weather will permit. Whether planted in a bed or trained on 
trellis, it is necessary that the situation be somewhat sheltered 
from winds, but fully exposed to the influence of the sun. 



Cultivated in a green-house, we would recommend it always 
to be trained to trellis ; where it will generally extend from 
four to six feet square, continuing to flower until quite winter, 
and commencing again early in spring. 

It thrives in almost any sort of soil, but prefers one that is 
rich and light. It produces seeds by which it may be increased, 
but also grows very freely from cuttings, which may be taken 
oft" at almost any season ; its culture is in other respects like 
those of Geraniums. 

STREPTANTHEEA CUPREA. 



Triandria. Monogynia. 
Irideee. Juss. 



Linn. 



Spatha of two valves, membranaceous, somewhat cut, dry. 
Pcnanthemum like a corolla in six divisions ; tube very short - 
limbs regularly wheeled. Stamina tliree, inserted in the tube ; 
filaments erect ; anthers twisted round and including the style. 
Stirjmata three, dilated into two fringed lobes. Seeds round. 

Leaves sword-shaped, acute, channelled and cut in the 
middle. Flower stem bearing from two to four flowers. 
Pcrianthii cut ovately obtuse ; keel having two spots upon the 
base. 

This is a very elegant species, introduced in 1825 by Mr. 
Synnot, from the Cape of Good Hope. All the Cape Iridese 
require one general mode of treatment ; which, in general 
terms, may be stated as follows : — 

' Pot the roots, or plant them in a border in front of a stove 
or green-house, or other sheltered place, during the month of 
October. Let the soil be composed of equal parts of leaf- 
mould, sandy loam, and peat, well mixed. 

If planted in pots, set them in a cold frame, and protect 
them from severe weather, till the pots are pretty well filled 
with their roots ; then remove them to the green-house, or 
room where they are intended to flower. 

WTien potted they must be watered very sparingly, until they 
have produced leaves and begin to show their flower stems. 
And after flowering, when the leaves are dead, the roots must 
be kept perfectly dry in the pots. If planted in a border or 
frame, they mnst be completely preserved from rains, snow, or 
frost, particularly during their dormant state. 

They flower generally in April, May, and June, but some 
species somewhat earlier, others later. The plants at that time 
require to stand in light airy places, and should receive a good 
supply of water. 



118 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



BISCUTELLA HISPIDA. 

Hispid Biscutella. 

Tetradynamia. Siliculose. Linn. 

Cruciferse. Juss. 

This species of Biscutella was introduced into tliis country in 
1822 ; it is an annual, two feet in height, and flowers in July 
and August. 

It is not so much under an impression of the beauty, or any 
other attractive property of this plant, that we are induced to 
present it to our readers ; but rather, as the seeds of several 
species of Biscutella are now offered amongst new annuals, 
that they may be made acquainted with the general character of 
the genus. The greater part of the Biscutellas are hardy 
annuals, natives of France, Spain, and Italy, where some of 
them hold the same place in agriculture, as our Sinapis anensis 
or Charlock, does in Britain, and for wMch they may readily 
be mistaken by the common observer. 

It is easily propagated by sowing seeds in a light soil, in the 
spring. Or, if sown in autumn, the young plants will live 
through the winter and produce earlier flowers. 

VERBENA AUBLETIA. 

Rose-flowered Fervain. 

Didynamia. Angospetmia. Linn, 

Verbenacese. >.JtissCT 

This is a "native of North America, and was introduced 
about 1774 ; it flowers from July to October, and is in height 
about fifteen inches ; it is a perennial plant. 

The Verbena Aubletia is a species which has occupied a place 
in the English garden more than half a century ; but our pre- 
sent variety of it has been lately introduced from America, and 
to the herbaceous border is a great acquisition. 

Many plants which are perennial in their native soil, in more 
northerly regions can only be cultivated as annuals, unless an 
artificial climate be afi'orded them. This is most probably the 
case with the Verbena Aubletia.. With us the seeds should be 
sown in pots of rich light earth in March, and be forwarded in 
a hot-bed till the beginning of May, when the plants should be 
turned out into the borders to flower in autumn. 

ONONIS HIRCINA. 

Strong-scented Rest-Harrow. 

Diadelphia. Decandria. Linn. 

Leguminosae. Juss. 

This plant is a native of Italy, but has been cultivated in this 
country for a very long period ; it is in height about eighteen 
inches, is a perennial, and flowers in June and July. 

Several species of the Rest-harrow, even the wild one of 
the English banks, the Ononis spinosa, are rendered very orna- 
mental, if kept in poor gravelly soil ; but when planted in rich 
light earth, both the roots and branches, of the latter one in 
particular, extend themselves unduly, and but few flowers are 
proportionally yielded. 

The stems of this species are herbaceous, and the root is 
hard and woody. It may be propagated from seeds, sown in 
the spring ; or the roots may be di^dded. 

TULIPA SUAVEOLENS. 

Sweet-scented, or Fan Tholl Tulip. 

Hexandria. Monog^'uia. Linn. 

LUiae. Juss. 

The Tulip, in some countries, is considered an emblem of 
perfect love ; it is related by Chardin, in his Travels into Persia, 
that in that country when a lover presents a tulip to the mis- 



tress of his affections, he means to inform her, by the general 
colouring of the flower, that he is on fire with her beauty ; 
and by the black anthers in its centre, that his heart is burnt to 
a coal. 

When planted in the borders, from six to twelve, or more, 
bulbs may be put in at four inches asunder, so as form an irre- 
gularly shaped little bed ; for complete circles, ovals, or straight 
rows, should always be avoided in the mingled parterre. The 
soil should be well stirred, to the depth of nine inches, and, if 
stiff, a little sand may be mixed with it. Then take out the 
soil four inches deep, and having removed the hard brown skin 
from the bulbs, plant them ; fill up with the soil again, and 
make the whole level. If the situation be damp, or the soil 
too retentive, a little soil should be placed round the bulb ; but 
if very light, it may be stirred, and the bulbs put in by making 
holes with a dibble to receive them. 

For the earliest flowers, plant from the beginning of Septem- 
ber to the end of October ; but for later floweis, plant, in 
February. If, in autumn, Van ThoU tulip bulbs be planted 
singly, in small pots of light rich soil, they will blossom 
extremely well in the drawing room, and contrast prettily with 
hyacinths in glasses ; but should be frequently exposed to fresh 
air. They will flower in winter, as hyacinths, but with less cer- 
tainty, and less luxuriantly. 

POLYGALA ALOPECUROIDES. 

Fox-tail. Milk-wort. 

Diadelphia Octandria, Linn. 

Polygalea. Juss. 

Polygala, &c. ; floribus imberbibus, pedunculis solitariis, 
axillaribus, foliis fasiculatis, lanceolatis mncronatis villos>s- 
Thunb. Prod. 121. 

Polygala, &c. ; floribus imberbibus sessilibus, foliis conpertis 
ovaltis acutis carinatis pilosis. Linn. Mant. 260. 

Muraltia Alopecuroides. De Candolle. 

In its Blossoms it is very similar to Polygala Heisteria, but 
is a smaller shrub, very pubescent, and partakes very little of 
that inflexible rigidity, which occasioned the former species to 
be compared to furze. A hardy greenhouse shrub ; native of 
the Cape ; propegated by cutting ; flowers through the whole 
of the summer. 

IXIA CAPILLARIS AULICA. 

-..-- ■ Rose-coloured Ixia. 
Triandria Monogynia. Linn. 
Irideie. Juss. 

Ixia capiUaris, (Aulica Hort. Kew). G. 
This is a mere variety of the above species, though made a 
distinct one in the Hortus Kewensis, under the name of Aulica. 
The Bulb-tubers of the sevei'al varieties differ much in the thick- 
ness of the fibres, of which their reticulated coverings are com= 
posed, as well as in the size of the Meshes. Our specimen 
has been very recently imported from the Cape of Good Hope. 
Their leaves are usually much longer than in our figure, and 
their cartilaginous edge often very conspicuous, but sometimes 
again quite obsolete. 

CYNODON DACTYLON. 

Creeping Dogs-Tooth Grass. 

Triandria. Digynia. Linn. 

Gramiueae. Juss. 

Spokes' four, pr five, crowded together. Corolla smooth. 
Panicum Dactylon. Linn. Sp. PI. 85. . ,, 

The roots are tough and creeping, almost woody, witfi smooth 



{ 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



119 



fibres ; stems also creeping to a great extent, matted, round, 
jointed, leafy, very smooth. Leaves tapering, sharp-pointed, 
ribbed, hairy, and glancous ; with long, striated, smooth 
sheathed, and a hairy stipula. Flowering branches a span high , 
leafy, simple, terminating in four or five nearly equal, crowded, 
erect, many-flowered, linear spikes ; the common stalk of each 
triangular, roughish ; flat and slightly bordered on one side, 
along which the nearly sessile shining, purplish flowers are 
ranged in two close alternate rows. The corolla is larger than 
the calyx, very much compressed, opposite, not, as some have 
thought, alternate, with respect to the latter. 

MYOSOTIS PALUSTRIS. 

Great Water Scorpion-Grass. 
Pentandria. Monogynia. Linn. 
Boraginea2. Juss. 

Seeds smooth. Leaves and calyx roughish, with close 
bristles. Clusters leafless. Calyx funnel-shaped, with short 
broad spreading teeth. Limb of corolla, horizontal, larger 
than the tube. Root creeping. 

M. Scorpioides Palustus. Linn. Sp. PI. 188. In clear 
rivulets and ditches, common Perennial. June, August. 

Roots very long, creeping, blackish, with numerous tufts of 
strong fibres. Herb bright green, rather succulent, from six to 
twelve or eighteen inches high. Stems ascending obliquely, 
round, branching, leafy, either nearly smooth, or clothed with 
more or less spreading, bristly hairs. Leaves sessile, nearly 
imiform. Clusters many-flowered, two or three together, on a 
terminal leafless stalk. Partial stalks at first crowded into a 
dense revolute spike, whicli unrols gradually. Caly.x about 
half the length of each partial stalk, after the flower is past. 
Tube of the corollEe about as long as the calyx, whitish. The 
flower buds are of a fine pink. Style the length of the tube. 
Stigma capitate, umbUicated. Seeds ovate, compressed, obtuse, 
blackish, highly polished. 

This most elegant plant, the Forget-me-not, among the 
Germans, is the most distinct and best known example of its 
genus, though too long confounded with other common species. 
LinnefBS records its being hurtful to sheep, which may have 
arisen like a similar report of Hydrocolyte vulgaris, from 
those animals sufi^ering on frequenting the wet situations of 
these plants. 

AZALEA CALENDULACEA. 

Pentandria. Monogynia. Linn. 

Ericise. Juss. 

A native of Carolina and Virginia, on mountains ; also of 
Georgia, where it was found, in 1774, by William Bertram, 
who in his travels gives this most glowing description of its 
beauty. "The clusters of the blossoms cover the shrubs in 
such incredible profusion on the hill sides, that suddenly open- 
ing to view from deep shades, I was alarmed by the apprehen- 
sion of the hill being set on fire." He calls it certainly the 
most gay and brilliant flowering shrub yet known. 

It succeeds very well if planted in a bed of peat, mixed with 
loam ; flowers in May and June, and may be increased by 
layers, which in two years become suflicieutly rooted. It is 
never injured by the cold of our climate. 

POTENTILLA SPLENDENS. - 

Icosandria. Polygynia. Linn. 

Rosaceae. Juss. 

This is a native of Nepaul, and was introduced in 1824. It 
is perennial, almost hardy, and will probably become quite 
naturalized in a little time : the fine silvery leaves are very 



ornamental : the flowers, which are small, come out in June, 
and are usually succeeded by seeds, by which, it is readily 
multiplied. It will grow in almost any sod. 

POTENTILLA ATROSANGUINEA-PEDATA. 

Hybrid Potentilla. 

Icosandria. Polygynia. Linn. 

Rosaceae. Juss. 

This plant is about eighteen inches in height, flowers in June 
and July, and is perennial. On the introduction of the dou- 
ble compound appellation Atrosanguinea-pedata, we may be 
expected to offer some remark. Authors have not agreed on the 
most convenient mode of naming hybrid or mule plants. Some 
have thought names may be completely arbitrary ; some name 
them after the person with whom they originated ; whilst others 
woidd altogether excommunicate such productions from botani- 
cal nomenclature. Notwithstanding the opposite theoretical 
position taken by some botanists, we believe, doubtlessly, that 
hybrid plants sometimes become established, and hold a perma- 
nent place in the vegetable kingdom ; it is therefore but reason- 
able to notice them ; and it is far better that their origin he re- 
gistered whilst it is known, in lieu of remaining to become the 
subject of future conjecture and error. We have taken the 
trivial names of the two parent species of this hybrid plant, as a 
compound name for it ; and although rather cumbrous, this in- 
convenience is more than counterbEdanced by the advantage that 
it is explanatory of its hybrid origin. The female parent ought, 
we think, to hold the first place in the compound name. 

We raised this plant from Potentilla atrosanguinea, fertilized 
with pollen of Potentilla pedata, and we believe a more perfect 
mixture of two distinct and dissimilar spieces is not known. The 
dark red of the one, and full yellow of the other, are well min- 
gled, and produce a rich deep orange. The foliage of it also is 
intermediate between that of its two parents, as shewn by the 
engraving. 

In the year 1833, we fertillized flowers of each of the Poten- 
tillas, the atrosanguinea, formosa, and pedata, with pollen of the 
other two, separately. In each instance their anthers were 
destroyed before they had burst, the pollen of one of the other 
species applied to the stigma, and the flower then secured from 
insects, by a covering of gauze. Out of upwards of two hun- 
dred plants thus obtained from Potentilla formosa, not one was 
sufficiently altered to merit notice. Nearly all those from Po- 
tentilla atrosanguinea, were somewhat improved. From Poten- 
tilla pedata, we obtained very few seeds. It is not a free seed- 
ing species with its own farina, and far less so under a privation 
of it. The plants from it were remarkably luxuriant, and its 
blossoms large, but otherwise they showed but little variation. 

The novel colour of this new hybrid flower, renders it very 
desirable. The plant is slender, like that of Potentilla pedata, 
and in culture may be expected to require no peculiar attention. 

CITRUS MEDICA. 

Monoecia Polyandria. Linn. 

Aurantiaceae. Juss. 

Calyx campanulate, short 3-5 toothed. Petals, 3-5 broad at 
the base, distinct or more or less combined, stamens equal in 
number to the petals, anthers distinct terminal, inserted within 
the base, erect. Ovary ovate, many-celled ; style one rounded 
stigma somewhat lobed thickish ; fruit many-celled, the cells 
filled with pulp inclosed in little bags, and surrounded by a 
thickish rind abounding in glands of volatile oil, seeds fixed to 
the inner angles of the cells generally pendant without albumen 
sometimes including more than one embryo. 

This plant is remarkable for the flagrant bitter essential oil 
which it contains, and the delicious fruit as well as odorous 
flowers ; it is of very general use in medicine. 



120 



ESSAY OF STUDIES ON A HYDROPHYTE OF THE FAMILY OF CERAMIA. 

BY MESSRS. CRONAN, BROTHERS, BOTANTSTS AT ROUEN AND BREST. 



In the numeroas investigations which we have made in 
the vicinity of Brest, to discover rare or durious alga;, 
we met several times with a species (the conferva grif- 
fithsiana Engl. Bot. tab. 2312), of which it is still uncer- 
tain what place it ouglit to occupy in modern classifica- 
tions. Tlius, without quoting tire first authors who have 
given the description of this plant, as for at the time they 
wrote the classification of these vegetables, was not 
founded on their organization, as it has been for some 
time past, we will only say that Clement in his essay, 
and Agardh in his Dispositio universalis algarum, have 
placed this species with the Algee not articulated; then 
afterwards this latter author in his systema algarum 
made it a Hutchinsia. Bonnemaison (essai sur les Hy- 
drophytes loculees), arranged it in his Boryna with the 
mark doubtful. M. Duby (botanicum gallicum) places 
it among his ceramiam, between C. boucheli and the C. 
corymbosum, and lamoui-otix, after Agardh would have 
made of the same species a thjprea, This diversity of 
opinions induced us to examine it with peculiar attention, 
and to endeavour to determine exactly if it were possi- 
ble, the characters of this production; we were still 
more urged to do so by M. Gaillon a learned botanist of 
Boulogne, who says, in his letter to us of the 4th of 
Marcli, 1833, "this Hydrophyte lias not yet been suffi- 
ciently studied. It is with uncertaincy that Bonnemai- 
son places it in the genus Boryna, it has the form of a 
Gaillona, the organization of its stalk places it between 
this genus, and tlie Hutchinsia ; its branches alone would 
bring it near the Boryna." 

This interestig Hydrophyte may be seen from the 
month of October till May ; it thrives on stones and 
rocks which are only uncovered at spring tides; it 
grows in tufts of a reddish colour' seen in the sea. Its 
leaf generally a line, or 12th part of an inch in diameter, 
is round, cartilaginous, without any appearance of par- 
tition at the base ; it divides into alternate branches, 
translucid, rambling, long, unequal, of which the articles 
strise ; seen througli a magnifying glass, are rather 
wider than long. There branches are edged with 
simple little branches very sliort, narrow at the es- 
ti'emities, as long as wide at the knots. Tlie fructifica- 
tion \-isibIe to the naked eye, consists in capsules dis- 
persed on the branches, and inserted on the articula- 
tions. By subjecting afterwards to the microscope, 
fragments of this algte we see clearly thai its articles 
are multiplied. The very little branches appear to be 
simple articles, but this appearance is only owing to the 
fineness of the strite or translucid cells which we thought 
we perceived, (see. pi. 39, fig. I and 2.) The specimens 
that we have been so fortunate as to meet witli fruc- 
tified, seen through a microscope, have presented to us 
capsules of two sorts. Some are almost visible or 
pedicellus, two or three lobed, and containing irregular 
semina, (see pi. 39, fig. 3), of azure blue colour, 
collected in bundles in tlie middle of each lobe, and en- 
veloped with mucilage. Bonnemaison had also re- 
marked this particular colour of the semina. The fig. 
4, represents the other mode of fructification, where 
the propagating organs which are limbed have broken 
the membrane tliat kept them enclosed. Sowerby has 
well figured in the English Bot. pi. 2312,) a capsular 
limljed fructification ; but in this specimen the cap- 
sules, isolated or united, are dispersed on the branches, 
and do not issue out, one after the other, joined by a 



membrane, such as in the form we have given of it. The 
fig. 5, is the representation of the horizontal cut of the 
article, or Endochrome of Mr. Gaillon, and the fig. 6, 
that of the articulation or Endophragmi. The reading 
of the learned memoir of Mr. Duby on the difficult 
family of the Ceramia, determined us to examine this 
hydrophyte still more closely, and to make vertical and 
horizontal cuts as small as possible, so that we might 
see its internal organization. After having, with a scal- 
pel, taken of the epidermis, composed of lengthened 
cells wliich form the striae, the following cuts have 
shown us a lining of epidermal texture, resembling a 
sort of net-work to the ceUs, like those we have repre- 
sented, (pi. 39, fig. 7). But what was our satisfaction, 
when after having made other vertical sections, very 
small in order to remove this net work, we xierceived 
spherical uncoloured cells, fitting large locules divisions 
forming the article, which is then simple ! Tliese 
locules that we see very exactly represented, pi. 39, 
fig. 8, are susceptible of contraction, and produce with- 
out doubt, in some species, those coloured lines which 
have given rise to the belief in the existence of an in- 
terior tube ; but it cannot be admitted, after having 
dissected these plants with care, or after having read 
the memoirs of Messrs. Duby and Gaillon, some ob- 
servers have brought to believe in the existence of this 
interior tube. It is not the same illusion which makes 
us admit these great internal locules full of spherical 
cells (a character very remarkable); these are micro- 
scope cuts which we have executed on the Endochromes 
or articles of this plant, which have confirmed us in the 
opinion that we had of the double texture composing 
its leaf. The horizontal cuts have also shown us these 
spherical uncoloured cells, appearing placed over and 
filling the ideal axe. We see by the liorizontal cut the 
situation of tlie cylindrical cells composing the leaf; 
some of the smaller ones, of an equal diameter, pre- 
sent in this section a circular form : others much larger, 
present that of an iUipsis. Their situation is circular 
and regular to the middle of the diameter of the leaf, 
(see pi. 39, fig. 9,) but does not surround a central 
cell as in the genera Hutchinsia, Ag, and Gaillona 
Bonnemaison. Bonnemaison says in his essay, (p. 53,) 
that he has observed a doubling and internal oontraction 
in the segments of his elegant Boryna. The examina- 
tion we have just made of the internal organization of 
the conferva GriffUhsiana, (Eng. Bot.) supports his 
observation. We have also found this in other Borynas. 
After all these characters, where shall we place this 
Hydrophyte ? In considering its form, its interior or- 
ganization that of its fine little branches and its fructi- 
fication, one would be disposed to think it ought to be of 
the under genus Gaillona, but when this plant has been 
dissected and its organization studied, we find that it is 
more nearly allied to the under genus Boryna ; its hori- 
zontal cut resembles much those species which compose 
it; it makes the passage, according to our opinion, from 
\\;\t\Borynasto the Gaillonas and might remain at the end 
of the former, where Bonnemaisson has placed it. As 
these under genera form part of the genus ceramiam of 
Mr. Duby, we will name it, with this learned botanist 
Ceramiam filamentosam, but we will add to the generic 
characters, that the internal texture in several species 
presents a lining susceptible of contraction. 



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121 



On the orchards of Lanarkshire. 



The orchards in this couuty have long been celebrated and 
considered superior to any in Scotland. Within less than half 
a century they have also been greatly advanced as respects the 
entcrprize and skill of the cultivators of them. But as this 
superiority does not seem to arise from any local and physical 
advantages over many other parts of the kingdom, hut only 
through the perfection to which this branch of horticulture has 
been carried by human art, it becomes the more necessary that 
a knowledge of tlie Lanarkshire or Clydesdale orchard hus- 
bandry should be extensively disseminated. The following ac- 
count will present the leading features of the system and its 
details : — 

It is unknown when orchards began to be cultivated in Lanark- 
shire. It is at least very remote, and probably, like many other 
arts, that of the management of fruit trees was introduced by 
the clergy who came from Italy, and crusading warriors, 
whose travels gained them necessarily much varied knowledge. 
The art of engrafting, indeed, is spoken of in Scripture, and 
probably was one of the first discoveries made by man. Gar- 
dening at any rate in all its branches, independent of its sacred 
connexion, recommends itself naturally to the domestic, the 
secluded, and the contemplative ; and it is a fortunate circum- 
stance, that, at the reformation in Scotland, the orchards around 
the abbeys and monasteries, which had been skilfully reared by 
the monks and others connected with their order, were not de- 
stroyed, as the labours of the architect were, 

ThA Lanarkshire orchards stretch along both sides of the no- 
ble river Clyde, from the borough of Lanark to Bothwell Cas- 
tle, which may be sixteen miles, and amounting, by imperial 
measurement, to 1200 acres probably. This includes the small 
domestic gardens, as well as the large and regular orchards. 
The general aspect of these grounds resembles, as it has been 
aptly compared, an open book laid upon a reading desk, with 
the river's courseforming the jointure of the leaves. The channel 
of the Clyde at the higher extremity of the orchard ground or 
district is about 260 feet above the level of the sea ; but at the 
lower, it is not more than fifty. Frequently (to keep by the 
comparison of a book) the volume is not more than half open, 
so that the orchard field may be but a little above the level 
of the stream, and yet rise to one or two hundred feet laterally 
higher. 

The soil of this orchard district is much diversified. Part of 
it is a deep and rich clayey loam, but much more is of a stiff 
and sterile nature, resting on a tLUy subsoil, over sand- stone of 
a reddish-tinge, which alternates with the ordinary coal-forma- 
tion. In some places the soil is more friable and sandy. On 
this last-mentioned sort of land the trees grow faster than on 
an adhesive clay, but do not yield so much, unless of the small 
fruit class. It does not appear, however, that any of these 
various kinds of soil are unpropitnous to the growth of what- 
ever is planted upon them ; but manure in a great measure over- 
comes the natural defect, and skilful management is like second 
nature. Mr. Smith, who has published a map of the strata in 
England, says, that all the best orchards there are planted on 
a stratum of red marl. Though this precise sub-soil has not 
been found in Clydesdale, it is fully ascertained that a dry rocky 
sub-soil, if the ground above it be good, is uniformly favoura- 
ble to orchard fruit. Sloping banks, which abound on the 
Clyde, are also advantageous situations for fruit-trees. It 
would appear that the roots stretch farther abroad in such a 
position than on level ground, whilst the sun and air neces- 
sarily reach every individual tree, since none of the neighbours 
can obscure it. The number of rills, too, that course their 
way down the face of banks and braes must be propitious to the 
fruitful sentinels that stand by them. Clydesdale is favoured 
as respects climate as well as locality. That which prevails in 
the southern counties of Scotland is usual here ; whilst the 
western rains are moderated ere reaching this inland point, the 

MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL.11. NO. XVIII 



eastern hoar frosts are tempered, and their chilling influence 
much neutralized. 

Every one must know that a great deal depends on a proper 
selection of trees as respects the soil, exposure, and climate for 
which they are chosen. The scions should be from healthy trees, 
and grafted on true crab-stocks. The plants should be three 
years old after graftingere they are transported into an orchard, 
and from three to four feet high, their roots well disposed, and 
the figure of the plant altogether handsome. At the same time, 
it is impossible to speak with certainty and to say what fruit- 
tree will thrive and be productive on any given soil or situation 
from its prosperity and value in another, even although to the 
view of man both should seem exactly alike. This, however, is 
an uncertainty felt in every department of agriculture, and, upon 
the whole, serves the best ends ; one of which is, the calling 
for extreme vigilance and exercise of prudence as well as skill. 
Experience will ever in all such matters be the safest guide, 
and all experienced horticulturists will try a variety of kinds of 
fruit-trees upon any given soil. Were there, indeed, no other 
advantage to be derived from such experiments, there is this, 
that diflferent kinds of trees come into flower at diff'erent times, 
and though some, by one night's frost or blighting weather, 
may be destroyed for that year, others will have outgrown the 
trial, or not yet reached the danger. On Clydesdale as else- 
where, it is customary to plant and preserve standard-trees at 
proper distances from each other, and between them to have an 
early bearer. The Hawthornden, Carlisle Codlin, and Nonsuch, 
are very frequently appointed to these intermediate posts. They 
yield fruit the second year after they are planted, and though 
they soon canker and become unhealthy, they generally will be 
profitable till the time the standards begin to produce fi-uit. 

The fruit cultivated in the Clydesdale orchard consists of ap- 
ples, pears, &c. 

The annexed list may be considered pretty correct. 

EARLY APPLES. 

Tarn Montgomery. — A yellow apple, rather above the medium 
size, with small protuberances at the top-end, which the Clydes- 
dale people call "cornering." The trees grow to a tolerable 
size, and are excellent bearers. The name is taken from a man 
in Ayreshire, who, for many years, had the only tree of that 
kind, and would neither tell how he came by it, nor allow any 
person to take a twig from it. But since his death, his name 
has been perpetuated by the extension of this valuable tree. 

Eurly Alinoml. — Is a large round apple of a red colour, and 
of excellent quality. The tree bears early, and puts forth strong 
shoots, but is much hurt by canker. 

Milford. — A small red coloured, long-shaped apple of good 
quality. The trees are strong growers, but rather shy bearers. 

Junealing, — Is a small, fine-flavoured, solid, hard apple. The 
trees healthy and good bearers. 

Dri/law Pippin, — Is a small yellow apple, having an un- 
commonly fine flavour. The trees grow well, and are good 
bearers. 

White Marrow. — A large good apple of a yellow colour, and 
coroneted. The trees are healthy, and very productive. 

Summer Strawberry, — Is a large beautiful apple, of a yellow 
colour. The trees are good bearers, but much given to canker. 

Haicthornden. — A large good apple, rather long and coroneted, 
but do not keep long. The trees grow fast, with few branches, 
but are greatly hurt by canker. 

Nonsuch, — Is a large apple of good flavour and quality. The 
trees grow well, but are very liable to canker. 

Marigold or Saffron Pippin, — Is an excellent table apple, 
rather above medium size, yellow and red streaked. The trees 
are fine growers, healthy, and good bearers. 

Early Magdalene, — Is an apple of medium size, and having a 
good flavour. The trees are ready bearers. 

, — SEPTEMBER, 1834. S 



122 



ON THE ORCHAADS OF LANARKSHIRE. 



Bowyer's Lady Apple, — Is large and beautiful, of a red and 
yellow colour. The trees are healthy and excellent bearers. 

Thorl Pippin, — Is a beautiful apple, much relished at table, 
and the trees are good bearers. 

White Kesuick Codlin, — Is a large yellow good flavoured ap- 
ple, much relished at table, and coroneted. It is frequently 
made Into jelly. The trees are good growers, and very produc- 
tive. 

Lemon Pippin, — Is a large, beautiful, yellow, and russetty 
fruit. The trees bear early, but are not very productive. 

Oslin or Arbroath Pippin, — Is a good early table apple, and 
the trees grow freely by cuttings. 

HARVEST APPLES. 

White Cluster, — Is of a medium size, and of a beautiful red 
colour. The trees healthy, and good bearers. 

Harvest Pippin,- — Is an apple of good size, streaked I'ed and 
yellow, and of agreeable taste. The trees grow well, and yield 
much fruit. 

Wlieeler's Russet. — An apple for the table, is of a moderate 
size, and rich flavour. The trees large and good bearers. 

Dumbarton Pippin, — Is a small apple of a green colour, and 
rich flavour. The trees healthy, and very productive of fruit. 

Golden Rennet, — Has red and yellow colours, streaked, and is 
good for the table or the kitchen. The trees are ready bearers. 

TMiistleberi-y or Luffness Pippin, — Is a large yellow apple of a 
rich taste. The trees grow well, but are shy bearers. 

WaUa-bona, — Is a large, long, coroneted apple, of a red 
colour. The trees are good bearers, but very liable to be hurt 
by canker. 

Bloodheart, — Is an apple for the table, of medium size, rich 
flavour, and of a red colour, both on the outside and within. 

Lady's Lemon, — Is a yellow apple, of medium size, and good 
flavour ; but the trees are slow bearers. 

Teuchet Egg, — Is a small apple of an orange colour. 

Golden Mundi. — A good and beautiful table or baking apple. 

WINTER APPLES. 

Carse of Goterie. — A large apple of yellow and green coloui's, 
excellent for baking. The trees bear well, but are infected with 
canker. 

Red Marroiff—ls a fruit of medium size, of a red and green 
colour, and the trees are good bearers. 

Winter Strawbn-ry,— Is a fruit of medium size, of yellow and 
green colours. The trees are good bearers, but liable to canker. 

Ribston Pippin, — Is a large green table apple, much cultivated 
in the west of Scotland. They keep long, but the trees are slow 
bearers. 

Kentish Pippin, — Is a large beautiful table fruit, but not of 
the richest flavour. The trees large and healthy. 

Red Cluster, — Is a hard round apple, small in size, of a red 
colour and good taste, keeps long, and the trees are good 
bearers. 

Gogar or Stone Pippin, — Resembles the Red Cluster; and the 
trees grow well, and bear readily. 

Norfolk Beaufin, — Is a large apple of green and red colours, 
used for baking, keeps long, and has a rough russet skin. The 
trees are good bearers. 

Late Fulwood, — Is a large and excellent tasted apple, of a 
green colour, used chiefly for baking. The trees are large and 
bear readily. 

