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f 




r 



MAGAZINE 



OF 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

CONDUCTED BY 

Sib W. JARDINE, Babt.— P. J. SELBY, Esq. 

AKD 

Db JOHNSTON. 



** Utrum naiuralium tagax Indagator' 



VOLUME SECOND. 



W. H. LIZARS, EDINBURGH ; 

S. HIGHLEY, 32, FLEET STREET, LONDON ; AND 

W. CURRY, JUN. & CO., DUBLIN. 



MDCCCXXXVin. 



AT 

3 



** Onmes res create sunt divine sapientite et potentise testes, divitis felidtatis 
humans ; ex harum usu hotdtas Creatoris ; ex pulcbritudine sapientia Domini ; ex 
CBConomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet 
Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper aestimata; a ver^ 
eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimiea 
fuit."— Linn, 



PRINTED BY JOHN 8TABK, EDINIHiRGH. ^ 



iJ 






CONTENTS. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

No. VII. 
I. AecooDt of a Botanical Excursion in the Alps of the Canton of Valais, 
Switzerland, in August 1835 ; and CaUlogue of the Plants collected, 
with occasional Remarks. By R. J. Sbuttl,ewo|ith, Esq. Page 1 
II. On the Dentition and other Characters of the British Shrews, with re- 
ference to M. DuYeruoy*s recent researches into the str^otu^e of this 
genus of Animals. By the Rev. Leokasd Jeityns, M. A. F. L. S., 
F. Z. S., &c. - - . - 24 

III. Contributions to the Natural History of Ireland. By William 

Thompson, Esq. Vice-President of the Belfast Natural History 
Society, ..... 42 

IV. Cbeloniorum Tabula Analytica. Auctoie Cabolo L. Bovaparte, 

Muxiniani Princip. .... 53 

V. MisceUaoea Zoologica. By Geo&ge JohkstoXi M. D , Fellow of 

the Royal College of SuigeoDs of Edinburgh, - - 63 

No. VIII. 
I. Notes on the Land and Fresh Water MoUusca of Great Britain, with a 
revised list of Species. By Joshua Alo£K, Member of the Natu- 
ral History Society pf Newcafltle*upon-Tyne, - 101 
II. On the Botany .of Erris, County Mayo, (tnd ft notice of femffd addi- 
tions to the Flora Hibemica. By Chakles C. Babinoton, M. A. 
F. L. 8.,&c - . - . - 119 

III. Notes upon Subaqufitic Insects, with the description of a New Genus of 

British SUphylinide. By J. O. West wood, F. L. S., &c 124 

IV. The Natural History of the British Entomostraca. By William 

Baird, Surgeon, H. C. S. Continued, - - 132 

V. Directions for the preservation of Sea Plants, vith Miscellaneous Re- 
marks on a number of species collected at Cairnlough Bay, on the 
Coast of Antrim, in the months of May and June 1836. By James 
S. Drummond, M. D. President of the Belfast Natural History 
Society, &c. ----- - 144 

VI. Observations on the Caprimulgus Europeus (Night- Jar.) By Dr W. 

B. Clarke, Ipswich, ..... 158 

VII. On the advancement of Local Botany in the environs of London, with 
remarks relative to the Dispersion of Plants in that vicinity, and the 
formation of plans exhibiting the Distribution of Species over locali. 
ties. By Daniel Coopeb, Curator to the Botonical Society of 
Loitdon, &c. - - - - .163 



iv Contents. 

VIII. Contributions to the Katural History of Ireland. By Willtah 
Thompson, Esq. Vice-President of the Belfast Natural History So- 
ciety. Continued, ... Page 170 
IX. Account of a Botanical Excursion in the Alps of the Canton of Valais, 
Switzerland, in August 1835 ; and Catalogue of the Plants collected, 
with occasional Remarks. Hy R. J. Suuttlewobth, Esq. Con- 
tinued, ...... 180 

No. IX. 
I. On the British Species of the Genus Cerastium, being an attempt to 
elucidate their distinctive diaracters. By Charles C. Babiko- 
TON, M.A., F. L. S.,&c. - - - - 197 

II. Characters and Descriptions of the Dipterous Insects indigenous to 

Britain. By James Duncan, M. W. S., &c. &c. Continued, 205 

III. On the existence of a second membrane in the Asd of FungL By the 

Rev. M. J. Bekeelet, M. A., F. L. S., - - 222 

IV. Observations on the Gemmse of Bryum androgynum. By George 

Dickie, Esq. Surgeon, Aberdeen, - - - 226 

V. On a peculiar structure in Shells ; with some observations on the Shell 

of Sphaerulites. By John Edward Gray, F. R. S., &c. 228 

VI. Localities of Scottish Coleoptera. By the Rev. William Little, 232 

No. X. 

I. Historical Notice of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. By M. Ad. 

Brongniart, ..... 293 

II. Notes on the Ornithology of Norway. By W. C; Hewitson, Esq. 309 

III. The British Cerastia: a Supplement to a former Essay. By C. C. 

Babington, F. L. S., &c. Plate IX. Continued, 317 

IV. The Natural History of British Zoophytes. By George Johnston, 

M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. (Con- 
tinued from Vol. i. p. 4470 - - - - 319 

V. On a Confervoid State of Muoor Clavatus, Lk. By the Rev. M. J. 

Berkeley, M. A., F. L. S., - - . 340 

No. XI. 
I. The Fauna of TwizelL By P. J. Selby, Esq. (Continued,) 387 

II. A Notice, with the results, of a Botanical Expedition to Guernsey and 

Jersey, in July and August 1837* By Charles C. Babington, 
M.A., F.L. S., &c. .... - 397 

III. The Natural History of the British Entomostraca. No. IV. By 

William Baird, Surgeon H.C.S., &C. . • 400 

IV. Remarks on the Mosses found in the neighbourhood of Aberdeen. By 

G. Dickie, Esq. ..... 412 

V. Observations on some New or Obscure Species of Plants. No. I. By 

G. A. Walker Arnott, LL. D., F. L. S., &c. . 419 

VI. Contributions to the Natural History of Ireland. By William 

Thompson, Esq. Vice-President of the Belfast Natural History 
Society. .-.-... 427 

VI I. Dr Robert H. Schomburgh*s description of Victoria Regina, Gray. 

Plate XIL - - - • - . 440 



Co7itent8. V 

VI II. CoDtribution towards a knowledge of the Crenilabri (Cuv.) of IrcUndi 
ioduding Dcecriptions of Species apparently new to Science. By 
W1LI.IAM Thompson, Esq. Vice-President of the Natural History 
Society of Belfast. Plates Xlli. and Xi V. . Page 442 

No, XII. 

I. A Revision of the Genera of Bats ( Vespertilionidie), and the Description 

of some new Genera and Species. By Johk Edward Gray, 
F. R. S., President of tlie Botanical Society of London, &c. &c 483 

II. Account of a Botanical Excursion in the Alps of the Canton of Valais, 
Switzerland, in Aagust 1835 ; and Catalogue of the Plants collected, 
with occasional Remarks. By R. J. Shuttle worth, Esq. (Con- 
tinued from p. 196,) ..... 605 

III. An attempt to ascertain the Fauna of Shropshire and North Wales. By 

Thomas C. Eytow, F. Z. S. - - - 637 

IV. Observations on some New or Obscure Species of Plants. No. II. 

By G. a. Walker Arkott, LL. D., F. L. S., &c (Continued 
from page 247,) .... 543 

REVIEWS AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS. 

No. VIL 
I. loones Plantarum, or Figures with brief descriptive characters and re- 
marks of New or Rare Plants, selected from the Author's Herbarium. 
By Sir W. J. Hooker, K. H., LL. D., &c. - - 74 

II. Dr Lardner*8 Cabinet Cydopcedia. Natural History. Natural History 

and Classification of Birds. By W. Swainson, Esq. - 75 

III. An Analysts of the British Ferns and their Allies. With Copper-plate 

engravings of every Species and Variety. By Geokob W. Framci3, 85 

PERIODICALS. 

Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, . . . ^(j 

Companion to Botanical Magazine, - . _ Sy 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles, .... 99 

Annalen der Pbysik und Chemie, ... 39 

No. IX. 
Manuel de Malacologie et de Conchyliologie. Par H. M. Due rota y de 

Blainville. 
Manuel de THistoire Naturdle des MoUusqucs et de leur Coquilles. Par 

M. Sander Ramo. 
The Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells ; for the use of Students in Con- 

chology and Geology. By George Brettinoham Sowerbt. 
The Elements of Modem Conchology ; with Definitions of all the Tribes, 

Families, and Genera, Recent and FossiL For the use of Students and 

Travellers. By William Swainson, Esq. 
Elements of Conchology, according to the Lionsean System, illustrated by 

28 plates drawn from Nature. By the Rev. E. I. Burrow, A. M. 

F. L. S. - - - - - 238 



vi OnUenis. 

BIBLIOGBAPBICAL MOTICCf. 

Fauoa Japonica. Auctore Pfi. Fb. De Siebold.— Ophidii cUbonotibus 
C. J. TcMirivcK at H. Sen lege l, - Page 2GG 

A SyBoptis of the Birds of Auatnlia and the adjacent Idaodi. Bt John 
GooLD, F. L. S. Part II. - - - 266 

CaUlogue of the CellaUim or Flowerleis Planto ai Great Britain, or those 
inelnded in the Linnean class Cryptogamia ; oompiied from Sir W. J. 
Hooker's English Flora, VoL V. ; Sir J. B. Smith's Rngtish Flora, Vol. 
IV. ; Macka7*8 Flora Hibcmica ; Henslow*s Caulogue of British Plants, 
and other sources. By W. A. Leiohtom , B. A. P. B. S. Ed., 267 

A History of British Birds, Indigenous and Migratory, including their organic 
zation, habits, and relations, remarks on Classification and Nomenclature ; 
an account of the principal Organs of Birds, and observations rcIatiTe to 
practical Ornithology. Illustrated by numerous engravings. By William 
Macgillivkat. Vol. I. - - - - 267 

Report by MM. De Blainville, Isidore Geoffroy, and Dumeril, on M. Perche- 
ron's work entitled Bibliographic Entomologique* - 269 

TRANBACTIONS AKD PE&IOOICALS. 

Transactions of the Philotophical and Literary Society of Leeds, consisting of 
papers read before the Society. Vol. L Part I. - - 271 

Loudon's Magazine of Natural History. New Scries. May and June 1837» 276 

Companion to Botanical Magazine. By Sir W. J. Hooker. Professor of Bo- 
tany in the Univeisity of Glasgow, .... 276 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Zoologie, MM. Audouik et Milne- Ed- 
wabda. Botanique, MM. Ad. Beongniabt et Guillemik, - 278 

American Journal of Sciences and Arts. Conducted by Benjahik Silli- 
MAV, M. D. LL. D. Vol. XXXIL No. 1. April 2837» - - 281 

NoX. 
Voyage Scientifique en Morue, .... 344 

bibliooeapuical notices. 

A History of British Birds. By William Yabeell, P. L. S., SecreUry to 
the Zoological Society. Illustrated by a Wood-cut of each Species, and 
numerous Vignettes. No. 1. 

The Birds of Australia and the adjacent Islands. By John Gould, F.L.S. 
Part 1. - 

Icones Avium, or Figures and Descriptions of New and interesting Birds from 
various parts of the Globe. By John Gould, F. L. S. Forming a Sup- 
plement to his former works. Part 1. 

Supplement to the Flora Mctropolitana, or Botanical Rambles within thirty 
miles of London. By Daniel Coo^eb, A. L. S., . . 358 

periodicals. 
Loudon*s Magazine of Natural History. New Series. July and August 

1837. Continued from p. 276, ... . 359 

Companion to the Botanical Magazine. By Sir W. J. Hooker, Professor of 

Botany in the University of Glasgow. Continued from p. 276, - 360 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Zoologie, MM. Audouin et Milne-Kd- 

WARDfl. Botanique, MM. Ad. Brongniart ct GuiLLCMiN, - 360 

Magazin dc Zoolojjio, Journal destine a ctablir unc correspondence cntrc les 



Contents. vii 

zoologistes de tous les pays, et a leur faciliter lea Moyens de publier les e8> 
peco nouvelles oo peu coDDues qu'ils possedent. Par P. E. Gueuin-Me- 
KEviLLE, ... . . Page 361 

No. XI. 
Dr I^ardner's Cabinet Cyclopadia. Natural History. Natural History 
and Classification of Birds. By W. Swaikson, Esq. A. C. G., 
F. R. & L., &C. - - - - - - 451 

PERIODICALS. 

Loiidon*8 Magazine of Natural History. New Series. September and Oc- 
tober 1837i - - - - - - 462 

Annales des Sdenoes Naturelles. Zoologte, MM. Audouik et Milke-Ed- 
WARDS. Botanique, MM. Ad. Brononiart et Guillehin, - 463 

The American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Benjamin Sil- 
I.TMAN, M. D. - - - - . 464 

Magazin de Zoologie, Journal destin^ k fadliter auz Zoologistes de tous les 
pays, les Moyens de publier leur Trauvaux, et les esp^ces nouvelles on peu 
connues qu'ik powedent. Par F. E. Guerin-Meneville, - 465 

M*dller*8 Aichiv. f tir Anatomie Physiologie, &c. - - 467 

Linnsea,— Bin Journal f Qr die Botanik, &c - - . 4/0 

No. Xll. 
Dr Laidner's Cabinet Cydopsdia. Natural History. Natural History 
and Classification of Birds. By W. Swainson, Esq. A. C. G., 
P. R. S. L., &c Vol. II. (Continued from p. 461,) - 553 

bibliographical notices. 
Tentamen Pteridographie, seu Genera Filicaceaxum, praesertim juxta venarum 

dccursum et distributionem ezposita. Auctore, Carolo Bor. Presl. 

Pragse,1836. 8vo. Pp.290, ... - 560 

Bryologia Europaea, seu Genera Muscorum Europseorum Monographice illus- 

trata. Auctoribus, Brvch et W. P. Schimper. Fasc. I. cmn Tab. zi. 

SttttCgartic, 1837. 4to, - - . 560 

Encydopsdia Britannica, edited by Professor Napier. Article Mammalia, 561 

INTELLIGENCE. 

No. VII. 

Zoological, 02. — Miscellaneous 93. — Proceedings of Sodeties, . - 03 

No. IX. 
Zoological, 283.*-BoUDical, 285.-.-Mi8cel]aneotts, - . 289 

No. X. 

Zoologiad, 365. — Botanical, 366. — Miscellaneous, 370 — Report of the Seventh 
Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 370.—. 
Obituary, ... - - 386 

No. XL 
Zwlffgical, 471—- Botanical, 472.^Miscellaneou8, 474. — Proceedings of So- 
cieties, 477.— Obituary, ... - 482 

No. XII. 
Botanical, - - - 662 



VUl 



Contents* 



PLATES. 

Plate 1. Dentition of the Britiib Shrewi. 
If. III. British Ariciads, 

IV. Micralymma Johnstonis. 
V. British Entomofitraca. 
VI. Cerastium pcdiinculatum. 
yj J i Asci of Sphaerias. 

* I Germen of Bryum androgynum. 
VUL Structure of Shdls. 
IX. Cerastium atrovirens. 
X. British Zoophytei. 
XI. Mucor Clavatus. 
XII. Victoria rcgalis. 
XI I L Crenilabrus multidentatua. 
XIV. Crenilabrus microstoma. 



LIST 

OF THE 

CONTRIBUTORS OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES 
TO VOL. I. AND II. 



Alder, Joshua, Member of the Nat. 
Hist. See. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Amott, G. A. Walker, LL.D., F. L.S. 

Babington, Charles C, M. A., &c. 

Baird, William, Surgeon H. C. S. 

Berkeley, Rev. M. J., xM. A. 

Bevan, Edward, M. D. 

Bonaparte, Carolo L., Prince of Mu- 
signano. 

Clarke, Dr W. B. 

Cooper, Daniel, Curator to the Bota- 
nical Society, London. 

Couch, Jonathan, F. L. S. 

Dickie, George, Esq. 

Doubleday, Henry, Esq. 

Drummond, J. S., M. D. 

Duncan, James, M. W. S. 

Eyton, P. C, 

Forbes, Edward, 

Gould, F. L. S., &c. 

Gray, John Edward, F. R. S. 



Henderson, Mr J., 

Henslow, Rev. J. S., M. A., Professor 
of Botany in the University of Cam- 
bridge. 

Hewitson, W. C, Esq. 

Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, M. A. 

Johnston, George, M. D. 

Littie, Rev. William, 

MacgillivTay, William, A.M. F. R. S. E. 
M. W. S., &c. 

Parnell, Richard, M. D. 

Selby, P. J., Esq. F. R. S. E., &c. 

Shuttleworth, R. J., Esq. 

Smith, Andrew, M. D. 

Swainson, William, F R. and L. S. 

Thompson, William, Esq. Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Nat. Hist. Soc. of Belfast 

Watson, H. Cotterel, Esq. 

Westwood, J. O., F. L. S. 

Wilson, James, F. R. S. E., &c. 



MAGAZINE 



OP 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



I. — Account of a Botanical Excursion in the Alps of the Canton ofVa- 

/' lais, Snitzerland, in August 1835 ; and Catalogue of the Plants col" 

lected, with occasional Remarks, By R. J. Shuttle worth^ Esq. 

Thb following account of a botanical excursion to one of the most 
interesting parts of Switzerland, will be perhaps agreeable to some 
of your readers, and will give a fair idea of the variety and profu- 
sion of our Alpine vegetation. 

Although the weather was on the whole very unfavourable, and 
prevented my exploring many points of peculiar interest to the bo- 
tanist, the number of species I was enabled to collect was far 
from inconsiderable, and after my return home, many of them on 
examination proved to be particularly interesting, either from their 
rarity or novelty, or from the specimens being in a state which en- 
abled me to rectify several errors contained in their descriptions, 
or to add remarks on characters hitherto passed over in silence. I 
have consequently added a list of all the species I collected, with 
such remarks as I imagine may prove useful ; and in order to ren- 
der the Flora of the Gemmi more complete, I have incorporated the 
results of a short excursion made thither a fortnight later in the 
season this year. A few species from the neighbourhood of Zermatt 
are added, which were contained in a small parcel of plants pur- 
chased from a peasant, and which I was prevented from finding my- 
self, either by the lateness of the season, or the unfavourable state 
of the weather. These are distinguished by an asterisk, and those 
of this year from the Gemmi by the date. 

I might easily have increased the list by more than a hundred 

VOL. II. NO. 7- A 



2 Botanical Excwsian to the 

species, had I enumerated sach as I observed growingy but did not 
collect; but many of the Alpine species resemble each other so 
strongly, that I have rigidly abstained from admitting a single plant, 
which I did not bring home with me in such a state as admitted 
of careful examination and analysis. 

I regret that I am unable to enter at all into the geographical 
distribution of the Swiss Alpine plants, but the flora of a small dis- 
trict, nowise bounded by natural limits, or distinguished by pecu* 
liar geological formation, can furnish data of but small importance 
indiridnally; and I am firmly impressed with the oouTiction, that a 
thorough knowledge of all the species belonging to the flora of a 
country, as well as of the modifications which many species undergo 
according to locality and exposure, is indispensable, before genera- 
lising the results of detached obserrations. I am persuaded that 
the progress of this branch of the science is more impeded than ad- 
Tanoed by the publication of indigested materials. An error once 
admitted into our printed records, often requires ages before it can 
be eradicated 

The remarks on the genera and species examined are by no means 
brought forward as infallible ; they are, however, the result of a 
reiterated and careful examination : and I am fully aware that many 
of the reductions, as well as theclaimsof many of the species admit- 
ted, will not be approved. Some of the remarks also, on a celebrated 
German botanist, may perhaps be also blamed ; but where a botanist 
establishes himself as a sort of dictator, and still errs, it is but just 
that his dictatorial expressions, only tending to mislead, should be 
quoted with full force against himself. In one or two genera, as 
Hieracium and Aconitum, a few species are adopted, which I also 
believe not to be based in nature ; but until these genera are better 
understood, it is far preferable to distinguish marked forms as spe- 
cies, than leave them to be neglected as accidental varieties ; and 
it must also be considered, that the true species of these genera, 
and of Hieracium in particular, often appear to pass by gradual 
transition into each other. 

On the 15th of August 1835, 1 reached Kandersteg, at the foot 
of the Gemmi, (3380" s. m. Keller's Map, 1833,) where the rain 
obliged me to remain until th^ afternoon of the following day, when 
I ascended the Gemmi by the usual path, and took up my quarters 
at the Inn of the Schwarrenbach, (584(K Kell.) The 17th and 
18th were employed in examining the rocks and heights behind the 
Inn, and those above the left bank of the Dauben See, (6860' 
Kell.) Just below the Inn, I observed a few stunted plants of the fir ; 



Alps of the ValaU. -3 

but as they were not in a state to examine^ I am not sure whether 
they belonged to the Alpine variety of Pious sylvestris, the P. Mug- 
hoe, of Swiss botanists^ or to the P. uncinata of Ram. The Gem- 
mi is composed chiefly of limestone rocks^ but the presence of de- 
tached masses of granite proves that the higher points are of that 
formation. The view is one of the most dreary ; and the surface 
of the rocks between the Lake and the Daub (7049^ Michaelis in 
Frobel and Heer Mittheilungen aus dem gebiete der Theoretischen 
Erdkonde, Vol. i. p. 231, et seq.) the highest part of the passage 
bears evident marks of having once been the bed of the glacier, 
which now is at some distance on the left. 

I was joined in the evening by two young friends, who accompa- 
nied me during the remainder of my excursion, and we descended 
to the baths of Louesche, (Leuk. 4402^ Mich.) where it was dark 
before we arrived. On the 19th we botanized, passing through 
Inden (3580' Kell.) and Varen, (2370' KeJl.) among the vineyards 
and waste fields along the horse road to Sierre, (Siders. 1712' 
Mich.) situated on the Rhone. Having sent home by the post the 
plants collected, we ascended, on the 20th, the Valais, passing 
through the town of Lou6sch, (2100^ Kell.) where Onopordum 
Acanthium was growing in immense quantities, to Visp (2010' 
Mich.) a small town built at the entrance of the valley of the same 
name, which at Stalden (2537' Mich.), where we passed the night 
at the house of the Castellan or chief magistrate of the small town, 
branches into the Valley of Saas, and that of St Nicholas. 

At Stalden we observed the last vineyards, and at a short distance 
higher up the last walnut trees, which were replaced by cherry trees. 

On the 2l8t, we proceeded up the Valley of St Nicholas, through 
the hamlet of the same name, (3390^ Kell.) Randaa (4475' Mich.), 
in 1819, half-destroyed by an avalanche, and Taesch, (4479^ Mich.) 
beyond which place the valley suddenly narrows, and again expands 
into that of Zermatt, at which village (5040^ Mich.) we arrived in 
the evening. 

At Zermatt we were hospitably received by the parish priest, 
who is here, as in most of the retired parts of the Valais, the only 
person with sufficient accommodation to receive travellers. On the 
22d, we started early in the morning, with the intention of extend- 
ing our excursion to the edge of the glacier of the Col de Cervin, 
visible from the curb's house. We followed the course of the Visp- 
bach for some time, and passed along the foot of the Rosa or Zer- 
matt glacier, where I was surprised at finding patches of rye in al- 
most immediate contact with the ice ; but we had hardly reached the 



4 Botanical Excursion to the 

Schwarzseeberg, where the foot of the Zermatt glacier (6589' 
Mich.) offered a rich hairest^ when rain and fog came on^ and drore 
ns back about twelve o'clock. The glacier of Zermatt appears to have 
considerably advanced, as the remains of wooden sheds, almost co- 
vered by the Moraine, or wall of mud and stones ploughed up by 
the ice, attested. The formation of this part of the Valley of Zer- 
matt, and of those parts we subsequently explored, is gneiss or gra- 
nitic, which I mention, as it will serve to account for the difference 
between the vegetation observed here, and that of the Gemmi. 

On the following morning, the rain still continued, but about twelve 
o'clock the day became more promising, and eventually cleared up, 
and we made an excursion to the glacier of Fiinelen (or Finel,) 
on the northern not southern side of the valley, as it is erroneously 
marked in Keller's Map. (Base of the glacier, 6655' Mich.) The 
rarest plants rewarded us, such as Artemisia mutellina, Pedicu- 
laris rostrata, Senecio unifloms, and incanus in various forms, &c. 
and the beautiful Peltigera crocea, Wahl. Fries. I was particularly 
pleased at finding the Phleum commutatum, Gaudin, and the Phleum 
alpinum, L. and Auct. Helv. growing together, though not pro- 
miscuously ; the former in large quantities, on muddy pasture 
ground, at the immediate edge of the glacier. On our return we 
passed through a very thin and aged wood of Pinus Cembra, L. 
the nut of which has an agreeable flavour, and is much relished : 
the wood is by far the most durable of European firs ; but the spe- 
cies is rare, and occurs but in small quantities, and will, I fear, 
s6on be nearly extinct in most parts of Switzerland, from the care- 
less way in which the peasants employ it. 

The weather appearing perfectly cleared up, we engaged two 
guides to conduct us over the Glacier of Taesch into the Valley of 
Saas, where, besides other rare plants, the Gentiana carinthiaca is 
indicated. Most part of the night was passed in putting in paper 
the plants collected, and in arranging the luggage, which had con- 
siderably augmented in bulk, Jn'a more portable form. The moon 
was up, and the heavens perfectly clear, affording the most mag- 
nificent view of the chain of the Rosa, the Col de Cervin, and 
the Matterhorn, (M. Cervin, il Monte Sylvio,) by far the most 
grand and awful scene I had ever witnessed. The Matterhorn 
rises a perfect pyramid of rock to the height of 13,854', (Gaudin) 
with sides so precipitous as to be entirely free from snow. 

It was later on the following morning (the 24th) than we intend- 
ed, when the guides made their appearance, and we were ready to 
start : They assured us that they knew the passage perfectly well^ 



Alps of the Falais. 5 

tliat it was easy, and that the glacier would not require more than 
three hours to cross. It was six o'clock before we were off^ when, re- 
tracing our steps for a short distance^ we crossed the ri^er^ and gra- 
dually ascending the foot of the mountains through magnificent larch 
forests, we soon entered the small lateral valley of Taesch, at some 
distance above the hamlet of the same name. A few specimens of 
Artemisia nana. Gaud, nearly allied to, but certainly distinct from^ 
the Art. campestris, were found ; and having partook of the hospitali- 
ty of the inhabitants of a few chalets at the entrance of the valley, 
called Alpen, who have the charge of the cattle belonging to the 
commune of Taesch, we followed the course of the small torrent 
nearly to the foot of the glacier ; here we commenced a steep ascent 
between the north side of the glacier, and a wall of perpendicular 
rocks, occasionally enlivened by small waterfalls. On these rocks, 
I gathered the rare Aretia tomentosa, Schleich., and the Poa Gaudini^ 
Kunth. (the P. aspera, Gaud, but certainly identical with the Scotch 
P. caesia.) llie vegetation was so luxuriant, and the plants so rare, 
that I spent much more time than was advisable in filling my box ; 
but such plants as Trifolium saxatile. Campanula cenisia, Gentiana 
glacialis, Juncus Jacquini, ^, (apparently hitherto never collected 
with ripe capsules,) Senecio uniflorus, All., Phaca lapponica, Wahl*, 
and Oxytropis cyanea, M. B., were too powerful attractions to be re- 
sisted, and it was two o'clock before we reached the termination of 
the rocks, and that part of the glacier where we had to commence 
the passage. 

Phcenogamous vegetation had entirely ceased, but among the laH 
flowering plants I observed growing on the Moraine, the Myosotis 
nana and Aretia pennina — the brilliancy of the bright blue of the 
one, and the softness and elegance of the pale rose, violet or white 
flowers of the other, no words can express. The last flowering 
plant was a small state of Luzula spicata, forming large dense tufts, 
and which, intermixed with lichens, formed the whole of the ve- 
getation for some extent. Some Chamois were seen by the guides, ^ 
but they had disappeared before I could distinguish them firom the 
grey rocks on which they were standing. 

From the edge of the glacier to the summit of the pass, the ascent 
was easy, and, excepting one or two chasms which occasioned a 
short delay, perfectly free from danger ; but it was not without 
some anxiety and misgivings, that my attention was drawn, by the 
mntterings of the guides, to a mass of black clouds, which had form- 
ed on the summit of the Matterhom. 

We reached the summit of the pass, (10,947' at 6 metres below 



5 Botamad Exaamm to the 

the highest psit of the ridge — probahly the highest pass in Europe, 
as the Col de Cerrin is, according to Sanssnre 10,284', or accord- 
ing to Welden 9M8' ; and the Col de O^ant, 10,598', Michaelis. 
1. c.) — ahoat 3 o'clock, and after a halt of a few minutes, we com* 
menced a most rapid descent over a smooth field of snow, (at an 
angle of 15 degrees, Mich.) It soon hecame, however, more gradual, 
and eventually the descent was almost imperceptible ; but chasm 
after chasm soon broke up the hitherto smooth surface of indurated 
snow, into the most ru^ed and dangerous glacier. The clouds had 
gradually spread, and we were soon enveloped in a thick and wet 
mist. All our endeavours to keep dear of the wider chasms were 
ineffectual, and having, with great difficulty and much expenditure 
of time, passed several, covered only with a thin layer of snow, 
which offered no resistance to the passage of our poles, we were 
obliged to give up the direction we had taken towards the right side 
of the glacier, and to attempt reaching the rocks on the left. Here 
we found more difficulty in proceeding, as the ice did not reach the 
rocks, but was separated from them by large apertures and deep 
wide clefts, of which the walls were more than 100 feet high. 
Again we attempted the centre of the glacier, but were not a little 
disconcerted at finding the chasms increase rapidly both in size and 
number. The fog was now so dense that we could not see ten yards 
before us, and at last the guides gave up all hope of getting off the 
glacier that night, as the rocks and higher points by which they 
were enabled to guide their course, were invisible. The impossi- 
bility of either advancing or returning was too evident, and nothing 
remained but to submit ; and excepting a small piece of bread in 
our pockets, unprovided with food and clothed in linen dresses, it 
was not without considerable doubts whether we should succeed bet- 
ter on the following day. 

On taxing the guides with their ignorance, one of them then said 
for the first time, that he had not crossed the glacier since the pre- 
ceding year, and that the whole nature of the ice and the direction 
of the chasms were completely changed. However true this may 
have been, it is the usual excuse that guides bring forward on such 
occasions. 

After considerable exertion, and several narrow escapes from be- 
ing engulfed, we succeeded in reaching a high bank of smooth snow 
on the north side of the glacier, where night surprised us, still hunt- 
ing out for the shelter of a rock. We were therefore obliged to 
take up our quarters under a mass of broken rock, which afforded 
a sort of shelter to our heads and backs, but not before we were so 



Alps of the Valais, 7 

wet through, that the tinder in our pockets was become perfectly 
uaeiess, and after several vain attempts we were obliged to give up 
all hope of lighting a cigar. Although much fatigued, there was of 
course no prospect of sleep, and the night was passed half sitting, 
half standing, in keeping each other awake, and in stamping with 
our feet to prevent their becoming quite benumbed. The fog turn- 
ed into snow during the night, and the cold was less intense than 
it would otherwise have been. The novelty of the position, the 
intense silence around us interrupted only by the rumbling of a dull 
low thunder, and occasional reports of masses of snow or rock pre- 
cipitated firom the heights upon the ice beneath, together with occa- 
sional distant glimpses of the rocks* and the bed of the glacier 
below us, lit up by flashes of lightning, afforded ample and not en- 
tirely disagreeable food for reflection. 

Our guides had recourse to sleep, to muttering prayers, to occa- 
sional grumblings to pass the time, and one of them, who appeared 
never to have been in such a situation before, wished himself re« 
peatedly back with his four-footed grunting companions in his snug 
chalet in the vale. At last they appeared rather more tranquillized, 
and finished by vowing a mass to their patron saint for all our 
souls, provided we got safe off the ice. 

As soon as we could see on the following morning, we sent our 
guides out to report as to our prospects, and as to what was to be 
done : but, having already undergone so much, I insisted upon still 
attempting to descend into the valley of Saas. 

Full two feet of snow had fallen during the night, and by its 
weight and softness had rendered the old snow quite unsafe, and 
the fog, which had partially cleared off during the early part of the 
]n<»Tiing, again thickened around us ; so that after several hours 
spent in gaining the opposite or south side of the Glacier, we were 
obliged to decide on retracing our steps, and returning to the valley 
of St Nicholas by the same route we had taken the day before. A 
sufliciently extensive view from the highest part of the southern 
side of the glacier, showed us an immense extent of glacier, which 
we should have had to pass over, covered with snow, but proving, 
by its undulated surface, that it was equally split up with chasms 
as that which we had already traversed. 

We retraced then our stepstothepoint where we had left the course 
of the preceding day, and without deviating from our trail, which the 
fresh snow had not entirely effaced, we commenced our toilsome re- 
turn. The chasms, which had been easily distinguished the day before, 
were now almost imperceptible to the unaccustomed eye, and before 
each step, the nature of the snow had to be examined with our poles. 



8 Botanical Excursion to the 

Every now and then a shout gave notice that the snow had givei) 
way beneath one of the party, and one of my companions had a very 
narrow escape, being solely saved by falling with his pole across the 
chasm^ which enabled him to support himself until we could come 
to his assistance. Yet such is the indifference to danger in such 
situations, that his first exclamation on our handling him rather un- 
ceremoniously was^ " Take care what you are about, you'll tear my 
trowsers." After great exertion in bearing up against a cutting 
wind, mixed with frozen particles of snow, which blew directly in our 
faces, we reached the summit of the pass, and soon, with less diffi- 
culty than we expected, arrived at the termination of the glacier. 
It was, however, past two o'clock before we were off the ice. But 
what a change had taken place in the face of nature ! for near 300(K 
below the spot where on the preceding day we had been struck by 
the luxuriance of the vegetation, the ground was covered with se- 
veral inches of snow. We hurried on as quick as possible, and ar- 
rived at the village of Randaa about seven o'clock in the evenings 
where we were hospitably received by the cur6. 

A few minutes in the warm room produced a lively sense of pain 
and burning in the skin of the face and the eyes, and on the fol- 
lowing morning (the 26th) I was completely blind. By degrees 
I could open my eyelids for a minute at a time, but we did not en- 
tirely recover from the effects of the reflection from the snow, and 
of the cutting wind, before a fortnight had elapsed. 

Having engaged a man to carry our luggage, we slowly rede- 
scended the valley of St Nicholas, and passing through Visp, slept 
at Brieg, where, with much suffering from my eyes, I put in paper 
the contents of my box, which I was delighted to find as fresh as 
when they were gathered. The mosses, however, of which I had 
collected a considerable quantity, having been tied up in a parcel^ 
were entirely spoilt. 

On the 27th we walked as far as MUnster, at the head of the 
Valaisy and on the 28th, hurried over the Grimsel, which we found 
covered with nearly a foot of, snow, to Meyringen, whence we 
took a char to Brienz^ and returned on the 29th through Interlakea 
and Thun to Berne. 

Catalogue of the Plants collected, with occasional remarks. 

1. Chara aspera, Willd. 

H. In fossis prope Pfyn, inter Siders et Leuk. 

2. C. hispida, L. J3 gracilis. Hook. 
H. Cum prscedenti. 



Alps of the ValaU. 9 

3. Pofypodium Phegopteris, L. 

H. In ascensu M. Gemmi supra Kandersteg, 29 Aug. 1836. 

4. Cisiopterh dentata, Hook. Br. Fl. i. p. 451, a. 

H. In saxosis umbrosis inter Randaa et St Nicholas, et forma 
tenuior plerumque sterilis, in umbrosis M. Gemmi supra Kan- 
dersteg, 29 Aug. 1836. 
Obs. Frons pedalis et ultra, sed omnino convenit cum char. 
Smithii et Hookeri, et cum spec. Valesiaois a Thomasio lectis. Sti- 
pes glabra ; sori generis forsan maximi, in partem frondis superio- 
rem confluentes. Pinnae vix alternae, remotie ; pinnulee ovatae ob- 
tuse dentatae alternie, (infimae interdum subpinnatitidae.j Species 
Germanis vix cognita, vel cum Asp. Filix Foemina confusa, et 
apud Wallroth in Bluff et Fing. Comp. Fl. Germ. iii. p. 20. 

5. C. fragilis, Bernth. 

H. In umbrosis M. Gemmi supra Kandersteg, et in fissuris ru- 
pium ad lacum Dauben, 29-31 Aug. 1836. 
6- C. alpina, Desv. • 

H. In saxosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 
7* C montana ( — ?) Polypoditkm, All. Hoffm. Cyathaea, Roth. 

H. In umbrosis M. Gemmi supra Kandersteg, 29 Aug. 1836. 

Obs. Habitus P. calcarei, Sm. sed frons tenuissima, triplicato- 
pinnata. 

8. Cryplogramma crispa, R. Br. 

H. In saxosis M. Grimsulaa infra Hospitium. 

9. Botrychium Lunaria, Sw. 

H. In pascuis M. Gemmi supra lacum Dauben. In M. Fiine- 
len supra Zermatt, et in Alpibus supra Taesch. 



10. Lycopodium Selago, L. 
H. Prope Kandersteg. 

11. X«. selaginoides, L. 

H. In M. Gemmi supra Kandersteg. 

12. L. helveticum, L. 

H. Ad terram inter muscos inter St Nicholas et Zermatt. 



13. Elyna spicata, Schrad. 

H. Copiose in graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach, et 

ad lacum Dauben. In M. Schwarzseeberg supra Zermatt. 
Obs. Cnlmi biunciales atque fere pedales. 

14. Kobresia caricina, Willd. 

H. Copiose in humidis M. Gemmi ad pedem rupium supra 
Schwarrenbach usque ad summum M. Schalmette, et ad lacum 
Dauben. 



10 Botanical Excurnon to the 

Obt, Culmi bi-octuncialef», in Helvetia rarissiiDa. 
16. Carex {Vignea) foetida. All. 

H. In M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach, ad moles gladales, M. 
Fiinelen. 
16. C. (F) incarva, Huds. C. jnncifolia. All. Gaud. 

H. Rarissirae ad moles glaciales M. Schwarzseeberg et Fiinelen. 

Ohs. Non diversa a planta Sootica, nisi culmis viz incurvis. 
17* C {V.) lagopina^ WahL ! C. approximate, Hoppe exs ! Gaud. 

H. Ad moles glaciales M. Schwarsseeberg et Fiinelen. 

Obs. Pales fhictu breviores foliaque marginibus ecabra ut obser- 
vat Hoppe^ contra Oaudin. 
la C. (T.) leporina, L. C. oralis. Good. 

H. In nliginoais M. Grimsnlc supra Obo^estelen. 

19. C cunrula. All. a. minor, fbliis culmisque vix 4-uncialibus, 
nnilateraliteJT cunratis. jS. major, culmis erectis, fere pedalibus. 
Gaud. 

H. a. Ad moles glkunales M. Fiinelen. 6. ad fissuras rupium 
M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach, et ad lacum Dauben. 

20. C nigra. All. C. atrata 7. nigra, Gaud. 

H. In M. Gemmi prope die, Wintereck ; ad lacum inira Schwar« 

renbacfa, et ad nives deliquescentes supra Schwarrenbach, co- 

piose. 

Obs. Caespites densas effidt. C. ustulata, Wahl. ! (C. atrofusca, 

Schk.) qua cum, Smithio prnunte, nostram plantam infauste oon« 

junxit d. Lindley, Syn. ed. ii. p 288, omnino diversa est. C. nigra. 

All. *' spids subquaternis ovatis oonfertis sessilibus rigide erectis, 

fructuque glabro," Gaudet. 

21. C atrata, L. a. varia ; spids longius pedunculatis demum 
pendulis fructibusque flavis, culmo plerumque elatiori (glabro,) 
Gaud. 

H. In M. Gemmi supra Kandersteg, et in graminosis supra 
Schwarrenbach. 

Obs, Plante Scotica ex Alp. Clova plerumq. ad^^^rietetem sequen- 
tem pertinere videtur. jS. dubia, spica terminali mascula (flosculis 
paucioribus fcemineis intermixtis,) reliquis mere fcemineis, fructibus 
atro-purpureis unicoloribus, culmo elation, (sub spiculis scabro,) 
Gaud. C. aterrima, Hoppe. 

22. C. omithopoda, WiUd. 

H. In fissuris rupium M. Gemmi, ad moles gladales Lammern- 
gletscher. 

23. C. glauca. Scop. C. recurva, Huds., var. Alpina, spiculis foe- 
minds apioe basiqoe masculis. 



Alps of the Valais. 11 

H. Ad rivolofl et in uliginosis M. G^mmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

24. C. capillaris, L. a. minor^ culmo 4-6 unciali. j3. major^ col- 
mo pedali et ultnu 

H. a. In M. Gemini ad lacuih infra Schwarrenbach,etad rapes 
supra Schwarrenhach^ et ad lacum Dauben. j3. in M. Schwar^^- 
aeeberg. 

25. C. bracbystachys, Scbk. 

H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Kandersteg, 29 Aug. 1836. 

26. C. finna. Host. 

H. Ad rapes M. Oemmi stipra Schwarrenbach. 

27. C. Mielicbbofen, Schk. 

H. In uliginosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

Obs. Spicse fceminece pendulae non erectie ut apud Lindley, Syn. 
p. 287* An Planta Scotica ad C. ferragineam, Schk. (semperviren- 
tem, Vill.) referenda ? 

28. Blymus compressus, Panz. j3. glacialis mihi. Spica tenui 
gracili fusca. 

H. In uliginosis ad moles glaciales valleculs Taesch. 
S29. Cladium Mariscus^ R. Br. 

H. In paludosis prope Pfyn, inter Siders et Leuk. 
30. Eriophorum capitatum, Host. 



H. In uliginosis ad mdes glaciales M. Fiinelen. 

31. Brachypodium sylvaticum^ R. and S. a. spiculis villosis^ Gaud. 
3. gracile, Rchb. 

H. Inter St Nicholas et Zermatt 

32. Agropyrum glaucum^ R. and S. a. Spiculis omnino muticis^ 
Koch. Triticum intermedium a. Gaud. 

H. In anris incultis inter Inden et Varen. 
83. Cynodon Dactylon, Rich. 

H. In arenosis inter Siders et Leuk, et inter Stalden et Visp. 

34. Agrosiis alpina. Scop. Kunth. A. rupestris, Willd. Gaud. 
H. Ad rapes M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach^ 30 Aug. 1836. 

35. A. alba^ Schrad. 6. pauciflora, Koch. A. alba patula. Gaud. 
Rchb. Agr. Germ. Tab. 25, f. 1432. 

H. Ad viam inter Stalden et St Nicholas, et in glareosis M. Gem- 
mi supra Schwarrenbach, 29 Aug. 1836. 

36. Calamagrostis tenella, Lk. Agrostis pilosa, Schleich. Gaud. 
H. In consortio Junci Jacqnini. jS. in Alpibus supra Tsesch. 

37. C. acutiflora, DC. Rchb. Agr. Germ. Tab. 39. f. 1442. 

H. In glareosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach, cons. Po« 
disdchophyllae. Gaud, et P. flexuose, WahL 30 Aug. 1836. 



12 Botanical Excursion to the 

Obs. Forsan forma alpestris C. Montane^ Host. (Deyeuxia ya- 
ria^ Kunth.) ut opinantur cl. Koch et Duby ; sed facile distinguen- 
da, panicula rigida et pilis palea acuminata brevioribus. cf. Agrostis 
montana 7. Gaud. Helv. i. p. 201; quae differt pilis longioribus^ fo- 
liisque ad vaginae commissuram barbatis. 

38. C. Halleriana^ DC. C. Pseudo-phragmites^ Lk. Rchb. Arun- 
do Halleriana^ Gaud. 

H. In uliginosis prope Randaa. 

Obs, Habitus C. montanse. Host, varietatis gracilis^ sed differt 
pilis omnibus liberis, (sine penicello piloso, vel rudimento alterius 
flosculi) atque arista paleis breviori, nisi oculo armato^ segre distin- 
guenda. 

39. Slipa capillata^ L. 

H. Ad viam inter Varen et Siders^ et inter Siders et Leuk, co- 
piose. 

40. S, pennata^ L. 

H. Copiose in sylva supra Zermatt, prope moles glaciales. 

41. Lasiagroslls Calamagrostis, Lk. Agrostis^ L. Stipa^ Wahl. 
H. In glareosis prope Kandersteg^ et in apricis inter Inden et 

Varen. , 

42. Setaria verticillata, P. B. 

H. In arvis et vineis prope Stalden. 

43. S, Tiridis, P. B. a. minor^ Gaud. Rchb. Agr. Germ. Tab. 
47* f* 1467- b. ^. major^ setis longissimis. Gaud. Rchb. 1. c. f« 
1467. 

H. a. In arvis incultis prope Varen. ^. prope Varen. 

44. Phleum Boehmeri^ Schrad. ^. paleis nudiusculis (ad carinam) 
scabris^ Gaud. 

H. In alpibus supra Tsesch, et prope Randaa. 

Obs. In spec, prope Randaa lectis, paleie etiam sub lente viz 
scabrse ; in spec, supra Tsesch lectis, paleee evidenter scabrse^ sed 
non ciliatsB. 

45. P. Michelii, All. 

H. Rarius in M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

46. P. alpinum, L. Gaud. Helv. i. p. 165. Dub. Bot. Gall. i. p. 
508. Rchb. Agr. Germ. Tab. 50. f. 1485. Non Auct. Brit. 
Phleum radice repenti vix csespitosa^ foliis snpremis vagina vix 

inflata dimidio brevioribus ; Ligula suprema oblonga acuta, glumis 
glabris truncatis palea sublongioribus, setisque ciliatis. 

H. In graminosis humidis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach ; in 
uliginosis ad moles glaciales M. Fiinelen ; in ascensu M. Grim- 
sulce supra Obei^stelen^ (copiose etiam in pascais et pratis M. 



Alps of the Valais. 18 

Stockhorn, Biirglen^ et Faulhom, atque in pascuis summis 
Jnrassi rarius^ ^^g^O 

Obs. In locis petrosis, vel in graminosis sterilioribus, spica ovato- 
cjlindrica brevior magisque colorata est, foliaque paulo breviora : hsec 
videtur var. ^. tenne« Kunth. Agr. i. p. 29. In lods crassioribus 
et pnesertim in pascuis et graminosis pinguioribus circa casas Alpi- 
colorum, tota planta laxior crassiorque evadit, foliaque latiora, snepe 
longissima, et spica cylindrica biuncialis minus colorata, foliis su-* 
premis brevior, vagineeque semi-inclusa. Hsec forma habitum Phi. 
31iclielii satis refert : in utraque varietati> note e setis vaginisque 
sumptae constantes videntur, et species omnino a P. commutatd, 
Gaud, diversa. Ligula in forma crassiore saepe fissa occurrit. 
47* P* commutatum. Gaud ! Helv. i. p. 166. Dub. Bot. Gall. i. 

508. P. alpinum, Auct. Brit. ! vix L. 

Phleum radice repenti, valde ciespitosa, foliis supremis vagina 
inflata, quatuor parte brevior ibus ; Ligula suprema brevissima ob- 
tusa, glnmis glabris truncatis palea sublongioribus ciliatis, seta nu- 
da, scabra. 

H. Copiose in uliginosis ad moles glaciales M. Fiinelen, cons, 
prsecedentis. 

06jr. Spica latior robustior quam in priecedenti, bvato-oblonga ; 
spicule fere duplo majores, foliaque glaucescentia ; seta scabra nee 
ciliata ; varietatem minorem P. alpini pro nostra planta ssepius ac« 
cepi, et opinor planta vera Kochio et Kunthio omnino ignota est, 
quippe nulla rationead formam tenuem P. alpini redigenda nostra ro- 
bustior rigidiorque planta. Icon in Eng. Bot. ed. 2da, PL 80, ha- 
bitum P. commutati satis bene refert^ sed nee hac neque ad prsece- 
dentem referenda quoniam glumse omnino glabrae depictae sunt. 
Quoad habitum potissimum ad Phleum Gerardi, All. et auct. plan- 
tam rarissimam, accedit, cujus diagnosim differentialem compara- 
tionis gratia hinc adjeci. 

Phleum Gerardi, All. ! Kunth. Alopecurus, Vill. Colobachne, 
Link. Rchb. Agr. Germ. tab. 50. f. 1480. 

P. radice bulbosa ; vagina suprema valde inflata, in folio brevi 
latoque attenuata, ad collum vix unquam constricta ; ligula brevis- 
sima, glumis villosis palea snbbrevioribus, molliter ciliatis, in setam 
brevem scabramque attenuatis. 

Obt. Spica lata brevis, ovata, setaeque flavescentes. Mihi vide- 
tur omnino ad genus Phleum pertinere. 

Ad hanc speciem ducit d. Rchb. in Agrost. Germ. p. 1 8, P. oom- 
mutatum. Gaud, et P. capitatum. Scop. In Fl. Germ. exc. No. 
191, speciem distinctam constituit sub nomine " Ph. capitatum. 



14 Botanical Excursion to the 

Scop." sed P. capitatum, ^p. Cam. i. p. 56, e descriptione d. auo- 
toris, " spica subrotunda/' ** calycinee glumiB acaminatae," omnino 
ad P. Qemrdi, AIL pertinet. 

P. Oerardiy AIL habui ex Herbario AUionii ! a cL Balbis ; ex 
Alp. Delpfain ; a cl. Emeric ; et ex Alp. Julio-Provincie a ceL De 
Candolle ; fin Herb Roemer ;) sed etiam sub hoc nomine P. com- 
mutatum. Gaud. Roemero misit Balbis. 

Denique observandum est, utram speciemm descripsit illuat. 
Linneus vix exthcandum — fonan ambas ? — sed minimi momenti 
si distinguuntur. 

48. Festuca alpina, Sut. Oaud. 

H. Ad rupes M. Oemmi supra Schwarrenbach rarius. 

49. F. Halleri^ All. Vill. Gaud. Kunth. Agrost. i. p. 399, et ii. p. 
322. 

Festuca raceme spicifbrmi congesto subsimplici, infeme rarius 
ramoso, ramulo biflori ; spiculis 4-^ floris ; aristis paleam pubescen- 
tern nervosam lequantibus ; rachi piiosa, demum sepius glabra ; 
foliis capillari-setaceis. 

H. In glareosis M. Fiinelen, et in alpibns supra Tiesch. 

Obs. Plantae Allionii et Gaudini certe omnino e»dem. Citata sola 
Allionii in FL Ped. ii. p. 253, No. 2245, est descriptio Halleri in 
Hist. ii. p. 215, No. 1441. Germen maturam lineari-oblongum» 
immatunim lineari-obovatum, et stigmata barbata germine mature 
breviora vel subequalia observavi. 

Ab hac differre videtur planta, quam in M. Faulhorn legi, et 
pro F. Gaudini, Kunth. 1. c. Syn. excL habeo. 

Festuca racemo spiciformi, subpatenti, superne simplici, infeme 
subcomposito, ramulis 2-4 floris ; spiculis sub 4-floris, aristis palea 
glabra dimidio brevioribus ; rachi aspera, foliis capillari-setaceis. — 
Germen obovatum vel subgloboso-pyriforme : stigmata dense barbata 
germine multo longiora, conspicua ; sed denuo examinanda, annon 
mere F. Halleri varietas. 

60. F. violacea. Gaud. a. vulgaris :•— 8. elatior, pedalis sesquipe- 
dalis, panicula coerctata. 

H. a* In M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. In M • Schwarssee- 

berg, et ad moles glaciales summi jugi alpium supra Taesch. 

fi ad rupes. M. Gemmi ad moles glaciales Lammerngletscher. 

31 Aug. 1836. 

Obs. Nullomodo lusus nature, F. Halleri AIL ut quserit cl. Kunth. 

1. c sed F. nigresceuti. Lam. valde affinis, qu& distinguitur spiculis 

duplo minoribus, &c. 

61. F. pumila, Vill. 



Alptofthe Valais. 15 

H. Ad moles glaeiales summi jugi alpium snpra Taesch ; cnspites 
densiaaiinos efficiens^ in graminosis M. Gemmi supra Kander- 
st^^ et ad rupes sapra Schwarrenbach. 29-^30 Aug. 1836. 
Obs. Spec, ad moles glaeiales lecta minora sunt ac minus colorata 
qnam ea e M. Gemmi. 

52. F. varia^ Haenke. Gaud. F. acuminata. Gaud ! a. panicula oon- 
tractiori, spiculis variegatis. Gaud. 

H. In M. Schwarsseeberg supra Zermatt. 

Obs. F. zantbina R. 6c S. ! F. Hostii Scbott ! (etiam a Schottio 
missa ut F. flavescens. Host.) est omnino eadem ut. F. flavescens, 
BcUardi ! ; et vix ac ne vix diversa a F. yariee var. j3 flavescenti. 
Gaud. 

53. F. rubra, L. Koch. Rchb. Gaud. var. panicula rigida ooarctata. 
H. Ad viam prope Zermatt. 

06s, F. rubra radice repenti egregie differt a F. duriuscula radice 
fibrosa — Specimina fere omnia qua e firitannia accepi et legi pro 
F. duriuscula ad formas F. rubr« pertinent. 
&i. F. nigrescens. Lam. Gaud ! 

H. In M. Schwarsseeberg supra Zmutt : — ad rupes M. Gemmi 
supra Schwarrenbach et lacum Dauben. 30, 31 Aug. 1836. 

06#. Occurrit folio caulino summo angustissime-lineari in sicco re- 
▼oluto, et ad unam lineam lato piano. 

55. F. Scheucbzeri, Gaud. F. pulcbella, Schrad. Poa — Clairv. 

H In glareosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 30 Aug. 
1836. 

56. Melica dliata, L. 

H. Ad rupes prope pagum Stalden. 
57^ Bromus squarrossus, L* a. spiculis glabris. 
H. Ad Tiam inter St. Nicholas et Zermatt. 

58. Poa Eragrostis, L. 

H. Ad viam inter St Nicholas et Stalden. 

59. P. laxa, Haenke. 

H. Ad rupes alpium supra Tesch: in saxosis M. Gemmi ad 

moles glaeiales Lammemgletscher et supra lacam Dauben, co- 

piose. 31 Aug. 1836. 

Obs. Planta yalde variabilis. Culmi 4 unciales — semipedales et 

ultra : variat panicula rigidiori vix pendula, spiculis vix constrictis, 

atque panicula filiformi pendula, spiculis omnino constrictis : radix 

vix repens sepius mere fibrosa. Forsan et Poam minorem. Gaud. 

legi, sed fateor, species mihi vix di versa videtur. cf. Rchb. Agr. 

germ. Tab. 72, f. 1623, et Tab. 74, f. 1630-31. 



16 Botanical Excuriion to the 

60. P. alpina, L. jS vivipara, Gaud. Koch. 7. frigida Gaud.;Koch. 
h, brevifolia^ Koch. P. alpina^ II brevifolia^ Gaud. 

H. j3. in alpibus supra Zermatt^ 7. in saxosis M. Gemmi, ad 
moles glaciales Lammerngletscher, 31 Aug. 1836. h, ad moles 
glacial es summi jugi alpium supra Taesch. 

61. P. distichophylla^ Gaud ! 

H. In glareosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach^ et supra la* 
cum Dauben ad nives perennes. 30^ 31 Aug. 1836. 

Obs. P. cenisia^ All. cujus exemplaria nonnulla a cl. Balbis^ dia 
possessor! Herbarii Allionii, missa, habeo^ certe diversissima, nee 
cum varietatibus P. alpinae ulla ratione conjungenda. Spec, mea, 
nisi locustis paucifloris, certissime non 7-floris, bene cum descrip- 
done cl. auctoris in Auct. ad Fl. Ped. p. 40, No. 2209, conveniunt. 
DifFert a P. disticbophylla. Gaud, panicula gracilis pedunculis ver- 
ticillatis, spiculis multo minoribus, et ligulis truncatis subnuUis ; — 
a P. alpina toto habitu et radice eximie repenti, stolonifera. Me 
judici ad Poam nemoralem, L. referenda, et forsan ad varietatem 
glaucam, R. et S. ! (P. glaucantha, auct. P. nemoralis csesia. Gaud.) 
£x alpibus Tyrolensibus a cl. Siebero plan tarn possedeo etiam sub 
nomine P. cenisice missam, quie autem differt radice fibrosa, spiculis- 
que multo majoribus confertis, et omnino cum icone Rchb. Agr. 
Germ. Tab. 83. f. 1625, et cum spec. P. badensis H«nke, P. id- 
pin» badensis. Gaud ! convenit. 

62. P.flexuosa, Wahl. Carp. exd. Syn. Gaud. Rchb. 1. c. Tab. 
74. f. 1633. 

H. In glareosis M. Gemmi copiose cum prscedenti. 1836. 
Ohs, Differt a praecedenti panicula effusa, gradli, pedunculisque 
infeme longe nudis : planta omnino gracilior. 

63. P. Gaudini R. et S. Kunth Agr. L 355. P. aspera, Gaud. P. 
caesia, Sm. a. panicula coarctata, Kunth. 1. c j3 panicula diffusa^ 
Kunth 1. c. 

H . Ad rupes alpinas supra Taesch. 

Obs. a. Omnino convenit cum Spec. Plantae Scotictt e Ben Lawers, 
sed in H. B. £. cultis et a cl. Graham communicatis : certe a Poa 
nemorali distincta — jS. variat ligula brevissima ac exserta in eodem 
individuo. 

64. P. nemoralis, L. ^. coarctata. Gaud. 
H. Ad viam prope Zermatt. 

65. Koeleria cristata, Pers. a gracilis. Rchb. Agr. germ. Tab. 93. 
f. 1668. 7. lobata. Rchb. L c f. I67O. 



jOps of the f^alais. 17 

H. a. In Schwarsseeberg, M. Fiinelen^ et ad rupes alpinas supra 
Tsesch ; y. in M. Funelen. 

Obs. a. Variat foliis glabriusculis. /3. In planta campestre^ etiam 
valde variabilis panicula minus colorata^ magisque ramosa^ glumn 
paieseque £acile duplo majores occurrunt. — Ab hac specie, quacum 
8spe confusa, omnino differt K. valesiaca. Gaud. (K. tuberosa, Pers. 
e spec Hispanicis a Dufour missis, panicula glabra et etiam valde 
pnbescenti, videtur omnino eadem. Nomen aptissimum forsan res- 
tituendum.) 

Differt nempe panicula spiciformi valde congesta, ovato-cylin- 
drica, foliis glabris glaucisque sed non semper convolutis, et prae-* 
sertim culmo foliisque ad collum radicis tunicis filam^entosis valde 
elongatis tectis ; fere ut in Phleo Bertolonii, sed magis filamentosis. 
Speeiem elegantissimam semipedalem, bipedalem et ultra, ad rupes 
arldas calcareas Jurassi comitatu Neocomensi copiose legi. 
€6. Avena (Trisetum) subspicatum, Clairv. Aira — L. Koeleria — 

Rchb. 

H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Scliwarrenbach : in alp. su- 
pra Zermatt, Zmutt et Tsesch. 
67* A. (T.) distichophylla, Vill. a. genuina, panicula contracta, pilis 

corollas subaequantibus. jS. gracilis, mihi, panicula effusa, magis 

oomposita, pilis corollis multo brevioribus. A. argentea, Willd. ? 

Koch? 

H. a. In M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach : in glareosis M« 
Schwarzseeberg etin M. Fiinelen. /S. in glareosis M. Gemmi 
cum var. a. 30 Aug. 1836. 

Obs. Var. j3, quse vix ab exemplaribus germanicis A. argenteee 
differt, a var. genuina recedit tenuitate omnium partium, culmo al- 
biori graciliorique, foliis angustioribus multo longioribus, panicula 
magis composita, ramis nempe ssepius 5-6 floris, laxius effusa, et pilis 
glum is fere dimidio brevioribus : sed in utraque varietate, nihil ma- 
gis variabilis quam foliorum, palearumq. longitudo. Folia nempe 
8'^ ad 1 6"' et etiam 2" longa, et palese glumis breviores vel longiores. 

68. A. Scheuchzeri, AU. (1785) A. versicolor, Vill. (1787) 

H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach : in Alp. su- 
pra Tssch. 

69. Anihoxanthum odoratum, L. jS. spadicea mihi, spiculis pubes- 
oentibus spadiceis, foliis, nisi ad vagince commissuram, glabris. 
H. In graminosis M. Fiinelen, prope pagam. 

Obt, Specimina omnia Helvetica, qua possideo, panicula viridi- 
flavescenti, spiculis glabris punctatis, et foliis pubescentibus gau- 

VOL. II. NO. 7« B 



18 Botanical Excursion to the 

dent ; sed in spec. Britannicis fere omnibus^ spiculse vage longeque 
pilosee et folia glabriuscula sunt. 
70.* Croats vernns. All. var. albiflorus. 
H. Zermatt. 



71. Nigrilella angustifolia, Rich. 

H. In alpibus supra Teach : in graminosis M. Gemmi supra 
Schwarrenbach. 30 August 1836. 

72. Chamorchis alpina^ Rich. 

H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach et ad lacum 
Dauben. * in alpibus supra Zermatt. 
73.* Habenaria viridis, R. Br. 
H. Zermatt. 
Obs. In alpibus spica s«pe rubescit. 



74. Luzula campestris, DC. ^. nivalis Koch. Deuts. Fl. ii. p. 602. 
L. campestris jS. latifolia Ser. Gaud. L. campestris^ jS. alpina^ Gaud. 
Agrost. exc. syn. L. campestris 7. nigricans^ Gaud. Helv. exc. syn. 
plur. L. campestris alpina Ser . exsic ! 

H. In M. Gemmi in uliginosis summ. M. Schalmette. 

75. L. spicata^ DC. a. major^ caule elation, spica elongata, inter- 
dum interrupta, phyllis capsulisque atrofuscis fere concoloribus. 
0. minor, ceespitosa^ spica subglobosa^ phyllarum raarginibus cap- 
sulisque pallidioribus fere spadiceis. 

H. a. in M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. j3. ad moles glaciales 
summi jugi alpium supra Taesch, ciespites densos efficiens, et 
inter Lichenes sola phanerogama. 

Obs, Capsuls a Smithio in Eng. Fl. ed. 2da bene descripte aunt. 

76. L. lutea, DC. 

H. in graminosis ad moles glaciales, M. Schwarsseeberg. 

77. L. nivea, DC. 

H. In sylvis laricinis inter Zermatt et valleculam Tssch. 

78. L, Spadicea, DC. 

H. In M Gemmi in saxosis supra Schwarrenbach. 

79. Juncus filiformis^ L. 

H. In uliginosis torfaceis supra Zermatt. 

80. J. triglumis, L. 

H. In uliginosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 
Obs. Occurrit bi-quinqueflorus. 

81. J. Jacquini^ L. a. minor, semipedalis pedalisye. $ maximus 
mihi, sesquipedalis et ultra^ perianthiis pallidioribtts, fusceaoen* 
tibus. 

4 



Alps of the Valais. 19 

H. a. In uliginosis M. Oemmi supra Schwarrenbach et in summ. 
M. Schalmette : in alpibus supra Zermatt^ et Tsesch. fi» copi- 
ose inter saxa in alp. supra Taesch. 

Obs, Ima. In var. a> Capsulfe semper immaturie, perianthiis mul- 
to breriores. In var. 0. Capsulse maturse^ perianthiis sequales vel 
sablongiores, capitulaque interdum longiuscule pedunculata^ curva- 
to-reflexa, hemisphsrica vel subglobosa. 

Obs, 2da. Fructus maturus ab auctoribus nondum visus ut vide- 
tar e descriptione cl. Gaudioi, qui Hostii verba ita citavit : " Capsa- 
Ifle ovato-triquetrsj angulis superne acutis (in Fl. Helv. ii. p. 561^ 
'* Alatis" in Agrost. ii. p. 233,) obtusse, polyspermfie." Koch> in 
Deuts. Fl. ii. p. 593, capsulas^ ex observationibus cl. Wahlenbergii^ 
acutas perianthiis duplo longiores descripsit. Duby in Bot. Gall. i. 
"^TT* etiam eapsulam forsan imxnaturam male descripsit ** perigonii 
segmentis lanceolatis acuminatis capsulam ovoideam obtusam mucro- 
natam subsuperantibus/' ut nonnisi longitudine perianthii a. J. cas* 
taneo Sm. distinguendus^ sed notas optimas omnino neglexit ut e de« 
scriptione sequenti patet. Capsula, perianthio vix longior^ obtusa 
profdnde emarginata, obtuse-triquetra^ angulis valde coxnpressis ca- 
naliculatis fere alatis. Stylus longiusculus ex emarginatura persis- 
tens. Semina parva ovalia tunicata, tunica utriusque longe produc- 
ta cnrvata. In exempl. M. Gemini, Faulhorn, &c. et in omnibus 
in Herbario meo conservatis, capsulas semper immaturas inveni : in 
var 3. capsulsB omnes maturfe sed quoad longitudinem paulo varia* 
biles sunt. 

82. /. trifidus, L. a major^ 1 — 3 floms. /0 minor^ uniflorus. J. mo- 
nanthos, Jacq. 

H. a in sylvula ad viam inter St Nicholas et Zermatt. fi. In 
alpibus supra Zermatt ad moles glaciales. 

83. •/. bufoniusj L. 

H. ad viam inter St Nicholas et Zermatt. 

84. /. fusoo-ater, Scbreb Koch. J. ustulatus^ Hoppe. 0. alpinus^ pa- 
nicula simpliciuscula. J. alpinus, Vill. 

H. In uliginosis^ M. Schwarzseeberg. 



85* Tqfieldia borealis^ Wahl ! T. paiustris^ Hud8.et auct. Britan- 

nioorum ? 

H. In alpibus supra Zermatt. 

Obs. Omnino oongruit cum planta arctica a cl. Wahlenberg et 
Agardt missa^ et, ut Anthericum calyculatum a eel. Thunberg. 
Planta Scotica tantum recedit racemo laxiori, multifloro^ et perian-* 
thio magis obtuso coloratoque. 



20 Botanical Excursion to the 

86. T. calyculata, Wahl. oc vulgaris^ periantbio acutiuscalo. fi. gla- 
cialis. Thorn, exs. T. glacialis^ Oaud. Helv. ii. p. 596, perianthio 
obtuso, floribus longius pedicellatis. y. ramosa. Thorn, exs. T. 
glacialis, 3* ramosa, Graud. 1. c. perianthio obtuso, floribus longius 
pedicellatis, pedunculis infimis productis multifloris, bracteolato- 
squamosis. 
H.* «. In alpibus supra Zermatt. and y in graminosis humi- 

dis M. Gem mi prope die Wintereck. 29 August 1836. 
Obs. In 0. perianthium sspius purpurascit. Planta variabilis^ 
et persuasas sum T. glacialis, Gaud, mere forma alpina nee spe- 
cies diversa : sed non confundenda cum T. boreali, Wahl. species dis- 
tinctissima Europse septentrionalis alpiumque excelsiorum Helvetise 
incola. 

87.* Colchicum alpinum^ DC. 
H. Zermatt. 



88. Ornithogalum flstulosum^ Ram. Koch. Gagea — Rchb. O. Liot« 
tardi Sterub. Gaud. 

H. Rarissime ad nives deliquescentes M. Gemmi supra Schwar- 
renbach. 

Obs. O. iistulosum^ Gaud, e Rchb. fl. germ. exc. No. 735 ad O. 
arvensem^ Pers. pertinet. Spec, nostra certe omnino cum descrip- 
tione sua O. Liottardi convenit. 

89. Allium acutangulum^ Willd. Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 767« 

PI. Crit. 8. Ic 977' (sed culmus nimis elatus.) A. acutangulum 

j8. montanum, Koch. A. angulosum ot petrsum. Gaud. 
H. In arvis et incultis ad moles glaciales supra Zermatt. 
Obs. Perianthium saturatius coloratum quam in spec, e Jnrasso. 
Filamenta alterna basi dilatata^ petalaque acutiusculo-cuspidata. 

90. A. vineale^ Sm. Gaud. 
H. cum praRcedenti. 

Obs. £. sententia Kochii et Rchb. idem cum A. arenario auct. 
planta a cl. Thomasio sub hoc nomine accepta videtur diversa ; sed 
genus Allium e sicco fere inextricabile. 

91. A, oleraceum, L. Gaud. 
H. cum prsBcedentibus. 

Obs. Spatha foliolis longissimis e basi ovata dilatatis nervosis, at« 
tennatis ; folia certissime iistulosa staminibusque inclusis. Forma 
spathsB in spec, meis hujus et species sequentis differt et ab icone 
Rchb. pL crit. 5. ic. 601 et 602^ et a descriptione Gaudini. 

92. A. carinatum, L. Gaud.— /3. ? umbella mere bulbifera. 
H. cum priBcedentibus. 



Jfyfs of the Valau SI 

Obt. Spatha^ foliolis pnelongis insequalibus basi ventrioosis ner. 
folia e sicco plana videntur ; floribos non evolutis^ sed um- 
bell« bulbi feri maturi. In var. /?. ? Bulbilli magis elongati te- 
nnioresqae sunt^ et spatha magis senescens^ ut suspicor potius ad 
A. panicolatum Auct.Hely. referendum^ cujus varietatem bulbiferam 
dim in Jurasso supra Biennem legi. 
93. Antkericum scroti num, L. Lloydia — Rchb. 

H. In alpibus supra Tsesch. 
94.* J. Liliastnim^ L. Czackia — Andrz. Rchb* 

H. Zermatt. 



95. Asparagus officinalis^ L. 

H. In incultis inter Inden et Varen. 



96. Larix Europiea^ DC. 

H. Inter Inden et Varen — etiam in Valesia superiori prope Brieg^ 
&C. et in valle D. Nicolai sylvas magnas efficit. 
97- Pinus Cembra, L. 

H. In M. Fiinelen — Sylvula unica. 
96. Juniperus Sabina^ L. a erecta^ /3. prostrata. 

H. a. Inter Visp et Stalden consort. Hippopbae rbamnoides. 
JS. In alpibus supra Zermatt copiose. 



99. Betula alba^ L. d. verrucosa (Ebrh ?) Oaud. 

H. copiose ad rivulos et in glareosis inter St. Nicholas et Zer- 
matt. 

Obs. Differt a B. albse forma vulgari foliis duplo majoribus dor- 
80 glandulosis, ramis ramulisque glanduloso- verrucosis — An B. ver- 
rucosa £hrh. cum B. pubescenti a cl. Rchb. conjuncta ? Planta hel- 
vetica certe non ad pubescentem sed ad B. albam referenda. 

100. J/nif J incana, Willd. 
H. prope Kandersteg. 

Obs, Forma monstruosa squamis foliaceis. 

101. Quercus pubescens^ Willd. 

H. In coUibus apricis prope Siders. 

Obs, Folia ramorum juniorum nuUo modo basi iniequaliter corda- 
ta, sed subtruncata vel in petiolum attenuata, sinuato-pinnatifida 
subtus cano-pubescentia^ lobis sinuato-incisis acutiusculis apiculatis 
vel interdum obtusis. 



102. Salix myrsinites^ Gaud. Helv. vi. 263. S. arbutifolia^ Ser. Essai 
— $ ^ • a latifolia, Gaud. 1. c. Ser. Sal. exs. R6v. in6d N. 32 /3 ! 



2$t Botanical Excursion to the 

— fi. angastifolia^ Gbiud. 1. c S. myrsinites, a arbntifoUa^ Ser. Sal. 
6X8. R6v. in^d. No. 32^ a ! — d, lanata^ Gaud. 1. c. S. myrsinites /• 
pilosa^ Ser. 1. c. No. 32, y. 

H. a. et /8. Ad moles glaciales M. Funelen ; fi. in M. Gemini ad 

lacum infra Schnarrenbach ; L in M. Gemmi supra Schwarren- 

bach (forma pilosa) et ad moles glaciales Lammerngletscher, 

31 August 1836, (forma lanata.) 

Obs. var. a. fere forma eadem quam e Scotia ut S. Myrsinites re- 

tuli. var. 3. variat amentis foemineis brevibus crassis« et elongatis 

gracilioribus, interdum dense sericeis : foliis maturis glaberrimis lu- 

cidis vel junioribus, praesertim subtus, subsericeis. In var. d. folia 

interdum mere pilosa, interdum lana subsericea densa utrinque tecta 

sunt. 

103. S. serpyllifolia. Scop $ . 

H. Ad moles glaciales M . Schwarzseeberg et M. Fiinelen. 

104. S. hastata, L. Wabl ! $ ^ • non Hoppe. S.Ludwigii Schleich ! 
H. Ad moles glaciales supra Zermatt. 

Obs. Folia basi insequaliter rotundata, interdum subattenuata. 
S. hastata Hoppe exs. ! videtur potius S. phylicifolise var. 

105. S. Monandra, Hoffm. Gaud. var. ramis junioribus^ fbllisque sub- 
tus cttsio-pruinosis. 

H. Ad ripas Vispfe prope Zermatt. 



106. Euphorbia Gerardiana, Jacq. 

H. In incultis inter Varen et Siders. 
107- E. falcata, L. 

H. In arvis incultis prope Siders. 



108. Empeirum nigrum, L. 

H. InM. Fiinelen. 

Obs. Specimina omnia hermaphrodita, stamina nempe sub bacca 
matura persistentia inveni. In Jurassi M. Creux du Van specimi- 
na omnia, et permulta legi, dioica observari : differunt autem pau- 
lulo a planta alpina habitu laxiusculo, caulibus nempe multo minus 
lignosis, foliisque remotioribus, longioribus angustioribusque. Planta 
Suecica, a cl. Thunberg missa, et Hibemica, in torfaceis Cunnamara 
lecta, videntur dieicse, sed specimina mea nimis manca. 



J 09. Thesium alpinum, L, a. racemis secundis, bracteis (lores su- 
perantibus. )3. racemis secundis, bracteis floribus brevioribus. 
H. a. In M. Funelen. j3. In M. Gemmi ad lacum infra Scbwar- 

renbach. 



Alj}s oftlie Vcdais. 23 

Obs. In Jnrasao varietatem racemis non secundis caoleque elation 
8«pe legi^ quae mihi var 7. floribus sparsis. 



110. Hippopbae rbamnoides^ L. 

H. Ad Vispam inter Visp et Stalden, oopioae. 

06«. Plantain prope Aberlady in comitatu Haddington lectam 
ab am. Macnab accepi^ qufe a nostra Helvetica et ab alteris Britan- 
moB recedit, foliis duplo latioribus baccisque fiacile duplo majoribus. 



111. (Xryria reniformis^ Hook. 

H. In M. Gemmi ad mpes prope nives perennes M. Scbalmette. 



112. Ckenopodium olidum^ Curt. C. fcetidum^ Lam. Gand. 
H. In fossis exsiccatis ad viam prope Siders. 

113. C albvm, L. ee. vulgare — 0. concatenatum^ Gbtud. foliis an- 
gustioribus subintegerrimis (integerrimis acutis apiculatisve) ra- 
oemis elongatis gracilibus^ glomerulis globosis subdiscretis (re- 
motiusculis.) 

H. a. inarvis supra Zermatt. ^. ad viam inter Stalden et St 

Nicholas. 
Obs. In var. /0. caules prostrati, viridi et albo fasciati. Hac^ 
var 0. riparium Bngb. in Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 3740 ^. 

114. C. Botrys, L. 

H. In carbonariis ad viam inter.Siders et Leuk. In arenoeis in- 
ter Stalden et St Nicholas. 

115. C hjbridum, L. 

H. In vineis prope Varen. 



116. Plantago major^ L. y. brachystachya^ Koch. Deutsch. Fl. i. 

p 801. T. minima, Thom. exs ! non DC. P. uliginosa, Baumg ! 

(vix di versa.) 

H. In uliginoais ad viam inter St Nicholas et Zermatt. 

Obs, Spica pauciflora congesta ovato-oblouga^ scapo folia 5~7-ner- 
via crassa parva superante ; rhizoma crassum. Hue pertinere 
videtur icon Taberniemontani 1107y f- 2. Ad var. d. microstachyam, 
Koch. 1. c. pertinet T. minima, DC. Fl. fr. scapo debili foliis triner- 
vis breviori, spica pauciflora (vix ultra 6-flora) floribusque laxis. 
Scapi interduni petiolis breviores ; radix fibrosa tenuis. Hanc va- 
rietatem tantum ex ulignosis Jurassi prope Delemont lectam accepi, 
et in ulignosis torfaceis Hiberniae prope Renvyle Cunnamara legi. 
117* P« montana> Lam. P. atrata, Hoppe exs. ! 

H. In M. Gemmi in graminosis ad lacum infra Schwarrenbach. 

Obs, Non confundenda cum var. humili P. lanceolate. 



24 Dentition and Characters 

118. P. holoeerioea. Gaud, in Roem. et Schult. Syst. Hi. p. 
P. montana fi ? holosericea^ Gaud. Helv. i. p. 400. T. saxatdlia 
fi holosericea, Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2677 0- 

Plantago, foliis lineari-lanceolatis 5-7'i>enri8 subintegerrimis, 
scapis pilis patentibus lanuginoao-hireutia, spica denta multiflora^ 
ovato-globosa, bracteis latisaimis subrotundis nervo viridi valido per- 
cursis apice longe ciliatis immarginatis. ou foliis glabriusculia. ^. 
foliis lannginofio-hirsutis. 

H. a In glareoaisM. Gemmiad moles glaciales Lammerngletscher, 
oopiose, 31 Aug. 1836. ^ In glareosis M. Gemmi supra 
Schwarrenbach, 1835^ et cum var. ol 1836. 

Obs. A. P. montana. Lam. praster notas indicatas, spica densissi- 
ma. multiflora, foliis multo latioribus et longioribos staturoque ma- 
jori crassiori abunde differt. P. saxatilis, M. Bieb ! quacum con- 
jungit el. Rchb, primo visu differt, bracteis latissime 8<»rio80-mar- 
ginatis, et, nisi fallor, corolla pilis obvallata at indicavit cl. auctor. 
PI. argenten, Lap. (spec, unicum e Pyremeis ab Endressis lectum 
possideo) vix varietas : in P. argentea. Lap. folia sunt dense argen- 
teo-sericea, bracteaeque scarioso-marginatse vix coloratfe. PI. vic- 
torialis (an vera ?) e Oalmatia a Pettero missa etiam differt, spica 
ovata, floribus minoribus, scapo elation, foliis brevioribus latioribus- 
que et habita omnino P. lanceolatse. 

119. P. lanceolata, L. 0. hungarica, Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2678 i^. 
P. hungarica, Walds. et Kit ! 

H. In arenosis ad Rhodanum prope Leuk. 

Obs. Scapi numerosi decumbentes, 4-5 unciales; spica brevia 
ovata, bracteae acuminatSB hyalinae, folia vix duas lineas lata, brevia, 
lanugine alba tecta vel glabriuscula et ad coUum radicis lanugine 
copiosa longa intertexta. 

120. P. alpina L. Var. rigida, rhizomate incrassato, lignoso. P. 
bidentata 0, > humilis, Gaud ? 

H. In pascuis arid is inter Zermatt et St Nicholas. 
Obs. Radix s»pe odorata fere ut in Gnaphalio graveolenti. 
( To be continued.) 



II.— On the Dentition and other Characters of the British Shrews, 
with reference to M. Duvernoy's recent researches into the struc^ 
iure of this genus of Animals, By the Rev. Leonard Jentns, 
M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

In the preface to the " Manual of British Vertebrate Animals," 
published in 1835, I alluded to the Shrews as one of those groups 
the species of which required further investigation. I was led to 



of the British Shrews. 25 

think 80 by the drcumstance of my having observed great differen- 
ees amongst individuals usually considered as belonging to the same 
species, and the belief that we had not attained to a knowledge of 
the true value of those characters with which such differences were 
connected. I had not^ however^ at the time the means of throwing 
any furthe? light on the subject. I was afterwards in hopes that 
this might have been afforded by Mr Bell^ whose accurate work on 
the British Quadrupeds, now in course of publication, is proba« 
Uy fieimiliar to all who are interested in the matter under consi- 
deration. M. Duvernoy had also in the meantime published a me- 
moir on the structure of these animals, which promised to afford 
much assistance in the inquiry. It does not appear, however^ that 
the gentleman first alluded to had become acquainted with M. Du- 
vemoy's memoir in time to avail himself of any information therein 
contained, before the publication of the third part of the " British 
Quadrupeds," in which the indigenous species of the genus Sorex 
are illustrated. The subject consequently remained where it was ; 
Mr Bell at the same time joining in the belief that it stood in need 
of some further investigation, although not himself in possession of 
the requisite facts to enable him at that time to undertake the in- 
quiry. 

It was under these circumstances, and on the occasion of my be- 
ing enabled to consult the entire memoir of M. Duvernoy, of which 
I had previously only seen an abstract, that I determined a short 
time since carefully to examine anew the characters of the British 
species of this genus. I had also been fortunate in obtaining a few 
specimens in addition to those which I possessed at the time of pub- 
lishing the Manual above alluded to. The result of my inquiries 
is what I purpose to communicate in the present paper ; and if I 
have not succeeded in establishing any species which may be con* 
sidered as new, I yet trust I shall be the means of drawing the at- 
tention of naturalists to a few facts respecting the dentition of those 
hitherto met with in this country, which, when considered in con- 
nexion with M. Duvernoy's researches, must lead us to alter our 
opinion respecting their supposed identity with others met with on 
the Continent. 

I may commence by stating that M. Duvernoy's memoir^ which 
is entitled " Fragmens d'Histoire Naturelle syst6matique et phy- 
siologique sur les Musaraignes," is contained in the second volume 
of the Transactions of the Natural History Society of Strasburg. 
The memoir bears the dates of June and December 1834, although, 
I believe, it was not published until the following year. Its lead- 



26 Dentition and C/iaraaers 

ing object is to make known the existence of three distinct t^pe* of 
denlitkm existing amongst the shrews^ and to direct attention to the 
characters afforded by the teeth, as much more deserving our confi- 
dence than some of those usually resorted to for establishing speci- 
fic differences in this genus. It has been the practice of naturalists, 
in describing these animals, to dwell too much on the colour of the 
fur, and on the form, as well as the relative length of the tail. M. 
Duvemoy has shown that these points afford very uncertain charac- 
ters ; and my own recent examination of numerous specimens leads 
me to accord entirely with his opinion. Not only does the colour 
of the fiir vary in its tints with age, sex, and season, but in the 
mode according to which the tints are distributed. M. Duvemoy 
observes, that in some individuals of the S. araneus the under parts 
of the body are pale grey, whilst in others these parts are the darkest. 
He adds, that the upper parts of the body will vary in the same 
species from greyish-brown or black to a decided red. My own 
observation has led me to remark further, that the colours are not 
even constant in individuals of the same age ; nor is there appa- 
rently any fixed relation between the period of growth and the na- 
ture of the prevailing tint. In some instances I have noticed young 
individuals as dark as, or even darker than, full-grown specimens 
of the same species ; in others, young which were of a lighter rufous 
than any adult that I had ever met with. The characters of the 
tail, at least those derived from its form, seem to depend chiefly 
upon age. It is generally shorter in proportion, and always thicker, 
in young than in old individuals. This last circumstance is due in 
part to a copious growth of elongated bristly hairs, which closely 
surround the tail in young specimens, at the same time standing 
rather out, but which either fall as age advances, or become so worn 
from friction as finally to leave this part, in very old individuals, 
nearly naked. It is also manifestly due to a greater plumpness of 
the tail at this period. In after life, the muscular portions, as well 
as the investing skin, sometimes shrivel, so as to render the angles 
of the included vertebras more apparent ; hence entailing not only 
a diminished thickness of the tail, but, what is equally obvious in 
adult specimens, a change in its form from cylindrical to nearly 
square. With reference to this last point, M. Duvemoy observes, 
and I believe correctly, that the quadrangular form of this part is 
common to several species, but that it never appears till after a cer- 
tain age, the tail in young subjects being always round. There is 
also a stricture sometimes observable at the base of the tail, which it 
is of importance to notice, because it was considered by Hermann as 



ofth€ British Shrews. 27 

Uie distinguishing character of a peculiar species {S, constrictus, 
Herm.), which, however, according to Duvernoy, who has examin- 
ed the original specimens still preserved in the Museum at Stras- 
buTg, proves to be nothing more than the young of S, araneus and 
S. /bditus. In fact, this is a character likewise affected by age, if 
not altogether dependent upon it. The elongated bristly hairs above 
spoken of are rarely found quite at the origin of the tail, or, if pre* 
sent, are shorter here than elsewhere and more closely appressed. 
Hence at this point the tail appears thinner ; but, from the circum- 
stance of the hairs falling in advanced life, the difference becomes 
less and less obvious, and in some instances at length ceases to be 
observed. 

I now proceed to notice the different types of dentition which M. 
Davemoy has observed in these animals, after which I shall describe 
more at length the characters of the teeth as exhibited by the species 
found in our own country. 

These types, which are three in number, are regarded by M. Du- 
vernoy as indicative of so many sub-genera, or at least well-marked 
sections in the old genus Sorbx. 

I. The first, to which he continues the name of Sorbx in a re- 
stricted sense, is distinguished by having the two middle incisors in 
the lower jaw tviih an entire or simple edge, the two corresponding 
(nes in the upper hooked, or furnished with a sjnir appearing as a 
point behind; the three or Jour small teeth which follow, in the up- 
per jaw, diminishing rapidly in size from the first to the last : none 
of the teeth coloured — To this type belong, amongst other species, 
the Sorex araneus of Continental authors, and the S. leucodoti of 
Hermann. 

II. The second type (Hyorosorex, Duv.) has the lower middle 
incisors with the edge denticulated ; the upper ones forked, the spur 
being prolonged into a hook (en crochet ;) the small molars above, 
which SLteJive in number, diminishing insensibly from the first to the 
last : all coloured at the tips, — Of this group the S.fodiens of Pallas 
is considered as the typical species. M. Duvernoy includes also the 
S, tctragonurus of Hermann. 

III. The third type possesses characters in some measure con- 
necting it with each of the two former, on which account it is nam- 
ed by M. Duvernoy Amphisobex. It is distinguished by the lower 
incisors being simple, and the upper ones hooked, as in the first type; 
but the first two of the small intermediate teeth (which Are four in 
nnmber) are equal, the third somewhat less than these, the fourth 
rudimentary : the tips of the incisors, as well as those of the molars. 



28 Dentition and Characters 

are a little coloured. This type is characteristic of a peculiar spe* 
cies, which M. Duvernojr describes as new, under the name of S, 
Hermanni. 

After attentively considering the characters assigned by M . Du- 
Ternoy to his three types respectively, it was easy to ascertain to 
which of them the species of Sorex hitherto described as natives of 
this country by our own naturalists, belonged. The result of tlie 
examination wzA,—Jirst, that we have no British species^ as yet 
identified, possessing the characters of his first type, and that there- 
fore the S, araneus of English authors is- not the same as the S. 
araneus of the Continent ; — secondly, that the species to which it 
has been the custom here to apply that name, belongs to his second 
type HYDROdOREX ; — thirdly, that neither is the S.J'odiens of this 
country, judging from all the specimens I had seen, identical with 
the S.fodiens of Pallas, or at any rate of Duvernoy, but that it 
associates, in respect to its dentition, with the S. Hermanni of the 
author last mentioned under his third type Amphisorrx. 

With the view of establishing these points, which may cause a 
little surprise with some of our naturalists, 1 beg to direct attention 
to the structure of the teeth in each of the several species of the genus 
Sorex hitherto met with in Great Britain. 

S, araneus, (Of English Authors.) 
That this was probably not the same as the S. araneus of the 
continent, I ventured to suggest in the Manual of British Verte- 
brate Animals, from the circumstance of our species having the 
teeth coloured, which had been said by Geoffroy, in his description 
of the one found in France, to be white, * Mr Bell thought that 
Geoffroy's statement was erroneous, and that there was not suffi- 
cient ground for the above opinion, t It would seem, nevertheless, 
to be fully confirmed by Duvernoy, who, moreover, notes this cha- 
racter as one of those particularly distinguishing his first subgenus. 
But were this not so, and were we entirely to disregard the colour 
of the teeth, their number and structure would at once serve to se- 
parate our own araneus from the species bearing the same name 
on the continent. 

The following description is that of the dentition of our common 
threw, and applies to every specimen I have as yet examined. 
The entire number of teeth is twenty in the upper jaw, and twelve 

• See Man, p. 17, Note. f Brit. Quad, p. 110. 



of the British Shrews. 29 

in the lower. Of the fonner> the last four on each side are true 
molars, the second and third of which may be termed perfect^ the 
two others imperfect.* The second and third molars may be re« 
garded as formed each of two triangular prisms^ with their summits 
directed inwards^ on which side there is a projecting spur or heel 
at the base. In the second^ the first prism is sensibly smaller than 
the following one. In the thirds the two prisms are equal. The 
first molar is of a somewhat irregular form. Strictly speakings there 
is only the second prism present, of which the posterior side may 
be regarded as excessively developed at the expense of the two other 
sides, as well as of the projecting spur within. The first prism is 
simply represented by a small point or denticle in advance of the 
second. Viewed in profile, this tooth presents the appearance of a 
sharp^edge with threepoints, and resembles one of the false molars 
observable in many of the Carnivora. The fourth molar is small, 
and, like the first, formed but of a single prism. In this instance, 
however, it is the first prism which is present, the second being ru« 
dimentary, and exhibiting but one side, which is carried inwards to 
unite with the projecting spur, which is itself also rudimentary. 

Between the molars just described and the two true incisors at 
the extremity of the jaw, which last, from their peculiar develop- 
ment, form a remarkable feature in the dental system of this genus, 
are five small teeth on each side, concerning the exact nature of 
which there has been much difference of opinion. Some authors 
have regarded them as canines, others as false molars, others again 
as lateral incisors. Without entering into the merits of this ques- 
tion, which had already been discussed by M. Isidore Oeoffroy St 
Hilaire,*** previously to Duvernoy's late memoir, I shall simply state 
that in the present paper I adopt the opinion of the author last- 
mentioned, who seems most disposed to regard them as incisors, 
principally from the circumstance of their being almost all implant- 
ed in the intermaxillary bone.:^ ^ shall, therefore, continue to call 
them, as some have done before me, lateral incisors, giving the 
name of middle incisors to the anterior pair of teeth so remarkably 
distinguished from all others by their form and great development. 

* In describing the molars, which appear to be nearly similar in all the spe- 
cies, I have adopted, in a great measure, the language of Duvemoy. 

f See IHct. Claa. d'Hist. Nat, Tom. ii. p. 313. 

I One argument for not regarding them as false molars is founded by Duver- 
noy on their relative proportions. He observes that false molars always in- 
crease gradually in size from the first to the most backward. In the instance 
of these teeth, on the contrary, the first in the series are the laigest. 



30 Dentition and Characters 

In the species under consideration^ the middle incisors are of a 
compessed conical form, and very much produced, at first taking a 
horizontal direction, but afterwards curving downwards in a hook- 
like manner. Each is furnished with a spur or second point, aris- 
ing from the horizontal portion of the tooth, and which is so much 
developed as nearly to equal the anterior point in size. Hence this 
tooth appears forked ; and when viewed in the recent animal, and 
still covered in part with the muscular integuments, the points of 
the fork might easily be mistaken for two distinct teeth. These 
middle incisors are widely separated at their origin, but, gradually 
approaching, touch each other soon after bending to form the de- 
scending hook. 

The lateral incisors form a closely compacted series, the first re- 
posing in part upon the base of the middle incisor just described, 
and each one in succession upon that of the tooth immediately pre- 
ceding. They are of a conical form, the first three having the base 
surrounded by an elevated margin most conspicuous internally. 
The first rather exceeds in size the posterior point of the middle in* 
cisor in advance ; the succeeding ones decrease in a very gradual 
manner, the last being small and not easily observed. 

In the lower jaw the true molars amount to three only on each 
side, the first being the largest and the last the smallest. Each is 
formed, as in the upper jaw, of two triangular prisms, with the 
summits, however, in this instance, directed outwards. In the 
third molar, the second prism is incomplete. 

The two middle incisors in this jaw present a remarkable ap- 
pearance, being very much produced, and standing out horizontally 
for nearly their whole length, the extreme tips only being slightly 
bent upwards. The upper margin, which forms a sharpish edge, 
exhibits three small denticles behind the main point, and when 
viewed in profile has a festooned or crenated appearance. 

Between the middle incisors and the first molar are two lateral 
incisors of nearly the same form as those above, but rather more 
pointed as well as lengthened. The second, moreover, presents the 
rudiment of a second point, though so little obvious as scarcely to 
deserve notice, were it not for the circumstance that in the next 
species this second point attains a considerable development. The 
first of the lateral incisors, which is smaller than the other, rests in 
a great measure upon the base of the middle incisor preceding it. 
The second, in like manner, rests partly upon the first. 

All the teeth in this species have their salient portions more or 
less deeply tinged with brownish red. In the case of the middle 



of ike British Shrews. 31 

and lateial indsors, it is more especially the tips and the outer sur- 
hce which are thus coloured. It is also the outer surface in the 
lower molars ; but in the upper molars it is principally the inner 
sorfaoe^ and the internal elevated ridges which form the spur. In 
MHne specimens the colouring is very slight on the lateral incisors, 
bat it may always be readily observed on the other teeth. 

On the whole, the dental formula for this species will stand thus : 
Mid. Inc. J ; lat. Inc. | : f ; moL J : J ; = f g. 

S.Jbdiens, (Of English Authors.) 

In this species, the entire number of teeth is two less than in the 
one last described. The molars are the same, both as regards num- 
ber and form, above and below ; but a considerable difference ap- 
pears in the middle and lateral incisors. 

The former, in the upper jaw, are larger in relation to the other 
teeth, and more curved. The first point is also much more developed 
than the second ; which last appears only as a short though sharp 
spur, and ceases to convey the impression of the entire tooth being 
forked. This spur is, however, itself distinctly furnished with a 
very minute second point, of which there is scarcely a rudiment in 
the last species. These middle incisors are less divaricated at their 
origin than in the S, araneus, and meet each other sooner, though 
in some individuals without actually touching. Their inner mar- 
gins exhibit at their point of contact a small process, which may be 
also observed in S. araneus, but which is more obvious in the spe- 
cies under consideration. 

The lateral incisors in this jaw are only four, and but three of 
these are readily seen, the fourth being extremely small, and placed 
rather within the line of the adjoining teeth, by which it is in part 
concealed when viewed from without. They are of a compressed 
triangular form, with the base more dilated than in the S. araneus. 
The first two are of nearly equal size ; the third somewhat smaller. 

In the lower jaw, the middle incisors are even more produced 
than in the S. araneus, and equally horizontal in their direction. 
The upper margin is almost entire, presenting only near its base 
one obtuse denticle, seldom very conspicuous, and apparently the 
less so as age advances. 

The lateral incisors in the lower jaw are two in number, as in the 
case of the last species. The second is also the largest ; but this 
tooth, as already mentioned, differs from its corresponding one in the 
S, aranetu in having its posterior or secondary point considerably 
developed. 



32 Dentition and Characters 

The teeth are all more or less coloured as in the last species. 
The dental formula is as follows : 

Mid. Inc. i ; lat. Inc. J : * ; Mol. } : |; = ^f. 

S. remifer, (Of English Authors.) 
Of this species I have only been able to examine accurately the 
dentition of a single specimen. It does not differ materially from 
that of the S, fodiens last described. The processes on the inner 
margins of the upper middle incisors are rather more developed, 
and it is by means of these processes only that the two teeth ap- 
proach one another. The fourth lateral incisor in the upper jaw is 
also a trifle larger, and terminates upwards in a more decided point* 
The lower middle incisors have their upper margins perfectly en- 
tire^ not exhibiting even the rudiment of a single denticle. The 
colouring of all the teeth is the same> but in the specimen examin- 
ed^ not very intense. 

After the details above given^ it is hardly necessary to dwell on 
the essential differences between the first two of our British species 
and the two continental ones bearing the same names. It will be 
readily seen, on referring to the characters of Duvernoy's three 
types, that they differ particularly in the form of the middle inci- 
sors in both jaws, and in the number, as well as in the relative size 
of the lateral incisors above. The difference in number amounts, in 
the case of the S, araneus, to as many as four. It is in fact not a 
little singular that the dental system of our arat/eus should be near* 
ly coincident with that of the continental yb(/ifn^ ; while that of our 
fodiens, though not exactly the same (in as much as it clearly be- 
longs to Duvernoy's third type,) should yet closely approach the den- 
tition of the continental araneus. But besides the distinctive cha- 
racters afforded by the teeth, there are others observable in the form 
of the cranium. Of this I judge from a comparison of Duvernoy's 
figures of this part with the same part in our British specimens. In 
the instance of the S. araneus, the cranium is slightly larger in all 
its dimensions, but especially wider across the snout and less atte- 
nuated, than in the araneus of this country. In the 5. fodiens, it 
is decidedly smaller, and the proportions of the snout not so consi- 
derable. 

But if our British species be not the same as the S. araneus and. 
fodiens of continental authors, it will naturally be asked, — ^to what 
other species we are to refer them ? To this inquiry, at least as re- 
gards one of them, it is not so easy to return a direct answer, until 



of the British Shrews. 38 

all those BOtioed by different authors shall have had their dentitions 
Examined with reference to the three types indicated by Duvernoy. 
Our most common species^ the so-called S. araneus, which^ as be- 
fore stated, unquestionably belongs to the second of the above types 
{Hffdrosorex,) I have little doubt is synonymous with the <$. tetra^ 
gonurusj the only other noticed by Duvernoy under that section^ be- 
sides the true S, fodiens of Pallas and himself, from which it is 
clearly different. M. Duvernoy has given a description of this spe- 
des^ as well as a coloured representation of the entire animal^ and 
though this last may appear at first sight larger than our araneus, 
as well as slightly different in some other respects, yet it accords ex« 
actly with specimens of a rather unusual size obtained by me from 
the fens of Cambridgeshire, to which I shall have occasion to refer 
prosei&tly. His description is for the most part of a relative na« 
tare serving to distinguish the S, teiragonurus from the S, fodiens. 
Henoe it will not admit of direct application where we have not the 
laat-named species with which to contrast it. But so far as it can 
be judged of, it would seem to &vour the opinion I have above ha- 
sarded* Thus he observes that it is distinguished, in the first place, 
by its much smaller sixe ; secondly, by the form of the snout, which 
u nanrawer and more elongated ; thirdly, by the form of its feet, 
which are less thick and less broad than those of the S* fodiens* 
Lasify, he notices some slight differences in the teeth compared with 
those of the species just mentioned. One of these consists in the 
first denticle on the margin of the lower middle incisor being so 
little removed from the point of that tooth as to appear but as a 
lobe of this last, and to give in consequence to the extremity of the 
tooth a bilobated character. Another difference consists in the den- 
ticle of the second lateral incisor in the lower jaw being less de- 
Teloped. With respect to the last two peculiarities, of the former 
it is not easy to judge without knowing its appearance in the S.fi^ 
diens, hot I conceive it will be hardly thought inapplicable to our 
apecieSj in which I have already notioed (when describing its den- 
tition) three denticles arranged in a series behind the main point of 
the tooth in question, to which last the first is sufficiently approxi- 
mated to convey the appearance above alluded to by Duvernoy. To 
the latter,— the rudimentary state of the second point in the second 
lateral incisor below, — I have in like manner already drawn atten* 

t]<Ml. 

M. DuTemoy assigns the following dimensions to the S. ietra* 
gonurus : 

TOL. II. NO. 7* c 



34 Dentition and Characters 

MUhm, Inc. Xm» 
Length of body, .... 0,070 » 2 9^ • 

of tail, . . . 0,045 » 1 91 nearly. 

From the orifice of the ear to the end of 

the snout, .... 0,021 ss 10, or more. 

Fh>m the eye to the same point, . 0,010 » 4} ; 

which are not very different from those of many individuals of our 
common species^ which last varies very much in this respect^ — ^in 
the relative length of the tail and body especially. 

The S. tetragonurus was first described by Hermann^ in 1783, 
from specimens found in the neighbourhood of Strasburg by the ce- 
lebrated Dr Gall. To his work^ entitled Tabula affinitatum Ani" 
malium, I have had no access. The species, however, has been sub- 
sequently noticed by several other authors besides Duvemoy, in 
whose descriptions I find scarcely any thing at variance with the 
characters of the S. aranetu of this country. Geoffroy's, indeed, is 
almost the only one which appears founded upon original observa- 
tion.* And one remark of his, relating to the teeth, which perhaps 
may be thought not strictly applicable to our species, it will be right 
to notice. He states that all the canines, (by which name he de- 
signates what in this paper are called lateral incisors) are of equal 
size, fiut it must be remembered, that he is here, as well as in 
most other parts of his description, contrasting the S. tetragonurus 
with the S. araneus of the continent, in which last, according to 
Duvemoy, the teeth in question diminish in size very rapidly. 
Hence the expression must not be taken strictly, and according to 
the letter. As to the form of the tail, which has obtained for it 
its name, and which is much dwelt upon by Geofifroy, we have al- 
ready shown that this is not in any case to be depended on. The 
dimensions given by him are : 

Length of body 60 millimetres = 2 inc. 44 lin. nearly, 
tail 40 =1 inc. 7 lin. 

which differ from those of Duvemoy, shewing that in this respect 
the S, tetragonurus is equally variable as our British araneus. Its 
tendency to vary in other respects also, we may gather from the ac- 
count of this species by Isidore Geofifroy St Hilaire in the Diction^ 
naire Clasnque tVHistoire NaturelUyf where, after repeating several 
of the characters already noticed by Geofi^oy, he states that he has 
examined many Individuals apparently referrible to it, in which he 

* Memoire sur les esp^ces de genre Musaraigne. — ^lui. du Mu$. Tom. mil. 
(1811,) p. 177, pL 2, f. 3. 
f Tom. xi. p. 320. 



of the British Shretos. 35 

tDbserved considerable differences of colour. Both authors speak of 
it as being found in nearly the same situations as the S. araneus, — 
ID barns^ gardens^ &c. the latter adding that it is not of unfrequent 
occurrence. 

Desniarest> * Fred. Cuvier^ t and Fischer^ % ^^ ^^®^' descriptions 
of the S, teiragonuruSy add nothing to what had been previously 
said by QeoWroj. 

Although I have referred above our British araneus to the Sm 
teiragonums of Duvernoy^ I think it not impossible it may still be 
the same as the S. aranau of Linnieus. This indeed cannot be in- 
ferred from the brief description in the twelfth edition of the Si^s^ 
tema Natura, in which there is no mention made of the teeth. But 
in the Fauna Suecica, (edit, l?^!,) he speaks of the upper middle 
iadsors as bi/id and curved, the lower ones serrated ; the canines 
(lateral incisors) in the upper jaw as four in number, and very 
sanalL These characters are not inapplicable to our species ; for 
although there are really fve lateral incisors above, the fifth is so 
minute as readily to escape observation. M. Duvernoy was led by 
the description in the work last referred to, to consider the Lin- 
ncan araneus (the only European true Sorex known to the Swe- 
dish naturalist,) the same as the species afterwards called fodiens ; 
but this is explained by the circumstance of his (DuverikoY's) fodiens 
having in fftct the same dentition as our araneus ; and he seems to have 
been moreimpressed with the idea that it was distinct from Am araneus 
(which it certainly is) than with the possibility of its being his te^ 
iragonurus, with which, as above shewn, our araneus ought pro- 
bably to be associated. — But however this may be, as there is some 
doubt attached to the Linnaean species, I should feel inclined in this, 
as in all similar cases in which there have been two or more species 
confounded under the same name, to continue thai name to that one 
in particular which has been best characterized by subsequent authors. 
Hence, without any reference to Linnieus, I should propose suffer- 
ing the name of araneus to remain with the species so well describ- 
ed by Daubenton, Oeoffroy, and Duvernoy, and calling ours (at 
least tiU it be shewn that it is not the species so designated by Her- 
mann,) by that of tetragonurus. 

We must now proceed to make some remarks respecting the S. 

fodiens of this country, which, as before stated, it is hardly possible, 

in the present state of the subject, to identify with complete cer- 

• MammaL p. 150. f Diet, des Sci, Nat, Tom. zxziii. p. 425. 

f SjfnopM. MammaL p. 253. 



36 DeniUion and Characters 

tainty in the descriptions of foreign authors. In fact it is quite 
clear that^ in this instance also, there have been at least two, if not 
more, species ecmfounded ; sometimes under the name of S. Dan^ 
bentonii, at other times under that of S.Jbdiens, The former name^ 
I believe, originated with Erxleben,* hj whom it was applied to the 
Musaraigne (Teau of Daubenton, t which is probably the same as 
the species described subsequently under the same name by Oeof* 
froy and many of the French writers, but by Hermann under that 
of S. carinalus, and by Duvernoy, in his recent memoir, under that 
of S.Jbdiens. The latter fS.fodUnsJ was first given by Pallas to 
a species discovered by himself near Berlin, of which he sent seve* 
ral prints to Pennant, who considered it the same as the ivaUr 
ehrew of this country, but of which the exact characters had not 
then, and, so far as I am aware, have never since been published.^; 
Hence we have not tlie means of judging what Pallas's species real- 
ly was. If Duvernoy is right in regarding it to be the same as his, 
from which ours is decidedly different, it is at once evident that the 
name ofjbdiens no longer of right belongs to the British species. 
Whether ours be the fodiens of any other author subsequent to 
Pallas, is a distinct questi<Ni ; and that it is, there are strong grounds 
for believing, of Gmelin in particular, whose characters of the teeth 
will not accord with those of Duvernoy's^^M^i^Ti^, but are very nearly 
similar to those of our own. It must, however, be mentioned, that 
several new aquatic species of Sorex have been indicated of late 
years by the continental naturalists, which tends to make the in- 
quiry more preplexing. Brehm has briefly described three, in ad- 
dition to one which he considers as the S. fodiens of Bechstein, 
in the periodical conducted by himself under the title of Omis. § 
More recently, a sketch of a new arrangement of the shrews by 
Wagler|| has been published in the Isis of 1832. In this last essay, 
the species are distributed under three distinct genera, somewhat 
analogous to Duvemoy's subgenera ; and judging from the characters 
of the teeth assigned to one of them, {Crossopus, W.) in which he 
places the S, fodiens, I think it probable that the species intended 
under this last name, (considered by him as synonymous with the 

* SysUma JUfftd Aminudis. CItug. L Mamm. Lips. 1777. p. 124. 

f MAn, de tAcad. dea ScL de Par. 1756, p. 211, pi. 5. f. 2. 

I See PetoL Hist, qf Quad. (Edit 179a) Vol. ii. p. 225, note. 

§ The characters of these four species will be also found in BtJL des Sci. 
Nat. 1827. Tom xi. p. 287. 

I Said to have been found after his death amongst his manuscripts. A brief 
abstract of the arrangement is given by Duvernoy at the conclusion of his me- 
moir, with remarks. There only have I seen it 



of the BritiA Shrews. 87 

fidiens of Brehm) maj be the sane as the fodieus of this country. 
fiat it will be unprofitoble at present to porsue this inqniry further. 
And until we have a more exact knowledge oiF the characters of 
these specaea to ^ich the name aijbdiens has been applied abroad, 
I think it would be4idTi8aUe to abstain fiom applying that name to 
oor own species, cr at least considering this last as necessarily 
identical with any of the aboye. One thing is certain ; — that it is 
noi the S,fodiens of Duvemoy, which is probably synonymous with 
the Muuaraigne iTtau of the other fVendi anthors. If it be asked 
bj what name we are to call the water shrew of this country, i 
would propose, (at least for the present) restoring to it that of bU 
color ; a name originally given to it by Shaw, *-*^me extremely 
applicable, and, so fiur as I know, not adopted by any ftareign author 
•8 a name for any of the species met with on the continent. 

With respect to the S. remSifsr of this country, I have nothing 
new to adduce on the subject of its synonymy. In Duvemoy's me- 
moir there is not the slightest mention made of this species, by 
which we can get a clue to the dentition of the one originally co 
named by G^ftoy, or the section to which it belongs in his own 
anangememt. I shall simply state, that, judging ftom the slight 
differences in the teeth already alluded to, added to its other charac- 
ters previously establiriied, I feel strengthened in the opinion of its 
bdng really ^stinet from our S.jbdiene, to which, however, it is at 
ilie same time very cloeely allied. 

Having endeavoured in the preceding pages to elucidate the cha- 
racters, and to rectify the nomenclature, of our three British Shrews, 
I am anxious now to direct attention to two yarieties of our most 
common species {aranetie of authors,) met with in my own neigh- 
bourhood, and which, had they occurred to persons not very conver- 
aant with these animals, might easily haye been regarded as distinct. 
The first which I shall notice is one already alluded to in a former 
part of this paper as remarkable for its size. 

Far, 1. — Dimensions as follows : — 

/nc Lin. 
Length of the head and body, - - - •« 3 1 

of the head, 11 

of the tail (to the end of the bone,) ... 17 

of the hmd foot (from the heel to the extremity of the claws,) 61 
of the fore foot (from the wrist in like manner,) - 4 

of the ears, -- - - - - 1} 

From the eye to the anterior margin of the orifice of the ear, - - 4 
to the tip of the snout, - - - - 4| 

• NaU Misc* Vol. ii. pi. 35. 



38 Dentition and Character$ 

Notwithstanding this variety exceeded in balk and entire length 
any individuals of its kind I had before met with, it will be ob- 
served that its head and tail taken separately were each shorter 
than in either of the specimens of which the dimensions are given 
by Mr Bell and myself in our respective works. It proved to be a 
female which had recently produced young, the nipples being dis- 
tended and very prominent ; and all its characters, as regards size 
and form^ clearly shewed that its peculiarities were due simply to 
age. Its snout was very much attenuated, (thus confirming a re- 
mark of M, Duvernoy^ that this part is always thicker in young 
subjects) : the tail distinctly quadrangular, somewhat flattened ho- 
rizontally towards the tip ; not nearly so stout as in ordinary spe- 
cimens ; almost naked ; the investing hairs being worn to the stumps^ 
closely appressed, and not extending at the tip more than f ths of a 
line beyond the bone. The teeth in like manner indicated age : 
the upper middle incisors were completely ground down to their 
point of contact, (giving the appearance of their being more than 
usually divaricated at their origin ;) the lower ones possessed but 
two denticles on their upper margin, the first of the three ordina- 
rily present having become obsolete from use. The colours (which, 
however, in this instance had probably nothing to do with age) were 
also rather peculiar in this variety. They were distinctly of three 
kinds : that of the sides being separated from the colour of the back 
by a well-defined line, originating at the hind quarter, thence pas- 
sing straight onwards to the shoulder, where it inclined upwards, 
terminating finally at the ear. The parts above the line were of a 
very dark red-brown, approaching to black, with a few cinereous 
hairs intermixed; — the sides themselves reddish ash ; — ^the parts be- 
neath cinereous, or dirty white, with a faint tinge of yellow : region 
of the anus dusky. 

With the above specimen, which was procured from Burwell Fen 
in Cambridgeshire, I think in the month of June, I received a se- 
cond, also a female, closely resembling it in all its essential charac- 
ters, but not quite so large. The length of the head and body was 
2 inc. 9 lines ; that of the tail 1 inc. 9 lines, this being the same as 
in the former instance. The snout was equally attenuated, and the 
tail equally quadrangular as well as naked. The colours were some- 
what different ; the upper parts being generally paler, and the sides 
darker, the boundary-line visible but not very distinct : the back, 
however, was variegated with two or three large jet-black patches. 
It is worth adding, that in both of the above specimens, the ears 
were quite as short as in common specimens, almost entirely con- 



of the Britisli Shrews. 39 

cealed, and without any white spot ; the feet and tail not ciliated, 
{although met with in the heart of a marshy district subject to in- 
undation ;) nor the former relatively larger than in common spe- 
cimens. 

The other variety to which I would direct attention was taken 
in the same fen, and at the same time, as the preceding. Of this 
I likewise obtained two specimens, of different sexesj however, the 
female being big with young. They were quite similar ; but both, 
in general appearance, extremely different from those last described, 
as also from most others I had previously seen. Their chief pecu- 
liarity consisted in their bright rufous colour, with several indica- 
tions of their being young, or at least hardly adult individuals, al- 
though quite as large as, or indeed in some respects lai^er than, 
the specimens of our common shrew usuaUy met with. 

Far. 2. — Dimensions : — 





Ine, 


Lin. 


Length of heed and body, 


2 


6 


of head, 





114 


oftail(toendofbone,) 


1 


7 


of hind foot, - - - 





6i 


of fore foot, ... 





4 


of ears, - - - 





H 







3 


to the tip of snout. 





4J 



The above measurements are those of the female, which was the 
larger of the two specimens. The only respect in which they are 
at all peculiar is in that of the hind foot, which, it will be observed, 
is as long as in the variety first described, notwithstanding the great 
difference in their general size. In fact this part was decidedly 
larger than in ordinary specimens of the same entire length. There 
was likewise in the recent animal a marked fulness about the head 
and snout, causing these parts also to appear larger than usual, al- 
though not to be inferred from the dimensions given in the table. 
Some of the other characters, as already stated, seemed to indicate 
immaturity. The points of the teeth were all sharp : the tail thick, 
and nearly round, the angles scarcely sensible ; well clothed through- 
out its whole circumference with long hairs, and tipped with a fine 
pencil extending very nearly three lines beyond the bone. The co- 
lour of all the upper parts was bright chestnut, passing on the sides 
into ash-grey, which last colour pervaded also the parts beneath : 
tail and feet as well as the snout, light lufous. 



40 DerOition and Characters 

In the male^ the length of the head and body was 2 inc. 4^ lines $ 
that of the tail 1 inc. 9 lines ; the rest of the proportions the same 
as in the other sex. The tail was equally stoat, and more hairy, 
the pencil at the extremity extending still further beyond the bone. 
The colours on the whole similar, but the rufous tinge brighter and 
more distinct ; the snout, feet, and tail, testaceous yellow. 

I think it just possible that the variety last described may prove 
to be a distinct species, but I dare not consider it as such at pre* 
sent, and without inspecting more specimens from different locali- 
ties. With regard to the first, as well as some others which I have 
seen, but which I do not think it necessary to dwell upon, I feel 
confident that they have no claim to be regarded in that light. I 
was, indeed, till lately strongly inclined to believe, like Mr Bell* 
that under the name of common shrew, we had in this country two 
or more species confounded. And postsibly it may still be so. I can 
only say, that after the closest examination of every specimen of 
which I could get possession, I have failed in detecting any tan- 
gible characters upon which a specific difference could with certainty 
be established. If any such difference exist, it must be sought for 
in the number and form of the teeth, in the greater or less deve- 
lopment of the auricle, in the breadth and size of the snout (com- 
pared in two individuals of the same age,) and perhaps in the sijee 
of the feet (similarly compared,) as well as in Uie presence or ab- 
sence of cilia on these last ; but certainly not in the absolute di- 
mensions, nor in all the relative proportions, nor in the colour of 
the fur. As for the tail, neither its length, nor thickness, nor form, 
nor hairiness, afford characters of the slightest value. 

I shall not conclude without earnestly soliciting from the readers 
of this Journal, any specimens of shrews which they may meet with 
in their own neighbourhood, but which they have not the leisure to 
examine themselves, or not the opportunity of comparing closely 
with others. Although I have been unsuccessful hitherto in the 
search after new British species of this genus, it is far from impro- 
bable that such remain to be discovered. There is no reason why 
we should not possess the S, araneus of Duvernoy, which it has 
been one of the objects of this paper to prove to be distinct from 
ours, nor the S, fodiens of the same author, equally distinct from 
the species so called by our own naturalists. It is, indeed, much 
to be suspected, that either this last, or some other aquatic species 
besides those with which we are well acquainted, has been already 
met with in this country, though not identified at the time of being 
observed. On comparing the descriptions, extant in different works. 



of the Britkk Shews, 41 

of ma cammoM water threw, it will be found that tbey do not agree 
in all paiticalars. Some of these yariations may be due to aodden- 
tal eaiuea, ev to diff^enoea of age or sex in the respective cases. 
Nevertheless^ the drcnrastanee is wofth mentioning, as affording a 
stimnlns to the I'esearches of those nataralists who may be indined 
te torn their attention to these animals* * 

Reference io the Figures. Plate I. 

In the annexed plate are given ref^esentations of the crania, and 
of portions of the upper and lower jaw, of the S. armneus BXidJbdietu 
of Duvemoy, and of the similarly named species of Briti^ authors. 
The figures relating to the continental species are copied from Du- 
vemoy's memoir, and are inserted for the purpose of comparison with 
oi«r own. 

The species are severally distinguished by the Roman numerals 
I. II. III. IV. as explained at the bottom of the plate. When these 
numerals are simple, the objects are represented of their natural 
size. When accompanied by a dash (F. IP. &c.) they are to be 
oonaidered as magnified to twice their natural size. 

The Figures 1> 2, 3, 4, 5, indicatethe numbers of the several kinds 
of teeth. 

The letters refer to different views of the head, and jaws, and are 
the same for each species : 

tf. Is the cranium viewed from above. 

b. The same viewed from beneath. 

c. Is the anterior portion of the same viewed in profile. 

d. JsA branch of the lower jaw, viewed extemdly. 

e. The same viewed from within. 

It should be mentioned that in the case ofl, d and e are those of 
a young individual. 

fl Is intended to represent the mode of union of the two upper 
middle incisors as seen from the above, the occiput being turned to- 
wards the spectator. 

f*. Relates to Var. 1, of the British araneus, in which these in- 
daors were worn down to their point of contact. 

Swaffham BMeck, 
Feb. 18, 1837. 

* See in particular a notice in Loud, Mag, Vol. iii. p. 471, of a shrew taken 
near LiTerpool, which the writer was unable to identify with either of our two 
well-kntfWn British species. 



42 ConiributianM to the 

PosUcripi. — Since the above paper was written^ I have had an 
opportunity (through the kindness of Mr Gray) of examining, in 
company with Mr Bell^ the different specimens of British and Con- 
tinental shrews preserved in the British Museum. The result was 
most satisflEustory, being in exact accordance with what I had been 
led to believe from Duvemoy's memoir. In that coUection, there 
are French specimens both of the S. araneus and the S. Dauben^ 
tonii of foreign authors^ and on closely comparing them with indi- 
viduals of our own species, the differences in the teeth became im- 
mediately obvious. 

London, Feb. 25, 1837- 



III. — Contributions to the Natural HUtory of Ireland, By Wiir- 
liiAM Thompson, Esq. Vice-President of the Bel£E»t Natural 
History Society. 

No. 2. On the Birds of the Order Raptores. 
In the following paper it will be observed, that the catalogues of 
birds in the Statistical Surveys of Ireland are but rarely quoted, 
and, although it is my e^nest desire to do justice to every one who 
has in any way contributed to a knowledge of the Natural History 
of the country, I am unwilling to bring forward species from the 
mere circumstance of their names appearing in a catalc^e ; indeed, 
in some instances where descriptions are given, from which the spe- 
cies can be identified, they have evidently been copied from authors, 
instead of being the result of an examination of actual specimens. 
The common English names, too, of species being misapplied, have 
led to errors, in cdhsequence of the scientific appellation being ap- 
pended as if they were correct : the county history, which contains 
the best and most ample catalogues of birds and fishes, bears evidence 
of this in both departments. Having thus far written in explana- 
tion, it must be added that I complain not of these catalogues, but 
consider that it would be most unreasonable to expect the many in- 
dividuals who undertake writing in the statistics of a country, and 
who have not previously bestowed attention on natural history, to 
furnish us with zoologioed or botanical catalogues to satisfy the sci- 
entific naturalist. 