Early Fulwood, — Is a baking apple of a dark red and green 
colour. The trees are large and good bearers. 

Yorkshire Green, — Is a large green baking apple, excellent for 
sauces, and keeps long. The trees gi-ow fast, but are much in- 
jured by canker. 

PEARS. 

Jargonelles. — On walls are very productive. 
Crawford pears abound in every orchard. 
Greg Honey. — A round early pear ; trees large. 
Auchan. — A good pear, and the trees good bearers. ' 



Pear Saugh. — Large yellow fruit, and large trees. 

Lady's Lemon. — A good early pear ; trees great bearers. 

Green Pinkie A small early green pear ; trees productive. 

Farrow Cow.- — A large pear ; trees large and good bearers. 

Green Chisel. — A good pear. 

Elshonhaft. — A rich pear ; the trees large and productive. 

Early Carnock. — An excellent summer pear. 

The manner of planting and managing their fruit-trees by 
the orchardists of this range is now more simple and rational 
than was wont to be in vogue. They neither incur the fruitless 
expense of laying rich earth, where the soil is sterile beneath 
the plants, nor of paving a floor to prevent the roots touching 
iingenial substances ; nor trenching the ground immediately 
around the spot where the tree is to be planted. The first two 
of these fanciful schemes are ineffectual, the last is injurious ; 
for unless the whole orchard field is trenched, these laboured 
spots, particularly if the sub-soil is retentive, only serve to 
drink and hold water in them to the great damage of the trees 
unfortunately subjected to such mistaken kindness. The or- 
chardists in Lanarkshire, now-a-days, merely delve, in an ordi- 
nary style, the ground ; plant the trees from six to eight inches 
deep, and raise the earth for a foot or eighteen inches round 
them, a little above the general level, the better to prop them 
at the time rough weather tries their fixedness. 

There is no uniform rule observed in Clydesdale as to the 
distance fruit-trees should stand from each other. Generally, 
however, they are closer than in English orchards. In some 
the rows are twenty-two feet apart, and the trees in these rows 
eleven feet separated. Others are thirty feet by fifteen. If 
eaidy bearers are not intermixed, small fruit bushes or potatoes, 
&c. are cultivated. In managing both the trees and the 
ground a deal of care is taken. After they have been planted 
for five or six years, they ought to be divested of such branches 
as seem to point too near to the ground, or that rub against one 
another. With due caution, some of those that are too crowded 
together must be cut. Horizontal branches should be en- 
couraged ; they are much less liable to be shaken than those 
that tower aloft. All sorts of blotches ought to be cut ofi', and 
the moss that is apt to gather on them carefully removed. In 
taking the fruit, it should be pulled, not shaken, and this when 
the day is dry. 

The orchard grounds are carefnlly drained ; and in clay-lands, 
a covered furrow drain ought to be formed between every two 
rows of trees, besides the necessary open drains. These are 
more called for in orchard land than in any devoted merely to 
ordinary crops, from the overshadowing of the trees. Ropes of 
straws, or sprigs of broom, are tied round young trees to prevent 
them from being eaten by hares. The ground to be kept in 
good order requires not only to be broken up every few years, 
but to be well manured, particularly in sterile fields, llie un- 
der crops raised, far mere than repay the labour and riches thus 
conferred on the land. 

It is impossible to give any precise information as to the rents 
given for orchard ground in Lanarkshire. The character of 
the soil, the age of the trees, and various other particulars, 
would require to be taken into every calculation to afford any 
useful and determinate light on the point. Neither is it possi- 
ble to say what relation the orchard profits bear to the ordinary 
agricultural product of similar land in the immediate neighbour- 
hood. One thing is notorious, that the great falling off in the 
prices of orchard produce, since the conclusion of the last war, 
brings the two systems of culture nearer an equality than before 
as respects pecuniary returns. After aU, however, the orchardists 
of Clydesdale draw a much higher income from their lauds than 
can be raised by any other course of agricultural management, 
even after counting every uncertainty, drawback, and failure. 
And should still farther depreciations occur in the price of fruit, 
the manufacture of cyder and perry is open, which we are led 
to believe might before this have been resorted to with advan- 
tage by the orchardists in this great fruit district of old Cale- 
donia. G. A. 



123 
LETTERS TO A YOUNG NATURALIST ». 



It is with ca very lively satisfaction, that we undertake 
to recommend to the particular attention of the public 
the work before us. We know of no other compressed 
within the same limits which seems to us so happily 
calculated to generate in a young mind, to sustain in the 
matured, and to renovate in the old, an ardent love of 
nature under all her forms. The volume consists of a 
series of letters, in which the author treats, in a familiar 
.style, of the most interesting objects which the fields, 
the mountains, the rivers, and the ocean present to our 
contemplation. He goes into the history of each of 
those objects just far enough to render the outlines of 
nature intelligible to the least cultivated mind, and he 
adds reflections occasionally, of admiration, which, 
breatliing his own feelings in eloquent language, are 
sti'ongly calculated to excite kindi-ed emotions in the 
hearts of others. 
Speaking of the Ivy, Dr. Driunmond observes : — 
" Why is it that every one is pleased with the com- 
mon ivy ? There is a charm about that plant which all 
feel, but none can tell why. Observe it hanging from 
the arch of some old bridge, and consider the degree of 
interest it gives to that object. The bridge itself may 
be beautifully situated ; the stream passing through its 
arches clear and copious ; but still it is the ivy which 
gives the finish and picturesque effect. Mouldering 
towers, and castles, and ruined cloisters interest our 
feelings in a degree more or less by the circumstance of 
their being covered or not by the ivy. Precipices, which 
else would exhibit only their naked barren walls, are 
clothed by it in a rich and beautiful vesture. Old trees, 
whose trunks it surrounds, assume a gi'eat variety of 
aspect ; and, indeed, it is a most important agent in 
forming the beauty and variety of rural landscape. It 
is also as useful as it is beautiful ; and among its uses I 
would include the very thing of which I am now speak- 
ing, for I have no idea that the forms and colours in na- 
ture please the eye by a sort of chance. If I admire the 
ivy clinging to and surmounting some time-worn tower, 
and the various tints that diversify the parts of the ruin 
not hidden by it, I can only refer the pleasure I expe- 
rience to the natural construction of the human mind, 
which the Almighty has formed to feel a pleasin-e in 
contemplating the external world aroimd it. Who is 
insensible to the beauties of nature at the rising and set- 
ting of the summer's sun? Who can behold the moon- 
beams reflected from some silent river, lake, or sea, and 
not feel happy at the sight ? None, I believe, in early 
life. When hardened in the ways of men — when the 
chief good pursued is the accumulation of wealth, the 
acquisition of power, or the pursuit of pleasure, so call- 
ed — then mankind lose a sense of the beauties of na- 
ture; but never, perhaps, till then. A love for them is 
inherent in the mind, and almost always shows itself in 
youth ; and if cherished at that period, by education, 
would seldom be destroyed or become dormant in after 
life, as it now so generally is. 

" The ivy is of vast advantage to the smaller birds, as 
it affords them shelter in winter, and a I'etreat for build- 
ing their nests in spring and summer. It is in fructifi- 



catioii in October and November, and the sweet juice 
which its flowers exude supports an infinity of insects 
in autumn, while its berries are a store of nutriment for 
many birds in the early spring." 

The wonders of the microscopic world have been in 
some degree examined by scientific men, but much re- 
mams stdl to be known of this comparatively hidden 
portion, though perhaps the most surprising of the 
whole of the works of natiu'c. The power of the micro- 
scope exhibits the colours of flowers in a manner much 
more perfect than we can see with the naked eye. The 
author's observations upon the beauty of these great or- 
naments of the creation are in his wonted strain of fine 
philosophy, 

" Why, for example, are flowers in general so exqui- 
sitely beautiful as we find them, if it be not to exhibit to 
us the hand of God, and to afford us, even in the colour- 
ing of a blossom, a manifestation of himself, and a ration- 
al cause for turning our thoughts towards him ? Look 
with a magnifier at the flower of London Pride, or of 
Forget me not, and inquire of yourself why these mi- 
nute objects are so lovely, why scarcely any of the larger 
flowers excel, and not many equal them : extend your 
observation to some of the minute insects, and reflect 
why they are dressed in colours as brilliant as those of 
the peacock : magnify a gnat, and consider the superb 
feathered antennce which grace its head ; examine its 
whole structure, see the wonderful mechanism which is 
in every part, the minute perfection, the elaborate fin- 
ishing of this little being : remember that, in addition to 
the structure, there are its appetites and functions, its 
stomachs, and bowels, its organs of breathing, its mus- 
cles of motion, its several senses, and perhaps its pas- 
sions. Think on these, but not with the ti-ansitory admi- 
ration which we often observe in persons who for a first 
or second time see objects in a microscope. Be not 
content with the cold acknowledgment that it is one of 
the wonderful works of nature, and then let it slip 
from your memory. I tell you it is the work of God ; 
and I believe that the too liberal use of the term nature 
has given rise to much of the apathy with which the ob- 
jects of the creation are regarded. It is very true, in- 
deed, that when we say nature produces a plant, or an 
animal, the true meaning is, that God does so, nature 
here being used as a synonymous term ; but still the word 
has so many applications, and it is employed in such a 
variety of ways, that w^e insensibly get into the habit of 
using it, in natural history and other sciences, as if it 
were some inferior power, or agent, acting by itself; and 
we talk of the works of nature without any impression 
being on oiu- minds at the time that they are in truth the 
works of the Deity himself." 

The whole is meetly wound up with reflections upon 
natural religion, the "power and goodness of God, and 
the love of ti-uth ; which, like those already noticed, are 
marked by a pleasing tone of piety without cant, of 
knowledge without pedantry, and of unbounded benevo- 
lence, without a particle of morbid fondness, towards all 
the objects of the creation. 



* 0,» the Study of Nature, and Natural Theology. By James L. Drummond, M. D. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in 
the Belfast Academical Institution, &c. 3rd Edit. 1834. London : Longman & Co. 



124 



ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF COTTAGES FOR THE LABOURING CLASSES. 



The comfort and respectability of the working classes is of pri- 
mary importance to the prosperity of the state. Next to a good 
early education, probably nothing more certainly conduces to 
their moral virtue than comfortable dwellings and small gardens. 
We at present confine ourselves to the first article here men- 
tioned. Hitherto, the manner in which our manufacturing 
population have been crowded together, especially in large 
towns, and the decayed or ruinous piles of buildings into which 
they have been huddled, have greatly tended to disease, and, 
what is worse, to encourage profligacy. Attention to this mat- 
ter, however, is beginning to mark the present generation of 
philanthropists ; nor do we despair of seeing, in the course of a 
few years, a mighty alteration in the exterior condition of the 
industrious labourers of our country. Certain it is that much, 
besides the power of example, may actually be done by proprie- 
tors of land and men of wealth. Neat cottages may be erected 
in the neighbourhoods of towns, as well as upon large landed 
estates ; and we proceed to give a short description of several 
designs (see Plate 40) which we think admirably adapted to 
such purposes in any quarter of the united empire, whether 
built of brick or the more hardy material, stone. The plan and 
arrangement of these neat, convenient, and comfortable dwell- 
ings are distinguished particularly by their compactness. They 
present, in short, multiim in parvo. 

We have just one other general observation to submit, which 
regards the requisites of cottages, and which these designs dex- 
trously exhibit. Besides economy and convenience, each family 
requires a cei"tain extent of variety of accommodation for the 
sake of decency. This has hitherto been seldom considered as 
a matter essentially necessary. If there was space found for 
the poor man and family, wherein cold, wind, and rain were ex- 
cluded, it was thought enough. It most probably was one lank, 
bare, and empty apartment, without fire-grate or loft, the fold- 
ing door and a unndow or two being the whole of the superfiuous 
providing to gratify the eye of the new tenant, a sight sufficient 
to turn the tide of a parent's emotions to despair and profligacy. 
But the poor parents had children, and with boards, box beds, 
and tattered blankets, strove to protect themselves from inde- 
cent community, more than the landlord did to screen them 
from wind and rain. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 

A few moments' examination of these designs are sufficient, 
without any minute description of them, to make any one un- 
derstand and appreciate their excellence, They in short speak 
sufficiently well for themselves. In such cottages as are repre- 
sented in fig. 1 and 2 of Plate 40, the outer door usually opens 
directly upon the fire place, which, besides other discomfort, ge- 
nerally occasions a misdirection of the smoke. Here, the evil 
is well and neatly avoided by means of a porch. It will be seen 



as another good contrivance, that the poultry-house is placed so 
as to receive not merely the shelter but some of the warmth of 
the cottager's apartments ; and that in a small and convenient 
form every necessary provision is made as regards variety Of 
divisions and cleanliness. 

The third figure in Plate 40 is of rather a picturesque form, 
but combines all the comfort and convenience, independent of 
this, which is generally lost sight of by fanciful designs. In 
this plate there will be observed a gradation of accommodation, 
rising from the first design. They are all double, however, 
which adds to their warmth and their cheapness. Still they 
may be completely sepni-ate and distinct, as regards every ac- 
commodation and right. Fig. 2 has a pavilioned roof, which 
is made also to hang over the side-walls. Fiy. 3 has bed-rooms 
over the centre, and lofts over the kitchens ; thus making each 
cottage belonging to this design a house of three apartments, 
with a closet, &c. 

Fig. 4 combines four distinct dwellings. Tlie design consists 
of a centre and two wings ; each of the latter forms one dwell- 
ing-house, fronting a garden, completely closed in by itself. 
It will be observed that the fire-places in all of these plans are 
placed in inside walls, and that the wall cupboards are also in 
inside walls, otherwise they must be cold and damp. The com- 
bined cottage shewn, seems an admirable plan. Two of the 
dwellings have poultry-houses, the other two, pigsties ; and 
there is one cow-house placed in the middle of the back court, 
which will in general be found sufficient. 

We might lay down a number of rules and heads of a specifi- 
cation for the construction of such cottages, whether of brick 
or stone mason work, but which, according to the view we are 
taking in this notice, it is not our purpose to speak of. The 
depth of the excavations for foundations, the style and kind of 
flooring, we leave to the wisdom of the builder. We would 
recommend that the division walls of double cottages be carried 
close xip to the slates ; that a dwarf wall be built across under 
each room that is floored, for supporting the sleeper joists ; that 
the floors be raised considerably, and, as the situation of the 
building will always suggest, duly above the level of the ground 
on which it stands : that the whole area immediately connected 
with the buildings be properly drained, and that four openings, 
eight inches square, and grated, be made below the wooden 
floorings for ventilation and preserving the floor. Cottages 
should not be thatched, nor any part of the work superficially 
executed, if profit as well as comfort is looked to. 

We need not give an estimate of the expenses which any one 
of these designs will incur when fully followed out. We shall 
only say, that the saving latterly, if every thing be observed 
which has been said, will be as remarkable as are the compact- 
ness and comfort of these cottages. 



ON THE DAIRY HUSBANDRY OF AYRSHIRE. 



Every art that has been carried to a high degree of 
perfection finds some one country or district of a 
country the seat of its reign. This is frequently attri- 
butable solely to physical causes, by whicli the materials 
to work on are confined to particular regions. But 
sometimes, and probably more frequently still, the 
matter is wholly referable to man's choice, and the 
particular direction of his powers. Thus the growth 
of tea or the propagation of the silk-worm are never 
likely to distinguish the highlands of Scotland, but we 
do not see why the whisky that is distilled there might 
not be produced any where else, provided the grain 
out of which it is made was found. Still, within very 



narrow limits of a country or district, some arts and 
manufactures will be seen to preserve themselves en- 
tire, as if hemmed around by impassable ban-iers ; for 
these barriers are the habits and the prejudices of 
mankind, the most obdurate and insurmountable of any 

on earth. , , .,, 

It may in the next place be remarked, that the skill 
that is so illustrious as to lend a distinctive fame to a 
whole territory, may after all, be alone due to a limited 
and confined section of that territory. Thus it is with 
the Dairi/ Husbandry of Ayrshire ; for we are prepared 
to shew, if called upon, that this art as understood 
there, might be advantageously introduced and prac- 



ON THE DAIRY HUSBANDRY OF AYRSHIRE). 



125 



tised in many other parts; and that though confined 
to a comparatively narrow circle, it yet lends celebrity 
to the kingdom. It holds with the Dainj as it does 
with the Grain Husbandry of Scotland. The latter is 
confined, in its high perfection, to certain districts on 
the east coast of the kingdom especially, whilst the 
former has its seat on the west coast. Nevertheless, 
both branches are so zealously and skilfully pursued 
in these opposite directions and Imiited quarters, that 
both the one and the other have conferred upon the 
whole country, a high and distinctive name. To be 
sure, with regard to the eastern branch of husbandry, 
it must be observed, that the nature of the soil and 
climate forbid its advantageous adoption in the west ; 
but the dairy of the west might and should be much 
more extensively practised in the east than it has ever 
yet been ; nay, it deserves to be understood and intro- 
duced into many parts of the united empire, as the 
account we are about to submit, though necessarily an 
outline, will, we trust, establish. 

We apprehend and feel strongly assured, that every 
extensive proprietor and farmer ; that even every gar- 
dener, peasant, and householder, to whom a single 
milk cow is an object of attention, should take into 
consideration the view and matter we have now entered 
upon. Tlie writer speaks from actual observation and 
experience, directed to rural aflfairs for these many 
years, in various quarters of the united kingdom ; but 
chiefly in Ayrshire : that county lending a name to the 
dairy art, equivalent to that of Scotland. Nay, the 
making of cheese belongs in its highest style but to 
one of the three divisions of Ayrs'hire, viz. that of 
Cuningham, although it has thence found its way, over 
a nmch more extensive tract of country, including the 
greater portion of the shire, and also of that of Renfrew 
and the lower part of Lanark. The information atforded 
by Mr. William Alton, of Hamilton, wiU also be taken 
advantage of, who is the most judicious and enlight- 
ened writer on the Scottish dairy system, that has ever 
appeared. 

Milk is probably the most essential and wholesome 
species of food used by the human race. It is the 
sustenance of childhood, and often of old age, and 
the milk of cattle cannot find an equal in importance 
except in bread, " the staff of life ;" it must accord- 
ingly be a highly necessary thing, that mankind should 
know how this great article of food is to be most 
abundantly provided, and also most profitably used 
and manufactured into the different forms of which it 
is capable. The subject therefore leads us to consider, 
what are the best modes of rearing and cultivating 
cattle (the Bos tribe is of course solely understood 
here), and next how is the produce of cattle to be most 
profitably managed. 

It might be useful as a preliminary matter, to con- 
sider the nature of land best fitted for the dairy, and 
relatively what is the most profitable branch of hus- 
bandry, in certain given situations and soils. But this 
would lead us, at present, into a too lengthened dis- 
cussion. We only say generally, that land of a medium 
or inferior quality, or where the climate is wet, will 
yield a much higher rent if judiciously managed, on a 
dairy system, than if devoted to any rotation of constant 
cropping. It may be most confidently asserted, that if 
the farmers in the counties of Ayr, Renfrew and 
Lanark, were compelled to change their dairy system 



for any other, that of cropping for example, they could 
not give above three fourths of the rent they now pay. 
The demand for, and the prices of that species of agri- 
cultural produce, have never declined so much as that 
of grain, or even less than butcher's meat. 

We learn from Mr. Aiton, that on the authority of 
the Board of Agriculture, the quantity of herbage that 
will add 112 lbs. to the weight of an ox, will, when 
bestowed on a dairy cow, of an ordinary good breed, 
and in a fair condition to yield milk, enable her to 
give about 2,700 imperial pints of milk : and that ge- 
nerally in Scotland 17 pints of milk will yield an 
imperial pound of butter ; and the butter-milk will sell 
at one penny for three pints. Of Ayrshire or Dunlop 
cheese, (as it is more fi-equently called) it will take 
120 pints of milk, to yield from 16 to 171bs. avoirdu- 
poise : it can easily be ascertained, therefore, whether 
the beef, or those quantities of butter and cheese are 
most profitable. Nearly 385 pounds, or 27i stones im- 
perial of full milk cheese (that is of milk as it comes 
from the cow) will take 2,700 pints ; and if so many 
pints be made into butter, they will yield nearly 1574 
pounds, besides the butter-milk, which may average 
about half of the whole that has been churned. The 
average price of beef for seven years past, has not 
exceeded six shillings per stone; and the 112 lbs. or 
eight stones, of course amount to 2^. ^s., while 1^i 
stones of cheese, at five shillings per stone, the average 
price paid to the farmer dm-ing the same period of 
years, amount to 6^. 17s. Grf. ; and the average price of 
157ilbs. of butter, at eight-pence per pound, for a like 
course of time, amounts to 52. 5*., and of the butter-milk 
to 1/. V]s. %d. more, both being 11. 2«. 6d. 

Compare in the next place the rise on the prices of 
grain, tlien of butter and cheese within the last sixty- 
five years. While oatmeal, for instance, has not ad- 
vanced more than 50 per cent, on an average during 
that period, the price of cheese has risen from 200 to 
sometimes 300 per cent., and butter from 300 to 500 per 
cent, during the same time ; although these later kinds 
of produce have been imported into Scotland to an 
immense amount. It may be noticed, that though a 
dairy requires an extent of labour and outlay conside- 
rably greater than the fattening of cattle, there will 
still remain a vast balance in its favour. Neither is 
there much more expense incurred in bringing a cow 
to the period when she has her first calve, than in 
making her fit for fattening for the shambles. And 
after giving milk for seven years, she may be fattened 
to very considerable advantage, thus turning the matter 
of rearing greatly in favour of the dairy cow. 

But to come to the dairy cattle of Ayrshire. It may 
first of all be observed, that the excellence of the breed 
is not of very long standing ; neither is it clear to what 
it is owing. The very limited importation of kinds 
from other quarters, could not have produced that 
which is now so celebrated, and accomplished it within 
the last fifty years. It is pretty evident that the 
matter must be attributed to the pains taken in the 
cultivation of the indigenous breed, by carefiil crossing 
and judicious feeding, first of all, in the district of 
Cuningham in Ayrshire. From that spot the breed 
has extended to many of the Scottish counties ; and it 
is also in high estimation in England. And indeed 
they are fully worthy of such celebrity; for they are 
possessed of all the most important requisites of cattle ; 



v^ 



0?J -J^ ^DAIRY HUSBANDRY OF AYRSHIRE. 



they give a more -copious draft of milk than any breed 
ia Europe ; they fatten as fast and cut up as well in the 
shambles as any other. They are tame, quiet, docile 
and hardy, and particularly exempt from disease. 

In breeding, particular attention is paid to the shapes 
of the bulls ; those are preferred that have the greatest 
resemblance to a fine cow, at the same time suiting the 
size of the bull to the cow ; taking care that he be not 
too large. As to the most approved shapes of the cow ; 
her head should be fine and narrow at the muzzle; her 
eye small and lively ; her horns wide-set, slender, and 
turning upwards after having bent inwards ; her neck 
long, thin, and tapering towards the head; shoulders 
also thin; fore quarters light ; hind quarters capacious ; 
back straight; carcase deep; buttock's fleshy; tail 
long and fine ; legs short and fine ; udder broad, and 
stretching well along the belly, showing itself in rear 
of the hind legs also, but not flabby ; and the teats 
planted widely asunder. The skin and the hair should 
also be fine ; indeed all the parts of least real value 
must recommend themselves by handsome features and 
points. S^ch are the qualities that skilful breeders 
look after and desire. These cattle vary in weight 
from twenty to sixty stones English, with fat sinking 
offals; and theh prices at present run from 10/. to 15?. 
sterling; which are much under what they brought 
several years ago. 

In rearing calves, of course those from parents the 
most highly esteemed will be preferred ; and the most 
fashionable colour is dark red, intermixed with white ; 
the red greatly prevailing. The best period to choose 
them, is when after about six weeks' feeding on milk, 
they can be turned out to grass in May, to have all the 
fine weather and grass of the year. They are never 
allowed to suckle their dams ; hut are fed ft-om a dish. 
For the first few days they should not be allowed to 
have what they would take ; and after six weeks or so 
pure milk diet, cheaper and less delicate food must be 
very gradually introduced. It is always a safe rule, 
however, to be kind to them as long as possible when 
young ; the attention will be amply repaid in the cow, 
not only as respects the abundance and continuance of 
their milk diet, but in giving them the best pasture for 
the first summer of their lives. It is good feeding and 
treatment when young that brings them early to be fit 
to give milk, and that abundantly : and such a style of 
management is the great secret of bettering the breed. 
A wise dairy farmer is as indulgent to his cows, as the 
tenderest groom is to a race-horse : a good dairy-maid 
not only will not huiry their pace in the field, but she 
liandles them and talks to them with all the kindliness 
possible. They literally know her voice, and court the 
hand that cherishes them. 

The milk cows are fed in summer on such pasture as 
the farm produces ; care should always however be 
taken, that they be not stinted ; nay, it is a great damage 
to the cow, when she has to make it a day's work to 
fill her belly. It should be frequently filled; and she 
should often indulge herself with an "hour's rest, care 
being taken that water is at her will. The writer knew 
a farmer, who, when his wife complained of the cows 
giving hltle milk, would say, " I'll sell one, and you'll 
have more." In summer they are housed during the 
night, and their fodder is chiefly oat-sti-aw. But of late 
years a great deal more pains than formerly is taken, 
to yUtJhepn have some succulent addition. And as the 



period of their calving approaches, some substantial 
grain is added, though in small quantities. The grain 
should be bruised in a mill, the smaller the better; 
bean-meal seems now to be in highest estimation. Fop 
some time after calving this good feeding should be 
continued, especially if the grass be too young to yield 
a mouthful. It is prudent in summer weather to keep 
the cows out in the field all night This not merely 
makes them harcUer, but w ithout a great deal of care 
and feeding within doors, there will be a sad falling off 
in milk after a night's imprisonment. Let it be under- 
stood that every judicious farmer allows at least, in all 
kinds of food prepared by the hand for his cows, a 
portion of salt, which they relish higMy. , - . , . . > . 

A cow to give much and good milk must be m ^ 
thriving and good condition, Mr. Alton, who has 
been at vast pains to ascertain every point regarding 
dairy husbandry, satisfactorily sliows, that the average 
retm-ns of the better sorts of cattle in Ayrshire, when 
properly attended to, will amount to 6,000 imperial 
pints of milk every year each cow ; the inferior sorts, 
of course, yield much less. And when speaking of a 
years milk, nine of tire twelve months may be taken as 
a suitable portion for a cow to be kept in a milking 
plight. 

The cow houses ought to be capacious, well venti- 
lated, and kept clean ; the side walls high ; no loft to 
obstruct the ready escape of their breath ; and nume- 
rous apertures in the building, to admit of the intro- 
duction of pure air. Dryness more than heat is required. 
The paths within and towards the house should be well 
paved, that they may be easily kept clean. Thin flags 
of stone about four feet square, are usually placed on 
each side of the stalls, two cows being to a stall. The 
best style of fastening the cattle, is by an iron rod, 
about twenty inches long, fixed in a perpendicular 
position, by the side of the flag, that a chain may be 
allowed to shde up and down, and thus give the animal's 
head sufficient freedom for feeding, without the possi- 
bility of goring its neighbour sideways. In fi-ont of 
the row of cows, there is usually a stone trough to hold 
their food; there should also be a parallel passage. 
The other dairy houses, connected immediately with 
the manufacture of butter and cheese, together with 
the proper utensils, fall to be considered, after these 
articles of produce have been discussed. 

In Ayrshire and the neighbouring dairy districts, 
but chiefly in Renfrewshire, which supplies Paisley 
and Glasgow, besides other towns, with the greatest 
proportion of butter used in them, the best article of 
the kind manufactured in Scotland, and perhaps to a 
much larger extent, is to be found. Here the mode of 
proceeding is very simple. It is the practice to chum 
the whole of the milk, which is not generally observed 
or known elsewhere. The milk, as soon as drawn from 
the cow, is placed in shallow coolers, and stands for 
twelve to twenty-four hours ; when the cream has risen 
to the surface, the coolers are emptied into the churn, 
where the butter is to be made. If another milking 
is thus prepared, and ready to be poured into the 
churn, (which is of the standing kind) before the for- 
mer has begun to sour, it may be added safely ; but 
if otherwise, or if the first be even approaching to 
acidity, the admixtirre leads to fermentation and injures 
the milk. Great care is taken not to allow the coagulum 
of the milk in the chum to be broken, after it begins 



ON THE DAIRY HUSBANDRY OF AYRSHIRE. 



127 



to become sour, till the operation of churning is set 
about. 

As a proof that the process of butter making in the 
west of Scotland is not a complex one, it seems enough 
to state that the farmers who supply Paisley and 
Glasgow with this sort of produce, not only churn all 
their milk, but do so almost every day in the week. 
Plunge churns are usually found to contain about 100 
Scotch pints, (a Scotch pint is two English quarts) 
when worked by the hand; but when machinery is 
applied, 150 or 200 pints are churned at a time. In 
a few minutes after the operation is begun, as much 
warm water is poured into the churn as raises the 
temperature of the milk from fifty degrees or so of 
Fahrenheit, (which will be that of the dairy-house) 
to seventy or seventy-five. The water must be slowly 
poured in, not dashed, and the churning must proceed 
during the same time, without fail. In autimm the 
milk is rich, and more water may be applied than 
earlier in the year, when the serum is more abundant ; 
and probably one pint of water on an average may 
be near the proportion, to be added to every five pints 
of milk. But much will depend on circumstances, 
that cannot all be detailed. We may say, however, 
that the character of the feeding, and of the milk of 
individual cows, requires the observance of all who 
would be expert and good hands in dairy work. Let it 
be particularly attended to, that the milk be not too 
much heated, or churned too hastily. From two to three 
hours is a good allowance of time for the operation. 

We have already alluded to the value of the butter 
milk in the west of Scotland ; we now add that it is 
not only a palatable but a delicious liquid, and finds 
amongst the working classes a rapid sale. "VVe do not 
wonder that in England the pigs should monopolize the 
beverage : for whatever may be the cause, the fact is, 
so far as we know, that the butter-milk is not fit for 
human beings. There is a bitterness and nauseousness 
in its taste, that leads us to suspect that the butter can- 
not be perfect which has been extracted out of it. But 
in the North, the peasantry very generally, as well as 
the humble citizens in the manufacturing towns, prefer 
the sour liquid for their porridge, to the pure sweet 
milk in the state it comes fi-om the cow; and we ven- 
ture to affirm that their health and strength is not 
inferior to any class of the human race. 

The Ayrshire or Dunlop cheese is thus made : — 
When such a number of cows is kept as to yield milk 
sufficient for a cheese of tolerable size at each milking, 
the milk is passed through a strainer to clear it of 
every impurity, into a tub or vat of sufficient size for 
the purpose. The rennet is applied the moment all 
the milk has been collected ; and as soon as the process 
of coagulation is completed, the dairy maids' hands 
are, gently at first however, employed, the curdling 
being then very soft, to draw off the whey. The curd 
is all gradually broken, but in such a manner, and such 
a time, as neither to extract substance that would go 
to enlarge the curd, nor be so tardy as to allow it to 
become unmanageable. Where the milk at one milking 
is not sufficient to make a cheese, it must be collected 
from two or more milkings ; and this is done in the 
shallow sort of coolers mentioned before, which are 
of wood, stone, lead or tin. When the cheese, after 
such a collecting, is to be made, the cream is skimmed 
off the cooled milk, and poured into the large vat 



through a strainer; whilst the residue, which is thin 
milk, must be brought to a proper heat, and then added. 
The heat of the whole mass should be about that of 
new drawn milk. Were the cream, which is put into 
the curd vat, heated, its oily particles would melt, and 
be lost to the cheese. 

The temperatiu'e at which the milk is kept, from the 
time it is drawn from the cow, till it is fonued into 
cheese, ought to be cai'efiilly attended to. If kept 
much above 55 degrees of Fahrenheit, it will not cast 
up the cream properly, and will soon sour ; and if below 
that degree of temperature, the process of coagulation 
goes on slowly, the cheese is soft that is made from it, 
and the whey with difficulty drawn off and separated. 

After the curd has been well broken, and cut by 
means of a knife, and as soon as the greater part of the 
whey has been drawTi off, salt is applied, at the rate 
of about half an ounce to every pound of cheese, which 
the dairy housewives have a marvellous knack at hit- 
ting by the judgment, that a glance of the eye enables 
them to form. The curd, however, must still have 
submitted to a very minute chopping, before the salt 
can intimately mingle with it. After this the whole 
is put into a cheese-vat, surrounded with a piece of 
thin cloth made into canvass from coarse lint, and at 
first gently pressed by a weight of a very moderate 
amount, lest the still tender curd should be injured. 
Ere long, however, three or four hours from the time 
the whole operation was set about, the cheese-vat is 
put under the press : it is afterwards changed a few 
times in the course of the day, not merely by having 
dry cloths applied, but by reversing the now regularly 
formed article in the cheese vat. After coming from 
the press, the cheese is exposed to a considerable de- 
gree of drought, and is turned every morning and 
evening. It is thus treated for a few days, and then 
last of all laid upon boards in the store room, only to 
be turned every second day or so. Such is the simple 
operation ; — skewers are never put into a cheese to 
extract the whey; it is never sweated, nor rubbed 
with butter. It is proper to add, that the entire ma- 
nagement of the cheese dairy is confided and conducted 
by women, and this leads us merely to notice, a 
point far from imimportant, connected with this species 
of rural husbandry, which is, that the females are 
bred and kept to a most becoming employment, which 
goes no small way to give a valuable character to the 
entire body of the rural population. Dairy farms too, 
are, it may be said, necessarily limited; they not 
only call for the industry of the husbandman's daugh- 
ters, but the sons cannot'afford to be gentlemen, but 
have to work along with their fathers in the fields. 
Accordingly and therefore it is, that the peasantry of 
the west of Scotland are now, and have long been, 
the most enlightened, the most religious, and the most 
industrious of any even in that nation. 

A milk house should be so large as to contain at 
least one day's milk of all the cows on the farm ; and 
still larger if butter and skim milk cheese are made. 
It should be shaded from the sun as much as possible ; 
and the best covering is thatch and turf, in order to 
exclude the heat of summer and the cold of winter. 
The window should be on the north side, that the 
sun's rays may not enter, and it should also have two 
ventilators, covered ^^■ith brass wire and gauze cloth 
to keep out insects and mice. The floor should have 



128 



ON ENCL0SUEE3. 



a well joined pavement, that no milk or dirt may lodge 
in it, and it should uniformly be kept dry and cool. 
Every thing, in short, about the milk house, should be 
sweet and clean, and though it must be near the cow 
house, it must yet be so distant as not to be polluted 
by any effluvia from the cows. The dairy house must 
also be so constructed, that the steam from the boiler 
may not reach the milk. But if the milk house and 
dairy house be distant from the cows, or from each 
other, a covered passage should run between them, as 
the mUk is soon affected by the rays of the sun, by 
rain, or by exposure to the air. A storehouse is also 
necessary ; and it should not be damp, nor very dry ; 
the barn floor is very commoidy used in Ayrshire, 
especially in the height of the summer season, or the 
ground story of a house where the current of the air 
is not too great, nor the light too powerful. 

The dairy utensils in use throughout the west of 
Scotland are few and simple, a general recommendation 
of the implements handled in any art. The milking 
pails are of wood ; the churns are wrought, for the 
most part, with a staff, the head of which is as broad 
and round as the circuit of the upright pump in which 
it is plunged; and the cheese presses, now-a-days, are 
chiefly wrought, or the pressure obtained, by means 



of a lever power, by far the best sort of machine hither- 
to known for the purpose. Such a press can be 
carried, when not filled or charged with cheeses, in a 
person's arms, from one place to another, and it occu- 
pies so little room, as to stand in almost any bye 
corner. Besides, it will press half a dozen cheeses as 
quickly as one, provided the maker has given height 
to it. Without a drawing, however, it cannot be de- 
scribed intelligibly. Wheels, sliding pressure board, 
and long lever spear, for weights to be hung on, are 
the leading features in this press. The other dairy 
utensils are common and few in number, not requiring 
to be here mentioned. 

We have, owing to the limited space allowed us, 
been obliged to give a very cursory outline of the weSt 
of Scotland butter and cheese making processes. But 
enough has been said to shew the excellence of thfe 
Ayrshire breed of cattle, and the profitable mode in which 
their milk can be used. We conclude with asserting, 
that if the high rents paid by the dauy tenantry, and 
their habits and general comfort be matters worthy of 
consideration, the branch of husbandry followed out by 
them is the best that they can adopt, and that it should 
be greatly more extended over Scotland, not to speak 
at present of a much wider domain. 



ON ENCLOSURES. 



The great purposes served by enclosures are protection and 
shelter. We are not sure that man in a rude state, so soon as 
he fixed himself permanently in one spot, might not erect some 
sort of \asible landmark, by which he individualized to his own 
apprehension a definite portion of property, independent alto- 
gether of the idea of protection. But it is obvious that wher- 
ever there were other inhabitants, whether of his own species 
or inferior orders of animals, fences would become necessary 
that he might protect what had accrued to himself, from in- 
jui^y and robbery. In sonxe cases the line that divided was 
in a great measure ideal, and only preserved by large stones 
erected at distant intervals of space ; such a division if kept 
honestly by, was sufficient to show where one man's possession 
joined that of his neighbour. But landmarks might be re- 
moved, which, we read, was considered a heinous oifence. An 
expedient was sometimes resorted to, of an affecting kind, to 
strengthen the evidence as to precise localities. Children who 
had arrived at an age such as usually enable them to treasure 
up in their memory an event that had once made a deep im- 
pression, were conducted to certain places, and there so satis- 
factorily flagellated, as was not likely ever to be forgotten by 
them. These places were of course, at the time, admitted by 
the conterminous proprietors to be correct and precise points of 
separation ; nor do we doubt, that the consecrated urchins 
frequently visited and refreshed their memories, with all the 
surrounding s^^mbois that were beheld at the moment of their 
endurance. 

But this species of registration was liable to serious mis- 
chances, and other less frail expedients were resorted to. The 
most natural and accessible were stone walls, continuous 
mounds of earth, and rows of trees. Any of these were suffi- 
cient to form a permanent landmark, which could not be re- 
moved, and therefore the best, and still customary fence against 
the encroachments of man. Anoth.er most important purpose 
is served by enclosures ; they protect cultivated crops from the 
depredations of the inferior animals ; and such animals as are 
domesticated and reared by the care of man, from "wandering 
too widely to their own damage and danger. And lastly, pro- 
perly constructed fences, shelter both crops and animals from 



storms and inclement weatfer. Herdsmen and the best trained 
dogs could not be of any service in this latter capacity ; nor 
could they at any time (luring day, much less in the night, 
completely circumvent or controul the stock committed to their 
charge. Hence the value and the necessity of sufficient 
enclosures. 

One other pui^pose is served by the expedients we are now 
speaking of, and by no means an unimportant one, we mean 
the pleasure confen'ed by the sight of a well sheltered and 
divided territory. But this rather belongs to the subject of 
landscape gardening than the objects at present before us, viz. 
the origin, the economy, and the proper construction of land 
enclosures. 

After the ring fence which divided one man's property from 
that of his immediate neighbour, it is obvious, that subdivisions 
of his own land would come to be thought of. The simplest 
and most natural principle was certainly that which pointed 
out the richest and best watered spot for his dwelling houses. 
Next the garden came to be hemmed in, then such bits of land 
most accessible from his dwelling, had to be cultivated to rear the 
grain, his means and circumstances suggested as necessary and 
profitable ; and thus the long established order of things was 
kept up, which in the northern parts of Britain went under 
the description of InfieJd and Outfield ; the Outfield was ap- 
propriated solely to depasturing the live stock ; the Infield to 
rearing crops for the sustenance of the cultivators family ; to- 
gether with fodder for the winter food of his cattle. This 
half barbarous system continued through wdiat may be called, 
the feudal ages of agriculture, and down to within these last 
hundred years. 

It was somehow or another discovered at length, that the 
cereal crops became more productive, by the amehoration 
effected in the soil by grass ; and that grass land supported 
more live stock by being occasionally cropped with corn. This 
new light destroyed the Outfield and Infield system, and gradu- 
ally led not only to a new style of subdividing and enclosing 
farms, but to all the great improvements that distinguish the 
present rural economy of the island, especially in the north of 
England, and the more fertile counties of Scotland, which we 



ON ENCLOSURES. 



129 



venture to affirm are unrivalled ia the particular we are display- 
ing, whether in ancient or modern times. In the few practical 
observations we are about to submit, those districts, therefore, 
shall be taken as the model for the construction of encloSTires 
and fences. 

There seems to be no department of rural economy less 
understood or attended to than the one we arc now upon. 
Most fences are comparatively useless, very many of them are 
also wasteful. It sickens him who has a taste and a moderate 
knowledge of farming, or any one who has but hastened 
through the well-managed districts of the north, to see what 
is very prevalent in the vicinity even of London ; the huge and 
ugly forest of thorns and bushes that ai-e huddled together 
upon some unshapely mound of earth ; the parallel ditch, more 
like a foul canal than an open drain, which it should be ; and the 
masses of noxious weeds that rankly grow, flourish, and yield 
seed within and beyond the whole extent of these abomin- 
ations. One should suppose that the waste of land was an 
item not unworthy the attention of him who has a high rent to 
pay ; but even worse than this are the destructive vermin those 
■wildernesses of bush and weed harbour and foster, and the 
quantity of vile seeds that are wafted every year from these 
nurseries of foulness. 

Where the white thorn will grow, the following is a prevail- 
ing mode of management in the north. Hedges are double or 
single ; the double is generally found now-a-days where the 
fence is a boundary between two farms. But, as it is nothing 
more than two single ones united, the mound out of which they 
gi'ow being between them, we shall at once describe the simplest 
example. A ditch is dug about two feet and a half deep, three 
feet wide at the top, slanting to one and a half at the bottom. 
This is prettv near the general size, where cattle are frequently 
to be enclosed, and a considerable body of surface water is at 
times to run. Shallower and narrower conduits in other cir- 
cumstances are suflRcient. The soil dug out of the ditch forms 
an embankment on one of its sides. The turf is turned first 
upside down ; some of the best soil is carefully spread, and the 
young thorns laid horizontally upon the level. Some more of 
the best soil is spread above the plants, and the remainder 
piled up and well clapped, so as with the ditch to form in front 
almost a sufficient barrier. But the fence is completed by what 
is called a cocking, that is, a strong range of thorns, cut to 
about the length of three feet, stuck into the top of the wall of 
earth. This range is allowed to stand for some years till the 
thorns be in themselves a perfect hedge. 

It is necessary to keep the young thorns and the ditch clear of 
rank weeds for the first two or three years. And this is ac- 
complished by two iceedings in the year, gently and most care- 
fully conducted. We should have mentioned that the slender 
tender plants, by being laid in a horizontal position, are sup- 
posed to acquire a greater strength, near the root, in forming 
the knee, which they naturally do as they advance in age and 
grow upwards ; besides, by this expedient, the hedge is backed 
and protected so long as it exists. It is advisable to lay these 
thorn plants thickly, but never in more than one row. 

The weeding of tlie hedge, and the cleaning of the ditch, 
whenever it begins to fill up with mud, or to be choked with 
trash of any kind, necessarily draws and shakes a good deal of 
the best soil from the roots of the plants. This evil is dex- 
trously avoided, by a small shelf being formed a little below 
the thorn roots, and some fine soil laid thereon anew ; the 
whole is then clapped and faced up as at first, for these things 
■must all be attended to till the hedge masters every ordi- 
nary impediment or obstacle. 

There are various ways of mending gaps in an advanced 
hedge. If young plants are inserted, care must be taken to 
surround them with new and rich earth. Frequently a sprightly 
branch of a neighbouring bush is bent down and across the 
vacancy ; its points are introduced into the soil, that they may 
strike. A notched stick holds the elastic branch to its proper 

MAGAZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO. XV 



position, which is simply assisted by its having been cut half 
through at the bending joint. This cut must always be on the 
under side, and struck upwards, to protect the core of the 
branch fi"om wet and injury. 

It is usual to encourage a languid hedge by cutting it close 
to the root, and cocking it behind, as at first. This operation 
is usually performed when the field in front of it is under crop. 
Immediately after this, the strong roots send up a multitude of 
spiral shoots, that, in a few years, if properly attended to, will 
almost exclude the little birds from entering its bosom ; or 
rather, that shelters them from enemies of every kind. In 
forming a hedge that may stand for generations, let the thorns 
grow to a goodly size and height. With a hedge-bill the whole 
should be dressed up into a wedge-like form, having the acute 
angle at the top. This roof, or hogged mane, answers admir- 
ably all the purposes of a fence, without bringing decay upon 
it. The branches at the root may extend two feet from the 
stem, and, by the gradual slant to the top of the steep roof, 
every branch has its due share of sun, air and rain, without 
injury to those below. After the thorns have thus been put into 
proper shape, nothing in after years is necessary but to mow 
the yearling twigs to the established form and surface ; thus 
lifetime after lifetime enabling and forcing the fence to thicken 
and strengthen into a vegetating wall. 

In some places the thorns when planted are laid above a little 
wall of stones, which is raised about two feet above the level of 
the field, and only one stone thick ; the earth supporting tiiC 
back which the roots of the plants reach and enter. MTiere 
thorns will not grow, and stones are to be procured, the cheapest, 
and indeed the best fence is, what goes by the name of the 
Galloway Dyke. It is a wall of dry stones, between four and 
five feet in height. The stones are built close for about two 
feet from the ground, and then carried to the top with others, 
so placed as to admit of the light between every two of them. 
It is easily rebuilt, and sheep or other kinds of farm stock are 
deterred by the open appearances, from attempting to climb or 
leap such an obstacle. The top row of stones should be laid 
asunder and across the fence ; smaller ones filling up the 
distances, whilst the ends of the larger project on both sides. 

Many other varieties of fences might be specified and de- 
scribed ; but the two we have given are the best for such' dis- 
tricts as can produce or foster them. We have a few sentences 
to submit as to the size, form and position of fields enclosed 
within farm fences. And nothing can be more obvious than 
that, if a man was allowed to pitch his tent where he chose, 
square or nearly square enclosures would be the most conveni- 
ent and profitable. In lack of this choice, he must do the best 
he can; and it is, therefore, impossible to lay down any but very 
general rules for his guidance. Soil, the natui'e of the produce 
reared, the position of the farm bouses, will direct him in many 
things. There is one good general division to be observed in 
grain farms ; there should be twice as many enclosures as there 
are breaks in the course. Thus if a six years' rotation be 
thought the most profitable there should he twelve enclosures, 
two of which are always under the same crop. This tends to 
equalize labour ; to allow such fields to be connected or dis- 
joined as may suit soil, distance from the farm houses, and con- 
venience of passage through intervening fields. Again, if 
possible, every field should consist of one sort of soil. Again, 
the ridges, if it can be managed, should always run north and 
south, that both sides may equally have the benefit of the 
sun ; and, if the laud be steep, they should not run, particularly 
on light soil, from top to bottom, but slanting across ; this 
saves the soil from being washed by heavy rains from the 
higher parts to the lower. As to the length of ridges : it is 
not advisable that they should be very long, and chiefly for 
this reason, that too great a body of water thus collects and 
has a run in the furrows before reaching a main ditch or open 
drain. A cross ridge can always be formed where such a weari- 
some length characterizes a field. 

III. — SEPTEMBER 1834. T 



130 



ON THE COTTON PLANT. 



Clumps of trees afford shelter to cattle, aud ameliorate the 
climate. Where the fields is square its corners are very suit- 
able parts for such a feature and purpose. It is hardly neces- 
sary to add, that every field, especially where cattle are pastured, 
should be supplied with water. And it is in Scotland usual, 
where a small stream runs between two farms, that part of it 
is entirely within the grounds of the one now, and of the other 
afterwards. For if the water run forms not a sufficient fence, 
it would otherwise be necessary that each farmer lined the 



stream's border on his own side with a wall or hedge. Wliere 
the matter, however, is arranged as we have stated it to be, 
one fence serves the two ; the only inconvenience attending the 
practice, arises from the circumstance that such a fence has 
every now and then to cross the stream which calls for water 
gates, that require looking after. But this would lead us 
beyond our present limits, and to the consideration of farm 
gates ; a subject deserving of a distinct notice. 



ON THE COTTON PLANT. 

(Concluded from p. 116.J 



Much, moreover, may he effected by introducing into India 
the different species and varieties which are already success- 
fully cultivated in other countries ; and here the chief thing is 
not to restrict ourselves to too small a number of varieties, be- 
cause they happen to be those which at present produce the 
best kinds of cotton. Not contented in America with possess- 
ing already the best kinds of cotton, they have tried those of 
other countries, to see if there were not among them some 
suited to the peculiarities of their country and climate. Mr. 
Spalding, in an interesting letter published in the evidence be- 
fore the East India Committee, informs us that the cultivators 
in America confine their attention to such plants as are of an- 
nual growth. 1st. The nankeen cotton, introduced at an early 
period from China ; this is abundant in produce, but the seed, 
covered with down, produces wool of a dirty yellow colour, 
which does not bring the price of the other short staple cottons. 
2d. The ijreen-seed cotton, with white wool, which, with the 
former, is grown in the middle and upland districts, whence the 
latter is called wp7a»d co//on, also short staple cotton ; and, from 
the mode in which it is cleaned, bowed Georgia cotton. This, Mr. 
S. says, was cidtivated in Georgia and Carolina previous to the 
revolutionary war, and considers it impossible to trace whence 
it was introduced, but supposes it may have been from Smyrna 
by one of the southern states. To this it may be objected, "that 
as the 6. herbaceum, with greyish seed, is the kind generally cul- 
tivated in Asia Minor, this green-seed cotton is probably one of 
the cultivated varieties of G. hirsutunu 3d. The sea island, or 
long staple cotton, which is distinguished by the black colour of 
its seed, and the fine, white, strong, and silky long staple by 
whi-ch it is surrounded. This is grown in the lower counti-y 
near the sea, and on several small islands, which are not very 
distant from the shore. This was introduced into Georgia from 
the Bahama Islands, where it had been brought from a small 
island in the West Indies, celebrated for its cotton, called An- 
guilla. 

In attempting the introduction into India of new kinds of 
cotton, it would appear advisable to include in the. experiments 
every kind that can be procured from all parts of the world, 
whether they afford in their present site the best or only an in- 
different kind of cotton ; for some which do not appear so good 
may find a more suitable locality in some parts of India. An- 
other consideration, not less important, is to extend the experi- 
ments over as wide a field as circumstances will at present 
admit of ; aud it will be extraordinary, indeed, if the extended 
coasts and wide-spreading plains of the Indian empire do not 
afford a sufficient choice of soil and climate for some one, if not 
several, of the superior varieties of a plant which is already cul- 
tivated in every part of the country. 

With respect to the improvement of the kinds already in cul- 
tivation in India, it will not be useless to call attention to the 
evidence given before the Committee of the House of Commons 
on the Affairs of the East India Company, where several places 
are mentioned which already produce some fine kinds of cotton 
— as the neighbourhood of the Silhet Hills, which is said by 
Mr. Bracken to produce a cotton equal to any from the South 



Sea Islands, and which he states that Mr. Finlay, of the Cal- 
cutta Cotton Mills , considered equal to any cotton he had ever 
seen. There is also a fine variety in the neighbourhood of 
Dacca ; though the fine muslins of that name are no doubt 
more owing to the workmanship than to the raw material. Mr. 
Colebrooke (Bengal Husbandry, p. 140) states, that the best 
cotton imported into Bengal is brought by land from Nagpore, 
iu the Dukhnn, to Mizrapore. Another kind, superior in the 
length and fineness of its staple, is brought by a land-carriage 
of more than 500 miles from Ameraweti, a well-known mart in 
the Dukhiin, situated about thirty miles south of the city of 
Elichpore. The best cotton on the eastern side of India is now 
said to be grown in Guzerat, and that from Cutch is particu- 
larly fine in the staple, and well cleaned ; but the finest is pro- 
duced at a village near Manyrole, in Kattywar. The great im- 
provement in the Tinnevelly cotton is well known, and owing 
to the introduction of foreign varieties, especially from the Isle 
of Bourbon. The Seychelle cotton should also be tried, as well 
as the different kinds which are produced in Siam and the seve- 
ral islands of the Indian Archipelago, as well as of the Paciiic 
Ocean. That of Pernambuco appears particularly desirable, as 
it is said to improve the further it is carried into the interior. 
The Brazils and West India Islands afford endless varieties ; 
and the trials with the seed from Georgia and the Carolinas, as 
well as from Egypt, should be repeated in every part of India, 
but especially on the coast of Cutch, in Malwa, and in the north- 
western provinces of India. With respect to the best mode of 
cultivation, it is unnecessary to enter into all the details, as 
they are given in works lately published, available to every one, 
especially the Tropical Agriculturist, Captain Basil Hall's Travels 
in America, Poiret's Diet, des Sciences Naturelles, tom. xi. ; but 
as it will be useful to contrast the principles with the practice 
in India, I have made the following abstract, chiefly from the 
first-mentioned work : — 

" The soil best adapted for the cotton is a light and sandy 
soil, particularly if held together by a little clay or calcareous 
earth, and mixed with a small portion of vegetable matter ; but 
volcanic deposits are said to be the most favourable, and the 
banks of rivers which are overflowed, and covered with mud. 
A moderate degree of moisture is essential, but too great aridity 
is injurious, and must be counteracted by irrigation ; and as an 
excess of moisture induces the production of a profusion of 
leaves and flowers, though the latter fall off, and the roots 7 ot, 
it must be obviated by drainage. No great depth of soil is re- 
quired, but it ought to be light and friable, so that the delicate 
fibrils of the root may penetrate in every direction. The tap 
root of the perennial species should, however, be able to descend jX 
to some depth ; the sub-soil, therefore, should not be bard. ' ■ 
Two or three ploughings are necessary to pulverize the earth, 
destroy all weeds, and expose every particle of the soil to the at- 
mosphere, and to light and heat. In China the soil is harrowed 
after each ploughing, and the latter is made twelve or fifteen 
inches deep. If the soil be barren or exhausted, manure suited 
to the nature of the soil is added, in China, after the last 
ploughing, and consists of mud from the bottom of ditches, 



STEPHENS ON DRAINING. 



ashes of all kinds, and oil-cakes. Previously to being sown, 
the seed is generally soaked in water ; oil has been recom- 
mended for the purpose, but lime-water would be preferable. 
The sowine takes place in Georgia from November to April, in 
lines or furrows ; the latter may be five feet apart. In America 
and the West Indies, Avhere the land has not been previously 
cleared, the practice is to fell and set fire to the timber, and dig 
holes for sowing the seed. These may vary in distance, but 
are often eighteen inches apart, and about as deep. From 
twelve to twenty or thirty seeds are sown in each hole, as soon 
as possible after ploughing, digging, or hoeing, and are covered 
with one or one-and-a-half inch of soil. The most important 
operation is weeding ; this is repeated every eight or ten days 
in China, until the bushes put forth blossom, and every month 
in Guiana ; it ought to be carefully performed, so as not to in- 
jure the young fibrils ; it is useful not only in removing weeds, 
but also in turning up the soil. When plants are three or four 
inches high, all, except three or four in each hole, are pulled 
up ; at the end of the third month, all the plants but one are 
withdrawn; in Georgia, after a month, si.x or seven are left in 
each hole ; at next hoeing, only one, or the two which ai'e most 
apart. When the remaining plant is eighteen or twenty-four 
inches high, only twelve inches in China, the top is pinched off, 
that the lateral branches may shoot out, which, after a time, 
are treated in the same manner to favour the formation of 
flower and fruit. This process is objected to by Von Rohr. 
The blossom generedly appears about the end of July, or be- 
ginning of August : pods open about six weeks after the bios- 



131 

som, and the crops begin in September, both in Georgia and 
Guiana ; but most of the cotton is ready about the middle of 
October, and the whole of the first crop is not got in before the 
end of December in Guiana ; when, as in India, Christmas rains 
occur, the plant afterwards sprouts out now shoots and blossoms, 
and about the end of February the picking may be resumed, and 
continued to the middle of April. The ground is carefully 
weeded between the crops : women and chikh-en are employed 
in picking the cotton out of the pods, and, as moisture is injuri- 
ous, the gathering is not commenced until the dew is dissipated; 
and as the pods ripen in succession, it is repeated at short in- 
tervals ; the cotton is then sorted, that which had fallen on the 
ground is kept separate, the whole cleaned, and then dried in 
the sun : this hardens the seeds, and enables them to separate 
more easily from the cotton, and is moreover useful in prevent- 
ing the latter spoiling from heating. If left too long on the 
plant, the withered leaves and calyx become mixed with the cot- 
ton, as is so frequently the case in India. 

" In Guiana the perennial cotton produces afuU crop the second 
year, and remains productive for four or six years. In China it is 
kept only three years ; young plants are put in wherever defi- 
ciencies occur. In Guiana the pruning of the perennial cotton, 
plant takes place in the second year of its growth, after the 
whole of the produce is gathered in. May is considered the 
most favourable month, when the trees are cut to about four 
feet high, premising with a good weeding of the ground. Dry 
weather and the early part of the day are recommended, that 
the sun may dry up the wounds." 



ON PRACTICAL IRRIGATION AND DRAINING*. 



Whem agriculture began to attract particular attention, the 
inferiority of wet land would soon become apparent. This in- 
feriority would be most obvious in the temperate regions of the 
globe ; because the eflFects of excessive moisture could only 
there be always perceptible in the soil. It was in Europe that 
agriculture received the first impulse towards improvement, 
and agriculture still flourishes in Europe in greater perfection 
than any other portion of the globe. To the Ramans belong the 
honour of improving the general culture of the soil in Europe, 
towards which draining contributed as much, perhaps more, 
than any other single operation. The precepts which they have 
bequeathed to the world in their writings on that subject evince 
the observant faculties of that extraordinary people. They 
were fully acquainted with the method of clearing their fields 
of surface water, and they also understood the art of directing 
springs, by means of drains, to places where they could do no 
mischief. TMs art, however, appears to have been lost from the 
overthrow of the Roman Empire to the revival of learning after 
the dark ages. After that period to as lately as the middle of 
the eighteenth century, it had been practised in a much inferior 
manner than by the Romans. The small drains, with a stone set 
on each side, and one covering them, situate between the soil 
and the subsoil, which modern improvements in agriculture 
h.ive discovered, are very inferior structures to those described 
by the Romans. 

It w^as reserved to a farmer in Weirwickshire, of the name 
of Elkington, so lately as i764, to introduce what may pro- 
perly be called a system of draining, superior even to that 
of the Romans, and which, in peculiar situations, cannot be 
surpassed in efficacy. The leading theory of his system is, 
that, though moisture be seen on the surface of the soil at any 
given place, the spring of water from which it originates lies 
deeply seated in some porous stratum. His practice conse- 
quently is, to discover, first, the seat of the spring, and then 
to cut a drain deep enough to intercept the water, and carry it 
away where it can do no mischief. The drain may not be able 



to reach the seat of the spring, though it may be properly 
situated in relation to it : in that case he bores holes with iron 
rods, or sinks wells through the bottom of the drain to the 
spring, in case the quantity of water be great. The water has 
then liberty to rise through the bored holes and wells to the 
bottom of the drain, on which it flows away innoxiously. 

These principles of Elkington have been, and may be, ap- 
plied successfully to the draining of lakes, bogs, and morasses ; 
of hollow portions of land containing deep soil, but much in- 
jured with water from the adjoining rising grounds ; and of 
undulating ground subject to bursts of water. All these situ- 
ations will be found to be connected with alluvial or rocky 
strata, of difi^erent structure and compactness ; and in any 
situation which possesses alternate strata, of various degrees of 
permeability, these principles may doubtlessly be employed 
with unfailing success. 

It is the object of Mr. Stephens, in his Practical Drainer, to 
enforce and illustrate these principles in every variety of situa- 
tion to which they are applicable ; which will be seen by the 
following extracts : — 

" Open Drains. — In draining bogs or moss where the drains 
do not reach the hard bottom, ditches are preferable to covered 
drains, for should stones be used when the bottom is very soft, 
they would sink, whereby the drains would become useless : 
indeed, in all situations where the ground will allow it, the 
principal drains should be open ; and when they can become the 
division of fields, which, in many instances, is practicable, 
that should never be neglected. It would be unnecessary to 
give any particular directions for their depth or wideness, as 
that must depend on the quantity of water they are to convey, 
and on the nature of the soil and situation in which they are 
made : one rule, however, may be general, that the width at the 
bottom should be one third of that at the top, which gives a 
sufficient slope to the sides, and the fall or declivity should be 
such as the water may run off without stagnation. In very 
soft soils, a greater degree of slope on the sides may be neces- 



* The Practical Irrigator and Drainer. By George Stej hens. Land Drainer. 3d edit, Svo. 



132 



STEPHENS ON DRAINING. 



sary ; and in all cases where it is meant to receive surface 
water only, none of the earth thrown out should remain upon 
the sides, but should be removed to the nearest hollows ; for, 
when this is not done, their use is in a great measure counter- 
acted. The earth, when left on the sides, prevents the surface 
water from getting into the drain — its weight causes the sides 
to fall in — makes it more difficult to scour or clean it — and 
adds much to its disagreeable appearance in the middle of a 
field. In cases where the augur or wells are obliged to be re- 
sorted to in open drains, they should never be made in the bot- 
tom, but on one side, with the outlet eight or ten inches above, 
which will prevent surface or flood water depositing any sand 
or sediment in the bore-holes whereby they might be injured. 

" Shoulder Drains. — Any surface water or partial spnngs in 
moss and marshy grounds, on which the large drains have no 
effect, and where stones cannot be used on account of the soft- 
ness of the soil, is most effectually removed by means of shoul- 
der drains. The method of making them is, by digging a trench 
from fourteen to sixteen inches wide, the sides perpendicular to 
the depth of two or three feet, and then by taking out the last 
spit with a spade, the breadth of which is three inches at the 
bottom, and four or five at the upper part, a shoulder is left 
on each side, on which the sod that was first taken up is care- 
fully laid with the grass side downwards, or, if it is not strong 
enough, others must be cut in the vicinity, and the remaining 
space filled with the loose earth a few inches above the level of 
the surface of the adjacent ground. Drains of this description, 
when properly executed and moles kept out of them, will ope- 
rate for a great number of years. 