GoiiDEN Eagle — AquHa chrysaetos. Vigors. — The collection of 
my friend, William Sinclaire, Esq. of Belfast, contains a splendid 
specimen in adult plumage of the golden eagle, which was trapped 



Natural History of Ireland. 48 

a few yean siiice on Muckisb mountain^ in the county of Donegal. 
The gamekeeper of Mr Stewart of <' the Horn"* informed me when 
there in June 1832^ accompanied by Richard Langtry^ Esq. that 
•ince he entered on his present occupation in 1828^ he had destroy- 
ed thirteen or fourteen eagles^ one only of which was of this species 
— it was taken on one of the inland mountains of *' the Horn." 
When about the same time I visited the precipitous mountain of 
Bosheen, near Dun£euiaghy> in the same county^ I was told that, 
previous to the last twelve years^ a pair of eagles had their eyrie in 
one of the inaccessible cliffs, and, as their young advanced in growth, 
levied such contributions from the surrounding neighbourhood, that 
the country people finaUy resolved upon their destruction. This 
was effected by lowering from the summit of the precipice a lighted 
brand, which ignited and consumed the nest, and three unfortunate 
eaglets fell scorched and dead to the ground. The old birds from this 
time deserted the mountain. From the situation selected for this 
eyrie, the species was most probably the golden eagle. 

On visiting Achil, off the coast of Mayo, in June 1834, in com- 
pany with Robert BaU, Esq, of Dublin, Lieutenant Reynolds of the 
Preventive Service, a keen sportsman, and well acquainted with 
birds, assured us that one or two pairs of golden eagles breed annu- 
aUy in the island. When subsequently on the mountain of Groagh- 
patrick, that volcano-like terminates in a magnificent cone, and is 
in elevation the second in Connaught. we for a considerable time 
observed a pair of these eagles towering above its summit. In the 
county of Kerry a few weeks afterwards, an eagle, supposed to be 
of this species, was seen by some of our party when viewing the 
lakes of Killarney from the topmost ridge of Mangerton. When on 
a visit to this same place the previous autumn, my friend, Robert 
Patterson, Esq. of Belfast, made the following note, which he has 
kindly permitted me to use: — " Near to the little lake called the 
Devil's Punch-bowl, we disturbed four eagles preying on a full grown 
sheep ; they rose majestically into the air as we approached. 
The people who were with us supposed the sheep, being perhaps 
sickly, had been killed by the eagles, — a supposition corroborated by 
the quantity of fleece scattered over the ground for some yards in 
one direction. The flesh of the neck was completely removed, al- 
though that of every other part was untouched. We were assured 
that two eagles will occasionally pursue a hare, one flying low and 

* The name given to the peninsula bounding the western entrance to 
Sheephaven, in the county Donegal, and which terminates in the stupendous 
promontory of Horn Head. 



44 ConiriMums to the 

^ooumng it^akmg the ground, the other keepix^ perpendiciilarly 
aboye^ the terrified animal. When the lowest eagle tires, they 
change places, and parsue the same system of tactics, until the hare 
is completely wearied out. I was told the same circumstance a €ew 
days afterwards near Tralee, and again near MonastercTan : my in- 
formant in every instance stated the fact as having £dlen under his 
0wn knowledge, and not as a matter of hearsay." 

In October 1833, when looking ever a eoUedion ef the Britidi 
Falconide belonging to William Sindaire, Esq., in company with 
Mr Adams, lately gamekeep^ at Olenanu Castle, he at once re- 
cognised a golden eagle as the qpecies of which he had killed four 
individuals in Glenarm Park (Antrim.) The first he sa^ was in 
the month of March, when two visited the park. At this tkne, 
there were but five lambs dropped, and on each of the two first two 
days of the eagles' appearance, two lambs were carried off, thus leav* 
ing only one. Mr Adams finding that lambs were in such request 
with these birds, procured two of them to bait his traps, and had 
thus the satisfiiotion of capturing both eagles. In November, a 
third individual made his appearance, and was seen by Mr Adams 
and several other persons in pursuit of a bare. This poor animal 
took refuge under every bush that presoited itself, which, as often 
as she did, the eagle approached the budi so near as apparendy to 
beat the top of it with his wings, and thereby forced the hare to 
leave her refuge. In this way die was eventually driven to open 
ground, which did not long avail, as the eagle soon came up with, 
and bore her off in his tdons ; and so disappeared from the specta- 
tors. Mr Adams, hearing that this eagle had killed several of a 
neighbour's ducks, lost little time in obtaining one for his trap, and 
with this tempting bait secured him. The fourth eagle he came 
upon by diance when out shooting. This bird flew over him at about 
twenty yards distance, when he was fired at ; the shot from the first 
barrel bereft him of many feathers, but even after receiving the 
contents of the second, and though severely wounded, he was able to 
fly off. Mr Adams saw no more of him after this, until inform- 
ed by some men who were near, that they had seen an eagle mob* 
bed by magpies, and he was eventually discovered by the great 
number of these birds cdlected about the place where he lay dead 
on the heath with wings outstretched. 

On Oct. 14, 1835, I saw an adult spedmen of the golden eagle,* 
which was trapped the day before at Claggan (county Antrim.) It 

* Now preserved in the Belfast Museum. 



Natural History of Ireland, 45 

was tooompanied by two others^ which were also attempted to be 
taken, but unBaccesafiill^. 

By Dr M*Doiuiell^ and another elderly friend^ both of whom well 
reooUect the drcnmstanoe^ I have been told that the same plan 
adopted by the Kerry peasant for supporting his family in a season 
of scareity,*' was sucoessfully resorted to about thirty years ago at 
Glenariffj in the county Antrim. One af a pair of eaglets taken 
from a nest there, was so placed, that during the summer its parents 
supplied it with rabbits and hares in such abundance, that its owner 
obtained a sufficiency of animal food besides for himself and family. 
The old birds did not alight with their prey, but circling for some 
time abore the eaglet, ajqmrently until certain that the food would 
fidl to the ground within its reach, then let it drop. 

A sporting friend who was eye-witness to the fact, assures me 
diat when out hunting among the Belfast mountains many years 
ago, an eagle, which from the darkness of its plumage he concluded 
was the golden, appeared above his hounds as they came to fault on 
the ascent to Devis, (the highest of the chain,) after a good chase. 
As they came on the scent again, and were at full cry, the eagle for 
a short time kept above them, but at length advanced, and carried 
off the hare when at the distance of from three to four hundred paces 
before the hounds. 

In the two excellent works, " Crardens and Menageries of the 
Zoological Society," and " Illustrations of British Ornithology," the 
golden eagle is characterised as indocile : in the latter, Mr Selby 
speaks from his own experience of two individuals which were kept 
l^ him for some years. But my friend Richard Langtry, Esq. of 
Fortwilliam, near Belfast, has at present a bird of this species, 
which is extremely docile and tractable. It was taken last summer 
from a nest in Inverness-shire, and came into his possession about 
the end of September. This bird at once became attached to its 
owner, who, after having it about a month, ventured to give it li- 
berty, a privilege which was not in the eagle's part abused, as it 
came to ihe lure whenever called. It not only permits itself to be 
handled in any way, but seems to derive pleasure from the applica- 
tion of the hand to its legs and plumage. This eagle was hooded 
after the manner of the hunting hawks for some time, but the prac- 
tice was abandoned, and although it may yet be requisite if the bird 
be trained for the chase, hooding is otherwise unnecessary, as it re- 
mains quiet and contented for any length of time, and no matter 

• Smith's Kerry, p. 97. 



46 Cantributiont to the 

how far carried, on its master's arm. It is quite indifferent to the 
presence of any persons who may be in his company^ and is unwil- 
ling to leave him even to take a flighty having to be thrown into the 
air whenever he wishes it to do so. When this eagle is at lai^, 
my friend has only to hold out his arm towards it^ which, as soon 
as perceived, even from a distance, it flies to, and perches on. I 
have seen it thus come to him not less than a dozen times within 
half-an-hour, without any food being offered. It runs very fast. 
When on the ground, and the lure is thrown comparatively near, 
it prefers this mode of progression to using its wings. It is also 
fed from the '' fist." Live rats have several times been turned out 
of the cage-trap to this bird, but before running very far, they were 
invariably pounced upon. Four full-grown rats have been taken 
at a meal; an entire Heron, (Ardeacinerea,)except the head and legs, 
was also eaten on one occasion. It differs somewhat in its manner 
of feeding from two sea eagles (Hali»etus albicilla) which are kept 
along with it ; when the head and neck of a goose is offered, the 
golden eagle eats them entire, the latter take the flesh off only, 
leaving the harder parts ; and when entire birds are given, the sea 
eagle plucks many more feathers off than the golden ; the latter as- 
similating to the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in this respect. 
This golden eagle is more partial to alighting on trees than the sea 
eagles, and stationed on their tops, keeps its master in view, fol- 
lowing him about the demesne, and where plantations often inter- 
vene, flying from one to another in the direction he walks, indo- 
lently remaining as long as possible where it perches, consistently 
with keeping him in sight. 

A golden eagle, also from Scotland, belonging to Mr William Sin- 
daire, is a much more familiar bird than a sea eagle in his posses- 
sion, but being kept in town, its docility has not been put to the 
proof as in Mr Langtry's bird. 

The golden eagle is generally represented as exceeding the sea 
eagle in magnitude, but such specimens of the latter as I have ex- 
amined were invariably of superior size to the former, and I speak 
from comparison of adult individuals of the same sex. 

Sea EAOLBd — Haliasetus albicilla, Selby. — The first Sea Eagle I 
had the satisfaction of seeing in Ireland was on the 25th of June 
1832, when visiting the majestic promontory of Horn Head, which 
rises precipitously from the ocean to an elevation of nearly 600 feet. 
On looking over the cliff on the eastern side, one of these birds rose 
from a platform of rock about sixty yards distant. Immediately 



Natural History of Ireland. 47 

after, on Teaching the northern side, I perceived another sitting on 
her nest about a fourth of the way from the summit of the preci* 
pice ; when she flew off, two eggs, greenish-white in colour, like 
those of the swan (Cygnus olor) were exposed to view. Very near 
to this was another nest at a similar distance firom the top, but it 
was untenanted, and from its proximity to the other, I should ra- 
ther suppose that both had belonged to the same pair of eagles in 
different years, than that they were occupied by two pairs at the 
same time. But less than a furlong distant to the eastward of the 
Head, there was a nest similarly situated, and containing two eaglets. 
To obtain these, we, on the 28th of June, engaged a man accustomed 
to the apparently hazardous exploit of descending precipices, and, a 
rope being attached to his body for safety, and a basket to his back 
for the reception of the eaglets, he was lowered to the nest, from 
which he brought up the birds without injury either to himself or 
them. The parents were most vociferous during the robbing of their 
eyrie, taking hurried flights, evidently in despair, towards the nest, 
but did not attack nor even closely approach the plunderer, nor did 
they come within fair gun-shot of the rock. The eaglets were al- 
most entirely feathered. The first layer of this nest, as well as that 
of the other two, was composed of strong stems of heather ; being 
unable to see the lining, I had it brought up, and found it to be the 
tender twigs of heath, and plants of the Luzula sylvaiica, both of 
which grow on the summit of the cliff. About the nest there were 
mioiy legs of rabbits and the remains of puflins (Mormon fratercula, 
Temm.) 

On the following day I saw ^ye sea eagles in mature plumage,* 
all that I understood were then at " the Horn.'* The bird we raised 
from the nest containing eggs, the gamekeeper thought had no part- 
ner, as he killed a male bird a few weeks before. At three of these 
eagles I gazed a long time, both when they were at rest and on 
wing ; at first through a telescope, but permitting a much nearer 
approach than was anticipated, 1 had afterwards an excellent and 
near view of them. The head and neck in every position, and I 
looked attentively to this point, appeared almost as white as the 
tail,t and was so distinguished from a great distance, more espe- 

* Excepting eaglets, the gamekeeper has never seen any but white-tailed or 
adult eagles here at this season. 

f In the colour of the head and neck in preserved specimens of adult birds 
(having the tail pure white) which I have examined, there is considerable dif- 
ference in this respect, and, though none has this portion of the plumage alto- 



48 dmtrUmtwM to the 

cially, whtti thrown into relief by a dark and rocky back ground. 
2$everal gulls (Larus canua?) and kestrels (Falco ^tinniincnlns) 
kept flying closely aflter one of these birds, and occasionally ap- 
pioached so near as apparently to strike hioi> this a gull certainly 
onoe did, but " towering in his pride of place/' the eagle never oon« 
descended to take eren a moment^ notice of them. 

Under the head of Golden Eagle^ it has been mentioned, that of 
the number thirteen or fourteen eagles killed at ^* the Horn" with* 
in four years,* all but one individual were the HaUceetut albiciUa. 
I was informed by a gentleman resident at Dun&naghy, the village 
nearest to Horn Head, that in winter the sea eagle is comparatively 
numerous, and that he has sometimes seen as many as six and sevea 
in company on the strand.t They are supposed to be attracted 
hither at this season by rabbits, which greatly abound at '' the Horn." 
In an article by John Vandeleur Stewart, Esq. on the Birds, &o. of 
Donegal, which appeared in the Magasine of Natural History for 
1832, (p. 678,) the sea eagle is mentioned as resident and common. 
The author states that he had received three specimens for his mu- 
seum, besides five living eaglets. Mr William Sinclaire, also, has 
a bird of this species from the same locality. In this county it 
likewise frequents Malin Head, the extreme noAhem point of Ire- 
land. 

When in June 1834, at Achil Head, which is fondly, but erro- 
neously believed by the inhabitants of the island to approximate the 
shores of the western world, more nearly than any other European 
land, and stretching out afar into the Atlantic, is rendered sublime 
less from altitude, than from the ntter barrenness of its desolate and 
inaccessible cliffs, a suitable accompaniment to the scene appeaml 
in a sea eagle which rose startled from her nest on the ledge of an 
adjoining precipice. Two of these birds were seen by us the next 
day, soamng above a lake in the island, and we were informed by 
Lieutenant Reynolds, that four pairs of sea eagles breed in Achil. 
With respect to this species being in so wild a district comparative- 
ly fearless of man, it may be stated that on one occasion, when out 

getfaer white, yet lome are nuuked bo Mnldj with very pale ash-grey, as to ex- 
hibit the appearance of soiled white, which, contrasted with the dark hue of the 
back and wings, gives from a distance the appearance thus described. 

* The reward alone could hardly have prompted the destruction of this num- 
ber, — one shilling a head only being given by the proprietor of '* the Horn** for 
them. 

f Temminck remarks that this species is common in winter on the shores of 
Denmark. " Man. d*Om. de TEur.** part 3, p. 27. 



Natural History of Ireland. 49 

aluMitiDg in Achil^ Lieut. Reynolds had with his first barrel shot a 
grouse, which an eagle stooped to carry of, and when just in the act 
of seising was brought down by the second barrel. By Serjeant 
Croker of the Constabulary, a most intelligent man, we were assured 
tbat, about six months since, an eagle carried off a hen iix>m the vil- 
lage of Ballycroy, when a few yards only distant from him and se- 
veral other persons. He was told that a similar occurrence had se- 
veral times before taken place.* 

At Fairhead, the most lofty and sublime of the basaltic headlands 
of Antrim, this eagle has an eyrie : — in the same county it has been 
taken at Glenarm Park. In the Belfast mountains, far remote from 
any of its habitations, I ^vas once (on October 2, 1832,) gratified by 
the sight of an eagle, which was soaring, attended first by one, and 
afterwards by a second kestrel. The snowy whiteness of the tail 
proved it to be an adult-bird. It remained in view for about a quar- 
ter of an hour, then disappeared in the direction of the Cave-hill. 
In the deer park here, the last eagle I have heard of being taken near 
Belfast, was trapped upwards of twenty years ago. 

When in August last, at Sleive Donard,t the chief of the Mourne 
mountains, in the county of Down, a cliff was pointed out as the 
** Eagle's rock," so named in consequence of having at one period been 
the eyrie of this bird. Our guide informed us, that eagles had not 
bred here of late years, (their place is supplied by ravens,) but that 
they annuallybuild at less frequented places amongst these mountains. 
Here they are frequently met with by Lord Roden's gamekeeper, 
bot are seldom seen so low down as Tollymore Park, where one only 
has been taken within the last nine years. 

Montagu relates an instance of a sea eagle being so much wound- 
ed by a charge of snipe-shot, as, after flying some distance, to fall 
and be captured. 1 saw one wliich was similarly obtained at '^ the 
Horn," by Mr John Sims of Dunfanaghy, near to whom it rose as 
he was returning from snipe-shooting, when his gun was loaded only 
with this, the smallest of the sportsman's charges. 

Of the two eagles taken from the nest at ^' the Horn," it may be 
stated, that Mr R.Langtry trained them so far, that they allowed him 
to carry them on his arm, and on giving them liberty in the morn- 
ing, they flew about the demesne during the day, generally attend- 

* When reading of this feat a short time before, in the *' Wild Sports of the 
West," I looked upon it as an embellished tale. 

f Montagu obtained specimens of the sea eagle firom this mountain. The 
individual firom which Pennant drew up his desciiption was taken in Galway- 

VOL. II. NO. 7- D 



50 Cowtributiom to the 

ed his call to the lure in the evening, when they were put up for 
the nighty throughout which, however, they were occasionally at 
large. As food, they preferred rats to fish. When not very hun- 
gry, they, after tasting the blackbird (Turdus morula), showed a dis- 
like to it, but that this did not arise from colour was further evi* 
dent from black chickens being always as acceptable as others ; gra^ 
crows (Corvus comix) were also disliked, though magpies (Corvus 
pica) were favourite food.^ On one occasion during rainy weather, 
they refused to eat for a few days, though at the same time they 
never retired to the shelter of their sheds, as buzzards (Buteo vul- 
garis), and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), did which were kept 
along with them. One of these, a male, killed four pet birds, his con« 
stant companions in the same enclosure, t and which when he was 
tied4 either alighted near him, or were carelessly fastened within his 
reach ; these were a white owl (which he devoured), a kite, a buz- 
zard, and a peregrine falcon. This last bird, the eagle had partly 
plucked preparatory to eating, just as my friend appeared in view, 
when he instantly sprang from the falcon, the consciousness of his 
misdeed being further evinced, by his allowing it to be carried off, 
though any food given in the ordinary manner he would not permit 
to be removed. After having one of these birds about two, and the 
other four and a half years, they were both lost by flying to a dis- 
tance, where they were shot. The latter assumed the white tail 
early in October 1836, then four and a half years old : it proved a 
male bird on dissection, and weighed 11 lbs. 

OspBEY — Pandion haliasetvs, Savigny. — The only occasion upon 
which I have seen the osprey in Ireland was when sailing on the lower 
lake of Killamey, on the 13th of July 1834, during which a single 
bird appeared for a short time in view, displayed its mode of fishing, 
and struck at some prey on the surfoce of the water. 

* The peregrine falcon also shows distaste and partiality to birds nearly al> 
lied; thus the blackbird is disliked, whilst thrushes (Turdus musicus) are favou. 
rite food, and, though it will kiU and eat the landrail (Crex pratensis) when bun- 
gry, it is averse to it, and has in some instances been observed to eject it from 
the stomach. 

t Lieutenant Reynolds, once in Achil saw a pair of old sea^eagles attack a 
young bird of their own species, which they killed and eat, leaving only the bill 
and legs. 

t When the Golden Eagle, Sea Eagle, Peregrine Falcon, Kite, Buzzard, and 
Kestrel, all of which Mr Langtry had at the same time, were at liberty, they never 
molested each other. 



Natural History of Ireland. 51 

In the collection of Dr J. D. Marshall of BelfjEist, there is a fine 
specimen of the osprey, which was stated hy the person of whom he 
bought it^ to have been killed in Queen's county. 

This species is mentioned by Mr Lingwood^ as having been seen 
by him in August 1835^ at Oughterard, county Galway. — Mag. Nat. 
Hist. Vol. ix. p. 128. 

Jbr Fai«con — Falco Islandicus, Latham. — The following note 
appears under the head " Jer Falcon/' in the MS. of the late John 
Templeton, FIsq. — " In 1 803, I received the skin of a bird of this 
species, which had been shot near Randalstown/' (county, Antrim.) 
In a letter from John P. Stewart, Esq. dated Rockhill, Letterkenny, 
Feb. 3, 1837^ it is mentioned that in his collection there is a jer 
&lcon, which " was killed in a rabbit-warren close to Dunfanaghy, 
when on the wing." It is said to exhibit *' the mature plumage of 
the male, (which sex it proved to be on dissection) as described by 
Temminck, the only point of difference being that my specimen has 
the blnish cere and tarsi of his young bird." The detailed de- 
acription of the individual, kindly communicated to me by Mr Stew- 
art, places the identity of its species beyond a doubt. 

Pbrbgrine FaI/CON — Falco peregfinus, Linnaeus — It may be 
stated in general terms, that the peregrine falcon occurs in suitable lo- 
calities throughout Ireland. In the four maritime counties of Ulster 
it has many eyries,* and in Antrim, whose basaltic precipices are 
£siToarable for this purpose, seven at least might be enumerated — 
of these one only is inland ; at the Gobbins, regularly frequented by 
a pair, there were two nests in one year within an extent of rock 
considerably less than a mile. This is the only instance known to 
me of 80 close an approximation on the part of the peregrine falcon. 
Even at " the Horn" in Donegal, where the extent of lofty preci- 
pices is very great and continuous, we met with but a pair of these 
birds, and were informed that they contain only one other eyrie. 

On the two following occasions I had opportunities of remarking 
this falcon in haunts similar to those which, according to Wilson, it 
freqnents in America. On the 8th of May 1832, as the banks of 
Belfast Bay,t at about a mile irom the town on the northern shore, 

* In rocks onlj have I known these in Ireland. 

f Several species of the Raptores being mentioned as occurring in Belfast 
Bay, it should be stated that the tide recedes here to a very great distance, leav- 
ing a vast extent of banks uncovered, on many parts of which the grass-wrack 
(Zostera marina) grows so profusely as to impart a greenish tinge ; the whole 
at low water presenting i-omewhat the appearance of a marsh. 



52 ContribtUions to the 

were becoming bare from the ebbing of the tide^ they were literally 
covered with dunlins (Tringa variabilis) and some ringed ploven 
(Charadrius hiaticula) intermixed, all busily feeding on the rejecta- 
menta of the waves. This flock, consisting of many hundreds, to my 
surprise, suddenly, and without any apparent cause of alarm, took 
wing, but immediately afterwards I observed a peregrine falcon bear- 
ing down upon them. As they flew out to sea he followed them only 
a short way above the water, and returning without any prey, after 
a few bold and graceful sweeps, alighted on the beach they had left, 
when, with the aid of a pocket-telescope, I had the satisfaction of 
identifying his species with certainty. Again, on July the 13th 
1833, when crossing the ferry near the junction of the river Bann 
with the ocean, I ^vas attracted by the near call of a curlew, and on 
looking round, saw coming towards us what at flrst appeared to be 
two of these birds, flying close together just above the water. I waa 
surprised to see the foremost dip in the river like a swallow, fly on 
a short way, and then alight in it, when the other bird, which proved 
to be a preregrine falcon, gave up the chase, and, flying past us, 
alighted on the beach at some distance. The curlew now finding 
it was safe, rose from the water, and flew back in the direction from 
which it had been pursued. 

In the autumn and winter I have in Ireland met the preregrine 
falcon very far remote from any of its native rocks. In the south 
of Europe it is, according to Risso,* a bird of passage, appearing in 
the autumn and departing in the spring. 

Some of our northern eyries have, for about the last twenty-five 
years, been in requisition annually to supply different sportsmen, 
but chiefly my friend, John Sindaire, Esq. with falcons for the chase.t 
Woodcocks have always afforded the best flights with these birds, 
and in this exciting sport I have often witnessed that singular trait 
in their character, of lee^ving their quarry the moment it takes to 
cover.l In this way 1 recollect what promised to be a good chase^ 
being at once terminated by the woodcock's descent close to a pub- 
lic road, and as it could not be again sprung, another had to be 
sought for. When returning home, however, about six hours after- 

• Tom. iii. p. 26. ed. 182G. 

f Mr Sinclaire tells me that, on going to obtain these hawks, he has frequently 
remarked the tercel or male bii*d circling at a great height in the air, from which 
he dropped his prey to the female as she kept flying about and screaming in the 
vicinity of the nest, to which she bore it 

I Mr Sindaire*s best falcon the first year pursued woodcocks into dense cover, 
so that it was difficult to get her out with safety to her plumage. This his hX- 
cons or female birds generally did the first year, but very rarely afterwards. 

4 



Natural History of Ireland. 53 

wards^ a woodcock was raised from the base of a hedge at the 
road-side, where the bird had been lost in the morning, and was 
doubtless the same individual, as, unless pursued, such a place of 
refuge would never have been chosen. Here this bird had in all 
probability remained during the day, though many persons must 
have passed on the footway within a yard of it, but until this time 
it may not have recovered from its fright. 

On one occasion, a woodcock, caught by a trained falcon of Mr 
Sinclaire's, was carried across a ravine, and a few minutes had elap- 
sed before the falconer could come up with her, but even then, on 
disengaging the woodcock, it proved so little the worse as to afford 
a chase of average length to another falcon.* This is mentionedjas 
an extraordinary instance, as is likewise the following. One of these 
hawks having caught a land-rail (Crex pratensis,) which it was 
about to eat on a house top, instantly gave chase to another rail that 
was sprung, and, still retaining its first victim, secured the second 
with its other foot, and bore both off together, t 

In the winter of 1820-21, Mr Sinclaire lost a trained ialcon, 
and knew nothing of her for some months, nor until a paragraph ap* 
peared in a Scotch newspaper, stating that a hawk, which had for 
some time frequented a rookery near Aberdeen, was killed, and on 
the bells attached to her, the name of '^ John Sinclaire, Belfast," was 
engraved. Another of this gentleman's falcons once left him, and 
took up her abode at a rookery about twelve miles distant from his 
place, and there remained fbr about six weeks, when she was again 
recaptured. When flown at rooks (Corvus frugilegus,) this bird 
always struck down several before alighting to prey on one. A per- 
son who was eye-witness to the fact assures me, that he once in 
Scotland saw a trained falcon similarly strike to the ground five 
partridges in succession out of a covey ; but such occurrences are 
rare. 

Mr Sinclaire, when once exercising his dc^s on the Belfast moun- 
tains, towards the end of July, preparatory to grouse-shooting, saw 
them point, and on coming up he startled a male peregrine falcon 

« The strike of this species is more fatal than its clutch. 

f Upon one of the early days of February last (1837,) when this gentleman 
was hawking at some miles distaace from his place, one of his fidcons was lost 
in consequence of a heavy fog coming on, but she re-appeared in the hawk-yard a 
week afterwards ; others of them have similarly returned after a much longer 
absence. The first flight of a falcon given by Mr Sinclaire to a gentleman re- 
sident about four miles off, returned to her old quarters, which she had been 
taken firom six months before. 



54 Contributions to the 

off a grouse (Tetrao Sooticus) just killed by him^ and very near tlie 
same place he came upon the female bird, also on a grouse. Al- 
though my friend lifted both the dead birds, the hawks continued 
flying about, and on the remainder of the pack, which lay near, 
being sprung by the dogs, either three or four more grouse were 
struck down by them, and thus two and a half or three brace were 
obtained by means of these wild birds, being more than had ever 
been procured out of a pack of grouse by his trained falcons. * 

In December 1832, one of these birds, which had her liberty at 
Mr Sinclaire's country place, was observed to fly several times over 
' a pond on which a wild golden eye (Anas dangula), in the beauti- 
ful plumage of the adult male, had just alighted, and was remarked 
to keep watch on him during the day. At dusk, when wild fowl 
betake themselves to their feeding haunts, this golden eye departed 
from the pond, and was perceived by the falcon, which instantly 
commenced pursuit, and after a short chase, seized and brought 
him back to the place he had just left, when, by struggling violently, 
he became disengaged from her grasp, and took refuge in a small 
and shallow pond. Here again he was persecuted by two persons 
who had witnessed the above occurrence, and though his wings had 
not been in the least degree injured, he did not again venture to 
take flight, but seeking escape only by diving, was eventually cap- 
tured, thus aflfbrding evidence of the feathered being more dreaded 
than the human tyrant, f He was now pinioned, and compelled 
to take up his abode with the other wildfowl in the aquatic mena- 
gerie, a place he had, in the unlimited freedom of flight, happened 
to visit but a few hours before. 

In October 1833, a female peregrine falcon of Mr Sinclaire's, a 
bird of that year, and consequently but a few months old, got loose in 
the hawk yard, and killed a male of her own species a year or two 
older than herself, and which had the power of moving at least a 
yard irom his block. She had him nearly eaten when a person en> 
tered the yard to feed them, which he did once daily at a regular 
hour. This female bird was " full fed" the day before, and had 
never got more than one meal in the day. Montagu relates a si- 

* The same gentleman has frequently, when out shooting, obtained a single 
grouse, which had been thus killed by wild peregrine falcons, but never more;, 
except in the above instance. 

t Birds of all kinds, when put into cover, by peregrine falcons, generally al- 
low themselves to be captured by the hand, rather than again venture on wing ; 
even the black-cock (Tetrao tetrix) I have known to be thus taken. 



Natural History of Ireland 55 

milar occurrence in the Snpplement to his *' Ornithological Dictiona- 
ry." About fifteen years ago. Captain Johnson of the 1st battalion 
of the Rifle Brigade, then stationed in the county Limerick, invited 
a lai^ party, of which the fair sex as in the olden time formed a 
portion, to a day's hawking, but on going to the mew it was found 
that his per^rine falcon, having obtained her liberty, had killed and 
devoured a merlin (Falco aesalon) her partner in captivity. The 
misfortune on such an occasion was not only the loss of the merlin, 
but was twofold, as the feasting on it prevented the icon's service 
in the chase for that day.* 

HoBBT — Falco auhhuieo, Linufens. — This bird is mentioned in the 
MS. of the late Mr Templeton, as having twice occurred to him in 
summer, in the mountains of Wicklow and Londonderry. It ap- 
pears in Mr Stewart's published catalogue of the birds of Donegal, 
as an occasional but very rare visitant ; this gentleman, however, in 
a letter to me dated Feb. 3, 1837, expresses doubt about it. The 
specimen alluded to in his catalogue is not preserved. I have never 
been able to obtain sight of an Irish Falco subbuteo. 

OaAVGB- LEGGED HoBBT — Falco rufipes, Bechstein. — To the fol- 
lowing record of this species, communicated to the Zool(^icai Society 
of London, on June 9, 1835, when the subject of it was exhibited, I 
have nothing further to add. 

*' An immature specimen of this bird, shot in the county of Wick- 
low, in the summer of 1832, forms part of the collection of T, W. 
Warren, Esq. of Dublin."— Zool. Proc. 1835, p. 78. 

Meblin — FakoassaUm, Gmelin. — The merlin is indigenous both 
to the north and south of Ireland. For many years it has been known 
to me as breeding in the mountains of the county of Londonderry, 
whence I have in more than one summer seen nestlings, which were 
brought toWilliam Sinclaire, Esq. These he in due time trained to the 
pursuit of larks and snipes. The intelligent gamekeeper at Tolly- 
more Park informs me, that these birds breed regularly in the moun- 
tains of Mourne, (Down,) where in the summer of 1836, he had four 
of their nests. At Claggan, (Antrim,) I have also been told by com- 

• A£ Pennant in treating of the Lanwa- remarks, " this species breeds in Ire- 
Umd, * and Bewick repeats the words without acknowledgment, it is perhaps re- 
quisite to state, that the true Fako lanarius, Linn, has never to my knowledge 
oocnrred in this country. The bird called Lanner by Pennant is now considered 
to be the peregrine falcon at a certain age. 



56 CantrUnUians to the 

petent authority, that the merlin has bred for the last few years. 
For the same purpose it is stated, by Mr Robert Davis, Junior, of 
Clonmel (Tipperary) to resort to the mountains in that neighbour* 
hood, and Mr R. Ball informs me, that young merlins hare been 
brought to him at Youghal, (Cork.) It can hardly be doubted that 
it similarly frequents many other mountainous parts of the country. 
The nests are said, by all who have seen them, to be invariably 
placed on the ground among the heath. 

At the approach of winter, both the adult aUd immature merlins 
descend to the low grounds, where they sometimes remain until 
spring is far advanced. The earliest date at which in such places 
they have occurred to me * about Belfast, was the 3d of October, 
and the latest, the 17th of April. 

On March the 9th 1832, when walking on the shore of Bel* 
fast Bay, as the tide was flowing, a merlin, which flew past me, 
was observed for some time coursing above the uncovered banks, 
the edge of the waves being the limit to his flight. This at once 
led me to believe he was in search of prey, which was confirmed by 
his giving chase to a large flock of dunlins (Tringa variabilis,) in 
pursuit of which he disappeared. From the oldest of the " shore- 
shooters" in Belfast Bay, I have heard that frequently, but chiefly 
in the autumn, he has seen hawks, which from his description were 
considered to be the merlin, follow and kill dunlins on the banks at 
low- water: this the above circumstance, witnessed by myself, tends to 
corroborate. I am not aware that the merlins thus resorting to the 
sea shore have been before noticed: the weather was mild in such 
instances. 

The stomachs of several merlins I have examined contained the 
remains of birds alone. 

Mr William Sinclaire has remarked to me, that when his merlins 
were given living prey, they instantaneously extinguished life, whe- 
ther or not they at the time began feeding, whilst under similar cir* 
cumstances, he has seen the peregrine falcon retain a bird in its 
^rasp for some time, putting an end to its existence only when urg- 
ed by hunger, though like the merlin, when it did commence, the 
most vital part was invariably the first ** entered upon." His spar- 
row-hawks, it need hardly be added, began feeding indiscriminately 
on any part of the living objects oflFered them. 

* On October 22d, I have seen it in the low grounds about Megarnie Castle, 
Perthshire. 
The merlin is found in the south of Scotland during the whole winter £d. 



Natural History of Inland. 57 

Kestrbi* — Falco tinnunculux, Linnaeus. — This species is common 
and resident in Ireland, and is of more frequent occurrence in the 
north than any of the Falconidse. It is met with about all our in- 
land and marine cliffs, and builds within their fissures. Throughout 
the whole range of noble basaltic precipices in the north-east of Ire- 
land, I have remarked its presence. In trees, church towers,* &c. 
it also builds with us. The kestrel has been so far trained by Mr 
William Sindaire as, when given its liberty, to attend and soar above 
him like the peregrine falcon, and fly at small birds let off from the 
hand* One of these hawks, which was kept by this gentleman in 
the town of Belfast, had its freedom, and flew every evening to roost 
in an extensive plantation in the country, about a mile distant, in 
flying to and from which it was at first recognized by the sound of 
the bells attached to its legs. This bird returned regularly to its 
town domicile at an early hour in the morning. 

Mr R. Langtry has often seen a wild kestrel rise from the enclo- 
sure in which his eagles, &c. are kept, but never having observed it 
to carry away any food, knows not whether this, or curiosity (which 
we often see displayed by birds,) may have been the object of its 
visit. 

Often as I have seen the swallows follow in the train of birds 
of prey, I never but in the following instance saw one of them be- 
come the pursued. On September the 22d 1832, when walking 
with a friend in the garden at Wolfliill, near Belfast, a male kes- 
trel, in close pursuit of a swallow (Hirundo rustica) appeared in 
sight over the hedge-row, and continuing the chase with extreme 
ferocity, lost not the least way by the swallow's turnings, but kept 
within about a foot of it all the time, at one moment passing within 
five or six yards of our heads. It is idle to conjecture how long the 
foray may have lasted before we witnessed it, but immediately on 
the kestreFs giving up the chase, the swallow, nothing daunted, be- 
came again, accompanied by many of its species, its pursuer and 
tormentor, and so continued until they all disappeared. The kes- 
trel was probably forced to this chase by the particular annoyance 
of the swallows, they and the martins, (Hirundo urbica,) being more 
numerous this day at Wolfhill^ than they had been at any time 
during the season. 

(To he continued,) 

* The only place of this kind in the iricinity of Belfast that 1 know to be 
■elected for the purpose is the tower of Ballylesson church, which, of the many 
edifices of this description in our populous neighbourhood, is the only one which 
a set of musical bells. 



58 Chehmiorum Tabula Anafytica. 



IV. — Chehniorum Tabula Analytica, Auctore Carolo L. Bo- 
naparte, Muxiniani Princip. 

Qui primus forte omnitim ostenderam posse Testudines, Testudi- 
nina a me ipso appellatas, majori proprietate distingui, non intnitu 
articulationis amplius testamm, sed potius connexionis ; intereaqae 
nonnulla tunc mihi perspicua genera definivi, ac caetera omnino sta« 
tuenda fore prae&tDS sum ; nunc integrum Cheloniorum ordinem 
complect! quasi ex contractu debere, et quae descripseram confirmare, 
et quidquid recentiores Erpetologi de Testudinibus tradunt colligere 
judico. Nemo vero sanus opellam banc meam alienis veluti flosculis 
simpliciter intertextam reprehendet ; cum enim hie Reptilium stipes 
in Galliis non minus quam in Britannia ac Germania celebretur adeo, 
ut riri doctissimi Grayus, Bellus, Waglerus, Dumeriius cum Bibrono> 
et Fitzingerus praecipue sedulam illi operam navent ; nefas mihi fo* 
ret ab eorum sapientia desciscere, eorumdem imo doctrinas non con- 
sectari. Idcirco diuma noctumaque manu illorum scnpta versando 
non pauca decerpsi characterum rudimenta ad genera melius singula- 
tim decemenda omnia ; quamobrem vocabula etiam nonnulla quae sa- 
pientes illi protulere de suo, non casu aliquo sed libens volensque de- 
dita opera arripui quoties uni eidemque rei significandae inservirent. 
Cui properando open tabellam tantum de more analyticam sine ullo 
yerborum apparatu ad usum literariarum ephemeridum maturavi. 
Dabam Romae prid. Id, Majas MDCCCXXXVI. 

Carolus L. Bonaparte, Muxiniani Princeps. 

CHELONII (Testudines, Wagl.) sunt Reptilia corpore inTerso, 
testeo ; cute fomici dorsali et stemo adstricta ; tetrapoda, edentula. 

Conspectus Familiarum et Subfamiliarum. 

I. TESTUDINIDAE. (Testudinidae, Emydae, Chelydae, Gray. 
Chersites, Elodites, Dum. Tylopoda, Steganopoda rostrata, Ste- 
ganopoda mandibulata, Fitz.) Pedes ambulatorii, longitudine pa- 
res. Thorax scutis comeis tectus. Labia nulla. 

1. Testudinina. (Testudinidae, Bell. Chersites, Dum. Ty- 

lopoda, Fitz.) Pedes digitigradi, clavati, digitis indistinc- 
tis. Os comeum. Collum retractile. Pelvis mobilis. 

2. Emydina. (Emydae, Gray. Elodites cryptod6re8,DuM. 

Steganopoda rostrata, part Fitz.) Pedes plantigradi, di- 
gitis distinctis, plerumque palmatis. Os comeum. Collum 

retractile. Pelvis mobilis. 
8 



Chdonionan Tabtda Aiialytica, 69 

3. Hydraspidina. (Chelydae, part. Gray. Elodites plenro- 
d^res, parU Dum. Steganopoda rostrata, part, Fitz.) 
Pedes plantigpradiy digitis distinctis, palmatis. Os corneum. 
CoUum yersatile. Pelvis immobilis. 

4* Chelina. (Chelydae, part. Gray. Elodites pleurod^res, 
part* Ddm. Steganopoda mandibulata, Fitz.) Pedes 
plantigradi, digitis distinctis, palmatis. Os coriaceiun. Col- 
lam yersatile. Pelvis immobilis. 

II. TRIONYCID AE. (Trionycidae, Gray. Potemites, Dum. Ste- 
ganopoda labiata, Fitz.) Pedes ambulatorii, longitudine pares. 
Thorax corio laevi indatos. Labia camosa. 

5. Trionycina. (Trionycidae, Or. Potamites, Dum. Ste- 

ganopoda labiata, Fitz.) Pedes plantigradi, digitis distinc- 
tis, palmatis. Os comenm. Collum versatile. Pelvis im- 
mobilis. 

III. CHELONID AE. (Chelonidae, Gray. ThalsAsites, Dum. Oia- 
copoda, Fitz.) Pedes natatorii, compressi, longitudine inaeqnales, 
digitis indistinctis. Labia nulla. 

6. Chblonina. (Chelonidae, Bell.) Thorax scutis comeis 

tectus. 

7. Sphasoidina. (Sphargidae, Bell.) Thorax corio verru- 

coso indutus. 

Conspectus Generum et Subgemerum. 

FAMILIA L TESTUDINIDAE. 

subfamilia 1. TESTUDaNINA. 
1. Testudo, Dum. (CA^Wn^, Merr.) Metathorax inarticolatus : 
sternum antice inarticulatum : pedes pent-adactyli. 

1. Che&bus, Wagl. Sternttm postice aiticulatum. 

Teatudo marginatay Schoepf. Eur. As. Afr. 2. 

2. Testudo, Wagl. Sternum inarticulatum, scutis duodecim. 

1. Testudo, Frrz. Scutellum nuchale -. scutellum caudale bipartitum. 

Testudo graecoy Linn. Eur. m. As. 3. 

2. PsAMHOBATES, FiTZ. ScutcUum nuchslc : scutellum caudale inte- 
grum. Testudo polgphemvs, Daud. Afr. Am. s. 4. 

3. Geochelone, Fitz. Sine scutello nuchali : testa margine laterali 
angulata. Testudo steUatay Schweigg. As. Afr. Am. m. 6. 

4. CuELONOiDis, Fitz. Sine scutello nuchali : testa margine lateiali 
rotundata. Tutudo tabulatoy Walb. Am. m. 8. 

3. Chebsima, Gbay, Sternum inarticulatum scutis undedm. 



60 C/uhniarum Tabula Analytica. 

1. Cylindbabfis, Pitz. 8ine scutello nuchali. 

Testudo Vosmaerif Frrz. Afr. m. 3. 

2. Cherbina, Fitz. Scutellum nuchale. 

Testudo angvlata^ DuM. Afr. m. 1. 

2. HoMOFUS, DuM. Metathorax inarticulatus : sternum inarticula- 
tum : pedes tetradactyli. 

Testudo areolata, Thumb. Afr. in. 2. 

8. Pyxis, Bell. Metathorax inarticulatus : sternum antice inar- 
ticulatum. 

Pi/xis arachfioidest Bell. As. m. Oc. 1. 

4. KiNTXis, Bell. {Cinixysy Wagl.) Metathorax postice arti- 

culatus. 

1. CiNOTHORAX, Frrz. Scutella marginali cum nuchali viginti quatuor. 

Kinixys ffomeana, Bell. Am. m. 2. 

2. CiMiXYB, Fitz. Scutella marginalia sine nucliali viginti tiia. 

Testudo erosa, Schweigg. Am. m. 1. 

SiJBFAMILIA 2. EMYDINA. 

§ gula sine papillis. 

5. CisTUDO> Nob. (Terrapene part. Bell. Cistudes claunles^ 

DuM. PyxidemiSi Fitz.) Sternum metathoraci ligamentis ad- 
nexum ope scutorum ahdominalium : sine scutellis axillarihus 
et ing^nalibus : testa gibba binis valvis stenialibus undique ob- 
serabilis. 

Testudo clausof Linn. Am. s. Oc. 3. 

6. Emys, Nob. (Cistudes haillantesy Dum.) Sternum metathoraci 

ligamentis adnexum ope scutorum pectoralium atque ahdomina- 
lium : scutellis axillarihus et inguinalibus : testa depressa non 
obserabilis. 

1. Emyb, Wagl. Sternum articulatum. 

Testudo lutaria, Linn. Eur. As. Afr. 2. 

2. Cyclemys, Bell. Sternum inarticulatum. 

Cistudo Diardh Dum. As. m. I. 

7. Terrapene, Nob. (Emi/s^ Dum. ClemmySi Wagl.) Ster- 

num metathoraci per symphysin a£Bxum, inarticulatum ; scutis 
stemo-costalibus duobus discretis non interjectis : digiti palmati : 
ungues anteriorum pedum quinque, posteriorum quatuor : cauda 
gracilis. 

1. Clemmys, Frrz. Nasus prominulus. 

T lutarioy Schweigg. nee Linn. (Sigriz, Mich.) Eur. As. Am. Oc. 36. 

2. RhinoclemmySi Fitz. Nasus protractus. 

T. verrucosa, Walb. Am. m. 2. 

8. Geoemys, Gray. (Emysy part. Dum. Clemmys^ part. Fitz.) 

Sternum metathoraci per symphysin affixum, inarticulatum : 



Cheloniarum Tabula Analytica. 61 

digiti fifisi : ungues anteriorum pedum quinque, posteriorum 
quatuor : cauda gracilis. 

Emys Spenghriy Schweigg. Afr. 1. 

9. Tetraonyx, Less. Sternum metathoraci per symphysin affix- 

um, iuarticulatum : digiti palmati : ungues undique quatuor^: 
Cauda gracilis. 
Tetraomnfx hngicoUis, Less. (Emys Batagur, Hardw.) As. or. 2. 

10. Platisternon, Gray. Sternum metathoraci per symphysin 

affixum, iuarticulatum, latissimum : scutis sterno-costalibus tri- 
bus : digiti palmati : ungues anteriorum pedum quinque, poste- 
riorum quatuor : cauda grandis et longa. 

PUtystemon megacephalumy Gray. As. or. 2. 

§ § GULA CUM PAPILLIS. 

11. Chblydr A, Schweigg. (CAe/bnuro, Flem. Rapanra, Gil ay. 

Saurochelf/Si Latr. Emysawrus^ Dum.) Sternum metatho- 
raci per synchondrosin affixum ope scutorum abdominalium, iu- 
articulatum, august um : scutis sterno-costalibus tribus, uno tan- 
tum interposito : scutella marginalia yiginti quinque : scuta 
stemi duodeoim : cauda grandis et longa, cristata. 

T, serpentina. Link. Am. s. 1. 

12. Staurotypcjs, Wagl. (Stemotherus, part. Bell.) Sternum 

metathoraci per symphysin ope scutorum pectoralium abdomi- 
naliumque affixum, angustum, antice articulatum : scutis sterno- 
costalibus duobus contiguis interpositis : scutella marginalia ri- 
gintitria : scuta sterni octo : cauda brevis. 

Terrapene triporcata, Wiegm. Am. s. ) . 

Id. Kjnosternum, Nob. (^Cinostemum et Staurotypusy part. Dum.) 
Sternum metathoraci per symphysin ope scuti abdominalis affix, 
um, articulatum ; scutis sterno-costalibus duobus contiguis in- 
terpositis : scutella marginalia vigintitria : scuta stemi undecim : 
cauda brevissima. 

1. Sternothekus, Fitz. (Staurotypus, part Dum.) Sternum an^ 
gustum, antice articulatum. 

Testudo odoratOf Daud. Am. 8. 1. 

2. CiNOSTERNON, Wagl. Stemum latum, antice et postice articulatum. 

Testutlo pensylvanica, Gm. Am. s. 5. 

SUBFAMILIA 3. HYDRA8PIDINA. 
§. CAPUT DKPRES6IU8CULUM ; OCULI LATERALE8. 

14. Peltocephalus, Dum. (Podocnemys, Fitz. part.) Caput scu- 
tellatum, grande : mandibulae incurvae : sine scutello nuchali : 
pedes parum palmati : cauda unguiculata. 

Emys tracaxa et macrocephala, Spix. Am. m. I. 



62 Chehniorum Tabula Analytica. 

15. PoDOCNEMYS, Wagl. Caput scateUatmn, supeme sQlcatum: 
sine scutello nuchali ; mandibulae rectinsculae : pedes late pal- 
mati : caada mntica. 

Einya expanse, Schweigg. Am. m. 2. 

16. Emtduba, Nob. (JPlatemys part. Dum.) Caput corio tectum : 

scutellum nuchale. 

Emy8 MacquariOf Cvv, Oe. I. 

$§ CAPUT DEPaSSSUM : OCULI supsai. 
f GULA CUM PAPILLIB. 

17. Pelomedusa, Wagl. (Pentonyxy Dum.) Ungues undiquequin- 
que : sternum inarticulatum. 

Testudo gaUata, Schoepf. Afr. 2. 

18. Pblusios, Wagl. (Stemotherus, Gray. Dum.) Ungues pe- 
dum anteriorum quinque, posteriorum quatuor : sternum articu- 
ktum. 

Testudo subnigra, Lacep. Madag. 5. 

19. Hydraspis> Gray, {PlcUemysy Dum.) Ungues pedum anterio- 
rum quinque, posteriorum quatuor : sternum inarticulatum. 

1. Platemys, Wagl. Caput scutelUs tectum : nasus prominulus : pedes 
scutellis contiguis. Testudo planiceps, Schn. Am. m. 6. 

2. Rhinemys, Wagl. Caput scutellis tectum : nasus productus : pedes 
scutellis contiguis. Emgs nasuta, Schweigg. Am. m. 4* 

3. PiiRYNOPS, Wagl. Caput corio tectum : nasus prominulus : pedes scu- 
tellis discretis. Emys Geoffroana, Schweigg. Am. m. 2. 

f f GULA SINE PAPILLIS. 

20. Chblodina, DvM.(ffydrcupisy Fitz.) Ungues undique quatuor. 

1. Chelodika, Bell. Scutellum nuchale scutellis coUaribus interposi- 
tum. Testudo longicolUs, Shaw. Oc 1. 

2. Hydromedusa, Wagl. Scutellum nuchale scuto vertebrali primo et 
scutellis coUaribus interpositum. 

Enofs MaximiUanif Mikan. Am. m. 2. 

SUBFAMXLIA 4. CHBLINA. 

21. Chblts, Dum. (Matamata^ Mbrr.) 

Testudo Jmbria, Gm. Am. m. I. 

FAMILIA II. TRIONYCIDAE. 

SUBFAMILIA 5. TRIONYCINA. 

22. Amyda, Schweigg. (Aspidonectes, Wagl. Trionyxy Gray. 

Bbll. GymnopuSf Dum.) Testa margine cartilagineo : ster- 
num ang^tum : pedes non retractiles. 

t Ossa cofltalia postica contigua. 
1. AspiDONECTES, FiTZ. Os ccrvicale vertebralibus conjunctum, in tola 
superficie rugosum. Trionyx ASpyptiarus, Geoftr. As. Afr. 4. 



Miscellanea Zoologica. 63 

2. Platypeltis, Fitz. Os cervicale vertebralibus conjunctam, in medio 
tantum rugosum. Testudo ferox, Gm. Am. s. 2. 

3. Pelodibcus, Frrz. Os cervicale a vertebralibus separatum, in medio 
tantum rugosum. Aspidonectea Smensis, Weigh. As. or. 1. 

1 1 Ossa costalia postica interpositis vertebralibus discreta. 

4. Amyda, Frrz. Os cervicale a vertebralibus separatum, in medio tan* 
turn rugosum. Trionyx subplanus, Geoffr. As. m. 2. 

23. Trionyx, Waol. (Emyda, Gray. Bell. Cryptopus, Dum.) 

Testa ossiculis marginalibus aucta: sternum latum, lateribus 
Talyis munitum : pedes retractiles. 

Testudo granoaa, Schoepf. As. m. Afr. 2. 

FAMILIA III. CHELONIDAE. 

SUBFAMJLIA 6. CHELONINA. 

24. Chslonia, Brongn. (Caretta^ Merr.) Sternum latum, scutis 

tredecim scutello intergulari, ope scutorum humeralium, pecto- 
raliuro, abdominalium et femoralium metathoraci affixum : ecuta 
disci tredecim. 

1. Chelonia, Nob. (Ch^lonees /ranches, Dum.) Scuta disci postponta : 
nasus prominulus : mandibulae denticulatae : gnatotheca tribus parti- 
bus constans. Testvdo mydas, Linn. Atl. Pac 3. 

2. Caretta, Nob. {CheloiUes imbriqu^es, Dum.) Scuta disci imbricata: 
nasus productus : mandibulae integrae : gnatotheca individua. 

Testudo imbricata, Linn. Atl. Pac. 1. 

25. Thalassochblys, Fitz. (Chelonies Caauanes, Dum.) Ster- 

num angustum, scutis duodeeim sine scutello intergulari, ope 
scutorum pectoraliimi, abdominalium et femoralium metathoraci 
affixum : scuta disci quindecim. 

Testudo caretta, Linn. Med. AtL Bic. 1. 

SUBFAMILIA 7. SPHARGIDINA. 

26. Sphargis, Merr. (Coriudo, Flem. Dermochelys^ Blainv. 

ScyHnOj Wagl. Dermatochelys^ Fitz.) 

Testudo coriaeea, Linn. Med. Ad. Pac. 1. 



V. — Miscellanea Zoologica. By Gborgi^ Johnston^ M. D. Fel- 
low of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. Plates II. 
III. 

in. — The BamsM AaiciADiE, 
The Annelides^ say MM. Audouin and Milne-£dwards^ * 
which we group round the genus Arida of Savigny, and of which 
we form the fifth family in the order Errantrs, present very con- 
siderable dissimilarities in their external structure^ — a circumstance 

* Ann. dee Sciences Nat Vol. xxix. p. 888. 



64 MisctUanea Zodoffica. 

which ought not to surprise us^ for whenever organs, because of their 
minor developem^nt, become of slight importance in the economy 
of the animal, and are about to be obliterated more or less entire- 
ly from its anatomy, we find them to vary proportionably in their 
forms. Such is the case with the exterior appendages of the Ari- 
oiADM, a small family which intervenes to smooth the abruptness 
of the passage between the more typical An. Ebbantes, and the 
Annelides of the orders Tbrricols and TuBicoLiE. 

It is probably from this discrepancy among them that, up to this 
time, no naturalist has seized upon the characters which seem to us 
to unite them in one, but every one has scattered its members among 
different groups. Several of them have been considered as related 
to the Earth-worms, others to the Nereides, and a certain number 
have been collected together by M. de filainville in his family 
" Nereiscoles." The end which that zoologist had in view in the 
establishment of that family is very nearly the same which has led 
us to unite in one distinct group the Annelides in question ; and it 
is probable that if Blainville had personally observed a greater num- 
ber of species, his opinions relative to the cotnjHJsition of the family 
would have been more in unison with ours than they happen to 
be.» 

The Abigiada have in general the elongated linear form of the 
Nereides and Euniciadse, but their body is not truncated in front 
as in these Annelides, rather diminishing, on the contrary, in thick- 
ness at the cephalic extremity. It is nearly cylindrical, and is com- 
posed of a very considerable number of narrow segments. The head 
ie small,— often not to be distinguished from the superior lip, and 
it is not distinctly separated iirom the body. The antenns are in 
general obsolete, but in some of the genera more than usually de- 
veloped ; while the eyes are either wanting or very minute. The 
proboscis is very shorty and does not perceptibly exceed the cepha- 
lic segment : it is rather membranous than fleshy, and is never fur- 
nished with jaws, but sometimes we observe tentacula in it. The 
anterior rings of the body are narrow, and hare always ambulatory 
feet, which, in general, are slightly prominent, and divided into two 

• A great number of the Nereiscoles of M. de Blainville are only imperfectly 
known by the descriptions of MuUer, Otho FabriduB, &c. and ought, in the 
opinion of Audouin and M. Edwards, to be referred to the Euniciada ; while in 
the works of these authors the Annelides, with a few exceptions, which consti*- 
tute the present family, are not to be found, and could not take a place among 
the NereiscoUsf if regard were to be had to Blainville's character of it. Hence 
Audouin and M. Edwards have found a new designation necenary to prevent 
confusion. 



MUcellanea Zoohgica. 65 

branches, and in no instance replaced by tentacular cirri. The 
bristles with which they are garnished are too weak to be of much 
use as defensive organs. In most of the genera all the feet are si- 
milar on all the rings, but in some we find those of the anterior 
portion of the body to differ from the succeeding ones, and of which 
the ventral branch at least resembles those feet with crotchets which 
we meet with so constantly in the order Tubicole. The soft ap- 
pendages are subject to much variety in the Ariciadie. The cirri 
never fail at least on one of the branches of the foot, but common- 
ly we do not find them on both ; they have sometimes the form of 
fleshy filaments, more or less delicate, at other times they constitute 
flattened tonguelets. Branchiee properly so called are in general 
defective ; sometimes, however, they exist under the form of well- 
developed lobules fixed to the feet, and in other cases they consist 
in a certain number of tentacular filaments, similar to the cirri, and 
fixed upon the dorsal arch of some of the rings of the anterior part 
of the body, — a disposition of parts which evidently leads us to that 
more peculiarly characteristic of the Annelides iubicoke. 

The character of the family may be summed up as follows : 

Feet sligklfy prominent in general and of Utile complexness of 
structure^ sometime* alike throughout, sometimes dissimilar in differ- 
eni parts of the body, but never alternately furnished with, and des~ 
tilute of certain soft appendages : Bran cm je none or very simple : 
Hejd rudimentary : Autbnnje and eyes frequently wanting : no 
Jaws: PROBoacis very short and indistinct: no Tentacular 
CIRRI : In general a single ciRRva to eeich foot, and when a second 
exists, thu is rudimentary.* 

Of the four genera which Audouin and Milne-Edwards include 
in this family, we have two native species of one only ; but it is re- 
markable that our other species, which as yet are limited to the num- 
ber of three, constitute two new genera in it very distinct from any 
hitherto characterized. The fact is an additional illustration of an 
axiom in natural history, — ^that all aberrant and osculant groups are 
not only comparatively few in species, but at the same time these 
species are so dissimilar among themselves that each, or every two 
or three of them, will be found to have characters which are pro- 
perly generical. 

It may be useful to give the characters of all the genera hitherto 
proposed, for as the British species are probably more numerous than 
has been ascertained, so it is not unprobable we may have a repre- 
sentative of each genus. 

* Translated, but not always closely, from Audouin and M.-Edwards, ut sup. dt 
YOI*. II. NO. 7- B 



66 Miscellanea Zooloffica. 

• Feel ofirvo kinds, dissimilar, 

I. Abicia. Feet raised upon the back, those of the anterior part 
of the body composed of two very dissimilar branches, the ven- 
tral branch having some analogy to the feet with crotchets, — 
the other feet with two branches nearly alike : Head conical : 
AntennoB none or rudimentary : No oral Tentacula. 

II. Lkucodore. Feet papillary and setigerous, the first four pairs 
abranchial, the fifth with crotchets ; the following like the an- 
terior, bfit with a cirrus reflected on the back, and becoming 
branchial : Head conical : Antenna two, occipital, setaceous : 
Proboscis none. 

•• Feet cO'Ordinate, and alike, 

III. Nerine. Head small but distinct, furnished with two long 
occipital antennas : no oral tentacula : Feet biramous, each 
branch consisting of a membranous lobe and a short setigeroua 
pedicle : Branchias forming a series of short setaceous filaments 
along each side reflected on the back, with a small cirrus at their 
base. 

IV. AoNiA. Head small but distinct, surmounted with a conical 
very short antenna : no oral tentacula : Feet divided into two 
branches each garnished with a lamellar lobe : a dorsal but no 
ventral cirrus : no branchice. 

V. Ophelia. Head indistinct, terminated by two large tentacu- 
lar horns, surmounting a circle of oral tentacula : Feet with 
two branches scarcely protruding, and without membranous 
lobes : no dorsal cirrus : a ventral cirrus upon the rings of the 
middle part of the body. 

VI. GiBRATULos. Head conical indistinct, and destitute of all soft 
appendages : Feet scarcely projecting, with two branches wide* 
ly separate : no ventral cirrus : the dorsal cirri filiform and 
very long : in general branchice exactly similar to the cirri and 
fixed upon the back of one of the rings of the anterior part of 
the body. 

II. — Leucodorb, * Johnston. 
Charactbr. — Bodt^ vermiform : head conical : mouth simple, 
emandibulate : eyes four : antennas 2, occipital, large, long, and seta^ 
ceous, ciliated : four anterior segments with papilious setigerous feet, 

* Name from >fc/x«r white, and /»c a gift: The naturalist who has experien- 
ced the joys of finding a hitherto unseen animal, and to whom the pleasing duty 
has been reserved of publishing an additional illustration of the wisdom of his 



Miscellanea Zooloffica. 67 

ihejifih wiih crotchets, the rest with papillaus feet like the anterior 
segments, but furnished besides with a branchial cirrus reflected on 
ike back: anal segment campanutate, the anus opening in its concave 
centre. 

L. CiLiATUs. Plate III. Pig. 1-6. 

Hob. In crevices of slaty rocks near low-^water mark. In Ber- 
wick Bay. 

Description, — Worm from 6 to 8 lines long, linear-elongate, or 
slightly tapered to the tail, somewhat quadrangular, of a yellowish 
or flesh colour, with a dark red line down the middle. Head small, 
depressed, in the form of a short cylindrical proboscis, encircled 
with a raised hood or membrane ; mouth edentulous ; eyes 4, mi- 
nute, placed in a square at the base of the antennae, which are more 
than a fifth of the length of the body, tapered, wrinkled, and cloth- 
ed along their inferior sides with short cilia. Segments numerous, 
narrow, distinct, the first four with an inferior papillary cirrus on 
each side, and a brush of retractile bristles ; the fifth with a series of 
bristles curved like an italic f, obtuse, not capable apparently of 
being protruded like the others, and having rather a more ventral 
position ; the following segments have on each side an obtuse bran- 
chial cirrus originating from the dorsal margin, as long as half the 
diameter of the body, held either erect, or reflected across the back 
to meet its fellow on the mesial line, beneath it a small mammillary 
foot, armed with ^ve or six sharp slightly curved bristles of unequal 
lengths, under this a bundle of much smaller bristles (crotchets?) 
with a small conical cirrus with a still more ventral position. The 
branchial cirrus is clothed on its lower aspect with rather long move- 
able cilia ; it becomes very small or entirely disappears on the pos- 
terior segments, in which the bristles on the contrary appear to be 
longer and more developed ; bristles simple, unjointed ; anal seg- 
ment conformed into a circular cup or sucker, in the centre of which 
the anus opens by a small round aperture. 

In this worm the cilia which cover the under sides of the bran- 
chial processes are remarkable for their size and length, for they 
can be seen with a common magnifier fanning the water with equal 
and rapid beats, and driving the current along their surface. Their 
analogy with the cilia of zoophytes is obvious, but here their motion 

Creator, and of filling up a blank in our knowledge of His works, will at once 
difine the origin of this name so strangely applied to a worm. 

**• Nomen habes niveis nunc inscriptum ergo lapillis.** 
The scholar may remember that the name was originally formed by some clas- 
sical wit for Dt Whitgift, the fiimous Archbishop of Canterbury, temp. reg. 
Elizab See Walton^s Lives by Zouch, p. 209. York, 1807. 



68 MiiceUanea Zociogica. 

is certainly dependant on the wiU of the animal^ for I have repeat- 
edly seen it b^n and stop, and be ag£n renewed after an intenral 
of repose, and again be checked in a manner that conld leave no 
doubt bat that the play of the organs was entirely voluntary. The 
cilia of the antennae, notwithstanding the larger size of the organs, 
are less than half the length of those of the branchiae* 

Leucodore ciliatus lives between the seams of slaty rocks near 
low- water mark, burrowing in the fine soft mud which lines the fis- 
sures. Its motions are slow. When placed in a saucer it keeps it- 
self rolled up in an imperfectly circular manner, lying upon its side, 
and the painftil efiPorts made to change its position, and with little 
or no success, shew too plainly that it is not organized to creep 
about like the Annelides errantes, but on the contrary that its pro- 
per habitat must be a farrow similar to those of the Tubicolons 
worms, to which, in structure, it evidently approximates in several 
particulars. 

Plate III. Fig. 1. Leucodore ciliatus of the natural size. 2. The 
same magnified. 3. An antenna more highly magnified. 4. The 
bristles of the fifth segment. 5. A branchial process separated to 
shew the cilia. 6. A few of the oviform bodies which lie between 
the intestine and skin. 

III. Nerine,* Johnston. 
Charactbb.— -jB(n/^ vermiform, subquadrangular : head small, 
distinct : mouth suh-inferior, with a very short edentulous proboscis : 
eyes minute : antennas two, occipital, large, long, tapered : branchiae 
forming an uninterrupted series of short tapered ciliated Jtlamenls 
along each side reflected on the back, with a lobe at their base : foet 
all alike, well developed, biramous, each branch consisting of a com- 
pressed lobe and a short pedicle armed with simple bristles : anus 
stellated. 

Observations — The body of the Nerines is elongated and ver- 
miform, narrowed a little at the head, and tapered gradually to- 
wards the anal extremity. It is somewhat quadrangular, and is 
formed of numerous narrow s^^ents. Each segment has on each 
side, affixed to its dorsal margin, a subulate branchial process, as 
long as the semidiameter of the animal, and of a fine red colour, 
which proceeds from two large blood-vessels running up. within it. 
A cnticular fold or membrane invests the base of eadi branchial 
filament^ and mounts along the side to an extent which varies with 
its position ; for on the filaments of the anterior third of the body 

Nerfne, a patronymic of the daugbters of Nereus. 



Mucellanea Zoologica. 69 

the membrane rises to the very apex and is comporatiyely breads 
but posterior to this the point of the filament is free^ and still further 
back the membrane gradually shortens until it at length is no longer 
to be traced^ — the branchie at the same time becoming gradually 
less, and ultimately obsolete on the ^caudal segments. (PI. II. fig. 
12, 5, 6, 13.) When in water the branchie are raised and extend* 
ed^ and in almost constant movement ; but when the worm is re- 
moved from the water^ they are laid across the back, their points 
meeting in the middle^ and give the body the appearance of being 
marked with transverse folds or elevated stritt. They are fringed 
on both margins with a single series of vibratile cilia^ discoverable 
Mrith a magnifier of common powers, but these dlia are deficient on 
the apex, as well as on the lobe, while they extend over the dorsal 
arch of the segments. (Fig. 3.) The head is furnished with two 
large slightly tapering antennae which originate from the occiput, 
and which are often cast off in the struggles of the animal : 
they consist of two large central vessels filled with red blood, and 
coated with a white mucous skin which, when magnified, appears 
rougfaish or crenulate, and one side has a row of minute cilia, not, 
however, to be seen except with a good glass. The antennae can 
be directed to any point, and are capable of being rolled up in a 
spiral form. (PI. II. Fig. II.) There is a good deal of complexity 
in the structure of the feet, which renders their description and 
delineation difficult : they are lateral, and deeply divided in- 
to a dorsal and ventral branch, which is compressed, and armed 
with a series of retractile bristles of unequal lengths, and to 
each branch there is affixed a rounded plain compressed lobe, pro- 
bably a modification of the cirrus of other annelides. The bristles 
are simple, curved, and acutely pointed, those of the dorsal branch 
longer than those of the ventral, and there is a small fascicle of 
longer ones at the root of the branchial filament. (Fig. 3.) The 
feet are apparently alike along each side until within a few seg- 
ments of the tail, when the branchial filaments become very short 
or disappear, and the ventral branch seems to acquire a superior 
developement, and to be armed also with longer bristles. (Fig. 4.) 
The anus is dorsal in its aspect, and is surrounded with eight short 
equal papillae, which assume a star-like form when the aperture is 
dilated. 

The Nerines inhabit the sea shore, and the margins of our river, 
a little below high- water mark. They prefer a soil composed of 
sand and mud, and in which the latter rather preponderates. They 
are found lurking under stones, or burrowing in the soil, and in the 
latter situations, the surface to a great extent is seen full of small 



70 Miscellanea Zooloffica. 

round perforations, and covered with little heaps of its tubular and 
spiral excrements. When disturbed, they descend in their furrows 
with great rapidity, and to a considerable depth ; when taken they 
throw themselves into violent contortions, as they " were waxed 
mad," during which the body generally separates into several por- 
tions, or loses its antennae, which always separate at their very base. 
Their several portions retain their vitality for at least some day8> 
which they evince not merely by their contortions when pricked, 
but even by moving from one place to another. The animals are 
named '' Rag worms" by our 68hermen, and are used in this neigh- 
bourhood as bait to take the fry of the coal-fish. 

This genus is evidently very different from any characterized by 
Audouin and Milne- Edwards. I have seen two species, of which 
the characters are : 

1. N. VULGARIS, head obtuse and lunated in front. PI. II. Fig. 
1-^. Spio vulgaris,* Johnston in Zool. Journ. iii. 335 and 487* 
Has. The shore between tide-marks. Very common in Berwick 
Bay. 

Description, — This worm is from 3 to 4 inches in length, of a 
yellowish-brown colour, dusky in places from the contents of the 
intestine, and marked with red cross lines from the overlapping 
branchial filaments. The head is prolonged above the mouth into 
a sort of triangle, the base being outwards, and each angle prolong- 
ed into a short conical point somewhat contractile. There is a 
black spot on the vertex, and the bases of the tentacula are also 
stained with black, where the eyes, which are very small, are pla- 
ced in pairs, but in several specimens I have not been able to detect 
these organs. The antenne are rather more than half-an-inch long. 
The last ten segments appear to be defective in the branchiae, and 
to have a more developed ventral foot and longer bristles than any 

of the others. Plate II. Fig. 1, N. vulgaris of the natural size. 

2. The anterior portion enlarged. 3. A view of a segment cut trans- 
versely. 4. The caudal extremity. 5. A branchial filament sepa- 
rately. 6. Another view of a branchia. 7« Bristles much magni- 
fied. 8. Oviform bodies. 

2. N. coNiocEPHALA, head conical PL II. Fig, 9-13. Spio viri- 
dis, Johnston in Zool. Journ. iii. 486. 

Hab.' In sand near low- water mark. Berwick Bay, not uncom- 
mon. 

Description. — Worm from 4 to 8 inches long, as thick when frill 
grown as the little finger of a boy, flattened dorsally, rounded on 



MiiceUanta Zoologiccu 71 

tlieyentral aspect^ down the centre of which a blood-yessel nins from 
one extremity to the other, of a fleshred colour anteriorly, but 
backwards the colour is usually a dull dirty green, with red lines 
and dusky blotches. Head conical, pointed like a snout, pale : pro- 
boscis very short with a lobed orifice : eyes 4, minute, placed at 
the base of the antennae in pairs, but apparently often wanting : an- 
tenn» approximate at the base, from half to an inch in length. 
Segments narrow, numerous ; the filaments of the anterior fringed 
to the point with a broad membrane, those of the middle free and 
rather long, but becoming very short on the posterior. Feet much 
like those of the preceding, but proportionally less developed. 
Anus stellate. 

This species inhabits our shore at low water-mark, and is seldom 
found with the preceding, which loves a station higher up. It is 
rare that an entire specimen can be got, the animal breaking with 

ease into several portions, and throwing ofiT its antenne. Plate 

II. Fig. 9. N. coniocepfaala of the natural size, the tail wanting. 
The specimen was one of unusual size. 10. The proboscis, il. 
An antenna magnified. 12. One-half of a cross section of an ante- 
rior segment. 13. A similar view of a segment from near the middle. 

The Spio cbenaticobnis of Montagu, Lin. Trans, xi. p. 199. 
Tab. 14. fig. 6, is nearly related to this genus ; but a new exa- 
mination of the worm is necessary to determine its true place in the 
system. 

VI. CiBBATULUS,* Lamarck. 
Charactbb. — Body vermiform, subcylindrical, the segments nar^ 
row and numerous; head small, conical, labriform, without any 
organ of sense; mouth inferior, naked, emandihulate ; two or three 
first segments apodal and naked, all the others with small jmpiUary 
seiigerousjeet forming a double series along each side, and many of 
them, especially the anterior, carrying dorsally long tubular tortU' 
ous filaments; anus dorsad, terminal, simple. 

1. C. Mbduba, proper branchial filaments originating from the 

anterior margin if the 4/ A segment; the posterior filaments fow 

and scattered. (Plate III. Fig. 7-12.) 

Cirratulus Medusa, Johnston in Mag. Nat. Hist. vi. 124. fig. 

13. — C. fuscescens et C. flavescens, Johnston in Jameson's £din. 

Phil. Journ. xiii. 219. 

* Cinatulus— formed from cirratus, curled. 



72 Miscellanea Zoclogica. 

Hab. Under stones between tide-marks ; abundant in Berwid& 
Bay. 

Description. Body from 3 to 6 and sometimes even 9 inches long» 
tapered a little towards each extremity^ rather less than a qaill in ca- 
libre> the ventral surface flattened and furrowed down the centre^ of 
a dirty brown or yellowish colour much stained from the internal via- 
cera : head somewhat flattened^ biannular^ small^ naked, marked on 
each side with a carved black line, the two segments posterior to it 
without filaments or feet : segments numerous, rather narrow ; from 
the anterior margin of the fourth, which becomes suddenly larger, 
arises on each side, but dorsad, a bundle of filaments shorter, gene- 
rally more tortuous and of a paler colour than the others, which arise 
firom the sides of the following rings down about one-fifth of the 
length of the animal, and a few remote filaments are dispersed irre- 
gularly on the rest of the body : there are two rows of slightly pro- 
tuberant small papillary feet on each side, with a considerable inter- 
val between the rows, each papilla armed with firom 3 to 6 bristles, 
the bristles of the superior longer, slenderer and more acutely pointed 
than those of the inferior, which are few in number, stout and curved 
near the apex : no spines : anus terminal, forming a plain aperture 
with a dorsad aspect. 

G. Medusa lurks under stones, in a somewhat muddy soil, in 
which it forms burrows similar to those of the earth-worm, and into 
which it retires slowly when disturbed. The filaments by which it 
is so remarkably distinguished, and which curl around it like as 
many parasitical worms, are the branchise, or organs through the 
medium of which the blood is exposed to the influence of the air, 
and fitted for the purposes of life. They take their rise from above 
the dorsal feet, some from the back itself, are about 20 in number 
on each side, tortuous or extended, unequal in their lengths, the 
shortest being placed anteriorly, but the gradation is not regular ; 
and they are very easily removed by handling or by immersion in 
fresh-water. They consist of a large central vessel carrying red 
blood, surrounded by a white gelatinous transparent membrane, and 
are consequently of a fine red colour ; but this is liable to variation, 
for some, particularly the anterior bundle^, are often quite white, 
and others, again, are occasionally spotted, as from a partial stagna- 
tion of the blood in them. When magnified they appear to be cre- 
nnlated, but are not fringed with cilia. Messrs Audouin and Milne- 
Edwards propose to restrict the term hranchuE to the paler kind 
which are inserted in fascicles on the margin of one of the anterior 
segments, and they call the scattered filaments ctrrt, but surely 

4 



Miscellanea Zoologica. 73 

tlieir function and structure being acknowledged to be identical^ a 
name expressive of any difference in either respect is liable to ob- 
jection. They also describe the feet as composed of two branches^ 
but this is a mere anatomical fiction, for there is really no common 
base and no bifurcation, the upper and lower papillie being separate 
and divided by a considerable interspace ; and on the posterior seg- 
ments these papillfiB are so slightly protuberant as to be scarce per- 
ceptible. The bristles are of two kinds : from the superior papillae 
there issueabout six, three of them long and slender, and three shorter 
and comparatively stout, — all of them simple, unjointed, and acute. 
The bristles of the inferior papills vary from three to one only in 
the caudal segments^ and they are all stout and curved like the 
italic letter yi 

Plate III. Fig. 7- Girratulus medusa of the natural size. 8. Head 
and anterior segments much magnified. 9. A view of the mouth. 
10. Transverse section of a segment from the posterior part of the 
body. 11. A side view of two segments from near the middle^ 
shewing the spines greatly magnified. 12. The taiL 

In the LinnsBan Transacticms, Vol* ix. p. 110, Montagu has de- 
scribedj under the name of Tsbebblla TSNTAcuirATA, a second 
species of this genus ; and to make our essay as complete as our ma- 
terials will allow, his description is here given in his own words. 

'' Body long and slender, composed of more than two hundred 
annulations, each furnished with two fasciculi of very minute 
bristles : no eyes : branchiie obscure : from the sides issue very 
long, red, capillary appendages, most numerous near the anterior 
end, but the point or snout is destitute of them, and becomes mwe 
acuminated, the mouth is placed beneath : the posterior end is also 
obtusely pointed.* 

** Loigth, eight or nine inches. 

** The colour of the upper part is olive-green, the under part dull 
orange* 

'' The lateral filiform appendages are continually in motion, ap- 
pearing like slender red worms contorting in all directions round 
the animal ; after death these usually curl up, when they first be- 
come orange, and in a little time wholly lose their colour. 

'* This curious species of vermes was taken from a piece of timber 
that bad been perforated by Pholades, and was destitute of any 
natural covering. 

'< It may be doubted whether the animal in question be nearest 
allied to the Terebella or Nereis, or even whether it strictly belong 
to either." 



C 74 D 



REVIEWS AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS. 



1. — Icones Plantarum, or Figures with brief descriptive characters 
and remarks of New or Rare Plants, selected from the Author's 
Herbarium. By Sib W. J. Hookeb, K. H. LL. D. &c. Parts 
Land II. 1837. 

This is a valuable publication ; economical^ and jet rich in the 
number and variety of its illustrations ; and we sincerely hope it 
may receive such a portion of encouragement^ as shall constitute it 
the first of a long series of works got up in a similar style. This 
*^ Icones Plantarum" is par excellence a useful work. The plates 
are executed in lithography^ and although in point of beauty they 
cannot be compared with similar productions by our continental 
neighbours, they are evidently faithful and characteristic^ — requi- 
sites of far higher importance to the'real naturalist than artistic ele- 
gance of engraving. In regard to subjects, the author has wisely al- 
lowed himself the widest range ; and we have in the two parts before 
us, Fungi, Mosses, and Ferns, besides the numerous phienogamous 
plants selected on account of their rarity, singularity or beauty. 

Of the letter-press, it is needless to say—- coming as it does from 
the pen of Sir W. J. Hooker — that it is accurate and scientific. Pro- 
fessing, however, to be brief, it is in our opinion too much so : brief^ 
we think, rather to the disadvantage of the work. For example^ 
of about sixty new species, (excluding mosses,) considerably more 
than one-half are unaccompanied by any observation upon specific 
affinity ; a subject, in these days, of the greatest importance* There 
is another circumstance also, in connection with the letter-press, which 
we think it right to notice, and that is, the absence of all characters 
and descriptions whatever of the fifty-five species of mosses figured 
on plates xviii-xxiv. It is true, that the reader is informed in a 
note, that descriptions of these mosses will be found in the Companion 
to the Botanical Magazine. But there is nothing in the title-page 
of the '* Icones" which can lead the purchaser to expect occasionally^ 
figures without descriptions. In the present instance^ the possessor 

3 



Clarification of Birds. 75 

of the '* Icones" must be content to go without descriptive letter- 
press to fifty-five species, or buy another and distinct work ; to say 
nothing of the inconvenience of such an arrangement. 

Sir W. J. Hooker has presented us with figures of such a host 
of interesting plants, that it is not possible to enter upon any de- 
tailed observations. There is a new genus of Cruciferie established 
at t. xliii. the characters of which we transcribe. 

Tbofidocarpuu. 

Sepala oblonga, concava, basi eequalia. Peiala obovato-subspa- 
thulata. Filamenta nuda : Aniheras subrotundse. Germen oblon- 
gum, in stylum attenuatum. Stigma ohtusum. Siliqua lateraliter 
compressa, sessilis, polysperma, valvis acute carinatis. Dissepimen" 
turn nullum ! — Herbae parvae, annuae. Folia pinnatifida. Racemi 
foliosi. Flores parvi, albi. Silquse erecte, nunc breves, subsilicu- 
ksae. 

A second species of this genus is figured at t. Hi. Botl\ were col* 
lected in California by the late Mr Douglas. 

Were we to fm on any one plant figured in the hundred plates 
before us, as pre-eminently interesting, we should select Dendrome' 
con rigidum, Lindl. (t. xxxvii ) a papaveraceous shrub ! discover- 
ed by the same lamented botanist in California. Let persons who 
desire to encourage botanical science purchase this work. Its merit 
is not to b^ measured by its extraordinary cheapness. 



II. Dr Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia. Natural History, Natural 

History and Clasxification of Birds. By W. Swainson^ Esq. 
Vol. i. 12mo. London, Longman & Co. 1 837* 
To complete our review of the series of volumes which have ap- 
peared in Dr Lardner's valuable Cyclopaedia devoted to Natural 
History, we now proceed to notice the third, " The Natural History 
and Classification of Birds," forming the first of the second depart- 
ment of the Vertebrata, one in which the author has already dis- 
tinguished himself, and which he has materially advanced by his 
numerous and valuable publications. 

After noticing the station occupied by birds among the Ver- 
tebrata, viz. between the Mammalia and Reptilia, to the latter 
of which he conceives its union is efifected by the fossil genus 
Pterodactylus, rather than to the affinity supposed to exist be- 
tween the Penguins and Tortoises, he refers to the primary 
types, as designated in ornithology, and which take their titles 
from the five orders of the class, vis. the Raptorial, the Inses- 



76 Claisification of Birds. 

sorial, the Rasorial or Bcansorial^ the GraUatarial or tenuiros- 
tral^ and the Natatorial or aqaatic. The pre-eminent type is the 
InsesBorial, as it corresponds with the order Insessores^ the most 
highly organized of the class. The Raptorial or subtypical is re- 
presented in its highest developement by the Raptores, and cor- 
responds to the Feline group among quadrupeds. Of the aberrant 
types, the Natatorial or aquatic is distinguished by the shortness and 
limited power of the feet, the broad obtuse form of the bill^ and the 
head being always large in proportion to that of the other types. 
The Orallatorial w tenuiroatral type is shown in birds^ as in qua^ 
drupeds^ by the length and slender shape of the bill or jaws : the 
opening of the nostrils is also long and slit-like^ and it is further 
distinguished by great swiftness^ either of wing or foot. The Raa- 
sorial type is inferior only to the Natatmal in bulk. '' Birds^'* he 
adds^ " belonging to it have the tail greatly developed^ or of peculiar 
structure ; the great size of the foot in all its proportions is another 
characteristic, and the groups which represent this type in some 
mode or other evince their attachment to man." A short review 
is then taken of the five orders and their peculiar characters, 
with a glance at the analogies they present with Quadrupeds. 
The three following chapters are entirely devoted to a useful and 
interesting exposition of the external anatomy of the class, as it is 
from the outward organization that he takes the characters of his 
groups, illustrated with a profusion of beautiful wood-cuts, which 
point out the various peculiarities of structure or form, in the differ- 
ent parts of the body, and render easily intelligible to the student 
what otherwise is frequently found difficult to explain, or convey a 
correct idea of, by language alone. After enumerating the terms 
by which the various external parts of the body are called, and which 
are easily understood by a reference to the figure, he commences 
with the peculiarities of the head as seen in the shape of horns, 
wattles, or crests, of each of which he cites various instances and ex- 
amples. The peculiarities of the eyes and ears are then adverted to, 
followed by some interesting observations upon the tongue, which 
varies in form and structure according to the nature and quality of the 
food upon which the individuals subsist. Among those which have it 
of very small size, we are surprised he should have omitted the cormo- 
rants, in which genus it is very diminutive or rudimentary, and here 
also it is indicative of a peculiar habit, as these birds, like the night- 
jars and swallows, gu]p or swallow their food entire. The form and 
positicm of the nostrils next claim attention, and the remainder of 
the chapter is occupied with the various aspects of the bills or jaws 



Classification of Birds. 77 

of birds, each modification or peculiarity being illustrated by a charac- 
teristic wood-engraving. The rarious modifications of firain^ exhibit- 
ed in the wings and tail, the great organs of aerial motion^ occupy 
the greater portion of the next chapter. The principal varieties 
of the form of the wings are considered under the heads of acumi" 
naiedf as in the Swallows^ Tems^ &c. ; FaJcaie, a form possessed by 
•ome of the Humming-fiirds ; Pointed, as in the Crows, Flycatchers^ 
&C. ; Rounded, as in the common Wren, and also in most of the 
Rasorial order ; Ample, as in the Heron, and in the genera Rupicola, 
Promerops, &c. The last are the Abortive or Abbreviated wings, 
as in the Cassowary, Apteryx, Penguin, Sec, In the tail, the other 
great organ used in flight, the modifications are even more numerous 
than those of the wings ; he enumerates and describes no less than 
fourteen^ under the titles of Even, Rounded, Fan-shaped, Graduated, 
Cuneated, Arcuated, Spathulate, Slender, Forked, Lyre-shaped, Boat'- 
shaped. Compressed, Plumed, and Scansorial, all of which are 
minutely described^ and contrasted with each other in a manner 
which cannot fail to be understood^ on consulting the figures which 
accompany the text. The various modifications of those essential 
organs the feet are next considered, and to this part of the 
work we would direct the especial attention of the student^ as it 
is in a great measure from the leading variations in their structure 
that the primary characters of the orders are derived^ and besides 
natural groups are generally indicated by the subordinate modifica- 
tions they undei^o. 

In the raptorial foot he points out some peculiarities in the re- 
lative position of the toes^ which appear to have been overlooked, 
but which mark a striking distinction between the foot of birds 
belonging to this order^ and that of the typical Insessores. Of the 
feet of this latter order he gives a detailed description^ and shows 
how beautifully each change is in accordance with the economy of 
its members. We particularly direct attention to the gradations of the 
scansorial form of foot, which he has traced with a precision and 
minuteness that shows an intimate and thorough acquaintance witfi 
the subject. The remainder of this portion of the volume is taken up 
with observations on the voice and nests of birds. In r^ard to the 
▼oioe, though agreeing with the author in many of his remarks, we 
think that the song of birds^ or its equivalent^ is more connected 
with the feeling of love or the reproduction of the species than he 
seems willing to allow. We believe it, in the first instance, to be given 
to the male for the especial purpose of attracting the females; at the 
same time we don ot deny its exercise^ in such birds as possess it 



78 CSamJtcation of Birds, 

in an eminent degree, as a solace to their mates during the tedious 
course of incubation. All male birds, we believe, in addition to 
what may be called their ordinary or constant notes, which may be 
supposed analogous to speech, and which seem to direct and regulate 
their general or ordinary movements, possess other intonations and 
powers of voice, apparently given for special purposes, and which 
are only called into action during a certain period of the year. In 
the majority of the feathered race, these additional or temporary 
powers of voice are limited in extent, and frequently confined to 
one or two notes, and it is only in a few groups of the Insessores 
that we find them developed in an extraordinary degree, or worthy 
tlie name of song. But whatever be the extent of this power, 
whether confined to a few monotonous notes, as in the Buntings, the 
Titmice, and various others, or embracing the varied intonations, 
as well as the sweetness and melody of the Nightingale, Mavis, 
&c. ; in all the species it answers a similar end, and the utterance 
is attended with a like efiPect, viz. the attraction of the opposite sex, 
in order to insure the reproduction of the species. During the late 
autumnal and early winter months, or from August to the begin- 
ning of January, in most birds it is entirely lost, or if attempted by- 
song birds, is always imperfect in cadence and extent, and it is only 
fully regained when the turn of the year again invigorates their 
frame, and produces those remarkable changes in the constitution 
which every practical ornithologist cannot fail to have observed. 
In most if not all cases it is only regained by degrees. This is the 
case with all our native birds, and we have known weeks to elapse 
before a Chaflinch has been able to compass his short but sprightly 
lay. Of nidification our author seems to have little practical know- 
ledge, and his observations are mostly drawn from the writings and 
descriptions of other authors. All the owls do not, as he says, '' se- 
lect a hole wherein to deposit their eggs, whether it be in a tree, or 
in a building, or upon the ground," for the long-eared owl, Otus vul- 
garis, almost invariably selects the deserted nest of the carrion crow, 
and the short-eared owl, Oius hrachyotos, deposits her eggs upon the 
surface of the ground in wild moorland wastes. In speaking of pensile 
nests, he mentions that of the Bearded Titmouse, Par. biarmicus, as 
likely to exhibit a modification or approach to this form ; but adds, 
" that no British author has yet described it." Had he turned to the 
last edition of Selby's Illustrations of British Ornithology, he would 
have found a note in which the site and structure of the nest is de- 
scribed ; and which prove that it belongs to the ordinary form. 
With the contents of the next chapter, which treats of Ornitholo- 



Clasrification of Birds. 79 

gical Bibliography, we are not altogether satisfied. The lists of works 
he has given are certainly not so complete or so extensive as they 
Wight to have been, although he professes to enumerate such only 
as are essential to the student, or eminently beautiful for their exe- 
cution ; nor do we think his estimate of their peculiar merits are al- 
ways correct or altogether impartial. We do not object to Mr Swain- 
son's introducing so many of his onm works under their respective 
heads, to which he conceives they belong, but we do think that those 
of a similar character and import by other authors should have met 
with the same liberal treatment. Why has he not, under the head 
" Partial systematic works," where both series of his own Zoologi- 
cal Illustrations have been placed, also inserted another work as ex- 
tensive, and, we believe, as useful to the ornithologist as his own. 
We mean the quarto work of Sir William Jardine and Mr Selby. 
Several continental works of eminence are also altogether omitted, 
or else merely glanced at. We perceive no mention of the names of 
Becbstein, Faber, Nilson, and various others, and though Kuhl's 
Conspectus Psiilacorum is mentioned in laudatory terms, the able 
monograph of Wagler of the same family, published subsequently 
to that of Kuhl's, is passed over without notice. 

From ornithological bibli(^aphy he passes to the consideration 
of those rules instituted by the most eminent naturalists of an ear- 
lier date, and which have since received the sanction of their fol- 
lowers, and been admitted as laws or aphorisms not to be violated, 
in the construction of generic, subgeneric, and specific names. Upon 
each of those he makes some pertinent observations, and we trust 
that what he has said on that law which announces that '' the high- 
est reward of a naturalist is to have a genus called after his name," 
will meet with the consideration it deserves, and tend to put a stop 
to a practice which of late years has rapidly been gaining ground 
to the detriment of science, viz., that of complimenting individuals, 
many of them altogether unknown in the records of ornithologi- 
cal science, by imposing their names upon newly discovered species, 
a practice which deprives the true naturalist of what has been pro- 
claimed his highest reward, and brings into disrepute and contempt 
what was once esteemed a scientific honour. We also agree with 
Mr Swainson in the sentiments he has expressed in regard to ver- 
nacular nomenclature, a subject that of late has undergone conside- 
rable discussion, and though we have carefully perused the argu- 
ments of those who advocate what they consider a reformation in 
the system, we cannot perceive that the change they contemplate 
would be attended with the smaUest possible advantage. To the 



80 Oasiificatian of Birds. 

scientific naturalist it can be none, and it is not likely to be adopt- 
ed by those for whom it is alone intended, viz. the unscientific, 
or great mass of our population. No further proof, we think, is 
wanted of the inutility and difficulty of substituting more appro- 
priate vernacular names, for those now in general use, than in the 
lists we have already seen published, where similar objections may 
be urged against the new coined names as have been preferred 
against the old. 

The next chapter, which concludes the introductory part of 
the work, treats of collecting, preserving, and arranging birds. 
Each of these heads, he discusses at considerable length ; and we re- 
commend the attentive perusal of the chapter to all who think either 
of collecting for themselves, or for the benefit of public institutions. 
Under the first head he shows not only what foreign birds are best 
worth coUecting, (the most common,) but points out those countries 
whose ornithology has hitherto been least investigated, directing 
also the attention to certain groups, the knowledge of whose habits 
and economy would be of great importance to the science. 

The Taxidermic directions are full and easily understood, but 
are restricted to what is now termed leaving the specimens in their 
skins, in contradistinction to those that are mounted or set up in the 
attitudes of life. This is a mode now generally adopted by scien- 
tific ornithologists who possess collections of their own, not only for 
the convenience of stowage and room, but for the facility it affords 
for comparative examinations, which can only be satisfactorily done 
by handling and close inspection. 

We now come to the systematic part of the volume, commencing 
with the Raptorial order or Birds of Prey. Of this order he considers 
there are only three families now in existence, viz. the Fulturid^g, 
Falconidas^ and Strigidct ; for the genus Gypogeranus, which Mr Vi- 
gors thought might probably represent one of the primary divisions 
of the order, our author thinks more likely, ^m its structure and 
apparent affinities, to belong to the Vulturidse, probably constitut- 
ing its grallatorial type. The typical and subtypical genera of the 
Vulturidee are represented, the first, by the true vultures, of which 
V.fulvus may be considered a type, the other by the American spe- 
cies or genus Cathartes. The principal distinction between these 
two groups consists in the opposite form of the nostrils, which in 
the genus vulture are placed transversely across the bill, whereas 
in Cathartes they are linear in form, and placed parallel with the 
margin of the bill. The caruncles and wattles observed in certain 
species of Cathartes he only considers in the light of secondary cha- 



ClassiJScatian of Birds. 81 

rActen. The raaorial type of the ^mily he considers to be that re- 
markable Australian bird, first described and called by Latham the 
New Holland vulture, but which some later writers have noticed as 
more dosely allied to the rasorial wder. This, in fact, is the opinion 
we arrived at after examining two perfect specimens of this bird, in 
which the bill appeared to have more of the rasorial than the rap- 
torial form, and we recollect that the nostrils were partly covered 
with a protecting scale. The tail, which he acknowledges possesses 
mere feathers than the true vultures, also exhibited that duplex 
«r §Med form possessed by many Gallinaceous birds, and the feet 
and legs were certainly as much akin to those of the CracidsB and 
other Rasores, as to those of the rapacious order.* Much, no doubt, 
as to its real station in the ornithological circle, will depend upon 
its peculiar habits and economy, of which we are at present igno- 
nint, bot we think it is as likely to prove a Raptorial form of the 
Rasorial order, as the Rasorial type of the Raptores. The fissiros- 
tral type of the family is distinctly marked in the bearded vulture 
of the Alps, forming the genus Oypasetus, and which in its form 
and habits marks the direct passage to the eagles in the family of 
the Falcanidve. This division, he observes, exhibits the perfection 
of the order ; its members are distinguished by a much shorter and 
sharper bill more or less toothed, and by very acute and strongly 
curved talons ; they are lighter and more graceful in form, and 
moreoourageous than the vultures; they prey, also, almost exclusively 
upon living animals, and the geographic range of the family is al- 
most universal. The primary divisions of the Falconidas he con- 
siders typified by the following genera — FeUco, Accipiier, Buteo, 
Cymittdis, and Aquila, the two first constituting the typical and 
sobtypical divisions, the remaining three, the aberrant. The ana- 
logies of the family with the tribes of the Insessores stand thus : 
Paloo, - - Conirostres, 

Accipiter, - - Dentirostres, 

Buteo, - - Fissirostres, 

Cymindis, - - Tenuirostres, 

Aquila, ' - Rasores. 

These analogies and relations he proceeds to trace with great skill, 
and we re^et that our limits will not permit us to follow them in de- 
taiL He then enters into the examination of the five leading ge- 
neric groups, commencing with the genus Falco, as the most typi- 
cal of the whole family. The subgenus Falco, the first noticed, 

* For a figure and descriptioii of this bird, see Vol. II. plate 66, Illustra- 
tions of Ornithology, by Sir William Jardine, Mr Selby, &c. 
VOL, If. NO. 7- F 



82 Classification vf Birds. 

contains the true Falcons^ distinguished by a single tooth on the 
upper mandible, with an incipient festoon or sinuation behind it ; 
next to it he places the subgenus Harpagus, (the Bidens of Spix), 
with two small teeth in the upper mandible^ the wings more rounded, 
and the scutellation of the tarsi different from that of Faloo. The 
passage between Harpagus and Falco is effected by the F. cceru^ 
lescens of Linneus. The third group is marked by F. lophoies 
of Temminck, evidently an aberrant form^ and probably the rasorial 
type. The fourth is his subgenus Aviceda, a bird with which we 
are not acquainted ; and the liftli he thinks may probably prove to 
be the Gampsonyx Stvainsotiii of Vigors, which in some respects 
seems to unite the characters of Buteo and Falco. The circle of 
the genus^ or division Accipiter^ he commences with Ictinia, Vieill. 
as a form connecting Lophoies with tlie accipitrine falcons : this is 
followed by the typical subgenus Accipiter, well characterised by 
the sparrowhawk. The third is that of Astur, or goshawk group, 
and as a fourth form belonging to it, he proposes the Pondicheny 
eagle^ {Aquila Pondicerianus, auct.,) a bird which, in our estima-* 
tion, has a nearer affinity to the aquiline group. The fifth form has 
uot yet been recognized. 

The genus Aquila^ the first of the aberrant groups of the Falco- 
nidn, contains four types, represented by Pandion, Harpyia, Aquila, 
and Ibifctcr, the second and third being the typical and eubtypical 
groups, while Pandion represents the aquatic or fissirostral type, 
and I bidder the rasorial : the iii'th, or tenuirostral form, he thinks, 
may possibly be represented by Asturina, Vieill. 

The M ilvine or kite division, represented by the geiius Cymindis, 
he enters by means of Polyborus, an American group nearly related 
to Ibycter; this is followed by the genus Cymindis, the pre-emi- 
nent type, all the members of which belong to South America. Next 
to it he thinks it likely that the genus Elanus will take its place, 
and this view we are inclined to adopt, looking at specimens of 
species now before us. The bill we perceive is as much hooked, and 
similar in form to that of Cymindis. The characters of the feet are 
peculiar, the interior toe being longer than the exterior, and the 
hinder toe shorter than either : the claws are sharp and strong, and 
all of them rounded beneath, as in Pandion ; the under one in addi- 
tion has a sharp projecting edge on its inner side. The wings are 
long, the feathers broad, with the first quill emarginate near the 
tip. The tail is nearly even, or very slightly forked. This form is 
immediately followed by Vigors's genus, Nauclerus, represented by 
the forkotail kite of America, which, from its swallow like form and 



ClassificaiioH of Birds. SS 

powers of flight, eridently forms the fissirostral type of the Milyine 
eirde, thus bringing it into immediate contact with the common 
kite of Enrope, which we think he very properly excludes from this 
divisicin, and places among the buzxards as its fissirostral form. 
The fifth form of Cymindis he thinks it is not improbable may be 
Vieiliot's genus Ciraetus, but we know too little of this group to gire 
an opinion as to the correctness of the supposition. The last division 
18 that of the Buzzards, which, by some of its members, leads back 
again to the typical Falcons. This group, as he observes, might 
with more propriety have been called Harriers, as it is the genus 
Circus which exhibits the fissirostral type of the whole family in 
the greatest perfection. The subtypical form he considers to be re- 
presented by Buleo lagoptts, in which subgenus he also leaves the 
common buzzard and other similar forms. In regard to the genus 
Pemis (honey-buzzard), had the author enjoyed the opportunity of 
examining the specimens now before us, he would, we think, have 
found little hesitation in pronouncing it to be the tenuirostral type 
of the division, as it exhibits the characters of a weak and slender 
bill, with feet and claws less raptorial in structure than any of its 
oongeaers. The common kite, Milvus vulgaris, Temm. as we have 
previously observed, is considered the fissirostral furm of the divi- 
sion. The fifth or rasorial type is not indicated by Mr Swainson ; 
may it not be represented by the Falcocristatellus, Temm. the Spi^ 
zaetus cristatellus of Jardine and Selby ? 

From, the Faloonidn, he proceeds to trace the natural series of 
the Strigids or owls, cMifining bis exposition to the primary divi- 
sions and genera only. The passage £rom the Falconidn is well 
marked in the genus Circus, where wo perceive the first indications 
of that peculiar ruff of tiled feathers, which surrounds the head, and 
is seen in its highest developement ia the Striginie or typical owls. 
The formation of the ear, the eye, and facial disk, being the pe- 
culiar distinctions of this femily, he naturally forms his primary 
groaps upon the greater or less developement of these organs. The 
first, or typical group is therefore, that in which the facial disk is 
very large aad perfect, with large ears, and in general an ample 
apercttlum. The second or subtypical, with a large facial disk, 
but small or moderate sized ears, the head furnished with egrets. 
The third or aberrant group with the circle of the ear small and des- 
titute of an operculum, the facial disk imperfect or obsolete, and the 
head without egrets. This group is as usual divisible into three, each 
•f which possesses its distinguishing characters. The first group is 
typically represented by the common white or bam owl of this 



84 Classification of Birds. 

country^ (SUflammea) ; in it he also places^ and we think very pro- 
perly^ our long and short-eared owls COtus vulgaris, and Ot bra^ 
chyolos), considering them rasorial types. A third form is that of Strix 
Tengmalmi : to this group he gives the name of Scoiophilus, A 
fourth is represented by the huge Sirix cinerea of the northern 
zoology, for which he proposes the generic or subgeneric name of 
Scatiaptex, The fifth, which ought to represent the raptorial type, 
is not indicated: why should not the SL stridula or some of its nearly 
allied congeners supply the deficiency ? 

The 2d division, or as he terms it genus, Asto, contains, 1st, the 
true horned-owls, of which the great European horned-owl, and the 
Virginian species may be considered representations. A second form 
is that of Bubo arcticus of the northern zoology, now made Heliap^ 
iex arcticus, and a third he thinks is represented by the Scops Owls. 
As the only type of the first aberrant group, stands the great white 
owl or genus Nyctea, distinguished by its very small ears, and with- 
out any ruff or series of stiff feathers encircling the head, the eye- 
brows also perfect like those of the fiiloons, and its habits are diur- 
nal. His genus Nyciij}etes, formed of the small South American 
owls, which possess no marginal ruff, with small ears destitute of an 
operculum, and which are perfectly separated from the small Euro- 
pean owls, or his genus Scotophilus, form a fourth group ; and the 
fifth is composed of the hawk-owls or genus Surnia of Dumeril; pos- 
sessing a small head, without a facial disk, a long cuneated tail, and 
diurnal habits. Such is his outline of the primary groups of this 
hitherto confused, and, we may add, neglected family of the order, 
and so far as we can judge from the forms we have been able to con- 
sult, they appear founded on the true affinities of the species. It 
will be seen that he has rejected some of the modern genera, as 
Noctua, Ulula, &c. at the same time he has found it necessary to 
institute others, such as Scatiaptex, Scotophilus, Heliaptex, and 
Nyctipetes, Much, however, remains to be done to fill up the de- 
tails of the various groups, which can only be effected by a strict 
analysis of the species, a matter not easily accomplished, as there are 
few collections which contain a sufficient number of forms belonging 
to this family, wherewith to institute the necessary comparison and 
examination. 

The concluding chapter enters upon the consideration of the In- 
sessorial order; but as the exposition only extends to one of its pri- 
mary divisions, viz. the Dentirostral tribe, we shall merely observe, 
that he traces the whole of its analogies with the other tribes and 
fiEunilies of the order, in a manner that intimates a thorough acquain- 



Analysis of British Ferns. 85 

tanoe, and a deep analytical inrestigation of the subject. Any fnr • 
ther observations we must postpone till after the pnblication of ano- 
ther Tolume^ in which the subject is pursued ; having already ex- 
tended oar analysis to a length we fear both tedious and tiresome, 
and only to be justi6ed or excused by the importance of the work. 



III. — An Analysis of the British Ferns and their Allies. With Cop- 

per-plate engravings of every Species and Variety. By Gborob 

W. Fbancis. Lond. 1837. 8vo. 

A WOBK we can honestly and heartily recommend, — which ought 
to be in the hands of every student of the British Ferns, if he de- 
ores to have a safe and interesting guide in the investigation of this 
peculiarly attractive family, and if he is anxious to encourage the 
labours of an enthusiastic fellow-botanist. 

In the '' Introduction" the author enters with some detail into the 
duffacters, structure, reproduction, geographical distribution, and 
virtues of the families in which British species occur, — ^following 
which there is a synopsis of the genera. The species are then de- 
scribed one by one. Here we have a very copious list of Habitats, 
a selected number of Synonyms derived from personal study of the 
respective authors, and a good description, embracing a regular spe- 
cification of all the variations and varieties, evidently deduced fit>m 
an extensive comparison of specimens from many and distant locali- 
ties. There is, however, a singular variety of Aspidium Filix-mas 
which does not seem to have come under Mr Francis' notice, — where 
the frond, not above a span in height, is simply pinnate with undi- 
vided oblong crenated leaves. It is something like Grammitis ce- 
terach ; and that the peculiarities are not dependent on immaturity 
is obvious from the h.cX that the plant is loaded unth fruit. We are 
assured that this variety is frequent in some parts of Ireland, although 
not mentioned in the " Flora Hibernica." 

The figures are miniatures, but, with scarcely an exception, hap- 
pily express the habit and character of the species, and will, we are 
confident, answer every purpose that a figure is intended to answer. 
They are vastly creditable to the talent and skill of the author, by 
whom they are all drawn and etched ; and when we are told that 
they are his first essays in these arts, we view them with a consi- 
derable portion of admiration, for their neatness and elegance is 
really remarkable. 

Were we inclined to find any fault with the work it is tliat there 
IS less of popular matter than Uiere might have been : illustrations 



86 Magazine of Natural Histaty. 

from our poets would have been ornamental, and not inoompatiUe 
with scientific accuracy or pretension. Our poets — old and living — 
have sung of Ferns many a time and oft; they were plants of power 
in the superstitions of our forefathers, who also drew from them more 
copiously than we now do for a supply of some little wants, as in- 
deed, the author has told us, but we should have been pleased to 
have seen some quaint quotations interwoven with the text in illus- 
tration of them. Perhaps too the author would have done well to 
have given a short separate chapter indicating the distribution of 
our Ferns in relation to their latitudes, peculiar soils and sites ; and 
we could have wished that, in giving the habitats, the classification 
of them into English, Welsh, Scottish, Irish and Insular had been 
more systematically attended to than it has been. 



Periodicals. — British. 

Loudon's Magazine of Natural History. New Senes. March and 

April 1837. 

I. Zoology^ 

Blyth on the Psychological Distinctions between Man and all 

other Animals, p. 131.*— ^Strickland on the Inexpediency of 

altering established Terms in Natural History, p. 127» ■ ■ West* 

WOOD on Generic Nomenclature, p. 169. Strickland's Rules 

for Zoological Nomenclature, p. 173 Dr Moore on the Birds 

of Devonshire, p. 113 and 176.— —Hoy's Notice of two species of 
Tringa new to the British Islands, with a list of the rarer Birds 
killed in Suffolk, and the adjoining borders of Norfolk and Essex, 

from the autumn of 1835 to December 1836, p. 115 W. L. on 

the breeding of Woodcocks in Selkirkshire, with observations on the 
Habits of the Black and Red Grouse, and Carrion Grow in Soot- 
land, p. 118 i-Blyth on the Habits and Peculiarities of the 

common Bottletit or Mufflin (Parus caudatus of Linnseus,) p. 199. 
G. W. on the supposed different species of Viper, p. 183. ■ 
Observations upon the Salmon in Loch Shin in Sutherland, by Jaxss 

Loch, M. P. p. 20i3. Gray's Description of some singularly 

formed Orthopterous Insects, p. 141.— -Stutchbury on Cypne-. 
cassis, a new genus of univalve shells, p. 214. Cassis rtifaof Bnig- 
uiere is the type of this well-defined genua. On Nematura of 
Benson, a new genus of univalve shells, by G. B. Sowsrby, p. 217* 
Charlesworth on a new Fossil Shell from the Coast of Suf- 
folk, p. 218. RiGHARDSoii*6 Observations upon the Chronol<^i- 



Cmnpanum to Botanical Mn^axine. 87 

cal Arrangement of fossiliferous Deposits, hy a reference to tbeir 
wganic contents, p. 12S. 

II. Botany, 

Letter from Oolding Bird, £sq. in Reply to some observations 
pnblished in the *' Edinburgh Journal of Natural History" upon the 
eause of V^etable Divergence, p. 180. 

The SHORT COMMUNICATIONS relate to-*-( I.) Preservation of Zoo- 
logical Specimens. (2.) Variation in the Plumage of Birds. (3.) The 
Cross-bill. (4.) The Robin. (5.) Sphinx atropos. (6.) Helix virgata. 

Companion to Botanical Magazine. By Sir W. J. Hooksr, Pro- 
fessor of Botany in the l^iversity of Glasgow. (Continued from 
page 578 of Vol. i.) 

Thb number for February last contains an interesting- paper by 
Dr Graham, Professor of Botany an the University of Edinburgh, on 
^* the Gamboge tree of Ceylon." Specimens of the tree have been 
forwarded to Dr Graham and other scientific persons in Scotland, 
together with the pure gamboge, by tbeir invaluable correspondent, 
Mrs Colonel Walkef . The result has been, that the tree of Ceylon 
{woducing the gamboge is different in species and genus from any of 
those which were supposed to produce the drug. The gamboge yield- 
ed by it is equal in quality to that imported from Siam, but regard- 
ing this there seems to exist no authentic record from what plant it 
is produced. Dr Graham has formed a new genus from the Ceylon 
plant, Hebradendron, He refers it to the class and order Moncecia 
(or Dictcia) Monadelphia, and places in it two species ; 1. H. cam- 
bogioides, having for synonyms Garcinea morella, Sialagmitig cam- 
bagwides, Morris, Cat.< — 2. H. eUipticum, Garcinia eUiptica, Wallioh. 
The paper will be found worthy of perusal. 

Notes upon some genera and species of Orohidie in the collection 
formed by M. Drege at the Cape of Good Hope, by J. Lindley, 
Ph. D. F. R. S. &c.-«— *A brief Biographical Sketch of the late 
Richard Cunningham, Colonial Botanist in New South Wales. This 
botanist, whose untimely end we had to record in an early number 
•of this Magaaine, succeeded as Colonial Botanist to the late Mr 
Frazer in 1832, on the recommendation of Mr Brown. H;s career 
has been a short one, and we can now only hope that the discoveries 
he had so successfully commenced will be wrought out by his 
brother, who has been appointed to the vacant office. The next 
paper will be now read with interest — Flora Insularum Nove Ze- 
landice precursor, or a specimen of the botany of the islands of New 



88 Companion to Botanical Magazine. 

Zealand^ ooDcluded by '' those interesting diBooveries which Richard 
Cunningham made during his excursions on the nwthern island in 
the portions of the years 1833-4/' (arranged and edited by Allan Cun- 
ningham .) This paper commences with the discoveries of Sir J. Banks 
and Solander^ during the first voyage of Captain Cook, and brings 
them down through the various voyages of discovery, including 

those of the CoquiUe and Astrolabe, to 1834. The number Jbr 

March begins with a continuation of the last paper, which is 

still further to be continued. On the Sources and Composition 

of Oamboge, with an examination of some analogous concrete juices, 
by R. Christison, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica in the 
University of Edinburgh, a worthy and important supplement to 
Dr Graham's paper in the former number. Dr Christison has ana- 
lysed the varieties of gamboge, including that sent from Ceylon by 
Mrs Walker. The principal ingredients in all are resin and aribin, 
in proportions not varying very greatly, and the conclusions arrived 
at are, that the proportions of the essential ingredients vary in the 
same species where the situation of the tree is different ; that the 
gamboge tree of Ceylon may be made to yield a pigment as fine and 
perfect as that of Siam, while in its medicinal qualities it also pos- 
sesses properties in the fullest perfection ; and it is finally re- 
commended that our Oovernment, and the settlers at Ceylon, should 
use a little enterprise in the culture of this tree.— —Illustrations of 
Indian Botany, principally of the southern parts of the Peninsula, 

by Dr Wright and 6. A. W. Amot, continued. A description of 

Spartina alternifoiia of Loiseleur, a new British species, by Wil- 
liam Arnold Broom field, M. D. concluded in the number for April. 
There seems to be considerable confusion in the synonjrms, and 
also with some species which have been sent from America as the 
true S. stricta. . The banks of the river Itchen, near Southampton, 
seem to be the great locality. ** These Spartina swamps extend along 
each side of the river, beginning just above the village of Itchen, to 
within a few hundred yards of Norham Bridge, beyond which 1 have 

never met with either kind." Account of a botanical excursion 

into Brittany, by Joseph Wood, Esq. F. L. S. Description of 

some new Cistacese, chiefly found by Mr Drummond in the southern- 
most regions of North America, by E. Spach ; not concluded. 



Atmaks des Sciences NaiureOes* 89 

Pbbiodicalb. — Foreign, 
Amuales dee Sciences Naturelies. Zoologie, MM. Audouin et M ilnb- 
Edwards. Botaniquey MM. Ad. Brononiabt et Guillbmin. 
Crochard & Co. Paris^ Septembre 1836. 

I. — Zoology. 

Nates sur Us caractires xoologiques des Pulex penetrans^ par M. 
DueBS. The differences between it and the common flea are too 

slight to be considered of generic importance. Recherches sur 

rAHoiamie du Pentastoma t»nioide8> par M. Mibax .-^^ Observa- 
tions sur les genres Gerboise et Gerbille, par M. F. Cuvibr. 

Observations sur les Aranddes, par A. Duobs Analyse des 

travausf anat. physioLy et zoolog. prisentis d TAcad, des Sconces 
pendant le mots de Septembre 1836 : viz. Retzius sur la structure 
des dents: Bodichon sur une espece du genre Cants: Thompson 
sur le tissu dartoide: Dombbb Firxas sur la pression atmosphS- 
rique: Donnb n«r Us animaUuUs contentts dans Upus: Vanbb- 
NBDBN sur Us caraetires des C^tads, . 
II. — Botany. 

DuBiJBi Iter asturicam botanicum^ anno 1835 susceptnm^ auctore 

J. Oay. Observations sur F ascension de la sdve dans une Liancy et 

description dune nouvelU espece de Cissus^par G. Oaudichand. 

Mnscomm Chilensium species noyas descripsit, W. P. Schimpbr. 

Extraits du Botanical Register pour Vannie 1835 et U mois de 

Jcawierl&^^ AnoticeofDBCANDOLLE'8,Prodromus,VoLy. 

Du riveUet du sommeil detPlantesypar M. Dutrocbbt. " Nova 

genera ac species Plantarum quas in regno Cbilensi^ Peruviano et 
in terra Amazonica, annis 1827 ad 1832, legit Edonard Poeppig et 
cum Stephano £ndlicher descripsit ioonibusque illustravit, volumen 

primom." A short notice. *' Mantissa Musoorum ad Floram Pe- 

demontanam, auct. J. de Notaris." Another short notice. Rhiso- 

botrya, genre de plante nouveau de la Flore dAlUmagne^ par J. C. 

Tadsch. '' Plants IndicK quas in montibns Goimbaturicis cseru- 

leis* Nilagiri s. Neilgherries dictis, coUegit Rev. Bbbn. Schxid. 
Illnstravit Dr Jon. Gar. Zbnkbb. Decas secunda." A series of 
extracts descriptive of the new species described in this work. 

Annalen der Physik und Chemie. Von Pooorndobf. 

Vol. xxxviii. pt. 2. 

On the Structure and Chemical properties of Cartilage and Bone, 

by J. MuLLBR. This paper may be considered as a s^uel to that 

upon the Gamparative Anatomy of the Myxinoidea, of which we gave 



90 Aimalen der PhyM tmd Ckemie. 

an analysis in our fourth number. It chiefly relates to the Chemical 
Structure of Cartilage^ and the yarieties of it which occur in different 
animals. The analysis of the cartilage of Squalus peregrinus by Chey- 
reuil, has been followed up with great accuracy by Purkinje, and 
Deutsch.* The bony cartilage of the higher animals was examined by 
them in the form of microscopic lamella^ the tissue having been previ- 
ously expeUed by means of acid. They then found that this substance 
contains many minute oval bodies dispersed through it, which, ac- 
cording tof Miescher, not only occur in that situation, but also in 
the callus of re-united bones, in bones imperfectly developed, &c. 
The dimensions of these bodies are estimated in English lines, at 
from 0.0048 to 0.0072 in length, by 0.0017 to 0.0030 in breadth. 
These minute bodies generally lie lengthways in the direction of 
the layers of cartilage, and are somewhat more opaque than the 8ur<- 
rounding substances. It is not easy to determine whether they are 
hollow or solid. They seem to admit of great variety in their struoi* 
ture, in different parts, especially those which occur in the cartilage 
of the ribs, in which situation they are often found lying oonfusedly 
together, and contain apparently a sort of kernel. In the cartila- 
ginous fishes, the contents of these bodies are more fluid, and in the 
cartilage of Petromyzon, they vary in different parts, in one place 
presenting the above-mentioned oval form, in another, oells, divided 
by thin cartilaginous partitions, and in a third, an intermediate state 
between these conditions. These bodies frequently also occur in 
the externa], as well as the internal cartilage of certain animals, as 
for instance in the cuirass of the armadillo ; in cartilaginous bones 
they are often wanting. They are not met with in the Ostracion, 
in the tubercular cartilage of the sturgeon, nor in the skeletons o£ 
many cartilaginous fishes. They are identical when they are found 
in the cartilaginous bones of man, of the Mammalia, and of fishes, 
but in the other cartilage of the two former classes, they present 
great variations, which are arranged und^ three distinct heads by 
Miescher. The glutinous matter contained in the different carti- 
lages is divided by the author into two classes, to which he applies 
the terms colla and chondrine, and he also gives the results of va- 
rious analysis of cartilage in different states of ossification^ and taken 
from various parts of the body. The structure and chemical pro- 
perties of the bones of the higher animals is next described, followed 
by a similar detail of those of the cartilaginous fishes. M. Marchand 

* Deutach de penidori ossium structure. Vretisl. 1834. 

f Miescher de ossium genesi, structure, et yit&. Berol. 1886. 



' 



Anndlen der Phytik und Chemie. 91 

lias also extended his researches to the latter class, and finds that 
the ossified cartilage does not contain a materially less quantity of 
lime than the hones of the higher vertebrata. The spine of Squa- 
lus oomabicus, after being exposed to a white heat, till all the 
animal matter was consumed, left in one instance 41.55^ in another 
42.068 per cent, of ashes. The following is the result of his ana- 
lysis. 

Combustible aoimal matter, 57.07 Sulphate of soda, 0.80 

Pho^bateoflime, ... d2.46 Muriate of do, 3.00 

Sulphate of lime, 1.87 Phosphate of magnesia, ... 1.03 

Carbouate of lime, 2.57 Sniceous earth, argillaceous do. 

Floate of lime, -a trace. iron, and loss, 1.20 

100.00 
The Tabercnlar cartilage of a large ray gave 

Combustible animal matter, ... 78.46 per cent.' 

Cttbonateoflirae, 2.67 

Phosphate of do, 14.80 

Sulphate of do, 0.83 

Fluateofdo, a trace. 

Muriate of soda, 2.46 

Sulphate of do, 0.70 

Phosphoric acid, magnesia, and loss, 14 

100.00 

No. 1 1 . Vol. xxxix. contains a brief statement of the results of seve* 
ral experiments upon the electric rays, by M. Matteucci, who thinks 
that the Natural History of these animals is far from being under* 
stood, and is therefore still occupied in its investigation. M. Fran- 
cis Schnlze of Berlin has also communicated a preliminary state- 
ment of his experiments upon equiTocal generation^ and upon the 
metamMphoses of Amylum. 



INTELLIGENCE, 



ZOOLOGICAL. 