" Covered Drains. — lu every instance where covered drains 
are used, their dimensions depend on the depth, the quantity of 
water they have to carry, and the kind of materials they are 
filled with. When the depth does not exceed five feet, two feet 
wide at the top will be sufficient ; but, whenever it is more, the 
width should be increased four inches for every foot in depth, 
and the width at the bottom should be twenty inches, which 
will give a sufficient space to build a substantial conduit. When 
this is not attended to, and the bottom of the drain is made so 
narrow that the stones of which the sides of the conduit are 
foimed are obliged to be set on their edges and the covers laid 
on them, in this insecure state, they, in many instances, fall 
down before the drain is half finished, causing it to burst in a 
very few years, and often forming springs in the driest part of 
the field. ' 

" In digging drains, there are several circumstances which, if 
attended to, will greatly facilitate the execution of the opera- 
tions, such as having the stones laid down by the upper side of 
the lines of the drains before the work is commenced, to be 
ready in case tlie sides should slip or fall in, which often hap- 
pens in mixed soils, as, when this precaution is not attended to, 
the expense is not only considerably increased, but the work is 
done in a less accurate manner. Particular care must also be 
taken that the bottom of the drains is made with a regular 
descent, so that the water runs from the one end to the other 
without standing dead ; and where bore-holes or wells are ne- 
cessary, they must be made before the conduit is laid, in order 
that the sand may be removed which the water may throw up 
from the stratum below, and would otherwise be deposited in 
the bottom of the drain which would thereby he rendered use- 
less. The dimensions of the conduit depends upon the quantity 
of water it has to carry ; thus, in an outlet drain, it requires 
to be larger than in a cross drain, which has only the water 
collected in itself to discharge. In general cases, therefore, the 
conduit in an outlet should be made from nine to twelve inches 
square, and, in cross drains, from four to six inches square. 
When the bottom of the drain is very soft, it must be laid with 
flag stones, to prevent the materials from sinking ; and the 
stones forming the side walls of the conduit must all be laid on 
their flat beds, and covered with strong covers well joined to- 
gether, and packed at their ends ; the space above, in clayey 



soils, must be filled with stones, broken to the size of a man's 
clenched hand, to within twelve inches of the surface of the 
ground, which' remaining space must be filled with porous earth. 
Before the earth is put into the drains, the stones must be 
covered with straw, rushes, or turf with the green side down- 
wards, to prevent the loose particles from subsiding into the 
crevices among the stones. In cases where all the water comes 
from bore-holes, or rises in the bottom of the drain, eighteen 
inches of small stones above the covers are sufficient ; but when 
it comes from the sides of the drain, it is necessary to fill the 
drain above the covers with some kind of porous substances, six 
inches higher than where the water breaks out : the neglect of 
this precaution is the reason w^hy so many drains have so little 
effect in drying land. 

'* In making covered drains, particular attention must be 
paid that they are not carried into the outlet at right ancles, as 
their ends should be turned down in the direction the water is 
to run a short space before they join it, to prevent the water in 
the outlet depositing any sand or sludge in their mouths, which 
will be the case if this is not attended to ; indeed it often hap- 
pens, on almost every estate, that the drains are stopped and 
rendered useless from this precaution being neglected. The 
mouths of the drains ought also to be well built and secured 
with iron gratings, to prevent vermin from getting into them ; 
and it must be examined from time to time, to see that it is in 
proper repair and the outlet kept a sufficient depth, so that the 
water coming from the drains may ran away freely, otherwise 
it will remain stagnant in them to the great injury of the land. 
To obviate this, it is advisable that a person should be ap- 
pointed on every estate, under the superintendence of the factor 
or land-steward, to go through every field that has been 
drained, at least once a year, to examine the mouths and outlets 
of all the drains, and make any necessary repairs as he pro- 
ceeds. Such an arrangement, I am convinced, would be very 
beneficial, and is highly necessary, as I have often found drains 
completely stopped in a year or two after they were made, and 
the land beginning to be wet again from this cause alone. 
Managers of landed property ought to be very particular in this 
department of rural economy ; indeed a clause ought to be in- 
serted in every lease, binding both proprietor and tenant to 
keep the mouths and outlets of drains in proper order at their 
mutual expense. 

" Rumbling Drains. — These are well adapted for removing 
water from alternate beds of clay and sand ridges, and also 
water confined in porous soils with an impervious bottom, as 
well as for receiving surface water from clayey soils. Their 
depth, in the two former cases, is generally about four feet, and 
in the latter from two to three feet, and twelve inches wide at 
the bottom ; they are filled with stones, broken to the size of 
coarse road metal, to within ten or twelve inches of the surface 
of the ground, and, in clayey soils, the remaining space with 
porous earth. Wood is sometimes used in duties of this de- 
scription instead of stones ; but, as it is liable to decay soon, 
and the drains will consequently be destroyed, it cannot be 
recommended when stones, gravel, smithy-danders, or even 
coarse sand can be procured. Indeed, whenever my opinion 
has been asked with regard to making drains with wood, my 
uniform answer has been against such a practice, having had 
experience of so many instances in which wood had been em- 
ployed, although stones might have been procured in the same 
field, of the land having to be drained again within a few 
years ; and, consequently, I could not consider myself acting 
candidly towards my employers in advising it. An instance of 
this occurred at Wallhouse, Linlithgowshire, a few years ago, 
in which I was called on to make a plan to drain the ground 
immediately around the mansion-house, and, having examined it, 
I found that the whole had been drained some years before, 
and the drains filled with thorns and other brushwood which 
had decayed, and, the clay having fallen in, springs were formed 
in many places in the lines of all the drains. What surprised 



ON THE USE OF KELP COMBINED \VlTH PEAT-ASHES AS A MANURE. 



133 



me was to find them laid off io such a manner that there was 
no occasion to allow any of the old lines ; and, having inquired 
■who was the engineer, I was answered your late brother. 
Being, however, aware that he never recommended drains to be 
filled with wood, if stones could possibly be procured, and 
more especially that he would not have done so in draining 
pleasure grounds, where, in most cases, no expense is spared to 
do the work in the most substantial manner, I suspected that 
the work had not been executed according to his plan, and, 
upon making further inquii^, I found that my suspicions 
were correct, his specification having directed them not only 
to be made with stones, but also to have been from two to three 
feet deeper, which was exactly what I caused to be done, where- 
by a complete drainage was obtained. 

" Tile Drains.- — These are best calculated for removing sur- 
face water, and are made just wide enough to let the tiles be 
put easily into them ; they are, in most cases, about twenty 
inches deep, but tiles may be used at any depth, provided the 
drain is filled with broken stones, or other open materials, to 
nearly the surface of the ground. The tiles should always be 
well burnt, and laid on soles, as whenever this is neglected, 
which is too often the ease where tile draining is now practised, 
their duration will unquestionably be very short, whereas hard 
burnt tiles will last for almost any length of time without 
mouldering dowK. The expediency of using tiles instead of 



stones depends entirely on circumstances ; for, if stones are to 
be found, whether by collecting on the surface or ciuarrying 
within the lands that are to be improved, or even if they can 
be procured within a mile of the operations, tiles should never 
be used. Stones are preferred to tiles in making drains in all 
kinds of soils, provided a sufficient quantity are used ; but 
where only a few inches of broken stones are used in a drain, 
well-burnt tiles laid on thick soles, and covered with tnrf of any 
other porous substance, would answer the purpose better ; and 
in porous soils, when the water is found at or near the bottom 
of the drain, if six or eight inches of broken stones were used 
in packing and covering them, a more substantial drain would 
be formed. In clayey or mixed soils, where the water enters 
the drain at different depths, stones, gravel, or smithy-danders, 
are the only materials that can be used with advantage ; in any 
case, however, where the tiles are used, the space above them 
must be filled to the surface of the ground with some porous 
material, otherwise the drains will be useless, and the under- 
taking will prove a complete failure." 

Upon the whole, we have no hesitation in expressing Snr 
opinion that Mr. Stephens' treatise is the best practical manual 
in every respect of the several subjects of draining, irrigation, 
and the embankment of rivers, of which it treats, that we 
have met with. , 



ON THE USE OF KELP COMBINED WITH PEAT-ASHES AS A MANURE. 



In 1832, a Scotch acre of dry stony ground, a great part of 
which had formerly been the channel of a rivulet, was prepared 
in the way usually followed in the cultivation of turnips. 

A quantity of sea-weed was collected, dried, and burned in 
the same manner as for kelp ; but, instead of allowing it to 
form into a solid mass, it was removed from the fire in a cal- 
cined state, in order to save the expense of afterwards grind- 
ing it. 

Of the ashes thus manufactured, twenty bushels were allowed 
to the acre, and distributed in the drills with a barrow made on 
the principle of bone-dust sowing machines. 

When the turnips which were sown on this acre sprouted, 
they had an unhealthy green, or rather yellowish appearance, 
but, after some time, several patches in the field seemed to be 
growing luxuriantly, while others seemed to retain their sickly 
hue. Upon a careful investigation into the cause of this phe- 
nomenon, it was discovered that wherever the ground was 
deepest, and the ashes of the sea-weed had been most mixed yp 
with the soil, the turnips were best ; and, on the other hand, 
that where the ashes, not being mixed with the soil, came in 
contact with the seed, the turnips did not at all thrive. In 
cleaning the ground preparatory to drilling it, the weeds were 
collected into heaps and burnt on the spot ; and it was observed 
that, on the site of these heaps, the turnips were very nearly as 
good as those on an adjoining piece of ground which had been 
manured solely with dung. 

In order to find out if the kelp ashes would have any effect 
upon an after-crop, the turnips were not consumed upon the 
ground. Last spring the land was merely harrowed and sown 
down with oats and grass-seeds, and the oats, which have been 
lately reaped, were quite as good as those which grew on that 
part of the field manured solely with dung, except that they came 
up thinner. The young clover is, however, thicker, and alto- 
gether looking better than any crop of the same kind I have 
ever seen in this part of the country. 

As the result shewed that the quantity of kelp ashes xised in 
this experiment was far too great, at least for the first crop, and 
as the plants which grew on those portions of the field where the 



ashes of the weeds were scattered were so far superior to the 
rest, the experiment was repeated this year with a mixture of 
kelp and peat ashes. A field of six acres was sown with this 
mixture, distributed in the drills as before, at the rate of six 
bushels of the kelp ashes and twenty-four of the peat ashes to 
the acre ; and although, from various causes, the turnips were 
not sown till the first week in August, they have grown remark- 
ably well, and now, little more than two months from the date 
of sowing, the average weight of them is from 2^ lbs. to 2 4 lbs. 

Supposing kelp to be worth 'il. 10s. per ton, each bushel of 
the kelp ashes would cost about two shillings, and the peat 
ashes, which were in this instance collected from a number of 
poor cottagers in the neighbourhood, who had been directed to 
keep them dry and free of all sort of extraneous matter, cost 
sixpence per bushel, so that, upon the whole, the price ofthe 
manure was twenty-four shillings per acre. The labour of men 
and horses being exactly the same as in sowing bone-dust, it is 
unnecessary to offer any calculation of this part of the expense. 

If this experiment be found to succeed elsewhere, as it has 
done here (and there can be little doubt that, after a little more 
experience, and in abler hands, it will succeed much better), it 
may one day open up an important source of revenue, \i 
not to kelp proprietors, at least to their poor tenantry, no indi- 
vidual of whom uses any sort of fuel but pfat. At first it was 
somewhat ditficult to convince the poor people from whom the 
peat ashes were obtained for the experiment above detailed, that 
they would be really purchased from them, and the consequence 
was, that at first one-half of the quantity which each family 
with a little attention could have supplied was thrown on their 
dunghills, where, though it was eventually of some service, they 
would never think of putting it, if they knew that they could 
convert it into money. A man, however, was paid twcnty.five 
shillings for his winter's ashes, and this year there is little 
doubt that he will, besides enjoying the confort of a better fire 
than he was accustomed to have, earn at least 21. for what, till 
now, he had been in the habit of throwing at the threshold of 
his door, as an invitation to cholera, or some other loathsome 
disease. A. M. 



134 



DESCRIPTION 
MABEKARIA ciliaris. 

Gynandria Monandria. — Linn. 
Orchidese, — Jc ss. 

Herbaceous, either destitute of a stem, or forming a kind of 
tuber above-gi'ouud (pseudobulbus) , by the cohesion of the bases 
of the leaves, or truly caulescent. Roots in the herbaceous 
species fleshy, divided or undivided, or fasciculate ; in the cau- 
lescent species tortuous, green, and proceeding from the stem. 
Leaves simple, quite entire, often articulated with the stem. 
Pubescence rare ; when present, sometimes glandular. Flowers 
in terminal or radical spikes, racemes, or panicles ; sometimes 
solitary. 

A native of North America, in meadows and drained swamps, 
from Canada to Carolina. It is a beautiful plant, difficult of 
cultivation : frequently imported into this country, but it never 
lives long here. It flowers in June, from roots received the 
preceding winter ; they should he potted in loam and vegetable 
earth, and kept in a frame, under glass. 

SC^VOLA MICROCARPA. 

Pentandria Monogynia.- — Linn. 
Goodenovise. — Brown. 

Tube of the calyx adnate or half-adnate, rarely free ; the limb 
5-cleft, or 6 — 3-partite, sometimes entire or obsolete, generally 
equal, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, naore or less irregular, 
deciduous or marcescent ; the tube cleft behind, sometimes cut 
into 5 deep pieces, whilst the calj-x is nearly free ; the limb 
5-parted, 2- or 1 -lipped ; the disk of the segments lanceolate, 
plane ; the sides or wings of a thinner texture, elevated, with 
an indupUcate asstivation, rarely obsolete, or wanting. Stamens 
5, free, alternate with the segments of the corolla; filaments 
distinct ; anthers distinct or cohering, linear, vertical, fixed by 
the base, undivided, 2-celled, the cells opening longitudinally ; 
pollen simple or compound. Ovary 2- or 1- (rarely 4-) celled, 
with indefinite or definite erect ovules ; sometimes with a gland 
between the two anterior filaments ; style 1, simple (rarely 
divided) ; stigma fleshy, obtuse, undivided or 2-lobed, sur- 
rounded by a somewhat membranaceous, cup-shaped, entire or 
2-lobed indmium. Pericarp, when the seeds are indefinite, a 
2- rarely 4 -celled capsule, or in consequence of the abbreviated 
dissepiment almost 1 -celled: dissepiment generally parallel to 
the valves, the axis bearing the seeds ;— when the seeds are defi- 
nite (1 in each cell), a drupe or nut, bearing the seed at the 
base of the cell. 

This is a native of New South Wales : it was first raised by 
Mr. Curtis, in 1793, as he informs us in his Magazine, from 
seeds, which were brought accidentally to England in specimens 
of earth. 

It flowers in summer, continuing long : the plant is perennial, 
of low growth : it must be kept in the greenhouse in winter : 
it is propagated by cuttings, and should be potted ip: sandy-lpam 
and peat. . , ,..,. 

SEMPERVIVUM TABUL^FORME. 

TABLE-SHAPED HOCSE LEEK. 

Dodecandria Dodecagynia. — Linn. 
CrassulaccEe. — De Cand. 
Sepals 3—20, more or less combined. Petals equal to them 
in number, and alternate with them, inserted into the bottom 
of the calyx. Stamens inserted along with the petals, either 
equalling them in number, and then alternate with them, or 
twice as many, those opposite the petals the shortest ; filaments 
distinct, subulate ; anthers oval, 2-celIed, bursting longitudi- 
nally. There is a nectariferous scale at the base of each ovary. 
Ovaries as many as there are petals, and, opposite to them, 
placed in a circle, distinct, l-celled, tapering into the stigmas. 
Carpels several, l-celled, opening longitudinally and internally. 



OF THE PLATES. 

Seeds attached to the margin of the suture, variable in number. 
Albumen thin, fleshy. Embryo straight : radicale turned to- 
wards the hilum. 

A native of Madeira, introduced, according to Mr. Haworth, 
in 1815. It is a curious plant : before flowering it has scarcely 
any stem ; and the leaves, though numerous, are so closely 
pressed together, as to form one compact, quite flat surface. 

When it shoots into flower the leaves decay, as does after- 
wards the whole plant : it can therefore only be increased by 
seed. It must be protected from the frost in a dry greenhouse, 
and potted in sandy loam. 

DIGITALIS CANARIENSIS. 
canary foxglove. 
Didynamia Angiospennia.^LiNN. 
Scrophularineie. — Juss. is 

Calyx divided, persistent. Corolla mouopetalous, hypogj'nous, 
often irregular, with an imbricated estivation, deciduous. Sta- 
mens generally 4, didynamous, rarely equal, sometimes 2. 
Ovary many-seeded, 2-celled : style 1 ; stigma 2-Iobed, rarely 
undivided. Capsule (or very seldom a berry), 2-celled, 2 — 4- 
valved, the valves entire of bifid, with the dissepiment either 
double, from the inflexed margins of the valves ; or simple, 
parallel with the valves and entire ; or opposite to them. Pla- 
centas central, adnate with the dissepiment or separable from 
it. Seeds numerous, albumiuose. Embryo included, straight: 
radicle directed towards the hilum. 

This is a native of the Canary Islands : itwas cultivated in 
this country so long ago as 1698, but is by no means a common 
plant. 

It produces its elegant flowers in June and July ; they are 
sometimes succeeded by rijie seeds : it may also be increased 
sparingly by cuttings. It is necessary to keep it in a green- 
house in winter : it should be potted in light loam. 

ZIGADENUS BRACTEATA. 

Hexandria Trigynia, — Linn. 

Melanthacese. — Brown. 

Perianth free, petaloid, 6-partite, tubular by the union of the 
claws, with the segments in sestivation often involute. Sta- 
mens 6 : anthers often turned outwards. Ovary 3-celled, 
many-seeded : style trifid or tripartite : stigmas undivided. 
Capsule often separable into 3, sometimes with the valves bear- 
ing the dissepiment in the middle. Seeds with a membrana- 
ceous testa, (neither black nor crustaceous). Albumen dense, 
fleshy. 

This is a native of Carolina and Georgia, and was introduced 
in 1802 ; it flowers in September. 

It is nearly hardy, requiring only the shelter of a frame in 
winter. It should be potted in peat earthy and may be increased 
sometimes by separating the roots,. 

CYPRIPEDIUM INSIGNE. 

NOBLE ladies' SLIPPER. 

Gynandria Diandria. — Linn. 
OrchidcEe. — Juss. 
Perianth superior, ungent, of six segments in two rows, the 
three outer usually coloured, of which the odd is uppermost in 
consequence of a twisting of the ovary, and the one called the 
lip (labellum) is undermost ; this latter is frequently lobed, of 
a different form from the others, and very often spurred at the 
base. Stamens three, united in a central column, the two late- 
ral usually abortive, and the central perfect, or the central abor- 
tive and the two lateral perfect, rarely all perfect. Anther either 
persistent or deciduous, two, or four, or eight celled. Pollen 
either powdery or cohering in definite or indefinite waxy masses, 
either constantly adhering to a gland or becoming loose in their 
cells. Ovary one celled, with three parietal placentas; style 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATLS. 



135 



forming part of the column of the stamens. Stigma a viscid 
space in front of the column, communicating directly with the 
ovary by a distinct open canal. Impregnation taking effect by 
absorption from the pollen-masses through the gland into the 
stigmatic canal. Capsule inferior, bursting with three vedves 
and three ribs, very rarely baccate. Seeds parietal, very nu- 
merous ; testa loose, reticulated, contracted at each end, except 
in one or two genera ; albumen, none. Embryo a solid, un- 
divided, fleshy mass. 

This beautiful plant is a native of Nepal. It flowers in De- 
cember and January, ia..Ae stove, which appears to be neces- 
sEiry to preserve it. 

It flourishes in vegetable earth, with a portion of sand, and 
may be increased slowly by separating the roots. There is 
something fascinating about this plant, as well in form as in 
arrangement of its colours ; delightful to every eye, but doubly 
so if we view it as formed by the kindness of God. 

EUONYMUS AMERICANUS. 

EVERGREEN SPINDLE TREE. 

Pentandria Monogynia. — Linn. 
Celastrinese. — Brown. 

Sepals four-five, combined at the base, distinct from the 
ov.iry, with an imbricated sestivafion. Petals four-five, alter- 
nate with the sepals, rarely none. Stamens four-five, alternate 
with the petals, with a doubtfully perigynous insertion ; anthers 
two-celled. Ovary free, surrounded by a somewhat fleshy disk ; 
two, three, four-celled ; cells one or many seeded. Ovules 
erect, rarely pendulous. Style one, or wanting stigma, two- 
four cleft. Pericarp a capsule, berry, durpe or samara, various 
in fonn, often deformed by the suppression of some of the cells. 
Seeds generally, especially in the capsular fruits, asillate. Al- 
bumen none or fleshy. Embryo straight. 

A hardy, almost evergreen shrub, of low bushy growth. It 
has been long cultivated in this country, and is a native of 
North America, where it grows wild in hedges and shady woods, 
among rocks, and on the edge of swamps, from New England to 
Carolina. 

It flowers in June and July. The fruit, as in the other spe- 
cies, is the most ornamental part. It wiU grow in any garden 
soil, and is increased by seeds or layers. 

ERICA VARIA. 

VARIABLE HEATH. 

Octandria Monogynia. — Linn. 
Ericeae. — Lindley. 

Calyx free, in five divisions, with four bracteas at the base. 
Corolla monadelphous, nearly regular, five parted, marcescent. 
Stamens definite hypogynous, alternate with segments of the 
corolla. Anthers collateral, slightly cohering. Ovary one 
celled, with a single erect ovule. Style single. Stigma en- 
closed in a two valved cup. Fruit a membraneous utricle, en- 
closed within the indurated tube of the calyx. Seed solitary, 
erect, without albumen. Embryo with, plano-convex, fleshy 
cottledons, and a minute inferior radicle. 

This was introduced about the year 1810, from the Cape of 
Good Hope, of which it is a native. It is a low, bushy kind, 
flowering at different seasons, but principally in the autumn. 
Like the other kinds, it must be preserved in an airy green- 
house. It will increase by cuttings, and should be potted in 
sandy peat soil. 

RENANTHERA COCCINEA. 

SCARLET FLOWERED RENANTHERA OR AIR-PLANT. 

Gynandria Monandria. — Linn. 
Orchidese. — Juss. 
Stem often eight or ten feet in length, round, leafy, slightly 
branched, the lower part sheathed with the persistent bases of 



the leaves, pushing forth a few long, tortuous roots, by which 
it clings to trees or stones. Leaves fleshy, distichous, vejnless, 
flat, obliquely emarginate at the apex, dark-green, sublucid, 
four-five inches long. Panicles lateral, loose, many-flowered, 
two feet and a half long, with hard round branches. Bracteje 
short, ovate, somewhat shrivelled. Ovarium continuous with 
the short peduncle, pale red, with six furrows. Sepals spread- 
ing, distinct at the base, not imbricated, fleshy, the three upper 
linear, erect, the middle one being larger and spatulate, scarlet, 
banded with yellow cloudy spots ; the two Imoer an inch and 
half in length, longer than the upper, hanging down, collateral, 
unguiculate, lanceolate, obtuse, abruptly undulated in the mid- 
dle, scarlet, with a few obscure paler bands. Labellum dwarf, 
only three inches long, bagged, articulated with the column, 
three-lobed, the lateral lobes erect, truncate, yellow, bordered 
and striped with scarlet, the middle one tongue-shaped, reflexed, 
scarlet, yellow at the base ; saccus conical, obtuse, yellow and' 
smooth inside, scarlet and dotted outside, with the throat cal- 
lous all round. Columna scarlet, half round, the length of the 
labellum apterous, striped with yellow in front, its anterior 
margin incurved over the stigma. Stigma hollowed out, round- 
ish. Anther terminal, opercular, dark scarlet, obtuse, one- 
celled, half two-valved at back. Pollen masses two, reniform, 
two-lobed at back, with a triangular gland, and a diaphanous 
scarcely elastical caudicule, contracted in the middle. 

The cause of previous want of success in inducing this plant 
to flower has resided in its having been cultivated in too dry an 
atmosphere. Mr. Fairbairn, gardener at Claremont, impressed 
with this opinion, tried the effect of tying moss around the stems, 
and keeping it constantly damp, exposed as much as possible to 
the influence of the sun, which was entirely successful. 

To botanists it has been as little known as to the rest of the 
world, almost every systematist having omitted it. And yet 
the language of Laureiro is far from unsatisfactory, allowance 
being made for certain peculiarities of diction. 

A native of the woods of Cochin China, where it climbs over 
trees. Propagated without difficulty by cuttings. When in 
flower, the plant may be safely removed to a dwelling apart- 
ment, where the blossoms, which are very durable, will remain 
in blossom many weeks. 

CROTALARIA VERRUCOSA. 

WARTED CROTALARIA. 

Monadelphia Decandria. — Linn. 

Leguminosffi. — Jess. 

Stem erect, succulent, branched, augular, nearly smooth, 
about two feet high. Leaves simple, ovate, apiculate, smooth, 
with pubescent petioles, either acute or obtuse ; stipules half- 
ovate, lunate, reflexed. Racemes terminal, many-flowered, 
with the rachis, pedicels, and calyces pubescent, usually sterile 
at the top. Bracteae very small, subulate. Corolla blue. Pod 
oblong, inflated, pilose. 

A tender stove annual, native of many parts of the East In- 
dies, and varying extremely in the size and form of its leaves, 
which are sometimes acute, as in the accompanying figure, 
sometimes retuse at the apex, and sometimes even hastate. 

PENTSTEMON DIFFUSUM. 

SPREADING PENTSTEMON. 

Didynamia Angiospermia. — Linn. 
ScrophularineEe. — Juss. 

Root perennial, creeping. Stems decumbent, rooting, branch- 
ed, one and half to two feet high, round, smoothish, purple. 
Leaves evergreen, ovate-oblong, unequally serrated, smooth, 
deep green ; the upper serrated, the lower decurrent on the 
petiole. Peduncles axillary, pubescent, generally shorter than 
the leaves, many-flowered at the apex. Bracteae pubescent. 



136 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



ovate-acuminate, entire. Calyx turbinate, pubescent ; the seg- 
ments spreading, finely lacerated at the edge, aristate at the 
point. Corolla purple, an inch long, smooth ; the upper lip re- 
tuse, the lower trifid, with rounded segments. Fifth filament 
sterile, the length of the tube bearded. Capsule ovate, slightly 
pubescent. 

A beautiful hardy perennial, with evergreen leaves, and de- 
cumbent, rooting stems, by which it is readily increased. Na- 
tive of open grounds and banks of streams in the districts 
around the mouth of the Columbia River, where it was found 
abundantly by Mr. Douglas. 

Grows freely either in common light garden soil or in the 
American borders, in both which situations it flowers in the ut- 
most profusion from June till its growth is arrested by frost. 

SINNINGIA VILLOSA. 

SHAGGY SINNINGIA. 

Didynaraia Angiospermia. — Linn. 

Gesnerese. — Juss. 

Stem round, thick, fleshy, simple, two feet high, pale green, 
villous. Leaves on long petioles, oblong-lanceolate, crenate, 
convex, villous, appearing as if strigose, pale green. Flowers 
aggregate in the axillae of the leaves, than which they are much 
shorter, on short peduncles. Calyx obovate, villous, the length 
of the winged ovarium much shorter than the corolla. Corolla 
externally villous, pale green, not dotted, about two inches 
long. 

This is a fine stove plant, floAvering abundantly during all the 
summer, and growing freely in peat and loam. It requires a 
high temperature, and much atmospheric moisture, to succeed 
perfectly. 

A native of Brazil, whence roots were sent in 1S26 to the 
Horticultural Society by Henry Chamberlayne, esq. It is in- 
creased with much difficulty by cuttings or by leaves. 

PRUNUS CANDICANS. 

SNOWY PL0M. 

IcosanJria Monogynia. — Linn. 

Amygdalaceffi. — D. C. 

Leaves soft, oblong, simply serrated beneath, and on the 
petioles, which are pale, pubescent. Flowers white, very nume- 
rous, heaped in many, flowered fascicles, so as to cover the 
bearing branches. Pedicels and calyces pubescent ; tube of the 
calyx short, spreading, segments ovate, downy inside. Petals 
oblong, unguiculate. Fruit unknown. 

A fine hardy shrub, apparently not exceeding five or six feet 
in height. Its native country is unknown. It was first pub. 
lishcd by Mr. Balbis, in his Catalogue of the Turin Garden, in 
1S13 ; and in the same year its name appears in Schlechtendal's 
Supplement to Willdenow's Enumeration of the Berlin Garden. 
We believe that the date of its introduction to this country is 
1825, in which year plants were received from Messrs. Bau- 
manns, nurserymen at BoUwiller, in Germany, by the Horticul- 
tural Society. 

This plant is quite hardy, easily cultivated, and in the spring 
is so laden with white blossoms as to seem a mass of snow 
amidst the green leaves and rosy flowers of the season. From 
this circumstance its name has undoubtedly been taken, and not 
from any peculiar whiteness of its leaves, as Mr. Seringe ap- 
pears to suppose ; the under side of the leaves is not, indeed, 
unusually white. 

CASTILLEJA COCCINEA. 

VERMILION-LEAVED CASTILLEJA. 

Didynamia Angiospermia. — Linn. 
ScrophularineBe. — Juss. 
Stem annual, decumbent, striated, covered with long hairs. 



Leaves oblong, trifid at the end, or entire, covered with long 
hairs, with three nerves ; the lowest often entire. Bractese ob- 
long, pinnatifid, scarlet, yellow, or white. Calyx tubular, with 
a dilated limb and retuse segments. Corolla green, pubescent ; 
its tube shorter than the calyx. Capsule roundish, oblong. 
Seeds cuneate, reticulated. 

A pretty hardy annual, native of gravelly soils in various 
parts of North America. It is very abundant in upland mea- 
dows about the river Columbia, where it was found by Mr. 
Douglas. Seeds were sent by him to the Horticultural Society 
in 1826, and plants produced by them flower in the open border. 

Increased by seeds, which are produced in small quantities. 
Should be grown in gravel or peat, and sand, and not in loamy 
soil. 

The plant as represented in the accompanying plate varies 
materially from its wild state, in having its lower leaves entire 
and not trifid ; but in other respects it agrees with the spon- 
taneous specimens. The vermilion colouring of the bractese is 
very beautiful ; sometimes it varies to a lively yellow, and even 
to white. 

PENTSTEMON PULCHELLUM. • 

PRETTY PENTSTEMON. 

Didynamia Angiospermia. — Linn. 
ScrophularincEe. — Juss. 

Stem erect, branched, a foot and half high, slightly pubes- 
cent. Leaves linear-oblong, serrulate, smooth, the uppermost 
sessile, and somewhat amplexicaul. Panicles terminal, simple, 
rather one-sided, with two-flowered peduncles, longer than the 
bractese. Sepals pubescent, somewhat glandtdar. Corolla 
violet or lilac, pubescent, without glands, ventricose, with white 
veins ; segments nearly equal ; palate spotted, villous. Sta- 
mens smooth, the uppermost the length of the tube, and some- 
what exserted ; sterile filament the same length as these, 
bearded at the end. 

A handsome, half-hardy perennial, a native of Mexico, whence 
seeds were brought in 1826 to Mr. Tate, of Chelsea. It thrives 
exceedingly well if planted in a warm border exposed to the 
south. 

This species is very near pentstemon, campanulatum, from 
which it dilfers principally in its corolla being paler, more in- 
flated, and destitute of glands, which abound on the corolla of 
penstemon campanulatum. The leaves of this plant are also 
less finely toothed, not so acuminate, and of a more oblong 
figure. 

LUPINUS LAXIFLORUS. 

LOOSE-FLOWERED LUPINE. 

Monadelphia Decandria. — Linn. 
Leguminosse. — Juss. 