Bank Vole, Bell. — Arvicola pratensis, Baillon^ A, riparia, Jenyns. 
It is likely that this species is not very local in its distribution, as I 
have lately detected it in Northumberland. ^ Two specimens, a male 
and female, were taken at the same time in a hang trap baited with 
oat-meal, in the garden at Twizell. Their appearance at once at- 
tracted my attention, as I perceived, even while they remained half 
concealed in the holes of the trap, that their tail was longer than that 
of the common vole, and yet very much shorter than that of the long- 
tailed field-mouse, to which, however, the colour of the back nearly 
approached. Upon comparing them with the descriptions given by 
Yarrell and Jenyns, and Bell of the A. prafensisy I found them to 
agree in every essential particular with that species. In form, the 
bank vole is scarcely so thick and short as its congener, A. agrestis^ 
the muzzle more elongate, and the ears longer, and more distinctly 
seen above the fur. The hairs at the end of the tail, and which ex- 
tend considerably beyond the bony part, are stiff and elastic. The 
crown of the head and upper parts are of a reddish-brown inter- 
mixed with black, the sides were inclined to grey, the under parts 
yellowish-white, the yellow more strongly indicated on the mesial 
line of the abdomen. The length of the head and body 3^ inches, 
of the tail 1| inches. These are the only individuals I have yet seen, 
or at least that have attracted my attention as differing from the com- 
mon vole. It is likely, however, that it will be found upon investi- 
gation a plentiful species. — P. J. S. 

Arvicola praiensis — My friend R. M. Lingwood, Esq. captured a 
specimen of this little animal, in my presence, at his house. High- 
lands, near Uckfield, Sussex, on the 16th of January 1837. This 
adds another county to those of which it is recorded as being a na- 
tive. — C. C. Babinoton. 

Rkea. — Mr Darwin has brought home among his other zoological 
treasures, specimens of a new or second species of Rhea, which ap- 
pears to take the place of the old species in Patagonia. It is distin- 



gnished from the R. Americana in being about one-fifth le89, and in 
the tani being reticulated and feathered below the knee. 

Skatheriitm. — M. Geoftroj St Hilaire and M. De Blainville 
ha7e laid before the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris^ the results 
of their inquiries regarding the nature of this interesting fossil ani- 
mal, discovered in the valley of the Markonda, in the southern dis- 
trict of the Himalaya. The first is of opinion that it is d species of 
antediluvian giraffe, and has proposed the title of Cameleop. primi'' 
genus for it. M. De Blainville, again, although he alJows it to belong 
to the group of the ruminants, considers it far removed from the 
girafies, and enters into a lengthened detail of his reasons for this 
difiTerence of opinion. If his arguments are correct, these remains will 
belong to an animal which cannot be ranked in any of the known 
genera of Mammalia. 

Sumia NyeUa, Dumeril^ — On the 13th of February last a fine 
male snowy owl was shot three miles below Selby-on-the-moor, where 
it had been observed by the miller, at a mill adjoining, for a day 
or two previous. The moor is well stocked with rabbits, and the owl 
was most probably preying upon them : it appeared very shy, and 
when pinioned by the shot was extremely fierce. It was ultimately 
got into a sack and killed by pressure, when it came into the pos- 
sessicm of my friend A. Clapbam^ Esq. of Pottemewton, near Leeds. 
— H. Dbnnt. 

Cepola rubeseem, Linn — Mr P. W. Madagan informs us that he 
has lately procured a specimen of this fish, which was caught ofiT 
DoDure, seven miles south of Ayr, on a whiting line baited with a 
mossel. Its length is 15^ inches. The fisherman who brought it 
had seen another about six weeks ago. — March 20, 1837* 

MI8CBLLANEOU8 INTBLLIGBNCB. 

Botanical Socibtv of Edinbuboh, Nov. 10, 1836. — The first 
meeting of the winter session was held this evening. Professor 
Graham in the chair. The following members were elected:-.* 
Resident, Dr Andrew Douglas Maclagan ; Nan-Residenl, Mr Ro- 
bert Ball, Dublin ; The Rev. George Gordon, Bimie, Elginshire ; 
Mr Edwin Lees, Worcester ; Dr D. C. Macreight, London ; Mr 
M. J. P. Sidney, Morpeth ; Mr W. A. Stables, Park, Nairnshire ; 
Mr W. Thompson, Belfost; Mr H. C. Watson, Thames-Ditton, Sur- 



94 Miscellaneous* 

rej. Mr Edwin Lees of Worcester was appointed Local Secretary 
for Worcestershire. 

Specimens were stated by the Secretary to have been received 
since last meeting from Dr Tyacke^ Mr Shuttleworth, Dr R. C. Alex- 
ander^ Rev. ]^Ir Rutherford, Mr Leighton^ Dr Dewar, Mr Watson, 
Mr Carpenter, Dr Greville^ Mr Cruickshank, Mr Lees, Mr BeU, 
Dr Barry, Mr Spencer Thomson, and Mr Maughan. Donation: 
" Letter by N. B. Ward, Esq., to Sir W. J. Hooker, on the growtb 
of plants without open exposure to air," from the author. 

Mr Carpenter directed the attention of the Society to the advan- 
tages which might result from their endeavouring to form a collec- 
tion of vegetable monstrosities, the study of which is now so essen- 
tial to the philosophic botanist, — since it is from them that the theory 
of structure is principally deduced, and upon them also that we 
may expect to found some definite laws regarding the limits of va- 
riation in each species. He then alluded to some remarks he had 
formerly made, on the nature of parasitic Fungi, with reference to 
Verger's researches, and stated that he considered it still an open 
question in general physiology, whether a plant or animal might 
not, by a morbid process, give origin to one lower in the scale ; and, 
he pointed out the distinction between this view and the old doe- 
trine of equivocal generation. 

Dt Balfour exhibited a Carex which had been sent to him by 
Dr Murray of Aberdeen, found by Messrs Dickie and Templeton 
in August last, on rocks in Glen-Callader, and which on examination 
Sir William Hooker had pronounced to be C. ritpestrU, All. (pe~ 
traea, Wahl.) Dr Graham gave a short summary of what had been 
done since last meeting in the way of botanical discovery, during 
the various excursions of the season ; and particularly mentioned the 
following additional localities for several rare plants. Malaxis pa^ 
Indosa, found by Mr James Dewar ; Acino$ vulgaris, SUene dngUca 
and S. noctiflora, by Dr Dewar, the two latter abundantly; TrifoHnm 
ornithopodioides, by Miss Robertson, — all in the neighbourhood of 
North Queensferry. — Linnaia borealis, by Mr M'Nab and Dr Gha- 
ham, near Dalmahoy Hill. Tulipa sylvesiris, by Dr Graham^ 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh. Oenanthe pimpinelloides and Juncus 
obiunfiorus, by Mr Campbell, near Dunbar. Saxifraga hirculus, 
by Mr Hunter, on the Pentland Hills, near the source of the Med- 
wyn. Veronica BuxbaumU, by Dr Dewar, Mr Roberts, and Mr 
Bell, in various localities near Edinburgh, on both sides of the 
Forth. — Cares fulvay not unfrequent in several stations near Edin- 
burgh. Hieraeium umbellatum, by Dr G. M'Nab, in Glen-Clova. 

a 



MuceUantous, 95 

Ajnga pyramidalisy pointed out by Dr Duguid to Dr M'Nab in 
Orkney. Erodium tnaTritimufn and Jungermannia Mackaii, found 
in Galloway, both new to the Scottish Flora. Polygonum Raii, 
abundantly, and Lamium intermedium were also observed in Gal- 
loway. CkuUvm tnariecus was looked for in vain in Galloway, a 
station assigned for it on the authority of Mr M'Kie, (not M'Kay, 
as mentioned in Hooker's British Flora.) The Sutherland station 
for this plant must, therefore, be regarded as the only well an* 
thmticated one for it now in Scotland. Hieracium aura$Ui4iicum 
waa seen by Mr Brand in Banfishire, apparently quite wild. Dr 
Barry mentioned having this year observed TTUcupi alpeHre near 
the head of Caenlochen, in the Clova mountains, in a different spot 
from that where it was first discovered ; Pinguicukt grandifioroy 
near the top of Mount Mangerton, Killarney ; and Rhynckospora 
fueca, abundant near Oughterarde, Cunnemara. 

Dr Graham then alluded to a recent excursion to Ben-Lawers, in 
company with Sir W. J. Hooker, which, owing to the badness of the 
season, and its effects upon alpine vegetation, had proved a most 
unproductive one. On that occasion, Dr Graham stated that he 
had an importunity of examining the oaks on the banks of Loch- 
Lomond ; and after comparing tliem with specimens from other 
parts of the country, and with the figures of Martyn, in the Flora 
Ruetieay he was satisfied that we have in Britain three distinctybrfif^ 
of oak, whether species or not is a different question. The most 
common is that figured at Tab. 10 of Flora Rustica ;-— the next, 
acaroely less common on Loch-Lomond, is that represented at Tab. 
1 1 1 — and the third, b}' much the least common in the country, though 
by no means unfrequent at the lower end of Glen-Falloch, is ex- 
tremely well represented in Tab. 12. The first is what has been 
called Quercue pedunculata, its acorns being numerous, on a long 
eommoa peduncle. The second nearly resembles this in the habit 
of the tree, but has a fruit either sessile, or on a short, stout, and 
abnipt peduncle. The third differs very much in the habit of the 
tree, its mudi more acutely serrated chesnut-like leaves^ and its ab- 
solutely sessile fruit. There is little difficulty, even at a distance, 
in distinguishing this tree from the two former, by its general ap- 
pearance, and its long slender free growing branches. 

Dec 8th. — Professor Graham in the chair. The following mem- 
bers were elected : — Reeidentj Mr W. F. Lindsay Carnegie, and 
Mr William Heid. Non-Reeidenty Miss Bailey, Dublin; Dr J. 
Coulter, Dublin ; Dr C. P. Croker, Dublin ; Mr Simon Foot, Dub- 
lin ; Mr George Stephens Gough, Dublin ; The Rev. Thomas Dix 



96 Miscellaneous. 

Hincks, LL.D. ; Mr J. T. Mackay^ Dublin ; Mr Ninian Nevin, 
Dublin ; Dr Jonathan Osborne, Dublin ; Captain Portlock, R. £. 
Dublin ; and Dr Robert J. N. Streitin, Worcester. Dr Thomas 
Bell Salter was appointed Local Secretary at Poole, Dorsetshire. 
Specimens were stated by the Secretary to have been received since 
last meeting from Mr W. Thompson, Dr Hincks, Mr Atkin, Dr 
Balfour, Mr A. H. Balfour, Dr MaclagamMi^ Eraser, Mr Reid, Dr 
Hunter, Mr Steuart, The Rev. W. S. Hore, Mr J. Ward, Mr Leefe, 
Mr Campbell, Mr Forbes, Mr Scott, Mr Lloyd, and Mr Macaulay. 
The following office-bearers were elected for the ensuing year :-— 
President — Professor Graham. 
Vice-Presidents — Dr Greville and Dr Balfour. 
Secretary — Mr Campbell. 

Joint Foreign Secretaries — Mr Forbes and Dr Charlton. 
Treasurer — Mr Brand. 
Curator — Mr James M'Nab. 

Councillors. 
Dr Neill, Mr Falconar, Dr Barry, Dr Maclagan, and Dr PoUexfen. 
In consequence of various representations having been made to 
the Society, pointing out the difficulty of specimens being sent froni 
the Continent earlier than January, as well as on account of several 
urgent requests from members for delay in sending in specimens, it 
was agreed that the distribution should in future take place in Ja- 
nuary and February each year, instead of the period mentioned ia 
the prospectus. 

The Secretary read a communication transmitted to him by Mr 
Forbes, '• On a supposed new British Pofygala" observed by him ia 
the Isle of Man and on Dalmahoy Hill, near Edinburgh. Mr For- 
bes describes it as follows :— " Polygala foliis imis (parvulis) obo- 
vato-spathnlatis, reliquis lanceolatis sen lineari-lanoeolatis ; sepolis 
lateralibus ellipticis, obtusis, corolla fimbriata brevioribus, capsuift 
subrotundi demum brevioribus angustioribusqne. 

" Plant depressed, branchy and diffuse ; flowers small, crowded. 
purplish blue or greenish-white ; raceme when in fruit elongated 
and bilateral. From JP. vulgaris it is distinguished by its habit 
the smallness of its flowers, and the comparative sise of the sepals 
and the capsule, — the sepals in the common species being longer 
and broader than the capsule. In general habit and the appearanoe 
of its blossoms, it bears a striking resemblance to P. aipestris; but 
the relations of the sepals to the flowers and fruit separate it from 
that species also." Specimens of the plant accompanied the paper. 
Mr Percy read a short notice of an excursion he had made last 

4 



Miscellaneous. 97 

snmmer by way of Fontainbleau and Lyons to Vaucluse, with par- 
ticular reference to the botany of the districts through which he 
passed; and in the vicinity of the celebrated " Fontaine" and 
" Ch&teau de Petrarque." 

Dr Charlton gave a short account of a tour he had made last au-> 
tumn in Denmark, stating that his present object was chiefly to 
point out the focilities for visiting that country, and the inducement 
it holds out to the botanist. The expense of living and travelling 
he described as being extremely moderate, the language as interpo* 
sing but few difficulties — and the botany, particularly the Flora 
around Christis^nia, as being singularly attractive and interesting, 

Dr Barry incidentally mentioned that the following plants, so in- 
teresting to the British botanist, had been observed by him when 
travelling amongst the Alps : — Sonchus alpintts, by the side of the 
glacier at the source of the Rhone, on the Furca side ; GenHana 
nimlis in the ascent from the 6rindlewal(l to the Faulhorn ; and 
Astragalus alpinus, in- the Valley of Rosen-Laui. Mr Percy had 
also observed Sonchus alpiniis on the Brezon, about twenty miles 
from Geneva, at an elevation of about 3500 feet. 

W. H. Campbell, Sec, 

Botanical Society of London. — April 22, 1837. J- E- Gray, 
Esq. F. R. S., President, in the Chair. — Several presents were an- 
nounced, and Members elected ; after which Mr Chatterley, the 
Secretary, proceeded to read the continuation of his paper, translated 
£rom the French of M. DecandoUe, on the geographical distribution 
of plants used for food. The facts adduced tended to show, that 
cold had little influence in retarding the extension of agriculture, 
and that by artificial cultivation and temperature any one country 
might be made to produce nearly all the plants of the earth. The 
paper contained several important facts, and the original may be 
found in the 5th Number of the Bibliotheque Universelle de Ge- 
neve. The President explained the discovery, by a French bota- 
nist, of cells or little membranous cylinders in the leaves of Ky- 
lanium, which are filled with little spiculse, and gradually ejected. 
— A paper was afterwards read from Mr Thomas Hancock, on La-- 
miuM macuUUum and album, and on the propriety of their being 
considered as distinct species. The author was led to investigate 
the subject, horn having seen many specimens of the former species 
entirely destitute of the longitudinal white patches on the leaves, so 
particularly insisted on by most authors as its most important spe- 
cific character ; as well as from having witnessed severaL with white 
flowers (although Hooker and Lindley say that they are constantly 

VOL. II. NO. 7» G 



98 Miscellaneous. 

purple), and approaching so closely to L. albam as to be scarcely 
difitiDguishable from it. The 'author considers that Reichenbach, 
in his figure and description of what he considered to be the true 
maculatuniy and Dr Hooker^ in his adoption of the same as such, 
had fallen into an error, — and that their plant was doubtless a va- 
riety of Z. purpureum, Mr H. considers the number of the whorls 
not alone sufficient to found a specific character upon ; and after 
detailing a series of charcuiters common to both album and macula- 
turn, and the points of difference between them, with other subjects 
having a connection therewith, concluded by stating, that these two 
plants sliould be considered only as varieties of one species, and he 
would propose the adoption of Dr Lindley's specific name vulgatum. 
The President then adjourned the Society to May 4. 

Mr Hewett Watsons New Botanist's Guide, Vol. ii. — We are re- 
quested by Mr Hewett \Vatson to mention, that the whole impres- 
sion of the second volume of the New Botanist's Guide has been de- 
stroyed by an accidental fire, when just ready for publication ; and 
Mr Watson fears that other engagements will prevent him reprint- 
ing the volume for a considerable period. He is desirous of making 
known this accident, lest his friends, who have so largely contributed 
to the volume, should misunderstand the long delay which must now 
unavoidably occur in publishing their communications. 

Ornithological Society. — A society with the annexed title is about 
to be established in London, and the following has been sent to us 
as the plan which the Provisional Committee of the St James's Or- 
nithological Society recommend the members to adopt. *' Titls. — 
The Ornithological Society of London. Management. A Council 
with the usual Officers. — Honorary Members. Limited to Five. 
£minent Scientific Ornithologists, or Liberal Patrons of the So- 
ciety. Elected by the Council. — Ordinary Members. Elected 
by Ballot. Gentlemen will subscribe, annually. Two Guineas ; 
Ladies, One Guinea. Entrance fee for Gentlemen, Two Guineas ; 
for Ladies, One Guinea. Members of the Si James's Ornithologi- 
cal Society will have the option of being Original Members of the 
Ornithological Society of London, at the annual Subscription of One 
Guinea. — Foreign Members. Elected by Ballot. Eminent Fo- 
reign Ornithologists. — Foreign Correspondents. Elected by 
the Council. Residents abroad, desirous of assisting the Society ; 
exempt from all pecuniary Contributions. — The Objects op thk 
SocifcTV are to be attained by the exhibition of living Birds : the 
propagation and dispersion of the domesticate races : a Museum : 



p 



Miscellaneous. 99 

Library : Periodical Meetings : Ornithological Lectures : the Pub- 
lication of Ornithological Works — Scientific and Practical : Prize 
Shews. Living Specimens. — The Rasorial Oenera^ and their 
Types, will be particularly attended to, as being most beautiful 
and attractive, pre-eminently domestic and practically useful. The 
hardy birds will be gratuitously exhibited in the parks ; those for 
which buildings are required will be seen by the public on payment 
of a small admission fee. Thr D uplicatbs. — Birds and Eggs will 
be distributed among the Members. The Museum. — The speci- 
mens will be accurately named according to the Natural System ; 
and so arranged as to convey to the student, through the eye alone, 
a general and accurate knowledge of the affinities and analogies of 
birds, and to exhibit examples of the different organizations which 
are known to accompany different habits and modes of life. The 
Museum will include stuffed Birds, Bird Skins, Skeletons, and parts 
of Birds, Nests and Eggs ; and will be open, without restriction, 
to Scientific Persons and Artists. Library. — The Library will 
contain, ultimately, every Ornithological Work of merit ; British 
and Foreign Ornithological Periodicals will be taken in, and circu- 
lated among such of the Members as subscribe an additional Half- 
guinea for this advantage. — Periodical Meetings, or Converza- 
tiones, will be held for the exhibition of living and dead Specimens, 
Drawings, Books, Nests, &c. — for reading Ornithological Papers, 
and for oral observations. Lectures. — Competent Ornithologists 
will be invited to deliver Lectures. Publications. — The Society 
will publish, or patronize the publication of, a general Ornithologi- 
cal Work at an accessible price : the proceedings will be published 
concisely and cheaply : and the Society will collect and publish all 
the information they can obtain as to the best modes of rearing 
Foreign Birds adapted for the Park, the Preserve, the Poultry Yard, 
and the Aviary. Prizes. — A Prize of the value of L. 15 or L. 20 
will be given annually for the best Paper on Systematic Ornitholo- 
gy, in elucidation of the power, wisdom, and goodness of God. 
Another of the value of L. 10 for the breeding of Foreign Birds : 
and a third of the value of L.5 for the beet method of keeping alive 
in this country such Foreign Birds as will not breed. Application 
will be made to Government for a Locality for the Society's Mu- 
seum, Library, and Housed Collections : if the application be suc- 
cessful the Museum will be freely open to the Public three days a 
week. The ordinary Funds, arising from Subscriptions and En- 
trance Fees, will in the first instance be applied solely to the con- 
struction of Aviaries, and the purchase, rearing and breeding of 
Birds : and an extraordinary Fund will be raised by the creation of 



100 Miscellaneous. 

100 Shares of L. 25 each, (to be paid, if desired, in two half-yearly 
instalments,) which will be applied exclusively to the purchase of 
Books, Specimens, and Cabinets, to lay a broad and solid founda- 
tion for a worthy Museum and Library. The Property thus acquir- 
ed will b^ vested in the Shareholders ; and will not, unless specially 
conveyed by donation, form part of the general property until the 
funds shall be sufficient to pay off the shareholders. The dupli- 
cates will, at first, be distributed among the shareholders only, and, 
in addition to the ordinary privileges of personal admission to Hous« 
ed Collections, Museum, Library, and Meetings, they will be en- 
titled to give a certain number of free admissions daily to Strangers. 

Tamtts communis. — This is, perhaps, one of the most common 
plants in Somersetshire. On the south west -border, near the Bris- 
tol Channel, it lines almost every hedge for miles around. On com- 
paring its characters with other dioecious plants, I have been sur- 
prised to find its near identity with Dioscorea; so much so, indeed, 
as to make it a point of discussion, whether it and 2). cajanenns 
can, with propriety, be arranged in different genera, or even in dis- 
tinct species. It is also very like 2). hrasiliensis and Z>. saliva; 
and, from the similarity in their fructification, foliation, and farina- 
ceous root, it may well be termed the European yam. The root I 
have found to be very acrid, viscous, and replete with starch ; and 
is with the berries, very largely and successfully employed by the 
country people in chilblains, rheumatism, and as a suppurative ca- 
taplasm. — Tfwmas Hancock. 

Silene maritima. — I have discovered what I believe to be a new 
locality for this plant. In August last, while in Somersetshire, I 
found on the banks of the Bristol Channel, between the towns of 
Watchet and Minehead, an abundance of it in a state of flowering : 
in fact, the whole shore was almost overgrown with it. Although 
a matntime plant, it appeared to predominate in gravelly soils, and 
bearing no definite number of flowers on the panicles; — fully justify- 
ing Dr Hooker's observation, as to its intermediate gradations into 
S. inflata. — Thomas Hancock, 

p€Bonia officinalis. — This plant, regarded as having been intro- 
duced into England, has been found by my friend Mr Rootsey, in 
an excursion which I made with him last year near Bristol, growing 
apparently wild, in a thicket of bushes near that city. — Thomas 
Hancock. 



PRINTED BY JOHN STARK, OLD ASSEMBLY CLOSE, EDIKBUROH. 



MAGAZINE 



OF 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



I. — Notes on the Land and Fresh Water Mollusca of Great Britain, 
with a revised list of Species. By Joshua Aldeb^ Member of 
the Nat. Hist. Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Much as has lately been done in the investigation of the British 
land and fresh water Mollusca^ there is yet wanting a good history of 
cmr native species^ which, like that of Draparnaud in France, or of 
Pfeiffer in Germany, may claim to rank as a national work. Several 
local catalogues have appeared, each adding something to our know- 
ledge of these tribes, and it has been still further increased by two 
TaluaUe monographs, — I allude to the Synopsis of the Testaceous 
Pneumonobranchous Mollusca of Great Britain, by J. G. Jeffreys, 
Esq. in the Linnean Transactions, and the Monograph of the Bri- 
tish species of Cydas and Piaidium in the Cambridge Philosophical 
Society's Transactions, by the Rev. L. Jenyns. Hitherto the only 
general account of the British species that has been published in a 
separate form is the Manual of British Land and Fresh Water Shells 
by Dr Turton. Considering the unpretending and cheap form in 
which this little work appeared, we cannot expect to find in it a 
oomplele history of these tribes ; and it has the still fietrther disad- - 
▼antage of being an account of the shells only, without taking the 
animals into consideration. There are also to be found in it several 
errors in the introduction or omission of species. It is therefore 
mnch to be desired that some of our naturalists would undertake to 
give us a complete and scientific history of our native land and 
fresh water Mollusca on a plan somewhat similar to that of Pfeiffer's 

VOL. II. NO. 8. R 



102 On the Land and Fresh Water Mottusca 

work above alluded to. The increasing taste foe natural history 
now abroad warrants the conclusion that such a publication would 
be favourably received, and the materials ioi it might be readi* 
ly obtained. In the absence of such a work, it has oecorred to 
me that this Magazine may afford a medium for recording a few 
observations, made with the view of ascertaining, as far as the pre- 
sent state of oqr knowledge admits, what are the species of land and 
fresh water MoUusca really indigenous to these islands. I am fu- 
from thinking that I have accomplished this completely ; but I shall 
be satisfied if, by clearing away some difficulties, a ground- work shall 
be laid for others to pursue the investigation with success. It is 
not by the contributions of one but of many that complete informa- 
tion is at length to be obtained. In making this attempt, it has 
been found necessary to discard many species that have hitherto 
swelled our catalogues. Possibly some of these may be British : 
all we can say at present is, that there is not sufficient proof to war- 
rant our considering them as natives. As to those MoUusca whose 
claims to rank as species have been a matter of dispute among na- 
turalists, a few of these will certainly be found in the present list, 
but they have been generally spoken of with hesitation, in order to 
induce persons fietvourably situated for the purpose to make further 
observations upon them. 

It may be necessary to say something concerning the names that 
have been adopted in the following catalogue. So great is the mul- 
tiplication of synonyms in this department of natural history, that 
it has become a difficult matter to decide, in each case, which name 
ought to be adopted. If we look into three of our latest publica- 
tions treating of molluscous animals, those, namely, of Fleming, 
Jeffreysi and Turton, we shall find that, in many instances, the same 
species has a different name in each. Helix lackhamensis of Mon- 
tagu, for instance, is called by Dr Fleming BuUmus lackhamensu, 
by Mr Jeffreys Bulinms Montacuti, and by Dr Turton Bulimus 
m&ntanus* Turbo tridens of Montagu is Ateca tridens of Flemings 
Carychium polUum of Jeffireys, afterti^ards changed in his supple- 
ment to Cionella Goodalli, and Azeca Matoni of Turton. Should 
we wish to trace this species in continental works, we shall find it 
to be the Helix (CocklodomtaJ Goodalli of F^russac, Pupa Mene* 
keana of Pfeiffer, and Pupa GoodalU of Michaud. Thus are we lost 
in a labyrinth of names, from which it is high time that we should 
make an attempt to extricate ourselves. It will be said, and is in- 
deed true, that naturalists (with the exception of a few injudidoaa 
reformers) are pretty well agreed as to the rule by which the choice 
of a name is to be governed,.— namely, priority of publication. This 



of Great Britain. 103 

role is applicable^ with few exceptions^ to all recent cases^ where 
the species described can be properly made out ; but it so happens 
that it cannot conveniently be brought to bear upon names establish* 
ed by long nse. Any attempt to change these for such as^ though 
really prior> have not been generally adopted, has usually proved a 
fiulure> and only tended to increase the confusion it was meant to 
avoid. Extent of U8e> therefore^ must be taken into account in 
judging of established names. I am afraid that on this account we 
shall be obliged to give up some of the names of Montagu which 
English authors have hitherto retained on the ground of priority. 
The '' Testaoea Britannica" was published in 1803^ and the " His- 
toire Naturelle des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatUes de la France" 
in 1806. There was thus a priority of publication in the En- 
glish work over that of France; but notwithstanding this^ the 
authority of Drapamaud has been so th<Hroughly established, that, 
though Montagu's book has now been known on the continent of 
Europe for upwards of twenty years, and his synonyms pointed out 
in the ** Concordance" of Ferussac, yet not one of his names has 
been adopted in preference to those of Drapamaud by a single con- 
tinental author. Would it not be better, therefore, for the sake of 
onifiMrmity of nomendaturoj that British authors should give up a 
poiat which they cannot carry, and agree in adopting the more ge- 
nerally received names of Drapamaud? In conformity with this 
view, the names of a few species of Helix have been altered in the 
following list, from those usually given in British catalogues* 

Another circumstance which has greatly increased the number of 
synonyms is the difficulty of making out the species of some of the 
elder writers, particularly those of LinnsBus, whose descriptions are 
often very short and unsatisfiEU^ory. Much labour has been in vaia 
bestowed in attempting to ascertain many of the land and fresh 
water shells of this naturalist, and diflPerent authors have referred 
them to so many different species, that there are instances in 
which two, three^ and even four species have been alternately call- 
ed by the same Linnaean nam^, according to the peculiar views of 
the authors who described them. Turbo muscorum of LinnsBUS may 
be taken as an example. The shell called Turbo muscorum by 
Montagu, and Pupa muscorum by Fleming, under the belief that it 
is the LinnsBan species, is Pupa umbilicala, Drap. Lamarck, F^ 
mssac, and others, think differently, and give that name to Pupa 
marginata, Drap. Drapamaud himself refers it'to a third species, 
Ferti. o cylindrical Per. which he consequently calls Pupa muscorum. 
Bat Dr Turton gives it as his opinion that Pupa edentuh, Drap. Ib 
the true Turbo muscorum of Linneus. Thus to understand what 



104 On the Land and Fresh Water Mottusca 

Pupa muscorum means in'any catalogue^ it becomes necessary, in 
the first place, to know what authority the writer follows. Some 
species of Helix, Planorbis, and Limneus are in a similar predica- 
ment. It is certainly better in such a case to drop the disputed 
name altogether^ and adopt another about which no doubt exists. 
A great preponderance of authority may, however, sometimes in- 
duce us to retain it. 

Important as uniformity of nomenclature is on all hands acknow- 
ledged to be, it would be no easy matter to establish it. The days 
are past when the authority of one great name was sufficient to carry 
with it the acquiescence of admiring followers. Science is now a 
republic, and were Linnaeus h|mself to rise from the dead, he 
would fail to accomplish such an object. It is worth while consider- 
ing, however, whether a congress of the leading naturalists in each 
department might not, by mutual concessions, be brought to agree 
upon adopting a uniform set of specific names. If this were done a 
great deal would be accomplished towards inducing succeeding 
writers to adopt the same convenient plan. I mention specific 
names only, because it is clear that those of general and higher 
groups, being founded upon our knowledge of nature, must be left 
to be modified as that knowledge increases ; but specific names are 
mere conventional and arbitrary signs ; more or leas valuable, indeed, 
according to their indication of character, yet such as when once 
adopted it is not necessary afterwards to change. The subject is 
well worthy the attention of the natural history section of the 
British Association. I have been led further into the consideration 
of this subject than is altogether necessary for my present purpose ; 
but the evil complained of is a serious one. Were this obstruction 
to our progress once removed, and a set of well digested rules agreed 
upon, we have a guarantee in the increased and increasing fiacili- 
ties of communication now established between naturalists of all 
countries, and the greater accuracy of description now adopted, that 
such a barrier would not again arise to obstruct our path, or deter 
the youthful inquirer from entering upon the fair field of natural 
history. 

It has been attempted, as ^r as practicable, in the following list, 
to give, after the name of the genus, that of the author who first 
instituted it ; but where it has been afterwards restricted, a second 
name is given. Indicating the author who used it in the restricted 
sense in which it is at present taken. In like manner, after the spe- 
cific name is placed that of the author who imposed it, without any 
reference to the genus in which it is now used ; but where the ge- 
neric appellation has been changed, the name of the author first 
applying it in that genus is also added. 



of Great Britain. 106 

MOLLUSCA, Cuv. 
1^ Section. MOLLUSCA CEPHALA, F6r. 
Claes. GASTEROPODA, Cuv- 
Order. Pulxonifeka, Flem. (Les Pulmones^ Cut.) 
f TerrestriaL 
Fam. LiuACiDM, Flem. (Les Limaces^ Cut.) 
Gen. 1. Abion^ F^mssac. 
h Empiricorum^Yt[, 
Limax ater, Linn. 
L. Subrufus, Linn. 
2. Horiensis, F&r. 

Tar. 0. Pfeiffer. Griseus, nnicolor, fitsci^ ntrinque nigrft. 
Limax faaciatus, Nilsson. 

Arion circumscriptns, Johnston, Edtnb. New Phil. Journ. 
I follow the opinion of M. de F^russac in making L. fasciatus. 
Nils, a Tariety of A. hortensis, F6r. The Tariety only, if such it be, 
has yet been noticed in this country, and is common in gardens, 
woods^ &C. 

Gen. 2. Lthax, Linnaeus, F^russac 

1. Cinereus, Linn. — Shell : Limacellus Parma, Turt. 

2. Variegaius, Fer — Shell : Limacellus Tariegatus, Turt. 
Not uncommon in cellars. 

3. Agreeiis, Linn. — Shell : Limacellus obliquus, Turt. 

4. Carinatvs, Leach. — Shell : Limacellus ungulatus, Turt. 

5. Sonerhii, F6r. 

Gen. 3. Testjicbllus, Cuvier. 
1. Haiiotoideus, Drap. 

Tar. T. scutellum, Sowerby. 
In addition to the localities in the neighbourhood of London, Dr 
Torton informs us that this species is found in gardens at Ply- 
mouth and Bideford. There is good reason, therefore, to suppose that 
it is a natiTe species. The case is different with T. Maugii, which 
belongs to a warm climate, and has eTidently been introduced along 
with exotic plants into the nursery where it is now found. 

Fam. HELiGiDiB, Jeff. (Les Escargots, Cut.) 
Gen. 4. Vitbina, Drapamaud. 
1. PeUucida, Mull. Flem. 
V. Mulleri, Jeff, 

Var 1. V. Draparnaldi, Jeff. 
2. V. Diaphana, Jeff. 
Mr Jeffreys haTing kindly &T0ured me with specimens of his V. 



106 On Ihe Land and Fresh Waiter MoUutca 

Draparnaldi, I liave compared them carefully with specimens of He- 
licoHmax Andebardi, F6r. collected on the continent, and have come 
to the conclusion that they are not of that species. I am afraid that 
V. Drapamaldi can only be classed as a variety of V. pellucida, 
(Helicolimax peUucidus, F^r.) Mr Jeffreys now considers his V. 
Diaphana to be also a var. of the same. V. Dillwynii appears to be 
something different, but being founded upon a single dead specimen^ 
it is to be hoped that Mr Jeffreys may be able to obtain additional 
specimens, and in a living state, in order fully to establish it. 

Gen. 5. Succinea, Drapamaud. 

1. Amphibia, Drap. 

2. Gracilis, Alder. 
S. oblonga, Turt. 

It may require a further investigation to decide whether or not 
this be really distinct from the foregoing. I have found them plen* 
tifully within 100 yards of each other, each retaining its characte- 
ristic marks in the colour of the animal and shape of the shell, and 
unmixed with the other sort. Some foreign species of this difficult 
genus, quite as nearly allied as this to S. Amphibia, are neverthe- 
less considered to be distinct* 

3. Oblonga, Drap. 

Besides the locality mentioned by Mr Jeffreys, who was the first 
to introduce this desirable species into the British list, it has been 
found at Bathgate near Glasgow. Specimens obtained from that 
place were sent me'by Mr Kenyon of Preston a few years ago. 

Gen, 6. Helix, Linnaeus, Lamarck. 

1. Pomaiia, Linn. 

2. ArhuHorum, Linn. 

3. Aspersa, Mull. 

4. Nemoralis, Linn. 

5. Hortends, hinn, 

var. H. hibrida. Leach. 

6. Limbata, Drap. 

Found in the neighbourhood of London by Mr G« B. Sowerby, 
from whom I have specimens. 
7* Carthunanay Drap. 

H. pallida, Jeff. 
8. Cartkusianella, Drap. 

H. rufilabris, Jeff. 
The var. a of Mr Jeffreys, which he makes synonymous with H. 
Olivieri, F6r., M. de Ferussac ccmsidered to be erroneously referred 
to that species. Both vary very much in size. 



i 

of Great Britain. 107 

9. O&tw/ttto^ Mull. 

No other locality appears to have been observed for this, since its 
discovery in Hampshire by Dr Lindsay. 

10. GlabtUa, Drap. 

H. rafe6oeDS> Mont. 

11. D€pilaia,F£. 

H. drcinata, F4r. 
This spedea is not uncommon on the banks of the sea near Up- 
per Clapton^ Middleseac, where I observed it in 1633. The speci- 
mens there collected a^^ee perfectly with those of Pfeiffer in F^rus- 
sac's cabinet. It is not hispid in any stage of growth^ but in other 
respects is scarcely to be distinguished from the following, 

12. Concinna, Jeff. 

This may be a variety of H. hispida, as now supposed by Mr Jef- 
freys, but is stronger and with the hairs more deciduous than the 
usual form of that species. It is very generally diffused, common- 
ly taking the place of H. glabella in situations where the latter is 
not found. 

13. Hiipida, MuU. 

14. Sericea, MulL 

It is difficult to say whether or not this is the H. sericea of Mul- 
ler. Having introduced it as such on the faith of the Baron de 
F^russac, I leave it for further investigation. 

15. Granulata, Aid. 
H. hispida, Mont. 

It is needless to repeat here the observations given on this and 
the forgoing species in another place. The present is surely dis- 
tinct. 

16. Fusca, Mont. 
17- Excavaia, Aid. 

18. Lucida, Drap. 

There can be no doubt of this being the H. nitida of MuUer, but 
the name has been so often misapplied, that I feel great reluctance 
to use it. J^ucida, though not altogether free from the same fault, 
is lees liable to be misunderstood. 

19. Radiaiula, Aid. 

var. H. vitrina, F^. Tab. des Moll. 

20. Nitidula, Drap. 

var. H. Helmii, Gilbertson, MS. 
Mr Oilbertson points out some peculiarities in the habits of the 
animal, together with the white colour of the shell, as a reason for 
considering his H. Helmii to be distinct from H. nitidula. Mr 6. 
would do well to publish his observations upon it. 



lOd On the Land and Fresh Water MoUu$ea 

21. AJUaria, MiUer. 

var. H. glabra> Studer ? 
Mr Gilbertson finds what he conBiden to be a variety of this 
species, much larger than the usual size. This variety appears to 
be the H. glabra of Studer (F^russac, Tab. des Moll. No. 215,) 
judging from specimens in M. de F6ru8sac's cabinet. 

22. CeUaiia, MuU. 

Continental specimens of this shell are larger and rather more 
open in the umbilicus than British ones, which induced M. de F6- 
russac to think that they might be distinct. The same remark is ap- 
plicable to H. nitidula, but in both cases, I think, amounting to no- 
thing more than a variety. H. nitens, F6r. Tab. des Moll, is only 
the English variety of this species in a small state. H. nitens of 
Michaud, if we may judge from the figures, is H. nitidula, Drap. 
I suspect his H. nitidula is, like that of Pfeiffer, the var ^. of Drap., 
and H. radiatula of this catalogue. 

23. Pura, Aid. 

var. H. nitidosa, F^r. 
Much confusion has arisen in the attempt to ascertain the H. ni- 
tidosa of F^russac, Tab. des Moll, of which neither figure nor de- 
scription has been published. This arises from his quoting H. niti- 
dula, var a. Drap. as a synonym. There happens to be no var. a ; 
but the var. /3, which, from his reference to the figures, F^russac 
must have meant, is our H. radiatula. His specimens are undoubt- 
edly the hom-ooloured variety of our H. pura. 

24. CrtfsialUna, Mull. 

H. hyalina? F6r. Tab. des Moll. No. 224, appears to be m 
variety of this. 

25. Fulva, Drap. 

var. H. Mortoni, Jeff. 
A difference of opinion exists between English and continental 
naturalists, as to whether this species is the H. Trochulus or H. 
fulva of Muller. This it is impossible now to decide. It is certain, 
however, that the species now under consideration is the H. trochi- 
formis of Montagu, and H. fulva of Draparnaud. Ferussac has cal- 
led another shell H. trochiformis, and as Draparnaud's name is more 
generally adopted, it is better to acquiesce in it. H. Mortoni, Jeff, 
is, I think, only a depressed variety of this. There is a small varie- 
ty, not uncommon, darker coloured, and with very delicate and beau- 
tiful concentric strie on the base, only visible with a high magnifier, 
which I at first considered distinct, but on closer examination, slight 
traces of these striiB are also visible on full-grown and decided sped- 
mens of H. fulva. I have therefore not ventured to separate them. 



of Great Britain. 1 09 

90, Scarburgensis, Aid. 
H. lamellata, Jeff. 

The name of Scarbnrgensis was given to this elegant little species 
hj its disooverer, Mr Bean of Scarborough^ who has done soQmuch 
for this department of zoology that I feel anxious to retain it in com- 
pliment to him. It is to be regretted that Mr Bean had not at 
once published his discoveries, rather than have left them for others 
to record. Mr Jeffreys's name is in other respects a better one, 
and bad so far the priority of publication, that the part of the Lin- 
aaean Transactions which contained his Synopsis appeared 'while 
the first part of the Newcastle Natural History Society's Transac- 
tions was in the press. It may be objected to H. lamellata that F6- 
rassac has a H. lameliosa, to which it approaches rather too closely. 

27. Aculeaia, Mull. 

2a Pulchella, Mull. 

var. H. costata. Mull. 

29. Pygmcea, Drap. 

Nothwithstanding the information communicated by M. D'Or- 
bigny to Mr Jeflreys, I still hold the opinion that this is the true 
H. pygmaea of Drapamaud. Many naturalists have erroneously 
oonsidered it to be the young of H. rupestris. 

30. Rypeslris, Drap. 

H. umbillcata, Mont. 

31. Roiundata, MulL 

32. Striata, Drap. 

H. caperata, Mont. 
I have not seen any British variety of this shell similar to H. 
candidula, Studer. 

33. Variabilis, Drap. 

H. virgata, Mont. 
A very small variety of this, found on the coast of North Devon, 
is probably the H. maritima, Drap. 

34. Pisana, Mull. 

H. dngenda, Mont. 

35. Ericetorum, Linn. 

Gen. ?• Cabocolla, Lamarck. 
I. Lapidda, Linn. Lam. 

Gen, 8. Bulimus, Bruguiere. 

1. Acutusy Mull. Brug. 

2. MontanusyDrA^. 

3. 06je«r«#, Mull. Drap. 



110 On Ihe Lafd and Fmh Water MoJbuca 

Bulimus Clavulus^ Turt. cannot be oonudered a native species- 
It appears^ however, to have spread beyond the limits of Mr Miller's 
nursery at Bristol, as Mr Williamson of the Manchester musenm, 
showed me specimens obtained from a garden in that neighboorhood. 
B. DecoUatos, Drap. is similarly sitoated, and has even less daam 
to be considered as British. Dr Tnrton introduces B. articulatos. 
Lam., and B. ventrioosus, Drap. into his Manual, and informs us that 
the^ were sent to him '' from the plains about Penzance, in Corn- 
wall ;" but by whom found or transmitted to him we are not inform- 
ed. B. articulatusi Lam. is« according to M. de Ftoissac, a varie- 
ty of B. acutus ; and if he was right, which there is no reason to 
doubt, in the specimens he gave me under that name, it is certainly 
an inhabitant of this country, but not a species. Dr Turton's shell, 
however, now in the cabinet of William Clark, Esq. of Bath, is of 
another and very distinct species, not known, I believe, to inhabit 
Europe. Some more satisfiEu^ry information must, therefore, be'ob- 
tained before admitting this, or the B. ventricosus, into the British 
list. Bulimus tuberculatus, Turt. appears to have been introduced 
by some mistake of Captain Blomer, who> I am afiraid, was n«t suffi- 
ciently careful in keeping his English and Foreign specimens sepa- 
rate from each other. 

Gen. 9. Achatina, Lamarck. 

1. Adcula, Mull, Lam. 

2. Lubrica, MuU. Mich. 

Most modern authors (F^russac, Michaud, Mencke, Jeffreys, 
and Bouillet,) agree in detaching this species from Bulimus. Its 
close affinity to Achatina foliculus, Lam. points out its place in this 
genus, but it forms a link between the two. Perhaps Mr Jeffireys's 
genus Cionella ought to be adopted for this section of Achatina. 

A. Octona has no real claim to be considered as British. 

Gen, 10. AzscA, Leach. 
1. GoodaUi, F^r. Aid. 

Gen. 11. Cladsilia, Drapamaud. 

1. Bidens, Mull. Drap. 

Turbo laminatus, Mont. 
The specific name of Bidens has become rather ambiguous on ac- 
count of having been applied by Linnaeus and MuUer, to two dis- 
tinct species. The weight of authorities, however, is so much in fisi- 
vour of retaining it for this species, that I hesitate not to do so. 

2. Veniricosa, Drap. 

T. biplicatus, Mont. 



of GrecU Britain. Ill 

FiruBuc origiiially referred T. biplicatus^ Mont, to C. Yentrioosa, 
Drap., bat he afterwards adopted the opinion that thejr were distinct. 
The British shell is more slender and spindle-shaped than the 
eoatinental one, but the difference scarcely amounts to any thing 
more than a variety. 

3. JRolphU, Leach. 

Distinct firom C plicatula, Drap., to which it has been refer- 
red. 

4. Dubia, Drap. 

Foond in several places in the north of England. 

5. Rugota, Drap. 

var* G. parvula, Turt. 

The C. parvula of Dr Leach, (specimens in the British Museum,) 
of Mr Jeffireys, and of Dr Turton, all belong, I think, to the same 
variety of C. rugosa, and not to G. parvula of Studer. 

Turbo labiatus, Mont. (Clausilia solida, Drap.) has long stood in 
oor British catalogues. . It is stated to have been found in the neigh- 
bourhood of London about fifty years ago. The localities named 
are Hyde Park and Battersea Fields, but it is not now to be found 
in either of those places, and as the shells of this genus resemble 
each|other very doeely, it is probable that there may be some mistake 
in the species noticed. G. ventricosa is not uncommon at the roots of 
willows in Battersea Fields. The only specimens of G. solida, Drap. 
now in collections of British shells, appear to have come from the 
cabinet of Mr Humphreys, but the evidence of their native origin is 
not very satisfactory. G. papiUaris, Drap. (C. bidens, Turt.) has 
also obtained a place among our native species. On this subject Mr 
Forbes has fnvoured me with the following very satisfuctory informa- 
tion. He says, '* I have lately obtained a manuscript copy of Las- 
key's North British Testacea, written by himself, which fully ex- 
plains the history of the Brkish Glausilia papillaris. He states that 
it was found by him in Granton Park, near Edinburgh, and that it 
was imported from abroad in moss round the roots of some exotics.*' 

Turbo (Glausilia) Everetti, Miller, is a variety of G. rugosa. 

Gen. 12. Balea, Gray. 
1. FragUis, Drap. Gray. 

Gen. 13. Popa, Draparnaud. 

1. UmbiUcaia, Drap. 

2. Marginata, Drap. 

3. AngUca, F6r., Aid. 

4. Secale, Drap. 



112 On the Land and Fresh Water Mollwtca 

Gen. 14. Vjbbtioo, Mailer. 

1. Edentula, Drap. Pf. 

V. nitida, Fer. 

2. CyUndrka, F6r. 

Papa masooram^ Drap. 
Since Mr Jeffreys's discovery of this beaatifdl litde species <» 
Durdham Downs^ Mr Forbes has met with it near Edinbargh, and 
has also had it sent him from the west of Scotland. 

3. Pygmaa, Drap. 

4. Alpestris, (F6r.) Aid. 

Found at Clitheroi Lancashire, by Mr Gilbertson ; and in Nor- 
thumberland by Mr J. Thompson. 

5. Suhstriata, Jeff. 

Pupa sexdentata. Aid., Tart. 

6. PaluetrUt Leach. 

Pupa antivertigo, Drap. 

7. PusiUa, MuUer. 

8. Angustiar, Jeff. 

The difference between this species and the preceding appears 
to be more in the number of teeth than the contonr of the shell, 
and if the former is permanent, it is nndoubtedly the better charao* 
ter of the two. 

Fatn. Cabtchiada, Jeff. 
Gen. 15. Cabtchium, Mailer. 
1. Minimum, Mall. 

Gen. l6. Acme, Hartmann. 
1. Lineata, Drap., Hart. 

Fam. CrcLOBTOMiDjs. (Cydostomacea, Mencke.) 
Gen. 17. Ctclostoma, Lamarck. 
1. Elegant, Mull., Lam. 

C. Productum, Turt. is a foreign shell picked up in Ireland. 
C. subcylindricum, Flem. is a marine species (Truncatella Mon- 
tagui, Lowe, Zool. Joum.) C. trnncatam, Jeff. I take to be the 
same in a different stage of growth. 

tt Fluviatile. 

Fam. LiMNEADA, Jeff. (Les Limn^ens, F^r.) 

Gen, 18. Planorbis, Muller. 

1. Comeus, Linn., Drap. 

2. Marginatus, Drap. 

var. PI. rhombsens, Turt. 



of Great Britain. 115 

A TBriety of this shell, found near Edinburgh^ is entirely without 
keel. PI. turgidus, Jeff, is also a variety of this. 

3. Carinaius, Mull. 

4. Disciformis, Jeff. 

I am not very sure, even after the examination of Mr Jeffreys's 
specimens, that I perfectly understand the distinction between this 
and the preceding species. The degree of carination is so very va- 
riable in different individuals of the same species, that it is rather 
Aillacious as a distinguishing character. Further observations on 
this species are desirable. 

5« Vortex, Mull. 

6. Sjnrorhu, MulL 

7. LastM, Aid. 

Besides the localities in Northumberland mentioned in the New- 
castle Natural History Society's Transactions, this species has been 
found in Ireland by W. Thompson, Esq. of Belfast, and there are 
specimens (unnamed,) in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes at 
Paris from Granville ; so that, though it has remained so long 
unnoticed, its range is considerable. 

8. Deformis, Lam. 

PI. Spirorbis, Drap. 

PL Draparnaldi, Shep. Jeff. 

PI. complanatus, Turt. 
First introduced into our Fauna by the Rev. R« Sheppard, who 
found it in Soffolk. A specimen in my cabinet, from the reject- 
ments of the sea near London, was submitted to the inspection of 
Dr Turton, who pronounced it to be of this species, and only the 
third he had seen, the two others being in his own cabinet. These 
latter I do not recollect to have seen in the possession of Mr Clark. 
Concerning my own specimen, there is considerable doubt whether 
it be in fact anything more than a variety of PL albus. It is a dead 
and unbleached shell, with a slight marginal keel, but exhibiting faint 
traces of spiral striae under a magnifier. Mr Jeffreys has two spe- 
cimens, also dead shells, which he refers to this species. They are 
from the rejectments of the river Taaf, near Cardiff. PL compla- 
natus of Turton's Manual appears to be this species, though he 
makes no reference either to Draparnaud or Lamarck. It is rare in 
the collections of French naturalists. Pfeiffer makes PL deformis. 
Lam. a variety of PL albus ; but Ferussac considered it distinct, and 
called it PL acronicus. It is desirable that it should be observed in 
a living state. 

9. Albus, Mull. 

Var. PL glaber, Jeff. 
An examination of Mr Jeffreys's specimens of PL glaber confirms 



1 14 On the Land and FreA Water MoUtuca 

me in the opinion that it is a variety of this species. In some spe- 
cimens of PL albus, the spiral striae are scarcely discernible^ even 
in a living state, and become qnite obliterated in dead shells. 

10. Coniortus, Linn. Mull. 

11. Lineatus, Walker, Jeff. 

P. clausulatus, Fer. 

S^mentina lineata, Flem. 
The tripartite partitions in this shell, though remarkable, are 
scarcely sufficient to raise it to the rank of a genus. The animal is 
exactly that of a Planorbis. 

12. Nitidus, MuU. 

PI. complanatus, Drap. 
As the PL nitidus of Muller evidently includes both this and the 
last species, authors differ much in opinion as to which of them 
should bear the name. To avoid the confusion that has hence arisen, 
it would be better to drop it entirely, and take for this species the 
name of lenticularis, which is given to it by some continental an* 
thors, and is very characteristic. 

13. Imbricatus, Mull. 

Var. PL cristatus. 

Gen. 19. Phyba, Drapamand. 

1. Foniinalis, Linn. Drap. 

2. Htfpnontm, Linn. Drap. 

The difference between the animals of this and the former species 
perhaps justifies Dr Fleming in establishing the genus Apleza for 
the present. A better knowledge of the other animals of this genua 
would enable us to separate them with more oon6dence. 

Three other species of Physa have been described as British. 
Two of these. Bulla (Physa) rivalis, Maton, and B. fluviatilis, Turt. 
Mr Jeffreys supposes, with some probability, to be varieties of P. 
fontinalis. There is every reason to believe that Physa alba, Turt. 
is a foreign species. 

Gen. 20. Limnkus, Drapamaud. 

1. Siagnalis, Linn. Drap. 

Var. H. fragilis, Linn. ? Mont. 
Young, L. Scaturiginum, Turt. 

2. Paiustris, Linn. Drap. 

This is a very variable ^>ecies, and has been divided into three 
or four by continental authors, upon the propriety of which division 
it is not easy to decide. There is a reputed variety inhabiting this 
country (var. 0. Jeff.) which seems to have some daim to the rank 
of a qpecies. It is found on the nuurgins of rivers in different parts 



of Great Britain. 115 

of England^ frequently within tide^-way. It never grows to half the 
osaal nse of the spedea fonnd in ponda^ and is intermediate between 
that and the following. 

S. MiniUuSt Drap. 

A variety of this^ mnch smaller in size^ is also found on the mar- 
gins of rivers. It is the var. y. of Drapamaud, oonoeming which 
he saysx '' J'ignore si ce n'est pas une espdce distincte." The small 
variety is also found in mountain streams. A careful examination 
of thia genus may enable malaoologists to discover more definite cha- 
racters to distinguish this species than those already employed. 

4. Elongatus, Drap. 

5. Pereger, Drap. 

Var. 1. L. ovatus, Drap. 
2. L. lineatus. Bean, 
a Helix lutea, Mont. 
4. Gulnaria lacustris. Leach. 

6. Acutusy Jeff. 

This species is intermediate between L. pereger and L. auricu- 
larins^ and^ if not distinct^ niay, Mr Jeffreys observes, lead us to 
unite them all into one. It comes very near L. lineatus. Bean* 

7* Juricularius, Linn., Drap. 

8. InvolulMSf Thompson, MS. 

Mr Thompson of Belfast announced the discovery of this beauti- 
ful new species to the Linnnan Society in 1834, and we shall no 
doobt be gratified with a description of it in his promised catalogue 
of Irish land and fresh water Molluscs. It would be interesting to 
know if the animal corresponds with that of L. glutinosus, as thia 
cifcomstance, taken in conjunction with the shape of the shell, would 
go €» to establish Nilsson's genus Amphipeplea. 

9. GltUinoMut^ Mull., Drap. 

Amphipeplea glutinosa. Nils. 

Concerning L. detritus, which has so long appeared on^our lists, 
I can add nothing to what has already been said by Dr Turton and 
Mr Jeffreys. Since the former gentleman withdrew his statement 
of having found this species in Ireland, Mr Bryer remains our only 
authority for considering it as British ; but whatever the original 
sheU found by Mr Bryer may have been, the specimens now in Eng- 
lish cabinets appear all to belong to the genus Bulimus, and are 
most likely foreign. Captain Blomer sent me a foreign Paludina 
for this shell a few years ago. 

The genus Auricula has not been included in this catalogue, 
though one of the species, A. denticulata, may be considered to be 
\ fluviatile than marine. I found this species last summer on 



116 On the Land and Fre$k WaUr MoUtuca 

the maddy margin of the river Wje, four miles from its jonetioB 
with the Severn, generally out of the water, but within tide-way. 
Its habits are somewhat similar to those of some species of Limneus ; 
indeed, a little further up the same river, nearly opposite Tintem, 
its place is taken by the small variety of L. palustris before-men- 
tioned as common in such situations. 

Fam. Ancylida, (Ancylea, Mencke.) 

Gen. 21. Anctlus, Oeoffroy. 
L FluviaiilU, Mua. 
2. Lacuetris, Mull. 

Ord. Pectinibranchia. (Pectinibranches^ Cuv.) 

Fam. TuRBiNiDJE. (Les Sabots, Cuv.) 

Gen. 22. Paludima, Lamarck. 

1. Fivipara, Linn., Lam. 

2. Achatina, Drap., Lam. 

3. ImpurOj Drap., Lam. 

4. Similis, Drap. 

5. Anatina, Drap. Mich. 

This species has been found in Greenwich marshes by J. E. Gnj, 
Esq. to whom I am indebted for specimens. Though living so far 
inland, it appears to belong to a littoreal genus, rather than to Pa- 
ludina, from which it differs in having a spirally grooved operculum. 

Cyclostoma acutum, Drap. (Paludina muriatica. Lam.*) is now 
well known to be a marine species, allied to Turbo Ulvae of English 
writers, and abundant on many of our sandy coasts. P. Viridis of 
Turton's Manual I take to be the young of P. similis, judging from 
specimens in Mr Clark*s cabinet. His P. stagnorum is probably a 
more slender variety of the same ; but in the absence of specimens 
it is impossible to decide. Dr Turton does not give any localities 
for either of these species. 

Gen. 23. Asbiminea, Leach. 
1. Gray ana, Leach. 

Allied to the littoreal tribes. 

Gen. 24. Valyata, Muller. 
1. PiscinaUs, Mull., Lam. 

Var. V. depressa, Pfeiffer. 

• Lamarck refers his P. muriadca to C. anatinum, Drap., but I follow F6n»- 
aac in condderiiig it to be the C. acutum. Michaud places these two in a se- 
parate division of the genus, which he calls '< Esp^ces des eauz saumAtrca.** 



of Great Britain. 117 

Specsiinens of V. depressa, Pf. were sent me irom Lancashire some 
jears ago by Mr Kenyon. They are exactly similar to those in 
F6mssac's cabinet^ received from Pfeiffer himself ; bnt it can scarce* 
ly be considered more than a variety of V. piscinalis. 

2. Cristaia, Mull. 
V. spirorbis^ Drap. 

Dr Turton has introduced two other species, V. planorbis. Drap. 
and V. minuta, Drap. into his Manual, but no specimens of them 
are now to be found in his cabinet. I took some pains to investigate 
these two species when in Paris. On examining three of the prin- 
cipal collections there, those of the Jardin des Plantes, the Baron de 
Ferusaac, and the Prince Rivoli, in the latter only I found any- 
thing under the name of V. planorbis. The specimens were V. 
cristata, MuU. M. de Ferussac had specimens under the name of 
V. minuta from two different individuals. Those from Pfeiffer are, 
I think, the young of V. cristata ; and the others (I forget from 
whom, but with the name of Draparnaud,) the young of V. piscina- 
lis. Mr MiUer introduced V. minuta into his Catalc^e of the Land 
and Fresh water Shells of the environs of Bristol, but no specimen 
of it is preserved in the Bristol Museum. Dr Turton says that his 
V. minuta is the Helix serpuloides of Montagu. This is well known 
to be a marine sheU, referable to the genus Skenea of Fleming. Mr 
Thompson of Belfsist has, however, favoured me with the examina- 
tion of a shell, which may possibly turn oat to be the V. minuta, 
Drap., though I suspect it to be marine. 

Fam, Neritida, Turt. (Les Ncrites, Cuv.) 
Gen, 25. Neritina, Lamarck. 
1. FlMviatilis, Lin. Lam. 

2dSeciion. MOLLUSCA. ACEPH ALA, Fer. (Le8Ac6phales,Cuv.) 

Cfow.— CONCHIFEJaA, Lam. (Ac^phales testaces, Cuv.) 

Or(L — Lamellibranchia. (Lamellibranches, Cuv.) 

Fatn. — Mytilid^. (Les Mytilaces, F6r.) 

Gen. 26. Daeissbna, Vanbeneden* 

L Polymorpha, Pallas, Vanb. 

This species, being found in three localities in England, and one 
in Scotland, seems now to have regularly established itself in our 
island. 

Fam, Naiads. (Les Nayades, Fer.) 
Gen, 27. Anodon, Oken. (Anodonta, Lam.) 
!• Cygnoeus, Lin. Lam. 

VOL. II. NO. 8. I 



118 On the Land and Fresh Water Mollusca of Great Britain. 

2. Cellensis, Pf. 

3. Intermedius, Lam. 

4. Anatinus, Lam. 

5. Ventricosus, Pf. 

Gen. 28. Unio, Bruguiere. 
1. Margaritiferus, Lin. Nib. 
9. Tumidus, Nils. 

Mysca solida, Turt. 
ovata, Turt. 

3. Pictorum, Linn. Lam. 

4. Rosiratus, Lam. 

5. Batavus, Lam. 

The foregoing is given as the nearest approximation to a correct 
list of the British species of Anodon and Unio (according to the 
views of Pfeiffer) which the present state of our knowledge will 
allow ; but so various are the opinions of authors on these iifficult 
genera, and so little have the British species been investigated, that 
we are much in need of further information on the subject. 

Fam. Ctclad^, Flem. (Les Cyclades, F6r.} 
Gen, 29. Cyclas, Bruguiere. 

1. Rivicola, Leach. 

2. Cornea, Linn., Lam. 

3. Calyculata, Drap. 

Var. C. lacustris, Turt. Aid. 
The Cyclas lacustris of Drapamaud is certainly unknown to Bri- 
tish naturalists ; but as the species is described by most of the con* 
tinental authors, we might naturally conclude that they were well 
acquainted with it. The contrary, however, appears to be the fact. 
M. de F^russac, who, from his extensive correspondence, might 
have been expected to possess the best information on the subject, 
gave me a variety of C. cornea (frequently found in this country) as 
the supposed C lacustris, Drap. This, though slightly rhomboidal 
in outline, does not agree very well with Draparnaud's description, 
Mr Clark has a shell obtained in Devonshire which comes nearer to 
it. It is to be hoped that this gentleman will shortly lay before 
the public the store of very valuable information on British MoU 
luscous animals of which he \i possessed. 

Gen, 30. Pisidium, Pfeiffer. 
1. OhiusaU,VU Jen. 



On the Botany ofErris. 1 1 9 

2. PiuiUum, Turt. ? Jen. 

3. Nitidum, Jen. 

4. Pulchellum, Jen. 

5. Henslomanum, Shep. Jen. 

6. Cinereum, Aid. 

7- Amnicum, Mull.^ Jen. 

The excellent monograph of the Rev. L. Jenyns has been impli- 
citly followed in this family, with the single exception of the intro- 
duction of an additional species of Pisidium, described in the second 
Tolome of the Newcastle Natural History Society's Transactions. 



II- — On the Boianif of Erris, Couniy Mayo, and a notice of several 
addilums to the Flora Hibernica, By Charlks C. Babinoton, 
M. A., P. L, S., &c. 

As the western part of Ireland is not well known to English 
naturalists, a short account of my botanical observations^ made dur- 
ing a tour in the counties of Mayo and Galway^ but more particu- 
larly the former^ may perhaps be acceptable. Had this district been 
even moderately known, I should not have presumed to introduce 
so Ycrj imperfect a sketch of its native flora, but when I find that it 
is scarcely noticed in Mr Mackay's Flora Hibernica, I cannot avoid 
thinking that even these cursory observations may be interesting to 
British botanists. 

It was about the middle of the month of July 1836 when I arriv- 
ed at Westport, a small town at the head of Clew Bay, county of 
Mayo, and determined upon visiting the wild district of Erris. But, 
during a morning walk, previously to starting for that country, I 
noticed the following plants, most of them, indeed, very common, 
yet ccmsidered worthy of notice, as showing one of the most wester- 
ly points of their range. It may perhaps be as well to add, that 
this is the nearest land to America, although this is not the most 
westerly part of Ireland. 

On the cultivated land the foUowing plants occurred : Scrophu- 
laria nodosa, Sonchus oleraceus, S. asper, Circsa lutetiana, Veronica 
agrestis, V. polita. 

In a bog upon the north side of the harbour, and which is pro- 
bably sometimes overflowed by the tide : Plantago maritima, Tri- 
glochin maritimum, Linum catharticum, Glaux maritima, Spergula 
nodosa, Samolus valerandi, Rumex hydrolapathum, Anagallis te- 
nella, Carduus pratensis, Ranunculus hederaceus, Hypericum hu- 
mifusum, Phalaris arundinacea. 

I also noticed, in the same bog, a species of Rumex difiering very 



120 On the Botany of Erris. 

UMterially from R. crispus, and which I referred, upon the spot, to 
R. pratensis. It was unfortunately in too young a state for me to 
obtain any ripe fruit, and my iriend, Mr Borrer, was therefore un« 
able to determine it with certainty from my specimens. It is much 
to be wished that some botanist, who may visit that county in the 
autumn, would pay attention to it. I shall point out several other 
stations for it before concluding this paper. 

At a distance of forty-three Irish miles from Westport, and at 
the upper end of Black Sod Bay, is situated the little town of Bell- 
mullet. This place is the capital and only town in the barony of 
Erris. For the greater part of that distance, the road to Bellmullet 
passes over uncultivated and almost uninhabited bogs and mountains. 

At Lough Clunon, a few miles from Westport, I gathered Car* 
duus pratensis, which is common throughout the counties of Mayo 
and Galway, and also the following plants : Eriophorum angustifo* 
lium. Erica tetralix, E. cinerea, Potentilla comarum, Myrica gale. 
Lobelia dortmanna, Habenaria chlorantha, Hieracium paludosum, 
Hypericum pulchrum, Polypodium vulgare, Blechnum boreale. 

A few miles farther on by the side of Lough Beltra, a beautiful 
lake surrounded by mountains, I noticed Polygonum persicaria, 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Raphanus raphanistrum, Pedicn- 
laris palustris, and upon the ledges of some fine rocks near to the 
police station, I found the reflexed form of Aspidium dilatatum, 
which is mentioned in Sir W. Hooker's Brit. Flora, p. 461, (note ;) 
and also a very curious variety of Asp. filiz-foBmina, having its pin* 
nules very broad and deeply inciso-serrate, the teeth sharp, and 
sometimes again serrated. A very few specimens occurred, but they 
were full of fruit. 

We stopped for the night at a farmer's cabin, close to the foot of 
the lofty mountain called Nephin, and having a few hours of day* 
light remaining, I ascended to nearly its highest point. It consists 
of a lofty ridge, sloping down gradually at both ends, but very steep 
upon its sides. The summit is bare, and I only noticed the follow^ 
ing plants : Solidago virgaurea /8. cambrica, Saxifraga umbrosa, 
Vaccinium vitis-id»a, Empetrum nigrum, Melampyrum sylvaticum. 

In the bogs at its foot were the following : Rhynchospora alba. 
Drosera anglica, D. rotundifolia, Schoenus nigricans, Gnaphalium 
sylvaticum, jS. rectum, Peplis portula. 

A small quantity of natural wood occurs upon the lower slope of 
the mountain, and by the side of a neighbouring river. It consists 
of Ilex aquifolium, Pyrus aucuparia, Quercus robur, Alnus glutino- 
sa, Betula alba, and Corylus avellana. They must be considered as 



On the Botany ofErris. 121 

little more tiian boshes, few of them forming trees. In this wood 
I noticed Carex extensa and Valeriana officinalis. 

The road from Nephin towards Ems now passes, for many miles, 
OFer an extensive bog, bounded, both towards the north-east and 
fionth-west, by lofty mountains. The latter range is of extraordi- 
nary beauty ; it includes the lofty and rugged summits of Nephin- 
fa^ and Gnrshleve. These mountains would, no doubt, well repay 
the botanist, but they are nearly inaccessible from the total want of 
aooommodation, even of the poorest kind, within many miles of their 
base. Their unfrequented recesses are still inhabited by a few red- 
deer. 

A la^e portion of these bogs might be brought into cultivation 
at a comparatively small expence. They are seldom perfectly flat, 
and in many parts their slope is considerable. The subsoil is often 
of a sandy nature, being apparently formed of the decomposed mica 
alate and quartz rock from the neighbouring mountains. There is 
frequently good natural pasture upon the banks of the rivers. This is 
probably occasioned by the annual supply of sand brought down by 
the winter torrents. 

After passing this dreary country, we enter Erris by crossing the 
kige river Owenmore. The road follows its course for some miles, 
descending a fine valley denominated Glan Co. This valley is sel- 
dom more than a mile in width, usually much less, and, in almost 
all paTts> might easily be brought into cultivation. It is bounded 
by hills, which are steep but of moderate elevation, and, but for its 
total want of trees, would be one of the most beautiful spots in the 
kingdom. I here noticed Habenaria chlorantha, Potentilla coma- 
nun, M yoeotis repens, M. csspitosa, Caxex ovalis, Hypericum quad- 
nmgalom. 

At the further end of Glan Co is the small village of Bangor. 
This is a poor place, consisting of a few cabins, and two or three 
BM»derate houses. The remaining ten miles to BellmuUet is per- 
haps the most interesting part of the whole road from Westport, be- 
ing much varied with bog and mountain, passing near the large sheet 
of water. Lough Oarrowmore, through a narrow pass, denominated 
Glan Castle, and commanding a succession of grand and extensive 
views of the Erris mountains, the Isle of Achill and the broad ex- 
panse of the Atlantic. The entrance to Glan Castle is so narrow 
as only to admit the road which is cut out of the rock, and a small 
river to pass between the steep declivities by which it is bounded. 
Just at its entrance there is a fine basaltic dike, which stands out 
from the hill side like a stone- wall. In this pass I noticed Hype- 
ricum androeaemum, Scirpus Savii, Aspidium dilatatum, and its con- 



122 On the Botany ofErris. 

cave variety mentioned before ; also Asp. filix-foemina with fronds 
of more than five feet in length. I may mention that I captured 
here a single specimen of Carabus clathratus. 

The valley of Glan Castle gradually widens into an open undula- 
ting country, which extends on all sides as far as the ocean. From 
the top of a slight eminence^ a most extensive view is obtained, in- 
cluding Broad Haven, Black Sod-Bay, the whole extent of the Mul- 
let, and the distant summits of the mountainous island of Achill. 

Black Sod Bay and Broad Haven are separated by a very narrow 
neck of land ; in one place it is not more than 100 yards from sea to 
sea. The little town of BellmuUet is built upon this neck of land^ 
so that its main street extends to the high- water-mark of both those 
deep inlets. It has not been many years in existence, and is now in 
a flourishing state. 

The northern part of the Mullet is an extensive boggy moor, on 
which I gathered Drosera rotuudifolia, Schoenus nigricans, Helos- 
ciadium nodiflorum, Myosotis repens, (Enanthe crocata, Osmonda 
regalis. 

On a few patches of cultivation Garduus pratensis and Senecio 
visoosus abound, and in flax-fields, Camelina sativa is frequent. 

On the western shore I noticed Scirpus Savii, Arenaria peploides, 
Glaux maritima, Plantago coronopus in a very diminutive state, 
Spergula nodosa, Anthyllis vulneraria. Orchis latifolia, O. macula- 
ta, and Papaver dubium. At the distance of about a mile south of 
Bin^hamstown, in a lane leading from Drumrhe to Crosslake, I 
found Callitriche pedunculata in plenty, and, at a short distance to 
the north of the same place, Lathyrus pratensis and Vicia cracca are 
common in the pastures. I here noticed the Rumex mentioned be- 
fore as closely resembling R. pratensis. I may add that it also oc- 
curs upon the waste ground below Sir R. O'Donnel's house at New- 
port, county Mayo. 

The southern part of the Mullet is being gradually overwhelmed 
by drifting sand8> and the extreme point consists of a hill of granite. 
In this sandy district AchiUsea millefolium puts on a peculiar ap- 
pearance, becoming quite dwarfy, and extremely woolly. Prom the 
top of the granite there is a splendid view of the Isle of Achill, the 
lofty mountains of Erris, and the Atlantic ocean. 

After returning to Westport, I again visited Cunnamara. I need 
say little of that interesting district, having elsewhere given a de- 
tailed account of it. * I visited several parts of that country on the 
present occasion, which I had been unable to inspect during my 

* In Vol. ix. page 119, of Loudon's Mag. of Natural History. 

3 



On the Botany ofErris, 123 

prerious tour^ and was still more impressed with the peculiar gran- 
deur of its mountain scenery. I certainly do not know of any spot 
in the British Islands which will so well repay a visit. 

In Cunnamara I made numerous inquiries concerning the bog 
timber, and was informed that two very distinct kinds of deal are 
found in great plenty. One of them has a twisted stem, burns with 
a dear flame and fine scent ; it is used for torches, and is called 
Corchep by the people. The other is not twisted, is far better 
for the ordinary purposes of timber, and is said to have a much 
larger root in proportion to its stem than the Pinus sylvestris. I 
have reason to think that the tri^e Scotch fir (P. sylvestris) has not 
been found in a wild state in Ireland, nor have I seen any proof of 
its occurring in the bogs. From its being the only fir known to be 
a native of Great Britain, it has been taken for granted that it was 
also the only one in Ireland. I am sorry to see that my friend Mr 
Mackay has adopted this idea in his valuable Flora Hibernica. He 
says that the roots of the Scotch fir, obtained from the bogs, are 
used as torches. This is worthy of experiment, and since the old 
roots must be plentiful in the Scotch pine forests it may very easily 
be ascertained.* I need hardly add that several different layers of 
bog timber are found, and that therefore there is no reason to doubt 
that the trees grew upon the bog itself. As no trees are now grow- 
ing naturally upon the b<^, it is a point of great interest to ascer- 
tain what species are best suited for so peculiar a situation. I had 
great hopes of being able to determine at least one of these species, 
by obtaining some of its cones, but although I was informed by se- 
veral intelligent men that they were often found, and that they 
would undertake to obtain them for me, I have recently learned 
that they have been disappointed in their researches. 

Eriophorum polystachion is frequent in Cunnamara, and may al- 
ways be distinguished from E. angustifolium, by its broad, flat, and 
keeled leaves. At Roundstone I gathered Arabis ciliata, growing 
in the chinks of granite rocks, and again visited the stations of Eri- 

* The roots of pine which are found in the Scotch bogs are dug up, split, and 
used for torches instead of candles, and appear to possess all the quiUities of 
readj and bright combustion ascribed to the Irish hog timber by Mr Mackay. 
(See Lightfoot, Hooker, &c,, and the writings of other botanists of Scotland.) 
The roots of the Scotch fir (Pinus sylvestris,) which form our modem planta- 
tions, are in many parts dug out, split, and dried, and are used as lights for spear- 
ing salmon. The splinters are placed in a narrow grating fixed in the boat, give 
a clear and brilliant flame, which by keeping the fire supplied may be kept up 
for hours. Trees that have been blown down are generally preferred for this 
piupose — Eds. 



124 On Svbaquatic Insects, 

ca Mediterranea aad Mackaiana. The former has now been ga- 
thered jn several other parts of Mayo and Galway, and, although 
the latter is still only known to occur in one spot, yet I am more 
and more confirmed in the opinion that it is a truly distinct species. 

Upon a wooded hill that projects into Lough Corrib^ called Drum- 
sna, I noticed Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense and H. Wilsonj, Rn- 
bus idsus^ Hieracium umbellatum, Scolopendrium vulgare^ and the 
concave variety of Aspidium dilatatum. Near to Flinn's house 
there is a great quantity of Osmunda regalis. 

In conclusion, I would point out the two following plants as new 
to the Irish flora, t. e. Callitriche peduncu lata, found in the Mullet^ 
and Myosotis repens, which is common in Cunnamara, at Westport^ 
and in Erris. I carefully examined Cushtrower Bay> but was un- 
able to find Atriplex pedunculata. 

lily friend, £. Hill Esq. of Oxford, informs me that he gathered 
Eriophorum pubescens at Woodlawn, near Killconnel, county Galway. 
This is its second Irish station. He also mentions that Miss Trench 
has discovered Euphorbia peplis at Garreries Cove, near Tramore, 
county Waterford. This is not contained in my friend Mackay's Flora 
Hibernica. Mr Hill was so good as to show me specimens of both 
these plants. From the accidental loss of a specimen, Fedia auri- 
cula was omitted by Mr Mackay. I gathered it, as mentioned in 
Loudon's Magazine, at Oughterard, county Ghdway, in the month of 
August 1835. 

St John's College, Cambridge, 
March 20, 1837* 



III — Notes upon Suhaquatic Insects, with the description <^ a 
New Genus of British Staphylinidas. By J. O. Westwood, 
F.L,S. &c. Plate IV. 

The economy and physiological peculiarities of those species of 
insects and other annulose animals, which, although organised for 
aerial respiration, are enabled to abide in situations, which are in- 
deed their natural habitats, where they are for a very considerable 
period of time entirely submerged beneath the surface of waters, are 
extremely interesting, and well worthy of a more scientific investi- 
gation than has hitherto been given to them. The habits of the 
diving water spider ( Argyroneta aquatica, Latr.) have been long ago 
observed by De Geer and others, but up to the present time, as we 
learn from Mr Kirby's Bridgewater Treatise, the precise manner by 
which this spider is enabled to envelope itself in a dome of air, and 



On Subaquatic Insects. 125 

to descend with its miniature diving-bell to the bottom of the water 
in which it resides, has not yet been discovered. The observation of 
spiraculated aquatic imagines will not very greatly assist us in this 
inquiry, because we find no uniformity existing in their mode of in- 
spiration ; thus, when the perfect Dyticideous beetles ascend to the 
snrfeMK of the water, they expose the extremity of the body, and thus 
admit air into the space which exists between the upper surface of 
the abdomen and the closed elytra ; whereas in the Hydrophilide 
the head is brought to the surface of the water, and then one of the 
davate antennae is projected, the club of these organs being cover- 
ed with fine hair. This club is, however, so twisted that whilst the 
base is exposed to the air the extremity is brought in contact with 
the breast, which, as well as the whole under side of the insect, is 
covered with short silky pubescence. '^ By this means," observes 
Burmeister, *' a communication is made with the external air and 
that beneath the water covering both the dava of the antennae and 
the whole under surface of the insect, to which it adheres by means 
of the coating of down ; and by this communication fresh air is trans- 
mitted to the venter of the insect, and by the same means the ex- 
pired air is also removed, and the air is likewise transmitted from 
the ventral surface beneath the elytra, where it is in, and expired 
by the spiracles there situated." * 

This distinction appears to me to result entirely from the pre- 
sence or absence of the coating of plush or fine down, with which the 
bodies of some of these insects are provided, because in the Djrti- 
ddfle, which do not respire by means of a supply of air coating the 
underside of the body, we find the body not externally covered with 
this coating of plush. 

The genus Nepa offers a still more remarkable modification in 
the structure of its respiratory organs and mode of respiration. On 
examining an insect of this genus, the spiracles appear at first sight 
to be in the ordinary position and of the ordinary form ; but we 
learn ^m M. Dufour's admirable Recherches Anatomiques sur les 
Hemipteres, that these spiracles have no orifice and are quite use- 
less, the only spiracles being two, which are placed at the base of the 
anal setae. Thus it is only by thrusting these setae out of the water 
that the insect can obtain a supply of air.t 

The insects to which we have directed our attention are en- 
abled to swim with greater or less facility, and hence it is that they 
can obtain fresh supplies of external air at pleasure ; moreover, for 

* Manual of Entomol. p. 992, Shuckard's translation, 
t See Brit Cyclop. Nat. Hist. Vol. ii. p. 870. fig. 150. 



126 On Subaquatic Insects. 

the most part, they frequent still waters, and their movements ve 
not influenced by the agitated state of the fluid in which they reside. 

But there are other insects which pass a great portion of their 
lives under water without possessing the power of swimming about, 
and thus obtaining at will due supplies of air ; and there are others 
which, in addition to this deficiency, are inhabitants of situations 
which for hours, days, and even weeks are entirely covered by the 
rolling tide of the sea, it being only at the period of neap-tides that 
the spots where they are found are left uncovered by water. 

M. Dutrochet has endeavoured to explain the manner in which res- 
piration is effected in the first of these cases, in a memoir upon the 
larva of a moth, Hydrocampa potamogeta, read before the Acade- 
mie des Sciences, which, as well as the pupa, resides constantly, 
although provided with spiracles and not with branchiae, beneath the 
surface of stagnant water. " 11 arrive pour cette chenille," 
according to this author, ** qu' ^puissant par Tact de la respiration 
I'oxygene de Tair atmospherique qui Tenvironne I'azote restant ae 
dissout dans Teau et en extrait du gaz oxygene. Mais en mime 
temps le gaz acide produit par la respiration se dissout aussi dans 
I'eau et en extrait Tair atmospherique, dont Toxygene sert naturel- 
lament k la respiration et dont Tazote repare la perte du gaz azote 
dissous." This may indeed perhaps be considered as the real solu- 
tion of the chief inquiry, but there are so many difiPerences both of 
economy and structure in the subaquatic insects, that it must be 
evident, that by minutely investigating each, we may arrive with 
greater certainty at the general truth. Moreover, as in the case of 
those natatorial species which from time to time come to the sur- 
face of the water for fresh supplies of air, the respiratory process is 
probably dififerent from those which are constantly beneath its sur- 
face, as in the larva of the water moth above-mentioned. We may 
consider those species which, at certain periods, do obtain supplies of 
fresh air, but in such small quantities as not to last for their con- 
sumption for the long space of time they may be submerged, as oc- 
cupying an intermediate station between these two groups breathing 
fresh air at one period, and oxygen disengaged from water at another. 

Of this latter class one of the most interesting species is the 
Aepusfulvescerts, a minute carabideous insect found upon the shores 
of France and England, and whose economy has been traced by M. 
Victor Audouin in his '^ Observations sur un insecte qui passe une 
grande partie de sa vie sous la mer," published in the Nouvelles 
Annalesdu Museum d'Histoire Naturelle," Vol. iii. p. 117- This 
insect is not clothed with a coat of plush on its underside ; but when 
examined with a lens its head, thorax, legs, antenns, and abdomen 



On Svbaquatic Insects. 127 

are found to be famished with long^hairs ; and M. Audouin observes 
that when the insect is plunged into water each of these hairs '' re* 
tient une petite oouche du fluide ^lastique qui, r^uni d'abord en 
petits sph^roides^ forme bientot un globule lequel entoure son corps 
de toutes parts et qui malgre Tagitation qu'il se donne en courant 
dans I'eaUy au fond ou centre les parois du vase oii on la plac6 ne 
s'echappe jamais." But this bubble of air is so small that, from 
the length of time that the insect remains submerged, it must soon 
become unfitted for respiration. And it is only by adopting the views 
of 31. Dutrochet that we can explain the manner in which the Aepus 
is enabled to remain beneath the surface of the water. M. Audouin 
has noticed the large ungues with which this insect is provided, en- 
abling it to cling firmly to the stones, &c. amongst which it is found ; 
but in addition to these, the penultimate joint of the anterior tarsi 
is furnished with a long and curved bristle, meeting the ungues, 
which, together with the strongly developed jaws and under jaws, 
indicates very rapacious habits, the former being evidently service- 
able in securing its prey. We can indeed easily perceive the ne- 
cessity for activity in an insect situated, as the Aepus must be, be- 
neath the rolling tide, both in its ordinary motions, and in obtain- 
ing its supply of food. 

In a subsequent note, published in the Annales des Sciences Na- 
turelles, M. Audouin has pointed out the identity between this in- 
sect and the Cicindela marina of Strom, published in the Nouv. Me- 
moires de la Soci6te Royale de Danemark, for 1783. 

Mr Spence, in a short memoir published in the third part of the 
Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, has collected 
notices from the Transactions of the Old Entomological Society and 
the British Entomology of Mr Curtis, of two other Coleopterous in- 
sects having similar habits, namely, Pogonus Burrellii, Haw. the ha- 
bitation of which is entirely covered with water during the winter, 
and part of the summer months, and Bledius tricornis, which inha- 
bits the sand hills near the sea at Cley in Norfolk. 

In the Entomological Magazine, Number *J, April 1834, is con- 
tained an interesting memoir by the Rev. 6. T. Rudd upon the habits 
of Hesperophilus arenarius and Dyschirius — ? the former of which 
was observed by him in great flights settling on the sand below 
high-water mark. Mr Rudd inquires " what would become of the 
multitudes that dropped many yards below high -water mark, and 
burrowed in the sand ? Would they again take wing ? or would 
they perish as the flood covered their hiding place ? I waited 
to see the event. The tide rolled on — covered the sands — withlall 
their inhabitants — ^and again receded. I disturbed ray friends from 



128 On Sybaquaiic Luects. 

their retreat-^they were as lively as if they had been sperting in 
the sunshiDe^ instead of having been under water for more than half 
an hour ! One point was clear, (confirmed by repeated observations 
subsequently,) that these Brachelytrous insects have the power of 
enduring submersion and under salt water for at least half an hour. 
But why did they leave their burrows at a lower part of the sand ? 
I had previously often collected on this spot, at different periods of 
the year, during the neap-tides, and on the most brilliant days, with- 
out having seen a single Hesperophilus on the wing. It is fair, there- 
fore, to suppose either that the extraordinary flight I witnessed was 
a mere casual occurrence, or that, in some way or other, it is to be 
accounted ibr by the state of the tide. (It was the first of the 
spring tides.) On this latter supposition these insects must have 
been warned by some peculiar instinct to move higher up the sands, 
and thereby to avoid submersion for a period that probably would 
have exceeded their power of endurance." 

Now the observations of MM. Dutrochet and Audouin, and the 
perfect analogy between the habits of the Hesperophili, Bledii, and 
Aepus fulvescens, prove that the immersion of these insects ^vas not 
a circumstance to which they were unused. And hence, I think, 
we must look for some other solution to the inquiry why these in- 
sects were on the wing in such swarms, than that suggested by Mr 
Rudd. 

In a later number of the same work, (No. 18, January 1837>) 
Mr Haliday states that he found Cillenum laterale under stones near 
2oiv-water mark. " They prey upon sandhoppers, (Talitrus Locus- 
ta. Leach.) The tide retiring has scarcely uncovered the sand 
when these little depredators are abroad from their hiding-places, 
and alert in the chase. A great part of their existence is passed 
under the sea, and the mode in which they obtain the necessary 
supply of oxygen during their prolonged submersion, when the 
small quantity in tlie air bubble which they convey with them is 
exhausted, seems to deserve a more particular investigation." As in 
Aepus we find the mouth of this insect strongly developed, and the 
fore-legs are constructed in a peculiar manner, (somewhat analogous 
to those of Aepus noticed above,) the upper edge of the tibial notch 
being furnished with two deflexed spines, between which the end 
of the moveable spine arising from the opposite angle is received. 
The spines attached to the basal joints of the anterior tarsi are also 
very strong. Thus the structure of this insect is equally adapt- 
ed for its depredatory habits, whilst the strong bristles with which 
the limbs and body are furnished are similar to those of Aepus. 
In company with the Cillenum^ Mr Haliday discovered a new and 



On Subaquatic Insects. 129 

angular minate bradielytrous insect^ which he has described under 
the name of Digloesa mersa^ and in which the powerfal structure of 
the tarsi^ tarsal daws^ and mandibles, as well as the ciliation of the 
l^s, indicate a mode of life similar to that of Aepus. 

My friend, Dr Johnston of Berwick, whose investigations upon 
the submarine invertebrated animals have led him to explore the sea 
coast in his neighbourhood with so much success, has also met with 
the Aepus near that town. And in the same situation he discorered 
several specimens of another brachelytrous insect, together with seve- 
ral small coleopterous larvsb and pupae, which he has been so good as 
to place in my hands. These were all taken from under rocks with* 
IB tide mark, fully 200 feet below high-water mark, and within 50 
feet of low- water mark, and where at each tide the rocks are co« 
▼ered for four hours or thereabouts. 

The perfect insects in question prove to be undescribed, belong- 
ing to none of the genera hitherto established in the Bub-£Bua[iily 
Omalides, to which they are referable. The very minute size of the 
elytra are quite characteristic of the insect, distinguishing it from 
all the other Omalides, in some of which the eljrtra nearly cover the 
abdomen, being of a larger size than usual in this group. 

Genus, MiCBALsruMA,* Westw, (Plate IV.) 
-Carpus oblongum, depressum, lateribus abdominis marginatis. An- 
temncB mediocres, extrorsum crassiores. (Fig. 1 e.) Palpi maxilla- 
res articulo ultimo prsecedenti longim-i, elongato-conico. Thorax 
poetic^ angustior, capite pauUo latior, lateribus rotundatis. Elytra 
minuta, segmentum primum abdominis vix t^entia. Ptdts grad- 
lea. T'^vz extrorsum inermlss. Tarhi simplices, longe ciliati, ar- 
ticulis ultimis elongatis, reliquissimulsumptis aequalibus. (Fig. 1,^*.) 
Ungues simplices, hand basi recurvati. 

Structura oris. — Lahrum transversum, margine antico ciliato et 
trilobate lobis fere sequalibus et rotundatis. (Fig. 1, a.) Mandibular 
elongato-trigonae, acutse, marginibus extemis nonnihil arcuatis, se- 
tigeris, interne feie recto impressione sub apicem. (Fig. 1, 6.) Max- 
iUm (Fig. 1, c.) elongats, curvatie, bilobatn, lobo interne gradli 
apice acuto intus setoso, extemo majori sub apicem articulate. Palpi 
mojtillares maxillis fere duplo longiores, 4-articula)tie, articulo Imo 
farevissimo, 2do triple longiori ad apicem craasiori, 3tio praecedenti 
duplo breviori, oboonico ; ultimo longitudine secundi elongato-co- 
nice. (Fig. 1. g.) Menium transversum, antice paulo angustiu8> 
lateribus subrotundatis, angulis set^ long& instructis. Labium 

* M/xgog, parvus, et KaXvfifia, tegmeii. 



ISO On Svbaquatic Insects. 

mento vix angustius, apice profunde emarginato et ciliato. Palpi 
labiates labio vix longiores 3-articulati, articolis magnitudine sensim 
decrescentibus. (Fig. 1, d,) 

Species unica. 

Micralymma Johnstofiis, Westw. (Plate IV. Fig. 1.) 

Tota nigra, subpubescens, baud nitida, sublaevis. 

Long. coq). 1^ lin. 

Habitat in arenosis ad littora prope villam " Berwick-upon- 
Tweed" dictam. 

In honorem Dominee Johnstonis, remm naturalium pictoris ele- 
gantissimae uxoris Domini G. Jobnstonis, et reram maritimarum ob- 
scurarum nature scrutatoris eximii, indefessique. 

This insect is most nearly allied to the genera Anthobium, Oma- 
lium and Coryphium. From all these, however, it is at once distin- 
guished by the minute size of the elytra. In Anthobium, moreover, 
the body is broad and ovate ; inOmalium the body is also much shorter 
and broader than in this insect ; whilst in Coryphium the head is 
much broader than the thorax, and the palpi clavate. The trophi 
are not very different from those of Coprophilus (Elonium, Leach.) 

In company with these insects were found specimens oi the co- 
leopterous larvae and pupae from which the accompanying sketches 
(Fig. 2 and 3) have been taken. The former (Fig. 2) is very long 
and narrrow, with an oblong flat head, armed with acute sickle- 
shaped jaws (Fig. 2, m,) having a single very strong external tooth ^ 
about the middle of the interior margin. The maxillae are repre- 
sented by an elongated stem supporting two articulated lobes, the 
exterior four-articulated, the two basal joints very thick, and the 
two terminal joints slender, and the interior two-jointed, the joints 
of nearly equal length (Fig. 2, mx) : the lower lip and its appen- 
dages (instrumenta labialia) are represented by a square basal joint 
supporting two thick detached cylindrical scapes, each terminated 
by a slender two-jointed palpus (Fig. 2, L) The antennae (Fig. 2, 
A) are four-jointed, the first, second, and fourth joints of nearly 
equal length, the third twice as long, and irregularly shaped, hav- 
ing a lateral appendage. These organs, as well as the different parts 
of the mouth, are furnished with long curved hairs. £yes — ? Protho- 
rax larger than the following joints, which are nearly equal in sixe, 
except the terminal one, which is smaller, and terminated by a cy- 
lindrical prolog, having on each side a slender two-articulated 
and setose filament. The legs (Fig. 2, b) consist of three pairs, at- 
tached in pairs to the three anterior segments of the body. Length 
of the larva a line and three-quarters. 



On Subaquatic Insects, 131 

The pupae (Fig. 3 and 3 a) are small, broadly ovate^ flattened, 
with the head concealed beneath the shield-like prothorax ; the an> 
tennae cases short ; the legs arranged on the breast^ not extending 
beyond the centre of the under side of the abdomen. The wing- 
cases are very short, not extending beyond the sides of the body ; 
the front margin of the prothorax is furnished with two very long 
curved and several shorter bristles. The sides of the abdominal 
segments are also furnished ^vith very long curved bristles, and this 
part of the body is terminated by two minute and narrow lobes. 

It is unquestionable that both these larvae and pupae are those of 
a species of Staphylinidae. The similarity of the former with the 
larvae of several species of this family figured by myself in the Zoo- 
logical Journal, and by Mr Waterhouse in the Transactions of the 
Entomolc^ical Society, Vol. i. leaves no doubt that this is the case 
with respect to the larva, whilst the minute size of the elytra and 
the shortness of the antennae in the pupa, also prove that this is also 
brachelytrous. Hence I feel but little hesitation in regarding these 
larvae and pupae as those of Micralymma Johnstonis. In all these 
insects we see the same provision made for occasional respiration and 
abode beneath the surface of the water. The long hairs with which 
the legs of the imago are furnished^ and the strength of the organs 
of the mouth, are analogous to what has been noticed in iEpus, whilst 
a reference to the figures, both of the larvae and pupae, will show 
that the same circumstances exist also in those states. 

There still remain to be noticed some coleopterous insects, which, 
although unable to swim, reside at great depths beneath the surface 
of the water, although unprovided with the long hairs which we 
have seen are of so much service in Aepus, &c in retaining the glo- 
bule of air. To these M. Audouin appears at first to have been 
inclined to apply the theory of M. Dutrochet, observing, '' Je citerai 
encore plusieurs especes de Col6opteres du genre Elmis, que Ton 
trouve sous les pierres au fond des ruisseaux et que jamais on n'a 
vu respirer Tair a leur surface. II en est (a) de mhne des Dryops 
des Macroniques et des Georisses qui appartiennent a le m^me famil- 
le." It appears, however, that, in printing this memoir, the words 
'^ £l quelques ^gards ' were omitted at the place where I have placed 
(a). In the copy of this memoir, which the author was so kind as 
to send me shortly after it was printed, the equivalent words '< k 
pen pres" were introduced \idth a pen. This is the more requisite 
to be noticed, because my friend, M. Wesmael of Brussels, has at- 
tacked M. Audouin upon this point, observing, that, as the surface 
of the body in Elmis is unfurnished with long hairs, it is unable to 
retain a bubble of air, whilst on the underside there is observed on 



132 History of British Eniomostraca. 

eaeh side a Inroad longitudinal band^ contiguous to the lower margin 
of the Elytra, formed of a silkj plush, which is most probably ser- 
viceable in retaining the necessary supply of air. The body of Par- 
nus (Dryops) is entirely covered with this plush, but in Oeoryssus 
it is quite naked, and hence M. Wesmael thinks that it is not sub- 
aquatic, as supposed by M. Audouin, being, indeed, always found 
upon damp earth. ( Annales Soc. Entomol. de France 1835, p. xl.) 
The genus Elmis and some others constitute a small tribe, which has 
been appropriately termed Macrodactyle, from the large size of the 
claws, which enable these insects to retain their stations in the most 
violent streams. I once found many specimens of several species of 
Elmis under stones in a mill stream, a yard and a half deep, close 
to the mill-wheel, where the water must have been constantly in 
agitation. The entire structure of these insects, and especially of 
the mouth, exhibits a striking contrast with that of ASpus, &c, origi- 
nating in the difference of their habits and motions, the Elmidse 
feeding upon minute aquatic vegetable matter, and their movements 
being exceedingly slow. 

The habits of the Enicoceri, as detailed in Mr Wailes' interesting 
paper in the Entomological Magazine, No. 3, are somewhat diffe- 
rent from those of Elmis ; but as I have not recent specimens of 
those insects, I am unable to institute an examination of the cloth- 
ing of the body, &c which would doubtless satisfactorily elucidate 
the cause of such difference. 



IV — The Natural History of the British Entomostraca. By Wil- 
liam Baird, Surgeon, H. C. S. Plate V. (Continued irom Vol. i. 
p. 526.) 
Sp. III. — Cypris strigata, " Testa reniformi, fusca, fasciis tri- 

bus albis." 
Habitat. — Pool on sea shore, a little above high water-mark, at Thornton 
Loch, East Lothian. 

Synonimes, — Cypris strigata, 3f«fllBr, Zool. Dan. prodroni. p. 199, No. 2387. 1776. 

Cypris strigata. MuUer, Entomostraca, p. 54, tab. iv. fig. 4-6. 1785. 

Monoc. strigatus, Gmdin, Lin. Syst Nat. 3002, No. 37. 1788. 

M. strigatus, Manuel, Encyc. Method. Hist. Nat Tom. vii. p. 726, No. 31. 1792. 

M. strigatus, Fabriciugy Entomol. system, Tom. ii. p. 496. 1793. 

Cypris strigata, Latreille, Hist Nat gen. et part, des Crust &c. Tom. iv. p. 245. 
1802. 

Cypris strigata, Ramdohr, Beyt zur Naturg. einig. deut Monoc. arteii, pp. 14- 
17, tab. iv. fig. 1-14. 1805. 

Mon. strigatus, JRees' Cyclopaedia, Art. Monoculus. 1819. 

Mon. bistrigatus? Jurine, Hist, des Monoc. p. 177, pi. 19, fig. 12-13. 1821. 

Cypris strigata, Desmareat, Cons. Gen. sur les Crust p. 386. 1825. 

4 



History of British Eniomostraca. 183 

" Shell subovate^ glabroas^ ciliated at the margin, sublinear at 
aperture. Valves rather convex, brown, with three white fascia 
— ^the posterior one lunated, middle one oblique, anterior one arched 
— or, it may be described, valves white on dorsal margin, bound by 
a brown belt, with two oblique brown spots in the disc." — Muller, 

Sp. IV. Cypris vidua, Plate V. Fig. 1. Testa subglobosa, fias- 
ciis tribus nigris transversis instructa. 

Habitat, Pond at Greenwich. Canal at Rugby, Warwickshire. 
Sjfiumimes, Cypris vidua, Muller, Zool. Dan. prod. p. 199, No. 2884^ 1770. 
Cjpris vidua, MuUer, Entomost. p. ^^ tab. iv. fig. 7-9. 1785. 
Men. vidua, Gmdiuy Syst. Nat 8002, No. 42. 1788. 
Mon. vidua, Manuel, Encyc. Method. Hist. Nat. Tom. vii. p. 726, No. 86, pL 

264, f. 24-6. 1792. 
Mon. viduatus, Fabricius, Entom. Syst Tom. ii. p. 496. 1798. 
Cypris vidua, LatreilU, Hist Nat Gen. et Part, des Crust &c. Tom. iv. p. 245. 

1802. 
Mon. vidua, Rees* Cyclopedia, Art Monoculus. 1819. 
Mon. vidua, Jurine, Hist des Monoc. 8ec. p, 175, pi. 19, fig. 5-6. 1821. 
Cypris vidua, Desmarestj Cons. Gen. sur les Crust, p. 885. 1825. 

Neither the figure given by Muller, nor that by Jurine, is quite 
correct. The shell is of a somewhat globular form, a little sinuated 
on under margin ; beset all round with dense, fine, short hairs ; of 
a dull white colour, very distinctly marked by having three black, 
somewhat zig-zag fasciee, running transversely across the shell, the 
most anterior of the three being the smallest The posterior mar- 
gin is rather narrower than the anterior, Cthough Muller makes it 
the contrary,) but not so much so as is represented by Jurine. An- 
terior feet provided with long filaments. 

Sp. V. Cypris Monacha, Plate V. Fig. 2. Testa antice trun- 
cata, albo et nigro notata. 

Habitat. — Old Canal near Rugby, Warwickshire — Newham Loch, NorthuoH'* 

berland I}r Johnston, 

Synonimes, Cypris monacba, Muller, Zool. Dan. prod. p. 199, No. 2890* 1776. 
Cypris Monacba, Mailer, Entomostraca, p. 60, tab. v. fig. 6-8. 1785. 
Monoc Monacbus, GmeHn, Syst Nat 8008, No. 44. 1788. 
Mon. Monachus. Manuel, Encyc. Method. Hist Nat Tom. vii. p. 727, Na 41, 

pi. 266, f. 34-f . 1792. 
Mon. Monachus, Fabricius, Entom. Syst Tom. ii- p. 497. 1798. 
Cypris Monacba, Latreille, Hist Nat Gen. et Part des Crust &c. Tom. iv. p. 247. 

1802. 
Monoc. Monachus, Bees' Cyclop. Art Monoculus. 1819 
Monoc. Monachus, Jurine, Hist des Monocles, &c. p. 178, pi. 18» f. 1S-.14. 1821 > 
Cypris Monacba, Desmarest, Cons. Gen. sur les Crust p. 384, pL 55, f. 7. 1825. 
VOL. II. Na. 8. K 



134 HUtory of British Entomostraca. 

The figure given by MuUer is much better than that of Jurine. 
Shell somewhat of a rhomboidal form ; rounded at posterior^ and 
truncated as it were at anterior margin ; glabrous^ with a few hairs 
on posterior mai^n ; surface of shell as it were reticulated, or^ as 
Muller says, marked with small points impressed into, or as it were 
excavated out of shell. Upper part of shell is nearly of a white co- 
lour ; lower portion, anterior margin, and part of posterior one, of 
a black colour^ shaded with a yellowish green ; filaments of anterior 
feet long. A very pretty and well-marked species. 

Sp. VI. Cypris Candida Plate V. Pig. 3. Testa subovata, 

candidissima, lucenti. 

Habitat — Berwickshire ; Roxburghshire ; neighbourhood of London, Sec. com- 
mon. 
Synonimes, ffc. — Poisson nomm^ Deteuche, Joblot, Observ. d'Hist. Nat faites 

avecle Micros, part 2, p. 104, pi. xiii. fig. 0. 1754. 
Cypris Candida, MuUery Zoolog. Dan. prodrom. p. 199, No. 2385. 1776. 
Cypris Candida, Do. Entomostraca, p. 62, tab. vi fig. 7-9. 1785. 
Monoc. Candidus, Gmelin, Lin. Syst. Nat 3002, No. 40. 178a 
Mon. Candidus, Manud, Encyc. Method. Hist Nat. Tom. vii. p. 726, No. 34. 

1792. 
Monoc. Candidus, Fabricius, Entomol. Syst Tom. ii. p. 497. 1793. 
Cypris Candida, LatreiUe, Hist Nat Gen. et Part des Crust &c. Tom. iv. p. 

248. 1802. 
Mon. Candidus, Rtea* Cyclopedia, Art Monoculus. 1819. 
Mon. Candidus, Jurine, Hist des Monocles, &c. p. 176, pi. 19, fig. 7-8. 1821. 
Cypris Candida, De^mareA/, Cons id. Gen. surles Crust p. 385. 1825. 
Cypris lucens, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat Cluh, p. 100, pi. ill. fig. 15. 1835. 

The figure given by Joblot, referred to above, appears to me to 
be undoubtedly the Candida, though, curiously enough, Muller him- 
self refers it to his pubera, while Straus again refers it to his fus^ 
ca. The figure given by Muller is not good, that of Jurine is much 
better. The shell is smooth and shining, but fringed round the 
margins with fine hairs of a pure while-colour, with a pearly lustre, 
nearly opaque, ventricose : anterior extremity narrower and flatter 
than posterior^ which is arched ; upper margin raised, lower some- 
what reniform ; filaments of anterior feet consist of only three or 
four short hairs ; animal generally creeps near the bottom of the 
vessel in which it is kept. 

Sp. VII. Q^jom/MJco.— Plate V. Fig. 4. Testa ovata, renifor- 

mi, fusca. 
Habitat. Neighbourhood of London. 
SynonivMs. Cypris fusca, Straus^ Mem. de Mug. d*Hist. Nat Tom. vii. pi. i. fig. 
16. 1821. 



Hilary of British Entomostraca. 135 

QypjM fuflca, Desnuareat, Com, Gen. surles Crust p. 384. 1825. 

Shell oval ; of a brown-coiour^ reniform ; anterior extremity nar« 
rower than posterior^ which is rounded and broad ; shell covered 
with fine hairs ; anterior feet provided with three long filaments ; 
the rounded posterior extremity and brown-colour sufficiently dis- 
tinguish this species from Muller's Candida. 

Sp. VIII. Cifpris reptans. — Plate V. Pig, 5. Testa elongata, 
stricta^ maculis magnis viridibus notata. 

Hdlntat, — Yetholm Loch, Roxburghshire. — Newham Loch, Nortbumberhuid, 
Dr Johnston. New river, London. 
Synonimu — Cypris reptans, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat Club, p. 99, pL iiL fig. 

11. 

** Shell long, narrow, almost elliptical, nearly plane on upper^ 
and slightly sinuated on under margin ; rather ventricose ; hairy ; 
densely ciliated on anterior extremity ; the cilise on posterior extre- 
mity fewer, but much longer ; of a light colour, with dark-green 
markings, which appear to be rather irregular ; both extremities 
have a large broad green spot, which send out processes as it were 
towards the centre of shell ; antennae and feet short in comparison 
with size of shell. I have never seen this species swimming about 
in the vessel in which I have kept it, but always creeping on the 
bottom," — hence its name. — Filaments of anterior feet few and very 
short. 

Sp. IX. Cypris hispida — Plate V. Fig. 6. Testa ovata, fusca, 
hispida. 

Habiiat. — At Yetholm, Rozbuighabire. Ditch near Surrey Zoological Gar. 
dens, London. 

Synommea—Cj^ns hispida, Baird^ Tnms. Berw. Nat Club, p. 99, pi. iii. 
fig. 14. 

" Shell almost elliptical ; anterior extremity a little broader than 
porterior ; rather ventricose ; very roughly and densely hairy ; of a 
brown-colour all over, with one or two dark brown marks running 
across the centre of shell ; both extremities of a darker colour than 
other parts of shell ; the whole shell is very hispid, spines rather 
than hairs covering the shell ; antennae slender ; setae seldom much 
divaricated." Filaments of anterior feet, if any, consist only of two 
or three short hairs, as in Candida and Reptans ; and like them, 
this insect is generally to be fouud at the bottom of the vessel in 
which it is kept. This circumstance would seem to favour J urine's 
opinion of the important use the anterior feet serve for progressive 



136 History of British Entomostraca. 

motioo, as we seldom see those species which have not the filaments 
long so active in swimming as the others. 

Sp- X. Cypris Compressa. — Plate V. Fig. 7- Testa plano-ro- 
tundata, fusco-grisea, compressa. 

Habitat. Yetholm Loch, Roxburghshire ; Rugby, Warwickshire ; neighbour- 
hood of London, very common. 

SynonimeB, Cypris Compressa, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat. Club, p. 100, pi. 
iii. fig. 16. 

'^ Shell round-shaped, compressed, rather narrower anteriorly 
than posteriorly ; of a brownish gray colour more or less deep ; 
semitransparent ; at either extremity beset with fine hairs — ^in 
general the surface of the shell is spotted, as if little pieces were 
hollowed out of it. Anterior feet provided with three long fila- 
ments ; eye large ; from the flat compressed shape of shell, its mo- 
tion through the water is very much like that of some species of 
Lynceus." 

Sp. XI. Cypris minuta, — Plate V. Fig. 11. Testa ovato-glo- 
bosa, sub-fusca, parva. 

Habitat. At Yetholm, Roxburghshire ; Pond near Copenhagen Fields, Lon- 
don. 

SynonifMs, Cypris minuta, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat. Club. p. 99, pi. iii. f. 9. 

Monocuhis ovum? Jurine, Hist des Monocles, &c. p. 179, pi. 19. f. 18-19. 

*' Shell broader posteriorly than anteriorly ; elevated and round- 
ed on upper margin ; slightly sinuated on under margin ; hairy all 
around ; of a light brown colour with a tinge of green ; body of 
shell smooth, shining ; anterior feet furnished with a pencil of long 
filaments." This is the smallest of all the species I have met 
with, and approaches very near to the Mon. ovum of Jurine, except 
that he says his species is perfectly smooth, whereas this one is be- 
set densely all around shell with short hairs. 

Sp. XII. Cypris Joanna.— Vhte V. Fig. 12. Testa ovato-glo- 
bosa, fusca, hirta. 

Habitat. Pool at Abbey St Bathans, Ber^^nckshire. 

Sj/non. Cypris Joanna, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat Club, p. 99, pi. ill. fig. 8. 

" Shell roundish-ovate ; narrower anteriorly than posteriorly ; of 
a brown colour, with an orange mark across back of shell and lower 
margin ; shell beset all round with rigid hairs, and covered with 
minute black points or dots ; setse of antennae numerous. DifiTers 
from Cypris pilosa, Muller, in smaller size, orange mark across 
shell, and in not being glabrous, but marked all over with black 
roughish-looking points.*' A little larger than C, minula. 



History of British Entomostraca. 1 37 

Sp. XIII. Cypris elongata.— Flute V. Fig. 13. Testa alba, 
cnneiforme, elongata. 

Habitat Yetholm, Roxburghshire. 

Sifmon, Cypris elongata, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat. Club, p. 99, pi. iii. f. 10. 

'' Shell much broader at anterior than posterior extremity, which 
is narrow and much elongated ; elevated on upper margin towards 
anterior extremity, and sinuated on under margin more towards the 
posterior extremity : white ; transparent ; hairy ; setae of antennie 
five or six ; anterior feet furnished with setie." 

Sp. XIV. Cypris Westwoodil—VhiXe V. Fig. 14. Teste reni- 
fonni, virlde, conica. 

Habitat, Yetholm Loch, Roxbui^hshire. 

Spiom, Cypris Westwoodii, Baird, Trans. Berw.|Nat Club, p. 99, pL iiL f. 12. 

" Shell much elevated and rounded on upper margin, and reni- 
form on under — a little broader at anterior extremity ; green co« 
loured ; semi transparent ,* densely covered with pretty long hairs 
all over ; second last joint of anterior feet furnished with a pencil 
of long hairs; posterior feet furnished with a setae at each articula- 
tion." 

Sp. XV. Cypris gibbosa. — Plate V. Fig. 15. Testa rotundo- 
ovate ; reniformi, gibbosa. 

Habitat. Ditch near Surrey Zoological gardens, London. 

Shell roundish ovate : elevated on upper margin, with a gib- 
boaity or hump; reniform on under margin ; body of shell smooth, 
of alight-green colour, paler on anterior extreniity ; beset with .short 
fine hairs all round the edges of shell ; nearly opaque ; filaments 
of antennae and anterior feet beautifully plumose. Double the size 
of C. Westwoodii, to which it approaches somewhat in shape of 
shell. 

Sp. XVI. Cypris clavata Plate V. Fig. 16.* Teste oblonga, 

davate, hevi. 

HabitaL Pond near Copenhagen Fields, London. 

Body of shell smooth and shining, but beset round margin with 
short hairs ; of a light grey colour, with an obscure dark-coloured 
ray running from centre towards posterior extremity, which again 
is distinctly marked with an orange-coloured spot, oblong, narrower 
at posterior than anterior extremity, which is rather flattened, mid- 
dle of valves ventricose ; antennee and feet rather short in compari- 
son with sise of shell, filaments of both plumose. This species ap- 



138 History of British EntomoMtraca. 

proaches near to Cypris crassa. Mailer, in his description of that 
species, but differs in toio from the figure which he gives of it. 

A species of fossil Cypris occurs in the limestone of Burdiebouse 
quarry, near Edinburgh, but which I hare not had opportunities of 
sufficiently examining. 

2d Oenns, Ctthbbb. 
Bibliographical History. ^^Otho Fridericus Muller is the first na- 
turalist that has taken notice of this genus of insects. Before his 
time they were perfectly unknown, not the slightest mention of 
their existence having been made by any previous writer. As it is 
to him that we are indebted for the first information, so it is to him 
alone that we owe all that we do know, with the exception, I be- 
lieve, of what few additional particulars wiU be found in the follow- 
ing pages. Upon a slight inspection, the Cytheres might be mis- 
taken for Cyprides ; but their antennie being simple, and free from 
the pencil of long hairs with which these organs in the Cypris are 
endowed ; their possessing eight feet ; the want of the long tail, and 
their inhabiting salt water, sufficiently distinguish the two genera. 
It is in his " Entomostraca" that Muller first established this genus, 
and the above marks of distinction between it and the Cypris, con- 
stitute almost all the knowledge that he imparts to us concerning 
it. Meager as it is in details, it has not been enlarged by any suc- 
ceeding author. Gmelin, in the '* Systema Nature," 1788 ; Fabri- 
cius in his *' Entomologia Systematica," 17d3 ; Manuel in the '' En- 
cyclopedie Methodiqjie," 1792 ; and Latreille in his " Hist. Nat. 
Gen. et Part, des Crustacis," &c. 1802 ; either merely give the spe- 
cies alone, or repeat the few remarks made by Muller, without mak- 
ing any comment or original observations of their own. Lamarck, 
in his " Hist. Nat. des Animaux sans Vertebres," 1818, changes 
Muller's name, and gives the genus the appellation of Cytherina ; 
while Desmarest, in his '' Consid. Oen. sur les Crustac6s,*' 1825, in 
repeating the observations made by Muller, and giving merely his 
species, adds, that it may turn out that some of the eight feet may 
be particular organs, and that the number of true feet may be found 
to be the same as in the Cypris, a conjecture which Latreille also 
makes in the last edition of " Cuvier's R^gne Animal," 1829. Des- 
marest moreover says, '' reasoning from analogy, there is reason to 
believe that the Cytheres like the Cyprides have their branchial 
plates attached to the mandibles and jaws, and that their feet are 



History of British Entomostraca. 139 

solely destined for locomotioii."* In both these suppositions we 
shall find he is quite correct. 

Amatomy, — ^The shell in almost every respect strictly resembles that 
of the Cypris, but from their general opacity and minuteness, it is ex« 
oeedingly difficult to examine with precision the body of theinclos* 
ed animaL After repeated attempts, however, to break down the 
homy opaque shell, I succeeded so far as to discover that, like the 
Cypris, the body of the insect is divided into two parts, connected 
with each other by a narrow space, the anterior half containing the 
eye, antennae, anterior feet, organs of mouth> and two pairs of in- 
tennediate feet ; the posterior half containing the posterior feet, and 
a short appendix or tail. The eye resembles in appearance and si- 
toatiim that of the Cypris, being single, fixed, and in the form of a 
black sessile point. Antennae two, (Plate V. Fig. 16. a, a. Fig. 18.) 
composed each of five articulations, furnished with one or two short 
setsB at the base of each of the three last articulations, and termi- 
nated by three or four rather longer hairs at the extremity of the 
last joint, di£Eering very much in this respect from the same organs 
in the Cypris. As the Cy there has never been seen to swim, these 
organs may be thus considered as true antennae. The feet are de- 
cidedly eight in number ; the anterior pair are inserted immediate- 
ly beneath the antennae, and are by far the strongest of all, (Plate 
V. Fig. 16., b. b. Fig, 19.) They differ in shape from the other pairs, 
being flatter and fiedcated in appearance. They consist of four arti«- 
colations ; the first and third being very short. The last gives off 
from internal edge three spines, and is terminated by two or three 
short hooks as in the Cypris, while from the base of the second joint 
there sfMrings a long stiff seta, equalling in length the two last joints, 
and being divided into three articulations, of which the middle is 
the longest. This seta is mentioned by MuUer as occurring in his 
Cylhete kiiea, but is taken notice of by him as being peculiar to it, 
or at least as not having been seen in any other species. It occurs, 
however, in all I have examined, and seems to take the place of the 
pencil of long hairs that is to be found on the penultimate joint of 
the corresponding pair of feet in the genus Cypris, but the precise 
use of which I do not understand. The three other pairs of feet 
(Plate V. Fig. 16, c. Fig. 20.) are exactly like each other, except in 
length ; they are round and slender, and consist each of four articu- 
lations, the first of which is the largest, and gives off a short spine 
at its base ; the last is the shortest, and is terminated by a long 
curved hook. The first or anterior pair are, as in the Cyprides, di-< 

• p. 887. 



140 History of British Entomostraca. 

reeled backwards, whilst the other three are directed forwards.. The 
first of these three pairs are very shorty the second a little longer, 
whilst the third or last pair are the longest of all, being longer than 
the anterior pair^ though much more slender. This last or poste- 
rior pair appears to arise from near the junction of the two 
halves of the body, and may supply, as Muller says, the want of the 
tail. The mouth is situated in the inferior surface of the anterior 
half of the body, as in the Cypris, and appears to consist of exactly 
the same organs as in the insects of that genus, though from their 
extreme minuteness, and want of lengthened opportunities for exa- 
mination, I have not been able to make out all the parts. The pal- 
piferous mandibles, and the first pair of jaws with their branchial 
plates, are the only parts I have been able clearly to make out, and 
they resemble in almost every respect the corresponding organs of 
the Cy prides. The mandible (Plate V. Fig. 21.) is formed of two 
pieces, the larger of the two, or proper mandible, as in the Cypris, 
being terminated at the superior extremity by a sharp point, and at 
the lower or incisive extremity by about six pretty strong teeth, 
while the other part or palpus consists of three joints plentifully 
supplied at the extremities of' the articulations with numerous se- 
tae. I failed, however, in making out the small branchial plate 
which occurs in this organ in the Cypris. The first pair of jaws, 
(Plate V. Fig. 22.) as in the Cypris, consists also of two parts ; the 
square plate with the four fingers, (Fig. 22, a.) the superior of which 
has two joints, whilst the others have only one, and all terminated 
by a tuft of hairs ; and the branchial plate (Fig. 22, h.) attached, of 
an elongated oval form, furnished with fourteen long setae, which 
are given off from both sides. As these organs are so very similar 
to the corresponding organs in the Cypris, I have no doubt that the 
other parts (the lips and second pair of jaws) are also the same, and 
that therefore the supposition of Desmarest with respect to some of 
the intermediate ieethemg particular organs is incorrect ; and that, 
as their use and situation indicate, they are all true feet, and used 
solely for locomotion ; the posterior or fourth pair perhaps serving 
in addition one of the uses of the tail, that of cleaning the inside of 
the shell, for which they are well calculated from their length, and 
the great degree of pnobility they possess. The appendix or short 
tail is of such an irregular figure, that, until better opportunities oc- 
cur for examination, 1 shall not attempt a minute description. The 
. internal anatomy I have not been able to make out at all ; neither 
-have I ever seen any individuals with ova, though this may be ac- 



Histury of British Entomostraca. 141 

ooDSted for from the specimens which 1 have examined being dis- 
sected in the winter months. 

Habits and Manners. — These insects are only to be found in sea 
water, and may be met with in all the little pools amongst the rocks 
on the sea shores. They live amongst the fuci and confervse, &c. 
which are to be found in such pools ; and the naturalist may espe- 
cially find them in abundance in those beautiful clear little round 
wells which are so often to be met with hollowed out of the rocks 
on the shores of our country^ which are within reach of the tide, and 
the water of which is keptsweetand wholesome, by being thuR chang- 
ed twice during every twenty-four hours. In such delightful little 
pools, clear as crystal when left undisturbed by the receding tide, these 
interesting little creatures may be found often in great numbers sport- 
ing about amongst the confervseand corallines, which so elegantly and 
fiindfully fringe their edges and decorate their sides, — and which 
form such a glorious subaqueous forest for myriads of living creatures 
to disport themselves in. Sheltered amongst the '* umbrageous 
multitude" of stems and branches, and nestling in security in their 
forest glades, they are safe from the fury of the advancing tide, 
though lashed up to thunder by the opposing rocks which fur a mo- 
ment check its advance ; and weak and powerless though such 
pigmies seem to be, they are yet found as numerous and active in their 
little wells, after the shores have been desolated by the mighty force 
of the tide which has been driven in, in thunder, by the power of a 
fierce tempest, as when the waves have rolled gently and calmly to 
the shore in their sweetest murmurs. These insects have never 
been seen to swim, invariably walking amongst the branches or 
leaves of the confervae or fuci — amongst which they delight to dwell ; 
and when shook out from their hiding-places into a bottle or 
tumbler of water they may be seen to fall in gyrations to the bot- 
tom, without ever attempting to dart through the watery element, 
as in the case with the Cyprides. Upon reaching the bottom, they 
open their shells and creep along the surface of the glass ; but 
when touched or shook they immediately again withdraw themselves 
within their shell and remain motionless. This inability to swim 
is no doubt owing to the want of the pencils of long hairs or fila- 
ments which adorn the antennae and anterior part of the CyprideSj 
and which we have already seen are the organs by means of which 
they swim through the watery element in which they live. My op- 
portunities for observing these insects have been so limited, and 
the difficulty of keeping them alive, from the rapidity with which 
sea water becomes putrid when kept in a room in a small vessel, is 



142 History of British Entamostraca. 

80 greats that I cannot say any thing further with regard to their 
economy or habits. The species^ however, I have no doubt, are nu- 
merous, and the labours of any inquirer after them would, I have no 
doubt, be soon rewarded with great success. 