Stems tufted, slender, pilose, purplish, I-l|^ foot long. Cau- 
line leaves densely pilose ; stipulse subulate, very small ; leaflets 
7-9, linear-lanceolate. Racemes lax, stalked; bractese subu- 
late, the length of the pedicels, deciduous, very pilose. Calyxes 
somewhat alternate, densely pilose, without bracteolse ; the up- 
per lip short, ovate, entire, with a sort of bag at its base ; the 
lower ovate, acuminate. Vexillum blue, obcordate, with the 
keel, which is beardless, and the wings pale rose-colour. 

A small, slender, perennial species, found by Mr. Douglas in 
dry, open, gravelly plains, about the great rapids of the River 
Columbia, where it is very common, forming patches of con- 
siderable extent, occasionally acquiring a sufi'ruticose habit. 

The flowers are blue, mixed with pink, and, although not 
equal in appearance to some of the larger species, extremely 
beautiful : they appear in August and September. 

Grows readily in common garden soil : it has not yet pro- 
duced seeds, but will increase by division of the root. 



I 




i 




47 



IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE. PARMESAN CHEESE. 



137 



THE IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE. 



Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, was one of the most 
enlightened improvers of the internal state of a country, that 
ever existed. In that important hranch of policy, he principally 
followed the advice of the celebrated Hertzherg, from whose 
Jnemoirs the following particulars are extracted : — 

" The prosperity, the happiness, and the resources of a great 
nation, consist indispensably in the multiplicity, the quantity, 
and the good quality of those means by which such nation 
can procure, in the first instance, the necessaries, and after- 
wards, the conveniences of life. 

" As corn and all liinds of grain furnish certain food and sub- 
. sistence to numerous inhabitants (fisheries only supplying small 
districts), AffricuUui'e is incontestibly the source and positive 
basis of subsistence for a great and populous country ; since it 
furnishes grain of every kind for the support of man and beast, 
as well as wine, beer, oil, timber, 6cc. 

" Agriculture also furnishes flax, hemp, wool, silk, and every 
thing necessary for the raiment and other comforts of life ; and 
all the principal ingredients for manufacture, navigation, and 
commerce. By these means, and the barter of its surplus, 
it acquires gold and silver ; which last, though without intrinsic 
value, have been received amongst all civilised nations, as the 
sign and representation of wealth. 

" Agriculture not onlymaintains the labourer and the husband- 
man, but likewise every other class of individuals, not engaged 
therein, but employed in any other calling or profession whether 
civil or military. 

*' Agriculture is then tlie grand staple and basis of pros- 
perity in all states ; and this principle has prevailed to such a 
degree for some time in France, that a set of ingenious agricul- 
turists, to whom the lofty title of economists or physiocrates, 
has been given, more conversant, perhaps, in theory than in 
practice, have made every effort in their power to ol)tain for 
agriculture, the chief and sole favour of government, p.irticu- 
larly by a free exportation of corn, yet laying on agriculture, 
almost exclusively the burthen of taxes. The impropriety of this 
principle was soon discovered on more mature I'eilection ; for a 
wise government, though it gives equal attention to nafionul 
indiistn/, will not exempt it generally from national burthens. 
This is doubtless the second basis of the prosperity of states, 
since it gives the utmost value to the natural productions of a 
country, as well as the labour and ingenuity of individuals, with 
a considerable greater profit to those thus employed, than what 
is got by labourers who till the land. It is such labour, as 
Smith has admirably proved, which constitutes the true crite- 
rion, and univeral estimation, of all merchandize and riches ; 
and money is only the token ; for all productions, artificial and 
natural, are the result of the labour of individuals, to support 
themselves, and dispose of their surplus. The result of whicli 
is, that the labour of individuals and national industry, which 
form the second basis of national prosperity, may, on certain 
occasions, supply the place of agriculture. Thus, the French, 
with an inconsiderable portion of agriculture, have, for above a 
century, rendered all the nations of Europe tributary to their 
ingenuity, invention, and labour, in mechanic arts. Have not 
the Dutch with a miserable barren soil, yielding a small portion 
of what is wanting for themselves, carried on an universal trade 
and navigation throughout Europe, and availing themselves of 
the indolence of their neighbours, furnished them with their 
wants, even such as the Dutch themselves did not possess.' 
Have not the Spaniards, with all their silver, been at times in 
want of bread ? Thus, Poland, a fruitful country, abounding in 
corn, the result of agriculture, for want of national industry, 
is bereft of many other conveniences of life. All these pre- 
mises leave not the least doubt on the general principle, that 
the primary basis, and prosperity of a state, and its most cer- 
tain riches, consist in a well directed agriculture, and abun- 
dance of natural productions ; and the second basis depends 
upon national industry, giving by labour a value to natural 
MAG.IZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO. XIX. 



productions, and, by ingenuity and application, a still greater 
value to manual arts and manufactures. 

" Impressed with suet, ideas as these, the sovereigns of 
Prussia granted large sums for the cultivation of wastes, drain- 
ing of bogs, the embanking of rivers, and other objects of in- 
ternal improvement. Frederick the Great, in particular, dis- 
tinguished himself in this way. He also rendered important 
service to agriculture, by authorizing and encouraging tlie abo- 
lition of commons, and separating arable laud from pasturage, 
by which an individual proprietor may reap much greater ad- 
vantage, than if he held such right in common with others." 

We propose following up these views of the importance of 
agriculture, by giving in a series of papers an account of the 
various branches of husbandry pursued in Great Britain and 
Ireland, with such suggestions as may arise as to the capability 
of farther improvements which the United Kingdoms present. 

PARMESAN CHEESE. 



The following account of the method of preparing cheese in 
the Lodecan, commonly called Parmesan cheese, is taken from 
the Journal de Physique. 

Tlie size of these cheeses varies from sixty to one hundred 
and eighty pounds, depending considerably on the number of 
cows of each dairy. During the heat of summer, cheese is 
made every day, but in cooler months mUk will keep longer, 
and cheese is made every other day. The summer cheese, which, 
is the best, is made of the evening milk, after having been 
skimmed in the morning and at noon ; mixed with the morning 
milk after having been skimmed at noon. Both kinds of milk 
are poured together into a copper caldron, capable of holding 
about 130 gallons, of the shape of an inverted bell, and sus- 
pended on the arm of a lever,' so as to be moved olf and on the 
fire at pleasure. In this caldron, the milk is gradually heated 
to the temperature of about 120 degrees; it is now removed 
from the fire, and kept quiet for five or six minutes. When all 
internal motion has ceased, the rennet is added. This substance 
is composed of the stomach of a calf, fermented together with 
wheaten meal and salt ; and the method of using it is, to tie a 
piece of the size of a hazel nut, in a rag, and steep it in the 
milk, squeezing it from time to time. After a short space, a 
sufficient quantity of rennet passes through the rag into the 
milk, which is now to be well stirred, and afterwards left at 
rest to coagulate. 

In about an hour the coagulation is complete ; and then the 
milli is again put over the fire, and raised to a temperature of 
about 145 degrees. During all this time it is heating, tile mass 
is briskly agitated, till the curd separates in small lumps ; part 
of the whey is then taken out, and a few pinches of saffron are 
added to the remainder, in order to colour it. When the curd is 
thus broken sufficiently small, nearly the whole of the whey is 
taken out, and two pails fall of cold water are poured in. The 
temperature is thus lowered so as to enable the dairy-man to 
collect the curd, by passing a cloth beneath it, and gathering 
it up at the corners. The curd is now pressed into a frame of 
wood, like a bushel without a bottom, placed on a solid table, 
and covered by a round piece of wood with a great stone at 
the top. In the course of the night it cools, assumes a firm 
consistence, and parts with the whey ; the next day one side is 
rubbed with salt, and the succeeding day the cheese is turned, 
and the other side is rubbed in the same manner. This alter- 
nate salting on each side is practised for about forty days. 
After this period the outer crust of the cheese is pared off ; the 
fresh surface is varnished with linseed oil : the convex side is 
coloured red, and the cheese is fit for sale. 



-OCTOBER, 1834, 



138 



STACKING HAT, HAY TEA. EXPERIMENTS, &C. ON BREAD AND FLOUR. 



OF STACKING HAY. 



The mode in whicli hay is stacked in the vicinity of London 
deserves to be more generally known than it is, and particu- 
larly, should the enterprising agriculturists in the north attend 
to it, where the hay is by no means so carefully or judiciously 
manao-ed. In the neighhourhood of London, the crop is cut 
when very green, before the blade is hardened, or the sap nearly 
exhausted ; thus, in the first place, saving the land from farther 
exhaustion, and increasing the value of the produce. As soon 
as cut, it is put into small cocks, and stacked with due speed." 
But it is the manner in which the hay is stacked we at pre- 
sent particularly refer to. Two large posts are perpendicularly 
erected at a distance from each other, equal to the length of 
the intended stack ; a cross beam is laid, stretching from one 
post to the other, upon which a large piece of canvass is hung, 
intended as a covering to the stack during the time of building; 
and the hay is brought in small quantities, according to the 
state of the weather, or the degree of drying it has received. 
By this means whenever any portion is got into condition for 
keeping, it is instantly secured, whilst the stack is kept from 
injury by the sort of umbrella that covers it. Thus also is the 
■whole mass allowed to settle 'down gradually, which tends to 
keep it from over-sweating, a thing highly injurious to natural 
grasses. In such a variable climate as that of this island, this 
method of preparing and preserving hay should be extensively 
practised. 



OF HAY TEA. 



When speaking of hay, it may not be out of place to give a 
receipt for the making of hay tea, which is a good and cheap 
substitute for milk to feed calves, as has been found in the 
north of England. Take a large handful, or about one pound 
of red clover hay, w'ell got in and preserved, and boil it in six 
quarts of clear spring water, until it is reduced to four quarts. 
Then take out the hay, and mix one pound of barley, oat, or 
bean meal amongst a little water ; put this into the pot whilst 
it is boiling ; keep the whole continually stirring until it is 
boiled and thickened. Let it cool to be lukewarm, then give 
it to the calves, adding as much whey as will make a' sufficient 
meal. 

EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON FLOUR 

AND BREAD. 



The following judicious experiments and observations on flour 
and bread were delivered by Dr. Iriving to the Committee of 
the House of Commons, appointed in 1774 to consider of the 
methods practised in making flour from wheat, &c., which we 
think are worthy of being known at any time. 

" To grind wheat into flour with the greatest advantage, the 
millstone should make about sixty revolutions in a minute ; if 
faster, the stones acquire too mucli heat, and give a burnt taste 
to the meal ; if slower, a part of it adheres firmly to the bran 
or husk, and cannot he separated in the bolting. 

" Floui', when kept some time, evaporates a part of its 
moisture, becomes less adhesive and clammy, loses somewhat 
of its agreeable taste, and imbibes a greater portion of water in 
the making of it into dough : the bread of it appears smoother 
in the cutting, whiter in the grain, dries sooner, and becomes 
more crumbly, than the bread of new flour. These reasons in- 
duce the baker to prefer old flour to new in the making of 
bread. 

" The yeast of porter does not raise bread so perfectly as that 
produced from small beer ; besides, it is bitter to the taste ; 
the baker, therefore, in London, instead of using a sufficient 
quantity of yeast for the leavening of his bread, mixes only a 
small portion of it with flour and water, made to the consistence 



of a syrup, called spunge, which, when fermented, is added to 
the flour ; and, being worked up together into dough, the whole 
mass is siiflfered to ferment. 

" Tliis method, however, of leavening the dough, is by no 
means so good as that in which yeast only is used ; as it gives 
the bread a sour taste, frequently perceptible in that of London. 
I find by experiment, three pounds and a half of flour, kept a 
year in a dry place, requires two pounds of water to make it 
into dough, and loses in the baking into bread, ten ounces ; 
but from the variable age, dryness and quality of the flour, with 
the indeterminate degrees of kueading and baking, it is impos- 
sible to ascertain the exact proportion of water in all cases; 
nor is any uniform proportion ever observed by the bakers. 

*' Flour made from heated or damaged corn does not tho- 
roughly mix with water, so as to form a perfect dongh, unless 
a small portion of alum be added. In this case, the baker is 
induced to use it ; as he may be likewise, when the water with 
which he makes the dough is very muddy : alum having the 
property of purifying it. I find, however, by the experiment 
of dissolving the salt from bread by water, and adding to the so- 
lution an alcali (Avhich would discover the earth of alum by pre- 
cipitation) that the bakers in London very seldom use alum, but 
substitute hard pump water, with an extraordinary quantity of 
common salt ; which, in some measure, answ^ers their purpose 
in the working of damaged flour. 

" Flour or bread, freed of its salt, being burnt in a crucible, 
leaves behind only a very small portion of earth ; but if ^chalk, 
lime, whitening, bone ash, or any calcareous substance, be mixed 
with either, these foreign ingredients will remain unconsuraed in 
the crucible, and the quantity may be perfectly ascertained. 

" The mixture of these ingredients with flour or bread may 
also be discovered, by adding spirit of salt well diluted with 
water ; and their quantity known by precipitation with a fixed 
alcali. The following experiments were made with a view of 
ascertaining these facts. 

" FirsL One pound of fine flour, burnt in a crucible, left be- 
hind twenty-eight grains of earth; of which nineteen were 
sandy matter ; the remainder soluble in an acid. 

" Secondhj. One pound of bread of a quartern loaf, freed of 
its salt by water, and treated in the same manner, gave forty- 
three grains, of which twenty-nine were sandy matter ; the 
rest soluble by an acid. 

" ThirdJij. One pound of bread added to spirit of salt, suf- 
ficiently diluted with distilled water, gave scarce any precipi- 
tation of earth by adding a fixed alcali. 

" From these and other chemical trials, several times re- 
peated with flour and bread procured in many parts of London 
and Westminster, the result was nearly the same, except that 
coarse flour and bread contained a few grains more of earthy 
matter. It evidently appears, therefore, that no frauds were 
practised in the above samples. 

" The defects of the London bread seem to be owing to the 
following causes: — 1st. The use of old flour, in preference to 
new, which gives the bread a less savoury taste. 2nd. The em- 
ploying s^j»»(/e, instead of yeast; which generally gives a sour, 
unpalatable taste to the bread; and, .'Srd. Not kneading it suf- 
ficiently, but, in place of that labour, using too great a quan- 
tity of water, which makes the bread heavy and unpleasant." 

THE AGRICULTURE OF ABERDEENSHIRE. 



We propose to give a series of papers on the various branches 
of rural economy ; and for this purpose shall fix upon some 
particular county in the United Kingdoms, as the text for 
particular subjects. In a former number the Dairy Husbandry 
of Ayrshii'e and the western counties of Scotland have been 
shortly described; we now proceed to the prominent feature 
in the agriculture of Aderdeenshiie, availing ourselves of the 



THE AGRICULTURE OF ABERDEENSHIHB. 



139 



cscellent report, of tliat county, drawn up by Dr. Skene 
Keith. Gardeners, cottagers, possessing small allotments of 
land, and farmers of all descriptions, cannot but be struck 
and benefited by the reverend gentleman's information, 
which we now abridge. 

Necessity first drove the proprietors and small farmers of 
Aberdeenshire to cultivate their lands in a manner to afford a 
lesson to many others, viz.. by a mixture of the plough and 
spade husbandry. From the peculiar situation of the cities 
of New and Old Aberdeen, on a small neck of land between 
the rivers Dee and Don, near their entrance into the sea, it 
became necessary to cultivate all the ground in their neigh- 
bonihood. Grass for the cow-feeders, garden-roots, and other 
articles of provision, which could not be brought from the 
neighbouring territory, were much wanted. As the popula- 
tion amounted to many thousands, and was rapidly advancing, 
the matter became more urgent. To improve the old lands, 
therefore, and to trench with the spade and mattock a consi- 
derable quantity of very rough soil, extending about three 
miles from Aberdeen, were the steps taken to accomplish the 
necessary object. In t!ie course of forty years, at least three 
thousand acres in that vicinity were brought into cultivation. 
The ground had been either covered with heath and fi 1 led with 
stones almost to the surface, or interspersed with patches of 
grass and large masses of granite lymg above ground. Tlie 
expense of bringing into a good state such land was immense, 
and probably never incurred in any other part of the island 
to the same extent and in similar circumstances; nor could 
it have been borne if the first crop had not produced from 
30/. to 50/. per acre; this crop was granite stoues, which was 
sold for paving the streets of London, 

After all, the ground thus gained to the community would 
not have recompensed the cultivator if a mixture of the 
spade and plough husbandry had not been introduced. It 
■would have yielded too little if tilled only by tlie plough, 
and the outlay would have been too great if the soil had 
been constantly digged by the spade. A medium process 
therefore w.as adopted, which answered admirably ; and which 
in the neighbourhood of all large towns should be adopted, 
unless the nature of the ground forbid it. Gardeners and 
cow -feeders, who pay lugh rents, are by this means enabled to 
raise two crops in one year, or three crops in two years. Tlieir 
rotations of cropping are very quick ; yet one year of clover 
cut for soiling, or made into hay, and the pasturing of this 
grass next year till after midsummer, and their breaking it up 
for turnips, keeps the thin land near Aberdeen in good con- 
dition, and tends to give more tenacity to the soil, which is 
naturally light and of a loose texture. 

Trenching is practiced in barren land, which abounds in 
stones of different dimensions, used for this purpose, it is the 
most complete method of rendering such land arable. In tliis 
case the surface is cut into square or oblong pieces, and thrown 
in the bottom of the trench, excepting when forming the first 
trench, which of necessity is thrown on the barren or unbroken 
laud. Tlie labourer cuts off a breadth generally of Ihi-ee feet, 
and throws out both soil and subsoil to the depth of about 
fifteen inches, and as long as he finds it expedient. He throws 
all the stones on the surface, and generally requires two 
spadiags and two shovcKnijs, to fill up his trench. The first 
spading is about eight inches deep, if he be able to pierce so 
far into the ground — this is thrown into the open trench; 
then with a shovel he throws the loosened earth, left by the 
sjiade, above the spading; after which he digs a second time, 
and what is now raised is laid also above what was formerly 
dug, using the shovel to level the bottom ; and thus, if the 
new trench be deep enough, he is prepared to shape off ano- 
ther course, to be dug and thrown in the same manner. 

But it often happens that the spade cannot pierce stony 
ground. In this case a kind of mattock, provincially termed 
a pick, is applied, and this till the requisite depth be gained. 
"Where the mattock is too weak to lift the stones levers are 



used ; and if these be insufficient, they are blown by gun- 
powder. 

Wlien the ground is wet. the labourer shews particular 
accuracy and dexterity in laying the bottom of the trench. 
The grassy surface is most carefully laid on its back, and 
every sod compactly joined together, that the water may form 
a new pan or channel between the soil and subsoil. The bot- 
tom of the trench is cleared of all loose earth and formed into 
a slope, with a small descent if possible for the water, Ijefore 
the surface is inverted or compactly laid. It is the care used 
in scouring the bottom of the trench, laying the inverted sur- 
face, and properly joining the sods, that renders the trenching 
so useful in wet lands. 

If draining be necessary as well as trenching, the drains are 
cut as much deeper than the bottom of the trench, as that the 
whole water contained in the drain shall be below the level of 
the bottom of the trench. Only a small part of the bottom of 
the trench is made to slope gently into the drain, that no 
water may remain among the grassy sods. 

When the object is merely to deepen the soil, the ground In 
the subsoil is cliietly loosened by the mattock. But in this case 
it is necessary that the bottom of the trench be completely 
picked up, and that no interstices of hard subsoil be left between 
the trenches. The labourer must also cka« the teeth of the trench, 
so as to prevent any space being left unloosened by the spade; 
otherwise the breaking of the plough, that comes in contact 
with the ridge that was improperly left, is not the only evil 
attendant on what uuskilfulness or dishonesty left unloosened. 
It often happens that the soil and subsoil are of different 
qualities ; trenching mixes them, and produces a better soil 
than either. The surface no doubt is turned into the bottom; 
but by using the shovel twice, the two are considerably mixed; 
whilst in the course of two ploughings the thing desired is 
completed. Trenching is also practised with great success 
when the subsoil is tilly and very tenacious. When the moory 
soil is thrown into the subsoil of a trench, and a mixture of 
moor with the till in the bottom is laid on the top, the super- 
abundant moisture is carried off, and the land becomes very 
productive. 

• Cropped land, especially when injured by getting too much 
lime, is completely renovated by trenching; and either dung 
or lime can be applied to the greatest advantage. Where 
additional depth can be obtained by the plough, as in deep 
soils, trenching is not necessary, even after once cropping. 
But where the soil is different, and when by piercing the pan. 
new soil is brought up, dung and lime are always applied with 
success. Trenching, to mention one other benefit resulting 
from it, is of the utmost service in foul land, or when either 
stronger or cleaner soil can be brought to the surface. This 
can always be done with the spade when the common plough 
would be useless, and when the trench-plough could act very 
imperfectly. 

Such is the manner in which the effective process of trench- 
ing has been carried on in Aberdeenshire, to the vast improve- 
ment of the county, within these last seventy years ; furnish- 
ing a highly important lesson to all who would improve or 
renovate their lands. 

ON THE FOOD, FIRING, CLOTHING, 

DWELLINGS, GARDENS, AND COTTAGE FARMS 
OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. 

In our last number we gave the plans and the description of 
several cottages, well worthy the attention of all who would 
delight to see the condition of the labouring classes bettered. 
The neatness, convenience, comfort, and cheapness of these 
little dwellings must strike the mind of every one who glances 
at them for the shortest period. Every thing tending to the 
welfare of this interesting and most necessary portion of the 
community has at all times been an important consideration in 
the eyes of philanthropists ; but never certainly has the public 



140 



THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. 



jnind been so completely and earnestly engrossed with the sub- 
ject as of late. The depressed state of the country, the scarcity 
of employment, or the inadequacy of wages, are not the only 
causes for this extraordinary degree of general excitement. 
The Poor's Law Bill has brought the most momentous matters 
connected with the lower orders to be discussed, whilst the 
marvellous revolutions that have occurred, or are taking place, 
in every department of social life and sentiments, unite to lend 
to whatever concerns their dearest interests on earth an im- 
mense value and weight. 

The matters named at the head of this paper embrace 
every thing, excepting education or morals, that is necessary 
to human happiness, so far as its blessings are to he com- 
manded in this world. In the careful, earnest, and benevolent 
discussion which we now enter upon concerning the domestic 
economy of the labouring classes, we shall be led to point out 
the various states and fashions of those things particularly 
named, as they are to be found in different parts of the empire, 
and sometimes as they are to be seen in other countries. For 
we have long lamented, that out of the thorisands of British 
travellers that have treated the public with what they have dis- 
covered in other regions, not one of them ever seems to have 
thought it worth his while to devote his time and his talents 
to the observation of the domestic economy of the most useful 
orders that is to be found in any community. What a field for 
investigation ; and how plentiful harvest would of knowledge, the 
real, active, practical, and living knowledge, be ! This discus- 
sion will naturally enable us or others to suggest further im- 
provements from the lights v.-e fall in with. The public at large 
have no conception how little one portion of our countrymen 
know of the plainest and most necessary domestic operations of 
another. Were there nothing more done by us in this attempt 
than to shew the people in the north what is an every day iJiing 
in the south, or, rather, were the inhabitants of the south to be 
told what is constantly practised in the north, we venture to 
predict that an amount of real benefit would instantly result 
from this reciprocity of information that would far outweigh 
the good which any one direct act of legislation has for a long 
time accomplished. For it would lead the people themselves to 
work out their own well-being, in which vohmtary endeavours, 
the blessings conveyed in the thing obtained are not probably 
so great as the habits which accompany the cheerfulness and 
alacrity of the performances. Much railing has been afloat regard- 
ing the English poor laws. Our taste and present object lay not 
in this way ; for we are sure, that were the lower orders them- 
selves earnestly to set about their own regeneration, the con- 
sequences would bt much more delightful than those that can 
possibly arise from stern legislation. Did they themselves 
know the best practical modes of reducing their expenees, with- 
out diminishing their comforts ; did they know the way by 
■which to prepare cheap and pleasant substitutes for those articles 
■which in times of scarcity and distress exhaust so much of their 
daily earnings, doubtless advantage would be taken to a'remarka- 
ble extent of such information. There are many mechanical con- 
trivances which may with little expence be applied to render 
the cottager's habitation much more comfortable than gene- 
rally is to be found. 

The labourer has many difficulties to struggle against. His 
"wages are often too small, and he is as often obliged to pur- 
chase the articles he must have in such petty portions as to be 
at a great disadvantage compared with more opulent persons. 
But above and beyond all this, ignorance, custom, or prejudice 
lead him to adhere to improvident systems of dress, diet, and 
other branches of private expenditure, which are much more 
generally disastrous than any other cause cxternid to himself. 
To convince an employer that he gives inadequate wages is not 
an easy task ; but to make the wages received go a great deal 
farther than they generally are allowed to go, depends on a few 
simple arrangements at home. Alas ! how many instances 
there are where no eccnomy can shield the virtuous poor. Still 
there are as many in the deepest wretchedness of penury from 



wasteful habits; and did our earnestness affect only this por- 
tion, the result would be glorious. It has been an assertained 
fact, that the greatest portion of inmates in the poor houses, 
have been persons in the receipt of the best wages. We by no 
means wish to enforce a cold-hearted doctrine, however, but 
one tender, beneficient, and encouraging. It is this, that the 
labourer's income may be spent in a far more advantageous 
manner to himself than it usually is ; and with equal profit, 
too, to those who subsist by the demand for consumable com- 
modities ; for a decrease in the demand for such would be a 
blow to the national good ; a thirst for superfluities is even of 
great public benefit. But we are anxious that the labourer 
should know what is the surest method of commanding such 
commodities, nay, such superfluities, in health, sickness, and 
old age. The humble labourer, still more the pauper, is an 
object of the deepest concern to every well-regulated mind. He 
who has been reduced by unavoidable misfortune should claim 
equal observance in the eye of a brother with him who has 
raised himself by extraordinary efl'orts from humility to dig- 
nity, we mean, as an object of wonder ; whilst, as an object of 
sympathy, it argues sorely against human nature that the con- 
templator does not make himself great, through the oppor- 
tunity ofl'ered for elevating his depressed brother. But what 
shall we say to the improvident poor, to the wretched profli- 
gate ? This is the class that above all others claims a nation's 
heart. What is the woful state even of him who has been re- 
duced by misfortunes, against which he was unable to stand, 
compared to that one who has with a suicidal hand destroyed 
his own earthly welfare ? that one who is wretched here, and 
whose prospects hereafter oft'er no alleviation or recompense ? 
It should be a nation's pride and labour, it should be the 
leading object in every man's eye, to reclaim, regenerate, and 
save this array of mankind. Pity it is that any should never, 
either in time or throughout eternity, have tasted pleasure or 
comfort 1 Be it our endeavour therefore on this occasion to 
hold up in a plain and tangible shape some good things within 
the reach of very many such of our most destitute and degraded 
brethren. Numbers are so besotted and wedded to vice or 
prejudices, that they turn from the benefits ofl'ered. But let 
us implore for those the attention at least of their employers ; 
the persevering and generous good oflices of every sound-think- 
ing man. We think the contents of the following pages may 
in some degree tend to direct a philanthrophic enquirer in this 
matter : — 

Diet leads us at once to make a remarkable comparison to 
the habits of the labouring classes of these islands. There is 
not only a great difference in the proportion of earnings appro- 
priated to the pru'chase of subsistence by labourers in the 
north and south of Great Britain, hut in the mode of preparing 
it ; the dissimilarity is matter of wonder to us. In the south 
of Kngland the poorest labourers are habituated to the unvary- 
ing meal of dry bread and cheese from weeks' end to weeks' 
end ; and in those families, whose finances do not allow them in- 
dulgence of malt liquor, the deleterious produce of China consti- 
tute s their v.snal beverage. \ If a labourer is rich enough to afford 
himself meat once a week, he commonly adopts the simplest of 
all culinary preparations, that of roasting it ; or, if he lives 
near a baker's, of baking it ; and if he boils his meat, he never 
thinks of forming it into soup, that is not only as nutritive, 
but certainly more palatable than a plain boiled joint. 

In the north, on the contrary, the poorest labourers regale 
themselves v«ith a variety of dishes, wholly unknown in the 
south, and at a cheaper and more wholesome rate. M'e shall 
give an intelligible description of the processes there followed 
out in their culinary duties. The luisly pvddmg is one of the 
simplest articles. This is what Burns calls " the healsome 
porritch, chief of Scotia's food." It is made of oatmeal, water 
or whey, and salt in the follow-ing manner : To a quart of 
water, whilst it is boiling in an open pot, a small quantity of 
salt is added, and of oat-raeal, about 13 ounces are dropped into 
it by little and little whilst boiling, and kept stirring by a stick, 



THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. 



141 



called a spurde. The wliole is boiled for several minutes till it 
becomes of a proper consistence. This quantity is sufficient for 
a meal for two labourers, and it is eaten with milk, bvitter, 
beer, or treacle ; the best liquid, however, is butter or churned 
milk, which, as prepared in Scotland, is delicious. See a paper 
in our last number on the Ayreshire Dairy System. This is an 
extremely nutritious dish, and highly relished by those who 
have become accustomed to it. A good meal for one person, 
supposing the price of oats to be twenty shillings per quarter, 
w'ill not exceed a penny. But a little bread and cheese gene- 
rally follows the mess. 

Croicdiff or brose is a dish the most easily made ready, though 
not so common as the former. The process is simply pouring 
boiling water over dry oatmeal, and stirring it a little ; milk or 
butter is then added, and the matter is complete. Fuf brose is 
a luxury ; this consists of boiling broth being poured on oat- 
meal, instead of water, and the meat from the broth is eaten 
along with it. When they boil corned beef, which is generally 
done on Sunday, this supplies enviable stores of savoux'y skim- 
mings for crowdics. This last dish is most in use in the north 
of England. 

Frumenti/ or barleij-milk, is barley boiled for abaut two hours 
in water. Milk is then added, and sometimes a little sugar. 
But for hot weather, here comes the lightest and most cooling 
food in the world perhaps ; it is called soicens, a kind of flum- 
mery. It is thus made : When the oats are ground at the 
mill, the husks or seeds as they are named, gathered in sifting 
the meal, are as occasion rcquix-es put into water, where they 
remain for about two days ; they are then wrung or strained 
out again; and this process is repeated a second and third 
time in different vessels of water. By this process all the 
small mealy particles that were attached to the seeds are ex- 
tracted. The waters are then mixed together, and when the 
whole has stood about six hours, the clear water is poured oif, 
and fresh water is added. When the sediment which is thus 
obtained is to be used, it must be stirred up, and water put to 
it till it will just tiuc'e a wooden dish with a whitish colour. It 
is then put into a pot and boiled for nearly an hour, care being 
taken to stir it all the time ; and it is said that the mess must 
always be stirred one way. When poured into basons, it soon 
acquires a considerable degree of solidity, and becomes, if suf- 
ficiently boiled, perfectly smooth, like what is blanc-mange. It 
is eaten with milk ; it has a deliciously simple taste, conveying 
the idea of the utmost purity. But though cheap, it is by no 
means a very nutritive dish. It suits admirably for supper, for 
which in warm weather it is generally used, being, if allowed 
to stand to cool in the coolest part of the house, as gratifying 
as iced cream. 