Species, 

Sp. I. Cy there flavida, — '^ Testa oblonga, glabra." Muller. 

Habitat, Amongst confervs in pools of sea water amongBt the rocks on the 
shore at Ckxskbarospath, Berwickshire. 

Sjfiumjfmes. Cythere flavida, MtUler, Entomost p. 66, tab. viL fig. 5-6. 1785. 

Monoculus flavidus, Gmdin, Syst Nat. 9001, No. Sa 178a 

Mou. fiavidus, Manuely Encyc Method. Tom. vii. p. 725, No. 27, pi. 266^ 
1 10-11. 1792. 

Men. fla\idus, Fabricius, Tom. ii. p. 494. 179a 

Cythere flavida, LatreiUe, Hist. Nat &c. Tom. iv. p. 253. 1802. 

Men. flavidus, Rees* Cydop. Art Monoculus. 1819. 

Cythere flavida, Detmareat, Consid. Gen. &c 1825. 

" Shell oblong, of a yellowish colour, smooth, obtuse at each ex- 
tremity, narrower anteriorly ; antennae scarcely setiferous." MuUer. 

Sp. II. Cylhere rewj/brmw.— Plate V. Fig. 16-22. Testa reni- 
formi, hirta, valvulis crusta calcarea obductis. 

Habitat, Coast of Berwickshire, common. 

Sytion, Cythere reniformis, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat. Club, p. 98, pi. iii 
fig. 5. 

Shell reniform, rough with hairs ; both extremities of nearly equal 
size; anterior extremity a little flatter than posterior. Centre of 
valves covered with a calcareous-looking crust, which is of rather a 
darker colour than rest of shell, and appears studded all over with 
short spines ; colour of shell a light brownish yellow. It approaches 
the Cythera lutea of Muller in shape, but differs somewhat in co- 
lour, in being roughly hairy, and having the valves covered with 
the hard crust. 

Sp. III. Cylhere albo-maculata — Plate V. Fig. 23. Testa ob- 
longa, sinuata, valvulis crusta calcarea albo-maculata obductis. 

Habitat, Berwick Bay — ^not very common. 

Shell oblong, a little flatter at anterior extremity ; slightly round- 
ed on upper margin, and deeply sinuated on lower, near anterior ex- 
tremity. Each extremity and lower margin densely hairy ; middle 
portion of valves covered with a calcareous-looking crust, as in last 
species, which is studded all over with short spines, except where it 
is marked with two white smooth shining spots of considerable sise. 
Shell altogether of a dull-brown colour. 



Histary of British Entomostraca. 14*3 

Sp. IV. Cffthere a/6a.— Plate V. Fig. 24. Testa alba, trans- 
ludda^ obovata. 

Habitat. Sefr-shore at Dunbar, East Lothian. 

Syn. Cythere alba, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat. Club, p. 98» pi. iii. fig. d. 

Shell white, transparent, showing the dark body of insect through 
it ; hairy round edges ; acute at posterior extremity, and broader at 
anterior ; a margin round the outer edge of the shell whiter than 
the rest. Having only once met with this curious species, and an ac- 
cident happening to the vessel in which it was kept, I am unfortu- 
natelj unable to give a fuller description of it. 

Sp. V. Cythere variabilis.^Vhite V.Fig.2S,ab. Testa ovale, 

glauca, glabra. 
HabitaU Coast of Berwickshire, common. 
S^ Cythere variabilis, Baird, Trans. Berw. Nat. Club, p. 98, pi. iii. fig- 7, 

Shell glaucous, without any hairs, perfectly oval-shaped, ante- 
rior extremity narrower than posterior ; anterior legs falcate, and 
furnished with pretty strong claws; antennae slender^ without setie. 
This species varies much in colour, and markings ; some specimens 
are white, with two black fasciie running transversely across sheU, 
one at posterior margin, the other across the centre of the shell, 
while the posterior extremity is marked besides by a beautiful red- 
dish or bright bronze spot. (Fig. 25, a.) Other specimens are of a 
light flesh-colour, with the edges of shell slightly greenish, and the 
body of shell marked with dark streaks running across. Some are 
altogether of a fine flesh-colour, without any marks upon the shell, 
while others again are of a uniform dark- brown or almost black. 
(Fig. 25, 6.) All the varieties, however, agree in shape of shell, 
in size, &c. merely difiering in colour and marks. 

Sp. Vr. Cythere auranlia.—FJfite V. Fig. 26. Testa ovata, 
reniformi, glabra, aurantia. 

Habitat' Bei wick- Bay, not uncommon. 

Shell rounded and rather prominent on upper margin ; slightly 
reniform on under; rather broader posteriorly than anteriorly; 
smooth^ glaucous, of a bright orange-colour ; very minute in size ; 
antennse setiferous ; anterior feet falcated. 

Sp. VII. Cythere nigrescent. — Plate V. Fig. 2?. Testa extre- 

mitate poetrema acuminata, glabra, sub-nigra. 
Habitat, Berwick-Bay, not uncommon. 



J 44 Directions for preserving Sea Plants. 

Shell rounded on upper margin and anteriorly ; terminating pos- 
teriorly in an acute pointy with a gibbous projection on the lower 
margin, near posterior extremity ; shell quite smooth and free from 
hairSf of a dirty black-colour^ translucent, showing the body of the 
animal shining through, which is very dark-coloured ; antenna aeti- 
ferous ; anterior feet falcated. 

Explanation of Plates, 

Plate XVI. Vol. I. Fig. 1 to 13, Body of Cypris pubera; theshell re^ 
moved; a. anterior lobe ; 6. posterior lobe ; c. eyes ; d. antenns ; e. e. 
anterior or first pair of feet ;Ji f, second pair of feet ; g. third pair ; A. 
mandible and palpus ; t. first pair of jaws with branchial plate ; k. 
tail. Fig. 2, one of the antennae. Fig. 3, one of the anterior legs. Fig, 
4, one of the second pair do. Fig. 5, one of the third pair. Fig. 6^ 
the lip (a) and sternum or lower lip (6.) Fig. 7> mandible ; a. man- 
dible proper ; b, palpus ; c. small branchial plate. Fig. 8, first pair 
of jaws ; a. base, with its fingers ; 6. branchial plate with its pecti- 
niform spines. Fig. 9, second pair of jaws. Fig. 10, tail. Fig. 11, 
egg* Fig. 12, young. Fig. 13, adult Cypris pubera. 

Plate V. Vol. II. Fig. 1, Cypris vidua. Fig. 2, C. Monacha. Fig. 
3, C. Candida. Fig. 4, C. fusca. Fig. 5, C. reptans. Fig. 6, C. hia- 
pida. Fig* 7> C. Compressa. Fig. 8, one of the antenoie of C. 
Compressa. Fig. 9, one of the anterior feet of do. Fig. 10, one 
of the third pair of feet of do. Fig. II, C. minuta. Fig. 12, C. 
Joanna. Fig. 13, C. elongata. Fig. 14, C. Westwoodii. Fig. 15, 
C. gibbosa. Fig. 16, * C. clavata. Fig. 16, Body of Cy there reni- 
formis, the shell removed. Fig. 17, Cythere reniformis. Fig. 18, 
one of the antenns of do. Fig. 19, one of the anterior feet of do. 
Fig. 20, one of the posterior pair of feet of do. Fig. 21, mandible. 
Fig. 22, first pair of jaws. Fig. 23, Cythere albo-maculata. Fig. 
24, C. alba. Fig. 25, C. variabilis, a, and 6. Fig. 36, C. aurantia. 
Fig. 27, C. nigrescens. 

CTo be continued. J 

V. — Directions for the preservation of Sea PlantSy with MisceUane^ 
ous Remarks on a number of species collected at Caimlough Bay, 
on the Coast ofAntrimy in the months of May and June 1836. By 
Jambs S. Drummond, M. D. President of the Belfast Natural 
History Society, &c. 

The first object to be attended to in preserving marine plants is to 
have them washed perfectly clean before spreading. There should 
not be left upon them a particle of sand or other foreign body, unless 



Directions far preserviiiff Sea Plants. 145 

in some rare instances a parasitic species may be thought worthy of 
keeping, on account of its rarity, or because it may add an additional 
beauty to the chief specimen. It is a good practice to wash them be- 
fore leaving the shore either in the sea, or in a rocky pool, or, as is 
sometimes more convenient in some localities, in a rivulet discharging 
itself into the ocean, though, as will be afterwards explained, the last 
practice proves very destructive to the beauty of some species. 

The foreign bodies to be got rid of are fragments of decayed sea- 
weeds, sand, gravel, and sometimes portions of the softened surface of 
sandstone or argillaceous rock on which the specimens may have 
grown, together with the smaller testacea, and the Corallina officinalis^ 
&c. At Cairnlough Bay I experienced most trouble in this respect 
from the Ectocarpi^ which confervas were so generally diffused, as to 
be entangled with almost every other species of sea-plant. 

After the greatest pains which we may take to clean our specimens 
at the shore, there will generally be found much to do before they can 
be properly committed to paper, since foreign substances will continue 
attached to them with much pertioacity even after we may have been 
tttisfied that they are perfectly clean. It is therefore necessary to pre- 
pare each specimen by examining it in fresh or sea water in a white 
dish or plate, so that every thing foreign may be detected and re- 
moved. 

The next thing to be attended to is the quality of the paper on 
which the specimens are to be spread ; and here a great error is gene- 
rally committed, in using it thin and inferior, by which, if the speci- 
men be worth preserving, it has not proper justice done to it. Much 
of the beauty, indeed, of many species depends on the goodness of the 
paper, exactly as a print or drawing will appear better or wone, as it 
is executed on paper of a good or an inferior kind. Some species, too, 
contract so much in drying as to pucker the edges of the paper, if it 
be not sufficiently thick, for example Delesseria laciniatOy and this has 
a very unsightly appearance. That which I have from experience 
been led to prefer is a thick music-paper. It closely resembles that 
used for drawing, and the sheet divides into four leaves, of a most con- 
venient size, each being about an inch and a-half longer and broader 
than a leaf of this Magazine. These, ugain, divided into halves answer 
for small species, and fur laige specimens we may use the entire folio. 
We have thus three regular sizes of paper, and this serves to give a 
uniformity and neatness to a collection not to be obtained by using 
papen at random, and of casual dimensions. 

Whatever pains we may have taken to clean the recent specimens, 
we shall ofiten find, when spreading them, that some foreign particles 



146 Directions fir pf tm» wiiy Sea Plants. 

continue attached, and for the remoyal of these a pair of c 
forceps, and a camel hair pencil of middle size, will he found very 
oonyenient. These, indeed, are almost indispensable, and will be found 
useful on more occasions than can here be specified. A silver probe, 
with a blunt and a sharp end, is the most convenient instrument for 
spreading out, and separating branches from each other, but any thing 
with a rigid point, such as a large needle, or the handle of the camel* 
hair pencil sharpened, will answer. A large white dinner-dish serves 
perfectly well for spreading the specimens in, and all that is &rther 
necessary is a quantity of drying papers, and some sheets of blotting- 
paper, with three or four flat pieces of deal-board. Nothing answers 
better for drying than old newspapers, each divided into eight parts, 
but it is necessary to have a large supply of these. 

The beautifnl and common Plocamium coecineum is one of the 
most easily preserved species, and may be taken as an example of the 
mode of proceeding with most of the others. The steps to be pur- 
sued are as follows, — 

1. The specimen is to be perfectly well cleaned. 

2. A dinner-dish to be filled about two-thirds with clean fresh 
water. 

3. The paper on which the specimen is to be spread, to be immersed 
in the water in the dish. 

4. The specimen to be then placed on the paper, and spread out 
by means of the probe and camel-hair pencil. 

5. The paper with the specimen on it to be then slowly withdrawn 
from the dish, sliding it over its edge. 

6. The paper with the specimen adhering to it, to be held up by 
one comer for a minute or two, to drain off the water. 

7. To be then laid on a paper, or cloth, upon a table, and the super- 
fluous water still remaining to be removed by repeated pressure of 
blotting-paper upon the specimen, beginning this operation at the 
edges, and gradually encroaching towards the centre till the whole 
can be pressed upon without danger of any part adhering to the blot- 
ting-paper, which probably would be the case, were the latter applied 
at once to the whole specimen. 

8. The specimen then to foe laid on a couple of drying papers placed 
on the carpet or a table; two more papers to be laid over it, and then 
the piece of boardi on which latter m few books are to be put, to give 
the necessary pressure. 

9. These papers to be changed every half hour or oftener, till the 
specimen is sv^ciently dry. (A number of specimens with drying 
papers interposed, may be pressed at once under the same board.) 

4 



Directions for preserving Sea Plants. 147 

Though the above method is in general the best, yet there are va- 
rious species, and among these the Ptocamium coccineum itself, 
which dry perfectly well by simple exposure to the open air without 
pressure being had recourse to at all ; and some can only be preserved 
in the latter way^ being so gli](tinous that they will adhere as strongly 
to the drying paper laid over them as to that on which they are 
spread. Pressure, however, is necessary after they have dried, for the 
purpose of flattening them.* 

After these general remarks, I will now offer some observations 
relating to several genera and species, following the order in which 
they are arranged in the English Flora. 

I believe all the species belonging to the Fucoidese are to be dried 
in the manner of land plants, after having been previously steeped 
ibr some time in fresh water to extract their salt and mucilage. C^s- 
toseira graaMdata^ which I have repeatedly found on the Lame shore, 
will adhere imperfectly if spread in water, but it is best treated as a 
land plant, to be afterwards fixed with mucilage. Halidrya stliquosa^ 
Fucus vesiculosuSf and P, nodosus require very heavy pressure. 
The air- vesicles of the first may be in part cut longitudinally to show 
the internal partitions, and of the two last, to diminish their diameter, 
but this must be done after they are dried, for if done in the recent 
state they contract and become disfigured. 

Himanthalia lorea. — Very common on the -Antrim coast. It 
is observed in the English Flora, that the peziza-shaped fronds of this 
species have been observed ** on exposed rocks in the Orkneys swol- 
len into a large hollow, exactly spherical, smooth black ball, probably 
in consequence of the heat of the sun rarifying and expanding the 
air within." I have seen them this summer in a similarly inflated 
state, not on exposed rocks, but in pools of water where they could 
never have been uncovered ; they were not black, but of a bright 
yellow colour, and looked exactly like a parcel of hard-boiled yolks of 
eggs. I suspect this inflation to be the effect of disease. 

Alaria esculenteu — Common on the Antrim coast. Adheres very 
well to paper when young, more imperfectly when old. It becomes 

* An indispensable requisite in the drying of marine or fresh water algae is a 
poition of old rag, neither of a quality too fine or too coarse. When the specimen 
has been spread, as directed, upon the paper on which it is to remain, a piece of 
ng sufficient to cover it should be laid over, and then it may be interleaved under 
the boards for pressure. The rag prevents the necessity of so much care in 
taking up the moisture as Mr Drummond requires, never adheres to the speci- 
mens, but when dry, leaves them, while most of the plants themselves stick 
irmly to the sheets on which they have been spread — Eds. 



148 Directions for preserving Sea Plants. 

rery transparent in drying, and is a great ornament to the herbariam. 
In the north of Ireland it is called murlins, and is often gathered for 
eating, but the part used is the leaflets, and not the midrib, as is com- 
monly stated. These have a very pleasant taste and flavour, but 
soon cover the roof of the mouth with a tenacious greenish crust, 
which causes a sensation somewhat like that of the fat of a heart or 
kidney. These leaflets or/?tnfu:pare quite membranaceous when young, 
but in fuH- grown plants are fleshy, and at their middle a quarter of 
an inch or more in thickness. Some of my specimens are of a fine 
light-green colour, others mottled with rich brown, and some are of 
a golden-yellow. Young specimens in general are of a uniform colour 
throughout. 

Laminaria digitatcu — This common plant is highly prized on 
many parts of the Antrim coast as a manure. Every kind, indeed, 
that is thrown up is used for the same purpose, and in some places it 
is a common saying, that a sack of sea-wrack will produce a sack of 
potatoes. After a fresh in -blowing wind, I have seen Caimlough 
Bay almost as populous as a fair, from the number of persons that had 
collected from several miles around with horses and cars to carry off 
the wrack. In calm or moderate weather the inhabitants of the coast 
wade in amongst the rocks at low- water with reaping-hooks, and cut 
away the F* vesiculostu and nodosus with the same object. They 
often also go out in boats, and cut the tangle with crooked knives 
fastened to the end of long poles, by which large quantities are ob- 
tained. On parts of the shore which are too rugged for a wheeled 
vehicle, the wrack is carried off in creels attached to the backs of 
ponies, and where these cannot have access^ both men and women 
may be seen toiling from the shore with bagfuls on their backs, or 
basketfuls on their shoulders. An almost universal opinion prevails, 
not only at Caimlough, but on every part of the coast, so far as I 
have been informed, that a much larger quantity of wrack is thrown 
ashore during rain than at other times. I inquired from many &r- 
mers, and from gentlemen living on the coast, respecting this, and 
they all considered it a thing perfectly ascertained. I first heard this 
opinion some years ago from a friend who lives at Donaghadee, in 
the county of Down, who stated, that it was quite a common thing 
for farmers in that neighbourhood to yoke their horses, and go to the 
beach for wrack as soon as rainy weather came, though, allowing the 
wind to be the same, they would not think of doing so if the weather 
were dry, thinking that this trouble would be useless. 1 have had a 
precisely similar account from a gentleman in the neighbourhood of 
Carrickfergus ; but yet with all this evidence I have not been able, 



Directions far preservinff Sea Plants. 149 

bom my own obeeryation, to find the least colour for belieyiag that 
there is any truth in the assertion, though I am puzzled to account 
ior the prevalence of the opinion in places so distant from each other. 
That there may occasionally he the appearcmce of more wrack on the 
shore dnring rain it is easy to oonceivey as plants which are thrown 
high np during a spring tide in dry weather may continue beyond 
the reach of the sea- water, shrivelled np, but on the coming of rain 
will expand and make a show, when before they were nndistinguish- 
abk ; bnt it can scarcely be supposed that this forms the foundation 
of the opinion I have mentioned. 

The desire to procure wrack at Caimlongh has increased much of 
kte years, in proportion as its utility has become better known ; and 
I hare at times been somewhat inclined to suspect that cutting the 
tangle in such quantities as is done, may have had some influence in 
diminishing the number of fishes in the bay, which are every year 
becoming more and more scarce, so that where they used to be plen- 
tiful, the fishermen now say they are scarcely worth the trouble of 
looking after. They uniformly attribute this failure to the steam- 
boats passing along the coast. 

As a manure for potatoes, the sea-wrack is not favourable to their 
dryness, but it greatly increases their produce, and the ground affords 
good crops of oats the following year without &rther manuring. 

The stem of L. digitata is round, but at Lame and also at 

Caimlough, I have often found it very much compressed, and re- 

' mafkably smooth throughout, but without any apparent specific dif- 



Z. huUH)sa does not adhere to paper, and therefore is to be treated 
as a land phint. 

Laminaria saccharifM^ — Very common, adheres to paper very well 
when young. 

Laminariaph^Uiiis, — Common on the Antrim coast. I can scarce- 
ly consider this as distinct firom L. saccharina. I have repeatedly 
seen the bullated appearance in the centre of the frond even in very 
young plants, but this nearly disappears in the dried specimen. Dr 
Greville states, Alg. Brit. p. 34, that it only adheres partly to paper 
in drying, but I believe that this will depend much on drcnmstances, 
for if the specimen be allowed to remain only a short time in frerii 
water, and be spread before it has lost its mucus, it will adhere pretty 
well, hut less perfectly if permitted a longer stay, unless perhaps that 
it have remained so long that incipient decomposition has come on. 
Most of my specimens. adhere closely. 

VOL. II. no. 8. L 



150 Directions fcT preserving Sea Plants. 

Desmarestia actdeata* Common. I found many specimens at Cairn- 
lough Bay in May,^and a few in June, in its young state, with the 
tufted fringes. When old, it is very frequent lying in large masses 
on the shore. Dr Greville accurately remarks, that " old plants do 
not adhere to paper in drying, and become a little darker. Young 
plants, still furnished with the pencils of filaments, adhere, and do not 
change colour at all." — Alg. Br. p. 38. 

I must here remark, that because species are found at the extre- 
mities of a kingdom, it may be yery erroneous to suppose that they 
are common to all the intermediate parts of the coast. In the Flora 
Hibemica, for instance, it is stated that Deamarestia liguleUa is " not 
uncommon on any of our shores from the Giant's Causeway to Ban- 
try Bay." Now, during nearly two months spent this summer at 
Caimlough Bay, in which scarcely a day passed that I did not examine 
some part of the shore, I did not find a fragment of it. I have from 
time to time gathered marine plants at Lame from my boyhood, and 
I never saw a trace there of this species, nor do I recollect ever find- 
ing a specimen of it but one, which I gathered a few years ago at 
Bangor, on the county Down, side of Belfiist Lough. 

Dichhria viridis. — Common at Caimlough, ofren lying in masses 
on the shore as large as, and not unlike a horse's tail. It is to be pre- 
served in the ordinary way, but, as is properly stated by Dr Greville, 
" m drying it does not adhere very firmly to paper ;" and the smaller 
the specimen, this is the more likely to happen ; but I have some spe- 
cimens of large size, whose branches coming in numerous points of 
contact with the paper, give to each other such a mutual supp(»rt that 
the whole adheres with considerable firmness. It will remain a long 
time unchanged in fresh water, and is little liable to decay itself though 
it so readily decomposes other species. 

From a preconceived idea that its solvent powers might have some 
strong afl&nity with those of the gastric juice, I was pretty confident 
that it would possess the quality of reuniting milk, but on making the 
experiment this summer, I ascertained that it had no such property. 
When it lies for some time in contact with Plocamium coccineum 
PHlotaplumosay and some other red-coloured species, it changes them 
to a bright violet, but this is frigitive, and disappears on drying ; the 
natural red colour continuing as before. 

Chordaria flageUiformis. — Common at Caimlough and most 
pdrts of our coast. Fine specimens grow on the rocks below Holy- 
wood near Bel£ftst. I do not know any species which gives out so 
great a quantity of mucus after being immersed in fresh water as this. 



Directions Jbr preserving Sea Plants. 151 

Its glutinosity also causes mnch difficulty in presenring gt)od speci- 
mens in the usual way, from its strong adhesion to the drying paper 
placed oyer it. The hest management is to spread it and allow it to 
dry at leisure exposed to the air ; in doing so it gives out a quantity 
of mucus of a brown colour, which tinges the paper along the sides of 
each branch, but this gives rather a richness and beauty to the speci- 
men than acts as a deformity. This mucus often has a glistening ap- 
pearance like the dried slime of a snail. 

Chorda Filunu — ^Very common, growing most luxuriantly in si- 
tuations somewhat sheltered from the violence of the open sea. It 
need not be spread in water, but if placed on white paper, and submit- 
ted to pressure under drying papers, by frequently changing these it 
will remain firmly attached to the former. By letting it steep in fresh 
water for several days to deprive it of its elasticity, it may be rolled 
into a spiral coil and then dried as above. It thus assumes an interest- 
ing though perhaps unnatural and fiEmtastic appearance. 

IXictrfota dichotomtu — Not uncommon, the variety jS (intricata) is 
very frequent on the Larne shore, ' though the normal form is rare, 
grows extremely flaccid soon after immersion in fresh water, and the 
easiest way to preserve it is to clean it in a plate with sea water, and 
to spread it immediately on the paper ready to receive it in the fresh 
water. 

Delesseria sanguinea. — This species has its colour very much 
beautified by letting it steep in fresh water for five or six hours or 
longer : this changes it firom ft garnet to a rich rose red, though it does 
not always retain when dried the same beauty of tint which it ex- 
hibits when moist. I found specimens at Caimlough in June, with 
the footstalks crowded with fructification, though it is commonly 
found in this state in winter and spring. It sometimes acquires a 
monstrous bulk ; a single firond of one specimen in my collection ga- 
thered at Caimlough Bay in July, measuring in length 10 J inches (in- 
dependent of the footstalk,) and at its middle 1\ inches in breadth.* 
The finest specimens of the usual form of the plant I have ever seen, 
were gathered at Groomsport on Belfast Lough. 

Deiesseria sinuosfu — The colour of this is also rendered more beau- 
tiful by steeping several days in fresh water. It is very common on 
the Antrim coast, and grows to a great size. A frond of one of the 

• It is excessively plaited at the edges, as are some of the other fronds from 
the same specimen, which are also cordate at the base in short, the variety ^ (la- 
tifolia) of Captain Cannichael, Eng. Flor. Vol. v. Part I p. 285, bat consider- 
ably larger than these described. 



152 Directionifor preserving Sea Plants. 

specimens I presenred in June at Cairnlough is 5{ inches long from 
the commencement of its lamina from the footstalk to the point, and 
is 7 inches broad ; another is 5^ inches long, and 7^ broad; and a third, 
6{ inches long, and somewhat more than 7 in breadth. The ciliary 
fractification is the most common, but the capsular is also frequent in 
the summer. Nothing can be more easy than to preserve this in the 
common way* 

Deleiseria akUa. — This is also yery easily put up, and, like moet of 
the garnet red ones, its colour is brightened by long maceration in 
fresh water. It grows very luxuriantly on the Antrim coast. 

Delesseria ^^o^2o«ium.— -Tolerably frequent. The effect of frwh 
water on this species is almost instantaneous. When recent it has 
considerable rigidity, and a large yariety, of which I found several spe- 
cimens at Caimlough Bay, and which at first sight I could scarcely re- 
cognize as being this species, was firm and cartilaginous, but after be- 
ing in the fresh water for a few minutes was perfectly flaccid, and its 
colour changing rapidly from garnet to orange-red. It may be pre- 
served in the common way without any trouble, and adheres closely 
to paper. The same may be remarked of Z>. ruscifoliay which is much 
more rare. 

NoiophyUum punctatunu — I found little of it this season. It also, 
when perfectly recent, is of a garnet red, and is as rigid as silk paper 
to the touch. When dipped in fresh water it emits a crackling noise^ 
turns rapidly to a rosy orange tint, grows extremely flaccid, and 
gives out a large quantity of pink colotring-matter. It is so very 
thin that it dries rapidly, and requires no particular precautions. 

NotophfUum ^erolum.— Common, rigid when recent, beoomee 
flaccid in fresh water, but is not otherwise changed, dries easily. 

Bhodomenia Uwiniaiiu — Abundant, and often very large ; is not 
altered by fresh water, except that it becomes less rigid, and more 
easily spread af)«r some hours maceration. It is best to change the 
papers firequently during its desiccation, as it sometimes adheres when 
this is neglected. I preserved a single specimen at Lame in July, 
which was so large that I was obliged to separate it into portions, 
and spread it on four folio leaves, the dimensions of which are as fol- 
low : — Specimen on first leaf 7^ inches from base to top ; 14 inches 
in breadth ; specimen on second leaf 7^ inches high, and 12^ broad ; 
specimen on third leaf 7 inches high, and 9^ broad ; specimen on 
fourth leaf, five portions of the frond occupying the greater part 
of it. 

Bhodomenia ciliata. — This species is very rare on the Antrim 



Directions for preserving Sea Plants. 1 53 

ooasty mt least in any place I have had an opportunity of visiting. I 
mention it merely to notice, that it g;ives a transparency to the paper 
on which it is spread, as if the latter had been oiled at the points 
of contact. 

BhodomeniapahnatOn — ^Dnlse. Dillisch. — Easily spread, but trouble- 
some, especially when laige, to retain in a flat expanded state on ac- 
count of its contracting very much as it dries. Dr Greville observes, 
that *' while rather young, the substance is very thin, slightly lubri- 
cous, and adheres to paper in drying, but not when in fructification." 
— AJg. Br. p. 98. Nothing can be more common than this species, 
but I have never seen it so extremely abundant as near the Garron 
Point, about three miles north of Caimlough. It there seems to oc- 
cupy the place which Pueus vesiculosa and P. nodosus do on other 
parts of the coast, and these species which do occur there are quite 
overgrown with it, as are also the stones and rocks. Large quantities 
are gathered at this place, and being dried, it is sold at a penny perpound 
to persons, who afterwards hawk it through the country towns for miles 
around : I was told that when taken to Ballymena, about fifteen miles 
firom this locality, it is sold at dd. or 4d. per pound. Dulse is brought 
in abundance to Belfiist from various quarters, and is sold by huxters. 
Its usual price, as retailed by persons who come direct from the shore, 
and sell it from door to door, is about 4d. per pound, but in the dried 
state it is very light and bulky. There are few persons who are not 
pleased with its taste and flavour. In general it is not swallowed, 
but is chewed, sucked, and then discarded. 

Dr Greville states, that ** both the Scots and Irish wash the plants 
in fr^h water, dry it in the sun, and rolling it up chew it like tobac- 
co. But it is usually eaten fresh from the sea." — Alg. Br. p. 94. 
In this part of the world I have never seen it brought for sale when 
fr-esh, nor is it here ever washed in fresh water previously to drying, 
which, indeed, I should apprehend, would deprive it of those qualities 
for which it is prized, namely, its flavour and saltness. 

At Ballycastle, a small variety is found of a very rich claret-colour, 
growing on rocks, which is more highly valued than the common 
kind. It is called Cndgan Dulse, the latter name, however, being 
generally given to such as grow on rocks, and which is esteemed 
more highly than that growing on tangle and other seaweeds. One 
fiskvourite way of using dulse is, to cut it very small, and then eat it 
strewn thick on a slice of bread and butter. 

Rhodomenia reniformis. — ^At Cairnlough Bay I found in June a 
few but very beautifril specimens of this rare species, which adheres 



154 Directions far preservifig Sea Plants. 

extremely cloBely to paper, and is very easily preserved. One speci- 
men, about three inches long and two broad, of an obovate form, has 
its margin fringed with nearly fifty lobes, each on a narrow foot- 
stalky and having so formal an appearance as rather to resemble a 
work of art than of nature. These lobes are generally circular, 
though some are ovate, and others obovate, and in width from the 
diameter of a pea or less, to that of a sixpence, the smaller ones oc- 
cupying the torn edges of the frond. 

OdonthaUa dentata* — Common, is very easily spread, but when 
nearly dry the main stem contracts and separates from the paper, es- 
pecially in old plants. The extremities of the fronds, however, some- 
times adhere very well. 

Laurencia pinnatifida. — When recent is rigid and cartilaginous, 
but soon gets flaccid in fresh water, and gives out much mucus and 
colouring matter. If allowed to remain too long in maceration it 
becomes almost gelatinous, and will then require to be nearly dry by 
exposure to air, before it is submitted to pressure, when it must 
be very often changed to prevent adhesion. The var. |3. (Fucw 
osmundoy Gmel.) is not very frequent on our coast, though very fine 
specimens are occasionally thrown ashore. The other varieties are as 
common as on most coasts. In spreading variety jS. it will be often 
necessary to cut away such superfluous branches, as if retained would 
encumber the specimen, and give it an indistinct and confused appear- 
ance. One very important part, indeed, of the art of preserving marine 
plants is to sufliciently prune luxuriant specimens. Ptilota plumosoy 
for instance, is ofben so luxuriant on our coast, that unless much 
thinned it would form on paper a confused and unsightly mass.* The 
same remark will apply to several other species. 

Laurencia obtusa, — I have now found this species on the Antrim 
coast, north of Belfast Lough, and there, I believe, it only grows on 
the county Down side, though detached specimens are not unfre- 
quently thrown on the opposite. About Bangor it is not uncommon, 
growing in pools of sea water. It is best preserved by letting it be 
nearly dry before it is pressed. 

Chylocladia claveUastu — Common in Belfast Lough, and on the 
Antrim coast, and of very large size ; should be nearly quite dry be- 
fore it is submitted to pressure. 

Chflocladia ovalie. — I never found this species till June last, when 

* This practice may be useful when preserving specimens for examination ; in 
other cases the character of the species will be entirely lost — Eds. 

3 



Directions for preserving Sea Plants. 155 

I detected it sparingly in a rocky pool about half-way between Glen- 
arm and Caimlough Bay. There were many other pools at the same 
locality, bat it only occurred in the one. It was when growing al- 
most entirely of a yellowish olive-green, but reddened a little when 
exposed to the air, and still more when steeped in fresh water. It 
was in fruit, having granules imbedded in the ramuli. 

Chflocladia arHculata. — Common. This and the other Chylo- 
dadia just mentioned, (the stem of C. ovalia excepted) are so suc- 
culent, that a person who had seen them only in the dried state could 
have little idea of the appearance they present in the recent. C 
ckmellosa when just spread on paper looks so thick, coarse, and com- 
plicated, that one might almost despair of its becoming fit for preserv- 
ing, yet when simply left to itself it dries away to the greatest de- 
gree of tenuity, becomes so attached to the paper as to seem incor- 
porated with it, and forms one of the most beautiful plants of the 
herbarium. C. articulata is best dried under pressure from the first, 
and the two or three first times it is changed, it will be advisable to 
remove the moisture it has discharged by blotting-paper. 

Spharococcus coronopifolius. — Not unfrequent This species dries 
easily in the usual way, but its branches shrink up very much in 
diameter, I think, to more than one-half their original thickness. It 
adheres pretty well to paper, and, as remarked in the Flora Hiber- 
nica, becomes darker in drying. It '< becomes horny in the thicker 
parts."— Grev. Alg. Br. p. 138. 

Ptilotaplumosiu — Common, growing especially on the stems oiLa>^ 
ndnaria digitata. This beautiful species is much improved for spread- 
ing by maceration for six or eight days in fresh water. When taken 
from the sea, (especially large specimens,) it is so rigid that the smal- 
ler ramuli escape from pressure and shrink up, thereby deteriorating 
the beauty of the specimen. This is considerably obviated by long 
steeping, from which the plant becomes more flaccid and obedient to 
pressure, and the colour is in general also more beautiful. Old spe- 
cimens dry sometimes almost black, and this occurs sometimes even 
after long maceration, for this species retains its colouring matter with 
great pertinacity. 

Iridasaedulis. — Common; but, as every botanist knows, is very sel- 
dom thrown ashore in a perfect state, being torn and perforated in 
every possible way. As it grows in pools of water, it may occasion- 
ally be found in a good state several inches long. It adheres strongly 
to paper, and is easily preserved. I am inclined to suspect, from the ap- 
pearance of some of my specimens, that the perforations so common 



156 DirecHoMfor preserving Sea Plants. 

in this species are not acddentaL, but that portions spontaneously se- 
parate £rom the frond and drop out. 

DunumHaJUiJinynis. — Very oommon. Should be nearly dry before 
pressure is used. 

Porfih^a iaciniata* — Exceedingly oommon. This I believe is the 
only species used in Ireland under the name of Sloke {Lover ia 
En^and.) It is gathered during the winter months only, the fronds 
bcong too tough in the summer. After being properly cleaned, it is 
stewed mtii a little batter to prerent its getting a burnt flayour, and 
is brouf^t to Belfast, where it ie sold by measure, usually at the rate 
of fivepence per quart Before being brought to table, it is again 
heated, with an additional quantity of butter, and is usually eaten 
with vinegar and pepper. I hare never heaxd of any ill effects attri- 
buted to its use. 

Porp^ra tmlgarie. — FVequent on the coast, but so excessively 
abundant at Caimlongh Bay, that it often proved a serious obstiuo- 
tion to my collecting other species, by covering and hiding them fiKUD 
sight. Dr Greville mentions a specimen 3^ feet in length, but I 
saw many specimens of considerably larger dimensions. It is the 
most difficult plant I know to preserve in perfection^ not that thore 
is any difficulty in ^reading and going through the other steps of 
the process, but because, when it ha& nearly arrived at the last stage 
of drying, a moment's exposure to the air will cause it to contract 
so instantaneously, that the edges of the paper are immediately drawa 
towards eadi other, and, if attempted to be restored without the 
whole being first damped, the specimen tears through the middle^ 
and becomes of little value. The edges of the plant adhere strongly 
to tibe paper when dry, or nearly so, but the centre does not adhere 
at all, and being as fine as gold-beaters' leaf, though having oonside* 
rable strength, it at once loses the little moisture it possesses, on 
coming in contact with the air, and contracts with a force remarka- 
ble, when we oonsidor its extreme thinness. If the paper be thin, 
its four comers will in a moment be brought almost in contact with 
eadi other. I believe the best chance of succeeding is, when we 
suppose that it is almost dry, to have a flat book (such as a music 
book) held open, and the pressure being taken o% to remove the 
specimen along wit^ the drying paper covering it, as quickly as po^ 
sible, between the leaves of the book, which is to be immediately 
closed^ and not opened till next day, or till we are satisfied that the 
desiccation is absolutely complete. 

The colour in this species varies very much,^n some specimens 



Directiorts for preserving Sea Plants. 1 57 

being pale, and in others a rich reddish-purple ; sometimes a bright 
orange^ which latter, I believe, is the effect of incipient decay. I 
often obserred it at Cairnlough, when floating in still water, to have 
an appearance as if it were bordered with white, and on closer in*- 
spection I found that this proceeded from the margin having attached 
to it in its whole extent minute air bubbles, which in certain lights 
looked eiauddy like a regular row of seed-pearL On disturbing the 
plant, these bubbles were not very easily dislodged. They appeared 
equally in shade as in sunshine. 

Pohfsiphania violaeea* — Abundant at Caimlough Bay, in May, and 
in fruit in June. When put in fresh water, it almost immediately 
gives out a cloud of colouring matter, of the tint of Roman ochre, 
and bectxnes much daricer in colour than before. When it has lain 
for a night in a wet state on the edge of a dish, I have found it on 
the following day to be almost black. When roUed in a large bunch 
on the shore by the action of the waves, its long &sciculated 
l»anches become so ravelled, that it is almost impossible to get them 
disengaged from each other, and from this cause I lost some fine 
specimens, as I found the task of unraveUing them too trying for 
any ordinary degree of human patience. It adheres firmly to paper. 

Ikuya cocGt9itfa.^"Common. When quite fresh, it is of a gamet-red 
ctJonr, and, like most others of that tint, it becomes of a beautifril 
roee pink, when macerated in fresh water. 

Ceramivm rubrttm. — I found a number of specimens of this very 
common plant, with distinct capsules imbedded in the substance of 
the filaments. The central parts of these were so opaque, that I 
could not with the microscope distinguish separate seeds, but each 
globular mass was surrounded by a hyaline ring, and in some speci- 
mens, where, from decay, the filament had become white, the glo- 
bules retained the same intensity of colour as in other parts ; shew- 
ing that thttr vital properties had protected them from the decaying 
process to which the part containing them had yielded. 

I have an interesting specimen of Delesseria sinuasOf which is 
bleached almost as white as the paper on which it lies ; bjit the cili- 
ary processes upon its margin, containing the seeds, are of the usual 
colour and form, a beautifdl contrast wiUi the rest. It seems to me 
indeed not improbable that cases might occur where attention to cir« 
cumstanoes of this kind might throw some light on the reproductive 
parts of some of these tribes. 

CfriJUhsia setacea.^~Common on the Antrim coast. It was chief- 
ly in reference to this species that I threw out a caution with regaid 



158 On the Night- Jar. 

to cleaning specimens in fresh water, for a very short exposure of it 
to the latter depriyes it of most of its colour, and materially alters 
its appearance. By adopting the following method, I find that spe« 
cimens of this species can be preserved in a much more beautiful 8tat« 
than by any other. I first clean the specimen in a dish containing 
sea water, and disentangle any branches that may be interwoven, and 
when ready, I transfer it to a paper lying in fresh water and spread 
it out. This is done without any trouble, for the plant is still rigid and 
perfectly tractable, whereas, had it been previously soaked in fresh 
water, it would be quite flaccid, and not at all so manageable. When 
spread, the paper is to be held up till it is well drained, and then to 
be laid flat, the moisture that remains continuing to act on the plant, 
causes the latter to give out its colouring matter, and this forms a 
cloud of bright pink surrounding the specimen, giving a richness and 
beauty to it which cannot in any other way be obtained. Chylo- 
cladia clavillosa, and some others, treated in a similar way, are also 
much enriched in appearance by their colouring matter given out. 
When almost dry pressure is to be applied. 

*> CeUithamnion plumula, — Not unfrequent at Caimlough Bay. I 
have found it also in Belfast Lough ; but at Lame, which is nearly 
intermediate between these two places, I have never seen a trace of 
it. Its colour is brightened by steeping for some hours, or even a 
night, in fresh water. It may be dried either with or without pres - 
sure. 



YL-^ Observcttions on the Caprimulgus Europceus (Night'Jar.y 
By Dr W. B. Clarke, Ipswich. 

Birds of the genus Caprimulgus are nearly allied to the Hirun- 
dines, and appear to bear the same relation to them that the owls do 
to the hawks, or the Bombycidse to the Papilionidae, amongst the le- 
pidopterous Insects. 

The species more particularly under consideration is the Europsean 
night-jar, Caprimulgus Europ<gus. Its length is about ten inches 
and a-half. The plumage is of a brown colour, beautifully varied 
with spots and streaks of light yellowish-brown, white, cinereous, and 
black. The chin and sides of the mouth marked with white ; and in 
the male, the tips of the two external tail-feathers, and a spot on the 
three distal primary feathers of the wings on each side are white. 
The markings on the different parts of the body are so complex and 
varied as almost to exceed a perfect description. 



On the Night-Jar. 159 

The night-jar is provided with an extremely wide mouth, which 
is beantifnllj constructed for taking its prey, which consists princi- 
pally of the larger Bomhycidss. I have taken sometimes seven or 
eight moths, of the size of the yellow underwing, almost entire from 
the stomach. So heautifully is the mouth adapted for the reception 
of this kind of prey, that it opens like a trap, and presents a funnel- 
like aperture to receive the insect that the bird makes a dash at. 
The vibrissas in this bird are very strong, and can be depressed against 
the side of the mouth, or erected at pleasure. Not only is the mouth 
remarkably large, but the vibrissse are so directed when the mouth is 
open, as to reflect any insect into it which might otherwise have been 
missed by the bird in its attack. These vibrissse stand out on either 
side of the mouth more than equal to half the width of the mouth 
itself, by which means the bird is rendered more sure of the seizure 
of its prey. 

The eye of the night-jar has a structure very similar to that of 
ei^lea, hawks, and owls, and is, like the eyes of these, furnished with a 
strong bony ring, which surrounds the cornea, and strengthens the scle- 
rotic coat in that part, and renders it so unyielding, that a slight pressure 
upon the sclerotic coat behind the ring causes the humours of the eye 
to be forced into a degree of convexity which could not be attained 
without this provision. By this beautiful yet simple contrivance the eye 
can be adapted to distant or close vision, according to the increase or 
decrease of convexity. The cornea has considerable dimensions, which 
enables the eye to receive a great deal of light, by which means ob- 
jects become distinctly seen, which would be otherwise invisible in a 
paucity of light. The sketches 
y and I represent two views of r>J 
the eye of the Night-jarr : y is 
the lateral view, and h is the 
front of the same eye : a a re- 
present the situation of the os- 
seous ring. "^ ^« ^y 

The middle toe of this bird 
is provided with a singularly pec- 
tinated claw, with the tooth-like 
processes pointing, with a gentle 
curve, inwards and backwards, 
as the bird sits grasping its 

perch. It is a difficult thing to decide upon what use this can be 
to the animal in its economy, for other birds, (the heron for in- 





160 OnOie Night- Jar. 

stance,) whose habits are extremely different to those of the night- 
jar, are provided with a pectinated or serrated claw very similar to 
this. The figure f amongst the sketches represents the daw and 
part of the middle toe of one of the feet, shewing the serrated form 
of the daw. 

The Caprimulgos Europaeus is the only British species of this 
genns. It is a migratory bird, and generally makes its appearance 
in England about the latter end of May or the beginning of June, 
and remains with ns generally until the end of September or be- 
ginning of October. As it proceeds from the eastward, it visits 
the Island of Malta in the Mediterranean, and the south of Franoe» 
about a month sooner than it arrives in England. On the other 
hand, in its passage from our island, it leaves us about the latter 
end of September, and south of France about the latter end of Octo- 
ber. Some French authors assert, that in rare instances this spe- 
cies has been shot in some of the woods and mountainous parts of 
Vosges in the middle of winter. This species has also been found in 
the open parts, as weU as the woods and rocky parts, of Siberia and 
Kamtschatka. 

The night-jar feeds upon insects which it takes in its flight, and 
this is principally done during the night, and by morning and even- 
ing twilight) these being the times at which it generally flies, although 
it may be occasionally seen at intervals during the day ; but this ap- 
pears principally to be when it has been driven from its diurnal re- 
treat by some intruder. The plumage is peculiarly soft, whidi en- 
ables it, at its pleasure, to pass rapidly through the air without the 
vibrations of its wings being heard, and nature has so beautifully 
provided for its safety during its diurnal rest, that it can only, with 
the greatest difficulty, be discovered amongst the decayed branches 
and trunks of trees, the dead ferns, and leaves amongst which it hides ; 
the colours of the plumage much resembling the tints of the bodies 
amidst which it secretes itself. The bird lays two c^gs upon the 
bare ground where it is a little hollowed out beneath a whin bush, 
patch of ferns, or some other similar body, which serves as a kind of 
security or shelter to the parent bird whilst incubating. The egg* is 
large for the size of the bird ; has both ends nearly alike in size, is 
prettily mottled with brown, rdieved by marblings of paler tints of the 
same colour. To give an idea of the habits of this bird, I shall here 
insert a few notes that I have made at different times respecting iU 
When in the middle of a heath in the neighbourhood of this town, 
and at the distance of a quarter of a mile from any wood, my atten- 



On the Night-Jar. 161 

tion was suddenly arrested by the appearance of a male night-jar, 
(Caprimulgus Enropseus,) which rose from a small spot of hare 
ground by the side of a whin bush, and after flying about eight or 
ten yards, alighted upon the ground with its wings and tail expand- 
ed, and its head turned round towards me : here it remained a few se- 
conds, and afterwards, slowly fluttered along the ground over the 
space of four or fiye yards, describing a curved course, and apparent- 
ly with difficulty, appearing, by its actions, to imitate a wounded 
bird labouring to fly. This was doubtlessly done to decoy me away 
from the spot it had risen from ; but which I walked up to, and there 
found two eggs lying in a slightly hollowed spot of ground beneath 
the shelter of a whin bush. One would suppose that the little ani- 
mal was led by reason to act this admirable part, for the incapability 
of a wounded bird to rise into the air was so exquisitely represented 
by this little creature, that an individual unacquainted with the habits 
of birds might have been led from the site of its eggs, by the idea of 
his being able to secure it. After fluttering a short distance it rose 
from the ground, and flew slowly in a curved direction away from 
me^ and was lost amongst the bushes that were thickly dispersed 
around. Upon a cursory view the eggs struck me as much resem- 
bling the white stones speckled with lichens which are commonly 
to be seen upon heaths, from which characters they would very ge- 
nerally elude the eye of any one walking past them, although he 
might even be in search of them. 

Supposing that the bird would soon make its appearance again to 
visit its eggs, 1 was induced to secrete myself as well as I could be- 
hind a whin bush, about fifteen yards from the spot where the eggs 
were lying, and from this place 1 had an opportunity of observing 
the actions of this interesting little creature. After waiting about a 
quarter of an hour it came round to the whin bush under which its 
^gs were lying ; over this it lightly skimmed and hovered, as if to 
ascertain whether its eggs were safe, and then suddenly turning, came 
flitting directly towards me, and approached within a few feet of my 
&ce, and then flew off. This it did two or three times at intenrals of 
ten minutes or thereabouts. It was now about a quarter to nine 
o'clock on the 21st of June a. d. 1832, the sun had set about a 
quarter of an hour : the evening was mild and fine, and all was stiU, 
when the peculiar note of the night-jar was fidntly heard, but the 
bird at this time was not visible : soon after this a faint squeak was 
heard, and a pair of night-jars were seen in the air, occasionally flnt* 
tering within a few yards of me, and at intervals remaining motion- 
less in the air with their wings expanded ; then fluttering and ho- 



162 On the Night-Jar. 

veringp ; then descending nearlj to the ground with their wings ex- 
panded and elevated oyer their backs, at the same time striking them 
together, the back of one against that of the other, so as to produce a 
smart snapping sound. This was often accompanied by a sharp quick 
sound or squeak. At another time they would skim round me at a 
few feet distant from the earth, — again they would hover at a short 
distance from me, occasionally reiterating the sharp squeak before 
described, — ^then they would fly to a neighbouring whin bush, and, 
perching upon the top of it, commence the peculiar sound irom which 
their name (night-jar) is derived, and which precisely resembles the 
sound produced by a wheel in quick rotation. Then they would rise 
into the air, again gliding through it without producing the least 
sound, again hovering, flitting, and squeaking. Thi? they continued 
until, from the darkness of the night, I could see them no more, al- 
though I could at the same time distinctly hear them, and knew they 
were close by me. I observed when these birds were sitting that their 
wings were a little expanded, the body nearly horizontal, with the head 
rather elevated. These birds will sit sometimes in a wood perched 
upon a dead branch of an oak tree, with their bodies in a direction 
parallel with that of the branch, and in this situation, just as the sun 
goes down, will commence their jarring or vibrating note, and at in- 
tervals flit suddenly from this situation through an opening amongst 
the trees, skimming and hovering for a short time around and amidst 
the tops of the neighbouring oak trees, and then * settle upon the 
branch from which they rose, and again commence their jarring note, 
then again dash into the upper part of the trees at some unwary 
moth, and again light upon the same bough, repeating this at inter- 
vals, and each time upon alighting commence their vibrating note, 
which they continue as long as they maintain their sitting posture. 
We have not at present been able to detect a bird in the act of mak- 
ing its vibrating note whilst upon the wing. Upon visiting a spot 
where these birds are likely to be, as soon as the sun goes down, if 
the evening be fine, their vibrating note may be heard if the birds 
are sitting, or their little sudden squeak several times repeated will 
announce their flight, and presently the little creatures will be seen 
like airy sprites floating at no great distance from the ground, or over 
the tops of trees, so prettily and lightly do they seem to float and 
fan themselves along. Often upon a heath, when the night is fine, 
yet dark from the lateness of the hour, and the vibrating sound of 
the night-jar is heard at no great distance, if one walks towards the 
sound it will soon cease, and afler a few seconds of perfect stillness, 
the sound will be again heard at a distance. If we continue our course 



On the Advancement of Local Botany near handon. 163 

we shall find the sound increasing upon us. Upon walking on in the 
same direction it will soon cease, and after an interval of silence will 
be heard again at a distance ; for the eye of the night-jar is so heauti- 
fiiUy adapted for nocturnal or crepuscular vision, that it observes the 
^proach of an object, although a person is incapable of distin- 
guishing his companion, or a body the size of himself at the distance 
of a few feet only. They will wander over a considerable tract of 
ground in the course of an evening in search of prey, beginning by 
flitting over the spot near which they have taken up their diurnal 
abode, and afterwards continuing to fly over some heath or moor at 
a considerable distance from the place where they were first seen. 
This bird is by no means common in the neighbourhood of Ipswich, 
but there are places not very distant from the town where a pair or 
two of them may be generally found every year. 



VII. — On the advancement of Local Botany in the environs ofLon- 
dony with remarks relative to the Dispersion of Plants in that 
vicinity, and the formation of plans exhibiting the Distribution of 
Species over localities. By Daniel Cooper, Curator to the 
Botanical Society of London, &c. 

The formation of the Botanical Society of London, and the 
publication of the Flora Metropolitana, or Botanical Rambles within 
thirty miles of London, have been the means of bringing forward nu- 
merous papers and plans, exhibiting the distribution of the localities 
of species in the directions firequented by the metropolitan botanist, 
and of advancing the objects of local Roras generally. No local 
Flora of the environs of so extensive a dty, and, as will be presently 
shewn, producing species of so rare occurrence, having been published 
in a cheap and portable form,* induced me to attempt to arouse the 
minds of practical men towards the furtherance of this object. In 
directing their attention to this subject, I had two objects in view : 
the first, to solicit their aid for the purpose of endeavouring to arrive 
at a more accurate and actual Flora of the environs of so great a city — 
the latter, to obtain correspondents who might be willing to join in 
the establishment of a society for mutual intercourse and benefit. In 

* About sixty years since <' Curtis's Flora Londinensis'* was published. This 
work contains plates of all the species that had been found round London. 
3 large folio volumes. Mr Warner published a Local Flora on the plants of 
Woodford, Essex ; and Mr Blackstone of Harefield, Middlesex. The localities 
in these works cannot be relied on» having both been brought forward upwards 
of sixty years since. 



164 On the Advancement of Local Botany near London, 

both mj objects have been realized to a greater extent than had been 
expected. Contributors without number have kindlj lent their assist* 
ance towards the accomplishment of the first object, and the second 
has already manifested itself by the formation of the " Botanical So- 
ciety of London/' That local botany is attracting more notice dail j 
throughout the kingdom, is evident from the number of local floras 
of late years published, and raluable, indeed, they are to the naturalist, 
•^if we consider the immensity of labour, trouble, and time, spared 
to the lover of nature for other pursuits. 

The rapid formation of the Botanical Society of London affords a 
still greater proof of the progress of that department of science, since 
we find that out of seventy members elected since its formation, 
(29th Nov. 1836,) two-thirds at least devote the major part of their 
time to practical botany. That a society embracing the objects it 
does, has been long a desideratum in the metropolis, cannot be denied, 
and is evident firom the number of its members, and also from the va- 
rious important memoirs that have been brought forward relating to 
subjects deserving the attention not only of the practical, but the 
physiological and geographical botanist. 

I shall now offer some views respecting the formation of plans, ex- 
hibiting the actual flora of the vicinity of, or in, any particular loca- 
lity, in order that the botanist, at a glance of a map or plan of such 
a locality, would be enabled with greater Estcility to arrive at or near 
the spot where any species have been observed to grow. The 
first idea of this nature was brought before the Botanical Society 
of London on the 5th January 1837, illustrating a paper which I 
read on the distribution of plants in one of our principal localities in 
the immediate vicinity of London, — a locality for years celebrated for 
the profuse supply of specimens it has yielded to the naturalist. I 
allude to Battersea Fields, the spot where most of our ancestors and 
ourselves have often rambled with so much profit and delight. In 
the subsequent part of this paper, I shall give in a table the number 
of genera and species found in various localities. 

In producing plans of this kind, there is but one objection, 
viz. that many botanists of the present day are not content with 
collecting one, or even half-a-dozen specimens, more particularly 
if the plant is of tmcommon occurrence, and I have known instances, 
where whole species have been rooted out by the eagerness and ava- 
rice of the collector* Such measures ought not to be adopted to the 
destruction of the habitats of species. If the plants are annuals it is 
doing injustice to the rising generation of botanists ; if they are Inen- 



On the Advancement of Local Botany near London. 165 

nials or perennkdgy surelj collecting the portion above the earth in 
most instances is sufficient, without rooting out the species entirely. 
There are certain plants of which the root is necessary for distinguish- 
ing and defining specific characters ; in such cases some attention 
ahonld be paid to the number of species observed in the locality ; 
bearing in mind the necessity of leaving a sufficient number for the 
continuance of the propagation of the species. It has been observed^ 
by some eminent botanists of the present day, that the formation of 
the different societies for the exchange of specimens, &c will in a 
great measure have the effect of destroying some of our richest loca- 
lities. Let it not be understood, that the formation of maps and plans 
of the nature before alluded to, are for the purpose of facilitating these 
ravages. That in the hands of the most avaricious they will do so, I 
have not the slightest hesitation in acknowledging, but it is to be 
hoped that not many of those individuals now exist, who would 
thus damp the ardour and zeal of the rising generation of botanists, 
and also be the means of retarding science, while the execution of 
such ideas may prove beneficial to the scientific inquirer. 

The plan of Battersea Fields before alluded to, exhibited the vari- 
ous houses, ditches, fields, and other minor but interesting stations, 
on the scale of two feet to the mile. This plan was executed and 
the locality surveyed by myself, in order that accuracy might be the 
result. / afierwards learned thai this labour and trouble might have 
been spared, by inspecting the plan of the parish or parishes from 
which the rates are made, and therefore, on a scale sufficient for the 
present purpose ; it is, I understand, generally to be found hanging 
up in the vestry room, or in the care of the vestry-clerk of the parish. 
Such plans might be conveniently applied to local Floras, and would 
be admirable desiderata to such works, numbering the species in the 
letter-press to correspond with the numbers on the plate ; thus sup- 
posing the cut to represent a plan of a locality, and the figures some- 
what the situation of the plants there found. 




VOL. II. NO. B. 



166 On the Advancement of Local Botany near London, 

1. Alisma Damasonium 6. Campanula hederocea 

2. Menyantfaes trifoliala 7. Galium verum 

3. Villarsia nymphs^ides 8. Rhinanthus crista galli 

4. Drosera rotundifolia 9. Saxiihiga granulata 

5. Narthecium ossiiragum 10. Butomus umbellatus 

By using figures in the place of writing or printing the names in 
full, much unnecessary space can be dispensed with ; and thus a plan 
of a locality on the scale of three or four inches to the mile, might 
be conveniently introduced into a duodecimo or octavo volume. Any 
additional localities the botanist might discover could with facility be 
marked on the spot in their proper situations, by making additional 
figures on the plan, which figures of course to agree with the names 
of the plants upon a separate page. In this way it appears to me 
that much time might be spared the naturalist for his other pursuits, 
and also be the means of producing more complete and accurate local 
Floras than any plan hitherto adopted. 

In conclusion, I have a few remarks to make upon the dispersion 
of species in the environs of London. The former hints respecting 
t)ie eradication of plants will be sufificient to those coUectors who are 
in the habit of herbcUizing into various counties. Such individuals 
must bear in mind, that the lover of natural history is the more or 
less proud of his country, according to the specimens of interest and 
value that have been collected in it. Take for instance the 
county of Surrey — what would it be to the botanist without its orchi- 
deous and chalk plants, for which it has been long celebrated. At 
Boxhill, and the hills adjoining, with other places in the neighbour- 
hood, (and in this, as well as all places hereafter cited, within a dis- 
timce of thirty miles of London,) the following lists of orchideous and 
other uncommon plants have been found. 

Orchideous Plants. 

f Ophrys apifera, 30. • Platanthera viridis, f Orchis hirdna, 34 

t muscifera, 80. (BauBtead Doum,J f militaris, 84. 

t aianifera, 81. f Aceras anthropophora, • Malazis paludosa (Rei- 

arachnites, 80. 20. gate. J 

f Anacamptis pyramida- f Orchis maculata, 5, 16. Herminium monorcbis, 

lis, 84. f mascula, 16. 32. 

f Gymnadeniaconopsea, f fusca, 34. f Neottia nidus avis. 

34. latifolia, 15. f Listera ovata, 15-34* 

+ Platanthera bifolia, 16, f mono, 84. f Spiranthes autumnalis, 

34. ustulata, 84. 29-80. 

• Those marked thus • have been recently discovered in this county. 

_—_ f have been also discovered in Kent 

The numbers affixed correspond to the pages where the localities may be seen 
in the " Flora MetropoUtana,'* 1886. 



Oh the Advancement of Local Botany near London* 167 



t Epipactis grandiflora, 
SO. 

Xanthinm stnimarium, 8, 

98. 
Tulipa sylvestris, 3. 
Myofiunis minimus, 1,23. 
GbeUdonium laciniatum, 

1. 
Polygonum dumetorum,4. 
Sjrmphytum tubero!ium,3. 
Anemone apennina, 1, 39. 
MelilotDS leucantha, 30. 
* Crocus aureus, 
vernus, 15. 



f Epipactis ensifolia, 32. f Epipacds latifolia, 4. 
palu8tris,ll7 



Narcissus bifiorus, 15 
FVitillaria meleagris, 25. 
Dentaria bulbifera, 21. 
Leonurus cardiaca, 21. 
Botrychium lunaria, 22. 
Scrophularia vemalis, 22. 
Coronopus didyma, 25. 

• Utricularia vulgaris. 
Astragalus hypoglottis, 

26. 

* Corydalis lutea, 
Hesperis matronalis, 30. 



Impatiens noli-me-tan- 

gere, 30. 

fulva, 43. 

Sdlla autumnalis, 30. 
Lilium martagon, 31. 
Chrysosplenium oppositi^ 

folium, 39. 
Vaccinium oxycoccus, 40. 
Adoxa moschatellina, 40. 
Lonicera xylosteum, 40. 
Myricagale, 41. 
Osmunda rqgalis, 42. 



From inspecting the above lists it may be easily imagined that the 
botanist resident in Surrey is not a little proud of his country. The 
metropolitan botanist also can certainly boast of a Rora perhaps not 
to be equalled throughout the whole of England. In this district he 
is particularly rich in orchideous plants. Of the 36 species describe 
ed as British, 26 are fotmd dispersed within thirty miles from London. 

In Kent, it may be observed that the species are not quite so abun- 
dant, in the ratio of 21 to 36, including two species that have not 
as yet to my knowledge been found in Surrey, at least within the 
range before specified, viz. * Orphrys fucifera and Orchis tetropho- 
fonthosy 61. These plants are not confined to the counties of Surrey 
and Kent, in the London district, as might perhaps be supposed; 
they also occur in Essex and Middlesex, but not so frequently. To- 
wards Harefield and St Albans they make their appearance again in 
great quantities. We have then in the combined counties of Surrey 
and Kent, as fiir as observation has gone, 28 species out of 36 British 
orchideous plants, the remaining eight being mostly confined to the 
northern districts. 

Nor is Kent behind her sister county in other rare plants, — AUh^a 
hireuta, Bupleurum tenuissimumy HtUchinsia petrady ValerianeUa 
ealciirapa, Hyoscyamus niger, Paris quadrijhlioy Gentiana ama^ 
reUoy and G, pnevmonanthe may be considered but a few of them. 

With regard to the distribution of the whole of the species within 
thirty miles of London, I have from careful examination and research 
arrived at the following result : 



Lindley's Ist edition of Synopsis of British Flora, 
ri. Dichlamydeae, Nat. Ord. 67 Genera 370 
Dicotyledons. \ 2. Monochlamydec, 14 25 

[d. AcUamydese, 5 14 



904 
91 
86 



86 



409 



1081 



168 On the Advancemefd of Local Botany near London. 

%M ^1 J i 1. PetaloidejB, Nat. Ord. 16 Genera 58 SpedcB 147 
Monocotyledons, -[ 2. Glumaceas, 2 69 224 



18 127 871 



Found within thirty miles of London. (Flora Metropolitana.) 

ri. Dichlamydeas, Nat Ord. 64 Genera 317 Species 683 

Dicotyledons. \ 2. Monochlamydea:, 13 20 72 

[3. AcUamydee, 5 14 49 

82 351 804 

.. _, , Vi Petaloidee, Nat Ord. 16 Genera 46 Species 106 

Monocotyledons, p.. Qj^^^^^ 2 57 137 

18 103 243 



Total in Lindley's Synopsis. 

Dicotyledons, Nat Ord. 86 Genera 409 Species 1061 

Monocotyledons, 18 127 371 

104 536 1452 



Total in " Flora Metropolitana." 
Dicotyledons, Nat Ord. 82 Genera 351 Species 804 

Monocotyledons, 18 103 243 

100 454 1047 

Several papers having been read before the Botanical Society of 
London on the distribution of the number of species in certain loca- 
lities within a few miles of London, the results might perhaps be in- 
teresting to some of your readers. Mr Irvine* found 670 species 
within two miles of Hampstead, Middlesex, and 900 within the same 
distance of Croydon, Surrey. Dr Madntyre f found 10 genera, in- 
cluding 23 species of ferns — 65 genera, including 136 species of Mo- 
nocotyledons, — and 265 genera, including 542 species of Dicotyledo- 
nous plants around Warley Common, Essex. Ij: have found 61 Na- 
tural Orders, 214 genera, including 406 species in Battersea Fields, 
Surrey — some of them of rare occurrence. 

The following tables have been drawn up from various works, in 
order to exhibit the number of genera and species contained in some 
of our local Floras ; the genera and species have not been reduced to 
a common standard, but have been calculated as they appear in those 
works. 

* Mr Irvine's paper was read, November 17, 1836. 
t Dr Macintyre*8 paper was read, December 15, 1836. 
\ Paper read, January 5, 1837. 



On the Advancement of Local Botany near London. 169 



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170 Contributions to the 

Notes to Table, p, 169. 

I, 2, S. Magazine of Zoology and Botany. Vol. i. p. 267. 

4, 5. Calculation from the Prospectus of the Botanical Society of Edinbuigh. 
18d6. 

6. Flora Metropolitana, or Botanical Rambles within 90 miles of London. By 
Daniel Cooper. 1836. 

7. Flora Cantabrigiensis. By Richard Relham. A. M. Sd edit Cantab. 
1820. 

a Flora of Berwick upon Tweed. By G. Johnston, M. D. EdinboigK 1829. 

9. Flora Woodfordienais. — A Catalogue of Plants growing at Woodford, Es- 
sex. By Richard Warner, London, 1771. 

10. Flora of Oxfordshire and contiguous counties. By Richard Walker. Ox- 
ford, 1833. 

II. Flora Oxoniensis. By John Sibthorp, M. D. Oxonii, 1794. 

12. Flora Devoniensis. By Rev. J. P. Jones, and J. F. Kingston. London, 
1829. 

19. Flora Glottiana. — A Catalogue of the Indigenous Plants on the banks of 
the river Clyde, and in the neighbourhood of the city of Glasgow. By Thomas 
Hopkirk. Glasgow, 1819. 

14. Flora Bedfordiensis, comprehending such plants as grow wild in the county 
of Bedford. By Charles Abbott, M. A. Bedford, 179a 

15. A Catalogue of the Plants of Berwick upon Tweed. By John V. Thomp- 
son, Sui^geon. London, 1807. 

16. Flora of Anglesey, in Welsh Botanology. By Hugh Davies. London, 
1819. 

17. Flora of Northumberland and Durham, in the Botanist's Guide through 
those counties. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1805. 

la Flora of the Snowdonian Mountains (rare phmts only.) By the Rev. 
W. Bingley in 1798-1801. (Appendix to Jones's IllustrationB of the Natural 
Scenery of the Snowdonian Mountains.) London, 1829. 



VIII. — Contributions to the Natural History of Ireland. By Wil- 
liam Thompson, Esq. Vice-President of the Bel&st Natural His- 
tory Society. (Continued from p. 57.) 

No. 3.— 0» the Birds of the Order Eaptores. 

Goshawk — Astur palumbariusy Bechst. — *' I haye seen a young 
one got at the rocks of Magilligan (Londonderry.") — MS. late Mr 
Templeton, where it is also stated under the head of Gentil Falcon. 
*< On 25th July 1809, I saw at Carrickferg^is a stuffed specimen that 
had been shot at the Gobbins, (Antrim.") 

I haye neyer seen an Irish specimen of this bird. The term gos- 
hawk or goose*"ha,wk is commonly applied in the country to any of 

* In reference to its oompaiatively superior size. 



Natural History of Ireland. 171 

the FalconidaB of a larger size than those ordinarily met with, such as 
the common buzzard (Buteo vnlgaris,) &c. 

Spabrow-Hawk — Accipiter fringiUariusy Will. — Is common 
in the enclosed and wooded parts of Ireland. It is certainly the 
boldest of the British Falconidse. I have known this species to 
be shot in a yard attached to an occupied dwelling-house in the 
country, where it was discovered by the uproar produced among the 
inhabitants of the doye-oot. Dr J. D. Marshall was, in October 
1833, sent an old female sparrow-hawk, that in pursuit of a thrush 
(Turdua musicus) followed it into a cottage in the neighbourhood of 
Bel&st, where both were secured. On some stuffed birds being placed 
near this hawk, she dashed fiercely at them. When bent on spoliation, 
the sparrow-hawk scruples not to enter even the church itself, as a 
male bird was about two years since caught by the sexton in New- 
townbreda Church (Down,) whither it had pursued some small bird, 
I believe a robin (Sylvia rubecula.) A sparrow-hawk was once ob- 
served by Mr R. Langtry to strike one of his sea eagles which was 
perching on his shed ; and when his golden eagle was at liberty, he 
has not only seen it struck by one of these birds in passing, but was 
once witness to the latter turning back and repeating the imperti- 
nence. Another ornithological friend, on climbing a tree to one of 
their nests, and when within a very few yards of it, was attacked by 
the female bird, and his cap at one stroke sent to the ground. He 
speedily followed it, lest the next should be on his bare head, but, re- 
placing the cap more firmly on, he gallantly remounted to the nest, 
which he had been in the habit almost daily of visiting, and was gra- 
tified with a sight of the young birds that day hatched, which accounts 
for the boldness of the parent. He describes the young as being 
beautiful in their first garb of snow-white down. 

I have known this species to build only in trees, in Ireland. The 
stomachs of several specimens examined by me contained the remains 
of birds alone. 

KiTB — Milvus iclinusy Sav. — Under the name of " Kite," a 
bird appears in many of the statistical surveys of Irish counties, 
as well as in other catalogues of native birds, but the true Falco 
milvus or Milvus ictinus has never been seen in Ireland, either by 
myself or any ornithologist with whom I have communicated, nor 
am I aware of the existence of a native specimen in any collec- 
tion. When Ireland presented an aspect different from the present, 
and was a well- wooded country, the Kite may have been one of our 



172 CarUributians to the 

birds, but the larger species of the FaloonidsBy and chiefly the com« 
mon buzzard, being in some places called kite and glead, as well gos- 
hawk or goosehawk, leaves us in uncertainty whether the real 
FaLco milyus was ever indigenous to the country. And for the same 
reason the doubt is no way removed even by the " authority" of the 
Irish Statutes, in which rewards are offered for the destruction of the 
'* kite" as one of the birds of prey. Vide 11 th Anne, ch. 7 and 17, 
Geo. II. ch. 10. • 

Mr R. Langtry, when at Loch Awe, in Argyleshire, early in the 
summer of 1833, procured from the nest two young kites, which 
proved a highly interesting addition to his aviary. They at once 
became very tame and familiar, and were so gentle in disposition as to 
be most engaging. Every morning they had their liberty, never flew 
£Bur, but soared to a great height in the air, and, '^ in still repeated 
circles," displayed their peculiar and graceful flight. To either lure 
or " fist" they always returned when called. Mice were preferred by 
them to birds or any other food. When these kites were on wing 
rats let off from the cage trap were expertly caught by them. 

Common Buzzard — Buteo vulgaris^ Will. — This species is of 
common occurrence in Ireland. From the most extensive and best 
wooded demesnes in Down and Antrim, I have at every season of 
the year seen specimens. In such localities they build in trees, 
whence I have heard the young call in Shane's-Castle Park. The 
buzzard is also found in the retired, rocky, and mountainous parts 
of the country, where trees are quite unknown, and there forms its 
nest in the clifib. 

When at Rosheen mountain (before*mentioned as the eyiie of the 
Golden (?) Eagle) near Dunfanaghy, in June 1832, we saw a pair 
of buzzards, and heard their young call from the nest on a ledge of 
rock, midway down a precipice. This we were told had, until the 
present season, been for many years occupied by a pair of ravens 
(Corvus corax,) which it was stated did not yield their possession 
quietly, but fought hard, though in vain, against the buzzards' usur- 
pation. My friend being desirous of obtaining the young birds, a 
man undertook to descend the rock for them in the ordinary way, 
being secured from falling by a rope fastened about his body, and 
held by persons above. However, from its impending at the sumtoit, 
this was rather perilous, and for greater safety he preferred ascending 

* For etxracts from the Statutes, I am indebted to Francis Whitta, Esq. of 
Belfast. 



Natural History of Ireland, 173 

from the base ; the preventiye just mentioned agpainst accidents being 
in this case likewise resorted to. When the least apprehension of 
danger was manifested, we endeavoured to dissuade him altogether 
from the attempt, but . his father, an old gray-haired man, insisted, 
though gain was never thought of, that he should not turn craven, 
and was so firoward in leaning over the cliff to direct his son's move- 
ments, that we verily feared his own life would become a sacrifice, 
but all expostulation was in vain. By this method three young birds 
were taken, a fourth escaping by flight. The climber said the nest 
was composed of the strong stems of heather and roots of grasses, 
and lined with the fiir of hares and rabbits, and that it would have 
held several more than the four birds it contained. The legs of rab- 
bits and hares were lying about it. 

Wheu at Macgilligan, in the county Londonderry, in July 1838, 
I saw a buzzard, which appeared to be the Buteo vulgaris, soaring 
about the basaltic precipices, and flying from one pinnacle of rock to 
another, its young being all the while very vociferous, and one of 
them loudly heard above the others, calling similarly to the male bird 
brought from Donegal last year, satisfied me respecting its species* 
The continual and loud cry of the latter bird, as we drove from Dun- 
£maghy to the city of Londonderry, proved ludicrously annoying to 
us, by giving evidence of the contents of our baskets to all persons we 
met, (it was a holiday,) and thus drawing their attention towards us. 
The other two buzzards and the eagles remained generally quiet. 
These three buzzards, but especially the male, became very familiar. 
When let off in the morning, his favourite perch was upon some stacks 
of grain, where he remained patiently watching for mice, which he has 
been seen to catch, but was not always successful, sometimes dashing 
his talons into the straw, and bringing them out empty. He prefer- 
red mice to rats, though very expert at killing both. He was quite 
a pet bird. One of his favourite tricks was to fly on his masters 
feet and untie his shoe-strings. But he was likewise very bold ; and, 
taking a dislike to a certain individual, flew at him whenever he ap- 
peared, and endeavoured to strike him about the head. Against these 
attacks a walking-stick generally served as a defence ; but the buzzard 
once came upon him unawares, and inflicted a severe blow on the 
back of his head. This bird occasionally astonished strangers, by 
smartly striking them on the hat, so as to send it over their ears. 

At the range of inland rocks called Salagh Braes, and at another 
similar locality in Antrim, the buzzard nestles, as it is likewise pre- 
sumed to do at the promontory of Fairhead, in the same county, a 
pair of these birds having been seen there in June last by my friend 



174 Contributions to the 

Richard K. Sinclaire, Esq. who on the same day observed, in addition 
to them, pairs of sea-eagles, peregrine falcons, and kestrels, all of 
which are well known to have eyries there. 

A native specimen of the buzzard, which I lately examined, had a 
few feathers half an inch in length about the middle of one of the 
tarsi, which was bare for nine lines above them. 

Rough-legged Buzzard — Buteo ktgopus^ Vig. — About the 
middle of October 1831, a bird of this species was killed near Dun- 
donald, in the county of Down.* On dissection, the remains of birds 
and of a full-grown rat were found in its stomach. It was purchased 
by Dr J. D. Marshall, and is now in his possession. This bird ac- 
cords with Temminck's description of the adult male. It has not any 
indication of bands on either side of the tail In Mr Selby's figure 
of the female, a band appears near the tip on the under side. 

About this time two others were seen at KiUinchy, in the same 
county, and one of them shot, but it was, through ignorance, lost as 
a specimen. Last autumn, the gamekeeper at ToUymore Park de- 
scribed to me a bird, which, from size, being feathered to the toes, 
&c. evidently had been of this species. It was shot a few years ago 
(probably at the same period as the others) in Castlewellan demesne 
(Down) when carrying off a young rabbit. 

HoNEY-BuzzARD — Pemis apivorus, Cuv. — The following no- 
tice of this species appeared in the Magazine of Natural History for 
1888, Vol. vi. p. 447. 

« At a meeting on July 28, 1888, of the Council of the Belfiist Na^ 
tural History Society, Mr W. Thompson, V. P. stated, that, on the 
11th of June last, a fine male specimen of the honey-buzzard^ 
which is unrecorded as having ever before occurred in Ireland, was, 
when in company with a similar bird^ most probably the female, shot 
by Robert G. Bomford, Esq. in his demesne of Annandale, in the ti- 
dnity of Belfast ; and who, on being informed of the rarity of the 
bird, had most handsomely presented it to the Belfast Museum. Mr 
Thompson, who saw the specimen when recent, related, that the bill 
and forehead were covered with cow-dung, in such a manner as to 
lead him to suppose the bird had in that substance been searching for 
insects. On examination of the stomach, which was quite full, it was 
found to contain a few of the larvae, and some fragments of coleop- 

* This is the individual mentioned in *' Mag. Nat Hist." Vol. v. p. 578. 



Natural History of Ireland. 175 

terons insects^ sereral whitish-eoloured hairy caterpillars, the pupae 
of a batterfly, and also of the six-spot bumet-moth (Zygsena filipen- 
dnln,) together with some pieces of grass, which it is presumed were 
taken in with this last-named insect, it being on the stalks of grass 
that the pupae of this species of Zygsena are chiefly foimd. Mr 
Thompson remarked, that this insectivorous food must to the honey 
bazzai^d have been a matter of choice, the bird being in the full vi- 
gour of its powers, and the district in which it was killed abounding 
with such birds, as, were they its wished-for prey, it might have easily 
captured and destroyed." 

The individual thus dwelt upon was a mature male. The bands on 
&e tail exhibit a greater inequality than is represented in any figure 
I have seen, the first and second being less than an inch apart, the 
third more than two and a-half inches distant from the second band. 

Marsh Habribb — Circus rufus, Briss. — I have had opportuni- 
ties of examining four recent marsh harriers, which were killed in 
Down and Antrim, but all in different localities — one only was an 
aduh male. A person conversant with birds has mentioned to me, 
that he once saw an old male bird of this species on the banks of 
Bel&st bay at ebb-tide. 

A brood of these birds taken a few years ago from the nest on the 
mountains of the county Monaghan was reared by Captain Bonham 
of the 10th Hussars, who intended trying them in fidconry, but for 
this purpose they proved most intractable. Some years since, three 
or four young marsh harriers were brought to Belfast from the moun- 
tains of Ballynascreen (Londonderry) and I am credibly informed 
that the species breeds at Claggan (Antrim). It is considered very 
rare in Donegal. * Mr R. Ball states in a letter to me, that its 
young have been brought to him at Youghal (Cork). In suitable 
localities in the counties of Tipperary and Dublin I am informed 
that it occurs. 

On dissection, the stomach of one of the first mentioned was found 
full of frogs. 

Hbn-Harrier — Circtuf cyanewy Flem. — This handsome species 
is generally distributed in Ireland. In Antrim I have been assured 
that it breeds at Claggan, and occurs at all seasons in the mountains 
around Ballymena. From an adult male being seen by an orni- 
thological friend on the 15th of May near Glenann, it is probably 



• Mag. Nat Hist. Vol. v. p. 581. 



176 Contributions to the 

indigenous to that neighbourhood. Two mature male specimens 
were shot, I have been told, near Dublin, in July 1836. The hen- 
harrier does not appear in Mr Stewart's published catalogue of the Birds 
of Donegal ; but in a letter, with which he lately favoured me, that 
gentleman mentions it as a subsequent addition, but at the same time 
as a rare and only occasional visitant. It is stated by Mr R. Ball to 
be sometimes shot about Youghal, and is enumerated among the 
birds seen in August 1835, in Connemara, by Mr Lingwood. * 

When looking for snipes in a boggy spot in the Belfast mountains, 
I once shot a female bird of this species, hovering in the manner of 
a kestrel over it. She was not alarmed by the presence of myself 
and friend, nor by that of our dogs engaged in <* beating" the ground 
immediately beneath. 

A gentleman of my acquaintance has long known " white hawks" 
to have their nests every summer in his mountains at Ballynascreen 
(Londonderry,) where he had two of them last year. They are always 
placed on the ground among the heath. When at " the Horn" in 
1832, the gamekeeper told me of his having the winter before seen 
a <* white hawk" strike a curlew (Numenius arquata) in passing, and 
break its wing, which so disabled the bird, that it became an easy cap- 
ture to my informant. In a communication lately received from the 
Rev. Thomas Knox of Toonoavara, it is remarked under the head 
" Hen- Harrier" — " From the description given by different persons, 
I have no doubt that this bird frequents the bogs adjoining the Shan- 
non, where it is called the < white kite.* I have not been able to get 
one of them shot, but have seen it at a distance frequently." A 
«< large bluish- white hawk" has been mentioned to me by a correspon- 
dent, as frequent about Clonmel. The localities have been thus par- 
ticularised, as the ash-coloured harrier may possibly be the species al- 
luded to under some of the latter appellations. 

Eagle Owl — Bubo mcueimus, Sibbald. — The only record of the 
eagle owFs occurrence in Ireland appears in Mr Stewart's Catalogue 
of the Birds of Donegal, in the following words : — <' Four of these 
birds paid us a visit for two days, after a great storm from the north, 
when the ground was covered with snow. They have not since been 
seen here. As I am informed that a pair of them breed in Tory 
Island, about nine miles to the north of this coast, it is probable 
that they came from that island, I have heard of them nowhere 
el8e."f , 

• Mag. Nat Hist, Vol. ix. p. 128. f Ibid. Vol. v. p 581. 



Natural History of Ireland. 177 

LoNG'SARBD OwL — Otus vulgaviSy Flem. — Occurs throughout 
Ireland, and is resident. Where a sufficient extent of wood exists in 
Down and Antrim, it is a common species, and is remarked by a cor- 
respondent to be *< not uncommon" in Tipperary. It is considered 
rare in Donegal.* 

I have known this species to be shot in the dusk of the evening, a 
mile from high- water- mark, in Belfast Bay, by a person waiting in a 
barrel (sunk in the ooze) for the flying of widgeon. The white owl 
has in several instances been obtained by these shooters. 

An individual, well acquainted with the long* eared owl, informs me, 
that in a close plantation of spruce firs (Abies communis) at Scout- 
bush, near Carrickfergus, he for several years had its nests, which, in 
consequence of the trees being young, were placed not higher than 
six feet from the ground. 

The Rev. Thomas Knox, in a letter to me, mentions the contents 
of the stomach of a long-eared owl, shot at KiUaloe, to be " part of a 
rat, the skull of a mouse, and the heads of two sparrows.'* A spar- 
row almost entire was found in the stomach of one examined by 
myself. 

Short-eared Owl — Oius brachyotosy Flem. — This species is one 
of OUT regular winter visitants in the north of Ireland. October the 
Idth is the earliest date of its occurrence to me. It has been added 
to the birds of Donegal by Mr Stewart, since the publication of his 
catalogue, and its migration in winter to the mountains of Wexford 
and Tipperary has been communicated to me. 

I have several times met with, and shot this owl in the neighbour- 
hood of Belfast, and invariably in wet and boggy places, where snipes 
might be expected. One of these owls being only wounded, affordied 
me the opportunity of observing the exceeding brilliancy and depth of 
its golden eyes. In the stomach of a specimen examined on the 16th 
December last, I was surprised to find the legs of a purre (Tringa 
variabilis,) as the localities frequented by the two species at this sea- 
son are generally very different. 

White-Owl — Strix flammea^ Linn. — This beautiful species is 
the most common owl in Ireland. I have had the following evidence 
of its regular flight to some distance from its domicile, just as twilight 
commences. Near Belfast there is a considerable extent of low-lying 
meadows, which are flooded by heavy rains, and at such times are re- 

• Mag. Nat. Hist. Vol. v. p. 581. 



178 Contributions to the 

sorted to by yarions species of wild-fowl (AnatidsB.) The flood never 
attaining sach a height as to cover the banks fiorronnding these 
meadows, they are frequented by persons for the purpose of shooting 
the wild-fowl on their evening flight, and to whom the owl, on as 
« murderous deeds intent," occasionally falls a victim. On becoming 
acquainted with this fiict, it occurred to me that the owl's visit might 
be in consequence of the flood driving its prey from the meadows to 
their banks, where, as the only place ef refuge, it would be more 
abundant ; but I have ascertained that the owl equally haunts them 
when the flood is gone. From the distance of half a mile I have seen 
it flying towards them. 

The white owl is a well known visitor to the dove-cot, and in such 
a place, or rather a loft appropriated to pigeons in the town of Belfast, 
I am informed by an observant friend that a pair once had their nest. 
This contained four young, which were brought up at the same time 
with many pigeons. The nests containing the latter were on every 
side, but the owls never attempted to molest either the parents or 
their young. As may be conjectured, this owl's nest was frequently 
inspected during the progress of the young birds. On the shelf 
beside them, never less than six, and so many as fifteen mice and 
young rats (no birds were ever seen) have been observed, and this 
was the number they had left after the night's repast. The parent 
owls when undisturbed remained all day in the pigeon-loft. 

Of the stomachs of four white owls I have examined, one contain- 
ed the remains of rats ; another of mice ; a third was filled to disten- 
sion with portions of eight mice ; and the fourth exhibited only a 
part of a coleopterous insect of the family Hdrpalidaj that could not 
when perfect have exceeded nine lines in length. A friend, too, in- 
forms me, that, on examining the pellets cast by these owls, which be 
has very frequently done, he has often perceived, in addition to the 
fiir and bones of rats and mice, the wing-cases of beetles shining 
through them.* The remains of birds he never detected in them. It 
is only, I believe, in dearth of other prey that this owl attacks any of 
the feathered tribe. 

A white owl, kept for upwards of a year in a friend's house, was 
from the first kindly disposed to the servant who fed it, but pug^na- 
cious towards its master, instantly striking with its talons at his 
finger when placed against the cage, but this he in some degree taught 
it. When spoken to by any one, it returned the recognition by most 

* I do not recollect these mentioned as the food of the white owl in any work 
on British Ornithology; ** scarabees** are, however, enumerated as such by 
Temminck, Man d'Om de I'Eur. Tom. i. p. 92. 



Natural History of Ireland. 179 

grotesquely moring from one 1^ to the other on its perch, accompani- 
ed at the same time by a bow or inclination of the head sideways. It 
screamed greatly during the night. 

Tawny Owl — Ulula stridula^ Selby. — This species is mention- 
ed as Irish in several of the statistical suryeys of our counties and 
other catalogues. It never occurred to the late Mr Templeton, nor 
have I seen an Irish specimen. 

Snowy Owl — Swmia nycteay Dumeril. — On June 9, 1835, 1 had 
the satis&ction of communicating an account of the snowy owls ap- 
pearance in Ireland to the Zoological Society of London, in whose 
** proceedings," 1835, p. 78, it subsequently appeared. The follow- 
ing is a rather more full account, as the limited scope of that most 
valuable work renders a condensation of matter for its pages quite ne- 
cessary. 

About the 26th of March 1835, a specimen of this bird was sent 
in a recent state to Dr Adams of Portglenone, (co. Antrim) by a person 
who had shot it a few days before in that neighbourhood, and who 
stated that a similar individual had been seen about the place where 
it was obtained. The specimen was presented by Dr Adams to the 
Natural History Society of Belfast. It is immature, agreeing with 
the figure in Mr Selby's " Illustrations of British Ornithology." 

On the 21st of the same month, as two of my friends were out 
snipe-shooting at Bruslee, about twenty miles to the south-east of 
Portglenone, a large white owl, represented by them as tivice the size 
of the common species of that colour (Strix fiammea,) rose from the 
heath within a few yards of one of them, just as he had discharged 
both barrels at a snipe. His companion fired at it from such a distance, 
that, with the loss of only a few feathers, it escaped, and afterwards 
ali^ted at a short distance. On showing the specimen killed at 
Portglenone to one of these gentlemen, he recognized it as similar in 
size and colour to the bird he had seen. 

In Dublin I subsequently saw a snowy owl, which had been shot 
in the county Mayo, also in the month of March, and am credibly 
informed, that a few others were obtained about the same time in 
different parts of Ireland. One may be mentioned as having been 
received from the county Longford on the 5th of April by a bird- 
preserver in Dublin. * 

* I have lately heard of the occurrence in Ireland, of three of the rarer species 
of Britifih Raptores, but have not yet had the facts sufficiently authenticated for 
introduction here. 



180 Botanical Excursion to the 



IX — Account of a Botanical Excursion in the Alps of the Canton of 
Calais, Switzerland, in August 1835 ; and Catalogue of the Plants 
collected, with occasional Remarks. By R. J. Shuttlbworth, 
Esq. (Continued from p. 24.) 

121. Aretia tomentosa, Schleich. Rchb— Androsace, Gaud. 
H. Ad Fissuras rupium in alpibus supra Teesch. 

Obs. Variat habitu laxiori vel congesto, et iloribus brevissime vel 
longiuscule pedunculatis. CI. Gaudin, hac Aretia Hall. Hist. No. 
618 7. citavit, et certe description sua cum forma laxiuscule bene 
quadrat : sed Hallerus capsulam quadrivalvem descripsit, quam 
semper quinquevalrem ut in Aretiis Androsacisque omnibus obser- 
vavi. 

122. A, alpina, L. Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2697- excl. cit. et ioone 

Hull, et Lam. Androsace Gaud, non Lam. Androsace pa- 

bescens, DC. Aretia, Hall. Hist. No. 618 a. 

H. In fissuris rupium M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 
Obs, Optime descripsit nostram plantam cl. Hallerus, 1. c. 

123. A. pennina, Thomas. A. glacialis, Schleich. Rchb. Germ, exc 
No. 2696. Androsace — Gaud. A. alpina, Lam. DC. Aretia, Hall, 
Hist. No. 618 3. Tab. 11. ('' A. villosa, scapis uniflms.") bona ! 
H. In glareosis ad moles glaciales summi jugi alpium supra 

Taesch. 
Obs, £t hanc speciem bene descripsit cl. Hallerus^ 1. c, sub 7ar. /3, 
et coroUam roseam observavit, quae (nisi fallor) nunquam in A. alpi- 
na occurrit. Iconem citatam, nostrse plants recte a cl. C^audino re- 
latam^ hue pertinere expressius significavit ipse Hallerus ; non ob- 
stantibus ''auctorum Hallucinationibus non excusandis." (Rchb. 1. c. 
No. 2697 ^t Reichenbachii ipsius — Species pulcherrima sed in 
eodem loco mire variaus, floribus albis, carneis, roseis, et violaoeo- 
purpureis, cum annulo flavo : caulibus laxis vel congestis, pedun- 
culisque brevissimis vix lineam unam longis, et siepe uncialibus. 
(hue, Ic. Hall. cit). 

124. Androsace maxima^ L. 

H. In arvis incultis inter Varen et Siders^ copiose sed exsiccata. 

125. A. carnea, L. 

H. Ad moles glaciales summi jugi alpium supra Taesch. 

126. A. obtusifolia. All. Fl. Fed. i. p. 90. No. 326. Tab, 46, f. 1. 
ejusdem Fed. Spicel. p. 22. Tab. 4, f. 2. Gaud. Rchb. a, sca- 
pis multifloris. 3. scapo unifloro. A. obtusifolio ^. aretioides. Gaud } 
H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach, et ^Zennatt* 

|3. In M. Fiinelen. 



Alps of the Valais. 181 

06#« Var. /8. differt tantum scapo folia excedenti a. var Gaudiiiij cl. 
Koch in Deutsl. FI. ii. Aretias Androsacesqae pessime exposuit : ex. 
gr. iconem All. Fl. Fed : ad. A. obtusifoliam^ ioonem All. Spici, 
autem ad A. lacteam ducit. Sed Allionius ia Flora Fed : 1. c. rem 
ita exponit : *' Hujus Aretise ioonem Tab. 4. f. 2 et descriptionem 
dedi Pedem. Speci. p. 22." 

127. A. Chamiejasme, Wulf. (In Jacq. Misc. i. p. 194, in descript. 
A. yillose L. ubi notas differentiales bene exponit.) A. villosa 
0. Koch. ii. p. 100. 

H. In graminoeis M. Gemmi supra Scbwarrenbach. 

Obs. Species ab A. villosa, L. et Wulf. 1. c. Tab. 7* f 3 (in Hel- 
vetia rarissime in Jurrassi cacuminibus occurrit) omnino distincta^ 
nee cum A. obtusifolia All. confundenda. 

128. Primula viscosa, Vill. P. viscosa a. minor. Gaud. P. ciliata 
Schrank. Koch. P. hirsuta, Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2726. Fl. crit. 
vii. ic. 854. an Vill. ? 

H. Ad moles glaciales M. FiineleUi et in alpibns supra Taesch. 

129. P. ferinosa, L. 

H. In graminosis M. Fiinelen et supra Taesch. 
Obs* Planta alpina ssepius variat scapo humili, floribus paulo ma- 
joribns saturatiusque coloratis. 

130. Soldanella alpina, L. WiUd. Koch. Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2736. 
S. Clusii Schmidt, non ? Gaud. cf. Rchb. 1. c. 

H. Ad nives deliquescentes M. Gemmi. 



131. Thymus pannonicus. All. a. lanuginoeus ; caule foliisque undi- 

qne pilis longis griseis instructis ; floribus capitato-spicatis, 

staminibus inclusis. Th. pannonicus, Gkiud. T. pannonicus ^ 

Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2118 excl. syn. 
0. major, Ghiud. Helv. iv. p. 82 ; foliis majoribus punctatis gla- 

briusculis; floribus spicato^verticillatis, verticillis remotiusculis, 

staminibus exsertis. 

H. a. ad viam inter Siders et Leak. fi. inter Stalden et 8t Nicho- 
las et alibi in Valesia superiori. 

Obs, 1'^^ In var. — ^variat etiam undique minute tomentosa. Ad 
banc varietatem, me judice, sine dubio referendi sunt : Thymus 
bumifusus, M. Bieb ! T. Austriacus, Berh ! T. montanus, Walds. et 
Kit ! T. serpyllum exserens, Bess ! T. nummularius« M. Bieb. (E 
Geoi^ Cancasica specimen unicum a Hohenackero lectum U. T. 
1834,po88ideo.) 

T. hirsutus, M. Bieb ! (quo T. pilosus Bemh! prope Vindebonas 
lectus, vix differt) recedit foliis anguste lineari-oblongis uninervis 

TOL. II. NO. 8. N 



182 Botanical Excursion to the 

(in T. pannonico valde d-nervosis,) nervo ezstanti dorso acute ca- 
rinatis. T. Marschallianus MB ! differt etiam foliis angustitfime 
lineari-oblongis^ fere linearibus et.ex axiUis valde foliosis^ quasi fas- 
ciculatis. cf. Koch, Deuts. Fl. iv. p. 312, 313. et Rchb. Oerm. exc 
No. 2118, 2119. T. lanuginosuB, Schrank ! etiam differt fbiiis or- 
biculatis acuminatis. 

Obs. 2^". Similitudo cum T. angustifolio non patet, aceertenotis 
melioribuB differt quam " ramis floriferis longioribus erectioribus 
viUosis et foli& duplo longioribus." Benth. Lab. Oen. et Sp. p. 345. 
Certe in spec, meis omnibus et multa ex Helvetia, Oermania, Po- 
dolia, Hungaria, &c. possideo, nunquam folia linearia inveni, sed 
semper oblonga et oblongo-lanceolata. cf, Benth. I c, 

132. Ajuga pyraroidalis, L. g. alpestris, minor e cieruleo purpuras- 
cens, foliis floralibus rubris. Gaud. 

H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Scfawarrenbach. 
Obs, Formam «. in Helvetia hucusque non inveni. 

133. A. chamepitys, Schreb. var. canesoens, foliis latioribus incano* 
lanatis (est forsan forma monstruoea insectis producta.) 

H. In arvis et incultis prope Varen. 
134.* Teucrium montanum, L. 
H. Zermatt. 

135. Nepeta Q^Xxn^yli. 

H. Ad viam inter Siders et Leuk. 

136. Leonurus Cardiaca, L. 

H. Ad viam inter Brieg et Miinster. 
137* Acinos alpinus, Moench. 

H. Inter St Nicholas et Zermatt. 
138. Calamintha officinalis, Moench. 

H. In fruticetis saxosis apricisque inter Inden et Varen. 



139. Euphrasia officinalis, L. d. alpestris, Koch. Dents. Fl. iv. p. 349. 
b 3 minima. £• minima, Schleich. Koch. Gkiud. £. pratensis, ct mi- 
nima Rchb. 

H. In graminosis M. Oemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

Obs, Corolla parva lUacina palato flavo, vel saepe tota flava venis 
purpurascentibus. Forma capsulsB, emarginatura, longitudoque 
styli valde variabiles sunt, et in eodem individuo inconstantes : ab 
hac varietate vix differt £. officinalis var. alpina Rchb. exsic ! 

140. E, salisburgensis. Funk. £. alpina, Dec Gaud. 

H. In glareosis arenosisque prope Kanderst^ (forma pyramidata, 
imbricata) ; in graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach (for- 



Alps of the VaJmB' 183 

ma paira, debilis) ; et inter St Nicholas et Zermatt ad viam 

(fonna snbimbricata^ ramosa). 
Ohs. Etiam variabilis sed species rite constituta; variat foliis 
omiiibus angustis imbricatis> dentibns setaoeo-productis, vel latiorio 
bus distantibns, dentibus Duniis acuminatis, caole ramoaissimo vel 
sabgimplici, rigido vel debili* 

141. E, iOtUmiites) latea, L. 

H. In arvis incultis prope Varen. 

142. £. (0.)visco8a, L. 

H. In aprida ad yiam inter Inden et Varen. 

143. BarUia alpina> L. 

H. In M. Gemmi ad lacum infra Schwarrenbach. 

144. Pedicnlaris verticillata, L. 

H. In M. Oemmi supra Kandersteg et in graminosis supra 

Schwarrenbach. In alpibus supra Zermatt. 
Obs. Spica florens capitata^ fructifera^ yalde elongata. 

145. P. rostrata^ L. Koch. Deutsch. Fl. iv. p. 367^ Grand, non Rchb. 
H. Ad moles glaciales M. Funelen et summi jugi alpinm supra 

TsBSch. 

Obs. P. rostrata, Rchb. Oerm. exc No. 2459 et exsic ! est species 
aliena^ P. Jacquini^ Koch. 1. c p. 363. Errore Reichenbachii induc- 
tusy hucusque Pedicularem nostram rostratam a Linnseana diversam 
et eandem cum P. aspleniifolia Floerke existimavi^ sed, praeunte 
Kochio, has species tres inter se distinctse habeo. 

P. Jacquini, Koch^ caule adscendente^ foliis bipinnatifidis^ spica 
pluriflora congesta^ floribus erectis, calyce glabriusculo, filamentisque 
piloais. P. rostrata Rchb. non L. 

P. rostrata, L. Koch Gaud, caulo prostrato^adscendenti^ foliis 
pinnatifidis^ spica pauciflora laxa, interdum uniflora, calyoe pubes- 
cent], filamentisque barbatis. 

P. aspleniifolia, Floerke, Rchb. Koch., caule erecto, foliis pinna- 
tifidis, spica pluriflora laxa floribus patulis, calyoe lanato, filamen- 
lisqiie TBge pilosis Tel glabrinsculis. 
14& P. Barrelieri, Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2465 et exsic ! P. adsoen- 

dena Gaud, non Schleich. 

H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

Ohs. Glabriusoula, folia pinnatifida lobis profunda indsis, race- 
mu8 e2ongatn8> calyds segmenta glabra dliata subintegra, neo fblia- 
cea ; capeula calyee dnplo longior. 
147- P« tuberosa, L. Rchb. Germ. exc. No. 2466 et exsic I P. ad- 

soendens, Schleich. non Gaud. 

H. In graminosis alpium supra Tsesch. 



184 Botanical Excursion to the 

Obs. Pilosa^ folia bipinnatifida, lobis acute dentatu^ racemus bre- 
vis subcapitatus. calyds segmenta pubeseentia, foliaceo-indsa ; cap- 
8ula calyce vix longior. 

148. Veronica verna, L. 

H. ad muros inter St Nicholas et Zermatt, copioae. 

Obs, Specimina mea deflorata sunt, sed capsulis obcordatis oom- 
pressis, lobis divergentibus ciliatis styloque brevissimo ab affinibus 
facile distinguenda. 

149. F. aphylla, L. a. flore cseruleo. ^. flore cameo. 
H. In ^raminosis ad nives deliquescentes M. G«inmi. 

150. F. leucrium, 1. latifolia Gaud. var. minor^ tomentosa^ racemo 
ilorifero abbreviato. V. latifolia d. Pseudochamsediys Rchb. germ, 
exc. No. 2510 i. 

H. In locis aridis ad viam inter Thermas Leucenses et Inden. 

151. V, fruticulosa^ L. 

H. Ad moles glaciales M. Funelen. 

152. r. alpina, L. 

H. In M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach in M. Funelen. 

153. r. bellidioides, L. 

H. In M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

154. Linaria alpina, DC. a. maculata, palato aurantiaco conspicuo. 
^, subimmaculata, palato obsolete diluteque ochrdeuco. 

H. In glareosisj M. Schwarzseeberg. 

Obs. Semina patelliformia^ uno latere ooncavo> altero oonvexo : 
immatura ala te:ii.i albida circumdata^ matura concoloria nigra. 

155. L. italica^ Trev. Koch. Deuts. Fl. iv. p. 397* exc. Syn. Dec. 
L. angustifolia^ Rchb. germ. exc. No. 2550^ pi. crit. v. ic. 608. 
opt ! L. genistifolia Ser. exs ! Antirrhinum Bauhini, Gaud. 

H. Ad viam inter Visp et Stalden. 

Obs. Species distinctissima^ nullomodo cum L. genistifolia, MiU. 
eonfundepda. Semina L. genistifolise angulato-pjrramidata, punc- 
tata, calycis segmentis capsulam sequantibus vel superantibus : in 
L. italica Trev. semina orbiculata cdata patelliformia muriculata, ca- 
lycis segmentis capsula duplo triplove brevioribus. Antirrhinum 
angustissimum Lois. (ex. Aix in Sabandia, Balbis) differt foliis om- 
nibus angustissimis, racemis laxis ; semina matura in exemplaribus 
meis desunt, sed immatura videntur angulata. L. genistifolia, DC. 
Fl. fr. No. 2653 " Les divisions du calyce couvrent presque la cap- 
sule" et Dub. Bot. Gall. i. p. 346 *' calycis laciniis linearibus acutia 
capsulam snbsequantibus*' potius ad L. genistifoliam Mill, pertinet. 
sed notae e calyce sumptse forsan variabiles. 
156. Antirrhinum Orontium, L. 



Alps of the Valais. 185 

H. In fossis exsiccatis prope Leuk. 



157. PhysalU Alkekengi^ L. 
H. In vineis prope Varen. 



158. Myoioiis alpestris^ Schmidt. 

H. In graminosis supra Zermatt et M. Fiinelen. 

Obs. Planta variabilis : caulis inferne pilis patentibus hirsutUjB, 
snpeme longe aphyllusracemisqne appresse-strigosus; Folia strigoso- 
hirsuta, pilis longioribus dliata ; pili calycini vix curvato-hamati. 
Hue pertinet M. alpestris^ Schmidt^ Boh ! M. alpestris bot. Scot, 
differt tantum caljcibus ^ctiferis paulo majoribus^ caule foliosiori^ 
pilisque magis patentibus. M. Suaveolens^ Walds. et Kit! vix 
differt caule elatiori^ foliis calycibusque strigoso-hispidis^ pilis ap- 
pressisj illis, nisi basi^ non dliatis ; quod odorem attinet> plantam 
amcnissime odoratam in alpibus Bemensibus Stockhorn et vidniis 
copiose legi. M. lithospermifblia^ Horn> (ex exempl. unioo a Bal- 
bisiomisso) magis cum planta Scotica congruit, reoedit tantum caule 
elation^ racemisque axillaribus plurimis ; sed vix species diversa. 
M. alpestris^ Schmidt^ magis habita, quam notis bonis a M. sylva- 
tioo differre videtur. 

159. M, nana^ Vill. Eritrichium nanum, Schrad. 

H. ad moles glaciales summi jugi alpium supra Teesch. 

160. Echinospermum Lappula, Lehm. 

H. In vineis inter Varen et Siders^ et ad viam inter Siders et 

Leuk. 
Obs, Variat ramis suberectis vel squarroeo-patulis reflexisve. £. 
squarrosnm, Rchb. vix diversum. 



161. Cvscula Epithymum^ Sm. 
H. Ad astragalum Leontinum in pratis alpinis supra Zermatt. 
Obs. Styli vix exserti. 



162. C*/^a Tserotina, Koch, Deuts. Fl. iii. p. 32. Rchb. Germ. 

exc No. 2809. PI. crit. iii. ic. 351 et 350 (var. fi Koch.) C. 

perfoliata pusilla, serotina, foliis sessilibus imperfoliatis conna- 

tis. Gaud. Helv. iii. p. 18. 

H. Copiose in paludosis Valesige ad Rhodanum prope Pfyn inter 
Siders et Leuk. cons. Chrysocomge Linosyris, L. 

Obs. Optime descripsit cl. Koch. 1. c. plantam nostram, differt a 
C. perfoliata, L. Rchb. pi. crit. iii. ic. 349, floribus minoribus, caly- 
cis segmentis basi altius connatis, duplo latioribus trinervis nervis- 



166 Botanical Excursion to the 

que xninoribns reticulatis oorollam subasquantibus ; foliis in exempl. 
pinguioribus perfoliatis ovato-acutis, in exempl. pusillis amplexi- 
canli-connatis sed imperfoliatis : hue spectat cit. Oandini. 

163. Erythrasa palchella> Fries. 7. palastris^ Gaud, caule simplici 
superae dichotomo-paniculato. 

H. In paludods Valesin prope Pfyn. 

164. Gentiana eiliata> L. 

. H. In pascuis prope Randaa. 

166. G. glacialis^ Vill. — fi, flare albo t/. forma monstruosa^ pusilla, 
caule folioso^ foliis elongatis^ corolla difformi calyce vix longiori, 
viridescenti. 

H. Rarissime in M. G^mmi in graminosis cac rupium M. Schal- 
mette et ad niyes perennes supra Schwarrenbach. Copiose in 
M. Schwarzseeberg et cum fiety. satis firequens in graminosis 
ad moles glaciales summi jugi alpium supra Tsesch. 

166. G. campestris L. 0? alpina mihi — 6. chloraefblia N. ab 
E. e Rchb. Germ exc. No. 2825 ? Caulibus pedunculisque 
alatis^ caljds segmentis eximie serrulatis^ corolls segmentis 
subrotundo-apiculatis vel orbiculari-obtusiusculis ; fbliis canli- 
nis ovato-triangularibus obtusiusculis, radicalibus spathulatis 
petiolatis. 

H. In ascensu M. Gemmi prope " die Wintereck." 

Obs. CoroUsB^ superiores sffipe 5-fld8B^ majores quam in G. cam- 

pestri e Scotia^ &c. et folia latiora^ breviora. Corollae pallida cae- 

rulese vel purpurascentes. 

167. G. obtusifolia, Willd. Koch. Gaud. 

H. Ad moles glaciales^ M. Schwarzseeberg et summi jugi alpium 
supra Teach. 

Obs. Corollie superiores quinquifidse^ inferiores interdum quadri- 
fidffi ; me judice forma alpina G. Germanicse, Willd.j et hsc forsan a 
G. amarella^ L. non diversa. 
168.* G. Verna, L. var flore albo. 

H. Zermatt. 

169. G. nivalis^ L. Froehl. Mon. p. 83^ a, ramosissima^ ramia dense 
folioflis^ foliis subimbricatis^ ^. elongata^ ramosa^ fbliis remotis. G. 
nivales 0. Froehl. >. pusilla, simplex^ uniflora^ interdum subacau- 
lis. G. nivalis >. Froehl. exc. syn. ViUarsii. 

H. a. et 0. In ascensu M. Gtemmi supra Kandersteg : in Al- 
pibus supra Zermatt et TsBSch. 0. ad moles glaciales M. 
Schwarzseeberg. 

Obs, Varietates omnes^ sed pr»sertim ^. e Scotia accepi. 

170. G. asdepiadea^ L. 



Alps of the Vdlais. 187 



H. copiose in pratis uliginosis prope Kandersteg. 
171-* G. purpurea^ L. 
H. Zeimatt. 



172. Cynanchum vincetoxicum^ R. Br. 

H. In glareosis inter Stalden et St Nicholas. 

Obs. Fonna monBtruosa prostrata raxnosa ; umbelloltt ad florem 
nnicnm depauperate. 



173.« Pyrola chlorantha, Sw. 
H. Zermatt. 



174. Erica camea, Soop< — forma autumnalis, alabastris viridibus. 
£. berbacea, L. 

H. In umbrosis M. Gemmi cons. Astrantiae minoris supra 
Kandersteg. 

175. Rhododendron ferrugineum, L. 
H. In M. FUnelen. 



176. PAy/euma pauciflorum, L. 
H. In graminosis M. Schwarzseeberg et copiose ad moles glaciales 

M. Fiieblen. — Supra Teesch. 
Ohs, Variat bracteis late ovatis> et subrotuudis, foliis lineari-lan- 
ceolatis oboirato-spathulatis^ lineari-spathulatisque, apice dentatis 
▼el integris, plus minusve ciliatis ; caule humili vix 6'" usque ad 
4' alto : persuasus sum^ praeunte Am. Gutbnicko in '^ Flora oder 
Regensburger Bot. Zeitung/' P. globolariaefolium Hoppe et Sterub. 
mere formam proceriorem^ P. paudflora, L. (cf. Rchb. pi. crit. iv. 
ic. 545^ 547 — 549,) et vix ut varietas enumerandum. 
177- P' hemisphaericum, L. 
H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. In M. 
Schwarzseeberg^ Fiinelen, et supra Tsesch, et in M. Grimsula 
supra Obergestelen^ ubique copiose. 

178. *P. humile^ Schleich. Gaud. 

H. Occurrit rarissima planta in graminosis ad moles glaciales 
vallis D. Nicolai supra Zermatt, &c. 

Obe. Bractese interiores demum induratse, acuminatissimse fruc- 
tus superantes, adeo ut capitulis maturis Scabiosarum similes sunt. 
Folia bractesque nervo valido exstante percursae sunt. 

179. P. orbiculare, L. a« cordatum, Gaud. 
H. In M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

180. P. spicatum, L. Var. glaberrimum, capitulo bracteato, fo- 
liorum bractearumque dentibus patentibus. 



188 Botanical Excursion to the 

H. In sylvis laridiiiB inter Zermstt et valleculam Taesch. 
Obs, Glabritia solummodo^ a varietate bracteata. Alp. DC. Mon. 
p. 198, differre videtur 

181. P. betoniciefolium, Vill. Gbiad. 

H. In M. Gemmi supra Sch warren bach, in M. FUnelen, et in 
alpibus supra Taesch. 

182. Campanula pusilla, Hnnke. $. flore albo, magisque pubescens. 
H. In glareoftis M. Gemmi ad nives perennes supra Schwarren- 

bach, et lacum Dauben. 0. rarius, 80-^1 Aug. 1836. 

Obs. Forma alpina difFert a subalpina et campestri floribus ma- 
joribus, habituque laxiori. 

183. C. glacialis, n. sp. 

C. humilis cespitosa pauciflora glabra, foliis radicalibus ovatis ai« 
tidis dentatis in petiolum ciliatum attenuatis, caulinis lineari-lan- 
ceolatis : alabastris nutantibus, floribus suberectis ; calycis laciniis 
subulatis erectis, corolla campanulata lobis erectis inflata, quadru- 
plo brevioribus. 

H. . In glareosis ad moles glaciales M. Funelen supra Zermatt* 

Cons. C. pedunculati. Gaud, et Sedi repentis, Schleich. caes- 

pites magnos laxosque efficiens. 

Obs. Proxima affinitas cum C. pusilla, Hnnke, et C. linifolia. 

Lam. Alp. DC. A C. pusiUa differt corollae forma aliena et statu- 

ra fere duplo majori, styloque breviori ; a C. linifolia habitu nano 

cflBspitoso, et corolla inflata suberecta calycis segmentis quadruple 

longiori. Forma corollse videtur omnino distincta, est nempe ex- 

act^ campanulata, infeme multo latiori, supeme multo angustiori, 

pro rata, quam in C. pusilla et linifolia. Stylus etiam in C. pusilla 

fere longitudinis corollse, in nostra planta tertia parte breviori. 

Species pulcherrima denuo indaganda an jure a C. pusilla diversa. 

184. C. linifolia. Lam. C. Valdenses, 0. Graud. 

H. In graminosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

185. C. cenisia, All. Fed. Tab. 6. f. 2. 

H. Ad moles glaciales summi jugi alpium supra Tsesch, in gla- 
reosis. 

186. C. rhomboidalis, L. 

H. In pratis Valesise superioris inter Brieg et Miinster. 

187. C. Tracfaselium, L. |3. urticsfolia. C. urticefolia, Schmidt. 
Pedunculis unifloris solitariis, calycis segmentis glabriuscnlia ; 
corolla pallida. 

H. Ad sepes Valesiie sup. inter Brieg et Munster 

188. *C. spicata, L. 
H. Zermatt. 



Alps of the Valais. 189 



189. C. barbata, L. 

H. In pascuis M. Gemmi. 



190. Adenostyles candidissima^ Cass. Less. A. leucophylla, Rchb. 
H. In petrosis alpinis yallecnl» Tiescfa^ paulo infra moles gla- 

dales. 
Ohs. Caulis semipedalis, bipedalis et ultra. Capris et peoori 
▼idetnr grata. 

191. PetcaUes nvrejx^, Baumg. fl. Trans, lass. 
H. In glareods prope Thermas Leuoenses. 
06#. Folia tantum inveni. 

192.* Senecio viscosns, L. 
H. Zermatt. 

193. S, uniflorus, All. Fed. i. No. 7^8. a Allionii, mihi. S. uniflo- 
nis All. 1. c. Tab. 17^ f- 3* opt. Senecio caule unifloro^ foliis ob- 
longis crenato-incisis, incano-tomentosis. jS. corymbosus mihi, 
canle 3-8 floro, capitulis minoribus^ foliis altius incisis interdum 
subpinnatifidis, incano-tomentosis. Fluk. Tab. 39. f. 6 ? y. leu- 
cantbemifolins mihi, caule corymbose^ capitulis parvis numerosis 
oongestis, foliis spathulato-ovatis^ vel lineari-lanceolatis^ crenatis 
▼el inciso-pinnatifidis^ &cie glabriusculis, dorso incanis. S. car- 
niolicus, Willd. Rchb. S. incanus> Scop. Hoppe exsic ! S. leucan- 
themifolia Lezay ! (in Herbnostr." exaltissimaalpe Scaletta^ quae 
Rhstiam ab Eugadino separat.") Chrysanthemum alpinum ju- 

. denbergense Jacobaete affine. J. Bauh. Hist. ii. p. 1058 cum icou. 

et in Herb. Scheuchzeriano ! 

H. a. ad moles glaciales M. Fiinelen copiose, et in alpibus su- 
pra Taesch. ff* cum a in M. Fiinelen. 

Obs. In var. a, formas duas legi^ nempe a a macrocephala^ 
capitulis uncialibus et a jS microcephala^ capitulis vix semi-unciali- 
bns : variat etiam foliis plus minusve altius crenato-incisis^ indu- 
mentoque minus copioso. In var. y, quoad foliorum incisionem^ 
et tomentum valde variabilis. 

194. S» incanuBj L. a. Genuinus mihi^ caule simplici corymboso^ 
capitulis ooarctatiBj foliis spathulato-lanceolatis^ ovatisve pinna- 
tifidis, incano-tomentosis. S. incanus, L. Rchb. germ. exc. Ja- 
cobcea pumila alpina, Bocc. Mus. Tab. 8. opt. J3. elatior mihi^ 
caule supeme ramoso corymbose^ capitulis laxioribus^ foliis spa- 

. thulato-lanceolatisy ovatisve pinnatifidis^ radicalibus siepe mere 

crenato-indsis, incano-tomentosis. 

H. Ad moles glaciales M. Fiinelen sed parcius. 

Obs. 1<"*. In var. a caulis vix ultra 4-uncialis> capitula mini- 
ma ; in var. P, caulis semipedalis et ultra. 



190 Botanical Excursion to the 

Obi. 2^*. Inter S. uniflorum^ All. et incanum^ L. nulla diacri- 
mina specifica adesse^ ex observationibus iterum iterumque repetitis 
(et exempl. per multa e Germania (Styria^) Helvetia et Sabaudia 
possideo) persuasns sum ; et, nisi anctoritate Willdenowii, Reichen- 
bachii, Oaudini, &c obstante, in unam speciem ambos oonjunxissem. 
Var. j3. S. uniflori omnino inter a et 7 media ; ac var. fi. S. incani 
fere transitus in var. y leucanthemifolium S. uniflori. CI. Gau- 
din, semina S. uniflori, setulis brevissimis parum extantibns adsper- 
sa, pappumque brevem seabrum descripsit ; et semina S. incani gla- 
bra et pappnm squalide albidum scabriusculumque : sed in exempl. 
meis S. uniflori, Camiolici et incani nullum discrimen, nisi pappum 
in 8. incano a magis ooloratum quam in /3. inveni. Semina juniora 
semper setulis conspicuis adspersa, mature siepe glabriuscula ; pap- 
pus in planta florenti albidus, in fructifere plus minnsve coloretus, 
semper scaber. 

Si res sicsehabeat, nomen Linnaeanumaptissimum ita retinendum. 
Senecio incanus, L. a. Linnsei — S. incanus, L. et auct. )3. elatior. y. 
leucanthemifolius. S. Camiolicus, Willd. et auct. d. corymbosus, (cf. 
All. 1. c.) s. uniflorus, S. uniflorus All. et auct. 

195. S. Doronicum, L. 

H. In M. Gemmi supre Schwarrenbadb. et* Zermatt. 

Obs. 1^*. Variat caule uni et multifloro, foliisque plus minusve 
incanis. 

Obs. 2^^, Senecio Scheuchzeri, Gaud ! Helv. v. p. 294, vix nisi 
forma alpestris 8. tenuifolii ; specimen a cl. Ghiudino descriptum, et 
in Herb. Scheuchzeriano asservatum, *^ Jacobea alpina ladniatc, 
flore Buphthalmi ex Monte Fracto" possideo : involucrum fere ut 
in S. Jacobfea, sed capitula minima ; videtur forma f localitati nata. 

196. Arnica scorpioides, L. Aronicum — Rchb. 

H. In glareosis M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach — ^in Alpibiu 
supre Zermatt. 

197* *A, Doronicum, Jacq. a. foliis caulinis dentatis. Aronicum 
Doronicum Rchb. Arnica Clusii, All. Fed. Tab. 17* f« i. (sed 
maxima) 0. foliis omnibus angustioribus, subintegerrimia, Aro- 
nicum glaciale Rchb. an Jacq } Arnica Clusii, var. All. 1. c f. 2, 
(sed etiam major.) 
H. Siipre Zermatt. 
Obs. Limites nullos inter varietates invenio. 

198. Chrysocoma Linosyris, L. — fi, minor. Hall. Vill. Gaud. Taber- 
naemontanus, p. 1209, f. 2. opt. 

H. a. ad viam inter Stalden et Visp. ]8. In paludosis prope Pfyn, 
inter Siders et Leuk. 



Alps of the ValaU. 191 

Obs. Coryiiilras vur. /3. valde irr^jpilaris^ paadflorus. 

199. A$ter alpinus^ L«— -8, flore discoideo. 

H. In M. Gemmi^ * supra Zermatt. j3. in M. Fiinelen. 

200. ErigeroH nniflonis^ L. 

H. In M. €^mmi snpra Schwarrenbach ; in M. Fiinelen. 
Ob*. Pnlcberrima planta ; flores rosei vel albi. Var. calyoe plus 
minnsre hirsnto^ et hue E. hirsutus^ Hoppe. 

201. E, alpinus^ L. a. minor> uniflorus. Gaud. Heir. v. p. 266. 

p. ramosus^ pedalis et ultra, pedunculis unifloris foliolosis, Graud. 
1. c 7. hirsutus, fbliis prsedpueque caule pilis longis patulis hir- 
sutis, calyce snbtomentoso^ pappo dilute cameo, semine longiori. 
Gaud. 1. c. 
H. a. In M. Gemmi supra Kandersteg et Schwanrenbach. j3. in 

M. Gemmi prope Hospitium. 7. In alpibus supra Taesch, et 

prope Randaa. 
Obs. In exempl. meis yar. 7. caulis uniflorus semipedalis anthe- 
raeque atrofnsese. Ad hujus species var. a pertinere videtur E. 
glabratus, Hoppe. 

202. SoUdago virgaurea, L. * 3. angustifolia, Gbiud. Helv. ▼. 310. 
7. pumila. Gaud. 1. c 

H. fi. Zermatt. 7. In M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 

Obs. 7. variat, caule foliisque glabriusculis vel pubescentibus, pe- 
dunculis unifloris vel racemosis, foliis inferioribus lanceolatis in pe« 
tiolum attenuatis, vel OTalibus^ subrotundisve longe petiolatis. Dif- 
fert a planta campestri floribus fodle duplo majoribus, racemo bre* 
Tissimo conjesto, rhizoraateque crasso longissime repenti. Ab hoc 
▼ar. yix differt S. cambrica^ Britann. nisi floribus minoribns. 

203. Inula Britannica, L. 

R. In paludosis prope Pfyn. 

204. Gnaphalium montanum, L. Rchb. germ. exc. No. 1390. G. 
arvense, W. et Rchb. 1. c Gaud. 

H. In incultis arenosis inter Stalden et St Nicholas, et in arvis 
incultis prope Siders. 

Obs. Mifai etiam non obvin sunt differentitt inter Gn. arvense, 
L. (G. montanum^ Willd.) et G. minimum, Sm., sed fbrsan et ego 
G. montanum et arrense, L. non bene intelligo. 

205. G. Leontopodium, L. a. minus, caule 2-4 unciali tix ultra, 
p. elatiuB, caule pedali et ultra, flezuoso, capitulis majoribus, 
numerosioribus, bracteisque armato-patentibus. 

H. a. In M. Cknnmi supra Schwarrenbach, et ad lacum Dauben. 

/3. In graminods ad moles gladales supra Zermatt. 
Obs. Cum varietate jS. bene convenit icon Rchb. G. Leontopo- 



192 Botanical Excursion to the 

dioidis^ Willd.^ PI. crit. x. ic. 1292, nisi caule saperne ramo6o, capi- 
tolisque laxioribus, sed planta e cultura fbrsan mutuata. Rcfab. !• 
c et de planta culta oommentatur. ** Planta imprimis bracteis 
arcuatis minus tomentosis nee candidis a pulchro nostro 6. Leonto- 
podio diversa/' sed hse noUe non extant apud Willd. Spec. iii. p. 
1894L Notis exceptis, icon Rcfab. noatram plantam omnino refert. 
206. G. supinnm, L. Syst. Veg. (Ed. 13. c. Murray.) G. supinum 

Lavandulnfolium, Booc. Mus. 107* tab. 85. G. supinum. Gaud. 

Helv. ▼. p. 241. desc. bona. Willd. Sp. iii. p. 1888. G. fiiscum, 

var. Rcfab. Germ. exc. No. 1397- 

H. In M. Gemmi supra Scfawarrenbacfa, et in saxosis ad lacum 
Dauben. * Zermatt. 

Ohs, G. supinum, Sm. £ng. Fl. Ed. 2^*. iii. p. 416, non faac sed 
ad sequentem G. pusillum Hsenke pertinet, ut videtur ex observa- 
tionibus suis de ioone Bocconii citata, nam Gn. supinum layandule- 
folium Bocc. a Linnaeffi ad suum G. supinum allatum est, et bene re- 
fert plantam juniorem G. supini, Bot. Helv. et Germ. (Rcfab. in 
germ. exc. No. 1397 in &nn. et add. figuram Bocconii ad G. uligino- 
sum refert) Utramque specierum e Scotia aocepi et in Herbario meo, 
efere omnibus localitatibus oopiose sed intermixtae extant, etdubitor 
an vere inter se distinct®. Interdum aegre distinguende sunt, quan- 
quam formae extreme valde distinctae. G. supinum gaudet fbliis la» 
tioribus minus tomentosis, capitulis saepius capitato-spicatis nume- 
rosis (4-12,) magis coloratis, brevissime pedicellatis ; caulibus vix 
caespitosis, biuncialibus et ultra, spicisque saepissime arcuato-cernuis, 
occurrit etiam capitulis sparsis, interdum subremotis, pallidiori- 
busque, sed semper numerosioribus quam in sequenti. Hujus spe- 
cies varietas videtur G. fuscum. Scop, non Lam. 
207* G. pusillum, Haenke. Willd sp. iii. p. 1889, Gaud. 1. c.*desc. 

bona. G. alpinum Ligfaif. Scot. i. p. 470 cum icon. opt. G. su- 
pinum, Sm. e descr. et annot. 

H. In M. Scfawarzseeberg et Fiinelen. 

Ohs. Descriptio Willdenowiana optima, nisi '' flores sessiles, et 
calycis squamae glabriusculae ex toto Aiscae.'* Pfaylla nempe pubes- 
centia, sed multo minus quam in praecedenti ; color variabilis. Dif- 
fert a praecedenti caulibus sarmentosis procumbentibus, florentibus 
magis erectis paucifloris, saepius unifloris, sed interdum quinqueflo- 
ris ; capitulis omnibus remotis, plus minusae pedicellatis ; foliisqne 
linearibus utrinque argenteo tomentosis. Ab faac specie, videtur, d. 
Smitfa varietatis uni et paucifloris praeoedentis non separavit, et for- 
san recte sed formam spicatam ad Gn. sylvaticum retulit. 
208. G. carpatfaicum Wafal. Carp. p. 258 cum icone. Gu. alpinum^ 



JlpsoftheFahU. 193 

Gaud. Rchb. pi. crit. viii. ic. 996. (Antennaria hyberborea, Don. 

Lindl. syn. (?) e Rchb. germ. exc. No. 1398 in add.) 

H. In. M . Gemmi snpra Scbwarrenbach. In. M. Fanelen. 

Obs. In exempl. meis capitula omnia distincte pedunculata. G. 
carpathicum, WahL ! differt tantam capitulis congeetis, fbliisque la- 
tioribns, sed in ioone suae capitula etiam> quoque minus distincte^ 
pedunculata sunt. 

209. * G. dioicum^ L. 
H. Zermatt. 

210. G. luteo-album^ L. 

H. Ad viam inter St Nicholas et Zermatt et inter Visp et Brieg. 

211. Ckryaanthetnum atratum^ L. 

H. In pascuis M. Gemmi prope Hospitium Scbwarrenbach, 29, 

30 Aug. 1836. 

ObM. Cum C. Leucanthemum, L. ut var. alpinum conjunxit cl. 
Rchb. 

212. C. Alpinum, L. — 3 pubescens. Dub. Bot. Grail, i. 272, caule 
foliisque pubescentibus, squamis ciliatis. C. minimum^ Vill. C. al- 
pinum minimum, Thom. Gaud. 

H. Ad moles glaciales M. Funelen : in glareosis M. Gemmi su- 
pra lacum Dauben, 31 Aug. 1836. j3. ad moles glaciales supra 
Zermatt. 

Obs, C. tomentoeum^ Lois. Dub. banc varietatem a Rchb. adjec- 
tum videtur, imprimis squamis ovatis hirsutis distinctum. 

213. C. Halleri, Sut. 

H. In glareods M. Gemmi ad moles glaciales Lammemgletscher, 

31 Aug. 1836. 

214. AchilUBa moschata, Jacq. Rchb. germ exc. No. 1443. A. Livia 
Scop. Del Ins. Tab. 3. opt. /8. intermedia Rchb. 1. c. A. inter- 
media Schleich. A. moschata j3. hybrida. Gaud. v. p. 370, foliis 
yilloBo-tomentosis, corymbo composito. Hall. Hist. No. 112. j9. 
H. In glareosis ad moles M. Funelen cum var. S. et summi jugi 

alpium supra Tsesch. 
Obs. '' A. moschate et nanse hybrida proles. Rchb. 1. c" sed hy- 
bridae^ persuasus sum, multo rariores sunt quam autumnat cl. auc- 
tor. Ad collum radicis prsesertim var. 0. saepius nidulas lignosas vil- 
lossissimas, insectis productas inveni. 

215. J. Macrophylla, L. 

H. In M. Grimsula infra Hospitium copiose. 

216. A. atrata L. 

H. In M. Gemmi frequens ; in glareosis supra Scbwarrenbach 
forma humilior magiaque pilosa. 



194 Botanical Excursion to the 

Obs. Valde variat quoad fbliorum deoompositionem et indumen-i 
turn ; caulis supeme semper plus minufive piloso-tomentosas^ sed 
Bsepe^ ita ut etiam folia> e toto valde piloaus ; ut opinor^ A. dasiana, 
Tausch et Rchb. PL crit. ii. ic* 368, non diverea et vix varietas con- 
stans. Bed tantum forma e localitate orta« 
217- A» nana, L. 

H. In M. Schwarzseeberg ; ad moles glaciales M. Fiinelen et sum- 
mi jugi alpium supra Tsesch. 

Obs, Variat etiam corymbo laxiusculo, caule foliisque minus vil- 
losis. 

218. A. tomentosa, L. 

H. In arenosis ad viam inter Stalden et St Nicholas et copiose 
inter Brieg et Munster. 

219. A. setac8«, Oaod. W. et Kit? A. odorata, Murith ! 
H. Ad viam inter Siders et Leuk. 

Obs, A. setacea WaldSi et Kit! differt foliis latioribus forsan 
tenuiter dissectis cauleque TilloBioribus. An ab A. odorata vere 
distincta planta Kitaibeliana, an ab A. millefolium, nostra ? 

220. A. miUefblium, L. Tar. foliis, caulibuaque vix semipedalibus, 
tomentoso-villosis et floribos roseis. . 

H. Ad viam inter Siders et Leak. 

221. Artemisia campestris, L. 

H. In apricis ad viam inter Inden, Varen et Siders. 

A, nana, Graud. Helv. V. 231. a. helvetica, gemina, raoemo 
simplici, foliis incanis, capitulis majoribus. A. helvetica Schleidi* 
Rchb. /8. parviflora. Gaud. 1. c, racemo composite, racemulis sub- 
sexfloris caulem arete appressis, foliis minus incanis, capituLs 
paululum minoribus. A. campestris, fi, alpina Schleich. Gaud. 



exs 



H. In alpibus supra Tsesch. 

Obs, Planta rarissima, A. campestri aifinis sed notis bonis distinc- 
ta :. caules trientales vix semipedales, adscendentes ; folia plerum* 
que longe petiolata in a incano-sericea, subbipinnatifida, pinnula- 
rum laciniis lanceolatis latiusculis. Racemus in a vix 20-i]orus, in 
fi. raoemuli 3-6 flori. Capitula duplo*triplove majora quam in A« 
campestri, disco eleganter purpureo, secunda, nutantia. 

223. A. valesiaca. All. 

H. Copiose in apricis inter Varen et Siders. 

224. A, glaciales, L. 

H. In alpibus supra Zermatt — M. Schwarzseeberg. 

225. il.spicata, Jacq. Gaud. Helv. V. 229. ce. floribus pertotum cau- 
lem laxius spicatis. Gaud. Lc. ^ floribus supeme laxins spicatis. 



Alps of the Valais. 195 

Gand. 1. c. 7. spica terminali densissima. Gaud. 1. c. t d. foliis 
caulinis linearibus indivisis. Gaud. 1. c. 

H. a. ad moles glaciales summi jugi alpium supra Tssch. /8. in 
M. Schwarzseeberg et Funelen. j8. y, et d, rarius. In rupibus 
M. Gemmi supra Schwarrenbach. 
06«. Var. t omiies enTunerats Tanant foliis caulinis palmato-in- 
dais^ pinnatifidis^ et linearibus intern. 

236, A. mutellina^ Vill. Gaud. A. rupestris^ All. non L. A. glacia- 
lis Wulf. Hoppe exs ! non L. Variat. a foliis cauliniH apice tri- 
fidiSj summis simplicibus^ pedunculis axillaribus unifloris aphyl- 
lis^ caule valde caspitoso. jS. foliis omnibus palmato-pinnatifi- 
dis argenteo-sericeis^ pedunculis axillaribus uniflorus apfayllis^ 
caule humilori. y, foliis radicalibus elongatis^ caulinisque subpal- 
mato-pinnatifidis/ pedunculis axillaribus unifloris aphyllis^ caule 
elato. d. pedunculis axillaribus elongatis fbliolosis^ plerumque 
trifloris. A. mutellina^ Vill. Dauph. iv. Tab. 35. 
H. a, y, d. in glareosis ad moles glaciales supra Tsesch. /3- et 7. In 
M. Fiinelen. 
227« A, Absinthium^ L. 

H. Fere ubique in Valesia vulgaris. 
228. Carduus, An nov. sp. ? 

H. In pascuis alpinis M. Fiinelen satis copiose. 
Obs. 1°**. Species mibi ignota^ sed exemplare unico^ quanquam 
perfecto^ novam spedem generis spinosissimi instituere nolo^ sed ad 
nuUam spederum Florae Germanise, Helvetise, G^iseve redigere 
possum. 

Carduus foliis lanceolatis decurrentibus pinnatifidis, laciniis inci- 
so-spinosis ; caule supeme nudiusculo unifloro, involucro hemisphse- 
rico, phyllis linearibus erectis subappressis, nervo valido percur- 
sis. 

Caulis pedalis et ultra tomentosus, infeme dense foliosus, foliis 
decurrentibus ubique alatus spinosusque, supeme nudiusculus vel 
fnlio unico semidecurrenti instructus; — Folia, praesertim subtus, 
piloso-tomentosa, utrinque ad nenros pilis crassis yalde articulatis 
intricatis arachnoideo-floccosa, lanceolata fere pinnatifida, laciniis 
Tslde approximatis latiusculis spinuloso-dentatis, spina ralida ter- 
ninatis: terminali producta; — Capitulum terminale, sesquunciale 
eiectum vel suberectum, Isete purpurascens, pedunculo vix incras- 
aato tomentoso ; involucrum subtomentosum, phyllis erectis, spina 
brevissima terminatis. 

Capitulum dnplo major quam in C. acanthoidis, L. : — videtur af- 
finis C. alpestri Walds et Krit ! a quo differt capitulo majori, caule 



196 Botanical Excursion to the Alps of the Valais. 

simplici tomentoso, multomajus alato spinoeoque et fbliorom laciniis 
arcti approximatis subtus lanuginoso tomentosis. 

C. leptophyllus, Gaud, differt, foliia glabris, capitalo multo minori 
(" duplo fere miaori quam C. deflorati" — in planta.; nostra duplo 
fere majori) sed aliis notis bene congruit. 

C. acuminatus. Gaud, etiam differt capitulis minoribus capitato- 
aggregatis phyllis omnino patulis. 

Ohs. 2<»» C. acanthioide8> Auct. Brit, videtur certissime, C.'crispus 
et pinnatifidus, Rchb. Germ, exc No, 1893.— Spec. |mea ab am 
Campbell prope Edinburgumlecta, foliis subtus incano-tomentosis 
vel sublanatis, et capitulis numerosis dense aggregatis gaudent. 

C. acantboides Germanorum> Rcbb. pi. crit. X. ic. 1319, 20, 21, 
et exsic ! differt capitulis pedunculatis subsolitariis majoribusque, et 
foliis laeti virentibus vix pubescentibus. 
229.» Saussurea alpina, D. C. 

H. Zermatt. 

Obs. Variat foliis ovato-lanceolatis, lanceolatis lineari-lanceolatisve 
distincte petiolatis vel in petiolum attenuatis ; involucro phyllis ex- 
terioribus ovato-triangularibus viridibus, nigro-marginatis, purpu- 
rascentibus, vel e toto atropurpureis, appresse pilosis vel glabriuscu- 
lis, interioribus lanceolatis pilosissimis. 

230. Cirsium spinossissimum, Scop. 
H. Copiose in petrosis, M. Gemmi. 

231. Centaur ea crupina, L. 

H. In arvis incultis inter Inden et Varen. 
Ohs, Ochenia magna juniora aureo-grisea appresse sericea, pappo 
concolori (contra Gaudin,) matura brunneo-nigrescentia. 

232. C. Phrygia, L. Gaud. exc. C austriaca, L. a caule simpli- 
cissimo onifloro, foliis dentatis scabriusculo-hirtis, opacis, dentibus 
mucronatis. C. phrygia, ^. Helvetica, Gaud. Helv. v. p. 393. fi. 
ambigua, minor uniflora, foliis caulinis subpeUucidis sinuato-den- 
tatis hirto-pubescentibus basi attenuatis, subtrinervis. C. Phrygia. 
y, ambigUH, 7. jS. minor. Gaud. 1. c C. ambigua, Thom. 

H.* a. Zermatt. ^. In M. Schwarzseeberg. 

233. C. cyanus, L. var. pusilla, incana. 

H. In arvis incultis inter Varen et Siders. 

234. C. paniculata, L. var. ^. incana, phyllis appendicibus pallidis. 
H. In apricis ad viam inter Inden et Varen, Siders et Leuk, et 

inter Stalden et Visp. 

(To he continued.) 

EDINBUaCH : 
PRINTED BY JOHN STARK, OLD ASSEMBLY CLOSE. 



MAGAZINE 



OF 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



L — On ike British Species of the Genus Cerasiium, being an at" 
tempt to elucidate their distinctive characters. By Charles C. 
Babinoton, M. a. p. L. S. &c. (Plate VI.) 

CERASTIUM, Linn. 
Calyx of 5 sepals. Petals 5, bifid. Stamens 10-^5-4. Styles 
5-4. Capsule 1-celled, many-seeded^ cylindrical, the apex opening 
by 10 or 8 erect teeth. 
A. Cjbrastii vuloati^ Fries. The petals equalling or shorter 
than the calyx, 
a. Pbrsibtbntbs^ Fries. The capsule curved, the petals 
about equal to the calyx, but sometimes slightly longer. 
J. Cerastium vulgatum, Linn. Sm. — Leaves oval, petals about as 
long as the calyx, sepals lanceolate, acute, and together with the 
bracteae, herbaceousand hairy throughout ; capsule cylindrical, curved, 
about twice as long as the calyx, fruit-stalks about as long as the 
calyx. 
C. vulgatum, Linn. Sp, PL 627. Sm. Ft. Brit. 496. Eng. Bot. 789. 
D. Cand. Prod. i. 415. Reichenb. Icon. Plant, f. 385, 386, 
387- Host. FL !• Aust. bbb. Reichenb. Fl: excurs. 4970. 
Hooker, Br. FL 215. Lind. Sj^n. 51. Mack. FL Hibem. 48. 
C. visoosum, Huds. FL Ang. 200. CuH. FL Lond. ed. I. WahL 
FL Suec. (exd. var.) 517. Gaud. FL Helv. iii. 240. Fries Non. 
Snec. ed. 2, 128. 
C. glomeratum, Koch, Syn, FL Germ. 12U 

VOL. II. NO. 9. o 



198 On the British Species 

Root fibrous. Steins mostly erects hoary with long spreading hairs, ^ 
usually glandular. Leaves ovate, often very broad and usually ob- 
tuse, the lower ones narrowed into a petiole. Flowers aggregated or 
in dichotomous panicles, upon short stalks, which never exceed the 
calyx. Sepals lanceolate, acute, entire, the outer ones very slightly 
membranous, the inner rather more so, hairy throughout. Petals 
white, scarcely longer than the calyx. Capsule cylindrical, slightly 
curved upward, about twice the length of the calyx. Seeds very 
small, tubercnlated. 

In fields, on dry banks, &c. common. April — September. 
2. C* viscosum, Linn. Sm. — Leaves obIong> lanceolate, petals . 
about as long as the calyx, sepals oblong-ovate, and, t<^ether with 
the bracteae, membranous at their margins and glabrous apices, cap- 
sule cylindrical, curved, about twice as long as the calyx, fruit-stalks 
longer than the calyx. 

C. viscosum, Linn. Sp. PL 627. Sm. 497- Eng Boi. 7^0. DC. 

prod. i. 416. Host. 557, Hook. 215. Lind. 51. Mack. 48. 

C. vulgatum, Huds. 200. {Walcoit Fl BrU. plate.) Curt. ed. 1- 

WahL 52a Gaud. iii. 238. Fries, 125. 
C. triviale. Link. en. hort. BeroL i. 433. Reich. FL excurs. 

4972, Icon. pL I 402, 403. Koch, Syn. 122. 
fi. holosteoides. Fries. " Glabrous^ the stalks with their sides alter- 
nately pubescent." 
G. holosteoides, Fries, nov. ed. 1, 32. Link en. h. BeroL i. 433. 
• Ileich. Icon. pL f. 317, 318. 
C. vulgatum, j3 holosteoides. Fries, ed. 2, 126. 
G. triviale, yS holosteoides, Reich, fl. excur. 4972. Koch, Syn. 122. 
Root fibrous and stronger than in C vulgatum. Stems diffuse^ and, 
unless supported by other plants, prostrate, with their extremities 
ascending, of a much darker green than the preceding, and covered 
with shorter pubescence, usually without any glands. Leaves oblong 
or lanceolate, frequently acute, the* lower ones narrowed into a pe- 
tiole. Flowers collected in small terminal panieies, not forming dense 
fEisciculated heads, as in C. vulgatum, upon stalks which are longer 
than the calyx. $epals oblong-ovate, rather obtuse, entire, the apex 
and margins, particularly the inner one, broadly membranous, but 
slightly hairy and usually quite glabrous at their tips. Petals white, 
scarcely longer than the calyx. Gapsule as in the preceding species. 
The seed, according to Gaudin, beautifully muricated, and of about 
half the size of that of C. vulgatum. 

The whole plant is sometimes glandular, more particularly upon 
the peduncles and calyx, when it forms the variety glanduhsum of 



of the Genus Cerastium. 199 

authors. There is also an alpine form '* var. d, uUginosum, Schleich.'' 
Reich, and d. alpinum of Koch^ which has broader leaves and larger 



Infields on banks> walls, &c common. ^ May— September. 

I have not noticed either the variety holasieoides or alpinum in 
this country. 

From the very confused state of the synonyms in this first sec- 
tion^ I cannot help thinking that it w6uld be ftur better to adopt dif- 
ferent names from those given by Linnaeus, that is, C. ghmeratum 
after Thniilier and Mertens and Koch, in place of C vulgatum of 
Smith> and C. Iriviaie after Link, Reichenbach and Mertens and 
Koch, in place of C vUcosum of Smith. 

h. FuGACBS, Fries. The capsule straight, the petals shorter 
than the calyx. 

3. C. semidecandrum, Linn. — ^Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, pe- 
tals shorter than the calyx, sepals lanceolate, broadly membranous 
at their margins and apex, bractese with their upper half membran- 
ma, capsule cylindrical, slightly inflated, straight and longer than the 
calyx, fruit-stalk longer than the calyx, at .first reflexed but ulti- 
mately erect. 

C. semidecandmm, Linn. Sp. PL 627. Sm. Eng. BU. 1630. 
Booker, Lind. De Cand,, &c. 

C. pelluddum, Loisel. Fl. Gall. i. 323. 

a Friesianum, leaves ovate-oblong, stems filiform and erect. C. 
semidecandmm. Fries, 134. 

0. gUiHnosum, very viscid, leaves ovate, stems thicker, more 
spreading and decumbent below. C. glutinosum. Fries. 133. 

' C. viscosum, Reichenb. f. 399, 400, 401. C. pumilum. Curt.? 

y. nuici/enffffn. Fries, glabrous throughout. C. madlentum, J?etcil. 
f. 379, 380. 

Root small, fibrous. Stems yearly erect; except, in var /9. usually 
covered with short glandular pubescence. Leaves ovate or oblong, 
the lower ones narrowed into a petiole. Flowers in small terminal 
panicles, often umbellated, upon stalks which are longer than the 
calyx, and are refiexed after the flower is faded, but ultimately again 
erect. Sepals lanceolate, somewhat acute, the apex and margins, par- 
ticularly the inner one, broadly membranous, hairy but nearly gla- 
brous towards their points, fjig. d.J Petals white, much shorter 
than the calyx. Capsule cylindrical, not curved, nearly twice as 
long as the calyx. Seeds minute tuberculated. 

C. semidecaudrum, Lois, is said, by him, not to have the mem- 



200 On the British Species 

brahous margins to the bracteie. He has, probably with justice^ 
considered it as a distinct species, but has incorrectly retained the 
Linneean name for it, rather than for that form to which it has been 
given by most, if not all other authors. Seringe has retained them 
both as distinct species in DC. Prod, but in the Botan. Gall. C. 
pellucidum is considered as a variety of C. semidecandrum. By 
Reichenbach (FL excurs, 4969,) G. semidecandrum, Lois, is re- 
ferred to C. pumilum^ Cf/W., and considered as distinct from semi- 
decandrum. I have unfortunately not seen authentic specimens of 
Curtis's plant, nor that of Loiseleur. 

In dry fields and upon walls. April — May. I have not noticed 
var y. in England. 

4. C, pednnculatum. (Plate VI.) — ^Leaves ovate or oblong, petals 
much shorter than the calyx, sepals lanceolate, acute, covered with 
short 'glandular hairs, their apex and margins membranous, the mar- 
•gins of the bractee slightly membranous, capsule straight, subcylin- 
drical, equal to or longer than the calyx, always erect, the fruit-bear- 
ing peduncles two or three times as long as the calyx, stems repeat- 
edly dichotomous. 

a. 5-parlitum. Calyx and corolla 5-parted, capsule opening by 
10 teeth, and longer than the calyx. 

/3. 4'partitum. Calyx and corolla 4-parted, capsule opening by 8 
teeth, and about as long as the calyx. PI. 

The whole plant covered with short hairs, many of which are 
glandular. Root small, fibrous. Stems several, from 6 inches to 1 
foot in height, erect, repeatedly dichotomous, bearing a flower in 
each fork, and having very long internodes. Leaves ovate or oblong, 
usually pointed, small, the lower ones narrowed into a broad petible, 
the rest sessile. Flowers scattered, one in the axil of each fork of 
the stem. The peduncles of the fruit two, three, or even four times 
as long as the calyx, always erect and straight. Bracteie slightly mem- 
branous at their margins. Sepals lanceolate, acute, covered with short 
glandular pubescence, membranous at the margins and apex. Pe- 
tals much shorter than the calyx* The number of stamens is vari- 
able, as is usually the case in this genus. Capsule straight^ cylindri- 
cal^ as long or rather longer than the calyx, always erect, and never 
forming an angle with its peduncle. Seeds small and tuberculated. 

On sandy ground. St Hellens, Isle of Wight. Mr Borrer, South- 
end, Essex. Annual. May and June. 

I was for some time inclined to consider this plant as a variety pf 
C. hrachypetalum, Desp. but having recently received authentic 
specimens of that plant from Germany, (No. 389, in Reichenbach's 



ofihe Genus Cerastiitm. 201 

t*iora German, exsiccata,) I am led to consider it as a distinct spe^ 
des. It differs from that plant, at the first glance^ bj its much more 
branching habits and its want of the long shaggy pubescence with 
which that species is covered in all parts. C. hrachypetalum also 
has its bractese totally destitute of a membranous margin^ and the 
capsules nodding in a remarkable manner^ the peduncle itself re- 
maining straight and erect, but curved at a right angle^ just below the 
calyx. This plant is well represented by Reichenbach in his Plantce 
Crit. Fig. 388. Our plant may be distinguished from C. semidecan^ 
drnm by its habits its slightly membranous bractefe^ that plant hav- 
ing them membranous for half their lengthy and by its capsule being 
always erects not at first pendulous^ a)id then (when the seed is per- 
fected) erect. 

5. C. ielrandrum, Curt. — Leaves elliptical^ petals rather shorter 
than the calyx^ sepals lanceolate acute, their apex glabrous and at- 
tenuated with a central almost excurrent herbaceous line : the two 
margins broadly membranous, capsules straight, a little longer than 
the calyx. 
C. tetrandum. Curt. Lond. Sm. FL Brit. 498. Eng. FL ii. 332. 

Hooker, 2\e. Mack. ^. 
C. semidecandrum, BerUham in LindL Sifn. 51. 
Sagina cerastoides, Sm, in Linn. Trans, ii. 343. Eng. Bot. 166. 
• DC. Prod. 1. 389. Hooker, 216. 
Moenchia cerastoides, G. Don. Stfst. of Bot. i. 420. 
Esmarchia cerastoides, Reich. Jl. excurs. 4954. 
? Cerastium pumilum, Koch, Sin. 122:^ (not Curtis.) 
Root slender. Stems procumbent, spreading, their extremities 
ascending, covered with short hair. Leaves eUiptical^ the lower 
ones elliptic-oblong, the lowest narrowing into a petiole. Flowers 
on stalks, which are rather longer than the calyx, but not invari- 
ably so, as large as those of C. vulgatum. Sepals 4, lanceolate, at- 
tenuated, acute, broad below, the apex glabrous with the mid-rib 
continuing to its extreme point in the form of an herbaceous line, 
bounded on both sides by a broad membranous margin. (Fig. c.) 
Petals 4, white, shorter than the calyx. '* Capsule a little longer 
than the calyx, straight, with 8 long linear teeth. Seeds roughish 
on the outer edge." 

There appears to be some confusion in Sir W. Hooker's Brit. 
Flora, which, 1 think, has not improbably arisen from his having 
received my C. hrachypelalum sa C. tetrandrum. I have also re- 
cently received from Yarmouth, through the kindness of my friend 
Mr Ball of Christ's College, a tetrandrous form of C. semidecandrum. 



202 Oh the BriHih Species 

In this plant the petals are about half the length of the calyx, and 
the stems are very short and spreading, but it agrees exactly with 
the specific characters of C. semtdecandrutn. On the same root of 
this Yarmouth plant I have noticed flowers with 4 and 5 sepals, 
and Mr Ball informs me, that although flowers with 4 sepals and 
4 stamens were hr the most common, yet that he noticed many 
cases of the presence of 5 sepals and 5 stamens, I am quite conyin- 
ced that no confidence whatever can be placed upon the number of 
those parts in this genus. I have therefore omitted them altogether 
in my specific characters. Under these circumstances I shall only 
mention the station from which my specimens of this plant were 
obtained by the kindness of 'Mr R. fi. Bowman of Newcastle, 
namely, Tynemouth, Northumberland. " May — June." 

B. Grandiflori, Fries. The petals twice as long as the calyx. 
6. C. alpinum,' Linn. — Hairy, the stems ascending, leaves ovate, 

ovate«oblong or lanceolate, flowers few, sepals bluntish, with their 
margins membranoas, bractee wholly herbaceous, or with a narrow 
membranous margin, capsule at length twice as long as the calyx. 

C. alpinum, Beniham in Lind. Syn. 61. 

a. Linjiasanum, smooth, or clothed with long silky hairs, stem 
mostly simple, flowers 1,2, (ht 3, together in a forked panicle, 
bractes slightly membranous at the margin. 

C. alpinum, Linn. 628. Sm. Eng. Bot. t. 472. Sm. Eng. FL ^ 
333. Hooker, 217, *<?. 

C. latifolium, Ligktf. FL Scot. 242. t. 10. 

p. piloso-pubescens, Benth. Rough with short bristly hairs, stem 
branched, flowers usually solitary, bracteie often wanting, bat when 
present wanting the membranous margin. 

C. latifoHum, Sm. Eng. Bot. t. 473. Sm. Eng. Fl. ii. 334. 
Hooker, 217- 

Root strong, creeping, stems mostly erect in var. a, prostrate in 
var. /3, usually clothed vith spreading hairs. Leaves ovate, varying 
through all the intermediate forms to lanceolate, placed rather closely 
upon the stem in var. B, much more distantly in var. ou Flowers 
few in number, either solitary or in a dichotomons panicle, upon 
long stalks. Sepals ovate, with a membranous nmrgin, blnntiahy 
moie so in var. j3 than a. Petals white, nearly three times as long 
as the calyx. Bracten lanceolate, acute, with a slight membranona 
margin, usually present in var. a, frequently wanting, and with the 
margin scarcely at all membranous in var. j3. " Capsule oblongs 
Cylindrical ; when ripe about twice as long as the calyx." Benth. 

I have been unable to detect any permanent character to distin* 



ofOu Genus Ceraatiunu 203 

gttiah C alpinum and iaitfoUum of 8ir J. £. Smithy and have there- 
fore followed Messrs Beutham and Lindley by oonsidering them as 
oonsdtuting onlj one species. Their extreme forms certainly are 
very different, but intermediate states often occur, and it is then al« ' 
most impossible to determine to which of the supposed spedes they 
on^t to be vefored. Mr Bentham is of opinion that the C. latifb' 
Hum of our English audiors is not the same as the Linnnan plant. I 
have therefore not quoted the Sp. Plant. 

The pedundes of our plant are said by Koch to be deflexed after 
the £ower has fiftded, and that is made a point of distinction between 
it and C. amense, in which they are described as erect. 

In the higher mountains of Scotland and Wales. June— Augustt 

7* C arvense, Linn^^^tems ascending, prostrate below, leaves 
linear-lanceolate bluntish, flowers in terminal panicles, sepals and 
bractece lanceolate, slightly acute and broadly membranous at their 
margins and apex, capsule at length longer than the calyx. 

C. arvense, Linn. 628. Sm. Eng. Bot. 93. Eng. Fl. ii. 333. 
Hooker, 217. Mack. ^, &c. 

C. arvense 1. commune. Gaud. FL Helv. iii. 244. 

Root strong, creeping. Stems decumbent below, the flowering 
part ascending, covered with fine deflexed hairs. Leaves narrowly 
lanceolate, often nearly linear, their edges fringed below, placed 
closely upon the lower parts of the stem, but much more distant 
upon the upper part. Tlowers much more numerous than in C. 
aipimum, usually about 7 in each ^ or trichotomous panicle, 
sometimes amonntii^ to 14 or 15, upon long stalks, which, to- 
gether with the general stalk of the panicle, are covered with minute 
spreading glandular hairs, (according to Gbmdin the hairs upon 
the peduncles are sometimes not glandular, and then they are de- 
flexed like those of the stem.) Sepals and braoteae lanceolate, 
their margins and apex broadly membranous. Petals white, twice 
as long as the calyx. Capsule oblong, longer (shorter Sm.) than 
the calyx. 

In gravelly and chalky places. April— ^August. 

Noie. — The CeraHium aquaticum, Smith, appears to be more na- 
turally referred to the genus Stellaria, or, perhaps, in conformi- 
ty with the -views of Fries, to form a geftus distinct horn either of 
them. As, however, it is included in J;he genus Cerastium by 
Smith, Hooker, and Lindley, I have added its characters and sy- 
nonyms, together with a few observations upon its nomenclature. 



204 British Species of the Genus Cerastium. 

STELLARIA, Linn. 
Calyx of 5 sepalii. Petals 5, bifid. Stamens 10> rarely 5 or 8. 
Styles 3, rarely 5. Capsule l-celled^ many seeded^ opening with 6, 
or rarely 5, yalves. 

A. Stju^larium. Styles 3^ the capsule bursting by 6 entire valves. 
This section includes the whole genus SteUaria of most authors. 

B. Malachium. Styles 5, the capsule bursting with 5 valves, each 
of which is bifid at its extremity. Larbrea, Ser : in DC. Prod, 
(not of St Hil.) Malachium, Fries, Reiohenb. Koch. 

S. aquaiica, Vill. Leaves cordate-ovate^ mostly sessile and semi- 
amplexicaule^ peduncles axiUary and solitary, petals rather longer 
than the calyx, fruit-stalks reflexed. 

Cerastium aquaticum, Linn. Sp. PL 629. Eng. BoL 538. DC. 
Prod. iii. 366, (note,) &c. 

SteUaria aquatica, « Vill. Delph. iii. 617." Pers. Syn. i. 500, 
(not of Seringe in DC. Prod. i. 398.) 

Larbrea aquatica, Ser. in DC. Prod, i, 395, (not of St Hilaire.) 

Malachium aquaticum. Fries, " Hall. 1817» p- 77-" -^w. Suec, 
121. Reichen. FL excurs. 4967. Koch, Syn. 120. 

Stellaria pentagyna. Gaud. FL Helv. iii. 179. 

For a detailed description of this plant I would refer to Sm. Eng. 
FL or Gaud. FL Helv, 

The Stellaria aquatica of DC. Prod. i. 398, is Si. nliginosa of 
Curtis and Smith, which is now distinguished as a genus under the 
name of Larbrea of St Hilaire. Seringe applied this latter name 
to our plant in De Candolle's Prodromus, as quoted above. This 
mistake was corrected in the third volume of that work, and the 
genus Larbrea, distinguished by its perigynous stamens, adopted 
for the St. uliginosa of Curtis. Our plant was, at the same time, 
referred back to Cerastium. 

Should it be considered advisable to follow Fries, Reichenbach, 
and Koch, by separating this plant both from Stellaria and Ceras^ 
Hum, the name Malachium conferred upon it by Fries in the year 
1817 cannot be retained. A genus of Coleopterous insects having 
been described under the name of Malachius, and therefore only 
differing in gender from Malachium, by Fabricius in his Systema 
Eleutheratorum, which was published in 1801. 

According to Reichenbach and Koch, the Cerastium maniicum^ 
Linn. C Stellaria mantica, DC.) possesses the same structure a* our 
plant. It is consequently referred by them to the genus Malachium, 
and will of course be included in our section of that name. 

St John's College, Cambridge, April 8, 1837- 



Descriptions of British Diptera. 206 

II — Characters and Descriptions of the Dipterous Insects indige* 
nous to Britain,* By James Duncan^ M. W. S.^ &c. &c. (Con- 
tinued from p. 459.) 

Family BOMBYLIDiE, Leach. 
Antennjb consisting of three joints^ the third not ringed and sur- 
mounted by an articulated style : proboscis long and porrected hori- 
zontally from the lower part of the face ; palpi consisting of a single 
joint ; head much narrower than the thorax ; the latter very convex 
above ; legs long and slender ; wing^ divaricating^ and usually hav- 
ing four posterior cells. 

The insects included in this family belong principally to the 
southern parts of Europe and to Africa. Comparatively few^ there-* 
fore, fall to be described by the British faunist, and these all ad- 
mit of being referred to three genera, viz. Bombylius, Phthiria, and 
Ploas. These may readily be distinguished from each other by the re- 
lative length of the proboscis, and radical joints of the antennae : 

Proboscis longer than C 1st joint of antennae much longer than 2d, Bombylius. 
the head and thorax, ( Ist & 2d joints of antennae short and equal, Phthiria. 
Proboscis shorter than the head and thorax, - - Ploas. 

Genus BOMBYLIUS. 
Antennae inserted close t(^ther, the third joint turned outwards ; ' 

the radical joint pret- 
ty long and cylindri- 
cal, clothed with very 
long hairs, second 
joint cup-shaped, 
likewise hairy^ third 
long and subfusiform^ 
nearly naked^ atte- 
nuated, surmounted 
by a short oblique 
style, which consists 
of three joints, the 
central one longest, (Fig. 1 :) labrum very long and spear-shaped, 
somewhat dilated a little before the point: tongue very long, and ta- 

* As these descriptive notices are intended to embrace all the species recorded 
as British, it forms part of our plan to publish an appendix at intervals, supplying 
any accidental omission in the original papers, describing new species, and 
adding new localities, the latter of which have been furnished in great numbers 
through the attention.of our correspondents. By following this method, we shall 
be enabled to present the subject in as ample, and, we hope, as complete a form, 
> as its present progressive state admits of. 




308 DescripHom of British Dipiera. 

abdomen having the anterior half clothed with fulvous hairs^ the 
posterior half with black hairs, the female with a white anal spot ; 
belly entirely covered with black hairs : base and outer border of 
the wings for nearly two-thirds of their length brown, the remain- 
der transparent, with a brown spot at the base of each cell : halteres 
black : legs pale ferruginous, the tarsi dusky at the extremity. 
5^-6^, proboscis 4|. 

" Middle of April, open plabes in woods^ Norfolk, Essex, and 
around London." Curtis, Brit. Ent. " In plenty at Enborne, Berks, 
several years ago, and in Tidworth woods, Hants, May 1829 ; rare 
at Glanville's Wootton." J. C. Dale, Esq. " Common on sunny 
banks in the. spring ; but the only species of this genus which I 
have as yet taken in Cambridgeshire." Rev. Leonard Jemfns. 
** Cambridge and Bath," C C. Babinglon, Esq, 

BOMBYLIUB PICTD8. 
Mdgtn, ii. 198; Mxkan, pi. 2, fig. 2. — Panzer, Faun. Germ. — Bomb, planicomifl, 
Fabr. 

Head with dark-bro%vn hairs, the male with two white points over 
the base of the antennae ; the latter dark-brown, with the third 
joint flat and very much dilated, ending in a point, but without a 
distinct style. Thorax clothed with light-brown hairs, changing with 
the light into white, the back marked with five spots of black hairs, 
three anteriorly, and two behind; hairs investing the abdomen 
dark-brown, the sides with alternate fulvous and black tuf^, and 
the hinder lextremity with two white spots : belly black, halteres of 
the same colour ; wings brown at the base and anterior margin to be- 
yond the middle ; the rest of the surface transparent and spotted 
nearly as in B. medius, but many of the spots usually larger ; legs 
pale ferruginous. 5 lines. 

This insect is admitted on the authority of Mr Stephens, who in- 
cludes it in his catalogue among our indigenous species ; but we Jiave 
not ascertained in what part of the country examples occurred. It 
is no doubt a rare native : it seems doubtful whether it is found in 
France, and it is considered scarce in Germany, where it was first 
discovered. 

BOMBYLIUS POSTICUS. 
Fabr, Meigen, il. 200 — Bomb, micans, Meig, Klassif. 
Body black, invested with fulvous hairs : forehead black in the male, 
inclining to brown inlhe female, having a white spot on each side in 
the former sex, and a single spot in the latter : proboscis, palpi and 
antennae black, the latter with the third joint a little enlarged in the 
female : the fulvous hairs covering the body have a whitish schim- 

3 



Deseripthns of British Dipiera. 209 

mer when seen in certain directions, and those on theliinder part of 
the abdomen are entirely white : halteres brown ; wings transpa- 
rent, brown at the base, and having a small pale yeUow spot towards 
the apex ; the base slightly tinged with yellow only in the female. 
Halteres brown : legs shining yellowish-grey, the inner side of the 
anterior thighs, and all the tarsi black. 4 J lines ; proboscis 3 lines. 
We have to adduce the same authority for regarding this as an 
indigenous species that was referred to in the preceding instance. 
Like B. pictus it is a scarce insect even on the continent, and seems 
to prefer a more southern climate to ours. 

BOMBTLIUB MINOR, (s.) 
Zam. Donovan*$ Brit. Ins.^ xv. pi. 586 ; Meigen, ii. 201«^Bomb. Tenosus, 
Mihan ; Meigen** Klassif. * 

Considerably less than any of the preceding ; the body black, oover-i 
ed throughout with soft yellowish hairs : - whiskers (mystax) ferru- 
ginons, black at the sides : forehead of the females clothed with red- 
dish yellow hairs ; antennae and proboscis black. Halteres dark- 
brown : wings somewhat greyish, the base and outer border tinged 
with light yellowish brown : legs pale ferruginous, the tarsi obscure* 
4 lines : proboscis nearly 2}. 

This is one of the most common species of the genus, and ap« 
pears to be the only one that extends far to the north. It occurs in 
some plenty, in the month of June, in many places near Edinburgh, 
such as the base of Arthur Seat, fields about Duddingston, and has 
been taken in Perthshire and other more northern counties. 

In England it appears to be rather local, but abounds in certain 
situations. Captain Blomer was accustomed to take it plentifully 
in Bradley and Cleve Woods, near Teignmouth and Bideford, 
Devon ; and also in Wales. , It has likewise been observed at High 
Bickington by Mr Cocks — at Shanklin Chine by Mr Rudd, &c. 
According to Captain Blomer's Journal, ii seems to be in June and 
beginning of July that it appears in greatest force. ** Avondale, 
county Wicklow, Ireland, taken once." A. H. Holiday ^ Esq. 

BOMBYLIUS CTENOPTERUB (s.) 
Mtkan, Meigen, ii. 204 ; MacquarVs Dipt^res, 382. 
Brown, the male clothed with fulvous hairs, the female with 
whitish yellow hairs : hypostome, whiskers and forehead grey : hal« 
teres white : wings nearly transparent, tinged with yellow at the 
base, and a considerable way along the exterior border, the margi- 
nal nervure strongly ciliated at the base : the basilar jt^ls of .equ.al 
length, whereas in all the species previously describeti they are un« 



210 IkicHptiims of British Dipiera. 

equal. Legs yellow, the tani dark-brown. 4^ lines ; proboscis about 
half that length. 

'< Devon; Mr J. Cocks, and near Perth/' Curiis' BriL Eni, " Do- 
ver, July 1826." Mr Ingpen. 

BOMBYLIUB C1KEBA8CCN8. 
.Mikan, Monog. pL iu. Fig. 10 ; Meigen^ iL 212. 
This small species, which/ according to Mr Stephens^ has oc- 
curred in Britain, is thus described by Mikan, to whom we arc 
indebted for a monograph of this tribe of Dipte'ra : whiskers black 
above, grey beneath : body black, covered throughout with ash- 
grey hairs: wings transparent, the base black: halteres black: 
thighs with grey pubescence ; tibite brown ; tarsi black. 2^ lines ; 
proboscis If. 

Gbnus— PHTHIRIA. 

Antennae somewhat shorter than the head, a^^fnoximating at the 
base, and directed sideways ; first joint short and cylindrical, with a few 
hahrs on the outer side ; second cup-shaped and slightly pubescent ; 
third fiisifonn and compressed, nearly double the length of the two 
others taken together, and having a very short bifid style at the apex ; 
proboscis at least as long as the head and thorax ; labrum grooved 
beneath ; palpi thick and club-shaped, concealed within the cavity of 
the aaonth: head spherical, the forehead prominent; ocelli three; ab- 
domen obtusely conical : wings of moderate size, the submargimd 
cells nearly straight ; first posterior one open ; anal cell closed at the 
extremity and slightly peti^^ted : legs long and slender. 

This genus includes a few small insects which were formerly re- 
ferred to Usia of Latreille and Voluoella of Fabricius. " The prin- 
cipal relations which they have with the BombyHi," says Mse- 
quart, " consist in the length of the proboscis, the approx]matio& 
of the antennae at the base, and in the form of the third joint of these 
organ*; but more considerable diilerences give them a peculiar ha- 
bit, and render their affinity liable to be misunderstood. The sphe- 
rical form of the head, and conical shape of the abdomen, the short- 
ness of the first joint of the antennae, and finally the reticulated ap- 
pearance of the wings, remove them more or less from the bombylii: 
in the latter character, indeed, they deviate from the greater part 
of the family. The nerviires are not sinuous as in Anthrax and 
Mulio ; the first cell of the hinder border is not closed as in the * 
Bombylii ; and the anal cell, contrary to what takes place in the ge- 
nus just nuned, is closed at its extremity, as in Usia and Geron. 
• 4 



Descriptions of British Diptera. 211 

FiDalJj, the wings assume an appearance very similar to those of the 
Bmpides."* 

As is the ease with the Bombylii, we are still unacquainted with 
the previous states and metamorphoses of these insects. * 

PhTUIBIA FULIGABIA. 

Meiffien, ii. 219; Maequart) Curtis, Brit Ent. pi. 521. — Bomb, pulicarius, Mi- 

kan, Monog. pi. iv. fig. 14 — Volucella campestria, Fallen — Phthiria nigra, 

Meig. Kkn. pi. x. fig. 11. — Phthiria pygmaea, Latr, Gen. Crust, iv. a 4. 

Male : deep black ; the hypostome clothed with white haiVs ; 

forehead black : the abdomen more or less invested with whitish 

hairs; halteres dark-brown : wings nearly hyaline^ the stigma brown ; 

legs black. 

Female : not so deep black as the other sex ; the hypostome white^ 
and the forehead, which is wide and of a dark-brown*colour, has two 
white spots anteriorly ; thorax with a white stripe on each side, the 
aides of the breast greyish, with two white spots ; scuteUum black, 
marked with a pale yellow point at the hinder extremity ; halteres 
- white ; wings purely hyaline^ 1^ line. 

This appears to be everywhere a rare insect, and was not known 
to inhabit this country till lately* when it was found by Mr Curtis 

at Covehithe, in Suffolk. 

♦ 

Gbnds PLOAS. 

Anteniue about the length of the head, placed close together 
ftt the base, diverging above ; first joint thick, conical, 'and hairy ; 
wcood cap-shaped, hairy ; third rather long, slender, naked 
and fusiform, slightly compressed, and terminating in a short two- 
jotnted style : proboscis not much longer than the head : pal- 
pi cylindrical, terminating in a small sharp point: labrum nearly as 
long as the proboscis, obtuse ; tongue as long as the proboscis, and 
pointed : eyes contiguous in the male, remote in the female ; the 
crown with three ocelli ; thorax oval, the surface elevated : wings 
with three submarginal cells, the first posterior one open ; legs slen- 
der. 

The most distinctive character in this genus, which was esta- 
blished by Latreille, is the thickness of the radical joint of the an- 
tennae. The proboscis also is much shorter than in the other mem- 
bers of the same family, so that the insects are obb'ged to settle on 
the corolla of flowers to obtain food, instead of sipping it while on 

* Dipter^s du Nord de la Prance. 



212 Descriptions of British Diptera, 

the wing like the'bombylii. Very few species are known ; and al- 
though that described below has been admitted into our indigenous 
lists^ the fact of its being a native requires coniinnatimi. 

Ploas virescenb. 

Meigen, ii. 231. pi. 19, fig. 6. — Ploas hicticornis, Latr, Gen. Crust, iv. 312, 
pi. 15, fig. 7 — Bomb. Maunis, Mikan, pl* 4, fig. 13. — Conophorus Maurusv 
Meigen, Klaasif. pL 10, fig. 17. 

Surface of the body obscure green, nearly blacky invested with 
gr^ish hairs ; forehead whitish in the niale> with fulvous hairs in 
the female ; first and aecond joints of the antennae greyish-browa» 
with very long black hairs ; third joint black. Hairs on the thorax 
ferruginous ; sides of the breast whitish ; scutellum small, shining 
black and naked : abdomen rather broad, blackish green> clothed 
with ferruginous hairs ; that of the male with alternate tufts of 
white and black hairs on the sides : wings brownish at the base, the 
transverse nervures likewise bordered with brown : tibiae yellowish, 
the thighs and tarsi somewhat obscure. 3-— 4 lines. 

The principal station of this insect seems to be in the South of Ea-^ 
rope; but it has been found as far north as Paris ; and specimens 
in the British Museum are said to have occurred in this country. 

FAMiLY—CONOPIDiE. 

Antennse three-jointed^ angular at the .base, the third joint with 
a terminal style ; proboscis long and slender, geniculated at the 
base ; ocelli wanting ; thorax without a cross suture ; abdomen 
curved inwards at the extremity, and consisting of six segments in 
the female, and seven in the male: 

As constituted by Dr Leach, and adopted by several other authors, 
the family Conopidae was made to include the genera arranged be- 
low as a distinct group under the name of Myopidae. This sepa- 
ration was first made by Macquart, and is rendered necessary by 
the important difference of character which they present, as will be 
aeen by comparing the respective descriptions. As it now stands, 
the present family is restricted to the old genus Conops of Lin- 
naeus. 

Genus CONOPS, Linn. 
Antennae rather longer than the head, inserted on a frontal protu- 
berance, placed close together at the base and diverging at the apex, 
the radical joii^t short, slender, and cylindrical, forming an angle with 
the second, which is horizontal and elongated, increasing in thickness 
from the base, and forming with the third a compressed club, ending 



Descriptions of British Diptera, 213 

in a point ; style three-jointed^ first joint short and indistinct^ second 
dilated, and having a pointed appendage at the apex turned down- 
wards, third longer and tapering to a point (Fig. 2) ; proboscis hori- 




zontal and directed forwards ; labrum slender and rigid : the tongne 
rather longer and likewise very slender ; labrum slenderest in the 
middle, and terminating in two lobes (Fig. 4 :) palpi very small, trun- 
cated and pilose : head very large, the crown transparent and with- 
out ocelli : forehead wide in both sexes : abdomen usually much 
narrowed at the base, and curved downwards at the hinder extre- 
mity ; the fourth s^ment in the male provided with a curved horny 
appendage on the underside : legs rather long and robust; the thighs 
slightly compressed before the apex : wings scarcely reaching to the 
apex of the abdomen, laid horizontally along the body when at rest, 
the first posterior cell closed and pediculated ; the anal one elongat- 
ed. (Fig. 6) 

The insects of this genus have a very peculiar aspect, arising from 
the great size of the head, narrow base of the abdomen, and the in- 
curvation of its extremity, which renders them little likely to be 
confounded with other tribes even by the most inexperienced ob- 
server. Their prevailing colour, which is black wiUi marks and 
bands of yellow, gives them at first sight something of the appear- 
ance of wasps or small ichneumons. They are autumnal insects, 
seldom appearing in force before August, and the more common 
kinds continue to frequent the common ragwort and other late 
flowering plants till the end of October. Notwithstanding the for- 
midable appearance of the long exserted proboscis, their habits are 
quite innocuous, the whole of their sustenance being derived from 
the juices of flowers. Baumhauer was the first to discover that the 
larvffi are parasitical, and that they live in the bodies of humble 
bees. Latreille has witnessed the species named rufipes issue in 
its adult state from the body of a bee by the incisures of the ab- 
domen, and similar observations have been made by other naturalists. 
Upwards of twenty different kinds are known, only eight of which 
appear to inhabit Britain. 

VOL. II. NO. 9. p 



2 1 4 Descriptions of British Diptera. 

Ck>NOPS V£8ICULAR18. 
Ztmi. Fa6r. Meigeti, iv. 209— Conops cylindrica (J. Meig. Klass. 

Hypostome fenruginous, the eyes bordered with a bright yellow 
line : forehead ferruginous anteriorly with a black longitudinal line 
widened at the lower extremity ; the vertex brown and transparent ; 
antennse ferruginous ; thorax dark-brown^ the shoulders and scutel- 
lum testaceous : abdomen in the male nearly cylindrical^ the two 
first segments blacky narrowly edged with fulvous, the third with a 
fulvous band becoming yellow on the sides, fourth fulvous, black at 
the base ; the two last entirely fulvous ; abdomen of the female con- 
tracted at the base, ferruginous, the first segment brown with a ful- 
vous line, second brown with a yellow band behind, the third black 
at its anterior edge : legs ferruginous : wings reddish brown at the 
exterior edge, and pale towards the extremity. 6-7 lines. 

A scarce species ; it has occurred near London and in a few other 
places. '' I have taken the male in the New Forest, and on Knight- 
on Heath, Dorset,— dates May 22, 1835, and June 10, 1829.'* /. 
C. Dale, Esq. 

CONOPS FLAVIFE8. (s.) 

Ztnit. Fab. Panzer, Faun. Germ, bcc fig. 21, 22. — Meigen, iv. 122. — Conopa 
macrocephala, SamoudU's Comp. pi. ix. fig. 9. — Conops vesicuhuis, Harris^ 
Expos, pi. XX. fig. 1 — Conops trifasciata, De Geer. f . 

Head fulvous, with a brownish transparent vertex, from which a 
broad black band extends to the base of the antennae, the latter 
black ; thorax black with a yellow callosity on each shoulder, and 
another on each side of the metathorax ; scutellum bordered with 
yellow : abdomen a little contracted at the base, black, the second 
and third 8^;ments in the male, and the second, third, and fourth 
in the female, with a yellow posterior band ; the first in both sexes, 
with a yellow spot on each side, and the two anal segments ash*grey 
inclining slightly to yellow : halteres yellow, legs also of that colour, 
the posterior half of the thighs black, and the tarsi brown at the 
apex : wings tinged with brown, deepest at the outer margin. 5 
lines. ( Wood-cut, Jig. b.) 

This is the most plentiful species of this tribe in Britain. It 
seems to occur in all parts of England, is rather plentiful in the 
sooth of Scotland, and has been traced as far north as Aberdeen- 
shire. In Scotland it seldom appears before August, and is then 
usually observed on the common ragwort (Senecio Jacobcsa,) but in 
the more southern parts of the island it may be found much earlier. 
It varies a little particularly in the breadth of the abdominal 



Descriptions of British Diptera. 215 

hacim. " I find this insect to be common at Olanville's Wootton, 
and other places, such as Eslington wood, Caundle Holts, Sec" J, 
C Dale, Esq. " Cambridgeshire. In one of my specimens the ab- 
domen is entirely bright yellow above, with the exception of the in- 
cisures of the segments, which present each a narrow line of black. 
Is this a mere variety, or a distinct species ?" Rev, Leonard Jenyns. 
" Needwood Forest, Staffordshire. August 1828." C. C. Bahing- 
ton, Esq. «' Near Twizel." P. J. Selby, Esq, 

CONOPS QUADRIFASCIATA. 
De Geer, ti. pi. 15- fig. 1 — Meigen, iv. 123. — Conops aculeata, Fabr, 

Similar to the preceding species ; hypostome fulvous, with a play 
of bright yellow on the sides ; forehead reddish-brown above, black 
over the antennee, the latter likewise black : thorax black with two 
yellow callosities on the shoulders, the sides of the breast and me- 
tathorax with changeable spots of bright yellow ; scutellum entire- 
ly black : abdomen yellow with four black bands ; the first segment 
being black, with a yellow callosity on each side, and the hinder 
margin yellow; second black edged with yellow; third similar, 
but the yellow band wider ; fourth yellow with a narrow black 
band ; fifth almost entirely yellow ; sixth yellow : halteres yellow ; 
legs reddish-yellow ; the tarsi dusky at the extremity ; wings near- 
ly hyaline in both sexes. 5 lines. 

Of pretty frequent occurrence in the south of England, but scarce 
in most other parts of the country. '' Common at Glanville's 
Wootton, and other places in this neighbourhood." J. C. Dale, Esq, 
" Near London." Stephens' Catal. " Birch wood, Southgate, &c." 
CurttSy Brit. EnU " Woods at Tollymore, ascent of Moume Moun- 
tains, county Down." A, H, Haliday, Esq, 

Conops aculeata. 
Xtiot. Meigen, iv. 124 — Conops macrocepbalft, Harris, Expos, pi. xx. fig. 2, 3. 
— Conops scutellata, Meigeti, Klass. 
This insect so closely resembles the preceding, that, with a very 
few exceptions, the same description will apply to both. Head fer- 
TQginouB ; forehead with a black band, the spot on the crown red- 
dish-brown ; antennffi and thorax black, the latter with a yellow 
spot on the shoulder, and another behind the insertion of the wings ; 
the sides of the breast with two marks of changeable yellow, having 
a fine silky lustre ; scutellum yellow : abdomen black with five 
ydlow bands ; legs reddish-yellow, the apex of the tarsi tinged with 



216 Descriptions of British Diptera. 

brown : wings having a brown stripe along the outer border bat not 
reaching to the apex. 4^ lines. 

Has been found near London^ but we have not heard of any other 
British localities. 

CONOPS MACROCEPHALA. 
Linn. Fabr. Magen, iv, 125, pL 86, fig. 27 ; De Geer, vi. 268 ; Curti$' Brit. 

Ent. pi. 877. 

Larger than any of the preceding ; black ; head and antenxue 
ferruginous ; face yellow, with a brown streak extending from the 
crown to the antenns, and a triangular mark of the same colour 
below them : thorax with a whitish changeable spot on each shoal- 
der : abdomen having all the incisures yellow or whitish-yellow, 
the first segment swollen; the second long, and tapering to the 
hinder extremity, the remainder forming a thick incurved duh : 
halteres and legs ferruginous; the coxae and base of the thighs 
dark-brown : wings with a broad testaceous stripe along the outer 
margin. 7 lines. 

Rare : " The specimen figured by Mr Curtis was taken by me 
on 18th August 1824, in my own field at Hurne, Hants, in com- 
pany with others of the genus. Mr Davis writes me that he took 
another example in Darenth wood, Kent, but I have not yet been 
able to compare his specimen with mine, to determine their specific 
identity." J, C. Dale, Esq. No other British locality has hither- 
to been discovered, as far as we know. 

CoNOPS NIGRA, (s.) 

De Geer, vL p. 105, pi. 15, fig. 9 ; Meigen, iv. 126 ; Herbs, Gemein Natnrg. 

viii. 117, 5, pi. 70, fig. 5. 

About the size of the preceding : head reddish-yellow ; the fore- 
head with a black stripe, and the hypostome with four narrow black 
lines : region of the mouth likewise black : antennie ferruginous : 
thorax entirely black, with a small indistinct spot with a yellow 
play of colour within each shoulder : abdomen likewise black ; the 
hinder margin of the first and second segments with a very indis- 
tinct narrow ring of a somewhat paler hue than the rest, the nar- 
rowest part at the base of the third*segment : legs ferruginous ; the 
coxie and base of the thighs black. Halteres yellow, blackish at 
the base : wings with a broad testaceous stripe covering the ante- 
rior half. 

This species is certainly pretty closely allied to C. macrocephala, 
but it appears sufficiently distinct. Little notice seems to have 



Descriptions of British Diptera. 217 

been taken of it since the time of De Geer^ by whom it is figured 
and described. Like many others of its tribe^ it is partial to north- 
ern climates, and it is probably not very scarce in Sweden. In this 
country the only example that has occurred was taken by Sir Wil- 
liam Jardine, on the northern coast of Sutherland, in the summer 
of 1834. 

CONOFS B0FIFE8. (s.) 
Fii6r. Meigoiy iv. 127. — Conops petiolata, DonovaiCa Brit Insects, ziii. pi. 451. 

This species differs from all the rest in having the abdomen very 
narrow at the base, so as to appear placed on a long peduncle. 
Head fulvous : forehead with a broad black line, and the hypos- 
tome with three abbreviated lines of that colour : antennae reddish- 
brown : thorax black, with two whitish points below the shoulders : 
abdomen with the narrow portion at the base ferruginous ; the third 
and fourth segments each with a broad black band : legs ferrugi- 
nous ; the extremity of the tarsi dusky ; the hinder coxae marked 
with a silvery white spot : halteres bright-yellow : wings with a 
broad reddish-brown stripe covering the anterior half. 5 lines. 

The markings of the abdomen are somewhat variable : the third 
and fourth segments are frequently bright-yellow behind, and the anal 
segments more or less tinged with that colour. The insect is one of 
the more common kinds, especially in the southernparts of the country; 
it seems rare in Scotland. *' Dalmeny." Rev, WUliam Little^ " I take 
C. rufipea in Plnmley wood, Caundle Holts, &c. in the b^inning and 
middle of August." J. C. Dale, Esq. ** Gamlingay wood, Cambridge- 
shire, August." Rev, Leonard Jenyns, " Devil's ditch, Newmarket 
Heath, July 1833 ; likewise near Bath." C. C, Babingion, Esq. 
^* In plenty on umbelliferous Bowers by the side of a field, close to 
a plantation at Hetheselt, Norfolk." Henry Brown, Esq, (in 
Curtis' B. E.) « London district." Stephens' Catal 

Conops ceri2bforhis. 
Megerle, Meigen, iv. 132, pi. 36, fig. 26. 
General colour black: hypostome reddish-yellow, with a pale- 
yellow play of colour round the eyes ; forehead black, the crown 
brownish ; antennae nearly black : thorax of that colour, with a yel- 
low callosity on each shoulder, and a yellow spot on the metatho- 
rax : abdomen nearly cylindric, black : the hinder margin of the 
four first segments ornamented with a yellow band : halteres yel- 
low : legs ferruginous ; the thighs black in the middle : the tarsi 
dusky at the apex : wings transparent, with a pale brown streak in 
the middle of the anterior margin. 5 lines. 



'218 Descriptions of British Diptera. 

Rather a scarce species^ but occurring at times in the yicinit j of 
London, and in some other parts of England. " I took it in Da- 
renth wood in 1826, in the beginning of August." J. C. Dale, Esq. 

Family MYOPIDiE. 

Antennae with the second joint longer than the third ; the style 
dorsal, and consisting of two joints : proboscis long and slender, ge- 
nerally geniculated at the base, and near the middle : ocelli three ; 
face usually very much dilated ; the eyes rather small : winglets 
minute ; wings lying along the body ; the first posterior cell usually 
somewhat open, the anal one generally elongated. 

As above defined, this family comprehends only two British ge- 
nera, viz. Myopa and Zodion, which are readily distinguished from 
each other by the former having the proboscis geniculated at the 
base and middle, and the latter by having it bent at the base only. 
The presence of ocelli, and other prominent characters separate 
them decidedly from the Conopidie, to which, however, they bear 
some resemblance in the shape of the body. 

Genus MYOPA. 

Antennae with the first joint short and cylindrical ; second rather 
long, somewhat thickened at the tip, and compressed at the base ; 
third rounded-ovate, with a short two-jointed style on the back : 
proboscis geniculated at the base and middle ; labrum, tongue, and 
palpi variable, the latter generally somewhat elongate and fringed 
with hairs : inferior part of the face inflated ; the forehead wide in 
both sexes ; eyes rather small : ocelli three : thorax robust ; abdo- 
men consisting of six segments, somewhat narrowed at the base, the 
extremity obtuse and curved inwards ; the fourth segment dilated 
beneath: legs rather strong, thighs somewhat thickened, the claws 
and pulvilli much developed : wings lying along the back when at 
rest ; the anal cell straight. 

About twenty species belong to this genus, but scarcely more 
than a third of these have hitherto been found in Britain. The re- 
markable dilatation of the lower part of the face, in connection with 
the incurved abdomen, and rather short strong legs, give them a 
very peculiar aspect. The prevailing colours are rust-red and 
brown. Although much similarity pervades the species in respect 
to colour and marking, the structure of the oral organs undergoes 
considerable modifications, as is occasionally pointed out in the sub- 
sequent descriptions of the different species. We are still unac- 
quainted with the larvae, but from the analogy which exists between 



r 



Descriptions ofBriHsk Diptera. 219 

the perfect insecte sad the Gonopidey it is not unreasonable to infer 
that they are parasitic, )ike those of the tribe just named. The 
flies derive their nourishment from the juices of flowers. We may 
expect that the following list of native species will ere long be 
considerably augmented by the discovery of kinds which have hi« 
therto been overlooked in this country. 

Myopa pigta. (s.) 
Panz, Fann. Germ. liv. 22; Meig. iv. 140. 

Hypostome white spotted with Uack, the hinder part of the 
head with four greyish spots, forming a curved line: forehead ferrugi*- 
noos, the crown dusky-brown ; antennae likewise ferruginous ; the 
third joint black : thorax dark grey, with longitudinal stripes of 
deep brown: abdomen testaceous*brown, varying with light^grey 
reflections, and marked along the back with a row of dark points: 
kgs pubescent, testaceous ; anterior thighs black, with the tip fer- 
ruginous : tibiae ciliated, and marked with four dusky rings. Hal- 
teres white ; wings brown, spotted with white. 3f-4 lines. 

A scarce insect, but occurring at times on flowers. It is observ- 
ed occasionally near London ; and we once found a specimen in the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden. 

Myopa bucgata. 

Fabr, ilfeij^— ConopB buccata* Linn, 

Usually somewhat less than the preceding: hypostome white, 
without spots; forehead dark-brown spotted with grey; antennae 
entirely testaceous : thorax dark-brown, with ash-coloored bands, 
the shoulders and sides testaceous ; scutellum dark-brown : abdo- 
men nearly testaceous or reddish-brown, with light grey reflections, 
especially on the sides ; the anal segments reddish-brown in the 
males. Legs ferruginous, the thighs with a single dark ring, and 
the tibisewith two, one near the middle, and the other at the apex: 
tarsi tinged with yellow : wing-scales white ; halteres pale yellow : 
wings brown, with pale spots. 3-3| lines. 

Likewise one of the rarer species, of which we have been able to 
ascertain very few localities. It has been taken in the London dis- 
trict^ but not frequently. 

Myopa tbstacea. (s.) 

Fabr» Meig. — Conops testaceus, Z^n.— Conops boccata, Gmdin, v. 2805. 

Very closely related to M, buccata, but distinguished by a few 
obvious characters. The inflated portion of the face is white and 
unspotted, but there is a distinct brown mark on each side, near the 



*!^20 Descriptions of British Diptera. 

mai^in of the eyes below the antennae ; the latter wholly testace- 
ous^ the tenninal joint appearing of a lighter hae^ owing to the ab- 
sence of the black hairs, with which the others are covered. Tho- 
rax black, with ash-grey lines ; the sides, shoulders, and usually the 
scutellum reddish, or pitchy brown : abdomen and legs nearly as in 
M, huccata ; the dark rings on the latter more or less distinct, the 
femoral one frequently almost effaced. Wings brownish, each of 
them with a distinct blackish-point on the cross nerye near the cen- 
tre. 3|-4. 

This insect seems to appear not unfrequently, but at somewhat 
uncertain intervals, and on some occasions we have observed it in 
great profusion. This was particularly the case in the neighbour- 
hood of Edinburgh, in the summer of 1835, when scarcely a flower- 
ing plant, especially of the umbelliferous kind, could be examined 
without finding specimens. On ordinary occasions, it occurs pretty 
frequently, apparently in most parts of England and Scotland, and 
also in Ireland. It is best distinguished from its associates by the 
brown mark beneath the eye, and the dark discoidal spot on the 
disk of the wings. '' Bottisham, Cambridgeshire, on the flowers of 
the barberry; also near Cambridge." Rev. L. Jen^fns. *' Near 
London." Stephen's Caial, *' Holy wood on Bel&st Lough, county 
Down; not common." A, H. Holiday, Esq. " JardineHall, 1837*'' 
Sir W. Jardine, Barl. 

Myopa dorsalis. (s.) 

Fahr» Meigen — Conops testacea, Gmelin — Myopa ferruginea. Panzer, Faun. 

Germ. xxii. 24. — Conops cessans, HarrU, Expos, pi. xx. fig. 4. 

Prevailing colour testaceous ; face reddish-yellow, with lighter 
reflections ; forehead brown : antennie reddish- brown : (upper lip 
very short, the palpi elongated and cylindrical ;) thorax brown or 
blackish on the surface, the shoulders and sides of the iK'east inclin- 
ing to testaceous : abdomen wholly of the latter colour, rather broad 
and depressed in the male, the first segment somewhat dusky, the 
others with pale grey reflections at the incisures ; halteres pale yel- 
low ; wing-scales white ; wings light-brown. Inclining to yellow at 
the bases ; 1^ wholly testaceous, the tarsi paler. 5^-6 lines. 

Not a scarce species, occurring on flowers in the months of July 
and August. 

Myopa febbuginea. (s.) 
Fabr. Meig. — Conops ferruginea, Linn. — Conops buccse, Harris, Expos, pi. xx. 

fig. 5-9. 
Similar to the preceding, but usually rather less. Head fulvous^ 



^ 



Descriptions of British Diptera, 221 

with light reflections on the sides of the hypostome ; forehead hav- 
ing a black point ; antennie reddish^brown : thorax* dark-brown 
above, the colour disposed in three broad stripes : abdomen narrow 
and cylindrical, the basal segment, as well as all the rest, ferrugi-i 
nous with grey incisures ; the second segment is a good deal elon- 
gated, and the terminal ones are very much incurved in the male. 
5 lines. 

Likewise of frequent occurrence, at least in many parts of the 
country. In Scotland we notice it every summer in the neighbour- 
hood of Edinburgh and in Roxburghshire, and have seen specimens 
from other southern counties. " London district." Stephen's CataL 
" Bath." C. C. Babington, Esq. « Near TwizeL" P. /. Selby, Esq. 
'* Dundrum, a sandy beach below the Moume Mountains, Ireland, 
taken once," A. H. Haliday, Esq. 

Myopa fasciata. 
Meig, — Myopa ephippium, Fahr. — Conops fusca, Harris* Expos, pi. xx. fig. 6, 7 ? 
A handsome species, and easily distinguished from its associates 
by its dark-coloured abdomen, ringed with white: &ce yeUow; 
forehead with two brown stripes and a shining yellow triangular 
mark on the crown ; antenns reddish-brown ; the third joint ap- 
pearing paler: thorax blackish, the shoulders and sides brown: 
abdomen black ; the second and third segments edged with white 
behind, and on the sides ; the fourth segment with two black spots 
anteriorly, all the rest white : halteres pale yellow ; legs fulvous- 
brown, the tibiae having a dusky ring near the middle : wings of a 
uniform brownish colour. 3-4 lines. 

Apparently somewhat scarce in Britain, but frequent on many 
parts of the continent. " Near London." Stephens' CataL " Ken- 
mare, Ireland." A. H. Haliday, Esq. 

Myopa atba. (s.) 
Fabr. Meig. — Myopa aimulata, Fabr. Antl. Syst — M. cbierascens, Meig. Klass. 
L 287 — M. maculata, do. 28a— M. micans, do. 289. 
Very dissimilar to any hitherto described, both on account of its 
small size, obscure colours, and somewhat peculiar facies ; it appears 
also to differ in some measure in its habits from the other species. 
Black ; face yellow, with a silvery-white play of colour ; vertex 
brown ; antennae (which are rather long in proportion to the size 
of the body) black, the second joint, and base of the third fulvous 
on the inner side : upper lip elongated, tongue very long. Tho- 



t222 On a second membrane 

rax cinereous, with three hkck lines^ the ceotral one double in the 
female : abdomen shining black in the male> ash-grey in the fe- 
male ; the second, third, and fourth segments edged with grey in 
the former sex, and a black dorsal streak along the first four seg- 
ments in the latter : legs black ; the hinder thighs, and occasionally 
the others also, more or less fulvous : tibise sometimes yellowish 
at the base. ' Halteres white ; wings slightly tinged with brown, 
the base yellowish, stnmgly iridescent. 1^-2^ lines. 

Varies considerably, which has caused a variety of names to be 
applied to this species. It is a common insect in most places, and, 
besides occurring in flowers, is often seen running about warm 
banks exposed to the sun. Near London, plentifully in some situ* 
ations. Neighbourhood of Edinburgh, &c. " Everywhere in Ire- 
land, on sunny banks." A. H, Holiday, Esq. 

Myopa pusilla. 
Megerle, Wiedemann^ Meigen. 

Antennae blackish, reddish internally towards the apex : hypos- 
tome yellow, with a white play of colour ; forehead testaceous : 
thorax shining blackish-grey, with two black lines dilated behind 
into a triangular spot : abdomen black, with large light-grey spots 
on the sides : wings brownish towards the costa : legs shining black : 
hinder thighs at the base and the knee reddish. 1^ lines. 

We have noticed this insect as it is said to have been taken in 
the vicinity of London, but there can be little doubt that it is a 
mere variety of M. aira. 



III. — On the existence of a second membrane in ike Asci of Fungi, — 
By the Rev. M. J. Bebkblby, M. A. F. L, S. Plate VII. 

M. MoRREN, in a memoir of the highest physiological interest, 
(Ann. de Sc. Nat. N, S. Vol. v. p. 257.) has lately made known in 
the short filaments of Closteria, a genus formerly referred to the In- 
fusoria, but most certainly, according to his most interesting obser- 
vations, belonging to the order Alga, the presence of three distinct 
membranes. The external hyaline tube is closely lined with a de- 
licate flexible membrane ; besides which there is a third sac proper 
to the green mass of granules and vesicles. It should seem from 
the analogy of this genus with Zygnema, that the individual Alg» 
are rather to be considered as extremely reduced threads, than as 
frustules ; in other words, the genus is rather oonfervoid than dia- 
tomaceous ; and therefore their relation to the asci of Fungi is per- 

4 



in the Asci of Fungi. 223 

]uip8 less complete than if the converse were the case. For Mone- 
ma, a diatomaceous genus^ greatly resembles certain asci with their 
included sporidia ; and I have pointed out in the English Flora the 
curious analogy between the asci of Sphseria entomorhiza and S. 
ophioglossoides, and the filaments of Schizonema. 

Be the anal<^x however^ what it may, between individual Clos- 
tense and the asci of Fungi, the point to which I now wish to draw 
attention is the presence of two distinct membranes in the latter 
organs, besides the proper integument of each sporidium, viz. the 
external hyaline tube, and a second, answering to the secondary 
membrane of Closterise, which at first lines the former closely, but 
is at length more or less detached. 

The species in which I have seen this most distinctly, are a form 
of Sphseria populina, Pers. growing in winter and spring on small 
fallen branches of ash, and Sphseria pedunculata, Dicks, and Sow. 
referred in the English Flora, on the inspection of dry specimens, 
as a variety to Sphaeria hypoxylon, but now proved by the detec- 
tion of recent individuals on the dung of rabbits more or less buried 
in ant-hills to be a very distinct species, remarkable for several pe- 
culiarities of structure, which will be adverted to in what follows. 
The fact, however, being once satisfactorily established in these 
species, it was clear, from certain anomalous appearances in the con- 
tents of the asci of various Fungi, that it existed very generally. 
More especially I have recognized its existence in SphsBria phseo- 
oomes, Reb. (which I have lately found with perfect asci and sep- 
tate sporidia) ; an undescribed species detected by Mr D. Stock, 
on Arenaria peploides ; and Patellaria atrata, Fr. In many other 
cases I have ascertained the presence of a secondary membrane more 
or less distinctly ; and I have no doubt that it exists in all asci 
which are surrounded by a distinct transparent border. 

On submitting to the microscope some of the gelatinous contents 
of the perithecia of Sph. populina, var. which had been previously 
moistened, and gently crushed with the point of a lancet, I perceiv- 
ed that some were snapped asunder, and that from the centre of the 
fractured part a little hyaline tube projected very much in the same 
way as is frequently the case in Dentalium entalis. (See Deshayes, 
Monog. t. 2, f. 2.) This attracted my attention more particularly, 
and after examining numerous asci I found that it arose from the 
projection of a fractured portion of a secondary membrane imme- 
diately enveloping the sporidia, which did not give way so soon as 
the external tube, which appears to be exceedingly brittle. It is 
highly transparent, capable of considerable dilatation, }>ut at the 



224 On a second membrcme 

same time Yerj contractile^ so that when yet in situ, it frequently 
becomes nodulose from the pressure of the sporidia, especially if 
they get out of their natural position, which is mostly, though td 
uniyersally, with their major axis parallel to the asci. The portion 
which projects after the asci are ft^ctured, if empty, is generally 
contracted to a mere thread. In several instances, when the outer 
tube has been snapped asunder, I have seen a large portion of the 
inner tube projecting, and in one case it still retained three sporidia. 
Similar appearances presented themselves in Sph. pedunculata, but, 
from the circumstance of the sporidia being enveloped in a pellndd 
mucus, the structure is not always easily made out. The secondary 
membrane in general adheres very closely to the sporidia, adapting 
itself to their form, so that the row of sporidia when not as yet dis- 
arranged presents a moniliform articulated thread ; the dark appa- 
rent articulations arising probably from the mutual pressure of the 
sporidia with their mucous coats against each other, ^ndeed, from 
the manner in which the sporidia adhere together when the asci are 
ruptured, I am inclined to think that the secondary membrane is 
in the present species so extensible, as to form a close covering to 
the sporidia, however much they may be disarranged. This is not, 
however, alw;ays the case, as the secondary membrane is sometimes 
perfectly distinct, both before and after the rupture of the asci. 
This I have seen especially in a remarkable variety, or rather form 
of the species, in which the receptacle is reduced almost to nothing, 
and the perithecium solitary. Besides the curious circumstance of 
the sporidia being coated with mucilage, a circumstance, as hrsa 
I know, without parallel in the genus, it is remarkable that they 
have another equally distinguishing feature, which is the existence 
of a regular longitudinal depression on one side, so as to resemble 
very strongly such pollen grains as have a single band. This is 
best seen when they are divested of their mucilaginous coat, whidi 
appears to be uniformly the case before they are discharged. It is 
by no means common amongst the uterine Fungi to have any ine- 
qualities in the coat of the sporidia, except such as are septate. At 
present I recollect but a single instance in the genus Ascobolus, in 
which I have seen them very strongly wrinkled. They vary remar- 
kably in form, as will be seen from the accompanying figures, and in 
some specimens which, in addition to the usual coating of earth, 
had penetrated through a layer of cow-dung, it is most curious, in 
consequence, I suppose, of excessive nourishment, the sporidia were 
uniformly more than twice the ordinary size. 

The primary membrane, though sometimes rather rigid, b by no 



in the Asci of Fungi, 225 

means uniyersally so. Sometimes it is eilremely tender and almost 
gelatinons^ so that if a portion of the inner tube with its sporidia be 
bent at any part by any peculiar position which the sporidia acquire^ 
the outer tube is also forced outwards, and in consequence the asci 
are sometimes curiously distorted. In some cases they appear toru- 
loses £rom the pressure of the inclosed sporidia, and occasionally 
when the sporidia assume by accident a transverse position in the 
tube, I haye seen the whole vessel regularly dilated. The apparent 
thickness of the walls of asci arises in general from the existence at 
a certain period of growth of a space between the two membranes, 
and the great diiference of thickness at different parts is now easi- 
ly explained from the greater contraction of those points of the se- 
condary membrane. This is, I believe, attached to the primary at 
the apex. In S. pedunculata it certainly is, in which species there 
is almost always an articulation a little below the point of attach- 
ment. 

M. Morren's paper is, if I mistake not, calculated to throw light 
opon the developement of the sporidia themselves. In an early 
stage of growth the asci contain a mere grumous mass, out of which, 
probably at the expence of the greater part of the granules of which 
it is composed as its organization becomes more evident, the sporidia 
arise. The coat of the sporidia is frequently absorbed before they 
are discharged, and the asci then contain a number of distinct spo- 
niles; and sometimes the asci themselves are absorbed, and the whole 
inner mass of the perithecia consists of sporidia or sporules. These 
are points to which at present sufficient attention has not been paid, 
but they would doubtless highly repay the labour of investigation. 

Explanation of Figures, 

a. Fractured asci of Sphseria populina, var. with the secondary 
membrane projecting. 

b. One more highly magnified, c. A single sporidium still more 
highly magnified. 

d. Fractured asci of Sphseria pedunculata, with their sporidia in- 
volved in mucilage, and partly covered by the secondary membrane. 

e. Portion of one of the asci showing the moniliform arrange- 
ment f' S]^ridia divested of mucilage. 

g. Asci with one of the paraphyses of a variety of S. peduncula- 
ta. In one the sporidia are transverse, and the vessel is in conse- 
quence regularly dilated. 

A. A distorted ascus of Patellaria atrata, with its divided para- 
physes. k. One of the sporidia. 



226 On the Gemmce of Bryum androgyrmm. 

#- 
IV. — Observations on the Gemmce of Bryum androgynum. By 
George Dickie^ Esq. Surgeon^ Aberdeen. Plate VII. 
Bryum andr(^ynum is of rare occurrence in this neighbourhood. 
It is found gTO\ving in the moist earth which fills the 'crevices of 
gneiss rocks, generally along with Bryum c«espititium. Sir W. J. 
Hooker, in the second volume of his British Flora, p. 57> remarks 
that this species is very rarely found bearing capsules, and I have 
never found it in this state : the reason of this seems very obscure. 
The gemmae, however, being very plentiful, are quite sufficient to 
keep up the existence of the species : they are extremely abundant 
in the months of February, March, and April. These bodies occur 
in clusters on the summit of a stem bearing much resemblance^ to 
the setae in other mosses ; it is, however, of a looser texture, ex- 
cepting toward its summit, where it presents a swelling and a 
denser tissue. The swollen part at the summit is easily separable 
from the rest of the stem, as is represented in Fig. 1, where a part 
has been removed, the other half remaining with the cords which 
arise from it. The cords just mentioned, when viewed under a high 
magnifier, appear to be transparent tubes composed of a simple 
membrane ; each cord supporting a gemma. The gemmae at the 
circumference of the clusters are the first to arrive at maturity, 
those in the centre are developed last of all ; and on the same head 
we find them in several different stages of their growth. At first 
they are simple transparent vesicles (Fig. 2,) of an oval form, and, 
by a high magnifier, no matter can be detected in their interior. 
As they advance in growth a small stalk becomes evident (by this 
they are attached to the cords formerly mentioned,) and a grumous 
matter is seen within, (Fig. 3.) When fully matured they present 
the appearance shown in Figs. 4 and 5, and the substance in their 
interior assumes a granular appearance ; it now resembles the mat- 
ter called green fecula by some authors. The gemmee drop oflT as 
they arrive at maturity, those at the circumference of the head first, 
and so on toward the centre until at last the cords alone remain. 
It appeared to me to be an interesting matter to determine the 
process of germination in the gemmae, but considerable difiiculty 
arising from their very small size, for a single gemma'is scarcely if 
at all visible to the naked eye, (the accompanying figures are con- 
sequently very highly magnified,) the following method was em- 
ployed. A watch-glass was placed in a saucer with its concavity 
downwards ; over it a piece of fine gauze was spread, the size of 
which exceeded that of the glass, consequently its edges were in 



On the GemrrKB of Bryum andragynum^ 227 

contact with the saucer^ into which water was poured, but only in 
quantity sufficient to preserve the gauze in a moist state ; several 
entire gemmiferous heads of Bryym were then placed upon the gauze 
over the centre of the watch-glass, and the whole apparatus was 
kept in a moderately warm place not exposed to very bright light, 
and covered with a bell-glass. After some days some of the gem- 
mfiB were detached and examined with a magnifier ; it was found 
that the contents of many had undergone a remarkable change. 
The green granular matter had nearly disappeared, and the cavity 
of each seemed now to be divided by several dark green partitions, 
(Fig. 6,) and many of them presented a swelling near that part by 
which they were attached to the cords, (Figs. 7 £uid 8.) At the end 
of from fourteen to twenty days, it was observed that in many a 
small transparent nearly cylindrical tube had been protruded from 
the part which some dap previously had presented a swelling ; 
Figs. 9, 10, 11, represent this appearance. It was not confined 
entirely to those whose granular matter had disappeared, for many 
in which this was still visible had begun to germinate, and the tube 
in some cases contained a portion of it. This tube or filament was 
invariably protruded from the same part in every gemma, and 
never more than one made its appearance in each. The filaments 
seemed to be not merely a prolongation of the membrane of the 
gemma, but appeared to have proceeded from its interior, and to 
have burst the membrane. In only one instance did I remark that 
the protruded filament presented an articulated appearance, or ra- 
ther its interior seemed to be divided by several septae. After re- 
maining more than a month upon the moist gauze, the gemmae had 
made no further progress in germination. This might have been 
owing to the gauze not presenting a proper medium for their growth, 
or perhajA rather from exposure to too strong light ; at the end of 
this time also, the green fecula had disappeared in all of them, and 
they resembled Fig. 6. While engaged in these observations, I re- 
marked, that a leaf of Bryum, which had accidentally fallen on the 
gauze, and remained there for some time, had thrown out several 
slender transparent radicles near its place of attachment to the stem, 
and from the angle between the midrib and the limb of the leaf. 
May not this be another way in which B. androgynum is propagated? 
or even this may be true of every moss. Sir W. J. Hooker says, 
(British Fl. Vol. ii. p. 7^>) that from the points of the leaves of 
Hookeria lucens roots are often emitted. 



228 On a peculiar structure in Shells, 

V. — On a pecvliar strvcture in Shells ; tviih some observations on 

the Shell of Sphierulites. By John £dwabd Grat^ F. R. S., 

&c Plate VIII. 

In a paper published in the Philosophical Transactions for the 
year 1833, I have described three kinds of structure found in such 
shells as had then come under my observation ; but since that pe- 
riod Mr G. B. Sowerby has given me an oyster-shdl, and Messrs 
Hudson and Bowerbank have lent me a fossil Sphaerulites,* found 
in the chalk, each of which exhibits a form of structure which I 
had not before observed, and which may be designated by the name 
of cellular. 

The shells of this structure appear to increase in size in the same 
manner as others, — ^the peculiarity consisting in a deposition of one 
or more series of reticulations, leaving more or less numerous hol- 
low polygonal cells between each of the lamina of which the shell 
is formed. The two shells which exhibit this formation show it in 
a very different state and degree of developement. In the Sphseru- 
lites the entire parietes of the shell, (or at least the whole that is 
left in a fossil state, for some naturalists, as M, Deshayes and Des- 
moulin, believe that, from the form of the internal cast, the inner 
part of the shell is deficient,) are formed of series of continuous 
longitudinal and transverse ridges, leaving four^sided cavities, which 
are hollow in the specimens preserved in chalk, while in those that 
are found in limestone, they are filled up with infiltrated carbonate 
of lime. The concentric or transverse plates, which are best seen 
in a longitudinal section of the valves, and whidi represent the la- 
mime of growth, though remarkably regular in appearance, vary in 
the distance they are apart firom each other. They are usually 
much closer together at the lips of the valves, or, in other words, 
when the animal has nearly reached its full growth ; but sometimes 
we find them almo&t equally near in the middle of the cone, which 
may have been occasioned by some accidental check to the moUusc's 
regular increase about that period, and which removed or overcome 
again admitted the animal to progress at its ordinary rate. 

* This appears to be the fossil which Mr Mantell has indicated, but not de- 
scribed, under the name of Hippurites Mortonii. I say appears, for on going 
to Brighton to examine his specimen, I could not obtain permission to have it 
taken from the case to compare it with that here described. Ft is certainly not 
a Htppuriteg, since it has neither the solid structure, nor the two internal longi- 
tudind ribs of that genus. It is the shell figured as a fossil Conia by Mr Hud- 
son in Loudon's Magazine of Natural History, Vol. tx. p. 103. 

3 



and on the shell of Spluerulites. 229 

When one of these shells is cut across in the axis of the coae> it 
is then found that the transyerse laminae are continued, and the 
cells which appeared regular in the longitudinal section^ are seen to 
be rather irregular in size and fonn, but mostly hexangular or pen- 
taagular. They are deposited on these transverse plates^ the next 
transverse plate or lamina of growth being laid over them ; and as 
the cells of the next and every succeeding series are exactly simi- 
lar in form and numbers, there necessarily results that uniformity 
which we have mentioned in the appearance of the longitudinal 
fracture, since the parietes of the cells of the different transverse 
laminae appear in that fracture to be as much continuous with one 
another as the transverse ones really are. An analogous peculiarity 
exists in some shells of other structures. Thus in the Pinna, and 
other shells of a prismatic crystalline structure, the transverse prisms 
of which the outer coat of the shell is formed, appear to be con- 
tinuous, though they are each formed of the many transverse laminae 
. of growth which are in succession deposited as the animal enlarges * 
its sise : and it is the same with the rhombic crystalline structure. 
The outer surface of this shell (Sphaerulites) is lamellar and hard, 
being formed by the agglutinated outer edges of the transverse 
laminae of growth ; and the inner surface of the cone is covered with 
a thin hard plate, which is marked with minute close concentric lines 
more numerous than the transverse plates of the parietes of the 
dieli ; and the plate is raised at the mouth of the cone a little above 
the surface of the lip, from which it is separated by a slight groove. 
The mouth of the lower cone has a smooth concave lip as wide, 
or rather wider than the thickness of the parietes of the shell, and 
is marked with some radiating branched impressions, exactly like 
the impressions which one may suppose to be made by a blood- 
Teasel ; the slenderer and branched part being directed towards the 
outer edge of the lips. 

A similar structure is to be observed in other species of this genus 
IbssiluEed in limestone, but from the size of the cells in these, as 
appears when specimens of the same magnitude are compared, it is 
obvious that the whole formation was on a much smaller scale ; and 
the cells are always filled with infiltrated carbonate of lime, which 
makes them appear solid, unless the sur&ce of the specimen is 
slightly disintegrated, or the fracture is wetted and examined with 
a lens. 

I can scarcely attempt to explain how the parietes of these cells 
are formed, nor determine if any fluid has, in their living condition, 

VOL. II. NO 9. Q 



230 On a peculiar Structure in Shells, 

filled up the cavity between them, though it seems probable that 
they may have arisen from some peculiarity in the man^e of the 
animal, developed only when the new laminae were about to be de- 
posited, and not present or shrunk when the smooth upper surface 
of the lamina was formed, for it is evident, from the nature of the 
surface of some specimens, that the parietes of the cells are very 
gradually deposited on the smooth upper surfaces of the transverse 
plates of growth. The vein-like grooves above described do not 
seem to exert any influence over their form, for they are apparent- 
ly not in any way connected with the distribution of their parietes, 
while yet they show that there must exist some peculiarity of the 
mantle to form such peculiar grooves. 

These shells, and the Hippurites, have occupied considerable at- 
tention of late, on account of the difficulties which arise in deter- 
mining their place in the animal kingdom ; for although evidently 
hi valvular, yet they differ in several particulars from both the free 
'bivalve shells of the Conchifera and the lamplike bivalves of the 
Brachiopodes, not having the ligaments nor the apical umbones of 
the former, nor the numerous muscular scars so characteristic of the 
Crania, which alone resemble them in form among the latter. Two 
French authors have attempted to explain this difficulty. M. De- 
irance and others having observed that the cast on which the genus 
Birostrites has been formed is always found in the cavity of these 
shells, and that as there is a space between the cast and the parietes 
of the shell, M. Deshayes concludes that the Sphserulites are con- 
chifera provided with a toothed hinge and b'gament, and allied to 
the genus Spondylus, the inner coat of which is lost in the act of 
fossilization. M. Desmoulins on the other hand believes them to be 
the shelly cases of a new class of animals of which he ventures to 
give a theoretical description, allying them to the Ascidia, believing 
the space between the cast and the shell to be filled up with the 
cartilaginous mantle of the mollusc. Unfortunately none of the 
specimens, either from the chalk or the limestone strata, that have 
come under my notice, exhibit the internal cast as here described, 
but the specimens from the chalk certainly throw a doubt over both 
theories, for some have one or more oysters attached to the inner 
surface of their cavity, and others are pierced with minute branch- 
ed worm marks exactly like the worm marks so common on the sur- 
fieice of existing shells. These facts prove that whatever may have 
been the structure of the substance which filled up the space said 
to have been lost in fossilization, (if any such substance ever was 



and on the ihett of Spkarulites. 231 

present in the species under examination^) it must have been lost 
before the shell was submitted to the fossilizing process^ since other- 
wise the holes could not have been drilled into^ nor the oyster shells 
attached to^ the surface. 

A somewhat similar structure or appearance is to be observed in 
some M adrepore8> especially in the spaces between the sinuous com- 
pressed stars of Meandrina, but in these zoophytes the longitudinal 
places are continuous and first deposited^ and the thin transverse la- 
mina; are interrupted and irregular, instead of forming the conti- 
nuous plates which they do in the Sphserulites. 

Some naturalists have compared the structure with that of Conia 
and the barnacles, but this must have originated in a very super- 
ficial view of the matter, for the valves of .the barnacles are pierced 
with conical tubes gradually^apering from the base to the apex of 
the valve, and they are not cellular but tubular. The base of some 
barnacles is indeed cellular, and somewhat resembles the structure 
in question, but in them the longitudinal or rather radiating plates 
are continued, and the transverse ones, when present, unequal and 
disposed irregularly in different directions, showing even a more ir- 
regular cellular structure than in the Meandrinsc before referred to. 

II. The second form of this structure is found in a recent unde- 
termined species of oyster which I do not know in a perfect state. 
This shell exhibits the usual lamellar structure of its genus, but the 
lamina? of growth, which give the peculiar antiquated appearance 
to the common oyster, instead of being left free, are bent down so 
as to produce a nearly even outer surface. When these laminae are 
broken through, it is ascertained that the spaces under them are 
filled with a soft purplish spongy mass, composed of minute, rather 
irregular cells, placed perpendicularly between the plates. When 
these are near ti^ether, the cells extend from one plate to the other, 
but when they are wider apart, the cells are sometimes interrupted 
in the centre. They have somewhat the appearance of being casts 
of the interstices between the prisms of the prismatic structural 
shells, and are deposited in layers as the other parts of the shell are. 
I think they may be analogous to the opaque white chalky matter 
often found interposed between the laminae of the common oyster, 
but here, though the chalky matter is sometimes seen on the inside 
of the exterior imbricate foliations, as the cellular structure is found 
in the shell under more immediate consideration, yet it is to be ob- 
served more abundantly, and commonly forming a convex spot in 
the disk of the cavity of the oyster, just beyond the scar of the large 



232 Localitiei of Scottish Coleoptera. 

central adductor muscle ; and sometimes also forming a raised broad 
belt near the outer margin of the valve^ just within the free lamel- 
lar edge. The chalky matter is deposited in these places in a suc- 
cession of thin plates^ perhaps at the periodical interruptions to the 
animal's growth ; and they are covered over with a hard and thicker 
calcareous plate^ more dense and crystalline also in its composition. 

Explanation of the Plate. 
Fig. 1. The lip of the lower valve of Sphmruliiet Morionii, show- 
ing the vein-like marks. — ^2. Part of a longitudinal section of S, 
Mortonii, showing the cancellated structure, nat. size. — 3. A longi- 
tudinal section of Osirea purpurea, showing the cells on the inner 
side of the outer plates.-r-4. A longitudinal section of Ostrea edulis 
showing the chalky matter ; a, on the inside ; b. on the inside of 
the outer plates. 



VI. — Localities of Scottish Coleoptera. By the Rev. William 

Little. 
A coNsinsnABLB number of the insects contained in the follow- 
ing list have not hitherto been recorded as Scottish. Others of them 
have been noticed as such in several entomological works, but with- 
out any precise locality, or authority being given. A few of the 
rarer species mentioned in Entomologia Edinensis, and Stephens's 
Illustrations, for which new localities have been discovered, are 
again inserted here. Several of the localities were furnished by en- 
tomological friends, whose names I have attached to their respective 
discoveries. It is proposed in some future numbers of this work to 
give short specific descriptions of all the Coleoptera not included in 
the Entomologia Edinensis. 

Leiochiton arcticus* Moffat Hills, Dumfries-shire, where I have 
taken, at different times, upwards of a doien 
of specimens* 
Tarus basalis. This insect appears to be widely dispersed, as 

I have taken it on many of the hills in the 
west and south of Scotland, and have received 
specimens from Ben-na-muich-duih, Aber* 
deenshire. 
Agonum emarginatum. Duddingston Loch. 
" atratum. Dalmeny Park. 

piceum. Ditto. 

— — — pelidnum. Raehills, Dumfries-shire. 



Localities of Scottish Coleoptera. 



238 



Calathus crooopus. 
Helobia nivalis. 
Omaseiu oiinomum. 
Steropns Aethiops. 

Patrobns alpinas. 
Amara plebeia. 
Harpalns latus. 
■ mbripes. 

Opharas obscnrus. 
Aepus fiilvesceiis. 



Guillon Links. Andrew Murray^ Esq. 
Ben Lawers ; near the summit. 
Mofiat Hills. 

Raehills. In decayed birch-trees daring 
winter. 

Ben Lawers^ near the summit. Rare. 
Raehills. 
Ditto. 

On the hills near Innerleithen. 
Raehills. 

** Berwick-upon-Tweed^ in the crevices^ and 
under slaty rocks between tide marks^ never 
above tide mark^ and the greater number of 
the specimens were procured near low water, 
but not covered above two hours each tide." 
Dr Johnston. I have lately found this insect 
in some abundance, in similar localities near 
Cramond. 

Raehills. Very scarce. 
Dalmeny Park. 
Raehills. 
Moffat Hills. 
Ditto. 
Raehills. 
Ditto. 
Do. 
Do. 
• cnemerythrus. Banks of the Annan. 

■ atrocsruleus. Dalmeny Park. 
Lopha minima. Raehills. 

— assimilis. Do. 

Tachypus bipnnctatus. Dalmeny Park. Very scarce. 

Andreae. Coast of Argyleshire. 

Bembidium paludosum. Borthwick Castle. Andrew Murray, Esq. 

pallipes. Banks of the Nith, near Dumfries. 

Hydropomsfrater. Raehills. 

l^-pustulatum. Do. ; and Water of Leith. 

rufifrons. Dalmeny. 

marginatus. Raehills. 

fiiscatus. Do. 

Colymbetes concinnus. Do. 

■ ' pulverosus. Forfarshire. 



Blemos paludosus. 
Ocyscnrrens. 
Treehns parvulus. 

roficoUis. 

■ oollaris. 

Tachys binotatus. 

■ obtusus. 
Peryphns concinnus. 

saxatilis 



254 Localities of Scottish Coleoptera. 

Goljmbetes oblongus. Raehills. 

' affinis. Do. 

Gyrinus miDutus. In a pool on Hawick Moor^ in considerable 
abundance. Mr W. Lamb. 

villosus. In the Jed, near Jedburgh. 

Heterocerus marginatus. Dalmeny Park, in marshy ground near 
the shore. 

Hydrochus crenatus. Braid Hill marshes. A single specimen, 
found along with Hydrochus brevis, the lat- 
ter in abundance. 

Ochthebius marinus. Dalmeny Park, in a marsh by the shore. 

Enicocerus Gibsoni. Do. Do. 

Limnebius aifinis. Raehills. 

— ^ lutosus. In the Annan, near Moffat. 

Cercyou bimaculatum. Dalmeny, by the shore. 

terminatum. Raehills. 



— convexior. Do. 

— ustulatum. Cramond. 



Phalacrus aeneus. Raehills, in moss. 
ovatus. Do. ; and Cramond. 

■ — pulchellus. Do. 

Leiodes aciculata. Raehills ; Cramond. 
castanea. Do. ; and near Jedburgh. 

■ thoracica. Do. The most abundant of the genus. 

— badia. Cramond. 
polita. Raehills. 

— testacea. Do. 

ferruginea. Do. ; and at Cramond. 

■ litura. Do. do. 
— ^— suturalis. Cramond. 

nigricollis. Do. I find the individuals of this genus chiefly 
in autumn. 
Clambus enshamensis. Raehills. 
Ptomaphagus velox. Do. 

fumatus. Do. 

Oiceoptoma sinuata. Corstorphine Hill, near Edinburgh. 

Strongylus fervidus. Raehills. Rare. 

Campta lutea. Do. abundant in putrid fungi. 

Meligethes nigrinus. Do. 

Trichopteryx minutissima. Do. 

■ nana. Wall top, fiarnton Park. 
■ - perpusilla. Raehills. 



Localities ofScattiih CoUoptera. 235 

Anisarthria melas. Raehills. 

■ nitida. Do. 

nitidula. Cramond. 

Atomaria thoradca. Raehills. 
— ^— carbonaria. Do. 
— - linearis. Do. 

Myceteea fumata. Raehills. Rare. 

Tetratoma Anoora. Wall top^ near Cramond. Rare. 

Ips 4-pastalata. Raehills ; found throughout the year under 

the bank of decayed fir trees. 
— ferruginea. Raehills ; found only during summer. 

Corticaria transYersalis. Raehills. 
Paramecosoma bicolor. Cramond Park. Very rare. 
Latridius lardarius. Wall top^ Bamton Park. 
Antlirenus musaeorum. Jedburgh. 
Byrrhus aeneus. Raehills. Rare. 

Hister 12-striatus. Raehills. 
■' nitidulus. Do. 

rotundatus. Do. About the stables, in June. 

Trox scabri. Jardine Hall. Sir William Jardine, Bart. 

Phyllopertha Frischii. GuiJlon Links. 
Elater brunneus. Raehills. 

- serraticomis. Dalmeny. 

- semiruber. Raehills, in decayed birch trees during win- 

ter. Very rare. 
balteatus. Raehills. 

Cyphon griseus. Do. 

Telephorus pulicarius. Raehills. 
— — - ochropus. Do. 

■ lituratus. Do. 
Aplocnemus impressus. Do. Rare. 
Dasytes seratus. Do. 

Cis bidentatus. Do. 

Tomicus bidens. Do. ; also about Jedburgh. 

Hylesinus sericeus. Do. 

Baris atriplicis. Halleaths Loch, on rushes. Sir William Jar- 

dine, Bart. 
Ceutorhynchns melanocephalus. Raehills. 
Nedyus floralis. Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

■ pallidactylus. Raehills. 



236 Localities of Scottish Coteoptera. 

Nedyus melanostigma. Raebills. 

Quercioola. Wall top, Ravelstone. Andrew Murray, Esq. 

Rhinoncus pericarpius. RaehilJs. 
■ castor. Do. 

crassus. Do. 

Orchestes scatellaris. Do. 

— — — — Ilicis. Do. 

Anthonomtts pedicularius. Do. 

Notans bimaculatus. Banks of the Nith, near Dumfries. 

Pissodes Fabricii. Banks of the North Esk, near Montrose. Mr 
6. Little. 

Orthochaetes setiger. Rayelstone ; also in Roxburghshire. 

Procas picipes. Near Moffat. 

Hypera Polygoni. Cramond. 

sublineata. Do. 

Otiorhynchus maurus. Summit of Hartfell; also in Halleatha 
Woods. 

Trachyphlaeus scabriculus. Blackford Hill. 

Strophosomus rufipes. Raehills. 

■' ' nigricans. Cramond Park. 

-. retusus. Raehills. 

Rhynchites cylindricus. Do. 

— cyaneopennis. Do. Dalmeny Park. 

— — cuprous. Do. On the Alder in September. Ex- 

tremely rare. 

Sphieriestes ater. Raehills. On fir-trees, but very rare. 

— — — foYolatus. Cramond. On the top of a wall under a 
row of beech and elm trees ; found only in 
October and the beginning of November. 

Callidium striatum. Forfarshire. Mr 6. Little. 

— variabile. Edinburgh, in a garden in the New Town. 
Rhagium inquisitor 1 Raehills ; found in abundance during win- 

- bifasciatum. J ter, in decayed fir, and birch trees. 
Leptura lievis. Lord Torphichen's woods, Mid*Calder. 
Macroplea Zosterie. Loch of Forfar. Dr Macnab. 
Galeruca tenella. Raehills. 

Mniophila muscorum. Do. 

Phaedon aucta. Cramond. 

— — — - unicolor.^ Raehills. Abundant on the birch. 

Chrysomela Hyperici. Dalmeny. 

r * Banksii. Ayrshire, Dr Macnab. 

- haemoptera. Hills, North Queensferry. Abundant 



Localities of Scottish Cokoptera. 2S7 

Tiinarcha laevigata. GaUoway. Rev. Mr Lamb. 

Melaaoma aenea. Raehills^ on the alder^ in August and 

September. 

Cryptocepbalus 6-punctatu8. RaehiUs^ on the birch. Rare. 

— — Moraei. Sutherlandshire. James Wilson, Esq. 

Cocdnella ocellata. Cramond, one specimen. 

hieroglyphica. Do. 

Tenebrio obscurus. Between Leith and Portobello. Dr Knapp. 

Phylan gibbus. Southemness. Sir William Jardine, Bart. 

Ripipharus paradoxus. Wall top, Bamton Park, in September. 

Scydmsenus elongatulus. Raehills. Rare. 

Paelaphus Herbstii. Raehills, in April, under stones. 

Bryaxis Junoorum. Da. in similar localities. 

Areopagus glabricoUis. Do. 
— puncticoUis. Do. 

bolbifer. Do. 

Bythinus Curtisii. Do. 

— — Burrellii. In moss from Craiglockhart. Dr Greville. 

Tacbinns elongatus. Near Jedburgh. 

Microeaurus lateraljs. Dalmeny. 

Dianous rugulosus. Raehills. 

Syntomium nigroaeneum. Raehills ; also near Jedburgh in con- 
siderable numbers. 

Addota crenata. Cramond. 

Micrdymma Johnstonn. This insect, of which Dr Johnston was so 
kind as to send rae specimens, I have since 
found at Dalmeny between loose layers of 
rock. 



C 238 ] 



REVIEWS AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS. 



Manuel de Malacologie et de Conchyliologie, Par H. M. Du- 

CROTAY DE Blainville. Paris^ 1825. Bto. with an Atlas of 100 

Plates. 
Manuel de VHistoire Naturelle des MoUusquet et de leur CoquiUes, 

Par M. Sander Rang. Paris, 1829. 24ino. 
The Genera cf Recent and Fossil Shells ;for the use cf StudenU in 

Conckohgy and Geology. By George Brettinoham Sowebbt. 

London, v. j. 8vo. 
The Elements of modern Conchology ; with Definitions of all the 

Tribes, Families, and Genera, Recent and Fossil, For the use 

of* Students and Travellers. By William Swainson, £sq. 

Lond. 1835. Duod. 
Elements ofConchology, according to the Linncean System, iUustraied 

by 28 plates drawn from Nature. By the Rev. £. I. Burrow, 

A.M. F. L. S. Lond. 1836. 2d edit. 8vo. 

The foundations of Conchology were laid by Aristotle on those 
broad and rational views which characterize ail his works on the 
Natural History of Animals, and which are worthy of his own re- 
putation as a philosopher, and of the inquisitive and intelligent so- 
ciety to whom they were delivered. The structure and habits of 
the creatures embraced in this section of natural science were the 
main objects of his study, while their relations to the other animated 
entities by which they are surrounded, and their own mutual affi- 
nities were not forgotten, although undoubtedly the classification of 
them appears to have been considered a matter of secondary im- 
portance, and, such as it is, was rather forced upon him than in- 
vented to give some degree of method and generalization to the ex- 
pression of the results of his inquiries. To censure this Father for 
the incompleteness, or even his want of a conchological system, is 
inconsiderately done, for it must be obvious that no system can be 
otherwise than defective and artificial until discovery has, in a long 
and lingering progress, collected together a large magazine of ma- 

3 



History of Conchology. 239 

terials, among which there shall at least he found a type of every 
modification of structure exhibited in the class. But in his age the 
number of Shells known was very confined^ and to have advanced 
beyond the primary divisions of them into univalves^ bivalves^ and 
turbinated kinds^ could be of no possible utility^ and might have 
been hurtful to a further progress^ for " the over early and peremp- 
tory reduction of knowledge into arts and methods" is an error from 
which, as Bacon has justly remarked^ '' time commonly receives 
small augmentation." * His views were higher^ and his researches 
were pushed in the only direction in which they could be made 
available. He has left us a history of the Cephalopodes remarka- 
ble for its fulness and accuracy^ and equally remarkable for its 
exemption from the marvels and puerilities which disfigure the 
same history as delivered by his successors ; and although there 
may be less of observation and fact in his account of the shelled 
molluscans> yet we find the same ends kept ever in view, and the 
incessant effort to attain his object by attention to the habits of the 
animals, and an examination of their anatomy. The numerous de- 
fects, obscurities, and errors which a vain criticism might readily 
detect in his details under both of these heads, are justly attributable 
to the accident of position, for he was the first to track the road 
without the guide of a fixed nomenclature, and without the light 
which anal(^ could lend, — anatomy at this period being scarcely 
practised, and physiology almost unknown. By his own researches 
he was enabled to characterize several groups of Testacea with some 
degree of precision, and to acquaint himself with many valuable 
particulars of their structure and economy, and although some of his 
general corollaries from these are hasty, yet even in this minor de- 
partment of study the Stagyrite claims our admiration for his in- 
dustry and sagacity, and our gratitude for giving us an example of 
scientific inquiry which it were well to follow. 

But the spring which welled so pure and copiously had no issue 
to its waters. Aristotle had no successor in testaceology among his 
countrymen ; and when literature fled the shores of Attica, and 
found its unwilling way to Rome, it was unattended by the natural 
sciences. In the constitution of society among the Romans, it is 
not difficult to find causes for their total neglect of natural history ; 
and these operated with peculiar force when Pliny began to collect 
together the materials of his great encyclopaedia. Devoted in an 
especial manner to a public life, the Romans were negligent of a 

* Comp. Sprengel Hist de la M^dedne, Vol. i. p. 400. 



240 History of Conchohgy. 

study^ which> so £Eur from enhancing their repntation with the peo- 
ple> required a comparative sedusion to he sncoessfully pursued ; 
while tibe disrelish for every science requiring a continuous and so- 
ber observation of &cts and experiments was heightened, at the 
period we refer to> by a general luxury that had risen to an almost 
incredible pitch, and by the mental excitability produced by their 
foreign conquests and discoveries ; — ^for the tales of their travellers, 
and the new and uncommon animals sent home from every quarter 
to supply the theatre and circus, had rendered the minds of the 
people— one and aU — ^pliant to credulity, and apt to receive every 
monstrous tale, and equally indisposed to attend to the simple phe- 
nomena displayed in the ordinary economy of animal life. Pliny 
largely participated the taste and credulity of his age, and hence 
his work is the very antitype of the Greeks, — ample in its details 
of the use and value of pearls and Tyrian purple, of anecdotes of 
the follies of the rich in their dress, and in their dishes of snails 
and oysters, &c. ; while he caters from every source wonderful sto- 
ries of the feats of gigantic cuttles, and of the surprising intelli- 
gence and habits of these and other molluscans which God verily hath 
made, in harmony with their lower organisation, feeble of instinct 
and power. To Gonchology as a science he has added nothing 
which Aristotle did not supply ; but he furnishes some anecdotes 
for a chapter on its economical applications, and has graced its 
history with some tramontane and amusing fictions. 

Of the ancients, Aristotle and Pliny are the only names which 
merit quotation in. a history of conchology, and many centuries 
elapse before we again meet with <me whose writings give some 
indication of its progress. The turmoil of society which accom- 
panied and followed the decline and fiill of the Roman Empire, 
— the engrossing nature of the religion and superstitions of the 
dark ages, — ^the exclusive attention bestowed on the writings of 
the ancients at the revival of letters, — ^and the higher claims of 
higher studies when civility and wealth had begun to diffuse a taste 
for original compositions, and gave encouragement and leisure to 
men of science and letters, — ^were all obliterative of a pursuit which 
was solely ornamental, and had no attraction except to those chosen 
few who found in the contemplati<m of Nature's works their principal 
gratification. That this number was not inconsiderable is certain, for 
otherwise it seems impossible to account for the publication of the vo- 
luminous and expensively illustrated books on natural history, which 
issued from the press withioi or shortly after, the first century after 
the discovery of printing. And indeed the monastic system, and its 



HUtory of Conchohgy. 24 1 

institutions^ must have been favourable to the growth of such feel- 
ings, giving the necessary leisure and seclusion^ while nature^ pre- 
senting daily her works and phenomena, and her seasonal changes 
to these recluses, dull but not dead to their influence, insensibly 
operated and gave direction to the employment of their minds. It 
may be that these earliest works were not devoted even in part to 
conchology, but Natural History as one never advances without ad- 
vantage to every department, and even this minor branch had soon 
\t» due share of love and notice. The vast volumes of Albertus 
Magnus,* Rondeletius, f Gesner j: and Aldrovandu8$ contain each 
of them books devoted to it, and although the original facts they 
disclose are very few in proportion to the mass heaped up in their 
fblioe, yet the criticism they have often received as the receptacles 
of lumber rather than museums of well-arranged records, seems to 
be unnecessarily harsh and severe. The study of the ancients, and 
the elucidation of their difficulties, was still a favourite object with 
men of literature, and when these early naturalists betook them- 
selves to the writings which had come down to them rather than to 
the observation of things themselves, they but followed the bent of 
their compeers, and consulted tfie taste of their age. Their works 
ai« laborious compilations, in which every thing, however remotely 
connected with the subject in hand, good or bad, true or false, — 
whether recorded by grave philosopher, or sung or feigned by poet 
or traveller, — ^finds a place without any nicety as to its probable- 
ness, or conformity to the organization of the animals. On the con- 
trary, there is evidently a strong predilection in their worthy au- 
thors to retail and believe every tale of instinct or use which might 
raise the object, however low and loathly, in our estimation, — a 
greater love of the marvels of Pliny than of the sobrieties of Aris- 
totle. Still with all their foults, the reader will find them not void 
of novelty, either in philosophical remark or in the record of new 
creatures ; and the plan adopted by them of giving figures of the 
species was a most important step towards facilitating the progress 
of the science. To look for any thing that deserves the name of 
System in their works appears next to absurd : they evidently 
had not yet felt its want, and had no distinct idea of the necessity 
or utility of any beyond what gave a convenient heading to their 
chapters. What little they do give us of arrangement may be said 
to be literally borrowed from Aristotle. 

The writings of this period aflord good evidence of a growing and 

• 1495. t 1554. \ I55a § 1599. 



243 History of Canehology. ^ 

considerably extended taste for tbe eonteuplatMiD of Shells, which 
was kept alive and diffused by the activity of a daily enlarging com* 
merce fumishiDg, to collectors and amateurs, numerous novelties of 
uncommon forms and beauty to gratify, and at the same time to sti- 
mulate their curiosity. Hence fdso the origin of museums, of which 
Aldrovandus is usually said to have set the example ; and of these 
Shells made a large and favourite part from their beauty and variety, 
and Arom the ease with which they were procured and preserved. 
These museums soon became rather numerous in Italy and Germany, 
and although they were undoubtedly formed more for the grati6ca- 
tion of the taste of their owners, than with any views towards 
science, and hence arranged in fisuitastic and picturesque designs, still 
it is ft'om their institution that we date the origin of Conchology 
as a separate branch of natural history. The catalc^ues published 
of a few of the most considerable of these museums are among the 
works generally enumerated as worthy of quotation in the history of 
Conchology, and it was the love of making collections of shells se- 
parately, that evidently gave origin to the works of Bonanni and 
Lister, the first which treated exclusively of these natural objects. 

Bonanni's work was published in the year 1681, and from its 
title — '' Recreatio Mentis et Oculi in observatione Animalium tes- 
taceorum" — was probably intended to be a book of luxury, exhibit- 
ing in its plates whatever amongst shells might please the eye or 
^ refocate the unoccupied mind. It is properly speaking, however^ 

an introduction to Concholc^y, and in this view of it, the volume 
becomes interesting, since it affords the means by which the extent 
of the knowledge of Conchology at that period may be estimated. 
Of the writings of his immediate predecessors he speaks very 
slightingly : they remind him, he says, by their boastings when these 
are compared with their deeds, of those birds which floating aloft 
.. in the heavens draw notice by the amplitude of their spread of 
\ / . wing and the fulness of their plumage, but captured and plucked, 
i ^ the exility of their corpse proves to the sportsman how much he 
had been deceived ! The treatise is divided into four parts : in the 
fiTsli he proves, to his own satisfaction, that the study of shells is 
not a puerile but a wise and profitable occupation; investigates the 
mode of generation both of living and fossilized species ; declares the 
, fit materials from which they are formed, and takes occasion to talk 

learnedly of water, earths, nitre and petrifying humours ; he de- 
scants on their colours, forms, and properties by which the Creator 
renders them visible to the privileged minds of philosophers ; and 
lastly, enumerates their other uses to man, and what relates to them 



Ehiafy ofCandwlogy. 243 

as precious ornaments for museums, of the more remarkable of 
which we have a particular account in his 12th chapter. In the 
second part Bonanni describes each shell separately, noticing their 
parts, form, colourB, names, and the seas which they inhabit — In 
the third part he propounds about 40 problems or hard questions, 
annexing reasons or '^ an argument" to the dark and doubtful, by 
which a ray of truth may be thrown on them, and they may be 
made visible at least to the mental eye ; he shews that pearls cannot 
be formed from dew, as Pliny would persuade us, that they are not 
the young but a disease of conchs ; he explains why a shell applied to 
the ear seems, by its murmurings, to lament its native sea ; inquires 
into the causes of shells being more abundant in the $ea than on the 
land, and especially in the Indian Ocean, where they are also more 
beautifully pictured ; why they are principally coloured on the ex- 
terior ; wherefore they grow hard, seeing they are formed out of sofb 
water ; why they are twisted into many spires ; why their snails have 
scarcely any diversity of members ; why they are destitute of teeth, 
a heart, and bones ; why nature denies them bile, and a liver and 
a spleen ; why they grow lean on the wane of the moon ; why they 
are slow and stoltish ; why the juice of the Pholas is luminous at 
night ; why among their various colours the cerulean is not to be 
found ; and other such problems hitherto unargued or propounded, — 
not omitting to inquire learnedly whether the Remora, that stayed 
the ship sent ft'om Periander on a cruel voyage to the Gape of 
Gnidos, was actually the shell called in consequence the Venus-shell, 
and '* in regard whereof, the inhabitants of Onidos doe honour and 
consecrate the said Porcellane within their temple of Venus/' — The 
fourth and last part is occupied with the plates and figures describ- 
ed in the second, distributed into three classes, viz. the univalves not 
turbinate^ the bivalves, and the turbinate univalves. 