Potatoes every where now is an indispensable article of food. 
But in the north ihcy are cooked in several ways unknown in 
the south. We go on to mention one or two of these pro- 
cesses. A principal dish is of potatoes peeled or scraped when 
raw, chopped and hoUed along with a small quantity of meat 
cut into very little pieces, or of bones that have been pretty 
well bared; pepper, salt, onions, &c. are added. This is a 
cheap and nutritive article, as the Johscouse of sailors may inti- 
mate to many persons who have never visited the north of 
Great Britain. In Scotland there is, during winter, very com- 
monly a mess of nimhle-de-thump. This is a potful of pota- 
toes that, after having been peeled, are carefully boiled. The 
potful is then beat with a round and broad-ended staff to a per- 
fect mass of meal ; which, as good dry potatoes are sought 
after, is beautiful and white. Milk is then gradually added, 
whilst the whole is kept stirring by means of a spurtle, till it 
comes to a proper degree of thinness. Butter and pepper are 
also add^d where they can be afforded ; and onions sometimes, 
which have been beat along with the potatoes. The whole 
presents a dish which a high authority has said is fit for a 
prince. 

What will some people say, when it is told, that seldom in 
London are plain potatoes to be found well or perfectly boiled ? 



But let lis hear what Count Rumford has advanced in reference 
to directions of the Board of Agriculture on this point. In 
London, he says, the proper mode of preparing potatoes as 
food is little attended to ; whereas in Ireland and Lancashire 
it is brought to very great perfection ; where they are fre- 
quently ate as bread. The potatoes should be as much as pos- 
sible of the same size, and the large and small ones boiled 
separately. Tliey must be put into a pot with cold water, not 
sufficient to cover them, well washed, but neither pared nor 
scraped. (We would here add to the Count's statement, that 
the practice of salesmen having the potatoes washed, it may 
be for hours, or even days, previous to being boiled, is highly 
injurious to the flavour of the root, and is a thing we never 
saw in the north). If the potatoes ai'e tolerably large, it will 
he necessary, as soon as they begin to boil, to throw in some 
cold water, and occasionally to repeat it till they are boiled to 
the heart. They will otherwise crack on the outside before 
they are thoroughly cooked. Salt occasionally thrown in is a 
great improvement ; but the slower they are boiled, the better. 
When boiled, and the water is poured off, evaporate the mois- 
ture by replacing the pot once more over the fire. They 
should be brought to the table with the skins on, and ate with 
a little salt, if used as bread. Nothing but exiperience can 
satisfy any one how superior the potatoc is, thus prepared, if 
the sort is good and mealy. Boiling, he continues, is better 
than steaming, as it discharges a certain substance, which the 
steam alone is incapable of doing. With fish, butter, milk, 
even sour milk, an excellent mess is thus obtained. Yes, with 
nothing better than butter-milk (not the nauseous stuff which 
is to be generally found in English dairies), the potatoc is un- 
commonly nutritious, and strongly conducive to aid the prolific 
nature of mankind, as is proved in the case of the peasantry of 
Ireland, who subsist almost entirely on such food. As Sir 
F. M. Eden asks, from whose work on the state of the poor 
we have largely drawn. Where have we more numerous hordes 
of ruddy, healthy, and strong children, than may be seen daily 
issuing from the cabins of the Irish poor ? Potatoes are a 
strong instance of the extension of the means of human enjoy- 
ment in modern times over the ancient. The price of wheat 
no doubt, in comparison with the money price of labour, has 
lately considerably increased. But many articles of food and 
clothing can now be obtained by poor cottagers, which the rich 
in much earlier years could not command ; and the root of 
which we ai'e speaking seems the most remarkable. It is in 
truth, now-a-days, " the poor man's wants, the rich man's 
luxury." Potatoes can be turned to many uses which we can- 
not taiTy to notice. We can here only farther say of them, 
that in the north, mixed with oatmeal, or the flour of wheat, 
barley, or rye, they are very frequently turned into cakes, 

Scotch broth. — It is not necessary pr.rticularly to describe 
this soup, as the pi-ocess by Avhicli the diih is made is generally 
well enough known. The principal thing regarding it, for our 
present purpose, is to say, that since it is a wholesome delicious 
and cheap mess, particularly where there are many children, it 
is to be lamented that it should be comparatively so rare in 
England, Its rarity, however, must be chiefly owing to the 
extravagant way the Southrons go to work in providing the 
ingredients. Meat with them is the principal point, whereas, 
we should say, vegetables are the most important in the north. 
Beef, mutton, bacon, and these salt as well as fresh, are de- 
voted to the bi-oth-pot ; a small piece of cither is sufficient for 
a large quantity of vegetables, scarcely any species of which, 
that is to be found in a kitchen-garden, is thought unsuitable. 
In the south, the Scotch allotment of meat, in broth-making, 
is laughed at. But a due regard to the most wholesome and 
enlightened style of feeding man will call for abundance of 
vegetable diet, as well as of butcher's meat. We think it would 
be easy to show on which side the grossest error lies. At any 
rate the broth-eaters seem to be as brawny and as long-lived 
as the beef-eaters. Whilst the poor north-country labourers 
can manage to rear a pig, or save as much as will purchase 



14-2 



THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. 



now aud then a small piece of meat, he will have his hot and 
abundant mess at a comparatively small expence. Nor is it to 
he overlooked, that potatoes, or abundance of other vegetables, 
made into broth, always present an appearance of abundance 
on the table, which no moderate expenditure in meat can ever 
accomplish : a point of itself of extensive bearings. 

Braid, the staff of life, claims our consideration. The 
great features connected with this subject to be observed in the 
north, are the various kinds of grain used for the production of 
bread, especially that of oats ; and the making of it, being a 
domestic occupation. In Cumberland, bread is generally made 
of barley. After the usual process of turning the meal into 
dough, with salt, &c., it is baked in unleavened cakes, about 
half an inch tliick and twelve inches in diameter ; but is more 
commonly leavened, and made into loaves of about twelve 
pounds each. These loaves are usually baked in ovens heated 
with heath, furze, or brushAvood. A common oven will bake 
about three Winchester bushels of barley made into bread at 
once. This bread will keep good for four or five weeks in win- 
ter, and two or three in summw. It is considered an ex- 
tremely nutritious article. 

Oaten calces prevail all over the west of Scotland. They are 
made generally only with water ; the dough, beiu^ kneaded 
well, and rolled out into a thin, broad, and round form, which 
is then cut into fardels or cakes, is placed upon a girdle or 
gridiron to be hardened. The hardening, however, is best 
completed by afterwards putting the cake in front of a clear 
hot fire. These cakes keep sound for months ; but are for a 
short time.;?)'cd again, after having lain long. The whole pro- 
cess of baking and hardening them seems extremely simple ; 
still, like many a simple process, the utmost dexterity is neces- 
sary to its perfect performance ; so that being a good baker is 
one of the greatest recommendations a servant can bring with 
her. 

Bannocks, which constitute in other parts of Scotland the 
common bread, are thick unleavened cakes, made of water and 
meal only ; pease, barley, and oatmeal are all in use; the last 
most frequently. Sometimes milk, butter, or cream, with 
eggs or carraway seeds, are employed without any water. Now, 
a Scotch labourer will not allow wheaten bread to come into 
competition with these sorts to which he is accustomed. Habit 
is second only to nature ; and whoever is at pains to measure 
his expenditure with his income, is not to be excused, if he will 
not use, for the staff of his life, the cheapest article, so long as 
it is wholesome and invigorating. 

The principal advantage, however, which the labourers in the 
north have over those in the south, in the matter of diet, is 
the great variety of cheap and savoury soups to which they, 
almost without exception, devote every sort of butcher's meat. 
They never lose a drop of the liquor in which any species of 
meat has been boiled ; for to roast is considered by the common 
people as the most prodigal manner of cooking it ; since 
thereby they cannot convert water and vegetables into a nutri- 
tious soup. Could the use of barley, oatmeal, and soups be 
introduced into the south, the condition of the labouring 
classes would be at once wondrously improved. 

The principal consumption of barley in the south is in malt 
liquor ; and wc think a given quantity of the same grain may 
be by the culinary art reduced into a soup, only by means of 
water, w'hich will contain as much nourishment as beer. It is 
certain that a person might subsist entirely on barley broth, 
when porter would not support him. Count Rumford says, 
.that each portion of barley soup should consist of one pint and 
a quarter for one person, which, if rich, will afford a good 
meal to a grown person ; and that such a portion will weigh 
about one pound and a quarter, or twenty ounces averdupois. 
That the basis of each portion should consist of one ounce and 
a quarter of barley meal, boiled with one pint and a quarter 
of water, till the whole be reduced to the uniform consistency 
of a thick jelly. All other additions to the soup help, of 
course, to make it more palatable. 



In the north, milk forms a gi'eat portion of a labourer's 
food : indeed, give his wife oatmeal and milk, and she will 
astonish a fastidious appetite with her dainties ; more espe- 
cially, if a morsel of meat he now and then within her reach ; 
for she is sure to have a little garden, and then what else does 
she require ? Certainly beer is not likely to be within her 
doors or mouth for years. In the south, however, the prac- 
tice of keeping cows is not nearly so general as in the other 
direction. Before we close this paper, we shall have to speak 
of cottage farms, and therefore can only here at present la- 
ment that milk is such a minor point in any part of the em- 
pire. With regard to milk, broths and soups, we are aware, 
however, that a strong aversion prevails in the south. They 
are condemned as washy stuffs, only fit for hogs ; and it is 
said such liquids will not " stick to the ribs." 

There certainly is a medium between food that is entirely 
liquid, and what is entirely solid ; and when we consider the 
toughness of, and the thirst occasioned by, the expensive sus- 
tenance of London labourers, for instance, perhaps we may find 
that the liquid which they are inclined to swallow amounts ia 
quantity to as much as is usual with the same class in the 
north. Beer is expensive, and if the labourer cannot afford 
this beverage, quantities of weak tea, with a little sugar or milk, 
are resorted to. In the north, and among poor labourers, tea is 
not an every day indulgence ; whilst amongst those that are re- 
spectable, it is only an afternoon dainty. Beer, again, is un- 
known amongst them, unless when at market or when gay. 
The limpid stream, whey, or milk, is their beverage : the two 
first are cheap — the last feeds whilst it allays the thirst. 
Drunkenness, no doubt, is prevalent in both quarters of the 
island, amongst the worthless. But what we say is true, that 
no species of strong and expensive drink, excepting milk, is at 
all considered as a necessary of life in the north. If a la- 
bourer in the south, whose habits are temperate, were to count 
his yearly expenditure in beer, we think he would be staggered : 
or, setting the prejudice aside, were he to compare its value 
with the milk that thereby might have been procured, and 
turned to various purposes, would he not be ashamed ? and last, 
but not least, let him consider the temptations connected with 
beer drinking, compared with the circumstances of the sorts of 
beverage we recommend. We are confident, that so long as he 
patronizes soups, pure water, cheap whey, or nutritious milk, 
he neither will awake in the morning with a head-ache from 
his debauch, nor find his pocket unfairly managed, nor encoun- 
ter many dangerous associates. There are, however, other 
things besides food and drink, necessary to man's welfare ; — 
Fuel is a strong instance. 

It must be confessed, that, as respects firing, the poor man 
in the south of England has obstacles to encounter beyond 
those in the north, and this affects, in no slight degree, his cu- 
linary practices, and causes him, for instance, to send his meat 
on a Sunday to the baker's. But it may be doubted, whether 
the same fuel which is required to boil a tea-kettle twice a day 
is not sufficient, with proper management, to dress various 
kinds of soup. It is to be regretted, however, that the habi- 
tations of the poor, for the most port, are badly adapted for 
culinary processes. There is great room here for improve- 
ment and ingenious contrivances. One very obvious truth is, 
that the size, the position, and the form of the fire-place, may 
cause a most wasteful, as well as uncomfortable current of air. 
The slightest pains may at any time narrow the throat of a 
chimney, immediately above the mantel piece, and circumscribe 
the dimensions of the fire-place, when they are too large. 
But, of course, the position of such an essential feature in any 
apartmcnthelongs to the builder of the mansion. We refer our 
readers on this point, to the plans for such dwellings as we are 
treating of, given in our last number. It is not to be ques- 
tioned, however, but that many economical inventions may he 
used to obtain heat and firing, not at present known. It even 
appears, that long ago, in England, several artificial means 
were used, as we have discovered from certain old documents in 



THK DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF THE lABOUEING CLASSES. 



143 



the British Museum. The curious may wish to see something 
of what our ancestors did in this way. The scarcity and high 
price of provisions during the civil wars turned the attention of 
the people to many important subjects of domestic economy ; 
and the following "Good news for the Poor" seem to have 
been circulated about that period of time. 

" 'Tis certain," says the writer of these good news, " neces- 
sity is at the most times the parent of ingenuity. To pay forty 
or fifty shillings for a chaldron of coals went deep into a trades- 
man's pocket. Whereupon some plodding industrious heads, 
that had seen fires of turf or peat iu the cou'jitry, or been in 
Holland, where (as one saith pleasantly) they fetch fire out of 
water, burning a kind of mud taken out of their ditches and 
dried, began to think of mixing clay with their coals, which 
they found succeed so well, that several eminent victuallers and 
coffee-houses (particularly near the Royal Exchange) make it 
now their common fuel, to their great advantage. The man- 
ner of doing it is thus : — 

"Take two loads, that is to say, a chaldron of coals, and 
cause them to he sifted iu a wide-hole sieve ; that so all the 
dust and small coals may go through, and the great round coals 
remain behind. Then take a load of clay, and cause it to be 
mixed well together with the said dust or small coals ; for 
which purpose, if your clay be not moist enough to work up 
well, you may wet it a little ; then make it up either in round 
balls, or like bricks, but let them not be above half so big every 
way ; and then letting them lie for some time to dry well, they 
■will be fit for use: for having laid a small thin bottom of coals, 
you must then lay on these pieces, iutermixing now and then 
one of your round pieces of coal among them : this shall pro- 
duce you a most rare fire, burning more clear, and casting a 
greater heat than all coals: it shall continue fresh and in good 
order, with very little trouble, a whole day, and is not offensive 
in smoke, smell, or otherwise." Such is the receipt. The 
writer goes on to say, that this will last longer than any three 
chaldron of coals. He adds — " Some have thought it conve- 
nient to put in a matter of two sacks of saw-dust to the afore- 
said clay and coals, and upon experience find it does very well, 
drying the clay, and making it the sooner fit for use." 

Balls of small coal, mixed with clay, are said to have been 
much used all over South Wales, particularly in the counties of 
Pembroke and Carmarthen. They are formed about the big- 
ness of a man's feet, great iu the middle, and verging smaller 
towards the ends. They are generally made up and put upon 
the fire quite wet, in the form of a pyramid ; and, when tho- 
roughly lighted, make a most brilliant appearance. One of 
these fires will last ten or twelve hours. Those who live near 
the sea, instead of clay, use mud taken from under flood-mark 
at low water ; which, from the quantity of salts it contains, 
makes the ashes a valuable article of agriculture to the hus- 
bandman, and in horticulture to the cottager ; for every cot- 
tager in South Wales has a little garden, in which he grows his 
own leeks, potatoes, cabbages, cole-worts, pease, &c. The 
balls mixed with mud emit no disagreeable smell in burning. 

But this is a subject which we rather endeavour to bring be- 
fore the eye of the philanthropic and ingenious, than to afford 
any thing new of our owm, not despairing that great improve- 
ments and savings may be accomplished, to the apparent bene- 
fit of the poor, Che.ip, yet comfortable houses deserve atten- 
tion here, as immediately bearing, in an eminent degree, upon 
the condition of the labouring classes. To what is to be found 
on this point in our last number, we add ; that the sorts of 
cottages seen in the different parts of the island are extremely 
various : being of clay, brick, wood, or stone. Those of wat- 
tle and daub, as they are called, are perhaps the warmest ; 
those of brick or wood the driest ; and those of stone the most 
durable. The mode of building those of the first mentioned 
class, in the county of Dumfries, is, according to the Statisti- 
cal account of the parish of Dornock, as follows ; which, as re- 
gards cheapness and expedition, perhaps is unrivalled in this 
country. 



" The farmhouses in general, and all the cottages, are built 
of mud or clay." (Of late years, however, we remark, mason- 
work has come much more into use than foi'merly in tliat dis- 
trict.) "These houses, when plastered and properly finished 
within, as many of them be, are exceedingly warm and comfort- 
able, Themannerof erecting them is singular. In the first place, 
tliey dig out the foundation of the house, and lay a row or two 
of stones ; then they procure from a pit contiguous, as much 
clay or brick-earth as is sufficient to form the walls ;. and having 
provided a quantity of straw or other litter to mix witu the clay, 
upon a day appointed the whole neighbourhood, male and fe- 
male, to the number of twenty or thirty, assemble, each with a 
dung-fork or spade, or some such instrument. Some fall to 
working the clay or mud, by mixing it with straw ; others carry 
the materials ; and four or six of the most experienced hands 
build, and take care of the walls. In this manner the walls of 
the house are finished in a few hours ; after which they retire 
to a good dinner and plenty of drink, which is provided for 
them, where they have music and a dance, with which and other 
marks of festivity they conclude the evening. This they call a 
daubing, and, in this manner, they make a frolic of what would 
otherwise be a very dirty and disagreeable job. 

The diversity in the mode of preparing food is not greater 
in the north and south of Great Britain than in the styles and 
kinds of dress. 

In the midland and southern counties, the laboiu-er in general 
purchases bis clothes from a shop-keeper. In the neighbour- 
hood of London, he usually purchases second-hand articles. In 
the north, almost every article worn by the lower orders, not 
many years ago, was manufactured at home, excepting shoes 
and hats, and still is to a characteristic extent ; though the 
midland system has rapidly gained ground of late. In Scotland 
amongst the peasantry, linen, stockings, and flannels continue 
to be generally made at home. We may say indeed, that the 
labourer is poor, or worthless, who has not an enviable web of 
linen, grown, spun, and bleached by his wife and daughters. 
Such a web as will serve for winding sheets or wedding shirts 
for every one of the family is commonly found ; and preserved 
not merely to be shewn a visitor for its beauty, but as a symbol 
of affecting anticipations. There are therefore strong moral 
feelings of an excellent order connected with this article. The 
labourers week-day shirt is a strong and coarse cloth, made of 
the refuse of the fine lint. Farm servants and labourers knit 
their own stockings, which is their usual employment through- 
out long winter niglits ; and as the thread is spun at home, and 
generally of three plies, about eleven ounces of wool go to the 
pair. All these home-made articles are comparatively expensive 
at the first, but they greatly more than cover this, by their dura- 
bility and comfort, over those which are purchased in the mar- 
ket. In the Highlands again, every man is Jack of all trades ; 
and many a family appear at kirk and market, neat, tidy, and 
almost fine, whose dresses have never been brought from more 
distant quarters than the neighbouriug hills, where the wool is 
reared on the patch of adjacent land where the flax is grown. 

It is quite clear, however, that such primitive customs never 
will be introduced in more populous or enlightened districts, 
neither should we have made these observations respecting dress, 
were it not that many sterling virtues seem to go hand in hand 
with homely manufactures ; and that it is to be greatly lamented, 
labourers' wives and daughters of the present day are inclined 
to scorn the most becoming frugal habits of domestic eco- 
nomy. But besides many fireside practices which with great 
advantage might be introduced amongst the lower orders, there 
are some out-door operations to be warmly recommended to the 
cottagers in landward parts, to which we now proceed: we mean 
the culture of a patch of ground, embracing a garden, and a 
small allotment, for more extensive operations, in the style of 
farming. 

There are a great many cottagers who might, with the utmost 
advantage to themselves, and of course to the community, culti- 
vate a small piece of land. We know there has been, and stiU 



144 



THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY OF THE LABOURING CLASSES. 



is considerable diversity of opinion on this subject ; alUiough of 
late the AUoiment System, as it is called, has been gaining able 
advocates ; whilst the great alteration contemplated by the 
Poor's Law Amendment Bill, there is little doubt, will give an 
additional weight to the discussion. To cottage farms, one of 
the most commonly urged objections is, that they make of coun- 
try labourers, not only bad servants, but also bad farmers. We 
admit that there is a good deal in this, w-hen those farms 
amount to four, five, or eight acres or such like. But what we 
recommend is more properly called an allotment than a farm, 
and should run in extent somewhere near one acre of land ; but 
never above one and a half. At any rate that the management 
of these should never interfere with the regular employment of 
the cottager ; and yet that the possession of a cow should be 
an object of first-rate consideration. 

We are not going to be particular in our rules as to how the 
cottager's garden, and allotment of land, are to be cultivated. 
The great feature which we would have to be introduced is the 
keeping of a cow-, and therefore the crops raised should have a 
particular respect to this object. Much variety and enlivening 
beauty might be imparted to many dreary wastes of the country, 
were this system generally introduced among our rural labourers 
and artizaus. But there would be something better ; there 
would be a moral health spread amongst the lower orders, which 
is ever inseparable from the natural and primitive character of 
the operations referred to. Active and virtuous children are 
reared where the spade, the flail, and the stable afford them a 
regular recreation. But think of the degraded class who seldom 
rear a third or second child without parochial aid 1 We have 
known such, who, had they, instead of sending miles for a drop 
of milk, been gifted with or possessed of this docile, most use- 
ful animal, for the poor-man's household, of which we speak, a 
totally opposite domestic picture would have been presented, not 
merely as respected comfort, but purity of life. 

But instead of general assertions and theoretic fancies, it for- 
tunately is in our power to substitute facts and the truths 
taught by experiment : to these we now call the attention of our 
readers. Sir John Sinclair tells us of an experiment tried on a 
large moor farm in the highlands of Scotland. Two acres of 
arable land or fit to be made arable was allotted the cottager, 
together with a house and garden, the proprietor becoming bound 
to employ him for 100, 200, or 300 days in the year, as the 
cottager chose : paying him so much grain and so much money, 
in proportion to the number of days agreed on.. Thus the la- 
bourer, in a manner, received rent from the landlord, instead of 
paying any. This measure was adopted with great success with 
a number of cottagers : nor could any be better devised for the 
benefit of a thinly peopled country. General improvements may 
thus be carried on by residenters ; so that it seems worthy of 
the attention of extensive proprietors in similar situations. It 
ought to be added, that, as Sir John farther mentions, wliilst 
the men were employed by the proprietor, the women managed 
the cottage farm at home. 

And this brings us to a case, which we find quoted by Mr. 
Davies, author of a View of the Agriculture of North Wales. 
On Pulley common, be says, in Shropshire, there is a cottager's 
tenement, consisting of somewhat more than one ninth of an 
acre. The spade and the hoe are the only instruments used, 
and those cliiefly by his wife, that he may follow his daily la- 
bour for hire. The plot of land is divided into two parcels, 
whereon she grows wheat and potatoes alternately. In October 
when the potatoes are ripe, she takes oflr the stalks of the 
plants, which she saves to produce manure by littering her pig. 
She then goes over the whole to collect the weeds for the dung- 
hill. She next sows the wheat upon the surface, and then 
takes \ip the potatoes, with a three pronged fork ; and by the 
same operation, the wheat-seed is covered deep. She leaves it 
quite rough, and the winter frost mellows the earth, and by its 
falling down in the spring, it adds vigour to the wheat plants. 
She has pursued this alternate system of cropping for several 
years. The potatoe crop only has manure. In 1804, a year 



very noted for mildew, she had fifteen Winchester bushels of 
wheat from 272 square yards ; being four times the general 
averaging crop of the neighbouring farmers. 

What has been the Shropshire cottager's history since 1804, 
we have not learnt, but the somewhat distant date of the case 
cannot affect the principles we seek to inculcate. Neither does 
the remoteness of the era, to which the following minutely de- 
tailed facts relate, weaken their force. The example, and the 
manner in which it is explained, seem so applicable to our pre- 
sent purpose, that we cannot do better than make use of them, 
which we now enter upon. What we refer to, is an account of 
a parish, drawn up by Thomas Estcourt, Esq. M. P., and pre- 
sented to the Board of Agriculture in 1804. He tells. 

That Lour/ Newnton contained 140 poor persons in 1800. 
They were willing to exchange their claims to parochial relief 
for any other aid, suitable to their habits, that would yield, with 
their labour, a better prospect of procuring the common domes- 
tic comforts of life. Upon this, it was proposed, 

That each cottager on his application for the same should be- 
come tenant of a small quantity of arable land, under proper re- 
strictions, and at a fair rent ; but that no person should be 
allowed to occupy more than the family of such person could 
cultivate, without improperly interfering with his usual labour ; 
nor more than he could procure manure to keep in high fertility; 
that the large families should not therefore occupy more than 
one acre and a half, the smaller families less, in proportion as 
their numbers were fewer and not likely to increase. 

That the rent of the land should be at the rate of one pound, 
twelve shillings per acre. It was never known before to bear 
more than twenty bushels of wheat to an acre, under the best 
cultivation, and would have let to a farmer at about twenty 
shillings per acre. 

That one-fourth part of the land in each person's occupation, 
should annually be well manured in rotation, and planted with 
potatoes ; that the remainder should be managed as the tenant 
should think proper, except that no person should have two 
exhausting crops of corn (viz. wheat, barley, oats, rye) suc- 
cessively. 

That the land should he forfeited to the landlord if not cul- 
tivated and manured as above mentioned ; or if the tenant 
should be lawfully convicted of a felony, or any other offence 
against the law, for which he would be liable to a fine, or im- 
prisonment. 

That it should be forfeited, if the tenant should receive any 
relief from the poor rates, except medical assistance, and ex- 
cept such relief as the family of any tenant should receive, 
under the authority of any law relating to the militia, or any 
other act of parliament that might afterwards pass, of a simi- 
lar description , for the defence of the country. 

That the land should be granted, if required, for a term of 
fourteen years ; but the lease or agreement, should be void, 
by either party giving the other three years' notice of such 
avoidance. 

This was the offer made them. They entered warmly into 
the idea ; promised every possible exertion on their part to give 
it success; and all accepted the offer, except two widows with 
numerous families of yormg children, and some very old infirm 
persons without families, who had not the courage to make 
the experiment. 

The high price of provisions at that time, notwithstanding they 
all had a very liberal allowance from the poor rate, had run 
them so much in debt for the common necessaries of life (chiefly 
for bread), that, it being deemed essential to their success that 
they should be freed from these incumbrances, money was ad- 
vanced on loan amongst them, in proportion to their w-ants, 
amounting to the sum of forty-four pounds sterling. 

At Lady-day in 1801, each person entered on the first part, 
or one-third of the land allotted to him; at Lady-day, 1802, 
they entered on one-third more; and, at Lady-day, 1803 on, 
the remainder. 

Now, as to the result that speedUy followed this arrange- 



ON THB FINEST VARIETY OP FKtTIT TREES. 



145 



ment. The only persons who had received any relief from the poor- 
rate of this parish after Michaelmas, 1801, were the four old infirm 
persons before mentioned (two of . them died soon afterwards), 
and the two widows with large families. The two widows, 
after a time, rather than go with their families to a work- 
house, were, at their own request, put on a footing with their 
neighbours, and received no relief from the moment their first 
crop came into use ; the one having six, the other eight small 
children, the eldest not twelve years of age. No person in 
1804 had forfeited his land; but three single men had asked 
leave to resign theirs, being able to subsist very well by their 
labour. 

Mr. Estcourt goes on to state a great many other striking 
circumstances concerning this allotment experiment, which we 
must abridge. He says, one circumstance was particularly 
gratifying, viz., that those poor persons who had the largest 
families, and were the heaviest charge to the parish, were those 
who set the highest value upon their land, and the most anxious 
therefore to avoid any act by which it would be forfeited. The 
hoe was actually employed by the women and children to keep 
the crops clean, who also performed almost all the other opera- 
tions, excepting tilling and the carriage of manure and produce. 
They soon discharged every debt owing by them, and nothing, 
when Mr. Estcourt wrote, could reduce tliem to the 
necessity of again applying for parish relief but some severer 
calamity than they had ever been visited with. There is this 
other obvious benefit resulting from the experiment described ; 
the people felt themselves obliged to look forward, and to pro- 
vide against occasional distress, which stimulated them to in- 
creased industry and economy. The farmers of the parish too 
admitted that they never had their work better done, nor found 
their servants more able, willing, civil, and sober. 

Mr. Estcourt farther states, that although the keeping of a 
cow is justly deemed a very beneficial practice to a poor family, 
yet, as it is attended with some difficulties in certain situations, 
it was tliought proper not to make it a necessary part of the 
experiment ; but as the poor are frequently discouraged from 
economical practices on account of not being able to employ to 
advantage any small sum they may save, it was proposed that 
if any person could buy a cow, it should be taken in to joist at 
five pounds four shillings per annum ; nor was it long ere a cow 
or two had been purchased, whilst the other cottagers were 
looking eagerly forward to their being able to do so also. One 
thing deserves to be observed, that if charity alone were the ob- 
ject, in such an experiment as we have now detailed from Mr. 
Estcourt's pamphlet, a better mode of it could not be devised 
than that which enables the poor man to exert with effect and 
with honest freedom that strength and those faculties which 
Provddence has blessed him with for the benefit of himself and 
the support of his family. But it does more, for, whilst it con- 
fers blessings upon the poor, it embraces the interests of the 
rich, and adds to the welfare of the whole frame, moral and na- 
tional, of society. 

Various matters might be suggested as improvements upon 
the experiment made at Long Newton ; and we had proposed to 
ourselves to go at some length into their statement. But what 
has already been said will enable any person who feels earnest 
on the subject to point out for himself such things in a manner 
more satisfaetoi-y than there is room for us at present to do. 
Nor are we willing to injure the effect of the facts given, by any 
speculation on such momentous questions as the welfare of the 
labouring classes embraces. The introduction of milch cows, 
and a little dairy business, are the things we should greatly de- 
sire to have added to the allotment — farmers' domestic 
economy. 

THE FINEST VARIETIES OF FRUIT TREES FOR THE 

SOUTHEKN OR MIDLAND COUNTIES OF ENGLAND. 

The following list of fruit trees, drawn up from the experience 
of some of the most competent judges in this country, will be 
MAG.iZINE OF BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL.11. NO. XIX- 



found highly worthy of the attention of any one anxious to 
form a select collection. The different kinds contained in 
everynurseryman's catalogue are so numerous, that it is a matter 
of the greatest difficulty to know which to choose. In the Horti- 
cultural Society's Catalogue, published in 1826, there are no 
fewer than three thousand varieties, to which fifteen hundred 
more might be added. Of this multitude, however, more than 
a half are unworthy of being cultivated ; and of the remainder, 
not above one quarter can be called first-rate kinds. In the 
collection which follows, the second-rate and doubtful sorts are 
left out, as also m!:ny common ones, when these ought to be 
supplanted by newly-raised varieties. We only have to inti- 
mate further, that none shall be named that may not be easily 
procured. 



Adam's Pearmain. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Hubbard's Pearmain. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Golden Reinette. Dessert. Autumn. 

Dutch Mignonne. Dessert. Spring. 

Gray French Reinette. Dessert and kitchen. Winter and 
spring. 

Franklin's Golden Pippin. Dessert. Autumn. 

Golden Harvey. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Early Red Margaret. Dessert. July. 

Juncating. Dessert. July. 

Boston Russet. Dessert. Spring. 

Canadian Reinette. Dessert and kitchen. Winter and spring. 
Excellent. 

Norfolk Beaufin. Kitchen. Spring. Cood for drying. 

Traver's Pippin. Dessert and kitchen. Autumn and winter. 

Court of Urick. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Cornish Gilliflower. Dessert. Winter and spring. Bears 
badly, but is rich. 

Ribston Pippin. Dessert and kitchen. Winter. 

Old Nonpareil. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Scarlet Nonpareil. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Dumelow's Seedling. Kitchen. Winter and spring. 

Newtown Pippin. Dessert and kitchen. Spring ; tender, re- 
quiring a wooden frame or east wall. 