This slight outline of Bonanni's book is all our space will permit 
us to give, and is perhaps sufficient to enable the reader to appre- 
ciate its value, and the character of the writer. He was a Jesuit, 
with attainments and natural talents which, though respectable, 
certainly do not raise him above the level of his age, — ^perhaps he 
was under it, — ^better acquainted with the writings of his predeces- 
sors than of his contemporaries, — ^with the tastes of a virtuoso rather 
than of the man of science, skilful in all the vain logomachies of 
the schoolmen, and willing to give a ready assent to every thing 
which had ancient authority in its favour, but jealous and distrust- 
ful of all that was novel, and of every discovery that would carry 
knowledge forward. Hence we find his anatomy of shell-fish in- 



244 History of Conchology. 

ferior to that of Aristotle's, and his arrangement of them the same ; 
hence his advocacy of the doctrine of spontaneous generation, when 
his contemporary Redi had demonstrated its absurdity ; hence his 
exclusive attention to the form and coloor of shells to his total over- 
sight of conchology as a branch of general physiology ; hence also 
his fondness in propounding, his copiousness in solving occult ques- 
tions which, if resolved, were of no utility, but which were really 
beyond the province of human inquiry ; hence the discussion where- 
fore shellfish were defective in this and that organ, without the 
slightest effort to ascertain whether that deficiency was a fieict ; and 
hence, in short, the reason that his volume contains not a single 
fact additional to the stock of knowledge in his own province, for 
we do not find that he has '* treated of the formation of shells in a 
manner more philosophical than could have been expected at such 
a period," as Maton and Rackett have asserted. But we have no 
wish to depreciate Bonanni, who^ as we have already mentioned^ 
was a man of learning and repute^ and it is not discreditable to an 
author that he is affirmed not to have anticipated his age : we have 
drawn his character as we think fairly, and it is a fair representa- 
tion too, of the bulk of conchologists of his time, who obviously had 
little other object in the study than to indulge their love of virtuoso- 
ship. 

Philippe Bonanni and Dr Martin Lister were co-equals in the 
date of the publication of their works,* but in character they were 
men of remote eras. Lister was not less learned than the Jesuit, 
but of that he made no parade, and if he had drunk of the logic of 
the schoolmen, his tutored mind had seen its folly, for we never 
find him indulging in disquisitions about things inscrutable or use- 
less. Full of the medical knowledge of the day. Lister betook him- 
self, following the bent of his genius, to a patient anatomy of the 
animals which tenant and construct the shells that had won his ad- 
miration, andy aUowing 'fjpr the state of anatomy then, we do not 
hesitate to say that his Exerdiaiiones deserve to rank beside those 
of Poli and Guvier. They are replete with accurate descriptions, 
not unmixed it is true with error, and some things he had overlook- 
ed and mistaken, but to mark these as blots on his diligence or re- 
putation were uncandid and unfedr to him who leaves the olden 
ways and deviates into a new coUbtry, in which he has to open up 
the roads. In every page Lister proves himself a laborious and ob* 
servant anatomist and naturalist ; while his disquisitions and di- 
gressions relative to the leaning of his discoveries on the physiolo- 

• Lister's works were published between the years 1669 and 1697. 

4 



gical qnesUoiis whicb divicted the then medio^ WQtki i^flcrd the 
fullest proof of his aoatene8s> judgment^ and extenaiye learning.* 
His works deserve the attentive perusal of every studeat in eon- 
chdogy, who will not fall to reap advantage from the taak^ even 
though he should go to it acquainted with the subject from recent 
authorities. 

Lister was a true naturalist^ and the first conchologist of decid-^ 
ed eminence. His anatomical works show how clearly he under*, 
stood that the structure of the animals was tha main object of our 
akudy> — its only sure foundation^ and its best daim on our atten^- 
tkio>— >but he was also very observant of the habits^ instincts, and 
peculiarities of snail and shell, and was at the same time aealous to 
acquire an extensive and accurate knowledge of species, to which 
end he sacrificed much. At his own cost, and with the labour of 
years, he completed fmd published a volume of plates, which is the 
pride of collectors, and is prixed to this day for its utility. '^ His 
figures," Dr'Maton and the Rev. Mr Beckett tell us, <' both in 
point of number and faithfulness, are with reason still held in such 
high estimation, that no person attached to this branch of natural 
history can advance in it without the constant uee of them, nor 
without finding them preferable for reference to many more splen- 
did engravings which have succeeded them."t*^'' This admirable 
volnme," says Dr Turton, '' contains one thousand and iifty-five 
plates, besides twenty*one of anatomical figures, all drawn from 
original specimens by his two daughters, Susanna and Anna. Con* 
ddering the state of natural science at the time this work was first 
issued, one hundred and thirty-three years since, it is impossible to 
contemplate this stupendous effort of genius and industry, without 
admiration at the grandeur of the design, and the correctness of its 
execution.":^ 

It was Lister's intention, afj^r the publication of this volume of 
^tce, to have proceeded with an anatomical description of every 
^mily or genus in its proper order, if God should grant him life 
and leisure, but from adverse health he was not permitted to do 
■Mve than to anatomijee the terrestrial slugs and snails, some fresh- 
water Turbines, one or two of the marine Buccina, and a part of the 
Bivalves. The design was worthy of the man, and is a fine example 
of unwearied assiduity, which pought but a genuine enthusiasm 

* His opinions relative to the fiincdons of the liver in Mollusca appear de- 
serving of more attention than they have yet received. See the Ezer. Anat de 
CocUeis, p. 79, &c. 

t Lin. Tran& vii. p. 'ISa 

I Conchological Dictionary, Introd. p. xvi. 

VOL. II. NO. 9. B 



246 Hidory of Omchology, 

ooold have kept aliye. If perchance, aayg he, a stranger ahimid be 
told that this man had devoted his years to the dissection of ani- 
malcules and snails, it might provoke his contempt or laughter, un- 
less, indeed, the dissector was another Harvey, Malpighi, or a 
Redi ; but I do not veEemently yearn for the applause of any one, 
having had my reward, for these exercises which were my pleasure 
and delight in youth, now that I am old they are my solace. And 
now when I am, from a failure of sight, compelled to use the mi- 
croscope, and find that by its aid I can again enjoy myself in those 
studies, which have been long denied to the unassisted eye, I re- 
joice greatly.* We do love to dwell on the character of this man. 
Learned in his profession, and attaining its highest honours,— for 
he was physician to Queen Anne,— we now see him refocating his 
jaded spirits in the contemplation of his collections of shells, and 
enjoying, with a rapture which minds framed, like his only feel, all 
their beauties and symmetries and singularities ; — again we see him 
examining with a fatherly pride and pleasure the drawings which 
his daughters, who stand beside him, had laboured to finish before 
the duties of the day permitted their beloved parent to retire to his 
ease and study, — and at a more leisured season we see him, bent 
somewhat with age and infirmities,t anatomizing with the zeal and skill 
of his youth the creatures which he loved so well to study, now his 
keen eye kindling as the thought crosses him, that in this structure 
there was a ray which shed light on some obscurity in his own frame, 

^now lost in wonder at some display of a mechanism which can 

have but one author, while involuntarily he breathes the hymn,— 
*' Oh altitudo ! In his tam parvis, atque tarn nuUis, quae ratio ? 
quanta vis ! quam inextricabilis perfectio !" 

Lister then greatly advanced oonchology by rescuing it from the 
charge of frivolity, by an unrivalled series of illustrations of species, 
by many novel remarks on their habits, by a very complete history 
of the species of his native land, and chiefly by giving us some ex- 
cellent essays on the structure and physiology of the Mollusca which 
had been neglected since the time of Aristotle, for the isolated no- 
tices of a few species by Willis> Redi, Harderus, and Swammer- 
dam, however good, had no influence on conchology, while those 
of Lister are epochal. He was fully aware too of the importance 
of system in this study, but he had not critically e^^amined its real 
objects and use, and his classification, though elaborate, claims no 
praise of superiority. The habitat affords the character for his pri- 

• Exercit Anat. des Cochleis, p. 2. 

f See the Preface to the App. Hist. Anim. Ang. 



History of Conchology. 247 

■Bary divinoBa or books,— hence shells are divided into the land, 
fresh- water, marine hivalTe, and marine uniTalve classes ; and the 
mode in which these are subdivided more resembles the synoptical 
tables which the French botanists now frequently prefix to their 
floras, constructed without any regard to the affinities of the objects 
they approximate, and solely intended to hunt down a species, than 
what is usually understood by a system ih natural history. 

80 £Bur as we remember (for his works are not all of them by us, 
and years have elapsed since their perusal,) the manner in which 
the shell is formed, and its relation to the snail, occupied no part of 
Lister's investigations, but previous to his decease the true solution 
ef the problem ifras discovered by the illustrious Reaumur.* No 
experimental inquiry had hitherto been made on the subject; and 
the remarks in reference to it in conchological writers were scatter- 
ed, vague, and hypothetical ; while the opinion of better informed 
physiologists appears to have been that the shells were organised 
parts of the animal, which grew and increased with the latter by 
receiving nutriment and material from the body ; that there was in 
fact nothing peculiar in the formation of shell, but that its growth 
depended, like the growth of other parts, on the circulation of 
juices within itself, and on the assimilation and addition of new 
matter. Reaumur was iTever content with reasoning on a point 
which experiment alone could solve, and with his usual ability 
and success he instituted numerous experiments on the subject un- 
der review. They were principally made on land snails (Helix,) 
but not restricted to them, for by confining fluviatile and marine 
species, both univalve and bivalve, in baskets framed so as to admit 
the water, and at the same time prevent the escape of the crea- 
tures, he was enabled to show that his theory was applicable to the 
whole class. He proved in this manner that the shell was enlarged 
by tEe deposition of calcareous matter to the edges of the apertuxe> 
and that this deposition was made in successive layers ; that there 
was no increase from the intusception of calcareous matter, no ad- 
ditional increase from any action in the shell itself, but that the 
whole was a successive transudation from certain parts of the living 
tenant, to which the shell was an inorganic covering. It was ob- 
jected to him that snails just issued from the egg had as many 
whorls as the parent, but the falsity of this observation was to 
Reaumur of easy proof, who found that these young had only one, 

* " De la Formation et de raccroisseroent des CoquilleB des Animanx tant 
terrestres qu* aquadques, soit de mer soit de riviere,** in Mem. de VAcad. Roy. 
det Sc. 1709. 



248 Hidory of Caneholuffy. 

or not more than a whorl and a*half ; and his thoory* diveated of 
the mechanical phraseology in which some of its details are explain- 
ed, remains essentially correct. Besides the establishing of this 
discovery so impcHtant in scientific coocholagy, Reaumur enriched it 
with much carious and interesting matter. His inquiry into the 
mechanism by which the limpets fix themaelres so firmly, and the 
byssiferous biTalves spin their silken cables ; his accurate descrip* 
tien of the structure of the shell of the Pinna ; and his experimen- 
tal essay on the purple dye of the Bucoinum^ su^^ested to him by 
the excellent paper on the same subject by Mr Cole of Bristol, are 
fiiTOurable specimens of his talent for obsefvation, and real addi- 
tions to the stock of our knowledge, while they captivate us by the 
elegant and copious style in which they are written, and by the 
clearness of their details. 

These labours and discoveries, and the high character of their 
authors, render the conclusion of the 10th, and the beginning of the 
17th century, unquestionably the most interesting period in the 
history of conchdogy. Ray, who discovered die peculiar hermaphro- 
ditism of the snail, was the intimate friend of Lister^ — Petiver and 
Sloane, celebrated for their museums, had entered the field ere be 
retired,— >Balfour and 8ibbald in Scotland were his contemporaries, 
and the latter his correspondent,— PoupaVt and Mery, two French 
anatomists of deserved celebrity, carried their researches in the 
same direction, — and Swammerdam, Leewenhoeck, and Rumphius* 
in Holland,— all these men were each in their way advancing cim* 
chology with a rapidity hitherto unexampled and not yet surpassed. 
We are apt, dassled by this galaxy, to fix our attention too ezdu- 
sively on the anatomical and physiological branches of the science, 
but let us not forget to note the benefit it received by the seal of 
collectors, who were now importing species in great numbers from 
every quarter of the globe, and congregating them in museums 
trhich became celebrated throughout Europe for their richness. In 
England those of Petiver and Sloane surpassed all others ; the col- 
lection of Sir Andrew Balfour of the University of Edinburgh was 
considerable ;t but it was in Holland that the passion of forming 

* Or rather Scheinvoet, a Dutch phyridan, who ww the reel aatfaor of Rum- 
phius* Thesaurus. See D'Ai:genville*B Conchyliog. p. 27. 

f Sibbald*s Auctarium MuMti Baljburiani " does not treat of TeatcLcea ex- 
•dusively, but comprehends a variety of subjects, which were contained in the 

collection of Sir Andrew Balfour, Knight, M. D a collection presented to the 

University of Edinbuiigh, and considerably augmented by the intimate friend of 
the donor, who described the whole in the work above-mentioned. Unfortu- 



Hi$iory cf Conchology. 249. 

csbinets of aheils became most prendent. '' Bich tadmduals sta<^ 
died to ontrie one aaotlier in Uiat ooontry, as much in the expen« 
eiYeoesB and extent of their coUectioDS, as in the splendour of their 
equipages and retinue ; and the sums which were given for a Cedo» 
mmlU or a Wentietrap, would appear too enormous to deserve belief* 
If audi aeoounts were not authenticated by the most respectable 
writers of that day* Ram^hias himself informs us in his preface 
to the ' Amboinshe Rariteitkamer/ that a shell described in this 
work cost no less than 600 Dutch florins."* In ail this, of course, 
there was much less the love ci science than the mere indulgence 
of a peculiar taste or rivalry that wealth or a natural disposition 
had engendered ; and it is not easy to determine whether the good 
which it cannot be denied conehology derived from this zeal of ool* 
lectors, was not overbalanced by the character of virtuosism it was 
calculated to fix on all its cultivators^ and the new direction which 
it unqnestioaafoly gave to their studies, t It was to this seal that 
we owe several expensive books of plates which were now prepared 
for the press^ and published under the auspices usually of some 

OBlsly for the repatadon of this University among natiinlists, a very small part 
of the ooUectioa is now remaining. * Such,* says Mr Pennant, * has been the 
nq^igence of past times, that $caree a specimen of the noble collection deposited 
in it by Sir Andrew Balfour is to be met with, any more than the great additions 
made to it by Sir Robert Sibbald.*—< Scotch Tour, 1766, p. 246.) Such is too 
often the fate of puUic collections ; and so slight or so transient is any respect 
fer the kuidable intentions of generous individuals towatds pidilic bodies, that 
common care is nialy taken to preserve from destructioB whateseapes the hand 
of peculation and robbery." — Lin. Tnms. vii p. 144. 

* Lin. Trans, vii. p. 150.->'' In 1753, at the sale of Commodore Lisle's 
shells at Langford*s, four Wentletraps were sold for L. 75, i2s.'* Da Costa's 
Elem. of Conehology, p. 204. — " A spedmen of Conua cedonuBi has been 
valued at 800 guineas.'* Dfllwyn's Catalogue, p. 376 — " AmmriUium varietates 
Bttidaa, Turbmis ecalaria et OsireiB MaUei nmuks nobilitavit docta ignoran- 
tia» predavit quam pationtur'opes stnltitiB, emtitsvit harbara luxurim".~Lin. 
Syst. 1167. 
f They did not of course escape the observation and the lash of the satirist 
** But what in oddness can be more sublime 
Than Sloane, the foremost toyman of his time ? 
His nice ambition lies in curious fancies. 
His daughter's portion a rich SheO inhances, 
And Ashmole*s baby*house is, in his view, 
Britsmua's golden oiine, a rich Peru P* — Young. 
It is almost needless to remind the reader of the amusing papers iji ridicule pf 
the collectors in the ' Spectator* and * Rambler,* but the irony of the latter in 
his No. 82, is more than compensated by Us defence of these ' much injured' 
men m his Nos. 84 and 85. 



250 History of drnxhology' 

wealthy amateur^ and which, though too often occupying a promi* 
nent place in the history of oonchology, have litUe merit excepting 
what they derive from the draughtsman and engrarer. Hence also 
the repeated attempts on the part of the more studious to arrange 
the objects in quest after some novel or more convenient system, 
for without a r^ular specification of their contents it was evident 
no correct idea could be imparted of the extent and worth of the 
collection. 

In indicating the progress of ' Method/ however, it is necessary 
to go back a little. We have seen that Aristotle had three orders 
of Testacea> — Univalves, Bivalves and the Turbinated, — but the 
class itself and these divisions were loosely defined ; and the same 
vagueness is to be found in the writings of those authors who fol- 
lowed his method. Perhaps Dr Walter Charleton, Physician in 
Ordinary to Charles II. was the first who had a full conviction of 
the importance of system, but his attempt to arrange the Molluscs 
is very faulty.* The Limaces he places with apodous insects ; and 
aquatic animals being divided as usual into the sanguineous and 
exsanguineous, the remaining molluscans are arranged under two 
classes — viz. the mollia or mOlluscvla and the tesiacea. The first 
embraces all the cuttles and the Lepus marinus or Aplysia ; the se- 
cond the shelled tribes whose primary sections are the same as those 
of Aristotle's, while his genera, in general wi^thout definitions, rest 
on characters of little or no value. Jean-Daniel Major, Profes<- 
sor of Practical Medicine in the University of Keil, in the dutdby of 
Holstein, was the next to make the attempt, (1675,) which is pro- 
nounced by two critics, to whose opinion much deference has been 
shown, to be " infinitely too complicated and ramifying to admit of 
any useful application.'* Sibbald, Grew, Bonanni, Lister, Langius, 
Ilebenstreit, Tournefort, D'Argenviile, and Klein are perhaps the 
principal who followed in their wake, but it is evident that they had 
all entered on their task without a previous study of what the real 
object dnd use of method was, what principles were to guide them 
in framing the various sections, or what the relative bearing of these 
divisions on one another should be. The division of shells primarily 
into Multivalve, Bivalve, and Univalve had perhaps superseded the 
Aristotelian, and many new divisions of secondary rate were of 
course invented, but they were arbitrary, founded on no common 
principle, either too lax or too complex to be applicable in practice, 
cumbersome to the memory, and clumsy in writing. To analyse 

* Onomastikon Zoikon. Lond. 1671. 4to. 

3 



History of Canehology. 251 

theM methods would be wearisome and unprofitable, — tbey were 
next to oaeleea when promulgated^ and have now no attraction even 
in the eyes of the pure conchologist. It is when we rise from their 
examination that we are in the best mood to appreciate the merits 
of Linnseus^ and feel inclined to nod in complacent assentation to 
til the paeans which have been so often sung to his praise* 

Linnaeus having, with a tact characteristic of his genius for sys- 
tem, divided invertebrated animals into two great classes — Insecta 
and f^ertnes, — was less happy in his reduction of the latter into their 
secondary groups or orders. The testaceous molluscs occupy one 
order by themselves, in which there are four sections of equal value — 
the multivalve, bivalve (Conchas,) the univalves with a regular 
spire (CochleasJ, and the univalves without a regular spite.* In 
each section there are several genera defined with neat precision, — 
the characters of the multi valves being derived from the position of 
the valves, — of the bivalves from the number and structure of the 
hinge-teeth, or, in the absence of these, from a part influencing the 
opening of the valves,— of the Cochleae from the unilocular or mul- 
tilocular shell, but in most from the formation of the aperture ; while 
in the last division the shape of the shell affords the means of dis- 
criminating them, excepting in Teredo, which is defined '' T. in- 
'tmsa ligno," in evident contrariety to his principles and his better 
custom. The naked tribes are placed in the order denominated 
^ Molluscs,'' where they stand, in '' admired disorder,'* with radi- 
ated zoophytes, annelidansi parasitical worms, and the Echinoder- 
mata, which latter, however, are better in this strange miscellany, 
than they were when they stood either amongst simple or multi- 
Talved shells. 

In estimating the merits of this system it is not fair to look back 
from our present vantage ground, aqd magnify its defects by a compa- 
rison with modern classifications : we are in candour to place ourselves 
behind its author, and looking forward, say how far his efiTorts have 
been useful or quickening.t Standing thus we trust to ofiTend none of 
his admirers when we admit that there is nothing in its principle of 
a novel character : the soft molluscs were previously recognized and . 
better assorted by Charleton ; and every one of the sections, and, if 

* The expounders of Liniueus* system do not adopt this last division, — ^why 
it is difficult to say. By disregarding it they have injured the naturalness of the 
method. 

f The first edition of the < Systema Naturae* was published in 17d5, but 1758 
is properly the year which gave birth to his conchological system, when the 10th 
edition was pdblisbed. It was perfected in 1766. 



1 



!25e Mstary tf Conshohgy. 

we mittake not^ of the genera also, of the shelled tribeB had been al- 
ready recognised. It labours under the censure of haying too small 
regard to the animal^ a censure in some degree jntt, fbr assuredly 
tnore was known of these than the definitions of the ** SptemV' 
Would lead us to suppose ; and it had still less regard to the povition 
of the groups in reference to their organical affinities. It often as» 
societes species of dissimilar habits ,' and species are found in almost 
erery genus at variance with the character of this, and where con- 
sequently the student ought not to have sought for them. The 8U« 
periority of it lies in its simplicity ; in the reguhited subordination 
of all its parts ; in the admirable sagacity With which the families 
er genera are limited ; in the assumption of more stable characters 
fbr these, end for the dear distinct manner in which they are ap- 
plied ; in the suitableness of its nomenclature ; in the invention of 
tririal names which gave a fueility in writing hitherto unknown, and 
was a welcome relief to the memory ; in the ooticisenees of the ape* 
cific characters and the skill with which those characters were cfaee- 
en ; in the regular indication of the stations which the species oc- 
cupy on the globe ; and in the beauty of the more extended de- 
scriptions, and the peculiar felicity of language in which the thonghta 
suggested by any remarkable structure in the species under review , 
are conveyed to us. That merits of this kind should secure him 
something more than approbation was natural : latere was mndi ex« 
cellence in it which prejudice or jealousy only could not see^ and 
which folly alone would have rejected ; and while every collector and 
amateur found it easy to be understood, ready in practice, and neat 
in nomenclaturing their cabinets, their pursuit assumed the garb 
of science when they could tell the scomer that they were followii^ 
the steps, and had the sanction, of a man whose genius has justly 
won him a place in the first rank of those whom succeeding ages con^ 
tinue to venerate fbr the good they have done in the promotion of 
useful knowledge. 

While the eyes of almost all were turned to this northern lumi- 
nary for light to guide them in their pursuit, or as an object by 
barking at which a few drew notice on their littleness, Jusdien of 
Paris, the admirer of Linnaeus' genius and industry, and his corre- 
spondenty was explaining to his select but few disciples the princi- 
ples of what has been commonly cdled the '' Natural System." 
Jussieu's profound studies were confined to botany, but he had col- 
leagues and contemporaries who attempted their application to con- 
cMogy, and whose want of success is to be ascribed mainly to the 
meagerness of the anatomy of the moUuaca then attained, to the few« 



HUtwy of Qmdioloffy. 253 

neM of the obaervationB made on the living species^ A^d in part also 
to the imperflectioo of the views of the aothcHTB. Danbenton^ the 
eoUeague of Buflbn^ bo early as 1743> initiated on a knowledge of the 
animid aa neoesaarj to form a natural dasaifieation of sheik ; and in 
1756, Ouettardy iHio was the personal friend of JtxssieUy Hot only 
gave his sanction to this opinion^ bat shewed its practicability and 
ezoeUence by defining, from the pecnliarities of the animal and shdl 
combined, a considerable number of the univalves, comprehending 
among these, in evident agreement with their relations, though con- 
trary to general use, the slugs, the Aplysia, and the Bullasa. But 
the fullest attempt of this kind was made by Adanson^ whose 
work on Senegal was puMidied some years before Linnieus had given 
the last revision to his system. Impelled by an indomitable enthu« 
ftiaam, Adanson visited Senq^l, under many disadvantages^ to ex* 
amine and describe the natural productions of a tropical climate ; and 
for this purpose he made very extensive collections in every depart- 
ment of nature, but of his great work the first volume only, contain- 
ing the outline of his travels and his account of the shells, was ever 
given to the public. The character of this volume has risen with 
the progress of the science, and it is more valued by the ooncholo* 
gists of the present day than it was by the ccmtemporaries of its au- 
thor. He had some personal peculiarities-^too visible in his writings 
-^wfaich could not fail to hurt his popularity : an austere tempera- 
ment^ which caused him to treat his Ifellow-labourers with contemptu- 
eiis ttoeitiity,-^-« mind that would nether bend to nor treat with re* 
spect tbe prejudices as he deemed them of his age»--«n unflinching 
severity in criticising the writings of others, and a pertinacious 
tenacity of his own views,— wliile some barbarisms he attempted 
to introduce into the nomenclature of oonchology repelled the na- 
taraliats of a tee nice taste, and the very extent ik his requirements 
fhim those viiM> claimed to be naturalists operated against him, fnr 
it was nM to be supposed that mere collectors or virtuosos were to 
enter on so difficult a path, or would be willing to allow themselves 
to be pushed aside as idlers, and put without the pale of the scien- 
tific cinsle. That very beauty, he exclasms, which by its variety 
has attracted l^e regaards of men to shells has become an obstacle to 
their knowledge. *' La eequiile seuie d^positaire de cette riche 
parure, a fa^ m^prieer Tanimal auquel elle servoit de couverture, 
et est devenue seule IVfajet de Tadmiration de quelques natura« 
listes. Epris, eemme les curieux, de la beauts frappante'de'^sea 
couleurs, ils n'ont pas jug^ que I'habitant fut digne de leurs re- 
cherches, et le diilicultd de se le procurer ^ chaque instant, n'a pas 



264 HUiory afOmAologf. 

pen oostriboft k angmenter lenr d6d«ia. Ik ae mnk done bem^'i 
rexamen dea eoquillea, ils n'en ont consid^^ que le forme^ eelle da 
son ouvertnrej on le nombre de aes piecea ; c'est d'elle aeule qu'ilt 
ont Youlu tirer leun caracterea primitifi et diatinctife : de-l& oette 
foule de syat^mea ausai peu satisfaisana lea una que lea autrea."* 

At a seaaon when ' Syatems' were all in Togue Adan8on» with 
characteristic boldneaa, declared himself their enemy aa being wone 
than useless, fit only to amuse trifiera, certain to lead to error and 
alienate us from true views of the objects in question, and so easy of 
invention to boot that several equally good might be made by one 
of common experience and capacity. The history of dbnchology 
had already offered too many examples of the truth of this assertion, 
and he was not slack to give additional specimens in its illustration. 
But notwithstanding his pbilippick against them, Adanson, in aome 
measure, forgot^ his own principles, and was little less of a systema- 
tist than those were whom he censured. Shell-fish were, according 
to him, distinguishable in the first place into << LimB9ons** and ^^ Con- 
ques ;" the former were subdivided into univalves and operculated 
univalves, and the Conques into bivalves and multivalves; these' 
primary familiea were still further divided into smaller groups from 
the position of the eyes in the Lima^ons, and from the figure of the 
respiratory tubes in the Conques. Now it was a pure arbitrariness 
in him to fix upon the operculum as a part or organ of primary value, 
for there is nothing in its use or position to justify the choice, nor 
did he attempt, by any analysis, to show that it was a regulator of 
structure and habits ; and it was equally arbitraiy to divide the bi- 
valves into two sections on the mere existence of a few additional ' 
pieces over the hinge, for these pieces were not proved to be an index 
to the animal's economy. But Adanson's aervices to conchology are 
very great, — of those its labourers who have passed in review we place 
him next to Lister. He has the merit of having altogether remov- 
ed from the Testacea the Lepas and Balani, whose structure he saw 
was modelled after the type of another category ; his intereatuig dis- 
covery of the Vermetus was a fine illustration of the shell being of 
itself useless as a character in natural history ; and his knowledge of 
affinities was Qiade evident by the acuteness which lead him to ^ 
proximate the Teredo to the Pholas. If not the first to point out 
the importance of the operculum, he was undoubtedly the first who 
knew its value as an index to natural relationship between genera ; 
perhaps the firat who was fully aware that the entireneaa or canali- 

* Hist des CoqiiiUages, pref. v. 



History of Conchology. 2d5 

cokte fonnation of the aperture of the shell gare an insight into the 
habits of the snail in r^;ard to food ; the first too to point out fully 
the influence of age and sex in altering the shape of the shelly and 
more especially of its aperture ; the first to describe and delineate the 
animal tenant of many genera ; and although his attention was ex« 
dusively directed to external characters, yet we are aboTe all in- 
debted to him for his strong adrocacy of the maxim that the anatomy 
of the animal was the sole sure foundation of a rational arrangement 
which had in view the mutual affinities of the objects it attempted to 
clasBify, and present them not fancifully commixed as they might be 
placed in a museum, but according to those characters which nature it« 
self had given them of affinity or dissemblance. << There is then," he 
says, " in shell-fish something more t^ consider than their shells ; 
the snail which tenants them ought to guide our methodical arrange 
ments, to be our only reg^ator, since it is the principal part, that 
which gires to the exterior skeleton its form, size, hardness, colours, . 
and all the other peculiarities in it which we admire. If we atteB« 
tively examine this new and forgotten race, if we consider individual- 
ly the members of it, we shall discover in their manners, in their ac- 
tions, in their movenoients and manner of life, an infinitude of curious 
circumstances, of facts interesting, and fitted to arrest the attention 
of every zealous and intelligent observer ; we shall perceive in the 
organism of their bodies a great number of parts remarkable in their 
structure and use ; and in entering into details we shall soon be com- 
pelled to. grant that this study is no childish play, but as thorny and 
full of difficulties as any other in the wide range of natural history."* 
The example of Adanson was followed by Geoffroy who, in a his- 
tory of the shells found in the vicinity of Paris, attempted to arrange 
them on the external anatomy of their animals ; and by Muller, who 
described in the same manner the mollusca of the north of Europe. 
The writings of Muller are still deservedly held in high estimation. 
They contain the descriptions of many novelties, and his descriptions 
of them, as well as of species previously known, are remarkable for 
their accuracy ; they are thickly strewed with notices of the exter- 
nal anatomy and habits of those he bad examined alive ; and his style 
of writing is interesting, rising occasionally to eloquence. As an ob- 
server and teller of what he had observed, he claims a place among 
the first, but he was the discoverer of no fact in their structure or 
physiology of any consequence — we speak in reference to the mol- 
lusca only ; and his systematic efforts were limited and partial, al- 

* Lib. tup. dt. pref. x. 



2M IRdory of Condiology. 

though he sometimM drops a hint on tho tnbioet} wfatdn maket m 
almost beliere that he was capable of better liiings, had he had conrago 
to have made the attempt. * In relation to the mollnsca be dearlj 
saw the impropriety of making the presence or absence of the dieli 
an ordinal chamcter ; and he knew, vagnely it maj be, the affinity 
between the bitalTtilar molinsoa and the Tonicata. " For wiiat"— - 
we trandate \^t words«-<< are the Testacea hut moUnsca fomislied 
with a shell, and whait are naoUosoa bnt Testaoea destitnte of it ? 
There is the most exact agreement of the tenants of tiie nninlTO 
shells which are called Helices with the naked sings ; and an agree- 
ment not to be overlooked of biralves with the Ascidia ; and the very 
error of our predecessors, who said that slogs were mer^y snails whidi 
had crept out of their shdls, proves their near affinity. Besides the 
insensible but evident transition of nature from the naked Limax to 
the testaceous — passing from the former, which at most has the mere 
radiment of an internal shell to the latter by means of the Bnecinum 
(Lymnsaa) glutinosum, which conceals its membranous shell under 
a fleshy mantle, supports plainly our <^inion. Therefore I do not 
doubt that a future age will join together the naked slugs and the 
shelled snails, which authors have separated into different ordere." 
<< If we wish," he writes in another place, *' properly to know and 
discriminate natural objects, ^y must be considered in every point 
of view and in all states, so ficff as human imbecility will permit. The 
attainment of knowledge is thus indeed rendeinsd more difficult, hot 
at the same time more pleasant and accurate ; genera indeed are mnl- 
tiplied, but by this way only, if by any, can species ever be determin- 
ed. This is the alpha and omega of our IMmtutb, since systems and 
methods and gen«ra are arbitrary and framed by the narrow limits of 
o«ur knowledge. Nature acknowledges one dirision of created bodies 
0Bly«^-the living and brate matter — spuming for the most part the 
airaagements of systematists into classes and orders, ftmifies and 
genera, and her productions are often so affined that their limits can 
.never be strictly fixed. Characters derived fiom the interior and ex- 
terior structure of bodies deceive us not solely in the higher divisions ; 
and even the manner of life and the mode of propagation do not af- 
ford any certain distinctions either in those races which are risible 
or in those which are inrisible to the naked eye. There is therefore 
only one family, and one Father of dl, who has marked with a con- 
stant character all species whatever from the Monad to die turret* 

* His ' Method/ as detailed by himself, is as artificial as the Linnaean, and ac* 
tually less in harmony with liie anfanal oiganiation. 

4 



History of C<mck6hgy. 267 

betring Elephant, and has diatingiiished Man alone with a treasonable 
tool."* 

The celelinted Pallas was another who at this period had ob- 
tained n gUmpse of the true relations of the moUnsca as a class eyen 
dearer than Muller^f bnt he did not pnrsae the subject^ and as his 
alight incidental notice, though it might have originated inquiry in a 
prediepofied mind, was not otherwise of a nature to produce any e£fect, 
so the pains of Geofiroy and Miiller were equally unproductiye. The 
antluHrity of Linnssus prevailed every where* The force of his genius 
haying swept away all preyious systems, there was no other safety for 
a naturalist, than to take refuge in the laniiiBan ark, which floated 
on the sur&ce proud amid the rttins,-^the systems of his contempo- 
rarieB also sinking one after another in the waters of forgetfulness. 
His disciples were distinguished by their enthusiasm in the pursuit 
of nature, and their loye oi their master ; and the fsusility with which 
they found their discoveries were registered, and the easy nature of 
the diacoveries which sufficed to give them a certain aeputation, re- 
quiring nought but zeal, opportunity, and a knowledge of the ' Sys* 
tenia' not difficult to be acquired, rivetted their attachments. In 
England nothing was tolerated that was not according to the letter 
of Linnaeus : his works were a code of laws which, like an act of 
Fariiament, was to be interpreted verbally, and the spirit of them 
was unseen or overiooked. Under his reforming hand, Conchology 
having passed ^ £rom confusion and incongruity to lucid order and sim* 
pUdty," the slightest attempt to alter this order was treated as an 
attempt to replunge us into the chaos, whence he had brought us, 
and further improvement or alteration was declared to be futile, since 
the ** beauties " of the Linnsean << must perpetuate its pre-eminence." 
Were it shewn that, firom the very subsidiary dtatipn the animal was 
made to occupy in this system, there was a fear attention should be 
drawn from tibe object most worthy of it, we were seriously told that 
the animal, even could it be procured, which was doubtfol, would 
never present those ** permanent and obvious points of distinction" 
indispensable in the application of a system meant to be practicaL 
Wherein does the animal differ, it was asked in a tone of triumph, 
signifying that reply was impossible, — ^* wherein does the animal 
differ from an unshapen mass of lifeless matter when coiled up with- 
in its shelly habitation ? And how are its natural shape and appen- 
dages to be examined, but by the knife of an anatomist 7"% Were 
it proved, what indeed was most palpable, that species of opposite 

* See the Pm&tio to hif Verm. Ter. et Fluv. Vol. i. 177& 
t MiM. Zool. p. 72, 78. Lug. Batav. 1778. 
I Lin. Trans, vii. p. 177. 



258 Huiory ofOmduiogy. 

haliitft and habitotions were huddled Jo^her under «k oommon heed, 
it w|tf answered that to derive characters from such particdam was 
oontrwy to axiom and nnphiloaophical ; and if it were demonstratiire 
that the class of Testacea, as a whole, was constituted of hetorogene- 
ons disparates, — ^as for ex^piple when PkUas indicated the diiferoncs 
hetween this qlass and the Serpnlse, — ^what then ? Nature gloried in 
variety and oppositions, and ms herself STStemless, * as if it were 
possible to beliere that He who made everj thing in wisdom and 
order had shook His creatures from His hand, with the same wanton 
unordered profusion that the poet has represented the jocund Maj, 
flinging the flowerets firom her teeming lap. Such were the futile 
reasons by which this System was upheld, and so firm was Its.des- 
potism that, until within these twenty years, there was little or no 
relaxation on its hold of public opinion ; and its eril effects are too 
evident in the superficialness of the productions which emanated fran 
this school. 

Ev^n in France the LinnsBan system soon became little less pre- 
dominant under the leading of Brugniere, but the regard the French 
paid to it was of a less slavish character than it had assumed in Britsin. 
Brnguiere, though a Linnsean in principle, carried forward in some de- 
gree the system of his master by intercalating several new and ob- 
viously necessary genera ; and he was otherwise aconchoiogiet of hi^« 
er attainments than any Engbmd could at that period boast of. He 
cannot be said to have promoted conchology in any very sensible de* 
gree, but he made no effort to arrest it, or detain the science at the 
stage where LinnaBus had left it. Nor indeed is it perhaps possible to 
stop the march of any, however trivial the branch of science, to perfec- 
tion. Like the operations of Nature in her liring productions ever tend- 
ing to maturity, thercr are periods of acceleration and delay, and causes 
may for a season induce a sickly weakness that waits long for a re- 
medy, but come at last this will. Conchology was now in her sickly 
time, — nevertheless in a state of constant advancement. Ellis, Easter, 
Bohadtch, Pallas, Muller, Forskal, Solander, and Otho Fabricins, sll 
of whom might have seen LinnsBUS in the flesh, and were his imme- 
diate successors, drew attention to the naked molluscans in particu- 

* " Nature does not seem to have observed any system, and an artificial one 
will ever be attended with anomalies. Whatever jmethod therefore most readtlj 
leads to the subject under investigation, is certainly the best, and in this case it 
is of small importance where that subject is placed, or how far it is removed 
from others to which it seems to bear a general resemblance. "^-Maton in PuU 
teney*s Life of Linneus, p. 238. — Sir J. E. Smith also allows himself to talk of 
the ** irregularities of Nature," as an apology for some inconsistencies in the 
loological works of Linncus. — TnetB, p. 186. 



History of Canckoloffy* i259 

ht wliofle carious variely was enticing and provocative to further 
quest ; Herissant, Scopoli, Bniguiere, and Olivi, described many spe-^ 
des with their animals, and entered too into physiological questions 
which it was worthy reasonable men to solve ; Knorr, Davila, Mar- 
tini and Chemnitz, Schroter, Bom, Pennant, Da Costa, and Martyn, 
set forth at intervals volumes of figures more numerous in species 
and more correct than had been hitherto attempted ; and the minute 
or microscopic species, which notwithstanding their littleness have 
played a most important part in the revolutions of our globe, were 
well illustrated in the works of Soldanl, Plancus, Boys and Walker, 
vnd of Fichtel and Moll. Yet this array of names only proves a 
wider spread of the study, — ^the students may have been, and we think 
were, mediocrists, — ^many of them were simply ichniographistsand col- 
lectors.* We can remember no discovery by which to distinguish 
the period, for the developement or improvement of an artificial sys- 
tem, the accumulation of species, and their more accurate discrimi- 
nation, though points of considerable importance, are not sufiicient- 
ly so to mark an era. Perhaps the most curious and interesting 
discovery that was made in it is that of the capability of the snail to 
reproduce its tentacula, eyes, and head, when these have been cut off, 
-—the phenomena of which singular reinteg^tion were amply eluci- 
dated by the experiments of Spallanasani, Bonnet, and others. 

The first to raise us from this enchained slumber was Cuvier. Be- 
fore this great naturalist entered the field, Poli, a Neapolitan physi- 
cian, had indeed anatomized with admirable skill the bivalved mollus- 
ca of his native shores, and had constructed a new arrangement of 
them firom the characters of the animal alone, but partly firom the 
political position of Europe, partly from the very expensive fashion 
in which Poli's work was published, and its consequent extremely 
limited circulation, and in part also firom the partial application of 
his system and its didactick character, the erroneousness of bis gene- 
ral views, and the novelty of his nomenclature, — we cannot trace its 
influence either as diffusive or propulsive of conchology. The result 

* It IB most especially necessary to except from this remark John Hmiter, 
but his labours and views were not published, and were not appreciated. ** John 
Hunter was a great discoverer in his own science ; but one who well knew him 
has told lis, that few of his contemporaries perceived the ultimate object of his 
pursuits ; and his strong and solitary genius laboured to perfect his designs 
without the solace of sjrmpathy, without one cheering approbation.'* — D* Israeli's 
Literary Character, Vol. i. p. 146. See Abernethy*8 Physiological Lectures, p. 
198, for a list of the Molluscs anatomized and exhibited in Hunter's Museum ; 
also p. 217, 263. 



260 HUtory ofConchdogy. 

of Cuvier's bboan wa8 bappilj very difforent. In 1788^ wbeu he w«b 
scaroely nineteen years of age» circvunstanceB fixed Curier for a time 
at Caen in Normandy, His sqjourn on the borders of the sea iadur 
oed him» already an enthusiaBt in natural history^ to study marine ani- 
maky more especially the moUusca* and the anatomies of them whidi 
he now made conducted him to the developement of his great views 
on the whole oi the animal kingdom. With unwearied 91^ he col- 
lected the materials which were at no distant date to become the 
basis of a classification which run through all its details in a barmo* 
nioos parallelism with the derelopement of organiaation» so that 
the student of it when in search of the name and place of the oljeot 
in his hand was necessitated simultaneously to acquire a knowledge 
of its principal structural peculiarities, on which, again, as Cuviv 
beautiAiUy explained, all its habits in relation to food, to habitation, 
and to locomoti<m were made dependant. The Liana»an system of 
avertebrated animals, even in its primary sections, rested on a single 
external character. The Insects were (mtmrnhUedt and the Vermes 
were teniaeukU0d avertebrates. Had the character been constant 
or even general, it might have had some daim for adoption, but to 
a want of constancy was added the fundamental defect of its inap* ~ 
predable influence over the organisms o£ the body. Cuvier's object 
being to give us not merely a key to the name, but to make that key 
open at the same time a knowledge of the structure and relations of 
the creature, such arbitrary assumption of a character was to him 
useless. After innumerable dissections had made him familiar with 
many structures, and after a careful consideration of the respective 
value of characters, as shown in their constancy and influence on the 
economy of the species, Cuvier resolved to divide the animal king- 
dc»n, not as hitherto into two, but into four principal sub-kingdoms, 
dra^ring their lines of separation from diflerences exhibited in the 
plan on which their muscular, their nervous, and their circulating 
systems were formed. << There exist in nature," he says, <'ybi«r prin- 
cipal forms, or general plans, according to which all animals seem 
to have been modelled, and the ulterior divisions of which, whatever 
name the naturalist may apply to them, are but conq>aratively slight 
modifications, founded on developement or addition of certain parts, 
which do not change the essence of the plan.** Of these forms the 
moUusca famish the second, of which the essential character is de- 
rived finom the peculiar arrangement of the nervous system, consist- 
ing of some ganglions scattered as it were irregularly through the 
body, and from each of which nerves radiate to its various origans. 
As there is no skeleton, so the muscles are attached to the skiD, 



History of Conchology. 26 1 

wliich forms a soft contractile envelope protected, in many species by 
a shelL The greater number possess the senses of taste and sight, 
but the last is often wanting. *' Only one family can boast of the 
oigan of hearing; they have always a complete system of circulation^ 
and organs peculiarly adapted to respiration ; those of digestion and 
secretion are nearly as complicated as the same organs in vertebrated 
animals."* The sub-kingdom, characterized and limited by those im- 
portant features, is next divided into six classes^ the characters of which 
are mostly derived from the organs of locomotion, or others not 
less influential. Thus the Cephalopodes bear their feet and arms like 
a coronet round the summit of the head ; the Pteropodes swim in 
their native seas by fin-like oars ; and the Gasteropodes crawl on the 
belly by means of a flat disk or sole. Reaching now tribes among 
whom the organs of motion are less developed, and accordingly less 
influential on their manners, Cuvier resorts to othav. Thus the 
fourth class is named Acephales, because it is strikingly distinguished 
by the want of head and amorphous form of its constituents ; the 
Brachiopodes are equally acephalous, but near the mouth they have 
two fringed fleshy organs which simulate feet ; and the Cirropodes 
have several pairs of subarticulated fringed feet, in addition to a multi- 
valved shell of a peculiar construction. The orders of these classes, 
when the class admits of farther subdivision, rest upon distinct dif- 
ferences in the structure and position of the branchiae or respiratory 
oi^^s ; and when we reflect a moment on the paramount necessity 
of these to the animal, and their necessary co-adaptation to its locali- 
ty and wants, it is scarcely possible to conceive that a happier choice 
could have been made. 

It were unsuitable to our purpose to explain at greater length the 
Cuvierian system. Enough has been said to show its vast superiori- 
ty to all that had preceded it ; and the solidity of its basis is proved 
by the fact that the numerous recent discoveries in this department 
have not shaken it, or altered its principles. The lower divisions and 
sections have been improved and increased, the definitions have been 
rendered more technical and precise, but every method which has fol- 
lowed, both in its outline and main features, are merely modifications, 
and very slight ones, of Cuvier s. He always regarded his labours in 
this field with peculiar satisfisu^tion, and watched their offspring with 
some degree of jealousy, unwilling that the parentage should be either 
doubtful or divided. *< It is well known," he says, " how much care 
and time I have devoted to the anatomy of the moUusca in general, 

* Memoirg of Cuvier by Mrs Lee, p. 107-9. 
VOL. II. NO. 9. 8 



f262 Hilary ofConcholoffy. 

and in particular to the knowledge of the naked raoUiuca. The de» 
termination of the dasSy its principal divisiona and rabdiTisiona, all re- 
pose upon my own obcerrations, for the magnificent work of M. Poll 
aided me no further than hj some descriptions, and some anatomies 
useful to my end, and these were confined to the multivalves and bi- 
valves. I have verified all the hc\A which that able anatomist has 
furnished me, and, as I think, have determined with more accuracy 
the functions of some organs. I have also sought to characterize the 
animals to which the principal forms of shells belong, and to classify 
these in accordance with the organization of their inhabitants, leaving 
the ulterior divisions of them into genera and subgenera, to those 
who devote themselves in particular to this kind of work." * 

Did not our pages, on which we have already too much transgressed 
with this subject, forbid the attempt, we would gladly go on to trace the 
effects of Cuvier's example and views. It must suffice to say, that they 
raised the character of the conchologist, and gave a more philosophical 
tone to his pursuit ; they originated a new school, with better directed 
zeal, and a higher aim, and numbers became disciples when they saw 
that here as much satisfaction and profit was to be reaped as in the study 
of almost any other class, for it may be laid down as an axiom that 
no branch of natural history, however apparently trifling, << but 
may be ennobled by the manner in which it is pursued ; and when the 
student carries all its wonders back to the one Great Source, the 
smallest worm and the most beautiful of his own species will afford 
him subjects for the deepest contemplation." For some years Cu- 
vier 8 system, even in France, divided the favour of naturalists with 
the more artfully constructed one of Lamarck, remarkable for the 
precision and neatness of all its details, and' its better adaptation to the 
purposes of the mere nomenclaturist ; and in Britain we knew little 
of Cuvier, until the peace of 1816 had restored a friendly corre« 
spondence between the men of science of Europe, and it was some 
years later still until his merits as a naturalist were appreciated, and 
his* system began to weaken and dissolve our Linneean prejudices. 
To indicate the modifications which this system has been made to 
undergo in the hands of Lamarck, Gray, BlainviUe, Oken, Latreille, 
&c. is here impossible ; — ^the same with the improvements proposed 
on the arrangement of the Cephalopodes and Brachiopodes by Owen, 
of the Pteropodes by Sander Rang, of the pulmoniferous Gasteropo- 
des by De Ferrusac, of the Bivalves by Deshayes, and of the shelless 
Acephales by Savigny. We must pass over in the same silence the 

* Regne Animal^ i. Pref. p. zxri. 



History of Omchohgy. 269 

anatomical and physiological discoveries which so remarkably distin- 
guish the few last years, and have given that fidness and perfection 
to the knowledge of moUuscans which Linnseans were never weary 
of telling us was unattainable. Berkeley, Blainville, Bojanus, Cams, 
Chamiseo, Deshayes, D*Orbigny, Dumas, Grant, Gray, Jacobson, 
Mihie-£d wards, Muller, Owen, X.und, Sander Rang, Roux, Savigny, 
Sfaaipey, Unger, Vanbeneden, Armand de Quatrefages, Prevost, — 
to these naturalists our homage is justly due for their labours in this 
field, which, however, we should remember, was comparatively ber- 
reuy until Cuvier made evident its natural productiveness, and taught 
us to plough deeper in the soiL 

Such is a very hurried sketch of the history of a department of 
the aninoAl kingdom, to which we confess our partiality, and to which 
the works placed at the head of this article are intended to introduce 
us. None of them come up to our ideas of what an < Introduction' 
ought to be, and in none of them will the student find a c6mpendious 
view of the actual state of conchology in reference to the anatomy, 
physiology, economy, and systematic classification of its members. 
Blainville's Manuel, indeed, is the only one which makes this pre- 
tence, and had it been complete (which it was not) at the date of its 
publication, subsequent discovery would now have rendered it defec- 
tive. It is, however, even in its plan and design discommendable as 
an introductory work. The division of it into two books, one appro- 
priated to the animals, and the other to the sheUs, seems to us un- 
fiwtunate, as tending to divide what ought ever to be studied in dose 
connection ; and his plan of describing the anatomy of the organs 
in distinct and widely apart chapters, from the functions of them, is 
liable to the same objection. His chapters considered separately are 
dry and sketchy, — ^no spirit in his style, nor vigour in his delinea- 
ticms, no wandering into pleasant digressions, no indulgence in higher 
and aberrant contemplations, when the wonders of structure — its 
beauties and singularities open upon him in such a manner as might 
seem enough << to excitate the earthiest soul." Indeed Blainville has 
made his book rather an exposition of his own views, and of his own 
system, than an introduction to what was known and done by others ; 
and as his system has not been adopted, nor his nomenclature ap- 
proved, the value of the work* is thus much lowered to a student. 
With these deductions, however, he will find in it much information 
not accessible otherwise in so compendious a form, — a manual he will 
not often read, but which he must frequentiy consult. 

Sander Rang might, without a charge of immodesty, hare inscrib- 
ed on his title-page, the '< parva sed apta" which Mr Swainson has, 



264 Hutory of Onu^logy. 

with 8o little propriety and a good deal of yanity, adopted. This 
excellent volume is an exposition of Cuvier s system of moUuscans* 
with such alterations and additions as recent discoveries seem to have 
rendered advisable and necessary. It contains a very ample charac- 
ter of the classes, orders, families, and genera, in which, as is becom- 
ing, the attention is principally directed to those exhibited by the 
living animal. He informs us that his materials were chiefly taken 
from the works of Adanson, Poli, Cuvier, and Blainville ; but from his 
proper study, and during his travels as an officer of marines, he had 
been able to compare their descriptions, made in general on dead spe- 
cimens, with the animal in life, and had hence been able to rectify 
some errors and add new characters. The *' discours sommaire" con- 
tains a rapid but spirited and correct review of the exterior anatomy 
and principal internal viscera ; and throughout we have scattered no- 
tices on the habits of numerous species of great interest. Some of 
these we would have willingly transferred to our review, had our 
space allowed ; and this is the less necessary as the volume ought to 
be in the hands of every conchologist. It is, however, too systema- 
tic in its plan to be considered elementary, for those details of struc- 
ture, function, and habits, which are not subservient to system, have 
been purposely excluded, while they must constitute the base of every 
introduction worthy of attention. 

The '' Genera" of Sowerby is just the opposite of Rang*s. The 
latter is a very small and a very cheap volume, the former is a work 
of large extent and great ex pence ; the one treats of living creatures, 
and in every page there is evidence of a warm enthusiasm in their 
study, the other concerns itself with the shell only, and the letter- 
press is sobered down to suit the gravity of science. Sowerby's book 
is in fact intended rather for the collector of a cabinet of shells, than 
for the student of living mollusca, and to the geologist it is perhaps 
indispensable. The genera are carefully defined, and the limits of 
each exactly pointed out, and illustrated by a series of admirable fi- 
gures drawn from characteristic specimens. It is to be r^^retted that 
this work has been so long in course of publication, now we imagine 
some twelve or fourteen years, — ^for the incompleted state in which it 
is left detracts from its usefulness, and renders its consultation veiy 
irksome and inconvenient. 

We refrain from giving an opinion of Mr Swainson's Elements, 
for humble critics are incompetent to estimate the worth of a pam- 
phlet which the author avows was written because he excells in the 
knowledge of the subject, and because he had not met with any in- 
troduction which his children would not hereafter have to unkaim / 



History of Conchology. 265 

To this severity of censure his predecessors may naturally demur, and^ 
periiaps, there is some ground for retaliation, but that is an afbir be- 
tween themselres with which we need not meddle. To our children, or 
readers, we cannot for our part recommend the boastful << Elements," 
because we would wish them to be something better than amateurs, 
and to know something more of conchology than the names of the 
things they collect. The work is written in evident obedience to 
the adage — " a great book is a great evil ;" — and in 62 duodecimo 
pages we find an explanation of the few terms used in describing 
shells, a distribution of these after the quinary plan, not more success- 
ful than Oken's was when he arranged them diter the sacred number 
of four, with definitions of all the genera simply and neatly done, but 
the characters derived exclusively from the shells ; and lastly a chap- 
ter on coUecting, preserving, and arranging these bodies, and a pkm 
of study. We shall defer our exposition of Mr Swainson's system 
until the publication of << the Conchological volume of Dr Lardner's 
Cabinet ofNaiural History shortly to be published.*' 

'^ It is easier to refute error than to establish truth :" quoth the 
ReY. Mr Burrow with sententious profoundness, " thus, the several 
writers who have dissented from the Linnaean school have, indeed, 
satisfactorily pointed out some flaws in the great fabric of the * Sys- 
tema Naturae ;' but in attempting to eradicate the faulty parts, and to 
supply their place more fitly, they have injured some of the main sup- 
ports, and have nearly involved the whole edifice in ruin. (Very 
pretty I) — The following pages are devoted to the task of facilitating 
the study of conchology, on the method of the Swedish naturalist ; 
and they are written under the firm persuasion, that a material change 
is dangerous even, in speculative matters, when the principle has 
stood the test of genend consent, and when the means of reaching 
perfection are not yet, or, perhaps, may never be, attainable." — Such 
is the twaddle — and there is much more of the same sort of stufif — 
with which Mr B. recommends his ' Elements,' containing, in this 
year A. D. 1836, nothing more than a dry unprofitable exposition of 
the LinnsBan system, the spirit of which the author does not compre- 
hend. Living remote from '< public haunt," and consequently in igno- 
rance of the progress of conchology among the metropolitan connois- 
searp, we had concluded that the race of Linnseans had become ex- 
tinct, but it seems we have erred in our haste, and that some of them 
are still in a living active state, for it were otherwise a sad prospect 
to his publisher were this reverend gentleman to be alone left like 

" The late-blown rose 
« Lingering after all the rest" 



266 Fauna Japoniea^ Sfc. 

It ifl from a fiiU conviction that such productions as the one before 
118 lessen and degrade a favourite pursuit in the eyes of all rational 
men, and make it a laughing-stock to the satirical, that we feel cal- 
led upon to protest upon their being received as evidence touching the 
nature of our studies. So we willingly consign this one to our high- 
est shelf, where it shall remain to gather the dust that already co- 
vers, with a thick and undisturbed repose, the very similar volumes of 
Mr Brookes and Captain Brown, and the " exquisite Concholog^*s 
Companion" of Miss Mary Roberts, who, however, sometimes enlivens 
her pages with a sort of quixotical sentimentalism and a blundering 
absurdity that provokes a smile ; — and thus only doth she surpass her 
competitors. 



Bibliographical Notices. 
Fauna Japonica. Auctore Ph. Fr. De Siebold. — Ophidii ela- 

borantibus C. J. Temminck et H. Schlegbl. FoL Lugduui 

Batav. 

The Erpetologie of Japan has hitherto been sparingly illustrated. 
The present number of this interesting work, commencing the Ophi- 
dii, is therefore an important addition to our knowledge of the natu- 
ral history of the Japanese empire. Former naturalists have borne 
testimony that that department of the Fauna was very circumscribed, 
and the present researches, in the words of Temminck and Schlegel, 
have produced <* collections a la verit6 riches en individus, mais ou 
les especes sont toujours bom^es a un nombre tres-limite." The spe- 
cies here described are only ten in number : 3 species of Coluber, 2 
of Tropidonatus, 1 Trigonocephalus, and 4Hydrophis. The plates are 
lithographic and nicely executed, but uncoloured; hence all the ge- 
neric characters, and the expression of the scaling are distinctly seen, 
while we have to regret the want of those vivid tints which gene- 
rally adorn the exterior of these creatures. 

A part of the introductory portion of the wh<^e work is also given, 
which we shall notice more in detail at an early period. 

A Synopsis of the Birds of Australia emd the adjacent Islands. By 
John Gould, F. L. S. Part II. Royal 8vo. 1837. 
The second number of this peculiarly managed work has just been 
forwarded to us. It equals its predecessor in the beauty of its finish- 
ing, and we have illustrations of the characters of forty species, com- 
prised in the genera Monarchoy Amadina, Pardalotus, Pla^cercus, 
Nanodes, Meliphaga, Acanthorhynchusy (a genus formed from the 



Catalogue of Flowerleu Plants of Great Britain. 267 

MeliphagB tennriostris of Vig. and Horsf. ;) Cotwmix^ Hemipodiw, 
JBgialitiey (a name proposed by Vieillot for a family among the Gral- 
latores, here nsed as a generic title for the form of Charadrius re^ 
presented by the little ring-dotterel Ch. hiattada ;) Himantopus^ of 
which the species described, H.paJmatut, Gould, is extremely interest- 
ing, as exhibiting a complete palmation or web between the toes, and 
thns ronning into the ayosets, Rscurvtroetroy Oxyurc^ and Sterna, 

Catalogueofthe CeUidovres or Flowerless Plants of Great Britain^ nr 
those included in the Lintuean class Crtfptogamia ; compiled from 
Sir W.J.Hooker's English Flora, Vol. V.; Sir J. E. Smith's 
Ei^lish Flora, Vol. IV. ; Mackay's Flora Hibemica ; Henslow's 
Catalogue of British Plants, and other sources. By W. A. Lbioh- 
TON, B. A., F. B. S. Ed. Svo. London, Longman, 1837. 
This sheets as indicated by the title, is a mere catalogue, which has 
been deemed necessary on account of " the increased and increasing 
study of the Cryptogamic tribes." It is intended to fieunlitate the in- 
terchange of species, to afford a conyenient index for the herbarium, 
and, if interleaved, to serve as a book for memoranda, regarding some 
of the rarer species. For the above purposes this catalogue cannot 
£ul to be useful, and, being printed on a single large sheet, it can be 
transmitted by mail at the charge of a single postage, and afterwards 
cut and folded, as its possessor may find most convenient. The price 
of the sheet is sixpence. 

A History of British Birds, Indigenous and Migratory , including 
their organizationy habitSy and relations j remoflrks on Classification 
and Nomenclature; an account of the prindpai organs of birds y 
and observations relative to practical Ornithology. Illustrated 
by numerous engravings. By William Macgillivray. Vol. I. 
8vo. London, 1837. 

The work bearing the above title is a thick octavo volume of 631 
pages, having for its object << to lay before the public, descriptions of 
' the birds of Great Britain, more extended and, if possible, more cor- 
rect than any previously offered."* We do not wish to appear unne- 
cessarily critical r^irding the manner in which Mr Macgillivray has 
accomplished this object, but we should not act fairly to our subscri- 
bers were we to say that it is done successfully. The writing ap- 
pears to us an affected attempt to imitate the styles of Isaac Walton 
and of Audubon, which, being extremely peculiar, can only be relished 

■ Preface. 



268 Hiitarjf of British Birdi. 

in the originals, — and here, as in the case of similar imitations, w 
desiderate their freshness, and dislike the misplaced qnaintuess of ex- 
pression. It appears trifling, while the meaning is hj no means dis- 
tinctly conveyed. The incidental remarks and digressions liberally 
dispersed through the volume, (often totally irrelevant to the sub- 
ject, see p. 125,) are sometimes expressed scarcely with a kindlj 
feeling, and seem to show an inclination to undervalue the opinions of 
others when a unison of ideas cannot be found. 

This book is composed of two parts : The first, introductory ; the 
second commences the history of the birds themselves belonging to 
four of the orders, which our author has thought necessary to form 
on principles of his own, and which are '^ doubtless excellent and ad- 
mirable in the eyes of their inventor." 

The introductory portion * contains, first, << remarks on classifica- 
tion and nomenclature," and ^< samples" of systems are given in out* 
lines of those of Linnaeus and VieUlot. Next follows an exposition 
of our author s own system. This is <' primarily divided into foxir 
groups, sections, or sub-classes, determined by their mode of life," and 
they come in the place of the familiar divisions of '< land and water 
birds."t They are, I. Aerial birds, Aves Aerise or Volitorise ; IL Ter- 
restrial, Aves Terrestres or Ambulatorise ; III. Amphibious or wading^, 
Aves Littondes or Grallatoriee ; IV. Aquatic birds, or Natatoriaa. 
These again are separated into no fewer than Nineteen Orders, each 
section containing four, except the second, in which seven have been 
placed. We cannot consider this system more simple or comprehen- 
sive than many of its predecessors, and we do not think the nomen-. 
clature improved by the introduction of sectional or generic titles, 
such as, VolitatoreSf Deglubitores, JRaptatores, Palpatoresy &C. or 
in another language, of Plunderers, Cooersy Buskers, Gropers^ 
Probers, &c. &c. ; but " methods spring up and die like mushrooms, 
and for the same reason ; they are composed of flimsy and unsub- 
stantial materials easily elaborated." j: 

Of the concluding part of the introduction, '< Remarks on the 
structure of birds," we have a higher opinion. It is a subject interest- 
ing from the little attention which has hitherto been given to it, par- 
ticularly in this country, and from the great importance which the 
knowledge of structure is in our generalizations upon the innc- 
tions of the different parts, and the economy and habits of the indivi- 
duals. This part, though short, is well done. The anatomy is con- 

* Introduction, p. 15. f Ibid, p. 16. \ Ibid, p. 19. 



Beport on Percheron^s Bibliographie EnUmwlogique, 269 

cisely detailed, without any of the aiFectedness of style which we dis* 
like so much elsewhere, and it is illustrated by nine engravings well 
wrought from the pencil of the author, exhibiting views of the oste- 
ology, the muscular arrangement, and the digestive organs in the 
principal divisions. 

The second part of the book, occupying 500 pages, is devoted to 
the history of four of the orders << Rasores, Scrapers. Gemitores, 
Cooers. Deglubibitores, Huskers. Vagatores, Wanderers." This de- 
scription or historical part wants condensation ; it is much too length- 
ened, without bringing together the information which is really of 
use to the student of British ornithology. It is illustrated by wood- 
cuts of most of the parts which are essential in the system, as generic, 
many of which are well drawn and executed. We are treated also 
with <' Practical Ornithology," in chapters 1, 2, 3 and 4, but these 
lessons we dislike in totoy both in substance and in spirit. 

Report hy MM. De JBlainviUey Isidore Geoffroy^ and Dumerily on 
M, Perckerons work entitled Bibliographie Bntomologique. 

Those who particularly devote themselves to the study of one 
branch of natural history, have a great interest in becoming acquaint- 
ed with the works already published on the special object of research 
or observation with which they are occupied. Accordingly the great- 
er part of authors make it a rule to indicate in general works the 
Bovirces whence they have derived their information, and are careful 
at the same time to arrange their citations in chronological order. 

M. Percheron, who has long been assiduously engaged in the study 
of insects, on some genera of which he has already published some 
very good monographs, such as those on Cetonia and Paesalus, has 
strongly felt the necessity of arranging the works from which he ob- 
tained useful intelligence, in a series according to their dates. He 
had accordingly drawn up at first for his own use, a catalogue of all 
the entomological books whose titles he had become acquainted with, 
and undertook laborious researches to ascertain as many as possible : 
this he conceived it would be of advantage to the science, and to 
those who cultivate it, to publish for general use. He has made 
it his object to inscribe all the writings relating to insects, considered 
under the different relations of form, structure, classification, manner, 
habits, utility, injuries, &c. in a word, all the works on entomology. 

Such is the work which M. Percheron is about to publish, and of 
which all the sheets hitherto printed have been examined by the 
above-named commissioners. It is a simple catalogue, in alphabetical 
order, of the names of authors, with the indication of the complete 



270 Beport en M. Percheron's Bibliographie Entamoiogiqu/B. 

title of their works, the date of their pablication, and^ where that was 
practicable, a notice of the period and the place of the birth and death 
of these naturalists. Unfortunately these simple indications contain no 
abridged notice of the contents of these works, and are unaccompani- 
ed with critical observations, yet such additions are of great interest 
on account of the judgments which they embrace. 

After this first part of the work, which forms nearly three-fourths 
or a volume and a half, the author has drawn up a table of Uie ar- 
ticles in the order of the subjects and chronology ; this is divided 
into chapters. The first comprehends the names of the authors who 
have written on insects, but under certain points of view only, such 
as the damages they may occasion, which our author names their 
nocihility ; then in relation to their utility in agriculture, in the aits, 
in medicine, or in the general economy of nature, regarded in a philo- 
sophical manner. The second chapter indicates the books which 
treat of insects in regard to their general natural history, zoological 
or entomological. It is here that we find inserted travellers, moaeo- 
graphers, micrographers. The third and last chapter makes us ac- 
quainted with the works which have treated of insects exclusively, 
such as memoirs rekting to the formation and preservation of ento- 
mological museums ; the generalities of their modes of life and meta- 
morphoses ; special works on the anatomy, physiology, and dassifica- 
tion of insects ; such as contain only observations on their dififereDt 
countries ; and finally, all the works which have treated of the orden 
in particular, whether relating to all the genera, or those of some par- 
ticular country, or such productions as have appeared under the 
title of monographs. Such is the order in which the name of every 
author is here inserted and repeated according to the date of pubU- 
cation. 

We cannot disguise the &ct, that the execution of this Btbliographii 
still leaves something to be desired, for we have remarked in it seve- 
ral important omissions, and we find books and memoirs inserted 
which have no relation to insects. However, the work may be of great 
benefit to entomologists : it will no doubt greatly &cilitate their re- 
searches, and really promote the ulterior progress of the study of 
that branch of natural history.* 

* Omptea rendug Hebdomadaire$ da Sdances de tAeademie det ScteneOf^ 
Februar)' 1837. 



Transacticm of the Leeds Philosophical Society. 271 

Transactions and Periodicals — British, 

Transactions of the Philosophical and Literary Society ofLeedsy 
consisting of papers read before the Society, Vol. I. Part I. 8vo. 
Longman & Co. London. 1837. 

Before noticing' this volnme, it may be satis&ctory to our readers 
to be informed of the progress of the Society whose Transactions it 
proposes to detail. The following sketch was forwarded to ns for in- 
sertion in our last Number, but circumstances prevented us then 
availing ourselves of the kindness of its author. 

'^'In Leeds, above forty years ago, m Philosophical Society was 
establbhed, which consisted of only a small number of members, and of 
whose proceedings no records remain. Amongst the number, two names 
have come down to us, Dr Priestley and William Hey, Esq. F. R. S. 
The society, however, did not meet with that support which its found- 
ers had expected, and, like many similar ones, gradually fell off, and 
became extinct. It is peihaps not too much to conjecture, that, al- 
though we have no certain or regular minutes of their meetings, yet 
at some of these, the splendid discoveries of Dr Priestley might have 
bad their origin, and that, in consequence of some discussion, he might 
bave been stimulated to make experiments, which, but for such dis- 
cnssion, would ueyer have been made. When the Doctor left Leeds, 
he was succeeded at the Mill Hill Chapel by the Rev. William Wood, 
F. L. S., &&, whose name as a botanist and general naturalist is well 
koowii. He was author of Zoographia, and for some time con- 
ducted the natural history department in the Annual Review, as 
well as many of the articles on botany in Rees's Cydopsddia. Mr 
Wood died in 1809, from which period, for many years, there does 
not appear to have been any attempt, either individually or jointly, 
to promote scientific pursuits,— at least, if such were the case, it is 
■ow forgotten. In the autumn of 1818, however, a reaction began 
to be manifest, and a letter appeared in the Leeds Mercury, signed 
LsodiensiSf suggesting the formation of a Philosophical Society. The 
proposal was received with approbation by a number of intelligent 
and public-spirited individuals, and a meeting was held at the Court- 
Honse, December 11, 1818, to concert measures, with a view to the 
•ocomplishment of so desirable an object. The venerable William 
Hey, Esq., whose memory will ever be associated with the histoiy of 
the intellectual, religious, and local interests of Leeds, presided on the 
occasion, when, after a protracted discussion in reference to the ob- 
ject and scope of the projected institution, it was resolved that a so- 



272 Trantaetions of the Leedt Phihtophieal Sodefy^ 

detj should be founded on the most comprehensire principles, snd 
should include all branches of science and literature, excluding all 
topics connected with politics, religion, and ethics. For a short time 
the meetings were held in the Court-House, after which a subscription 
was opened for the erection of a suitable building, which, in a few 
months, amounted to a sum so considerable as to justify the purchase 
of land, and the commencement of other active operations. The first 
stone was laid by Benjamin Gott, Esq. the 9th of July 1819, at the 
south-east comer of the present handsome edifice, and underneath it 
were deposited several coins of the reign of George III. The pro- 
gress of the building was slower than had been anticipated, in conse- 
quence of unavoidable circumstances. It was soon discovered that 
the sum originally specified as adequate to its completion was insuffi- 
cient for that purpose, and the work was consequently at a stand. The 
munificent spirit of Benjamin Gott and John Marshall, Esqs., which 
reflects equal honour upon those respected individuals and the town to 
which they belong, interposed with a noble alacrity to extricate the ris- 
ing institution from the alarming dilemma in which it appeared to be 
placed. These gentlemen generously took each five additional L. 100 
shares, and by that seasonable effort of liberality, relieved the society 
from the difficulties which threatened it. The first meeting of the first 
session was held on April 6, 1821, on which occasion the late C T. 
Thackrah delivered an introductory essay. This has since been printed 
for the society. The building is of stone, with two fronts, and sur* 
rounded with pallisadoes, and consists of a lecture-room, laboratory, li- 
brary-room, waiting-room, entrance hall, and resident curator's apart- 
ments on the first floor, above which are three apartments, one devoted 
to geology and mineralogy, in which are arranged about 4000 specimens 
of minerals and fossils, — the former arranged according to their chemi- 
cal affinities after Phillips^ — the latter according to the stratification 
after Smith. The nucleus of these collections were principally thegifts 
of one of its late curators, £. S. Geoige, F. L. S. — The minerals were 
a few years since considerably augmented by an extensive piuchase 
of the sale of Sir Alexander Crichton's minerabt, by which very fine 
specimens were added of malachite, chromate of lead, Vauquetinite, 
Lapis lazuli, emerald, tourmaline, garnets, &c. One of the gems of 
the collection is an aerolite or meteoric stone weighing 1 lb. 7oz. which 
fell at Aigle, in the department of Orne, France. The geological de* 
partment, although containing some very fine and unique specimens, is 
very far from what it should be, considering the vast facilities offered 
by the coal-pits and stone quarries so numerous in the immediate vi- 
cinity, abounding as they do with organic remains. With such advan- 

3 



Transactions of the Leeds Philosophical Society. 273 

tag€8 at its disposal, the Leeds collection onght to possess one of the 
finest series of carboniferous remains in the kingdom. Such a series 
could only be formed by the united labour of several individuals inte- 
rested in the science, who would visit the localities, of which, however, 
in most provincial institutions, there are unfortunately but few, — ^the 
majority contributing to the funds, but prevented by mercantile affairs 
or other pursuits from giving their time to the flagging department. 
Amongst the specimens are two unique heads of MegalicthysHibberti, 
anda portion of its body ; many fine Calamites, Asterophyllites, Lepido- 
dendra, Sigillarie^ Lepidostrobi, Pecopteri and Equiseti, from the coal 
measures ; a Sigilaria nine feet in height, from the sandstone near 
Wakefield ; remains of Ichthysosauri from Whitby ; fine mass of 
Ophiura Milleri from Scarbro* ; bones of the Mammoth of the banks 
of the Ohio ; splendid lily encrinite from the Dutchy of Brunswick ; a 
tolerably good series of shells from the calcaire grossiere of the 
Paris basin, besides illustrations of the organic remains of the moun- 
tain limestone, Kelloway rock, coralline oolite, chalk crag, &c. 
The second room 43 feet by , and 20 in height, surrounded by 
a gallery, is devoted to zoology, the first nucleus for which was 
a collection of 135 species of British birds, by the liberality of its first 
and lamented curator, John Atkinson, F. L. S. Surgeon. To the orni- 
thological department, considerable accessions have since been made» 
both foreign and British. Amongst the most attractive are, per^- 
haps»acase of South American birds from Charles Waterton, Esq. the 
well known author of the Wanderings, a specimen of the rare Trogon 
Pavoninusy Trinidad goatsucker, king of the vultures, ostrich, 
Argus pheasant, and several of the Rhamphastidse. The collection of 
Mammalia^ like that in most provincial museums, is but small. It 
contuus, however, a very fine skull of the Asiatic elephant, a wild 
boar, lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, Polar and brown bear, wolf, kan- 
garoo, seals, head of the walrus, porcupine, several simise, examples 
of the genera Galeopithecus, Dasypus, Omithorynchus, Nasuta, Di- 
delphis, Procyon, Bradypus, &c. The fish are nearly all in spirits, 
and principally from the Mediterranean. The greatest rarity is a 
specimen of the spiny shark, in a bad state of preservation, caught 
near Scarbro', and which is, I believe, the only British example in the 
kingdom. There is also a fine sturgeon, 9 feet in length, caught 
near Selby, and a specimen of Malthe vespertilio. The department 
of comparative anatomy is very limited, consisting of about thirty 
skeletons of animals, birds, and fishes, and a highly interesting series of 
forty-two wet and dry preparations, exhibiting the anatomy and phy- 
nology of the genus Limax. Among the invertebrate tribes, the 



^74 Transactions of the Leeds Philosopkical Society. 

museam possesses some interesting examples of the different cbsses 
of the Zoophytes. The most prominent is a specimen ci Meandritia 
labyrinthica, weighing 16 stone : of the Pteropodsy there is Cymbu' 
lia Peronii : of Geuteropodsy Glaucus Scyllaea, Doris, Aplysia : of 
Eckinodermatay there are Sipunculus, ffoiothurioy several genera ai 
the Echinides, ^torta, Ophiura^ Euryale verrucosa and Comabda: 
oi Acalephoy Actinea and Phjsalia, &c. The insects, which occopj 
nearly two glass-covered tables, indnde some rare and beautiful ex- 
amples of the orders, and are arranged according to the system ofDr 
Leach, which was the most popular at the time, uniting the ezocics 
and natives in the same case, the better to keep up the chain of afii- 
nity, and exhibit the g^radual approximation of one form to another. 
The Crustacea are arranged also according to the views of that lameat- 
ed naturalist. The shells according to Lamarck, which three depsit- 
ments, although not numerous, are highly respectable ones. The 
third room contains antiquities, works of art, and the dresses, && of 
uncivilized nations. The object of principal interest in this room is 
a very fine mummy of a priest, who lived during the reign of Rs- 
messes Y. upwards of 3000 years since, in a remarkably high state 
of preservation, enclosed in a coffin of elaborate workmanship. The 
head is bare, probably in conformity with the rites of priesthood. The 
pupils are distinctly visible in the orbits, and during an examination 
of the skull a few years since, the dura mater with its falx, was foond 
to be quite perfect, the brain having been extracted through the nos- 
trils, by breaking down the ethmoid bone. The muscles are by no 
means dry, but, on the contrary, allowed of being dissected, and the 
sciatic nerve traced. An account of this mummy was published by 
the Society five or six years since. There are also some curious re- 
mains of Terra cotta, from Cuzco, the ancient capital of Peru, toge- 
ther with some human skulls from the same spot. These have a sifi- 
gular appearance, from being artificially flattened on the right side and 
top towards the back part. The library has never created that in- 
terest which such a feature of the institution must have been expect- 
ed to do, and, consequently, is not extensive, containing only about 
600 volumes on the various branches of science, with the transactions 
of public bodies and journals of the day. Here is also deposited die 
chemical, electrical, and galvanic apparatus. The Society consists <^ 
about 67 proprietors, 125 ordinary members, and 100 subscribers ; the 
first, having paid L. 100 towards the erection of the building, are 
shareholders, with the power of transferring or bequeathing the shaie, 
and exempt from all annual subscriptions and fines; the ordinarj 
members, those who hold a three guinea share, with an annqal snb- 



Traaaauikm rfike Leeds PhUoeophieal Society. 275 

scnption of two g:uinea8 ; and the last, subscribers annually of one 
guinea* having no interest in the property of the Society, or yoice in 
its deliberations. Meetings are held the first and third Fridays in 
every month, from November to May, inclusive, for the reading of 
papers and essays by the members, to which each has the power of 
admitting a stranger. In addition there are annually two or three courses 
of lectures, by some public lecturer of eminence, amongst whom there 
have been Dr Dalton, Professor Grant, Professor Phillips, James 
Montgomery, Esq. Edward Taylor, Esq. &c. From the commence- 
ment of the Society 240 papers have been read on various branches 
of literature and science. 

The private collections in Leeds are, first, a valuable museum of 
Natural History, &c in Commercial Street, the property of Mr John 
Calvert, admission Is. ; — very extensive collections of shells, corals, 
and minerals, belonging to Miss Banks and Miss Rhodes ; — the col- 
lection of comparative and human anatomy, belonging to the Leeds 
School of Medicine, and a collection of comparative anatomy and 
Natural History, especially of the Invertebrata, belonging to Mr 
Teale." H. D. 

The well '* got-up" volume before us is the first part of a proposed se- 
ries of Transactions, and it gives us pleasure to know that the circum- 
stances of the Society are now so prosperous as to enable it to publish a 
portion of the valuable papers which haveand may hereafter come before 
it. From the abstract of the papers read since 1819, given in a short 
introduction to the volume, we perceive that the leaning of the great 
proportion of its members is more towards literary pursuits than the 
study of zoology and botany. Nevertheless, there is a fisdr propor- 
tion of papers devoted to interesting subjects in both these branches. 
We have now printed <' on the Bed of the Mississippi, by the late John 
Li/ccocK, Esq., read in November 1824, prepared from a personal 
knowledge of the course of the river obtained in a lengthened journey 
made in the previous year." An interesting paper in favour of the 
theory of the gradual corrosion or wearing of the barriers which stem 
the great common lakes, with the author's opinion of the former pro- 
bable extent of water on the surfieu^e of the now existing North Ame- 
rican continent.^— —On the varieties of water, by William West, 

read November 1829. A description of the internal structure of 

various Limaces, found in the neighbourhood of Leeds, by Thomas 
NuNNELBT, read November 1834 : illustrated by seven plates lightly 

but distinctly executed. Abstract of a notice of certain Roman 

Coin Moulds, by John Hby. On the Anatomy oiActinea oori- 



276 Magazine of Natural HiHory^ Sfc. 

acea, by Thomas Pridgin Tbale. On AlctfoneUa stagnorum 

hj the same author — ^both good papers. Of the latter we have alrea- 
dy had occasion to speak in a former Number of this Journal. Four 

plates are devoted to the illustrations of these papers. On the 

Yorkshire Coal-field, by Mr Edward S. George, F. L. S., read No- 
yember 1836. 

LoudmkS Magazine of Natural History, New ^Series. May and 

June 1837. 

I. Zoology, 

Shuckard on Generic Nomenclature, p. 248. ^Westwood's 

Observations in Reply to Mr Shuckard, p. 316. Blyth on the 

Reconciliation of certain apparent Discrepancies observable in the 
Mode in which the seasonable and progressive Changes of Colour are 
e£Fected in the Fur of Mammalians and Feathers of Birds ; with va- 
rious Observations on Moulting, p. 259 and 300. Dr Moore on 

the Climbing and Gallinaceous Birds of Devonshire, p. 227. 

Moore on the Wading Birds of Devonshire, p. 319. Charles- 
worth's Notice of the Teeth of Carcharias megalodon in the Red 

Crag of SuiFolk, p. 225. On the Structure of the Fossil Saurians, 

p. 284. Westwood's Description of a new Genus of British pa- 
rasitic Hymenopterous Insect, p. 257. J. E. Gray on the en- 
largement of the Eggs of some marine MoUuscans during the period 
. of their hatching, p. 247. 

II. Botany, 

Bird on the Existence of electric Currents in Vegetable Stnic- 
tures, p. 240, and p. 293. Brown on the Preservation of Bota- 
nical Specimens from the attacks of Insects, p. 311. 

Companion to Botanical Magazine, By Sir W. J. Hooker, Pro- 
fessor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. 
The continuation of this work from our last notice, p. 87, contains, 
first, A sequel to the illustrations of Indian Botany by Wright and 

Arnot, with a i^\BXQoi Acalypha Alnifolia, New Ceylonese Me- 

Listomaceae, by G. A. W. Arnot. The species described were collect- 
ed by Colonel Walker, and transmitted to Drs Hooker and Graham. 
Seven species ofSonerila, and the same number of the Genus Osbeckia, 

Characters of new species of Indian Acanthacese, by Professor Ch. 

GoTTFR. Nees Von Esenbeck Synopsis of the East Indian 

species of Drosera and Pama88ia,by G. A. Walker Arnot Notes 

on a collection of plants made in the Province of Asturias, in the year 



Companion to Botanical Magazine. 277 

18d5 by M. Durien, by N. I. Winch, Esq. &c. This is continued 
into the foUowing number, with remarks on the distribution of each 
species to Britain and Ireland. 412 species are noticed in whole, of 

which 162 belong to the Cryptogamia. FlorsB insularum novae 

Zelandise precursor; or a specimen of the Botany of the Islands 
of New Zealand, by Allan Cunningham, Esq., continued from 
a former number, contains the Fucoidese, Lichenes, and Musci Calyp- 

tnti. Remarks on M. Spach's memoir on the Cistacese, a letter 

from Dr Lindley in defence of some allegations made upon that 
gentleman's accuracy in a former paper. Botanical informa- 
tion : — 1. A favourable notice of the Musci Angusiani, or a col- 
lection of the dried mosses of Angus and Forfarshire, preparing by 
Mf W. Gabdiner Jun. Dundee, a work to be comprised in 7 or 8 

12mo &sciculi, at the price of Ss. 6d. each. 2. Dr J. F. Lippold. 

We formerly mentioned the intention of this gentleman to proceed to 
Madeira with the view chiefly of collecting plants, but also to prepare 
other objects of natural history. A letter has been received from the 
Doctor intimating his safe arrival at the island, his friendly reception 
by Mr Lowe, and his delight in witnessing the luxuriance of vegeta- 
tion. Collections of plants are expected during June. It is not propos- 
ed that Dr Lippold should remain longer than the present summer at 
his present station, and his new expedition has not yet been fixed on ; 
but we shall doubtless have due intimation of the time and the 
terms of subscription, through the worthy periodical we are now re- 
viewing. 3. Notice, of the ^^ Herbarium of the late John D. Pres- 

cott, Esq. of St Petersburgh, an eminent merchant of that place, and 
who has lately died suddenly. His leisure hours were devoted to 
the study of plants and enriching his harbarium, which latter is perhaps 
exceeded by few in Europe, especiaUy that portion of it relating to 
the Russian Empire." It is warranted to contain 25,000 species, 
and 15 now o£Fered for sale at the price of L. 1000. 4. The an- 
nouncement of the first' arrival of dried Brazilian plants from Dr 
Gardner, who visited South America to collect species for subscribe 
ersy accompanied by a long letter, which cannot fail to be most in- 
teresting to them, and to botanists in general. He was about to start 
for the Organ Mountains at the date of his dispatches, and an ac- 
count of the expedition and his degree of success may be shortly 
expected. 



VOL. II. MO. 9. 



378 Annales de* Sdaweg Naiurelks. 

Transactions and Pbriodicals. — Foreign. 

Annales det Sciences Naturelles. Zoologies MM. Audouin et Milni- 
Edwards. Botanique^ MM. Ad. BRONONiARTetGuiLLBMiH. 
Crochard & Co. Paris, Octobre, Noyembrey et Deoembre 1896. 

I. — Zoology. 

The October Number begins with a continaation of Duobs' in- 
teresting and elaborate Observations sur Us Aran^ides^ which are tm 
apparently brought to a close. The other papers are, — Nats p» 
des animaux qui colorant en rouge hs marais salans, par M. Pativ. 
-— ^flvofiitfn des Crustaces rapportis de la saline de Mtmgwmt^ 

par M Audouin. Observations pr^liminaires sur TexitteHa 

d^Infusoires Jbssiles et sur leur profusion dans la nature, par M. 

Ehrinbbro. Du Foie des aninumx sans vertebres en ghdnd, 

0t particuHerement sur celui de plusieurs Cruetaces, par M. Ditveb- 
voY.-^^-^Anafyse des trauvanx pr4sent^ d VAcad. des Se» pendant 
le mois d'Oct, 1836: yiz. Notes sur queiques ossemens fossiles de 

r Alsace et du Jura^ par Duveekoy. Experiences sur leUdri- 

cits de la TorpiUe^ par M. Mattbucci. BxpMences sur la 

TcrpiUeypar M. Colladon. 

The contents of the Number for November are — Observatmi 
Zoologiques sur Us Pagures et description d'un nouoeau genre de la 

tribudes Paguriens,par M. Milnb-Edwards. QuelquesoUer- 

vations d Helminthologie, par M. Charlbs Leblond. Enum* 

ration de queiques especes de Reptiles provenant de la Barbarisf 

par M. P. Gertais. Remarques sur Evaluation de la Tswh 

perature de la surface du GUbe pendant la pMode for/iatre, dapres 
la nature des debris organiques qui sy rapportent, par M. £. Ds 
Beaumont.— — Analyse des travaux &c. viz. MM. BLAiMYiLLset 

DuRAND sur un ckameau fossiU. Lettres de M. Dujardin nor 

Us PolypierefossiUs de la Craie, 

The Number for December is enriched with MiIiNE-Edwarob' 
Observations ear Us Polypiers fossHes du genre Eschars; andi 
nodoe, bj the same eminent person, sur un nouveau genre de Polj/' 
pier^JbssiUs de lafamilU des Eschariens nommi MSUciriie. These 

papers are illnstnited by a series of excellent figures. CaraC' 

tires du genre Plagiodonte et description du Plagiodontia iEdia]D> 
par M. F. Cuvibr. One of the Glires, little less than a hare, and 
nearly allied to Capromys, from which it is generically distinguish- 
ed by some peculiarities in the structure of its teeth, which Cavier 
fully details. The animals are called in Saint«Domingo ^ Rat-Cayes/ 

3 



jhmaks des Sciences Naturelles. 279 

wliich signifiee house-rats, whence the specific name : they do in- 
deed approach inhabited places^ but only during the night, for they 
shun the light of day. The male and female rarely separate. Their 
principal food consists of roots and fruity and, like all the frugivo- 
rons Olires, they are very good for the table ; and the Haitians, who 
are fond of dainties, search after them so carefully that the house- 
rat has now become very rare.— -iVio^tce sur quelques Parasites et 
jproduits organiques du Lombric terrestre pour servir d sa physio- 
logic, par M* SvRinAY.^^^^^Additions au Memoire de M. Duoes 
sur Us Arancides^'^^-^Analyse des travaux, ^o, pendant k mois d^ 
Decembre: viz. Rapport de M. Dumbril sur plusieurs m^moires 
ooncemant diverses esp^ces d'insectes par M, Robineau Dcsvoidt* 
—Rapport sur un memoire de M. Dsshayes intitule. Observa- 
tions g^n^rales sur le genre B61emnite, par M« Db Blajnyili^b. 
Des Rapports de la teratologie avec les sciences anatomiques 
et soologiques, par M. Isid. Geoffroi St Hilairb.— ^Recherches 
sur les rapports qui existent entre les propri^t^s nutritives de di- 
verses substances v#g^tales et la proportion d'azote qui entre dans 
leur composition, par M. Boussinoault. Rapport sur un me- 
moire de M. RoBiNEAu Desvoijoy, ayant pour titre, ' Sur des che-^ 
niUee qui ont v^u dans les intestins de I'homme, qui y ont subi leur 
mne et qui en ont 6te expuls6es vivantes par I'estomac, par M. Du- 

MBRIJU. ' 

II.—- ^otofiy. 
Octobre — Observatious sur la propagation des Algues^ par J. 
AoARDH, — ^the son of the celebrated Swedish algologist, whose fame 
he promises to extend and increase. The following are the inferences 
which Agardh deduces from the observations detailed in this excel- 
lent essay: — 1°. The division of the AlgsB into the articulated and 
inorticulated, hitherto adopted in all classifications, is inapplicable in 
the present state of our knowledge of them, and destroys the most 
marked affinities. — 2^. If it is wished to distribute the Algaa into two 
more natural groups, the following may be substituted : 

a. ZoosPERMEJB (Nostochinea, OseiUalorineiB, Confirvea, GmjvgaUi, Ecto* 
earpecB, Uhaceayet Siphofneee.) Materia granuloia interna uniuscujusque 
loculi (cellulic, articuli vel tubi) frondem consituentiB, tandem in fructi- 
ficationem abeunte ; sporidiis maturitate motu prsditia, et singulis locu- 
lis per ponun unicum egredientibus, demum per extentionem eyoluds..*- 
Viiidescentes, incoUe prsecipue aquae dulcis, marisque minus salsi (in 
Bcrobieulis sinubusque, rarissime in aperto vel profundiori man.) 

b. PucorOEJE (Ceromiete, Fhridea, auct SphaeeBarUa, et Fucoidea, Ag.) 
Fruetificatione vel receptaculis propriis inclusa vel soris plus minus ez- 
teosis frondi immerris collects, Sporis locomotivitate destitutis, ger- 



280 Annaki des Sciences NatureUes. 

minatione per membranam exteriorem novos utriciiloB emitteatibus. — 
Roseie et olivacese, omnes thalassiopbytae, il]« maris aperti et profimdi> 
oris potissimum incolae, b« sinubus tnuiquillioribus (apud nos, an sem- 
per ?) plenimque privs. 

3°. The moYement of the sponiles is not limited to the fresh-water 
Algae, nor is it common to all Cryptophytes. It does not depend on 
any external circamstanoes, but on the contrary, is intimately con- 
nected with the vital phenomena of all the beings in which it is ob- 
served. It is not the expression of an animal life, although it has 
the appearance of this ; and we ought not to compare it with the 
movements observed in the Diatomacese. — 4^. Both kind of oi^gans 
of fructiiication of the Florideae are capable of propagating the spe- 
cies, and the one- is never the rudiment or the young state of the 
other. — 5°. The Algse never grow from the reunion of several seeds, 
but each seed (seminule) produces its own individual. — 6®. The 
theory of metamorphosis of modern algologists is based on jGeu^ which 
ought to be explained otherwise than they have yet been. The 

transformations of one species into another are illusory.^ Duriai 

iter (uturicum botanicumy anno 1835 eusceptum^ auctore J. Gay. 
'^^-^ Synopsis des Gerandiies, tribu des ScrophularinSes, par M. 
G. Bbntham, from the " Companion to the Botanical Magazine." 
»~-~^Notice sur quelques cryptogames nouvelles,par J. Desma^iba- 

S8 OhservaUons sur les Diatom^es, par M. de Brebissok.— ^ 

Note de M. Turpin, ajoutSe awe observations de M. db Brebissov. 
This observer has discovered that the shell of the true Dlatomacese 
is composed of silex, in which he has been anticipated by Ehrenberg, 
but his experiments are nevertheless very valuable, as confirmative 
of a discovery which has given origin to some curious researches on 

the compositipn and formation of tripoli and similar deposits. 

Description de TEuphrasia Jaubertiana, nouoelle espece du sous* 
genre Odontites; />ar A. Boreau. 

Novembre. Organographie des Cistac^, par Edouard 

Spach. Quelques observations relatives aux genres SciUa et Ur^ 

ginech — deuop genres a Stablir dans lafamille des Liliacees^ et descrip- 

turn diune espece nouvelle, par Ad. Stbinheil. Sur le Lythnun 

altemifolium, jtMir M. Boreau. Sur lafacuUi que possedent les 

plantes d absorber les infusions cohries par leurs racinesypar J. G. 

Towers. Sur la faculii d^ absorption atti-ibu^e aux spongioles 

des racines par M. Knight. This and the preceding are trans- 
lations from the Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London. 

Note sur deux nouvelles especes du genre Spitzelia, par M. C. H. 

ScHULTZ Enumeration des plantes decouvertes par les vcya^ 



American Journal of Sciences and Arts. 281 

geurSf dans les lies de la SociStSfprtncipalementdans'celle de Taitiy 
par J. B. A. Guillemin. 

Deoembre. — Notice sur les Phntes cryptogames ricemment d6» 
eouvertes en France, contenani aussi Vindication pricise des locali- 
iis de quelques especes les plus rares de la Flore Fran^aise, par C. 

MoNTAGNB. DuRiAEi iter Austuricum Botanicum, continued. 

Biasolettia et Kladnikia> deux nouveaux genres de la famille 

des Ombelliferes, par le Prof. Koch. A translation from the * Flora.' 

Conspectus Monographias Cistacearum, auctore Eduaboo 

Spach. Rapport fait d VAcadimie des Sciences par MM. de 

MiRBEL> DuTBocHET^ et AuG. PB Saint-Hilaibb^ rapporteur, 
sur un Memoire relatifd la structure et au developpement desorganes 
ghtSrateurs d'une espece de Marsilea trouvSepar M. Espbit Fabbb 
dans les environs d'Agde. 

American Journal of Sciences and Arts, Conducted by Bbnjahin 
SiLLiMAN, M. D., LL. D. Vol. xxxii. No. 1 . April 1837. New- 
baven. London agent, O. Rich. 

The April number of this long established and important Ameri- 
can periodical has just reached us^ commencing the present year. 
The following is a condensed abstract of its zoological and botanical 
papers. 

I. Zoology, 

On the CEconomical uses of some species of Testacea^ p. 53. 

History of the Mytilus Margaritiferus, Linn., My a Margaritifera, 
Linn.^ and Pinna rotundata ? Linn. These historical accounts are 
compiled from various sources, to which references are given. We 
may remark, however, that the fishing, if such it may be called, of the 
second species, the " horse muscle," is much more general in the 
north of Scotland than the author supposes, and the shell much more 
plentiful, literally paving the bottoms of some of the streams. In 
many parts they are gathered into large heaps and either rotted, or 
the pearl immediately extracted. We here allude to what is pro- 
vincially termed the '^ Horse Muscle" as mentioned by the author of 
the paper. We are not so sure that it is the M. Margaritifera of Linn. 

This paper will be continued. Notice of the Shad and Shad 

fisheries of the river Delaware, by Samuel HoweLl, M. D. Not a 
scientific, but nevertheless an interesting paper. The shad (no 
scientific name for the fish is given) enters the Delaware for the 
purpose of spawning in prodigious numbers about the middle of 
March, and are fished in various ways, but chiefly by what are cal•^ 



282 American Journal of Sciences and Arts. 

led '* Gilling-Seines/' from taking the fish in the meshes by the gills. 
The river continues at its height until the beginning of May^ and the 
season terminates about the 20th June. The annual amount taken 
by those seines and drift nets is calculated at about one million fiye 
hundred thousand^ worthy at the usual price> about one hundred- 
thousand dollars. The principal market is Philadelphia. — We 
should like to see a scientific description of this fish with a little 
more detail given to his habits during the ascent of the river. We 
would recommend also the examination of the liquid contents of the 
stomachy which is said to contain nothing solid, with a high magni- 
fying power. Description of a new Trilobite, by Jacob Gbbski 

M. D., p. 167. Calymena phlycteeinodes. Green, considered analo- 
gous to the C. variolaris of Dudley in England. 

IL Botany, 

Account of an excursion to mount Katahdin, in Maine, by Phifies- 
sor J. W. Bailet, p. 20. The excursion seems to have been un- 
dertaken rather hurriedly, and the time at the disposal of the party 
was much too short. The country, however, was wild and interest- 
ing, and might furnish materials for a valuable paper, were the 
journey undertaken at leisure, and the members of the expedition 
active and enterprising, rigidly examining the mountain and its en« 

circling cypress swamps Remarks on the natural order Cycadee, 

with a description of the ovula and seeds of Cycas revoluta. Wild. 
by A. J. DowMiKO, p. 45. A lithographic figure accompanies the 
paper. The remarks chiefly refer to the impregnation of the female 
flowers, and the alliance of this family to the Conifers. 

There are several mineralogical and meteorological papers in this 
Number. 



[ 283 ] 



INTELLIGENCE. 



ZOOLOGICAL. 

Irish Harcy (Lepus HihemicuSy Yarrell.)— Mr Yarrell was, I be- 
lieve, the first zoologist who observed that a considerable difference 
existed in the external character of the Irish and common hares. 
His account will be found in the proceedings of the Zoological So- 
ciety for July 23, 1833, since which time Mr Bell, in his History 
of British Quadrupeds, has described both of them, characteria- 
ing the Irish hare under the name of L. Hibernicus. I am not> 
however, aware that any observations on the anatomical distinc- 
tions of the two species have been made public With a view, there- 
fore, of filling up the blank to a certain degree, this paper is written. 

On placing the skeletons of the two species in juxtaposition, the 
most obvious distinguishing characters are the greater size altogether 
of the skeleton, the greater length of the lateral processes of the 
lumbar vertebra, the superior breadth of the scapula, the greater 
breaidth of the ribs, the greater length of the humerus in proportion 
to that of the ulna, (which is scarcely longer than in the common 
hare,) together with the much larger size of the cranium and in- 
ferior maxillary bones in the Irish hare. These differences would 
probably distinguish it as a species distinct from the ONnmou hare, 
did no other characters exist. 

In the numbering of the vertebrae and ribs they do not differ, ex- 
cept as to the caudal ones, which in the Irish hare are 13, and in 
the English 16 ; the sacral in both are 4, the lumbar 7, the dorsal 
12, and cervical 7^ making the total number in the Irish hare 43j 
and in the common hare 46. 

The ribs in each species are 12. The males of both species are 
smaller than the females in all their admeasurements. The intes- 
tinal canal is in the male of the Irish hare nearly two feet shorter 
than in the female. The following table will shew the relative 
measurements in the female of each species, of some of the principal 
bones, and of the intestinal canal. 



Length of the intestinal canal firom sto- 
mach to anus. 


L.timidutyF, 
14ft. Jin. 


18 ft. 6 in. 


Length from caecum to anus, 
of cscum. 


3 6 
2 


4 1 
1 7 



284 Z(H)logy. 

Length of humerus, 

— — femur, 
^— ^— tibia. 



SAin. 


a^in. 


SA 


»A 


4A 


*A 


4* 


4iS 


8A 


8A 


>A 


lA 


lA 


lA 




T. C. Eyton 



Breadth of cranium, 
— scapula. 



Lutjanus rupestris* — A specimen of this interesting fish has 
been taken on the coast of North Wales. — T. C. Eyton. 

Clausula Rolphii. — Specimens of this interesting British shell 
have been forwarded to me by my friend^ Mr C. Finch^ who dis- 
covered it in the old habitat, Charlton Wood, Kent, last May. — 
Daniel Coopbr. 

Ehrenberg's Infusoria, — In making a recent oommanication to 
the Academy of Sciences respecting the double nature of the o^ns 
of generation in the infusoria, M. de Humboldt announced thdt the 
great work of this author, on that singular class of animals, is very 
nearly completed, and will be published in a short time. It will 
contain engrayings of 492 of the polygastric infusoria, and 163 of 
the rotifersB, from drawings made by M. Ehrenberg. 

Proposed New Work on American SkuUs. — A work, to be entitled 
" Crania Americana ; or a comparatiye view of the skulls of vari- 
ous aboriginal nations of North and South America," is noticed in 
the last number of Silliman's Journal, as having been for some time 
contemplated by Dr Samuel Morton. The work is proposed to be 
of a folio size, and to contain from twenty -five to thirty lithographic 
plates, on which " at least fifty skulls will be represented, with such 
national, individual, and anatomical illustrations, as can be obtained 
in reference to each. The work will be preceded by an introduc- 
tion, embracing a general view of the five great races of men, and 
followed by an exposition of the probable origin of the American 
tribes." 

Fossil footsteps in Sandstone and Graywacke — Professor Hitch- 
cock has discovered in the valley of the Connecticut River, the im- 
prints of what he considers fourteen new species. Some bear so 
near a resemblance to the feet of living saurians, that they have 
been denominated Sauriodichniies, The Professor says, " I have 



Botanical 285 

BO certain evidence as yet that any of these impressions were made 
by fbnr-footed animals, although, in respect to two or three species, 
1 have strong suspicions that such was the fact. I have sometimes 
thought they might have been made by pterodactyles; yet they 
have in general fewer toes than those described by Cuvier and Buck- 
land. Within a few weeks past I have found on the flag-stones, in 
the city of New York, some marks, which I suspect were made by 
the feet of a didactylous quadruped, which, like the Marsupialia, 
moved by leaps. The rock is slaty graywacke, from the banks of 
the Hudson, between Albany and the Highlands*" Drawings of 
these marks, with the tracts of living birds, have been prepared, and 
will be published so soon as the localities are again examined. — SU-- 
Uman's Journal, April 1837- 

BOTANICAL. 

Blytnau Co9npressus, — I was not aware, until informed by my 
friend, the Rev. W. Wood, that this plant had been found in the 
neighbourhood of London, (not having seen any station for it.) It 
is, however, most plentiful in a bog at Beddington Park gate, near 
Carahalton, Surrey. — Daniel Coopbr. 

Botanical SocyeTY op Edinburgh, January 12th 1837- — 
Professor Graham in the Chair. The following members were 
elected :— Resident, Mr J. H. Branfoot, Mr R. Wilbraham Fal- 
coner, Mr George A. Martin, Mr J. W. Mudge, Mr John Percy, 
Mr Thomas R. H. Thomson, Mr Edward Wells. Non^Resident, 
The Right Hon. The Countess of Dalhousie, Dalhousie Castle ; 
Dr AUman, Dublin; Mr H. Baber, Trin. Coll. Cambridge ; Dr 
Frederick- Farre, London; Professor Henslow, Cambridge; Mr 
G. Quekett., London ; Mr C. A. Stevens, Trin. Coll. Cambridge. — 

Specimens were stated by the Secretary to have been received* 
since last meeting from Dr Alexander, Dr Macreight, Mr N. B. 
Ward, Mr Baber, Mr Stevens, Professor Henslow, Mr Babington, 
Mr Lloyd, Mr Mack, Mr Lindsay Carnegie, Dr Walker Amott, 
Br Van Rensselaer, Mr Veronge, Mr R. W. Falconer, Mr White, 
Mr Christy, Mr Munby, Dr Graham, Dr M'Nab, Mr J. M'Nab, 
Mr Brand, Mr Stables, Mr Martin, and Dr Pollexfen. — Donations 
to the library were announced from David Steuart, Esq. and C. 
C. Babington, Esq. 

Mr Percy read an account of an excursion to the " Jardin de la 
Mer de Glace" at Chamouni, which was made in July last, with 
the view of exploring the botany of that elevated spot in the Alps 



286 BotanieaL 

of Savoy. Mr Percy strongly recommended the Breaon, a mono- 
tain about fifteen miles from Geneva^ to the attention of botaniflts 
who commence their excursions in Savoy, as it not only presents a 
great variety of alpine plants, but aflbrds the greatest facilities for 
obtaining them. The ^* Jardin" was described as consisting of a 
few exposed and almost naked masses of rock, occupying only a 
small triangular area, which is bounded by the " Moraines" of the 
adjacent glaciers ; and the appellation ** garden" was stated to be 
merely applied by comparison with the desert around. An enume- 
ration was given of 33 Phsenogamous and 6 Cryptogamous species, 
which were collected at the Jardin, from an elevation of 9000 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

Mr Campbell read a letter from Mr R. Ball, Dublin, to Sir W. 
J. Hooker, mentioning that Erica vagans had been discovered by 
Dr Burkett, on an islet on the coast of Waterford, near Tramore 
in Ireland. 

Dr Barry exhibited specimens of the plants collected by him in 
his ascent of Mont Blanc, 16-18th September 1834. A list of 
the plants collected by Dr Barry, so far as named, was communi- 
cated by him ; dividing them first, into those from below the snow 
line, which was stated to be in that Lat. 8000 feet above the sea ; 
and, second, those from the Grand Mulet rqpk, about 9000 feet 
above the sea, or nearly 2000 feet above the line of perpetual snow. 

The Curator, Mr J. M'Nab, exhibited specimens of CincUdium 
siygiuniy a moss new to Britain, discovered by Mr John Nowel, 
of Halifax, on a moor near Maltham Tarn, in Yorkshire ; commu- 
nicated by Mr Leyland. 

Mr M'Nab also read a communication, giving an account of some 
remarkable forms of Norway spruce, (Abies communis^) growing 
on the property of Whim, in the county of Peebles* 

Feb. 9th. — Dr Balfour in the Chair. The following membeis 
were elected : — Resident, jVIr A. Mack, Mr. Edward R. Roberts, 
Dr Alexander Van Rensselaer, Mr Julius Veronge, Mr Frank Isa 
White. — Non-Resident, Professor Royle, London. — Foreign, Colonel 
Brown, Thun, Switzerland; M. Guthnick, Berne, Switzerland; 
Professor Meisner, Basle, Switzerland. 

In accordance with certain resolutions come to at an extraordinary 
meeting of the Society held on 4th inst., providing for the election 
of honorary members, and fixing the number of these at six British 
and twenty-five Foreign, the following noblemen and gentlemen 
were elected, viz. — British, His Grace the Duke of Bedford, Hif 
Grace the Duke of Devonshire, Robert Brown, Aylmer Bourke 



Botanical 287 

Lftmbert, Nathaniel Wallich. — Foreign, Prof. Agardh^ Lund ; M. 
Bieberstein^ St. Petenbnrgh ; Prof. Brongniart, Paris ; Prof. Fries, 
Lund ; Prof. Homemann^ Copenhagen ; Baron de Humboldt, Ber- 
lin ; Prof. Koch, Erlangen ; Prof. Ledebour, Dorpat ; Prof. Link, 
Berlin ; Dr Martins, Munich ; Prof. De Candolle, Geneva ; M. De 
Lessert, Paris; Dr Fischer, St Petersburgh; Prof. Mirbel, Paris; Prof. 
Nees Von Esenbeck, Breslau ; M. Auguste St Hilaire, Paris ; Prof. 
Tenore, Naples ; Prof. Torrey, New York ; Prof. Treviranus, Bonn. 

Specimens were stated by the Secretary to have been received 
since last meeting, from the Rev. Mr Gordon, Dr Walker Arnott, 
Mr Shuttleworth, Professor Meisner, Mons. Guthnick, and Colonel 
Brown. Donations to the library were presented from R. J. Shut- 
tleworth, Esq. and Professor Meisner. 

Dr Balfour read a communication, addressed to the President of 
the Society, from the Rev. Gerard Smith of Chichester, accompany- 
ing specimens of I.ycopodium pallescens, and explaining the proper- 
ty which it possesses, in common with several other species of the 
same genus, of expansion in water, and of recollapsing when dried, 
subsequent to immersion ; a power which it retains for many years, 
if not too long exposed to moisture, in which case the spikelets rot, 
and fall off upon drying. Specimens were exhibited in different 
states ; some which had been immersed and were fully expanded ; 
others in the act of expansion ; and others again, in the dried and 
collapsed state. 

A remarkable variety of Lamium purpureum, from Dr Greville's 
herbarium, was exhibited, which, from its deeply incised leaves and 
general appearance, approached very near to L. incUum. A beautiful 
series of drawings prepared by Dr Greville for the Algce Britannicas 
were also laid before the society, and attracted much interest. 

March 9th. — Professor Ghraham in the chair. The following 
members were elected : Resident, Mr Henry Mapleton, Mr William 
Walker. Non^residentf Mr George J. Lyon, Glasgow ; Mr James 
Stuart Menteath, yr. of Closebum ; Dr G. A. F. Wilks, London. 

Specimens were presented from Mr M. J. F. Sidney. 

Dr Graham read a letter from the Countess of Dalhousie, inti- 
mating her intention of presenting to the society her East Indian 
Herbarium ; and at the same time exhibited one of the fEiscicnli of 
this most valuable coUecUon, as illustrative of the admirable manner 
in which the specimens had been prepared and preserved. The 
thanks of the society were unanimously and warmly expressed to 
Lady Dalhousie for her splendid donation ; and the proposal, that 
her Ladyship should be elected an honorary member, having met with 
the most cordial approbation, it was carried by acclamation. 



288 Botanical 

Mr Nicol read a paper on the microscopic structure of the wood of 
various species of RAaufnuj^ showing that in various instances marked 
peculiarities of internal structure bore reference to obvious external 
characters. The species examined were the Rkamnus catharticus, Ay- 
bridus, infectorius, oUoides, alpinus, Alatemus, IxUrfoUus and Fran- 
gula; the first six of which have the vessels^ as seen in transverse sec- 
tions, arranged in a similar and very peculiar manner. The two last, 
jR. latifolius and Frangula, present a structure so strikingly different 
^om that of the other species, as to have suggested to Mr Nicol 
the possibility of a difference in the botanical characters, the farther 
investigation of which he said it was not for him^ but for the bo- 
tanist to undertake. 

The first part of a paper by Mr Shuttleworth was read, contain- 
ing an account of a Botanical excursion to the Alps of the Valais 
in Switzerland. In this paper Mr Shuttleworth gave an interesting 
account of an unsuccessful attempt to cross the Glacier of Taescb, 
where he was compelled to remain upon the ice during the night, 
and had the danger of his return greatly increased by a fall of snow. 
The remainder of the paper, giving an enumeration of the species 
collected, with observations upon them, was postponed till next 
meeting. 

April 13th — Dr Balfour in the chair. Mr Henry Melville and 
Mr William Richardson were elected Resident Members. 

The remainder of the Countess of Dalhousie's East Indian Her- 
barium was presented, accompanied by a letter from her Ladyship 
to the President, authorizing the arrangement and disposal of the 
specimens in whatever manner might be considered most useful, and 
most conducive to the advancement of botanical knowledge. Se- 
veral donations to the library from Dr Walker Amott were pre- 
sented. — The thanks of the Society were directed to be given to Lady 
Dalhousie and Dr Walker Amott for their respective donations. 

An abstract of the second part of Mr Shuttle worth's paper was 
read by Dr Balfour. This portion of the paper contained an enu- 
meration of 430 species of plants collected by Mr Shuttleworth in 
the Canton of the Valais, with occasional remarks ; and of these Dr 
Balfour had selected for his present purpose such as seemed to him 
more immediately interesting to the British botanist. * 

Mr Carpenter made some remarks on the different forms of the 
organs of respiration in different classes of plants, and at different 
periods of their growth. After pointing out the analogy in ele- 
mentary structure between the leaves of vegetables and the pulmo- 

* This paper will be found in the Mag. of Zool. and Bot. — No. vii. et seq. 



Muedlantaus. 289 

nuy or brandiial apparatus in animals^ he stated that the cotyle- 
dons in the higher plants appeared to perform all the functions of 
tme leaves, and to he analogous to the temporary gills so remarka- 
ble in the Batrachian reptiles. In ferns^ the frondose expansion^ 
which is formed by additional cells produced firom the original spore, 
and wliich decays when the gyrate frond is evolved> may be viewed 
as similar to the cotyledonary body in phaenogamous plants. In 
other cryptogamous plants, as Marchantia polymorpha, this primary 
firond does not decay, but remains permanent, and may be looked 
upon as a persistent cotyledon. Mr C. then went on to show that 
the developement of the offspring, which takes place during the 
ripening of the seed in phsnogamous plants, is analogous to that 
which in the cryptogamous follows the germination of the spore ; 
thus fulfilling a law which appears to pervade organized nature, 
that the different organs of the higher beings in the progress of 
their evolution pass through a series of forms analogous to their 
permanent states in the lower. 

Dr Balfour read a communication regarding several species of 
British ferns, in which he particularly alluded to the observations 
recently made by Mr Don in the Linnaean Transactions. Speci- 
mens of all the species and varieties of the ferns alluded to were 
exhibited by Dr Gilbert M'Nab, — ^including Aspidium dumetorum, 
dUatatum, irriguum, ^c, Cislopieris dentata, both from England and 
Scotland, also C. regia and alpina, 

Dr Balfour mentioned having found Scahiosa columbaria last 
autumn, in considerable abundance, on the sea shore near North 
Berwick. — W. H. Campbell, Sec. 

UISCELLANEOUS. 

Blumenbach, — " The great lion of this university (Goettingen) is 
Blumenbach, Professor of Natural History, by whom I was most 
graciously received, though without any formal iDtroduction ; yet I 
have heard he is not always so courteous. He speaks English fluent- 
ly, — ^in fact, he is the only professor who appeared to have any know- 
ledge of the language, which surprised me much, considering the 
intimate connection that exists between Hanover and our own coun- 
try. The venerable Professor, though he has reached his eighty- 
second year, still retains all his faculties perfect. He spoke of the 
kindness of George III. during his visit to England, forty years 
since, at which period he also went to Oxford. One of his apart- 
ments is fitted up as a museum ; it is by no means large, but con- 
tains rather an odd medley of preparations, and a numerous collec- 
tion of skulls of negro tribes, as well as specimens explanatory of 



290 Miscellaneous. 

oomparatiye anatomy. He called my attention more particularly to 
a tattooed head of a New Zealand Chief, which was presented to 
him by the Duke of Northumberland^ and on which he appeared to 
set a very high ralue. 

*' Hi8 lecture commences every day^ except Saturday^ at three ; 
his class did not exceed forty. He stoops considerably, usually 
wore a shaggy great coat, with a small green velvet cap on his head, 
his hair hanging in long silvery locks. He was particularly fond of 
laughing at his own jokes and anecdotes^ which he mentioned dur* 
ing his lecture, sometimes raising his voice to a stentorian pitch, 
whilst at others it could scarcely be heard. He could read his notes 
without the assistance of spectacles^ and often explained his subjeol 
in terms not quite adapted to * ears polite ;' expressing his asto- 
nishment or admiration at the wonders of nature in no measured 
language — making use of a phrase, which, though of very unusual 
occurrence among us, still is very common among the Germans, — 
that of " Herr Jesus ;" which is, however, only an expletive, and 
occupies the place of man dieu of the French. He exemplified his 
subject with preparations either dried or in spirits, as well as by 
plates or drawings ; some of which, from their age and roughness, 
were very curious. 

'^ A specimen he valued much, and which he prized above all 
others, was the foetus of a bear in spirits, which is very rarely seen ; 
and it was certainly a most misshapen object, of very diminutive 
size ; it was quite, as the old Professor expressed it, an ' nnlicked 
cub/ Another rather interesting specimen was a young porcupine 
in spirit, before the quills had commenced growing ; in which he 
pointed out, on the outer side of the scapula, the two mammae. An 
ostrich egg, arrived at the full period of incubation, was also curi- 
ous, where the young bird had half-escaped from its shell : it was 
of large size, and its neck of very considerable length. He always 
appeared particularly delighted in mentioning any anecdotes connect- 
ed with occurrences or incidents he had met with in England ; thus 
he used to speak of the size and value of the horses employed in 
the breweries of London, as well as those bred for the turf, or 
chase, in terms which no doubt excited the surprise, and perhaps, 
even the unbelief of many of his hearers. 

** On the subject of the turtle, he gave some account of its excel- 
lencies with respect to the table, saying that when he was in Eng- 
land, he had seen whole courses served up in various forms and 
dishes, adding, at the same time, that the dessert consisted entirely 
of turtle, casting an apparently longing eye on the shell before him, 
as if he still remembered the bygone repast J i 



Miscellaneous. 291 

'* On the subject of cocks, he gave an account of their fighting in 
England, exhibiting to his class a pair of steel spurs, as used by them 
in their battles. Of the flamingo* he had never seen a single spe- 
cimen, though, at one of the museums at Oxford, he was shown a 
dried leg and foot. 

" Blumenbach's lectures were by far the most interesting of any 
I attended at Gottingen* He exhibited one day a machine for hatch- 
ing eggs, which he had frequently used, and which only required the 
beat of a spirit-lamp, and constant attention to keep all in order."*- 
Fiaior in Medical Gazette, April 15, 1837. 

British Museum* — A grant of L. 1575 has been voted by the 
House of Commons to enable the trustees of the British Museum 
to purchase the collection of shells belonging to W. J. Broderip, 
£sq. offered by him at the price of 1500 guineas, and valued by 
Messrs Turner and Sowerby, at L.1640, 12s. M. Mr Gray says,— - 
*' The collection consists of nearly 3000 specimens, and contains 
about 200 species, or very distinct varieties, that are altogether 
wanting in the already extensive collection of the British Museum : 
Such is the beauty of the specimens, in consequence of the great 
attention paid by Mr Broderip to the purchase of none but the 
finest that could be procured, and so remarkable are the deviations in 
form and colouring in the several series of the more variable species, 
that nearly every individual specimen of the remaining portion will 
also be valuable to our collection, either in replacing a much infe- 
rior specimen, or as rendering more complete the series which we 
already possess. The duplicates, to be displaced will be few, and 
will, for the reasons above given, be taken in every instance from 
our present collection, and not from among the specimens in the new 
acquisition. A very large proportion of the species contained in this 
collection, and wanting in the British Museum, are among the rarest 
sliells that are known to exist, and many are absolutely unique." f 

Wernerian Society Prize Essay. — It gives us much pleasure to 
announce that the honorary premium of Ten Sovereigns, or a piece 
of plate of that value, offered by the Wernerian Society of £din- 
borgh, £Dr the best account of the fishes of the district of the Forth, 
has been awarded to Dr Richard Parnell, so well known to every 

* The Dodo is evidently what ^tor should have written. 

t Lord Stanley stated in bis place in the House of Commons on Friday last. 
That on Easter Monday, in the course of eigbt bours, 28,985, and on Whit- 
Monday, aO,000 persons had visited the British Museum without doing the 
slightest mischief. 