Cockle Pippin. Dessert. Spring. 

Kerry Pippin. Dessert. August and September. 

Oslin. Dessert. September. 

Blenheim Pippin. Dessert and kitchen. Autumn, 

Winter Codlin. Kitchen. Winter. 

Mank's Codlin. Kitchen. September. 

French Crab. Kitchen. Spring and summer ; may be kept 
for two years. 

Gloria Mundi. Kitchen. Autumn and winter. 

Beauty of Kent. Kitchen. Autumn and winter. 

Lucombe's seedling. Kitchen. Winter. 

Rhode Island Greening. Kitchen. Winter and spring. 

MinshuU Crab. Kitchen. Winter. 

Northern Greening. Kitchen. Winter and spring. 

Duchess of Oldenburgb. Dessert. September and October. 

Malearle. Dessert. Spring. Tender ; requires a south wall. 

Sykehouse Russet. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Royal Russet. Kitchen. Winter and spring. 

Beauehamwell Seedling. Dessert. Winter and spring. 

Court Pender. Dessert. Spring. 

Wormsley Pippin. Dessert and kitchen. Autumn. 

Hawthornden. Kitchen. Autumn. 

Sugarloaf Pippin. Dessert. July. 

Downton Pippin. Dessert. Winter. 

Brabant Bellefleur. Kitchen. Winter and spring. 

Gravenstein. Dessert and kitchen. Autumn. 

King of the Pippins. Dessert and kitchen. Autumn. 

Sam Young. Dessert. Winter. 

Alfristpn. Kitchen. Winter and spring ; very large. 

London Pippin. Kitchen. Winter and spring. 

Bedfordshire Foundling. Kitchen. Autumn and winter. 

OCTOBER, 1834. X 



146 



ON THE FINEST VARIETY OF FRUIT TEEES. 



Jargonelle. Dessert. Wall or queuouiUe. August. 

Beurr^ d'Aremberg. Dessert. Wall and standard. October 

and November. 
Beurr^ Ranee. Dessert. Standard. March and May; the 

best late melting pear yet known. 
Gansel's Bergamot. Dessert. October; east and west wall ; 

indifferent bearer. 
Beurr^ Diel. Standard. October and November ; great bearer 

and excellent fruit. 
Florelle. Dessert. Wall and standard. November and De- 
cember. 
Marie Louise. Dessert. Standard. October. 
Summer Francr^al. Dessert. Standard. August and Sep- 
tember. A good bearer. 
Winter Neilis. Dessert. December; excellent. 
Capianmont. Dessert. Standard. October ; great bearer. 
Chaumontelle. Dessert. Wall, standard, or quencuille. Winter. 
Flemish Beauty. Dessert. Standard. October and Novem- 
ber ; must be gathered early. 
Duchess of AngouWme. Dessert. Wall and standard. Octo- 
ber and November. 
Easter Beurr^. Dessert. Wall and standard. January, Fe- 

brnary, and March ; great bearer, and excellent. 
Napoleon. Dessert. Wall and standard. November. 
Early Bergamot. Dessert. Standard. August and September. 
Autumn Bergamot. Dessert. October. 
Bezy de la Motte. Wall and standard. October. 
White Doyenne. Dessert. Wall and standard. October ; good 

bearer. 
Passe Colmar. Dessert. Wall and standard. December and 
January ; great bearer ; trees not subject to canker ; excel- 
lent fruit. 
Colman. Dessert. Wall. December till March ; trees sub- 
ject to canker. 
Nutmeg. Dessert. Standard. Winter; small, but a good 

bearer. 
Swan's Egg. Dessert. Standard. November and December. 
Crasanne. Dessert. Wall. October and November; shy 

bearer. 
Hacon's Incomparable. Dessert. Standard. November and 

December ; tree hardy ; great bearer ; excellent. 
Whitfield. Dessert. Standard. November ; good bearer. 
Thompson's. Dessert. Standard. November ; one of the 

finest Flemish pears ; good bearer. 
Madeleine. Dessert. Standard. End of July ; a good bearer. 
Sockle. Dessert. Wall and standard. October ; a plentiful 

bearer. 
Valine Frauche. Dessert. Standard. August and September ; 

a plentiful bearer. 
Passans de Portugal. Dessert. Standai'd. August ; good 

bearer. 
Bezy d'Hery. Stewing. Standard. Winter ; good bearer. 
Chaptal. Stewing. Standard. Winter and spring. 
Bequesne Musque. Stewing. Standard. Winter ; a great 

bearer. 
'Francr^al d'Hiver. Stewing. Standard. Winter. 
Uvedal^s St. Germain. Stewing. Wall. Very large. 
Rouselet de Rheims. For drying. 

Neplus Meuris. Dessert. Standard. January till March a 
good bearer. 

CHERRIES. 

Elton. Wall and standard. Beginning of July ; finest pale 

cherry yet known. 
Late Duke. Standard. August ; a great bearer. 
Black Tartarian. Wall. June, July. 
Belle de Choisy. Standard. Beginning of July. 
Knight's Early Black, Wall. June. 



Black Eagle. Wall and standard. July ; good bearer. 

Downton. Wall and standard. July. 

Bigareau. Standard. Late. 

Florence. Standard. Late. 

Waterloo. Wall and standard. Beginning of July. 

Morello. Standard and north wall. Late ; preserving. 

May Duke. Wall and standard. End of June. 

Purple Griotte. Wall and standard. Beginning of June ; the 

finest early cherry. 
Kentish or Flemish. Standard. July ; preserving and kitchen 

use ; great bearer. 

PLDMS. 

Purple Gage. Wall and standard. September and October ; 

the finest dessert plum of its colour. 
Green Gage. Dessert. Wall and standard. August and Sep- 

tember ; preserving. 
White Magnum Bonum. Wall and standard. September; 

kitchen. 
Isabella. Dessert. Wall and standard. September. 
Kirke's. Dessert. Wall. September. 

Nectarine. Dessert. Wall and standard. Beginning of Sep- 
tember. 
Coe's Golden Drop. Dessert. Standard and Wall. October; 

excellent bearer ; dries, delicious. 
Blue Imperatrice. Dessert. East or west wall. October. 
White Imperatrice. Dessert. Wall. September ; tender. 
Mimm's. Dessert. Kitchen. WaU. August and September. 
Washington. Dessert. Wall and standard. September. 
Drap d'Or. Dessert, and earlier than the Green Gage. WaU 

and Standard. A good bearer. 
Catherine. Presei-ving and Dessert. WaU and Standard. 

End of September. 
Gisborne's. Kitchen. August. Standard. Forces weU. A 

good bearer. 
Orleans. Kitchen. Standard. August. Good bearer. 
Early Orleans. Kitchen. Standard. Beginning of August. 

Good bearer. 
Little Mirabelle. WaU and Standard. September. SmaU, but 

excellent for preserving. Good bearer. 
White Damson. Preserving. Standard. End of September. 
Shropshire Damson. Preserving. Standard. September and 

October. Great bearer. 
Bulloeau. Kitchen. Standard. Octohet and November. Great 

bearer. 
Winesour. Preserving. Standard. October. 



Royal George. Beginning of September. Freestone. Forces 

weU. 
Madeleine de Courson. Beginning of September. Freestone. 
Noblesse. September. Freestone. 
Early Anne. Middle of August. Freestone. 
Grosse Mignonne. End of August. Freestone. Forces well. 
Bellegarde. Middle of September. Freestone. Large and 

excellent. Forces well. 
Barringtou. Succeeds the Royal George. Freestone. Forces 

well. 
Chancellor. Middle of September. Freestone. 
Royal. End of September. Freestone. The finest late sort. 

APRICOTS. 

Hemskirke. Dessert. Wall. End of July. 

Royal. Dessert. Wall. End of August. 

Large early. Dessert. WaU. Middle of July. The best 

early Apricots. 
Breda. Dessert and preserving. Standard. August. 
Moorpark. Dessert and preserving. WaU. August. 
Brussels. Preserving. Standard. Beginning of August. 

Good bearer. 



ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANT. 



147 



Orange. Preserving. Wall. A Clingstone. August. 
Turkey. Dessert. Weill. Late in August. 

NECTARINES. 

White. Beginning of September. Freestone. Tender. 
Elruge. Beginning ef September. Freestone. Good bearer 

and forcer. Rich. The finest known. 
Violet. Beginning of September. Freestone. 
Pitmaston Orange. Beginning of September. Freestone. 
Old Newington. Middle of September, Clingstone. 



Queen. 
Enville. 
Providence. 
Black Jamaica. 
Antigua Queen. 



PINES. 



NUTS. 



Casford. 

Frizzled Filbert. A good bearer. 

Cob Nut. 

Red Filbert. A bad bearer. 

Spanish Nut. 

Pearson's Prolific. A great bearer. 

Knight's Large. Very fine. 

CITBRANTS. 

Black Naples. 
White Dutch. 
Red Dutch. 

eOOSEBERRlES — RED. 

Broadman's British Crown. Large. 
Roaring Lion. Large. Late. 
Red Warrington. Large. Late. 
Red Champagne. Small. 
Small Dark Rough Red. 
Early Black. Small. 



White Crystal. 
ASTiite Champagne. Small. 
Cromptott's Sheba Queen. Large. 
Woodward's Whitesmith. Large. 



Mossey's Heart of Oak. Large. 
Edward's Jolly Tar. Large. 
Pitmaston Green Gage. Small. 
Early Green. Hairy. Small. 



Prophet's Rockwood. Large. 
Haywood's Invincible. Large. 
Yellow Champagne. Small. 
Rumbullion. Small. 

RASFBERBIES. 

Barnet. 
Red Antwerp. 
Yellow Antwerp. 
Bromley Hill. 
Double Bearing. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Duke of Kent's Scarlet. Earliest of any. 

Elton Seedling. 

Roseberry. 

Downton. 

Keen's Seedling. 

Black Roseberry. 



Grove-End Scarlet. 

Old Scarlet. Valuable for preserving. 

Old Pine. 

Sweet Cone. 

Alpine Red and White. 

Prolific Hautboys. 

Large flat Hautboys. 

VINES. 
For the open Wall. 

Black July. 

Miller's Burgundy. ' 

White Sweet Water. 

Common Muscadine. 

Pitmaston White Cluster. 

Cambridge Botanic Garden. 

Esperione. Sometimes ripens well. 

Chaselas Musqu^. 

For the Vinery. 

Black Hamburgh. 

White Frontignac. 

Black Ditto. 

Muscat of Alexandria, White. 

Verdelho, White. 

West's St. Peter's, Black. 

Horsforth Seedling, Black. 

Black, or Morocco. 

Poonah, Black. 

Royal Muscadine, White. 

Black Damascus. 

Grove-End Sweet Water, White. 

ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY. 

The botanical student, who has rambled over mountain and 
marsh, with a box under his arm, and a bundle of grass or a 
shrub in his hands, must have been conscious how like one 
demented he often appeared to the unlettered rustics ; and 
while the query, so invariably put to him, ' 1Vhat is that good 
for ? ' received no satisfactory reply, how plainly their looks, 
more expressive than language, told him, that he had better 
stop gathering good-for-nothing weeds, and take to some 
honest and profitable employment. This thing is too common 
to be wondered at, and is moreover easily enough explained 
on the ground of ignorance of any end or object in science, 
save that of the most direct practical utility. But how is it 
to be accounted for that men, whose education and intelligence, 
we should suppose, must have carried them beyond such un- 
worthy views of the nature of science, too often entertain no- 
tions respecting botany, as confused and mean as those of the 
most uncultivated mind? Why is it that they can look on 
the plants of the field, clothed in the rich garniture of a sum- 
mer month, — in spite of the beauty that allures their gaze, 
and the admirable arrangement of organs, whereby the whole 
economy of vegetation is maintained, — without receiving any 
uncommon ideas of wisdom or power, and perhaps turn away 
from them all, as unworthy of a passing notice ? Wliy is it 
that they can hear of the labours of botanists, of their travels 
by sea and land, amid suffering and privation, with no other 
effect, perhaps, than to call up more vividly to their imagina- 
tion the picture or caricatures of an enthusiast devoted to a 
favourite science p 

The truth, indeed, is too obvious to be questioned, that 
botany doesnot bear that character of dignity and importance 
in the public view, which has long since been obtained by 
many other of the natural sciences. This may be sufficiently 
explained, — at least, we know nothing else that can explain 
it, — by the single fact, that very little has been done by its 
friends towards introducing to general attention the more 
elevated aud philosophical portions of the science, — those 



148 



ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY. 



only that can make it respectable with thinking and well edu- 
cated minds. When a person lights upon a botanical book, 
and finds it,- — as nineteen times out of twenty he 'will find it, 
— a catalogue of hard names, followed by still harder descrip- 
tions in an unknown tongue, or it may be designed for juvenile 
minds, and of course presenting nothing to him very striking 
in point of novelty or importance, it is not to be wondered at 
that he should imbibe no favourable impressions concerning it. 
From such we might reasonably expect to hear the complaint, 
that botany has furnished none of the useful and astonishing 
results of chemistry; that it gives rise to none of those grand 
and overpowering conceptions, which the study of astronomy 
crowds upon the mind ; that we find in it little of the strong 
. dramatic interest so powerfully awakened by the changing 
scenes of creation and destruction which geology displays. In 
short, however well calculated its study may be considered to 
arrest the attention and induce good habits of observation in 
the young, or to afford tliose of riper age apleasing relaxation 
from other pursuits, it is too commonly regarded as destitute 
of those general views and profound discussions that require 
much thinking, or the exercise of a severe and precise logic. 
It may be said, and no doubt with justice, that such erroneous 
notions are the fault of those who entertain them, and that 
little knowledge of any subject can ever be expected, if a man 
can be turned from its pursuit at the first appearance of a 
technical word, or confine himself to the pages of a school- 
book. 

Had half the elTorts been made to present the science in a 
light at all worthy of its real merits, that have been used in 
teaching words, or disseminating loose and superficial views, 
its pretensions to a high character would long since have been 
seen and acknowledged. We should not now be obliged to 
say, at the risk of being suspected of exaggeration, that no 
science is more distinguished than botany for tire enlargement 
and permanence of its general views, for the strictness and 
accuracy of its reasonings, for the sure and cautious deduc- 
tions on which its great principles are established, for the 
demonstrations of the harmony and contrivance with which 
the organic world is ordered, and especially for a spirit of 
patient and profound philosophy, which alone can confer 
upon a science real dignity' and value. To obtain a rank 
among the mostdistinguislied botanists of the present day de- 
mands not only long and laborious investigation, but the ex- 
ercise of talents that belong to the highest order of mind ; for 
the relations to be discovered, and tlie principles to be de- 
duced, must be the result of profound and untir-ing reflection. 
The laws whereby the vegetable economy is regulated, those 
which govern the affinities and. differences of its various mem- 
bers, their distrilmtion over the surface of the earth, and their 
connexion with the physical agents around them, are just be- 
ginning to be discerned, and their study will long present a 
field of inquiry, in which the most philosophical genius may 
find ample scope for the exercise of its powers. The whole 
end of botany is not accomplished when we have accurately 
described the characters of plants by which they are distin- 
guished from one another, and given them a name and a 
place in the great register of nature ; for we are thereliy fur- 
nished with no better knowledge of the plants themselves, than 
we could obtain of the propensities and mental faculties of a 
runaway, fronj the advertisement that describes his clothes 
and person. Neither does the branch of physiology which 
teaches us the functions and general economy of plants fur- 
nish us with that particular knowledge of the plant that we 
wish, any more than the most intimate acquaintance with 
metaphysics or human anatomy would enable us to pronounce 
at sight upon the raeutal or physical habits of an individual 
man. The noblest end of botany, now, is to ascertam the 
points of resemblance and difference between plants, which 
associate them with and remove them from one another, to 
trace the progress of organization through all its gradations 
from its lowest to its highest forms, in short, to lay open the 
operation of all the causes which modify the conditions of 



their existence. This is that philosophy of botani/, to the ad- 
vancement of which the most eminent' in its pursuit are 
directing their utmost efforts, and some more adequate notions 
of which are necessary to gain for it the general respect that 
it really deserves. 

The great, the essential preliminary towards the attainment 
of this end, — if indeed it may not be more properly consider- 
ed as comprising the end itself, — is to improve our classifica- 
tions ; for these involve so many considerations, — have 
reference to so many points in the history of the plant,— that 
when it is once fixed in the place to which it most naturally 
belongs, we are thus made acquainted with the most valuable 
knowledge concerning it, always excepting its practical uses, 
which are determined by experiment. Had this truth been 
generally recognised, and made the basis of improvement in 
botanical science, we should now be spared the regret that 
we experience, while looking back on its progress, to see how 
much labour and zeal have been expended on points of com- 
paratively small or secondary importance, to the neglect of 
those that deserved the first and closest attention. We should 
not have to deplore that common misapprehension of the true 
nature and purposes of botanical classification, which has 
given rise to a fatal jealousy among men zealously devoted 
to the cultivation of the same pursuit, and lain like a blight 
on the growth of this beautiful science. While the number 
of described plants was small, and those but imperfectly 
known, the only motive that led to their systematic arrange- 
ment was the greater convenience it afforded of ascertaining 
their names, and in the facilities which it supplied for this 
object consisted the sole merit of the arrangement. The 
principle thus laid down, and which was well enough in the 
commencement of the science, continued, however, to main- 
tain all its force long after the accumulated results of dis- 
covery demanded more ample and accurate information, more 
enlarged views, and a spirit of philosophizing that should 
concern itself -B-ith things rather than words. And, what is 
stranger still, after this kind of classification had been carried 
to its highest possible degree of perfection, and every thing 
been accomplished by it that could have been anticipated, it 
was looked upon as rendering any other on different princi- 
ples and for different purposes altogether unnecessary, and all 
that remained for botanists was to add to the existing heap of 
crude and barren materials. The object indeed was an impor- 
tant, an indispensable one, and the mind that best accom- 
plished it was one of no ordinary capacity ; but, after all, it is 
only a means, and not an end, for which it seems to have been 
generally mistaken. 

It is to be understood, that the difficulty under which 
naturalists laboured for a long time, and which operated as a 
serious check on the progress of science, was the want of a 
system, whereby the contributions to the common fund of in- 
fonnation could be easily arranged and readily referred to by 
others. Without this their researches were almost vain, and 
their results unprofitable. The same necessity still continues. 
Fifty thousand species of plants have now been discovered, 
every one of which has been examined, its characters set 
down, its relations unfolded, and of many the properties and 
uses have been ascertained. But how is this knowledge to be 
referred to ? With one of this immense multitude in our 
hands for the first time, how are we to ascertain a single fact 
concerning it, without preiaously making ourselves acquaint- 
ed with its name ? What clue is to guide us through the vast 
labyrinth of genera and species, and bring us at last to the 
very plant in question ? Some system of arrangement or 
classification of course, is the only thing that will remove 
the difficulty, and those that have been constructed in direct 
reference to this point, viz. for ascertaining the Hawies of plants, 
are called artificial or arbitrary methods, in contradistinction 
to the natural meihoAs founded on the relations of plants, and 
indicated by nature itself. Each of these methods has distinct 
aud peculiar purposes of its own, and when these are under- 
stood, and clearly kept in view, there cannot be a questiou 



ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY. 



149 



with (hose in (he least qualified to judge, that hoth have a 
utihly tliat is iadispensable to tlie interests of the science. 
Simple and intelligible as this appears, yet an unaccountable 
delusion seems to have prevailed, that they are not merely 
different from, but opposed to each other ; that their ends are 
the same, but attained by different routes ; that their merits 
are conflicting, and are to be weighed in the same scales to- 
gether. Opposition, jealousy, and party -spirit, have thus 
been excited, \\here naturally no foundation for them ever 
existed in difference of opinion or interest. 

Bearing in mind the fact above stated, that in the artificial 
method the oljject is merely to ascertain the names of plants, 
we, of course, should not expect to find them arranged accord- 
ing to their general affinities, for a single organ may be as- 
sumed, and the differences which it presents in different spe- 
cies be made the basis of the classification. Thus, if we class 
plants according to the form, absence, presence, or some other 
condition of the corolla, with Tournefort, or of the stamens, 
with Linneeus, we shall bring species together, agreeing in 
respect to these organs, while in evejy other particular there 
may be the utmost possible difference between them. Plants, 
between which the most obvious family likeness exists, may 
be torn asunder, and placed in classes far remote from one 
another, the oljject being not to ascertain relations, but names. 
Though any part or quality of the plant may be made the 
basis of this method, yet its design will be best fulfilled when 
this basis is something inherent in the plant, easy to be ob- 
served, found in the greatest number of plants, and pre- 
senting sufficient variation in different species to make it 
easily and clearly expressed. The artificial methods were ex- 
ceedingly defective, and about as numerous as the botanists 
who used Ihera, till Linnaeus, after devoting all his energies to 
their improvement, finally succeeded in constructing one 
which superseded every other, and has maintained its supe- 
riority to the present day, unrivalled and undisputed. Con- 
sidering the stamens as uniting the conditions just mentioned 
to the greatest extent, he fixed upon these organs as the 
ground of his classification, and certainly no man, starting 
from a single idea, was ever conducted to more brilliant and 
duralde results. His first eleven classes were founded on the 
number of stamens ; the two next, on then- insertion ; the two 
next, on their comparative length ; the five next, on their 
union; the three next, on their separation from the pistils; and 
the last, on their absence or obscurity. The remarkable facility 
which this method afforded for ascertaining the names of plants, 
and its admirable flexibility under difficulties, were so strongly 
contrasted with the deficiency and awkwardness of all previous 
contrivances, that we cannotwonder at all atthe universal ac- 
clamation that greeted its announcement, or the hearty tribute 
of homage and thanksgiving bestowed upon its author. And still 
we ought not to forget the numerous other circumstances that 
contributed at the time to give popularity to the new system. 
Within a short period of its appearance, the rapid progress of 
discovery had made the defects of other systems more appa- 
rent and onerous than ever ; the credit of discovering the 
functions of the stamens had just been given to his author; 
science was incalculably Ijenefited by its introduction of spe- 
cific names and characteristic phrases, and in his hands botani- 
cal nomenclature was endowed with aprecision and force it had 
never before known. Add to this, that he had rendered im- 
portant services to every other branch of natural history ; the 
whole domain of nature had been subject to his researches, 
and he had every where left the impressions of his comprehen- 
sive mind. We mention this, not in disparagement of the 
sexual system, for we have no wish to detract in the slightest 
degree from its merits, but in order to account for the common 
disposition of its followers to give to it merits that it neither 
does nor can possess, and pertinaciously to claim for it an end 
never thought of by its author himself. It is not the first time 
that a man, who has done one thing well, has been supposed by 
his over-fond friends to have accomplished every thing. 
In the natural method, plants are arranged according to 



their natural relations ; those being associated together, wliich 
most nearly resemble one another in the whole of their struc- 
ture and appearance. They are expected to agree not in one 
particular only, but in many ; all minute and trivial charac- 
ters are disregarded, while the prominent and striking features, 
being indicative of family resemblance, and connected with 
the general economy of the plant, are assumed as furnishing 
the only ground that should determine their relations. Every 
plant stands by the side of those it most resembles, and if our 
classes and orders are not defined by well-marked limits, but 
gradually blend together on their outskirts, it certainly is not 
our fault, for we do no more than preserve those family re- 
semblances, — in fact, copy that arrangement of the vegetable 
tribes, which nature itself has made. So plain and numerous 
are the affinities (hat exist between certain plants, that little 
botanical tact is required to discern them ; they are evident at 
sight to the least practised observer. Every body can see 
this strong family likeness between the different species of the 
Grasses, and of the Palms, for instance, and would expect tc 
find them, in a natural classification, arranged by the side d 
one another. Let us not be misunderstood ; nature has in- 
stituted neither classes, orders, nor genera. She has done no- 
thing more than to throw together the various meml)ers of 
the vegetable kingdom, in groups of more or less distinctness 
and extent. It is our business to ascertain and define the 
particular conditions on which the affinities depend. They 
must necessarily be less obvious in some cases than in others, 
but are noton that account the less real and strong. Inasmuch 
as traits of consanguinity between different men may be dis- 
cerned in their moral and intellectual resemblance, when 
their features and complexion would never betray the fact, 
so to discern the affinities of plants and animals, we must 
often go beneath the surface, and find, in more important 
parts of their structure, marks of relationship of the clearest 
and strongest kind. 

This brief exposition of the objects of the artificial and na- 
tural methods of classification will show well enough their 
several uses in the study of botany, and enable our readers to 
see that while both are indispensable, the latter cannot be 
neglected, without entirely overlooking the grandest views 
and deepest principles that the science contains. An exclusive 
attachment to the artificial method accustoms the mind to 
partial observation and superficial views ; for as the attention 
is directed solely to the sexual organs, and that only for the 
purpose of finding the name of the plant, it is perfectly obvi- 
ous, that much in its history must go unknown and unstudied. 
The very convenience and facility which it continually affords 
incline the mind more and more to look at vegetables in a 
.single point of view, and finally to regard (his single object of 
finding their names, as constituting the whole science of bota- 
ny. Incorrect notions relative to the nature of organs, and 
the force of characters, are insensibly imbibed ; and while ex- 
aggerated estimates are made of the importance of some of 
these, most unphilosophical notions are entertained of the in- 
significance of others. In the natural method, on the con- 
trary, not one, but all the organs pass under review, and are 
submitted to close examination before the plant can be traced 
to its place in the general arrangement, so that the process of 
finding its name acquaints one with the most valuable points 
in its whole history. Instead of referring directly to the spe- 
cific description after a hasty glance at the stamens and pistils; 
the calyx, corolla, seed-vessel, seed, and general aspect, are 
also considered ; and thereby the student becomes better ac- 
quainted not only with (he plant, but with a variety of pro- 
perties which it possesses in common with a great many others. 
The study of affinities, when applied to particular species, neces- 
sarily throws light on other species; a knowledge of one con- 
stantly illuslrating and increasingthat of others. Onthe score of 
convenience too, the artificial has but little advantage over 
the natural method, (o one, who is already acquainted with a 
considerable number of plants. In most cases he would 
hardly trouble himself to count the exact number of stamens 



150 



ON THE CULTURE OF FICS, ON BAISING APPLE TREES. 



in order to ascertain its name, for the first glance would show 
him its affinities witli otliers that lie had previously examined, 
and consequently lead him at once to its place in the natural 
system. Thus the relations that one plant possesses with other 
plants, and which form the most valuable part of its history, 
are already manifest before he lias found its name ; while he 
who neg!ects the study of the natural system is unable to ad- 
vance a single step in the knowledge of the plant till he is 
master of this fact. The decided and emphatic testimony of 
Linn^us himself in its favonris a striking proof of the com- 
prehensiveness and impartiality of his views, and is singularly 
contrasted with the misplaced jealousy of some of his disci- 
ples. He declares, ' that the natural method is the first and 
last object of botany ;' ' that its fragments even should be dili- 
gently studied ;' ' that none but poor botanists think it of 
little value; ' that it is the highest aim of his own la1)ours and 
of those of every accomplished naturalist;' ' that he had made 
some discoveries, and that the man who would remove Iris few 
remaining doubts should be his Magnus ApoUc.^ 

(To be continued.) 
ON THE CULTURE OF FIGS. 



The fig is a fruit of great antiquity, as we learn from ancient 
history thatjt was the principal article of food among the in- 
habitants of the Eastern Countries, before the use of wheat, 
barley, or any grain was known. The fig was cultivated 
with great care up to the period at which the Spaniards were 
suspected of giving poisoned figs to theii- enemies. No doubt 
an aversion to figs arose at that time, and the best mode of 
their cultivation was lost. 

When I was gardener to Sir Chas. Monck, Bart. Belsay 
Castle, we had a house built espressly for figs. They were 
planted out in the border, in the same manner as vines. 
Several were in pots and tubs, which were kept in the orange- 
house, and some on a hot wall. Fig-trees are most fruitful 
when planted in a strong hazelly cool loam. Those planted 
in a light dry soil generally cast the first crop before it is ripe, 
and show a second crop on the wood the trees make that sea- 
son. Trees in the open air, that are subject to casting off the 
first crop, do little good, for if the second crop be ever so 
plentiful the season is too far advanced to allow the tree 
to make wood and ripen the fruit, before the long cold nights 
set in. 

Fig-trees in pots are most dilBcult to manage, as they are 
generally kept in a vinery, or some forcing-house. The soil 
in the pot being of the same temperature as the house, the 
tree becomes impatient, and if it sustain the least check for 
want of water, the fruit will, a few days afterwards, drop off. 
1 succeeded best with those I had in pots, by putting them in 
a strong soil inclining to clay, and pressing it hard among 
the roots as I potted, placing them in that part of the house 
where they had plenty of air, and watering them plentifully 
when the fruit was swelling. I have had excellent crops of 
figs from trees against a hot wall. They were planted in a 
strong hazelly coloured soil. Old fig-trees are generally most 
fruitful, as their young wood is, for the most part, short 
jointed and spur-like, which is always fruitful. Young trees 
generally make long jointed luxurious wood, which is not to 



be depended upon for a crop. After the fall of the leaf itt 
autumn, I cover the fig-trees on the wall with fern to protect 
the wood from injury by the frost. About the end of April 
I clear away the fern, and nail the branches regularly to the 
wall. In pruning I cut out any-long naked shoots to give 
place for the lower branches. The young wood should never 
be shortened, as the best fruit is generally on the extremity. 
All shoots that push out in summer from wood of three or four 
years' growth I displace immediately, as they are glutinous 
and unfruitful. From April to the end of May, I cover the 
trees on the wall at night with canvass and bass mats, as se- 
veral of the fruit at that time are as large as Mazagan beans, 
and the slightest frost would destroy them. During the sum- 
mer months, I give them plenty of water over the leaves with 
the engine, thrice a week. Young healthy trees are liable to 
make a great length of young wood ; when that is the case the 
sap flows too rapidly past the fruit, which thus starves and 
drops off. This may be prevented, if observed in time. In 
the month of June I examine the trees closely, and if the 
wood is making rapid growth, I ring the part from which 
the vigorous shoots issue. This immediately humbles the 
growth of the wood, and the fruit keeps pace and swells in 
proportion with it. 

The fig-house in the gardens at Belsay Castle is of particu- 
lar construction, being only four feet wide inside, the upright 
glass in front ten feet high. The border is prepared on the 
north side of the back wall, the wall being built on arches for 
the roots to get through. Tlie trees are planted inside, and 
trained against the wall. There is no artificial heat to the 
house. The border was prepared with a strong hazelly loam, 
the soil which I use for melons, taken from the top of a lime- 
stone quarry. I never saw finer figs than were produced in 
that house, particularly the Dwarf Brown Naples, which got 
to a great size, and could not be exceeded in point of flavour. 

W. G. 

-^^iSlJ^M 

ON RAISING APPLE TREES FROM SEEDS. 

BY J. TRIMMER, ESQ. 



It may, perhaps, be interesting to some of your readers to know 
what was my success in a small experiment I made in raising 
apples from seeds. 

I collected some apple-pips, all from good sorts of eating ap- 
ples, and sowed them in the spring of the year 1 802. During the 
first few years, those which came up were greatly reduced in 
nximber by several accidents, and afterwards by being removed 
to another garden at an unfavourable season of the year ; all 
but three trees were killed, and those much retarded for several 
years in their growth. Of these three plants, one produced fruit 
the twenty-second year of its age, and proved a particularly juicy 
and very fine flavoured fruit, which keeps to the end of Novem- 
ber ; it is a very abundant bearer, but not a very strong grow- 
ing or very healthy tree. The second tree fruited the twenty- 
fourth year ; it is a sweet fruit, but there is nothing to render 
it worth propagating ; though I still have the original plant, 
and it is equal in quality to many sorts that are still found in old 
gardens. The third tree produced fruit in the twenty-sixth, 
and I consider it a very valuable kind ; the fruit is of a good 
size and appearance, and evidently allied, by its shape, to the 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATEB. 