292 Obituary. 

one interested in British Ichthyology by the numerous additions he 
has made> within these two years past^ to our native list. 

OBITUARY. 

Profbssor Afzelius. — *' Professor Adam Afzelius, the Nestor 
of scientific men in Sweden^ died at Upsal> on the 30th of last Ja- 
nuary> aged eighty-six years. He was the last pupil of Linneus, 
and was celebrated for his travels in Asia and Africa. His African 
Herbarium^ we believe, is now in the Banksian collection in the 
British Museum." Aihenasum, April 22, 1837 — His name is com- 
memorated in the genus Afzelia of Sir J. £. Smith. His papers 
on " Three species of Trifolium" and on the " genus Pausus" in 
the Linnsean Transactions^ Vol. i. and iv.^ have been pronounced, by 
the Rev. Mr Kirby, to be '^ as nearly as possible a perfect example 
of a monograph ;" and are worthy the careful study of every one 
who engages in a work of that class. Afzelius is among those " re- 
spectable names" mentioned by Dr Withering in his list of contri- 
butors to the third edition of the '^ Arrangement of British Plants ;" 
he " looked over," says Withering, " great part of the Author's 
collection, and afforded many valuable observations concerning the 
identity of several Swedish and English species." At this time 
(1796) Afzelius was Demonstrator of Botany in the University of 
Upsal. He is the author of the following botanical works : 

1. Oe Vegetabilibus Suecanis observationes et experimental resp. 
Wadsberg. 1 fasc. in-4. 1785. 

2. Genera plantarum Guineensium, pars prima. 4to. 1804. 

3. De Rosis Suecanis tentamen primum. 1804. 4to« — Tentamen 
secundum. 1805. 

£. Donovan, Esq. F. L. S — In the Gentleman's Magazine for 
July there is a record of this naturalist's death, with, we believe, a 
complete list of his writings. He died February 1, 1837> in John- 
Street, Kennington-road, and *' has left a large family in destitute 
circumstances." The high price of his books has limited their sale, 
and it is probable that few of them covered the expense of their pub- 
lication. The principal of them are devoted to the illustration of 
British Zoology in almost every class : perhaps the best and most 
interesting is his ' History of British Fishes,' in 5 vols. 8vo, which, 
however, is more valuable for its plates than the letter-press ; and 
this indeed may be said of all his works, for they do not rank high 
in point of original observation or extensive literary research. 
Foreigners have occasionally ascribed to Donovan the discoveries of 
Montagu. 

PRINTED BY JOHN STARK, OLD ASSEMBLY CLOSE, EDIKBUaOH. 



MAGAZINE 



OF 



ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



I. — Historical Notice ofAntoine Laurent de Jussieu. By M. Ad. 
Brongniart. * 

Thr History of Science shows us that there are men who have 
been occupied during their whole life with a single idea, but that^ 
an idea of great importance and iruitful in results — men who have 
exercised, even by works of apparently less extent than those of 
many other inquirers, a vital influence on the progress of science, 
because the works which they produce are often the base of the edi- 
fice which their contemporaries and successors only serve to complete. 

Such may be said to be the case with the individual to whose 
memory the following pages are devoted ; an individual celebrated 
throughout the scientific world, and venerated by every one who 
knew him. It may be afiirmed that all his reputation was acquired 
by the publication of a single volume : his preceding works were 
only a prelude to this, and those that followed merely the develope-' 
mentofit; and, notwithstanding their importance, every one will 
acknowledge that they were not necessary to add to the fsune of the 
author of the Getiera Plantamm secundum ordines naiurales dispo- 
siia. This unique volume contains the most profound exposition 
of the whole vegetable kingdom, and is as remarkable for the ex- 
cellence of its principles as the perfection of its details. It is doubt- 
less sufficient to confer on its author the high reputation which he 

* Translated from the AnnaUs des Sctences NaturtSUs^ Tom. septi^me, Jan« 
1837. 

VOI<. II. MO. 10. u 



294 Historical Notice of 

enjoyedL and which has cantinaed to increase in proportion as his 
work became better known and its principles more fblly understood, 
discussed^ and applied^ whether by A. L. de Jussieu himself^ or by 
those botanists who have followed his steps. 

What more convincing proof can be given of the superiority of 
the principles on which this work is founded, than its general adop- 
tion by all th^ most distinguished botanists of Europe, who have no 
doubt sometimes modified it and brought it nearer perfection, bat 
who have all assumed Jussieu's work as the point of their departure, 
and most of them may even be said to have deviated but little from 
it? 

It may, however, be asked, if this natural method, as it is ex- 
plained in the admirable work alluded to, is destined to a lasting 
reign — if it is, in short, the method most accordant with nature — 
or if, like so many other systems, it is likely to enjoy but a limited 
duration, and be replaced by some other method. If we consult only 
the history of the sciences, and in particular that of botany, we shall 
be inclined to believe that the predominance of the Jussieuan me- 
thod will be temporary, like those of Ray, Tournefbrt, Linn4, &c 
and that it will be superseded, at a nearer or remote period, by a 
method more adapted to the progress of the sciences. 

When we consider only the systematic portion of Jussieu's work, it 
may be perceived that important changes may be introduced in many 
parts of it ; and modifications more or less commendable have in 
fact been already proposed by the numerous inquirers who have de- 
voted themselves to this branch of study. But does their modified 
method owe its origin to the rules established by Bernard and An- 
toine Laurent de Jussieu ? I think it may be affirmed, that every 
system which may hereafter be proposed, will be founded <m the 
fundamental principles admitted by these illustrious philosophers, 
and will therefore be only their method brought to perfection, rather 
than one entirely new. 

This is what will naturally flow from the examination of the prin- 
ciples which have guided these celebrated botanists in their works, 
and from the progress made in this branch of the science since the 
publication of the Genera. But let us examine for a moment the 
origin of this method ; the first attempts made to attain to some 
parts of it ; and in what state this branch of botany was placed, 
when A. L. de Jussieu eflFectually introduced it into science. 

The greater part of classifications preceding that of Jussieu, had 
for their object the distribution of vegetables in some method <alcu- 
lated to facilitate their determination, rather than to arrange them 



Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, 295 

in natural groups. Some eminent botanists, however, had not fail- 
ed to perceive the importance of characters best calculated to divide 
the vegetable kingdom into a few great natural classes. Thus Ray 
in 1682, and Boerhaave in 1710, had recognized the importance of 
the characters furnished by the embryo, and adduced the distinction 
of monocotyledones and dicotyledones, although they often made an 
inaccurate application of this principle. But their c]a88i6cation in 
other respects, although preserving, like all other systems, a consi- 
derable number of natural groups, is too systematic to avoid the in- 
troduction of many which are completely artificial. All the older 
methods^ besides, admit the separation into trees and herbs, which, 
for the most part, interrupts all natural relations. 

Linn6, who so greatly advanced the progress of botany by the pre- 
cision he introduced into the science, by the simplicity of his sexual 
system, and by his sagacious researches into the most interesting 
j^enomena of vegetable life, is pre-eminently entitled, from the en* 
thusiasm of his numerous disciples, to be regarded as the head of a 
systematic school, although he has positively declared that he used 
every effort to lay the foundation of a natural method. Of this he 
has presented us with a sketch in his Classes Plantarum in 1738, 
and a new edition in his Phitosophia Bolanica in 17^0. 

He always esteemed this method preferable to every other, 
and considered it as the essential object of science ; but it must be 
admitted that if he was the first in attempting to indicate some frag- 
ments (as he himself expresses it) of the natural method, these frag- 
ments were extremely imperfect in many respects ; for of the sixty- 
seven groups he established, only the half nearly correspond to such 
as have been retained, while the others are united to genera pertain- 
ing to very different families. 

Moreover, Linne has neither indicated the characters of these 
groups, nor pointed out the principles by which he was guided in 
forming them. It may even be supposed that he has allowed him- 
self to be directed rather by the natural perception of afiinities which 
a botanist of such discrimination necessarily possessed, than by a 
profound and comparative study of the organization of the different 
genera associated in each of his groups. It is easily perceived that 
he was guided by no fixed principle in the formation of his different 
natural orders, for in some of them, the Sarmeniacece, for example, 
the dicotyledones and monocotyledones are mingled almost in equal 
numbers ; while in other instances, this is the case with the mono- 
petales and the polypetales, as in his DumosiJB and Veprecuke. 
To Linn6 succeeded Adanson and Bernard de Jussien, who de« 



296 Historical Notice of 

voted tUemselves to the study of the natural method nearly at the 
eame period. 

Adanson was struck with the diversity of the systems hitherto 
established^ and perceived that^ notwithstanding the different prin- 
ciples on which they rested^ the greater part agreed in preserving 
untouched certain groups which the intuitive perception of natural 
affinities led every one to recognize as natural groups. He there- 
fore conceived, that^ by purposely multiplying systems, and founding 
them on all the organs^ and on every consideration which these or- 
gans could supply, the different relations existing between different 
vegetables would be thus rendered apparent ; and that by bringing 
together into one family such of these genera^ as were found to cor- 
respond in the greatest number of particulars in these artificial sys- 
tems, we should attain to a true natural classification. Proceeding 
on this principle, he established sixty-five different systems, founded 
sometimes on characters of importance, at other times on characters 
of little value, and almost impossible to define. The result of this 
was, that by assigning nearly an equal value to these different sys- 
tems, the general classification he deduced from them, instead of 
being more perfect than that of Linne, interrupted the natural affi- 
nities even more frequently. In fact, if we apply to them, in order 
to form a cbmparative estimate of the two methods, the principle 
admitted by Adanson himself in judging of the systems antecedent 
to his — that is to say, if we examine how many of these groups there 
are, which, notwithstanding the progress the study of natural families 
has made, continue to be admitted or correspondent to two or three 
families which our methods still permit to stand by the side of each 
other,-— we will find that^ of the sixty-seven Linnean families, thir- 
ty-four have undergone scarcely any alteration, while of the fifty- 
eight families of Adanson, twenty-six only have been able to xinth- 
stand the same proof. Thus the tedious and laborious investigations 
of Adanson, at a period, too, when the science had made a great 
advance, led him to a result which is no nearer approximation to the 
truth than that of Linn . 

It may only be remarked that Linne, aware of the imperfect 
knowledge which could be obtained in his time respecting the na- 
tural classification of plants, had appended to his method, under the 
title of vagcB et etiamnum incerice sedis, a considerable series of 
genera either little known, or whose position appeared to him doubt- 
ful ; while Adanson, in the belief that his method was infisdlible, 
attempted to classify them all, and this pretension to outstrip the 
knowledge of his time was perhaps the cause of many of the impro- 



Antonie Laurent de Jumeiu 297 

per alliances he has been led to form. It would be unjust, at the 
same time^ not to acknowledge that there is to be founds in many 
parts of his work, the indication of affinities previously overlookedi 
and which he very happily perceived. 

While Adanson was engaged in these complicated labours to ar- 
rive at the natural method, Bernard de Jussieu, examining nature . 
with a sagacity which may be judged of from the few memoirs he 
has published, established the principles of this method, not in a 
book, but by nature itself, namely, in a series of plants in the garden 
of Trianon, or in a still more perspicuous manner, in the catalogues 
used in the formation of that garden ; for the manuscript lists he 
has left, the most complete of which has been published at the head 
of the Genera of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, indicate the position 
of many genera, which at that period were not cultivated in gar- 
dens. 

It is sufficient to compare this simple list with the attempts at a 
natural method by Linn^ and Adanson, to see how much it is supe- 
rior to both, and what a profound knowledge and sagacity it im- 
plies in this learned botanist, whom Linne was pleased to designate 
as one of the masters of the science. As a proof of this, upwards 
of two-thirds of the groups established by Bernard de Jussieu have 
remained untouched, notwithstanding the progress of botany, or 
have only been subdivided, without these subdivisions being dis- 
joined from each other. The examination of the genera united in 
each of these families, as well as the series which he has establish- 
ed, shows that Bernard de Jussieu had assumed as a character of 
the first order, presenting no real exception, the structure of the 
embryos, acotyledon, monocotyledon and dicotyledon ; for it is evi- 
dent that the few instances where be has included in the same ia- 
miJy, plants differing in this particular, result from the still imper- 
fe<:t knowledge which we possess of the nature and structure of 
frnits. 

It may be seen, in like manner, that he had appreciated the im- 
portance of the characters furnished by the relative insertion of the 
different parts of the flower, and that he had even made this the 
subject of a careful examination, for he has very rarely united in 
the same family plants presenting any notable differences in this 
respect ; and the order of these families, as well among the mono- 
cotyledones as among the dicotyledones, is founded on the insertion 
of the stamina, or of the corolla, on the pistil, the calyx, or the re- 
ceptacle. 

Although Bernard de Jussieu, therefore, has not ma^e us ao- 



298 Historical Notice of 

quainted with the rules which directed him in his researches after 
the natural method^ it cannot be doubted that he acted on two prin- 
ciples of this method which are still admitted as the most essential 
and least liable to exception, namelj, that the differences in the 
structure of the embryo furnish characters of the first order, and 
the different modes in which the parts of the flower are inserted^ 
supply characters of the second order. But when we examine the va- 
rious catalogues which preceded the planting of the garden at Tri- 
anon, we perceive that it was not by one trial that he arrived at thui 
result, and that he successively brought to perfection both the group- 
ing of genera into families, and the distribution of these families. 

Such was the state of botany, viewed in relation to the natural 
method, when Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, who was born at Lyons 
in 1748, came to Paris in 17^> to complete his medical and scienti- 
fic studies, under the direction of his uncle, Bernard de Jussieu* 
The first years of his abode in this city were entirely devoted to 
these studies, and he terminated them in 1770, by a thesis for the 
degree of doctor in medicine. The subject of this thesis, and the 
mode in which it is handled, show the direction already given to 
his studies, and the philosophical spirit which animated him at first 
entering upon his scientific career. That subject was. An econo* 
miam animaUm inter et vegetalem analogia ? and it is, in fact, a 
concise, elegant, and perspicuous exposition of what was positively 
known at that period respecting the structure and functions of ve- 
getables, and a comparison of them with the phenomena of animal 
life. The manner in which this question is treated was evidently 
a brilliant outset for a young man of twenty-two ; and when Le- 
monnier, then professor of botany, became unable to attend at the Roy- 
al garden, in consequence of the duties entailed on him by his situa- 
tion as first Physician to the King, Bernard de Jussieu propoaed 
his nephew as his substitute, which was agreed to. Antoine- 
Lanrent de Jussieu then devoted himself, with renewed ardour, to 
the study of that branch of science which he was thus called upon 
to teach. 

The memoir on the family Ranunculi, which he read to the Aca- 
demy of Sciences in 1773) proves how speedily he had turned his 
studies to some account, and how thoroughly his mind was imba- 
ed with the excellent principles, which, as above-mentioned, had 
evidently directed Bernard de Jussieu in his attempts at natural 
classification. 

In this memoir, which procured for its author admission into the 
Academy of Sciences, and in a second memoir, presented the follow- 



Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. 299 

11^ year, on the new arrangement of plants in the royal garden at 
Paris, we find> for the first time, the fundamental principles of the 
natnral method explained with perspicuity and precision. We there 
find a just appreciation of the grand principles of subordination of 
characters, and their unequal value ; a principle unknown to Linn6 
and Adanson, evidently recognized by Bernard de Jussieu, but of 
which Laurent de Jussieu was the first to perceive the full import- 
ance, and he afterwards applied it with singular judgment. 

Thus, in the first of the above-mentioned memoirs, we find this 
passage: 

** We have seen, by some general principles developed in this 
memoir, the affinity which exists between the parts of fractifica-i 
lion ; in this affinity dififerent degrees are perceptible : all these 
characters have not the same value, or the same efficacy in uniting 
or separating plants. Some are primitive, essential, and invariable, 
such as the number of the lobes of the embryo, its situation in the 
grain, the position of the calyx and of the pistil, the attachment of 
the corolla and stamens; these serve for the principal divisions. 
The others are secondary ; they are sometimes variable, but never be- 
come essential^ nnless when their existence is connected with that of 
some of the preceding, and it is their assemblage which distinguishes 
the families" 

Such, then^ from the date of 1773» were the fundamental prin- 
dples by which Antoine-Iiaurent de Jussieu was guided in drawing 
up the Genera Plantamm. They are expressed with much preci- 
doo ; and if he sometimes deviates from them, it may be perceiv* 
ed that he does so as a concession to facility of study, or to the old 
systems, rather than from real conviction. Thus in the memoir 
read in 177^ on the new arrangement in the Garden of Plants, he 
has evidently departed from the rigorous principle of the insertions, 
as Bernard de Jussieu had admitted them in the catalogues of Tri- 
anon, by dividing the dicotyledones into apetales, monopetales, and 
polypetales ; but we have only to read his memoir to perceive, that 
his only object was to multiply the great classes, and to establish 
some relations between the new order and the method of Toume* 
fort which it replaced, and which was generally known, not only to 
the pupils, but to the majority of the botanists of that era. We 
most not therefore loae sight of the origin of this part of Jussieu's 
dacsification when we wish to appreciate the method followed in 
the Genera Plantarum, which does not sensibly differ from it. 

From this period up to 17^> Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu always 
arranged the plants in the botanic garden according to this method. 



aOO Historical Notice of 

The lists used in bis demonstrations, worn out by use, often renew- 
ed, covered with notes and additions, and at last presenting not 
only tbe list of the genera and species cultivated, but the characters 
of the families and most frequently those of the genera concisely 
and perspicuously indicated, — all shew that these eleven yearn 
were diligently employed in bringing his natural method nearer 
perfection. From the year 1770, Bernard de Jussieu, now 71 
years of age, ceased entirely to take any charge of the garden, which 
he wholly entrusted to his nephew ; his health, and particularly his 
sight, became feeble, and in 1 777^ af^r having experienced several 
attacks of apoplexy, he finished his long career— -a career which 
had in reality so much influence on the progress of botany, although 
in appearance it had been productive of little. 

A comparison of dates will suffice to show what portions of the 
natural method, as explained in the Genera Plantarum of \^W» 
are due to Bernard de Jussieu, and what to his nephew. The ar- 
rangement at Trianon, formed in 17*^9, proves that the classification 
of the families according to the cotyledons and the insertion of the 
stamens, is due to Bernard de Jussieu ; Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, 
while studying this series, and receiving his early botanical educa- 
tion from his uncle, probably drew up the first principles of the 
science; but every thing proves that the influence of Bernard de 
Jussieu on the works of his nephew is limited to this. 

In fact, Bernard de Jussieu's three note-books relative to the order 
of the garden at Trianon, contain not a single character either of 
the classes, families, or genera ; there is not even an indication of 
any of the classes except those of the Monoootyledones and Dioo- 
tyledones. In his notes on the cards we find some generic charac- 
ters accompanied with sketches of the section of the seed ; but these 
cards, carefully preserved by his family, are fiar from numerous. 

This method of description on cards {carles) was followed by his 
nephew ; they are frequently dated, and amount to a great number 
in 1774. 

Finally, the oldest notes used in his demonstrations by Antoine- 
Laurent, bear the characters of the families, which are not found in 
any of those belonging to Bernard. 

Thus the first principles of the classification are due to Bernard 
de Jussieu, but the profound and sagacious application of these 
principles and the true institution of the natural families are to be 
ascribed to Laurent. 

In 1785, Desfontaines succeeded Lemonnier, and A. L. de Jos- 
Bieu discontinued his demonstrations as the substitute of the latter. 



Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. 301 

He immediately oommenoed to draw up his Genera Planiarum se^ 
cundum ordines naturales disposita, which was nothing else than the 
deyelopement of the writings used in his demonstrations, and which 
he had heen hringing to perfection from the year 1774- The mate- 
rials prepared for the work, may, in foct, he seen in a catalogue of 
genera, to which is added a list of all the new genera indicated in 
recent works, and which were to he arranged in their proper order 
in the Genera when completed. 

The four years that intervened between 1785 and 1789 were 
thus employed in digesting the materials which were to enter into 
the composition of the Genera, and in the actual completion and 
printing of the work. The printing went on as the author drew it 
up, and yet the successive and definitive completion of the different 
parts led to no important error, so carefully had the general plan 
and the series of the genera been previously elaborated. 

The fifty years which have now nearly elapsed since the publica- 
tion of this work, and the numerous investigations of the natural 
method which have taken place since that period, allow us to regard 
the opinion of the learned world regarding it as the opinion of pos- 
terity, and this opinion is so general and so unanimous in its favour, 
that it would be fruitless to insist here upon its merit and import- 
ance. However, without presuming to form a judgment on what has 
been already determined by the most distinguished botanists of all 
countries, we may be permitted to inquire, to what kind of merit the 
Getiera of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu owes the influence it has ex- 
ercised, not only on the progress of botany, but likewise on that of 
every other branch of natural history. 

Up to the time of the publication of the Genera Planiarum, it 
may be said that the natural method had not entered the field of 
public inquiry. The series of Linn6 and Bernard de Jussieu, Y&rj 
incomplete, and merely nominal, had no other effect than suggesting 
some speculative reflections tx> men who were in a condition to guess 
at their principles. The work of Adanson, destitute of general 
principles, and destroying natural affinities in the majority of cases, 
was presented besides in a form which necessarily rendered it diffi- 
cult to consult, and afforded no opportunity for the author to ex- 
plain the reasons which led him to form such and such relations. 
Thus from the date of Xl^, the time when Adanson's Families of 
Plants were published, up to 1789 — a period of twenty-six years — 
the natural method had made no progress in the learned world. 
Neither in France nor in any other country had it acquired new fol- 

8 



a02 Historical Notice of 

lowers ; merely a passing glimpse had been obtained of it ; its nature 
was not yet demonstrated. 

The Genera of 1789 had> on the contrary^ a speedy influence on 
the direction of botanical studies. This influence was not indeed 
immediate^ for the public attention was then turned to events of 
high importance altogether foreign to science. But at the end of 
a few years the work had come almost into general use throughout 
France in public teaching, not only in the instructions of the fiusol- 
ties and the Garden of Plants at Paris, but also in the migority of 
the central schools, those foci of general and varied instruction which 
were too speedily destroyed. 

Of the botanical works in ordinary use, the Flore Frangaiae of 
Lamarck and of Decandolle, as well as many local floras, were ar- 
ranged according to this method, and made it more generally known ; 
and scarcely twenty years had elapsed, when an eminent botanist 
declared himself one of its most deyoted champions, and contributed 
materially to bring it to perfection. Since that time it has spread 
over Europe, and it may be even said the whole world. Its supe- 
riority over artificial methods is generally acknowledged, and the 
latter are now admitted only in their proper character, namely, as 
more or less convenient keys for opening a way to the nomenclature 
of vegetables. 

We may add, with Cuvier, that the influence of the Genera Plan* 
iarum is not confined to botany. Every branch of natural history, 
and zoology in particular, have derived benefit from the principles 
which guided Jussieu, and which he has so well explained in his 
admirable introduction ; and we are inclined to think that Covier, 
in expressing this opinion, founded it on his own experience, and 
that the principles alluded to regulated him in the changes he in- 
troduced into the xoological system. To exercise in a gradual and 
durable manner so positive and generally acknowledged an influence 
on the progress of science, a work must necessarily unite two diflTerent 
kinds of merit ; general ideas of a varied, important, and novel cha- 
racter, and as perfect an application as possible of these principles 
in all their details. These, in fact, are the qualities we find united 
in the Genera of Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu. The introduction, 
written in the most perspicuous and elegant Latin ever employed 
on scientific subjects, presents an exposition not only of the fun- 
damental principles of the natural method, but as perfect a view 
of the structure of vegetables as the existing state of botany per- 
mitted. 

The characters of the classes and families afibrd an opportunity 



Jntoine Laurent de Jumeu. 303 

for applying and developing these principles ; and the exactness, 
perspicuity, and precision of these characters, particularly such aa 
apply to the feiniilies, still authorize us, if we keep in mind the pe- 
riod when they were framed, to consider them as models which few 
authors have equalled, and none surpassed* 

Finally, the notes appended to the greater part of these femiliea 
form, perhap, that portion of the work which most evinces the 
judgment and extensive knowledge of the author. 

It was in them that he often corrected the artificial tendency 
wliich a linear series always assumes, that he pointed out the mul« 
tiplied relations of families to each other, and that he indicated the 
doubts left upon his mind by imperfect observations which he had 
been unable to verify, or which led to the presentiment of remote 
affinities, a foresight whicli greatly outstripped, so to speak, the 
actual state of the science. Many of the improvements subsequent- 
1 J introduced into the natural method, are in reality, foreseen or in* 
dicated either in these notes, or in the sectional divisions of the fa- 
niilies, w by a word placed at the end of the generic character. 

This last part of the work, the characters of the genera, consi- 
dered by some superficial authors as a simple compilation, is not in 
our estimation, the least remarkable feature of it. Certainly the 
TRTork would have presented, after the characters and notes on the 
families, a list of the genera comprised in each of these families, as 
eTery one has since done who has followed in the same track, and 
this of itself would have rendered an immense service to the science, 
and sufficed to elucidate the natural method. Yet, without gene* 
ric characters, a table of the families would have only been a sub- 
ject for study and reflection, and would not have been adapted to 
actual use, nor formed a manual, so to speak, for the botanist ; and 
the natural method would have been disseminated much more slow- 
ly among the learned. 

But in introducing generic characters, it may be asserted that 
they could not in general be taken by compilation, even from the 
moat esteemed works of the period ; for characters simply distinc- 
tive, suitable for an artificial system, would often be quite unadapt- 
ed to a natural method ; or a character which might appear trivial 
to the author of the former, might acquire great importance in the 
eyes of him who stlidies natural relations. Accordingly, the cha- 
racters of the Genera have been generally traced by the hand of 
Juasieu, either after nature, or after the published or manuscript de* 
scriptions of botanists in whom he could place confidence, and the 



304 Historical Notice of 

mention of the sources from which he has derived them> always en- 
ables DS to judge of their value. 

If the characters of the genera^ then, are partly a work of compi- 
lation, it is a kind of compilation which is indispensable in a pro- 
duction of this nature, and often requires more talent and discern- 
ment than direct observations. 

It may therefore be affirmed that the Genera Plantarum, pub- 
lished in 1789, was a work as perfect* in its execution as the state of 
botany admitted of, and this execution is entirely due to Antoine- 
Laurent de Jussieu. 

With regard to the principles of the classification, the fundamen- 
tal basis of the method^ they were the same as those explained by 
the author in his memoir on the series of plants in the garden of 
Paris ; that is to say, the same as those admitted by Bernard de Jua- 
sieu, and deduced from the number of the cotyledons, and the rela- 
tive insertion of the parts of the flower, to which were added such 
as are derived from the presence and structure of the corolla. 

The adoption of these characters, as the base of the first clas* 
sification of the dicotyledones, has perhaps contributed to interrupt 
the relations which Jussieu no doubt perceived to exist between the 
apetales and the polypetales, and in some rarer instances between 
the monopetales and these two last classes. But it is necessary on- 
ly to refer to the memoir above-mentioned, to perceive that the de* 
sire of multiplying the number of the classes, to render the natural 
method of more easy use, determined the author, in this instance, 
to depart from what he considered the rigorous principles of hia 
method. If any blame attaches to the author of the Genera rela- 
tively to the classification he has adopted, it arises, I conceive, from 
his having made this concession for the purpose of rendering his 
work of easier application ; for it is probable that the characters 
furnished by the corolla will one day be dispensed with, to a great- 
er or less extent ; and this, to appearance, will be the most import- 
ant modification which the method of the Genera Plantarum shall 
have undergone, although in reality it will merely consist in revert- 
ing to the original principles of the author. 

The public events which almost immediately succeeded the pub- 
lication of the Genera Plantarum, necessarily diverted the author's 
attention from his botanical studies. The period which elapsed be- 
tween I7B9 and 1800, was but little adapted to the peaceable study 
of natural history : Jussieu employed it in/endering himself useful 
both to his own species and to science, by lending his aid in improv- 
ing the hospitals^ and in organizing the museum of natural history. 



Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. 305 

In 1790^ he was nominated by his section member of the munici- 
pality of Paris^ and was entrusted, under that title, with the manage- 
ment of the city hospitals : he fulfilled these duties till the year 1792. 

In 1793, the garden of plants, or King's garden, was remodelled 
under the name of the museum of natural history. All the per- 
sons appointed, under dilTerent titles, to teach or take charge of the 
collections were raised to the rank of professors, and entrusted with 
the management of the establishment. M. de Juesieu who, like 
Vaillant and Bernard de Jussieu, had hitherto been merely a de- 
monstrator, was appointed, with the title of professor of rural botany, 
to teach that science in the country. He thus shared the task of 
teaching botany with his colleague Desfontaines ; and his herborito- 
tions, attended by a crowd of young students, and distinguished 
amateurs, contributed to spread a taste for the study, and to diifuse 
the enlightened principles which he had introduced into the science ; 
and his followers were predisposed to give a favourable reception 
to the latter, when they witnessed the simplicity and kindness of 
him who demonstrated them. 

Having been chosen successively by his colleagues to be director 
and treasurer in the administration of the museum, he rendered im- 
portant services to the establishment in these capacities, particular- 
ly at the difficult period of its reorganization, when, notwithstanding 
the obstacles which political events often opposed to the prosperity 
and even the existence of the museum, he found means, by his zeal 
and activity, to perform services of the highest advantage to it. 

He resumed the publication of his botanical researches when the 
Annales du Museum were commenced in 1802. 

Besides a series of notices on the history of the Museum of na- 
tural history, we find in the early volumes of this collection many 
memoirs on new or imperfectly described genera ; or on families which 
recent discoveries or more exact observations have enriched with 
new genera. Thus the Amaranth ee, the Nyctaginese, and the Ona- 
graritt were successively submitted to a new examination. 

It may be perceived that his object in these investigations was to 
bring the Genera Plantarum and the natural method nearer perfec- 
tion ; but this purpose became more evident in the fifth volume of 
the collection, in 1804, when he began to publish a series of me- 
moirs devoted to the examination of the general characters of the 
funilies derived from the fruit, and confirmed or rectified by the 
observations of Oaertner. He mentions at the same time the addi- 
tions which these families had received since the appearance of the 
Genera, and discusses questionable points of organization or synony- 



306 Historical Notice of 

my, always displaying remarkable skill in the examination of ob- 
scure genera, often ill described by their anthors, and whose struc- 
ture he refers to their true type with singular discrimination, as ap- 
pears from his decisions'having been almost invariably confirmed by 
more recent obserrations. 

This revision forms the subject of fifteen memoirs, published 
between the years 1804 and 1819, and embraces all the families of 
the apetalous, and monopetalous dicotyledones, as well as the epi- 
gynous, and hypogynous polypetales. 

Always desirous to complete the view of the vegetable kingdom 
presented in his Genera Plantanim, and to make that work keep 
pace with new discoveries and the progress of science, Jussieu pub« 
lished successively other memoirs, in which he established new 
genera, occasioned either by his having become better acquainted 
with their structure since the publication of his original work, or 
by the numerous discoveries resulting from recent scientific travels^ 
which had introduced into collections so many forms either wholly 
new, or associating with genera hitherto insulated, and which he 
had not therefore ventured to consider as the types of particular fa- 
milies. It was thus that the author of the Genera, by being the 
first to add to the edifice he had himself reared, showed that he 
considered it susceptible of modifications and improvements ; fbr^ 
like every one of an elevated mind, he was aware that the sciences 
are never stationary, and admitted that the natural method must 
become more perfect in proportion as botany becomes more extended. 

In this way he added to the families already established in 1789, 
those of the Iioaseae, the PassifioresB, the Monimiese, the Lobeli- 
acen, the Polygaleae, and the Paronychieie. Finally, many of these 
memoirs are occupied with the examination of obscure genera, whose 
relations to known genera and natural families could be with diffi- 
culty established ; of this description are the memoirs on the Pheli- 
p«a of Thunberg, the Hydropityon of Gsertner, many genera of 
the Laurines which ought to be united into one, and on different 
genera of Loureiro. Perhaps there are few memoirs of great ex- 
tent which evince more strikingly than these short notices, the ex* 
tensive knowledge and discrimination of Jussieu : we perceive at 
every instant how the appreciation of characters, their value, their 
subordination, or their incongruity, proved a safe guide to him in 
this difficult investigation. We there see disclosed, so to speak, the 
method he followed in ascertaining the alliances of numerous exotic 
genera, often very imperfectly known, and which he has almost al- 
ways succeeded in classing correctly in his immortal work. 



Antoine Laurent de Jusaieu* 307 

The last memoir published by Jossieu appeared in 1820^ in the 
sucteenth volume of the Memoirs of the Museum. It related to the 
family of the RubiacesBi, and presented all the genera arranged and 
described, afiter the manner the author intended to follow in a new 
edition of the Genera Planlarum, which he then projected^ and for 
i^hich he had constantly been employed in providing materials. This 
last work, published when he was seventy-two years of age, is worthy 
of its predecessor of 1789 : we find in it the same arrangement, 
the same distinctnessof ideas, the same simple and precise definitions. 
From this period Jussieu's sight became so weak that he was 
<»bliged to relinquish the examination of nature, and confine himself 
to studying the works of others. His only contributions to science 
are some articles inserted in the Dictionary of Natural Sciences, re- 
lating either to the families of plants, or such as are mentioned by 
travellers under their vulgar names, which he endeavours to refer 
to their proper genus or family. These consisted of materials collect- 
ed long before, and we still recognize in them a mind which joined 
a most extensive erudition to an intimate knowledge of nature. 

We ought also to mention the article on the natural method, in 
the same collection, published in 1824, in which the same skilful 
hand has given, with his usual perspicuity, the history of the natu-r 
ra] method in botany, and explained the principles on which it is 
founded. 

Finally, in the last years of his life, from the date of 1 826, his 
duties relative to the Museum of Natural History having been un« 
dertaken by a son worthy of such a father, he passed a great part 
of the year in the country, and divided his time between the read- 
ing of the most modern books on botany, and drawing up an analysis 
of such of his works as appeared to him of most utility to science. 

Codibining these recent discoveries with the knowledge he had 
acquired in the course of his long career, he made them the subject 
of a new edition of the introduction to his Genera Plantarum. 

In this proemium, which is written in the same pure and elegant 
latin as the first Introduction, we find some of the same ideas as he 
advanced in 1 789, particularly those on classification : but it at once 
appears that he was a stranger to none of the modern discoveries in 
anatomy and physiology, for he conceived that they all should con- 
cor in perfecting the natural method, the base of which should be 
formed by all the parts of the organization of vegetables. He was 
engaged almost to the close of his life in completing this work, which 
turned his attention to his past studies, and agreeably occupied his 
mind. But his sight had by this time become so weak that it could 
no longer direct his hand, and he was often obliged to employ the 



308 Notice of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. 

pen of another ; but this impediment did not make him discontinue 
his exertions. 

We conceive that this, the last work of so illnstrious a man, writ- 
ten when he was about 83 years of age, and yet worthy of the 
buthor's best days« will be read with interest by those who may have 
a desire to compare it with the introduction to the Genera of 1 789. 
It is besides an homage which ought to be rendered to the memory 
of an individual who has contributed much to the fame of our coun- 
try, to lay it before the public ; and we are happy to have it in our 
power to add it to the present notice.* 

If the labours of M. de Jussieu entitle him to a place in the first 
rank of savans, he may in addition be held up as a model for 
amenity of character. He was full of kindness to those who devot- 
ed themselves to the study of the sciences, and gave every encou- 
ragement to such as distinguished themselves in the pursuit. En- 
tirely devoted to the advancement of botany, and searching only for 
truth, he candidly acknowledged his own errors, and pointed out 
those of others without asperity. He was never drawn into the po- 
lemics of science : no example can be cited, either in his work or in 
his numerous memoirs, of a single word calculated to injure any of 
his contemporaries, and yet he was the means of advancing the sci- 
ence much more than those who have combated in support of their 
views. His were founded on truth, and needed no adventitious sup- 
port ; left to themselves they have gradually wrought their way into 
science, till they are now generally admitted. He had the happi- 
ness, therefore, to juin to the distinction he acquired by his sdenti- 
fic superiority, the friendship of all who were able to appreciate him ; 
and the young, to whom he was remarkably kind, entertained a 
most filial veneration for him. 

Surrounded by the marks of esteem and friendship, entirely de- 
voted to the study of the sciences, and never extending his ambition 
beyond this circle ; — Chappy in the bosom of a numerous feimily, and 
seeing himself survive, so to speak, in a son worthy to bear his name, 
and who had become even during his lifetime his colleague and suc- 
cessor, — ^he passed his long career in the enjoyment of a happiness 
which he owed as much to himself as to the circumstances in which 
he happened to be placed ; and at last, in the eighty-eighth year of his 
age, on the 15th September 1836, a short and not very painful disor- 
der brought to an easy termination a life which had been spent in so 
much usefulness and tranquillity. 

* It will appear in the same yolume of the Annales des Sciences Naturelles 
from which the above biographical notice has been extracted. 



Notes on the OmWwlogy of Norway. 309 

II. — Notes on the Ornithology of Norway. By W. C. Hbwit- 

80N, Esq. 

Having long imbed to explore the breeding places of tbose 
birds (periodical visitants of our shores) which leave us during the 
time of incubation, Norway was fixed upon as the country which we 
supposed most likely to gratify our hopes ; and, could we have pla- 
ced dependence on ornitholc^ical works, they would not have been 
disappointed. It seems however to have been, (as I fear it is still,) 
the custom with ornithologists to refer the breeding-places of those 
birds about which they know nothing either to Norway or some other 
northern country. Relying too much upon them, we had promised 
ourselves a long list of acquisitions, comprising nearly all the rarer 
British birds. On the other hand, all the books of travels in that 
country which we consulted agree in describing the scarcity of birds 
in the Norwegian forests. 

Never was a country in appearance more fitted as the resort of 
every class of birds, — ^with its extensive fiords,* — its numerous lakes 
and rivers, — ^its unbounded forests, — its mountains and marshes, — 
its lofty precipices, — ^and its unnumbered islands. 

For weeks we explored those ceaseless forests, over paths at one 
time the track of a mountain torrent, at another the margin of a 
lake or river, penetrating wilds untrodden except by the bear 
hunters, climbing in turn the tops of the snowy mountains, but with 
so little success that we ceased to carry our guns, — almost the only 
living creatures which we saw being the hosts of black ants with 
which the woods swarm, and by the tracks of which (as clearly de- 
fined as the footpath in our fields) they are everywhere intersected. 

The fieldfare was the only bird which we ever saw in abundance 
in the forest ; a thrush, a chaffinch, or a yellow-hammer, would some- 
times, though rarely, cross our way. 

Four- legged animals were alike rare ; no bear or wolf ever ap- 
peared to peril our path, and the total number of quadrupeds seen 
during our rambles consisted of three foxes, a hare, a few squirrels, 
a rat, and a mouse. 

With little better success we visited upwards of a hundred is- 
lands, and though they were each of them occupied by a few of the 
black-backed, heron, or common gulls, we never saw these, or any 
of the sea birds, (with the exception of the puffin, eider duck, and 
common guU,) in the same abundance that they are seen at the 
breeding places upon our own coasts. 

• Arms of the sea. 
VOL. II. N0> 10. X 



310 Notes on the OmWtoloffy of Norway, 

Anxious to arrive in Norway at the first breaking up of winter, 
we proposed to make the fieldfare our guide, and to take our de- 
parture about the same time ; it was not, therefore, without feelings 
of uneasiness that we watched its protracted stay upon our shores 
long after the blackbird and the thrush had been busied in incuba- 
tion. May had commenced, and yet the fieldfare tarried, and on 
the 6th we sailed, and on our passage out were overtaken by seve- 
ral small birds, which, after resting a few minutes on our rigging, 
shot rapidly ahead of us. The solan goose was observed during the 
whole time, and at the greatest distance from land. 

The weather on our arrival was bitter in the extreme, the day 
following was sunny and delightful, and in a few minutes walk 
from Drontheim we found ourselves on the borders of the forest, 
surrounded by the delicious notes of several of our own sweet 
songsters. 

With the exception of a few eagles, birds of prey were scarcely 
ever seen ; once or twice only we observed a species of buzzard, a 
harrier, and the hobby, while the kestrel and merlin were seen but a 
few times. 

Both the British eagles were, however, not unfrequent upon the 
coast, the white-tailed the more common of the two. Few of the 
large rocky islands were without them, to particular spots of which 
they seem to form an attachment, — daily taking their stand for hours 
together upon some points of rock to prune their feathers, or to sit 
in motionless inactivity. 

Mr John Hancock, who was one of our party, succeeded at mid- 
night in watching a white-tailed eagle to its eyrie, which was upon 
a ledge projecting from the side of a perpendicular precipice, and 
inaccessible. With much difficulty Mr B. Johnson and myself suc- 
ceeded in gaining a position above. In doing so we had climbed up 
a deep ravine, and had passed so near the nest, displacing fragments 
of the rock at every step, that we had given up all hopes of sur- 
prising the old bird ; and having laid down our guns beside us when 
the old bird left the nest, which had been hidden by a bush, and 
was not many yards below us, we were then holding on by one 
hand to tufts of grass to prevent our sliding down the oblique sur- 
face of the rock, and it was to no purpose that we discharged oar 
guns with the other. We could now discern an ef^ and a newly 
hatched young one. 

Whilst cne day wandering in the forest, we were attracted by 
the anxiety evinced during our loitering in the neighbourhood by a 
pair of merlins ; and although at home we only know them as breed- 



Notes on the Ornithology ofNoru>ay, 311 

ers on the ground upon the heaths of the norths we felt assured that 
their nest must be in one of the trees^ although we failed in our 
endeavours to find it. Of this I have now no doubts since I find by 
reference to Temminck that they breed in trees. 

Upon mentioning our surprise at the scarcity of the lai^r hawks, 
we were told that they were now breeding far in the country, re- 
mote from human dwelling places, and approachable only by seve- 
nd days journey over snow, and that they are seen only in the win- 
ter, or accompanied by the great eagle owl, following and feasting 
upon the amazing troops of the marmot, the periodical processions 
of which are so wonderful : — all the information we could learn re- 
specting them was, that they commonly come in the autumn, and 
that the ground for a great space is completely covered with them. 

Of the owls we only saw two alive, the great eagle-owl and 
the short-eared owl. Dead and nailed against the houses during 
the previous winter, we had frequently the mortification of seeing 
the former. 

The raven is in plenty upon the larger islands, and surprised us 
by its tameness, contrasting with most other birds of the country, 
and with its habits of extreme caution in our own. 

The hooded-crow is also abundant by the sea coast, in the rocks 
of which it breeds. One nest which we found was in the cliffs of a 
small island covered with sea gulls, in the very camp of its enemies, 
which unceasingly torment and harass it. 

The magpie is one of the most abundant, as well as most inte- 
resting, of the Norwegian birds, — noted for its sly cunning habits 
here, its altered demeanour there is the more remarkable. It is 
upon the most familiar terms with the inhabitants, picking dose 
about their doors, and sometimes walking inside their houses. It 
abounds in the town of Drontheim, making its nest upon the 
churches and warehouses. We saw as many as a dozen of them 
at one time seated upon the gravestones in the church-yard. Few 
form-houses are without several of them breeding under the eaves, 
their nests supported by the spout. In some trees close to houses, 
their nests were several feet in depth, the accumulation of years of 
undisturbed and quiet possession. 

The inhabitants of Norway pleased us very much by the kind 
feeling which they seemed to entertain towards them, as well as to 
moBt species of birds, often expressing a hope that we would not 
shoot many. Holes are cut in many of their buildings for the ad- 
mission of the starlings, and pieces of wood are nailed against them 
to support the nest of the house martin. At Christmas, that the 



312 Notes on Hie Omitliology of Norway. 

birds may share their festivities and enjoyments^ they place a sheaf 
of com at the end of their houses. 

The jay occurred once or twice. 

The starling (next to the fieldfare) is the moat abundant bird in 
the country, breeding in almost every house. 

Of the thrushes, the fieldfare is very common, although rather 
local, not generally dispersed through the forests, but occupying 
particular parts of them, to which it seems to return year after year, 
—nests of previous years being mixed amongst those of the present. 
In these localities it abounds, breeding in society. The nests (a 
hundred of which might be found in a very limited distance) are 
placed in the spruce fir, at distances from the ground varying from 
four to forty feet or upwards. They as well as the eggs very much 
resemble those of the blackbird ; the latter were often ^re, and not 
unfrequently six in number. Their hurried flight from tree to tree, 
and their loud harsh cries, very soon point out their locality. Mr 
Swainson, in an article on the nests of birds in Lardner's Cyclope- 
dia, in order to support a rule laid down by him, that all insectivo- 
rous birds are solitary builders, states that the fieldfares are never 
known to breed together. In this statement, as I have shown above, 
lie is quite mistaken. How does he reconcile the habits of the houae 
and sand martins to this rule ? They (especially the latter) are not 
solitary builders. 

The redwing was but seldom seen, and then perched upon the 
summit of one of the highest trees, pouring forth its delightfully 
wild note. It was always very shy, and upon seeing our approach 
would drop suddenly from its height, and disappear amongst the 
underwood. Its nest, which we twice found with young ones, (al- 
though our unceasing endeavours to obtain its eggs were {niitless,) 
was similar to that of the fieldfare, but nearer the ground. 

The redwing is called the nightingale of Norway, and well it de- 
ser^'es the name. 

The song thrush and the blackbird were occasionally seen. The 
ring ouzel often, frequenting many of the wooded rocks, and enliven- 
ing the most bleak and desolate islands with its sweet song. It 
shares with the redwing the name of nightingale, and often delight- 
ed us in our midnight visits amongst the islands. 

The water ouzel was noticed a few times. 

Of the swallow tribe, the swift and the swallow were 83ldom seen. 
The house martin was in the greatest numbers, breeding in the lof« 
ty rocks, through which the celebrated archway at Forghattan pas- 
ses. The sand martin was breeding unmolested in the waUs of 



Notes an the Ornithology of Norway. OltS 

the town of Drontheim^ at an elevation of two or three feet only from 
the ground. The house martin was the only species which wasob- 
aenred beyond 65^ noith. 

Of the flycatchers we saw both the British species^ though seldom. 

The whiterump and the whinchat were amongst the most nume- 
rous of the small birds in those limited parts which are clear of 
wood. 

We noticed also the redbreast^ the redstart, and the blue-throat- 
ed warbler, the sedge warbler, the blackcap, the white-throat, the 
chiff chaff, and the willow wren, the latter upon the islands, as far 
north as the Arctic Circle, from the coppices of which we were 
sometimes delighted by its soft sweet song. The golden crested- 
wren, the greater, blue, marsh, cole, and long-tailed titmice. Of the 
wagtails, the pied and neglected. Of the larks, the skylark, and 
of the pipits, the meadow, rock, and tree species. 

Of the buntings, the yellow, black-headed, and snow buntings. 
The latter was in its beautiful summer plumage, of black and white. 
We found a single nest with young under some loose stones. 

The house sparrow was very local, and confined to a few farm- 
houses at a distance from each other. 

The chaffinch we saw throughout the whole of the inland district 
which we traversed. The mountain finch at one place only, where 
it was breeding. The siskin, the lesser redpole, and the green lin« 
net seldom. The crossbill would now and then cross our road 
through the forest, but in such rapid flight,, that it required great 
exertion to keep pace with them as they passed from tree to tree, 
examining the cones of the pines. Of the parrot crossbill we obtain- 
ed two specimens. 

Of the green woodpecker, we saw several near one of the church- 
es, in the steeple of which (being of wood) they had bored several 
holes in which to deposit their eggs. In two instances only the 
great black woodpecker was seen at a distance, but so wild, that it 
was impossible to approach it. 

The welcome sound of the cuckoo was seldom heard. 

The periodical visits of the grouse (Tetraonid») to this country 
are very interesting. In one year the ptarmigan, which comprises 
two species, (Tetrao lagopus and saliceti,) and the black grouse 
(T. tetrix) abound in amazing numbers, breed around the houses 
of the natives, and are extremely tame. The next year probab- 
ly they are scarcely to be met with, The season we were there 
was unfortunately the year of scarcity ; and although we took infi- 
nite pains, and used every exertion to obtain the ptarmigan, it was 



314 Notes on the Ornithology of Norway. 

of no avail. Whether or not this part of Norway is supplied with 
birds emigrating from Russia or other parts of the continent^ or by 
more partial emigration from its own mountains, during the severe 
months of winter, I will not pretend to say. The previous winter 
had been such fw extreme mildness as was not remembered, so 
little snow having fallen that the sledges were useless, and the 
communication from the inland country cut off. 

The capercailzie we had only twice the satisfkction of seeing alive 
in the woods ; on the hospitable board of the merchants of Dron- 
theim more frequently. They are scarce and very difficult to pro* 
cure, and are only obtained by the natives with the greatest perse- 
verance, being nearly always shot with the rifle, and either daring 
the night or at the break of day : it is considered in consequence a 
very good night's work to bring down one. They breed in the 
mountainous parts of the forest far from any habitations, and it 
was with the greatest difficulty we could procure the eggs. They 
are very similar to those of our black grouse, but larger. The other 
species of game are the black grouse ; the British ptarmigan (T. 
lagopua,) ought scarcely to be included in a list which is intended 
to contain those birds only which we ourselves saw, not having met 
with a single specimen, although extremely abundant in some sea- 
sons. Of the willow grouse (T. saliceti) we shot a pair upon one 
of the larger islands ; they were remarkably tame, and could not be 
urged to take flight. 

The note of the corncrake was once or twice heard. 

The golden plover and the dotterel were in small Hocks upon the 
patches of cultivated land. The ring-dotterel often upon the sea 
shore, the colouring of a specimen which we shot appeared to us 
unusually bright and beautiful ; indeed, we ebsenred this with regard 
to several of the birds which we shot while there. Of the waders, 
we noticed occasionally, the curlew, the whimbrel, the greenshank, 
redshank, ruff, dunlin and purple sandpiper. We were much amus- 
ed with what was to us quite new, with regard to some of the birds 
just mentioned. One day we were pursuing a bird of this class, 
and after hunting a marshy place towards which it had flown to no 
purpose, we discovered it, much to our astonishment, seated above our 
heads on the top of a taU tree. We found afterwards that it was 
a common practice with the redshank and the greenshank, and 
what surprised us more, the long legged curlew would frequently 
alight on the top of the pine forest, and would pass from tree to tree 
uttering its loud note. 

The oyster catcher was frequent everywhere. Numbers of them 



Notes on the Ornithology of Norway. 315 

were apparently idlers^ and flying together in flocks during the whole 
summer. 

We were rewarded for many a toilsome search by finding the 
nest and eggs of the tnrnstone. They were admirably sheltered 
from the many storms to which the bleak islands where they breed' 
are exposed^ being placed beneath the branches of the juniper 
boshes^ which creep closely along the surface of the rocks. We 
afterwards found several of their nests ; and it was an easy matter 
for us to ascertain (before landing) upon which island we should 
be snccessful in discovering another of their nests^ by the daring at- 
tacks they made upon any of the larger gulls which approached 
them. 

The coot was only once seen. 

The bean goose was rather numerous upon one of the huge islands 
near the Arctic Circle^ where it had been breeding during the pre* 
V10U8 month. 

Of the ducks we noticed the velvet duck, scoter, common wild 
duck, teal, widgeon, shieldrake, long-tailed duck, golden eye, and 
eider duck. The last mentioned by far the most numerous, breed- 
ing in great numbers upon some of the islands ; the male birds> 
which were floating around them in hundreds, together giving the 
sea a lively and most beautiful appearance. They ore a valuable 
property to the natives, and are in consequence strictly protected by 
them. U|N>n one island which we visited in company with the keep- 
er, the females were sitting in great numbers, and were so perfectly 
tame, and on such familiar terms with him, that they did not appear 
to be in the least disturbed whilst we stood by to look at them, and 
some of them would even allow him to stroke them on the back with 
his hand. 

Of the golden-eye we had the satisfaction to find a nest, and, for 
a bird of its habits, most singularly situated. It was in a tree, in 
a hole lately occupied by the great black woodpecker, at the height 
of ten or twelve feet from the ground, and so small that it was with 
difliculty we could insert the hand. 

Of the goosander we frequently observed small flocks, almost en- 
tirely male birds, accompanied rarely by one or two females. The 
females must have been breeding somewhere in the neighbourhood, 
but it was in vain that we made every search for the eggs. Upon 
inquiry of the best informed people, we were told that the females 
are never seen during the summer, nor until (accompanied by their 
young ones) they join the male birds in the autumn. 

The red-breasted merganser was frequent upon most of the lakes 



316 Notes on the Ornithology ofNonoay, 

and rivers^ laying its eggs under the shelter of the spruce fir tree^ 
either upon their margins or their numerous woody islands. 

The great northern and black-throated divers were seen, though 
rarely, in the fiords ; the red-throated diver often upon almost 
every piece of water. We frequently heard their loud singular 
scream in an evening at a great distance. 

The pretty black guillemot gave an interest to almost every island 
where crevices in the rocks or loose stones were to be found as 
breeding places. 

Amongst the numerous islands which we visited it is a singular 
fact that we never once saw either the common guillemot, the razor- 
bill, or the kittiwake, — all birds the most frequent upon our own 
coast. This was owing, no doubt, to the scarcity of those rocks which, 
rising perpendicularly from the water's edge, afford them the ne- 
cessary security. 

The puffin was alike rare, except upon one island, where they 
abounded in incredible numbers. The island rose in its centre to 
the height of several hundred feet, one side being composed entire- 
ly of rocks and large stones, piled upon each other in the wildesit 
confusion, and under these the puffin was breeding, and so nume- 
rous were they, that we could distinctly see them the evening before, 
from the hut in which we took up our night's residence, although 
at the distance of upwards of a mile. Whilst scrambling over the 
rocks, we could hear them beneath us uttering a most singular groan- 
ing kind of sound. They would frequently start from under our feet, 
and join the dense throng which was unceasingly passing around us. 
It was a sight which astonished at the same time that it delighted 
us. I had never before seen so many kinds of one spedes together, 
and probably their numbers are scarcely exceeded by the combined 
numbers of guillemots and gulls which frequent one of the largest 
breeding places upon our coast. We seated ourselves upon the rocks 
to enjoy the scene, and numbers of them settled near us, forming 
themselves into the most beautiful groups ; every rock or large stone 
was covered with them, and hundreds were at the same time within 
the range of our guns ; some were seated low upon the whole of the 
foot, others erect upon the toes only ; some struck out their crops, 
and strutted about exactly in the manner of pigeons. 
Of the terns, the arctic was the only species we noticed. 
Of the gulls, the greater and lesser black-backed, the heron, 
and the common gull were numerous, the latter especially upon one 
island, the owner of which had laid up a store of their eggs for win- 



On the British Cerastia. 317 

ter's consumption, consisting of about 2000, from which we had the 
pleasure of selecting specimens for our cabinets. 

Some of the arctic gulls (Lestris) passed over us. apparently on 
their way further north. The Lestris Richardsonii was abundant, 
one or two pairs breeding upon almost every island. Birds in the 
different states of plumage being indiscriminately associated toge- 
ther, the many nests which we found were in turns the property 
either of two white-breasted birds, of two entirely of a uniform 
dark colour, or of a pair consisting of one of each. 



III. — The British Cerastia : a Suppiement to a former Essay. By 
C.C.Babimoton, F. L.S.,&c. Plate IX. Continued from p. 204. 

Cerastiuh Atrovirens — ^Leaves broadly ovate, petals much 
shorter than the calyx, sepals lanceolate-acute covered with glan- 
dular hairs their apex and margins narrowly membranous, bracteie 
herbaceous, capsule obovate or subcylindrical shorter than the 
calyx, fruit-bearing peduncles two or three times as long as the 
calyx and erect. 

The whole plant of a dark-green colour, and covered with short 
very viscid pubescence. Root small, fibrous. Stems numerous, 
ascending repeatedly forked, bearing a flower in each fork. Leaves 
very broadly ovate, somewhat pointed, the lower ones narrowed in- 
to a broad petiole, the others sessile. Flowers scattered, one in the 
axil of each fork of the stem, all their parts arranged in fours. Pe- 
duncles two or three times as long as the calyx, always straight and 
erect. BractesB totally without any membranous margin. Sepals 
lanceolate, acute, covered with short glandular hairs, with narrow 
membranous mai^ns and apex. Petals about half the length of 
the calyx. Capsule almost always opening with eight teeth in con- 
formity with the quaternary structure of the flower ; in one in- 
stance I observed ten teeth remarkably short, never as long as the 
calyx, and usually about half its length, obovate, or subcylindrical, 
inflated below, and slightly curved towards the top, always erect, 
and never forming an angle with its peduncle. Seeds rather large, 
chestnut-brown, compressed and tuberculated. 

Gathered by Dr G. Johnston on old walls in the immediate vi« 
cinity of Berwick-upon-Tweed, flowering in May and June. 

This plant is very nearly allied to C. tetrandrum, from which it 
diflPers by not having an herbaceous line extending to the apex of 
the sepals, its very short capsules, erect, that is, not reflexed fruit, 
and the total want of a membranous margin to the bracten. It is 



318 Oe the Britidi Cerattia. 

distinguished from C. pumilum by the same characters, (the mem* 
branous apex of the sepals excepted,) in addition by the shortness 
of its petals, its dispersed flowers, and long peduncles. From C. 
pedunculatnm, with which it agrees in its dispersed flowers and glu- 
tinous pubescence, it may be distinguished by its difference of ha- 
bit, much larger and nearly orbicular foliage, shorter internodes, to- 
tal want of a membranous margin to the bracteae, and short capsules. 
N. B. This species ought to have followed C. teirandrum, describ- 
ed in my former paper on the Cerastia, p. 201, Vol. ii. 

Plate IX. Fig. 1, C. atrovirens, natural size; the figure drawn 
from a dried specimen. Fig. 2, A leaf from a fresh specimen. 
Fig. 3, The flower. Fig, 4, The capsule and styles from a new 
blown flower. Fig. 5, The capsule open and full of ripened seeds. 
Fig. 6, The same, but older. Fig. 7, A seed. Fig. 8, A petal. 
These figures are all magnified more or less.' 

C. P0MILUM, Curt. — Leaves ovate-lanceolate, petals about as 
long as the calyx, sepals lanceolate acute their apex and margins 
narrowly membranous, bractese herbaceous with a very narrow mem- 
branous margin, capsule cylindrical slightly curved upwards and 
longer than the calyx, fruit- bearing peduncles reflexed and scarce- 
ly longer than the calyx. 

C. pumilum, Curl. FL Lond, ii. t. 92. Reichen. FL excurt. 4969. 

C. semidecandrum, S. Smith, Eng. FL ii. 331. 

The whole plant covered, in my specimens, with short viscid pu- 
bescence. Stems prostrate and ascending, branching at the root, 
but nearly simple afterwards. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, small, the 
lower ones narrowed into a broad petiole, the others sessile. Flow- 
ers aggregated into small terminal dichotomous corymbs. Pedun- 
cles very short, when bearing ^it reflexed, and scarcely exceeding 
the length of the calyx. Bractese with a very slight membranous 
margin. Sepals lanceolate-acute, with narrow membranous mar- 
gins and apices. Petals nearly as long as the calyx. Capsule usual- 
ly much longer than the calyx, but only slightly so in some few 
cases, cylindrical and slightly curved upwards, reflexed together 
with its peduncle. Seeds tuberculated. 

Near Croydon. Mr Dickson. 

Having recently obtained, through the kindness of the Rev. T. 
Oisbome, some authentic specimens of the C. pumilum of Curtis, 
which were given to him by Mr Dickson, its original discoverer, I 
have been able to determine this little known plant. In general 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 319 

appearance it closely resembles C. semidecandrum, but is at once 
distinguished by its very slightly membranous bracteae and reflex- 
ed fruit. It is probably C. semidecandrum of Loiseleur, FL Gall. i. 



IV. — The Natural History of British Zoophytes. By George 
Johnston, M. D., Fellow of the Royal College of 5urgeons of 
Edinburgh. (Continued from Vol. i. p. 447.) 

Class— ZOOPHYTA, Solander. 

(Polypes, Cuvier, — Polypi, Lamarck. — Z. polypifera, Grant.) 
Order I. Htoroida. 

Character. — Polypes compound, rarely siThgle and naked, the 
mouth encircled with roughish filiform tentacula ; stomach without 
proper parietes ; intestine ; anus ; reproductive gemmules pul- 
lulating from the body and naked, or contained in external vesicles. 

Polypidoms homytfisttdar, more or less phytoidal^fixed, exter- 

not. 

"As for your pretty little seed-cups or vases, they are a sweet 
confirmation of the pleasure Nature seems to take in superadding an 
elegance of form to most of her works, wherever you find them. How 
poor and bungling are all the imitations of art ! When I have the 
pleasure of seeing you next, we will sit down, nay kneel down if you 
will, and admire these things."* Thus did Hogarth — our great mo- 
ral painter — write to Ellis in evident reference to the zoophytes of 
the present order ; and he must indeed be more than ordinarily dull 
and insensate who can examine them without catching some of the 
enthusiasm of the artist. They excell all other zoophytical produc- 
tions in delicacy and the graceful arrangement of their forms, some 
borrowing the character of the prettiest marine plants, others assum- 
ing the semblance of the ostrich-plume, while the variety and ele- 
gance exhibited in the figures and sculpture of their miniature cups 
and chalices is only limited by the number of their species. 

The Hydroida vary from a few lines to upwards of a foot in height. 
They are all, with the exception of the hydra or fresh-water polype, 
marine productions, and are found attached to rocks, shells, sea-weed, 
other corallines, and to various shell-fish. Many of them appear to 
be indiscriminate in their choice of the object, but others again make 
a decided preference. Thus Thuiaria thuja prefers the valves of old 
shells, Thoa helecina is more partial to the larger univalves, Antennu- 



* Lin. Corresp. Vol. ii. p. 44. 



320 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 



laria antennina grows on rocks, Campanuiaria geniculata delights to 
cover the hroad frond of the tangle with a isAvy forest peopled with 
its myriads of husy polypes, while the Sertularia pumila rather loves 
the more common and coarser wracks. The choice may in part be 
dependent on their habits, for such as are destined to live in shallow 
water, or on a shore exposed by the reflux of every tide, are in gene- 
ral vegetable parasites ; while the species which spring up in the deep 
. seas must select between rocks, corallines or shells, the depths at 
which they are found being too great for the vegetation of sea-weed.* 
The pcJypidoms are confervoid and more or less divided, the ra- 
mifications being disposed in a variety of elegant plant>like forms. 
The stem and branches are alike in texture, slender, horny, fistular, 




* Lamouroux says, — " We find some polypidoms placed always on the south- 
ern slopes of rocks and never on that towards the east, west, or north. Others, 
on the contrary, grow only on these exposures, and never on the south. Some- 
tiroes their position is varied according to latitude, and the shores inclined to- 
wards the south, in temperate or cold countries, produce the same species as 
the northern exposures in equatorial regions : in general their branches appear 
directed towards the main sea." — Corall. Flex, hitrod. p. L. 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 321 

and almost always jointed at short and regular intervals, the joint be- 
ing a mere break in the continuity of the sheath without any cha- 
racter of a proper hinge, and evidently formed by regular periodical 
interruptions in the growth of the polypidoms. Along their sides, or 
at the extremities, we find the denticles or cup-like cells of the poly* 
pes arranged in a determinate order, either sessile or elevated on a 
stalk, (Fig. a.) Though of the same substance^ the cell is something 
more than a simple expansion of the stem or branch, for near its base 
there is a distinct partition or diaphra^ on which the body of the 
polype rests, with a plain or tubulous perforation in the centre through 
which the connection between the individual polype and the common 
medullary pulp is retained, (Fig. b.) * Besides the cells there are found, 
at certain seasons, a larger sort of vesicles, readily distinguished from 
the others by their size and the irregularity of their distribution. — 
The more robust tribes grow erect, and, being flexible and elastic, 
yield readily to the waves and currents ; but some of the very deli- 
cate species avoid a shock for which they are unequal by creeping 
along the surface. 

The polypidoms, when dried, are for the most part of a yellowish 
or horn colour. " When they are immersed in water, they recover 
the same form they appeared in when iresh in the sea ; and soon be- 
come filled with the liquid. This gives them a semitransparent amber 
colour, and makes them Yerj elastic." f Their material appears to 
be analogous to horn or condensed albumen, which is moulded into 
a homogeneous investing sheath, in which no vessels or cells indicat- 
ing a definite organization can be detect ed.^ It seems to be in fact a 
sort of hardened epidermis, at first in contact and partial adhesion 
with the living interior pulp, from which it is subsequently detach- 
ed, in the natural progress of its consolidation, by a process of shrivel- 
ling in the soft matter, and by the motions and efforts of the polypes 
themselves. § 

The polypes are placed in the cells within which, with the excep- 
tion of the Tubularise, they can hide themselves entirely when danger 
threatens. When at rest and in their native sites, they expand their 
tentacula and push them far beyond the rim of their cups, in readi- 
ness to arrest any small worm or crustaceous insect which may float 
within their circle. These tentacula are always simple but rough- 
ish, (Fig. c,) and in the centre of the disk round which they arearrang- 

* Lister, in Phil. Trans. 1834, p. 371. f Ellis, English Corallines, p. 3. 

I The contrary is maintained by Link, and it appears by Cavolini and 
Schweigger, who assert that they have seen vessels ramified in the stems and 
branches of Sertulariadie. — Ann. des. Sc. Nat. Part. Bot* V. ii.p. 321. 

§ See Lister's Observations in Phil. Trans. 1834, p. 374. 



322 Natural History of British Zoophytes. 

ed we perceive the oral aperture fd^J leading to a stomadiical cavity 
without intestine or other chylopoetick viscus. The body is somewhat 
globular, soft and irritable ; and it is prolonged posteriorly down the 
stalk or tube to be united with the central pulp which fills the brandies 
and stem, fe,J so that in this manner all the polypes of the same 
polypidom are connected together by a living thread, and constitute 
a &mily whose objects and interests are identical, and whose work- 
ings are all regulated by one harmonious instinct : 

" Unoonsdous, not unworthy, instruments, 

By which a hand invifiible was rearing 

A new creation in the secret deep." 

Or if, with Linnaeus and Cuvier, we suppose that the polypes of 
every polypidom constitute only one body or individual, this may be 
described as a sort of hydra divided, after the manner of a tree, into 
many or innumerable branches, from each of which pullulate one or 
more armed heads to capture and digest the prey that is to serve for 
the nutriment of their common trunk. 

The reproductive gemmules of Tubularia and Coryne are generated 
in the interior and extruded near the base of the tentacula ; but in 
all the other genera they are produced in external vesicles, which 
were therefore appropriately named by Ellis the ovaries, and which 
we have already mentioned as being larger than the cells and irregn- 
lar in their distribution* They are produced at certain seasons only, 
most commonly in spring, and fall off after the maturity and dischaige 
of their contents.* The number of the gemmules in each vesicle, and 
ibeir shape, varies in every species. In the vesicle they are con- 
nected to a central placentular column, though there are some ex- 
ceptions to this, and when mature they escape outwards by a disrup- 
tion or fall of the lid which closes the top, being extruded in suc- 
cession and, in some cases at least, after intervals of some hours. 
From the observations of Professor Grant, it appears to be proved 
that, after their discharge, the ova move about for some time in the 
water by the vibrations of minute cilia, but having in due course set- 
tled on a proper site, they throw out, in the manner of a vegetable 
seed, a root-like fibre to fix themselves, and then push up a shoot as 
a commencement to the future polypidom. Polype-cells and polypes 
are rapidly evolved on the sides of this shoot, and nourishment being 
now received from an external source, and circulating through the 

* So that*Hedwig'8 anom, adopted by M. Virey, '' that the reproductive or- 
gans of animals are continuous with the life of the individual, while the repro- 
ductive organs of perennial plants, when their functions have been performed, 
are thrown off, and replaced in the succeeding season by others," — must be re- 
ceived with some limitations See Tiedcmann's Comp. Physiology, p. 76 



Natural Hiitory of British Zoophytes. 923 

whole animal, there is not merely an upward growth, but creeping 
tubes, " full of the same living medullary substance with the rest of 
the body/' are projected from the base along the surface of the object 
of fixture. '< These tubes not only secure it from the motion of the 
waves, but likewise from these rise other young animals or corallines, 
which growing up like the former, with their proper heads or organs 
to procure food, send out other adhering tubes from below, with a 
further increase qf these many-headed branched animals ; so that in 
a short time a whole grove of vesicular coraUines is formed, as we 
find them on oysters, and other shell- fish, when we drag for them in 
deep water."* 

There are many facts which prove that the growth of these poly- 
pidoms is very rapid, but not more so than might be anticipated when 
it is remembered how vast is the number of polype architects ; and 
no sooner is a new branch extended than it becomes almost simul- 
taneously a support of new workers which, with " toil unwearyable," 
add incessantly to the materials of increase. Their duration is vari- 
ous : some have only a summer's existence, as Campanularia genicu- 
lata ; many are probably annual, and the epiphyllous kinds cannot at 
most prolong their term beyond that of the weed on which they 
grow ; but such as attach themselves to rocks are probably less pe* 
rishable, for their size and consistency seem to indicate a greater age : 
it is thus with the Tubularis and some of the compound Sertulariadae. 

But the life of the polypes considered abstractedly is probably in 
no instance ooetaneous with the duration of the polypidom, for the 
lower parts of this become, after a time, empty of pulp and lifeless, 
and lose the cells inhabited by the polypes, which, in an old speci- 
men, are to be found in a state of activity only near the summit, or 
on the new shoots. The Thuiaria thuja affords a remarkable example 
of this fact ; the branches which carry the polypes dropping off in 
regular succession as younger ones are successively formed, so that 
the polypidom retains, throughout its whole growth, the appearance 
of a bottle brush, the naked stem and the branched top being kept in 
every stage in a due proportion to each other. Sertularia argentea, 
Plumularia falcata, &c. are subjected to the same law, — the primary 
poljpiferous shoots being deciduous, so that in them also the stalk 
becomes bare, while the upper parts are graced with a luxuriant rami- 
fication loaded with tiny architects. But in our eagerness to genera- 
lize, let us not forget that there are some species, as Sertularia pumila, 
abietina, &c, in which this process of successive denudation is not ob- 
servable, perhaps, however, because of their form, which is not of a 

* Rllis and Solander's Zoophytes, p. 33. 



324 Natural History of British Zoophytes* 

kind to be altered hj it, and hence unnoticeable, or because the dnra- 
tion of the whole is too fugitive to permit the law to produce a yi- 
sible effect. 

There are facts which appear to prove that the life of the indivi- 
dual polypes is even more transitory than their own cells ; that like 
a blossom they bud and blow and fall off or are absorbed, when an- 
other sprouts up from the medullary pulp to occupy the very cell of 
its predecessor, and in its turn to give way and be replaced by an- 
other. When speaking of flexible corallines Lamouroux says, " Some 
there are that are entirely covered with polypi through the summer 
and autumn, but they perish with the cold of winter: no sooner^ 
however, has the sun resumed his revivifying influence than new 
animals are developed, and fresh branches are produced upon the old 
ones" * Of the Tubularia indivisa, Sir John G. Dalyell tells us that 
'' the head is deciduous, falling in general soon after recovery from 
the sea. It is regenerated at intervals of from ten days to several 
weeks, but with the number of external organs successively diminish- 
ing, though the stem is always elongated. It seems to rise wiUun 
this tubular stem from below, aud to be dependent on the presence 
of the internal tenacious matter with which the tube is occupied. A 
head springs from the remaining stem, cut over very near the root ; 
and a redundance of heads may be obtained from artificial sections, 
apparently beyond the ordinary provisions of nature. Thus twenty- 
two heads were produced through the course of 550 days, from three 
sections of a single stem." f The observations of Mr Harvey on the 
same, or a very nearly allied, species of zoophyte confirm the expe- 
riments of Sir J. G. Dalyell, so far as these have reference to the 
deciduousness of the polypes and their regeneration;]: and it seems 

* Corall. Flex. p. xvi. 

f Edin. New Phil Joum. xvii. p. 415. 

j: '* The most singular circumstance attending the growth of this animal, and 
which I discovered entirely by accident, remains to be mentioned. After I bad 
kept the clusters in a large bowl for two days, I observed the animals to droop 
and look unhealthy. On the third day the heads were all thrown off, and lying 
on the bottom of the vessel ; all the pink colouring matter was deposited in the 
form of a cloud, and when it liad stood quietly for two days, it became a very 
fine powder. Thinking that the tubes were dead I was going to throw them 
away, but 1 happened to be under the necessity of quitting home for two days, 
and on my return I found a thin transparent film being protruded from the 
top of every tube : I then changed the water every day, and in three days time 
every tube had a small body reproduced upon it. The only difference that I can 
discover in the structure of the young from the old heads, consists in the new 
ones wanting the small red papilla, and in the absence of all colour in the ani- 
mal." — Proceed. Zool. Soc. No. 41, p. 55. 

4 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 325 

to me not altogether unwarrantable to infer a like temporary exist- 
ence and reviyal in those of the Sertulariadse from a reflection on the 
experiments of Mr Lister, — ^incomplete certainly, but which prove 
that under certain circumstances their polypes disappear by a pro- 
cess of internal absorption,* and under convenient circumstances 
would have been renovated, as I have witnessed in similar expe- 
riments, f Had these singfular facts been known to Linnaeus, how 
eagerly and effectively would be have impressed them into the sup- 
port of his favourite theory I Like the flowers of the field the heads 
or " flores" of these polypidoms expand their petalloid arms, which 
after a time fall like blighted blossoms off a tree ; — they do be- 
come '^ old in their youth," and rendered hebetous and unfit for duty 
or ornament by age or accident, the common trunk throws them off^ 
and supplies its wants by ever-young and vigorous growths. " Ad- 
miranda tibi levium spectacula rerum." The phenomena are of those 
which justly challenge admiration and excuse a sober scepticism, so 
alien are they to all we are accustomed to observe in more familiar 
organisms ; but besides that faithful observation renders the facts un- 
deniable, a reflection on the history of the Hydra might almost have 
led us to anticipate such events in the life of these zoophytes. 
<< Verily for mine owne part, the more I looke into Nature's workes, 
the sooner am I induced to beleeve of her even those things that 
seem incredible." 

I arrange the British species of this order under the following fa- 
milies and genera : 

Family I. HYDRAID^. 
Polypes viviparous, the young ptUlulcUing from the body qf the 

parent. 
L Hydra. Polypes naked, single, locomotive. 

• Phil. Trans. 1884, p. 374, 376. 

t On Saturday, May 28th 1837, a spedinen of Campanularia gelatinosa was 
procured from the shore, and after having ascertained that the polypes were ac- 
tive and entire, it was placed in a saucer of sea- water. Here it remained un- 
disturbed until Monday afternoon, when all the polypes had disappeared. Some 
cells were emp^ or nearly so, others were half- filled with the wasted body of 
the polype, which had lost, however, every vestige of the tentacula. The water 
had become putrid, and the specimen was therefore removed to another vessel 
with pure water, and again set aside. On examining it on the Thursday (June 
Ist) the cells were evidently filling again, although no tentacula were visibly 
protruded, but on the afternoon of Friday (June 2d) every cell had its polype 
complete, and displayed in the greatest perfection. 

VOL. II. NO. 10, Y 



826 Natural History of British Zoophytes. 

FamUyll. TUBULARIADiE. 
Polypes gemmiparouSi the gemmules ntiked, pullulating from tht 
bases of the tentacula. 
• No Polypidom. 
2- GoRTNB. Polypes naked, the tentocula filifonn. 

3. Hbrmia. Polypes tunicated, the tentacak with glandular tips. 

** A distinct polypidom, 

4. TuBUi<ABiA. Polypes not retractile within cells : Polypidoms 
fistular, simple or branched. 

Family III. SERTULARIADiE. 
Polypes gemmiparouSf the gemmules enclosed in emtemal ocarian 
persistent vesicles scattered on the polypidom* 
* Polype-cells sessile. 

5. Tboa. Cells indistinct, tubular, the simple extremities of the 
interwoven branchlets. 

6. Sbbtulabia. Cells biserial, short, erect, the apertures everted. 

7. TauiABiA. Cells biserial, imbedded, the apertures looking for- 
ward. 

8« Plum UL A HI A. Cells uniserial ; the branchlets plumose or 
pectinate. 

9. Antbnnularia. Cells uniserial ; the branchlets whorled. 

* Polype-cells on ringed stalks. 

10. Campanularia. Cells campanulate. 

I. HYDRAID^. 
I. Hydra, Linnnus. 
Character. — Polypes locomotive, single, naked, gelatinous, sub- 
cylindrical, but very contrttctile, the mouth encircled with a single 
series of granuhus filiform tentacula, 

L H. viRiDis, grass'green ; body cylindrical or insensibly fiar- 
rowed downwards ; tentacula 6 — 10, shorter than the body* (Fig. 
Vol. i. p. 280.) 

Polypes verds, Trembiey, Mem. 22, pi. 1. fig. 1 ; pi. 8, fig. 1—10 

Fresh-Tvater Polypus, Trembley, in PhiL Trans. Abridg. viil. 02S. Fol- 

kes, in ibid. 676. pi. 17, and pi. 18, fig. 1—^ Hydra viiidis, £«. 

Faun. Suec. 367, No. 1283, Lin. Syst 1320. Mutt. Venn. I. ii. 13. 

Zool. Dan. prod. 230, No. 2768. Berk, Syn. i. 221. Ur^s Rutherg. 282. 

Turt, Gmel. iv. 691. Turt. Br. Faun. 218. Lam, Anim. s. Vert. iL 60. 

Stew. Elem. ii. 452. pi. 12, fig. 4, 5. Blumetibach's Man. 275. pi. 1, 

fig. 10. Bosc Vers ii. 274. Stark, [Elem. ii. 448. Woodward, in Mag. 

Nat Hist iii. 349, fig. 89. Roget, Bridgew. Treat i 162, fig. 59, and 

176 — 8, fig, 73—76. Adams on the Microscope, 399, pi. 21 » ^, 5. 

Carusy Comp. Anat tab. l.fig. 1 H. viridissima, PaU, Elench. 31. 



Natural Hiitary of British Zoophytes. 327 

Third sort of Polype, Baker, Polyp. 19 c. fig Le Polype vert, 

Cuv. Reg. Amm. iii. 295. L'Hydre verte, Blainv, ActinoL 494. pi. 

85, fig. J. 

Hah* Ponds and still waters, common throughout England, and 
the south of Scotland. In almost all the parishes in the vicinity of 
Glasgow, Ure. 

The poljpes of this species differ from the foUowing, <* not only 
in colour, hut likewise in their arms, which were much shorter in 
proportion to their bodies, capable of but little extension, and nar- 
rower at the root than the extremity, which is contrary to the 
other species. Their arms were so short, they could not clasp round 
a yery small and slender worm, but seemed only to pinch it fast, till 
they could master and devour it, which they did with as much greedi- 
ness as any. I imagined these polypes owed their green colour to 
some particular food, such as weeds, &c. and that they would lose it 
upon being kept to worms ; but I find myself mistaken, for they re- 
tain their greenness after some months as well as ever, and are now 
grown of a moderate size, extending sometimes three quarters of an 
inch ; their arms are also lengthened very much to what they were, 
and are oi a lighter green than the body, their number eight, nine, 
or ten. The tail is very little slenderer than the body, but more 
spread at the end than the tails of other kinds." — Baker. 

Pallas says that the offspring are produced from every part of the 
body, while Blainville thinks he has remarked that they shoot al- 
ways from the same place, <' au point de jonction de la partie creuse 
et de celle qui ne Test pas." Blainville is candid enough, however, 
to inform us that Professor Van der Hoeven had made some ob- 
servations adverse to his opinion ; and our own are certainly in ac- 
cordance with those of Pallas and of the Professor of Leyden. 

Trembley is careful to tell us that he discovered this species in 
June 1 740, nor can we smile at the particularity of the record when 
we remember that the discovery is the foundation of his immortal 
fiune. ^ It was first observed in England in the spring of 1743 by 
a Mr Du Cane of Essex. It appears to be a hardy animal. I have 
kept it for more than twelvemonths in a small vial of water un« 
changed during the whole of that time, and it remained lively, and 
bred freely, feeding on the minute Entomostraca confined with it, 
and which, propagating much more abundantly, furnished a good 
supply of what was evidently a fJEivourite food. 

2. H. VULGARIS, orange-hrottm or sometimes oil-green; body 
eylindraceous ; tentacula 7-12, aa long or longer than the body. 

* " Trembley (Abraham), de Geneve, n6 en 1710, mort en 1784 ; vamortel 
par le d^couverte de la reproduction du polype." Cuvier, Reg. Animal, iii. 422. 



328 Natural History of British Zoophytes, 

Polypes de la seoonde esp^ce, Tremh. Mem. pi. 1, fig. 2, 5; pi. 2. fig. 2; 
pi. 6. fig. 2 and 8; pi. 8. fig. 1—7 ; pi. 10. fig. 1—7 ; pL 11, 12, 18. 

figs. omn. partly copied in Adama, Micros. 399, pi. 21. fig. 6 Hydn 

vulgaris, PaU. Elench. aO. EUU and SolatuL Zoctph. 9 H. griset, 

Lin, Syst. 1320. Mu!L Zool. Dan. Prod. 230, No. 2784. Venn. I ii. 
14. Ure's Rutherg. 233. Berk. Syn. i. 222. Turt. GmeL iv. 692. 
Turt, Brit Faun. 218. Stew. Elem. ii. 452. Lam. Anim. s. Veit 
ii. 60. Bosc, Vers ii. 275. Stark, Elem. ii. 443. Templeton in Mag. 

Nat Hist ix. 418 H. bnuinea, TempUton, loc dt 417. fig. 56, 

First sort of Polype, Baker, Polyp. 17. c. fig L*Hydre commune, 

Blainv, Actinol. 495. 
Hab. Weedy ponds and slowly running waters. Probably com- 
mon in all parts of the kingdom. 

On comparing the descriptions of the authors quoted above, I am 
led to conclude that this species is either subject to much variety, 
or that two species have been confounded together, and given rise 
to a discrepancy which seems otherwise irreconcileable. My own 
experience inclines me to the latter supposition, but since I have 
had no opportunities of making observations on specimens from dif- 
ferent and distant localities, I deem it more prudent to indicate what 
appear to be two species as only varieties of the vulgaris, untfl the 
point can be settled by more leisured naturalists. 

Var. a, aurantia, liglU reddish'hroum or orange-coloured; tenia- 
cula not longer than the body, Plate X. Fig. 1. 

Var. h, grisea, light olive-green; tentacula paler and longer than 
the body, Plate X. Fig. 2. 

The first is by much the commoner, and does not exceed the H. 
viridis in size, which it resembles also in its habits and form. It is 
always of an orange, brown, or red colour, the intensity of the tint de- 
pending on the nature of the food, on the state of the creature's re- 
pletion, becoming even blood-red when fed upon the small crimson 
worms and larvae which usually abound in its haimts.* The teota- 
cula in all my specimens have, never exceeded the length of the body, 
are usuaUy seven or eight in number, and taper to the point insensi- 
bly. Every part of the body is generative of young, which may fre- 
quently be seen hanging from the parent at the same time in different 
stages of their growth. Bakers figure represents this variety very well. 
The second is a larger animal and comparatively rare, less sensible 
to external impressions, and of a more gracile form. Its colour is a 
dilute olive-green with paler tentacula, which are considerably longer 
than the body, and hang like silken threads in the water, waving to 
and fro without assuming that regular circular disposition which they 

* " I have found a bright red Hydra rather abundant on Putney Heath, near 
London. It does not much differ, except in colour, from the green one." /. £> 
Gray in lit. May 6, 1803. See Trembley*s Mem. p. 47, and 128. 



r 



Natural History of British Zoophytes, 329 

c ommonly do in the H. yiridiR. I ha^e not observed more than one 
young at a time, pullulating from near the middle of the body, and 
after this has attained a certain growth, the polype has the appearance 
of being dicbotomously divided. 

Dr Fleming's Hydra vulgaris, Brit. Anim. 553, embraces this and 
the preceding, as well as the following species, which are considered 
the mere variations of one protean original ;-^ 
" Fiacies non omnibus una, 
Nee diversa tamen :'* — 
but the conviction of their permanent distinctness has been forced 
upon me by a long continuous observation of individuals in a state o^ 
confinement. Had, however, personal observation been awanting, the 
same conclusion would have been willingly adopted on the paramount 
authorities of Trembley and Baker, who bad very carefully studied 
these creatures ; and Pallas speaks very decidedly to the same purport. 
'* Species Hydrse a Linnseo * pro varietatibus habitas, a Raeselio pri- 
mum bene determinates adoptavi, cum de trium priorum constantia, 
propria me experientia certissimum reddiderit." — Blench, 29. 

3. H. FUSCA, broum or griseous ; inferior half of the body sud- 
denly attenuated; tentacula several times longer than the body. 

Polypes i long bras, Tremb, Mem. pL 1. fig. 3, 4, 6; pi. 2. fig. 1, 3, 4; pi. 
8, fig. 11 ; pi. 5, fig. 1-4 ; pi. 6, fig. 3-7, 9, 10 ; pi. 8. fig. 8, 11 ; pi. 9. 
copied in Adamsy Micros. 399, pi. 21, fig. 7, 8 ; pi. 23, A. B ; pi. 24, A, 

B. fig. omnes. Cuv, Reg. Anim. iii. 295 Long armed fresh -water 

Polype, EUist Corall. xvi. pi. 28. fig. C. (the tentacula shortened for the 

conveniency of introducing them within the size of the plate.) Second 

sort of Polype, Batter^ Polyp. 18 c. fig. Hydra oligactis, PalL Elench. 

29 H. fusca, Lin. Syst. 1320. ElUa and Soland, Zooph. 9. Berk, 

Syn. i, 221. Turt, Gmel. iv. 691. Turt, Brit. Faun. 2ia Stew, Elem. 

ii. 452. Lam. Anim. s. Vert. ii. 60. Boac Vers, ii. 275 L'H. 

brune, Blainv, Actinol. 495. 
Hab, Still waters in England, rare. In a pond at Hackney, Mi' 
John BUicot, t 

<< The tails of these are long, slender and transparent, and when 
placed before the microscope, a long straight gut may plainly be dis- 
tinguished passing from the body-part or stomach to an opening at 
the end thereof. These are rather lighter coloured than the former, 
(H. Yulgaris,) and have seldom more than six or eight arms, but those 
capable of great extension." — Baker, 

Baker reckoned that his English exemplers were of a sort different 
from those he had received from M . Trembley, but the only apparent 

* In the 10th edit of Syst. Nat. p. 816, under the name of Hydra Polypus, 
f Elected F. R. S. Oct 26, 1738 ; and the author of several papers on sub. 

jects in Natural Philosophy, published in the Phil. Trans, between the years 

1745 and 1750. He was a watch-maker, and died in 1772. 



^ I 



330 Natural History of BritUh Zoophytes. 

difference liei in the greater shortness of the tentacnk of the former, 
and this is a character liable to considerable variation, and insuffideDt 
of itself for specific distinction. The species has been beantifullj il- 
lustrated, in Trembley's " M ^moires," by the pencil and graver oi the 
celebrated Ljonet, for it is an interesting &ct that all the fignres, and 
most of the plates, which adorn the admirable book just mentioned, 
were drawn and etched by the author of the ** Traits anatomiqne de 
la chenille du saule,"* and are indeed among the very eariiest speci- 
mens of his extraordinary attainments in these arts. 

It may be worth while to call attention to the remarkable resem- 
blance of the Hydra fosca to the Cuculinnus cirratus of Muller, ZooL 
Dan. tab. 38, fig. 1-7, which is an intestinal worm ! 

4. H. VBRRUCOSA, p€de cinereous ; body pedunculate^ casnpani' 
form ; tentacula longer than the body, 

Hydia verrucosa, Templeion, in Mag. Nat Hist ix. 418, fig. 57. 

Hab- Still waters. " In the pond at Cranmore (near Belfiist,) 
Sept. 1812," J. TempletoHy Esq. 

" Of a pale cinereous hue, with six yerrucated tentacula, of mode- 
rate length, and nearly equal thickness." *' This species, when at 

rest, assumes more of a campanulate form than any other species of the 
genus, except lutea and the following. The warts are not uniformly 
diffused, as in pallens ; nor do the tentacula diminish much in size to- 
wards the tips.*' — Templeton, 

** Marine species. 

5. H.? LiTTORALis, '* fvkite ; head large; about 10 extremely 
short tentacula encircling the base" Robt. Jameson, f 

Hydra lutea ? Jameson, in Wern. Mem. i. 565 — H. lutea, JRem. Brit 

Anim. 554 — H. corynaria, Templeton, in Mag. Nat Hist ix. 419, fig. 58. 

Hob. Sea shore, adhering to Fuci. Frith of Forth, Professor 

Jameson. " Found adhering to Fucus yesiculosus, at White House 

Point, Belfiist Lough, Oct. 1810," J. Templeton, Esq. 

The figure represents a branched animal with enlarged clavate 
heads encircled round the truncate apex, with tentacula rather shorter 
than the diameter.-^To justify the change I have made in the name, 
it is only necessary to mention that nothing can be more certain than 

• " OuvTBge qui est a la fois le chef-d'oeuvre dc Tanatomie et celui de la gri- 
vure." — Cuvier. 

t The name affixed to the specific characters is that of the person who, so 
far as I have been able to ascertain the point, added the species to the British 
Fauna.-— Mr Jameson is the present Regius Professor of Natural History in the 
University of Edinburgh. 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 33 1 

that this species is not identical either with the Hydra lutea or cory- 
naria of Bosc 

Obs. Leawenhoek* discovered the Hydra in 1703, and the un- 
common way its young are produced, and an anonymous correspon- 
dent of the Royal Society made the same discovery in England ahout 
the same time, hut it excited no particular notice until Tremhley 
made known its wonderful properties, about the year 1744. These 
were so contrary to all former experience, and so repugnant to every 
established notion of animal life, that the scientific world were amaz- 
ed ; and while the more cautious among naturalists set themselves 
to verify what it was difficult to believe, there were many who looked 
upon the alleged fiu^ as impossible fiincies. The discoveries of 
Tremhley were, however, speedily confirmed ; and we are now so 
fiuniliar with the outlines of the history of the fresh-water polype, 
and its marvellous reproductive powers, that we can scarcely appre- 
ciate the vividness of the sensation felt when it was all novel and 
strange ; when the leading men of our learned societies were daily 
experimenting on these poor worms, and transmitting them to one 
another from distant countries, by careful posts, and as most precious 
gifts ; and when even ambassadors interested themselves in sending 
early intelligence of the engrossing theme to their respective courts. 

The Hydr» are found in firesh and, perhaps, also in salt waters, but 
the former species only have been examined with care, and are the 
objects of the following remarks. They prefer slowly running or al- 
most BtiU water, and fasten to the leaves and stalks of submerged 
plants hy their base, which seems to act as a sucker. The body is 
exceedingly contractile, and hence liable to many changes of form : 
when contracted it is like a tubercle, a minute top or button, and 
when extended it becomes a narrow cylinder, being ten or twelve times 
longer at one time than at another, the tentacula suffering changes in 
their length and diameter equal to those of the body. ** It can lengthen 
out or shorten its arms, without extending or contracting its body ; 
and can do the same by the body, without altering the length of its 
arms : both, however, &re usually moved together, at the same time 
and in the same direction." — The whole creature is apparently homo- 
geneous, composed of minute pellucid grains cohering by means of a 
transparent jelly, for even with a high magnifier no defined organi- 
sation of vessels and fibres can be detected. On the point opposite 
the base, and in the centre of the tentacula, we observe an aperture 

• « Antonius v. Leeuwenhoek, civis Delphensis, pcritua vitionim poUtor, 
cimo«u8, et ad paradoxas opiniones proaus." Haller, Bib. Bot. i. 583. He 
was bom 1632 ; elected P. R. S. January 1680 ; and died in 1723. 



382 Natural History of British Zoophytes. 

or mouth which leads into a wider cavity excavated aa it were in the 
midst of the jelly,* and from which a narrow canal is continued down 
to the sucker. When contracted, and also when folly extended, the 
body appears smooth and even, but " in its middle degree of exten- 
sion," the sides seem to be minutely crenulated, an effect probably of 
a wrinkling of the surface, although from this appearance Baker haa 
concluded that the Hydra is annuloae, or made up of a number of 
rings capable of being folded together or evolved, and hence, in some 
measure, its extraordinary ability of extending and contracting its 
parts.f That this view of the Hydra's structure is erroneous, Tremb- 
ley has proved 4 &nd the explanation it afforded of the animal's con- 
tractility was obviously unsatisfactory, for it was never pretended that 
such an anatomy could be detected in the tentacula, which, however, 
are equally or m<Nre contractile. These organs encircle the mouth 
and radiate in a star-like fashion, but they seem to originate a little 
under the lip, for the mouth is often protruded like a kind of small 
snout : they are cylindrical, linear or very slightly tapered, hollow 
and roughened, at short and regular intervals, with whorls of tuber- 
cles which, under the miscroscope, form a very beautiful and interest- 
ing object; and I have thought, when viewing them, that every lit- 
tle tubercle might be a cup or sucker similar to those which garnish 
the arms of the cuttle-fish. $ Trembley has shewn us that this is a 
deception, and that there is really no exactness in the comparison. ( 

* I^las denies this. ** Ab alimento recepto cavattt, inquam, baud enim Hy- 
droB corpus naturaliter intestini instar caFum crediderim. Totum sohdom et 
medullare, pro admoto alimento, cer» instari digitim admittentis, cavari condpio 
parenchyma et alimentis insinuatis sese circumfmidere. Qui ah'as per longi- 
tudinem dissecta Hydra, illico qualibet portione deglutire, et cavo dauso alimen- 
ta condere poasct? quod tamen observare rarum non est.** Elench. Zooph. 27, 
28. — For a view of the Hydra's stomach see Tremb. Mem. pi. 4, fig. 7, co- 
pied by Roget in his Bridgew. Treat ii. 74 fig. 241. 

-{- " The outward coat is white like the arms, and made up of minute oaimfi 
or ringlets, that double in the midst, and can, occasionally, be folded dose to- 
gether, in the manner of a paper lanthom." — Hist, of the Polype, 25. 

\ Mem. 27. 

§ Pallas has the same suggestion. Elench. 26. See also Roget's Bridgew. 
Treat, i. 182. — Baker says that '* two or three pretty long hairs" issue from each 
of the papilliB or tuberdes, p. 36. ; and Trembly has figured a short hair issuing 
from some of them, Mem. 62, pi. 5, fig. d. This appearance of hairs is, I pre- 
sume, produced by the glutinous secretion from them being drawn out into fine 
lines and drying on the glass. The tentacula probably adhere to foreign bodies 
prindpally by means of a mucous excretion, and bdng as it were engrained into 
the microscopic interstices of the body to which they are applied. — Tremb. 
Mem. 46. 

II Mem. lOa 



r 



-Natural History of British Zoophytes. 333 

The tentocnla are amazinglj extensible, from a line or less to one or, 
as in H. fnsca, to more than eight inches ; and '< another extraordi« 
nary circnmstance is, that a polype can extend an arm in any part 
of its whole length, without doing so throughout, and can swell or 
lessen its diameter, either at the root, at the extremity, in the mid- 
dle, or where it pleases : which occasions a great variety of appear- 
ances, making it sometimes terminate with a sharp point, and at other 
times blunt, knobbed, and thickest at the end, in the figure of a bob- 
Un." We naturally enquire how this wonderful extension is made, — 
by what power a part without muscularity is drawn out until it ex- 
ceeds by twenty or even by forty times the original length ? The 
dissections of Trembley have proved beyond any doubt that the body 
is a hollow cylinder or bowel, and that the tentacula are tubular and 
have a free communication with its cavity ;* and in this structure, 
combined with the loose granular composition of the animal, we find 
an answer to the question. , Water flows, let us say by suction^ into 
the stomach through the oral aperture, whence it is forced by the 
vis a tergo, or drawn by capillary attraction, into the canals of the 
tentacula, and its current outwards is sufiicient to push before it the 
soft yielding material of which they are composed, until at last the 
resistance of the living parts suffices to arrest the tiny flood, or the 
tube has become too fine in its bore for the admission of water attenu- 
ated to its smallest possible stream, — ^how inconceivable slender may 
indeed be imagined, but there is no thread fine enough to equal it, 
seeing that the tentacula of Hydra fusca in tension can be compared 
to nothing grosser than the scarce visible filament of the gossamer's 
web. 

The Hydra, though usually found attached, can nevertheless move 
from place to place^ which it does either by gliding with impercep- 
tible slowness on the base, or by stretching out the body and tenta- 
cula to the utmost, fixing the latter, and then contracting the body 
towards the point of fixture, loosening at the same time its hold with 
the base ; and by reversing these actions it can retrograde. Its or- 
dinary position seems to be pendant or nearly horizontal, hanging 
from some floating weed or leaf, or stretching from its sides. In a 
glass of water the creature will crawl up the sides of the vessel to 
the surface, and hang from it, sometimes with the base, and some- 
times with the tentacula downwards ; and again it will lay itself along 
horizontally .t Its locomotion is always very slow, and the disposi- 

• Mem. 12a-5; and 263. 

-f *• The position in which they appear to take most delight, is^that of remain- 
ing suspended from the surface of the water by means of the foot alone : and 



334 Natural History of British Zoophytes. 

tion of the zoophyte is evidently sedentary ; but the contractions and 
mutations of the body itself are sufficiently viyacious, while in seiz- 
ing and mastering its prey it is surprisingly nimble ; seizing a worm, 
to use the comparison of Baker, *< with as much eagerness as a cat 
catches a mouse/' It is dull and does not expand freely in the dark, 
but enjoys light, and hence undoubtedly the reason why we general- 
ly find the Hydra near the sur&ce and in shallow water. 

The Hydras are very voracious, feeding only on living animals,* but 
when necessary they can sustain a &8t of many weeks without other 
loes than what a paler colour may indicate. Small larvae, worms, 
and entomoetracous insects seem to be the favourite food, and to en- 
trap these they expand the tentacula to the utmost and spread them 
in every direction, moving them gently in the water to increase their 
chances, and when a worm, &c. touches any part of them it is im- 
mediately seized, carried to the mouth by these flexible and contrac- 
tile organs, and forced into the stomach. ** 'Tis a fine entertainment," 
says Baker, " to behold the dexterity of a polype in the mastering 
its prey, and observe with what art it evades and overcomes the su- 
perior strength or agility thereof. Many times, by way of experi- 
ment, I have put a large worm to the very extremity of a single arm, 
which has instantly fastened on it with its little invisible claspers. 
Then it has afforded me inexpressible pleasure, to see the polype 
poising and balancing the worm, with no less seeming caution and 
judgment than a skilful angler shows when he perceives a heavy 
fish at the end of a single hair-line, and fears it should break away. 
Contracting the arm that holds it, by very slow degrees, he brings 
it within the reach of his other arms, which eagerly clasping round 

this they effect in the following manner. When the flat surfiice of the foot is 
exposed for a short time to the air, above the surface of the water, it beoomes 
dry, and in this state exerts a repulsive action on the liquid, so that when drag- 
ged below the level of the surface, by the weight of the body, it still reauuns 
uncovered, and occupies the bottom of a cup-shaped hollow in the fluid, thereby 
receiving a degree of buoyancy, sufficient to suspend it at the surface. The 
principle is the same as that by which a dry needle is supported on water, in the 
boat -like hoUow which is formed by the cohesive force of the liquid, if cue be 
taken to lay the needle down very gently on the surface. If, while the Uydiais 
floating in this manner, suspended by the extremity of the foot, a drop of water 
be made to fall upon that part, so as to wet it, this hydrostatic power will he 
destroyed, and the animal will immediately sink to the bottom." — Roget, Bridgw. 
Tr. i. 179. This passage is nearly a literal translation from Trembley*s Hist 
des Polypes, p. 37-8. 

* In confinement, however, Trembley found that they might be fed on min- 
ced fish, beef, mutton, or veal.-.-Mem. 104. 



1 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 335 

it, and the danger of losing it being over, all the former caution and 
gentleness is laid aside, and it is palled to the polype's mouth with a 
surprising Tiolence/' * Sometimes it happens that two polypes will 
seize npon the same worm, when a straggle for the prey ensues, in 
which the stronger gains of coarse the victory ; or each polype begins 
quietly to swallow his portion, and continues to gulp down his half 
until the mouths of the pair near and come at length into actual con- 
tact. The rest which now ensues appears to prove that they are 
sensible of their untoward position, from which they are frequently 
liberated by the opportune break of the worm, when each obtains his 
share, but should the prey prove too tough, woe I to the unready ! 
The more resolute dilates the mouth to the requisite extent, and de- 
liberately swallows his opponent, sometimes partially, so as, however, 
to compel the discharge of the bait, while at other times the entire 
polype is engulped I But a polype is no fitting food to a polype, and 
his capacity of endurance saves him from this living tomb, ibr after a 
time, when the worm is sucked out of him, the sufferer is disgorged 
with no other loss than his dinner, t This &ct is the more remark- 
able when it is contrasted with the fate which awaits the worms on 
which they feed. No sooner are these laid hold upon than they evince 
every symptom of painful suffering, but their violent contortions are 
momentary and a certain death suddenly Jhilows their capture. How 
this e£fect is produced is mere matter of conjecture. Worms, in or- 
dinary circumstances, are most tenacious of life even under severe 
wounds, and hence one is inclined to suppose that there must be 
something eminently poisonous in the Hydra's grasp, as it is impos- 
sible to beUeve, with Baker, that this soft toothless creature can bite 
and inject a venom into the wound it gives. ** I have sometimes," 
says Baker, ^< forced a worm from a polype the instant it has been 
bitten, (at the expeuce of breaking off the polype's arms,) and have 
always observed it to die very soon afterwards, without one single 
instance of recovery ."{ To the Entomostraca, however, its touch is 

• Hist, of the Polype, 65. Alao Roget's Bridgw. Treat, li. 76. 

t Trembley, Mem. 112. 

\ Hist, of the Polype, 33 — comp. with 67-8. — " That insignificant and inac- 
tive insect called the fresh water polypus, of all poisonous animals, seems to 
possess the most powerful and active venom. Small water-worms, which the 
poljrpits is only able to attack, are so tenacious of life, that they may be cut to 
pieces without their seeming to receive any material injury, or to suffer much 
pain from the incisions. But the poison of the polypus instantly extinguishes 
every principle of life and motion. What is singular, the mouth or lips of the 
polypus have no sooner touched this worm than it expires. No wound, how- 
ever, is to be perceived in the dead animal. By experiments made with the 



336 Natural History of British Zoophytes. 

not equally faXjeXy for I have repeatedly seen Cyprides and Daphnise 
entangled in the tentacula and arrested for some considerable time, 
escape even from the very lips of the mouth, and swim about after- 
wards unharmed ; perhaps their shell may protect them from the 
poisonous excretion. — The g^rosser parts of the food, after some hours' 
digestion, are again ejected by the mouth ; but, as already mention- 
ed, the stomach is furnished with what in one sense, may be called 
an intestine to which, according to Trembley and Baker, there is an 
outlet in the centre of the base, and the latter asserts that he has, 
<< several times, seen the dung of the polype in little round pellets 
discharged at this outlet or anus."* 

But the Hydra is principaUy celebrated on account of its manner 
of propagation. It is of course like zoophytes in general, asexual ; 
and every individual possesses the faculty of continuing and multiply- 
ing its race, principally, however, by the process of subdivision. 
During the summer season, a small tubercle rises on the surface, 
which lengthens and enlarges every hour, and in a day or two de- 
velopes in irregular succession, or in successive pairs, % *a series of 
tentacula, and becomes in all respects, excepting size, similar to its 
parent. It remains attached for some time, and grows and feeds, and 
contracts and expands after the fashion of this parent, until it is at 
length thrown off by a sort of sloughing or exfoliation. These buda 
sprout, in the common species, from every part of the surfiu^e of the 
body, but not from the tentacula ; and very often two, three or four 
young may be seen depending at one time from the sides of the fruit- 
ful mother, in different stages of growth, every one playing its part 
independent of the others. They are evolved with rapidity in warm 
weather especially, and no sooner has one dropt off than another be- 
gins to germinate ; << and what is most extraordinary, the young ones 

best microscopes, it has been found, that the polypus is neither provided with 
teeth, nor any other instrument that could pierce the skin." Smellie's Phil of 
Nat History, ii. 462 — The fact that fishes cannot be made to swallow Hydne, 
seems to prove the presence of some irritating quality in the latter. — See Trem> 
bley, Mem. 187. 

• Lib. s. cit. 27. — He adds, — " Much the greater and grosser part of what 
the polype eats, is most certainly thrown out again by the mouth, after lying a 
proper time to become digested in the stomach : and, for a good while, I ima- 
gined there was no other evacuation ; but am now convinced, that the finer part, 
in small quantity, is carried downwards through the tail, and passed off that way. 
I believe, however, there is also another purpose to which this passage serves, 
and that is, to convey a mucus or slimy matter to the end of the tail, for its 
more ready adhesion to sticks, stalks, or other bodies/' 

t Baker's Hist. 35. 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 337 

themselres often breed others, and those others sometimes push out 
a third or fourth generation before the first fall off from the original 
parent." — Trembley found in one experiment that an indiyidual of 
H. grisea produced forty-five young in two months ; The average 
number per month in summer was twenty^ but as each of these be- 
gan to produce four or five days after its separation, the whole pro- 
duce of a month was prodigious. * 

<< No sooner is a young one furnished with arms, than it seizes and 
devours worms with all possible eagerness ; nor is it an unusual thing 
to behold the young one and the old one struggling for, and gorging 
different ends of the same worm together. Before the arms come out, 
and even sometime afterwards, a communication continues between 
the bodies of the old and young, as appears beyond dispute by the- 
swelling of either when the other is fed.f But a little before the 
young one separates, when its tail-end begins to look white, trans- 
parent, and slender, the passage between them, I believe, is closed. 
And when the young one comes away, there remains not the least 
mark where it had been protruded.*' — ** After a young polype once 
gets all its arms, it alters indeed in size, but neither appears to shift 
its skin, or undergo any of the changes most other insects do." j: 

Instead of buds or little protuberances, the body sometimes push- 
es forth single tentacula scattered irregularly over it, and these ten- 
tacula can be metamorphosed into perfect polypes, the base swelling 
out to become the body, which, again soon shoots out additional ten- 
tacula to the requisite number I § 

This is a mode of generation which the term viviparous does not 
correctly embrace, unless we give to that word a signification so ex- 
tensive as to include all generations which are not oviparous : It is 
an example of equivocal, or what some foreign physiologists deno- 
minate, the generation by the individualisation of a tissue previously 
or already organized, || — and seems to be the usual way of propaga-* 

* Mem. pour r Hist des Polypes, 174--5. Also Baker, lib. s. dt. 59--^. 

f By some clever dissections, Trembley demonstrated the reality of this com- 
munication. Mem. 161 — 2. 

\ Baker lib. s. cit. 50. § Baker ut cit IIOl— 11 : 121—3. 

II La g^n^radonn'est pas pour cela spontan^e : une giniraiionsporUanSe doit 
dtre la production d'un 6tre organist de toutes pieces, lorsque des 41^mens in- 
oiganiques se r^uniront pour produire un animal, une plante. Cette g^n^ration 
est impossible, et n'a jamais lieu. Une gMration Equivoque est celle oii des tis- 
sus organist pr^alablement par un dtre d^a pourvu de vie, sHndividualisent, 
c*est-a-dire se s^aient de la masse commune et participent encore, apr^s cette 
separation, de T^tat dynamique de la masse, c'est-i-dire de sa vie, mais, a son 
propre profit. C*est ainsi qu*un tissu produit un Entozoaire. C'est de la vie con- 
tinu^e.'*— Ch. Morrenin Ann. des Sc. Nat. an. 1836, Vol. vi. p. 90. ParU Zool 



338 Natural HUUny of BritUh Zoophytes, 

tion among the Hydne daring the summer months. But in autuma 
the Hydra generates internal oyiform gemmules which, extruded irora 
the body, lie during the winter in a quiescent state, and are stimulat- 
ed to evolution not until the return of spring and its genial weather. 
Few obserrations have been made on these apparent ora, so that their 
structure, their source, their manner of escape iix)m the body, and 
their condition during winter are scarcely known, Trembley de- 
scribes them as little spherical excrescences, of a white or yellow co- 
lour, attached to the body by a very short pedicle. He never saw 
more than three on the same polype. After sometime they became 
separate, and fell to the bottom of the glass of water in which the 
creatures were kept, where they came to nothing, excepting one only 
which was presumed to have evolved into a polype, for although 
his experiment renders this conclusion probable, it was still rather an 
inference than an actual observation, so much so, that Trembley con- 
tinued to entertain doubts of their nature. Jussieu, it seems, oon- 
ceived that each little excrescence was a vesicle filled with ova of 
microscopic minuteness, but there is no foundation for any such hy- 
pothesis.* 

These are the modes in which the Hydra naturally multiplies its 
kind, but it can be increased, as already hinted, by artificial sections 
of the body, in the same manner that a perennial plant can be by 
slips and shoots. If the body is halved in any direction, each half 
in a short time grows up a perfect Hydra ; if it is cut into four or 
eight, or even minced into forty piece8,f each continues alive and de- 
velopes a new animal, which is itself capable of being multiplied in 
the same extraordinary manner. If the section is made lengthways, 
so as to divide the body into two or more slips connected merely by 
the tail, they are speedily resoldered, like some heroes of fairy tale, 
into one perfect whole ; or if the pieces are kept asunder, each will 
become a polype, and thus we may have two or several polypes with 
only one tail between them ; but if the sections be made in the contrary 
direction — from the tail towards the tentacula — ^you produce a mon- 
ster with two or more bodies and one head. If the tentacula, — ^the 
organs by which they take their prey, and on which their existence 
might seem to depend, — are cut away, they are reproduced, and the 

• Trembley, Mem. 196—7. 

t " J*iii ouvert sur ma main un Polype, je I'ai 6tendu, et j*ai coup6 en tout 
sens la peau simple qu*il formoit, je l*ai reduit en petits morceaux, je Tai en 
quelque mani^re hach^. Ces petits morceaux de peau, tant ceux qui avoient 
des bras, que ceux qui n*en avoient point, sont devenus des Polypes parfBits.**-— 
Trembley, Mem. 248. 

3 



Natural History of British Zoophytes. 039 

lopt oiS parts remam not long without a new body : if only two or 
three tentacula are embraced in- the section, the result is the same ; 
and a single tentaculum will serve for the evolution of a complete 
creature. * When a piece is cut out of the body the wound speedily 
healsy and, as if excited by the stimulus of the knife, young polypes 
sprout from the wound more abundantly, and in preference to un- 
scarred parts ; when a polype is introduced by the tail into another's 
body, the two unite and form one individual ; and when a head is lopt 
off it may safely be ingrafted on the body of any other which may 
chance to want one. You may slit the animal up, and lay it out flat 
like a membrane, with impunity ; nay it may be turned inside out, 
so that the stomachal sur&oe shall become the epidermous, and yet 
continue to live and enjoy itself, f And the creature seems even to 
suffer very little by these apparently cruel operations, for before the 
lapse of many minutes, the upper half of a cross section will expand 
its tentacula and catch prey as usual ; and the two portions of a 
longitudinal division will, after an hour or two, take food and retain 
it. " A polype cut transversely, in three parts, requires four or five 
days in summer, and longer in cold weather, for the middle piece to 
produce a head and tail, and the tail part to get a body and head, 
which they both do in pretty much the same time. The head part 
always appears a perfect polype sooner than the rest. " <' And what 
is still more extraordinary, polypes produced in this manner grow 
much larger, and are far more prolific, in the way of their natural in- 
crease, than those that were never cut. It is very common, when a 
polype is divided transversely, to see a young one push out from one 
or other of the parts, and sometimes from both of them, in a very few 
hours after the operation has been performed : and, particularly from 
the tail part, two or three are frequently protruded in different places, 
and at different times, long before that part acquires a new head, and 
consequently whilst it can take in no fresh nourishment to supply 
them with : and yet the young ones proceeding from it, under these 

* From the experiments of Trembley, (Mem. 235,) of a correspondent of 
Baker's and of Baker himself, it would seem that a tentaculum cannot produce 
a new body, unless a part of the head or body is removed with it ( Hist 193-4,) ; 
but other experimentalists are said to have succeeded when this was not done. 
For the particulars stated in the text, and others equally incredible, the reader 
may consult the works of Trembley and Baker, passim, 

f Trembley had several by him '* that have remained turned in this manner ; 
their inside is become their outside, and their outside their inside : they eat, 
they grow, and they multiply, as if they had never been turned." — Phil. Trans. 
Abridg. viii. 627 ; and his Mem. 253, &c. 



340 On a Canfervoid State ofMitcor clavatus. 

disadvantages, thrive as fast, and seem as vigorcms as those produced 
by perfect and uncut polypes." • 

When such things were first announced — ^when to a little worm the 
attributes of angelic beings were assigned f — it is not wonderful that 
the vulgar disbelieved, albeit credulity may be their besetting sin, 
when even naturalists, fiuniliar with all the miracles of the insect 
world, were amazed and wist not what to do. << II faut" — exclaimed 
Reaumur — ^ il faut porter la foi humaine plus loin qu'il n'est permis 
k des hommes edair^, pour le croire sur le premier t^moignage de 
celui qui le raoonte, et assure Tavoir vu. Peut-on se resoudre ^ 
croire qu'il y ait dans la nature des animaux qu'on multiplie en les 
hachant, pour ainsi dire, par morceaux ?" X But this illustrious na- 
turalist was himself the first to promulgate, and experimentally to 
verify the discoveries of Abraham Trembley, which have been fully 
confirmed by many subsequent inquirers, and are now made so familiar 
to us by their admission into elementary works and treatises on na- 
tural theology, that we read of them with little surprise and without 
incredulousness. 

{To be continued.) 



V. — On a Cwtfervoid Slate ofMucor clamtus, LL By the Rev. 
M. J. Berkeley, M. A. F. L. S. 

Thouob great advance has of late years been made, not only iu 
the study, but in the manner of studying cryptogamic plants, it is 
plain from the pertinacious adherence of many botanists to their old 
habits of lookingrather to external and accidental, than to internal and 
essential characters, that there is much room for improvement. In 
consequence of this, mycology and other branches of cryptogamic 
botany are still overloaded with a mass of anomalous productions, 

* Baker, lib. s. cit 92, 9a 

t " ^i^ in every part, not as frail Man 
In entrails, heart or head, liver or veins. 
Cannot but by annihilating die ; 
Nor in their liquid texture mortal wound 
Receive, no more than can the fluid air : 
All heart they live, all head, all eye, all ear, 
— — — — and, as they please, 
They limb themselves, and colour, shape or size 
Assume, as likes them best." 

Milton. 
I Hist, des Insectes, vi. pref. 49. 

4 



On a Confervoid State ofMucor clavatuB. 341 

which are, in fact, nothing else but unusual or undeveloped states 
of different species. Hence we find amongst Algse certain states of 
various Fungi, Lichens, Mosses, and Ferns, while amongst Fungi 
we have the in^t state of many species (Mycelia) arranged under 
distinct genera. Indeed in the new system of Fungi which is now 
in the course of puMication, by Dr T. F. L. Nees ron Esenbeck, 
we still find such a genus as Himantia retained, though it is al- 
most impossible fw practical botanists not to observe the actual de- 
velopement of the productions of which it is formed into perfect Hy- 
menomyoetons Fungi. Again in a late number of a supplement 
to BuUiard, by M. Letellier, a new species of Oeoglossum is formed 
out of a state of one of the Mycelia, denominated by authors 
Osonium aurioomum, a state, it is to be observed, noticed long ago by 
Withering and Sir J. £. Smith. Many other instances might be 
noted in which such productions are either again enumerated as 
autonomous fungi, or new forms described. It is with great justice 
that Fries complains, that although he has again and again called 
the special attention of botanists to this point, his labour at present 
seems to have been all but useless. He expresses, however, his de- 
termination of persevering, and his conviction that his views will 
at length be adopted. 

No tribe has afforded more of such doubtful productions than the 
Mucedines, from many of the more common species being more or 
leas perfectly developed with such ease and celerity in various si- 
tuations and circumstances. The sporidia of many germinate in si- 
tuations in which their true habit is never assumed, in liquids for 
intftance ; and such imperfect states have been generally considered 
as Alge. The habit, indeed, of arranging these Mycelia or masked 
fungi amongst the algse had obtained some years since, such irre- 
sistible influence, that, aided by a habit of theonzing, M. Cams, 
though absolutely witnessing the curious forms assumed by the 
same species under different degrees of moisture, considered the 
circumstance as proof of the possibility of plants essentially belong- 
ing to one order giving origin to plants of an order entirely distinct, 
under a different adjustment of the elements. (Act. Nov. Leop. 
1823, t. 58.) Very lately a volume has been published, which at 
present I have only had an opportunity of casuaJly inspecting in the 
liibrary of M. Desmaxieres, on these confervoid forms of Mucedines, 
by Dr Biasoletto of Triest, in which they are considered as belong- 
ing to distinct genera of the order Algae. 

Having had the good fortune of witnessing the perfect develope- 

VOL. II. NO. 10. z 



1 



342 On a Confervaid State ofMuear davatus, 

ment of a very extraordinary production of this nature^ which on a 
slight inspection^ without carefully weighing its nature, had all the 
appearance of being a true Algae, I take an early opportunity of oom- 
muaicating the fsct which I hare witnessed, as a multiplication of 
ebserralions of this nature will alone induce cryptogamists general- 
ly to consider the matter in its true light. 

On the 17th of March a quantity of raisin wine was made in the 
usual manner, with the exception that hoOing water was used. The 
quantity, however, of water applied at once was not sufficient to 
communicate a high temperature to the mash. The weather which 
succeeded was so extremely cold that fermentation did not take 
place, and it was not convenient to place the tub in a proper tem- 
perature. In a few days the surface was spotted with white pat« 
ches of mould, which when perfectly developed proved to be Peni- 
cillium candidum, Lk. at least the plant was extremely small, and 
the sporidia never acquired any colour. Meanwhile a few oonfer* 
void tufts floating just beneath the surfiice became visible* This 
was first observed on the 1st of April, and in a few days the whole 
surface was coated with a thick scum, of the same colour as the li- 
quor, resembling a piece of cotton wadding immersed in it, or some 
of the more slender Confervse, such as C. sordida, when the green tint 
has passed away. This production was examined at the time, and 
found to consist of an intricate mass of branched threads, the 
iHranches being often set on at a right angle. Towards the base 
they were generally more or less unequal, very irregular, without 
articulations, giving out here and there, scattered or tnfied, more 
slender root-like branches. Towards the sur&ce, the threads be- 
came articulated, but varying extremely in the length and forms of 
the divisions, some being nearly cylindrical, and in length exceed- 
ing the diameter many times, while others were very much swollen, 
and often almost globular. Occasionally there seemed an effort to 
form a sporangium. All were filled with a pale grumous nudeoa, 
in which a few distinct granules were visible. Though resemUiog 
ConferviB in some points, I was convinced, from the irr^ularity in the 
manner of articulation, and from a certain indescribable haUt, that 
the plant before me was a state of some mould. The scum being re- 
moved was accordingly saved, but it underwent no further deve- 
lopement. As often, however, as the wine was deared, the produc- 
tion was again developed, without affecting very sensibly the taste 
or quality of the wine. Fermentation not taking place, the tub was 

4 



Oh a Confervoid State of Mucor clavattis. 343 

at length placed in a room in which a fire was constantly kept up^ 
the temperature being seldom below 60° of Fahrenheit^ and the 
patches soon became smaller, but indicated signs of fructification. 
It was in a short time clear that the plant was a state of AJucor 
davatus, Lk. which was further proved by the developement of that 
species upon the skins of the raisins, which had been thrown into a 
tub in which were some brewers' grains. It is curious that in this 
latter case there was scarcely any trace of a Mycelium. 