151 



Pearmain. It is pleasant as an eating apple ; I know none that 
exceeds it for boiling ; and it keeps particularly well to the end 
of April without at all shrivelliug. Out of a good many sorts, 
it kept this year the best of any that I had ; I used the last in 
the last week in April, and I do not doubt that many of them 
would have been good to the middle of May. It is a good 
bearer, and a remarkably healthy tree. I shall have much plea- 
sure in sending you specimens of each sort for yoiir opinion in 
the atitumn, and afterwards cuttings for yourself, or such of 
your friends as may deem them worth grafting with. 

I trained, a few years ago, a nectarine from seed, which 
fruited eitlier the sixth or seventh year, I am not sure which. 
The fruit it produced was very like tlic Roman nectarine, but I 
think rather higher flavoured. The flesh parts, when ripe, se- 
parate very clearly from the stone. 

I have stated these circumstances, thinking that, perhaps, 
they might be considered such as to induce others to raise fruits 
from seed, which must always be the source from whence we 
derive new sorts. 

ON THE CULTURE OF PEAS. 

As the different varieties of the garden pea cannot fail to be 
a subject of interest to society in general, perhaps it would 
not be considered altogether amiss to offer a few observations 
relative to their cultivation, &c. It is, I believe, a general 
practice for peas to be sown in rows, from two to five feet apart, 
according to the height which the dift'ereut varieties grow ; a 
practice of which I do not altogether approve, with the excep- 
tion of the earliest crops, there being in general but certain 
compartments suitable for them. The method I have been in 
the habit of pursuing is, to sow the seeds of the second and 
after crops in rows, a considerable distance apart, say from 
twenty to thirty feet, according to the size of the kitchen gar- 
den, or the quantity required. The interval between the rows 
is cropped with other vegetables of dwarf growth, such as broc- 
coli, savoys, cabbage, spinach, celery, &c., so that there may 
"be no loss of ground. The tall peas, when sticked, are an ad- 
vantage rather than otherwise to the intermediate crops when 
first planted, on account of the shade which they produce, and 
in addition to which the ground always appears fully cropped. 
It therefore must be admitted, that it adds to the beauty of the 
kitchen garden. By the above treatment the crop is increased 
fully one-third, and of superior quality. The produce of the 
common bean, and also of the scarlet i-unner, is considerably in- 
creased by the above mode of treatment. Respecting the hardi- 
ness of the different varieties, I am not at present able to give 
any decided information ; but it has been confidently asserted 
to me, that some of the marrows, as well as other varieties, 
are equally hardy as the early frame, charlton, S:c. If such is 
the case, and I have no reason to doubt it, how much sooner 
in the season might some of the finer varieties be sent to table ? 
However, be that as it may, I propose to give the different 
varieties a fliir trial, and hope to be able in due season to give 
you a detailed account of the comparative hardiness of each 
variety. The sugar peas are not unfrequently, when quite 
young, gathered, sliced in the manner of harriiots, French beans, 
and sent to table in that state. It may be necessary to add, 
that the soil in which the peas grew was a strong i-ich loam, and 
I have no hesitation in saying it is the best kind of soil for late 
peas, and for early peas I believe a light dry soil will be found 
to answer best. It is also a general practice, in small gardens 
particularly, to sow their peas too thick, which is greatly detri- 
mental to the crops. As a criterion, T should recommend, for 
the earliest sorts, about a pint to every fifteen yards, and for 
the later kinds the same quantity to about twenty-five yards. 
The whole of the varieties of grey peas are unfit for garden cul- 
ture. T. 



Bt^criftian of tlje piateS. 

CRAT^GUS CORDATA. 

Heart-leaved Craicegus. 

Icosandria Di-Pentagynia. — LiNN. 

Rosaceje. — JussiEU. 

Arbor mediocris, ramulis subangulatis, verrucosis. Folia 

cordata, basi subtruncata, acuminata, lobata, serrata, utrin- 

que la;via, suprk lucida, atrohiridia, petiolis longis, Isevibus. 

Floris albi, corimbosi, parvi, calicibus glabris, petalis rotun- 

datis, apice denticulatis. Styli 5. Fructus sphierici, pisiformes, 

coccioei, carnosi, nuculis quinque osseis. 

This handsome hardy tree is a native of North America, and 
forms a beautiful bush or small tree, flowering rather later 
than others of the genus, the blossoms beginning to open in the 
end of May, or early in June. It is much valued for the fine 
dark green glossy appearance of its leaves, and the vivid colour 
of its scarlet fruit, which will sometimes hang on the tree during 
the winter. 

Young branches rather angular and warty. Leaves cordate, 
somewhat truncate at the base, acuminate, lobed, serrated, 
smooth on each side, above dark green and shining, with long 

smooth petioles. 

TULIPA OCULUS SOLIS. 

Persian SuiVs Eye TuUp._ 
Hexandria Monogynia. — LlNN. 
Liliaceje. — JussiEU. 
T. Oculus soils ; integumento bulbi intus lanato, foliis 4 sub- 
ciliatis caule floreque glaherrimis, labris conniventibus stig- 
matum villoso-fimbriatis. Ker. supric, vol. 3. fol. 20i, v;itii 
the synonyms. 
B. Persica ; foliis latioribus magis glaucis, perianthio maximo, 
integumento bulbi iutiis hirsuto. 

The Agen, or Sun's Eye Tulip, is singular in the genus for a 
deep black eye, or base to the perianthium in the inside, which 
is bordered by a margin of yellow interposed between it and the 
vermilion red of the rest of the perianthium : when expanded 
beneath the influence of a bright sun, the effect of this is sur- 
prisingly beautiful ; the flowers rarely open under less favour, 
able circumstances. Hitherto it has been only discovered wild 
in the South of Europe. 

The roots of the common European kind are densely clothed 
with wool beneath the outer integuments, — a provision, as it 
would seem, by which Nature seeks to guard them from too 
severe cold. The Persian variety, which, it is to be presumed, 
has less need of protection of this kind, has, in lieu of wool, a 
quantity of coarse hairs, forming a protection much less^ dense 
than that which exists in the European kind. May it not 
hence be suspected, that Persia is indeed the native land of the 
Tulipa Oculus soils, and that the individuals found in the places 
above mentioned are mere outcasts of gardens ? 

This should he cultivated at the foot of a wall with a rather 
southern aspect. The earth should consist of a light, loamy soil. 
It is remarked by De Candolle that T. Oculus soils differs 
from T. Sauveolens, nnd from T. sylvestris, in not having hairs 
upon either its stem or its flowers ; from T. Gesneriana in its 
■ pointed petals ; and from T. Clusiana in its much larger flower, 
the claw of which is at least as long as the anthers, and in the 

arrangement of itscolours. 

CLIVIA NOBILIS. 

Scarlet Clicia. 

Hexandria Monogynia. — LiNN. 

Amaryllideae. — JussiEC. 

Clivia. — Perianthium tubulosum, sexpartitum, deciduum, 

alciniis imbricantibus ; exterioribus paulo brevioribus. Slamin, 

sex, sequalia, periantio basin versiis inserta ; filumenta subulata, 

subinclusa ; anlherrc Versailles. Ovarium 3-loculare polysper- 

mum. Fructus baccatus, indehiscens, monospermus. Semen 

carnosum ; subrotundum. — Herba (Capensis), radicibns /asn'cM- 

latis, foliis distichis, floribus umbellatis pendulis. Scapo phmo- 



152 



DESCRIPTION OP THE PLATE?. 



Roots fleshy, fascicled. Leaves distichous, coriaceous, dark 
green, strap-shaped, sheathing at the hase, retuse and oblique 
at the apex, rough at the margin. Scape erect, plano-coavex, 
bordered, furrowed towards the summit. Flowers from 48 to 
50, on long stalks, pendulous, arranged in an umbel. Perianth 
tubular, clavate, deciduous ; the segments yellowish scarlet, 
greenish at the apex, obtuse, imbricated in a double row, co- 
hering towards the base, the outer rather shorter than the inner, 
like those of a Lacheualia. Stamens six, inserted in the orifice 
of the tube, equal ; filaments smooth : anthers small, oval, 
greenish yellow, versatile. Ovarium inferior, greenish yellow, 
3-celled, many-seeded, round, ventricose. Ovula numerous, in- 
serted towards the base of the axis ; style filiform ; stigma 
somewhat 3-lobed. Fruit berried, indehiscent, red, generally, 
in consequence of the abortion of two cells and most of the 
ovula, one-seeded, marked at the top by the scar of the fallen 
perianth. Seed single, ascending, (only seen unripe), very 
smooth, transparent, oval ; hilum small, above the base ; fora- 
men in the base ; raphe short, raised. Testa, when young, 
marked with very minute areolations ; albumen abundant. Em- 
bryo .... 

A greenhouse plant, not appearing to require particular care 
in its cultivation, and propagating either by seeds or suckers. 

BILLBERGIA PYRAMIDALIS ; var. BICOLORED. 

Two-coloured Pyramidal Billbergia. 

Hexandria Monogynia. — Linn. 

Bromeliacese. — JussiEu. 

B. pyramidalis ; caule erecto : bracteis magnis spathaceis co- 

loratis, spica suhcapitata cbracteata. 
Billbergia pyramidalis. Lindl. supri, vol. xiii, fol. 1068, in nota. 
Bromelia nudicaulis. Supra, vol. iii, fol. 203. 
Bromelia pyramidalis. Bot. Mag. 1732. 

;3. hicolor , petalis obtusus bicoloribus, foliis raagis acuminatis. 
This is a native of some part of South America, and higUy 
deserving of cultivation on account of the great beauty of its 
flowers. 

SOPHORA VELUTINA. 

Decandria Monogynia. — Linn. 

LeguminosEe. — JussiEU. 

SoPHORA Linn. — Calyx 5-dentatus, basi campanulata v. 
suhattenuatu. Petala carinalia ssepiiis apice concreta. Legu- 
men moniliforme, apteriim, polyspermum. — Arbores fruticus aut 
herbse, foliis impari-pinnafis, seepius exstipidatis, racemis fer- 
minalihus simplicibus paniculatisvc. Dec. prodr. 2. 95. 

A fine greenhouse shrub, which well deserves a trial as a 
hardy plant : it is a native of Nipal, and was first raised some 
years since from seeds sent to this country. 

Although we have referred it to Sophora, we are by no means 
satisfied that it is a genuine species of that genus, from which 
it differs very considerably. 

This plant would, if naturalized in our shrubberies, be a 
very desirable addition to our collection of hardy plants. 

GAILLARDIA ARISTATA. 

Whole-coloured Gaillardia. 

Syngenesia Frustranea. — LiNN. 

Corymbiferse. — Jdssieu. 

Gaillardia Fougeroux. — Involucrum polyphyllum, imbrica- 
tum, squamis foliaceis. Floscvli radii ligulati 3-dentati neutri; 
disci tubulosi, persistentes, basi herbacei subsolidi, dentibus ex- 
tiis barbatis, centro masculi, ad ambitum hermaphroditi. Stiff- 
mata subulata barbata basi pedicelliformia glabra. Fructus vU- 
losusturbinatus, teres. Pa;);)Hs paleaceus. Receptaculum coaicnm 
paleaceum. 

A nearly evergreen perennial, with fibrous roots. Leaves 
spatulate, tapering down into a long petiole, somewhat toothed, 
covered on both sides with numerous soft hairs, which are di- 
vided internally by several partitions ; stem sessile, oblong, 
very entire, acute, very slightly amplexicaul at the base. The 



radical leaves are occasionally pinnatifid. Stems erect, taper, 
striated, with close-pressed hairs. Heads solitary, on very 
long stalks, erect. Involucrum imbricated, many-leaved; the 
scales foliaceous, finally reflexed, ciliated, the innermost being nar- 
row. Florets of the ray 15, large, cuneate, 3-toothed, yellowish 
orange, neuter ; of the disk purple, tubular, campanulate, with 
a short, green, taper, solid base ; the lobes 5, acuminate, 
bearded ; the florets are persistent almost until the ripening of 
the fruit, and change to a greenish colour ; those of the centre 
are male, those towards the circumference female or hermaphro- 
dite. Ovarium turbinate, villous ; pappus paleaceous, aristate. 
Anthers with a little appendage at the apex, and acute lobes at 
the base. Style filiform, smooth. Stigmata purple, subulate, 
bearded, furrowed along the middle, with a smooth stalk. Fruit 
turbinate, taper, truncate, villous at the base, smooth at the 
apex. Receptacle conical, covered with subulate palea. 

A handsome hardy perennial, found in N.orth America by Mr. 
David Douglas. 

It is, no doubt, the G. aristata of Pursh, which is considered 
a mere variety of G. bicolor. It appears to us, however, to be 
sufficiently distinct as a species, especially as it does not lose its 
wild features when cultivated. It is altogether a large plant, 
more hardy, and distinguished by other important ditferences. 

P^ONIA HYBRIDA. 

Hybrid Pctony. 

Polyandria Tri-pentagynia. — JussiEU. 

Ranunculacctfi. — Linn. 

P. hybrida ; herbacea, folliculis recurvatis pubescentibus, foliis 

multipartitis : laciniis linearibus acuminatis glabris, flore cer- 

nuo foliis longiore. 
P. hybrida. Pall, fl. ross. 2. ;.). 94. t. 86. B'illd. sp. pi. 2. 

1223. Ait. Kew. ed. 2. 3. 316. Smith in Rees, in loco, no. 

10. Decand.syst. 1. 393; prodr. 1. 66. Bieb.fl.taur. cauc. 

2. 11. et 3. 367. 

This is the most beautiful of the cut-leaved Pseonies, from all 
which it differs strikingly in the deeper red of its flowers. 

Within a few years roots have been obtained from several 
quarters, and the study of them in a growing state has now 
made it evident that it is a genuine species. At least we have 
high authority for saying that the characters which can he cer- 
tainly depended upon in distinguishing P. hybrida from P. 
tenuifolia, are, firstly, the nodding flower of the former, as con- 
trasted with the erect flower of the latter ; secondly, the greater 
length of the peduncle, by which the flower of P. hybrida is 
elevated distinctly above the leaves, while that of P. tenuifolia is 
always overtopped by them ; and, lastly, in the greater breadth 
of the leaves of P. hybrida. From P. anomala it is readily 
separated by its downy, not smooth, fruit. 

HAMELIA VENTRICOSA. 

Pentandria Monogynia. — LiNN. 
RubiaccEe.— JussiEU. 

Hamelia Linn. — Calyx parvus, 5-fidus. Corolla tubulosa 
oblonga, 5-gona, limbo 5-fido. Stamina 5, medio tubi inserta ; 
antherfE ohlon^ie. S^i(/mc obtusum, sub-5-gonum. Bacca ovata, 
sulcata, apice retusa et coronata, 5-locularis, polysperma, semi- 

nibus minutis. Frutices ; fo\ia plerumque 3, verticillata ; 

flores corymboso-cymosi terminalis. — Juss. mem. jnus. 3. 398. 

Branches smooth, somewhat 4-cornered. Leaves lanceolate, 
membranous, stalked, quite smooth, inserted in threes or fours ; 
stipules subulate. Corymbs terminal, spreading, smooth. Calyx 
roundish, 5-toothed, Corolla yellow, funnel-shaped, ventricose, 
gibbous at the base, with an erect, plaited, 5 -clef t limb. Anthers 
linear, usually projecting. 

A handsome hot-house plant, growing vigorously, and flower- 
ing in abundance in nearly all the summer months. It is a 
native of Jamaica, where it becomes a large tree, yielding hand- 
some variegated planks, called by the cabinet-makers Spanish 
Elm or King-wood. 



^^fVl,^-^#yf^^ 




5,Pi-iiLnila cortiisoide 





6 ■ PJiyi eTumT orbic-aligi- 



ScTitelliiiia L-o]imm?j?. 




iS. LlirvsiijitkennuLi. cnrniiaTiuin. 



40 



ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY. 



153 



ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY. 
Concluded fi'om p, 150. 

Many attempts have been made to arrange the vegetable 
kingdom according to a natural system of classification ; but 
Jussieu was the first to develope its tnie principles and con- 
struct its foundations and frame-work, to be enlarged and com- 
pleted by the labours and superior knowledge of succeeding 
botanists. Considering the immense researches that were re- 
quired to bring the undertaking to any thing like a finished 
condition, and the disadvantages which naturalists of those 
days laboured under, we have more reason to be surprised at 
its excellence than its imperfections, and feel constrained to 
look on it as one of the noblest monuments ever erected by 
human industry and genius in the great temple of nature. Many 
and important as are the changes it has suffered since its com- 
mencement, the impress of its original author is visible at every 
step, and time has not withered a single laurel tliat has been 
placed upon his brows. The fundamental principle of his sys- 
tem is, that all the organs, and likewise all the points of view 
under which they may be considered, have not an equal degree 
of importance or permanence ; that some control the others and 
necessarily determine their relationa. It is this principle of the 
subordination of characters, first distinctly set forth by Jussieu, 
and now applied in the classification of every department of na- 
tural history, which drew from Cuvier the splendid and merited 
eulogium, ' that in the sciences of observation it created an 
epoch as important as the chemistry of Lavoisier in the sciences 
of experiment.' To the development of this great idea the 
labours of botanists have been principally directed, in their en- 
deavours to bring the naturiil method to the highest possible 
degree of perfection ; and though genius and devotion have 
been brought to the work in no stinted measure, yet to De- 
candoUe we believe is assigned the palm of undisputed pre- 
eminence. His Theorie EUmenfaire de la Botanique, which con- 
tains a masterly exposition of the principles of natural classi- 
fication, is the noblest contribution ever made to the Philosophy 
of Botany, and justly entitles its author to a place among the 
Newtons and Galileos of science. It is the production of a 
mind that could dwell with minuteness on the smallest details, 
without narrowing its range, and raise itself to the contempla- 
tion of the newest and boldest truths, withoiit risk of yielding 
to the allurements of baseless hypothesis. If we are sometimes 
startled at the wonderful boldness and originality of his views, 
we are no less surprised, as we follow him in his course, to 
behold the caution and security with which eveiy step to their 
attainment is effected, and are obliged to acknowledge in his 
reasonings the power of that logic of facts, iu which no flaw 
nor sophistry can be detected. Ever treading on the utmost 
verge of truth, he never oversteps its confines to lose himself 
in the bewildering regions of theoretical speculation. His rea- 
sonings, though eminently acute and profound, are characterized 
by a remarkable simplicity, and, presenting a noble specimen of 
philosophical induction, they proclaim their author a worthy 
disciple of the school of Bacon. Few are the naturalists, of 
whatever age or experience, to whom the pages of this work 
will not furnish, through life, inexhaustible materials for study 
and reflection. As it is little known, however, and as little 
^udied, we suspect, in England, we have thought we might 
do an acceptable service to such of our readers as are interested 
in Natural History, by presenting them not exactly an abridg- 
ment of its contents, but an analysis of its genei'al principles. 

The theory of natural classification consists essentially of 
three parts, which treat respectively of the comparative im- 
portance of the organs of plants, of the circumstances that may 
deceive the observer as to their true nature, and of the im- 
portance of each point of view under which an organ may be 
considered. 

I. Comparison of organs. — In order to ascertain the relative 
importance of the organs, it is necessary to compare them in 
reference to their functions. We say, for instance, that the 
MAGAZINE OP BOTANY AND GARDENING, VOL. II. NO. XX 



brain holds a higher rank than the nerves, and the heart than 
the veins, but this does not decide the relative rank of the brain 
and heart. Or, to adduce an illustration of a different kind, a 
general is higlier than a captain, and a governor of a province 
than the mayor of a town, but the arbitrary laws of etiquette 
alone decide whether the general or governor be entitled to 
precedence. The first general principle in the classification of 
organized beings is, that the importance of each organ can be 
calculated only when compared with those organs which relate 
to the same class of functions. In the vegetable organization 
there are two classes of functions, one destined to the preserv- 
ation of the individual, the other to that of the species. These 
no doubt are of equal importance, and always possessed corre- 
sponding degrees of perfection. Hence, we deduce another ge- 
neral principle of classification, viz. that systems, established 
upon either of these two grand classes of functions, would be 
equally natural, provided they were constructed with the same 
care. The preference, indeed, has been usually given to the 
reproductive organs, because differences iu the vegetable or- 
ganization are more perceptible in them than in the nutritive 
organs, and more especially too, because the latter have been 
comparatively but little studied. Were they both equally well 
understood, without doubt a system founded on one would be 
identical with one established on the other ; for every thing 
leads us to believe that any complication, or other modification 
in one class of functions, is attended by a similar one in the 
other. Cesalpinas had established certain classes upon the 
structure of the embryo alone, many centuries before Desfon- 
taines was conducted to the same result by making use of the 
nutritive organs. Hence also we make the division of plants 
into Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons with so much the more 
confidence, because we are equally led to it, whether we assume 
as the basis of our reasonings the reproductive or nutritive or- 
gans. In order to estimate the importance of each organ ia a 
given function, we must ascertain what is essential to its per- 
formance, when reduced to its simplest conditions. Thus, the 
essential part of reproduction is fecundation, and the fecundat- 
ing organs are consequently of higher importance than all their 
envelopes. At first, the sexual organs are equally indispensa- 
ble, but the duty of the male part is of short continuance, and 
they, together with a portion of the female parts, are destroyed 
after fecundation. But as the female organ, beside this short- 
lived part, includes another for which all the rest are con- 
structed, its importance is obviously greater than that of the 
male. Again : in the part of the female organ that remains, 
the integuments or fruit may be separated from the seed, 
and exist but for it. The seed has thus a higher value than its 
envelopes ; and continuing the same reasoning, we at last find 
the embryo performing the most important part in the whole 
function of reproduction. If, now, our conclusions be just, 
the organs may be arranged, in regard to their relative import- 
ance, in the following order. 1 . The embryo, the great end of 
all the rest. 2. The sexu.al organs, which are only the means. 
3. The envelopes of the embryo, viz. the integuments of the 
seed and the pericarp. 4. The envelopes of the sexual organs, 
viz. the corolla, calyx and involucre. 5. The nectaries and 
other accessory organs. 

Another means of judging of the relative importance of or- 
gans, is by the degree of constancy with which they appear in 
the vegetable organization. Some, we know, are frequently 
absent, some not so often, while others are almost always 
present. Hence we infer, that the stamens and pistils have a 
higher rank than the calyx and corolla, and these latter than 
the nectaries ; the filaments of the stamen and pistil are 
thus shown to be of less consequence than the anthers and 
stigmas. 

A third means of judging is, to observe to what point a 
given organ is more or less intimately connected with the struc- 
ture of certain groups, already acknowledged by naturalists. 
Thus, we conclude that stipules are more important than spines, 
because a great number of families either have or have not 
, — NOVEMBER 1834. Y 



154 



ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY. 



stipules, while there are many in which we find indifferently 
species with oi- without spines. 

II. The circumstances that may deceive the observer as to the 
true nature of the organs. — Before we can decide any question 
as to the relative importance of the organs, we need some 
means of distinguishing the organs themselves, and recognising 
their true nature, under all the modifications they are liable to 
experience. Looking at a single organ abstracted from the 
general structure, we can judge of its nature solely by its ivse, 
■whatever may be its position, form, or mode of action ; thus, 
the organ of vision is called the eye, and the part that bears 
the flower is called the peduncle. But when we examine beings 
as a whole, and judge of the nature of the organs in reference 
to the symmetrical plan on which they are constructed, this 
method will lead us into grievous errors. The tail of the kan- 
garoo serves the animal as a leg, yet nobody denies that it is 
still a tail : the nose of the elephant, prolonged to a great 
length, performs the office of a true hand ; and the teeth im- 
planted in the incisive bone serve a purpose entirely foreign 
to mastication, yet none pretend to dispute the anatomical ana- 
logy of these organs with the nose and teeth of other mammi- 
fers. So too, we see the leaves of plants sometimes prolonged 
and changed into tendrils, for the purpose of supporting the 
stem, thoiigh their primitive function is to elaborate the nu- 
tritious juices. The stipules, the peduncles, and even the lobes 
of the corolla may be converted to the same use, and every 
body is familiar with the leafy appearance and structure of the 
branches of the Indian Fig, or Prickly Pear, (Cactus Opuniia). 
From these examples, and a host more that we might mention, 
we deduce the general conclusion, that it frequently happens, in 
consequence of a given system of structui'e, that a certain func- 
tion, not being s'.ifficiently performed by the organ ordinarily 
allotted to it, is discharged wholly or in part by another. It 
is this system of organization, this symmeti-y of the organs as 
compared with one another, of which a knowledge is essentially 
necessary to a perception of the general harmony and natural 
classification of beings. This symmetry of parts, which should 
be a prominent object of the naturalist's studies, is, in one 
■word, the result of their relative disposition ; and therefore, 
whenever this disposition is the same, no matter how various 
may be the form of particular organs in other respects, the sub- 
jects present a kind of general resemblance, that strikes the 
least practised eye. 

Among the causes of error that are liable to mislead us in 
ascertaining the true nature of the organs, the principal is 
abortion, more or less complete, which alters their symmetry. 
Every body knows, that sometimes certain parts of organized 
heings do not receive that increase and development for which 
they were evidently destined, owing either to the compression 
of a foreign body, or a loss of part of their nourishment. This 
effect may be produced by internal causes, such as caries, for 
instance, as well as external ; but among those which prevent 
certain organs from receiving their full increase, it is possible 
that some may be the necessary consequences of the growth of 
another part, and will, of course, constantly occur in a given 
system of organization. We may, therefore, admit in theory the 
constant and predisposed abortion of certain organs, either wholly 
or in part. This is a startling doctrine to those yet uninitiated 
into a knowledge of the more hidden laws of organization, but 
is, nevertheless, as easy of proof as an abundance of the clearest 
facts can make it. Whoever will take the trouble to cut across 
the ovary of a horse-chesnut flower, soon after the petals have 
fallen, will find three cells and two seeds in each cell ; bxit let 
him look a few weeks afterwards, when the fruit has attained 
its perfect growth, and three seeds or nuts are the most that 
can ever be found — sometimes but one. But to remove all 
doubt as to the fact and nature of this phenomenon, we have 
only to cut open an ovary every day after the periol of flower- 
ing, to see some of the seeds gradually increasing, while the 
others are observed to remain stationary, and finally to be com- 
pletely choked by the development of the first. Now, when 



wc bear in mind that this phenomenon is constant, and takes 
place in trees perfectly sound, are we not forced to believe that 
it is owing to some circumstance in the very system of the or- 
ganizaton of this tree? In the oak, too, we have another 
familiar instance of a three-celled and six-seeded ovary finally 
resulting in one perfect seed only. The disappearance of the 
sexual organs is a very common occurrence, of which an exam- 
ple may be witnessed in the marginal florets of the snow-ball 
genus, and many other plants whose flowers grow together in 
large masses. The question then recurs, how shall we recognise 
the general symmetry of plants, amid the confusion produced by 
these partial abortions ? Some light may be obtained on this 
point from observing appearances denominated monstrous — an 
epithet commonly given to ail such as differ from the habitual 
state of the organs, though many of them ai*e returns of nature 
to the symmetrical order. Thus, to recur to an example al- 
ready cited, if, by some accidental cause, the six little seeds 
of the horse-chesnut or oak should obtain their full growth, 
and present us with a fruit of six nuts or acorns, we should 
call it monstrous, while, in truth, it is the single-seeded fruit 
that is the real monster. The Antirrhinum or Toad-flax has a 
personate corolla, the lower segment of which sends out a long 
spur, with four stamens of unequal length, and the rudiment of 
a fifth. In a variety of this plant called Peloria, the flower is 
perfectly regular, having an equal five-lobed corolla sending out 
five equidistant spm'S, in which are five equal stamens. Here 
is a most singular case of a return of nature to her favourite 
symmetry, and no doubt can be left as to which is the real 
monster. The rare example of certain compound flowers, where 
we see the egret become leafy and assume the appearance of a 
true calyx, is a strong proof of the egret's being, in fact, an 
abortive calyx. It is well known also, that trees which have 
spinous branches in a dry soil, cease to have them in a fertile 
one — a siifficient proof that spines are abortive branches. 

Another guide, less sure perhaps, but adapted to more 
general use, is analogy or induction. It is found solely in a 
knowledge of the respective positions of organs. In an Albuca, 
for instance, we find the entire structure of a liliaceous plant, 
excepting that it has only three stamens bearing anthers, while 
between them we observe three filaments placed precisely where 
stamens would be, and very similar to the existing stamens. 
Hence, we conclude that these filaments are abortive stamens. 
In the Ice-plant (Mesembryanthemum), we find a great num- 
ber of filaments disposed in several ranks, but all adhering by 
their bases, and attached to the same point of the calyx, the 
interior bearing fertile anthers, the middle having the anthers 
wholly or in part abortive, and the exterior being true petals. 
We conclude, then, that in this genus the petals are naturally 
abortive stamens, and from a crowd of similar facts we are led 
by a very powerful analogy to the belief that the petals of all 
plants, as a general theorem, are only filaments of stamens, 
whose developement is in the relation of cause or effect to the 
abortion of the anther. When too we see the calyx of a Va- 
lerian or Scabious, evidently assuming the form of an egret 
or pappus, we are induced by analogy to extend this result 
to the compound flowers, and conclude that their pappus is 
only an abortive calyx. Finally, by analogy alone, we judge 
in a host of cases of the natural number of the parts of flowers 
and fruits, and are led to look carefully for those whose abor- 
tion we suspect. It is the successful use of this principle 
which, more than any thing else, facilitates the study of nature, 
while the number of its objects are daily increased by discove- 
ries, and constitute in fact the true genius for Natural History. 

The proximate cause of abortion is principally defect or ex- 
cess of nourishment, and it may be well to consider a little 
farther the operation of these causes ; and first, the effect of 
abortion by defect on the organ itself. When partial, it gives 
rise to inequalities between organs naturally similar, and this 
is the principal if not the only cause of the irregularities pre- 
sented in the structure of vegetables. Every thing which has 
any bearing on this subject goes to establish the conclusion, 



ON THE NATURAL SYSTEM OF BOTANY. 



155 



that all organized beings are regular in tbeir intimate nature, 
and that ahortions, variously combined, produce all the irregu- 
larities that arrest our observation. In this point of view, the 
slightest inequalities between organs of the same name in a 
plant, are important, because they tell us in language plainer 
than words, that we may tind analogous plants where this ine- 
quality is still greater, and others where these organs, thus 
subject to partial abortion, have entirely disappeared. It may 
be received as a general principle, that wherever, in any given 
system of organization, there is inequality between organs of 
the same name, this inequality may attain its maximum, viz. 
the annihilation of the smallest part. When the abortion of an 
organ has proceeded so far as to prevent it from discharging 
its functions, it may be enabled, by this very circumstance, to 
fulfil some other functions. The abortion of the extremity of 
the leaf in vetches renders this part capable of performing the 
functions of a tendril, and abortion of tlie flowers of the Vine 
turns the peduncle to a similar use. In the same way, branches 
are changed into spines, and serve as defences to the plant, and 
the calyx of compound flowers into a pappus, which is useful, 
not more to the protection of the sexual organs, than the dis- 
persio