The Mycelium of the Penicillium before fructification, though 
more or less submerged, had little in it remarkable, consisting of 
extremely fine branched, articulated, pellucid threads. 

a. State of Mucor davatus, in outline, highly magnified, h, A 
pottion of the same to show the contents of the articulations, c. 
Perfect fertile threads, with sporangia and columella. 



C 344 ) 



REVIEWS AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS. 



Voyage Scientifique en Morfe, Ptais. Leyniilt. 

Wben it was determined to employ the combined arms of England 
and France in order to clear Greece of the remains of the barbaric 
race of Othman, the opportunity was not lost by the French go- 
yemment, and with the laudable zeal for science, which, amid the 
motley changes we have witnessed in these days, has nerer ceased to 
animate the various parties who have successively ruled at Paris, a 
sort of ambulant Institute, resembling on a smaller scale the cele- 
brated body which accompanied the Egyptian expedition, was fitted 
out, with a view to explore the classic and almost unwrought soil 
their arms were called on to visit. 

The result of the labours of this commission has been recently 
made public, and we shall proceed to analyse such parts of it as the 
nature of this publication permits. Although we must in candour 
say that we have risen irom the examination of it with a oonsidenble 
feeling of disappointment, and that when we consider the means at the 
disposal of the commission, the time devoted to it, and the power 
they possessed of perambulating a region of comparatively small extent, 
and perfectly accessible in every point ; as well as the vast advantage 
of visiting a country which, as far as natural science is concerned, 
with the exception of the botany of Sibthorp, might be said to be un- 
explored, we felt entitled to expect that more might, and in hct 
ought to have been done ; — nevertheless they have brought to light 
some very interesting fiicts, which we shall lay before our readers, fol- 
lowing the course of the publication itself. 

The work contains a sort of personal narrative of the parties en- 
gaged, a siunmary of the observations on mammalia, reptiles, insects, 
fishes, botany, geology, antiquities, statistics, and topography. There 
is a large volume filled with drawings and illustrations of varioui 
kinds, most of them well executed, and of great interest and value; 
but we certainly think that the many sheets occupied by landscape 

3 



Voyage Scientifique en Moree. 345 

views in fithography, although well executed, might have been ad- 
yantageonsly bestowed on objects of higher value, leaving these sub- 
jects of amatenr interest in the hands of private individuals, who 
would have been sure to avail themselves of the opportunity of pub* 
lishing them. Nearly a year was devoted to the expedition, which 
sailed from Toulon in January 1829, and returned in December of 
the same year, previous to which it had been suddenly stopped in its 
career by the dreadful pestilence of malaria, or marsh intermittent 
fever, which in all ages has infected the shores of Greece, and the • 
prevalence of which has been increased by the want of cultivation 
consequent on the invasion of the Mahometans. For this very se- 
rious result, we conceive some parties, either the government at 
home^ or those in immediate command of the commission, must have 
been very highly to blame. Every one who has the slightest knt>w* 
ledge of the Mediterranean is aware, that after the summer solstice 
the marshy shores of nearly the whole range on both sides is subject 
to this fever, which increases in force with the advance of the season, 
and attains its maximum of virulence in the beginning of September, 
after which it is checked by the rains, which in general fall from the 
lOth to the 1 8th of that month, and induce a salutary and beneficial, 
as well as most agreeable, change in the temperature. Not only the 
general precautions founded on the knowledge of this unvarying 
course of nature were unnoticed, but the common and unerring 
warnings of danger, the presence of myriads of musquitos, which as- 
sailed them in the deltas and marshes of Western Greece, were 
eqiially disregarded, until they were roused to the sense of their si- 
tuation by a simultaneous attack of nearly the whole party, which 
pot an abrupt termination to their proceedings, and compelled them 
to disperse and seek for safety in a more healthy climate. 

Now it is very clear, that, by the exercise of a little discretion and 
forethought, proper stations might have been selected, whence the 
observations could have been carried on according to the season with 
perfect safety, and, by changing place to the islands or to the elevated 
grounds during the worst period, examining the pestilential marshes 
at the proper time, better results would have been obtained, and the 
parties engaged saved from carrying, as we have no doubt some of 
them wilt, the remembrance of this improvident arrangement to pre- 
mature g^tives. 

The narrative, which occupies the first volume, is drawn up by M. 
Bory de St Vincent. In some parts the more remarkable animals 
they met with are mentioned, but in general it is entirely personal, 



346 Vintage Seientifique en Moree. 

containing the adoiixtiire <tf slight and superficial notices of the pastor- 
al and agricoltnral inhabitants of the conntiy* We were not surpris- 
ed to find their testimony respecting these people more fityonrable 
than might have been expected from the reputation the Greeks luiTe 
acquired at Smyrna, Constantinople, and other trading places, where 
the most disadyantageous oMnparisons are generally made between 
them and their former barbarian masters. In other respects, the 
drawing up of tiiis narrative gives no very fiivourable opinicm either 
of the liberality or knowledge of the author, on certain subjects he 
has the bad taste to introduce or rather parade before his read^s. 
He appears to be of that class of his countrymen who labour under 
what may be termed, " anglophobia," whidi became preyalenft in the 
time of the empire, having succeeded to the *' anglomanie" of the pe- 
riod prior to the revolution, and is so prevalent at present, notwith- 
standing the friendly temis we are on, that every candidate for public 
favour must make his profession of it, or be purified, according to 
the Spanish phrase, of any tendency to tiie older disease, — and we 
doubt not this seasoning of anglophol»a one cause for this volume 
running to a second edition, as we understand it has, the merits of 
the book itself bdng very small. The writer gives very unequivocal 
proof of his being of the modem school. He deplores, in a way to 
leave no doubt of his sincerity, the national arms being employed io 
ccmc^ with those <^ England. Every rock seems to suggest visions 
of occupation, and of goblins in the shape of British sailors and ma- 
rines taking permanent possession of them ;— -a strange commen- 
tary on the proceedings of his countrymen on the opposite coast of 
Africa I 

In one instance he travels quite out of his way, in speaking of the 
Greek Priests, to introduce an observation on our manners, which^ if 
it were founded on fact, would be totally misplaced in his work ; but 
happening to be quite the reverse, it shews not only the animus 
which dictated the insertion of it, but the utter ignorance as well as 
low and vulgar prejudices of the author. These observations may 
appear to be unnecessary here, and foreign to the subject we are 
writing on ; but they are by no means so. We are speaking of a 
public body, the elite of one of the leading members of tiie great 
republic of science, and it is not unimportant to uotice the ^irit 
in which these reports, which are in fact public property, are con- 
ducted. Independently of this there are other reasons. The same 
narrow and contracted views which have caused the introduction of 
these topics where they are quite uncalled for, infect various parts of the 



Voyage Sdentifique en Moree. 047 

body of the work itself. There is too visible a tendency to assume airs 
of exdusire intelligenoeiand reduce everything to the petty scale of the 
little cirde or clique which were brought together. <' Nous/' << un de 
noofs" &c occur rather too often, whilst the works of others, which 
might have assisted them, are either unnoticed, or mentioned so slight- 
ly» that it would appear to be the result of force, rather than irom 
that geneial republican feeling which ought to, animate those who 
hold prominent situations in the scientific body. We regret any ten- 
dency to this failing the more, from seeing its effect on our own lite- 
rary and scientific societies, the tendency in which this evil is so strong, 
and the difficulty so great, of avoiding the forming petty oligarchies, 
with their moment of splendour, followed by stagnation, twaddle and 
decay. It will be a real loss to the worl d, if this spirit (as it is beginning 
to be thought,) seize on the French ; but to themselves it will be still 
heavier, for it will entail the certain fidling from the ^' high estate" to 
which the great men who have lately departed had raised them. The lead 
once lost will not easily be regained. Of the littleness we complain of, 
one of the common forms is the fear of being '< devance," and the 
carefully abstaining irom any connection of the observations made by 
others in the corresponding zone of Europe, which, especially those on 
Italy and Dalmatia, might have been introduced in a work of this sort, 
where some general views of science might have been looked for, as well 
as the more isolated facts which came to their knowledge. As, how- 
ever, this appears not to have entered into the speculation of MM. de la 
Commission, we shall proceed to analyse the information which they 
have presented to us. 

Mammalia. — ^It would seem incredible that of the bats we should 
only have V. murinus and pipistrellus mentioned. In a country like 
Greece, which abounds in caverns and retreats suited to the genus, we 
looked for a very different result. The very treasuries of Atreus and 
Merigas, or the walls of Messene ahd the vaults of Megarpelia might 
have been ransacked, to extend the scanty list, in forming which we 
fear little attention has been paid. 

Traces of moles were observed, especially in the elevated table- 
lands which form the centre of the Morea, but the species was not 
aiade out. It is most probably the Aspalax or T. cceca of Savi. 
They are said to disappear during summer,— no doubt retiring to the 
marshes or to the depths of the shady forests, where the soil is easier 
to w<vk, and the fcxxl more abundant, than in the open grounds, which 
become indurated with the rays of the burning sun. 

The wild-cat, F. catus } is extremely common, especially in the cen- 



848 Voyage Scientifique en Meree. 

tral parts of the Morea, where they prey chiefly on partridges; bat «t 
some seasons they approach the isolated houses and seize the poultry. 
The species is said to resemble that of the centre of Europe, but 
in some degree to assimilate to one figured in the yoyage of Belanger 
to the East Indies, and called Felis rubiginosa, which they say has 
spots on the breast and sidos. We have carefully examined both the 
plates, which are quite unlike each other. The cat of Belanger is so 
badly represented that it is necessary to be told what animal it is 
meant to represent, and considerable doubts exist as to its being a 
genuine species, or more than the common cat of Madagascar. 

The plate in the present work is much better, and is totally differ^ 
ent from the other. From the looseness of the description, we are 
disposed to think that no very great attention has -been paid to the 
subject, and that the true species of the Morea remains to be more 
accurately described. We have a strong suspicion that it may turn 
out to be identical with a cat seen by the writer of this notice, in the 
Sierra de Cuenca in Spain. This species, of which he has only seen the 
indiridual specimen on which the observation was made, differs to- 
tally from that of the north and centre of Europe. The fur was red- 
dish, like some of the lynxes of the Alps, the back and head broadly 
striped, and the tail barred with black. The greatest peculiarity was 
in the ears, which were short and rounded, as if they had been dip- 
ped, and they scarcely stood above the fur. The head was round and 
the muzzle short, unlike the lynx and caracal, and the animal was 
possessed of very great strength. 

The zones or parallel of these localities nearly correspond with 
each other, and it is very probable, when a more accurate account is 
given of the cat of the Peloponnesus, that it may turn out to be si- 
milar to that of Cuenca—- respecting which we have written to Spain, 
and hope, when the country is in a more tranquil state, to have some 
further account. 

The lynx is not uncommon, and it is protected by the prejudices 
of the people, who believe that it is the deadly foe of the wolf, and 
assists in defending their flocks ! Most probably this popular error 
proceeds from their being seen engaged in conflict, to defend the prey 
they had taken, which the stronger and equally rapacious brute was 
desirous of appropriating to itself. We are left in ignorance of the 
species, from which it may be inferred that it is the common lynx of 
the centre and north of Europe. We should rather have expected to 
hear of the spotted variety, which we found to abound in the Sierra 
Morena, Felis pardina, or a variety of it ? This, the most beautiiiil 



Voyage Sdentifique en Moree. 349 

of the European quadrapeds, we have not seen in any collection. A 
skin yery nearly entire was sent by the writer to the British Museum^ 
bnt, not having been properly cured before it came into his possession, 
was destroyed in setting up. There can be little doubt, that if it be 
not found in the Morea, it may be looked for in the larger islands of 
the southern Archipelago. 

The wolf is very numerous, and were it not for the celebrated 
breed of Molossian dogs, which have lost none of their qualities, would 
render the keeping flocks of sheep extremely difficult. 

The fon is rery common in the Peloponnesus, as may be expected 
in a country of mountain fastnesses, and of forest and wooded ra- 
rines so well adapted to their habits. The species is not given, but 
they suppose it to be the same with that which inhabits the centre of 
Europe. We rather suppose, on the contrary, that this was not ascer- 
tained, owing to their being probably ignorant of the discovery of the 
Prince of Musignano, and that the Grecian fox is the C. melanogaster, 
or short- footed species, of that naturalist. 

The most important discovery made amongst the Mammalia by the 
Commission was that of the jackal, C. aureus, which not only inha- 
bits the Morea, but is extremely abundant there. . On one occasion 
their yelpings at night put the little camp on the alert, and they stood 
to arms as if expecting an attack. We are told this quite gravely ; and 
we cannot help contrasting the restless vigilance of our neighbours, 
bordering on timidity, which is a quality so valuable in war both by 
sea and land, with the habits of our own countrymen, in whom it is 
almost wholly wanting, often to the great prejudice of our arms ; and 
when once composed, we engage that a party of John Bull's family 
would require a much stronger stimulus to rouse them from their 
slumbers. 

We confess feeling rather a sense of humiliation, that, after the 
hordes of travellers we have sent annually, fit and unfit, to travel in 
Greece for the last twenty-five years, the curious fact of the ex- 
istence of the animal should have been left to the discovery of these 
gentlemen in 1829. 

We have a disquisition on the species, which it appears has en* 
gaged the attention of F. Cuvier, who has made out the following va- 
rieties : Caucasian, Nubian, Senegal, Algiers, and that of the Morea. 
As the distinctions of those of Algiers, Caucasus, and the Morea, ap- 
pear to be founded wholly on the colour, or rather shades of colour 
and length of fur, we are not disposed to concur in them, as the influ- 
ence of season, of age, or climate, will no doubt account for the appa- 



350 Voyage Sdentifiqye en Maree. 

rent differeooes^ especially as the obsorrations can only be noade on a 
comparatirely small number of indiridoals. 

The case is different with the species of Nnbia, which is jMxibablj 
identical with that of SenegaL The skin is spotted, and the ears are 
longer than in the northern race. 

We are now fitroured with a curions observation suggested by this 
peculiarity in the ears of the Nubian species. We are tM that the 
elongation is common, not only to the quadrupeds whidi inhabit the 
vicinity of the Zahara, or great desert, but to man also, and that the 
Bedouins, who belong to it, have the conch of the ear singularly long, 
differing from that in other races. We confess we were a little 
startled at the intelligence. Our first idea was, whether, if the be- 
ing born about the Zahara imparted such a peculiarity, the sojourning 
some time in the vicinity mig'ht not be followed by some elongation of 
the same part. Not findings however, that this was the case, and 
knowing that the Moorish Spaniards, whose ancestors came from the 
region in question, have remarkably small ears, unless, indeed, that pro- 
ceeded from their being removed from the locahty, our thoughts then 
turned very naturally to our old acquaintance Pan, and the Fauns with 
their auricular appendages. According to this theory, instead of be- 
ing natives of Mount Taygetus and Arcadia, their pedigree ought ra- 
ther to be Numidian or Mauhtanian. We wish the Commission had 
discussed the subject in the part of their work which is dedicated to 
the anci^it animals of the Peloponnesus ; and we strongly recommend 
the consideration of it to that portion of the Parisian savans, who 
devote many sittings to the affinities of the genus homo with some of 
the quadrumana. It might afford an interesting variety to these lec- 
tures, of which the auditory begin very naturally to complain. 

This fieu^t, if established, might be of considerable use in assisting 
the reform now carrying on so resolutely in the Ottoman dominions. 
It is known to those who have been in the East, or have attended to 
their peculiar method of conducting a government, that the common 
mode of announcing a victory, before the introduction of gassettes and 
bulletins, which are now coming into use, was by the arrival of Tartars 
or couriers with sacks full of the ears of the vanquished, which were 
pickled in salt. The heads, which ought to have been sent, being too 
heavy for transport, this lighter substitute was found. Now it has 
happened not unfrequently, that, in a scarcity of the article,— or from 
the battle being of the nature of those in Spain, where it is difficult 
to say which party is the conqueror, or rather who has lost the least, 
excepting in ammunition and shoe-leather, — that a habit has prevailed 



Voyage SderUifique en Maree. 851 

of filHng the bags at the expense of the rayM or infidel inhabitants, 
especially the Jews of the towns in the line of march, who were 
called on to make up the deficiency. In case of operations being 
carried on in any of the parts in which this conformation ejdsted, it 
would have afforded an excellent means, by keeping the measurements 
of the ears of the respectiye tribes, to check the accounts and state- 
ments of the pachas, and be the means of preventing innocent and 
guilty being placed in the same situation, as was too often the 
case. 

The Commission are too generous to deprive the author of this 
peculation of the merit justly his due. It is stated to proceed from 
" un de noe consuls generaux." However lightly we may be in- 
dined to treat this lucubration of the worthy consul, we cuinot but 
api^aud the zeal which has induced him to attend to such subjects, 
and we wish him success in his future communications. We only 
wish we had similar instances to report from our consular and diplo- 
matic bodies, who are, with some exceptions, singularly deficient in 
imparting information on such subjects. 

One more observation on the jackal of the Morea. Are we to 
consider them oi the early inhabitants, prior to the first civilization, 
and contemporary of the lions and other larger fern, which we have 
historical testimony to bear out the belief, l^at they did really inha- 
bit the Peloponnesus ? or may they not have followed the train of 
the Asiatic hordes, who at various times have crossed the Bosphoms 
or the Hellespoiit under Xerxes and others ? Leaving out the possi- 
bility of their crossing by the bridge of that monarch, it is by no means 
a rash supposition, that the abundant provender to be obtained by 
following such bodies of men would impel animals to make an un- 
usual exertion, in order to keep in a train so advantageous, and the 
swimming the Hellespont is quite within the power of such a qua- 
druped as the jackal. We have seen the shoals of sharks, one of 
which was accustomed to follow each Guinea or slave-ship to the 
West Indies from the coast of Africa, at the time that trade was per- 
mitted, impelled by a similar motive. It is possible this may be the 
<Mrigin of the present breed of jackals; but we should rather incline to 
the belief that they were aboriginal, and co-existent with the Ne- 
msean lion and the Erymanthian boar, both which races have disap- 
peared, and that, by retreating to the Outnesses of Taygetus, or of 
Pindus and Parnassus, they lived in seclusion during the period of 
civilization, and escaped the extermination in which the larger hrm 
were involved, — ^advancing again by natural progression, as the Turks 



S52 Voyage Seientifique en Moree. 

reduced the country to a state more congenial to their hahits, and 
fitted to encourage their propagation. 

Birds. — The catalogue of birds is extremely scanty, consisting of 
only 66 species, without any pretensimi to norelty. We should be 
inclined to say MM. de la Commission, What have you been about ? 
In fact, it would seem incredible that such a list should be the pro- 
duction of so much time and labour. We could be almost tempted to 
furnish a supplementary list of those we know muH be there, or which, 
from some cause or other, have been oyerlooked. Our countryman, 
Mr Strickland has, we belieye, at least found one new Sylvia, and has 
done more than the Grecian Institute. 

A good plate is given of the Falco tinnunculoides, which, until 
very recently, was, and still is, extremel)^ rare in collections. (We be- 
lieve the first seen in this country were those brought from Spain 
by the writer of this notice.) They daim the merit, we believe due, 
of giving the first good representation of the most beautiful of the 
smaller eagles, as the Falco Bonelli, when in full plumage, is unri- 
valled amongst the larger of the genus of the European Falconidas. 

We have long been aware of this bird being common in Greece, 
from the circumstance of first seeing a number of them blown off 
by a gale from the Acroceraunian mountains several years since, da- 
ring the war, when they were captured at sea. The writer of the orni- 
thological report asserts that it is unknown in the west of Europe I Yet 
they inform us in anotherplace, that one of the party had been at Seville, 
where they swarm, as they do in all the cities of the south of Spain, 
and are seen as fiir north as Toledo. We do not deqwir, if our Hi- 
bernian brethren, who are at last in the field, and will look vigilantly 
out, of adding this and other interesting birds to the British &una. 

A veiy modei*ate flight to a bird accustomed, as this is, to re- 
main the whole day on the wing, would waft them from the western 
coasts of the Peninsula to the nearest part of Ireland. We particu- 
larly recommend the attention of the writer of the notice on the 
Irish birds in the late number of this Journal to the subject, and 
especially to those which are mentioned as breeding about the steeples 
of churches. 

We wish steps were taken to naturalize these beautiful birds, which 
we have no doubt would easily live in the touth of England. Thej 
are quite harmless, live on beetles and other insects, occasionally take 
a mouse or mole, and would be highly ornamental in such situa- 
tions as Exeter or Salisbury cathedrals. They can easily be procured 



1 



Voyage Scimtifique en Moree. 353 

at SeTille by means of the keeper of the Giralda, who has access to 
their nests. 

The StrLx bnbo and Vultar {nlvns were met with, but we are not 
informed whether the former be of the common species of the north, 
or of a supposed rtaiety which is assigned to the zone of these ob- 
servBtions. 

If the list of birds be scanty, to make amends we have a new ar- 
rangement of the Passeres, and a fresh coinage of names with which 
M. Oeoffinoy has favoured his friends and the public. 

The partridge of the Morea is said to be the P. rufa, contrary to 
our belief that it is the P. Grs&ca or Bartavelle. Probably both 
species may occur, and it is pretty certain that the P. petrosa will 
be found to be the prevailing species in some of the southerfi 
islands. 

The beautiful Poule Sultane, or purple water hen of Latham, Por- 
phyrio hyacinthus, was found in the marshes near Navarino, the plains 
of Helos, and other localities. It is probably more numerous than 
it is supposed to be, if the habits resemble those of the species in 
Sardinia, where they frequent the most infected parts of the marshes, 
which are almost inaccessible during the heats of summer. 

We strongly recommend to our friends of the new society in St 
James's Park to take steps for the introduction of this most lovely 
bird. We were informed by the late Professor Bonelli, that they 
are abundantly kept in the yards of houses at Catania in Sicily, as 
they were in the time of the Romans. They live easily in a domestic 
state, and would only require protection from the winter's cold in 
this country. Independently of their beauty of plumage, which re- 
sembles the finest tints of the tropical birds, their habits of using 
the long prehensile toes to lift their food gives them a peculiarly 
elegant appearance. 

Reptiles. — The Testudo emarginata abounds in the Morea, as 
does the T. Grseca, which is common in Sicily, Calabria, &c. 

The Testudo Europa (Gray,) which inhabits the marshes of the 
south of Europe^ was found abundantly at the mouth of the Eurotas. 

A new species is given under the name of C. Hellenica. It was 
found in the ditches which drain the plain of Nisi, in the heart of 
Messenia. It appears to differ from its congener, by the form being 
less elliptical, the sides more rectilinear and elongated. Some were 
observed to be even less than rectilinear, and to be slightly concave 
on the sides. There are also some minor points of difference. 



354 Voyage SciaUifique en Moree. 

Emys Caspica (Gmelin) is common in the shallow stieama of the 
Morea, and in those of the Isle of Tenos. 

We have thus a respectable addition to our scanty knowled^ of 
these reptiles. There is little doubt that the aqnatic species oonld 
Yery easily be naturalised in our streams and artificial waters of the 
south and west of Eugland, where there is depth to enable them to 
secure thems^es against the winter's cokL They are perfectly in* 
nocuous in every respect, and as the steam-boats which now tvarerae 
the Mediterranean in all directions give great facility for their tiana- 
port) they would form an interesting appendage to them. We can- 
not speak from personal knowledge as to their fitness for the table, 
never having tasted them, but we have heard that one of the terres- 
trial species, probably T. Grsca, formed a fovourite item in the Lent 
hr% of the luxurious inhabitants of the wealthier convents in the 
south of Italy, before their suppression at the time of the Frendi. in- 
vasion. Our informant complamed only of their highly gtimulating' 
and nutritious properties, which ought to have nuide the worthy 
monks cautious in the use of them. 

Amongst the Saurians, a new lizard, under the name of L. Pelo- 
pennesiiea, is introduced. It is nearly allied to Lacerta muralis, the 
green Hsaid of the south of Europe, but the palatal teeth are want- 
ing, and the lateral parts oi the head behind the eyes are said to dif- 
fer, the scales being nearly equal and polygonal, without the laige 
central scale, as in the neighbouring species. It was found in the 
Morea and in the islands with L. muralis, but is less common. 

We should scarcely, after the description which is given, expect to 
find the animal represented as almost wholly bright green, but so the 
artist has turned it out. It is so managed that the very spots or 
blotches meant to represent *' noir&tres," look like deeper tints of 
the same colour. This inattention is inexcusable, otherwiae the plates, 
especially that of S. muralis, are beautiful. 

Another new saurian is given as Algyroides Moreoticus, being of 
a genus established by MM. Dumeril and Bibron to distinguish it 
from Algyras, owing to some slight difference discovered in the 
scales. It is a small but very beautiful species. 

The Stenodactylus guttatus of Cuvier, (Agame ponctu6e of the 
great work on Egypt, and hitherto not observed out of that country,) 
was found in some part of Greece, but the locality is not given, which 
we would much rather had been the case. Its congener, the S. ver- 
miculatuB, whidi is common in the south of Europe, was found at 
Modon, Argos, &c 



Voyage Seientifiqtie en Maree. 355 

The Ablepharis, Kitaibelii of Cocteau, a congener, which had only 
been seen in Hungary, was also observed. The form is longer and 
more taper than that of the adjoining species. 

The Psendopus Pallasii, the Scheltopnsik of the south of Russia, 
was found to be common in the Peloponnesus. This curious genus, 
of which we owe the discovery to Pallas, and probably has not been 
seen by many of our readers, is a serpent with a long finny membrane 
on each side upon the under part of the body, which makes it a con- 
necting link between the lizard and snakes. The first which was 
seen was basking in the vernal sun after emerging firom its winter 
retreat, and was demolished instantly by our naturalists with the but 
of their guns ; and they were surprised on examination to find it had 
no fiing8» and was consequently not venomous, reminding us of the 
youthAil zeal with which we used to attack the poor Anguis fiagilis 
or slow-worm, when it unfortunately came in our way. 

Many were subsequently taken, and were more nuldly dealt with, 
being kept alive about the houses in a half domestic state, to which 
their mild and inoffensive manners enabled them to acconmiodate 
themselves. Their powers of digestion must be considerable, for we 
find the principal diet offered to them was hard boiled eggs, re- 
minding us agam of the practice of our younger days, as if animals 
in a domestic state should be given the food most unlike that of their 
natural habits. On one occasion, however* a pseudopus met with a 
nest of young unfledged birds, which it soon demolished, and we have 
no doubt fully enjoyed. The plate is good, the colour being more 
russet and less green than that of the Prince Musignano, probably 
owing to some difference in age or sex, or from the animal being 
more recently killed than that figured in the Iconogn^hia Aomana. 

Another species is given as new under the name of P. DurviUii. 
It is much smaller, and is striped and varied in colour. We cannot 
help thinking it possible that it may be the young of the preceding 
species. 

An Anguis or slow- worm, on which the name of A.punctuatissimus 
has been conferred, seems to possess unequivocal claims to novelty, 
the muzzle being narrower, the arrangement of the cephalic plates and 
the disposition of colour differing from the common A. fragilis. The 
upper part of the body is '^ cafe au lait ;'* underneath it is grey, and 
the whole dotted with very small black specks, forming longitudinal 
lines round the body. 

SEaPRNTS. — A small yellow reptile, the Typhlops flavescens of 



356 Voyage Scientifique en Moree. 

these writers, was met with in the islands of the Archipelago. In 
form it would appear to resemble Anguis, but it is placed aoaongst 
the true serpents. 

The Erix jacnlus, Daudin, the Erix of the Delta in the great 
work on £gypt> a small harmless species, was found in the islands of 
Saxos and Tenos. 

The Coluber siculus of Cuvier, which was named after speciineiis 
brought from Sicily by Bibron, is common in the Morea, and a 
species so nearly resembling it as probably to be identical, but which 
is called Coluber bilineatus, is also figured. Both these, if they be 
two species, are very nearly allied to C. natrix. The beautiful C. leo- 
pardinus is abo given, but the plate is not equal to that of the Prince 
Musignano, who, they complain, preceded them owing to the delay 
of the engrayers. 

The Coluber cucullatus of the great work on Egypt, which was 
not known to exist in Europe, is giyen as found in Greece, but un- 
fortunately we haye no locality assigned to it. 

The common and indeed only yiper, according to these gentlemen, 
is the C. ammodytes or snouted species. It is very common, and the 
activity of its poison produces frequent accidents. The lengtii is 
not great, the largest only measuring from 15 to 18 inches in length, 
but they are said to be very thick, a proportion which has not been 
obseryed by the draftsman. 

The Bufo palmarum, so called from its habit of seeking shelter un- 
der the palmetes, is nearly of the same dimensions as the B. agua of 
America. The largest known of the genus has hithertoonly been found 
in Sicily and in the Morea. Some individuals measured from the 
nose to the extremity of the hind feet 40 centimetres, nearly half a 
yard. The colour is dark yeUow brown, and the appearance extreme- 
ly disgusting. 

A good plate is given of the B. viridis, a beautiful species, if the 
idea of beauty can be attached to a frog. It was found in the ditches 
of the fortress of Modon. 

The extent to which this notice has been carried prevents our 
noticing the sections of Fish, Insects, and Botany, &c which we re- 
serve for a future occasion. 



r 



History of British Birds^ §-c. 057 



Bibliographical Notices. 

J Historic (if British Birds, By William Yabrell^ P. L. S., 
Secretary to the Zoological Society. Illustrated by a Wood-cut 
of each Species, and numerous Vignettes. London, Van Voorst, 
1837. 8yo. Noe. I. II. 

We merely announce the appearance of these numbers as the com- 
mencement of another department of a valuable series of works de- 
voted to the Natural History of the British islands, and bringing 
down our information to the latest date. When the work has reach- 
ed its completion, we shall endeavour fully to review its contents. 
The present numbers are published nearly in the same beautiful style 
of workmanship with their author's Fishes and Mr Bell's Quadrupeds. 
The descriptions are concise and faithful, and contain all that is at 
present known of the birds. The execution of the wood-cutting is 
in general beautiful ; but we do not like the drawing of many of the 
birds. Some of the figures are stiff and not artist-like ; as examples 
we may mention those of the Neophron and white-tailed eagle, and 
as a contrast we would refer to the finely wrought figure of the jer- 
falcoa. 

The Birds of Australia and the adjacent Islands, By Joh n Qovld, 

F. L. S. Part I. Folio. 1837- 
Icones Avium, or Figures and Descriptions of New and interesting 

Birds from various parts of the Glebe, By John Gould, F. L. S. 

Forming a Supplement to his former works. Part I. Folio. I837* 

The two works of which we have now given the titles have been 
•ent to UR by their indefatigable author. If carried through in 
their present manner, they will be invaluable to the ornithologist ; 
and from the materials which Mr Gould can call to his assistance, 
and the talents as an artist possessed by his lady, we could not wish 
the subjects to have been placed under a better charge. The 
birds of Europe being now completed, ample time can be devoted 
to these additional undertakings. 

The first work contains figures and concise descriptions of ten 
birds from Australia, — Malurus Lamberiii and elegans, the latter 
a closely allied but distinct species ; Calodera maculata ; Amadina 
rujicauda ; Nanodes undulatns ; Nymphicus Novce-Hollandics ; A^e*- 
tor productus ; Hemipodius melanogaster ; Leptorhynchus pectoralis, 
tt curious bird intermediate in form between Ilimautopus and the 
roL. II. NO. 10. A a 



358 Supplement to the Flora MetrapoUtana. 

avosets, and Pkalacracorax punctaius, a cormorant of gray and white 
plumage, and orange-coloured legs and feet. 

The *' Icones" contain Eurylaimui Dalhousia, of which Mr 
Gould has formed a subgenus, Crossodera, Mr Swainson^ in his 
Synopsis of Genera, given in Lardner's Cyclopaedia, has also thought 
this necessary, and has named the former Pgarisomus, from its '* sup- 
posed^' resemblance to a Psaris. We are not sure which of these 
names has the right of priority, but we are sure that the bird in 
question has little resemblance to Psaris, and the bill appears to us 
to be as much developed in form as in the other green or gray tinted 
species from continental and alpine India, — Todt/s mttl/tco/or, describ- 
ed by Gould in the proceedings of the 2i0ological Society, and now we 
believe figured for the first time. We saw this species, in 1825, 
in M. Temminck's collection at Amsterdam. — lanthocincla pkee" 
Htcea, a beautiful and brightly- coloured species from alpine India. 
— Calliope pectoralis, — Microura squamata, — both from Hima- 
laya. — Paradoxornis Jlavirosiris. — See Mag. of Zool. and Bot. i. 
p. 64 — Pteroglossus Gouldii, a species Arom the Brasils, and 
named by M. Natterer in honour of our author — Numida vuUu^ 
rina, Hardw. a very fine species from Western Africa. — OWyjr ph^^ 
tnifera, one of the most beautiful species yet described. The head 
is adorned with two narrow feathers nearly three inches in length, 
forming a graceful bending crest. The other plumage is richly 
blended shades of gray, brown, and chestnut ; and the bird is be- 
sides remarkable in shewing the character and markings of plu- 
mage which we perceive on the flanks of the red-legged partridges. 
Three specimens were procured in California by the late David 
Douglas — Cursorius rufus, from the Indian islands, intermediate 
between C, Asiaticus and Temminckii. 

Supplement to the Flora Metropolitana, or Botanical Rambles within 
thirty miles of London. By Daniel Cooper, A. L. S.' 12mo- 
1837. Highley, London. 

A little work of 36 pages, giving localities which were omitted 
(or at the time of its publication undiscovered) from Mr Cooper's 
former volume, noticed at p. 281, Vol. i. of this Magazine. The 
greater portion of the pages is, however, occupied by a full index to 
the whole work, containing the English and scientific names, and 
indicating by contractions *' the time of flowering, and colour of the 
flowers of the phaenogamous plants." And, in conclusion, a short 
table IS given of the elevations of the principal locsilities round Lon- 
don, above the level of the Thames, at Trinity high-water-mark. 



LoudoiCs Magazine of Natural History. 359 

Similar tables would be very desirable were they appended to the 
BQcre extended Floras which we have of various districts both in 
JBngland and Scotland^ and also^ according to Mr C. Watson's plan^ 
to note the ranges of elevation between which the plants are seen 
to occur. — The greatest height within the limits of Mr Cooper's 
Flora is Leith-Hill, 993 feet. The lowest is Kensington Palace, QQ 
feet, I inch. 



PsBiODiCALS — British. 

lAxudom's Magazine of Natural History. New Series. July and 

August 1837* (Continued from page 276.) 

I. Zoology. 

On Nomenclature by Zetetes, p. 421 Eyton upon the Theory 

«f Hybridity, p. 367 Tbmpleton's List of the Irish Vertebrate 

mnimals, p. 403. Dr Moore on the Web-footed Birds of Devon- 
shire, p. 360. Observations on Woodcocks and Fieldfares breed- 
ing in Scotland, by Geobge Fairholme, p. 337« with remarks 
on the same subject, by Mr £. Blyth, p. 439. On the struc- 
ture of the Fossil Saurians, from the German of Hermann von 

Mbqbr^ p. 341. Report of a Notice, by M. Rang, respecting the 

Inhabitant of the Argonaut, by MM. Dumeril and De Blain- 
viLi^By p. 393. Some observations on Mr Stutchbury's proposed 
new genus of univalve shells Cypraecassis, by 6. B. Sowebby, 
p, 366 and p. 431. Could not Mr Stutchbury's views of a genus 
in Malacology be controverted without the infusion of acrimony 
which embitters this paper ? In his '* additional remarks," Mr 
Sowerby declares that he is not actuated by any personal feeling 
against his opponent, — so that he seems to have had no reason 
whatever for having stated his objections in the first instance in an 
irritating and insulting manner, for assuredly there is no expression 
in the original paper of Mr Stutchbury, which could provoke such 
a bilious discharge. We do indeed very heartily wish that our me- 
tropolitan brethren would cultivate a greater " sweetness of speech," 
for their animosities and mutual recriminations afford no sport to 

us, and do not tend to edifying. On the Mactradie, by J. E. 

Gbat. p. 370. Among the short communications we find, No- 
tice of the South African Museum : Additions to the Zoological So- 
ciety : the Fossil remains of Apes : on the Habits of the Viper ; on 
the swimming of snakes : on the alleged affinity between the 
Pigeons and Poultry : Eagle's nest in Loch Skene : Ventriloquism in 
Birds. 



360 Companion to tfie Botanical Magazine^ Sfc. 

II. Botany, 
The communications under this head are limited to a few short 
notices. 1. On Lamium intermedium, and 2. Fedia carinata, by 
Mr Leighton : 8. On Afyssum calycinwn, and 4. Leucojum vernum 
by Mr. Brown. It would appear not improbable, from a note of 
Mr Brown's in p. 447> that the Betula intermedia is a native on the 
Clova hills, where it has been mistaken for B. alba. The point is 
deserving the attention of our Scottish friends. 

Companion to the Botanical Magazine. By Sir W. J. Hookeb, 

Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. (Continued 

from p. 276. Vol. ii.) 

Th is Number (the 24th of the work) completes the second Vi>- 
lume ; and as we have received our August and September num- 
bers of the Magasine, but without its worthy *' Companion," we 
feel somewhat uneasvi and sincerely trust that it has not altogether 
ceased, for want of encouragement and support. 

The contents of the number are, Notes upon some genera and spe- 
cies of South American Orchideie,by John Ltndlby, Ph.D. F. R. S. 
Chrysorhoe, a new genus of Cbam»lancie», by the same au- 
thor. Florae Insularum Novie Zelandiee precursor ; or a specimen 

of the Botany of the Islands of New Zealand, by Allan Cunning- 
ham, continued from last number, contains the Hepaticse, Lycopodia- 
cece, the Felices ver», and a portion of the Plantse vascnlares. Two 
iigures of Loxoma Cunninghamii, a new species belonging to the 
Polypodiaceas, are given ; the one, illustrating the fructifies tion, is 
beautifully executed by F. Baukr. Botanical information con- 
tains a list of the species figurad in the two last parts of the ** loones 

Plantarum." Some remarks by Dr Wright, copied from the 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, relative to the descrip- 
tions of Dr Graham, from Colonel Walker's specimens. Dr Wright 
leaves the matter of the identity of the plants still uncertain, bat is 
of opinion that Dr Graham's plants have been introduced to the Isl- 
and of Ceylon, and are not indigenous. 

Periodicals — Foreign, 
Annates des Sciencei Naturelles, Zoologies MM. AuDoriN et 
MiLNK-EowARD9« Botontque, MM. Ad. BiioNGNiABTet Guil- 
LBMiN. Crodiard and Co. Paris, Janvier 1837i 

I. Zoology. 
Becherches sur quelques Entozoaires et htrves parasites des inwec- 
tes Orthopteres et Hyiaenopteres^ par Leon Dufour,—— Professor 



Annalex des Sciences NatureileSy §*c. 361 

VroI/IK mr les dents incisives et le nombre des cdtes du Rhinoceros 

jifricain. ObservcUions preliminaires sur V existence ^Infusoires 

JhuiUs et sur leur profusion da$^ la nature, par M. Ehrbnbero. 

Etudes pour servir a fhistoire naturelle des Myriapodesj par 

M. P. GsRYAfB. He has ascertained that the eyes of the Juli, Li* 
thobii, and Scolopendr» increabe in number with the growth of the 

individual. Synopsis des genres et des especes ^animaux fossiles 

decouverts dans les couches superieures des depots tertiaires des man- 
iagnes Sivalek de VHimalaya, par MM. Cautley et Falconer. 

Bakrr sur le Chameau fossUe du Sub-Hinudaya. This and 

the preceding are translations from the Journal of the Asiatic So- 
ciety.— — Note sur les organes respiratoires des Capricomes, par M. 

PiCTBT. 

II. Botany. 
Notice historique sur Ant-Laur. de Jussieu, par M. Ad. Brong- 
niart. (See a translation of this paper in our present Num- 
ber.) Note historique sur ce que Von a icrit en France de 1806 

a 1816 sur les mo/^ conducteurs et cordons pistillaires, par M. A. de 

Saint-Hilairb. Note sur le genre Stephanotis, de la Jamille 

des Asclipiadies^ par M. Ad. Brongniart. Description dunou- 

veau genre Archimedea, par feu la P. Leandro do Sacramento^ pri^ 
cSdie dCune notice sur ce botanists, par M. Aug. de Saint-Hilairb. 

Note sur le genre Polycnemum et sur une nnuvelle tribu de la 

Jhmiffe des ParonyvhiSes, par A. Moquin-Tandon. Essai sur 

la disposition desfeuilles curvis6riies, par MM. Bravais. 

Magazin de Zoologie, Journal destine d etablir une correspondence 
entre les Zoologistes de tons les pays, et d leur faciliter les Moyens 
de publier les espSces nouvelles ou peu connues qu'ils possedent. 
Par F. E. Ouerin-Mbnbvillb. Svo, Paris^ 1836. Sixieme 
ann^e. 

This periodical has now been continued for six years^ the last 
or sixth volume having been completed with the year 18''^6. The 
entire work is devoted to every branch of zoology, but the subjects 
are arranged in classes, which can be subscribed for separately^ ac- 
cording to the taste and pursuits of individuals. The plan of the 
work appears, from the prospectus and volume before us, to be re- 
stricted to descriptions of what may be considered new species, the 
information and figures being sometimes taken from contemporary 
works, and to monographs and memoirs of particular families or 
genera. No reviews or notices of new works, and no general in- 
formation regarding the progress of zoology, are given. 



362 Magazin Je Zoologie. 

Among the Mammalia described^ we have a description and figure 
of the beautiful Colobus Guereza, taken from the '' Neue Wirbel* 
thiere" of Ruppel. — A notice of some of the animals brought home 
by ** La Cwvette La Favorite/* and a short memoir^ '* Sur le genre 
Pcephagomys et quelques autres Rongeurs qui I'avoisinent/' accom- 
panied by a figure of P. ater^ and a good plate of the dentition of 
Oryctom^Sy Blain. 

The ornithological department commences with descriptions of 
some of the birds discovered by the expedition of " La Favorite/* 
by MM. Fortune Eydoux and Paul Gervais. A figure of Gould's 
Pteroglossus ulocomus is given. The specimen was procured at 
Para^ and is said to be the imly one in the Parisian collections. 
An Ibis is presented under the title of I. Lamellicollis, sent from 
New Holland^ and so named by M. Lafresnaye^ but this is the 
New Holland Ibis of Dr Latham^ the /. spinicollis of Jame- 
son, New Ed. Phil. Journal ; and the L Lathamii, Gray^ Pro- 
ceed. Zool. Society of London. — The same gentleman figures and 
describes a shrike as new, and lately sent from the Cape o£ 
Good Hope, by M. Verreaux, under the title of L. melanoleu* 
cus — How he has hit on the same title we know not, but a 
plate and descriptiun will be found executed and published six or 
seven years since in Illustrations of Ornithology by Sir W. Jar- 
dine and P. J. Selby, from specimens sent to Europe by Dr Smith. 
A curious bird from Madagascar, of which a new genus is made, 
(Falculia,) is figured and fully described. The form is consider- 
ed to be intermediate between the hoopoes and Promerops of Tem- 
minck, and the colouring is peculiar, the head, neck, and under parts 
pure white, the remaining plumage deep bluish-black. A short 
memoir by M. Lafresnaye on the species of the genus Orlltolomus 

of Horsfield Remarks by the same person on the genus Cerlhi^ 

iauda, Sw. with observations on two South American species, 
which are considered to be new, and a beautiful MicropagOH 
from South Africa, or rather from the interior of the country, said 
to have been brought firom the country of the " Masilikats.** M. 
Lafresnaye has named it M, sulphuratus. 

MoLLuscA. Plate 71 represents Drepanosioma nauiiiiformis, 
the type of a subgenus of Helix distinguished by a peculiarity in 
the shape of the aperture which the name (from d^iravov, a scythe, 
and tfrofjM, a mouth,) is meant to express. The species is a native 
of the province of Como in Italy, living in families under stones 

and decaying leaves in shady woods. The Rosiellaria occidenia" 

Us of Beck forms the subject of PI. 7^. It belongs to the same 
section as our British species ; and is a native of the North Ame- 



Moffazin de Zoologie, 363 

rican ccMstj and, it would appear, of the Greenland shores also. 

Marginella Cleryi^ Bgured in PI. 73, is allied to M. Adansonii, from 
which, however, it is well distinguished : it inhabits the coast of 
Senegal.— ^He/ir Poeyi^ from the interior of .the island of Cuba, 

occupies PL ^A, but the shell only is given. This is followed 

by Webb and Vanbeneden's notice sur Us moUusques du genre 
Parmacblla, ei description dune nouveile espice de ce genre, — a 
valuable paper which we have already noticed. Vol. i. p. 492. Two 
plates, one zoological and one anatomical, are devoted to its illus- 
tration.-*— *^o/e sur deux espices nouoelles dApfysies, par MM. 
Vakbknbdbn et Wbbb. These fine species were procured from the 
shores near Nice. Their characters dre : 

1. A Bbuonatellii, colore aurantiaco : alis parum elongatis ; 
tentaculis poRterioribus colore privatis, ore membranis duabus ac« 
ceaaoriis lateralibus munito. Testa ovata, tenuissima, fragili, pel- 
lucida, striis concentricis eleganter notata. Rostro dextrum in« 
dinato et in uncinam parvulam abeunte. — Long. 35 millim. larg 
de la coq. 12 millim. 

2, A Webbii, corpore limaciformi, virescente, maculis nigris 
flavisque omato ; alis palii parvis et partes testae medias minime 
vestientibus ; siphone fere nullo. Marginibus pedis anterius dila- 
tatis ; ore membranis accessoriis munito. Testa ovata elongata 
oompressa, striis linearibus sculpta incisura ad dextram sinuata, ros* 
troque bidentato. — Long. 25 millim. larg. de la coq. 15 millim. 

Cbustacea. — The contributions to this class belong to its lower 
forms, and the species are all described by Guerin. The Plerelas 
is a new genus of the Isopodes, Fam. Cymothoades, nearly allied 
to '^ga. The species is named PL Wehhii, from the naturalist who 

procured it on the coast of PortugaL Description de quelques 

genres nouveaux de Cruslaces appartenant d la famille des Hyp4' 
vines. The genera are Primno, nearly allied to Phronima, a native 
of the South American seas ; Hieraconyx, which will stand in the 
system near to the Themisto ; and Pronoe, near to Typhis. The 
paper contains besides descriptions of a new species of Phronima, 
viz. Pk, atlantica ; and of the Oxycephalus oceanicus, a very curi- 
ous animal from the shores of Chili. The Phlias serratus de-* 

lineated in pi. 19, forms a new genus of Amphipodes, affined to 
Amphitoe and Gammarus. M. Gaudichaud found this pretty little 

species on his passage from the Maldive islands to Port Jackson. 

PI. 14 represents a new oniscidous insect named Deto eckinata, 
brought from the east by Olivier. It resembles in form our com- 
mon Oniscus asellus. 



364 Magazine de Zooloffie. 

Abachnida. — Observations sur let aran6ides du genre Hersilia, 
et description de deux esp4ces nouvefles a ppar tenant a ce genre par 

M. H. Lucas. This is followed by a monograph of the genua Pa* 

chyloscelis by the same naturalist ; who in pL 15 describes a new 
species of Attus from the neighbourhood of Paris^ named A, venaior. 

Inbecta. — Plates 139 and 140 represent Scarabneut Anubis, a 

fine species allied to Scar. Typhon and GK>liath from Brasil. '^Mo^ 

nographe du genre Pamborus^ par M. H. Gory, with figures of all 

the ascertained species. Notice sur les metamorphoses descoUop* 

teres du genre Telephorus, par £. Blanch ard ; and this lady con- 
tributes also a notice of the larva of StaphyUnus olens in pi. 165. 

Meloe collegialis is described and figured by Audouin in pL 

169, a species with considerable marks cf affinity to the M. excava- 

tns of Leach. Carabus basilicus from Porto>Rioo, a very fine 

insect^ occupies pi. 170^ erroneously numbered 169 in the letter* 
press ; and the genus Bryaxis is fully illustrated in pi. 171- 

Radiata. — The only paper in this class is entitled Recherche* sur 
la cause ordinaire de la phosphorescence marine, et description du 
Noctiluca miliarisj par M. Suriray^ already noticed in our VoL i 
p. 491.» 

* First part of a monograph on the TrachffdMdes, by M. Dupon Jeane, 
seems well and carefully done. Figures are given of the species, and 42 on 24 
plates are now published. We shall recur to this memoir on its completion- 



1 



[ ^er, ] 



INTELLIGENCE. 



ZOOLOGICAL. 

Patella parva. Da Coeta. — This shelly on the authority of Matoil 
and Rackety has been considered synonymous with the P. virginea 
of Muller by all our recent writers. Dr Fleming threw out a hint 
that it may have been oonfotinded on our shores mth the P. tes^u* 
lata of Muller, but he took no pains to ascertain the fact* My at- 
tention was first called to the point by the statement of Audouin and 
Milne* Edwards that the animal of the '' Patelles roses" found in the 
English channel differed entirely in the structure of its branchiae 
from the true Patellae, and formed a new genus of pectinibranchous 
mollusca allied to the Turbines. (Hist. Nat. du Litt. de la France^ 
i. p. 144.) Mr J. E. Gray informed me that these " Patelles roses" 
were the same as the P. virginea of our shores, but on examining 
these, I soon satisfied myself that those found on the coast of Ber- 
wickshire at least were formed like the Patella, the cloak of the ani- 
mal being ciliated all round with a fringe of short equal filaments* 
The accuracy of this observation I have recently had occasion to con- 
firm in company with my friend Mr J. Alder. It follows, therefore, 
that the shell usually called Patella virginea by British concholo- 
gists, is not that so named by Muller, but is probably his P. tetMti^ 
lata, in which the margin of the cloak is ciliated. 

Is the Patella pnlchelia of Forbes in Loudon's Mag. Nat. Hist. 
Vol. viii. p. 591, fig. 61, a Patella or a Lottia?~G. J. 

Zoology of Africa, — Our readers are by this time aware that Dr 
Andrew Smith has lately returned from an expedition undertaken 
to explore the interior of Southern Africa, and that he has brought 
to this country the whole of his collections in Natural History, which 
are now publicly exhibited in London. In the published catalogue 
of part of this collection there are the names of 62 mammalia, and 
339 birds : there is besides an extensive series of drawings, MSS., 
&c. with other materials fully to illustrate the districts traversed ; 
end in furtherance of his plan Dr Smith is about to commence print- 
ing a work to be entitled, •* The Zoology of Southern Africa," em- 
bellished with highly finished plates, executed from the original 
drawings. On the authority of an individual on whose judgment 
we can rely, we are able to say that the materials are moat valuable, 



366 Botanical. 

and the drawings full of character and interest. The Government 
has granted L. 1500 to assist in defraying the expenses of the pub- 
lication. " In consequence of this/' says the editor of the Magazine 
of Natural History, " an arrangement is being made with the intend- 
ed publishers (Smith and Elder, Cornhill,) by which the public will 
obtain the work at one- fourth or fifth of the actual cost price, the 
Government grant defraying the whole expense of engraving the 
plates." 

BOTANICAL. 

Botanical Soctbty of Edinburgh, May 11, 1837> — Professor 
Graham in the chair. The following members were elected : — Re^ 
sident, Mrs Michael Percival, Mr Thomas Dickson, Mr Jamea Ha- 
milton, Mr James Nairne, Dr Silas Palmer, Mr George Trusted. 
Nan^Resident, Mr J. S. Bowerbank, London ; Mr Alfred White, 
London. 

Specimens from Dr Salter were presented. Donation to librafy, 
" Pugillus Plantarum lndi» Orientalis, composuit G. A. Walker« 
Arnott," — from the Author. 

Dr Balfour read some extracts from a letter from Mr Gardner^ 
at present in Brazil, received along with the first invoice of Plants 
sent home by that gentleman. 

Dr Balfour then read a communication on Botanical Prosody, in 
which he endeavoured to show that botanists in general did not pay 
sufficient attention to the proper pronunciation of the terms which 
they used. Whilst he allowed that in some cases the quantities of 
botanical names were arbitrary, he proved that in others these could 
be easily ascertained by a reference to classical authors ; and in il* 
lustration of this, he adduced a number of instances, quoting the 
authority for a different pronunciation from that usually given to 
them. 

A paper by Dr Walker-Arnott %va8 read, containing observations 
on the British Cicharcu^ece, with an arrangement of these according 
to the system adopted by Lessing in his *' Synopsis Generum Ck>m- 
positarum." Dr Arnott expressed his belief that all our Floras 
would ere long follow Lessing's arrangement of the Compositae, and 
adopt his generic characters, and for this reason strongly recom- 
mended the study of his Synopsis, along with the fifth volume of 
De Candolle's Prodromus, in order to obtain a competent knowledge 
of this difficult tribe, and the value of the different parts in generic 
characters. Various species ofApargia, Lconlodon, Hiereicium, and 
Crepis were especially noticed, and many interesting observations 



1 



Botanical, 367 

were made upon these. In particular, it was shown that Hieracium 
moile being in all respects a Crepis, ought to be removed to that 
genus. 

Mr James M'Nab exhibited a remarkable monstrosity of Spruce 
Fir from near Kettle in Fife ; also Pefasites hybrida from a station 
in the same neighbourhood, where it is apparently wild, — both found 
by Dr Howison. 

June 8th. — Professor Graham in the chair. The following mem- 
bers were elected : — Resident, Mr Henry Barham Mitchell Harris, 
Mr Alexander Seton. Non-Resident, Mr John Ball, Christ's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

Dr Graham presented from Lady Dalhousie a beautiful collection 
of Lycopodiums and Ferns, being the remainder of her Ladyship's 
East Indian Herbarium. 

Dr Douglas Maclagan exhibited specimens of a root called Hiarry, 
received by him from Mr Watt, surgeon, Demerara, which is used 
by the natives of British Guiana for intoxicating fish. The botani- 
cal information regarding the plant was chiefly obtained from a 
slight sketch sent along with the roots ; for no light had been thrown 
on the subject by consulting botanical works. The flowers are pa- 
pilionaceous, light-purple, five or six on a lax raceme, the pod about 
the size of the common Laburnum, smooth, containing eight or nine 
seeds. The root, though dried, was found to retain the property of 
poisoning fishes ; and a watery extract was ascertained by various 
experiments to produce on fishes nearly the same effect as Turkey 
Opium, and to be superior in activity to the extracts of Belladonna, 
Hyo8cyamus> and Conium. A chemical examination of the root 
showed, that besides a large quantity of gum and colouring matter, 
it contained a resin of a light-yellow colour and peculiar smell, and 
an acid differing in quality from any known acid,— but regarding 
the state of combination of which in the plant, no precise informa- 
tion had been obtained. One-fourth of a grain of this acid^ obvi- 
ously not in a state of purity, poisoned a minnow in half an hour. 
The effects of the' Hiarry upon minnows^ and comparative experi- 
ments with opium, were shown in presence of the Society, in which 
Dr Balfour, who read the paper in the absence of Dr Maclagan, was 
kindly assisted by Professor Christison. 

Dr Graham exhibited specimens in flower of Carex Buxbaumii 
and lA)phospermum scandens. He then stated, in reference to se- 
veral species of Bletia lately obtained at the Botanic Garden, from 
Jamaica, through the kindness of the Rev, Mr Campbell, that an 
examination of these had satisfied him that the specific names in 



M8 BoianicaL 

this genus bad been^multiplied without due attention to nature. In 
particular, he believed that Bletia Jlorida, B. verecnnda, B* Skep' 
herdiiy and be feared even B. patula, must be considered mere mo- 
difications of the same species. Specimens upon which this opinion 
was formed were exhibited. Dr Orabam also exhibited a specimea 
in fiower of Philodendnm crasiinervium. This plant had been in* 
troduced into the Botanical Garden, from Brazil, by Captain Graham 
sixteen years ago ; but though it had several times developed flower 
buds, the spatha had never till this season fully expanded, probably 
owing to the command of heat having been heretofore inadequate. 
— W. H. Campbell, iSec. 

Glass eroded hy a Lichen '* Several pieces of glass were lately 

brought to me by a glazier in this city, taken from the old mndows 
of an ancient church in the vicinity ; some of these had the appear- 
ance of being worm-eaten. Struck with the singularity of this, I 
immediately commenced an investigation of the circumstance, that 
I might ascertain by what agency this corrosion had been induced. 
Upon making a minute examination, I found it was caused by the 
instrumentality of a cryptogam ic plant, I believe of the lichen species. 
The first indication of the plant was a greenish pulverulent mould 
on the surface of the glass ; in this substance some light-coloured 
brown dots appear ; these enlarge, and form cup-like substances of 
a slightly violet tinge ; these plants increase, and become fully de- 
veloped. The glass is gradually acted upon, being first a little 
roughened and indented ; afterwards small cavities, some even pene- 
trating a considerable distance into the substance of the glass, are 
formed. 

" Not having read or heard of any phut having hitherto been dis- 
covered capable of decomposing and growing on and in the substance 
of glass, I thought it right to make a public communication of the 
fact through the medium of the pages of your valuable periodic.il, 
leaving it to other and abler naturalists and philosophers to disclose 
the kind of agency, whether chemical or galvanical, by which this 
singular decomposition of glass is effected. 

" The glaziers of this city inform me, that glass similarly acted 
upon may be met with in the cathedral and old church windows." 
Thomas Hickks, Gloucester, April 25, 1837, in Med. Chizette for 
May 6. 

Musci Angusiani, or Dried Specimens of the Mosses of Angus 
or Forfarshire, — This is the title of a work projected by Mr Wil- 
liam Gardiner, Jun. of Dundee, of which a prospectus has been 



Botanical. 339 

sent U8. " The work will be comprised in about seven or eight 12ino 
fasciculi — ^price 38. 6d. each — fbrmiog two neat pocket rolumes. On 
the left hand page of each leaf, one, two, or more specimens of a 
species will be carefolly gummed, with the scientific and English 
name, reference to the page of the British Flora where the species 
is described, locality, and time when found, — all accurately written 
underneath. With the concluding fasciculus will be given, along 
with title-pages for both volumes, a printed table of the contents of 
each, arranged according to Sir W. J. Hooker's British Flora, and 
including a synopsis of the generic and specific characters. A blank 
will be left at the top of each page for numbering the species, find 
by means of the tables the specimens can be numbered and arrang- 
ed with the greatest ease, while the numbers not being attached 
to them when published, will allow of any subscriber adopting what- 
ever mode of arrangement he chooses, as well as of the author add- 
ing species that may be found during the publication of the work.'* 

Northumberland Flora. — At the July meeting of the '* Berwick- 
shire Naturalist's Club," the members, in the course of their walk, 
discovered the Asplenium septentriontetle growing in great profusion, 
on Kyloe crags, near Haggerston. The Hieradum molle was gather- 
ed in Kyloe dean ; and the Blyssmus rufas abundantly in a salt 
marsh at the mouth of the Low below Beal. The two former plants 
are not included in Mr Winch's ** Flora of Northumberland and Dur- 
ham ;" and for the latter, two localities only are given, both in the 
south of Durham. Dr Francis Douglas exhibited a specimen of 
Cladium mariscus, which he has discovered native in Learmouth 
Bogs, Northumberland, where, however, it is not plentiful, but a 
very interesting addition to the botany of the district. If to these 
we add Dr Johnston's discovery of Cerastium atrovirens, we have 
sufficient evidence that the seal in the investigation of indigensms 
botany for which the northern botanists of England have been long 
noted, is not grown lukewarm. 

Cerastium pedunculaium. — The explanation of the plate illustra- 
tive of this species having been omitted in its proper place, is here 
supplied. Plate VI., G. pedunculatum, var. ^. 4-partitum. a, calyx 
with capsule of do. b, petal of the same. C. Fig. 1, calyx of Cer. 
tetrandrum : 2, a sepal much magnified so as to show the herbaceous 
point bordered by a pellucid membrane. D. Fig. 1, calyx of -Cer. 
semidecandrum : 2, a sepal of the same much magnified so as to 
show the diaphanous margin and apex. 



370 Miscelianeous. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Seventh Meeting of the BHtieh AssodaHon far the Advancement 
of Science* 

The Meeting of the British Association was arranged by preyioas 
agreement to be held this year at Liverpool^ the general meetings to 
commence on Monday, 11th September, In the preceding week the 
preliminary arrangements were made by the Council and General 
Committee, while the town and corporation of Liverpool opened ita 
institutions, and prepared accommodation on the most liberal scale 
for the yarious assemblies which were contemplated. The private 
institutions in the town, and the principal manufacturing establish- 
ments were also opened during the week of meeting ; excellent and 
commodious rooms were allotted for the business and debates of each 
of the sections ; and altogether, the proceedings of this year have 
been most important and satis&ctory. Our particular department 
being connected with one section, we shall only now notice the pro- 
ceedings in Zoology and Botany, but previously will offer one or two 
remarks on the manner in which some parts of the general business 
has been conducted. 

The British Association has always had our warmest wishes for its 
success, and when circumstances permitted us to attend its meetings, 
we departed at their conclusion impressed with a feeling of deep re- 
gret that they had terminated, and that the friendly and scientific in- 
tercourse had so soon been broken off; we thought that it was an 
association which bid fair to extend the march of science, and would 
give an additional thirst for the acquirement of knowledge to many, 
who would not have been directed to any of its branches, simply be- 
cause, what they had in reality to learn required to be pointed out ; 
and where the direction of the subjects treated of, and the occasional 
lectures given, as at the present meeting with reference to the local 
application of science, the most important results might be expected. 
We are sure then, that, having expressed our opinion thus of the 
utility and importance of this great national assemblage, we shall not 
be thought as invidiously finding fault with any portion of its manage- 
ment, but that we wish to give the warning of a sincere well-wisher 
to a body which we would most anxiously cherish. At the same 
time, making the fullest allowance for occurrences which must take 
place to a certain extent, where the members are so numerous and 
the arrangements so multitudinous, there are one or two occurrences 
which we feel it would not be our duty to pass over in complete si- 
lence, particularly as we have seen that none of our periodicals have 



Miscellaneous. 37 1 

ventared to notice tbem, but have drawn their reports only in the 
spirit of commendation. 

Onr first fault is with the manner in which the tickets of admis- 
sion were distribated ; far too much bustle and confusion prevailed in 
the rooms devoted for this purpose, and from half an hour to three 
quarters were spent before an individual could make his way through 
the crowd, and gain the presence of the Secretary ; and bj the irre- 
gularity of the manner in which those issued to the General Com- 
mittee were marked, several gentlemen were subjected to the incon- 
venience of being refused admittance to meetings where they only 
had a right to be present. We know that Mr Taylor did his utmost 
in the rooms to prevent this, but, as the forms to be gone through 
had been previously arranged, it became no easy matter to keep 
things in order. The points which we think should be attended to 
at another meeting, and which we are sure our friends in Newcastle 
will amend, are the assistance of one or two additional clerks, — to dis- 
pense with so much signing and counter-signing, which prevailed at 
Liyerpool before the ticket could be finally given, — and to make some 
separation between the tickets which are given to life members, and 
thosA which are only taken out on the occasion. 

On Friday, which nearly terminated the debating meetings of the 
various sections, it was arranged that the President of each should de- 
liver at the amphitheatre in the evening, a comprehensive report of 
the whole proceedings during the week, — an arrangement at once both 
useful and important, as laying before the public the manner in which 
the sections had been employed, and aUowing it to judge of the 
importance of the subjects which had thus occupied them. These 
gentlemen or their delegates (for we regret to say that one or two 
were confined by indisposition,) certainly appeared when called on by 
the President, to deliver their reports ; but, with the exception of Dr 
Faraday and Professor Henslow, we looked in vain for any thing in 
accordance with the task which had been entrusted to them. The 
gentlemen whom we have mentioned devoted their twenty-five mi- 
nutes * to the reading of plain intelligible statements of the transac- 
tions of the week, giving a concise analysis of the most important 
papers, or offering remarks upon them, couched in simple and ap- 
propriate, yet eloquent and classical language. The exhibitions of the 
others were rambling discourses, — a lecture on the stethoscope, and a 
rant on the benefits which the Association would confer on a com- 
mercial community,— all totally foreign to the expected purpose ; and 

* Prom the time which the first specimen occupied, Lord Burlington allotted 
to each the space of twenty -five minutes. 



37^2 Miscellaneous. 

where we saw that the dignity of well informed men was somewhat 
lost sight of in an attempt to make an impression on an audience, 
which thej supposed were not all capable of following the drier or 
deeper points of science, which wonld ueoessarily require to hare 
been treated of. 

There is still another little ^ling of correctness of arrangement 
which we must notice, — fully convinced that, if such matters of little 
moment in themselves remain unchecked, they would in time inflict 
a wound which would often become irksome, and eventually refuse 
to be soothed by mild or ordinary treatment. On the platform erect- 
ed for the evening meetings, and on which the General Committee 
or foreigners only have a right be present, a table has of necessity to 
be devoted for the accommodation of the President «nd the gentlemen 
officially connected with the meeting; around this we observed the 
scions of some noble houses regularly to take their seats, to the ex- 
clusion of some of the Presidents of the sections, and other officers 
who might have been called on in the course of business. We 
would always wish rank to assume its station, and rank with science 
combined has our highest homage ; but it must be recollected that in 
these meetings the attainments of the individuals are the test of their 
distinction ; and the office-bearers in the sections being elected as 
the most fitting persons to fill these honourable stations, their places 
should have been reserved during the short period they had been 
thus honoured by their fellow members. Let us entreat the Associa- 
tion to beware how they thus act again. Let the selection be made 
as rigorously as possible, but when it has been made, let the chosen 
officers be treated as such ; at the same time, let rank and title have 
its highest and fullest influence. Hitherto we think the AssociaUon 
has acted most wisely. In the election of its Presidents, it has, in 
the first place, run through a list of names high famed for sci- 
entific acquirements; and latterly it has entered on a few whose 
names are alike noble for their rank, and for the manner in which the 
different branches of science have been prosecuted or patronized by 
them ; and admiring the way in which this has hitherto been con- 
ducted, we have been the more particularly induced to make the pre- 
ceding observations, feeling that if the least inroad is permitted either 
of this undue deference to men of high degree, or of the slightest 
taint of party or political bias, we must bid farewell to all our delight 
in these meetings, and to our anticipations of the great and extended 
utility which we at present think theBRiTisu Association may afford 
to individuals of every profession. 



Mitcdlaneom. 873 



Section D. Zoology and Botahy. 

President^— Vf. Sharpe Maeleay, F. L. S. 
Viee-PruidenUf — Dr Richardfioiiy Professor Oraham, Pr^rfessor 

Liodlaj. 
S^erekarWi — C. C. Babing^n, W. SwaiasoOi Rby. L. Jenjns. 
Members of Committee^ — Thomas Hincks ; N. A« Vigors ; Rev. F. 
W. Hope ; Pat. Neill ; Professor J. S. Hensbw ; Phifessor T. S 
Traill ; Earl o£D&ihj ; Rev. W. Hincks ; John Curtis ; P. B. Dun- 
can ; J. £. Gray ; Charles S. Parker ; Rer. J. Yates ; J. £. Bow- 
man ; T. Eyton ; J. P. Selby ; C. HorsfaU ; R. BaU ; S. W. DiU- 
wyn; J. N. Walker; A. H. Haliday ; J. T. Mackay; Captain 
James Rosa ; Sir W. Jardine ; R. Harrison ; Mr Tinney ; H. Sand- 
bach; J. SaHsbury ; Mr Green; Dr Duncan; F. Archer; G. 
Cook. 

Monday, September Wth. 

The chair being taken about eleven o'clock^ the business of this sec- 
tion was commenced by Dr Traill> (Professor of Medical Jurispru- 
dencoy Edinbui^h,) exhibiting specimens of the Argeie persicw^ the 
poisonous bug of the Mianneh of Persia, and making some short 
verbal remarks regarding it. The bite was said to create a fever si* 
milar to that of typhus, and it was considered &tal to sleep in some 
of the villages near which it abounded. Mr Maoleay considered 
that the spedmens exhibited were not true insects, but belonged to 
the family of the Arachnoideee, and that among them there were two 
genera, Argae and Ixodee* He also did not consider the bite so &tal 
as stated by Dr Traill, but thought the inflammation might be produ- 
ced by the serrated rostrum remaining in the puncture ; and remark- 
ed that, in the Island of Cuba, there existed another poisonous insect 
belongingto a similar &mily, which attacks the horees, producing great 
pain and irritation, but he added, that the horses thus attacked 
were always considered to be those in best health and condition. Dr 
Traill persisted in his opinion. 

Mr Gray exhibited drawings of a new wat^ lily, sent from British 
Guiana by Dr Schombui^h. He remarked, that this splendid plant 
would form a new genus, with characters intermediate between Nym» 
phea and Buryale, and proposed to name it Victoria regina. It was 
found growing in the river Berbice. The flowers are sweet-scented^ 
the outer petals white, but changing to pink as they expand, and 
when fully opened showing a flower of from 15 to 18 inches in dia* 

VOL. JI. MO. 10. B b 



874 Mihceibneaus. 

meter. The leaf is of an obloDg ovate form, from 5 to 6 feet in 
length, the under side with elevated spinoos ribs, as in JSuryale, 
and of a rich crimson colour. The edges tnm np, and form an erect 
fringe five inches high, makingaframe or border around theleal^ a^ 
contnsting finely with the green coloor of the upper sur&ce. We 
have to regret, that neither seeds nor roots were brought home. 
The drawings are proposed to be engraved and published bj the Geo^ 
graphical Society. (See our Plate XII.) 

Mr Gray communicated the result of Mr Children's repetition of 
the experiments made by Mr Cross, for the reproduction of insects 
from an infusion of silica. Every attention was given that these 
experiments should be made exactly in the same manner with tbo6e 
performed by Mr Cross, but Mr Children did not succeed in procur- 
ing the insects from the infusion. Mr Stuchbury of Bristol had made 
the experiments with the same result, so also had Mr Golding Bird ; 
and these gentlemen seemed to be of opinion, that the acarus produced 
by Mr Cross, being a recent species, and one well known as most abun- 
dant in all situations, had come from eggs present in the distilled wa- 
ter employed in the experiments, and called into existence by the 
galvanic influence. The question was, however, left open for fu« 
ture investigation and experiment. Mr Macleay compared the pro- 
duction of the insects by Mr Cross under the galvanic influence to 
the effect of a high temperature upon the germination of seeds ; 
and compared their vitality to some of the lower animals, which could 
be revived either after a long series of years, or when apparent 
life had been completely suspended. Instances were noticed of the 
germination of grains which had been found in the pyramids, after 
having lain there upwards of 2000 years, and of the resuscitation of 
the animals of the genus Vibrio, afiter having been completely dried. 
Dr Graham mentioned instances of eggs of insects having preserved 
their vitality for a long period, and under high temperature, in which 
Mr Gray agreed, and stated, that the eggs of Acarus lapicida have 
been kept for two years in a dried state, still retaining their vitality ; 
and that he had placed Uirva: of one of the musca for three days in 
prussic add, which, when removed, produced in due time the p^fect 
insect. The above remarks brought on a discussion, whether circu- 
lation and respiration were completely suspended during torpidity. Mr 
Macleay considered that it was so in lower animals, and gave as instan- 
ces of it the species of Gordius and Filaria^ which could be entirely 
dried and again revived. Mr Gray concurred in these opinions, while 
Dr Gmham seemed in fstvour of these frinctions being only partially 
suspended. 



Miscellaneous. 375 

Rev. 71 W. Hope read a letter from Sir Thomas Phillips on the best 
method of destroying- insects which infest books and MSS. Sir Tho- 
mas found the wood of his library attacked by Anobiam striatum, par- 
ticularly where beech had been introduced, and appeared to think that 
this insect was much attracted by the paste employed in binding. He 
recommended as preservatives against their attacks spirits of turpen- 
tine and a solution of corrosive sublimate, and also that the latter sub- 
stance should be mixed with the paste. In some instances he found 
the produce ef a single impregnated female sufficient to destroy a 
i>ook. Much unimportant discussion followed the reading of this let- 
ter, regarding the best manner of preventing the Coleoptera and their 
]arv» from destroying objects of natural history. Turpentine and 
spirit of tar were recommended ; but Mr Gray stated, that the only me- 
thod pursued in the collections of the British Museum was an abun- 
dant supply of camphor, with attention to keeping the rooms dry, 
warm, and well ventilated. Mr Macleay stated that it was acari only 
which fed on the paste empl<yfed in binding books, while it was the 
larvsB of the Coleoptera only which pierced the boards and leaves. He 
■aUo recommended dryness and ventilation. 

Mr J. £all read a notice of Erica Mackaianoj Babington, from 
Cunnemai«, and exhibited living specimens ; adducing arguments in 
favour of its being distinct firom E. tetralix. Mr Mackay made re- 
marks on its distribution, and stated, that another addition to the Bri- 
tish flora had been discovered in the Erica cameOf found wild with- 
in eight miles of the town of Galway. 

Tuesday, 12/A September. 
Mr Macleay read a communication from Captain Ducane of South- 
4unpton, on some marine animals. In laying this communication be- 
fore the section, he stated, in explanation of the objects of the paper, 
that, while Mr Thompson bad observed that the crawJUh underwent 
metamorphoses from the young to the perfect state, Rathke of Berlin 
maintained the reverse, which would be a remarkable fact if proved, to 
find that a change took place in long-tailed Crustacea, while none 
bad been observed in the Brachynrine division. He felt inclined 
to support Mr Thompson's opinion, considering that gentleman an 
accurate naturalist, and he could scarcely think that one who had 
observed the remarkable fact of the cirrhipeds being locomotive and 
free in their young state, would now be mistaken. The letter about 
to be read confirmed his views, and showed an instance of an indi- 
vidualy who had not previously attended to natural history, observing 
and proving the curious transformations which are puzzling our 



376 MitceUaneous. 

professed naturalists. Captain Ducane, Mayor of Sonthamptoiiy lad 
his attention lately dieected to marine animals. He found flpedmena 
of what, at the tine, he considered the common prawn (Pslemcni 
semtns) in the ditches of a fen where the tide occasionally «tttered, 
and the water was hraddsh. These were loaded with eggs, and when 
put into fresh salt water, it was soon a1V.erwards filled with small dia- 
phanous creatures, rery different in form from the parent animals. He 
was not, however, Me to keep them more than three days aliye— the 
parent only fire or six. Drawings of this animal and the young were 
shown to Mr Macleay, who discovered at once that it was not a Pa^ 
lemon, but a species of some aHied genus, perhaps Cramgoftj .and on 
comparing Captain Ducane's drawings with the figure of Mr Thomp- 
son, copied from Slabber's work, found them very similar, and idmost 
identical ; and this fact he considered went very far to prove the con- 
firmation of that gentleman's observations. 

Dr jRichardwn hinted at the possibility of these young animals 
being parasitical in the eggs of the Crangon, but Mr Madeay conn- 
itered it impossible that every egg should contain a parasite. Mr Hope 
remarked that Zoe had been found parasite on Beroe, while Mr Mac- 
leay stated, that he had found the Decapod Crustacea parasitical in the 
Gulf stream, but could not perceive the smallest ground for believing 
that the young alluded to in Captain Duoane's letter could be ani- 
mals of this description* 

Mr HaUday exhibited engravings (from the Suites des Bufibn) 
of Argas perticus and irodes, in illustration of the subject brought 
forward yesterday by Dr Traill. Mr Macleay remarked, that the 
term bite, which was employed yesterday wiien describing the wound 
inflicted by this animal was improper, being produced by the insertion 
into the skin of a serrated rostrum, which produced great inflamma- 
tion. He also remarked that the history of this genus was remark- 
ably curious. In Cuba oxen were sometimes covered with them, and 
when they hadsudced their fill, the serrated rostrum breaks cff^ and the 
creature makes its way to the nearest stone, under which it may then 
be Ibund. When brought home, Uiousands of egg^ would be found 
issuing from the broken rostrum* He, however, did not pretend to 
say that the eggs were not impregnated by the usual cand, but that 
he had never seen Uiem produced in any other way than from the 
opening formed by the abrasuare of these parts, which, when the ani- 
mal became so full, seemed to serve the common purpose of an in- 
testinal and generative opening. These eggs produced a hexapod 
larva, the young form of the great division Arachnoidese, of which the 
Acari are the types. 



Miscellaneous. 377 

3fr SabingUm rmd a notice of a botanical excorBum to Jersey 
and Guernsey, made during the inontb of August last. (This paper 
will appear in ovs next Number.) Professor Lindiey stated, that Prof. 
Augusta, a Spanish botanist, had investigated the fl<H« of the Channel 
islands, and had made out a list of the plants, so iar as he knew them 
to exist* which was deposited in the libraries of some of the institu- 
tiMis there, and would be servioeable to botanists that might again 
wiA to examine the islands. Mr Forbes bcwe witness t4> the similarity 
of the botany of Jersey to the adjacent coast of France, and stated that 
Lamiuni allmm was not found in the Isle of Man. 

Mr Atiis read a paper on the Sclerotic bones of birds and animals, 
aad exhibited Reparations of the bones from the collection of the 
York Philosophical Society. He commenced by stating, that the 
opinions expressed by several eminent comparative anatomists were 
at variance with what he had observed, and cited those of Blumen- 
bach, Cams, Cuvier, Yarrell and Buckland, pointing out in what 
manner they differed from his own observations ; and adduced as an 
example of the very great variation in the statements of these men, 
the Eagle-owl, said by Cuvier to contain a series of twenty bones, 
while Mr AUice could only find fifteen. The greatest number found 
in any bird he had yet examined was seventeen, the smallest eleven ; 
and he thought, that, from the different form and structure which 
he had been able to observe, any particular order might be at once 
distinguished. 

Mr Reid communicated a paper on the chemical composition of 
vegetable fibre, — alluding to the great difficulty which Prof. Henslow 
had expressed in separating the cellular tissue from membrane, which 
he now considered comparatively easily accomplished, and that its 
composition could be therefore correctly ascertained. Prof. Henslow 
considered that Mr Reid had not yet succeeded in separating the two 
materials, and that he had not performed the experiments with suffi- 
cient care ; in which Prof. Lindley concurred, stating that the hollow 
cells emerge into the petals as well as the stamens, and that Praf. 
Henslow's meaning had been evidently mistaken. 

The Rev. F. W. Hope read some observations on the genus Pi^ 
larioy confining his observations prindpaUy to those ^ecies which 
infest insects, and exhibited a specimen of Steropus ethiopsf with 
the pamsitic Filaria protruding. He considered that the first attack 
was made in the larva state, and that in this respect they, to a cer- 
tain degree, resembled the Ichneumons, and might, among Coleopte- 
rous insects, assume their part, and be a wise provision for controlling 
the exuberance of species. All the insects hitherto recorded as in- 



378 Miscellaneous, 

fested with these parasites, live in moist places, some of them are 
entirely aquatic. One species he discovered in a species of Phiy. 
gauea, though he had not succeeded in detecting it in their larvae ; 
among the Lepidoptera he had not discovered any. A list of forty 
species of insects, which were infested with Filaria, was laid before 
the meeting. Rudolphi considered all the species to be identical; 
but in this assertion Mr Hope could not agree, having detected se- 
veral among the Coleoptera, while that in the Phryganea were dis- 
tinct from aU ; and he considered that each species, or at least each 
genus, possessed a species peculiar to it. Several distinct forms even 
seemed to exist, while the distinction between Gordius and Filaria 
had not yet been aufficiently marked, and he would now propose, that 
Filaria should be restricted to the form exhibited by the common 
Guinea worm (F. Medinensis,) and concluded by recommending atten- 
tion to the species which infested the animals composing our own 
Fauna. 

Mr Duncan asked if Mr Hope had paid sufficient attention to the 
different species to say that they were distinct in each ? Mr Hope 
said he had, and that he considered they would afford the means of 
distinguishing the closely allied animals, and that those infesting the 
higher orders were distinct from the insect parasites. Mr Madeay 
considered the paper a most valuable one, and thought that each in- 
sect contained its peculiar species. He could add to the list on the 
table, and possessed a spider which contained a Filaria. In an 
article in the Bibliotheque Universelle, a Filaria is recorded from a 
specimen of Gryllus. The tenacity of life was also alluded to : that 
belonging to the Gryllus had remained dried up for several weeks, and 
when placed in water again revived. Mr Hope concurred in these 
observations, and stated that he believed the specimen on the table 
was yet alive, having made various contortions since the insect had 
been set up. 

Mr Bowman read a paper by Mr Gardener on the internal struc- 
ture of the palm tribe. Mr Gardener is now in the Brazils, making 
observations on the botany of the country, of which that now com- 
municated was among the first received. It contained some curious 
observations regarding the manner in which the woody part was pro- 
duced, assimilating its formation to a certain extent with that of the 
ConifersB. Mr Bowman offered to be the medium of communication 
between M r Gardener and the Association. 

Mr Niven communicated the results of some interesting experi- 
ments in reference to vegetable physiology. The experiments were 
made chiefly upon the Ulmus campestris, or common English elm. 



1 



Miscellaneous. 379 

with the view of ascertaining- the direction of the sap, and the sup- 
posed peculiar principles which allowed it to develope leaves or roots. 
Mr Niren considered, that there, were two constant principles, the 
one upwards, which he terms the leaf principle, the other downwards, 
or that producing- the roots, and he stated that he thought these 
could not be controverted. In confirmation he produced a specimen 
of the elm ringed round about to the depth of one or two layers in 
the wood. The under surface of the cut part produced young- shoots 
with leaves, while on the upper part of the excision abundance of 
roots were »priuging out. Various modifications of the same experi- 
ments were detailed. Drawings in illustration of them were exhi- 
bited ; showing at the same time, that the tree or branch would be 
supported, and would live for a considerable time, at least when sub- 
jected to a very deep incision or insulation of the parts ; different trees, 
however, having various powers of prolonging their existence, or of 
producing additional wood and bark under the above-mentioned cir- 
cumstances. Professor Lindley obserred, that the experiments were 
a11 consonant with the present generally received opinions, but con- 
mdered roots to be only the wood part sent down by the buds. 

Mr Gray made some observations on one or two species of Mam- 
malia preserved in the collection of the Koyal Institution. The first 
was a species of otter from Demerara. It is intermediate in form be- 
tween the common otter or Lutra^ and the Ehhydra^ is remarkable 
for the g^at developement of the webs of the hinder feet, has the 
tail partially broadened, or fringed with a lateral membrane, and 
the muzzle is entirely hairy, with nothing bare excepting the edge 
of the nostrils. Mr Gray considered this animal as being the 
fourth type of the otters. The next animal was Thalacimts cynoce- 
phaluSf exhibited on account of the very young state of the specimen, 
which would scarcely exceed four inches in height, and remarked 
that the teeth now resembled in their formation those of the young 
seals. Two specimens of Philantombo were shewn, a epecies of an- 
telope from western Africa, called as above by the natives of Sierra 
Leone, and which Major H. Smith had described from a young and 
small specimen in the British Museum under the name of Ant. phi- 
lantombo ; and lastly, a perfect specimen of the Felis gracilis of Dr 
Horsfield. 

Mr Lindley made some additional observations on Victoria regina, 
which was exhibited yesterday. 

Wednesday y ISth September. 
The paper brought forward by Dr Traill at last meeting was first 



380 Miscellaneous. 



^ 



read* It was a case communicated by Dr Williamson, of a young wo- 
man> about 21 yean of age living in a cellar, who, after mucti pain 
and violent paroxyBms, voided a laige gray slug, after which the 
annoying symptoms gradually subsided. Mr Jenyns considered the 
specimen in question, now. before the section, to be the lAmax varie* 
gaiue, which inhabits cellars ; and the Rev. Mr Hope, Mr Ciutia, Mr 
Madeay, and Ph>fessor Henslow, mentioned some cases of insects 
and their larvsB having been passed from the intestines. 

Dr Richardson read a communication fromDr Bellingham on the 
frequent occurrence of Tricocephahu dispar in the human intestines. 
The author considered that it had been erroneously described by for- 
mer observers, and stated, that it was found in the intestines of almost 
every one. Some discussion took place on the subject, in which Dr 
Richardson, Mr Curtis, Mr Seiby, and Mr Madeay took part. 

Prof. LitMey communicated a p^>er from Mr Ward on the cul- 
tivation of plants without ventilation. These experiments ori- 
ginated from Mr Ward's unsuccessful attempts to rear plants in a 
confined and smoky situation in London. They were made in small 
bottles and glass cases of various sizes, and houses of twenty ^y^ feet 
in length. They went to prove the possibility of groning plants un- 
der these circumstances, and would be one of the greatest discoveries 
made in ^e manner of transporting living plants froni distant coun- 
tries under a varied temperature. Many cases had been already re* 
ceived in this county, and the Messrs Loddiges bore testimony to the 
success which had already attended the plan. On one occasion, plants 
were shipped at New Holland at a temperature of 80^; in passing 
Cape Horn the temperature fell to 2(F ; at Rio it rose to 100°; after- 
wards to 120^ ; and on arriving in England it again fell to 40^ ; but 
when taken out they were in perfect condition, notwithstanding the 
various changes of temperature they had undeigone. This me- 
thod of growing some plants of no great size in our rooms, and of 
noticing their various modes of growth, might be applied to many 
purposes of experiment. 

Mr Yates read the report from the Committee in Liverpool for 
growing plants on Mr Ward's plan. The green-house which had 
t>een erected on the above construction was stocked with eighty spe- 
cies of plants, and, so &r as time had yet been afforded, they appear- 
ed to be thriring and fulfilling every expectation. The report gave 
nse to some interesting discussion on the power possessed by plants 
to exist in vessels excluding the external air, and also on the practi- 
cabiiity of introducing smaU animals, or at least those of the lower 
classes, along with the planU. Dr Graham considered, that with 



MisceUaneons. 381 

plants no necessity for circulation of air existed, but the vessel must 
be placed in such a situation as to receive the influence of the sun, 
for the purpose of causing the leaves to reproduce the atmospheric dr. 
He had found that several of the Cacti throve better in the moist at- 
mosphere of a closed glass, than in the dry state in which they are 
generally kept, and that he had grown species in his own room in this 
manner for the last two years, some of which h^d not received water for 
eighteen months. The plants which the Doctor found to thrive best 
under this treatment were the Lycopodii, the Grasses, which throve 
remarkably, Begonias and Cacti. Orchideous plants did not thrive 
under these circumstances; and seed had never been seen to be 
produced or ripened by any of the plants. Animals he considered 
could not exist, for the reason that they had no power to reproduce 
the atmospheric air; and the quantity which they would consume 
would be so disproportionate to that produced by the plants, as to be 
either insufficient for their maintenance, or would require vessels 
much too large for the purpose of convenient experiment. Professor 
Lindley bore testimony to the importance of this discovery, and to 
the perfect manner in which some plants had been transported. The 
Arucaria had been brought home and transplanted with the greatest 
success. He concurred generally with the opinions expressed by Dr 
Graham. 

Mr Bickergteih exhibited the milk from the McLsarandvha tree, 
the cow-tree of Humboldt (Galactodendron utile.) Dr Traill remark** 
ed that there were two kinds of cow-tree ; that he had analysed the 
juice of the Galactodendron or cow-tree of the Caraccas, which con- 
sists principally of wax and resin ; but that the juice of the cow-tree 
of Demerara (botanical name unknown) contains chiefly caoutchouc. 

Mr Pooly brought before the meeting an instance which occur- 
red to himself, of three swallows being found on one of the German 
lakes completely imbedded and frozen up in ice, one of which when un- 
covered revived and lived for a short time. He inferred from this that 
theoldtheory of these birds going under water during winter was tenable. 
This notice excited considerable interest, and was remarked on by Mr 
Allis, Mr Hutton, and Mr Selby, and after much cross-questioning, it 
was generally concluded that the fieu^t did not bear on the question of 
hybernation, but that the swallows in question might have been 
those of a very late brood, and being benumbed when in search of food, 
had been frozen or surrounded with snow, a very short time previous 
to their discovery. 

Mr Gould exhibited drawings of some new Trogons for the con- 
tinuation of his monograph, and some figures for two new works 

VOL II. NO. 10. c c 



362 Miscellaneous. 

which he had in preparation. (See Bibliographical Notices, p. 357.) At 
the same time he made some observations on the habits of the Tro- 
gonidiBy which elicited from various members their opinions of their 
proper station in the system, which most of the ornithologists present 
considered to be among the Fissirostres. Mr Macleay made some 
interesting observations on the T. temnurus (forming the genus Tem- 
nurus of Swain.) which is remarkably abundant in the island of 
Cuba. This species feeds principally on caterpillars which it seizes 
on the bark and branches of trees ; and it was thought that this man- 
ner of feeding indicated the propriety of the views held by Mr Swain - 
son, that it exhibited the scansorial type of the genus. The berry- 
eating species of the Trogons have been found principally, if not en- 
tirely, among the Caluri. 

Mr Sandhatch exhibited specimens of an undescribed Prionites and 
a Parug from the collection of the Royal Institution : for the Motmot 
he proposed the specific name of <' superciliaris,*' from a stripe of ultra- 
marine feathers which stretch over each eye. It is one of the most beau, 
tiful of a limited genus, and appeared to be intermediate in the form 
of the bill between the Pr. pUti^rhynchuSi Jard. and Selby, and the or- 
dinary forms, the bill very much depressed, and very finely serrated. 

Mr E, Forbes read a notice of several new forms of British ani- 
mals and plants, making observations on two Mollusca, one allied to 
Doris pinnati/idat the other to the genus Montagua of Dr Fleming, 
He exhibited also Asteri€Ls ruhens of Johnston. The plants mention- 
ed were a new Polygala, which was described in the report of the Bo- 
tanical Society of Edinburgh, and a new Euphrasia, distinguished from 
£. officinalis, by being hairy throughout, and having its fruit placed 
in an alternate and opposite manner, so as to form four vertical h'nes» 
and to give a square appearance to the spike. 

Friday^ \bth September. 

Mr R» Mallet read a communication on the power of aged trees» 
under certain circumstances, to reproduce themselves from the centre 
of the trunk. The trees which have been observed to become moet 
generally hollow are the oak, elm, chestnut, beech, cherry, and yew ; 
numerous sketches of remarkable instances of this operation of 
time and the seasons were exhibited. The meeting did not seem to 
agree generally with Mr Mallet in his opinions. Professor Henslow 
and Mr Duncan made observations on the subject. 

Mr Smith of Jordan Hill exhibited two new shells dredged 
^m Rothesay Bay, and which had been named Fusus Boothiiy and 
F. umbilicaius. He also produced fourteen species of fossil shells. 



r 



Miscellaneous. 383 

found among recent shells at a higher leyel than the present high 
water^ and which are not known to exist in a recent state. 

3fr Macleatf exhibited portions of the pier of Southampton, 
which had been forwarded to him by Captain Ducane» and which 
were completely destroyed by the operations of the Limnoria tere- 
brans. Mr Macleay stated that this pier had been erected only a 
few years since, at an expense of between L. 8000 and L. 10,000, and 
that its state of decay was now such that it would require to 
be rebuilt, and would cost nearly a similar sum. Mr Francis sug- 
gested, that if the wood had been cayennised, it would have resisted 
the effects of this destructiye insect, and detailed many experiments, 
by which, under other circumstances, its e£Bcacy had been proved. 
Mr Francis was requested to bring before next meeting the result of 
a series of experiments which were now in progress, and' also-to di- 
rect his attention to the power of this preparation in resisting the at- 
tacks of insects. 

Mr •/. ]5» G^ay exhibited some new land shells from the Museum 
of the Royal Institution, and remarked on their peculiarities. One of 
more than usual interest was a new species of Anodon, found near 
Broughton in Craven Yorkshire, and named A, Roisiu 

The Rev. •/. Meade read a paper on the solid materials found in 
the ashes of plants and animals. This paper went chiefly to prove 
that the earthy, saline, and metallic ingredients contained in plants, 
were the maintaining substances of vegetable life. 

Mr •/• Taylor exhibited a specimen of Goliathus magnus from the 
collection of the Institution ; also the jaws of a large shark, and spe- 
cimen of the oil obtained from its liver. Mr Macleay made some in- 
teresting remarks on the history and affinities of Goliathus, but was 
prevented entering so deeply into the subject as he could have wished 
from the time of the section being nearly run. The same reason pre- 
vented the reading of several other valuable papers which had been 
entered in the list^ particularly one on the affinities of birds by Mr 
Vigors, in which he proposed to illustrate the subject^ and explain 
some of his views, which the opponents of the circular arrangement 
had either misconstrued or not understood* 

In the Committee of this section, which was not publicly open, 
the following grants were made from the funds of the association 
for the purpose of performing experiments. A grant of L. 60 was 
proposed by Professor Henslow, to be placed at the disposal of the 
committee in Liverpool, appointed for the purpose of ascertaining 
the results of experiments made for growing plants in apartments 



386 Obituary. 

defatigable man began publishing his " General History of Birds,*' 
which was completed in 10 toIs. 4to. In 1835, he for the first time 
began to feel the failure of hb sight. Infirmities gradually increased 
on him ; but he was still an actiye and cheerful man, taking his daily 
walk alone, and scorning the assistance of an arm. Four days before 
his death he exhibited unusual yivacity ; this was followed by a fiul- 
ure of understanding, and he fell into a deep sleep, in which he expir* 
ed without a peng. Thoug^h chiefly known, and most successful as a 
naturalist, Dr L. was also much attached to antiquities. In a letter 
to Mr Denne, written in 1797, he remarked, " In respect to natural 
history and antiquities, I compare myself to Ganrick, between Tra^ 
gedy and Comedy ; and, though not so great a man, I cannot hdp, 
like him, squinting towards that which pleases me best." — Extracted 
from the Gentleman's Magcusinefor July 1837. 

Dr Latham's works in natural history were confined to Ornitho- 
logy, in which they were for long the universal text-books, and they 
are still held in considerable estimation. Cuvier says — ^*I1 a surtout 
enrichi TOmithologie de belles esp^ces nouyelles ; mais see ouvrages 
sans critique reulent ^tre lus arec prtoiution." 

On the 6th July 1837, Dr Jambs ^Woodfordb, of Castle Carey, 
Somerset. — Dr W. completed his medical studies at the Unirersity 
of Edinburgh, where he graduated M. D. in 1825. The year pre- 
vious he published " a Catahgue of the Indigenous Phenagamic 
Plants growing in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh" — ^the result of 
much industry, and a useful companion in botanical excursions. 
Can we suppose that in the motto prefixed to this work Dr W. had 
the anticipation of bis own brief career ? 

" Brevi cadentia biMSce 
Brevem docentne vitam ?" 



£0INBUROU : 
raiMTXD BT JOHN STARK, OLD ASSKMBLT CLOSE. 



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ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



I. — The Fauna of Tnizcll By P. J. Se lb y, Esq. (Continued from 
Vol. i. p. 424.) 

Fbom the circumscribed extent, as well as the natural features 
of the district described, the list of birds is necessarily yery limited 
in species belonging to the Grallatorial and Natatorial orders, but 
contains a fair ordinary average of Insessorial as well as Rapacious 
and Gallinaceous birds. In front stands the great sea eagle, 
( H. albicilla,) as I have twice had the gratification of seeing this 
ooble bird wing its way across the district on its route from the 
ooast to the interior. Scarcely a winter indeed passes without 
»ne or more individuals being seen in some part of the county ; and 
during one season three of these birds almost daily frequented Chil- 
ingham Park, the seat of the Earl of Tankevville, where they were 
observed to prey upon the fallen deer. These visitors, it may be 
observed, are generally immature birds ; but as no eyrie at present 
exists, either in Northumberland or in the south of Scotland, they 
are probably the offspring of some of those pairs which are yet to be 
seen in the northern districts and islands of Scotland, and which, in 
defiance of the assiduity and daring of the shepherd and Highland 
fox-hunter, continue at times to rear their young in some precipi« 
tous and inaccessible rock, or else upon the islets of its little ire* 
quented lochs. These, when able to provide for themselves, are 
driven from the place of their nativity by their parents, who allow 
of no compeer within their peculiar beat, and in their search of a 
domain of their own pay us these passing visits. The peregrine 

VOL. ix« NO. 11. D d 



388 Fauna of TtoizeU. 

falcon is still occasionally seen, but its appearance is now rarer tlian 
it used to be a few years ago. This may be attributed to the destruc- 
tion of two or three eyries in the adjacent districts, one of which 
was placed in the remains of the tower at Dunstanborough Castle, 
and another in a cra^jy precipice upon a moor, about three miles 
to the south-west of Twizell* Eyries, however, of this fidcon still 
exist in some of the precipitous gullies of the Cheviot range, and in 
the lofty rocks of the magnificent promontory of St Abbs Head. The 
merlin breeds, but sparingly upon the neighbouring moors ; and for 
three or four successive seasons a pair had their nest within a stone's 
throw of our little district. The increase of sheep stock, and 
extended cultivation, is annually tending to diminish the num- 
bers of this, as well as many other birds which formerly used to 
abound. 

The kestril, as well as the sparrow-hawk, annually breeds with 
us, the former in a crag in the Dean, or else in the old nest of a 
carrion crow ; the latter is always its own architect, though it does 
not excel in the art, as the nest is a large flat fabric, loosely con- 
structed of twigs and sticks, with a very trifling central depression. 
The sparrow-hawk has frequently as many as six young ones, and 
the havock they make at this time among the smaller birds and 
young game is almost beyond belief. I recollect inspecting a nest 
in which lay the recent remains of a lapwing, a blackbird, a 
thrush, and two green-linnets, some half devoured, and others 
nearly whole, but all neatly and cleanly plucked. The common 
as well as the rough-legged buzzard are only occasicHial visitants, 
and the first is perhaps of even rarer occurrence than the latter, 
but neither species has been seen for the last two years. The 
honey-buzzard (Per. apivorus,) certainly one of the rarest of our 
Faloonidae, figures in the list ; as a fine specimen of the adult male 
is now in my possession, taken within the precincts of the district 
in September 1835, by means of a trap baited with wasp's comb, a 
nest of which insect it had previously been observed to have scratch- 
ed out from the root of a tree. Within the last five or six years 
several honey-buzzards have visited Northumberland and Durham. 
Of those that have been secured, three or four which I have seen 
are in what is now considered the immature plumage of the male, 
in which state the greater part of the head and neck is white, the 
breast and belly with dark-brown lanceolate streaks. * In those 

* For a more detailed account of the honey-buzzard in this state, our readers 
are referred to the first number of the " Illustrations of Ornithology/* New 
Series, and the Transactions of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. 



Fauna of TwizeB. 389 

that I have dissected nothing but the remains of wasps in various 
stages were detected. The moor-harrier is rapidly declining in 
numbers^ many of the marshes in which they used to breed having 
been drained and reclaimed. Some few years ago I recollect it as 
one of the most abundant species in this neighbourhood ; now an in- 
dividual is rarely to be seen. Of the owls^ the long-eared (Otus 
vulgaris) is the most plentiful, and is met with in all the planta- 
tions where the fir, particularly of the spruce kind, abounds. They 
breed early, and have generally eggs by the middle of March. An 
old nest, either of the magpie or carrion crow, is the situation in- 
variably selected as the place of deposit. The young continue to 
be fed by their parents long after they have quitted the nest ; and 
their querulous cry, which commences immediately after sunset, is 
heard throughout the greatest part of the summer. The tawny 
owl is now rarely seen. I may here mention, that a very small owl, 
probably Nyctipeies nudipes or Tengmaltnij Swain, was seen near 
the stables at Twicell by a person well acquainted with birds, and 
who could scarcely mistake an owl of such small dimensions for any 
of the common species, particularly as he was within a very short 
distance, and had an opportunity of examining it before it flew from 
its perch. The cinereous shrike, (Lan. excubitor,) is the only spe- 
cies, I believe, that has yet been detected north of the Tyne. At 
Twicell I have killed two or three individuals, and have seen va- 
rious other specimens from the adjoining districts. Its time of ap- 
pearance is between the months of November and March. Two 
specimens, both adults, of the pied flycatcher (Mus. luctuosa) have 
been killed within our confines, and another was seen but allowed 
to escape. They all appeared in May ; but no instance of its breed- 
ing either here, or within the county, has yet come to my know- 
ledge. Of the various thrushes, it may be remarked, that the mis- 
sel, (Mer. viscivora,) has of late years been rapidly on the increase 
in the north of England and Scotland. I well remember when it 
was considered a very rare bird. Now it is met with in all directions 
and at all seasons, as it has not been observed to migrate even dur- 
ing the severe winter months. This, however, the common thrush 
usually does to a certain extent, as it regularly moves from the in- 
terior to the sea coast towards the middle of November, and there 
continues till January is pretty far advanced. The ring-ouzel 
(Mer. torquata) pays us a passing visit on commencing its autum- 
nal migration, but rarely remains more than a few days, during 
which it is generally seen in the neighbourhood of the mountain-ash 
trees, whose berries are a favourite repast of this as of all the other 



390 Fauna of TwizdL 

thrushes. Fieldfares frequently remain here till May is far ad- 
vanced, a fact which long surprised me, as most of the species 
which remain with us have ere then reared a full fledged brood. Mr 
Hewitson, however, in his beautiful work on British Oology, sa- 
tisfactorily accounts for so late an appearance, as he informs us 
from actual observation that they do not commence nidification 
in Norway, one of their breeding-stations, before the end of May ; 
and further, that they differ from aU their congeners in the re- 
markable fact of breeding, like the rook, in large societies. The 
dipper (Gin. aquaticus,) that lively attendant on our mountain 
streams, and whose sweet and early carol enlivens the solitary 
situations it frequents, breeds annually in Twizell Dean. The situa- 
tion selected is the face of a rock or craggy steep overhanging the 
water, and frequently in a spot where it might be expected to be 
always saturated with wet from the dripping of the rock above, 
yet so compact and well framed is the dome of the nest, that it shoots 
off like a penthouse all superabundant moisture, and the eggs and 
young remain dry and warm in their mossy and leaf-lined receptacle. 
When the nest contains young, it is easily detected by their loud 
chirping as often as the old birds fly past or approach the nest with 
food. On quitting the nest, after feeding the young, the old birds 
frequently drop into the water, dive, and rise at some distance, when 
they take wing. I have before stated my opinion, that the dipper 
does not walk at the bottom of the water when submerged, — a power 
confidently attributed to it by various writers, — but uses the same 
exertion in this act as other diving birds. This opinion is confirm- 
ed by repeated observations, extending through a course of many 
years, during which I have watched its habits with particular atten- 
tion, and oft when the bird has been close to me, though unaware 
of my near propinquity. The young, even befcnre they leave the nest 
of their own accord, if disturbed and made to quit it, dive instinc- 
tively the moment they touch the water, but their progress beneath 
the surface, which I have frequently seen extended to six or eight 
yards, is always by the peculiar motion of the %vings, made use of by 
other diving birds, and never by walking at the bottom, — a feat they 
ought to perform in common with their parents if given to them, 
like the usual mode of diving, as a natural or instinctive habit, I 
may also state that their internal anatomy presents nothing pecu- 
liar, or that could give one reason to suppose that they were likely 
to possess so extraordinary a power. Of the genus Salicaria, the 
sedge warbler (Sal. phragmitis) is still frequent upon the margins 
of the brooks and moist bushy situations; but the grasshopper 



Fauna of Twizell 391 

warbler (Sal. locustella,) which^ during the early growth of many 
of the plantations, then abounding in whin, broom, and other under- 
growth, might be heard in various directions, pouring forth its sibi- 
lous note, now that they have attained a considerable growth, is 
rarely heard, and then only in the brushwood adjoining the moor and 
other open ground. The white throat (Cur. cinerea) is plentiful ; 
but no example of the lesser species (Cur. garrula) has yet been de- 
tected. Of the greater pettychaps (Cur. hortensis) the number is 
limited ; but its congener, the black-cap (Cur. atricapilla) is abun- 
dant. Of the Sylviae or willow wrens, the hippolais of Lath. &c. 
the rufa of Temminck, is, comparatively speaking, a rare bird, and 
seldom more than three or four pairs annually visit the district, 
which are always confined to peculiar spots or localities. The S. 
sibilatrix or wood wren is plentiful in the woods of older growth, 
particularly where beech and oak abound. The S. trochilus is, how« 
ever, the most abundant of all our summer visitors. This species 
and the black-cap arrive about the same time, and the period, from 
the observations of many years, is between the 14th and 1 8th of 
April; Mr Hewitson's work renders it almost unnecessary to add, that 
the nest of S. sibilatrix is easily distinguished from that of S. irochi* 
Ins, by having a lining of hair instead of feathers. The diminutive 
but active little gold-crest (R. auricapillus) is very plentiful, and 
Doay be seen at all seasons in the plantations, delighting especially 
in the thick masses of the spruce and silver firs, among which it 
finds a constant supply of food, as well as a favourite site for its nest, 
which, as a semipendulous structure, yields in neatness and elegance 
of fabrication to none with which I am acquainted. In addition to 
our constant residents, we receive a great accession of strangers 
about the end of October and beginning of November from the 
colder regions of Norway, Sweden, &c. The pied wagtail (Mot. 
alba) migrates in autumn, but returns at an early period of the 
year, as I have frequently noticed it on the roof of the house during 
the last week of February, when the weather was mild. The ma- 
jority of the grey species (Mot. boarula) also leave us during win- 
ter, a few individuals only remaining, which are occasionally seen in 
warm situations near spring heads and other water courses that re- 
main open even during severe frosts. This species prefers the ledge 
of a rock upon the banks of our limpid rivulets for the site of its 
nest. It breeds very early, and the first brood has generally quit- 
ted the nest before the middle of May. The yellow wagtail is 
never seen in this district, though far from uncommon upon the dry. 
hilly grounds a few miles to the westward. The Anthus arboreus. 



392 Favna of Twizell 

tree pipits breeds annually upon the lawn^ and though its song does 
not possess great compass or variety, its mode of delivering it as it 
descends^ with motionless expanded wing and outspread tail, from 
the elevated station it has previously attained by a flight as peculiar, 
makes it a general favourite. Its arrival does not take place till the 
last few days in April or the first of May. That lovely bird the 
wax-wing (Bombydlla garrula) has been twice or thrice seen with- 
in the district. It is uncertain in its appearance^ and sometimes 
many years elapse without a visit. During the winters of 1835 and 
1836 it was generally spread over the kingdom^ and I saw many 
specimens taken in the neighbourhood. I may here mention, that 
a living individual was given to Dr Johnston of Berwick, who kept 
it caged for several months. It soon became tame and familiarized 
to its situation, and recognized those who fed and attended it. It 
was frequently allowed to come out of the cage and fly about the 
room, and at last made its escape, from the door of the cage having 
inadvertently been left open opposite to an open window. It was 
fed at first upon haws and holly berries, and when these iailed, 
seemed to thrive upon dried fruits, such as raisins, currants, figs, &c. 
The bunting (Emb. miliaria) visits the district in small flocks 
during the winter, but few breed with us, as it affects a more open 
and perhaps a less cultivated country, and I have observed it to be 
more abundant where meadows and pasture prevail. Flocks of 
snow-flakes (Plect. nivalis) occasionally frequent the stubbles dur- 
ing the winter months ; none, however, have appeared this last win- 
ter although it has been long and severe, nor have I noticed them 
in the adjoining districts. The lesser redpole (Linaria minor) 
breeds in all the deans and copses wherever the birch abounds. 
Small flocks are now and then seen during the winter, but the great 
body seems to migrate further south. In April they return in flocks, 
and for some time frequent the Wych elms, whose seed, which at that 
time is beginning to ripen, they greedily devour. They do not nidi- 
ficate before May, or till they can procure in sufficient plenty the 
downy pappus of the willow, with which soft substance they chief- 
ly line their nests. I have observed the siskin, (Car. spinus) to 
be much more plentiful in mild than in severe winters ; it is there- 
fore probable that when the latter prevail they migrate to a lower 
or warmer latitude. They are generally seen upon the birch and 
alder trees, extracting the seed from the catkins, which they effect in 
a quick and adroit manner. When feeding, this bird assumes, like the 
lesser redpole, a variety of interesting attitudes, in order to reach the 
catkins. Its feet possess the true perching or insessorial form, and 



Fauna of Twizell 393 

it is never seen upon the ground. The bullfinch (Pyrr. vulgaris,) 
beautiful and ornamental as it is to the plantations^ is the only spe- 
cies whose numbers I wish to see diminished, being a true gemmt- 
varous bird, and when abundant, frequently making sad havock in 
the orchard and garden, as soon as the buds begin to swell in spring. 
It attacks the plum trees, gooseberries, medlars, certain varieties of 
the apple and the thorn, and I have known two individuals in the 
course of a couple of days denude a large plum tree of almost every 
bud. Last spring two or three attacked a large medlar upon the 
lawn, which they found so much to their taste that they never quit- 
ted it till they luid stripped it bare, and this they effected in a few 
days. I may remark, that in the stomachs of a very great number 
opened at vaicious times, nothing but the triturated remains of the 
embryo leaves and flowers could be detected. In winter they af- 
fect the young plantations and birch woods, and I have observed 
that they often feed upon the embryo shoots of the Scotch fir, as 
well as the buds of the larch. The crossbill (Lox. curvirostra) is 
well known as an occasional visitant. During the winter and spring 
of 1836, they were particularly abundant throughout the island, 
and whether from the ample supplies of food, or something peculiar 
in the season, they remained in the north to a period much later 
than I had ever before known them. On their former visits they 
liave generally quitted us before Christmas, and this I considered to 
be in accordance with Temminck's statement as to the period of their 
breeding, for he remarks in his Manual, niche en hiver, but on their 
last visit they were seen in considerable numbers during March and 
April, and I continued to take specimens up to the 2d of May, on 
which day a male and female, evidently paired, were procured. On 
dissecting the female, eggs as large as a pea were found in the ova- 
ries, the male also for the first time was heard to utter his love note, 
a fine dear whistle (very unlike their usual call,) while perched on 
the tree with his mate. Another pair was seen as late as the 16th 
of May. From these facts, it appears that the species do not always 
breed at the time mentioned by Temminck. Its nest hitherto has 
not been detected in Britain, but it seems probable that on such 
occasions as we have mentioned it may nidificate in the extensive 
pine woods of Scotland. 

Of the CorvidflB, the raven (C. corax) is now only seen occasion- 
ally, but in former days it bred in Twizell Dean, where the Cor- 
bies' Crag still points out the situation of the nest. The carrion crow 
(C. corone,) though persecuted to the death as the great destroyer of 
the eggs and young of game, is yet too plentiful. From the obser- 



394 Fauna of TwizelL 

vations aad experiments I have made^ this wary bird appears to 
rely much more on its acute vision than its sense of smeU, to de- 
tect approaching danger and avoid surprise, and I am certainly not 
among those who believe in its nice discrimination of the fatal ef- 
fects of gunpowder, the scent of which it is supposed to perceive at 
many gunshots distance. The beautiful and active jay is rare, and 
it is only now and then that its harsh and grating scream is heard 
in the plantations. The great spotted woodpecker (P. major) is 
the only species I have hitherto observed, and most of the instances 
have been in autumn, during the period of the equatorial migration. 
The common creeper (Certhia familiaris) is seen in all the planta- 
tions. A pair of these interesting birds bred for some years in a hole in 
the wooden back of a summer-house, where the female, when sitting, 
almost allowed herself to be handled without quitting her charge. 

Of the fissirostral tribe, the kingsfisher is a rare visitant, and it is 
only at distant intervals that it enriches the margin of the burn 
with its brilliant plumage. The chimney swallow (Hir. rustica) 
is the only species that breeds with us in any number, for though 
the martlet (Hir. urbica) used formerly to infest the comers of aK 
most every window, and had besides a long row of nests under the 
eaves of the stables, they have for some years past entirely deserted 
the place, and it is only in autumn, when congregating previous to 
migration, that they are seen. I attribute this desertion in part to 
the growth and great extent of the plantations, for the natural si- 
tuation or habitat of the species appears to be a naked open country ; 
thus they are found breeding in vast numbers in many of the rockj 
cliffs upon the sea coast, and under the eaves of houses upon extensive 
moors ; and in Sutherland we found the face of the marble difis 
near Inch-an-Damff, thickly beset with their clay built receptacles. 
The night-jar (Cap. Europeus,) though never numerous, is far 
from being rare ; several pairs breed annually within our precincts. 
Its peculiar humming note, the invitation of the male, is seldom 
heard before the latter end of May or beginning of June. This late 
arrival of the species is in beautiful accordance with the appearance 
of those hosts of insects, which furnish it an abundant supply of 
food, viz. the nocturnal Lepidoptera, and some of the large night- 
flying Coleoptera. When perched, the night-jar always sits length- 
ways upon the branch, with its head low, and from its assimilating 
colours, is with difficulty detected in that situation. 

The ring pigeon or cushat (Colum. palumbus) is the only species 
we can boast of, but of it the number is very great, and seems annual- 

I 



Fatma of Twizell 395 

ly increasing, which may be attributed to the shelter and security 
it finds in the plantations as nurseries for its young. 

Among the Grallatores may be noticed the green sandpiper^ (Teta- 
nus ochropus) a bird of rare occurrence in all parts of the kingdom. 
Its congener (T. hypoleucos) breeds upon the margins of the rivulet, 
and from its lively manners and elegant flighty proves an interest- 
ing addition to the Fauna. The golden Plover (Charadrius pluvi- 
alls) visits the fallows during autumn and winter in large flocks ; 
in spring they disperse and retire to breed upon the adjoining moors, 
at which time they assume the livery of the C apricarius of au- 
thors, the white of the under parts giving place to a deep black. 
To obtain the eggs, the birds must be watched at a distance, as the 
female, upon the approach of any intruder, at the warning note of 
the male, immediately skulks off from the nest, and only shows her- 
self, when she has got to a considerable distance from it. The 
dottrel (Ch. morinellus) we see only during its migration north- 
wards in May, and then but occasionally, as the great resting point 
of the flocks which pass by this route, is further to the north, in the 
neighbourhood of Berwick. The wild goose sometimes in spring 
alights upon our new sown fields, but the usual feeding grounds of 
the species are all at a considerable distance, and these they have 
been known to haunt from time immemorial. The wild duck (Anas 
boschas) frequently breeds with us, but the old duck conducts her 
young as soon as hatched with all possible dispatch further down 
the rivulet, from whence they can have access to marshes and other 
ground appropriated to their habits of concealment. The common 
gull (LaruR canus) is seen in the pastures, and plowed fields during 
the autumn and winter months, whenever the ground is free from snow 
and frost. It leaves us in April, retiring further north in order to 
breed, and it is succeeded by the lesser black-backed gull (Larus 
fuscus,) which resorts to the Farn Islands in great numbers, for the 
purpose of reproduction. 

Of the reptiles, the blind or slow worm (Anguis fragilis) is far 
from uncommon in the dry and stony parts of the Deans ; the ad- 
der (Pelias berus of Buonap. Vipera communis of Jenyns,) abounds 
in all the Deans, and other dry and warm exposures. I have been 
unable to detect more than one species, though a great difference 
of colour is observable among them, but this I find varies according 
to the age of the epidermis, season of the year, sex, &c. The com- 
mon lizard (Lacerta agilis) is the only species I have yet had an 
opportunity of examining, but 1 think we may possibly possess the 



396 



Favna of TtoizeU. 



L. stirpium^ as I have at various times observed individaals of a 
larger size than the average one of L. agtUt, 

List of birds, &c. found and observed upon Twizell : , 
AVES. 



Falconioa. 
Haliffitus albicilla, Sav. 
Falco peregiinus, Gmel. 

sesalon, Gmel. 

- tiimunculus, Linn. 
Acdpiter fringillarius, Ray. 
Buteo vulgaris, Bechst. 

lagopus, Flem. 

Pemis apivonis, Cuv. 
Circus nifiis, Briss. 
cyaneiis, Flem. 

STBIGID.S. 

OtUB vulgaris, Flem. 

brachyotos, Flem. 

Strix flammea, Linn. 
Ulula stridula, Selb. 
N. Tengmalmi? 

IN6E8SORE8. 

DetUirostres. 
Laniua excubitor, Linn. 
Musdcapa grisola, Linn. 

luctuosa, Temm. 

Merula viscivora, Selb. 

pilaris, Selb. 

musica, Selb. 

iliaca, Selb. 



■ vulgaris, Selb. 



Merula torquata, Selb. 
Cindus aquaticus, Bechst 
Salicaria locustella, Selb. 

phragmitis, Selb. 

Curruca atricapilla, Bechst 

hortensis, Bechst. 

dnerea, Bechst 

Saxicola oenanthe, Bechst 

nibetra, Bechst 

rubicola, Bechst. 

Eritbaca rubecula, Swains. 
Phoenicura rutddlla, Swains. 
Sylvia sibilatriz, Bechst 

trochilus, Lath. 

rufo, Temm. 



Regulus auricapillus. Selb. 
P&nis major, Linn. 

csruleus, Linn. 

palustris, Linn. 

ater, Linn. 

caudatus, Linn. 

Accentor moduhiris, Cuv. 
Motacilla alba, Linn. 

boarula, Linn. 

Anthus pratensis, Bechst 

arboreus, Bechst 

Bombydlla gamila, Buonap. 

Coniro9tre8. 
Alauda arvensis, Linn. 
Embeiiza wiiliAri^^ Linn. 

schomidus, Linn. 

■ dtrinella, Linn. 

Plectrophanes nivalis, Meyer. 
Fringilla oodebs, Linn. 

montifringilla, Linn. 

Passer domestica, Ray. 
Linaria cannalnna, Sw. 
— ^— minor, Ray. 

chloris, Swain. 

Carduelis spinus, Steph. 

degans, Steph. 

Pyrrhula vulgaris, Temm. 
Lozia curvinwtra. Lion. 
Stumus vulgaris, Linn. 
Corvus coraz, Linn. 

corone, Linn. 

corniz, Linn. 

frugilegus, Linn. 

monedula, Linn. 

Pica meknoleuca, ^^eill. 
Garrulus glandarius, Flem. 

SCANSOEES. 

Picus major, Linn. 
Certhia familiaris, Linn. 
Troglodytes Europens, Sdb. 
Cuculus canorus, Linn. 

F1S8IRO8TRE8. 
Alcedo ispida, Linn. 



Botanical Expedition to Guernsey and Jersey. 397 



Hirundo rustica, Linn. 

urtrica, Linn. 

riparia, Linn. 

Cypseliu apus, Flem. 
Caprimulgufi Europsus, Linn. 

Rasores. 
Coluroba palumbusy Linn. 
Phaaiaiios colchicus, Linn, and 

torquatus, Temm. 
Tetrao tetrix, Linn. 
Lagopua Scoticus, Selb. 
Perdix cinerea, Briss. 
Geallatobes. 
Ard